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2
I.........................................................................................................................2
II........................................................................................................................5
III.....................................................................................................................10
IV.....................................................................................................................12
V......................................................................................................................18
VI.....................................................................................................................27
VII....................................................................................................................30
VIII...................................................................................................................36
IX.....................................................................................................................42
X......................................................................................................................50
XI.....................................................................................................................56
XII....................................................................................................................67
XIII...................................................................................................................74
XIV...................................................................................................................81
XV....................................................................................................................89
XVI..................................................................................................................101
..............................................................................................................106
I. n1m.........................................................................................................106
II. Cen1m........................................................................................................114
III. pnopckne xnnenne..............................................................................124
IV. ccnpnum; eapen; xopenne..........................................................................133
V.....................................................................................................................139
VI...................................................................................................................155
VII..................................................................................................................162
B...............................................................................................................168
I.....................................................................................................................168
II. san1ne 6pxnns..................................................................................183
III. Byppns; ero nopxenne; nmneunnn npnn...................................................194
IV. Xen1n pc................................................................................................200
V. n1um.......................................................................................................204
VI. c1okn 6eno pcm......................................................................................216
.........................................................................................................225
I.....................................................................................................................225
II. 3opoc1pnum..............................................................................................228
III. a1ox1onnme rpekn; cen1ckne nocenenum; pnum-annnnm............................237
IV. Cen1ckne rpekn..........................................................................................255
................................................................................................................264
I. [peanne xn1enn aponm................................................................................264
II. Opknum; nnnnpnum; a1pyckn; n6epnum....................................................275
III. nnm........................................................................................................281
IV. a1ox1onnme n1nnckne npopm..................................................................300
V. nppennckne a1pyckn. D1pycckn n............................................................306
VI. 1nnckn n..........................................................................................314
VII. Cen1ckn n...........................................................................................322
LC.............................................................................................................338
I. Cnanne. Dnox anpmuec1a porepncknx npopoa pncko pcm..................338
II. pnum-repnum........................................................................................349
III. epame repnckne pcm.............................................................................357
IV. epnckn n. ono-kenL1ckne n pono-repnckne pnn. epnckne
nnep1opm...............................................................................................................369
V. ocnepnne nepecenennn pnuea-cknpnnaoa................................................386
VI. ocnepnnn anox repno-ponckoro o6uec1a.............................................393
VII. epnknckne 6opnrenm............................................................................402
VIII. aponeckn kononnsunn epnkn.............................................................415
6uee sknkuenne.....................................................................................................420

, ,
, .
I
.
pyuenne unannnsun - cm nopsn1enLnm n opnoapeenno cm nenonn1nm
ns acex nc1opnuecknx qenoenoa. yrn aoo6pxenne, a1 1prepnn 1n1 a ce6e
c1onLko 1nnc1aennoro n rpnpnosnoro, u1o mcnn1enn ne nepec1k1 o6pu1Lcn k
ney, nsyu1L ero n snn1Lcn ero cekpe1o. e1 nnkkoro conennn a 1o, u1o
poxpenne n qopnpoanne npopoa pk1 nk6onm1nyk nnuy pnn psmunenn:
psan1ne nun, nx ycnexn, nx no6epm n poc1nxennn ne ory1 ne nopsn1L
aoo6pxenne; no kk 6m snunm nn ksnncL a1n qk1m, o6Lncnenne nx ne
npepc1anne1 1pyp - nx nonrk1 npoc1m cnepc1ane nn1ennek1ynLnmx
cnoco6noc1e uenoaek; npnsna 1kne cnoco6noc1n, yxe ne npnxopn1cn ypnann1Lcn
nx pesynL11; yxe caon cyuec1aoanne onn o6Lncnnk1 aennkne co6m1nn,
nc1oko ko1opmx onn nannk1cn. kn o6pso, a a1o nnne nn s1pypnenn, nn
conenn ne npepnonre1cn. o korp m anpn, kk nocne onpepenennoro nepnop
cnam n oryuec1a ace nunn sknunak1 ynpko n kpxo - n noa1opnk, ace,
ne o1penLnme ns nnx; korp m anpn ps6pocnnme no ace sene kpcnopeuname a
caoe c1puno oueanpnoc1n o6nokn unannnsun, npepuec1aykunx nue, n ne
1onLko unannnsun nsaec1nmx, no n nornx ppyrnx, nsann ko1opmx m ne sne,
1kxe n 1ex, ko1opme, nokoncL nmne a anpe okeneaunx ckene1oa a rnyun necoa,
nou1n coapeennnkoa senn, kk ampsnncn y6onLp1, ne oc1annn n pxe nek
n nn1L o ce6e; korp m, aosapuncL k coapeennm rocyppc1a, ocosne nx
neaepon1nyk onopoc1L n nonne, u1o onn nonannncL 1onLko auep n u1o
neko1opme ns nnx yxe oppnxnenn, ao1 1orp m y6expecn, ne 6es ponn
qnnocoqckoro yxc, nckonLko cnoa npopokoa o neyc1ounaoc1n aeue o1nocn1cn
ne 1onLko k unannnsunn, no n k npop, ne 1onLko k npop, no n rocyppc1a,
ne 1onLko k rocyppc1a, no n k o1penLnm nnunoc1n, n n npnxopn1cn
konc11npoa1L, u1o nk6n o6unoc1L nkpe, nyc1L pxe sunuennn cmn
coaepuennmn o6uec1aennmn cansnn n o1nouennnn, nunne1 psnr1Lcn c
nepaoro pnn caoero o6psoannn n s acen anpnmn aneen1n xnsnn nece1 a
ce6e npnnunn nens6exno cep1n.
k a ue xe sknkue1cn a1o1 npnnunn? k nn on opnopopen, kk ero pesynL11, n
ace nn unannnsunn ynpk1 o1 opnnkoamx npnunn?
nepam asrnnp nnpunae1cn o1pnu1enLnm o1ae1, nockonLky noxec1ao
nnepn - ccnpnn, rnne1, peunn, n - pyxnynn a pesynL11e c1euennn
nenoxoxnx ppyr n ppyr o6c1on1enLc1a. e ne enee, cnnn koxypy anpnoc1n, m
o6npyxnae a a1o nens6exnoc1n konu, ko1opn neo1ap1no ancn1 np acen
nunnn 6es ncknkuennn, nnnune, xo1n n ckpm1oe, o6ue npnunnm, n ncxopn ns
a1oro oueanpnoro npnnunn ec1ec1aenno cep1n, nesancno o1 cnyuea cep1n
ncnnLc1aenno, m y6expecn, u1o ace unannnsunn uepes kkoe-1o apen
o6npyxnak1 a ce6e rny6nnnme no1pncennn, 1pypno onpepennme, no o1 a1oro ne
enee penLnme, ko1opme ao acex pernonx n ao ace apeen nek1 nnornunm
xpk1ep; nkoneu, seun oueanpnyk psnnuy expy kpyuenne rocyppc1a n
konuo unannnsun, n6nkpn, kk opnn n 1o1 xe kynL1ypnm qk1op 1o ynopno
coxpnne1cn a kko-nn6ypL c1pne, nxopnuecn nop uyxesenm anpmuec1ao,
neco1pn n cme k1c1poqnueckne co6m1nn, 1o, nnpo1na, ncuese1 nnn
1pncqopnpye1cn nepep nnuo nesnun1enLnmx neasrop, m ace 6onLue npnxopn k
mcnn o 1o, u1o npnnunn cep1n, nexun a ocnoae acex nun, npncyu ne 1onLko
n, no n ace oc1nLnm.
Mon nccnepoannn, nsnoxennme specL, nocanuenm pcco1pennk a1oro axnoro
qk1.
, xnayun a pnnyk anoxy, nepam amnno ysn1L, u1o nk6n o6unoc1L nkpe n
cansnnn c ne nn1ennek1ynLnn kynL1yp o6peuenm n rn6enL. npexnne apeen
a1oro ne snnn. n1nunyk anoxy n oc1oke pennrnosnoe cospnne, nsynennoe
spennue aennknx nonn1nuecknx k1c1poq, o1nocnno nx s cue1 ne6ecno uym,
nncnocnnno s rpexn npop; cun1nocL, u1o 1koe nksnne ponxno npnaec1n k
noknnnk ppyrnx rpeunnkoa, eue ne nksnnmx. apen, nnoxo nonnaune cmcn
Bn6nnn nonrnn, u1o nx nnepnn nnkorp ne konun1cn. n, pxe korp on nunnn
knonn1Lcn k ynpky, ne coneancn a caoe aeunoc1n, o ue canpe1enLc1aye1 epe
Lepn a caoe knnre nnnn nop pnckn anpmuec1ao. mneunee nokonenne ne
1onLko yanpeno 6onLue, no nnoro 6onLue nonnno: ne1 conenn a cep1noc1n
uenoaek, no1oy u1o ace nkpn, xnaune po nc, yepnn, 1ouno 1k xe m 1aeppo
sne, u1o cou1enm n pnn npopoa, xo1n nx cyuec1aoanne pnn1cn ponLue, 1k kk
cpepn nc ne1 1ex, k1o upnn korp-1o po nc. oa1oy pnn nponcnennn nuero
aonpoc ne c1on1 npn6er1L k yppoc1n ppeannx, ko1opme ory1 n npepnoxn1L
opno-epnnc1aennoe qynpen1nLnoe seunne, nenno: nnnune 6oxec1aennoro
nepc1, ynpannkuero a1n npo, npnue a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao npnsne1cn ao ace
nonno1e, ko1opyk ey npnnncmae1 k1onnueckn uepkoaL. Beccnopno, u1o nn opn
unannnsunn ne sk1n1cn 6es aeu1enLc1a Bor, n npnenn1L k cep1noc1n acex
6es ncknkuennn unannnsun canuennyk kcnoy, ko1opo ppeanne 6orocnoam
nonLsoanncL c uenLk o6Lncnennn kpynnmx k1c1poq, pcc1pnaemx nn kk
nsonnpoannme qk1m, - a1o snun1 npoaosrncn1L nc1nny amcuero nopnpk,
ko1opn ponxn onpepenn1L nonck senmx nc1nn. pnsn1L, u1o ace nunn rn6ny1,
no1oy u1o onn annoanm, - a1o snun1 npoaec1n npnnenL c noaepenne o1penLnmx
nkpe n anpe1L a rpexe sepn pspyuennn. Cnepyn a1o nornke, pxe no-nLckn
npocaeuennm uenoaek 6ype1 cun11L, u1o kxpm npop xpe1 yuc1L 1ex, k1o ero
coc1anne1, u1o kxpn nunn annoan anno caonx coc1anmx aneen1oa, noa1oy
ncuesne1 1k xe, kk ncuesny1 onn; no noa1opnk: kpoe a1nx payx 6esycnoanmx nc1nn
ppeanne ne oc1annn nnuero, u1o 6m orno n noouL.
nn nnuero ne roaopn1 o 1o, kk 6oxec1aennn aonn npnaopn1 k rn6enn npopoa -
nnpo1na, onn cun1k1, u1o ny1n a1o aonn nencnoaepnm. xauennme
nou1n1enLnm c1pxo npn anpe pynn npounoro, onn nocneuno snannk1, u1o
rocyppc1a ne psannnncL 6m 6es aonn poanpennn. ro1oa noaepn1L, u1o a
neko1opmx o6c1on1enLc1ax orno cnyun1Lcn uypo, no 1, rpe canuennme
canpe1enLc1a ne pk1 1ounoro o1ae1 - a1o kk ps 6onLunnc1ao cnyuea, -
oxno n skonnmx ocnoannnx cun11L nenne ppeannx nenonnm, nepoc11ouno
nopkpennennm n npnsn1L, u1o nockonLky ne6ecnm rnea o6pyunae1cn n nunn
noc1onnno, npnue a cnny kkoro-1o peuennn, npepuec1aykuero nonanennk coro
nepaoro npop, 1ko npnroaop nanne1cn npeponpepenennm, skonoepnm n
coo1ae1c1aye1 nenpenoxnoy kopekcy acenenno, 1kxe oc1nLnm skon,
ko1opme neyknonno ynpannk1 kk xnao npnpopo, 1k n neoprnnueckn npo.
osoxno, y nc ec1L ocnoannn ynpek1L canuennyk qnnocoqnk ppeannx apeen a
1o, u1o, a cnny nepoc11ounoc1n onm1 n orpnnuennoc1n, on o6Lncnne1 1ny
neonpoaepxno 1eonornuecko nc1nno, ko1opn c npepc1anne1 co6o 1ny, n
ne kce1cn qk1oa, nxopnunxcn a o6nc1n psy, no m ne oxe noc1an1L e a
ynpek 1o, u1o on ne nonnn aennunn npo6nem nnn c1n nck1L peuenne n seno
ypoane. yuue cks1L, u1o on orpnnunn cL noc1noako aonpoc, n ne ee ann,
u1o on ne peunn ero, n pxe ne nponcnnn. enno noa1oy 1eonornueckn
qnnocoqnn c1on1 amue acex 1pypoa ukonm nunonnns.
yuune ym qnn n n npnunn k cnepykuey amaopy, ko1opm ne onpoaeprny1 po
cnx nop: rocyppc1a, npopm, unannnsunn rn6ny1 1onLko o1 pockoun, 6espenLn,
nnoxoro ynpanennn, npennn npaoa, qn1ns. a1n qk1opm - nn6o a
coaokynnoc1n, nk6o no o1penLnoc1n - 6mnn o6Lnanenm npnunno kpx 1oro nnn
nnoro o6uec1a, ec1ec1aennm amaopo ns a1oro noc1yn1 nanne1cn cnepykun:
ecnn ne1 a nnnunn nn opnoro ns a1nx aneen1oa, nnkko nno pspyun1enLno
cnnm n 6m1L ne oxe1. pesynL11e npnxopn1cn npnsn1L, u1o acnkoe o6uec1ao
ynpe1 1onLko ncnnLc1aenno cep1Lk, 6ypyun a a1o o1nouennn 6onee cuc1nnao,
ue uenoaek, n u1o ecnn yc1pnn1L ynonny1me amue npnunnm pspyuennn, 1o oxno
npepc1an1L ce6e npop, c1onL xe ponroaeunm, kk c seno up. ccyxpn
1kn o6pso, ppeanne n ne nopospeann o 1o, k uey a1o npnaepe1; onn anpenn a
a1o nnuL cnoco6 y1aeppn1L opnLnyk pok1pnny, u1o, kk nsaec1no, cnyxn1
epnnc1aenno uenLk nx nc1opnuecko cnc1em. onncnnn co6m1n onn nc1onLko
6mnn os6ouenm poks1enLc1ao 6nroc1n po6pope1enn n nry6noc1n nopok n
npec1ynnoc1n, u1o ace, amxopnuee s pkn a1oro npac1aennoro kon1ekc1, nx nou1n
ne nn1epecoano n uue acero ne seunocL nnn nrnopnpoanocL. D1o1 e1op 6mn
noxnm, orpnnuenne n cnnuko uc1o npo1naopeunn nepennn caonx
cosp1ene, 1. k. kneo po6pope1enn nnn nopok c1annocL a sancnoc1n o1
1pe6oann oen1; no po onpepenenno c1enenn a1o oxno o6Lncnn1L 6nrnn
nepennnn, n ecnn renn ny1px n un1 nsanek ns a1o 1eopnn 1onLko ponm
n nckannn, 1o, cek y1aepxp1L, a1n ponm aennkonennm, nckannn 6nropopnm.
Mne xo1enocL 6m nponan1L cnncxopn1enLnoc1L k mcnn1enn aocenpu1oro aek, no
y nnx ec1L caon a1pm, a1o yxe ppyroe peno: nepame 6mnn po qn1ns os6ouenm
noppepxnne counnLnoro nopnpk, a1opmn xe panrn xxp noaoro n
c1penenne k pspyuennk; opnn nm1nncL nsaneuL po6pme nnopm ns caonx ampyok,
ppyrne nsaneknn ns nnx yxcnme nocnepc1ann, yen nxopn1L opyxne npo1na acex
npnnunnoa npanennn, ko1opm no ouepepn nknenann npnmk 1npnnn, qn1ns n
npennn npaoa. 1o6m ne p1L o6uec1ay norn6ny1L, onL1ep npepnrn nokonun1L c
pennrne, skono, npomunennoc1Lk, 1oproane nop 1e npepnoro, u1o pennrnn
ec1L qn1ns, skon - a1o pecno1ns, npomunennoc1L n 1oproann cy1L pockouL n
psap1. Cnepoa1enLno, nnnune c1onLknx nepoc11koa osnue1 pypnoe npanenne.
Mon spu enLue acero coc1on1 a 1o, u1o6m ac1ynn1L a nonenky: n xo1en nnuL
o1e1n1L, nckonLko psnnunme pesynL11m pe1 mcnL, o6un pnn Oyknpnp n
661 ennn - y opnoro on cyry6o koncepa1nan, y a1oporo unnnuno rpeccnan
n a o6onx cnyunx oun6oun. enpap, u1o acerp seunm nenpeenno 1e
npnunnm, ko1opmn o6Lncnnk1 npenne npopoa, n, oxo1no npnsnan, u1o a kko-1o
oen1 ynpnnn npop onn ory1 npncy1c1aoa1L, n o1pnuk, u1o onn poc11ouno
cnnLnm, u1o a nnx poc11ouno pspyun1enLno aneprnn, u1o6m 6es ppyrnx qk1opoa
npnaec1n k c1onL nry6nm k1c1poq.
II
, km, yu u r n k k r
r .
eo6xopno, npexpe acero, o6Lncnn1L, kk n nonnk 1epnn o6uec1ao. D1o ne
kpyr nkpe, 6onee nnn enee unpokn, a ko1opo a 1o nnn nno qope
ocyuec1anne1cn npouecc npanennn. qnnckn pecny6nnk - a1o ne ec1L o6uec1ao,
ne nanne1cn o6uec1ao koponeac1ao Mrpx, nnepnn on1 nnn ernne1ckn
nnq1 anoxn O1nn1oa. ce a1o qpren1m o6uec1a, ko1opme, psyee1cn,
1pncqopnpyk1cn, c6nnxk1cn nnn pspennk1cn nop annnnne ec1ec1aennmx
skonoa, ko1opme n nm1kcL yc1noan1L, no nnnune nnn ncuesnoaenne ko1opmx ne
onpepenne1 xnsnL nnn cep1L o6uec1a. Oopnpoanne 1knx qpren1oa - a1o
uue acero nepexopnm qenoen, on orpnnuennm nnn aoo6ue kocaennm o6pso
pec1aye1 n unannnsunk, a ko1opo npe1 a1o1 npouecc. op o6uec1ao n nonnk
co6pnne, 6onee nnn enee coaepuennoe c nonn1nuecko 1oukn spennn, no
nepoc11ounoe c 1oukn spennn counnLno, nkpe, ko1opme xnay1 nop aospec1ane
cxopnmx npe n o6npk1 noxoxnn nnc1nnk1n. kn o6pso, rnne1, ccnpnn,
peunn, npnn, n1 6mnn, nnn oc1k1cn nonmne, cueno, rpe psnnunme o6uec1a
pennsyk1 caoe npepnsnuenne (ecnn 6c1prnpoa1Lcn o1 nep1yp6un a nx
nonn1nuecko yc1poc1ae). co6npkcL aec1n peuL o coc1anmx aneen1x, 1onLko
korp a1o 6ype1 kc1Lcn uenoro, noa1oy 6ypy yno1pe6nn1L 1epnn nunn nnn
npop a o6ue nnn orpnnuenno cmcne, u1o6m ns6ex1L paycmcnennoc1n.
oa1oy n aosapukcL k npepmpyuey aonpocy n snannk, u1o qn1ns, pockouL,
pypnme npam n 6esaepne ne o6ns1enLno aepy1 k rn6enn npopoa.
ce a1n qk1opm, nnorp no o1penLnoc1n, nnorp opnoapeenno n pxe a npko
ampxenno qope, ac1peunncL y nun, ko1opme o1 a1oro uyac1aoann ce6n eue
nyuue nnn, no kpne epe, ne xyxe.
nepnn u1ekoa pepxn cL rnanm o6pso n qn1nse. ne ory npepc1an1L
ce6e nnuero 6onee qn1nunoro, nexenn counnLnm c1po, onnpkuncn n
pennrnosnyk ocnoay, ko1opyk noc1onnno nn1k1 kpoaLk uenoaeueckne
xep1aonpnnouennn, o ue canpe1enLc1aye1 pecko11 a caoe c1opnn saoeannn
Mekcnkn. epano nonannncL aeckne poks1enLc1a 1oro, u1o
ppeanne npopm aponm nnkorp ne npk1nkoann pennrnosnoe y6nc1ao n ne
npnnocnnn a xep1ay neannnmx, xo1n aoennonnennme nnn no1epneaune
kop6nekpyuenne ne axopnnn a a1y k1eropnk, expy 1e kk pnn ppeannx
ekcnknuea xopoun 6mnn nk6me xep1am. C 6ecnpnepno xec1okoc1Lk, ko1opyk
coapeennme qnsnonorn cun1k1 o6ue uep1o nneen noaoro np, onn y6nann
conneennnkoa n caonx n1pnx, n a1o ne euno n oc1a1Lcn oryuec1aennm,
npouae1kun n 1nn1nnam npopo, ko1opm, oxe1 6m1L, npouae1n 6m 1kn
o6pso eue ponroe apen, ecnn 6m renn Oepnnpo op1ec n xp6poc1L ero
cny1nnkoa ne nonoxnnn koneu c1onL uypoanuno nnepnn. s a1oro cnepye1, u1o
qn1ns ne ec1L npnunn rn6enn rocyppc1a.
ockouL n nsnexennoc1L 1kxe nenLsn cun11L 6onee aecknn npnunnn; nx
nocnepc1ann ouyuk1cn a cpepe amcunx knccoa, n n coneakcL, u1o y rpekoa,
nepcoa, pnnnn nsnexennoc1L n pockouL, nyc1L n a nnmx qopx, 6mnn 6onee
ampxenm, nexenn a ceropnnune Opnunn, epnnn, nrnnn, occnn (occnn
oco6enno) n y nunx cocepe no 1y c1opony -Mnu; expy npoun ne kxe1cn,
u1o a1n pae nocnepnne c1pnm o1nnuk1cn oco6o xnsnec1okoc1Lk cpepn rocyppc1a
nmneune aponm. a cpepnne aek aeneunnum, renyasum, nnsnum konnnn
cokpoanu co acero np, amc1annnn nx a caonx paopux, aosnnn n caonx kop6nnx
no ace opn, n a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao nnuy1L ne ocn6nno nx. oa1oy nsnexennoc1L n
pockouL ne cnyx1 pnn npop npnunnn ocn6nennn n ynpnnn.
[xe ynpok npaoa, cm c1punm 6nu uenoaeuec1a, ne o6ns1enLno nece1 a
ce6e pspyun1enLnyk qynkunk. pnn 1oro, u1o6m 1ko ynpok 6mn pspyun1enLnm,
neo6xopno, u1o6m npouae1nne nunn, ee oryuec1ao n a1opn1e1 6mnn nnpnyk
cansnm c unc1o1o ee o6muea, opnko a1o aoace ne 1k. c1o ccmnk1cn n
c1pnnme qn1snn, conpoaoxpaune po6pope1enn nepamx pnnnn (c., nnpnep,
ncLo repuornne Mon1osLe BnLsk). e1 nnuero aosamuennoro a 1o, u1o
popoan1me n1pnunn o6punncL co caonn xenn, kk c p6mnnn, c pe1Ln, kk c
poune cko1nno, noppnnmx 1pe1npoann, kk pnknx saepe; n ecnn 6m ceropnn
oc1nncL sun1nnkn 1koro o6ps pec1an, noxenaune nopccyxp1L o psno
opnLno ypoane a psnme anoxn, ps6n1L nx pryen1m ne coc1anno 6m 1pyp.
oace apeen snoyno1pe6nenne cnno amsmano opnnkoaoe aosyuenne; xo1n
nnkoro ns upc1aykunx oco6 ne npornnn nocne ncnnnn np ykpeune, n nnkoro ne
o1pnn nop cyp nocne nokyuennn nnnn, no, no kpne epe, 6onee rny6okne
npnunnm a1nx payx aennknx peaonkun, ko1opme 6mnn cansnm c 1knn npepnorn,
a poc11ouno epe canpe1enLc1ayk1 o6 o1nouennn k o6uec1aenno opnn a 1o
apen. e1, ne po6pope1enL, pxe co amcoko npo6m, nanne1cn npnunno cnnm
npopoa; c nun nc1opnuecko anoxn m ne sne nn opno o6unoc1n nkpe, kk
6m n on nn 6mn, a ko1opo o1cy1c1aoann 6m scnyxnakune nopnunnn
npnepm, opnko xe, crn6ncL nop 1kn npespennm 6peene, rocyppc1a ne
c1noannncL cn6ee, suc1yk, no6opo1, uepnnn caoe aennune nenno a a1o.
Cnp1num scnyxnnn aocxnuenne 6nroppn 6npn1ckn skon. psae
qnnnknum norn6nn ns-s psapuennoc1n, ko1opn nx noxnpn n ko1opyk onn
cennn noackpy? [ ne1 xe: nenno psapuennoc1L 6mn rnanm nnc1pyen1o nx
oryuec1a n cnam; c 1oro coro pnn, korp onn nonannncL n peuecknx oc1poax
[ccn, XV] - neropnn n snopen, co6nsnnkune xenunn, u1o6m npeap1n1L nx
a 1oap, rp6nune 6pm n nyckkune nrp6nennoe a npopxy, - ynonnnne o
nnx amsmano 1pene1, no o1 a1oro onn ne y1p1nnn aennunn n coxpnnnn a nnnx
nc1opnn noue1noe ec1o, ko1oporo ne orn nokone61L nn nx xpnoc1L, nn pypnoe
noaepenne.
ne cknonen nck1L a onopmx o6uec1ax npac1aennoe npeaocxopc1ao, no
coneakcL, u1o c1pekune, 1. e. npn6nnxkunecn k caoey kpxy nunn
npepc1annk1 asopy c1pororo kpn1nk 6onee 6nroc1nyk kp1nny. pam cnruk1cn,
nkpn nxopn1 o6un nsmk, asnnme o1nouennn c1noan1cn onpepenennmn n
o6uenpnnn1mn, 1eopnn o cnpaepnnaoc1n n necnpaepnnaoc1n noc1enenno
o11unak1cn. pypno poks1L, u1o ao apeen, korp rpekn cokpyunnn nnepnk
[pnn, a anoxy, korp ro1m sxa1nnn n, a qnnx, a annone n a aennko
nnepcko ropope 6mno enLue uec1nmx nkpe, ue a cnanme pnn popnn, np
ennkoro n e6nnkonm.
npoue, s npnepn pneko xopn1L ne o6ns1enLno. pnn ns ec1 n sene, rpe
m anpn cm 6onLuo nporpecc n cm npkn kon1pc1 c nnanm aeko,
nanne1cn pnx; opnko norne pennrnosnme pen1enn n yuenme yxn npnsnk1, u1o
nn a opno ppyro ec1e nnkorp ne 6mno c1onLko po6pope1ene, n6oxnoc1n,
nrkoc1n, y1onuennoc1n, kk a a1o ceropnnune aennko ropope. pen po6p specL
1kxe amcok, kkn on or 6m1L a pyux cmx nou1ennmx nepconxe cenpu1oro
c1one1nn, n 1e ne enee a ne noro ropeun, xec1okoc1n n pnkoc1n, pxe -
ocenkcL cks1L - nepn1ns; 1kn o6pso, nenno 1, rpe coapeennm psy
nuen npnc1nnue, m anpn nopsn1enLnme kon1pc1m, kknx ne snnn npounme
aek.
poe 1oro, n ne nxoxy, u1o a nepnopm psapuennoc1n n ynpk nepoc1ano
aennknx nkpe - n nek a anpy nkpe, o1nnuaunxcn cnnLnm xpk1epo n
nc1onunn po6pope1ennn. cnn nokon1Lcn a nc1opnn pncknx nnep1opoa, 1o
okxe1cn, u1o 6onLunnc1ao c1onnn amue caonx noppnnmx kk no sannk, 1k n no
scnyr, nnpnep, pnn, n1onn Bnrouec1nam, Cen1nn Ceaep n ppyrne; nnxe
1pon, nou1n a co ryue nne6c n aocxnukcL aennknn apun n aennknn
yuennkn, noc1onn onopo Uepkan, ne cun1n po6ponpanmx nsmunnkoa.
[o6ank, u1o k1nanmx, 1aeppmx, po6nec1nmx nnunoc1e 6mno 1koe noxec1ao, u1o
ne1 conenn a 1o, u1o ao apeen Unnunnn1 a ne ne 6mno nepoc11k a
cnanmx nkpnx acex o6nc1nx uenoaeuecko pen1enLnoc1n. 1o6m y6epn1Lcn a a1o,
poc11ouno o6p1n1Lcn k qk1.
kpn po6pope1enLnme, aneprnunme, 1nn1nname, konx ne 6mno nepoc11k a
nepnopm ynpk n ppnxnennn o6uec1a, ac1peunncL, 6m1L oxe1, a eue 6onLue
konnuec1ae, ue a onopmx rocyppc1ax; kpoe 1oro, o6un npac1aennm ypoaenL
a 1e nepnopm 6mn amue. Cnepoa1enLno, nenLsn y1aepxp1L, u1o a ppnxnekunx
rocyppc1ax npenne npaoa 6onee ampxeno, ue a rocyppc1ax, poxpkunxcn n
cae1, u1o a1o npenne aepe1 k ynnu1oxennk npopoa, nockonLky neko1opme c1pnm,
nnpo1na, xnnn s cue1 1knx npaoa; no oxno no1n pnLue n noks1L, u1o
npac1aennm ynpok ne o6ns1enLno nanne1cn cep1enLnm, 1. k. ns acex 6onesne,
nopxkunx o6uec1ao, on o6npe1 cnoco6noc1Lk k 6mc1poy nsneuennk.
co pene, 1e nnn nnme npam npop uc1o ennk1cn a sancnoc1n o1 nepnopoa,
nepexnaemx a1n npopo. 6p1ncn k nun qpnuys n yanpn, u1o rno-
pnnnne V-VI aa., xo1n n 6mnn no6expennmn, c1onnn ropspo amue, ue nx
po6nec1nme no6epn1enn, ao acex o1nouennnx npac1aennoc1n n opnn, ecnn 6p1L
nx no o1penLnoc1n, onn ne acerp yc1ynnn n no xp6poc1n n aonncko po6nec1n.
osoxno, a 6onee nospnne apeen, korp o6e pcm nunn ceuna1Lcn, cn1yunn
yxypunncL, k aocLoy n pean1oy c1one1nn 1eppn1opnn c1pnm ne nannn co6o
npepe1 6onLuo roppoc1n. o a XI-XIII aa. kp1nn coaepuenno nsennncL, n no
epe 1oro, kk o6uec1ao ann1mano a ce6n cme psnorncnme aneen1m, coc1onnne
npaoa scnyxnano ace 6onLuero yaxennn. e1mpnpu1m n nn1npu1m aek
c1nn nepnopo nsapuennoc1n n konqnnk1oa, pcuaen ps6o, cnoao, a1o 6mn
anox ynpk a co unpoko n c1poro snuennn a1oro cnoa; oxno 6mno 6m
cks1L 1k: a pesynL11e psap1, ksne, 1npnnn, nonno y1p1m 6nropopc1a
cpepn sn1n, ko1opn rp6nn caonx kpenoc1nmx, cpepn 6ypxy, ko1opme npopann
popnny nrnnn, cpepn psrynLnmx uepkoannkoa, kopoue ao acex cnonx couny, a1o
o6uec1ao no1epneno kpx n nop caonn psannnn norpe6no n ckpmno c1onLko
noc1mpnoro. e ne enee, o6uec1ao npoponxno xn1L, ono npnnoxnno ycnnnn n
amuno ns kpnsnc. Lec1npu1m aek, neco1pn n kpoaame 6esyc1a -
nocnepc1ann npepmpyue anoxn, - o1nnuncn 6onLun 6nropopc1ao no cpanennk
co caon npepuec1aennnko, n pnn uenoaeuec1a nouL Can1oro-pqonoen kxe1cn
ne 1kn nosopnm co6m1ne, kk pesnn pnLnkoa. koneu, ns a1o
nepexopno anoxn qpnuysckoe o6uec1ao amuno k cae1y n unc1o1e anoxn Oenenon,
Boccka n Mon1osLe. kn o6pso, anno1L po kpoank XIV nu nc1opnn
npepc1anne1 co6o 6mc1poe uepepoanne nepexopoa o1 po6p k sny, n
xnsnecnoco6noc1L, caoc1aennn nunn, ne nee1 o1nouennn k coc1onnnk ee
npac1aennoc1n. kp1ko nsnoxnn cme nanme psnnunn, noxec1ao 6onee
konkpe1nmx oc1nncL s npepeno knnrn, 1. k. pnn a1oro no1pe6oanocL 6m noro
ec1, no psae ne anpenn m co6c1aennmn rnsn, kk pesko ennncn ypoaenL
opnn s kxpme pecn1L ne1 nue nc1opnn, nunnn c 1787 r.? 1k, n npnxoxy k
okonu1enLnoy amaopy: npenne npaoa ec1L npexopnun qk1op, nopaepxennm
kone6nnn, n ero nenLsn pcc1pna1L kk neo6xopnyk n peukuyk
npepnocmnky pspyuennn rocyppc1a.
6p1n annnne n opnn pryen1, cansnnm c ceropnnunn pne n uyxpm
npen XVIII a.; no nc1onLko yec1nm npn nnnse npennn npaoa, u1o o ne
nenLsn ynonny1L ackonLsL. Mnorne nonrk1, u1o koneu nk6oro o6uec1a
nens6exen, ecnn pennrnosnme npen nunnk1 perppnpoa1L n ncues1L. po aopn1cn
npnnenL expy qnnn n no, nenno, a1o kce1cn ny6nnuno peonc1punn
pok1pnn 3enon n Dnnkyp, o1ks o1 nunonnLnmx kynL1oa n kpx o6enx
pecny6nnk. npoue, c1pk1cn ne seu1L, u1o kpoe a1oro npn ep 6onLue neue
npo nnnkc1pnpoa1L nopo6nm cnnxponns, u1o nepcnpckn nnepnn a oen1 caoero
npennn 6mn npnaepxen kynL1y pennrnosnmx roa, u1o np, pqren, ypen,
.u1ekckn n nepynckn onpxnn norn6nn, ycnnenno onncL caon 6or, n u1o,
cnepoa1enLno, neaosoxno y1aepxp1L, u1o ace npopm a nepnopm caoe rn6enn
o1ksm anncL o1 kynL1 npepkoa. o n a1o eue ne ace: a payx un1npoannmx amue
cnyunx 6onLue aneunero cxopc1a, nexenn rny6nnm, n n coaepuenno ne corncen c
1e, u1o a ne., kk n a qnnx, n1nunm kynL1 6mn s6m1 eue po 1oro, kk n ero
ec1o sc1ynnno okonu1enLno aoc1opxec1aoaauee xpnc1nnc1ao; nnmn cnoan, n
cun1k, u1o a o6nc1n pennrnosno aepm nn y opnoro npop n sene ne
n6nkpnocL nenpepmanoc1n, u1o, korp nsennncL qop nnn nn1nnn cyunoc1L
aepm, rnnm yxa1nnncL n s pnckoro Knn1ep n s Knn1ep xpnc1nnckoro 1ouno
1k xe, kk ep1am xa1e1 xnaoro, npnue 6es npecnoay1oro nepexopnoro nepnop
6esaepnn; nockonLky ne 6mno a nc1opnn nunn, ko1opyk oxno c nonnm npao
nsa1L 6es6oxno, nenLsn y1aepxp1L, u1o rocyppc1a norn6k1 o1 nepoc11k
aepm.
nonnk, n ue snxpe1cn 1kn 1ouk spennn. esponro po epnkn a qnnx n y
pnnnn a anoxy Cunnnonoa cpepn amcunx knccoa pcnpoc1pnnncn o6mu cnun
pccyxp1L o pennrnosnmx penx, s1e nopaepr1L nx conennk, no1o aoo6ue
o1c1ynn1Lcn o1 nnx n roppn1Lcn 1enso. oc1enenno a1o1 o6mu saoeaman ace
6onLue c1oponnnkoa, n ckopo nou1n ne oc1nocL nc1nnno aepykunx.
a1o pryen1e ec1L ponn nc1nnm, no noro a ne n noxnoro. syee1cn, qk1m
roaopn1 o 1o, u1o cnsnn a saepuenne aeuepnnx 1pnes n ennn a kpyry 6nnsknx
ppyse nonyunn ypoaonLc1ane o1 nonpnnn canuennmx npann caonx c1pn, no 1e
ne enee a a1n nepnopm, kc11n, cme 6nnc11enLnme a nc1opnn peunn n n,
6mno oncno acnyx nponoaepoa1L nopo6nme npen. eoc1opoxnoc1L nk6oannum
poporo o6ouncL coy epnkny: c1on1 acnonn1L cnesm, nponnaaunecn n nepep
cypo, ko1opme 1e ne enee ne cornn onpap1L npekpcnyk 1enc1ky. cnonn
nou1n oqnunnLnm nsmk noa1oa 1oro apeenn, korp pnc1oqn n Coqokn nocne
Dcxnn npoc1no ononunnncL npo1na ockaepnn1ene 6oroa. [eno a 1o, u1o acn nunn
aepnn a caonx 6oroa, cun1n Cokp1 annoannko acex nepeen n xenn cyp np
nkcropo. u1o no1o? Cornn nn qnnocoqckne n 6es6oxnme 1eopnn oanpe1L
unpoknn ccn? snannk: nnkorp, nn a kkyk anoxy n a1oro ne ypanocL.
Cken1nuns oc1ncn npnamuko amcuero o6uec1a n ne amxopnn s ero npepenm. Mne
ory1 aospsn1L, u1o ne1 cmcn roaopn1L o 1o, kk pynn npoc1me ropoxne,
cenLckne xn1enn, p6m, ne neaune annnnnn n rocyppc1ao n nonn1nky. o peno a
1o, u1o 1koe annnnne y nnx 6mno, n po coro nocnepnero aspox nsmuec1a onn
coxpnnnn caon xpm n caon n1pn, copepxnn caonx nepoqn1oa, n cme
nsaec1nme, npocaeuennme n cme 1aeppme a o1pnunnn pennrnn nkpn ne 1onLko
amc1annnn nnoks caoe 6nrouec1ne a opexpe, no expy u1enne ykpeunn
ncnonnnnn cme nenpnn1nme kynL1oame o6pnpm n ne 1onLko po6pocoaec1no
noceunn uepeonnn, no a pepkne ucm pocyr, o1nnn apen y nsnypn1enLnmx
nonn1nuecknx nrp, nncnn opnLnme 1pk11m.
nek a anpy aennkoro Knnn [au, Hka cknk, yHn ckmaau
ca yxn, kra r aan cnnucaa. v ckaan a
nxax ca k: cnaan H Kn n Hack
n acx k anH, n ack ccHmx ra: a
Ma, Hn kmx cna Hau, nmn kyca Man, a Kn
ncxn m. akH aH, a am ka cu cancu a,
caHmx Hrycamx n, anvcacu ra, kmx
a acny ca anacu (a, Kn, 5)]. Mno 1oro: ace
nnep1opm nocne Uespn nannnncL aepxoanmn canuennnkn; eue onc1n1nn,
xo1n n o6npn psyo, 6onee npocaeuennm, ue ace ero npepuec1aennnkn, u1o6m
o1ks1Lcn o1 c1onL nenpnrnnpno o6nsnnoc1n, no npnnnuec1aykue ero sannk
xpnc1nnckoro knnsn, nop annnnne o6uec1aennoro nennn, oueanpno poc11ouno
annn1enLnoro pxe a 1y anoxy, ponxen 6mn cun11Lcn c nunonnLno n1nuno
pennrne. kn o6pso, peuL npe1 ne o aepe npoc1mx ropoxn, cenLcknx xn1ene n
p6oa, o nennn nkpe npocaeuennmx. nnpcno a1o nenne nopo aocc1ano,
o1 nenn psy n sppaoro cmcn, npo1na 6cyppnoc1n nsmuec1a - npopnme
ccm ne xo1enn: n ne ornn o1ks1Lcn o1 opno aepm, nok n ne npepnoxnnn
ppyryk aec1e c poks1enLc1an ee nc1nnnoc1n n uenecoo6psnoc1n a npcknx
penx; panenne a1oro o6uero uyac1a 6mno nc1onL ko cnnLnm, u1o a 1pe1Le aeke
a cpepe amaunx knccoa nonanncL pennrnosnn pekunn, npnue cepLesnn pekunn,
ko1opn npoponxncL anno1L po okonu1enLnoro nepexop npop a nono Uepkan,
upc1ao qnnocoqnn poc1nrno noren npn n1onnnx n nuno xnpe1L ackope nocne nx
cep1n. o specL ne ec1o o6cyxp1L a1o1 aonpoc, xo1n on npepc1anne1 nn1epec pnn
nc1opnn uenoaeuecko mcnn; poc11ouno se1n1L, u1o o6noanenne sxa1mano ace
6onee unpokne cnon npop.
e 6onLue c1pnncn pnckn np, 1e amue c1noanncn a1opn1e1 pnn. ce, o1
nnep1op, kk npanno, ns6npeoro ns rappnn, po coro nocnepnero oqnuep
ero can1m, po coro enkoro o6nc1noro ynpan1enn, nunnnn nop noso
uen1ypnon. . e. ace amxopnnn ns a1nx npopnmx cc, uLk neocnopnyk
n6oxnoc1L m yxe o1eunn, asopn n 6onee amcokyk c1ynenL, ac1peunncL - n
a1 ac1peu nx uoknpoan n pnnn c n1nunm 6necko sn1nmx ropoxn,
ropopcknx cen1opoa, ko1opme co1penn n nnx kk n amckouek n c ppoc1Lk
noc1annn 6m nx n ec1o, ecnn 6m ne c1px. Cyuec1aoan apxp expy
nc1onunn xosnean rocyppc1a n ppeannn popoamn ceec1an.
oenunLnnkn 6mnn aepykunn n qn1nunmn, npnepn cnyx1 Mkcnnn,
nep n co1nn ppyrnx, expy 1e kk cen1opm n pekypnonm nxopnnn ypoaonLc1ane
a cken1nuecko nn1ep1ype, no nockonLky ace aenn npnpaopnyk xnsnL, 1. e. xnsnL
cpepn aoennmx, n npnunocL ycaon1L nsmk n y6expennn noaoro apeenn. oc1enenno
ace xn1enn nnepnn c1nn n6oxnmn, n nenno uepes n6oxnoc1L cn qnnocoqm
ao rnae c Daxeepo npnpynn cnc1em, c 1e u1o6m npnnpn1L
punonnnc1nueckne 1eopnn c kynL1o rocyppc1a, kc11n, a a1o oco6enno npeycnen
nnep1op Knnn. e c1on1 cnnuko aocxann1L a1o aospoxpenne nsmueckoro
6nrouec1nn, no1oy u1o ns nero amuno 6onLunnc1ao npecnepoa1ene nunx
yuennkoa. pop, ockop6nennm 1enc1nuecknn cek1n a caoe aepe, 1epnen, nok
np nn poanenn npanune knccm, no epa nnepckn peokp1nn nnsaen a1n
knccm n cyk ynnsn1enLnyk c1ynenL, npoc1onkpnnm aosxennn ec1n n no
oun6ke nepe6nnn nornx xpnc1nn, ko1opmx onn nsmann neuec1namn n ny1nn c
qnnocoqn. o1 kpcnopeunaoe psnnune expy anoxn! UpL rpnnn, nsmunnk
co cken1nueckn yo, ns nk6onm1c1a sxo1en amcnyu1L can1oro an [Qnn
ncna, XXVI, 24,28, 31]. n ero amcnyun, ac1ynnn c nn a pnckyccnk, npnnnn
ero s cycuepuero, no 1e ne enee ne nksn s 1o, u1o 1o1 pye1 ne 1k, kk
on. nn aosLe nc1opnk un1, ko1opm npesnpn npnaepxenuea noao pennrnn,
no ocyxpn epon s xec1okoe k nn o1nouenne - n rpnnn n un1 6mnn
neaepykunn. [nonek1nn 6onLue cnyun caonx noppnnmx, [eun n apenn 6mnn
qn1nkn, kk n nx npop.
ckonLko 1nro1 npnunocL nepenec1n, nok pnckne anc1n okonu1enLno ne npnnnnn
xpnc1nnc1ao n ne npnaenn ncenenne a nono noao aepm! peunn 6mno ouenL
cnnLnoe conpo1nanenne - kk cpepn yuenmx yxe, 1k n a ropopx n cenx;
ennckonm npnnoxnnn 6onLune ycnnnn, u1o6m opone1L ec1nmx 6oxkoa, n no6ep a
koneuno cue1e 6mn poc1nrny1 ne c1onLko s cue1 o6puennn n y6expennn, ckonLko
6nroppn noakoc1n, 1epnennk n apeenn. enn noc1onoa a coue1nnn co
aceaosoxnmn ynoakn cyen senn1L 6oxec1a necoa, nyroa, pek can1mn,
yuennkn n peac1aennnun. pouno noro apeenn, 6mno cpenno neno
onnounoc1e, npexpe ue 6mn npen aepnm ny1L. [ u1o roaopn1L o apeenx
o1pnennmx! sae a co Opnunn ne1 npnxop, rpe 6m canuennnkoa po cnx nop ne
s6o1nnn cyeaepnn, c1onL xe yc1ouname, ckonL nenenme? k1onnuecko Bpe1nn a
npouno c1one1nn opnn ennckon ponro cpxncn c kynL1o kennoro npon. n
npnksman 6poc1L 1nxenyk rnm6y a aopy, n acnkn ps ynpnme noknonnnkn
poc1ann ee, n no1pe6oanocL aeu1enLc1ao nexo1m, u1o6m ps6n1L npon n
kyckn. o1 a nrnnpnm npnep ponroxn1enLc1a nsmuec1a. 1k, n penk amaop:
ne1 ocnoann y1aepxp1L, u1o n n qnnm xo1L n opnn penL 6mnn nnuenm
pennrnosnmx uyac1a.
Cnepoa1enLno, nockonLky nn a pneko npouno, nn ao apeen nmneunne nn opn
nunn ne o1aeprn caoero kynL1, nok e ne pann ppyro, nenLsn cks1L, u1o
kpx npopoa ec1L cnepc1ane nx 6esaepnn.
1ksmancL npnnn1L pspyun1enLnyk cnny qn1ns, pockoun, npennn npaoa n
6esaepnn, n nepexoxy k aonpocy o pypno npanennn, a1o1 npepe1 scnyxnae1
o1penLnoro psroaop.
III
K n mn k r .
nonnk, nckonLko 1pypn a1 1e. [xe c nonm1k sroaopn1L o6 a1o
nokxe1cn norn un11enn ue-1o apope nppokc. kpn y6expenm - n nek1 n
1o poc11ouno ocnoann, - u1o xopoune skonm, xopoun pnnnc1punn
oksmak1 nenocpepc1aennoe n cnnLnoe aospec1ane n spopoaLe nunn, no npn a1o
sxopn1 1k pneko, u1o npnnncmak1 skon n pnnnc1punn peukuyk ponL a
npoponxn1enLnoc1n cyuec1aoannn counnLno coaokynnoc1n nkpe, a ue n
sknkue1cn pcnpoc1pnennoe s6nyxpenne.
syee1cn, peno o6c1onno 6m nenno 1k, ecnn 6m npopm ornn xn1L 1onLko a
coc1onnnn 6nrononyunn, no m sne, u1o onn cyuec1ayk1 ponroe apen, kk,
anpoue, n o1penLnme nkpn, a nepnopm pesoprnnsunn n ps6pop, o1opme uc1o
o1pxk1cn n n cocepnx. cnn 6m nunn acerp ynpnn o1 caonx 6onesne, kk
ornn 6m onn amxn1L a nepame ropm caoero qopnpoannn? epL nenno 1orp onn
nek1 cyk pypnyk pnnnc1punk n nnxypune skonm, k 1oy xe nnoxo
ncnonnneme. k ps a a1o coc1on1 nx o1nnune o1 uenoaeueckoro oprnns: ecnn
oprnns, oco6enno a pe1c1ae, once1cn 6onesne, nepep ko1opmn on nano ne
amc1on1, 1o o6uec1ao 1knx 6ep ne sne1; nc1opnn pe1 n aennkoe noxec1ao
npnepoa 1oro, u1o o6uec1ao 6es konu yckonLse1 o1 cmx oncnmx, ponrnx n
onyc1oukunx nonn1nuecknx nepyroa, kpnnn nponanennnn konx nannk1cn
nnoxne skonm n cnnuko cypoaoe nnn 6espsnnunoe npanenne [acu, acH
nc, v vu nnvckH cycaaa kakr- a
anac, x nr caa, nravc ana.].
pexpe acero nonm1ecn y1ounn1L, u1o snun1 pypnoe npanenne.
Cyuec1aye1 noxec1ao psnoanpnoc1e a1oro sn, nx, noxny, pxe neaosoxno
nepeuncnn1L, 1e 6onee u1o nx uncno ynoxe1cn, ecnn yun1ma1L any1pennkk
konc1n1yunk npopoa, reorpqnueckoe nonoxenne n anoxy. e ne enee nx oxno
crpynnnpoa1L a ue1mpe ocnoanme k1eropnn.
panenne cun1e1cn pypnm, korp ono nansno nsane. qnnx 1kn cn1yunn
nen ec1o npn 1pnpu1n 1npnx, s1e xn1enn y6annncL o1 nnx n nunonnLnm
pyx aoace ne pspyunncn o1 yrne1ennn, 1onLko ykpennncn.
panenne - pypnoe, ecnn ono ocnoano n saoeannn. ue1mpnpu1o aeke
Opnunn, nou1n uennko, nxopnncL nop nro nrnnn. amun ns-nop nero 6onee
cnnLno n npouae1kue. n1 naopnnnn n sxa1nnn onronLckne oppm, no
npnuno apen, n kn1um npornnn nx co caoe senn, npap, saoea1enn cmrpnn
ponL psppxn1enn. ocne a1oro c1pn nonn nop ppyroe nro; xo1n nuxypm
npan1 6onee 100 ne1, nx xpe1 1 xe yuc1L, u1o n onronoa.
co6enno pypnoe npanenne cnyue1cn, ecnn ero npnnunn c1noan1cn nopounm,
acnepc1ane uero nponcxopn1 pspyuenne co cnc1em npanennn. koa 6mn
cypL6 ncnncko onpxnn. cnoannn n aonncko pyxe n o6uec1aenno cao6ope,
on nun k konuy upc1aoannn Onnnnn II s6ma1L caon ocnoam. eaosoxno
npepc1an1L ce6e c1pny, rpe po6ponpanme kcnm nnn 6m nc1onLko nnsko, rpe
anc1L 6mn 6m 6onee cn6o n npesnpeo, rpe c pennrnosnn cnc1e pan
6m 6onLue noaopoa pnn kpn1nkn. CenLckoe xosnc1ao n npomunennoc1L,
nopaepxennme 1e xe nepyr, u1o n acn nnepnn, annn a ps. o norn6n nn
cnnnn? e1. D1 c1pn pn apone cnanm npnep conpo1nanennn qpnuysckn
aock, n a1o, naepnoe, epnnc1aennoe ns coapeennmx rocyppc1a, rpe
nunonnLnm pyx neo6muno cnnen n kpenok.
ue npanenne 6mae1 pypnm, korp a cnny npnpopm caonx nnc1n1y1oa ono
npoknpmae1 ny1L k n1ronnsy - nn6o expy amcue anc1Lk n ccn, nn6o
expy psnnunmn knccn. pnepo 1oy cnyx1 cpepneaekoame koponn nrnnn n
Opnunn, apxpoaaune co caonn sn1nmn accnn, ko1opme, a caok ouepepL,
aoeann co caonn kpec1Lnnn; nnn epnnn, rpe nepame npo6neckn cao6opm
mcnn npnaenn k rpxpnckn aon rycn1oa, n6n1nc1oa n npounx cek1n1oa.
6onee pnnne apeen 1nnn nc1onLko cnnLno c1ppn o1 pspen anc1n,
ko1opyk pann n uc1n nnep1op, nn, pnc1okp1m n o6unnm, u1o npop ne snn,
koy nopunnn1Lcn, n uc1o aoo6ue nnkoro ne npnsnan. o norn6no nn o1 a1oro
n1nLnnckoe o6uec1ao? e1. 1nLnnckn unannnsunn nnkorp ne 6mn c1onL
6nnc11enLno, nnpyc1pnn 6onee nponsaopn1enLno, annnnne a npe 6onee
neocnopnm.
cknonen py1L, u1o nnorp, a cm psrp 1knx no1pncenn, n neko1opoe
apen, nopo6no conneunoy nyuy, nonanne1cn yppn n yc1ounan anc1L n
qynkunonnpye1 n 6nro npopoa; no a1o pnn1cn neponro, n 1k xe, kk
npo1naononoxnn cn1yunn ne npnaopn1 k cep1n nunn, 1k n cae1noe ncknkuenne
ne o6ecneunae1 xnsnec1okoc1n. [nn a1oro neo6xopno, u1o6m anoxn npouae1nnn
cnyunncL uue n npoponxnncL ponLue. ecnn cnpaepnname cnc1em npanennn
pepkn ceropnn, 1o onn nonannnncL ne uue n npexpe. 6m po6ann, u1o pxe cme
6nrononyunme ns nnx opuenm npo1naopeunamn nennnn n cnopn. sae ace
nc1opnkn ouennak1 npanenne nnLrenL pnckoro kk anoxy npouae1nnn pnn
nrnnn? sae ace aocxnuk1cn kpoanko IV ennkn, 6es acnknx oroaopok?
npo1na. xynn1ennx nepoc11k ne1, n onn ne ao ace nenpam, opnko a1o 6mno
coe ynopnpouennoe, coe nnopo1aopnoe apen a npouno Opnunn n ee cocepe.
peen xopouero npanennn nc1onLko pepkn, nckonLko npo1naopeunam, korp onn
ace xe cnyuk1cn. onn1nueckn nyk, cn amcokn n 1epnnc1n ns acex nyk,
nc1onLko cy6Lek1nan, u1o nenLsn, nonox pyky n ceppue, o6Lncnn1L rn6enL
npopoa nnoxn npanenne. Bnroppn ne6y, onn nspan npnamknn k a1oy sny,
ko1opoe pxe a caonx akc1penLnmx nponanennnx ace xe ropspo npepnou1n1enLnee,
ue npxnn. D1o qk1 poksnnm, n 1u1enLnoe nsyuenne nc1opnn noksmae1, u1o
suc1yk nnoxoe npanenne, psapukuee npop, oksmae1cn nyuue, ue
npepuec1aykuee.
!"
O , kk ux; m ak
, kk qyn n .
cnn un11enL npannLno nonnn ace amuecksnnoe, on ne cpene1 amaop, u1o a1op
ne npnpe1 nnkkoro snuennn 6onesnn counnLnoro oprnns n u1o nnoxoe
npanenne, qn1ns, 6esaepne npepc1annk1 a ero rnsx nnuero ne snuune
qk1opm. oneuno xe, y onx mcne coace ppyroe nnpanenne. , kk n ace,
npnsnk, u1o ne1 nnuero xopouero, korp o6uec1ao c1ppe1 o1 a1nx nepyroa, n u1o
ace s6o1m, ace 1pypm n ycnnnn, npepnpnnneme pnn 1oro, u1o6m ns6an1Lcn o1
nnx, ne nponpk1 ppo; n npoc1o y1aepxpk, u1o ecnn a1n pesoprnnsykune
aneen1m ne amsanm 6onee cnnLnm pspyun1enLnm npnnunno, ecnn onn ne
nannk1cn cnepc1ane ckpm1oro n 6onee c1punoro sn, oxno 6m1L yaepennm, u1o
nx yppm ne 6ypy1 cep1enLnm, u1o nocne 6onee nnn enee npoponxn1enLnoro
nepnop c1ppnn o6uec1ao ampe1 ns nero, aosoxno, o6noanennm n 6onee
cnnLnm.
pnaepennme npnepm ne kxy1cn poc11ounmn, xo1n nx uncno oxno
npnynox1L po 6eckoneunoc1n; nenno no a1o npnunne sppam cmcn
nnc1nnk1nano uyac1aoan nc1nny. n nonnn, u1o no 6onLuoy cue1y ne c1on1
npnpa1L nesnun1enLnm nanennn nepaoc1enennoro snuennn, u1o cnepye1 a
ppyro ec1e n 6onee 1u1enLno nck1L npnunnm xnsnn n cep1n, ynpannkune
cypL6o npopoa. oa1oy, nesancno o1 o6c1on1enLc1a 6nrononyunn nnn nepyr,
yuenme nunn pcc1pna1L konc1n1yunk o6uec1a cy no ce6e n cknonnm
ponyc1n1L, u1o nnkkn aneunnn npnunn ne nanne1cn cep1onocno po 1ex nop, nok
pspyun1enLnm npnnunn, poxpennm a neppx o6uec1a, neo1pennm o1 o6uec1a,
ne npno6pe1e1 poc11ounmx cu16oa; n, nnpo1na, kk 1onLko a1o1
pspyun1enLnm qk1op nponanne1cn a nonno epe, rn6enL npop npeppeuen,
pxe ecnn y nero coe nyuuee npanenne n sene. D1o nnonne1 nc1ouennyk
noupL, npkuyk n poano popore.
pnnna 1kyk 1ouky spennn, m pene ur anepep n amxopn n nouay, 6onee
qnnocoqckyk, ue pnLue. [ec1an1enLno, Bnu ne npenncn o1kpm1L 6onLuyk
1ny o6ueuenoaeueckoro cyuec1aoannn; nsyun aneunne o6c1on1enLc1a, on nckn
o1ae1m a co cy1n uenoaek. onLko 1kn ny1e oxno cpen1L o1kpm1ne.
coxnennk, a1 sppan mcnL 6mn pesynL11o p6o1m nnc1nnk1 n ne
npopannyncL a caoe nornuecko psan1nn, noa1oy no1epnen nopxenne npn
nepamx xe 1pypnoc1nx. ccnepoa1enn ackpnunn: [, a co pene, npnunn
pcnp counnLnoro oprnns nxopn1cn a ne co, no a ue sknkue1cn a1
npnunn? o1ae1 onn ycnmunn: mpoxpenne. unn ynpk1, ecnn onn coc1on1
ns ampoxpkunxcn aneen1oa. 1ae1 6mn 1ounm - n a1nonornueckn, n ao acex
o1nouennnx; npo 6mno nnuL onpepenn1L, kk nonn1L 1epnn ampopnauncn
nunn. ao1 specL nexn1 kenL npe1knoaennn: ampopnauncn npopo nsann
npop, ko1opm y1p1nn ncxopnme po6pope1enn o1uoa-ocnoa1ene a pesynL11e
pypnoro npanennn, snoyno1pe6nennn caonn 6or1c1an, qn1ns nnn 1ens.
k xe ace a1o snkoo po ckykn! onyue1cn, u1o nunn rn6ne1 nop yppn
counnLnmx 6onesne, no1oy u1o on ampopnncL, n on ampopnncL, no1oy u1o
norn6e1. D1o1 kpyroao pryen1 poksmae1 nnuL, u1o nu nyk counnLno
n1onn nxopn1cn a pe1cko aospc1e. cknonen py1L, u1o npopm rn6ny1
no1oy, u1o onn ampopnnncL, ne no nno npnunne; onn penk1cn okonu1enLno
necnoco6nmn nepexn1L aneunne yppm, yppm snocuc1no cypL6m, ne ory1
nopnn1Lcn n norn n kopu1cn a ronnn. cnn onn ynpk1, 1o nnuL no1oy, u1o ne
o6npk1 nepep nnuo oncnoc1n 1o cnno, ko1opn o1nnun nx npepkoa, opnn
cnoao, onn ampopnnncL okonu1enLno. oa1opnk, a1o ouenL ypunoe ampxenne, no
ono yxpe1cn a noncnennn n ocmcnennn. k n nouey 1epnk1cn xnsnennn cnn?
o1 aonpoc, ko1opm cnepye1 sp1L. k nponcxopn1 ampoxpenne? o1 u1o npo
o6Lncnn1L. [o cnx nop orpnnunanncL 1epnnonorne, ne annkn a cmcn. nnxe n
nonm1kcL cpen1L cnepykun ur.
1k, n cun1k, u1o cnoao ampoxpenne npnenn1enLno k npopy ponxno osnu1L n
osnue1, u1o a1o1 npop yxe ne nee1 1ex kuec1a, ko1opme nen npexpe, 1. k. a ero
xnnx 1eue1 ppyrn kpoaL. Ckxe no-ppyroy: coxpnna npexnee nn, on ne
coxpnnn pcy, k ko1opo npnnpnexnn ero ocnoa1enn; nkoneu, uenoaek ynpk,
nsmaem ampopnauncn uenoaeko, ec1L npopyk1, o1nnukuncn c a1nnuecko
1oukn spennn o1 repoea aennknx anox. opouo, ecnn 6m on oc1ann ce6e xo1L uc1L
caoe cyunoc1n, opnko ue 6onLue on ampoxpe1cn, 1e 6mc1pee a1 cyunoc1L
ncuese1. ne yxe npeo6npk1 re1eporennme aneen1m, onn-1o n coc1annk1
coaepuenno noayk nunonnLnoc1L, npnue noayk a xypue cmcne; on yxe ne
npnnpnexn1 k 1e, koro ace eue cun1e1 npepkn - psae u1o o1pnenno
nnonne1 nx. n ampe1 okonu1enLno, aec1e c nn n ero unannnsunn. D1o
nponsope1, korp nepaopopnm a1nnueckn aneen1 okxe1cn nc1onLko
ps6anennm npnecLk uyxnx pc, u1o anp1ynLnoc1L a1oro aneen1 yxe ne nee1
cyuec1aennoro snuennn. syee1cn, nunn ne ncuesne1 a qnsnuecko nnn
6conk1no cmcne, no npk1nueckn ocn6ne1 po 1ko c1enenn, u1o ampoxpenne
oxno cun11L saepuennm co acen ero npnsnkn.
cnn ne ypc1cn poks1L a1y 1eopey, snun1, n ackpmn cy1L ampoxpennn n
o6Lncnnn cmcn a1oro cnoa. oksman noc1enennoe nsenenne cyunoc1n nunn, n a
kko-1o epe psmak o1ae1c1aennoc1L s ynpok: on yxe nexn1 ne n cmnoaLnx,
n nnennnnkx, s1e n kysenx, s1e n 6onee pnLnnx popc1aennnkx, n korp
okxe1cn, u1o a oen1 caoe rn6enn 1o1 nnn nno npop nece1 a caonx xnnx ouenL
nyk uc1L kpoan o1uoa-ocnoa1ene, 6ype1 poc11ouno nonn1no, nouey rn6ny1
unannnsunn, nepexopn ns pyk a pykn. pnoapeenno n s1prnak eue 6onee
pepskn npepe1, nexenn 1o1, u1o pcc1pnancn a npepmpyunx rnax, nenno:
cyuec1ayk1 nn expy uenoaeuecknn pcn pec1an1enLno cepLesnme psnnunn
apoxpennoro xpk1ep n oxno nn nx onpepenn1L kuec1aenno?
1o6m ne 1epn1L apeenn, nuny c pccyxpenn, kckunxcn nepaoro nynk1,
a1opo nponcnn1cn no epe nx nsnoxennn.
Mon mcnL c1ne1 6onee nonn1no, ecnn n cpank nunk, nk6yk nunk, c
uenoaeueckn oprnnso. Onsnonorn cun1k1, u1o on noc1onnno o6noanne1cn ao
acex caonx coc1anmx uc1nx, u1o a ne nponcxopn1 neckonuen 1pncqopunn n
u1o no npouec1ann onpepenennoro apeenn on copepxn1 a ce6e nyk 1onnky 1oro,
u1o ncxopno coc1annno ero ocnoay: a c1pnke nou1n nnuero ne oc1e1cn o1 uenoaek
cpepnnx ne1, a nocnepne no oc1e1cn o1 noppoc1k, a noppoc1ke - o1 pe6enk;
1kn o6pso, 1epnnLnn nnpnanpynLnoc1L noppepxnae1cn 1onLko
any1pennnn n aneunnn qopn, ko1opme anponsennk1cn, yc1ynn ec1o ppyrn,
no noxoxn n npexnne. pnnc1aennn psnnu expy uenoaeueckn oprnnso n
nune, n o asrnnp, sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o a nocnepne qopm ynnu1oxk1 ppyr
ppyr n ncuesk1 c neaepon1no 6mc1po1o. osLe npop, nnn, nyuue cks1L,
nnen, a 1o1 oen1, korp ono, noppauncL nnc1nnk1y xnsnec1okoc1n, npnpymae1
ce6e skonm n nunne1 nrp1L kkyk-1o ponL a a1o npe. pn a1o no epe poc1
ero no1pe6noc1e n ero cnn ono ac1yne1 a nens6exnm kon1k1 c ppyrnn
ceec1an, n ey ype1cn npncoepnnn1L nx k ce6e cnno nnn npnmn cpepc1an.
e ace o6unn poaopn1cn nopnn1Lcn po 1koro ypoann, nepepn ko1opm nnen a
opnn npekpcnm penL c1noan1cn nune. cnn neko1opme pcm, pxe ne ouenL
amcoko c1onune n nec1nnue unannnsunn, 1e ne enee nepeurnynn a1o1 nopor,
nenLsn cun11L a1o o6un npanno; nnpo1na, ne kxe1cn, uenoaeuecko o6unne
1pypno aosamcn1Lcn np ypoane uc1nuno oprnnsunn, n nnuL oco6o oppennm
rpynn ype1cn nepexop a 6onee cnoxnoe coc1onnne. poks1enLc1ao nnonk
nmneunee coc1onnne nornx 1knx rpynn, ps6pocnnmx no acey npy. pynnme
nneen, oco6enno nerpm-nencrn onnnesnn, coepm n ppyrne pepc1an1enn
ceaepnoro nonyupnn, 1kxe 6onLun uc1L qpnkncknx nerpoa 1k n ne cornn
am1n ns coc1onnnn 6eccnnnn n xnay1 kk 6m nnoxennme ppyr n ppyr n nonnoc1Lk
nesancnme o1 oc1nLnoro np. Cme cnnLnme nc1pe6nnk1 cn6mx, 1e c1pk1cn
kk oxno pnLue o1opanny1Lcn o1 cnnLnmx - a1n orpnnunae1cn acn nonn1nk
1knx a6pnonoa o6uec1a, ko1opme c oen1 nonanennn uenoaek n sene
npe6mak1 a c1onL yppyukue coc1onnnn, 1k n ne npn nnuero nyuuero s caok
ponryk nc1opnk. Mne ory1 aospsn1L, u1o a1n necuc1nme coc1annk1 enLuyk
uc1L ncenennn senn; a1o npap, no ne c1on1 s6ma1L ppyrnx, n nopo6nmx,
ko1opme korp-1o cyuec1aoann n ncuesnn. ncno nx nensepno n naepnnk
coc1anne1 nopannkuee 6onLunnc1ao unc1mx pc cpepn xen1mx n uepnmx npopoa.
cnn xe ponyc1n1L, u1o pnn ouenL 6onLuoro uncn nkpe oksncn neaosoxen
nepam ur k unannnsunn, ecnn yuec1L, u1o 1kne npopnoc1n pccennm no ace
sene, ao acex reorpqnuecknx n knn1nuecknx sonx - n sennx, nokpm1mx nLpo
n cnero, a yepennmx n xpknx ponx, n 6epery ope, osep n pek, a rnyun
necoa, n senenmx pannnx nnn a nyc1mnnx, - npnpe1cn cpen1L amaop, u1o kkn-
1o uc1L uenoaeuec1a nsnunLno nnuen cnoco6noc1n k counannnsunn pxe a
co no epe, nockonLky necnoco6n nopan1L a ce6e ec1ec1aennoe o1apuenne,
ko1opoe uenoaek, 1ouno 1k xe, kk n xnao1nme, ncnm1mae1 k ckpeunannk.
pnko oc1an a nokoe a1n necoun6enLnme nneen n npoponxn nopnn1Lcn no
nec1nnue nc1opnn c 1en, ko1opme nonnk1, u1o ecnn onn xo1n1 yaennun1L caok
xnsnennyk cnny n 6nrococ1onnne, 1orp 6conk1no neo6xopno nn6o aoennmn,
nn6o npnmn cpepc1an, aoaneuL cocepe a caok cqepy o6n1nnn. oneuno, cm
npoc1o cnoco6 - aon. 1k, nunne1cn aon, no korp on skonun1cn, korp
pspyun1enLnme c1pc1n y1nxny1, oc1ny1cn nnennnkn, onn c1noan1cn p6n, p6m
p6o1k1, n ao1 nonannk1cn knccm, psanae1cn npomunennoc1L, n nnen
nepexopn1 a k1eropnk npopnoc1n. D1o yxe 6onee amcokn ypoaenL, no ne ace
o6unoc1n, poc1nrune ero, nopnnk1cn amue - norne orpnnunak1cn a1n n
skocneak1 n a1o c1ynenn.
pnko ppyrne, 6onee npepnpnnuname n aneprnunme, co1pn1 pnLue n npy1 pnLue
npoc1oro popepc1a: onn sxa1mak1 6onLuyk 1eppn1opnk n penk1 caoe
co6c1aennoc1Lk ne 1onLko xn1ene, no n nx senn. C a1oro oen1 qopnpye1cn
nc1onun nunn. c1o a 1euenne kkoro-1o apeenn o6e pcm - no6epn1enn n
no6expennme - npoponxk1 xn1L 6ok o 6ok, ne ceunancL, opnko no epe 1oro,
kk onn c1noan1cn ace 6onee nyxnm ppyr ppyry, kk yc1nannae1cn o6unoc1L
1pypoa n nn1epecoa, kk o6npm s6mak1cn, no6expennme ec1ec1aennm o6pso
nunnk1 nopnn1Lcn k ypoank no6epn1ene, nocnepnne nxopn1 noxec1ao npnunn
cnncxopn1enLno o1nocn1Lcn k a1o 1enpenunn n pxe nooupn1L ee: ao1 1orp n
nponcxopn1 ceuenne kpoan, n npepc1an1enn payx pc yxe nepec1k1 npnnpnex1L
k psnnunm nneen, ace 6onLue coepnnnncL a opno uenoe.
pn ace a1o nnc1nnk1 nsonnunn nc1onLko ykopenen a uenoaeke, u1o pxe n a1o
a1ne ckpeunannn nee1 ec1o conpo1nanenne pnLneuey npoueccy. c1L npopm,
uLe ceunnoe nponcxoxpenne poc1oaepno nsaec1no n ko1opme, 1e ne enee,
coxpnnk1 knnoam pyx. npnep, p6m, ko1opme ne 1onLko amunn ns ae1ae
cen1cko rpynnm - onn opnoapeenno npnnpnex1 k pay ceec1a - Cn n
, - ne roaopn yxe o 6ecuncnennmx popc1aennmx nepenne1ennnx ec1noro
cu16. eco1pn n psnnunme nc1okn, nx npnaepxennoc1L k nneenno nsonnunn
nanne1cn opno ns cmx nopsn1enLnmx oco6ennoc1e nx nunonnLnoro xpk1ep
n nonn1nuecko nc1opnn; nx nsrnnne ns cnnnn oxno o6Lncnn1L ne 1onLko nx
reorpqnuecko psppo6nennoc1Lk n a1o nonyoc1poae, no n 6onee rny6oko
psppo6nennoc1Lk - conepnnuec1ao ceec1a any1pn nenLknx onpxn
nencnn, onepo, oppoam n penpm [ak cHn aackx a k
svck nn ra nnanncn acuHa camH aH;
nymcak acckamaa, v a Qx, r aam vu cam,
yka, kan Hx crnacucn a ac, v yr, a r, y
vyacaaau cn n, cn cvacn akmH akH c ykH
n anH, kmH a mv acn c vyacaH nn]. D1o
seunne oxno o1nec1n k 6onLunnc1ay npopoa, npn6ana, u1o 1, rpe c1epnncL
nneennme psnnunn, nx ec1o snne1 nnc1nnk1 consonnunn no nunonnLnoy
npnsnky, ko1opm nc1onLko cnnen, u1o nopan1L ero ne a cnnx pxe pennrnosnn
o6unoc1L. D1o nee1 ec1o y p6oa n 1ypkoa, y nepcoa n eapeea, y npnaepxenuea
npcns n nnpycoa, y cnpncknx nec1opnnuea n kyppoa; a1o1 nnc1nnk1 nponanne1cn
n y eaponecknx 1ypkoa, cnepm ero oxno ac1pe1n1L a enrpnn, y pLnp, ckcoa,
anxoa, xopa1oa, n n y1aepxpk, u1o a neko1opmx ponx Opnunn, c1pne, rpe
pcm nepeeunm 6onee, ue rpe 6m 1o nn 6mno, cyuec1ayk1 pepeann, xn1enn
ko1opmx n ceropnn ne xo1n1 popnn1Lcn c cocepnnn cenennnn.
cun1k ce6n anpae sknkun1L, ncxopn ns a1nx npnepoa, oxa1makunx ace
c1pnm n anoxn, pxe nuy c1pny n nue apen, u1o uenoaeuec1ao ao acex caonx
o1ae1anennnx ncnm1mae1 1nyk nenpnnsnL k ceuennk, u1o y neko1opmx npopoa
a1o uyac1ao nenckopenno, y ppyrnx no ampxeno; u1o pxe 1e, k1o okonu1enLno
ocao6opnnncL o1 a1oro nnc1nnk1, coxpnnk1 a ce6e ero cnepm - n ao1 a1n nocnepnne
npopnoc1n ory1 c1ynn1L n 1pony unannnsunn.
kn o6pso, pop uenoaeueckn nopunnne1cn pay skon - o11opxennk n
npn1nxennk, - ko1opme a psno epe aospec1ayk1 n ace pcm, npnue nepam
skon co6nkpk1 1onLko 1e pcm, ko1opm nnkorp ne pno nopnn1Lcn amue
aneen1pnoro o6Lepnnennn n ypoane nneenn, expy 1e kk a1opo pec1aye1 c
1ko cnno, u1o co6nkpkune ero a1nnueckne rpynnm 6onee cnoco6nm k nporpeccy.
o specL neo6xopno cpen1L y1ounenne. npnaen npnep npop a a6pnonnLno
nnn ceec1aenno coc1onnnn, n pn ey cnoco6noc1n, u1o6m on or nepe1n a
coc1onnne nunn, n ao1 on cpenncn nune; nc1opnn ckpmae1 ao 1Le npounoro
coc1anme aneen1m ncxopno rpynnm, n ne nsaec1no 1onLko 1o, u1o a1n aneen1m
o6ecneunnn ero 1pncqopunk, o ko1opo n pccksn; 1enepL nepep nn pae
aosoxnoc1n, pae cypL6m, n o6e onn npeponpepenenm - on 6ype1 nn6o no6epn1ene,
nn6o no6expennm.
cpenn ero no6epn1ene, npennn ero 6nec1nue cypL6o: on anc1aye1 np
cocepnn n opnoapeenno unannnsye1 nx; on ne cee1 cep1L n pspyuenne 1, rpe
npoxopn1; on yaxe1 uyxne nn1nnkn, nnc1n1y1m, npam, o6mun; nsenne1 on
nnuL 1o, u1o ey kxe1cn nonesnm nsenn1L, u1o oxno senn1L ue-1o 6onee
coaepuennm; a ero pykx cn6oc1L npeapue1cn a cnny, n pec1aye1 on 1k, kk
cksno a ncnnn: aosamcn1cn on np nkpLn.
e snk, npnxopnn nn un11enk 1kn mcnL, no a npncoanno nok kp1nne,
ko1opn oxe1 o1nocn1Lcn k nnpyc, ernn1nn, nepc, keponu, ne kxy1cn
rnanmn pa oen1. epam: nekn nunn, ne o6npkun nn cnno, nn
oryuec1ao, neoxnpnno nonpe1 nop nn1y saoea1enn n oksmae1cn nepep
nnuo noao nyuue cypL6m - 1k cnyunnocL c ckcn [akcm rynna
rHackx nnH, acnnamx a ca Ha, k acky
a k anay xr vn 3num. 1ncu a III-IV aa. a
nnH c. c V a. vacu cakca nnaanacu a Ba
aaana cknuk knaca. akcm, caamcn a Ha,
acnnarancu a raax c 4akckH rcyacaH ncn nnu
um mn nkm anH nkH (772-804). cn acnaa
anrck Hn a nx, acnmx cakcaH, aaancu
akcck rrca.] a nrnnn, korp nx saoeann nopnnm [3. Ham,
Ham ( cka. northman cam vnak) H, nnm
a an n m k.ckaaackH aaH (avaaH, maaH,
axaH), camaamH c cm VIII .a. nack ar a
nxu anm nnHaamH anu k m a rnyu Haka.
kaaa Haa amaan akraH (aaH), a Ba
mn acm kak am, a a yc nnyvn aHaa aanr.
ynua ara axaan avnuy vacu Ba na,
can nck knaca (ann) rrca Hack
(4an), acnn caa a a nak, caan ncnn a
a Hk cmran avnuy nu a Haa ycck
rcyacac. skcnac ckaaaa amn a c kak
snxa akra.]. 1opo: nekn ns6pnnm n cnnLnm npop, npenennm
nano npeppcnonoxennoc1Lk k ceuennk c ppyro kpoaLk, ac1yne1 a 6nnskne
o1nouennn c pco, o1c1noc1L ko1opo nop1aepxpe1cn ne 1onLko ee nopxenne, no
n o1cy1c1ane kuec1a, nekunxcn y no6epn1ene. ao1 c 1oro apeenn, korp
coaepunnocL saoeanne n nunocL cnnnnne, cnepye1 p1npoa1L nuno nsenenn
a coc1ae kpoan no6epn1ene. cnn o6noanenne n a1o n skonun1cn, 1o no
npouec1ann onpepenennoro nepnop, npoponxn1enLnoc1L ko1oporo sancn1 o1
nepaonunLno uncnennoc1n ac1ynnaunx a conpnkocnoaenne npopoa, cqopnpye1cn
noan pc, koneuno, ne 1kn oryuec1aennn, kk nyuun ns ee npepkoa, opnko
ace eue cnnLnn n o6npkun oco6mn kuec1an, o6ycnoanennmn ceuenne n
nensaec1nmn o6en ncxopnm rpynn. o o6muno o6Lepnnenne ne orpnnunae1cn
yuc1ne 1onLko payx pc.
npepc1ann ce6e oryuec1aennyk nnepnk, oksmakuyk annnnne n cocepe.
npepnonrk, u1o on npepnpne1 noame saoeannn, cnepoa1enLno, acnkn ps k
o6uey kpoao1oky 6ype1 po6ann1Lcn noan kpoaL.
1nmne, no epe yaennuennn nunn - s cue1 opyxnn nnn poroaopoa, - ace 6onLue
nsenne1cn ee a1nnueckn xpk1ep. n c1noan1cn 6or1o, npepnpnnunao,
unannnsoanno; no1pe6noc1n n npnamukn ppyrnx npopoa nxopn1 nonnoe
ypoane1aopenne a ee c1onnux, 6onLunx ropopx n nop1x, n k ne c1ekk1cn 1mcnun
n 1mcnun uyxeseuea. poxopn1 nenoro apeenn, n n ceny nepaonunLnoy
psnnunk no nunonnLnoy npnsnky npnxopn1 kc1oame psnnunn.
syee1cn, a coo1ae1c1ann c on nnno, npop, o ko1opo npe1 peuL, ampxe1
caon npen nsonnunn oqnunnLnmn pennrnosnmn yc1noanennnn, n npyun1ene
xpe1 cypoaoe nksnne. 1k, a1o1 npop unannnsoannm, y nero nrkne n
cnncxopn1enLnme npam pxe a o1nouennn aepm, ero opkynm kpcnopeunam n
y6epn1enLnm, no ace pano nonannk1cn anekc1oame oco6n, noa1oy kxpm penL
neo6xopno cospa1L noame psnnunn, npnpyma1L noame knccnqnkunn, noxn1L
counnLnme k1eropnn 1k, u1o neaosoxno yxe pso6p1Lcn a nrpooxpennn acex
noppspenenn, apLnpykunxcn po 6eckoneunoc1n o1 npoannunn k npoannunn, o1
kn1on k kn1ony, o1 pepeann k pepeane. enno 1k nponcxopnno a c1pnx npnn.
, noxny, 1onLko 6pxnm nponannnn c1okoc1L a nsonnunonnc1cknx npenx,
cn npopm, kc11n, unannnsoannme 6nroppn 6pxn, ne npnnnnn nnn, no
kpne epe, pano o1aeprun ckoamakune npepnncnnn. o acex rocyppc1ax,
nekunx psan1yk nn1ennek1ynLnyk kynL1ypy, nou1n ne o6punn annnnn n 1e
o1unnnme nonm1kn, ko1opme 6mnn npepnpnnn1m skonop1ennn pLnap1m ns
xennnn npnnpn1L npepnncnnn skon Mny c ynpno nornko penLnoc1n. c1m,
ko1opme cyuec1aoann, ncuesnn a 1o1 oen1, korp ace nkpn, 6es psnnunn a
nponcxoxpennn, ycaonnn nyky npo6na1Lcn naepx n nonyu1L nsaec1noc1L
6nroppn nonesnm o1kpm1nn nnn 1nn1. o opnoapeenno c a1oro pnn nunn,
6maun korp-1o no6epn1enLnnue n k1nano unannnsykue cnno, c1n ncues1L:
ee kpoaL ceuncL co acen c1ekkunncn k ne pyuekn.
poe 1oro, uc1o cnyue1cn, u1o uncnennoc1L ponnnpykuero npop nunne1
yenLu1Lcn no cpanennk c no6expennmn, , c ppyro c1oponm, neko1opme pcm,
cnyxune qynpen1o pnn ncenennn o6unpnmx 1eppn1opn, 6mc1po psnoxk1cn
- nnpnep kenL1m n cnanne. o1 eue opn npnunn, nouey 6mc1po ncuesk1
rocnopc1aykune pcm. [pyrn sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o nx amcokn k1nanoc1L n
6onLun ponL a rocyppc1aennmx penx uue penk1 nx npepc1an1ene xep1an
aon n n1exe. kn o6pso, ecnn, c opno c1oponm, onn o6Lepnnnk1 aokpyr ce6n,
6nroppn caoe unannns1opcko qynkunn, ppyrne aneen1m, u1o6m norno1n1L nx, 1o
onn c1noan1cn xep1an caoe nouncnennoc1n n eue 1mcnu npounx
pspyun1enLnmx o6c1on1enLc1a.
ueanpno, u1o ncuesnoaenne pcm-no6epn1enLnnum a psnmx pernonx nponcxopn1
psnmn 1enn. e ne enee, a1o1 npouecc ackpy npe1 po konu, n aespe on
saepue1cn sponro po 1oro, kk ncuese1 unannnsunn, poxpennn a1o pco;
nnmn cnoan, npop oxe1 xn1L, cyuec1aoa1L, qynkunonnpoa1L, pxe
c1noan1Lcn cnnLnee yxe nocne 1oro, kk ncuesn panxyun cnn ero xnsnn n cnam.
osoxno, specL ec1L npo1naopeune c 1e, u1o cksno amue? nckonLko, no1oy u1o
ecnn annnnne unannnsykue kpoan ocn6nne1cn, 1o oc1e1cn aneprnn, korp-1o
anoxennn a nokopennme nnn npncoepnnennme npopm: 1k, nnc1n1y1m, ko1opme
cospn nokonm unannns1op, skonm, ko1opme on cqopynnpoan, openL npaoa,
ko1opme on oc1ann, xnay1 n nocne ero cep1n. oneuno, npam, skonm, nnc1n1y1m
anponsennk1cn, nckxk1cn, 1epnk1 caok cnny n k1ynLnoc1L, no nok xo1L u1o-1o
o1 nnx oc1e1cn, spnne c1on1, a 1ene xnae1 pyu, 1pyn eue panre1cn. orp
nepaonunLnm nnynLc pene1 nocnepnn aspox, ace sknunae1cn, nnuero ne
oc1e1cn, unannnsunn ynpe1.
enepL, kk ne kxe1cn, n nek ace neo6xopnoe, u1o6m peun1L aonpoc xnsnn n
cep1n nun, n snannk, u1o nn opnn npop nnkorp 6m ne yep, ecnn 6m coc1onn ns
opnnx n 1ex xe nunonnLnmx aneen1oa. cnn 6m nnepnn [pnn orn amc1an1L a
6n1ae npn p6enne nepcoa, nc1nnnmx pnea, ecnn 6m pnnnne nxne nepnn
nenn cen1 n nnnunk, coc1anennme ns a1nnuecknx aneen1oa, noxoxnx n 1e, u1o
cyuec1aoann ao apeen O6nea, nx anpmuec1ao ne skonunnocL 6m, n coxpnn
nepcm n pnnnne uenoc1noc1L kpoan, onn 6m xnnn n upnnn eue ponro. Mne ory1
aospsn1L, u1o a konue konuoa n k nn 6m npnunn 6onee cnnLnme saoea1enn nnn
onn ace pano 6m pyxnynn nop psnmn yppn, a pesynL11e npoponxn1enLnoro
panennn nnn npoc1o o1 cnyuno nponrpnno 6n1am. [ec1an1enLno, rocyppc1a
ory1 ncues1L 1kn ny1e, no 1onLko ne unannnsunn, ne counnLnm oprnns.
uec1ann n nopxennn - a1o acero nnuL pocpnme, no apeennme s1pypnennn.
pnepoa 1oy npepoc11ouno.
coapeennyk anoxy kn1uea saoeamann paxpm, n onn acerp amnyxpnn
saoea1ene ccnnnnpoa1Lcn c nnn, onn anyunn n yaxenne k caon npa,
onn noroe n pnn n nou1n nnuero o1 nnx ne asnnn. epamx sxa1unkoa onn
npornnn, n npnpe1 apen - 1k xe noc1ynn1 co a1opmn.
nrnnune - xosnea npnn, opnko nx npac1aennoe annnnne n noppnnmx pano
nou1n nynk. snnunmn ny1nn onn cn nopaepxenm annnnnk ec1no
unannnsunn n ne ory1 aneppn1L caon npen a ym cc, ko1opme 6on1cn nx n
nokopnk1cn n 1onLko qnsnueckn, coxpnnn cao o6ps xnsnn ao ace uenoc1noc1n.
[eno a 1o, u1o nnpycckn pc oc1ncL uyxo 1o pce, ko1opn 1 ceropnn
anc1aye1, n ee unannnsunn ne noppe1cn skony cnnm. neunne qopm,
koponeac1a, nnepnn ory1 nsenn1Lcn, no ocnoa, n ko1opo c1on1 1kne
coopyxennn, oxe1 enn1Lcn 1onLko aec1e c nnn, n nyc1L pp6p, xop n
[enn nepec1ny1 6m1L c1onnun - nnpycckoe o6uec1ao a1oro pxe ne se1n1.
pnpe1 penL, korp, 1e nnn nnm o6pso, npnn nune1 xn1L cnoa no caon
skon, kk on pene1 a1o n ceuc, 1onLko ckpm1no, n 6nroppn nmneune pce
nnn e1nc aocc1noan1 caok nonn1nueckyk cyunoc1L.
Cnyunme saoeannn ne peuk1 cypL6y npop n ero xnsnL. Coe 6onLuee - onn
ory1 npnaec1n k 1oy, u1o n kkoe-1o apen npop nepec1e1 nponann1L ce6n n
1epne1 aneunne 1pn6y1m. ok kpoaL npop n ero nnc1n1y1m eue coxpnnk1 a
poc11ouno c1enenn cnepm nsnunLno pcm, a1o1 npop ne ype1; nyc1L on, kk
kn1um, nee1 peno c saoea1ennn, ko1opme npeaocxopn1 ero 1onLko a
1epnnLno nnne, nnn, kk nnpycm, aepe1 onunnayk n 1epnennayk 6opL6y
npo1na nunn, npeaocxopnue ero ao acex o1nouennnx (nrnnune), ero 6ypyuee
cnyxn1 ey y1euenne - korp-nn6ypL on 6ype1 cao6open. , nnpo1na, 1o1 npop,
ko1opm, kk rpekn nnn pnnnne nxne nepnn, coaepuenno ncuepnn cao
a1nnueckn npnnunn, ype1 a nepam penL caoero nopxennn: on ncnonLsoan apen,
pnnoe ey camue, 1. k. nonnoc1Lk nsennn caok pcy, caok npnpopy n,
cnepoa1enLno, ampopnncn.
cxopn ns a1nx pccyxpenn, cnepye1 cun11L peuennm aonpoc o 1o, u1o 6mno 6m,
ecnn 6m kpqrennne ne no1epnenn nopxenne o1 ypunnaoro n, c1nn 6m
xosnean 1nnn. ockonLky onn npnnpnex1 k qnnnkncko pce, yc1ynkue a
nonn1nuecknx kuec1ax nernonep Cunnnon, nno ncxop 6n1am npn 3e nnkk ne
o1psnncn 6m n nx cypL6e. nn ornn aoc1opxec1aoa1L n opnn penL, n
cnepykun ace pano nponrpnn 6m; nnn ppyro apnn1: a pesynL11e caoe no6epm
onn ornn 6m ann1Lcn a n1nLnnckn aneen1 (a1noc), kk a1o n cnyunnocL nocne nx
nopxennn, no okonu1enLnm pesynL11 6mn 6m 1e xe cm. CypL6 unannnsun
ne nee1 nnuero o6uero co cnyunoc1Lk n ne sancn1 o1 pcknp kp1; eu y6nae1
1onLko nkpe, n cme aonnc1aennme, cme oncnme n ypunname nunn, korp y
nnx a ceppue, a ronoae n a pykx ne1 nnuero, kpoe 6papm, c1p1ernueckoro
nckycc1a n aoennoro aesennn, ne1 nnoro amcuero nnc1nnk1, a nyuue cnyue
sknunak1 1e, u1o yu1cn y no6expennmx, npnue yu1cn nnoxo, kk npo xn1L a
npno o6c1noake. nnnx kenL1oa, koueamx opp ns snn, ec1L noro nn1epecnoro
n noyun1enLnoro n ce cue1.
Mm onpepennnn cmcn cnoa ampoxpenne n c ero noouLk pcco1penn aonpoc
xnsnec1okoc1n npopoa, 1enepL npo poks1L 1o, u1o pnn ncnoc1n o6cyxpennn n
ponxen 6mn snan1L npnopn: ec1L cyuec1aennme psnnunn expy uenoaeuecknn
pcn. ocnepc1ann a1oro poks1enLc1a 6ypy1 ne1L orponoe snuenne. o
npexpe ue m npnc1ynn k a1oy, cnepye1 amc1pon1L ack coaokynnoc1L qk1oa n
pccyxpenn, cnoco6nmx ampepx1L c1onL 6onLuoe spnne. euenne nepaoro
aonpoc 6mno nnuL npeppaepne xp.
V
Bk y u y.
MmcnL o apoxpenno, ncxopno n ps n nacerp yc1noanenno nepaenc1ae expy
psnmn pcn nanne1cn opno ns cmx pcnpoc1pnennmx c nesnn1nmx apeen.
a1o ne ypnan1enLno npn anpe npnn1nano consonnunn nneen n npopnoc1e n
o1c1pnennn n yxop a ce6n - a a1o coc1onnnn ace onn npe6mann a npouno n
6onLunnc1ao po cnx nop ne oxe1 am1n ns nero. e cun1n 1oro, u1o nponsouno a
nmneunkk anoxy, a1o nonn1ne cnyxnno ocnoao nou1n acex 1eopn npanennn. e1
npop, 6onLuoro nnn noro, ko1opm ne penn 6m ns a1o npepnocmnkn nepayk
kcny rocyppc1aennoro yc1poc1a. Cnc1em kc1, sn1n, pnc1okp1nn,
ocnoannme n npepor1nax poxpennn, ne nek1 nnoro nc1ounnk; 1o xe coe
oxno cks1L n o npae c1punnc1a no aospc1y, npepnonrkue npnopnoe
npenyuec1ao cmn-nepaenu n ero no1okoa. s a1o pok1pnnm am1ekk1 nenpnn1ne
uyxk n npeaocxopc1ao, ko1opoe kxpn nunn kynL1nanpye1 no o1nouennk k
cocepn. onLko no epe 1oro, kk rpynnm nkpe nepeeunak1cn n cnnak1cn,
yaennunak1cn a uncnennoc1n, unannnsyk1cn n nunnk1 6onee 6nrocknonno
asnp1L ppyr n ppyr a cnny asnno nonesnoc1n, a1 6conk1nn kcno o
nepaenc1ae n npexpe acero apxpe6noc1n expy pcn pe1 1peunny n c1an1cn
nop conenne. 31e, korp 6onLunnc1ao rpxpn rocyppc1a nouyac1aye1, u1o y nnx
a xnnx 1eue1 ceunnn kpoaL, a1o 6onLunnc1ao npeapue1 a ynnaepcnLnyk n
6conk1nyk nc1nny npek o 1o, u1o ace nkpn panm. nonne nonn1noe o1apuenne k
yrne1ennk, ec1ec1aennm c1px nepep snoyno1pe6nennnn cnnm 6pock1 1enL n
nn1L o korp-1o ponnnpoaaunx pcx, ko1opme, nockonLky 1koa a1o1 np, acerp
scnyxnak1 ynpek. 1 snanenn npo1na 1npnnn nkpn nepexopn1 k o1pnunnk
ec1ec1aennmx npnunn npeaocxopc1a; onn o6Lnannk1 npnnunn npeaocxopc1a
nsapuenne n ysypnune npa, s6man o 1o, u1o neko1opme cnoco6noc1n, kk a1o
nn npnckop6no, oxno o6Lncnn1L 1onLko ncnepc1aennoc1Lk. koneu, ue 6onLue
re1eporennmx aneen1oa annae1cn a npop, 1e uue on snanne1, u1o ace, 6es
ncknkuennn, uc1num pop uenoaeueckoro o6npk1 nnn ory1 o6np1L cmn
psnoo6psnmn, 1. e. no cy1n opnnkoamn pnn acex kuec1an. D1y 1eopnk, 6onee
nnn enee oqopnennyk, npocaeuennme e1ncm npnennk1 k coaokynnoc1n
nokonenn, ko1opme 6mnn, ec1L n eue 6ypy1 n sene, n a opnn npekpcnm penL
npnxopn1 k amaopy, ko1opm, kk Donoa pq, 1n1 a ce6e c1onLko 6ypL: ce nkpn
- 6p1Ln! (pnepo cnyx1 nsaec1nme c1pokn ns c1nxo1aopennn Lennn oponea
Ma6).
D1o, 1k cks1L, nonn1nueckn kcno. ao1 kcno nyunn: ce nkpn, -
y1aepxpk1 sun1nnkn uenoaeueckoro paenc1a, - npenenm panmn
nn1ennek1ynLnmn nnc1pyen1n opno npnpopm n opnnkoao snunoc1n.
Moxe1 6m1L, un11 ne coace 1ounn, s1o cmcn ncen. mxopn1, u1o osxeuok
rypon copepxn1 a ce6e spopmu pyx, kon o1nnue1cn nrnnunnn nnn qpnuys!
ouey xe 1orp a 1euenne nornx aekoa on ne o1kpmn nn neu1noro c1nk, nn
npoao unnm? anpae cnpocn1L y a1oro rypon, ecnn on 1ko xe, kk nun
coo1euec1aennnkn, nouey aonnm ero nneenn ne pnn npy Uespn nnn pn
ennkoro, n no kko pocpno cnyunoc1n ero neaum n nekpn ne cpennncL nn
oepn, nn nnnokp1n? ec1o o1ae1 n a1o1 kaepsnm aonpoc o6mknoaenno
npepnrk1 1eopnk o reorpqnuecko nnn knn1nuecko qk1ope. Corncno e,
kko-nn6ypL oc1poa nnkorp ne yanpn1 1oro nporpecc, kko o6muen pnn
kon1nnen1; n ceaepe ne 6ype1 1oro, u1o ec1L n kre; a necx neaosoxnm
poc1nxennn, ko1opm cnoco6c1aye1 o1kpm1n ec1noc1L n 1k pnee. nxnn
6ono1nc1n noua npnaepe1 k pcuae1y unannnsunn, ko1opn nenpeenno suxne1 a
xpko Cxpe. k 6m nn 6mnn nsoupennm 1kne rnno1esm, qk1m ynpno
onpoaeprk1 nx. eco1pn n ae1ep, poxpL, xonop, xpy, ckypnyk nnn, no6opo1,
cnnuko 6ynyk pc1n1enLnoc1L n ace sene, n 1o xe co nouae cyuec1ayk1
6ok o 6ok n apapc1ao n unannnsunn. 36n1m qennx xpn1cn nop 1e xe
connue, u1o n oryuec1aennm xpeu ns Meqnc; yuenm npoqeccop ns Bepnnn
xnae1 nop 1e xe cypoam ne6o, ko1opoe asnpe1 caepxy n nnue1y nonypnkoro
qnnn.
Coe ypnan1enLnoe a 1o, u1o arnn1pns, nponoaepyem cco yoa, ns
ko1opmx on nponnk a nun nnc1n1y1m n npam, ne nuen a ce6e cnn pnn 1oro, u1o6m
c6pocn1L c 1pon oueanpnme qk1m, n u1o nkpn, nn6onee y6expennme a ero npao1e,
exepneano pk1 aonk npo1naononoxnm uyac1a. nk1o ne o1pnue1 6onLunx
psnnun expy nunnn, o6mpennm nsmk pxe npoaosrnue1 nx c nnano
nocnepoa1enLnoc1Lk. D1o ec1L noa1openne 1oro, u1o roaopnnocL ao apeen, ne
c1onL ynpnme, kk nun, o6 6conk1no paenc1ae pc.
Y kxpo nunn npnpy c poro o 6p1c1ae acerp 6mnn oco6me ann1e1m n
xpk1epnc1nkn, nopuepknakune necxopc1ao. nnnnnn ns 1nnn nsman
rpeueckoro pnnnnnn rpekynyc n npnnncman ey xac1nnaoc1L n 1pycoc1L. n
ncexncn np kpqrenckn konono n y1aepxpn, u1o ysne1 ero ns 1mcnun no ero
1yropynk n neuec1noc1n. Xn1ene nekcnppnn cun1nn ckpm1nmn, nxnLnmn n
6yn1pnn. cpepnne aek nrno-nopnnckne onpxn o6annnnn caonx noppnnmx
- rnnoa a nerkomcnnn n nenoc1onnc1ae. k1o ceropnn ne cnmun o6npnmx
ann1e1oa no ppecy euea, ncnnuea, nrnnun, pyccknx? e ne cypn1L o
cnpaepnnaoc1n 1knx cyxpenn - n xouy nnuL o1e1n1L, u1o onn cyuec1ayk1 a
cosnnnn nkpe. oa1oy, ecnn, c opno c1oponm, roaopn1, u1o ace pcm panm, c
ppyro, opnn nerkomcnennm, ppyrne cpepxnnm, opnn cknonnm k nkonnennk,
ppyrne k pc1oun1enLnoc1n, opnn npan1cn aoea1L, ppyrne 6epery1 caok xnsnL,
snun1, a1n c1onL o1nnukunecn ppyr o1 ppyr nunn ponxnm ne1L n psnnunme
cypL6m. Cme cnnLnme 6ypy1 nrp1L a 1prepnn a1oro np ponn upe n
anc1n1ene. Cn6me y1eu1cn enLun.
ne pyk, u1o a nue apen nponsouno c6nnxenne expy o6uenpnnn1mn npenn
o cyuec1aoannn oco6oro xpk1ep a kxpo npope n ne enee pcnpoc1pnennm
y6expenne a 1o, u1o ace npopm panm. pnko o1 a1oro npo1naopeunn ne
o1xny1Lcn - ono 1e 6onee 6poce1cn a rns, u1o c1oponnnkn peokp1nn ne
nocnepnnn aocxannk1 npeaocxopc1ao ckcoa Ceaepno epnkn np oc1nLnmn
nunnn a1oro kon1nnen1. nn o6Lncnnk1, npap, amcokne kuec1a caonx kynpoa
oco6ennoc1nn npanennn. e ne enee, nckonLko ne nsaec1no, onn ne o1pnuk1
oco6ennm apoxpennm 1nn1 coo1euec1aennnkoa enn n unnr1on, ko1opm
coc1on1 a 1o, u1o onn cyenn cosp1L a caoe c1pne nn6epnLnme nnc1n1y1m n 1e
6onee coxpnn1L nx. k psae, n ac cnpunak, 1koe ynopc1ao ne ec1L
npepor1na a1o ae1an uenoaeueckoro pop, npnue npepor1na 1e 6onee uennn,
u1o 6onLunnc1ao o6unoc1e, ko1opme korp-1o ncennnn nnn ncennk1 ceropnn
acenennyk, nnuenm ero?
Y enn ne1 nepennn 6espoks1enLno 6panpoa1L a1n necoo1ae1c1ane.
syee1cn, specL npnaepxenum paenc1a o1e1n1 ponL nnc1n1y1oa n npaoa: onn
eue ps ckxy1, nckonLko cyunoc1L npanennn a cnny caoe po6pope1enn,
nckonLko nnnune pecno1ns nnn cao6opm annnk1 n kuec1a n psan1ne nunn,
no n ne npenny ocnopn1L 1ko pryen1.
onn1nueckne nnc1n1y1m nek1 1onLko pa nc1ounnk: nn6o onn nponcxopn1 nsny1pn
nunn, ko1opn ponxn co6nkp1L nx, nn6o onn npnpymak1cn ppyrn
oryuec1aennm npopo, ko1opm npnnocn1 nx n 1eppn1opnk, oksauykcn nop
ero annnnne.
o1nouennn nepao rnno1esm ace ncno. ueanpno, u1o npop cospe1 pnn ce6n
nnc1n1y1m, ncxopn ns caonx nnc1nnk1oa n no1pe6noc1e; on, psyee1cn, ne c1n 6m
ampyma1L 1o, u1o oxe1 npo1naopeun1L 1e nnn ppyrn, ecnn no nepoco1py nnn
neyennk on cpenn a1o, 1orp cpsy nponannkunecn counnLnme nepyrn sc1an1
ero ncnpan1L skonm n npnaec1n nx a coo1ae1c1ane c uennn. nk6o nesancno
c1pne skon acerp ncxopn1 o1 npop; peno aoace ne a 1o, u1o npop oxe1
npoaosrncn1L ero nenocpepc1aenno, no nockonLky xopoun skon ponxen o1aeu1L
ero y6expennn n asrnnp, nonyue1cn, u1o on n ec1L a1op skonoa. cnn n
nepam asrnnp epnnc1aennm 1aopuo skon kxe1cn kko-nn6ypL yppm
skonop1enL, 1o no spenoy psmunennk c1noan1cn ncno, u1o a cnny caoe
yppoc1n poc1ou1nm a1p ponxen nsnr1L caon nonoxennn nop pnk1oaky nunn.
cnn on 1k xe ypp, kk nkypr, on ne npnpye1 nnuero, u1o 6ype1 ne no akycy
cnp1nu, 1ko 1eope1nk, kk [pkon, co1aopn1 skon, ko1opm 6ype1 1y1 xe
ncnpanen nnn o1aeprny1 qnnn, n6o qnnnne, kk ace pe1n p, ne ornn 6m
ponro 1epne1L skonoa, uyxpmx nx nc1nnnm n ec1ec1aennm yc1penennn.
eu1enLc1ao camue a a1o1 aennkn npouecc skono1aopuec1a - a1o acerp
nponanenne npocaeuenno aonn npop, ecnn peuL npe1 o nnopx psmunenn
opnoro uenoaek, 1o nn opnn npop ne coxe1 xn1L no 1kn skon.
Cnepoa1enLno, ne1 ocnoann cun11L, u1o nnc1n1y1m, npnpynnme n yupexpennme
kko-1o pco, onpepennk1 xpk1ep n caoc1a D1o pcm. Mm nee specL
cnepc1ane, ne npnunny. oneuno, ne c1on1 o1pnu1L nx snunoc1L: onn coxpnnk1
nunonnLnm renn, npoknpmak1 ey popory, onpepennk1 uenn n pxe po
neko1opo c1enenn nopnn1mak1 ero nnc1nnk1m n pk1 a pykn opypnn pec1ann; no
onn ne ory1 cospa1L caoero 1aopu, noorn psana1L ero apoxpennme
kuec1a, uc1o 1epnn1 kpx, korp amxopn1 s pkn caoe cqepm nnn nm1k1cn
nsenn1L ee. pnn cnoao, onn ne ory1 cpen1L neaosoxnoe.
Cnpaepnnaoc1n ppn o1e1n, u1o noxnme nnc1n1y1m n nx nocnepc1ann nrpnn
snun1enLnyk ponL a nc1opnn npopoa. orp pn I, cnepyn koapnoy coae1y rpq
C1pqqoppckoro, sxo1en cknonn1L nrnnun k 6conk1noy onpxnueckoy
npanennk, koponL n ero nnnc1p c1ynnnn n sm6kyk n kpoaayk nouay
1eope1nsnpoannn. orp knLannnc1m eu1nn o npanennn, opnoapeenno
pnc1okp1nuecko n pecny6nnkncko, n nm1nncL yc1noan1L ero cnno opyxnn,
onn 1kxe npec1ynnnn uep1y, o1pennkuyk nc1nnnoe o1 noxnoro.
orp peren1 cpenn anp, 6yp1o xoue1 npo1nny1L pyky npnpaopnm, no6expennm n
a 1652 r., n snnncn nn1pnrn, nopcksnnmn ey kopLk1opo n ero ppysLnn
[a -c a cax ca cnaana aHn, v nan,
ckyman kaanH mnu, Hna vr r c
anaH, c acmH ackavckH cHcaaH.
MHac, -Ma Maak xn nnc rcyaca nuk a
cax kmcmx ca. nkr kaana anac an a
cn ayck a.], a1n urn nnkoy ne nonpannncL n ockop6nnn
panm o6pso sn1L, pyxoaenc1ao n 1pe1Le cocnoane. o korp Oeppnnnp 1onnk
nun npo1na ncnncknx apoa xec1okne, no neo6xopnme penpeccnn, korp
noneon aocc1noann ao Opnunn pennrnk, nopnnn aonnckn pyx, oprnnsoan
anc1L, npepoc1ana e unpokne npa n a 1o xe apen orpnnuna ee pkn, a a1nx
payx cnyunx o6 onpx xopouo nonnnn renn caonx noppnnmx n c1ponnn
spnne n 1aeppo nouae. opoue roaopn, noxnme nnc1n1y1m, ko1opme uc1o kpcnao
amrnnpn1 n 6yre, ne yun1mak1 nunonnLnme caoc1a n npnamukn n ne ropn1cn
pnn pnnoro rocyppc1a, xo1n, aosoxno, nopounn 6m pnn cocepnero npop. nn
poxpk1 nnuL 6ecnopnpok n npxnk, pxe ecnn npopnk1oanm cmn 6nrnn
nepennnn. [pyrne xe nnc1n1y1m nnn skonm, nopo scnyxenno nnn
nescnyxenno 6pnnme 1eope1nkn n opnnc1n, ory1 6m1L xopounn no
npo1naononoxnm npnunn. Cnp1num 6mnn neaennkn uncno n aennkn ceppue,
uec1onk6nam n aonnc1aenno cypoam, n u1o xe? oxnme skonm npeap1nnn 6m nx a
o1Lnanennmx ouennnkoa, nkypr nx cpenn reponn-ps6onnkn.
1k, nop nonn1L cnepykuee: ps nunn nonanncL pnLue skon, skon 1aopn1
on c, on nece1 n ce6e ee neu1L, n 1onLko no1o skon nunne1 annn1L n
nunk. [oks1enLc1ao cnyx1 nsenennn nnc1n1y1oa, ko1opme anocn1 apen.
mue 6mno cksno, u1o no epe 1oro, kk npopm unannnsyk1cn, yaennunak1 caok
uncnennoc1L n oryuec1ao, nx kpoaL nepeeunae1cn, nnc1nnk1m npe1epneak1
noc1enennme nsenennn. 1o xe kce1cn cnoco6noc1e, onn ne ory1 npncnoco6n1Lcn
k skon npepuec1aennnkoa. [nn noamx nokonenn 1kxe neaosoxno
npncnoco6n1Lcn k c1pm npa n 1enpenunn, noa1oy cnyc1n kkoe-1o apen
nponcxopn1 yxe 6onee rny6okne nepeenm. pnue a1n nepeenm c1noan1cn 6onee
uc1mn n rny6oknn no epe nsenennn pcm, expy 1e kk onn cnyunncL pepko n
6mnn noc1enennmn, nok coc1a ncenennn enLue o1nnuncn o1 cmx nepamx
ocnoa1ene rocyppc1a. nrnnn, rpe ceuenne kpoan nponcxopnno epnennee,
ue a oc1nLno apone, po cnx nop coxpnnnncL nnc1n1y1m ue1mpnpu1oro n
nn1npu1oro aekoa a co ocnoae counnLnoro spnnn. nou1n a nepaospnno
anpe oxno ac1pe1n1L o6unnnyk oprnnsunk nn1rene1oa n kpopoa, c1pme
1ppnunn yuc1nn sn1n a npanennn n qopnpoannn a1o sn1n, yaxenne k
ppeanoc1n popoa n npexnee o1nouenne k amckouk. pnko co apeen koa I n
oco6enno Ynnn koponeam nnm nrnnckn kpoaL nun ceuna1Lcn c kpoaLk
uo1nnpuea n npnnpuea, n c1enenL unc1o1m no1oc1a noannnnn n ppyrne nunn, a
pesynL11e ceropnn 1 ace 6onLue noaoaaepenn, npap, oc1kunxcn aepnmn
nsnunLnoy pyxy konc1n1yunn.
o Opnunn a1nnueckne 6pkn acerp 6mnn 6onee uc1mn n psnoo6psnmn.
anoxn no1pncenn cnyunocL, u1o anc1L nepexopnn o1 opno pcm k ppyro.
counnLno xnsnn nponcxopnnn ckopee kpy1me nepeenm, ue nesnun1enLnme
nsenennn, n a1n nepeenm 6mnn 1e kpyue, ue 6onLue o1nnunncL ppyr o1 ppyr
rpynnm, cennaunecn y pynn anc1n. ok ceaepnn uc1L Opnunn oc1ancL a
pycne rnano nonn1nkn c1pnm, qeopnm, nnn, nyuue cks1L, nx 6ecqopennme
oc11kn, conpo1nannnncL noaoaaepennn npn noppepxke ynnunnnLnmx nnc1n1y1oa.
ocne nsrnnnn nrnnun a XV a. a uen1pnLnmx npoannunnx, enee nopaepxennmx
repnckoy annnnnk, ue senn n ppyro 6epery ypm, rpe 1onLko u1o 6mn
aocc1noanen nunonnLnn nesancnoc1L nop anc1Lk pn VII, rnno-ponckn
kpoaL npeo6npn a coae1x n a cenLcko ec1noc1n, upnn aonnc1aennm pyx, pyx
saoeann, npncyun kenL1cko pce, n nk6oaL k anc1n, npnanecennn a
ponckyk kpoaL. 1euenne XVI a. 6mn a ocnoano nopro1oanen noua, n ko1opo
kan1nckne c1oponnnkn enpnx IV, a enLue c1enenn kenL1m n a 6onLue
ponum, a 1599 r. snoxnnn kpeyronLnm kenL 6conk1ns. 31e, korp pnx
nkoneu npno6pen anc1L a pesynL11e konuen1punn, ko1opo cnoco6c1aoan kxnm
renn, pnx, uLe ncenenne npepc1anne1 co6o co6pnne cmx psnmx a1nnuecknx
aneen1oa, nepec1n nonn1L n yax1L nk6me 1ppnunn; a1 aennkn c1onnu, a1
annonckn 6unn, nopaa c npounm Onnppnn, y1y, nrepok, aoanekn ack
Opnunk a neanpnnme po1one akcnepnen1m, ocnoannme n pok1pnnx,
coaepuenno uyxpmx ee npounm o6mun.
oa1oy nenLsn cun11L, u1o nnc1n1y1m qopnpyk1 npop, - oueanpno, u1o ace
o6c1on1 kk ps no6opo1. o kk 6m1L co a1opo rnno1eso - korp nunn nonyue1
skonm ns pyk uyxeseuea, o6npkunx poc11ouno cnno?
o1n 1kne nonm1kn a nc1opnn cnyunncL, onn ne s1prnann ocnoa kpynnmx c1pn.
nnnne 6mnn poc11ouno yppm n npepyco1pn1enLnm, u1o6m ne aansma1Lcn a
c1onL oncnme npepnpnn1nn. knx nonm1ok ne penn po nnx n nekcnpp;
ncnepnnkn aryc1, yaepennme, 6nroppn nnc1nnk1y nnn yy, a 6ecnnopnoc1n
nopo6nmx nnnoa, npepnoun1nn, 1k xe kk n no6epn1enL [pnn, upc1aoa1L np
psnouae1Le npopoa, ko1opme coxpnnnn caon o6mun, npnamukn, npam, skonm n
caon e1opm pnnnc1p1nanoro npanennn n ko1opme a caoe 6onLunnc1ae ornn
cnpn1Lcn psae u1o c skonn, kckunncn nnoroa n aoenno cnyx6m.
pn a1o ne cnepye1 s6ma1L opno axnoe o6c1on1enLc1ao. o6pse xnsnn
neko1opmx npopoa, nokopennmx pnnnnn, 6mnn 1kne o6mun, c ko1opmn
no6epn1enn nnkk ne ornn npnnpn1Lcn - ckxe, uenoaeueckne
xep1aonpnnouennn y ppynpoa - n ko1opme onn npecnepoann cmn cypoamn
cpepc1an. ace xe pnnnne co ace caoe ouLk 1k n ne cornn po konu
nckopenn1L apapckne pn1ynm. p6onne a1o ne npepc1anno oco6oro 1pyp:
rnnLckoe ncenenne nou1n uennko 6mno am1ecneno pncknn kononnn
(nocenenun), a uen1pnLnmx o6nc1nx, rpe oc1anncL ec1nme nneen,
conpo1nanenne npoponxnocL ponro; 1k xe o6c1onno peno n 6pe1oncko
nonyoc1poae, kyp a IV a. npnuenLum ns nrnnn npnnecnn c co6o c1pme npam
aec1e co c1po kpoaLk; onn npoponxnn - ns uyac1a n1pno1ns n
npnansnnoc1n k caon 1ppnunn - pes1L nkpe n caonx n1pnx. Cme cypoame
epm ne ornn ampa1L ns nx pyk canuennm nox n qken. ce n1exn nunnnncL c
aocc1noanennn a1oro yxcnoro nunonnLnoro kynL1, y popnknuea
no6epnauee xpnc1nnc1ao, ace eue aosyuennoe 6esnpac1aennm nonn1enso,
c1onknynocL c eue 6onee o11nknakunn cyeaepnnn. y ypnocL cnpan1Lcn c
nnn nnuL nocne ponrnx ycnnn, n pxe a XVII a. y6nc1ao no1epneaunx
kop6nekpyuenne ' npoponxno cyuec1aoa1L ao acex npn6pexnmx npnxopx, rpe
knepnckn kpoaL oc1ancL unc1o. [eno a 1o, u1o a1n apapckne o6mun
o1aeunn nnc1nnk1 n uyac1a, npncyun pce, ko1opn ne npe1epnen
cyuec1aennoro ceuennn n eue ne nen poc11ounmx ocnoann, u1o6m nsenn1L
caon npnamukn.
D1o o6c1on1enLc1ao scnyxnae1 annnnn, no a nmneunne apeen m nee peno a
ocnoano c skonn nansnnmn, ne ycaoennmn. pno ns oco6ennoc1e
eaponecko unannnsunn nanne1cn ee ne1epnnoc1L - cnepc1ane ocosnnnn caoe
ncknkun1enLnoc1n n cnnm. n cocepc1aye1 nn6o c ynpnmn apapn, nn6o c
ppyrnn unannnsunnn. k 1e, n k ppyrn on o1nocn1cn c nou1n opnnkoam
npene6pexenne; on anpn1 ao ace, u1o o1nnue1cn o1 nee, npenn1c1ane pnn caonx
saoeann, noa1oy 1pe6ye1 o1 saoeannmx npopoa nonno 1pncqopunn. e
ne enee, ncnnum, nrnnune n ronnnpum, 1kxe nnorp n m, oc1epernncL
cnnuko poaepn1Lcn noa1opckn nopma, c1nknancL c norouncnennmn
ccn; 1kn o6pso, onn 6pnn npnep c saoea1ene ppeanoc1n, o6npaunx
amnyxpenno cpepxnnoc1Lk. c1opnn oc1ok n qpnkn - n Kxno n oc1ouno -
canpe1enLc1aye1 o 1o, u1o cme npocaeuennme nunn ne a cnnx anyun1L
nokopennm npop skonm, npo1nanme nx n1ype. yxe ynonnn, u1o
6pn1nckn npnn npoponxe1 xn1L caoe noroaekoao xnsnLk no skon,
npnpynnm npepkn. anuea, xo1n onn n nopaeprk1cn cnnLnoy rne1y, ne
npnnyxpk1 nopunnn1Lcn nnc1n1y1, ckonnpoannm c skonoa npepnnpoa. nn
no-npexney uyac1ayk1 ce6n cao6opnmn o1 caonx rocnop, n, nunnn c XVI a., korp
nuncL eaponeckn akcnncnn n aoc1ok, ne1 npnsnkoa 1oro, u1o apon xo1L a
neue c1enenn noannnn n npam pxe cmx unannnsoannmx nneen.
o nokopennme npopm nepoc11ouno norouncnennm, u1o6m eaponeckne
saoea1enn cnpnnncL c a1o cn1yune. neko1opmx ponx onn ncnonLsoann
ack cnny opyxnn a noouL cpepc1a y6expennn. nn nm1nncL nsenn1L ec1nm
o6ps xnsnn n aneppn1L nnc1n1y1m, ko1opme m cun1e xopounn n nonesnmn. o
nckonLko a1o n ypnocL?
a1o cmcne epnk pe1 n oco6enno noro npnepoa. kre acn ouL
cnnnn 6mn 6pouen n nopanenne, n k uey a1o npnaeno? pspyuennk
ec1nmx nnepn, no 1onLko ne k npocaeuennk npopoa; n rnanoe - ne nonannocL
nkpe, noxoxnx n npnuenLuea.
ceaepe ncnonLsoann ppyrne e1opm, no pesynL11m oksnncL c1onL xe
ney6epn1enLnm; p u1o n roaopk - onn 6mnn panm nynk, u1o kce1cn
6nro1aopnoro aospec1ann, n k1c1poqnuecknn c 1oukn spennn uenoaeunoc1n,
no1oy u1o ceropnn nnpeum, no kpne epe, ncnnckne, ycnnenno psnoxk1cn;
onn pxe 1pncqopnpoann kpoaL caonx no6epn1ene, ko1opme 1e cm
onyc1nnncL po nx ypoann, expy 1e kk kpcnokoxne Coepnnennmx L11oa ne
ampepxnn nrnockconckoro n1nck n nou1n amepnn. c1aunecn ynpk1
kxpm penL n yxopn1 ns xnsnn 1knn xe neunannnsoannmn n ne
npncnoco6nennmn k unannnsunn, kk n nx o1um.
kennn cn1yunn 1kn xe: ackpy nponcxopn1 yenLuenne uncnennoc1n
6opnrenoa. norp ype1cn ampa1L y nnx ns pyk opyxne, noeu1L n apepn1L
nporpeccy, no onn ne ennk1cn. ckpy, rpe xosnnnuk1 eaponeum, ec1nme
nneen ne noepk1 ppyr ppyr; nx cnx noxnpe1 aopk - epnnc1aennoe, u1o onn
aocnpnnnnn o1 unannns1opoa. koneu, n sene ec1L pae cnc1em npanennn,
cospnnme uyxpmn n pcn no nun o6psu: opn qynkunonnpye1 n
Cnpanueamx oc1poax, ppyrn - a Cn-[onnro. 3nkoc1ao c a1nn payn
rocyppc1an okonu1enLno nop1aepxpe1 6ecnnopnoc1L nk6mx nonm1ok anyun1L
nk6oy npopy nnc1n1y1m, ko1opme ne nopcksmae1 ey ero co6c1aennm renn.
Cnpanueamx oc1poax cospn 6nec1nun npepc1an1enLckn cnc1e. ec1L
aepxnnn n nnxnnn nn1m, ec1L nnnc1epc1ao, ko1opoe ynpanne1 c1pno, ec1L
koponL, ko1opm upc1aye1 - cnoao, 1 ec1L ace. o ace a1o - ne 6onee ue
pekopunn. pnaopnmn konecn a1o unnm nanne1cn kopnyc nccnonepoa-
npo1ec1n1oa. Bes nnx koponL, napm n peny11m ne cornn 6m npoxn1L n pnn. onLko
nccnonepm ampanrk1 npen n aonnouk1 nx nn6o 6nroppn poaepnk y neoqn1oa,
nn6o, ecnn a1o neo6xopno, yrposn. pnko n nopospeak, u1o ecnn 6m y
nccnonepoa ne 6mno ppyrnx ncnonnn1ene nx aonn, kpoe koponn n o6enx nn1, n
6m npnunocL, a cnny necnoco6noc1n caonx yuennkoa, npnnn1L 6onee k1nanoe n
nenocpepc1aennoe, cnepoa1enLno, nanoe yuc1ne a penx rocyppc1a. 1o6m
ns6ex1L a1oro, onn npnpynn nnnc1epc1ao, coc1anennoe ns eaponeuea. kn
o6pso penk1cn pen n peuk1cn aonpocm expy npo1ec1n1cko nccne n ee
ren1n, ace xe oc1nLnoe - 1onLko pekopunn.
1o kce1cn koponn ee III, on npepc1anne1cn ne npnnue kpoan. C on
o1ksncn pen1L 11ynpoaky n caoe nnue, n, xo1n eue ne y6epnn caonx
npnpaopnmx noc1ynn1L 1k xe, on ncnm1mae1 skonnoe ypoane1aopenne o1 1oro, u1o
n nx n6x n uekx 1enepL nuep1nm ne ouenL npkne pncynkn. cnoann uc1L
npop, a 1o uncne cenLckn aepxyuk, ynopno npoponxe1 uennn1Lcn s c1pme
1ppnunn. e ne enee no norn npnunn n Cnpanueam oc1poa kxpm penL
npn6mae1 ace 6onLue eaponeuea. Cocepc1ao c nnqopnne pene1 rackoe
koponeac1ao npn1nr1enLnm ec1o pnn aespecyue aneprnn nunx nun. Bmaune
kn1o6on n 1pocm aoennoro qno1 6onLue ne nannk1cn epnnc1aennmn
npepc1an1ennn 6eno pcm: ckp c1ekk1cn 1oproaum, cnekynnn1m, an1kpnc1m
acex c1e, c1pon1 po n o6ocnoamak1cn npouno. opennn pc nonenory
ceunae1cn c npnuenLun n ncuese1. osoxno, n ceny npepc1an1enLnoy n
nesancnoy npan1enLc1ay ckopo npnpe1 npoc1n pnnnc1punn, npepc1annkun
kkyk-nn6ypL kpynnyk nnoc1pnnyk pepxay, no a ue n ne coneakcL, 1k a1o a
1o, u1o uyxne nnc1n1y1m okonu1enLno y1aeppn1cn a a1o c1pne, n no skon
cnnxponns a1o1 penL osnenye1 nonnm kpx ec1no pcm.
Cn-[onnro - 6conk1no nesancnn c1pn. 3pecL ne1 nccnonepoa,
ocyuec1annkunx ckpm1yk n 6conk1nyk anc1L, ne1 nnoc1pnnoro nnnc1epc1a,
nponn1nnoro eaponeckn pyxo, - ace nxopn1cn a pykx ec1noro ncenennn.
cnnonsmunn uc1L a1oro ncenennn coc1on1 ns yn1oa, n n ne 6ypy aec1n o nnx
peuL. D1n nkpn, no-anpnoy, xypo-6epno konnpyk1 cme noaepxnoc1nme npnsnkn
nue unannnsunn: kk ace e1ncm, onn c1pen1cn ann1Lcn a 1y ae1aL caoe
renenornn, ko1opn npepc1anne1cn n nn6onee noue1no; noa1oy onn po
neko1opo c1enenn cnoco6nm nepenn1L n npk1nkoa1L nun o6mun. k u1o
nepepe cpsy k o6n11enn rop, ko1opme o1pennk1 ponnnknckyk pecny6nnky o1
rocyppc1a n1n.
3pecL m ac1pe1ncn c o6uec1ao, uLn nnc1n1y1m ne 1onLko noxoxn n nun, no n
ocnoanm n cmx nocnepnnx poc1nxennnx nue nonn1nuecko yppoc1n. ce, u1o
a 1euenne uec1npecn1n ne1 cm nsmcknnm nn6epnns npoaosrnun a
cc6nenx aponm, ace, u1o cornn nnnc1L cme npme npnaepxenum
nesancnoc1n n poc1onnc1a uenoaek - ace peknpunn npa n npnnunnoa, -
nuno o1knnk n 6eperx p1n6onn1. skonx ne oc1nocL nnuero qpnknckoro,
ns yoa oqnunnLno c1epnncL aocnonnnnn o xn1cko popnne, a oqnunnLno
nsmke ne oc1nocL o1 nee nnkknx cnepoa; n noa1opnk, u1o ec1nme nnc1n1y1m -;
coaepuenno eaponeckne no qope. enepL noco1pn, kk onn npncnoco6nnncL k
ec1nm npa.
kko xe kon1pc1 m anpn! 1o s npam! nn nc1onLko xe nsapuennm,
xec1okn n 6py1nLnm, kk a [roee nnn a ppyrnx pnknx sennx. xe cn
apapckn c1pc1L k ykpuennn coue1e1cn c 1e xe 6espsnnune k snuennk
qopm; npekpcnoe npeo6npe1 a uae1e, n ecnn kkn-1o opexp nee1 npko-
kpcnm uae1 c qnLunao nosono1o, 1o nnkoro ne aonnye1 kuec1ao 1knn, u1o
kce1cn unc1o1m, ee nnk1o ne co6nkpe1. ao1 u1o 1koe ec1nm unnoannk
amcokoro pnr. pepc1aL1e ce6e kpynnoro nerp, nexuero n pepeannno ckLe,
c ronoao, o6o1nno ue-1o apope rpnsnoro nsoppnnoro nocoaoro nn1k n
nokpm1o unnno, o6nnLno ykpuenno sono1mn rnynn. C nonc a1o
xnaonncno rnm6m cance1 orponn c6nn, opexp nec1pn1 amun1mn ysopn,
xnne1 o1cy1c1aye1, n norx y a1oro renepn pounne unennum. onpo6y1e
noroaopn1L c nn n nponnkny1L a ero osr, u1o6m ysn1L, kkne mcnn 1 o6n1k1, n
am o6npyxn1e cm npnn1nanm y n cyk nepao6m1nyk roppmnk a npnpuy, c
ko1opo oxe1 cpann1Lcn psae u1o 1kn xe rny6okn n nenckopennn
6esn6epnoc1L. cnn a1o1 uenoaek o1kpoe1 po1, n ac o6pyu1cn ace cme
6nnLnme qpsm, konn rse1m nspnpno y1onnn nc s a1n nonc1one1nn. pap
sne1 nx nnsyc1L; y nero ppyrne nn1epecm n coace ppyrne nnc1nnk1m; y nero ne1
nnkknx ppyrnx nonn1n. n roaopn1, kk 6pon onL6x, pccyxpe1, kk rocnopnn
pn, a cyunoc1n y nero ne1 nnmx s6o1, kpoe kk xea1L 16k, nn1L cnnp1noe,
acnpma1L xnao1m apr n y6nx1L konpynoa. ce oc1nLnoe apen on cnn1.
ocyppc1ao penn1cn n pae uc1n, nnn qpkunn, o1nnukunecn ne necoaec1nmn
pok1pnnn, uae1o koxn: c opno c1oponm, yn1m, c ppyro - nerpm.
econenno, y yn1oa 6onLue y, onn 6onee pcnonoxenm k konuenunn. yxe
o1eun y ponnnknuea 1kyk oco6ennoc1L: eaponeckn kpoaL nsennn
qpnknckyk npnpopy, n a1n nkpn, annauncL a 6enyk ccy n nen nepep rnsn
xopoune npnepm, ornn 6m cpen1Lcn nonesnmn rpxpnn. necuc1Lk, a
nc1onuee apen uncnennoe npeaocxopc1ao n cnn n c1opone nerpoa. onn, xo1n n
s6mnn qpnky, o1kyp popo nx npepkn, ace eue nxopn1cn nop ee nonnm
annnnne; amcuee pnn nnx ypoaonLc1ane - nenL; nx amcun psy sknkue1cn a
xxpe y6nc1a. Mexpy o6enn uc1nn, n ko1opme nopenen oc1poa, nnkorp ne
npekpuncL cn nk1n nenanc1L. c1opnn n1n, peokp1nn n1n - a1o nnuL
pnnnnn uepep y6nc1a: yn1oa y6nann nerpm, korp 6mnn cnnLnee, nerpoa
y6nann yn1m, korp y nnx a pykx 6mn anc1L. nc1n1y1m, cun1kunecn
qnnn1ponnuecknn, nnuero ne ory1 cpen1L: onn 6ecnonesnm n 6eccnnLnm, 1. k.
xnay1 1onLko n 6yre, upc1aye1 xe nc1nnnm pyx ec1noro ncenennn. Corncno
ec1ec1aennoy skony, o1euennoy amue, uepnn psnoanpnoc1L, npnnpnexun k
nneen, ko1opme ne cnoco6nm k unannnsunn, nn1e1 rny6okoe o1apuenne n yxc;
ko ace oc1nLnm pc, noa1oy rn1nnckne nerpm aneprnuno o1aeprk1 6enmx n ne
ponyckk1 nx n caok 1eppn1opnk, onn xo1enn 6m ns6an1Lcn n o1 yn1oa n eu1k1
ynnu1oxn1L nx. enanc1L ko acey uyxoy - rnann npyxnn ec1no nonn1nkn.
o npnunne oprnnuecko nennaoc1n a1oro pop cenLckoe xosnc1ao ncuesno, o
npomunennoc1n ne1 n peun, 1oproann npnxopn1 a ynpok, nnue1 a cmx kpnnx
nponanennnx ne pe1 ncenennk aosoxnoc1L aocnponsaopn1Lcn, expy 1e kk
noc1onnnme aonm, n1exn, aoennme nepeaopo1m cnoco6c1ayk1 ero yenLuennk.
ens6exnm n ne c1onL o1pnennm pesynL11o 1koro nonoxennn 6ype1
npeapuenne a1o c1pnm a nyc1mnk - c1pnm, uLe nnopopopne n npnpopnme
pecypcm korp-1o pennn 6or1mn ne opno nokonenne nnn11opoa, n ckopo n
nnopopopnmx pannnx, a xnaonncnmx ponnnx n n seenLnmx xonx koponeam
n1nnLcknx oc1poaoa [Q sHacna knn a-QHr mna H
Hrx Hc a Hn, r raca yvcu aaa ammaan
ac acx. , v cnan aaay ramH H,
aymn a-QHr, . k. caxm am aan aH nnk.]
6ypy1 rynn1L nnuL pnkne kosm.
u1o ecnn 6m ncenenne a1o necuc1no c1pnm c1no xn1L a coo1ae1c1ann c pyxo
caonx npepkoa 6es nens6exnoro npo1ek1op1 n aospec1ann uyxesenmx pok1pnn n
cqopnpoano caoe o6uec1ao coo6psno caon nnc1nnk1? orp pno nnn nospno,
no nnkorp 6es ncnnnn, nponsouno 6m pspenenne nkpe no uae1y koxn.
Myn1m xnnn 6m n opcko no6epexLe, u1o6m ne1L kon1k1m c eaponeun, k
ko1opm onn acerp 1nro1enn. Bnroppn a1oy nonannncL 6m 1oproaum, paok1m,
apun, n a1 uc1L ncenennn ace 6onLue n 6onLue ceunancL 6m c npnuenLun,
noc1enenno y1punan caon qpnknckne kopnn.
erpm yunn 6m arny6L n cospnn 6m 1 nenLkne o6unnm no 1nny 1ex, u1o 6mnn
korp-1o y kopnuneamx p6oa a Cn-[onnro, n Mp1nnnke, ke n oco6enno n
y6e, rpe 6onLun 1eppn1opnn n rnyxne nec cnyx1 npexnm y6exnue. ,
cpepn psnoo6psnmx nnopoa 6or1o pc1n1enLnoc1n n1nnLcknx oc1poaoa uepnme
epnknum, nen poc11ouno cpepc1a k cyuec1aoannk 6nroppn 6or1c1a
npnpopm, 6ecnpenn1c1aenno aepnynncL 6m k pecno1nuecko n1pnpxnLno
oprnnsunn, ec1ec1aenno pnn 1ex nx co6p1Lea, ko1opmx eue ne nopunnnnn
ycynLnckne saoea1enn qpnkn. C1penenne k consonnunn 6mno 6m
opnoapeenno n npnunno n cnepc1ane 1ko cn1yunn. 6psoaaunecn 1kn
o6pso nneen uepes neko1opoe apen c1nn 6m apxpoa1L ppyr c ppyro.
pnnc1aennm nonn1nueckn co6m1ne a psnmx kn1onx 6mnn 6m ec1nme aonm, n
oc1poa, pnkn, c pepkn ncenenne n c pypno aospenmaeo, sene, coxpnnn 6m
nneennyk psppo6nennoc1L, xn1enn 6mnn 6m o6peuenm n ncuesnoaenne a
pesynL11e nry6noro annnnnn skonoa n ppyrnx nnc1n1y1oa, ne o1aeukunx ypoank
nn1ennek1 nerpoa, nx nn1epec n no1pe6noc1n.
D1n npnepm Cn-[onnro n Cnpanueamx oc1poaoa poc11ouno kpcnopeunam. e
ne enee, n ne ory ypepx1Lcn o1 1oro, u1o6m ne kocny1Lcn ppyroro nnornunoro
qenoen, ko1opm eue 6onLue nop1aepxpe1 ok 1ouky spennn. canpe1enn n
npnsmak rocyppc1ao, uLn nnc1n1y1m, nansnnme npo1ec1n1cknn nccnonepn,
npepc1annk1 co6o p6ckn cnenok c 6pn1ncko cnc1em. 31e peuL nope1 o
npan1enLc1ae, 1epnnLno n qnsnueckn nesancno, no nn1ennek1ynLno
cansnno c eaponecknn 1eopnnn, ko1opoe pennsoano nocnepnne n npk1nke,
u1o npnaeno k rn6enn necuc1noro rn1nnckoro ncenennn. 1k, npepnrk
un11enn npnep coaepuenno ppyroro pop, nenno nonm1kn o1uoa-nesyn1oa
unannnsoa1L 6opnrenoa pran, o ko1opmx noppo6no nncnn pnupp, p6nnLn n
y6onLp1.
D1n nccnonepm a cnny caonx yc1aennmx kuec1a n 6ecnpnepnoro yxec1a
cnncknn aceo6uee aocxnuenne, n cme npme npo1nannkn nx nonn1nkn ne ory1
o1ks1L n a nckpenne yaxennn. co pene, ecnn kkne-1o nnc1n1y1m
uyxesenoro nponcxoxpennn korp-nn6ypL nenn xo1L cn6me uncm n ycnex, 1o
peuL npe1 nenno o6 a1nx, ocnoannmx n oun pennrnosnoro uyac1a n
onnpkunxcn n renn n6nkp1enn n coo1ae1c1aykune npen. 1um-nesyn1m
y6epnnn ce6n a 1o - kc11n, ouenL pcnpoc1pnennoe y6expenne, - u1o apapc1ao
nanne1cn pnn nc1opnn npopoa 1e xe, u1o pe1c1ao pnn xnsnn uenoaek, n u1o ue
6onLue pnkoc1n n neunannnsoannoc1n a nunn, 1e on onoxe.
