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cero neckonLko ne1 nasap nsnk6nennmHn HnuennHn pnn nanapok pasnoro
popa peHokpa1oa n nn6epanoa 6mnn 1annn kak nnunoc1L n c1annnnsH kak
nanenne. 1opo nocne xpyueackoro npnc1yn an1nc1annnnsHa 6mn eue 6onee
npoc1nmH, eue 6onee sno6nmH. asanocL, apeHn ne neun1 panm, a nao6opo1,
pac1paanne1 nx. Ha caHoH pene sannHanocL a1nH, koneuno, ne apeHn: npoc1o
onm1nme Hannnynn1opm o6uec1aennmH HnenneH nckycc1aenno saaopnnn kak
ce6n, 1ak n ppyrnx. Han6onee npornnauan uac1L nap1nnoro pykoaopc1aa ao
rnaae c Iop6aueamH npekpacno nonnHana, k ueHy npe1 peno, n cosna1enLno
c1peHnnacL k 1oHy qnnnuy, ko1opm c1an sakonoHepnmH pesynL1a1oH
npoaopnauecn nnnnn, ny a 1e ns nap1nnmx nnpepoa, u1o nornyne, ace eue
nanano aepnnn u1o Hoxno 6ype1 orpannun1Lcn "kpn1nko kynL1a n
npoponxa1L kak nn a ueH ne 6maano c1pon1L spanne. mrnnpeno ace a1o
poaonLno kypLesno: npepnonaranocL, u1o ns yxe aosaepennoro nn1na1axnoro
poHa Hoxno 6es oco6oro yuep6a pnn nero amny1L 1pe1n n ue1aep1m a1axn, a
no1oH napc1pon1L uec1o, cepLHo n 1.p., n ace a1o coopyxenne 6ype1 ance1L
a aospyxe, kak rpo6 npopoka MoxaHHepa, n ne pyxne1. nonne ec1ec1aenno,
u1o noc1poka pyxnyna - nnuero nnoro n 6m1L ne Horno.
e1xn sa6opunk c napnncLk "aosapa1 k nennncknH nopHaH 6mc1po cHeno
pas6yueaaaunHcn no1okoH. ennna pac1on1ann c 1aknH xe aecenmH rnkanLeH
n canc1oH, kak n 1annna, n noHuanncL panLue... a o6pa1noH nanpaanennn. Ha
ueH xe 1enepL ycnokon1cn ceppue opnnm Hoe, couepue c yHa, no
6ecnouapnoHy pnarnosy .anLkoaa? anLue nenn "a koHHyne oc1anoaka, a
rpe oc1anoanH cao nmneunn 6er? peHokpa1nuecko pecny6nnke,
konc1n1yunonno Honapxnn nnn po6exnH po caHopepxaann? yua1cn,
pyua1cn opnn sa ppyrnH a1axn o1euec1aenno nc1opnn. eHLpecn1 ne1 pono!
oceHLpecn1 ne1 pono! 1o 6onLue? , am6pocna c1onLko a1axe, nap nnHn
onn1L nm1ak1cn aosaec1n ouepepno paopeu na aospyuno nopyuke. onn1no,
kakan cypL6a noc1nrne1 n a1y c1poky.
Hnuue roaopnn, u1o nn opna c1ynenL ne npouae1 korpa uepes nee
nepenpmrnaak1. c1opnk Hoxno n nyxno nepeocHmcnnaa1L, no ee nenLsn
nepeuepknaa1L.
aosnnkae1 neo6xopnHoc1L aepny1Lcn k 1o ncxopno 1ouke, c ko1opo
nauancn npouecc a1opnunoro paspyuennn noamx yc1oea c1panm, epaa
nopnnauecn nocne nepanunoro paspyuennn a 1917 ropy, 1o ec1L k
npecnoay1oHy 1937 ropy, ko1opm nac1onLko npouno accounnpoaancn a naueH
cosnannn c. ueH-1o npepenLno yxacnmH, u1o ne1-ne1, pa n npockonLsne1 1o a
o6nxopno peun, 1o a kako-nn6ypL c1a1Le nnn a amc1ynnennn: "D1o onn1L
6ype1 1937 rop! u1o, cnpaunaae1cn, 1937 rop?
.onxennumn ace pacc1aann no caonH Hec1aH a caHoH nauane "pxnnenara
II: "orpa... 6pann1 nponsaon kynL1a, 1o ynnpak1cn ace cnoaa n cnoaa a
nac1pnaune 37--38- ropm. 1ak a1o naunnae1 sanoHnna1Lcn, kak 6yp1o nn
ne caxann, nn , a 1onLko ao1 a 37-oH-38-H.
Mexpy 1eH, "no1ok 37-ro-38-ro nn epnnc1aennmH ne 6mn, nn paxe rnaanmH.
" nero 6mn no1ok 29-ro- 30ro ropoa, c po6pyk 6L, npo1onknyaun a
1ynppy n 1ary Hnnnnonunkoa nn1napua1L Hyxnkoa (a kak 6m n ne no6one). Ho
Hyxnkn - napop 6eccnoaecnm, 6ecnncLHennm, nn xano6 ne nanncann, nn
HeHyapoa. " 6mn no1ok 44-ro-46-ro ropoa, c po6pm nnce:
rnann... uenme naunn n eue Hnnnnonm n Hnnnnonm - no6maaaunx a nneny...
Ho n a a1oH no1oke napop 6mn 6onLue npoc1o n HeHyapoa ne nanncan.
" no1ok 37-ro ropa npnxaa1nn n nonec na pxnnenar 1akxe n nkpe c
nonoxenneH, nkpe c nap1nnmH npounmH, nkpe c o6pasoaanneH... n
ckonLkne c nepoH! - n ace 1enepL aHec1e nnuy1, roaopn1, acnoHnnak1:
1pnpua1L cepLHo! onra napopnoro ropn!
D1o nposayun1 napapokcoH, no Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o 1937 rop nauancn a 1934,
korpa a nexopoun, ecnn aepn1L uncnoao cnHaonnke, penL 26 nnaapn a
Mockae o1kpmncn XVII cLesp (6). qnunanLnan nap1nnan nc1opnn roppo
okpec1nna ero "cLespoH no6epn1ene, xo1n eHy 6onLue nopouno 6m ppyroe
nasaanne - "cLesp 6ypyunx xep1ay, a ero yuac1nnkn anonne Hornn 6m
nocn1L snaukn c 6ykaaHn , kak a1o penann nepconaxn nLecm ap1pa
"Hekpacoa (a pycckoH nepeaope - "onLko npaapa). caHoH pene: ns 139
ns6pannmx a1nH cLespoH unenoa n kanpnpa1oa a unenm 98 ne poxnnn po
cnepykuero cLespa, coc1onauerocn uepes nn1L ne1, a ns 1966 penera1oa
cLespa xep1ao nann a 6opL6e pokoao sa a1o1 xe nepnop 1108.
1o xe, co6c1aenno, cnyunnocL? 1o nponsouno?
pnn anpn1 a co6m1nnx 1ex ne1 1onLko 6eccHmcnennyk kpoaaayk 6onk, cy1L
ko1opo coaepuenno nppaunonanLna n caopn1cn pasae u1o k saae1y nraneaa;
"Hyxna n cypopora.., pas a 1pnpua1L ne1... ace appyr naunnak1 noepa1L ppyr
ppyra, po nsaec1no uep1m, epnnc1aenno, u1o6m ne 6mno ckyuno. akoe
o6Lncnenne n c1pauno, n ypo6no, nockonLky ns6aanne1 o1 neo6xopnHoc1n
ocHmcnnaa1L u1o-1o caHoHy n nosaonne1 orpannun1Lcn aqqek1no un1a1o ns
oc1oeackoro.
pyrne caopn1 ace peno k 6opL6e 1annna sa yc1anoanenne pexnHa
neorpannuenno nnuno anac1n, papn poc1nxennn ko1opo on n ocyuec1ann
pasrpoH nap1nn n, npexpe acero, ee pykoaopnuero annapa1a, 1ouno 1ak xe,
kak 30 ne1 cnyc1n a1o npopenan ero poc1onm yuennk n npoponxa1enL Mao
sepyn. a1oH o6Lncnennn ec1L ponn nc1nnm, no ne 6onee, ueH ponn, n
o1nkpL ne npeo6napakuan. c1ae1cn nencnmH, noueHy aepx opepxana nHenno
a1a c1opona, a ne ppyran.
c1L n 1pe1Ln 1eopnn, 1akxe npnnaraeHan kak k 1annny, 1ak n k Mao sepyny,
no anpnuan a ocnoae nx pec1an ne ukypnme, a amcokonpenme nn1epecm:
c1peHnenne ny1eH 1eppopa n nenpepmanmx nepe1acoaok npepo1apa1n1L
onacnoc1L npeapauennn npaanue 6kpokpa1nn a npnannernpoaannoe
cocnoane, a noam akcnnya1a1opckn knacc. pnako n a1a 1eopnn c1papae1 1eH
xe peqek1oH, u1o n npepmpyuan.
Han6onee qynpaHen1anLnme 1pypm, nocanuennme co6m1nnH 30-x ropoa a
naue c1pane, a1o " cypy nc1opnn ..Mepaepeaa n "ennkn 1eppop
.onkaec1a. penme nosnunn a1nx aa1opoa nsaec1nm, no k1o Hor a 1e
apeHena amc1yna1L c nnmx nosnun? qnunanLnan nponaranpa 6pexneacko-
cycnoacko anoxn 1pe6oaana, kak apHeckn c1apunna, "ne1L aecenyk necnk
n aoo6ue ne acnoHnna1L o 1parepnn 30-x ropoa, a noHnn1L 1onLko
c1axanoauea pa nanannnuea. 3a nonm1ky ocHmcnn1L qenoHen c1annnnsHa c
pyccknx naunonanLnmx nosnun aa1op panno pa6o1m, nanncanno a 1978
ropy, nonna1nncn 1kpeHnmH saknkuenneH n ccmnko kak sa "an1ncoae1ckyk n
nponaranpy. opaepran penpeccnnH na1pno1oa, anac1L caHa py6nna cyk, na
ko1opoH cnpena, n o1paaana o1euec1aennyk nc1opnk na pac1epsanne
an1npyccknH 1onkoaa1ennH, apope .noaa, aeuaaunH na aecL Hnp, u1o
qenoHen 1annna ne saknkuae1 a ce6e nnuero ypnan1enLnoro, no1oHy kak po
nero aan Iposnm 6mn, aoo6ue acn nc1opnn occnn - a1o aan Iposnm n
1annn, pa noc1onnnoe noa1openne onpnunnnm a pasnmx anpax.
6nerunH nn Hm co6c1aennyk sapauy, ecnn a yropy .noay n eHy nopo6nmH
o1peueHcn o1 aana Iposnoro n o1 1annna kak o1 a6eppaun poccncko
nc1opnn? He1, 1onLko ocnoxnnH. ak yxe roaopnnocL, nenLsn nepeuepknaa1L
uenme nc1opnueckne nepnopm no1oHy, u1o onn no 1eH nnn nnmH npnunnaH ne
npaan1cn. Inaanoe 1oH, u1o6m o16n1L uyxne nanapkn, a nm1a1Lcn u1o-1o
o6Lncnn1L 1eH, koHy ace paano nnuero ne o6LncnnuL, - o6ue nyc1oe peno.
aHoe 1pypnoe - nonn1L nauy nc1opnk a uenoH, co aceHn ee a6eppaunnHn,
u1o6m onepe1Lcn na a1o nonnHanne npn onpepenennn 6ypyunx ny1e occnn.
korpa peuL saxopn1 o pacnpaae 1annna c nap1nnmH pykoaopc1aoH, cnepye1
naua1L c aonpoca: a u1o ono npepc1aannno co6o 1orpaunee pykoaopc1ao?
D1o1 aonpoc noneaone no1nne1 nac panLue a npounoe n nepepac1e1 a ppyro:
a kaknH 6mno a1o pykoaopc1ao a HoHen1 coaepuennn peaonkunn n kak,
co6c1aenno, o1nocn1Lcn k caHo a1o peaonkunn?
3pecL c1anknaak1cn pae npo1naononoxnme k spennn: opna amaopn1
peaonkunk ns cneunqnuecknx oco6ennoc1e occnn n pyccko naunn,
c1oponnnkn ppyro c neno y p1a pokasmaak1, u1o peaonkunn - a1o
sanecennan nsane, n anpn1 a ne 1onLko pesynL1a1 saroaopa n kosnn 1eHnmx
cnn.
nop nponcxopn1 o11oro, u1o ny1ak1 pae aeun. pno peno - peaonkunn kak
ampaxenne ec1ec1aennoro n sakonnoro c1peHnennn napopa k counanLno
cnpaaepnnaoc1n. cnn a1o c1peHnenne ne ypoane1aopne1cn, nponcxopn1
counanLnm aspma. D1o o6Lek1nanan nc1opnueckan sakonoHepnoc1L, uepes
peaonkunn npounn ace napopa 6es ncknkuennn. ecnn Hm roaopnH o6 a1o
c1opone, peaonkunn, Hm anpaae nasmaa1L ee napopno n poncknaa1Lcn ee
naunonanLnmx kopne. ce aneunne saroaopm cnnLnm, ecnn ne1 any1pennnx
npepnocmnok pnn nx ycnexa. ak yunn apann, rnaano npnunno nsHenenn
oprannsHoa nanne1cn any1pennnn npeppacnonoxennoc1L k nsHenennnH, a ne
aneunne aospec1ann. ro knaccnueckn npnHep: ecnn nopnec1n cnnuky k
kyue necka, opnn pesynL1a1, a ecnn k kyue nopoxa - ppyro.
pyroe peno - konkpe1nme qopHm, ko1opme Hoxe1 npnnnHa1L peaonkunn a
1o1 nnn nno cao nepnop, n konkpe1nme nkpn, okasaaunecn na rpe6ne
peaonkunonno aonnm. 1euenne o6c1on1enLc1a Hoxe1 am1onkny1L na rpe6enL
caHme neoxnpannme, nopok cnyuanme qnrypm.
Hapopy cnnouL n pnpoH npnxopn1cn pasouapoamaa1Lcn a caonx aoxpnx, a
aoxpnH y6expa1Lcn a 1oH, u1o onn xo1enn cpena1L opno, a nonyunnocL coaceH
ppyroe. cnoHnnH xo1n 6m nocnepnne c1a1Ln ..ennna: a nnx ckaosn1
nenpnkpm1oe nsyHnenne no noaopy 1oro, u1o rocypapc1aennm annapa1,
ko1opm aosnaHepnnncL 6mno "cnoHa1L, coxpannncn a "1oH xe po
neaosHoxnoc1n, po nenpnnnunn popeaonkunonnoH anpe. oueHy a1o
cnyunnocL n u1o pena1L, ennn ne nonnHan n ne snan, n6o o1nkpL ne ace 6mno
poc1ynno ero nonnHannk, He cnepye1 npeannsnpoaa1L aoxpe.
Ho ne cnepye1 npeannsnpoaa1L n napop. ak nncan I.Mann a caoeH poHane
"Monopme ropm koponn Ienpnxa IV, napop aepL nnkorpa ne 6maae1 o6Hany1
po 1ako c1enenn, kak no1oH yaepnk1. cnanckoe sono1o anpenn 1onLko
c1oponnnkn Insa, a napop anpn1 nnuL 6enokypyk 6opopy, on nnenne1cn ek.
Ho a pyue on o1nnuno snae1, u1o po cnacennn pennrnn eHy ne1 pena n u1o
nnkakoro ckasounoro npo6yxpennn k noao xnsnn ne1 n ne 6ype1. epnn
npoc1o xoue1cn norpa6n1L, nporna1L ppyrnx c pa6o1m, o6ora1n1Lcn; xoue1cn
nouyHe1L, nokypaxn1Lcn n xoue1cn y6naa1L. ak ono n 6maae1, korpa kyuka
c6popa, a ko1opo ec1L n npoc1onkpnnm, n noue1nme ropoxane, cospae1
kakyk-nn6ypL nry pnn nopaanennn cao6opm coaec1n. eH rpoHue opy1
"cao6opa! n o6Hany1me na ynnue, n o6Hanunkn a poHax; a1o nokasmaae1, u1o,
pas nx o6Hanmaak1, 1o onn 1oxe xo1n1 o6Hany1L.
I.Mann nncan o apeHenax pennrnosnmx aon ao Opanunn, no Hm HoxeH cHeno
nopc1aan1L (6) aHec1o a1onnuecko nrn, ennna aHec1o repuora Insa n
neHeukoe sono1o aHec1o ncnanckoro - oc1anLnme xapak1epnc1nkn oc1any1cn
aepnmHn n npnHenn1enLno k 1917 ropy.
ak nnn nnaue, peaonkunk a uenoH n konkpe1nmx nkpe, aosrnaannkunx ee
na onpepenennoH a1ane, neo6xopnHo ace xe pasnnua1L. pncHo1pnHcn xe k
nnH no6nnxe, k a1nH nkpnH, ko1opme npnunn y nac k anac1n a ok1n6pe 1917
ropa.
?
x nap1nn n aosnnkna-1o kak Hec1eukoaan, a saxonyc1noH Mnncke, nmneune
c1onnue HI, - nc1opnn noueHy-1o nk6n1 1akne "aosapa1m k nc1okaH. o
cy1n pena, ona o1noukoaanacL o1 "ceo6uero eapeckoro pa6ouero coksa a
n1ae, onLue n occnn, nsaec1noro nop nasaanneH kpa1knH "ynp, n ee
o1uaHn-ocnoaa1ennHn 6mnn nmne aceHn coaepuenno sa6m1me peHep,
DpenLHan, au, My1nnk n nrpopunk. ponsouno a1o a 1898 ropy, 1.e. na
cnepykun rop nocne nepaoro cnonnc1ckoro konrpecca a asene. Hapeknn
noayk nonn1nueckyk oprannsaunk occncko counan-peHokpa1nuecko
pa6oue nap1ne, no nasaanne a1o a aecLHa Hano c1enenn coo1ae1c1aoaano
pec1an1enLnoc1n, nockonLky k pa6oueHy knacc a1a nap1nn nHena aecLHa
Hanoe o1nouenne. na II cLespe a 1903 ropy, ko1opm anocnepc1ann
cun1ancn oqnunanLnmHn nc1opnkaHn pa1o qak1nueckoro, a ne noHnnanLnoro
ocnoaannn nap1nn, cpepn 44 penera1oa nacun1maanocL acero ue1aepo pa6ounx.
opaannkuee 6onLunnc1ao coc1aannnn nn1ennnren1m, npn1oH, kak npaanno,
nepycckne. nncok nx poc1a1ouno xapak1epen: Map1oa (epep6ayH), poukn
(ponu1en), ayHan, nynnanu, Iycea (pa6knn), npoa (ManpenLu1aH),
3eHnnuka (3anknnp), o1Han, 1onann, Map1mnoa (nkep), poxHanL,
36opoackn, eann, ManpenL6epr, 3ypa6oa, ocoackn, n6ep, MepeH,
Ianeukn (Okpc1en6epr), apckn (apuaackn) n1.n. uenL opnnoko
amrnnpn1 a a1oH cnncke nexanoa, ennn c 6pa1oH n cynpyro, pacnkoa...
pnHepno 1ak xe amrnnpeno nap1nnoe pykoaopc1ao n a 1917 ropy, aaryc1e
a1oro ropa coc1onncn VI cLesp, ns6pannm ko1opmH Hm anpaae
paccHa1pnaa1L kak u1a6 ro1oanauecn peaonkunn. ero coc1aae 6mno 24
uenoaeka, n onn1L 6pocae1cn a rnasa o6nnne nepyccknx, npexpe acero,
eapeea. HecoHnennmx ceHL: 3nnoaLea (nqenL6ayH), aHenea (osenqenLp),
poukn (ponu1en), aeppnoa, pnukn, okonLnnkoa (pnnnnan1) n
oqqe. He coaceH ncnmH oc1ae1cn aonpoc o nponcxoxpennn sepxnnckoro.
oueHy on DpHynpoanu, ecnn o1ua ero, npenopaaa1enn aranporcko
rnHnasnn, a ko1opo yunncn exoa, saann yqnn ocnqoanu? pnn uenoaek c
nHeneH yqnn sannHan anpnm noc1 a nHcko nHnepnn a IV aeke, no cec1pa
O.sepxnnckoro panra noueHy-1o nnue1 a caonx aocnoHnnannnx a1o nHn a
ppyro qopHe - yqnH, u1o yxe aecLHa noxoxe na "yanH. Hnkoro n ponxna
aaopn1L a sa6nyxpenne n aepcnn o c1apnnno unnxe1ckoH pope sepxnncknx.
onLckne koponn c1one1nnHn nokpoan1enLc1aoaann eapenH, 6naropapn ueHy
co1nn nonLcknx eapeea c1ann paopnnaHn (seq pnnukn. uepkn nonLcko-
eapecknx o1nouenn. eunn, 1983, c. 10).
Ho aepneHcn k naunonanLnoHy coc1aay (6) a 1917 ropy. poHe
amueynoHnny1mx, a nero aounn eue ue1mpe nnopopua - 1annn, ayHnn,
Hnnra n epsnn. 1oro nonyuae1cn 12 uenoaek ns 24 - poano nonoanna.
1He1nH pnn ce6n a1y nponopunk: ona poaonLno c1a6nnLno coxpanne1cn
anno1L po oco6o nn1epecykuero nac 1934 ropa.
c1anLnme 12 - ennn, mkoa, yxapnn, pec1nnckn, Hornn, Mnnk1nn,
y6noa, p1eH (epreea), Mypanoa n pae paHm - 1acoaa n onnon1a.
1opan ns nnx - sa6nypuan pouL renepana oHon1oanua, nonLckan qaHnnnn
onnon1a - a1o qaHnnnn ee nepaoro (o1nkpL ne nocnepnero) Hyxa.
Ho n cpepn a1nx payx pecn1koa uenoaek yxe naHeuae1cn nepapxnn.
snaHenn1oH sacepannn 23 ok1n6pn 1917 ropa na kaap1npe Iannnm
OnakcepHan, xenm nsaec1noro HenLueanka H.yxanoaa (InHHepa), rpe
peuancn aonpoc o aoopyxennoH aocc1annn, yuac1aoaano acero 12 ns 24
unenoa . 3pecL nepycckne yxe coc1aannnn kaannqnunpoaannoe
6onLunnc1ao: 3nnoaLea, aHenea, poukn, aeppnoa, pnukn,
okonLnnkoa, sepxnnckn, 1annn, 1orpa kak ennn, y6noa, oHoa n
onnon1a - acero nnuL 1pe1L. orpa xe 6mno cospano nepaoe onn16kpo,
noka 1onLko kak apeHennm opran, a coc1aae ceHn uenoaek. a1o ceHepke
ennna n y6noaa nano nepeaeunaann 3nnoaLea, aHenea, poukn,
okonLnnkoa n 1annn. pepn nn1n unenoa aoenno-nonn1nueckoro uen1pa
y6noa nano uyac1aoaan ce6n opnnoko a okpyxennn aeppnoaa, pnukoro,
sepxnnckoro n 1annna.
pn 1akoH packnape cnn kak-1o nsmk ne noaopaunaae1cn roaopn1L o "pyccko
peaonkunn. paxe nnunoc1L ee rnaanoro aoxpn ne cnacae1 nonoxennn,
nockonLky ee nenLsn o1nec1n k kako-1o onpepenenno naunn.
n1epnaunonannc1nueckan npeonornn ennna uennkoH onpepennnacL
nonneunH nn1epnaunonanoH a ero kpoan.
cepepnne 70-x ropoa a "saec1nnx kak-1o nonannacL saHe1ka "c1paxanL -
popnna nLnnoamx, a ko1opo pacnncmaanacL nc1nnno-pycckan aneunoc1L
pepa ennna no o1uoacko nnnnn. pnako caH o1eu ennna .H.nLnnoa 1ako
aneunoc1Lk yxe ne o6napan, n ace ero pe1n nounn a nero, a ne a HaHy. e,
k1o anpen ennna npn xnsnn, roaopn1, u1o npexpe acero 6pocanncL a rnasa
ero npko ampaxennme Honrononpnme uep1m. He onn, koneuno, onpepennnn
apoxpennyk npeppacnonoxennoc1L k HapkcnsHy, n6o 1ako xe aneunoc1Lk
o6napann n aoxpn 6enmx apHn - opnnnoa n onuak. Monrononpnan
npnHecL, ckasan 6m .H.IyHnnea, canpe1enLc1aye1 acero nnuL o noamuenno
naccnonapnoc1n.
HaHe ennna ponroe apeHn nncann kak o pouepn apaua, onyckan ee peanuLk
qaHnnnk. pocnaanauncn yxe a nauy anoxy "cmn kpnc1a, kak anpnH,
nnuero noaoro ne npnpyHan. Ho 1enepL a Hope kosmpn1L 1eH, u1o panLue
npnnn1o 6mno ckpmaa1L, n ao1 "Mockoackne noaoc1n (1992, N8)
pacckasmaak1 naH pyueunna1enLnyk nc1opnk o 1oH, kak ..nLnnoaa
no6yxpana 1annna npepa1L rnacnoc1n yxacnyk 1any eapeckoro
nponcxoxpennn pepyukn ennna co c1oponm Ha1epn, u1o6m
npo1naopec1aoaa1L an1nceHn1nsHy, ycnnnaakueHycn "paxe cpepn
koHHynnc1oa (a1o canpe1enLc1ao pa1npoaano 1932 ropoH). e pepyuka, cmn
Moukn nanka, 6mn sanncan npn eapeckoH karane Hec1euka
1apokonc1an1nnoaa onmncko ry6epnnn nop nHeneH 6enL n nepekpeuen a
1820 ropy a nekcanppa. Hep on a nkne 1870 ropa, korpa ero anyky 6mno
acero 1pn Hecnua.
nyk ce 6mn 1nnnunmH npepc1aan1eneH penaunonannsnpoaanno
"peHokpa1nuecko nn1ennnrenunn, pacnnopnauecn a occnn c 60-x ropoa
npounoro aeka n nmne cnoaa okasaauecn na rpe6ne aonnm. He 1o, u1o6m on
coaceH ne nonnHan naunonanLnoro aonpoca, on paxe ouenL 1aeppo o1c1anaan
o1 co6c1aennmx copa1nnkoa, apope sepxnnckoro nnn yxapnna, npaao naun
na caHoonpepenenne, no 1onLko 1orpa, korpa peuL una o kako-nn6ypL
onLue, 1ouno 1ak xe, kak naun nmneunne "peHokpa1m acero rop nasap a
cnesax paann na ce6e nocnepnne 1enLnnukn, saunuan npn6an1ncknx
naunc1oa; pnn pyccknx xe y nero ne naxopnnocL 6onee nexnmx cnoa, ueH
"uoannnc1nueckan aennkopycckan uaanL. 1ckpa n coo1ae1c1aykuee
okpyxenne, n 1o1 an1npycckn kpen, ko1opm 6mn xapak1epen pnn nonn1nkn
npaanue aepxyukn coae1ckoro rocypapc1aa a nepame pecn1nne1nn ero
cyuec1aoaannn n ko1opm onn1L nponanne1cn 1enepL pac1oponnmHn
paspyun1ennHn a1oro rocypapc1aa.
Ho n a1nH paspyun1ennH, n nx kpn1nkaH ne Heuano 6m nyuue sna1L nc1opnk.
a, ennn ne xanoaan occnk, no a caoe pen1enLnoc1n on onnue1aopnn
oprannsykuee rocypapc1aennoe nauano a 1pypneunx ycnoannx nonno
anapxnn n pacnapa rocypapc1aa. eropnn Hm onn1L okasanncL a 1ako xe
cn1yaunn, n onn1L ns opaam o6anpeaunx, kak pasLnpennm cnon, o1
paspyun1enLnoro kaqa "peHokpa1oa a Hykax ampenne1cn nppo
rocypapc1aennnkoa, ko1opmH cyxpeno 6ype1 cnoaa no kycoukaH co6npa1L
pepxaay. kak 6m nn o1nocn1Lcn k ennny, ne rpex n noyun1Lcn y nero,
no1oHy u1o nHenno on, a ne k1o-nn6ypL ppyro, cyHen 1orpa ampanny1L
counanLno-nonn1nueckyk nporpaHHy, cnoco6nyk o6Lepnnn1L unpokne Haccm,
n naunonanLnyk nporpaHHy, cnoco6nyk ypepxa1L ppyrne napopm a paHkax
opnoro rocypapc1aennoro uenoro c occne. oa1oHy ennn, kak nn
napapokcanLno a1o nposayun1, 6mn ampasn1eneH yccknx naunonanLnmx
nn1epecoa, necHo1pn na caon cy6Lek1nanme an1npycckne sackokn, kak a cnny
o6Lek1nanmx npnunn nouna a koneunoH cue1e no pycckoHy ny1n n peaonkunn,
nepaonauanLno ocepnannan nnopopuaHn. nauy nmneunkk
peHokpa1nueckyk peaonkunk nc1opnn onn1L amaepe1 na 1o1 xe ny1L, nnk1o
nac c nero ne caepne1.
epeun1aeH cnoaa nocnepnne c1pannum knnrn "1920 rop ..ynLrnna. ak
sno6opneano onn sayua1!
"op o6onouko coae1cko anac1n coaepuak1cn c1nxnnme npoueccm
orpoHno aaxnoc1n, nnuero o6uero c ne ne nHekune. "nn aocc1anoannn
pycckyk apHnk. "x apHnn 6nna nonnkoa, kak nonnkoa, nHenno sa 1o, u1o
onn o1xaa1nnn unc1o pycckne o6nac1n.
"3naHn pnno occnn qak1nueckn nopnnnn 6onLueankn. "Oak1nueckn
n1epnaunonan okasancn opypneH pacunpennn 1eppn1opnn pnn anac1n,
cnpnue a Mockae, po rpannu, rpe naunnae1cn pec1an1enLnoe conpo1nanenne
ppyrnx rocypapc1aennmx oprannsHoa, a poc1a1ouno c1enenn kpenknx. D1o n
6ypy1 ec1ec1aennme rpannum 6ypyue occncko pepxaam, "ounannsH
cHoe1cn, no rpannum oc1any1cn. ypy1 nn a1o rpannum 1914 ropa nnn
neckonLko nnme - a1o ppyro aonpoc. o acnkoH cnyuae, nenLsn ne anpe1L,
u1o pycckn nsmk ao cnaay n1epnaunonana onn1L sannn uec1yk uac1L cyun.
nna o6m1n cnnLnee caHo nnLno aonn. ennn npepnonarae1, a
cy6Lek1nanme ycnoann, cospannme oroH, kak 1eppn1opnn n pyueanm yknap
napopa, "pacnonarak1 " 1pe1Le, u1o onn asnnn, - a1o npnnunn epnnonnuno
anac1n. "eskHe: 6onLueankn
1. aocc1anaannaak1 aoennoe Horyuec1ao occnn;
2. aocc1anaannaak1 rpannum occncko pepxaam po ee ec1ec1aennmx
npepenoa;
3. nopro1oannk1 npnuec1ane caHopepxua acepoccnckoro.
ynLrnn n ero nenasaannm co6ecepnnk rapann: 6ype1 a1o ennn? nn
poukn? porapmaanncL: nn 1o1, nn ppyro. "pnpe1 Hek1o, k1o aosLHe1 o1
nnx nx peunHoc1L - npnnnHa1L na caok o1ae1c1aennoc1L, npnnnHa1L
neaepon1nme peuennn. x xec1okoc1L - npoaepenne opnaxpm peuennoro. n
6ype1 nc1nnno kpacnmH no aoneao cnne n nc1nnno 6enmH no sapauaH, nH
npecnepyeHmH. n 6ype1 6onLueank no aneprnn n naunonannc1 no
y6expennnH.
ynLrnn n ero co6ecepnnk ne snann 1onLko nHenn a1oro Hek1o. Mm-1o xopouo
snaeH - sapnnH uncnoH. Ho Hm onn1L ne snaeH, kako Hek1o npnpe1 saa1pa n
cHe1e1 6ecnykuykcn ceropnn neunc1L. Mm 1onLko snaeH, u1o npnpe1 n cHe1e1,
kak ynLrnn snan, u1o aocc1anoanenne occnn npnpe1 uepes pacnoe
esyHne, n enan MmcnL no6epn1 ao acnkoH cnyuae.
Ho ynLrnn nncan ace a1o yxe nocne rpaxpancko aonm - a 1917 ropy on
6m 1akoro ne nanncan. nac xe ceropnn co6m1nn eue 1onLko packpyunaak1cn,
Hm rpe-1o na ypoane nauana 1918 ropa, korpa pasornann Lesp napopnmx
peny1a1oa: ...nappon, upepn1enLnoe co6panne nop 1eH npepnoroH, u1o ono,
pecka1L, o1c1ano o1 xopa peaonkunonnmx peqopH n 1opHosn1 nx. xo1n
ceropnn pasaenocL yxe neaepon1noe konnuec1ao npepckasa1ene, - nyuue ne
cnyua1e nx, poporne rpaxpane, ckonLko nn apaua1e Ino6yc, am ace paano
ne noHe1e, kakne ckpnpnsm ro1oan1 naH 6ypyuee. 3a1o npounoe Hoxe1
nopckasa1L naH 6onLue, ueH koqenan ryua.
eue opnn ypok npounoro. 1917-1918 ropax o1oackpy 1oxe necnncL
c1enannn o rn6enn occnn, kakne Hm n ceropnn nepepko cnmunH. Ho ecnn
occnn ne norn6na 1orpa, 1o ec1L napexpa, u1o ne norn6ne1 n 1enepL.
npounyk peaonkunk pyxnyna ne occnn, a onpepenennoe counanLnoe
yc1poc1ao, n 6onLue acero pmpak1 nocne a1oro 1, k1o nHen
npnannernpoaannoe nonoxenne npn a1oH yc1poc1ae. ak 6mno, 1ak ec1L. 1y
rpaxpanckyk aony 6enme apHnn nopospeaanncL a 1oH, u1o onn xo1n1
aocc1anoan1L anac1L kann1annc1oa n noHeunkoa, ceuac ace npo1nannkn
peHokpa1oa o6annnk1cn a 1oH, u1o onn xo1n1 aocc1anoan1L anac1L
koHHynnc1oa. o6onx cnyuanx Hm nHeeH peno c nponaranpo, ocnoaanno na
nonynpaape, no a nponaranpe "kpacnmx ao apeHena rpaxpancko aonm
npaapm 6mno ace-1akn 6onLue nonoannm. e, k1o 1orpa 6nn ce6n a rpypL n
kpnuan "occnn, "opnna n npoune kpacname cnoaa, okasanncL
necnoco6nmHn ampasn1L pec1an1enLno o6uenaunonanLnme nn1epecm.
Ienepan ..ennknn c ropeuLk nncan a caonx HeHyapax, u1o 6enme 1onLko
6ypyun yxe amknny1mHn a pmH nauann nopyHmaa1L o "neo6xopnHoc1n
xep1aennoro nopanra, 1o ec1L o6 o1kase o1 caonx npnannern - 6onee yHnoe
qpanuysckoe paopnnc1ao n pyxoaenc1ao cpenano a1o yxe a caHoH nauane
aennko qpanuyscko peaonkunn, a nouL na 4 aaryc1a 1789 ropa. npepm
6enoro panxennn ne nHenn nn counanLno, nn naunonanLno nporpaHHm,
ko1opan Horna 6m paccun1maa1L na ycnex, n npn aceH caoeH cy6Lek1nanoH
na1pno1nsHe okasanncL a saancnHoc1n o1 apaxpe6nmx occnn nnoc1pannmx
epxaa. akoaa pnanek1nka nc1opnn. noaa n naHepennn na ee aecax aecn1
ouenL Hano.

o cnx nop xopn1 no pykaH, a nopo paxe nonapak1 na 1pannum neua1n
kakne-1o qan1ac1nueckne nnckn "nepaoro coae1ckoro npaan1enLc1aa, xo1n
ero coc1aa nsaec1en c a6conk1no 1ounoc1Lk. He cnepye1, opnako, npnnnHa1L
a1o npaan1enLc1ao acepLes, no1oHy u1o ono pasaannnocL cpasy xe nocne
cqopHnpoaannn. s unenoa a nero aounn; ennn - a kauec1ae
npepcepa1enn, poukn - kak napkoH nnoc1pannmx pen, mkoa - nap- koH
any1pennnx pen, Hornn napkoH oproann n npoHmunennoc1n, Mnnk1nn napkoH
seHnepennn, oHoa napkoH c1nunn, 1annn - npepcepa1enL no penaH
naunonanLnoc1e. Ho nepam packon a no6eponocnoH nponsouen yxe a
caHm HoHen1 saxaa1a anac1n.
ak nsaec1no, 3nnoaLea n aHenea na coaeuannn 23 ok1n6pn amc1ynnnn
npo1na ro1oanauerocn nepeaopo1a, cun1an ero aaan1kpo. orpa nepeaopo1
ace xe nponsouen, onn npoponxann o1c1anaa1L npek koannunonnoro
npaan1enLc1aa a 6noke c ppyrnHn counannc1nueckn nap1nnHn, ko1opan 6mna a
kako-1o c1enenn aonnouena a xnsnL a anpe koannunn c neamHn acepaHn.
3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa noppepxann eue 1poe unenoa , napkoHm mkoa,
Hornn n Mnnk1nn. orpa nx npepnoxenne 6mno o1aeprny1o, ace nn1epo
nopann a o1c1aaky co acex nap1nnmx n rocypapc1aennmx noc1oa. x npnHepy
nocnepoaann napkoH no npopoaonLc1ank eopopoanu 6nec1nun opa1op,
cneunannc1 no nc1opnn pycckoro napopnnuec1aa; napkoH 1pypa nnnnnkoa,
6ypyun aoxpL "a6oue onnosnunn; napkoH ny1e coo6uennn nsanoa
(IonLpenpax), Hapkcnc1-1eope1nk nensaec1no kakoe o1nouenne nHeaun k
ny1nH coo6uennn; koHnccap sakonopa1enLnmx npepnoxenn apnn (ypLe), o
ko1opoH ennn roaopnn, u1o "ecnn 6m aecL sanac qan1asnn apnna paspenn1L
nopoany na ace uncno unenoa , 1orpa 6m nonyunnocL ouenL xopouo, 1.e.
sakonopa1enLnmHn npepnoxennnHn ce koHnccap Hor saaann1L ack c1pany:
koHnccap pacno raappnn penea (po1oackn) n npoqcoksnm nnpep
osoackn (onoHon pnpso), ko1opm 1orpa aoo6ue amuen ns nap1nn, a a
40-x ropax appyr okasancn cpepn unenoa n 6mn nnkanpnpoaan 1annnmH
nocne 1oro, kak nauanacL 6opL6a c kocHononn1nsHoH.
ak anpnH, a1a npaaonn6epanLnan onnosnunn, o1aepraauan opnonap1nnoe
npaan1enLc1ao n cpepc1aa nonn1nueckoro 1eppopa, ne nHena ue1ko
ampaxennoro naunonanLnoro nnua. s nn1n Hn1exnmx unenoa 3nnoaLeaa,
aHeneaa n mkoaa Hm eue ac1pe1nH na amcunx noc1ax n 1orpa noroaopnH o
nnx noppo6ne. Hornn xe n Mnnk1nn 6esaosapa1no sary6nnn caok nap1nnyk
kapLepy.
nk1op aanoanu Hornn, kopenno pycckn npone1apn, noxoxe, aoo6ue 6mn
6onLunH noknonnnkoH sakonnoc1n. Henno on ne1oH 1917 ropa nac1anaan,
u1o6m ennn pan ce6n apec1oaa1L n ny6nnuno amc1ynnn na cype c
onpoaepxenneH o6annennn a nonyuennn pener o1 neHeukoro renepanLnoro
u1a6a. He coc1onauncL a kauec1ae napkoHa, Hornn axopnn nosxe a pesnpnyH
HX, pykoaopnn 1ekc1nnLno npoHmunennoc1Lk , no paepn nepep
nnH cnoaa 1ak n ne o1kpmnncL. n yHep a 1924 ropy, npoxna acero 46 ne1.
nsnL pycckoro nn1ennnren1a napnHnpa aanoanua Mnnk1nna 1akxe
o6opaanacL npexpeapeHenno, a 1938 ropy. aa pasa, a 1920 n 1921 ropax on
eue aosnnkan a uncne kanpnpa1oa a unenm , 6mn saHec1n1eneH
npepcepa1enn HX, ynpaannkunH , saHec1n1eneH npepcepa1enn
Iocnnana. Ho n ero a nepam pnp 6onLue yxe ne nyckann.
He npouno n 1pex Hecnuea nocne peaonkunn, kak nap1nnme aepxn no1pnc
noam cepLesneun kpnsnc. asropenncL c1pac1n aokpyr pec1ckoro Hnpa.
1pac1n a1n ne y1nxak1 po cnx nop. Ha onrpecce rpaxpancknx n
na1pno1nuecknx cnn 8 qeapann 1992 ropa nnpep nap1nn kape1oa M.c1aqLea,
o1kasaa "kpacnmH a npaae nasmaa1Lcn na1pno1aHn, o6ocnoaan cao o1kas, a
uac1noc1n, ccmnko na pec1ckn Hnp. Ho k1o a koneunoH cue1e amnrpan o1
a1oro Hnpa?
yuec1aye1 1ako pokyHen1 anoxn, kak pneannk sepoaa, ouenL nn1epecnm c
1o 1oukn spennn, kak npenoHnnnn peaonkunonnme co6m1nn a cosnannn
unnoannka cpepne pykn, npoc1oro o6maa1enn. OeapanL 1917 ropa - a1o,
koneuno, cnnouno aoc1opr, nenpepmanoe "ypa, onLnnenne cao6opo -
npnHepno ace 1o, u1o Hm caHn nHenn aosHoxnoc1L na6nkpa1L a 1989 ropy.
3a1eH, no Hepe ace 6onLuero pasaana n anapxnn, "ypa noc1enenno nepexopn1
a "kapayn - kak y nac ceuac. k1n6pLckn nepeaopo1 sepoa ac1peuae1
apaxpe6no, ennn n poukn eHy ne npaan1cn, no on uyac1aye1 - a1o npnunn
xosneaa. korpa a konue 1918 ropa o1 peaonkunonnoro aspmaa
pasaannaae1cn IepHannn, sepoa yxe nou1n u1o cuac1nna, u1o kako-1o
neaspaunm "1onc1enLkn, nmcenLkn n kocornasenLkn pycckn Hyxnuok
caHoro neHua o6Hanyn, n 1enepL nn o kakoH ppyroH nonn1nueckoH pen1ene a
Hnpe ne roaopn1 c1onLko, ckonLko o6 a1oH "Hyxnuke.
"pec1-1o amuen neHuaH 6okoH, - pyHae1 a non6pe 1918 ropa ounn, repo
poHana .onc1oro "Xoxpenne no HykaH. Ho a nauane 1918 ropa nonnHanne
1oro, u1o pec1 neo6xopnH n u1o on no1oH ampe1 neHuaH 6okoH, npo6naano
ce6e popory c 6onLunH 1pypoH.
21 nnaapn 1918 ropa a e1porpape coc1onnocL pacunpennoe coaeuanne no
aonpocy o Hnpe c neHuaHn. s 63 npncy1c1aoaaaunx 6onLunnc1ao 32
uenoaeka amckasanocL sa peaonkunonnyk aony. osrnaannnn a1y
aonnc1aennyk nap1nk unenm pec1nnckn n oHoa. ouky spennn
poukoro - nn Hnpa, nn aonm - noppepxann 16 uenoaek, a 1oH uncne
yxapnn n pnukn. ennn co6pan acero 15 ronocoa. pepn ero 1oponnnkoa
6mnn 3nnoaLea, 1annn, okonLnnkoa n p1eH. Ha sacepannn 24 naapn 12
uenoaek ppyxno nporonocoaann sa sa1nrnaanne neperoaopoa, sa
peaonkunonnyk aony 1onLko pec1nnckn n oHoa, no 1ouke spennn
poukoro Hnennn paspennnncL sa - 9, npo1na - 7. o coaHec1noHy peuennk
6onLueankoa n neamx acepoa na paccHo1penne III Lespa oae1oa 6mna
amnecena nHenno qopHynnpoaka poukoro.
euanLnme pesynL1a1m a1o sa1nxkn nsaec1nm. 17 qeapann neHum nauann
nac1ynnenne, n cnoxaa1nauncn cornacnncn na aoso6noanenne
neperoaopoa na npexnnx ycnoannx. ennn nonyunn 6onLunnc1ao a opnn ronoc
1onLko no1oHy, u1o ouyxancn poukn n npekpa1nn caok ry6n1enLnyk
nonn1nky ca6o1axa Hnpnmx neperoaopoa. poHe poukoro, ennna
noppepxann 3nnoaLea, 1annn, aeppnoa, okonLnnkoa n Hnnra. o-
npexneHy npo1na 6mnn yxapnn, sepxnnckn, pec1nnckn, oHoa, pnukn
n oqqe. 1acoaa aospepxanacL.
3a a1nH onn1L nocnepoaana aonna o1c1aaok. s yunn yxapnn, y6noa n
pnukn, npnueH yxapnn opnoapeHenno noknnyn noc1 pepak1opa "paapm.
onnpapnsnpoaanncL c nx HnenneH, xo1n n ne nounn na o1kpm1m packon,
sepxnnckn, pec1nnckn n oqqe. poukn nopan a o1c1aaky c noc1a
napkoHnnpena. n1apenLk yxapnna n oHoaa 6mna Mockaa, noa1oHy
opnoapeHenno c nnHn nopann a o1c1aaky n pykoaopn1enn Hec1no
nap1oprannsaunn 1ykoa, koaneaa n .Hnpnoa.
Hoame, eue 6onee 1nxenme repHanckne ycnoann 6mnn npnnn1m 6onLunnc1aoH
a coc1aae: ennn, 3nnoaLea, 1annn, aeppnoa, okonLnnkoa, Hnnra,
1acoaa, po1na ronocoaann yxapnn, oHoa, pnukn n y6noa.
ospepxanncL poukn, sepxnnckn, pec1nnckn n oqqe.
ocne a1oro a nap1nn aosnnkna 1ak nasmaaeHan qpakunn "neamx
koHHynnc1oa. osrnaannnn ee unenm yxapnn, oHoa, pnukn. y6noa n
onnon1a, a cpepn ee yuac1nnkoa Hm ac1peuaeH 1aknx anpnmx anocnepc1ann
pen1ene, kak y6muea, Opynse, .ocnop, HenLnn pocnaackn (Mnne
spanneanu Iy6enLHan), nunnx1, ena yn, 6ypyunx nnpepoa onnosnunn -
peo6paxenckoro, n1akoaa, apeka (o6enLcona), anponoaa, cnnckoro
(6onenckoro), I.Mncnnkoaa, Mypanoaa, neuanLno snaHenn1oro nc1opnka
okpoackoro n paxe npenec1nyk nk6oannuy nLnua neccy pHanp.
ero xo1enn a1n "neame? ak nncan .onc1o a noaec1n "Xne6, "onn 6eueno
1pe6oaann neHepnenno peaonkunonno aonm, a1ane nonnHan, u1o ceuac
ona neaosHoxna, u1o ona npeapa1n1cn a pasrpoH. Ho nH nyxno 6mno asopaa1L
coae1ckyk occnk, u1o6m o1 a1o uypoanuno pe1onaunn asopaancn Hnp.
Mory1 ckasa1L, u1o ne cnepye1 un1npoaa1L a1oro "c1annnckoro nopxannHa n
nenLsn eHy aepn1L, no ao1 aqqek1nan konuoaka nensaec1noro panee nncLHa
yxapnna, ony6nnkoaannoro a xypnane "Hau coapeHennnk (1990, N8): "Ha
occnk Hne nanneaa1L, n6o n - 6onLueank. ak anpnH, npo1na pec1ckoro
Hnpa amc1ynann nHenno an1nnaunonanLno nac1poennme 6onLueankn.
nonne na Hec1e a a1o koHnannn M.H.okpoackn, pycckn nc1opnk,
amnnaun na naue npounoe 6onLue rpnsn, ueH ace, naaepnoe, sapy6exnme
snonmxa1enn, aHec1e asn1me. c1onL xe ec1ec1aenno npncy1c1ane cpepn 1ex,
k1o nenaanpen occnk, n nenaanpeauero pennrnk .pocnaackoro, xo1n no
cnoaaH ennna, ko1opm ero c 1pypoH amnocnn, on paxe k an1npennrnosno
nponaranpe 6mn coaepuenno necnoco6en no npnunne caoero "nnu1oxnoro
pyxoanoro poc1a (1ak ynnunxn1enLno ouennaan pocnaackoro .poukn).
kpauenneH rpynnnpoakn "neamx koHHynnc1oa Hor cnyxn1L 1akxe ocnq
nunnx1, paokpopnm 6pa1 xenm sepxnnckoro, eapekn .Myuka1, saH.
npepcepa1enn a 1921-1923 ropax, o1 ko1oporo caH sepxnnckn ne snan,
kak ns6aan1Lcn, nockonLky popc1aennnuek okasancn aH6nunosnmH n
6espapnmH nn1pnranoH (1sma 1oro xe poukoro). noaoH, Honopum 6mnn,
kak na nop6op.
1panno a n1ore amrnnpn1 no6epnaun , pkxnne nenocpepc1aennmx
oprannsa1opoa peaonkunn okasmaae1cn aoceHL yknonnc1oa pasnmx Hac1e.
aeppo pepxa1cn sa ennna ns caHmx kpynnmx pen1ene 1onLko 1annn,
aeppnoa n okonLnnkoa.
Hap1e 1918 ropa coc1onncn II cLesp nap1nn. s6pannm na neH
acnepc1ane ok1n6pLcknx co6m1n oc1ancn 6es aHeneaa, mkoaa, Hornna n
Mnnk1nna. He npouen 6eccnepno n pec1.
Haacerpa ncuesna ns pnpoa nekcanppa Mnxanoana oHon1oanu-
onnon1a-nnnnnkoaa-m6enko n 1.p., n 1.p., nponaranpnc1ka cao6opno
nk6an, napkoH rocypapc1aennoro npnspennn, a nosxe npeonor "pa6oue
onnosnunn. 1annn noueHy-1o ne 1ponyn snaHenn1yk nap1nnyk xenunny, n
ona Hnpno poxnna na pasnmx pnnnoHa1nuecknx noc1ax po 1952 ropa.
He 6mno a noaoH n nppen epreeanua y6noaa, cmna kynua ns aanoao-
osnecencka, copa1nnka Opynse no peaonkunonno pen1enLnoc1n a 1ex
Hec1ax, o6euaauero c1a1L ouenL kpynnmH pen1eneH (acnoHnnH, u1o nakanyne
k1n6pn y6noa 6mn epnnc1aennmH, kpoHe 1annna, k1o axopnn n a
onn16kpo, n a oenno-nonn1nueckn uen1p), no nockonLsnyauerocn na
"pec1e. nuL a 1922 ropy y6noaa cnoaa ponyckak1 a kanpnpa1m, a a 1924
ropy - a unenm . orpa xe on c1anoan1cn nauanLnnkoH nonn1ynpaanennn
pacno apHnn n unenoH pr6kpo, no a1o - aepunna ero kapLepm. o
onn16kpo on 1ak n ne pouen, a 1929 ropy c1an napkoHoH npocaeuennn
aHec1o ynauapckoro, a a ropm aennko unc1kn 6eccnepno crnnyn.
noHan "pec1oH caok kapLepy n oHoa, 1ounee Ieoprn nnonn1oanu
nnokoa, cmn canuennnka. VII cLesp nonnsnn ero a kanpnpa1m , no1oH on
na apeHn ncues n aepnyncn a nnuL a 1927 ropy. XII cLesp ns6pan ero
saHec1n1eneH npepcepa1enn oHnccnn oae1ckoro kon1ponn (1.e.
..y6mueaa), ny a panLneuee nsaec1no ns amc1ynnennn .H.enennna na
XXII cLespe : pesonkunn Mono1oaa "sa neHepnennm apec1 a1o caonoun
oHoaa n - npnroaop npnaepen a ncnonnenne.
mne1en ns a kanpnpa1m 1akxe M..pnukn. ro conneHennnk
anernccep, sac1pennaun ero 30 aaryc1a 1918 ropa, okasan eHy, no cy1n
pena, 6onLuyk ycnyry. pnukn a npounoH 6mn HenLueankoH, c1apmH ppyroH
poukoro, npnHknyn aHec1e c nnH k 6onLueankaH a uncne npounx
"Hexpaonuea nnuL a 1917 ropy. sepxnnckn, pennaun c pnuknH 1ocky
nky1cko ccmnkn, noc1aann ero ao rnaae e1porpapcko , no pnn a1oro
yupexpennn on okasancn cnnukoH "nn6epanen. noaoH, ne ckocn1L 6m
pnukoHy ronoam a rpnpyunx nepeppnrax, a 1ak on nonan a ka1eropnk
Hyuennkoa, n a1o c1onno nasaann 1mcnuaH ynnu n nnouape a pyccknx
ropopax.
He coc1onncn kak pen1enL n ppyro aepnm cnopanxnnk poukoro oqqe,
ko1opm ne nepenec kpaxa caoero kyHnpa n nokonunn c co6o a 1927 ropy.
oxoponm oqqe nou1nna caonH npncy1c1aneH cynpyra 1annna H.nnnnyeaa.

uepepno VIII cLesp nap1nn o1kpmncn 18 Hap1a 1919 ropa nop saykn
1paypnmx Hapue: xoponnnn opnoro ns ee kpynneunx pen1ene
.M.aeppnoaa, ko1opm sa 33 ropa caoero seHnoro cyuec1aoaannn ycnen
naaopo1n1L neHano. pnako n kopo1kan xnsnL aeppnoaa, n ero
6esapeHennan, a Hoxe1 6m1L, nao6opo1, ouenL paxe caoeapeHennan cHep1L
eue 1an1 a ce6e Hnoro sarapok.
ennn po ne6ec npeaosnocnn aeppnoaa kak rnaanoro oprannsa1opa nap1nn:
" ne a coc1onnnn paxe na co1yk ponk saHenn1L ero, no1oHy u1o a a1o
pa6o1e Hm 6mnn amnyxpenm aceueno nonara1Lcn n nHenn nonnoe ocnoaanne
nonara1Lcn na 1oa. aeppnoaa, ko1opm cnnouL n pnpoH epnnonnuno amnocnn
peuennn.
ak nnue1 .Mepaepea a caoe c1a1Le "eHLn n popc1aennnkn .M.aeppnoaa
("ennnckoe snaHn, 12 non6pn 1989 r.), "pnn nepnopa o1 aecnm 1917 n po
aecnm 1919 ropa nHenno aeppnoa nannncn a1opmH no annnnnk n aa1opn1e1y
uenoaekoH nocne ..ennna... orpa ennn 6mn 1nxeno panen acepko
annan, aeppnoa c1an na neckonLko nepenL qak1nuecknH rnaao oae1ckoro
rocypapc1aa, n ero nopnncL c1on1 nop aossaanneH , o6LnannkunH
"kpacnm 1eppop - "6ecnouapnm Haccoam 1eppop npo1na acex aparoa
peaonkunn. 3anoHnnH a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao, a 1o ea onopnm nm1ae1cn
amropopn1L caoero conneHennnka n caann1L ace na ennna, amckasmaan a
c1a1Le "s a n o6pa1no ("Mockoackan npaapa, 21 anpenn 1992)
npepnonoxenne, u1o 1ekc1 saansnpoaanno .Oo1neao 1enerpaHHm o1 5
cen1n6pn 1918 ropa c 1pe6oaanneH ycnnennn 1eppopa napnk1oaan caH ennn:
spopoaLe, pecka1L, eHy nosaonnno, panm okasanncL ne 1aknHn c1paunmHn.
aonpocy o nokyuennn na ennna Hm eue aepneHcn, nauneH xe c 1oro, u1o
saespa aeppnoaa sacnnna na nap1nnmx ne6ecax, Hoxno ckasa1L, anesanno.
s c1a1Ln .poukoro "aHn1n aeppnoaa nsaec1no, u1o ennn anauane 6mn
npo1na aaepennn aeppnoaa a n "na a1o1 cue1 6mnn nspnpnme cnopm.
ennn, npaapa, no1oH coxanen, u1o nepoouennn 1akoro uenoaeka, no poukn
yHanunaae1 o Ho1naax, noueHy ennn 6mn npo1na, n ns-sa uero aenncL
"nspnpnme cnopm.
ypnan "Monopan raappnn ony6nnkoaan a N10 sa 1989 rop c1a1Lk
I.Hasapoaa ".M.aeppnoa: oprannsa1op rpaxpancko aonm n Haccoamx
penpeccn (a opnoH ns naccaxe a1o c1a1Ln aeppnoa nHenye1cn 1akxe
"nnnuna1opoH pasxnrannn rpaxpancko aonm). oo6ue-1o rpaxpanckyk
aony, k caepennk I.Hasapoaa, nenLsn nn oprannsoaa1L, nn pasxeuL. na
nanne1cn nens6exnmH cnepc1aneH pouepunx po kpanoc1e counanLnmx
npo1naopeun. ennn a nepame xe Hecnum peaonkunn neyc1anno
nopuepknaan, u1o npnannernpoaannme knaccm 1ak npoc1o caonx npnannern
ne o1papy1. "H, - roaopnn on, - rposn1 onacnoc1L nnun1Lcn acero. a 1o xe
apeHn y nnx ec1L co1nn 1mcnu nkpe, npouepunx ukony aonm, cm1mx,
o1aaxnmx, ro1oamx na ace oqnuepoa, knkepoa, 6ypxyasnmx n noHeunuLnx
cmnkoa, nonnuecknx, kynakoa. ak u1o rpaxpanckan aona, ckopee acero,
paspasnnacL 6m a nk6oH cnyuae, no ee pasHax, ee xec1okoc1L Hornn 6m 6m1L
ropaspo HenLunHn, ne npnnoxn k a1oHy peny pyky 1akne nkpn, kak aeppnoa.
poxpennmH nopokoH aeppnoaa, poukoro n, no-anpnHoHy, acex eapecknx
peaonkunonepoa aoo6ue, 6mn asrnnp na kpec1Lnnc1ao a uenoH, kak na
peakunonnyk Haccy. poukn, npaapa, c neno y p1a o1pnuan sa co6o a1o1
rpex, kak 6yp1o ne on a nepaoH 1oHe caoe knnrn o 1annne nasaan
kpec1Lnnc1ao "6ecqopHennmH o6noHkoH cpepneaekoaLn a coapeHennoH
o6uec1ae. aeppnoa nepeaopnn cnoaecnme kpacnaoc1n poukoro na nsmk
nekpacnamx pen. xe a Hae 1918 ropa on noc1aann sapauy "packono1L
pepeank na paa nenpnHnpnHmx apaxpe6nmx narepn, aocc1anoan1L
pepeaenckyk 6epno1y npo1na pepeaencko 6ypxyasnn. pypneH a1o
nonn1nkn n c1ann koH6epm, yupexpennme pekpe1oH o1 11 nknn 1918 ropa. D1o
6mna nepaan a1aka na kpec1Lnnc1ao, snoaeuan pene1nunn nospneue
konnek1nansaunn.
nepnop nepec1pokn ace c1ann xpa6pmHn n 6pocnnncL nanepe6o o6nnua1L
"nanaua aeppnoaa. Ho cnpaaepnnaoc1n papn cnepye1 nanoHnn1L, u1o o6
an1nkpec1Lnncko nonn1nke nap1nn a 1918 ropy ouenL npaannLno roaopnnocL
a c1a1Le c cnHaonnuecknH nasaanneH "aeppnoaunna, ko1opyk eue a 70-x
ropax nanncan M.epnu1aH. a 1e xe ropm .Mepaepea a caoe knnre o
1parnuecko cypL6e koHanpapHa Mnponoaa, no1pncakuyk necnk o ko1opoH
counnnn .anLkoa, pacckasan, kakyk rnycnyk ponL cmrpan aeppnoa a
npoaepennn nonn1nkn "packasaunaannn. enepL-1o Hm ace snaeH, u1o nHenno
aeppnoamH 6mna epnnonnuno nopnncana 24 nnaapn 1919 ropa pnpek1naa
pr6kpo (6), 1pe6oaaauan "npoaec1n Haccoam 1eppop npo1na 6ora1mx
kasakoa, nc1pe6na nx noronoano; npoaec1n 6ecnouapnm Haccoam 1eppop no
o1nouennk ko aceH kasakaH, npnnnHaaunH kakoe-nn6o npnHoe nnn kocaennoe
yuac1ne a 6opL6e c oae1cko anac1Lk.
Iepuena a 1836 ropy yxacnyn opnn "6esyHnm ykas o1nocn1enLno umran,
nanoHnnaun eHy "6n6neckne pacckasm o6 ns6nennnx n nakasannnx uenmx
nopop n acex k c1ene Houaunxcn. aeppnoaa, kak uenoaeka nypeckoro
aeponcnoaepannn, nopo6nme pacckasm ne yxacann, a nao6opo1, apoxnoannnn.
paapa, napnHnp Iennc a c1a1Le o kpacnoH 1eppope na ony ("HesaancnHan
rase1a, 23 anpenn 1992) acnueckn c1apae1cn, nopo6no Lay onopnoHy,
sa1yueaa1L nnpnanpyanLnyk ponL aeppnoaa, nso6pasn1L rnaanmHn nanauaHn
mpuoaa n oneraeaa, sa1o, Hon, okonLnnkoa (pnnnnan1), 6mn ouenL
xopoun uenoaek n amc1ynan sa o1Heny pnpek1nam aeppnoaa. ce a1o
penae1cn no He1opy 1oro xe 1annna, ko1opm a 1930 ropy o6annnn a
"nepern6ax konnek1nansaunn Hec1nme anac1n, xo1n nocnepnne pec1aoaann
cornacno pnpek1naaH uen1pa.
Ha o6enenne aeppnoaa nanpaanenm n ace "anL1epna1nanme aepcnn
saepckoro pn1yanLnoro y6nc1aa uapcko ceHLn a ka1epnn6ypre 17 nknn
1918 ropa, ko1opoe oprannsoaan ero conneHennnk an Ionoueknn,
anocnepc1ann, a 30-x ropax, amHopnaun ronopoH asaxc1an. saec1no, u1o
poukn xo1en yc1pon1L ny6nnunm cyp nap uapeH n 6necny1L na a1oH cype a
kauec1ae o6annn1enn, opnako ne poaenocL. epnyauncL a Mockay c qpon1a,
poukn neoxnpanno ysnan o1 aeppnoaa, u1o uapckyk ceHLk ynnu1oxnnn.
"ak, acex? - ypnanncn poukn. - "a, - o1ae1nn aeppnoa, - Hm 1y1 c
nLnueH nocoaeuanncL n peunnn. u1o? - aeppnoa nac1opoxenno n
nopospn1enLno nocHo1pen na poukoro: neyxenn Hory1 6m1L kakne-1o
aospaxennn? ospaxenn ne 6mno. poukn nocneunn cornacn1Lcn, u1o ace
cpenano npaannLno.
Ho ne ace penanocL npaannLno, paxe c 1oukn spennn 6onLueankoa, no
o1nouennk k pepeane. ennn, napo o1pa1L eHy ponxnoe, nnorpa nm1ancn
cpepxa1L an1nkpec1Lnnckne sackokn caoero eapeckoro okpyxennn. korpa
no ace c1pane a pesynL1a1e "caeppnoaunnm sanonmxann kpec1Lnnckne n
kasauLn aocc1annn, VIII cLespy npnunocL cpouno Henn1L nonn1nky. ennn
npnsnan na a1oH cLespe: "papm, ko1opme npepnasnauanncL pnn kynakoa,
napann na cpepnee kpec1Lnnc1ao. 3pecL Hm norpeunnn upesamuano. n 6mn
amnyxpen konc1a1npoaa1L: "Hacnnne no o1nouennk k cpepneHy kpec1Lnnc1ay
npepc1aanne1 ns ce6n aennuaun apep. "cnn nopo6nmH xe o6pasoH
pec1aoaa1L no o1nouennk k cpepneHy kpec1Lnnc1ay, - a1o 6ype1 1aknH
npno1nsHoH, 1aknH 1ynoyHneH n 1ako rn6enLk pena, u1o cosna1enLno 1ak
pa6o1a1L Hory1 1onLko npoaoka1opm. "He cHe1L koHanpoaa1L! - a1o1 nosynr
6mn 6pouen ennnmH nHenno 1orpa. pnako ace a1n xopoune n npaannLnme
cnoaa 6mnn naunc1o sa6m1m napne a 1929-1930 ropax ao apeHn
konnek1nansaunn, korpa "packynaunaanne onn1L ypapnno ne c1onLko no
kynaky, ckonLko no cepepnnky, a 1ounee, no kpec1Lnnc1ay a uenoH.
npnunnax a1oro peunpnaa Hm eue 6ypeH roaopn1L: onn a o6ueH-1o, 1e xe, u1o
n a 1918 ropy.
pane ypnan1enLno amrnnpn1 1o o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o na noc1y npepcepa1enn
caepxpenoaoro eapen cHennn no pekoHenpaunn 1oro xe ennna
1aepcko Hyxnuok-6anaryp M..annnnn, qnrypa nano pekopa1nanan n
coaepuenno nepaanosnaunan caoeHy npepuec1aennnky. aeppnoa, noa1opnk,
ncues c nonn1nueckoro ropnson1a ouenL caoeapeHenno. peno 6mno ne 1onLko
a ero nonn1nke nc1pe6nennn kpec1Lnnc1aa, ko1opan c ero cHep1Lk 6mna
nsHenena, no n a 1oH, u1o on, nonLsyncL nsaec1nmH ampaxenneH
"cocpepo1ounn a caonx pykax neo6Ln1nyk anac1L, - u1o6m a1oro anpepL ne
cnyuanocL, na ero noc1 n nasnaunnn coo1ae1c1aykuero npeeHnnka.
aeppnoa, kak Hm noHnnH, 6mn a1opmH uenoaekoH nocne ennna. Ho nn opnn
uec1onk6eu nnkorpa ne ypoane1aopn1cn a1opmH Hec1oH - on saxoue1 c1a1L
nepamH. aeppnoamH xe panrano ne 1onLko uec1onk6ne, no n c1onaun sa
nnH knan, ko1opm xenan anpe1L ao rnaae oc cnn ne ennna, "uenoaeka
nenonn1nmx kpoae, ampaxancL cnoaaHn .ysneuoaa, a nac1onuero "uapn
nypeckoro, unc1okpoanoro nypen - aeppnoaa.
nocnepnee apeHn a neua1n nonannk1cn pasnme aepcnn, kacakunecn Oannn
annan (op): no opno, ee nokyuenne - Hec1L o1aeprny1o nk6oannum, no
ppyro - aoo6ue c1pennna ne annan, a nensaec1no k1o. nk6oH cnyuae
nopospn1enen ckoponann1enLnm pacc1pen annan, ko1opm Hor 6m1L
nponsaepen 1onLko no npnkasy camue. o uLeHy? nn1L acnoHnnH:
qak1nueckn rnaao rocypapc1aa a a1o apeHn 6mn aeppnoa. Ho on ne pyHa
npo6m1L a a1o ponn nnuL neckonLko nepenL, on paccun1maan a ne
y1aeppn1Lcn. orpa xe annan npoHaxnynacL, npnunocL cpouno saHe1a1L
cnepm.
sapyHka 6mna aennkonenno: a opnn npneH ns6aan1Lcn o1 conepnnka n
cospa1L noaop pnn pasansmaannn 1eppopa. 1annn 6onee ycneuno ocyuec1an1
ananornunm saHmcen a 1934 ropy. aeppnoay xe a 1918 ropy nnan ypancn
nnuL nanonoanny. ocpepnnkoH Hexpy nnH annan Hor 6m1L .3aropckn
(y6oukn) - copa1nnk aeppnoaa no peaonkunonno pen1enLnoc1n a
HnxneH Hoaropope, snakoHm c annan no cn6npcko ccmnke. ceaponnH
a1oro pen1enn ponrne ropm ockaepnnn npaaocnaanm eprnea ocap.
Ipe xe 6mn a HoHen1 nokyuennn aepnm c1pax peaonkunn xenesnm Oennkc?
y nero 6mno xenesnoe ann6n: on yexan a e1porpap paccnepoaa1L y6nc1ao
pnukoro, 1oxe aecLHa nopospn1enLnoe, no1oHy u1o anernccepa y6pann c1onL
xe 6mc1po, kak n annan. pnukn c ero neko1opmH nn6epannsHoH Heuan
3nnoaLeay, ko1opm 1pe6oaan o1 neHepnenno aoopyxn1L pa6ounx c
npepoc1aanenneH nH npaaa caHocypa, a ueH 3nnoaLeaa noppepxnaan
aeppnoa. sepxnnckn aoo6ue 6mn 6onLuo cneunannc1 no uac1n ann6n.
HeHnornH panee, 6 nknn 1918 ropa on o1cnxnaancn a nneny y neamx acepoa,
kak Iop6auea a Oopoce, amxnpan, uLn aosLHe1. ocne a1oro on amnyxpen 6mn
nopa1L a o1c1aaky c noc1a npepcepa1enn n non1opa Hecnua naxopnncn ne
y pen, po 22 aaryc1a 1918 ropa, 1o ec1L aepnyncn na cao noc1 sa nepenk po
noaoro "pena.
okpm1a saaeco nenponnuaeHo 1anm n nc1opnn noespkn sepxnnckoro
nko6m sa xeno a aeuapnk a ok1n6pe 1918 ropa a conpoaoxpennn
cekpe1apn , 1o ec1L noHounnka aeppnoaa, .aanecoaa. 1panno, u1o
npn 1ako 1ecno ppyx6e Hexpy ceHLnHn aeppnoaa n sepxnnckoro xena
sepxnnckoro ysnana, u1o nnnuna1opoH uaeuapckoro aonxa ero cynpyra 6mn
nHenno aeppnoa, nnuL a 1936 ropy (..sepxnnckan. ropm aennknx 6oea.
M., 1975, c. 283). Mnc1nkn y1aepxpak1, 6yp1o sepxnnckn yaes c co6o
o1py6nennyk ronoay Hnkonan II pnn amc1aanennn a HaconckoH xpaHe a
apnLc1one, no ckopee uenL 6mna 6onee nposanuno: nonyun1L pnpek1nam
nenocpepc1aenno o1 1anoro uen1pa, kak 6m1L panLue c ennnmH nocne
neypaun 30 aaryc1a? pepnpnnn1L noayk nonm1ky nnn nyc1L noka no6erae1?
Ho neponro 6era1L oc1aaanocL caHoHy aeppnoay. ueanpno, a pykoaopc1ae
nap1nn 6mnn nkpn, ne 1onLko ne cornacnme c nonn1nko aeppnoaa, no n
snaaune noponneky co6m1n 30 aaryc1a nnn nopospeaaaune o ne. Ha
npouecce 1938 ropa ynoHnnanocL o nokyuennnx na aeppnoaa. 3nan He1opnky
a1nx npoueccoa, na ko1opmx pec1an1enLnm pennnn n Ho1nam opnnx
nopHennnncL nnnoamHn pennnnHn n Ho1naaHn ppyrnx, Hoxno npepnonoxn1L,
u1o sa aeppnoamH na caHoH pene oxo1nnncL n a konue konuoa poc1ann. n ne
npoc1ypnncn na Hn1nnre a pne, kak rnacn1 oqnunanLnan aepcnn, n ne 6mn
ns6n1 po cHep1n pa6ounHn, kak y1aepxpae1 neoqnunanLnan, - ero y6nnn
caon. rn6enL 3aropckoro npn aspmae ycnnenno oxpannauerocn spannn M a
eon1LeackoH nepeynke 25 non6pn 1919 ropa, napo pyHa1L, 1oxe 6mna ne
cnyua no. nyra nocnepoaan sa xosnnnoH.
1o ace a1o yc1ponn? onLko 1e, k1o npnamk aann1L ace nopospn1enLnme
cHep1n na 1annna, ne 6ypy1 nn Hnny1m kone6a1Lcn c o1nkpL ne npoc1mH
o1ae1oH. 1annn xo1L n kanonnsnpoaan aeppnoaa, no nano neponk6nnaan
ero. pnaxpm onn aHec1e okasanncL a ccmnke, npnueH aeppnoa npnHo anncn
HenknH 6ecoH, ac1peuan 1annna, cnoano npnkasunk 6apnna, no c1apannn
aeppnoaa ne 6mnn ouenenm. 1annn ynnu1oxnn ero amkopHmua - I.ropy
(erypy), npeapa1nauero a 30-x ropax H a eapeckyk naaouky, Hyxa pm
aep6ax - pouepn c1apue cec1pm aeppnoaa oqLn aep6ax (no Hyxy,
6ora1oHy kynuy).
mn a1o oqLn, "nn1epa1ypnm ranrc1ep aep6ax, no ampaxennk H.ceeaa,
1paanaun pyccknx nnca1ene paspennn cypL6y caoero sn1n, paano kak n 6pa1
.M.aeppnoaa ennaHnn. cmne aeppnoaa nppee .Mepaepea a
ynoHnny1o c1a1Le coo6uae1, u1o on pa6o1an cnepoaa1eneH H, nm1an
I.1poackoro, cqa6pnkoaan peno na aana acnnLeaa n paxe opno apeHn
6mn nnunmH apLk1an1oH epnn.


aeppnoa, kak yxe 6mno ckasano, epnnonnuno peuan pasnme aonpocm, npnueH
ouenL yroxpan ennny n poukoHy, ko1opme napapoaa1Lcn na nero ne Hornn:
1onLko onn ycnek1 u1o-nn6ypL sapyHa1L, okasmaae1cn, aeppnoa a1o yxe
cpenan. ocne xe ero cHep1n 6mn cospan konnernanLnm opran - onn16kpo,
npaanaun c1pano 1990 ropa, korpa Iop6auea ero qak1nueckn
nnkanpnpoaan, pasansmaan ce6e pykn pnn nnkanpaunn ace nap1nn. epamHn
unenaHn onn16kpo 6mnn ennn, poukn, 1annn, aHenea n pec1nnckn,
kanpnpa1aHn - 3nnoaLea, yxapnn n annnnn.
asyHee1cn, a ropm rpaxpancko aonm co6npa1L perynnpno a1y konnernk
6mno neaosHoxno. poukn n 1annn ace apeHn Ho1anncL no qpon1aH, a ns
oc1anLnmx unenoa onn16kpo pec1nnckn uac1o pacxopnncn ao Hnennnx c
ennnmH, a pesynL1a1e uero 6onLunnc1ao peuenn npnnnHanocL o1 nHenn
acero onn16kpo payHn nkpLHn - ennnmH n aHeneamH, kak nnue1 opec
Mepaepea a caoe knnre "IenepanLnm cekpe1apL (apHu1ap1, 1987, c.12).
Ho na yc1ax y acex 6mnn ne a1n paa nHenn, a ppyrne - ennn n poukn. D1o
coue1anne a ropm aonm 6mno c1onL xe nepaspmanmH, kak na naHn1n nauero
nokonennn ennn n 1annn.
ea aampoanu poukn (ponu1en) popnncn 26 ok1n6pn (8 non6pn) 1879
ropa, no yaepnn anocnepc1ann, k1n6pLckyk peaonkunk on nop penL caoero
poxpennn ne nopronnn, nao6opo1, coaceH paxe sa6mn o neH a 1917 ropy a
cyHa1oxe co6m1n. Mec1oH xe ero poxpennn pepeann noaka Xepconcko
ry6epnnn.
Marapanckn nc1opnk .HayHoa sa caon c1a1Ln o eapecko aepxyuke IIa
nopaeprcn nanapkaH co c1oponm nekoero O.py6neackoro, ko1opm a
"Marapancko npaape o1 12 non6pn 1989 ropa ncnonLsoaan npnHepno 1akyk
kon1papryHen1aunk: ny kak xe 6mno eapenH ne aosrnaan1L II, aepL onn
po peaonkunn 6mnn 1akne 6epnme n necuac1nme, nx npn1ecnnnn, uapckn
sakon sanpeuan eapenH nHe1L seHnk n paxe xn1L n pa6o1a1L a cenLcko
Hec1noc1n, sannHa1Lcn seHnepenneH. yuunH onpoaepxenneH nsHmunenn
py6neackoro cnyxn1 aa1o6norpaqnn poukoro "Mon xnsnL (sp. Ipana1,
epnnn, 1.I), a a ne roaopn1cn (c.22-23): "1eu Ho 6mn seHnepenLueH,
cnepaa HenknH, sa1eH 6onee kpynnmH... Xepconcko n ka1epnnocnaacko
ry6epnnnx nHenocL a 1e ropm okono copoka eapecknx seHnepenLuecknx
kononn c nacenenneH okono 25000 pyu. 1eu kynnn y noHeunka noackoro
camue c1a pecn1nn, pa pecn1nn paec1n pepxan 1 apenpe. " ropm 6onLunx
noceaoa nannHann co1nn pa6ounx (1aH xe, c.42).
epao nk6oaLk Honoporo poukoro, eue po snakoHc1aa c HapkcnsHoH, 6mno
Haconc1ao. 1euenne neckonLknx Hecnuea on yceppno un1an knnrn no nc1opnn
Haconc1aa n saaen ce6e cneunanLnyk 1e1papL no Haconc1ay a 1mcnuy
nyHepoaannmx c1pannu, kypa HenknH 6ncepoH sanncmaan ampepxkn ns
Hnorouncnennmx knnr, uepepyn nx co caonHn co6c1aennmHn coo6paxennnHn o
Haconc1ae (1aH xe, c.144-145). anL, nponana 1e1papL, nn1epecno 6mno 6m
ceropnn noun1a1L a1n "coo6paxennn, oco6enno a cae1e 1oro qak1a, u1o,
ampaaauncL ns cn6npcko ccmnkn n nonaa ao Opanunk, poukn ac1ynnn 1aH
a opny ns nox ennko noxn Opanunn n nonyunn c1enenL nopHac1epLn
(kpanr Xacc. Maconc1ao a en1panLno n oc1ouno apone a XVIII n XIX
aeke. pounaa, 1982, c.487). paapa, no1oH, y1aepxpae1 .Xacc, poukn
nopaan c Haconc1aoH, n a1y aepcnk nopxaa1nna H.ep6epoaa, ko1opan
roaopn1, 6yp1o poukn "aouen n amuen. Ho Hm-1o snaeH, u1o ns Haconc1aa
1ak npoc1o ne amxopn1. ak nncan .o6sea a noaHe "mc1pen
...a noxe 1o
mn cue1 caonx oco6mx amrop,
ouL-a-1ouL kak a uake aopoacko,
Ipe py6nL sa axop, n paa - sa amxop!
kpn, nko6m amxopnune ns Haconc1aa, kak npaanno, amxopn1 ns nero co
cneusapannnHn, u1o6m a cnyuae npoaana nocnepnnx 1enL ne nana na
Haconc1ao. xo1n nHenno poukn aHec1e c yxapnnmH n apekoH
no1pe6oaan noc1aan1L na noaec1ky pnn IV onrpecca oHnn1epna a non6pe
1922 ropa aonpoc o necoaHec1nHoc1n unenc1aa a koHnap1nn c npe6maanneH a
Haconcknx noxax (cH. c1a1Lk .onn "Maconm n koHHynnc1m, xypnan
"panyo, N41, snHa 1976), a1o nnuero ne pokasmaae1: nana enepnk1 XIV
1oxe ocypnn a 1751 ropy Haconoa, caH 6ypyun HaconoH. nepye1 o6pa1n1L
annHanne n na cpenannm pouknH am6op: on aouen a cnc1eHy ennko noxn
Opanunn, 1.e. o1pan npepnou1enne uo1nanpckoHy pn1yany, a aepL snan, u1o a
a1o cnc1eHe "cnnLnm aneHen1m npnHo qeopanLno peakunn. 1kypa appyr
nopo6nme cnHna1nn y 1akoro y6expennoro peaonkunonepa?
poukn naunnan na II cLespe kak aepnm copa1nnk ennna, no anesanno n
pesko c nnH pasouencn, pasrnnpea a neH pnk1a1opckne saHaukn, n 1orpa xe
npnpyHan knnuky "MakcnHnnnan ennn (c naHekoH na o6ecnLepa). akne xe
saHaukn 6mnn n y caHoro poukoro, no o6 a1oH on ckpoHno yHanunaae1. 1
6onLueankoa on o1ouen, no n k HenLueankaH ne npn6nncn, sa u1o Map1oa
(epep6ayH) nposaan ero "uenoaekoH, ko1opm acerpa npnxopn1 co caonH
co6c1aennmH c1ynoH. xe a ropm nepao pyccko peaonkunn poukn cnencn
c apaycoH (IenLqanpoH), ko1opm anocnepc1ann oprannsoaan
qnnancnpoaanne nap1nn 6onLueankoa repHancknH renepanLnmH u1a6oH.
ouenke nn6epanLno 6ypxyasnn poukn n apayc 6mnn cornacnm c
6onLueankaHn, a a 1nnnuno, kak Hm yxe roaopnnn, pnn eapecknx
peaonkunonepoa, ouenke, 1ounee, nepoouenke kpec1Lnnc1aa - c
HenLueankaHn, 1ak u1o "co6c1aennm c1yn, kak anpnH, coc1onn ns nonoannm
payx uyxnx c1ynLea. Ho, 1ak nnn nnaue, poukn npno6pen acepoccnckyk
nsaec1noc1L, kak pykoaopn1enL e1porpapckoro coae1a, panLue ennna.
osapauenne 6nypnoro cmna a o6Ln1nn ennna n nap1nn 6onLueankoa
nponsouno nnuL a 1917 ropy, no on aepnyncn ne opnn, a a conpoaoxpennn
pasnouepc1no opaam 1ak nasmaaeHmx "Hexpaonuea, a coc1aa ko1opo
axopnnn, a uac1noc1n, pnukn, oqqe, ynauapckn, nsanoa (IonLpenpax),
penea (po1oackn), apaxan, ManynnLckn, n napnHnpoa (enqnnkenL).
nepaoH coae1ckoH npaan1enLc1ae poukn 6mn napkoHoH nnoc1pannmx pen,
a a 1918 ropy sannn noc1 npepcepa1enn eaaoencoae1a (), 1.e. napkoHa
o6oponm, n npocnaanncn a ropm rpaxpancko aonm kak "neno6epnHm aoxpL
pacno apHnn. Ha caoeH nepconanLnoH noespe on o6Lesxan aocka,
amc1ynan c nanmuennmHn peuaHn, no ne acerpa nHen ycnex y aypn1opnn.
pnaxpm a paone apnumna nssn6une, ronopnme kpacnoapHeum, yanpea
a1oro 6apnna a pockouno uy6e, aspeaenn: " u1mkn ero, cyky! - n uy1L ne
npnkononn. poukoro cnac koHnccap uac1n, o1eu nnca1enn .opnkunna, co
cnoa ko1oporo n nsaec1no o6 a1oH annsope.
Ho nenpaannLno pyHa1L, 6yp1o poukn 1onLko nponsnocnn peun, n korpa
.onkoronoa y1aepxpae1, u1o y poukoro "caHan cnnLnan c1opona
saknkuanacL ne c1onLko a oprannsa1opckoH 1anan1e, ckonLko a opa1opcknx
cnoco6noc1nx n oc1poH, uac1o napapokcanLnoH yHe (pnyHq n 1parepnn. M.,
1989, kn.I, u.I, c.116), on pacxopn1cn a a1o ouenke c ennnmH, ko1opm
uennn a poukoH nHenno oprannsa1opckne cnoco6noc1n, a c pouknH, kak
nsaec1no pa6o1an ennn, a ne onkoronoa. oco6yk sacnyry poukoHy ennn
c1aann npnaneuenne aoencneuoa. aH poukn pacckasmaae1, u1o ennn a
Hap1e 1919 ropa nopyHmaan o 1oH, ne nporna1L nn acex cneuoa, no, on,
poukn, o1ae1nn eHy, u1o a pacno apHnn cnyxa1 30 1mcnu nyuunx uapcknx
oqnuepoa, a a 1918 ropy onn coc1aannnn 76% ee koHanpnoro n
apHnnnc1pa1nanoro annapa1a (.poukn. 1annn. 1985, 1.II, c. 80-81).
acxopn1cn c nennncko ouenko n .Mepaepea, korpa npnaopn1 na c1p.81
caoe knnrn " cypy nc1opnn o1pmaok ns nncLHa .pnqonoaa (a1o o1eu
nnca1enn .pnqonoaa, Ha1L nnca1enn nocnna qaHnnnk ypLe), ko1opm
nasmaae1 poukoro "6espapneunH oprannsa1opoH n xaac1ae1cn: "pHnk
cospaaan ne poukn, a Hm, pnpoame apHeckne pa6o1nnkn 1oH, kaknH
"pa6o1nnkoH 6mn caH .pnqonoa, Hoxno cypn1L no ouenke 1annnmH ero
ponn kak unena 3- apHnn: pnqonoa "ne na6nkpae1 sa cna6xenneH, ne
na6nkpae1 sa opranaHn nonn1nueckoro aocnn1annn apHnn n aoo6ue kak 6yp1o
nnuero ne penae1 (.onkoronoa, un1. cou., c.96). poHe 1oro, amckasmaanne
.pnqonoaa nano o1pae1 pyukoH "aoenno onnosnunn, o1c1anaaaue
He1opm nap1nsanunnm. 3a a1o onnosnune, ko1opyk aosrnaannnn 6maune
neame koHHynnc1m .Hnpnoa, pocnaackn n aqonoa, nernacno c1onn
1annn, nm1aauncn yxe 1orpa c ee noHouLk npouyna1L okonLnmH ny1eH,
nackonLko npouno cnpn1 poukn. Ho a aoennyk onnosnunk 1annn aHec1o
ce6n nop1onknyn opounnoaa, caH xe amc1ynnn a noppepxky nnnnn ennna,
poukoro n okonLnnkoaa na cospanne perynnpno apHnn.
enn oprannsa1opckne 1anan1m poukoro, ennn a 1o xe apeHn xypnn ero sa
yaneuenne "unc1o apHnnnc1pa1nanmHn He1opaHn. onkpe1noe copepxanne
a1o aaqeHnc1nuecko qpasm packpmaae1 . Mepaepea, ko1opm nnue1 o
poukoH na c1p.46 caoe knnrn " cypy nc1opnn: "ep1aaHn ero 6mc1pmx n
paneko ne acerpa cnpaaepnnamx pacnpaa nnorpa okasmaanncL n koHanpnpm, n
koHnccapm o1penLnmx o1pnpoa n uac1e, a na c1p.74 pacckasmaae1, kak
poukn nocne o1c1ynnennn opnoro ns nonkoa na oc1ounoH qpon1e npnkasan
pacc1penn1L koHanpnpa, koHnccapa n kaxporo pecn1oro.
o xapak1epnc1nke .onkoronoaa, poukn 6mn "amcokoHepen, sanocuna,
aa1opn1apen, ka1eropnuen, ne1epnnH k ppyrnH HnennnH (un1. cou., c.165).
uenky ennna ace xopouo noHnn1: " naHn, a ne nau. ec1onk6na. ec1L a
neH u1o-1o nexopouee, o1 accann. 1o nHenno, ennn ne noncnnn, no a1o
Hoxno ysna1L ns nanncanno pa1cknH kpn1nkoH I.panpecoH 6norpaqnn
accann: pacoam npnsnak yHa accann, ocnoanyk uep1y ero 1eHnepaHen1a
I.panpec xapak1epnsye1 eapecknH cnoaoH "xyune, "osnauakunH
opnoapeHenno npncy1c1ane pyxa, narnoc1L, pepsoc1L, 6ecc1mpc1ao n
Hyxec1ao. "Xyune, - npoponxae1 I.panpec, - y o6mknoaennmx
npepc1aan1ene eapecko pacm npnnnHae1 nnorpa aosHy1n1enLnm xapak1ep
naansunaoc1n n nn na ueH ne ocnoaanno c1pac1n amc1aann1Lcn n nrpa1L
ponL.
pepn 6nnxaunx noHounnkoa poukoro no 6mno neHano
"xyunenocn1ene, opnako poukn o1nocnncn k nnH no-pasnoHy. aoero
saHec1n1enn, apaua DqpanHa Mapkoanua knnnckoro, y1onyauero nnn
y1onnennoro no npnkasy 1annna a Hepnke a 1925 ropy, on npeaosnocnn po
ne6ec n noc1onnno cpaannaan c asapeH apno, ko1opm npocnmn
kpynneunH aoennmH oprannsa1opoH ao apeHena aennko qpanuyscko
peaonkunn. 3a1o aosrnaannauero nonn1ynpaanenne pacno apHnn 1ak
nasmaaeHoro epren aanoanua Iyceaa (nac1onune q.n.o. koa aampoanu
pa6knn) poukn 1epne1L ne Hor, xo1n 1o1 n nopHaxnyn ne rnnpn
amueynoHnny1m npnkas o peunHaunn. o cnoaaH poukoro, a1o1 "Iycea
nocne peaonkunn 1905 ropa ne1 na pecn1L yxopnn a 6ypxyasnyk xnsnL. 3a
Henkne nn1pnrn ennn n poukn o1c1pannnn ero o1 aoenno pa6o1m, n on
anocnepc1ann cneunannsnpoaancn na qanLcnqnkaunn nc1opnn rpaxpancko
aonm. poukn xapak1epnsye1 ero kak "ana1nunoro unnnka n
"qnerHa1nunoro knnysnnka. 1annn 1oxe ncnm1maan k Iyceay 6onLuyk
nenpnnsnL, ko1opyk .Mepaepea noueHy-1o cun1ae1 "nnueH ne onpaapanno,
no ecnn c1onL pasnme nkpn, k poukn n 1annn, cxopn1cn a ouenke
nonepeHenno c xnaue nH nnunoc1n, 1o a1a ouenka, necoHnenno,
cnpaaepnnaa.
o6c1aennan roppmnn nopaena poukoro. orpa nauanacL 6opL6a sa anac1L, on
n nanLueH ne noueaenLnyn, xpan, u1o ee npnnecy1 eHy na 6nkpeuke. ak 1oc
a "pex Hyuke1epax xpan, u1o aHynnunn nape1cn caHa. Ho a nonn1nke ne
6maae1 1ak, kak a npnknkuenuecknx poHanax. 1oc poxpancn caoero, a
poukn ne1. ypyun o11ep1mH o1 anac1n, poukn c ropn nopancn a
no6opnnkn cao6opm, no, kak npaannLno o1Heuae1 .Mepaepea, "neoxnpannan
sa6o1a poukoro o any1pnnap1nno peHokpa1nn o1paaana a snaun1enLno
c1enenn peHarorne (un1. cou., c.86). nnuL nop koneu xnsnn po poukoro
pouno, kak po xnpaqa, u1o pa6ouan onnosnunn 6mna npaaa: a ne1
counannsHa, a 6kpokpa1nn npeapa1nnacL a "noam knacc (.ouep. poukn
a nsrnannn. M., 1991, c.127, 351).
1929 ropy poukn 6mn ampaopen ns , no 1annn no1oH nonnn, u1o a1o
6mna oun6ka, n npnkasan po6n1L poukoro, xo1n 1o1 6mn yxe ouenL paneko, a
Mekcnke. InaanmH oprannsa1opoH "Hokporo pena c1an aren1 H eonnp
o1oa (D1nnron), a ero noppyunmHn - opoannLn, 6ypyun aoxpL
apren1nncko koHnap1nn, npann - 6ypyun aoxpL koHnap1nn pnec1a n
snaHenn1m xypoxnnk nkepoc. epam neypaunm nane1 na annny poukoro
6mn coaepuen 23 Han 1940 ropa. ocne a1oro npoHaxa a peno 6mn nyuen
aHon Mepkapep, Ha1L ko1oporo, ncnanckan koHHynnc1ka, 6mna nk6oannue
D1nnrona. 1epuncn a poaepne k poukoHy Honopo naHn1 20 aaryc1a
1940 ropa packonon anLnenu1okoH ronoay 6mauero aoxpn npone1apcko
peaonkunn, nocne uero uec1no o1cnpen o1 saonka po saonka 20 ne1 a
Hekcnkancko 1kpLHe, a no ocao6oxpennn cpasy xe amexan na y6y. epnn
npepc1aann Ha1L .Mepkapepa apnpap 1annny, a D1nnron nocne napennn
epnn npocnpen 12 ne1 a coae1cknx narepnx. ce cec1pm nonyunnn no cepLraH.

o1nnune o1 poukoro, ko1oporo .onkoronoay 1ak npaan1cn nasmaa1L
"peHonoH peaonkunn, snoaeuero, peHonnueckoro opeona 6mn naunc1o nnuen
ppyro unen nepaoro onn16kpo, en opncoanu aHenea (osenqenLp).
opc1aennme ysm, ko1opme cansmaann ero c pouknH (aHenea 6mn xena1 na
cec1pe poukoro nLre), o1nkpL ne c1nHynnpoaann kakyk-1o oco6yk 6nnsoc1L
Hexpy a1nHn payHn nnpepaHn, o1nocnaunHncn ppyr k ppyry aecLHa xonopno,
ecnn ne apaxpe6no. aHenea, eape nnuL nanonoanny, co c1oponm o1ua,
popnncn a Mockae a 1883 ropy. o apeHena nepao pyccko peaonkunn on
pa6o1an a aakasckoH koHn1e1e nap1nn aHec1e co 1annnmH, aHec1e onn
no1oH 6mnn n a cn6npcko ccmnke. nnskne o1nouennn aHeneaa co
1annnmH, c pno c1oponm, n c 3nnoaLeamH, c ppyro, n c1ann 1eH
c1epxneH, ko1opm nosaonnn cqopHnpoaa1L snaHenn1yk "1poky c1onL
noako, k anueHy neypoaonLc1ank a1opxanoaa, o11epuyk o1 anac1n poukoro
a 1923-1924 ropax. cnn 6m aHenea aoapeHn nonnn, k1o a a1o 1poke
rnaanm, on, aosHoxno, n yuenen 6m, no on cpenan neaepnm am6op,
cknonnauncL a c1opony 3nnoaLeaa n nopunnnauncL ero annnnnk. aHenea n
3nnoaLea c1ann 6nnxaunHn cnopanxnnkaHn ennna eue po peaonkunn,
nocne 1oro kak orpanoa n ynauapckn anann a epecL aHnnpnokpn1nunsHa.
aHeneaa, n 3nnoaLeaa o6ynn opnnakoam c1pax nakanyne ok1n6pLckoro
nepeaopo1a, aHec1e onn nann c amco1 anac1n a 20-x ropax n aHec1e konunnn
xnsnL nop nynnHn 25 aaryc1a 1936 ropa.
ak yxe roaopnnocL, peuennn sa ace onn16kpo ennn n aHenea uac1o
npnnnHann apaoeH. ue npn ennne aHenea, kak npaanno,
npepcepa1enLc1aoaan na sacepannnx onn16kpo. ocne k1n6pLcko
peaonkunn aHenea neckonLko pne 6mn npepcepa1eneH a (ero cpasy xe
saHennn aeppnoa), a sa1eH - npepcepa1eneH Moccoae1a. nepnop 6onesnn
ennna aHenea qak1nueckn aosrnaannn oanapkoH n cyuec1aoaaaun 1orpa
6onee yskn opran - oae1 1pypa n o6oponm (). akoe cocpepo1ouenne
anac1n a opnnx pykax 1annny ne nonpaannocL, n on nocne cHep1n ennna
npepnoxnn paspenn1L ponxnoc1n npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa n ,
npncoaokynnnn k npounH Ho1naaH eue n 1o1 apryHen1, u1o neypo6no eapek
aosrnaann1L oanapkoH a 1ako c1pane, kak occnn.
ornacno xapak1epnc1nke M.ky6oanua, ns aocnoHnnann ko1oporo
nouepnny1m npnaepennme amue caepennn, "aHenea ne 6mn uec1onk6na n ne
6mn anac1onk6na... 1cy1c1ane uec1onk6nn nepexopnno y nero a neko1opyk
naccnanoc1L n nsnnunkk yc1ynunaoc1L (.Mepaepea. aHenea.
"n1epa1ypnan rase1a, 3 Han 1989 ropa). .onkoronoa o1Heuae1 y aHeneaa
"kakyk-1o nHnynLcnanoc1L: cnoco6noc1L 6mc1po npnxopn1L k onpepenennmH
peuennnH, no 1ak xe 6mc1po n o1kasmaa1Lcn o1 nnx. 1o xe apeHn
"aHeneaa yHeno aen neperoaopm, ynaxnaan pasnnunme ueko1nname pena a
nap1nno cpepe (.onkoronoa, un1. cou., c.121). korpa ennn
pekoHenpoaan nasnaun1L na Hec1o 1annna ppyroro uenoaeka, ko1opm 6mn
6m "6onee 1epnnH, 6onee nonnen, 6onee aexnna n 6onee annHa1enen k
1oaapnuaH, Hoxno 6mno 6m nopyHa1L, u1o peuL npe1 o aHeneae, no
aHeneay, kak anpoueH n 3nnoaLeay, kak nncan poukn, "ne xaa1ano 1o
Henoun, ko1opan nasmaae1cn xapak1epoH (Mon xnsnL, 1,11, c.263-264), n a1o
ace npekpacno snann. 3nan n ennn, ko1opm uy1nn, u1o npaannLne 6mno 6m
nasmaa1L aHeneaa kqnkoamH n o1Heuan, u1o aHenea yHnm nonn1nk, no
nnkypmunm apHnnnc1pa1op. Ho paxe npoan1m poukn, pncoaaaun snme
kapnka1ypm na caonx copa1nnkoa, o aHeneae o1smaancn c Hnrko nponne a
1oH pyxe, u1o a neH "acerpa xnn HanenLkn cn6apn1 (1annn, 1.II, c.133) n
eHy 6mn caoc1aenen "po6popyunm unnnsH (Mon xnsnL, 1.II, c.229). pnHep
a1oro "po6popyunoro unnnsHa npnaopn1 a caonx aocnoHnnannnx nnca1enL
.3auea, o6pa1nauncn opnaxpm k aHeneay c npocL6o ocao6opn1L o6onn.
"akoro o6onn? - ne6pexno cnpocnn aHenea. - o1opm nanncan poHan
"mnL? - "a. - "noxo poHan. yc1L nocnpn1 (epe6pnnm aek. M.,
1990, c.298). Ho 1akne "uy1oukn aHeneaa konunnncL nnoxo pnn nero caHoro.
uncne unenoa nepaoro onn16kpo Hm anpnH n 1annna. n yxe 1orpa,
6esycnoano, nannncn opnnH ns aoxpe nap1nn, a aoace ne 6mn "cepo
qnrypo, neoxnpanno o1pennauecn a nsaec1nm HoHen1 o1 kpeHneacko
c1enm, kak nsoupnncn poukn (1annn, 1.II, c.145). 1annn npnnnHan
yuac1ne yxe a IV n V cLespax nap1nn, nocne paxcko konqepenunn 1912
ropa 6mn koon1npoaan a coc1aa , a na VI cLespe amc1ynan c nonn1nuecknH
o1ue1oH . paapa, a a1o apeHn ennn n 3nnoaLea ckpmaanncL a asnnae y
pa6ouero H..HenLnnoaa (anocnepc1ann 1annn nocapnn a1oro pa6ouero, ero
xeny n 1pex cmnoae - ne npnuL1e, koro ne cnepye1!), a aHenea n poukn
6mnn apec1oaanm. ok1n6pe 1917 ropa 1annn - unen onn16kpo n oenno-
nonn1nueckoro uen1pa, paxe .Mepaepea, nonn1no kak o1nocnuncn k
1annny, npnsnae1: "1annn o6napyxnn 6onLuyk aneprnk, snaun1enLnm
oprannsa1opckn 1anan1, cnny aonn n ueneyc1peHnennoc1L n po6aanne1:
"eccnopno, u1o 1annn npopenan a apnumne neHanyk pa6o1y no cna6xennk
npopoaonLc1aneH npoHmunennmx uen1poa oae1cko occnn, xo1n n ne
opo6pne1 He1opoa, ko1opmHn pec1aoaan 1annn, npnkasmaaaun, nanpnHep,
amxnra1L po1na parec1anckne aynm, u1o6m Hec1nmH 6anpn1aH nenoaapno
6mno pena1L na6ern na noespa, npyune c eaepnoro aakasa ( cypy nc1opnn,
c. 29, 40, 46). korpa onxennumn, panxnHm nnuno nenpnnsnLk,
kapnka1ypno nso6paxae1 1annna sno6nmH npno1oH (" kpyre nepaoH), a1a
kap1nna paneka o1 peanLno. axe o6ep1 onkaec1, 1oxe o1nkpL ne
noknonnnk 1annna, cun1ae1 ero "6onee rny6oko n cnoxno na1ypo, nexenn
In1nep (ennkn 1eppop, c.116), c ko1opmH nn6epanm ouenL nk6n1
cpaannaa1L 1annna. Hap1e 1919 ropa 1annn aosrnaann eue opnn
konnek1nanm opran, cospannm opnoapeHenno c onn16kpo, - pr6kpo,
ko1opoe npocyuec1aoaano po 1952 ropa.
n1m unen nepaoro onn16kpo nmne nou1n coaepuenno sa6m1. Hnkona
Hnkonaeanu pec1nnckn, poaecnnk aHeneaa n 3nnoaLeaa, 6maun
npncnxnm noaepennm, sannHan c 1918 no 1921 noc1 napkoHqnna O.
yn1 npo1na pec1a ne noapepnn kapLepe pec1nnckoro, nao6opo1, on asne1en
eue amue n no caoeHy nonn1nueckoHy aecy cpaannncn co 1annnmH,
nockonLky aouen 1akxe a pr6kpo, a c non6pn 1919 ropa c1an n cekpe1ape
. Ho, kak yxe roaopnnocL, pec1nnckn a onn16kpo noc1onnno
onnonnpoaan ennny, a a 1920 ropy ao apeHn pnckyccnn o ponn npoqcoksoa
aHec1e c payHn ppyrnHn cekpe1apnHn epe6pnkoamH n peo6paxencknH
noppepxan nna1qopHy poukoro, ueH okonua1enLno pasLnpnn nLnua,
ko1opm na X cLespe npepnoxnn pasorna1L cekpe1apna1 n amknny1L ack a1y
1ponuy ns , u1o n 6mno cpenano k anueHy ypoaonLc1ank 1annna, - ny1L k
saxaa1y nocnepnnH cekpe1apna1a n npeapauennk ero a caok un1apenL 6mn
o1kpm1. pec1nnckn xe 6mn o1npaanen a epnnn no npnHennaueHycn yxe
1orpa npnnunny "nocon aon. poponxn1L ak1nanyk 6opL6y a pnpax
1pouknc1oa pec1nnckoHy ne paaana ero xena, epa Monceeana, ko1opan
yroaapnaana Hyxa: "Hapo 6pocn1L onnosnunk, napo nonLsoaa1Lcn xnsnLk
(.poukn. 1annn, 1.II, c.267). pec1nnckn annn a1nH nonesnmH coae1aH,
c1an paxe saHnapkoHnnpena npn n1annoae (OnnkenLu1ene), no
"nonLsoaa1Lcn xnsnLk nocnyunoHy cynpyry oc1aaanocL yxe neponro. 1annn
ne Hor sa6m1L, u1o pec1nnckn nasmaan ero "ppnnno uenoaek c xen1mHn
rnasaHn, a poukn, ne sa6o1ncL o cypL6e penera1a, npepan a1o1 o1sma
rnacnoc1n a caoe aa1o6norpaqnn (Mon xnsnL 1930, 1.II, c.183).
onxennumn npaa, korpa nnue1, u1o 1annn amaopnn na nokasa1enLnme
npoueccm "caHmx nopa1nnamx, "snan n aoo6ue, u1o onn cna6akn, n cna6oc1n
kaxporo noposnL snan. korpa pec1nnckn na npouecce 1938 ropa
nonpo6oaan kosmpny1L 1eH, u1o on paano o1ouen o1 onnosnunn, ero xnao
npnaenn a uyac1ao. ak porapmaae1cn onxennumn, ecnn pec1nnckn appyr
c6nncn, ueknc1m snann sapanee, k1o k neHy ponxen 6exa1L n u1o c nnH
pena1L.
cnn o1 nepaoro onn16kpo nepe1n k 1919 ropa, 1o, npexpe acero,
6pocae1cn a rnasa nso6nnne a neH 6ypyunx 1pouknc1oa - nx a uen1panLnoH
oprane nap1nn 6mno 1orpa 6onee nonoannm. cnn roaopn1L o nnx nepconanLno,
1o, npexpe acero, cnepye1 o6pa1n1L annHanne na yxe ynoHnnaauerocn
cekpe1apn eonnpa epe6pnkoaa (nepaoro Hyxa nnca1enLnnum
I.epe6pnkoao), ko1oporo ennn kak-1o nasaan "rennanLnmH pa6ounH. D1n
cnoaa 6mnn amnecenm a saronoaok xaane6no c1a1Ln .nqep1Leaa a
"pacno saespe 18 qeapann 1989 ropa. .epe6pnkoa pec1an1enLno 6mn
kopenno npone1apn popoH ns aHapm, no pa6o1aaun nepaonauanLno a
on6acce. "IennanLnoc1L epe6pnkoaa nponannnacL, oueanpno, a 1oH, u1o on
caHoyaepenno roaopnn: "1annna Hm ne 6onHcn. cnn naune1 sasnaaa1Lcn -
cnnHeH ero (.poukn. 1annn, 1.II, c.207). epon1no, snan a1o
amckasmaanne, .apnn n nanncan a 1927 ropy qenLe1on "nnosnunn y
anac1n, a ko1opoH a nopnpke qan1asnn coo6uanocL o6 ns6pannn epe6pnkoaa
renepanLnmH cekpe1apeH. Ho a pec1an1enLnoc1n ero xpana nnan cypL6a -
opna ckaHLn nopcypnHmx aHec1e co a1opmH HyxeH ero popno xenm
okonLnnkoamH a 1937 ropy n pacc1pen.
pyran qnrypa - .I.eno6opopoa, ko1opm a 1918 ropy kak npepcepa1enL
panLckoro coae1a nopnncan npnkas o pacc1pene uapcko ceHLn, a nosxe
canpenc1aoaan na ony. 3a a1n sacnyrn eno6opopoa c1an, npaapa, nenaponro,
- unenoH n paxe pr6kpo, a a 20-x ropax - napkoHoH any1pennnx pen
O. pnn yaepnk1, 6yp1o nac1onuan qaHnnnn eno6opopoaa ec6ap1,
ppyrne - 6yp1o on no1oHok snaHenn1oro nyraueaua. yHa1L, 6yp1o poukoro
noppepxnaann opnn eapen, neaepno, sa1ecanncL a a1y koHnannk n neckonLko
pyccknx uypakoa n, ckopee acero, eno6opopoa 6mn opnnH ns nnx. pouknH
oro cansmaann 1ecnme, ppyxeckne o1nouennn, n nocne npoaana "ny1ua
7 non6pn 1927 ropa poukn paxe xnn y nero na kaap1npe. eno6opopoa
1orpa eue uncnnncn napkoHoH, xo1n caH 6mn nop cnexko (Mon xnsnL, 1.II,
c.282).
ao1 nnunoc1L a amcue c1enenn konopn1nan. apn apek (o6enLcon),
anpnm pen1enL koHHynnc1nueckoro nn1epnaunonana, uenoaek, ko1opoHy a
a1o oprannsaunn 6mno caHoe Hec1o, no1oHy u1o on npepc1aannn
peaonkunonnoe panxenne neckonLknx c1pan cpasy. "HepapoH ero soay1
papek - aop n xynnk c o6esLnnLe Hoppo, - 1ak, no Hnennk .m6akoaa,
pyHan o apeke 1annn. 1o pyHan 1annn na caHoH pene, nnk1o ne snae1, no
on 6mn ouenL poaonen, korpa npm 1pouknc1 apek "pasopyxnncn n nanncan
6 nknn 1929 ropa nokannnoe nncLHo. opa1nnaoc1L apeka 1annny,
6esycnoano, nonpaannacL: kakyk koHepnk no1oH sac1aannnn noHa1L 1aknx
"nopa1nnamx nkpe, Hm snaeH. 3nan a1o sapanee n poukn, nanncaaun no
a1oHy noaopy: "ann1ynnpoaaa, apek npoc1o amuepknaae1 ce6n ns coc1aaa
xnamx. n nonape1 a aosrnaanneHyk 3nnoaLeamH ka1eropnk
nonynoaeuennmx, nonynpouennmx ("o6ecepnnk, 1988, N50). paxe
nLc1name c1a1Ln, 1akne kak "3opun counannc1nueckoro o6uec1aa n
"onkoaopeu npone1apna1a, apeky ne noHornn. Hy 6mna o1aepena ppyran
ponL. n uec1no ee cmrpan na npouecce 1937 ropa, no ne cnac a1nH caok
xnsnL, kak pyHan na nepamx nopax.
orpa naua npecca a anoxy rop6aueackoro pea6nnn1anca 6pocnnacL nanepe6o
aocxaann1L 6maunx 1pouknc1oa, noHnnyn po6pmH cnoaoH xypnan "Hayka n
xnsnL a N6 sa 1988 rop n na1mua aapa Hnnry, ko1opm c 1919 no 1921
rop aosrnaannn (nocne epe6pnkoaa) onn1ynpaanenne . pnako nocne
a1oro nasaannm xypnan nonyunn nncLHo ns aranpora o1 .Hnkonaenko c
aonpocoH: ne 1o1 nn a1o Hnnra, na coaec1n ko1oporo nesakonnm pacc1pen
.yHenko n ero 6oeamx 1oaapnue, cyp n cHep1nm npnroaop nap
O.MnponoamH? a, npnunocL o1ae1n1L .ypnny, 1o1 caHm. Ho, anpn1e nn,
Hnnra nckpenne aepnn a annoanoc1L yHenko n Mnponoaa. ex, k1o
nckpenne aepnn a annoanoc1L o6annneHmx na npoueccax 30-x ropoa, ypnn ne
npouae1, sa1o Hnnry sa nckpennoc1L ero aepm ro1oa npoc1n1L.
1920 ropy na IX cLespe korop1a 1pouknc1oa nononnnnacL eue 1peHn
unenaHn. arenn peo6paxenckn, cmn canuennnka, c1an cekpe1apeH n
unenoH pr6kpo. Henno a1o1 pen1enL paspa6o1an 1eopnk "nepaonauanLnoro
counannc1nueckoro nakonnennn, ko1opan npepycHa1pnaana HakcnHanLnyk
nepekauky npn6aaounoro npopyk1a ns "necounannc1nuecko cpepm n
c1pon1enLc1ao counannsHa sa cue1 akcnponpnaunn kpec1Lnnc1aa,
npeapauaeHoro ao any1pennkk kononnk. asyHee1cn, a1y 1eopnk ocypnnn n
no1oH acerpa 1mkann a nee, kak a pokasa1enLc1ao npec1ynnmx saHmcnoa
1pouknsHa, no na caHoH pene ace "counannc1nueckoe nepeyc1poc1ao
cenLckoro xosnc1aa caenocL npn 1annne k nocnepoaa1enLnoHy aonnouennk
a xnsnL 1eopnn peo6paxenckoro.
pnnH ns caHmx aepnmx c1oponnnkoa poukoro 6mn aan Hnkn1nu Hnpnoa,
"caHm o6un1enLnm, xnsnepapoc1nm n oc1poyHnm ns nkpe, no o1smay
1oro xe poukoro (Mon xnsnL, 1.II, c.139). Hnpnoa, kak n Hnnra, cpa6o1ancn
c pouknH, 6ypyun unenoH . 1annna xe on, nopo6no epe6pnkoay,
nepoouennaan n ypnannncn, korpa eHy roaopnnn, u1o 1annn - a1o kanpnpa1 a
pnk1a1opm. "a aepL a1o coaceH cepm n nnu1oxnm uenoaek. D1o
nocpepc1aennoc1L, cepoe nnu1oxec1ao! (.poukn. 1annn, 1.II, c.167).
nocnepc1ann Hnpnoay npnunocL ropLko noxane1L o caoe
nepanLnoanpnoc1n.
1oponnnkoH poukoro 6mn 1orpa n 6ypyun Hnorone1nn unen onn16kpo
..nppeea, ko1oporo cnacna 6mc1pan cHena opnen1aunn.
xaa1ka c 1pouknc1aHn nauanacL a 1oH xe 1920 ropy c ynoHnny1o panee
pnckyccnn o npoqcoksax. Oana1nuno yaepennm ao acecnnnn He1opoa
apHnnnc1pnpoaannn, poukn npepnoxnn "nepe1pnxny1L npoqcoksm c
necoukoH n uennkoH nopunnn1L pnk1a1y nap1nnmx n rocypapc1aennmx
opranoa. , coc1onaun 1orpa ns 19 uenoaek, packononcn nou1n napaoe.
poukoro noppepxann yxapnn, sepxnnckn, pec1nnckn, epe6pnkoa,
peo6paxenckn, nppeea, akoackn n Hnpnoa. He1 coHnennn, u1o ennn
ne HenLue poukoro xo1en nopHn1L npoqcoksm, ko1opme 1orpa, nop
pykoaopc1aoH oHckoro, ne a npn Hep nmneunnH, 6mnn anonne
caHoc1on1enLnmHn n nesaponro nepep a1nH nanecnn onneyxy caHoHy ennny a
1ak nasmaaeHo pnckyccnn o epnnonauannn, u1o sac1aanno ennna c1a1L
ocHo1pn1enLne n amc1ynn1L sa aneune 6onee rn6kyk nosnunk no o1nouennk
k npoqcoksaH. ennna noppepxann 3nnoaLea, aHenea, 1annn, annnnn,
oHckn, mkoa, apek, p1eH n ypsy1ak. knoka poka1nnacL po X cLespa
(Hap1 1921) n sakonunnacL nepao kpynno unc1ko a aepxax. s amaenn
1pex amueynoHnny1mx cekpe1ape, a 1akxe nppeeaa. Hoam cekpe1apna1
coc1aannn coaepuenno noame nkpn: Mono1oa (kpn6nn), ko1opm
opnoapeHenno c1an kanpnpa1oH a unenm onn16kpo n unenoH pr6kpo,
pocnaackn (Iy6enLHan) n .Mnxanoa, 1akxe aknkuennme a pr6kpo.
onn16kpo pec1nnckoro saHennn 6maun po 1oro apeHenn kanpnpa1oH
3nnoaLea.
Haun nc1ounnkn o6muno nnuy1 o Ipnropnn aceeanue 3nnoaLeae, 6yp1o
nac1onuan ero qaHnnnn apoHmcnLckn, no n a1o neaepno. opnrnnane ero
saann Inpu nqenL6ayH, nponcxopnn on ns 1o xe Xepconcko ry6epnnn, u1o
n poukn, peaonkunonnyk pen1enLnoc1L naunnan a nnsaae1rpape, ko1opm
nosxe nocnn ero nHn, a 1enepL (noka) nasmaae1cn npoaorpapoH. 1eu
3nnoaLeaa, kak n nonoxeno 6epnoHy eapek, nHen Honounyk qepHy, a cmn
yunncn ne rpe-nn6ypL, a a epnckoH ynnaepcn1e1e ("Hepenn, 1988, N29).
nenoH 3nnoaLea c1an yxe a 1907 ropy n c 1ex nop 6mn nepasnyuen c
ennnmH (aHenea a 1914 ropy noexan a occnk n 6mn 1aH apec1oaan). ennn
n 3nnoaLea amc1ynann kak coaa1opm, aHec1e aepnynncL a occnk a
snaHenn1oH sannoH6npoaannoH aarone, no1oH aHec1e npn1anncL a asnnae n
Hexpy nnHn cnoxnnncL "ouenL 1ennme nnunme asanHoo1nouennn
(.Mepaepea. cypy nc1opnn, c.97).
pnako o1nouenne ennna k 3nnoaLeay Hoxno paccHa1pnaa1L kak
ncknkun1enLnm cnyua a cpepe koHHynnc1oa. .onkaec1, nsyuna HeHyapnyk
nn1epa1ypy, penae1 amaop: "pypno na1n koro-nn6ypL, k1o nncan 6m o
3nnoaLeae nnaue kak ao apaxpe6noH 1one. ueanpno, on nponsaopnn na acex
aneua1nenne 1uecnaanoro, neaexec1aennoro, narnoro n 1pycnnaoro
nnu1oxec1aa... n ne nHen n nonn1nueckoro uy1Ln, ne nonnHan akonoHnuecknx
npo6neH. n 6mn ouenL aqqek1nmH opa1opoH, no ero peuaH nepoc1aaano
ocnoaa1enLnoc1n n onn nponsaopnnn nnuL apeHennm aqqek1 na
aos6yxpennyk Haccoayk aypn1opnk (ennkn 1eppop, c.29).
He Henee o1pnua1enLnm 6yke1 kauec1a naxopn1 y 3nnoaLeaa n .Mepaepea:
"nepas6opunaoc1L a cpepc1aax, uec1onk6ne, 1uecnaane, cknonnoc1L k
peHarornn n nepoc1a1ok ampepxkn. a1oHy po6aannnacL eue n kpannn
xec1okoc1L. ak nnue1 1o1 xe .Mepaepea, nn a opnoH ropope oae1cko
occnn kpacnm 1eppop ne 6mn ocenLk 1918 ropa 6onee HaccoamH, ueH a
e1porpape, ao1unne 3nnoaLeaa. npoko npak1nkoaancn specL n pacc1pen
sanoxnnkoa (un1. cou., c.97,98).
ak acnoHnnae1 H.ep6epoaa, a "e1porpapcko npaape kaxpoe y1po
3nnoaLea nncan: " o6Lnannk, " npnkasmaak, " sanpeuak, " 6ypy
kapa1L 6esxanoc1no, " ne no1epnnk... n sa a1nH uyac1aoaancn uypoanunm
annapa1 nenHoaepno cnnm, ko1opm 6mn y nero a pykax n ko1opmH on
anapen, ne paaan nn ce6e, nn ppyrnH nn Hnny1m nokon (enesnan xenunna.
HLk-opk, 1982, c.124).
H.ep6epoaa npepnonarae1, u1o 3nnoaLea, kak 6nnxaun uenoaek k ennny,
ne 1epnen Hmcnn o aosHoxnoc1n IopLkoro sann1L ero Hec1o a ceppue aennkoro
uenoaeka, noa1oHy c1apancn apepn1L IopLkoHy rpe Hor n kak Hor.
pec1oaannmH, sa ko1opmx xnono1an IopLkn, nepepko rposnna xypuan
yuac1L, ueH ecnn 6m on sa nnx ne xnono1an. popoaonLc1ane, 1onnnao n
opexpa, ko1opme IopLkn c aennuaunH 1pypoH po6maan pnn yuenmx,
nnca1ene, xypoxnnkoa, nepexaa1maanncL no pacnopnxennk 3nnoaLeaa n
pacnpepennnncL nensaec1no no kaknH yupexpennnH. epsoc1L 3nnoaLeaa
poxopnna po 1oro, u1o ero aren1m nepnkc1pnpoaann ropLkoackyk nepenncky, a
1oH uncne nncLHa caHoro ennna, a a 1920 ropy 3nnoaLea yc1ponn a ryc1o n
nec1po nacenenno kaap1npe IopLkoro noaanLnm o6mck (un1. cou., c.128,
130).
IopLkn o1o acex a1nx snnoaLeacknx sa6aa yexan a aHnrpaunk, no n caH 6mn
xopou. epL a1o on o6nann a HecaoeapeHennmx Hmcnnx pycckoro uenoaeka,
nasaaa ero saepeH, nakoc1no-1pycnnamH npn ace caoe xec1okoc1n. D1n
cnoaa 6mnn nano ckasanm ne no appecy, no sa1o onn Hory1 6m1L c nonnmH
npaaoH o1necenm k o1nkpL ne pycckoHy uenoaeky - 3nnoaLeay, coaepuenno
6ecnouapnyk xapak1epnc1nky ko1opoHy pan ero conneHennnk n copa1nnk
poukn: "aeppnoa roaopnn Hne: "3nnoaLea - a1o nannka. aeppnoa snan
nkpe, pec1an1enLno: a 6naronpnn1nme nepnopm, korpa no ampaxennk
ennna neuero 6mno 6on1Lcn, 3nnoaLea ouenL nerko as6npancn na cepLHoe
ne6o. orpa xe pena unn nnoxo, 3nnoaLea noxnncn o6muno na pnaan, ne a
He1aqopnueckoH, a a nopnnnnoH cHmcne, n aspmxan. Haunnan c 1917 ropa n
Hor y6epn1Lcn, u1o cpepnnx nac1poenn 3nnoaLea ne snan: nn6o cepLHoe
ne6o, nn6o pnaan (Mon xnsnL, 1.II, c.158). pnexaa a e1porpap ao apeHn
nac1ynnennn pennua, poukn sac1an 3nnoaLeaa "na pnaane n, caH, 6ypyun
uekoH ne po6koro pecn1ka, ne pan 3nnoaLeay o6pa1n1Lcn a nannueckoe
6erc1ao, kak specL xe, nop e1porpapoH, poukn opnaxpm, ackouna na
nouapL, oc1anoann o1c1ynakunx kpacnoapHeuea. 1o1 xe 3nnoaLea, korpa
ero no1aunnn a 1936 ropy na pacc1pen, ansxan, kak cannLn: "osaonn1e
1annny!, a yanpea, u1o na 1annna napexpm ne1, aossaan k amcue
nnc1anunn, k caoeHy eapeckoHy 6ory: "eHa cpaan: pona Dnoxeny,
pona Dxap!.
Ho aosHespne npnuno no1oH, a a nauane 20-x ropoa 3nnoaLea paspyaancn o1
roppmnn, aosrnaannn oHnn1epn n e1porpapckn oae1. 1He1nH pnn ce6n,
u1o a 1921- 1922 ropax ns nn1n unenoa onn16kpo 1poe 6mnn eapen - a1o
pnn nnnkc1paunn k paccyxpennnH na 1eHy o "pyccko peaonkunn. cnn Hm
po6aanH k a1oHy, u1o a 1921 ropy coxpannnacL npexnnn nponopunn, 1o
ec1L okono nonoannm nnopopuea, a koHcoHon aosrnaannnn cnauana ckap
naknn, a no1oH asapL auknn, 1o Hm 6ype nHe1L poc1a1ouno ncnoe
npepc1aanenne o 1oH, a uLnx pykax naxopnnacL anac1L a 1e apeHena. Ho
neponrnH 6mno 1opxec1ao a1nx apeHenunkoa. ak ckasano a opane "yc1L xe
onn nacnaxpak1cn, no1oH onn ysnak1. o1oH onn ysnann.

Hoam, Honopo cekpe1apna1 , o6pasoaannm 1921 ropy, ne o6napan,
opnako, poc1a1ounmH aa1opn1e1oH a nap1nn. uyuanacL neo6xopnHoc1L
noc1aan1L ao rnaa ero 6onee kpynnyk nnunoc1L. nockonLky qynkunn
pr6kpo n cekpe1apna1a nepecekanncL, noneaone nanpaunaanacL
kanpnpa1ypa 1annna, n a anpene 1922 ropa 1annn 6mn nasnauen na noam
pnn ce6n n pnn nap1nn noc1 IenepanLnoro cekpe1apn . n oc1aann a
cekpe1apna1 1onLko Mono1oaa, paoe ppyrnx yunn, a asaHen nx npnunn
y6muea n aepnyauncn a npouennm nppeea. 6a onn 6mnn
Hexannueckn aaepenm 1akxe a pr6kpo.
enepL poncknaak1cn, no uLe pekoHenpaunn 1annn 6mn cpenan
IenepanLnmH cekpe1apeH. poukn yaepne1, u1o nnnuna1naa ampanxennn
npnnapnexana 3nnoaLeay, ko1opm "na 6ykcnpe 1nnyn sa co6o caoero
6ypyuero nanaua (1annn, 1.II, c.188, 189), no aepcnn poukoro ne
coo1ae1c1aye1 pec1an1enLnoc1n n o6Lncnne1cn, no-anpnHoHy, kpane
nenpnnsnennmH o1nouenneH poukoro k 3nnoaLeay. Ha caHoH pene oco6enno
nac1ounao npepnaran kanpnpa1ypy 1annna aHenea (.Mepaepea. aHenea.
"I, 3 Han 1989 ropa), n a cae1e paannx canse Hexpy nnHn a1o anonne
nonn1no. Ho cnepye1 no a1opn1L, u1o nasnauenne 1annna 6mno anonne
nornunmH, a ero co6c1aennm nonn1nueckn aec poc1a1ouno 6onLunH, 1ak u1o
a "ampanxennn on ne nyxpancn. noppepxke - ppyroe peno, no 1onLko na
ypoane 6noka paanmx. yx coaceH nenonn1no, o1kypa nouna rynn1L aepcnn,
6yp1o ppyrnH kanpnpa1oH na noc1 IenepanLnoro cekpe1apn 6mn ynoHnny1m
panee .H.Hnpnoa. X cLesp nonnsnn a1oro 1pouknc1a a kanpnpa1m a unenm
, XI cLesp anoaL aepnyn a , no k1o n sa kakne sacnyrn Hor npopanra1L a
rencekn a1y qnrypy ropaspo 6onee nerko "aecoao ka1eropnn (a
nonn1nueckoH cHmcne) no cpaanennk co 1annnmH? akoe npepnonoxenne
amrnnpeno 6m 1orpa coaepuenno qan1ac1nuecknH.
Hexpy 1eH npn6nnxanncL aaxnme n 1parnueckne co6m1nn. peka6pe 1922
ropa sa6onen ennn, n anno1nyk ac1an aonpoc o npeeHnnke.
opnnnnme o6c1on1enLc1aa 6onesnn n cHep1n ennna po cnx nop nokpm1m
HpakoH nensaec1noc1n. Xpononornueckan nocnepoaa1enLnoc1L co6m1n 1akoaa.
5 non6pn no 5 peka6pn 1922 ropa a Mockae npoxopnn IV onrpecc
oHnn1epna. a1oHy nepnopy o1nocn1cn nocnepnne ny6nnunme amc1ynnennn
ennna - na caHoH onrpecce 14 non6pn n na nnenyHe Moccoae1a 20 non6pn.
5 peka6pn 1922 ropa onrpecc oHnn1epna npnnnn pesonkunk o
necoaHec1nHoc1n unenc1aa a koHHynnc1nuecko nap1nn c yuac1neH a
Haconcknx noxax (nn1epecno o1He1n1L, u1o npepcepa1enL oHnn1epna
3nnoaLea npn ronocoaannn a1o pesonkunn aospepxancn). 6 peka6pn ennn
no 1pe6oaannk apaue yexan a Iopkn, 12 peka6pn nonm1ancn aepny1Lcn k
pa6o1e, 13 peka6pn eHy npepnncann nonnm noko, 16 peka6pn ero pas6nn
napannu.
nocnepnne ropm ycnnenno HyccnpoaanacL aepcnn o6 o1paanennn ennna
1annnmH. ocxopn1 ona k poukoHy, ko1opm y1aepxpan na c1pannuax caoe
knnrn "1annn (1.II, c.253): "Han6onLuee uncno xopouo nocanuen, k nkpe, n
n a 1oH uncne, acerpa nopospeaann, u1o 1annn copec1aoaan yckopennk
cHep1n ennna. ceuac a pokasa1L a1o npn noHoun pnpa kocaennmx ynnk n
coo6paxenn, ko1opme a coaokynnoc1n caoe 6mnn 6m, noxany, poc1a1ounm
pnn cype6noro npnroaopa, ne oc1aannn Hec1a coHnennk.
poukn, kak acerpa, 6mn nsnnune yaepen a ce6e n a y6epn1enLnoc1n caonx
pokasa1enLc1a. Ha caHoH pene onn aoace ne 1ak y6epn1enLnm, sa1o
amc1panaae1cn ppyran uenouka pokasa1enLc1a.
ennn "sa6onen cpasy xe nocne npnnn1nn onrpeccoH oHnn1epna
an1nHaconcko pesonkunn. ocne a1oro - ne acnepc1ane nn a1oro? 3a6onen
nnn ero 1exnnuno "ampy6nnn? 3nan nepas6opunaoc1L ennna a cpepc1aax,
Hoxno npepnonoxn1L, u1o on pasmrpmaan n Haconckyk kap1y, nonaran, u1o
eHy ypac1cn nepexn1pn1L Haconoa 1ouno 1ak xe, kak nepexn1pnn on
repHanckn renepanLnm u1a6.
cnoHnnH eue pas o 1annc1aenno noespke sepxnnckoro a aeuapnk a
ok1n6pe 1918 ropa. akne nnc1pykunn 6mnn eHy 1orpa panm? oxoxe,
coxpann1L ennna ao rnaae rocypapc1aa, noka on ne naune1 amxopn1L ns-nop
kon1ponn. peka6pe 1922 ropa ennn npepnpnnnn 1akyk nonm1ky n 6mn
cpasy xe nakasan. npep pnk1a1opckoro rocypapc1aa nens6exno nonapae1 a
saancnHoc1L o1 caoe cnyx6m 6esonacnoc1n, ecnn ne cyHee1 cospa1L e
npo1naoaeca (no k1o oxpann1 o1 oxpannkunx? - rnacn1 nocnoanua). onm1ka
paspena1Lcn c HaconaHn c1ana pnn ennna c1onL xe pokoao, kak a 1953 ropy
pnn ero npeeHnnka - nonm1ka noaec1n papnkanLnyk 6opL6y c cnonnsHoH.
o6onx cnyuanx cnyx6a 6esonacnoc1n 6mc1po nokasana sapaaaunHcn aoxpnH,
k1o nac1onun xosnnn c1panm.
nunyk oxpany ennna aosrnaannn 6paH enenLkn, no 6nnxauee
o1nouenne k a1o oxpane nHen ropa (.poukn. 1annn, 1. II, c.255),
saHec1n1enL sepxnnckoro, popc1aennnk n ampanxeneu aeppnoaa. panra1enL
snoaeuero 1anpeHa aeppnoa-sepxnnckn paano Hep1a, no sepxnnckn
eue xna n nHenno on aosrnaanne1 koHnccnk no oprannsaunn noxopon ennna,
n nop pykoaopc1aoH sepxnnckoro ocyuec1anne1cn HyHnqnkaunn 1ena aoxpn
a c1nne ppeanero rnn1a, k ko1opoHy Haconm aosaopn1 caok "npeHyppoc1L,
xo1n, kak y1aepxpak1 eue 6onee ocaepoHnennme nkpn, "Haconckne
1annc1aa... 6esnapexno nckaxennme n pasxnxennme aepcnn nopnnnnmx
Hnc1epn ppeannx apeHen (o6ep1 eHnn. ana npnyca. H.-opk, 1976,
c.74). Hap capkoqaroH ennna aospanrnn Haasone a c1nne aaannonckoro
snkkypa1a. poc1me cHep1nme, a 1eH naue ne snakoHme c uep1oaunno
koHHynnc1m po cnx nop ne nonnHak1, u1o "nouec1n, ko1opme c1ann
okasmaa1Lcn ennny nocne ero cHep1n, na caHoH pene npepc1aannk1 co6o ak1
Haconcko Hec1n. ennn saknkuen a caoero popa nocHep1nyk 1kpLHy, n ne
spn y axopa a Haasone c1on1 uacoame.
3nan nn ennn a peka6pe 1922 ropa, o1kypa nanecen noc1nrun ero ypap? pa,
snan. oa1oHy n nanncan cpasy xe caoe 1ak nasmaaeHoe "saaeuanne, cHmcn
ko1oporo oc1ae1cn cokpm1mH, xo1n ace yxe amyunnn a1o1 1ekc1 nansyc1L.
pasy neo6xopnHo oroaopn1L: a nocnepnnx nponsaepennnx ennna n a
"saaeuannn a 1oH uncne ne1 nnkaknx npnsnakoa napyuennn yHc1aenno
pen1enLnoc1n aa1opa. ennnckan nornka oc1ae1cn ue1ko, kak acerpa, appyr:
"k1n6pLckn annsop 3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa, koneuno, ne nannncn
cnyuanoc1Lk, no... on 1akxe Hano Hoxe1 6m1L c1aanH nH a anny nnuno, kak
neo6onLueansH poukoHy. 1o a1o? 1kypa 1akan any1penne npo1naopeunaan
qpasa? cnn annnnnn nasaanno 1ponum ne cnyuanm, snaun1, onn
sakonoHepnm. c1ynnauncn pas Hoxe1 oc1ynn1Lcn cnoaa n paxe o6nsa1enLno
oc1ynn1cn. 3naun1, nyxno npepoc1epeuL o1 a1oro uenoaeka. Ho aHec1o
npepoc1epexennn appyr: "a1o nenLsn c1aan1L nH a anny. oueHy? cnn a1o ne
anna, 1o saueH o6 a1oH roaopn1L? onyuae1cn kakoe-1o c1pannoe
npo1naopeune. Ho 1onLko na nepam asrnnp. Ha caHoH pene nnkakoro
npo1naopeunn ne1. epep naHn Haconckn unqp.
eunqpoaky npnpe1cn naua1L c panLnero pas6era. ckope nocne amxopa a
1983 ropy ero knnrn o Haconax "pa1c1ao yHep coaceH HonopmH a pesynL1a1e
naansanno eHy coaepuenno nenyxno onepaunn (kak Opynse) anrnnckn
xypnannc1 1naen Ha1. ue panLue, a 1976 ropy, on ycnen ony6nnkoaa1L
ppyryk knnry "xek o1poun1enL. o Ho1naaH a1o knnrn cnn1 qnnLH
"6nc1ao no npnkasy, nokasannm poccncknH 1eneanpenneH a npounoH
ropy.
"xek-o1poun1enL paano c1an xypnannc1cknH u1aHnoH. Ha caHoH pene
nnkakoro xeka-o1poun1enn ne 6mno. 3aepckne y6nc1aa neckonLknx
xenunn, coaepuennme a onpone a 1888-1889 ropax, ne 6mnn penoH pyk
nensaec1noro HanLnka, a coaepuanncL no npnkasy ne6-Hepnka Ianna a
coo1ae1c1ann c HaconcknHn pn1yanaHn c 1o uenLk, u1o6m ckpm1L 1anyk
xenn1L6y nacnepnnka npec1ona na ka1onnuke, u1o Horno amsaa1L napopnoe
aosHyuenne ns-sa nenaanc1n anrnnuan k ka1onnkaH. kpm1L npaapy o6 a1nx
y6nc1aax noHor 1orpa koHnccap nonnunn oppen, ko1opm npouen na Hec1e
opnoro ns npec1ynnenn napnncL: "xyaec - a1o nkpn, ko1opmH nnu1o ne
Hoxe1 6m1L noc1aaneno a anny. oppen, caH 6ypyun HaconoH, nonnn, u1o
"xyaec - a1o ycnoanoe o6osnauenne Haconoa n yceppno c1an saHe1a1L
cnepm. Ho opnn akkypa1nm nonnueckn ycnen ckonnpoaa1L a1y napnncL, n
ona coxpannnacL a apxnaax, rpe ee no1oH n o6napyxnn .Ha1.
ouno 1ako xe cHmcn nHee1 n qpasa ns nennnckoro saaeuannn o nkpnx,
ko1opmH nnu1o ne Hoxe1 6m1L noc1aaneno a anny. ocanuennme ponxnm 6mnn
cpasy nonn1L, k1o a1n nkpn.
1932 ropy a apnxe H.an1koa amnyc1nn knnry "Maconc1ao a pyccko
aHnrpaunn. a1o knnre 6mn npnnoxen cnncok poccncknx Haconoa. a1oH
cnncke, napnpy c npnHenLkaaunHncn qaHnnnnHn, 1aknHn kak, Iyukoa,
epenckn, Mnnkkoa, epeuenko n 1.n., Hm ac1peuaeH n ne c1onL npnamunme:
ponu1en-poukn, apayc, eukoa-IopLkn, apoHmcnLckn-3nnoaLea,
akoackn, osenqenLp-aHenea, aeppnoa, o6enLcon-apek, nLnnoa-
ennn, OnnkenLu1en-n1annoa. ak anpnH, ennny 6mno k koHy o6paua1Lcn
n 6mno ns koro am6npa1L. onpoc a 1oH, nHen nn ennn npaao am6opa nnn a1o
npaao npnnapnexano ppyrnH nnuaH, nHeaunH 6onee amcokn Haconckn panr.
Moxe1 6m1L, no a1o npnunne, npoaosrnacna nenpnkocnoaennoc1L eapecko-
Haconcko 1ponum ns onn16kpo, ennn aospepxancn o1 konkpe1no
pekoHenpaunn n ne nasaan caoero npeeHnnka. o acnkoH cnyuae
pokyHen1anLno ne saqnkcnpoaan cao am6op nnn coo1ae1c1aykun pokyHen1
nponan. kasannn Hornn 6m1L panm n yc1no. ocaennme pannme
canpe1enLc1ayk1 o 1oH, u1o kanpnpa1ypo ennna 6mn 3nnoaLea. 1ecno
ppyx6e Hexpy nnHn yxe roaopnnocL. ne cnyuano 3nnoaLea, necHo1pn na
caok nenonynnpnoc1L a nap1nn, amc1ynan c nonn1nuecknHn o1ue1aHn na
XII n XIII cLespax nap1nn coo1ae1c1aenno a 1923 n 1924 ropax. a1n ropm
3nnoaLea qak1nueckn nannncn aoxpeH nap1nn n aokpyr ero nnunoc1n cneuno
cospaaancn kynL1, npnueH oco6enno yceppc1aoaan ynauapckn, aennuaaun
3nnoaLeaa "6nnxaunH noHounnkoH n poaepennmH nnuoH ennna, 1oxe ne
cnyuano, u1o, korpa 3nnoaLea n aHenea 6mnn o11ep1m o1 anac1n n coc1aannn
"noayk onnosnunk, ao rnaae a1o onnosnunn aHec1e c nnHn okasanacL apoaa
ennna H..pynckan. Ho a1o nponsouno no1oH, a a 1923-1924 ropax
3nnoaLea cun1an caonH rnaanmH konkypen1oH poukoro n npexpe acero
c1apancn caann1L nHenno ero. pecnoay1an eapeckan connpapnoc1L - ne
6onee, ueH Hnq. eH, k1o cnnukoH aepn1 a nee, pekoHenpyk acerpa noHnn1L
npo a1y saHeua1enLnyk napy.
cosnannn Hacc a1opmH uenoaekoH nocne ennna 6mn nHenno poukn. a
npo1okonax nnenyHoa sa 1918-1921 ropm nopnpok nepeuncnennn
npncy1c1aykunx o6muno 6mn 1ako: ennn, poukn, 3nnoaLea, aHenea,
1annn. ne opnn 3nnoaLea, ace, k1o 6mn npepc1aanen panee a a1oH cnncke,
anpenn a poukoH rnaanoe npenn1c1ane na ny1n caonx uec1onk6namx
yc1peHnenn, n a1o cnyxnno o6LepnnnkunH nauanoH. yxapnn a 1925 ropy
caH npnsnancn poukoHy: " nac ne1 peHokpa1nn, no1oHy u1o Hm 6onHcn aac
(Mon xnsnL, 1.II, c.227). D1a 6onsnL o6Lepnnnna nap1nnoe 6onLunnc1ao
aokpyr 1oro, koro 6on1Lcn napo 6mno 6onLue.
poukn, kak yxe roaopnnocL, amcokoHepno asnpan na ack a1y aosnk n
xpan, korpa anac1L eHy npenopnecy1 na 6nkpeuke. .a1opxanoa a caoe
knnre "poncxoxpenne nap1okpa1nn cHo1pn1 na 1orpaunkk cn1yaunk
uennkoH rnasaHn poukoro, sanHc1ayn y nero aepcnk o "saroaope 1pokn (1.e.
3nnoaLeaa, aHeneaa n 1annna) npo1na ennna. pnn 1oro, u1o6m pokasa1L,
u1o ennn n poukn 6mnn na opno c1opone, a "1poka na ppyro, poukn
n a1opxanoa ccmnak1cn na pacc1anoaky cnn, cospaauykcn a 1922-1923
ropax ao apeHn 1ak nasmaaeHoro rpysnnckoro nnunpen1a.
nunpen1 a1o1 packpyunaancn a nocnepnne Hecnum ak1nano pen1enLnoc1n
ennna n ouenL ocnoxnnn n 6es 1oro sany1annyk cn1yaunk a nap1nnmx
aepxax. 3axaa1 Ipysnn 6mn ocyuec1anen coaceH nepaano, a 1921 ropy, npnueH
na neHepnennoH a1opxennn pacno apHnn a Ipysnk nac1anaan
ppxonnknpse npn noppepxke 1annna, y1aepxpan, u1o aocc1anne 1aH 6yp1o
6m naspeno (.poukn. 1annn, 1.II, c.49). poukn 6mn npo1na, 1eH ne
Henee akunn 6mna ocyuec1anena, npnueH sa aocc1anne rpysnnckoro napopa
npo1na HenLueanc1ckoro npaan1enLc1aa ampann aocc1anne apHnn a cnopnoH
opuannnckoH yespe. kkynnpoaannyk Ipysnk c1ann cpasy xe nacnnLno
sannxnaa1L a 3akaakasckyk qepepaunk, npo1na uero 6mno pykoaopc1ao
rpysnncko koHnap1nn, ko1opoe amc1ynano sa axoxpenne Ipysnn a , no a
kauec1ae o1penLno pecny6nnkn. ppxonnknpse aen ce6n a 3akaakasLe, kak
nac1onun ca1pan, n a snak npo1ec1a npo1na ero pec1an oHnap1nn
Ipysnn a konue ok1n6pn 1922 ropa konnek1nano nopan a o1c1aaky, sanana, u1o
pnn ppxonnknpse "1paann n nn1pnrn - rnaanoe opypne npo1na 1oaapnue,
ne nakec1aykunx nepep nnH. 1ano yxe neaHoro1y pa6o1a1L npn ero
pepxnHoppoackoH pexnHe ("paapa, 12 aaryc1a 1988 ropa). a1o
nakanenno o6c1anoake ppxonnknpse y ce6n na kaap1npe ypapnn
.a6axnpse, o6osaaauero ero "c1annncknH nuakoH. ak o1Heuae1 poukn,
ppxonnknpse "6mn uenoaekoH no cyuec1ay HanokynL1ypnmH n ne cnoco6nmH
k kon1ponk nap co6o (un1. cou., c.196), 1ak u1o nponcuepueHy ypnann1Lcn
ne npnxopn1cn. pnn paccnepoaannn 6eso6pasno ppakn a Ipysnk amexana
koHnccnn ao rnaae c sepxnncknH, ko1opm no aosapauennn, poknapmaan
ennny 12 peka6pn, c1an onpaapmaa1L ppxonnknpse, pasaonnoaan ennna n
poaen po noaoro 1nxeneuero npnc1yna (uero, co6c1aenno, n po6naancn).
nocnepnn pokyHen1, ko1opm a caoe xnsnn npopnk1oaan ennn 6 Hap1a
1923 ropa, 6mn appecoaan rpysnncknH pykoaopn1ennH Mpnaann, Maxapapse n
ppyrnH n rnacnn: "ce pyuo cnexy sa aaunH penoH. osHyuen rpy6oc1Lk
ppxonnknpse n no1aukaHn 1annna n sepxnnckoro. Hakanyne ennn
o1npaann peskoe nncLHo 1annny, ockop6naueHy pynckyk, n opnoapeHenno
o6pa1nncn k poukoHy c npocL6o "asn1L na ce6n saun1y rpysnnckoro pena na
nap1nn npo1na 1annna n sepxnnckoro. Henno na a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao n
ccmnancn no1oH poukn, nso6paxan ce6n nan6onee 6nnsknH k ennny no
asrnnpaH uenoaekoH, opnako on ne amnonnnn nopyuenne ennna n nanLueH o
naneu ne ypapnn a saun1y rpysnnckoro pena, onpaapmaan caoe 6espec1ane
6onesnLk - npoc1ypo, nopxaauenno na oxo1e. ennn ne 1ak 6eper caoe
spopoaLe, n .onkoronoa ne ncknkuae1 aosHoxnoc1n, u1o "rpysnnckn
nnunpen1 yckopnn pokoaoe 1euenne 6onesnn ennna (pnyHq n 1parepnn,
kn.I, u.I, c.143). ecnn no1oH 6maune rpysnnckne nnpepm .Mpnaann,
M.kypxaaa, .aa1apapse n ppyrne noppepxnaann poukoro, 1o ckopee a
nnky 1annny, ueH a snak npnsna1enLnoc1n, - 6naropapn1L poukoro nH
6mno, a o6ueH-1o, ne sa u1o.
a n ennn 1oxe - u1o Ieky6e on n u1o eHy Ieky6a? oueHy on 1ak
nepexnaan sa Ipysnk? a ne sa Ipysnk on nepexnaan, nH panrann cyry6o
o1pnua1enLnme aHounn, nenaanc1L k "uoannnc1nuecko aennkopyccko
uaann, onnue1aopenneH ko1opo 6mnn pnn nero 1annn, sepxnnckn n
ppxonnknpse, nnopopum, c1peHnaunecn pokasa1L, u1o onn 6onLue pycckne,
ueH caHn pycckne. 1annn nyuue ennna nonnHan, u1o "naunonanLnan c1nxnn
pa6o1ae1 na okpannax ne a nonLsy epnnc1aa coae1cknx pecny6nnk, a
qopHanLnan nesaancnHoc1L cnoco6c1aye1 a1oHy, ennn xe, aokn c
"aennkopyccknH uoannnsHoH, o1c1anaan nHenno a1y qopHanLnyk
nesaancnHoc1L n 1eH sanoxnn nop rocypapc1ao Hnoxec1ao Hnn, ko1opme
ceropnn asopaanncL ace pasoH. 1annn a nauane 20-x ropoa n caonH rpysnnaH
cnycky ne paaan, o6annnn nx a uoannnsHe no o1nouennk k a6xasaH, oce1nnaH
n ppyrnH naunonanLnmH HenLunnc1aaH n a c1peHnennn sann1L
npnannernpoaannoe nonoxenne a 3akaakasLe (cH. poknap 1annna na XII
cLespe). Oepepaunn nko6m npenn1c1aoaana a1oHy, no ecnn ona 6mna 1akan
xopouan, 1orpa nenonn1no, noueHy e ace xe pacnyc1nnn a 1936 ropy. He
pacnyc1nnn 6m, rnnpnuL, ceropnn n apa6axckoro konqnnk1a ne 6mno 6m. Ho
Hm o1aneknncL.
ocne o1knkuennn ennna a onn16kpo nauann, nakoneu, noneHnory
nponnka1L nkpn, pycckne xo1n 6m no qaHnnnnH. 1923 ropy a nero aounn
mkoa n oHckn.
nekce aanoanu mkoa popnncn a 1881 ropy a kpec1Lnncko ceHLe, naunnan
caok pen1enLnoc1L a apa1oae. anepame aouen eue na II cLespe nap1nn
a 1903 ropy. HeckonLko nopnop1nn caok kapLepy a konue 1917 ropa nsnnunnH
nn6epannsHoH, no no1oH pykoaopnn cna6xenneH pacno pHnn, aosrnaannn
HX n c1an saHec1n1eneH ennna a oanapkoHe. ak yxe roaopnnocL,
rnaanmH npe1enpen1oH na Hec1o npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa nocne cHep1n
ennna 6mn aHenea, no 1annn cuen neypo6nmH, u1o6m a1o Hec1o sannHan
eape, n noppepxan mkoaa, M.ky6oanu cun1ae1 a1o1 am6op nary6nmH,
no1oHy u1o "caHonk6ne 1onknyno mkoaa na ny1L nn1pnr npo1na aHeneaa... n
cpenano mkoaa opypneH 1annna a ero 6opL6e sa nonnoe o1c1panenne
aHeneaa o1 npaan1enLc1aenno pen1enLnoc1n (.Mepaepea. aHenea.
"n1epa1ypnan rase1a, 3 Han 1989 ropa).
ornacno xapak1epnc1nke p.onkoronoaa, mkoa 6mn ncknkun1enLno npnHo,
o1kpoaennm uenoaek n o6muno roaopnn a nnuo 1o, u1o pyHan (p.onkoronoa,
un1. cou., c.125), ns-sa uero y nero ne pas 6maann konqnnk1m c 6nnxaunHn
co1pypnnkaHn. na6oc1Lk mkoaa 6mna ero npnaepxennoc1L k senenoHy
sHnk, c1onL cnnLnan, u1o pykoaopn1enn oae1ckoro rocypapc1aa paxe
nocmnann a IepHannk neun1Lcn o1 nLnnc1aa (H.ep6epoaa. ypcna Ho. HLk-
opk, 1983, 1.I, c. 207).
ena1 mkoa 6mn na Hnne eHenoane Mapuak, 1e1ke ppaHa1ypra M.a1poaa,
po 1oro 6maue saHyxeH sa ocnqoH ponoanueH n1nnuknH (apcncoH),
anocnepc1ann pen1eneH oHnn1epna.
Mnxann aanoanu oHckn (qpeHoa) popnncn a 1880 ropy n nponcxopnn ns
nn1epcknx npone1apnea. oHckn aosrnaannn n acerpa pa1oaan sa
nesaancnHoc1L npoqcoksoa, ne 6oncL 6poca1L amsoa caHoHy ennny. orpa
nac1ynnn saknkun1enLnm a1an pacnpaam c onnosnune, oHckn ne saxo1en,
u1o6m ns nero cpenann kakuykcn Hapnone1ky, n sac1pennncn 22 aaryc1a 1936
ropa ao apeHn nepaoro 6onLuoro npouecca. mkoa saanpoaan peunHoc1n
oHckoro, no nocnepoaa1L ero npnHepy ne nauen cnn.
1924 ropy unenoH onn16kpo c1an Hnkona aanoanu yxapnn. ycckn? Ho
Hoxno nn cun1a1L pyccknH uenoaeka, ko1opm o1kpoaenno xaac1ancn 1eH, u1o
na occnk eHy nanneaa1L? (cH. ero nncLHo, ony6nnkoaannoe a xypnane "Hau
coapeHennnk a I 8 sa 1990 rop). Moxno nn cun1a1L pyccknH uenoaeka,
ko1opm ony6nnkoaan a "paape 12 nnaapn 1927 ropa oHepsn1enLnyk n
sno6nyk paxe no nasaannk c1a1Lk o cennne? o1nouennn k nocnepneHy
yxapnny ne rpex 6mno 6m noyun1Lcn y eapen poukoro, nncaauero o pycckoH
noa1e c nponnknoaennmH nnpnsHoH.
konue 80-x ropoa y nac appyr c1ann pena1L ns yxapnna nonn1nueckyk
qnrypy neo6mknoaenno aennunnm (npaapa, no1oH a1y nrpy 6mc1po 6pocnnn n
sannnncL ppyrnH penaHn, npouecc nouen panLue). "ronek a 45 sa 1988 rop
noHec1nn o1pmaok ns 6norpaqnn yxapnna, nanncanno aHepnkancknH
nc1opnkoH 1naenoH oanoH, nop nasaanneH "pyyHanpa1: yxapnn n 1annn.
.oan y1aepxpae1, 6yp1o naue c1pano ao a1opo nonoanne 20-x ropoa
npaannn nHenno a1n paa uenoaeka. D1o y1aepxpenne npoc1o cHexo1aopno. He
1onLko anepepn 1annna, no paxe pnpoH co 1annnmH yxapnna c1aan1L
nenLsn. D1n qnrypm neconoc1aanHm.
yxapnn caH roaopnn o ce6e, u1o on 1onLko 1eope1nk n caHm nnkypmunm
oprannsa1op ao ace nap1nn. pnako n a 1eopnn yxapnn 6mn 6onLunH
ny1annkoH. ak o1Heuan ennn a caoeH saaeuannn, 1eope1nueckne aosspennn
yxapnna "ouenL c 6onLunH coHnenneH Hory1 6m1L o1necenm k anonne
Hapkcnc1cknH, n6o a neH ec1L neu1o cxonac1nueckoe (on nnkorpa ne yunncn n,
pyHak, nnkorpa ne nonnHan anonne pnanek1nkn), Ho nyuue acex xapak1ep
yxapnna nonnn n onncan poukn: "aoc1ao a1oro uenoaeka 1akoao, u1o on
acerpa ponxen onnpa1Lcn na koro-nn6o, coc1on1L npn koH-nn6o, npnnnnny1L k
koHy-nn6o. 1akne nepnopm yxapnn nanne1cn npoc1o HepnyHoH, uepes
ko1opm roaopn1 n pec1aye1 k1o-1o ppyro. Ho napo ne cnycka1L c HepnyHa
rnas, nnaue on nesaHe1no pnn ce6n nopnape1 nop npnHo npo1naononoxnoe
annnnne.., n naune1 nonocn1L caoero npona c 1o xe 6essaae1no
aoc1opxennoc1Lk, c kako 1onLko u1o npeaosnocnn. nnkorpa ne 6pan
yxapnna cnnukoH acepLes n npepoc1aannn ero caHoHy ce6e, a a1o snaun1 -
ppyrnH. yxapnn c1an nocne cHep1n ennna HepnyHoH 3nnoaLeaa, sa1eH
1annna (Mon xnsnL, 1.I, c.311).
.c1poa, caH axopnaun a okpyxenne yxapnna. onncmaae1 a caoe
aa1o6norpaqnuecko knnre "pyua aneua1nennn o1 nepao ac1peun co
1annnmH. neua1nennn a1n ampaxenm a cnoaax "yxapnn nepep nnH npoc1o
HanLunk.
name canpe1enLc1aa 1ex ne1 nyuue noHory1 naH paso6pa1Lcn, k1o kakyk
ponL nrpan, ueH nsHmunennn aHepnkanckoro npoqeccopa, poxpennme a 1nun
6n6nno1ek 6espapno o1 caoero 6narononyunn c1panm.