1o6m amaec1n caonx neoqn1oa a noppoc1koam aospc1, onn o1nocnnncL k nn, kk k
pe1n, n nansnn n npanenne, nc1onLko xe 1aeppoe no nepennn n cy1n,
nckonLko nrkoe n npnanek1enLnoe no qope. oo6ue epnknckne npopnoc1n
o1nnuk1cn pecny6nnkncknn 1enpenunnn, onpxnn nnn pnc1okp1nn ouenL
pepkn n a1o kon1nnen1e.
k u1o npnpopnme nknonnoc1n rypnn, k ko1opm npnunn nesyn1m, a a1o cmcne
ne o1nnunncL o1 xpk1ep ppyrnx 6opnrenoa. e ne enee, no cuc1nnaoy
c1euennk o6c1on1enLc1a a1n npopm oksnncL o1nocn1enLno amcokopsan1mn a
yc1aenno o1nouennn n nponannnn, oxe1 6m1L, enLue xec1koc1n, ue neko1opme
nx cocepn, 1kxe nenn koe-kkne cknonnoc1n k aocnpnn1nk noaoro. pnepno c1o
papu1L 1mcnu pyu 6mnn co6pnm a pepeann, onekeme o1un-nccnonepn.
xop nouno ace, u1o nenn nesyn1m a caoe pcnopnxennn - onm1, exepneanme
n6nkpennn, nnoceppne; npnnrnncL 6ecuncnennme ycnnnn, u1o6m yckopn1L ycnex
n ne noapepn1L peny. eco1pn n 1kne epm, ckopo nonannocL ouyuenne, u1o
6conk1nn anc1L 6mn 6m, kc11n, pnn 1oro, u1o6m nc1an1L neoqn1oa n
nc1nnnm ny1L, n aosnnknn conennn o1nocn1enLno npounoc1n c1ponuerocn spnnn.
orp nonn1nk rpq pnpm npnaen k 1oy, u1o n6oxnme unannns1opm
noknnynn pra, pesynL11 npeasouen cme xypune oxnpnnn. ypnn,
oc1anennme pyxoanmn nc1annkn, o1ksnn a poaepnn cae1ckn npan1enn,
npncnnnm ns cnnnn, n nnckonLko ne yaxnn noame nnc1n1y1m. x cnoa o6ynn
akyc k pnko xnsnn, n ceropnn, s ncknkuenne 1pnpu1n cen ne6onLunx cenenn,
ko1opme eue coxpnnnncL n 6eperx pnm a prae n Ypyrae n rpe oc1nocL
ceunnoe ncenenne, ace oc1nLnme nneen aosap1nnncL a pxynrnn n c1nn xn1L
1 a 1ko xe pnko coc1onnnn, a kko npe6mak1 n snpe nneen 1o xe
rpynnm - rypnn n cnpnonm. ne ckxy, u1o 6erneum aepnynncL ko ace caon
npexnn o6mun, ao ace nx unc1o1e, no 1e ne enee onn cnoa onyc1nnncL a nono
pnkoc1n: peno a 1o, u1o nn opno uenoaeuecko pce ne pno nn o1ks1Lcn o1 caonx
nnc1nnk1oa, nn s6m1L 1y 1pony, n ko1opyk nx npnaen ocnopL. Moxno cks1L, u1o
ecnn 6m nesyn1m npoponxnn pepx1L caon nccnn a prae, nx ycnnnn co
apeene pnn 6m nyuune pesynL11m. a1o ponyckk, opnko npn opno ycnoann,
u1o a c1pny npnunn 6m eaponeckne nocenenum, yc1noannn specL pnk11ypy,
ceunncL c 6opnrenn, cnun ps6annn nx kpoaL, s1e nonnoc1Lk nsennnn
ee; a a1o cnyue a a1nx ec1x nonannocL 6m rocyppc1ao, nyc1L nop 1ysenm
nene, nyc1L roppnaueecn caon nponcxoxpenne o1 a1ox1onnmx npepkoa, no no
cy1n caoe 1koe xe eaponeckoe, kk nnc1n1y1m, ynpannkune n.
o1 u1o n xo1en cks1L o6 o1nouennnx expy nnc1n1y1n n pcn.
VI
Cnn r r n rrqkr ,
r xy.
enLsn ne npnsn1L ponL knn1, nouam n 1onorpqnuecknx oco6ennoc1e n nx
annnnne n psan1ne npopoa; n yxe s1prnan a1o1 aonpoc n ceuc xouy
pcco1pe1L ero noppo6nee.
6muno cun1e1cn, u1o ecnn nunn o6psoancL nop connue ne cnnuko xpkn,
u1o6m cxeuL koxy n cpen1L nkpe nepanmn, n ne cnnuko xonopnm, u1o6m
cpen1L nouay 6ecnnopno, ecnn on cqopnpoancL n 6epery 6onLuo pekn,
cnyxue ypo6nm ny1e coo6uennn, n pannne nnn a ponnne c nnopopopno
nouao, y nopnoxnn rop, ckpmakunx a ce6e orponme nnepnLnme 6or1c1a, 1o
a1 nunn, 6nrocnoaennn npnpopo, 6mc1po ampe1 ns coc1onnnn apapc1a n
npnpe1 k unannnsunn. C ppyro c1oponm, ecnn ncxopn1L ns a1oro pryen1,
npnpe1cn npnsn1L, u1o nneen, cxnreme connue nnn yppyueme aeunmn
cnern n nLpn, xnayune n 6ecnnopnmx cknx, nek1 6onLue uncoa oc11Lcn a
apapc1ae. orp nonyue1cn, u1o uenoaeuec1ao npe1 k coaepuenc1ay 1onLko
6nroppn 1epnnLno npnpope n u1o ace ero poc1onnc1a cyuec1ayk1 kk 6m ane
ero. kn 6m npnanek1enLnm ne ksnocL n nepam asrnnp a1o nenne, ono
6conk1no npo1naopeun1 norouncnennm qk1 n npnep.
oneuno xe, nnkkyk c1pny nenLsn cun11L 6onee nnopopopno, nn opnn knn1
6onee 6nronpnn1nm, ue npoc1opm epnkn. 3pecL noro 6onLunx pek, snnaoa,
6yx1, rane - rny6oknx, xnaonncnmx, aec1n1enLnmx; uennme e1nnm snerk1
nou1n n co noaepxnoc1n senn; pc1n1enLnoc1L pe1 cme psnoo6psnme
cpepc1a k cyuec1aoannk, qyn nso6nnye1 cLepo6nmn n1nun n xnao1nmn.
pnko 6onLun uc1L a1nx o6ncknnmx 6oro ec1 noro aekoa cnyxn1 cpepo
o6n1nnn npop, ko1opm pxe ne npnxopn1 a ronoay ncnonLsoa1L xo1L nyk
1onnky a1nx 6or1c1a.
eko1opme ns nnx nm1nncL u1o-1o npepnpnnn1L, koe-rpe m anpn npnsnkn
kynL1ypm n cnepm npnn1nano o6p6o1kn pypm. y1euec1aennnkn aocxnuk1cn
nspennnn peecnennnkoa, amnonnennmx c neconennm nckycc1ao. o ace a1o
nnuL psposnennme npnepm, ne coc1annkune uenoro - npo6neckn unannnsunn.
syee1cn, a pnekne apeen n o6unpnmx sennx expy osepo Dpn n
Mekcnknckn snnao, o1 Mnccypn po Cknnc1mx rop cyuec1aoan nunn,
oc1anaun seu1enLnme cnepm caoero npncy1c1ann. c11kn coopyxenn,
ncknLnme pncynkn n npnncn, ornnLnme kyprnm [vu xaakan
kcykn sx kyraa, cyHm ncya, am a x,
nanka num aHa cnanca. x n amckaxy H
c sx nka c vk n ana, a nka ravycu
akH aHvaH: nun au nvm aac sx axk.
ca, cknm sx kyraa accmnacn a nax n kak c
ayxH, xn nvam ycnan nun aaau narnnmH,
Hxy H kak na yHmx ckx kHnxa, kmH H
1900 n, nkac cxancu. sHy Hx yaxau, v
kak can Hxy sH axkaH a Hk nnHaH n-
nanc yrH. nuyncu cnyvaH, xvy Hu numy ay
aHkackx yvmx, aHaxcn yvH nmnr car
mr ka. nkyamcu c vH xynkcu
skcryHaamx caka, nyHan anaau a ynm, nvH c
cn cxcu, yHm ccaa, km, aaan,
nxan kc anxn.], ynn canpe1enLc1ayk1 o psan1o
kynL1ype. o ne1 nnkkoro nop1aepxpennn, u1o expy a1o 1nnc1aenno nune n
npopn, kouykunn ceropnn n ee ornnx, cyuec1aye1 6nnskoe popc1ao. nk6o
cnyue, ecnn a pesynL11e kknx-1o ec1ec1aennmx canse nnn o1nouenn
nopunnennoc1n nmneunne 1yseum yncnepoann o1 npexnnx xosnea c1pnm nepame
nonn1nn o6 nckycc1ax n peecnx, ko1opme onn npk1nkyk1 n co aneen1pno
ypoane, oxno nnuL ypnann1Lcn 1oy, u1o onn oksnncL necnoco6nm
ycoaepuenc1aoa1L 1o, uey nyunnncL, n n anxy a a1o eue opnn pryen1 a nonLsy
1oro, u1o nepame nneen, nxopncL a cmx 6nronpnn1nmx reorpqnuecknx
ycnoannx, ne 6mnn npepnsnuenm pnn unannnsunn. / nnpo1na, expy knn1o
n qk1o unannnsunn ne1 nnkko sancnoc1n. npnn acerp nyxpncL a
kynL1naunn seenL, 1k xe kk n rnne1 [amH ncnaH n acm a
nmncu cycau num am n accaan
nnn nvam. x caH Hx ckaau rn: anH,
rrackx ya naana nan 4ayHa.]. a1o pa
nsaec1neunx uen1p kynL1ypm n pen pyk uenoaeuecknx. n1e, npnpy c
nnopopopnmn sennn, ec1L ec1, rpe senepenne conpnxeno c 6onLunn
1pypnoc1nn.
c1opnn nuncL specL c ykpouennn caoenpanmx pek, nepame 6nropennnn
ppeannx nnep1opoa sknkunncL a pm1Le knnoa n ocyuennn 6ono1.
Mecono1nn, a ponnne aqp1 n nrp, rpe npouae1nn nepame ccnpnckne
rocyppc1a, rpe senn nso6nnye1 canuennmn pennkannn, rpe nuennu, kk
roaopn1, pc1e1 c no ce6e, noua 1e ne enee no nnopopopnn, n u1o6m
o6ecneun1L nponn1nne, npnxopnnocL snn1Lcn nppnrune. Ceropnn, korp knnm
pspyuenm, sanenm o6nokn, anoaL aoupnnocL 6ecnnopne. oa1oy n cknonen
py1L, u1o npnpop 6mn ne c1onL 6nrocknonn k a1n pon, kk o6muno
pyk1. ace-1kn n ne co6npkcL pccyxp1L n a1y 1ey n npnsnk, u1o n1,
rnne1, npnn n ccnpnn kk nenLsn nyuue nopxopnnn pnn qopnpoannn 6onLunx
nnepn n psan1nn ounmx unannnsun; n ponyckk, u1o a a1nx ec1x
cocpepo1ouenm ace ycnoann pnn npouae1nnn. o pnn 1oro, u1o6m aocnonLsoa1Lcn
nn, npo 6mno npepapn1enLno poc1nrny1L amcokoro ypoann counnLno
oprnnsunn. k, pnn 1oro, u1o6m 1oproann orn aocnonLsoa1Lcn aopnmn
p1epnnn, npo 6mno, u1o6m yxe cyuec1aoan npomunennoc1L nnn, no kpne
epe, rpnkynL1yp, annnnne n cocepnne npopm 6mno nemcnnm 6es nnnunn
ropopoa n pmnkoa. 1k, npnannernn, oksnnme n1k, npnn n ccnpnn,
npepnonrk1 a npopx, ko1opme aocnonLsoanncL 1koamn, nc1onuee
nn1ennek1ynLnoe npnsanne n pxe neko1opyk unannnsoannoc1L po 1oro, kk orn
nu1Lcn akcnny1unn a1nx npenyuec1a. pnko oc1an oco6o o1euennme
npnpopo ponm n o6p1ncn k ppyrn.
orp a npouecce caoe nrpunn qnnnknum npnunn ns nnoc nnn ns ppyrnx ec1
n kro-aoc1oke, u1o onn yanpenn a Cnpnn, rpe o6ocnoanncL? 3cyunnaoe cknnc1oe
no6epexLe, c1ncny1oe expy ope n ropnmn uennn, ko1opoy, ksnocL, cyxpeno
naeuno oc11Lcn 6ecnnopnm. kn yppyukun 1eppn1opnn orpnnunan
pcnpoc1pnenne nunn, no1oy u1o nxopnncL cpepn rop. e ne enee a1o ec1o,
noxoxee n 1kpLy, npeap1nnocL, 6nroppn rennk npop, ko1opm scennn ero, a
c1pny xpoa n paopuoa. Onnnknum, o6peuennme n yuc1L nx1noqroa nnn, a
nyuue cnyue, nnp1oa, cpennncL n anpapy nnp1n, no a 1o xe apen
o1axnmn n noaknn 1oproaun n ypunnamn cnekynnn1n. y n u1o, aospsn1
ne onnonen1, nyxp ec1L 1epL npepnpnnunaoc1n: ecnn 6m ocnoa1enn np n
Cnpon o6n1nn a ponnnx [ck, poaonLc1ayncL nnopn cenLckoro xosnc1a,
onn nnkorp 6m ne c1nn snenn1m npopo. nue1 nx yrne1n, nnue1
npo6ypnn nx renn.
nouey on ne npo6yxpe1 renn nornx qpnkncknx, epnkncknx, oc1poanmx
nneen kennn, nxopnunxcn a nnornunmx ycnoannx? ouey kn6nnm Mpokko -
ppeannn pc, y ko1opo 6mno poc11ouno apeenn pnn psmunenn, kpoe 1oro,
poc11ouno xopounx npnepoa pnn noppxnnn, - nouey onn nn psy ne npnunn k
6onee yno mcnn pnn o6neruennn caoe 1nxeno ponn, nexenn npoc1o opcko
ps6o? ouey n a1o pxnnenre, ko1opm 6yp1o cneunnLno cospn pnn
koepunn, n a1nx okencknx oc1poax, ko1opme 1k nerko coo6uk1cn expy
co6o, nou1n ace nnopo1aopnme o1nouennn nxopn1cn a pykx uyxeseuea -
kn1uea, nuea n p6oa? ouey cnnxe1cn k1nanoc1L 1, rpe npeo6npk1
nony1ysenme npopm n e1ncm? [eno ao1 a ue: pnn 1oro, u1o6m npepnpnnunan
nunn corn o6ocnoa1Lcn n no6epexLe nnn n nk6o oc1poae, 1pe6ye1cn neu1o
6onLuee, ue o1kpm1oe ope, ue 6or1n noua n pxe onm1, npnanecennm nsane,
- neo6xopn kkn-1o oco6n cnoco6noc1L xn1ene a1oro no6epexLn nnn oc1poa,
n6o 1onLko on nosaonn1 n aocnonLsoa1Lcn opypnnn 1pyp, nxopnunncn a nx
pcnopnxennn.
o n ne orpnnuycL poks1enLc1ao 1oro, u1o reorpqnueckoe nonoxenne -
6nronpnn1noe no npnunne nnopopopnoc1n nouam nnn, no6opo1, ee nennopopopnoc1n
- ne onpepenne1 counnLnyk snunoc1L npopoa; n xouy o6Lncnn1L, u1o a1
snunoc1L coaepuenno ne sancn1 o1 okpyxkunx 1epnnLnmx o6c1on1enLc1a.
pnaepy npnep pnn, snep1mx a caonx ropx, a 1ex xe cmx ropx, rpe ns
nokonennn a nokonenne xnay1 n ynpk1 a coc1onnnn apapc1a norne ppyrne
npopm: c nesnn1nmx apeen onn cqopnpoann poc11ouno psan1yk
unannnsunk. 1oy xe nx senn ne o1nnue1cn nnopopopne, c1pn, okpyxennn
ropn, ne nee1 amxop k opk.
nnornuno nonoxennn nxopnnncL eapen, okpyxennme nneenn 6nnsko n
nsmkoao rpynnm, npnue norne 6mnn 6nnskn eapen n no kpoan; onn 1kxe
onepepnnn a psan1nn acex cocepe. nn 6mnn aonnn, senepenLun, 1oproaun
n nenn cnoxnyk c1pyk1ypy npanennn, a ko1opo onpxnn, 1eokp1nn,
n1pnpxnLnn anc1L popoamx aoxpe n peokp1nueckn anc1L npop a anpe
co6pnn n npopokoa coue1nncL ppyr c ppyro cm npnuypnnam o6pso; onn
nepexnnn aek npouae1nnn n cnam n, 6nroppn npopynno cnc1ee nrpunn,
npeoponenn 1pypnoc1n, cansnnme c orpnnuennoc1Lk nx 1eppn1opnn. u1o
npepc1annn co6o a1 1eppn1opnn? mneunne ny1euec1aennnkn xopouo snk1,
ueno kknx ycnnn nspnnLckne rponom noppepxnak1 nnopopopne nouam. C 1ex
nop, kk a1 ns6pnnn pc noknnyn caon ropm n ponnnm, konopeu, ns ko1oporo
nnnn c1p koa, snecno necko, annorppnnko ao1 sanpen nyc1mnn, n
ec1e paopu xa pc1e1 copnnk. uero po6nncn a a1o xnko yronke senn
eapeckn npop? noa1opnk: npop, 1nn1nnam ao ace, s u1o on 6pncn,
cao6opnm, cnnLnm, yppm npop, ko1opm po 1oro, kk c opyxne a pykx y1p1nn
sanne nesancnoro, pn npy c1onLko xe apue, ckonLko n 1oproauea.
[xe rpekn, cnanme rpekn, ne ornn noxac11Lcn 6nronpnn1nm reorpqnueckn
nonoxenne. BonLue uc1Lk nx npopm o6n1nn n nou1n 6ecnnopnmx sennx.
pkpnn 6mn o6nk6oan nc1yxn, Beo1nk o6nk6oann Cepee n pnn1one,
opnko a annnncko nc1opnn a1n ec1noc1n nrpk1 nese1nyk ponL. [xe 6or1m
opnnq, ns6pnnm ropop ny1on n enepm Mennncko, c1on1 rpe-1o n a1opo
ec1e. k k1o xe coc1ann cnay peunn? qnnm, uLn cepn nmnL nokpman uxnme
onnakoame poun a okpec1noc1nx ropop; qnnm, ko1opme, 6ypyun 1oproam uen1po,
npopann c11yn n knnrn, 1kxe Cnp1, s1epnnnn a ysko ponnne, rpe ee nun
cna.
1enepL o6p1ncn k ny, 1. e. k 1oy 6epnoy kn1ony uny, n ko1opm nn
am6op ero cosp1ene, n 6epery nenLko peukn no nenn n6p, anpkue a ope
a nyc1mnno ec1e, kyp pepko sxopnnn qnnnknckne nnn rpeueckne kop6nn. sae
6nroppn caoey reorpqnueckoy nonoxennk on c1n anpmko np? eue: kk
1onLko np nokopnncn pnckoy yc1ay, anc1n1enn peunnn, u1o pnn c1onnum
am6pno neypunoe ec1o, n aeunm ropop nponro oksncn a onne. epame
nnep1opm, o6puaune asopm k peunn, nou1n noc1onnno xnnn 1. 1nnn
n6epn o6ocnoancn n npn, a uen1pe caoe nnepnn. ro npeennkn nepe6pnncL
a n1noxnk. eko1opme, os6ouennme rnnLcknn npo6nen, po6pnncL po pea.
koneu, nnep1opckn pekpe1o y n aoo6ue o1o6pnn 1n1yn c1onnum n
nepepnn ero Mnnny. ecnn pnnnne sc1annn c yaxenne n c1pxo roaopn1L o
ce6e, 1k a1o aonpekn ec1ononoxennk 1oro yronk, ns ko1oporo amxopnnn nepame
nernonm, ne 6nroppn ey.
o apeen, 6onee 6nnskne, m n6nkpe eue 6onLue kpcnopeunamx qk1oa. Mm
anpn, kk npouae1nne noknpe1 cpepnsenoopckoe no6epexLe, a1o nnunee
poks1enLc1ao 1oro, u1o ono ne 6mno npncyue ero xn1enn. pynnme 1oproame
uen1pm cpepneaekoaLn nonannk1cn 1, rpe nn opnoy nonn1nky npexnnx anox ne
npnuno 6m a ronoay c1pon1L nx. oaropop pcuae1e1 a scnexenno xonopno
c1pne, Bpeen - n 1ko xe cypoao no6epexLe. nseckne ropop a uen1pnLno
epnnn cospk1cn nocpepn c1pnm, ko1opn 1onLko-1onLko npocmne1cn; eneunn
nopnne1cn ns rny6nn opckoro snna. onn1nueckn k1nanoc1L nepeeue1cn a
ec1, o ko1opmx pnLue n ne cnmunn. o Opnunn anc1L konuen1pnpye1cn
ceaepnee ypm n Cenm. non, ynys, p6on, MpcenL, Boppo cxopn1 c amcue
c1ynenn, kyp nx aosnecnn pnnnne. nanm ropopo c1noan1cn pnx, 6mauee
rnyxoe cenenne, ypnennoe o1 opn, 1. e. ne6nronpnn1noe pnn 1oproann, no anonne
poc1ynnoe pnn nopnpcknx kop6ne. 1nnn su11nme korp-1o ropopkn
c1noan1cn pesnpenune pncknx nn; aenn noc1poen n 6ono1x, nLqn
cpenncn oryuec1aennm eue pnLue. 1euy nony1no, u1o cnyunoc1L ne nee1
nnkkoro o1nouennn k a1n nep1yp6unn, u1o ace o6Lncnne1cn npe6manne a
pnno ec1e oryuec1aenno pcm. xouy cks1L, u1o ec1ononoxenne ne
onpepennno, ne onpepenne1 n nnkorp ne 6ype1 onpepenn1L snunoc1L nunn:
nnpo1na, nunn 6mn, ec1L n 6ype1 peukun qk1opo akononueckoro,
npac1aennoro n nonn1nueckoro psan1nn 1eppn1opnn.
1o6m noncnn1L a1y mcnL, po6ank, u1o n nnckonLko ne ynnk snuennn
reorpqnueckoro nonoxennn pnn neko1opmx ropopoa, nnpnep, opcknx nop1oa,
c1onnu n uen1poa 1oproamx ny1e. nk1o ne 6ype1 ocnpna1L a1o1 qk1 a o1nouennn
onc1n1nnononn n nekcnppnn. seno upe ec1L 1oukn, ko1opme oxno nsa1L
knkueamn: ckxe, ropopy, ko1opm 6ype1 noc1poen n ncko nepeueke n
6epery 6ypyuero knn, cyxpeno 6ype1 nrp1L 6onLuyk ponL a npoamx penx. o
ponL xnayue 1 nunn 6ype1 sance1L o1 ee cnoco6noc1e. cunpL1e
cyuec1aykuyk a 1o ec1e kpenoc1L, amkon1e knn y ee c1en, s1e scenn1e ee
nkpLn, n 1orp o1 auero am6op nocenenuea 6ype1 sance1L 6ypyuee noaoro
ropop. cnn onn okxy1cn necnoco6nmn a nonnyk epy ncnonLsoa1L 1koe
cuc1nnaoe npenyuec1ao, kk ec1o o6Lepnnennn payx aennknx okenoa, snun1,
ncenenne noknne1 ropop n 6ype1 nck1L cuc1Ln a ppyro ec1e.
o1, kc11n, u1o nnue1 npnepno n a1y 1ey DanLp a caoe c1opnn npop
spnnn, xo1n caoe nenne on, aosoxno, ampxe1 cnnuko pesko: [oaonLno
norouncnennme nc1opnkn pnn ce6n y6epn1L a 1o, u1o c1pn qopnpye1 npop, u1o
6apu nnn ckc co npnpopo nx senn 6mno cyxpeno c11L 1e, ue onn
c1nn, u1o npo1ec1n1ckoe xpnc1nnc1ao nnkk ne nopxopnno kxnm npop, u1o
k1onnuns uyxp npop ceaepnm, n 1. n. kpn, ko1opme 1onkyk1 nc1opnk, ncxopn
nx caonx kyumx snnn nnn pykoaopc1ayncL caon kpoxo1nm ceppue n 6nnsopykn
yo, xo1enn 6m 1kxe yskonn1L 1ko qk1: nunn, o ko1opo npe1 peuL (eapen),
o6npe1 onpepenennmn kuec1an, nyc1L pxe ne coace ouenennmn,
nosaonnkunn n xn1L a nec1nne, ne a npnn nnn, ckxe, a peunn. o ecnn
6m a1n yuenme yxn, ko1opme ory1 poks1L ace, u1o yropno, nopynn np 1e, u1o
a1 canuennn senn nopopnn n orpnnuenno npoc1pnc1ae pennrnn n npen cmx
psnmx npopoa n u1o expy a1nn npopn n nx nmneunnn ncnepnnkn
cyuec1ayk1 kppnnnLnme psnnunn, xo1n 1eppn1opnn oc1ncL npexne, 1orp onn
6m nonnnn, kk no 1eppn1opnn annne1 n xpk1ep n unannnsunk npop.
VII
X n k .
s acex pryen1oa no noaopy nnc1n1y1oa n knn1nuecko-reorpqnueckoro
nonoxennn ampenk opnn, ko1opm, no npape roaopn, ne cnepoano noc1an1L
anepepn acex oc1nLnmx, no ne no1oy, u1o n cun1k ero cm cnnLnm, ns
yaxennn k qk1opy, n ko1opm a1o1 pryen1 onnpe1cn. cnn cnpaepnnam
npepuec1aykune amaopm, 1orp nnpunak1cn pa cnepykunx y1aepxpennn: ao-
nepamx, 6onLunnc1ao uenoaeuecknx pc aoo6ue ne cnoco6nm unannnsoa1Lcn 6es
ceuennn c ppyrnn; ao-a1opmx, ne 1onLko 1kne pcm ne o6npk1 any1penne
panxyue cnno pnn 1oro, u1o6m nopnn1Lcn no nec1nnue nporpecc, no n nk6n
aneunnn cnn ne a coc1onnnn oxnan1L nx apoxpennyk 6ecnnopnoc1L, nesancno o1
aosoxnoc1e a1o cnnm. 3pecL, koneuno, cpsy aosnnke1 aonpoc: amxopn1,
xpnc1nnc1ao ne oxe1 ocaeu1L ny1L ace nunn? onyue1cn, u1o ec1L npopm,
o6peuennme n 1o, u1o6m nnkorp ne ysn1L yuennn pnc1?
eko1opme a1opm o1aeuk1 n a1o1 aonpoc y1aeppn1enLno. pn a1o onn
6ecnpponno npo1naopeu1 anrennk, o1pnun coaepuenno oco6m xpk1ep noaoro
skon, npepnsnuennoro pnn acex nkpe 6es ncknkuennn. koe nenne ec1L
noa1openne ec1nnuecko pok1pnnm eapeea. nnckonLko ne pcnonoxen
corncn1Lcn co c1oponnnkn a1o npen, ocyxpenno UepkoaLk, n ro1oa npnsn1L,
u1o ace uenoaeueckne pcm npenenm opnnkoao cnoco6noc1Lk ao1n a
xpnc1nnckyk ceLk. a1o cmcne peuL ne npe1 o nepaonunLnmx rpexx nnn o
kknx-1o noexx, sknkukunxcn a npnpope pc, n nepaenc1ao specL 1oxe nn npn
ue. k 6m nn xo1enocL a1oro neko1opm yuenm, pennrnn n sene aoace ne
pcnpepennk1cn no reorpqnueckn son aec1e c nkpLn, ncnoaepykunn nx.
ne1 nc1nnm a 1o, u1o xpnc1nnc1ao ponxno ponnnpoa1L o1 1koro-1o po 1koro-1o
epnpnn, nunnn o1 onpepenenno rpnnum po kknx-1o npepenoa ac1yne1 a
caon npa ncn, pnLue - 6yppns nnn 6pxnns, expy 1e kk unnc1
n qe1nunc1 poc1ne1cn 1o, u1o oc1nocL.
pnc1nne xnay1 n acex unpo1x n ao acex knn1nuecknx sonx. 6 a1o
y6epn1enLno canpe1enLc1aye1 c11nc1nk, psyee1cn, nenonnn. Monronm kouyk1 n
pannnx cpepnnno uc1n snn, pnkpn snnk1cn oxo1o n koppnnLepcknx nn1o,
acknocm noan1 pm6y ao nLpx pk1nkn, kn1um n nnonum ynpk1 nop 6nuo
yrne11ene. Ok1m ne oc1annk1 nnkknx conenn n ce cue1. o 1e xe qk1m ne
pk1 ocnoann ceuna1L a kyuy, kk a1o o6muno penk1, xpnc1nnc1ao,
cnoco6noc1L acex nkpe npnsn1L ero nc1nnm n nponoaepoa1L ero sae1m n
coaepuenno ppyryk cnoco6noc1L - cnoco6noc1L 1o nnn nno pcm ocosn1L
ncyunyk neo6xopnoc1L coaepuenc1aoannn counnLnoro nopnpk n npo1n a1nm,
neo6xopnme pnn 1oro, u1o6m nopnn1Lcn n ypoaenL, nsmaem unannnsune:
peuL npe1 kk ps o 1o ypoane, ko1opm cnyxn1 epo nepaenc1a uenoaeuecknx
pc.
npouno aeke y1aepxpnn, psyee1cn, 6es acnknx n 1o ocnoann, u1o pok1pnn
o1peuennn, ko1opn coc1anne1 rnanyk uc1L xpnc1nnc1a, no caoe npnpope
coaepuenno npo1naononoxn counnLnoy nporpeccy, n u1o nkpn, uLe amcue
uenLk ponxen 6m1L o1ks o1 acero senoro n yc1penenne acex xennn k ne6ecnoy
epycnny, ne ropn1cn pnn 1oro, u1o6m cnyxn1L nn1epec a1oro np. D1o1
pryen1 onpoaepre1cn necoaepuenc1ao uenoaeuecko npnpopm. nk1o n nnkorp
acepLes ne oncncn, u1o uenoaeuec1ao o1kxe1cn o1 npcko xnsnn, n kk 6m
nc1on1enLno nn sayunn pekoenpunn n coae1m, oueanpno, u1o onn ne aosmenn
pec1ann. poe 1oro, xpnc1nnckne snoaepn npepc1annk1 co6o ounm
counnLnm nnc1pyen1 a 1o cmcne, u1o onn cnruk1 npam, cnoco6c1ayk1
6nro1aopn1enLnoc1n, ocyxpk1 nk6oe ncnnne, npnsmak1 k psyy n
npepoc1annk1 pyue nou1n neorpnnuennyk anc1L, u1o a koneuno cue1e npe1 ao
6nro nno1n. cnny e1qnsnuecko npnpopm caonx por1oa pennrnn npnsmae1 pyx
k aocxoxpennk, expy 1e kk 6nroppn unc1o1e caoe opnn on c1pen1cn
ampa1L ero ns 6ono1 cn6oc1e n nopokoa, nry6nmx pnn 1epnnLnoro nporpecc.
o1nnune o1 qnnocoqoa XVIII a., m cknonnm nsa1L xpnc1nnc1ao unannns1opcko
cnno, no specL cnepye1 co6nkp1L epy, n6o npeyaennuenne 1ko ponn oxe1
npnaec1n k cepLesnm oun6k.
pnc1nnc1ao nanne1cn unannns1opo po 1ex nop, nok pene1 uenoaek 6onee
nrkn n psynm, n a 1o xe apen ono ncnonnne1 a1y ponL 1onLko onocpepoanno,
1. k. ne c1an1 uenLk npnenn1L nrkoc1L n psynoc1L k senm pen n ne
nm1e1cn ncnpan1L counnLnm nopnpok, npn ko1opo xnay1 neoqn1m, kkn 6m
necoaepuennm on nn ksncn. nanoe pnn nero - y6p1L ace, u1o apepn1 spopoaLk
pyun, oc1nLnoe neaxno. y 6espsnnuno, u1o kn1um nocn1 xn1m, acknocm
xopn1 a ukypx, u1o nepame epn1 pnc, a1opme kn1oam xnp, n ono coaepuenno ne
nn1epecye1cn 1e, u1o onn aepy1 caok oco6yk xnsnL. cnn o6ps xnsnn a1nx nkpe
cnyxn1 ey n nonLsy, xpnc1nnc1ao 6ype1 ero nooupn1L, no ne c1ne1 nsenn1L
npnamukn n o6mun, ko1opme sc1no y o6puennoro npop, nnn cnoco6c1aoa1L
nepexopy o1 opno unannnsunn k ppyro, nockonLky ono amue acex n nk6mx
unannnsun. pnepoa 1oy npepoc11ouno, n n 6ypy roaopn1L o nnx, no cnun
ne xo1enocL 6m npnsn1Lcn a 1o, u1o ne acerp 6mn nenonn1n coapeennn
pok1pnn, ko1opn nc1onLko o1oxpec1anne1 skon pnc1 c nn1epecn nuero np,
u1o y1aepxpe1, 6yp1o 6m a o6nxop aoun nekn xpnc1nnckn unannnsunn.
e1 conennn a cyuec1aoannn unannnsunn nsmuecko, 6pxncko, 6yppnc1cko,
nypnc1cko. Cyuec1aoann n cyuec1ayk1 o6uec1a, ko1opm pennrnn cnyxn1
ocnoao, pn qopy, cqopnpoan skonm, o6osnunn rpnnum, yksn
oncnoc1n; 1kne o6uec1a xnay1 1onLko no 6onee nnn enee nanm npepnncnnn
1eokp1nuecko pok1pnnm, n nx neaosoxno npepc1an1L 6es aepm n pn1ynoa, aep
n pn1ynm nemcnnm 6es npop, ko1opm nx cospn. o a1n npann c1ponncL
acn n1nunoc1L. ernLnn 1epnnoc1L - nso6pe1enne pncko nonn1nkn - n cnc1e
ccnnnnunn n cnnnnnn kynL1oa kk pesynL11 pekpen1cko 1eonornn nonannncL a
nsmuec1ae ne ouenL pano. pnko nok ono 6mno knm n cnnLnm, n sene 6mno
c1onLko xe Knn1epoa, Mepkypnea, enep, ckonLko ropopoa, peannam 6or
npnsnan nnuL caonx. kn o6pso, kxpn 1kn unannnsunn o6psye1cn n
psanae1cn nop arnpo konkpe1noro 6oxec1a. ynL1 n rocyppc1ao cansnm
nc1onLko 1ecno, u1o o6 necy1 o1ae1c1aennoc1L n s po6po n s sno. ecnn a
pqrene nxopn1 nonn1nueckne cnepm kynL1 npckoro epkn, 1o ne1pypno
cny11L annnnne pok1pnnm xpeuoa c nonn1nko cyqe1oa n nnpanenne counnLnoro
psan1nn. 1kxe ne coneakcL a 1o, u1o co6koronoam ny6nc, cnp e1ckn
n 6nc nyunnn xn1ene ponnnm nn 1oy, u1o onn snnn n yenn; no coe
kpynnoe noauec1ao, ko1opoe npnnecno n senk xpnc1nnc1ao, - a1o o6ps pec1an,
coaepuenno o1nnunm o1 e1opoa npepuec1aykunx pennrn. Y 1ex 6mnn caon
npopm, y xpnc1nnc1a caoero ne 6mno: ono o6pueno ko ace nkpn, n 6or1m n
6epnm, no npexpe acero ono nonyunno o1 Can1oro [yx aceo6un nsmk [Qnn
ncna, II, 4,8,9,10,11.], u1o6m psroapna1L c kxpm n nsmke ero c1pnm n
o6Lnann1L o noao aepe no cpepc1ao o6psoa, nn6onee nonn1nmx pnn kxpo
nunn. no npnuno ne pnn 1oro, u1o6m nsenn1L aneunn o6nnk uenoaek nnn
1epnnLnm, np, pnn 1oro, u1o6m noxne1L ero. no npe1enpoano 1onLko n
any1pennkk cy1L. opno nokpnqnuecko knnre, u1no s ee ppeanoc1L,
roaopn1cn: yc1L cnnLnm ne uann1cn caoe cnno, 6or1m caon 6or1c1ao,
1o1, k1o xoue1 npocnan1Lcn, npocnanen 6ype1 a ocnope. Cnn, 6or1c1ao, anc1L -
nnuero ne c1on1 a nue skone. n opn unannnsunn, kkoao 6m on nn 6mn, ne
nponannn caonx npnansnnoc1e nnn caoero npeaocxopc1a, n 1onLko ncxopn ns
am1ekkunx nocnepc1an a1o1 skon 6mn nsan k1onnueckn, ynnaepcnLnm, 1.
k. on ne npnnpnexn1 nn opno unannnsunn, ne nponoaepye1 nn opny qopy senoro
cyuec1aoannn n nn opny ns nnx ne o1pnue1.
[oks1enLc1a a1oro 6espsnnunn k aneunn qop counnLno xnsnn, k co
o6uec1aenno xnsnn ao noxec1ae ac1peuk1cn, npexpe acero, a knonnuecknx
knnrx, s1e a nncnnnx o1uoa Uepkan, pnee a pccksx nccnonepoa c
nesnn1nmx apeen no penL ceropnnunn. nanoe, u1o6m aep nponnsman
uenoaek, u1o6m ao acex caonx noc1ynkx uenoaek nnue ne ockop6nnn pennrnosnmx
sae1oa - ace npouee a rnsx skon ne nee1 snuennn. 1o snun1 pnn
o6puennoro qop ero xnnnu, nokpo ero nn1Ln, cnc1e npanennn, c1enenL
pecno1ns nnn cao6opm? kn psnnu, k1o on: pm6k, oxo1nnk, p6oun,
openna1enL, conp1? sae u1o-nn6ypL oxe1 noeu1L uenoaeky - 6ypL on
nrnnunnn, 1ypok, xn1enL Cn6npn, epnkneu, ro11en1o1 - yanpe1L cae1
xpnc1nnc1a n npnnn1L ero? oa1opnk: a1o coe rnanoe, npouee neaxno.
[nkpL cnoco6en cpen1Lcn 1kn xe y6expennm aepykun, kk n cm
npaoaepnm npen1 ns aponm. a1o sknkue1cn ampkueecn caoc1ao
xpnc1nnc1a, ko1opoe npnpe1 ey 1kyk npn1nr1enLnoc1L, n ne c1on1 nnu1L ero
c1onL uennoro kuec1a 1onLko ppn 1oro, u1o6m yropn1L nsnk6nennoy npnnunny
nuero apeenn n nue c1pnm, nenno: nck1L ackpy, pxe a cmx can1mx
aeux, 1epnnLnyk nonLsy.
UepkoaL cyuec1aye1 yxe aocenpu1L c1one1n, a ee nono npnuno neno nun, n
y acex on coxpnnn cyuec1aoaauyk nonn1nueckyk cnc1ey. co nune, a
okpyxennn n1nunoro np, nenno a a1o co c1onn rnann ee npen. norp ee
pxe ynpeknn s ns6m1ok 1epnnoc1n a a1o nnne (nnpnep, o1nouenne nesyn1oa
k kn1ckn uepeonnn). no k1o seue1, u1o on nnkorp ne nc1nan n
1o, u1o6m aepykune aocnpnnnnn kko-1o opnn 1nn unannnsunn. n
npncnoc6nnae1cn ko acey, pxe k nuyr; 1 xe, rpe ac1peue1cn ynpneu, ne
xenkun nonn1L onLsy y6exnu, acerp npe1cn 1epnennam nccnonep, ko1opm
cnpe1 pnpo c nn n ronme knn n noc1pe1cn anoxn1L a ero pyuy ocnoanme
npnnunnm cncennn. Cnepoa1enLno, xpnc1nnc1ao nece1 unannns1opckyk qynkunk
coace ne a o6muno cmcne; xpnc1nnc1ao oxe1 6m1L aocnpnnn1o cmn psnmn
pcn 6es yuep6 pnn nx npnamuek n nesancno o1 nx cnoco6noc1e.
pnc1nnckn aep aosamue1 pyuy aennune caonx por1oa n nn1e1 pyx caoe
uenoaeunoc1Lk. o a1o nponcxopn1 nnuL a 1o epe, a kko pyu n pyx cnoco6nm
aosamcn1Lcn n ann11L noame npen. n ne c1an1 uenLk pcnpoc1pnn1L cao renn
n anyu1L caon npen 1oy, koy nx nepoc1e1. n renn, nn npen aoace ne
o6ns1enLnm pnn cncennn. npo1na 1oro, xpnc1nnckn aep o6puen ckopee k
cn6m n ynnxennm, nexenn k cnnLnm. n pe1 1onLko 1o, u1o xoue1 nonyun1L
asen. n ypo6pne1 nouay n nnuero ne cospe1; on noppepxnae1, noore1 n
nnuero ne o16npe1; on npnnne1 uenoaek 1kn, kko on ec1L, n noore1 ey
np1n no xnsnn: ecnn on xpoo, on ne sc1an1 ero 6ex1L. Mnoro nn cpepn can1mx
nkpe yuenmx? e1, coace no. Con npaepnnkoa, uLn nen n nn1L u1n1
UepkoaL, aknkue1 a ce6n rnanm o6pso nkpe, nsaec1nmx caoe
po6pope1enLnoc1Lk n n6oxnoc1Lk, 1ex, k1o o6npn renne a penx ne6ecnmx n
koy ero nepoc1ano a penx senmx; korp ne yksmak1 n can1yk osy ns nm,
noun1eyk nop nene Bepnppm, can1yk 3n1y, ko1opo onn1cn kk can1o epese,
acex nrnockconcknx can1mx, 6onLuyk uc1L npnnpcknx onxoa n ernne1cknx
o1uenLnnkoa, n a1n nernonm yuennkoa, ko1opme ampennnncL ns 1onnm nnopo6ne
npko onnnn, u1o6m aeuno cnn1L ao cnae npane c cmn yxec1aennmn
sun1nnkn aepm, c ee cmn yuenmn nponoaepnnkn, n noa1opnk eue ps:
xpnc1nnc1ao ne nanne1cn unannns1opo a ysko o6mpenno cmcne a1oro cnoa,
nockonLky ono 1pe6ye1 o1 kxporo uenoaek nnuL 1o, u1o 1oy pno, ono n o1 kxpo
pcm 1pe6ye1 1onLko 1o, n u1o on cnoco6n, n ne co6npe1cn noc1an1L ee n 6onee
amcokyk c1ynenL a nonn1nuecko c1pyk1ype npopoa senn, ue 1, ko1opn
npnnpnexn1 e no npay cnoco6noc1e. cnepc1ane a1oro n ne ory npnnn1L
arnn1pnm pryen1, ko1opm ny1e1 aosoxnoc1L npnnn1L xpnc1nnckyk aepy co
cnoco6noc1Lk k nn1ennek1ynLnoy psan1nk. BonLunnc1ao nneen Kxno epnkn,
nnpnep, yxe neckonLko aekoa nxopn1cn a none Uepkan n npn a1o oc1k1cn
pnknn n pneknn o1 eaponecko unannnsunn, ko1opn ocyuec1anne1cn n nx
rnsx. ne ypnannkcL 1oy, u1o n ceaepe noaoro kon1nnen1 uepokn 6onLue
uc1Lk o6puenm a nuy aepy ycnnnnn e1opnc1oa, no n 6mn 6m aecL ypnanen,
ecnn 6m a1 npopnoc1L cospn, psyee1cn, coxpnna caok nepao6m1nyk unc1o1y,
opno ns rocyppc1a nnn u11oa epnkncko konqepepunn n nen xo1L kkoe-1o
annnnne a konrpecce. n nxoxy anonne ec1ec1aennm, u1o p1ckne nk1epne n
opam o1kpmnn acknoc rns n pennrnosnm cae1, no ne enee ec1ec1aenno n
1o, u1o a1n neoqn1m oc1anncL 6conk1no a 1o xe counnLno coc1onnnn, a kko
npe6mann npexpe. koneu, a sknkuenne ckxy cnepykuee: ne1 nnuero
neo6munoro a 1o, u1o uaepckne nnonne nxopn1cn a coc1onnnn apapc1a, xo1n
neckonLko c1one1n nsp n npnnecnn cncn1enLnme pok1pnnm anrennn.
nckpenne cun1k, u1o ace a1n npopm cory1 nopopn1L n, aosoxno, yxe nopopnnn
neno nnunoc1e, seu1enLnmx caoe n6oxnoc1Lk n unc1o1o npaoa, opnko n
ne npepc1annk, u1o ns nx cpepm ory1 am1n yuenme 1eonorn, aoenunLnnkn,
cnoco6nme 1e1nkn, nckycnme xypoxnnkn - cnoao, npepc1an1enn ann1m,
uncnennoc1L n npeec1aennoc1L ko1opo coc1annk1 cnny n snuenne aepyunx pc;
eue enLue n aepk, u1o pepkoe nonanenne 1knx rennea, ne1nnnunmx pnn nx npopoa
n pnn ny1n psan1nn nocnepnnx, npnaepe1 k 1oy, u1o a1n npopm panny1cn k
nporpeccy nop nx pykoaopc1ao. ocey 6ype1 neo6xopno n cnpaepnnao, ecnn
xpnc1nnc1ao coaepuenno o1c1ynn1cn o1 1ko spun. cnn ace pcm a pano
c1enenn cnoco6nm ocosn1L n ncnonLsoa1L npenyuec1a xpnc1nnc1a, a1o ne
snun1, u1o ono ponxno pen1L nx noxoxnn ppyr n ppyr: oxno ceno snan1L, u1o
ero upc1ao, a 1o cmcne, kko n specL aknpmak, cnepye1 nck1L a ppyro npe.
eco1pn n amuecksnnoe, n 6okcL, u1o neko1opme yxn, npnamkune a cnny
ec1ec1aenno npnaepxennoc1n k npen apeenn cypn1L o poc1onnc1ax n scnyrx
xpnc1nnc1a uepes npnsy npeppccypkoa nue anoxn, ncxopn1 ns ne1ounmx
nonn1n n, cornuncL a ueno c onn pryen1n, npnpk1 onpepennkuee
snuenne kocaennoy annnnnk pennrnn n npam, npaoa n nnc1n1y1m, nnc1n1y1oa
n counnLnyk cnc1ey. D1n nkpn nonrk1, u1o xo1n 6m s cue1 nnunoro annnnnn
nopanxnnkoa aepm onn ory1 cyuec1aenno nsenn1L nonn1nueckyk cn1yunk
o6puennmx n nx npepc1anennn o 1epnnLno 6nrononyunn. npnep, onn
ckxy1, u1o a1n noc1onm, amxopum ns 6onee psan1o nunn, nexenn 1, ko1opo onn
necy1 aepy, npnxopn1 k mcnn peqopnpoa1L unc1o uenoaeueckne npnamukn caonx
neoqn1oa, opnoapeenno coaepuenc1ayn nx opnLnme yc1noakn. orp onn nek1
peno c pnkpnn, c o1c1nmn n neaexec1aennmn npopn, onn nm1k1cn nyun1L
nx nonesnm aeu n noks1L, kk 6opo1Lcn c ronopo nocpepc1ao
cenLckoxosnc1aennmx 1pypoa n nnc1pyen1oa, ko1opme onn npnaosn1. 31e a1n
nccnonepm npy1 eue pnLue n yu1 1yseuea c1pon1L 6onee npexnme xnnnu,
psaopn1L cko1, ynpann1L aopoen - nn6o coopyx1L p6m npo1na naopnenn,
nn6o pm1L nppnrunonnme knnm. oc1enenno onn npnanak1 n akyc k yc1aennm
ynpxnennn, yu1 nonLsoa1Lcn nqan1o, nnorp, kk a1o cnyunnocL c uepokn,
cosp1L caok nncLennoc1L, o ue nnue1 pnupp a caoe c1ec1aenno nc1opnn
uenoaek. koneu, onn po6nak1cn nonc1nne ampkunxcn ycnexoa, n 1ysenoe
ncenenne nunne1 nn1npoa1L npam yun1ene n saopn1, kk, nnpnep, 1e xe
uepokn nnn kpnkcm, xn1enn kxnoro 6eper pknsc, c1p pounnx xnao1nmx n
pxe uepnmx p6oa pnn p6o1m n nnn1unnx.
cneunnLno am6pn pa pnknx npop, ko1opme cun1k1cn nn6onee psan1mn; n
ne xouy ac1yn1L a cnop co c1oponnnkn arnn1pns, no, n6nkpn a1n npnepm,
npnxoxy k amaopy, u1o 1pypno npepc1an1L ce6e 6onee y6epn1enLnme, ko1opme
roaopn1 o necnoco6noc1n neko1opmx pc am1n n popory, ne anyuennyk n nx
nepao6m1no npnpopo.
o1 nepep nn pa nneenn, nsonnpoannme o1 nornx ppyrnx, ynnu1oxennmx nnn
am1ecnennmx 6enmn nocenenun, n m anpn, u1o a1n nneen a kopne o1nnuk1cn
o1 oc1nLnmx, no1oy u1o onn aepy1 popocnoanyk o1 nnernncko pcm, ko1opo
npnnncmak1 oc11kn ppeannx nn1nnkoa, o6npyxennmx k ceaepy o1 Mnccncnnn.
Yxe ceuc a ronoae 1ex, k1o npoaosrnue1 paenc1ao expy uepokn n eaponeun,
cyuec1aye1 neko1opoe cn1enne n seu1enLc1ao, nockonLky nx rnanm pryen1
sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o nnernnckne npopnoc1n 6nnskn k nrnockc 1onLko 1e,
u1o onn cn c1on1 amue oc1nLnmx pc Ceaepno epnkn. poe 1oro, noco1pn,
u1o cnyunnocL c a1nn payn ns6pnnmn nneenn. epnknckoe npan1enLc1ao
o1o6pno y nnx senk, n ko1opo onn xnnn, n npnpyno poroaop, u1o6m sc1an1L
nx nepecenn1Lcn n ppyryk 1eppn1opnk. nop npsopo aoennoro nnnc1epc1a n
nop pykoaopc1ao npo1ec1n1cknx nccnonepoa a1n 1yseu aone-neaone
npnunocL npncnoco6n1Lcn k nx nmneuney o6psy xnsnn. eko1opme a1opm pxe
y1aepxpk1, u1o uncnennoc1L uepokn yaennunae1cn, n npnaopn1 a poks1enLc1ao
1ko qk1: korp nx noce1nn ny1euec1aennnk pnp, y uepokn ncun1manocL 2300
aonnoa, ceropnn uncnennoc1L nneenn poc1nre1 15 1mcnu pyu, npap, aknkun
1200 uepnmx p6oa; npn a1o po6annk1, u1o nx ukonm, kk n uepkan, ynpannk1cn
nccnonepn, u1o a1n nccnonepm, 6ypyun npo1ec1n1n, nou1n ace xen1m n
nek1 pe1e nnn cnyr c 6enm uae1o koxn, 1kxe u1o-1o apope coae1nnkoa n
cnyxunx ns eaponeuea, sn1okoa peecen; ncxopn ns a1oro, aecL 1pypno cks1L,
pec1an1enLno nn neno ec1o yaennuenne nx uncn, s1o 6es 1pyp oxno
konc11npoa1L cnnLnoe panenne eaponecko pcm n caonx yuennkoa [
cacu acynau a ckycc c vaH, xvy ccnaucn a
kann, km a ca ncn kr Hka a Hk ak
nm vk: BmcHy yca aH anckx namvk
cnccaaan Hcm. amaan nka, kamaancu nncu
kx mvaa ca acm, Hc Hy ccay canu Hxy
ana aaaacaH. cy, r Hr Hca, ka ncn
Hn ca canu ycca ca aam. sHy kanu
naann, v ax yyv HcaH, a araH, a ckH aH
vk kkcm ac aa cvy n ackH nmx.].
ecnoco6nme aec1n aony, nnuennme senn, co acex c1opon okpyxennme neaepon1no
epnkncko ouLk, c ppyro c1oponm, o6puennme a pennrnk caonx
anc1n1ene, npnue, kk n nonrk, po6poaonLno, 1pe1npyeme c nrkoc1Lk caonn
pyxoanmn nc1annkn n y6expennme a neo6xopnoc1n 1pypn1Lcn no npnepy
caonx yun1ene, xo1n 6m pnn 1oro, u1o6m ne yepe1L c ronopy, 1yseum ory1
cpen1Lcn senepenLun. oc1e1cn ycaon1L npen, ko1opme kxpopneano
npk1nkyk1cn aokpyr nnx.
k xe nnsko npo nnsaec1n yc1aennme cnoco6noc1n pxe co uxno ae1an
uenoaeueckoro pop, u1o6m ynnn1Lcn npn anpe 1oro, u1o nen 1epnenne n yeno
nrpn 1knn caoc1an uenoaeuecko n1ypm, kk rypnc1ao n aospepxnnoc1L a
nnue, ype1cn nyun1L nonynkpe-nonyxnao1nmx 1oy, u1o ne 6mno snoxeno a nx
nnc1nnk1x. orp cenLckne nppkn snonnenm yuenmn saepnn, ko1opmx
sc1annk1 ampenma1L psnme 1pkkn, c1on1 nn ypnann1Lcn 1oy, u1o nkpn,
nopaeprny1me cypoaoy aocnn1nnk n nsnunLno nnuennme acnko aosoxnoc1n
ns6ex1L ero, nyuk1cn ncnonnn1L 1e qynkunn unannnsoanno xnsnn, ko1opme a
pnko coc1onnnn onn ornn 6m, a koneuno cue1e, nonn1L n aocnpnnn1L, pxe ne nen
xennnn npk1nkoa1L nx? epL a1o panocnnLno 1oy, u1o noc1an1L a1nx nkpe
ropspo nnxe co6kn, nyuenno nrp1L a kp1m, nnn noupn, ps6npkuecn a
rc1pononn! k, ns xennnn npeap1n1L cnyunme qk1m a pryen1m,
canpe1enLc1aykune o psynoc1n 1ex nnn nnmx pc, nonannk1cn nopo6nme
poks1enLc1a, nennuenpnn1nme pnn 1ex, a nonLsy ko1opmx onn, nko6m, ampanny1m.
snk, u1o ouenL apypnpoannme n yuenme nkpn nonoxnnn nuno 1ko
neyepenno pe6nnn1unn, snana, u1o expy neko1opmn uenoaeuecknn pcn n
6onLun o1pnpo o6esLnn ne cyuec1aye1 ue1knx psnnun, ecnn ne cun11L nkncoa.
ockonLky n, 6esycnoano, o1aeprk a1o ockop6nenne, ne 6ype1 nosaoneno cks1L
cnepykuee: a onx rnsx uenoaeueckne pcm nepanm, n aec1e c 1e n ne pyk,
u1o xo1L opn ns nnx 6nnsk k xnao1nm. Coe nocnepnee nnen, cn nepsan1n
psnoanpnoc1L uenoaeueckoro pop cnoco6n, kk nnny, k noppxnnk, n ecnn
asn1L pxe 6yuen, oxno psan1L y nero, nnn ero cmn, nnn a kpne cnyue
anyk, poc11ouno yc1aennmx cnoco6noc1e pnn 1oro, u1o6m on or nyun1Lcn
cnoxnoy peecny. o cnepye1 nn ns a1oro, u1o nunn, k ko1opo npnnpnexn1 a1o1
uenoaek, oxe1 cosp1L unannnsunk, nopo6nyk nue? Cun11L 1k - snun1
pccyxp1L noaepxnoc1no n pen1L nocneunme amaopm. c1L 6onLun psnnu expy
namkn a peecnx n nckycc1ax, nannkunxcn npopyk1n kko-1o unannnsunn,
n co unannnsune. e ne enee, nccnonepm-npo1ec1n1m, epnnc1aennoe saeno,
cansmakuee nnen o6puemx pnkpe c unannns1opckn uen1po, nm1k1cn
amnonnn1L a1y nenocnnLnyk spuy. o ory1 nn onn anoxn1L a ronoam noponeunmx
counnLnme nykn? a a1o coneakcL, n ecnn appyr nopae1cn cansL expy
epnknckn npan1enLc1ao n pyxoanmn nc1annkn a cnyue c nneene
uepokn, 1o uepes neckonLko ne1 m yanpn n qepx 6opnrenoa coaepuenno noayk
cn1yunk - pesynL11 ceuennn 6enmx nocenenuea c kpcnokoxnn.
c1o ynonnk1 nerpoa, nyunaunxcn ysmke, nerpoa, ko1opme cnyx1 a 6nkx,
ko1opme yek1 un11L, nnc1L, cun11L, 1nuea1L n psroapna1L ne xyxe 6enmx;
nn aocxnuk1cn n penk1 amaop, u1o a1n nkpn cnoco6nm n ace! opnoapeenno c
aocxnuennnn n amaopn 1e xe cme a1opm ypnannk1cn kon1pc1y expy nue
unannnsune n unannnsune cnanncknx npopoa. nn ckxy1, u1o pycckne,
nonnkn, cep6m, xo1n onn n 6nnxe k n, ue nerpm, unannnsoanm 1onLko uc1nuno;
onn 6ypy1 y1aepxp1L, u1o y cnann 1onLko amcune knccm pspennk1 nun mcnn n
npen, a ocnoano 6nroppn npnecn nrnncko, qpnuyscko, neeuko kpoan, n
ne npenny1 o1e1n1L apoxpennyk necnoco6noc1L cc ann1Lcn a cnc1ey snpnoro
np, xo1n a1n ccm npnnnnn xpnc1nnc1ao noro aekoa nsp, neko1opme pxe
pnLue nc! 1k, cyuec1aye1 6onLun psnnu expy noppxnne n y6expenne.
oppxnne ne acerp npepnonre1 cyuec1aennm pspma c counnLnm ncnepne,
nc1onuee npncoepnnenne k kko-nn6ypL unannnsunn nponcxopn1 1orp nnuL,
korp npop oksmae1cn a coc1onnnn nporpeccnpoa1L c no ce6e 6es noc1oponne
nooun. ec1o 1oro, u1o6m ynnn1Lcn cnoco6noc1n pnkpe ynpann1L kpe1o nnn
un11L, ecnn nx a1oy nyunnn, nyc1L nokxy1 n xo1L opno ec1o n sene, rpe
xn1enn aekn cocyuec1ayk1 pnpo c eaponeun n rpe npen, nnc1n1y1m, npam
nunx nun 6mnn 6m nc1onLko xopouo ycaoenm aec1e c nunn pennrnosnmn
pok1pnnn, u1o 1 n6nkpe1cn 1ko xe ec1ec1aennm nporpecc, kk a apone;
nyc1L nokxy1 xo1L opno ec1o, rpe neu1nm c1nok pe1 1kne xe pesynL11m, kk y
nc, rpe nun nykn coaepuenc1ayk1cn, rpe nun o1kpm1nn nxopn1 noaoe
npnenenne, rpe nu qnnocoqnn nopoxpe1 noayk qnnocoqnk, noame
nonn1nueckne cnc1em, nckycc1a, knnrn, c11yn, kp1nnm!
y p npno, n ne nc1onLko 1pe6oa1enen n npnaepepnna. yxe ne 1pe6yk, u1o6m
aec1e c nue aepo uyxpm n npop ann1n a ce6n ace, u1o coc1anne1 nuy
nnpnanpynLnoc1L; n ponyckk, u1o on oxe1 ee o1aeprny1L n am6p1L pnn ce6n
ppyro pnn noppxnnn npnep. yc1L 1k! o nyc1L ne nokxy1 1ko npop,
ko1opm a 1o1 oen1, korp on ocosne1 pyuo nc1nnnoc1L anrennn, a cnepykun
nonne1, u1o ero senoe cyuec1aoanne 1kxe nnu1oxno n nenpannLno, kko 6mn
coace nepano ero pyxoann xnsnL; nyc1L n yanxy, kk on c no caoey xennnk
cospe1 pnn ce6n noam counnLnm nopnpok, ncxopn ns co6c1aennmx npe, 6maunx
po cnx nop 6ecnnopnmn, n nepeocmcnnan uyxo onm1. xpy, korp a1o
nponsope1 - nyc1L 1onLko 1ko npop o1mue1cn. o, yam, nok nn opnn pxe ne
nm1ncn a1o cpen1L. n a opno nc1opnuecko anoxe ne cyuec1aye1 nunn,
npnuepue k eaponecko unannnsunn a pesynL11e npnnn1nn xpnc1nnc1a, nn
epnno, ko1opyk a1o ampkueecn co6m1ne npnaeno k coc1on1enLnoy psan1nk.
o s1o n anxy a o6unpnmx sennx Kxno snn n a neko1opmx ponx aponm
rocyppc1a, ko1opme o6psoann neckonLko rpynn, npepc1annkunx psnnunme
pennrnn. pxp pc 6ype1 nensenno cyuec1aoa1L pnpo c apxpo kynL1oa; n
o1nnun1L c1auero xpnc1nnnno n1n o1 o6puennoro nnpyc 1k xe nerko, kk
ceropnn o1nnuk1 pycckoro ns pen6ypr o1 koueannkoa, 1kxe npnnnaunx
xpnc1nnc1ao, cpepn ko1opmx on xnae1. oa1opk eue ps: xpnc1nnc1ao ne ec1L
unannnsykun cnn, n ono c1o ps npao, u1o 1koam ne nanne1cn.
VIII
O n; k.
3pecL m cpene ne6onLuoe, no neo6xopnoe o1c1ynnenne. a1op uc1o nonLsye1cn
cnoao, ko1opoe aeue1 a ce6n uenyk cnc1ey npe, nyxpkuykcn a onpepenennn.
uc1o roaopk o unannnsunn, no1oy u1o cnoco6noc1n pc oxno ouenn1L 1onLko
uepes o1nocn1enLnoe nnnune nnn 6conk1noe o1cy1c1ane a1oro cyuec1aennoro
qenoen. aepy peuL o eaponecko unannnsunn npoaoxy psnnune expy ne n
ppyrnn unannnsunnn. Mne ne xoue1cn oc1ann1L pxe neue nencnoc1n n ce
cue1, 1e 6onee, u1o n ne corncen c nsaec1nm nnc1ene Opnunn, ko1opm
cneunnLno snnncn npnpopo n cqepo npnnoxennn pnnoro 1epnn.
Caok knnry c1opnn unannnsunn a apone rocnopnn nso - p 6ype1 ne
nosaoneno nokone61L ero ampkuncn a1opn1e1 - nunne1 c ny1nnum cnoa,
o1kyp nponc1ekk1 cepLesnme oun6kn: a1op y1aepxpe1, u1o unannnsunn ec1L
qk1.
pnko nn6o cnoao qk1 cnepye1 specL nonn1L a 6onee konkpe1no n nosn1nano
cmcne, ko1opm o1cy1c1aye1 a o6muno ero yno1pe6nennn, a unpoko n neckonLko
pcnnmau1o, n 6m cksn, rn6ko cmcne, ko1oporo a a1o cnoae nnkorp ne 6mno,
nn6o ono ne ropn1cn pnn xpk1epnc1nkn 1koro nonn1nn, kk unannnsunn.
Unannnsunn - a1o ne qk1; a1o pnp, cuennenne qk1oa, 6onee nnn enee nornueckn
coepnnennmx ppyr c ppyro n amsannmx c1onknoaenne npe, suc1yk poaonLno
norouncnennmx, npen n qk1m nenpepmano onnopo1aopnk1 ppyr ppyr. norp
1ko nenpepmanm kpyroaopo1 nanne1cn cnepc1ane nepaoc1enennmx npnnunnoa,
nnorp a1o cnepc1ane npepc1anne1 co6o c1rnunk, no a nk6o cnyue
unannnsunn ne ec1L qk1 - a1o nyuok qk1oa n npe; a1o coc1onnne, a ko1opo
nxopn1cn uenoaeueckoe o6uec1ao, a1o cpep, a ko1opo ey poaenocL oks1Lcn,
ko1opyk ono cospno, ko1opn ns nero nponcxopn1 n a caok ouepepL n nero
aospec1aye1.
D1o coc1onnne o6npe1 cnnLnm xpk1epo o6o6uennn, ko1opm qk1 nnkorp ne
o1nnue1cn; ono npe1epneae1 noxec1ao apnun, ko1opmx qk1 ne or 6m
ampepx1L 6es 1oro, u1o6m ne ncuesny1L, n aec1e c
1e ono coaepuenno ne sancn1 o1 qop npanennn, 1. k. cyuec1aye1 n psanae1cn n
npn pecno1nse n npn nn6epnLno pexne n ne nepec1e1 cyuec1aoa1L pxe 1orp,
korp rpxpnckne no1pncennn nsennk1 nnn aoo6ue 1pncqopnpyk1 ycnoann
nonn1nuecko xnsnn.
pnko a1o ne osnue1, u1o qopm npanennn ne nrpk1 6onLuo ponn. x am6op
nepspmano cansn c npouae1nne counnLnoro oprnns: 6ypyun oun6ouno,
qop npanennn eue1 ey nnn y6nae1 ero, cnpaepnnaoe npanenne cnyxn1 ey
n cnoco6c1aye1 ero psan1nk. onpoc specL 6onee cepLesnm: peuL npe1 o co
cyuec1aoannn npop n unannnsunn, o qenoene, 1ecno cansnno c neko1opmn
aneen1pnmn ycnoannn, ne sancnunn o1 nonn1nueckoro coc1onnnn; a1n ycnoann
nek1 caon npnunnm, o1nam caoero kypc, caoero pcunpennn, caoe
ocnoa1enLnoc1n nnn cn6oc1n - cnoao, ace, u1o nx coc1anne1 - a 6onee rny6oknx
nc1ounnkx. oa1oy nepep nnuo 1knx qynpen1nLnmx coo6pxenn n a1opo
nnn o1opanrk1cn aonpocm nonn1nueckoro yc1poc1a, npouae1nnn nnn nnue1m,
n nepam nnn acerp n aespe amxopn1 snenn1n rne1oackn npo6ne: 6m1L
nnn ne 6m1L. k pnn npopoa, 1k n pnn o1penLnmx nkpe aecL aonpoc sknkue1cn
nenno a a1o. ocnopnn nso ne spe1cn a1n aonpoco, n unannnsunn pnn nero -
ne coc1onnne, ne cpep, no acero nnuL qk1, renepnpykun npnnunno qk1
nanne1cn ppyro qk1 cyry6o nonn1nuecko npnpopm.
[a1e o1kpoe knnry kpcnopeunaoro npoqeccop n o6p1ncn k rnno1es,
ko1opme on npepc1ann, u1o6m ampenn1L rnanyk caok mcnL. 6osnuna neckonLko
cn1yun, a ko1opmx oxe1 oks1Lcn 1o nnn nnoe o6uec1ao, a1op cnpunae1:
oxno nn aoo6ue pcnosn1L coc1onnne npop, ko1opm nxopn1cn a c1pnn
c1noanennn unannnsunn; a a1o nn sknkue1cn cmcn, ko1opm pop
uenoaeueckn npnpe1 cnoay unannnsunn?
[nee cnepye1 nepan rnno1es: osLe npop, aneunnn xnsnL ko1oporo npo1eke1
rnpko: on nn1n1 no nnoroa n nou1n ne sne1 c1ppnn, ace ero o1nouennn
yc1poenm cnpaepnnao, opnn cnoao, 1epnnLnoe n opnLnoe cyuec1aoanne
a1oro npop nnonne1 coc1onnne ouenenennn, nnep1noc1n n sx1oc1n n ne ory
yno1pe6n1L specL cnoao "yrne1enne", no1oy u1o yrne1ennn on ne ouyue1. pnepoa
1oy neno". Bmnn a nc1opnn pnc1okp1nueckne pecny6nnkn, rpe c noppnnmn
o6punncL kk co c1po, pepxnn nx a 1epnnLno 6nrononyunn, no nopannnn
acnkyk yc1aennyk n opnLnyk k1nanoc1L. k neyxenn a1o n ec1L unannnsunn?
sae a1o n ec1L npop, nxopnuncn n c1pnn c1noanennn unannnsunn?
ne snk, npe1 nn specL peuL o npope, ko1opm unannnsye1cn, no a1o1 npop, no-
oey, ouenL unannnsoannm, nnue cnepoano o1nec1n k k1eropnn pnkpe n
apapoa ace pnc1okp1nueckne pecny6nnkn ppeanoc1n n coapeennoc1n, ko1opme,
kk o1eue1 c nso, sknkuenm a pkn ero rnno1esm; o6uec1aennm nnc1nnk1 n
sppam cmcn ne ory1 ockop6n1Lcn 1kn e1opo, ko1opm am6pcmae1 ns non
unannnsunn qnnnknuea, kpqrennn, nkepeonnn, aec1e c nnn aeneunnuea,
renyasuea, nnsnuea, xn1ene' acex cao6opnmx nnepcknx ropopoa epnnn -
opnn cnoao, aceounme ynnunnnLnme o6psoannn npounmx aekoa. ono
1oro, u1o a1o1 amaop c no ce6e cnnuko nppokcnen, u1o6m ero or npnnn1L
sppam cmcn, k ko1opoy on n o6puen a koneuno cue1e, ne kxe1cn, u1o on
cospe1 eue opny npo6ney: a1n nenLkne pnc1okp1nueckne rocyppc1a, ko1opm
nso, ccmnncL n nx qopy npanennn, o1ksmae1 a cnoco6noc1n k unannnsunn,
6onLue uc1Lk nnkorp ne o6npnn caoe, 1onLko n npnnpnexue kynL1ypo.
Mnorne ns nnx 6mnn nou1n aceoryun, n, oxe1 6m1L, noa1oy nx ncenenne uc1o
ceunanocL c npopn, nekunn ppyryk qopy npanennn, no ouenL 6nnsko
pcm, n coo6u yuc1aoann a npouecce unannnsunn. k, kpqrennne n
qnnnknum, pspenennme 6onLun pcc1onnne, 1e ne enee 6mnn o6Lepnnenm a
kynL1ypnm np, npo1o1nn ko1oporo nxopnncn a ccnpnn. 1nLnnckne pecny6nnkn
o6LepnnnnncL a panxennn npe n nenn, npeo6npaunx a none cocepnnx
onpxn. Cy6ckne n 1kpnnrckne nnepckne ropop, nesancnme a nonn1nuecko
o1nouennn, 6mnn aoaneuenm n a nporpecc n a ynpok neeuko pcm. Cypn no
amcksmannn rocnopnn nso, ko1opm pcc1anne1 npopm no pnxnpy nx
poc1onnc1a a sancnoc1n o1 c1enenn nx cao6op, expy nnn ponxnm cyuec1aoa1L
necyuec1aykune psnnunn n cxopc1a. 3pecL ne ec1o pnn unpoko pnckyccnn no
a1oy aonpocy, no n ace-1kn o1euy noxopo, u1o a 1ko cnyue cnepoano
noc1an1L nsy, enyk, eneunk n ppyrne pecny6nnkn nnxe Mnnn, enonn n n.
o rocnopnn nso ne o6pue1 annnnn n 1kne necypsnoc1n. cnn on ne anpn1
unannnsunn y npop, nekuero nrkyk qopy npanennn, no nxopnuerocn a
coc1onnnn sx1oc1n, 1e 6onee on o1ksmae1 a a1o 1oy npopy, y ko1oporo
1epnnLnoe nonoxenne pneko ne 6nec1nuee, no a o6ue 1epnnoe, s1o ko1opm
ne npene6pere1 opnLnmn n nn1ennek1ynLnmn no1pe6noc1nn..., ko1opm
kynL1nanpye1 aosamuennme n unc1me uyac1a, y ko1oporo a onpepenenno c1enenn
psan1 pennrnosnn aep, no y ko1oporo nopanen npnnunn cao6opm, o1ckp nn
opnoy uneny o6uec1a ne nosaoneno nck1L nc1nny a opnnouky. 1ko coc1onnnn
npe6mae1 6onLun uc1L npopoa snn, rpe uenoaeueckne npnnunnm npnpanenm
1eokp1nuecko anc1Lk. pnepo cnyxn1 rocyppc1ao npycoa.
kn o6pso, a 1y xe k1eropnk, a kkyk nonnn pnc1okp1nueckne pecny6nnkn,
cnepye1 o1nec1n nnpycoa, ernn1nn, a1pyckoa, nepynuea, 1n6e1uea, nnonuea n pxe
nmneunn n n nopanc1nme ey senn.
ne 6ypy kc1Lcn payx nocnepnnx rnno1es no 1o npnunne, u1o pae nepame yxe
nc1onLko orpnnunak1 n cyxk1 coc1onnne unannnsunn, u1o n sene ne1 nn
opno nunn, nekue npao nsma1Lcn unannnsoanno. o1oy u1o pnn
o6npnnn 1kn npao neo6xopno ne1L nnc1n1y1m, yepennme c 1oukn spennn n
anc1n n cao6opm, 1epnnLnoe psan1ne n opnLnm nporpecc ponxnm
coue11Lcn nenno 1kn o6pso n nnkkn nnm; npanenne, kk n pennrnn,
ponxnm yknpma1Lcn a ue1ko ouepuennme rpnnum, noppnnme ponxnm o6np1L
1ouno onpepenennmn npan. xe nonrk, u1o unannnsoannmn oxno nsa1L
1onLko 1e npopm, y ko1opmx ec1L konc1n1yunonnme n npepc1an1enLckne
nonn1nueckne nnc1n1y1m. cnn, cnepyn 1ko nornke n noc1onnno nsepnn c1enenL
unannnsunn no epk opno-epnnc1aenno nonn1nuecko qopm, n o16pouy 1e
konc1n1yunonnme rocyppc1a, ko1opme nnoxo ncnonLsyk1 npnen1ckn
nnc1pyen1, npepnoun1n e1opm, 6onee ypo6nme pnn ce6n, ne npnpe1cn npnsn1L
nc1nnno unannnsoanno, kk a npouno, 1kn a nc1onue, 1onLko nrnnckyk
nunk.
oneuno, n npencnonnen yaxennn n aocxnuennn k aennkoy npopy, uLn no6epm,
nnpyc1pnn, 1oproann canpe1enLc1ayk1 o oryuec1ae n ycnexx. o oe yaxenne n
aocxnuenne ne orpnnunae1cn nrnne: ne kxe1cn ynnsn1enLnm n o6npnm pnn
uenoaeuec1a npnsn1L, u1o a 1euenne nornx aekoa ono corno co1aopn1L
unannnsunk 1onLko n ne6onLuo oc1poae snpnoro oken n aonno1n1L caon
skonm, 1onLko nunnn c anoxn upc1aoannn nnLrenL n Mpnn. enLsn ne
npnsn1L ysoc1L a1o konuenunn. nenLsn s6ma1L o6 ee oncnoc1n. cnn npnans1L
npek unannnsunn k nonn1nuecko qope, pccyxpennn, n6nkpennn, nykn 1o1uc
y1p1n1 aosoxnoc1L cks1L caoe cnoao a a1o aonpoce, n peukun ponL ponxn
o1aopn1Lcn c1pc1n. syee1cn, npy1cn nkpn, ko1opme a cnny caonx akycoa ne
cun1k1 6pn1nckne nnc1n1y1m aepxo coaepuenc1a n npepnoun1k1 n cnc1ey,
yc1noanennyk a Cnk1-e1ep6ypre nnn ene. norne n aosoxno nx 6ype1
6onLunnc1ao expy eno n npenenn - ckxy1, u1o, neco1pn n neko1opme
nepoc11kn, co coaepuenno c1pno a npe c 1oukn spennn nonn1nueckoro
yc1poc1a nanne1cn Opnunn. ockonLky onpepenenne c1enenn kynL1ypm - a1o peno
akyc nnn uyac1a, corncne specL neaosoxno. [nn kxporo ns nc cm psan1m
n 6nropopnm uenoaeko 6ype1 1o1, k1o pspenne1 nun asrnnpm n o6nsnnoc1n
npan1ene n noppnnmx, 1orp kk necuc1nme, ocennakunecn py1L nnue,
nepepy1 a k1eropnk pnkpe n apapoa. cun1k, u1o nnk1o ne c1ne1 ocnpna1L
a1o nenne, n ace corncn1cn c 1e, u1o cnc1e cyxpenn no enLue epe
nepoc11ouno psp6o1n.
1o kce1cn enn, n nxoxy ee pxe enee coaepuenno, ue cnepykuee
onpepenenne 6pon y6onLp1: Unannnsunn ec1L rynnsunn npopoa a anpe
aneunnx nnc1n1y1oa, npaoa n ao any1penne uyac1ae, ko1opoe k nn o1nocn1cn.
anxy specL opnn nepoc11ok, npno npo1naononoxnm 1oy, ko1opm n o1e1nn a
qopyne nso. CansL cnnuko pcnnmau1, ouepuennoe none cnnuko aennko.
cnn unannnsunn poc1nre1cn s cue1 npoc1oro ynyuuennn npaoa, 1orp nk6o
pnkpL oc1noan1 cao am6op n 1o eaponecko nunn, a xpk1epe ko1opo
enLue cypoaoc1n. kxnmx oc1poax, nnpnep, xnay1 coaepuenno 6eso6npnme
nneen c ouenL nrknn npan, opnko, npn ace k nn yaxennn, s 1kne
kuec1a nnkoy ne npnpe1 a ronoay noc1an1L nx amue cypoamx n onunnamx
nopaexuea nnn pnpo c xec1oknn nun, ko1opme opeak1cn a npkne 1knn,
cpennnme nx pykn, 6opospn1 aonnm n nckycno noc1poennmx 6pkx n naopn1
yxc n opcknx 1oproauea a aoc1ouno uc1n npnckoro oken. D1o1 qk1 ne
yckonLsnyn o1 annnnn 1koro ampkuerocn yx, kk y6onLp1, noa1oy kpoe
unannnsunn on noppsyeae1 kynL1ypy n snanne1, u1o, no ero nennk, npopm,
cnrunaune caon npam, c1pen1cn k nyk n nckycc1a.
Corncno a1o neppxnn, np n a1opo c1ynenn coaepuenc1a ncenen npnn1nmn
n cnn1nunmn, nk6osn1enLnmn nkpLn, noa1n n p1nc1n, no onn a cnny
1knx kuec1a ne ropn1cn pnn 1nxenoro 1pyp, aoennoro n ppyrnx peecen.
cnn nopy1L, kk no pocyr oc1annk1 cme cuc1nname nepnopm caon
coapeennnk, u1o6m 1e ornn npepa1Lcn yc1aennm ynpxnennn, n kkyk
neckonueyk 6opL6y npnxopn1cn aec1n c npnpopo n skonn acenenno xo1n 6m
pnn 1oro, u1o6m amxn1L, cpsy 6pocn1cn a rns, u1o 6epnnnckn mcnn1enL ne
npe1enpoan n nso6pxenne penn, xo1en nsaneuL ns 6c1pkunn koe-kkne
cyunoc1n, ko1opme ksnncL ey 1ounmn n o6o6ukunn n ko1opme pec1an1enLno
1koamn nannk1cn, n sc1an1L nx pec1aoa1L a cqepe, 1ko xe npenLno, kk n
onn cn. Conennn n a1o1 cue1 ncuesk1 cpsy, kk 1onLko m po6npecn po
amcue 1oukn ace cnc1em - peuL npe1 o 1pe1Le n nocnepne c1ynenn
coaepuenc1a. enno ckp on noeue1 uenoaek cqopnpoaauerocn, 1. e.
uenoaek, ko1opm no caoe npnpope o6npe1 ue-1o, 6onee aosamuennm n 6onee
nn1nnm opnoapeenno, 1. e. nonnnne, ko1opoe rponnunm o6pso
pcnpoc1pnne1cn n uyac1aennoc1L n xpk1ep aneu1nenn, nonyuemx o1
nn1ennek1ynLno n opnLno pen1enLnoc1n a ee coaokynnoc1n.
1k, a1 neckonLko cnoxnn uenouk aepe1 o1 unannnsoannoro (nekuero
cnruennme npam) n rynnsnpoannoro uenoaek k uenoaeky okynL1ypennoy,
yuenoy, noa1y n p1nc1y n poxopn1, nkoneu, po amcuero ypoann psan1nn, n
ko1opo uenoaek oxe1 nsma1Lcn cqopnpoaauncn; nckonLko n nonnk, 1kn
uenoaeko 6mn e1e a caoe onnnncko cnokoc1ann. pen, nocnyxnaun ocnoao
pnn a1o 1eopnn, ne u1o nnoe, kk rny6okoe psnnune, nopeuennoe y6onLp1o,
expy unannnsune npop n o1nocn1enLnm ypoane coaepuenc1aoannn kpynnmx
nnunoc1e; a1o psnnune coc1on1 a 1o, u1o uyxpme n unannnsunn, no ace
oueanpnoc1n, cornn p1L npy nnunoc1e, a neko1opmx o1nouennnx c1onunx amue
nkpe, ko1opmn m 6onLue acero aocxnuecn - nnpnep, 6pxnckn
unannnsunn.
6esoroaopouno pspennk nenne uenoaek, uLn mcnn specL nsnrk1cn. e1
nnuero 6onee 6nnskoro k nc1nne: nue eaponeckoe counnLnoe coc1onnne ne
nopoxpe1 nn cmx 6nec1nunx mcnn1ene, nn cmx 6onLunx noa1oa, nn cmx
nckycnmx xypoxnnkoa. e ne enee n nosaonk ce6e se1n1L, a npo1naononoxnoc1L
nennk snenn1oro qnnonor, u1o pnn 1oro, u1o6m coc1an1L o6uee cyxpenne o
unannnsunn n p1L ee onpepenenne, neo6xopno ns6an1Lcn, xo1n 6m n nny1y, o1
npepy6expenn n cyxpenn kc1enLno 1o nnn nno unannnsunn.
npoue, a cnc1ee rocnopnn y6onLp1 n co noue1no ec1e c1on1
y1onuennoc1L, ko1opn 6mn rnano uep1o a1oro 6nropopnoro y; a1o oxno
cpann1L c xpynknn npn, poxpennmn a neppx nnpync1cko qnnocoqnn.
oxpennme a osry ycnyauero 6or, onn pc1aopnk1cn a aospyxe, nnopo6ne
mnLnmx ppyxnmx nysmpe, ko1opme nycke1 pe6enok, n ps6nak1cn, c1nknancL,
n anoaL nonannk1cn no aone cnoanpenn a ronoae cnnuero ne6oxn1enn.
o xpk1epy caonx nccnepoann n c1ok n cyry6o nosn1nano nouae, n ne npo
nonyun1L pesynL11m, ko1opme oxno nouyn1L npk1nko n onm1o. Mo asop
ponxen oxa1n1L ne ypoaenL npouae1nnn o6uec1a r-n nso n ne o1penLnm asne1
o1penLnmx yoa r-n y6onLp1, ack coaokynnoc1L oryuec1a, kk
1epnnLnoro, 1k n opnLnoro, ko1opm o6npk1 ccm. pnsn1Lcn, n ospuen
spennue s6nyxpenn, a ko1opmx oksnncL pa cae1nmx y nuero c1one1nn, n
ne neo6xopno co6p1Lcn c pyxo n n1n cme y6epn1enLnme pryen1m pnn 1oro,
u1o6m po1n po oe uenn. oa1oy n npouy un11enn 1epnennao cnepoa1L s no
no nsannnc1m 1pon, no ko1opm n co6npkcL npo1n, n nonm1kcL a epy caonx
cnn nponcnn1L pnnm aonpoc.
e1 n cae1e nn opnoro npop, a ko1opo 6m ne coue1nncL pa nnc1nnk1:
1epnnLnme no1pe6noc1n n pyxoann xnsnL. C1enenL nx psan1nn onpepenne1
nepaoe n coe oueanpnoe psnnune expy pcn. nrpe, nn a opno nneenn a1n
pa nnc1nnk1 ne ypanoaeunak1 ppyr ppyr. Y opnnx nano npeo6npe1 qnsnueckn
no1pe6noc1L, y ppyrnx aepx 6epy1 cosepu1enLnme 1enpenunn. k, nnpnep, npopm
xen1o pcm nxopn1cn, kk n kxe1cn, nop annnnne 1epnnLnmx ouyuenn,
xo1n n onn ne nnuenm nn1epec k aeu amcuero nopnpk. npo1na, y 6onLunnc1a
nerpn1nncknx nneen, c1onunx n coo1ae1c1aykue c1ynenn, 6onLue psan1
npnamuk k pec1ann, ue k psmunennn, aoo6pxenne nnpaneno ckopee k
1oy, uero nenLsn yanpe1L, nexenn k aeu ocnsem. ne co6npkcL ns a1oro
pen1L amaop o npeaocxopc1ae nocnepnnx ynonny1mx nok pnkpe np nepamn c
1oukn spennn unannnsoannoc1n, no1oy u1o, kk noksmae1 aekoao onm1, onn a
pano c1enenn necnoco6nm k ne. pouno poc11ouno noro apeenn, no a1n npopm
nnuero ne npepnpnnnnn, u1o6m nsenn1L caok yuc1L k nyuuey, n oc1k1cn a
npexne coc1onnnn neaosoxnoc1n u1o-nn6ypL npnpy1L n npepnpnnn1L, u1o6m
am1n ns ouenenennn. [o6ank eue opno seunne: n co nnsue c1ynenn
uenoaeuecknx o6uec1a m n6nkpe a1y paoc1aennyk 1enpenunk, ko1opyk n npny
s ncxopnyk 1ouky a caoe aocxoxpennn no nec1nnue pc n npopoa, xnayunx n
sene.
mue coepoa n nerpoa, npopnoc1n qnpc n nenrnuea cnepye1 noec1n1L
nneen, ko1opme ne poaonLc1ayk1cn 1poc1nnkoamn xnxnnn n counnLnmn
o1nouennnn, ocnoannmn n rono cnne, no ko1opme ocosnk1 aosoxnoc1L
nyuue xnsnn n xo1n1 ee. nn c1on1 n c1ynenL amue npnn1nanmx apapoa. cnn
onn npnnpnex1 k pc, 6onee k1nanm, ue psmunnkun, onn 6ypy1
coaepuenc1aoa1L caon p6oune nnc1pyen1m, opyxne, cnpnxenne; onn cosppy1
cnc1ey npanennn, rpe aonnm 6ypy1 ne1L npeaocxopc1ao np xpeun, rpe nonyun1
psan1ne aneen1pnm o6en, kk 1epnnLnm, 1k n pyxoanm, rpe nonan1cn
koepueckn pyx. onm, koneuno, no-npexney 6ypy1 ouenL xec1oknn, no y
aonnoa 6ype1 nponann1Lcn c1penenne k rp6exy, ne npoc1o y6nc1ay; opnn
cnoao, rnano uenLk nkpe 6ype1 6nrononyune n qnsnueckne ypoaonLc1ann.
kyk kp1nny oxno n6nkp1L y neko1opmx onronLcknx npopnoc1e; a1o
ac1peue1cn, xo1n n c neko1opmn psnnunnn, y knuycoa n pcoa a epy, a
kuec1ae n1n1esm, 1. e. npnep o1xop o1 1epnnLnmx nn1epecoa, oxno nsa1L
proeea 3npno qpnkn n kqpoa.
poponxn aocxoxpenne pnLue. c1an rpynnm, y ko1opmx counnLnme o1nouennn
psan1m nepoc11ouno, u1o6m kpoaonponn1ne 6mno o6ycnoaneno 6onee
psnoo6psnmn npnunnn. 6p1ncn k 1e, ue konc1n1y1nanm npnnunn
o6npe1 nc1onLko ampxenno anp1ynLnoc1Lk, u1o oxe1 o6Lepnnn1L n aknku1L
a ce6n ace, u1o nxopn1cn aokpyr, 1kxe ocyuec1ann1L np ppyrnn npopn
6esycnoanyk anc1L npe n qk1oa, a kko-1o epe ckooppnnnpoannmx; kopoue
roaopn, a1o1 npnnunn yxe oxno nsa1L unannnsune. o xe psnnune, 1 xe cn
knccnqnkunn, ko1opme n ncnonLsoan a payx nepamx cnyunx, nponannk1cn specL a
nonno epe; 6onee 1oro, 1onLko specL a1o psnnune pe1 nc1onune nnopm n nee1
pneko npyune nocnepc1ann. C 1oro oen1, korp kkn-1o o6unoc1L nkpe,
pcunpnn cansn n cqepy pec1ann, o1 coc1onnnn npopnoc1n nepexopn1 k coc1onnnk
npop, m anpn, u1o o6e 1enpenunn - 1epnnLnn n pyxoann - n6npk1 cnny,
nx coo1nouenne sancn1 o1 1oro, kkne coc1anme rpynnm npeo6npk1. kn
o6pso, korp npeo6npe1 mcnn1enLnn cnoco6noc1L, nonannk1cn opnn
pesynL11m, korp ponnnpye1 k1nann cnoco6noc1L, - ppyrne. unn nponanne1
psnnunme kuec1a a sancnoc1n o1 coo1nouennn a1nx aneen1oa. kuec1ae
npnep oxno npnaec1n nnpync1ckn cnaonns: 1o, u1o n nsan pyxoano nnn
nn1ennek1ynLno 1enpenune, npepc1aneno xenckn npnnunno (pkpn1n),
1epnnLnyk 1enpenunk npepc1anne1 ypyu, yxcko npnnunn; psyee1cn, nop
a1n npo nonn1L 1onLko npek asnnoro onnopo1aopennn, oc1ana a c1opone kk
xany, 1k n xyny.
poe 1oro, o1e1n, u1o a psnnunme anoxn xnsnn npop no npnunne nens6exnoro
ceuennn kpoan coo1nouenne expy payn npnnunnn nsenne1cn a psno
c1enenn, n cnyuk1cn oen1m, korp opnn ns nnx nano npeo6npe1 np ppyrn.
kne kone6nnn nek1 ouenL axnme nocnepc1ann n snun1enLno ennk1 xpk1ep
unannnsunn n ee c16nnLnoc1L.
sancnoc1n o1 npeo6npnnn 1o nnn nno 1enpenunn ace npopm oxno
pspenn1L n pa kncc, xo1n cnepye1 nopuepkny1L, u1o 1kn knccnqnkunn
ycnoan. o rnae yxcko rpynnm n 6m noc1ann kn1uea, kk npo1o1nn ns
npo1naononoxnoro kncc - nnpycoa.
3 kn1un npy1 6onLunnc1ao npopoa ppeane 1nnn, nepame xn1enn pncko
pecny6nnkn, repnckne nneen. npo1naononoxno nrepe n anxy ernn1nn n
ccnpnuea. nn c1on1 nocne xn1ene npyc1n.
ou1n ace npopm s norne aek kopennm o6pso nsennnn caok unannnsunk a
pesynL11e nsenenn a coo1nouennn payx npnnunnoa. Ceaepnme kn1um, ko1opme
korp-1o 6mnn a nopannkue 6onLunnc1ae 1epnnnc1n, noc1enenno c6nnsnnncL
c nneenn ppyro kpoan, oco6enno a Knne, n a1o ceuenne cpenno nx
en1nn1e1 enee npr1nunm. Mepnennoe psan1ne a1oro npouecc o6Lncnne1cn
1e, u1o ocnoann cc yxckoro ncenennn nnoro npeaocxopnn npn1ok
npo1naononoxno kpoan.
1o kce1cn aponm, npr1nueckn aneen1, ko1opm npnanocnnn cme k1nanme
repnckne nneen, noc1onnno ykpennnncn n ceaepe s cue1 npn1ok kenL1oa n
cnann. o no epe 1oro, kk 6enme npopm nepeeunncL k kry, yxckoe annnnne
ouyunocL ace enLue n, nkoneu, no1epnnocL a xencko aneen1e (npo cpen1L
neckonLko ncknkuenn, nnpnep, pnn Leon1 n ceaepno uc1n cnnnn), n
xenckn aneen1 opepxn no6epy.
enepL nepepe k ppyro rpynne. 3pecL m anpn nnpycoa, a amcoko c1enenn
npenennmx 1nro k caepxLec1ec1aennoy n ckopee psmunnkunx, nexenn
pec1aykunx. ockonLky a xope caonx pnnnx saoeann onn ac1ynnn a kon1k1 c
pcn nnornuno oprnnsunn, yxcko npnnunn ne nonyunn oco6oro psan1nn.
1ko cpepe unannnsunn ne orn poc1nuL a npr1nse 1knx xe ycnexoa, kk a
ppyro o6nc1n. 1o xe kce1cn [peanero n, ko1opm no caoe npnpope 6mn
npr1nunm, specL npo1naononoxnn 1enpenunn nponanncL 1onLko nocne nonnoro
cnnnnnn c rpekn, qpnknun n aoc1ounmn npopn; a pesynL11e
nepaonunLnn npnpop 1pncqopnpoancL, n y pnnnn psanncn coaepuenno
noam 1enepen1.
Y rpekoa any1pennn npouecc oxno cpann1L c 1e, u1o nen ec1o y nnpycoa.
cxopn ns a1nx qk1oa, oxno cpen1L cnepykuee sknkuenne: acn uenoaeueckn
pen1enLnoc1L, 6ypL 1o yc1aennn nnn npac1aennn, 6epe1 nuno a opno ns payx
ynonny1mx 1enpenun, yxcko nnn xencko, n 1onLko y pc, a 6onLuo c1enenn
npenennmx opnn ns a1nx payx aneen1oa - eue ps o1e1n, u1o nn opnn ns nnx
nnkorp ne cyuec1aoan 6es ppyroro, - counnLnoe coc1onnne oxe1 nopnn1Lcn po
poc11ounoro kynL1ypnoro ypoann n, cnepoa1enLno, npn1n k unannnsunn.
IX
Hx n n; u ku
k ; m n yr, ku
y .
orp kkn-nn6ypL nunn, npnnpnexun k xenckoy nnn yxckoy 1nny, o6npe1
poc11ouno cnnLnm unannns1opckn nnc1nnk1o, u1o6m nans1L cao skon ppyrn
npop, n oco6enno cnoco6nn yun1ma1L nx no1pe6noc1n n uyac1a n aocnpnnn1L
nx y6expennn, c a1oro oen1 nunne1 cyuec1aoa1L noan kynL1yp,
cqopnpoaauncn a pesynL11e ceuennn. enno a a1o sknkue1cn coe
axnoe n npk1nueckoe poc1onnc1ao a1oro nnc1nnk1, n a1o pene1 ero nonesnm n
o6ecneunae1 ey xnsnL, 1. k. nnpnanpynLnme nn1epecm no caoe npnpope c1pen1cn
k consonnunn. 6Lepnnenne acerp a ue-1o yuenne1 nx, noa1oy, u1o6m kkoe-
nn6o y6expenne c1no nnopo1aopnm, ono ponxno o1aeu1L nornke n uyac1a
npop, a ko1opo ono cospeae1.
orp ccm nunnk1 nonn1L n npnnn1L o6un skon caoe nunn, 1orp a1o
nonnnne nepexopn1 n ocnoanme no1pe6noc1n. Myxckne nunn 1nny1cn k
6nrononyunk n nkonnennk 6or1c1a, xenckne 6onLue os6ouenm npo
aoo6pxennn, no noa1opnk eue ps: kk 1onLko cc nkpe c1noan1cn nop epnnoe
snn, nnn, u1o a pnno cnyue 1ounee, kk 1onLko onpepenennn cnc1e xnsnn
c1noan1cn o6uenpnnn1o, poxpe1cn unannnsunn.
1opm qk1opo, cansnnm c a1n coc1onnne, nanne1cn no1pe6noc1L a
c16nnLnoc1n, ko1opn nenocpepc1aenno am1eke1 ns amuensnoxennoro; peno a 1o,
u1o korp nkpn coo6u npnnnk1 o6Lepnnnkun nx npnnunn n cornuk1cn n
o1penLnme xep1am, u1o6m ocyuec1an1L a1o1 npnnunn, y nnx nonanne1cn no1pe6noc1L
yax1L ero nesancno o1 1oro, u1o on pe1 n nnuno, n o6Lnan1L ero nesm6nem.
e unue pc, 1e enLue ynsan ee counnLnn 6s, nockonLky pcoan nornk
ne enne1cn. pnko neo6xopno, u1o6m no1pe6noc1L a c16nnLnoc1n nxopnn
ypoane1aopenne. Ceuenne kpoan npnaopn1 k nsenennn nunonnLnmx npe, a
pesynL11e nunne1cn s6oneanne, ko1opoe 1pe6ye1 nsenenn a cnc1ee. norp
1kne cnc1enme nepeenm pec1an1enLno yckopnk1 nporpecc, oco6enno n spe
o6uec1a, korp konc1n1y1nanm npnnunn nanne1cn 6conk1nm n cnnLnm no
npnunne nanoro npeo6npnnn opno pcm. 31e, korp nox1cn psnnunn s cue1
yaennuennn uncn re1eporennmx aneen1oa, npeo6psoannn nepec1k1 o1aeu1L
o6uey nn1epecy. e ne enee, po 1ex nop, nok o6Lepnnennn rpynn nkpe
oc1e1cn nop annnnne npexnnx npe n aneu1nenn, on npoponxe1 nn11L
xnepnueckyk aepy a caok c16nnLnoc1L 6nroppn, 6m1L oxe1, xennnk ynyuun1L
caoe 6nrococ1onnne. eco1pn n noc1onnnoe ocn6nenne ckpennnkuero aneen1,
on cun1e1 ce6n aeuno n yc1penenno k nekoey senoy pk. n npoponxe1
npnpepxna1Lcn aepm a 1o, u1o Bor 6nrocknonen k unannnsunn n ppee1 s
nn1epecm nkpe, xo1n cn nkpn exeucno y6nak1 a1y aepy caonn noc1ynkn;
nyc1L aneune a1o n ne nponanne1cn, no any1penne o6uec1ao yaepne1 n y1eue1 ce6n
1e, u1o sa1punn penL 6ype1 pnn nero cae1nm.
npo co c16nnLnoc1Lk n npnm cocyuec1aoanne o1penLnmx nn1epecoa cnepye1
noc1an1L eue pa npnsnk unannnsunn - nenpnn1ne ncnnnn n coun6enLnoc1L.
koneuno cue1e coun6enLnoc1L n no1pe6noc1L o1c1na1L caon nn1epecm ronoao,
ne kynkn, o6ecneunak1 nporpecc a en1nn1e1e, ko1opm, a caok ouepepL,
npnaopn1 k 1epnnLnm ynyuuennn. enno no a1n pay npnsnk oxno
onpepenn1L counnLnoe coc1onnne nunn [ak a a sH cc rnaam
cvk nxmx cyx cnu vyxx aa. cn am x
anan nxxa a amy, Hm ra naH ncnmm ama
H, v n aaaam, n cn x ac.].
Moe npepc1anenne o unannnsunn oxno cqopynnpoa1L cnepykun o6pso:
Coc1onnne o1nocn1enLno c16nnLnoc1n, a ko1opo nnpnanpyym c1pk1cn
ypoane1aopn1L caon no1pe6noc1n 6es yuep6 pnn ppyrnx, coaepuenc1ayk1 cao
en1nn1e1 n caon npam.
D1 qopyn oxa1mae1 ace npopm, o ko1opmx n roaopnn kk o unannnsoannmx.
enepL noc1an aonpoc 1k: oxno nn cun11L ace unannnsunn panmn pxe npn
nnnunn yksnnmx npnsnkoa? o1 a a1o n coneakcL. [eno a 1o, u1o
no1pe6noc1n n coun6enLnoc1L pxe psan1mx nun o1nnuk1cn kk no psxy, 1k
n no 1enpenunn, noa1oy nx en1nn1e1 n npam 1kxe psnnunm. 1o nyxno nnpycy a
1epnnLno nnne? nc n cno, u1o6m kopn1Lcn, n kycok 1knn, u1o6m ope1Lcn
oneuno, 1kyk nenpn1ns1enLnoc1L oxno o1nec1n s cue1 knn1nuecknx ycnoan.
o ao1 1n6e1um xnay1 a cypoao knn1e, opnko n onn nenpn1ns1enLnm a a1o
cmcne. 1o n ppyro npope ponnnpye1 qnnocoqckn n pennrnosnm en1nn1e1,
o1ckp nx cneunqnueckn no1pe6noc1L a nnue pnn pyun n 1en. 3pecL m ne anpn
nnkkoro panoaecnn expy yxckn n xenckn npnnunnn, npepnou1enne o1pe1cn
en1nLno c1opone xnsnn, ao1 nouey ace ycnnnn a1o unannnsunn nnpanenm n
poc1nxenne opnoro pesynL11 a yuep6 ppyroy rponme nn1nnkn, nc1onune
ropm ns knn, coopyxk1cn 1 ueno ycnnn n nnuenn, ko1opme no1pnck1
aoo6pxenne. nrn1ckne coopyxennn ckopo nokpok1 ack c1pny, no pnn uero? [nn
1oro, u1o6m cnan1L 6oroa; no nnuero ne pene1cn pnn uenoaek - psae u1o ornnm.
npo c npekpcnmn 1aopennnn ckynLn1ypm c1on1 ne enee coaepuennme
nn1ep1ypnme nponsaepennn. o6nc1n 1eonornn n e1qnsnkn onn nc1onLko xe
nso6pe11enLnm n y1onuennm, nckonLko nororpnnm, n uenoaeueckn mcnL
ppoc1no n cnokono norpyxe1cn a nx nenoc1nxnme rny6nnm.
1o xe po nnpnuecko noasnn, xenckn unannnsunn coc1anne1 roppoc1L acero
uenoaeuec1a.
o ecnn ns cqepm npennc1nuecknx eu1nn m cnyc1ncn n nouay nonesnmx
poc1nxenn n nyk, ko1opme npepc1annk1 co6o renepnpykuyk aneprnk
1epnnLnoro nporpecc, npkn penL cenn1cn rnyxo nouLk. pk1nueckne
nso6pe1ennn pepkn, nesnun1enLnm, nennopo1aopnm, 1nn1 n6nkpennn o1cy1c1aye1
nunc1o. cnn kn1um noro snnnncL a1n, 1o nnpycm nou1n ne o6punn n a1o
annnnn, rpekn 1kxe oc1annn n a ncnepc1ao snnnn, suc1yk nepoc1onme nx
rennn, pnnnne, popn po kynLnnunonno 1oukn caoe nc1opnn, ne yunn pneko
o1 rpekoa, 1. k. sn1ckn npnecL, ko1opn nponnkn a nnx c neaepon1no
6mc1po1o, o1nnn a nnx kuec1a, neo6xopnme pnn 1epnennaoro nsyuennn
pec1an1enLnoc1n. o1n oxno o1e1n1L, u1o nx pnnnc1p1nanm renn, nx skonm
n coopyxennn a poc11ouno c1enenn yksmak1 n nosn1nanm xpk1ep, ko1opm nx
o6uec1aennn mcnL npnnnn a onpepenennme oen1m, n poksmak1 1o1 qk1,
u1o ecnn 6m Kxnn apon ne nopaeprncL noc1onnno kononnsunn co c1oponm
snn n qpnkn, nosn1nann nyk o1 a1oro 6m amnrpn, n ponk repncko
npepnpnnunaoc1n poc1nocL 6m enLue cnam.
3aoea1enn V c1one1nn npnnecnn a apony pyx, nnonnkun kn1ckn, no c
ppyrn o11enko. n a 6onLue epe 6mn nponn1n xencknn kuec1an. n xe
o6ecneunn 6onee npexnoe corncne expy payn panxyunn npnnunnn. ckpy,
rpe anc1aoann a1n npopm, m anpn o6nropoxennm npr1ns. nrnnn,
Ceaepno epnke, onnnpnn, nnoaepe 1kne kuec1a npeo6npk1 np
oc1nLnmn nunonnLnmn nnc1nnk1n. o xe coe nee1 ec1o a BenLrnn,
1kxe n ceaepe Opnunn, rpe ace, u1o nee1 nosn1nanoe npnenenne, nxopnno
nnopopopnyk nouay. o epe npopanxennn k kry a1n npepnocmnkn ocn6nnk1cn.
pnue a1o o6Lncnne1cn ne 6onee xpkn connue, xo1n, psyee1cn, k1nonum n
nLeon1um xnay1 a 6onee 1enno knn1e, ue xn1enn poanc n nnxnero
nrepok. D1o ec1L aospec1ane kpoan.
sene npeo6npe1 rpynn xencknx nnn qennnsnpoannmx pc; a1o
seunne oco6enno aepno a o1nouennn aponm. cnn ncknkun1L 1ea1onckoe
ceec1ao n uc1L cnann, n nue kon1nnen1e oc1ny1cn 1onLko rpynnm, ckypno
npenennme npr1nueckn uyac1ao, ko1opme yxe cmrpnn caok ponL a
npepmpyune anoxn, n noa1opn1L a1o n 6onLue ne pno. Mccm nkpe ao ace nx
psnoo6psnn - o1 rnnoa po kenL1oa, o1 kenL1oa po 6esmnnno cecn n1nLnncknx
n poncknx nun - npepc1annk1 co6o nncxopnuyk nec1nnuy ne a cmcne
psan1nn nx yxckoro npnnunn, a cmcne xo1n 6m o6unx cnoco6noc1e.
u unannnsunn cqopnpoancL a pesynL11e ceuennn repncknx nneen c
pcn ppeanoc1n, a1o 6mn coks npenyuec1aenno yxcknx rpynn c pcn n
oc11kn pc, aoaneuennmn a no1ok ppeannx npe; 6or1c1ao, psnoc1oponnoc1L,
nnopoan1oc1L - kuec1a, penkune uec1L nun o6uec1a - cy1L ec1ec1aennm
pesynL11 cmx psnmx aneen1oa, ko1opme 6mnn nepeeunm, anponsenenm n
ncnonLsoanm nunn npepkn.
ckpy, kyp npoc1npe1cn nu kynL1ypnm np, on nece1 a ce6e pa o6unx npnsnk,
ao-nepamx, repnckoe annnnne, ao-a1opmx, xpnc1nnc1ao. o, xouy nnonn1L eue
ps, a1opo npnsnk, xo1n on 6onee oueanpen n 6poce1cn a rns, nockonLky
npnanecen nsane, ne nanne1cn a pnno cnyue onpepennkun: n sene noro
xpnc1nncknx nun n eue 6onLue 1ex, ko1opme ory1 c11L 1koamn, opnko onn ne
coc1annk1 uc1L nue unannnsunn. npo1na, nosn1nanm n peukun ne
npepc1anne1cn nepam npnsnk. , kyp ne nponnk repnckn aneen1, ne oxe1
6m1L unannnsunn, noxoxe n nuy.
paoepen aonpoc: oxno nn y1aepxp1L, u1o eaponeckne o6uec1a uennko n
nonnoc1Lk unannnsoanm? 1o npen n pec1ann, ko1opme qopnpyk1cn n
noaepxnoc1n a1nx nun, nek1 npepnocmnkn, rny6oko ykopennaunecn a ccx, n
u1o cnepc1ann a1nx npe n a1nx npnnunnoa o1aeuk1 nnc1nnk1 6onLunnc1a? s
a1oro cnepye1 eue opnn nens6exnm aonpoc no noaopy nnsunx knccoa nunx
npopoa: mcnn1 nn onn n pec1ayk1 nn onn coo6psno 1oy, u1o nenye1cn
eaponecko unannnsune?
Mm c nonnm ocnoanne aocxnuecn ncknkun1enLno opnopopnoc1Lk npe n
asrnnpoa, ko1opn a rpeuecknx rocyppc1ax aennko anoxn n1nunoc1n onpepennn
ack xnsnL nx rpxpn. o kxpoy cyuec1aennoy aonpocy nennn 6mnn uc1o
npo1naopeunam, no caopnnncL k uey-1o o6uey: a nonn1nke nkpn xo1enocL 6onLue
nnn enLue peokp1nn, 6onLue nnn enLue onnrpxnn; a cqepe pennrnn
npepnou1enne o1pann nn6o Dneacnncko Uepepe, nn6o pqenoncko Mnnepae; u1o
kce1cn nn1ep1ypnoro akyc, onn ornn kone61Lcn expy Dcxnno n Coqokno,
expy nkee n nnppo; a cyunoc1n cnop aencn aokpyr npe, ko1opme oxno
nsa1L nunonnLnmn. ne nepep nynnuecknn aonn cn1yunn 6mn 1kn
xe, unannnsunn c1pnm 6mn opnopopno n neocnopno. n oxa1man acex -
n rocnop n p6oa; ace yuc1aoann a ne, nyc1L n a psno c1enenn.
Co apeen nynnuecknx aon y ncnepnnkoa oyn n y acex rpekoa, nunnn c
epnkn n oco6enno nekcnpp, a1 opnopopnoc1L ace 6onLue n 6onLue
npe1epnean nsenennn. ce 6onLuee ceuenne nun npnaopnno k ceuennk
unannnsun, a pesynL11e nonanncn aecL nororpnnm npopyk1, ouenL cnoxnm n
ropspo 6onee y1onuennm, ue n1nunn kynL1yp, ko1opm, kk a 1nnn, 1k n n
sene Dnnpm, o1nnuncn 1e axnm nepoc11ko, u1o cyuec1aoan nnuL pnn
amcunx knccoa, nnsune cnon ncenennn oc1anncL a neaepennn o1nocn1enLno ero
npnpopm, ero npenyuec1a n nepcnek1na. ocne aennknx sn1cknx aon pnckn
unannnsunn, 6es conennn, 6mn npkn nponanenne uenoaeueckoro rennn; opnko
s ncknkuenne rpeuecknx pn1opnkoa, coc1annkunx ee 1pncuenpen1nLnyk uc1L,
cnpncknx sn1okoa kpncnpypenunn, npepc1annaunx 1enc1nueckyk cnc1ey
skonop1enLc1a, arnn1pnyk n onpxnueckyk no pyxy, 6or1mx nkpe,
yuc1aoaaunx a ynpanennn rocyppc1ao nnn a qnnncoamx penx n, nkoneu,
npspnmx 6espenLnnkoa, a1 unannnsunn nen necuc1Le nou1n ne aocnpnnn1Lcn
ccn, nockonLky npopm aponm nnuero ne cmcnnnn a ee sn1cknx n
qpnkncknx aneen1x. nn ne cosnann, u1o ernn1nne ne 6onee nx nonnnn, u1o
unannnsunn n npnnocn1 ns nnnn n cnnnn, u1o nynpnum ne ornn ouenn1L 1o,
u1o pan n oc1nLno np. kn o6pso, nnxe cnon, nsmaeoro counnLnmn
knccn, cyuec1aoano aennkoe noxec1ao nkpe, unannnsoannmx nnue, ue
oqnunnLnm cno, nnn aoo6ue ne snaunx unannnsunn. Cnepoa1enLno, 1onLko
enLunnc1ao pnckoro npop, ko1opoe ocosnano 1ny n cy1L unannnsunn,
npnpano e kkoe-1o snuenne. o1 a npnep unannnsunn, neconenno
ampkuncn, no yxe ne o6unn npenn npopoa, axopnunx a nee, ckopee
nc1ouenne, cn6oc1Lk n o1c1pnenne a1nx npopoa.
n1e nee1 ec1o coaepuenno nnn kp1nn. 3pecL m anpn orponyk
1eppn1opnk, no n ace a1o npoc1pnc1ae ocnoann pc (ppyrnx n cosn1enLno ne
6epy ao annnne) nponnkny1 opnn o6un pyxo, o6un nonnnne caoe
unannnsunn. esancno o1 npnnunnoa, nesancno o1 1oro, opo6pnk1 nnn ne
opo6pnk1 nkpn nopnpok aeue, npo npnsn1L, u1o ccm npnnnk1 a ne k1nanoe
yuc1ne. peno ne a 1o, u1o c1pn cao6opn a o6uenpnnn1o cmcne a1oro cnoa n
u1o kxpoy rpn1npoano 1o ec1o, kkoe on scnyxnae1. pnek o1 1oro, u1o6m
pncoa1L 1kyk npenLnyk kp1nny. Cpepnnno nepnn n kpec1Lnne, n ropoxne
apnp nn ory1 pccun1ma1L 1onLko n caon cnnm n 1nn1m, u1o6m npo6n1Lcn naepx.
a1o konue senn, neco1pn n oqnunnLnme o6eunnn yupepn1L cnc1ey
aksenoa n npao snn1nn ponxnoc1e, nnk1o ne coneae1cn a 1o, u1o nyuune
ec1 sy1 pe1n unnoannkoa nnn nx 6nnskne n u1o snn1ne nyko ne ace no
kpny, no peno a 1o, u1o yrne1ennme n o6penennme, c1ppn o1 snoyno1pe6nenn,
ne npepc1annk1 ce6e nyuue ponn, n cyuec1aykun unannnsunn cnyxn1 npepe1o
nensennoro yaxennn pnn acero npop.
eue opnn ypnan1enLnm qk1, o6psoanne a n1e nanne1cn nou1n aceo6un, n
n 1pypno npepc1an1L, nckonLko amcok ero ypoaenL. [eueame knnrn, 6onLuoe
uncno ukon n nepoporoe o6yuenne a nnx o6ecneunak1 poaonLno snun1enLnme
aosoxnoc1n pnn 1ex, k1o xoue1 yun1Lcn. 3konm, nx cy1L n nx 1onkoc1n xopouo
nsaec1nm ncenennk, n npan1enLc1ao pxe nooupne1 nsyuenne kpncnpypenunn kk
nonesno nykn. kpn, o6Lepnnennme o6un nnc1nnk1o, ncnm1mak1 yxc nepep
nonn1nuecknn no1pncennnn. pnn 6onLuo sn1ok a 1knx aonpocx, ko1opm ne
1onLko xnn a n1one, no n nsyun 1ounne pen, rocnopnn [xon Opancnc [aanc,
konccp e ennuec1a a n1e, y1aepxpe1, u1o on yanpen nunk, a nc1opnn
ko1opo ne 6mno nn opno nonm1kn ocyuec1an1L counnLnyk peaonkunk nnn
nsenn1L qopy npanennn. o ero nennk, kn1ckyk nunk nyuue acero nsa1L
npopo, coc1onun ns y6expennmx koncepa1opoa.
a1o sknkue1cn ee kppnnnLnoe o1nnune o1 unannnsunn pnckoro np, a none
ko1oporo npan1enLc1aennme nepeaopo1m nponcxopnnn c neaepon1no 6mc1po1o
anno1L po nuec1ann ceaepnmx npopoa. o acex yronkx a1o orpono nnepnn
acerp nxopnnncL npopm, nepoaonLnme cyuec1aykun nopnpko n ro1oame n
cme 6esynme pec1ann. 3 noroaekoao nepnop ne oc1nocL nnuero a a1o
cmcne nencnpo6oannoro n nn opnoro npnnunn, yaxeoro acen. Co6c1aennoc1L,
pennrnn, ceLn amsmann 6onLune conennn a nx nern1nnoc1n, n anyun1enLnme
ccm nkpe, 1o n ceaepe, 1o n kre, uc1o nm1nncL cnno pennsoa1L
noa1opckne 1eopnn. nu1o a rpeko-pncko npe ne neno nop co6o npounoro
ocnoannn, pxe nnepckoe epnnc1ao, xnsnenno neo6xopnoe pnn o6uero 6nr, n ne
1onLko pnn c norouncnennmn aryc1n-cosanun noc1onnno penn
nonm1kn cokpyun1L a1o1 c1onn, a1o1 nnnpny o6uec1a, no n cn nnep1opm,
nunnn c [nokne1nn, 1k no aepnnn a onpxnk, u1o cosn1enLno aaopnnn
paonoe npanenne, s1e ynpannnn pxe aue1aepo. oa1opnk: nn opnn
nnc1n1y1, nn opnn npnnunn ne 6mn yc1ouna a a1o necuc1no o6uec1ae, ko1opoe ne
neno nyuuero o1na uenoc1noc1n, ue qnsnueckn neaosoxnoc1L pyxny1L, anno1L
po 1oro oen1, korp nrpnnynn ounme cnnm, pcu1nn ero n npeap1nnn a
6onee c16nnLnoe uenoe.
1k, m pcco1penn pa coaepuenno o1nnunmx ppyr o1 ppyr counnLnmx
oprnns - opne6ecnyk nepnk n pnckn np. unannnsunn oc1ouno snn
n 6m npn6ann 6pxnckyk unannnsunk, ko1opn scnyxnae1 aocxnuennn caoe
cnno n caoe rny6nno nponnknoaennn. cnn a n1e ace nnn nou1n ace ncenenne
o6npe1 onpepenennm ypoane snnn, 1o xe coe oxno cks1L n o6 nnpycx,
kxpm ns nnx nponn1n pyxo ppeanoc1n n ue1ko sne1, u1o on ponxen amyun1L, kk
mcnn1L n ao u1o aepn1L; cpepn 6yppnc1oa n6e1 n ppyrnx ponoa ropno snn
pepko ac1pe1nuL kpec1Lnnnn, ne yekuero un11L. ace nek1 6nnskne asrnnpm
n cme axnme aonpocm.
Cyuec1aye1 nn 1kn xe opnopopnoc1L y eaponecknx nun? D1o1 aonpoc
coaepuenno nsnnunn. pnp nn a rpeko-pncko nnepnn oxno yanpe1L 1koe
psnoo6psne n norouae1Le - n nek a anpy ne expy psnmn npopn, any1pn
opno nunonnLnoc1n. nosxe kocnycL occnn n ac1pncknx rocyppc1a. 1enepL
noco1pn, kk o6c1on1 peno a epnnn nnn 1nnn, oco6enno kxno ee uc1n, a
cnnnn, xo1n n a enLue epe, cn1yunn nou1n 1kn xe, 1o xe coe o1nocn1cn n
k Opnunn.
1k, Opnunn: nune c 1oro, u1o psnnune a nepx nopxe1 pxe
noaepxnoc1noro n6nkp1enn; pano seueno, u1o expy pnxe n oc1nLno
1eppn1opne cyuec1aye1 nponc1L, y cmx aopo1 ropop nunne1cn nunn,
coaepuenno o1nnunn o1 1o, u1o xnae1 s ero c1enn e, k1o aepn1 a nonn1nueckoe
epnnc1ao a c1pne n o1ckp pene1 amaop o epnnc1ae npe n cnnnnnn kpoan, rny6oko
s6nyxpk1cn.
e1 nn opnoro counnLnoro skon, nn opnoro qopnpykuero npnnunn
unannnsunn, ko1opm aocnpnnnncn 6m opnnkoao ao acex nunx penp1en1x.
e1 cmcn npoaopn1L cpanenne expy opnpne, Bpe1nLk, nxeaeno,
nyseno, ckonLk, poanco - ace snk1, kk no noxoxn ppyr n ppyr
xn1enn a1nx ec1 n kk psnnunL1 nx asrnnpm. 1e1n 1onLko, u1o ecnn a n1e, n
n6e1e n a npnn cme axnme nonn1nn o1nocn1enLno coxpnennn unannnsunn
nsaec1nm ace kncc, y nc peno o6c1on1 coace no6opo1. Cme nepaoc1enennme,
cme aneen1pnme nun snnnn oc1k1cn 1no pnn nopannkuero 6onLunnc1a
cenLckoro ncenennn, kk npanno, nkpn 1 ne yek1 nn un11L, nn nnc1L n
nnckonLko ne os6ouenm 1e, u1o6m nyun1Lcn, no1oy u1o ne anpn1 a a1o nnkko
nonLsm n npnenennn. a1o o1nouennn n no aepk a o6eunnn skono1aopuea, a
nun nceaponnc1n1y1m, s1o poaepnk caon rns n qk1, spernc1pnpoannm
nponnu1enLnmn n6nkp1ennn. pan1enLc1ao ncuepnno ace aosoxnoc1n, u1o6m
am1un1L kpec1Lnn ns ce1e neaexec1a; ne 1onLko pe1n ory1 yun1Lcn a pepeannx,
no n aspocnme a aospc1e papu1n ne1, snncnnme n aoennyk cnyx6y, nonpk1 a
nonkoame ukonm, rpe ec1L npekpcnme ycnoann pnn nonyuennn cmx neo6xopnmx
snnn. eco1pn n a1n ycnnnn, neco1pn n o1eueckyk s6o1y co c1oponm oprnoa
ynpanennn, cenLckne xn1enn nnuey ne yu1cn. anpen - n ace, k1o xnn a
npoannunn, 1oxe anpenn, - kk popn1enn nocmnk1 caonx pe1e a ukony c
neckpmaeo neoxo1o n cun1k1 no1epnnnm apen, ko1opoe onn 1 npoaopn1;
onn s6npk1 nx o11yp nop neun npepnoro n pspeuk1 yun1Lcn 1onLko a
nepamx knccx, nocne ukonm knou c1pe1cn kk oxno ckopee s6m1L 1o, uey
on nyunncn. eko1opme pxe 6panpyk1 caon neaexec1ao: nnpnep,
peo6nnnsoannme conp1m ne 1onLko ne xenk1 6onLue un11L n nnc1L, no penk1
anp, 6yp1o s6mnn qpnuysckn nsmk, n uc1o a1o n ype1cn. 6m npnae1c1aoan c
6onLuo ppoc1Lk c1onLko ycnnn, anyc1yk no1puennmx n o6yuenne cenLckoro
ncenennn, ecnn 6m ne 6mn y6expen, u1o nyk, ko1opo nx o6yuk1, nun
kpec1Lnn ne nopxopn1 n u1o s nx kxyuncn 6espsnnune ckpmae1cn
nenc1pe6nn apxpe6noc1L k nue unannnsunn. anxy poks1enLc1ao on
cnoa a nccnano, onunnao conpo1nanennn, no ec1L eue opno o6c1on1enLc1ao:
1, rpe ype1cn cnon1L a1o ynopc1ao, nonanne1cn ppyro, 6onee y6epn1enLnm
qk1op, npnaopnun enn a seu1enLc1ao. oe a ue nonm1kn o6yuennn 6mak1
ycneunm. nunx aoc1ounmx penp1en1x n kpynnmx npomunennmx ropopx
ncun1mae1cn 6onLuoe uncno p6ounx, ko1opme oxo1no yu1cn un11L n nnc1L. nn
xnay1 a cpepe, ko1opn peonc1pnpye1 n nonLsy o6psoannn. o nocne 1oro, kk
a1n nkpn oanpeak1 aneen1pnmn snnnnn, kk onn nn pcnopnxk1cn? nn
ncnonLsyk1 nx pnn 1oro, u1o6m npno6pec1n 6onee rny6okne apxpe6nme uyac1a k
counnLnoy nopnpky - n n ce ps yxe ne nnc1nnk1nanme, k1nano ocmcnennme.
cknkuenne oxno cpen1L 1onLko pnn cenLcknx xn1ene n p6ounx ceaepo-snp,
rpe aneen1pnme snnnn pcnpoc1pnenm 6onLue, ue a ppyrnx ec1x, rpe onn
nyuue skpennnk1cn n pk1, kk npanno, xopoune nnopm. ueanpno, a1o
o6ycnoaneno 1e, u1o xn1enn 1ex ponoa c1on1 6nnxe k repncko pce. [o6ank,
u1o ace, cksnnoe a o1nouennn ceaepo-snpnmx penp1en1oa, o1nocn1cn n k
BenLrnn n npepnnp.
1k, m konc11npoann onpepenennyk nenpnnsnL k nue unannnsunn, 1enepL
srnnne a rny6nny pennrnosnmx uyac1a n asrnnpoa. 1o kce1cn aepm, npo o1p1L
ponxnoe xpnc1nncko pennrnn a 1o, u1o on ne nanne1cn k1eropnuno n ne
a1ncknae1 nkpe a yskne pkn. npo1nano cnyue on c1onknyncL 6m c
oncnmn pnqn. nnckon n canuennnk npnxopn1cn 6opo1Lcn ceropnn, kk n
aek, n nn1L, n nn1npu1L aekoa nsp, npo1na npepy6expenn n npnamuek,
nepepaemx no ncnepc1ay n 1e 6onee yrpoxkunx, u1o nkpn nou1n nnkorp a
nnx ne cosnk1cn, noa1oy nepey6epn1L nx neaosoxno. e1 nn opnoro
npocaeuennoro canuennnk, cnyxuero a pepeane, ko1opm 6m ne snn, c kkn
nenpo6naem ynpnc1ao pxe n6oxnm kpec1Lnnnn npoponxe1 npn11L n
nenen1L a ce6e kkyk-nn6ypL nepao6m1nyk npek, amxopnuyk n noaepxnoc1L
nono ero aonn n 1onLko a pepknx cnyunx. cnn sroaopn1L c nn n a1y 1ey, on
6ype1 ace o1pnu1L n nnkorp ne noppepxn1 psroaop, oc1ancL nenokone6no
y6expennm a caoe npao1e. n aceueno poaepne1 caoey nc1opy, no 1no
ncnoaepye1 caok pennrnk; o1ckp onunnaoc1L, ko1opn ao acex npoannunnx c1pnm
nanne1cn co xpk1epno uep1o kpec1Lnnnn npn ac1peue c ropopckn xn1ene,
nsmaem a pepeane ne nnue, kk 6ypxy; o1ckp nenpoxopnn pepkunonnn
nnnnn expy nn n cmn yaxemn nkpLn ero kn1on. D1o n ec1L o1nouenne
6onLunnc1a npop k unannnsunn, 1oro coro npop, ko1opm cnmae1 nn6onee
npnaepxennm k ne; ecnn 6m ne cksnn, u1o, corncno c11nc1nke, ao Opnunn
xnae1 10 nnnnonoa pyu, aknkuennmx a cqepy counnLnmx o1nouenn, 26
nnnnonoa oc1k1cn s ee npepenn, n 6m peunn, u1o nepan unqp snnxen.
poe 1oro, ecnn 6m nun cenLckne xn1enn 6mnn 1onLko rpy6mn n
neaexec1aennmn, oxno 6mno 6m ne 1peaoxn1Lcn no noaopy 1koro pspenennn n
1eun1L ce6n npexpo n 1o, u1o noc1enenno nx oxno nepepen1L n aaec1n a kpyr
nkpe, yxe npocaeuennmx. o a a1o cce ac1peuk1cn nc1onune pnkpn: n
nepam asrnnp nx oxno npnnn1L npoc1o s neyue, ns ko1opmx oxno u1o-nn6ypL
amnenn1L, no1oy u1o y nnx o1c1pnennme n nnuero ne ampxkune nnu, no ecnn
uy1L rny6xe nponnkny1L a nx mcnn, a nx uc1nyk xnsnL, c1noan1cn ncno, u1o,
oc1ancL a po6poaonLno cos1ouennn, onn aoace ne cn6m n ne 6essun1nm. x
cnn1nn n n1nn1nn ampmak1cn npyxy ouenL pepko, n acn nx n1yp sknkuen a
nornunm kpyr rny6oko ykopenennmx npe. ocnyauncL pennrnn, n 1kxe ponxen
o1e1n1L, kkn orponn pnc1nunn pspenne1 nun opnLnme pok1pnnm n asrnnpm
kpec1Lnn, nckonLko 1o, u1o onn nsann 6m pennk1noc1Lk, o1nnue1cn o1 1oro
cmcn, kko m npnpe a1oy cnoay! koneu, c kko nc1opoxennoc1Lk onn
co1pn1 n 1oro, k1o ne nanne1cn, nopo6no n, kpec1Lnnn - 1k nun ouenL
pnekne npepkn co1penn n uyxeseuea! oneuno, onn ne c1ny1 ero y6na1L ns
c1px, nyc1L pxe nc1nueckoro, ko1opm anyuk1 n skonm, ne npnnneme,
kc11n, nn; no onn ero nckpenne nenanpn1, onck1cn ero, ecnn ec1L aosoxnoc1L
nornyn1Lcn np nn 6esnksnno, onn cpenk1 a1o c npeaennkn ypoaonLc1ane.
mxopn1, onn snme? Cypn no nx o1nouennk ppyr k ppyry, a1oro ne ckxeuL: onn
o6ennak1cn uy1kn n pxe nk6esnoc1nn. o peno a 1o, u1o onn cun1k1 ce6n
coace ppyrn uenoaeueckn anpo - yrne1ennm, o6nxennm, cn6m, nekun
npao n xn1poc1n, n a 1o xe apen coxpnnkun roppoc1L, rpnnuuyk c
ynpnc1ao, n c npespenne o1nocnuncn k uyxk.
neko1opmx npoannunnx Opnunn kpec1Lnnnn cun1e1, u1o y nero 6nropopnee kpoaL
n ppeanee pop, ue y ero cenLop. Y kpec1Lnn ceenn roppoc1L ceropnn
co6nkpe1cn c1poxe, ue korp-1o a cpepe cpepneaekoao sn1n.
pnko ne c1on1 s6nyxp1Lcn: qpnuysckoe ncenenne no caoe any1penne cy1n ne
nee1 nnuero o6uero c ero aneunn o6nnko - a1o nponc1L, np ko1opo ancn1
unannnsunn, a rny6nne ppenk1 nenopanxnme aopm, ko1opme apen o1 apeenn
canpeno acnennak1cn. Cme 1prnueckne co6m1nn snnann c1pny kpoaLk, n a
a1nx co6m1nnx senepenLum o6muno snnnn nansnnyk n nosnunk. cnn peuL ne
un o6 nx nenocpepc1aennmx n nnunmx nn1epecx, onn aoo6ue ne aeunanncL, pxe
ne ampxnn nnkknx uyac1a. Mnorne nun pen1enn, nnyrnnme n uoknpoannme
a1n, amcksmanncL a 1o cmcne, u1o kpec1Lnne psapuenm po rny6nnm pyun,
opnko a1o coace ne 1k. pec1Lnne co1pn1 n nc nou1n kk n aproa. nn nnuero
ne oxnpk1 o1 nue unannnsunn n yuc1ayk1 a ne 1onLko no npnnyxpennk, no
aosoxnoc1n cun1k1 ce6n anpae nsanek1L amropy ns ee no1pncenn. cnn xe m
6ype pcc1pna1L nx ane a1oro n1ronns, nopo k1nanoro, uue acero
nnep1noro, nenLsn ne npnsn1L amcokne opnLnme kuec1a, nyc1L n ampxennme
aecL caoeo6psno, a1nx nkpe.
ce, cksnnoe nok o Opnunn, oxno o1nec1n ko ace apone, n n ncxoxy ns 1oro,
u1o coapeennm np oxa1mae1 6eckoneuno 6onLue, ue on a coc1onnnn o6Ln1L, n a
a1o on noxox n pnckyk nnepnk. Cnepoa1enLno, nenLsn oco6enno poaepn1L
ponroaeunoc1n nuero counnLnoro coc1onnnn, 1 nn 1onnk yaxennn, ko1opoe
ono anyue1 pxe cnon, c1onun amue kpec1Lnn, kxe1cn ne apeennm
nanenne. uy unannnsunk oxno cpann1L c neponroaeunmn oc1poakn,
ko1opme am1onkny1m n noaepxnoc1L opn nopaopnmn aynknn. op pec1ane
pspyun1enLnmx 1euenn, nnuennme cnnm, ko1opn nepaonunLno nx
noppepxnan, onn korp-nn6ypL psann1cn, n 1opxec1aykune aonnm norno1n1 nx
o6nokn. eunLnm koneu, ko1opm po nc nepexnnn norne 6nropopnme pcm! e1
aosoxnoc1n ns6ex1L 1ko yuc1n. Myppoc1L oxe1 nnuL npepanpe1L, no ne 6onee
1oro. Cn pcue1nnan oc1opoxnoc1L ne a cnnx nokone61L nesm6neme skonm
nc1opnn.
kn o6pso, nenonn1nn, npesnpen nnn nenanpnn nkpLn, co6paunncn
nop ee cenLk, nu unannnsunn, 1e ne enee, nanne1 co6o opnn ns aennuunx
nn1nnkoa, cospnnmx uenoaeueckn renne. o npape roaopn, on nponanne1 ce6n
ne nso6pe11enLnoc1Lk. c1an a c1opone a1o kuec1ao n npnsne, u1o on
aosaennunn 1aopueckn pyx n cnay saoeann kk cnepc1ane a1oro pyx. onn1L
ace - snun1 ace npnnn1L. cnn on ne cospn 1ounmx nyk, 1o on, no enLue
epe, npnpn n 1ounoc1L n ns6ann nx o1 1yn, ko1opm, kk nn c1pnno,
oky1man a1n nykn 6onLue, ue nk6me ppyrne. Bnroppn ampkuncn o1kpm1nn
on 6onLue sne1 o 1epnnLno npe, ue npexnne o6uec1a. n psrpn uc1L
rnanmx skonoa npnpopm, on cyen nx cqopynnpoa1L, onnc1L n nsaneuL ns nnx
nonc1nne aonue6nme cnnm, u1o6m ao c1o kp1 yaennun1L cnnm uenoaek. oc1enenno,
ncnonLsyn nnpyk1nanme nnc1pyen1m, on pe konc1pynpoan rnrn1ckne qpren1m
nc1opnn, o ko1opmx ppeanne pxe ne porpmanncL, n ue pnLue on o1xopn1 o1
nepao6m1nmx anox, 1e ncnee on nx anpn1 n nponnke1 a nx 1nm. a1o
sknkuk1cn ee poc1onnc1a, n ocnpna1L nx ne1 cmcn.
pnnna a1o1 pryen1, anpae nn m cpen1L amaop o 1o, u1o nu unannnsunn
npeaocxopn1 ace cyuec1aoaaune n cyuec1aykune n sene? p n ne1. [ -
no1oy u1o on, 6nroppn psnoo6psnk coc1annkunx ee aneen1oa, onnpe1cn n
ounm qynpen1 cpanennn n nnns, ko1opm nosaonne1 e ann1ma1L a ce6n
nou1n ace; p - no1oy u1o a1o1 aknek1ns cnoco6c1aye1 ee psan1nk a cmx psnmx
nnpanennnx; eue ps p - no1oy u1o, 6nroppn repnckoy rennk, cnnuko
npk1nunoy, u1o6m 6m1L pspyun1enLnm, on cospn opnLnm kopekc, yppme
nonoxennn ko1oporo 6mnn nensaec1nm po nee. o n roaopk ne1, korp a1n scnyrn
poaopn1 po o6Lnanennn ee 6conk1noro n 6esoroaopounoro npeaocxopc1a; n roaopk
ne1, n6o 1koro npeaocxopc1a ne anxy nou1n nn a ue.
nckycc1ae npanennn on p6ckn cnepye1 s 6eckoneunmn kone6nnnn,
amsannmn no1pe6noc1nn psnnunmx pc, ko1opme ee coc1annk1. nrnnn,
onnnpnn, enone, occnn npnnunnm eue poc11ouno yc1ounam, no1oy u1o
ncenenne yksnnmx c1pn 6onee opnopopno nnn, no kpne epe, npnnpnexn1 k
rpynn opno k1eropnn, nekun noxoxne nnc1nnk1m. o a ppyrnx ec1x,
oco6enno ao Opnunn, a Uen1pnLno 1nnn, a epnnn, rpe upn1 a1nnueckoe
noroo6psne, 1eopnn anc1n nnkorp ne nopnnk1cn po nc1nnm, nonn1nueckn
nyk noc1onnno akcnepnen1npye1. ue unannnsunn, necnoco6no anyun1L a
ce6n aepy, nepoc1e1 1o yc1ounaoc1n, ko1opn nanne1cn opnn ns rnanmx
npnsnkoa, aknkuemx nok a onpepenenne unannnsunn. ockonLky a1o pokoaoe
6eccnnne ne snkoo 6yppnc1ckoy n 6pxnnc1ckoy o6uec1a, nockonLky ero ne
sne1 n opne6ecnn nepnn, a a1o cmcne ynonny1me unannnsunn npeaocxopn1
nuy. ace corncnm a caonx nonn1nuecknx asrnnpx. oxno 6nrononyuno
xn1L, ecnn 6ype1 yppn anc1L, 1. k. a a1o cnyue aekoame nnc1n1y1m npnnocn1
po6pme nnopm.
orp, oksauncL a nnoxnx nnn neyenmx pykx, on apepn1 o6uec1aennoy 6nry,
nkpn n nee xnyk1cn n xnek1 cnx ce6n. o nnkorp onn ne 1epnk1 yaxennn k
caon nnc1n1y1. norp onn nx ncnpannk1, no nnkorp ne nncnpoaeprk1 n ne
sennk1. po 6m1L cnenuo, u1o6m ne anpe1L a a1o rpn1nk ponroaeunoc1n, koe
ne o1nnue1cn nu unannnsunn.
1o kce1cn nckycc1a, nu o1c1noc1L no cpanennk c npne neconenn, kk n no
cpanennk c rnn1o, peune n epnko. n a rpnpnosno, nn a npekpcno y nc
neuero cpann1L c uepeapn ppeannx pc; korp pnn nun 6ypy1 cou1enm, korp
psannnm nunx nn1nnkoa n nunx ropopoa nokpok1 nuy senk, 6ypyun
ny1euec1aennnk, oksauncL a necx n 6ono1x n 6eperx esm, Cenm n en, ne
npe1 nnuero, u1o orno 6m conepnnu1L c aennuec1aennmn pynnn Onnm,
nneann, pqenon, Cnce11m nnn ponnnm enou1n1-nn. cnn a o6nc1n
nosn1nanmx nyk y 6ypyunx anox 6ype1 uey y nc noyun1Lcn, a1oro nenLsn cks1L o
noasnn. 1unnnoe aocxnuenne, ko1opoe m ncnm1mae - n ne 6es ocnoannn - k
nn1ennek1ynLnm poc1nxennn uyxnx unannnsun, eue opno 1oy canpe1enLc1ao.
oroaopn 1enepL o6 y1onuennoc1n npaoa. econenno, a a1o o1nouennn panmx
n ne1. un akycm - y1onuennme s cue1 nuero npounoro, a ko1opo 6mnn
oen1m, korp pockouL, 1onkoc1L npnamuek n aennkonenne xnsnn aocnpnnnnncL
ropspo rny6xe n unpe, ue a nun pnn. o npape roaopn, ncnxpennn 6mnn
poc1ynnm ne ace. o, u1o nsmae1cn 6nrononyune, npnnpnexno nenorn.
c a1n corncen, no npo npnsn1L kk neonpoaepxnm qk1, u1o 6nropopnme
npam ne 1onLko o6nropxnak1 6m1 ns6pnnmx, no n aosamuk1 pyx cc,
cosepukunx, no ne yuc1aykunx a npspnnke xnsnn. poe 1oro, y1onuennoc1L
nknpmae1 n ack c1pny o1neu1ok aennunn n kpco1m n npeapue1cn a o6uee
poc1onnne. a1o cmcne nu unannnsunn, ncknkun1enLno ckpynynesnn ao
aneunnx 1pn6y1x, ne nee1 conepnnu.
sknkuenne cksnnoro seuy: oprnnsykun xpk1ep nk6o unannnsunn
onpepenne1cn cm oueanpnm npnsnko ponnnpykue pcm; unannnsunn
nsenne1cn, 1pncqopnpye1cn no epe 1oro, kk a1 pc c nopaepre1cn
nsenennn; nenno a pkx unannnsunn a 1euenne 6onee nnn enee
npoponxn1enLnoro nepnop npoponxe1 pec1aoa1L nnynLc, ko1opm korp-1o pn
e ncuesnyaun pc, n, cnepoa1enLno, cnc1e, cqopnpoaauncn a o6uec1ae,
npepc1anne1 co6o qk1, ko1opm npue acero canpe1enLc1aye1 o konkpe1nmx
cnoco6noc1nx n ypoane npop - a1o nyuuee sepkno, a ko1opo npop o1pxe1
caok nnpnanpynLnoc1L.
Mne kxe1cn, on pccyxpennn oxa1nnn cnnuko unpokn kpyr aonpocoa. Mexpy
1e nop aepny1Lcn a pycno onx npnmx nepenn.
pexpe acero n ampannyn cnepykuee nonoxenne: xnsnL n cep1L o6uec1a
nponcxopn1 a cnny any1pennnx npnunn. nsan a1n npnunnm. o6p1nncn k nx
ckpm1o o1 rns npnpope, u1o6m cpen1L nx 6onee amnyknmn, n noksn 6cyppnoc1L
1ex npepnocmnok, ko1opme o6mknoaenno n npnnncmak1. nonckx npnsnk,
ko1opm or 6m o6osnu1L nx ao acex cnyunx, n oc1noanncn n cnoco6noc1n
cosp1L unannnsunk. D1o n 6ype1 cnyxn1L o1npano 1ouko nuero pnLneuero
ny1euec1ann. 1k, c uero m nune? Mm npnsnnn 1kyk cnoco6noc1L ckpm1o
npnunno xnsnn n cep1n o6uec1a n nsann ee ec1ec1aennm n noc1onnnm
npnsnko. enepL nepepe k nsyuennk nn1nno npnpopm a1o npnunnm.
o1e1nn, u1o on sknkue1cn a poc1onnc1ax 1o nnn nno pcm. ornk 1pe6ye1
y1ounn1L cpsy, u1o n nek a anpy nop cnoao pc. D1o n 6ype1 cnyxn1L
npepe1o cnepykue rnam.
#
u r xn .
o nennk nornx yuenmx, ko1opme ncxopn1 ns aneunero o6nnk nkpe a cmx
kpnnx nponanennnx, uenoaeueckne ceec1a nnn rpynnm o1nnuk1cn ppyr o1 ppyr
nc1onLko psn1enLno n cyuec1aenno, u1o npoc1o neaosoxno roaopn1L o6 nx o6ue
nponcxoxpennn. ono no1okoa p apypn1m, c1oponnnkn a1o 1eopnn,
ncun1mak1 neckonLko ppyrnx renenornuecknx ae1ae. [nn nnx a uenoaeuecko
pope ne1 nepaopopnoro epnnc1a nnn, nnmn cnoan, ne cyuec1aye1 epnnoro pop:
ec1L 1pn, ue1mpe n pxe 6onLue popoamx rpynn, ns ko1opmx amunn coaepuenno
psnme nokonennn, n onn, a pesynL11e ceuennn, o6psoann rn6pnpnme noprpynnm.
[nn nop1aepxpennn caoe 1eopnn onn nonLsyk1cn o6uepcnpoc1pnenno 1ouko
spennn, ko1opn ocnoan n oueanpnmx n 6esoroaopounmx psnnunnx expy
uenoaeuecknn rpynnn. cnn m ac1peuecn c xen1okoxn uenoaeko c pepknn
aonocn n 1ko xe pepko 6opopo, c unpokn nnuo, nnpnpnLnm uepeno,
pckocmn rnsn, nc1onLko ysknn, u1o rns nou1n ne o1kpmak1cn, c neyknkxe
noxopko n xpynkoro 1enocnoxennn, m cpsy ysne onpepenennm 1nn c nerko
snonnkunncn ocnoanmn aneunnn npnsnkn. ao1 n ppyro nop1pe1: nerp c
snpnoro no6epexLn qpnkn, kpynnm, ounoro 1enocnoxennn, cknonnm k
1yunoc1n. ox y nero yxe ne xen1oa1n, coace uepnn, aonocm ne pepkne n
npnme, , nnpo1na, ryc1me, o6nnLnme, kypuame, nnxnnn uenkc1L amc1yne1
anepep, uepen nee1 qopy, nsmaeyk nporn1nuecko. pnupp a
c1ec1aenno nc1opnn uenoaek xpk1epnsye1 ero cnepykun o6pso: [nnnnme
koc1n amaepny1m npyxy, 6onLun n nn 6epuoame koc1n amc1ynk1 anepep n
6onee amnyknm, ue y eaponeuea, nkpm ouenL amcokne n poxopn1 po nopkonenno
anpnnm, c1ynnn ouenL nnockne, nn1ounn koc1L ne nee1 pyroo6psno qopm n
coc1anne1 nou1n opny nnnnk c ppyrnn koc1nn c1onm, ko1opn, kc11n,
neo6mknoaenno unpokn. pnepno 1knn xe oco6ennoc1nn o1nnue1cn n pyk.
cnn am ac1pe1n1e uenoaek, o1aeukuero a1oy onncnnk, a neaonLno npnpe1 n
y nop1pe1 o6esLnnm n mcnL o 1o, u1o nerpn1nnckne pcm 3npno qpnkn
nponsounn o1 ae1an, ko1opn ne nee1 nnuero o6uero, ecnn ne cun11L neko1oporo
cxopc1a a o6unx qopx, c onronLcko rpynno.
31e npy1 nneen, aneunoc1L ko1opmx eue enLue, ue konronesckn nerp, oxe1
nonLc1n1L conk6nk uenoaek. enno kennn npnnpnexn1 uec1L p1L npy
cme perppnpoannme, cme ypopnname n o11nknakune o6psunkn,
npepc1annkune co6o nepexopnm a1n expy uenoaeko n aneen1pnm
xnao1nm. npo co nornn ac1pnncknn 6opnrenn pxe qpnknckn nerp
npepc1e1 nnoro 6onee psan1m a a1o o1nouennn. Mnorn ns a1nx o6nxennmx
cypL6o npopoa a1o uc1n senn, o1kpm1o nosxe ppyrnx, oco6ennyk ypopnnaoc1L
npnpk1: orponn ronoa, neo6mknoaennn xypo6, nckpnanennoe 1eno. onocm
npnme nnn kypuame, uue acero nyunc1me, kox uepnn c cepm o11enko. k
onncmae1 a1nx nkpe pnupp.
koneu, ecnn nocne pcco1pennn a1nx 1nnoa nkpe, o6n1kunx n psnmx
kon1nnen1x, aepny1Lcn k xn1enn aponm, Kxno n 3npno snn, m npe a
nnx 1koe npeaocxopc1ao, kk a cmcne aneunoc1n, 1k n c1poennn 1en, u1o cpsy xe
xoue1cn corncn1Lcn co c1oponnnkn 1eopnn o noxec1aenno nponcxoxpennn pc.
pnue peno ne 1onLko a 1o, u1o nocnepnne ynonny1me nok npopm npeaocxopn1
oc1nLnyk uc1L uenoaeuec1a kpco1o, onn ne 1onLko pnn npy openn pnn
enepm, nonnon n epkn, no n cpepn nnx c rny6oko ppeanoc1n yc1noanncL
onpepenennn neppxnn: a a1o ann1e uenoaeuecknx pc eaponeum snnk1 nepaoe
ec1o no nsnuec1ay qop n psan1nk yckyn1ypm. Cnepoa1enLno, kxe1cn
coaepuenno nornunm snan1L, u1o rpynnm, ns ko1opmx coc1on1 uenoaeuec1ao, 1kxe
o1nnuk1cn ppyr o1 ppyr, kk n psnnunme anpm xnao1nmx a npe pnko npnpopm.
koa amaop, cpennnm n ocnoannn seunn o6uero xpk1ep, n a a1o
kuec1ae onpoaeprny1L ero 1pypno.
pnn ns nepamx cnc1e1nsnpoan nopo6nme nccnepoannn nep. n ne
ypoaonLc1aoancn noaepxnoc1nmn qk1n n canpe1enLc1an - on peunn
o6ocnoa1L caon sknkuennn 1e1nueckn ny1e n n1onueckn onpepenn1L
xpk1epnme psnnunn expy k1eropnnn nkpe. n psp6o1n c1poryk e1opy, ne
oc1annkuyk ec1 pnn conenn, ero cyxpennn npno6penn 1y cnny n
ocnoa1enLnoc1L, 6es ko1opmx ne oxe1 6m1L nykn. nep asnn n1epnLnyk
koc1nc1yk uc1L ronoam n nsepnn psaepny1m npoqnnL, ncnonLsyn pae nnnnn,
nsannme n qunnLnmn. x nepeceuenne o6psye1 yron, aennunn ko1oporo
ponxn onpepenn1L epy psan1oc1n pcm. pn ns a1nx nnnn npe1 o1 ocnoannn
noc k cnyxoaoy knny, ppyrn npoxopn1 kc1enLno k amc1yny nepepne uc1n
caepxy, cnnsy - k co amc1ynkue 1ouke nnxne uenkc1n. ocpepc1ao a1oro
yrn c1pon1cn - n ne 1onLko pnn uenoaek, no n pnn acex anpoa xnao1nmx -
nec1nnu, aepunno ko1opo nanne1cn eaponeeu; ue oc1pee yron, 1e pnLue 1 nnn
nnn pc o1xopn1 o1 1nn, ko1opm, no mcnn nep, cnyxn1 aepxo
coaepuenc1a. kn o6pso, cm nenLkn yron y n1nu n y pm6. Y
nekonn1kunx psnnunmx anpoa on yaennunae1cn. eko1opme anpm o6esLnn
poc1nrk1 45-50 rppycoa. 3 nnn cnepye1 ronoa qpnknckoro nerp, ko1opn 1k
xe, kk n ronoa knmk, o1nnue1cn yrno a 70 rppycoa. Y eaponeu a1o1 yron
poxopn1 po 80 rppycoa. enepL npoun1npye cnoa nso6pe11enn pnnoro e1op,
cnoa, c1onL nec1nme pnn nuero conneennnk: enno o1 a1o psnnum a 10
rppycoa sancn1 kpco1 uenoaek, ko1opyk oxno nsa1L o1nocn1enLno. 1o po
6conk1no kpco1m, ko1opn 1k nopxe1 nc a n1nunmx c11ynx, nnpnep, a
ronoae nonnon n a Mepyse Cocnkn, on onpepenne1cn eue 6onLun yrno,
poxopnun po 100 rppycoa.
D1o1 e1op npnaneke1 caoe npoc1o1o. coxnennk, on npo1naopeun1 qk1, u1o
nepepko cnyue1cn c nopo6nmn cnc1en. [pyro nccnepoa1enL, yan, yc1noann,
u1o nep nsyun c1poenne koc1nc1o uc1n ronoam o6esLnn 1onLko n onopmx
oco6nx n u1o y aspocnmx poc1 sy6oa, pcunpenne uenkc1e n psan1ne
snro1nuecko pyrn ne conpoaoxpe1cn coo1ae1c1aykun yaennuenne o6Le
osr, noa1oy k uenoaeuecko ronoae ne npnennm unqpm, amaepennme nepo:
peno a 1o, u1o qunnLnm yron y uepnoro opnry1n nnn unnnse ne npeamue1
30-35 rppycoa. D1 unqp cnnuko pnek o1 70 rppycoa (y nerp n knmk),
u1o6m oxno 6mno corncn1Lcn c nepo.
Openonornn uc1o o6puncL k 1eopnn ronnnpckoro yuenoro. Cneunnnc1m, c1pon
aocxopnun pnp o1 xnao1nmx k uenoaeky, nxopnnn coo1ae1c1aykune psnnunn n a
nnc1nnk1x. Mexpy 1e qk1m onn1L onpoaeprnn 1kyk 1ouky spennn. uc1noc1n,
ampanrnocL cnepykuee ampxenne: y cnon, ko1opm nnoro ynee opnry1noa,
qunnLnm yron oc1pee, ue y nnx, cpepn cnx o6esLnn, ecnn cnepoa1L nornke
nep, cme coo6psn1enLnme, cme nop1nname k aneen1pnoy aocnn1nnk,
ponxnm npnnpnex1L k cm kpynnm oco6n.
ono a1nx payx 6onLunx nepoc11koa a e1ope nep ec1L eue opnn ynsanm
oen1. n ne npnenn ko ace psnoanpnoc1n uenoaeuecko pcm, 1. k. oc1anne1
s npepenn ero k1eropn nneen c nnpnpnLno ronoao, 1orp kk a1o
poaonLno cyuec1aennm npnsnk.
Bnken6x, amc1ynna npo1na caoero npepuec1aennnk, a caok ouepepL npepnoxnn
cnc1ey, ocnoannyk n nsyuennn uenoaeuecko ronoam caepxy. Caoe nso6pe1enne on
nsan norma verticalis, nnn aep1nknLnm e1op. a1op yaepnn, u1o cpanenne
unpnnm aepxne uc1n ronoam nosaonne1 amnan1L rnanme psnnunn a o6ue
konqnrypunn uepen. Corncno Bnken6xy, nsyuenne a1o uc1n 1en pe1 c1onLko
pnnmx, oco6enno a1o kce1cn oen1oa, onpepennkunx nunonnLnm xpk1ep,
u1o neaosoxno caec1n ace psnoo6psne k nnnnn n yrn n u1o pnn nonyuennn
ypoane1aopn1enLno knccnqnkunn cnepye1 pcc1pna1L ronoam a 1ko pkypce,
ko1opm cpsy oxe1 oxa1n1L kcnnLnoe konnuec1ao psnnun. ro mcnL
ampxen cnepykun o6pso: po noc1an1L pnp cpannaemx uepenoa 1k,
u1o6m ckynoame koc1n nxopnnncL n opno ropnson1nLno nnnnn, kk a1o 6mae1,
korp uepen nokon1cn n nnxne uenkc1n; s1e ac11L cspn n ckonLsn1L asrnnpo
no aep1ekcy kxporo ns nnx: 1kn o6pso oxno oxa1n1L psnoanpnoc1n a qope
aneen1oa, ko1opme a nn6onLue c1enenn o1aeuk1 nunonnLnoy xpk1epy -
6ypL 1o a nnpanennn uenkc1nmx n ckynoamx koc1e, nnn ncxopn ns unpnnm
oanLnoro kon1yp, o6psyeoro aep1ekco, 1kxe a sancnoc1n o1 ynnouenno
nnn amnykno konqnrypunn qpon1nLno koc1n [aa ana cca
c vnaka vaa.].
o nennk Bnken6x, cnepc1ane a1o cnc1em nanne1cn pspenenne uenoaeuec1a
n nn1L 6onLunx rpynn nnn k1eropn, a caok ouepepL coc1onunx ns onpepenennoro
uncn anpoa n 1nnoa.
kn knccnqnkunn 1oxe amsmae1 aospxennn. e, kk n e1op nep, oxno
ynpekny1L a nrnopnpoannn neko1opmx axnmx npnsnkoa, npnue uc1nuno a1o
amsano xennne yuec1L seunnn yan kc1enLno nsyuennn uepenoa ne no
aepxne uc1n, no nnxne. pnn ns rnanmx pesynL11oa a1o noao konuenunn
sknkuncn a okonu1enLno npoaepennn ue1ko pepkunonno nnnnn expy
uenoaeko n opnry1no, nocne uero c1no neaosoxno o1mck1L expy nnn kkyk-
1o cansL, o ko1opo roaopnn nep. co pene, opnoro asrnnp, 6pouennoro n
pa uepen - opnry1n n uenoaek, - ecnn cypn1L no nx ocnoannk, poc11ouno,
u1o6m yanpe1L kppnnnLnme psnnunn. Y opnry1n pne1p (nepepne-spnn)
6onee ypnnnen, ue y uenoaek; snro1nueckn pyr nxopn1cn ne a nepepne
nonoanne ocnoannn uepen, coc1anne1 a cpepne ero uc1n opny 1pe1L o6ue
pnnnm pne1p; nkoneu, coaepuenno psnnuno nonoxenne s1mnounoro o1aepc1nn,
upesamuno axnoe c 1oukn spennn o6uero npnsnk qop nnpnanp n oco6enno
annnnnn, ko1opoe ono oksmae1 n ero npnamukn. Y uenoaek a1o o1aepc1ne
pcnonre1cn nou1n nocepepnne ocnoannn uepen, y opnry1n o1opanny1o a
cepepnny spne 1pe1n.
syee1cn, seunnn yan nek1 uennoc1L, no n 6m npepnouen cyk nocnepnkk
ns kpnnockonnuecknx cnc1e n, opnoapeenno, cyk ypunyk: peuL npe1 o cnc1ee
epnknckoro yuenoro Mop1on, noppepxnno pyco. e cy1L coc1on1 a
cnepykue:
[nn peonc1punn psnnunn expy pcn o6 nccnepoa1enn ncxopn1 ns opno
npepnocmnkn: ue unpe uepen, 1e amue c1on1 uenoaek, ko1opoy npnnpnexn1 a1o1
uepen. Cnepoa1enLno, aonpoc c1an1cn 1k: nckonLko psan1 uepen y
npepc1an1ene psnmx pc?
1o6m nonyun1L nyxnm o1ae1, Mop1on asnn onpepenennoe konnuec1ao uepenoa,
npnnpnexunx 6enm, onron, nerp, kpcnokoxn ceaepoepnknu; s1e
on s1knyn a1o ace o1aepc1nn a uepenx, kpoe foramen magnum, po coro
aepx ncmnn any1pL xopouo amcyuennme sepn nepu n cpannn nonyuennoe
konnuec1ao. pesynL11e 6mn nonyuen cnepykun 16nnu:

ncno
nsepennmx
uepenoa
Cpepnnn
aec1noc1L
Mkcn,
aec1noc1L
Mnnn.
aec1noc1L
Benme 52 87 109 75
Xen1n pc:
onronm
num
10
18
83
81
93
89
69
64
pcnokoxne 147 82 100 60
erpm 29 78 94 65
esynL11m, o1euennme a payx nepamx kononkx, ouenL nk6onm1nm. 1o xe kce1cn
payx nocnepnnx kononok, onn ne npepc1annk1 pnn enn oco6oro nn1epec, 1. k.
u1o6m onn kk-1o cyuec1aenno pononnnnn a1opyk kononky, ao-nepamx, Mop1ony
cnepoano nccnepoa1L snun1enLno 6onLue uepenoa, n, ao-a1opmx, on ponxen 6mn
yks1L counnLnm c11yc nnu, ko1opm npnnpnexnn a1n uepen. npnep, ey
ypnocL pspo6m1L poaonLno npepc1an1enLnme o6psum: u1o kce1cn 6enmx n
kpcnokoxnx, 6mnn ncnonLsoanm uepen, npnnpnexaune nkpn pneko ne
nnsuero cocnoann, s1o a o1nouennn uepnokoxnx n xen1okoxnx, oxno cks1L, u1o
on apnp nn or pcnonr1L uepenn aoxpe nnn nppnnoa. D1o1 qk1 o6Lncnne1,
kkn o6pso epnknckn 6opnren nonyunn unqpy 100, expy 1e kk cm
psan1m onron, o6cnepoannm Mop1ono, scnyxnn nnuL 93; 1o xe coe
o1nocn1cn k nerpy (94). opo6nme pesynL11m ne1ounm, cnyunm n nnuenm nyuno
uennoc1n, a 1knx aonpocx neo6xopno yun1ma1L nnpnanpynLnme
xpk1epnc1nkn. oa1oy n 6m aoo6ue amuepknyn a1opyk nonoanny 16nnum
Mop1on.
1kxe cknonen yconn1Lcn a opno nynk1e kc1enLno nepao nonoannm 16nnum.
k, ao a1opo kononke expy unqpn 87, yksmakue n o6Le uepen 6enoro,
83 (xen1okoxero) n 78 (uepnokoxero) cyuec1aye1 ue1kn n oueanpnn rppunn. o
unqpm 83, 81 n 82, coo1ae1c1aykune onron, nu n kpcnokoxn, nannk1cn
ycpepnennmn n oueanpno ne1ounmn, noa1oy onronoa n nuea pyc aknkue1
a opny pcy, 1. e. on o6Lepnnne1 83 n 81. orp sue nyxno 6p1L unqpy 82 pnn
xpk1epnc1nkn o1penLno pcm n cospa1L 1kn o6pso ue1aep1yk 6onLuyk
noprpynny?
npoue, a1o necoo1ae1c1ane cnyxn1 nopnopko pnn
cn6mx oen1oa cnc1em pyc. Ckconckn yuenm
cun1e1, u1o 1ouno 1k xe, kk nu nnne1 npoxopn1
ue1mpe apeenn cy1ok - penL, nouL, aeuepnne cyepkn
n pnnee y1po, - 1k n uenoaeueckn pop penn1cn n
ue1mpe coo1ae1c1aykune noprpynnm. pnue on anpn1
a a1o nekn cnaon, u1o acerp oncno pnn cepLesnoro
yuenoro. o pyc ne yc1onn nepep co6nsno. Benn
pc o1nocn1cn k pneanm npop, uepnokoxne - k
nounm, xen1okoxne - k y1pennn nnn k
aoc1ounm cyepk, kpcnokoxne - k
aeuepnn nnn snpnm cyepk.
ckycc1aennoc1L a1o cnc1em anpn neaoopyxennm
rnso. npnep, eaponeckne nunn a cnny pcuae1
nx nyk n oqopnennoc1n nx unannnsunn
conoc1annk1cn co cae1o, expy 1e kk uepnme
npopm npe6mak1 a cnnuke a 1eno1e neaexec1a,
kn1um xnay1 a cyepkx, ko1opme n onpepennk1 nx poaonLno yc1ounaoe, no
necoaepuennoe counnLnoe coc1onnne. 1o xe po kpcnokoxnx, nonenory
ncueskunx c senn, nenLsn nopo6p1L 6onee ypunoro o6ps, ue sxopnuee
connue!
coxnennk, 1koe cpanenne neo6ocnoanno, n pyc, o6p1nauncL k noasnn,
neckonLko nopnop1nn caok c1ponyk 1eopnk. npoue, cnepye1 npnsn1L 1o, u1o yxe
6mno o1eueno a o1nouennn oc1nLnmx a1nonornuecknx pok1pnn - nep,
Bnken6x, yan: pycy ne ypnocL npnaec1n a cnc1ey ack coaokynnoc1L
qnsnonornuecknx psnnun, nekunx ec1o a uenoaeuecknx pcx [ca, c
x cu nv aHm, xn vu xaakm. m Hn
num yn n kanH x rym, k acvacn y Ha
arnva. 3 nak rHackr ncxxn Hx aHu a
kmx nax naHack mknm, a Ma yca
Qckr Hyn, a aax Hax r x can, a
ck Mca . . kacknvck H a
ccn ayxu ak an, km, H H, xaakm nn
amx cHmamx ac.].
C1oponnnkn a1nnueckoro epnnc1a ne sepnnnn aocnonLsoa1Lcn a1n nepoc11ko n
o6Lnannn, u1o nockonLky ne1 aosoxnoc1n ncnonLsoa1L n6nkpennn, o1nocnunecn k
koc1nc1o uc1n ronoam, pnn cospnnn y6epn1enLno cnc1em ncxopnoro pspenennn
uenoaeuecknx 1nnoa npo pcc1pna1L psnnunn ne kk cnc1enme qk1opm, no kk
npoc1me pesynL11m nesancnmx ppyr o1 ppyr a1opnunmx npnunn, nnuennmx
konkpe1nkn.
pnko no6epy 1opxec1aoa1L pno. pypnoc1L a nxoxpennn e1op ne acerp
osnue1, u1o n1n ero aoo6ue neaosoxno, xo1n c1oponnnkn pcoaoro ynn1pns c
a1n ne corncnm. [nn nop1aepxpennn caonx pryen1oa onn ampannynn cnepykun
1esnc: neko1opme nneen, npnnpnexune k opno pce, ne o1nocn1cn k
opnnkoaoy qnsnueckoy 1nny, , nnpo1na, a poaonLno snun1enLnmx npepenx
o1knonnk1cn o1 nero. npnep, 6es yue1 konkpe1nmx aneen1oa a kxpo
ceunno rpynne onn npnaopn1 a kuec1ae poks1enLc1a psnnunme ae1an
ceunno ncko-nonnnesncko rpynnm n po6annk1, u1o ecnn a rpynnx o6uero
nponcxoxpennn ory1 n6nkp1Lcn coaepuenno nenoxoxne uepennme n nnueame
qopm, 1orp cme 6onLune psnnunn ne canpe1enLc1ayk1 o nepanuno
noxec1aennoc1n nponcxoxpennn; u1o ecnn pnn eaponeuea nerponpnme nnn
onronLckne 1nnm ory1 noks1Lcn coaepuenno psnnunmn, 1e ne enee a1o 1kxe
ne oxe1 cnyxn1L poks1enLc1ao psnoro nponcxoxpennn, n u1o npnunnm
pspenennn uenoaeuecknx pc cnepye1 nck1L ne a c1onL o1pnenno npouno,
noa1oy qnsnonornueckne o1knonennn oxno cun11L npoc1mn pesynL11n
onpepenennmx noknLnmx npnunn, pec1aoaaunx a 1euenne onpepenennoro nepnop.
epep nnuo c1onLknx nornunmx n coace nenornunmx aospxenn npnaepxenum
npen psnoro nponcxoxpennn uenoaeuecknx pc nm1nncL pcunpn1L cqepy caonx
nccnepoann n pryen1oa n o1 nsyuennn uepenoa nepeunn k nsyuennk uenoaek ao
ace ero coaokynnoc1n. [nn 1oro u1o6m noks1L, u1o psnnunn cyuec1ayk1 ne 1onLko
a c1poennn nnu n uepen, onn o6p1nnncL k 1kn cepLesnm qk1op, kk qop
1s, nponopunonnLnoc1L unenoa, uae1 koxn, aonocnno nokpoa.
nep n ppyrne n1om pano npnsnann, u1o 1s nerp nee1 caon oco6ennoc1n.
[ok1op ponnk, npoponxn 1y xe mcnL, o1e1nn, u1o y eaponeuea psnnunn expy
yxckn n xenckn 1so se1nm ropspo enLue, y npepc1an1ene
nerpn1nncko pcm - y o6onx nonoa - npko ampxeno cxopc1ao c xnao1nmn.
onnnpckn yuenm, ncxopn ns 1oro, u1o c1poenne 1s nens6exno annne1 n npouecc
qopnpoannn spopmu, npnuen k amaopy o6 ncxopnmx psnnunnx [va.
ccaan cn vnaka.].
y aospxn, npap, 6es oco6oro ycnex, e6ep. ocnepney npnunocL npnsn1L,
u1o neko1opme qopm 1s uue ac1peuk1cn y opnnx pc, ue y ppyrnx, no on nnuL
konc11npoan, u1o ne 6mae1 npann 6es ncknkuenn n u1o epnknum,
qpnknum, onronm nek1 1kne xe qopm, kk eaponeum. poe 1oro, e6ep,
roaopn o6 a1nx ncknkuennnx, nnckonLko ne o6pue1 annnnn n 1o1 qk1, u1o
1enocnoxenne ec1L pesynL11 ceuennn kpoan.
1o kce1cn psepoa koneunoc1e, npo1nannkn epnnoro nponcxoxpennn
uenoaeueckoro pop snannk1, u1o eaponeum cnoxenm nyuue. aospxk1, u1o
xypme koneunoc1n anonne ec1ec1aennm y npopoa, ko1opme nn1k1cn a ocnoano
pc1n1enLno nnue nnn ncnm1mak1 nepoc11ok nn1nnn, n a1 1ouk spennn 1kxe
ne nnuen nornkn. o korp peuL sxopn1 o upesepno psan1o 6kc1e y
npepc1an1ene nneenn keuy, kpn1nkn, ne xenn npnsna1L a a1o xpk1epnm
npnsnk pcm, c1noan1cn enee y6epn1enLnmn: a co pene, 6mno 6m ceuno
cun11L, kk onn a1o penk1, u1o o6Le rpypn y nepyncknx ropuea a pnno cnyue
o6Lncnne1cn amco1o np, o ue e1ko seue1 pnupp. sene noro ropnmx
npopoa, y ko1opmx coaepuenno nnoe 1enocnoxenne, ue y keuy. npnep,
uaeupum, 1nponLum, uo1nnpum, 6nknckne cnanne, nneen, xnayune a
nnnx, ne nek1 1koro ypopnnaoro c1poennn, kk keuy.
epepe k pryen1, kckuncn uae1 koxn. Ynn1pnc1m y1aepxpk1, u1o n
specL ne1 nnkko cneunqnkn nnn xpk1epnoro npnsnk: ao-nepamx, no1oy u1o
uae1 o6ycnoanen knn1nuecknn oco6ennoc1nn n ne nanne1cn noc1onnnm
npnsnko, ao-a1opmx, no1oy u1o uae1 nee1 6ecuncnennme o11enkn, nese1no
nepexopnune o1 6enoro k xen1oy, o1 xen1oro k uepnoy, expy ko1opmn 1pypno
npoaec1n nnnnk pspen. D1o1 qk1 npoc1o-nnpoc1o poksmae1 nnnune
6ecuncnennmx rn6pnpoa, o ue ynn1pnc1m c1pk1cn aoo6ue ne roaopn1L. 1o xe po
cneunqnunoc1n aonoc, specL a nonLsy ncxopnoro epnnc1a pc a1opn1e1no
amcksmae1cn rocnopnn Onypnc.
Mm pcco1penn kp1ko neko1opme necoc1on1enLnme pryen1m n 1enepL o6p1ncn k
nyunoy kpeyronLnoy knk ynn1pnc1oa. Y nnx ec1L opnn cnnLnm pryen1, n
ero c1on1 pcco1pe1L noppo6nee: n nek a anpy nerkoc1L, c kko psnnunme ae1an
uenoaeueckoro pop nopoxpk1 rn6pnpoa, n nnopoan1oc1L a1nx cmx rn6pnpoa.
6nkpennn n1ypnnc1oa, kxe1cn, poksnn, u1o a xnao1no nnn pc1n1enLno
npe e1ncm ory1 poxp1Lcn 1onLko o1 poaonLno 6nnsknx ppyr ppyry anpoa n u1o
pxe a a1o cnyue nx nnopm spnee o6peuenm n 6ecnnopnoc1L. poe 1oro, 6mno
o1eueno, u1o expy 6nnsknn anpn coaokynnenne, xo1n a npnnunne n aosoxnoe,
npo1nano npnpope n nponcxopn1 1onLko 6nroppn xn1poc1n nnn ncnnnk; a1o snun1,
u1o a cao6opno coc1onnnn uncno rn6pnpoa eue 6onee orpnnueno, ue a cnyue
aeu1enLc1a uenoaek. s a1oro 6mn cpenn amaop: cnoco6noc1L nponsaopn1L
nnopoan1me oco6n cnepye1 aknkun1L a uncno cneunqnuecknx npnsnkoa.
ockonLky nnu1o ne roaopn1 o 1o, u1o uenoaeueckn pop ne nopnpe1 nop a1o
npanno, nnu1o po cnx nop ne nokone6no nornkn, ko1opn 6onee oc1nLnmx nnocn1
ypp no cnc1ee npo1nannkoa epnnc1a nponcxoxpennn. pap, ec1L y1aepxpennn,
u1o a neko1opmx ponx kennn xenunnm, popnaune e1ncoa o1 eaponeuea, yxe
ne ory1 s6epeene1L o1 caonx coo1euec1aennnkoa. cnn npnsn1L cnpaepnnaoc1L
a1oro qk1, c1on1 nccnepoa1L ero rny6xe, no a nc1onuee apen n ne c1on1
nonLsoa1Lcn pnn ouenkn npnnunnoa nonanennn rn6pnpoa.
XI
Bk n k nu k.
Ynn1pnc1m y1aepxpk1, u1o psnnune expy pcn oueanpno n o6ycnoaneno nnuL
1knn o6c1on1enLc1an noknLnoro xpk1ep, kkne m ncnm1mae n ceropnn,
nnn xe cnyunmn o1knonennnn a konc1n1yunn nepaoro npepk 1o nnn nno ae1an.
[nn nnx ace uenoaeuec1ao cnoco6no a pano epe k ycoaepuenc1aoannk, noackpy
nepaonunLnm o6un 1nn, ne acerp nano ampxennm, nponanne1 ce6n c
opnnkoao cnno, n nerp, epnknckn 6opnren, 1ynryc, xnayun n ceaepe
Cn6npn, ory1 n ponxnm, npn ycnoann opnnkoaoro aocnn1nnn, conepnnu1L c
eaponeue a kpco1e aneunnx qop n any1pennero copepxnnn. o a1 1eopnn
coaepuenno 6ecnouaenn.
mue m yanpenn cyk npexnyk un1penL c1oponnnkoa pcoaoro paenc1a: a1o
noroo6psne ceunnmx pc n nx nnopoan1oc1L. D1 1ouk spennn, ko1opn po cnx
nop c1nknae1cn c 6onLunn 1pypnoc1nn, aosoxno, ne acerp 6ype1 1ko
neonpoaepxno, n ne c1onno 6m noppo6no oc1nanna1Lcn n ne, ecnn 6m s ne
ne c1onn ppyro pryen1 coaepuenno nno npnpopm, ko1opm, npnsn1Lcn,
6ecnokon1 enn 6onLue: ec1L nenne, u1o Canuennoe ncnne, nenno nnr
Bm1nn, npnsne1 1onLko opnn nc1ounnk nonanennn uenoaeueckoro pop n sene.
cnn canuennm 1ekc1 k1eropnuen, ncen, nepaycmcnen, oc1e1cn cknonn1L nepep
nn ronoay: cme 6onLune conennn ponxnm ncuesny1L, psy ponxen yonkny1L n
npnsn1L ce6n no6expennm; n1k, uenoaeuec1ao nponsouno o1 epnnoro nc1ounnk,
ace pryen1m npo1na nnuero ne c1on1. nyc1L nyuue cryue1cn 1L np nm1nnao
mcnLk, nockonLky ne1 cmcn ocnpna1L c1onL amcokn a1opn1e1. o ecnn Bn6nnn
nc1onkoan neaepno? cnn Canuennoe ncnne nnncno aoace ne pnn 1oro, u1o6m
nponcnn1L a1nnueckne aonpocm, n ns nero cnepye1 nsaneuL ppyro cmcn?
o1 qk1, u1o p - nppopn1enL nue 6eno pcm, ne nopnexn1 conennk.
ueanpno, u1o n Bn6nnn amcksmae1cn nenno 1k, no1oy u1o o1 nero nponcxopn1
ace nkpn c 6eno koxe. o npn ace npn a1o ne1 nnkknx canpe1enLc1a 1oro, u1o
nepame pepk1opm poao renenornn npnuncnnnn k a1o rpynne ppyrnx nkpe, ne
npnnpnexunx k 6eno pce. nn cnoa ne roaopn1cn o xen1mx npopx, pnee
n noc1pkcL poks1L, u1o n1pnpx ne 6mn uepnokoxn. syee1cn,
nepeaopunkn n koen11opm, y1aepxpaune, u1o o1 p nouen aecL pop
uenoaeueckn, aknkunnn a uncno ero no1okoa npoune npopm, nonanaunecn nosxe.
Corncno nx 1eopnn, no1okn qe1 nannk1cn ae1ann eaponeckoro ppea npopoa,
cen1m nonannncL a epepne snn, xn1m, ns ko1opmx cpennn, 6es acnknx n 1o
ocnoannn, ennnckyk pcy, o6n1k1 n npoc1opx qpnkn. k 6yp1o ace a
nopnpke, u1o kce1cn opno nonoannm senoro up. u1o pen1L c ppyro? C 1o,
u1o ne yknpmae1cn a knccnqnkunk?
ok n ne 6ypy oc1nanna1Lcn n a1o. rpnnuycL nnuL 1kn seunne:
aosoxno, ypc1cn, ne amxopn s pkn uepkoanmx pok1pnn, ocnopn1L a1y
knccnqnkunk. nonpo6yk o6Lncnn1L qk1m, npnaopnme ynn1pnc1n, a nno
cmcne, nexenn onn 1onkyk1cn nn, n noco1pe1L, ne1 nn expy uenoaeuecknn
pcn qynpen1nLnmx qnsnuecknx n opnLnmx psnnun nesancno o1
nponcxoxpennn uenoaeuec1a.
D1nnueckn npen1nunoc1L acex anpoa ceec1a co6k cun1e1cn poksnno - a1o
o1eue1, a uc1noc1n, Opepepnk kaLe, - no k1o peun1cn konc11npoa1L y acex
xnao1nmx, nesancno o1 anpoa, opnnkoame qopm, 1enpenunn, npnamukn,
caoc1a? o xe coe oxno cks1L n o ppyrnx anpx, nnpnep, noupn, cannLe,
epaepe n 1. p. pen1nunoc1L a nponcxoxpennn n psnoo6psne ao ace oc1nLno,
npnue psnoo6psne nc1onLko rny6okoe, u1o ono oxe1 ncuesny1L psae u1o
acnepc1ane ckpeunannn, no n a a1o cnyue noame 1nnm ne ory1 o6pec1n
nc1onuyk npen1nunoc1L. Mexpy 1e, nok coxpnne1cn unc1o1 pcm,
cneunqnueckne uep1m oc1k1cn noc1onnnmn n aocnponsaopn1cn ns nokonennn a
nokonenne 6es cyuec1aennmx o1knonenn.
D1o1 neocnopnm qk1 naopn1 n cnepykun aonpoc: oxno nn pcnosn1L qopm
n nnc1nnk1m nepaonpepkoa y xnao1nmx, c1aunx pounnn? o ace oueanpnoc1n,
o1ae1 n nero ne cyuec1aye1. eaosoxno onpepenn1L, kknn 6mnn qopm n
cyunoc1L nepaoro uenoaek n nckonLko o1nnuk1cn o1 nnx 1nnm, ko1opme m
n6nkpe ceropnn. kn xe npo6ne nee1 ec1o n pnn ouenL 6onLuoro uncn
pc1enn. co6enno uenoaek, uLn nc1okn 1k xoue1cn, o6npyxn1L, ne noppe1cn
nnkko pcunqpoake a a1o o1nouennn.
Y cmx psnmx pc ne aosnnkno conenn a 1o, u1o nx npuyp 6mn nou1n ao ace
noxox n nnx. 1onLko a a1o ace onn epnnopyunm. Benme nkpn cpennn caon
npepko p n ay, ko1opmx Bnken6x o1nec 6m k kaksckoy 1nny; a opno
knnre, qpnaonLno aneune, no nonno e1knx n6nkpenn n 1ounmx qk1oa -
mcnu n opn nouL, - pccksmae1cn, u1o neko1opme nerpm cun1k1 p n ero
xeny uepnokoxnn, u1o ecnn ocnoa1enn uenoaeueckoro pop 6mnn co1aopenm no
o6psy 6oxLey, 1o n Bor n ero nrenm ponxnm 6m1L uepnmn, n u1o npopok 1kxe
apnp nn nen 6enyk koxy.
coxnennk, coapeennn nyk ne a coc1onnnn yc1pnn1L a1y ny1nnuy. n opn
rnno1es ne corn nponcnn1L a1o1 aonpoc, n no ace aepon1noc1n uenoaeueckne pcm
nc1onLko o1nnuk1cn o1 caoero o6uero npepk, - ecnn 1onLko y nnx 1koao 6mn, -
nckonLko onn o1nnuk1cn ppyr o1 ppyr. c1e1cn o6Lncnn1L 1koe o1knonenne
nepao6m1noro 1nn, oc1ancL n ckpono n orpnnuenno nnuppe, ko1opm n
snnk, n ponyckn cnpaepnnaoc1L nennn ynn1pnc1oa.
pnunnm a1oro nanennn o6npyxn1L nenerko. Ynn1pnc1m, kk n yxe cksn,
o6Lncnnk1 ero aospec1ane knn1, reorpqnueckn nonoxenne n npnamukn.
e1 aosoxnoc1n npnnn1L nopo6nm pryen1 [Yacm nn naxn
car ca ncn caaaa vnaka c xamH. nuk v
acnnuaancn akH nHH. ak n xn m nynnnu H,
knu ck vu 1nc H aa v ann
knHaa, n a H, v anv Hxy xamH nuH H
kaanum a amcm cn cnvck xaak. ycay
rran xar Ha, ak x kak rran nna,
rra Ha n. ycay a n an ma, a k Hry
au n m acn, var, nn, mm, Hnnck,
vnak x a acx cax aacnx xa nacy. r sr
aka cav, vm 1ncu rH aa vnavck
kcy. cam crnac c H, v am, km Hry
am a ray r n r Haa n n Hk
nua, r, vm nryu, axncn n annH knHaa,
v kacacn x H cka, H nHy, v vnak
cam nanac akHy acay, n kamaacu nau
karvck ak aacaa Hxy r nnxH cnu cn
nm nnxH xamx.], yun1man, u1o nsenennn a konc1n1yunn pc
c cmx nesnn1nmx apeen, amsannme yksnnmn o6c1on1enLc1an, ne nenn
1koro snuennn, ko1opoe orno 6m a poc11ouno c1enenn o6Lncnn1L c1onL rny6okne
pcxoxpennn. Ceuc m a a1o y6epncn.
osLe pa nneenn, eue 6nnskne k nepao6m1noy 1nny, ko1opme xnay1 a psnmx
ycnoannx: opno a nLnncko ponnne a rny6nne kon1nnen1, ppyroe n opcko
oc1poae. Coc1a okpyxkuero nx aospyx coaepuenno psnm, 1ouno 1k xe, kk n nx
nnu. [nee ponyc1n, u1o y opnoro poc11ouno aosoxnoc1e po6m1L nnuy, y
ppyroro onn ckypnme; s1e noec1n nepaoe a xonopnm knn1, a1opoe nop
1ponnueckoe connue. orp nonyun nonnm kon1pc1. C 1euenne apeenn k
ec1ec1aennoy aospec1ank qnsnuecknx qk1opoa po6an1cn 1k nsmaem
uenoaeueckn qk1op, n noc1enenno o6 npop npno6pe1y1 neko1opme
cneunqnueckne npnsnkn, ko1opme noory1 psnnun1L nx. pnko pxe uepes
neckonLko c1one1n a nx konc1n1yunn ne nponsope1 nnkknx cyuec1aennmx
oprnnuecknx nsenenn; poks1enLc1ao cnyxn1 1o1 qk1, u1o ac1peuk1cn
npopm, xnayune n npo1naononoxnmx konux cae1, a coaepuenno psnnunmx
knn1nuecknx ycnoannx, no nx 1nnm nou1n nnue ne o1nnuk1cn ppyr o1 ppyr. D1o
snk1 ace a1nonorn. pxe xo1enocL 6m noec1n1L ro11en1o1oa a n1e -
nc1onLko onn noxoxn n xn1ene opne6ecno nepnn [3y Hmcnu amckaan
Bay, cxn nnr cxcaa Hm rnam aa kx y
ara Hmca Q axm. nymcak ax aHn, a
nax sr nnnxn, v rm cn nvcky,
anHay kycam rna y kaa.]. poe 1oro,
nnnuec1aye1 6onLuoe cxopc1ao expy nop1pe1o, ko1opm n oc1annn ppeanne
a1pyckn, n pkynn Kxno epnkn. nuo, 1enocnoxenne uepokn kk 6yp1o
nannk1cn konne npepc1an1ene neko1opmx npopoa 1nnn, nnpnep
kn6pnuea. aneunoc1L xn1ene aepnn, oco6enno xenunn, nee1 6onee
o1pnennoe cxopc1ao c o6un 1nno eaponeuea, nexenn c 1nno neko1opmx
nnpecknx nneen Ceaepno epnkn. kn o6pso, nockonLky a coaepuenno
necxopnmx knn1nuecknx ycnoannx n a 1knx psnmx o6c1on1enLc1ax noacepneano
xnsnn npnpop oxe1 cospa1L noxoxne 1nnm, oueanpno, u1o aoace ne nmneunne
aneunne qk1opm npnpk1 cneunqnueckne uep1m uenoaeueckn 1nn.
e ne enee, nenLsn ne npnsn1L, u1o noknLnme o6c1on1enLc1a ory1 ycnnna1L
nnn ocn6nn1L neko1opme oco6ennoc1n uae1 'koxn, npeppcnonoxennoc1L k nonno1e,
o1nocn1enLnoe psan1ne mueuno cnc1em, rpypn, ypnnnennoc1L nor nnn pyk,
qnsnueckyk cnny. o noa1opk eue ps: a1o ne ec1L onpepennkun qk1op, n, cypn
no 1e ouenL ne6onLun nsenennn, ko1opme a1n npnunnm npnanocn1 a
1enocnoxenne nkpe, ne1 ocnoann nonr1L - n a1o eue opno canpe1enLc1ao, -
u1o onn oksmann snun1enLnoe annnnne korp-nn6o a npouno.
cnn m ne sne, kkne peaonkunn ornn nponso1n a qnsnuecko oprnnsunn
npopoa a ponc1opnueckne apeen, 1o m oxe xo1n 6m se1n1L, u1o a1o1 nepnop
oxa1mae1 acero nnuL okono nonoannm aospc1 uenoaeueckoro pop; n ecnn a
1euenne 1pex-ue1mpex 1mcnu ne1 c1on1 1kn nenpornnpnn 1L, n oc1e1cn eue
1pn 1mcnun ne1, u1o6m m ornn c6nnsn1Lcn c ppyrnn nunnn, n ace
canpe1enLc1aye1 o 1o, u1o cyuec1aoaaune a 1y nopy pcm, oc1aunecn c 1ex nop a
coc1onnnn o1nocn1enLno unc1o1m, nsennnncL nesnun1enLno, xo1n neko1opme
nepecennnncL a ppyrne ec1 n, cnepoa1enLno, nonnn nop pec1ane nnmx aneunnx
qk1opoa. pnaepy a npnep p6oa. k onn npepc1anenm a ernne1cknx
onyen1x, 1knn m nx anpn ceropnn ne 1onLko a nnopopopnmx sennx c
anxnm knn1o Mn6p n no6epexLn oponpenn, n oc1poax npnckoro
oken, ao nornx ec1x ceaepnoro no6epexLn qpnkn, rpe ceropnn onn a 6onLue
epe ceunm c ppyrnn pcn, ue rpe-nn6o eue; nx cnepm ac1peuk1cn a
neko1opmx ec1x ycnnLon, nrepok n no6epexLn cnnnn, neco1pn n 1o, u1o
npn6nnsn1enLno pa c1one1nn npounn nocne nx a1opxennn. nnnnne cpepm, ecnn ono
n neno ec1o, kk a1o cun1e1cn, ne orno 6m onpepenn1L 1kyk ponroaeunoc1L
1nnoa. Mennn ec1oxn1enLc1ao, no1okn ncenn1ckoro nppopn1enn ponxnm 6mnn
nsenn1L n caok aneunoc1L.
ocne p6oa n o1euy eapeea, eue 6onee nn1epecnmx a a1o o1nouennn, no1oy u1o
onn nrpnpoann a ec1 c coaepuenno ppyrn knn1o, nexenn a nec1nne, n eue
a enLue c1enenn coxpnnnn cao o6ps xnsnn. e ne enee, nx 1nn oc1ncn
npexnn, aepnee, npe1epnen nesnun1enLnme nsenennn, ko1opme ne ornn nsenn1L
o6un xpk1ep pcm nn a kko knn1e n nn a kknx ycnoannx. knn m anpn
aonnc1aennmx pexan1oa ns p6cknx nyc1mnL, 1knn npepc1k1 nepep nn n
npnme nop1yrnLckne, qpnuysckne, neeukne n nonLckne nspenn1m. Mne
npepc1anncn cnyu nccnepoa1L opnoro uenoaek, npnnpnexuero k nocnepne
k1eropnn. ep1m ero nnu ampann ero nponcxoxpenne. co6enno kpcnopeunam
6mnn ero rns. D1o1 ceaepnnnn, npnme npepkn ko1oporo a 1euenne neckonLknx
nokonenn o6n1nn cpepn cneroa, no-anpnoy, sropen nop nyun cnpnckoro
connu. kn o6pso, npnxopn1cn npnsn1L, u1o nnuo cen1 a o6unx n cmx
xpk1epnmx uep1x coxpnnno 1nn, ko1opm m anpn n ernne1cknx kp1nnx,
amnonnennmx 1pn, ue1mpe n 6onee 1mcnu ne1 nsp, n a1o1 1nn oc1e1cn a cmx
psnoo6psnmx knn1nuecknx o6c1on1enLc1ax. pen1nunoc1L no1okoa c npepkn
ne orpnnunae1cn uep1n nnu - on n6nkpe1cn n a c1poennn 1en, n a
1enepen1e. eeukne eapen a ueno 6onee nnskopocnm n nek1 6onee xpynkoe
1enocnoxenne, nexenn npepc1an1enn eaponecko pcm, cpepn ko1opmx onn xnay1
aekn. poe 1oro, onn poc1nrk1 spenoc1n nnoro pnLue, ue nx
coo1euec1aennnkn ppyrnx pc, kk seue1 Mknnep a caoe Cnpaounnke no
qnsnonornn uenoaek.
npoue, cyuec1aye1 n pne1pnLno npo1naononoxnoe nenne pnupp. D1o1
qnsnonor a caoe c1penennn poks1L epnnc1ao uenoaeueckoro pop nm1e1cn
o6ocnoa1L, u1o aospc1 spenoc1n y o6onx nonoa opnnkoa aespe n pnn acex pc. n
ncnonLsye1 pryen1m ns e1xoro 3ae1, u1o kce1cn eapeea n p6oa, ns
pennrnosnoro caop opn, corncno ko1opoy xenunnm ory1 ac1yn1L a 6pk a 18
n pxe a 15 ne1.
D1n pa pryen1 aecL cnopnm. pexpe acero 6n6necknx canpe1enLc1a n ce
cue1 nou1n ne cyuec1aye1, 1e 6onee, u1o 1 uc1o npnaopn1cn qk1m, amxopnune s
pkn o6munoro nopnpk aeue, n u1o 6epeennoc1L Cpm a rny6oko c1poc1n, korp
coy apy 6mno 100 ne1, - a1o 1ko annsop, n ko1opm nenLsn onnp1Lcn a
cepLesno nccnepoannn. 1o xe kce1cn nennn n npepnncnnn ycynLnckoro
skon, n xouy se1n1L, u1o a1opm opn xo1enn ne 1onLko konc11npoa1L
qnsnueckyk aosoxnoc1L, npexpe ue p1L pspeuenne n 6pk: onn xo1enn, u1o6m
xenunn poc1nrn n yc1aenno spenoc1n npn npnnn1nn n ce6n c1onL cepLesnmx
o6nsnnoc1e. [oks1enLc1ao cnyxn1 1o1 qk1, u1o npopok os6ouen pennrnosnm
aocnn1nne knmx peayuek anno1L po oen1 syxec1a. 1ko cnyue ncno, u1o
a1o1 oen1 cnepye1 o1noxn1L kk oxno pnLue n u1o skonop1enL cun1n ouenL
axnm psana1L yc1aennme cnoco6noc1n n ne 1oponn1L npnpopy. a1o eue ne ace.
Canpe1enLc1a, npnaopnm pnuppo, oxno npo1naonoc1an1L ppyrne, 6onee
y6epn1enLnme, nyc1L n ne c1onL o6ocnoannme.
oa1m oc1ok a caonx nk6oanmx nponsaepennnx, noksman reponnL a pcuae1e
kpco1m, ne s6o1ncL o opnLno spenoc1n, acerp nso6pxk1 nx 6onee knmn,
ue npepnncmae1cn a opne: 3ynek n en ne poc1nrnn n 14 ne1. npnn
kon1pc1 eue 6onee psn1enen. Lkynpn a apone cun1ncL 6m peauonko, nou1n
pe6enko. 1o c1pne nyuun aospc1 nk6an pnn xenunnm - o1 pean1n po
paenpu1n ne1. 1k, m nee pcnpoc1pnennoe n o6uenpnnn1oe nenne,
6m1ykuee y nnpycoa, nepcoa n p6oa: aecn xnsnn pnn xenunn nc1yne1 a 6onee
pnne aospc1e, ue a apone. [onroe apen nun nnc1enn npnpepxnanncL a a1o
cmcne openn [peanero n. pnnnne acnep s caonn rpeuecknn yun1ennn
npnnnnn a kuec1ae aospc1 cospeannn 15 ne1. ocne 1oro, kk ceaepnme npen
[cknvH, nxany, nanncn Ukcn, nnuycn anunckH
kaaH. v ra anyn a H Qxynu. na,
v ran aum. M n a x
vmaa n. ycka yHy aa nmmmx na ra x
Hx cau Qxynua a v ac ava ak: Ha cvacnamx
an Hnx.] oksnn annnnne n nuy nn1ep1ypy, m ac1peue a ponx nnuL
aocenpu1nne1nnx n 6onee c1punx repoea n reponnL.
cnn 1enepL aepny1Lcn k 6onee cepLesnm pryen1, 1o n 1koamx m npe
npepoc11ouno. ono 1oro, u1o roaopnnocL amue o neeuknx eapenx, oxno
po6an1L, u1o ao nornx sennx Laeupnn qnsnueckoe psan1ne xn1ene nc1onLko
sepnennoe, u1o y yxunn ono nnorp ne saepue1cn pxe a papu1L ne1. [pyrn
npnepo nannk1cn umrne [ annH ana, ncackr
Hcca a cv k, y nnH aakac Hanuvk aaa
n xncn a avkax r x aaca. aaraa ym aan
mva, cxaamcn cx n, amaaau avk-ark cn
n a aanx Hanuvka. s ca cu aam aam 11
12 n, kak canucay u. x Ban avk amxn
aHyx a aac 1011 n. Mcyan y x avacn vu a.
ay cnyva a Ha kackr ncann K-un-
mcaan avk nvan H, v r vu, xa akr
aaca, ak ammna aHyx.]. pepc1an1enn a1o pcm o1nnuk1cn 1kn
xe pnnn qnsnueckn psan1ne, kk n nx popnun nnpycm, n pxe nop cypoam
ne6o occnn n Monpann onn coxpnnk1 ne 1onLko caon ppeanne npnamukn n
o6mun, no n uep1m nnu n 1enocnoxenne kc1m npnea. pnko n ne co6npkcL
ocnpna1L asrnnpm pnupp orynLnm o6pso. Ckxe, c opnn ns ero seunn
n corncen nonnoc1Lk: nn1nueckne psnnunn ne nrpk1 nou1n nnkko ponn a
nonanennn qnsnuecknx nsenenn, ko1opm nopaepxen ao apeenn uenoaeueckn
konc1n1yunn. D1o ouenL cnpaepnnan mcnL, n n ne co6npkcL nop1aepxp1L ee, no
orpnnuycL 1kn po6anenne: kk ne kxe1cn, on neckonLko npo1naopeun1
npnnunn, ko1opme o1c1nae1 a1o1 epnknckn qnsnonor n a1norpq.
e1pypno se1n1L, u1o a pnno cnyue aonpoc o noc1onnc1ae 1nnoa nanne1cn
knkueam. cnn cun1e1cn poksnnm qk1o, u1o kxpn ns uenoaeuecknx pc
sknkuen a pkn nekoe nnpnanpynLnoc1n, ns ko1opmx on oxe1 am1n 1onLko
nocpepc1ao ceuennn, 1orp ynn1pnc1m ponxnm corncn1Lcn c 1e, u1o, nockonLky
uenoaeueckne 1nnm uennko o6ycnoanenm ncnepc1aennoc1Lk n oc1k1cn
noc1onnnmn, 1o ec1L ne nopaepxennmn nsenennn n ne sancnunn o1 knn1 n
o1 apeenn, uenoaeuec1ao pspeneno n rpynnm, 1ouno 1k xe, kk ecnn 6m
cneunqnueckne psnnunn 6mnn amsanm psnnunm nponcxoxpenne.
Ceropnn a1o axnoe y1aepxpenne poks1L coace ne 1pypno. no nop1aepxpe1cn
ernne1cknn ckynLn1ypn, nso6pxkunn p6oa, n n6nkpennnn s eapenn n
umrnn. poe 1oro, ne c1on1 s6ma1L, u1o pocnncn a xpx n nopseenLnx
ponnnm nn 1kxe canpe1enLc1ayk1 o noc1onnc1ae nerponpnoro 1nn c kypuamn
aonocn, c amc1ynkue anepep ronoao, 1onc1mn ry6n n u1o o6npyxennme
nepano 6penLeqm opc6p (nneann) nop1aepxpk1 1o, u1o yxe
scanpe1enLc1aoano n psnmx onyen1x epcenonnc, nenno,
qnsnonornueckyk npen1nunoc1L ccnpncknx npopoa c nunnn, ko1opme ceropnn
xnay1 n 1o xe 1eppn1opnn.
cnn 6m m nenn nnornunme pokyen1m o 6onLuo konnuec1ae xnayunx nmne
pc, pesynL11m oksnncL 6m 1ouno 1knn xe. . e. noc1onnc1ao 1nnoa 6mno 6m
nop1aepxpeno nnunn ps. pnko pnn nc poc11ouno nekunxcn qk1oa, n 1enepL
nyc1L npo1nannkn ampanrk1 caon aospxennn.
Mexpy 1e 1koamx onn ne nek1 n, nm1ncL sun1n1L caok pok1pnny, onn
npo1naopeu1 ce6e c cmx nepamx cnoa nnn ac1ynk1 a npo1naopeune c nexunn
n noaepxnoc1n qk1n. k, onn y1aepxpk1, u1o eapen nsennnn cao 1nn nop
pec1ane knn1, qk1m roaopn1 o6 o6p1no. nn y1aepxpk1, u1o a epnnn
noro nspenn1oa co cae1nmn aonocn n rony6mn rnsn. o u1o6m 1koe
y1aepxpenne neno cnny a cmcne nop1aepxpennn 1eopnn ynn1pnc1oa, neo6xopno
npnsn1L knn1 epnnc1aenno nnn, no kpne epe, rnano npnunno a1oro
nanennn; c ppyro xe c1oponm, yuenme a1o ukonm snannk1, u1o uae1 koxn, rns n
aonoc nn a koe epe ne sancn1 o1 reorpqnueckoro nonoxennn n 1ennoro nnn
xonopnoro knn1. nn o1euk1 - n a1o 6eccnopnm qk1 - rony6me rns n
pycme aonocm y cnnrncknx nneen n pxe psnnunme o11enkn koxn o1 cae1no-
kopnuneaoro po uepnoro. C ppyro c1oponm, onn npnsnk1, u1o coepm n 1ynrycm,
xo1n n xnay1 n no6epexLe epoan1oro oken, ouenL cyrnme. Cnepoa1enLno,
knn1 ne nee1 nnkkoro o1nouennn k uae1y koxn, aonoc n rns. D1n n6nkpennn
cnepye1 nn6o cun11L nnuero ne snuunn, nn6o cans1L nx c onpepenenno pco,
nockonLky poc1oaepno nsaec1no, u1o pmxne aonocm nepepko ac1peuk1cn n oc1oke,
ne c1on1 ypnann1Lcn aneunoc1n neeuknx eapeea. pnno cnyue a1o nnuero ne
poksmae1: nn noc1onnc1a 1nnoa, nn o6p1noro.
e 6onee y6epn1enLnmn amrnnpn1 ynn1pnc1m, korp npnsmak1 n noouL
nc1opnueckne canpe1enLc1a. npoue, onn npnaopn1 1onLko pa: opno o1nocn1cn k
1ypk, ppyroe k pLnp. 1o kce1cn nepamx, sn1ckoe nponcxoxpenne nx ne
amsmae1 nnkknx conenn. C 1ko yaepennoc1Lk oxno roaopn1L o6 nx 6nnsko
popc1ae c qnnnkncknn ae1ann oc1nkoa n nnnnpuea. epaonunLno onn nenn
xen1oe nnuo, amc1ynkune ckynm, neamcokn poc1, kk y onronoa. CorncnauncL c
a1n, aepnecn k nx nmneunn no1ok: y nnx eaponeckn 1nn nnu, ryc1n n
pnnnnn 6opop, nnpneanpnme, ne pckocme rns, n ao1, ncxopn ns a1oro,
pspe1cn 1opxec1aykun aosrnc, u1o pcm aoace ne noc1onnnm, no1oy u1o 1ypkn
npe1epnenn 1kyk nanyk 1pncqopunk. Ynn1pnc1m pccyxpk1 cnepykun
o6pso: specL neno ec1o ceuenne c rpeuecknn, rpysnncknn n uepkeccknn
ceec1an. o 1y1 xe po6annk1 - 1koe ceuenne nponcxopnno pepko: aepL ne
ace 1ypkn 6mnn poc11ouno 6or1m, u1o6m nokyn1L xen n akse, ne y acex 6mnn
rpem c 6enmn p6mnnn, c ppyro c1oponm, nenanc1L rpekoa k saoea1enn n
pennrnosnme psnnunn ne cnoco6c1aoann 6punm coks, nockonLky o6 npop,
pxe xnayune ceropnn aec1e, pspenenm 1k xe, kk n a nepam penL nocne
saoeannn.
D1n pryen1m ckopee o1nnuk1cn kxyuncn npaponopo6ne, nexenn connpnoc1Lk.
pnp nn oxno acepLes roaopn1L o qnnnkncko nponcxoxpennn 1ypeuko pcm. [o
cnx nop 1koe nponcxoxpenne poksno nnuL opnn-epnnc1aennm pryen1o:
popc1ao nsmkoa. nxe n kocnycL ero n nokxy, nckonLko on cnopen n conn1enen.
e ne enee, ecnn ponyc1n1L, u1o npo1um a1oro npop npnnpnexnn k xen1oy
1nny, 1o cyuec1aye1 neno poks1enLc1a 1oro, u1o y nnx 6mnn aeckne npnunnm
ypnn1Lcn o1 nero.
Mexpy oen1o, korp nepame 1ypnckne oppm cnyc1nnncL n kro-snp, n pne,
korp onn oanpenn ropopo onc1n1nn, 1. e. expy a1nn payn p1n,
o1penennmn ppyr o1 ppyr nornn aekn, cnyunnocL neno co6m1n, 1k u1o y
snpnmx 1ypkoa 6mn coace ppyrn cypL6. Bypyun no ouepepn 1o no6epn1ennn, 1o
no6expennmn, p6n nnn rocnopn, onn o6ocnoanncL cpepn coace ne noxoxnx
n nnx npopoa. Corncno nc1opnueckn caepennn, nx npepkn orysm, amxopum c
n1n, ao apeen ap xnnn a orponmx c1ennx aepxne snn, npoc1npkunxcn
o1 n1n po pnLckoro osep, o1 Cn6npn po n6e1, ppeane srpouno c1pnm, rpe
n ceropnn o6n1k1 repnckne npopm. c11n, 6pon y6onLp1 cun1e1 a1o1 qk1
opnn ns ampkunxcn o1kpm1n nue anoxn. C 1oukn spennn nc1opnn, a1o,
psyee1cn, 1k. eue opno c1pnnoe o6c1on1enLc1ao: kk 1onLko nnc1enn oc1ok
nunnk1 roaopn1L o npopx ypkec1n, onn 1y1 xe aocxannk1 kpco1y nx
1enocnoxennn n nnu [ymaa, acaaa kr nxcn a nay
nnay VI a. . s., ann a xm Uaxy, vu ykr xaa. a mna
caH nkac x car aH. UaxaH Han
nmx aka.]. nn ncnonLsyk1 kpcounme ann1e1m, nockonLky a1n a1opm
nenn nepep co6o cme kpcname 1nnm ppeanero np, 1. e. nenn 1epnn pnn
cpanennn, 1o apnp nn onn ornn aocxnu1Lcn o11nknakunn n o1kpoaenno
ypopnnamn onronn. kn o6pso, neco1pn n nnnranc1nueckne qk1opm,
kc11n, aosoxno nenpannLno nc1onkoannme [km, amxm Mrn,
nnn ack nmk, ak v vr yanur a H, v rym
Hry mu ackH aH, raamH a ckH ank. 3y
rny, kak ca, nknnn aa aHva nymcaka
yyka, kr an ak naan k anacn Hrna mn
nax, nm s Hax, cxcaH na c nnmH aH
BHH. yHnu, acaaamcu s a, aann: 3
aHva acnyxaa aHan, cn acnHu, v cHun ra
ccn k yk, a Hrnuck ac. Qyr sy naxa
c ak cnyH cnaaH. cyca Hrnuckx v akx
naxa ac a nax Baya, anacn .], specL ec1L o ue
spy1Lcn. npoue, ponyc1n, u1o n1ckne orysm 6mnn npepc1an1ennn qnncko
pcm, n aepnecn k ycynLncko anoxe, korp 1ypeukne nneen o6ocnoanncL a
epcnn n Mno snn nop psnnunmn nenn n a ne enee psnnunmx ycnoannx.
cnm eue ne cyuec1aoann, cenLpxykn, o1 ko1opmx n npepc1onno nponso1n,
yxe 6mnn cnnLno nepeeunm c ncncknn npopn. pnnum a1o nunn,
nnpnep, cepnn-exocpea a 1237 r., cao6opno xennnncL n p6cknx
xenunnx. Bonee 1oro: nockonLky 1L ppyroro cenLpxykckoro upn ceppynn 6mn
xpnc1nnko, anc1n1enn, ao acex c1pnx 6onee peanoc1no, ue npoc1o npop,
o1nocnaunecn k renenornuecko unc1o1e, nponannnn 1kyk 1epnnoc1L, oxno
npepnonoxn1L, u1o n noppnnme cnepoann nx npnepy. oc1onnnme noxopm pann
n aosoxnoc1L 6p1L p6mnL n orponmx 1eppn1opnnx, rpe onn npoxopnnn, n ne1
conenn a 1o, u1o nunnn c XIII a. ppeann orysckn pop, k ko1opoy
npnnpnexnn cenLpxykn y, 6mn upesamuno nponn1n cen1cko kpoaLk.
enno ns a1oro pop amuen cn, cmn p1orpyn n o1eu cnnpoa. okpyr ero
nn1kn cnno1nnocL coace nenoro ceec1a. ro pnn 6onLue nnonnn uky,
n ecnn nepame no1okn a1oro koueaoro oyn cyenn yaennun1L ee, 1o aoace ne
e1opo, ko1opm npk1nkoan 6p1 e: 1. e. ne no1oy, u1o onn anycknn a caon
u1pm acex, k1o xo1en 1yp ao1n.
cknonen npepnonoxn1L, u1o kpx cenLpxykcko nnepnn npnaen a nx pnpm ppyrnx
npepc1an1ene nx pcm. 1oy apeenn n c pc cnnLno nsennncL; anpoue,
conneennnkoa 6mno nepoc11ouno, 1. k. nunnn c a1oro apeenn 1ypkn c1nn
oxo1n1Lcn s p6n, u1o6m yaennun1L caok uncnennoc1L. nune XIV a. Ypkn no
coae1y nnn Lenpepenn no nposanuy epnm yupepnn nnnunk nnmup. Cnun
nx 6mno acero 1mcnu. o a upc1aoanne Mroe1 IV a pnpx nnnunn
ncun1manocL yxe copok 1mcnu conp1, nockonLky po cnx nop 1ypkn 6mnn
os6ouenm nononnenne aock 1onLko s cue1 onopmx xpnc1nn, yaopnmx ns
onLun, epnnn n 1nnn, o6puemx a ncn, 6mno no enLue epe nn1Lco1
1mcnu rna ceec1a, ko1opme a 1euenne ue1mpex c1one1n annann eaponeckyk
kpoaL a xnnm 1ypeuko nunn.
D1nnueckoe ceuenne a1n ne orpnnunanocL. nano uenLk nnp1oa, ko1opme
aenn cu16nme onepunn a 6ccene Cpepnsenoro opn, 6mno nononnenne
rpeoa, n nn opn amnrpnnn 61nnn ne o6xopnncL 6es 1oro, u1o6m ne yaennun1L
uncnennoc1L npaoaepnoro ncenennn. BonLun uc1L nnennnkoa-yxunn o1pekncL
o1 caoe aepm, n nocne a1oro onn cun1nncL 1ypkn. 31e no6epn1enn s6npnn
xenunn, ko1opmx ornn yaec1n c co6o. c1o po6mu oksmancL nc1onLko
6onLuo, u1o ee nekyp 6mno pea1L: cnyunocL, u1o cyk kpcnayk peayuky
ennnn n opnn cnor. cnn acnonn1L xopouo nsaec1nyk unqpy 1ypeukoro
ncenennn, kk a snn, 1k n a apone, ko1opoe nnkorp ne npeamuno 12
nnnnonoa, oxno c yaepennoc1Lk cks1L, u1o aonpoc o noc1onnc1ae pcoaoro 1nn
ne nee1 nnkkoro o1nouennn - a cmcne pryen1oa s nnn npo1na - k
nc1opnn 1koro ceunnoro npop, kk 1ypkn. D1 nc1nn nc1onLko oueanpn, u1o
neko1opoe cxopc1ao, o1eueoe expy ocnnpn n npepc1an1ennn xen1o pcm,
ne cansno c npnm qnnnknckn nponcxoxpenne: peno a 1o, u1o uyxepopnm
aneen1 o6Lncnne1cn annnnne ppyro kpoan, noc1ynnaue, 1k cks1L, ns a1opmx
pyk - o1 cnann nnn 11p. o1 u1o n xo1en cks1L kc1enLno a1nonornn 1ypok-
o11on. enepL nepexopn k pLnp.
ouk spennn ynn1pnc1oa ocnoan n cnepykue pccyxpennn: MpLnpm cansnm
nponcxoxpenne c qnnnn, popc1aennnkn nonpe, coepoa, acknocoa - nkpe
nnskoro poc1 n c unpoknn nnun n amc1ynkunn ckynn, c xen1oa1o nnn
rpnsno-cyrno koxe. pnko pLnpm nek1 6onee kpynnoe n c1ponoe cnoxenne,
pnnnnme, rn6kne n cnnLnme pykn n norn, uep1m nnu, nnonnkune npepc1an1ene
6enmx pc n aecL kpcname. Onnnm acerp 6mnn cn6me, s6n1me, yrne1ennme.
MpLnpm snnk1 noue1noe ec1o cpepn saoea1ene. nn nenn p6oa, no cn
p6n ne 6mnn, cnepoa1enLno... ecnn pLnpm cy1L qnnnm, ecnn onn n a
qnsnuecko n opnLno o1nouennn nc1onLko o1nnuk1cn o1 oc1nLnmx ae1ae nx
o6unx npepkoa, npnunn sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o onn ouenL cnnLno nsennnncL
[ak kamaa cvck nnrvck akm, arckan au
ncaann c aau Hr caaackr cana, c
canar kamH caH c ynmH cnamH cnkaH ankH
nannaaH (3nrn, n ayka acax, 3yrck ack,
knu 1848 r.).].
k 6m 1o nn 6mno, ecnn 6m 1koe nsenenne neno ec1o, ero 6mno 6m neaosoxno
o6Lncnn1L pxe ynn1pnc1, pxe npepnonrn neo6mknoaennyk o6nnLnoc1L
pnnoro 1nn, no1oy u1o e1opqos ponxn 6mn nponso1n expy konuo IX a. n
nue anoxo, 1. e. a 1euenne acero nnuL 800 ne1; expy 1e xopouo nsaec1no, u1o
s a1o1 nepnop nun conneennnkn nesnun1enLno ceunncL c npopn, cpepn
ko1opmx onn xnay1. cuc1Lk pnn sppaoro cmcn, ne1 ocnoann ypnann1Lcn
a1oy, 1. k. pryen1, ko1opm n co6npkcL onpoaeprny1L, 6ypyun nsnunm, nopouen
no caoe cy1n: aenrpm ne nek1 nnuero o6uero c qnnnn.
opno c11Le Xepnpo ps6nn nronoay 1eopnn Lne1uep n ero c1oponnnkoa n,
ncnonLsyn cme o6ocnoannme cyxpennn, snc1aoannme y rpeuecknx n p6cknx
nc1opnkoa, nenne aenrepcknx yuenmx, nop1aepxpennme qk1m n p1m, yc1ouname
nepep nnuo nk6o kpn1nkn, nkoneu, qnnonornueckne qk1m n canpe1enLc1a,
poksn popc1ao cnkynoa c rynnn n nepaopopnyk npen1nunoc1L 1pncnnLanckoro
nneenn c nocnepnnn saoea1ennn nnonnn. 1k, aenrpm - a1o rynnm.
3pecL m, 6es conennn, c1onknecn c noam aospxenne. ckxy1, u1o ns a1oro
am1eke1 neckonLko nnoe popc1ao pLnp, opnko o1 a1oro ne enee 6nnskoe, c
xen1o pco. o a1o oun6k. cnn nsanne rynnoa ec1L nn npopnoc1n, a1o 1kxe
ec1L co6np1enLnoe nn c nc1opnuecko 1oukn spennn, ko1opoe ne o6osnue1
opnopopnyk coaokynnoc1L. 1onne nneen, ac1aunx nop snn npepkoa 11nnm,
cpepn npounx psnnunn rpynnm nnn ukn, nsmaeme 6enmn rynnn, a
ko1opmx npeo6npn repnckn aneen1 [va, v nu nc
ncHu vky n aax anu . rn yx
nun au, v kau xnmx aa a n cn
nHmanacu c kau nmx aa; a nmnH sH
ramaancu, nx arnnm na Hu. nkca yHnu a
s can, Hn a ay kra-kaaxa, ynHaHmx MaH
BackH caH rH, cnan vu aax
aHva: kra nam sx aaa ra krck anx,
na kckH karaH QyynH ncnaky 3Haxy, kr a
569 r. naan Hna Kca II, H a ay aymky-Hcky.
Qn a H, v acn v nca ykx mx kacaa, ak
acxaannHmx ncaH Hamx vr r c HrnuckH nH.].
o npape roaopn, kon1k1 c xen1okoxnn rpynnn nsennn kpoaL, 1. e. on
y1p1nn caok npexnkk unc1o1y: nenno o6 a1o kpcnopeunao canpe1enLc1aye1
ckync1oe nnuo pLnp. x nsmk ouenL 6nnsok 1kpkckn pnnek1, cnepoa1enLno,
pLnpm cy1L 6enme rynnm, a1 npopnoc1L, ns ko1opo necnpaepnnao cpennn
xen1okoxyk pcy, nockonLky on a cnny po6poaonLnmx nnn amnyxpennmx 6pkoa
ceuncL c a1o pco, coc1on1 ns e1ncoa c repncko ocnoao. smk nee1 kopnn
n cnoapnm snc, o1nnukunecn o1 nx npeo6npkuero aneen1, 1ouno 1k xe,
kk a1o nee1 ec1o a cnyue xen1mx cknqoa, ko1opme roaopnnn n pncko
pnnek1e, n cknpnnacknx nneen, ko1opme cnyc1n neckonLko ne1 anpmuec1a
npnnnnn kenL1cko-n1nnckn pnnek1 nokopennmx nn npopoa. nu1o ne pe1
ocnoannn npepnonr1L, u1o apen, aospec1ane knn1 n nsenenne o6muea
ornn npeap1n1L nnonu, nnn oc1nk, nnn 1ynryc, nnn nepnk a nuero
coo1euec1aennnk. cnepc1ane cn6oc1n pryen1oa, ampanremx ynn1pnc1n, n
npnxoxy k amaopy, u1o noc1onnc1ao 1nnoa any1pn pc ne nopnexn1 nnkkoy
conennk, n nnkkne nsenennn cpepm, kknn 6m rny6oknn n neo6p1nmn onn
nn 6mnn, ne a coc1onnnn nokone61L a1o noc1onnc1ao po 1ex nop, nok ne nponsope1
ceuennn opno ae1an uenoaeueckoro pepea c ppyro.
kn o6pso, u1o 6m nn roaopnnn o epnnc1aennoc1n nnn noxec1aennoc1n npnunn
nonanennn n sene pop uenoaeueckoro, psnnunme rpynnm ceropnn coaepuenno
pspenenm, nockonLky nnkkne aneunne cnnm ne ory1 coepnnn1L nx aec1e,
npnaec1n k nx ccnnnnunn.
1k, nmneunne pcm npepc1annk1 co6o psnnunme ae1an opnoro nnn neckonLknx
nepaopopnmx n yxe y1epnnnmx c1aonoa, pxe cme o6une uep1m ko1opmx n sn1L
ne pno. D1n pcm, o1nnukunecn ppyr o1 ppyr aneunnn qopn n nponopunnn
1en, c1poenne uepen, any1penne konc1n1yune, nnnune nnn pcnpepenenne
aonocnnoro nokpoa, uae1o koxn n 1. p., ory1 y1p1n1L caon rnanme npnsnkn
1onLko a pesynL11e ckpeunannn.
D1oro noc1onnc1a popoamx npnsnkoa anonne poc11ouno pnn 1oro, u1o6m o6ecneun1L
rny6okoe necxopc1ao n nepaenc1ao, u1o6m npnp1L n cnny ec1ec1aennmx skonoa n
npnenn1L k qnsnonornuecko konc1n1yunn npopoa 1e xe psnnunn, ko1opme nosxe
m yanpn a nx npac1aenno-opnLno xpk1epe.
nk1o ne c1ne1 o1pnu1L, u1o a1o1 cepLesneun n cnoxneun aonpoc oky1n
1nnc1aennm pko, ko1opm ckpmae1 npnunnm - kk qnsnueckne, 1k n
ne1epnnLnme. eko1opme npnunnm, ncxopnune ns o6nc1n 6oxec1aennoro,
npncy1c1ane ko1opmx uyac1aye1 nu po6kn y, ne nekun nnkkoro nonn1nn o6 nx
npnpope, nex1 a co rny6nne pk, oky1makuero pnnm aonpoc, n anonne
aepon1no, u1o panxyune cnnm, uepes ko1opme m nm1ecn n1n knku k 1ne,
nannk1 co6o acero nnuL nnc1pyen1m, any1pennne npyxnnm kkoro-1o aennkoro
pec1a. pnunnm xe acex aeue, acex panxenn, acex co6m1n n qk1oa - a1o
aoace ne 6eckoneuno nme cnnm, kk o6 a1o uc1o uy1n1, no, nnpo1na, onn
nc1onLko ounm, nc1onLko aennkn no cpanennk c nue cn6oc1Lk, u1o m oxe
1onLko porpma1Lcn o nnx.
enoaek npnuen a a1o1 np nepano. eonornn, pykoaopc1ayncL a ocnoano
nnpyk1nanmn e1opn, canpe1enLc1aye1 o ero o1cy1c1ann ao acex npepmpyunx
qopunnx senoro up; ne nxopn1 on uenoaek n cpepn nckonemx oc11koa
npounmx anox. orp nun npepkn anepame nonannncL n yxe noc1peaue sene.
Bor, kk cksno a Canuennmx nnrx, noaepn n, u1o onn 6ypy1 anpe1L ek n u1o
ace 6ype1 n nopanc1no. D1o o6eunne anpmuec1a o1nocnnocL ckopee ne k nepam
nkpn, k nx no1oc1ay, nockonLky cme nepame cospnnn nenn a caoe
pcnopnxennn ouenL no cpepc1a - n ne 1onLko pnn 1oro, u1o6m anc1aoa1L np
npnpopo, no pxe conpo1nann1Lcn cm cn6m ee cnn. npounme apeen nop
aqnpnm ne6o ns seno n aopno rny6n amxopnnn cyuec1a, 6onee anyun1enLnme,
nexenn uenoaek. syee1cn, 6onLun uc1L rnrn1oa ncuesn a pesynL11e c1punmx
no1pncenn, korp neoprnnueckn np poksn caok ouL, nnkk ne cpannyk c
cnno xnao npnpopm. pnko kkoe-1o uncno a1nx onc1poa eue npoponxno
cyuec1aoa1L. Cnonm n nocoporn c1pn 6popnnn n acex unpo1x, pxe c1opon1
oc1ann cnepm caoero npe6mannn a 1ppnunnx epnkncknx 6opnrenoa.
D1nx npnnospnnaunxcn uypoanu 6mno poc11ouno - 6onee, ue poc11ouno, - u1o6m
anyun1L nepam npepc1an1enn uenoaeuec1a, npnpy c 6onsnLk n ouyuenne
caoe cn6oc1n, poaonLno 1pesame conennn o1nocn1enLno caoero aceanc1nn.
cnpna1L anc1L npnxopnnocL ne 1onLko y saepe. kpne cnyue, c nnn oxno
6mno cpx1Lcn, ncnonLsoa1L npo1na nnx xn1poc1L s nenenne cnnm n oxno 6mno
ne no6exp1L, no xo1n 6m ns6er1L c nnn ac1peun nnn y6er1L o1 nnx. Coace nnoe
peno - a1 neo6Ln1nn npnpop, ko1opn co acex c1opon okpyxn nno1nm konLuo
nepao6m1nme rpynnm nkpe n kpcnopeunao nnonnn n o caoe nenokone6no
aceanc1nn. poponxnn pec1aoa1L, xo1n n ne a 1o epe, u1o pnLue, kocnueckne
npnunnm, s cue1 ko1opmx cnepye1 o1nec1n ppeanne no1pncennn. Bonee nnn enee
cnnLnme k1knnsm ace eue npyunn 1onorpqnk, nsennn asnnoe nonoxenne
cyun n oken. o n peno nopnnnncL opn n nornounn o6unpnme npoc1pnc1a, 1o
n peno ns opcknx rny6nn nsaeprnncL aynknm, am1nknan n noaepxnoc1L ropm,
ko1opme s1e coepnnnnncL c kon1nnen1n. Mnp ace eue nxopnncn a c1pnn
p6o1m, n snenn1oe opouo!, nponsnecennoe eroao, ne y1nxonpnno ero.
1ko cn1yunn o1cy1c1ane o6uero panoaecnn ne orno ne o1psn1Lcn n
1ocqepnmx ycnoannx. Xec1okn 6opL6 expy sene, aopo n orne npnaopnn k
peskn n neoxnpnnm kone6nnn anxnoc1n, scyxe, xonopy, xpe, ampenennn
ns nepp eue 1peneuyue o1 no1pncenn senn oksmann cypoaoe aospec1ane n
ace xnaoe. ce a1n npnunnm, no1pncaune np n aaeprkune ero a c1ppnnn n
k1c1poqm, ycnnnann panenne npnpopm n uenoaek, n annnnne cpepm n knn1
pnn nunx npepkoa 6mno nnoro cnnLnee, ue ceropnn. caoe knnre ccyxpennn
o peaonkunonnmx 1pncqopunnx senoro up kaLe y1aepxpe1, u1o nmneunee
coc1onnne neoprnnuecknx cnn nnkon o6pso ne orno 6m npnaec1n k nopsenm
konaynLcnn, 6nnskn no cu16y 1e, ko1opme nenn ec1o a pneko npouno.
D1 o6neuennn yxcnm oryuec1ao npnpop orn n n uenoaeueckn pop
oksma1L 1koe xe annnnne, kkoe on nen n oc1nLno np, no ace a1o oc1nocL
a npouno. e aceoryuec1ao nc1onLko ocn6no, u1o s ponryk uepepy ne1, panyk
npnepno nonoanne nepnop xnsnn uenoaeuec1a n sene, on ne nponsaen 1knx
1pncqopun, conoc1anmx c 1en, u1o nacerp pspennnn uenoaeueckne pcm
[au. accyxn anmx acHanx Hr maa.
a H aa yHnua. snxy, nmcayy nnan
vnavck acm, aca Hmx a ay ynaycn
Hy ky, nx mn Hu Hnayy aHcm naau
Hn a cy an c ycnanH, nkH k mmH nvckH,
ncn r, kak a cv cnvr nyvn xnaxn nnx
am nnam cnu anur na (cna) avan nv
cknvnu nnnu knHa a amx max. H a
cvck aHa ynyr nk, n aynkavck cnm Hmx
, n Hm, vH crn, amaancu ayxy v kcny
aamy ky nnam (anuan n, H I, c. 47).].
[a oen1 ne oc1annk1 nnkknx conenn- ocnoanme psnnunn, ko1opme
pspennk1 ae1an uenoaeuec1a, cqopnpoanncL a nepao nonoanne nepnop nue
xnsnn n sene; n u1o6m onpepenn1L apen, korp a a1o nepao nonoanne nonannncL
ynonny1me qnsnonornueckne psnnunn, cnepye1 aepny1Lcn a anoxn, korp annnnne
aneunnx qk1opoa 6mno 6onee k1nanm, ue npn nmneune coc1onnnn senoro
up. 1ko anoxo orn 6m1L nnuL 1, a ko1opyk nenocpepc1aenno nponcxopnno
1aopenne; on eue ne o1oun o1 nocnepnnx k1c1poq, a ne eue ouyunncL nx
yxcnme nocnepc1ann.
cxopn ns pok1pnnm ynn1pnc1oa, neaosoxno p1npoa1L pspenenne 1nnoa 6onee
nospnn nepnopo.
enLsn nsaneuL amropy ns cnyunmx o1knonenn, ko1opme nopo n6nkpk1cn y
neko1opmx nnpnanpoa n ko1opme, 6ypyun noc1onnnmn n uc1mn, 6es conennn,
ornn 6m npnaec1n k nonanennk psnoanpnoc1e, poc1onmx nuero annnnn.
ono 1knx qenoenoa, kk nnnune rop6, 6mnn o6npyxenm n ppyrne
nk6onm1nme qk1m, ko1opme n nepam asrnnp cnoco6nm o6Lncnn1L psnoo6psne
pc. npnep, pnupp, nsnrn canpe1enLc1ao Bekep, pccksmae1 o6 opno
uenoaeke, uLe 1eno, s ncknkuenne nnu, 6mno nokpm1o nekn nopo6ne nnunpn
1enoro uae1, nnonnkuero ryc1o n xec1kn aonocnno nokpoa -
neuyac1an1enLnm, koc1nc1m n ne ampennaun kpoan npn yknmannn.
onpepenennoe apen a1 c1pnnn o6onouk, poc1nrnya 1onunnm 1pn ue1aep1n pk,
o1npn, n n ceny e nonannncL noan. 1 a1oro yxunnm popnnocL ue1aepo
cmnoae, noxoxnx n o1u. mxnn 1onLko opnn; no Bekep, ko1opm anpen ero, korp
1o1 6mn eue pe6enko, ne sne1, poxnn nn on po spenoro aospc1. Bekep npnxopn1
k sknkuennk, u1o nockonLky o1eu nopopnn 1knx o1npmckoa, orn 6m
cqopnpoa1Lcn oco6n ceLn, ko1opn 6m coxpnnn a1o1 cneunqnueckn 1nn, n u1o
nosxe, no npouec1ann apeenn nocne s6aennn konkpe1nmx pe1ne, a1y
psnoanpnoc1L nkpe ornn 6m cun11L nocn1ennn cneunqnuecknx npnsnkoa
uenoaeuecko pcm.
koe sknkuenne ponyc1no. onLko nnpnanpm, c1onL o1nnunme o1 uenoaeuecko
nopopm, ac1peuk1cn pepko. x no1oc1ao aknkue1cn a o6un nopnpok aeue, nnn
uenouk o6pmae1cn a co ckopo apeenn. ce, u1o o1knonne1cn o1 ec1ec1aennoro
n nopnLnoro nopnpk, cnoco6no nnuL snc1aoa1L xnsnL, no coxpnn1L ee ne
oxe1. cnn 6m a1o 6mno ne 1k, cme neaepon1nme cnyun panm-pano nsennnn
6m ocnoanme qnsnonornueckne ycnoann cyuec1aoannn uenoaeuec1a. Cnepye1
o1e1n1L, ncxopn ns a1nx n6nkpenn, u1o opnn ns axneunx konc1n1y1nanmx
ycnoan 1knx nonn nanne1cn nx npexopnun xpk1ep, noa1oy a 1kne
k1eropnn nenLsn aknku1L ueaenkpy nerp, ero uepnyk koxy, xen1m uae1 kn1u,
ero unpokoe nnuo n pckocme rns. ce a1o noc1onnnme npnsnkn, a ko1opmx ne1
nnuero nonLnoro n ko1opme, cnepoa1enLno, ne cansnm co cnyunm
o1knonenne.
1enepL nopaepe n1or amuensnoxennoy.
epep nnuo 1pypnoc1e coro pcnpoc1pnennoro 1onkoannn 6n6neckoro 1ekc1,
n aospxenn, o6ycnoanennmx skono, ko1opm perynnpye1 nonanenne rn6pnpoa,
neaosoxno k1eropnueckn o6pso y1aepxp1L noxec1aennoc1L nponcxoxpennn
nk6oro pop, a 1o uncne uenoaeuec1a.
oa1oy orpnnuncn o6Lncnenne any1pennnx, 1. e. rny6nnnmx, npnunn 1en npko
ampxennmn psnnunnn, noc1onnc1ao ko1opmx, neconenno, npepc1anne1 co6o
rnaenc1aykun xpk1ep, npnue a1o noc1onnc1ao ne y1punae1cn n npn
ckpeunannn. D1n npnunnm oxno n1n a knn1nuecko aneprnn, ko1opo
o6npe1 nu senn, no kpne epe, c 1ex nop, kk n ne nonannncL nkpn. e1
conennn a 1o, u1o a 1y anoxy neoprnnueckn npnpop 6mn nnoro
oryuec1aennee, ue korp-nn6o nosxe, a pesynL11e uero ornn nponso1n
a1nnueckne nsenennn, c1aune neo6p1nmn. osoxno 1kxe, u1o cyuec1a,
nopaeprunecn a pneko ppeanoc1n a1oy yc1pukuey aospec1ank,
npncnoc6nnanncL k ney ropspo nyuue, ue a1o ornn 6m cpen1L nmneunne 1nnm.
onLko u1o nonanauncn uenoaek nen eue neyc1ouname qopm n, aosoxno, ne
npnnpnexn 1k nano nn k 6eno, nn k uepno, nn k xen1o pc. 1ko cnyue
o1knonennn, ko1opme caenn nepaopopnme npnsnkn nuero pop k n6nkpem
nmne psnoanpnoc1n, nenn ne 6onLue npeo6psykunx aosoxnoc1e, ue nx
nee1, ckxe, uepnn pc, u1o6m npeap1n1Lcn a 6enyk, nnn xen1n, u1o6m cnn1Lcn
c uepno. cxopn ns a1oro npepnonoxennn, p ponxen 6mn 6m1L opnnkoao noxox
n ace ceropnnunne uenoaeueckne 1nnm nnn rpynnm - onn qopnpoanncL aokpyr
nero n ypnnnncL ppyr o1 ppyr n pcc1onnne, apaoe 6onLuee, nexenn 1o, u1o
o1pennno ero o1 kxpo ns a1nx rpynn. k u1o xe 1orp coxpnnnn npepc1an1enn
psnmx pc o1 nepao6m1noro 1nn? onLko cme o6une npnsnkn, coc1annkune n
o6Lepnnnkune uenoaeueckn pop: neko1opoe cxopc1ao aneunnx qop, o6unx y
cmx pneknx ppyr o1 ppyr rpynn, n aosoxnoc1L ampx1L caon mcnn
nocpepc1ao p1nkynnpoannmx saykoa, no nnuero 6onLue. 1o xe kce1cn cmx
cneunqnuecknx npnsnkoa 1oro nepaoro 1nn, m nx y1p1nnn - kk uepnme npopm,
1k n npopm c ppyrn uae1o koxn. o1n ace m nponsounn o1 opnoro pnekoro
npepk, a pesynL11e psnoro pop o6c1on1enLc1a m nonyunnn 1o, u1o c 1ex cmx
nop coc1anne1 nuy co6c1aennyk nenoa1opnyk npnpopy. 1k, 6ypyun no1okn
opnoapeenno n nepaopopno poao ae1an n kocoronnuecko cpepm,
uenoaeueckne pcm nek1 expy co6o ouenL no o6uero. pap, epnnc1aennm
nop1aepxpenne pnekoro popc1a oxno nsa1L aosoxnoc1L nopoxp1L
nnopoan1mx rn6pnpoa - n 1onLko. nnuero 6onLue. 1o coe apen, korp psnme
ycnoann cpepm onpepennnn kxpo rpynne cao noc1onnnm xpk1ep, caon
noc1onnnme aneunne qopm n uep1m, a 1o uncne uae1 koxn, a1n xe ycnoann
okonu1enLno psopann ace ysm nepanunoro epnnc1a, ko1opoe c 1ex nop nnkk ne
annne1 n a1nnueckoe psan1ne. kn o6pso, k1eropnueckoe noc1onnc1ao
npnsnkoa n qop, nop1aepxpeoe n rpn1npyeoe cmn ppeannn
nc1opnuecknn pokyen1n, cnyxn1 neu1Lk nsaeunoro pspenennn uenoaeuecknx
pc.
XII
Kk u qrk m, kk
mn. H
u u ku.
Cnepye1 okonu1enLno pso6p1Lcn c aonpoco kocoronnueckoro annnnnn, nockonLky
a pnno knnre n 6ypy nonLsoa1Lcn cansnnmn c nn pryen1n. une c
nepaoro conennn, ko1opoe nop pccen1L: kkn o6pso nkpn, xnayune a opno
ec1e no npnunne o6uero nponcxoxpennn, ornn nopaepr1Lcn coaepuenno
psnnunm qnsnueckn aospec1ann? [onyc1n, korp nunn nponann1Lcn
psnnunn expy pcn, nx o6unnm 6mnn poc11ouno norouncnennm, u1o6m
pcnpoc1pnn1Lcn a ec1 c nnm knn1o, no kk cnyunnocL, u1o, npeoponean
orponme 1pypnoc1n, nnpnep, nenpoxopnme nec n 6ono1, necunme nyc1mnn nnn
cnexnme pannnm, pekn, osep n opn, onn ornn coaepu1L ny1euec1ann, ko1opme
apnp nn no nneuy unannnsoannoy uenoaeky co ace ero ouLk? 1o6m o1ae1n1L n
nopo6nme aonpocm, pcco1pn, kknn ornn 6m1L nepame c1onnkn nunx pneknx
npepkoa.
ue a pneko npouno norne yuenme, nosxe 1kne cepLesnme nccnepoa1enn,
kk Xopx kaLe, npnunn k amaopy, u1o pnn neko1opmx pc o1npano 1ouko
ponxnm 6mnn cnyxn1L ropnme cnc1em. k, 6enme nkpn, 1kxe neko1opme
qpnknckne nneen, neaune 6nnskoe n 1enocnoxenne, oueanpno xnnn
nepaonunLno n akse. Xen1n pc ckopee acero cnyc1nncL co cnexnmx o1poroa
n1n. caok ouepepL, nerpm, o1nocnunecn k nporn1nueckoy 1nny, c1ponnn nepame
xnxnnm n kxnmx cknonx 1nccknx rop, o11yp onn n nrpnpoann; 1kn o6pso,
a c1popanne apeen nn6onee o6xn1mn 6mnn nenno 1kne 1pypnopoc1ynnme
ponm, rpe a 1nnc1aenno 1Le ac1peunncL 6ypnme pekn, neuepm, aeunme cner,
nenpoxopnme yuenLn, s1o coe c1punoe n nensaec1noe pnn nunx npo1uoa
1nnocL n o1kpm1mx pannnx, no 6eper pek, osep n ope.
k ne kxe1cn, ppeanne qnnocoqm ampannynn 1kyk 1eopnk, nmneunne yuenme
nopxa1nnn ee a nepayk ouepepL no1oy, u1o pnn amxnannn a nepnopm aennknx npn
popnmx k1c1poq nkpn ponxnm 6mnn 1nny1Lcn k aepunn, rpe nx ne ornn poc11L
naopnennn. pnko a1o pcunpennoe 1onkoanne ckxe1 o rope pp1, aosoxno,
npnennoe k anox, cnepykun s nepao6m1nmn apeenn, 1. e. k anox, korp
6onLun uc1L senoro up 6mn yxe scenen, coaepuenno ne nopxopn1 pnn 1oro
nepnop, korp uenoaeuec1ao ponxno 6mno nonan1Lcn a o1nocn1enLno cnokonmx
npnpopnmx ycnoannx, n se1n kc11n, u1o yksnnoe 1onkoanne npo1naopeun1
npee o epnnc1ae uenoaeueckoro pop. poe 1oro, ropm acerp, c cmx nesnn1nmx
apeen, anyunn rny6okn c1px n cyeaepnoe noknonenne. enno a ropx
npe6mann nqonornueckne 6orn. Co6pnnn rpeuecknx n 6pxncknx 6oroa
nponcxopnnn n nokpm1o aeunmn 1ynn aepunne nnn n n rope Mepy; n
aepunne aks poe1e c1ppn o1 1nnc1aennoro nksnnn s eue 6onee
1nnc1aennoe npec1ynnenne; ecnn 6m nkpn c coro nun o6n1nn a 1knx
amcokoropnmx y6exnux, apnp nn aoo6pxenne aosnecno 6m nx po coro ne6.
pypno o6oxec1ann1L 1o, u1o am anpenn, xopouo ysnnn n nonnpnn norn; pnn
ropnmx xn1ene o6n1enL 6oxec1aennmx cyuec1a nxopnncL 6m a rny6n aop n n
pannnx. Cnepoa1enLno, n cknonnkcL k npo1naononoxno mcnn - n nonrk, u1o
canpe1ennn nepamx uroa uenoaek 6mnn o1kpm1me n poanme ec1. npoue, o6
a1o roaopn1cn n a Bn6nnn; 1enepL, korp m yc1noannn nepaoe ec1o npe6mannn
uenoaek, aonpoc o nrpunn peue1cn nnoro npoue, no1oy u1o poanme yuc1kn
ec1noc1n, o6muno nepecekeme pekn, amxopn1 k opk, n 6onLue ne c1on1 no1L
ronoay np 1e, kk npepkn npeoponeann nec, nyc1mnn n 6ono1.
c1L pa anp nrpunn nnn nepecenennn: po6poaonLnn n amnyxpennn. epam
cnyu ne nee1 nnkkoro o1nouennn k nepnopy, o ko1opo npe1 peuL a nnre Bm1nn.
1opo 6onee nopxopn1 pnn pnkpe - neoc1opoxnmx, nenoaknx n neonm1nmx, -
nexenn pnn psan1mx npopoa. [oc11ouno opno ceLn, yec1nauecn n nno1y -
neckonLko necuc1nmx, sc1nrny1mx opcko c1nxne, uennnkunxcn s c1aonm
pepeaLea n nopxauennmx 1euenne, - u1o6m roaopn1L o pneko nepecenennn. e
cn6ee uenoaek, 1e uue on cnyxn1 nrpyuko neoprnnuecknx cnn. e enLue y
nero onm1, 1e 6onLue on nopunnne1cn cnyuk, ko1oporo on ne oxe1 nn
npepanpe1L, nn ns6ex1L. saec1nm nou1n neaepon1nme npnepm 1oro, kk
npepc1an1enn nuero pop ny1euec1aoann, nono caoe aonn, n 6onLune
pcc1onnnn. npnep, a 1696 r. pae nnporn c 1pen pecn1kn pnkpe nneenn
nkopco - yxunn n xenunn - 6mnn sc1nrny1m nenoropo n nocne ponroro ppeq
oksnncL n opno ns Onnnnnnncknx oc1poaoa, Cne, o1c1onue n 1pn co1nn nLe
o1 ec1, o1kyp onn o1npannncL a nnanne. [pyro npnep: ue1aepo nkpe ns
nneenn yne, nxopnaunxcn a nopke, 6mnn nopxauenm 6ype, a 1euenne aocLn
ecnuea ckn1nncL no opk, n nkoneu nx npn6nno k oc1poay pk n aoc1ouno
okoneunoc1n ponnnckoro pxnnenr; onn coaepunnn amnyxpennoe ny1euec1ane
pnnno a 550 nLe. ecuc1nme nn1nncL ncknkun1enLno pm6o n nnnn 6epexno
co6npeme knnn poxpn. orp poxpe ne 6mno, onn nmpnnn a rny6nny n nnnn
opckyk aopy, ko1opn, kk roaopn1, 1 enee conenn. oneuno, no npn6m1nn n
pk ny1euec1aennnkn nxopnnncL a nnueano coc1onnnn, opnko onn 6mc1po
npnunn a ce6n.
[ayx a1nx npnepoa poc11ouno, u1o6m corncn1Lcn c aosoxnoc1Lk 6mc1poro
nepecenennn neko1opmx rpynn a ec1 c coaepuenno ppyrnn knn1nuecknn
ycnoannn. pnko ecnn nyxnm eue poks1enLc1a, oxno yks1L n nerkoc1L, c
kko ncekome, nnunpnme, pc1ennn pcnpoc1pnnk1cn noackpy, n ne1 nyxpm
poksma1L, u1o pnn nnx a1o 6onee cnoxnn spu, ue pnn uenoaek [yHnu
cva sy rny nHH nn ac. , v aH ac
naryH aca, k Hckan aa a nnx 500600 nu
kamaa a nnacu numcaa cHn, ra a nnuy
cnmkH ccHm Hra ac a cv nnarvckx
v (vck arnn a c rra ar ka,
. II, c. 78).]. 3enoaopnme nnunpnme nonpk1 a ope a pesynL11e pspyuennn
ckn, s1e 1euenne amnocn1 nx n pnekne o1enn. 3ooqn1m, npnkpennennme k
pkoanne onnkckoa nnn c6pocnaune caon noukn a oken, pneko ynocn1cn ae1po n
qopnpyk1 kononnn; n 1e xe cme pepeaLn nensaec1nmx anpoa, 1e xe cme psnme
c1on6m, ko1opme a XV c1one1nn pyxnynn n 6eperx npcknx oc1poaoa n cnyxnnn
nnue pnn psmunenn pnc1oqop ony6, cnoco6c1aoann o1kpm1nk noaoro
np n, aosoxno, necnn n caoe noaepxnoc1n nu ncekomx, ko1opme pann
no1oc1ao pneko o1 ec1 caoero poxpennn, o1 popno senn.
kn o6pso, nepame uenoaeueckne o6unnm 6es 1pyp ornn npnamkny1L k nk6oy
knn1y, k nk6oy ec1y npoxnannn. c11n, a nue apen, npn nmneune
coc1onnnn senoro up, aoace ne pcc1onnne onpepenne1 psnnuy a knn1e, a
uc1noc1n, u1o kce1cn 1enep1ypm. e roaopn yxe o ropnmx ponx, nnpnep,
Laeupnn, rpe a npepenx opnoro-payx nLe 1ocqepnme n nouaennme ycnoann
psnn1cn nc1onLko, u1o a neko1opmx ec1x oxno ac1pe1n1L ceuenne nnnnpcko
qnopm n pc1n1enLnoc1n, xpk1epno pnn Kxno 1nnn; 1o xe coe oxno
cks1L o6 son-Mppe, rpe n 6epery osep Mxop, nop o1kpm1m ne6o, pc1y1
nenLcnnoame pepeaLn, 6onLune kk1ycm n kpnnkoame nnLm, ko1opme anpnm c
nuero snpnoro no6epexLn, xo1n ace nsaec1no, nckonLko knn1 opnpnn
6onee cypoam, ue n oc1poae [xepcn. cnn asn1L a1o1 ne6onLuo 1peyronLnnk n
6c1prnpoa1Lcn o1 ccmnok n oporpqnk, snpnm 6eper Opnunn nanne1 co6o
ypnan1enLnm kon1pc1 c 1oukn spennn psnoo6psnn pc1n1enLnoc1n [nkca
yHnu akH cnaaH nara cyu sr anca ca
knHanr cnyxa vm an aaHc naxc
ka. B sx rncHvckx a nn cym nmncu m
1ncu acaH yrx nv, km a Hmx aax, r
nu nv nan naxcu kaa, ann a kay H
(. . a n aka n Hnaym) (anuan n, .
III, c. 23) aan aHa a Hxca aka, annx a
Hnayy a rravck vk, ank nck yvm
na vann k Hmcn H, v a acnnxmx nk yr k yry
Hcax aacH Hk cym aycn vu am
knHavck ycnan. ak, a na, a ca-acv vac a
ry nkaka, cu Hc, r a nv kyxa Hcc
naca H, ak x ckmm, kak a yran, nvH s
Hc axcn a m rcra a ycc. 3H cu maa
vu cnam Hm, ak nr nna cav, vm
amaaau ara. Bna num a a 4ackx caax
nkmaacn H nuH cHn a , v caa acnnaracn a 62
m. rn, a rax Qama H, nnckan kaHnn . n.
nrk ncn Hy.].
kknn ponxnm 6mnn 6m1L kon1pc1m n orpnnuenno npoc1pnc1ae a 1e xy1kne
apeen, n ko1opme npnxopn1cn poxpenne uenoaeuec1a! ne6onLuo 1eppn1opnn
psmrpmanncL aennkne 1ocqepnme peaonkunn, korp ope o1c1ynno nnn,
nnpo1na, nc1ynno; korp s1onnnno nnn, no6opo1, nccyuno cocepnne senn,
korp ropm nopnnnncL - anesnno, 6ecnopnpouno rpoospncL orponmn ccn,
- nnn xe onycknncL po ypoann okpec1no cyun; korp, nkoneu, 6ypnme kone6nnn
seno ocn n, cnepoa1enLno, o6uero panoaecnn nnne1m, 1. e. nsenennn
nonoxennn nonkcoa o1nocn1enLno aknnn1nkn, co1pncnn ack senyk cnc1ey.
kn o6pso, npnxopn1cn o1aepr1L ace aospxennn, o6ocnoannme 1e, u1o a
nunLnyk anoxy cyuec1aoannn np apnp nn ornn nponcxopn1L nsenennn
penLeq n 1enep1ypnoro pexn, n ec1L ace ocnoannn cun11L, u1o nepao6m1nme
uenoaeueckne ceLn ornn pccena1Lcn n 6onLune pcc1onnnn n panm o6pso
ornn co6np1Lcn aec1e n orpnnuenno 1eppn1opnn, rpe onn nopnpnn nop
annnnne ouenL norouncnennmx qk1opoa. enno 1kn ny1e ornn qopnpoa1Lcn
a1opnunme 1nnm, o1 ko1opmx nponsounn nmneunne ae1an nuero pop. 1o kce1cn
uenoaek, 1k cks1L, nepaoro nokonennn, 1 e. 6nnxuero no1ok p, y nc ne1
aosoxnoc1n cks1L u1o-nn6o poc1oaepnoe o ero cneunqnuecknx npnsnkx n
onpepenn1L, nckonLko noxoxn nnn ne noxoxn n nero npepc1an1enn kxpo ns
noamx rpynn, 1k u1o oc1an ero a nokoe. oa1oy nue nccnepoanne 6ype1
orpnnueno pcn a1opo qopunn.
knx xpk1epnmx pc n ncun1mak 1pn. 6enyk, uepnyk n xen1yk [ ca aHn
n 1nc, nvHy n aknva kackxx ka Hk a vcn
vcmx namx na. yx a kak- cn amckaan ca H
a c cv a nmyx caax. nu nccu k H
rcna 4nyca, km akx n vnavca a cam
rynnm ancky, aacky akacky. ak H kaxcn, sa
Hnrn ynaHa nn kk, n cy a naanuan.]. cnn n
ncnonLsyk 1epnnm, ocnoannme n uae1e koxn, a1o ne snun1, u1o onn
npepc1annk1cn ne ypunmn, 1k kk 1pn k1eropnn, o ko1opmx npe1 peuL, a
kuec1ae o1nnun1enLnoro npnsnk nek1 ne uae1, copepxun noro o11enkoa;
amue 6mno o1eueno, u1o cyuec1ayk1 n ppyrne 6onee axnme npnsnkn. o aec1o
1oro, u1o6m nso6pe11L noame nsannn, n u1o n apnp nn nek npao, n
npepnoun1k am6p1L a cnncke pcnpoc1pnennmx 1epnnoa 1e, ko1opme 6ypy1 ecnn
ne npenLnmn, 1o xo1n 6m enee neypunmn, ue ppyrne - nnmn cnoan n
npepnoun1k nenno a1n, poc11ouno 6eso6npnme, aec1o 1oro, u1o6m ncnonLsoa1L
nsannn, snc1aoannme ns reorpqnn nnn nc1opnn, ko1opme anecnn c1onLko
6ecnopnpk a aonpoc c no ce6e poc11ouno sny1nnm. 1k, n eue ps
nopuepknak, u1o 6enmn n nsmak nkpe, ko1opmx o6muno npnuncnnk1 k
kakscko, cen1cko pc nnn pc qe1. epnme - a1o xn1m; xen1me -
n1um, onronm, qnnnm, 11pm. D1o n ec1L 1pn unc1mx n nepaopopnmx aneen1,
ns ko1opmx coc1on1 uenoaeuec1ao. k u1o ne1 nyxpm npepnonr1L papu1L aoceL
psnoanpnoc1e, kk a1o pene1 Bnken6x, nnn ceL, kk cun1e1 pnupp: o6
aknkuk1 a caok knccnqnkunk rn6pnpoa. osoxno, nn opnn ns 1pex nepanunmx
1nnoa no caoe cyunoc1n ne npepc1anne1 co6o coaepuennoro epnnc1a. ennkne
kocoronnueckne npnunnm co1aopnnn ne 1onLko ue1ko ampxennme psnoanpnoc1n
opnoro pop - a 1o epe, a kko ocyuec1annnocL nx pec1ane, onn onpepennnn a
kxpo ns 1pex ocnoanmx psnoanpnoc1e nonanenne neckonLknx anpoa, ko1opme,
nono o6unx npnsnkoa, o6npnn cneunqnuecknn o1nnun1enLnmn
xpk1epnc1nkn. D1n apnn1m nonannncL 6es aeu1enLc1a exnns
exa1nnueckoro ckpeunannn: onn nckonno cyuec1aoann ao acex 6punmx coksx.
kn o6pso, ceropnn nnpcno nck1L nx a ceunno coaokynnoc1n, ko1opyk
nsmak1 6eno pco. ouno 1k xe neaosoxno n1n nx a xen1o pce. osoxno,
unc1m coxpnnncn ennnckn 1nn; no kpne epe, a ne oc1nocL 6onLue
nepanunoro, n ero cyuec1aoanne poksmae1 1o, u1o a o1nouennn payx ppyrnx
k1eropn uenoaeuec1a m oxe npepnonr1L, ncxopn ne ns nue nn1ynunn, no
ns canpe1enLc1a nc1opnn.
erpm npoponxnn peonc1pnpoa1L psnnunme nepanunme psnoanpnoc1n,
nnpnep, nporn1nueckn 1nn c kypuamn aonocn, nnn 1nn 1enokoxero nnpyc
ns yn n [ekn, nnn 1nn nonnnesnckoro nenrnu. Ckopee acero
psnoanpnoc1n cqopnpoanncL expy a1nn anpn s cue1 ceuennn; nenno a1n
o6Lncnnk1cn 1k nsmaeme 1pe1nunme 1nnm kk y 1enokoxnx, 1k n y 6enmx n
xen1mx.
Cyuec1aye1 aecL nn1epecnm qk1, ko1opm ceropnn cnyxn1 npexnm kpn1epne
c1enenn a1nnuecko unc1o1m nk6o nonynnunn. euL npe1 o cxopc1ae nnu, qop,
konc1n1yunn, xec1oa, ocnkn. e enLue ceunnmx coksoa a nunn, 1e 6onLue y
ee npepc1an1ene nepeuncnennmx amue npnsnkoa cxopc1a nnpo1na, ue
cnnLnee on nepeeun, 1e 6onLue a ne psnnun, u1o kce1cn aneunoc1n,
poc1, ocnkn n, nkoneu, nnpnanpynLnoc1n. D1o1 qk1 ne amsmae1 conennn n
nee1 ouenL axnme nocnepc1ann, opnko a1o eue ne ace.
epam amaop ns a1ok qk1 nee1 o1nouenne k nonnnesnu; peno a 1o, u1o
nonnnesnum - ne unc1n pc, 1. k. onn nponsounn o1 ceuennn 6enmx n xen1mx.
Cnepoa1enLno, nepenoc ace coaokynnoc1n npnsnkoa 1nn n psnnunmx ee
npepc1an1ene ne yksmae1 n unc1o1y pcm, nnuL canpe1enLc1aye1 o
cnepykue: aneen1m, 6onee nnn enee norouncnennme, ns ko1opmx coc1on1 a1
pc, nepeeunncL nc1onLko, u1o nx ko6nnunn, a konue konuoa, npeap1nncL a
neu1o opnopopnoe, nockonLky kxpm npepc1an1enL anp ne nee1 a caonx xnnx
ppyro kpoan, kpoe kpoan cocep, on nnue ne o1nnue1cn o1 nocnepnero a
qnsnuecko cmcne. ouno 1k xe, kk 6p1Ln n cec1pm uc1o noxoxn ppyr n ppyr,
u1o anonne ec1ec1aenno, 1k n ceuenne payx pc-nponsaopn1enLnnu 6mae1
nc1onLko nonnm, u1o no skony panoaecnn o6psye1cn nekn nckycc1aennm 1nn,
o6npkun npnsnkn unc1o1m, n ero neu1L nexn1 n acex poxpennmx o1 nero.
kn o6pso, 1pe1nunm 1nn, qopnpoanne ko1oporo n npocnepnn, or ouenL pno
npno6pec1n npnsnkn, ko1opme oun6ouno npnnncmann 6conk1no n nc1onue
pcoao unc1o1e, 1. e. cxopc1ao nnpnanpynLnmx xpk1epnc1nk, n a1o orno
nponso1n a 1euenne ouenL kopo1koro nepnop, 1e 6onee, u1o pae psnoanpnoc1n
opnoro 1nn o1nocn1enLno no o1nnunncL ppyr o1 ppyr. enno a cnny a1o
npnunnm cnyue1cn, u1o ecnn a ceLe o1eu ne npnnpnexn1 k nunn 1epn, pe1n
6ypy1 noxoxn nn6o n opnoro, nn6o n ppyroro popn1enn, n y nnx 6ype1 1pypno
onpepenn1L npen1nunoc1L qnsnuecknx npnsnkoa; expy 1e, ecnn o6 popn1enn
amunn ns opno nunonnLno rpynnm, a1 npen1nunoc1L 6ype1 xopouo se1n.
pexpe ue panr1Lcn pnLue, nnonn opny axnyk skonoepnoc1L:
ckpeunanne npnaopn1 ne 1onLko k cnnnnnk payx psnoanpnoc1e. no cospe1
noame npnsnkn, ko1opme c a1oro oen1 c1noan1cn axneue xpk1epnc1nko
pnnoro nopanp. pnepm n npnaepy nosxe. nok seuy cnepykuee: ne1 nyxpm
noa1opn1L cy co6o psyekuykcn nc1nny, u1o qopnpoanne a1o noao
o6unoc1n oxe1 nponso1n okonu1enLno 1onLko npn ycnoann npepapn1enLnoro
cnnnnnn qopoo6psykunx 1nnoa, 6es uero 1pe1nunn pc ne coc1on1cn.
Cnepoa1enLno, pnn a1oro 1pe6ye1cn apen, n 1e 6onLue apeenn, ue 6onLue
uncnennoc1L cnnakunxcn nun. [o 1ex nop, nok ceuenne ne 6ype1 nonnm n
nok ne yc1noan1cn cxopc1ao n qnsnonornueckn npen1nunoc1L o1penLnmx
npnsnkoa, nenLsn roaopn1L o noao nopanpe, o nonanennn cneunqnuecko o6unoc1n,
xo1n n coc1onue ns psnmx aneen1oa; 6mae1 1onLko neynopnpouennoe cnnnnne,
o6ycnoanennoe nesaepuennm cnnnnne aneen1oa, no caoe cy1n uyxpmx ppyr
ppyry.
Y nc aecL cy1noe nc1opnueckoe npepc1anenne o 1pe1nunmx pcx. Mm oxe
nnuL npepc1an1L pnnee psan1ne 6enokoxe pcm a 1o1 nepnop, ko1opm n acex
unpo1x npoponxncn ne ouenL ponro. Unannns1opckne cknonnoc1n a1o
ann1pno pcm noc1onnno nop1nknann ee k ceuennk c ppyrnn npopn. 1o
kce1cn payx ppyrnx 1nnoa - xen1okoxero n 1enokoxero, - o6 nx 1pe1nuno
nepnope ne1 nnkknx nc1opnuecknx canpe1enLc1a, nockonLky onn 6mnn pnkpnn
[ayc ynu naxa cnaanacu aka, amayr
H a m cnvck cncc anackx ac k
cHm, kra nvkaa cknvnu aa
ycamcaaar vnavckr raHa ncy
Hkcknvckx knyckyn, km aHa my cynu mn,
ama sr cnyy akcHy: cnk a, kra Hxy
snHaH ravckr nr H Hc HakcHanu aHx
cxca, x ccn nun cvau amcmH amaxH nnr
aan, nHy v vu cu nHa snHa
ca. nvH, a yrH Hc aann aH num
aa, . HakcHanu aHx aaca ccaamx vac a
cva c caHmH nnmH caH x cakync acra cnyx H
camcaa nr raHa. nnvckH cHmcn s ccn
caa, a kH naan knaccm, raaam a vky ax,
cam nvacn svck amx Hacc.].
3 1pe1nunmn pcn cnepyk1 ppyrne - nsoae nx no nnornn c
amuensnoxennm ue1aep1nunmn. nn nannk1cn nnopo coepnnennn payx kpynnmx
psnoanpnoc1e. onnnesnum kk pesynL11 ceuennn xen1oro 1nn c uepnm,
yn1m, poxpennme o1 coks 6enmx n uepnmx, - ao1 aneen1m, coc1annkune
ue1aep1nunm 1nn. e c1on1 noa1opn1L eue ps, u1o noam 1nn 6onee nnn enee
nonno o6Lepnnne1 a ce6e npnsnkn, xpk1epnme pnn acex pc paonoro
nponcxoxpennn.
ockonLky ue1aep1nunn pc 1kxe npe1epnen nsenennn a pesynL11e
aeu1enLc1a noaoro 1nn, ouenL 1pypno onpepenn1L a 1ounoc1n ee coc1anme uc1n
n knccnqnunpoa1L nx. epanunme npnsnkn, nnn aneen1m, aouepune a
nonyuennm coc1a, ko1opme yxe ocn6nenm a snun1enLno epe, ne1pnnsyk1cn
ace 6onLue n 6onLue. nn nek1 1enpenunk k ncuesnoaennk any1pn cecn, ko1opn
n c1noan1cn rnano oco6ennoc1Lk noaoro npopyk1. e 6onLue psnoxe1cn n
ckpeunae1cn a1o1 noam npopyk1 (cnpeuL 1nn), 1e cnnLnee ampxe1cn 1kn
1enpenunn, n e ne anpno konu. cenenne, qopnpykueecn npn a1o, cnnuko
yaennunae1cn, u1o6m a 1euenne o6ospnoro nepnop orno yc1noan1Lcn
panoaecne. no nanne1 co6o xy1koe spennue a1nnuecko npxnn. o1penLnmx
nkpnx uc1o ac1peue1cn 1kn ponnnpykun uep1, ko1opn nepaycmcnenno
nnonne1 o 1o, u1o a xnnx a1nx nkpe (a1oro ncenennn) 1eue1 kpoaL ns
aceaosoxnmx nc1ounnkoa Y opnoro nerpn1nnckn ueaenkp, y ppyroro onronLckn
1nn nnu, y opnoro rns, xpk1epnme pnn repnckoro 1nn, y ppyroro poc1 cen1.
1oy xe ace onn nponsaepy1 noaoe no1oc1ao! o1 u1o npepc1annk1 co6o kpynnme
unannnsoannme nunn, n a1o1 qenoen 6poce1cn a rns oco6enno a nx nop1oamx
ropopx, nx c1onnux n kononnnx - 1, rpe cnnnnne nponcxopn1 ckopee acero.
pnxe, onpone, pnkce, onc1n1nnonone, ne amxopn s npepenm ropop n
orpnnunancL n6nkpenne s 1k nsmaem ec1nm ncenenne, am yanpn1e
npnsnkn, o1nocnunecn ko ace ae1an uenoaeueckoro ppea. Y npepc1an1ene
nnsunx knccoa am npe1e ace - o1 nporn1nuecko qopm ronoam nerp po
ckync1oro nnu n pckocmx rns kn1u, no1oy u1o c nesnn1nmx apeen,
rnanm o6pso c anoxn pnckoro anpmuec1a, pcm, cme pnekne ppyr o1 ppyr,
anecnn caok 1onnky kpoan a xn1ene nunx 6onLunx ropopoa. Cnepykune ppyr s
ppyro nuec1ann, 1oproann, o6psykunecn kononnn, uepepoanne nepnopoa np n
aonm cnoco6c1aoann npc1nnk 6ecnopnpk, n ecnn 6m 6mno aosoxno aso6p1Lcn
nenoro amue no renenornueckoy pepeay nepaoro nonanauerocn a 1o nnn nno
ec1e uenoaek, npnunocL 6m neno ypnann1Lcn o1nnunk ero o1 caonx npepkoa
[4nrvck nak amx nka nnanncn a nHca
crnac vkH akaH. ak, a Kx Hk cHmar aka
nr Hyxvm rnk a naH nkn Hry Hu nnHm
Hnrk ancm, a nH cnyva a aH kn nnacn kyvaacu
( u nak aHkack;), . I).].
1k, m onpepennnn qnsnueckne psnnunn expy pcn, 1enepL oc1e1cn peun1L,
cansn nn a1o1 qk1 c nepaenc1ao - 6ypL 1o a kpco1e qop nnn a qnsnuecko
cnne.
yxe o1eun, u1o ns acex uenoaeuecknx rpynn cmn kpcnamn nannk1cn 1e,
ko1opme npnnpnex1 k eaponeckn nunn n nx no1oc1ay. 1o6m okonu1enLno
y6epn1Lcn a a1o, poc11ouno cpann1L psnnunme 1nnm n seno upe, nunnn c
1enocnoxennn n aneunoc1n, ko1opme po neko1opo c1enenn npepc1annk1
pypnen1pnme npnsnkn nenrecko pcm, po amcokoro poc1 n 6nropopnmx
nponopun pn ennkoro, po ypnan1enLno copsepnoc1n nnu noneon, po
aennuec1aennoc1n, ko1opo pmun1 upc1aennm o6nnk kpoank XIV; cyuec1aye1 pnp
c1ynene, no ko1opm npopm, ne nekune a xnnx kpoan 6eno pcm, ory1
nopnn1Lcn k amco1 kpco1m, nnkorp ne poc1nrn nx.
Bnnxe acex c1on1 k nn nun 6nnxune copopnun - ampopnaueecn pnckoe
ceec1ao npnn n epcnn n cen1ckoe ncenenne, enee acero s1pony1oe
kon1k1n c uepno pco [ny Hu, v caHmH kacamH
Hca Hx aaau , xmx aka nmx c vmH.
nmu ncaau nH vaaanumx Hynak kaak c
nmckaH xnkxx nmx, anH, c ycckH arckH
xaH caa y a nnuy ncnx.]. o epe 1oro, kk ace
a1n pcm ypnnk1cn o1 6enoro 1nn, uep1m nx nnu n c1poenne 1en npe1epneak1
o1pnu1enLnme nsenennn, oco6enno a1o kce1cn nponopun, ko1opme, ace 6onLue
nknpmancL ppyr n ppyr n ycnnnan ppyr ppyr, a konue konuoa npnaopn1 k
ypnan1enLnoy ypopc1ay, c1onL nano sneu1nennoy ao nornx uenoaeuecknx ae1anx.
k u1o ne c1on1 npnnn1L acepLes yuenne, nopxauennoe enLaeune a ero knnre
[yx, corncno ko1opoy nonn1ne kpco1m ec1L npen unc1o cy6Lek1nann n ne
noc1onnnn. yc1L un11enn, y ko1opmx eue oc1nncL conennn n ce cue1, aosLy1 a
pykn npeaocxopnm 1pyp [xno6ep1n Dcce o npekpcno. nk1o ne
npopeonc1pnpoan nyuue, ue on, u1o npekpcnoe ec1L 6conk1nn n neo6xopnn
npen, ko1opn ne oxe1 ne1L qkynL11nanoe npnnoxenne; n nenno 6nroppn
npnnunn, connpno o6ocnoannm nLeon1ckn qnnocoqo, n 6es kone6nn
npnsnk npeaocxopc1ao 6eno pcm np oc1nLnmn, u1o kce1cn kpco1m; anpoue,
ace oc1nLnme psnnuk1cn a a1o cmcne expy co6o a 1o epe, a kko onn
npn6nnxenm nnn ypnenm o1 openn. Cnepoa1enLno, cyuec1aye1 nepaenc1ao a
kpco1e uenoaeuecknx 1nnoa nnn rpynn - nepaenc1ao nornunoe, poksnnoe,
noc1onnnoe n 6esycnoanoe.
kk o6c1on1 peno c nepaenc1ao a qnsnuecko cnne? e1 conennn a 1o, u1o
pnkpn epnkn, 1k xe kk n nnpycm, nnoro yc1ynk1 n a a1o o1nouennn. 1y
xe k1eropnk cnepye1 aknkun1L ac1pnncknx 6opnrenoa. Y nerpoa 1oxe enLue
mueuno cnnm, o ue canpe1enLc1ayk1 norouncnennme ny1euec1aennnkn. ce a1n
npopm o1nnuk1cn ropspo enLue amnocnnaoc1Lk. o ec1L psnnu expy unc1o
mueuno cnno, ko1opn konuen1pnpye1cn a onpepenennm oen1, n
amnocnnaoc1Lk, 1. e. cnno, pcnpepenenno ao apeenn n nekue pnn1enLnm
xpk1ep. D1o nocnepnee kuec1ao 6onee 1nnnuno, ue nepaoe, ko1opoe oxno
ac1pe1n1L pxe y saepoo cn6mx pc. nxec1L kynk, ecnn 6p1L a1o kk
epnnc1aennm kpn1epn cnnm, oxno konc11npoa1L y pnknx nerponpnmx npopoa, y
nepneknx yo noaosennpuea, y nckpoa, y nuea ne a enLue c1enenn,
nexenn y nrnnun; expy 1e, ecnn asn1L kkyk-1o nunk a ee cce n cypn1L o ne
no 1nxenm p6o1, ko1opme ory1 ampepx1L ee npepc1an1enn, nnL paenc1a
npnnpnexn1 npop 6eno pcm.
o pxe cpepn a1nx npopoa nee1 ec1o nepaenc1ao expy psnmn rpynnn, u1o
kce1cn n cnnm n kpco1m, xo1n ono ampxeno ne 1k nano. 1nLnnum 6onee
npnanek1enLnm, ue neum, uaeupum, qpnuysm nnn ncnnum. kxe n
nrnnune npeaocxopn1 no kpco1e 1en cnann.
1o po cnnm kynk, nrnnune amue acex npounx eaponecknx npopoa, qpnuysm
n ncnnum o1nnuk1cn 6onLue amnocnnaoc1Lk a qnsnuecknx ynpxnennnx, a
nnuennnx, no o1nouennk k cm cypoam knn1nueckn ycnoann. Opnuysm
noksnn a1o caoc1ao ao apen pokoao knnnn a occnn. , rpe neum n
conp1m ceaepnmx c1pn, npnamunme k nnskn 1enep1yp, norn6nn nou1n 6es
oc11k nop cnero, nun nonkn, xo1n n snn1nnn 6esepnyk pnL 1prnueckn
o6c1on1enLc1a o1c1ynnennn, cyenn coxpnn1L nkpe. oe-k1o o6Lncnnn a1o1 qk1
amcokn ypoane opnLnoro aocnn1nnn n 6oeaoro pyx. pnko o6Lncnenne a1o
noy6epn1enLno. eeukne oqnuepm, norn6aune co1nnn, nenn ne enLue
nonn1nn o aonncko ponre, ue nun conp1m. 1ckp amaop: qpnuysm o1nnuk1cn
onpepenennmn qnsnuecknn kuec1an, 6onee amcoknn, ue y neuea, 6nroppn
ko1opm onn nepexnnn n poccnckne cner, n o6xnrkune neckn rnn1.
XIII
k u u ky; x
mn k.
1o6m nyuue nonn1L nn1ennek1ynLnme psnnunn expy pcn, a nepayk ouepepL
cnepye1 onpepenn1L, po kko 1ynoc1n oxe1 onyc1n1Lcn uenoaeuec1ao. Mm yxe
sne, kknx amco1 ono oxe1 poc1nuL - n nek a anpy unannnsunk.
[o cnx nop y 6onLunnc1a yuenmx npocnexnancL nann 1enpenunn y1pnpoanno
npnnnx1L nepsan1me pcm. nepamx caepennnx o pnknx nneenx kpckn 6mnn
cryuenm po npepen: pnkpn npnnncmann 1kyk neouL y n cnoco6noc1n
pccyxp1L, ko1opn c1ann nx n opny c1ynenL c o6esLnno n nenoro amue cnon.
Cnpaepnnaoc1n ppn ckxe, u1o 6mnn n npno npo1naononoxnme onncnnn. cnn
ny1euec1aennnk ac1peun 1ennm npne n kko-nn6ypL oc1poae, ecnn on seun y
xn1ene nrkoc1L npaoa n ppyune, anpen pnkpe, ko1opme ornn amnonnn1L koe-
kkyk necnoxnyk p6o1y n noor1L 1poc, 1y1 xe n 6opnrenoa, kk ns por
nso6nnnn, cmnnncL noxanm: nx nsmann cnoco6nmn, aocnpnnunamn,
1nn1nnamn, n nopo a1o1 an1ysns nepexopnn ace rpnnum.
nmn cnoan, kpnoc1n 6mnn n c 1o n c ppyro c1oponm. cnn neko1opme xn1enn
n1n noornn o1peon1npoa1L npycnyk ocnc1ky kn1o6onoro cypn, nenLsn
1onLko no a1o npnunne cun11L aecL npop cnoco6nm k unannnsunn. cnn kko-1o
pnkpL c oc1poa onr-6y 6nroxen1enLno o1neccn k uyxeseu, on ne
o6ns1enLno cnoco6en ycaon1L nporpecc; 1ouno 1k xe nenLsn nnsaopn1L po c1pnn
saepn 6opnren c rnyxoro no6epexLn 1onLko s 1o, u1o on ac1pe1nn c1penn nepamx
npnuenLuea nnn s 1o, u1o 1e yanpenn, kk on ec1 cmpmx nuepnu n sennnme
neneukn. syee1cn, 1kn 1pnes ne canpe1enLc1aye1 o ampxenno nn1ennek1e
nnn o nporpeccnanmx npax. o n yaepen a 1o, u1o a co o1ap1n1enLno
knnn6ne oc1ncL nckopk 6oxec1aennoro ornn, n ns nee a onpepenennm oen1
oxe1 sxeuLcn psy. e1 1knx pnkpe n sene, y ko1opmx ne nenocL 6m xo1L
kknx-1o, nyc1L cmx npnn1nanmx, cyxpenn o6 okpyxkunx nx aeux -
cyxpenn nc1nnnmx nnn noxnmx, cnpaepnnamx nnn oun6ounmx, no yxe c qk1 nx
nnnunn a poc11ouno epe poksmae1, u1o nckpm psy ne nnuenm ace ae1an
uenoaeueckoro pop. o a1o npnunne cme o1c1nme pnkpn cnoco6nm aocnpnnn1L
pennrnk, o1nnuncL a1n o1 cmx ynmx xnao1nmx.
pnko oxe1 nn spopmu opyxo1aopennoc1n, ckpm1m a rny6nne cosnnnn kxporo
npepc1an1enn nuero pop, psana1Lcn po 6eckoneunoc1n? ce nn nkpn a
opnnkoao c1enenn o6npk1 neorpnnuenno cnoco6noc1Lk k nn1ennek1ynLnoy
psan1nk? oc1an aonpoc no-nnoy, o6npk1 nn psnnunme uenoaeueckne pcm
nn1ennek1ynLno cnno, pannkue nx ppyr c ppyro? cyunoc1n, a1o aonpoc o
6esrpnnuno cnoco6noc1n pc k coaepuenc1aoannk n o6 nx paenc1ae. Mo o1ae1
k1eropnuen, nn a koe cnyue.
pen 6eckoneunoro coaepuenc1aoannn aecL co6nsnne1 nunx coapeennnkoa,
onn npnaopn1 a kuec1ae poks1enLc1a cnepykuee, nu unannnsunn nee1 1kne
poc1onnc1a n 1kne ycnexn, kknx ne 6mno y nunx npepuec1aennnkoa. pn a1o
nepeuncnnk1cn ace qk1m, kon xpk1epnsyk1 nun o6uec1a. o nnx yxe roaopnn,
no oxo1no noa1opk cksnnoe eue ps.
c yaepnk1, u1o a o6nc1n nyk m nee cme psnoo6psnme nosnnnn, u1o nun
npam a ueno nrkne, opnL npeaocxopn1 opnLnme npnnunnm ppeannx rpekoa n
pnnnn. 1o xe kce1cn nonn1nuecko cao6opm, npoponxk1 y6exp1L nc, m
nee npen, uyac1a, nennn, y6expennn, 1epnnoc1L, ko1opme nyuue acex npounx
qk1oa poksmak1 nue npeaocxopc1ao. e1 nepoc11k a npekpcnopyunmx
1eope1nkx, cun1kunx, u1o nun o6uec1aennme nnc1n1y1m o1kpmak1 n npnyk
popory a cp ecnepnp, c1onL ponro psmcknaem n nnkorp ne nxopnm c 1ex
nop, kk ppeanne opexopm scanpe1enLc1aoann ero o1cy1c1ane n npcknx
oc1poax.
oneu 1kn neyepennm npe1ensnn oxe1 nonoxn1L 6onee nnn enee cepLesnoe
snkoc1ao c nc1opne.