n1epecnme nnunoc1n nonannncL a 1924 ropy n cpepn kanpnpa1oa a unenm
onn16kpo. kon-1o aekn pocnyxnncn po a1oro panra sepxnnckn. oueHy-
1o o1 o6uero annHannn yckonLsae1 1o1 qak1, u1o ennn, oxo1no nonLsyncL
ycnyraHn sepxnnckoro pnn rpnsnmx pen, n 6nnsko ne nopnyckan ero k
onn16kpo, no poukn cneunanLno nopuepknaae1 a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao a caoe
knnre o 1annne (1.II, c.197) n pacckasmaae1, kak sepxnnckn xanoaancn
eHy, u1o ennn ne cun1ae1 ero nonn1nuecko qnrypo. op annnnneH a1o
o6npm, y1aepxpae1 poukn, sepxnnckn n asnn c1opony 1annna, c ko1opmH
onn aHec1e espnnn a n1ky a 1919 ropy. 1921 ropy 1annn aaen
sepxnnckoro a caoe pr6kpo, xo1n sepxnnckn, no cnoaaH poukoro, "ne
6mn oprannsa1opoH a unpokoH cHmcne cnoaa. pnako o6npa sepxnnckoro
kak-1o ne anxe1cn c xapak1epnc1nko, panno pouknH a1oHy pen1enk panee,
a 1930 ropy, a "Moe xnsnn, a 1aH roaopn1cn (1.II, c.225,226), u1o
sepxnnckn n "caH ne cun1an ce6n nonn1nkoH, "onn1nueckn sepxnnckn
acerpa nyxpancn a uLeH-nn6ypL nenocpepc1aennoH pykoaopc1ae. 1euenne
ponrnx ne1 on uen sa oso kkceH6ypr, 3pecL poukn coaceH yx nnsaopn1
sepxnnckoro na ponL 1oaapnua onenknna ns "eaenrypa c ero saun1mH a
uanke nop1pe1oH. nepyn sa oso, kak sa nnpepoH, sepxnnckn snan o ne,
noxoxe, ne 6onLue onenknna, aHa ce6n .kkceH6ypr ouennaana ne ouenL
amcoko n npnsnaaanacL a Hnny1m o1kpoaennoc1n: " 1onLko no
nepopasyHennk aepuycL a aopoaopo1e Hnpoao nc1opnn, a pec1an1enLnoc1n
xe poxpena pnn 1oro, u1o6m nac1n ryce (un1.cou., 1.I, c.232).
1o sa rycL sepxnnckn, ennn, napo pyHa1L, snan nyuue ppyrnx. a1o
cansn acnoHnnae1cn opno 1annc1aennoe Hec1o ns aocnoHnnann IopLkoro o
ennne. nnx roaopn1cn, u1o o1sma ennna o poukoH "c naHn, a ne nau 6mn
noa1open no o1nouennk k eue opnoHy uenoaeky, 1oxe ouenL kpynnoHy,
yHepueHy ackope nocne ennna. Onrypa yHonuannn naaopn1 na HmcnL o 1oH,
u1o a1n cnoaa o1nocnnncL k kako-1o kanonnsnpoaanno qnrype, nasaa1L
ko1opyk npnHo 6mno n neaosHoxno, n ne6esonacno. ckope nocne ennna
yHepnn Hornn (1924), Opynse (1925), pacnn (1926) n sepxnnckn (1926).
onLue acero ykasann na 1o, u1o peuL a pannoH cnyuae una nHenno o
sepxnnckoH.
Ma1L "xenesnoro Oennkca 6mna npo nonLcko naunonannc1ko n ka1onnuko
n a coo1ae1c1aykueH pyxe aocnn1ana caoero cmna (cH. .Xaukeanu. onpa1
aennknx 6oea. Mnnck, 1965, c.7). sepxnnckn, 1aknH o6pasoH, ampoc a
a1Hocqepe pycoqo6nn, a ceHLe, rpe ncnm1maann o1apauenne paxe k pycckoHy
nsmky, n a1nH o6Lncnnk1cn ne 1onLko nenpaannLnoc1n amroaopa ueqa ,
no n Hnoroe a ero noaepennn a 1e ropm, korpa occnn 6mna o1pana eHy na
pac1epsanne.
1kasaauncL o1 caoe nepaonauanLno Heu1m c1a1L kcenpsoH, sepxnnckn
"nouen ppyrnH ny1eH a noncka cnoco6a, kak nyuue o1oHc1n1L nenaanc1no
occnn, n npnHknyn k counan-peHokpa1nuecko nap1nn onLun n n1am.
pykoaopc1ae a1o opnrnnanLno nap1nn, napo ckasa1L, ne 6mno nn opnoro
nonnka n nn opnoro nn1oaua, - cnnouL eapen. sepxnnckn uennkoH
noppepxnaan nnnnk a1oro pykoaopc1aa (kypa axopnna n ero nk6nHan osa),
aosHyuancn nn1pnraHn nennnuea, asnaunx a 1912 ropy kypc na cospanne
o6oco6nenno 6onLueanc1cko nap1nn, n a 1917 ropy npoponxan, no npnHepy
1o xe osm, o1pnua1L npaao naun na caHoonpepenenne.
Mm yxe ynoHnnann o 1oH, c kako npoc1Lk sepxnnckn amc1ynan npo1na
pec1ckoro Hnpa. n kpnuan 1orpa, u1o ennn npepae1 peaonkunk, kak
3nnoaLea n aHenea a k1n6pe, 1onLko penae1 a1o 6onee 1exnnuno. cae1e
nopo6nmx amckasmaann nonn1no n paycHmcnennoe noaepenne sepxnnckoro
ao apeHn neaoacepoackoro Hn1exa 6 nknn 1918 ropa - aepL neame acepm kak
pas xo1enn copaa1L nenaanc1nm eHy pec1ckn Hnp. qnunanLnme coae1ckne
6norpaqm c npnpmxanneH onncmaann no1oH "reponsH sepxnnckoro, o1aaxno
nanauerocn a noroao apara a nonckax y6num repHanckoro nocna Mnp6axa
ueknc1a nkHknna. Ha caHoH pene nnkako o1aarn ne 6mno: nanpocnauncL na
saaepoHo 6esonacnm pnn ce6n nnen, sepxnnckn 1eH caHmH noako ns6aann
ce6n o1 neo6xopnHoc1n npnnnHa1L kakne-1o peanLnme pec1aennme Hepm
npo1na cnHna1nunmx eHy Hn1exnnkoa. xoue1cn eue pas o6pa1n1L annHanne
na cxopc1ao nouepka: qopocckn aapnan1 1991 ropa 6mn pasmrpan no
HockoackoHy ua6nony 1918 ropa.
o apeHn npoqcoksno pnckyccnn sepxnnckn onn1L okasmaae1cn ne na
c1opone ennna, a rpysnncknH konqnnk1oH okonua1enLno aronne1 nk6nHoro
aoxpn a po6, nocne uero, pykoaopc1ayncL nonyuennmHn a ok1n6pe 1918 ropa a
aeuapnn nnc1pykunnHn, oqopHnne1 a1o1 qo6 cornacno npepnncannmH
pn1yanaH. 1o panLue?
panLue sepxnnckoro nauann npo1naonoc1aann1L yxe 1annny. c1L
caepennn, u1o nakanyne XIV cLespa nap1nn, coc1onauerocn a peka6pe 1925
ropa, na kaap1npe unena , npepcepa1enn kpannm I..e1poackoro,
6mno npoaepeno nonyneranLnoe coaeuanne rpynnm unenoa , na ko1opoH
roaopnnocL o neo6xopnHoc1n cHeuennn 1annna c noc1a renceka n asaHen
ampanranacL nHenno kanpnpa1ypa sepxnnckoro. pnako ppxonnknpse
amc1ynnn npo1na 1akoro uara, sanana, u1o on 6mn 6m pacuenen, kak yc1ynka
poukoHy. (.Mepaepea. cypy nc1opnn, c.119). D1o 6mna no cy1n pena
pene1nunn saroaopa 34 ropa, 1onLko c sepxnncknH aHec1o npoaa. pnako
nepam kanpnpa1 npoxnn nocne a1o sanakn eue HenLue, ueH a1opo,
neHnornH 6onee nonyropa: a nkne 1926 ropa sepxnnckn ckoponoc1nxno
ckonuancn.
1o xe ace-1akn, no saHmcny sakynncnmx pnpnxepoa, ponxen 6mn aosrnaan1L
nauy c1pany? poukn? 3nnoaLea? sepxnnckn? onLue acero 6ypopaxnn
nap1nk n 6ecnokonn 1annna, koneuno, poukn. pnxopnnocL cnm1L 1akoe
Hnenne, u1o poukn ne Hor 6m1L HaconoH, n6o o6napan cnnukoH npko
nnpnanpyanLnoc1Lk, u1o6m xopn1L y koro-1o na noaopke. npnnapnexnoc1n
poukoro k Haconc1ay 1enepL ponopnnnno nsaec1no, no nacue1
nnpnanpyanLnoc1n 1oxe aepno, a1o kauec1ao n npnaeno k 1oHy, u1o poukn
ocnyuancn npnkasa, a sa ocnyuanne y Haconoa nsaec1no u1o 6maae1. epaoe
Hec1o poukoHy ne npepnasnauanocL, no on npoponxan na nero npe1enpoaa1L,
ueH ncnop1nn nrpy caonH xosneaaH. 3a1o ouenL xopouo nopmrpan 1annny.
cenLk 1924 ropa poukn amnyc1nn caon snaHenn1me "pokn k1n6pn c
1ako 1pak1oako co6m1n 1917 ropa, no ko1opo nonyuanocL, u1o ennn uy1L
nn ne nacnnLno, na apkane 1nnyn nap1nk k k1n6pLckoHy aocc1annk. Ho
rnaano uenLk poukoro 6mno ckoHnpoHe1npoaa1L caonx konkypen1oa a
nap1nnoH pykoaopc1ae, npexpe acero 3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa, ok1n6pLckyk
oun6ky ko1opmx on unpoko ncnonLsoaan, xo1n ero npepynpexpann, u1o a1o
"ne Hoxe1 6m1L noc1aaneno nH a anny.
poukn 6mn neHepnenno nakasan cnn1neH c noc1a peppeaaoencoae1a, 1o
ec1L no1epnn rnaanm pmuar, ko1opmH Hor 6m aocnonLsoaa1Lcn a 6opL6e sa
anac1L, - apHnk. 3nnoaLea n aHenea, pasLnpennme nanapkaHn poukoro
nnuno na nnx, no1pe6oaann neHepnenno ncknkun1L poukoro n ns onn16kpo,
no 1annn cpenan noakn xop, c1an nso6paxa1L nn6epana n neoxnpanno
amc1ynnn a saun1y poukoro, sanana: "onn1nka o1ceuennn - ne naua
nonn1nka. onkn saHmcen coc1onn a 1oH, u1o6m oc1aan1L poukoro a
kauec1ae kpacno 1pnnkn n poaec1n a1nH 3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa po y1pa1m
paanoaecnn, po coaepuennn onpoHe1unamx uaroa. uenL 6mna poc1nrny1a.
3nnoaLea uepes caonx nkpe, a uac1noc1n uepes yknnna, nonm1ancn nopnn1L
npo1na nap1nn koHcoHona, ko1opm 1oxe no1pe6oaan ncknkuennn
poukoro ns onn16kpo. esynL1a1 nonyunncn o6pa1nm - ns caHoro
koHcoHona amne1enn 15 uenoaek.
ocne a1oro 3nnoaLea n aHenea nepenecnn cao rnea na yxapnna, ko1oporo
nauann o6annn1L a kynaukoH yknone. H.onoa a caoe "c1opnn (6),
nanncanno 1926 ropy, kpn1nkoaan 1orpa 3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa sa 1o u1o,
cnepyn nx npepnoxennnH, nap1nn oc1aaanocL 1onLko 6pa1L kypc na
packynaunaanne, u1o aonnkunH o6pasoH pacxopnnocL c noc1anoanennnHn XIV
nap1konqepenunn noppasyHeaano nonnm noaopo1 nap1nno nonn1nkn
pepeane na 180 rpapycoa. epnm onoa ne nopospeaan u1o acero uepes
neckonLko ne1 1annn coaepun1 1ako no aopo1 n, ns6aanauncL o1 3nnoaLeaa,
6ype1 npoaopn1L snnoaLeackyk nonn1nky n 6n1L snnoaLeacknHn 1esncaHn
yxapnna.
oka xe, a konue 1925 ropa 3nnoaLea n aHenea aosrnaannn 1ak nasmaaeHyk
noayk onnosnunk aHec1e c pyncko n ns6pannmH a 1924 ropy kanpnpa1oH a
unen onn16kpo okonLnnkoamH (pnnnnan1oH), pok1opoH nonn1akonoHnn,
nonyunaunH o6pasoaanne a apnxe.
1918 ropy okonLnnkoa, saHenna okonqysnauerocn poukoro, nopnncan
pec1ckn Hnp, no1oH kypaH na cHex nm1ancn nso6paxa1L nonkoaopua,
koHanpoaan apHnnHn, 6mn npepcepa1eneH ypkec1ancko koHnccnn n
oprannsa1opoH coae1cko anac1n a yxape. paccHa1pnaaeHm nepnop
okonLnnkoa sannHan noc1 napkoHqnna n nHenno y npepnncmaanocL
npoaepenne penexno peqopHm, xo1n yxapnn, npnn1enL okonLnnkoaa c
rnHnasnuecknx apeHen, exnpno oc1pnn a yxe ynoHnnaaueHcn nncLHe ("Hau
coapeHennnk, 1990, N8), u1o okonLnnkoa noHep Hec1e c y1nepoH, 1o ec1L
u1o nopnnnnmH napkoHoH qnnancoa, na Hosrax ko1oporo napasn1npoaan
okonLnnkoa, 6mn yHepun a 1924 ropy kape1-akonoHnc1 H.H.y1nep.
c1ae1cn o1kpm1mH aonpoc, noppepxnaan nn onnosnunk M..Opynse, 1oxe
c1aaun kanpnpa1oH onn16kpo 1924 ropy, a a 1925 ropy noc1aanennm
aHec1o poukoro rnaae . o ouenke poukoro, pasyHee1cn, npepasn1o,
Opynse "kak aoennm apHnnnc1pa1op 6mn necpaanenno cna6ee knnnckoro.
ro yanekann a6c1pak1nme cxeHm, on nnoxo pas6npancn a nkpnx n nerko
nopnapan nop annnnne cneunannc1oa, npenHyuec1aenno a1opoc1enennmx
(Mon xnsnL, 1.II, c.254), axnee ppyroe coo6uenne poukoro: "3nnoaLea n
aHenea yaepnnn Henn anocnepc1ann, u1o Opynse 6mn nac1poen a nx nonLsy
npo1na 1annna (1annn, 1.II, c.258). poHe 1oro, nsaec1no, u1o eue ne1oH
1923 ropa na coaeuannn, npoaepennoH neoqnunanLno a neuepe 6nns
ncnoaopcka, a ko1opoH npnnnnn yuac1ne 3nnoaLea, I.apoknHoa, aueanu,
Opynse, ppxonnknpse n pnp ppyrnx unenoa , 6mno ampaxeno onacenne no
noaopy ycnnennn pykoaopnHmx 1annnmH cekpe1apna1a n pr6kpo n pnn
ypaanoaeunaannn cnn a pr6kpo aaenn 3nnoaLeaa, poukoro n yxapnna
(.enec1oa. I.3nnoaLea: xnsnL n 6opL6a. "Hepenn, 1988, N29). "noao
onnosnune Opynse Hor 6m1L cansan uepes okonLnnkoaa, c ko1opmH aHec1e
Dkcnop1npoaan peaonkunk a ypkec1an a 1920 ropy.
Opynse yHep 31 ok1n6pn 1925 ropa ao apeHn onepaunn, kak 6mno o6Lnaneno
oqnunanLno, sanyuennoro annenpnun1a. pasy xe nononsnn 1eHnme cnyxn.
oroaapnaann, 6yp1o Opynse ner na coaepuenno ne nyxnyk onepaunk
ncknkun1enLno no nac1onnnk 1annna, caH 1oro xenan, n o6c1on1enLc1aa ero
cHep1n kpane nopospn1enLnm. Ha ocnoaannn a1nx cnyxoa opnc nnLnnk
(oray) nanncan caok "oaec1L nenorauenno nynm, rpe nop ppyrnHn
nHenaHn 6mnn amaepenm nerko yrapmaaeHme nnua. 30-x ropax a1a noaec1L
c1onna nnLnnky xnsnn.
OnuHen n Xy11on a rpnsno, cnne1nnuecko knnxke "nunan xnsnL
.1annna (Mknxen, 1967), coaepuenno 6esrpaHo1no n nepoc1oaepno,
nm1ak1cn nso6pasn1L peno 1ak, 6yp1o Opynse ro1oann aoennm nepeaopo1,
nasnaunn caonx nkpe koHanpykunHn aoennmHn okpyraHn, n ynoHnnak1
acye M, ko1opmH a 1924-1925 ropax koHanpoaan opounnoa. D1n aa1opm
Hexannueckn nepenocn1 na 20-e ropm o6c1anoaky 30-x ropoa, ko1opan
o6ycnoannaana aosnnknoaenne saroaopa yxaueackoro, no a 1925 ropy
onnosnunn eue coxpannna napexpy na nonn1nueckyk no6epy n y ne ne 6mno
neo6xopnHoc1n npn6era1L kpannH cpepc1aaH.
orpa saxopn1 peuL o 1oH, kakyk nosnunk na caHoH pene sannHan Opynse, n
cun1a1L nn ero cHep1L ec1ec1aenno nnn ne1, nyxno eue yun1maa1L, u1o
caHmH 6nnsknH Opynse uenoaekoH 6mn y6muea. x co1pypnnuec1ao
nauanocL a nnaape 1919 ropa, korpa onn aHec1e ac1ann ao rnaae 4- apHnn.
ak roaopn1cn a oqnunanLno 6norpaqnn y6mueaa (M., 1968, c.102,103),
onn "6mc1po 1onLko cpa6o1anncL, no n kpenko noppyxnnncL, "nonnHann ppyr
ppyra c nonycnoaa, npnueH "ropnun, 1eHnepaHen1nm Opynse n aneune
o6muno cnokonm, ypaanoaeuennm y6muea npekpacno pononnnnn ppyr
ppyra.
orpa a 1923 ropy no nnnuna1nae ennna, ko1opm nm1ancn cospa1L kako-1o
oprannsaunonnm npo1naoaec onn16kpo, 6mno npoaepeno o6Lepnnenne
n , aosrnaan1L noayk c1pyk1ypy nopyunnn y6mueay, ko1opm 1aknH
o6pasoH c1an o6napa1eneH nesaancnHmx pmuaroa anac1n, opnako on ne
aocnonLsoaancn nHn nocne cHep1n Opynse, a nocnyuno, xo1L n 6es oco6o
oxo1m, nocnepoaan sa 1annnmH. oueHy xe y6muea ne o1oHc1nn sa caoero
ppyra, ecnn 1oro pec1an1enLno y6nnn, noueHy ne oprannsoaan xo1n 6m
paccnepoaanne nop npepnoroH onpoaepxennn apaxpe6nmx cnyxoa? osHoxnm
paa o6Lncnennn: nn6o Opynse ne y6naann, nn6o y6mueay ueH-1o sa1knynn
po1. eH? c1a1Le .Iennca "y1aqopckan peaonkunn a ypkec1ane
("HesaancnHan rase1a, 1 nnaapn 1992) pacckasmaae1cn o 1oH pnkoH rpa6exe,
ko1opm pacnan apHnn yunnnna a saxaauenno yxape, n copepxn1cn naHek,
u1o n Opynse, aosHoxno, noxnanncn a1oH pene. ak Hoxe1, ne 1onLko Opynse,
no n ero ppyr y6muea? 1annn 1akne aeun nk6nn sna1L n yHen
ncnonLsoaa1L.
Ha XIV cLespe nap1nn a peka6pe 1925 ropa c o1ue1nmH poknapoH amc1ynnn
yxe ne 3nnoaLea, a 1annn.
ap1nn cnoaa o6pena nac1onuero aoxpn. 3nnoaLea xe cmrpan ponL acero
nnuL nepexopno qnrypm, kak Manenkoa a 1953-1954 ropax.
nnosnunn nocne cLespa ocna6na. aHeneaa nonnsnnn a kanpnpa1m a unenm
onn16kpo, a okonLnnkoaa amaenn ns kanpnpa1oa. onn16kpo naunnae1
noneHnory sanonnn1Lcn nkpLHn, uLn nop1pe1m no1oH 6ypy1 pecn1nne1nnHn
amaeunaa1Lcn no npaspnnkaH na oqnunanLnmx spannnx. ro unenaHn
c1anoan1cn annnnn, Mono1oa n opounnoa, nasnauennm na Hec1o Opynse.
un1a1L nx npoc1o c1aanennnkaHn 1annna neaepno. annnnna, kak Hm
noHnnH, pekoHenpoaan a npepcepa1enn ennn, xo1n poukn
npnnncmaan a1y nnnuna1nay ce6e. 1annny annnnn o1nocnncn c onacko n
npepynpexpan: "D1o1 konL saaese1 korpa-nn6ypL nauy 1enery a kanaay. Ho
annnnn, kak nnue1 poukn, 6mc1po nonnn, u1o cnno c1anoan1cn ne Haccm,
a 6kpokpa1nn n u1o 6kpokpa1nn - npo1na "nepHanen1no peaonkunn, sa
"cuac1nnayk xnsnL, sa 1annna. onna a1o, annnnn ampa6o1an oco6m c1nnL
xn1poro npoc1aka, nepec1an po6e1L nepep npoqeccnonanaHn, ap1nc1aHn n,
oco6enno, ap1nc1kaHn (.poukn. 1annn, 1.II, c.208, 209), 1ak u1o korpa
1annn sa nonouennn a cao appec npnkasan apec1oaa1L xeny annnnna
ka1epnny aanoany op6epr, acecoksnoHy c1apoc1e 6mno ne 1ak 1nxeno.
Mono1oa (kpn6nn) a 1912 ropy pa6o1an cekpe1apeH pepakunn "paapa, a a
nepnop OeapanLcko peaonkunn 6mn unenoH occnckoro 6kpo , 1o ec1L
paano yxe nrpan anpnyk ponL. ekpe1apeH Mono1oa c1an a 1921 ropy, 1o
ec1L paxe panLue 1annna. cnn annnnn c1yueaancn nepep 1annnmH no
cna6oxapak1epnoc1n, 1o Mono1oamH panran ronm pacue1. epunnnL a caonx
HeHyapax c copporanneH nnue1 o neH, u1o a1o 6mn ne uenoaek, a xnao
koHnLk1ep, naunc1o nnuennm aHoun. nuL opnn pas epunnnk ypanocL
yanpe1L a nnue Mono1oaa u1o-1o uenoaeueckoe, korpa 1oHy npepc1onn none1
uepes nnnnk qpon1a.
opounnoaa a nap1nn 1oxe snann c paannx nop, on npncy1c1aoaan a kauec1ae
penera1a na IV cLespe nap1nn a 1906 ropy. poukoHy ne npaannocL, u1o
opounnoa ne nn1epnaunonannc1, a 1onLko "naunonanLnm peaonkunonnm
peHokpa1 ns pa6ounx, "c1oponnnk c1annnckoro naunonan-counannsHa, n on
o6Lncnnn a1o 1eH, u1o "xo1n opounnoa ns nyrancknx pa6ounx, ns 6onee
npnannernpoaanno aepxyukn, no no aceH caonH noaapkaH n akycaH on acerpa
ropaspo 6onLue nanoHnnan xosnunka, ueH npone1apnn (Mon xnsnL, 1.II,
c.172-173).
opounnoa saesp c ne6a ne xaa1an n 1ak po c1apoc1n ne1 n oc1ancn
"nap1nnmH HanLunkoH, nyxpakunHcn a pykoaopn1ene. n ouenL nk6nn
nosnpoaa1L pnn qo1orpaqn n nop1pe1oa, cnyua1L onepy n ne1L (1aknH on
nso6paxen a aocnoHnnannnx Xpyueaa). Ioaopn1L o neH kak o nonkoaopue,
pasyHee1cn, cHeuno. poaepkn nac1onue aono on ne ampepxan.
11npaeHm o1 anac1n 3nnoaLea 6pocnncn a o6Ln1nn caoero auepaunero
sneuero apara poukoro n saknkun c nnH coks, no 6mno yxe nospno.
ponrpaaunx aoxpe aannnn opnoro sa ppyrnH. knLckn nnenyH 1926 ropa,
ao apeHn ko1oporo ckoponoc1nxno ckonuancn sepxnnckn ncknkunn
3nnoaLeaa ns onn16kpo. pnoapeHenno c nosopoH npornann ns
saHec1n1enn npepcepa1enn M.aueanua, yc1ponauero a necy neneranLnoe
co6panne. D1oro aueanua poukn snan eue no pecce, rpe 1o yunncn a
opecckoH peHecnennoH yunnnue "pyp n no1oHy nocnn knnuky "Mnua
pypnnk, a ennn a 1919 rop opno apeHn paxe nocnncn c HmcnLk nasnaun1L
aueanua rnaakoHoH.
k1n6pLckn nnenyH 1926 ropa amaen poukoro n uncna unenoa, a aHeneaa
- ns kanpnpa1oa a unenm onn16kpo. orpa n nouna rynn1L nyuennan
apekoH "xoxHa: eH o1nnuae1cn 1annn o1 Moncen? Monce nmne eapeea ns
rnn1a, a 1annn - ns onn16kpo.
1annn, koneuno, cuen nyxnmH noncnn1L: "Mm 6opeHcn npo1na poukoro,
3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa ne no1oHy, u1o onn eapen, a no1oHy, u1o onn
onnosnunonepm. poukn cuen 1akoe sananenne paycHmcnennmH: ono apope
6mno nanpaaneno npo1na "akcueccoa an1nceHn1nsHa n a 1o xe apeHn
coaepuenno npepnaHepenno nn1ano ero. "He sa6maa1e, u1o aoxpn onnosnunn
- eapen, - 1ako 6mn cHmcn sananennn 1annna a 1pak1oake poukoro
(1annn, 1.II, c.171).
ak nasmaaeHyk "neayk onnosnunk 20-x ropoa nonnmH npaaoH Hoxno
nasaa1L eapecko. He cnyuano 6onLue acero c1oponnnkoa ona naaep6oaana
a aysax, rpe npouen1 eapeea 1orpa 6mn orpoHen. o apeHn pnckyccnn 1923
ropa onnosnunn co6pana 6onLunnc1ao 1onLko a aysax, rpe sa nee ronocoaano
40 nueek (6594 uenoaeka) npo1na 32 sa (2790 uenoaek). nn eapeckoro
o6pasa Hmunennn kocHononn1nueckne nosynrn Hnpoao peaonkunn 6mnn
npnaneka1enLne, ueH npen c1pon1enLc1aa counannsHa a opno c1pane (1eH
6onee a occnn).
penL pecn1nne1nn k1n6pLcko peaonkunn onnosnunn nonm1anacL nopnn1L
Haccm, no nopnnna nnuL xnnoe eapeckoe c1ypenuec1ao. 3axaa1n1L anac1L c
1ako "apHne 6mno, koneuno, neaosHoxno. Mnorne 1orpa nnunnncL
nap1nnmx 6nne1oa, a 1oH uncne 6maune unenm onn16kpo poukn,
3nnoaLea n aHenea, 6maune cekpe1apn epe6pnkoa n peo6paxenckn,
6maune unenm Hnnra, apek, akoackn, .Hnpnoa, n1akoa, aueanu,
I.apoknHoa, 3anyukn, a 1akxe Hnorne ppyrne, cpepn ko1opmx nec1pn1
qaHnnnn 1nna yceH, arannn, appnn, Ieccen, Ioppon, Iep1nk, IypanLckn,
po6nnc, 3opnn, acnepckn, oHanpnp, ennn, enoson, nnnna, npsnnL,
Ha1ancon, e1epcon, aynLcon, enronLp, aanu, oukan, aqann,
ap1akoackan, parep, nnsoakep, c1nHunk n 1.p., n 1.n. 1926-1927 ropm
- nepnop nepao ocnoaa1enLno unc1kn nnopopnmx aneHen1oa a aepxax.

Hexpy 1eH neyHonnHo npn6nnxanncL caHme c1paunme pnn naue c1panm
(ecnn ne cun1a1L aoennmx r) apeHena. nHek a anpy ne npecnoay1m 1937
rop, a 1930- n nenocpepc1aenno cnepykune sa nnH.
mc1ynan a Hae 1992 ropa a nporpaHHe "apayn npn nc1nne .Xac6yna1oa
yaepnn 1enespn1ene, 6yp1o a 20-x ],ax cenLckoe xosnc1ao naue c1panm
ycneuno pasanaanocL n 6mno noppy6neno na kopnk koHHynnc1aHn
ncknkun1enLno no nonn1nuecknH coo6paxennnH. opo6noe y1aepxpenne
canpe1enLc1aye1 nnuL o 1oH, u1o .Xac6yna1oa , 6ypyun cneunannc1oH no
akonoHnke anapm, nc1opnk o1euec1aenno akonoHnkn npepc1aanne1 ce6e
aecLHa npeapa1no. nnn1 a 1pypnoc1nx xne6osaro1oaok ao a1opo
nonoanne 20-x ropoa n akonoHnc1 H.enuoa a c1a1Le "ennkn nepenoH
("e1epan, 1988, N50), cun1an rnaano npnunno a1nx 1pypnoc1e
nenoHepno 6onLuo amaos xne6a sa rpannuy c uenLk nonyuennn cpepc1a pnn
nnpyc1pnannsaunn. Ho kopenno npocue1 6mn ponyuen koHHynnc1aHn ne
1orpa, a a nepam xe rop peaonkunn, ko1opan cLena ace nnopm c1onmnnncko
peqopHm. Mapkc korpa-1o nspek: "1o6m cnac1n pycckyk o6unny, nyxna
pycckan peaonkunn. ak n nonyunnocL. cnn nakanyne a 1917 ropa na 7,4
Hnn. o6unnnmx xosnc1a npnxopnnocL 8 Hnn. uac1nmx, 1o a 1927 ropy cnoaa
a6conk1no aoso6napan o6unnnme xosnc1aa - 95,5% (M.eann. ycckoe
kpec1Lnnc1ao n coae1ckan anac1L, c.85). Haun cnaannoqnnm Hory1 no a1oHy
noaopy npocnesn1Lcn o1 cuac1Ln, no a c1pane o1 a1oro nnaka1L npnunocL no-
nac1onueHy. onyuennme kpec1LnnaHn nocne peaonkunn pononnn1enLnme
104 Hnn. ra ne nounn na nonLsy nn nH, nn occnn. cnn a 1913 ropy 6mn
co6pan ypoxa 81,6 Hnn. 1., 1o nocne peaonkunn 6nnxe acero k a1o unqpe
ypanocL nopo1n nnuL a 1925-1926 rr. - 76,6 Hnn. 1., a no1oH nokasa1enn
cnoaa noka1nnncL nop ropy: 1926-27 rr. - 73,1 Hnn. 1., 1928-29 rr. - 71,7
Hnn. ponsaopc1ao sepna na pyuy nacenennn cokpa1nnocL c 584 kr a 1914 r.
po 484 kr a 1928-29 rr. co6enno pesko yHenLunnacL 1oaapnoc1L: ecnn po
aonm na pmnok noc1ynano 1300 Hnn. nypoa - 26% npopykunn, 1o n 1927-28
rr. - 630 Hnn. nypoa - 13,3%. cnn po aonm occnn akcnop1npoaana 11,4
Hnn. 1. sepna a rop, 1o a 1928 ropy akcnop1 sepna qak1nueckn npekpa1nncn.
nnaape 1926 ropa saro1oakn coc1aannn 428 Hnn. nypoa npn neo6xopnHoH
HnnnHyHe 500 Hnn. nypoa, a a peka6pe 1927 ropa - acero 300 Hnn. nypoa, n a
c1pane cospanacL ka1ac1poqnueckan cn1yaunn (ace c1a1nc1nueckne pannme
asn1m ns 1o xe nspanno a knnrn M.eanna).
Haun 6epm uac1o o1nocn1 sa cue1 konnek1nansaunn, opnako kpnsnc nauero
cenLckoro xosnc1aa nHen ropaspo 6onee rny6okne kopnn. 1onmnnn ykasan
ny1L amxopa ns a1oro kpnsnca, n cenLckoe xosnc1ao occnn nopnnnocL a
pesynL1a1e npoaepenno nH peqopHm na ne6maanyk amco1y, a nocne
peaonkunn cnoaa aepnynocL k pono1onnoHy ypoank, n koHHynnc1m
c1onknynncL c 1aknH xe kpnsncoH, kak n uapckoe npaan1enLc1ao a konue
npounoro aeka. Henknx knoukoa asn1L 6mno neuero, a noc1onnno
npnxnHaeHme 1ak nasmaaeHme kynakn a nnky pexnHy c1ann npnxnHa1L xne6.
pesynL1a1e acn cnc1eHa 6mna no1pncena po ocnoaannn.
pnunocL aaopn1L kap1oukn. ropopax nauanncL aonnennn. 3akynnnn a 1928
ropy, nopasna aecL Hnp, 250 1mcnu 1. sepna sa py6exoH. ykoaopc1ao
saHe1anocL. oxpn, aknkuan caHoro 1annna, pasLexanncL no c1pane a nnckax
xne6a. c1a1n, 1o1 cnyua, o ko1opoH 1annn pacckasan a peun " npaaoH
yknone a (6) a anpene 1929 ropa, nponsouen ne c 6esaec1nmH
arn1a1opoH, a c caHnH 1annnmH. D1o on a o1ae1 na npnsma cpa1L xne6
cna6xennn c1panm ycnmuan o1 kakoro-1o kpec1Lnnnna: " 1m nonnnun,
napenL, 1orpa n 1e6e paH nypa paa xne6a.
oe-u1o ypanocL nackpec1n upesamuanmHn HepaHn, no onn npnnecnn nnuL
apeHennoe o6neruenne, noc1onnno npaan1L nopo6nmH o6pasoH 6mno
neaosHoxno. pe6oaanocL kappnnanLnoe peuenne npo6neHm n ono
noHepeunnocL a konnek1nansaunn, ko1opan aoace ne 6mna sapanee
3annannpoaanno Mepo: nap1nn yxaa1nnacL sa nee, kak 1onakun sa
conoHnnky, a nnxopapounmx nonckax amxopa ns kpnsnca n nnu1oxe cyHnnuecn
npnnnnacL pLnno npoaopn1L a xnsnL npen 1onLko u1o pasrpoHnenno
snnoaLeacko nnosnunn. Hauancn a1opo a1an "caeppnoaunnm. D1o1
noaopo1 papoc1no ac1pe1nn poukn n npnsaan caonx c1oponnnkoa
noppepxa1L 1annna, pa6m na cHeny eHy ne npnuna aoennan pnk1a1ypa...
opounnoaa n ypennoro (!). poukn a a1o apeHn nano yxe xnn a kakoH- 1o
nepeanLnoH Hnpe n nepec1an u1o 6m 1o nn 6mno nonnHa1L a pec1an1enLnoH
packnape cnn.
po1na noao nonn1nkn amc1ynnnn unenm onn16kpo yxapnn, mkoa n
oHckn, a 1akxe kanpnpa1 a unenm onn16kpo H..rnanoa, ko1opm c 1924
ropa aosrnaannn Hockoackyk nap1oprannsaunk, cHenna na a1oH noc1y caaka
3enenckoro. mkoa n rnanoa caHn 6mnn ns kpec1Lnn, noa1oHy neypnan1enLno,
u1o 6epm kpec1Lnn amsmaann y nnx 6onLuee couyac1ane, ueH y ppyrnx, opnako
cnepye1 o1He1n1L, u1o yc1anoakn 1ak nasmaaeHo "npaao onnosnunn nHenn
opnn ouenL cyuec1aennm nsLnn c 1oukn spennn naunonanLnm nn1epecoa.
paame 1pe6oaann cnnxennn 1eHnoa nnpyc1pnannsaunn n 6onLuero pasan1nn
nerko npoHmunennoc1n sa cue1 1nxeno. cnn ncxopn1L ns
nenocpepc1aennmx nyxp napopa a 1o1 nepnop, a1n 1pe6oaannn 6mnn
coaepuenno cnpaaepnnamHn, no a panLne nepcnek1nae - onacnmHn pnn
rocypapc1aa aanpy yrposm caHoHy ero cyuec1aoaannn. ennn a1o nonnHan n
npepynpexpan: 6es 1nxeno npoHmunennoc1n "Hm aoo6ue norn6neH, kak
caHoc1on1enLnan c1pana... nxenan nnpyc1pnn nyxpae1cn a rocypapc1aennmx
cy6cnpnnx. cnn Hm nx ne napeH, 1o Hm, kak unannnsoaannoe rocypapc1ao -
n yxe ne roaopk, kak counannc1nueckoe, - norn6nn. 1annn npoponxan 1y
xe nnnnk n nopuepknyn a peun " sapannnx xosnc1aennnkoa 4 qeapann
1931 ropa: "Mm o1c1ann o1 nepepoamx c1pan na 50-100 ne1. Mm ponxnm
npo6exa1L a1o pacc1onnne a pecn1L ne1. n6o Hm cpenaeH a1o, nn6o nac
coHny1. cHnnn 6m a 1941 ropy, ecnn 6m "npaam yknon aoso6napan.
Inaanme ypapm no npaao onnosnunn 6mnn nanecenm a 1929 ropy, korpa
yxapnna amaenn ns onn16kpo, rnanoaa ns kanpnpa1oa, a oHckn no1epnn
cao noc1 a npoqcoksax. n1ore ns "npaamx a onn16kpo oc1ancn opnn
mkoa, pa n 1o nnuL po peka6pn 1930 ropa, korpa npepcepa1eneH oanapkoHa
c1an Mono1oa.
asrpoH npaao rpynnnpoakn, pyccko no naunonanLnoHy coc1aay, anoaL
ycnnnn nosnunn nnopopuecknx aneHen1oa. 1opan aonna nnopopueckoro
sacnnLn saxnec1nyna occnk n coanana no apeHenn c konnek1nansaune,
onpepenna cnoco6m, kaknHn nocnepnnn npoaopnnacL.
3pecL cnepye1 cpena1L o1c1ynnenne n nopuepkny1L, u1o nyxno ue1ko
pasnnua1L no apeHenn nHenno pae aonnm. onLuyk ny1annuy a a1oH
o1nouennn anecnn knnrn .nkoro "apen a occnn n (H.-opk, 1967) n
"yccko-eapeckn pnanor (H.-opk, 1970). .nkn o6Lepnnne1 a1n aonnm, a
pesynL1a1e uero cospae1cn aneua1nenne, 6yp1o poukn aosrnaannn apHnk,
IaHapnnk - nonn1ynpaanenne apHnn, a ropa H opnoapeHenno, 1orpa kak
poukn 6mn cnn1 co caoero noc1a a 1925 ropy, a ropa n IaHapnnk poc1nrnn
aepunnm annnnnn nnuL k 30-H ropaH. onyckae1 .nkn n Hnoro
qak1nuecknx oun6ok. HanpnHep, 3nnoaLea nnkorpa ne 6mn napkoHoH
any1pennnx pen. Ho oco6enno qan1ac1nuen npnaopnHm .nknH cnncok
"unenoa ao a1opo nonoanne 30-x ropoa, ko1opm Hnorne naun aa1opm
Hexannueckn nepenncmaak1, kak paoeunnkn, cnoaa n cnoaa 1npaxnpyn opnn n
1e xe oun6kn. a1oH cnncke nepeHeuanm kanpnpa1m n unenm , npnueH a
unenm sa1ecanncL kanpnpa1m nunnx1, ynnn n anHanoanu, a 1akxe
eka, nqpnnoanu n pax1ep, ko1opme aoo6ue ne 6mnn nn unenaHn, nn
kanpnpa1aHn, paano kak n n1nep, annep n pnuHan. s 71 unena
.nkn noueHy-1o nepeuncnnn nnuL 34, yHyppnauncL onyc1n1L ace
onn16kpo, kpoHe 1annna n aranoanua. ako He1op opnoc1oponnero
nokasa Hoxe1 pa6o1a1L 1onLko na neocaepoHnennyk ny6nnky, a qak1nueckne
oun6kn, ponyckaeHme .nknH, Hory1 6m1L ncnonLsoaanm pnn 1oro, u1o6m
noc1aan1L nop coHnenne uennoc1L ero pa6o1m a uenoH. ak, nanpnHep,
nac1onuan qaHnnnn onopapckoro ne oren, a IonLpu1en, n1nnukoro - ne
nkH6epr, a apcnc. OaHnnnn "apoHmcnLckn npnnncmaae1cn 3nnoaLeay, a
ne pnukoHy n 1.p. ak nocne a1oro npnnnHa1L na aepy y1aepxpenne
.nkoro, 6yp1o a6akoa na caHoH pene osenqenLp, k6nHoa - osneackn,
a ypoa - ckoa? .nkn nac1onLko sany1ancn a eapenx, u1o opnn n 1e xe
nkpn qnrypnpyk1 y nero 1o kak eapen, 1o kak neeapen - 1akan nc1opnn
cnyunnacL c 3enencknH n epe6poacknH. pesynL1a1e na .nkoro npoc1o
onacno ccmna1Lcn, korpa npnaopnHme nH caepennn nenLsn npoaepn1L no
ppyrnH nc1ounnkaH. Ho Hm o1aneknncL - aepneHcn cnoaa a "rop aennkoro
nepenoHa.
1o y nac 1orpa sannHancn cenLcknH xosnc1aoH? o-nepamx, ..Mnkonn na
ko1opoH, kak na napkoHe 1oproann n npopoaonLc1ann, nexana o1ae1c1aennoc1L
sa saro1oakn. n nepamH npnnnn na ce6n ypap a 1928 ropy. Ho uepes rop, k
nauany konnek1nansaunn rnaanyk ponL nrpan yxe ne on, a paa ppyrnx
o1ae1c1aennmx pa6o1nnka. epam ns nnx, na1mu apn ayHan (k
H.D.ayHany nnkakoro 1nouennn ne nHee1), npn6pan k caonH pykaH a 1929
ropy ace ponxnoc1n onanLnoro rnanoaa - c1an cekpe1apeH n M n
kanpnpa1oH a unenm onn16kpo. ayHan amnonnnn ponL rnaanoro nap1nnoro
napsnpa1enn, a nenocpepc1aennmH ncnonnn1eneH c1an nasnauennm a 1929
ropy napkoHseHoH koa pkapLeanu koanea (Dnu1en).
ypnan "oHHynnc1 N17 sa 1988 rop paspasnncn c1a1Le "1apme Hnqm -
noame c1paxn, nanpaanenno npo1na 1ex, k1o o1nocn1 nacnnLc1aennme
cnoco6m konnek1nansaunn na cue1 "sapaaaunxcn nnopopuea. "oHHynnc1
o6Lnann a1y aepcnk 6espokasa1enLno, ocnoaanno na "nesnannn, xo1n a
pec1an1enLnoc1n caH a1o1 xypnan ne y1pyxpan ce6n pokasa1enLc1aaHn n
nano ne 6mn o6peHenen rpysoH snann.
.Mepaepea a c1a1Le "1annn n aranoanu ("Mockoackne noaoc1n, 1988,
N52) npepnpnnnn nonm1ky sa1yueaa1L ponL .koaneaa. n nncan: " ne
xouy o1pnua1L o1ae1c1aennoc1L koaneaa sa nepern6m konnek1nansaunn. Ho
koanea nHen c1onL xe Hano annnnnn na any1pennkk nonn1nky 1annna, kak
n ace 6mc1po Hennkunecn napkoHm n Hnnnc1pm cenLckoro xosnc1aa npn
1annne, Xpyueae n pexneae.
o1 1ak, opnnH nsnunmH HanoaenneH pykn, .Mepaepea sa1onknyn koaneaa a
6esnnkyk 1onny 6enepnk1oamx n Haukeanue. ak o6muno pec1ayk1
xynnranm, korpa mpmaak1 caoero npnn1enn ns pyk Hnnnunn. Ho ns
nn1napua1n ne nepeuncnennmx .MepaepeamH napkoHoa n Hnnnc1poa nHenno
koanea cmrpan caHyk rnycnyk ponL.
.koanea (Dnu1en) - nn1ennnren1, cmn Henkoro cnyxauero. a6o1an a
arn1npone, 6mn saa. o1penoH neua1n , pepak1npoaan "epno1y n
"pec1Lnnckyk rase1y, 1.e. ace apeHn nopansancn na nponaranpnc1ckoH
nonpnue, n appyr a1oro uenoaeka, ko1opm nopo6no opnoHy nepconaxy noaHm
"oHy na ycn xn1L xopouo apnp nn Hor o1nnun1L pxano konoc o1
nuHennoro, nasnauak1 napkoHseHoH. Mano 1oro: non6pLckn (1929 r.) nenyH
(6) c1aan1 ero ao rnaae cneunanLno koHnccnn no konnek1nansaunn.
D1o kak pas apeHn "aennkoro nepenoHa c1anoaoro xpe61a occnn, a ueH, kak
anpnH, caHoe ak1nanoe yuac1ne npnnnHan koanea, ko1oporo 1enepL nm1ak1cn
npepc1aan1L acero nnuL Henko couko.
opno koHnannn c ayHanoH, koaneamH n MnkonnoH pa6o1an 1akxe
pykoaopn1enL konxosnoro uen1pa I.aHnnckn, ko1opm amc1ynan sa
qopcnpoaannme 1eHnm konnek1nansaunn n paccmnan pnpek1nam, ko1opme
1enepL Hnrko n c1mpnnao nHenyk1 "nenpopyHannmHn. oaxosaHn aepan 1orpa
M.anHanoanu, a ao rnaae ykpynnennmx o6nac1e c1onnn Xa1aeanu (pepnnn
onra), apeknc (epnoseHnm uen1p), Dxe (3anapnan n6npL), nppeea
(eaepnm aakas), e6onpaea (Hnxnnn onra). pnako ns acex "repoea
konnek1nansaunn nepexnnn 30-e ropm 1onLko Mnkonn n nppeea.
e kouHapnme He1opm, kaknHn ocyuec1annnacL konnek1nansaunn, n nauano
ocyxpennk ko1opmx 6mno nonoxeno c1a1Le 1annna "Ionoaokpyxenne o1
ycnexoa 2 Hap1a 1930 ropa, c1anoan1cn coaepuenno nonn1nmHn korpa
anpnuL, k1o a1nH sannHancn. oa1opnnocL ace 1o, u1o ocyxpan ennn a 1919
ropy: ypapm, npepnasnauaaunecn kynaky, cnnouL n pnpoH nonapann no
cepepnnky. npnunna 6mna 1a xe, u1o n 1orpa: nannma na amcune noc1m
eapeea c nx cneunqnuecknH o1nouenneH k kpec1Lnnc1ay n ckpm1o nnn nano
pycoqo6ne n npounx nnopopuea co cxopnmHn koHnnekcaHn.
a1opaH xypnana "oHHynnc1 ko1opme cun1ak1 snokosnennmx nnopopuea
acero nnuL nnopoH qan1asnn cen1ene "Hnqoa n c1paxoa, cnepoaano 6m
nepeun1a1L xo1n 6m c1enorpaHHm XVI cLespa (6). Ha a1oH cLespe .ayHan
kanncn, u1o on n nopunnennme eHy nap1oprannsaunn Mockoacko o6nac1n
"yaneknncL 6mc1pmHn, nenocnnLnmHn pnn nac 1eHnaHn konnek1nansaunn. D1o
na npak1nke npnaeno k 6onLuoHy konnuec1ay apHnnnc1pa1nanmx nepern6oa n
ronoao1nnc1a.
.apeknc caH ne kanncn, sa1o ero npnsaan k nokannnk .mpuoa:
"apekncy napo 6mno npnsna1L caon oun6kn. en1panLno-epnoseHno
o6nac1n nepern6m n nsapauennn ponyuenm 6mnn a 6onLue Hepe, ueH a
ppyrnx o6nac1nx. aH 6mno poc1a1ouno cpenano an1ncepepnnuknx oun6ok.
nn cnpaakn: , ko1opyk aosrnaannn apeknc, npouen1
konnek1nansaunn nopckounn c 5,9 na 1 ok1n6pn 1929 ropa po 81,8 k 1 Hap1a
1930 ropa. Mockoacko o6nac1n ayHan sa 1o1 xe nepnop asann1nn
nokasa1enn c 3,3 po 73% (c1opnn . Dnoxa counannsHa, M., 1957, c.338).
a1opm c1a1Ln "ap16nne1 N 0000030 ("ennnckoe 3naHn, 7 Han 1989)
nm1ak1cn kak-1o onpaapa1L .ayHana, pokasa1L, u1o on pec1aoaan nop
paanenneH caepxy. Ho aepL on n caH paann. 1o xe c1a1Le un1npye1cn ero
pnanor c cekpe1apeH oponLckoro pakoHa osLHnnmH. osLHnn: "HaH pann
kon1ponLnyk unqpy. o1 250 po 300 uenoaek. euac apec1oaano 150.
ayHan: "Mm aaH pann po 250. osLHnn: "Ho Hm eue po6epeH, 1oaapnu
ayHan.
pope1 coaceH neHnoro apeHenn - n po6epy1 caHoro ayHana, noka u1o
ero 1onLko nepeaenn ns Mockam a pepnkk snk. I.aHnnckoro c cenLckoro
xosnc1aa nepe6pocnnn na sppaaooxpanenne. o Hnornx o6nac1nx nocnnHann
Hec1nmx coae1cknx n nap1nnmx pa6o1nnkoa, Hnornx paxe cypnnn. Ho
koanea coxpannn cao noc1.
1opan aonna saxnec1maana c1pany. n1annoa (OnnkenLu1en) saHennn
nuepnna na noc1y napkoHnnpena, a IaHapnnk y6noaa a rnaanoH
nonn1ynpaanennn apHnn. I ace 6onLue npn6npan k pykaH ropa,
qak1nueckn aepunaun ace pena sa napkoHana Menxnnckoro. Ho caHyk
rnaanyk ponL nrpan .M.aranoanu, ko1opm aepnyncn a 1928 ropy c kpannm
na noc1 cekpe1apn a nopnpke poknpoakn c .ocnopoH, npnnnn ak1nanoe
yuac1ne a norpoHe kappoa oHckoro a npoqcoksax, ynacnepoaan o1 ayHana
Hockoackyk ao1unny n a 1930 ropy 6mn aosaepen a panr unena onn16kpo.
okpyr nnunoc1n aranoanua nakpyueno Hnoro Hnqoa. co6enno noc1apancn
aHnrpan1ckn aa1op, nncaaun nop nceaponnHoH .ukynnk,
3arnnno1nsnpoaannm rnno1eso .ec1nepa o xasapckoH nponcxoxpennn
aoc1ounmx eapeea-aukenasn (rnno1eso, kc1a1n, coaepuenno
necoc1on1enLno) n cosayuneH 1n1yna "karan n qaHnnnn aranoanu, a1o1
aa1op npnpyHan 1akyk nc1opnk: "3axaa1na anac1L a caon pykn, no1oHkn
xasap, cnepyn caonH c1apmH o6muanH, ne 1onLko aaenn 1y xe paonyk
cnc1eHy ynpaanennn a nopa6ouenno nHn c1pane, no... nocapnnn caonH
IHM no1oHka xasapcknx xanoa asapn IHoanua... n nasnaunnn
1annna ero "ekoH (aHn1ka pycckoHy uenoaeky. H.-opk, 1982, c.22). Ho
ecnn Hm aepneHcn o1 ampyHok k nc1opnuecknH peannnH, 1o peno o6c1onno
cnepykunH o6pasoH. nepao nonoanne 30-x ropoa annnnne aranoanua
6mno pec1an1enLno orpoHnmH, on necoHnenno 6mn 1eH, u1o anocnepc1ann
c1ann nasmaa1L "nnuoH N2 a nap1nn. osxe ero nonn1nueckn aec nauan
yHenLua1Lcn n k nauany aonm c1an coaceH nesnaun1enLnmH, no nnkorpa,
paxe a senn1e caoe anac1n, aranoanu ne 6mn nnueH nnmH, kpoHe kak
opypneH 1annna. pyHa1L, 6yp1o 1annn 6mn opypneH aranoanua, snaun1
coaceH ne npepc1aann1L ce6e nnunoc1L 1annna.
1oH xe 1930 ropy sannn caoe Hec1o a nepaoH pnpy n rnaanm repo ppaHm
1pnpua1mx ropoa - .M.npoa (oc1pnkoa). n popnncn a 1886 ropy, pano
oc1ancn 6es Ha1epn n ampoc a pxyHckoH poHe npnspennn. opnonLnyk
pa6o1y nauan a oHcke, a no1oH nepe6asnpoaancn ao napnkaakas, rpe
xennncn na eapeke Mapnn Mapkyc n yc1anoann kon1ak1m c 1aknHn nkpLHn,
kak paxenauannn, Inkano, Onra1nep, ko1opme a 6ypyueH saHy1 aaxnme
noc1m. 3pecL ero n sac1ana peaonkunn. rpaxpanckyk aony npoa
npocnaanncn o6opono c1paxann n 1eH, u1o y1onnn 1aH a kpoan pa6ouee
aocc1anne. nLece c1annncknx apeHen "penoc1L na onre opnn ns
copa1nnkoa npoaa c o6eckypaxnaakue npoc1o1o roaopn1 o aocc1aaunx:
"akne xe a1o pa6oune, ecnn onn a nac c1pennk1? asae a1o npone1apna1?
naccoaan npnnapnexnoc1L, 1aknH o6pasoH, onpepennnacL ne no popy
sann1n, a no nanpaanennk nanL6m. osxe npoa aHec1e c ppxonnknpse
yc1anoann coae1ckyk anac1L na eaepnoH aakase n a 3akaakasLe, a a 1926
ropy npoaa 6pocnnn ns sep6apxana na ycHnpenne Hn1exnoro
snnoaLeackoro ennnrpapa.
npoa 6mn uenoaekoH aneprnunmH, anac1nmH n xec1knH. 3nan a1n ero
kauec1aa, .onkaec1 ace xe cun1ae1 nyxnmH oroaopn1L, u1o on kak 6yp1o ne
o1nnuancn 1o sno6noc1Lk, ko1opan xapak1epnsye1 1annna... esxanoc1nm,
on a 1o xe apeHn ne 6mn nn sno6nmH, nn pa6onennmH. n xe nasmaae1
npoaa "nyuunH opa1opoH nap1nn co apeHen poukoro. ueanpno, k nepnaH
kpacnopeunn cnepye1 o1nec1n cnoaa npoaa na pokoaoH XVII cLespe o
c1pon1enLc1ae enoHopkanana: "D1o pec1an1enLno reponueckan pa6o1a, n
napo o1pa1L cnpaaepnnaoc1L naunH ueknc1aH, ko1opme pykoaopnnn a1nH
penoH, ko1opme 6ykaanLno uypeca cpenann. npoa nockpoHnnuan, yHonuaa o
caoe nnuno ponn a a1oH pene, no o ne cuen nyxnmH ckasa1L opounnoa:
"oaapnu npoa aHec1e c 1oaapnueH ropo ao rnaae reponuecko apHnn
6enoHopc1poeauea coepnnnn enoe Hope c an1ncknH. 1Hennme
oc1onnc1aa npoaa 6mnn ouenenm, on sannn aakan1noe nocne yxapnna
Hec1o "nk6nHua nap1nn.
pe1LnH aHec1e c aranoanueH n npoamH aouen a onn16kpo ne1oH 1930
ropa neasnpan na nannune 6pa1a, nporo 1pouknc1a ocnqa ocnopa 1anncnaa
ocnop, no nponcxoxpennk nonnk, nou1n ace apeHn pa6o1aaun na kpanne.
HeckonLko nosxe, a peka6pe, k nnH npncoepnnnncn n 6nnskn ppyr npoaa
I.ppxonnknpse, ko1oporo Hm yxe xapak1epnsoaann a cansn c rpysnncknH
nnunpen1oH. .onkaec1 1ak ouennaae1 ppxonnknpse: "He 6ypyun
o6pasoaannmH, on nponsaopnn aneua1nenne aecenoro n ppyxenk6noro, no
xn1poro uenoaeka. 1925 ropy on nn1pnroaan c 3nnoaLeamH, a a 1928 ropy c
yxapnnmH. Ho ero kone6annn ckopee nponc1ekann o1 cna6oc1n, ueH o1 sno
aonn. ppxonnknpse pec1an1enLno nrpan a 20-e ropm kakyk-1o c1pannyk,
nonynpoaokaunonnyk ponL. 30-x ropax on ponrpancn.

ak noc1enenno co6panacL aHec1e a1a pasnouepc1nan koHnannn, ko1opo a
1934 ropy npnuna a ronoay c1pannan HmcnL o6Lnan1L ce6n no6epn1ennHn. Hap
keH, cnpaunaae1cn, 6mna pepxana a1a no6epa n kako ueno?
1paunm ronop, nocnepoaaaun sa konnek1nansaune, anno1L po nauana 80-
x ropoa oc1aaancn sanpe1no 1eHo a coae1cko neua1n. M.o6anoa a c1a1Le
"cao6oxpenne, nocanuenno poHany M.nekceeaa "pauynm n
ony6nnkoaanno a N10 xypnana "onra sa 1982 rop, nocHen akuen1npoaa1L
annHanne na c1paunoH, ronopnoH 1933 rope, ko1opm "npoka1nncn no-nap
onro-Ha1yuko nk1ee nno aonm, ckonLko napopy cHaxnyn c seHnnum -
ne cuec1L,- 1ak oxe Ho, u1o 1y1 nopnnnocL! o6panocL ynpaanenne oksa
nnca1ene, n ace amc1ynaaune noouepepno 6nnn M.o6anoaa canoraHn.
ykoaopnn xe a1nH ns6nenneH saH. saao1pena kynL1ypm .ennea,
6ypyun pLnnm "nepec1pounk ("n1epa1ypnan occnn, 25 qeapann 1983
ropa). a aaanrappe nn1epa1ypnmx xanpapHoa 6exan, pasyHee1cn,
.ckoukn ("n1epa1ypnan occnn, 21 nnaapn 1983 ropa),- pa, pa, 1o1
caHm, ko1opm 1enepL aoke1 c "uepnoco1ennmH "yccknH ec1nnkoH.
Ionop 1933 ropa oxaa1nn 1e Hec1noc1n, a ko1opmx a konue npepmpyuero 1932
ropa canpenc1aoaann koHnccnn . pnnH ns nepamx npnnnn na ce6n ypap
eaepnm aakas, rpe c1annncknH naHec1nnkoH nocne 1oro, kak .nppeea
nopnnncn a onn16kpo, c1an ..e6onpaea, "xec1kn qynkunonep, pnn
ko1oporo nk6me cpepc1aa npnnyxpennn 6mnn xopoun, u1o6m ocyuec1an1L
noc1aanennme sapaun. n cospan 1akxe kynL1 nnunoc1n Hec1noro Hacu1a6a.
Mec1nme rase1m saxne6maanncL o1 noxaan a1oHy HanenLkoHy 1annny
(.Mepaepea. IenepanLnm cekpe1apL, c.36). mn a1oro kaakasckoro ca1pana
sacepae1 1enepL a poccnckoH napnaHen1e n a o6uec1ae "MeHopnan n,
pasyHee1cn, noun1ae1 caoero nany sa "neannnyk xep1ay c1annnnsHa.
ak e6onpaea nn c1apancn, c saro1oakaHn on ace xe ne cnpaanncn, n a
ok1n6pe 1932 ropa na noHouL eHy 6mna nocnana cneunanLnan koHnccnn ao
rnaae c caHnH aranoanueH, ko1oporo conpoaoxpann Mnkonn, ropa n
IaHapnnk. pec1LnnaH 6mn npepLnanen ynL1nHa1yH: cpa1L sepno a cxa1me
cpokn. 3a neamnonnenne c1annum sanocnnncL na "uepnyk pocky. D1o
osnauano nsLn1ne acero sepna nopunc1yk, acero cLec1noro, sakpm1ne naaok
no1pe6koonepaunn n sanpe1 noknpa1L c1annuy, ko1opyk okpyxann aocka. ak
nnue1 a caoe pa6o1e "Ionop 1932- 33. ep1am n nanaun (n1ex, 1991)
Harapanckn nc1opnk .HayHoa, sa paa c nonoanno Hecnua (po cepepnnm
nnaapn 1933 ropa) na "uepnyk pocky 6mno saneceno 15 c1annu (13 ky6ancknx
n 2 ponckne). s c1annu on1aacko, Mepaepoacko, pyncko 6mnn amcenenm
a n6npL ace xn1enn - 45 639 uenoaek. .3aaopo1nm n .onoxeaeu a
c1a1Le "nepaunn Ionop ("oHcoHonLckan npaapa. 3 qeapann 1990 ropa)
nasmaak1 a1o renepanLno pene1nune 6ypyunx amcenenn uenmx napopoa.
pnako neaepno pyHa1L, 6yp1o Hec1noe nacenenne nokopno nopc1aannno uek
nop nox. onpo1nanenne 6mno o1uannnmH. ak poknapmaan na onn16kpo
nauanLnnk norpanaock I Opnnoackn, no pekaH eaepnoro aakasa
nnmnn co1nn 1pynoa - 1ak aennkn 6mnn no1epn aonncknx noppaspenenn,
yuac1aoaaaunx a kapa1enLnmx onepaunnx.
He oc1aannn aranoanu caonHn sa6o1aHn n cocepnkk kpanny.
.MyxaHepLnpoa a oprane "ao6opno cnoao (1989, N14) nponann
kpankk o6ecnokoennoc1L 1eH, kak 6m na 6epnoro eapen ne naaannnn
nnunero, npoaosrnacnn, u1o aranoanu ne noannen a HaccoaoH ronope na
kpanne, nockonLky paano yxe ne pa6o1an 1aH, a1o 6esrpaHo1nme, sno6nme
an1nceHn1m na nero kneaeuy1, a upesamuanyk koHnccnk na kpanne
aosrnaannn ne aranoanu, a Mono1oa. pa, aepno, cnauana Mono1oa, no nocne
1oro, kak .ocnop pan nnc1pykunk ne amaosn1L noceanme qonpm 6es
paspeuennn o6koHoa nap1nn, na kpanny pnn ncnpaanennn a1oro "yknona a
peka6pe 1932 ropa cpouno npn6mn aranoanu, n nop ero paanenneH (6)
6mn amnyxpen o1Henn1L caok nnc1pykunk. ak nnue1 a nspanno na
ykpannckoH nsmke 6poukpe "1933: 1parepnn ronopa (nea, 1989, c.38)
..ynLunukn, a xope xne6osaro1oaok na kpanne Mono1oa n aranoanu
nponannn "na1onornueckyk xec1okoc1L.
mnn n pycckne nkpn, ko1opme nk1oaann ne xyxe nnopopuea. sn1L xo1n 6m
.oc1mueaa, 1oxe ns 6ypyunx "neannnmx xep1a. n aosrnaann a non6pe
1932 ropa koHnccnk no Hnxne-onxckoHy kpak n no1pe6oaan "nk6mHn
cpepc1aaHn amnonnn1L nnan xne6osaro1oaok. ekpe1apn pakoHa,
aospasnauero, u1o a1o neaosHoxno, oc1muea neHepnenno cnnn,
npepcepa1enn konxosa, ne po1nnyauero po nnana 4%, - apec1oaan. aenne
oc1mueaa ouennnn no sacnyraH n npnc1aannn ero k ocnopy, pa6m cnepn1L
sa neykocnn1enLnmH amnonnenneH ykasann aranoanua ("oHcoHonLckan
npaapa, 3 qeapann 1990 ropa).
onanncn ppakonoackn sakon o1 7 aaryc1a 1932 ropa, nsaec1nm a napope
kak "sakon o nn1n konockax. HapkoHkc1 pmnenko 1pe6oaan 6ecnouapno
kapa1L "pacxn1n1ene counannc1nuecko co6c1aennoc1n. n eue ne snan, u1o
ckopo 6ecnouapno nokapak1 n ero, a noka u1o c1papan npoc1o napop: 55 000
uenoaek ocypnnn sa konockn, ns nnx k amcue Hepe - 2100 (1aH xe).
Ionop oxaa1nn orpoHnyk 1eppn1opnk c 25 Hnn. kpec1Lnnckoro nacenennn.
Hasmaak1 caHme pasnme unqpm norn6unx - o1 ue1mpex po pecn1n Hnnnnonoa
(1aH xe). pnako paxe a a1n ronopnme ropm , kak a1o nn uypoanuno,
npoponxan 1oproaa1L xne6oH c sarpannue: a 1932 ropy a 3anapnyk apony
6mno amaeseno 18,1 Hnn. uen1nepoa sepna, a a 1933 ropy - okono 10 Hnn.
uen1nepoa (1aH xe), n eaponeum cnokono enn coae1ckn xne6, o1nn1m y
ronopakunx n yHnpakunx kpec1Lnn. pepc1aan1enn eaponecko ann1m,
noceuaaune , 1orpa, kak n ao ace npoune apeHena, nn6o 6mnn cnenmHn
npno1aHn, nn6o c ycnexoH npnknpmaanncL nHn. ak, a aaryc1e 1933 ropa k
naH noxanoaan nsaec1nm qpanuysckn rocypapc1aennm pen1enL D.Dppno.
6naro1aopennm nmunmHn 6anke1aHn n npneHaHn, nacHo1peauncL
"no1eHknncknx pepeaenL, Dppno sanann no okonuannn noespkn, u1o ace
coo6uennn o ronope na kpanne nannk1cn 6onLuo noxLk n ampyHko
naunc1cko nponaranpm. a1opm un1npyeHo c1a1Ln ns "oHcoHonLcko
npaapm cun1ak1, u1o a1n cnoaa "1orpa c6nnn c 1onky Hnornx o6maa1ene na
3anape. cnn 6m 1onLko o6maa1ene! aHme y1onuennme eaponeckne
nn1ennek1yanm nacnaxpanncL coae1cko nponaranpnc1cko Hnknno. korpa
naun kpec1Lnne paannncL Hnknno nac1onue. .oy nsoupnncn a unnnunmx
uy1oukax nacue1 "ampyHok o ronope a . He1, u1o nn roaopn1e, kak 6m
c1paunm n o1apa1n1enLnm ne 6mnn 6anpn1m, o1apa1n1enLne nk6oro 6anpn1a
npekpacnopyunm "nn6epan.
o6epn1enn 1opxec1aoaann na koc1nx. akne 1opxec1aa acerpa amxopn1
6okoH, nc1opnueckan cnpaaepnnaoc1L naxopn1 caHme neoxnpannme, okonLnme
ny1n, n aosHespne nac1nrae1 1ex, k1o ero sacnyxnn.
oe-k1o ns nap1nuea nauan sapyHmaa1Lcn. Ho ne ace nonnnn, u1o pyHa1L eue
Hoxno, a roaopn1L yxe nenLsn. Ha a1oH kypLesnmH o6pasoH noropen
npoHenLknyaun a 1929-1930 ropax a ponn npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa O
n kanpnpa1a a unenm onn16kpo ..mpuoa, opnn ns nanaue ponckoro
kasauec1aa a rpaxpanckyk aony, aosrnaannaun 1orpa 1pen rpaxpanckoro
ynpaanennn on6kpo, npeonor "6ecnouapno 6opL6m c kon1ppeaonkune, no
npnkasy ko1oporo a opnoH 1onLko euenckoH paone a anpene 1919 ropa 6mno
pacc1pennno 6onee 600 uenoaek (HesaancnHan rase1a, 23 anpenn 1992 ropa).
mpuoa nHen neoc1opoxnoc1L nouen1a1Lcn na an1nc1annnckne 1eHm c rnaao
3akaakascko nap1oprannsaunn .oHnnapse, no ne snan, u1o y c1en 6maak1
yun. D1o nesnanne c1onno o6onH co6ecepnnkaH acex sannHaeHmx noc1oa.
1932 ropy paspasnncn noam acecoksnm ckanpan. cen1n6pe a1oro ropa
6mna packpm1a n apec1oaana nopnonLnan rpynna nop nasaanneH "oks
Hapkcnc1oa-nennnuea. osrnaannn ee Map1eHLnn Hnkn1nu k1nn. n popnncn
12 qeapann 1890 ropa, nponcxopnn ns kpec1Lnn pky1cko ry6epnnn, a 1917
ropy aosrnaann Xap6nnckn coae1, 6mn koHanpykunH aockaHn pky1ckoro
okpyra, koHanpoaan nap1nsancknHn o1pnpaHn, 6mn npepcepa1eneH pky1ckoro
ry6koHa nap1nn, cekpe1apeH parec1anckoro o6koHa. 1924-1928 ropax, 1.e.
npn rnanoae, k1nn pa6o1an cekpe1apeH pacnonpecnenckoro pakoHa
nap1nn Mockam n na XV cLespe a 1927 ropy 6mn ns6pan kanpnpa1oH a unenm
. ap1nnan kapLepa rnanoaa n k1nna sakonunnacL opnoapeHenno a
konue 1928 ropa. ocne a1oro k1nn npopa6o1an eue paa ropa a pepkonnernn
"pacno saespm.
nunoc1L k1nna - xnaoe onpoaepxenne poHmcnoa o "pa6cko npnpope
pycckoro uenoaeka. ypnannc1m 1enepL noHak1 ronoay: c uero a1o 1annn
ocenLk 1930 ropa appyr npnrnacnn k1nna o1poxny1L a oun? D1o 6mna
6onLuan uec1L paxe pnn nkpe ns caHoro 6nnskoro okpyxennn 1annna, a pnn
uenoaeka, naxopnuerocn a onane, 1akan Hnnoc1L aoxpn Horna
paccHa1pnaa1Lcn kak npouenne. 1annn n k1nn aHec1e rynnnn,
qo1orpaqnpoaanncL na naHn1L. Xo1en nn 1annn cnmua1L o1 k1nna cnoaa
nokannnn, knonn1L ero na caok c1opony, nnn a1o 6mna koaapnan nrpa co
caoe o6peuenno xep1ao? ("Mockoackan npaapa, 14 qeapann 1990).
oo6ue-1o 1annn o1nnuancn cknonnoc1Lk k 1akoro popa nrpaH, no a pannoH
cnyuae Hm nHeeH nepep co6o, noxany, neckonLko nno cnyua. 1annn
nerko rnyn nkpe a 6apann por, n c1onkny1Lcn c uenoaekoH nernyunHcn eHy
6mno a pnkoannky, 1eH 6onee, u1o k1nn 6mn qnrypo nesnaun1enLno no
cpaanennk co 1annnmH, n a1o oco6enno nopaxano: kak Hoxno c 1aknx
ua1knx nosnun 6poca1L amsoa aceHoryueHy aoxpk? 1annn uennn
6espono1nmx ncnonnn1ene, no 6onLue acero 6onncn nkpe paynnunmx.
Henoc1L eHy npaannacL, nepapoH nenn no1oH "HenmHn 1annn roppn1cn,
xenanne no6nnxe nosnakoHn1Lcn co cHenLuakoH k1nnmH 6mno pnn 1annna
anonne ec1ec1aennmH, koneuno, ne 6es sapne Hmcnn nepe1nny1L ero na caok
c1opony - 1annn, korpa xo1en, yHen 6m1L o6an1enLnmH. Hesaponro po a1oro,
pec1ayn 1eH xe opyxneH. In1nep npeapa1nn Ie66enLca ns onnosnunonepa a
caoero npepanneuero c1oponnnka. Ho na k1nna uapm 1annna ne
nopec1aoaann. paxe nepam kpa1koapeHennm apec1 ackope nocne noespkn
a oun ero ne nanyran. k1nn peunn npnc1ynn1L k cospannk nopnonLno
oprannsaunn, n ero pen1enLnoc1L a a1oH nanpaanennn xypnannc1ka .pncoaa
nasmaae1 "caHo snaun1enLno sa ace apeHn naxoxpennn 1annna y anac1n
nonm1ko okasa1L peanLnoe n oprannsoaannoe conpo1nanenne ero pecno1nn
("Mockoackan npaapa, 11 qeapann 1990 ropa). Hap1e 1932 ropa k1nn
coc1aann pokyHen1 nop nasaanneH "1annn n kpnsnc npone1apcko pnk1a1ypm
n o6pauenne "o aceH unenaH II(6). 1annn nopaaancn k1nnmH kak
aennkn aren1, npoaoka1op, paspyun1enL nap1nn, HornnLunk peaonkunn a
occnn ("saec1nn , 1989, N6). na1qopHa k1nna o6cyxpanacL na
koncnnpa1nano kaap1npe a pepeane Ionoanno nop Mockao 21 aaryc1a 1932
ropa. osxe c a1nH pokyHen1oH 6mnn osnakoHnenm 3nnoaLea, aHenea,
6maun ueq k1nna rnanoa n na1mu n 1an, npenopaaa1enL nc1n1y1a
kpacno npoqeccypm, 6maun unen n koncynL1an1 1annna no
qnnocoqcknH aonpocaH.
prannsaunn k1nna ne npocyuec1aoaana n Hecnua, ace konunnocL 6mc1po, a
o6muno nocnepoaa1enLnoc1n 1ex ne1: ponoc-apec1. ok1n6pe 1932 ropa no
a1oHy xe peny noaonoknn uenyk rpynny Honopmx 1eope1nkoa ns okpyxennn
yxapnna ao rnaae c .nenkoamH n saroaopnnn o "kon1ppeaonkunonno
rpynne k1nna-nenkoaa.
eope1nkn, o ko1opmx npe1 peuL, o6LepnnnnncL aokpyr .nenkoaa ao apeHn
yue6m a , anocnepc1ann onn pa6o1ann a pepkonnernnx rase1m "paapa,
xypnana "onLueank n 1.n. aH nenkoa 6mn a 20-x ropax saa. arn1nponoH
cnonkoHa oHnn1epna n unenoH M, 1.e. pa6o1an aHec1e c k1nnmH. ro
6nnxaunH nopanxnnkoH 6mn .Mapeukn, aa1op nayuno 6norpaqnn
yxapnna. 1o xe koHnannn npnnapnexann .xenaanLp, cmn nsaec1noro
kpn1nka, .c1poa epnnc1aennm yueneaun, aa1op ynoHnnaauerocn poHana
"pyua, .I.e1poackn, cmn npepcepa1enn kpannm I..e1poackoro n
pnp ppyrnx. Hec1e c HonopexLk noropenn n o1c1aanme nap1nnme nnpepm -
3nnoaLea, aHenea, rnanoa. pnnH ns ocnoanmx nynk1oa o6annennn 6mno
pacnpoc1panenne nna1qopHm k1nna.
1annn npouen, u1o nncan o neH k1nn, cuen, u1o nopo6nme ouenkn Hory1
nopanrny1L koro-nn6ypL na nokyuenne na xnsnL renceka, n no1pe6oaan na
a1oH ocnoaannn pacc1pena k1nna, opnako ac1pe1nn conpo1nanenne co
c1oponm caonx 6nnxaunx copa1nnkoa. epamH sanpo1ec1oaan ypsy1ak,
aosrnaannaun 1orpa -. 3a1eH na onn16kpo npo1na amcue Hepm
amc1ynnnn npoa, y6muea, ppxonnknpse, ocnop n annnnn. D1o
sa1opHosnno Hec1L 1annna: 1orpa k1nn nonyunn nnuL 10 ne1, a pacc1pennn
6mn nosxe, 10 nnaapn 1937 ropa. Hec1e c nnH norn6nn ero xena n paa cmna,
yuenena 1onLko pouL.
3a penoH k1nna-nenkoaa nocnepoaana noaan aonna penpeccn.
ackanaunxcn, aHnnc1npoaannmx n aocc1anoanennmx a nap1nn 6maunx
aoxpe n unenoa neao onnosnunn cnoaa c1ann ncknkua1L, nauaa c 3nnoaLeaa
n aHeneaa, a no1oH n caxa1L. nauane 1933 ropa apec1oaann 6mauero unena
.H.Hnpnoaa, sannHaauero 1orpa noc1 pnpek1opa IopLkoackoro
aa1osaaopa, n nocapnnn na 10 ne1. ppyro 6maun unen Hnnra nonyunn 5
ne1.
nnaape 1933 ropa coae1cknx rpaxpan o6papoaann paso6nauenneH eue opno
onnosnunonno rpynnm. o rnaae ee c1onn yxe ne 6maun, a pec1an1enLnm
unen nekcanpp e1poanu Hnpnoa, c1apm 6onLueank, popoH ns
kpec1Lnn, axopnaun eue a 90-x ropax a e1ep6yprckn coks 6opL6m sa
ocao6oxpenne pa6ouero knacca. 20-x ropax on 6mn napkoHoH seHnepennn,
renepanLnmH cekpe1apeH pec1Lnnckoro nn1epnaunonana, cekpe1apeH n
unenoH pr6kpo, no pnn konnek1nansaunn Hnpnoa, koneuno, 6mn qnrypo
nenopxopnue: specL 1pe6oaancn Dnu1en. Hnpnoaa sapannynn a
pesnpnyH HX, oc1aana, npaapa, a . croaop co HnpnoamH ac1ynnnn
.H.onHauea, napkoH any1pennnx pen O, cmn koc1poHckoro yun1enn,
pa6o1aaun po nasnauennn napkoHoH saHec1n1eneH npepcepa1enn eaepo-
aakasckoro kpancnonkoHa, n H..DcHon1, napkoH cna6xennn O, no
naunonanLnoc1n, oueanpno, nonnk.
Ha nnenyHe , pas6npaaueH peno rpynnm Hnpnoaa, c poknapoH amc1ynnn
aranoanu. n pan 1akyk yc1anoaky: nkpe, no6maaaunx ao acnknx
onnosnunnx, napo c1poxe npoaepn1L, oco6enno 1pouknc1oa. ak noc1enenno
narne1anacL nanpnxennoc1L, cennacL nopospn1enLnoc1L, ro1oannncL cxeHm
o6annennn pnn 6ypyunx npoueccoa.
a, a nepo6pm uac co6pancn cLesp "no6epn1ene. Ionop a c1pane, 6poxenne
a nap1nn, yrpoxakuan Hexpynapopnan o6c1anoaka. cero sa rop po a1oro a
IepHannn k anac1n npnuen In1nep, nonnn eue a 1931 ropy saanapena
ManLuxypne. ce a1n o6c1on1enLc1aa okasmaann caoe annnnne na pasan1ne
co6m1n na amcueH nap1nnoH qopyHe.