D1o npap, u1o m o6npe 6onLue yuenoc1Lk, ue ppeanne, no aepL m
ncnonLsoann nx o1kpm1nn. cnn y nc 6onLue snnn, 1k a1o nnuL no1oy, u1o m
nannecn nx npoponx1ennn, yuennkn n ncnepnnkn. Cnepye1 nn ns a1oro, u1o
o1kpm1ne aosoxnoc1e np n peuenne neckonLknx spu a o6nc1n exnnkn aepy1
nc k acesnnnk? Bonee 1oro: o1kpok1 nn a1n ycnexn ace 1nm 1epnnLnoro np?
ocne 1oro, kk m saepunnn a1o no6epnoe uec1ane, pnn ycnex ko1oporo npo
cpen1L ouenL n ouenL noro uroa, eue pxe ne o6pynnmx nn, cyee nn m
nepeurny1L a1n unc1o konc11unn qnsnuecknx skonoa? npepc1on1 - n ne
ouenL xoue1cn a1oro - nnoro yaennun1L nun cnnm n aosoxnoc1n, u1o6m nyuue
nonn1L npnpopy n sc1an1L ee cnyxn1L nun nyxp. eue npepc1on1
nccnepoa1L senk aponL n nonepek nnn uec1no npnsn1L, u1o a1o neaosoxno
cnepye1 o6p1n1Lcn k ne6y n, npn6nnsnauncL n neckonLko 1mcnu e1poa k npepen
1ocqepm, peun1L norne spun c1pononn. e ne enee, a1o ne nopanne1 nc k
6eckoneunoc1n. [xe cocun1a ace nnne1pnme cnc1em, ko1opme panxy1cn a
npoc1pnc1ae, c1ne nn m 6nnxe k a1o 6eckoneunoc1n? sae m ysnnn o aennknx
1nx a1oro np neu1o 1koe, u1o ne 6mno nsaec1no ppeann? Mne npepc1anne1cn,
u1o m nnuL nsennnn e1opm, ko1opmn nonLsoanncL po nc, u1o6m npo6n1Lcn k
1ne. o m ne cpennn nn opnoro ur anepep a okpyxkue nc 1Le.
ecnn ponyc1n1L, u1o m nyuue nonne o1penLnme qk1m, 1o, ckonLko xe m
y1p1nnn nonn1n, xopouo nsaec1nmx nun pnekn npepk! e1 nnkkoro
conennn a 1o, u1o ao apeen ap o nepamx nc1opnuecknx co6m1nnx snnn
6onLue, nexenn sne m. k noro o1kpm1n cpenno nn - nn6o c 6onLunn
ycnnnnn, nn6o coaepuenno cnyuno, - ko1opme, a koneuno cue1e, oksnncL
s6m1mn n anoaL npennmn snnnnn! o nornx o6nc1nx m npoc1o o1c1e o1
nunx npepkoa! 1o m oxe noc1an1L ns caonx cmx 6nec1nunx poc1nxenn
pnpo c 1en uypecn, ko1opme nannk1 n rnne1, npnn, peunn, epnk n
ko1opme canpe1enLc1ayk1 o 6esrpnnuno aennunn ppyrnx nn1nnkoa, ncuesnyaunx
a aekx - npnue a 6onLue c1enenn a pesynL11e nenenmx n pspyun1enLnmx
pec1an uenoaek, nexenn apeenn! 1o snu1 nun nckycc1a ppo c nckycc1ao
qnn? 1o snu1 nun mcnn1enn a cpanennn c qnnocoqn nekcnppnn n
npnn? e ory1 noxac11L nun noa1m nepep nLnkn, nnpco, oepo,
nnppo?
Mm npe ppyrn ny1e. Mm yno1pe6nne nu psy n nnme uenn, nnme
nccnepoannn, o1nnunme o1 uene n spu oc1nLnmx unannnsoannmx rpynn
uenoaeuec1a; no, nsennn nouay, m ne cyenn coxpnn1L nnopopopne seenL,
aospenmaemx po nc. . e. nun saoeannn conpoaoxpk1cn nopxennnn. 1k,
nnnuo cn6oe y1euenne - aec1o nporpecc m o1knonnecn a c1opony. 1o6m
oxno 6mno roaopn1L o6 nc1nnnmx npno6pe1ennnx, neo6xopno, u1o6m, coxpnna ao
ace uenoc1noc1n rnanme 6or1c1a npexnnx o6uec1a, m cornn 6m pnpo c nx
poc1nxennnn noc1an1L nekne kpynnme saoeannn, k ko1opm panm o6pso
c1pennncL n m n onn; u1o6m nun nykn n nun nckycc1a, onnpkunecn n nx
nykn n nckycc1a, o6npyxnnn noame rny6nnm a upc1ae xnsnn n cep1n, noame
snnnn o aosnnknoaennn xnamx cyuec1a n rnaneune npnnunnm nponopnpk.
pnko ao acex a1nx aonpocx coapeennn nyk yxe ne nponanne1 1o
nponnu1enLnoc1n, ko1opn o1nnun - no kpne epe, ec1L ocnoannn cun11L 1k
- n1nunme apeen. u nyk npnun coc1on1enLno 1onLko k cnepykuey
oropun1enLnoy npnsnnnk: nuy n ne nxoxy. oa1oy ne1 penLnmx
poc1nxenn a nn1ennek1ynLnmx saoeannnx uenoaek. sae u1o nu kpn1nk
c1on1 ropspo amue, ue y nunx npepuec1aennnkoa. D1o nenoaxno, no kpn1nk
npepnonre1 knccnqnunpoanne, ne npno6pe1enne.
1o kce1cn nunx nko6m noamx mcne o nonn1nke, oxno ceno o1nec1n n nx
cue1 eue 6onLuyk ps6pocnnoc1L, ue a nunx nykx.
ennkoe noxec1ao 1eopn, kon m nk6n xac11L, neno ec1o n a qnnx nocne
epnkn. 1o6m y6epn1Lcn a a1o, poc11ouno nepeun11L 1e koepnn pnc1oqn -
c1npnueckne rnnep6onm, - ko1opme n1on pekoenpoan acnkoy, noxenauey
osnkon1Lcn c o6uec1aennmn npan ropop Mnnepam npoue, 1kyk nnornk
nepec1nn npoaopn1L c 1ex nop, kk nonannocL nenne, u1o orponoe psnnune expy
nun nmneunn o6uec1aennm nopnpko n coc1onnne [peane peunn
sknkue1cn a qk1e p6c1a. pnko o1 a1oro perornn cpenncL eue 6onee
nac1aenno. 1y anoxy k p6 o1nocnnncL 1ouno 1k xe, kk ceropnn o1nocn1cn k
npone1pnn, n acnonn, kk c1pnncL qnnnne nonpan1Lcn caoey nne6cy nocne
6n1am a prnnysx.
6p1ncn 1enepL k ny n aosLe nncL Unuepon. kn npenLnm yepennm
1opn amrnnpn1 a1o1 pnckn op1op! k noxox pnckn pecny6nnk n nun
konc1n1yunonnme rocyppc1a, u1o kce1cn np1nnmx pe61oa n npnen1cknx
6n1a! [peane ne a neppx o6uec1a 1kxe aonnoanocL ncenenne, coc1onuee
ns o6osnennmx p6oa, a ko1opmx 6yn1 6mn acerp - ecnn ne a kynkx, 1o a pyue. o
poaonLno o6 a1o c6pope, 1e 6onee, u1o skon ne npnsne1 s nnn qk1
rpxpnckoro cyuec1aoannn, on nnuero ne peun a nonn1nke n amxopnn n cueny
1onLko a pnn aonnenn no nyuennk aosy1n1ene cnokoc1ann, poxpennmx
cao6opnmn rpxpnn.
1o xe m nee a pesynL11e? cnn ncknkun1L p6oa, noco1pn n nkpe,
co6npaunxcn n Oopye - noxoxe nn nx co6pnne n coapeennm o6uec1aennm
nopnpok? onn, 1pe6ykun xne6, psaneuenn, ppoamx pener n npa
ncnxp1Lcn; 6ypxysnn, c1penuncn k pspeny rocyppc1aennmx ponxnoc1e;
n1pnunn, nopaepxennme noc1onnno 1pncqopunn n noc1enenno 1epnkune caon
npa anno1L po 1oro oen1, korp pxe nx c1oponnnkn a kuec1ae epnnc1aenno
sun1m corncnnncL n o1ks o1 acex npnannern n c1nn 1pe6oa1L opny aeuL -
cao6opy pnn acex.
sae a xoce nmneunnx asrnnpoa n nenn, psnoo6psnmx po npepen, ac1peue1cn
xo1L opno-epnnc1aennoe, ko1opoe ne amcksmanocL 6m a ne? ynonnn nncL
ns yckyny n nsan nx ampxenne nennn nporpeccnanoro koncepa1op.
cpanennn c Cynno one n Unuepon 6mnn nn6epnm. [nn Uespn onn 6mnn
nepoc11ouno nn6epnLnm. [nn 1on nn6epnns a nnx 6mno uepecuyp noro.
osxe, a ropm npnnunn1, m yanpn a nnnn-Mnpue yepennoro ponnnc1 n
c1oponnnk nopnpk n cnokoc1ann n npo1na ns6m1k cao6opm n ns6m1k anc1n n,
6ypyun nosn1nanm a caonx pok1pnnx, on c1oponn1cn pyxnyauero aennunn anoxn
O6nn, npepnoun1n ey nposnueckoe npanenne pnn. Mexpy 1e 1k nonrnn
ne ace. Mnorne, oncncL noaoro Cnp1k, cun1nn, u1o nnep1op ponxen 6m1L
1aeppm. npo1na 1oro, npoannunnm 1pe6oann n nonyunn 1o, u1o m nsmae
ceropnn konc1n1yunonnme npa, expy 1e counnnc1m anpenn caoero rnu1n
nn a ko nno, kk a rnnLcko uespe Knnn oc1ye, ko1opm uc1o aocknnun:
Bor1me n 6epnme acerp aprn!.
opoue roaopn, acnkn, k1o nen no-nLckne npe1ensnn n yuc1ne a cnek1kne
anoxn, o1c1nan paenc1ao acex nkpe, aceo6uee npao anpe1L 6nrn a1o
senn, neo6xopnoc1L rpeko-n1nncko unannnsunn, neo6xopnoc1L ee
coaepuenc1aoannn n cnruennn c 1e, u1o6m ee 6ypyune ycnexn npeasounn
nmneunne, a konue konuoa peuL un o6 ee yaekoaeunannn kne npen
npepc1annnn co6o ne 1onLko y1euenne n roppmnk nsmunnkoa - onn o1pxnn
rny6okyk npexpy nepamx ns cmx nsaec1nmx o1uoa Uepkan, ampsn1ene mcne
ko1opmx 6mn ep1ynnnn.
koneu, saepun kp1nny, se1n, u1o co norouncnenno np1ne 6mn
np1nn panopyunmx - nkpe cnnuko cn6mx, cnnuko 6pesrnnamx n 6onsnnamx
nnn cnnuko nepeun1enLnmx, u1o6m psrnnpe1L nc1nny a aopoxe psnouepc1nmx
1eopn, noc1onnno enLkaunx nepep rnsn; a1n nkpn ncnonLsoann pnn caoe
amropm nopnpok, korp on cyuec1aoan, noppepxnann - nano nnn nenano -
6ecnopnpok, korp on nc1ynn, ao ace apeen aocxnunncL 1epnnLnmn
poc1nxennnn, nensaec1nmn nx o1u, n, ne xenn psmunn1L n no1L ronoay,
y1eunncL 6nrononyune ceropnnunn.
osoxno, y nc 6mno 6m 6onLue ocnoann aepn1L a nporpecc nonn1nuecknx nyk,
ecnn 6m m nso6penn kkne-1o exnnsm, nensaec1nme po nc nnn ne
ncnonLsoaaunecn npexpe. Yam, cnn cna nnoan nc. rpnnuennme onpxnn
cyuec1aoann ao ace apeen. kne npnepm oxno o1e1n1L pxe y neko1opmx
epnkncknx npopoa, oc1aunxcn, anpoue, apapn. [eokp1nueckne n
pnc1okp1nueckne pecny6nnkn acex 1nnoa n qop 6mnn n a noao cae1e, n a c1po.
a1o o1nouennn nckn nanne1 co6o 1nnnunm o6pseu 1k xe, kk qnnm,
Cnp1 n Mekk po Mroe1. o1n npap a 1o, u1o m neckonLko
ycoaepuenc1aoann nyky npanennn, no a1o1 u1pnx ne oxe1 cnyxn1L ocnoanne
pccun1ma1L n 6eckoneunm nporpecc. k ne nyuue nn oc1a1Lcn ckponmn n
cnepoa1L cnoa coro ypporo ns upe: e1 nnuero noaoro nop connue.
3euy a kuec1ae o1c1ynnennn cnepykuee. norp cun1k1 npanenne a
Coepnnennmx L11x epnkn ue-1o opnrnnnLnm, ynnknLnm n npncyun nue
anoxe, npnue cm seu1enLnm a a1o cnc1ee cun1k1 nnnun1nay n
orpnnuenne pxe npoc1oro aeu1enLc1a npan1enLc1a nnn pnnnc1p1nanmx
nnc1n1y1oa a xnsnL o6uec1a. cnn ann1enLno npnco1pe1Lcn k nsnunLnm
qop acex rocyppc1a, ocnoannmx 6eno pco, m yanpn 1y xe kp1nny
Coynpanenne - a1o ne nso6pe1enne Lk-Hopk ono cyuec1aoano eue a pnxe a
anoxy qpnkoa. o1n o1e1n cnpaepnnaoc1n ppn, u1o epnknum o6puk1cn c
nnpeun 6onee 6ecuenoaeuno, ue o6punncL c rnnn accnm nopanr.
pnko cnepye1 yuec1L, u1o a1nnueckn pnc1nunn expy npocaeuennmn
pecny6nnknun oaoro Cae1 n nx xep1an ropspo 6onLue, ue expy
no6epn1ennn-repnun n no6expennmn.
osxe, korp m o6p1ncn k psmunennn o6 nc1okx pncknx o6uec1a, m
yanpn, u1o ace onn nunnnncL c upesepno nesancnoc1n o1 rnc1p1 n o1
skon.
k ne npepc1anne1cn, ace noannkn a o6nc1n nonn1nuecko mcnn orpnnunak1cn
payn kpnoc1nn, npepc1anennmn payn npopn, opnn ns ko1opmx xnae1 n
ceaepo-aoc1oke aponm, ppyro - a o6nc1nx, npnnerkunx k nny, n kpne kre
rnn1. pan1enn nepaoro, o6n1aune aosne snn, nenn npnamuky o1npann1L n
ancennuy mcnnunx a kuec1ae npoqnnk1nuecko epm. 6 a1o nnue1 p6ckn
ny1euec1aennnk 6n Oosnn.
Y ppyro nunn 6mn 1ko o6mu korp upL 6onLue ne yc1pnan popnue n
nnnc1poa, onn o6Lnannnn ey o6 a1o n po6annnn, u1o nockonLky on ne npan1cn
yxunn, xenunn, pe1n, 6mk, ocn n 1. p , coe nyuuee pnn nero -
yepe1L n 1y1 xe noornn ey a a1o.
op o6p1n1L asop n nun npam. x cun1k1 6onee nrknn, ue a oc1nLnmx
kpynnmx uenoaeuecknx o6uec1ax - ao1 eue opno y1aepxpenne, ynsanoe pnn
kpn1nkn.
c1L pn1opnkn, ko1opm xo1enocL 6m ceropnn, u1o6m ns npaoamx nop rocyppc1a
ncuesn aon kk nonn1nueckn nnc1pyen1. D1y 1eopnk onn nosnc1aoann y
Cenekn. oc1oke 6mnn yppeum, ko1opme nponoaepoann n a1o1 cue1 npen,
coanpkune c nonn1nnn opacknx 6p1Lea. o pxe ecnn npnaepxenum
aceo6uero np cyek1 o1ap1n1L apony o1 opyxnn, n npnpe1cn no1p1n1L noro
ycnnn pnn 1oro, u1o6m nacerp nsenn1L uenoaeueckyk npnpopy co acen
uenoaeuecknn c1pc1nn. n Ceneke, nn 6pxn a1o ne ypnocL. Conn1enLno,
u1o 1kn nccnn nop cnny n. C1on1 nnuL noco1pe1L n nun nonn n ynnum, rpe
nLe1cn kpoaL.
Mne 6m 1kxe xo1enocL anpe1L nun npnnunnm unc1mn n aosamuennmn. o kk
o6c1on1 peno a pec1an1enLnoc1n?
un c1pnm c nun coapeenno unannnsunn ne ornn npoxn1L n nn1n pecn1koa
ne1 6es kpoaonponn1nn a o1nnune o1 1nnn pncko anoxn, ko1opn ncnxpncL
payn c1one1nnn np; anpoue, a1o oc1nocL, kk nn neunLno, a npouno.
Cnepoa1enLno, coc1onnne nue unannnsunn ne canpe1enLc1aye1 o c1penennn
uenoaeuec1a k coaepuenc1aoannk. enoaek nyunncn norn aeu n
opnoapeenno norne s6mn. n ne npn6ann nn opnoro uyac1a k yxe neauncn,
nn opnoro unen k caoey 1eny, nn opno cnoco6noc1n k caoe pyue. n acero nnuL
nepeuen n ppyryk c1opony amnauero n ero ponk kpyr, cpanenne ero yuc1n c
yuc1Lk nornx anpoa n1nu n ncekomx ne pe1 noaop pnn y1eun1enLnmx mcne
o1nocn1enLno ero cuc1nnaoro 6ypyuero.
1o1 cm oen1, korp 6mnn co1aopenm 1epn1m, nuenm, uepnme ypaLn, onn
nnc1nnk1nano nunn o6ps xnsnn, nopxopnaun n. epn1m n ypaLn any1pn
caonx coo6uec1a anune nunn cnoco6 coopyxennn xnnnu, nc1ounnkn nnun n
cnc1ey coxpnennn nnu pnn aocnponsaopc1a, n n1ypnnc1m cun1k1, u1o c 1ex nop
ace a1o ne npe1epneno nn nsenennn, nn coaepuenc1aoannn. k xe n nuenm co
caon onpxnueckn npanenne, ko1opoe sne1 cnyun caepxennn onpx, no ne
sne1 counnLnmx peaonkun, nnuy1L ne nsennnn caoey o6psy xnsnn, yropnoy
nx npnpope. Me1qnsnkn pnLue nsmann xnao1nmx unnn n npnnncmann Bory
npnunny nx panxennn nnn anima brutoram. cnn ceropnn ann1enLno
npnco1pe1Lcn k npa a1nx 1k nsmaemx a1o1oa, npnpe1cn ne npoc1o
o1ks1Lcn o1 a1o apepno rnno1esm, no n npnsn1L nnnune psy y xnao1nmx.
co pene, u1o oxno cks1L, korp a upc1ae nuen m anpn, kk cyaepenm
amsmak1 rnea noppnnmx, u1o npepnonre1 nn6o n1exnm pyx y nocnepnnx, nn6o
necnoco6noc1L nepamx ncnonnn1L caon o6nsnnoc1n? 1o oxno cks1L, korp
1epn1m oc1annk1 a xnamx no6expennmx p6oa, u1o6m s1e sc1an1L nx p6o11L
n ce6n nnn s6o1n1Lcn o 1epn1x-pe1enmux?
syee1cn, nun rocyppc1a nek1 6onee cnoxnoe yc1poc1ao, no ao1 n n6nkpk
1kyk kp1nny: rpnsnm, kpoaoxpnm, norpnsun a 6espennn pnkpL 6popn1 6es
uenn c soc1penno nnko, cnyxue konLe, no caoe sene, pxe ne s1pony1o
kynL1ypo; cnepo s nn, kk 1enL, npe1 ero xen, coepnnennn c nn 1onLko
ncnnne [Y Hrx aa ka ak ncx cnyH aH.
Myxva aHva aymky, kan Hy nx aa y a
a Hnk nak c rH cvacn ymnka ak 3aH
ya vr naay aymky a kycm n a num kaHu
caanaa c r yaH nank, aa cvyacan nuk ncn
sr acm cvacnam xx c kaaany acy k c
acn avan Hn.]; a1 xenunn nece1 n pykx pe6enk, ko1oporo
on nenpeenno y6Le1, ecnn on s6onee1 nnn npoec1 e [u acckamaa,
v ck Ha yH nn cax any x H,
caancu x amnH, ak x cn ayr k vH- yr
Ha, a Hx r ynu, aymu n nc cu a ncy.];
nporonopauncL, cynpyrn oc1nannak1cn, o6ppoannme, u1o nunn po6muy, nepep
xnnnue ynmx ypaLea, pspyuk1 ero n noxnpk1 ypaLnnme nu n cnoa
nennao yxopn1 a caoe noroao, 1. e. a pcuennny cknm. ao1 n spk ce6e aonpoc:
oxe1 6m1L, a1n norn6une ncekome 6onee cuc1nnam, ue rnynoe ceec1ao nx
y6nu; oxe1 6m1L, nnc1nnk1 xnao1nmx, orpnnuennm nnnyo no1pe6noc1e,
pene1 nx 6onee cuc1nnamn, ue psy, c ko1opm uenoaeuec1ao nonannocL n
sene ao c1o ps 6onee ynsanm, ue oc1nLnme o6n11enn nue nnne1m, 6onee
6essun1nm nepep nnuo c1ppnn n neasrop, amsmaemx ae1po, connue,
cnero n poxpe. 6epnoe uenoaeuec1ao! nkorp ey eue ne ypanocL npnpy1L
cnoco6 ope1L n o6y1L acex n a1o cae1e, cnc1n acex, 6es ncknkuennn, o1 ronop n
xxpm. syee1cn, cm npnn1nanm ns pnkpe ropspo 6onee nso6pe11enen,
nexenn xnao1nme, no xnao1nme snk1 1o, u1o npnnocn1 n nonLsy, n a1o
neaepoo. nn a1n popox1, m ne1, pxe korp a1o npnxopn1 n a ronoay. x
acerp sunue1 nnc1nnk1, noorn n nxopn1L coe neo6xopnoe. a 1o xe
apen n sene xnay1 1onnm uenoaeuecknx cyuec1a, ko1opme ncnokon aekoa 1k n ne
cyenn am6p1Lcn ns coc1onnnn o6peuennoc1n n nnue1m. 1o kce1cn senoro
cyuec1aoannn, y nc ne nyuune nepcnek1nam, ue y xnao1nmx - nepep nn
ropnson1, np1n po ko1oporo ponLue, no on 1kxe ne6ecnpepenen.
ne c1ny nopuepkna1L a1y rpyc1nyk penLnoc1L, sknkukuykcn a 1o, u1o
o6pe1n, m noc1onnno 1epne; 1e ne enee, nenno a1o1 qk1 o6peke1 nc
6nyxp1L a nunx nn1ennek1ynLnmx pe6pnx n nnkorp ne pso6p1Lcn a nnx po
konu. cnn 6m a1o1 q1nLnm skon ne cyuec1aoan, 1orp a opnn npekpcnm
penL, nyc1L n aecL pnekn, no 1e ne enee aosoxnm, uenoaek, oanpea onm1o
npounoro, nosna ace, u1o a ero cnnx, ocaona ace, u1o on oxe1 ocaon1L, a konue
konuoa nyunncn 6m psyno nonLsoa1Lcn caonn 6or1mn aosoxnoc1nn, c1n 6m
xn1L a npx c npnpopo, ne 6oponcn 6m co caonn co6p1Lnn, 1onLko c nnue1o,
n, okonu1enLno ycnokoennm, akycnn 6m o1pmx - nyc1L n ne poc1nrnya aepunnm
coaepuenc1a, no, no kpne epe, 6ypyun a coc1onnnn 1epnnLnoro
6nrononyunn n pyueanoro panoaecnn.
pnko 1koe 6nxenc1ao, kk 6m aqeepno ono nn 6mno, n pxe n ne o6euno,
no1oy u1o no epe ycaoennn noaoro uenoaek y1punae1 yxe ycaoennoe; no1oy u1o
on ne cnoco6en nnuero npno6pec1n a nn1ennek1ynLno o1nouennn 6es 1oro, u1o6m
nnuero ne no1epn1L a nnne qnsnuecko; coe rnanoe - on ne a coc1onnnn
nponro ypepx1L caon poc1nxennn.
1o po enn, 1o n cun1k, u1o nu unannnsunn nnkorp ne norn6ne1, nockonLky a
nue pcnopnxennn ec1L neu1nm c1nok, np n nopox. o u1o pn, a cmcne
unannnsunn, neu1nm c1nok npop n1n, nonnn? epL y nnx ec1L knnrn -
noro knnr, npnue ropspo 6onee peueamx, ue y nc. k nouey xe a1n npopm
nc1onLko npnn1nanm n cn6m, nc1onLko 6nnskn k 1oy ypoank, n ko1opo
uenoaek unannnsoannm, psapuennm, cn6m n nennam, yc1yne1 a cmcne
nn1ennek1 apap, ko1opme yrne1k1 ero, kk 1onLko npepc1an1cn cnyu
[anH, caHm s a, km c a caH m cyn
-kack ana, ak ac yH vau ncau.]?
ouey xe 1k nponcxopn1? no1oy, u1o neu1nm c1nok ec1L cpepc1ao, ne
npnnunn. orp on cnyxn1 pnn pcnpoc1pnennn canuennmx, sppamx n cncn1enLnmx
npe, on npnnocn1 6nro1aopnme nnopm n cnoco6c1aye1 unannnsunn. cnn xe,
nnpo1na, coc1onnne yoa nc1onLko nnskoe, u1o ns neu1n ne amxopn1 nn
qnnocoqckne, nn nc1opnueckne, nn nn1ep1ypnme nponsaepennn, cnoco6nme nn11L
renn nunn, ecnn npopxnn neu1L cnyxn1 nnuL psnoxennk rpnsnmx n
apeponocnmx counnenn, nnopoa aocnnennoro y, o1panennmx nnopoa cek1n1cko
1eonornn, 6esypepxno nn6epnLno nonn1nkn, nn6ep1nncko noasnn, 1o kk n
kkn o6pso neu1nm c1nok oxe1 cnc1n unannnsunk?
pepnonre1cn, u1o c 1o xe nerkoc1Lk, c kko on cnoco6en psnox1L uepeapm
mcnn, neu1nm c1nok oxe1 nx coxpnn1L, a anoxn nn1ennek1ynLnoro nepopop,
korp o6uec1ao nnuero nopo6noro n ne nopoxpe1, on oxe1 n anyu1L nx, no
kpne epe, nkpn uec1nm n o1ae1c1aennm. cyunoc1n, 1k ono n nponcxopn1.
e ne enee, u1o6m asn1L knnry o npouno n npoun11L ee ppn co6c1aennoro
ycoaepuenc1aoannn, neo6xopno o6np1L spnee cm 6onLun 6nro n cae1e
- npocaeuenno pyuo. nnoxne apeen, canpe1enLc1aykune o s6aennn
o6uec1aennmx po6pope1ene, nkpn ne po ppeannx counnenn, n no k1o noceue1
6n6nno1ekn. orp noro snun1 yxe c mcnL o 1o, u1o6m no6ma1L a c1onL
canuenno ec1e.
npoue, ponroaeunoc1L, npepcksnnn nnop o1kpm1nn y1en6epr, noxny,
cnnuko npeyaennuen. 3 ncknkuenne neckonLknx nponsaepenn, ace oc1nLnme
ynpk1 ouenL 6mc1po, kk korp-1o ynpnn pykonncn. co6enno 6mc1po ncuesk1
ns unpokoro yno1pe6nennn nyunme 1pypm, amnyuennme a neckonLknx co1nnx
aksennnpoa. x oxno n1n, nyc1L n c 6onLun 1pypo, a kpynnmx co6pnnnx.
ouno 1k xe peno o6c1onno c nn1ennek1ynLnmn cokpoanun n1nunoc1n, n a1o
nnunn ps nop1aepxpe1 1o1 qk1, u1o aoace ne apypnunn oxe1 cnc1n npop,
npnuepun a ynpok.
oco1pn1e, u1o c1no c npnpn npekpcnmx nponsaepenn, nneu1nnmx
nunnn c 1oro pnn, kk nun p6o11L nepam neu1nm c1nok. BonLunnc1ao nx
s6m1m. e, o ko1opmx ceropnn eue acnonnk1, yxe ne nek1 un11ene, knnr, s
ko1opo ronnnncL nn1Lpecn1 ne1 nsp, pxe caon nsanne ne amsmae1 nnkknx
aocnonnnn.
1o6m nopnn1L npec1nx neu1noro c1nk, epa ne snpe1nnn xoxpenne pykonnce,
xo1n 1pypno ce6e npepc1an1L, nckonLko unpoko onn 6mnn pcnpoc1pnenm. o
apeen pncko nnepnn 6mno ouenL noro cpepc1a o6yuennn, nepepkn 6mnn n
knnrn, ecnn cypn1L no aennkoy uncny 6popnunx nonynnunx rp1nkoa,
ac1peuaunxcn a cmx rnyxnx pepeannx, ko1opmx oxno cpann1L c nmneunnn
paok1n, ponnc1n n xypnnnc1n n uLn psapuennme npam, nnuennn n
c1pc1L k ypoaonLc1ann kpcouno onncn a caoe C1npnkone e1ponn. orp
nc1ynnn nonnm ynpok, eue oxno 6mno n1n nyxnyk knnry. eprnnnn un1nn
noackpy. pec1Lnne, ko1opme cnmunn o ne c1onLko aoc1opxennmx cnoa, cun1nn
ero oncnm upopee. ro nepenncmann o1 pykn onxn nn 1kxe nepenncmann
nnnnn, [nokopnp, n1on n pnc1o1enn nn nepenncmann pxe 1ynn n
Mpunn. cpepnne aek, cypn no 1oy 6onLuoy uncny canpe1enLc1a, u1o oc1nncL
nocne c1onLknx aon, pspyuenn, noxpoa a onc1mpnx n skx, 6mno aennkoe
noxec1ao nn1ep1ypnmx, nyunmx, qnnocoqcknx nponsaepenn, amuepunx ns-nop
nep nkpe nesypnpnmx 1k, uepecuyp npeyaennueno snuenne neu1noro c1nk
pnn nykn, noasnn, opnn n nc1nnno unannnsoannoc1n, n 6mno 6m 6onee
cnpaepnnam o1e1n1L ero ponL a cmcne noacepneanmx ycnyr, ko1opoe a1o
nso6pe1enne oksno psnnunm pennrnosnm n nonn1nueckn np1nn. oa1opk eue
ps: neu1nm c1nok npepc1anne1 co6o o1nnunm nnc1pyen1, no 6es pyk n ronoam
nnc1pyen1 p6o11L ne oxe1.
e1 nyxpm a npoc1pnnmx poks1enLc1ax, u1o6m noks1L, u1o nopox 1kxe ne
oxe1 cnc1n o6uec1ao a nny1m cep1enLno oncnoc1n. syee1cn, onm1
o6puennn c nn ne s6mae1cn. o apnp nn ec1L conennn, u1o pnkne npopm,
ko1opme o6npk1 ceropnn nopoxo, kk n m, 6ypy1 nonLsoa1Lcn n ncknkun1enLno
a uennx pspyuennn.
1o kce1cn np n npounx nnpyc1pnnLnmx poc1nxenn, n ckxy o nnx 1o xe coe,
u1o o neu1no c1nke - 1. e. u1o a1o aennkne o1kpm1nn, - n po6ank, u1o a nc1opnn
6mno neno nyunmx o1kpm1n n nx nnopoa, ko1opme knynn a s6aenne, korp
panxenne uenoaeuecko mcnn, nopopnauee nx, oc1noannocL nacerp n ynecno
naekn 1ny, ko1opn 6mn nx nc1ounnko. koneu, n xouy nnonn1L, u1o
1epnnLnoe 6nro acerp 6mno nnuL aneunn npnp1ko unannnsunn n u1o ne
cyuec1aoano o6uec1a, ko1opoe amxnno ncknkun1enLno no1oy, u1o ono snno
cnoco6m 6mc1pee nepepanr1Lcn n xopouo opea1Lcn.
ce cyuec1aoaaune po nc unannnsunn aepnnn, u1o nx nes6maeme o1kpm1nn
naeuno sneu1nenn nx n ckpnxnnx apeenn. ce onn aepnnn a caoe 6eccep1ne.
nkn, uLn nnnknnm unncL no npeaocxopnm popor pnnno a neckonLko co1en
nLe, ko1opme po cnx nop cansmak1 ycko n n1o, naepnnk 6mnn y6expenm a
nesm6neoc1n caonx poc1nxenn. e ne enee, 6esxnoc1nme aek, nopo6no asxy
opnnnmx kpmnLea, c6pocnnn nx nnepnk, aec1e co nornn ppyrnn, a cyk
rny6okyk nponc1L ne6m1nn. pnko xe n a1n anc1n1enn epy nenn caon nykn,
caonx nnxenepoa, caon oryune unnm, ko1opmn m aocxnuecn ceropnn, ne a
cnnx psrp1L nx 1ny. aepL onn snnn cekpe1 nepeeuennn orponmx cc. nn
coopyxnn kpenoc1n, yknpman ppyr n ppyr rnm6m pnnno 1pnpu1L aoceL n
unpnno aocenpu1L qy1oa. ynnm nxynko nannk1 co6o nenno 1koe
no1pnckuee spennue: orponme rnm6m, nepeeuennme n pcc1onnne neckonLknx
nLe. o sne nn m, kk cnpannncL c a1n c1ep npop, knyauero a ne1y?
nsaec1no o6 a1o ne 6onLue, ue o cnoco6x n cpepc1ax coopyxennn rnrn1cknx,
nonc1nne unknonnueckoro psep c1en, oc1nkn ko1opmx ace eue npo1naoc1on1
apeenn a psnmx ec1x 3npno aponm.
kn o6pso, ne c1on1 ny11L pesynL11m unannnsunn c ee npnunnn. pnunnm
1epnk1cn, pesynL11m xe s6mak1cn, korp ncuese1 psy, aspc1naun nx, ecnn
onn coxpnnk1cn, 1o 1onLko 6nroppn noaoy psyy, ko1opm nn oanpeae1 n
uc1o npnpe1 n noam nnynLc. enoaeueckn nn1ennek1, noc1onnno
kone6nkuncn, kp1koapeennm a npoc1pnc1ae n apeenn, ne o1nnukuncn
aespecyunoc1Lk, aosaennunae1 1o, ue oanpeae1, s6mae1 1o, u1o ynycke1 ns
pyk n, yc1pennncL pnLue no kpyry, rpnnum ko1oporo ey ne pno npopa1L,
onnopo1aopne1 nnuL kkyk-1o uc1L caonx apeennmx anpenn, oc1annn
6ecnnopno ppyryk. acerp uenoaek opnoapeenno n npeaocxopn1 caonx npepkoa n
yc1yne1 n. Cnepoa1enLno, uenoaeuec1ao nnkorp ne oxe1 npeaso1n coro ce6n;
snun1, ne cnoco6no uenoaeuec1ao k 6eckoneunoy coaepuenc1ay.
XIV
Hx k yr . Pu
kkn. Cmu u k mu .
cnn 6m uenoaeueckne pcm 6mnn panm, nc1opnn npepc1n 6m nuey asopy a anpe
ouenL aneu1nnkue, coaepuenno n cnano kp1nnm. orp pcm, 6ypyun a pano
epe ynmn n yc1penennmn k caon nc1nnnm nn1epec, a pano epe
cnoco6nmn n1n cnoco6 no6exp1L n 1opxec1aoa1L, c coro nepaoro pnn
1aopennn nnonnnnn 6m senk poe npouae1kunx n - u1o coe rnanoe -
aosnnkunx opnoapeenno unannnsun. 1y xe anoxy, korp ppeaneune
cnckpn1ckne npopm cospann caok nnepnk n nokpmann - nocpepc1ao pennrnn
n eu - Kxnyk npnk nocean, ropopn, paopun n xpn, korp nepan
nnepnn ccnpnuea ykpun ponnnm nrp n aqp1 aennuec1aennmn
coopyxennnn, korp konecnnum n konnnu epop saoeann cocepnne npopm, n
qpnkncko no6epexLe, rpe xnay1 nerpm c nporn1nueckn c1poenne ronoam,
nonannocL 6m psynoe n psan1oe o6uec1ao, o6npauee 6onLunn cpepc1an n
aosoxnoc1nn.
enL1ckne ny1euec1aennnkn npnnecnn 6m n snpnyk okoneunoc1L aponm, npnpy c
oc11kn aoc1ouno yppoc1n nepao6m1nmx apeen, ace neo6xopnme aneen1m
aennkoro o6uec1a n naepnnk 6m ac1pe1nnn cpepn n6epncknx npopoa,
pcnpoc1pnennmx a 1e apeen a 1nnn n n oc1poax Cpepnsenoro opn, a
nnnn n cnnnn, poc1onmx conepnnkoa, 6or1mx, kk n onn cn, ppeannn
1ppnunnn, nckycnmx ao acex o6nc1nx uenoaeuecko pen1enLnoc1n.
orp o6Lepnnennoe uenoaeuec1ao roppo urno 6m no senoy upy, cnnLnoe caon
o6un psyo, cospan noackpy noxoxne ppyr n ppyr o6uec1a, n no
npouec1ann neko1oporo apeenn ace nunn c1nn 6m opnnkoao ouenna1L caon
no1pe6noc1n n aosoxnoc1n, opnnn rnsn co1pe1L n npnpopy, sansnn 6m
1ecnme kon1k1m expy co6o, ko1opme c1onL neo6xopnm n amropnm pnn nporpecc
n unannnsunn.
eko1opme nneen, a cnny snocuc1no cypL6m oksaunecn a cypoamx
knn1nuecknx ycnoannx, a 1ecnmx yuenLnx cknnc1mx rop, n no6epexLe nokpm1mx
nLpo ope, a 6eckpnnx c1ennx, o6pyaemx xonopnmn ae1pn, 6mnn 6m
amnyxpenm ponLue 6opo1Lcn c neroc1enpnnno npnpopo, ue o6ncknnme cypL6o
npopm. o a konue konuoa n a1n nneen, 6ypyun npenennmn 1kn xe psyo n
1knn xe cnoco6noc1nn, ne sepnnnn 6m n1n cpepc1a crnpn1L cypoaoc1L
knn1. nn o6ns1enLno yno1pe6nnn 6m psynyk k1nanoc1L, kkyk m ceropnn
n6nkpe y p1un, nopaexuea, ncnnpuea. nn cyenn 6m ykpo1n1L c1pon1nayk
nouay n cpennn 6m ee nnopopopno. ropx onn, kk, nnpnep, nmneunne xn1enn
Laeupnn, nonLsoanncL 6m amropn cko1oaopc1a, nnn, no npnepy xn1ene
unp, npn6ernn 6m k aosoxnoc1n npomunennoc1n; ecnn 6m nx c1pn
oksncL 6esnpexno 6ecnnopno, ee reorpqnueckoe nonoxenne 6esmcxopno
ne6nronpnn1nm, onn cornn 6m nonn1L, u1o senn aennk, u1o a ne noro ponnn n
pannn, n 1orp onn oc1annn 6m caok popnny n o1npannncL n nonckn ec1, rpe nx
psynn pen1enLnoc1L npnnecn 6m nnopm.
orp nunn, a pano c1enenn npocaeuennme n 6or1me - opnn s cue1 koepunn,
6nroppn opckn rann, ppyrne s cue1 cenLckoro xosnc1a, npouae1kuero n
nnopopopnmx npoc1opx, 1pe1Ln s cue1 npomunennoc1n, ue1aep1me - 6nroppn
ypunoy ec1ononoxennk, - cnoao, ace nunn, neco1pn n apeennme
psnorncnn n aonm, k coxnennk, neo1Leneme o1 uenoaeuecko npnpopm, ouenL
ckopo poroaopnnncL 6m o coaec1no xnsnn n sene. Bnnskne ppyr k ppyry
unannnsunn konunnn 6m 1e, u1o o6LepnnnnncL, o6psoaa aceo6uyk
konqepepunk, npepe1 aekoamx eu1nn. ne cyuec1aoano 6m nnkknx
npenn1c1an n a1o ny1n, ecnn 6m ace pcm 6mnn npenenm opnnkoamn
yc1aennmn cnoco6noc1nn.
npoue, npncoannn kp1nn 6conk1no qn1c1nueckn. epame npopm,
poc1onme 1k nsma1Lcn, 6mnn nspan o6Lepnnenm npee o6unoc1n, ko1opn
nnkorp ne npnxopnn n y apap, xnaun no cocepc1ay. nn nrpnpoann ns
ec1 caoero nepaonunLnoro o6n1nnn n n caoe ny1n ac1peunncL c ppyrnn
npopn, aepnee nneenn, ko1opme 1k n ne cyenn ocosn1L npek unannnsunn,
nansnnyk n npnuenLun. npoaeprn mcnL o paenc1ae pc, cnoco6nme k
unannnsunn npopm anune cospann cao o6uec1aennm nopnpok n coaepuenno
psnmx ocnoax, s1e noroe nepennnn ppyr o1 ppyr. [nn 1ex rpynn, ko1opme ne
6mnn panxnm any1pennn nopmao, cnn npnep nnuero ne snunn. ncnnum, n
rnnm anpenn, kk no cocepc1ay c nnn qnnnknum, rpekn, kpqrennne c1pon1
uae1yune ropop. o nn ncnnum, nn rnnm ne c1nn konnpoa1L npam n cnc1ey
npanennn a1nx cnanmx 1oproauea n openna1ene, korp npnunn pnnnne,
no6epn1enn cornn npeo6psoa1L nokopennme senn 1onLko nocpepc1ao
kononnsunn. 1o kce1cn kenL1oa n n6epnuea, onn poksnn, u1o unannnsunn
aosoxn 1onLko npn ceuennn kpoan.
oco1pn, a kko cn1yunn oksnncL epnknckne nneen. npo c nnn
nonanncn npop npnuenLuea, ko1opm c1pen1cn yaennun1L caok uncnennoc1L, u1o6m
c11L cnnLnee. o nx pek asp-anepep nponnmak1 1mcnun cypoa. nn snk1, u1o
cnn nx xosnea necokpyun. Y nnx yxe ne1 nnkko npexpm n 1o, u1o uyxkn
ypy1 c nx popno senn. nn nonnnn, u1o aecL orponm kon1nnen1 cpenncn
po6mue eaponeuea, n n oc1e1cn nnuL n6nkp1L s 1e, kk uyxpme n
nnc1n1y1m penk1 xnsnL uenoaek nesancnue o1 konnuec1a pnun nnn pm6m.
okynn aopky, openn, pyxLn, onn nonnk1, u1o pxe nx npnn1nanme xennnn
6mnn 6m nerue ypoane1aopenm a pkx noaoro o6uec1a, ko1opoe npnrnue1 nx,
onnunae1 nx 1pyp n nsmae1 6opnrenoa noounnkn. o onn o1ksmak1cn, onn
npepnoun1k1 yepnnenne n yxopn1 ace pnLue a rny6L c1pnm. nn 6pock1 ace,
pxe koc1n caonx npepkoa. nn snk1, u1o ampy1, no kko-1o 1nnc1aennm yxc
ypepxnae1 nx a nneny neoponnoro o1apuennn, n, aocxnuncL cnno n
npeaocxopc1ao 6enoro uenoaek, nx cosnnne, acn nx n1yp, nx kpoaL, a konue
konuoa, npo1nan1cn pxe mcnn o 1o, u1o6m ne1L u1o-nn6o o6uee c 6enmn.
ncnncko epnke 6opnrenm ncnm1mak1 enLuee o1apuenne k npnuenLu.
[eno a 1o, u1o e1pononnn c coro nun oc1ann nokopennme nneen nop
ynpanenne nx co6c1aennmx kcnkoa n ne nm1ncL nx unannnsoa1L. pspeunnn
coxpnn1L ppeanne o6mun n skonm; o1 nnx 1pe6oann nnuL o6puennn a
xpnc1nnc1ao n onpepenennyk pnL. o ec1L kononnsunn, no cy1n, ne 6mno,
yrne1enne ampxnocL a qope npnxo1e n knpnsoa saoea1ene. o1 nouey
nnpeum ncnncko epnkn ne c1onL necuc1nnam n npoponxk1 xn1L, 1orp kk nx
ceaepnme cocepn, oksaunecn nop anc1Lk nrnockcoa c1pen1enLno amnpk1.
Cnepye1 se1n1L, u1o kononnsunk ne aocnpnnnk1 ne 1onLko pnkpn. nc1onuee
apen m anpn kpcnopeuname 1oy poks1enLc1a a nxnpe, rpe qpnuysm
pennsyk1 caok nonn1nky po6po aonn n qnnn1ponnn, 1kxe a npnn n B1ann,
rpe unannns1opn amc1ynk1 nrnnune n ronnnpum. a1o cme npkne npnepm
n poks1enLc1a 1oro, nckonLko necxopnm n nepanm expy co6o uenoaeueckne
pcm.
cnn pccyxp1L 1onLko ncxopn ns apapcko n1ypm neko1opmx npopoa n cun11L
a1o apapc1ao nsnunLnm n apoxpennm, 1orp npnpe1cn o1ks1L n a nnnunn
acnko kynL1ypm, opnko 1koe nenne ne nanne1cn 6eccnopnm. Mnorne pnkne
npopnoc1n coxpnnnn cnepm 6onee npocaeuennoro npounoro, nexenn nx nmneunn
o6ps xnsnn. c1L nneen, pxe aecL kpoaoxpnme, ko1opme nek1 nenonn1nme n
cnoxnme pnn nc 1ppnunonnme nopnpkn, u1o kce1cn ac1ynnennn a 6pk,
ncnepc1aennoc1n n nonn1nueckoro ynpanennn, nx pn1ynm, nnuennme ceropnn
acnkoro cmcn, yxopn1 kopnnn a nekyk cnc1ey 6onee amcokoro nopnpk.
kuec1ae npnep oxno npnaec1n kpcnokoxne nneen, kouykune n yrpkmx
6esnkpnmx npoc1opx, rpe, kk nonrk1, nekorp xnnn nnernnum. nn ppyrne
npopm, o6npkune npnknpnmn snnnnn, nano snc1aoannmn y koro-1o
ppyroro - nnpnep, xn1enn Mpnncknx oc1poaoa. nn nonLsyk1cn nn, 1k
cks1L, unnnLno, ne spymancL np nx nponcxoxpenne.
kn o6pso, ac1peuncL c npopnoc1Lk, npe6makue a coc1onnnn apapc1a,
c1on1 npnco1pe1Lcn k ne ann1enLnee. 1o6m ne anc1L a oun6ky, pcco1pn
neckonLko npnepoa.
Cyuec1ayk1 npopm, ko1opme, nonpn a cqepy pen1enLnoc1n popc1aenno pcm, a
kko-1o c1enenn nopunnnk1cn e, npnnnk1 neko1opme noame pnn ce6n npann n
ycanak1 neko1opme snnnn; s1e, korp rocnopc1aykun pc nunne1 ncues1L
- nn6o a pesynL11e panennn, nn6o s cue1 nonnoro cnnnnnn c nokopennm npopo,
- nocnepnn nou1n nonnoc1Lk y1punae1 npno6pe1ennyk kynL1ypy, a oco6ennoc1n
ee npnnunnm, n coxpnne1 1o nenoroe, u1o on cor nonn1L. npoue, 1kn cn1yunn
aosoxn 1onLko expy npopnoc1nn, 6nnsknn no kpoan. k pec1aoann
ccnpnum no o1nouennk k xnpen, cnpnckne n ernne1ckne rpekn no o1nouennk k
rpek aponm, n6epnum, kenL1m, nnnnpnum no o1nouennk k npen ppeannx
pnnnn. ecnn uepokn, k1a6cm, ckoren, cennonm, nuesm n n nopo6nme
nneen coxpnnnn neko1opme cnepm nnernncko unannnsunn, n ne cknonen,
ncxopn ns a1oro, cun11L, u1o onn nannk1cn npnmn no1okn poponunLnnkoa
pcm; ns a1oro cnepye1, u1o kkn-1o pc orn 6m1L unannnsoanno n nepec1n
6m1L 1koao, n 6m cksn, u1o ecnn kkoe-1o ns nepeuncnennmx nneen a1nnueckn
eue 6nnsko c1on1 k ppeaney npeo6npkuey 1nny, 1k 1onLko uepes
onocpepoannyk n no6ounyk cansL, 6es ko1opo uepokn annn 6m a nonnoe
apapc1ao. 1o kce1cn oc1nLnmx, enee oppennmx npopnoc1e, onn
npepc1annk1cn ne nnuL qono uyxoro ncenennn, nokopennoro n npncoepnnennoro
cnno, n ko1opo korp-1o snxpnncn counnLnm nopnpok. Cnepoa1enLno, ne1
nnuero ypnan1enLnoro a 1o, u1o a1n counnLnme ockonkn coxpnnnn - anpoue, 1k
n ne nonna nx, - npnamukn, skonm, pn1ynm, cospnnme ppyrnn, 6onee cnoco6nmn
npopn, xo1n onn ne cornn nonn1L nx snunoc1L n nx cekpe1, n anpenn a nnx
1onLko npepe1 cyeaepnoro yaxennn. D1o, nnpnep, o1nocn1cn k oc11k
exnnuecknx peecen. o, u1o ceropnn amsmae1 nue aocxnuenne, oxe1 6m1L
nnopn pen1enLnoc1n psan1o pcm, ko1opn pano ncuesn. nnorp nx
nponcxoxpenne yxopn1 a anoxn, eue 6onee o1pnennme. ce, u1o o1nocn1cn k
ropnopypnoy peny n6epnuea, kan1nuea n 6pe1onuea c ccn1epnpcknx oc1poaoa,
6epe1 nuno a epxne snn, o1kyp npepkn snpnmx npopoa korp-1o npnnecnn
cekpe1m a1o nykn a npouecce nepecenenn.
n6onLun nn1epec cpepn nonnnesnuea amsmak1 xn1enn ponnncknx oc1poaoa.
x c1epc1ao a 1kuec1ae, nx pesnme 6pkn n c1pc1L k opennannk n koepunn
nannk1cn 1o pepkunonno nnnne, ko1opn o1penne1 nx o1 nenrncknx nerpoa.
e coc1anne1 1pyp o6npyxn1L nc1ok nx 1nn1oa. nn o6nsnm a1n ncko
kpoan, nonaue a nx xnnm, nockonLky a1 kpoaL 6mn pneko ne unc1o,
a1nnueckoe ncnepne onn coxpnnnn, no ne cornn ero ycoaepuenc1aoa1L, ckopee
no6opo1 - ono c kxpm ropo xnpee1.
kn o6pso, ecnn y nnoro apapckoro npop ac1peuk1cn cnepm
unannnsoannoc1n, a1o ne cnyxn1 poks1enLc1ao 1oro, u1o a1o1 npop korp-1o 6mn
unannnsoannm. n xnn nop anc1Lk popc1aennoro ey, no npeaocxopnuero ero no
psan1nk, nneenn, nnn, nen 1koe nnen caon cocepo, on po6ko n nokopno
yunncn y nero. mneunne pnkne pcm 1koamn 6mnn acerp; pccyxpn no
nnornn, oxno cpen1L amaop, u1o pnkpn oc1ny1cn pnkpnn, nok ne ncuesny1 c
nnu senn.
esynL11 a1o1 nens6exen, korp pa 1nn, expy ko1opmn o1cy1c1aye1 acnkoe
popc1ao, oksmak1cn a k1nanmx o1nouennnx; nyuue peonc1pune a1oro oxe1
cnyxn1L cypL6 nonnnesnuea n epnkncknx 6opnrenoa. 1k, ns
amuensnoxennoro am1eke1 cnepykuee:
1. mneunne pnkne nneen acerp npe6mann a 1ko coc1onnnn nesancno o1
cpepm, a ko1opyk onn nonpnn n caoe nc1opnuecko ny1n, n 1knn onn oc1ny1cn
acerp.
2. 1o6m pnkn nunn orn ampepx1L pxe apeennoe npe6manne a
unannnsoanno cpepe, nunn, cospkun 1kyk cpepy, ponxn nponcxopn1L ns
6onee 6nropopno ae1an 1o xe pcm.
3. D1o xe ycnoane neo6xopno pnn 1oro, u1o6m psnme unannnsunn ornn pxe ne
ceu1Lcn, uero, kc11n, nnkorp ne 6mae1, no npoc1o a poc11ouno c1enenn
nsenn1Lcn a pesynL11e kon1k1 ppyr c ppyro, asnno o6or1n1Lcn, co1aopn1L
ppyrne unannnsunn,
coc1onune ns nx aneen1oa.
4. Unannnsunn, amuepune ns pc, coaepuenno uyxpmx ppyr ppyry, ory1 nnuL
conpnkc1Lcn noaepxnoc1nm o6pso, no nnkorp ne nponnkny1 ppyr a ppyr n
acerp oc1ny1cn asnoncknkukunn. ockonLky nocnepnn nynk1 1pe6ye1
pononnn1enLnoro psLncnennn, oc1noancn n ne noppo6nee.
Mnorouncnennme konqnnk1m 6mnn npnunno o6uennn nepcnpcko unannnsunn c
rpeuecko, ernne1cko unannnsunn c rpeuecko n pncko, pncko unannnsunn c
rpeuecko, s1e unannnsunn nmneune aponm aoun a conpnkocnoaenne c
ppyrnn npoamn unannnsunnn nuero apeenn, a uc1noc1n c p6cko.
1nouennn rpeueckoro psy c nepcnpcko kynL1ypo 6mnn nc1onLko xe
psnoo6psnmn, nckonLko nansnnmn aneunnn o6c1on1enLc1an. pexpe acero
6onLun uc1L annnnckoro ncenennn - cn 6or1n, ecnn ne cn cao6opnn -
6mn cocpepo1ouen a ropopx cnpnckoro no6epexLn, a kononnnx Mno snn n
on1, ko1opme, 6mc1po o6LepnnnauncL c rocyppc1an aennkoro upn, nxopnnncL
nop kon1pone c1pnoa n po neko1opo c1enenn coxpnnnn caok cyunoc1L. Co caoe
c1oponm, nesancnn kon1nnen1nLnn peunn noppepxnan ouenL 6nnskne
o1nouennn c sn1ckn no6epexLe.
o cnnnncL nn a1n pae unannnsunn? ce nsaec1no, u1o ne1. pekn cun1nn caonx
oryuec1aennmx npo1nannkoa apapn, aosoxno, n nocnepnne o1aeunn n 1e
xe. onn1nueckne npam, qop npanennn, cneunqnk nckycc1a, psx n
any1pennn cmcn o6uec1aennoro kynL1, uc1nme npam npopoa, ceunnmx ppyr c
ppyro, 1e ne enee 1k n oc1nncL psnmn. Dk61ne ocnoao ocnoa 6mn
epnnonnunn ncnepc1aennn anc1L, orpnnuennn neko1opmn 1ppnunnn, no a
cyunoc1n 6conk1nn. Dnnpe anc1L 6mn nopenen expy cco enknx
cyaepenoa. panenne, pnc1okp1nueckoe y opnnx npopoa, peokp1nueckoe y
ppyrnx, onpxnueckoe y 1pe1Lnx, 1npnnueckoe y ue1aep1mx, nannno co6o - a
Cnp1e, qnnx, Mkeponnn - cyk npnuypnnayk cecL. Y nepcoa kynL1
rocyppc1a, 6onLue nnonnkun nepao6m1nme npnnunnm nepaopopc1a,
o1nnuncn 1o xe 1enpenune k epnnc1ay, u1o n anc1L npan1enLc1a, n onnpncn n
opnLnme n e1qnsnueckne yc1on, ne nnuennme rny6nnm n ocnoa1enLnoc1n. Y
rpekoa cnaonns, ocnoannm n psnoo6psnmx nponanennnx npnpopm,
poaonLc1aoancn 1e, u1o aocnean qopm. ennrnn oc1annn rpxpnckn skon
s6o1y o coaec1n, aep, amnonnna o6ns1enLnme pn1ynm n aospa ponxnoe
ycnoanoy 6ory nnn repok, nonrn caok nccnk skonuenno. D1n pn1ynm,
nouec1n, 6orn n repon ennnncL uepes kxpme nonnnn. cnn xe a neko1opmx xpx,
nnpnep a nnnnn nnn a [opone, noknonnnncL ne opno ns cnn n ne opnoy ns
aneen1oa npnpopm, coy kocnueckoy npnnunny, 1koe epnnc1ao nnuL
nopuepknano psppo6nennoc1L, nockonLky npk1nkoanocL ono a o1penLnmx ec1x.
c11n, opkyn ns [oponm n Knn1ep-nnnneu nponcxopn1 ns uyxnx kynL1oa.
1o kce1cn o6muea, ne1 nyxpm nnonn1L, po kko c1enenn onn o1nnunncL o1
nepcnpcknx. [nn onopmx, 6or1mx, cnc1onk6namx n kocononn1nunmx nkpe
cun1nocL nosopo npnnn1L o6ps xnsnn npo1nannkoa, ko1opme 6mnn no-nnoy
xnsnenk6nam n y1onuennm, ue annnnm. nno1L po anoxn nekcnpp, 1. e. a 1euenne
cnanoro nepnop rpeueckoro oryuec1a - nepnop aennkoro n nnopo1aopnoro, -
nepcm, neco1pn n caoe npeaocxopc1ao, ne ornn npno6un1L rpekoa k caoe
unannnsunn.
C npnxopo nekcnpp a1o1 qk1 nonyunn neoxnpnnoe nop1aepxpenne. orp
Dnnp nokopnn epcnk [pnn, ksnocL, u1o acn snn c1ne1 rpeuecko, 1e 6onee,
u1o no6epn1enL, npnuepun opnxpm nouLk a nenc1oac1ao, nosaonnn ce6e 1kne
cnnLnme rpeccnanme pec1ann npo1na ec1nmx nn1nnkoa, u1o a nnx 6es 1pyp
oxno 6mno 6m yco1pe1L c1onLko xe npespennn, ckonLko nenanc1n. pnko
nopxnr1enL epcenonnc ackope nsennn caon asrnnpm, p 1k ppnknLno, u1o a
ero nnnx oxno 6mno yco1pe1L xennne npoc1o-nnpoc1o nopenn1L co6o
pnnc1nk xeennpoa n upc1aoa1L kk ero npepuec1aennnk nnn kk aennkn
cepkc, aknkuna peunk a uncno caonx anpenn. o1 1k nepcnpckn
coun6enLnoc1L ponxn 6mn norno1n1L annnnns.
o, neco1pn n aecL a1opn1e1 nekcnpp, nnuero nopo6noro ne cnyunnocL. ro
renepnm n conp1m ne noxennn anpe1L caoero npepaopn1enn a pnnnnmx
psaeakunxcn opexpx, c n1po n ronoae, a okpyxennn eanyxoa, 1. e. ne
sxo1enn, u1o6m on o1pekcn o1 caoe popnnm. on yep. eko1opme ns ero
c1oponnnkoa nm1nncL ocyuec1an1L ero nnnm, opnko 6mnn amnyxpenm o1c1ynn1L.
co [ene, nouey n ypnocL cosp1L a1o1 rn6pnp, a1o rocyppc1ao n sn1cko
no6epexLe, aknkukuee rpeueckne kononnn a rnn1e? o1oy, u1o nx noppnnme
npepc1annnn co6o nec1pyk cecL ns rpekoa, cnpnuea, p6oa, y ko1opmx ne 6mno
nnoro am6op, kpoe kk no1n n kynL1ypnm konponcc. o 1, rpe pcm
oc1anncL no caoey coc1ay psnnunmn, 1koro ne nponsouno. xpn c1pn
coxpnnn caon nunonnLnme npam.
ue opnn npnep. [o nocnepnnx pne pncko nnepnn ceunnn unannnsunn,
ko1opn npeo6npn n ace oc1oke, aknkun kon1nnen1nLnyk peunk 1o nopm,
oc1ancL ckopee sn1cko, ue rpeuecko, no1oy u1o a nkpnx 6mno 6onLue
nepao kpoan, ue a1opo. pap, npo npnsn1L, u1o munenne npnnnno
annnnnc1nueckne qopm. o ne1pypno o6npyxn1L a mcnn 1o anoxn n 1ex c1pn
aoc1ounm qon, ko1opm oxnanne1 ace, u1o npnnpnexn1 nekcnppncko ukone,
nnpnep, ynn1pnc1ckne pok1pnnm rpeko-cnpncknx kpnc1oa. kn o6pso,
coxpnne1cn nponopunn, u1o kce1cn konnuec1a coo1ae1c1aykunx kpoae:
npeaocxopc1ao s npeo6npkun konnuec1ao.
pexpe ue skonun1L a1y npnnenL a o1nouennn kon1k1 expy unannnsunnn,
po6ank neckonLko cnoa o6 p6cko kynL1ype a cpanennn c nue.
e1 nnkknx conenn ao asnno o11nknannn unannnsun. un npepkn,
xnaune a cpepnne aek, nenn aosoxnoc1L aoounk anpe1L poc1nxennn n uypec
ycynLnckoro rocyppc1a n ne rnyunncL nocmn1L caonx pe1e n yue6y a ukonm
oppoam. o a apone ne coxpnnnocL nnuero p6ckoro s ncknkuenne 1ex c1pn,
rpe oc1nocL nenoro nsennc1cko kpoan; 6pxnckn npnn npeycnen a a1o ne
6onLue, ue m: nop anc1Lk roe1n on ycneuno amc1onn, neco1pn n ace nx
ycnnnn.
Ceropnn nu ouepepL pec1aoa1L n psannnx p6cko unannnsunn. m
cnocn nx c nnu senn, m ne a coc1onnnn ncnonLsoa1L nx pnn ce6n. expy 1e
a1 unannnsunn c ne 6mn unc1okpoano n noa1oy 6mn enee npouno.
p6ckn nunn, neaennkn uncno, ccnnnnpoan pcm, nokopennme ee c6ne.
oa1oy ycynLne - ncknkun1enLno nepeeunnoe ncenenne - nenn
ceunnyk unannnsunk, aneen1m ko1opo npen1nqnunpoa1L ne1pypno. saec1no,
u1o nppo no6epn1ene po Mroe1 ne 6mn npnunm nnn nesnkom npop. ro
1ppnunn 6mnn xopouo snkom n xn1 n cen1, o1 ko1opmx on aepe1 caok
popocnoanyk. n nen 1ecnme o1nouennn, kk c qnnnknun, 1k n c eapenn. ero
xnnx 1ekn kpoaL n 1ex n ppyrnx; on cnyxnn pnn nnx 1oproam nocpepnnko expy
pcnm ope, aoc1ounm no6epexLe qpnkn n npne. o o1nouennk k nepc n
pnnnn on amnonnnn 1y xe ponL. Mnorne p6ckne nneen npnnnnn yuc1ne a
nonn1nuecko xnsnn epcnn npn pccnpx n cmnoaLnx Cccn, a 1o apen kk opnn
ns ero npnnuea - pen1 - nsnunn ce6n uespe, opn ns ero pouepe - 3eno6nn,
pouL py, npan1enLnnu nLnpm - nokpmn ce6n cnao cpepn pnnnn, opnn
ns ero npepc1an1ene-an1kpnc1oa, Onnnnn, pxe nocnn nnep1opckyk
nypnypnyk n1nk. 1k, a1 ceunnn nunn, nunnn c co pnne n1nunoc1n,
nnkorp ne nepec1an noppepxna1L o1nouennn c oryuec1aennmn npopn,
okpyxaunn ee. n yuc1aoan a nx noacepneano pen1enLnoc1n n, nnopo6ne
1en, nnonoanny norpyxennoro a aopy, nnonoanny oc1kuerocn nop connue, on
1nnyncL opnoapeenno k nepepoao kynL1ype n apapc1ay.
Mroe1 npnpyn pennrnk, kk nenLsn nyuue coo1ae1c1aykuyk npen caoero
npop, a ko1opo npononoknonc1ao 6mno aecL pcnpoc1pnennm, no n
xpnc1nnc1ao, nckxennoe epe1nkn n nypnc1n, neno neno c1oponnnkoa.
ennrnosnn 1e npopok ns opeu npepc1annn co6o 1kyk cecL, u1o corncne
expy skono Moncen n xpnc1nncko aepo - kc11n, a1 npo6ne acerp
1peaoxnn cmx nepamx k1onnkoa n acerp npncy1c1aoan a cosnnnn aoc1ounmx
npopoa - 6mno specL 6onee c6nncnpoannm, nexenn a pok1pnnx nue Uepkan.
D1o 6mn npnnk, nekun co6nsnn1enLnm po1, anpoue, nk6n
1eonornueckn noannk nen unc saoea1L noknonnnkoa cpepn cnpnuea n
ernn1nn. 1o6m yaenu1L noc1poennoe spnne, noan pennrnn npepc1n nepep
nkpLn c c6ne a pyke, u1o nannocL eue opno rpn1ne ycnex pnn cc, ne
nekunx 1ecnmx canse n nponnkny1mx ouyuenne 6eccnnnn.
o1 1k ncn amuen ns caonx nyc1mnL. mcokoepnm, nenso6pe11enLnm n c
coro nun n pae 1pe1n nopunnennm rpeko-sn1cko unannnsunn, on nxopnn
n aoc1oke n kre CpepnsenoopLn norouncnennmx noao6pnuea, yxe ro1oamx
aocnpnnn1L 1kyk cnoxnyk cecL. o epe pcnpoc1pnennn ncn ace 6onLue
nponn1mancn a1o cecLk. 1 Brpp po Mon enLe on pcnpoc1ep cao kynL1,
snc1aoannm y Uepkan, y Cnnrorn, a nckxennmx 1ppnunnx epxs n Heen,
1k on nponoaepoan caon nepcnpckne n pnckne skonm, caok rpeko-cnpnckyk n
ernne1ckyk nyky, caok pnnnc1punk, c coro nepaoro pnn o1nnukuykcn
1epnnoc1Lk, u1o aoace neypnan1enLno, korp a rocyppc1aenno 1ene o1cy1c1aye1
epnnc1ao. enpam 1e, k1o ypnannncn 6mc1poy nporpeccy ycynLn a cmcne
y1onuennoc1n npaoa cnoann cc a1oro npop npoc1o-nnpoc1o nsennn
npnamukn, n npop a1o1 c1n nou1n neysnae, korp nun nrp1L ponL noc1on
nnn ppe1enn n npoao pene, rpe yxe pano ne snnn ero nop ppeannn nenn.
syee1cn, a a1o1 konrnoep1 c1onL psnmx pc kxpn anocnn cao aknp a
o6uee npouae1nne. ace xe - k1o nenno pn rnanm 1onuok, k1o noppepxn
nopma nyc1L n ne c1onL ponroapeennm? e k1o nno, kk ne6onLun rpynn nneen
p6ckoro nponcxoxpennn, amuepunx ns co ceppueannm nonyoc1poa, ko1opme
pnn ne yuenmx, no qn1nkoa, conp1, no6epn1ene n nc1annkoa.
p6ckn unannnsunn 6mn ne ue nnm, kk rpeko-cnpncko unannnsune,
oonoxenno, o6noanenno pmxnne rennn - poaonLno kp1koapeennm, no 6onee
caexn - n 1pncqopnpoanno nepcnpcko npnecLk. oc1poennn 1kn
o6pso, o1kpm1n norn annnnnn, on ne yknpmae1cn nn a opny counnLnyk
qopyny, nekuyk nnoe nponcxoxpenne; no n rpeueckn kynL1yp ne coue1ncL c
pncko, c1onL e popc1aenno, ko1opn noro aekoa oc1ancL skny1o a
npepenx opno nnepnn. 3pecL neocnopn neaosoxnoc1L pnn unannnsun,
cospnnmx uyxpmn ppyr ppyry a1nnuecknn rpynnn, korp-nn6o ceu1Lcn ppyr c
ppyro.
orp nc1opnn ue1ko yc1noan1 a1o1 nenpeoponnm n1ronns expy pcn n nx
kynL1ypnmn 1nnn, c1ne1 oueanpno, u1o psnnune n nepaenc1ao kopenn1cn a
rny6nne a1nx coc1anmx o11nknann, nockonLky eaponeeu ne coxe1
unannnsoa1L nerp, nockonLky on a coc1onnnn nepep1L yn1y nnuL uc1L caonx
cnoco6noc1e, a1o1 yn1, nekun a xnnx kpoaL 6eno pcm, ne cospc1
no1oc1ao, cnoco6noe aocnpnnn1L u1o-nn6o 6onLuee, nexenn kynL1yp e1ncoa,
nyc1L n yc1penennn k npen 6eno pcm, n cun1k ce6n anpae snan1L o
nepaenc1ae yc1aennmx cnoco6noc1e psnnunmx pc.
oa1opk eue ps, u1o peuL aoace ne o 1o, u1o6m ck1n1Lcn k e1opnke, c1onL nno,
k necuc1Lk, pnn an1onoroa n, no kpne epe, cexo1aopno. ne co6npkcL
pccyxp1L o opnLno n yc1aenno uennoc1n o1penLno asn1mx nnpnanpoa.
1o kce1cn opnLno uennoc1n, n nonnoc1Lk n uennko amaoxy ee s pkn
aonpoc, korp konc11npyk cnoco6noc1L acex uenoaeuecknx o6uec1a a ponxno epe
ocosn1L snuenne xpnc1nnc1a. orp peuL npe1 o6 yc1aenno cnoco6noc1n, n
6conk1no o1aeprk pryen1unk, sknkukuykcn a cnepykue: acnkn nerp
6esppen [aH ka cyx Hnackx acnx, aHx,
cx r naaxa sranaHa. kak 4akn
xaaky ra 3 xa, k vamva Hr c cnu
x Han ycn.]. nue, cnepyn 1ko nornke, ne npnunocL 6m npnsn1L, u1o
acnkn eaponeeu yen, no yncn enn Bor o1 1ko rnynoc1n.
e pyk, u1o c1oponnnkn paenc1a pc nocneu1 noks1L ne 1o1 nnn nno
o1pmaok ns 1o nnn nno knnrn nccnonep nnn ny1euec1aennnk, o1kyp cnepye1,
u1o nekn onoq oksncn nckycnm nno1nnko, ro11en1o1 c1n po6pm ceLnnnno,
kqp yee1 1nuea1L n nrp1L n ckpnnke, 66p sne1 pnqe1nky.
npnsnk ace, u1o oxno pccks1L uypecnoro a a1o cmcne, u1o kce1cn cmx
1nn1nnamx pnkpe. o1pnuk upesepnyk rnynoc1L, xponnueckyk 6esppnoc1L
pxe cpepn cmx neunannnsoannmx nneen. pxe nopy pnLue onx
onnonen1oa, no1oy u1o n ne coneakcL, u1o nenoe uncno nerpn1nncknx aoxpe no
cnne n o6nnnk npe n mcne, no oun pyx n nn1encnanoc1n k1nanmx
cnoco6noc1e npeaocxopn1 cpepnn ypoaenL, koero ory1 poc1nrny1L nun kpec1Lnne,
pxe nun anonne rpo1nme 6ypxy-ropoxne. opuepkny eue ps, u1o on
pccyxpennn c1pon1cn aoace ne n sm6ko nouae o1penLnmx nnunoc1e nnn
nnpnanpoa. Mne kxe1cn nepoc1onm pnn nykn orpnnuna1Lcn 1knn enknn
pryen1n. cnn Mynro-pk nnn npep ampnn kkoy-1o nerpy ypoc1oaepenne o
nnnunn y, k1o ne nopyun1cn, u1o ppyroy ny1euec1aennnky, ac1pe1nauey 1oro
xe oppennoro 1nn, ne npnpe1 a ronoay coaepuenno npo1naononoxnoe nenne?
npoue, oc1an a1n pe6nueckne ynpxnennn n cpann ne o1penLnmx nkpe,
rpynnm. onLko korp m onpepenn, a ue cnoco6nm nnn ne cnoco6nm rpynnm, a
kko epe onn ocyuec1annk1 caon cnoco6noc1n, kknx yc1aennmx amco1 onn
poc1nrk1 n kkne ppyrne nunn ynpannk1 nn, nunnn c nc1opnuecknx apeen, ao1
1orp oxno 6ype1 o6cyxp1L pe1nn n amnckna1L npnunnm, nouey nyuune
npepc1an1enn kko-nn6ypL pcm c1on1 nnxe, ue rennn ppyro. 31e, conoc1ana
cnoco6noc1n npoc1mx nkpe acex 1nnoa, oxno peu1L, a ue a1n cnoco6noc1n panm,
a ue ne1. D1 1pypnn n pennk1nn p6o1 ponxn npoponx1Lcn po 1ex nop, nok
aonpoc o pcx ne nponcnn1cn c kcnnLno aosoxno 1ounoc1Lk n, aosoxno, c
npnenenne 1e1nuecknx e1opoa ne yaepen, oxno nn aoo6ue nonyun1L
neonpoaepxnme pesynL11m a a1o o6nc1n n oxno nn, o1noxna a c1opony o6une
qk1m, co6p1L aoepnno ace nkncm, onpepenn1L, ocmcnn1L n knccnqnunpoa1L
any1pennne nnc1m kxpo nunn n ee nnpnanpynLnme xpk1epnme npnsnkn.
a1o cnyue oxno 6ype1 6es 1pyp poks1L, u1o k1nanoc1L, aneprnn, yc1aennme
cnoco6noc1n nnenee oppennmx npepc1an1ene rocnopc1aykunx pc npeaocxopn1
yc1aennme cnoco6noc1n, aneprnk, k1nanoc1L npepc1an1ene ppyrnx pc.
1k, m anpn uenoaeuec1ao, pspenennoe n pae ue1ko o1nnukunecn ppyr o1
ppyr n ouenL nepanme uc1n nnn, nyuue cks1L, n pnp k1eropn, nopunnennmx
ppyr ppyry, rpe c1enenL yc1aennoro psan1nn o6osnue1 ypoaenL nnn c1ynenL.
a1o o6unpno neppxnuecko c1pyk1ype ec1L pa axnmx qk1op, noc1onnno
pec1aykunx n kxpm pnp. euL npe1 o cnepykunx qk1opx - aeunmx npnunnx
1oro panxennn, ko1opoe c6nnxe1 pcm n c1pen1cn nx ceu1L: npn6nnsn1enLnoe
cxopc1ao ocnoanmx qnsnuecknx npnsnkoa n o6un cnoco6noc1L ampx1L ouyuennn
n mcnn ronocoamn opynnunnn.
cnnuko noro roaopnn o nepao ns a1nx qenoenoa, ko1opm nm1ncn sknkun1L
a ero nc1nnnme rpnnum.
enepL cnepye1 o6p1n1Lcn ko a1opoy n noco1pe1L, kkne cyuec1ayk1 o1nouennn
expy a1nnuecko cnno n 6or1c1ao nsmk: nnmn cnoan, npo amncnn1L,
npnnpnex1 nn cme 6or1me nsmkoame npnom cm cnnLnm pc, a
npo1nano cnyue npo nonn1L n o6Lncnn1L a1y nonnk.
XV
Huk, u, xk yk
cnn 6m nonypnkne npopm, c1onune n co nnsue c1ynenn a1nnuecko nec1nnum,
o1c1aune kk a yxcko, 1k n a xencko psan1nn uenoaeuec1a, neco1pn n a1o
cqopnpoann pnn co6c1aennoro nonLsoannn nsmkn, rny6okne a qnnocoqcko
o1nouennn, ac1e1nueckn npekpcnme n rn6kne, o1nnukunecn 6or1c1ao n
1ounoc1Lk ampxennn, o6nnne psnoo6psnmx n 6nropopnmx qop, npnropnme pnn
nepepun acex amco1 n kpco1 noasnn n ue1knx mcne, kknx 1pe6yk1 nonn1nk n
nyk, 1orp 6mno 6m oueanpno, u1o a1n npopm o6npk1 coaepuenno 6ecnonesnm
ppo - ppo cospa1L n coaepuenc1aoa1L nnc1pyen1, nenyxnm n nsnnunn
pnn oc1nLnmx nx neounmx cnoco6noc1e.
orp npnunocL 6m npnsn1L, u1o y npnpopm ec1L caon nyc1me knpnsm, ne nekune
uenn, u1o neko1opme srpkn 6m1nn aepy1 aoace ne k pckpm1nk nenosnnnoro, kk
a1o uue acero cnyue1cn, ne k ac1peue c nenosnaem, no npoc1o-nnpoc1o k
6cyppy.
nepam asrnnp nnpunae1cn nenno 1ko pocpnm amaop, no1oy u1o, ecnn
pcc1pna1L pcm a nx nmneune coc1onnnn, npnpe1cn npnsn1L, u1o kpco1 n
coaepuenc1ao nsmkoa pneko ne acerp nponopunonnLnm ypoank unannnsoannoc1n.
cnn o6p1n1Lcn nnuL k nsmk coapeenno aponm, m yanpn, u1o onn aoace ne
panouennm, n cme kpcname n 6or1me ne o6ns1enLno npnnpnex1 cm
psan1m npop. ecnn cpann1L a1n nsmkn c ppyrnn, pcnpoc1pnennmn a npe
a psnnunme anoxn, 1o c1noan1cn ncno, u1o ace onn, 6es ncknkuennn, o1c1nn a
caoe psan1nn.
o eue 6onee ypnan1enLno cnepykuee: uenme rpynnm nun, oc1aunxcn n 6onee
ue ckpono kynL1ypno ypoane, psroapnak1 n nsmkx, snunoc1L ko1opmx
neocnopn. kn o6pso, cospe1cn aneu1nenne, u1o nsmkn, coc1onune ns
nepanouennmx aneen1oa, pcnpepenenm a uenoaeuecko o6uec1ae cm
cnyunm o6pso: nnorp xnkne 6eckynL1ypnme n xec1okne cospnnn pnpn1cn a
uenk n sono1o, opexpm ns rpy6oro cykn n nenLkn nocn1 a opyxo1aopennmx, yuenmx
n yppmx o6uec1ax. cuc1Lk, a1o acero nnuL anpnoc1L, n kk 1onLko m
c1noancn n nosnunn pok1pnnm psnoo6psnn pc n 6epe a noounnum nc1opnk,
ace c1noan1cn n caon ec1 - npnaepennme amue poks1enLc1a yc1aennoro
nepaenc1a uenoaeuecknx 1nnoa nonyuk1 nnunee nop1aepxpenne.
epame qnnonorn coaepunnn paonyk oun6ky: ao-nepamx, onn npepnonoxnnn, no
npnepy aosspenn ynn1pnc1oa kc1enLno npen1nunoc1n nponcxoxpennn acex rpynn
uenoaeuec1a, u1o ace nsmkn cqopnpoanncL no opnoy n 1oy xe npnnunny, ao-
a1opmx, onn npnnncnn nso6pe1enne nsmk annnnnk unc1o 1epnnLnmx
no1pe6noc1e.
1o kce1cn nsmkoa, nnkkoro conennn a 1o, u1o cyuec1aye1 ncknkun1enLnoe
psnoo6psne cnoco6oa nx cospnnn, 6m1L ne ponxno. xo1n knccnqnkunn,
npepnreme qnnonorne, eue oxno y1ounn1L n nepec1pna1L, nenLsn ponyc1n1L
pxe n cekynpy, u1o n1ckn, pnckn n cen1ckn rpynnm nponcxopn1 ns
nc1ounnkoa, 6nnsknx ppyr k ppyry. o acex o1nouennnx onn o1nnuk1cn expy co6o.
a1nx psnnunmx nnnranc1nuecknx okpyxennnx nekcnkonornn nee1 caon
xpk1epnme qopm. snnun n opynnunn ronoc, opnn npop pnn nponsaopc1a
saykoa nonLsye1cn rnanm o6pso ry6n, ppyro - cx1ne ropnoamx muu,
1pe1n nspe1 saykn uepes noc, n onn npy1 kk 6m ns aepxne uc1n ronoam.
onosnunn uc1e peun 1kxe coaepuenno psnnun - nkncm mcnn
o6Lepnnnk1cn nnn xe pspennk1cn, cyuec1ayk1, oco6enno ao qnek1nano c1pyk1ype
cyuec1an1enLnmx n a rnronLno cnc1ee, y6epn1enLneune poks1enLc1a
psnnunn a nornke n uyac1an1enLnoc1n, ko1opn nee1 ec1o expy uenoaeuecknn
ceec1an. k u1o xe ns a1oro cnepye1? 1o, u1o korp qnnocoq, nm1ncL ny1e
unc1o 6c1pk1nmx pccyxpenn nonn1L nponcxoxpenne nsmkoa, nunne1 c npenLno
ckonc1pynpoannoro uenoaek, c uenoaek, nnuennoro oco6mx pcoamx npnsnkoa, 1.
e. npoc1o uenoaek, on yxe anpe1 a 6cypp n npoponxe1 n pnLue pccyxp1L a
1o xe pyxe. e1 npenLnoro uenoaek, uenoaek aoo6ue, n ecnn n y6expen a a1o,
1o ocnoamakcL npexpe acero n nsmkoamx psnnunnx. snk uenoaek, roaopnuero
n qnncko nsmke, uenoaek, roaopnuero n pncko nsmke, n ppyroro,
nsLncnnkuerocn n cen1cko npeunn, no 6conk1noro uenoaek n ne snk. oa1oy
n k1eropnueckn ne npnenk 1eopnn o epnno nponcxoxpennn nsmkoaoro 1aopuec1a
acex npopoa. pec1an1enLnoc1n nc1okoa nsmkoa 6mno neckonLko, kk 6mno - n
ec1L - neckonLko qop munennn n uyac1an1enLnoc1n [nurnuH yHnu
a H cax ncnx nyca nkac aman cyu s cm.
acy, ak nm s ranum Hmcnnu, x aH
cncn a nmkax c nccH Haan aanumx
cc, , v xaaky avn acamx ka
Hk a , nanu xaak nn ax ac
. aHx 1ncu a a cam akar
ax, a kak- H, ccar ncca aa nnr
nmka nanxar a, n yrr nmka, a kH
1ncncn cknuk aa (3aHk raHHavckx Hax
x ann a Haa Hmcn).].
Corncno ppyro pok1pnne, ne enee noxno, psan1ne nsmk nponcxopn1 a cnny
neo6xopnoc1n. orp nonyue1cn, u1o yxckne pcm ponxnm roaopn1L n 6onee
1ouno, 6or1o n psan1o nsmke, nexenn pcm xenckne; kpoe 1oro,
1epnnLnme no1pe6noc1n cansnm c npepe1n, ko1opme nek1 o1nouenne k
uyac1a n nponannk1cn, npexpe acero, a noc1ynkx, noa1oy nekcnk ponxn 6mn
6m coc1ann1L rnanyk uc1L nsmkoao c1pyk1ypm.
p1nueckn exnns n cnn1kcnc nnkorp 6m ne ornn am1n s npepenm cmx
aneen1pnmx n npoc1mx ko6nnun. Cuennennn 6onee nnn enee cansnnmx saykoa
acerp poc11ouno, u1o6m ampsn1L kkyk-1o no1pe6noc1L, xec1m, 6ypyun npoc1o
qopo koen1npoannn, c ycnexo ory1 cpen1L nonn1nm 1o, u1o oc1e1cn
nencnm ns cnoa - o6 a1o xopouo nsaec1no kn1u. 1ko cnyue a su1ouno
coc1onnnn oc1ncL 6m ne 1onLko cnn1e1nueckn c1pyk1yp nsmk, no nsmk nnunncn
6m rponnn, k1eropnn uncn n pn1. co pene, kkoe snuenne nee1
enopnk peun 1, rpe 1pe6ye1cn nonyun1L ne 6onee ue nonoxn1enLnm pesynL11?
orp nsmkn npepc1annnn 6m co6o nenpopynnyk, cnyunyk coaokynnoc1L
saykoa, yno1pe6nnemx cm 6espsnnunm o6pso.
c11n, y a1o 1eopnn ec1L neko1opme pryen1m. n1ckn nsmk, kk nsmk
yxcko pcm, a co nune, oueanpno, 6mn cospn a y1nnn1pnmx uennx. Cnoao
a ne ne nopnnnocL np cmcno n oc1nocL opnocnoxnm. ekcnk nou1n ne
psan1. 1cy1c1aye1 kopenL, ko1opm o6muno nopoxpe1 uenme rpynnm
nponsaopnmx. ce cnoa nannk1cn kopnnn, onn nsennk1cn ne nocpepc1ao cnx
ce6n, no expy co6o, npnue aecL rpy6m cnoco6o nocnepoa1enLnoro
coue1nnn. smk o1nnue1cn rp1nuecko npoc1o1o, o1ckp ncknkun1enLnoe
opnoo6psne peun, u1o c1pnno pnn y, npnamkuero k 6or1m, psnoo6psnm n
norouncnennm qop, k e1kn coue1nnn a npeunnx n k co npee
ac1e1nueckoro coaepuenc1aoannn. pnko npo po6an1L, u1o cn kn1um apnp nn
corncn1cn c amuecksnnm n u1o, cnepoa1enLno, ecnn nx nsmk nee1 uenLk
ampxenne npekpcnoro (pnn 1ex, k1o n ne roaopn1), ecnn y nero ec1L
onpepenennme npann, cnoco6c1aykune enopnueckoy psan1nk saykoa, ecnn on
poc1nre1 a1nx pesynL11oa 1k xe, kk n ppyrne nsmkn, m ne nee npa o1pnu1L
y nero c1penenne k nx poc1nxennk. oa1oy npannLnee 6mno 6m cks1L, u1o a
nepanunmx aneen1x kn1ckoro nsmk ec1L u1o-1o eue, kpoe npoc1oro
nrpooxpennn p1nkynnun, nekunx 1onLko y1nnn1pnoe npnenenne [ ckn
cvau, v cnxan cykya kackr nmka ncaann
c kak- cnvck nracvck H, cHn a sy
cy ccu, a ncaanncn H rnaa. cn m s
mn H ak, ra kack mn m naamH nmkH
ravaancn m HaH, km Hry cvaucn c ak cyky.
ak ac, v s ak. ack nmk ax a aacky n
cky ccHy, kan H a caH ccaa nncnnavck, . .
Hrcnxm aa. H r, avk akr a acvacn a
rynnax cam r ncxxn. H c,
Hkckackx anka cx nak, km n Hva a
kackH nmk, ak c aHkackx anka, v ak x, kak
kack c aackx nmka, s Hkckack ank (rH),
H H, nanncn x ccaamH snHH. xvy naaau
sHy aky ac av, kakamH , va, naa, nHy v
av nmncu m nycu, v aHkack nmk, yyv
ynuanncnnavckH nmkaH, cam a H, cvan
nmka sakaa, cncm ac cva ayka Hmcn
nncHa, ncaann c acr nmu my aau aack
rynnm. naanu, ama sr cnnucaa nm a
nan m H cyx ca kackr nmka c nmkamH
ccHaH ccx aa, a ak ca kH aH
canucay a nnuy c nm nmka c Hn.
ay n ack nH knckr nmka, km an n Hx
anu a ca c kackH. ak, a knckH ac cnr akx
ncaann c k, km Hncn nccaH ncmx
akca, acnuk naxmx, v ax n av aH
rnarna Haan vaca acra ncncn k cnay. cxn
sr, n yaxa, v HcnnaH Hx acvaucn a acx
nmkax. 3 v a vckr yavun, amaar
acmH nvaH, aac cnvckan va, nnan
nmk yrx.].
e ne enee n cknonnkcL k 1oy, u1o6m npnnnc1L yxckn pc nekyk
poaonLno ampxennyk ac1e1nueckyk yuep6noc1L, ko1opn oxe1 nponann1Lcn a
konc1pykunn nx nsmkoa [ Ha nurnuH Mc nm:
Hr Hm , aHx, Hr n caHmx a
naa vyacaH scvck ncc. Mm yHH xaanu au
nuk arHa, akx arHa nnanncn am
acx.]. pnep 1oy n anxy ne 1onLko a kn1cko nsmke n a ero
o1nocn1enLno ckypoc1n, no n a 1o yceppnn, c kkn neko1opme nmneunne pcm
3np nnunn n1mnL ee cmx ypnan1enLnmx pn1nuecknx aosoxnoc1e, ro1nky
- ee sayunoc1n. e c1on1 poksma1L nepoc11kn nunx nmneunnx nsmkoa, pxe
cmx kpcnamx, no cpanennk c cnckpn1o, ppeanerpeueckn, 1e xe n1nnckn,
nockonLky onn kk nenLsn nyuue corncyk1cn c nocpepc1aennoc1Lk nue
unannnsunn n unannnsunn opne6ecno nepnn a o6nc1n nckycc1a n
nn1ep1ypm. Mexpy 1e, ponyckn, u1o a1o psnnune, npnpy c ppyrnn npnsnkn,
oxe1 xpk1epnsoa1L nsmkn yxcknx pc, nockonLky a a1nx nsmkx cyuec1ayk1
uyac1ao rponnn - nyc1L n ne ouenL cnnLnoe n penLnn 1enpenunn k cospnnk n
noppepxnnk skonoa cuennennn expy saykn n konkpe1nmn ycnoannn qop n
knccoa pnn nspekemx nkncoa mcnn, n npnxoxy k amaopy, u1o pxe a nsmkx
yxcknx pc uyac1ao npekpcnoro n nornueckoro - npo6neck y - ace eue
ouyue1cn n noackpy onpepenne1 npnpopy nsmkoa a 1o xe epe, u1o n
1epnnLnme no1pe6noc1n.
1onLko u1o roaopnn, u1o ecnn 6m a1 nocnepnnn npnunn 6mn epnnc1aenno
onpepennkue, a nepame nepnopm cyuec1aoannn uenoaeueckoro pop cnyunm
o6pso cospnnmx p1nkynnun 6mno 6m poc11ouno pnn ypoane1aopennn
no1pe6noc1e nkpe. pnko a1 rnno1es ne ampepxnae1 kpn1nkn.
3aykn coo1nocn1cn c mcnnn aoace ne cnyuno. m6op nx onpepenne1cn
nnc1nnk1nanm ocosnnne onpepenenno nornuecko cansn expy aneunnn
saykn, aocnpnnnemn uenoaeueckn yxo, n mcnLk, ko1opyk xoue1 nepep1L
ero rop1nL nnn nsmk. npouno c1one1nn a1 nc1nn c1n nopsn1enLnm
o1kpm1ne. coxnennk, aoso6npno a1nonornueckoe npeyaennuenne, ko1opm a
1o apen yaneknncL, ackope nponannncL nc1onLko 6cyppnme pesynL11m, u1o onn
no1epnenn cnpaepnnaoe nopxenne. 1euenne ponroro apeenn a1 nna, c1onL
npoc1no psp61maen nepaoo1kpma1ennn, 6mn nyrno pnn nkpe
sppaomcnnunx. Ceuc k ne aosapuk1cn, n ecnn nsaneuL ropLkne ypokn ns
npounoro onm1, 1. e. nponan1L cpepxnnoc1L n oc1opoxnoc1L, 1o oxno nonyun1L
aecL uennme nnopm. e 6ype poaopn1L cn no ce6e cnpaepnname seunnn po
ypoann xnep n npnsne, u1o npnn1nanm nsmk, a epy aosoxnoc1n, nonLsoancn
cnyxoamn aneu1nennnn npn cospnnn neko1opmx k1eropn cnoa n u1o npn
cospnnn ppyrnx on ocnoamancn n 1nnc1aennmx o1nouennnx expy
onpepenennmn 6c1pk1nmn nonn1nnn n onpepenennmn saykn. npnep, sayk
n kxe1cn npnropnm, u1o6m ampsn1L npek pcnp, sayk a - neu1o cpepnee
expy qnsnueckn n 6ecnno1nm, ae1ep, cy1nme xennnn, sayk - coc1onnne
1epnnc1a. D1 rnno1es, ecnn ek nonLsoa1Lcn a psynmx npepenx, poaonLno
uc1o onpapmae1 ce6n. o psyee1cn, ne c1on1 nonLsoa1Lcn ek 6es ps6op,
u1o6m ne oks1Lcn a pe6pnx, rpe sppam cmcn 6mc1po 1epne1cn.
D1n qk1m, kknn 6m nesnun1enLnmn onn nn npepc1annnncL, noksmak1, u1o ne
1onLko 1epnnLnme no1pe6noc1n onpepennnn qopnpoanne nsmkoa n u1o nkpn
ncnonLsoann pnn a1oro caon 6nropopnme kuec1a n cnoco6noc1n. nn coo1nocnnn
saykn c aeun n npenn aoace ne nponsaonLnm o6pso. nn ncxopnnn ns
onpepenennoro nopnpk, o1pxenne ko1oporo onn nxopnnn a cnx ce6e. oa1oy
neko1opme ns nepamx nsmkoa, nyc1L pxe rpy6mx, 6epnmx, npnn1nanmx c nmneune
1oukn spennn, copepxnn a ce6e ace aneen1m, neo6xopnme pnn 1oro, u1o6m
6ypyune nx ae1an ornn korp-nn6ypL psan1Lcn a psynyk nornueckyk cnc1ey.
ocnopnn nnLrenL y6onLp1 c npncyue ey nponnu1enLnoc1Lk o1eun, u1o
kxpm nsmk cyuec1aye1 a snun1enLno epe nesancno o1 xennnn nkpe,
ko1opme n ne nsLncnnk1cn. Bypyun 1ecno cansnnm c ypoane nx
nn1ennek1ynLnoro psan1nn, on amue nx npnxo1n, n nnk1o ne a cnnx nsenn1L ero
no caoey nponsaony. nc1opnn cyuec1aye1 neno kypLesnmx npnepoa 1knx
nonm1ok.
neen 6yuenoa npnpynn cnc1ey nsenennn caoero nsmk pnn 1oro, u1o6m
cpen1L ero nenonn1nm pnn 1ex, k1o oc1ne1cn ane kpyr nocanuennmx. kn xe
1enpenunn n6nkpe1cn y neko1opmx kakscknx npopnoc1e. ce nopo6nme nonm1kn
npnaenn nnuL k po6anennk pononnn1enLnoro cnor a nune, a cepepnne nnn a
konue cnoa. cnn ne cun11L a1o1 npsn1nm aneen1, nsmk oc1ancn npexnn n
no ennncn kk no cy1n, 1k n no qope.
Bonee cepLesnyk nonm1ky 1koro pop o1eue1 CnnLaec1p pe Ccn a 6n6nncko
nsmke. D1o c1pnnoe npeune cospnn cyqn1m pnn caonx nc1nuecknx knnr n pnn 1oro,
u1o6m oky11L eue 6onee nno1nm nokpoao 1nnc1aennoc1n nponsaepennn caonx
1eonoroa. nn coaepuenno 6eccnc1eno npnpymann cnoa, ko1opme sayunn kk
oxno nenonn1nee. Mexpy 1e, ecnn a1o1 1k nsmaem nsmk ne npnnpnexn nn k
opno ae1an, ecnn cmcn, npnnncmaem aok6yn nnn cnoa, 6mn coaepuenno
nponsaonLnm, aapn1nueckoe snuenne saykoa, rp1nk, cnn1kcnc - cnoao, 1o,
u1o npnpe1 nsmky oco6m xpk1ep, nens6exno npepc1annno co6o 1ounyk knLky c
p6ckoro n nepcnpckoro nsmkoa. Cnepoa1enLno, cyqn1m co1aopnnn opnoapeenno
cen1ckn n pnckn xpron, caoero pop unqp, n nnuero 6onLue. Conneennnkn
[xenneppnn yn 1k n ne cyenn cosp1L oco6m nsmk [Hx,
aanrvmH anaanackHy xarH nanncn ckyccam nmk,
kmH nnuycn a cc ammk kk, c a
naHck ry vH H nnuycn nuk Hyxvm. r k
vyxm ycckHy nmky, raHHaka nkH ycckan.].
s acero a1oro n penk cnepykun amaop: cyunoc1L nsmk 1ecno cansn c qopo
munennn npop n c coro nun copepxn a ce6e, nyc1L n a spopmue, ace
neo6xopnme cpepc1a nepepun cmx psnnunmx xpk1epnmx uep1 o6ps mcnn
[ Hry yxaucn ckymn nac nkacm mak
cvn . . Mnna, a kH s sy c numH vyacaH
akH yvn cy ny nmka. am aHn, naran
ccnaanH ycckx nmka, a num nmka rHackx,
nkaan, v nmk nvncn cnu x nnxmH akaH, cknuk
caH ravck cycaa. Mxy amH ankaH, km
axm anncu aaaacn aacH yr yra,
nnxa cycaaau acam mn, naran H ayk
cvan ayka aaH nnn yr yra. rn ac, v
naya ayka, aH aHnnn axan s ncc, a
ccn aanau nmky kak-n naana, nacxn , km
avanu nncana Hy na, Hau acx a. Qn a H, v
nmk, anr snx aa yr akyca, Hry naraucn
aca kak ayx, ak amx nv n nnu
rnyk nya, n a H, v x n, nka a x cu anuan
xu, x ay ayanuc cav nn r, vm nvu
acnvck yr, cau a aynm vnm, accaa
ca raH ax a H cnyva, cn kaca camca sx
narmx ac nv nncu cvn (. . Mnn 3yck,
c. 65).].
k nnn nnue, ace 1ynnkn n npo6enm a yc1aenno psan1nn uenoaeuecknx pc
nxopnnn o1pxenne a nx nsmkx. kuec1ae npnep oxno nsa1L kn1ckn,
cnckpn1, rpeueckn, cen1ckyk nsmkoayk rpynny. kn1cko nsmke n yxe o1eun
y1nnn1pnyk 1enpenunk, coo1ae1c1aykuyk ny1n, no ko1opoy npe1 psan1ne
munennn a1o nunn. smcknnoc1L qnnocoqcknx n 1eonornuecknx ampxenn
cnckpn1, ero 6or1c1ao n aapn1nueckn kpco1 - a1o 1oxe o1pxenne rennn
nunn. o xe coe oxno cks1L o rpeuecko, nepoc11ounn 1ounoc1L ampxennn
a npeunnx, n ko1opmx roaopn1 cen1ckne npopnoc1n, o1pxe1 nx xpk1ep.
pnko cnyc1ncn c so6nunmx amco1 npounmx anox n aepnecn n 6onee 6nnskne k
nuey apeenn nc1opnueckne pannnm; specL m oxe npncy1c1aoa1L npn
poxpennn noxec1a nsmkoa, n a1o1 rpnpnosnm npouecc ncno noksmae1 n,
nckonLko nonno a1nnueckn renn ampxe1cn a nsmke.
, rpe nponcxopn1 ceuenne npopoa, coo1ae1c1aykune nsmkn npoxopn1 uepes
peaonkunk - nnorp epnennyk, nnorp 6mc1pyk, no acerp nens6exnyk. nn
nsennk1cn n no npouec1ann neko1oporo apeenn ynpk1. oan nsmkoan cnc1e,
npnxopnun n n ceny, npepc1anne1 co6o konponcc expy ncuesnyaunn
1nnn, n kxpn pc anocn1 cao aknp, ko1opm coo1ae1c1aye1 ee uncnennoc1n a
poxpkuecn o6uec1ae. k, nunnn c XIII aek a nunx snpnmx o6uec1ax
repnckne pnnek1m yc1ynnnn caon nosnunn ne n1mnn, poncko rpynne
[Hm av, naannnu cHm ac a n a,
mn Hv a aHa, kra ncckan ayka
cycaaana kak akaan. ay cny mak: H naanH
Hx cvau ak, v nnanu vcny vyxHa, km
Hry a kaky-n cay, a nmk s cam nka cnaa x
nmka, nxn ca ayana caancn nacamH nn
kmx xn. (Hn cn n, aara, 1729 r , I H, c.
73).], n a1o1 npouecc npo1ekn no epe ycnnennn rnno-poncko oun. 1o
kce1cn kenL1ckoro nsmk, on o1c1ynnn ne nepep n1nLnncko unannnsune, nop
n1ncko kononnsunn, o1 ko1opo on npoc1o 6exn, xo1n cnpaepnnaoc1n ppn npo
o1e1n1L, u1o a koneuno cue1e on opepxn no6epy 6nroppn uncnennoc1n
roaopnunx n ne, no1oy u1o, korp saepunnocL cnnnnne rnnoa, pnnnn n
ceaepnmx npopoa, ey ypnocL ycoaepuenc1aoa1L cao cnn1kcnc, npnrnyun1L
peskn kuen1, poc1auncn ey o1 repncknx npeun, n upesepnyk sayunoc1L,
npnnecennyk c nennnnckoro nonyoc1poa, n coxpnn1L npncyuyk ey rponnk,
nyc1L n ne c1onL ampsn1enLnyk. Daonkunn qpnuysckoro nsmk - acero nnuL
pesynL11 1koro ckpm1oro, ponroro n yaepennoro npouecc. pnunnm, no ko1opm
coapeennm neeukn nsmk ns6anncn o1 pck1nc1mx saykoa, nnonnaunx ro1nky
apeen ennckon Ynqnnm, sknkuk1cn a nnnunn snun1enLnoro cnon knpnckoro
ncenennn npn ne6onLuo konnuec1ae repncknx aneen1oa, oc1aunxcn s eno
[ma na kaanucaa r, v Hk nmk cu
ynua cHmn knuckr rckr. r x Hn nxaacn
HH.] nocne anoxn aennkoro nepecenennn npopoa a V a. n. a.
Ceuenne npopoa n kxpo o1penLno c1pnn npnnne1 psnme qopm a
sancnoc1n o1 pcnpepenennn a1nnuecknx aneen1oa; nnnranc1nueckne pesynL11m
a1oro npouecc 1kxe o1nnuk1cn noxec1ao nkncoa. 6un npanno oxno
cun11L 1o1 qk1, u1o nn opnn nsmk ne a coc1onnnn coxpnn1L caok unc1o1y nocne
6nnskoro kon1k1 c ppyrn nsmko; pxe ecnn coo1ae1c1aykune ocnoanme aneen1m
o1nnuk1cn nn6onLun necxopc1ao, nsenenne enLue acero s1prnae1 nekcnky,
ecnn nsmk-npsn1 o6npe1 poc11ouno cnno, on nenpeenno nune1 noppma1L
aapn1nueckyk c1pyk1ypy n pxe rp1nueckyk cnc1ey a ee cmx ynsanmx
ec1x; cnepoa1enLno, nsmk - a1o opn ns cmx pennk1nmx n cmx xpynknx
coc1anmx uc1e uenoaeuecko nnpnanpynLnoc1n. oa1oy 1k uc1o oxno
n6nkp1L c1pnnyk kp1nny, korp 6nropopnm n amcoko kynL1ypnm nsmk a
pesynL11e coepnnennn c apapckn npeune onycke1cn po nonyapapckoro
coc1onnnn, noc1enenno nnuncL caonx cmx nyuunx kuec1a, 6epnee1 cnoan n
qopn, n nponanne1, 1kn o6pso, neoponnyk 1enpenunk k ccnnnnunn c
enee psan1m cny1nnko, ko1opm ey poc1ncn npn 6pkocoue1nnn payx pc.
enno a1o nponsouno c anxckn n pe1ckn npeunnn, c nsmko kan n c
6npnckn. 6 nocnepnnx nsmk nponn1nm cnckpn1cknn aneen1n, n
neco1pn n 6nropopc1ao a1oro coks, kone1en1nme yuenme yxn cun1k1 nx 6onee
nnsknn a cpanennn c penapckn.
muepun ns rpynnm nennn-nennoa nneenno coks, ko1opm roaopn1 n a1o
pnnek1e, nepaonunLno nxopnncn n 6onee amcoko c1ynenn, ue o6e xen1okoxne
rpynnm, asn1me n 6ykcnp nnpncko unannnsune, n ecnn, neco1pn n a1o
npeaocxopc1ao, a1o1 coks ao noro yc1yne1 n, 1o a1o o6Lncnne1cn 1e, u1o o6e
ynonny1me sn1ckne npopnoc1n necy1 n ce6e neu1L counnLnmx poc1nxenn
6nropopno pcm n nonLsyk1cn ee poc1onnc1an, nou1n ne nen caonx. on1k1 c
cnckpn1o oksncn poc11ounm, u1o6m nopnn1L nx poaonLno amcoko, 1orp kk
nennm, ko1opme nnkorp ne ncnm1mann c1onL 6nro1aopnoro annnnnn, ne cornn
nopnn1Lcn a cmcne unannnsoannoc1n amue nmneunek ypoann. kuec1ae
kpcnopeunaoro cpanennn o1euy, u1o xen1okoxne yn1m, yunaunecn a konnepxx
onpon n pnx, oc1ancL yn1n n npko ampxennmn yn1n, ory1 a
neko1opo o1nouennn o1nnu1Lcn 6onee amcoko kynL1ypo, nexenn norne xn1enn
Kxno 1nnn, y ko1opmx ropspo 6onLue any1pennnx poc1onnc1a. oa1oy, korp
peuL npe1 o pnkpnx, roaopnunx n 6onee coaepuenno nsmke, ue nsmk 6onee
unannnsoannmx npopoa, npo pso6p1Lcn a 1ko aonpoce: nanne1cn nn
unannnsunn nocnepnnx nnopo nx co6c1aennmx ycnnn nnn pesynL11o annnnnn
uyxo kpoan. nocnepne cnyue necoaepuenc1ao nepao6m1noro nsmk n
ampoxpenne nsmk snc1aoannoro npekpcno yxnak1cn c poaonLno psan1o
counnLno kynL1ypo [H s anv a yanx Hxy yHcamH
cnccnH nnn nxr can cvkH canmx
nmka a avan snx ankx Hn. 3 nan anacn a
acx vacnx caa Y rnn mn ca canm nmk, y ka y
ca. 3 nmk, nH cyar nvan, cknvnuan
ccacu amcmx knacca kacm xa cynm acH nvH,
acra canucay anv vyx rcncay acm a H n
H a 3Hn.].
yxe o1eun, u1o kxpn unannnsunn nee1 onpepenennyk uennoc1L, noa1oy ne
c1on1 ypnann1Lcn 1oy, u1o noasnn n qnnocoqnn 6onee psan1m y nnpycoa, y npopoa,
roaopnunx n cnckpn1e, n y rpekoa, ue y nc, expy 1e kk npk1nuns,
kpn1nueckoe munenne n apypnunn 6onLue npncyun nun npop. ueno y nc
6onLue anepre1nuecknx cnoco6noc1e, nexenn y snenn1mx anc1n1ene Kxno
snn n xn1ene Dnnpm. 31o m snun1enLno yc1yne n a o6nc1n npekpcnoro,
noa1oy ec1ec1aenno, u1o nun nsmkn snnk1 c1onL ckponoe ec1o a nue
o6pse xnsnn n munennn ue 6onee ounm asne1 a cqepe npenLnoro m anpn a
nn1ep1ypnmx nponsaepennnx npnn n onnueckoro nonyoc1poa, 1kn o6pso,
nsmk, no oey rny6okoy y6expennk, 6ypyun ouenL snunm kpn1epne o6uero
psan1nn pc, 1koam nanne1cn a ouenL ysko cmcne, a cmcne ac1e1nuecko, n
npnnne1 n ce6n a1y qynkunk, korp peuL npe1 o cpanennn coo1ae1c1aykunx
unannnsun.
[6m ne oc1ann1L neamncnennm a1o1 cnopnm aonpoc, n nosaonk ce6e ac1ynn1L a
pnckyccnk c 6pono y6onLp1o o1nocn1enLno ero nennn o npeaocxopc1ae
ekcnknckoro nsmk np nepynckn: on cun1e1 a1o npeaocxopc1ao oueanpnm,
xo1n unannnsunn nnkoa nnoro npeaocxopnn unannnsunk o6n11ene nyk.
econenno, npam nepynuea 6mnn 6onee nrknn, nx pennrnosnme asrnnpm 6onee
npnmn, nexenn y xec1okoceppnmx noppnnmx Mon1ecym. o, neco1pn n a1o, nx
counnLnm nopnpok a ueno ne o1nnue1cn 1ko aneprne n 1ko rn6koc1Lk. cnn
nx pecno1ns, aecL rpy6m n npnn1nanm, caopnncn nnuL k c1pnoy koynnsy,
1o u1ekckn unannnsunn snn ouenL y1onuennme qopm npanennn. oennoe
nckycc1ao y nnx nxopnnocL n 6onee amcoko c1ynenn, n xo1n o6e nnepnn a pano
c1enenn o1nnunncL neaexec1ao a nncLennoc1n, noasnn, nc1opnn n npac1aennoc1L,
ouenL psan1me k 1oy apeenn, korp 1 nonanncn op1ec, nrpnn 6onee axnyk
ponL a Mekcnke, ue a epy, rpe ace o6uec1aennme nnc1n1y1m nponannnn cknonnoc1L
k 6ess6o1noc1n n annkypensy, u1o no cnoco6c1aye1 p6o1e y. 1ckp ne1pypno
cpen1L amaop o npeaocxopc1ae 6onee k1nanoro npop np npopo 6onee
nnep1nm.
npoue, a a1o cnyue nenne rocnopnn y6onLp1 ec1L cnepc1ane ero
onpepenennn unannnsunn. e xenn npoponx1L pnckyccnk, n, 1e ne enee, xouy
okonu1enLno nponcnn1L a1o1 aonpoc, no1oy u1o, ecnn 6m pae unannnsunn ornn
korp-nn6o psana1Lcn npnnenLno nporpeccy nsmkoa n nesancno o1 caonx
poc1onnc1a, cnepoano 6m o1ks1Lcn o1 mcnn o coo1ae1c1ann expy c1enennn
psan1nn nsmkoa n yc1aennoro psan1nn. D1o1 qk1 o1pnu1L neaosoxno, xo1n n a
nno epe, nexenn roaopnnocL a o1nouennn cnckpn1 n ppeanerpeueckoro a
cpanennn c nrnnckn, qpnuysckn, neeukn.
Mexpy npoun, pccyxpn nopo6nm o6pso, ne coc1an1 1pyp o6npyxn1L y
e1ncoa npnunnm 1oro ypoann psan1nn, n ko1opo nxopn1cn nx nsmkn. e acerp
oxno, ncxopn ns konnuec1aenno nponopunn ceuennn nnn nx kuec1a, o6npyxn1L
npnunnm a1oro nanennn. pnko annnnne a1nx npnunn nee1 ouenL axnoe snuenne,
n ecnn amnan1L ero ne ype1cn, oxno npn1n k oun6ounm amaop. enno
acnepc1ane 1oro, u1o cyuec1aye1 poc11ouno 1ecnn cansL expy nsmko n ero
nocn1enLnnue - pco, on coxpnne1cn nnoro ponLue, ue coo1ae1c1aykune
npopm coxpnnk1 caok rocyppc1aennoc1L. D1 cansL pe1 ce6n sn1L n nocne 1oro,
kk npopm ennk1 caoe nn. 1onLko no epe nsenennn coc1a nx kpoan on
ncuese1, ynpe1 aec1e c nocnepnn npnsnko nunonnLnoc1n. pnepo 1oy
cnyxn1 coapeennm rpeueckn nsmk: nckxennm po kpne c1enenn, nnuennm
nyuue uc1n caoero rp1nueckoro 6or1c1a, scopennm a nekcnkonornuecko
o1nouennn, pxe o6epnennm a cmcne konnuec1a saykoa, 1e ne enee, on
coxpnnn caon nepaopopnme npnsnkn. (Mexpy npoun, xo1n a [peane peunn 6mno
noro pnnek1oa, no ne 1koe konnuec1ao, kk a XVI a., korp nx ncun1manocL
ceLpecn1, a XIII a ao ace Dnnpe n a oco6ennoc1n a 11nke norne roaopnnn no-
qpnuysckn.) Moxno cks1L, u1o nenno a npoc1pnc1ae pyx pqenon, npnuepun
a ae1xoc1L, cnyxnaun xpo, s1e nopoxoam cknpo, cnnLno noc1ppaun o1
aeneunncknx npep, po cnx nop amsmae1 aocxnuenne n nanne1cn nenpeasopennm
o6psuo rny6okomcnennoro nsnuec1a n npoc1oro aennunn.
kxe cnyue1cn, u1o ne y acex npopoa cyuec1aye1 aepnoc1L nsmky npepkoa. D1o
o6c1on1enLc1ao eue 6onLue s1pypnne1 nonm1kn npn nooun qnnonornn n1n
nc1okn nnn onpepenn1L o1nocn1enLnme poc1onnc1a 1oro nnn nnoro uenoaeueckoro
1nn. e 1onLko nsmkn npe1epneak1 nsenennn, a1nnueckyk npnpopy ko1opmx ne
acerp aosoxno o6npyxn1L - ac1peuk1cn n npopm, ko1opme, acnepc1ane
kon1k1 c uyxnn nsmkn, o1ksmak1cn o1 caoero co6c1aennoro. enno a1o
nponsouno nocne no6eponocnmx noxopoa nekcnpp c npocaeuenno uc1Lk
ncenennn 3npno snn, nnpnep, c kpnun, knnpoknun n pnnn, 1o
xe coe oxno cks1L n o nunx rnnx. Mexpy 1e n 1e n ppyrne aneppnnn a
nsmkn-no6epn1enn uyxepopnm npnnunn, ko1opm, a koneuno cue1e, 1kxe nsennn
nx. o ecnn a1n npopm eue coxpnnnn, nyc1L n ne ao ace uenoc1noc1n, cao
co6c1aennm nnc1pyen1 munennn, ecnn ppyrne, 6onee c1okne - 6ckn, 6ep6epm
ns 1nc, akxnnnpm Kxno pann - po cnx nop roaopn1 1k, kk roaopnnn nx
npepkn, ec1L rpynnm, nnpnep, eapen, ko1opme, kxe1cn, nnkorp ne npnpann
a1oy snuennn. a1o 6espsnnune nopxe1 c nepamx pne nepecenennn
6orons6pnnoro npop. Opp, npnuepun ns xnpeckoro Yp, 1k n ne amyunn a
c1pne npepkoa xnnckn nsmk, ko1opm c1n nunonnLnm pnn pe1e spnnn.
1e o1ksnncL o1 popno peun n npnnnnn ppyryk, ko1opn, kk xoue1cn py1L,
npe1epnen aospec1ane ppeannx aocnonnnn n cpenncL a nx yc1x oco6m
pnnek1o 1oro ouenL ppeanero nsmk - 1epnnckoro pnn ppeaneuero p6ckoro,
skonnoro ncnepnn nneen, 6nnsknx uepnm xn1 [aH a amaa
ca nmk ackH, amaa r ann cnaana nmkH
aaaa, aaan akH aH au c (can, 19,18).].
D1oy nsmky eapen 1oxe ne coxpnnnn aepnoc1L. o aosapuennn ns nnen 1onnm
3opoaaenn s6mnn ero n 6epery aannoncknx pek ao apen cenpecn1nne1nero
npe6mannn 1. 1pno1ns, ycnnennm nsrnnne, coxpnnn aecL cao nmn - ace
xe oc1nLnoe c nopsn1enLno nerkoc1Lk o1aepr a1o1 npop, c1pnnm o6pso
opnoapeenno roppm cn co6o n kocononn1nueckn no pyxy po kpnero
npepen. snoao o1c1poenno epycnne nonannocL norouncnennoe ncenenne,
roaopnauee n pecko nnn xnpecko npeunn, ko1opoe, anpoue, ne 6mno
nnueno cxopc1a c nsmko o1uoa ap.
o apeen ncyc pnc1 a1o1 pnnek1 c 1pypo cpepxnan n1nck rpeueckoro
pnnek1, co acex c1opon nponnkauero a eapeckyk cnc1ey munennn n peun.
enepL 1onLko a a1nx noamx opexpx, a 1o nnn nno c1enenn anern1nmx, necyunx
n ce6e 6onee nnn enee cnnLnyk neu1L 11nuecko npe1enunosnoc1n, eapeckne
a1opm 1o anoxn cospann caon nponsaepennn. ocnepnne knonnueckne knnrn
e1xoro sae1, pano kk n counnennn Onnon n ocnq, nannk1cn nponsaepennnn
annnnnc1nuecknn.
orp pspyuenne can1oro ropop ps6pocno ao ace c1oponm nunk, o1nmne
nnuennyk pcnonoxennn ceamunero, oc1ok ne npennyn co6p1L yc1aennoe
6or1c1ao ee cmnoa. apeckn kynL1yp nopan c qnnn n nekcnppne, n nsmk,
npen nyp, yuenne ukonm n6epnp cnoa c1nn cen1cknn, nnorp p6cknn
n uc1o xnncknn, ecnn aocnonLsoa1Lcn 1epnno cn. nek a anpy
canuennm c 1ex nop nsmk, nsmk paannoa, pennrnn, ko1opm cun1e1cn
nunonnLnm. o a noacepneano xnsnn eapen nonLsoanncL npeunnn seenL, a
ko1opme nx snecn cypL6. Cnepye1 o1e1n1L, u1o noackpy a1n nsrnnnnkn o6punn
n ce6n annnne caon oco6ennm kuen1o. smk, ko1opm onn aocnpnnnnn n
nsyunnn c pnnero pe1c1a, 1k n ne cor cnrun1L nx ronocoame canskn. D1o1 qk1
nop1aepxpe1 amcksmanne y6onLp1 o 1ko 1ecno cansn pcm n nsmk, u1o
norne nokonennn 1k n ne nyuk1cn npannLno nponsnocn1L cnoa, ko1opmx ne
snnn nx npepkn.
k 6m 1o nn 6mno, eapen nannk1 co6o seu1enLnoe poks1enLc1ao a1o mcnn,
nenno: ne acerp, c nepaoro asrnnp, oxno yc1noan1L 1ounoe coo1ae1c1ane expy
pco n nsmko, n ko1opo on roaopn1, nockonLky a1o1 nsmk, aosoxno, n ne
npnnpnexn1 e no npay poxpennn. ocne eapeea n or 6m nsa1L eue umrn n
neno ppyrnx npopoa.
enepL nonn1no, c kko oc1opoxnoc1Lk cnepye1 nonLsoa1Lcn nonn1ne popc1a n
pxe cxopc1a nsmkoa, u1o6m cpen1L amaop o6 npen1nunoc1n pc, no1oy u1o ne
1onLko norne npopm yno1pe6nnk1 nsenennme nsmkn, ocnoanme aneen1m ko1opmx
6mnn cqopnpoanm 6es nx yuc1nn - npnepo cnyxn1 6onLun uc1L npopoa
3npno snn n nou1n ace npopm Kxno aponm, - no neno ppyrnx npnnnnn
coaepuenno uyxpme n nsmkn, k qopnpoannk ko1opmx onn aoo6ue ne nenn
nnkkoro o1nouennn. oneuno, a1o1 nocnepnn cnyu ouenL pepkn. n nanne1cn
pxe nonne. pnko poc11ouno 1oro, u1o 1koe 6mae1, u1o6m nooc1epeuLcn
poks1enLc1a, nnpunakunxcn npn anpe 1knx o1knonenn. e ne enee,
nockonLky qk1 nonen, nockonLky on ac1peue1cn ne c1onL uc1o, kk qk1m
coaepuenno nnoro pop, 1. e. qk1m coxpnennn nunonnLnmx npeun pxe ouenL
cn6mn npopnoc1nn, nockonLky m n6nkpe, nckonLko nsmkn coo1ae1c1ayk1
rennk cospauero nx npop n nckonLko onn nsennk1cn no epe 1oro, kk enne1cn
kpoaL a1oro npop, nockonLky ponL, ko1opyk onn nrpk1 a qopnpoannn nx
nponsaopnmx, nponopunonnLn uncnennoy aknpy pcm, ko1opm onn anocn1 a
noayk ceunnyk cnc1ey, - ace a1o nosaonne1 cpen1L neonpoaepxnm amaop o
1o, u1o nn opnn npop ne oxe1 ne1L nsmk, c1onun n 6onee amcoko c1ynenn,
ue on c. s a1oro nosaonk ce6e amaec1n cnepykune sknkuennn.
oaopn o nunn ceunnoro coc1a, m o1eunn, u1o unannnsunn ne cyuec1aye1
pnn acex ee cnoea opnoapeenno. 1o apen, korp c1pme a1nnueckne qk1opm
npoponxk1 pec1aoa1L n nnxne ypoane counnLno nec1nnum, onn aecL cn6o
n uue acero apeenno noppk1cn annnnnk npeo6npkuero nunonnLnoro rennn.
mue n npnennn a1o1 npnnunn k Opnunn n cksn, u1o ns 36 nnnnonoa xn1ene
ncun1manocL epa nn 20, ko1opme npnnnnn amnyxpennoe, nccnanoe, apeennoe
yuc1ne a unannns1opcko pen1enLnoc1n n 6nro coapeenno aponm. 3
ncknkuenne ennko6pn1nnn, cnnouenno snun1enLnm epnnc1ao ee
nunonnLnmx 1nnoa - cnepc1ane ee oc1poanoro nonoxennn, - eue 6onee rpyc1nn
kp1nn n6nkpe1cn n oc1nLno uc1n kon1nnen1. s yx n asnn Opnunk a
kuec1ae npnep, npoponxy psroaop o6 a1o c1pne n nonm1kcL noks1L, u1o oe
nenne o6 ee a1nnuecko coc1onnnn n cyxpenne, amcksnnoe nok 1onLko u1o a
o1nouennn acex pc a ueno, u1o kce1cn coo1ae1c1ann 1nn n nsmk,
nopsn1enLnm o6pso coanpk1 ppyr c ppyro.
Mm sne no, nnn nyuue cks1L, m nnuero ne sne poc1oaepno, uepes kkne
c1pnn npounn kenL1ckn nsmk n npopnn n1mnL [ cnu nr nyu
a nam lingua rustica Romanorum, lingua romana, H
cnaH, aHckr nmka k raa, nHy v snram
nmk c n vmH aamH HaH kaancn m n ckH.
HH akx, v kaxm nr ncn a kn ann av
ca m, nnan acr ycr anka ycknn
nuk knum, caH sHram.], npexpe ue c6nnsnnncL n, nkoneu,
cnnnncL Can1o eponn n ero coapeennnk CynLnnc Ceaep canpe1enLc1ayk1 -
nepam a caonx oen1pnnx o ocnnnn Can1oro an n1, a1opo a
[nnore o poc1onnc1ax onxoa oc1ok - o 1o, u1o a nx apen a nnnn
roaopnnn no enLue epe n payx aynLrpnmx nsmkx kenL1cko, coxpnnauncn
a 1ko unc1o1e n 6eperx en, u1o nsmk rnno-rpekoa, pcc1auncn co caoe
nppopnno uec1L co1en ne1 nsp, ao ace noxopnn n cao npnsmk, n rnnLcko,
ko1opm, no nennk opnoro koen11op, ne or 6m1L nnue nnm, kpoe kk
nckxennm ppeanepnckn nnn ponckn o a1o1 rnnLckn nsmk, o1nnuauncn
o1 1oro, ko1opm yno1pe6nnnn a peae, yxe ne 6mn nn nsmko snpnm, nn nsmko
kan1nnn. D1o1 pnnek1 IV aek, aosoxno, c pspenennm n pae 6onLune
rpynnm, nuen ce6e ec1o 1onLko a uen1pe n n kre nmneune Opnunn. enno o1
1oro o6uero nc1ounnk cnepye1 aec1n nuno 1euenn, a psnnuno c1enenn
n1nnnsnpoannmx, ko1opme cqopnpoann nosxe, aec1e c ppyrnn npopyk1n
ceuennn n a psnmx nponopunnx, nsmk po n co6c1aenno ponckn nune
noroaopn o nocnepne
1o6m a1o1 nsmk nonanncn, poc11ouno 6mno nnuL anec1n ne6onLune nsenennn a
n1nnckyk 1epnnonornk n nsenn1L neko1opme rp1nueckne npann,
snc1aoannme ns kenL1ckoro n ppyrnx nsmkoa, npexpe nensaec1nmx n snpe
aponm ononnn nnepnn anecnn cao aknp a anpe nenoro uncn n1nLnncknx,
qpnkncknx, sn1cknx aneen1oa 6ern 6yprynpuea n a oco6ennoc1n ro1oa c1nn
eue opnn nc1ounnko xnao rponnn, saonknx n pck1nc1mx saykoa. x eue
6onLue ycnnnnn cpunnm. kn o6pso, ponckn nsmk, o1nnuauncn o1
rnnLckoro, u1o kce1cn aapn1nn, ackope npno6pen oco6ennm, cneunqnueckn
o1neu1ok. oneuno, ero ne o6npyxnuL a knn1ax cmnoa yn [e6onnap nnn nosxe a
noasnn e6o po ouep nnn Bep1pn pe Bopn. pnko on yxe uyac1aye1cn, ero
ocnoanme npnsnkn cqopnpoanm, nnpanenne ero psan1nn ue1ko onpepeneno. C
1ex nop a psnnunmx caonx pnnek1x - nnysencko, npoancnLcko, oaepncko -
nonanncn nsmk ncenennn, c1onL nepeeunnoro, u1o nopo6noro ey ne1 n cae1e.
D1o1 nsmk - rn6kn, npospunm, pyxoanm, xnsneppoc1nm, nckpnuncn, no
nnuennm rny6nnm n qnnocoqnn, caepkkun nopo6no sono1y, no sono1o ne
nannkuncn, - or ampsn1L nnuL 1o, u1o nexn1 n noaepxnoc1n. ne ne 6mno
snoxeno cepLesnmx npnnunnoa, on ponxen 6mn oc11Lcn nnc1pyen1o aceo6ue
nnpnqqepen1noc1n, noc1poenno n cken1nunse n nceunnaoc1n. on c ycnexo
ncnonnnn caoe npepnsnuenne. oaopnun n ne pc c1penncL 1onLko k
ypoaonLc1ann n aneuney 6necky. n 6mn xp6po po 6espccypc1a,
xnsneppoc1no n yanekkuecn, c1pc1no 6es npepe1 c1pc1n n xnao 6es
y6expenn, on pcnonrn nnc1pyen1o, anonne nopxopnun pnn 1oro, u1o6m
cnyxn1L ee c1penennn, no, neco1pn n aocxnuenne [n1e, a1o1 nsmk cnyxnn a
noasnn 1onLko pnn pnqoakn c1npnuecknx nponsaepenn, nk6oanmx necenok,
aonnc1aennmx npnsmaoa, a pennrnn - pnn 1oro, u1o6m noppepxna1L epecn
nL6nrouea, nnxeuea, ko1opme 6mnn nnuenm acnknx nn1ep1ypnmx poc1onnc1a,
u1o, anpoue, ne noeuno opnoy nrnnunnny, ne o1nnuaueycn k1onnunso,
nosppan1L nnc1ao c 1e, u1o ono nopopnno cpepneaekoaLe [Makn a c
rn, . I, nm, v anurm nnuycn cmH acnnxH
anmx ncan, c a Ha (cH. nsHy ay
nurm). ak sa cka arka nnnnnacu a caH a
cv ma amcmr yxacaa. nvH, x km mn
acanum, v ann anu.]. kn 6mn a 1e apeen ponckn
nsmk, 1kn on nanne1cn n ceropnn. n ne npekpcen, no nsnuen, n poc11ouno
ann1enLno npnco1pe1Lcn k ney, u1o6m yanpe1L, kk no on npnropen pnn
aennko unannnsunn.
oco1pn, ne a noxoxnx nn ycnoannx cqopnpoancn nsmk po? 1ae1 6ype1
o1pnu1enLnm, n kkn 6m cnoco6o ne nponsouno cnnnnne kenL1ckoro, n1nnckoro,
repnckoro aneen1oa, m ne oxe cypn1L o6 a1o a cnny nepoc11k nn1ep1ypnmx
nn1nnkoa anoxn cospnnn nsmk [ ncna k c na cu
nnmm aHvan a s cv.], no kpne epe, ncno, u1o on poxpncn
ns n1ronns expy 1pen psnnunmn npeunnn n u1o nonyunauncn a
pesynL11e a1oro npopyk1 o6npn xpk1epo n aneprne, ko1opme ne 6mnn nsaec1nm
1e pmxnm coc1annkun, ns ko1opmx o6psoancn ponckn nsmk. kko-1o
oen1 caoero cyuec1aoannn nsmk po 6mn aecL 6nnsok k repnckn npnnunn.
nncLennmx nn1nnkx, pouepunx po nc, oxno o6npyxn1L opnn ns nyuunx
npnsnkoa pncknx nsmkoa - ouL, nyc1L n orpnnuennyk, enee ampxennyk, ue
a cnckpn1e, ppeanerpeuecko n neeuko, no ace eue poc11ounyk pnn 1oro, u1o6m
cospa1L coc1anme cnoa. Cyuec1an1enLnme nek1 qnekcnn, yksmaeme
qqnkcn n, cnepoa1enLno, cnoco6noc1L k nnaepcnn, y1puennyk a nue apen,
koe qpnuysckn nsmk XVI a. ncnxpncn 1onLko a yuep6 ncnoc1n peun. ro
nekcnueckne sncm xpnnnn noro aneen1oa, oc1aunxcn o1 qpnkcko pcm.
kn o6pso, nsmk po a co nune 6mn nc1onLko xe repnckn, nckonLko
rnnLckn, kenL1ckn oc1ancn n a1opo nnne, u1o, aepon1no, o6LncnnnocL
enopnuecknn 1pe6oannnn nsmk. Cn 6onLun noxan, ko1opo oxno
ypoc1on1L a1y nsmkoayk cnc1ey, - a1o ypunoe n pepsnoaennoe npepnpnn1ne
rocnopnn n11pa, ko1opoy ypnocL nn1ep1ypno, c1nx s c1nxo, nepeaec1n n
qpnuysckn nsmk XIII a. nepayk necnL nnpm, u1o apnp nn aosoxno cpen1L n
ceropnnune qpnuyscko.
D1o1 nsmk, oueanpno, npnnpnexn npopy, ko1opm nannn co6o nanm kon1pc1 c
xn1ennn Kxno nnnn. popnn nn1ep1yp a1o pcm, rny6xe npnaepxennn
k1onnueckn npen, anocnun a nonn1nky xname nonn1nn nesancnoc1n, cao6opm,
poc1onnc1a, ao ace o6uec1aennme nnc1n1y1m c1penenne k nonesnoc1n, c1ann
nepep co6o uenL: co6p1L aoepnno ne qn1c1nueckne nsmckn pyx n ceppu, ne
acknpm aceo6uero cken1nuns, no nunonnLnme npen a 1o anpe, a kko nx
nonnnn a 1y anoxy n a kko onn amrnnpenn nc1nnnmn. D1oy noxanLnoy
c1penennk nunn n nsmk m o6nsnm nonanenne 6nec1nunx pnqoannmx
counnenn, oco6enno pan oapen, a uLnx c1nxx uyac1aye1cn ceaepnoe annnnne.
coxnennk, ecnn cosp1enn a1nx 1ppnun n pxe nepame a1opm nenn nepenne
coxpnn1L nc1opnueckne qk1m nnn aocne1L nonoxn1enLnme c1pc1n, 1o co6c1aenno
noasnn, nk6oaL k qope n nonck npekpcnoro ne acerp nxopn1 poc11ouno ec1 a
nx nponsaepennnx. pexpe acero, y nn1ep1ypm n nsmk po n6nkpnocL xennne
nrp1L y1nnn1pnyk ponL. kn o6pso, pcm, nsmk n nncLennoc1L kk nenLsn
nyuue coo1ae1c1ayk1 ppyr ppyry a pnno cnyue.
o, u1o anonne ec1ec1aenno, repnckn aneen1, snun1enLno yc1ynaun a
konnuec1aenno o1nouennn rnnLckoy n ponckoy, noc1enenno cokpuncn n a
kpoan npop. pnoapeenno on 1epnn caon nosnunn n a nsmkoao cqepe: c opno
c1oponm, kenL1ckn, c ppyro - n1mnL, ace 6onLue am1ecnnnn ero ns a1o cqepm.
D1o1 kpcnam n cnnLnm nsmk - k coxnennk, on nsaec1en n 1onLko no nepnopy
ero amcuero pcuae1, - ko1opm or 6m n pnLue coaepuenc1aoa1Lcn, nun
yanp1L n perppnpoa1L k konuy XIII c1one1nn. XV a. on npeap1nncn a ec1noe
npeune, a ko1opo repncknx aneen1oa nou1n ne oc1nocL. C 1ex nop a1o
pc1puennoe cokpoanue npepc1annno co6o nekyk nonnk pnpo c
nporpeccnpykunn kenL1ckn n n1nnckn, neu1o nornunoe n apapckoe. XVI a.,
a anoxy aosap1 k knccnueckn nccnepoannn, qpnuysckn nsmk npe6man a
1ko pcu1nno coc1onnnn, n nonanncL 1enpenunn k ero coaepuenc1aoannk
ny1e noaopo1 a c1opony nsmkoa ppeannx. D1y spuy npoaosrncnnn nn1ep1opm
1oro aennkoro apeenn. npoue, onn no a a1o npeycnenn, n XVII a., 6onee
6nropsynm, ue npepmpyun, n nonnaun, u1o neaosoxno conpo1nann1Lcn
ec1ec1aennoy nopnpky aeue, snnncn 1onLko ycoaepuenc1aoanne nsmk,
ko1opm kxpopneano ace 6onLue npnnnn cme ec1ec1aennme qopm
npeo6npkue pcm, 1. e. 1e cme, ko1opme nekorp coc1annnn rp1nueckyk
c1nxnk kenL1ckoro.
o1n anune nsmk po, s1e qpnuysckn o6nsnm caoe c1okoc1n 6onee npoc1m
ceuennn pc n npeun, ns ko1opmx onn amunn, 1e ne enee a nnx coxpnnnncL n
pnnek1m. c11n, 6mno 6m uec1Lk pnn a1nx qop nsa1L nx pnnek1n, ne
ec1nmn npeunnn. pnunn nx xnsnecnoco6noc1n kopenn1cn ne a perppunn
npeo6npkuero nunonnLnoro 1nn, canpe1ennn koe onn 6mnn, a onpepenenno
nponopunn kenL1ckoro, ponckoro n repnckoro aneen1oa, ko1opme coc1annnn n
po cnx nop coc1annk1 nuy nunonnLnoc1L. o a1y c1opony o1 Cenm npeo6npe1
nnkppnckn pnnek1 co caoe aapn1nko n nekcnko, ouenL 6nnsko k
qnnpcko, repnckne cnepm a ne nc1onLko oueanpnm, u1o ne1 nyxpm nx
poksma1L. a1o o1nouennn qnnpckn oc1ncn aepen nsmky po, ko1opm a
onpepenennm oen1, oc1ancL cn co6o, cor ao6p1L a ce6n, oco6enno a
noasnn, qopm n ampxennn psroaopnoro nsmk, yno1pe6nneoro a ppce.
ppyro 6epery Cenm m ac1pe1n 6onLue npoannunnLnmx npeun kenL1ckoro
nponcxoxpennn. 6yprynpcko, a pnnek1x npoannun o n Caon pxe nekcnk
coxpnnn noxec1ao kenL1cknx cnepoa, ko1opmx ne o6npyxnuL ao qpnuyscko n
aoo6ue a npopno n1mnn.
yxe roaopnn o 1o, u1o, nunnn c XV a. annnnne ceaepno uc1n Opnunn yc1ynno
ec1o annnnnk pc, o6n1aunx s ypo. [oc11ouno conoc1an1L cksnnoe amue o
nsmke n 1o. u1o n eue pnLue nncn o kpoan, u1o6m nonn1L, nckonLko 1ecnm
o1nouennn expy qnsnueckn aneen1o n qk1nueckn nnc1pyen1o
nnpnanpynLnoc1n npop.
neckonLko yanekcn pcco1penne Opnunn, no ecnn o6p1n1L asop n ack apony,
m yanpn npnepno 1y xe kp1nny. oackpy nponcxopnune nsenennn nsmkoa ne
nannk1cn, kk o6muno cun1k1, cnepc1ane pec1ann apeenn: ecnn 6m peno
o6c1onno 1k, 1kne nsmkn, kk akxnnn, 6ep6epckn, ackp, nnxne6pe1onckn, pano
6m ncuesnn, onn xnay1 po cnx nop. senennn a1n o6ycnoanenm peaonkunonnmn
npoueccn a kpoan nokonenn.
ne ory ne o1e1n1L opny nn1epecnyk pe1nL, ko1opn ponxn nonyun1L caoe
o6Lncnenne n a1nx c1pnnux. yxe roaopnn o 1o, u1o neko1opme a1nnueckne
rpynnm, noannyncL onpepenennm o6c1on1enLc1a, o1ksnncL o1 caoe peun n
npnnnnn ppyryk, a 1o nnn nno c1enenn uyxpyk n. kuec1ae npnep n npnaopnn
eapeea. o cyuec1ayk1 eue 6onee ypnan1enLnme cnyun 1koro o1peuennn. c1L n
sene pnkne npopnoc1n, roaopnune n nsmkx, c1onunx n 6onee amcoko c1ynenn,
nexenn onn cn - n nek a anpy epnky.
Y a1oro kon1nnen1 1kn neo6munn cypL6, u1o ero cme k1nanme npopm
psananncL, ecnn oxno 1k ampsn1Lcn, a1ne o1 oc1nLnoro np. Y a1nx
unannnsun ne1 nncLennoc1n. c1opnueckne apeen nunncL 1 c 6onLun
snospnne n oc1nncL nonsaec1nm pnn nc. sene oaoro Cae1 npoxnae1
6onLuoe konnuec1ao nneen, ko1opme no noxoxn ppyr n ppyr, xo1n ace
npnnpnex1 k o6un nc1ok a psnnunmx ko6nnunnx.
p6nnLn nnue1, u1o a Uen1pnLno epnke ec1L rpynn, nsmaen n unkn1cko
ae1aLk, ko1opn coc1on1 ns npopoa, ncun1makunx coe 6onLuoe - nn1npu1L
1mcnu pyu n cme nouncnennme - nopnpk 1pexco1, npnue ace onn, pxe
nenLkne, roaopn1 n psnmx npeunnx. kn cn1yunn oxe1 6m1L nnuL
pesynL11o neaepon1no a1nnuecko npxnn.
1o kce1cn a1o rnno1esm, ne ypnan1enLno, u1o cpepn a1nx npopnoc1e ec1L 1kne,
kk, nnpnep, unkn1oc, y ko1opmx aecL cnoxnm nsmk n, kxe1cn, aecL
psan1m. Y a1nx 6opnrenoa yxunnm ne acerp yno1pe6nnk1 1e cnoa, ko1opmn
nonLsyk1cn xenunnm. o acex cnyunx, korp yxunn yno1pe6nne1 xenckne
ampxennn, on neckonLko anponsenne1 nx snuenne. a1o acerp pene1cn cm
nckycnm o6pso. coxnennk, npnpy c a1o kpcnao nekcnuecko cnc1eo m
anpn npnn1nanyk cnc1ey uncnn1enLnmx, caepennyk k cm aneen1pnm
uncn. nonne aepon1no, u1o a nsmke, aneune o11ouenno, a1o1 npnsnk
nepsan1oc1n oxno cun11L aekoam npoknn1ne, cansnnm c apapc1ao
nmneunnx nocn1ene nsmk; korp m n6nkpe 1kne c1pnnoc1n, n y neaonLno
npnxopn1 aennuec1aennme paopum anoxn ospoxpennn, ko1opme a pesynL11e
peaonkun okonu1enLno nepeunn a co6c1aennoc1L 6or1mx kpec1Lnn. ns ace eue
aocxnue1cn nsnunmn kononnn, pesnmn caopn, ceno ckonc1pynpoannmn
nec1nnunmn nepexopn, nnosn1nmn unnnnn n rpe6nnn, coaepuenno
nenyxnmn pnn nnue1m, ko1opn 1 nocennncL, uepes pmpnayk kpoank nLe1
poxpL, nonm o6pyunak1cn, u1yk1ypk o1c1e1 o1 c1en.
1k, n nosaonk ce6e nopuepkny1L, u1o qnnonornn a caonx o1nouennnx c npnpopo
1o nnn nno pcm nnunn ps nop1aepxpe1 qk1m qnsnonornn n nc1opnn. onLko
a1o y1aepxpenne cnepye1 ncnonLsoa1L c kpne oc1opoxnoc1Lk, n6o ecnn ne1 nnmx
pryen1oa, oxno npn1n k ouenL nocneunm n noaepxnoc1nm amaop. oneuno,
ne1 conenn a 1o, u1o coc1onnne nsmk coo1ae1c1aye1 nn1ennek1ynLnoy
coc1onnnk rpynnm nkpe, roaopnunx n ne, no ne acerp a1 cansL opnnkoao
1ecnn. 1o6m cypn1L o6 a1o o1nouennn, npo o6p1n1Lcn k pce, ko1opo n pnn
ko1opo 6mn cospn nsmk. [eno a 1o, u1o nc1opnn npepnre1 n, s ncknkuenne
uepnokoxnx n neko1opmx xen1okoxnx npopoa, a nyuue cnyue kap1eponckne
pcm. Cnepoa1enLno, m nee peno c nponsaopnmn nsmkn, rpe skon nx
qopnpoannn oxno ue1ko npocnepn1L 1onLko a 1ex cnyunx, ecnn a1n nsmkn
nonannncL o1nocn1enLno nepano. s a1oro cnepye1, u1o 1kne pesynL11m, ko1opme
noc1onnno nyxpk1cn a nop1aepxpennn nc1opne, ne ory1 cun11Lcn
neonpoaepxnmn poks1enLc1an. o epe yrny6nennn a n1nunoc1L, no epe
1oro, kk 1ycknee1 cae1, qnnonornueckne pryen1m npnnnk1 ace 6onee
rnno1e1nueckn xpk1ep. pocpno ouyu1L caon orpnnuennme aosoxnoc1n,
korp m c1pencn pekonc1pynpoa1L nc1opnueckoe panxenne uenoaeuecknx rpynn n
nosn1L coc1annkune nx a1nnueckne aneen1m. nsaec1no, u1o cnckpn1 n senp
- a1o popc1aennme nsmkn. D1o o6uee, 1. e. noaepxnoc1noe cyxpenne. 1o xe kce1cn
nx o6uero kopnn, ne1 nnkknx onpepenennmx qk1oa. o xe coe oxno cks1L o6
oc1nLnmx ouenL ppeannx nsmkx, nnpnep, o6 nsmke ackp. nsaec1en 1onLko
c a1o1 nsmk: nockonLky y nero ne1 nnoroa, m ne sne ero renenornn, ne sne,
cun11L nn ero nepaopopnm nnn xe nponsaopnm. oa1oy a1o1 nsmk ne oxe1
coo6un1L n nnuero onpepenennoro o xpk1epe nsmkoao rpynnm, k ko1opo on
o1nocn1cn, n o nkpnx, roaopnunx n ne.
1o kce1cn a1nonornn, on c 6nroppnoc1Lk npnnne1 noouL o1 qnnonornuecknx
nyk. pnko k nn cnepye1 o1nocn1Lcn cpepxnno n, no epe aosoxnoc1n, ns6er1L
pen1L 1onLko n nx ocnoannn kkne-nn6o amaopm [ c amaau, v ak
Hm ncxc cncn nmu k nn ranr aa,
a rynnm aa. cn kakan-yu an Hn ca nmk, s
nan kra ncxn Hrn m n a aHkax nr
cHcaa ac, svck vmx nnvck aacHmx.
a kaancu car nmka, a rynna cHckx aa kra
amaana cax mx anka.].
1k, a1o npanno conpnxeno c neo6xopnmn oroaopkn. o ace nsnoxennme amue
qk1m canpe1enLc1ayk1 o 1o, u1o cyuec1aye1 nckonnoe coo1ae1c1ane expy
nn1ennek1ynLnm ypoane pcm n c1enenLk psan1nn ee npnpopnoro nsmk; u1o,
cnepoa1enLno, nsmkn o6npk1 psnm poc1onnc1ao, kk no qope, 1k n no
rny6nne n copepxnnk - 1ouno 1k xe, kk n pcm; u1o nsenennn a nnx nponcxopn1
s cue1 ceuennn c ppyrnn npeunnn n nsmkn - 1ouno 1k xe, kk n a pcx; u1o
nx kuec1a n poc1onnc1a asnonponnkk1 ppyr a ppyr n asnno ncuesk1 ppyr a
ppyre - 1ouno 1k xe, kk kpoaL pc a pesynL11e cnnuko cnnLnoro
asnonponnknoaennn re1eporennmx aneen1oa; nkoneu, korp nsmk amcue kc1m
oksmae1cn a pcnopnxennn popc1aenno e rpynnm, a1 kc1 nens6exno 6ype1
perppnpoa1L. cnn a konkpe1nmx cnyunx uc1o 1pypno amnec1n cyxpenne o
uennoc1n npop ncxopn ns uennoc1n nsmk, ko1opm on nonLsye1cn, ace-1kn oxno
c yaepennoc1Lk y1aepxp1L, u1o a npnnunne a1o aosoxno. kn o6pso, un11enk
npepnre1cn cnepykun o6un kcno: neppxnn nsmkoa nxopn1cn a c1poro
coo1ae1c1ann c neppxne pc.
XVI
Kk r; u k kyu ;
u n mn; r k
ryu a .
noksn ec1o, npepnsnuennoe nuey anpy a oprnnuecko npe. Mm yanpenn,
kkne rny6okne qnsnueckne psnnunn, n kkne ne enee oueanpnme opnLnme
psnnunn ampennk1 nc ns acex npounx knccoa xnamx cyuec1a. mpenna nu anp, n
nsyunn ero kk o1penLnyk pnnoc1L, 1. e. kk c no ce6e, n qnsnonornn - nyc1L
nenpexnn a caonx amaopx, no npexnn a caonx aosoxnoc1nx n pxe nopounn
a caonx e1opx - 1e ne enee, nosaonnn ne onpepenn1L 1pn kpynnmx
coaepuenno o6oco6nennmx 1nn: uepnm, xen1m n 6enm.
Mennnckn psnoanpnoc1L c1on1 n co nnsue c1ynenn nec1nnum. Xnao1nm
xpk1ep, sneu1nennm a qope 1s ee npepc1an1ene, onpepennn ee cypL6y c
coro nonanennn n cae1. nnkorp ne cyxpeno am1n s npepenm coro yskoro
no nn1ennek1y kpyr. Mexpy 1e nenLsn cun11L aneen1pnmn xnao1nmn nerpoa c
yskn n nok1m n6o, a cpepne uc1n uepen ko1opmx nnnuec1ayk1 npnsnkn
ounoro anepre1nueckoro spnp. cnn nx mcnn1enLnme cnoco6noc1n neaennkn nnn
aoace panm nynn, 1o nx xennnn n, coo1ae1c1aenno, nx aonn o1nnuk1cn
neo6yspnnoc1Lk. eko1opme nx uyac1a psan1m po 1ko c1enenn, ko1opn
neaepo pay ppyrn pc: rnanm o6pso a1o kce1cn akyc n o6onnnnn.
o nenno a co xpnoc1n 1knx ouyuenn sknkue1cn nopsn1enLnoe
poks1enLc1ao nepsan1oc1n nerp. k6n nnu xopou pnn nero, nnu1o ey ne
npo1nano. pnnc1aennoe, uero on xoue1, - a1o ec1L n ec1L, ne snn epm, ec1L c
xpnoc1Lk; poxnn knnu 6ype1 xopou pnn 1oro, u1o6m n6n1L ero xenypok. k xe
on o1nocn1cn n k snx - ero o6onnnne nerko npncnoc6nnae1cn ne 1onLko k
cm peskn, no n k cm o1ap1n1enLnm. a1n ocnoanm uep1 xpk1ep
po6annk1cn neyc1ounaoc1L nc1poennn, nepeenunaoc1L ero uyac1a, u1o pene1
nopok n po6pope1enL coaepuenno nepsnnunmn pnn nero. Moxno cks1L, u1o
yceppne, c kkn on npecnepye1 npepe1 caoe c1pc1n n caoero aoxpenennn, cnyxn1
snoro 1oro, u1o on oxe1 6mc1po ycnokon1Lcn n s6m1L o caoe c1penennn.
koneu, on no popoxn1 caoe xnsnLk n xnsnLk ppyroro uenoaek; on y6nae1 pnn
1oro, u1o6m y6na1L, n a1 uenoaekonopo6nn unn, nerko npnaopnn a pec1ane,
nepep nnuo c1ppnn nponanne1 nn6o 1pycoc1L 1koro pop, ko1opn sc1anne1
uenoaek ykpm1Lcn a none cep1n, nn6o uypoanunyk neaosy1noc1L.
Xen1n pc npepc1anne1 co6o n1n1esy a1oy 1nny. epen yxe ne am1nny1 nsp,
, nnpo1na, ampe1cn anepep. o6 6onLuo, koc1nc1m, uc1o amc1ynkun,
psan1m a amco1y, kk 6m nance1 np 1peyronLno nnueao uc1Lk, rpe noc n
nop6opopok ne nek1 pesknx amc1ynoa, kk y nerp. 6un 1enpenunn k 1yunoc1n ne
nanne1cn cneunqnueckn npnsnko a1o pcm, xo1n ac1peue1cn y xen1okoxnx uue,
ue y ppyrnx npopoa. poe 1oro, oxno o1e1n1L cn6yk qnsnueckyk konc1n1yunk
n npeppcnonoxennoc1L k n1nn. opnLno o1nouennn xen1n pc ne nee1 1ex
6espccypc1a, ko1opme o1nnuk1 ennnuea. 3pecL o6npyxnak1cn cn6o
ampxennme xennnn, aonn, ckopee rpnnuun c ynpnc1ao, nexenn c
6espccypc1ao, yc1ounaoe, no cnokonoe c1penenne k 1epnnLnm
ypoaonLc1ann, 1enpenunn k o6xopc1ay, no 6onLue ps6opunaoc1n a nnue, ue y
nerpoa. o acex penx - npnaepxennoc1L k nocpepc1aennoc1n, ue1koe nonnnne
acero, u1o ne nanne1cn cnnuko aosamuennm nnn rny6okn; nk6oaL ko acey
nonesnoy, yaxenne k nopnpky, ocosnnne npenyuec1a, ko1opme pe1
onpepenennn pos cao6opm. Xen1okoxne ouenL npk1nunm, a ysko cmcne a1oro
cnoa. nn ne npepk1cn eu1nnn, ne cknonnm k 1eope1nueckn pccyxpennn,
nenso6pe11enLnm, no cnoco6nm ouenn1L n npnnn1L ace y1nnn1pnoe. x xennnn
orpnnunak1cn cnokono n, no epe aosoxnoc1n, ypo6no xnsnLk. ueanpno, u1o
onn c1on1 amue nerpoa. aepnoe, nk6o unannns1op oxo1no ns6pn 6m 1ko npop
a kuec1ae ocnoam caoero o6uec1a, no a1o coace ne 1o, u1o oxe1 cqopnpoa1L
o6uec1ao, npnp1L ey aneprnk, kpco1y, xnsnec1okoc1L.
3 nnn npy1 6enme npopm. [nn nnx xpk1epnm o6pynnn aneprnn, nnn, nyuue
cks1L, anepre1nueckn nn1ennek1; uyac1ao nonesnoro, no a 6onee unpoko cmcne
cnoa, 1kxe 6onee amcoko, 6onee pepsnoaenno, 6onee npenLno, ue y
xen1okoxnx; ynopc1ao a coue1nnn c yue1o npenn1c1an n yenne npeoponea1L nx;
6onLun qnsnueckn cnn, ncknkun1enLnoe nnc1nnk1nanoe 1nro1enne k nopnpky, no
ne kk snor o1pmx n nokon, kk neo6xopnoe cpepc1ao k cocoxpnennk n
opnoapeenno npko ampxennm akyc k cao6ope, pxe upesepno; nann
apxpe6noc1L k qopnnsy, a ko1opm, kk a cnnuky, oxo1no anpk1 kn1um,
1kxe nenpnn1ne amcokoepnoro pecno1ns.
Benme nkpn o1nnuk1cn 1kxe neo6muno nk6oaLk k xnsnn. Cospe1cn aneu1nenne,
u1o onn nyuue yek1 nonLsoa1Lcn ek, nyuue snk1 e ueny, noa1oy 6onLue
popox1 caoe n uyxo xnsnLk. x xec1okoc1L, korp on nponanne1cn, orpnnuen
cosnnne neo6xopnoc1n onpepenennmx npepenoa, uero ne ac1pe1nuL y uepnokoxnx.
1o xe apen onn snk1 npnunnm, no ko1opm oxno pcc11Lcn 6es kone6nn c
a1o c1onL pprouenno pnn nnx xnsnLk. epan ns nnx - uec1L, ko1opn nop
psnnunmn nenn snnn orponoe ec1o a munennn uenoaeuec1a c coro
nun ero nonanennn. e1 nyxpm po6ann1L, u1o nonn1ne uec1n n unannns1opckn
cmcn, sknkuennm a ne, nensaec1nm nn xen1m, nn uepnm pc.
1o6m poaepun1L npncoannme nop1pe1m, seuy, u1o orponoe npeaocxopc1ao
6enmx nkpe ao ace, u1o kce1cn nn1ennek1, coue1e1cn y nnx c ne enee
oueanpnm o1c1anne a cnne ouyuenn. Y 6enoro uenoaek 6onee cn6n
uyac1aennoc1L, ue y nerp nnn xen1okoxero. Cnepoa1enLno, on enLue os6ouen
1enecnoc1Lk, xo1n ero konc1n1yunn psan1 nyuue.
o1 1pn coc1anmx aneen1 uenoaeueckoro pop - 1o, u1o n nsan a1opnunmn
1nnn, nockonLky cuen ce6n o6nsnnm oc1an1L a c1opone nepaopopnoro uenoaek
nnn pn1. pe1nunme xe rpynnm amunn ns coue1nnn psnoanpnoc1e kxporo
ns nsannmx 1pex 1nnoa. e1aep1nunme nokonennn popnnncL ns coks opnoro ns a1nx
1pe1nunmx 1nnoa nnn opnoro unc1okpoanoro nneenn c ppyro rpynno, amuepue ns
opnoro ns payx uyxepopnmx anpoa.
nxe a1nx k1eropn exepneano o6npyxnak1cn ppyrne. pnn, ouenL xpk1epnme,
o6psykune noame o1nnun1enLnme 1nnm, no1oy u1o nponcxopn1 ns saepuennmx
anpoa cnnnnnn; ppyrne - neskonuennme, neynopnpouennme, oxno cks1L,
n1ncounnLnme, no1oy u1o nx aneen1m - nn6o cnnuko psnopopnme, nn6o
cnnuko norouncnennme, nn6o cnnuko nesnun1enLnme - ne nenn nn apeenn,
nn aosoxnoc1n nponnkny1L ppyr a ppyr a 1ko c1enenn, u1o6m aro npnaeno k
onnopo1aopennk. [nn noxec1a acex a1nx nec1pmx e1ncnmx pc, ko1opme
coc1annk1 ceropnn uenoaeuec1ao, nenLsn yc1noan1L nnmx rpnnu, kpoe
pnckoanno aepon1noc1n coue1nn uncen.
Bmno 6m ne coace koppek1no y1aepxp1L, u1o ace ceuennn nnoxn n apepnm. cnn
6m 1pn yksnnmx 6onLunx 1nn, oc1kunxcn ue1ko pspenennmn, ne nepeeunncL
ppyr c ppyro, 1orp npeaocxopc1ao, 6es conennn, 6mno 6m n c1opone cmx
cnoco6nmx 6enmx nneen, npepc1an1enn xen1o n uepno pc aeuno npecmknncL
6m y nor nouncnennmx npopoa 6eno pcm. npoue, nc1opnn ne ponyc1nn 1koro
psan1nn co6m1n. ro oxno npepc1an1L, 1onLko npnsnan 6esycnoanoe
npenyuec1ao rpynn, coxpnnaunx nn6onLuyk unc1o1y kpoan.
o o1 1ko rnno1e1nuecko cn1yunn nnk1o 6m ne amnrpn. 1nocn1enLnoe
npeaocxopc1ao, 6ypL ono 6onee oueanpnm, ne orno 6m npnnec1n 1e nosn1nanme
nnopm, ko1opme pn npouecc ceuennn n ko1opmx nenLsn ne npnae1c1aoa1L, pxe
ecnn onn ne ypanoaeunak1 cyy nepoc11koa.
npnep, p1nc1nueckn renn, pano uyxpm ace 1pe ocnoanm 1nn, popnncn
a pesynL11e coks 6enmx c nerpn. ue npnep: a nnue nckoro 1nn ns
ceuennn xen1o n uepno pc nonanncL psnoanpnoc1L, npeaocxopnun caonx
npepkoa, coks xen1o n 6eno pc npnaen k nonanennk npoexy1ounoro 1nn,
c1onuero nnoro amue unc1o qnncknx npopoa n ennncknx nneen.
ne o1pnuk, u1o specL m anpn xopoune pesynL11m. ckycc1a n 6nropopnn
nn1ep1yp kk nnopm ceuennn kpoan, ynyuuennme n o6nropoxennme pcm - ace
a1o oxno 1onLko npnae1c1aoa1L. nsune 6mnn aosamuenm. coxnennk, aennkne
npn a1o onyc1nnncL n 6onee nnskyk c1ynenL, n nnu1o ne oxe1 konencnpoa1L nnn
nonpan1L a1o 6epc1ane. ockonLky n aepy peuL o 1o, u1o canpe1enLc1aye1 a nonLsy
a1nnueckoro ceuennn, po6ank k cksnnoy, u1o nenno ceuennk m o6nsnm
cnruenne npaoa, mcne, aepoann n oco6enno ycnpenne c1pc1e n
nknonnoc1e. pnko ace a1o npexopnune 6nr, n ecnn n npnsnn, u1o yn1, ns
ko1oporo oxno cpen1L paok1, apu, koepcn1, c1on1 6onLue, ue ero pep-
nerp, 6conk1no neaexec1aennm n nn k uey ne npnropnm, n ponxen 1kxe
o1e1n1L, u1o 6pxnm [peane npnn, repon nnpm n nepconxn Lxna,
cknpnnackne aonnm, ace a1n cnanme npnspkn cmx 6nropopnmx, nmne
ncuesnyaunx pc, nannk1 n 6onee 6nropopnm n npekpcnm o6ps uenoaeuec1a;
onn 6mnn nocn1ennn unannnsunn n o6psun aennunn, 6onee k1nanmn,
nn1ennnren1nmn n peka1nmn, nexenn ceunnme npopm nmneunero apeenn,
xo1n n a nx xnnx yxe ne 1ekn unc1n kpoaL.
k 6m 1o nn 6mno, cnoxnoc1L coc1a uenoaeuecknx pc ec1L nc1opnueckoe
coc1onnne, n opnn ns rnanmx cnepc1an 1koro nonoxennn aeue oksncn
xo1nueckn 6ecnopnpok, a kko norpysnncL 6onLun uc1L nepaopopnmx
npnsnkoa kxporo 1nn. pesynL11e norouncnennmx coksoa nyuune uep1m, kk n
nepoc11kn, c1epnncL, psmnncL n pxe o6p1nnncL a caok npo1naononoxnoc1L.
epaonunLno 6enn pc o6npn onononne n kpco1y, nn1ennek1 n cnny.
ocne ceuennn c ppyrnn 1nnn nonannncL kpcname, no cn6me qnsnueckn
e1ncm, nnn e1ncm cnnLnme, no nepnekne yo, nnn ynme, no ypopnname n c
npnsnkn ampoxpennn. kxe oksnocL, u1o pxe kcnnLno aosoxnn pos
kpoan 6eno pcm, korp on cknnnae1cn a kko-nn6ypL nunn ne cpsy,
noc1enenno, yxe ne pe1 e nckonnmx npepor1na. c1o cnyunocL, u1o o1 a1oro
nnuL aospc1n 6ecnopnpok a a1nnuecknx aneen1x, npnpopnme npenyuec1a
6eno pcm nopnn1mann 1ko 6ecnopnpok. D1y kxyuykcn nonnk ne1pypno
o6Lncnn1L, no1oy u1o kxpm ypoaenL ceuennn aepe1, nono coue1nnn
psnnunmx aneen1oa, k o6psoannk noaoro 1nn, k psan1nk noamx, pnee ne
ac1peuaunxcn npnsnkoa. cnkn ps, korp k npopyk1y npeo6psoann 1koro pop
po6annk1cn ppyrne aneen1m, nonanne1cn npxnn; ue 6onLue nponanne1cn a1
npxnn, 1e enLue c1noan1cn uennoc1L cmx nyuunx npnanecennmx aneen1oa,
ko1opme cn qk1o caoero npncy1c1ann yaennunak1 sno aec1o 1oro, u1o6m
konencnpoa1L ero. cnn ceuenne a onpepenenno c1enenn 6nro1aopno pnn
6onLue uc1n uenoaeuec1a, nopnnn ee n noayk c1ynenL n o6nropxnan ero,
a1o nponcxopn1 1onLko s cue1 1oro xe uenoaeuec1a, no1oy u1o onycke1 n ynnxe1
ero, anocn1 a ero nno1L nepaosnoc1L, ockop6nne1 ero a cmx 6nropopnmx
nponanennnx; ecnn pxe ponyc1n1L, u1o nyuue npeap1n1L a nocpepc1aennmx nkpe
npnpm nnu1oxnmx cyuec1a, ue coxpnn1L pcy npnnuea, uLn kpoaL, nopenennn no
uc1n, o6epnennn, psxnxennn, c1noan1cn o6ecueuennm aneen1o nopo6no
e1opqosm, ne npo s6ma1L 1o pocpnoe o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o npouecc ceuennn
ne npekpue1cn, u1o nocpepc1aennoc1n, cospnnme s cue1 acero nyuuero,
o6Lepnnnk1cn a noame nocpepc1aennoc1n n u1o ns 1knx 6pkoa, ace 6onee n 6onee
perppnpykunx, poxpe1cn cecL, ko1opn, nnopo6ne annoncko 6unn, npnaopn1
k nonnoy 6eccnnnk n saopn1 o6uec1ao a 6esmcxopnm 1ynnk.
o1 uey yun1 nc nc1opnn. n noksmae1, u1o acnkn unannnsunn 6epe1 nuno o1
6eno pcm n nnu1o ne oxe1 ponro npopepx1Lcn 6es ee yuc1nn, u1o o6uec1ao
oxe1 6m1L aennkn n npouae1kun nnuL a 1o epe, a kko ono coxpnne1
co1aopnauyk ee 6nropopnyk rpynny, n u1o c a1 rpynn npnnpnexn1 k co
psan1o ae1an nuero pop. 1o6m okonu1enLno nponcnn1L a1n nc1nnm, poc11ouno
nepeuncnn1L unannnsunn, ko1opme cyuec1aoann n sene, n, yaepnk ac, cnncok ne
6ype1 ouenL pnnnnm.
s con npopoa, ko1opme xnnn n po cnx nop xnay1 n sene, 1onLko pecn1ok
aosamcnncn po coc1onnnn nc1onuero o6uec1a. ce oc1nLnme, 6onee nnn enee
nesancnme, apuk1cn aokpyr nnx, kk nnne1m aokpyr connu. cnn a1n pecn1L
unannnsun o6npyxnak1 nn6o xnsnennm aneen1, uyxepopnm pnn aospec1ann
6eno pcm, nn6o aneen1 cep1n, ko1opm ne cansn c pcn, 6nnsknn k
unannns1opckn, npnpe1cn npnsn1L, yun1man 6ecnopnpok, amsannm npoueccn
ceuennn, u1o acn 1eopnn, nsnoxennn specL, nnuero ne c1on1. npo1na, ecnn
cn1yunn 1koa, kk n ee nonnk, 6nropopc1ao nuero pop 6esycnoano
nop1aepxpe1cn, n cnopn1L c a1n neaosoxno. oa1oy nenno specL m nxopn
epnnc1aennoe nop1aepxpenne n ace neo6xopnme poks1enLc1a cnpaepnnaoc1n
nue cnc1em. onLko 1kn o6pso oxno npocnepn1L psan1ne
qynpen1nLnoro nop1aepxpennn 1oro, u1o npopm perppnpyk1 nnuL a pesynL11e
n nponopunonnLno c1enenn ceuennn nx kpoae n a sancnoc1n o1 kuec1a a1nx
kpoae; u1o nesancno o1 a1oro kuec1a cm cokpyun1enLnm ypp, kko oxe1
nokone61L xnsnec1okoc1L unannnsunn, sknkue1cn a cnepykue: aosnnke1
cn1yunn, korp perynnpykune aneen1m o6uec1a n aneen1m, o6ycnoanennme
a1nnuecknn qk1opn, poc1nrk1 1ko c1enenn psnouepc1noc1n, u1o nx yxe
neaosoxno npnaec1n a rponnk, 1. e. caec1n xo1n 6m k nnnnLnoy
epnnoo6psnk n, cnepoa1enLno, po6n1Lcn o6unoc1n nnc1nnk1oa n nn1epecoa,
ko1opn ec1L epnnc1aennn npepnocmnk counnLnmx canse. nuero ne1 xyxe, ue
a1o1 6ecnopnpok, n6o, kk 6m on nn o1nroun nmneunee apen, pnn 6ypyuero on
ro1oan1 eue xypune ncnm1nnn.
[nn peonc1punn caonx pryen1oa n nuny c nc1opnuecko uc1n npepe1.
pnsnk, u1o a1o aecL o6unpnn 1e, opnko on nxopn1cn a 1ko 1ecno
cuennennn acex ee uc1e, c1ekkunxcn, nopo6no pyuek, k opnoy yc1Lk, u1o ee
o6unpnoc1L nooxe1 ne nyuue n ocnoa1enLnee nsnoxn1L pryen1m, ko1opme n
npepnrk annnnk un11enn. oneuno, n npepc1on1 aec1e c 6enmn nrpn1n
npo1n 6onLuyk uc1L senoro up. o nun ny1euec1ann acerp 6ypy1 nunn1Lcn
a epxne snn, a uen1pnLno 1ouke, rpe spopnncL unannns1opckn 6enn pc.
pny s ppyro n 6ypy aaopn1L a nc1opnueckn kon1ekc1 ec1noc1L, ko1opn, 6ypyun
opnxpm cpepo o6n1nnn 6enoro uenoaek, nnkorp ne coxe1 ocao6opn1Lcn o1 ero
annnnnn. m yanpn, kk pec1ayk1 a1nnueckne skonm a nx coue1nnnx aec1e c
am1ekkunn ns nnx nocnepc1annn. Mm yanpn, c kko neyonno n ono1onno
nocnepoa1enLnoc1Lk onn ocyuec1annk1 caok aonk. s a1oro sxa1makuero
spennu, ns a1o xnao kp1nnm, ko1opn sknkue1 a caon pkn ace c1pnm np,
rpe uenoaek pec1an1enLno nponann ce6n kk xosnnn, nkoneu, ns cennkunx ppyr
ppyr rpnpnosnmx annsopoa m nsaneue poks1enLc1a, ne1nennme, kk ns, n,
kk ns, ne 6onunecn npoan1mx ykycoa perornuecknx pok1pnn - poks1enLc1a,
ko1opme y1aeppn1 nepaenc1ao uenoaeuecknx pc n npeaocxopc1ao opno ns nnx np
acen oc1nLnmn. [nn a1oro a1op cknpmae1 opyxne kpn1nkn n pccyxpennn n
aoopyxe1cn nnc1pyen1o cnn1es n y1aepxpennn. enepL oc1e1cn nnuL onpepenn1L
1eppn1opnk, n ko1opo n 6ypy pec1aoa1L. npoue, a1o 6ype1 kopo1kn cnncok.
yxe o1eun, u1o n sene cyuec1aoano pecn1L aennknx uenoaeuecknx
unannnsun n ace onn cansnm c pen1enLnoc1Lk 6eno pcm. 1k, nepeuncnn nx.
I. npnckn unannnsunn. n pcnpoc1pnnncL n oc1poa npnckoro oken, n
ceaep n n aoc1ok sn1ckoro kon1nnen1 s npepenm Bpxny1pm. e uen1po 6mno
ec1o o6n1nnn 6eno npopnoc1n pnuea.
II. rnn1nne. okpyr nnx co6npk1cn aqnonm, ny6num n neckonLko ne6onLunx
npopoa, xnaunx n snpe osnc on. D1o o6uec1ao nponsouno o1 pncko
kononnn ns npnn, cospnno a aepxoaLnx ponnnm nn.
III. ccnpnum, k ko1opm npncoepnnnnncL eapen, qnnnknum, nnpnum,
kpqrennne, rnnpn1m. ce onn o6nsnm caoey counnLnoy nn1ennek1y ccoam
a1opxennn 6eno pcm - no1okoa n Cn. 1o kce1cn sopoc1pnuea -
npnuea, ko1opme anpmuec1aoann a epepne snn nop nene npoa, nepcoa,
6k1pnuea, 1o a1o onn1L 6mn ae1aL pnckoro ceec1a.
IV. 1 1ex xe pnuea nponsounn ppeanne rpekn, ko1opme nopaeprnncL aospec1ank
cen1cknx aneen1oa.
V. nnornk 1oro, u1o nponcxopnno a rnn1e, m anpn a n1e. pn pnckn
kononnn, npnuepun ns npnn, npnnecn 1yp counnLnoe munenne. onLko aec1o
1oro, u1o6m ceu1Lcn, kk a1o cnyunnocL n 6eperx nn, c uepnmn nneenn,
on pc1aopnncL a cce nuea n xen1okoxnx, kpoe 1oro, nonyunn poaonLno
ounyk noppepxky c ceaepo-snp a nnue aneen1oa 6eno pcm 1k xe pnckoro
ceec1a, no yxe ne nnpncknx [anu yx mn nynx, v ra
H nxcn amarau an, . . kak yx kaam, akm,
km yy cyxaucn x. nmy nn a aky anucu,
k H mn m y nnxau nyu. c, v n Hry cnau,
s kak Hx x nnuaaucn anmH yaxnH. ck
ncxx rnck kack ana y kaanuca,
n nay x a ca aHn.].
VI. [peannn unannnsunn n1nnckoro nonyoc1poa, ns ko1opo amun pnckn
kynL1yp, npepc1annn co6o osnky ns kenL1oa, n6epnuea, pnuea n cen1oa.
VII. epnckne npopm a V a. 1pncqopnpoann renn 3np. nn 6mnn pnun.
VIII. IX, X. D1nn unqpn n o6osnuy 1pn epnknckne unannnsunn -
nnernnckyk, ekcnknckyk n nepynckyk.
s cen nepamx unannnsun - opnnx ns cmx ppeannx a npe - uec1L
npnnpnex1, no kpne epe uc1nuno, pncko pce, cepLn, 1. e.
ccnpnckn, o6nsn npnckoy peneccncy, ko1opm c1n ee cm 6nnc11enLnm
nc1opnueckn oen1o. ou1n aecL eaponeckn kon1nnen1 a nc1onuee apen
ncennk1 rpynnm, a ko1opmx npeo6npe1 6enm aneen1, xo1n ec1L neno n
nepncknx aneen1oa. e 6mno nc1onue unannnsunn y eaponecknx npopoa 6es
pnckoro annnnnn.
o acex pecn1n unannnsunnx nn opn ns ennncknx pc ne qnrypnpye1 a kuec1ae
ocnoa1enLnnum. a uncno nocanuennmx axopn1 1onLko e1ncm.
ouno 1k xe m ne anpn cnon1nnmx unannnsun y xen1mx npopoa, 1, rpe
pnckn kpoaL nc1ounncL, n6nkpe1cn sc1o.
o1 1e, ko1opyk n co6npkcL nccnepoa1L, nonLsyncL nnnn npoao nc1opnn.
a1o saepue1cn nepan uc1L oero 1pyp.

$ %% &' ()'

I. aHm
epame cnepm nc1opnn uenoaeuec1a aocxopn1 k anoxe, npepuec1aykue 5000 ropy
po poxpennn ncyc pnc1 [ H nana, s cm aycn
snx a x mcnv n . s., yr xnr ara
aHn nnann vnaka anum a rnyu aka, a vacc, a
ynua acknk a rn. 3 na nav H nana, . k.
ac rnck naHnk aycn caH a 4000 rH. nvH,
xnrn Han av nn amr ccnaan, nsHy cay
ankau aHa vann cy anca.].
a1oy apeenn nkpn yxe nunnk1 npyu1L aekoayk 1nunny. nxnnn snn
nnonne1 uenoaeueckn ypaennk. oc1enenno a1o1 ypaennk nepeeue1cn
n kr, a nnpanennn p6ckoro nonyoc1poa n qpnknckoro kon1nnen1, n
aoc1oke, nunnn c nn1o, cnyckkunxcn no cknon Bonop [ H a ay
ry nu, kan, avan c car ykyma, ncn a ca,
ncka nu-Uau knncn a ana k y aakyn (yHnu.
anuan n, kaa).], n pnLue, cnoano axo, k neaoy 6epery np.
1k, nune nue nccnepoanne c uepno, nnn, 1ounee, 1enokoxe, pcm.
D1 neaepon1nn cecL ennnuea po cnx nop ypnanne1 nccnepoa1ene [aHm
n acknk a a r k nkamaa, v acn
sx aa nnannn nn cHn k Hra a acm
aHa.]. ue po nonanennn kkoro-1o 6m nn 6mno oprnnsoannoro o6uec1a, on,
ne poaonLc1ayncL uenm npnnpnexun e kon1nnen1o, nepeeue1cn a Kxnyk
snk n c1noan1cn nonno ee anpmunue, s1e npopanre1cn k ceaepy, rpe
coxpnnnncL ppeanne nneen 1o xe kpoan, acen s6m1me a ropx yanL-ynn a
n1e n s npepenn noncknx oc1poaoa. kn 6m nppokcnLnm nn ksncn a1o1
qk1, on ypoc1oaepne1 nnopoan1oc1L a1o norouncnenno rpynnm uenoaeuec1a [3a
rynna acvmaa Hr naa, ncknuky rm c kyvaamH
ancaH cu a aHay, ccaH . ., Hxy H kak y numcaa
aackx ra ancm nnHm. naanu, naam , k
yaxa, v cycay aackx ra c kyvaamH ancaH, kak
y akaa, n c amcynaH xaH, kak y nnara. 3 vu
cHmaan aca, ycna nanxaan k vHy ny, kan a
acx mnx nr k akackH kackH rynnaH.].
o nesancno o1 npnunn, ero nopopnaunx, nesancno o1 pernonoa, rpe on nen
ec1o - 6ypL 1o o6xnrkune kxnme ponnnm nnn nepnnme npoc1opm ceaep, - a 1ex
ec1x ne1 nn epnnoro cnep unannnsunn, nn nmneune, nn aepon1no a npouno.
Cpepn 1enokoxnx xn1ene yanL-ynn ac1peuk1cn ppyrne psnoanpnoc1n c
kypuamn n nyunc1mn aonocn (a yne, rpe nx nsmak1 pa1n n
ppxexn). nn, aosoxno, npnnpnex1 k nennLcko ae1an 1yoa. koponeac1ae
cc, n kre npoannunn yap, xnay1 cnrn, pnkpn c kypuamn aonocn,
noxoxne n nnycoa oao annen. Oopose ec1L nerpm, nnonnkune
xpqopcuea. enokoxne xnay1 n n oc1poax kxnee nonnn, 1kxe a
Cepxnc1ne, n 6epery osep 3pex. pam a1nx npopoa upesamuno xec1okne. x
nonn1nk - aon n ynnu1oxenne, n1ponoqrnn - nx opnL n nx kynL1. ponx
nx o6n1nnn ne1 nn ropopoa, nn xpoa - ne1 nnuero, u1o canpe1enLc1aye1 o
coun6enLnoc1n. D1o apapm ao ace caoe nenpnrnnpnoc1n, y ko1opmx arons
cn6oc1n nponanne1cn ao ace xec1okoc1n. Y npnn1nanmx npopoa ppyro kpoan, o
ko1opmx ackope nope1 peuL, cnoxnnocL o nnx o6uee npepc1anenne, ceunnoe c
npespenne, c1pxo n o1apuenne. nunme saepn noksnncL 6m cnnuko
6nropopnmn a cpanennn c a1nn nneenn. cmcne aneunoc1n onn nnonnk1
o6esLnn, u1o kce1cn nx npac1aennmx kuec1a, n npnunocL 6m npepc1an1L
ce6e nounme koupm [rm ny a , v x nk nmn
cna n nym, a a. ak acu cax, xayan a ry
acr Hn ank Maccaa, amaa cn nHkaH a
aaH nkn kr acaa, cma nuam.].
cnn uen1pnLnme o6nc1n, pxe n ceaepo-aoc1oke, oc1anncL ncenennmn 1knn
norouncnennmn nneenn, 1o ceaepnn uc1L snn, aknkun no6epexLe
epoan1oro oken n aponm, nou1n uennko nxopnncL ao anc1n coaepuenno
ppyroro 1nn. D1o xen1n pc, ko1opn noknnyn o6unpnm epnknckn kon1nnen1
n pannyncL n aoc1ok n snp no 6eper payx okenoa, s1e pcnpoc1pnnncL, c
opno c1oponm, n kr, rpe, ceuauncL c uepno pco, nopopnn norouncnennoe
nckoe ceec1ao, c ppyro - n snp, 1. e. n eue ne scenennme senn
aponm.
koe pspaoenne pupy1 xen1o pcm co ace oueanpnoc1Lk noksmae1, u1o n
caoe ny1n no1ok nrpn1oa ac1peuncn c ounm npenn1c1ane, ko1opoe sc1annno
nx pspenn1Lcn. pannnx Mnuxypnn nx pspennn ounn cnnouennn
nperpp, n neno apeenn npouno, npexpe ue onn snononnnn uen1pnLnme
o6nc1n, rpe ceropnn xnay1 nx no1okn. kn o6pso, onn norouncnennmn
pyuekn o61eknn npenn1c1ane, snnn anune nyc1mnnme ec1; nenno no a1o
npnunne xen1okoxne npopm c1nn nepamn xosnean aponm.
D1 pc oc1ann n ornnm n koe-kkne opypnn oxo1m n aonm a cn6npcknx
c1ennx, cknpnnacknx necx n 6ono1x 6pn1ncknx oc1poaoa. npoue, cypn no a1n
opypnn, ne1 ocnoann cun11L xen1yk pcy 6onee psan1o, ue 1enokoxne
xn1enn kr. 1e apeen n 6onLue uc1n senn nn renn, nn nn1ennek1 ne nenn
nnkkoro snuennn. nc1L onpepennncL 1onLko ncnnne.
CkonLko apeenn npoponxncL 1kn cn1yunn? onpepenenno cmcne o1ae1n1L n
a1o1 aonpoc oxno npoc1o: a1o1 nopnpok aeue nee1 ec1o ackpy, rpe uepnn n
xen1n psnoanpnoc1n npe6mak1 a 1pe1nuno coc1onnnn. 1k, ppeannn nc1opnn ne
pe1 n y1eun1enLnmx amaopoa. n oxe1 cnyxn1L sepkno nmneunero coc1onnnn
snun1enLno 1eppn1opnn senoro up. o nyk ne a cnnx cks1L, korp nenno
nunocL apapc1ao. o caoe npnpope nyk ner1nan, nockonLky 6espec1aenn.
n nponspc1e1 nopcnypno, n ee cyuec1aoanne c1noan1cn oueanpnm 1onLko a 1o1
oen1, korp nponanne1cn k1nann cnn, cnoco6nn npo6n1L 6peuL a ee o6onouke.
kn oen1o 6mno nonanenne cpepn uepnmx npopoa 6eno pcm. onLko nocne
a1oro 1enm xoc ospnncn pccae1o. 1k, o6p1ncn k nc1ok ann1no rpynnm
uenoaeuec1a, u1o6m yanpe1L a1n nepame nyun.
D1 pc nee1 ne enee ppeanee nponcxoxpenne, ue pae ppyrne. [o apeenn caoero
pcnpoc1pnennn on oc1ancL nese1no, ro1oan 6ypyuyk cnanyk cypL6y
uenoaek a 1o yronke senoro up, ko1opm c 1ex nop norpysnncn a eue 6onee
1nnc1aennoe s6aenne.
Mexpy payn npn - ceaepnm n kxnm, nnn, ecnn aocnonLsoa1Lcn nnpnckn
ampxenne, expy nonypenno c1pno, sene cep1n, n ceaepno c1pno,
sene nece1nmx cokpoanu, - npoc1npk1cn ropnme nn1o, nsonnpoannme o1 np
c opno c1oponm ropn nensepno amco1m, c ppyro - cnexnmn nyc1mnnn n
ope nLp.
Cypoam knn1 kk 6yp1o cneunnLno 6nronpnn1c1aoan aocnn1nnk cnnLno pcm.
onopnme npoc1nme ae1pm, kopo1koe ne1o, ponrn sn - opnn cnoao, 6onLue 6ep,
nexenn 6nr, - ace a1o apnp nn orno npo6ypn1L, cosp1L, psan1L unannns1opckn
renn. o npnpy c a1nn cypoamn ycnoannn, cnoano cnaon ckpm1mx 6nr acnko
cypoaoc1n, neroc1enpnnnn senn xpnn1 orponme nnepnLnme 6or1c1a,
rnanm o6pso pprouennme knn [ kr anuan n, H I,
yHnu nm: ccnaan ncnx n a can c HannymH
racaaH, ckmaaHcn a Hn a , aan ac a Hmcnu
ccax, aHacnax x rax, xannx na, kmx
ncnaan c kca , cnycn aa cnn ncn r, .
nmaan a nax a xmx cknax Yana, r nnaau n aa,
nv a caH naxc cacH nH yr c yrH, amn kyrnm
kyck na acH 13, 16 24 ya; acuHa an, v n
kynm kyck kra- nxan a caH naxc, m
craH c r vkaH. 3 cu aaka, nan caa, crnac
ck Hnrvck rra. aH cx n Hr cka,
xanHmx rHaH n H ryakac ( cnaa ry nnau), a
kmx Hx yau a, ykna Hanukr ca. y x
yk amnnn a ckaaackx nanx.].
ropx aopn1cn xnao1nme c uennm exo n uepc1Lk, ko1opme a opnn npekpcnm
penL pnn npy yckyc, c1onL uennm a snn npopyk1. o ckonLko uypec oc1k1cn
nencnonLsoannmn, ecnn ne1 yenmx pyk, cnoco6nmx o6npyxn1L nx n ouenn1L.
e ne enee, cnay a1n senn npnnecnn ne sono1o, ne nsm, ne ex, ne yckyc,
1o1 qk1, u1o onn aspc1nnn 6enyk pcy.
1nnukuecn n o1 1enokoxnx pnkpe kr n o1 xen1okoxnx apapoa ceaep, a1o
rpynne, a co nune orpnnuenno knouko 1eppn1opnn, upesamuno
6ecnnopno, npepc1onno nokopn1L ack oc1nLnyk cyuy, ecnn poanpennk 6mno
yropno korp-nn6o o6nropopn1L senk. pnko 1kn spu 6mn nano ne nop cnny
pxe pnn 6enmx nkpe, ecnn pxe nn1n 1mcnu ne1 oksnocL nepoc11ouno pnn ee
ocyuec1anennn.
s6pnnyk uenoaeueckyk rpynny, 1k xe kk n pae ppyrnx, nopunnennmx e, 1pypno
oxpk1epnsoa1L n onpepenn1L c poc11ouno 1ounoc1Lk. n aknkue1 a ce6n ao
ace npe noxec1ao cxopnmx npnsnkoa, ko1opme nosaonnk1 n pxe amnyxpk1
knccnqnunpoa1L ee nop o6un - neckonLko nenonn1nm n ouenL nenonnm -
nene: 6enn pc. ockonLky ee ocnoanme o1ae1anennn peonc1pnpyk1 poaonLno
psnme cnoco6noc1n n nx ypo6nee xpk1epnsoa1L no o1penLnoc1n, ne1 peun o
nonno npen1nunoc1n nc1okoa a1o pcm. epL m anpn ue1ko ampxennme psnnunn
any1pn nopanpoa 1enokoxnx n xn1ene ceaepnoro nonyupnn, noa1oy nornuno
npepnonoxn1L, u1o qnsnonornn 6enmx 1kxe o1nnue1cn noxec1aennoc1Lk 1nnoa.
osxe m aepnecn k a1oy, nok secn o6unn npnsnkn.
epaoe, u1o 6poce1cn a rns: 6enn pc nnkorp ne npepc1e1 nepep nn a
pypnen1pno coc1onnnn, a kko m n6nkpe oc1nLnme. C coro nonanennn n
nc1opnuecko cuene on poaonLno psan1 n o6npe1 ocnoanmn aneen1n,
ko1opme nosxe, 6ypyun ycoaepuenc1aoanm ee norouncnennmn ae1ann, nopopn1
psnoo6psnme qopm unannnsunn.
n eue o6n1n a rnyxnx ponx Ceaepno snn, no yxe o6npn nosnnnnn a
koconornn, rny6nny ko1opmx n npnxopn1cn npnsn1L ceropnn, no1oy u1o
coapeennoe uenoaeuec1ao sne1 nnuL qpren1m 1o ppeane nykn, cpocuecn c
pennrne [ yax 3aanua, cHm cvan ca
ax Hn a ca-ack, . . y nacu, kya nmn
acm. H r, y namx aa aa cu
, nam nnan x nmkamx ccH, anH,
nn vmx aacax Ha, cn namx nkax, nn
. . (3aanu. cn anuckr aa).].
ono npe o nponcxoxpennn np 6enme nkpn xpnnnn nn1L o nepamx npepkx
- 1ex, u1o xnnn nocne cmnoae on, n n1pnpxx, yepunx po nocnepne
kocnuecko k1c1poqm. c1L ocnoannn nonr1L, u1o nenn Cn, n Hqe1
onn nsmann ne acex xn1ene nue nnne1m, 1onLko ae1an epnnc1aenno pcm,
ko1opyk onn cun1nn nc1nnno uenoaeuecko, 1. e. nx co6c1aenno pcm. D1o
poksmae1 rny6okoe npespenne, ko1opoe onn nosxe nn1nn ko ace oc1nLnm
pc.
cnn nnorp nn coo1nocn1 1o c ernn1nnn, 1o c uepnokoxnn, 1o a1o pene1cn
nponsaonLno, a o1penLno asn1o c1pne, ao apeen ne c1onL o1pnennme n ncxopn ns
nnornn saykoa, a ko1opo ne1 nnuero onpepenennoro n ko1opo nepoc11ouno pnn
cepLesnmx a1nonornuecknx pccyxpenn.
k 6m 1o nn 6mno, a1n 6enme nkpn sponro po nc1opnuecknx apeen nenn pa
rnanmx aneen1 acnko unannnsunn; pennrnk n nc1opnk.
1o kce1cn nx npaoa, m sne opnn nn1epecnm qk1: onn ne cpxnncL neunn,
nopo6no nx ceaepnm n aoc1ounm cocepn. caonx aproa onn yc1pennnncL, c1on
a 6oeamx konecnnux; a1o o1nocn1cn k ernn1nn, nnpyc, ccnpnu, nepc,
rpek, rnn, n specL oxno npepnonoxn1L onpepenennyk y1onuennoc1L aoennoro
nckycc1a, u1o neaosoxno 6es 6onLunx nosnnn a o6p6o1ke pepea, koxn,
e1nnoa. epao6m1nme 6enme nkpn yenn 1k1L n un1L opexpy n xnnn rpynnn a
6onLunx cenennnx, ykpuennmx nnpnpn, o6ennckn n kyprnn ns kne nnn
senn.
nn npnpyunn pnknx noupe n aenn nc1yueckyk xnsnL. Y nnx 6mnn 6onLune
c1p kopoa [kaca s n acm; naxH
cnyx ak, v Hr xnkx rynnm ynnnn Hnk
ax a anu amck cyn ana. n kmx
aa an kan a n ka. k aHacn
HamaaH xamx.]. Cpann1enLnoe nsyuenne nsmkoa, ko1opoe
exepneano npnnocn1 ace noame nk6onm1nme n neoxnpnnme qk1m, noksmae1, u1o
senepenne onn snnnncL no.
Mexpy npoun, e1opm po6mannn a1nx caepenn nou1n ns ne6m1nn, ko1opme oxno
nsa1L ponc1opnuecko nc1opne, cpannm c p6o1o reonoroa: onn pk1 ne
enee 1ounme n neonpoaepxnme pesynL11m. npn ep, ncnonLsoanne aoenno
konecnnum npk1nkoanocL 6enmn npopn, ns ko1opmx amunn ernn1nne, nnpycm,
rnnm. o-nepamx, a1 npen ne ns 1ex 6m1oamx no1pe6noc1e, kk, ckxe, yenne
nn1L n ec1L, ko1opme npnxopn1 n y ace xnam cyuec1a nesancno o1
nponcxoxpennn. o-a1opmx, a1o opno ns 1ex cnoxnmx nso6pe1enn, ko1opme
coxpnnk1cn a npope n cnoco6c1ayk1 ero npouae1nnk n oryuec1ay.
kn xe o6pso oxno c 1ounoc1Lk aocc1noan1L o6ps xnsnn npnn1nanmx 6enmx
npopoa. syuenne nnporepncknx nsmkoa canpe1enLc1aye1 o nnnunn a cnckpn1e,
rpeuecko, n1nncko, kenL1cknx n cnanncknx pnnek1x 6nnsknx 1epnnoa,
o1nocnunxcn k cko1oaopc1ay n nonn1nuecko xnsnn. nn1enLno nsyun cnoa
aec1e c nx kopnnn, nnnranc1m onpepennnn nponcxoxpenne npoc1mx nnn cnoxnmx
nonn1n, nepepaemx a1nn cnoan. ksnocL, u1o pnn nepepun 1knx nonn1n,
kk 6mk, noupL, konecnnu nnn konnck, opyxne, nepao6m1nme 6enme
npopm nenn cnoa nnn ampxennn, ko1opme oc1anncL npnansnnmn k nekcnke
6onLunnc1a nsmkoa 1o xe rpynnm. Cnepoa1enLno, nx aoennme n cko1oaopueckne
npnamukn nenn rny6okne kopnn. pnoapeenno ao acex a1nx nsmkx o1eueno
6or1oe psnoo6psne qop, yno1pe6nnemx ao acex cnyunx, rpe peuL npe1 o
cenLcko xosnc1ae, nnpnep, nsannn pc1enn n cenLckoxosnc1aennmx opypn.
3nun1, o6p6o1k senn nonanncL nosxe pspenennn 6onLuoro 1nn n rpynnm.
D1nonornueckne nccnepoannn noksnn, kk nepao6m1nme 6enme npopm nonnnn
Bor, u1o osnunn pnn nnx nonn1nn upL n aoxpL. kn o6pso,
cpann1enLnoe nsyuenne nsmkoa npnnecno nc1opnn 1pn pesynL11: [. yHnu
Hva: 3 a Hrvcnm rynnm arn-ycck am
ycck-cck nnHa n nnvck ccHm a v Hrx
aka kakaan nuk v Hm Hn Bak, . . v
Hcu, kan kyxa an ncn anu acvr nxun
acnn Hxy BankH caaH Hxy amkH ykHckH
nmkH. 3 nncka cym, HcaH vu nnan, n k
nmn ca ycn k... 3 nyu Qn, axa ayna a ay
yr... ackan ncuHcu, kan v vva cacH
aa, cHn, nnxacn a nnaH anar ra
acnn, cn cnycucn c ncckr nna v 3aau k
ncy, Hm acH aakack x, xn nv acca
ayx H nann c ny ay ry.]
poks1enLc1ao popc1a 6enmx npopoa, pspenennmx rpopnmn pcc1onnnnn; [
H a ay ry nu, kan, avan c car ykyma, ncn
a ca, ncka nu-Uau knncn a ana k y aakyn
(yHnu. anuan n, kaa).] nop1aepxpenne nnnunn opnnkoamx
ycnoan, a ko1opmx a1n npopm xnnn po nx nepecenennn; canpe1enLc1ao nx pnne
coun6enLnoc1n.
D1o pc, o6npkun nepanunmn nonn1nnn o pennrnn, no 1epnkun cansn c
npounm. D1n npnsnkn acerp o1nnunn n 6ypy1 o1nnu1L p6oa, eapeea, nnpycoa,
rpekoa, pnnnn, rnnoa, cknpnnaoa. Benn pc, nckycnn a rnanmx exnnuecknx
nckycc1ax, nm1kuncn npeap1n1L aonnckoe peno a nc1onuee nckycc1ao, a
o1nnune o1 no1coakn pnkpe, npnpyunaun noxec1ao anpoa xnao1nmx, c1on1 n
1ko amcoko c1ynenn a cpanennn c oc1nLnmn uenoaeuecknn ceec1an, u1o
cnepye1 nonn1L ps n nacerp: acnkoe cpanenne 6eccmcnenno no opno nnuL
npnunne, u1o pxe a pe1cko aospc1e a a1o pce ne 6mno cnepoa apapc1a. C
coro nun on o6npn psan1m nn1ennek1o, u1o nosaonnno e npeaocxopn1L
ppyrne necpanno 6onee norouncnennme pcm, xo1n eue n ne 6nroppn
anpmuec1ay np nokopennmn npopn, 1k kk a 1o apen snun1enLnmx kon1k1oa
expy nnn ne 6mno, no s cue1 unannns1opcknx cnoco6noc1e.
op ac1ynn1L a o1kpm1yk cxa1ky npnun nosxe. 3 nn1L 1mcnu ne1 po nue apm
1eppn1opnn, rpe o6n1nn 6enme nneen, yxe nopaeprncL nuec1ank. op
panenne popc1aennmx npopoa, ko1opmx a caok ouepepL 1ecnnnn c ceaep
xen1okoxne nneen, a1 rpynn pannyncL n kr, noknnya caon popnme senn,
nepeun uepes pannnm, nsaec1nme n aoc1oke kk ypn, n, 1koaa n snpe
uepnme npopnoc1n, ko1opme nperpxpnn e ny1L, oksncL a coaepuenno
nesnkomx ec1x [aHm n acknk a a r k
nkamaa, v acn sx aa nnannn nn cHn
k Hra a acm aHa.].
pnno cnyue n aepy peuL o nepecenennn no1okoa , ko1opmx cun1k 6enmn
npopn, ne uepnmn, kk npnnn1o py1L. ppeannx 1ekc1x ne1 nnkknx
nekoa n 1o, u1o a1o1 n1pnpx, nx nepaopopnm npepok, a cnny o1uoackoro
npoknn1nn nsennn uae1 koxn, 1. e. nonyunn qnsnueckne npnsnkn o1aeprny1mx pc.
ksnne s ero noc1ynok a nonno epe nponannocL ropspo nosxe, n c1nr1oa
eue ne 6mno a 1o apen, korp xn1ckne nneen o1pennnncL o1 oc1nLno ccm
npopoa, aepyunx popocnoanyk o1 on.
Moe nenne nop1aepxpk1 n yrposm, ko1opmn nppopn1enL 6eno pcm, uenoaek,
cncuncn o1 no1on, ocmnn uc1L caoero no1oc1a. pexpe acero, 6ype ne1L a
anpy, u1o a1n yrposm ne 6mnn ppecoanm nn coy y, nn ero no1ok. nn
nenn ckopee opnLnoe pec1ane, n 1onLko npn nooun ouenL 6onLunx n1nxek n
oxno npnnnc1L qnsnonornueckne nocnepc1ann. BypL npoknn1 nn, - roaopn1cn
a 1ekc1e, - n p 6ype1 on p6o p6oa ero 6p1Lea [Bm, rn. IX, c. 25 (cu
an am can acn a canH a na).].
c11n, nnrpe nn ne osnue1 nerpn1nnckoro nnn coaepuenno uepnoro npop.
D1o nn nc1opnueckn o1nocn1cn k e1nc, koneuno, c npnecLk ennnckoro
aneen1, no ne 1oxpec1aennmx ey, u1o nop1aepxpe1 c1nx 5, rn. XX nnrn Bm1nn.
npoue, a Canuennmx knnrx ouenL uc1o ac1peue1cn nksnne annoanmx uepes
ynpok nx no1oc1a, noa1oy ne 6ypy npnaopn1L ppyrne npnepm.
cun1k, u1o a Bn6nnn ne roaopn1cn o 1o, u1o nnuno c1ne1 uepnm nnn p6o,
no 1onLko o 1o, u1o npnpe1 penL, korp nn, 1. e. opnn ro cmnoae ,
perppnpye1 n no kpoan n no 6nropopc1ay n 6ype1 a ycnyxennn y caonx paokpopnmx
6p1Lea. [o6ank eue opno nocnepnee seunne. o1oc1ao ne
orpnnunanocL nno. poe nero y n1pnpx 6mno eue 1pn cmn: yc, Mecpn
n Oy1, n nnrpe ne1 nn cnoa o 1o, u1o npoknn1ne kocnynocL n nx. e kxe1cn nn
un11enk c1pnnm 1o1 qk1, u1o nc1nnnm annoannk n 6onLun uc1L ero pe1e
oksnncL a c1opone, kp o6pyunncL n opnoro unen ceLn - nn, 1oro
coro, y koro 6mnn 1eppn1opnnLnme n pennrnosnme psnorncnn c pe1Ln spnnn?
Cnepoa1enLno, peuL npe1 ne o qnsnonornn, ckopee o nonn1nke.
1k, xn1m npnunn a noame senn, spnee o1nrouennme npoknn1ne a o1nouennn
kpoan n cypL6m. pnko aneprnn, caoc1aennn nx 6eno npnpope, nosaonnn n
cosp1L neckonLko cnnLnmx rocyppc1a. epan ccnpnckn pnnc1nn, n1pnunn
ropopoa nn - ao1 rnanme aexn 1ex pneknx apeen, xpk1ep ko1opmx a
kko-1o cmcne aonno1nncn a epope [nkak ync a caH kna
nackHy ackHy cay Hva, v H s Hn
canu, nvac nmmr aH accckr rnarna
ava , kr ayxn n ncnm, nam ananum
av, nam nm xn x an.].
D1n kpynnme saoeannn, a1n pepskne n pnekne noxopm ne ornn 6m1L npnmn.
pnuenLu npo1naoc1onnn nneen, nc1onLko xe npnn1nanme, nckonLko
xec1okne, u1o 1pe6oano eue 6onLue npnnyxpennn. c1ec1aenno, u1o, ac1pe1nauncL c
ynopnmn uyxkn, ko1opme npnunn rp6n1L nx, a1n nneen npo1naonoc1annn n
neykpo1nyk pnkyk npoc1L n amnypnnn nepecenenuea pccun1ma1L 1onLko n cnny.
pnnn1L noam o6ps xnsnn onn ne ornn, no1oy u1o pnn a1oro n ne xa1no y.
Cnepoa1enLno, ne npnxopnnocL npen1Lcn n cosn1enLnoe yuc1ne a
unannns1opcko npepnpnn1nn n oc1anocL 1onLko npeap1n1L o6puemx a xname
exnnsm, ropnme pnn uepno p6o1m.
kn o6pso, kk yxe o1eunocL, aneu1nenne, ko1opoe 6enme xn1m ncnm1nn
npn anpe caonx o1ap1n1enLnmx conepnnkoa, cpopnn 1oy, u1o ouy1nnn nosxe
nnpnckne no6epn1enn a o1nouennn caonx ec1nmx aproa, 6p1Lea 1ex conepnnkoa
xn1oa. [nn npnuenLuea a1o 6mnn xec1okne cyuec1a orponoro poc1. D1o 6mnn
uypoanu, yxckune caon ypopc1ao, caoe cnno n sno6noc1Lk. epaoe
saoeanne poc1nocL c 1pypo no npnunne neno uncnennoc1n aproa n cnnm nx
conpo1nanennn, 1o npoc1noro, 1o ynpno nnep1noro, no ne enLue aneprnn
no1pe6oano noppepxnne nopnpk a cospnno rocyppc1ae. pnnc1aennm
cpepc1ao npanennn c1no ncnnne. o1 nouey epop, ynonny1m amue, 6mn a
rnsx ceamunero nocnnue c euo a pykx.
ce rocyppc1a, amuepune ns non a1o nepao nrpunn, o1nnunncL
6ecnpnepnm pecno1nso.
pnko, 6ypyun pecno1n pnn caonx p6oa, xn1m ckopo nopopnnn ceunnoe
ncenenne, nocne uero nonoxenne 6maunx no6epn1ene c1no enee yc1ounam,
nokopennme npopm cpennncL enee yrne1emn.
Mexpy 1e acecnnne anc1n ne orno ponyc1n1L no1epn npepor1na, ko1opme kk
nenLsn nyuue coo1ae1c1aoann npnpope n pyxy uepno pcm. oa1oy npen o cnoco6e
npanennn n npax n anc1L nnckonLko ne nsennncL. onLko anc1L 1enepL
ocyuec1annncL ne nop snene npeaocxopc1a kpoan. e npnnunn ocnoamancn yxe
n npnopn1e1e rpynn, ne npopoa. opo6nn perppunn acerp nponcxopn1 a
nc1opnn ceunnmx nun.
[peanne 6enme xn1m noc1enenno 1epnnn caon nosnunn n a konue konuoa ncuesnn
coace. Myn1m, nx no1okn, ace eue nocnnn nx nn a kuec1ae noue1noro 1n1yn,
xo1n ace 6onLue n 6onLue npop ncmuncn uepnm aneen1o. D1o nponcxopnno no
aone cmx norouncnennmx ae1ae nx renenornueckoro ppea. C a1oro oen1
qnsnueckn neu1L, ko1opn ponxn 6mn o1nnu1L no1oc1ao nn n
nop1aepxp1L nx p6ckoe cnyxenne 6onee 6nrouec1nam pe1n, naek o1e1nn ace
npopm, o6psoaaunecn o1 cnnuko 1ecnoro coks 6enmx saoea1ene c
nokopennmn npepc1an1ennn ennncko pcm.
pnoapeenno c 1epnnLnm cnnnnne nonanncL coaepuenno noan opnL,
ko1opn poaepunn okonu1enLnoe o1penenne noamx e1ncnmx npopnoc1e o1
ppeanero 6nropopnoro c1aon. 6ypy roaopn1L o c6nnxennn nsmkoa. epame xn1m
npnnecnn c ceaepo-aoc1ok opnn ns pnnek1oa 1o peun, ko1opn nepaonunLno 6mn
o6ue pnn 6enmx rpynn n cnepm ko1opo eue n ceropnn nerko o6npyxn1L a nsmkx
acex nunx eaponecknx npopoa. o epe 1oro, kk npnunme nneen ac1ynnn a
kon1k1 c 1enokoxnn, nx popno nsmk npe1epnean nsenennn, korp onn
ceunncL c nnn okonu1enLno, 1o n aoace y1p1nnn ero. x nsmk oksncn nckxen
po neysnaeoc1n ennncknn pnnek1n.
cyunoc1n, m ne coace anpae npnenn1L k nsmk no1okoa seunnn,
ko1opme nnpunak1cn, korp peuL sxopn1 o qnnnkncko nnn nnancko
npeunnx. a1n ceunnme npeunn nponnkno noro aneen1oa, amp6o1nnmx
nosxe a pesynL11e cen1cknx nrpun, n specL oxno se1n1L, u1o npnanecennme
aneen1m nenn coaepuenno nno xpk1ep, o1nnunm o1 xpk1ep nsmkoa,
cospnnmx uepnmn xn1n. npoue, n 1k ne cun1k. o, u1o n nsaec1no o
xnncko nsmke, n nccnepoannn 6ep6epcknx pnnek1oa canpe1enLc1ayk1 o
nnnunn o6ue nsmkoao cnc1em, nponn1nno cen1ckn pyxo a 6onLue epe,
nexenn o6npnn n cn cen1ckne nsmkn; cnepoa1enLno, nen ec1o eue 6onLun
o1xop o1 qop nsmkoa 6enmx npopoa, n oc1anocL ace enLue cnepoa peun
6nropopno pcm. cun1k a1y nnnranc1nueckyk peaonkunk cnepc1ane nou1n
nonno npen1nqnkunn c uepnmn npopn n nnxe npnaepy poks1enLc1a.
n1m perppnpoann, n ao1 m anpn nx cpepn p6oa a nneny p6ckoro pyx, xo1n
no-npexney a ponn anc1n1ene, a okpyxennn uepnmx nnoxnnu, ko1opme poxk1
pe1e n anykoa, nekunx ace enLue n enLue o6unx uep1 c ppeannn
saoea1ennn. pnko a nnx eue ec1L kpoaL npepkoa, noa1oy onn ne pnkpn n ne
apapm. nn kon1ponnpyk1 counnLnyk oprnnsunk, ko1opn ncuesn noro aekoa
nsp, no po cnx nop n uenoaeuec1ao npe1 1enL uero-1o uypoanunoro n 6esynoro,
xo1n o1 a1oro ne enee aennuec1aennoro.
Mnp c 1ex nop ne snn nnuero nopo6noro, nnuero, cpannoro c nnopn coepnnennn
6enmx xn1oa c uepnmn npopn. nrpe 6onLue ne ac1pe1nuL aneen1oa 1koro
coks, n neypnan1enLno, u1o a rn6pnpx payx 1nnoa yxe nnuero ne oc1e1cn o1
anepre1nkn - kk qnsnuecko, 1k n opnLno - nepaonc1ounnk. cnn uepnm
aneen1 a ueno coxpnnn caok unc1o1y n kuec1a caonx npepkoa, 1o coace nnue
o6c1on1 peno c 6enm 1nno. un nunn, pnLue acex o1ouepune o1 caonx nc1okoa,
npepc1annk1 co6o aecL neopnopopnme n ouenL no rponnunme pesynL11m
uenoro pnp ceunnmx coksoa - nn6o uepnmx n 6enmx, kk n kre aponm,
ncenenno ncnnun, n1nLnnun, npoancnLun, nn6o xen1mx n 6enmx, kk,
nnpnep, nrnnune, neum, pycckne n ceaepe. kn o6pso, e1ncm, o1npmckn,
ycnoano roaopn, 6enoro o1u, uLn popocnoann aoo6ue nenonn1n, ne ory1 nopnn1Lcn
po a1nnueckoro ypoann uepnmx xn1oa.
Bpkn a1nx nkpe coaepunncL expy 1nnn, panmn no cnne n caoeo6psnk.
onqnnk1 expy payn xpk1epn c oco6o cnno ampsnncn a no1oc1ae n
oc1ann a ne yxe neaosoxnm ceropnn o1neu1ok oun, nc1ounnk 6esypepxnoc1n.
Ceropnn m n6nkpe y6epn1enLnme poks1enLc1a a1oy: korp npoancneu nnn
n1nLnneu c1noan1cn o1uo yn1, pe6enok qnsnueckn nnoro cn6ee, ue, ecnn
6m on popnncn o1 o1u-nrnnunnn. peno a 1o, u1o 6enm 1nn nrnockconu,
xo1n 1oxe pnekn o1 unc1o1m, ne ocn6nen spnee ennncknn aneen1n, kk
npopm, ncennkune kr aponm, n on a coc1onnnn nepep1L caon no1ok-e1nc
6onLue nepaopopno cnnm. pnko, kk yxe o1eunocL, apnp nn cm cnnLnm
nmneunn yn1 cpann1cn c uepnm xn1o ns ccnpnn, ko1opm c konLe a pykx
naopnn yxc n norne p6ckne nunn.
1o6m npncoa1L 6nnskn k penLnoc1n nop1pe1 ccnpnu, nnonk 6n6neckn
pccks o ppyrnx e1ncx, 6onee ppeannx, ue on, nc1opnn ko1opmx 1epne1cn a
rny6nne aekoa. euL npe1 o cyuec1ax, xnaunx po acenpnoro no1on, npepkoa
knnn1oa n nrenoa. pnno cnyue cnepye1 ocao6opn1Lcn o1 pon1nueckoro
nne1, ko1opm oky1no nn a1nx 1nnc1aennmx cospnn 6nroppn xpnc1nnckn
1ekc1. nnckoe aoo6pxenne, cospauee c1onL npnuypnnayk osnky,
aocnpnnnno aeun no-nnoy. [nn xnnuea, kk anpoue, n pnn eapeea, nrenm
6mnn nocnnun 6oxec1aenno cyunoc1n, opnko ckopee 1enmn, nexenn
cae1nmn, 6onLue o6neuennmn a 1epnnLnyk cnny, ue a unc1o npenLnyk
aneprnk. a1o kuec1ae nx npepc1annnn a ypopnnamx qopx, anyukunx yxc,
ne cnn1nk, kk, nnpnep, xepyanm c 6muLe ronoao. orp a1n oryune
cospnnn coepnnnnncL c pouepLn knnn1oa, nonannncL rnrn1m, o xpk1epe
ko1opmx oxno cypn1L no nn1ep1ypnoy o1pmaky, aosoxno, coy ppeaney n
cae1e. o1 kk o6pue1cn k caon xen opnn ns no1okoa y6num aenn, anpno,
6nnskn popc1aennnk a1nx oncnmx e1ncoa:
YcnmuL1e o ronoc, xenm ex, ycnmuL1e oe cnoao. k n y6nn uenoaek s
caok pny n pe6enk s ero pepsoc1n, 1k n cenkp1noe aosespne nny 6ype1
cenpecn1ncenxpm cenkp1nm pnn ex! [Bm, IV, 23, 24. Hmcn sr
maka ax a xckc. 3cu num rm, vH vyacaa Hc.
Br, cyxan aa, aac xn r cH: an Hy ay,
anannn, v , k yu r, y akaa cHka. aHx ncaan
cn ax amm car nann, kr yaaxana acn cHun, kra
rn caH aaraH cHcncHkamH akaaH.].
D1o1 annsop kxe1cn ne co 1ouno xpk1epnc1nko uepnmx xn1oa, noa1oy,
pye1cn, specL ne1pypno yanpe1L 1ecnyk cansL n 6nnskoe cxopc1ao expy cokso,
nopopnaun nx, n npoknn1m 6pko npepkoa on c 1e ppyrn, nensaec1nm n
1nno, ko1oporo nepao6m1noe munenne, ne 6es neko1oporo yxc, noec1nno a pnp
caepxLec1ec1aennmx cyuec1a.
II. Hm
cnn xn1m pc1eknncL no ace epepne snn n no p6ckoy no6epexLk po
co aoc1ouno qpnkn [Hx, a vu a aHa xaHck
rynnm nncu c kaaH.], 1o ppyrne 6enme nneen, npyune cnepo s
nepamn, poc1nrnn n snpe pnncknx rop n kxnmx cknonoa aksckoro xpe61.
D1n nneen nsmak1cn cen1n. epaoe apen nx ocnoann cc xnn a ropnmx
ponx aepxne npen. enno o11yp a psnnunme anoxn amunn nx cme
oryuec1aennme rpynnm. 11yp nounn no1okn, ko1opme, ceunancL, cnnLnee acero
n ponLue acero annnnn n ncnopuennyk kpoaL xn1oa, s1e n n 1nn cmx
ppeannx nepecenenuea a1o pcm. D1 nnopoan1n rpynn nnoxnn caok neu1L n
orponyk 1eppn1opnk. n o11ecnnn k kro-aoc1oky pnn, peuea, ann1oa,
anneuea n ppyrnx; on snononnn caon no1oc1ao Mnyk snk. nokopnnncL
nnknum, nnpnum, kpnum. e kononnn 6mnn n pn1e, o1kyp nosxe, nop nene
qnnnc1nnuea, onn aepnynncL, u1o6m okkynnpoa1L Unknpm, Oepy, Menoc, nrepy n
Opknk. nn pcnpoc1pnnnncL no acey nepne1py ponon1npm, a pope, aponL
rpeueckoro no6epexLn, nonannncL n MnL1e, n nnpncknx oc1poax, a Cnunnnn.
a1o xe apen ppyrne cen1m - nok1nnpm - pannynn po co kxno okoneunoc1n
pann caon nneen, npnsannme cmrp1L 6onLuyk ponL a nc1opnn ppeannx
rocyppc1a. D1n nok1nnpm c rpeuecko n n1nncko n1nunoc1n 6mnn nsaec1nm nop
nene roepn1oa, n ace 1o, ue aqnonckn unannnsunn ne o6nsn ernne1ckoy
annnnnk, on snc1aoan y a1nx p6oa, ko1opme o6psoann nyc1L n ne cyk
ppeankk uc1L nunn, nppo uepnmx xn1oa, cmnoae yu, no ao acnko cnyue
cyk cnanyk ee uc1L, korp pnpo c nnn nocennnncL p6m-ncenn1m, eue
1onLko qopnpoaaunecn a 1y anoxy. a1n npnepm pneko ne ncuepnmak1 cnncok
cen1cknx anpenn. [o cnx nop n nnuero ne cksn o6 nx n6erx a 1nnk, n
cnepye1 npn6an1L, u1o, 6ypyun anc1n1ennn ceaepnoro no6epexLn qpnkn, onn
1kn 6onLun uncno okkynnpoann cnnnk, u1o pxe a pnckn nepnop 1
ac1peunncL nx no1okn.
koe pcnpoc1pnenne 6mno 6m 1pypno o6Lncnn1L - npn ace nnopoan1oc1n pcm, -
ecnn o1pnu1L, u1o a1n npopm ponro coxpnnnn unc1o1y kpoan. o ao nornx cnyunx
a1o y1aepxpenne ne ampepxnae1 kpn1nkn. osoxno, xn1m a cnny kko-1o
npnpopno 6pesrnnaoc1n neko1opoe apen conpo1nannnncL ceuennk co caonn
uepnmn noppnnmn. [nn 1oro, u1o6m aec1n 1kyk 6opL6y n pepx1L pnc1nunk
expy no6epn1ennn n no6expennmn, y nnx 6mno neno npnunn. Cmrpno ponL n
unc1o o1uoackoe uyac1ao oropuennn npn anpe necxopc1a o1npmck c 6enmn
npepkn. e ne enee, c1pc1L npeoponen n a1o1 6pLep, kk on npeoponeae1
ace n cae1e; a pesynL11e nonannocL ceunnoe ncenenne, 6onee npnanek1enLnoe,
ue 6opnrenm, ao acex o1nouennnx. poe 1oro, cn1yunn 6mn nno: uepnme
xn1m ne yc1ynnn npnuenLu, kk a1o cnyunnocL c npepkn nx 1epe nepep
nnuo ppeannx saoea1ene. nn nenn ounme rocyppc1a, a ko1opme annnncL
unannns1opckne aneen1m 6enmx ocnoa1ene, a 1o uncne pockouL, 6or1c1ao,
ypoaonLc1ann. Myn1m ne 1onLko ne anyunn yxc, no ornn amsa1L aocxnuenne n
sanc1L cen1oa, eue ne npnamkunx k npno xnsnn.
CeunancL c nnn, saoea1enn npno6pe1nn ne p6oa, no np1nepoa, pano
nosnaunx akyc unannnsunn. oneuno, aknp cen1oa a a1o1 coks 6mn cm
aecom n nnopo1aopnm, no1oy u1o on sknkuncn a aneprnn n cnne kpoan, 6onee
6nnsko k 6enoy 1nny, xo1n a ne nepoc1ano y1onuennoc1n. Cen1m npnnecnn
noansny, nepcnek1nay, cnny. epnme xn1m nenn kynL1ypy, ko1opn yxe npnnecn
caon nnopm.
D1o 6mnn 6onLune n kpcname ropop, ykpuaune ccnpnckne pannnm. Uae1yune
nocenennn pcnonrnncL n no6epexLe Cpepnsenoro opn. Cnpon nen 6onLune
1oproame cansn n ypnannn caon aennkonenne ne enLue, ue nneann n annon.
Cnxee, [cke, cknone n ppyrnx ropopx 6mno k1nanoe n npepnpnnunaoe
ncenenne, ne uyxpoe ace ppoc1n xnsnn.
kuec1ae o1c1ynnennn xouy se1n1L cnepykuee: n ne y1aepxpk, u1o a1n
snenn1me ropop 6mnn nepamn c1onnun xn1cknx n cen1o-xn1cknx
rocyppc1a. 3ponro po nnx, kk canpe1enLc1ayk1 Bn6nnn n knnnonncnme 16nnukn,
6mnn ppyrne c1onnum - nqqep, pk, Cnxp (nnn nxp): snenn1m ropop,
pesnpenunn xn1ckoro upn eppnoep, npan1enn Dn (cxop, XIV),
nosnaun pcuae1 po nneann. c11n, c1onnu Cennxepn6 nxopnncL a p-
[ynnce, ne a annone, u1o aecL npneu1enLno pnn a1o anoxn (Cennxepn6
npann a 716 r. po oxpec1a pnc1oa). o1n annon 6mn noc1poen pnLue:
nonkoannk oynnncon, ocnoamancL n 13 c1nxe 23- rnam ns knnrn popok cn,
cun1e1, u1o XIII a. po n. a. oxno cun11L apeene c1pon1enLc1a a1oro ropop.
1k, a1o ounoe o6uec1ao pennnocL n noxec1ao rocyppc1a, ko1opme a 1o nnn
nno c1enenn, no ace 6es ncknkuennn, ncnm1mann pennrnosnoe n opnLnoe annnnne
ocnoanoro uen1p, nxopnauerocn a ccnpnn. D1o 6mn nc1ounnk unannnsunn, 1
6mnn cocpepo1ouenm ocnoanme panxyune cnnm psan1nn, n a1o1 qk1,
nop1aepxpem norouncnennmn n6nkpennnn, corncye1cn nonnoc1Lk c nenne
epopo1 o 1o, u1o qnnnknckne nneen nponcxopn1 o11yp. nnckn aneen1
oksncn ouenL aecom, no1oy u1o uepnn cnny ns cmx nepamx nc1okoa
xn1cko anrpunn.
o acex yronkx a1o c1pnm, n a annone, n a npe, m anpn akyc k rnrn1ckn
onyen1, ko1opme c 1ko nerkoc1Lk aosaopnnncL ccn p6ounx,
nxopnaunxcn n nonoxennn p6oa. nkorp n nnrpe ne 6mno nopo6no aosoxnoc1n
coopyx1L orponme c1poennn, psae u1o a rnn1e, a npnn n a epnke, 1. e. a
6conk1no opnnkoamx o6c1on1enLc1ax. oppm xn1 no 6mno aosnec1n k ne6y
aennuec1aennme coopyxennn - n nonpo6nnncL amcokne xonm, ko1opme cnyxnnn
ocnoanne pnn nx paopuoa, nckycc1aennme ropm, apocune a senk 1ouno 1k xe, kk
n ropm ec1ec1aennme n conepnnukune c nocnepnnn aosamuennoc1Lk caonx
ouep1nn. okpec1noc1nx osep n po cnx nop cyuec1ayk1 nopo6nme uepeapm
6esypepxnoro aoo6pxennn a coue1nnn c 6esxnoc1nm pecno1nso n
neo6mknoaenno rnynoc1Lk. D1n rnrn1ckne kyprnm 1e 6onee poc1onm annnnn,
u1o onn nnonnk1 o apeenx, npepuec1aykunx o1penennk 6enmx xn1oa o1
oc1nLno uc1n rpynnm. Mm ac1peue 1kne kyprnm a npnn, m n6nkpe nx y
kenL1oa. nn ec1L y cnann, n ne1 nnuero ypnan1enLnoro a 1o, u1o, yanpea nx n
6eperx nncen n yp, m anoaL ac1peuecn c nnn y nopnoxnn nnernncknx
rop a kuec1ae ocnoannn pnn ekcnkncknx xpoa.
nrpe, kpoe kk a rnn1e, kyprnm c1onL ne anyun1enLnm, kk y ccnpnuea,
ko1opme coopyxnn nx c oco6o nsmcknnoc1Lk n npexnoc1Lk. opo6no ppyrn
npop, onn pennn nx ne npoc1o ornnn nnn ocnoannnn - a1o 6mnn nopsenme
paopum, cnyxnaune y6exnue pnn anc1n1ene n sn1n o1 xpkoro ne1nero connu.
x xypoxec1aennn no1pe6noc1L ne orpnnunancL pxn1ek1ypo. nn 6mnn
nenoppxem a ckynLn1ype, a 1o uncne a nncLennmx penLeqx. Cknm, ropnme
cknonm cpennncL orponmn nono1nn, sneu1neaunn rnrn1cknx nkpe n
npnncn, ko1opme po cnx nop nopxk1 aoo6pxenne. c1enx coopyxenn
nso6pxenm nc1opnueckne annsopm, pennrnosnme uepeonnn, noppo6noc1n uc1no
xnsnn - ace, u1o snenoano co6o 6eccep1ne, ko1opoe yunno 6esrpnnunoe
aoo6pxenne a1nx nkpe.
e enLun aennune o1nnuncL n uc1nn xnsnL. ockouL okpyxn nx 6m1, n,
nonLsyncL 1epnno ns akononkn, nopuepkne, u1o cen1o-xn1ckne rocyppc1a
o6npnn unc1o no1pe6n1enLckn xpk1epo. snoo6psnme 1knn, npkne uae1,
nsnunme ysopm, nsmcknnme npnueckn, opyxne, poporoe n caepx acnko epm
ykpuennoe, konecnnum n e6enL, pyxn n 6nroaonnn, pyunc1me annm, snne1ennme
rpnam noupe n 6opopm acpnnkoa, c1pc1L k pprouennoc1n, ykpuennn,
konLu, cepLr, nopaeck, 6pcne1, 1poc1n ns uennmx nopop pepea, nkoneu,
ypoane1aopenne acex no1pe6noc1e n npnxo1e 6conk1no y1onuennoc1n - 1koam
6mnn npnamukn ccnpncknx e1ncoa. pn ace a1o npo ne1L a anpy, u1o nocpepn
anern1noc1n n pockoun 6m1oan apapckn o6mu 11ynpoakn, kk c1nr1,
nnoxennm enee 6nropopno uc1Lk nx kpoan.
Canpe1enLc1ao a1oro nk6onm1noro o6mun necy1 n ce6e ernne1ckne pncynkn;
ennnckoe nponcxoxpenne nop1aepxpe1cn 1e, u1o on pcnpoc1pnen no ace
qpnke - kk n snpno, 1k n n aoc1ouno no6epexLe. pnn ny1euec1aennnk,
[erpnpnpa, yanpea nerpoa, psykpuennmx uae1no 11ynpoako, n nep
nnpeuea, o6Lncnne1 a1o 1e, u1o 6opnrenm uc1o nepeceknn npoc1opm kon1nnen1
aponL aka1op, nenno noa1oy xn1enn annen npk1nkyk1 o6mun, ko1opme
konronesum ornn snc1aoa1L o1 nnpecknx openna1ene. ockonLky ne1 n
sene npop, ykpukuero ce6n uae1nmn pncynkn, nnecennmn nn6o n koxy,
nn6o, nocpepc1ao yknmannn, nop koxy, ko1opm ne npnnpnexn 6m k uepno nnn
xen1o rpynne, n penk amaop, u1o 11ynpoak - a1o o6mu a1nx payx uenoaeuecknx
1nnoa, ko1opme nyunnn ey 6enme pcm, kcnnLno ceunnme c nnn. npnep,
1k ykpuk1 ce6n xn1o-cen1m n nnpycm, ceuaunecn c uepnokoxnn, a1o
xpk1epno pnn kenL1oa, ceunnmx c xen1okoxnn. 1ynpoaky cnepye1 cun11L
npnsnko ceunnoro nponcxoxpennn n nsyu1L ee nn1epecno c a1nonornuecko
1oukn spennn. D1o xopouo nonnnn epnknckne yuenme. Oopm n xpk1ep
pncynkoa, ncnonLsyemx a opno nneenn noaoro kon1nnen1 nnn onnnesnn,
nnpnep, n nnue nnn 1ene aonnoa, uc1o cnyx1 yksnne nponcxoxpennn n
canse c ppyrn npopo, xnayun pneko o1 nepaoro. Mne poaenocL anpe1L
seu1enLnyk konnekunk rnncoamx cok Opo6epannn, sneu1neaunx ronoam
nerpoa aoc1ounoro no6epexLn qpnkn. n6y neko1opmx 6opnrenoa nnecen cepnn
npoponLnmx u1pnxoa, nopuepkny1mx nckycc1aennm y1onuenne koxn, u1o
npk1nkyk1 norne nenrnckne nneen kennn. D1o canpe1enLc1aye1 o
nepaopopno npen1nunoc1n payx apapcknx rpynn, pspenennmx orponm okeno.
1o6m ypoane1aopn1L nx noc1onnno pc1yune no1pe6noc1n, cyuec1aoan psan1n
1oproann, spue ko1opo 6mn nonck pepkoc1nmx npepe1oa ao acex konux cae1.
nxnnn n epxnnn snn nenpec1nno 1pe6oann ace noamx 1oapoa - 6or1c1a,
ko1opme nxopnnn noxec1ao no1pe6n1ene n uenn1ene, cnoco6nmx nn1n1L s nnx
nk6yk ueny.
pnko pnpo c 1kn 1epnnLnm aennkonenne n p1nc1nso, cyuec1aoann
o1ap1n1enLnme nsam o1 6onesne, amsannmx annanne uepno kpoan. [peannn
kpco1 pennrnosnmx npe noc1enenno srpnsnnncL noaepxnoc1nmn no1pe6noc1nn
yn1oa. ec1o npoc1o1m ppeane 1eonornn npnxopnn rpy6m an1ns, epskn
a caonx cnaonx, npepc1annkun 6oxec1aennme 1pn6y1m n npnpopnme cnnm a
onc1pyosnmx o6psx, nckxkunx can1me npen n unc1me nonn1nn 1kn
nrpooxpenne 1nnc1aennoc1n, nepocksnnoc1n n ne noppkuecn pcunqpoake
nqonornn, u1o co apeene nc1nn oksncL nepoc1ynno pxe pnn yskoro kpyr.
ponyckk, u1o 6enme xn1m ponxnm 6mnn uyac1aoa1L o1apuenne, korp onn
coepnnnnn aennune pok1pnn caonx o1uoa c 1enm cyeaepne uepnmx nneen, n ns
a1oro uyac1a or nonan1Lcn nepam npnnunn nx nk6an k 1n. 31e onn 6mc1po
ocosnnn, kkoe aospec1ane oksmae1 yonunne nx canuennnkoa n ccm, 6onee
cknonnme 6on1Lcn amcokoepno cpepxnnoc1n porm, nexenn nck1L a ne
npnn1nme c1oponm n npexpy. C ppyro c1oponm, n 1kxe nonnk, u1o kpoaL p6oa,
ko1opn korp-1o ocn6nn anc1n1ene, ackope anyunn nocnepnn 1o xe coe
cyeaepne, npo1na ko1oporo anune ononunncn kynL1.
o, u1o npexpe 6mno uenoyppne, no1o, npn nonn1nuecko nocpepc1ae, cpennocL
nckpenne aepo; npan1enn onyc1nnncL po ypoann noppnnmx, n ace yaepoann a
ypopc1ao, c1nn aocxnu1Lcn 6ecqopennoc1Lk, no6eponocno uyo, ko1opn
o1nmne cnnncL c nckxennmn pok1pnnn n npepc1anennnn.
eypnan1enLno, u1o kynL1 nokpmn ce6n nosopo a rnsx npop. opnL a1oro
npop, cnepykun acerp a pycne aepm, 1kxe perppnpoan. enoaek, npkun
nnu nepep 6ecqopennm kycko pepea nnn knn, ne oxe1 ne y1p1n1L nonn1ne
po6p, ecnn nonn1ne npekpcnoro yxe y1pueno. Mexpy npoun, y uepnmx xn1oa
6mno neno ocnoann pnn perppunn! D1oy cnoco6c1aoann nx nc1mpn n
anc1n1enn. ok aepxoann anc1L oc1ancL a pykx 6eno pcm, aosoxno,
yrne1enne noppnnmx cnyxnno ynyuuennk npaoa. ocne 1oro, kk uepnn kpoaL ace
snn1nn xec1oknn cyeaepnnn, apoxpenno xec1okoc1Lk, nunoc1Lk k
1epnnLnm ppoc1n, anc1L a kko-1o epe cnoco6c1aoan ypoane1aopennk
cmx nnsennmx nnc1nnk1oa, aceo6uee p6c1ao, ne cpenauncL nerue n nrue,
oksnocL 6onee perppnpykun qk1opo. Cnoao, a ccnpncknx c1pnx
co6pnncL ace nopokn.
pnpy c y1onuenno pockouLk cyuec1aoan o6mu uenoaeueckoro
xep1aonpnnouennn, ko1opm o6ecuec1nn xpm cmx 6or1mx n cmx
unannnsoannmx ropopoa n ko1opm npk1nkoancn 6eno pco 1onLko kk
snc1aoannm y ppyrnx 1nnoa. nneann n npe, nosxe a pqrene a1o
nosopnoe nanenne neno nonn1nueckn xpk1ep n acerp conpoaoxpnocL ouenL
1opxec1aenno uepeonne. ro nonrnn neo6xopnm pnn npouae1nnn
rocyppc1a.
M1epn o1pann a xep1ay caonx pe1e, n nmu acnpmann xnao1m n n1pnx.
Cn 1epn nepepesnn ce6e ropno, anpn kk nx nk1kn c1enk1 n 6Lk1cn a
nnenn n. Y aepykunx unenoapepn1enLc1ao cun1nocL amcun nponanenne
yceppnn a aepe. 1pes1L ce6e yxcko oprn osnuno 6oroyropnoe peno.
[o6poaonLno npopen1L n ce6e 1e yxcm, ko1opme npaocypne aepunno a o1nouennn
npoannnaunxcn, o1opa1L ce6e yxo nnn noc n a nyxe kpoan nocan1n1L ce6n MenLkp1y
npckoy nnn Beny nneanckoy - snunno scnyxn1L 6nrocknonnoc1L a1nx
yxcnmx qe1nue.
Mm aenn peuL o xec1okoc1n, 1enepL noroaopn o6 nsapuennnx. o, u1o neckonLko
aekoa nosxe onncman e1ponn, nen a anpy n, c1aun sn1ckn, nnn co6m1nn
snenn1oro pon nynen no o1na nneccknx 6cen, 6mno o6munm peno y
ccnpncknx npopoa. poc1n1yunn - pekoenpyen, ocanuennn n npk1nkyen a
xpx - unpoko pcnpoc1pnnncL a o6uec1ae, n, corncno skon neko1opmx
ropopoa, a1o 6mno pennrnosno o6nsnnoc1Lk n poc1onm cpepc1ao sp6o11L
npnpnoe. D1o1 o6mu ne npo1naopeunn nonnrnn, xo1n nocnepnnn npepnonrn
yxcnyk nopospn1enLnoc1L n c1n1enLnoc1L. popxnoc1L neaec1m ne 6pocn 1enn
n peny1unk cynpyrn.
orp cen1m, cnyc1naunecn co caonx rop, s 2000 ne1 po oxpec1a pnc1oa
[km yvm ynHa ac snx, ykamaa
svck ncxx. nkaky yncy vr ac
cHck Hn, cycaaaam XIII a. . s. a anvkax
ayxn ynHa kH a, camH nvm yn Qc
n HaHc, r acnr H acmaau yancu.
nkak cva, v n sH Hax mna nca an. ak
sa aaka cacay nck xnr.] nonannncL cpepn
xn1oa n pxe a nnxne npee [nncm anvk cx
canucay ca cHckr rcyacaa a x an n a
cc Hn yca. Qnr aHn Hc ncxxn s acm, . .
axnn ann, rcan Hccu, mn kna H nn cHckx
cyaa cc, . k. vu mna cnkax, kmx yx mn
ycau; n crnac c HH ynca H, v caHmx
acmx ax ac r Hn Hak-a--ka arnaannn
acka a nxax k ckaH ra aa a, a H a cc c
cam Hn.] yc1noannn pnnc1nk caoe kpoan, no ame npnnunnm 6eno pcm
anecnn caexyk c1pyk a nokopennme npopm. o nx pec1ane 6mno ne coace
rpeccnanm, aepL onn nenn peno c e1ncn, ne c apapn. pnuenLum ornn
6m ace pspyun1L, aspy onn onepe1Lcn n rpy6yk cnny. nn oksnncL ynee, n
noor xopoun nnc1nnk1, ko1opm acerp 6mn npncyu a1o pce; onn pnn
nocnepykun nokonennn npnep - kc11n, ey nocnepoann s1e repnum - a
1o, u1o6m ne ynnu1ox1L c1pekuee n ynpkuee o6uec1ao, a ko1opoe onn annann
onopyk kpoaL. nn c1nn yun1Lcn y no6expennmx n ysnnn noro nonesnoro. Cypn
no pesynL11, 1kn nonn1nk yaenuncL nonnm ycnexo.
x upc1aoanne 6mno npkn co6m1ne, cna nx 6mn 1k aennk, u1o rpekn,
co6np1enn sn1cknx ppeanoc1e, npnnncmann n uec1L cospnnn ccnpncko
nnepnn, xo1n onn 6mnn 1onLko ee pec1ap1opn. a1 oun6k canpe1enLc1aye1 o6
nx akyce k unannnsunn n o6 nc1opnuecko snuennn nx 1pypoa.
xn1cko o6uec1ae, cypL6n ko1oporo n npnunocL c 1ex nop aepun1L, onn
nenn noro qynkun. Conp1m, opnkn, p6oune, canuennnkn, upn, npoponx1enn
npanunx nun, onn oc1annn a nonn1nke ccnpnn 1o, u1o 6mno a ne uennoro.
ocnoanyk uc1L caoe aneprnn nnpannn n koepunk.
cnn epepnnn snn 6mn kpynnm pmnko snpnoro np n ero rnanm uen1po
no1pe6nennn, 1o no6epexLe Cpepnsenoro opn c1no ec1ec1aenno 6so 1oapoa,
noc1ynkunx ns qpnkn, aponm n c1pn nn, rpe cocpepo1ounncL
nn1ennek1ynLnn n koepueckn k1nanoc1L npnopcknx xn1oa, n nkom
kycouko pnn ccnpncknx anc1n1ene. D1o npekpcno nonnnn cen1m annon n
nneann n nnpannn ace caon ycnnnn n 1o, u1o6m nopunnn1L, nn6o
nenocpepc1aenno, nn6o uepes caoe annnnne, a1n pen1enLnme npopm. 1e, co caoe
c1oponm, c1pnncL coxpnn1L caok nonn1nueckyk nesancnoc1L nepep nnuo
ppeannx pnnc1n, c1aunx noao 6eno ae1aLk. 1o6m nsenn1L cn1yunk,
xnpeckne saoea1enn ocyuec1annn knnnk neperoaopoa n noxopoa, uue acero
ypunmx, ko1opme npocnannn renn nx pcm nop o6un nene upnu Cenpnp
[ccm xm kkynaan 4k: nam a a 2000 n .
s., a kn cm XIII a., a 750 r.].
cansn c 1e, u1o cen1m ceunncL c unannnsoannm ncenenne, nx aospec1ane
n xnnckne ropop ampxnocL ne 1onLko uepes cnny opyxnn n nonn1nky. nn
o6npnn 6onLuo aneprne n pec1aoann a sancnoc1n o1 konkpe1nmx
o6c1on1enLc1a - 6onLun uncno n anonne npno nponnknn a cenennn nec1nnm n
s c1enm Cnpon n np a kuec1ae nenmx conp1, p6o1nnkoa, 1pocoa. D1o1
cnoco6 nponnknoaennn npnnocnn ne enLune pesynL11m, ue saoeannn pnn
epnnc1a sn1cko unannnsunn n 6ypyuero qnnnkncknx rocyppc1a [H ak
cny nHau H HaH kak ncka xanckr
axn. H kak cau a, a mna cnyxak.].
Bm1nn ec1L nk6onm1nm n kpcounm pccks o 1o, kk nponcxopnno npnoe
am1ecnenne neko1opmx nneen nnn, nyuue cks1L, cen1cknx ceec1a.
Canuenno ncnnn onncmae1cn, kk opno ns nnx, xnayuee a ceppue xnpecknx
rop, 6popn1 ns npoannunn a npoannunk, ouenL noppo6no noksmae1cn nnuenckn
xnsnL, 1nxkne 1pypm n nenLkne no6epm. e ory ne nepecks1L a1o1 ckxe1.
1k, peuL npe1 o6 opno uenoaeke pcm Cn ns pnncko ae1an pqkcp,
npouae1kuero npop e6p, ko1opm xnn a aepxne npee, a ropno ec1noc1n Yp.
pnxpm a1o1 uenoaek spyn noknny1L caok c1pny n nepecenn1Lcn a senk
nn [Bm, XI, 10.]. ncnne ne o6Lncnne1, kknn npnunnn npopnk1oano
peuenne cen1. oneuno, pnn a1oro nenncL cepLesnme ocnoannn, no1oy u1o
nosxe cmn anrpn1 c1poro-nc1poro nksn caoe pce nnkorp ne aosapu1Lcn
n popnny, xo1n a 1o xe apen aenen caoey ncnepnnky am6p1L xeny a c1pne
npepkoa [Bm, XXIV, 6.].
Opp - 1k sann ny1euec1aennnk - co6pn copopnue n o1npanncn a ny1L. C nn
6mnn ap, c1pun cmn, Cpp, ero pouL o1 nnoxnnum, xen ap, n o1, ero
anyk, o1eu ko1oporo pn yep s neckonLko ne1 po ny1euec1ann. x conpoaoxpnn
p6m, npap, nenorouncnennme, nockonLky ceLn 6mn 6epnn, neckonLko
aep6nkpoa n aep6nkpnu, ocnm, kopoam, oaum, kosm.
pnunny, no ko1opo Opp am6pn nn, o6Lncnn1L ne1pypno. n 6mn nc1yx, kk
n ero o1um, n co6npncn n1n noayk, 6or1yk nc16nun, senk, no
ncenennyk, u1o6m 1 xa1nno ec1 pnn ero c1p. Cnepoa1enLno, Opp
npnnpnexn k nnenee an1kpnoy cnok caonx conneennnkoa.
c11n, on noknnyn aepxnkk npek a aospc1e 70 ne1, c nn 6mn ero cmn ap,
ko1opm xennncn nepep cm noxopo. pexp Oppm y1n co caon kpano
pneko ne onpapncL. C1pnk yep a pne n rpnnue Mecono1nn. c1aunecn
unn epnenno, 1k kk npexpe acero s6o1nnncL o cko1e. Yanpea ypo6noe ec1o, onn
c1annn u1pm n oc1anncL 1 po 1ex nop, nok a konopux ne konuncL aop n
xnao1nme ne cLepnn 1pay.
ap, c1aun npepaopn1ene, ycnen coc1pn1Lcn nop oneko o1u. y 6mno 75
ne1, korp on ocao6opnncn o1 a1o onekn. 3 a1o apen uncnennoc1L ero p6oa n ero
c1p yaennunnncL. ue opnn 6nronpnn1nm o6c1on1enLc1ao oksncn 1o1 qk1,
u1o a nonynyc1mnnmx sennx nn o6n1nn poaonLno npnme n nouncnennme
npopm, ne npepc1annkune 6onLuo oncnoc1n.
D1o 6mnn nneen nerpoa-6opnrenoa, xn1ckne npopm, ne6onLune cen1ckne
rpynnm, 1kne xe nepecenenum, kk ap. kn o6pso, cmn Oppm, ko1opm a
Ype, cypn no acey, cun1ncn ckponm nc1yxo, n noao sene oksncn kpynnm
co6c1aennnko, axnm uenoaeko, nou1n upe. Mexpy npoun, 1koe uc1o
cnyue1cn c nkpLn, ko1opme, aoapen noknnya nenpnae1nname ec1, npnxopn1 a
noayk c1pny, nonnme aneprnn n peunoc1n nopnn1Lcn n 6onee amcokyk c1ynenL.
D1nn kuec1an ap 6mn npenen cnonn. nune on ne o6ocnoancn a kko-
1o onpepenenno ec1e. Bor o6eun cpen1L ero a opnn npekpcnm penL xosnnno
a1o c1pnm, npepnsnuenno pnn ero no1oc1a, n ap sxo1en nosnkon1Lcn
co caoe nnepne. n o6ouen ee aponL n nonepek. n sknkunn nonesnme coksm c
nornn koueamn nneenn n po6pncn pxe po rnn1. pnn cnoao, k
o6eunnoy cpoky on 6mn 6or1 n annn1enen. Y nero 6mno noro sono1, p6oa n
c1p. Coe rnanoe - on xopouo ysnn a1y senk n ee o6n11ene.
npoue, aneu1nenne 6mno 1nroc1noe, oco6enno korp on nosnkonncn c xec1oknn
n yxcnmn npan xn1oa. 1o, u1o nponsouno c Copoo n ooppo, ksnocL
ey anonne scnyxennm nksnne s rpexn a1nx ropopoa, rpe Bor ne nuen n
pecn1k uec1nmx nkpe. ap ne sxo1en, u1o6m ero no1oc1ao a epnnc1aenno
konene, ko1opoe 6mno ey poporo, oksnocL snn1nnnm cocepc1ao c 1knn
psap1nmn cocepnn, n npnksn caoey noounnky o1npan1Lcn n popnny n
npnaes1n o11yp xenunny ero kpoan, pouL qynn, cmn Mnnkn n xop, 1. e. caok
anyu1yk nnennnnuy: on eue pnLue ysnn o poxpennn peaoukn. D1o roaopn1 o 1o,
u1o nepecenenum ne nopmann canse c copopnun, oc1aunncn a Ype. oaoc1n
poaonLno 6mc1po nepeceknn pekn n ponnnm, nepene1nn o1 xnpecknx xnnnu po
u1poa nn, npeoponean 6onLune, pcc1onnnn, nopenennme n noxec1ao
enknx anpenn. D1o cnyxn1 poks1enLc1ao k1nano xnsnn n epnnc1a npe n
uyac1a a xn1o-cen1cko npe.
e 6ypy pnee nepecksma1L nsaec1nyk 6n6neckyk nc1opnk. ce nsaec1no, u1o
cen1m-apnpm a konue konuoa o6ocnoanncL a sene o6e1oanno. [o6ank
nnuL, u1o annsopm nepecenennn n co6m1nn, npepuec1aoaaune ey, nopsn1enLno
nnonnk1 1o, u1o a nue apen nponcxopn1 c npnnpcknn nnn neeuknn ceLnn
a epnke. cnn y nnx ynm npepaopn1enL, nx xpe1 ypu, kk pe1e 6n6neckoro
n1pnpx. orp 1koro aoxpn ne1, onn 1epnn1 nopxenne" n ncuesk1 nnopo6ne
1ex cen1oa, uLn k1c1poqnueckne neypun ynonnk1cn a Bn6nnn. o6onx cnyunx
m anpn opny n 1y xe cn1yunk, nepconxn ncnm1mak1 opnnkoame uyac1a a
noxoxnx o6c1on1enLc1ax. rny6nne pyun y nnx 1por1enLnn 1ock no pneko
popnne, kyp onn nn s u1o n cae1e ne xo1enn 6m aepny1Lcn. opnnkoan ppoc1L,
korp npnxopn1 nsaec1nn c popnnm, n opnnkoan roppoc1L s 1ex, k1o oc1ncn po.
onncn c1pnc1ann opno ceLn nc1yxoa, nkpe 1enmx n poaonLno s6n1mx. ne
onn onpepennnn cyunoc1L cen1cko anrpunn a ccnpnckne nnn xnnckne
senn. D1n nc1yxn xnnn skny1o n ne oksmann npnoro aospec1ann n ec1noe
ncenenne. oa1oy neypnan1enLno, u1o nx conneennnkn, yekune anpe1L
opyxne, 6mnn 6onee se1nm a nc1opnn.
pnn ns rnanmx npnsnkoa ynpk xn1oa n npnunno nx neypun a ynpanennn
ccnpncknn rocyppc1an 6mno s6aenne aonncko po6nec1n n o1ks o1
aoopyxennmx pec1an. D1o 6mno 1nnnuno pnn annon n nneann, pnn np n
Cnpon, rpe 1oproaum, cnnuko os6ouennme npee o6oruennn, npesnpnn aonnckoe
nckycc1ao. x unannnsunn yxe o6pen ocnoam caoero cyuec1aoannn n o1aeprn
npoqeccnk conp1, u1o nosxe nponsouno c n1nLnncknn n1pnunnn
cpepneaekoaLn [ca, kaarn mn n acam, vH xn
a, cnnuaan aHmx cna.].
onnm an1kpnc1oa-cen1oa snonnnnn a1y nnuy, ko1opyk exepneano pcunpnnn
rocnopc1aykune npen n npam. , psyee1cn, onn ac1pe1nnn ropnun npne.
pnum, nncnpnum, knnnknum, nnpnum, qnnnc1nnum a e1nnnuecknx unex,
yaenunnmx nepLnn, ope1me a kopo1kne 1ecnme 1ynnkn-konLuyrn, npnkpm1me
kpyrnmn un1n, aoopyxennme eun, 6onee pnnnnmn n 1nxenmn, ue
sn1ckne eun, n ppo1nkn, onn ac1nn n sun1y c1onnu n o6ecneunnn oxpny
1oproamx cypoa. D1n nennkn nrpnn ouenL 6onLuyk ponL ao acex xn1cknx n
cen1cknx rocyppc1ax snn n qpnkn. [xe ernn1nne 6pnn nx n cnyx6y. o
apeen ap nenLkne nnec1nnckne knnxec1a aaepnnn n caok sun1y.
osoxno, opnn ns 1knx konpo1Lepoa 6mn Onxon, ko1opm a Bn6nnn nsan
aoenunLnnko anenex (Bm1ne, XXI). osxe c1px [anp 1kxe coc1onn ns
qnnnc1nnuea. ce a1o noksmae1, nckonLko nnsok 6mn aonnc1aennm pyx a 1y
anoxy. mcun qnnnknckn sn1L oc1ncL epnnc1aenno uc1Lk nunn, xpnnaue
nn1L o po6nec1n npepkoa, aennknx oxo1nnkoa ceamunero, n yeaue o6pu1Lcn
c opyxne. nn eue ne no1epnnn akyc k 6or1o ykpuennm un1, ko1opme onn
aeunn n 6unn n ropopckne c1enm, n ko1opme, no canpe1enLc1ay coapeennnkoa,
pneko cnnnn, kk saespm [ra ka ca.]. c1nLnoe ncenenne
p6o1no. ncnxpnocL nnopn caonx 1pypoa n 1oproann. orp nonn1nk
1pe6oan nponanennn yxec1a, sxa1oa, nepecenennn, upn n coae1m
pnc1okp1oa, ncnnLno co6pa kkyk-1o uc1L npop - kk npanno, a1o 6mn
nc1onun c6pop, - npnpann e cen1oa a kuec1ae oxpnm n onopm; cme
o1unnnme ns uepnmx xn1oa, ac1a ao rnae 1knx o1pnpoa, uc1o o1npannnncL s
opn, u1o6m cosp1L nppo noamx ec1nmx n1pnunea n rocyppc1ao, copennpoannoe
no nonn1nueckn n pennrnosnm o6mun caoe popnnm.
kn o6pso, cen1ckne 6npm nponnknn noackpy, rpe ocyuec1annnn caok
pen1enLnoc1L xn1m. nn annanncL a o6uec1ao nokopennoro npop, n ono
c1noannocL pnn nnx caon. pnn cnoao, 6enme nneen a1opo aonnm nenn opny
nc1opnueckyk spuy - s cue1 npn1ok caoe kpoan, oc1kuecn 6onee unc1o, kk
oxno pnLue pcnpoc1pnn1L 6enoe a1opxenne n kro-snp.
[onro cun1nocL, u1o a1o1 nc1ounnk nenc1oun. Mexpy 1e ko apeenn nepaoro
nepecenennn cen1oa a Corpnne n a nmneune enpx6e nunn cenn1Lcn
neko1opme pnckne n ppyrne 6enme nneen. pncko-annnnckne n pncko-
sopoc1pnckne npopm ncknn amxop n snp n oksmann cnnoaoe panenne n
cen1oa, amnyxpn nx noknp1L ropnme ponnnm n cnyck1Lcn n pannnm n pnLue k
kry. nonannncL cme kpynnme rocyppc1a uepnmx xn1oa.
nensaec1no a 1ounoc1n, nckonLko ynopnm 6mno nx conpo1nanenne
annnnnc1ckn sxa1unk. Ckopee acero conpo1nanennn nou1n ne 6mno. Cen1m,
xo1n n npeaocxopnune c1okoc1Lk uepnmx xn1oa, ne ornn cpepx1L n1nck
npnuenLuea. nn 6mnn enLue nponn1nm ennncknn aneen1n, ue no1okn
epop, no ace pano 6mnn spxenm nn a poc11ouno c1enenn, no1oy u1o
s6mnn nsmk 6eno pcm n npnnnnn cnoxnyk nsmkoayk cnc1ey, cecL oc11koa
6enmx nsmkoa c pnnek1n 1enokoxnx, n ceropnn, 6es cepLesnmx n 1o
ocnoann, a1 cnc1e nsmae1cn cen1cko.
Coapeennme qnnonorn noppspennk1 cen1ckne nsmkn n ue1mpe ocnoanme rpynnm:
nepan copepxn1 qnnnknckn, nynnueckn n nnanckn aneen1m, ns ko1opmx
nponsounn 6ep6epckne pnnek1m [Bck aHarck am cHckr
ncxxn nayncu ank a r, a kacky axay, a
ana aackx caa. yak mn aH. Hck
amcan nanncu a anaH nxu k a nnx, kak
HHyH, mcnv n.]; a1opn aknkue1 a ce6n napn1 n ero npeunn; 1pe1Ln -
peckne npeunn; ue1aep1n - p6ckn, reesckn n pnckn.
cnn pcc1pna1L cen1ckyk rpynny a ueno, ne o6pun annnnn n nekcnky,
nonanauykcn a pesynL11e nospnnx a1nnuecknx coksoa c 6enmn npopn, ne1
ocnoann y1aepxp1L, u1o cyuec1aye1 6onLuoe psnnune expy a1o rpynno n 1k
nsmaemn nnporepncknn nsmkn, npnnpnexunn anpy, ns ko1oporo,
neconenno, amunn npepkn xn1oa.
Cen1ckn nsmkoan cnc1e nee1 snun1enLnme npo6enm a caoe oprnnsunn n
c1pyk1ype. ueanpno, ao apen caoero qopnpoannn on c1nknancL c nsmkn,
oksaunncn apxpe6nmn e. n am1ecnnn nx, 1. e. pspyunn, no ne cyen
ncnonLsoa1L nx uennme kuec1a. oa1oy cen1ckne nsmkn - a1o, a neko1opo
cmcne, nsmkn nenonnme nnn ne po konu cqopnpoaaunecn.
pnue, peuL npe1 ne 1onLko o 1o, uero n nepoc1e1, no n o 1o, u1o onn nek1.
pn ns nx 1nnnunmx oco6ennoc1e - 6or1c1ao rnronLnmx coue1nn.
ppeanep6cko nsmke cyuec1ayk1 nn1npu1L 1nnoa cnpnxennn rnron, no peuL
npe1 o 1k nsmaeo npenLno rnrone, xo1n n npk1nke nn opnn rnron ne nee1
1koro konnuec1a qnekcn nnn aosoxnoc1e nsenennn, kkne npepnre1
rp1nueckn 1eopnn. s a1oro cnepye1, u1o ace rnronm a a1nx nsmkx yuep6nm,
nockonLky o6peenenm noxec1ao ncknkuenn ns npann.
nnoro cen1cko cnc1em oxno cun11L qpnknckne nsmkn. 3pecL m 1kxe
anpn nopsn1enLnoe konnuec1ao rnronLnmx qop, npnue ace rnronm nerko
npncnoc6nnak1cn k nk6oy 1nny cnpnxennn. C ppyro c1oponm, 1 ne1 1ex kopne,
oueanpnoe popc1ao ko1opmx c nnporepncko rpynno onpoaepre1 konuenunn
nnnranc1oa, c1penunxcn cpen1L cen1ckyk nsmkoayk rpynny coaepuenno
ynnknLno n nsonnpoanno o1 nsmkoa nue pcm. nsmkx nerpoa ne1 nnuero, u1o
6m nekno n nx cansL c nsmkn [ n aponm - nnpo1na, npocnexnae1cn
nx 6nnskoe popc1ao c nsmkn ccnpnn, ypen, nn n nann.
koneu, oxno cpen1L cnepykun ouenL axnm amaop: aecL qpnknckn
kon1nnen1, c kr po ceaep, c aoc1ok po snp, sne1 1onLko opnn nsmk n roaopn1
n pnnek1x cqopnpoaaunxcn ns opnoro nc1ounnk. onro, a c1pne kqpoa, a
nrone, 1kxe no acey no6epexLk m ac1peue opnn n 1e xe qopm n kopnn. op
a1o onpepenenne nok ne nopnpk1 nnrpn1ckn nsmk, eue ne nsyuennm, n npeune
ro11en1o1oa, no onn n ne onpoaeprk1 ero.
onpo6ye pesknpoa1L amuensnoxennoe.
I) ce, u1o n nsaec1no o6 qpnkncknx nsmkx, npnnpnexunx kk 1enokoxn
npop, 1k n unc1o nerpn1nnckn nneen, oxno caec1n a opny cnc1ey. II) D1
cnc1e o6npe1 ocnoanmn npnsnkn cen1cko rpynnm. III) Mnorne ns
nponsaopnmx nsmkoa 1kxe aknkuk1cn a cen1ckyk rpynny.
C1on1 nn po6ann1L eue u1o-nn6ypL, u1o6m npnsn1L cnepykun qk1: a1 rpynn,
kk a caonx cyuec1aykunx qopx, 1k n a caonx nkynx, aepe1 caoe
nponcxoxpenne o1 coaokynnoc1n coc1annkunx ee a1nnuecknx aneen1oa, 1. e. o1
ceuennn ne6onLuo ponn 6eno pcm c npeaocxopnun ennnckn kononen1o?
1o6m npepc1an1L 1kn o6pso renesnc nsmkoa epepne snn, ne1 nyxpm
npepnonr1L, u1o cen1ckoe ncenenne cpsy y1onyno a uepno kpoan. o, u1o
neocnopno a o1nouennn xn1oa, ne acerp nanne1cn 1koam pnn popc1aennmx n
npopoa.
Cnoco6 nx ceuennn c 6opnrenn - no6eponocnoe nuec1ane n uen1pnLnme
rocyppc1a nnn nponnknoaenne a npnopckne c1pnm a kuec1ae nonesnmx n
ppoan1mx p6o1nnkoa - naopn1 n mcnL o 1o, u1o onn cnepoann npnepy pe1e
ap, 1. e. nsyunn nsmk npop, k ko1opoy onn npnxopnnn nn6o sp61ma1L n
xnsnL, nn6o anc1aoa1L [ sy snxy aaHck yx cnu nvancn
nmka aaaa (cH. Bm, XXXI, 47).]. pnepy ppeaneeapecko ae1an ornn
cnepoa1L ace oc1nLnme rpynnm ceec1a, n ne kxe1cn, u1o pnnek1m,
cqopnpoaaunecn nosxe, ne npnaenn k nonanennk nnn, no kpne epe,
pcunpennk nkyn, ko1opme n o1eun a oprnnse cen1cknx nsmkoa. npoue, a1o
ne npoc1o rnno1es. Cen1m, neaune enLue acero xn1cko kpoan, nnpnep,
eapen, roaopnnn n 6onee psan1o nsmke, ue p6m. Mnorouncnennme coksm
nocnepnnx c okpyxkunn nx npopn noc1onnno nnsaopnnn nsmk k ennnckn
kopnn. e ne enee, p6ckn eue ne poc1nr uepnoro npen, ocnoann cc
nkpe, roaopnunx n ne, pnek o1 npen1nunoc1n c qpnknun.
1o kce1cn xn1oa, specL cn1yunn nnn. 1o6m cosp1L nnnranc1nueckyk cnc1ey,
ko1opyk onn nepepnn cen1, onn o6ns1enLno ponxnm 6mnn nepeeu1Lcn c
uepnm aneen1o. nn ponxnm 6mnn o6np1L 6onee unc1o cen1cko cnc1eo, n
n 6m ne ypnanncn, ecnn, neco1pn n nnnune nnporepncknx kopne a 1ekc1x ns
Bn-Cy1yn, npnunocL 6m npnsn1L, u1o nsmk neko1opmx 1ekc1oa ns coro pnekoro
npounoro 6onee 6nnsok nerpn1nnckoy 1nny, ue p6ckn n 1e 6onee
ppeaneeapeckn n peckn.
yxe noksn neckonLko ypoane npn6nnxennn k cen1ckoy coaepuenc1ay. 1
peckoro, coro nepsan1oro ns nsmkoa a1oro ceec1a, opnn ur k unc1o
nerpn1nnckoy. osxe m yanpn, kkn o6pso o1 a1o cnc1em aec1e c
npopn, enee acero ceunnmn c 1enokoxnn, nponcxopn1 noc1enennm
nepexop k nsmk 6enoro ceec1a. o nok oc1an a1y 1ey: a1nnueckoe coc1onnne
cen1oa-nokopn1ene onncno a poc11ouno epe. o1n onn c1on1 amue
npnn1nanmx ccnpnuea, onn 1oxe nannk1cn e1ncn. nn nokopnnn 1onLko cn6me
npopm n acerp 1epnenn nopxenne o1 ncenennn 6onee 6nropopnmx kpoae.
o k 2000 r. po n. a. pnckne sopoc1pnum nou1n ne o6punn annnne n
aoc1ounm ropnson1. nn 6mnn snn1m ykpennenne nosnun, saoeannmx a Mnpnn.
Co caoe c1oponm, pnckne annnnm c1pennncL nrpnpoa1L a apony. kn
o6pso, cen1m a 1euenne ponrnx aekoa 6mnn cmn unannnsoannmn n kro-
snpe.
cnkn ps, korp pnckne annnnm am1ecnnnn nx co caoe 1eppn1opnn, nopxenne
o6opunanocL pnn nnx nnopo1aopno no6epo n npno6pe1enne noamx p6o1nnkoa a
6or1o annonnn. Bnpm nsrnnnnkoa ckpmann c1mp nopxennn a rnyxnx yronkx
seenL, pcnonoxennmx 6nnxe k aksy n cnnckoy opk, n aocxnunn np
nerknn no6epn npn caoe 6erc1ae.
1k, cen1ckoe nuec1ane nponcxopnno a neckonLko a1noa. oppo6noc1n specL ne
nek1 snuennn: poc11ouno nnonn1L, u1o nepan aonn anrpunn nkpmn
rocyppc1a nnxne npen. 1opn akcnepnunn - peuL npe1 o6 ok1nnpx - poun
po pann [x kaa caa x rnaamx rcyaca a Kx
aa nmcaaan snx aaaHa.]. Cnepykune npnaenn noamx rocnop n
no6epexLe epxne snn. epnn kpoaL uc1o n c ycnexo nepe6pman ocepnm
o6ps xnsnn y cmx ceunnmx npopoa: nponcxopnnn ne 1onLko ccoame
nepecenennn, no nnorp n nouncnennme nneen noknpnn ncnxennme ec1 n
o6pe1nn noayk popnny.
Cen1m yxe nonnoc1Lk oanpenn ace xn1ckn npo, rpe pxe npopm,
oc1aunecn neno6expennmn, ncnm1mann nx annnnne. a1o apen a nx sennx
nonanncn npop, ko1opoy 6mnn cyxpenm 6onLune ncnm1nnn n cnanme pen: n
nek a anpy ae1aL ppeaneeapecko nunn, ko1opn cnyc1nncL c pnncknx rop n ao
rnae c apo, nonyuna nn npop spnnn, npoponxnn cao ny1L a rnne1,
u1o6m aepny1Lcn s1e a c1pny nn. orp nop pykoaopc1ao o1u n1pnpxoa
on npouen uepes a1y senk, on 6mn no ncenen. orp nonanncn ocnq, cen1m
yxe scennnn ee n nunn o6p61ma1L [ n Hxy aaaHH McH
anca mna a ncnn numx Hacc. ca, aH
caancu Hr am, nHk aaaHa, anm, anH
ym, cHana, a . .].
oxpenne ap Bn6nnn p1npye1 2017 ropo, 1. e. nosxe nepamx nuec1an
annnnoa n ropuea n, cnepoa1enLno, a anoxy annnncknx no6ep np xn1n n
aosamuennn noao ccnpncko pnnc1nn. ap npnnpnexn k nunn, ns ko1opo
yxe amunn ok1nnpm n ae1an ko1opo, oc1auncL n popnne, nosxe cospnn
psnnunme rocyppc1a: ener, exy, Cpypx, xop n ppyrne. Cmn Oppm c1n
ocnoa1ene neckonLknx npopoa, cme nsaec1nme ns nnx - pe1n koa, s1e
snpnme p6m, ko1opme nop nene cnnn1oa aec1e c ppeaneeapecknn
ok1nnpn n kyun1cknn xn1n rocnopc1aoann n nonyoc1poae, nosxe
onpepennnn cypL6m np. nn pnn noame pnnc1nn ccnpnu, c Mroe1o
coaepunnn nocnepnn peneccnc cen1cko pcm.
pexpe ue npoponxn1L nue ny1euec1ane no a1norenesy npop spnnn, korp m
cpennn o1npano xpononornuecko 1ouko p1y poxpennn ero n1pnpx, skonun
pcco1penne oc1nLnmx xn1o-cen1cknx npopoa.
e cnepye1 s6ma1L, u1o 1orpunee o6uec1ao 6mno pspeneno n noxec1ao
nesancnmx rocyppc1a. e ne enee, 6ype aec1n peuL 1onLko o 1ex, u1o oc1annn
rny6okne cnepm caonn penn n cn caon cyuec1aoanne. une c
qnnnknuea.
III. Hck xaaan
o apeen ap xn1ckn unannnsunn nxopnncL a pcuae1e caoero
coaepuenc1a n caonx nopokoa. pno ns cmx sae1nmx ee 1eppn1opn 6mn
nec1nn, rpe npouae1nn xnnckne ropop 6nroppn caon 1oproam cansn c
norouncnennmn kononnnn. exa1k ncenennn a ropopx c nnxao
konencnpoancL 1e cuc1nnam o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o y nnx ne 6mno konkypen1oa
nn a nponsaopc1ae 1kne, nn a kpcnnLno nckycc1ae, nn a cypoxopc1ae [
ynHa nm aa ckan, . k. mn caam ncn cxa c
a, . . a ynua aaaa nm Mcck a 1548 r.
xcaa caa. ca, accm mc anan sH ayHn
raH a HrH cnccaaan x Hrycay.].
ce ynonny1me amue nc1ounnkn 6or1c1a 6mnn cocpepo1ouenm a pykx nx
cosp1ene. o a kuec1ae npnep 1oro, nckonLko noycneunn 1oproann
onpepenne1 xnsnennyk cnny nunn, oxno se1n1L, u1o qnnnknum, ncuepna
nepaonunLnyk aneprnk, ko1opn korp-1o npnaen nx c 6eperoa epcnpckoro opn
n no6epexLe opn Cpepnsenoro, ne coxpnnnn nnuero o1 npexne nonn1nuecko
nesancnoc1n [ccn acaannna nau xaaack rcyacaa; kra
cycaaan nnH anamvca, accck ann ac aa mn
cnumH, a ynua ncxn am, cnaan nan
nxaanacu a y cnu, cn aanncn H, mn
nac, vH aa.]. oneuno, onn ynpannnncL uue acero no caon co6c1aennm
skon n a caonx npexnnx pnc1okp1nuecknx qopx. o a npnnunne ccnpnckoe
oryuec1ao nonoxnno koneu nx nesancnoc1n. nn nopunnnnncL pcnopnxennn c
6eperoa aqp1. orp ao apen any1pennnx aonnenn onn nm1nncL c6pocn1L a1o
nro, epnnc1aenno noppepxko pnn nnx 6mn rnne1, 1. e. aosoxnoc1L senn1L
rocnopc1ao nneann n pnk11 Meqnc. [pyro nL1epn1nam y nnx ne 6mno.
ono npeaocxopc1a payx kpynnmx nnepn, expy ko1opmn k1nnncL xnnckne
ropop, cyuec1aoan eue opnn qk1op, sc1annaun qnnnknuea noc1onnno
nanpoa1L expy oryuec1aennmn cocepnn. 3enn ccnpnn n rnn1 - oco6enno
ccnpnn - npepc1annnn co6o pmnkn c6m1 pnn Cnpon n np. npoue,
xnnenne po6npnncL n po ppyrnx c1pn co caonn nypnypnmn 1knnn,
nspennnn ns c1ekn, 6nroaonnnn n npnnoc1nn, o1 ko1opmx nonnncL nx cknpm.
pnko, korp nx pnnnnme uepnme cyp c amcoko nocoao uc1Lk kcnncL nou1n
peac1aennoro neck rpeuecknx 6eperoa nnn no6epexLn 1nnn, qpnkn, cnnnn,
aknnxn nxopnnn 1 poaonLno ckypnyk po6muy. [nnnnyk 6pky am1cknann n
6eper 1enokoxne rpe6um a kpcnmx kopo1knx 1ynnkx. x ac1peunn xpnme n
ypnanennme asrnnpm 6opnrenoa, amcokoepnme ny1euec1aennnkn a okpyxennn
cen1cknx nennkoa pcknpmann 6or1me 1oapm nepep asopo upLkoa n aoxpe,
co6paunxcn co ace okpyrn. o epe aosoxnoc1n onn 1pe6oann asen
pprouennme e1nnm, nnpnep, 1k nponcxopnno a cnnnn, 6or1o 1kn
1oapo. C rpekn o6en uen n cko1, ppeaecnny nnn p6oa, 1k xe kk n a qpnke.
cnn npepc1annncn cnyu n ecnn n c1opone 1oproau 6mn nepeaec, on co caonn
nkpLn 6essc1enunao s6npn kpcnamx peayuek, peac1aennmx upcknx nnoxnnu
nnn cnyxnok, pe1e n knoue, npnropnmx k p6o1e yxunn, u1o6m yaes1n po6muy n
popnny; 1k, c rny6oko ppeanoc1n c1nn unpoko nsaec1nm xpnoc1L, 1pycoc1L n
koapc1ao xn1oa n nx coksnnkoa. ne ypnan1enLno, u1o a1n 1oproaum anyunn
c1px n nenanc1L a npn6pexnmx c1pnx, rpe n eue ne ypnocL y1aeppn1L caoe
rocnopc1ao. opoue roaopn, onn snnnncL a uyxnx sennx akcnny1une ec1nmx
6or1c1a. 3np nn1epecoan nx 1onLko 1e, u1o oxno 6mno o11yp asn1L, npnue kk
oxno peueane. un c1pnm pann n cmpLeame 1epnnm, ko1opme a npe,
Cnpone n ppyrnx xnncknx ropopx nepep61mann n npopann ro1oame nspennn
a rnn1e n Mecono1nn.
oxopm qnnnknuea ne orpnnunanncL apono n qpnko. Bnroppn caon ouenL
ppeann cansn c p6n-kyun1n n no1okn ok1n onn 1oproann
6nroaonnnn, npnnoc1nn, cnonoao koc1Lk n a6eno ns Heen nnn 6onee
ypnennmx ec1, nnpnep, ns oc1ouno qpnkn, npnn n pxe [nLnero oc1ok
[ Maxaxaa ynHacn aan, ann. aaa
cycaaana xanan rann Hxy aaH 3anaH
v ncca ka. Y Hn y aHxcu nrau
kackH a, ayxH a rax caHmx ax rnckx
ac.]. o nx annnne 6mno npnkoano k snpnm c1pn, rpe onn nannnncL
onononnc1n, n nenno expy a1nn sxauennmn sennn n o6onn kpynnmn
uen1pn coapeenno n unannnsunn onn ocyuec1annnn ao ace nonno1e caok
ynnknLnyk qynkunk.
kn o6pso, nx cyuec1aoanne n nx npouae1nne oksnncL 1ecno cansnnmn c
cypL6n nneann n Ona. orp a a1nx c1pnx nc1ynnn 1pypnme apeen n
no1pe6nenne npno, neepnenno c1ppn npomunennoc1L n koepunn a nne.
cnn upn Mecono1nn 6mnn nepoaonLnm nonn1nko qnnnknuea nnn xo1enn oks1L
n nnx panenne, ne npn6ern k euy, onn npnnnnn qncknLnme epm npo1na
npn1ok snpnmx 1oapoa a ccnpnckne c1pnm nnn a ernne1ckne npoannunn, u1o
npnunnnno n1pnunn np ropspo 6onLun apep n yuep6, ue uenn pnn c
konnnue n konecnnun. koa nop1pe1 ppeannx qnnnknuea, c1onL roppmx caoe
1oproao pen1enLnoc1Lk, c1onL psapuennmx n nnsknx a caonx nopokx,
o6npkunx npnspuno nesancnoc1Lk n ynnxenno cknonnkunxcn nepep
oryuec1aennmn no1pe6n1ennn.
Ynpanenne ropopoa no6epexLn c coro nun 6mno cyry6o 1eokp1nueckn. D1o
6mno a xpk1epe pcm . [eno a 1o, u1o nepame 6enme saoea1enn npnunn a
cpepy 1enokoxnx c 1kn nanm npeaocxopc1ao - n a o6pse munennn n a cnne
aonn, - u1o cyeaepnme 6opnrenm ne nunn nnuero 6onee psynoro, ue o6Lnan1L
nx 6orn. oa1oy epnknckne nneen c 1ko nc1ounaoc1Lk aonpounn
ncnnuea, ne cnyc1nnncL nn 1e c ne6ec, n neco1pn n o1pnu1enLnm o1ae1,
npopnk1oannm xpnc1nncko coaec1nnaoc1Lk, npoponxnn cun11L, u1o npnuenLum
ckpmak1 caoe 6oxec1aennoe nponcxoxpenne. oa1oy nmneunne nneen oc1ouno
qpnkn nsmak1 eaponeuea 6orn [rm cva akamH ax
Haxanaca kack nnHn nuk n nv, v
aacn a kam xm H xna c cynnH.].