aepennn o saroaope, coc1aanennoH a nnaape 1934 ropa npo1na 1annna,
npocounnncL a coae1ckyk neua1L a xpyueackne apeHena. pnn ns unenoa
knana ayHnnoa naHeknyn: "Mnorne penera1m cLespa, npexpe acero 1e ns
nnx, k1o 6mn snakoH c saaeuanneH ennna, cun1ann, u1o nac1ynnno apeHn
nepeHec1n1L 1annna c noc1a renceka na ppyryk pa6o1y, no1oHy u1o on
yaepoaan a caok nenorpeunHoc1L nauan nrnopnpoaa1L konnernanLnoc1L,
anoaL rpy6nn ("paapa, 7 qeapann 1964 ropa). .ayHnn ne nasaan nnkaknx
nr4en. 3a nero a1o cpenan .Mepaepea, no cnoaaH ko1oporo na XVII cLespa
o6pasoaancn neneranLnm 6nok, coc1onaun, a ocnoanoH, ns cekpe1ape
o6koHoa n naunonanLnmx koHnap1n. c1L caepennn, u1o opnnH ns
pykoaopn1ene a1oro neneranLnoro 6noka 6mn apeknc. renepanLnme
cekpe1apn ampanrann npoaa. caHoH nauane cLespa nnn eue po nero c
npoamH 6ecepoaana rpynna, a ko1opyk axopnnn 1o1 xe e1poackn, 1o1 xe
ppxonnknpse, yuac1nnkn ananornunoro coaeuannn a 1925 ropy, a 1akxe
Mnkonn n paxenauannn. npoa, opnako, o1knonnn npepnoxennyk eHy uec1L.
(.Mepaepea. k cypy nc1opnn, c. 315).
.Mepaepea nnue1 panLue, u1o 1annn "kaknH-1o o6pasoH ysnan o6 a1o
6ecepe. Ha HmcnL o 1oH, kaknH nHenno o6pasoH, naaopn1 1o o6c1on1enLc1ao,
u1o ns acex nepeuncnennmx saroaopunkoa oc1ancn a qaaope n paxe eue
6onee aosamcnncn opnn Mnkonn... c1L, npaapa, aepcnn, 6yp1o 1annny o6o
aceH unc1oceppeuno pacckasan caH npoa. Ho a1y aepcnk onpoaeprae1
.n1onoa-aceenko a c1a1Le "6num npoaa ("Iypok, 11 anpenn 1989):
korpa 1annn n npoa ac1pe1nnncL c rnasy na rnas cpasy xe nocne cLespa,
rencek yxe snan ace, a nHenno 1o, u1o a kanyn pnn am6opoa a na kaap1npe
ppxonnknpse a peHne, a ne6onLuoH poHe y ponuknx aopo1, co6panacL
rpynna penera1oa. e1poackn, . ocnop, e6onpaea, Dxe, paxenauannn,
apanroanu, cun1an neaosHoxnmH panLneuee npe6maanne 1annna na noc1y
renceka, npepnoxnnn saHenn1L ero npoamH. Ho 1o1 o1kasancn.
coapeHennoro un1a1enn, ec1ec1aenno, aos6ypn1cn nn1epec k sa6m1o
nnunoc1n apeknca, n npnpe1cn nanoHnn1L, k1o a1o 1ako. ocnq apeknc,
no naunonanLnoc1n nn1oaeu, cmn kpec1Lnnnna, npnuepuero na sapa6o1kn a
oponLck. nauane peaonkunn apeknc pa6o1an na kpanne nop
pykoaopc1aoH ppxonnknpse, sa1eH aosrnaann nH6npckn koHn1e1 nap1nn n
aHec1e c yxaueacknH nopaann Hn1ex rnaanokoHanpykuero MypaaLeaa a nkne
1918 ropa. 1921-1923 ropm apeknc okasmaae1cn a aky, 1.e. y npoaa, n
sannHae1 noc1 saHec1n1enn npepcepa1enn aknnckoro coae1a. aH on n
xennncn na nekoe k6oan IpnropLeane, nnc1pyk1ope pakoHa nap1nn,
qaHnnnn ko1opo oqnunanLnm 6norpaq apeknca anno paxe ne nasmaae1
- po 1oro, anpa1L, c1paunan.
o1oH apeknca nepeknpmaak1 1o cnoaa na kpanny, 1o a ypkec1an, a a
1924 ropy on c1anoan1cn saa. o1penoH neua1n . 1928 ropy apeknc
nonyuae1 noaoe nasnauenne - a ero anac1L nepepae1cn en1panLno-
epnoseHnan o6nac1L, rpe on npoaopnn konnek1nansaunk. ak on a1o penan,
Hm yxe pacckasmaann, kak ero kpn1nkoaann sa D na XVI cLespe - 1oxe,
ne 1onLko sa a1o. o1 u1o roaopnn o neH 1orpa xe pmnenko: "apekncy
npnnapnexn1 kpmna1an qpasa: "3akon a1o peno naxnanoe. 1ouno ne
nonnHak, u1o a1o snaun1. pyHak, u1o 1. apeknc caH ne nonnHae1 a1oro,
n6o nornueckoro cHmcna a a1o qpase ne1. Ho cHmcn ppyro, o6uec1aenno-
nonn1nueckn a ne ec1L. D1o1 nonn1nueckn cHmcn osnauae1, u1o sakon - a1o
aeuL, ko1opo Hoxno npene6peuL. ak anpnH, no uac1n o6pauennn c napopoH
n c sakonoH apeknc 6mn nnuy1L ne nyuue 1annna. Heko1opme,
pykoaopc1ayncL npnHn1nano nornko, pyHak1: pas 6opeu npo1na kynL1a,
snaun1, xopoun uenoaek, nn6epan. pnHep apeknca canpe1enLc1aye1 o6
o6pa1noH, paano kak n npnHep ppyroro pen1enn, ko1opm c cepepnnm 20-x
ropoa nnen saroaopm npo1na 1annna, - I..e1poackoro 6mauero peny1a1a
Iocypapc1aenno pyHm, nepaoro napkoHa any1pennnx pen (nocne o1kasa
mkoaa), Hnorone1nero npepcepa1enn kpannm n kanpnpa1a onn16kpo c
1926 ropa. 1annn, pacnpaanauncL c opnnH ns ero cmnoae .e1poacknH (ns
rpynnm nenkoaa) n ero sn1eH 3arepoH, npepcepa1eneH epnnroackoro
ncnonkoHa, caHoro I..e1poackoro ne 1ponyn, kak n nnkoro ppyroro ns
6maunx peny1a1oa pyHm, cnoano pnn 1annna n a caHoH pene u1o-1o snaunna
napnaHen1ckan nenpnkocnoaennoc1L. Hnsaepennm a npoc1me rpaxpane,
e1poackn ace xe oc1ancn na cao6ope n na neckonLko ne1 nepexnn 1annna.
mn nn caH e1poackn c1onL aennkopyuen? Hnuero nopo6noro. epL a1o no
ero npnkasy a 1918 ropy, a 6m1noc1L ero napkoHoH any1pennnx pen, 6mnn
pacc1pennnm 1mcnun sanoxnnkoa. 1annn-1o c e1poacknH noc1ynnn ropaspo
nn6epanLne, ueH e1poackn c 6essaun1nmHn sanoxnnkaHn.
pepn an1nc1annncknx saroaopunkoa Hm yxe neckonLko pas ynoHnnann
qaHnnnk M.paxenauannn nmne 1oxe sa6m1oro. HoHen1y XVII cLespa on
yxe poropan na nencnonno ponxnoc1n saHec1n1enn pnpek1opa nnc1n1y1a
Mapkca-DnrenLca-ennna, no a 20-e ropm a1o 6mn kpynnm pen1enL,
6nnxaun noHounnk ppxonnknpse a 3akaakasLe, npepcepa1enL
oanapkoHa 3akaakascko qepepaunn, a nocne 1oro, kak ppxonnknpse
nouen na aepx,- cekpe1apL kpakoHa. Ha a1o ponxnoc1n ero cHennn cnauana
snononyunm oHnnapse, a no1oH - snoaeun epnn.
1o, co6c1aenno, osnauan o1kas npoaa o1 npepnoxennn saroaopunkoa? anL,
u1o nccnepoaa1enn ne sannHak1cn a1nH aonpocoH: aepL o1kas a1o1 Hoxno
nonnHa1L paonko. n6o npoa aoo6ue ne xo1en np1n npo1na 1annna, nn6o on
o1aepr 1onLko He1op, npepnaraauncn saroaopunkaHn, ne saxo1en ckanpana
na cLespe n no1pncennn pnn ace c1panm, pykoaopc1ayncL nsaec1nmH
npnnunnoH, u1o nouape ao apeHn 6popa ne Hennk1. c1L ocnoaannn
nonara1L, u1o npoa npepnoxnn ac1peunm nnan: noc1enennoe o11ecnenne
1annna o1 pykoaopc1aa.
kanpan na cLespe ace xe nponsouen, xo1n n 6mn ckpm1. pn am6opax a
npo1na npoaa nporonocoaann 1onLko 1poe penera1oa, a npo1na 1annna, no
pannmH .Mepaepeaa - 270, a no pannmH .n1onoaa-aceenko - 292.
noaoH, co 1annnmH a 1934 ropy xo1enn noc1ynn1L 1aknH xe o6pasoH, kak
1pnpua1L ne1 cnyc1n noc1ynnnn c XpyueamH. pnako 1annn 6mn ne Xpyuea.
nnH a1o1 noHep ne npouen.
ponoc 1annna nac1opoxnn. Ionocoaanne ac1peaoxnno. esynL1a1m cLespa
naaenn na opny-epnnc1aennyk HmcnL: Hepnn1L nenLsn.
accun1maan na Hepnennoe am1ecnenne, npoa, a o6ueH-1o, paccun1maan
npaannLno. peHn pa6o1ano na nero, no npn opnoH ycnoann: ecnn npaanna
nrpm, nHenyeHme any1pnnap1nno peHokpa1ne, 6ypy1 co6nkpa1Lcn. anc
xe 1annna na no6epy saknkuancn a napyuennn a1nx n aoo6ue nk6mx
npaann.
npoa nHen a pykax cnnLnme kosmpn. ocne cLespa on c1an cekpe1apeH , a
a nkne 1934 ropa aouen n a pr6kpo. 1o xe kacae1cn caHoro onn16kpo, 1o
ono packononocL napaoe.
InaanmH coksnnkoH npoaa a onn16kpo 6mn y6muea. nn nosnakoHnnncL
n cpa6o1anncL ne1oH 1919 ropa, korpa y6mueaa apeHenno nasnaunnn
unenoH c1paxancko rpynnm aock. He 1epnnn onn ppyr ppyra ns anpa n
nosxe. ocne 1oro, kak y6mueaa a 1926 ropy noc1aannn no rnaae HX
aHec1o yHepuero sepxnnckoro, a npoaa - ao rnaae nennnrpapcko
nap1oprannsaunn aHec1o noaepxennoro 3nnoaLeaa, onn noppepxnaann "oco6o
1ecnyk cansL, kak roaopn1cn a oqnunanLno 6norpaqnn y6mueaa (c. 283).
konue 1930 ropa y6mueaa nasnauak1 npepcepa1eneH Iocnnana, XVII
cLesp nepepae1 pononnn1enLno a ero pacnopnxenne oHnccnk coae1ckoro
kon1ponn, a Hae 1934 ropa y6muea yxe nepam saHec1n1enL npepcepa1enn
oanapkoHa, a a nkne aHec1e c npoamH unen pr6kpo. nnosnunn nano
ro1oanna y6mueaa na saHeny Mono1oay, u1o ponxno 6mno c1a1L npenkpne
nocnepykue saHenm 1annna npoamH.
pe1LnH a a1oH cokse 6mn ppxonnknpse, paano cansannm c npoamH 1ecno
ppyx6o, a c y6mueamH pa6o1o kak napkoH 1nxeno npoHmunennoc1n c
a1o 1ponue 6noknpoaancn n .ocnop, aosrnaannaun Hounyk ykpannckyk
koHnap1nk Ha .ocnopa c opno c1oponm, annnn ero 6pa1, 1oxe unen
.ocnop, saHec1n1enL y6mueaa, a c ppyro - paann apar 1annna
e1poackn. . ocnop, aepon1no, xo1en, am1ecnna aranoanua c kpannm,
am1ecnn1L ero ns cekpe1apna1a n sann1L ero Mec1o.
opa1nnam annnnn 1oxe cknonnncn na c1opony a1o rpynnm. 1annn Hor
6m1L yaepennmH 1onLko a noppepxke Mono1oaa aranoanua, opounnoaa n
nppeeaa.
s kanpnpa1 a unenm onn16kpo na aepnyk c1annnckyk kap1y noc1aann pnn
1onLko Mnkonn. poHe nero a1o1 panr nHenn orpa 1pn npepc1aan1enn
kpannm - e1poackn, y6apL n oc1muea, a 1akxe ypsy1ak, pa6o1aaun c
y6mueamH a 1919 ropy a ypkec1ancko koHnccnn, a a 20-e ropm - a HX.
3a aoxpnHn onnosnunn c1onnn o6unpnme knanm unenoa n kanpnpa1oa a unenm
n pa6o1nnkoa 6onee nnsknx panroa. D1n knanm n nannncL a 1936 - 1938
ropm rnaanmHn o6Lek1aHn norpoHa.
knan npoaa a , kpoHe ynoHnnaauerocn yxe apeknca, axopnnn:
6maun saa. 1penoH arn1aunn n nponaranpm enry6koHa, a a 1934 ropy saa.
1eH xe o1penoH , unen pr6kpo 1eukn; 6maun cekpe1apL enry6koHa, a
a 1934 saH, npepcepa1enn oHnccnn coae1ckoro kon1ponn (1.e. y6mueaa) n
saH. npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa n1nnoa, 2- cekpe1apL ennnrpapckoro
o6koHa ypoa, npepcepa1enL enropncnonkoHa opaukn, npepcepa1enL
ennnrpapckoro oae1a npoqcoksoa nekceea; copa1nnk npoaa no
c1paxann n aky, 1- cekpe1apL asaxc1anckoro o6koHa Mnpsonn n 1-
cekpe1apL soacko-epnoHopckoro 6koHa e6onpaea. nnH po6aannnncL
kanpnpa1m a unenm : 6maun koHanpykun ennnrpapcknH aoennmH
kpyroH yxaueackn (y ko1oporo, kc1a1n, a caHoH nauane rpaxpancko
aonm, a 1- apHnn, unenoH 6mn y6muea), 2- cekpe1apL
ennnrpapckoro ropkoHa osepn, npepcepa1enL eno6nncnonkoHa 1pynne,
cekpe1apL ennnrpapckoro ropkoHa rapoa, 6maun npepcepa1enL encoae1a
oHapoa, copa1nnk npoaa no aakasy 1- cekpe1apL enopyccnn
Inkano, 6maun npepcepa1enL sneq1n, saH. napkoHa 1nxeno
npoHmunennoc1n epe6poackn. konnernn a1oro xe napkoHa1a,
aosrnaanneHoro ppxonnknpse, nopansancn n eue opnn c1aanennnk npoaa -
Onra1nep.
Mouno amrnnpena n ykpannckan rpynna, ko1opyk a kpoHe 6pa1Lea
ocnopoa, e1poackoro, oc1mueaa n y6apn npepc1aannnn: unen pr6kpo n
nauanLnnk Inaanoro nonn1ynpaanennn apHnn IaHapnnk, napkoHseH koanea
(Dnu1en), napkoHnpoc O y6noa, cekpe1apL 3anapno-n6npckoro
kpakoHa aapen1Lea (on xe ap1aennuannn; .Mepaepea kypLesnmH o6pasoH
npnnnHae1 aapen1Leaa n ap1aennuannn sa payx pasnmx nnu), saH.
npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa O e6epL, saH. npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa
Mexnayk, koHanpykun kpanncknH aoennmH okpyroH knp,
napkoHnpoc kpannm 3a1onckn, cekpe1apL (6) Xa1aeanu, cekpe1apL
poneukoro o6koHa yampnn, nauanLnnk I kpannm annukn. pepn
kanpnpa1oa a unenm kpanny npepc1aannnn eHuenko, k6uenko n
H.onoa.
Hakoneu, 1pe1n kpynnm kon1nnren1 6ypyunx xep1a coc1aannnn kann1anm
akonoHnkn, pa6o1nnkn HX, pykoaopn1enn npoHmunennmx napkoHa1oa,
rpynnnpoaaaunecn aokpyr y6mueaa, ppxonnknpse n ypsy1aka. nnH,
kpoHe yxe snakoHmx naH no ppyrnH nnnnnH .ocnopa, Mexnayka n
epe6poackoro o1nocnnncL unenm , saH. napkoHa 1nxeno npoHmunennoc1n
yxnHoanu, napkoH necno npoHmunennoc1n o6oa, pnpek1op Ioc6anka
n1akoa, npepcepa1enL oanapkoHa O ynnHoa (6maun saHec1n1enL
ypsy1aka a H), napkoH nerko npoHmunennoc1n k6nHoa, a 1akxe
kanpnpa1m a unenm nunnx1, 1pneackn n cnnckn. coc1aa oHnccnn
nap1nnoro kon1ponn axopnn 1akxe 6pa1 ..y6mueaa, H..y6muea,
npoqeccnonanLnm aoennm, koHanpoaaaun a 1937 ropy 3akaakascknH
aoennmH okpyroH.
akoaa 6mna a 1934 ropy pacc1anoaka cnn a c 1oukn spennn nnunoro
conepnnuec1aa. Hy, a c naunonanLno?
onn16kpo ns pecn1n unenoa 6mno ue1aepo nepyccknx: caH 1annn,
aranoanu, ppxonnknpse n ocnop. Ho nn1epecno, u1o ns uec1n pyccknx
1onLko y6muea am6pan a xenm pouL c1aporo 6onLueanka .M.exaam,
oc1anLnme npepnounn xenn1Lcn na nepyccknx: Mono1oa - na onnne (epn)
eHenoane apnoacko-eHuyxnno, opounnoa - na ka1epnne (Ionpe)
aanpoane Iop6Han, nppeea na ope Monceeane Xasan, npoa - na Mapnn
Laoane Mapkyc, annnnn - na o6pyceaue ac1onke ka1epnne aanoane
op6epr.
aHmHn HopnmHn, 1aknH o6pasoH, 6mnn eapeckne xenm. anee yxe
roaopnnocL o 1oH, u1o a1o Hope cnepoaann n 6maune unenm onn16kpo ns
pyccknx pec1nnckn n mkoa. "ennkn xnsnenk6 yxapnn 6mn xena1
1pnxpm, npn1oH 1onLko a nepam pas na pyccko, cec1pe nc1opnka
H.M.yknna, a no1oH - na Dcqnpn caeane Iypanu (6es pernc1paunn), n,
nakoneu, - na pouepn .apnna (ypLe). ospae1cn aneua1nenne, u1o pnn
"nenonnouennmx pyccknx nannune eapecko xenm 6mno caoero popa
"npoxopnmH 6annoH, o1kpmaakunH ny1L naaepx.
rnaanmHn eapenHn 6mnn, ampaxancL cnoaaHn ona Hnnapo, "paa
aranoanua, 6pa1a n ueronn - asapL Monceeanu, unen onn16kpo,
cekpe1apL n M, n Mnxann Monceeanu - kanpnpa1 e unenm pr6kpo.
poHe nnx a kpacoaanncL: IaHapnnk - nauanLnnk onn1ynpaanennn
pacno apHnn, unen pr6kpo; pnnnukn - kanpnpa1 a unenm pr6kpo;
ropa - napkoH any1pennnx pen; n1annoa (OnnkenLu1en) - napkoH
nnoc1pannmx pen; koanea (Dnu1en) - napkoH seHnepennn, 3enenckn -
npepcepa1enL en1pocoksa, asyHoa - 1- cekpe1apL oc1ouno-n6npckoro
kpakoHa, knp - koHanpykun kpanncknH aoennmH okpyroH, yxnHoanu -
saH. napkoHa 1nxeno npoHmunennoc1n, Xa1aeanu - unen onn16kpo
(6)kpannm n cekpe1apn oHnn1epna ManynnLckn n n1nnukn (apcnc).
14 uenoaek ns 70 - apope 6m ne 1ak Hnoro, no kakne knkueame noc1m onn
sannHak1.
pepc1aan1enn ppyrnx naunonanLnoc1e a - 1annn, ppxonnknpse
6pa1Ln ocnopm, ypsy1ak, Mnkonn, .ayHan - saa, o1penoH naykn, epnn,
apeknc, nyknpse - cekpe1apL , kpaHoa, nopnn - cekpe1apL
oHnn1epna aapen1Lea Mexnayk, Dxe. pouen1 nn1L 6nnsok k nonoanne.
pepn kanpnpa1oa a unenm nac nopapyk1 caonH npncy1c1aneH aHnnckn
anHanoanu, osoackn, osepn, Mexnnc, aapu, erep, epn6ac,
osenronLu, mknn, M.Mnxanoa (auenenen6oren) okonLnnkoa, en6epr,
popo, 1enrapp1 1pynne, nunnx1, a 1akxe 6opeanu, Dnnaaa, paHnak,
Myca6ekoa, arnpoa, apkncoa, ena, caea, Ho caHan yppyuakuan kap1nna
o1kpmaae1cn a koHnccnnx nap1nnoro n coae1ckoro kon1ponn n a . epayk
aosrnaannn .aranoanu, ero saHec1n1ennHn 6mnn pocnaackn n 6maun
saHec1n1enL sepxnnckoro e1epc, a unenaHn - ekkep, pnkke, Ienknn,
IpoccHan, aanpcon, ennn, Meepson, ocnenoa (OerenLcon), a6nuea,
y6nnu1en. OpenkenL, Xaaknn, apanroanu, axnann, apynu. oHnccnn
coae1ckoro kon1ponn saHec1n1enLnnue y6mueaa 6mna 3eHnnuka (3anknnp),
unenaHn - enenLkn, nuenoanu, Iac1ep, osenHan, ayap, en6ayH,
enrepoaa, IeHHepaepp1, Innpnn, Inapu1en, IonLpnu, eu, apnnk, nccnc,
oHc, Manqpep, MenaHep, osn1, pnnnccep, Oernn, a 1akxe Mexnayk,
Hasape1nn n XaxanLnn. Hakoneu, a rnespnnncL nsaec1nme ueknc1m
rpanoa (openson) n epenc (caonk 1annna), a 1akxe enexec, ponu1aH,
oqep, oran, ncon, XanpxLnn n paxenauannn.
ancm npoaa na no6epy saknkuanncL a coxpanennn nap1nnmx aepxoa
nHenno a 1akoH anpe, uancm 1annna - a nx pasrpoHe. Ho napapokcanLnoc1L
nc1opnuecko cn1yaunn saknkuanacL a 1oH, u1o kak pas a1o pykoaopc1ao
nap1nn n HB3 XHB H M . nonyunnocL 1ak,
u1o nnunme nn1epecm 1annna coanann c naunonanLnmHn nn1epecaHn c1panm.
ansano a1o 6mno c nonanenneH na 3anape noaoro no1enunanLnoro apara a
anpe cnc1eHm, nopo6no ko1opo nc1opnn eue ne snana. nnLnoe n
6ecnouapnoe pykoaopc1ao o6Lepnnnno neHeukn napop nop snaHeneH
naunonanLno npeonornn, aos6ypnno y nero orpoHnm an1ysnasH n pasanno
konoccanLnyk aneprnk. mxopn1L na 6o npo1na 1akoro npo1nannka c
npexnnH npenmH 6araxoH 6mno paanosnauno caHoy6nc1ay.
Ipaxpanckan aona 1936-1939 ropoa a cnannn nannacL aecknH
pokasa1enLc1aoH 1oro, u1o nn1epnaunonanLnan npen 1epnn1 nopaxenne npn
c1onknoaennn c naunonanLno. pe6oaanocL caHmH peun1enLnmH o6pasoH
o16pocn1L npnHn1nanm "nn1epnaunonannsH a ero npexne qopHe.
eunpnam ponro aepuecn nponaranpm eue paaann ce6n sna1L no nnepunn n
no1oH. cnoHnnH, kak unpoko 6mnn pacnpoc1panenm nepep aono nnnksnn,
6yp1o a IepHannn. ecnn ona nanape1 na , cpasy xe nponsope1
peaonkunn. cnoHnnH, kak paccyxpann neko1opme paxe nocne nauana aonm
(o6 a1oH nncan .Dpen6ypr caonx aocnoHnnannnx "kpn, ropm, xnsnL):
npo1na nac, Hon, o6Hany1me neHeukne pa6oune n kpec1Lnne, napo nH
o6Lncnn1L, n onn noaepny1 opyxne.
6Lncnn1L npnunocL ouenL ponro. e1mpe ropa. 6Lncnn1L opyxneH. po
caHoro nocnepnero uaca "neHeukne pa6oune n kpec1Lnne conpo1nannnncL c
qana1nuecknH ynopc1aoH, nnkak ne noppaaancL o6LncnennnH.
pok kak 6yp1o nonn1en. Ho ne aceH. "onn1nueckoH pneannke,
nspaaaaueHcn 1eH xe .MepaepeamH, 6mno opnaxpm ony6nnkoaano nncLHo
kakoro-1o naq1annnnoro 6onLueanka, ecnn naHn1L Hne ne nsHenne1,
annueackoro, c ynpekaHn a appec 1annna: noueHy-pe on na napape
7 non6pn 1941 ropa roaopnn o6 nekcanppe HeackoH n yaopoae, a ne o
Mapkce n n6knex1e. a no1oHy, u1o c 1aknHn sackopysnmHn porHa1nkaHn, kak
annueackn, Hm nponrpann 6m aony a paa cue1a. Ho, k cuac1Lk,
pykoaopc1ao naue c1panm okasanocL na amco1e n aoapeHn
nepeopnen1npoaanocL. onpo1nanenne peaonkunonno nnepunn 6mno
cnnLnmH, npouecc npo1ekan Hyun1enLno, no on 6mn nc1opnueckn neo6xopnH.
nauancn on ne a 1941 ropy, kak pyHak1 neko1opme, a a 1934 - 1oH caHoH,
aokpyr ko1oporo Hm ace apeHn kpy1nHcn.
Mnorne po cnx nop ne nonnnn, u1o 1orpa nponsouno. nepamH ne nonnn a1o
In1nep. orpa on nncan "Man aHnq a 1924 ropy, nepep nnH c1onn o6pas
occnn, cLepenno n o6rnopanno eapenHn, nyc1oro reorpaqnueckoro
npoc1panc1aa, ko1opoe oc1ae1cn 1onLko sann1L. Ho occnn - 1ako kycok,
nporno1n1L ko1opm ne nop cnny nnkoHy, paxe eapenH. na amnecna
uypoanuno cnnm ypap, nanecennm e npnHasaaunHncn k peaonkunn
nnopopuaHn, n nauana, o1pmuaauncL, nanocn1L kon1pypapm, nepam pas - a
1926-1927 rr., a1opo pas - a 1936-1938 rr. o6m1nn na any1penneH
qpon1e kak 6m npepaapnnn cuenapn rpnpyue aonm: apar nop Mockao -
o16pouen, apar nop 1annnrpapoH - cnoaa o16pouen.
In1nep pyHan, 6yp1o occnn yHepna, ee y6nnn, no ouenL ckopo eHy npnunocL
y6epn1Lcn a caoe oun6ke. occnn pokasana, u1o ona xnaa. occnn 6mna, ec1L
n 6ype1, 1panno, u1o n a1o1 ypok ne nouen anpok neko1opmH nkpnH, npn1oH
nHenykunH ce6n "pyccknHn na1pno1aHn. onn ne npnsnaaann sa occnk
n nmnn, u1o "occnn ne1, a ceropnn, korpa occnckoe rocypapc1ao a1opo pas
na npo1nxennn nmneunero c1one1nn okasanocL .a rpann kpaxa, 1e xe nkpn,
kak n nx npepuec1aennnkn a 1917 ropy, aonn1 n c1enak1 o rn6enn occnn, ne
sapyHmaancL naH 1eH, kaknH o6pasoH occnn Hoxe1 norn6ny1L cnoaa, ecnn
ona opnaxpm yxe norn6na. cnn xe ona ne norn6na 1orpa, snaun1, ec1L
napexpa, u1o ne norn6ne1 n 1enepL.
opo6nme nac1poennn xapak1epnm pnn nkpe, nk6nunx ne peanLnyk occnk
co aceHn ee 6epaHn: coHnn1enLnmHn aoxpnHn, nopa1nnaoc1Lk na peHarornk,
nLnnc1aoH n 1oHy nopo6nmHn "npenec1nHn, a occnk c cycanLnoro ny6ka.

epamH penoH anac1L ponxna 6mna nepec1a1L py6n1L rnaanm cyk, na ko1opoH
cnpn1, npekpa1n1L pasHaxnaa1L xynenoH "aennkopycckoro uoannnsHa.
nepunn, sapannan a a1oH nanpaanennn ennnmH n ero nepyccknH
okpyxenneH, pepxanacL ouenL ponro. ue na npepmpyueH XVI cLespe a 1930
ropy 1annn o6nnuan "aennkopycckn uoannnsH kak "rnaanyk onacnoc1L a
nap1nn a o6nac1n naunonanLnoro aonpoca. Ho a o1ue1noH poknape na XII
cLespe sasayuann yxe nnme no1kn: cnop o 1oH, kako yknon, k
aennkopycckoHy naunonannsHy (yxe ne "uoannnsHy) nnn Hec1noHy
naunonannsHy, cnepye1 cun1a1L rnaano onacnoc1Lk, 1annn ouennn a 1aknx
ampaxennnx: "pn coapeHennmx ycnoannx a1o - qopHanLnm n noa1oHy
nyc1o cnop. Inyno 6mno 6m paaa1L npnropnm pnn acex apeHen n ycnoan
ro1oam peuen1 o rnaano n nernaano onacnoc1n. aknx peuen1oa ne1
aoo6ue a npnpope. Inaanyk onacnoc1L npepc1aanne1 1o1 yknon, npo1na
ko1oporo nepec1ann 6opo1Lcn. neune a1o qpasa amrnnpena paoc1aenno,
no na caHoH pene osnauana anonne onpepenennm noaopo1 pynn. ne
cnyuano na XII cLespe roaopnnn yxe ne o pycckoH uoannnsHe, a o
naunonannc1nueckoH yknone na kpanne. s-sa a1nx o6annenn a 1933 ropy
nokonunn c co6o napkoHnpoc kpannm kpmnnnk, yknon ko1oporo oc1muea
nasaan npnHmH npoponxenneH yknona yHckoro, "uyHcknsHa, ocyxpennoro
koHnap1ne kpannm a 1926-1927 ropax. ak anpnH, nnkn 6opL6m c
naunonannsHoH na kpanne coanapak1 c nnkaHn ounuennn uen1pa o1
nnopopuea.
pyro npnHep. caoeH amc1ynnennn na XVII cLespe cekpe1apL oc1ouno-
n6npckoro kpakoHa asyHoa un1npoaan kypLesnyk 6poukpy nekoero
Xancyaapoaa "a1nnnsaunn - opypne nennncko naunonanLno nonn1nkn
(ap1nspa1, 1932), a ko1opo "o1penLnme naunonannc1nueckn nac1poennme
nn1ennnren1m-nky1m ocyxpanncL sa 1o, u1o onn "aHec1e c aennkopepxaanmHn
pyccknHn ns unnoannuec1aa n pyccko nn1ennnrenunn nm1ak1cn npo1aun1L n
sakpenn1L ycckn anqaan1 a kauec1ae nky1cko nncLHennoc1n n ampaxanocL
coxanenne no noaopy 1oro, u1o n pycckn nsmk ne nepeaopn1cn na na1nnckn
anqaan1, ko1opm no6epn1 n c1ane1 HexpynapopnmH anqaan1oH aHec1e c
no6epo npone1apcko eaonkunn. ako nsapauennm nn1epnaunonannsH
amsaan y asyHoaa kpanee nepoyHenne
1kypa nopynn Hoame e1pm? "onn1nueckoH pneannke .Mepaepeaa
Ioaopn1cn o "apepnoH annnnnn na 1annna .H.onc1oro ko1opm apan6nnaan
a ronoay aoxpk ananornk c e1poH I. epcnn a1a aocxopn1 k onncmaaeHmH
apeHenaH: aecno 1oro xe 1934 ropa .ManpenLu1aH - ako
nn1ennnren1nm 1ako ne npncnoco6nennm k xnsnn sanennn noueunny
.onc1oHy kak "6enoraappecko caonoun, npnexaaue paspyaa1L uapnc1ckne
nac1poennn y renceka.
Heaepno, koneuno, npepc1aann1L ce6e ronoay 1annna coaepuenno nyc1mH
Hec1oH, a ko1opoe 1o1 nnn nno co6ecepnnk aknapmaan nyxnoe copepxanne
1annn, no-anpnHoHy, yxe paano nopyHmaan o ce6e caHoH, kak o npeeHnnke
1papnun occncko rocypapc1aennoc1n .Mepaepea un1npye1 cnoaa 1annna,
6yp1o 6m ckasannme nH eue a 1925 ropy: "Mm xnaeH a occnn, a c1pane
uape, pycckn napop nk6n1, korpa ao rnaae rocypapc1aa c1on1 kako-1o opnn
uenoaek ( cypy c1opnn, c.628). cosnanne 1annnmH yccko 1papnunn
6mno nnuL nonoannua1mH pyxoanme ocnoam pyccko kynL1ypm oc1aaanncL eHy
uyxpmHn, xo1n on n yunncn a pyxoano ceHnnapnn, no ouenL aaxnm uar a
nonoxn1enLnoH nanpaanennn - a cHmcne aosapa1a k pyccknH 1papnunnH -
ace xe 6mn cpenan.
.onc1o nonn1nky nap1nn ne onpepennn. s ee co6c1aennmx pnpoa ponxen
6mn ampanny1Lcn pen1enL noaoro 1nna, asrnnpm ko1oporo coo1ae1c1aoaann 6m
1pe6oaannnH noaoro nc1opnueckoro a1ana. 1ako uenoaek ne saHepnnn
nonan1Lcn. aHa ero qaHnnnn sayuana nHaonnuno cnoano nHenno ero xpana
c1pana.
nppe nekcanppoanu panoa popnncn 26 qeapann 1896 ropa a Mapnynone.
D1o1 ropop nocnn nocnepc1ann ero nHn, noka a nepnop rop6aueacko
ka1ac1pokn ne nauancn a1opo npnc1yn an1nc1annncko nc1epnn. He
cnyuano cnyuennan 1orpa c uenn caopa eHokpa1nuecknx 6opsonncuea
naknnynacL a nepayk ouepepL na panoaa.
n 6mn oco6enno nenaanc1en nH kak pycckn uenoaek kak nnpep "pyccko
nap1nn any1pn (6). ero nHenn nH HepeunnacL ppyran cnHaonnka.
onakuncn o1 sno6m "nn1ennek1yan .apnknn nasaan caok c1a1Lk a
"ronLke N19 sa 1988 rop "panoackan xnpkoc1L nHen a anpy 1o1 coc1aa,
ko1opm ncnonLsoaann pnn sarnyuennn 1pynnoro sanaxa. 1o x, npnHeH
cpaanenne apnknna: pa, nHenno 1akan xnpkoc1L 6mna nyxna pnn sarnyuennn
1pynnoro sanaxa nocne cHep1n napexp an1npyccknx cnn na rocnopc1ao a
occnn.
..panoa nponcxopnn ns nn1ennnren1no ceHLn - ero o1eu sannHan 1akyk
xe ponxnoc1L, kak n o1eu ennna. unncn a cenLckoxosnc1aenno akapeHnn,
a peaonkunk pec1aoaan na pane, a a 1924-1934 ropm aosrnaannn
Hnxeropopckyk o6nac1nyk nap1nnyk oprannsaunk, opny ns caHmx kpynnmx
a O, - po nero a ne pa6o1ann Mono1oa, aranoanu, Mnkonn. 1930 ropy
panoa c1an unenoH , a 1934 ropy - cekpe1apeH .
.onkaec1 nnue1 o panoae: "nnLnm, xo1n n ne rny6okn yH coue1ancn a
neH c npeonornuecknH qana1nsHoH, npeo6napaaunH y nero a 6onLue
c1enenn, nexenn y ppyrnx pen1ene ero nokonennn. Hy c1pana o6nsana opnnH
ns neHnornx nonoxn1enLnmx nanenn c1annncko anoxn no cpaanennk c 20-Hn
ropaHn - aocc1anoanenneH cnc1eHm o6pasoaannn, ko1opan npn ace ee ysoc1n
n oqnunanLnoH cnaaocnoann, no kpane Hepe a o6nac1n nenonn1nuecknx
nayk, anoaL o6pena ocnoaa1enLnoc1L n aqqek1nanoc1L c1apo pyccko
cnc1eHm o6pasoaannn nocne yxypuennn a npoHexy1ounm nepnop
akcnepnHen1oa (ennkn 1eppop, c.35), paxe Xpyuea, ne ckpmaakun a
caonx HeHyapax cHep1enLno nenaanc1n k 6nnxaueHy copa1nnky panoaa
ep6akoay, coaceH nnaue, c yaaxenneH o1smaae1cn o panoae kak o6 ouenL
kpynnoH pen1ene.
orpa, a 1934 ropy panoa, 6mn eue coaceH opnnok naaepxy. Ho y nero
yc1anoannncL kakne-1o oco6o 6nnskne o1nouennn co 1annnmH. nn o6muno
aHec1e o1pmxann na kre. aaryc1e 1934 ropa ao apeHn 1akoro coaHec1noro
o1pmxa onn coc1aannn saHeuannn o koncnek1ax yue6nnkoa nc1opnn n
noao nc1opnn. coaa1opm a1nx saHeuann sauncnnnn n npoaa, kak pas
saexaauero na kr k 1annny n panoay, no caH npoa 1onLko ypnanncn a1oHy
o6c1on1enLc1ay: "ako xe n nc1opnk? - uec1no npnsnancn on (.pacnnkoa.
.M.npoa. M., 1964, c.196).
asroaop o6 nc1opnn aosnnk ne cnyuano. 16 Han 1934 ropa 6mno
ony6nnkoaano noc1anoanenne oanapkoH n o npenopaaannn nc1opnn, a
ko1opoH o1HeuanocL, u1o npenopaaanne a1o pncunnnnnm nocn1 o1aneuennm,
cxeHa1nueckn xapak1ep, a aHec1o nc1opnn peanLnmx napopoa yuaunHcn
npenopnocn1 a6c1pak1nme onpepenennn qopHaun. osxe, 27 n n aapn 1936
ropa noaoe noc1anoanenne noncnnno, u1o a1n apepnme 1enpenunn n
nnkanpaunn nc1opnn kak naykn cansanm, a epayk ouepepL, c
pacnpoc1panenneH cpepn nc1opnkoa oun6ounmx nc1opnuecknx asrnnpoa,
caoc1aennmx 1ak nasmaaeHo "ukone okpoackoro, ue nosxe, a aaryc1e
1937 ropa 6mnn ocyxpenm: nenonnHanne nporpeccnano ponn xpnc1nanc1aa n
Honac1mpe; nenonnHanne nporpeccnanoro snauennn npncoepnnennn k occnn
kpannm a XVII aeke n Ipysnn a konue XVIII aeka; npeannsaunn c1peneukoro
Hn1exa, nanpaanennoro npo1na unannnsa1opcko nonn1nkn e1pa I;
nenpaannLnan nc1opnueckan ouenka epoaoro no6onua. aknH o6pasoH,
noc1enenno nnkanpnpoaanacL oHepsn1enLnan an1npycckan nanpaanennoc1L
coae1cko nc1opnuecko naykn n saHennnacL asrnnpaHn, npaannLnoc1L
ko1opmx ceropnn npnxopn1cn cnoaa o1c1anaa1L a 1nxeno 6opL6e, a ycnoannx
noaoro ua6aua an1npyccknx cnn.
Ho npoponxnH nau pacckas a xpononornuecko nocnepoaa1enLnoc1n. 10 Han
1934 ropa yHep npepcepa1enL I ..Menxnnckn osayune ero qaHnnnn c
qaHnnne sepxnnckoro ne ponxno aaopn1L a sa6nyxpenne. a o1nnune o1
"xenesnoro Oennkca ero npeeHnnk nponcxopnn ns eHLn paano o6pyceauero
npaaocnaanoro nonnka. aneua1nennn ko1opoe nponsaopnn Menxnnckn,
pacckasmaae1 poukn: "ype1 1ounee acero ampaxenne, ecnn n ckaxy, u1o on
ne nponsaen nnkakoro aneua1nennn. n kasancn 6onLue 1enLk kakoro-1o
ppyroro uenoaeka, neocyuec1anauerocn, nnn neypaunmH acknsoH
nenanncannoro nop1pe1a. "norpa 1onLko akpapunaan ynm6ka n no1aennan
nrpa rnas canpe1enLc1aoaann o 1oH, u1o a1oro uenoaeka cnepae1 c1peHnenne
am1n ns caoe nesnaun1enLnoc1n (Mon xnsnL, 1. II, c.181). Menxnnckn
npnnapnexan a caoe apeHn k an1nnennncko rpynne "nepep,
aosrnaannauecn orpanoamH, n 6mn nenpeasopennmH koncnnpa1opoH: nnuL
opnn pas, a 1906 ropy a e1ep6ypre, nonnunn ypanocL sac1yka1L ero a
o6uec1ae Xapnka n OpyHknna, unenoa pepkonnernn rase1m "asapHa, a 1akxe
nekoero .paypo (.Inapkoaa n M.Hnpnoaa, Menxnnckn. M., 1969, c.99).
D1oHy paypo Hnoro annHannn ypennn ..eryn a caoe knnre "acckasm o
"pe1nx apoam (Mnnck, 1983, c.84-89). 1937 ropy a apnxe amuen uenm
c6opnnk aocnoHnnann o6 nekcanppe caeanue paypo (nHn n o1uec1ao-1o
coaceH kak y onxennumna!). akan uec1L eHy 6mna okasana no1oHy, u1o on
6mn anpnmH HaconoH, ak1nanmH sakynncnmH pnpnxepoH n xnamH cansykunH
saenoH Hexpy cnonnc1cko aepxyuko n nopunnennmHn e HaconcknHn
kpyraHn. cae1e a1nx pannmx kon1ak1m Menxnnckoro c paypo npepc1aannk1
upesamuanm nn1epec.
prannsa1opm npouecca 1938 ropa no1pncann ny6nnky pyueunna1enLno
nc1opne o 1oH, kak pok1op asakoa y6nn Menxnnckoro no nayuennk ropm,
ko1opoHy Menxnnckn 6yp1o 6m Heuan, no nc1opnn a1a nano o1paaana nnno.
Menxnnckn 6mn napkoHanoH, ne spn, kak o1Heuae1 poukn, "no nnuy ero
6nyxpana o6muno pac1epnnnan ynm6ka nyna1nka (.poukn. 1annn, 1. II,
c.269). 1934 ropy Menxnnckoro, paano npeapa1nauerocn a xnao 1pyn,
paxe ne ns6pann a coc1aa , 1ak u1o on nnkoHy yxe ne Heuan n nnkoHy ne
napo 6mno ero y6npa1L. nkne 1934 ropa Hp , cospannm asaHen
I, sakonno aosrnaann c1aanennnk n popc1aennnk aeppnoaa I.ropa,
6maun saH. npepcepa1enn I c 1924 ropa. epamH saHec1n1eneH ropm
c1an ..rpanoa (openson), c1apm ppyr 1annna, y6nua H..IyHnneaa,
nk6oannk nnn pnk n nenocpepc1aennm oprannsa1op "caHoy6nc1aa
Mankoackoro. Hapnpy c ropo n rpanoamH cnc1eHy aosrnaannn M.epHan -
nauanLnnk IIa, .aykep - aenrepckn eape ns aac1pncknx
aoennonnennmx, 6maun napnkHaxep ypaneu1cko onepm, a no1oH
nauanLnnk onepa1nanoro o1pena I n no coaHec1n1enLc1ay - 6papo6pe n
uy1 npn 1annne: .pnukn
neHnnnnk M..pnukoro, nauanLnnk kon1ppasaepkn; .nyukn - nauanLnnk
nnoc1pannoro o1pena n ero saHec1n1enn - .epHan n nnrenLrnac. a1o
xe cnaano korop1e npnnapnexann n "repon c1pon1enLc1aa enoHopkanana,
na o1kocax ko1oporo .onxennumn npepnarae1 amnoxn1L uec1L qaHnnn
rnaanmx napcHo1punkoa, uec1epmx naeHnmx y6nu, sanncaa sa kaxpmH 1mcnu
no copok xnsne: eHen Onpnn-Ma1ae epHan-Haq1ann OpenkenL-
asapL oran-koa annonop1-epre yk. a npnnnca1L ckpa nauanLnnka
Xm popckoro. a kypa1opa kanana o1 onLua (pxnnenar II,
1987, 1. II, c.93). H 1ex apeHen - a1o 1akxe epn6ac, Ia, aunenLcon,
aunc, Meccnnr, 1mpne, p1ysoa, puakynn, nnnnp, nonnHckn, 3annn,
oppknnannpse, 3akoackn - cnoaoH, coaepuenno xy1kan oprannsaunn, no ee
nnkorpa ne o6nnuan a caonx Harnn1oqonnmx 6annapax nokonm .Iannu
(Inns6ypr), npncnxnm nnakanLunk "xep1a 1937 ropa, 1.e. y1pa1naue caon
rocnopc1aykune nosnunn eapecko coae1cko ann1m. ak n pnn .apnknna,
pnn Iannua caHo nenaanc1no nnunoc1Lk 6mn panoa, "1onc1oHoppm
noponok c rnasaHn o6Hanunka, a rnaanmHn HyuennkaHn "1pe1L saka ns n
neannnme Hnapenum, apope 3ouenko, ko1opm, kc1a1n, axopnn a 1y
npecnoay1yk rpynny ns 36 coae1cknx nnca1ene ao rnaae c M.IopLknH,
aa1opoa nosopno knnrn o enoHopkanane, sakneHennmx .onxennumnmH
sa 1o, u1o onn anepame a pyccko nn1epa1ype aoccnaannn pa6ckn 1pyp a
nropnncknx narepnx. .apnknn 1oxe, nonocn panoaa, amropaxnaae1
ropy. D1nH o6nnun1ennH c1annnnsHa ne1 pena po nc1opnuecko nc1nnm. nn
nnx 1onLko xoa nsaepr, a ropa, oueanpno, repo. apc1ay ropa po cnx
nop, ne napyunnocL 6m nnkaknHn ka1aknnsHaHn npouae1anne nk6esnmx
ceppuy .m6akoaa "pe1e p6a1a, 1o ann1m, ko1opan, kak roaopn1cn a
nsaec1noH c1nxo1aopennn .ynneaa, "1anueaana 1anro n uapnLc1onm, u1o6
sarnyun1L 6enoHopckne c1onm, n npoponxann 6m a1n pe1nukn xn1L, kak
panLue a 1oH xe c1nxo1aopennn
e1n p6a1a cao6opok pmua1
nn npoknn1n, nn c1onoa ne cnmua1,
naan1 ueknc1oa n nk6n1 oxpn, -
n npoponxann 6m nk6n1L n cnaan1L, n ne nopanncL 6m a pnccnpen1m cmn
unena knpa, anyk unena n1annoaa, nneHnnnnk unena n1nnukoro
(apcnc), cmn opnoro ns penera1oa cLespa " kypxaaa n Hnorne nH
nopo6nme. nn o6osnnnncL na 1annna sa o1nn1me npnannernn, no
coaepuenno aepno ckasan a nx appec 1o1 xe .ynnea:
apo p6a1a! m Hec1nk pmunuL,
Ho na rpysnnckoe nHn ne cnnueuL
axpyk unc1ky n kaxpyk nnpL -
epL o1 nopaana a na1LeackoH poHe
po 6apaka a pecny6nnke oHn,
ak roaopn1cn, pykok nopa1L.
(asHmunennn na 1apoH p6a1e. "Hau coapeHennnk, 1988, N7)
Mnenne .ynneaa Hory1 cuec1L npepasn1mH, no ao1 o6Lek1nanm ronoc ns
ppyroro narepn. H..ManpenLu1aH, a caonx aocnoHnnannnx ocyxpae1 nkpe
20-x ropoa, ko1opme ne npnsnak1 ce6n o1ae1c1aennmHn sa 1o, u1o nponsouno
nocne, xo1n "nHenno nkpn 20-x ropoa paspyunnn uennoc1n n naunn qopHynm,
6es ko1opmx ne o6o1ncL n ceuac: Honopoe rocypapc1ao, neanpannm onm1,
nec py6n1 - uenkn ne1n1... nHenno nkpn 20-x ropoa nauann akkypa1no
o1penn1L oaeu o1 kosnnu, caonx o1 uyxnx, c1oponnnkoa "noaoro o1 1ex, k1o
eue ne sa6mn caHme npnHn1nanme npaanna o6uexn1nn. "aapua1me ropm, -
saknkuae1 H..ManpenLu1aH, - a1o nepnop, korpa 6mnn cpenanm ace
saro1oakn pnn nauero 6ypyuero: kasync1nueckan pnanek1nka, pasaenunaanne
uennoc1e, aonn k epnnoHmcnnk n nopunnennk (H..ManpenLu1aH.
ocnoHnnannn. HLk-opk, 1976, c.175-176).
3aae1 H..ManpenLu1aH ne Heuae1 nanoHnn1L nmneunnH peHokpa1aH,
1pe6ykunH penpeccn npo1na nnakoHmcnnunx ("kpacno-kopnuneamx na nx
co6auLeH xaprone). eppop - a1o 1ako aonk, ko1opm o6nsa1enLno npnpe1 n
k paepn 1ex, k1o cnyc1nn ero c uenn.
pnpua1me ropm ampocnn ns paapua1mx. I.ropa - qnrypa, o6Lepnnnkuan
paa a1nx pecn1nne1nn. n, kc1a1n, 6mn "Heuena1oH,- Hoxe1 6m1L, noa1oHy o
neH 1ak xanee1 .apnknn. op kpmnmukoH ropm npouae1ana rpynna
nn1epa1opoa ao rnaae c ero popc1aennnkoH .aep6axoH, ko1opm nanpaannn
n oprannsoamaan 1paank kaxporo pycckoro 1anan1a, nonannauerocn na
ropnson1e,- cennna, OypHanoaa, .onc1oro, onoxoaa, Mankoackoro. 3a1o
po ne6ec npeaosnocnnncL coaepuenno sa6m1me ceropnn eapeckne "rennn -
esmHenckn, 1knn, n6epnnckn. opno koHnannn c aep6axoH
nopansanncL npuon, .cenckn, a 1akxe, kak nn c1panno (a, Hoxe1 6m1L,
aoace n ne c1panno) .Mnpckn - cmn .an1ononka-Mnpckoro, uapckoro
Hnnnc1pa any1pennnx pen n rnaanoro oprannsa1opa pacc1pena 9 nnaapn 1905
ropa.
o nponnn cypL6m, 1annn nHenno ropy n cpenan rnaanmH ncnonnn1eneH
caonx saHmcnoa. ak coo6uae1 .onkaec1 (ennkn 1eppop, c.75), a1opo
saHec1n1enL Menxnnckoro Meep pnnnccep nopcnxnaan caoero conepnnka n
paspmn pannme o 1oH, u1o ropa qanLcnqnunpoaan caoe popeaonkunonnoe
npounoe (eue opna npenec1nan kap1nnka na 1eHy o eapecko connpapnoc1n).
1annn c ypoaonLc1aneH aocnonLsoaancn a1nHn caepennnHn, y6pan
pnnnccepa ns I, a ns ropm cpenan nocnyunoe opypne caonx saHmcnoa.
Mexpy 1eH, xnsnL una noka caonH uepepoH. aaryc1e 1934 ropa coc1onncn
nepam cLesp coksa coae1cknx nnca1ene. 1o a1o 6mn sa coks, nac onn1L
ocaepoHnne1 neyHonnHan c1a1nc1nka: ns 400 penera1oa na 200 pyccknx
npnxopnnocL 113 eapeea (a Hockoacko peneraunn nponopunn coc1aannna
coo1ae1c1aenno 91:57). .ynpnn nncan 18 Hap1a 1909 ropa O.a1kukoay, u1o
kaxpm eape popn1cn na cae1 oxn c npepnauep1anno Hnccne 6m1L
pyccknH nnca1eneH, - coae1ckan anac1L, kak anpnH, npepoc1aanna eapenH
caHme unpokne aosHoxnoc1n pnn amnonnennn a1o nx Hnccnn.
Ho pokoame co6m1nn npn6nnxanncL. aaryc1e 1934 ropa npoa, kak yxe
roaopnnocL, saexan na kr k 1annny n panoay, a cen1n6pe naaec1nn caoero
c1aporo ppyra .Mnpsonna a asaxc1ane, a 1 peka6pn 1934 ropa conepnnk
1annna 6mn y6n1.
6nc1ao npoaa, kak n y6nc1ao ennepn, po cnx nop oc1ae1cn "1ano aeka,
xo1n n a 1oH, n a ppyroH cnyuae peuL npe1 o cekpe1e nonnunnenn. ceH paano
ace ncno, npoc1o aeun oqnunanLno ne nasaanm caonHn nHenaHn. Xpyuea na
XXII cLespe ouenL npospauno naHekan, u1o npoa 6mn y6n1 no npnkasy
1annna, no ne peunncn ckasa1L a1o npnHo. paxe 1o, u1o roaopnnocL na
npouecce 1938 ropa, Horno 6m sac1aan1L ny6nnky sanopospn1L nenapnoe,
nponcxopn a1o1 npouecc a nno o6c1anoake.
o cxeHe npouecca peno o6c1onno 1ak. ponn rnaanoro pnpnxepa amc1ynan
3anopoxeu, saHec1n1enL nauanLnnka nennnrpapckoro H O.Mepaepn,
pec1aoaaaun no npnkasy ropm. aH ropa na npouecce yaepnn, 6yp1o
nonyuan pacnopnxennn o1 nyknpse, ko1oporo pacc1pennnn a konue 1937 ropa,
1ak u1o onpoaepra1L a1o y1aepxpenne 6mno nekoHy. .onkaec1 nopospeaae1,
u1o ccmnka na nyknpse co c1oponm ropm 6mna 1onLko sakaHyqnnpoaannmH
naHekoH na npnkas, ncxopnaun o1 nekoero rpysnna, npnueH na caHoH pene
nHencn a anpy 1annn, 1ak kak nyknpse no caoeHy nonoxennk (on 6mn acero
nnuL cekpe1apeH a) npnkasmaa1L rope ne Hor (ennkn 1eppop, c.76).
ak nnn nnaue, Hnkonaea, y6nua npoaa, paaxpm sapepxnaancn
co1pypnnkaHn H c opyxneH n cxeHo nepepanxennn npoaa no ropopy n
o6a pasa ocao6oxpancn no npnkasy 3anopoxua. ak nnn nnaue, na cnepykun
penL nocne y6nc1aa npoaa 6mna oprannsoaana rn6enL a aa1oHo6nnLno
ka1ac1poqe ero oxpannnka opncoaa. ce a1n qak1m qnrypnpoaann yxe na
npouecce 1938 ropa, Xpyuea ne ckasan nnuero noaoro.
1oH, u1o npoa 6mn yc1panen no npnkasy 1annna, coHneaa1Lcn ne
npnxopn1cn. 1annn 1aknH o6pasoH y6naan cpasy payx sauea: ns6aannncn o1
rnaanoro conepnnka n cospaaan nanpnxennyk o6c1anoaky, nosaonnauyk
nponsaec1n Haccoayk pacnpaay c neyropnmHn nkpLHn.
"3nan ceropnn 1annna,- nnue1 .onkoronoa,- ero ncknkun1enLnyk
xec1okoc1L, koaapc1ao n aeponoHc1ao, anonne Hoxno npepnonoxn1L, u1o a1o
ero pyk peno. "axe c1annnckan nk6oaL k npoay (qak1m y6expak1, u1o ona
6mna) ne oc1anoanna, no-anpnHoHy, ero nepep 1eH, u1o6m yc1pann1L
nonynnpneuero uenoaeka, no1enunanLnoro npo1nannka (pnyHq n 1parepnn.
kn. I, u.2, c.89,95). cnn onkoronoa peuae1cn na 1akoe npepnonoxenne, 1o
yx ne cnepye1 roaopn1L o "nk6an, nnaue nonyuae1cn anekpo1 na ypoane
necenkn " nona 6mna co6aka. Ho Hnorne po cnx nop ne peuak1cn. maun
oxpannnk 1annna .m6nn no-npexneHy cnn1o aepn1 aceHy, u1o roaopnnocL
na npoueccax 30-x ropoa ("ycckn ec1nnk, 1991, N4), nopo6no 1oHy, kak
pon nxo1 yaepoaan a peanLnoc1L co6m1n kykonLnoro cnek1aknn. Ho
oco6enno c1apae1cn nc1opnk nap1nn .npnnnna, ko1opan 1o, kak .m6nn
nopospeaae1 a rope nnnuna1opa, a ne ncnonnn1enn, n paxe amropaxnaae1
3anopoxua, ko1oporo a konue non6pn- nauane peka6pn 1934 ropa ne 6mno a
ennnrpape, 1o paxe ne ncknkuae1 "aneHen1 1parnuecko cnyuanoc1n. o
Hnennk .npnnnno, "o6Lncnn1L a1y 1parepnk 1onLko pesynL1a1aHn
ronocoaannn na XVI cLespe - snaun1 ynpouenno 1onkoaa1L npo6neHy
(.npnnnna. okoao amc1pen. "Mockoackan npaapa, 10 non6pn 1988).
Hexo1aopnoc1L no1yr . npnnnno y6epn1enLno pokasan .n1onoa-
aceenko a cepnn c1a1e "6num npoaa ("Iypok, 11-13 anpenn 1989). o
ero cnoaaH, .npnnnna "ynopno, nocnepoaa1enLno o1aopn1 nopospennn o1
oxpn n ocosnanno yaopn1 nac na noxnm ny1L. .n1onoa-aceenko
npekpacno nonnHae1 ueny "ann6n 3anopoxua, npepycHo1pn1enLno yexaauero
neun1Lcn a ncnoaopck. Ho acero aaxne noame caepennn, npnaopnHme e
ynoHnny1mx c1a1Lnx o6 y6nuax npoaa.
oknpan spanne nocne 6ecepm co 1annnmH no okonuannn cLespa, npoa
nHen ace ocnoaannn onaca1Lcn sa caok xnsnL. 6 a1oH on ckasan O.Mepaepk,
nonnoHounoHy npepc1aan1enk I a ennnrpapcko o6nac1n. uen1panLnoH
annapa1e H cn1yaunn, cnoxnauancn naaepxy, c1ana ncna cpasy. In6enL
npoaa npeppeuena - o6 a1oH 1onkoaann a roc1nnnue H na pe1enke
"enek1.
e1oH 1934 ropa npoa ac1pe1nncn a ec1popeuke co caonH ppyroH 6aknncknx
apeHen .eaoc1LnnoamH n ckasan eHy: "neua, Hon ronoaa yxe na nnaxe.
Menn y6Lk1. nanornunme onacennn amckasmaan on n cekpe1apk
m6oprckoro pakoHa nap1nn . Hopopnny. aonuennua npoaa oqLn
Mapkyc nnuL uepes Hnoro ne1 pacckasana, u1o npoa c qeapann 1934 ropa
xnn a oxnpannn cHep1n.
cenLk 1934 ropa a asaxc1ane 6mna nopc1poena aaapnn, Maunna, a ko1opo
exan npoa, none1ena nop o1koc, no 1orpa npoa yuenen. ocne a1oro npoaa
nm1anncL yc1pann1L c noHouLk yronoannkoa 6pa1Lea pnoamx, cnpeaunx a
nennnrpapcko 1kpLHe a oxnpannn cHep1no kasnn. 3a y6nc1ao npoaa nH
6mna o6euana xnsnL, no nx nonm1ka 6mna neypauno.
3a Hecnu po y6nc1aa npoaa k oaneay, cekpe1apk npepcepa1enn
eno6nncnonkoHa .1pynne, npnuna xena opnoro ns o1ae1c1aennmx
co1pypnnkoa H n pacckasana, kak ee Hyx c cocnyxnanuaHn a ee
npncy1c1ann o6cyxpann ao apeHn nLnnkn npepc1onuee y6nc1ao npoaa.
3a6o1nnam Hyx nocne a1oro ynpn1an onacnyk canpe1enLnnuy a cyHacuepun
poH.
6nkc1n1enLnnua unc1o1m nap1nnmx pns .npnnnna ace eue ne ncknkuae1
"aneHen1 1parnuecko cnyuanoc1n. He1, Hnkonaea okasancn a HonLnoH 1
peka6pn 1934 ropa c1onL xe cnyuano, kak npecnoay1m ponnL a kyc1ax.
poc1mH nkpnH, a o1nnune o1 nc1opnkoa nap1nn, ace 6mno ncno yxe 1orpa.
cpasy xe nocne y6nc1aa npoaa nouna rynn1L no ennnrpapy uac1yuka:
Dx, rypunkn pa noHnpopunkn.
1annn npoaa y6nn a kopnpopunke.

ak nnue1 .n1onoa-aceenko a "Iypke, ueknc1m ponro na1acknaann
.Hnkonaeaa naycLknaan ero na npoaa. sno6nennoHy neypaunnky pann
nonn1L, u1o 1akne uepc1ame aoxpn, kak npoa, noppmaak1 nap1nk nsny1pn,
noa1oHy neo6xopnHo cnac1n nap1nk, ns6aan1L ee o1 onacnoro apara.
nonn1nuecknH Mo1naaH po6aannn n nnunm: Hnkonaeay naHeknynn, u1o npoa
coc1on1 a nn1nHno cansn c ero xeno, MnnLpo payne.
c1a1n, anonne aosHoxno, u1o a1o aoace ne 6mno ampyHko. ak y1aepxpae1
..m6nn, xena npoaa M..Mapkyc 6mna "xenunno neypaanoaeuenno,
c1papakue o1knonennnHn a ncnxnke n no coc1onnnk spopoaLn aecLHa
cna6o. o a1o npnunne npoa nHen snakoHmx xenunn a ropope n nop
ennnrpapoH.("ycckn ec1nnk, 1991, N4). uenL Hnno, koneuno, sayun1:
ne 1onLko a ropope, no n a okpec1noc1nx. pnoro ropopa npoay, npn ero
1eHnepaHen1e, 6mno Hano. Haxopnauncn a ccmnke 6maun cekpe1apL
ppxonnknpse .ankpa1oa ckasan, ysnaa o rn6enn npoaa: "cnn ero y6nn
1annn, on 1enepL acex nac ynnu1oxn1. cnn epre Mnponoanu norn6 ns-sa
xenunnm - a1o ppyroe peno ("Iypok, 13 anpenn 1989). 3nan npaam npoaa,
ankpa1oa, 1aknH o6apasoH, ponyckan, u1o npoa Hor norn6ny1L ns-sa
xenunnm.
.Hnkonaea 6mn HanenLknH uenoaekoH c 6onLunHn npe1ensnnHn. caoeH
pneannke on nncan: " npnuen a a1o1 Hnp, kak noam enn6oa. coaepuy
ocao6opn1enLnm ak1 n cnacy occnk. Ho, no aepnoHy na6nkpennk Hnuue,
"opno - HmcnL; ppyroe - peno, 1pe1Le - o6pas pena. pec1ynnnk, ko1opm
6mn na amco1e caoero pena, korpa coaepuan ero, ne amnocn1 o6pas yxe
coaepuennoro pena. ak nponsouno n c HnkonaeamH: cpasy xe nocne
y6nc1aa on anan a nc1epnky, a korpa a ennnrpap npn6mna cnepc1aennan
koHnccnn c caHnH 1annnmH ao rnaae, Hnkonaea na nepaoH xe ponpoce
noaannncn na konenn n ykasan na ueknc1oa: "D1o onn Henn sac1aannn! e1mpe
Hecnua Henn noHann! nn ckasann Hne, u1o a1o nyxno nap1nn n rocypapc1ay.
anpe1ennHn a1o cuenm 6mnn a1opo cekpe1apL ennnrpapckoro o6koHa
ypoa, ampaxaaun yaepennoc1L, u1o Hnkonaeaa cpasy xe nocne a1oro
npnkonunnn, n o6nac1no npokypop anLraea, ko1opm sac1pennncn, nonna,
u1o ycnmuannoe ace paano 6ype1 c1on1L eHy xnsnn ("Iypok, 12 anpenn 1989).
1annn nocneunn nsaneuL ns y6nc1aa npoaa HakcnHyH nonn1nuecknx amrop
n npnkasan pasmrpa1L pnn ny6nnkn cype6nm qapc. nauana cnepnnn peno o
ennnrpapckoH 1eppopnc1nueckoH uen1pe, rnaao ko1oporo o6Lnannn aana
o1onmnoaa, 6mauero unena M, ncknkuennoro ns nap1nn a 1927 ropy
sa yuac1ne a snnoaLeacko onnosnunn. 13 uenoaek, npnun1mx k Hnkonaeay,
annoanmHn ce6n ne npnsnann, no 1eH ne Henee 6mnn pac c1pennnm. o1oH k
opnoHy ennnrpapckoHy uen1py peunnn po6aan1L n a1opo - apec1oaann 77
uenoaek ao rnaae c 6maunH unenoH .3anyuknH, nocne uero
pacnpoc1pannnn penpeccnn n na Mockay. pec1oaann 3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa,
6mauero cekpe1apn ennnrpapckoro o6koHa Ipnropnn apoknHoaa, 6mauero
nauanLnnka ennnrpapckoro [ aana akaeaa n pnp ppyrnx 6maunx
qynkunonepoa.
3pecL neo6xopnHo pa1L opno noncnenne. ..m6nn, anpnHo, no c1apoc1n,
ny1ae1 payx apoknHoamx. n nasmaae1 ekpe1apeH eaepo-aakasckoro
kpakoHa "nporo 1pouknc1a I.apoknHoaa, 1orpa kak na caHoH pene a1o1 noc1
sannHan qnH apoknHoa, 1apm ueknc1, "npocnaanauncn caonHn
saepc1aaHn nocne sann1nn kpacnmHn pmHa n qa6pnkaune npecnoay1oro
"uax1nnckoro pena.
o peny Mockoackoro uen1pa 3nnoaLeay pann pecn1L ne1, aHeneay nauana
nn1L, no1oH po6aannn eue nn1L, apoknHoay n akaeay - no aoceHL. orpa
xe, a nnaape 1935 ropa, cypnnn nennnrpapcknx ueknc1oa. s paenapua1n
uenoaek nan6onLun cpok nonyunn anLueanu - pecn1L ne1, a O.MepaepL -
acero 1pn ropa n noexan na enoHopkanan k annonop1y. 3anopoxeu npn6mn
na onmHy, kak pacckasmaak1 oueanpum, npn acex perannnx, n aosrnaann
anLc1po. ck a1y koHnannk pacc1pennnn a 1937 ropy.
He npouno n payx Hecnuea nocne rn6enn npoaa, kak onnosnunn nonecna
noayk 1nxenyk y1pa1y. 25 nnaapn 1935 ropa, ne poxna po 47 ne1, ckonuancn
..y6muea.
Ha npouecce 1938 ropa n a1a Hep1L 6mna o6Lnanena neec1ec1aenno.
6annnnn a ne cekpe1apn y6mueaa MakcnHoaa-nkoackoro, nko6m 1oxe
pec1aoaaauero no nayuennk ropm n nyknpse. Ho n 1orpa a1o o6annenne
amrnnpeno cnnukoH napyHannmH. y6mueay, anpn1e nn, ao apeHn
ceppeunoro npnc1yna nyxno 6mno nexa1L, a MakcnHoa nosaonnn eHy y1n
poHo. orpa a1a aepcnn 6mna, ckope acero, coc1pnnana nacnex, npoc1o pnn
narne1annn nanpnxennoc1n, no ecnn a 1e apeHena ace aannnn na "aparoa
napopa, 1o a naun apeHena c1ano HopnmH nann1L ace na 1annna, na
ko1oporo 1enepL aeuak1 n cHep1L y6mueaa. 3annHae1cn a1nH, a uac1noc1n,
cmn y6mueaa napnHnp (cH. c1a1Lk H.3enLkoanua "o6a ne Hor npoc1n1L
"opHockoanme nsaec1nn, 11 ok1n6pn 1991). cnxonornueckan noponneka
nko6m saknkuanacL a 1oH, u1o 1annn o1nocnncn c npepy6expenneH n
nopospn1enLnoc1Lk k 1aknH nkpnH, kak y6muea, amxopuaH ns
no1oHc1aennmx paopnncknx ceHe, nonyunaunH npekpacnoe o6pasoaanne. Ho
rnaanoe, uero "o6a ne Hor npoc1n1L y6mueay, - a1o 1pe6oaannn cospa1L
napannenLnyk koHnccnk no paccnepoaannk o6c1on1enLc1a rn6enn npoaa,
anecennoro y6mueamH na sacepannn onn16kpo a konue peka6pn 1934
ropa. pnnne1ae1cn k peny n ckanpan, nko6m pasmrpaauncn a konue
cen1n6pn I934ro4a na sakpm1oH sacepannn onn16kpo a cansn c
pasrnauenneH 1annnmH aoennmx 1an a 6ecepe c nnoc1panno peneraune.
3acepanne a1o, kak nac yaepnk1, 6mno cosaano no nnnuna1nae y6mueaa n
ppxonnknpse, n "ecnn 6m Mono1oa n nyknpse ne aospepxanncL 1orpa npn
ronocoaannn n ecnn 6m annnnn ne amc1ynnn c npnHnpn1enLno peuLk, 1o
eue nensaec1no, kak 6m cnoxnnacL cypL6a 1annna. cn a1a nc1opnn cnnLno
o1pae1 nnno. opospn1enLno yxe opno 1o, u1o n sakpm1oH sacepannn
onn16kpo no a1o aepcnn npnnnHae1 yuac1ne n paxe ronocye1 nyknpse,
ko1opm a onn16kpo ne axopnn n noceHy npaa 1aknx ne nHen.
y6muea, ckopee acero, yHep caoe cHep1Lk, npoc1o 6ypyun ne a cnnax
nepenec1n no1epk a1oporo "aepyuero nocne Opynse. na 1o1 cae1 on
nocnepoaan sa npoamH c1onL xe aepno, kak cnepoaan sa nnH npn xnsnn.
1 qeapann 1935 ropa nenyH nononnnn nopepeaune pnpm onn16kpo,
ns6pan ero unenaHn Mnkonna n y6apn, kanpnpa1aHn - panoaa n Dxe n
cekpe1apnHn - nppeeaa n xoaa. nnnnne nocnepne nnunoc1n pac1e1 c
kaxpmH HecnueH.
mpanran Mnkonna, 1annn narpaxpan ero sa aepnyk cnyx6y, a, c ppyro
c1oponm, cospaaan y onnosnunn nnnksnk, 6yp1o coo1nouenne cnn a
onn16kpo oc1ae1cn npexnnH, ecnn, koneuno, ona npoponxana cun1a1L
Mnkonna sa caoero n eue ne packycnna ero paonyk nrpy. nnksnn a1a
nopkpennnnacL 1eH, u1o y6mueaa saHennn ..y6apL, Hnoro ne1
sannHaaun noc1 npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa kpannm, a a 1934 ropy
nasnauennm saHec1n1eneH npepcepa1enn H .
a1mu o6ep1 nppnkoanu Dxe, "xosnnn n6npn, yxe ynoHnnancn panee kak
opnn ns "repoea konnek1nansaunn, po pacnna1m sa caon snopennnn a1nH
"reponH oc1aaanocL koHy paa, koHy 1pn ropa, no a 1935 ropy onn eue ne
snann, u1o nx xpe1, a koe-k1o, kak anpnH, paxe npoponxan aosamua1Lcn.
Hoaoe nasnauenne nppeeaa npepaeuano o11ecnenne na a1opo nnan
aranoanua. nn noHennnncL Hec1aHn: nppeea ns napkoHoa ny1e
coo6uennn nepeuen a cekpe1apn , a aranoanu c1an napkoHoH ny1e
coo6uennn, noHnnanLno oc1aaancL cekpe1apeH , no qak1nueckn yxe
yc1ynna a1o1 noc1. M aranoanua opnoapeHenno saHennn Xpyuea. nncok
xep1a nospneue unc1kn nokasmaae1, u1o kappoaan nonn1nka aranoanua a
Mockae onpepennnacL ero naunonanLnmHn cnHna1nnHn. ak, cekpe1apnHn M
6mnn oran n Mapronnn, saHec1n1eneH npepcepa1enn ncnonkoHa Iy6epHan
cekpe1apnHn pakoHoa - onoank, eaenu1en Mapreanu penac, epuHan,
Iy1nn, saa. o1penaHn M - pmHckn, epknoa, apne6en, Oypep n 1.p.
1935 rop osnaHenoaancn 1ak nasmaaeHmH "kpeHneacknH penoH (cH. "saec1nn
1989 ropa r N7). eno a1o cnnenn aokpyr pa6o1aaue a
peHneacko 6n6nno1eke Hnnm osenqenLp, apHnnkn, 6maue xenm
xypoxnnka Hnkonan osenqenLpa, 6pa1a aHeneaa 3a snakoHc1ao c unenaHn
a1o ceHLn noc1papann a o6ue cnoxnoc1n 110 uenoaek, aknkuan
6n6nno1ekape n y6opunu ns 1exnnueckoro nepconana peHnn, a 1akxe paoe
noHounnkoa koHenpan1a peHnn opounn n aanoa, cekpe1apL pnn
nopyuenn koHenpan1a peHnn nneno6oa nauanLnnk X onnkoa,
koHenpan1 onLuoro peHneackoro paopua ykLnnoa n pa6o1nnkn
pasaepynpaanennn pacno apHnn epnnackn n ene1. n6nno1ekape
.osenqenLp n Myxanoay, a 1akxe nopyuenua nneno6oaa o6annnna a
nopro1oake nokyuennn na 1annna. o npnroaopy aoenno konnernn
epxoanoro cypa 6mnn pacc1pennnm paoe - nneno6oa n epnnackn,
oc1anLnme ocyxpenm k pasnmH cpokaH saknkuennn. aH ..aHenea nonyunn
10 ne1 aHec1o nepaonauanLnmx nn1n, 6maune cynpyrn osenqenLpm no 10
ne1, nx cmn opnc, nnxenep - 5 ne1, ppyro nnxenep epre epoa, cmn
poukoro, 1oxe nn1L ne1.
a1o ansn na nknLckoH (1935) nenyHe (6) 6mn sacnyuan poknap
xoaa " nyxe6noH annapa1e cekpe1apna1a n 1oaapnue
.nyknpse. poknape roaopnnocL, u1o ns-sa npec1ynnoro nonyc1n1enLc1aa
nyknpse na 1eppn1opnn peHnn 6mna cospana uenan ce1L "1eppopnc1nuecknx
rpynn. nenyH oc1anoann amaec1n nyknpse ns coc1aaa n ncknkun1L ero
ns pnpoa nap1nn. neua1n nonannacL c1a1Ln panoaa n Xpyueaa,
o6annnaunx nyknpse a "rnnnoH nn6epannsHe n a 1oH, u1o on paaan npnk1
"kon1ppeaonkunonepaH. ak sakonunnacL nap1nnan kapLepa aenn
nyknpse, "pmxero aenn, kak nk6oano nasmaae1 ero H.ManpenLu1aH
6naropapnan eHy sa yuac1ne a ypL6e caoero Hyxa.
Ho a o6ueH xnsnL noka una caonH uepepoH, 6es oco6ennmx no1pncenn, n
paxe c1ana nyuue, ueH npexpe: noamcnncn xnsnennm ypoaenL, 6mna
o1Henena kap1ounan cnc1eHa. 1onLko c1penkn uy1knx cecHnuecknx
npn6opoa cnerka nopparnaann, ro1oancL k 6eueno nnncke.
1annn oc1aaancn neypoane1aopennmH: on amxan eue ne ace aosHoxnoc1n ns
c1apo onnosnunn. Onsnueckoe ynnu1oxenne paano o6esapexennmx
nonn1nuecknx pen1ene o1nkpL ne 6mno pnn nero caHouenLk, rnaano
sapaue oc1aaanocL paspyaanne c1pac1e, cospanne a1Hocqepm nc1epnuecko
nopospn1enLnoc1n, ko1opan opna 1onLko n Horna pasansa1L eHy pykn pnn
nonno n okonua1enLno pacnpaam c aepxyueuno onnosnune. ncnopaonL
nauan ro1oan1Lcn nepam ns snaHenn1mx Hockoacknx "6onLunx npoueccoa.
axnyk ponL a a1o onepaunn nrpann npoaoka1opm H, paonme aren1m,
neoxnpanno pnn ce6n c1aaune xep1aaHn. rpa aenacL no paspa6o1anno
paano, co apeHen onepaunn "pec1 He1opnke: kak a nauane 1936 ropa
npoaoka1op anen1nn nL6epr, 6esycneuno nm1aauncn npones1L k poukoHy,
pasmrpan ns ce6n 1pouknc1ckoro aHnccapa n cospan 1anyk oprannsaunk
cpepn c1ypen1oa, 1ak na 6onLuo npouecc nepamH c1ann na1acknaa1L
npoaoka1opoa H a IepHancko koHnap1nn n oHnn1epne Opnua aanpa n
onona epHan-pnna, a 1akxe payx nanmx nxecanpe1ene, Moncen n Ha1ana
ypLe. 3ac1aannn npnsna1Lcn a ne coaepuennmx nHn npec1ynnennnx 6mauero
nauanLnnka oxpanm poukoro DqpanHa peuepa, 6mauero cekpe1apn
3nnoaLeaa nxappa nkenn, 6mauero npepcepa1enn npoqcoksa
1ekc1nnLunkoa caaka enronLpa. a1o xe koHnannn npnunnn yxe
snakoHoro naH aana Hnkn1nua Hnpnoaa, nko6m ocnapnaaauero y 1annna
ponxnoc1L renceka, Hnkonan aanoanua Mypanoaa, aoennoro pykoaopn1enn
k1n6pLcko peaonkunn a Mockae, a nosxe - koHanpykuero M, a 1akxe
IonLuHana, ep-arannna, Mpaukoackoro n ppyrnx.
un6ouno pyHa1L, 6yp1o ace a1n npnsnannn po6maanncL 1onLko 6n1LeH.
pnHennnncL n 6onee nsoupennme, nesyn1ckne He1opm, ocnoaannme na
snannn nsapauenno ncnxonornn c1apmx nap1nuea, ro1oamx na ace papn
ap1nn - amcue uennoc1n a nx xnsnn. D1n He1opm onncanm a poHane
.ec1nepa "nennuan 1LHa, n caH ec1nep 6mn ypnanen, nackonLko 1ouno on
yrapan nx, korpa npouen aocnoHnnannn 6ernoro coae1ckoro pasaepunka
pnanukoro, pacckasmaaauero, kak ero cocnyxnaeu nyukn nepey6epnn
repon rpaxpancko aonm Mpaukoackoro, ko1opm, kak n .H.Hnpnoa,
necHo1pn na ace nm1kn, o1kasmaancn nopnncmaa1L nnnoame nokasannn.
Mpaukoackn snan, u1o a c1pane nakonnnocL nepoaonLc1ao, yrpoxakuee
aspmaoH, no o6Lepnnenne c nkpLHn, noc1oponnnHn nap1nn, osnauano 6m
koneu opnonap1nno cnc1eHm, a Mpaukoackn cnnukoH cnnLno aepoaan a
npek pnk1a1ypm npone1apna1a n ne cHen nocnrny1L na nee paxe Hmcnenno.
Mpaukoackn cornacnncn co nyuknH, u1o nac1onun 6onLueank o6nsan
nopunnn1L co6c1aennme noHmcnm n onk noHmcna, n aone nap1nn n, ecnn
nyxno, 6ec1pene1no np1n na cHep1L, a 1o n nosopnyk cHep1L. nockonLky
anL1epna1nam c1annncko Haunne anac1n, kak amncnnnocL, ne1, ne oc1ae1cn
nnuero, kpoHe kak, cnacan a1o1 pexnH, noc1apa1Lcn npepynpepn1L
o6peuennm aspma nepoaonLc1aa pasouapoaannmx, pesopnen1npoaannmx Hacc.
nn a1oro nap1nn nyxno, u1o6m 6maune nnpepm onnosnunn ny6nnuno
npnsnanncL a coaepuennn uypoanunmx npec1ynnenn.
pnpn k a1oHy amaopy, Mpaukoackn nonpocnn o ac1peue co HnpnoamH n
ckasan eHy: "aan Hnkn1nu, pa nH, uero onn xo1n1. D1o nyxno pa1L.
(.ec1nep. parepnn "c1anLnmx nkpe. "n1epa1ypnan rase1a, 1988, N31).
oae1ckne ueknc1m oxo1no pennnncL caonH onm1oH a nopnpke okasannn
"nn1epnaunonanLno noHoun, n pa6o1nnkn 6pa1cknx cekpe1nmx cnyx6 c
ycnexoH npnHennnn 1e xe He1opm. onLckn xypnannc1 nk1op opounnLckn
pacckasan a caoeH "enrepckoH pneannke 1956 ropa, kak a 1949 ropy
ro1oannn npouecc acno aka. D1oHy aenrepckoHy koHHynnc1y roaopnnn
npnHepno 1o xe, u1o n MpaukoackoHy: "1pana nepexnaae1 1pypnoc1n. Ho
napop ne noHe1, noueHy, - a 1onkoc1nx akonoHnkn n nonn1nke on ne
pas6npae1cn. kaxeH eHy o npepa1enLc1ae - a1o roaopn1 aoo6paxennk
kaxporo. m ponxen asn1L anny na ce6n. D1o c1pauno, no aepL 1m c1apm
1oaapnu - neyxenn 1m ne noHoxeuL nap1nn?
o1 1akan nap1nnan 1papnunn 1nnynacL c ne1a 1936 ropa. D1nH ne1oH, 18
nknn, yHep .M.IopLkn. Ha npouecce 1938 ropa a1y cHep1L naaecnnn na
ropy, paano kak n cHep1L cmna IopLkoro, MakcnHa eukoaa. ropa nko6m
nopyunn pkukoaa, cekpe1apn IopLkoro, paaa1L MakcnHy kak Hoxno 6onLue
ankoronn, a no1oH npoc1ypn1L ero, "oc1aan1L kak-nn6ypL nonexa1L a cnery.
o ncnonnenne a1oro npnkasa pkukoa a cmpyk, xonopnyk nouL 2 Han 1934
ropa oc1aann MakcnHa opnoro, nLnnoro, na ckaHeke Hockoackoro 6ynLaapa,
nocne uero MakcnH sa6onen aocnanenneH nerknx n yHep. ak nnue1
H.ep6epoaa (enesnan xenunna, HLk-opk, 1982, c.262), "Hano k1o a1oHy
epnn. MakcnH 6mn Honop, cnop1naen, spopoa. apn npaaponopo6nn
npnunocL po6aan1L nenpaannLnoe neuenne, npoaopnaueecn coo6unnkaHn
ropm, "pok1opaHn HornnLno Hepnunnm, kak nsoupnnncL rase1m 1938 ropa,
eannmHn n ne1neamH. ropa, npaapa, yaepnn na cype, u1o pec1aoaan ne no
nonn1nuecknH, a no nnunmH Ho1naaH, - xena MakcnHa eukoaa Hapexpa
aepenckan 6mna nk6oannue ropm.
D1nH xe pok1opaH 6mno npepLnaneno o6annenne, 6yp1o onn no npnkasy ropm
"saneunnn n caHoro IopLkoro. 6annenne a1o n 1orpa yxe amrnnpeno a
poc1a1ouno c1enenn nnnoamH. osxe aosnnkna ac1peunan aepcnn, 6yp1o
IopLkoro y6pan 1annn, no1oHy u1o "aennkn npone1apckn nnca1enL nko6m
Heuan pasansa1L 1eppop. Ha caHoH pene IopLkn paano yxe nnkoHy n nnueHy
ne Heuan. opno c1oponm, aosnecennm po ne6ec n okpyxennm qnHnaHoH,
a c ppyro - asn1m nop neycmnnm kon1ponL, qnsnueckn n HopanLno
cnoHnennm, IopLkn, ne rnnpn, nopHaxnyn 6m nk6o npnroaop,
saansnpoaannm 1annnmH. Oak1nueckn, kak nnca1enL n kak uenoaek, IopLkn
yHep yxe paano, ero qnsnueckan cHep1L sa paa Hecnua po nauana "aennkoro
1eppopa ne ponxna caoe kaxyuecn caoeapeHennoc1Lk naaopn1L na
Hpaunme nopospennn.
noHepe 6 "ounannc1nueckoro aec1nnka sa 1954 rop nonannacL
qan1ac1nueckan aepcnn nekoe pnrn11m Iepnanp, 6yp1o 6m cnpeaue aHec1e
c pok1opoH ne1neamH a narepe na opky1e n cnmuaaue o1 nero pacckas o6
o1paanennn IopLkoro uokonapnmHn konqe1aHn. H.ep6epoaa nepeckasmaae1
a1y 6aky na c1p. 303-304 caoe ynoHnny1o knnrn n cun1ae1 a1o
canpe1enLc1ao "y6epn1enLnmH. Ha caHoH pene .Iepnanp ne Horna o6ua1Lcn c
ne1neamH: oc1aaunxcn a xnamx canpe1ene nncuennpoaok 30-x ropoa
pepxann a c1poro nsonnunn n ne paaann nH oco6enno saxnaa1Lcn. ak
1enepL yc1anoaneno, ne1nea 6mn pacc1pennn a 1941 ropy n no opno a1o
npnunne ne Hor nnuero pacckasa1L a 1948 ropy .Iepnanp (cH.c1a1Lk
..apaxoaa, saa. apxnaoH IopLkoro, a "n1epa1ypno rase1e, 1989, N28).
cnn 6m 1annn Hor un1a1L nauy npeccy nocnepnnx ne1, c1a1Ln, a ko1opmx eHy
npnnncmaanncL y6nc1aa Opynse, y6mueaa, IopLkoro n ppyrnx, on,
naaepno, ne npeHnnyn 6m npoun1npoaa1L Hononor opnca Iopynoaa:
1o nn yHpe1, n acex y6nua 1anm:
yckopnn Oeopopa konunny,
o1paann caok cec1py uapnuy, - Monaxnnk cHnpennyk... ace n!
epam 6onLuo npouecc npoxopnn a aaryc1e 1936 ropa nop o1panennm
rpoxo1 nauaauecn 18 nknn rpaxpancko aonm a cnannn. D1o1
akkoHnaneHen1 6mn pnn 1annna kak nenLsn 6onee kc1a1n, no ncnanckne pena
ace xe ne nac1onLko o1aneknn posoayk sanapnyk nn1ennnrenunk, u1o6m ona
ne npnuna a yxac o1 o6nnnn cHep1nmx npnroaopoa a Mockae. 25 aaryc1a 1936
ropa 3nnoaLea, aHenea, .Hnpnoa n ppyrne o1npaannncL a 1o1 Hnp,
o1npaaky kypa nonn1nuecknx npo1nannkoa onn opno apeHn cun1ann caoe
nonn1nuecko Honononne, a ueH rny6oko sa6nyxpanncL.