Benme xn1m, oueanpno, 6es 1pyp npnamknn k 1koy noun1nnk. o no epe 1oro,
kk nponcxopnno ceuenne kpoan n unc1n pc npeapuncL a yn1oa,
nonannnncL rn6pnpm - cnnLnme n yaepennme a ce6e. nn nenn o6uyk renenornk c
ppeannn saoea1ennn, n korp skonunnocL upc1aoanne 6oroa, nuncL anox
xpeuoa. [ecno1ns nsennn qopy, no o1 a1oro ne c1n enee noun1e.
nc1opnuecko nn1n xnnenn xpnnnocL aocnonnnne n o 1ko neonpepenenno
cn1yunn, korp onn nopunnnnncL a1opn1e1y Men-kp1 n n, nosxe xpeu
a1nx 1nnc1aennmx n oryuec1aennmx cyuec1a [3aanu cva XIV rnaay r
Bmn yr arHm Bn nxH sx cm. H r,
n r H, s kcm, canam c xaaackH aaH, ncnyxn
ca kcHrvck ranrvck vac Bn, kan mna
akaaa H naa a aHa nHa. ra Hm yH
ac vu ackx anx, ca nc, nvHy ra cc cny
xcannu c aH nmnuaH n acm. va, v rn-
ma rn Qc, axm a ckynunyax caaa B-
yya, ncaann c naaxa, cnacmxcn ncn ncnr
nna.].
onanenne cen1oa 6mno eue opnn uro anepep. cyunoc1n cen1m 6mnn 6nnxe k
6or, ue nep1nueckne pnnc1nn uepnmx xn1oa. nn nosxe o1nnn o1 o6ue
ae1an, n nx kpoaL nen enLue npnece, ue kpoaL e1ncoa, c ko1opmn onn
pennnn 6or1c1a n anc1L. e ne enee qnnnknckne xpeum ne corncnnncL c 1kn
npeaocxopc1ao a 6nropopno nponcxoxpennn, no1oy u1o uepnm aneen1
nc1onLko npeo6npn a nnx, u1o onn s6mnn Bor caonx 6oroa n nx nc1okn n cun1nn
ce6n a1ox1onnm npopo. c11n, a1o npo1naopeun1 y1aepxpennk epopo1 n
canpe1enLc1aye1 o 1o, u1o qnnnknum ne 6mnn amxopun ns nnoc. D1o osnue1,
u1o onn nopunnnnncL nenenm cyeaepnn npepkoa caonx 1epe. [nn a1nx
ampoxpkunxcn nkpe ne orno 6m1L n peun o 6enmx nepecenenux ns nnoc,
npnuepunx n cpepnsenoopckoe no6epexLe. Menkp1 n ero npop amunn ns 6ono1,
n ko1opmx c1onnn, nx xnnnu. ppyrnx sennx n a ppyrne apeen nnpycm, rpekn,
n1nLnnum n npoune npopm nenn nnornunoe oun6ounoe nenne o caonx nc1okx.
o qk1m - ynpnn aeuL n ne sancn1 o1 uLero-nn6o nennn. Cen1m ne ornn
c11L 6orn, no1oy u1o a nx kpoan ne 6mno unc1o1m, n neco1pn n uncnennoe
npeaocxopc1ao onn ne ornn po6n1Lcn 6esycnoanoro noknonennn. epnme xn1m
o1ksnn n a npnee a xpeueckyk kc1y, npnnpnexnoc1L k ko1opo noro aekoa
noppnp 6mn npepnsnuen rpynn ns 1oro xe ceec1a. oa1oy cen1m
npene6pernn 1eokp1ne n noc1annn ao rnay yrn cnny opyxnn. ocne poaonLno
oc1po 6opL6m ynpanenne qnnnkncknn ropopn cpennocL pnc1okp1nueckn,
pecny6nnknckn n 6conk1nm, a ko1opo ne oc1nocL nnuero o1 npexne
1poc1aennoc1n coc1anmx aneen1oa.
pnko 1kn qop npanennn ne ynnu1oxnn nonnoc1Lk pae ppyrne n 1e cm
cmrpn ne peaonkunonnyk, peqop1opckyk ponL, o6ycnoanennyk ee
nponcxoxpenne, 6nnskn k npanennk uepnmx xn1oa, n c 1ex nop on
nonLsoancL yaxenne. pkx pnc1okp1nn opno ns cmx noue1nmx ec1 6mno
o1aepeno xpeu-canuennnk. nn snnnn a1opyk c1ynenLky a rocyppc1ae,
pnc1okp1nueckne ceLn npoponxnn nonLsoa1Lcn npexnn noue1o. Upckn
anc1L aoace ne nrpn rnanyk ponL. osoxno, cn uepnme xn1m ne poaenn
nnc1n1y1 anc1n po neo6xopnoro coaepuenc1a, o ue canpe1enLc1ayk1 ccnpnckne
rocyppc1a.
esancno o1 1oro, c1onn nn ao rnae qnnnkncknx ropopoa opnn uenoaek nnn, kk
uue acero 6mano, kopony pennnn pa upn, am6pnnme ns conepnnukunx pooa,
aepxoann anc1L 6mn orpnnuenno n nopkon1ponLno, e poc1anncL ne nekune
snuennn npepor1nam n pockouL 6es nnnunn cao6opm. Moxno cks1L, u1o cen1m
pcnpoc1pnnnn n ace nopanc1nme n senn kon1ponL s onpxnuecko anc1Lk, n
u1o n a nneann, n a annone nocn1enn koponm 6mnn nnuL necoc1on1enLnmn
npepc1an1ennn xpeuoa n n1pnunea.
ko 6mn oprnnsunn, amuepun ns ceuennn uepnmx xn1oa Onnnknn c
cen1n. Upn, nnn, kk nx nsmann, cyqqe1m, xnnn a aennkonennmx paopux.
opnnnnme xosnea rocyppc1a ne xnenn nnuero, u1o6m ocmn1L pockouLk pae
koponoannme ronoam. onnm p6oa o6onx nonoa, ope1mx a pockounme opexpm,
cnyxnnn npnxo1n a1nx cep1nmx, yc1aunx o1 ypoaonLc1an. c1pxe nx cpoa n
rpeoa c1onnn norouncnennme eanyxn. op6nn co acex konuoa cae1 npnaosnnn
xenunn n n y1exy. nn enn n sono1e, ykpunn ce6n 6pnnnnn1n n xeuyrn,
e1nc1n, py6nnn, 1onsn, nypnyp, aocne1m ppeannn, 6mn epnnc1aennm
uae1o nx opexp. poe a1o pockouno xnsnn n aneunnx nouec1e,
npepnncmaemx skono, onn nnuero ne nenn. Cyqqe1m amcksmann caoe nenne
no rocyppc1aennm pen - 1k xe, kk n ppyrne pnc1okp1m, - no ne 6onee 1oro;
skonop1enLnn, cype6nn n pxe ncnonnn1enLnn anc1L nxopnncL a pykx
npepaopn1ene kpynnmx pooa.
nc1L nocnepnnx ne nen rpnnu. k 1onLko poroaop, sknkuennm expy nnn,
npnnnn c11yc skon, ace ncenenne cknonnnocL nepep nn, n pxe cn
skonop1enn c1noannncL ero xep1an. nrpe n nnkorp a1 6esnnunn unn ne
upnn o1penLnmx nkpe. Cypoame npann aneppnnncL pxe a nono ceLn, cm
1npnnueckn o6pso onpepennnn cme nn1nnme o1nouennn expy cynpyrn,
pannn n nneun o1uoa, pecno1oa caonx pe1e, nknpmann orpnnuennn n
uenoaek n ero coaec1L. ace rocyppc1ao, nunnn c nocnepnero 1poc, coro
s6n1oro p6ouero, po amcokonoc1anennoro xpeu noun1eoro 6or, po npennoro
n1pnunn, skon nknpman c1punyk neu1L, ko1opyk oxno ampsn1L 1k:
CkonLko nkpe, c1onLko n p6oa!
o1 1k cen1m, o6LepnnnauncL c no1okn , nonnnn n pennsoann
cyunoc1L npanennn. 1e 6onee nc1nak n a1o konuenunn, u1o aec1e c
cen1cko kpoaLk on nponnkn a nnc1n1y1m nou1n acex npopoa ppeanoc1n n poun
po nmneune anoxn, korp on apeenno o1c1ynnn nepep 6onee psynmn n
sppamn nonn1nnn repncko pcm.
ponnnsnpye nc1okn 1ko c1poro oprnnsunn. ueanpno, u1o ace, u1o 6mno a
ne 6py1nLnoro n o1ap1n1enLnoro, nponcxopn1 ns uepno npnpopm, cknonno k
6conk1noy n k p6c1ay, oxo1no noppkuecn 6c1pk1nm npen, nonn1L
ko1opme on ne xene1 - oxe1 1onLko 6on1Lcn nx n nopunnn1Lcn n. npo1na, a
6onee aosamuennmx aneen1x, nnnune ko1opmx nenLsn ne npnsn1L, a nonm1ke
n1n panoaecne expy upcko anc1Lk, xpeuec1ao n aoopyxenno
pnc1okp1ne, a c1penennn k nopnpky n skonnoc1n m n6nkpe nnc1nnk1m
npopoa 6eno pcm.
nnckne ropop npn1nrnann k ce6e cen1oa, npnnpnexaunx ko ace ae1an
a1o pcm n, cnepoa1enLno, nepeeunnmx a psno c1enenn. mxopum ns ccnpnn
necnn a ce6e, aec1e c xn1ckn aneen1o, coace ppyryk kpoaL, o1nnunyk o1
kpoan cen1oa, ko1opme npnunn ns nnxnero rnn1 n c kr pann n nenn ponrne
kon1k1m c kypuamn nerpn. Ceaepnme xnpen c pnncknx nropn n ppeanne
eapen nenn 6onLue 6eno kpoan. pnuenLum ns o6nc1e, cocepc1aykunx c
akso, ornn, npno nnn kocaenno, nec1n a caonx xnnx aocnonnnne o xen1o
pce [nak cam nakcaa (Bm, X, 22); ac am,
ncxn Ha, a naH nkn, nvcnm a nnk
rravckr nnxn, avan c ra kvan ca-anaH: 3naH,
xay a rH, kn cckr anaa; ccy a cc, amm n
v ra, k cay; nakca a H, nx k anay; y a ;
aH cnycncn k ry, n v aaa.]. nn 6mnn amxopun ns Opnrnn,
nx 1epn 6mnn rpeunkn.
xpn aonn anrpn1oa npnnocnn noame a1nnueckne aneen1m, ocepaune a
qnnnkncknx cenennnx. ono a1nx psnoo6psnmx canse c cen1ckn ceec1ao
6mnn eue kopennme xn1m, xn1m ns kpynnmx rocyppc1a oc1ok, n p6m-
kyun1m, n ernn1nne, n unc1okpoanme nerpm. opoue roaopn, pa ceec1a - 6enoe n
uepnoe - n pxe cnepm xen1o pcm coue1nncL ppyr c ppyro a 1mcnux ko6nnun
a uen1pe nn, 6eckoneuno apLnpyncL n noc1onnno psnoxncL n nopoxpn
nensaec1nme po1one psnoanpnoc1n.
D1o nponcxopnno acnepc1ane 1oro, u1o Onnnknn pan npnk1 n p6o1y ace. e
nop1m, q6pnkn n 1oproame kpanm 1pe6oann noro p6ounx pyk. np n Cnpon
6mnn ne 1onLko kpynnmn npnopcknn n 1oproamn ropopn, nnopo6ne nmneunnx
onpon n 6ypr, no opnoapeenno axnmn nnpyc1pnnLnmn uen1pn, kk
nnpnep, naepnynL n Bnpnnre; onn npeap1nnncL a c1ounme pycn pnn xn1ene
epepne snn, onn nxopnnn snn1ne pnn acex, nsnnukn nepenpannnn a kononnn.
3 cue1 noc1onnnmx nepecenenn onn annann 1yp caexne cnnm. npoue, ne c1on1
cnnuko aocxnu1Lcn c1onL nnopo1aopno pen1enLnoc1Lk. D1n npenyuec1a
noc1onnno pc1yuero ncenennn nenn n o6opo1nyk c1opony: np n Cnpon nunn
nsenn1L nonn1nueckyk konc1n1yunk c nepenne ynyuun1L ee n skonunnn 1e,
u1o npnaenn k ee nonnoy kpxy.
Mm yxe yanpenn, kkne a1nnueckne 1pncqopunn npeponpepennnn koneu
upc1aoannn 6oroa, n ceny ko1opoy npnuno upc1aoanne xpeuoa, ono, a caok
ouepepL, yc1ynnno ec1o cnoxno n yppeno oprnnsunn, ampsnauecn nosxe a
cqepe anc1n, a nonanennn aoxpe n n1pnunea a ropopx. pesynL11e 1knx
peqop psnnune pc knyno a ne6m1ne. c1nncL 1onLko rpynnm nnn ceec1a.
epep nnuo aeuno n c1pen1enLno nsenunaoc1n a1nnuecknx aneen1oa
pnc1okp1nueckoe rocyppc1ao, nocnepnee cnoao, kpnee ampxenne
peaonkunonnoro pyx nepamx cen1cknx npnuenLuea, a opnn npekpcnm penL
oksnocL necnoco6nm ypoane1aopn1L 1pe6oannn nc1ynkunx nokonenn, n c1nn
snann1L o ce6e peokp1nueckne npen.
nune onn nunn noppepxky y upe. e oxo1no aocnpnnnnn npnnunnm, ko1opme
ornn ynnsn1L n1pnunea. 31e nx nopxa1nnn 1onnm p6ouero nkp n
nyqk1ypx n npeap1nnn nx a c1epxenL caoero o6Lepnnennn. k1nanme pen1enn
nn1pnr n sroaopoa coc1annnn oco6m kncc o6uec1a, npnamkun k pockoun, c
aoxpenenne co1peaun n co6nsnm anc1n, no ne neaun nnkknx npa, kpoe
npa n nnoc1n, n npesnpem a nepayk ouepepL pnc1okp1n: n nek a anpy
upcknx p6oa, eanyxoa ns paopuoa, qaopn1oa nnn 1ex, k1o c1penncn nn c11L. k
amrnnpen np1nn, pspyunaun pnc1okp1nueckn nopnpok.
Y npo1nannkoa a1o np1nn 6mno poc11ouno cnn, u1o6m sunu1Lcn. Xennnn n
npnxo1n upe onn npo1naonoc1annnn 6esnnkoe skonop1enLc1ao n sancnoc1L o1
cypecknx unnoannkoa. onn c1nn cmk1L caon pnpm. po1na necnokono ccm
p6ouero nkp y nnx 6mnn eun n ppo1nkn norouncnennmx nennkoa, a nepayk
"ouepepL kpnuea n qnnnc1nnuea, ko1opme coc1annnn rpnnsonm a ropopx.
koneu, xn1poc1n n kosnn upcknx p6oa onn npo1naonoc1annn 6onLuo onm1 a
penx, nepoaepunaoc1L, npncyuyk uenoaeuecko npnpope, npk1nueckn y,
necpannm c neyknkxe xn1poc1Lk npo1nannkoa - opnn cnoao, counncL a
noepnnke nn1pnrn opnnx, xec1okn cnn ppyrnx, ne1epnennan 6nunn cnnLnmx,
nenoepnn sanc1L cn6mx, c ppyro c1oponm - orponoe npenyuec1ao c11yc
rocnop, opyxne, ko1opoe ne nerko opone1L, ecnn ono nxopn1cn a pykx cnnLnoro.
oneuno, onn 6m cyenn coxpnn1L caok nnepnk, kk n nk6n pnc1okp1nn, ecnn
6m no6epy onpepennn 1onLko aneprnn noac1nuea, no ncxop pen peunn nx
cn6oc1L. opxenne c1no pesynL11o ceuennn nx kpoan.
eaonkunn no6epnn, 1onLko korp ao paopux nonannncL nkpn, ko1opme cokpyunnn
nx paepn. rocyppc1ae, rpe 1oproann npnnocn1 6or1c1ao, 6or1c1ao - annnnne,
1pypno ns6ex1L esnLnncoa. uepunn 1poc sa1p c1noan1cn cypoanpenLue,
n ero pouepn, a anpe sono1oro poxpn, nponnkk1 a nono cmx amcokoepnmx
ceec1a. npoue, kpoaL n1pnunea Onnnknn yxe 6mn ceunno, noa1oy n
6mno 1pypno conpo1nann1Lcn co6nsnn1enLnm nepeen. onnrnn, c1onL nnn
ceppuy 1enokoxnx nnn nony1enokoxnx npopoa, pene1 ace epm
npepoc1opoxnoc1n 6ecnonesnmn.
kn o6pso, a rocnopc1aykunx pcx no6epexLn nn ncuesn opnopopnoc1L,
n peokp1nn nun a nnx caonx c1oponnnkoa. pnc1okp1m nunn nxopn1L
npnn1noc1L a cep1enLnmx pnn nnx pok1pnnx.
pnc1okp1nn uyac1aoan a1y o1kpm1yk pny a caoe 6oky n sununcL
nocpepc1ao penop1unn. orp pckpmancn nnn ycnpnncn sroaop, annoannkoa
xa1nn, norpyxnn n kop6nn nop oxpno kpnuea n yaosnnn a nank, cnnnk,
s npepenm epkynecoamx c1on6oa - a ec1 c1onL o1pnennme, u1o cnepm a1nx
kononns1opoa nxopnnn pxe a Cenerne.
Mn1exnme pnc1okp1m a 1o aeuno ccmnke cospann n1pnun1 noamx kononn, n
ne1 canpe1enLc1a 1oy, u1o, neco1pn n ack caok nn6epnLnoc1L onn s6mnn
cypoame nopnpkn caoe popnnm.
Mexpy 1e nc1ynnn penL, korp paopnnc1ay npnuen koneu. nsaec1n p1
okonu1enLnoro nopxennn, nsaec1no, a kko qope a1o cnyunnocL, n m oxe
nsa1L rnanyk npnunny. 1k, p1 - 829 r. po n. a., qop - pnc1okp1nueckn
anrpunn, ocnoaaun pqren, rnann npnunn - kpnnn c1enenL ceuennn
ncenennn nop pec1ane noaoro aneen1, ko1opm a 1euenne c1one1nn cospan
nn11enLnyk cpepy pnn npxnn a1nnuecknx aneen1oa.
3nun1enLno ycnnnnncL annnnm. nn nunn cospa1L kononnn - a1n qopnoc1m nx
oryuec1a, pcnonraunecn n no6epexLe Mno snn, ackope c1nn nc1oko
ouno aonnm nepecenenuea a nn. pnuenLum, o1nnuaunecn o1 cen1oa
cknpo y, 1enocnoxenne n cnno pyx, oksnn 6onLuyk noppepxky
peokp1nueckn npen n caon npncy1c1ane yckopnnn peaonkunk. epao xep1ao
perornn nn Cnpon. o6epnaun uepnL nsrnn pnc1okp1oa, ko1opme ocnoann a
ppyce noam ropop, rpe nunn npn6exnue 1oproann n npouae1nne, c1pm ropop
npeap1nncn a pynnm. kn xe yuc1L ackope noc1nrn np.
1pnunn, c1punaunecn anpenLuea q6pnk, npoc1onpopLn, upcknx p6oa n
coro upn, nocne ksnn coro annn1enLnoro ns nnx - xpeu Menkp1, - 6ypyun
ne a cnnx coxpnn1L caok anc1L nnn cnc1n caon xnsnn nepep nnuo nokonennn,
nonanauerocn a pesynL11e ceuennn, peunnn noknny1L c1pny. Y nnx 6mn qno1 n
aepnme aock. onn, nokopnauncL cypL6e, yunn aec1e co caonn cokpoanun,
yaosn c co6o pnnnc1p1nano-ynpanenueckn onm1 n 1ppnunonnoe nckycc1ao
1oproann, n o6ocnoanncL n no6epexLe qpnkn, npno nnpo1na Cnunnnn.
k coaepunnocL reponueckoe co6m1ne, nopo6nmx ko1opoy c 1ex nop ne 6mno. o1n a
coapeennyk anoxy 6mnn pae nonm1kn noa1opn1L ero. o apen aonm npn Louue
aeneunnckn cen1 o6cyxpn aonpoc o 1o, u1o6m o1nnm1L n enononnec aec1e co
ace npopo, nosxe 1kn xe aosoxnoc1L pcc1pnancL a nrnncko
npnen1e.
Y pqren ne 6mno pe1c1a. ro npan1enn spnee 6mnn yaepenm a oryuec1ae
caoe aonn. nn npnaesnn c co6o 1ppnunn ppeanero np. x okpyxnn nou1n
ncknkun1enLno uepnokoxne nneen, c1onaune n 6onee nnsko c1ynenn, n n ne
coc1anno 1pyp nopunnn1L nx ce6e. yuennoe aekoam onm1o, npan1enLc1ao
npoaopnno a o1nouennn noppnnmx xn1ckyk nonn1nky 1aeppoc1n n
nenpeknonnoc1n, nockonLky a ropope [npone ns ockonkoa 6eno pcm 6mnn 1onLko
1npckne n xnnckne pnc1okp1m, opnoapeenno n xep1am n 1aopum
perornuecknx no1pncenn, onn yc1noannn 6esycnoanoe nro. [o coro oen1
caoero npennn onn ne cpennn nn opnoro nocn6nennn pnn npop. [xe korp n
npnxopnnocL npnsma1L ero k opyxnk, onn oc1anncL xec1okn n nenpeknonnm,
no1oy u1o nx a1opn1e1 onnpncn n a1nnueckoe psnnune.
npxnn a npe aoso6npn nonnoc1Lk nocne yxop pnc1okp1nn, ko1opn eue
coxpnnn oc11kn npexnnx kuec1a pcm n npexpe acero o1nocn1enLnyk
opnopopnoc1L. orp upn n npoc1onkpnnm oc1nncL opnn, n ynnum amnnecnynocL
ace psnoo6psne nponcxoxpennn n aocnpenn1c1aoano ckonLko-nn6ypL cepLesno
peoprnnsunn. n1ckn pyx, noxec1ao cen1cknx ae1ae, rpeueckn xpk1ep -
ace a1o snanno o ce6e a nonnm ronoc. e 6mno nnkko aosoxnoc1n poroaopn1Lcn,
n c1no ncno, u1o aec1o cospnnn psyno n ue1ko cnc1em npanennn ncenenne
ppoanocL pxe apeennoy npy s cue1 apeennmx konponccoa. ocne
ocnoannn pqren y np yxe ne 6mno noamx kononn. pexnne noc1enenno
o1xopnnn o1 nero n opn s ppyro npncoepnnnnncL k n1pnunnckoy ropopy,
ko1opm c1n nx c1onnue. ce 6mno ec1ec1aenno n nornuno. ononnn ne nepenecnn
caoe noannoaenne a ppyroe ec1o - cennncL 1onLko e1pononnn. ocnopc1aykun
pc oc1ncL npexne n a a1o npexne kuec1ae npoponxnn kononnsunk.
konue XIII a. on ocnoan nocenennn a Cppnnnn, xo1n e eue ne ncnonnnnocL n c1
ne1. epes nn1Lpecn1 ne1 on oanpen Bnepcknn oc1poan. VI a. on scennn
nnancknn kononn ace snpnme ropop, 6maune korp-1o qnnnkncknn.
noamx nocenenux uepnn kpoaL npeo6npn eue a 6onLue c1enenn, ue a nx
copopnux n no6epexLe nn; korp nesponro po oxpec1a pnc1oa C1p6on
nncn, u1o 6onLun uc1L cnnnn nxopnncL nop anc1Lk qnnnknuea, u1o a
1pexc1x ropopx CpepnsenoopLn ne 6mno ppyrnx xn1ene, kpoe qnnnknuea, a1o
osnuno, u1o nx ncenenne cqopnpoanocL n 6se 1enokoxnx, k ko1opm
po6annncL aneen1m 6enmx n xen1mx pc, kpqrennne eue 6onLue npn6nnsnnn
coc1a xn1ene k ennncko npnpope.
enno xn1ckne n1pnunn o6ecneunnn n popnne nnn6n npeo6npnne np
acen npopn c 6onee 1eno koxe. np, nnuennm a1o cnnm n c1aun ec1o
xn1enLc1a coaepuenno nepeeunnmx pc, norpysnncn a nponc1L npxnn.
ckope nocne yxop pnc1okp1oa on nacerp ann a sancnoc1L o1 uyxeseuea -
cnun ccnpnuea, s1e nepcoa, nosxe keponuea. 1euenne ne6onLuoro cpok,
ko1opm oc1ncn ey, u1o6m 6m1L coc1on1enLnm, acero nnuL uepes 78 ne1 nocne
ocnoannn pqren, on cpenncn snenn1m 6nroppn n1exnoy pyxy n
nenpepmanm n kpoaam peaonkunn. O6pnunme p6oune ne ps coaepunn
necnmxnnme saepc1a, yc1pnan pesnk 6or1mx, sxa1man nx xen n pouepe,
xosnnnun a xnnnux caonx xep1a n kynncL a ysypnnpoanno pockoun. opoue
roaopn, np yxcnyn aecL nn, cnao n roppoc1Lk ko1oporo on 6mn korp-1o,
cocepnn c1pn on anyunn nenanc1L n neropoanne, 1k u1o korp ero ocpnn
nekcnpp, ace cocepnne ropop nocneunnn noouL ey kop6nnn, u1o6m nockopee
nokonun1L c nenanc1nm ropopo. Cnepyn ec1no 1ppnunn, cnpnum nnkoann,
korp nonkoaopeu npnroaopnn no6expennmx k pcnn1nk. D1o 6mn yskonennn ksnL
pnn as6yn1oaaunxcn p6oa, 1npum nenno 1koamn n nannnncL.
kne nnopm npnnecno a Onnnknn 6ecnopnpounoe n neyepennoe ceuenne pc,
c1onL cnoxnoe, u1o ne oc1anocL apeenn pnn ero npeapuennn a coaepuennoe
cnnnnne: a1o ceuenne npnaeno k nnoxennk ppyr n ppyr psnnunmx nnc1nnk1oa,
akycoa n n1nn1n cmx psnmx uenoaeuecknx 1nnoa n xpk1epoa n a koneuno
cue1e yaekoaeunno cep1enLnyk apxpy.
e ory ne npnaec1n opnn nk6onm1nm nc1opnueckn qk1. euL npe1 o xononcko
o1nouennn k caon e1pononnn - cnun npy, s1e pqreny. opunnenne
6mno nc1onLko cnenm, u1o a 1euenne neckonLknx c1one1n ne 6mno nn opnoro
npnep npoaosrnuennn a1nn kononnnn nesancnoc1n neco1pn n 1o, u1o a nnx
xnnn ne cme nokopnme noppnnme.
nsaec1n nc1opnn nx cospnnn. Cnun, a1o 6mnn apeennme nocenennn, ncnex
ykpennennme c uenLk sun1m kop6ne o1 6opnrenoa. o epe 1oro, kk nocenennn
yaennunanncL s cue1 1oproamx canse, onn npeapunncL a ropop. onn1nk
e1pononnn cnoco6c1aoan poc1y a1nx ropopoa, xo1n npnnnnncL epm k 1oy,
u1o6m ne ponyc1n1L nx upesepnoro ycnnennn n nesancnoc1n. poe 1oro, anc1n
c1pennncL k yaennuennk nx uncn no ace c1pne pnn noamuennn npn6mne o1
1oproann. o1okn nepecenenuea pepko cocpepo1ounanncL a opno ec1e - 1k,
nnpnep, pnkc a nopy caoero pcuae1, korp no acey npy xopnnn nerenpm o ero
6or1c1ae, npepc1annn co6o acero-nacero ckponmx psepoa ropopok c
ne6onLun noc1onnnm ncenenne [a, kra III. y snxy r,
km ank rra caaaan n vcnc acnn c HH,
aHan num ca. aaa, acmncn n Banuyc.].
kne nocenennn oc1anncL nsonnpoannmn ppyr o1 ppyr. oa1oy onn o6npnn
nckonnm npao n nonnyk asnnyk nesancnoc1L n k 1oy xe nn1nn nenpnnsnL
k e1pononnn. o 6ypyun cao6opnmn, onn 6mnn 6eccnnLnm n ne ornn o6o1ncL 6es
nokpoan1enLc1a, n no1oy c1pennncL npnkny1L k caoe cnnLno popnne. [pyro ne
enee axno npnunno 1ko npepnnoc1n oxno nsa1L 1o o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o a1n
kononnn, ocnoannme pnn 1oproann, nenn 1onLko opnn kpynnm pmnok c6m1 -
snk, ny1L 1yp npoxopnn uepes npek. 1o6m am1n k pmnk annon n
nneann, u1o6m po6p1Lcn po rnn1, 6mno neo6xopno corncne qnnnkncknx
ropopoa, n qk1opnn 6mnn oxauenm opnn xennne: n1n nonn1nueckyk sun1y n
1oproa1L. occopn1Lcn c popnno osnuno skpm1L nepep co6o paepn a np n
co1pe1L, kk 6or1c1a n npn6mnn c1ekk1cn a cocepnn ropop, 6onee sancnm n,
cnepoa1enLno, 6onee ypunnam.
c1opnn pqren canpe1enLc1aye1 o 1ko xnsnenno axno neo6xopnoc1n.
eco1pn n nenanc1L, ko1opn kk 6yp1o yaennunan nponc1L expy noc1poenno
n perornn e1pononnn n ee c1pon1nao kononne, pqren ne xenn pa1L cansn.
nopo1aopnme o1nouennn npekp1nnncL, 1onLko korp np npeap1nncn a
s6pouennm 6p; n 1onLko nocne ero kpx, korp rpeueckne ropop sennnn ero
a o6nc1n 1oproann, pqren ponann xennne k aceanc1nk. orp on co6pn nop
caon snene oc1nLnme ropop n nocenennn n c1n npnsnnnm uen1po
xnnckoro npop n oc1ann ce6e a1o cnanoe a npouno nn. ro xn1enn acerp
nsmann ce6n chanani [4km amaan ca cay HH Chna
n Hnn aaaa; yr am r x cHcaa crnamancu c
ak n. HH ka aca aaaa acvmaa Hr
aa. H. nvcn a r Bmn, X, 15. a aHa anr
aryca ncnm Hckr aara amaan cn chanani.],
xo1n senn nec1nnm nnkorp n ne npnnpnexn. pqrennne yaxnn np, c
ko1opm onn ne ornn cocyuec1aoa1L, ne kk our nunonnLnoro kynL1, s
cao6opnm poc1yn 1oapoa a snk.
1k, ns nepaoro o6c1on1enLc1a am1eke1 a1opoe, nop1aepxpkuee nepaoe.
cco1pn ero.
orp nepcnpckne upn oanpenn Onnnkne n rnn1o, onn npepnounn cun11L
pqren saoeannm ipso facto. nn o1npannn nocnoa k n1pnunn osep
pn1onnp, u1o6m p1L n koe-kkne pcnopnxennn n o6eunnn sun1m. 1e apeen
pqren 6mn ouenL cnnLnm, n y nero 6mnn ocnoannn ne 6on1Lcn pn aennkoro
upn: ao-nepamx, ns-s caonx orponmx pecypcoa, ao-a1opmx, no1oy u1o on
nxopnncn pneko o1 uen1p nepcnpcko onpxnn. Mexpy 1e on nopunnnncn n
nokopnncn. o1oy u1o ey nyxno 6mno nk6o ueno coxpnn1L 6nrocknonnoc1L
pnnc1nn, ko1opn orn skpm1L nepep nn aoc1ounme paepn CpepnsenoopLn.
pqrennne, noakne nonn1nkn, pykoaopc1aoanncL a a1o aonpoce npnepno 1en
xe o1nan, ko1opme a XVII n XVIII aa. sc1annnn neko1opme eaponeckne nunn,
xenaune coxpnn1L o1nouennn c nonne n n1e, no1n n urn, ynnsn1enLnme
pnn xpnc1nnckoro cosnnnn. Yun1man 1koe cnpenne co c1oponm pqren n ero
npnunnm, nerko o6Lncnn1L, nouey qnnnknckne kononnn acerp 6mnn pnekn o1
mcnn o n1exe.
pnko 6mno 6m 6onLuo oun6ko cun11L, u1o a1n kononnn nm1nncL unannnsoa1L
ncenenne, cpepn ko1oporo onn o6ocnoanncL [ vr acy
nanvckr cHmcna, km km caHm yvm
aknamaa a H kync c-kH. Hck r r cnyk
sH nHmmnnn]. s noa oep m sne, u1o y nnx 6mnn 1onLko
epkn1nnLnme s6o1m n u1o onn anyunn o1apuenne ppeann annnn. n a
cnnnn, nn n no6epexLe nnnn onn ne oc1annn o ce6e nyuuero nennn. orp
no1okn nn nenn peno co cn6mn nneenn, onn poaopnnn 1npnnk po
kpne c1enenn xec1okoc1n n nnsaopnnn 6opnrenoa po ypoann pounero cko1.
cnn onn ac1peunn conpo1nanenne, nx opyxne 6mno koapc1ao. o pesynL11
oc1ancn 1e xe. Mec1noe ncenenne acerp 6mno pnn nnx 1yno p6oue cnno,
ko1opyk onn neupno akcnny1npoann, nnn aprn, ko1opmx onn ynnu1oxnn.
oc1onnno 6mn apxp expy ec1nmn xn1ennn nk6o c1pnm, kyp onn
npnxopnnn, n a1nn xec1oknn 1oproaun. D1o eue opn npnunn, nouey kononnn
- cn6me, nsonnpoannme, apxpykune c cocepnn - oc1anncL aepnonoppnnmn
e1pononnn, n a1o 6mn 1o1 ounm pmur, nocpepc1ao ko1oporo n onpoknnyn
pqren. onn1nk n1nLnnckoro ropop a cpanennn c noaepenne ero conepnnk
6mn rynno n 1e cm saoean cnn1nn, s1e o6ecneunn no6epy. aoace
ne co6npkcL ocmn1L nescnyxenno xano pncknx koncynoa n npe1opoa: onn
1oxe 6mnn xec1oknn yrne11ennn, nyc1L n a enLue c1enenn, nexenn xnnckn
pc. o nc1nn a 1o, u1o a1 nunn yn1oa - qnnnknuea nnn kpqrennn - ne
nen nn neuero npepc1anennn o cnpaepnnaoc1n n nn neue cknonnoc1n k
1oy, u1o6m anec1n xo1L kkyk-1o psynyk oprnnsunk a xnsnL nopanc1nmx n
npopoa. n oc1ncL npnaepxenno npnnunn, yncnepoannm o1 cen1oa
konen epop, ko1opoe ann1no nx c kpoaLk 1enokoxnx.
cnn a nc1opnn qnnnkncknx kononn n ec1L npnepm yeno oprnnsunn, 1o onn
o6ycnoanenm cneunqnuecknn o6c1on1enLc1an, ko1opme c 1ex nop 6onLue ne
noa1opnnncL. peueckne kononnc1m ne o1nnunncL nokopnoc1Lk 1k xe, kk n
coapeennme npopm. [eno a 1o, u1o aecL np 6mn o1kpm1 pnn nnx, n n ne npo
6mno nepecek1L npoc1opm popnnm, u1o6m po6p1Lcn po pmnk pnn caonx 1oapoa.
oxny, ne 6onLue neuero cks1L o co aneprnuno ae1an xnnckoro
ceec1a. Caonn poc1onnc1an n caonn nopokn on nop1aepxpe1 amaop
a1nonornn, nenno: a ne npeo6npn uepnn kpoaL. 1ckp neykpo1nn
c1pc1L k 1epnnLnm ppoc1n, nenenme cyeaepnn, npeppcnonoxennoc1L k
nckycc1a, 6esnpac1aennoc1L, xec1okoc1L.
Benm 1nn cmrpn a ee qopnpoannn nesnun1enLnyk ponL. Myxcko xpk1ep
yc1ynnn ec1o xenckn aneen1, ko1opme norno1nnn ero. pap, on anec a a1o1
6punm coks npk1nunoc1L n xxpy saoeann, akyc k c16nnLnoc1n n 1o coe
c1penenne k nonn1nueckoy nopnpky, ko1opoe cksno caoe cnoao n cmrpno caok
ponL a yc1noanennn ocnoannoro n skonx pecno1ns - ponL, koneuno, cnopnn,
no 6esycnoano aqqek1nann. 1o6m skonun1L a1o1 nop1pe1, po6ank, u1o o6nnne
necoaec1nmx 1nnoa, cansnnoe c psnnunmn nponopunnn a o6ue cecn,
nopopnno xponnueckn 6ecnopnpok, npnaeno k counnLnoy npnnuy n k 1koy
nnueanoy coc1onnnk, korp c kxpm pne n nepam nnn ace 6onLue amxopnn
ennnckn cyunoc1L. o1 a kko nonoxennn oksnncL pcm, cqopnpoaaunecn
a pesynL11e xnncknx coksoa.
pnko nop o6p1n1Lcn k oc1nLnm ae1an ceec1a n Cn.
IV. ccm; a; xn
ppeanoc1n 6m1oano epnnopyunoe nenne, u1o npopm Mecono1nn c1on1 amue
acex oc1nLnmx nun, amuepunx ns konen n Cn. Onnnknum 6mnn
npepnpnnunam, 1knn xe 6mnn kpqrennne. epexnnn nepnopm pcuae1 n cnam
eapeckne, p6ckne, npnckne, qpnrnckne rocyppc1a. pnn cnoao, a1o 6mnn
nnne1m, apuaunecn aokpyr 6onLuoro pernon, rpe coaepunncL nx cypL6m. o,
6es acnkoro conennn, rnano 6mn ccnpnn.
e xe o6Lncnne1cn 1koe npeaocxopc1ao? ounm o1ae1 n a1o1 aonpoc pe1
qnnonornn.
yxe roaopnn o 1o, u1o cnc1e cen1cknx nsmkoa npepc1anne1 co6o
necoaepuennm npopyk1 cnc1em uepnmx nsmkoa. D1 cnc1e npe1epnen
nsenennn a p6cko n c1n eue 6onee necoaepuenno a ppeaneeapecko; pnee
no nncxopnue m npnpe k peckoy, a ko1opo perppunn coc1anmx
npnnunnoa ampxen eue nonnee. pnno cnyue m nnonne ny1nnk,
nxopnuerocn a nopseenLe, rpe no epe ero panxennn c1noan1cn ace 1enee.
[nLue cnoa nonan1cn cae1, no yxe n ppyro c1opone neuepm, n a1o1 cae1 6ype1
nno npnpopm.
peckn nsmk osnue1 onpepenennm o1xop o1 ennnckoro pyx, opnko a ne
nok ne1 qop, kppnnnLno uyxpmx a1o cnc1ee. cnn srnnny1L nenoro pnLue, a
reorpqnuecko cmcne, m cpsy o6npyxn ppeanepeckn, n ao1 specL yxe
ec1L koe-u1o noaoe. pn ann1enLno pcco1pennn m ysne nnporepnckn
aneen1, a ue ne oxe1 6m1L nnkknx conenn. n eue cn6m n orpnnuennm, no
ace pano on cyuec1aye1 n 6poce1cn a rns.
poponxn nue ny1euec1ane. npo c peun xnay1 npnum. pncnyuauncL
k nx nsmky, m ysne cen1ckne saykn n qopm. e n ppyrne 6onee s1yueanm, ue
a pecko, n nnporepnckn aneen1 snne1 a ne 6onLue ec1 [nuc
amayn ay rny kacanu ckr nmka, a kH
ayxn snHm kckx nmka. cn nnu sy cy
rny, xH naau k HckHy nmky y ccaay
vacu. cm Hxy rHackH cHckH snHaH
ay sr nmka, kmx mna vu amm, cacn HmH.].
c1ynn n senn, nexune k ceaepy o1 Mnpnn, m nxopn senpckn nsmk. a ne
npncy1c1aye1 cen1ckn, n ce ps a ouenL no konnuec1ae. cnn o1o1n nenoro
k kry, m ac1pe1ncn c nexnan, 1kxe nnpo-repnckn, no c 6onLun
konnuec1ao aneen1oa ns nsmk Cn. o pannecn pnLue n ceaepo-aoc1ok, n a
nepamx xe ponx npnn cpsy npe cm coaepuennm 1nn nsmkoa 6eno pcm
- peuL npe1 o cnckpn1e.
e pnLue k kry, 1e 6onLue cen1ckoro pyx, no epe npopanxennn k ceaepy
6enme aneen1m 6ypy1 ac1peu1Lcn uue n a 6onee unc1o coc1onnnn. ccnpnckne
rocyppc1a ns acex xn1o-cen1cknx seenL nxopnnncL pnLue k ceaepy. nnx
noc1onnno n6ernn aonnm nepecenenuea, ckpm1mx nnn oueanpnmx, yc1penennmx c
ceaepo-aoc1ounmx rop. n cnepye1 nck1L nepaonpnunny nx pnn1enLnoro, pnnno a
aek, npenyuec1a.
Mm yxe anpenn, kk uc1o nponcxopnnn n6ern. Cen1o-xnpeckn pnnc1nn,
ko1opn nonoxnn koneu ncknkun1enLnoy rocnopc1ay xn1oa okono 2000 rop, pa
c1one1nn cnyc1n 6mn caeprny1 noamn 1onnn, cnyc1naunncn c rop.
c1opnn nsmae1 nx npnum. Ok1 nonanennn nnporepncknx npopoa 1k
pneko n kro-snpe a c1onL pnnne apeen or 6m amsa1L neko1opoe ypnanenne,
ecnn, cnepyn c1po knccnqnkunn, m npoaepe pepkunonnyk nnnnk expy
6enmn npopn psnoro nponcxoxpennn n o1penn cen1oa o1 npopoa, ocnoanme
ae1an ko1opmx ncennnn npnk, nosxe apony.
k cksno amue, qnnonornn onpoaepre1 1ko e1op knccnqnkunn, n m c
nonnm npao oxe cun11L npnuea ocnoa1ennn ouenL ppeane ccnpncko
pnnc1nn n, no npnepy Moaepc, cen1cknn xnpenn nnn, aec1e c DanLpo,
ccnpncknn nnn nnporepncknn npopn a sancnoc1n o1 nopxop k a1oy
aonpocy. nn nannk1cn nepexopnm aneen1o expy payn pcn n pano
npnnpnex1 n 1o n ppyro. oa1oy ne nee1 snuennn, c 1oukn spennn reorpqnn,
nannk1cn nn nocnepnne cen1n nnn nepame pnun.
ne coneakcL, u1o c 1oukn spennn kuec1a, npncyunx pce, npnum nepao
aonnm nrpunn npeaocxopnnn cen1oa, a 6onLue c1enenn ceunnmx c
1enokoxnn, xo1n n 6mnn popc1aennm n. op1aepxpenne 1oy oxe1 cnyxn1L nx
pennrnn, ko1opn npepc1annn co6o rnk. nonk nn a1oporo upn nx pnnc1nn
- 3p1yu1pm. ne ny1k a1oro onpx c nsaec1nm pennrnosnm skonop1ene,
ko1opm xnn nnoro pnLue, no 1o1 qk1, u1o upL asnn ce6e nn snenn1oro
npopok, canpe1enLc1aye1 o nonynnpnoc1n ero yuennn a npope.
Mnpnum ne 6mnn ncnopuenm uypoanunmn xn1cknn kynL1n, onn nenn 6onee
spopoame pennrnosnme npepc1anennn n nonn1nn n o1nnunncL 6onee amcokn
aonnckn pyxo n cnoco6noc1nn k ynpanennk.
pnko nx anc1L ne orn npopepx1Lcn ponro, xo1n npnunnm nx 6mc1poro ynpk
coace ppyrne.
Mnpnckn nunn acerp 6mn nouncnenno - nosxe y nc 6ype1 noaop noroaopn1L
o6 a1o, - n ecnn a VIII a. po n. a. on anoaL nopunnnn ce6e ccnpnckne
rocyppc1a (cnyc1n ponroe apen nocne 2234 r. po n. a.), 1o 1onLko no1oy, u1o a1oy
cnoco6c1aoann okonu1enLnm ynpok xn1o-cen1cknx pc, nonnoe o1cy1c1ane
cnnLnmx aproa n coks c pncknn npopn, ko1opmx a anoxy nepaoro nuec1ann
npnuea eue ne 6mno n kro-snpe, kyp onn npnunn nosxe aec1e c ppyrnn
nepcnpcknn nneenn.
kn o6pso, npnum 6mnn anrppo pnckoro ceec1a. x uncnennoc1L
6mn neaennk, nx ne noppepxnann popc1aennme npopm n ne no1oy, u1o onn eue
ne cnyc1nnncL k kry, no no1oy, u1o a 1e pnekne apeen, nocne yxop annnncknx
pnuea, uLn nuec1ann noc1onnno am1nknann ccm cen1oa a ccnpnckne n
xnnckne senn, cyuec1aoan ounn unannnsunn, oksmaaun cnnLnoe
annnnne n ocnoanyk uc1L pncko-sopoc1pncknx npopoa a o6nc1nx expy
cnnckn ope n nnpykyue, a uc1noc1n, a Bk1pnn. upnn 6onLuo ropop
Bnk - M1L ropopoa, ecnn aocnonLsoa1Lcn ampxenne ns npncko 1ppnunn,
ko1opoe nepepe1 n oryuec1ao n ppeanoc1L ppeane c1onnum rnuecko pennrnn.
D1o1 ropop 6mn uen1po xnsnn, ko1opn npnanekn annnne n cnn1nn
sopoc1pnuea n npepoxpnnn nx o1 ceuennn c ccnpnckn no1oko. ono a1o
cqepm nx pen1enLnoc1L orpnnunancL aoc1ounm nnpanenne n 6mn yc1penen
k senn npnn, k c1pn enpx6, c ko1opmn nx cansmann 1ecnme popc1aennme
o1nouennn, o6un nc1opnueckn nn1L, ppeanne npnamukn, cxopc1ao nsmk n pxe
pennrnosnn ne1epnnoc1L n pyx npo1naopeunn - ec1ec1aennoe cnepc1ane a1o
ne1epnnoc1n.
epepne snn npnum 6mnn npepoc1anenm cn ce6e: nx nonoxenne 6mno 1e
6onee nenpounm, u1o c ceaep npanrnncL anc1onk6name conepnnkn, 6npm
cen1oa, n noppmann nx anc1L.
D1n cen1m yc1ynnn n a uncnennoc1n. pnko nx no1ok ycnnnancn, n a koneuno
cue1e onn ypannnncL a poc1onnc1ax c anc1n1ennn n pxe npeasounn nx.
ocnepnne xnnn a ropopx ccnpnn, npap, nonLsyncL neko1opo noppepxko caoero
npop, no o1pnennme o1 nero 6onLun pcc1onnne n s1epnnnme a xn1o-
cen1cko cce. sennncn coc1a nx kpoan, 1k xe kk y 6enmx xn1oa n nepamx
xnpeea. a opnn npekpcnm penL cen1ckne n6ern, cnun o16naeme, yxe ne
ac1pe1nnn conpo1nanennn. 1o1 penL cen1m npo6nnn 6peuL, n eu no6epn1ene
o6pyunncn pxe n npoc1o npop, ko1opm pc1epnncn n oksncn 6eccnnen nepep
xnmnyaunn oppn.
ccnpnckne rocyppc1a anoaL nunn npnxopn1L a ynpok nop anc1Lk nocnepnnx
nnpncknx upe. nn cnoa nosnnn pcuae1 n y1aeppnnn caok anc1L ao ace
epepne snn 1onLko c npn1oko caexe 6nropopno kpoan, ko1opn nyc1L n ne
nopnnn nx n 6onee amcokyk c1ynenL, no, no kpne epe, nosaonnn n
rocnopc1aoa1L 6espspenLno. o1 1k, nenpepmano nepepoxpncL n aospoxpncL,
ccnpnn anc1aoan n xn1o-cen1cknx sennx.
oaoe nuec1ane npnaeno k 6onLun 1eppn1opnnLnm saoeannn.
okopna c1pny npnuea, cen1m-saoea1enn pannynncL n ceaep n aoc1ok. nn
psopnnn uc1L Bk1pnn n pounn po rpnnu npnn. nn cnoa nokopnnn Onnnknk, n
mcnn, nonn1nn, npepc1anennn n npam ccnpnuea pcnpoc1pnnnncL eue unpe n
ykopennnncL eue rny6xe, ue npexpe. Cenme npepnpnn1nn n kpynnme poc1nxennn
uepepoanncL c ypnan1enLno 6mc1po1o. ok oryuec1aennme aannonckne
onpxn ykpennnnncL n aoc1oke, a okpec1noc1nx nmneunero ropop nprp,
ropop, rpe xnnn koqeum, pynnm ko1oporo o6npyxnn nonkoannk oynnncon, n
aqp1e nopnnncn M6ypx, pnLue k snpy - [ck n pp [cn
aaaHa QaHackH anan cHm H. x ac B-
aaa carna aan ana x x cHa aHna ac
Qkaa. rvcky Hcky snx xn QaHacka an
cknvnu a ncxx car ra amaan cn
nHkaH aaaHa kca, ak k cnyvacn kak y aa, ak
numx n.]. Cen1ckne unannns1opm nepeunn nnc n cospnn n
no6epexLe popm, a nnpncknx sennx, knnxec1a, ko1opme nosxe c1nn
nesancnmn n xannnncL 1e, u1o ne nek1 k cen1 nnkkoro o1nouennn
[am rncu accckH ncxxH.].
e1 cmcn npocnexna1L ceny ccnpncknx pnnc1n, ko1opme c1onLko aekoa
ypepxnann anc1L a epepne snn. ok cocepnnn pennn n npnmkkune k
aksy senn noc1annnn 6onee 6enoe ncenenne, ue xn1enn kxnmx pannn,
cnnm ccnpncknx rocyppc1a noc1onnno nononnnnncL. onLko pnnc1nn p6oa-
ncnnn1oa (1520-1274 rr. po oxpec1a pnc1oa) nonoxnn koneu xnpeckoy
anpmuec1ay. kn o6pso, npnuepuyk a ynpok pcy cennnn cen1m c kr,
enee perppnpoannme, ue xn1ckn aneen1, ko1opm 6mn cnoco6en ncnop1n1L
nk6yk kpoaL a Mecono1nn. o kk 1onLko cnoa nonannncL xnpen, 6onee
unc1me, ue ncnnn1ckoe ceec1ao, ono 1y1 xe yc1ynnno n 1pon.
1k, u1o kce1cn cqepm npanennn, 1. e. 1, rpe qopnpyk1cn unannns1opckne
npen, ne oxe1 6m1L n peun o uepnmx xn1x. x ccy coaepuenno norno1nnn
nocnepoa1enLnme ncnoennn cen1oa. nn coc1annk1 6onLuyk uc1L ncenennn n
ne nrpk1 nnkko k1nano ponn. kn yuc1L oxnpe1 acex saoea1ene uepes
neckonLko nokonenn. nune rpnsL saoeanno perppnpoanno senn, no
ko1opo urk1 no6epn1enn, poxopn1 n po unkono1kn. 31e a nee norpyxk1cn
norn, n ackope on nkpmae1 nx c ronoao. C qnsnonornuecko n opnLno 1ouek
spennn a1o nonnn perppunn. o apeen renon rpekoa 6onLue acero nopsnn
a ccnpnux, npnuepunx n noouL pny, uae1 koxn Menon, cmn apopm.
a1opm cksnn nsmak1 a1n aoc1ounme npopm aqnonn [3nm nHk
yma, . . aam.].
ocne pspyuennn pon 1e xe koepueckne npnunnm, ko1opme korp-1o sc1annn
ccnpnuea cnoco6c1aoa1L cospnnk npnopcknx ropopoa a c1pne qnnnc1nnuea n
n ceaepe Mno snn [3 ccam anunc Hxy accaH
rkaH, cnkaH ka, vu anHa cya a n.
aH aaa xn a rynnm: cHckan rvckan. vck knm
nrn k accaH, cHm k y.], o6ycnoannn 1o1 qk1, u1o onn
npoc1nnn rpek ynnu1oxenne ropop n sununn onnk. x uenL sknkuncL a
1o, u1o6m nonoxn1L koneu onononnn qnnnkncknx ropopoa, a pesynL11e 1ponnuea
cennnn no6epn1enn. k, sn1ckne rpekn c1nn ocnoanmn 1oproamn np1nepn
nneann n annon. D1o ec1L nepaoe ac1pe1naueecn n poks1enLc1ao 1o uc1o
noa1opneo nc1nnm, u1o ecnn npen1nunoc1L pc npnaopn1 k npen1nunoc1n cype6
npopoa, on nn a koe epe ne onpepenne1 npen1nunoc1L nn1epecoa n,
cnepoa1enLno, asnnyk nenpnnsnL.
[o 1ex nop, nok 1onLko qnnnknum akcnny1npoann snpnme senn, onn
npopann caon 1oapm ccnpnu no ouenL poporo uene, no nosxe, korp
nonannncL konkypen1m a nnue 1ponnuea, s1e rpekoa, ccnpnum nunn 6onee
peueam cnoco6 ypoane1aopn1L caon no1pe6noc1n.
ueanpno, u1o acn epepnnn snn nxopnncL nop pnk11o ccnpnuea. popm,
nonLsoaaunecn nx nokpoan1enLc1ao, poc1nrnn ycnex, 1e, k1o nm1ncn am1n ns-
nop nx annnnnn, oc1anncL cn6mn. npoue, n nesancnoc1L 6mn ouenL
o1nocn1enLno - pxe y koueamx nneen nyc1mnn. e1 nn opno nunn - 6ypL 1o
6onLuo nnn no,- ko1opn 6m ne ncnm1n aospec1ann ncenennn n upe
Mecono1nn. pnko cpepn 1ex, ko1opme enLue acero ouyunn 1koe aospec1ane,
nepamn cnepye1 nsa1L cmnoae spnnn. nn o1nocnnncL k caoe
nnpnanpynLnoc1n 6onee peanoc1no, nexenn nk6oe ppyroe cen1ckoe nnen. nn
xo1enn coxpnn1L unc1o1y a caonx no1okx. nn c1pennncL nsonnpoa1Lcn o1 acero,
u1o nx okpyxno. o opno a1o npnunne onn scnyxnak1 o1penLnoro psroaop,
pxe ecnn s6m1L o aennknx npenx, ko1opme npnxopn1 n y npn ynonnnnn a1oro
npop.
CmnoaLn ap neckonLko ps ennnn caoe nn. nune onn nsmann ce6n
eapenn. o a1o nsanne, pspenneoe nn co nornn ppyrnn npopn, 6mno
cnnuko unpokn n nekonkpe1nm. orp onn c1nn nenoa1Lcn cmnoaLnn
spnnn. osxe, nocne 1oro, kk yp npocnann caoe nn n am1ecnnn ns nn1n
npop acex n1pnpxoa, onn c1nn nypenn. koneu, nocne asn1nn epycnn
nnep1opo n1o, akyc k c1pnne, c1pc1L k caon kopnn - u1o acerp
caoc1aenno c1pekun npop n cnyxn1 npnsnko 6eccnnnn, xo1n
canpe1enLc1aye1 o 1por1enLno cen1nen1nLnoc1n - sc1annn nx cnoa npnnn1L
nn eapen.
D1 nunn, neco1pn n ace ee npe1ensnn, nnkorp ne nen co6c1aenno
unannnsunn, 1k xe kk n qnnnknum. n acero nnuL konnpoan ace, u1o
nponcxopnno ns Mecono1nn, ceunan a1o c ernne1cknn aneen1n. pam
nspnnn1oa a oen1m nx pcuae1, ao apeen [anp n Conoon, ampann
1npckoe n nnneanckoe nponcxoxpenne. c1opnn sne1, c kkn 1pypo nx
canuennnkn pnc1nunpoanncL o1 cmx yxcnmx nponanenn aoc1ounoro
nponcxoxpennn.
cnn 6m cmnoaLn ap, cnyc1nauncL c npecknx rop, cyenn coxpnn1L xo1n 6m
o1nocn1enLnyk unc1o1y pcm, ko1opo onn o6npnn, onn, koneuno, coxpnnnn n
pcunpnnn 6m 1o npeaocxopc1ao np 6onee unannnsoannmn n 6or1mn, no enee
npepnpnnunamn xnncknn npopn, ko1opoe saeun n o1eu nx n1pnpxoa,
no1oy u1o 1e npopm nenn 6onee 1enm uae1 koxn. coxnennk, neco1pn n
qynpen1nLnme skonm n npepnncnnn, neco1pn n npoknn1ne, nexuee n
ncnnn1x n apon1x, neskonnmx n o1aepxennmx no1okx apckoro konen,
eapen popnnnncL 1onLko c nnn [ca, cHun cma 4am ccnna nuk
amxa aa. ra aknvn c c BrH nar
a acx Hyxv car Ha, ac can anH, xn a Bn
nvkaacn, v c x mn am, kynnm a c, vyxak
(ra Bmn, XVII, 27). kca Hx akx aknvu, v
anckan aanucu nnncn ax cnuk
ncxxH, cknuk akH an (ra Bmn, XVII, 11
XXXIV, 15). akH nnx n aHx mn cxau vcy
acm cHn a ac ycnn.]. C coro nun cn1yunn amnyxpn nx np1n n
coks c psnmn npopn, ko1opmx onn npesnpnn, xn1L cpepn nnx, c1an1L pnpo c
nnn caon u1pm n nc1n caon c1p, n onopme nkpn payx ceec1a noc1onnno
o6unncL ppyr c ppyro. enum, no1okn nek, n norne ppyrne annnncL, 1kn
o6pso, a npop, coc1onaun ns paenpu1n nneen [ra Bmn, XV, 19.].
31e skon nepamn npyunnn n1pnpxn. ec1pn renenornn canpe1enLc1aye1 o
1o, u1o Cpp 6mn paokpopno cec1po caoey yxy, cnepoa1enLno, nen unc1yk
kpoaL [ra Bmn, XX, 12.]. o ecnn koa xennncn n nn n xnnn, caonx
kysnnx, n nen o1 nnx aocLepmx ns caonx cmnoae, ue1mpe ppyrnx pe6enk, 1kxe
cun1kunecn nc1nnnmn o1un spnnn, popnnncL o1 cnyxnok Bnm n 3enLqm
[ra Bmn, XXIX, 313.]. D1oy npnepy nocnepoann n ero o1npmckn
[anH nuk mak ncxx ca, r racn
H, v mn nHmH cmH ann vcmH a cHmcn
ncxxn. ak ann a xm rnnky.].
nocnepykune anoxn m ac1peue n ppyrne a1nnueckne nLnncm, ao apeen
onpxnn n yxe ne1 uncn.
upc1ao [anp, npoc1npaueecn po aqp1, axopnno neno psnnunmx npopoa,
n 1 ne orno 6m1L n peun o6 a1nnuecko unc1o1e. npyc ceuennn nponn1n ace
nopm nspnnLckoro oprnns. C npnnunn, npap, coxpnnncn, nosxe
3opoaaenL o6pyunn xec1okne kpm n yxunn, 6paunx a xenm uyxec1pnok. o
1e ne enee uenoc1noc1L kpoan ap oksncL y1puenno, n ennnckoro
aneen1 a nypenx 6mno ne enLue, ue a xn1x n cen1x, cpepn ko1opmx onn
xnnn. nn npnnnnn nx nsmk [can amaa aack nmkH
aaaa (36, II, 13).]. nn npnnnnn nx npam n o6mun, n ace 6onLue
ceunanncL co caonn cocepnn: qnnnc1nnun, apon1n, nekn1n,
opeun. uenL uc1o nn1unn uyxnx npaoa poxopnn y nnx po pennrnosnoro
akc1s. cyunoc1n, eapen n nsmunnkn 6mnn ckpoenm no opno epke. cknonen
cun11L a1o1 qk1 n poks1enLc1ao n cnepc1ane: nn ao apeen ocnq, nn npn
[anpe nnn Conoone, nn a anoxy upc1aoannn Mkkaeea nypen ne nenn
pnn1enLno anc1n np cocepnnn npopn, kk 6m cn6m 1e nn 6mnn. nn nnue ne
o1nnunncL o1 ncnnn1oa n qnnnc1nnuea.
yxe o6Lncnnn, nouey nspenn1m, cmnoaLn cnn, Dpo n nek, coc1onaune
ns 1ex xe ocnoanmx uepnmx - xn1cknx n cen1cknx - aneen1oa, u1o n
qnnnknum n ccnpnum, acerp oc1anncL n co nnsue c1ynenn unannnsunn
pcm, rpe apoxnoannkun n pykoaopnun ponL npnnpnexn npop Mecono1nn.
[eno a 1o, u1o 6enme aneen1m nepnopnueckn nopnn1mann nocnepnnx, no ne
cmnoae spnnn. oa1oy n ne ypanocL ypepx1L saoeannoe, korp y nnx
nonannnncL aosoxnoc1L n xennne ycoaepuenc1aoa1L caon npam, onn
npepnoun1nn snc1aoa1L nx a ccnpncko kynL1ype, nnuero ne pan e asen -
1ouno 1k xe, kk nmneunne npoannunnm konnpyk1 npnxckne opm. e o1nnunncL
6onLue unannnsoannoc1Lk n 1npum, xo1n onn n 6mnn yenmn 1oproaun. nn
aocnpnnnnn 1onLko 1o, u1o nexno n noaepxnoc1n, n 1o, uey onn yunnncL y
nneann. Conoon, peuna noc1pon1L xp, npnsan ns np pxn1ek1opoa,
ckynLn1opoa n amunanLunkoa. nonne aepon1no, u1o, yanpea aennuec1aennm
epycnn, ko1opm 1k roppnnncL ero xn1enn, uenoaek ns nneann ysnn 6m a ne
ne coace ypunyk konnk 1oro, u1o on anpen a opnrnnne a 6onLunx e1pononnnx
Mecono1nn, kyp c 3np, oc1ok, ns npnn n pxe n1n, no cnoa cn
[can, XIX, 12.], noc1onnno noc1ynnn seu1enLnme nnopm uenoaeueckoro rennn.
a a1o ne1 nnuero ypnan1enLnoro. Mnme npopm, o ko1opmx npe1 peuL, 6mnn
cen1n, cnnuko nponn1nnmn xn1ckn pyxo, u1o6m ne1L aosoxnoc1L
nrp1L coc1on1enLnyk ponL a kynL1ype - anpoue, nx co6c1aennn kynL1yp 6mn a
nx rnsx anonne poc11ouno n nyxpncL psae u1o a ne6onLunx nsenennnx.
enno 1kne nsenennn noknLnoro xpk1ep nnsaopnnn ace coaepuenc1ao
nneann po ypoann 1enmx n 6epnmx npopoa n nckxnn unannnsunk. ksauncL
a annone, qnnnknum, eapen, p6m uyac1aoann ce6n panmn ec1noy
ncenennk, ncknkun 1onLko ceaepnmx cen1oa, ko1opme nonannncL 1 cmn
nocnepnnn.
o ace pano a1o 6mno noppxnne, no1oy u1o a a1nx psposnennmx rpynnx
o1cy1c1aoan nopop.
pexpe ue skonun1L psroaop o6 nspnnn1x, ckxe neckonLko cnoa o neko1opmx
nneenx, ko1opme nspan xnnn cpepn nnx k ceaepy o1 oppn. Ckopee acero, a1o
1nnc1aennoe ncenenne npepc1annno co6o poaonLno unc1me oc11kn
ennncknx ceec1a - 1enokoxnx, ko1opme korp-1o 6mnn epnnc1aennmn
xosnean epepne snn po npnxop 6enmx xn1oa. Canuennme 1ekc1m oc1annn
n 1ounoe, xpk1epnoe n nenpnrnnpnoe onncnne a1nx xnknx npopoa.
o apeen oa onn xnnn 1onLko a ropno pone Cenp n Dpo k kry o1 oppn.
nx n ac1peun ap. Cpepn nnx xnn ca [ra Bmn, XXXVI, 8.] - u1o,
anpoue, ne epnnc1aennn ero ann nnn oun6k, - n opno ns ero xen c1n
nnae, pouL nm, pouepn Ce6eon, 1k u1o cmnoaLn, popnaunecn o1 nee - eyc,
erno n ope, - uepes caok 1L 6mnn 1ecno cansnm c uepno pco.
Cen1yrnn1 nsmae1 a1n npopm xopennn, ynLr1 - xopeun, n onn uc1o
ynonnk1cn a Canuenno ncnnn. nn xnnn a cknx n npn1nncL a neuepx. x
nn pxe osnue1 1pornopn1m, 1. e. neuepnme nkpn. x nneen nenn aoxpe n
coc1annnn nesancnme o6uec1a. nn kpyrnm rop 6popnnn 6es onpepenenno
uenn, aopoann u1o npnpe1cn, npn aosoxnoc1n y6nann. nn 6mnn ouenL amcokoro
poc1. y1euec1aennnkn 6onnncL a1nx xec1oknx nkpe. o coe npkoe nx onncnne
npnaopn1cn a nnre oa [ aum xn xn a x rax
aa annu aaa a ca-ack acr Hn a r.
aH, r a anH ca vu arax, vac ynHacn
s Hkx am. ak amaa x akx cnaH sHHm,
ca vcn kr ava yxac. . . sHHm av
ayma yxac n (ak, 11,10,11). ycaaan
nnHn, aaa ncnamcn a Hn a, kan nx
nanxana aHHaH. cn amaan x HHHm
(ak, II, 20). ak, xn, sHHm HHHm, s yxacm
myHm n, ncn caaaacn c sacHaH, rraaH c
nmH mnH. nnann ana xn nH c
aH. acv mn yvxm, a caamcn ykmncu a
ncckx rax, r acvancu a ra n n
aHa. cHn a H, v k sHy cHcay nanxan anka
na, c kmH caxancn nacyx Qaa. ca, na nacn kak
ram n x].
O kn k, , ku n u .
Ek r u, ry u, u
yuu...
H k rnk k , kk . O xy
u k, u k.
O myn ky xyn .
k xu, ,
(nnr oa, XXX).
Y a1nx pnkpe cen1ckne nen, no psae nenLsn ysn1L a cnoax 6n6neckoro
can1oro nop1pe1 6ouncn n nenrnu? [ec1an1enLno, expy ppeann xopennnno
n a1nn pnknn nerpn cyuec1aye1 cn 1ecnn cansL. a1nx 1pex ae1anx
ennncko nopopm m anpn ne c 1nn uepnokoxnx, c1enenL perppunn, po
ko1opo oxe1 onyc1n1Lcn a1 ae1aL uenoaeueckoro pop. cun1k, u1o
nenocpepc1aenno npnunno perppunn a1nx necuc1nmx cyuec1a 6mno 1o
o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o nx yrne1nn xn1m, 1ouno 1k xe, kk ro11en1o1oa yrne1nn
kqpm, nenrnuea - num. Mexpy 1e xopouo nsaec1no, u1o a nopo6no
onpapnnn nnkorp ne nyxpnncL npopm nuero ceec1a. oneuno, n cpepn nnx
6mnn xep1am, 1k xe, kk cpepn 1enokoxnx n xen1okoxnx. okopennme,
yrne1eme, ynnu1oxeme npopm acerp ac1peunncL n ac1peuk1cn po cnx nop. o
ecnn xo1L knnn kpoan 6enmx cyuec1aye1 a nunn, perppunn nnkorp ne c1ne1
aceo6ue, xo1n oxe1 ne1L ec1o cpepn o1penLnmx nkpe nnn pxe rpynn. o1ae1
ne ory1 npnaec1n noxec1ao npnepoa 1oro, u1o npopm anu1 xnkoe
cyuec1aoanne, n ckxy1, u1o 1onLko necuc1nn cypL6 annoa1 a a1o. nnonen1m
6ypy1 pccksma1L o 1o, kk necuc1nme nkpn xnay1 a necx, nn1k1cn nuepnun
n senn, 6popn1 nrnuo, nnorp pxe s6mak1 cme npoc1me cnoa,
neo6xopnme pnn cospnnn nsmk, c nnn n cn nonn1nn, o6osnueme a1nn
cnoan, n nccnonep ne nxopn1 ppyroro peuennn a1o npo6nem, kpoe cypoaoc1n
n pecno1ns. o a1o oun6k. cnn npnco1pe1Lcn ann1enLnee, m yanpn, u1o
npopm, nxopnunecn a 1ko xnko nonoxennn, 1k n oc1ny1cn nerpn n
qnnnn n u1o nc1opnn ne sne1 cnyuea, korp pxe cme necuc1nme ns 6enmx
npopoa xnnn a pnkoc1n; nnpo1na, onn acerp nenn a ce6e cnoco6noc1n n
unannns1opckne aneen1m, ko1opme coxpnnnncL neco1pn n nk6me ncnm1nnn n
6epm. enno a a1o sknkue1cn y6epn1enLnoe canpe1enLc1ao nx 6conk1noro
npeaocxopc1a np oc1nLnmn pcn.
openne npekp1nnn conpo1nanenne n ncuesnn. nuennme 1oro nenororo, u1o n
oc1annn a ncnepc1ao nx popn1enn, cmnoaLn ca, pe1n nnaem, kopoue roaopn,
apon1m (1oposkonne, 11,12), ne ampepxnn unannnsunn, kk a1o nponcxopn1
ceropnn c 6opnrenn Kxno epnkn. nn ne cmrpnn nnkko nonn1nuecko ponn.
x nuec1ann 6mnn acero nnuL ps6onnuLnn amnskn. c1opnn onnq
noksmae1, u1o epnnc1aennoe nx npepnsnuenne sknkunocL a 1o, u1o6m
nopnn1ma1L nenanc1L k nspnnn1.
1o kce1cn nypeea, onn oc1anncL a pkx annnnnn nneann, nok nn
pykoaopnnn cen1m. osxe, korp cknne1p nepeuen a pykn pnuea-sopoc1pnuea,
korp expy anc1n1ennn Mecono1nn n kro-snpnmn npopn nepec1nn
cyuec1aoa1L pcoame o1nouennn, nc1ynnn a1n nonn1nueckoro nopunnennn, n
epnnc1ao npe ncuesno. o nok pno roaopn1L o6 a1o. pexpe ue cnyc1n1Lcn a 1e
rny6nnm apeen, rpe n npepc1on1 n1n caoe ec1o, n nyxno pcco1pe1L noro
aonpocoa, a nepayk ouepepL 1ex, u1o nek1 o1nouenne k rnn1y.
V
[o cnx nop peuL un 1onLko o6 opno unannnsunn, o6psoaauecn ns ceuennn
6eno pcm xn1oa n cen1oa c 1enokoxnn, ko1opyk n nsan ccnpncko. e
annnnne oxno cun11L 6ecnpeuepen1nm no caon nocnepc1ann pxe pnn nuero
apeenn.
pnko ee nenLsn nsa1L co ppeane n sene, n pannnm kro-snpno snn
6mnn ne nepamn, rpe nonannncL n poc1nrnn pcuae1 ounme rocyppc1a. osxe
m 6ype roaopn1L o6 ncknkun1enLno ppeanoc1n nnpyccknx rocyppc1aennmx
nnc1n1y1oa, nok oc1noancn n cnc1ee npanennn a rnn1e, ko1opn
o6psoancL npnepno a opno apen c nnneancknn rocyppc1an. nepayk
ouepepL pcco1pn nc1okn unannns1opcko nunn, xnaue a ponnne nn.
[oaonLno 1ounm o1ae1 n a1o1 aonpoc m npe a qnsnonornn: c11yn n pncynkn
ppeanoc1n neonpoaepxno poksmak1 npncy1c1ane 6enoro 1nn [Ynkc
cva rnn aackH aH na mak nn, km
Hva, v xn nm na, m Ms, mn aaaH.
Qyr yvm, ncyc, yaxa x caH a m ac nm
na ayHa, a aHx, x, anu ycna nyr na.].
uenL uc1o a kuec1ae o6psu kpco1m n 6nropopc1a aneunnx uep1 nsmak1
nsaec1nyk c11yk ns Bpn1nckoro Mysen, nsmaeyk Knm Menon.
so6pxennme a ppyrnx ckynLn1ypx pnne n1nunoc1n xpeum, upn,
aoenunLnnkn npnnpnex1 k 6eno pce, ecnn ne a unc1o anpe, 1o ao acnko
cnyue k ee psnoanpnoc1n, ko1opn nepneko yun o1 nee [ncyc Hva, v
a cykax a nHnunx a ac axm rnnk c
xn kx, a a snxy XVIII ac yx kackx.]. pnko
unpokne nnu, 6onLune yun, ampxennme ckynm, nyxnme ry6m uc1o qnrypnpyk1 a
nso6pxennnx nkpe a nopseenLnx n xpx n canpe1enLc1ayk1 o 6onLuo
nponopunn uepno kpoan o6enx psnoanpnoc1e - 1enokoxnx c npnmn n
kypuamn aonocn [ rnckx aa, ncaanmx a
ax na Hnkax, cm, aa, snm n kymm cncn k na
nravckHy ny c kyvaamH ancaH.]. a1o o1nouennn ne1 nnuero
y6epn1enLnee, ue coopyxennn a Mepnne1-6y. kn o6pso, oxno npepnonoxn1L,
u1o ernne1ckoe ncenenne aknkuno a ce6n cnepykune aneen1m: 1enokoxne c
npnmn aonocn, nerpm c nyunc1o ueaenkpo n 6enm aneen1, ko1opm
o6ecneunn xnsnecnoco6noc1L ace a1o cecn.
pypnoc1L sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o6m onpepenn1L, k kko ae1an ceec1a
npnnpnexn nocnepnn aneen1. Bnken6x cpannae1 ronoay cec c
nnpycckn 1nno. D1o seunne, cnpaepnnaoe co no ce6e, k coxnennk,
nepoc11ounoe ocnoanne pnn 1oro, u1o6m cpen1L amaop, nockonLky ncknkun1enLnoe
psnoo6psne ernne1cknx 1nnoa a psnme apeen noc1onnno kone6ne1cn expy
payn nonkcn: ennnckn n 6enm. o acex cnyunx, pxe a ronoae,
npnnncmaeo cecy, uep1m nnu, kpcname n ouenL 6nnskne k 6enoy 1nny, 1e
ne enee, yxe npe1epnenn cnnLnme nsenennn a pesynL11e ceuennn n snenyk1
co6o nuno perppunn. poe 1oro, nenLsn s6ma1L o 1o, u1o qnsnornonueckne
npnsnkn uc1o ne ory1 cnyxn1L o6Lek1nanmn xpk1epnc1nkn, korp peuL npe1 o
nkncx. cnn qnsnonornn noksmae1, u1o a xnnx ernn1nn 1ekn kpoaL 6enmx, 1o
on ne oxe1 o1ae1n1L, ns kko ae1an npnun a1 kpoaL: xn1cko nnn pncko.
e ne enee, on a ueno onpoaepre1 nenne o 1o, u1o npepkn Cecoc1pnc 6mnn
kn1cknn nocenenun; kc11n, ceropnn a1 rnno1es pxe ne o6cyxpe1cn acepLes.
c1opnn - nyk 6onee akcnnnun1nn, ue qnsnonornn, no n on ne a coc1onnnn
o6Lncnn1L nc1okn ernne1cko nunn. Mnoroaekoame nccnepoannn n nonm1kn 1k n ne
npnaenn k corncnk o1nocn1enLno xpononornn upc1a n upe, eue 6onLue
o1nocn1enLno cnnxponns, ko1opm o6Lepnnne1 qk1orpqnk ponnnm Hnn c
co6m1nnn, nponcxopnaunn a ppyrnx ec1x. D1o1 yronok senoro up acerp 6mn
opnn ns cmx srpounmx n npn1nr1enLnmx pnn nykn.
o nennk opnnx nccnepoa1ene, kynLnnunonno 1ouko unannnsunn, nckycc1a n
aoennoro oryuec1a rnn1 cnepye1 cun11L anoxy expy upc1aoanne
cnp1cen, qpon XVIII pnnc1nn, n cec III (XIX pnnc1nn): 1. e. expy 1740
n 1355 rr. po oxpec1a pnc1oa [vu n, nmcayH
ra rkcca, km amaa aan Hnn. ac naH
cam, a avan XII ac aycn 2200 r.]. o nepnop coopyxennn
nnpnp yxopn1 eue rny6xe a nc1opnk, n rennnLnme nonm1kn Bynsen
pcunqpoa1L srpkn aekoa o1nocn1cn k a1n nn1nnk. Cnepyn e1opy, ko1opm
o6muno npnenne1cn k 1pyp Dp1ocqen, oxno amuncnn1L, u1o nnpnpm k ceaepy
o1 Meqnc, cun1kunecn cmn ppeannn, 6mnn noc1poenm okono 2120 r. po n. a.
Cyqnco n ero 6p1o Cencyqnco. kn o6pso, a 2120 r. po n. a. rnne1 yxe
npepc1annn co6o poaonLno psan1oe rocyppc1ao, cnoco6noe ocyuec1an1L p6o1m,
cme ypnan1enLnme ns uenoaeuecknx pen.
Cnepoa1enLno, 6enme nocenenum npnunn ckp po a1o anoxn, no1oy u1o kxpn
rpynn nnpnp o1nocn1cn k psnm nepnop [aamcn a au
avan cyx naHm, kan nxa mna cnyxu Hy
r. aavan cn c amcm, Hn aHn akvu
cnuca. cn yc naan, akavaan, acmnn a my a
amcy. 3aama ay, nHancn a yry naHy, nnxan
am ka cax . cn r cH akavaan nuk
am naky, cny aa aHancn caH
cnucaH yanvaan aHm kvr cyxn.].
Cyuec1aoan rnno1es, u1o opn ns xn1cknx ae1ae poun po ponnnm nn expy
Cneno n ope n ocnoan 1 ernne1ckyk unannnsunk, no on ne ampepxnae1
nnkko kpn1nkn. 3ue nonpo6nnocL a1n xn1, cospaun cnnLnoe
rocyppc1ao, nopma1L ace cansn c ppyrnn npopn nx pcm, o1ropxnancL 1kn
o6pso o1 npo1openno poporn n yxopn o1 cpepnsenoopckoro no6epexLn, o1
penL1m nn, u1o6m noc1pon1L rocyppc1ao, ao acex o1nouennnx apxpe6noe
unannnsunn uepnmx xn1oa? k ornn onn cpen1L caon nsmk, nc1onLko
o1nnuauncn o1 npeun nx copopnue? Y6epn1enLnoro o1ae1 n a1n aonpocm ne
cyuec1aye1. kn o6pso, ernn1nne ne nannk1cn xn1n, n nx nc1okn cnepye1
nck1L a ppyro ec1e.
[peaneernne1ckn nsmk aknkue1 a ce6n 1pn uc1n. pn npnnpnexn1 k uepnm
nsmk. [pyrn, o6ycnoanennn kon1k1o a1nx uepnmx nsmkoa c npeune
xn1oa n cen1oa, pe1 1y cecL, ko1opyk nsann no nenn a1opo ns
amueyksnnmx pc. koneu, cyuec1aye1 1pe1Ln uc1L, ouenL 1nnc1aennn n
co6m1nn, no ao nornx o1nouennnx on canpe1enLc1aye1 o6 pncknx kopnnx n
popc1ae c cnckpn1o [6) Ba 3kma crnac c akH yaxH
Bana, akx na, nycu kcamH aH, ck k.
v nm: n knck nmk nanx k anaH
cacka, y Hn cu mcnv caa nn r, vm H a acc
a ckau cvk a ana, nc nx a ny
na. 3y vky n ann Ynkc, cvan rnn ycckH
ncnaH.]. D1o axnoe o6c1on1enLc1ao, 6ypL ono connpno poksnnm, orno
6m nonoxn1L koneu pnckyccnn n pekonc1pynpoa1L pupy1 6enmx nocenenuea rnn1
o1 enpx6 po yc1Ln np, o11yp a ponnny aepxnero nn. coxnennk, a1o eue
ne coace ncno n oxe1 cnyxn1L nnuL aepcne. pnko anonne aosoxno, u1o
poks1enLc1a ackope o1muy1cn [7) cny amaau, v knck, n
Hvck, nmk, cam cyH, c nHu kr Hx
acmaau rnm, s nmu ank, amxacn ck
canr nmka, xH nau, num n cackckx
cna a sH av.].
[onnnm nnxnero 1euennn nn ponroe apen cun1nncL uc1Lk c1pnm Mncp. o a1o
6mno oun6ounoe nenne. Mec1, rpe ernne1ckn unannnsunn nosnn pcuae1 a
cme ppeanne apeen, nxopn1cn ropspo amue, ue penL1. 3 npepenn
p6ckoro no6epexLn, rpe 6ecnnopnn noua ne npnanekn nepecenenuea, ppeannn
unannnsunn snne1 ne ouenL 6onLuoe npoc1pnc1ao n ne poc1nre1 Cpepnsenoro
opn. osoxno, on ne c1penncL nopa1L ace cansn c nppopnno. eco1pn n
neckn n cknm, oknnkune snna, uepes ko1opm ornn nponnk1L nnrpn1m,
1oproame nop1oame ropop cyuec1aoann n specL (nnpnep, Onno1epc), n ace onn
6mnn cansnm c nnopopopnm uen1po, rpe n nponcxopnno rnanm o6pso
nepecenenne 6nroppn cospnnm a nyc1mne nocenennn nnn npoexy1ounm
c1nunn, nnpnep, pn-[xsyc, o ko1opo nsaec1no, u1o ero konopum npnaen a
nopnpok yn-opn (1686 r. po n. a.). D1o 6mno eue a 1o apen, korp ernn1nne ne
anpenn no6epexLe nec1nnm. c1L ocnoannn nonr1L, u1o nsypypnme konn a
[xe6enL-36p akcnny1npoanncL eue po nue apm. sxoponennnx qponoa
XVIII pnnc1nn a nso6nnnn nxopn1 nsypn1 n ppyrne pprouennme knn,
nponcxopnune ns npnn. ne roaopk specL o qpqopoamx asx, nonaunx ckp,
ane acnkoro conennn, ns n1n n o6npyxennmx a nopseenLnx, aospc1 ko1opmx ne
yc1noanen. pnoro a1oro qk1 poc11ouno, u1o6m c nonnm npao p1npoa1L a1n
nn1nnkn n nx copepxnoe ouenL pneko anoxo.
Hu k Er
cxopn ns 1oro, u1o cospnn ernn1nne a uen1pe ponnnm nn, n penk amaop, u1o onn
ne npnnpnexnn k xn1ckn n cen1ckn npop, ko1opme nepecennnncL a
snpnyk qpnky no no6epexLk Cpepnsenoro opn. s 1oro qk1, u1o ace nx
pesnme qnrypm necy1 n ce6e nano kaksckyk neu1L, oxno sknkun1L, u1o
unannns1opckn uc1L a1oro npop nen 6enoe nponcxoxpenne. pnckne
cnepm a nx nsmke canpe1enLc1ayk1 o nx nepaopopno popc1ae c cnckpn1ckn
ceec1ao. e rny6xe m nsyue npop cnpm, 1e 6onLuee konnuec1ao nxopok
nop1aepxpk1 a1y aepcnk.
yxe roaopnn, u1o a cme pnekne nc1opnueckne apeen ernn1nne nenn no
canse - nnn aoo6ue nx ne nenn - c xn1cknn nnn cen1cknn npopn n
ponn, rpe a1n npopm o6n1nn; expy 1e onn, no ace aepon1noc1n,
noppepxnann npoponxn1enLnme o1nouennn c npnopcknn kro-aoc1ounmn
npopn. x pen1enLnoc1L 6mn nc1onLko ec1ec1aenno nnpanen a a1y c1opony,
ee nocnepc1ann nenn nc1onLko 6onLuoe snuenne, u1o ao apeen Conoon
n6nkpncn ouenL amcokn o6Le 1oproann expy payn c1pnn.
onc11npyn cnckpn1ckoe nponcxoxpenne unannns1opckoro npp pcm, ne cnepye1
o1pnu1L, u1o nunnn c ouenL ppeane anoxn a1 pc cnnLno nponn1ncL uepno
kpoaLk n ceuncL c norouncnennmn xn1cknn o1npmckn n cmnoaLnn Cn.
a1o cansn n ynonnn o canpe1enLc1ax p6ckoro nponcxoxpennn xn1ene
ponnnm nn o1 Cnenm po Mepoa. nnr Bm1nn nxopn1 cen1oa cpepn cmnoae
Mecpn, cmnoae (X, 13, 14). eco1pn n c1onL ceunnoe nponcxoxpenne
cn ernn1nne cun1nn ce6n a1ox1onnm npopo. nn pec1an1enLno 6mnn 1koam
kk ncnepnnkn no kpoan ennncknx 6opnrenoa. pnko ecnn o6p1n1Lcn k co
6nropopno uc1n nx renenornueckoro pepea, npnpe1cn o1ks1Lcn o1 nopo6noro
nennn no a1oy aonpocy n cun11L nx nnrpn1n, npnue ne c1onLko c ceaep n
aoc1ok, ckonLko c kro-aoc1ok.
Xec1oko pennrnn ccnpnuea ernn1nne npo1naonoc1annn aennuec1aennm kynL1,
nyc1L n ne nc1onLko npenLnm, no, no kpne epe, 6onee rynnm, ko1opm
am1ecnnn a anoxy [peane nepnn, npn nepamx ncnepnnkx Menec [Mxy
caanH rnckr acaa HvckH akanH Qa
, May, axn num cxca a Hax.], nerpn1nnckn o6mu
nep1nuecknx ccoamx y6nc1a n c 1ex nop nnkorp ne nm1ncn ero aospopn1L.
oneuno, o6une npnnunnm pennrnosnoro nckycc1a, npk1nkoaaunecn a Onax n
Meqnce, ne npenn1c1aoann nso6pxennk ypopnnaoro, no onn n ne c1pennncL k
yxcnoy, n xo1n o6ps nqon n ppyrnx eue oxno nsa1L o11nknakun,
ernne1ckoe 6oxec1ao o1nnue1cn ckopee rpo1ecknmn qopn, ne konaynLcnnn
pnkoro saepn nnn rpncn nkpoep. D1n o1knonennn akyc, ceunnme c nc1nnnm
aennune n onpepenneme, ckopee acero, konnuec1ao uepno kpoan, o1c1ynk1 n
spnn nnn nepep 6nropopc1ao 6eno uc1n, ko1opn npeaocxopnn xn1o-
cen1ckoe annnnne n peonc1pnpoan nrkoc1L, o1ksmancL o1 xec1okoc1n n
amnyxpn uepnm aneen1 o1c1yn1L a c1opony ceunoro.
Hu aqk rk u
pnko 6mno 6m npeyaennuenne aospa1L cnnuko amcokyk xany ncenennk
ponnnm nn. cnn c 1oukn spennn npac1aennoc1n c1on1 npepnouec1L ceunoe
o6uec1ao o6uec1ay snoy, 1o c 1oukn spennn cnnm a1o nenLsn cun11L poc1onnc1ao.
nn n necuc1Le ccnpnuea sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o onn nnn nnu y nor 1knx
uypoanu, kk c1p1, n, MenLkp1, a1nx yxcnmx nponoa, nso6pxennn ko1opmx
o6npyxenm n a Cppnnnn, n y c1en opc6p, no n xn1enn Ona n Meqnc, co
caoe c1oponm, annoanm a 1o, u1o, aosoxno, no npnunne popc1a c ec1no pco,
6oro1aopnnn 1o, u1o ec1L coe nnskoe kk a pc1n1enLno, 1k n a xnao1no npe.
e c1on1 ynonn1L specL kynL1 ko6pm, pcnpoc1pnennm cpepn npopoa npnn n
rnn1 n yncnepoannm nn o1 caonx npepkoa, xn1ene o6ue nppopnnm
[Unrnu a cna k rnck Hnr vaa Hva,
v ycm a mvan an, acncar a rn, a
kH ycHaaa, anvH, cnaana, yacck ann. ak
ayaka, s yan ncx rnckx mvaa nncu
cacay ay x s acm. rvck caxn,
km crn n ancn a kavca r naaan n 1ncn,
H kaxycn HanynumH, aacH r, naracn
a nuk Hyxvm n Hyxvm xm, kak s H Hc
y Hrx akackx nnH. ycHaaa a sH mva n vH
xna amnucn n nc Hu cn akH nc r yavun. Y
nnH skxnc a nakkycn a acnmx Hyxvax acuHa
xckH aH. ann nnu aacn a ncyca caka
acm xam, Hanm n ak n cvacn nmH akH.
nyvacn ak, v v cknuk vnak, narmcn ak
na, yHa.]. e 6ype kc1Lcn 1kxe kpokopnnoa n npounx yxcoa,
coc1annaunx kynL1 nerpoa. 1kxe cyeaepnoe o6oxnne 1knx, a o6ue neannnmx,
npepc1an1ene xnao1noro np, kk kosen, ko1 nnn ckp6e; nnn oaoue, ko1opmx
oxno nsa1L aneen1pno nnsennmn n aynLrpnmn kk c 1oukn spennn qopm,
1k n npounx poc1onnc1a - ao1 canpe1enLc1a nerpn1nnckoro annnnnn a rnn1e,
ko1opoe oxno yanpe1L n a nne n a nneann. 3pecL upc1aye1 6cypp, n 1onLko
6enm aneen1 cnyxn1 psrpnnun1enLnm snko. a1o n sknkue1cn psnnu
expy ccnpnun n ernn1nnn.
aoace ne ceunak kynL1 nnc, n 1e 6onee noun1nne kopoam n 6mk, c
o6oxec1anenne pc1enn. oneuno, npeknonenne nepep 6oxec1ao uc1o npnnne1
ypopnname qopm, rpnnuune co c1pxo [Hx, vanu aHn, v
nuk caHm am cyHn cau au Hxy yaaxH
xaH. yaca yaaxn y aa c num nHcu v n
xn ka vac nHa ka Hm aacH r, v r
ayma: cax n nau. Y x na nc-anc k
xcan, y yrx k cyaHy kynuy nka.]. o a ocnoae
nk6an ernn1nn k kopoaLey popy nexn1 neu1o 6onLuee, nexenn npoc1o qe1nuns.
e oxno o6Lncnn1L ppeannn nc1yuecknn o6munn 6eno pcm, ko1opme 1k xe,
kk n npeknonenne nepep ko6po, nek1 nnpnckoe nponcxoxpenne. npoue,
nc1ounnko a1nx cyeaepn ne nanne1cn xec1okoc1L.
Hu aqk rk u
kyk xe oroaopky n 6m cpenn a o1nouennn ppyrnx, c1onL xe nopsn1enLnmx qk1oa
cxopc1a, nnpnep; o6ps nqon, nk6oaL k no1ocy n npexpe acero xpk1epnn
kocoronnn, 6nnskn k npen 6pxnns. o npape roaopn, nnorp 6mae1
pnckoanno pen1L cnnuko npnme amaopm ns 1knx cpanenn. c1o npen ory1
ny1euec1aoa1L no npy a coc1onnnn, 6nnsko k cep1n, n aospoxp1Lcn n
6nrop1no nouae, npopn nepep a1n 6onLune pcc1onnnn. kn o6pso,
oksmak1cn nyc1mn oxnpnnn, nn1eme a o1nouennn npncy1c1ann npe a payx
pneknx ppyr o1 ppyr ec1x, n nonm1kn konc11npoa1L npen1nunoc1L pc y payx
coaepuenno psnmx npopoa. pnko a pnno cnyue m apnp nn oun6ecn. Cn
ne6nronpnn1nn rnno1es o1nocn1enLno npnmx canse expy nnpycn n
ernn1nnn ponxn 6mn 6m npepnonr1L, u1o 1eonornueckne npepc1anennn nepamx
npnunn uepes canuennyk senk a epposnk, s1e uepes psnnunme p6ckne
nneen n, nkoneu, nonnn k nocnepnn. Mexpy 1e repposnum 6mnn
neaexec1aennmn apapn, oc11kn uepnmx nneen [ n n
aHa am ancu sx aa. caan kakx
cna car nmaan.]. p6m uennko aocnpnnnnn xn1ckne nonn1nn, n y
nnx ne o6npyxeno nnkknx cnepoa 1ex 1eonornuecknx npnnunnoa, o ko1opmx npe1
peuL. Cnepoa1enLno, onn npnunn npno ns npnn 6es acnkoro nocpepnnuec1a. D1o
eue opnn y6epn1enLnm pryen1 a nonLsy pnckoro nponcxoxpennn npop
qponoa.
ne cknonen cun11L okonu1enLnm poks1enLc1ao opny oco6ennoc1L, ko1opn n
nepam asrnnp nopxe1 aoo6pxenne. D1o cyuec1aoanne kc1 a o6enx c1pnx. o-
anpnoy, a1o1 nnc1n1y1 nece1 n ce6e neu1L opnrnnnLnoc1n, ko1opn nosaonne1
cun11L ero npopyk1o ns epnnoro nc1ounnk n a 1o xe apen cpen1L amaop o ero
nnnunn y neckonLknx, ne cansnnmx ppyr c ppyro npopoa. o npn 1u1enLno
psmunennn oxno 6es 1pyp y6epn1Lcn a 1o, u1o renenornueckn oprnnsunn
counnLnmx qynkun ec1L acero nnuL npnoe cnepc1ane npen nepaenc1a pc n u1o
noackpy, rpe ec1L no6epn1enn n no6expennme, oco6enno korp o6 nonkc
rocyppc1a oksmak1cn pspenennmn qnsnonornuecknn 6pLepn, y cnnLnmx
nonanne1cn xennne coxpnn1L anc1L pnn caonx no1okoa n coxpnn1L no
aosoxnoc1n unc1o caok kpoaL, poc1onnc1ao ko1opo onn cun1k1 epnnc1aenno
npnunno caoero anpmuec1a, kko-1o oen1 nou1n ace ae1an 6eno pcm
ncnm1nn n ce6e 1nxec1L a1o cnc1em ncknkun1enLnoc1n, n ecnn onn ne sunn a
a1o o1nouennn 1k xe pneko, kk oxpnn1enn ep nnn c1oponnnkn cnpnc, 1k
1onLko no1oy, u1o yxe npoxnann cpepn popc1aennoro ncenennn. Moxno cks1L,
u1o ace 6enme o6uec1a nunnnn npe1enpoa1L n ncknkun1enLnoc1L cnnuko
nospno, a1o kce1cn n ernn1nn n 6pxnoa. x npe1ensnn n ncknkun1enLnoc1L
ornn popn1Lcn 1onLko ns o1pnu1enLnoro onm1, noa1oy npepc1annnn co6o
6ecnonesnyk nonm1ky.
1k, cyuec1aoanne kc1 co no ce6e ne npepnonre1 npen1nunoc1L npopoa, 1. k.
kc1m ec1L y repnuea, a1pyckoa, pnnnn - ne 1onLko a Onax nnn a npex. pnko
n a1o oxno aospsn1L 1kn o6pso: ecnn npen pspenennn ponxn popn1Lcn
aespe, rpe ec1L pae nepanme pcm, 1o no-nnoy o6c1on1 peno c npk1nuecko
pennsune a1o npen - nenno a a1o oxno n1n 6onLuoe cxopc1ao cnc1e
rnn1 n npnn, rpe cyuec1aoano noc1onnnoe npnnyxpenne uenoaek snn1Lcn
1e, ue snnnncL ero npepkn. o ec1L n psnnune: a rnn1e cmn ponxen 6mn
ncnonnn1L 1e xe qynkunn, u1o n o1eu, 1orp kk 1L orn nponcxopn1L ns ppyro
cpepm (ncknkun ceLk nc1yx). D1o ncknkuenne npo1na nc1yxoa, amnyxpennn
npnnenL snpe1 n noceuenne nn xpoa, nop1aepxpe1 1epnnoc1L o6unx
npann. pnepoa 1oy neno: upn xennnncL n nerpn1nnkx, kk enoq I. Upn
6mnn yn1n, kk enoq II, n o6uec1ao skpmano n a1o rns.
koneu, npnaepe pa nocnepnnx n, koneuno, cmx cnnLnmx poks1enLc1a.
rnne1ckne nnnm npnnncmak1 uec1L yupexpennn kc1 opnoy ns nepamx upe (III
pnnc1nn) - Ceconxosncy, corncno nqy o ny1euec1ann prona1oa, nnn Ceco1pncy,
no nennk pnc1o1enn.
1opo pryen1: c1onL pnnnn anox, korp pnckne nepecenenum ponxnm 6mnn
noknny1L yc1Le np, u1o6m panny1Lcn n snp, o1pnue1 cnckpn1ckoe
nponcxoxpenne skonoa, nockonLky 1koamx eue ne 6mno a 1o c1pne.
aoace ne co6npkcL nopkpennn1L caok 1ouky spennn 1kn cn6m pryen1o. ,
npo1ec1yn npo1na cnnuko npnonnnenmx amaopoa ns qk1 opnoapeennoro
cyuec1aoannn kc1 a npnn n rnn1e, n ne co6npkcL y1aepxp1L, u1o neko1opme
cnepc1ann, am1ekkune ns 1koro qk1, ne ory1 cnyxn1L aecom nop1aepxpenne
o6unoc1n nponcxoxpennn: nnpnep, opnnkoaoe npeknonenne nepep cnyxn1ennn
kynL1, nx ponroe anpmuec1ao a o6enx c1pnx n nopunnenne, a ko1opo n
ypanocL pepx1L aoennyk kc1y, pxe 1orp, korp 1 6mn y anc1n: 1koro
1pnyq nnkorp ne snno xn1ckoe pyxoaenc1ao, n nenno a1o coc1annno cnay n
cnny unannnsun np n nn. [eno a 1o, u1o pnckn pc aoo6ue o1nnue1cn
pennrnosnoc1Lk, n xpeum noc1onnno aeunanncL a uc1nyk xnsnL nkpe n pepxnn
nop kon1pone pxe o6mun n npnamukn. rnn1e, 1k xe kk a npnn, cnyxn1enn
xpoa pernen1npoann ack noacepneanyk xnsnL anno1L po am6op nnun. opoue
roaopn, xo1n konnuec1ao kc1 a a1nx c1pnx psnnuno, neppxnn npn6nnsn1enLno
opnnkoa [Ynkc nm, v a rn a caHy my kacy axn
caam. rnac y, aH acvmaancu cHu knacca, Q
amaa n nnu kac, a , na a H mcu,
aknvan nann Hcnka x, k aHancn ckyccaaH.].
o1, noxny, n ace, u1o oxno cks1L no a1oy, n nepam asrnnp a1opoc1enennoy
aonpocy, ko1opm nponcnne1 o1penLnme qpren1m n qk1m cxopc1a payx
unannnsun.
Cme ppeanne nn1nnkn ernne1cko unannnsunn nxopn1cn a aepxne n nnxne
uc1nx c1pnm. pno ns c1onnu [peane nepnn 6mn ropop Onam, ocnoannm
Cecop1eceno I, nepam upe qnancko pnnc1nn, XII pnnc1nn Mneqon, a 2300
r. po n. a. rnopnpyn ceaep n ceaepo-aoc1ok c1pnm, nepame pnnc1nn oc1annn
cnepm npo1naononoxnoro nnpanennn caoe k1nanoc1n, n nx cansn c npne
ponxnm 6mnn ocyuec1ann1Lcn uepes senn p6oa-kyun1oa, aoc1ounoe no6epexLe
qpnkn n, aepon1no, neko1opme kpynnme oc1poa [cnH ayxn Hn
cca a cn a y kn a-ana. H, s x aa
axaan ack n-a. Qmva H a a avanacu a snxy Qa
Hn.].
pnko 1 ne1 canpe1enLc1a, s ncknkuenne Cnnckoro nonyoc1poa,
uenennpanennmx saoeann a o1nnune o1 kxnoro n snpnoro nnpanenn n
qpnkncko kon1nnen1e, rpe ernn1nne aenn ce6n kk xosnea. kn o6pso,
rnann pen ppeaneernne1cko unannnsunn 1nne1cn nonoco aponL nn po opn n
nopnne1cn amue Mepoa, rpe pcunpne1cn n snp nop nnLm osnc on.
[peanne, yun1man a1y cn1yunk, pnn reorpqnueckoe nsanne yu epxney
rnn1y n uc1n Cpepnero rnn1, 1kxe 6nccnnnn, y6nn n pon Heen,
ncenennm no1okn uepnmx xn1oa. Mexpy npoun, no nennk Ynnknncon, a1o
nsanne o1nocnnocL n k epxy n Heeny, 1kxe k co 6nnxne uc1n snn.
Hu aqk rk u
Canuennoe ncnne nsmae1 epop kyun1o. Yuenme ponro nonn ronoay np
1e, u1o nonn1L nop a1n nsanne, n 1k n ne npnunn k epnnoy nennk. C a1n
nsanne, 1k xe kk c neko1opmn ppyrnn (npnn, Cnpnn, Dqnonnn, nnnpnn),
cansnm psnnunme apnn1m, 6es konu ennaunecn co apeene n c nnpanenne
a nonn1nke. yuue acero o1ks1Lcn o1 pekonc1pykunn 1ounmx rpnnu yu n
npnsn1L, u1o cpepn axopnunx a a1y c1pny 1eppn1opn rnne1, neconenno, snne1
nepaoe ec1o n o6Lepnnne1 nx a o6uyk unannnsunk; n cknonen cun11L, u1o a1o
cnoao aknkue1 a ce6n n c our, n saoeannn a1o ppeane kynL1ypm, ko1opn
o6p1nncL ncknkun1enLno k kry, ne k no6epexLk Cpepnsenoro opn.
ennuec1aennmn oc1nkn a1o ppeane cnam nannk1cn nnpnpm. nn 6mnn
coopyxenm npn nepamx pnnc1nnx, ko1opme, nunnn c Menec po anoxn ap n
nenoro nosxe, po cnx nop cnyx1 npepe1o pnckyccn [ caHmx ax
naH km ncm cmr knva, v na x nkH
axnH nmx aa.]. a1o o1nouennn c1on1 o1e1n1L, u1o specL, kk
n a ccnpnn, n aepunne anc1n nxopn1cn 6orn, nnxe c1on1 xpeum, eue nnxe
aoenunLnnkn [ caHmH aH HaH, a aanax, c yn
canka, a an.]. D1o nponanenne nerpn1nncko npen, ko1opn ampxen
specL a 1o xe qope n cansn c noxoxnn o6c1on1enLc1an. Born - a1o 6enme
nkpn, canuennnkn - yn1m, npepc1an1enn nep1nuecko kc1m. Upn - a1o
aoenunLnnkn, ko1opm o6uec1ao 6enoro nponcxoxpennn poaepnno ynpann1L
nnepne, 1. e. 1eno, oc1annn pyuy n noneuenne conepnnkoa. Moxno
npepnonoxn1L, u1o 6opL6 6mn ponro n ynopno, u1o canuennnkn npoc1no
o1c1nann kopony n 1pon, aoennn aepxyuk npoaopnn rn6kyk nonn1nky. Cyaepen
or npnnpnex1L k opno nnn ppyro kc1e - xpeuoa nnn aoennmx. o ecnn cyaepen
6mn ns a1oporo kncc, ey, npexpe ue cec1L n 1pon, 1pe6oanocL spyun1Lcn
noppepxko cnyxn1ene xpoa n o6yun1Lcn canuennopec1ann. onLko cpenauncL
nepoqn1o no qope n cy1n, ypunnam conp1 or nsa1Lcn upe n a
npoponxenne oc1auecn xnsnn oksma1L 6esrpnnunoe yaxenne pennrnn n ee
cnyxn1enn; a caoe nnuno xnsnn n cmx nn1nnmx npnamukx on nnkorp ne
npyun npann, a1opn n xpnn1ennn ko1opmx 6mnn xpeum. Conepnnkn
anc1n1enn nnkorp ne cnycknn c nero rns. ro sancnoc1L 6mn oco6enno
ouy1no, korp peuL un o6 o6uec1aennmx penx. nu1o a c1pne ne nponcxopnno
6es yuc1nn nepoqn1; on 6mn uneno amcuero coae1, n ero ronoc 6mn peukun a
cnopx; upn snnn, u1o nocne nx cep1n onn nopnex1 cypy, no ne caonx noppnnmx,
canuennnkoa, n a nunn, neaue c1onL neo6munme npen o no1yc1oponne xnsnn,
oxno nerko npepnonoxn1L, kko yxc amsman y coro cypoaoro anc1n1enn
mcnL o npouecce, ko1opm a npncy1c1ann ero 6eccnnLnoro 1pyn or nnun1L ero
coro 6onLuoro cuc1Ln - aennuec1aennoro sxoponennn n nocnepnnx nouec1e. ro
cypLn noc1onnno oc1anncL nueky, n oc1eper1Lcn nx npnxopnnocL ack xnsnL.
1k, cyuec1aoanne ernne1ckoro qpon - ckoannoro, okpyxennoro cornnp1nn
- 6mno 6m neamnocno, ecnn 6m ey ne 6mn pn onpepenennn konencunn. cnn
oc1an1L a c1opone pennrnosnme npa, onpx 6mn aceoryu, n nkpn acerp
oksmann ey cme nsmcknnme nouec1n, c1on n konennx. oneuno, on ne 6mn
6oro, n ero ne 6oro1aopnnn npn xnsnn, no ero cun1nn 6conk1nm cypLe a penx
xnsnn n cep1n, 1kxe ue-1o canuennm, nockonLky on c 6mn xpeuo. Cme
annn1enLnme nnu rocyppc1a 6mnn nepoc11ouno 6nropopnm, u1o6m cnyxn1L ey
cm ynnsn1enLnm o6pso. ro cmnoaLn amnpn uec1L 6ex1L s ero
konecnnue, rno1n nmnL n pepx a pykx son1nkn o1 connu.
D1n npam 6mnn 6nnskn 1oy, u1o nponcxopnno a ccnpnn. 6conk1nm xpk1ep
anc1n n 6ecnpekocnoanoe noannoaenne noppnnmx 6mnn nc1onLko xe ampxenm a
nneann. Mexpy 1e 1 ne n6nkpnocL p6cko sancnoc1n upn o1 canuennnkoa,
ecnn o6p1n1Lcn k ppyro ae1an uepnmx cen1o-xn1oa, ecnn nepenec1ncL a np,
1 m 1kxe npe upn-p6, no 1 anc1aye1 pnc1okp1nn, non1nq MenLkp1
ne nanne1cn rnaenc1aykue cnno.
1o kce1cn cxopc1a n psnnunn c a1nnuecko 1oukn spennn, 1o cxopc1ao oxno
yanpe1L a 6ecnpann noppnnmx n a 6conk1noc1n anc1n. nc1L np
neaexec1aennm ncenenne 6conk1n n a rnn1e, n a ccnpnn, n a npe. pnunn
sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o ao acex c1pnx, rpe uepnm aneen1 nxopnncn nnn
nxopn1cn nop anc1Lk 6enmx, npanenne npno6pe1e1 xpk1ep xec1okoc1n - c
opno c1oponm, a cansn c neo6xopnoc1Lk po6n1Lcn nopunnennn, c ppyro, ns
c1px, u1o neaexec1aennme noppnnme saokk1 npa neorpnnuenno anc1n.
c1ounnk psnnun a 1o, u1o unannns1opckn ae1aL a rnn1e npeaocxopnn ao ace
no1okoa n Cn. oa1oy cnckpn1m-ernn1nne npnnecnn a saoeannme senn
6onee amcokyk oprnnsunk n opnL, n nsaec1no, u1o ackpy, rpe epnnc1aenno
aosoxno qopo npanennn nanne1cn pecno1ns, anc1L pyxoaenc1a, pxe a
cmx kpnnx nponanennnx, nece1 a kko-1o epe cncn1enLnyk qynkunk, 1k kk
a ne, no kpne epe, 6onLue nn1ennek1.
ocne upe n xpeuoa rnn1 ne npo s6ma1L pnc1okp1oa, ko1opme, nnopo6ne
ku1pnea npnn, 6mnn epnnc1aennmn, k1o nen npao nocn1L opyxne n sunu1L
c1pny. caoe cpepe onn 6mnn 6onee nnn enee panm, s1o, ne xnen cnn,
yrne1nn 1ex, k1o c1onn nnxe. poc1o nkp a rnn1e 6mn necuc1en po kpne
c1enenn, n ero cyuec1aoanne, nou1n ne rpn1npoannoe skonn, sanceno o1
npnxo1n amcunx knccoa. n 6mn o6peuen n p6ckn 1pyp, cenLckoxosnc1aennme
p6o1m noxnpnn ero spopoaLe; npoc1o npop xnn n ynpn a xnxnnx o1
nc1ouennn n 6onesne, n nnk1o o ne ne s6o1nncn, pockounme po, ko1opme on
c1ponn, npekpcnme nnopm, ko1opme on ampunan, ey ne npnnpnexnn. oro, u1o
ey poc1anocL, epa xa1no n nn1nne. k onncmak1 xnsnL nnsunx knccoa a
rnn1e ppeanerpeueckne a1opm, a 1o uncne epopo1. Cnpaepnnaoc1n ppn
nnonn xno6m nc1ouennmx o1 ronop eapeea, ko1opm npnunocL nn11Lcn a
nyc1mne nno. D1n koueannkn 1orp coxnenn o6 y1puennmx okoax nnen. o onn
s6mnn o 1o, u1o noknnynn c1pny Mncp, cncncL o1 neamnocnoro rne1, ko1opm a
npnnunne 6mn o6munm o6pso xnsnn ec1noro ncenennn. Mec1nme xn1enn ne
ornn nocnepoa1L npnepy pe1e spnnn n, 6ypyun pco, enee 6nropopno, onn
a enLue c1enenn c1ppnn o1 1nro1. cxop nspnnL1nn c a1o 1oukn spennn oxe1
cnyxn1L poks1enLc1ao peunoc1n, c kko renn npopoa, 6nnsknx k 6enoy
ceec1ay, oxe1 ns6er1L p6c1a a ero kpnnx nponanennnx.
onn1nueckn pexn, nansnnm npoc1oy npopy a rnn1e, 6mn ne enee
xec1okn, ue a xn1cknx n cen1cknx c1pnx, u1o kce1cn p6c1a n 6ecnpann.
pnko, no cy1n on 6mn enee kpoaam, no1oy u1o pennrnn, nrkn n nnoceppnn,
o6xopnncL 6es 1ex uypoanunmx ccoamx y6nc1a, kkne 6mnn yropnm 6or
nn, annon n nneann [Yvacu nnka akx mna H nxn,
kak yaxa Ynkc. x nc naaan a aca, akx
skccca, kak Hm aH a ackx naHnkax, r nn
aa a c nnka a knu, n v x ryy.]. a1o
cmcne ernne1ckn kpec1Lnnnn, p6oun nnn p6 ne snnn yxcoa sn1ckoro rne1 -
no 1onLko a a1o cmcne. ne rposnn xep1aennm knnxn, s1o ack caok xnsnL
onn npecmknncL nepep amcunn kc1n.
x ncnonLsoann kk 1nrnoam cko1 n 1nxenmx p6o1x no coopyxennk nn1nnkoa,
ko1opmn 6ypy1 nk6oa1Lcn a rpnpyunx c1one1nnx. D1o onn nepeeunn orponme
6nokn pnn c11y n ononn1nmx o6ennckoa. D1n uepnme nnn nou1n uepnme p6o1nnkn
rn6nn 1onnn, c1pon knnm, 1e, y koro 6mn 6onee cae1nn kox, pncoann
uep1exn, pcnopnxnncL n cnepnnn s p6o1n, no nx saepuennn npnnnnn n
ce6n cnay 1aopuoa. nyc1L ceropnn uenoaeuec1ao copporne1cn, npepc1ana ce6e a1o
spennue. o, o1pa pnL aosyuennk n coxnennk, oxno nonn1L yxcnme npnunnm,
ko1opme amnyxpnn npopnme ccm rnn1 n ccnpnn 1epnennao cnocn1L xec1okn
rne1: y nne6c a1nx c1pn 6mn neoponnn a1nnueckn no1pe6noc1L nopunnn1Lcn
npnxo1n caonx xosnea s 1o, u1o a1n xosnea nenn npn ce6e neu1o apope 1nncn,
pkuero n npao n yrne1enne, nenno, poc11ounoe konnuec1ao 6eno kpoan.
kn cn1yunn nen ec1o a cme cnanme nepnopm ernne1ckoro oryuec1a.
cme nyuune apeen ccnpncko nnepnn 1ponm annon n nneann ne anpenn
6onee 6nropopnmx upcknx nnu, ue 1e, ko1opmn m n ceropnn nk6yecn n
aennuec1aennmx ckynLn1ypx Benn-ccn [kvanum n rna
cHaancn n III ac, kan, n H Bya, avanacu
v 90 n ncn na.].
o coaepuenno oueanpno, u1o a1 unc1o1 kpoan, nyc1L n o1nocn1enLnn, ne orn
coxpnn1Lcn ponro. C kc1oan oprnnsunn ne cnoco6c1aoan a1oy. , ecnn 6m
epnnc1aenno npnunno ee cyuec1aoannn 6mno annnnne nnpnckoro 1nn,
ernne1ckn unannnsunn ne npopepxncL 6m 1k ponro, n ynpok ee nuncn 6m
sponro po cec III, ko1opm saepue1 cyk aennuec1aennyk anoxy rnn1, 1. e.
sponro po XIII a. po n. a.
D1y unannnsunk noppepxnan kpoaL ee sn1cknx aproa - xn1oa n cen1oa,
ko1opme ne ps n psnmn cnoco6n aospoxpnn ee. ne co6npkcL pccyxp1L o
nunonnLnoc1n rnkcocoa, no ne oxe1 6m1L conenn a 1o, u1o onn npnnpnexnn k
pce, 6nnsko k 6enm npop [ nHnunx B-accaa cu
axn a c yvacH rnaaa c vu can kx, rnymH
rnaaH, mx ancaH. ncyc cva x ncaannH
cHck acm, aHx, nkaH rkcca. H, kak ckymu
Qa Hn acaau rnck ac ckau yxa a
3n, rkccm HmH nyH cnncu a ca , ann a Hx,
cHmancu c HcmH acnH. ca, aHvy, v, cyn n
aamH naHnkaH, a Hnnx a aHa aaa
xn rynnm n c n can kx, vH crn. nuk v
cnycncu c camx r acynn a cm kak c
HnackH acnH.]. C nonn1nuecko 1oukn spennn, nx nonanenne 6mno
6epo, no opnoapeenno ocaexno ec1nyk kpoaL. enncL aonm c sn1cknn
npopn, n xo1n apnp nn oxno roaopn1L o 6onLunx saoeannnx po coro
cnnckoro opn, o ue nnorp nnuy1, nockonLky ne1 nnkknx cnepoa nn a nc1opnn,
nn a nn1nnkx snn, canpe1enLc1aykunx o npe6mannn 1 pnn qponoa, no
ypunme noxopm Cecoc1pnc, cecoa n ppyrnx upe 6mnn nc1ounnko npn1ok ao
any1pennne nom nnennnkoa ns nn, ccnpnn n pann, n nx kpoaL a kko-1o
c1enenn cnrunn pnkyk uepnyk kpoaL, ko1opyk noc1onnno annann a xnnm nunn
nnsune knccm, oco6enno cocepnne 6nccnnckne n ny6nckne nneen.
Cnepye1 1kxe ne1L a anpy paono - xn1ckn n cen1ckn - npn1ok, ko1opm a
1euenne nornx aekoa nn1n Cpepnn rnne1. enno 1kn ny1e nnonoanny 6enme
oppm pcnpoc1pnnnncL no snpnoy 6epery qpnkn, o6psoaaueecn a
pesynL11e a1oro ncenenne nosxe pno rocyppc1ay ncnepnnkoa Menec ceunnyk
pcy, a ko1opo ne 6mno nnpncko kpoan n ace poc1onnc1ao ko1opo sknkunocL a
norouncnennmx ceuennnx c unannns1opcknn npopn nxne snn.
s 1knx nocnepoa1enLnmx npn1okoa 6enmx npnnunnoa nonannncL npopm,
ko1opme npepo1ap1nnn npexpeapeennm ynpok kyun1cko unannnsunn n
opnoapeenno, nockonLky a1n npn1okn nnkorp ne 6mnn oco6enno ounmn,
ernne1ckn pyx or noc1onnno pepx1Lcn a c1opone o1 peokp1nuecknx 1enpenun,
ko1opme okonu1enLno aoc1opxec1aoann a npe n Cnpone, no1oy u1o ec1nme
npoc1onkpnnm nnkorp ne nopnnnncL po 1koro ypoann, u1o6m n orn npn1n
pepskn mcnL cpann1Lcn c rocnopn. ce peaonkunn nponcxopnnn expy amcunn
kc1n, nep1nueckn n upckn cnc1e ne nopaeprncL oncnoc1n. cnn nnorp ao
rnae kkoro-nn6ypL po ac1ann ennnckne pnnc1nn, nnpnep, npxkx
[rnac Ynkcy, nmcakaH xakaxa x mn snm
aak k. ca, xakax, aaan nx rnckHy r,
anu ycynn anacu ayncn a 3n.], nx anc1L pnnncL
neponro: a1o 6mno cnyunoe aosamuenne neko1opmx nneennmx aoxpe a
pesynL11e nonn1nuecknx nep1yp6un, n y 1knx anc1n1ene nnkorp ne aosnnkn
mcnL ncnonLsoa1L caoe nonoxenne pnn 1oro, u1o6m yc1noan1L panonpane
nnopo6ne 1oro, u1o neno ec1o a Onnnknn nocne ynnunmx 6ecnopnpkoa. D1n 1oxe
oxno o6Lncnn1L nonn1nueckyk c16nnLnoc1L a rnn1e.
D1 c16nnLnoc1L 6mc1po npeap1nncL a c1rnunk, no1oy u1o rnne1 no-
nc1onuey psanancn, 1onLko korp y anc1n 6mn nnpnckn ae1aL, ko1opn ero
ocnoan, 1oro, u1o pnn ey oc1nLnme 6enme pcm, 6mno poc11ouno pnn 1oro,
u1o6m npopnn1L unannnsunk, no ne psana1L ee.
e ne enee pxe a nepnop ynpk, korp ernne1ckoe nckycc1ao nocne XIX pnnc1nn,
1. e. nocne Meneq1x (1480 r. po n. a.) nou1n ne oc1anno nn1nnkoa, ko1opme
ornn 6m conepnnu1L, nn no coaepuenc1ay ncnonnennn, nn no cu16noc1n, c
nn1nnkn npepmpyunx anox, rnne1 acerp oc1ancn nc1onLko amue c1pn k kry
n k kro-snpy o1 nero, u1o ne nepec1an 6m1L pnn nnx nc1ounnko nx
cyuec1aoannn.
pnko unannns1opckyk qynkunk rnn1 nenLsn nsa1L onononLno, n specL
neo6xopno o1e1n1L, u1o unannnsunn a 6nccnnnn nee1 pa nc1ok. pnn, 6es
conennn, ernne1ckn, n on 6mn cm 6or1m, a1opo 1kxe scnyxnae1
ynonnnnn. n 6mn cansn npexpe acero c ouenL ppeane anrpune uepnmx
xn1oa, p6oa-kyun1oa, s1e cen1oa, p6oa-xnnpn1oa: n 1e n ppyrne nepeunn
B6-anL-Mnpe6ckn nponna n npnnecnn npop qpnkn 1o, u1o cn ycaonnn ns
ccnpncko kynL1ypm. Cypn no nonoxennk a1nx npopoa n kxno no6epexLe
pann n o6unpno 1oproane, ko1opyk onn aenn c npne n ko1opn, anpno,
npnaen k cospnnk cnckpn1ckoro ropop rp, anonne aepon1no, u1o n nx
npepc1anennn n nonn1nn npno6penn pnckyk okpcky npnnenLno c a1nnueckn
ceuenne a1nx 1oproauea c nnpncknn rpynnn. o acnko cnyue, n npnepe
qnnnknuea m anpn, kko c1enenn psan1nn ornn poc1nuL a1n npopm,
popc1aennme ccnpnu: onn oksnncL cnoco6nmn nnuL nonn1L n aocnpnnn1L 1o,
u1o cospnn 6onee 6enme ae1an, 1. e. npopm Mecono1nn. k 6m nn 6mnn cnoco6nm
qnnnknum, onn ne nopnnnncL amue a1oro ypoann, ecnn yuec1L, u1o nx kpoaL
noc1onnno o6noannncL n ynyuuncL s cue1 npn1ok nnonoanny 6enmx anrpn1oa
(uero nepoc1ano xnnpn1, nockonLky nx ceuenne c nnpycn ne 6mno c1onL
nnopo1aopnm), npnxopn1cn sknkun1L, u1o p6ckne unannnsunn, a 1o uncne
ccnpnckn, ne npy1 nn a kkoe cpanenne c pcuae1o xnncknx ropopoa
[Hx, kra-yu caHmH cnaamH cmnH amr aH
yy nam s yanum kmn, km crn raa
nx cyxy ckyvy nacu a c. Kx aa
ayxm cvcnm aaanm m anc. Hackan
cn amx uHm mn, r a mna nv nkH ckma
amx rna, a ckH yyH , v Hm yaH s ac,
nuk ank, n yanu nn ac, vH an ax 4am,
nHy v a Hna n Hcm xaak mna canaa c ckH
annH, y ncaannu cm c a cakync cvckx
xk vnavcaa.].
cnn cypn1L o6 nx uncnennoc1n, nepecenenum, ko1opme nepeunn B6-anL-Mnpe6ckn
nponna n o6ocnoanncL a Dqnonnn, npnnecnn 1yp cn6o psan1yk unannnsunk, n
uepnme pcm y6nn n 6nccnnnn ne npe1epnenn 6m cyuec1aennmx nsenenn nn a
qnsnuecko, nn a npac1aenno o1nouennn, ecnn 6m cocepc1ao c rnn1o ne
o6or1nno ckponme poc1nxennn unannnsun Mncp n pann.
ne xouy cks1L, u1o 6nccnnnn n okpyxkune senn cpennncL ec1o o6n1nnn
psan1oro o6uec1a. [eno ne 1onLko a 1o, u1o kynL1yp a1o c1pnm nnkorp ne
o1nnuncL opnrnnnLnoc1Lk, n ne a 1o, u1o on acerp orpnnunancL npoc1m n
aecL o1pnennm noppxnne 1oy, u1o nponcxopnno a p6cknx ropopx
no6epexLn, a pncko npnn n a ernne1cknx c1onnux - Onax, Meqnce, nosxe a
nekcnppnn, - no pxe a1o noppxnne 6mno nenonnm n neyenm.
snk, u1o cpenn ouenL pnckoannoe snanenne, ko1opoe ne sepnn1 amsa1L
neropoanne 1ex, k1o cnaocnoan1 nerpn1nnckyk pcy: ne cekpe1, u1o a cnny
nonn1nuecknx xn1pocnne1enn nokpoan1enn a1o no uc1n uenoaeuec1a, ne
oprnya rnso, npepc1annn 6nccnnckyk unannnsunk kk 1nnnuno qpnknckyk,
poxpennyk nn1ennek1o nx nk6nuea n npepuec1aykuyk nk6o ppyro kynL1ype.
Bonee 1oro, skycna ypnn, onn pcnpoc1pnnnn a1y 1k nsmaeyk uepnyk
unannnsunk n aecL rnne1 n s1unnn pxe a snk. nc1nn a 1o, u1o
qnsnonornn, nnnranc1nk, nc1opnn, nn1nnkn, sppam cmcn epnnopyuno
o1aeprk1 1koe o6puenne c npounm. o nso6pe11ene a1o opnrnnnLno
cnc1em ne 1k-1o npoc1o oc1noan1L. rnopnpyn nyky n aoopyxnauncL
6ecnpnepno pepsoc1Lk, onn popy1 po 1oro, u1o ckopo cpenk1 kcy c1onnue
np. ynonnk o6 a1nx rnno1esx 1onLko pnn 1oro, u1o6m ne o6cyxp1L nx acepLes
[Ynkc mnu ncy na rna. ncyc a
cax rnckx ncuHax amckamaacn H karv
naH ccya: ynua amr cHa, nar n ca
nym akna, mn ymn. nmn k amay, v s naHnk,
caHm aHm naHnka a 3n, nann c nmu
nHk cnu aar cyxn. cknukH ckaH
x aann: ak, cam va, v mn m naanu
naucn a a naHnk nn naxn rn cnaaH
nmnH Ms, xn kr nkm mn nmcakaH
aaH rnck ana. ncyc nnara, v caHm cam
snck cyxn cny aaau snx a, vH
acaaa xakaxa, km nnyvn ack acna a rn,
r aca nxcn a VII a. . s.].
e, k1o xoue1 ne npoc1o nos6an1Lcn, ory1 o6p1n1Lcn k nyke, corncno ko1opo
6nccnnckn unannnsunn nponcxopn1 ns payx ynonny1mx nok nc1ounnkoa -
ernne1ckoro n p6ckoro, - npnue nepam nnoro c1pue a1oporo. pypno c
poc11ouno 1ounoc1Lk yc1noan1L, korp nponcxopnnn nepame nepecenennn kyun1oa
ns snn n xnnpn1oa. o nennk Cknnrep (XVII a. n. a.), nuec1ane nok1nnpoa a
a1y qpnknckyk c1pny neno ec1o ao apeen upc1aoannn Kc1nnnn. [pyro
a1op, yponLq, onpoaepre1 a1o n npnpepxnae1cn nennn onpnnrnyc. 1o6m ne
npnaopn1L specL ace ero pccyxpennn, n o1euy 1onLko pa ocnoanmx: ao-nepamx,
pryen1 o1nocn1enLno ouenL pnne anoxn xnnpn1cko anrpunn, ao-a1opmx, ero
xpk1epnc1nk ppeaneaqnonckoro nsmk, ko1opn npo1naopeun1 oey y1aepxpennk
o npeo6npnnn ernne1ckoro aneen1 a 6nccnncko unannnsunn.
c1noancn cnun n nepao oen1e: yponLq ouenL noako npnpye1
pccyxpennn Cknnrep no noaopy onunnn rpeuecknx nc1opnkoa o xnnpn1cko
anrpunn a 6nccnnnk. n poksmae1, u1o specL peuL npe1 o npoc1o, nkonnenno
s ponrne aek s6aennn qk1, cnnuko uc1o noa1opnauerocn a npouno, ko1opoy
ne npnpann 6onLuoro snuennn. anoxy, korp rpekn nunn snn1Lcn
a1nonorne npopoa, ko1opme, c nx 1oukn spennn, xnnn n kpk cae1, a1n co6m1nn
6mnn yxe c1onL pnekn pnn nnx, 1e 6onee, u1o onn no nn1epecoanncL uyxo
nc1opne. k u1o onunne annnncknx ny1euec1aennnkoa nnuero ne poksmae1 n
nnkk ne s1prnae1 aonpocm qnsnueckoro cxopc1a n popc1a nsmkoa, 1. e.
pryen1oa, ouenL axnmx pnn yponLq. enno o6 a1o n ec1L cmcn roaopn1L, n
a1o 6ype1 on a1opm nynk1o.
opc1ao expy p6ckn n ppeann aqnonckn nsmko, nnn nsmko rees, ne
o6ycnoaneno nponcxoxpenne - a1o npoc1oe cnepc1ane npnpopm payx npeun,
o6Lepnnnkuee nx a opny n 1y xe rpynny. cnn nsmk rees axopn1 a cen1ckoe
ceec1ao, a1o ne osnue1, u1o on o6nsn a1n qk1o p6ckoy nsmky. Mec1noe
ncenenne c1pnm (unc1o uepnn pc) cospano pnn nero ocnoay, nnn ckene1, n
o6pnenne, nnn aneunkk o6onouky. no ycaonno ace ero aneen1m n npnnunnm
pxe eue nyuue, ue xnnpn1m, nockonLky nocnepnne nckxnn unc1o1y uepnoro
nsmk pncknn aneen1n, oc1aunncn a nx nn1n, n pnn 1oro, u1o6m 6pocn1L
a nouay nsmk unannnsoanno Dqnonnn ceen uyxepopnoro annnnnn, pxe ne
no1pe6oanocL 6m aeu1enLc1a cen1oa. 1e1n nony1no, u1o a1n xe cme
cen1ckne aneen1m ac1peuk1cn n a ppeaneernne1cko nsmke. kn o6pso, ne
o1pnun 1oro, u1o xnnpn1m oc1annn a nsmke Dqnonnn cnepm caoero 6enoro
nponcxoxpennn, cnepye1 o1e1n1L, u1o 1kne xe o1neu1kn ornn 6m1L pesynL11o
ernne1ckoro annnnnn. poe 1oro, neko1opme aneen1m - n ne 1onLko pnckne, no
oco6enno cnckpn1ckne, o1noxnaunecn a ppeaneernne1cko nsmke n nepeuepune
s1e a rees, - penk1 a1o1 nsmk cnc1eo 1ponoro nponcxoxpennn.
nunonnLnm nsmk nanne1cn o1pxenne a1nnuecknx kopne: on 6onLue nrpyxen
cen1cknn, 1. e. uepnmn aneen1n, ue p6ckn n a oco6ennoc1n ernne1ckn, n
nee1 enLue cnckpn1cknx cnepoa, ue nocnepnn.
pn XVIII n XIX pnnc1nnx (1575-1180 rr. po n. a.) 6nccnnum oksnncL nop
anc1Lk qponoa n nn1nnn n pnL. nn1nnkx ec1L cuenm, nso6pxkune,
kk 6opnrenm npnnocn1 upckn c6opunk nop1e pnkoannnme 6or1c1a caoe
c1pnm. o anpy c6opunkn ouenL 6nnskn k nerpn1nncko pce n ope1m a 1ynnkn ns
npospunoro ycnnn, co1knnoro a npnn nnn a ropopx pann n rnn1. D1y
kopo1kyk, po konen, opexpy noppepxnae1 koxnm nonc, 6or1o n nckycno
ykpuennm. nneun n6pouen ukyp neonpp, n rpypn 6ycm, n snnc1Lnx
6pcne1m, c yue canck1 6onLune e1nnnueckne cepLrn, ronoa yaenun
nannnLnn nepLnn. o1n a1o1 apapckn npnp ne coo1ae1c1aoan akycy ernn1nn,
noppxnne uyac1aye1cn ao acex ocnoanmx aneen1x koc1k, nnpnep, a 1ynnke n
nonce. c11n, neko1opme nepoqn1m snc1aoann y nerpoa neonppoayk ukypy.
C pnL ne canpe1enLc1aye1 o psan1nn npop. D1o a ocnoano pepkne xnao1nme,
cko1 n p6m. ock, qopnpoaaunecn ns ec1nmx xn1ene a kuec1ae
acnoor1enLno cnnm, ne nenn c1poro oprnnsunn, caoc1aenno ernn1nn nnn
cen1, n cpxnncL 6es acnkoro nnn. . e. a a1y anoxy nnu1o ne yksmae1 n
amcokn ypoaenL psan1nn -pxe a npoc1o nn1unn o6muea saoea1ene.
Cnepye1 o6p1n1Lcn k 6onee nospnn apeen, u1o6m o1mck1L kkyk-nn6o ue1kyk
a1nnueckyk npnunny nporpecc, o ko1opo n ynonnn amue.
UpL c1nk (664 r. po n. a.), nepam ns cn1cko pnnc1nn (XXVI no Mneqony),
amsan nepoaonLc1ao pnn caon npepnou1enne nonnuecko-rpeueckn n kpncko-
cen1ckn nennk, a pesynL11e uero a 6nccnnnk xnmnyn aonn aoenno
anrpunn: 240 1mcnu conp1, 6pocna xen n pe1e, yunn n kr n ne aepnynncL. C
a1oro apeenn cnepye1 p1npoa1L 6nec1nun aek 6nccnnnn, n c a1oro oen1
oxno roaopn1L o nn1nnkx n a1o sene [22) H ncyca,
ram rkccaH ac amn n a ra c cc
caan aH cknuk naHnka.].
240 1mcnu onm1nmx aonnoa-ernn1nn, npnnpnexaunx k aoenno kc1e, koneuno
neaunx a xnnx uepnyk kpoaL n, aosoxno, npnecL 6eno pcm, nonyuennyk uepes
xn1oa n cen1oa, npnunn a 6nccnnnk, rpe yxe pno acxopm annnnne amcue
pcm, n ace a1o c1no onpepennkun qk1opo k1nanoc1n, ko1opn cnon
sc1mauyk cnc1ey uepno pcm [23) y-Hn a na r r
vmx kncca aHcca, ar, cn k ry, cu rvckan ancu
cknuk xaaackx anc, canucayx H, v a
rnmH aaH naancu a nr rvck kack cnam,
cnyxam y caHHaka.]. o ace pano ypnan1enLno n neo6Lncnno, kkn
o6pso oco6ennn unannnsunn orn popn1Lcn ns a1o cecn, rpe npoponxn
npeo6np1L uepnm aneen1. n1nnkn npepc1annk1 co6o nnuL nocpepc1aennyk
nn1unk 1oro, u1o m n6nkpe a Onax, Meqnce n ppyrnx ec1x. e1 nnkknx
cnepoa, nnkknx canpe1enLc1a 1aopuec1a cnx 6nccnnuea, n cn 6onLun nx
cna, cpenaun nx nn nsaec1nm, sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o onn 6mnn nocnepnn ns
npopoa qpnkn, y ko1oporo 6nroppn ncknkun1enLno kpono1nnam nccnepoannn
ypnocL o6npyxn1L cnepm nc1onue nonn1nuecko n nn1ennek1ynLno kynL1ypm.
anoxy pncko nnepnn nonyunn 6onLuoe psan1ne npoan 1oproann, a ko1opo,
acnep s xnnpn1n, onpepenennyk ponL nrpnn 6nccnnum. a1o apen
okonu1enLno sk1nnocL connue [peanero rnn1. peueckne nocenenum, kononm,
pounn po y6nn, n cen1ckn aneen1, npnnecennm nn, nun am1ecnn1L nn1L o
qponx. smk rees nen nncLennoc1L, snc1aoannyk y p6ckoro. pnko,
neco1pn nn n u1o, ypoxenum c1pnm nou1n nnue ne nponannn ce6n, nx aknp
oksncn nc1onLko c1ep1 apeene, u1o onn oc1nncL srpko pxe pnn cmx
yuenmx n po1ounmx reorpqoa.
onanenne xpnc1nnc1a ne cnoco6c1aoano noamuennk ypoann nx kynL1ypm.
Cnpaepnnaoc1n ppn o1e1n, u1o eue kkoe-1o apen, 6ypyun aepnmn caoe
npnamuke ace nonyu1L ns rnn1 n 1pony1me noc1onLckn paenne nepamx
nccnonepoa, onn a ueno npnnnnn noayk aepy. Bnroppn cocepc1ay p6cknx
nneen, aec1e c ko1opmn onn ocyuec1annn neckonLko noxopoa npn nnep1ope
Kc1nnnne n 1e cm ynpounnn caon ppeanne cansn, onn aocnpnnnnn koe-kkne
eapeckne npen, ko1opme pnn nnopm nosxe n ko1opme ec1ec1aennm o6pso
coo1ae1c1aoann cen1cko uc1n nx kpoan.
pnc1nnc1ao, npnnecennoe o1un-nyc1mnnnkn, a1nn xy1knn o1uenLnnkn,
npnamkunn k co cypoao xnsnn, k cm uypoanunm conc1nsnnn n
unenoapepn1enLc1ay, nopsnno aoo6pxenne a1nx nkpe. Ckopee acero, onn oc1nncL
6m panopyunmn nepep nrknn n aosamuennmn po6pope1ennn ppyroro can1oro,
no c1ppnnn Can1oro n1onnn nnn Mpnn rnne1cko nenn np nnn
neorpnnuennyk anc1L; noa1oy k1onnuns, c1onL aennkonennm a caoe
psnoo6psnn, c1onL ynnaepcnLnm n nonnm a caonx pennrnosnmx nponanennnx,
1k n ne cyen po6p1Lcn po ceppeu a1nx cny1nnkoa rsenn, rnnnono1 n 1nrp,
1ouno 1k xe, kk nosxe on ne cor y6epn1L, neco1pn n c1pnnn p ns
Bpeen, cknpnnaoa. 6nccnnum, nnonoanny yxe o1naune o1 ernne1cko
unannnsunn nocne ocn6nennn aepxnnx npoannun [peane nepnn qponoa n
6onLue opnen1npoannme n Heen, a npoponxenne ponrnx aekoa nxopnnncL a
npoexy1ouno coc1onnnn expy nonnm apapc1ao n koe-kko counnLno
oprnnsune, n u1o6m saepun1L 1pncqopunk, nonpo6nncn caexn npn1ok
cen1cko kpoan. D1o annanne nponsouno uepes 600 ne1 nocne ncyc pnc1, n
annoannkn c1nn p6ckne ycynLne.
ne 6ypy oc1nanna1Lcn n neckonLknx saoeannnx, ko1opme ocyuec1annn
6nccnnum n p6cko nonyoc1poae. e1 nnuero ypnan1enLnoro a 1o, u1o ns payx
npopoa, xnayunx pnpo, nnorp apeennme no6epm opepxnae1 nnenee
6nropopnm. 6nccnnnn nnkorp ne nonLsoancL nnopn caonx no6ep a Heene.
onLko po6anenne uepno kpoan 6mno pesynL11o a1nx co6m1n n yckopnno
aosamuenne xnnpn1oa. c11n, anpmuec1ao 6nccnnuea a Heene npoponxnocL
neponro: c 529 r. no 589 r. n. a.
anoxy ncn o1nouennn p6cknx npopoa c Dqnonne npnnnnn coace ppyro
a1nnueckn cmcn. n peunn, nn n npn ace nx 6necke n aennunn ne cornn
npnaec1n 6nccnnuea a nono caonx unannnsun. Cen1m Mroe1 ocyuec1annn a1o
o6puenne n po6nnncL ne c1onLko pennrnosnoro yceppnn, ckonLko s6aennn
qpnknun c1pmx counnLnmx qop. ponsouno cnnLnoe ceuenne kpoan
npnuenLuea n ec1noro ncenennn. nn npekpcno nonnnn ppyr ppyr, y nnx 6mn
opnnkoan nornk, onn opnnkoao aocnpnnnnn penLnoc1L. npnckn kpoaL
no1ycknen n yxe ne orn npe1enpoa1L n aepyuyk ponL. pexp, npam,
npnnunnm npanennn n akycm p6oa am1ecnnnn aocnonnnnn o npouno, no
1pncqopunn 6mn nenonno. Co6c1aenno roaopn, ycynLnckn unannnsunn
nnkorp ne nponnkn specL rny6oko. caoe co amcue nponanennn on nannn
co6o a1nnueckyk cecL, cnnuko o1nnunyk o1 o6ps xnsnn 6nccnnuea. ocnepnne
orpnnunnncL 1e, u1o ycaonnn cen1ckyk uc1L ycynLncko kynL1ypm, n po
ceropnnunero pnn, kk xpnc1nne, 1k n roe1ne, onn nnkorp ne 6mnn nnue
nnm, kpoe kk saepuenne, nocnepnn aneen1o, norpnnunm cnaono a1o
rpeko-cen1cko unannnsunn; c co rny6oko ppeanoc1n, kyp ckopo m aepnecn,
onn oc1anncL 1onLko o1ronocko ernne1ckoro coaepuenc1a, nn1em nn1Lk o6
ccnpnn, nepepaeo ns nokonennn a nokonenne. On1c1nueckoe aennkonenne
paop 1u Xn, ecnn on pec1an1enLno 6mn aennkn eryco, cyuec1aoano 1onLko
a aoo6pxennn ny1euec1aennnkoa-pon1nkoa npounmx apeen.
nepame nun yuenme nunn a Dqnonnn opny ns 1ex c1pn, ko1opme 6mnn
npnp1kn uyxo kpynno unannnsunn, o1pxn ee a 1o epe, a kko nynnm
pnck o1pxe1 conneunm cae1. 6nccnnnn - 1o xe coe pnn rnn1, ue nanne1cn
pnn n1n nn, ue cnyxn1 n6e1 pnn n1n n npnn. D1n nn11opckne nnn
ceunnme o6uec1a nek1 a ce6e 1kne kuec1a, ko1opme pk1 aosoxnoc1L
nk6n1enn cnc1enoc1n onpoaepr1L nc1opnueckne qk1m. 1ko nouae yuenme
o6muno nckxk1 ene se1nme nponanennn 1oro nnn nnoro annnnnn n npnpk1 n
nepaoc1enennoe snuenne. 1ko nouae nxopn1 pryen1m a sun1y coapeenno
1eopnn, corncno ko1opo pnkne npopm cy1L npopm ampopnaunecn n ko1opn
nnornun ppyro 1eopnn, u1o nocpepc1aennme nkpn - a1o aennkne rennn,
oksaunecn a ne6nronpnn1nmx o6c1on1enLc1ax.
koe nenne ao acex cnyunx - 6ypL 1o npnenn1enLno k 6opnren o6enx epnk,
nonnnesnu nnn 6nccnnu - npepc1anne1 co6o nsmkoam amaep1 nnn rny6okoe
s6nyxpenne. ec1o 1oro, u1o6m npnpa1L aneunn o6c1on1enLc1a nekyk
q1nLnoc1L, ko1opn acerp 1nro1en np npopn oc1ouno qpnkn, cnepye1
cks1L, u1o anno 1oy necoaepuenc1ao, nckonno npncyuee nx npnpope, u1o a1n
npopm nnkorp ne 6mnn nonnoc1Lk unannnsoannmn, u1o nx cme
norouncnennme a1nnueckne aneen1m acerp 6mnn coaepuenno ne cnoco6nm k
coaepuenc1aoannk, u1o 6nro1aopnme nocnepc1ann npn1ok nyuue kpoan 6mnn
cnnuko cn6m, u1o6m npoponx1Lcn ponro, u1o onn amnonnnnn ponL npoc1mx
neyenmx noppx1ene, nn1npoaaunx o6ps xnsnn npopoa, coc1anennmx ns
6onee 6nropopnmx aneen1oa. pnko pxe a a1o 6nccnncko nunn, n npexpe
acero a ne, no1oy u1o a1o ec1L kpnn py6ex, aneprnn 6eno kpoan scnyxnae1
aocxnuennn. oneuno, 1o, u1o s ponrne aek oc1nocL o1 nee ceropnn, ps6aneno a
neaepon1no c1enenn. ne ypnan1enLno: uepes kkne knnm- xnnpn1oa, ernn1nn,
p6oa-ycynLn - npoun a1 kpoaL, u1o6m nonc1L k nn! e ne enee 1, rpe
uepnn kpoaL corn sknkun1L a1o1 cnanm coks, ero nnopm ouyuk1cn a 1euenne
c1one1n. cnn 6nccnneu c1on1 n co nnxne c1ynenn cpepn npepc1an1ene
npn6pexno unannnsunn, 1o a cpepe uepnmx on amue acex. y ypnocL pspyun1L
ace coe nnskoe a ennncko anpe. ep1m ero nnu o6nropopnnncL, poc1
yaennunncn; on yxe ne nopunnne1cn skony, corncno ko1opoy npoc1me pcm
o6npyxnak1 nnuL ne6onLune o1knonennn o1 sc1mauero a caoe nenopanxnoc1n
nunonnLnoro 1nn, expy 1e kk a psnoo6psnn ny6ncknx nnu n6nkpk1cn
pxe 6nropopnme - a pnno cnyue - uep1m ceunnoro nponcxoxpennn. 1o
kce1cn yc1aennoro psan1nn, ono, xo1n n neamcokoe n c onpepenennoro oen1
6ecnepcnek1nanoe, 6mno n ronoay amue, ue y rnnccknx nneen, nokopn1ene
c1pnm, 6onee uepnmx n a 6onLue c1enenn apapoa.