oco6oe nponsaopc1ao no npoueccy 1936 ropa 6mnn ampenenm pena Iep1nka,
Ipnn6epra, Iaaena, Ma1opnna, .nL6epra, Oannnoanua, koHpnaa p.Hnp1a,
c ko1oporo nauann pasHa1maa1L nnosnunk a apHnn, n pnpa ppyrnx. pnnnenn
k a1oHy peny n nccapnona oHnnapse, ko1opm nocne onanm pa6o1an
ekpe1apeH Marnn1oropckoro ropkoHa n caoeapeHenno nokonunn c co6o a
1935 ropy.
pnako nonm1ka pasy xe pasan1L a1aky ne ypanacL. 10 cen1n6pn 1936 ropa
"paapa o6Lnanna o nn1nn o6annenn c yxapnna n mkoaa. o1nnune o1
3nnoaLeaa n aHeneaa, paano 6maunx nonn1nuecknHn 1pynaHn, a1n pen1enn
eue pepxanncL na nocnepne 1ynenLke anac1n. Ha XVII Lespe yxapnn,
mkoa n oHckn 6mnn ns6panm kanpnpa1aHn a unenm . yxapnn
pepak1npoaan "saec1nn, mkoa sannHan noc1 napkoHa cansn.
.onkaec1 nonarae1, u1o sa nnx xopa1ac1aoaann "neko1opme unenm
onn16kpo, ne y1ounnn, o koH nHenno npe1 peuL (ennkn 1eppop, c.214).
onn16kpo k a1oHy apeHenn oc1ancn, noxany, nnuL opnn uenoaek, ko1opm
Hor pnckny1L amc1ynn1L c nopo6nmH xopa1ac1aoH, - a1o ppxonnknpse.
nesanno ynepcn n 6eso1kasnm po 1ex nop ropa. ansn Hexpy 6maue
npaao onnosnune, ropo n ppxonnknpse Hoxno npocnepn1L no nnnnn
a, uepes nyknpse, ko1opm c1an ekpe1apeH eue npn xnsnn
aeppnoaa, a ropa, kak yxe roaopnnocL, 6mn opc1aennnkoH n npo1exe
aeppnoaa. ppyro c1oponm, unenoH ponroe apeHn 6mn oHckn.
nyknpse 1akxe c paannx nop 6mn xopouo snakoH c ppxonnknpse. He
nyuano na npouecce 1938 ropa ns nyknpse cpenann rnaanyk npyxnny
saroaopa n npnnncann eHy ponL cansykuero saena n nepepa1unka npnkasoa
Hexpy necyuec1aykunH "npaao1pouknc1cknH uen1poH n ropo. Mnqonornn
1aopnnacL ne na nyc1oH Hec1e, a aokpyr anonne peanLnmx canse, no coaceH
nnoro xapak1epa. pnako nyknpse ne ypanocL cnoHa1L n sac1aan1L
nso6paxa1L ns ce6n uy1a na npouecce 1938 ropa. Hanpacnnny nannnn yxe na
Hep1aoro: caHoro nyknpse pacc1pennnn a peka6pe 1937 ropa.
6napyxnauancn nenapexnoc1L ropm nocnyxnna noaopoH pnn 1oro, u1o6m
yc1pon1L nakoneu-1o norpoH a 1o eapecko naaouke, a ko1opyk on
npeapa1nn Hp, n ko1opyk po cnx nop onnaknaae1 ropkunHn kpokopnnoamHn
cnesaHn .apnknn. 25 cen1n6pn 1936 ropa c kra none1ena snaHenn1an
1enerpaHHa-Honnnn 1annna n panoaa (onn onn1L o1pmxann aHec1e):
"un1aeH a6conk1no neo6xopnHmH n cpounmH penoH nasnauenne 1.xoaa na
noc1 napkoHanypena, ropa nanmH o6pasoH okasancn ne na amco1e caoe
sapaun a pene paso6nauennn 1pouknc1cko-snnoaLeackoro 6noka. I onospan
a a1oH pene na ue1mpe ropa. 6 a1oH roaopn1 ace nap1pa6o1nnkn n
6onLunnc1ao o6nac1nmx npepc1aan1ene H .
pesynL1a1e uepes 19 ne1 nocne yc1anoanennn oae1cko anac1n ee
kapa1enLnm annapa1 anepame aosrnaann pycckn. osHoxno, nHenno a1o
o6c1on1enLc1ao n amsmaae1 oco6yk sno6y y neko1opmx nmneunnx aa1opoa,
apope .ononnnckoro, ko1opm a caoe c1a1Le "xoa: nop1pe1 nanaua
("HesaancnHan rase1a, 4 peka6pn 1991) pncye1 naH nop1pe1 ne uenoaeka, a
kakoro-1o nsnauanLno yuep6noro cyuec1aa c uenmH 6yke1oH qnsnuecknx n
npaac1aennmx nopokoa: specL n "nnqan1nnnsH, n "cony1c1aykuan o6ueHy
qnsnueckoHy nnqan1nnnsHy sapepxka ncnxnueckoro pasan1nn, n "oco6an
xec1okoc1L ncnopuennoro n nepopasan1oro pe6enka, n ankoronnsH.
I.n1pnnnk a c1a1Le "acc1penLnoe peno xoaa ("n1epa1ypnan rase1a,
1992, N7) po6aanne1 k a1oHy eue n sanHc1aoaannoe ns npnroaopa no peny
xoaa o6annenne a nepepac1nn.
D1y 1enpenunk nso6paxa1L xoaa saaepoHmH Honc1poH eue a 70-x ropax
nm1ancn npepynpepn1L a caoe caHnspa1cko c1a1Le o xoae M.epnu1aH,
ko1opm, nao6opo1, nopuepknaan oppnnapnoc1L xoaa, anpn a neH 1nnnunoro
nap1nnoro qynkunonepa. pec1an1enLno, a 6norpaqnn xoaa ne1 nnuero
neo6munoro: popnncn a 1895 ropy a e1ep6ypre, ns pa6ounx, caH pa6o1an c 14
ne1, a 1917 ropy c1an 6onLueankoH, yuac1aoaan ao asn1nn 3nHnero paopua, a
20-x ropax pa6o1an cekpe1apeH asaxckoro kpakoHa. apenLka npnHe1nnn, n
ero asnn a cao cekpe1apna1 1annn. D1o yxe 6mno sanoroH rpnpyue
kapLepm. s a1oro xe annapa1a, ko1opm aosrnaannn cnauana ..oac1yxa
(yHep a 1935 ropy), a no1oH .H.ockpe6muea, asne1enn nosxe k aepunnaH
anac1n Manenkoa n Mexnnc, 1929-1930 ropax, 1o ec1L a pasrap
konnek1nansaunn, xoaa npnc1aannn saHec1n1eneH k napkoHy seHnepennn
koaneay (Dnu1eny), a a 1930-1934 ropax noc1aannn ao rnaae
pacnpepo1pena n o1pena kappoa .
1annn pypakoa n 6espenLnnkoa ne pepxan. xoae eHy nonpaannncL
ncnonnn1enLnoc1L n nynk1yanLnoc1L - kauec1aa, ko1opmHn nnqan1nnLnme
nkpn, k caepennk .ononnnckoro, kak pas ne 6neuy1, Hoxno anonne
noaepn1L Mono1oay, u1o xoa 6mn "ouenL nanopnc1m, kpenkn pa6o1nnk.
nanpacno I.n1pnnnk sapnnH uncnoH amroaapnaae1 H..ManpenLu1aH sa ee
o1sma o xoae kak o "ckpoHnoH n poaonLno npnn1noH uenoaeke, Xpyuea aepL
1oxe nop1aepxpae1: "xoa na Henn nponsaopnn aneua1nenne xopouee, on 6mn
annHa1enLnmH uenoaekoH. opo6nme 1smam roaopn1 e nonLsy aepcnn
epnu1aHa: xoa ne 6mn Monc1poH o1 poxpennn, Monc1poH ero cpenana
cnc1eHa, Monc1poH o1 poxpennn 6mna 1a oprannsaunn, ao rnaae ko1opo
xoaa noc1aannn a 1936 ropy.
nepykun aonpoc: ckasanocL nn kak-1o na pen1enLnoc1n xoaa ero pycckoe
nponcxoxpenne? Ha a1o1 aonpoc nyxno pa1L coaepuenno ue1kn
o1pnua1enLnm o1ae1. un1a1L xoaa "pyccko He1no c1onL xe neneno, kak
1annna - "pyccknH aoxpeH, Xo1n xoa n aosHyuancn "nropnncknH
o1popLeH sa 1o, u1o ono "kaxpoe 1pouknc1ckoe peno nasmaano "nnno, n
xaac1ancn 1eH, u1o "nounc1nn 14 1mcnu ueknc1oa, on caH npnsnaaan:
"rpoHnan Hon anna saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o n Hano nx nounc1nn (a1n
nokasannn xoaa un1npyk1cn a c1a1Le I.n1pnnnka), xoaa npoponxano
okpyxa1L 1o xe caHoe "nropnnckoe o1popLe. nauana ero nepamH
saHec1n1eneH 6mn M.epHan, 6maun nauanLnnk IIa, sa1eH - capnc1
3akoackn, opypoaaaun panee a ennnrpape n knunauncn 1eH, u1o n
Mapkca sac1aann 6m npnsna1Lcn a unnonaxe a nonLsy ncHapka. pyrnH
saHec1n1eneH xoaa 6mn Opnnoackn, 6maun nauanLnnk norpanaock,
ko1opm, kak Hm noHnnH, a nauane 30-x ropoa nopaannn aocc1anne na
eaepnoH aakase, c1aaanncL a annapa1e xoaa n ppyrne nropnnckne kappm,
ko1opme nosxe po6naan yxe epnn.
osHoxno, k1o-1o, Hoxe1 6m1L, 1o1 xe panoa n paccun1maan ncnonLsoaa1L
xoaa a kauec1ae "pyccko py6nnkn, opnako Ha1epnan pnn a1oro opypnn 6mn
am6pan kpane neypauno.
c1L 1akan knnra "DcqnpL XX aeka, nspannan a spanne (k coxanennk, ne
nHek aosHoxnoc1n nasaa1L nn ee aa1opa, nn amxopnme pannme). am snae1e,
o koH ona? arennn onoHonoane Xak1nno, cynpyre H..xoaa.
n6neckan DcqnpL, kak nsaec1no, 6ypyun nk6oannue nepcnpckoro uapn,
cyHena o1aec1n 6epy o1 eapeea, o6pa1na penpeccnn, nauenennme na nnx,
npo1na nepcnpcknx "an1nceHn1oa ao rnaae c Hnnnc1poH HanoH. "nnra
Dcqnpn unc1o aopm nn1epa1ypa, a nc1opnn epcnn 1ako annsop ne
nsaec1en, no 6n6neckan ampyHka copepxn1 peuen1 pec1an na ace apeHena.
"DcqnpL XX aeka, snan o ro1oanunxcn penpeccnnx n nx an1neapecko
nanpaanennoc1n, sa6naroapeHenno nsaec1nna coo1ae1c1aykune uen1pm, n
o11ypa 6mna pasocnana pnpek1naa na Hec1a "nnca1L kak Hoxno 6onLue
ponocoa na pyccknx.
..xoaa yHepna a nopHockoanoH cana1opnn 21 non6pn 1938 ropa, 1o ec1L
nesaponro po cnn1nn xoaa, o1 o1paanennn nkHnnanoH. e 1oxe sanopospnnn
a "unnonaxe. xoay a npnroaope nnkpnHnnnpoaann n y6nc1ao xenm.
Ho ace a1o cnyunnocL no1oH. nauan xoa caok pen1enLnoc1L ao rnaae H
no c1apoHy ua6nony. en na6op kon1nnren1a pnn a1oporo 6onLuoro npouecca.
1 nepao sa6panno nap1nn oc1aaancn nencnonLsoaannmH eue Mypanoa,
ko1oporo ponoHann nnuL a peka6pe 1936 ropa. neHy po6aannn c1apmx
onnosnunonepoa n1akoaa n okonLnnkoaa. epam ns nnx eue 6mn unenoH, a
a1opo kanpnpa1oH a unenm , n o6a sannHann aaxnme xosnc1aennme
noc1m. pnn anue y6epn1enLnoc1n npnHeuann k peny epe6pnkoaa n apeka,
6mauero cekpe1apn (6) po6nnca, a 1akxe nauann noneHnory uepc1n1L
n coae1cknx "Henepxepoa - nauanLnnka rnaaka xnHnuecko
npoHmunennoc1n a1auaka, pnpek1opa ropnoackoro aso1noro saaopa yunna,
saHec1n1ene aranoanua no H naunua, nnseaa n ypoka, a nocne
aspmaa na uax1e a eHepoao apec1oaann n Hec1nmx pykoaopn1ene Hopknna n
Hockoaa. He o6ounocL n 6es npoaoka1opoa - ec1ona n Ipaue. Hakoneu,
anepame nonanncn a pene n Hacon (u1o eHy 1oxe c1aannocL a anny) -
pnonLp, o6annnauncn a nokyuennn na Mono1oaa a ys6acce (pasyHee1cn,
nnnoaoH).
D1o 6mn Hacon nepam, no o1nkpL ne nocnepnn. ak nnue1 .akc6epr a
c1a1Le "Macon, sn1L Hacona (n1epa1ypnan rase1a, 1990, N52), 16 Han 1937
ropa 6mn apec1oaan c1apm ueknc1 Ine6 okn, ponroe apeHn "kypnpoaaaun
II. oknn o6annnnn "a oprannsaunn Haconcko noxn c sapaue caeprny1L
coae1ckn rocypapc1aennm c1po. .akc6epr nspeaae1cn nap D1nH
1aopuec1aoH nepoaa1ene 1937 ropa, no napo ckasa1L, a nx 1aopennnx
qnrypnpyk1 n necoHnennme Maconm, nanpnHep, nsaec1nm ca1annc1
Iyppxnea, ocnoaaaun a 1918 ropy, nakanyne o1Lespa a aHnrpaunk noxy
"pnnoe 1pypoaoe 6pa1c1ao, n snaHenn1m xypoxnnk H..epnx. peeHnnkoH
Iyppxnea a ponn "nac1aannka noxn 6mn Hek1o ..apuenko, a ee unenaHn,
kpoHe oknn, saH. HapkoHa nnoc1pannmx pen .1oHonnkoa n unen oHn1e1a
coae1ckoro kon1ponn .Mockann, xena1m na 6maue xene oknn. ak
yc1anoannn a 1956 ropy, okn pec1an1enLno sannHancn nsyuenneH
c1pyk1ypm n npenmx 1euenn Haconc1aa.
Ho Hm neckonLko sa6exann anepep. Marnc1panLnyk nnnnk co6m1n npepaana
a nauane 1937 ropa nn1epnkpnn c .oc1mueamH. .onkaec1 y1aepxpae1,
6yp1o oc1muea nopan "opnn ns caHmx cnnLnmH ronocoa sa yHepennm kypc
(ennkn 1eppop, c.227). D1o nko6m n amsaano cnn1ne oc1mueaa a Hap1e
1937 ropa, 1o ec1L nocne ero amc1ynnennn na qeapanLckoH nnenyHe , c
noc1a a1oporo cekpe1apn (6), npnueH saHennn ero na a1oH noc1y
MenpenL Xa1aeanu. erenpa o npo1ec1e oc1mueaa npo1na neo6ocnoaannmx
penpeccn Hyccnpoaana a naue npecce a xpyueackne apeHena. Ha noaepky
xe neo6ocnoaanno okasmaae1cn caHa a1a nerenpa. Mm yxe pacckasmaann o
1oH, kak canpenc1aoaan oc1muea a 1932 ropy a Hnxne-onxckoH kpae.
panLneunx ero "nopanrax na kpanne, rpe on rpoHnn Hec1nme
naunonanLnme kappm, noaec1aye1 a caoe knnre " cypy nc1opnn .Mepaepea
(c1p.800-801), no cnoaaH ko1oporo nHenno oc1muea aHec1e c nauanLnnkoH
ykpannckoro I annuknH oprannsoaann 1paank kpmnnnka n poaenn ero po
caHoy6nc1aa. nauane 1937 ropa oc1muea nocmnan annukoHy pecn1kn
cnnckoa c co1nnHn qaHnnn nn a ueH ne noannnmx nkpe. nocne
qeapanLckoro nnenyHa oc1muea npoponxan cankunonnpoaa1L co1nn n
1mcnun apec1oa. nnnn ero ne nsHennnacL n nocne 1oro, kak on 6mn nonnxen
a ponxnoc1n n nasnauen nepamH cekpe1apeH y6mueackoro kpakoHa.
1938 ropy nHenno nop ero pykoaopc1aoH y6mueackn kpa 6mn ounuen o1
aparoa napopa c xec1okoc1Lk, ne anpanno a ppyrnx o6nac1nx. oc1muea
cankunonnpoaan pasrpoH nou1n acex kpaeamx oprannsaun, 110 pakoHoa,
oprannsoaan npoaokaunonnm o1kpm1m npouecc 3. n nepepenmaan Hnorne
ns nanpaanneHmx eHy na ansy npnroaopoa, 1pe6yn nepepko pacc1pena 1aH, rpe
npokypop n cnepoaa1enL cun1ann aosHoxnmH orpannun1Lcn 8-10 ropaHn
saknkuennn. oc1muea 6mn cnn1, cornacno oqnunanLno qopHynnpoake, "sa
nc1pe6nenne kappoa n c ornacko amaepen ns kanpnpa1oa a unenm
onn16kpo 1onLko na nnaapckoH nnenyHe 1938 ropa, korpa 6mno npnnn1o
noc1anoanenne, ocyxpakuee Haccoame penpeccnn. n aceHn cnnaHn c1apancn
ypepxa1Lcn na aonne 1eppopa, 1ak u1o a "repon nano ne ropn1cn.
He 6mn repoeH n ppxonnknpse, ko1opm nokonunn c co6o 13 qeapann 1937
ropa. okpyr nero k a1oHy apeHenn ace 1ecne cxnHanocL snoaeuee konLuo.
mnn apec1oaanm ero c1apun 6pa1 anynnn, nneHnnnnk Iaaxapnn, pnpek1op
Makeeackoro saaopa, n saHec1n1enL ppxonnknpse no napkoHa1y 1nxeno
npoHmunennoc1n Iypeanu. osxe, a 1941 ropy, sa6pann n payx ppyrnx
6pa1Lea ppxonnknpse onc1an1nna n ano, npnueH onc1an1nn npocnpen 15
ne1. o1oH ace a1o o6Lncnnnn apaxpo Hexpy ppxonnknpse n epne, no a
1937 ropy epnn eue ne pacnopnxancn a H. 6c1anoaky ncnxonornueckoro
paanennn n sanyrnaannn aokpyr ppxonnknpse cospaaan caH 1annn,
c1peHncL ne1pannsoaa1L ero, kak opnoro ns nnpepoa onnosnunn, no
nensaec1no, axopnna nn a nnanm 1annna cHep1L ppxonnknpse. Xo1n co
caonHn rpysnncknHn npo1nannkaHn 1annn pacnpaannncn c1onL xe
6ecnouapno, kak n co aceHn npounHn, on ace xe ocosnaaan caok
uyxepopnoc1L a occnn n acerpa c1peHnncn nHe1L cpepn 6nnxauero
okpyxennn koro-nn6ypL ns "caonx.
I..ppxonnknpse cpepn koHHynnc1nuecknx npaan1ene naue c1panm 6mn
o1nkpL ne ns xypunx, 1ak u1o nenonn1no, saueH appyr aspyHana sapnnH
uncnoH ony6nnkoaa1L na6op cnne1en o neH "occnckan rase1a (3 nknn 1992
ropa, c1a1Ln .a1mueaa "ospnee npospenne). Hapo ckasa1L, u1o xyxe acero
o1nocn1cn k ppxonnknpse a ero popno Ipysnn, rpe a 1989 ropy nepamH
penoH paspyunnn nHenno ero naHn1nnk, npnueH nn opnn saaop paxe ne
cornacnncn asn1L uennm apope 6m He1ann na nepennaaky.
xoackan unc1ka, kak yxe roaopnnocL, 6mna naua1a 1aH, rpe ee n cnepoaano
naunna1L, - a annapa1e H, caHoH cnnLnoH n caHoH onacnoH uen1pe
nnopopueckoro annnnnn a c1pane. Hap1e 1937 ropa 6mnn apec1oaanm nou1n
ace nauanLnnkn o1penoa H n sa kopo1kn cpok nepe6n1m 300 co1pypnnkoa
a1o kpoaaao oprannsaunn, a a anpene 1937 ropa yanpen caon peue1kn c
o6pa1no c1oponm n caH ropa. ueH on pyHan, rnnpn na nnx? cnoHnnan
caoero nokpoan1enn aeppnoaa? anen o6 ynyuennmx aosHoxnoc1nx? oueHy
on pan ce6n coxpa1L, a ne nanec ypap nepamH, kak epnn a 1953 ropy? Moxno
nnuL npepnonoxn1L, u1o ropa 6mn cknonen k caHoo6onLuennk, cun1an, u1o
1annn 6es nero ne o6ope1cn, napenncn na cansannoc1L o6unH
npec1ynnenneH, no on sa6mn o neuanLno yuac1n 1ex, k1o cnnukoH Hnoro
snae1 npo caonx xosnea. epnn yuen oun6kn ropm n noc1apancn nx ne
noa1opn1L.
!"
naue aenn ce6n saroaopunkn 1934 ropa. nn-1o ace nonnnn. onnnn n
cpenann amaopm. rpe 6es npaann onn 1oxe peunnn npo1naonoc1aan1L nrpy
6es npaann, 1anoHy y6nc1ay - aoennm nepeaopo1, rnaanmH kosm peH a
a1o nrpe c1an paano Heu1aaun o naapax poccnckoro onanap1a Hapuan
oae1ckoro oksa M.H.yxaueackn.
opnncn on 16 qeapann 1893 ropa a oporo6yxckoH yespe Honencko
ry6epnnn n npnnapnexan, co c1oponm o1ua, k c1apoHy paopnnckoHy popy,
Ha1epLk xe ero 6mna npoc1an kpec1Lnnka Maapa e1poana Mnnonoaa, na
ko1opyk on, kc1a1n, n noxopnn aneune. Ho neocaepoHnennyk ny6nnky
o6Hanmaan 6neck qaHnnnn, o ueH nncan nosxe ..opopckn a caoe knnre
"Mapuan yxaueackn (M., 1966, c.5-7): "ero 1onLko ne 6mno n ne1 a
neua1no c1pnnne pocyxe 6ynLaapno npeccm y1 n o6nsa1enLno ae1anc1oe
reneanornueckoe ppeao ppeaneuero paopnnckoro popa, nacnepc1aennan
"aoennan xnnka o1 npepkoa XII c1one1nn, nrpa HeuoH a konm6enn,
yaneuenne c pe1c1aa sannckaHn nnn esapn o IannLcko aone n
cyaopoacknHn noxopaHn n 6n1aaHn, neo1ansnan Heu1a o raappeckoH Hynpnpe,
6esyHnoe uec1onk6ne n neyeHnan xaxpa cnaam. o1 a ueH, okasmaae1cn,
npnunna nepexopa apnc1okpa1a yxaueackoro a koHHynnc1nueckn c1an,
o6Lncnenne ero 6nnc1a1enLnmx aoennmx no6ep. o1, okasmaae1cn, noueHy on,
6nec1nun raappeckn oqnuep c1onnunoro nonka, "nerko npoHennn
knunnam knaep na ckpoHnyk 6ypenoaky... naue kak n ueH Hoxno o6Lncnn1L
yHonoHpaun1enLnyk kapLepy 6esycoro uapckoro nopnopyunka?
a1o 1npape Hnoro coHnn1enLnmx Hec1 - n c1enenL apnc1okpa1nsHa y
saaepoHoro 6ac1appa, n no6epm, ne 1akne yx 6nnc1a1enLnme, kak Hm eue
yanpnH, no acn ona nonapo6nnacL opopckoHy nnuL pnn 1akoro aqqek1noro
konua: "3asopno aec1n nonkoaopueckoe nauano yxaueackoro o1 kpnka,
nneyca n pyaopa, ko1opme k coae1ckoHy aoennoHy nckycc1ay ne nHek1
a6conk1no nnkakoro o1nouennn!
HenLsn 6es o1apauennn un1a1L a1y cnecnayk 6on1oank ne noHnnuero popc1aa
neaexpm, ko1oporo npnyunnn c yxHmnouko o1nocn1Lcn k pycckoHy npounoHy.
Ipnnyna aona - n yc1anoannncL o1nouennn n k y1ysoay, n k yaopoay, n k
nekcanppy HeackoHy, npnueH yc1anoannncL onn paxe panLue - a 1937 ropy,
korpa nocapnnn opopckoro. napo 6mno nocapn1L, u1o6m uyuL ne nopon.
unncn yxaueackn a ensencko rnHnasnn 1ak ce6e. 3a1o 1- Mockoackn
nHnepa1pnum ka1epnnm 11 kape1ckn kopnyc okonunn nepamH yuennkoH.
3a1eH nekcanppoackoe aoennoe yunnnue - 1oxe 6nec1nune ycnexn - n
amnyck nopnopyunkoH a ne6-raappnn eHenoackn nonk, a c1onnunm
rapnnson. Ho 1y1 kak pas nauanacL aona, n nonk cpasy xe nocnann na qpon1.
Mapuan ..npksoa a npepncnoann k "s6pannmH nponsaepennnH
yxaueackoro (M., 1964) n 1o1 xe opopckn nnuy1 o "6ora1oH, paxe
"6ora1eueH 6oeaoH onm1e yxaueackoro. Ho korpa, cnpaunaae1cn,
yxaueackn ycnen ero na6pa1Lcn? nauana ero uac1L ace apeHn
nepe6pacmaann: pannynn 6mno a 1-k apHnk ennenkaHnqa - nepepyHann,
c1ann qopHnpoaa1L 9-k apHnk eunukoro pnn nac1ynnennn na epnnn n
ceHenoauea noaesnn a apuaay, no1oH onn1L nepepyHann n 6pocnnn na
noHouL 4- apHnn a paon aanropop-k6nnn. po6on1aauncL 1aknH
o6pasoH c Hecnu, onn npnnnnn yuac1ne nnuL ao a1opo nonoanne
Iannuncko 6n1am, a 1akxe a aanropop-apuaacko n enc1oxoacko-
pakoacko onepaunnx. D1o cen1n6pL, ok1n6pL n non6pL 1914 ropa. Ipe-1o a
a1o apeHn yxaueackn ycnen eue cLespn1L poHo na noxoponm o1ua.
peka6pe ak1nanmx aoennmx pec1an ne aenocL, a nnaape raappnn o1pmxana.
19 qeapann 1915 ropa yxaueackn nonan a nnen, a ko1opoH 6narononyuno
o1cnpencn ack aony. aH on, a uac1noc1n, nosnakoHnncn c pe IonneH, y
ko1oporo, kak y1aepxpak1 snme nsmkn, n sanHc1aoaan pnp npe, nosaonnaunx
eHy nosxe cospa1L ce6e peny1aunk "aoennoro Hmcnn1enn. Ioaopn1,
yxaueackn nm1ancn 6exa1L, no neypauno. He aceH, koneuno, aese1. Ho ao1
.I.opnnnoa, ne6ocL, 6exan.
1ak, aecL aoennm c1ax yxaueackoro - Hecnua 1pn c ueH-1o, a aoace ne
nonropa, kak naknpmaae1 opopckn. epnyncn yxaueackn a occnk a
ok1n6pe 1917 ropa n ycnen nonyun1L o1 nspmxakuero peHennoro
npaan1enLc1aa ouepepno unn nopyunka. a1oH unne on n npepnoxnn caon
ycnyrn oae1cko anac1n. ekoHenpoaan ero nonnk H.ynn6ko, unen a, a
nepamH ero coae1cknH nauanLnnkoH 6mn nyknpse. pouy o6pa1n1L oco6oe
annHanne na qaHnnnn nkpe, ac1peuakunxcn na ny1n yxaueackoro,- a1o
nHee1 ouenL 6onLuoe snauenne.
ocnannm a nH6npck, yxaueackn cpasy xe nonapae1 a saaapyxy
HypaaLeackoro Hn1exa. 3pecL on ns6exan pacc1pena 1onLko no1oHy, u1o
MypaaLea peunn 6necny1L caonH aennkopyuneH (Mapuan yxaueackn.
ocnoHnnannn ppyse n copa1nnkoa. M., 1965. c.43-44). anee, no cnoaaH
caHoro yxaueackoro, ace peunnn konoccanLnan aneprnn n naxopunaoc1L
npepcepa1enn nH6npckoro ry6koHa .apeknca, ko1opm saHannn
MypaaLeaa na neperoaopm n nnkanpnpoaan.
ak anepame ac1pe1nnncL paa rnaanmx 6ypyunx saroaopunka - apeknc n
yxaueackn. epaoHy ns nnx, ao acnkoH cnyuae, nenLsn o1kasa1L a
xpa6poc1n: a 1937 ropy on nosaonnn 1annny n sanann npo1ec1 npo1na apec1a
yxaueackoro.
ocne pacnpaam c MypaaLeamH yxaueackn c1an koHanpykunH 1- apHne
npn unene y6mueae. D1o coue1anne 1oxe nn1epecno c 1oukn spennn
packnapa cnn a 30-x ropax. k6onm1no, u1o c1a1Ln, a ko1opo y6muea
ouenL amcoko o1smaancn o pen1enLnoc1n yxaueackoro a nepnop nx
coaHec1no aonncko cnyx6m, 6mna naneua1ana a "pacno 3aespe 27 nnaapn
1935 ropa, 1.e. uepes paa pnn nocne cHep1n y6mueaa. en1enLnoc1L a1a,
opnako, ne o6xopnnacL 6es konqysoa: nanpnHep, yxaueackn o6Lepnnnn
koHanpoaanne 1peHn pnansnnHn a xope mspancko onepaunn a pykax caoero
seHnnka n cocnyxnaua DnrenLrapp1a, a 1o1 aosLHn pa n c6ern k ennknny (1aH
xe, c. 75-76).
amcunH koHanpoaanneH yxaueackn xponnueckn ne napnn. InaakoH
pacno apHnn aue1nc opnaxpm poaonLno rpy6o 1enerpaHHo no1pe6oaan
o1 nero, u1o6m on no6onLue naxopnncn a u1a6e apHnn. peeHnnk aue1nca
..aHenea c nano nponne o1smaancn o "nopyunke-koHanpapHe, a
renepanm ns uen1panLnoro aepoHc1aa neopo6pn1enLno aopuann no noaopy
qan1asepc1aa yanekakuerocn nopyunka. yxaueackn nna1nn nH 1eH xe n
pokasmaan a poknape D.knnnckoHy, saHec1n1enk poukoro, 6yp1o c1apoe
pycckoe oqnuepc1ao "ne c1onno na amco1e caoero pena, a xopouo
nopro1oanennm koHanpnm coc1aa "nHee1cn nnuL cpepn Honoporo
oqnuepc1aa (M.H.yxaueackn. s6pannme nponsaepennn, 1, c. 27- 28). Ha
a1oH, co6c1aenno, n amesxan yxaueackn: naxaa1aauncL Hapkcnc1cknx
aepxyuek, nncan onycm o "knaccoao c1pa1ernn n 6esypepxno nLc1nn
poukoHy, sa u1o npepcepa1enL nnkorpa ne sa6maan noHnny1L
yxaueackoro a caonx can1mx npnkasax.
nauane 1919 ropa yxaueackn koHanpye1 8- apHne na xnoH qpon1e
npn unene .knpe. 3aansmaae1cn eue opnn ysenok aepeaoukn, anauecn
po 1937 ropa. epeaouka a1a oc1aanna kpoaaam cnep na poncko seHne: no
ny1n 8- apHnn 1pn6ynanaHn "ao 6naro counanLno peaonkunn 6mno
pacc1pennno 8 1mcnu uenoaek rase1a, 23 anpenn 1992 ropa). na pony
yxaueackn nepepanran apHnk 1ak, kak cun1an npaannLnmH on caH, a ne 1ak,
kak 1oro 1pe6oaan koHanpykun qpon1oH In11nc. osxe, na oc1ounoH
qpon1e yxaueackn onn1L caoeaonLnnuan n a rpou ne c1aann npnkasm
koHanpykuero qpon1oH aHono.
anpene 1919 ropa yxaueackn npnnnn koHanpoaanne 5- apHne
oc1ounoro qpon1a, ko1opan axopnna a rpynny aock, nopunnennyk Opynse.
nenoH a1o apHnn 6mn .H.Hnpnoa, anocnepc1ann npm onnosnunonep,
pacc1pennnnm no npoueccy 1936 ropa aHec1e c 3nnoaLeamH n aHeneamH.
poukn nncan o Hnpnoae n ero koHanpe a 1930 ropy: "IpynnnpyncL aokpyr
Hnpnoaa, koHHynnc1m 5- apHnn cnnnncL a oco6yk nonn1nueckyk ceHLk,
ko1opan n ceuac, neckonLko ne1 nocne nnkanpaunn 5- apHnn, nrpae1 ponL a
xnsnn c1panm... ou1n ace 6es ncknkuennn okasanncL a coc1aae onnosnunn
(Mon xnsnL, II, c.139). D1o 6mnn ro1oame kappm pnn saroaopunkoa 30-x
ropoa. 1o xe kacae1cn aoennmx naapoa, 1o n na oc1ounoH qpon1e
yxaueackn ne ouenL 6nnc1an. ak, a xope 6yrynLHnncko onepaunn 5-n
apHnn poc1nrna ycnexa nnuL npaamH qnanroH, a 1o apeHn kak neam 1on1ancn
na Hec1e, a uen1p o1c1ynnn. asaepnyn caon 1anan1m yxaueackn nnuL a
npouecce npecnepoaannn yxe o1xopnaunx konuakoacknx aock, sa u1o n 6mn
o1Heuen npnkasoH n ocmnan narpapaHn.
aaryc1e 1919 ropa aHec1o Opynse koHanpykunH oc1ounmH qpon1oH
nasnaunnn 6mauero renepana ..nLpeporre. nnH y yxaueackoro onn1L
nauanncL 1pennn, na nero on n nm1ancn caann1L anny sa o1c1ynnenne caoe
apHnn sa o6on nocne kon1pypapa 6enmx. aH yxaueackn 1ak nncan o
pec1annx caonx aock: "on1pHaneap, npepnpnnn1m 5- apHne, Hor 6m
nanec1n npo1nannky ouenL cnnLnoe nopaxenne. pnako a1oro ne cnyunnocL
(s6pannme nponsaepennn, 1. 1, c.264). oueHy xe, cnpaunaae1cn, ne
cnyunnocL, ecnn "Hor 6m? 6 a1oH aa1op yHonuan.
nnaape 1920 ropa yxaueackoHy nopyuak1 yxe qpon1 - aakasckn, npn
unene ppxonnknpse, u1o xe? qeapane 6enme nanocn1 nopaxenne 1-
aakascko kaaanepncko pnansnn Ian n 28- c1penkoao pnansnn,
koHanpnp ko1opo snn norn6. 11ecnna a1n pnansnn sa Manmu, 6enme
aopaanncL a oc1oa. c1peunoe nac1ynnenne kpacnmx ycnexa ne nHeno,
nockonLky Hexpy qnanraHn 9- n 10- apHn cospancn paspma n napyunnocL
nx asanHopec1ane. (c1opnn rpaxpancko aonm a , IX, c.297).
ooppnnnpoaa1L pec1ann aock a 1aknx Hacu1a6ax yxaueackn nano ne
yHen.
eH amue o6esLnna nese1, 1eH 6onLue ona nokasmaae1 sap. noHnny1m
nepoc1a1ok yxaueackoro npnaen k oco6enno nnaueanmH pesynL1a1aH na
3anapnoH qpon1e, ko1opm on aosrnaann a anpene 1920 ropa npn unene
Hnnre. porpecca a oanapennn aoennmH nckycc1aoH y yxaueackoro ne
o6napyxnnocL, ckopee nao6opo1. onLue on yHyppnncn no1epn1L ns anpy
npn nac1ynnennn opny ns caonx apHn (4-k), u1o nocnyxnno npnunno
pasrpoHa a1o apHnn n o1c1ynnennn acero qpon1a.
aH yxaueackn n aa1opm xpyueacknx apeHen nm1anncL caann1L anny na
ro-3anapnm qpon1 n unena ero 1annna, ko1opm nko6m ca6o1npoaan
npnkas koHanpoaannn o nepepaue 1- onno apHnn 3anapnoHy qpon1y, sa
u1o 6mn cnn1 n saHenen IyceamH (pa6knnmH). ako npnkas a caHoH pene
6mn, no ns-sa cnnukoH neonpepenenno o6c1anoakn npnkasm HennnncL
kaxpm penL, a conpa1ckan Hyppoc1L rnacn1: "He cneun ncnonnn1L npnkas
nauanLc1aa, no1oHy u1o saa1pa Hoxe1 nocnepoaa1L noam npnkas,
o1Hennkun npepmpyun. yxaueackn ncxopnn ns 1oro, u1o y nonnkoa na
nLaoackoH nanpaanennn nou1n ne1 aock. D1o npepnonoxenne okasanocL
neaepnmH - pacno apHnn npnunocL aec1n 1nxenme 6on sa Laoa.
..anounnkoa a caoe pa6o1e "Ha ncne, nspanno a 1924 ropy, 1oxe
nopuepknaan a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao n o6annnn yxaueackoro a neyHenoH
ncnonLsoaannn pesepaoa n a necornacoaannoc1n pec1an aock. poHe 1oro,
nonLckn 1ea1p aoennmx pec1an ne 6mn epnnc1aennmH, opnoapeHenno
aosnnkna yrposa co c1oponm pmHa, o ueH ennn 1enerpaqnpoaan 1annny 4
aaryc1a n a cansn c ueH 1annn n 6mn nepeaepen c ro-3anapnoro qpon1a na
xnm a 1o xe ponxnoc1n unena . mnn 1akxe onacennn, u1o na
aoennyk aaan1kpy Hoxe1 no1n yHmnnn. oa1oHy oc1aaanocL sapaue c
1peHn nensaec1nmHn, a kakyk c1opony nyuue panny1L a 1ako o6c1anoake 1-k
onnyk apHnk. 3 aaryc1a rnaakoH npnkasan nepepa1L ee 3anapnoHy qpon1y, a
6-ro - amaec1n a pesepa, nockonLky ona nsHo1anacL a 6onx sa Laoa. 11
aaryc1a rnaakoH cnoaa ykasan na neo6xopnHoc1L panny1L 1-k onnyk apHnk
na ceaep, no a1a pnpek1naa ne nHena xapak1epa npnkasa, nopnexauero
6esoroaopounoHy ncnonnennk: 1ako npnkas 6mn o1pan 1onLko 13 aaryc1a,
korpa a1a apHnn yxe cnoaa ac1ynnna a 6o. o1 1orpa-1o 1annn n sanann, u1o
nn6o onnyk apHnk nyxno 6mno nepe6pacmaa1L sa 1pn pnn po a1oro ns
pesepaa, nn6o 1enepL yxe xpa1L asn1nn Laoaa. oka una a1a nepe6panka,
nnnuna1naa na 3anapnoH qpon1e 15-16 aaryc1a nepeuna a pykn nonnkoa, 1ak
u1o noam npnkas poukoro o1 20 aaryc1a o nepe6pocke 1- onno apHnn na
ceaep 6esnapexno sanospan. ak nnn nnaue, no ne k1o nno, kak caH ennn,
npnsnaaan: "pn naueH nac1ynnennn, cnnukoH 6mc1poH npopanxennn nou1n
po apuaam, necoHnenno, 6mna cpenana oun6ka (, 1. 43, c.11), 1.e.
sapaancn nHenno 3anapnm qpon1, aosrnaanneHm yxaueacknH.
1921 ropy yxaueackn pykoaopnn kapa1enLnmHn akcnepnunnHn npo1na
Hn1exnoro ponu1ap1a n an1onoackoro aocc1annn a aH6oacko ry6epnnn.
akne Heponpnn1nn 6mnn eHy 6onLue no nneuy. onxennumn co
cnpaaepnnamH snopapc1aoH saHe1nn: "cnn na Honoporo yxaueackoro, korpa
on no6epno aosapauancn c nopaanennn pasopennmx 1aH6oacknx kpec1Lnn, ne
naunocL na aoksane eue opno Mapycn nnpnponoao, u1o6 ynoxn1L ero
nynek a no6,- a1o cpenan nepoyunauncn rpysnnckn ceHnnapnc1 uepes 16
ne1 (pxnnenar II, M-pecc, 1987, 1. II, c.307)
opaopn n1orn, paxe nanernpnc1 yxaueackoro opopckn amnyxpen npnsna1L
nepoc1a1kn n neypaun caoero kyHnpa: "onyckan on n npocue1m. nH6npck
6mn asn1 1onLko a 1pe1Le onepaunn, ponu1ap1 - ao a1opo, onuak
pnaxpm o11ecnnn yxaueackoro k peke o6on n 1.p. pocue1m ampaxanncL a
1oH, u1o npn pasan1nn nac1yna1enLno onepaunn on ne acerpa nonnoc1Lk
o6ecneunaan ee pesepaaHn, napencL na HopanLnyk cnny aock.,. n papn
poc1nxennn ocnoano uenn aaopnn a cpaxenne ace pesepam 6es aosHoxnoc1n
nx occ1anoanennn (..opopckn. Mapuan yxaueackn, c. 67). ouenL
c1panno nocne a1oro un1a1L a HeHyapax Hapuana I..ykoaa o yxaueackoH
kak o "rnran1e aoenno Hmcnn. He pyka ykoaa, koneuno, anncana a1n cnoaa.
ne pyka ppyroro Hapuana, ..npksoaa, koneuno, nanncana, u1o a non6pe
1925 ropa Opynse ampannyn yxaueackoro na noc1 nauanLnnka u1a6a .
Opynse, kak nsaec1no, yHep 31 ok1n6pn 1925 ropa. oHnn1enLnyk ycnyry
okasann npksoay 1e, k1o nopcynyn eHy na nopnncL npepncnoane k
counnennnH yxaueackoro, nso6nnykuee ne1ounoc1nHn. neH, nanpnHep,
roaopn1cn 1akxe, u1o yxaueackn 6mn ns6pan kanpnpa1oH a unenm na XVI
n XVII cLespax, a 1o apeHn kak na XVI cLespa ero eue ne 6mno a a1nx cnnckax.
1kpoaenne, ueH paoe amueynoHnny1mx Mapuanoa, amckasmaancn o
yxaueackoH a 6ecepax c .nHonoamH ..onea, ko1opm o1nocnn k
nepoc1a1kaH yxaueackoro "nsaec1nm nane1 aaan1kpnsHa, ko1opm
nponanncn eue a nonLcko kaHnannn... ro panxenne c oronennmHn
qnanraHn, c pac1nnyaunHncn koHHynnkaunnHn n ace ero noaepenne a a1o1
nepnop ne nponsaopn1 connpnoro, nonoxn1enLnoro aneua1nennn. o Hnennk
..oneaa, neko1opme saHaukn 6onanap1nc1ckoro o11enka 6mnn y
yxaueackoro n no1oH. Ho rnaanmH nepoc1a1koH yxaueackoro on cun1an, u1o
1o1 ne npouen c1ynenL sa c1ynenLk ack aoennyk nec1nnuy n nocne
rpaxpancko aonm nenocpepc1aenno aockaHn koHanpoaan Hano (.nHonoa.
InasaHn uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn. M., 1989, c.394-395).
1928 ropy yxaueackn 6mn nasnauen koHanpykunH ennnrpapcknH
aoennmH okpyroH, 1.e. Haunnae1cn nepnop ero 1ecnmx canse c npoamH. 11
nnaapn 1930 ropa yxaueackn npepc1aann a poknap o peoprannsaunn
aoopyxennmx cnn. o saknkuennk 1annna, npnnn1ne a1o nporpaHHm
npnaeno 6m k nnkanpaunn counannc1nueckoro c1pon1enLc1aa n k saHene ero
kako-1o caoeo6pasno cnc1eHo "kpacnoro Hnnn1apnsHa (M.H.yxaueackn.
s6pannme nponsaepennn, 1. 1, c.12). Ha neko1opoe apeHn yxaueackn
nonapae1 a onany, no 6mc1po acnnmaae1 cnoaa a 1931 ropy yxe a ponn
saHec1n1enn napkoHa o6oponm.
H.y1mu, aa1op amnyuenno na 3anape knnrn " y anac1n, c1aan1 a
sacnyry yxaueackoHy oprannsaunk na1pno1nuecko nponaranpm, a uac1noc1n,
copec1ane nspannk knnrn apne "Hauec1ane Hanoneona na occnk.
pnsnaaan xo1L kakne-1o nonoxn1enLnme HoHen1m a nc1opnn , y1mu
npoc1o o6nsan 6mn npnnnca1L nx koHy-nn6ypL ns "Hyuennkoa. He xaann1L xe
1annna! Mexpy 1eH, knnra apne amuna a 1938 ropy, 1.e. yxe nocne
nnkanpaunn yxaueackoro, a korpa yxaueackn 6mn na asne1e, apne cnpen
no o6annennk a npnnapnexnoc1n k 1ak nasmaaeHo "poHnap1nn, penn
yuac1L npepc1aan1ene c1apo pyccko nn1ennnrenunn a 1e ropm.
ace xe ckypnm 6mnn poc1nxennn yxaueackoro no uac1n nap1nno
kapLepm. onLko a 1934 ropy po6pancn on po kanpnpa1oa a unenm . knp -
n 1o1 nonnm unen , a 6opeanu - kanpnpa1 c 1930 ropa. pn 1akoH Hnsepe
paxe saanne Hapuana, nonyuennoe a 1935 ropy, ne papye1. ak u1o apekncy
ne1pypno 6mno paspy1L a yxaueackoH neypoane1aopennoe uec1onk6ne n
nepeaec1n saroaop c nonn1nuecknx na aoennme penLcm.
!"
oennm saroaop nHen 6onLune uancm na ycnex, nockonLky c1oponnnkn,
ppysLn n 6maune nopunnennme yxaueackoro sannHann knkueame noc1m a
apHnn no ace c1pane. pHnnnc1pa1nanoe ynpaanenne aosrnaannn
6nnskn ppyr yxaueackoro .M.OenLpHan, - korpa yxaueackn koHanpoaan
ennnrpapcknH aoennmH okpyroH, OenLpHan 6mn y nero nauanLnnkoH u1a6a.
o rnaae Mockoackoro aoennoro okpyra c1onn ..opk (a 1920 ropy
koHanpoaan 15 apHne 3anapnoro qpon1a), enopycckoro - ..6opeanu
(koHanpoaan 9- apHne na aakasckoH qpon1e, no1oH aHec1e c yxaueacknH
nopaannn an1onoackoe aocc1anne na aH6oaunne), n6npckoro - ..Iann1,
noHounnk yxaueackoro no 5- apHnn. HauanLnnkoH u1a6a na
anLneH oc1oke 6mn ..annn (annnLu), ppyro 6maun nopunnennm
yxaueackoro ns 1o xe 5- apHnn. epes .D.knpa, koHanpykuero
kpanncknH aoennmH okpyroH, aHec1e c ko1opmH yxaueackn kak Hm noHnnH,
aoeaan a 8- apHnn na pony, 6mn yc1anoanen kon1ak1 c Horyuec1aenno
ykpanncko aoenno-nonn1nuecko rpynnnpoako, rnaanmHn npepc1aan1ennHn
ko1opo a apHnn 6mnn ..IaHapnnk, nauanLnnk Inaanoro nonn1ynpaanennn,
.M.pnHakoa, saHec1n1enL koHanpykuero ennnrpapcknH aoennmH okpyroH,
n Iapkaam, caonk knpa, koHanpykun panLcknH aoennmH okpyroH.
1o npepc1aannnn co6o a1n nkpn? IaHapnnk - cmn kon1opckoro cnyxauero
ns n1oHnpa, Hakanyne k1n6pLcko peaonkunn on 6mn cekpe1apeH
neackoro koHn1e1a nap1nn n - aHec1e co kpmnnnkoH, .ocnopoH,
y6noamH n 3a1oncknH - unenoH pr6kpo, ko1opoHy 6mno nopyueno
cospanne kpannm. osxe IaHapnnk aouen a coc1aa (6). o apeHn
rpaxpancko aonm na kpanne unenaHn npn aosrnaannaueH kxnyk
rpynny kpacnmx aock knpe coc1onnn IaHapnnk, ap1aennuannn
(aapen1Lea) n 3a1onckn, ace ue1aepo - 6ypyune unenm (6) a 1934
ropy. 3pecL, kak n no nnnnn apeknca, npocnexnaae1cn ue1kan cansL Hexpy
rpaxpancknHn saroaopunkaHn 1934 ropa n aoennmHn 1937 ropa.
kpanna 6mna ne epnnc1aenno sono pec1ann IaHapnnka. 1923 ropa on
sannHan amcokne noc1m na panLneH oc1oke, a 1928 ropy c1an 1-H cekpe1apeH
(6) enopyccnn, a c 1929 ropa, kak yxe roaopnnocL, 6mn rnaanmH
nonn1koHnccapoH pacno apHnn. ro saHec1n1eneH na a1oH noc1y n
nauanLnnkoH ynpaanennn koHcoc1aaa 6mn ..ynnn, kanpnpa1 a unenm ,
6maun nopunnennm yxaueackoro. 3aenLn opno uenn ac1peuak1cn na
kaxpoH uary.
pyro "ykpannckn aoennm nnpep .knp, cmn knunneackoro an1ekapn,
yunncn, kak n nonoxeno npepc1aan1enk yrne1ennoro HenLunnc1aa, a
asenLckoH ynnaepcn1e1e. rpaxpanckyk aony on c1an nsaec1en kak
koHanpykun 45- pnansne, a ko1opo aHec1e c nnH aoeaann Iapkaam,
eaenson n o1oackn. konue 1919 ropa a1a pnansnn annnacL a 14-k apHnk
6opeanua, a uepes rop knp c1an koHanpykunH a1o apHne.
o ouenke Hapuana ..oneaa, knp 6mn uenoaekoH "6es nac1onue
aoenno ukonm, 6es nac1onuero aoennoro o6pasoaannn... ne o6napaaun
ckonLko-nn6ypL ocnoaa1enLnmH aoennmH onm1oH pnn pykoaopc1aa
onepaunnHn kpynnoro Hacu1a6a, 1ak u1o onea c 1pypoH npepc1aannn ero
ce6e a ponn, ckaxeH, koHanpykuero qpon1oH na ennko 1euec1aenno
aone (.nHonoa. InasaHn uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn. M., 1989, c.395).
3a1o aoennmH pen1eneH ouenL kpynnoro Hacu1a6a 6mn eponnH 6opeanu
(6opnanuyc), cmn nn1oackoro kpec1Lnnnna. Ipaxpanckyk aony on nauan na
eaepnoH qpon1e, a no1oH eHy pann 14-k apHnk xnoro qpon1a, unenoH
ko1opo 6mn ppxonnknpse. 6opeanu koHanpoaan ypapno rpynno,
peunaue ncxop pnoacko-ypckoro cpaxennn, a c nnH n pennknnckoro
nac1ynnennn na Mockay. o1oH 6opeanu aopnn a 6o 9-k apHnk na
aakasckoH qpon1e n 13-k apHnk npo1na panrenn, aHec1e c yxaueacknH
pacnpaannncn c aocc1aaunHn 1aH6oacknHn kpec1LnnaHn, a a aaryc1e 1922
ropa npnnnn panLneaoc1ounyk apHnk o1 nkxepa n "sakonunn noxop na nxoH
okeane asn1neH naccka n napnaoc1oka. ocne rpaxpancko aonm
6opeanu nnaano uen aaepx, koHanpoaan eaepo-aakascknH n MockoacknH
aoennmHn okpyraHn, a a 1930 ropy c1an saHec1n1eneH napkoHa o6oponm,
onepepna, 1aknH o6pasoH, no cnyxe6no nec1nnue yxaueackoro. pnako yxe
uepes rop on yc1ynnn a1o1 noc1 yxaueackoHy, a caH ypoane1aopnncn
enopyccknH aoennmH okpyroH. oxoxe, 6opeanu npepc1aannn co6o
pnaHe1panLnyk npo1naononoxnoc1L yxaueackoHy n coaepuenno ne c1papan
uec1onk6neH. pn 1aknx npepnocmnkax cpena1L ero yuac1nnkoH saroaopa
Hornn 1onLko nnunme cansn n aepnoc1L ppysLnH.
orpa n nncan a1y pa6o1y a 1978 ropy n oco6o ampennn 6opeanua, Hne 6mnn
nensaec1nm ouenkn a1o qnrypm anpnmHn aoenauanLnnkaHn. nuL nosxe n
ysnan, u1o, no Hnennk I..ykoaa, 6opeanu 6mn "na 1pn ronoam amue
yxaueackoro, ko1opoHy 6mna caoc1aenna neko1opan 6apc1aennoc1L,
ne6pexenne k uepnoao noacepneano pa6o1e (.nHonoa, un1. cou., c.382),
a ..onea cun1an 6opeanua caHmH kpynnmH aoennmH pen1eneH ns uncna
acex norn6unx, a nnue ko1oporo naua apHnn nonecna caHyk 1nxenyk no1epk,
n6o on Hor n ycneuno koHanpoaa1L qpon1oH, n aoo6ue 6m1L na opno ns
aepyunx pone a apHnn ao apeHn aonm (1aH xe, c.395).
o1nnune o1 6opeanua, anonne nop c1a1L yxaueackoHy 6mn pnHakoa,
aaan1kpnc1, cmn yun1enn c epnnroaunnm. rpaxpanckyk aony on
npocnaanncn kak koHanpnp cnauana pnansnn, a no1oH kopnyca "uepaonnmx
kasakoa. Hasaanne "kasakn a pannoH cnyuae nnkoro ne ponxno aaopn1L a
sa6nyxpenne: peuL una acero nnuL o6 nn1epnaunonanLno kaaanepncko
uac1n, a ko1opo koro 1onLko nn 6mno. Xopnn a 1e apeHena 1ako anekpo1.
orpan XHenLnnukn roaopn1 pnHakoay: " Honx kasakoa 6mnn n6m uy6a1me,
a y 1aonx - nocm rop6a1me. oeaan pnHakoa na kpanne, no1oH nop
koHanpo 6opeanua - npo1na ennknna n aHec1e c knpoH - npo1na
nonnkoa. pnHakoa xnn aono n, korpa ona konunnacL y nac, noexan ncka1L
npnknkuenn sa py6exoH - npoaen neckonLko ne1 a n1ae, nopaannn Hn1ex
aue-n-akao a qrannc1ane. epnyauncL poHo, nonyunn acero nnuL kopnyc
n 1onLko a caHoH konue caoe 6mc1po1euno kapLepm c1an saHec1n1eneH
koHanpykuero ennnrpapcknH aoennmH okpyroH. pnHakoa 6anoaancn
nn1epa1ypo n paxe caok nnunyk xnsnL oqopHnn nn1epa1ypno: cnauana
xennncn na kcane ouk6nncko, pouepn nsaec1noro ykpannckoro nnca1enn
(ee 6pa1 pn cpasy xe nocne k1n6pLcko peaonkunn c1an
rnaanokoHanpykunH coae1cknHn aockaHn na kpanne), a nocne cHep1n
Mankoackoro c1an ouepepnmH HyxeH nnn pnk. k6onm1no, u1o 6norpaq
pnHakoaa .y6nnckn, onncmaan caok ac1peuy c pnHakoamH a kaap1npe
Mankoackoro, 1mpnnao yHanunaae1 o 1oH, kaknH o6pasoH pnHakoa 1ypa
nonan.
pnako, korpa pnHakoa okasancn a pykax sanneunmx pen Hac1epoa c
y6nnkn, aecL nock c nero 6mc1po cne1en, n, a o1nnune o1 oc1anLnmx
o6annneHmx na sakpm1oH npouecce a nkne 1937 ropa, on nonnoc1Lk
nop1aeppnn oqnunanLnoe o6annenne (.onkoronoa. pnyHq n 1parepnn, kn.I,
u.2, c.265).
ue opnn nonkoaopeu-nnca1enL - o6ep1 DpeHan, na1mu, 1oxe cmn yun1enn,
6maun acep. n cnauana nap1nsannn a n6npn, no1oH npnnnn pnansnk
snaHenn1oro nkanpse nocne rn6enn ee koHanpnpa, nosxe koHanpoaan
pnansne a 14- apHnn 6opeanua na xnoH qpon1e, 6onx npo1na panrenn
pykoaopnn ypapno rpynno aock, no1oH sannHancn ynnu1oxenneH o1pnpoa
Maxno. 1937 ropy DpeHan aosrnaannn coaanaxnH.
pocae1cn a rnasa npeo6napanne nnopopuea a rpynne aoennmx saroaopunkoa:
6opeanu, opk, DpeHan n y1na - npn6an1m, IaHapnnk, knp n OenLpHan
- eapen. prannsa1opm npouecca counn nyxnmH nopuepkny1L a1o
o6c1on1enLc1ao n anoxnnn a yc1a pnHakoay cnoaa o 1oH, u1o y "ronoakn
saroaopunkoa ec1L "a1opan opnna: y y1nm, 6opeanua, DpeHana a n1ae
ec1L popc1aennnkn, knp nHee1 6nnsknx a eccapa6nn, DpeHan - Hepnke
(.onkoronoa, 1aH xe).
6exaaun na 3anap a 30-x ropax ueknc1 .pnoa (OenLp6nn) ampannyn
1akyk aepcnk, nko6m nsaec1nyk eHy o1 ero paokpopnoro 6pa1a
3..aunenLcona, 6mauero saHec1n1enn annukoro, nauanLnnka I kpannm.
ornacno a1o aepcnn, co1pypnnk Hp 1en no nopyuennk ropm nauen
pocLe, pokasmaakuee, u1o 1annn 6mn aren1oH uapcko oxpankn. 1en
coo6unn o6 a1oH annukoHy, 1o1 - 3.aunenLcony, .ocnopy n knpy, a
knp a caok ouepepL - IaHapnnky, yxaueackoHy n opky. D1o 6yp1o 6m n
c1ano no6ypn1enLno npnunno pnn saroaopa npo1na 1annna.
axe .Mepaepea, nonn1no kak o1nocnuncn k 1annny, 6ypyun o6Lek1nanmH
nccnepoaa1eneH, no kpane Hepe, c1apancL nH 6m1L, cun1ae1 aepcnk o
1annne kak o6 aren1e uapcko oxpankn coaepuenno necoc1on1enLno ( cypy
nc1opnn, c.610). eH ne Henee a nepnop nepec1pokn, korpa naka1nna a1opan
rpnsnan aonna an1nc1annnnsHa, a1a aepcnn cnoaa acnnmna a c1a1Le
I.py1knoaa n O.onkoaa "epep cypoH nc1opnn ("Mockoackan npaapa, 30
Hap1a 1989), a nsaec1nm pycoqo6 .paHoanu a 1eHne naka1an na 1y xe 1eHy
noaec1L "y6nep ("ppyx6a napopoa, 1988, N11). pnako HmnLnm nysmpL
6mc1po nonnyn: 2 nknn 1989 ropa 1a xe "Mockoackan npaapa ony6nnkoaana
oqnunanLnyk cnpaaky en1panLnoro rocypapc1aennoro apxnaa k1n6pLcko
peaonkunn, ns ko1opo nac1aoaano, u1o I.py1knoa n O.onkoa ccmnanncL na
necyuec1aykune pokyHen1m, a .a1ynoackan n .e6onpaea o1HexeaanncL
o1 1ex sananenn, ko1opme nH npnnncana a1a napouka qanLcnqnka1opoa.
Ho paxe ampyHannme aepcnn pepko uennkoH amcacmaak1cn ns nanLua, uaue
onn 1onLko cnyxa1 nokpmaanoH, na6pacmaaeHmH na peanLnyk kanay. akan
kanaa a pacckase .pnoaa - nepenoc nocne rn6enn npoaa uen1pa
nonn1nuecko onnosnunn na kpanny. D1o n amsaano 1aH ackope xec1ouaun
norpoH. paxpe6noe o1nouenne ykpanncknx aoxpe k 1annny c1ane1 anonne
nonn1nmH, ecnn acnoHnn1L, u1o 1annn eue a 1918 ropy ckasan nH:
"poc1a1ouno nrpa1L a npaan1enLc1ao n pecny6nnky, kaxe1cn, xaa1n1, nopa
6pocn1L nrpy (.Mepaepea, un1. cou., c.46).
oHnHo uec1onk6nn n cansn c nonn1nuecknHn onnosnunonepaHn 1nna
apeknca n e1poackoro aoennmHn saroaopunkaHn Hornn panra1L n eue
6onee pnnnnme nn1n. ykoaopc1ao sanapnmx pepxaa, coaepuenno npaannLno
cun1an In1nepa caonH rnaanmH aparoH, c1peHnnocL cospa1L eHy npo1naoaec a
nnue oae1ckoro oksa. a1o uenLk a Hae 1935 ropa 6mn saknkuen poroaop
o asanHonoHoun Hexpy Opanune n , 1.e. eaponeckan nonn1nka
aepnynacL na kpyrn caon, k nepnopy pec1ann qpanko-pycckoro poroaopa 1893
-1917. Ho a konue 1936 ropa a epnnn onanncn nnunm aHnccap 1annna
.anpenakn, ko1opm aen neperoaopm c ax1oH. ononsnn cnyxn o
osHoxno epeopnen1aunn oae1ckoro oksa. qeapane 1917 ropa
Opanunn n nrnnn, onacancL saknkuennn occne cenapa1noro Hnpa,
oprannsoaann no HaconcknH kananaH renepanLckn Mn1ex n caepxenne
Hnkonan II. 1936 ropy, cypn no aceHy, ananornunmH cnoco6oH nm1anncL
paspena1Lcn co 1annnmH. xopc1ao nouepka naaopn1 na HmcnL o6
ncnonLsoaannn 1ex xe caHmx kananoa.
nnaape 1936 ropa noaoncneuennm Hapuan yxaueackn (on nonyunn a1o
saanne a non6pe 1935 ropa aHec1e c opounnoamH, ypennmH, ropoamH n
nkxepoH) nanpaanncn a onpon a coc1aae peneraunn, aosrnaannauecn
n1annoamH ocnoH a nrnnn 6mn 1orpa Mackn (nxoackn), 6maun
6ynpoaeu, a oennmH a11aue n1on1 y1na, koHanpoaaaun pnansnnHn nop
nauanoH yxaueackoro na oc1ounoH n 3anapnoH qpon1ax. ak cansmaanncL
nn1oukn. ocne onpona yxaueackn noce1nn apnx, rpe nHen 6ecepy c
renepanoH IaHenenoH. Hae 1937 ropa yxaueackn, k 1oHy apeHenn yxe 1-
saHec1n1enL napkoHa o6oponm, ponxen 6mn cnoaa exa1L a onpon, na a1o1 pas
na koponaunk Ieopra VI, no pena saroaopunkoa yxe ka1nnncL nop ropy, n
noespka ne coc1onnacL, kak ne oc1onnocL n noa1openne akunn nekceeaa-
ysckoro, c1onL ypauno ocyuec1anen na 6epy caHnH oprannsa1opaH a qeapane
1917 ropa. 1annn 6mn ne Hnkona II n co caonHn npo1nannkaHn ne
uepeHonnncn.
epamH ns aoennmx sauennnn eue npn rope, a nkne 1936 ropa, koHpnaa
.Hnp1a. D1o1 cmn eapen-canoxnnka, 1nnnunm pnn apeHen rpaxpancko
aonm anapxnc1aykun nony6anpn1-nonynap1nsan 6nnskn ppyr knpa n
pnHakoaa, koHanpoaan 1orpa 1ankoamHn uac1nHn neackoro aoennoro
okpyra. pnaxpm a 20-x ropax Hnp1 acenapopno o6nann 1annna. 1annn
6mn uenoaek kpane snonaHn1nm n, kak 1onLko npepc1aanncn ypo6nm
cnyua, o1nna1nn c1opnue sa amcnyuannme nonouennn. cnep sa Hnp1oH a
cen1n6pe 1936 ropa 6mn apec1oaan y1na, na ko1oporo pan nokasannn
D.peuep, 1enoxpann1enL poukoro, npoxopnaun no npoueccy 1936 ropa.
non6pe 1936 ropa cypL6y Hnp1a n y1nm paspennn pnHakoa, a a anpene
1937 ropa amueynoHnny1m caonk knpa koHkop Iapkaam a 1akxe Iekkep,
nauanLnnk o1pena sapy6exnmx canse napkoHa1a o6oponm, 6maun
koHanpykun 11- apHne, ko1opan nop nonn1nuecknH pykoaopc1aoH
ppxonnknpse n npoaa a 1920-1921 ropax yc1anoanna oae1ckyk anac1L a
3akaakasLe.
Ho peuakun ypap no saroaopunkaH 6mn nanecen a Hae 1937 ropa, korpa
yxaueackoro cocnann a onxckn aoennm okpyr, knpa nepeaenn c kpannm
a ennnrpap, IaHapnnka cnnnn c noc1a, a opka apec1oaann. pnoapeHenno
6mn apec1oaan n ynoHnnaauncn panee nauanLnnk u1a6a panLneaoc1ouno
apHnn koHkop annn (annnLu). cero nepenk nocne a1oro oc1aaancn na
cao6ope DpeHan. IaHapnnk ne c1an xpa1L apec1a n sac1pennncn.
yxaueackn, knp, 6opeanu, opk, OenLpHan, DpeHan, pnHakoa n y1na,
nocne opnopneanoro sakpm1oro npouecca, na ko1opoH a uncne cype
aoccepann n ouepepnme "6ypyune xep1am - Hapuan nkxep, koHanpapHm
enoa, .nkcnnc, m6enko, aunpnn, - 6mnn 12 nknn 1937 ropa
pacc1pennnm asaopoH, ko1opmH, no cnoaaH .onkaec1a (ennkn 1eppop,
c.308), koHanpoaan ..epoa, Hnnnc1p roc6esonacnoc1n a 1953-1958
ropax.
Xpyuea roaopnn na XXII cLespe o nop6pouennmx 1annny cqa6pnkoaannmx
neHuaHn pokyHen1ax, ko1opme ponxnm 6mnn nocnyxn1L pokasa1enLc1aoH 1oro,
6yp1o yxaueackn n knp - neHeukne aren1m. 6 a1nx "pokyHen1ax cHeuno
1enepL roaopn1L acepLes n onpoaepra1L nx. pnen1aunn a1o rpynnnpoakn
6mna o1nkpL ne nponeHeuko, a coaepuenno npo1naononoxno, pa n kak
Hoxno 6mno nopospeaa1L a cnHna1nnx k naunc1aH IaHapnnka, knpa n
OenLpHana, no 1orpa nyxen 6mn 1onLko qopHanLnm npepnor, n 1annn
oxo1no sa nero yxaa1nncn, ckopee acero, caH ne npnnnHan ero acepLes, no
ncka1L ppyrne pokasa1enLc1aa 6mno nekorpa, a nasaa1L nac1onuyk npnunny -
nenLsn. ea6nnn1aunn rpynnm yxaueackoro nponcxopnna 1aknH xe
npnHn1nanmH ny1eH onpoaepxennn saaepoHo noxnmx o6annenn 6es
nponnknoaennn a nc1nnnyk noponneky pena.
Ho - 6mn nn HanLunk? Moxe1, nnkakoro saroaopa aoo6ue ne cyuec1aoaano?
Ho a a1oH aonpoce paxe .onkaec1 ny1ae1cn n npo1naopun1 caH ce6e. Ha
c1p.184 ynoHnny1o knnrn on y1aepxpae1, u1o aoennoro saroaopa ne 6mno, a
na cnepykue Hm appyr un1aeH: "c1L caepennn, u1o npek nepeaopo1a
ampanran OenLpHan. .poukn no nonn1nmH npnunnaH o1pnuae1 saroaop, no
on n ne Hor o neH nnuero sna1L, no1oHy u1o aonpekn aceHy, u1o roaopnnocL
oqnunanLno, ne nHen k neHy nnkakoro o1nouennn. knnre .poukoro
"1annn (1.II. c.278) ec1L 1ako naccax: "onLko a nncannnx Ionen6epra,
6mauero oqnuepa pacno apHnn, amckasmaae1cn yaepennoc1L a 1oH, u1o
yxaueackn, IaHapnnk n ppyrne pec1an1enLno yuac1aoaann a saroaope. nn
a nncnpoaepxennn anac1n 1annna anpenn, no cnoaaH Ionen6epra,
epnnc1aennyk aosHoxnoc1L cnac1n o6oponocnoco6noc1L c1panm.
okasa1enLc1aa Ionen6epra kpane ua1kn, on ocnoamaae1cn ckopee na
ncnxonornuecknx porapkax, ueH na kaknx-nn6o "o6Lek1nanmx qak1ax.
Ho kak po nnx pokona1Lcn, po qak1oa? eropnn yxe 1pypno na1n konum a1oro
sany1annoro pena: pokyHen1oa ne1 - kako xe pypak coc1aanne1 saroaop nop
npo1okon? Mnornx canpe1ene nepe6nnn, Hnorne yHepnn, a ponroxn1enn
noHanknaann nnn pacnpoc1pannnn saaepoHo noxnme caepennn. HanpnHep,
Hnoroe Hor 6m pacckasa1L knan ayHnnoa, ns ko1oporo anepame npocounnncL
nencnme naHekn o saroaope na XVII cLespe. mn 1enana ayHnna ypen
koHanpoaan 6pone1ankoamHn aockaHn enopycckoro, a no1oH
ennnrpapckoro aoennoro okpyra, n ouenL neoxnpanno yHep coaceH HonopmH
a 1936 ropy. oxoxe, on 1oxe 6mn saHeuan a saroaope. o acnkoH cnyuae,
uenenanpaanennoe sann1ne npo1nannkaHn 1annna 6onLunnc1aa knkueamx
aoennmx noc1oa - qak1, roaopnun caH sa ce6n. D1o penanocL necnpoc1a. po
kako c1apnn pouen saroaop, Hoxno nnuL rapa1L. konLko aoo6ue nyxno
apeHenn pnn oprannsaunn aoennoro saroaopa a orpoHno c1pane a o6c1anoake
aceo6ue cnexkn? osLHeH pnn cpaanennn IepHannk 1ex xe ne1. oennan
onnosnunn npo1na In1nepa nauana 1aH oqopHnn1Lcn yxe a 1938 ropy, no
cHorna nanec1n ypap 1onLko a 1944 ropy. Haun xe saroaopunkn nauann
nnec1n ce1n 1onLko nocne y6nc1aa npoaa, 1.e. pec1aoaann acero paa ropa c
ne6onLunH. un1maan a1o, Hoxno npepnonoxn1L, u1o onn npopannynncL ne
ouenL paneko. oneuno, ynnu1oxn1L 1annna onn Hornn n npn nannunmx
cnnax, no nyxno 6mno nopro1oan1L c1pany, nnaue nauancn 6m xaoc. pasaan,
ueH nesaHepnn1enLno aocnonLsoaanncL 6m aneunne npo1nannkn n a1o
konunnocL 6m pnn nac ouenL nnoxo,
acxoxee Hnenne: ao1 ecnn 6m a nauane aonm y nac 6mnn 1akne nonkoaopum,
kak yxaueackn nnn knp, ecnn 6m onn koHanpoaann qpon1aHn aHec1o
npnonoca nnn aanoaa. .nHonoa cun1an 1akne npo1naonoc1aanennn
nerkoaecnmHn n HopanLno 6eso1ae1c1aennmHn (un1. cou., c.297). Mm yxe
anpenn, u1o aoennme 1anan1m yxaueackoro, Hnrko roaopn, npeyaennuenm, Hm
un1ann o1sma ..oneaa o knpe. o Hnennk 1oro xe oneaa, nkxep 6mn
uenoaekoH c npounmH, no 6es 6ypyuero, paano kak n m6enko, n enoa, a
ropoa n opk - nkpLHn cpepnnx cnoco6noc1e (1aH xe, c.393,395). aony
a1n nonkoaopum, ckopee acero, ocpaHnnncL 6m 1ak xe, kak opounnoa c
ypennmH. He ropnncn pnn npepc1onue 1euec1aenno aonm n ne Hor
oc1aaa1Lcn a npexneH anpe n koHanpnm coc1aa pacno apHnn, a ko1opoH
cnnukoH o6nnLnmHn 6mnn nnopopnme aneHen1m. poHe yxe ynoHnny1mx,
Hoxno nasaa1L 1akne nHena, kak Ia (xnuknnu) - copa1nnk yxaueackoro
no 1- apHnn n 3anapnoHy qpon1y; saH. napkoHa o6oponm, koHanpykun
..nkcnnc (pep ..nkcnnca), nauanLnnkn ynpaanenn nnora, oknc,
OnuHan, koHanpykun an1ncknH qno1oH ekHan, a 1akxe ppyrne
nsaec1nme 1orpa aoenauanLnnkn - aue1nc, Mykneanu, H.Dxe, yppn, nno,
epsnn, 6maun saH. napkoHa nunnx1. yxe ne roaopk o koHnccapax:
nanpnHep, a enopycckoH aoennoH okpyre na a1nx noc1ax nopansanncL
ponu1aH, XaxanLnnu, n11e, Mesnc... aepL, noa1opnk, npepc1onna
1euec1aennan aona.
cnoHnnH, u1o roaopnn nppe onkonckn Lepy esyxoay nakanyne
opopnnckoro cpaxennn o apknae pe onnn n y1ysoae: "oka occnn 6mna
spopoaa, e Hor cnyxn1L uyxo, n 6mn npekpacnm Hnnnc1p, no kak 1onLko
ona a onacnoc1n, nyxen cao popno uenoaek. a nocnepnkk aony occnn
cnoaa ampannyna 1aknx nkpe - korop1y 6nec1nunx aoenauanLnnkoa ao rnaae
c HapuanoH I..ykoamH. Ho nkpn, ko1opmH onn npnunn na cHeny, nnkorpa
6m ne yunn caHn, nx nyxno 6mno y6pa1L c poporn.
o ns6exanne kpnao1onkoa, cpasy oroaopk, u1o a xope ennko
1euec1aenno aonm npekpacno nokasann ce6n arpaHnn n ecennpse,
epsapnn n onnakun, pesep n parynckn n Hnorne ppyrne. euL npe1
aoace ne o 1oH, u1o6m acex n noackpy nenpeHenno saHenn1L pyccknHn -
1ako aapnan1 a naue HnoronaunonanLno c1pane saaepoHo ncknkuen n 6mn
6m necnpaaepnnamH. Ho a6conk1noe npeo6napanne nepyccknx - a1o 1oxe
napyuenne 6ananca. ponxnm co6nkpa1Lcn onpepenennme nponopunn. enoaek
kaxpo naunonanLnoc1n Hoxe1 sannHa1L y nac nk6o caHm amcokn noc1, no
npn 1oH o6nsa1enLnoH ycnoann, u1o6m on ne aonok sa co6o ack caok popnk.

# "
o6c1aenno, c Han 1937 ropa, opnoapeHenno c norpoHoH apHnn, nauancn n
norpoH aepxoa. npaaponopo6nn o6annenn nnk1o yxe ne pyHan.
epxyueunan onnosnunn ynnu1oxanacL He1opnuno n 6ecnouapno.
pnnH ns nepamx nonan nop kocy penpeccn kanpnpa1 a unenm onn16kpo,
saHec1n1enL npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa, na1mu n ypsy1ak. D1oro pen1enn
ennn npnHe1nn n ouennn eue a xope npoqcoksno pnckyccnn 1921 ropa sa
yHenne nnca1L kayuykoame pesonkunn c nocynaHn ao ace c1oponm. ypsy1ak
ne nHen n c1apancn ne nHe1L onpepenennoro nonn1nueckoro nnua, ne cnyuano
a nap1nn ero nposaann "ypsy-1ak n "ypsy-a1ak. 20-x ropax on 6mn
kpynnmH xosnc1aennmH pen1eneH, napkoHoH ny1e coo6uennn n opnnH ns
rnaanmx ykoaopn1ene nnpyc1pnannsaunn na nepaoH ee a1ane. kanpnpa1m
onn16kpo on nonan yxe a 1923 ropy, a 1pn ropa nyc1n ero npnrnacnnn na
ocao6opnaueecn ns-nop 3nnoaLeaa Hec1o a onn16kpo. 1932 ropy on
aosrnaann n ne yropnn 1annny 1o nosnune, ko1opyk sannn no
onncannoHy panee peny k1nna, acnepc1ane uero a 1934 ropy 6mn nonnxen a
panre po kanpnpa1a onn16kpo. ypsy1ak Hor, koneuno, cansmaa1L c no6epo
aoennoro saroaopa, a ko1opoH knkueayk ponL nrpann ero seHnnkn-npn6an1m,
napexpm na aosapauenne a onn16kpo, opnako 6mn poc1a1ouno xn1ep n
oc1opoxen pnn 1oro, u1o6m ak1nano yuac1aoaa1L a saroaopax. Ho 1enepL
nac1ann apeHena, korpa oc1opoxnoc1L yxe 6onLue ne nacana. 24 Han 1937
ropa 1annn nanpaann unenaH n kanpnpa1aH a unenm pokyHen1, a ko1opoH
na ocnoaannn pannmx, nso6nnuakunx ypsy1aka n yxaueackoro a yuac1nn a
"an1ncoae1ckoH 1pouknc1cko-npaaoH saroaopunueckoH 6noke, no1pe6oaan
ncknkun1L o6onx ns nap1nn n nepepa1L nx pena a Hp (p.onkoronoa.
pnyHq n 1parepnn, kn.I, u.2, c.259).
uac1ne na1mue a aoennoH saroaope c1ano pnn nnx pokoamH, nn 6mnn
npe1opnancko raappne koHHynnc1nueckoro pexnHa, n, kak aepno o1Heuae1
..onxennumn, ann1oakn poc1a1ouno norpoxo1ann a nopaanax n na
sapaopkax pyccknx pepeaenL. 1937 ropy ann1oakn sarpoxo1ann a caHnx
na1mue. pnuepune k naH c HeuoH, o1 Heua n norn6nn, nonyuna 1o, u1o
sacnyxnnn.
nepnop rpaxpancko aonm a xopy 6mna noroaopka, u1o coae1ckan anac1L
pepxn1cn na eapecknx Hosrax na1mucknx u1mkax n pyccknx pypakax.
opaanm onxennumn ynoHnnyn o1nkpL ne acye. .MenLrynoa nncan a
caoe knnre "pacnm 1eppop, u1o na1mun exann cnyxn1L a uenmHn
ceHLnHn, kak panee a Hepnky, nopo paxe ne snan pycckoro nsmka.
oc1a1ouno nasaa1L paa nan6onee snaHenn1mx nHenn 6nnxaunx noHounnkoa
sepxnnckoro no - e1epca n aunca. pocnaanennm caoe
xec1okoc1Lk .e1epc 6mn npoqeccnonanLnmH y6nue, - ao apeHn
6anpn1ckoro nanapennn na kaennpnm Harasnn a onpone a 1909 ropy (peno
npne-c1pn1) on y6nn 1ponx nonnuecknx (H.ep6epoaa. enesnan xenunna,
H.-opk, 1981, c.82). o1 kak xapak1epnsoaan ero ueknc1-neaosapaueneu
I.ra6ekoa: "e1epc - qnrypa HopanLno okonua1enLno pasnoxnauancn.
enunnm n nnunan xnsnL nn1epecyk1 ero 6onLue, ueH ace oc1anLnoe. ue
6ypyun nonnoHounmH npepc1aan1eneH I, on. pasLesxan no okpannaH,
acerpa nHen npn ce6e a aa ro- ne payx-1pex nnunmx cekpe1apu, ko1opmx no
Hepe nenapo6noc1n amcaxnaan ns noespa no ny1n cnepoaannn ("o6ecepnnk,
1989, N34).
pyro cnopanxnnk sepxnnckoro M.aunc (yppa6c) poroaopnncn po 1oro,
u1o nesaueH ncka1L pokasa1enLc1aa an1ncoae1cko pen1enLnoc1n
apec1oaannmx, sa u1o paxe ennn amnyxpen 6mn ero "neHnoro noxypn1L.
Hacnepnnuek a1oro cnaanoro ueknc1a, akonoHnc1 11o aunc, ceropnn,
pasyHee1cn, npnnapnexn1 k uncny caHmx npmx peHokpa1oa, no "Hen1ann1e1 y
nero, ampaxancL coapeHennmH nayko-co6auLnH xapronoH, 1o1 xe caHm:
npou1n1e xo1n 6m c1a1Lk .aunca "Lesp kak nc1ounnk onacnoc1n a
"saec1nnx o1 13 anpenn 1992 ropa. euL a ne npe1 o Lespe napopnmx
peny1a1oa, ko1opm ceropnn pnn "peHokpa1oa 1ako xe nc1ounnk onacnoc1n,
kaknH pnn 6onLueankoa 6mno upepn1enLnoe co6panne a 1918 ropy.
c1ounnkn onacnoc1n, nonn1no, nyxno nnkanpnpoaa1L, a kak a1o pena1L -
He1op nsaec1en.
enepL o "sapaopkax pyccknx pepeaenL. .Mepaepea a caoe c1a1Le "
aonpocy o ponn "nnopopuea a no6epe oae1cko anac1n a occnn nponnueckn
cnpaunaae1, kak Hoxno 6mno c kaknHn-nn6ypL 50 1mcnuaHn na1mucknx
c1penkoa ynpaann1L 1ako orpoHno c1pano, kak occnn. pepc1aaL1e ce6e,
Hoxno 6mno a ycnoannx nonnoro pacnapa apHnn, korpa na ack c1pany
oc1aaanacL uy1L nn ne opna-epnnc1aennan 6oecnoco6nan uac1L, ecnn a1y uac1L
nckycno pasHec1n1L. a Hap1e 1918 ropa na1muckne c1penkn 6mnn
pasHeuenm a Mockae, e1porpape, onoroH n ennknx ykax. s a1nx
c1pa1ernueckn aaxnmx 1ouek na1mucknx kapa1ene ypo6no 6mno
nepe6pacmaa1L a caHmx pasnmx nanpaanennnx, u1o n penanocL. Henno
na1muckan pnansnn, cospannan a anpene 1918 ropa, c1ana nepao 6oeao
uac1Lk pacno apHnn, a ee koHanpnp, 6maun nonkoannk .aue1nc -
nepamH rnaanokoHanpykunH pacno apHnn c cen1n6pn 1918 no nknL 1919
ropa. D1nH on 6mn aosnarpaxpen sa 1o, u1o ero pnansnn cnacna coae1ckoe
npaan1enLc1ao ao apeHn neaoacepoackoro Hn1exa a Mockae 6 nknn 1918 ropa.
a1muaHn 6mn y6n1 Hn1exnm koHanpykun MypaaLea, na1mun nopaannnn
aocc1annn a pocnaane, MypoHe, HnxneH Hoaropope, eHnncke, opoanuax,
c1aukoae, Hoaropope, m6nncke, apa1oae, neckonLko Hecnuea
canpenc1aoaann a anyxcko n nsancko ry6epnnnx, po6npanncL po onorpm,
apeaokokuacka (nmne oukap-na), ka1epnn6ypra, ensm... ak anpnH,
ackpy ncnonLsoaanncL uac1n nHenno a1oro "nnoc1pannoro nernona, snaun1,
y1aepxpenne nocnoanum, u1o coae1ckan anac1L a peuakun, nepenoHnm
nepnop pepxanacL na na1mucknx u1mkax, - o1nkpL ne npeyaennuenne,
snaun1, ne ouenL oxo1no pycckne c1pennnn a pyccknx. Ho a 1937 ropy
o1nnnncL na1mucknH aonkaH pycckne cneskn.
1934 ropa nspannn nauan pepe1L ne no pnnH, a no uacaH. 3nan coc1aa
apaxpe6nmx 1annny knanoa, o ko1opmx roaopnnocL panee, yxe ne
ypnanneuLcn, a nonnHaeuL, noueHy Honnnn nonapae1 a 1e, a ne a nnme
pepeaLn. Hae 1937 ropa, nanpnHep, apec1oaann M..ypoaa n
.O.opaukoro, 6nnxaunx copa1nnkoa npoaa no ennnrpapy, a no1oH
noc1enenno nopo6pann n oc1anLnyk nennnrpapckyk aepxyuky. u1o6 nnk1o
ne porapancn o npnnunne o16opa, 1ounee sa6npannn, opnoro ns ee
npepc1aan1ene, ..rapoaa, cpenann kannqoH na uac a Mockae, u1o6m
neHnoro noropn 6narononyuno ns6aan1Lcn n o1 nero.
a xe nnnnn 6mna npoponxena apec1aHn saHec1n1enn npepcepa1enn
oanapkoHa H..n1nnoaa n saa. o1penoH nponaranpm ..1eukoro. Ho ne
sa6maak1 n ppyrnx. In6ny1 "repon konnek1nansaunn . ayHan, saa. o1penoH
naykn , n .koanea (Dnu1en) - saa. cenLxoso1penoH , nepam - sa
1o, u1o na1mu, a1opo - sa cansn c ykpanncko rpynnnpoako. Ho noc1papann
onn coaceH ne sa 1o, sa u1o ponxnm 6mnn 6m no cnpaaepnnaoc1n nonec1n
kapy. pnoapeHenno ncues 1akxe saa. o1penoH neua1n n nspa1enLc1a
.M.anL. Henaponro nepexnn caoero ppyra yxaueackoro n apeknc.
.ocnop nokonunn c co6o. pepcepa1enn oanapkoHa O ..ynnHoaa,
6mauero saHec1n1enn ypsy1aka, saHennnn npepcepa1eneH Moccoae1a
ynrannnmH.
oka rnaanme co6m1nn nponcxopnnn sa kynncaHn, ne sa6maann n o ny6nnke,
nepnopnueckn nop6pacmaan e npouecc sa npoueccoH. nkne 1937 ropa a
6nnncn npepc1ann nepep cypoH .Mpnaann, M.kypxaaa n ppyrne 6maune
"naunonan-yknonnc1m, a nosxe - 1pouknc1m. knon nx, kak Hm noHnnH,
saknkuancn a 1oH, u1o onn a 1922 ropy amc1ynann npo1na 3akaakascko
qepepaunn, ko1opyk ace paano nnkanpnpoaann a 1936 ropy. Ioaopn1, korpa
Mpnaann aenn na pacc1pen, on kpnknyn: "epepa1e 1annny, u1o acnep sa
an1onoH nac1ana ouepepL o6ecnLepa. Ho nockonLky Mpnaann po an1ona
6mno paneko, ncnonnenne a1oro npopouec1aa nponopunonanLno sa1nnynocL.
pyryk rpynny kaakasuea cypnnn a Mockae, no sakpm1o, a peka6pe 1937 ropa.
InaanmHn o6annneHmHn no a1oHy npoueccy 6mnn yxe snakoHme naH nyknpse
n paxenauannn, a 1akxe saHec1n1enL napkoHnnpena .M.apaxan, no
xapak1epnc1nke exnpnoro apeka - "ocen knaccnuecko kpaco1m
(H.ep6epoaa, un1. cou., c.40). acc1pennnn acex.
oe-k1o napmaancn caH. ako konqys cnyunncn c eue opnnH "repoeH
konnek1nansaunn I.H.aHnncknH, ko1oporo na nknLckoH nnenyHe 1937 ropa
pepnyna nenerkan amc1ynn1L c o6annennnHn a appec epnn. Xpyuea n
onkaec1 no a1oHy cnyuak cpenann ns aHnnckoro repon, xo1n peuL una
acero-naacero o nesapaunnaoH konLknk1ypunke, ko1opm nm1ancn
aocnonLsoaa1Lcn o6c1anoako aceo6ue nopospn1enLnoc1n pnn caepennn
nnunmx cue1oa, no ne paccun1an coo1nouennn cnn.
3a6eran neckonLko anepep, cnepye1 ckasa1L, u1o 1aknHn xe nnunmHn, a
o1nkpL ne npenmHn Ho1naaHn pykoaopc1aoaanacL n ueknc1ckan pnnac1nn
eppoamx, ns ko1opmx nocne npouecca epnn c1ann pena1L repoea-Hyuennkoa.
eppoa-cmn, ropL, "Hnnm nn1ennnren1nm HanLunk, nk6n1 Hysmky, 1ako
pennka1nm, - yHnnne1cn I.koanea a "paape o1 17 qeapann 1989 ropa.
a1o1 "Hnnm nn1ennnren1nm HanLunk, pa6o1an y ropm, unpoko ncnonLsoaan
1o, u1o naua neua1L ponroe apeHn c1mpnnao nasmaana "nesakonnmHn
npneHaHn cnepc1ann (.Mepaepea. cypy nc1opnn, c.474).
3a ennnrpapoH, rpe nocne cHep1n npoaa pacnopnxancn panoa,
nocnepoaana ouepepL kpannm. ocne apec1a npepc1aan1enn a1o pecny6nnkn
a ..enexec na kpanny narpnnynn Mono1oa, xoa n Xpyuea n
no1pe6oaann npoaepennn unc1kn. pesynL1a1e a1oro na6era nokonunn c co6o
npepcepa1enL oanapkoHa kpannm ..k6uenko. qnunanLnan aepcnn
rnacnna, 6yp1o na kpanne packpm1a "naunonannc1nueckan qaunc1ckan
oprannsaunn, a ko1opyk axopnnn k6uenko, knp, IpnnLko - napkoHqnn
, annukn, - napkoHanypen kpannm n 3a1onckn - napkoHnpoc
kpannm. "paapa aosHyuanacL 1orpa, a uac1noc1n, 1eH, u1o a1n neropnn
paxe ne o1npaspnoaann on1aackyk ropoaunny. 1He1nH npo ce6n a1o
o6annenne, u1o6m eue pas amnan1L cansL Hexpy nnnnnHn nponaranpm 1937 n
1941 ropoa.
.ocnop cnauana saap1aunncn, no no1oH noxep1aoaan 3a1oncknH, cypL6y
ko1oporo ackope paspennnn 1akxe cekpe1apn (6) MM.Xa1aeanu n
H.H.onoa, unen ykpannckoro onn16kpo ..yxoHnnn n npeeHnnk
oc1mueaa a neae yppnauea, c1onL xe 6ecnouapno rpoHnaun nap1nnme
kappm, kak n ero npepuec1aennnk Hakoneu, a nnaape 1938 ropa nac1ana
ouepepL n caHoro ..ocnopa, ko1oporo cHennn na kpanne Xpyuea,
opnoapeHenno aosaepennm a kanpnpa1m a unenm onn16kpo aHec1o
amknny1oro oc1mueaa. ocne norpoHa na kpanne ns 102 unenoa n
kanpnpa1oa a unenm Mec1noro amxnnn 1onLko 1poe.
He HenLue, ueH kpanna, noc1papana n pHennn. epaoro cekpe1apn (6)
pHennn Xanpxnna, kak pacckasan no1oH na XXII cLespe .H.enennn,
co6c1aennopyuno sac1pennn epnn a caoeH ka6nne1e. D1o nponsouno eue po
pocnycka 3akaakascko qepepaunn, a paHkax ppyx6m kaakascknx napopoa, a
aaryc1e 1936 ropa. cenLk 1937 ropa unc1n1L pHennk noexann Mnkonn,
epnn n Manenkoa, n a1o o6epnynocL neuanLno pnn noaoro 1aHounero nepaoro
cekpe1apn Ha1ynn n Hnornx ppyrnx.
poHe apHnn, ennnrpapa n kpannm, eue opnnH ouaroH onnosnunn, kak yxe
roaopnnocL, 6mnn npoHmunennme napkoHa1m, onopa y6mueaa n
ppxonnknpse. ec1okne penpeccnn o6pyunnncL n na a1y cnc1eHy. paa
ycnea aosrnaan1L 1onLko u1o ampenennm ns napkoH1nxnpoHa napkoHa1
o6oponno npoHmunennoc1n, nan unen M..yxnHoanu, po a1oro -
saHec1n1enL ppxonnknpse, eue panee - saHec1n1enL y6mueaa, nHeaun
1akxe 1ecnme cansn c kpanno. 3aHennn ero - cnn1o Hec1o nyc1o ne 6maae1
- M.M.aranoanu-a1opo. cnep sa yxnHoanueH 6mnn apec1oaanm eue paa
6maunx saHec1n1enn y6muaa, unenm , na1mu ..Mexnayk,
npepcepa1enL Iocnnana, 1oxe a npounoH pa6o1aaun na kpanne, n napkoH
nnueao npoHmunennoc1n ..o6oa, a 1akxe cnepykune unenm : napkoH
nerko npoHmunennoc1n ..k6nHoa, napkoH necno npoHmunennoc1n
..aanoa (epnnc1aennm aanoa cpepn Hnornx co1en unenoa sa ack ero
nc1opnk - qak1, ouenL c1pannm c 1oukn spennn 1eopnn aepon1noc1n,
yun1maan pacnpoc1panennoc1L a1o qaHnnnn a occnn), napkoHseH M.,
epnoa, saH, npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa O .3.e6epL, ampanxeneu c
kpannm, napkoH Hec1no npoHmunennoc1n O ..xanoa n napkoHnpoc
O ..y6noa, 1oxe cansannm c kpanno. s kanpnpa1oa a unenm
noc1papann napkoHqnn ykpanneu I.O.IpnnLko, napkoH aneune
1oproann ..osenronLu, ko1opm a y poukoro koHanpoaan aospyunmH
qno1oH, a no1oH 6mn a napkoHa1e saHec1n1eneH ppxonnknpse, n
saHec1n1enL osenronLua .3.Dnnaaa, copa1nnk y6mueaa no naaepennk
nopnpka a pepne snn, a nosxe - npepcepa1enL oanapkoHa 3akaakascko
qepepaunn, 1.e. npaaan pyka ppxonnknpse n paxenauannn.
un6ouno pyHa1L, 6yp1o c1pana no1epnna a pesynL1a1e a1nx unc1ok oco6o
ampakunxcn "kann1anoa npoHmunennoc1n. ykoaopnune kappm
qopHnpoaanncL, a ocnoanoH, ns 1ex, k1o ampannyncn a rpaxpanckyk aony.
ce nx "yHenne pykoaopn1L caopnnocL k rpoxanLk kynakoH o c1on, Ha1epno
pyrann n yrposaH pacc1penn1L. 1oHy xe onn nopnpkoH noppasnoxnnncL o1
Hnpno xnsnn. noaec1n .pacnnLunkoaa "3aespnm uac ("Hoam Hnp,
1986, N1) 1annn roaopn1 o nnx ppxonnknpse: "Haun canoannkn ry6n1
naun 6narne naunnannn na kopnk ny1eH unc1o unnoannuLero y6nc1aa xnaoro
pena... 6Lnannk nH aony ne na xnsnL, a na cHep1L, po nonnoro nc1pe6nennn
- nnn n, nnn onn. MoxeH nn Hm nn6epanLnnua1L, korpa a c1pane 6ecnopnpok,
neoprannsoaannoc1L, nepncunnnnnnpoaannoc1L?.. kpokpa1nsH, xaoc, nn
nanLe... oppynunn - yronoano nakasyeHoe snoyno1pe6nenne cnyxe6nmH
nonoxenneH. eHec1aennoc1L n npo1ekunonnsH, ko1opme napop ne npouae1,
ko1opmHn 1mue1 naH a noc: "na1 amue oanapkoHa! MoxeH nn Hm ponycka1L
ace a1o aoo6ue n 1eH 6onee snan, u1o po aonm oc1ak1cn cun1annme ropm?
c1L nn y nac apeHn pas6npa1Lcn, kako ypap neo6xopnH, a kako nnunn?
MoxeH nn Hm nosaonn1L ce6e pockouL pas6npa1enLc1aa, kako ropuok
nopenoH, a kako spn koknynn?
3aon pas6naaeHmx ropukoa c1onn no ace c1pane. He 6mna sa6m1a n pepnnn
snn. Mec1nme pykoaopnune appm nonann nop nopospenne, o1oHy, u1o nx
korpa-1o Hacaxpann y6muea okonLnnkoa, ypsy1ak n Dnnaaa. nc1ky
specL nauann c unena (6), 1-ro cekpe1apn s6eknc1ana kHann
kpaHoaa n npepcepa1enn s6ekckoro oanapkoHa Oasynnm Xopxaeaa,
npoponxnnn caakoH 6paHoanueH 3enencknH, 6maunH cekpe1apeH
pepneasna1ckoro 6kpo, a 1akxe cekpe1apeH n M (a 1931-37 rr. on
aosrnaannn en1pocoks) na1muoH ..ayHanoH, 1oxe pa6o1aaunH a pepne
snn, a sakonunnn 6maunH unenoH ypkec1ancko koHnccnn OnnnnnoH (ae
caeanueH) IonoueknnmH, opnnH ns rnaanmx annoannkoa y6nc1aa uapcko
ceHLn a ka1epnn6ypre. nauane 30-x ropoa Ionoueknn amHopnn ronopoH
asaxc1an. Moxe1 6m1L, n a1oro k1o-1o nasoae1 "neannnmH c1papanLueH.
Ionoueknn a 1937 ropy yxe ne 6mn unenoH , no uncnnncn rnaanmH
ap6n1poH npn oanapkoHe, a a asaxc1ane ero cHennn ppyro 1ako xe
"kasax, c1aanennnk npoaa .Mnpson, ko1opm 1oxe, koneuno, ne nepexnn
1937 rop.
nacnan onnosnunonnan konuen1paunn cospaaanacL n a enopyccnn, rpe c
1932 ropa nepamH cekpe1apeH 6mn ppyro 1aanennnk npoaa, kanpnpa1 a
unenm H.O.Inkano, a aoennmH okpyroH koHanpoaan 6opeanu. nn
pas6aanennn a1o konuen1paunn Inkano cnauana nepe6pocnnn na kpanny, a
no1oH apec1oaann. Hec1o nero noc1a annn a1oporo cekpe1apn
.O.apanroanua, no n 1oro a ouenL ckopoH apeHenn 1oxe apec1oaann. ponn
aocc1anoan1enn nopnpka specL y1aeppnncn ..onoHapenko. uncno xep1a
penpeccn nonann n paa 6maunx nepamx cekpe1apn enopyccnn, oc1aaunecn a
coc1aae , - eape ..pnnnukn n na1mu nnLrenLH nopnn, k 1oHy
apeHenn - saa. o1penoH arn1aunn n nponaranpm . cnn po6aan1L, u1o
enopyccnn ycnena no6maa1L eue n nop IaHapnnkoH, 1o nosaonn1enLno
cnpocn1L, a rpe xe 1orpa 6mnn caHn 6enopycm? cnn koro ns pykoaopn1ene
nx pecny6nnkn onn n Hory1 onnaknaa1L, kak caonx, 1o nnuL npepcepa1enn
oanapkoHa enopyccnn, kanpnpa1a a unenm H.M.Ionopepa n npepcepa1enn
.I.epankoaa, nokonunauero c co6o ne1oH 1937 ropa.
uncno xep1a nonann akxe pen1enn nnxe panroH: saH. npepcepa1enn
Iocnnana DHHanynn anpnnr, a npounoH - unen n 1- cekpe1apL
(6); napkoH any1penne 1oproann euep; npepcepa1enL koHn1e1a
knneHa1orpaqnn, copa1nnk npoaa no nopnonLk yHnukn, napkoH
Haunnoc1poennn pycknn; napkoH cansn, 6maun koHanpykun 1ankoamHn
aockaHn Xanenckn n Hnorne, Hnorne ppyrne.
ep1am c1aporo n noaoro na6opa n 6mnn amaepenm na caHm rpanpnosnm ns
acex nokasa1enLnmx npoueccoa, Hap1oackn npouecc 1938 ropa. Ha ckaHLe
nopcypnHmx cnpenn 6maune unenm onn16kpo yxapnn, mkoa n
pec1nnckn, unenm ropa, 3enenckn, aanoa, kpaHoa, epnoa,
kanpnpa1m a unenm osenronLu n IpnnLko, unen apanroanu n
ppyrne. noHnnanncL na a1oH npouecce acye, xo1n n ne 6mnn nokasanm
ny6nnke, kanpnpa1 a unenm onn16kpo ypsy1ak, unenm apeknc,
n1nnoa, o6oa, k6nHoa, a6akoa, asyHoa, yHnnuea, kanpnpa1 a unenm
oHapoa (o6nnoa), 6maune unenm ..Hnpnoa n ..Hnp1. onLuan
uac1L o6annneHmx 6mna pacc1pennna 15 Hap1a 1938 ropa.
s yueneaunx (apeHenno) oco6oro annHannn sacnyxnaae1 X. akoackn, no
nponcxoxpennk 6onrapnn, nocne peaonkunn - npepcepa1enL oanapkoHa
kpannm, unen , nosxe - npm 1pouknc1. n1epec k qnrype akoackoro
ceropnn noporpe1 1eH, u1o a neua1n nonannncL nokasannn akoackoro, nko6m
pannme nH na ponpoce 26 nnaapn 1938 ropa cnepoaa1enk I.ysLHnny. Iase1a
"onoxenne pen (1992, 4-5) nepeneua1ana nx ns knnrn nekoero pok1opa
anpoackoro pacnan cnHqonnn, nspanno a cnannn. He1ounoc1n ec1L yxe a
npepncnoann k a1o ny6nnkaunn (a uncne o6annneHmx no npoueccy 1938 ropa
nasaan apaxan), no ne1ounoc1n a caHoH 1ekc1e nokasann sac1aannk1
ycoHnn1Lcn a nopnnnnoc1n a1oro pokyHen1a. akoackn pec1an1enLno 6mn
HaconoH, on ynoHnnae1cn a cnncke, npnnoxennoH k knnre H.an1koaa
"Maconc1ao a pyccko aHnrpaunn (apnx, 1932), no, 6ypyun uenoaekoH
kynL1ypnmH, akoackn nnkak ne Hor nasaa1L Iepuena n Iene "nauanLnnkaHn
1-ro n1epnaunonana, nockonLky Iene yHep sa ceHL ne1 po ocnoaannn a1oro
n1epnaunonana, a Iepuen c MapkcoH 6mn na noxax n k n1epnaunonany
o1nouennn ne nHen. He Hor akoackn ne sna1L, u1o o6uec1ao nnnkHnna1oa
6mno ne c1onL cepLesnmH, ckonL kypLesnmH: snauenne a1oro o6uec1aa
paspyaae1cn an1nHaconcko nponaranpo ne ouenL amcokoro ypoann. ako
kosmpL, kak oprannsaunn pouknH nokyuennn annan, 6mn 6m nenpeHenno
nyuen a xop na npouecce, ecnn 6m o6 a1oH pec1an1enLno roaopnnocL a
kaknx-1o nokasannnx. Ho 1ak nasmaaeHme "nokasannn akoackoro ouenL
nanoHnnak1 "po1okonm cnoncknx Myppeuoa, 1.e. a ocnoae, Hoxe1 6m1L, n
6mn nopnnnnm pokyHen1, no k1o-1o peunn ero nopnpaan1L n 1eH 6esnapexno
ncnop1nn. cnn akoackn pec1an1enLno xo1en coo6un1L 1annny neu1o
aaxnoe papn cHnruennn co6c1aenno yuac1n, 1o u1o xe, co6c1aenno roaopn, on
coo6unn? 1o sa oHHynnc1nuecknH nn1epnaunonanoH c1on1 nn1epnaunonan
qnnancoam? Ho 6mno nn a1o o1kpoaenneH pnn 1annna? cnn 1annn
nopunnnncn HnpoaoHy npaan1enLc1ay, 1o ne1, ecnn xe 1annn amuen ns-nop
kon1ponn, 1o neyxenn akoackn napenncn sanyra1L ero n sac1aan1L
nopunnn1Lcn? epL ecnn aepn1L a1nH nokasannnH, yxe pec1ckn Hnp 6mn
"oun6ko n 6eccosna1enLno nsHeno ennna n1epnaunonanLno
eaonkunn, 1.e. HnpoaoHy npaan1enLc1ay "ennn, onLnnennm anac1Lk, npn
copec1ann 1annna... noppepxnaaeHme naunonanLnmH pyccknH kpmnoH
nap1nn, pacnonaran Ha1epnanLno cnno, naansann caok aonk. orpa ao1 n
popnncn "counannsH a opno c1pane, 1.e. naunonan-koHHynnsH, poc1nrun...
caoero anoren npn 1annne.
D1o - o6annn1enLnm ak1 npo1na 1annna. D1o - c1apan 1pouknc1ckan
nosnunn. Heyxenn, nac1anaan na ne, akoackn napenncn po6n1Lcn
cnncxoxpennn? Haunonan-koHHynnsH 1annna ne npaanncn 1pouknc1aH, ne
npaanncn qnnancoaoHy nn1epnaunonany. D1o npaapa, no ne npaapa
amHmunennmx nokasann, a npaapa nc1opnn.

Map1oackn npouecc 1938 ropa 6mn anoqeosoH 1eppopa. ocne a1oro uno yxe
po6naanne oc1a1koa onnosnunn. ocnepnn ns ee nnpepoa, unen onn16kpo
..ocnop, o1opaannm o1 popno kpannm, npopepxancn acero neckonLko
Hecnuea a ponxnoc1n saHec1n1enn npepcepa1enn oanapkoHa n
npepcepa1enn koHnccnn coae1ckoro kon1ponn, a no1oH 6eccnepno ncues c
nonn1nuecknx ropnson1oa. Henaponro nepexnn ocnopa n ero Hnorone1nn
cnopanxnnk no ynpaanennk kpanno ..y6apL. pa1koapeHennmH 6mno n
npe6maanne a ponxnoc1n napkoHa seHnepennn ..Dxe, "Horyuero na1mua,
aocne1oro ero 1esko .oxpec1aencknH peHena na1muckoro Horyuec1aa
konuanncL.
poponxanacL unc1ka n a apHnn, rpe una nac1onuan uexappa. ocne
yc1panennn yxaueackoro na ero Mec1o 6mn nasnauen Hapuan ..ropoa,
ko1opm a rpaxpan ckyk aony koHanpoaan xnmH n ro-3anapnmH
qpon1aHn, 1.e. 1eHn xe, rpe unenoH 6mn 1annn. nn paano cpa6o1anncL,
xopouo snann ppyr ppyra, kak nnue1 .onkoronoa ne pas xne6ann un ns
opno kpec1Lnncko Hnckn n ykpmaanncL opno conpa1cko unnenLk, n 1eH
ne Henee qeapanLcko-Hap1oackn nnenyH 1938 ropa ncknkunn ero ns
kanpnpa1oa a unenm "aanpy 1oro, u1o, kak nokasana ounan c1aaka
1.ropoaa c apec1oaannmHn saroaopunkaHn enoamH, IpnsnoamH IpnnLko.
epnknnmH, 1.ropoa okasancn nonn1nueckn 6onee sanaukannmH, ueH Hoxno
6mno 6m pyHa1L po ouno c1aakn, n npnnnHan ao annHanne, u1o xena ero,
ypoxpennan eukoackan, c ko1opo 1.ropoa xnn pyua a pyuy, okasanacL
paannune nonLcko unnonko, kak a1o nac1aye1 ns ee co6c1aennoro
nokasannn (pnyHq n 1parepnn. kn.I, u.2, c.272). ropoaa saHennn
.O.OepLko n 1oxe nenaponro, poaepnn ne 6mno n eHy, 1ak kak a rpaxpanckyk
aony on aoeaan 6ok o 6ok c knpoH, a nosxe 6mn saHec1n1eneH yxaueackoro
no ennnrpapckoHy aoennoHy okpyry. pyx6a c OepLko, a 1akxe c1apme rpexn
cry6nnn n noaoro koHanpykuero ..m6enko, ko1opm a nepame
ropnune pnn nocne k1n6pLcko peaonkunn nanonoanny a uy1ky, nanonoanny
acepLes o6cyxpan c kpacnoacknHn kasakaHn nop e1porpapoH aonpoc, ne
sakonun1L nn cpasy rpaxpanckyk aony, o6Henna ennna na epenckoro "yxo
na yxo. pepuec1aennnka xe m6enko na a1oH noc1y ..enoaa,
nepeaepennoro a enopycckn aoennm okpyr, no1nnyn sa co6o na pno ero
saHec1n1enL pnHakoa.
neune ckanpanLnmH, no any1penne anonne nornunmH 6mn apec1 Hapuana
..nkxepa. oae1ckne nc1ounnkn kak-1o ny1ano o6Lncnnnn, o1kypa y a1oro
pa6ouero, amxopua ns kpec1Lnncko ceHLn, asnnacL c1onL c1pannan qaHnnnn:
y1aepxpann, 6yp1o o1 nacHeunnao knnukn, panno ero pepy-kpenoc1noHy
uy1nnkoH-6apnnoH. Ho oc1ae1cn nenonn1nmH, u1o sac1aannno nkxepa
amsmaa1L kpnao1onkn n pepxa1Lcn sa a1y knnuky a anoxy peaonkunonnmx
nceaponnHoa n nerko cHenm qaHnnn. rpaxpanckyk aony nkxep
koHanpoaan 51- pnansne a 5- apHnn yxaueackoro na oc1ounoH qpon1e, a
no1oH ao rnaae 1o xe pnansnn aoeaan nop koHanpo DpeHana npo1na
panrenn. 1921 ropy nkxep anepame nonan na anLnn oc1ok, c1an
aoennmH Hnnnc1poH n poaen coae1ckne aocka po Xa6apoacka - panLue,
po napnaoc1oka, nx yxe aen 6opeanu. 20-e ropm nkxep nop nceaponnHoH
"renepan Iannn aoeaan a n1ae. rpe, kak Hm noHnnH, opnoapeHenno
nopansancn 1akxe pnHakoa. o aosapauennn a nkxep 6mn nasnauen
saHec1n1eneH rnaanokoHanpykuero kpanncknH aoennmH okpyroH, 1.e. knpa,
a c 1929 ropa 6eccHenno koHanpoaan na panLneH oc1oke, rpe ao rnaae
nap1nno oprannsaunn c nnaapn 1937 ropa c1onn saroaopunk noHep opnn
apeknc. 3aHec1n1eneH nkxepa 6mn cnopanxnnk yxaueackoro .annn, no
oco6enno "npocnaann panLnn oc1ok nauanLnnk Hec1noro H I.kukoa,
ko1opm 13 nknn 1938 ropa c6exan k nnonuaH. 1o, cnpaunaae1cn, no noaopy
acero a1oro ponxen 6mn pyHa1L 1annn?
o Hnennk Hapuana ..oneaa, nkxep 6mn "uenoaekoH c npounmH, no 6es
6ypyuero, uenoaekoH, ko1opm no ypoank caonx snann, npepc1aanenn
nepaneko yuen o1 rpaxpancko aonm n npnnapnexan k 1o ka1eropnn,
ko1opyk npepc1aannnn co6o k nauany aonm opounnoa, ypennm n
neko1opme ppyrne 6maune konapHeum, xnaune ne coapeHennmHn, a
npounmHn asrnnpaHn. pepc1aan1L ce6e, u1o nkxep cnpaanncn 6m a
coapeHenno aone c qpon1oH, neaosHoxno. npnHo, on c a1nH cnpaanncn 6m
ne nyuue opounnoaa nnn ypennoro. o acnkoH cnyuae, 1akyk ne6onLuyk
onepaunk, kak xacanckne co6m1nn, nkxep npoaannn. kpoHe 1oro,
nocnepnee apeHn on aoo6ue 6mn a 1nxenoH HopanLnoH coc1onnnn, cnnLno
nnn, onyc1nncn (.nHonoa. InasaHn uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn. M., 1989,
c.393-394).
o6m1nnH y osepa Xacan, ko1opme cnoHann kapLepy nkxepa n
npepuec1aoaann ero apec1y, nocan1nnn caok c1a1Lk "nunpen1 a xypnane
"opnna (1991, N6-7) .a1ynuea n .ou. a1o c1a1Le un1npye1cn
cekpe1nm npnkas opounnoaa o1 4 cen1n6pn 1938 ropa, ns ko1oporo
nac1aye1, u1o nkxep "nopaepr coHnennk sakonnoc1L pec1an naunx
norpannunnkoa y osepa Xacan. 1ane o1 unena aoennoro coae1a 1.Masenoaa,
caoero nauanLnnka u1a6a 1.1epna, saH.napkoHa o6oponm 1.Mexnnca n saH.
napkoHa any1pennnx pen 1.Opnnoackoro, naxopnauerocn a a1o apeHn a
Xa6apoacke, 1.nkxep nocnan koHnccnk na amco1y 3aosepnan n 6es yuac1nn
nauanLnnka norpanyuac1ka nponsaen paccnepoaanne pec1an naunx
norpannunnkoa. ospannan 1aknH nopospn1enLnmH nopnpkoH koHnccnn
o6napyxnna "napyuenne naunHn norpannunnkaHn HanLuxypcko rpannum na
3 He1pa n, cnepoaa1enLno, "yc1anoanna nauy annoanoc1L a aosnnknoaennn
konqnnk1a y os.Xacan.
He aepn a npaao1y pena, nkxep aen ce6n 6esmnnuna1nano, ueH neHepnenno
aocnonLsoaancn, kak ne pas a1o penan no1oH, a 1euec1aennyk aony, Mexnnc,
ko1opm ace apeHn ao ace aHeunaancn, o1paaan caon pacnopnxennn, nm1ancL
nopHenn1L koHanpykuero, n npepnoxnn 1annny nasnaun1L a paone 6oea
nac1onuero pnk1a1opa, ko1opoHy ace 6mno 6m nopunneno, nHen a anpy,
oueanpno, ce6n. 1annn a pasroaope no npnHoHy npoaopy 1 aaryc1a yc1ponn
amaonouky nkxepy n cnpocnn ero: "kaxn1e, 1.nkxep, uec1no: ec1L nn y ac
xenanne no-nac1onueHy aoeaa1L c nnonuaHn? cnn ne1 y ac 1akoro xenannn,
ckaxn1e npnHo, kak nopo6ae1 koHHynnc1y. pnako pnk1a1opoH y osepa Xacan
1annn ace xe nasnaunn ne Mexnnca, a 1epna. nkxepa o1osaann a Mockay n
apec1oaann 22 ok1n6pn 1938 ropa.
Ho 1eppop yxe cnyckancn na 1opHosax. epamH npepynpepn1enLnmH saonkoH
nposayuano yc1panenne a 1937 ropy "sa napyuenne counannc1nuecko
sakonnoc1n (nHenno 1ak n nHenno 1orpa) 6mauero nepamH saHec1n1eneH
napkoHa any1pennnx pen eue npn rope ..rpanoaa (opensona), nanaua
ponu1ap1a a 1921 ropy n ennnrpapa a 1935 ropy. Ha coaec1n rpanoaa, kak
yxe roaopnnocL, rn6enL H.IyHnneaa n .Mankoackoro. cnep sa rpanoamH
noc1enenno nnkanpnpoaann n npounx nropnncknx nepo6n1koa. 1opmH
npepynpexpenneH pnn ne a Hepy pe1namx ncnonnn1ene c1an nnaapckn
nnenyH 1938 ropa, na ko1opoH 6mn cnn1 oc1muea. Hakoneu, saua1ancn n caH
xoa, saHec1n1eneH ko1oporo a H 20 nknn 1938 ropa 6mn nasnauen
..epnn.
ueanpno, pasHax nc1pe6nennn nnopopnmx kappoa amsaan y 1annna
6ecnokoc1ao sa caok co6c1aennyk cypL6y, n, u1o6m ne aosamua1Lcn
opnnoknH HankoH a pas6yueaaaueHcn pycckoH Hope, on peunn aaepn1L
kapa1enLnm annapa1 caoeHy conneHennnky, coaepuna 1eH caHmH pokoao
pnn ce6n am6op. ak Hor 1annn paccun1maa1L na rpysnnckyk connpapnoc1L
uenoaeka, 1akoro xe 6ecnpnnunnnoro n 6ecnouapnoro, kak n on caH?
1nocn1enLno rpysnncko connpapnoc1n caHoro 1annna Hnoro ropLknx cnoa
Hornn 6m ckasa1L ppxonnknpse n nyknpse, paxenauannn n Dnnaaa,
oHnnapse n Mpnaann n Hnorne, Hnorne ppyrne, no 1annn sac1aann nx
saHonua1L naacerpa. 1pan a 1938 ropy na pac1epsanne epnn c1pany, 1annn
noc1ynnn ne kak 1annn, a kak xyrauannn.
epnn a 1918 ropy pa6o1an a aky a Hycaaa1nc1cko nonnunn n npepnoxnn
caon ycnyrn 6onLueankaH. cnyrn a1n 6mnn npnnn1m no pekoHenpaunn
Mnkonna, ko1opm c 1ex nop 6mn c epne a 1ecno ppyx6e n nm1ancn
saunua1L ero paxe a pokoaoH nkne 1953 ropa. ocne no6epm coae1cko
anac1n a sep6apxane epnn pa6o1an saHec1n1eneH npepcepa1enn Hec1noro
M..arnpoaa, ko1opm nosxe na npo1nxennn Hnornx ne1 aosrnaannn
sep6apxanckyk koHnap1nk n paspennn neuanLnyk cypL6y epnn. s
sep6apxana epnn nepe6pancn a Ipysnk, npoponxna 1aH caok kapLepy a
opranax. ykoaopnn nHn a Hacu1a6ax acero 3akaakasLn cnauana onoHon
Mornneackn, norn6un a aanaunonno ka1ac1poqe a 1925 ropy, a no1oH
caonk 1annna .epenc, k ko1opoHy epnn npnc1ponncn saHec1n1eneH, a
no1oH cnnxnyn epenca, annnuero no nLnnke a ckanpanLnyk nc1opnk. 1931
ropy epnn aosrnaann 3akaakasckyk nap1oprannsaunk a a 1938 ropy cnoaa
aepnyncn a opranm, no yxe kak nx pykoaopn1enL ao acecoksnoH Hacu1a6e.
epnn nonnn, u1o o1 nero 1pe6ye1cn, n cpasy xe pasaepnyn kon1pnac1ynnenne
na pycckne kappm, nauaa c koHcoHonLckoro aoxaka n unena pr6kpo
..ocapeaa, k ko1opoHy epnn ncnm1maan nnunyk nenpnnsnL. peno a 1oH,
u1o ocapea 6mn xena1 na Mapnn nk1opoane Haneuannn, pouepn nk1opa
aanoanua Haneuannn, ko1opm a 1919 ropy pykoaopnn 6aknncknH
nopnonLeH n xopouo snan, npn kaknx o6c1on1enLc1aax epnn ocuac1nnann
6onLueanc1ckyk nap1nk caonH nonanenneH. 3nan a1o, coo1ae1c1aenno, n
ocapea, ko1opm npopeHonc1pnpoaan caon snannn ne k Hec1y, sanana a 1936
ropy a npncy1c1ann arnpoaa, u1o a 3akaakasLe ne1 nac1onuero
6onLueanc1ckoro pykoaopc1aa (.Ionoakoa. He o1pekancL o1 ce6n. "ronek,
1988, N7). asroaop a1o1, pasyHee1cn, c1an nsaec1en epnn. po1na ocapeaa
saansanacL nn1pnra, kynLHnnaune ko1opo c1an nnenyH M,
noc1anoanaun 22 non6pn 1938 ropa cnn1L ocapeaa, oraueaa n nknny c
noc1oa cekpe1ape M. epes nepenk ocapeaa n ppyrnx onanLnmx
koHcoHonLcknx aoxakoa apec1oaann. Hyxno o1pa1L nH ponxnoe: ne a npnHep
c1apunH nap1nnmH 1oaapnuaH, onn, ne snan nnuero o cypL6e ppyr ppyra,
necHo1pn na ace nm1kn, ne pann nnkaknx nokasann nn na ce6n, nn na ppyrnx,
nn a ueH ne packannncL n ne npnsnanncL. coxanennk, nx reponsH ne 6mn
aocne1 .OapeeamH. anLueH a ne6o nonan n poukn, ko1opm nasaan
ocapeaa "HopanLno pasnoxnaunHcn cy6Lek1oH, snoyno1pe6nnaunH a nnunmx
uennx caonH amcoknH nonoxenneH. ecL annapa1 ocapeaa, no poukoHy,
6yp1o 6m coc1onn ns nkpe 1oro xe 1nna, ns "sono1o Honopexn pycckoro
1epHnpopa (.poukn. 1annn, 1.II, c.215). 3ono1an HonopexL 1ak ne aepe1
ce6n a kpn1nuecknx cn1yaunnx.
ocapeaa o6annnnn, a uac1noc1n, a "croaope c xoamH (.onkaec1. ennkn
1eppop, c.615). epnn saHennn xoaa na noc1y napkoHa any1pennnx pen 8
peka6pn 1938 ropa. 1annn na kakoe-1o apeHn oc1aann xoaa pnn no1exn
napkoHoH aopnoro 1pancnop1a. nocnepnn pas uenoaek, nHn ko1oporo paa
ropa yc1pauano ack c1pany, HenLknyn na ny6nnke na 1opxec1aennoH
sacepannn, nocanuennoH ropoaunne cHep1n ennna 22 nnaapn 1939 ropa.
pec1oaann xoaa 10 anpenn 1939 ropa, a pacc1pennnn, ecnn aepn1L
pokyHen1aH, a Mockae 4 qeapann 1940 ropa (I.n1pnnnk. acc1penLnoe peno
xoaa. "n1epa1ypnan rase1a, 1992, N7). a cnnckax pykoaopn1ene H
aHec1o npnamunmx eapecknx saHenLkann qaHnnnn c ppyrnH akuen1oH -
o6ynoa, Iornnpse, ekanosoa, anaaa, Ianunann (neko1opme rpysnnm
pycnqnunpoaann caon qaHnnnn, saHennn "-uannn na "-oa).
akoam xe 6mnn n1orn "aennko unc1kn? Mm cocpepo1ounnn ocnoanoe
annHanne na 6opL6e a aepxax, no aepL noc1papann orpoHnme Haccm nkpe.
caoe knnre cypy nc1opnn (c.460) .Mepaepea ncxopnn ns o6uero uncna
penpeccnpoaannmx nopnpka 4-5 Hnnnnonoa, ns ko1opmx pacc1pennno 6mno
okono 500 1mcnu. o1oH .Mepaepea, oueanpno, peunn, u1o amxopn1
Hanoaa1o, n a o1ae1e un1a1ennH "pryHen1oa n qak1oa (1989, N5) yaennunn
nepayk unqpy po 7 Hnnnnonoa, a a1opyk po Hnnnnona. cnn unqpm 6ypy1 1ak
pac1n n anpepL, 1o ne1 uepes pecn1L okaxe1cn, u1o 1annn nc1pe6nn nonoanny
nacenennn occnn, ecnn ne ace nacenenne noronoano. o1 pesynL1a1 1oro, u1o
neko1opme aa1opm, kak ampaxae1cn .onkoronoa, amnyxpenm
"Dkc1panonnpoaa1L n "npnknpmaa1L. aH .onkoronoa ncxopn1 ns unqpm
4,5-5,5 Hnnnnonoa uenoaek, o11anknaancL o1 oqnunanLnmx poknapoa M
nocneaoennoro nepnopa, cornacno ko1opmH a narepnx na 1 nnaapn 1948 ropa
opepxanocL 2.199.535 saknkuennmx, a na 1 nnaapn 1949 ropa 2.550.275
saknkuennmx, npnueH ns nnx 1onLko 22,7% - sa kon1ppeaonkunonnyk
pen1enLnoc1L (pnyHq n 1parepnn, kn. 1, u.2, c.239-240). p.onkoronoa
"akc1panonnpye1 a1n pannme na 1937-1938 ropm n amckasmaae1
npepnonoxenne, u1o apnp nn penpeccnpoaannmx Horno 6m1L 1orpa
naHnoro 6onLue. no, kak amncnne1cn, 6mno paxe HenLue. o pannmH na 1
Hap1a 1940 ropa o6un kon1nnren1 saknkuennmx coc1aannn 1668200 uenoaek,
ns nnx ocyxpennmx sa kon1ppeaonkunonnyk pen1enLnoc1L 28,7%. 22 nknn
1941 ropa a1o uncno yaennunnocL po 2,3 Hnnnnona a pesynL1a1e npnnn1nn
nepep aono upesamuanmx sakonoa. D1o "ac1ponoHnueckne unqpm, no onn,
koneuno, HenLue, ueH Hoxno ac1pe1n1L a neko1opmx ny6nnkaunnx na a1y
1eHy, kak roaopn1 kanpnpa1 nc1opnuecknx nayk, nonkoannk .Hennn (II
a ropm ennko 1euec1aenno aonm. "oenno-nc1opnueckn xypnan, 1991,
N1). c1ponoHnuecknHn a1n unqpm amrnnpn1, ecnn 6pa1L nx a6conk1no, no o1
nacenennn naue c1panm a uenoH a1o acero nnuL 1 npouen1, a o1nkpL ne
nonoanna.
paka sa anac1L, naua1an a 1934 ropy, nopopnna cecHnueckne aonnm,
ko1opme nounn caepxy anns, necn c o6o cHep1L, rope n c1papannn.
oa1opnnacL c1apan nc1opnn, ppanncL nanm, a uy6m 1peuann y xononoa. o
any1pennnx aonax, kak n na nac1onue aone, rn6ny1, rnaanmH o6pasoH, ne
renepanm, a conpa1m, ko1opme a1o aonm ne naunnann. ao apeHena
onpnunnnm, kak pacckasmaae1 .kpmnnnkoa a caoe knnre o6 aane IposnoH,
ocnoanyk Haccy xep1a coc1aannnn ne 6on pe, a nx uennpL.
occnn aeuno 6ype1 onnaknaa1L 6esmHnnnme xep1am, oc1aana n "pe1nH
p6a1a onnaknaa1L ap6a1cknx o1uoa-ocnoaa1ene coae1ckoro rocypapc1aa.
nnakanLunkoa a1oporo 1nna pepko ac1pe1nuL o6Lek1nanme ouenkn, kak,
nanpnHep, y .Mepaepeaa, y ko1oporo Hoxno npouec1L n o snopennnnx
poukoro, 3nnoaLeaa n e1poackoro a rpaxpanckyk aony, n o saepckoH n
6eccHmcnennoH y6nc1ae uapcko ceHLn no npnkasy Ionoueknna n
eno6opopoaa, n o HaccoaoH nc1pe6nennn kpacnmHn a pmHy cpaaunxcn
nocne nopaxennn panrenn 6enoraappeuea (.Mepaepea, npaapa, yHanunaae1
o 1oH, u1o canpenc1aoaann 1aH ena yn n .3eHnnuka-3anknnp). .Mepaepea
pacckasan n o 1oH, kaknH "nn6epanoH na caHoH pene 6mn oc1muea, kak
nopHaxnaan cHep1nme npnroaopm Dxe, u1o am1aopnn na y6ann e6onpaea,
kak o6pauancn c kc1nune pmnenko, kak 1paannn yuenmx .ayHan n
.koanea (Dnu1en), a nnca1ene - aep6ax; kak oaenLHoxnncn unen
asyHoa, kako kpane rpy6oc1Lk o1nnuancn epe6poackn (aocne1m
"oae1cko occne 16 ok1n6pn 1988 ropa), kak oprannsoamaan co6c1aennm
kynL1 cekpe1apL XapLkoackoro o6koHa eHuenko, kak pasnoxnncn nauanLnnk
onmHcknx narepe D.epsnn, kaknH 6kpokpa1oH c1an pnpek1op Hysen
peaonkunn Ianeukn (Okpc1en6epr) n kak 1eppopnsnpoaan a6appnno-
ankapnk e1an anHmkoa.
oc1onm nekponor aceH a1nH n nH nopo6nmH pen1ennH nanncan
.onxennumn "pnn 1ako nyxen 6mn 1annn, pa, no n nap1nn xe
6mna nyxna 1akan: 6onLunnc1ao nx, c1onaunx y anac1n, po caHoro HoHen1a
co6c1aenno nocapkn 6esxanoc1no caxann ppyrnx, nocnyuno ynnu1oxann ce6e
nopo6nmx no 1eH xe caHmH nnc1pykunnH, o1paaann na pacnpaay nk6oro
auepaunero ppyra nnL copa1nnka. ace kpynnme 6onLueankn, yaenuannme
1enepL opeonoH Hyuennkoa, ycnenn no6m1L n nanauaHn ppyrnx 6onLueankoa
(yx ne cun1an, kak npexpe 1oro onn ace 6mnn nanauaHn 6ecnap1nnmx).
Moxe1 6m1L 37- rop n HH 6mn pnn 1oro, u1o6m nokasa1L, kak Hanoro
c1on1 ace nx M33H, ko1opmH onn 1ak 6oppo xopoxopnnncL
pasaopaunaan occnk, rpoHn ee 1aeppmnn, 1onua ee can1mnn (pxnnenar
II, u.I, c.138).
esycnoanm nonoxn1enLnm n1or co6m1n 1934- 1938 ropoa saknkuancn a
ounuennn nap1nnoro n rocypapc1aennoro annapa1a n pykoaopc1aa apHnn o1
uyxepopnmx aneHen1oa, a nepexope o1 an1npyccknx npeonornuecknx
yc1anoaok k na1pno1nuecko nponaranpe. es npoaepenno unc1kn 1ako
nepexop 6mn 6m neaosHoxen, a a cansn c napanrakuecn aono on 6mn
neo6xopnH. noaa no6eponocno aaHe1nynncL aaepx snaHena nekcanppa
Heackoro n e1pa 1, y1ysoaa n yaopoaa, onneaannme 1ak nasmaaeHmHn
"nc1opnkaHn ukonm okpoackoro (acn a1a rpynnnpoaka - anar, 3akc-
Inapnea, Opnpnanp, 3epenL n ppyrne - nauna a onncmaaeHm nepnop cao
koneu, o ueH 1oxe xane1L ne npnxopn1cn). Heo6xopnHo eue pas noa1opn1L ne
a 1941 ropy, cnoxaa1nauncL o6pa1nnncL k aennknH npepkaH, a
sa6naroapeHenno, a 1937 ropy. nnoqnnLHm "e1p epam, "nekcanpp
Heackn.
"yaopoa, "Mnnnn n oxapckn 6mnn amnyuenm po aonm. HaunonanLnm
acnek1 nponcuepuero 1orpa nepeaopo1a kak-1o Hano ocosnan po cnx nop.
aepL ouenL nn1epecnme qak1m coo6uae1 1o1 xe .onkaec1. kasmaae1cn, a
1937 ropy 6mnn qak1nueckn nnkanpnpoaanm naunonanLnme HenLunnc1aa a
pyccknx ropopax. aon Mapnynonn 6mn ounuen o1 rpekoa: npoaepenm
Haccoame apec1m kn1auea: a cen1n6pe 1937 ropa c kpannm amcnann acex
apHnn n a 1oH xe Hecnue nepecaxann uy1L ne acex na1mue. co6enno
pokoao oprannsaune, kak nnue1 .onkaec1, 6mn ynp. Mnornx eapeea
o6annnnn a 1oH, u1o onn 6ynpoaum n cnonnc1m. akoe o6annenne 6mno, a
uac1noc1n npepLnaneno cekpe1apk poneukoro o6koHa apkncoay. onkaec1
paxe npnaopn1 1ako kypLesnm cnyua, kak ocyxpenne xenunnm,
oqopHnaue nenenLnnuy a anpe saespm aanpa. ero knnre un1npyk1cn
cnoaa p-pa Mapronnna: "enoe nokonenne cnonnc1oa norn6no a coae1cknx
1kpLHax, narepnx n ccmnke, opnako panee cnepye1 uennoe npnsnanne 1oro xe
p-pa Mapronnna: "Hac a1o ne 6ecnokonno, n ne noHnk nn opno c1a1Ln o6 a1oH
a poaoennmx rase1ax. Hn Haneunx ycnnn ne npnnaranocL, u1o6m
Ho6nnnsoaa1L o6uec1aennoe Hnenne n o6nerun1L nx yuac1L (ennkn 1eppop,
c.405-406, 417,683). pnpek1op 6anka Moprana .aHon1, n snaHenn1me
nnca1enn - Oex1aanrep, pasep, onnan - ace onpaapmaann 1orpa
c1annnckne penpeccnn.
oueHy 1akan nopasn1enLnan pasnnua Hexpy 30-Hn n, ckaxeH, 70-Hn ropaHn?
a ouenL npoc1o. 30-x ropax nap HnpoamH nonoH naanc c1pauno yrposo
In1nep, n occnn nyxna 6mna a kauec1ae npo1naoaeca a1o yrpose. 70-x xe
ropax cnonnc1m o6Lnannn caonH rnaanmH aparoH , xo1n a1o 6mn acero
nnuL nponaranpnc1ckn 1pkk: nonn1nka ynnsn1enLnoro sancknaannn nepep
HnpoamH cnonnsHoH nauanacL y nac ne c nmneunnx "peHokpa1oa, a yxe
1orpa. xe 1orpa nac1onuee, a ne unc1o qopHanLnoe o6nnuenne cnonnsHa
6mno a oae1ckoH okse nou1n c1onL xe onacnmH penoH, kak n a .
6pyunaan 6ecnouapnme penpeccnn na pyccknx na1pno1oa, knnka pexneaa-
ycnoaa nnunna pexnH ero epnnc1aenno no1enunanLno onopm n 1eH caHmH
ro1oanna kpax a1oro pexnHa a 1991 ropy.
oaceH nnme 1enpenunn aoso6napann a konue 30-x ropoa. .onkaec1 c
ypnanenneH o1Heuae1, u1o a a1o apeHn nou1n nnkorpa ne npepLnannnncL
o6annennn a npnaepxennoc1n k pec1an1enLno peakunonnmH npenH,
nanpnHep, HonapxnuecknH, necHo1pn na o6nnne ponocoa a c1nne "co6npanncL
6maune oqnuepm n roaopnnn sa nonnxenne coae1cko anac1n. nonn1en
aoc1opr opnoro c1aporo oqnuepa, ko1opm ckasan 1orpa: " cuac1nna. kpLHm
nonnm eapenHn n 6onLueankaHn. ea asron npnnncmaae1 a1y qpasy
ouakoackoHy (HenpnpyHannoe. M., 1991, c.77). ornacno .Mepaepeay, ee
cnmuan ne .asron, a M.ysenu (oxpL. Xosnnn. nk1a1op. M., 1990, c.315).
Ho ne 1ak aaxno, k1o ee cnmuan n k1o ckasan, aaxno, u1o6m Hm nonnnn,
noueHy ona 6mna ckasana.
k6onm1no, u1o nonnHanne cy1n co6m1n 30-x ropoa 6mno npncyue n
nsaec1noHy cnonnc1y M.rypckoHy, ko1opm noHep a aaryc1e 1991 ropa o1
papoc1n no cnyuak no6epm "peHokpa1nn a occnn. M.rypckn nncan, u1o a
1917 ropy nponsouna ne 1onLko counanLnan, no n naunonanLnan peaonkunn;
a1o 6mna, npexpe acero, no6epa naunonanLnmx okpann nap He1pononne,
ennkopoccne. esynL1a1oH c1ano npeo6napanne nepyccknx aneHen1oa. Ho a
cepepnne 30-x ropoa aosnnkna noaan 1enpenunn.
"pnunnm unc1ok 6mnn ropaspo rny6xe. op npnkpm1neH unc1ok nponcxopnnn
rny6okne counanLnme n (ne Henee aaxnme) naunonanLnme npeo6pasoaannn, a
pesynL1a1e ko1opmx k anac1n npnuna noaan npocnoka nkpe, 6onLue
uac1Lk kpec1Lnnckoro nponcxoxpennn, cpepn ko1opmx npak1nueckn 6onLue ne
6mno nnopopuea (eapeea, na1mue, nn1oauea, nonnkoa n 1.p.). D1o 6mna
peakunn orpoHno cnaanncko c1panm na nn1epnaunonanLnme
kocHononn1nueckne akcnepnHen1m 20-x n 30-x ropoa, ko1opme nrnopnpoaann
naunonanLnm qak1op. 1annn npoc1o nopnnn a1y noayk npocnoky k anac1n:
on ne cospan ee. es acnkoro npeyaennuennn Hoxno paccHa1pnaa1L unc1kn
1936-1938 ropoa kak opnn ns nocnepnnx a1anoa rpaxpancko aonm a
occnn (un1. no kn. .Mepaepeaa " 1annne n c1annnnsHe. sp.
kcqoppckoro ynnaepcn1e1a, 1979, c.112).

epexop na naunonanLnme nosnunn npnaen k 1oHy, u1o ns o6opo1a ncues
nosynr "Hnpoao npone1apcko peaonkunn, "pa1koH kypce a1n cnoaa
6mnn npoc1o-nanpoc1o amuepkny1m. Hap1e 1936 ropa 1annn a 6ecepe c
aHepnkancknH xypnannc1oH .IoaappoH cpenan ypnanennme rnasa: "akan
Hnpoaan peaonkunn? Hnuero ne snak, nnkaknx 1aknx nnanoa n naHepenn y
nac ne 6mno n ne1. ak aospmxae1 npoqeccop .npo1knn (parepnn
oHnn1epna. "Mockoackan npaapa, 20 anpenn 1989 ropa), "penpeccnn a1opo
nonoannm 30-x ropoa opnoapeHenno conpoaoxpanncL penpeccnnHn n
noxoponaHn ace konuenunn oHnn1epna, ace ero pok1pnnm. snauennm
npoqeccop nano ncnm1maan 1ocky no 20-H ropaH, korpa cnoao "na1pno1 6mno
pyra1enLnmH. 1o x, ceropnn pok1op nayk npo1knn Hoxe1 6m1L poaonen:
nk6esnme ero ceppuy apeHena aepnynncL.
ue a 1925 ropy nsaec1nm pen1enL "a6oue onnosnunn .Mepaepea
kaannqnunpoaan nnoc1pannme koHnap1nn kak opaam Henko6ypxyasno
uennpn, xnayune pyccknH sono1oH, o1nouennn 6onLunnc1aa koHnap1n a1a
xapak1epnc1nka oc1aaanacL aepno anno1L po 6eccnaanoro konua .
6muno penann 1ak: 6pann o1 kakoro-nn6ypL napopa pecn1ok nkpe n
1opxec1aenno ampaaann nx sa ynonnoHouennmx npepc1aan1ene pannoro
napopa. o6pannme 1akne pecn1kn c eue 6onLue noHno ampaaanncL sa
npepc1aan1ene acero seHnoro uapa. orpa xe a konue 30-x ropoa
aoc1opxec1aoaan naunonanLnm nopxop, napopm c1ann paccHa1pnaa1L kak
uenoe, a o1penLnmx nx npepc1aan1ene kak o1uenenuea ko1opmx ne c1on1
npnnnHa1L ao annHanne, nn6o kak nopnnnnmx npepc1aan1ene, npnueH ouenka
nx 6mna nonoxn1enLno nnn o1pnua1enLno a saancnHoc1n o1 o1nouenn c
1eH nnn nnmH napopoH a pannm HoHen1. a1y nepeHeny 1enpenunn cpasy
nouyac1aoaann na caoe ukype nnoc1pannme koHHynnc1m. 842 neHeuknx
an1nqaunc1a neoxnpanno pnn ce6n okasanncL ne a qaunc1cknx, a a
coae1cknx 1kpLHax, a 1oH uncne unenm onn16kpo IepHancko koHnap1nn
eHHene (couen c yHa a konunarepe) n ynL1ke, unenm D6epnnn (y6n1
konaoeH na a1ane), HeHan, annen6eprep, Onnk, 3ycknnp n Xnpu, opnn ns
pykoaopn1ene aaapcko coae1cko pecny6nnkn a 1919 ropy ypnx,
nneHnnnnk .n6knex1a yp1, apoaa D.MksaHa, cmn oprnepa, koHnosn1op
Ianc aanp. k6oannua .pex1a apona Heep norn6na a coae1cknx narepnx.
saec1nm neHeukn koHHynnc1 .Mknuen6epr o1kasancn aepny1Lcn a
Mockay, 6mn ncknkuen ns nap1nn n y6n1 ao Opanunn a 1940 ropy. k6onm1no,
u1o paxe neHeukne eapen ace paano cun1anncL naunc1cknH aren1aHn
(.onkaec1. ennkn 1eppop, c.578).
poHe aaapcko coae1cko pecny6nnkn a 1919 ropy neponroe apeHn
cyuec1aoaana eue n enrepckan. e aoxpL ena yn (1.e. oran), nocne
neypaun y ce6n na "popnne canpenc1aoaan a pmHy, ynnu1oxan 6esopyxnmx,
kann1ynnpoaaaunx 6enoraappeuea. He pouno n paapua1n ne1, kak nynn
Hac1nrna n ero, a aHec1e c nnH eue 12 6maunx aenrepcknx napkoHoa. mn
.yna, nnca1enL .Inpau, npocnpen a narepnx 17 ne1.
mna aoo6ue nnkanpnpoaana oHnap1nn onLun, a nepconanLno ee
renepanLnm cekpe1apL .eunnckn (enckn), unenm pykoaopc1aa
.apckn (apuaackn), .oc1ueaa (ouy1ckan), X.aneukn, ypsnnckn,
koHHynnc1nueckne nnpepm 3anapno kpannm n 3anapno enopyccnn -
onLq, panL, Mackn n ppyrne. o aceHy oksy, kak nnue1 .onkaec1,
6mno ynnu1oxeno 50.000 nonnkoa, a opno Mockae - 10.000 (un1. cou.,
c.584). nacnncL nnuL epnnnum, a 1oH uncne .epy1, pa6o1aaun
cnepoaa1eneH H, no, kc1a1n ckasa1L, uenoaek Hnrkoro, o1nkpL ne
ueknc1ckoro xapak1epa.
o npnHepy oHnap1nn onLun xo1enn pasorna1L n oHnap1nk rocnaann,
korpa ao "aparn napopa nonan ee renepanLnm cekpe1apL Iopknu. n1o
nacnny pokasan, u1o a1oro pena1L ne c1on1, no caH pnn ce6n cpenan
napnexaune amaopm o1nocn1enLno 1oro, kaknH ponxen 6m1L naunonanLnm
kypc.
yro npnunocL ne 1onLko nonnkaH, no n npepc1aan1ennH ppyrnx cocepnnx
rocypapc1a. oc1papann Hnorne koHHynnc1m ns a1ann n Dc1onnn, 6mnn
nepeapec1oaanm nou1n ace qnnnm, xnaune 1orpa a (.onkaec1, un1.
cou., c.581), pacnyuena oHnap1nn open. yHmnckn koHHynnc1 MapcenL
aykep c1an xep1ao ponoca co6c1aenno xenm nnm aykep. ocne aonm
a1a "npnnunnnanLnan xenunna ponroe apeHn aosrnaannna pyHmnckoe
Hnnnc1epc1ao nnoc1pannmx pen, noka ee caHy ne o6annnnn a "yknone.
orn6nn 6onrapckne koHHynnc1m .1oHonnkoa (saH. napkoHa nnoc1pannmx
pen), .apaHoa (ynpaannkun o6Lepnnennn "Xne6oakcnop1), ckpoa,
1oaapnun I.nHn1poaa no enunrckoHy npoueccy anea n onoa. ypyun
npeHLep napopno onrapnn mnko epaenkoa cnaccn 1eH, u1o npn1ancn nop
kpoaa1Lk y nHn1poaa. oe-koro nHn1poay ypanocL cnac1n, kak, nanpnHep,
X.a6akuneaa. pepn xep1a ac1peuak1cn 1akxe nHena kn1acknx, npancknx,
Hekcnkancknx, nnpncknx n n1anLnncknx koHHynnc1oa (a 1oH uncne aono
a6o11n - sn1L .onLn11n).
e, koHy 6mno nopyueno nac1n aecL a1o1 oHnn1epn, 1oxe nonann nop
nopospenne n nop penpeccnn, a uac1noc1n, unenm n1nnukn (apcnc) n
nopnn. nc1ky a oHnn1epne ocyuec1annn 6maun saHec1n1enL
npepcepa1enn I Meep pnnnccep, ko1oporo no1oH, pasyHee1cn, amunc1nnn
n caHoro.
5 Hap1a 1939 ropa, nakanyne XVIII cLespa (6), a Mappnpe nponsouen
aoennm nepeaopo1 n 6mno caeprny1o pecny6nnkanckoe npaan1enLc1ao
cnannn. nm1 cnancko aonm, kak yxe roaopnnocL, nokasan 6eccnnne
nn1epnaunonanLno npen npo1na npen naunonanLno, n a1o1 onm1 6mn yu1en.
uac1nnkoa ncnancko aonm nc1pe6nnnn poaonLno He1opnuno, u1o6m ne
pasaopnnn specL nsnnunn nn1epnaunonannsH. ak neoxnpanno pnn ce6n
sakonunnn caok xnsnL qak1nueckn rnaanokoHanpykun ncnancko
pecny6nnkancko apHnn "renepan Ipnunn (..epsnn), repo o6oponm
Mappnpa koH6pnr Iopea (ko6neackn), snaHenn1m ne1unk Hyukeanu, ne
Henee snaHenn1m xypnannc1 M.onLuoa (Opnpnanp), 6maun a cnannn
1aknH xe 1anmH aHnccapoH, kak Dpen6ypr ao Opanunn, n amaepennm
XeHnnryaeH a poHane "o koH saonn1 konokon nop qaHnnne apkoa; nocon a
cnannn osen6epr, nm1aauncn yc1pon1L o6Hen nnennmHn c Opanko (1annn
o1nocnncn k 1aknH aeuaH nopospn1enLno), n ..aceenko (nap1nnm
nceaponnH n1onoa) - uenoaek, ko1opm a ok1n6pe 1917 ropa apec1oaan
peHennoe npaan1enLc1ao, a nosxe 6mn ak1nanmH 1pouknc1oH. ro cmn,
.n1onoa-aceenko, ony6nnkoaan sa nocnepnne ropm neHano c1a1e ao cnaay
caoero o1ua, no npepnoun1ae1 yHanunaa1L o 1oH, u1o a 1937 ropy .n1onoa-
aceenko, 6maun 1orpa renepanLnmH koncynoH a apcenone, aHec1e c
coae1cknH pesnpen1oH pnoamH (OenLp6nnmH), 1eH caHmH, ko1opm no1oH
6exan n pacnpoc1pannn kneae1nnueckne cnne1nn npo 1annna, n Dpne Iepe,
amrnannmH ns enrpnn a ok1n6pe 1956 ropa aonno napopnoro aosHyuennn,
npnnoxnn pyky k pacnpaae nap ncnancko 1pouknc1cko oprannsaune M
n ee nnpepoH nppecoH HnnoH. a1o oprannsaunn 6mn 6nnsok anrnnckn
nnca1enL x.pyann. o1pncennm a1o pacnpaao, on o6pen pap
ncnoanpennn n nanncan nosxe cao snaHenn1m poHan "1984.
Hap1e 1939 ropa o1kpmncn XVIII cLesp (6), ko1opm, a o1nnune o1
npepmpyuero cLespa no6epn1ene, ne nHee1 oqnunanLnoro nasaannn, no ero
Hoxno 6mno 6m nasaa1L "cLespoH yueneaunx. s 71 unenoa k 1oHy
apeHenn oc1aaanocL a xnamx 25, ns 68 kanpnpa1oa a unenm - aoceHL, no
a npoponxenne oc1aaaaunxcn po aonm payx ne1 pnpm aepxnero auenona
npoponxann pepe1L ne 1onLko no ec1ec1aennmH npnunnaH. 1939 ropy "paa
aranoanua, 6pa1a n ueronn 6mnn eue nannuo, no k nauany aonm oc1ancn
1onLko opnn. Mnxann aranoanu 6mn a 1937-1939 ropax napkoHoH o6oponno
npoHmunennoc1n, nosxe napkoHoH aanaunonno npoHmunennoc1n, no c a1oro
noc1a ero cnnnn a nnaape 1940 ropa, a a qeapane 1941 ropa npepynpepnnn,
u1o ecnn on "ne amnonnn1 nopyuennn nap1nn n npaan1enLc1aa, 1o 6ype1
amaepen ns coc1aaa unenoa n cnn1 c pykoaopnue pa6o1m. He a cnnax
nepenec1L 1akoro n ne 6ypyun yaepennmH, u1o cHoxe1 amnonnn1L nopyuennn,
M.aranoanu nanoxnn na ce6n pykn.
3 Han 1939 ropa c noc1a napkoHa nnoc1pannmx pen 6mn anesanno cnn1
M.M.n1annoa, on xe Meep anax, on xe OnnkenLu1en. D1o1 napkoHa1 npn
n1annoae npepc1aannn co6o 1o xe caHoe, u1o H npn rope. nap1nnmx
kpyrax ero nasmaann cnnaroro (yrnac np. nop o none, orannec6ypr,
1986, c.347). nrnnckn xypnannc1 .I.eH6epnen, ko1opm pa6o1an a
12 ne1, c 1922 no 1934 rop, canpe1enLc1aye1: "peo6napanne eapeea a a1oH
koHnccapna1e a ropm Hoero npe6maannn a occnn 6mno nou1n cHexo1aopnmH;
pycckne 6mnn npepc1aanenm cepmH uaeuapoH n noxnnmHn, onyc1nauerocn
anpa xenunnaHn, pasnocnaunHn ua (1aH xe, c.341).
enepL unc1ka nauanacL n specL. cnn c 1936 no 1938 rop 6mno yaoneno 62%
o1ae1c1aennmx pa6o1nnkoa napkoHnnpena, 1o korpa n1annoaa saHennn
Mono1oa. yxe 90% (M..eHnpnra. anm c1annncko pnnnoHa1nn. , 1992,
c.16). enepL na a1n co6m1nn npnnn1o cHo1pe1L rnasaHn ..Inepnna, ko1opm
noppo6no onncan a HeHyapax, kak ero apec1oaann n kak 6nnn, no npn a1oH
o6muno yHanunaak1, k1o 1ako Inepnn. oppo6nme caepennn na a1o1 cue1
Hoxno na1n a knnre H.ep6epoao "enesnan xenunna (H.-opk, 1981).
Inepnn - cmn ..apayca (IenLqanpa), 1oro caHoro apayca, ko1opm
oprannsoaan qnnancnpoaanne 6onLueanc1cko nap1nn repHancknH
renepanLnmH u1a6oH n snaHenn1m nepeesp a nnoH6npoaannoH aarone,
c1peHncL "na neHeukne penLrn cospa1L epnnm an1npycckn qpon1
(enesnan xenunna, c.173). ocpepnnkoH npn nepepaue pener 6mn Ianeukn
(Okpc1en6epr), ko1opm n nokpoan1enLc1aoaan Inepnny (1aH xe, c.183),
6naropapn ueHy Inepnn n pocnyxnncn a napkoHnnpene po noc1a saa. o1penoH
neua1n, ko1opm po 1oro sannHan Hanckn, Honopo uenoaek popoH ns
yHmnnn, "c1onL xe noxoxn na pycckoro, kak aqpnkanckn nerp (yrnac
np, un1. cou., c.342).
n1annoa ao aneune nonn1nke opnen1npoaancn, pasyHee1cn, na coks c
nrnne n Opanune npo1na In1nepa. oa1oHy a IepHannn npnae1c1aoaann
nasnauenne Mono1oaa aHec1o n1annoaa, c ypoane1aopenneH o1He1nnn, u1o
Mono1oa - ne eape, xo1n neHeukan nponaranpa noc1onnno nanoHnnana, u1o y
Mono1oaa xena - .eHuyxnna. nrnnn xe n Opanunn, nao6opo1, 6mnn ne na
uy1ky ac1peaoxenm: npnspak pyccko-repHanckoro coksa ao1-ao1 naune1
o6pe1a1L nno1L. Ha noam saroaop npo1na 1annna cnn yxe ne 6mno,
onnosnunn 6mna ampaana c kopneH, no Hoxno 6mno oprannsoaa1L
nponaranpnc1ckyk akunk. a1a akunn, kak npepynpexpenne 1annny, 6mna
npepnpnnn1a kak pas nakanyne saknkuennn coae1cko-repHanckoro nak1a: 17-H
aaryc1a 1939 ropa pa1npoaano snaHenn1oe o1kpm1oe nncLHo O.ackonLnnkoaa
1annny.
HaH c xpyueacknx apeHen npenopnocn1 a1o nncLHo kak repockn noc1ynok.
nopnnnnmx reponx, 1aknx, kak k1nn, npn Xpyueae eue ne acnoHnnann. Ho ne
cnepye1 c1aan1L ackonLnnkoaa na opnn nLepec1an c k1nnmH. nyua c
ackonLnnkoamH nHee1 coaceH nnyk noponneky.
O.ackonLnnkoa (nLnn) 6mn uenoaekoH c 1nxeno nacnepc1aennoc1Lk. ro
o1eu nokonunn xnsnL caHoy6nc1aoH, caH ackonLnnkoa a knoc1n 1nxko
6onen nepanmH nc1ouenneH (.occakoackn. In6enL O.ackonLnnkoaa.
"oae1ckan kynL1ypa, 1 aaryc1a 1989). sn1L ce6e nceaponnHoH qaHnnnk
y6num ns poHana oc1oeackoro Hoxno 6mno nnuL no kaknH-1o aecLHa
coHnn1enLnmH Ho1naaH. pocnaanauncL ao apeHn rpaxpancko aonm na
HopckoH nonpnue, ackonLnnkoa a 1920 ropy c1an koHanpykunH an1qno1oH.
ak nnue1 .eHanoa (18 Hap1a 1921, M., 1977, c.66-67), ackonLnnkoa
amcokoHepneH, ne ckpmaan caoero npene6pexennn k HaccaH Hopnkoa. ro
npncnme nacaxpann noackpy caoeo6pasnm "kynL1 ackonLnnkoaa, 6mn paxe
qno1ckn 1ea1p, oqnunanLno nasmaaauncn ero nHeneH. orpaunnn xena
ackonLnnkoaa apnca ecnep, npoc1nan noknonnnua poukoro,
sannHaauancn npocaeuenneH Hopnkoa, ycnnenno nacaxpana aaanrappnc1ckne
asrnnpm... 1nxenoe pnn c1panm apeHn, a ronopnoH n xonopnoH ponu1ap1e
cynpyrn ackonLnnkoam na anpy y acex aenn coaepuenno neaosppxannm
o6pas xnsnn, nocennauncL a pockounoH oco6nnke c uenmH u1a1oH npncnyrn.
HauanLnnkoH onn1ynpaanennn an1qno1a ackonLnnkoa nasnaunn caoero
1ec1n, npnaa1-pouen1a M..ecnepa, cansannoro c HaconaHn. napkan xnsnL
a1o ceHekn na an1nke 1oxe nopnnna Hacna a oronL nepoaonLc1aa, ko1opoe
nauno caoe ampaxenne a ponu1ap1ckoH aocc1annn. 6pannm c an1qno1a
ackonLnnkoa opno apeHn aosrnaannn Inaapenep1koH, amc1ynan, a uac1noc1n,
npo1na noc1anoakn nLec M.ynrakoaa, a opnaxpm, korpa ynrakoa o1ae1nn
ac1peuno kpn1nko, uy1L ne sac1pennn c1pon1naoro ppaHa1ypra, nockonLky
nopo6no aceH reponH rpaxpancko aonm, npnamk nocn1L "peaonkunonnyk
cnpaaepnnaoc1L a ko6ype.
Ho aecLHa nnkan1nme, ne nsaec1nme panee noppo6noc1n ns 6norpaqnn a1oro
repon coo6uae1 H.ep6epoaa. 1919 ropy ackonLnnkoa nonan a nnen k
anrnnuanaH n 6mn npnaesen a onpon, rpe nepeaopunkoH npn ero ponpoce 6mn
pkc okkap1. o nnnuna1nae okkap1a ackonLnnkoaa o6Hennnn na nnennmx
anrnncknx Ha1pocoa, ocao6opna ero eue po o1cmnkn a occnk. okkap1
nocennn ackonLnnkoaa a roc1nnnue, noHor eHy kynn1L ce6e koc1kHm n
no6maa1L a nonponcknx 1ea1pax. "Inaanoe, u1o6m koc1kHunk cnpen.
koc1kHunk cen. 1937-1938 ropax, korpa ackonLnnkoa 6mn nonnpepoH a
onrapnn, okkap1 neckonLko pas npnesxan 1ypa, n H.ep6epoaa cun1ae1
anonne aepon1nmH, u1o on nonLsoaancn a1nH kananoH pnn caoe aren1ypm
(enesnan xenunna, c.346- 347). aknH o6pasoH, npocnaanennm repo na
noaepky okasmaae1cn aynLrapnmH anrnncknH aren1oH, n ne cnyuano 6epnm
neaosapaueneu xnn a 1939 ropy na qeuene6enLnmx qpanuyscknx kypop1ax
na naLepe. aonH "o1kpm1mH nncLHoH on o1pa6a1maan sa1pa1m caonx
xosnea. Xosneaa ne yunn nnuL opnoro: 1pyxnnao nepano cnc1eHm caoero
noponeunoro, ko1opm o1 co6c1aennoro reponsHa 1o1uac xe anan a penpeccnk,
nauan pesa1L ce6e aenm, a 12 cen1n6pn am6pocnncn ns okna nepano knnnnkn
a Hnuue (1aH xe, c.287).
pnako nc1opnn c ackonLnnkoamH neckonLko o1anekna nac o1 anannsa
nepec1anoaok a aepxax. 3a1ponynn onn, xo1n n a ropaspo HenLue Hepe, ueH a
1937- 1938 ropax, n apHnk. cansn c xacancknHn co6m1nnHn Hm yxe
ynoHnnann payx nepconaxe - 1epna n Mexnnca. 1epn cHennn na panLneH
oc1oke nkxepa, no na a1oH koHanpnoH noc1y po aonm 1oxe ne poxnn.
uac1nnae cnoxnnacL cypL6a Mexnnca, k ko1opoHy 1annn nn1an kakyk-1o
nenonn1nyk cna6oc1L.
peccn1 .3.Mexnnc po peaonkunn npnnapnexan k cnonnc1cko oprannsaunn
"oane non, a rpaxpanckyk aony popoc po aoennoro koHnccapa
paao6epexno rpynnm aock na kpanne, a a 1921-1922 ropax pa6o1an a
napkoHa1e y 1annna, no1oH nn1L ne1 - a cekpe1apna1e 1annna. 1930
ropy okonunn nc1n1y1 kpacno npoqeccypm, rpe aosrnaannn nap1koH aHec1e c
ocnenoamH, o ko1opoH Hm eue 6ypeH roaopn1L. 1930 no 1937 rop Mexnnc
- pepak1op "paapm, a a 1937 ropy on 6mn nasnauen nauanLnnkoH Inaanoro
nonn1ynpaanennn aHec1o IaHapnnka.
3pecL-1o Mexnnc n pasaepnyncn ao ack cnny caonx "papoaann. ou1n ace
naun aoenauanLnnkn - ykoa, acnneackn, 1eHenko n ppyrne -
pacnncanncL a HeHyapax a nenpeoponnHoH o1apauennn k Mexnncy. Mm
noHnnH, kakne ponocm on nncan c osepa Xacan. eH xe caHmH sannHancn on n
ao apeHn qnncko aonm. ak canpe1enLc1aye1 . M. 1eHenko, "ponecennn
ero.., acerpa oc1aannnn a pyue ropLkn ocapok: onn 6mnn uepnm, kak nouL.
onLsyncL npepoc1aanennmHn eHy npaaaHn, Mexnnc cnnHan c koHanpnmx
noc1oa pecn1kn nkpe, 1y1 xe saHennn nx ppyrnHn, npnaesennmHn c co6o
(IenepanLnm u1a6 a ropm aonm. n.I, M., 1981, c.18).
o cnoaaH renepana H.I.aanenko, Mexnnc "6mn pepkn npoxopnHeu...
aHopypc1ao Mexnnca ne snano rpannu. pak1nueckn na acex aoenauanLnnkoa,
k ko1opmH on apeHenno "npnc1aannncn a kauec1ae unena oennoro oae1a,
Mexnnc nncan ponocm.., esepanm n pmHckn qpon1m, rpe Mexnnc 6mn
npepc1aan1eneH 1aakn, no1epnenn xec1ouaune nopaxennn ("opnna,
1991, N6-7).
co6enno ocpaHnncn Mexnnc na epuenckoH nonyoc1poae a 1942 ropy.
uac1nnkaH a1nx co6m1n 6mna "ncna npnunna nosopneuero nopaxennn.
onnoe nepoaepne koHanpykunH apHnnHn n qpon1oH, caHopypc1ao n pnkn
nponsaon Mexnnca, uenoaeka nerpaHo1noro a aoennoH pene... 3anpe1nn pm1L
okonm, u1o6m ne noppmaa1L nac1yna1enLnoro pyxa conpa1. mpannyn 1nxenyk
ap1nnnepnk n u1a6m apHnn na caHyk nepepoayk n 1.p. pn apHnn c1onnn na
qpon1e 16 kH, pnansnn sannHana no qpon1y 600-700 H... ace a1o
cHeuanocL a kpoaaayk kauy, 6mno c6poueno a Hope, norn6no 1onLko no1oHy,
u1o qpon1oH koHanpoaan ne nonkoaopeu, a 6esyHeu (.nHonoa. InasaHn
uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn. M., 1989, c.301). ocne a1oro Mexnnc nonsan na
konennx nepep 1annnmH n, o6nnaancL cnesaHn, nonocnn ce6n acnknHn
pyra1enLnmHn cnoaaHn, nasmaan ce6n "napunamH xnpoH ("opnna, 1991,
N6-7, c.89). nuL 1orpa, a 1942 ropy, po 1annna, nakoneu, pouno, u1o
Inaanoe nonn1ynpaanenne apHnn - Hec1o, ne nopxopnuee ne 1onLko pnn
ryceamx n raHapnnkoa, no n pnn Hexnncoa.
oHanpykuero pmHcknH qpon1oH osnoaa 1annn 1oxe cnnn, necHo1pn na
nonm1kn osnoaa onpaapa1Lcn 1eH, u1o eHy Heuan Mexnnc. "epL am
koHanpoaann qpon1oH, a ne Mexnnc, - aospasnn 1annn, (.nHonoa, un1.
cou., c.432-433). Ho ne ace 6mnn 1aknHn po6knHn, kak osnoa. orpa a 1944
ropy 1annn paaan epnnxoackoHy qpon1 n nonm1ancn nopcyny1L eHy Mexnnca
a unenm oennoro coae1a, 1o y epnnxoackoro nenponsaonLno ampaanocL:
"onLko ne Mexnnca! 1annn nepoaonLno noHopunncn, npo6opHo1an, u1o
Mexnnc "ncnpaanncn, no nac1anaa1L ne c1an, a nosxe npnc1ponn-1akn caoero
nk6nHua na 4- kpannckn qpon1, rpe ero 6nnxaunH noHounnkoH no
nonn1pa6o1e 6mn ..pexnea.
s noamx unenoa 1939 ropa nopo6no Mexnncy nepexnn aony, no ne
nepexnn 1annna osoackn (pnpso), saH. napkoHa nnoc1pannmx pen.
ae1nnaHn npeonornn a a1oH 6mnn Mn1nn n ocnenoa (OerenLcon),
ko1opm npn Xpyueae, 6ypyun cekpe1apeH , co6npan pocLe na 1annna, a a
30-e ropm cnyxnn 1annny a pnpa oHnccnn nap1nnoro kon1ponn,
aosrnaannauecn aranoanueH n xoamH.
uec1n oc1aaunHcn c1apmH unenaH onn16kpo po6aannncL paoe noamx -
panoa n Xpyuea. anpnpa1aH. a unenm onn16kpo c1ann epnn n aepnnk,
Hnoro1epnennam npoqcoksnm nnpep, npocnpeaun no1oH, kak roaopn1cn, a
"nap1nnmx peakax 18 ne1, npexpe ueH no nan a caHo onn16kpo.
.aranoanu y1pa1nn saanne cekpe1apn , a aHec1o nero a cekpe1apna1 6mn
aaepen I.M.Manenkoa.
mnoae 6maunx coae1cknx rocypapc1aennmx pen1ene ouenL sa6o1n1
peny1aunn nx nanau. Mm 1onLko u1o anpenn a1o na npnHepe .n1onoaa-
aceenko, ne nanne1cn ncknkuenneH n .I.Manenkoa. caoe c1a1Le a rase1e
"Mm (cen1n6pL 1992) on yaepne1 un1a1ene, 6yp1o nHenno ero o1eu ns6aann
c1pany o1 xoaa, a no1oH o1 epnn. pec1an1enLnoc1n I.Manenkoa, a1o1
"y6orn n nepo6pm uenoaek, no ouenke .Mepaepeaa ("nn okpyxann
1annna, c.279) noppepxnaan xoaa a 6opL6e npo1na aranoanua, a nosxe
npepan, kak npepan epnk a 1953 ropy. Manenkoa nauan pena1L kapLepy
6naropapn ypauno xenn1L6e na pa6o1nnue annapa1a .Iony6uoao, 6mn
1exnnuecknH cekpe1apeH onn16kpo, a c 1934 ropa - saa. o1penoH
pykoaopnunx nap1nnmx kappoa . ppyrne ampanxenum 1oro nepnopa
o1nocnnncL k neHy npene6pexn1enLno, n, noxoxe, nepoouennaann. panoa
pan Manenkoay npespn1enLnyk knnuky "MananLn, a Xpyuea a caonx HeHyapax
nasmaae1 ero 1nnnunmH annapa1unkoH, npnamkunH nHe1L peno c 6yHaxkaHn,
a ne c nkpLHn. konue 30-x ropoa Manenkoa kpy1o nouen aaepx, n a nauane
1941 ropa c1an kanpnpa1oH a unenm onn16kpo.
oc1enenno okpyxan ce6n caonHn nkpLHn panoa. ro 6nnxaunH
cnopanxnnkoH 6mn ..ep6akoa (p.1901), pa6o1aaun nop ero
pykoaopc1aoH eue a HnxneH Hoaropope. 1936 ropy panoa asnn ep6akoaa
k ce6e a ennnrpap, a a 1938 ropy ep6akoa aosrnaann Hockoackyk
nap1oprannsaunk. 1939 ropy on c1an unenoH pr6kpo, a a 1941 -
cekpe1apeH n kanpnpa1oH a unenm onn16kpo.
Xpyuea a caonx HeHyapax nnue1 o ep6akoae co sno6o, kak o "npoan1o
sHee, xo1n n ne o6Lncnne1, noueHy. npnunna anonne nonn1na: ep6akoa
o1nnn y Xpyueaa Mockay, kypa Xpyuea aepnyncn cnoaa nnuL a 1949 ropy. s-
sa a1o nenpnnsnn Xpyuea ne nosaonnn pa1L c1anunn He1po "Mnp nHn
ep6akoaa, n ceropnn a1o nHn cnoaa c1ep1o co cxeHm Hockoackoro 1pancnop1a
"peHokpa1aHn, ko1opme, oueanpno, Hc1n1 ep6akoay sa 1o, u1o nHenno on a
1942 ropy sannn Hec1o Mexnnca ao rnaae nonn1ynpaanennn apHnn.
ppyrnH ampanxenueH panoaa 6mn H..osnecenckn (p. 1903), saHec1n1enL
npepcepa1enn encoae1a, c1aaun a 1938 ropy npepcepa1eneH Iocnnana, a
1939 ropy - saHec1n1eneH npepcepa1enn H, a a 1941 ropy - kanpnpa1oH a
unenm onn16kpo. 1o xe nennnrpapcko rpynne npnnapnexann n noame
unenm saH. npepcepa1enn H ocmrnn, cekpe1apL .ysneuoa, a 1akxe
kanpnpa1m a unenm opnonoa n onkoa. ck a1y rpynny 6ecnouapno
ynnu1oxnn nocne aonm "po6pm nanaua Manenkoa, no o6 a1oH nosxe.