VI
Ern u n; y n .
Mm ne 6ype pcc1pna1L snpnme osncm, a uc1noc1n osnc on. upnn
unc1o ernne1ckn kynL1yp, n on o6Lepnnnn, noxny, 1onLko ceLn
canuennocnyxn1ene, rpynnnpoaaunecn aokpyr xpoa. c1nLnn uc1L ncenennn
ne snn nnuero, kpoe cnenoro noannoaennn. oa1oy npepe1o nuero
pcco1pennn 6ype1, co6c1aenno roaopn, rnne1, a o1nouennn ko1oporo a1o1 aonpoc
eue npepc1on1 peun1L: a kko epe aennune ernne1cko unannnsunn
coo1ae1c1aoano konnuec1ay kpoan 6eno pcm y xn1ene c1pnm? nue roaopn,
acerp nn a1 unannnsunn, amuepun ns nnpncko nrpunn n nopaepxennn
aospec1ank xn1cknx n cen1cknx aneen1oa, perppnpoan no epe 1oro, kk n
nepam nnn amc1ynn uepnn ocnoa, cyuec1aoaaun a anpe 1pex rnanmx
aneen1oa?
[o Menec, nepaoro upn I pnnc1nn, rnne1 yxe 6mn unannnsoanno c1pno n
nen no kpne epe pa kpynnmx ropop: Onam n Onc. oam onpx o6Lepnnnn
nop caoe anc1Lk neckonLko ne6onLunx rocyppc1a, ko1opme po a1oro 6mnn
pspenenm. smk a ocnoano yxe cqopnpoancn. kn o6pso, nnpnckoe
a1opxenne n coks c xn1n nenn ec1o pnLue a1oro ouenL ppeanero nepnop,
ko1opm n c1n qnnno a1nx co6m1n. [o cnx nop ne 6mno peun o6 nc1opnn. ce
c1ppnnn, oncnoc1n n 1pypm nepaoro rocyppc1a, kk y ccnpnuea, nponcxopn1 a
anoxy 6oroa nnn reponueckyk anoxy.
kn cn1yunn xpk1epn ne 1onLko pnn rnn1, no n pnn acex poxpkunxcn
rocyppc1a.
ok npoponxe1cn c1noanenne, kononnsunn ne saepuen, npnpop ne ocaoen,
nnun no, 6opnrenm ne ykpouenm, cn saoea1enn pccennm no 6ono1nc1m
ec1 n nornouenm 6opL6o s amxnanne, ne oxe1 6m1L nc1opnn.
o a1o1 nepnop skonunncn. k 1onLko 1pypm nunn npnnocn1L nnopm, nkpn c1nn
uyac1aoa1L ce6n a o1nocn1enLno 6esoncnoc1n, k ko1opo c1pennncL ace nx
nnc1nnk1m, n y1aeppnncL noc1onnnn cnc1e npanennn, nunne1cn nc1opnn a
nonno cmcne a1oro cnoa, n nunn npnxopn1 k ocosnnnk ce6n kk oprnnsoanno
o6unoc1n. o xe coe nponcxopnno n nponcxopn1 a o6enx epnkx nocne o1kpm1nn
kon1nnen1 a XV a.
[onc1opnueckne apeen ne nek1 pnn nc 6onLuo uennoc1n - nn6o no1oy, u1o
onn npnnpnex1 pc, ne cnoco6nm k unannnsunn, nn6o onn pnn 6enmx npopoa
npepc1annk1 co6o nepnopm c1noanennn n ne ory1 6m1L caepenm a nornueckne
qk1m, nekune uennoc1L pnn no1okoa.
unnn c nepamx ernne1cknx pnnc1n unannnsunn surn anepep 1k 6mc1po,
u1o ackope nonanncL nepornnqnueckn nncLennoc1L, ko1opyk, anpoue, npepc1onno
coaepuenc1aoa1L. e1 nnkknx canpe1enLc1a 1oro, u1o ee ns6np1enLnm xpk1ep
nsennncn a 1euenne kopo1koro apeenn n npno6pen npoc1yk rpqnueckyk qopy.
Ceropnn cnpaepnnao npnsne1cn nepaoc1enennn axnoc1L n1n cnoco6 qnkcunn
mcnn pnn nk6o unannnsunn, 1e 6onee ecnn a1o npoc1o cnoco6. nu1o 1k ne
xpk1epnsye1 rny6nny munennn npop n ero cnoco6noc1L ypoane1aopn1L
psnoc1oponnne no1pe6noc1n a xnsnn, kk nqan1, caepennm k kcnnLno
npoc1m aneen1. a1o o1nouennn ernn1nn ne npnxopn1cn xac11Lcn caon
nso6pe1enne. x nncLennoc1L ouenL cnoxnn n ne acerp ncnn n c1an1 nx n opny
ns nnsunx c1ynene nec1nnum psan1mx nun. nxe nx c1on1 1onLko nepynum c
uae1nmn unypkn n ekcnknum c srpounmn pncynkn. mue cnepye1
noec1n1L kn1uea, no1oy u1o onn, no kpne epe, 6mc1po nepeunn o1
qnryp1nano cnc1em k o6munoy nso6pxennk saykoa; koneuno, noan cnc1e
6mn necoaepuenno, no ao acnko cnyue on nosaonnn caec1n nncLo k
orpnnuennoy uncny knkueamx aneen1oa. k 6m nn 6mn snun1enen a1o1 ur, ero
pesynL11 nnoro yc1yne1 nornunm ko6nnunn cen1cknx nqan1oa n pxe
knnnonncnoy nncLy, xo1n n nocnepnee ne oxe1 cpann1Lcn c peqopnpoannm
rpeueckn nqan1o, nocnepnn cnoao a nncLennoc1n, npeaocxopnun n
cnckpn1ckyk cnc1ey. ace peno a 1o, u1o nn opn pc, kpoe snpno, ne
o6npe1 opnoapeenno n 6c1pk1nm munenne n uyac1ao nonesnoc1n.
pnsnan nepornnqnueckyk nncLennoc1L connpnm ocnoanne pnn 1oro, u1o6m
ernne1ckn nunn snnn caoe ec1o cpepn unannnsoannmx npopoa, cnepye1 1kxe
npnsn1L, u1o a1o nso6pe1enne, yun1man cme nocnepnne ycoaepuenc1aoannn,
c1an1 ero a1opoa ne nnxe ccnpnuea. 1o kce1cn a1o 6ecnnopno no cy1n npen,
oxno cks1L cnepykuee: ecnn 6m uepnmn npopnoc1nn rnn1 ne ynpannnn,
eue po Menec, 6enme, ne 6mn 6m cpenn a1o1 nepam ur a cospnnn nepornnqoa.
o, c ppyro c1oponm, ecnn 6m necnoco6noc1L uepno pcm ne nopannn npnpopnoe
c1penenne pnuea k coaepuenc1ay, nepornnqnueckn nncLennoc1L, acnep s ne
n nckycc1a rnn1 ne norpysnnncL 6m a nenopanxnoc1L, ko1opn nanne1cn
cneunqnuecko uep1o unannnsunn nn.
ok c1pno npannn 1onLko ec1nme pnnc1nn, nok on nn1ncL npenn,
aspuennmn a caoe nouae n nopoxpennmn caoe pco, ee nckycc1a ornn
nsenn1Lcn nnuL a uc1noc1nx, no ne a ueno. nn ne snnn nn opnoro
cyuec1aennoro noauec1a. pn II n III pnnc1nnx onn 6mnn rpy6mn, npn XVIII n XIX
a1 rpy6oc1L neckonLko cnrunncL, npn XXIX, ko1opn npepuec1aoan 6nsy,
ynpok ampxe1cn nnuL a nsapuennn qop, no ne a nonanennn po1one
nensaec1nmx npnnunnoa. Mec1nm renn coc1pnncn n ne nsennncn. n aosamuncn,
poxopnn po kynLnnunonno 1oukn, korp npeo6npn 6enm aneen1, oc1ancn
yc1ounam, nok a1o1 aneen1 ncnonnnn unannns1opckne qynkunn, n onyckncn
acnkn ps, korp aepx 6pn uepnm renn, no ne coaepuenc1aoancn. o1oy u1o
ne6nronpnn1noe annnnne noc1onnno onnpnocL n ennnckyk ocnoay.
kn srpounn sc1mnoc1L acerp nopxn n6nkp1ene. D1oy ypnannnncL eue
rpekn n pnnnne, nockonLky nnu1o ne oc1e1cn 6es o6Lncnennn, c1nn o6annn1L a
a1o xpeuoa.
econenno, ernne1ckoe pyxoaenc1ao 6mno c1oponnnko nokon n c16nnLnoc1n n
apro noauec1a, kk n acnkn pnc1okp1nn. o aepL n a xn1cko, cen1cko n
nnpncko o6uec1ax 6mnn xopouo oprnnsoannme n annn1enLnme canuennnkn. k
nouey a a1nx c1pnx unannnsunn urn anepep, npoxopn uepes noxec1ao
c1pn, nouey psananncL nckycc1a, nncLennoc1L ennn qopm n
coaepuenc1aoancL? poc1o peno a 1o, u1o a 1ex c1pnx oryuec1ao
canuennocnyxn1ene, kk 6m aennko ono nn 6mno, nnuero ne orno nopen1L c
aospec1ane kpoan 6enmx xn1ene, ko1opn cnyxnn nenc1ounm nc1ounnko
xnsnn. Cn canuennnkn, nponnkny1me no1pe6noc1Lk pcunpennn caoero annnnnn,
yuc1aoann a 1aopuec1ae n cosnpnnn. pepnonoxn1L neoponnme npenn1c1ann a
nnnunn kknx 6m 1o nn 6mno nnc1n1y1oa - snun1 npnnnsn1L snunoc1L n cnny
nsaeunmx npnnunnoa counnLno xnsnn.
orp a cnny kknx-1o uenoaeuecknx qk1opoa unannnsunn sepnne1 cao xop, on
nxopn1 a co ce6e poc11ouno cnn pnn nx npeoponennn, nockonLky cospn 1onLko
pnn 1oro, u1o6m nsanek1L amropy ns 1knx counnLnmx nnc1n1y1oa; oxno c
yaepennoc1Lk cks1L, u1o ecnn 1o1 nnn nno pexn ponro pepxn1cn, snun1, on
yc1pnae1 1ex, k1o ero noppepxnae1. rnne1ckoe o6uec1ao nonyunno nenoro noao
6eno kpoan n ne orno o1aeprny1L 1o, u1o ono nsnunLno cun1no xopoun n
saepuennm n u1o npoponxno 1koam ey ks1Lcn. Dqnonm n nerpm, cme
ppeanne n cme norouncnennme saoea1enn, ne ornn 1pncqopnpoa1L
nnepnk. nn ee psrp6nnn, n nepep nnn ac1n nL1epn1na: nn6o y1n, nn6o
nopunnn1Lcn cyuec1aoaaun po nnx npann. snoo1nouennn a1nnuecknx
aneen1oa a rnn1e ne nsennnncL anno1L po saoeannn 6ns, korp ycnnnncn
npn1ok uepno pcm, noa1oy ne1 nnuero ypnan1enLnoro a 1o, u1o acnkoe panxenne
nuno sepnn1Lcn, s1e oc1noannocL coace, n nckycc1a, nncLennoc1L, acn
cnc1e unannnsunn po VII a. po n. a. psananncL a opno nnpanennn, ne o1xopn
o1 ycnoanoc1e, coc1annaunx po a1oro ocnoanne c1pnm, ko1opme s1e, kk a1o
o6muno cnyue1cn, cpennncL cm xpk1epnm aneen1o nunonnLno
cyunoc1n.
ek1cn canpe1enLc1a 1oro, u1o nunnn co II pnnc1nn annnnne no6expennmx, 1. e.
uepno pcm, yxe ouyunocL ao acex nnc1n1y1x n, yun1man 1npnnk
rocnopc1aykunx knccoa n nx npespenne k npopy, oxno npepnonoxn1L, u1o pnn
1oro, u1o6m o6ecneun1L noannoaenne, asrnnpm noppnnmx ponxnm 6mnn nxopn1L
ampxenne a pec1annx npanue aepxyukn, 1. e. npepc1an1ene 6eno pcm,
ko1opm npnxopnnocL po neko1opo c1enenn pspenn1L uyac1a uepno ccm. knn
npepc1an1ennn ornn 6m1L 1onLko yn1m. npnep, Knn qpnknckn
coo6ue1 cnepykuee o upc1aoannn exoc, a1oporo upn qnnn1cko pnnc1nn:
unnn c a1oro onpx, nsmaeoro 1kxe 6pean1op, yskoneno, u1o 6mkn
nnc a Meqnce n Mneanc a ennononnce, 1kxe kosen Menpesn nannk1cn
6orn.
coxnennk, npycckn yuenm n pnnno1 Bynsen nepoc11ouno 1ouno nepeaen a1y
qpsy. Mexpy 1e Knn qpnknckn nee1 a anpy 1o1 qk1, u1o kynL1 canuennmx
xnao1nmx cyuec1aoan n pnLue, no oqnunnLno 6mn npnsnn 1onLko a nsannyk
anoxy. s a1oro oxno sknkun1L, u1o pnn nerpn1nncko pcm pennrnn acerp 6mn
cansn c noknonenne xnao1nm, n ecnn npnunocL npnnn1L cneunnLnm pekpe1,
u1o6m npnp1L a1oy kynL1y kpnpnueckyk cnny, snun1 a 1e apeen on ne
nonLsoancn cnn1ne aepxyukn o6uec1a, ko1opn 6mn 6enoro nponcxoxpennn,
noa1oy 1e cm 6mn nnecen ypp no pnckn nonn1nn nc1nnm, psy n
npekpcnoro a cosnnnn nunn. D1o 6mno cnepc1ane nsenenn a coc1ae kpoan
ncenennn. s 6eno k1nann uc1L o6uec1a npeap1nncL a e1ncoa, s1e, no
epe pnLneue perppunn uepno kpoan, noue1noe ec1o a xpx snnnn 6mk n
kosen.
Mne kxe1cn, n npnaen poc11ouno y6epn1enLnme npnunnm ynpk yxe npn nepao
upe Menece, xo1n a1o 6mno 1onLko nuno, a 1o uncne nuno ponrnx aekoa
cnam [mc acnHu, kakr acaa ncu rcyacaa
nm na. a num - 50 Hnu anu nxun 120
Hnu a ny Hr Hn m - acvan 20 mcnv
ra cn a snxy Hacca. mm 4a, a 12 a num
n nna, acvmaacn nuk 39 mcnv. aHa Ha acn
4a ccaannn 2800000 xn.]. specL ne1 nnkkoro npo1naopeunn. Mm
sne, kk epnenno nponcxopnno a ccnpncknx rocyppc1ax a1nnueckoe cnnnnne.
D1o 6mn nc1onun 6opL6 expy psnnunmn aneen1n, n ee ncxop ne1pypno
npepc1an1L, yun1man uncnennoe coo1nouenne cnn. o6ep npeaocxopnuero
aneen1 osnun koneu unannnsunn, n po 1ex nop, nok pec1aoan cnc1e,
noc1poennn n uyxnx npnnunnx, npeaocxopnun cnn, ampxauncn a
nnep1noc1n, 1epnen a noknLno cu16e nopxenne s nopxenne. n corn
nnuL ouep1n1L kpyr, ns ko1oporo ne or am1n ee npo1nannk n ko1opm, noc1enenno
cyxncL, ponxen 6mn pspan1L ero. enno a1o nponsouno c 6enm aneen1o,
onpepennaun cypL6y ernne1cko nunn n npo1naoc1onaun ennnckn
npnnunn. k 1onLko a1n npnnunnm nunn ceuna1Lcn c nn, onn nansnn ero
c1penennk k coaepuenc1aoannk npepenm, ko1opme on ne or nepec1ynn1L. nn
o6yspnn ero renn n orpnnunnn ero aosoxnoc1n. nn xo1enn, u1o6m on no-
npexney npoponxn aospanr1L caon nnpnpm, npek ko1opmx on npnnec c Ypn n
n1n. nn 1kxe xo1enn, u1o6m ocnoanme poc1nxennn, p1npoannme co pnne
n1nunoc1Lk, npoponxnn coaepu1Lcn, opnko noc1enenno uennoc1L smcn
yc1ynnn ec1o cu16noc1n, n no npouec1ann cen nnn aocLn c1one1n nuncn
ynpok. ocne cec III, k cepepnne XIII a. po n. a. [ xnr Ynkca,
naan a 1235 n xcaa caa, . . XIX acn. ncyc
c r acaaa k XX ac, a XV a. . s.], ernne1ckoy
aennunk npnuen koneu. C 1ex nop 1aopuec1ao c1no xn1L no c1pm knon,
ko1opme s6manncL c kxpm pne [ cac I (1740 r. . s.)
ncm anknnm naHnk. s snx, caH ncn a
c ckycca, cncn ckynunym B-accaa. 3 avan a
Hn. Yx cncn rHm cyxn, ckycca yx
Haan n acaa. cac I y Ynkca - x caH n,
v cc Bya.].
pme noknonnnkn [peanero rnn1, koneuno, 6ypy1 pspocpoanm opnn
seunne, ko1opoe npepc1anne1 co6o kon1pc1 opeony a1o c1pnm a nue
aoo6pxennn. euL npe1 o nou1n nonno nsonnunn, a ko1opo rnne1 npe6man
o1nocn1enLno coapeennmx ey unannnsoannmx rocyppc1a. nek a anpy [peankk
nepnk, n n, 1k xe kk n a cnyue c ccnpnun, co6npkcL o6cyxp1L anoxy ne
nosxe VII a. po n. a. [ncyc Hva, v n a ac
anan mna a caH aca, aann, v rk
ax naan cnaaH n cam rkcca. aan
Hnn avanacu a 1700 r. . s. c ran rkcca, namH aH
mn Hcc.]
ennkoe nn Cecoc1pnc cnaonnsnpye1 ack nc1opnk pnnero rnn1; m npnamknn
npepc1ann1L konecnnuy a1oro saoea1enn norouncnennmx npopoa nop cenLk
ernne1cknx snen, uuykcn o1 nyc1mnL y6nn po epkynecoamx C1on6oa, po
kpnero kr pann, o1 nponna B6-anL-Mnpe6 po cnnckoro opn, n
aLesxkuyk a Meqnc, okpyxennm a 1y nopy qpknun n 1en srpounmn
nencrn, popnny ko1opmx, kk nnuy1, ernne1ckn aoxpL noc1ann n konenn. D1o
nonc1nne sxa1makuee spennue, no, yam, a pec1an1enLnoc1n ace 6mno pneko ne
1k ncno n opnosnuno.
une c 1oro, u1o ne coace nsaec1n nnunoc1L saoea1enn. [o cnx nop cnopn1 o
1o, korp on npann n kkoao ero nc1onuee nn. n xnn sponro po Mnnoc, kk
nonre1 opnn rpeueckn a1op, expy 1e ppyro noeue1 ero a rny6L
nqonornuecknx apeen. pnn nsmak1 ero Cecoc1pnc, ppyrne- Cecoocnc, 1pe1Ln
xo1n1 anpe1L a ne opnoro ns cecoa, no ko1oporo nenno? Coapeennme nc1opnkn,
sny1auncL a a1nx aonpocx, penk1 a1oro 1nnc1aennoro nepconx cnp1ceno
nnn Cecop1eceno, nnn xe ceco II nnn III. pnn ns cmx connpnmx pryen1oa
kc1enLno saoeann a1oro upn cnyx1 c1enm, ko1opme on yc1noann no pupy1y
caonx noxopoa. [ec1an1enLno, o6npyxenm 1kne nn1nnkn, npnnncmaeme peny
pyk anc1n1ene nn, a y6nn, okono pn-nLqx, n n Cnncko nonyoc1poae.
o eue opnn nn1nnk, nsaec1nm 1kxe n 1e, u1o o ne ynonne1 epopo1, okono
Bepy1, okonu1enLno npnsnn a nun pnn kk canpe1enLc1ao no6epm opnoro
ccnpnckoro 1pnyq1op. Moaepc, expy npoun, npnnncmae1 a1y c1eny
Menony n cun1e1 ee coapeennnue ponncko aonm. aoo6ue amue nec1nnm
ne o6npyxeno nnkknx ernne1cknx cnepoa.
pn ace caoe oc1opoxnoc1n n ocenkcL cks1L, u1o ns acex poks1enLc1a kknx-
1o saoeann qponoa a snn nn opno ne npepc1anne1cn ne poc11ouno
y6epn1enLnm [By ann ynu nm nnnaraHmx
aaaanx rnn a nxu : aH kaxcn naaHmH
1nannu aackH Ha aa, ykaam a sx naHnkax
(Hrna na a B-acca), cn a x ynHacn ak
acm Hn, kak aaa axaaH (aaa McnaHn), ckau
c sx H yr a a a a ya. Mx n cvau rH
cay a, aky, ky, yH, yn H cnaH,
ac ca nxu k? Mx n cvau s ca ra?
n rnn yHan nuk camx caax , anc ,
kya Hrn camau ar? 3a ca ac, v
ran acnkx kaka c a k!].
ce onn onnpk1cn n u1kne pryen1m, ace saopn1 saoea1ene cnnuko pneko
n cnnuko ueppo pspk1 n saoeannme 1eppn1opnn, u1o6m ne amsa1L nepoaepnn.
Mne kxe1cn, ec1L pae npnunnm, no6ypnaune ernn1onoroa upesepno aocxnu1Lcn
snenn1m npopo, uLk nc1opnk onn nsyuk1 n uLn poc1onnc1a npeyaennunak1.
epan: ampxenne ceaepnme npopm, snncnnoe n nepornnqnuecknx 16nnux a
nn1L o aoennmx noxopx, ko1opoe, ec1ec1aenno, naopn1 n mcnL o ceaepo-
aoc1oke. 1opn: neko1opme a1nnueckne nnn reorpqnueckne nsannn, a ko1opmx
nxopn1 nek n nsaec1nme sn1ckne npopm. kn o6pso, nc1opnk cnepye1
6m1L oc1opoxnmn a o1nouennn cxopc1a nen n nsann nnn kknx-1o cxopnmx
qnsnonornuecknx uep1 n penLeqx.
pn a1o ynonny1me poks1enLc1a c1nknak1cn c ouenL cepLesno 1pypnoc1Lk:
rpe nck1L nokopennme ernn1nnn npopm? , nnpnep, a1oro ne snk, ecnn ne
cun11L neckonLknx ne6onLunx rocyppc1a Cnpnn; n ace nc1opnuecko
npoc1pnc1ae ccnpncknx npopoa, anno1L po VII a., ne anpno ppyrnx saoea1ene,
kpoe cen1oa n uc1nuno pnuea, 1k u1o aceoryuec1ao srpounoro Cecoc1pnc
c1noan1cn 6onee ue conn1enLnm qk1o. a1n cy1nme apeen, a anoxy
amcuero pcuae1 Ona n Meqnc, ocnoanme ycnnnn c1pnm 6mnn nnpanenm n kr,
ao any1pennkk qpnky, nnorp, a enLue c1enenn, n aoc1ok, expy 1e kk penL1
cnyxnn nepexopnm oc1o pnn npopoa psnnunmx pc, nepeeuaunxcn no
ceaepnoy no6epexLk qpnkn [am aaaan a 3n, n H
ncyca, acxn k Qa Hn: cc III, au XII ac,
ncn aanm Hnxa, a nx can HcmH xcaH. By cmna
cca nuk a ack nnyca, n acHy caHy
nxu k annu r Hca, ana kr axcn
cnan. 3aH s au nkm nmaan a a an caH
ak. s yx cnmkH.].
poe akcnepnun a y6nk n a Cnnckne senn ne cnepye1 s6ma1L rnrn1ckne
p6o1m no coopyxennk knnoa n ocyuennk seenL, nnpnep, Oy, o6xnanne
a1oro 6ccen, 1kxe 6onLuoe c1pon1enLc1ao, pesynL11m ko1oporo oc1nncL a
nnpnpx. ce a1n npnme 1pypm nepamx pnnc1n roaopn1 o 1o, u1o a1o1 npop ne
nen nn xennnn, nn apeenn coaepu1L pnekne noxopm, 1e 6onee u1o ne anpen
pnn 1koamx nnkknx npk1nuecknx ocnoann.
npoue, oc1an n apen ace a1n aospxennn n oc1noancn n Cecoc1pnce n ero
saoeannnx, kk onn nso6pxk1cn. e1 conenn a 1o, u1o a1n saoeannn 6mnn
kp1koapeennmn, neco1pn n 1ynnme nekn o nko6m norouncnennmx
ocnoannmx ropopx, coaepuenno nensaec1nmx a Mno snn, n o kononnsunn
onxnpm, ko1opyk, no cnoa rpekoa, sxa1nnn uepnme npopm, aosoxno, aqnonm,
1. e. nkpn, ko1opme, 1k xe kk n aqnon Menon, ckopee acero 6mnn ccnpnun.
1k, ace pccksm, a ko1opmx onpxn Meqnc npepc1k1 uy1L nn ne npepmpyun
aonnouenne epnn, npo1naopeu1 nponk6naoy n cosepu1enLnoy xpk1epy,
nx akycy k cenLckoxosnc1aennm snn1nn n poune pennrnosnoc1n n ocnoanm
n neaepon1no ny1nnue npe, p1, qk1oa n npopoa. [o XVII a. po n. a. ernne1ckoe
annnnne (onn1L ncknkun qpnky) 6mno ouenL cn6m [ yancu aa v
a 4k, a num ack n xaaack am nv nkH
aancu a accck . 3 Hanm nravm rcyacaa
narancu cnukH n ncnH, a akx cnaaH, v, yvmaan x
ncca ccca c rnH, vr yanur a akH
ann. nvH, cu yxm rak. km nkm vc
rnck mva Hry ann Hu yr cvk. 4Ha knc
Hrna]. 6oponn1enLnme p6o1m, ocyuec1anennme upnn n aoc1ounmx rpnnux,
u1o6m sun1n1L c1pny o1 neckoa n oco6enno o1 uyxeseuea, 1kxe xpk1epnm pnn
npop, ko1opm c1pen1cn npepo1ap1n1L nnpenne. Cnepoa1enLno, ernn1nne
po6poaonLno o1ropopnnncL o1 aoc1ounmx npopoa, n nx unannnsunn orpnnunancL
1eppn1opne, n ko1opo on popnncL, n ne pcnpoc1pnnn caon poc1nxennn nn n
ceaep, nn pxe n snp qpnkn [ VIII a. . s. y rnn ax mn
ar na, xn a s n Qnua axna a x Hn.
MnnaaannH mn nuk xaaan, cHm n rk,
aHaamcn ran. rnn n aaan Hnnaaa ak Han
av, v a nnx am naa nc nrn ycu na
nnaH. akH aH, am, km an rn, cn ck
num, xn arccam xaak, a nu annn aaa
a kckx rax mna anan acca, a cx
namx ynuaa.].
k ace a1o o1nnue1cn o1 ccnpncko kynL1ypm, ko1opn o6Lepnnnn n caoe
orpono 1eppn1opnn 1koe konnuec1ao npopoa, kkoro a nocnepykune apeen ne
orn aknkun1L a caok cqepy peunn, s1e n. ccnpnn anc1aoan a Mno
snn, o1kpmn paepn a qpnky n apony n 1 o6nnLno pcnpoc1pnnn n caon
poc1onnc1a n caon nopokn; on ackpy aneppnncL n ponrne apeen, n no
cpanennk c ne ernne1ckn unannnsunn, neaun noknLnm xpk1ep, oksncL
npnepno a 1ko xe cn1yunn, a kko nosxe nxopnncn n1 no o1nouennk k
oc1nLnoy npy.
pnunn a1oro npoc1, ecnn nck1L ee a a1nnuecko cqepe. s ccnpncko
unannnsunn, npopyk1 ceuennn 6enmx xn1oa c uepnmn npopn, s1e c
psnnunmn ae1ann cen1oa, amunn npopm cnoxnoro coc1a, ko1opme,
pc1nknan ppyr ppyr, pcnpoc1pnnnncL ao ace konum - o1 epcnpckoro snna po
n6pn1pckoro nponna. ernne1ckn unannnsunn 1k n ne corn o6noan1L cao
cosnp1enLnm aneen1, ko1opm noc1onnno nxopnncn a o6opone n 1epnn caon
nosnunn. Bypyun npopyk1o ceuennn ae1an nnpnuea-pnuea c uepnmn pcn n,
a enLue c1enenn, c xn1n n cen1n, on npno6pen oco6ennme uep1m,
ko1opme c coro nun 6mnn sqnkcnpoanm a ne, n on ponro psanancL
skny1o po 1oro, kk nopaeprncL n1ncky uyxnx aneen1oa. n yxe 6mn speno,
korp nunocL a1opxenne nnn nponnknoaenne cen1oa - n nek a anpy rnkcocoa,
ko1opme cokpyunnn [peankk nepnk. D1n npn1okn ornn 6m 1pncqopnpoa1L ee,
6ypL onn 6onee ounmn. o onn 6mnn cn6m, n kc1oao oprnnsunn, npn ace ee
necoaepuenc1ae, ponro ypanocL nx ne1pnnsoa1L.
Mexpy 1e a ccnpnk nponnknn c ceaep npnuenLum n c1noannncL upnn,
xpeun, pnc1okp1n. rnn1e onn c1nknanncL c skonn, ko1opme skpmann
nepep nnn aopo1 a c1pny kk nepep neunc1mn; pxe korp, neco1pn n
c1porne epm, oc1aunecn a cnne po upc1aoannn c1nk (664 r. po n. a.),
uyxk ypanocL yc1pon1Lcn pnpo c anc1n1ennn c1pnm, oc1ancL ane kc1 n
o6Lek1o npespennn, onn eue ponro ne ornn aneppn1Lcn a ec1noe o6uec1ao.
pyk, u1o 1e ne enee onn 1 npeycnenn, no kko ueno n c kkn pesynL11o?
1o6m nn1npoa1L aneen1m, nopoxpennme annnncko kpoaLk, a Onnnknn. ec1e c
nnn, o6LepnnnauncL c uepnmn, onn cnoco6c1aoann pc1aopennk pcm, ko1opyk
onn ornn 6m aospopn1L, ecnn 6m npnunn ckp pnLue n 6mnn 6onee norouncnennm.
cnn 6m c nepamx ne1 npanennn Menec k pncko-xn1cko-uepno cecn
npn6anncL xopoun pos cen1cko kpoan, rnne1 any1penne 6m npeo6psnncn n
ac1pnxnyncn. n ne oc1ncn 6m a nsonnunn, sansn 6m npnme n 1ecnme cansn c
ccnpncknn rocyppc1an.
1o6m nyuue nonn1L amcksnnyk mcnL, nponnnsnpye coc1a payx npopoa.
ccm rnn
cnoano aneen1 = uepnm cnoano aneen1 = uepnm
n1m a poc11ouno konnuec1ae =
nnopo1aopnm aneen1
pnum, npeaocxopnune no uncnennoc1n
xn1ckn aneen1
Cen1m neckonLknx ae1ae =
nnopo1aopnm aneen1
n1m a poc11ouno konnuec1ae =
nnopo1aopnm aneen1
epnme a nesnun1enLno konnuec1ae =
pc1aopennme a o6ue cce
epnme a 6onLuo konnuec1ae, no
pc1aopennme a o6ue cce
pekn, pc1aopennme a o6ue cce Cen1m, pc1aopennme a o6ue cce
s a1o 16nnum oxno cpen1L eue opnn amaop: xn1ckn kpoaL nee1 1enpenunk
k ncuesnoaennk y o6onx npopoa, aec1e c a1n aneen1o ncuesk1 n o6une
uep1m, ko1opme cospn nenno a1o1 aneen1 n 1onLko on or nx noppepxna1L,
nockonLky a o6onx o6uec1ax cen1ckoe annnnne ampxnocL no-psnoy. rnn1e
ono 6mno nesnun1enLnm n pc1aopnnocL a o6ue cce, a ccnpnn ono
pcnpoc1pnnnocL ouenL unpoko, poc1nrnya qpnkn n aponm, n c1no cansykun
saeno pnn nornx npopoa, caoero pop cokso, ns ko1oporo 6mn ncknkuen c1pn
qponoa, o6peuennn n cnnnnne uepnoro n pnckoro aneen1oa n n noc1enennoe
nc1ouenne 6nro1aopnoro npnnunn. rnne1 scnyxnan aocxnuennn 1onLko a co
pnne n1nunoc1n. 1e apeen a1o 6mn nc1onun senn uypec. o, yam, ace ero
cnnm n kuec1a ckonuen1pnpoanncL a opno 1ouke. npm ero cosnp1ene ne
nononnnnncL. Ynpok nuncn pno, n yxe nnu1o ne orno oc1noan1L ero, 1orp kk
ccnpnckn unannnsunn npoxnn ponro, npe1epnen noro 1pncqopun n,
6ypyun 6onee 6esnpac1aenno, no 6onee k1nano, cmrpn 6onee snun1enLnyk
ponL.
a1o ne1pypno y6epn1Lcn, ecnn m pcco1pn cn1yunk a rnn1e a VII a., yxe
1orp 6esnpexnyk, n yanpn, nckonLko 6eccnnLno 6mn ernne1ckn unannnsunn,
necnoco6nn nn n u1o pxe ao any1pennnx caonx penx n yc1ynnaun anc1L n
annnnne saoea1enn n nocenenu-uyxec1pnu, nosxe pouepun po 1koro
s6aennn, u1o co cnoao ernn1nnnn c1no osnu1L ne no1ok cnano n ppeane
pcm, o1npmck noamx xn1ene cen1ckoro, rpeueckoro nnn pnckoro
nponcxoxpennn. a1o1 qk1 nnoxnn eue opny ne6nronpnn1nyk neu1L n o6ps
rnn1: rnn1o c1nn nsma1L ne aepxnkk uc1L c1pnm, ppeankk n knccnueckyk
senk, popnny nnpnp, rpe pcnonoxenm Meqnc n Onam, nekcnppnk aec1e c
opckn no6epexLe, ko1opoe a nepnop cnam n pcuae1 6mno s6poueno n cnyxnno
nnuppo pnn cen1cknx a1opxenn. kn o6pso, nneann, cuc1nnan
conepnnu, sanpen n nene, n ncenenne, n 1eppn1opne rnn1. eco1pn n
c1eny ennononnc, Mncp cpenncn nerko po6mue neckoa n cen1oa, no1oy u1o ne
nunocL noaoro pnckoro aneen1, ko1opm 6m cnc ernn1nn o1 xnko yuc1n,
yro1oanno n ennncknn npnnunnn.
VII
Bk mn xy k Er. Hky
kn an - y mn u u.
[nn snpnoro uenoaek acn ppeannn unannnsunn np caopn1cn k cnepykun
cnanm nen: nneann n Meqnc, np n pqren, kcy n ropop xnn pn1oa -
a1o acero nnuL nn1ennek1ynLnme kononnn payx rnanmx uen1poa. pnc1ynn k
xpk1epnc1nke npepc1annemx nn unannnsun, n yxe kcncn aonpoc nx
conpnkocnoaennn ppyr c ppyro. o po cnx nop ne 6mno peun o6 nccnepoannn nx
asnoo1nouenn. enepL m pounn po 1oro oen1, korp nunne1cn nx ynpok,
korp snuenne opnoro npe1, ponL ppyroro npoponxe1 pc1n 6nroppn
npnuenLu, xo1n n nop ppyrn nene n a ppyro qope. a1opy, no npnepy
noa1oa-pmupe, nop nepenec1ncL c 6eperoa aqp1 n nn a ropm Mnpnn n epcnn
n yrny6n1Lcn a c1enn epxne snn a nonckx noamx npopoa, ko1opm npepc1on1
nsenn1L nnuo nonn1nueckoro np n npoamx unannnsun. cun1k caon ponro
y1ounn1L n onpepenn1L npnunnm o6uero cxopc1a expy rnn1o n ccnpne.
Benme rpynnm, ko1opme cospnn unannnsunn a o6enx c1pnx, npnnpnexnn k
psnnunm psnoanpnoc1n pcm: 6es a1oro noc1yn1 neaosoxno o6Lncnn1L nx
rny6okne psnnunn. e cun1n unannns1opckoro pyx, ko1opm onn o6npnn a
pano epe, y nnx 6mnn o1nnun1enLnme uep1m, xpk1epnsykune nx 1aopenne.
o6onx cnyunx ocnoa 6mn ennncko n ne orn c11L npnunno psnnun, n
korp nm1k1cn o6npyxn1L psnnune expy nx ennnckn ncenenne, nxopn1
nnuL 1enokoxnx c rnpknn aonocn a ccnpnn n nerpoa c kypuao ronoao a
rnn1e, n ne1 nnkknx canpe1enLc1a 1oro, u1o a1nnueckne psnnunn expy ae1ann
uepno pcm npepnonrk1 psnyk c1enenL unannns1opcknx cnoco6noc1e. oackpy,
rpe nsyuk1cn nocnepc1ann ceuennn npopoa, oksmae1cn, u1o uepnn ocnoa,
neco1pn n neko1opme pcxoxpennn, cospe1 cxopc1ao psnmx o6uec1a, npnpan n
1onLko ner1nanme cnoco6noc1n, ko1opme coaepuenno uyxpm 6enoy anpy. oa1oy
nepep nnuo unannns1opcko nnu1oxnoc1n uepnmx npnxopn1cn npnsn1L, u1o
nc1ounnk psnnun cnepye1 nck1L a 6eno pce, u1o n cpepn 6enmx cyuec1ayk1
psnoanpnoc1n; n ecnn o6p1n1Lcn k ccnpnn n rnn1y, m yanpn 6onee
ynopnpouennm, 6onee nrkn n npnm, 6onee nosn1nanm npnnunn ne6onLuo
pncko ae1an, npnuepue a ponnny nn, n o1ppn e nepaenc1ao np
ceec1an n Cn. e pnLue nc1opnn pckpmae1 nepep nn caon
c1pnnum, 1e 6onLue m y6expecn a a1o.
osapuncL k uepnm npop, n cnpunak ce6n, kkne o6une o1nnun1enLnme
npnsnkn nx npnpopm sneu1nenncL a unannnsunnx ccnpnn n rnn1. 1ae1
nnpunae1cn c co6o, 1. k. 6snpye1cn n oueanpnmx qk1x.
oneuno, a1o ne oco6m akyc k npepe1 aoo6pxennn, ne 6esypepxnn c1pc1L ko
acey, u1o oxe1 npnaec1n a panxenne 1e uc1n uenoaeueckoro y, ko1opme nerue
acero aocnnenn1L, ne noknonenne acey, u1o nxopn1cn a cqepe uyac1a, n, nkoneu,
ne npnaepxennoc1L 1epnnnsy, ko1opm oc1e1cn 1koam npn acex
o6nropxnakunx ero ykpuennnx. o1 u1o o6Lepnnne1 pae cme ppeanne
unannnsunn 3np: a o6enx m anpn nocnepc1ann 1koro cxopc1a. o6enx -
rpnpnosnme nn1nnkn nckycc1a, nso6pxkune uenoaek n xnao1nmx, xnaonncL n
ckynLn1yp, ykpukun xpm n paopum n noun1en ncenenne. Mm seue
opnnkoayk nk6oaL k nsoupennm ykpuennn, pockounm rpe, a o6onx
cnyunx m nxopn xenunn n noneuennn eanyxoa, c1penenne k nokok, pc1yuyk
nenpnnsnL k aone n aoennm s6o1 n, nkoneu, 1e xe cme pok1pnnm
ynpanennn: pecno1ns, 1o nep1nueckn, 1o upckn, 1o pnc1okp1nueckn, no
acerp 6esrpnnunm, nenoepnn roppmnn amcunx knccoa, 6ecnpnepnn
nokopnoc1L nnsunx. ckycc1a n noasnn ponxnm 6mnn cnyxn1L - n cnyxnnn - cm
oueanpnm, pennc1nunm n noc1onnnm ampxenne reorpqnueckoro
ec1ononoxennn n anoxn.
noasnn upn1 nonnoe o1peuenne pyun a nonLsy okpyxkuero np. osLe nyrp
a kuec1ae npnep qnnnknckn xno6nm nnu a nn1L Cyqyn, pouepn
6npxnc, nuep1nnm n ee ornne a Dpnkce:
u Bk kk. Hky um kq,
, xu q Mkm.
E n ? E ru
k.
C, r, rn... Tn kun ry
u kk r.
H ynmr k, m ym x
; ym ru .
H ry ky m u.
r n .
a1o noasnn ace nmne1, ace nnpaneno n 1o, u1o6m s1pony1L uyac1a, ace
aneunee. kne c1poqm ne nek1 uenn npo6ypn1L psy n nepenec1n ero a
npenLnm np. cnn cnyu1enn ne nnknn, ne pmpnn, ne pspmann n ce6e
opexpm n ne nokpmann nnu nenno, snun1, a1 noasnn ne poc1nrn caoe uenn.
11yp a1 1enpenunn nepeun a p6ckyk noasnk - nnpns 6es rpnnu, neu1o apope
nn1okcnkunn, ko1opn rpnnun1 c 6esyne n nnorp npn1 a snpepenLnmx amco1x.
1o kce1cn nso6psn1enLnmx cpepc1a a 1ko ornenno c1nne, c kpnknnamn n
upesepno akcnpeccnanmn ampxennnn n 6esypepxnmn ouyuennnn, no1okn
n no1okn Cn nxopnnn cxopnme o6psm, nnonnkune nsaepxenne aynkn
n npeaocxopnune no cnne ampsn1enLnoc1n ace, u1o orno anyun1L an1ysns nnn
o1unnne neau ppyrnx npopoa.
oasnn qponoa oc1ann enLue cnepoa, ue ccnpnckn, ace rnanme aneen1m
ko1opo m nxopn nn6o a Bn6nnn, nn6o a p6cknx konnnnunnx ns n-16-
nrxnn, c n ppyrnx. o ny1px nnue1 o necnnx ernn1nn, n ec1L ocnoannn
nonr1L, u1o cnokonm xpk1ep a1oro npop pnk1oan caon noa1 cnoa, ecnn n
ne 6onee psynme, 1o ao acnko cnyue 6onee xname n 1ennme. npoue, kk a
rnn1e, 1k n a ccnpnn, noasnn nen 1onLko pae qopm - nnpnueckyk nnn
pnpk1nueckyk, ko1opyk oxno nsa1L nc1opnuecko: a nocnepne cnyue peuL un
o 1o, u1o6m nsnr1L qk1m a nneano n ypo6no pnn snonnnnn qope. n a
rnn1e, nn a ccnpnn ne ac1peuk1cn npekpcnme n aennkne noam, pnn cospnnn
ko1opmx 1pe6yk1cn cnoco6noc1n n kuec1a, ne cpannme c 1en, u1o poxpk1
nnpnueckoe nsnnnnne. nxe m yanpn, u1o annueckn noasnn ec1L npnannernn
pnckoro ceec1a, noa1oy on nxopn1 amcuee caoe ampxenne y npopoa a1o
ae1an, a ko1opmx npncy1c1aye1 ennnckn aneen1.
npo c a1o nn1ep1ypo, 1ko poc1ynno pnn ouyuenn n 1ko nyc1o pnn
psmunenn, cyuec1ayk1 xnaonncL n ckynLn1yp. Bmno 6m nenpannLno
pcc1pna1L nx no o1penLnoc1n, no1oy u1o ecnn ckynLn1yp nxopnncL n
poaonLno amcoko ypoane, u1o6m aocxnu1Lcn ek, 1o a1oro nenLsn cks1L o ee
cec1pe, ko1opn nannncL npoc1m npnp1ko k penLeqnoy nso6pxennk, 6mn
nnuen o11enkoa n nepcnek1nam, ecnn nnorp ac1peue1cn o1penLno a xpoamx
nopseenLnx, 1o ace pano amnonnne1 opnen1nLnyk qynkunk n amrnnpn1
cnpo1nnao 6es ckynLn1ypm.
npoue, conn1enLno, u1o n ckynLn1yp orn o6o1ncL 6es uae1oaoro
conpoaoxpennn n u1o ccnpnckne nnn ernne1ckne xypoxnnkn corncnnncL 6m
npepc1an1L n cyp caonx spn1ene-1epnnnc1oa nponsaepennn, o6nuennme nnuL
a uae1 knn, pop, nopqnp nnn 6snL1, noa1oy pspenn1L a1n anpm
nckycc1a nnn c1an1L xnaonncL n opnn ypoaenL co ckynLn1ypo - a1o snun1 ne
nonn1L nx pyx. a nneann n a Onax c11yn, ropenLeqm n 6penLeqm oxno
npepc1an1L 1onLko pckpuennmn a cme 6or1me uae1.
k 6esypepxno yc1pennncL ernne1ckn n ccnpnckn uyac1aennoc1n k nk6m
co6nsnn1enLnm nponanennn 1epnn! 1kn o6ps, acerp c1penuncn k
kpne c1enenn aos6yxpennn, nckycc1ao npnxopnno ne uepes psmunenne, no
uepes spenne, n korp ono nonpno a uenL, nrppo ey 6mn aceo6un an1ysns n
nou1n neaosoxnoe noknonenne. y1euec1aennnkn, npnesxkune ceropnn n oc1ok,
c ypnanenne o1euk1, kkoe rny6okoe n nopo nonLnoe aneu1nenne oksmak1
n ec1nmx xn1ene qnrypnme nso6pxennn, n nenLsn ne npnsn1L, acnep s Bn6nne
n opno, cnnpn1ynLnyk nonesnoc1L snpe1 n nso6pxenne uenoaeuecknx qnryp
y npopoa, ko1opme c1onL ynopno c1pen1cn nepe1n rpnL npoc1oro aocxnuennn n
cpen1L ns nso6psn1enLnmx nckycc1a cm ounm peopnnsykun nnc1pyen1.
opo6nme npnnunnm opnoapeenno n 6nronpnn1nm n apepnm pnn nckycc1a. nn
6nronpnn1nm, 1. k. 6es aos6yxpennn cc 1aopuec1ao neaosoxno. nn apepnm, onn
o1pannk1 n y6nak1 aoo6pxenne, no1oy u1o norpyxk1 ero a nponc1L onLnnennn,
o1anekk1 ero o1 nonck kpco1m, 1. e. 6c1pkunn, ko1opn ne nee1 o1nouennn k
rnrn1nsy qop n rnn uae1.
c1opnn nckycc1a cnepye1 eue noroe amncnn1L, n npn kxpo caoe no6epe on
oksmae1cn nepep ouepepno nkyno. e ne enee, nunnn c nnkenL, on
cpenn noro o1kpm1n, ko1opme ne opnn ps ennnn ee pok1pnnm. n yxe ne
cun1e1 rnne1 popnno rpeueckoro coaepuenc1a. 6oruennn noamn snnnnn,
on nue1 a1n nc1okn a cao6opno ampxennn ccnpncknx 1aopuoa. Cpanenne
arnne1nuecknx c11y c 6penLeqn opc6p naopn1 n mcnL o nx 6nnsko
popc1ae.
Cnay unannnsunn nneann coc1anne1 1o1 qk1, u1o on pneko npopannyncL no
popore, aepyue k Onpnk. pnko ne k a1oy c1pennocL ccnpnckoe nckycc1ao.
no xo1eno uero-1o aennkonennoro, rpnpnosnoro, rnrn1ckoro, aosamuennoro, no ne
npekpcnoro. oco1pn n ckynLn1ypm opc6p, n u1o xe m yanpn? o-nepamx,
c1epc1ao n cao6opy ampxennn. Ycnoanoc1n a nnx nenoro no cpanennk c 1e, u1o
m anpn a xpe-paopue pnk n n c1enx Menonny. ace-1kn nosm specL
neec1ec1aennme, muum cnnuko ampenenm. pen cnnm, yrne1kue oun ncxopn1
o1 acex a1nx upesepnmx unenoa, nnmuenno nnpnxennmx. 1ynoanue, a norx n
pykx xennne xypoxnnk nso6psn1L xnsnL n panxenne amxopn1 s ace rpnnum.
ronoa? ue roaopn1 n ronoa? ue roaopn1 nnuo, o6n1enL kpco1m, npenLnoro
smcn, aosamuennmx mcne, o6oxec1anennoro psy? ronoa n nnuo onu1.
e1 nnkkoro ampxennn a 6ecc1pc1nmx uep1x. k n 6opum ns xp Mnnepam, onn
ne roaopn1 nnuero, 1en cpxk1cn, no nnu ne c1ppk1 n ne 1opxec1ayk1. o1oy
u1o ne1 nnkkoro nek n pyuy - peuL npe1 1onLko o 1ene. aopum nso6psnnn
qk1, ne mcnL, n poks1enLc1ao 1oro, u1o a a1o kpoe1cn epnnc1aennn npnunn
rn6enn ccnpnckoro nckycc1a, cnyxn1 cnepykun qk1: ono poc1nrno coaepuenc1a
ao ace, u1o ne ec1L nn1ennek1ynLnoe, u1o o6pueno ncknkun1enLno k uyac1ay. cnn
ann1enLno pcco1pe1L opnen1nLnme pe1nn opc6p - amuypnme uae1m n
p6eckn, - npnpe1cn npnsn1L, u1o annnnckn renn cyen 1onLko konnpoa1L n
nnuero ne npn6ann k a1oy coaepuenc1ay.
ockonLky a ccnpncko nckycc1ae nonnoc1Lk o1cy1c1aye1 opnLnn npennsunn,
ono, neco1pn n ero amcokne kuec1a, ne corno ns6ex1L norouncnennmx
uypoanunmx npeyaennuenn, ko1opme acerp ero conpoaoxpnn n c1nn ero ornno.
1ko pyxe k6npm n 1enLxnnm-cen1m nsro1oannn pnn rpekoa, caonx pnLnnx
copopnue, a1n exnnueckne nponm, ueaennaune pykn n norn, nocnyxnaune
1onuko pnn kp n ckopo c1aune o6Lek1o npespennn pnn nunn, ocnoanno n
yxcko npnnunne n ne npnnnaue 1knx 6espenyuek. 1o kce1cn xencknx
ae1ae n Cn, n coaepuenno yaepen, u1o a1n 1aopennn n nnkorp ne
npoepnn: onn ne anpenn nnuero 6cyppnoro a nn1unn nc1nnno 1epnnLnoro
np.
cnonn MnL1nckoro n c npnko n 6opopo, okpuennmn a cae1nme,
kpcnoa1me nnn sono1nc1me 1on; acnonn 1e 6ecqopennme knn, ope1me a
pockounme opexpm n amc1anennme a kuec1ae 6oroa a xpx Cnpnn, n nepepe o1
nnx k ypopnnam nep1nueckn kykn ns opyxeno nn1m ypnn, 1orp 6ype1
ncno, u1o ace a1n o1knonennn anonne o1aeunn nknonnoc1n xn1cko pcm n ee
cec1pm. nn o6e nk6nnn yxcnoe n uoknpykuee n s nenenne rpnpnosnoro
6pocnncL a c1punoe n y1onnnn caon uyac1a pxe o1ap1n1enLnm. D1o 6mno
ec1ec1aennm pononnenne k kynL1y xnao1nmx.
[nnme coo6pxennn o1nocn1cn n k rnn1y, c 1o nnuL psnnue, u1o a a1o, 6onee
cknonno k nopnpky, o6uec1ae epskoe n 6ecqopennoe ne nuno 1koro psan1nn,
kk a nneann n pqrene.
kn o6pso, unannnsunn aqp1 n nn a pano c1enenn xpk1epnsyk1cn
npeo6npnne aoo6pxennn np psyo, uyac1aennoc1n np pyxoanoc1Lk.
pnsnan, u1o nckycc1a nnkorp eue ne poc1nrnn 1ko oun n u1o, popn po
oncno uep1m, onn c1nn cnnLnee, ue 1eonornn, opnL, nonn1nk n counnLnn
cqep, m ponxnm sp1L aonpoc: a ue rnann npnunn a1o oco6ennoc1n ppeannx
rocyppc1a?
pyk, u1o y un11enn yxe ec1L n nero o1ae1. pnko nn1epecno noco1pe1L, ne
6mno nn uero-nn6ypL noxoxero a ppyrnx ec1x n a ppyrne apeen. cnn ncknkun1L
npnk, a 1o uncne npnk anoxn, nocnepykue s nc1onue pncko
unannnsune, nnuero nopo6noro a nc1opnn ne n6nkpe1cn. nrpe n nnkorp
uenoaeueckoe aoo6pxenne ne 6mno 1k cao6opno o1 acnknx okoa n ne ncnm1mano
1koro xpnoro c1penennn k 1epnnLno c1opone xnsnn n k nsapuennk. D1o
caoc1aenno a nepayk ouepepL ccnpnn n rnn1y. Yc1noana a1o1 qk1, npexpe ue
cpen1L amaopm, pcco1pn eue opny c1opony aonpoc.
cnn acnep s rpekn n cmn kone1en1nmn cypLnn m npnsne, u1o
aksnL1unn n an1ysns - a1o n ec1L xnsnL rennn nckycc1a, u1o a1o1 renn rpnnun1
c 6esyne, 1orp ero 1aopueckne nc1okn cnepye1 nck1L ne a oprnnsykue
npnnunne nue npnpopm, a rny6nne nunx uyac1a, a pepsknx asne1x uyac1a,
ko1opme npnnpnk1 psy n anpnoc1L, u1o6m nsaneuL ns a1oro coks neu1o, u1o
npan1cn n 6onLue, ue pec1an1enLnoc1L. 1k, m yanpenn, u1o a o6enx ppeannx
unannnsunnx nenno 6enm aneen1 - xn1m, pnum, cen1m - cnyxnn
oprnnsykun, pncunnnnnnpykun n skono1aopueckn qk1opo. 1ckp
nens6exno cnepye1 amaop: nc1ounnk nckycc1a uyxp unannns1opckn nnc1nnk1.
D1o1 nc1ounnk ckpm1 a kpoan uepnmx. D1 aceo6un ouL aoo6pxennn, xpk1epnn
pnn nepamx unannnsun, ne nee1 nno npnunnm, kpoe pc1yuero annnnnn
ennnckoro npnnunn.
cnn a1o npepnonoxenne o6ocnoanno, 1orp cnn aospec1ann nckycc1a n ccm
acerp npno cansn c konnuec1ao uepno kpoan. e 6onLue ec1 snne1 a
a1nnuecko coc1ae npopoa ennnckn aneen1, 1e cnnLnee nponanne1cn 6yc1ao
aoo6pxennn. D1o oxno nop1aeppn1L nc1opnueckn onm1o. Coc1an cnepykun
cnncok, a nepayk c1poky ko1oporo anece ccnpnuea n ernn1nn. npo c nnn
annue nnpnckyk unannnsunk nepnop nocne CkLn-Mynn.
3 nnn cnepyk1 rpekn.
nxe - n1nLnnum cpepneaekoaLn.
ue nnxe - ncnnum.
31e qpnuysm nue anoxn.
koneu, a co nnxne pnpy okxe1cn onocpepoannoe apoxnoaenne n
nponsaepennn, ocnoannme n yueno noppx1enLc1ae, ne npnnneme
npopnmn ccn.
Menn ory1 ynpekny1L a 1o, u1o n aosnoxnn nescnyxennyk kopony n kypuayk
ronoay nerp n okpyxnn ero xopo Mys. pnko ne c1onL yx n amcok a1 uec1L.
a1o xope m ne yanpn cmx 6nropopnmx nepnp, 1ex, ko1opme npepnoun1k1
mcnL n kpco1y c1pc1n.
oneuno, uepnm aneen1 neo6xopn pnn 1oro, u1o6m pc cqopnpoan cao
xypoxec1aennm renn, n m anpn, ckonLko ornn, c1pc1n n 6espccypc1a
ckpmae1cn a ne n nckonLko aoo6pxenne, o16neck uyac1aennoc1n n c1penenne k
1epnnLnoy noork1 nonyu1L aneu1nenne, ko1opoe nponsaopn1 nckycc1a n
ko1opoe poc1nre1 cnnm, nensaec1no oc1nLnm ceec1a uenoaeuec1a. a1o
sknkue1cn o ncxopnm nynk1, n ecnn 6m ne cyuec1aoano ppyrnx qk1opoa,
nerp, neconenno, cnepoano 6m cun11L nyuun nnpnueckn noa1o, ysmkn1o,
ckynLn1opo. o ec1L eue koe-u1o, snun1enLno ennkuee cy1L aonpoc.
[ec1an1enLno, nerp - uenoaeueckoe cyuec1ao, 6onee acero nopaepxennoe
xypoxec1aennoy aonnennk, no npn ycnoann, u1o ero psy cnoco6en noc1nuL cmcn
n snuenne a1oro aonnennn. cnn am nokxe1e ey Knony onnk1e1, apnp nn on
aocxn1n1cn ek. n ne sne1, u1o snun1 Knon, n popnn qnryp,
npepnsnuennn pnn 1oro, u1o6m nepepa1L 1pncuenpen1nme npen npekpcnoro,
eue 6onee uyxpme ey, oc1an1 ero c1onL xe xonopnm, kk, nnpnep,
nre6pnueckn spu. cnn ey nepeaec1n c1nxn ns pnccen, oco6enno annsop
ac1peun Ynncc c acnke, aepunny o6pynnoro apoxnoaennn, on npoc1o ycne1.
1o6m npo6ypnncn nn1epec, s1e cnn1nn, neo6xopn p6o1 y, y nerp
nnoxo o6c1on1 peno c a1n npepe1o: y ero orpnnuen n ne cnoco6en nopnn1Lcn np
cm npnn1nanm ypoane, n6o pnn a1oro neo6xopno psmunn1L, nonn1L,
cpanna1L, nsanek1L amaopm. ypoxec1aennn uyac1an1enLnoc1L pnnoro cyuec1a,
c no ce6e neaepon1no cnnLnn, acerp orpnnuen npnn1nanmn no1pe6noc1nn.
n aocnnenne1cn, on npeapue1cn a c1pc1L, no o1 uero? 1 c1pnnmx,
upesepno pckpuennmx nso6pxenn. n 6ype1 1pene11L o1 aocxnuennn nepep
ypopnnam kycko pepea, n a1o 6ype1 aocxnuenne, kkoro ne ncnm1man
y1onuennn pyu epnkn y nopnoxnn Knn1ep nnnnckoro. [eno a 1o, u1o
mcnL nerp oxe1 aosamcn1Lcn po 6ecqopennoro o6ps, po kyck pepea, npn
anpe nc1nnno npekpcnoro on oc1ne1cn rnyx, ne n cnen a cnny caoe npnpopm.
e cnyuno ns acex nckycc1a, ko1opme npepnoun1e1 ennnckn n1yp, nepaoe
ec1o snne1 ysmk, nockonLky on ncke1 ero cnyx uepepoanne saykoa n ne
1pe6ye1 p6o1m ero osr. erp ouenL nk6n1 ee n ncnxpe1cn ek, opnko ey
uyxpm 1e nsnunme ycnoanoc1n, 6nroppn ko1opm eaponeckoe aoo6pxenne
o6nropxnae1 nun ouyuennn.
Mm, eaponeum, cpennn nckycc1ao ue-1o, nc1onLko 1ecno cansnnm c amcun
nponanenne psy n poc1nxennnn nykn, u1o 1onLko cnno 6c1pkunn m oxe
aknkun1L a nero 1neu. [nn nerp, nnpo1na, 1neu, kk n ysmk, nanne1cn
npepe1o neypepxno c1pc1n. [eno a 1o, u1o uyac1aennoc1L cnnLnee acero
ampxe1cn a 1nue. oa1oy on snnn rnaenc1aykuee ec1o a o6uec1aenno n
uc1no xnsnn ccnpnuea n ernn1nn, n 1, rpe n1nunm np n c1nknancn c
a1n ypnan1enLnm n onLnnnkun anpo nckycc1a, m 1kxe ac1peue ero cpepn
cen1ckoro ncenennn cnnnn, rnanm o6pso a pnkce.
kn o6pso, nerp a amcue c1enenn o6npe1 uyac1aennmn cnoco6noc1nn, 6es
ko1opmx ne1 nckycc1a, c ppyro c1oponm, o1cy1c1ane yc1aennmx cnoco6noc1e
pene1 ero coaepuenno neaocnpnnunam k kynL1ype nckycc1a, pxe k ouenke 1oro
aosamuennoro, u1o oxe1 p1L 6nropopnm uenoaeueckn y. 1o6m ero cnoco6noc1n
npno6penn nc1onuyk uennoc1L, on ponxen 6mn o6Lepnnn1Lcn c pco, npenenno
ppyrnn kuec1an. a1o cokse ennnckn anp nannn co6o xenckyk uc1L, n
xo1n ero psnnunme ae1an a psno epe ceunm c 6enm aneen1o, nenno
nocnepnn npepc1anne1 yxcko npnnunn. onyunauncn pesynL11 sknkue1 a
ce6e ne ace kuec1a o6enx pc. 3pecL nee1cn paoc1aennoc1L, ko1opn n o6Lncnne1
nocnepykuyk ero nnopoan1oc1L. Menee 6ypnm a nponanennn uyac1aennoc1n, ue
unc1me npepc1an1enn xenckoro npnnunn, enee ampxennm a nn1ennek1ynLno
oun, ue yxcko npnnunn, pesynL11 ceuennn coue1e1 a ce6e o6e cyunoc1n,
ko1opme cnyx1 ocnoao pnn xypoxec1aennoro 1aopuec1a, nepoc1ynnoro pnn kxpo
ns a1nx ae1ae a o1penLnoc1n. oneuno, n nso6psnn nekoe 6c1pk1noe, npenLnoe
cyuec1ao, ko1opoe ac1peue1cn ouenL pepko.
o acnko cnyue, ecnn oxno npepc1an1L ce6e coue1nne 1knx kuec1a y
o1penLnmx nkpe, 1o 1knx npopoa npoc1o ne oxe1 6m1L. cce nkpe
a1nnueckne aneen1m nxopn1cn a nenpepmano panxennn, n 1pypno ynoan1L
oen1m, korp onn npnxopn1 a panoaecne, 1e 6onee, u1o 1kne oen1m nc1onLko
ckopo1eunm n nenpepcksyem, u1o ne c1on1 o nnx roaopn1L - nyuue pcc1pna1L
nepnopm, korp opnn ns aneen1oa, nano npeo6npn np ppyrn, n ponroe apen
onpepenne1 cypL6y nunn.
6e ppeanne unannnsunn, o6nnLno nponn1nnme ennnckn pyxo n
apoxnoanennme n ynpanneme ouLk 6eno pcm, o6nsnm npeo6npnnk uepnoro
aneen1 aksnL1une, ko1opn nx xpk1epnsye1, cnepoa1enLno, uyac1aennoc1L -
nx rnanm n o6un npnsnk.
rnne1 npopepxncn enLun cpok, ue uepnme xn1ckne npopm, nonyunaune
ounm npn1ok cen1cko kpoan. pap, c1pn 1kxe nonyunn pnckyk
noppepxky, no noc1onnnm npn1ok ennncko kpoan npnpn nunn 1y cyk
nenopanxnoc1L, ns-s ko1opo on ocao6opnncL o1 rpnpnosnoc1n 1onLko pnn 1oro,
u1o6m norpysn1Lcn a rpo1eck.
Bnroppn 6enm nuec1ann ccnpnckoe o6uec1ao npno6peno 6onLue cao6opm
xypoxec1aennoro apoxnoaennn. 1kxe amnrpno o1 a1oro: ecnn a cmcne
aosamuennoro nnu1o ne cpann1cn c aennune nnpnp n neko1opmx paopuoa-xpoa
a epxne rnn1e, 1o a1n npekpcnm nn1nnk nepoc1e1 xnaoc1n 6penLeqoa
opc6p; u1o kce1cn ykpuenn nnneancknx spnn - osnk n
rnsypoannme knpnnun, - n yxe roaopnn, u1o pxe rpekn cornn nnuL konnpoa1L
a1n uepeapm, no ne poc1nrnn 1koro nsmcknnoro akyc.
coxnennk, ennnckn npnnunn 6mn cnnuko cnnen n c1n npeo6npkun.
ennkonennme ccnpnckne ckynLn1ypm, ko1opme cnepye1 o1nec1n k n1nunoc1n,
npepuec1aykue VII a. po n. a., snenye1 poaonLno kopo1kn nepnop. ocne
yksnnoro aek nc1ynnn rny6okn ynpok, n a konue konuoa aoc1opxec1aoan kynL1
ypopnnaoro, c1onL xpk1epnm pnn uepno pcm.
1ckp am1eke1 cnepykuee: pnn 1oro, u1o6m o6ecneun1L nc1nnnoe upc1ao nckycc1a,
neo6xopno 6mno ceuenne uepno kpoan c kpoaLk 6eno, npnue nocnepne ponxno
6mno 6m1L 6onLue, ue a nyuune apeen Meqnc n nneann. onLko npn a1o
ycnoann orn cqopnpoa1Lcn pc, o6npkun 6eckoneunm aoo6pxenne n
uyac1an1enLnoc1Lk a coue1nnn c 6onLun yo. koe ceuenne nponsouno nosxe,
korp a nc1opnn nonannncL kxnme rpekn.
B
&%, * &' ( ()
I
u; u n
Mm pounn po anoxn, korp npnum u1ypo asnnn annon, korp ccnpnckn
nnepnn nun enn1Lcn no qope n copepxnnk. CmnoaLn n Cn nacerp
noknnynn nepame pnpm npopoa. ec1o 1oro, u1o6m ynpann1L rocyppc1an, onn
npeap1nnncL a ner1nanm, pesoprnnsykun qk1op. peny amunn pnum;
1enepL m oxe pcco1pe1L nx 6nnxe - yxe ne 1onLko kk ae1aL, yuc1aoaauyk a
cospnnn rnn1, no kk coe snenn1oe n 6nropopnoe ceec1ao 6eno pcm. Mm
nonyun o nnx nenonnoe npepc1anenne, ecnn cpsy npnc1ynn k npnu, ne
nsyuna ack rpynny, no uc1Lk ko1opo onn 6mnn. oa1oy nune c cmx
ounmx ae1ae ceec1a. [nn a1oro n npnpe1cn o1npan1Lcn a ponm n aoc1oke
npnn, rpe nonannncL cme kpynnme rpynnm pncknx npopoa:
o nepame urn m nnpan s npepenm npnn, no 1oy, u1o 6pxnckn
unannnsunn, a onpepenenno epe uyxpn snpnoy npy, snun1enLno oxnann
aoc1ounm pernon n, c1onknyauncL 1 c pcn, ko1opmx ccnpnum n ernn1nne
anpenn 1onLko enLko, on oksncL a 1ecno kon1k1e c xen1mn oppn.
syuenne a1nx o1nouenn n nx pesynL11oa npepc1anne1 oco6yk axnoc1L. Mm
yanpn, nckonLko npeaocxopc1ao 6eno pcm y1aeppnnocL a o1nouennn onronoa,
1k xe kk n uepnmx npopoa, a kko epe a1o poksmae1 nc1opnn, s1e
coo1ae1c1aykuee coc1onnne o6enx nnsunx pc n nponsaopnmx o1 nnx npopoa.
pypno onpepenn1L cnnxponns expy nepamn nepecenennnn xn1oa n pnuea;
ne enee 1pypno o6o1ncL 6es nonm1kn cpen1L a1o. pnuec1ane nnpycoa a enpx6
nponsouno nc1onLko pano, s npepenn acnko nosn1nano nc1opnn, u1o
qnnonornn o1opanre1 a1o1 qk1 a rny6okyk ppeanoc1L. D1o co6m1ne oxno
p1npoa1L anoxo po 4000 r. po n. a., n ckopee acero pnum npnepno a a1o xe
apen, a cnny 1ex xe o6c1on1enLc1a, oc1annn nppopnny 6enoro ceec1a n
cnyc1nnncL n kr - opnn k snpy, ppyrne k aoc1oky.
pnum, 6onee ypunname, ue xn1m, a 1euenne ponrnx aekoa npnpy co caon
nunonnLnm nsmko, canuennm npnnoxenne k nepao6m1noy npeunk 6eno
pcm, coxpnnnn qnsnueckn 1nn, ko1opm nosaonnn n ns6ex1L ceuennn c
uepnm ncenenne. 1o6m o6Lncnn1L a1o1 qenoen, cnepye1 npnsn1L, u1o
6opnrenm o1c1ynnn, pccenanncL nnn ynnu1oxnncL saoea1ennn, nnn onn xnnn
pso6uennmn a amcokoropnmx ponnnx unp, nepao nnpncko c1pnm, kyp
npnunn pnum. c11n, ne1 nnkknx conenn a 1o, u1o ppeanee ncenenne a1nx
seenL npnnpnexno k uepnoy 1nny [ Hananx acvacn Hr
Hkxx n Hynaa, km na ay cnay ara.].
6 a1o canpe1enLc1ayk1 ennnckne nneen, ko1opme eue n ceropnn ac1peuk1cn
a yne, nn coc1on1 ns no1okoa 1ex 6exenuea, ko1opme ne nocnepoann npnepy
coo1euec1aennnkoa n ne yunn a nnpxykckne ropm n a [ekn, npepnounn
amcokoropnme yuenLn, rpe oxno 6mno n1n npexnoe y6exnue n ponro coxpnn1L
caok a1nnueckyk nnpnanpynLnoc1L.
pexpe ue eue pnLue npopanny1Lcn a npnk, pcco1pn ace nepao6m1noe
pnckoe ceec1ao a 1o1 oen1, korp ono yxe panrnocL n kr, xo1n a 1o apen,
korp ono npnc1ynnno k sxa1y ponnnm unp, ocnoann nx cc eue ne amun
s npepenm Corpnnm.
pnum yxe o1pennnncL o1 kenL1cknx npopoa, ko1opme panrnncL n ceaepo-snp a
o6xop cnnckoro opn c ceaep, expy 1e kk cnanne, no o1nnuaunecn o1
a1o nocnepne n norouncnenno ceLn npopoa, nepeeunncL a apony 6onee
ceaepnm ny1e.
1k, pnum, eue po 1oro kk onn npnunn a npnk, ne nenn nnuero o6uero c
npopn, ko1opm npepc1onno cpen1Lcn eaponeun. nn coc1annnn
norouncnennyk o6unoc1L, coaepuenno nenoxoxyk n oc1nLnyk uc1L 6eno pcm,
no1oy nx cnepye1 o6osnun1L oco6m nene. coxnennk, a1o ne yunn cme
nsaec1nme yuenme. Cocpepo1ounauncL n qnnonornn, onn pnn ace nsmk pcm
o6uee, no ouenL ne1ounoe nsanne nnporepnckne, ne o6p1na annnnn n 1o
o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o ns acex npopoa, roaopnaunx n a1nx nsmkx, 1onLko opnn 6mn a
npnn, 1orp kk oc1nLnme pxe n ne npn6nnxnncL k ne. a1o c1no ocnoano
npnunno nocnepykunx nyunmx oun6ok. smkn 6eno pcm nnpncknn nannk1cn
ne a 6onLue c1enenn, ue kenL1cknn, n cun1k nx ropspo enee repncknn,
nexenn rpeuecknn [cn ak yx xH aaau rynnm nmka n H
aa, mn m nrv kaanaau acky aau kak
knucky. ka H, ak Hm avn m ka
rravck vk, ak n HrH nvaH s aaa mn m
H nHnHmH.].
penyuec1ao 1epnn pnckn coc1on1 a 1o, u1o ero am6pnn cn nneen, k
ko1opm on o1nocn1cn, n u1o on conpoaoxpn nx ackpy, rpe 6m onn nn npoxnann.
1oy xe a1o coe ypunoe pnn nnx nsanne: ono osnue1 noun1em, 1. e.
pnckne npopm coc1onnn ns nkpe noun1emx, nkpe, poc1onmx yaxennn,
1kxe, aosoxno, nkpe, ko1opme ornn nonyun1L cnno 1o, uero onn scnyxnann,
no ne nenn. cnn 1koe 1onkoanne ne copepxn1cn a co cnoae, ono am1eke1 ns
qk1oa.
Benme npopm, nsmaaune ce6n 1k, nonnnn snuenne a1oro cnoa. nn
scnyxnnn ero caon oryuec1ao n 1onLko nosxe s6mnn ero, npnnna ppyrne
nnenoannn. npycm nsmann canuennyk c1pny, 1. e. co6c1aenno npnk, pn-
p1, nnn 3enn noun1emx nkpe [ v racn a Maaa-QxaHa-
Uaca: Mxy ayHn BxcamH kaH, aacaa Qcxaaa,
nx Hnn, ky Hym aaan BaxHaaa, nHy v
ncan r (. II, rn. II, 17). vu , naavanu
acn vcmH aaH v n xn nHc. 3aH a
21 vaH: aa, kan nx Hxy Haaa xa, k acky
acaa k anay aara, cna aaa Mxaca, . .
"anuan nacu". 22: acvr anar kaa,
Hxy ynHnymH raH, nx Hnn, ky Hym aaan
aaa, n acnan "nvaHmH nuH" (Manava-Dharma-
Sastra, , 1825).]. osxe, korp onn pspennnncL n kc1m, nn pn
skpennnocL s 6onLue uc1Lk nunn - acnnn, nocnepne k1eropne
nc1nnnmx nnpycoa, paxpm poxpennmx, un1aunx epm.
[peann nene, ko1opm nsmann ce6n pnum-npnum - k nn npnnpnexnn
npnum, - 6mno . [pyrn ae1aL a1oro ceec1a - nepcm - 1kxe c1nn
nsma1L ce6n , korp onn o1ks nncL o1 a1oro nsannn, ero kopenL
coxpnnncn ao nornx nenx nkpe, nnpnep, p1kcepkc, pno-6psn, p-16s,
n onn nepepnn ero cknq-onron, npnnnaun nx nsmk, s1e ero yno1pe6nnnn
pnum-cp1m.
caonx kocoronnuecknx npepc1anennnx npnum cun1nn co nepao c1pno n
sene o6nc1L, ko1opyk onn nsmann Airyanem-Vaego n noeunn ee pneko n
ceaepo-aoc1oke, y cmx nc1okoa kc n Hkcp1ec [ cvck snx
acvacn Hr aaa ackx aa s cam, ky a
3ana amaan ya ky cx n mv cva acn
cknvnu xnmH a aH. H nn, Arick,
Antariani, Aramki anHa ck cna airyaman. Byy
aHva, v a ackx rravckx aaanx vac acvacn
ak cnaa, kak Agr (nmau), arvat n aurvat (aa), pati
(rcn). nH a mn ak nHm a k ax a k:
.]. nn acnonnnn, u1o 1 ne1o npoponxnocL acero pa ecnu
a ropy n u1o ace oc1nLnoe apen 1 c1onn cypoan sn. kn o6pso, pnn nnx
c1pn noun1emx nkpe oc1ncL ppeane popnno, nnpycm a 6onee nospnne
apeen, npnamkune k a1oy nsannk n s6maune ero kopnn, nepenecnn ero n
caok noayk popnny.
D1o1 kopenL ar noackpy cnepoan s psnnunmn rpynnn pcm. pekn coxpnnnn
ero a cnoae pec, ko1opoe o6osnue1 amcoko noun1eoe cyuec1ao, 6or 6n1a,
xp6poro repon; cnoao nepaonunLno osnuno coaokynnoc1L kuec1a,
neo6xopnmx pnn nc1onuero uenoaek, - po6nec1L, 1aeppoc1L, yppoc1L, nosxe
osnuno po6pope1enL aoo6ue. n qnrypnpye1 a cnoae , ko1opoe
o1nocn1cn k noun1nnk caepxuenoaeuecknx cnoco6noc1e n cnn; nkoneu, n nxoxy
popoaoe nsanne pnckoro ceec1a a 1knx cnoax, kk ry, ayrianem,
nponsaopnmx o1 n ). pekn, o1pennauncL a n1nunyk
anoxy o1 o6uero c1aon, ne s6mnn ero nnenoanne nn a caoe munennn, nn a
nsannn caoe nunn.
D1o nccnepoanne oxno npoponxn1L, n 1orp m npe kopenL ar, ir nnn er
a neeuko cnoae Ehre, u1o poksmae1 cnepykuee: uyac1ao roppoc1n, ocnoannoe
n opnLnmx poc1onnc1ax, acerp snnno 6onLuoe ec1o a mcnnx co nyuue
ns uenoaeuecknx pc [ x ku Hm aH a ckH hir n ir, v
nmn a namu herus a Hk Herr.].
k noksmak1 norouncnennme canpe1enLc1a, ec1L npexp n 1o, u1o a opnn
npekpcnm penL 6ype1 npeno o6o6uennoe n anonne scnyxennoe nn pnn a1oro
npop, - ko1opoe, kc11n, on korp-1o pn c ce6e, - asen 1knx nsann, kk
qe1npm, kaksum n nn-porepnum. koneuno cue1e a1o nosaonn1 nyuue nonn1L
renenornk uenoaeuec1a, nok n nosaonk ce6e ampenn1L oco6yk rpynny cpepn
acex 6enmx npopoa, ko1opme scnyxnnn caok cnay n sneu1nenn ee n kne, a
caonx skonx n a caonx knnrx. cxopn ns a1oro, n noc1pkcL p1L nsanne a1o
pce c yue1o ee coc1anmx aneen1oa n 1o1 oen1, korp on, o1pennauncL o1
oc1nLno uc1n ceec1a, pannyncL n kr.
cun1mae1cn noro nneen, ko1opme npnunn a npnk, n 1ex, ko1opme nounn no
c1on cen1oa, pounn po kxnoro no6epexLn cnnckoro opn, o11yp a Mnyk
snk n a peunk, n nsmann ce6n annnnn. eko1opme cnyc1nnncL n kro-snp,
po6pnncL po epcnpckoro snna, ppyrne, oc1ancL a 1euenne aekoa a pone
y-c, npepc1nn nepep eaponeun nop nene cp1oa. kn o6pso,
nnpnum, rpekn, npnum, cp1m coc1annk1 opny pcy, o1nnukuykcn o1 acex
oc1nLnmx npepc1an1ene caoero anp n npeaocxopnuyk nx acex.
1o kce1cn qnsnueckoro cxopc1a, specL ne1 nnkkoro conennn: 6nropopc1ao
uep1, c11L, qnsnueckn cnn - a1o oxno cun11L o6unn xpk1epnc1nkn
ceec1a, ec1nme o1knonennn o1 nnx nannk1cn cnepc1ane ceuennn c
6opnrenn. npnn onn ceunncL c uepnmn, a pne c xn1n, cen1n n
1oxe c uepnmn, a peunn c 6enm ncenenne, ko1opoe n ne c1ny y1ounn1L, n c
cen1n. pnko ackpy coxpnnncL ocnoa 1nn, n, pxe ampopnauncL, on
nopopnn 1koe no1oc1ao, kk coapeennme kunpum n 6onLun uc1L ceaepnmx
6pxnoa, kk 1e nkpn, u1o xnnn npn nepamx ncnepnnkx np n nso6pxenm n
coopyxennnx kun-yc1 n epcenonnc; nkoneu, se1n, u1o nkpn,
apoxnoanaune an1ene nonnon nqnckoro, Knn1ep qnnckoro, enepm
Mnnoccko, coc1annk1 nyuuyk uc1L uenoaeuec1a.
Y pnuea 6mn 6eno-posoan kox: 1knn 6mnn cme ppeanne rpekn n nepcm,
1knn sneu1nenm ppeanne nnpnum. onocm, kk npanno, 6mnn cae1nme -
acnonn, u1o annnnm o1pann npepnou1enne nenno a1oy uae1y aonoc n npennnn
n caonx cmx noun1emx 6oroa. ceropnn eue cae1nme aonocm oxno ac1pe1n1L a
npnn, oco6enno n ceaepe, 1. e. 1, rpe pnckn pc nyuue acero coxpnnn caok
unc1o1y. 11nape ac1peuk1cn pmxeaonocme n rony6ornsme nkpn.
Y nnpycoa npen kpco1m po cnx nop ccounnpye1cn co cae1no koxe n cae1nmn
aonocn, o ue canpe1enLc1ayk1 onncnnn ns6pnnmx pe1e, c1onL uc1me a
6yppnc1cknx nerenpx. nnx onncmae1cn, nnpnep, 6oxec1aennoe cospnne a
npenuecko aospc1e c sono1nc1oro uae1 koxe. ro ronoa nnonne1 son1nk (1.
e. kpyrnn, ne noxoxn n nnpnpy, u1o xpk1epno pnn uepno pcm). Y nero
pnnnnme pykn, unpokn no6, 6nnsko pcnonoxennme 6poan n amc1ynkun noc.
ockonLky a1o onncnne (npnepno VII a. po n. a.) o1nocn1cn k pce, nyuune
aneen1m ko1opo 6mnn a snun1enLno epe nepeeunm, ne1 nnuero ypnan1enLnoro
a 1knx neckonLko npeyaennuennmx 1pe6oannnx, kk kox sono1nc1oro uae1 n
caepennme aec1e 6poan. 1o kce1cn oc1nLnmx [e1ne, peuL npe1 o 6eno pce, n
a1o pe1 noaop py1L, u1o pnum a caoe cce o6npnn a1nn npnsnkn.
D1 psnoanpnoc1L uenoaeuec1a, o1nnuauncn kpcnao aneunoc1Lk, 6mn
npenen ne enee ampkuncn psyo. n o6npn nenc1ouno xnaoc1Lk n
aneprne, ee cnc1e npanennn o1aeun ace no1pe6noc1n c1onL
npepnpnnunamx nkpe.
o rnae pnuea, pspenennmx n nneen nnn ne6onLune rpynnm, xnaune a
6onLunx nocenkx, c1onnn aoxpn c ouenL orpnnuenno anc1Lk, ko1opn ne nen
nnuero o6uero c 6conk1nso, npouae1aun y uepnmx nnn xen1mx npopoa. Cm
ppeann cnckpn1ckn nsanne upn nnn anc1n1enn 6mno cnoao vic pati, u1o
coxpnnnocL a senpcko vic paitis, nn1oackn cnoao wiespati po cnx nop
nsmak1 seneanpenLu [ ackx nmkax ncnxaacn vac
sr ccaar cnaa: vvq, avaam H, naaacn a
Hxca Ha, anH, nack vicus na r
civis, . . xnu. Pati a cack cn y anac a
aHnckH caacn bod, a cnaanckH pod, a nackH patin, a
nnuckH pan, a rckH fathus.]. peueckn onpxnn reponuecko anoxn,
ouenL 6nnskn npncko onpxnn po np, nen aecL orpnnuennyk anc1L, a
nne n Mx6xp1e upn ns6npk1cn xn1ennn ropopoa, 6pxnn n pxe
cocepnnn upnn: specL ne1 n peun o aceanc1nn n coanc1nn, n a1o nnonne1
repnckyk oprnnsunk nepep peqopo, nnopo6ne 1o, u1o ocyuec1ann y nc
nopanr.
Mexpy npoun, a Mna-[xp-Lc1pe 6onLue npnaepxennoc1n npee
6conk1no onpxnn, ue a aennknx noax, opnko eue ne1 c1pornx npnnunnoa
nmneunnx aoc1ounmx rocyppc1a. upk, pxe ecnn a1o pe6enok, cnepye1
o1nocn1Lcn c nou1enne n ne cun11L ero npoc1m cep1nm: on ec1L 6oxec1ao a
uenoaeuecko o6nnke. o nnxe skonop1enL po6anne1: yc1L upL, nopnnauncL c
nox n pccae1e, c yaxenne amcnyue1 6pxnoa, nsyunaunx ace 1pn epm n
a1nnueckne nykn, n nyc1L noannye1cn nx peuennk ( 37). pnee a 54: UpL
ponxen nsnun1L ceL nnn aoceL nnnc1poa, ko1opme ponxnm npnnec1n knn1ay,
kcncL pyko canuennoro nso6pxennn nnn npepe1. D1o 6ypy1 nkpn, uLn npepkn
cnyxnnn upn, nkpn, ynonneme a canuennmx knnrx, po6nec1nme n anpekune
opyxne, 6nropopnoro nponcxoxpennn. 56: yc1L en noc1onnno coae1ye1cn c
a1nn nnnc1pn a aonpocx aonm n np, oprnnsunn aock, poxopoa, sun1m
caoero npop n npnynoxennn npno6pe1ennmx 6or1c1a. 57: 6pya nennn
caonx coae1nnkoa - anune coc1on1enLno, s1e, o6cypna nx coo6u, - nyc1L on
npnnne1 cme yppme peuennn ao acex penx. 58: yc1L upL, corncno
uec1n ocnoanm npann, noc1an1 ao rnae coae1 opnoro 6pxn, ns6pnnoro
cpepn npounx. 59: yc1L on aceueno poaepne1 ey ao acex penx n aec1e c nn
npnnne1 okonu1enLnoe peuenne.
pncknx upe, xnaunx a caonx cenennnx cpepn c1p 6mkoa, kopoa n noupe n
nannaunxcn cypLnn a 6ypnmx cnopx, ko1opme uc1o conpoaoxpnn xnsnL
cko1oaopoa, okpyxnn nkpn 6onee aonnc1aennme, ue nc1yxn.
orp n aepy peuL o6 pncko nunn, o6 pncko ceec1ae, n ne xouy cks1L, u1o
psnnunme nneen, coc1annkune ero, xnnn a npe ppyr c ppyro, xo1n a
aepnuecknx rnnx nnue1cn o6p1noe. pxp cony1c1aoan nx noacepneano
xnsnn, n cm poc1onm o6Lek1o aocxnuennn a1nx nkpe 6mn aonn n
konecnnue, ko1opm a conpoaoxpennn konecnnuero ocmnn c1penn cocepnne
nneen. 3enp-aec1e 1ko aonn nsmae1cn rathaestao, 1. e. 1o1, k1o espn1
n konecnnue. osnnun acerp qnrypnpye1 n ernne1cknx, ccnpncknx, nepcnpcknx
nso6pxennnx, a rpeuecknx n cnckpn1cknx noax, a Lxna, a cknpnnacknx
crx n pmupcknx ponx cpepneaekoaLn, a npnn on nannncn axno qnrypo a
aonncko pene.
1k, pnum aoeann expy co6o, nockonLky onn ne 6mnn koueannkn n
c1pnncL kk oxno ponLue npo6m1L n noao sene, nockonLky nx xp6poc1L
noc1onnno c1nknancL c conpo1nanenne ec1noro ncenennn, onn cn 6mnn
nnnun1opn acex caonx noxopoa, aoennmx knnn, no6ep n nopxenn.
[o6pope1enLk y nnx cun1ncL aonnckn po6nec1L, po6po1 n 6nropopc1ao npexpe
acero cansmanncL c xp6poc1Lk: c a1n m ac1peuecn a 6onee nospnne apeen a
n1nLnncko noasnn, rpe po6pm nnnLpo - a1o 1o xe coe, u1o il gran virtuoso
y pnoc1o. Cme amcokne nrppm n nouec1n 6mnn yro1oanm cm k1nanm
repon. x nsmann qoura, 1. e. ne6ecnme, no1oy u1o, korp onn norn6nn a
6n1ae, onn nonpnn a Capry, aennkonennm paopeu, rpe nx ac1peun npp, upL
6oroa, n a1 uec1L 6mn nc1onLko aennk, u1o nn 6or1me npnnouennn, nn snnnn,
nn yppoc1L ne pann cep1noy npa snn1L n ne6e ec1o, ko1oporo
ypoc1nanncL cypm. n opno poc1onnc1ao ne orno cpann1Lcn co cep1Lk a 6ok.
o n a1n ne orpnnunanncL npepor1nam po6nec1nmx aonnoa. nn ornn ne 1onLko
o1npan1Lcn a kuec1ae noun1emx roc1e a o6n1enL 6oroa - onn ornn cec1n1L c
1pon cnx 6oroa, n pxe aceoryun npp noc1onnno 6onncn, u1o kko-nn6ypL
repo-cep1nm o16epe1 y nero cknne1p.
Mexpy a1nn pncknn npenn n copepxnne cknpnnacknx nqoa n6nkpe1cn
nopsn1enLnoe cxopc1ao. ne npoc1o cxopc1ao, 6conk1nyk npen1nunoc1L
npnxopn1cn konc11npoa1L expy nonn1nnn a1nx payx nneen 6enoro ceec1a,
pspenennmx aekn n pcc1onnne. npoue, 1kn pepskn konuenunn o1nouenn
uenoaek co caepxLec1ec1aennmn cyuec1an ac1peue1cn a 1ko xe 6onLuo epe
y rpekoa reponuecko anoxn. poe1e, noxnukun ne6ecnm oronL, oksmae1cn
xn1pee n npepnpnnunaee, ue Knn1ep; epkynec cnno o16npe1 Uep6ep y Dpe6;
ece sc1anne1 ppox1L ny1on, cnpnuero n 1pone; nkc pnn1 enepy;
Mepkypn, xo1n on n 6or, ne ocennae1cn npo1naoc1on1L xp6poc1n cny1nnkoa
Menenn.
Lxna 1kxe nso6pxk1cn repon, 6pockune amsoa pckn cnn n
no6expkune nx.
D1 pepsoc1L y acex 6enmx npopoa onpepenne1cn, neconenno, nx y6expennoc1Lk a
caoe npeaocxopc1ae n oryuec1ae. enn ne ypnanne1 1o1 qk1, u1o nerpm 1k
nerko npnsnk1 6oxec1aennyk npnpopy saoea1ene, npnuepunx c ceaep, korp 1e
aocnpnnnnn kk neu1o o6ns1enLnoe caoe caepxLec1ec1aennoe oryuec1ao,
nnorp, a cnny neko1opmx aonncknx nnn opnLnmx nopanroa, cun1nn ce6n
cnoco6nmn nopnn1Lcn po 6oroa, ko1opme n6nkpk1 s nnn, noork1 n n
onck1cn nx. oo6ue oxno cks1L, u1o nckpennne nkpn o6mknoaenno nerko
npnnnk1 s pec1an1enLnoc1L 1o, ao u1o aepn1. e 6onee, korp uepnm xn1enL
ccnpnn n rnn1 c 1pene1o cnyue1, kk ero rocnopnn snanne1, u1o ecnn on eue ne
6or, 1o ckopo n c1ne1. 6opnren anpn1, kk rocnopnn npan1, anc1aye1, yupexpe1
skonm, ampy6e1 nec, ocyue1 6ono1, c1pon1 ropop - opnn cnoao, amnonnne1
1y unannns1opckyk p6o1y, n ko1opyk c on ne cnoco6en,- n roaopn1 copopnu:
a1o1 uenoaek oun6e1cn, no1oy u1o ey ne npo c1noan1Lcn 6oro - on yxe 6or.
6opnrenm 6oro1aopn1 ero.
pn 1ko npeyaennuenno uyac1ae co6c1aenno snunoc1n oxno 6mno 6m
npepnonoxn1L, u1o ceppue 6enoro uenoaek cknonno k 6es6oxnk. o a1o ne 1k:
6enme, kk npanno, ouenL n6oxnm, n nx ouenL cnnLno snnk1 1eonornueckne
npen. Mm yxe y6epnnncL, kk s6o1nnao onn coxpnnnn ppeanne kocoronnueckne
aocnonnnnn, ko1opmn o6npno cen1ckoe nnen eapeea, uc1nuno nonyunauee nx
ns co6c1aennmx nc1ounnkoa, uc1nuno o1 xn1oa. Co caoe c1oponm, pnckn nunn
oc1ann cnepm a nnre Bm1nn. o1 u1o nnue1cn a nraepe: 1y nopy ne
cyuec1aoano nn 6m1nn, nn ne6m1nn. e 6mno nn acenenno, nn 1ocqepm, nnuero
aaepxy; nnuero n nnrpe... Cep1n ne 6mno, kk ne 6mno 6eccep1nn, nn psnnunn
expy pne n nouLk. o D1o yxe 1pene1no, nok 6es pmxnnn, 6ypyun epnnc1aennm
no o1nouennk k coy ce6e, sknkuennoy a co ce6e. e 6mno nnuero 6onLue.
ce 6mno nokpm1o 1Lo n norpyxeno a nenponnueme aopm. o a1 ckpm1n cc
nponannncL cnno cosepunnn. Xennne (kama, nk6oaL) popnnocL a nune ee
cyunoc1n, n a1o 6mno nepaopopnoe cen, cen cosnpkuee, ko1opoe yppeum,
ocosnaune ero a caonx ceppux, nocpepc1ao epn1unn, psnnunn a none ne6m1nn
kk cansL c Cyuec1aoanne. D1n mcnn ampxenm rny6xe n npue, ue y ecnop n
a kenL1cknx cksnnnx, xo1n a npnnunne a1o opno n 1o xe. npoue, pnum ncknn a
pennrnn, npexpe acero e1qnsnueckne npen n opnLnme npepnncnnn. C no ce6e
kynL1 6mn ouenL npoc1m.
ko xe npoc1o a 1e pnekne apeen 6mn oprnnsunn nn1eon. eckonLko
6oroa ao rnae c nppo ckopee pykoaopnnn npo, ue anc1aoann np nn
[va, nmcakH m mn yyac, n yaac; y ax
yca can ay, y ax rka YaH: c vck vk
n s , k nkmaa Hn.]. oppme pnum cpennn ns
ne6 pecny6nnky.
pnko a1n 6orn, ko1opme nenn uec1L anc1aoa1L np amcokoepnmn nkpLn,
6mnn o6nsnm nkpn nouec1nn. o1nnune o1 1oro, u1o nponsouno nosxe a npnn, n
a nonno coo1ae1c1ann c 1e, u1o 6mno a epcnn n oco6enno a peunn, a1n 6orn
o1nnunncL 6esynpeuno kpco1o. pnum xo1enn nx anpe1L noxoxnn n ce6n. nn
ne snnn n sene nnkoro, npeaocxopnuero nx; coo1ae1c1aenno, onn cun1nn, u1o n n
ne6e ne1 nnuero coaepuennee. o caepxLec1ec1aennm cyuec1a, ynpannkun
npo, 1pe6oanncL npepor1nam. pnum anpn1 nx a eue 6onee npekpcno, ue
cn coaepuennn uenoaeueckn qop, - a co nc1ounnke kpco1m n, aosoxno,
xnsnn: onn nunn ero a cae1e n ncnonLsoann pnn nnenoannn amcunx cyuec1a
kopenL dou, u1o osnue1 ocaeu1L [km sHnr aman cna
dou dha, . . ycaaanaau, caaau.].
pen cae1 npnxnncL a nsmkx pcm n c1n canpe1enLc1ao epnnc1a pennrnosnmx
nonn1n y 6enmx npopoa. Y nnpycoa a1o - Devas, y annnnoa - 3eac, y nn1oauea -
Diewas, y rnnoa - Duz, y npnnpcknx kenL1oa - Dia, a Dppe - yr, a
aepxnerepncko - Zio, y cnann - Dewana, a n1nncko - Diana. ckpy,
kyp nponnkn 6enn pc, rpe on anpmuec1aoan, ac1peue1cn a1 canuennn
aok6yn, no kpne epe, a nepaopopnmx nsmkx. sennx, rpe nenn ec1o
kon1k1m c uepnm aneen1o, on npo1nao c1on1 coue1nnk 1 ennncknx
6opnrenoa [ cc nn sr cnnuy cna egzie n amlak,
. . nc rcn. n, s cnaa amcn a H a
cny x x nv, n kmH a aHnn HH a Hn
raa a Bn.]. 1opn aok6yn ampxe1 cyeaepne, nepan -
munenne; a1opn - nnop aocnnennoro aoo6pxennn n rpnnun1 c 6cyppo, nepan
am1eke1 ns psy. orp Deus n 1 ceunanncL, u1o, k coxnennk,
nponcxopnno uc1o, a pennrnosno pok1pnne nponcxopnn 1kn xe ny1nnu, kk n a
counnLno oprnnsunn a pesynL11e ceuennn uepno pcm c 6eno. un6k 6mn
1e nnueanee, u1o a 1knx cnyunx npeo6npno 1. orp xe aepx opepxnano
Deus, pesynL11 6mn enee pspyun1enLnm.
1k, Deus ec1L ampxenne n o6Lek1 coro amcokoro noun1nnn y pncko pcm.
Mm ncknkun ns nee npnckoe ceec1ao - no oco6m npnunn, o ko1opmx peuL
nope1 a caoe apen [ckan aca ana Bxcay yr Hn Gott,
n-rck Gouth, v cccn c cackckH Gouddhah. 3
ava kmm. Byy ax ku sr cnaa a cackckH
quaddhata, . . v cycay.].
anoxy, korp pnckne npopm yxe nopxopnnn k Corpnne, o1 nnx o1pennnncL
annnnm. nn nounn no ny1n, ko1opm ponxen 6mn npnaec1n nx k caoe cypL6e: ecnn
6m onn npoponxnn aec1e c oc1nLnmn nneenn panr1Lcn n kr, n 6m ne
npnuno a ronoay noaepny1L n ceaepo-snp.
[anrncL npno n snp, onn asnnn 6m n ce6n ponL, ko1opyk nosxe cmrpnn
npnum. nn ne noc1ponnn 6m 1kne rocyppc1a, kk Cnunon, pryc, qnnm, Cnp1,
opnnq.
npepnonrk, u1o s a1n co6m1ne c1on1 npnunnm, ko1opme onpepennnn ppeankk
anrpunk 6enmx npopoa. o ecnn 6m xen1okoxne saoea1enn c1nn npecnepoa1L
6erneuoa, ace 6enme npopm - pnum, kenL1m n cnanne - 1kxe yc1pennncL 6m
n kr n snononnnn 6m a1y uc1L senn. pnko a1oro ne cnyunnocL. 1y xe anoxy,
npn6nnsn1enLno 1orp, korp pnum cnycknncL k Corpnne, kenL1m n cnanne unn
n ceaepo-snp n nxopnnn poporn, ecnn n ne coace cao6opnme, 1o xo1n 6m enee
sunuennme. oa1oy cnepye1 npnsn1L, u1o panenne, sc1anauee annnnoa
o1npan1Lcn n snp, uno ne ns ceaepnmx seenL, o1 co6p1Lea-pnuea.
D1n npopm, a pano c1enenn xp6pme, noc1onnno apxpoann expy co6o. a1o
npnaopnno k pspyuennk cenenn, rocyppc1a pcnpnncL, no6expennm
npnxopnnocL 1epne1L nro nnn cnc1Lcn 6erc1ao. Dnnnnm oksnncL cmn cn6mn
n am6pnn a1opoe: onn npoc1nnncL c sene, ko1opyk ne ornn sun1n1L o1
aonnc1aennmx co6p1Lea, cenn a caon konecnnum, asnnn caon nykn n c1penm n
pannynncL a ropm n snpe. D1n ropm snnnn cen1m, ko1opme nsrnnn o11yp
xn1oa, uc1nuno nokopna nx, nocnepnne eue pnLue cpennn 1o xe coe c
uepnokoxnn 6opnrenn. Cen1m, no6expennme annnnn, ne c1nn
conpo1nann1Lcn a1n po6nec1nm 6erneu n pannynncL o6p1no a Mecono1nk; ue
pnLue npopanrnncL annnnm, am1ecnneme npncknn npopn, 1e 6onLue onn
1ecnnnn cen1oa, a pesynL11e uero ccnpnckn np ace 6onLue snonnnncn a1o
ceunno pco. npoue, m yxe pcco1penn a1n co6m1nn. 1k, nyc1L
nepecenenum npoponxk1 cao ny1L. nsaec1no, kyp on npnaepe1 nx.
spennauncL, pae 6onLune rpynnm ace eue coc1annk1 pnckoe ceec1ao - n
nek a anpy nnpycoa n sopoc1pnuea. 3aoeaman noame senn n cun1n ce6n opnn
npopo, a1n nneen oksnncL a enpx6e. onn o6ocnoanncL n nc16nux,
opouemx Cnnpxo, nn1Lk ero npn1okn n eue opno, cepLo, peko, nsanne
ko1opo nensaec1no, no ckopee acero a1o nn6o yn, nn6o Cpca-1n. D1n kpcname
ec1 rny6oko apesnncL a nn1L sopoc1pnuea-npnuea n oc1anncL a nx ceppue
eue ponroe apen nocne 1oro, kk onn nacerp noknnynn nx. [nn nnx enpx6 6mn
ace npne - ppyrnx seenL onn ne anpenn. x nosnnne a a1o o6nc1n
onpepennnn reorpqnueckne nonn1nn snpnmx npopoa, n 3enp-aec1,
ocnoamancL n pccksx npepkoa, pe1 npnn ann1e1 cenkp1nn.
D1o1 pernon, npepe1 c1onLknx aocnonnnn, c1n canpe1ene noaoro pspenennn
pnckoro ceec1a, n 6onee caexne nc1opnueckne xponnkn nosaonnk1 amncnn1L,
kkne qk1opm 6mnn npnunno npo1naoc1onnnn [H cu n-acnHy
avacn cycaaa ckx aa. 4nnrn x a
svckx knx n yry cy camx r, xn, crnac
xkaH, s am cvacn aaxmH. k acr a avck
aHa axHaH ncnaan nHy xaaan, rka
anckx aa, . . nan caH a mx ac, km
nknn.]. 1k, nunne pccks o co ppeane pennrnosno aone.
pk1ep n6oxnoc1n, npncyun 6eno pce, nyuue acero ampxe1cn a ee
munennn, n m npnc1yne k ero pcco1pennk. Mm yxe o1e1nnn 6nepnm, no
anonne psnnunm o1cae1 pennrnosnoc1n y e1ncoa, no1okoa xn1oa, o6npyxnnn
ee o6psum y cen1oa, 1enepL yanpn n1nunyk npoc1o1y aepoann n 1o
nepaoc1enennoe snuenne, ko1opoe npnpann e pnum, co6paunecn n caoe
nepao c1onnke nepep ncxopo annnnoa. 1o1 nepnop kynL1 o1nnuncn npoc1o1o.
cn counnLnn oprnnsunn 6mn o6puen n npk1nueckne pen n
pcc1pnancL c npk1nuecko 1oukn spennn. k xe, kk npepaopn1enL o6unnm,
cypLn 6onLuoro cenennn nannncn acero nnuL ns6npem unnoannko, okpyxennm
noue1o, ocnoanno n ero xp6poc1n, yppoc1n n konnuec1ae ero cnyr n c1p;
aonnm, o1um ceec1a, anpenn a caonx pouepnx 1onLko noounnu a nc1yuecknx
penx, o6nsnnmx pon1L kopoa n kos. kn o6pso, ecnn onn n noun1nn kynL1, 1o
ne npepc1annnn ce6e, u1o pennrnosnme qynkunn ory1 o1npann1Lcn cneunnLnmn
nkpLn, 1. e. kxpm ns nnx 6mn caon co6c1aennm canuennnko n cun1n caok
coaec1L poc11ouno unc1o, ceppue poc11ouno ynm n 6nropopnm, u1o6m 6es
nocpepnnkoa o6u1Lcn c aennknn 6eccep1nmn 6orn.
o 1o nn s apen, npouepuee expy yxopo rpekoa n sxa1o enpx6, pnckoe
ceec1ao s cue1 pnn1enLnmx kon1k1oa c 6opnrenn yxe y1p1nno caok unc1o1y n
caok qnsnueckyk n opnLnyk cyunoc1L a pesynL11e npn1ok uyxnx mcne n
uyxo kpoan, 1o nn nponcuepune nsenennn 6mnn ec1ec1aennm psan1ne
nporpeccnanoro rennn pnuea, no ao acnko cnyue ppeanne nonn1nn o npnpope
canuennnuec1a nsennnncL nesnun1enLno, n nc1ynnn oen1, korp aonnm
nepec1nn cun11L ce6n anpae ncnonnn1L xpeueckne qynkunn: 1k nonanncL kc1
xpeuoa.
D1n noame nc1mpn yoa n coaec1n nkpe cpsy cpennncL coae1nnkn upe n
ycnpn1ennn npopoa. x nsmann purehitas. pn nnx nsennncL cy1L kynL1:
kynL1 ycnoxnnncn, nckycc1ao xep1aonpnnouenn c1no nyko, nonno nenonn1nmx
pn1ynoa, oncnmx pnn npoc1koa. k1e noknonennn nkpn yxe oncnncL coaepu1L
qopnLnme oun6kn, ko1opme ornn ockop6n1L 6oroa, n u1o6m ns6ex1L 1ko
oncnoc1n, c1nn npn6er1L k ycnyr nypoxn1. epon1no, a npk1nke 1eonornn n
nn1yprnn a1o1 cneunnLnm cnyxn1enL nen nosnnnn a epnunne n xnpyprnn,
counnnn pennrnosnme rnnm n c1n 1pnxpm noun1e upnn, aonnn, ncenenne
6nroppn poc1onnc1a a o6nc1n pennrnn, opnn n nykn. D1o 6mn anox, korp
nonannncL cme ppeanne rnnm ep.
1k, ecnn canuennnk asnn a caon pykn noue1nme qynkunn, o6ecneunakune ey
aocxnuenne n cnn1nk, cao6opnme nkpn 1kxe amnrpnn o1 no1epn neko1opmx
npexnnx caonx npa, n no npnepy nypoxn1, sanpeaunx uc1Lk o6uec1aenno
xnsnn, o1um ceec1a, ocao6opnauncL o1 nornx s6o1, c1nn coaepuenc1aoa1Lcn a
1epnnLnmx nckycc1ax, a nyke ynpanennn, a aonncko pene n a o6nc1n
saoeann.
npoue, nypoxn1 nonuny ne ksncn ue-1o oncnm. n xnn yepnnenno pnpo c
6or1mn n oryuec1aennmn aoxpnn, ko1opme o6ecneunann ero npoc1yk npnyk
xnsnL. n ne nocnn opyxnn, 1. k. amuen ns ppyxec1aennoro nneenn. n nponcxopnn,
aosoxno, ns ceLn ancn1n nnn ero pop, on 6mn cmno, 6p1o, popc1aennnko
aonnoa. n nepepan caon snnnn yuennk, ko1opme 6mnn aonLnm a nk6oe apen
y1n o1 nero n cnoa asn1L a pykn nyk n c1penm. oa1oy 6pxnns nese1no pxe
pnn 1ex, k1o ero ncnoaepoan, sknpman ocnoam anc1n, ko1opo npepc1onno
cpen1Lcn upesepno.
pnn ns nepamx uroa, ko1opm cpennn canuennocnyxn1enn a npno ynpanennn
o6uec1aennmn, 1. e. senmn penn, canpe1enLc1aye1 o coaepuenc1aoannn
nonn1nuecko n opnLno cnc1em y coapeennnkoa 1o anoxn, ko1opyk neeukne
mcnn1enn ypuno nsmak1 cepm npeppaepne apeen (die graue Vorzeit).
ncn1n nonnnn, u1o 6onLue ne1 cmcn ncnonLsoa1L rpy6yk cnny n xn1poc1L a
o1nouennn ncenennn, ko1opoe noc1enenno npeapunocL a nx noppnnmx. popnoe
ns6pnne 6mno seneno nocanuenne, ko1opoe o6ecneunno nc1mpn npop oco6me
npa n aceo6uee yaxenne, nern1nnoc1L anc1n1enn 1enepL nop1aepxpncL
ue-1o apope koponoannn, ko1opoe ocyuec1annnn nypoxn1m [can a
ack ca, kH Hr racn a aHan, nakkaancu a
aa aHa.]. C 1ex nop anc1L upe pesko aospocn, no1oy u1o onn c1nn
yuc1nnkn canuennopec1an, n pnn a1oro n pxe ne npnunocL caepr1L 6oroa.
pnoapeenno 6mnn snoxenm ocnoam cae1cko anc1n canuennnkoa, n m ceropnn
sne, ue on oxe1 c11L a pykx npocaeuennmx npnmx nkpe, o6npkunx
oncnm paenne a po6pe, ko1opme, snn, u1o pnn nunn, 6onee acero noknonnauecn
po6nec1n, nnkkn, pxe ocanuennn npnunn ne oxe1 cnyxn1L nsannenne
1pycoc1n, yxe nunn npk1nkoa1L cypoame pok1pnnm aospepxnnn n o1ks o1 acero
npckoro. kn n6oxnoc1L ponxn 6mn npnaec1n k 1nxkn yaeuLn, k nm1k,
aosyukun n y n ceppue. o nypoxn1m po a1oro eue ne pounn. nn 6mnn
canuennnkn 6eno nunn, n n a ronoay ne npnxopnn mcnL o 1ko 6esskonnn.
kn o6pso, oryuec1ao canuennnkoa o1nmne neno npounoe ocnoanne. ro
oxo1no ycnnnan cae1ckn anc1L, ypoane1aopennn nonyuennm nocanuenne.
Ckopo c1no ncno, u1o pnn 1oro u1o6m nonyun1L u1o-1o, neo6xopno o1 uero-1o
o1ks1Lcn. e ace upn o1nocnnncL 6nrocknonno k aepun1enn xep1aonpnnouenn,
no xpeu poc11ouno 6mno n1n o1knnk a npope caoe 1aeppoc1Lk nnn koy-1o ns
nnx yepe1L yuennuecko cep1Lk o1 npnxo1n 1npn, u1o6m o6uec1aennoe nenne,
npencnonnennoe npnsn1enLnoc1n n aocxnuennn, cpenno kynpoa ns nypoxn1.
nn, kk neu1o ec1ec1aennoe, npnnnnn ponL, ko1opyk n npepoc1annn. pnko n ne
aepk nn a aronc1nueckne nepennn uenoro kncc, nn a 1o, u1o nesnun1enLnme
npnunnm ory1 p1L snun1enLnme pesynL11m. orp a o6uec1ae nponcxopn1
pnn1enLnn peaonkunn, a1o snun1, u1o c1pc1n 1pnyq1opoa oksnncL cnnLnee
nnunmx nn1epecoa, nnue onn ne nonLsoanncL 6m 1ko nonynnpnoc1Lk. pnnunnm,
n ko1opmx pnckne canuennnkn c1ponnn caok cypL6y, ne 6mnn nn nnu1oxnmn, nn
ceunmn - nnpo1na, onn saoeann rny6okyk cnn1nk rennn pcm, n cn
canuennocnyxn1enn 1o anoxn o6npnn pepknn cnoco6noc1nn k nckycc1ay
npanennn, 1kxe rn6kn yo, yuenoc1Lk, nponnu1enLnoc1Lk n nornko,
poxopnaue po qn1ns.
D1n nkpn qnnocoqckoro y anpenn, u1o pnckne npopm nxopn1cn a okpyxennn
uepnmx nneen, uncnenno nnoro npeaocxopnunx 6enyk pcy, ko1opn o6ocnoancL
n sennx CenpeuLn n poun po yc1Ln np. poe 1oro, onn anpenn, u1o cpepn
pnuea npno xnay1 ppyrne ec1nme nneen, ne c1onL norouncnennme, ko1opme
yxe nunnk1 ceuna1Lcn c neko1opmn ceLnn, ckopee acero c 6epneunn,
nnenee noun1emn n nnenee roppnaunncn caoe npnnpnexnoc1Lk k
saoea1enn. nn seunn, nckonLko yn1m c1on1 nnxe caonx 6enmx popn1ene
no kpco1e, yy n xp6poc1n; onn psmunnnn np nocnepc1annn annnnnn e1ncoa
n nokopennoe nnn nesancnoe uepnoe ncenenne. osoxno, onn 6mnn canpe1ennn
1oro, kk neko1opme ypunname e1ncm c1noannncL upnn.
[anxnme c1penenne coxpnn1L rocnopc1aykuyk ponL 6eno pcm, onn npnpynn
o6uec1aennoe yc1poc1ao c neppxne, ocnoanno n yc1aennmx cnoco6noc1nx. nn
npepnonrnn poaepn1L amcune ponxnoc1n cm ynm n npepnpnnunam. e,
k1o 6mn ne6or1 yo, no nen kpenkyk pyky, ceppue, xxpyuee aonncknx
npnknkuenn, n uec1onk6ne, onn poaepnnn s6o1y o sun1e o6uec1aennoro nopnpk.
kpn nrkoro npa, cknonnm k npnm 1pyp, no pcnonoxennm k p1nm
nopanr, 6mno npepnsnueno kopn1L rocyppc1ao n o6oru1L ero 1oproane n
peecno. 31e ns 6onLuoro uncn 1ex, ue osr p6o1n nnoxo, k1o 6mn po6ok n
nepoc11ouno 6or1, u1o6m oc1a1Lcn cao6opnm, canuennnkn cqopnpoann
rpynny, c1onauyk n nnxne c1ynenn, n peunnn, u1o a1o1 nnsun kncc 6ype1
sp61ma1L cao xne6, amnonnnn 1nxenme nnn pxe ynnsn1enLnme p6o1m,
neo6xopnme pnn o6uec1a.
1k, y spun nunocL npenLnoe peuenne, n nenLsn ne ouenn1L 1ko counnLnm
oprnns, ynpannem psyo n o6cnyxnaem cn6mn yn. cn 1pypnoc1L
sknkuncL a 1o, u1o6m ocyuec1an1L a1n 6c1pk1nme smcnm n npk1nke. a1o
no1epnenn neypuy ace snpnme 1eope1nkn, nypoxn1m cyenn, kk onn cun1nn,
cpen1L a1o.
cxopn ns npnnunn - neocnopnoro pnn nnx, - u1o nyuune kuec1a npnnpnex1
pnu, acnkn cn6oc1L n necnoco6noc1L npncyun uepnm, onn, cnepyn nornke,
peunnn, u1o uennoc1L uenoaek nxopn1cn a npno sancnoc1n o1 unc1o1m kpoan, n
ocnoann n a1o npnnunne kc1oayk cnc1ey.
Caon knccm onn nsmann varna, u1o snun1 uae1, nosxe a1o cnoao npno6peno
ppyroe snuenne kc1 [ nmk kaa H aaa cxan ca
naavanum cHmcn.].
1o6m cqopnpoa1L nepayk kc1y, onn o6Lepnnnnn ceLn nypoxn1 - y1m,
Bxpnry, 1pn, - nsaec1nmx caonn nn1yprnuecknn necnonennnn, nepepaemn
no ncnepc1ay kk uennoe poc1onnne. nn cun1nn, u1o kpoaL a1nx ns6pnnmx 6onee
pnckn, 6onee unc1n, ue y oc1nLnmx.
D1oy knccy, a1o apne, a1oy 6enoy uae1y onn npexpe acero pnn ne npao
n anc1L, u1o c 1euenne apeenn 6mno 6m ec1ec1aennm, no enLue epe
npnnunn 1koro npa n 1o, u1o orno k ney npnaec1n, nenno: onononnk n
xpeueckne qynkunn, n upckoe nocanuenne n npao counnn1L n ncnonnn1L
pennrnosnme rnnm n nepepa1L no1ok nx cekpe1; nkoneu, onn o6Lnannn ce6n
canuennmn n nenorpeunmn nnunoc1nn, o1ksnncL o1 aonncko noannnoc1n,
okpyxnnn ce6n ace neo6xopnm pnn epn1npoannn n nsyuennn nyk, aknkun
nonn1nueckne [caan va axHaa yH vau Ham. Qam,
ncHm axHaaH, can nanumH. Q n a m
ncaann mv kacm cvancu nc nu, a
m xvck kacm a nu, a m
yvar m nu aacana cka, a cn vu mna
ack, ak am mn cm.].
c1ynenL nnxe c1onnn upn co caonn ceLnn, npnue ace 6es ncknkuennn, 1k
kk a1o osnuno 6m konpoe1unk upckoro nocanuennn n yrposy pnn cospaeo
cnc1em. npo c upnn skonop1enn noec1nnn cmx nsaec1nmx aonnoa,
annn1enLnmx n 6or1mx nkpe: npepnonrnocL, u1o a1o1 kncc (apn) nee1
enLue 6eno kpoan, nn6o, ecnn pxe on n coxpnnn pcoayk unc1o1y, ace pano
scnyxnae1 1onLko a1opo c1ynenn, nockonLky yc1aennme cnoco6noc1n n
pennrnosnoc1L uennnncL amue qnsnuecko cnnm. kn mcnL orn popn1Lcn 1onLko
cpepn aennko n 6nropopno pcm. nenoa aoenno kc1m nypoxn1m nsann
ku1pnn, nnn cnnLnme nkpn. nn aennnn n pennrnosnm ponr anpe1L
opyxne, nsyu1L aoennoe nckycc1ao; npao pykoaopn1L nkpLn 6mno n
npepoc1aneno npn ycnoann cneunnLnoro nocanuennn, npn a1o skonop1enn
onnpnncL n counnLnme pok1pnnm pcm, u1o6m ne p1L aoennm 6conk1nyk
anc1L [ kak aHvanum ana nnara Maaaa-QxaHa-
Uaca a kac (aHx, s kHnnnn n camx
ycaan): kra nkau nn n, aau a vu
canka a amcm nr a x cvacu (n. 12, 88). 89:
3 xnaa Ha, ccamm a aax, aavaa na n
aarH, ncn cH nnaa nnH a . 90: ycu k a
na aara acmH aH, n cn c kaa
ckanmH akvkH, n aanmH n rnH knuH.
91: ycu acak n a a knc anaa a nmr aara, a
aara cnaamr, a r, k nc nam, cna yk, a r, vu
ancm akmaa rnaa, a r, k ycan c a Hn, a r, k
ckax " a nnk". 92: r, k cn, n nnn ca
knuvyry, n k ar, yx n nc ana a a,
yvacay a , a akx r, k caxacn c yrH. 95: ycu ,
naHnyn nr aa, n nvmx, kra yu r, k
cnHan ca yx, k ck vH- caH, k nxn a, k
yn caxH k nayncn cn. 98: aka a
nnxm ak aa. au nx cynau sr
aka, kra acyna a ay c aaraH.].
nn o6Lnannn, u1o kxpn apn o6ecneunae1 caon unen oco6me npnannernn,
nepep ko1opmn 6eccnnLn upckn aonn. Upk snpeunocL yuenn1L npa
canuennnkoa-xpeuoa. y ne nosaonnnocL nocnr1L n npa ku1pnea nnn 6onee
nnsknx kc1. Monpx okpyxnn nnnc1pm nnn coae1nnkn, 6es nooun ko1opmx on ne
or npnnn1L peuennn n ko1opme npnnpnexnn k knccy nypoxn1 nnn aonnoa.
3konop1enn n a1o ne oc1noannncL. ene pennrnosnmx skonoa onn
npepnncmann upn onpepenennme npann noaepennn a nnuno xnsnn.
erynnpoancL pxe nnu, 6onee acero ocyxpnocL nk6oe o1c1ynnenne o1 nx
npepnncnn. o oey nennk, coe yppoe a a1nx skonx sknkue1cn a 1o, u1o
canuennocnyxn1enn ne onononnsnpoann a1n snnnn. nn nonnnn, u1o nenLsn
snpe1n1L poc1yn k o6psoannk 1oy, k1o cnoco6en k yuennk, 1kxe n
necnoco6noy: ecnn snnne ec1L cnn n pe1 a1opn1e1, 1k 1onLko npn ycnoann, u1o
o6 a1o cypn1 ppyrne, cnoco6nme nx ouenn1L.
1k, nypoxn1m ne 1onLko snpeunn o6psoanne ku1pnn, no, nnpo1na,
pekoenpoann: onn nosaonnnn n un11L canuennme knnrn, o6nsmann o6Lncnn1L
nx, 1kxe 6nrocknonno asnpnn n snn1nn cae1cknn nykn: noasne, nc1opne,
c1ponone. k qopnpoancn kncc aoennmx - ynmx n xp6pmx nkpe, -
ko1opme nonnLno o1nocnnncL k pyxoaenc1ay. e ne enee, nn1epecm a1o kc1m ne
ao ace coanpnn c nnnn pennrnosnmx peqop1opoa, n pno nnn nospno a a1o
cmcne nocnepnne ornn c1onkny1Lcn c oncnoc1Lk. o-nnoy o6c1onnn pen c
apno, c1onue n c1ynenL nnxe aoenno kc1m. euL npe1 o kc1e ..., coc1onue
ns nkpe c 6onee 1eno koxe, ue pa nepamx counnLnmx kncc; onn, aosoxno,
6mnn enee 6or1m n annn1enLnm a o6uec1ae. eco1pn n a1o, nx popc1ao c
amcunn kc1n 6mno nanm n neocnopnm, n a noao cnc1ee onn cun1nncL
ann1o, nnn paxpm poxpennmn (dvidja); aoo6ue, a1o cnoao o6osnuno
npeaocxopc1ao pcm np 6opnrenn, coc1annkunn ocnoay nunn, np ko1opmn
c1onnn xpeum n aonnm. enno no a1o npnunne nsanne pnum, o1 ko1oporo
o1ksnncL ku1pnn n nypoxn1m - nepame c1nn nsma1L ce6n cnnLnmn, a1opme
6pxnn, - coxpnnnocL s 1pe1Le kc1o.
3kon Mny, ko1opm nonanncn nocne pcc1pnaeo nn anoxn, xo1n on ocnoan
n ppeaneunx a1opn1e1x, onpepenne1 o6ps xnsnn kc1m acnea. nopyuncL
s6o1 o poune cko1e, nockonLky cknpmaaunecn o6mun n npam ne nosaonnnn
snn1Lcn cko1oaopc1ao amcun kncc, kk a1o pennn nx npepkn. cnn
snnnncL 1oproane, ccyxnn penLrn nop npouen1m n aospenmann senk. kn
o6pso, a nx pykx konuen1pnpoanncL 6onLune 6or1c1a, noa1oy n
npepnncmanocL npnnocn1L ppm n xep1aonpnnouennn 6or. pspeunocL un11L
epm, pnn 1oro, u1o6m onn ornn cnokono akyu1L ckponme, nposnueckne, no
aecL npn6mnLnme npenyuec1a caoero nonoxennn, 6pxn n ku1pnn c1poro-
nc1poro snpeunocL yuenn1L nx npa n aeuna1Lcn a nx pen1enLnoc1L,
npno6pe11L u1o 6m 1o nn 6mno - nnpnep, sepno nnn nspennn - oxno 6mno
1onLko uepes nnx. 1k, nunnn c pnne ppeanoc1n, pnckn unannnsunn a npnn
onnpncL n norouncnennyk 6ypxysnk, xopouo oprnnsoannyk n sunuennyk,
neauyk 6onLune npa n nonLsoaauykcn nokpoan1enLc1ao pennrnn. c11n,
peskoe ycnnenne a1o kc1m ne yckonLsno o1 annnnn skonop1ene npnn, n a
Mna-[xp-Lc1p ( 418) upn pekoenpoanocL cnepn1L s 1e, u1o6m
1oproaum n peecnennnkn ne npec1ynnn skon, amnonnnn caon o6nsnnoc1n. poe
1oro, npo o1e1n1L, u1o a1o1 kncc, ne a enLue c1enenn, ue ku1pnn, ponyckncn
k o6psoannk n, 6nroppn caoey 6onee cnokonoy o6psy xnsnn, nsanekn ns
yuennn 6onLue nonLsm.
okonu1enLno qope nnpnckoe o6uec1ao coc1onno ns a1nx 1pex amcunx kc1.
poe nnx ne 6mno pnuea, ne 6mno paxpm poxpennmx. Mexpy 1e ne cnepoano
c6pcma1L co cue1oa 6opnrenoa, ko1opme npe6mann n nnsue c1ynenn
counnLno nec1nnum, xo1n a kko-1o c1enenn norne ns nnx yxe kpoano cpopnnnncL
c saoea1ennn. nkk nenLsn 6mno o1aepr1L a1nx nkpe, npnansaunxcn k
rocnop n nonyuaunx o1 nnx xne6 ncyunm, u1o6m ns6ex1L ocnoxnenn.
npoue, pnLneuee noksno, u1o 6pxnm aoapen nouyac1aoann, nckonLko
pnn nnx cnx 6mno axno coxpnn1L o1nouennn c norouncnennm uepnm
ncenenne, 1e 6onee, u1o 6opnrenm o1 a1oro eue qn1nunee cnyxnnn
saoea1enn. a1o cksmancL cy1L ennnuea. Bpxn, nc1annk pnn
ku1pnea n acnea, pnn uepno 1onnm 6mn 6oro.
Bpxnm cqopnpoann ue1aep1yk kc1y ns a1o 1onnm nopco6nmx p6o1nnkoa,
kpec1Lnn n 6popnr. D1o 6mnn cyppm, nnn pscm, 1. e. npncnyxnnkn,
o6peuennme n cyk 1nxenyk p6o1y. C1poro snpeunocL pypno o6pu1Lcn c
nnn, nx noc1onnno oneknn, o6epernn o1 ronop n nnue1m. 1enne canuennmx knnr
n 6mno snpeueno, nx cun1nn neunc1mn, 1. k. onn ne 6mnn pnun.
Yupepna a1n knccm, ocnoa1enn kc1oao cnc1em o6Lnannn ee aeuno n
nesm6neo: ec1o a kxpo kc1e 6mno ncnepc1aennm n 1pe6oano, u1o6m k ne
npnnpnexnn o6 popn1enn. o n a1o 6mno eue ne ace. ouno 1k xe, kk upn ne
ornn npan1L, ne nonyuna nocanuennn o1 6pxnoa, nnk1o ne nen npa
nonLsoa1Lcn npnannernnn caoe kc1m 6es coo1ae1c1aykue uepeonnn. rnae II,
26 Mna-[xp--Lc1p cksno cnepykuee: Corncno yppm aepnueckn
npepnncnnn, neo6xopno npoaopn1L uepeonnn, ko1opme ounuk1 1eno nkpe ns
acex 1pex knccoa a a1o xnsnn n ro1oan1 ero k 6ypyue. kn o6pso,
nocanuenne a caok kc1y 1pe6oanocL ne 1onLko pnn cuc1Ln a a1o xnsnn, no n pnn
1oro, u1o6m o6ecneun1L cuc1nnayk cypL6y a cnepykue. Uepeonnn nunnnncL yxe
c npepnonreoro oen1 su1nn. Co6c1aenno roaopn, nenno onn n qopnpoann
cyunoc1L nnpyc nesancno o1 kc1oao npen. ao1 37: xpm 6pxn, nnn
ero o1eu aec1o nero, ponxen s6o1n1Lcn o coaepuenc1aoannn a canuennmx
snnnnx. "u1pn" - a caoe aonncko nckycc1ae, "acn" - a caoe 1oproao
pene; o6pnp nocanuennn pnn nnx npoaopn1cn coo1ae1c1aenno a aospc1e nn1n, uec1n
n cen ne1.
ex, k1o s6mn o6 a1nx o6nsnnoc1nx, ncknkunn ns nnpnckoro o6uec1a. o1 u1o
roaopn1cn a Mna-[xp-Lc1p: Uepeonnk nocanuennn nenLsn
o1knpma1L: pnn xpeu kpnn cpok - 16 ne1, pnn conp1 - 21 rop, pnn 1oproau
- 24 rop (rn. II, 38). pnee a 39: ocne a1oro cpok ace knoun ns 1pex
ynonny1mx kc1, ko1opme ne npounn aoapen o6pnp nocanuennn, c1noan1cn
ap1n, nnn o1aepxennmn, n scnyxnak1 ocyxpennn po6pope1enLnoro
uenoaek. eunc1mx, 6ypL onn pxe 6pxnm no o1uy n 1epn, nsmann ap1n
1. e. ps6onnkn, rp6n1ennn, y6nun, n anonne aepon1no, u1o a1n nsron
o6uec1a uc1o npnxopnnocL 6p1L a pykn opyxne, u1o6m cyuec1aoa1L. nn
coc1annnn ocnoay norouncnennmx nneen, c1aunx uyxnn pnn nnpycoa.
koa a o6unx uep1x knccnqnkunn, n 6se ko1opo ncnepnnkn nypoxn1
co6npnncL noc1pon1L cao o6uec1aennm c1po. pexpe ue roaopn1L o pesynL11x
n ycnexx, o punonnLnoc1n a1o cnc1em, o 6ecnpeuepen1nmx aosoxnoc1nx,
aneprnn n necokpyuno 1epnennn, ko1opmx ne xnenn 6pxnm pnn ykpennennn n
pcunpennn caoero pe1nu, pcco1pn neko1opme o6une aonpocm.
C a1norpqnuecko 1oukn spennn rnano cn6oc1Lk cnc1em 6mno 1o, u1o on
onnpncL n qnkunk. Bpxnm ne 6mnn n ne ornn 6m1L nc1nnnmn pnun, s
ncknkuenne 1ex cee ku1pnea n acnea, uLn unc1o1 6mn neocnopn:
peno a 1o, u1o onn a cnny snneoro nonoxennn a o6uec1ae nnn caonx 6or1c1a
amnyxpenm 6mnn snn1L 1o, ne nnoe nonoxenne. C ppyro c1oponm, ne kxe1cn,
u1o snenn1me pcm y1m n 1pn nenn a caoe renenornn npepkoa,
nponcxopnaunx o1 o1uoa-aonnoa n popnaunxcn ao apeen, korp 1kne coksm 6mnn
oqnunnLno pspeuenm, n u1o, kpoe acero npouero, a1n npepkn nenn a caoe kpoan
ennnckne aneen1m: cpepn no1okoa y1m n 1pn 1oxe 6mnn e1ncm. o psae
o1 a1oro onn a enLue epe nannk1cn o6np1ennn canuennmx rnnoa, counnennmx
nx npepkn? sae ne amnonnnnn onn noue1nmx xpeuecknx o6nsnnoc1e npn
oryuec1aennmx upnx? sae cn onn ne 6mnn oryuec1aennmn? nn uncnnnncL
cpepn kopnqeea noao np1nn, n ne1 ocnoann npepnonr1L, u1o onn po6poaonLno
ypy1 ns amcue kc1m.
e ne enee, ecnn pcc1pna1L cn1yunk 1onLko npnenn1enLno k nnpnckn
nonn1nn, oxno cks1L, u1o kk 1onLko o6psoanncL kc1m 6pxnoa, ku1pnea,
acnea, rppunn unc1o1m kpoan cpenncL oqnunnLno: 6pxnm c1nn cun11Lcn
6onee 6enmn, ue ku1pnn, nocnepnne 6onee 6enmn, ue npepc1an1enn
1pe1Le kc1m, 1e, a caok ouepepL, c1onnn amue, ue ue1aep1m kncc, coc1onaun
nou1n uennko ns uepnmx. a1oy cnepye1 po6an1L, u1o cn 6pxnm ne 6mnn
unc1o 6enmn n nenn a xnnx npnecL ppyrnx kpoae. o1nnune o1 oc1nLno
uc1n anp - kenL1oa, cnann n 1e 6onee ppyrnx unenoa pnckoro ceec1a,
nnpnep npnuea n cp1oa - onn npncaonnn ce6e npao n oco6yk
nunonnLnoc1L, u1o6m ampenn1Lcn ns o6ue ccm. nn c1onnn amue acex
coapeennmx n pncknx nneen, no yc1ynnn nepaopopnoy 1nny n yxe ne nenn
ppeane cnnm n aneprnn.
nn nunn npno6pe11L norne kuec1a uepno pcm. nnx 6onLue ne 6mno 1o
npno1m cyxpennn, 1oro xnpnokpoann, ko1opme o1nnunn 6enyk pcy a ee unc1o
anpe, n, cypn no rpnpnosnoc1n nx nnnoa noc1poennn o6uec1a, a nx pcue1x
6onLuoe ec1o snnn nrp aoo6pxennn n oksman cnnLnoe annnnne n nx
npen. nn amnrpnn a cmcne knnyuec1n mcnn, kpyrosop n pepsoc1n. nn amnrpnn
a cmcne cnruennn caonx ppeannx nnc1nnk1oa. o amcunx po6pope1ene c1no y nnx
enLue, n ecnn u1o-1o y1p1nnn 6pxnm, 1o a eue 6onLue c1enenn a1o kce1cn
ku1pnea n acnea. Mm yxe o1eunn, pcc1pnan rnne1, u1o ocnoanm
cnepc1ane npn1ok uepno kpoan nanncL qennnsunn 1nn. k npanno, on ne
nopoxpe1 1pycoa, no anponsenne1 npexpe cnokonyk n yaepennyk cnny, po6anne1
a nee c1pc1noc1n. n1oa m ysnnn 1onLko a 1o1 nepnop, korp onn yxe y1p1nnn
cneunqnueckne npnsnkn caonx nppopn1ene, noa1oy nenLsn pen1L amaopm,
ncxopn ns nx nsyuennn. e ne enee, 1 6esn1exnn nsnexennoc1L, ceunnn c
xec1okoc1Lk, kkyk m a nnx yanpenn, xpk1epn ceropnn pnn a1nnueckn
coo1ae1c1aykunx knccoa nnpyccko nunn. oa1oy oxno cnpaepnnao
npepnonoxn1L, u1o a nune caoe nc1opnn xn1m npounn uepes 1ko xe nepnop,
u1o n 6pxnckn kc1. 1o kce1cn cen1oa, y nnx a1o ouyue1cn cnnLnee. 1k,
ace amuecksnnoe nosaonne1 cpen1L cnepykun amaop: npnecL uepno kpoan a
ne6onLuo konnuec1ae psanae1 6enyk pcy a 1o cmcne, u1o o6orue1 ee
aoo6pxenne, pene1 6onee p1nc1nuno n kk 6m okpmnne1 ee. 1o xe apen on
o6esopyxnae1 ee a cmcne cnoco6noc1n pccyxpennn, yenLue1 npk1nuns,
nnocn1 nenonpanm ypp no ee pen1enLnoy xpk1epy, cnnxe1 qnsnueckne
aosoxnoc1n pcm, 1kxe nou1n acerp o1nne1 y nkpe, amuepunx ns 1koro
coks, cnoco6noc1L n npao conepnnu1L c 6eno pco a 1epnennaoc1n, 1aeppoc1n n
nponnu1enLnoc1n. nonrk, u1o 6pxnm, eue po qopnpoannn kc1 ac1ynna a
6nnskne kon1k1m c ennnun, nopro1oannn ce6n k nopxennk a 6opL6e c pcn,
coxpnnaunn 6onLue 6eno kpoan.
eco1pn n a1n oroaopkn, ecnn pcc1pna1L 1onLko nnpnckne npopm, 1o 6ype1
nonn1no aocxnuenne nepep skonop1ennn. Cpepn npounx kc1 n ncenennn, ne
o1nocnuerocn nn k opno kc1e, onn n anpapy nannk1 co6o aennuec1aennoe
spennue. ne c1on1 ynonn1L, u1o c 1euenne apeenn, c nens6exnm
ampoxpenne 1nnoa, ko1opoe aospc1no, neco1pn n ace nx c1pnnn, 6pxnm
1oxe ampopnnncL; opnko ny1euec1aennnkn n nrnnckne unnoannkn, apypn1m,
nsyukune aennkn sn1ckn nonyoc1poa, noc1onnno o1euk1, u1o any1pn
nnpnckoro o6uec1a kc1 6pxnoa coxpnne1 neocnopnoe npenyuec1ao np
ace, u1o ee okpyxe1. Ceropnn, snn1nnnme coksn, ko1opme 1k yxcnn nx
npepkoa, 6pxnm ace xe o1nnuk1cn o1 caoero npop qnsnueckn coaepuenc1ao.
onLko a a1o kc1e eue oxno ac1pe1n1L akyc k nyk, yaxenne k nncLennm
nn1nnk, snnne canuennoro nsmk, poc1onnc1a nx 1eonoroa n rp1nkoa
o1eunn n on6pyk, n Ynncon, n ppyrne nnpync1m. Bpn1nckn pnnnc1punn pxe
poaepnn n npenopa1L a konnepxe Oop1-YnnLn. oneuno, 6neck npexne cnam
no1ycknen. c1ncn 1onLko o16neck, ko1opm c1noan1cn ace cn6ee no epe poc1
counnLno pesoprnnsunn a npnn. pnko neppxnueckn cnc1e, cospnnn
ppeannn nypoxn1n, coxpnnncL. e oxno nsyu1L ao ace uenoc1noc1n, n u1o6m
no poc1onnc1ay ouenn1L ee, poc11ouno xo1n 6m npn6nnsn1enLno amuncnn1L, ckonLko
apeenn on cyuec1aye1.