ockonLky Hm yxe anno1nyk npn6nnsnnncL k aone, ec1ec1aenno sapa1L
aonpoc, kak o1pasnnncL ace naun any1pnnonn1nueckne "neypnpnum konua 30-
x ropoa na coae1cko-repHancknx o1nouennnx, 1ounee, 6mna nn ponyuena
oun6ka a am6ope aneunenonn1nueckoro kypca, n ecnn pa, 1o korpa n kakan
nHenno? 1 coae1cko-qpanuysckoro poroaopa 1935 ropa npnuen k
coae1cko-repHanckoHy nak1y 1939 ropa. 1o cnyunnocL y nac sa a1o1 o1pesok
apeHenn - nsaec1no. Ho oc1ae1cn ne anonne amncnennmH aonpoc, a kako
Hepe nponcuepuee 6mno cansano c nsHenenneH nonn1nueckoro kypca.
.onkaec1 (n ne on opnn) yc1anaannaae1 npnHyk cansL: "uac1o nonarak1, u1o
opnnH ns Ho1naoa c1annncko unc1kn, a uac1noc1n, unc1kn apHnn, 6mno
o6ecneuenne cao6opm Haneapoa, sakonunaunxcn naunc1cko-coae1cknH nak1oH
a 1939 ropy (ennkn 1eppop, c.297), npnueH, no cnoaaH onkaec1a,
saknkuennme npepckasmaann a1o1 nak1 eue a 1938 ropy, ncxopn ns apec1oa
nnoc1pannmx koHHynnc1oa. Ho c kako, cnpaunaae1cn, c1a1n 1annn aocnmnan
1ako nk6oaLk k In1nepy, u1o nauan kpyun1L ace, Heuaauee coepnnennk
nk6nunx ceppeu?
spop, koneuno. akan 1aH nk6oaL! paapa, Hne npnxopnnocL cnmua1L o1
neHuea 1akoe Hnenne, 6yp1o rpysnnm a oae1ckoH okse 6mnn caHmH
repHanoqnnLckn nac1poennmH napopoH, n ne cnyuano, pecka1L, cmn epnn
yunncn a IepHannn, a epnn eue a 1953 ropy, sa 37 ne1 po Iop6aueaa, xo1en
cnoco6c1aoaa1L o6Lepnnennk IepHannn. c1opnk .nyu ("occnn, 1992,
N25) o1Heuae1, u1o nouay a IepHannn sonpnpoaann 1akne poaepennme nkpn
1annna, kak saH. napkoHa aneune 1oproann Dnnaaa, 1oproam a11aue a
epnnne anpenakn, a nyknpse eue a 1934 ropy ykasmaan nocny IepHannn
ynen6ypry na nonnm cHmcn nanapn1L npounme o1nouennn na ocnoae
cxoxec1n opnonap1nnmx cnc1eH npaanennn a n IepHannn.
eno, koneuno, ne a rpysnnax. 1939 ropy peuL una coaceH o ppyroH.
1pa1ernueckan uenL sanapnmx "peHokpa1n oc1aaanacL 1o xe, u1o n a 1914
ropy, korpa, yc1pona capaeackyk npoaokaunk, onn c1paannn pycckyk n
repHanckyk Honapxnn c uenLk po6n1Lcn nx o6okpnoro kpaxa n npncoepnnn1L
nx ko aceHnpno Haconcko nHnepnn. ocne 1933 ropa, korpa IepHannn
amnana ns Hnpoao Haconcko cnc1eHm, a noaec1ky pnn cnoaa ac1ana npexnnn
sapaua a neckonLko anponsHenenno qopHe. pe6oaanocL c1paan1L paa
"1o1ann1apnmx pexnHa n cnoaa po6n1Lcn 1aknH ny1eH nx o6okpnoro kpaxa.
D1o ypanocL cpena1L, no kpax a 1945 ropy no1epnena opna IepHannn, c
occne xe npnunocL npoaosn1Lcn eue ue1mpe c nonoanno pecn1nne1nn,
npexpe ueH ypanocL aepny1L ee a nono "Hnpoao unannnsaunn, o ko1opo
naun "peHokpa1m ne Hory1 roaopn1L nnaue, kak c 6naroroaenmH
npnpmxanneH, o6nnaancL cuac1nnamHn cnesaHn n connnHn, na caHoH xe pene
peuL npe1 o 1oH, u1o occnk npnkpy1nnn k amueynoHnny1o Hnpoao
Haconcko cnc1eHe. Haponro nn?
ero po6naanncL a 1939 ropy nrnnn, Opanunn n , 1annn o1nnuno
nonnHan saponro po 1oro, kak pyHan cpenan caoe neuanLno snaHenn1oe
sananenne: "cnn 6ype1 amnrpmaa1L IepHannn - nyxno noHora1L occnn, a
ecnn 6ype1 amnrpmaa1L occnn, 1o nyxno noHora1L IepHannn, n nyc1L onn
ocna6nnk1 ppyr ppyra kak Hoxno 6onLue. 1annn nonnHan, u1o ocnoanan
1nxec1L aonm, a ko1opyk a1nrnaann oae1ckn oks, nnxe1 na nneun naue
c1panm. 1annn noc1aann nepep co6o konoccanLnyk aneunenonn1nueckyk
sapauy: ne pa1L na no1exy 6ecaH naaneuL ce6n a aony, nonpo6oaa1L
3B aonm.
He sa cue1, koneuno, cnkn1ncknx naunqnc1cknx npnsmaoa. 1annn
pykoaopc1aoaancn a caoe nonn1nke c1apo n aepno na1nncko nocnoanue:
"cnn xoueuL Hnpa, ro1oaLcn k aone. 1annn xe xo1en Hnpa. He xo1enn ero a
nap1nnmx aepxax nsaec1no naunonanLnoc1n, na ko1opmx In1nep pec1aoaan,
kak kpacnan 1pnnka na 6mka. 1 nHenn a1nx kpyroa pmn seHnk nocoH
n1annoa, o1c1anaan anrno-qpanuysckyk opnen1aunk aneune nonn1nkn, c
nx xe sapannnHn espnn a apony n yxaueackn. 1annn xe ne xo1en
amc1yna1L a ponn npopaaua pycckoro nyueunoro Hnca n pec1an1enLno aceHn
cnnaHn c1apancn coxpann1L sa co6o 1y "cao6opy Haneapa, o ko1opo roaopn1
.onkaec1, no o1nkpL ne ns nk6an k In1nepy, a c epnnc1aenno uenLk
o6ecneun1L pnn caoe c1panm Hnp.
1939 ropy poroaop c sanapnmHn pepxaaaHn osnauan aony, poroaop c
IepHanne - Hnp. 1annn am6pan Hnp.
1989 ropy y nac 6mna yc1poena uyHnan nonn1nueckan canc1onnncka no
cnyuak 50-ne1nn "nak1a Mono1oa- n66en1pon. on sapaaann npn6an1nckne
pecny6nnkn, xo1n koe-koHy nyuue 6mno 6m noHanknaa1L a 1pnnouky. D1o n o
n1ae. epL nHenno no Hnnoc1n Mono1oaa n n66en1pona n1aa nonyunna a
1939 ropy nnenunny, npncoepnnennyk a 1920 ropy k onLue. eropnn n1aa
cnoaa c1ana nesaancnHo, no u1o-1o ne cnmxa1L, u1o6m ona co6npanacL
aosapaua1L seHnn, nonyuennme a pap o1 payx "snopeea. n1aa, kak anpnH, po
cnx nop nsanekae1 amropm ns a1o "rpnsno cpenkn, a sa a1y cpenky
"peHokpa1nueckn nac1poennme aa1opm pasnmx naunonanLnoc1e nnueHepno
ocyxpak1. Ho ecnn n1ae posaoneno npecnepoaa1L caon amropm, noueHy
a 1939 ropy ne Hor npecnepoaa1L caon? poroaop c IepHanne 6mn 1orpa pnn
naue c1panm, 6esycnoano, amropen.
Moxno ckonLko yropno ncxopn1L npaaepnmH nn6epanLnmH rneaoH no noaopy
cekpe1nmx npo1okonoa k a1oHy poroaopy, no nyxno xe o1paaa1L ce6e o1ue1 a
1oH, u1o a ycnoannx Hnpoaoro konqnnk1a Hanme rocypapc1aa nens6exno
okasmaak1cn c1papakue c1opono n c nx nn1epecaHn nnk1o ne cun1ae1cn.
ak, anrnnuane n qpanuysm eue a nnaape 1940 ropa paspa6o1ann nnan
amcapkn caonx aock a Hopaernn, n neHum a anpene acero nnuL nx ynpepnnn.
Hae 1940 ropa qpanuysckne aocka sannnn 1eppn1opnk enLrnn po nnnnn
n1aepnen-HaHkp. oae1ckn oks a uannnn npepc1onue aonm
ocnoaa1enLno o1opannyn caon rpannum na 3anap, n a1o 6mn coaepuenno
npaannLnm uar. pepc1aaL1e ce6e, u1o neHum a 1941 ropy nauann 6m caoe
nac1ynnenne o1 Hapam, Mnncka n n1oHnpa. epL a a1oH cnyuae "6nnukpnr
Hor 6m okasa1Lcn no6eponocnmH. cnoHnn1e, u1o rpannua a 1939 ropy
npoxopnna acero a 32 kH o1 ennnrpapa. D1o 1enepL M.eHnpnra Hoxe1
nso6paxa1L nananoc1L: ny n u1o, aepL y qnnnoa ne 6mno ap1nnnepnn, u1o6m
o6c1pennaa1L c 1akoro pacc1onnnn ennnrpap (anm c1annncko pnnnoHa1nn.
, 1992, c.158). pa, y qnnnoa ne 6mno, a y ppyrnx?
M. eHnpnre npepc1aanne1cn "Hanoaepon1no aosHoxnoc1L cospannn epnnoro
an1ncoae1ckoro qpon1a n a 1939 ropy (1aH xe, c.52). Ho c ppyro c1oponm, on
xe caH npnsnae1 peanLnmH 1o1 aapnan1, u1o npn sa1nxke coae1cko-qnncko
aonm na c1opone Onnnnnpnn Hornn amc1ynn1L nrnnn n Opanunn (1aH xe,
c.82). a1o uenLk, kc1a1n, n nnannpoaanacL amcapka anrno-qpanuyscknx
aock a Hopaernn. pnoapeHenno naHeuancn 6oH6oam ypap qpanuyscko
aanaunn c 6as a npnn no aky. aknH o6pasoH, nesaancnHo o1 caoe aonm c
IepHanne, nrnnn n Opanunn ac1ynnnn 6m a aony npo1na oae1ckoro oksa.
1o noHeuan 6m In1nepy, noka aona na 3anape oc1aaanacL "c1panno, 1.e.
npak1nueckn ne aenacL, 1oxe noaepny1L caon aocka na oc1ok?
cerpa cnepye1 noHnn1L n o 1oH, u1o a nonn1nueckoH packnape 1939 ropa
aaxneuyk ponL nrpan nnonckn qak1op. Ha aaryc1 1939 ropa, 1.e. a apeHn
saknkuennn repHano-coae1ckoro nak1a, kak pas npnxopn1cn caHm pasrap
6oea na Xanxnn-Ione, ko1opme npoponxanncL 1aH po konua a1oro Hecnua.
a1nx ycnoannx, kak o1Heuan repHanckn nocon a Mockae ynen6ypr a nncLHe
a repHanckoe Hnnnc1epc1ao nnoc1pannmx pen 5 nknn 1939 ropa, "nonnn ne
xo1ena 6m anpe1L n Haneuero cornacnn Hexpy naHn n oae1cknH oksoH
(-IepHannn 1939-1941. H.-opk, 1989, c.15). oa1oHy, kak coo6uan
apeHennm noaepennm a okno H..Ienepanoa, "nsaec1ne o
saknkuennn nak1a o nenanapennn Hexpy n IepHanne nponsaeno specL
ouenoHnnkuee aneua1nenne, npnaepn a nanyk pac1epnnnoc1L oco6enno
aoenunny n qaunc1ckn narepL (cH. M..eHnpnra, un1. cou., c.41).
nonckn ka6nne1 ao rnaae c .XnpanyHa, nannauncn c1oponnnkoH xec1ko
nonn1nkn a o1nouennn oae1ckoro oksa, 28 aaryc1a 1939 ropa nopan a
o1c1aaky, npnueH XnpanyHa sanann, u1o coae1cko-repHanckn poroaop penae1
neo6xopnHo coaepuen no noayk aneunenonn1nueckyk opnen1aunk nonnn.
aknH o6pasoH, 1annn noako noccopnn IepHannk c nonne n 1eH caHmH
npepo1apa1nn aony na paa qpon1a a 1941 ropy.
Heko1opme pyHak1, u1o nyuue 6mno 6m ac1ynn1L a aony c IepHanne
panLue, a 1939 ropy, a cokse c onLue. Ho nyxno noHnn1L o 1oH, u1o n caH
In1nep a caoeH "3aaeuannn xanen, u1o ne ac1ynnn a aony panLue. Hyxno
noHnn1L, u1o nncypckn eue a 1933 ropy, korpa In1nep 1onLko npnuen k
anac1n, npepnaran naua1L npeaen1nanyk aony npo1na IepHannn, no na a1o1
npnsma nnk1o ne o1knnknyncn. ocne cHep1n nncypckoro nonLckan aneunnn
nonn1nka npno6pena nanm nporepHanckn kpen. ak o1He1nn a caoeH
pneannke 9 Hap1a 1937 ropa aHepnkanckn nocon a Mockae x.aanc, a
cnyuae neHeuko-pycckoro konqnnk1a a a1o1 nepnop onLua, 6esycnoano,
ac1ana 6m na c1opony IepHannn (.MonL1ke. 3a kynncaHn Hnpoao aonm. M.,
1952, c.31). Henno onLua a 1938 ropy sa6noknpoaana npnxop coae1cknx
aock na noHouL exocnoaaknn, Hano 1oro, npnnnna yuac1ne a paspene a1o
c1panm, o1xaa1na ce6e uac1L eunnckoro yronLnoro 6accena, pa n na n1ay
nornnpmaana c aoxpenenneH - ne yc1pon1L nn e "anunkc no aac1pnckoHy
o6pasuy. o nnaapn 1939 ropa In1nep eue napenncn na coks c onLue
npo1na (ao1 kako 6nok naH eue yrpoxan!). neperoaopm c nrnne n
Opanune a 1939 ropy 6mnn copaanm, a uac1noc1n, no1oHy, u1o nonLckoe
npaan1enLc1ao ka1eropnueckn aocnpo1nannocL aosHoxnoc1n npoxopa
coae1cknx aock uepes nonLckyk 1eppn1opnk a cnyuae arpeccnn IepHannn.
1o xe: coae1ckne aocka ace paano aounn a onLuy a cen1n6pe 1939 ropa
6es cornacnn a1oro npaan1enLc1aa.
1opan Hnpoaan aona nauanacL c kpaxa onLun. O.DnrenLc nncan .Mapkcy
23 Han 1851 ropa, u1o, no ero Hnennk, "nonnkn - pasnoxnauancn naunn,
ko1opan nyxna kak cpepc1ao nnuL po 1oro HoHen1a, noka caHa occnn ne
6ype1 aoaneuena a arpapnyk peaonkunk. a1oro HoHen1a cyuec1aoaanne
onLun ne nHee1 nnkakoro cHmcna. Mapkcnc1ckne naue1unkn xopouo
amsy6pnnn knaccnkoa, nHenn naro1oae un1a1m na nk6o cnyua n
HoHen1anLno sapec1aoaann amueynoHnny1yk un1a1y ns DnrenLca a xypnane
"onLueank (1939, N18). 1939 ropy npepckasanne DnrenLca c6mnocL.
.M.Mono1oa nauan no1y, nanpaanennyk 17 cen1n6pn nonLckoHy nocny, co
cnoa: "onLcko-repHanckan aona amnanna any1pennkk necoc1on1enLnoc1L
nonLckoro rocypapc1aa. In1nep a caoe peun 6 ok1n6pn 1oxe nasaan rnaano
npnunno no6epm repHancko apHnn nexnsnecnoco6noc1L nonLckoro
rocypapc1aa: "Ha koc1nx n kpoan neHuea n pyccknx, - sanann on, - 6es
acnkoro yue1a nc1opnuecknx, a1norpaqnuecknx n akonoHnuecknx ycnoan 6mno
cospano rocypapc1ao, ne nHeauee nnkakoro npaaa na cyuec1aoaanne 7
ok1n6pn 1939).
coaHec1noH coae1cko-repHanckoH sananennn o1 28 cen1n6pn 1939 ropa
ykasmaanocL, u1o a pesynL1a1e pacnapa onLckoro rocypapc1aa cospan
npounm qynpaHen1 pnn pnn1enLnoro Hnpa a oc1ouno apone, n
o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa npoponxenne aonm necy1 nrnnn n Opanunn. 31
ok1n6pn na sacepannn epxoanoro oae1a .M.Mono1oa cpenan poknap, a
ko1opoH amckasan pnp aecLHa noyun1enLnmx n ponmne Hmcne: "nrnnckne,
a aHec1e c nnHn n qpanuysckne c1oponnnkn aonm, - ckasan on, - o6Lnannn
npo1na IepHannn u1o-1o apope "npeonornuecko aonm, nanoHnnakue
c1apme pennrnosnme aonm. pec1an1enLno, a caoe apeHn pennrnosnme aonm
npo1na epe1nkoa n nnoaepuea 6mnn a Hope. nn, kak nsaec1no, npnaenn k
1nruaunH pnn napopnmx Hacc nocnepc1annH, k xosnc1aennoHy pasopennk n
kynL1ypnoHy opnuannk napopoa. Hnuero ppyroro a1n aonm n ne Hornn pa1L.
Ho a1n aonm 6mnn ao apeHena cpepneaekoaLn. He k a1nH nn apeHenaH
cpepneaekoaLn, k apeHenaH pennrnosnmx aon, cyeaepn n opnuannn 1nny1
nac cnoaa rocnopc1aykune knaccm nrnnn n Opanunn?
"peonornk rn1nepnsHa, kak n acnkyk ppyryk npeonornueckyk cnc1eHy,
Hoxno npnsnaaa1L nnn o1pnua1L, a1o - peno nonn1nuecknx asrnnpoa. Ho
nk6o uenoaek noHe1, u1o npeonornk nenLsn ynnu1oxn1L cnno, nenLsn
nokonun1L c nek aono. oa1oHy ne 1onLko 6eccHmcnenno, no n npec1ynno
aec1n 1akyk aony, kak aona sa "ynnu1oxenne rn1nepnsHa, npnkpmaaeHan
qanLunamH qnaroH 6opL6m sa "peHokpa1nk.
D1n amckasmaannn Mono1oaa ceropnn nopaeprak1cn oxec1ouenno kpn1nke, a
aepL onn coaepuenno npaannLnm. peonornueckne sanpe1m, yc1anoanennme
nocne aonm no6epn1ennHn a 3anapno apone, n pnnnnm cnncok xep1a a1nx
sanpe1oa na npo1nxennn nocnepykunx pecn1nne1n canpe1enLc1ayk1 o 1oH,
u1o sanapnan HopenL peHokpa1nn c1onL xe paneka o1 nopnnnno peHokpa1nn,
kak ne6o o1 seHnn, no nHenno a1y HopenL naH naansmaak1 ceropnn ee
speunne noknonnnkn, aoopyxennme 74- c1a1Le n oHonoacknHn py6nnkaHn.
no6expenno IepHannn anrno-aHepnkanckne okkynan1m npecnepoaann
"naunsH, a a nonnn, sa o1cy1c1aneH 1aH naunsHa, nm1anncL 1aknH xe
o6pasoH npnxnHa1L cnn1onsH, no no1oH noc1enenno 6pocnnn a1o sann1ne. ak
npn xenannn Hoxno npnppa1Lcn n k ncnaHy sa nponoaepL pxnxapa. a1oro n
naunnak1cn pennrnosnme aonm, o6 onacnoc1n ko1opmx npepynpexpan
Mono1oa. ceropnn, korpa y nac yc1panaak1 cypnnnue nap oHHynnc1nuecko
nap1ne, u1o a1o, kak ne ouepepnan nonm1ka ynnu1oxn1L npeonornk cnno?
Hac1opaxnaae1 n cnoaeuko "epe1nkn a nekcnkone .Heasopoaa - a1o 1oxe
naxne1 koc1paHn, 1oxe rposn1 pennrnosnmHn aonaHn.
.npnap nasmaae1 repHano-coae1ckn nak1 1939 ropa "caHmH pasyHnmH ns
acero 1oro, u1o 6mno cpenano a reononn1nuecko pnnnoHa1nn sa nocnepnn
aek ("oncLnnc aponLen, nknL 1984). ero 1oukn spennn,
"npo1naoec1ec1aennmH 6mn ne coks 1annna c In1nepoH, a coks c
sanapnmHn peHokpa1nnHn.
cnoHnnH, u1o eue a 1930 ropy poukn o6annnn 1annna a "naunonan-
counannsHe (Mon xnsnL, II, c.172). o1pypnnk Hnnnc1epc1aa nnoc1pannmx
pen IepHannn .nyppe a caoeH HeHopanpyHe o1 27 nknn 1939 ropa,
o6pauan annHanne caonx ueqoa na 1o, u1o "cnnnnne 6onLueansHa c
naunonanLno nc1opne occnn, ampaxakueecn a npocnaanennn aennknx
pyccknx nkpe n nopanroa (npaspnoaanne ropoaunnm on1aacko 6n1am
e1pa epaoro, 6n1am na ypckoH osepe nekcanppa Heackoro) nsHennnn
nn1epnaunonanLnm xapak1ep 6onLueansHa (-IepHannn 1939-1941, u.
1, c.24). Ipaq nano, Hnnnc1p nnoc1pannmx pen 1annn n sn1L Mycconnnn,
1oxe o1Heuan, u1o oae1ckn oks nopaan c nn1epnaunonannsHoH n npnuen k
caoero popa "cnaannckoHy qaunsHy. ounannsH a oae1ckoH okse k konuy
30-x ropoa, pec1an1enLno, na rnasax o6pe1an nac1aennme uep1m naunonan-
counannsHa, ko1opm npepc1aanne1 co6o epnnc1aennyk xnsnecnoco6nyk
qopHy counannsHa. oks payx naunonan-counannsHoa n anpaapy 6mn anonne
ec1ec1aennmH. oueHy xe on pacnancn?
sanHnoe c6nnxenne nocne Hnorone1ne nponaranpnc1cko aonm 6mno ouenL
1pypnmH, ono ocnoxnnnocL o6okpnmHn nopospennnHn, n a konue konuoa
nopospennn c neHeuko c1oponm asnnn aepx nap c1peHnenneH k
co1pypnnuec1ay. oaopo1nmH nynk1oH c1ann neperoaopm Mono1oaa a epnnne
a non6pe 1940 ropa.
xope a1nx neperoaopoa In1nep nm1ancn y6epn1L Mono1oaa a 1oH, u1o Bpaa
aennknx napopa aponm po6Lk1cn 6onLuero, ecnn onn 6ypy1 pepxa1Lcn
aHec1e, ueH ecnn onn 6ypy1 pec1aoaa1L ppyr npo1na ppyra (- IepHannn
193-1941, u.2, c.104). "eH 6onLue IepHannn n occnn, c1on cnnno k cnnne,
npeycnek1 a 6opL6e npo1na aneunero Hnpa, 1eH 6onLunHn 6ypy1 nx ycnexn a
6ypyueH, n 1e xe ycnexn 6ypy1 HenLunHn, ecnn pae c1panm ac1any1 ppyr
npo1na ppyra (1aH xe, c.113-114). Ho a 1o xe apeHn In1nep ampasnn
o6ecnokoennoc1L a cansn c npn1nsannnHn ne 1onLko na eaepnyk, no n
na xnyk ykoanny n yrposo noao aonm npo1na Onnnnnpnn.
Mono1oa ampasnn ypnanenne, noueHy a1a aosHoxnan aona 1ak 6ecnokon1
neHuea, a no aonpocy o yHmnnn nouen a kon1pa1aky, sanana, u1o rapan1nn,
npnnn1me yHmnne o1 IepHannn n 1annn, nanpaanenm npo1na nn1epecoa
. noaoH, na cHeny rn6koc1n, nponanenno a 1939 ropy, npnuna
coaepuenno nepnnnoHa1nunan xec1koc1L. Ho nonm1ka paan1L na In1nepa
npnnecna o6pa1nm pesynL1a1: 18 peka6pn 1940 ropa 6mna nopnncana
pnpek1naa 21 (nnan ap6apocca).
IepHannn ace apeHn cynnna oae1ckoHy oksy xypaann a ne6e, co6nasnnn ero
nepcnek1naaHn paspena pn1ancko nHnepnn n amxopa k npnckoHy okeany,
no npaan1enLc1ao oae1ckoro oksa npepnoun1ano nonyun1L cnnnuy a pykn,
npoponxan 1papnunonnyk nonn1nky occnn na ankanax, a specL nn1epecm
naue c1panm n IepHannn kak pas c1anknaanncL. e nncakn, ko1opme ceropnn
nsoupnk1cn na 1eHy, kak 1annn nko6m yroxpan In1nepy, nyc1L acnoHnn1, u1o
nocne caepxennn nporepHanckoro npaan1enLc1aa rocnaann 27 Hap1a 1941
ropa nopnncan c a1o c1pano poroaop o ppyx6e, u1o 6mno nano
an1nrepHancknH peHapueH (H. c1a1Lk .6apnnoaa "ap6apocca -
"HesaancnHan rase1a, 19 nknn 1992). D1o nmneunne npaan1enn occnn,
yroxpan 3anapy, npepann rocnaank, a 1annn nnkoHy ne "yroxpan.
ak nsaec1no, 6ernm co1pypnnk I esyn, kouync1aenno npnkpmauncL
nceaponnHoH "yaopoa, amnyc1nn na 3anape knnry "epokon, a ko1opo
ampanrae1 aepcnk, 6yp1o nanapenne In1nepa na 6mno npeaen1nano
aono, nockonLky 1annn caH co6npancn nanac1L na IepHannk. Mon c1a1Ln c
onpoaepxenneH a1o nackaosL nxnao, an1nnc1opnuecko aepcnn yxe 6mna
ony6nnkoaana a "ycckoH ec1nnke (1991, N17). Heko1opme 1esncm ns a1o
c1a1Ln n xo1en 6m specL noa1opn1L.
3a nocnepnne ropm naunocL neHano xo1nnkoa amcHenaa1L 1annna: n k
aone-1o on ne ro1oanncn, n nnkaknx npepynpexpenn ne cnyuan. "x kak
rnyn 6mn a1o1 1annn, - nspeaak1cn a1n o6nnun1enn. nopo6no ny6nnke
xopoune c1nxn nanncan a caoe apeHn aua epnm:
as paoe pe1Lero paccHa1pnaann a nynm
nspeknn: "n rnyn. ecL yxac specL 6mn a 1oH,
1o 1o1, koro onn npnsnann pypakoH,
mn yHnnue, - onn xe 6mnn rnynm.
axe "yaopoa amnyxpen npnsna1L: "asnnua Hexpy In1nepoH n 1annnmH
saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o 1annn pec1an1enLno cepLesno ro1oanncn k a1o
aone. as6npae1 "yaopoa noppo6no n aonpoc o 1.n. npepynpexpennnx n o
1oH, noueHy 1annn nH ne aepnn. Ha noaepky okasmaae1cn, nanpnHep,
nerenpo acn aepcnn o npepoc1epexennnx epunnnn. nncLHax epunnnn
1annny, a 1oH uncne n a caHoH nsaec1noH o1 19 anpenn 1941 ropa, nnkaknx
npepoc1epexenn no cy1n ne1. oo6uenne o nepe6pocke 1pex 1ankoamx
pnansn ns yHmnnn na kr onLun k HoHen1y ero nonyuennn yc1apeno, 1ak
kak nepe6pocka 6mna o1Henena a cansn c amueynoHnny1mHn co6m1nnHn a
rocnaann.
He 1ak ace npoc1o n co snaHenn1mH nxappoH 3opre, ko1opm o1kasancn no
amsoay aepny1Lcn a , n na nero, u1o anonne nonn1no, cHo1penn kak na
neaosapauenua n coo1ae1c1aenno o1nocnnncL k ero ponecennnH. "yaopoa
cun1ae1, u1o "3opre aoo6ue ne coo6uan a Mockay nnuero aaxnoro
o1nocn1enLno neHeukoro a1opxennn. onee 1oro, 3opre nan xep1ao
pesnnqopHaunn n paxe cna6xan I neaepno nnqopHaune.
ce coo6uennn naunx pasaepunkoa cpaannaanncL n npoaepnnncL.
pnoapeHenno aencn 1ua1enLnm nonck o6Lek1nanmx pokasa1enLc1a
nopro1oakn IepHannn k nanapennk na . axneunH aneHen1oH 1ako
nopro1oakn cun1anacL sakynka oaeuLnx ukyp pnn snHnero o6Hynpnpoaannn,
noa1oHy no ace apone co6npanacL nnqopHaunn o uenax na 6apannny.
amaop 6mn 1akoa, u1o cepLesno nopro1oakn ne1. oa1oHy 1annn n oc1aaancn
cnokonmH, ero okpyxenne 1oxe, 1onLko ..panoa, no canpe1enLc1ay
I..ykoaa, amckasmaan nnyk 1ouky spennn o aosHoxnoc1n nanapennn
neHuea, nensHenno roaopnn o neHuax ouenL pesko n y1aepxpan, u1o In1nepy
nenLsn aepn1L nn a ueH (.nHonoa. InasaHn uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn,
c.348).
In1nep ne ro1oanncn k snHe, 1ak kak nonaran, u1o 6ype1 Honnnenocno
pas6n1 a xope ne1ne kaHnannn. pnako konnuec1ao 1ennmx Hecnuea a ropy
okasanocL nepoc1a1ounmH pnn poc1nxennn a1o uenn. axneuyk ponL
cmrpann co6m1nn a rocnaann, ns-sa ko1opmx nanapenne na 6mno
coaepueno ne 15 Han, kak nepaonauanLno npepycHa1pnaanocL nnanoH
"ap6apocca, a na uec1L nepenL nospnee. Moxno ckasa1L, u1o rocnaann a
1941 ropy cnacna occnk, n ao1 kak occnn 1enepL o1nna1nna e sa a1o!
paxe a 1e pokoame uacm, korpa aona yxe naunnanacL, 1annn ace eue
napenncn cnac1n Hnp. Ipe-1o a rny6nne pyun on napenncn, u1o y In1nepa
xaa1n1 yHa ne nes1L na occnk, u1o repHanckn aoxpL nonnHae1, koHy a1o
amropno, nonnHae1, ecnn on ne coaceH npno1, u1o occnk eHy ne no6epn1L.
Ho In1nep 1ak nnuero n ne nonnn. poncxopnaunx a oae1ckoH okse
nsHenenn on coaepuenno ne yuen, uennkoH oc1aaancL a nneny caonx c1apmx
Hnenn 1ex apeHen, korpa on nncan "Man aHnq (c.326): "po6nauncL
nonn1nuecko anac1n, eapen c6pacmaak1 Hackn. apen-peHokpa1m
npeapauak1cn a eapeea-pacnc1oa, 1npannunx napopm. 3a neckonLko ne1 onn
c1apak1cn ynnu1oxn1L naunonanLnyk nn1ennnrenunk n, nnuna nx npnpopnmx
nn1ennek1yanLnmx pykoaopn1ene, cpena1L nx cospeaunHn pnn pa6ckoro
xpe6nn n aeunoro yrne1ennn.
"aHm c1paunm npnHep a1oro popa - occnn, rpe eapen y6nnn nnn yHopnnn
ronopoH okono 20 Hnnnnonoa uenoaek c aonc1nny qana1nuno xec1okoc1Lk,
npn6eran k 6ecuenoaeunmH nm1kaH, u1o6m 6anpa eapecknx xypnannc1oa n
6npxeamx 6anpn1oa nonyunna anac1L nap aennknH napopoH
In1nep pyHan, u1o a1oro aennkoro napopa 6onLue ne1. a1o 6mno pokoaoe
sa6nyxpenne.

orpa peuL saxopn1 o nopro1oanennoc1n oae1ckoro oksa k aone, ace apeHn
nanpaunaak1cn napannenn c nepao Hnpoao aono: 1a xe
nepoamnonnennan nporpaHHa aoopyxenn, 1o1 xe pasno6o a c1pa1ernuecknx
konuenunnx, paxe 1ouno 1akan xe ny1annua c kpenoc1nHn, cnpeuL
ykpenpaonaHn: c1apme paspyunnn, a noame eue ne ycnenn noc1pon1L.
Xpyuea paxe y1aepxpae1 a caonx aocnoHnnannnx, u1o oae1ckn oks
okasancn eue xyxe nopro1oanennmH k aone, ueH uapckan occnn. ennoe,
koneuno, npnsnanne, oco6enno ecnn yuec1L, u1o ono amckasano 6maunH
pykoaopn1eneH koHHynnc1nuecko nap1nn.
o xe n c aoennmH pykoaopc1aoH. asyHee1cn, opounnoa n ypennm
okasanncL coaepuenno nenopxopnunHn qnrypaHn pnn coapeHenno aonm,
noa1oHy konunnn Hm aony yxe ne c nnHn, a c ykoamH n okoccoacknH. Ho
aepL n nepayk Hnpoayk aony naunnann c nnnncknH n H..aanoamH, a
konuann c nekceeamH n pycnnoamH. c1L a a1oH n caon sakonoHepnoc1L.
pasrap aonm, ne1oH 1942 ropa, a paape 6mna naneua1ana nLeca
.opneuyka Opon1, peskan ca1npa na 6espapnmx aoenauanLnnkoa,
xnayunx kann1anoH apeHen rpaxpancko aonm. 1annn pan ykasanne:
onpocn1L koHanpykunx n acex amcunx renepanoa, kakoro onn Hnennn o nLece
opneuyka, npnueH, cypn no aocnoHnnannnH Hapuana oneaa, Hnenne a1o ao
Hnornx cnyuanx 6mno pesko o1pnua1enLnmH, apaspes co c1annncknH
(.nHonoa. InasaHn uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn, c.403-45). k6onm1no, u1o
paccyxpennn rnaanoro o1pnua1enLnoro nepconaxa a1o nLecm, renepana
Iopnoaa, nou1n 6ykaanLno noa1opnn Hapuan nHouenko a 6ecepe,
aocnponsaepenno a aocnoHnnannnx 1eHenko.
.onkoronoa y1aepxpae1, u1o nHouenko ouenL 6onncn aoxpn (pnyHq n
1parepnn, n.1I, uac1L 1, c.155). pnako a1o y1aepxpenne npoaeprae1
Hapuan ykoa, ko1opm cnoano npepanpen 6ypyuyk ny6nnkaunk
onkoronoaa, korpa roaopnn: nHouenko a neko1opmx counnennnx
ouennaak1 coaepuenno nenpaannLno, nso6paxak1 ero uy1L nn ne kak
uenoaeka 6esaonLnoro n sancknaakuero nepep 1annnmH. D1o nenpaapa.
nHouenko c1apm n nm1nm aoennm, uenoaek nac1ounam, aoneao n
o6pasoaannm. o acnkoH cnyuae, napkoHoH on 6mn kypa nyuunH, ueH
opounnoa (.nHonoa. n1. cou., c.386). ockonLky c nHouenko pa6o1an
ne onkoronoa, a ykoa, Hm ckopee noaepnH ykoay.
nHouenko 6mn nasnauen napkoHoH o6oponm aHec1o opounnoaa nocne
qnncko aonm, korpa npnunocL npnnnHa1L cpounme Hepm c uenLk ynyuun1L
coc1onnne apHnn. uenL oc1po ac1an aonpoc o aoennmx kappax, n 6mnn paxe
ocao6oxpenm ns narepe 1mcnun aoennmx, a 1oH uncne 6ypyun Hapuan
okoccoackn, koHanpykune apHnnHn Iop6a1oa n opnac (aosrnaannn 57-k
apHnk, norn6 ao apeHn neHeukoro nac1ynnennn a Hae 1942 r.), koHanpykun
1ankoao apHne orpanoa. noaL nonyunn nasnauenne a apHnk n
.I.e1poackn, cmn I..e1poackoro (norn6 a nkne 1941 ropa a enopyccnn,
koHanpyn kopnycoH).
Xopoune aoennme kappm y nac 6mnn. ykoa n Mepeukoa sannHann amcune
ponxnoc1n eue po aonm. enyk nnenpy 1anan1nnamx aoenauanLnnkoa -
acnneackoro, a1y1nna, okonoackoro, n1onoaa, 1eHenko - ampac1nn a
IenepanLnoH u1a6e Hapuan .M.anounnkoa. appoam aoennm uapcko
apHnn, on xopouo snan caoe peno n yHen nepepaaa1L caon snannn ppyrnH.
InaanmH nepoc1a1koH anounnkoaa 6mno xapak1epnoe pnn nero, a ne pnn
nHouenko a6conk1noe nopunnenne aone 1annna. Hnuero ne Hory cpena1L,
rony6unk, - npnkas epxoanoro - c 1ako koponno apne noc1onnno
amc1ynae1 anounnkoa a aocnoHnnannnx ykoaa. Ho nocne acex npouepunx
unc1ok noaepenne anounnkoaa nonn1L, koneuno, Hoxno.
xe a 1941 ropy koHanpoaann qpon1aHn onea n peHenko. mc1po
ampannynncL a xope caHo aonm okoccoackn, Ioaopoa, Mannnoackn,
epnnxoackn. opnn pnp c nnHn Hor 6m ac1a1L n ..nacoa.
nacoa popnncn a 1901 ropy a Hnxeropopcko ry6epnnn a ceHLe kpec1Lnnnna,
yunncn, kak n 1annn, a pyxoano ceHnnapnn, aoeaan a rpaxpanckyk, no
koHHynnc1oH c1an 1onLko a 1930 ropy. 1938-1939 ropax 6mn aoennmH
coae1nnkoH a n1ae. o aosapauennn nonyunn coaepuenno pas6on1annyk 99
-k c1penkoayk pnansnk, ns ko1opo cpenan o6pasuoaoe coepnnenne,
o1nnunaueecn a caHoH nauane aonm, uenyk nepenk ypepxnaan epeHmunL.
ony nacoa ac1pe1nn ao Laoae, koHanpyn 4-H Ho1oHexkopnycoH, sa1eH
c1an koHenpan1oH neackoro ykpenpaona n cqopHnpoaan 37-k apHnk pnn
o6oponm neaa. peka6pe 1941 ropa ao apeHn 6n1am sa Mockay, 20-n apHnn,
ko1opo koHanpoaan nacoa, ocao6opnna onneunoropck. anpene 1942 ropa
nacoaa noc1aannn ao rnaae 2- ypapno apHnn, nepep ko1opo 6mna
noc1aanena sapaua npopaa1L 6nokapy ennnrpapa. 3apaua a1a okasanacL
nenocnnLno, apHnn no1epnena nopaxenne, a nacoa 13 nknn 1942 ropa
cpancn a nnen.
ockonLky a naue apeHn npepa1enn y anac1n a uec1n, ec1ec1aenno,
npepnpnnnHak1cn nonm1kn onpaapa1L n paxe nopnn1L na nLepec1an n
renepana nacoaa, npepc1aan1L ero a1aknH npenmH 6opuoH npo1na
c1annnnsHa. poc1onyk n aecLHa apryHen1npoaannyk o1noaepL a1nH
nonm1kaH pann a cepnn c1a1e nop o6unH nasaanneH panxenne, ko1oporo ne
6mno, nnn nc1opnn opnoro npepa1enLc1aa a oenno-nc1opnueckoH xypnane
(1991, 7, 9, 12) .O.a1ycea n .I.nnokoa (cmn pacc1pennnnoro 1annnmH
6mauero unena oHoaa). D1n aa1opm 1aeppo y6expenm, u1o nnkaknx
an1ncoae1cknx nac1poenn y nacoaa po nnenennn ne 6mno, n o6pauak1
annHanne na 1o o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o nnk kapLepm nacoaa npnxopn1cn na 30-
e ropm, korpa Hnorne ns nan6onee npnnunnnanLnmx kappoamx oqnuepoa,
c1peHnaunxcn k nopnnnnoHy ykpennennk apHnn n o1kpm1o amc1ynaaunx
npo1na nepoc1a1koa, 6mnn penpeccnpoaanm. o1 nx-1o Hec1a n sannHan 6es
saspennn coaec1n 6opeu nacoa. HnkaknHn npenmHn coo6paxennnHn on
nnkorpa ne pykoaopc1aoaancn, a npoc1o c1apancn okasa1Lcn na c1opone
cnnLneuero: cnauana 1annna, no1oH neHeuknx okkynan1oa, a a konue aonm
nepeHe1nyncn cnoaa, na a1o1 pas na c1opony aHepnkanuea, nonm1aaunxcn
nokpm1L c1apme rpexn noHouLk npaxcknH noac1anuaH a Hae 1945 ropa. Ho n
a1a nsHena anpok ne nouna: rpexn nepeaecnnn. papn uero, cnpaunaae1cn,
6mno rpeun1L? epL ckonLko nn npepnaran nacoa neHuaH caon ycnyrn, onn
nensHenno o1aepranncL acnepc1ane an1ncnaanncknx aoo6ue n an1npyccknx a
uac1noc1n asrnnpoa repHanckoro pykoaopc1aa, a 1yno caHoyaepennoc1n
nonaraauero, u1o cnpaan1cn c oae1cknH oksoH n 6es kako-1o 1aH .
nnuL sa nonropa po konua aonm, korpa kpax yxe 6mn coaceH 6nnsok, neHum
consaonnnn cornacn1Lcn na qopHnpoaanne pyccknx uac1e, no 6mno nospno.
uenL 1pypnoe n ne6naropapnoe sann1ne: nm1a1Lcn nnsny1L canor, ko1opmH
1e6n 1muy1 a nnuo, a nacoa 1onLko a1nH n sannHancn paa c nnunnH ropa.
osnocn1L nacoaa ne1 npnunn, no ne cnepye1 n 6m1L k neHy necnpaaepnnamH,
nanpnHep, o1pnua1L ero aoennme 1anan1m. paxe Xpyuea a caonx HeHyapax
o1pae1 eHy a a1oH o1nouennn ponxnoe, nepoyHeaan 1onLko, ueH o6Lncnne1cn
nsHena nacoaa, o6Lncnne1cn ona ouenL npoc1o: 6ecnpnnunnnoc1Lk. D1o
1enepL nexenanne c1oknx nkpe noc1ynn1Lcn npnnunnaHn amsmaae1 nnuL
apaxpy n nacHeukn ny6nnkn onpepenennoro noun6a, sapakue 1on a
cpepc1aax Haccoao nnqopHaunn. Ho ec1L 1ako npnnunn, kak na1pno1nsH,
ko1opm aaxne nnunmx o6np. okoccoackoro, nanpnHep, a o1nnune o1
nacoaa, pec1an1enLno 6mnn npnunnm nenaanpe1L 1annna, opnako
okoccoackn ne nepeuen ns-sa a1oro k neHuaH n a 1945 ropy koHanpoaan
apapoH o6epm, a nacoa 6eccnaano konunn caok xnsnL na ancennue.
Ho nauanacL aona 1ak, u1o a a1y rpnpyuyk no6epy, xo1n ee npepckasan
Mono1oa a peun 22 nknn 1941 ropa, paneko ne ace aepnnn. m1ye1 Hnenne,
6yp1o 1annn anan a npoc1paunk cpasy xe nocne coo6uennn o nanapennn
neHuea, no na caHoH pene a1o nponsouno nosxe, uepes ue1mpe-nn1L pne,
korpa amncnnnocL, u1o 3anapnm qpon1 pasaannncn, kak kap1ounm poHnk, n
neHum npopaanncL k Mnncky.
o pacckasy Mnkonna, osnecenckn, ysnaa, a kakoH coc1onnnn naxopn1cn
1annn, aosHy1nncn n npepnoxnn Mono1oay: "nuecnaa, npn anepep, Hm
nopeH sa 1o6o. Mnkonn 1onkye1 a1o 1ak, u1o Mono1oay npepnoxnnn sann1L
Hec1o aoxpn, a onkoronoa 1epne1cn a porapkax, ne nopyHan nn 1annn, u1o
ero co6npak1cn cHec1n1L n apec1oaa1L? (pnyHq n 1parepnn, II, u.1, c.168-
169). osHoxno, n a caHoH pene nopyHan. opyHan, n necHo1pn na caoe
coc1onnne, sanoHnnn. D1nH, Hoxe1 6m1L, n o6Lncnne1cn neuanLnan cypL6a
osnecenckoro, a 1akxe peskoe amc1ynnenne 1annna npo1na Mono1oaa a
konue 1952 ropa.
1ae1c1aennmH sa pasaan 3anapnoro qpon1a cpenann koHanpykuero a1nH
qpon1oH renepana .I.aanoaa. ro apec1oaann n aHec1e a 1peHn ppyrnHn
renepanaHn, nnHoacknx, IpnropLeamH n opo6koamH, pacc1pennnn 22 nknn
1941 ropa. Xpyuea a caonx HeHyapax pae1 aanoay coaepuenno 6ecnouapnyk
ouenky, cun1an ero pec1an1enLno annoanmH a pasaane no a naue
nn6epanLnoe apeHn n aanoaa 1oxe c1ann xane1L n onpaapmaa1L. HanpnHep,
.eHyuknn (oae1ckan kynL1ypa, 19 Hap1a 1988) cun1ae1, u1o neyHenoe
koHanpoaanne aockaHn qpon1a ne anna, a 6epa aanoaa, no1oHy u1o on
6mn nasnauen nesaponro po nauana aonm n onm1a koHanpoaannn kpynnmHn
aockoamHn o6LepnnennnHn ne nHen, nano ne cospen eue pnn pykoaopc1aa
qpon1oH. Ha 1ex xe nosnunnx c1on1 n p.onkoronoa (un1, cou., c.193-194).
ykoa, opnako, coHneaancn a 1oH, u1o aanoa aoo6ue korpa-nn6o cospen 6m,
n npnHo roaopnn o6 a1oH 1annny: mno sapanee xopouo nsaec1no, u1o ns
ce6n npepc1aanne1 aanoa, u1o y nero no1onok koHanpnpa pnansnn. ce a1o
snann. eH ne Henee on koHanpoaan qpon1oH n ne cnpaanncn c 1eH, c ueH ne
Hor cnpaan1Lcn (.nHonoa, un1. cou., c.364). a, c aanoamH noc1ynnnn
xec1oko, no, kak aospmxae1 1enepL .onkoronoa, apeHn 6mno xec1okoe.
30 nknn 1941 ropa 1annn amuen ns nnke. mn cospan Iocypapc1aennm
oHn1e1 6oponm, a coc1aa ko1oporo aounn 1annn, Mono1oa, opounnoa,
Manenkoa n epnn. aknH o6pasoH, paa nocnepnnx, 6ypyun acero nnuL
kanpnpa1aHn a unenm onn16kpo, nopnnnncL amue 6onLunnc1aa ero unenoa,
u1o eue pas nopuepknaae1 ycnoanoc1L a1o rpann a 1e ropm.
10 nknn 1941 ropa 1aaky epxoanoro koHanpoaannn aHec1o nHouenko
aosrnaann 1annn. 19 nknn on c1an napkoHoH o6oponm, 8 aaryc1a epxoanmH
InaanokoHanpykunH.
ak nonkoaopeu 1annn na nepamx nopax nponann, yam, nonnyk
necoc1on1enLnoc1L. pnamknya aceH pacnopnxa1Lcn, on ne Hor cpasy
o1kasa1Lcn o1 a1o Hanepm, nm1ancn n a caHoH pene pykoaopn1L qpon1aHn n
apHnnHn, no a1o npnnecno aecLHa neuanLnme pesynL1a1m. o1nn 1mcnu conpa1
sanna1nnn caonHn xnsnnHn sa nonkoaopueckne npe1ensnn 1annna.
3acnyra ..1annna, - nncan I..ykoa, - coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o on 6mc1po n
npaannLno aocnpnnnHan coae1m aoennmx cneunannc1oa (I..ykoa.
ocnoHnnannn n pasHmunennn, M., 1970, c.284). Ho a 1oH-1o n 6epa, u1o
1annn ne cpasy c1an npaannLno aocnpnnnHa1L a1n coae1m, a peuan caH, n
cnnouL n pnpoH peuan nenpaannLno. HanmH y1euenneH Hoxe1 cnyxn1L 1o1
qak1, u1o n na apaxecko c1opone peno o6c1onno ne nyuue, n ykoa paxe
nponnueckn o1Heuan, u1o In1nep okasan naH cepLesnyk ycnyry, korpa a 1941
ropy, nocne pasrpoHa neHuea nop Mockao, cnnn payxnua, oka n uenm pnp
ppyrnx koHanpykunx n caH aosrnaann neHeukne cyxony1nme cnnm
(.nHonoa, un1. cou., c.336). pe1ensnn y a1oro nnpepa 6mnn ne HenLue, ueH
y 1annna.
1annn, onpaapmaan o1c1ynnenne pacno apHnn, nk6nn ccmna1Lcn na
1ak1nky y1ysoaa a 1812 ropy, no, noueHy-1o sa6ma, u1o 1orpa cpann paxe
Mockay papn 1oro, u1o6m coxpann1L apHnk, on a 1941 ropy ynopno uennnncn
sa nea, nano c1aan nonn1nueckne coo6paxennn amue aoennmx. ykoa a
ouenL pesko qopHe nac1anaan na neo6xopnHoc1n oc1aanennn neaa n
nonna1nncn sa a1o noc1oH nauanLnnka IenepanLnoro u1a6a (I..ykoa, un1.
cou., c.287-288). pesynL1a1e nponsouna c1paunan ka1ac1poqa.
okpyxennn okasanncL 425700 uenoaek, a 1oH uncne 60000 koHanpnpoa. 6onx
norn6nn koHanpykun ro-3anapnmH qpon1oH M..npnonoc, ero
nauanLnnk u1a6a ..ynnkoa n unen oennoro coae1a M..ypHnc1enko.
a1o epaa nn ne caHo kpynno 1parepnn ennko 1euec1aenno aonm
1annn nokasan nnuL caoe xenesnoe ynpnHc1ao, no ne 1onkoe onepa1nanoe
uy1Le, nonnHanne o6c1anoakn. akyk ouenky pae1 .onkoronoa (pnyHq n
1parepnn, kn.II, u.1, c.208-209). a pannoH cnyuae c nnH nenLsn ne
cornacn1Lcn.
ckonLko conpa1 ynoxnnn spn a nenopro1oanennmx kon1pypapax 3anapnoro
qpon1a, nanecennmx a non6pe 1941 ropa no npnkasy 1annna n onn1L-1akn
aonpekn npo1ec1aH ykoaa? (I..ykoa, un1. cou., c.336-337). npn
ckopocnenmx nonm1kax pasan1L kon1pnac1ynnenne a nauane 1942 ropa? (1aH
xe, c.350-352). 1annn aosxenan cpasy nsHenn1L xop co6m1n na aceH
qpon1e o1 an1nckoro po epnoro Hopn, no a1o npnaeno k pas6pocy cnn n
noaceHec1nmH nopaxennnH: k ka1ac1poqe 1o xe 2-o ypapno apHnn
nacoaa, k rn6enn ypapno rpynnm renepana M.I.qpeHoaa a paone nsLHm,
k 6eccHmcnennmH xep1aaH a paonax xeaa n eHnncka, n, nakoneu, k
kpmHcko 6one.
Mm yxe ynoHnnann o 1parnuecknx co6m1nnx, nponcuepunx a pmHy aecno
1942 ropa, korpa pacckasmaann o aoennmx "nopanrax Mexnnca. 3a kpmHckoe
nopaxenne Mexnnc pacnna1nncn 1eH, u1o 6mn cnn1 c noc1a saHec1n1enn
napkoHa o6oponm n nauanLnnka Inaanoro nonn1ynpaanennn pacno apHnn n
cnnxen a saannn po kopnycnoro koHnccapa. Ho, no cnoaaH ykoaa, nnunyk
o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa a1y ka1ac1poqy nec caH 1annn, no1oHy u1o nac1ynnenne a
pmHy 6mno npepnpnnn1o no ero nac1onnnk, n 1akoe konnuec1ao aock 6mno
cocpepo1oueno 1aH 1oxe no ero nac1onnnk (nHonoa, un1, cou., c.366).
un6ounmH 6mno n peuenne pasaepny1L nac1ynnenne na XapLkoa a Hae 1942
ropa, no a a1oH cnyuae o1ae1c1aennoc1L nenLsn aosnara1L na opnoro 1annna.
n 6mn sa nac1ynnenne n roaopnn: He cnpe1L xe naH a o6opone cnoxa pykn
n xpa1L, noka neHum nanecy1 ypap nepamHn! Ho 1annn onnpancn npn a1oH
na Hnenne koHanpykuero ro-3anapnmH qpon1oH nHouenko, ko1opm
cun1an, u1o aocka a1oro nanpaanennn a coc1onnnn n 6esycnoano ponxnm
nanec1n neHuaH ynpexpakun ypap. Xpyuea a caoeH sakpm1oH poknape na XX
cLespe nonm1ancn caann1L ack anny na 1annna n 1eH caHmH, kak nnue1
.onkoronoa, cospa1L ce6e nc1opnueckoe ann6n (pnyHq n 1parepnn,
kn.II, u.1, c.231). pnako noxL Xpyueaa onpoaeprae1 ykoa, ko1opm xopouo
noHnn1, u1o a cepepnne Han 1942 ropa 1annn roaopnn no 1eneqony c
nHouenko n XpyueamH, 6maunH 1orpa unenoH oennoro coae1a ro-
3anapnoro qpon1a, n ampasnn cepLesnme onacennn a o1nouennn
kpaHa1opcko rpynnnpoakn npo1nannka, opnako n nHouenko, n Xpyuea a
opnn ronoc saaepnnn ero, u1o onacnoc1L co c1oponm a1o rpynnnpoakn
npeyaennuena n ne1 ocnoaannn npekpaua1L nac1ynnenne, kak npepnaran
Ienu1a6. (I..ykoa, un1. cou., c.365-368). Xpyuea na XX cLespe npoc1o
apan, 6yp1o onn c nHouenko npepoc1eperann 1annna, na caHoH pene onn,
nao6opo1, 1onkann 1annna na npoponxenne aaan1kpm, a 1annn nHen
neoc1opoxnoc1L c nnHn cornacn1Lcn. esynL1a1oH 6mna eue opna ns caHmx
c1paunmx ka1ac1poq ennko 1euec1aenno aonm, okpyxenne n pasrpoH
payx apHn n onepa1nano rpynnm renepana o6knna n rn6enL renepanoa
o6knna, oc1enko n opnaca.
onLko nocne a1oro c1paunoro ypoka 1annn nauan, nakoneu, yHne1L, no eue
c peunpnaaHn c1apmx saHauek - a cen1n6pe 1942 ropa no ero nac1onnnk
6mnn nponsaepenm nenopro1oanennme kon1pypapm nop 1annnrpapoH
(I..ykoa, un1. cou., c.378-379), 1.e. onn1L Hnoro napopa norn6no spn.
orpa 6mnn naneua1anm aocnoHnnannn I..ykoaa, 6mno anpno
neaoopyxennmH rnasoH, u1o onn nopaeprnncL c1poro uensype n Hapuan ne
nHen aosHoxnoc1n amckasa1Lcn o1kpoaenno. oa1oHy, u1o6m ysna1L
nopnnnnoe Hnenne ykoaa o 1annne, npnxopn1cn o6paua1Lcn k sanncnH
6ecep c ykoamH, cpenannmH .nHonoamH.
c1pa1ernuecknx aonpocax 1annn pas6npancn c caHoro nauana aonm.
1pa1ernn 6mna 6nnska k ero npnamuno cqepe - nonn1nke, n ueH a 6onee
npnHoe aospec1ane c nonn1nuecknHn aonpocaHn ac1ynann aonpocm
c1pa1ernn, 1eH yaepennee on uyac1aoaan ce6n a nnx.
aonpocax onepa1nanoro nckycc1aa a nauane aonm on pas6npancn nnoxo.
uyuenne, u1o on anapee1 onepa1nanmHn aonpocaHn, y Henn nnuno nauano
cknapmaa1Lcn a nocnepnn nepnop 1annnrpapcko 6n1am, a ko apeHenn
ypcko pyrn yxe Hoxno 6mno 6es npeyaennuennn ckasa1L, u1o on n a a1nx
aonpocax uyac1aye1 ce6n anonne yaepennmH.
1o kacae1cn aonpocoa 1ak1nkn, c1poro roaopn, on ne pas6npancn a nnx po
caHoro konua. pa, co6c1aenno roaopn, eHy kak epxoanoHy
rnaanokoHanpykueHy n ne 6mno npnHo neo6xopnHoc1n pas6npa1Lcn a
aonpocax 1ak1nkn. ypa aaxnee, u1o ero yH n 1anan1 nosaonnnn eHy a xope
aonm oanape1L onepa1nanmH nckycc1aoH nac1onLko, u1o, amsmaan k ce6e
koHanpykunx qpon1aHn n pasroaapnaan c nnHn na 1eHm, cansannme c
npoaepenneH onepaun, on nponannn ce6n kak uenoaek, pas6npakuncn a
a1oH ne xyxe, a nopo n nyuue caonx nopunnennmx. pn a1oH a pnpe cnyuaea,
on naxopnn n nopckasmaan nn1epecnme onepa1nanme peuennn.
ro ocaepoHnennoc1L 6mna ne nokasno, a pec1an1enLno, n ero
npepaapn1enLnan pa6o1a c oqnuepaHn IenepanLnoro u1a6a pnn y1ounennn
o6c1anoakn nepep npnnn1neH 6ypyunx peuenn 6mna pa6o1o a amcue
c1enenn pasyHno.
6onLunnc1ae cnyuaea eHy nenLsn 6mno o1kasa1L nn a yHe, nn a sppaaoH
cHmcne, nn a nonnHannn o6c1anoakn... onLunnc1ao ero npnkasann n
pacnopnxenn 6mnn npaannLnmHn n cnpaaepnnamHn (.nHonoa, un1. cou.,
c.372-373, 376).
Iopm aonm nocne 1annnrpapcko 6n1am 1annn npoaen nyuue, no,
acnoHnnan no6epnme cank1m, Hm nnkorpa ne sa6ypeH n o 1oH, kak 1parnueckn
nauanacL aona n noueHy ona nauanacL nHenno 1ak. 1annn caH ckasan nocne
aonm, u1o, aonpekn nocnoanue no6epn1ene ne cypn1, no6epn1ene
Hoxno n nyxno cypn1L. D1o 6ype1 nonesno pnn pena n pnn caHnx
no6epn1ene. Ho npnHennn a1y nocnoanuy 1annn ne k ce6e, a k uenoaeky,
6onLue acex cpenaaueHy pnn no6epm, Hapuany ykoay, ko1opoHy 1annn
o1nna1nn uepno ne6naropapnoc1Lk.
pnkasoH 1annna o1 9 nknn 1946 ropa ykoa 6mn cnn1 c noc1a
rnaanokoHanpykuero cyxony1nmHn aockaHn n o1npaanen a qak1nueckyk
ccmnky, a pecckn aoennm okpyr. oaopoH nocnyxnno sananenne, nko6m
nanncannoe rnaanmH HapuanoH aanaunn ..HoankoamH, ko1opm 6mn
ocyxpen a Hae 1946 ropa aHec1e a napkoHoH aananpoHmunennoc1n
..axypnnmH. pec1an1enLnoc1n a1o sananenne npo1na ykoaa 6mno
coc1pnnano a MI. (.apnoa. nana. Iypok, 30 Han 1992 ropa).
.akc6epr (n1epa1ypnan rase1a, 5 aaryc1a 1992 ropa) nocHenaae1cn nap
ykoamH, ko1opm noaepnn a 6naropopnyk poxpec1aenckyk nac1opanL, a
ckasky o HyppoH n po6poH pepyuke 1annne, ne paaueH MI apec1oaa1L
ykoaa. (.nHonoa, un1. cou., c.378). Ho 1annn pec1aoaan a a1oH cnyuae
aoace ne no po6po1e, a no1oHy u1o snan, u1o ykoa Hoxe1 eue npnropn1Lcn,
snan, u1o, xo1n IepHannn n nonnn pas6n1m, a1o ne snaun1, u1o y occnn
6onLue ne1 aparoa, kak ceropnn yaepnk1 nac npepa1enn n npno1m, nepame -
no ponry cnyx6m, a1opme - no1oHy u1o or o6npen nx pasyHoH. nnLnme
Hnpa cero 6maak1 necnpaaepnnamHn, peanyn k uyxo cnaae, no 1annn,
ponxno 6m1L, noHnnn, kak aany I npnunocL npnrnaua1L yaopoaa ns ccmnkn
na koHanpnm noc1, n peunn 6m1L ao acnkoH cnyuae ne rnyne aana.
uero 6mno 1annny peanoaa1L k uLe-1o cnaae? nero n caoe xaa1ano.
npo1naononoxnoc1L nmneunnH HenknH uaakaH, 1orpa a1o npnsnaaann paxe
1akne nkpn, kak ynnn, y ko1oporo, kak o1Heuae1 .nHonoa, necoHnenno,
oc1aaanncL cue1m c coae1cko anac1Lk, cue1m sa npounoe, cue1m, kak
anocnepc1ann on nop1aeppnn caonHn knnraHn, amnyuennmHn a konue xnsnn,
snme n nenpnHnpnHme, no opnoapeHenno c a1nH a 1946 ropy 1annn 6mn pnn
nero nocne no6epm nap neHuaHn naunonanLnmH repoeH occnn, o1c1onaunH
ee o1 neHuea ao ace ee epnnoc1n n nepennHoc1n (.nHonoa, un1. cou.,
c.105).

onunnacL aona, n cnoaa nauanncL neypnpnum naaepxy.
Ha cnepykun penL nocne no6epm, 10 Han 1945 ropa, ne poxna po copoka
ue1mpex ne1, ckonuancn ..ep6akoa, 6nnxaun copa1nnk panoaa. ak
nsaec1no, anocnepc1ann n cHep1L ep6akoaa, n cHep1L caHoro panoaa
npnnncann y6nuaH a 6enmx xana1ax, korpa nauann packpyunaa1L
npoaokaunonnoe peno apaue, o ko1opoH Hm eue 6ypeH roaopn1L. oka xe
o6pa1nH annHanne nnuL na 1o o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o npexpeapeHenno yunn ns
xnsnn kak pas pykoaopn1enn pyccko nap1nn a aepxax, u1o caHo no ce6e
naaopnno na pasHmunennn, amsmaano nopospennn, n a1n nopospennn o1 koro
-1o nyxno 6mno nenpeHenno o1aec1n, a na koro-1o, nao6opo1, nanpaan1L.
18 nnaapn 1950 ropa 6mn apec1oaan nsaec1nm npoqeccop-1epanea1
.I.D1nnrep. o canpe1enLc1ay ero cmna, p-pa nc1opnuecknx nayk .D1nnrepa
(cH. ero c1a1Lk peno apaue n cypL6a opno ceHLn. - Hayka n xnsnL,
1990, N91), nepaonauanLno ero o1ua o6annnnn 1onLko a an1ncoae1cknx
amckasmaannnx, a aonpoc o apepn1enLckoH neuennn D1nnrepoH
pykoaopnunx pen1ene nap1nn n rocypapc1aa 1orpa eue ne aosnnkan. n
acnnmn nnuL rop cnyc1n. eH 6mna amsaana 1akan sapepxka - o6 a1oH nosxe.
mn .I.D1nnrepa nnue1, u1o ero o1eu aHec1e c npoqeccopoH
.H.nnorpapoamH (1oxe apec1oaannmH nosxe no peny apaue) neunn
ep6akoaa c konua 1944 ropa po pnn ero konunnm 10 Han 1945 ropa:
axpm penL onn paaxpm noceuann 6onLnoro n coc1aannnn y1pennn n
aeuepnn 6knne1enn o coc1onnnn spopoaLn, ko1opme neHepnenno
nanpaannnncL nnuno 1annny. D1n paa amcokokaannqnunpoaannmx
cneunannc1a-kappnonora cpenann ace aosHoxnoe, u1o6m cnac1n ep6akoaa,
c1papaauero 1nxenmH ceppeunmH sa6oneaanneH.
Ho aepL 6mna eue opna 6onesnL, nepep ko1opo 6mnn 6eccnnLnm ace apaun.
D1o nensneunHo 6onesnLk 6mna nenpepmanan 6opL6a sa anac1L a
nap1nnmx aepxax, npnueH nkpn, ko1opme ee aenn, ne rnyuanncL nnkaknHn
cpepc1aaHn, u1o6m yc1pann1L konkypen1oa.
panoa, sann1m a nepame ropm aonm nnuL opnnH. no aennknH penoH -
o6opono ennnrpapa, - a konue aonm cnoaa nepe6pancn a uen1p n,
nockonLky na nepam nnan ampannynncL aonpocm npeonornn, sannn
poHnnnpykuyk nosnunk, o11ecnna caonx rnaanmx konkypen1oa Manenkoaa n
epnk, xo1n a1n paoe n c1ann a 1946 ropy nonnonpaanmHn unenaHn
onn16kpo. 1 a1oro 1anpeHa konkypen1oa n ncxopnnn ace ypapm, ko1opme
nanocnnncL no rpynnnpoake panoaa.
Mm yxe ynoHnnann, o 1oH a kaknx posoamx kpackax pncye1 caoero o1ua
.I.Manenkoa. ao1 npo1naononoxnoe Hnenne .n1onoaa-aceenko
(epnn, - noc1L, 1988, N12): uake c1annncknx ronoaopesoa on
6mn opnnH ns caHmx sacnyxennmx. Manenkoa 1ako xe nanau, kak I.ropa,
H.xoa, .epnn, M.knpn1oa, .munnckn. rnnpmaancL a snrsarn ero
nonn1nuecko kapLepm, 6ypeH noHnn1L o6 a1oH ocnoanoH ero kauec1ae.
ap1nnm qynkunonep n yronoannk - c1onL rapHonnuno pasan1an nnunoc1L
Horna cnoxn1Lcn nnuL a c1annnckoH annapa1e.
nana Hapuana ykoaa 1oxe 6mna opnnH ns annsopoa a 6opL6e sa anac1L
Hexpy panoamH n ManenkoamH. ak nsaec1no, ep6akoa cHennn Mexnnca na
noc1y nauanLnnka Inaanoro nonn1ynpaanennn apHnn. panoa, ec1ec1aenno, ne
xo1en ynycka1L a1o1 aaxnm noc1 ns caoe cqepm annnnnn n po6nncn
nasnauennn na a1o Hec1o caoero uenoaeka, renepana .nknna. ykoa 6mn
npo1na kanpnpa1ypm nknna, u1o npnaeno k c1onknoaennk ykoaa co
panoamH, ko1opm o6annnn Hapuana a nrnopnpoaannn nap1nnoro
pykoaopc1aa a apHnn. D1a qopHynnpoaka 6mna ncnonLsoaana pnn
o6ocnoaannn o1c1aakn ykoaa. panoa ne ynyckan n aosHoxnoc1n nanoHnn1L
npn cnyuae 1annny, u1o ne k1o nno, kak Manenkoa, ampanran a1oro
nonkoaopua na nepam nnan. o1c1aake ykoaa npepuec1aoaana y1pa1a
ManenkoamH ouenL aaxnmx nosnun. 5 Han 1946 ropa Manenkoa 6mn
ocao6oxpen o1 ponxnoc1n cekpe1apn n nauanLnnka ynpaanennn kappoa , a
saHennn ero na a1nx noc1ax ..ysneuoa (p.1905), ko1oporo pekoHenpoaan na
nap1nnyk pa6o1y a ennnrpape npoa, a panoa cpenan a 1937 ropy a1opmH
cekpe1apeH o6koHa n ropkoHa nap1nn. nnaape 1945 ropa nepe6npancL a
Mockay, panoa uennkoH oc1aann ennnrpap na ysneuoaa. ao1 1enepL a1o1
uenoaek panoaa no1ecnnn caHoro Manenkoaa. ponrpaauan c1opona nauana
nnxopapounme nonckn aosHoxnoc1n nanec1n kon1pypap n nauna ee.
n6epanLnan nn1ennnrenunn po cnx nop ne yc1ae1 kneHn1L panoaa sa
aHeua1enLc1ao a nn1epa1ypnme n HysmkanLnme pena, sa 1paank 3ouenko n
xHa1oao. 3aaecy nap nopnnnnmHn npnunnaHn nenaanc1n a1o ny6nnkn k
panoay npno1kpmn yxe ynoHnnaauncn naHn nsaec1nm cnonnc1
M.rypckn, pnn ko1oporo panoa n ep6akoa 6mnn rnaanmHn nnpepaHn
uepnoco1ennoro nanpaanennn a aepxax, a nac1onLno knnro panoaa
nko6m 6mnn po1okonm cnoncknx Hyppeuoa. u1o kacae1cn noponnekn
nsaec1noro noc1anoanennn (6) o1 14 aaryc1a 1946 ropa xypnanax
3aespa n ennnrpap, 1o ee npekpacno nokasan n1ann onkoa a c1a1Le
3a kynncaHn (apopa, 1991, r8). n o1He1nn, u1o o6nnun1enn panoaa
ne cHornn yanpe1L nenocpepc1aennyk, xo1n n HanosaHe1nyk, na nepam
asrnnp, cansL Hexpy pesknH amnapoH npo1na nennnrpapcko nn1epa1ypno
o6uec1aennoc1n a 1946 ropy n kpoaaao pacnpaao c nennnrpapcknHn
nap1nno-xosnc1aennmHn kappaHn a 1949-1950 ropax.
Inaanyk ponL a a1oH pene, no cnoaaH .onkoaa, nrpan Manenkoa. 6annennn
npeonornueckoro xapak1epa npo1na panoaa on ampanny1L ne Hor, 1ak kak a
a1o cqepe nonn1nuecko pen1enLnoc1n ne uyac1aoaan ce6n a caoe c1nxnn n
nano yc1ynan panoay a cnoco6noc1n aec1n coo1ae1c1aykune pnckyccnn. pnn
a1akn na nennnrpapckyk rpynnnpoaky Manenkoa ns6pan 1y o6nac1L nap1nno
pa6o1m, a ko1opo uyac1aoaan ce6n yaepennee acero - kappoayk. Manenkoa
c1apancn saoc1pn1L annHanne 1annna, c snnoaLeacknx n knpoacknx apeHen
o1nocnauerocn ouenL nopospn1enLno k nennnrpapckoHy cenapa1nsHy, na
1H, u1o a ennnrpape 1aopn1cn caHoynpaac1ao a aonpocax nop6opa n
pacc1anoakn kappoa, nepexopnuee a nenpnkpm1oe nrnopnpoaanne
yc1anoaok . "cnn 6m, - nnue1 .on koa, - Manenkoay ypanocL y6epn1L
1annna a a1oH, 1o nosnunn panoaa, ysneuoaa n acex nennnrpapcknx
ampanxenuea okasanacL 6m nopopaana caHmH cepLesnmH o6pasoH yxe a 1946
ropy.
6c1on1enLc1aa cnoxnnncL 1aknH o6pasoH, u1o a Hnoroxopoao koH6nnaunn,
ko1opyk Manenkoa pasmrpmaan npo1na panoaa, opno ns uen1panLnmx
qnryp cyxpeno 6mno c1a1L... M.M.3ouenko.
o y1aepxpennk 1oro xe .onkoaa, 3ouenko paano ouyuan ecnn ne
nokpoan1enLc1ao, 1o anonne 6narocknonnoe annHanne k ce6e panoaa, a1o
6mno, pasyHee1cn, nsaec1no Mockae. onn1no, u1o npn pannmx
o6c1on1enLc1aax nk6o ypap no nonynnpnoHy nnca1enk 6mn kocaenno
nanpaanen n npo1na panoaa. epayk nonm1ky 1akoro ypapa nkpn
Manenkoaa npepnpnnnnn eue a 1943 ropy a cansn c ny6nnkaune a xypnane
k1n6pL nepao uac1n noaec1n 3ouenko epep aocxopoH connua,
opo6penno k neua1n saHec1n1eneH nauanLnnka ynpaanennn nponaranpm n
arn1aunn ronnnmH, uenoaekoH panoaa. HauanLnnk xe a1oro ynpaanennn
I.nekcanppoa 6mn c1aanennnkoH Manenkoaa n nopan poknapnyk, o6annna
3ouenko a kneae1e na nau napop. D1y amnasky panoay ypanocL
ne1pannsoaa1L c HnnnHanLnmHn no1epnHn, opnako Manenkoay npepc1aanncn
noam uanc a 1946 ropy, korpa 3ouenko 22 Han 6mn pekoHenpoaan a coc1aa
pepkonnernn xypnana 3aespa, a c 26 nknn y1aepxpen a a1oH kauec1ae,
npnueH .onkoa ne ncknkuae1 specL n aosHoxnoc1L npoaokaunn co c1oponm
aepoHc1aa epnn, coksnnka Manenkoaa, a ne npoc1o onnounoc1L
nennnrpapckoro ropkoHa, ko1opan uy1L 6mno ne c1ana nponoroH k
ouepepnoHy norpoHy nennnrpapcknx kappoa. Manenkoa cpasy xe
naknnysnnuan 1annny, n panoa amnyxpen 6mn noxep1aoaa1L 3ouenko
papn cnacennn ce6n n caoero okpyxennn. Inaano c1pa1ernuecko sapaue
panoaa 6mno amaec1n ns-nop ypapa ennnrpapckyk nap1oprannsaunk. c
ne on cnpaanncn poc1a1ouno ycneuno. panoa c1peHnncn kak Hoxno
6mc1pee sakpm1L 1ak nekc1a1n aosnnkuee peno c nennnrpapcknHn nnca1ennHn
c 1eH, u1o6m okonua1enLno o6esonacn1L ce6n o1 kaknx- nn6o panLneunx
amnasok Manenkoaa a a1oH nanpaanennn. panoay ypanocL nokannsoaa1L
a1aky, orpannun1L o6cyxpenne onnounoc1n a kappoao nonn1nke
nnca1enLcko cpepo. oneuno, panoay npnunocL pyra1L 3ouenko
nocnepnnHn cnoaaHn, 6ykaanLno aocnponsaopn ykasannn 1annna a appec
nnca1enn, nan c aonkaHn, panoa yHeno nonLsoaancn nnunno aonka, ne
nannncL 1akoamH no cy1n.
.nHonoa acnoHnnae1 ananornunm cnyua, korpa opny ero noaec1L pasnecnn
a neua1n, a no1oH ero amsaan k ce6e panoa n roaopnn o 1oH xe caHoH
yHnee, 1onLue n nn1ennnren1ne, ueH a1o 6mno nanncano (InasaHn
uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn, c.147). a 1948 ropy panoa noc1apancn
cHnrun1L ypap. ce 6mnn yaepenm, u1o 3ouenko n xHa1oay apec1yk1, opnako
nnuero nopo6noro ne nponsouno. Mano 1oro: y ncknkuennmx ns coksa
nnca1ene o1o6pann npopyk1oame n npoH1oaapnme kap1oukn, opnako 3ouenko
n xHa1oay amsaann a HonLnm n kap1oukn nH cnoaa ampann.
epnyauncL a Mockay, panoa npnnnn ace Hepm, u1o6m nnk1o ns o1kpm1o
amc1ynaaunx npo1na ero rpynnnpoakn ne oc1ancn 6esnakasannmH. n po6nncn
o1npaakn Manenkoaa a pnn1enLnyk koHanpnpoaky a pepnkk snk, a no
cy1n - cnn1nn ero c pa6o1m a annapa1e . e1oH 1947 ropa no cuenapnk
panoaa npouna pnckyccnn no knnre I.nekcanppoaa c1opnn
sanapnoeaponecko Onnocoqnn, nocne ko1opo nekcanppoa none1en co
caoero noc1a.
pnako, saaepuae1 caok c1a1Lk .onkoa, nn Manenkoa, nn 1eH 6onee epnn
ne 6mnn nokay1npoaanm. nn nnuL sa1annncL n amxnpann cnyuan pnn
peaanua. akan aosHoxnoc1L nH npepoc1aannacL nocne cHep1n panoaa a
1948 ropy. 6mna ncnonLsoaana c nnxao uepes rop, korpa nauanocL
kpoaaaoe nennnrpapckoe peno.
He 1onLko nn1epa1ypa, ne 1onLko qnnocoqnn ace c1anoannocL apeno
nonn1nuecko 6opL6m. paxe 6nonornn.
ak nsaec1no, c 31 nknn no 7 aaryc1a 1948 ropa npoxopnna neuanLno
snaHenn1an ceccnn XH, sakonunauancn no6epo c1oponnnkoa mcenko
nap npespennmHn rene1nkaHn. ak o1Heuae1 .onkaec1, napo o1pa1L
ponxnoe panoay: on nnkorpa ne noppepxnaan mcenko, n okonua1enLnm
pasrpoH coae1cko 6nonornn nponsouen a 1948 ropy n 6mn uac1Lk ero
co6c1aennoro nonn1nueckoro nopaxennn n cHep1n (ennkn 1eppop,
c.436). mn ..panoaa ..panoa, ko1opm aosrnaannn 1orpa o1pen naykn
n 6mn xena1 na pouepn 1annna ae1nane, neopnokpa1no amc1ynan npo1na
mcenko, opnako, korpa 1annn asnn c1opony mcenko, .panoa 6mn
amnyxpen 7 nknn 1948 ropa nannca1L nokannnoe nncLHo 1annny,
ony6nnkoaannoe na cnepykun penL nocne okonuannn amueynoHnny1o
ceccnn XH (.Mepaepea. sne1 n napenne ..mcenko, HLk-opk,
1971, c.11,226), 31 aaryc1a 1948 ropa ckoponoc1nxno ckonuancn
..panoa. He 6ypeH ypnann1Lcn, ecnn korpa-nn6ypL c1ane1 nsaec1no, u1o
n k a1oHy ak1y epnn pyky npnnoxnn, - nnue1 .n1onoa-aceenko a caoe
yxe un1npoaaauecn panee pa6o1e o epnn a xypnane noc1L (1988, M12).
yuec1aye1 paxe aepcnn, u1o panoaa npoc1o sac1pennnn na oxo1e kak
ka6ana. epcnk a1y n cnmuan o1 M.epnu1aHa, a 1o1 - o1 caoero o1ua,
ko1opm a 6epneackne apeHena sannHan aaxnm noc1 a MI. HecoHnenno
opno: npnHan cansL Hexpy cHep1Lk panoaa n o1xopoH o1 ero nonn1nuecko
nnnnn n pasrpoHoH ero rpynnnpoakn.
Xynn1enn panoaa nso6penn paxe npespn1enLnm 1epHnn xpanoaunna,
copepxanne ko1oporo ueuenckn nepe6exunk .a1opxanoa na c1p. 67 caoe
knnrn 3arapka cHep1n 1annna packpmaae1 kak nocnepoaa1enLnm aosapa1
k poaoennoHy c1annnnsHy n ao aneune, n ao any1penne nonn1nke.
k6onm1no, u1o acero neckonLknHn c1pannuaHn panee a1opxanoa
y1aepxpae1, u1o panoa nauan npoaopn1L nonn 1nky pec1annnnsaunn
aoc1ounoeaponecknx c1pan, u1o ero o6annnnn a croaope c nHn1poamH n
n1o c uenLk cospannn ankancko qepepaunn (un1. cou., c.82,84).
Henonn1no, kaknH o6pasoH 1akan nonn1nka Hoxe1 accounnpoaa1Lcn a ronoae
a1opxanoaa co c1annnnsHoH.
ue opnn aHnrpan1ckn sna1ok poccncknx pen H.y1mu a caoe knnre
y anac1n, kak Hm noHnnH, yxe 6necnyn opnaxpm ocaepoHnennoc1Lk,
npnnncan nspanne knnrn apne o aone 1812 ropa yxe pacc1pennnnoHy k 1oHy
apeHenn yxaueackoHy. nanornunmH o6pasoH y1mu nonocn1 xpanoackn
arn1npon sa ocyxpenne aneknaccoaoro nopxopa k pycckoHy npounoHy n
npeannsaunn rocypapc1aennmx n aoennmx pen1ene uapcko occnn, ccmnancL
npn a1oH na c1a1Lk, pa1npoaannyk cen1n6peH 1948 ropa, 1o ec1L
ony6nnkoaannyk yxe nocne cHep1n panoaa.
paapa, c1oponnnkn panoaa eue npoponxann coxpann1L poaonLno cnnLnme
nosnunn. 3aHec1n1enL npepcepa1enn oae1a Hnnnc1poa n npepcepa1enL
Iocnnana H..osnecenckn 6mn a 1947 ropy nepeaepen ns kanpnpa1oa a
unenm onn16kpo. ppyro saHec1n1enL npepcepa1enn oae1a Hnnnc1poa
.H.ocmrnn, 1akxe axopnaun a nennnrpapckyk rpynnnpoaky, c1an a 1946
ropy kanpnpa1oH, a a 1948 ropy 1oxe unenoH onn16kpo. Mm yxe snaeH,
kakne noc1m sannn a 1946 ropy ..ysneuoa, npeeHnnkoH ko1oporo a
ennnrpape c1an ..onkoa. pepcepa1eneH oae1a Hnnnc1poa O a 1946
ropy 6mn nasnauen M..opnonoa, ko1oporo panoa xopouo snan eue co
apeHen nx coaHec1no pa6o1m a Hnxeropopcko ry6epnnn. po1na a1o
rpynnnpoakn n 6mno nanpaaneno npecnoay1oe nennnrpapckoe peno,
c1paunm norpoH pyccknx nap1nnmx kappoa, ko1opm oprannsoaann epnn n
Manenkoa, npnueH epnn anpen apara a pycckoH na1pno1e panoae no 1o xe
npnunne, u1o n rypckn, a Manenkoa pec1aoaan ncknkun1enLno ns
kapLepnc1cknx no6yxpenn, c1peHncL ns6aan1Lcn o1 conepnnka.
ak n a 1946 ropy, a 1949 ropy Manenkoa 1oxe npn- ppancn k nyc1nky, k
npoaepennk a ennnrpape 10-20 nnaapn 1949 ropa cepoccncko on1oao
npHapkn. Manenkoa ampannyn npo1na ysneuoaa, opnonoaa n onkoaa
o6annennn a 1oH, u1o onn npoaenn npHapky 6es aepoHa n a o6xop n
npaan1enLc1aa. Mexpy 1eH pokyHen1anLno yc1anoaneno, u1o a1a npHapka 6mna
npoaepena ao ncnonnenne peuennn oae1a Hnnnc1poa o1 11 non6pn
1948 ropa, npnnn1oro na sacepannn, npoxopnaueH nop npepcepa1enLc1aoH
caHoro Manenkoaa. eH ne Henee 15 qeapann 1949 ropa na sacepannn
onn16kpo 6mno npnnn1o noc1anoanenne o6 an1nnap1nnmx pec1annx
ysneuoaa, opnonoaa n onkoaa, a 21 qeapann Manenkoa npnHuancn a
ennnrpap naaopn1L nopnpok. co6enno aosHy1nn Manenkoaa Hyse
o6oponm ennnrpapa, n on kpnuan: annn an1nnap1nnoe rnespo! ospann
Hnq o6 oco6o, 6nokapno cypL6e ennnrpapa! pnnnsnnn ponL aennkoro
1annna! Io1oannn - na cnyua npnespa aennkoro 1annna -
1eppopnc1nueckn ak1! (apopa, 1989, N5). o6pan 22 qeapann 1949 ropa
nnenyH o6koHa n ropkoHa nap1nn, Manenkoa sanann, u1o a ennnrpape
cyuec1aoaana an1nnap1nnan rpynna, n 1pe6oaan o1 npncy1c1aoaaaunx
nop1aepxpennn a1oro sananennn. akoro xe npnsnannn on po6naancn n o1
.M.ypko, cekpe1apn pocnaackoro o6koHa, 6mauero a1oporo cekpe1apn
ennnrpapckoro o6koHa. ak acnoHnnae1 .M.ypko, n npepc1aannn, u1o a1o
6onLuo uenoaek, a yanpen nepep co6o xynnrana... n 6ykaanLno na Henn
opan, n, kc1a1n, qopHynnpoakn, ko1opme n o1 nero 1orpa ycnmuan, sa1eH, na
cnepc1ann, nernn a ocnoay cqanLcnqnunpoaannoro npo1okona (1aH xe). 14
aaryc1a 1949 ropa a Mockae a ka6nne1e Manenkoaa 6es cankunn npokypopa
6mnn apec1oaanm ysneuoa, onkoa, opnonoa, a 1akxe npepcepa1enL
ncnonkoHa enropcoae1a .I.asy1nn n nepam cekpe1apL pmHckoro o6koHa
H..onoaLea, 6maun npepcepa1enL eno6nncnonkoHa. ckope acnep sa nnHn
nac1ana n ouepepL osnecenckoro, ko1opoHy npnunnn peno o6 y1pa1e
pokyHen1oa n apec1oaann 27 ok1n6pn 1949 ropa.
c1a1Le o nennnrpapckoH pene, noHeuenno a saec1nnx 2 sa
1989 rop, roaopn1cn: uenLk nonyuennn amHmunennmx nokasann o
cyuec1aoaannn a ennnrpape an1nnap1nno rpynnm Manenkoa nnuno
pykoaopnn xopoH cnepc1ann no peny n npnnnHan a ponpocax
nenocpepc1aennoe yuac1ne. o aceH apec1oaannmH npnHennnncL nesakonnme
He1opm cnepc1ann - Hyun1enLnme nm1kn, no6on n nc1nsannn.
nn cospannn anpnHoc1n o cyuec1aoaannn a ennnrpape an1nnap1nno
rpynnnpoakn no ykasannk Manenkoaa 6mnn nponsaepenm Haccoame apec1m
cpepn nennnrpapckoro nap1nnoro ak1naa n pykoaopnunx nap1nnmx
pa6o1nnkoa, amxopuea ns nennnrpapcko nap1oprannsaunn. ennnrpape
pasaepnynacL Haccoaan kaHnannn no saHene kappoa acex saenLea...
pesynL1a1e a1o kaHnannn 1onLko a ennnrpape n o6nac1n a 1949-1952 rr.
6mno ocao6oxpeno o1 pa6o1m camue 2000 pykoaopn1ene. ype6nm
npouecc no nennnrpapckoHy peny coc1onncn a nocnepnnx uncnax cen1n6pn
1950 ropa. nouL na 1 ok1n6pn 6mnn npnroaopenm k pacc1peny n neHepnenno
pacc1pennnm osnecenckn, ysneuoa, opnonoa, onkoa, asy1nn n
.O.anyc1nn, a1opo cekpe1apL ennnrpapckoro ropkoHa. osxe 1a xe yuac1L
noc1nrna a1oporo cekpe1apn ennnrpapckoro o6koHa I.O. apaeaa,
npepcepa1enn ncnonkoHa eno6ncoae1a ..Xapn1onoaa, cekpe1apn
ennnrpapckoro ropkoHa ..eanna, 6pa1a n cec1py H..osnecenckoro -
..osnecenckoro, Hnnnc1pa npocaeuennn O, n M..osnecenckyk,
cekpe1apn y6mueackoro pakoHa r.ennnrpapa, a 1akxe npepcepa1enn
Iocnnana O M..acoaa, ynoHnny1oro panee H..onoaLeaa, a1oporo
cekpe1apn MypHanckoro o6koHa ..ep6nukoro, cekpe1apn enropncnonkoHa
..y6noaa n Hnornx ppyrnx.
pec1m n cype6nme npoueccm npoponxanncL n a 1951-1952 ropax. 15 aaryc1a
1952 ropa 6mnn apec1oaanm, a sa1eH ocyxpenm k pnn1enLnmH cpokaH
1kpeHnoro saknkuennn camue 50 uenoaek, pa6o1aaunx ao apeHn 6nokapm
cekpe1apnHn pakoHoa nap1nn n npepcepa1ennHn pancnonkoHoa.
ocmrnn, kak nnue1 Xpyuea a caonx HeHyapax, yuenen a a1o Hncopy6ke
1onLko uypoH. ypo a1o, no-anpnHoHy, saknkuanocL a 1oH, u1o pouL
ocmrnna ypauno amuna saHyx sa cmna opnoro ns 6epneacknx cnopanxnnkoa
Ianunann, npocnaanauerocn caonHn saepc1aaHn npn amcenennn ueuenuea a
1944 ropy (epnnc1m ny1L k cao6ope. Iposnm, 1992, c1p.18). pnako pnn
ocmrnna nennnrpapckoe peno 1oxe ne npouno 6eccnepno. ocne XIX
cLespa a 1952 ropy ero nonnsnnn a kanpnpa1m a unenm onn16kpo, a a
kopo1kn nepnop npaanennn Manenkoaa ocmrnn nepec1an 6m1L n
kanpnpa1oH, n 1onLko nocne napennn Manenkoaa cnoaa nauan Hepnennoe
aocxoxpenne n nonnoc1Lk aocc1anoann y1pauennme nosnunn 1onLko k 1960
ropy.
Xpyuea pacckasmaae1 a 1ex xe HeHyapax, u1o 6mn canpe1eneH pasroaopa
Hexpy ManenkoamH n epne, ns ko1oporo ysnan, u1o ..ysneuoaa
o6annnk1 a pycckoH naunonannsHe. o ccmnko na 1oro xe Xpyueaa
a1opxanoa a 3arapke cHep1n 1annna nsnarae1 peno 1aknH o6pasoH, u1o
nennnrpapum nko6m anecnn npepnoxenne cospa1L occnckyk
koHHynnc1nueckyk nap1nk co caonH n uen1poH a ennnrpape n nepeaec1n
1ypa xe ns Mockam oae1 Hnnnc1poa O. 3a 1annnmH no a1oHy nnany
coxpannncn noc1 noue1noro npepcepa1enn nap1nn, panoa ponxen 6mn c1a1L
renepanLnmH cekpe1apeH, osnecenckn - npepcepa1eneH oae1a Hnnnc1poa,
a ysneuoa - nepamH cekpe1apeH O.
ec1an1enLno nn nennnrpapum paspa6a1maann c1onL paneko npyune nnanm?
.qanacLea a c1a1Le o6epn1enL, nocanuen no .. ysneuoay
(oHcoHonLckan npaapa, 15 nnaapn 1988), nnue1: nmneunnx
ny6nnkaunnx o nkpnx, 1ak nnn nnaue noc1papaaunx ao apeHena kynL1a, no
kako-1o neo6Lncnenno noka npnunne nac1ounao nopuepknaae1cn opna
HmcnL: onn 6mnn neannnmHn xep1aaHn nponsaona. Ho aepL naaepnnka
6mnn n 1e, k1o ne npnnnn kynL1 na aepy? 1o ne cHnpnncn c nnH? 1o,
nakoneu, conpo1nannncn? Hek pyHa1L n y1aepxpa1L: nekce nekceeanu
ysneuoa ne 6mn neannno xep1ao.
He 6mn, no1oHy u1o npo1naoc1onnne pec1an1enLno nHeno Hec1o. npen
cospannn oHHynnc1nuecko nap1nn occnn 6mna ouenL ypo6no aneune
qopHo pnn oprannsaunn 1akoro npo1naoc1onnnn.
anLue na 3anape nenpepmano 1py6nnn o oae1cko nHnepnn, o occnn kak
yrne1a1enLnnue ppyrnx napopoa. poponxak1 pype1L a 1y xe pypy n
no6epnaune nmneunne poHopouennme peHokpa1m. Mexpy 1eH a a1o
nckaxenno kap1nne ace noc1aaneno c nor na ronoay. ne ppyrne
napopm no cpaanennk c pyccknHn, a nHenno pycckne no cpaanennk c ppyrnHn
napopaHn naxopnnncL a nepaanonpaanoH nonoxennn, no1oHy u1o O 6mna
epnnc1aenno ns acex coksnmx pecny6nnk, ne nHeaue caoe koHnap1nn.
coxpanennn 1akoro nonoxennn 6mnn sann1epecoaanm, npexpe acero,
npepc1aan1enn ppyrnx coksnmx pecny6nnk, ko1opme, nonLsyncL nH,
nopHnnann pyccknx n saxaa1maann amcune noc1m a rocypapc1ae.
3apopmueH oHnap1nn occnn Horno c1a1L kpo no O, cospannoe
nocne XX cLespa. Ho na nepaoH xe nocnexpyueackoH cLespe ono 6mno
nnkanpnpoaano. a1o neypnan1enLno, 1ak kak 1orpa sapaaann 1on
npepc1aan1enn kpannm, nHeaue caHyk cnnLnyk nap1oprannsaunk, -
pexnea, opropnm, npnnenko, enec1, n onn koneuno ne xo1enn, u1o6m nH
Heuan kako-1o npo1naoaec. nou1n po caHoro caoero 6eccnaanoro konua
npo1nannacL cospannk O, a korpa nocnepnnn nakoneu
aosnnkna, ee aosrnaann 6esnnkn n nepeun1enLnm onoskoa, ko1opm ne
cHor aocnonLsoaa1Lcn 1aknH npekpacnmH pmuaroH, u1o6m npo1naoc1on1L
npepa1enLckoHy kypcy Iop6aueaa, xo1n pnckoaan ropaspo HenLunH, ueH
ysneuoa a 1949 ropy. 1o x: poxpennm no-noskoamH ne1a1L ne Hoxe1.
orpa peuL saxopn1 o 1949 rope, noueHy-1o npexpe acero acnoHnnak1 6opL6y
c kocHononn1nsHoH, penan ynop na an1nceHn1ckoH xapak1epe a1o
kaHnannn. y6nnky onpepenennoro noun6a ropaspo 6onLue aonnye1 cypL6a
ropc1kn nn1epa1ypnmx n xypoxec1aennmx kpn1nkoa, ueH ns6naaaunxcn a 1o
xe apeHn 1mcnuaHn pyccknx nap1nnmx kappoa. c1L n pycckne, o1 ko1opmx
Hne npnxopnnocL cnmua1L kypLesnoe Hnenne, 6yp1o 1annn k konuy xnsnn
nonnn, koro napo 6n1L. Ha caHoH pene 1annn ne nHen kako-1o noc1onnno
Hnuenn, a c opnnakoao cnno 6nn acex, k1o nonapancn nop pyky: pyccknx n
eapeea, ykpannuea n rpysnn - a saancnHoc1n o1 1oro, koro cun1an nan6onee
onacnmH a pannm HoHen1, n pykoaopc1ayncL, oueanpno, no-caoeHy
nepe1onkoaannmH npnnunnoH anoc1ona aana: u1o6m nn opna nno1L ne
xaannnacL nepep IocnopoH. 1948-1950 ropax poc1anocL pyccknH.
nocnepnne ropm xnsnn 1annna kypc cnoaa nsHennncn.

orpa c pyccko onnosnune 6mno nokonueno, nopospennn 1annna
o6pa1nnncL a c1opony ero popno Ipysnn n npnaesennoro o11ypa "cokpoanua
no qaHnnnn epnn. ak o1Heuae1 p.onkoronoa, a nocnepnne rop-non1opa
xnsnn 1annna o1nouenne 1annna k epnn nenpepmano yxypuanocL (pnyHq
n 1parepnn. kn.II, u.2, c.45). p.onkoronoa npnaopn1 canpe1enLc1ao 6mauero
nauanLnnka oxpanm 1annna renepana H..nacnka ns nncLHa, ko1opoe
nacnk nanpaann na nHn opounnoaa ns ccmnkn a Hae 1955 ropa. 1annn,
nncan nacnk, "naxopncL na kre nocne aonm, a HoeH npncy1c1ann ampaxan
6onLuoe aosHyuenne npo1na epnn. kasan, u1o pan ykasanne o1c1pann1L
epnk o1 pykoaopc1aa a MI. npaunaan y Henn, kak pa6o1ak1 Mepkynoa,
o6ynoa n anocnepc1ann - o Iornnpse n anaae (1aH xe, c.189).
Mnnnc1poH roc6esonacnoc1n c 18 ok1n6pn 1946 ropa 6mn nk1op eHenoanu
6akyHoa, ko1oporo .a1opxanoa noueHy-1o amaopn1 ns ceaepokaakascknx
apHnn (aosHoxno, ny1an ero c o6ynoamH), 1orpa kak a pec1an1enLnoc1n
6akyHoa popnncn a Mockae, a ceHLe pa6ouero. ropm aonm on 6mn
nauanLnnkoH Inaanoro ynpaanennn kon1ppasaepkn "Hepu. Ho noann
unnonoa okasanacL 6onee npoc1mH sann1neH, ueH yuac1ne a nonn1nuecknx
nn1pnrax. oneu kapLepm 6akyHoaa nac1ynnn a 1951 ropy, korpa 1annn
nopyunn 6akyHoay nponsaec1n apec1m neko1opmx 6nnxaunx cnopanxnnkoa
epnn, a uac1noc1n Hnnnc1pa roc6esonacnoc1n enopyccnn anaam. Hauano
cospaaa1Lcn 1ak nasmaaeHoe "HnnrpenLckoe peno (Hnorne noppyunme epnn
6mnn ero seHnnkaHn). pnueH 1annn roaopnn 6akyHoay: 6onLuoro
Hnnrpena. (.y1ysoa. "epnan kyxnn 6akyHoaa. - "pacnan saespa, 30
cen1n6pn 1989 ropa).
He1pypno 6mno nonn1L, k1o nHencn a anpy nop "6onLunH HnnrpenoH. ak
nokasmaan na cnepc1ann no peny epnn a 1953 ropy opnn ns ero noppyunmx
epnuannn. ansannm c rpysnncko aHnrpaune, "ace Hnnrpenm ao rnaae c
Iereukopn n epne (o1 HenLueankoa n po qaunc1oa) cospaaann oco6m
kynL1 epnn, cun1an ero caHmH 6onLunH uenoaekoH a oae1ckoH okse, n
acnueckn npeaosnocnnn ero... nn ace y1aepxpann, u1o npeeHnnkoH
1annna... o6nsa1enLno 6ype1 epnn... ak 6m HnnrpenLum - HenLueankn n
qaunc1m nn pyrann oae1ckyk anac1L, onn a1o nnkorpa ne penann a
o1nouennn epnn. nn cun1ann ero renneH.
o canpe1enLc1ay epnuannn, HenLueanc1ckn nnpep Ho oppannn ckasan
eHy eue a 1938 ropy, korpa epnn 1onLko 6mn nasnauen napkoHoH any1pennnx
pen: "epnn, nonyuna a1o nasnauenne, poc1nr nepaoro a1ana na ny1n caoero
c1peHnennn k anac1n n 6ype1 c1peHn1Lcn sann1L nepaoe Hec1o aHec1o 1annna,
npnueH na a1oH ny1n on ne oc1anoan1cn nepep ynnu1oxenneH 1annna n nnu,
ero okpyxakunx. (..onoa n .I.nnokoa. epneaunna. - "oenno-
nc1opnueckn xypnan, 1990 N5).
"MnnrpenLckoe peno noanekno sa co6o ouepepnyk unc1ky a Ipysnn. epam
cekpe1apL Hec1no koHnap1nn apkanann o1penancn no1epe noc1a,
npepaa caoero ueqa, sa1o 6onee 400 amcokonoc1aanennmx nap1nnmx
pen1ene 6mnn apec1oaanm, a 1oH uncne cekpe1apn apaHnn, xn6annpse,
apypnn, npepcepa1enL npesnpnyHa epxoanoro oae1a Iorya, rnaanm
npokypop onna, Hnnnc1p kc1nunn anaaa, cekpe1apL koHcoHona 3apenaaa n
ppyrne.
ce a1o, ec1ec1aenno, ne Horno npaan1Lcn epnn. y1-1o n 6mn npepnpnnn1
noakn Haneap c uenLk o1aneuL annHanne 1annna a ppyryk c1opony. maun
1orpa nauanLnnkoH cnepc1aenno uac1n no oco6o aaxnmH penaH MI M.kHnn
ne1oH 1951 ropa coo6unn 1annny o saroaope eapecknx 6ypxyasnmx
naunonannc1oa, nncnnpnpoaannoH aHepnkancko pasaepko. 6akyHoa o
saroaope nko6m snae1, no no kaknH-1o npnunnaH ckpmaae1 a1o. onee 1oro, on
yHep1ann a 1kpLHe nc1ounnk panno nnqopHaunn - npoqeccopa .D1nnrepa
("pacnan saespa, 30 cen1n6pn 1989 ropa).
ocne payxnepenLnoro paspyHnn 1annn npnkasan cnn1L n apec1oaa1L
6akyHoaa. Ha ero Hec1o 6mn nasnauen "uenoaek co c1oponm ..rna1Lea,
ko1opm, pasyHee1cn, ne cHor paso6pa1Lcn a 1ex xn1pocnne1ennnx, a ko1opme
neoxnpanno pnn ce6n nonan. 6akyHoa xe necHo1pn na ace nocnepykune
nepeaopo1m npoponxan 1oHn1Lcn a 1kpLHe nopo6no DpHony an1ecy, repok
poHana "Ipaq Mon1e-pnc1o, noka ne 6mn amaepen co caonHn noppyunmHn na
npouecc a peka6pe 1954 ropa n pacc1pennn aHec1e c nnHn.
aknH o6pasoH annHanne 1annna nepeknkunnn c Hnnrpenoa na eapeea, k
ko1opmH nop6npanncL yxe paano. ue ocenLk 1944 ropa 1annn cosaan a
peHne pacunpennoe coaeuanne, a ko1opoH npnnnnn yuac1ne unenm
onn16kpo, cekpe1apn , nepame cekpe1apn pecny6nnkancknx n o6nac1nmx
koHn1e1oa nap1nn, pykoaopn1enn o6oponno npoHmunennoc1n, apHnn n
roc6esonacnoc1n. Ha a1oH coaeuannn peuL una o eapecko npo6neHe. 1annn
ao ac1ynn1enLnoH cnoae amckasancn sa "6onee oc1opoxnoe nasnauenne
eapeea na pykoaopnune noc1m a rocypapc1aennmx n nap1nnmx opranax.
ocne a1oro coaeuannn 6mn pasocnan 1ak nasmaaeHm "Hanenkoackn
unpkynnp c nepeuncnenneH ponxnoc1e, na ko1opme ne pekoHenpoaanocL
nasnaua1L nnu eapecko naunonanLnoc1n (.Mepaepea. nn okpyxann
1annna, 1984, c.247-248).
ak nsaec1no, c nauana 1942 ropa pasaepnyn caok pen1enLnoc1L apeckn
an1nqaunc1ckn koHn1e1 (), npepcepa1eneH ko1oporo 6mn napopnm
ap1nc1 .M.Mnxoanc, a o1ae1c1aennmH cekpe1apeH - noa1 ..Oeqep.
pnako nocne aonm, 12 ok1n6pn 1946 ropa MI nanpaanno a n oae1
Hnnnc1poa sanncky " naunonannc1nuecknx nponanennnx neko1opmx
pa6o1nnkoa apeckoro an1nqaunc1ckoro koHn1e1a. 1pen aneune nonn1nkn
yc1ponn npoaepky pen1enLnoc1n n npnuen k amaopy, u1o "unenm ,
sa6maan o knaccoaoH nopxope, ocyuec1annk1 Hexpynapopnme kon1ak1m c
6ypxyasnmHn pen1ennHn n oprannsaunnHn na naunonannc1nuecko ocnoae, a
pacckasmaan a 6ypxyasnmx nspannnx o xnsnn coae1cknx eapeea,
npeyaennunaak1 nx aknap a poc1nxennn , u1o cnepye1 pacuenn1L kak
nponanenne naunonannsHa. 1o xe apeHn nopuepknaanocL, u1o koHn1e1
naounmH nopnpkoH npncaanaae1 ce6e qynkunn rnaanoro ynonnoHouennoro no
penaH eapeckoro nacenennn, amxopn sa npepenm caoe koHne1enunn, cansn
c a1nH 6mno aneceno npepnoxenne o nnkanpaunn .
Henocpepc1aennmH npepnoroH k aos6yxpennk yronoanoro pena na
pykoaopn1ene nocnyxnnn nonyuennme nsaec1nmHn He1opaHn nokasannn
apec1oaannmx a peka6pe 1947 ropa nayunmx co1pypnnkoa IonLpu1ena n
Ipnn6epra o nko6m npoaopnHo osoacknH, OeqepoH n ppyrnHn unenaHn
an1ncoae1cko naunonannc1nuecko pen1enLnoc1n.
1eH ne Henee noka ne 1porann. na kpynnan aneunenonn1nueckan nrpa.
ak pas a Hae 1948 ropa aosnnkno rocypapc1ao spannL. D1o nc1opnueckoe
co6m1ne nponsouno npn ak1nano noppepxke n , ko1opm a pannoH
cnyuae pec1aoaan a nnky nrnnn, c1onaue na c1opone apa6cknx c1pan. Ho
npnnnnn 6mna neponro.
20 non6pn 1948 ropa onn16kpo npnnnno peuenne o pocnycke . Mnxoancy,
kak nsaec1no, nopc1ponnn aa1oHo6nnLnyk ka1ac1poqy, a Oeqepa, ap1nc1a
3ycknna n noa1a Ioqu1ena apec1oaann yxe a konue 1948 ropa.
ak roaopn1cn a cnpaake no peny , ony6nnkoaanno a "saec1nnx
, N12 sa 1989 rop, "yc1anoaneno, u1o npnHyk o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa
nesakonnme penpeccnn nnu, npnaneuennmx no "peny nece1 Manenkoa. 13
nnaapn 1949 ropa Manenkoa amsaan k ce6e 6mauero nauanLnnka
oannqopH6kpo, unena onoHona osoackoro (pnpso) n poHorancn o1
nero npnsnannn a npoaepennn nH npec1ynno pen1enLnoc1n. a1nx uennx
ManenkoamH 6mno ncnonLsoaano nanpaanennoe 1annny 15 qeapann 1944
ropa sa nopnncLk Mnxoanca, Dnu1ena n Oeqepa n o1pepak1npoaannoe
osoacknH nncLHo c npepnoxenneH o cospannn na 1eppn1opnn pmHa
apecko counannc1nuecko pecny6nnkn.
.n1onoa a c1a1Le "aneu nona a 1a1apckoH nnpore ("Henpnpaa, 1988,
N5) y1aepxpae1, u1o peuenne o amcmnke 1a1ap ns pmHa 6mno npnnn1o ne
6es paanennn co c1oponm no66n , o6pa1nauerocn k npee kononnsaunn
eapenHn pmHa, ko1opan nponaranpnpoaanacL eue a 20-x ropax n paxe
nauana 1orpa ocyuec1ann1Lcn npn qnnancoao noppepxke aHepnkanckoro
Hnnnnonepa xeko6a nqqa, 1oro caHoro, ko1opm a 1917 ropy
qnnancnpoaan poccnckyk peaonkunk. ncLHo o1 15 nnaapn 1944 ropa
pokyHen1anLno nop1aepxpae1 aepcnk .n1onoaa.
euenneH o1 18 nnaapn 1949 ropa .osoackn 6mn amaepen ns coc1aaa
, a 26 nnaapn apec1oaan, 1oH xe nnaape 1949 ropa a 1kpLHy nonann
rnaanm apau o1knncko 6onLnnum nHennoanu, noa1m an1ko, epeu
Mapknu, eprenLcon n pnp ppyrnx ak1nanc1oa .
uncne a1nx ak1nanc1oa okasanacL n cynpyra ..Mono1oaa onnna
eHenoana eHuyxnna, ko1opan nepep aono 6mna paxe opno apeHn
napkoHoH pm6no npoHmunennoc1n n kanpnpa1oH a unenm . opnan cec1pa
.eHuyxnno eue a ropm rpaxpancko aonm yexana a anec1nny. ec1pm
nepenncmaanncL po 1939 ropa. orpa a Mockay npnexana a kauec1ae
npepc1aan1enn spannn Ionpa Menp. .eHuyxnna ne pas c ne ac1peuanacL,
acnepc1ane uero 6mna o6annena a cansnx c HexpynapopnmH cnonnsHoH.
nnaape 1953 ropa ee aknkunnn a uncno yuac1nnkoa "cnonnc1ckoro saroaopa
aHec1e c rpynno eapecknx apaue n nauann ponpaunaa1L c npnHenenneH
nm1ok. (.Mepaepea, nn okpyxann 1annna, c.46-48, 54-55).
1annn appyr o6napyxnn, a kako nay1nne on cnpen, n, kak nnue1
.a1opxanoa, "nauan ponycka1L neponyc1nHoe: Mono1oa, opounnoa,
Mnkonn, aranoanu, nppeea Hory1 6m1L opypneH cnonnc1ckoro saroaopa.
osnnkno nopospenne, u1o apeckn an1nqaunc1ckn koHn1e1 aouen a cansL
c Mono1oamH n MnkonnoH, u1o6m nopro1oan1L an1nc1annnckn nepeaopo1.
("3arapka cHep1n 1annna, c.200). "1annny ackpy MepeunnncL cnonnc1ckne
saroaopunkn, - npoponxae1 a1opxanoa, - aknH saroaopunkoH a ero rnasax
6mn kaxpm eape, nesaancnHo o1 1oro, koHHynnc1 on nnn ne1, 6onee 1oro -
nH 6mn n kaxpm pycckn koHHynnc1nueckn nnpep, ecnn on xena1 na
eapeke. aon "reneanornueckne 1a6nnum 1annn pacunpnn po a1opmx n
1pe1Lnx konen a popocnoann koHHynnc1oa, amncknaan y nnx eapecknx
6a6yuek, pepyuek nnn anykoa. ak, y Xpyueaa naunn anyuky o1 eapecko
Ha1epn, y epnn - Ha1L, nko6m rpysnnckyk eapeky, y Manenkoaa - pouL
saHyxeH sa eapeeH... s opnnnapua1n unenoa onn16kpo nn1L okasanncL
eapecknHn popc1aennnkaHn (Mono1oa, Manenkoa, opounnoa, Xpyuea,
nppeea), opnn - eapeeH (aranoanu), opnn - "nonyeapeeH (epnn) (1aH
xe, c.153). HanoHnnH, u1o eapeckne xenm, kpoHe Mono1oaa, 6mnn 1akxe y
opounnoaa (ka1epnna aampoana Iop6Han) n nppeeaa (opa Monceeana
Xasan). x 1akxe ne Hnnyna uaua penpeccn. a1opxanoa, npaapa, exnpno
po6aanne1, u1o n y caHoro 1annna 6mn eapeckn popc1aennnk - anyk o1
eapen Moposa. nepye1 y1ounn1L 1akxe, u1o Manenkoa, yroxpan 1annny,
pasaen caok pouL onk c HyxeH-eapeeH, akonoHnc1oH n apxn1ek1opoH
napnHnpoH an6eproH, xo1n caH, no cnoaaH Xpyueaa, an1nceHn1oH ne 6mn.
InaanmH xe nepoc1a1koH 1annna Xpyuea a caonx aocnoHnnannnx nasmaae1
nHenno an1nceHn1nsH. oueHy a1o 1ak saepano Xpyueaa - nenonn1no.
nepc1ane no peny ponro 6ykcoaano. Hennaun 6akyHoaa rna1Lea a
nncLHe o1 24 aaryc1a 1951 ropa na nHn Manenkoaa n epnn coo6uan, u1o
"nou1n coaepuenno o1cy1c1ayk1 pokyHen1m, nop1aepxpakune nokasannn
apec1oaannmx o npoaopnauecn nHn unnoncko n naunonannc1nuecko
pen1enLnoc1n nop npnkpm1neH . ncLHo, oueanpno, nHeno o6pa1nm
pesynL1a1, cnepoaa1enn "nopnaxann, n a anpene 1952 ropa peno 6mno
nanpaaneno a aoennyk konnernk epxoanoro cypa , rpe paccHa1pnaanocL
c 8 Han no 18 nknn 1952 ropa. pnnapua1L o6annneHmx 6mnn npnroaopenm k
pacc1peny.
onna nopospn1enLnoro o1nouennn k eapecknH pykoaopn1ennH nepeknnynacL
ns oae1ckoro oksa n na nopunnennme eHy c1panm oc1ouno aponm. acno
ak, Hnnnc1p nnoc1pannmx pen enrpnn, ko1oporo cypnnn a 1949 ropy kak
"1n1oackoro aren1a, 6mn eape. Ho oco6enno cnnLnyk an1neapeckyk
nanpaanennoc1L nHen npouecc renepanLnoro cekpe1apn exocnoaaknn
yponLqa nanckoro (3anLuHana) a 1952 ropy. o a1oHy npoueccy npoxopnnn
eue 6onee pecn1ka amcokonoc1aanennmx eapeea, npnueH sa1parnaanncL yxe
Hexpynapopnme cnonnc1ckne cansn, a uac1noc1n, uepes peny1a1a anrnnckoro
napnaHen1a onn 3nnnnakyca, cnmauero po 1ex nop "ppyroH oae1ckoro
oksa.
a1o o6c1anoake, nocne ponroro nepepmaa, ocenLk 1952 ropa co6pancn,
nakoneu, ouepepno XIX cLesp nap1nn. o1ue1nmH poknapoH na npaaax
"sakonnoro nacnepnnka 1annna amc1ynnn Manenkoa, c poknapoH o noaoH
c1aae nap1nn - Xpyuea.
Xpyueay npnunocL ponro xpa1L aosHoxnoc1n aepny1Lcn ns ykpanncko
ccmnkn a uen1p co6m1n, 1947 ropy on aoo6ue uy1L 6mno ne pyxnyn eue
nnxe, korpa 1annn, nporneaaauncL na nero, peunn cnoaa nakasa1L kpanny
aranoanueH. o cuac1Lk pnn Xpyueaa n kpannm, c1annnckn rnea na a1o1
pas 6mc1po npouen, a a konue 1949 ropa Xpyuea cnoaa cHor epny1Lcn a
Mockay n sannn noc1m cekpe1apn n M. D1n noc1m nocne cHep1n
ep6akoaa sannHan kopenno Hockanu I.M.onoa, no k1o-1o nanncan na nero
ponoc, 6yp1o onoa ro1oan1 nokyuenne na 1annna. 1annn ne pacnpaanncn c
onoamH a caoe o6muno Hanepe, a orpannunncn 1eH, u1o npoc1o npornan ero
c rnas pono, n onoa poropan no1oH na a1opoc1enennmx noc1ax anno1L po
caoe cHep1n a 1968 ropy. ak ocao6opnnocL Hec1o pnn Xpyueaa.
caonx aocnoHnnannnx Xpyuea nso6paxae1 nocnepnne Hecnum xnsnn
1annna kak nepnop nonneuero HapasHa n pac1epnnnoc1n, no1epn
ynpaanennn, napannua anac1n. pnako nonanenne a pesynL1a1e XIX cLespa
cnnLno pacunpennoro pesnpnyHa (saHennauero onn16kpo) oc1anocL
sarapko n pnn caHoro Xpyueaa. ak nnue1 .6apnnoa a "HesaancnHo
rase1e (19 nknn 1992) "c1annnnsH nppaunonanen - cnepoaa1enLno, n nornka
ero nenoc1nxnHa. Henoc1nxnHa ona, opnako, 1onLko pnn orpannuennmx
yHc1aennmx cnoco6noc1e. Xn1pm saHmcen 1annna a 1952 ropy coaepuenno
ncen: on xo1en pac1aopn1L nonaaunx nop nopospenne c1apmx copa1nnkoa
cpepn noamx nkpe n opnoapeHenno nopro1oan1L kappm 6ypyunx
pykoaopn1ene c1panm.
1annn acerpa pec1aoaan noc1enenno, y6npan npo1nannkoa no opnoHy. ak, n
nocne XIX cLespa ns opnnnapua1n 1orpaunnx unenoa onn16kpo okonunn
caok nap1nnyk kapLepy 1onLko opnn - ..nppeea. orpa-1o, a konue 30-x
ropoa, nppeeay 6mno nopyueno kypnpoaa1L pen1enLnoc1L H. .n1onoa-
aceenko nponnueckn saHeue1 no a1oHy noaopy, u1o 1annn, "uenoaek cyry6o
1ea1panLnm, napouno am6pan na a1y ponL "nacHep1L sanyrannoro
qynkunonepa ("noc1L, 1988, N12). nppeea paapua1L ne1 npocnpen a
onn16kpo, no acerpa pepxancn ao a1opoH pnpy. ocne H eHy nopyunnn
cenLckoe xosnc1ao, no n specL on ne npeycnen, n a nauane 50-x ropoa
amnyxpen 6mn ny6nnuno nokan1Lcn, u1o nacaxpae1 ne 1e He1opm oprannsaunn
1pypa a konxosax. 1oHy xe, kak Hm anpenn, y nppeeaa "xena nopkauana,
1ak u1o a ero napennn nnuero neoxnpannoro ne 6mno.
pyro xep1ao cLespa 6mn ocmrnn, nonnxennm, kak yxe roaopnnocL, ns
unenoa onn16kpo a kanpnpa1m. 1o xe kacae1cn noanukoa a pesnpnyHe ,
1o cpepn nnx 6mno neckonLko aqeHepnp, 6mc1po ncuesnyaunx c
nonn1nueckoro ropnson1a.
"He pacc1anycL c koHcoHonoH, 6ypy aeuno HonopmH. D1y necenky Hoxno 6mno
6m nocan1n1L Mnxanoay, ko1opm saHennn ocapeaa pa 1ak n coc1apnncn a
koHcoHonLcknx aoxpnx. 1952 ropy on c1an unenoH pesnpnyHa n cekpe1apeH
, no no1oH ero kapLepa 6mc1po nouna no nncxopnue nnnnn. 1onL xe
neponroaeunmH okasancn n nppnanoa, nasnauennm ManenkoamH a 1949 ropy
nanauec1aoaa1L a ennnrpape. cero uepes neckonLko Hecnuea nocne cHep1n
1annna y1pa1nn cao noc1 n nepam cekpe1apL oHnap1nn kpannm
.I.MenLnnkoa. n1epecnyk qnrypy npepc1aannn co6o am6pannm 1orpa a
pesnpnyH qnnocoq p..ecnokoa (yHep a 1973 ropy). Ioaopn1, a 1953 ropy,
korpa naHeuanacL Haccoaan penop1aunn eapeea, on nanncan knnry,
onpaapmaakuyk a1o Heponpnn1ne c Hapkcnc1cko 1oukn spennn. mnn specL n
1akne snoaeune nnunoc1n, kak M.O.knpn1oa, npepcepa1enL oHn1e1a
nap1nnoro kon1ponn npn , nsaec1nm a nap1nn nop knnuko "Mank1a
knpn1oa (yHep a 1954 ropy), n ..munnckn - kanpnpa1 a unenm
pesnpnyHa, snaHenn1m npokypop, a no1oH Hnnnc1p nnoc1pannmx pen
(sac1pennncn a 1954 ropy). anpnpa1 a unenm pesnpnyHa n cekpe1apL
eroa anocnepc1ann sannHan acero nnuL noc1 cekpe1apn pesnpnyHa
epxoanoro oae1a. Mnnnc1p aneune 1oproann a6anoa 6mn cnn1 a 1958
ropy, npepcepa1enL oae1a Hnnnc1poa O ysanoa y1pa1nn cao noc1 a
1956 ropy. peonor .O.pnn yHep a 1968 ropy, Hnnnc1p qnnancoa c 1938
ropa 3aepea - a 1970 ropy.
np noanukoa a ns6pannoH XIX cLespoH pesnpnyHe nenLsn o1nec1n k
noanukaH a co6c1aennoH cHmcne cnoaa - onn paano yxe naxopnnncL na caHmx
amcoknx a1axax. HanpnHep, nakoneu-1o 6mn narpaxpen sa ponro1epnenne
H.M.aepnnk, sannaun nocne cHep1n annnnna a 1946 ropy noc1
npepcepa1enn pesnpnyHa epxoanoro oae1a. 1953 no 1957 aepnnk onn1L
1onLko kanpnpa1, c 1957 no 1966 - unen onn16kpo.
He 6mn 1akxe noanukoH M..ycnoa, unen pr6kpo c 1946 ropa n cekpe1apL
c 1947 ropa. orpa Manenkoa rpoHnn xpanoackne kappm, ycnoa ak1nano
eHy a a1oH noHoran. HanpnHep, a 1948 ropy on osrnaann koHnccnk no pac-
cnepoaannk "an1nnmcenkoacko pen1enLnoc1n .panoaa (.Mepaepea. nn
okpyxann 1annna, c297). 24 peka6pn 1952 ropa a "paape nonannacL
o6nnun1enLnan c1a1Ln ycnoaa npo1na "xpanoaua .H.Oepoceeaa,
amrnannoro ns pepak1opoa xypnana "onLueank. 1annny ycnoa yropnn
npeonornuecknH o6ecneuenneH k6nnen aoxpn a 1949 ropy. ocne cHep1n
1annna ycnoa coxpannn sa co6o 1onLko noc1 cekpe1apn , a a pesnpnyH
aepnyncn a 1955 ropy.
ue opnn "c1apm noam - ..onoHapenko 6maun nepam cekpe1apL
oHnap1nn enopyccnn, pykoaopn1enL rnaanoro u1a6a nap1nsanckoro
panxennn a ropm ennko 1euec1aenno onm, a c k1n6pn 1948 ropa
cekpe1apL . onoHapenko nocne cHep1n 1annna, xo1n n oc1ancn
kanpnpa1oH a unenm pesnpnyHa, 6mc1po nouen na nonnxenne - 6mn
Hnnnc1poH kynL1ypm, no1oH nepamH cekpe1apeH oHnap1nn asaxc1ana, a
no1oH "nocon aon.
nakoneu, noanukn nac1onune, nepcnek1nanme. pnnH ns nnx 6mn ne k1o
nno, kak ., pexnea, onaaun a kanpnpa1m a unenm pesnpnyHa n
cekpe1apn ns Monpaann. ro 1oxe "saHe1nn n, a rpo6 cxopn, 6narocnoann
1annn. ocne cHep1n 1annna pexnea aepnyncn k caonH npexnnH sann1nnH
apeHen coaHec1no pa6o1m c MexnncoH, 1.e. a Inaanoe nonn1ynpaanenne
aoopyxennmx cnn, no1oH c1an a1opmH cekpe1apeH npn onoHapenko a
asaxc1ane, no1oH saHennn 1aH onoHapenko, a papoaannm 1annnmH c1a1yc
aepnyn ce6e 1onLko a 1956 ropy nocne XX cLespa. pnoapeHenno c pexneamH
nenaponro nonan a 1952 ropy a pesnpnyH ..ysneuoa, ko1oporo pexnea a
1977 ropy cpenan caonH nepamH saHec1n1eneH.
npnyk ponL nrpann n neko1opme ppyrne 1orpaunne ampanxenum: unen
pesnpnyHa n cekpe1apL 1orpa n a 1957-1961 rr. ..pnc1oa (yHep a
1973 ropy); kanpnpa1 a unenm pesnpnyHa n cekpe1apL 1orpa, unen
pesnpnyHa n cekpe1apL a 1957-1951 ropax H.I.rna1oa (yHep a 1966
ropy); unen pesnpnyHa 1orpa, unen pesnpnyHa n cekpe1apL c 1957 ropa
po caoe cHep1n a 1964 ropy ..yycnnen; unen pesnpnyHa 1orpa n
kanpnpa1 a 1957-1961 ropax ..opo1uenko (yHep a 1969 ropy).
ue o6 opno rpynne nncan I.xHnnoa a caoe knnre "MornnLunkn
koHHynnsHa. op a1nH HpaunmH 1epHnnoH on noppasyHeaan 1exnokpa1oa,
kakoamx, no ero Hnennk, o6Lepnnnn aokpyr ce6n Manenkoa. Inaanyk ponL
cpepn. nnx nrpann M.3.a6ypoa, npeeHnnk osnecenckoro a Iocnnane, n
M.I.epayxnn, epnnc1aennme noanukn, oc1aaunecn a 1953 ropy a pesnpnyHe.
6a onn 6mnn nosxe nepamHn saHec1n1ennHn npepcepa1enn oae1a Hnnnc1poa
n o6a noropenn aHec1e c "an1nnap1nno rpynnnpoako a 1957 ropy. a6ypoa
cpasy xe ncues ns o6pauennn, a epayxnn eue neko1opoe apeHn npopepxancn
a kanpnpa1ax. ue paa 1exnokpa1a - unen pesnpnyHa Manmuea n kanpnpa1
eaocnn - nosxe 1oxe 6mnn saHec1n1ennHn npepcepa1enn oae1a Hnnnc1poa
n o6a yHepnn a konue 50-x ropoa, ne ampepxaa xpyueacko nepec1pokn.
opaopn n1orn, Hoxno ckasa1L: na XIX cLespe, a uac1nuno n panee, 1annn
ampannyn kappm, ko1opme co apeHeneH ponxnm 6mnn asn1L na ce6n
pykoaopc1ao c1pano.
pnako 6ypyuee naue c1panm onpepennnocL ne nnuno aone 1annna, a
opno oco6ennoc1Lk ns6pannmx na XIX cLespe amcunx opranoa nap1nn, o
ko1opo nnk1o po cnx nop eue ne roaopnn n ne nncan.
$ #
Mm yxe anno1nyk npn6nnsnnncL k pokoaoHy 1953 ropy, n naH npepc1on1
anno1nyk sann1Lcn 1o 1eHo, ko1opyk .a1opxanoa amnec a saronoaok
caoe knnrn, - sarapko cHep1n 1annna.
akne rnaanme aepcnn nHek1cn a naueH pacnopnxennn?
1. ak nasmaaeHm "HeHopanpyH epnn, nsnoxennm a knnre OnuHena n
Xy11ona "nunan xnsnL 1annna (Mknxen, 1967). Mm yxe roaopnnn o 1oH,
u1o a1a knnra - nc1ounnk coaepuenno nepoc1oaepnm, no 1eH ne Henee
o6pa1nHcn k ynoHnny1oHy "HeHopanpyHy. ornacno a1oHy, c nosaonennn
ckasa1L, pokyHen1y, na sacepannn pesnpnyHa 1 Hap1a 1953 ropa aranoanu
6yp1o 6m no1pe6oaan pas6opa "pena apaue oco6o koHnccne n o1Henm
npnkasa o penop1aunn eapeea, npnueH nopaan cao nap16nne1 n 6pocnn ero a
nnuo 1annny. aranoanua nko 6m noppepxann ace unenm pesnpnyHa, kpoHe
epnn n Xpyueaa. o 1annnmH o1 npoc1n cnyunncn ypap, n, u1o6m npnaec1n
ero a uyac1ao, Mono1oa nopan eHy c1akan konLnka. orpa 1annn npnuen a
ce6n, on npnkasan aceH ypann1Lcn, kpoHe epnn n Manenkoaa, ko1opmH on
ckasan, u1o o1paanen Mono1oamH, n nsnoxnn caoe saaeuanne, npnueH nasaan
Mono1oaa caHmH onacnmH uenoaekoH a c1pane, nopunnnaunH caoeHy annnnnk
opounnoaa, ynrannna n Xpyueaa. 1annn pekoHenpoaan epnn n
Manenkoay cpena1L Xpyueaa nepamH cekpe1apeH, no kon1ponnpoaa1L ero
uepes oae1 Hnnnc1poa.
2. acckas, ko1opm npnnncmaancn Xpyueay n xopnn a "caHnspa1e a 60-x
ropax. onanaunHcn nosxe aocnoHnnannnH Xpyueaa pacckas ne
coo1ae1c1aye1. ornacno a1oHy pacckasy, ypap cnyunncn co 1annnmH na
"nnxne paue, no amsaannme 1ypa unenm pesnpnyHa n apaun ne cHornn
6mc1po npnexa1L ns-sa sapepxkn c amsoaoH n rononepa. pn anpe
pacnpoc1ep1oro na nony 1annna epnn nko6m papoc1no aocknnknyn: "npan
Hep1a!
3 ."qnunosnan aepcnn, pacnpoc1panennan na 3anape Dpen6yproH n
onoHapenko. oueHy a1nH sannHancn Dpen6ypr, 6mno nonn1no, a noueHy
onoHapenko, c1ano nonn1no nnuL no1oH. D1a aepcnn coanapae1, a ocnoanoH,
c "HeHopanpyHoH epnn, a Hoxe1 6m1L, na ero ocnoae n 6mna npnpyHana.
ne 1oxe qnrypnpoaann 1pe6oaanne aranoanua n pasopaannm nap16nne1,
noppepxka aranoanua Mono1oamH n MnkonnoH, a no1oH na nx c1opony 6yp1o
6m nepeuen n epnn. onqnpenunanLnan 6ecepa, saknkuaauan
"HeHopanpyH, pasyHee1cn, 6mna cnyuena.
4. xypnane "ounonornueckne nccnepoaannn (1988, N3) 6mnn
ony6nnkoaanm aocnoHnnannn ..m6nna, cnyxnauero a oxpane 1annna. ak
pacckasmaae1 m6nn, a 1pn uaca noun 2 Hap1a k paue 1annna nopouna
Haunna. ce pyHann, u1o npn6mnn Hepnkn, no okasanocL, u1o npnexann epnn
n Manenkoa. 6pauancL k noHounnky koHenpan1a osraueay, epnn ckasan:
"m u1o naaopnuL nannky? npnuL, 1oaapnu 1annn kpenko cnn1. He
nopnnHa uyHnxy, nac ne 6ecnoko n 1oaapnua 1annna ne 1peaoxL.
osrauea c1an pokasmaa1L, u1o 1annn 1nxeno 6onen n eHy nyxna cpounan
Hepnunnckan noHouL. Ho copa1nnkn ne c1ann cnyua1L n nocneuno ypannnncL
ns sana. HouLk 2 Hap1a Hepnunnckyk noHouL 1annny nnk1o 1ak n ne okasan.
o canpe1enLc1ay co1pypnnka 1annna no oco6mH nopyuennnH .ykoaa, na
paue ace uaue c1ann paspaaa1Lcn saonkn apaue-po6poxo1oa, npocnaunx
ponyc1n1L nx k 1annny n yaepnaunx, u1o onn ero amneua1. 3aonnnn paxe ns
ppyrnx c1pan. pnn po6poxena1enL okasancn oco6enno nac1ounamH, no
epnn o1unn ero, ckasan eHy no 1eneqony: "m k1o 1ako? m npoaoka1op nnn
6anpn1?
paun nonannncL nnuL y1poH. oxpL oc1aaancn 6es Hepnunncko noHoun
6onee 1pnnapua1n uacoa. (.n1onoa-aceenko. epnn, - "noc1L, 1988,
N12).
ce, oueanpno, 1ak n 6mno, no 6mno yxe nocne ypapa. 1oH, u1o
npepuec1aoaano ypapy, nn m6nn, nn ykoa nnuero sna1L ne Hory1.
5. epayk npeHnk a o6nac1n qan1ac1nkn, necoHnenno, cnepye1 npncypn1L
nneHnnnnky aranoanua 1kap1y arany sa ero knnry "peHneackn aonk.
o1pmake ns a1o knnrn, ony6nnkoaannoH a "Hepene (1991, N45), nsnarae1cn
xy1kan nc1opnn o 1oH, kak ynrannn, Mono1oa, opounnoa n aranoanu
croaopnnncL nopcyny1L 1annny np nop anpoH nekapc1aa. ekapc1aa 1annny
6yp1o 6m paaana nneHnnnnua aranoanua osa, ko1opyk pepakunn "Hepenn
nasmaae1 "nocnepne xeno 1annna. D1o ose a ynoHnny1o knnxke
OnuHena n Xy11ona nocanuena uenan rnaaa nop nasaanneH "anon osm
aranoanu, no nonm1ka ykpacn1L 1annna a1nH uae1oukoH o1nocn1cn k konuy
30-x ropoa, n osa poaonLno 6mc1po naunc1o ncuesna c kpeHneackoro
ropnson1a. pepc1aan1L ce6e, u1o6m 1annn a 1953 ropy, npn ero 1orpaunnx
nac1poennnx, nopnyc1nn k ce6e kakyk-nn6ypL osy c nekapc1aoH, akcnk1no
neaosHoxno, n ne nHee1 cHmcna o6cyxpa1L acepLes knnxky .arana, 1eH
6onee, u1o y nero 6akyHoa a 1952 ropy ace eue Hnnnc1p roc6esonacnoc1n, a
kHnn nHenye1cn "kHknnmH.
ao1 1o, o ueH pacckasann Dpen6ypr n onoHapenko, ropaspo nn1epecne.
aso6nauenne a1o nano 1enpenunosno aepcnn nyuue acero naua1L c nerenpm
o "sacepannn pesnpnyHa. Hnkakoro 1akoro sacepannn ne 1onLko ne 6mno, no
paxe 6m1L ne Horno. pacnaan ckaska o reponueckn 6pouennoH o1kpm1oH
amsoae 1npany, paccun1annan na nerkoaepnmx, npnsaana 6mna nso6pasn1L
"6opL6y nap1nn npo1na kynL1a nnunoc1n n pasyHee1cn-1akn a ponn rnaanoro
repon a1o 6opL6m ponxen 6mn amc1yna1L aranoanu. pnako, snan, u1o
npepc1aannnn co6o a1n "6opum, neaosHoxno aoo6pasn1L nx pec1aoaaaunHn
a) o1kpm1o n 6) epnnmH qpon1oH. axe okasaauncL a HenLunnc1ae, 1annn
ace paano HoHen1anLno cHor 6m npeceuL conpo1nanenne, n "repon ne amunn
6m ns peHnn xnamHn. 1ako cn1yaunn okasancn Xpyuea a 1957 ropy, n 1oro
ne cHornn caeprny1L, a 1annna caeprnn? a k1o a1oHy noaepn1?
1o xe kacae1cn rnaanoro repon nerenpm aranoanua, 1o o neH npaannLno
nnue1 .Mepaepea: "n a nauane 1953 ropa Honuan n co c1paxoH xpan
pasan1nn co6m1n ("nn okpyxann 1annna, c.119).
.a1opxanoa y1aepxpae1, u1o 1annn na XIX cLespe 6yp1o 6m no1epnen
nopaxenne, nockonLky on ne cHor pa1L o1aop npn am6opax a pesnpnyH
Mono1oay, opounnoay, aranoanuy n Mnkonny n paxe 6mn o1c1panen c
ponxnoc1n IenepanLnoro cekpe1apn. ocnepnee - a6conk1nm poHmcen, u1o
xe kacae1cn ouepepnmx (6ypyunx xep1a), 1o nocne XIX cLespa peanLnan
yrposa naancna nap Mono1oamH n MnkonnoH. Henno na nnx o6pyunncn
1annn c pesknHn o6annennnHn a nec1okoc1n, ne1aeppoc1n 1pycoc1n n
kann1ynnn1c1ae. .nHonoa, ns6pannm 1orpa kanpnpa1oH a unenm ,
yaepne1, u1o ne nonnHan, noueHy 1annn ne xenan, u1o6m Mono1oa nocne
nero, cnyuncL u1o-1o c nnH, oc1ancn nepao qnrypo a rocypapc1ae n nap1nn
("InasaHn uenoaeka Hoero nokonennn, c.244), .nHonoa, ckopee acero,
npnknpmaae1cn nananmH. n ne Hor ne sna1L, u1o nonoxenne Mono1oaa
noua1nynocL yxe nocne apec1a eHuyxnno. a 1952 ropy 1annn npoc1o
sanpe1nn npnrnaua1L k ce6e Mono1oaa, n a kpyrax c1ann cHo1pe1L na
Mono1oaa kak na o6peuennoro uenoaeka (.Mepaepea. "nn okpyxann
1annna, c.51-52).
1o xe kacae1cn "o1c1panennn 1annna, o ko1opoH nnue1 a1opxanoa, 1o ao1
kak 6mno na caHoH pene. 1annn, kak pacckasmaae1 .nHonoa,
pec1an1enLno, nonpocnn ocao6opn1L ero no c1apoc1n o1 ponxnoc1n
IenepanLnoro cekpe1apn. 1orpa "na nnue Manenkoaa, - nnue1 nHonoa, - n
yanpen yxacnoe ampaxenne - ne 1o, u1o6 ncnyra, ne1, ne ncnyra, - a
ampaxenne, ko1opoe Hoxe1 6m1L y uenoaeka, ncnee acex ppyrnx...
ocosnaauero 1y cHep1enLnyk onacnoc1L, ko1opan naancna y acex nap
ronoaaHn n ko1opyk eue ne ocosnann ppyrne: nenLsn cornaua1Lcn na a1y
npocL6y 1oaapnua 1annna... nuo Manenkoaa, ero xec1m, ero ampasn1enLno
aospe1me pykn 6mnn npnHo HonL6o ko aceH npncy1c1aykunH neHepnenno n
peun1enLno o1kasa1L 1annny a a1o npocL6e. Manenkoa "nonnn cpasy, u1o
1annn aoace ne co6npancn o1kasmaa1Lcn o1 noc1a IenepanLnoro cekpe1apn,
u1o a1o npo6a, npouynmaanne o1nouennn nnenyHa k noc1aanennoHy nH
aonpocy. "orpa san sarypen n sakpnuan, u1o 1annn ponxen oc1a1Lcn na
noc1y IenepanLnoro cekpe1apn... nnuo Manenkoaa, n xopouo noHnk a1o, 6mno
nnuoH uenoaeka, ko1oporo 1onLko u1o Hnnoaana npnHan, peanLnan
cHep1enLnan onacnoc1L, no1oHy u1o nHenno on... a cnyuae ppyroro peuennn
aonpoca 6mn ec1ec1aenno kanpnpa1ypo na... noc1 1oaapnua 1annna,
ko1opm 1o1 nko6m xo1en oc1aan1L ns-sa c1apoc1n n yc1anoc1n. nouyac1ay
1annn, u1o... ec1L c1oponnnkn 1oro, u1o6m ypoane1aopn1L ero npocL6y,
pyHak, nepam, k1o o1ae1nn 6m sa a1o ronoao, 6mn 6m Manenkoa
(.nHonoa, un1. cou. c.244-246).
paxpe6nyk eHy rpynnnpoaky 1annn ne1pannsoaan. ao-nepamx, kak yxe
roaopnnocL, pac1aopna ee a pacunpennoH pesnpnyHe, a, ao-a1opmx, cospaa
any1pn pesnpnyHa 6kpo ns pean1n uenoaek, a ko1opoe ne aounn Mono1oa n
Mnkonn, a qak1nueckn (no Xpyueay) 6mnn ncknkuenm 1akxe opounnoa n
aranoanu. npaunaae1cn: kako xe nerenpapnm "pesnpnyH sacepan 1
Hap1a 1953 ropa?
ak coo6uae1 .onkoronoa, nospno aeuepoH 28 qeapann k 1annny na pauy
npnexann Manenkoa, epnn, Xpyuea n ynrannn. npenn po ue1mpex uacoa
y1pa 1 Hap1a. konuy nouno 6ecepm 1annn 6mn pasppaxen, ne ckpmaan
caoero nepoaonLc1aa Mono1oamH, ManenkoamH, epne, poc1anocL n Xpyueay.
onLko a appec ynrannna on ne npoponnn nn cnoaa. (pnyHq n 1parepnn
kn.II, u.2, c.191,193). ak anpnH, ns acero pesnpnyHa 6mno acero ue1mpe
uenoaeka n nnkakoro aranoanua.
InaanmHn pec1aykunHn nnuaHn a 1o apeHn 6mnn nHenno a1n pae napm:
Manenkoa-epnn n ynrannn- Xpyuea. Xo1n cmn Manenkoaa n yaepne1
1enepL, u1o ero o1eu ne 6mn coksnnkoH epnn, a1o y1aepxpenne onpoaeprae1
.onkoronoa, ko1opm nnue1: 1annn "aaen neoqnunanLnme "npaanna
noaepennn a cpepe caonx copa1nnkoa. nn, nanpnHep, ne nHenn npaaa
necankunonnpoaanno co6npa1Lcn aHec1e (paoe, 1poe nnn 1eH 6onee -
neckonLko uenoaek) y koro-nn6o ns nnx a ka6nne1e, na kaap1npe, na paue. D1o
cun1anocL nopospn1enLnmH n ne opo6pnnocL. cknkuenne penanocL nnuL pnn
epnn, ko1opm 6mn 6nnsok c ManenkoamH n uac1o espnn c nnH a opno
Haunne na pauy nnn o6pa1no (un1. cou., c.131). Manenkoa amc1ynan a 1952
ropy a ponn kponnpnnua, sakonnoro nacnepnnka 1annna, a epnn
6noknpoaancn c nnH, no nonoxenne epnn nocne "HnnrpenLckoro pena cnnLno
noua1nynocL. Ha cHeny a1o napouke nopnnHancn 1anpeH noamx qaaopn1oa
1annna - ynrannn n Xpyuea.
.n1onoa-aceenko nanpacno cun1ae1 ynrannna "6naroo6pasnmH c1a1nc1oH.
xe a 1952 ropy cospaaanocL aneua1nenne, u1o ynrannn ckopo Hoxe1 sann1L
a ceppue 1annna Hec1o Manenkoaa. ynrannn pec1an1enLno saHennn
Manenkoaa, no ne a ceppue 1annna, a na noc1y npepcepa1enn oae1a
Hnnnc1poa a nauane 1955 ropa.
nok ynrannna c XpyueamH 6mn ec1ec1aennmH: nepep aono Xpyuea
aosrnaannn Hockoackyk nap1oprannsaunk, a ynrannn 6mn npepcepa1eneH
ncnonkoHa Moccoae1a. 1941 ropy ynrannn nopansancn na ponnx unena
oennoro coae1a 3anapnoro qpon1a, 1o ec1L coc1onn koHnccapoH npn ykoae,
n c 1ex nop c1an cun1a1Lcn aoennmH cneunannc1oH. ocne aonm on c1an
HapuanoH, Hnnnc1poH o6oponm n unenoH onn16kpo.
Ho a 1953 ropy Manenkoa eue cnpen o1nocn1enLno npouno, nap epne xe k
1oHy apeHenn yxe naancna nenocpepc1aennan yrposa, noa1oHy, ecnn sapa1L
aonpoc: koHy Horna 6m1L amropno cHep1L 1annna? - o1ae1 ponro ncka1L ne
npnpe1cn. pexpe acero - epnn n "c1apo raappnn, npnueH peanLnmHn
pmuaraHn n aosHoxnoc1nHn pnn yc1panennn 1annna pacnonaran 1onLko
epnn.
Hy, anyuae1 naH 1enepL .a1opxanoa, n ponxen 6m1L 6naropapen coae1ckn
napop sa oprannsaunk 1anoro y6nc1aa 1annna n npepo1apauenne noao
unc1kn. ycoqo6ckn koHnnekc, ko1opmH c1papae1 ueueneu a1opxanoa, nano
annne1 na am6op nH 1aknx xe pycoqo6oa na ponL repoea: 1ak, a
"poncxoxpennn nap1okpa1nn on npocnaanne1 poukoro kak "nacnepnnka
ennna, a a "3arapke cHep1n 1annna epnk kak cnacn1enn naue c1panm.
ak 1exnnueckn ocyuec1ann epnn cao uepnm saHmcen, Hm, oueanpno,
nnkorpa ne ysnaeH. onum a nopo6nmx cnyuanx saunuak1cn ouenL
ocnoaa1enLno, a ncnonnn1enn nnkanpnpyk1cn na neckonLknx ypoannx. Ho o
caHoH qak1e y6nc1aa Hm HoxeH c yaepennoc1Lk roaopn1L nHenno kak o
qak1e. ak nnue1 .n1onoa-aceenko, "a xope cype6noro paccnepoaannn,
ecnn 6m ono coc1onnocL npn xnsnn saroaopunkoa, Hoxno 6mno 6m nerko
o6o1ncL 6es nnunmx npnsnann aapen1nn epnn n ero coyuac1nnkoa.
nonne xaa1nno 6m kocaennmx ynnk. ocnqa 1annna yc1pannn ero aepnm
copa1nnk. npnHme ynnkn cropenn aHec1e c 1oaapnueH aapen1neH a neun
Mockoackoro kpeHa1opnn 23 peka6pn 1953 ropa ("noc1L, 1988, N12).
.onkoronoa nm1ae1cn aocnponsaec1n Hmcnn 1annna cnepykunH o6pasoH:
on yxe ne aepnn ne c1onLko apauaH, ckonLko epnn, ko1opm xosnnnuan a 4-
H InaanoH ynpaanennn Mnnsppaaa (un1. cou., c.75). npaannLno penan, u1o
ne aepnn, no epnn 1eH ne Henee saHannn 1annna a noayuky,
aocnonLsoaaauncL kak pas npncyue aoxpk rnnep1poqnpoaanno
nopospn1enLnoc1Lk. nenmH opypneH npoaokaunn c1ana npnn nHauyk,
ko1opyk ..m6nn po cnx nop npocnaanne1 kak "na1pno1ky naue opnnm
("ycckn ec1nnk, 1991, N17). ec1annHn nHauyk yHeno pykoaopnnn
aren1m epnn. epnn xopouo nonnHan, u1o eHy 1annn Hoxe1 n ne noaepn1L,
noa1oHy xn1poc1L saHmcna saknkuanacL a 1oH, u1o6m noaeprny1L a nannky
Mnnnc1epc1ao o6oponm, 1.e. ynrannna. a1o uenLk apec1oaannmH "apauaH-
apepn1ennH n npnnncmaann a oqnunanLnoH coo6uennn, ony6nnkoaannoH 13
nnaapn 1953 ropa, nnanm y6nc1aa Hapuana Ioaopoaa, renepana 1eHenko,
apHnpana eauenko.
6 nc1nnno uenn npoaokaunonnoro "pena apaue cpasy porapancn 6maun
koHHynnc1 Opanu opkenay, ko1opm nncan a neHeuko rase1e "annuep
Mepkyp 23 nnaapn 1953 ropa: "pec1 nnunmx apaue 1annna osnauae1
saroaop npo1na nero ero copa1nnkoa ao rnaae c ManenkoamH - onn xo1n1
npnc1aan1L k 1annny caonx apaue, u1o6m peun1L ero cypL6y (un1. no knnre
.a1opxanoaa. "3arapka cHep1n 1annna, c.171).
Mepnkn, nasnauennme aHec1o apec1oaannmx apaue, n 6mnn nac1onunHn
"y6nuaHn a 6enmx xana1ax, n nx 1oxe y6pann, kak 1onLko onn cpenann caoe
rpnsnoe peno, no yaepennk rase1m "3eHunna (1992, M72), - yxe a Hap1e
1953 ropa. u1o6m nnk1o ne Hor noHeua1L, aokpyr 1annna cospann nyc1o1y.
non6pe 1952 ropa o1 pa6o1m o1c1pannnn ncnm1annoro cekpe1apn 1annna
.H.ockpe6mueaa. epnn y6epnn 1annna, u1o "aosHoxno, ockpe6muea
cansan c penoH apaue n ero npnpe1cn npoaepn1L. 16 peka6pn 1952 ropa
6mn apec1oaan nauanLnnk nnuno oxpanm 1annna renepan H..nacnk,
ko1opoHy 1oxe 6mno npepLnaneno o6annenne a "no1aka1enLc1ae apauaH-
o1paan1ennH. 15 qeapann 1953 ropa anesanno ckonuancn koHenpan1
peHnn, renepan .ocmnknn. cnn 6m 1annna pec1an1enLno oponenn a
o1kpm1oH 6ok, ropopn1L aecL a1o oropop 6mno 6m nesaueH.
cnn aepn1L a1opxanoay, 1annn ycnen eue pacnpaan1Lcn c opnnH ns caonx
6maunx copa1nnkoa MexnncoH. ornacno 1pak1oake a1opxanoaa, "nnockan
nornka an1nceHn1a eHy (1annny) nopckasmaana: ecnn eape, 1o cnonnc1
(3arapka cHep1n 1annna, c.197). Mexnnc 6mn apec1oaan a apa1oae n yHep a
eqop1oacko 1kpLHe 13 qeapann 1953 ropa, no 1annn noueHy-1o ne
saxo1en npepaaa1L a1o peno ornacke n yc1ponn Mexnncy rocypapc1aennme
noxoponm na pacno nnouapn.
Hy a no1oH, kak y1aepxpae1 a1opxanoa, "epnn, Manenkoa, Xpyuea n
ynrannn coaepunnn a nouL c 28 qeapann na 1 Hap1a 1953 ropa nepeaopo1,
saayannpoaannm ccmnko na 6onesnL 1annna n "ao HnoroH nanoHnnakun
paopuoam nepeaopo1 npo1na aana I (1aH xe, c.199,217).
ennkn sna1ok 1an Happnpckoro, cnpeuL kpeHneackoro paopa a1opxanoa
nanpacno npnnnen k saroaopy yn rannna n Xpyueaa, - onn n 1ak unn k
anac1n, n cHep1L 1annna Horna 1onLko sa1opHosn1L nx uec1ane (n
sa1opHosnna na paa ropa). Ho ao1 o HaconckoH saroaope npo1na aana 1
a1opxanoa acnoHnnn ouenL kc1a1n.
pepmpyuan uac1L konuanacL cnoaaHn: ns6pannme na XIX cLespe amcune
opranm nHenn opny oco6ennoc1L, o ko1opo nnk1o po cnx nop eue ne roaopnn
n ne nncan. oncnnH 1enepL, a ueH peno.
1976 ropy a 1aH6yne na 1ypeukoH nsmke amuna knnra "Maconc1ao a Hnpe n
a ypunn. e aa1op, Xacan xeH, nnkoHy a ypunn ne nsaec1en, 1o ec1L
uenoaek npnkpmncn nceaponnHoH. 1980 ropy, nocne aoennoro nepeaopo1a,
nponsaepennoro renepanoH .DapenoH, 1npax a1o knnrn 6mn ynnu1oxen.
HencnoaepnHmHn ny1nHn a a1y knnry, nocanuennyk, rnaanmH o6pasoH,
ypunn, nonan cnncok amcokonoc1aanennmx coae1cknx Haconoa,
pa1npoaannm, cypn no aceHy, konuoH 50-x ropoa. oxoxe, u1o k1o-1o
nepenncmaan a1o1 cnncok a1oponnx, c ornnpko, nopo6no coae1cko
pasaepunue ns c1aporo qnnLHa "ekpe1nan Hnccnn, 6oncL, kak 6m ero sa a1nH
sann1neH ne sac1ykann n ne npnc1yknynn.
paannH 1enepL 1ypeukn cnncok n cnnckn ns6pannnkoa XIX cLespa. o6onx
cnyuanx npepc1aanenm cnepykune qaHnnnn:
pesnpnyH : aranoanu, opo1uenko, epayxnn, onoHapenko, a6ypoa,
ycnoa, aepnnk.
anpnpa1m a unenm pesnpnyHa : 3aepea, pnn .. onoHapenko n
ycnoa 6mnn opnoapeHenno am6panm cekpe1apnHn , a a koHnccnk no
nepepa6o1ke nporpaHHm nap1nn nonann aranoanu, ocnenoa, a6ypoa n
pnn .O.
nenm : a6akoa, annnkoa, npnuenko, opneuyk, pyrnoa, Mn1nn,
ocnenoa.
anpnpa1m a unenm : Iopuennn, annnnoa, annckn, nHepnn, opnneu,
aunc, Mannk, Hocenko, asep, .nHonoa, a1annn, pnn ..
nen en1panLno peansnonno koHnccnn - Iopknn (cekpe1apL npesnpnyHa
epxoanoro coae1a).
1enepL "nnqopHaunn k pasHmunennk kak nk6n1 ampaxa1Lcn .eHenoa.
pnnc1aennme paa noamx unena, ko1opme oc1anncL a coc1aae pesnpnyHa
nocne cHep1n 1annna, - Haconm epayxnn n a6ypoa. aepnnk n
onoHapenko ypepxanncL a kanpnpa1ax.
onn1no 1enepL, noueHy onoHapenko nopneaan Dpen6ypry? Dpen6ypr, kc1a1n,
on 1y1 xe pnpmukoH. a 1oH xe 1ypeukoH cnncke.
ekpe1apna1 nocne pnpa nep1yp6aun, ko1opme on nepexnn nocne cHep1n
1annna, korpa ns nero yuen Manenkoa, aouen n c1onL xe 6mc1po amuen
Hnnnc1p roc6esonacnoc1n ..rna1Lea, aosrnaann Xpyuea, a 1peHn ero
noppyunmHn c1ann ycnoa, ocnenoa, n a1annn - ace 1poe Haconm. aknH
xe o6pasoH, aaxneuee a cnc1eHe nap1okpa1nn saeno anac1n, cekpe1apna1
, okasancn a pykax Haconoa.
mc1pe acex couen co cuenm aHec1e co caonH nokpoan1eneH ManenkoamH
H.H.a1annn - popno pnpn nmne npocnaanennoro akapeHnka ..a1annna,
ko1opm paa ropa nasap nopmaancn sa 500 pne o6yc1pon1L nauy akonoHnky.
onLue pepxancn a cekpe1apnx n paxe pocnyxnncn po kanpnpa1oa a
unenm pesnpnyHa .H.ocnenoa (OerenLcon) ko1opm, no npnsnannk
Xpyueaa, ro1oann pnn nero snaHenn1m sakpm1m poknap o kynL1e nnunoc1n
na XX cLespe, a npn 1annne caH paspyaan a1o1 kynL1, 6ypyun aa1opoH
oqnunanLno 6norpaqnn 1annna aHec1e c payHn ppyrnHn HaconaHn
akapeHnkoH M..Mn1nnmH, ko1opm rpoHnn rene1nkoa na ceccnn XH a
aaryc1e 1948 ropa, n I.O.nekcanppoamH, c1aanennnkoH Manenkoaa a
ynpaanennn nponaranpm . Macon, kak anpnH, nnua ne nHee1 n npn nk6o
cn1yaunn c1apae1cn oc1a1Lcn naaepxy. Ho caHo snoaeue qnrypo a
cekpe1apna1e 1953 ropa nspannn 6mn ycnoa.
1955 ropy ycnoa cnoaa aouen a coc1aa pesnpnyHa. 1957 ropy on ne
cpenan 1ako rnynoc1n kak ennnoa, n npnnnn c1opony Xpyueaa, nonnHan,
u1o Xpyueaa ne ypac1cn caeprny1L po 1ex nop, noka ero noppepxnaae1 ykoa,
a 1onLko 6naropapn noppepxke ykoaa o6osnnauerocn na 1annna sa onany,
Xpyuea n cHor pasaepny1L kaHnannk no paso6nauennk "kynL1a nnunoc1n.
ycnoa pec1aoaan c He1opnuno noc1enennoc1Lk a ok1n6pe 1957 ropa on
oprannsoaan o1c1aaky ykoaa, aocnonLsoaaauncL noespko Hapuana a
rocnaank n n6annk, n amc1ynnn na nnenyHe c o6nnun1enLnmH
poknapoH npo1na ykoaa, a uepes ceHL ne1, a ok1n6pe 1964 ropa oprannsoaan
caepxenne n caHoro Xpyueaa.
Xpyuea snan, k1o 6mn rnaano npyxnno nn1pnrn. n kpnuan 1orpa a
ceppuax: " snak, k1o a1o yc1ponn! D1a c1annnckan rnnc1a, ycnoa!
orpaunnn ponL ycnoaa 6mna poaonLno xopouo nsaec1na yxe a 1e apeHena,
a1o no1oH noc1ynnna - nonn1no, no kaknH kananaH, - koHanpa o1opanra1L
ycnoaa na a1opo nnan, n ao1 yxe cnnHae1cn qnnLH "epme aonkn o
caepxennn Xpyueaa, n no a1oHy qnnLHy ycnoa ysnae1 o naHepennn
aepxyukn cHec1n1L Xpyueaa opnnH ns nocnepnnx ("euepnn kny6, 12 Han
1992 r.).
a xe caHan 1enpenunn saHasmaa1L snauenne ycnoaa xapak1epna n pnn
nspanno a 1989 ropy knnrn .onoaLeaa n .nennkoao "peHneackne
saroaopm - o1 cHep1n 1annna po Iop6aueaa. a1o knnre nnnuna1naa
ampanxennn Iop6aueaa npnnncmaae1cn ne ycnoay, a npponoay. Mexpy 1eH
nHenno ycnoa 6mn rnaanmH kypa1opoH 1aapononLckoro kpan, rpe on 6mn
nepamH cekpe1apeH nepep aono. Henno c nopaun ycnoaa asne1enn c a1oro
1paHnnnna na amcun ypoaenL no opno n 1o xe 1paek1opnn - cnauana
cekpe1apL no cenLckoHy xosnc1ay, no1oH unen onn16kpo - cnauana
O..ynakoa, a nocne sarapouno cHep1n ynakoaa a 1978 ropy -
M..Iop6auea.
ycnoa n a a1oH cnyuae pec1aoaan co caoe o6muno He1opnunoc1Lk:
cnauana nyxno 6mno npoaec1n c1pany uepes pnn1enLnm nepnop sac1on,
rnnennn, noa1oHy ycnoa n noppepxan a 1964 ropy pexneaa. pexnea
noHnnn, koHy o6nsan. o canpe1enLc1ay .asoaa, ycnoa 6mn
"epnnc1aennmH, koro eue no6anaancn nnn c1ecnnncn pexnea (.asoa.
3popoaLe n anac1L. M,, 1992, c.132).
Hy, a korpa c1pana a poc1a1ouno Hepe crnnna, o1 sanyuennoro naaepx ns
cycnoacko, Haconcko ka1anynL1m Iop6aueaa ne 1pe6oaanocL yxe oco6o
rennanLnoc1n n oco6mx ycnnn, u1o6m paspyun1L rocypapc1ao caoe
"nepec1poko. ap1nn co apeHen ennna 6mna nappeccnpoaana na
HexannueckoH cnepoaannn sa nnpepoH, n poc1a1ouno 6mno aneppn1L na a1o
Hec1o kosna-npoaoka1opa, kak nap1nn c1onL xe nocnyuno nocnepoaana n sa
nnH - a nponac1L. Heuno, koneuno, u1o ceropnn .nennk penae1 ns 1akoro
saypnpnoro aneppenua, kak Iop6auea, "knnsn 1LHm, uy1L nn ne n1nxpnc1a.
Ho 6es uep1oaunnkn 1y1 n a caHoH pene ne o6ounocL. ycckn napop, kak
1onLko paccHo1pen Iop6aueaa na akpanax 1eneansopoa, cpasy acnoHnnn
nocnoanuy "or uenLHy He1n1. HaconaH amcoko c1enenn nocanuennn
nsaec1na cnHaonnka "nn1na na uepene, cansL a1o cnHaonnkn c nnane1o
nn1ep, Hec1o a1o nnane1m a cnc1eHe pLnaonLcknx cnn n 1.p.. n 1.n. Ho ne
6ypeH apaaa1Lcn a a1n pe6pn - Hm aepL roaopnH o nonn1nke, a ne o Hnc1nke.
epneHcn k o6c1on1enLc1aaH, ko1opme npepuec1aoaann HaconckoHy
nepeaopo1y 1953 ropa n aosnnknn a pesynL1a1e ero. nkne 1953 ropa a ponn
nepaoro cekpe1apn oHnap1nn kpannm .MenLnnkoaa cHennn Hacon
..npnuenko (ne ny1a1L c neHaconoH ..npnnenko, unenoH onn16kpo a
1962-1982 ropax). 1955 ropy npnuenko aHec1e c ycnoamH aouen a
pesnpnyH , a a 1957 ropy c1an a1opmH nocne Xpyueaa uenoaekoH a nap1nn
n oc1aaancn nH po caoe onanm a 1960 ropy.
kpanna aoo6ue 6mna nk6nHo pouepLk Haconc1aa, aosHoxno, co apeHen
ennkoro Hac1epa .e1nkpm. Henno a a1o pecny6nnke k 1953 ropy
aosnnkno aecLHa connpnoe Haconckoe rnespo. nape c npnuenko pa6o1an
1orpaunn npepcepa1enL oae1a Hnnnc1poa, a nosxe npepcepa1enL
npesnpnyHa epxoanoro coae1a kpannm ..opo1uenko. paHa1ypr
.opneuyk ne 1onLko caH 6mn Hacon, no n xena ero anpa acnneackan,
pouL Hacona eona acnneackoro, coc1onna a nonLcko noxe "paa uenoaeka
(eon Xan. onLckoe Haconc1ao 1920-1938 rr., apuaaa, 1984, c.437).
kpannm nepe6pancn a Mockay n Hnnnc1p saro1oaok ..opnneu.
Maconm sannHann uenm pnp aaxnmx Hnnnc1epcknx noc1oa acecoksnoro
snauennn. .n1onoa-aceenko nponnsnpye1, nanpnHep, u1o Hnnnc1p
any1pennnx pen .H.pyrnoa a nkne 1953 ropa, korpa epnn ro1oann noam
nepeaopo1, ampan caoero ueqa c ronoao. uero nponnsnpoaa1L? ak
npnkasann, 1ak n cpenan.
popeHcn HnHo peHneacko c1enm n noHaueH ae1ouko akaunn okono 1aknx
qaHnnn, kak ..pnn (Hnnnc1p npoHmunennoc1n c1poHa1epnanoa ),
..nxauea (1o1 caHm, nHeneH ko1oporo nasaan nsaec1nm aa1osaaop),
..Hocenko (Hnnnc1p cypoc1pon1enLno npoHmunennoc1n) ..annnkoa
(napkoH aoopyxennn a ropm aonm)... ce onn o11ypa xe, ns 1oro xe
1ypeukoro cnncka.
6nokn o1 n6nonn nepaneko napak1. oHnneH n koe-koro ns cmnoae nx, n ne
ypnanHcn, u1o opnn ns cmnoae Hocenko, anpnm co1pypnnk I, a 60-x ropax
c6exan na 3anap, a ppyro, pa6o1an a nc1n1y1e aoc1okoaepennn, acerpa
saunuan o1 kpn1nkn cnonnsH.
cnoHnnH n Haconckn nosynr: "Haconm - a1o nkpn, ko1opmH nnu1o ne Hoxe1
6m1L noc1aaneno a anny. D1o1 nosynr cnac o1 pacc1pena Hnnnc1pa pm6no
npoHmunennoc1n ukoaa - aHec1o nero a 1982 ropy pacc1pennnn ero nepaoro
saHec1n1enn m1oaa.
1oro apeHenn, korpa 6mn coc1aanen 1ypeukn cnncok, Hnorne ns
nepeuncnennmx a neH, ycnenn yHepe1L, no neko1opme eue ponro oc1aaanncL
na pykoaopnunx noc1ax, nanpnHep, H..a6akoa, ko1opm paapua1L c
nnunnH ne1 aosrnaannn Iocnnan. Henno ero nokpoan1enLc1ay o6nsana caonH
yc1poc1aoH a Mockae snaHenn1an xyna aan1auannn, ko1opan nanne1cn
1enepL a occnn rnaano npepc1aan1enLnnue ManL1nckoro oppena n a
npounoH ropy nocan1nna a pmuapn a1oro oppena .H.nLunna (cH. c1a1Lk "
uLeH c1ane aonn? - "ycckn ec1nnk, 1992, N24). He1, ne spn acnoHnnn
a1opxanoa ppyroro HanL1nckoro kaaanepa, aana I, ox, ne spn! Hn1n o1 1oro,
u1o nponsouno a 1953 ropy, 1nny1cn a ceropnnunn penL, n ec1L kakoe-1o
Hnc1nueckoe coanapenne a 1oH, u1o 1annn npoxnn 73 nonnmx ropa n c1onLko
xe nonnmx ne1 npocyuec1aoaana koHHynnc1nueckan anac1L,
Ho a caHoH nanennn 1annna nnuero Hnc1nueckoro ne 6mno. c1L ouenL ue1kan
nornka nc1opnn, nornka peaonkun. esynL1a1oH kaxpo peaonkunn
nanne1cn, coaceH no Ierenk, "o1pnuanne o1pnuannn: ns pnpoa caHnx
peaonkunonepoa ampenne1cn uenoaek, ko1opm noaopaunaae1 nc1opnk
acnn1L. c1L kakan-1o sakonoHepnoc1L n a 1oH, u1o a1n nkpn o6muno ne
npnnapnexa1 k napopy, coc1aannkueHy ocnoanyk Haccy nacenennn c1panm, a
ko1opo nponcxopn1 peaonkunn. annneu poHaenL, kopcnkaneu Hanoneon,
rpysnn 1annn - c oroaopkaHn a a1o1 pnp Hoxno aknkun1L n aac1pnua
In1nepa.
3a uyHno kpn1nko "kynL1a nnunoc1n acerpa ckpmaanocL xenanne ee
oprannsa1opoa nnsaeprny1L naunonanLnme uennoc1n, aocc1anoanennme a nx
snauennn a 30- x ropax 1annnmH. nneamaanne 1annna npepnpnnnHanocL c
1o uenLk, u1o6m a1nH cnoco6oH kocaenno onneaa1L occnk. kak a 30-x
ropax, o ueH yxe roaopnnocL, nnunme nn1epecm 1annna coanann c
naunonanLnmHn nn1epecaHn occnn, 1ak n ceropnn nonoxn1enLnan nnn
o1pnua1enLnan ouenka 1annna okasmaae1cn 1ecneunH o6pasoH cansanno c
coo1ae1c1aykunH o1nouenneH k occnn, c1opnn c amuepkny1mH ns nee
1annnmH a1o occnn, amuepkny1an ns nc1opnn.
20 ok1n6pn 1992 ropa, Mockaa
: , 200 .
pyrne pa6o1m na1onnn Mnxanoanua aanoaa m nape1e na
!""# $%%$!&'()$%&# %"!"%
*+ +,-.
cnn am xo1n1e aa1oHa1nueckn nonyua1L nnqopHaunk o acex o6noanennnx na ca1e,
nopnnun1ecL na paccmnky --> "$ "/$ %%" +0.