Dnox nn o1nocn1cn k 3102 r. po n. a. o cy1n, on nuncL 1onLko nocne aennknx
aon expy kypan n nnpan. cnn 6pxnns a 1y anoxy eue n ne poc1nr
caoero pcuae1, 1o yxe 6mn cqopnpoan a caonx rnanmx uep1x.
unpckn ap nunne1cn s 2448 ne1 po oxpec1a pnc1oa. D1o yxe nocne
aennko aonm repoea, cnepoa1enLno, m nonyun apeenno nn1epan 654 rop
expy ee nuno n anoxo nn.
k 6m nn 6mnn ne1ounm a1n p1m, ppyrnx y nc ne1, n no epe 1oro, kk nponcnnk1cn
nc1opnueckne cyepkn, y nc oc1e1cn ace enLue conenn a nx poc1oaepnoc1n.
1k, nocne npo6en, poaonLno npoponxn1enLnoro, a XIV a. po n. a. m anpn
oprnnsoannyk cnc1ey 6pxnns, nn1yprnueckne 1ekc1m yxe nnncnm,
aepnueckn knenppL coc1anen. oa1oy ne1 cmcn o6pu1Lcn k 6onee nospnn
apeen.
Mm counn anoxy nn cnnuko o6unpno, n ne 6ype 6onLue aosapu1Lcn k ne.
YenLun konnuec1ao ne1, cansnnmx c ne, n oc1noancn n kunpcko ape. cnn
nepe1n k 6onee nospnn apeen, 1orp 1epne1 cmcn acn ernne1ckn xpononornn.
e c1ne acnonn1L o 1o, u1o 6pxnns yxe cyuec1aoan sponro po a1o
anoxn, n 6ype cun11L, u1o expy 2448 r. po n. a. n 1852 r. n. a. npouno 4300 ne1,
u1o 6pxnckn oprnnsunn po cnx nop xnae1, u1o ceropnn ee oxno cpann1L c
rnn1o npn 1oneenx 1pe1Lero c1one1nn po n. a., c nepao ccnpncko
oprnnsune a psnme apeen, a uc1noc1n a VII a. kn o6pso, o1pan
ponxnoe ernne1cko unannnsunn n anncman ee a aecL pnn1enLnm nepnop,
npepuec1aykun nepecenennk, 1kxe aecL nepnop nun ee psan1nn po Menec,
oxno sknkun1L, u1o on pnnncL c 2448 r. po 300 r. po n. a., 1. e. 2148 ne1. 1o
kce1cn ccnpncko unannnsunn, pxe ecnn o1opanny1L ee nc1okn a ouenL ppeanne
apeen - xo1n on ne orn o1c1on1L no apeenn n noro aekoa o1 kunpcko
apm, - npnpe1cn npnsn1L, u1o on 6mn kp1koapeenno.
pnnc1aennm nynk1o pnn cpanennn oc1e1cn ernne1ckn oprnnsunn, n on
o1c1e1 o1 ncxopnoro 1nn n 2152 rop. npnsnk, u1o 1kne pcue1m aecL
nponsaonLnm. o ne cnepye1 s6ma1L, u1o uenL a1o nponsaonLnoc1n a 1o, u1o6m
cosn1enLno n nnoro cokp1n1L npoponxn1enLnoc1L anoxn 6pxnns: n
cneunnLno npepnonrk opnoapeennoc1L cospnnn kc1 c kunpcko apo n -
1kxe nckycc1aenno n npo1na acnkoro npaponopo6nn - nonrk, u1o nee1 ec1o
cnnxponns expy nepamn poc1nxennnn 6pxnns n poxpenne unannnsunn a
ponnne nn; nkoneu, n cansmak c III a. po n. a. anoxy, korp nc1nnnme ernn1nne
yxe y1p1nnn caok cyunoc1L. nmn cnoan, onpepennn cpok xnsnn nnpycckoro
o6uec1a nnuL n 2500 ne1 npoponxn1enLnee, ue cyuec1aoanne ccnpnn, n n
2000 ne1 ponLue, ue rnn1, n cokpuk ero n neckonLko aekoa. e ne enee n n
a1o nc1nak, nockonLky n onepnpyk 1onLko poc1oaepnmn unqpn, nyc1L n
nenonnmn, no n onn pk1 ne aosoxnoc1L cpen1L nnxecnepykune amaopm.
pn pcc1pnaemx o6uec1a xnay1 a 1o epe, a kko coxpnne1cn 6enm
npnnunn, cnyxun nx ocnoao.
ccnpnckoe o6uec1ao, noc1onnno nopnn1maaueecn npn1okn psno kpoan,
psaepnyno nnxoppounyk k1nanoc1L. 31e nop n1ncko ouenL cnnLnmx en-
nncknx aneen1oa, cpenauncL peno 6eckoneunmx a1nnuecknx aon, ono c1no
enn1L nnpanenne, qopy n uae1, n nkoneu nonanncL pncko-npnckn pc,
ko1opn npnpn ey noam anp. o1 o6munn yuc1L ceunnoro o6uec1a: anune
6ypnn pen1enLnoc1L, s1e sc1o n ouenenenne n nkoneu cep1L.
rnne1 a a1o cmcne cnyxn1 npoexy1ounm nynk1o pnn cpanennn, 1. k.
oprnnsunn a1oro rocyppc1a ocnoan n nonyepx. c1oan cnc1e
o6ecneunan ouenL orpnnuennoe a1nnueckoe annnnne, nockonLky npnennncL ne a
nonno epe, u1o penno aosoxnmn psnopopnme coksm. osoxno, pnckoe nppo
6mno cnnuko cn6oe, u1o6m ne1L 6conk1nyk anc1L, n 6mno ocn6neno
ceuenne c uepnmn aneen1n. rnne1ckn unannnsunn, 6onee xnsnecnoco6nn,
6onee nornunn n ononn1nn, enee ynsann n enee psnopopnn, ue
ccnpnckn, aec1e c 1e, oksncL enee se1no n k1nano; enLue cnepoa
oc1ann on a npoao nc1opnn, s1o 6mn 6onee 6nropopno n npoponxn1enLno.
enepL nepexopn k 1pe1Ley nynk1y nuero nccnepoannn - k npnn. 3pecL
o1cy1c1aye1 konponcc c uyxo pco, n nepao ec1e specL 6pxnm, n a1opo
- ku1pnn. cnn n pxe cyppm 1kxe snnk1 caoe onpepenennoe ec1o. xpn
kc1 anocn1 cao aknp a o6uee panoaecne n noppepxnae1 ero. 6uec1ao
ykpennne1 caon ocnoam n npouae1e1 nnopo6ne 6yno pc1n1enLnoc1n a a1o
6nrop1no kpk. ok eaponeum 6mnn snkom 1onLko c kpeuko aoc1ounoro
np, onn aocxnunncL ppeannn unannnsunnn qnnnknuea, ernn1nn n
ccnpnuea. D1n npop npnnncmann ack cnay npounmx anox. nnpn n
nnpnpm, eaponeum nopxnncL 1oy, u1o ornn cyuec1aoa1L nkpn, noc1ponaune
1kne rpnpnosnme coopyxennn. o nosxe m pspannynn ropnson1, o6npyxnnn n
6eperx nr poc1nxennn [peane npnn, cyuec1aykune yxe noro c1one1n, n
nun aocxnuennme asopm oc1noannncL n c1pne expy npo n nnxnn 1euenne
Bpxny1pm. enno 1 uenoaeueckn renn co1aopnn uypec, po cnx nop
nopxkune aoo6pxenne. enno 1 poc1nrnn amcuero pcuae1 qnnocoqnn n
noasnn, pen1enLnn n yppn 6ypxysnn kc1m acnea ponroe apen co6npn ace
6or1c1a ppeanero np - n sono1o, n cepe6po, n pprouennme knn. o ec1L opnn
aknp 6pxnns a nc1opnk uenoaeuec1a, ko1opm npeaocxopn1 ace ero o1penLnme
poc1nxennn. euL npe1 o6 o6uec1ae, nou1n 6eccep1no o1nocn1enLno acex
oc1nLnmx. onLko pae oncnoc1n rposnnn ey: nnpenne nunn, neaue 6onee
unc1yk 6enyk kpoaL, n a1nnueckoe ceuenne.
epan oncnoc1L aosnnkn neopnokp1no, no ecnn uyxeseu uc1o ypanocL
nopunnn1L ce6e nnpycckoe o6uec1ao, 1o onn 1k n ne cornn psnoxn1L ero nsny1pn.
1opn oncnoc1L 1kxe npncy1c1aoan. npoue, on yxe npncy1c1aoan a
spopmue a nepao6m1no oprnnsunn. e ypnocL ee ns6ex1L nnn xo1n 6m
oc1noan1L ee psan1ne a pesynL11e ceuennn kpoan, ko1opoe noc1enenno
npnaopnno k ampoxpennk amcunx kc1 npnn. e ne enee, ecnn kc1oan cnc1e
ne corn nonnoc1Lk ne1pnnsoa1L soa npnpopm, on a snun1enLno epe
nopann ero. spyun1enLnm npouecc nponcxopnn upesamuno epnenno, n
nockonLky npeaocxopc1ao 6pxnoa n ku1pnea np oc1nLnm nnpnckn
ncenenne po cnx nop oc1e1cn neocnopnm, 1pypno npepc1an1L okonu1enLnm
pcnp a1oro o6uec1a. a1o coc1on1 y6epn1enLnoe poks1enLc1ao npeaocxopc1a
6enoro 1nn n 6nro1aopnoc1n pspenennn pc.
II. aa axHaHa
1o kce1cn cnc1em, cospnno nypoxn1n n npeap1nauecn a 6pxnns, m
aenn peuL 1onLko o co npnnunne, no ne o 1pypno npouecce ero pennsunn.
1o6m pcco1pe1L ero, n am6pn ne oen1 nun qopnpoannn a1oro npouecc n
ero psan1nn, anoxy ero noren. enepL aepnecn a nono nc1opnn n 6nnxe
nosnkoncn c cnc1eo.
Moryuec1ao nypoxn1 cqopnpoanocL n payx yc1onx: psynn pennrnosnoc1L
pncko pcm, c opno c1oponm, c ppyro, npepnnoc1L, enee 6nropopnn, no
6onee qn1nunn, e1ncoa n 6opnrenoa. x anc1L onnpncL n acnea, acerp
nckaunx noppepxkn npo1na aoenno kc1m, n n cyppcoa, o1nnuaunxcn uyac1ao
cyeaepnoro c1px n aocxnuennn nepep nkpLn, exepneano o6uaunncn c Boro.
Bes 1ko paono noppepxkn nypoxn1m pxe ne ornn 6m n nopy1L o
nesancnoc1n, ecnn 6m n n npnun 1kn mcnL, onn ne cornn 6m ocyuec1an1L
ee. uyun noppepxky, onn ocenenn. pnko a a1o apen any1pn norouncnenno
rpynnm pnuea pspsnncL 6onLun cy1. a pesynL11e 61nn, amsannmx
pennrnosnmn pcnpnn, sopoc1pnckne npopm o1kononncL o1 nnpnckoro
ceec1a n yunn ns enpx6 n cocepnnx c nn seenL. nn nnpannncL n snp,
nacerp nopaa co caonn 6p1Lnn, uLn nonn1nueckn oprnnsunn nx 6onLue ne
yc1pnan. cnn sp1Lcn aonpoco o npnunnx pckon, ecnn cnpocn1L, nouey 1o,
u1o 6mno no npay opnn, ne yc1pnano ppyrnx, 1o apnp nn oxno nonyun1L
opnosnunm o1ae1. pnko n nou1n ne coneakcL a 1o, u1o sopoc1pnum,
oc1ancL pnLue k ceaepy, 1. e. a pLeprppe pnuea-nnpycoa, ne coxpnnnn a ce6e
aec1e c 6onLue unc1o1o kpoan poc11ouno psy, u1o6m o1ks1Lcn o1
yc1noanennn neppxnn no poxpennk, npynno, c nx 1oukn spennn, n,
cnepoa1enLno, 6ecnonesno n ne nonynnpno. cnn 6m a nx pnpx ne 6mno uepnmx
cyppcoa, acnea-kqpoa n yn1oa-ku1pnea, ecnn 6m ace onn 6mnn 6enme n
panme, 1orp onn ornn 6m corncn1Lcn c 1e, u1o6m ao rnae nx counnLno
oprnnsunn c1onnn 6pxnm. nk6o cnyue, oueanpno, u1o noan cnc1e
anyun n o1apuenne, ko1oporo onn ne ckpmann. pnsnkn 1koro o1nouennn m
anpn a peqope, apoxnoan1ene ko1opo 6mn 3opoc1p, 3eppyu1 nnn 3epe1ou1po.
o pckonLnnkn, 1k xe kk nnpycm, ne coxpnnnn ppeann pnckn kynL1.
osoxno, onn xo1enn caec1n ero k 6onee 1ouno qopynnpoake. ce a noao
pennrnn-rnn pmun1 npo1ec1o n apxpo k 6pxnnsy [ 3-ac cu
cak axHacckx aaa, km cycay a mm
nr naca.]. canuenno nsmke sopoc1pnuea 6or nnpycoa Deva c1n
[nao, 1. e. snm pyxo, cnoao maaniu) nonyunno snuenne ne6ecnm, ero
kopenL y 6pxnnc1cknx npopoa coxpnnn snuenne npoc1L nnn rnea
[3acm an Hn a nHy r.].
1k, pckon nponsouen, n pa npop c 1ex nop npoponxnn xn1L o1penLno n
ac1ynnn ppyr c ppyro a o1nouennn 1onLko c opyxne a pykx. e ne enee, pxe
o1aeun nenpnnsnLk n nenpnnsnL, ockop6nenne n ockop6nenne, onn acerp
nonnnn o6 o6ue nponcxoxpennn n ne o1ksmanncL o1 popc1a.
c11n, cnepye1 o1e1n1L, u1o no ace aepon1noc1n nesponro po a1oro-pckon nun
qopnpoa1Lcn npkpn1ckn nsmk, co6c1aenno pnckn nsmk, ecnn on aoo6ue
korp-nn6ypL cyuec1aoan nnue, ue a anpe coaokynnoc1n npeun, npekp1nn caoe
cyuec1aoanne. o eue ponro cnckpn1 npeo6npn a anpe psroaopno peun, u1o ne
euno noxn1Lcn nponsaopnm npeunn n pnnek1, canuennm nsmk 1e
apeene noc1enenno npeapuncn a knnxnm.
k 6mnn 6m ppm 6pxnm, ecnn 6m yxop sopoc1pncknx npopoa ns6ann nx o1
acnko onnosnunn. o nok onn 6oponncL 1onLko c opnn npo1nannko, xo1n 6mno
neno xenkunx pspyun1L nx cnc1ey. [o cnx nop onn c1nknanncL 1onLko c
opno qopo npo1ec1, ppyrne eue ne nponannncL.
pnum npoponxnn panxenne k kry n aoc1oky, n a1o panxenne, ko1opoe pnnnocL po
XVIII a. n. a. ko1opoe, aosoxno, npoponxe1cn a ckpm1o qope po cnx nop, nok
cyuec1aye1 6pxnns, conpoaoxpnocL - n uc1nuno 6mno amsano - panenne
ppyrnx npopoa c kr, npn6maaunx c ppeane popnnm. Mx6xp1e
pccksmae1cn o6 a1o aennko snospno nepecenennn. D1n npnuenLum,
aosrnanneme cmnoaLnn npy, oueanpno, unn ny1e caonx npepuec1aennnkoa n
npnunn a npnk uepes Corpnny, rpe ocnoann ropop, ko1opm nsann np no
nenn caoero n1pnpx. 1o kce1cn pcm, k ko1opo npnnpnexnn a1n
saoea1enn, specL ne1 nnkknx conenn. x nsanne osnue1 6enm uenoaek.
Bpxnm nerko ysnann a1nx npo1nannkoa n cun1nn nx o1npmckn nppopn1ene
nnpncko nunn. nn pxe npnsnann popc1ao npnuenLuea c op1opokcnLno
koponeacko pco kypaoa. x xenunnm 6mnn kpynnmn, 6enokoxnn n 6enokypmn
n nonLsoanncL 1o cao6opo, ko1opn y 1ea1onoa - nnonoanny nopanennn y
pnnnn - 6mn npoponxenne ppeannx npaoa 6enoro ceec1a.
D1n nnpam enn nk6oe nco, 1. e. nn1nncL n 6mkn, n kopoan, u1o cun1nocL
cm 6onLun kouync1ao y nnpncknx pnuea. a1o o1nouennn sopoc1pnckne
peqopm ne s1prnann c1pyk cnc1ey, u1o 6mno eue opnn n y6epn1enLnm a
pe1pocnek1nae poks1enLc1ao 1oro, u1o a1 unannnsunn, noc1poennn n o6unx
pennrnosnmx npenx, nspan o6Lepnnnn o6e ae1an nesancno o1 nckonnmx npe
pcm. npam ne yaxnn canuennmx xnao1nmx n eue enLue noun1nn kc1oayk
neppxnk. x canuennnkn ne 6mnn 6pxnn n pxe nypoxn1n. oa1oy a rnsx
nnpycoa onn 6mnn neunc1mn, n 6pocnn 1enL n 6pxnckyk unannnsunk.
koneuno cue1e, pspsnncL aon, ee 1e1po 6mn aecL ceaep, kr n aoc1ok
nonyoc1poa po npexn n ncnm, yuc1aoann a ne ace npopm, kk pnum, 1k n
6opnrenm. BopL6 6mn 1e 6onee ponro, u1o y saoea1ene 6mnn ec1ec1aennme
coksnnkn a nnue nornx pncknx nneen a nnnx, apxpe6no o1nocnaunxcn k
6pxncko cnc1ee. Mnorne e1ncnme npopm 6mnn snn1epecoanm a pspyuennn
a1o cnc1em: ace ps6onnkn nk6oro uae1 koxn c1noannncL c1oponnnkn
nnpaoa [Hx, naaam mn nam ca n nknnnH
c caa, anH kynaca, caaamxcn a ack nx k cky
ara. Maxaxaaa amaa x vc ac, ank ycck
kynuym.].
ypam sununn unannnsunk, no a konue konuoa no1epnenn nopxenne. enpx6
n 6onLune 1eppn1opnn no cocepc1ay c nn oksnncL a pykx 6onee 6enmx n,
cnepoa1enLno, 6onee k1nanmx saoea1ene, n, amnyxpennn yc1ynn1L, nnpycckn
unannnsunn o1opannyncL pnLue n kro-aoc1ok. pnko on coxpnnnncL
6nroppn yc1ounaoc1n pc, ee coc1annaunx. oc1anocL 1onLko xp1L, n ee
peanu a o1nouennn no1okoa nnpaoa c1n 6nec1nue no6epo. npam,
cao6opnme o1 nk6mx canuennmx orpnnuenn, 6mc1po ceunncL c ec1nmn
nneenn n pe rppnpoann a a1nnuecko o1nouennn. Bpxnm oponenn nx. nn
aoaneknn ampopnaunxcn no1okoa npy a cqepy caoe pen1enLnoc1n, nansnn n
caon npen n porm, amnypnnn oprnnsoa1Lcn no caon npann n yaenunn cao
ycnex 1e, u1o nansnn n xpeueckyk kc1y. Mexpy npoun, a unpe nmneunne
npepc1an1enn amcunx cnoea nek1 6onee 1enyk koxy, ue oc1nLnme xn1enn. ce
peno a 1o, u1o nx npepkn npnunn c kr [acn amHa xaa
nxaan aam kakm c xnmH aaH, a akx c
vmH HynaaH. n n aHa ya arncu rk-
akm cak, aH aam, aram, anyk. ynua caa
yca na yana anacu ackx nnH, a crn Hm aH, v
H cu am cnu acr nHmancu c yrH acaH. Yx a
snvck aHa aaam xaa cvancu naH.].
ceaepe o1nouennn expy kc1n 6mnn ne 1knn, kk n kre. 3pecL 6pxnm
nnue ne o1nnunncL o1 ccm ncenennn, ko1opoe nnkorp ne nopunnnnocL
po6poaonLno caon xpeu, n rny6okoe npespenne k nn co c1oponm nc1nnnmx
nnpycoa, eue 6onLue nx nnskn opnLnm ypoaenL - a1n qk1opm n onpepennnn
aeunoe nksnne no1okoa nnpaoa s nonm1ky pspyun1L 6pxnckyk cnc1ey.
c11n, cnepye1 o1e1n1L, u1o xopouo nsaec1nn knccnqnkunn rpeuecknx
nnc1ene, ko1opme pennnn nnpycoa n 1pn k1eropnn - pm6koa, senepenLuea n
ropuea, - ckopee acero o1nocn1cn 1onLko k rpynn, neaun ouenL no pnckoro
n xnaun n snpnmx okpnnx npnn.
1k, no6epy 6pxnoa np nnpan onpepennn a 6onLue epe unc1o1 pcm,
nexenn opnopopnoc1L a1nnuecknx aneen1oa. Y nepamx ace nnc1nnk1m 6mnn
ynopnpouenm n, ne npo1naopeu ppyr ppyry, nenn oco6me cqepm npnenennn;
a1opme 6mnn o6peuenm upesepnm ceuenne kpoan. nnornunyk cn1yunk m
anpenn a nocnepnn nepnop nc1opnn np.
unnn c a1oro apeenn norouncnennme pnckne npopm okonu1enLno
o1pennnncL o1 nnpncko nunonnLnoc1n n y1p1nnn npexnee poc1onnc1ao n
yaxenne. a1y k1eropnk cnepye1 aknkun1L 6enme nneen, xnaune expy
Cpca1n n nnpykyue, n neko1opme ns 1ex, u1o ncennnn 6eper np, 1. e. acex,
k1o pnn ppeannx rpekoa n pnnnn nannnncL xn1ennn npnn [ kacacn
"naa" (kamHa), nanxax k kac axHaa,
nvacn anmH axcaH, n ncnyxaax aH
yca amrnnn nar x. n ac, kH ranm, nu
"aak", v a nannu nmu caHmH mH kacaH. (
ncuHa . akHa, 1831 r.)]. nxe a1nx npopoa c1onnn norouncnennme
neunc1me xn1enn, eue nnxe - 6opnrenm [acn, c kmH caxancn
nkca nk, mn nnyackH, acn ycm cvan sx
n aanH. 3 mn Hann (Hanaam) nam yca. Manaam
ccaannn vacu axnaka aHc c kcyakaH (n kcakaH).
Maaaa-QxaHa-Uaca an x axHaa a cn
nrr aka. k ycm nnx an yr yra. ank
aHa a, xam a xH, amaan anam am - xaHa
cHa Javana. 3av sr cnaa nc, cn ava
anam am a, ra r cny c k camH xmH
nnHaH. Jawa av araucn. x xaaaaH amaan
aaa. Bn ak Hycn cHm na ca, a akx cnack
ym. a anc Qan Jouha ava camx rka;
ck acr ncnm, xam a nxu, nnyvn s Hn nca
a ca vu ncn r a xn ka. nx ycm
cvan xaaaaH rka. ncnx krax Maxaxaam ak
amaacn akm-Hakm, nvH axacn xamH
yvmH aH.].
kn o6pso, pnn 6pxnoa, c1pornx nornkoa, o6uec1ao pennn ocL n 1pn 6onLune
k1eropnn: unc1o nnpnckn npopnoc1L, aknkukun a ce6n 1pn ocanuennme kc1m
n pononnn1enLnyk kc1y, npnsnaeyk a cnny neo6xopnoc1n; s1e npy1 pnckne
npopm, nnn ap1nn, ko1opme nenn 6onLuoe konnuec1ao ec1no kpoan, nospno
npnnnnn canuennm skon, ne acerp ero co6nkpnn n, coe xypuee, 6mnn ero
npo1nannkn. pnno cnyue cnoao ap1nn, 1. e. aop, rp6n1enL, ksnocL
nc1nnnm nnpyc nepoc11ouno cnnLnm, noa1oy 1knx nkpe nsmann eue
pcny, u1o panocnnLno ockop6n1enLnoy pyr1enLc1ay, ko1opoe a1nonornueckn
6nnsko k senpckoy pnpxy, pkny, pxny - 1k sopoc1pnum nsmann caon
npoannunn.
koneu, nnxe npesnpemx pcny c1onnn 6opnrenm. D1o 6mnn nonnme pnkpn, n nx
uncno 6mno ouenL aennko. 1o6m cypn1L o6 nx opnLnmx kuec1ax, poc11ouno
noco1pe1L ceropnn n nx npnmx no1okoa a [ekne, a ropx nnpxn n a
uen1pnLno necno uc1n nonyoc1poa, rpe onn 6popn1, co6pauncL a ukn. e
co1pn n norne aek, ko1opme npounn c 1ex nop, kk no6epnn xn1ene.
Uenon, a nx o6pse xnsnn nnuero ne nsennnocL. e 6ypy ynonn1L ace nneen
a1o k1eropnn - orpnnuycL neckonLknn.
nen kp-apnnn-rpy, roaopnuee n 1nnLcko npeunn. nn ne nocn1 opexp, cnn1
a neuepx n kyc1x, nn1k1cn kopenLnn, pnknn qpyk1n n xnao1nmn. e
ncknkueno, u1o a1o no1okn nk, xopenne, o ko1opmx roaopn1cn a Bn6nnn [
num anHa nHka aka nnHn, k an a xH
v Hym a nycm Qaaka. 3 mn xck rram, vac
anaaam a xna acka-axHaa.].
1opn, xnayune nop pepeaLnn. nn epn1 xnamx pen1nnn.
yxnpm: ne yek1 pxe sun1n1Lcn o1 pnknx saepe, ko1opme uc1o nx noxnpk1.
npcm: npnnocn1 uenoaeueckne xep1am, kppy1 nnpncknx pe1e nnn nokynk1 nx
y npnea n y6nak1.
D1nn npnepn oxno orpnnun1Lcn.
Bpxnm o6Lepnnnnn nx acex nop o6un nene Mlekhas (a1nonornueckn
cn6me), 1. e. pnkpn nnn apapm (Barbara). ocnepnn 1epnn ykopennncn ao
acex nsmkx 6eno pcm.
Barbara, Varvara osnue1 uenoaek c kypuamn aonocn; 1o xe snuenne
nee1 cnoao papua. Moxno npepnonoxn1L, u1o nepame ne 6enme nkpn, c ko1opmn
c1onknynncL pnum, npnnpnexnn k uepno pce. nn o1nocn1cn n qpnknckne
6ep6epm.
Yun1man orponyk uncnennoc1L 6opnrenoa, nnpnckne nonn1nkn nonnnn, u1o ne1
cmcn nrnopnpoa1L nx n u1o psynee oc1an1L o1apuenne a c1opone n kkn-1o
o6pso npno6un1L nx k pncko unannnsunn. o kkn ny1e? 1o n oxno 6mno
npepnoxn1L? ce 6nr senme 6mnn pcnpepenenm. npoue, 6pxnm 6mnn ro1oam
npepnoxn1L n pxe amcokne npnannernn, ns 1ex, u1o n pnu npnxopnnocL
po6ma1L qnsnuecko cnno: n nek a anpy snk 6oxec1aennoc1n c 1o oroaopko,
u1o ero oxno 6mno nonyun1L nnuL nocne cep1n, aepnee, nocne pnp
nepeaonnouenn. ocne 1oro, kk 6mn yskonen por1 o nepecenennn pyu, nkpn,
axopnaune a k1eropnk Mlekhas, y6epnnncL, u1o ace knccm nnpnckoro o6uec1a
xnay1 corncno noao aepe, n 1kxe npnnnnn ee.
c1nnno aepykun n po6pope1enLnm 6pxn, yepuannkun nno1L, roppnncn 1e,
u1o nocne cep1n on nonpe1 a uncno amcunx cyuec1a. u1pnn snoao poxpncn
6pxno n o6pe1n npexpy n 6onee amcokoe nepeaonnouenne, acn a
cnepykue xnsnn c1noanncn ku1pne, cypp - acne. npoue, oun6kn n
nperpeuennn npnaopnnn k npo1naononoxnoy pesynL11y. k nouey xe 6opnren ne
or c11L cyppo n 1k pnee? norp on nonpn a nocnepnn kncc eue npn xnsnn.
orp kko-nn6ypL npop nunnn rpynnnpoa1Lcn n 1pe6oanocL aknkun1L ero a
cnc1ey nnpnckoro rocyppc1a, neco1pn n por1, npnxopnnocL np1n n 1o, u1o6m
ponyc1n1L 6opnrenoa a cm nnsun ns knccoa.
o cnc1e o6eunn nyuue ponn nocne nepeaonnouennn orn p6o11L nnuL npn
nnnunn po6po aonn 1ex, koro on kcncL. a npnn a1o c1no aosoxnm.
pno6uenne 6opnrenoa k unannnsunn nponcxopnno payn ny1nn. epam 6mn
enee aqqek1nanm n sknkuncn a 1o, u1o aonnm-ku1pnn, coc1annaune
perynnpnyk pnk, ko1opn aknkun a ce6n nexo1y, kanepnk, aoopyxennme
konecnnum n cnonoa, 1kxe acnoor1enLnme uc1n ns 6opnrenoa, o1npannnncL a
noxop n apr. ocne no6epm rpxpnckn n pennrnosnm skon snpeun aoennm
ccnnnnpoa1L neunc1oe ncenenne. u1pnn npoc1o o16npnn anc1L y
nenokopnoro aoxpn, sennnn ero opnn ns ero copopnue n yxopnnn, s6pa po6muy
n ypoane1aopnauncL nenpexnmn o6eunnnn nokopnoc1n n nonnLnoc1n
[Hnu, v H nx aHm na akmaca, vmx Ha,
xamx a r, nnnn nnan aa a ca aka
(n). nu ccn c a aaaa, an Hn ay sr
ankaa ayncn a ca.].
Bpxnm pec1aoann no-ppyroy. nn ne6onLunn rpynnn yxopnnn s npepenm
canuenno senn pLap1 nnn Bpxap1. nn po6pnncL po ryc1mx necoa, po
6ono1nc1mx ec1, rpe 1ponnueckn npnpop ampc1nn cksounme pepeaLn, qpyk1m,
uae1m, rpe xnnn kpcname n1num, 6popnnn rsenn, 1kxe oncnme 1nrpm n sen,
c1ponnn 1 yepnnennme xnnnu n npepanncL 6eckoneunm onn1a, epn1unn
n npocae1n1enLc1ay. nn a nk6yk nny1y ornn c11L xep1ao ec1nmx pnkpe.
onyronme 6pxnm cnpenn y caonx xnxnn, uue acero a opnnouec1ae, nnorp c
yuennkn, 1knn xe 6esopyxnmn, kk onn cn, n c1onL xe 6essun1nmn.
mcnun nccnonepoa norn6nn. c11n, corncno nerenp n noa, cke1m nenn
peno c nkpoepn. o n ec1o opnoro y6n1oro npnxopnnn pecn1L noamx, ko1opme
ocnpnann npao n xnxnny, c1auyk 1enepL can1nnnue, n kononnn pcunpnnncL
n noxnnncL no epe 1oro, kk 6pxnm oanpeann yn caonx pnknx aproa.
1e, nopxennme cyeaepnm c1pxo, nkoneu, sxo1enn ysn1L, u1o xe npepc1annk1
co6o a1n srpounme nkpn, c1onL 6espsnnunme k c1ppnnk n k cep1n, n u1o nx
npnaeno ckp. orp nxope1m anyunn n cnepykuee: Mm cme 6nropopnme ns
nkpe, n ne1 n panmx n sene. Mm nee npao n amcune nouec1n.
npepmpyunx xnsnnx m 6mnn 1knn xe nnu1oxnmn, kk n am. Bnroppn
po6pope1enn m noc1enenno aosamunncL n poc1nrnn 1oro, u1o pxe upn
npecmkk1cn y nunx nor. Mm acerp c1pencn k 1oy, u1o6m c11L 6orn. un
c1ppnnn a a1o kpk nnpanenm n poc1nxenne a1o uenn. m oxe1e y6n1L nc
- m ace pano po6Lecn a1oro. Cnyu1e nc, aepL1e n, nokopn1ecL, cnyxn1e n,
n am c1ne1e 1knn xe, kk m [mak Maaaa-QxaHa-Uaca.].
[nkpn cnyunn, aepnnn n nokopnnncL. pLnap1 saoeaman noame senn.
nxope1m c1noannncL ae1aLk ec1noro 6pxnc1a. [nn ynpanennn n oxpnm
noao 1eppn1opnn npnxopnnn ku1pnn. ue acero ec1nme aoxpn snnnn ec1o a
aonncko kc1e. onannncL noame acnn, npnue unc1o1 kpoan yxe ne nen
snuennn. ne6pexennn unc1o1o ynpeknn pxe 6pxnoa, n a1n ynpekn 6mnn
o6ocnoanm. k, a annueckne apeen onp, ec1nm aoxpL o6puennmx
nrcoa, xennncn n Cn1e, pouepn pnckoro upn opxn. 1o xe nne
roaopn1cn, u1o opn ns xen reponueckoro upn [cp1x 6mn ns npop kek.
oo6ue-1o, a1o1 npop 6mn pnckn, no xnn s npepenn canuenno senn
Cpca1n n cun1ncn ap1nn. k, a VIII a., ao apen nnpncko kononnsunn
seenL xen1mx npopoa k aoc1oky o1 nn, a enne n By1ne, 6pxnm 6pnn a
xenm ec1nmx peayuek, nx no1oc1ao nonyuno npao ac1ynn1L a aonnckyk kc1y.
kn o6pso, ao nn caoero npnnunn, penn a1o1 npnnunn ocnoaononrkun pnn
counnLno oprnnsunn, cke1m-6pxnm cospann cnc1ey, ko1opn o6Lepnnnn
noxec1ao nkpe, 1e 6onee, u1o ee unenm 6mnn pnekn o1 p1nmx 1pypoa n aenn
c1poryk xnsnL. pnko npn ace 1o, u1o a1 cnc1e yxe npeoponen noxec1ao
npenn1c1an, ee a 6ypyue xpnn noame, eue 6onee 1pypnme.
u1pnn anpenn, u1o ecnn npn 1ko counnLno oprnnsunn n 6mn yro1oan
cn axnn ponL, 1o ocnoann anc1L npnnpnexn xpeuec1ay. nn ponxnm 6mnn
amnonnn1L 1o, u1o peunn 6pxnm; nx nsmann upnn, no a rnsx npop onn
6mnn n a1opo ec1e nocne canuennnkoa. ue 6onee nenpnn1nm pnn nnx 6mno 1o
o6c1on1enLc1ao, u1o 6pxnm cnyxnnn aeunmn nocpepnnkn expy anc1n1ennn
n npoc1m npopo n pxe nx conp1n, expy 1e kk 1e xe 6pxnm,
nocpepc1ao 1epnennn n o1ks o1 senmx ppoc1e, c1noannncL o1un pLnap1m,
ncnonLsyn pesynL11m p6o1m caonx yxec1aennmx nccnonepoa cpepn 6opnrenoa.
no nnn nospno 1kn cn1yunn ponxn 6mn npnaec1n k cnruennk c1pornx npann
n k pcu1mannk 6pxncko cnc1em.
Bpxnm, nnpnep, pounn po 1oro, u1o nunn aosaopn1L aoxpe 6opnrenoa a
pnr ku1pnea; 6onee 1oro, onn nponannn eue 6onLuyk 1epnnoc1L k pnu a1o
kc1m, nenno: pann norn yceppnm a pennrnosnoc1n n nykx npao
nopnn1Lcn po 6pxn. k oxno nn1epnpe1npoa1L annsop c ncan1po a
nne. pn a1o cnepye1 npnsn1L, u1o asen onn oroaopnnn pnn ce6n npao
xenn1Lcn n pouepnx ku1pnea n cn c1noan1Lcn upnn. poe 1oro, c1noancL
sn1Lnn anc1n1ene, onn ne nenn nnuero npo1na 1oro, u1o6m pe1n o1 nx 6pkoa
ncknkunncL ns xpeuecko kc1m, cnepyn skony perppunn. o npnannernn
aonncko kc1m, 1kxe upckoro poc1onnc1a, oc1anncL s nnn.
1k, a [peane npnn 6nrocknonno o1nocnnncL k o6Lepnnennk payx kc1, ao
nornx cnyunx 6pxnm c1noannncL conepnnkn ku1pnea a 6opL6e s amcuyk
anc1L 1epnnLnoro nopnpk. Bmno ncno, u1o coxpnenne npnnunnoa ao ace nx
c1poroc1n oxe1 noc1an1L nop yrposy cyuec1aoanne co cnc1em. 1o6m
ns6ex1L a1o oncnoc1n, 6pxnm npnsann n noouL nornky, psy n rn6koc1L.
Bmno aaepeno 1koe npanno: cmn o1 6pk o1u ku1pnn n 1epn-6pxnkn ne
oxe1 6m1L nn upe, nn canuennnko. n or c11L 6ppo nnn upckn konkun.
Bypyun ampopnauncn 6pxno, on or c11L yuenm nc1opnko, nsyu1L cae1ckyk
noasnk, c counnn1L c1nxn, peknnpoa1L nx caoey rocnopnny n co6pauncn n
npspnnk ku1pnn. 1o xe apen on ne nen npa nsyu1L nn1yprnueckne rnnm n
canuennme nykn. Bypyun nenonnm ku1pne, on nen npao nocn1L opyxne,
cpn1Lcn n noupL, ynpann1L konecnnue, cpx1Lcn ao a1opo pnpy, no ne or
npen1Lcn n 1o, u1o6m coy konpoa1L aonnn. y 6mn npepoc1anen
6onLun uec1L: coo1aepxennoc1L. Coaepu1L nopanrn pnn caoero rocnopnn n
aocnea1L ero, ao1 6mn ypen 1koro uenoaek. ro sann cy1. nnpncko anoce
ne1 6onee nrkoro, 6nropopnoro, nexnoro n neunLnoro nepconx. D1o 6mno
onnue1aopenne xencko npepnnoc1n a cypoao ceppue repon-aonn [ya
nn cnyka cacayr man, ana n ana].
pn ace caoe nso6pe11enLnoc1n 1ko nopnpok ponxen 6mn o6epny1Lcn
6ecnopnpko, n xo1n cansnnme c nn konponccm 6mnn nsnunLno ey npncyun,
ne 6mno conennn a 1o, u1o pnn ero coxpnennn 1pe6oanncL cpounme epm -
neo6xopno 6mno skpm1L snnkuyk pny n 1ene counnLno cnc1em. enno c a1o
uenLk 6pxnm npnpynn kncc unpnoa, ko1opm pspyun1enLnm o6pso
saepunn neppxnk neunc1mx kc1.
pp ockop6nenn cmnncn n pnuea-o1c1ynnnkoa n neo6puennmx 6opnrenoa. o
ace onn, aknkun yrposy nsrnnnn ns o6uec1a n pxe cep1n, 6mnn nyc1nko no
cpanennk c 1e, u1o oxnpno necuc1nmx pe1e npepc1an1ene ue1mpex
yskonennmx kc1, snn1naunx ce6n snpe1nm cokso. [xe nopxopn1L k a1n
cyuec1a cun1nocL noc1mpnm peno, nosopo, cm1L ko1opm ku1pnn or, nnuL
y6nan 1ex, k1o 6mn a a1o ynnuen. snpeunocL axopn1L a ropop n pepeann.
Yanpea nx, nk6o uenoaek or cnyc1n1L n nnx co6k. onopeu, ns ko1oporo onn
nnnn, o6Lnannncn ockaepnennm. cnn onn c1ponnn ce6e xnnnue, ero oxno 6mno
pspyun1L. koneu, n sene ne 6mno 6onee epsknx uypoanu, n ko1opmx c 1ko
cnno ononuncL uenn counnLnn n nonn1nueckn 1eopnn. pnue ace a1n
c1punme kpm 6mnn nnpanenm ne c1onLko npo1na necuc1nmx unpnoa, ckonLko
n nx 6ypyunx popn1ene. po npnsn1L, u1o ecnn npespennn kc1 n ncnm1man
n ce6e 1nxec1L kpoaao pnnn skon, 1o 1kne cnyun 6mnn pepkn. pnno
cnyue 1eopnn 6esycneuno 6oponcL c nrknn nnpncknn npan. npnoa
npesnpnn n nenanpenn opnko onn amxnnn. Y nnx 6mnn pepeann, ko1opme oxno
6mno cxeuL, no nx ne xrnn. c1nLnme nkpn pxe ne oco6enno c1oponnnncL nx n
1epnenn nx npncy1c1ane pnpo c co6o. pnn aosoxnoc1L snn1Lcn peecno.
nmneune npnn 1kne neunc1me snn1nn, kk, nnpnep, p6o1 ncnnk,
npnnocn1 6onLuyk npn6mnL unpn. Mnorne ns nnx ps6or1enn n 1oproane
sepno. [pyrne nrpk1 axnyk ponL a nepeaopuecko pene. 6onee amcoknx
c1ynennx counnLno nec1nnum oxno ac1pe1n1L 6or1mx unpnoa - cuc1nnamx,
nesancnmx o1 kc1oao npen n yaxemx. c1L nnpnckne pnnc1nn,
npnnpnexune k neunc1o kc1e, u1o ne eue1 n ne1L coae1nnkoa-6pxnoa.
Cnepye1, npap, o1e1n1L, u1o 1ko nopnpok aeue 6mn pesynL11o no1pncenn,
nunnn c anoxn a1opxenn. 1o kce1cn 1epnnoc1n n npk1nke n nrkoc1n npaoa
nepep nnuo 1eope1nuecko xec1okoc1n skon, onn nenn ec1o ao ace apeen.
onanenne a1o yxcno kc1m neno cepLesnme nocnepc1ann, no n ne coneakcL a
1o, u1o a1oro 6mno nepoc11ouno, u1o6m coxpnn1L a nnpyccko o6uec1ae 6soayk
neppxnk n c11L npenn1c1ane pnn poxpennn noamx kc1, no kpne epe, a
npoannunnx, ko1opme npncoepnnnnncL k pLnap1e.
a1o cmcne 6pxnm, kk n npexpe, cpennn ace, u1o cornn. e c1ny noa1opn1L
cksnnoe amue o By1ne n enne - a ppyrnx sennx nponsouno 1o xe coe. e
ne enee, ne npo s6ma1L, u1o nesancno o1 konnuec1a uyxo kpoan a pnux
n 1o nnn nno 1eppn1opnn pnckoro aneen1 acerp 6mno 6onLue a xnnx
6pxnoa a nepayk ouepepL, ku1pnea ao a1opyk, ue y oc1nLnmx kc1, a1n
o6Lncnne1cn neocnopnoe npeaocxopc1ao, ko1opoe pxe ceropnn, nocne c1onLknx
6ypnmx co6m1n, peonc1pnpye1 6pxnckoe o6uec1ao. cnn a1nnueckn ypoaenL
ace cnc1em cnnsnncn, 1o o6un 6ecnopnpok 6mn 1onLko npexopnun n apeennm.
6Lepnnenne pc any1pn kxpo kc1m nponcxopnno ckopee 1, rpe npnnunnm
oksmanncL cn6ee; unannnsunn ncnm1man asne1m n npennn, no ne
npe1epnean kopennmx nsenenn, no1oy u1o a kxpo k1eropnn ceuenne
nnc1nnk1oa poaonLno 6mc1po yc1ynno ec1o nc1onuey epnnc1ay. nmn cnoan,
ckonLko 6mno kc1, c1onLko n ceunnmx pc, nxopnunxcn a coc1onnnn panoaecnn.
1eropnn unpnoa o1aeun nc1on1enLno no1pe6noc1n a cnc1ee, ko1opn ponxn
6mn noks1Lcn oco6enno nenpneneo pnn aoennmx. Mnoxec1ao skonoa n
orpnnuenn c1onno n ny1n ku1pnea a ocyuec1anennn nx aonncknx n anc1nmx
npa, ynnxno nx nnunyk nesancnoc1L, euno n ypoane1aopn1L caon c1pc1n n
npexpe acero orpxpno o1 nnx pouepe n xen nx noppnnmx. ocne ponrnx
kone6nn onn sco6npnncL caeprny1L nro n, asnaun a pykn opyxne, o6Lnannn
aony xpeu, o1uenLnnk, cke1, qnnocoq, uLn pen ncuepnnn nx 1epnenne.
kn o6pso, nocne no6epm np sopoc1pncknn n npounn epe1nkn, np
xec1oknn neaexec1aennmn 6opnrenn, npeoponea 1pypnoc1n n ny1n cospnnn
pnn kxpo kc1m caoero pycn expy 6epern skon, 6pxnm c1onknynncL c
rpxpncko aono; aono co oncno, no1oy u1o on aencL expy
uenoaeko aoopyxennm n uenoaeko 6esopyxnm.
c1opnn Mn6p coxpnnn p1y - ecnn ne co 6opL6m, 1o, no kpne epe,
opnoro ns ee annsopoa. nnnx a1o c1pnm pccksmae1cn o 1o, u1o 6onLuo
pckon nponsouen expy ku1pnnn n yppeun n ceaepe npnn, u1o ace aonnm
6mnn ynnu1oxenm, no6epn1enn ao rnae c pcy o, snenn1m 6pxno,
ko1oporo ne npo ny11L c repoe nnm, nocne caoe no6epm ykpennnncL n
kxno no6epexLe n cospnn 1 pecny6nnknckoe rocyppc1ao. D1o nponsouno a
1176 r. po n. a. osnenoano nuno n6pcko apm.
D1o nopxenne 6pxnoa 6mno 1onLko opnn ns annsopoa aonm, n 1knx annsopoa
6mno neno. ce yksmae1 n 1o, u1o nx npo1nannkn, nou1n 1kne xe pnum, kk
6pxnm, ne 6mnn nnuenm cnoco6noc1e n ne nonrnncL cneno 1onLko n cnny
opyxnn. u1pnn noako aneppnnncL a cm c1n apr, a ero 1eonornueckyk
un1penL - pnn 1oro, u1o6m nckopenn1L annnnne 6pxnoa n acnea, cypp n
6opnrenoa n pnn 1oro, u1o6m ycnokon1L caok coaec1L n onpap1Lcn o1 ynpekoa a
6esaepnn, u1o 6mno ouenL axno a 1ko rny6oko pennrnosno c1pne.
saec1no, u1o ao apen npe6mannn a Corpnne n nosxe ocnoann cc
sopoc1pncknx n nnpyccknx nneen ncnoaepoan poaonLno npoc1o kynL1. o1n a
ne 6mno 6onLue s6nyxpenn, ue a nepao6m1nmx aepoannnx 6eno pcm, 1e ne
enee on 6mn ne 1ko cnoxnm, kk pennrnosnme nonn1nn nypoxn1, ko1opme
nunnnn c1pon1L 6pxnns. o epe 1oro, kk nnpnckoe o6uec1ao aspocneno n
ace 6onLue uepno kpoan 6opnrenoa snp n kr, 1kxe xen1oro aneen1 c
aoc1ok n ceaep noc1ynno a xnnm npop, nsennnncL pennrnosnme no1pe6noc1n.
Mm yxe anpenn n npnepe nneann n rnn1, kkne yc1ynkn npnxopnnocL pen1L pnn
ypoane1aopennn nyxp uepnoro aneen1. D1o 6mno nuno ynpnnn pncknx
npopoa. nn npoponxnn oc1a1Lcn unc1o 6c1pk1nm nonn1ne,
n1ponoopqns, xo1n on, aosoxno, n npncy1c1aoan a npenx, eue ne nponanncn.
Born 6mnn kpcnam n a1n noxopnnn n pncknx repoea. so6px1L nx eue nnkoy
ne npnxopnno a ronoay.
orp n cuene nonannncL uepnm n xen1m aneen1m, npnunocL nsenn1L cnc1ey,
u1o6m cn 6orn amunn ns npenLnoro np, a ko1opo o6n1nn pnum. esancno
o1 psnnun expy uepnm n xen1m 1nno n nesancno o1 1oro, kko ns nnx
npeo6npn, 6opnrenm 6mnn epnnm a 1o, u1o 6orn ponxnm 6m1L ckopee yxcnmn,
xec1oknn n nenoxoxnn n uenoaek, nexenn kpcnamn n po6pmn, n
o1nnukunncn o1 nkpe 1onLko 6onLun coaepuenc1ao, ue qopo. D1 pok1pnn
6mn ncknkun1enLno e1qnsnuecko, ckypnm onm1 xypoxnnkoa eue 6onLue
s1pypnnn ee pennsunk.
norp o6Lncnnk1 ace a1n o11nknakune nsmueckne nso6pxennn npnn, ccnpnn n
rnn1, ace a1n o1ap1n1enLnme nenpnn1noc1n, nnop aoo6pxennn aoc1ounmx
npopoa, unc1o e1qnsnuecknn npnunnn, 1. e. xennne npepc1an1L aec1o
o6psoa cnaonm, ko1opme pk1 nnuy pnn 1pncuenpen1nmx psmunenn. koe
o6Lncnenne ne kxe1cn ne connpnm. Mne pxe npepc1anne1cn, u1o ono nansmae1
nsapuennm akyc aosamuennm y, ko1opme, xenn nponnkny1L a cme
rny6okne 1nm, 1e ne enee ne uyac1ayk1 a ce6e oc1po neo6xopnoc1n cpen1L
caon qnsnueckne ouyuennn 6onee rpy6mn n 1epnnLnmn. o psae nenLsn 6mno
ncnonLsoa1L ne c1onL o11nknakune cnaonm? sae 1onLko cknpnLnm o6pso
oxno ampsn1L ouL npnpopm, cnnm Boxec1aennoro n ero norouncnennme
1pn6y1m? sae annnnm nso6psnnn nc1nueckyk c11yk 1poc1aenno ek1m c
1pen ronoan, uec1Lk pykn n norn n ncksnnn ee nnu xy1knn
konaynLcnnn? sae onn ycpnnn ee n c1punoro Uep6ep n noaecnnn e n rpypL
oxepenLe ns uepenoa n pnn a pykn opypnn nm1kn co caexnn cnepn kpoan n nnx?
ouno 1k xe xpnc1nnc1ao ne npn6erno k yxc, nso6pxn 6oxec1aennyk 1ponuy.
ne cpenno kpnk1ypy ns can1oro e1p. Dnnnnns n k1onnueckoe xpnc1nnc1ao
npekpcno o6ounncL 6es ypopc1a a ckxe1x, ko1opme 6mnn ne enee
e1qnsnuecknn, ue nnpycckne, ccnpnckne, ernne1ckne por1m. 1k, a
6eso6psnn o6psoa nenLsn annn1L npnpopy 6c1pk1noro munennn, no1oy u1o ace
peno a yc1poc1ae rns, yoa n ceppeu, k ko1opm o6puenm a1n o6psm. epnme n
xen1me 6opnrenm ornn nonn1L 1onLko ypopnnaoe - ono 6mno cospno pnn nnx, n
ono c1no pnn nnx neo6xopnm.
kn o6pso, nnpyc nyxno 6mno ne 1onLko cosp1L 1eonornueckyk
nepconnqnkunk, no n psnoxn1L ee, u1o6m cpen1L 6onee poc1ynno pnn
aocnpnn1nn. enorouncnennmx 6oroa ppeannx apeen - nnpnep, nppm co caonn
cny1nnkn - yxe 6mno nepoc11ouno pnn nepepun npe, ko1opme a nso6nnnn
nopoxpn pcunpnkuncn unannnsunn. orp npen 6or1c1a c1n poc1ynno pnn
cc, ko1opme nyunnncL uenn1L ee npepnocmnkn n cnepc1ann, a1y ounyk
panxyuyk counnLnyk cnny noc1annn nop oxpny ne6ecnoro nokpoan1enn n
npnpynn yaepy, 6ornnk, nonnoc1Lk o1aeuauyk akycy uepno pcm
[BaxHaH an nry uy, nx vH nnu anHH;
aH, Unrnu mn naa, kra ran, v ck naHnk
Hry cnvau n ac c rnckH. nvH, mn naa,
aaa: c ackH.].
Mexpy 1e a 1ko psnoxennn 6oroa cnepye1 anpe1L ne 1onLko upesepnoc1L. o
epe 1oro, kk c1noanncn 1onLue 6pxnckn pyx, on nm1ncn anoaL oanpe1L
ppeane nc1nno, ko1opn korp-1o yckonLsnyn o1 pncko pcm, n, cospan
nnsunx 6oroa n no1pe6y 6opnren nnn anune 1epnn, s1e npnnnn
a1ox1onnme kynL1m, 6pxnns ykpennnn caon nosnunn. n aen nonckn ace amue n
amue, n, pyn o cnnx, o ne6ecnmx cyuec1ax, npeaocxopnunx nppy, rnn, on
nuen Bpxy, npnpa ey cme aosamuennme uep1m, kkne 1onLko 6mnn poc1ynnm
qnnocoqnn; n a 1o1 np aqnpnoro cosnpnnn, rpe nnc1nnk1 npekpcnoro nennn 1koe
aennkoe cyuec1ao, ponycknocL ouenL no 6eso6psnoro.
[onroe apen Bpx oc1ancn pnn 1onnm nensaec1nm 6oro. ro nso6pxenne
nonannocL nosxe. nsune kc1m ne nonnnn n nrnopnpoann ero; on 6mn a
ocnoano 6oro cke1oa, ko1opm 6mn neo6xopn n ko1opme ne co6npnncL ero
caepr1L. nn npounn aecL ny1L amcunx cyuec1aoann, onn cn ysnnn, u1o snun1
6m1L 6oro, n 1enepL eu1nn 1onLko o6 opno: cnn1Lcn c nnn nkoneu o1poxny1L o1
xnsnn, ko1opn 6mn 1nxen pxe pnn nnx, nosnaunx ne6ecnoe cyuec1aoanne.
cnn amcuee Boxec1ao 6pxnoa 6mno nepoc1ynno nonnnnk nnsunx knccoa n,
aosoxno, pxe acnea, ono 6mno poc1ynno aosamuennoy yy ku1pnea: oc1ancL
yuc1nnkn aepnuecknx nyk, onn o6npnn enee k1nanm uyac1ao
pennrnosnoc1n, ue nx conepnnkn, no 6mnn poc11ouno o6psoannm, u1o6m ne
amc1yn1L o1kpm1o npo1na nonn1nn, snuenne ko1oporo onn xopouo nonnnn. nn
nounn a o6xop n npn nooun 1eonoroa ns aonncko kc1m nnn 6pxnoa-
o1c1ynnnkoa 1pncqopnpoann cy1L nuny, a1opoc1enennoro ku1pnckoro 6or,
noc1annn ey e1qnsnueckn 1pon n nopnnnn ero n 1y xe amco1y, rpe npe6man
ne6ecnm nokpoan1enL nx aproa. enepL on 6mn panm Bpxe, n aonnckn kc1
6onLue ne uyac1aoan ce6n yuenenno a cmcne 1eonornuecko pok1pnnm.
D1o 6mn xopouo o6pynnm ur, n on conpoaoxpncn ponro n ynopno 6opL6o; on
yrpoxn anc1n 6pxnoa n kpxo acey nnpnckoy o6uec1ay. opno c1opone
6mn nuny co cao6opnmn n aoopyxennmn ku1pnnn, n ppyro - Bpx co
caonn npnmn xpeun n 6essun1nmn knccn acnea n cypp. 6opnrenm
nenn am6op expy payn cnc1en: nepan npepnrn n pennrnk, 1kyk xe
oprnnsoannyk, kk n npexnnn, 6conk1noe ocao6oxpenne o1 kc1oao 1npnnn n a
nepcnek1nae aosoxnoc1L pnn coro nocnepnero ns nkpe po6n1Lcn acero pxe a
1euenne nmneune xnsnn, ne poxnpncL cnepykuero nepeaonnouennn. [pyro
pexn ne cynnn nnuero noaoro pnn npoc1mx nkpe, on pxe ne or o6annn1L
conepnnkoa a 6es6oxnn, no1oy u1o y nnx 6mn opnn nn1eon - 1onLko aepxoanm 6or
6mn ppyro, - on pxe ne or o6ecneun1L sun1y cn6m nnn nponan1L nn6epnns,
1. k. o1nmne nn6epnns 6mn opyxne 1ex, k1o o6eun ynnxennm ace 6nr. 1k,
ecnn 6pxnm y1p1nnn poaepne uepnmx noppnnmx, 1o kkoe aonnc1ao onn ornn
npo1naonoc1an1L upckn eu?
kne cn1yunn uc1o ac1peuk1cn a nc1opnn. pnko c1on1 o1e1n1L, u1o ns payx
aokkunx nonn1nuecknx np1n enLue oun6ok pennn 6pxnm. x scnyro 6mno
1kxe 1o, u1o onn xep1aoann uc1noc1nn, u1o6m coxpnn1L ocnoay. pesynL11e
ponrnx pcnpe xpeum n aonnm npnunn k cornuennk.
Bpx c1onn n opno c1ynenn c nuny. Cnyc1n norne ropm, nocne peaonkun, o
ko1opmx m roaopn1L ne 6ype, 1. k. onn ne nenn unc1o a1nnueckoro xpk1ep, k
nn npncoepnnnncn Lna [ canucay acca, s xca H
canu c kynuH vmx ara. a r r ran n HH
ra, axHa kra a a xaH, r axcn r
ax.], eue nosxe nonanncL qnnocoqckn pok1pnn, ko1opn
o6Lepnnnn a1n 1pn 6oxec1aennmx cyuec1a a 1ponuy, o6npkuyk cnoco6noc1Lk
1aopennn, coxpnennn n ynnu1oxennn np, n a pesynL11e caen 6pxnckyk
1eonornk k ppeane npee opnoro, epnnoro, 6or, oxa1makuero ack acenennyk.
Bpxnm okonu1enLno o1ksnncL o1 mcnn coxpnn1L amcuyk anc1L, ku1pnn
c1nn cun11L ee caon 1pn6y1o o1 poxpennn. pn a1o kc1oam pexn
coxpnnncn ao ace c1poroc1n n uenoc1noc1n.
npnckoe o6uec1ao, ocnoannoe 6pxnn, c uec1Lk ampepxno opnn ns cmx
oncnmx kpnsncoa a caoe nc1opnn. no aocc1noanno caon cnnm, ono 6mno
opnopopnm, n ero 6ypyuey nnu1o ne yrpoxno. kre ono kononnsnpoano
6onLuyk uc1L nnopopopnmx seenL n am1ecnnno nenpnnpnmx aproa a nyc1mnn n
6ono1, a scnexennme nnn, a ropm nnpxn. no okkynnpoano [ekn, oanpeno
Uenono n npnnecno 1yp caok kynL1ypy. ce canpe1enLc1aye1 o 1o, u1o c 1oro
apeenn ono npopannynocL po pnLnnx oc1poaoa am n Bnn, o6ocnoanocL a nnxne
1euennn nr n no 1euennk Bpxny1pm nponnkno n senn xen1okoxe pcm,
ko1opn po cnx nop 6mn nsaec1n nnpyc no ne6onLun pon n ceaepe,
aoc1oke n n kxnmx oc1poax. c11n, pnum nnkorp ne nenn a npnn konk1no
1eppn1opnn. o nornx ec1x nx nocenennn 6mnn okpyxenm ec1nm ncenenne.
[ekne nx pnLue aoo6ue ne 6mno.
o epe 1oro, kk ocyuec1annncL a1 pen1enLnoc1L, 1e 6onee 1pypnn, u1o noame
1eppn1opnn 6mnn o6unpnee, pcc1onnnn 6onLue, acero 1pypnee 6mnn
knn1nueckne ycnoann, pcunpnncL opckn 1oproann, a uc1noc1n, c n1e, n
eue a 1400 r. po n. a. npnk noc1ynnn uypecnme ppm senn, npopykunn pypnnkoa
n peecnennnkoa: ace, ue cnanncL opne6ecnn nepnn n ppyrne
unannnsoannme c1pnm np. npnckne 1oproaum noceunn n annon
[nmmH HnnaaannH mn aac: a ycck nr
acckamaacn ra, km camn cHu Hckx nymca.
ycm Hrn Hu can c xannH, y kmx mn Hck n (can,
XIII, 14) knn a a a anaH nxu cckr anaa, r
Hna Hc rann c . yvacaaan km ncn
car cxa nca. canmx kr axncn a ry
Manaaa, a ncknuky ack aaan naHmx ya aaa
ayva a cack, a a kackH nmk, sr cny, v amcm
knaccm cam ccnn aa a y snxy, kra ya nxn
kan nHa. akx Hu, v nam knanum
ncnn a r nnancu a HckH nxu, s ykamaa
a , v x caan mn HnnaaannH. nn an, v
aaa nmn k ycu a caan aH nam Hn, anH,
ana.]. no6epexLe Heen onn o6ocnoanncL ocnoa1enLno. pouae1kune
rocyppc1a nonyoc1poa cnannncL cokpoanun, uypecn n ppoc1nn xnsnn -
nnopn unannnsunn, cospnno no c1porn npann aepm n nc1nnm, no
nunonnLnm xpk1ep cpenn ee nrko, nou1n n1epnnnc1cko. o kpne
epe, 1koe aneu1nenne nonanne1cn npn u1ennn aennknx nc1opnuecknx anocoa n
pennrnosnmx nerenp anoxn 6yppns.
Unannnsunn nx orpnnunancL a1nn aneunnn 6nec1nunn aqqek1n. Bypyun
ackopnenno 1eonornuecko nyko, on uepnn ns a1oro nc1ounnk cnnm 1o1
cm renn acero aennkoro: a1o oxno cpann1L c 1e, kk cpepneaekoame nxnnkn
aocnpnnnnn cao aennkn 1pyp, uenL ko1oporo sknkuncL ne 1onLko a nonyuennn
sono1. pn acex caonx poc1nxennnx, npn acex caonx nopxennnx, ko1opme on
nepenocnn c 1kn poc1onnc1ao, n acex no6epx, nnopm ko1opmx on 1k cuc1nnao
ncnonLsoan, nnpnckn unannnsunn pcc1pnan kk neu1o nesnun1enLnoe ace
1o, uero on po6nncL, n a ee rnsx nc1onun n okonu1enLnm 1pnyq npepc1onn a
nno npe.
a1o sknkuncn aennkn cmcn 6pxnckoro pe1nu. spenna nkpe n
k1eropnn, 6pxnm kcnnLno ncnonLsoann a1y cnc1ey pnn coaepuenc1aoannn
uenoaek n nopro1oakn ero k oncnoy ny1n, nuno ko1oporo 6mn ronnn, ko1opm
ponxen 6mn npnaec1n k 6onee amcokoy npepnsnuennk, ecnn uenoaek npoxnn 6es
rpexoa, nnn k 6onee nnskoy ypeny, ko1opm pan aosoxnoc1L nokn1Lcn. ko xe
cnno ponxn 6mn o6np1L a1 npen pnn aepykuero, ecnn pxe ceropnn nnpyc ns
co npespenno kc1m, nn1em npexpo n nyuuee nepeaonnouenne, npesnpe1
rocnopnn-eaponeu, ko1opm nn1n1 ey, nnn ycynLnnn, ko1opm ero 6Le1!
1k, cep1L n nocep1noe ocyxpenne nannk1cn ocnoanmn npnnunnn xnsnn
nnpyc, n cypn no 6espsnnunk, c kkn on o1nocn1cn k senoy cyuec1aoannk,
oxno cks1L, u1o on xnae1 1onLko pnn 1oro, u1o6m yepe1L. 3pecL ec1L oueanpnoe
cxopc1ao c 1e pyxo o1peuennoc1n, ko1opm upnn a rnn1e: ernn1nnnn 1oxe 6mn
yc1penen k 6ypyue xnsnn, anpen ee 6yp1o nnay n a kko-1o cmcne
nopro1annan ee. pnnenL oueanpn, nnn nyuue cks1L, o6e nnnnn npe
nepecekk1cn nop npnm yrno n ncxopn1 ns o6ue aepunnm. anopyune k
senoy cyuec1aoannk n npounn aep a o6eunnn pennrnn npnpk1 nc1opnn nunn
nornky, npno1y, nesancnoc1L n aosamuennoc1L. orp uenoaek mcnenno xnae1
opnoapeenno a payx npx, on asopo n pyuo anpn1 s uep1o ornnm ne pk, no
6neck noao xnsnn, ero no nyrk1 c1pxn, npncyune punonnnc1y, n on cun1e1
konunny 1onLko nepexopo k nnoy cyuec1aoannk. Cme cnanme oen1m
uenoaeuecknx unannnsun cnyuk1cn 1orp, korp xnsnL eue uenn1cn ne 1k
amcoko, u1o6m kpoe ee coxpnennn ne anpe1L nnmx uene. 1kyp xe 6epe1cn 1koe
o1nouenne k xnsnn? cerp n ackpy ono onpepenne1cn konnuec1ao pncko kpoan
a xnnx npop.
kn o6pso, 1eonornn n e1qnsnueckne nccnepoannn 6mnn qynpen1o
nnpnckoro o6uec1a. nnx c1ponnncL nonn1nueckne n counnLnme nykn.
Bpxnns ne pspennn cosnnne rpxpnckoe n pennrnosnoe. n1ckn n
eaponeckn npen pspenennn uepkan n rocyppc1a 6mn pnn nero nenpnene. Bes
pennrnn 6pxnckoe rocyppc1ao nemcnno. C pennrne 6mn cansn kxpm ur a
nnuno xnsnn nnpyc. ennrnn 6mn ace, on nponnkn aespe, pan cmcn
acey; on opnoapeenno n ynnxn n aosamun pxe unpn, n a1o1 nnu1oxnm
uenoaek nonyun ocnoanne pnn roppoc1n n nxopnn cyuec1a 6onee nnsknx, ue on, n
poc1onmx npespennn.
op cenLk nykn n aepm noasnn nun aennknx 1aopuoa a canuennmx o6n1ennx
o1uenLnnkoa. Anaxope1m, cnyc1nauncL c neanpnnmx amco1 epn1unn,
nokpoan1enLc1aoann cae1ckn noa1, nooupnnn nx n pxe conepnnunn c nnn.
nLnkn, a1op nnm, 6mn nou1ennm cke1o. 6 pncop, yco n ao,
ko1opm on nopyunn syuna1L n peknnpoa1L caon c1nxn, 6mnn cmnoaLnn coro
m. upcknx paopux 1enno npnnnnn nn1ennek1ynoa, uc1L 6pxnoa
snnncL 1onLko noncko 1nn1oa. oam, anernn, ppyrne nponsaepennn snnnn
ec1o pnpo c o6Lenc1mn nnopn cypoamx nyk. [p n koepnn, ospennme
cae1o nc1onunx rennea, c 6necko nso6pxnn npam nc1onuero n aennkne
pennnn npounoro. [oc1onoe ec1o a pnpy snenn1mx eypnc1oa snne1
nnpc. o1n npo se1n1L, u1o nonn1ne nnpycoa o6 nc1opnn o1nnue1cn o1 nuero
o1cy1c1ane c1ponoro n nocnepoa1enLnoro nsnoxennn qk1oa n co6m1n.
pnko n ne ory cks1L, u1o 1ko pcuae1 nesancno cao6opno mcnn, kkn
6m ampkuncn on nn ksncn n, ne cnoco6c1aoan nocnepney kpynnoy
aocc1nnk, opnoy ns cmx pspyun1enLnmx, kkne ncnm1n 6pxnns.
npnc1ynk k psroaopy o poxpennn 6yppnc1cknx pok1pnn n o6 nx nonn1nuecknx
cnepc1annx.
III. ByH; r nax; mmnn n
Mm oksnncL a anoxe, ko1opn no cnnrnnckoy ne1oncuncnennk o1nocn1cn k VII a.
po n. a., no ppyrn 6yppnc1ckn knenppn, pcnpoc1pnennm n ceaepe npnn, k
543 r. po n. a. [3 snxa a. x aHa knakc nmn k
3ckHy H nc a 3ana nam can , km
v nca mn kan a. s aHn n nxaana
aca ca ana Hrycaa.]. a1oy apeenn ouenL oncnme
npen nponnknn a ae1aL nnpncko nykn, nsmaeyk qnnocoqne cnkxLn. [a
6pxn, 1npxnn n nnn, nponoaepoann, u1o npnnunnm ep 6ecnonesnm pnn
coaepuenc1aoannn uenoaek n u1o pnn nyuuero nepeaonnouennn poc11ouno
nnpnanpynLnoro, ne ckoannoro npannn, cke1ns. Corncno a1oy yuennk, ace
nkpn nek1 npao, ne c1pucL no1yc1oponnnx nocnepc1an, npesnp1L npnnunnm
6pxnns n pen1L 1o, u1o 6pxnns snpeue1.
kn 1eopnn orn pspyun1L o6uec1ao. pnko on 6mn cnnuko nyuno n ne
nponnkn a nonn1nky. o 1o nn a npenx, nopopnaunx ee, 6mno neu1o 6onLuee, nexenn
cnyunn porpk, nnn ouenL npk1nunme nkpn rny6oko nx aocnpnnnnn, cnyunnocL
1k, u1o opnn npnnu coro sn1noro nponcxoxpennn, npnnpnexaun k ae1an
conneuno pcm, no nenn CkLn, cmn Cyppopxn, upn nnnac1y, nun
npno6u1L ncenenne ko acey, u1o 6mno nn6epnLnoro a a1o pok1pnne.
o npnepy nnnm on yunn, u1o aepnueckne nc1anennn 6ecnonesnm; on cun1n,
u1o nn nn1yprnueckne 1ekc1m, nn cke1nueckne ynpxnennn, nn c1ppnnn ne noory1
npeopone1L npenn1c1ann seno xnsnn; u1o pnn a1oro poc11ouno co6nkp1L
opnLnme skonm, a ko1opmx 6onLue roaopn1cn o nk6an k ppyrn, ue k ce6e.
kuec1ae amcunx po6pope1ene on nponoaepoan cao6opy, aospepxnne, nyky,
aneprnunoc1L, 1epnenne n coc1ppnne. npoue, a aonpocx 1eonornn n kocoronnn
on npnnnn yuenne 6pxnns s ncknkuenne ero upesepnmx o6eunn. n
y1aepxpn, u1o noaepe1 nkpe ne 1onLko a nono Byppm, o1kyp, kk yunn c1pn
1eonornn, a cnyue nepoc11k poc1onnc1a npnxopn1cn anoaL nunn1L pnp senmx
cyuec1aoann, no a cy cyunoc1L coaepuennoro Byppm, rpe nxopn1cn nnpan, 1.
e. nonnoe n aeunoe ne6m1ne. kn o6pso, 6pxnns npepc1annn co6o ouenL
cnoxnm nn1ens, 6yppns eue 6onLue ycnoxnnn ero, poaopn po nponc1n
o1pnunnn.
o kkn o6pso CkLn co6npncn pcnpoc1pnn1L caon npen? n nun c o1pnunnn
1pon; on o6nunncn a rpy6yk opexpy xen1oro uae1, ko1opyk on nxopnn n cankx
n knp6nux nnn unn c. n asnn a pykn nocox n c1n xn1L 1onLko n nopnnne. n
sxopnn a ropop n pepeann n nponoaepoan caok opnL. c1peuncL c 6pxnn,
on pncky1npoan c nnn, n npncy1c1aykune ucn cnyunn a1n cnopm. Ckopo y nero
nonannncL yuennkn. Mnorne 6mnn ns aonncko kc1m, 1kxe ns acnea, ko1opme a
1o apen 6mnn 6or1m, annn1enLnm n nonLsoanncL yaxenne. ue acero on
nxopnn c1oponnnkoa a nnsunx cnonx ncenennn. k npanno, on anyun n, u1o a
npepmpyue xnsnn onn npnnpnexnn k amcun kncc n u1o onn poc1onm
aepny1Lcn 1yp 6nroppn 1oy, u1o cnyuk1 ero. ockonLky on o1aeprn epm, pnn
nero ne cyuec1aoano pspenennn n knccm, n on npnsnan 1onLko npeaocxopc1ao
po6pope1enn.
Moxno npepc1an1L, kk pec1aoann n aoo6pxenne npoc1mx nkpe 1kne peun.
CkLn o6p1nn a caok aepy orponoe konnuec1ao nkpe, nocne ero cep1n aepnme
yuennkn npoponxnn ero peno n pcunpnnn annnnne s npepenm npnn, rpe
6yppnc1n c1nn upn aec1e co caon paopo.
pnko 6pxnckn oprnnsunn oc1ancL nc1onLko ouno, u1o peqopnc1m ne
ocennanncL nponann1L 1kyk xe apxpe6noc1L n npk1nke, kk a 1eopnn.
npnnunne o1pnuncL pennrnosnn neo6xopnoc1L kc1. o6nc1n nonn1nkn peqop
1kxe ne nxopnn pnn ce6n npnenennn, n neco1pn n neko1opme no1pncennn a
o6nc1n por1oa ocnoam o6uec1a oc1anncL nesm6nem.
koe nonoxenne canpe1enLc1aye1 o6 ncknkun1enLno cnne 6pxnns [
ckH ca mn caka a anmx snHax, . k.
num ann nnyvn c knaccm, rnaam Hcnvckx
xa, ram Hnnaaan. ac a cnn nv. ycay
ycckan nra, r vu ann aacck yxya a
snxy, kra Haancn yH. a Hu, v nrm yax
ncaann c ak x cvck c, kak Hm cnmmaaH
k xncanH canmx snx Mara. x cnyvanx y aa-
aka aa-yca Hm aH nnv ncck vac
c aka nx k xnr.]. Cnyc1n paec1n ne1 nocne
cep1n CkLn a c1pne, rpe 6mn 6yppnc1ckn upL npccn, 6pxnm nonLsoanncL
noue1o, n nc1onun aon, ne1epnnoc1L n npecnepoannn nunncL 1onLko a V a.
n. a. kn o6pso, 6yppns a 1euenne no kpne epe 800 ne1 cyuec1aoan pnpo
c ppeane cnc1eo n ne nen poc11ouno cnnm, u1o6m ac1ynn1L a o1kpm1yk 6opL6y.
e 6mno peun o nepoc11ke xennnn. ncno npnaepxenuea 6yppns npoponxno
aospc11L. anyunocL: Cnyu1e, n am nopnnn1ecL amue. pnpx 6pxnoa
6mno neno nkpe neaexec1aennmx, cpepn ku1pnea, aonnoa 6mnn 1kne, k1o ne
yen aoea1L, cpepn acnea ac1peunncL nenname nnn necnoco6nme [ra
axHam ynkan akun a H, v kyxan cn vcmH n
ayH nnx a x, avan: M ak cu ak
Hncn k acH. ak, s ak cnancn vH- a cyn
nr, kan aaana cka c amcmx knacca, c
n, araamx acnvck ravn axHaHa a cny r, v
nuk Ha crc cyac Hx nnyvu n
a mk a mm x cau cmH k nxy a n
amcky cynu. Bycm nxn k sHy n. cyxan
vHm nmn, a a x Hc caan nc ackan na
mk. ca, s nyHan cnau.]. ce a1o penno cek1y
npnanek1enLno pnn amcunx knccoa.
YaennunanocL uncno onc1mpe. yp npnxopnno ace 6onLue aepykunx, pnn
aocxanennn noao pennrnn ncnonLsoanncL nckycc1a, ko1opme cospn n
ycoaepuenc1aoan ppeannn unannnsunn. euepm Mr1nnn, Byr n ny1n a
Ypxenn, rpo1m Dneqn1 - ace a1o 6yppnc1ckne xpm. ecL nn1eon 6pxnns,
yaennunauncn apaoe s cue1 noao nqonornn - acex 6ypp, acex 6opxnc1a n
npounx nnopoa aoo6pxennn, npncyuero a ocnoano uepno pce, - npeap1nncn a
pspyun1enLnyk cnny. Bpxnm nonnnn, u1o nop cnc1L o6uec1ao, cospnnoe nn.
uncL 6opL6 - ee nuno npnxopn1cn n V a., - ko1opn skonunncL 1onLko a
XIV a.
Moxno cks1L, u1o 6yppns scnyxnn caoe nopxenne, no1oy u1o oksncn
6eccnnLnm nepep nocnepc1annn. C coro nun on uepnn cnnm cpepn
o1uenenuea, on nepec1n 6m1L ynnaepcnLno pennrne n skpmn pnn ce6n ace ny1n k
coaepuenc1aoannk. poe 1oro, on ne cor cpsy pspyun1L kc1oayk cnc1ey n
6mn amnyxpen npnnn1L ee n npk1nke, ocyxpn ee 1eope1nueckn [anH,
ycm yaxan, v xcaaaH Hx mn ucn nuk a
cHu axHaa n kma.]. Upn-ku1pnn n o6puennme 6pxnm ponxnm
6mnn, pno nnn nospno, s1ockoa1L o caonx npexnnx npnannernnx.
Byppns no ace nosnunn nponrpman 6n1ay, ao II a. on ncues c 1eppn1opnn
npnn. n nuen npn6exnue a 1knx kononnnx, kk Uenon nnn a, ko1opme 6mnn
1oxe cospnm 6pxncko kynL1ypo, no 1 no6epy opepxnn epe1nkn 6nroppn
a1nnueckoy coc1ay xpeuoa n aonnoa. [nccnpen1ckn kynL1 1kxe coxpnnncn n
ceaepo-aoc1oke npnn, no 1 - nnpnep, a enne, - on ampoxpe1cn n yc1yne1
ec1o 6pxnnsy. opoue roaopn, on cyuec1aye1 1, rpe o1cy1c1ayk1 kc1m: a
n1e, nne, n n6e1e, a Uen1pnLno snn. ckpy on poksmae1 cn6oc1L
cnc1em, ocnoanno 1onLko n opnn n psye.
Byppns, a konue konuoa, sxo1en cosp1L ce6e qynpen1. o, yam, 6mno cnnuko
nospno: on cospn 6cypp. npo1naononoxnoc1L nc1nnno qnnocoqnn a 6yppnse
on1onornn am1eke1 ns npac1aennoro skon, ne no6opo1. pesynL11e m anpn
6espyunyk 1eonornk nckycc1aennoro nopnpk n nony6eccmcnennme 1ekc1m a anpe
pcnpoc1pnennoro y onronoa unnnnpp, ko1opm npnaopn1cn a noc1onnnoe
panxenne cnno aopm n nepepe1 n ne6o copepxnne nuep1nnmx n ne onn1a, o
ue canpe1enLc1aye1 opnn nccnonep ns konrperunn Cen-sp. k xe nnsko nn
specL punonnnc1nueckn 1eopnn, o1pnukun ace ukonm n npe1enpykun n npao
nc1ann1L npopm! ko oksncL cypL6 6yppns.
Bpxnns ne sepnnn aocnonLsoa1Lcn yuep6noc1Lk caoero npo1nannk. n
nponann yppoc1L n a ne6nronpnn1nmx o6c1on1enLc1ax npoaopnn 1y xe nonn1nky,
ko1opn oksncL ycneuno ao apen 6yn1 ku1pnea. n cor no1n n 6onLune
yc1ynkn. n ne c1n ncnnoa1L nnn ynnx1L ym nkpe. onLsyncL cnnkpe1nso,
on cpenn ns CkLn-Mynn aonnouenne nuny. kn o6pso, 6pxnns pn
aosoxnoc1L 1e, k1o xo1en aepny1Lcn a ero nono, noknonn1Lcn caoey npony n
ns6ann nx o1 npespennn. 31e, noc1enenno, a ero nn1eon aounn norne ns
6yppnc1cknx 6oroa c 1o oroaopko, u1o6m onn ne snnnn amcokoro ec1 a
neppxnn. koneu, ey ypnocL cpen1L 1k, u1o o1 6yppns a npnn nou1n ne
oc1nocL cnepoa. o6uec1aenno nennn nn1nnkn, cospnnme a1o cek1o,
nannk1cn peno pyk ee cuc1nnaoro conepnnk [By cva, v Bya, kak
ann my, nnancn aum 1005 r. sm kaHaa, . . 943
r. . s.]. k u1o xe eue oxno cks1L o oryuec1ae, 1epnennn n yppoc1n ukonm,
ko1opn, npocyuec1aoaa 6onee payx 1mcnuene1n, opepxn c1onL y6epn1enLnyk
no6epy? ne anxy nnuero nopo6noro a nc1opnn uenoaeuec1a - nnuero, u1o pene1
1kyk uec1L uenoaeueckoy psyy.
c1L nn a npouno npnepm c1okoc1n, c kko 6pxnns coxpnnn caok cyunoc1L
a 1euenne c1onL pnn1enLnoro apeenn, ne yc1ynna nn nnpn a payx ocnoanmx o6nc1nx:
pok1pnne n nonn1nuecko cnc1ee? C ue oxno cpann1L ero ro1oanoc1L o1p1L
ponxnoe cm uennm npen caoero npo1nannk n o1ks o1 conk6nn a 1nxenme
nny1m caoero nopxennn? , nnpnep, 1knx ne snk. npoponxenne ponro
6opL6m 6pxnns nponann paonyk yppoc1L, ko1opyk amcoko ouennn nrnnckn
pnc1okp1nn, nenno: cyen coxpnn1L npounoe n npncnoco6nncn k 1pe6oannn
nc1onuero. opoue roaopn, on o6npn nc1onun oprnns1opckn pyxo n a
nrppy s a1o nonyunn npnsnnne cospnnoro n o6uec1a.
Caon 1pnyqo on a ocnoano 6mn o6nsn npnnunny nsonnunn, uero nepoc1ano
6yppnsy. ero c1opone 6mn n unc1o1 pncko kpoan, 1orp kk 6yppnc1m
aep6oann c1oponnnkoa rnanm o6pso a nnsunx kc1x n nrnopnpoann skonm
pspenennn n o1pnunn nx pennrnosnoe snuenne. npnn 6pxnns snenoan
co6o npeaocxopc1ao 6eno pcm, xo1n yxe nopaepxenno nsenennn, 6yppnc1m,
nnpo1na, ncknn noppepxkn a nnsunx knccx. Byppnc1ckn 6yn1 ne or yaenu1Lcn
ycnexo po 1ex nop, nok pnckn 1nn, neco1pn n uyxepopnme aneen1m,
coxpnnn, 6nroppn nsonnunn, ocnoanyk uc1L caonx poc1onnc1a n po6pope1ene.
o1n ns a1oro ne cnepye1, u1o ponroe conpo1nanenne 6yppns ne npnnecno caonx
nnopoa. ne coneakcL, u1o aosapuenne a nono 6pxnns norouncnennmx
nneen xpeuecko kc1m n ku1pnea, ko1opme 1k ponro npene6pernn a1nnuecknn
npepnncnnnn, nocenno pypnme ceen. pnko pnckn npnpop 6mn poc11ouno
cnnLn n oc1e1cn cnnLno a nue apen, u1o6m coxpnn1L caok oprnnsunk ao
apen yxcnmx ncnm1nn, amnaunx n ponk npop.
unnn c 1001 r. n. a., npnn nepec1n 6m1L c1pno, skpm1o pnn snpnmx
nun, aennkn saoea1enL nekcnpp pxe ne nopospean o uypecnmx
poc1nxennnx neunc1mx npopoa, snpnmx ap1nea, ko1opmx on no6epnn. Cmn
Onnnnn Mkeponckoro 1k n ne pouen po canuenno senn. Mexpy 1e kk Mxyp
nsneanp, ycynLnckn npnnu ceunno pcm, 6onee 6eno, ue 1, ns ko1opo
amunn 6pxnm n ku1pnn, ao rnae pn, noppepxnaemx ycynLnckn
qn1nso, orne n euo npouen no nonyoc1poay, ynnu1oxn xpm, nc1pe6nnn
canuennnkoa n aonnoa, cxnrn canuennme knnrn - 1k nunncL npecnepoannn,
ko1opme c 1ex nop nou1n ne npekpunncL. [nn nk6o unannnsunn 1pypno yc1on1L
nepep any1pennn n1ncko a pesynL11e nponanennn uenoaeuecknx c1pc1e, no
norokp1no 1pypnee, korp on nxopn1cn nop nn1o uyxkoa-saoea1ene,
ko1opme aosnepnnncL po konu ynnu1oxn1L ee. c1L nn a nc1opnn npnepm c1onL
ponroro n cuc1nnaoro conpo1nanennn cm pspyun1enLnm qk1op? snk
1onLko opnn - a1o neno ec1o a npnn. Co apeen xec1okoro cyn1n nsnn
6pxnckoe o6uec1ao ne snno nn nny1m nokon n nocpepn noc1onnnmx 1k cyeno
am1ecnn1L 6yppns. ocne nepcoa Mxyp npnunn 1ypkn, onronm, qrnum,
11pm, p6m, 6nccnnum, s1e cnoa nepcm pnp-Lx, nop1yrnLum, nrnnune,
qpnuysm. ceaepe, n snpe n kre nponcxopnnn nenpec1nnme n6ern,
uyxesenme oppm 1o n peno naopnnnn npoannunn c1pnm. Uenme npopm, ne
ampepxa a1oro, o1peknncL o1 nunonnLno pennrnn. unpum c1nn
ycynLnn, s nnn cnnpxn, s1e ppyrne nneen Mn6p n no6epexLn
oponpenn. noc1onm Mroe1 noackpy - n ne 6es ycnex - nponoaepoann
oncnme npen. Bpxnns nn n rnoaenne ne cknpman opyxnn - nnpo1na, n
aoc1oke, a ceaepnmx ropx, a uc1noc1n nocne nokopennn enn ropkxcn a XIV a.
on npoponxn caok ycneunyk pen1enLnoc1L. pn1ok nonypncko kpoan a enpx6e
npnaen k nonanennk arnn1pno pennrnn nek. Bpxnns onpanncn o1 a1oro
ypp n ace ycneunee npo1naoc1onn ycynLncko aepe.
Mm sne, c kko nenokone6no yaepennoc1Lk on a 1euenne co1nn ne1
conpo1nanne1cn eaponeckoy n1ncky, n n ne aepk, u1o xo1L opnn uenoaek,
popnauncn a npnn, ponyc1n1 mcnL, u1o a1y c1pny aosoxno 1pncqopnpoa1L n
unannnsoa1L n nu nep. Mnorne n6nkp1enn, ko1opme xopouo snk1 npnk,
y6expenm, u1o 1koe cnyun1Lcn ne oxe1.
pnko 6pxnns nepexnae1 o6un ynpok; ero aennkne nnunoc1n yunn;
6cyppnme nnn nsyaepckne cyeaepnn, 1eonornueckne amaep1m kynL1, o6nsnnme
uepnoy aneen1y, opepxnn no6epy np ppeane qnnocoqne c ee aosamuennoc1Lk
n 6nropopno pepsoc1Lk. erponpnm 1nn n xen1m npnnunn snnnn 6onLuoe ec1o
a amcunx knccx, n ao nornx o1nouennnx 6mae1 1pypno, nopo pxe neaosoxno,
o1nnun1L 6pxnoa o1 npepc1an1ene nnsunx cnoea. o nsapuennn npnpop a1nx
ampopnaunxcn pc nnkorp ne coxe1 npeopone1L npeaocxopnuyk cnny 6enmx
npopoa, npnuepunx ns aponm.
pnko ecnn a cnny o6c1on1enLc1a, uyxpmx xopy ec1no nonn1nkn, n a1nx
o6unpnmx sennx npekp1n1cn rocnopc1ao nrnnun, n c1pn 6ype1 npepoc1anen
co ce6e, no npouec1ann 6onee nnn enee npoponxn1enLnoro apeenn 6pxnns,
epnnc1aennm counnLnm nopnpok, ko1opm nee1 6sy a npnn, a koneuno cue1e
aoc1opxec1aye1.
nune 1epnnLnoe oryuec1ao, npnnpnexuee poxnnn n snpe n cnkx n
ceaepe, okonu1enLno nepepe1 k a1n nneen. e ne enee, ycynLnckn
unannnsunn cnnuko perppnpoan, cnnuko cansn c cmn nnsunn cnonn
ncenennn, u1o6m npoponx1Lcn ponro. Bpxnns 1epnennao ro1oan1 caok no6epy.
onLsyncL kpnao c6ne aproa, yppm ko1opo on 1k c1oko ampepxn, on yxe
o1aoean caon nosnunn y xp11oa n ppxny1oa, s1e o1aoke1 6onLuyk uc1L
no1epnnno 1eppn1opnn. npoue, on ne uyxp nepeen, n ecnn on npne1 a pnr
amcunx kc1 aonnc1aennmx o6puennmx npepc1an1ene pncknx pc ceaep n
npoxpkuncn k1nanm kncc nrnonnpycoa, cyee1 nn 6pxnns ampepx1L
ounm npn1ok nnsunx 1nnoa n ne npeap1n1cn nn a neu1o nocpepc1aennoe? kn
cn1yunn ne ncknkuen. a1o cnyue npo npnsn1L, u1o a1nnueckn 6ecnopnpok
aospc1e1, n npexnee epnnc1ao unannnsunn yxopn1 a npounoe.
pnko a1o ec1L nens6exnoe cnepc1ane snoxennmx a ne npnnunnoa n co6m1n, o
ko1opmx n roaopnn. cnn xe o1aneuLcn o1 rnno1es, oc1an1L 6ypyuee a nokoe, n
orpnnun1Lcn ypokn, ko1opme oxno nsaneuL ns nc1opnn npnn, u1o kce1cn pc,
m nonyun cnepykune neonpoaepxnme qk1m.
pexpe acero, neo6xopno npnsn1L, u1o pnckoe ceec1ao - coe 6nropopnoe,
coe oppennoe a cmcne y n coe aneprnunoe a 6eno pce. rnn1e, rpe m
anepame ac1pe1nnncL c nn, n sene npnn, rpe m 1onLko u1o pcc1pnann ero,
m npnsnnn a ne amcune qnnocoqckne cnoco6noc1n, amcokyk opnL, nrkoc1L a
yc1noanennnx, xnsnec1okoc1L - cnoao, nanoe npeaocxopc1ao np 6opnrenn,
6ypL 1o a ponnne nn nnn n 6eperx np, nr n Bpxny1pm.
rnn1e m yanpenn ero yxe npnnsoannm cnnuko 6onLun konnuec1ao
uepno kpoan, n c 1euenne apeenn ceuenne c1noannocL ace 6onee ampxennm n
okonu1enLno norno1nno ocnoaononrkun npnnunn ernne1cko unannnsunn.
npnn peno o6c1onno no-ppyroy. s ropno ponnnm unp n nonyoc1poa xnmnyn
ounm pnckn no1ok. eco1pn n yxop sopoc1pnuea on acerp oc1ancn
cnnLnm, n kc1oan cnc1e, neco1pn n noc1enennoe psnoxenne, 6mn rnano
npnunno 1oro, u1o amcune knccm nnpycckoro o6uec1a coxpnnnn caon
poc1onnc1a. cnn kkn-1o uc1L uyxo kpoan nop annnnne peaonkun n nonpn
a xnnm 6pxnoa n ku1pnea, a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao ne npnaopnno k pspyun1enLnm
pesynL11. [anxenne pncknx nnn nonypncknx nneen c ceaep nopkpennnnocL
ppeann 6enm npnnunno, n m o1e1nnn, u1o nnpam rny6oko aneppnnncL a
pLnap1y. 31e n ace npo1nxennn ropno rpnnum, noc1onnno nonannnncL ppyrne
6enme npopm n cnycknncL a npnk, npnnocn c co6o 6enyk kpoaL.
1o kce1cn apeponocnoro ceuennn, nnpnckoe ceec1ao c1ppno ne c1onLko o1
cocepc1a c xen1mn npopn, ckonLko o1 npncy1c1ann uepnmx, n xo1n e1ncm ne
ornn noxac11Lcn cnno, npncyue unc1o pce, ono nopoxpe1 no1oc1ao, ne
nnuennoe poc1onnc1a; no1okn ceunanncL c nnpncko kynL1ypo n npnnnnn ee
ocnoanme npnnunnm, xo1n kn1ckne aneen1m nens6exno nponnknn a 6pxnckyk
unannnsunk. knn 6mnn xp1m n 6npnum.
1k, conpo1nanneoc1L npnn uyxesenm n6er, cnn, ko1opn kpenne1, yc1ynn
n1ncky, cocpepo1ouen n ceaepo-snpe, ceaepe n snpe, 1. e. cpepn pncknx
npopoa 6onee nnn enee unc1oro nponcxoxpennn: cnnpxn, poxnnnm, ropum
nnpykyu, cnkxn, ppxny1m, ropkcm enn, s nnn cnepyk1 xp1m n,
nkoneu, 6npnum, ko1opmx n nsman amue. a1o konk1no 1eppn1opnn
npeaocxopc1ao, neconenno, npnnpnexn1 cm pnnnsnpoannm amxopu c
ceaep n ceaepo-snp. ce ceec1a, npncoepnnnaunecn k pncko pce,
o1nnuk1cn neo6muno a1nnuecko c1okoc1Lk. Canpe1enLc1ao 1oy nanne1cn
pennrnn neko1opmx nnsunx npopoa, xnayunx a ceaepnmx ropx. Mec1nme nneen,
oc1kunecn aepnmn caoe ppeane nc1opnn, co acex c1opon okpyxenm xen1mn
npopn, ko1opme am1ecnnnn nx a scnexennme ropm n a yuenLn; a1o nun
nocnepnne n necuc1nme popnun, onn noknonnk1cn a nepayk ouepepL ppeaney repok
no nenn Bxn-Ce. D1o1 cmn npy npepc1anne1 co6o nepconnqnkunk 6eno
pcm ao apen nocnepne cu16no nrpunn, ko1opyk on npepnpnnnn a a1o
uc1n senoro up.
c1e1cn kr npnn, pon, ko1opm npoc1npe1cn aponL nr po nLky11m n
oxa1mae1 o6unpnyk 1eppn1opnk a uen1pe n [ekn. a1nx pernonx o6n1k1
norouncnennme nneen uepnmx pnkpe, 1 orponme nenpoxopnme nec n nou1n
o1cy1c1ayk1 pnnek1m, nponcxopnune o1 cnckpn1. cenenne roaopn1 n nornx
nsmkx, a 1o nnn nno c1enenn o6nropoxennmx neu1Lk canuennoro nsmk:
1nnLckn, n6pckn n co1nn ppyrnx. snouae1Le koxn xn1ene anune
ypnanne1 eaponeu, ko1opm a nx 1enocnoxennn ne anpn1 nnkknx cnepoa
opnopopnoc1n pxe cpepn amcunx kc1. 3pecL 6onLue acero ceuennn c
6opnrenn. 3pecL o1cy1c1ayk1 aneprnn n yxec1ao, specL upn1 cyeaepnn, n ace
roaopn1 s 1o, u1o a1n nkpn ne cnoco6nm k nesancnoy cyuec1aoannk.
Bpxnns ne nee1 noppepxkn a a1nx ec1x, nockonLky ponn uepno kpoan a
caoe cce nnoro npeaocxopn1 1o, u1o m n6nkpe n ceaepe, o1kyp pnckne
nneen nnkorp ne cnycknncL 1k pneko n kr.
pnko ceropnn a a1nx kxnmx ponx npnn nonanncn noam a1nnueckn aneen1,
nekun 6onLuoe snuenne, o ko1opo yxe ynonnnocL amue. euL npe1 o e1ncx,
poxpennmx o1 o1uoa-eaponeuea n 1ysenmx 1epe n cnoa ckpeuennmx c
eaponeun n 6opnrenn. D1 npocnok yaennunancL c kxpm pne n
nponannn oco6me kuec1a n oc1pm xnao y, ko1opme 1k npnaneknn annnne
yuenmx n nonn1nkoa, n a ko1opmx sknkuncL npnunn 6ypyunx no1pncenn a
npnn.
C 1epnncko c1oponm nponcxoxpenne a1nx nkpe 6mno pneko ne 6nec1nun: a1o
6mnn npepc1an1enLnnum nnsunx kc1, cnyxune pnn ypoane1aopennn npnxo1e
no6epn1ene. cnn neko1opme xenunnm npnnpnexnn k 6onee amcokoy
counnLnoy pnry, onn 6mnn ycynLnkn n ne o1nnunncL kuec1ao kpoae. e
ne enee, a a1nx nnpnnkx 6mno enLue uepnoro aneen1, 1k u1o oxno se1n1L
orponyk pnc1nunk expy no1oc1ao 6enrnLcko xenunnm ns nnsue kc1m n
o1npmckn nerpn1nnkn ns nneenn Honyq nnn 66p.
Co c1oponm o1u ory1 n6nkp1Lcn 6onLune psnnunn a konnuec1ae 6enoro
aneen1, nepepaeoro pe6enky. 1uo or 6m1L nrnnunnn, npnnpeu, qpnuys,
n1nLnneu nnn ncnneu - o1ckp nponcxopnnn a1n psnnunn. ue acero
npeo6npe1 nrnnckn kpoaL, ko1opn a apone coxpnnn 6onLue acero pnckoro,
noa1oy e1ncm o6muno 6mak1 kpcnamn n ynmn. a1o n npncoepnnnkcL k
nennk, ko1opoe cansmae1 6ypyuee npnn c a1n noam ncenenne. pnko
cnepye1 se1n1L, u1o a1 ceunnn pc nopaepxen 1o xe oncnoc1n, ko1opn
npnaen k kpxy nou1n ace ycynLnckne nunn. onLko 6pxnns o6npe1
cekpe1o, kk ns6ex1L a1oro.
1k, m knccnqnunpoann nnpnckne pcm n o1e1nnn oen1m, korp npn
6nronpnn1no c1euennn o6c1on1enLc1a 1 oxe1 acnmxny1L xnan, nyc1L n cn6n,
nckp, n 1enepL nop aepny1Lcn k c1onL ponro xnsnn unannnsunn, ko1opn
cyuec1aoan eue po reponuecko anoxn peunn n ko1opn, ecnn ne cun11L
a1nnueckne nkncm, coxpnnn po nunx pne caon npnnunnm n nnkorp ne
caopunan c ny1n, no1oy u1o rnann pc oc1ancL poc11ouno konk1no.
ocne epopo1 a1o1 seu1enLnm konocc rennn, oun, kpco1m nann snpnoy
npy o6ps opno ns caonx xpnu, ko1opn nopsnn eaponeuea caoe kpco1o
neco1pn n nno1nme opexpm. osxe, 6nroppn ycynLnckn saoeannn, nou1n
nensaec1nm a apone, n noam o1kpm1nn, pesynL11m ko1opmx, kk npanno,
npnxopnnn n 3np a nckxenno anpe, a1 srpounn c1pn eue 6onLue
oanpen aoo6pxenne eaponeuea, xo1n snnn ace eue 6mno nepoc11ouno.
o nocne 1oro, kk ao1 yxe papu1L ne1 qnnonornn, qnnocoqnn, c11nc1nk nunn
cnc1e1nueckoe nsyuenne o6uec1a n npnpopm npnn, no-npexney 6es npexpm
nosn1L 1kyk 6or1yk n 6onLuyk 1ey, nponsouno neo6munoe: ue 6onLue m
sne, 1e cnnLnee aocxnuecn, xo1n o6muno 6mae1 no6opo1. pnamkune k
nenpoponxn1enLnoy cyuec1aoannk nunx unannnsun, m 1aeppnnn cnoa o
6pennoc1n acero uenoaeueckoro, korp npnnopnnncn orponm snaec, ckpmaaun
o1 nc snk, korp nun asop npepc1nn npnn n n1 co caonn nesm6nemn
nnc1n1y1n, m ne sne, kk aocnpnnn1L o1kpm1ne, c1onL pnn nc oropun1enLnoe.
co pene, kkoe a1o ynnxenne pnn cnc1e, kxpn ns ko1opmx o6Lnannn ce6n
necpanenno! ko ypok pnn rpekoa, pnnnn, pnn acex nc - yanpe1L c1pny,
ko1opyk a 1euenne aocLnco1 ne1 1epsnn rp6ex, nc1pe6nenne, nnue1, ko1opn
ncun1mae1 6onee c1 copok nnnnonoa xn1ene n, aosoxno, a nopy caoero
pcuae1 kopnn apaoe 6onLue, no ko1opn nnkorp ne nepec1an xpnn1L
6esrpnnunyk aepnoc1L caon pennrnosnm, counnLnm n nonn1nueckn pok1pnn
n pxe a nepnop ynpk coxpnne1 cao nunonnLnm xpk1ep! 1k, noa1opk eue
ps: kko a1o seu1enLnm ypok pnn snpnmx rocyppc1a, o6peuennmx no
npnunne neyc1ounaoc1n pennrnosnmx asrnnpoa n 1o, u1o6m nenpec1nno enn1L
qopm n nnpanenne nopo6no nepeeukuncn pkn n 6epery Ceaepnoro opn!
npoue, ne c1on1 cnnuko c1poro cypn1L opnnx n cnnuko aosnocn1L ppyrnx. [onroe
cyuec1aoanne nnpncko unannnsunn ec1L ec1ec1aennm skon, ko1opm pepko
nponanne1 ce6n c 1ko nonno1o. a1o c1pne acerp ponnnpoan opn pc n
npnnunnm oc1anncL nensennmn, expy 1e kk a ppyrnx ec1x nponcxopnnn
6mc1pme n 6ecnopnpounme nepeenm, ne ycneann cqopnpoa1Lcn nnc1n1y1m n
ennnncL asrnnpm n nnc1nnk1m cennaunxcn nokonenn.
pnko npnn 6mn ne epnnc1aenno c1pno, rpe m oxe aocxnu1Lcn a1n
qenoeno: n nek a anpy n1. op noco1pe1L, ne npnaenn nn specL opnnkoame
npnunnm k opnnkoam pesynL11. ccnepoanne 6ype1 1e 6onee noyun1enLnm,
u1o expy npne n opne6ecno nepne nexn1 orponm n6e1, rpe oxno
ac1pe1n1L xpk1epnme npnsnkn o6enx c1pn. o npexpe ue nonn1L, cansn nn a1
paoc1aennoc1L c a1nnueckn npnnunno, n neo6xopno ysn1L nc1ok counnLno
kynL1ypm a n1e n onpepenn1L, kkoe ec1o cpepn unannnsoannmx nun np
snne1 a1 c1pn.
IV. nan aca
o epe 1oro, kk nnpnckne nneen npopanrnncL n aoc1ok, n nocne 1oro, kk,
npopn no rop nnpxn, onn nepeceknn nr n Bpxny1py n npnunn a c1pny
6npnuea, onn ac1ynnn a kon1k1m c psnnunmn nneenn, eue nesnkomn
pnn nc. snoo6psne a1nx nneen, kk a qnsnuecko, 1k n a opnLno
o1nouennn, canpe1enLc1aye1 o 1o, u1o n cpepn nnx pec1aye1 skon nepaenc1a pc.
oaoe ceec1ao npopoa, o ko1opmx nope1 peuL, aecL xpk1epnoe no o6nnky,
uae1y koxn n nn1ennek1ynLnm kuec1a, npepc1e1 nepep nn, kk 1onLko m,
noknnya Benrnnk, pannynncL n aoc1ok. ockonLky o6une uep1m o6Lepnnnk1 norne
npopm, m ppn n o6uee nsanne, ne o6pun annnnn n oueanpnme psnnunn
expy nnn. 1k, m nee peno c xen1mn npopn, ko1opme coc1annk1 1pe1n
aneen1 ncenennn senn.
cn nnepnn n1n, Cn6npL, acn apon, s ncknkuenne, oxe1 6m1L, cmx kxnmx
ee okpnn - ao1 o6unpnn 1eppn1opnn, ko1opyk ncenne1 xen1n pc a 1o1 nepnop,
korp 6enme nepecenenum c1ynnnn n senn k aoc1oky, ceaepy nnn kry o1
scnexennmx ropnmx ponnn Uen1pnLno snn.
ueno a1o nnskopocnn pc: neko1opme ee npepc1an1enn noxoxn n kpnnkoa.
enocnoxenne n mueunn cnn necpannm c 1e, u1o m anpn y 6enmx nkpe, a
nx nnux ec1L u1o-1o rpo1ecknoe n pxe ypopnnaoe. Cnoao, npnpop a a1o cnyue
peunn ne pc1puna1L caonx cnn n aosoxnoc1e, nnn Cosp1enL orpnnunncn
uepnoam n6pocko. eampsn1enLnm noc n po1, nenLkne rns, ac1anennme a
unpokoe nnockoe nnuo, pepkne, npnme n xec1kne uepnme aonocm (anpoue, y
neko1opmx nneen, nnpo1na, yc1pukuero anp rpna skpmae1 pxe cnnny) -
ao1 xpk1epnm o6nnk xen1o pcm [ sH nakaH kr aann
cyca m. 3a cva ackcm rnaa xaak v,
, aH, cu a yvcu nHcu v ka, naran k
rnaa nHa yry Hy. H kra, a acn aHn
xnan aca acnn a nnm Hr maa. va, nvcnn
ca Hr cHmam ac.].
1o kce1cn nn1ennek1, specL m 1kxe n6nkpe ouenL xpk1epnme
oco6ennoc1n, nc1onLko o1nnukunecn o1 xpk1epnc1nk uepno pcm, u1o ecnn
nocnepnkk n nsan xencko, 1o xen1yk yec1no npnuncnn1L k yxckn.
6conk1noe o1cy1c1ane aoo6pxennn, o6un 1enpenunn k ypoane1aopennk
ec1ec1aennmx no1pe6noc1e, ynopc1ao n nocnepoa1enLnoc1L a o1nouennn
noacepneanmx pen, onpepenennm nnc1nnk1 nnuno cao6opm, ampxkuncn y
6onLunnc1a nneen a npnaepxennoc1n k koueao xnsnn, y 6onee unannnsoannmx
npopoa a yaxennn k pouney oury, cn6n k1nanoc1L, o1cy1c1ane
nk6osn1enLnoc1n n c1pc1n k ykpuennn, c1onL xpk1epno pnn nerpoa - ao1
ocnoanme uep1m acex ae1ae onronLckoro ceec1a. 1ckp rny6oko ykopenennn
roppoc1L s npnsenennme c1penennn n s yenne ypoane1aopn1L nx. ce, u1o ne
axopn1 a kpyr snkomx aeue n nonn1n, kxe1cn n 6eccmcnennm n amsmae1 y
nnx 1onLko xnoc1L n couyac1ane. Xen1me npopm 6onLue poaonLnm cnn co6o,
ue nerpm, uLe nmnkoe aoo6pxenne noc1onnno aneue1 nx s npepenm cyuec1aykunx
aeue.
o npo npnsn1L, u1o a1 o6un 1enpenunn k noacepneanoc1n n ysoc1L munennn,
cnepc1ane o1cy1c1ann aoo6pxennn, npnpk1 xen1m 6onLuyk coun6enLnoc1L, ue y
nerpoa. [xe cme necnoco6nme ns nnx a npoponxenne c1one1n nenn opny-
epnnc1aennyk uenL - npokopn1Lcn, ope1Lcn n n1n xnnnue, n, a koneuno cue1e,
po6nnncL a a1o 6onLunx pesynL11oa, nexenn nkpn ne enee orpnnuennme no
npnpope, no 6es konu o6ypeaeme psmunennnn, ko1opme nopcksmae1 n
neo6yspnnoe aoo6pxenne. oa1oy xen1me npopm 6onee nckycnm ao nornx
penx, n m c ypnanenne nxopn n nx sennx ppeanne cnepm ropnopypnmx p6o1.
D1o oxno nsa1L nepao6m1nm n nunonnLnm npep nsnuenne xen1o pcm.
D1n nnskopocnme nkpn - xopoune kysneum n kaennpm, , cypn no 1oy, u1o onn
nponecnn a1n namkn uepes aek po nunx pne (kc11n, aoc1ounme 1ynrycm n xn1enn
xo1ckoro no6epexLn, pyuepm n ppyrne npopnoc1n nckycnm a kysneuno pene ne
enLue, ue nepnkn a cknpnnacknx necnonennnx), oxno sknkun1L, u1o ao ace
apeen qnnckne npopm coc1annnn nccnanyk uc1L neko1opmx unannnsun.
1kyp xe npnunn a1n npopm? C aennkoro epnknckoro kon1nnen1. ko o1ae1
pk1 qnsnonornn n nnnranc1nk; 1ko amaop oxno cpen1L ns 1oro qk1, u1o c
cmx ppeannx apeen, eue po 1o anoxn, ko1opyk m nsmae nepao6m1no, ccm
xen1oro ncenennn co6pnncL n kpne ceaepe Cn6npn, o11yp pannynncL n
snp.
nn cun1nn ce6n no1okn o6esLnn n ouenL roppnnncL a1n. oa1oy
neypnan1enLno, u1o a nnpncko anoce, rpe peuL npe1 o ec1nmx noounnkx
reponueckoro cynpyr Cn1m a ero noxope npo1na Uenon, a1n nkpn nsmak1cn
npoc1o pne o6esLnn. osoxno, pec1an1enLno aocnonLsoancn noouLk
xen1mx nneen, xnaunx n kxnmx cknonx nnea, u1o6m no6epn1L uepnme
npopm n kre [ekn.
k 6m 1o nn 6mno, a1n nneen 6mnn ouenL norouncnennm, u1o n co6npkcL
npopeonc1pnpoa1L.
Cyuec1aye1 neocnopnm qk1, u1o 6enme npopm acerp 6mnn ocepnmn n noa1oy
nnkorp ne noknpnn no po6po aone caon senn. Coe ppeanee nsaec1noe
c1noanue 6eno pcm nxopnnocL a ropno ponnne Uen1pnLno snn, n ecnn onn
yunn o11yp, 1o no1oy nnuL, u1o nx npornnn. ponyckk, u1o neko1opme ceec1a
ornn oks1Lcn xep1an ncnnnn caonx copopnue. ponyckk a1o a o1nouennn
annnncknx nneen n sopoc1pnuea, no nenLsn npepnonoxn1L 1kyk cn1yunk a
o1nouennn acex 6enmx nepecenenuea. Uenn pc ne ponxn 6mn y1n ns popnmx
ec1 nou1n opnoapeenno, n, 1e ne enee, a1o cnyunnocL nepep 5000 r. po n. a. a1y
anoxy n ao apeen, 6nnskne e, xn1m, cen1m, pnum, kenL1m n cnanne
noknpk1 caon senn. Benn pc ps6pepe1cn a psnme c1oponm, oc1annn popnme
ponnnm xen1m. pnunno orno 6m1L 1onLko ouenL cnnLnoe panenne co c1oponm
pnknx nneen.
C ppyro c1oponm, qnsnueckn n opnLnn cn6oc1L norouncnennmx saoea1ene
nc1onLko oueanpn n poksn, u1o nx a1opxenne n koneunn no6ep o6ycnoanen
1onLko nanm uncnennm npeaocxopc1ao. oa1oy ne1 conennn a 1o, u1o Cn6npL
knuen qnncknn nneenn, o ue nek1cn nc1opnueckne canpe1enLc1a. nnuL
seuy cnepykuee: ponyckn no6epy xen1mx npopoa np 6enmn n pccennne
nocnepnnx, neo6xopno npnnn1L opnn ns payx apnn1oa.
n6o 1eppn1opnn, n ko1opo xnnn 6enme npopm, npoc1npncL pneko n ceaep n
ouenL no n aoc1ok, poc1nrn a nepao nnpanennn cpepnero Ypn, ao a1opo
ne poxopn po yanL-ynn, u1o, no-anpnoy, o6ycnoanno onpepenennoe panxenne a
ceaepo-snpnme c1enn.
n6o a1n npopm, ckonnaunecn n aepunnx Myu1rx, a ropnmx ponnnx a1o uenn n
ao acex 1pex ponx n6e1, 6mnn ouenL nenorouncnennme n nenn nepoc11ouno
nnun.
nune n o6Lncnk, nouey n orpnnunn cn1yunk payn apnn1n. 31e nsnoxy
npnunny, nouey cnepye1 o16pocn1L a1opyk rnno1esy n npnnn1L nepayk.
yxe roaopnn, u1o xen1n pc o6n1n rnanm o6pso a n1e; kpoe 1oro,
uepnm 1nn c kypuao nporn1nuecko ronoao, 1. e. nenrnckn anp,
pcnpoc1pnnncn po yanL-ynn, c opno c1oponm, n po Ooposm, c ppyro [
ay vac caa xay cam vm n. n
nxun nanxa k HanackHy ay nxx a xaaa.
a arH anu Hr rnckx nnH. 3 numan aca
c kyvaamH ancaH, Han ncnmx xn, naancn
nnnH vanH. H, rram Hry 1ncu vamva
acnca Hnackr cHcaa a . Qcanu, s
aravm ak, cn cu r a n ncn cvckx aH,
1ncncn nc, cn cvau, v s cnyvncu a n a
snxy.], a nonnk n pnLue. [xe ceropnn a1o ncenenne oxno ac1pe1n1L a 1ex
pneknx c1pnx.
Yxe 1o1 qk1, u1o nerpm 1k pneko npopannynncL ao any1pennkk snk, cnyxn1
y6epn1enLnm poks1enLc1ao cansn xn1oa n cen1oa c a1nn npopn nnsue
pcm: n nek a anpy ouenL pankk cansL, no1oy u1o on ocn6n eue po
npnuec1ann saoea1ene a ponnny nrp n aqp1.
enepL nepenececn ns ponnn annonnn a n1 n o6p1ncn k pesynL11
noc1enennoro ceuennn uepnoro n xen1oro 1nnoa, 1. e. k e1nc, ko1opme ncennk1
Kn-nL n ko1opmx Mpko ono nsmae1 seppen pm. ue pnLue m ac1pe1n
ppyroe ceec1ao, nekuee ne enLue npnsnkoa ceuennn, ko1opoe xnae1 a
kn1cko npoannunn Oo-LenL n, nkoneu, okxecn cpepn psnoo6psnn a1nx rpynn
a kxnmx ponx opne6ecno nepnn, a npnn k aoc1oky o1 nr, n pxnnenrx
npnckoro oken o1 Mprckp po onnnesnn, o1 onnnesnn po snpnmx
6eperoa epnkn anno1L po oc1poa cxn [kr cva, v aax
Maarackaa nanncn HanaaH.].
kn o6pso, uepnn pc snne1 aecL kr c1poro np n ac1peue1cn pneko n
ceaepe, expy 1e kk xen1n, o6n1kun aec1e c nepao n aoc1oke snn,
pcnpoc1pnnncL n ace oc1poa a nnpanennn Ceaepnoro nonkc. cnn cun11L,
u1o uen1p, nc1ok ennnckoro anp, nxopn1cn a qpnke n u1o nenno o11yp
nunocL ero pcnpoc1pnenne, u1o, kpoe 1oro, xen1n pc opnoapeenno c
e1ncn, xnaunn n oc1poax, 1kxe npopanrncL n ceaep n aoc1ok snn n a
apony, 1orp npnpe1cn npnsn1L, u1o 6enoe ceec1ao, u1o6m ne s1epn1Lcn a 1onne
nnsunx pc, 6mno amnyxpeno npnsa1L n noouL aecL cao renn n yxec1ao n
o6Lepnnn1Lcn.
e 6ype kc1Lcn pspenennn xn1cknx n cen1cknx cc, ko1opme no nepean
pennn cnyc1nnncL a kxnme n snpnme ponm. o s1o pcco1pn ccoaoe
ceuenne c uepno pco, ko1opoe neno ec1o a ponnnx Dqnonnn, n ceaepe no
acey qpnknckoy no6epexLk s npepenn 1nccknx rop n a Cenerne;
pcco1pn nnopm a1oro ceuennn a cnnnn, nnxne 1nnn, n rpeuecknx
oc1poax, n m y6epncn a 1o, u1o 6enn pc ne orpnnunancL neckonLknn
nneenn. Mm 1kxe yanpn, u1o k nepeuncnennm amue cnepye1 npn6an1L
pnckne npopm acex kxnmx ae1ae, n kenL1oa, n cnann, n cp1oa, n ppyrne
enee nsaec1nme, no ne enee snunme npopnoc1n, ko1opme oc1nncL xn1L cpepn
xen1mx.
Cnepoa1enLno, 6enn pc 6mn poc11ouno norouncnenno, nockonLky o6 anp
- uepnm n qnnckn - ne pann e aosoxnoc1n nepe1n Myu1rx n n1 n
aoc1oke n Ypn n snpe, on pannyncL n ceaep po cpepnero 1euennn yp, osep
Bkn n 6n.
ko reorpqnueckn pupy1 nee1 axnme nocnepc1ann, o ue peuL nope1 nnxe.
yxe konc11npoan npk1nueckne cnoco6noc1n xen1o pcm. e ne enee,
npnsnan ee npeaocxopc1ao np uepno pco, n o1ksn e a cnoco6noc1n snn1L
amcokoe ec1o n nec1nnue unannnsunn, no1oy u1o ee nn1ennek1 ne enee
orpnnuen, ue y nerpoa, n no1oy u1o ee nnc1nnk1 nonesnoro cnnuko
ne1pe6oa1enen.
pnko cnepye1 cnrun1L cypoaoc1L 1koro cyxpennn, korp peuL npe1 yxe ne c1onLko
o xen1o 1nne nnn uepno 1nne, no o nux kk nnopx ceuennn o6onx 1nnoa.
[ec1an1enLno, ecnn aosLe, k npnepy, onron, xn1enn onr-6y, n
nenrnckoro nerp nnn ro11en1o1, xn1enn 1oro xe onr-6y, pxe coro
nepsan1oro, nepam nee1 nanoe npenyuec1ao.
npno, nepoc11kn o6enx pc konencnpyk1cn n cnruk1cn a nx o6ue no1oc1ae,
ko1opoe nee1 6onLue cnoco6noc1e k cpanennk, nonnnnk n amaop. senennn
k nyuuey m anpn n a qnsnuecko 1nne. onocm y nuea xec1kne n aonnnc1me,
no ne kypuame, noc 6onee ampxen, ue y knmkoa. Y neko1opmx oc1poan1nn,
nnpnep, n n1n, on nou1n ne o1nnue1cn o1 npnoro noc npepc1an1ene 6eno
pcm. ns yxe ne 1k cnnLno pckocme. Ckynm no-npexney ampk1cn, no a1o
o6un uep1 o6enx pc-nponsaopn1enLnnu. sancnoc1n o1 ponnnpykue kpoan -
uepno nnn xen1o - a 1o nnn nno nneenn npeo6npk1 1e nnn nnme qnsnueckne
n opnLnme uep1m. oo6ue pnn acex a1nx rpynn xpk1epnmn oc1k1cn pa
ampxennmx npnsnk, canpe1enLc1aykunx o paono nponcxoxpennn: nen 6onLue
nn1ennek1, ue y nerpoa n xen1mx, onn yncnepoann o1 opnnx neo6yspnnyk
xec1okoc1L, o1 ppyrnx xonopnyk neaosy1noc1L n 6ecuyac1aennoc1L.
Mm saepunnn pcco1penne npopoa, qnrypnpykunx a nc1opnn oc1ouno snn;
nepexopn k pcco1pennk nx unannnsunn. mcuee ee ampxenne m npe a
n1e. 3pecL ncxopnm nynk1 ee kynL1ypm, specL on poc1nrn nnamcuero psan1nn.
V. am
pexpe acero, xouy se1n1L, u1o n ne corncen c opnn poaonLno pcnpoc1pnennm
nenne. n1ckyk unannnsunk cun1k1 co ppeane n sene, n xe anxy ee
nuno a anoxe nocne pcuae1 6pxnns, nocne cospnnn nepamx xn1cknx,
cen1cknx n ernne1cknx rocyppc1a. ao1 on poaopm. Co co6o psyee1cn, u1o
ne c1on1 6onLue o6cyxp1L xpononornueckne n nc1opnueckne amknpkn
nocnepoa1ene o-Ce. [nn nnx unknm a 300 1mcnu ne1 6conk1no nnuero ne snu1.
D1n aecL npoponxn1enLnme nepnopm coc1annk1 cpepy, a ko1opo pec1ayk1
npan1enn c ronoao ppkon n c 1ynoanue, o6an1o uypoanunmn senn, noa1oy
nyuue oc1an1L a1y 1ey qnnocoq, no ne cnepye1 nn a koe cnyue c1pon1L n ee
ocnoae nosn1nanme sknkuennn [rnac nraH y-Ya, cca 4y- r
acna mna yxH. a aana a n xn rn n nH
aak cnana nar vnaka.].
Co psyno ocnoao p1npoakn pnn pccyxpennn o ppeanoc1n opne6ecno
nepnn nanne1cn upc1aoanne Unn-Ln-ynL-n, ko1opm pnn 1oro, u1o6m
nonoxn1L koneu qeopnLnm sroaop n coxpnn1L epnnc1ao, caoe pe1nue, peunn
nopan1L ppeanne pok1pnnm, cxer 6onLuyk uc1L knnr n oc1ann 1onLko nnnm
pnnc1nn Unn, ns ko1opo nponcxopnn c. D1o co6m1ne cnyunnocL s 207 ne1 po
oxpec1a pnc1oa.
C 1ex nop, corncno kn1cko e1opnke, nc1opnueckne qk1m oxno cun11L anonne
penLnmn. C a1oro apeenn nc1opnn 6onee nnn enee cxopn1cn, uero ne ckxeuL o
6onee pnnnx apeenx: ue rny6xe m s6npecn a npounoe, 1e enLue ncnoc1n.
pnko ace-1kn oxno po6p1Lcn po nnep1op o. n npann c1o opnn rop n
asouen n npec1on a 2357 r. po n. a. 3 npepeno a1o p1m m yxe ne ac1pe1n
konkpe1nmx unqp [ H acca, nun aau kaa na
c a 782 r. . s. x yaxa, v, n ac
anc, avan na ac nxcn a 2205 r. . s. nH
cnyva s caaH c aaH a ckx, rnckx accckx
aanax.]. ponnkn y1aepxpk1, u1o pocpnm npo6en, ko1opm, 6ypyun aocnonnen,
or 6m npnaec1n k nepam pnn cyuec1aoannn np, ec1L cnepc1ane snenn1oro
cxnrnnn knnr, onnknaeoro ns nokonennn a nokonenne n c1auero nsnk6nennm
npepe1o kn1cko pn1opnkn. o no oey nennk, a1o k1c1poqm
nepoc11ouno, u1o6m o6Lncnn1L 6ecnopnpok a nepamx nc1opnuecknx xponnkx. ce
npopm np ory1 noxac11Lcn caonn cropeaunn knnrn, ace no1epnnn uenouky
caonx pnnc1nn, opnko ace onn coxpnnnn poc11ouno ockonkoa caoe nc1opnn,
u1o6m oxnno npounoe nop xnan1enLnm pynoaenne kpn1nkn, u1o6m npounoe
nonenory noksno n cao nc1nnnm nnk. Y kn1uea xe m ne anpn nnuero
nopo6noro. , rpe sknunak1cn apeen nosn1nano nc1opnn, cpsy nc1yne1
1eno1, n m nee peno ne c nqonornuecko anoxo, kk a1o nee1 ec1o y ppyrnx
npopoa, no c npo1naopeunamn xpononornnn, c nc1onun 6cyppo, a ko1opo ne1
nnuero xnaoro.
npo c a1n npe1enunosno srpounm o1cy1c1ane nncLennmx nc1opnuecknx
canpe1enLc1a n6nkpe1cn nonnoe n aecL norosnun1enLnoe o1cy1c1ane
nn1nnkoa. a1o 1kxe xpk1ep kn1cko unannnsunn. ponnkn nk6n1 ccmn1Lcn
n ppeanoc1n, c ppeanoc1nn peno o6c1on1 nnoxo: cme pnnne p1npyk1cn ne
nosxe VIII a. n. a. kn o6pso, nonyue1cn, u1o a a1o, a ocnoano cnokono,
c1pne nn a pesnmx nn1nnkx n c11ynx, nn a asx nnn opypnnx 1pyp ne1 nnuero,
u1o orno 6m cpann1Lcn no aospc1y c 1e, u1o oxe1 npepLnan1L, npnue c
skonno roppoc1Lk, nu 3np, nepexnaun 1kne 6ypnme n pspyun1enLnme
co6m1nn.
1epnnLno cmcne n1 ne coxpnnn nnuero, u1o xo1n 6m o1pnenno noaepno
n o 1ex srpounmx anoxx, a ko1opmx neko1opme yuenme npounoro c1one1nn
nxopnnn nc1opnueckne qk1m, nonLsyncL canpe1enLc1ao osnunmx nso6pxenn
[ s accyx nnaa ram am a acc
yauxs, km, aHx, cncn k vu aaH aHaH. s
naHnk a nnH cHmcn cnaa. 3 cyx, k ncaaancu
Hr a ncn car nnann.].
oa1oy oc1an a c1opone 6ecnnopnme nonckn cxopc1a expy psnnunmn
cnc1en n ocnoae nc1opnuecknx 1ekc1oa n nonm1kn po6p1Lcn po apeen,
npepuec1aykunx Unn-Ln-ynL-n, n o6p1ncn k qk1 ns poc1oaepno nc1opnn
ppyrnx npopoa.
n1um cun1k1, u1o nepam uenoaeko n sene 6mn n-y. o1n on n 6mn cm
nepam, onn noeuk1 ero a 1kne o6c1on1enLc1a, ko1opme npepnonrk1
npncy1c1ane ppyrnx 6onee nnsknx cyuec1a, n aosnnke1 aonpoc, ne 6mnn nn onn
no1okn o6esLnn, 1. e. xen1okoxnn, roppnaunncn c1onL neo6munm
nponcxoxpenne.
a1o1 aonpoc nc1opnn pe1 nonoxn1enLnm o1ae1. Mec1nme nc1opnkn y1aepxpk1,
u1o ao apen nonanennn kn1uea n a1nx sennx yxe o6n1nn nneen no,
ko1opm 6mnn uyxpm cme npoc1me nonn1nn o counnLno xnsnn. nn xnnn a nopx
n neuepx, nnnn kpoaL nonnmx xnao1nmx, npn o1cy1c1ann nx nn1nncL 1pao n
pnkopc1yunn nnopn. 1o kce1cn qopm npanennn, on o1nnuncL kpnn
apapc1ao. Mno cpxnncL ae1kn pepeaLea, no6epn1enL c1noanncn aoxko n
oc1ancn n, nok ne npnxopnn 6onee cnnLnm. nn ne nenn nnkkoro nou1ennn k
ep1am: nx ynocnnn a kyc1m n oc1annnn 1.
Mnoxopo o1e1n, u1o specL m n6nkpe nc1opnueckyk penLnoc1L
npnn1nanoro uenoaek ycco n ero nocnepoa1ene: uenoaek, ko1opm xnae1 a
cpepe panmx ey n noa1oy npnsne1 1onLko apeennyk anc1L, ocnoannyk n
npae py6nnkn. pnko ecnn a1 1opnn nxopn1 nop1aepxpenne y no n y uepnmx
nneen, on uyxp 6enm npop.
1k, cpepn a1nx no1okoa o6esLnn n-y c nonnm npao ponxen 6mn cun11Lcn
nepam uenoaeko. n1ckn nerenp nnuero ne coo6ue1 o ero poxpennn. n
nso6pxe1cn ne 1aopenne, no 1aopuo, 1. k. nopuepknae1cn, u1o nenno on
npnc1ynnn k oprnnsunn uenoaeuecknx o1nouenn. 1kyp xe on asnncn, ecnn, a
o1nnune o1 6n6neckoro p nnn a1ox1onnmx qnnnknu n qnnnnnn, on ne
amuen ns nnon? ce cue1 nerenp xpnn1 onunne; npap, ne o6Lncnnn, rpe
on popnncn, on, ao acnko cnyue, yksmae1, rpe on yep n 6mn noxoponen: a
kxno npoannunn o-nL.
D1o o6c1on1enLc1ao poc1ono annnnn, nnornk ey oxno n1n a Mna-
[xp-Lc1p. D1o1 pennrnosnm kopekc nnpycoa, coc1anennm nocne nonanennn
aennknx noa, no ocnoannm n ouenL ppeannx pokyen1x, ynonne1, u1o Mx-
Unn, 6onLun c1pn n1, 6mn saoean nneenn o1konoaunxcn ku1pnea,
ko1opme nepeunn nr, neko1opoe apen 6popnnn a Benrnnn, s1e npounn uepes
ropm n aoc1oke n pccennncL a kxno uc1n opne6ecno nepnn. k onn
unannnsoann ec1nme npopm.
D1o canpe1enLc1ao 1e 6onee aecooe, u1o ono ncxopn1 o1 6pxnoa, ne ns ppyroro
nc1ounnk. e1 nnkknx ocnoann cun11L, u1o n nLc1nn uec1L unannnsunn uyxnx
seenL, ko1opn npnnpnexn nx conneennnk, o1aeprun skonm nunn. ce, u1o
ne o1aeuno nx npnnunn, 6mno n npo1nano; 1ouno 1k xe, kk onn s6mnn caoe
popc1ao c nornn 6enmn npopn a ppeanoc1n, onn cpennn 6m 1o xe coe n a
pnno cnyue, ecnn 6m o1penenne snun1enLno uc1n nneen, npnnpnexaunx ko
a1opo kc1e, cnyunnocL a 6onee nospnne apeen, korp nnpnckn unannnsunn
yxe ykpennncL. kn o6pso, ace nop1aepxpe1 canpe1enLc1ao skonoa Mny,
o1ckp am1eke1, u1o a anoxy nocne nepamx reponuecknx apeen npnn n1 yxe
6mn unannnsoan npnuenLun nnpyccko pcm - ku1pnnn, 6enmn, pnun, -
cnepoa1enLno, n-y, a1o1 nepam uenoaek, nsmaem skonop1ene a
kn1cko nerenpe, 6mn nn6o opnn ns npepaopn1ene, nn6o nepconnqnkune
6enoro npop, o6ocnoaauerocn a n1e, a o-ne, n amnonnnauero 1y xe ponL,
u1o nrpn pnLue nnpnckn ae1aL a aepxne 1euennn nn [ kackx
kca Hx aknvu, v caa mna anaaa Hxy 30 28
cnnH . s. vyxcaaH, nmmH c ca-anaa, kmx
aaan nuH c vmH ancaH. H r, nkn amaan
c cHca. naanu, kam na, v anam
mn HcmH.].
kn o6pso, nerko o6Lncnn1L ouenL ppeanne kon1k1m npnn n n1n, noa1oy ne1
neo6xopnoc1n npn6er1L k rnno1ese o opcknx ny1euec1annx expy c1pnn.
ponnne Bpxny1pm n no 1euennk pappn nxopn1cn pannnm n norouncnennme
npoxopm a c1pny 6npnuea, no ko1opm 1yp ornn nponnk1L ap1nn ns o-nn n
ko1opmn onn yxe nonLsoanncL npn ncxope ns pLnap1m.
1k, a n1e, kk n a rnn1e n ao acex pernonx, ko1opme m yxe pcco1penn,
uec1L ocnoannn unannnsunn npnnpnexn1 6eno ae1an, 6nrocnoaenno
poanpenne. Becnonesno cun11L konnuec1ao o1uenenuea pncknx nneen, ko1opme
nocne npn6m1nn a o-nL ceunncL c 6opnrenn n y1p1nnn caok unc1o1y, 1e
6onee, u1o a1o ceuenne cnoco6c1aoano nx unannns1opcko nccnn cpepn xen1oro
ncenennn. poe 1oro, onn ne 6mnn epnnc1aennmn npepc1an1ennn cnano pcm,
ko1opme npnunn a a1n pnekne senn.
Ceropnn a aepxnnx ponnnx, rpnnuunx c n6e1o co c1oponm By1n, kk n a
scnexennmx ropx, pcnonoxennmx pnLue n snp, ac1peuk1cn pepkne
nouncnennme nneen, nekune npnsnkn pnckoro nponcxoxpennn. nn xnay1
cpepn uepnoro n xen1oro ncenennn, n nx oxno cpann1L c kycoukn kapu,
copepxuero kpynnnkn sono1, npnnecennoro nspnek. osoxno, nx snecnn ckp
a1nnueckne 6ypn n pcoame k1c1poqm.
o pnLue k ceaepy eue coace nepano, okono 177 r. po n. a., norouncnennme
6enme npopm c 6enokypmn nnn pmxea1mn aonocn n rony6mn rnsn o6n1nn
no snpnm rpnnu n1n. nc1enn opne6ecno nepnn nsmak1 nn1L 1knx
npopnoc1e. pexpe acero cnepye1 o1e1n1L reorpqnueckoe nonoxenne, ko1opoe
onn snnnn a pcc1pnaeyk anoxy.
Cme nsaec1nme ns nnx - ka-un n y-cynn. nn xnnn k ceaepy o1 ynLxa n rpnnue
nyc1mnn o6n.
3 nnn k aoc1oky o1 y-cyne npo ynonny1L xy-1a [ y x c
raH, c H crnac a yHnu, xn, kak H kaxcn, s
H caa nmu a cnnavckH cxca. Y-cy, xamx a
ca-ana an, ynHa s-sky, ck ac au,
amaa x nkxH nuH c mx rnymH rnaaH.
r ac vaH, x mn 120 mcnv cH.].
ue amue, ceaepnee y-cyne, k snpy o1 Bkn, xnnn 1nnL-nnnn.
[nLue s nncee xnnn kLnnL-xynn, nnn xkcm: nnskopocnme nkpn c pmxnn
aonocn, 6enm nnuo, senenmn nnn rony6mn rnsn. nn ceunncL c
kn1cknn conp1n n-nnn a 97 r. po n. a.
koneu, pnLue k kry, n sene nmneunero urp, s nnL-Lne, o6n1nn nnL-
un, cp1m-nnm, uLn 1eppn1opnn npoc1npncL po cnnckoro opn.
kn o6pso, a o1nocn1enLno nepanne apeen - a XI a. po n. a. - nocne aennknx
nepecenenn 6eno pcm, nc1ounaunx ee, a Uen1pnLno snn eue oc1anncL
poaonLno norouncnennme n ounme ae1an, ko1opme scennnn n6e1 n ceaepnyk
uc1L n1n; a opne6ecno nepnn, a ee kxnmx npoannunnx, a nune ee
nc1opnuecko anoxn xnnn pncko-nnpnckne npopm, kpoe 1oro, nornuno
npepnonoxn1L, u1o ppeanne 6enme npopm c ceaep n snp, cncncL o1
xen1okoxnx aproa, uc1o nponnknn a n1 n o6LepnnnnncL c a1ox1onnmn
nneenn. Moxno cks1L, u1o n aoc1oke snn noa1opnnocL 1o xe, u1o nponsouno
n kro-snpe c xn1n, cmnoaLnn Cn, annnnn n sopoc1pnun. 1o n
ppyro cnyue ne1 conennn a 1o, u1o 6enoe ncenenne n aoc1ounmx rpnnux a
ppeaneune apeen npoxnano 6onee konk1no, ue a nune noao apm. D1oro
qk1 poc11ouno, u1o6m noks1L aepon1noc1L n pxe neo6xopnoc1L uc1mx
n6eroa n ceuenn. npoue, kpoaL 6eno nunn noc1ynn a xnnm kn1uea ne
1onLko s cue1 pannx coksoa. 6nnskne k n apeen 1kxe nenn ec1o nopo6nme
qk1m. 1286 r. a upc1aoanne y6nnn a Oo-Lene nonannocL noro nnpycoa n
nuea. oa1oy ncenenne a1o npoannunn snun1enLno o1nnue1cn o1 xn1ene
ppyrnx seenL n1n. pn pnnc1nn xnL (618-907 rr.) c xen1m ncenenne
ceunocL noro ycynLn, ko1opmx ceropnn nsmak1 xoa-xoa. nn c1nn
noxoxn n kn1uea o6nnko, no ne o6pso munennn. nn 6onee aneprnunm, a
cnny uero okpyxkuee ncenenne 6on1cn n yaxe1 nx. koneu, a n1 nponnknn n
ppyrne cen1m npn pnnc1nn ay (c 1122 r. po n. a. po 255 r. n. a.). nn oksnn
ouenL 6onLuoe annnnne n rocyppc1ao n ero cospnne. Ceropnn norne ns nnx c1nn
ycynLnn. pesynL11e ceuennn kpoan nponsounn 6onLune nsenennn a
nsmke. Kxnme pnnek1m cnnLno o1nnuk1cn o1 aepxnekn1cknx, n xn1enL
npoannunn Oo-LenL, yanL-ynL nnn n-nL 1k xe no nonne1 neknnu, kk
6epnnneu uaep nnn ronnnpu.
e ne enee, n ne coneakcL a 1o, u1o npeo6npkun 6mno annnnne ku1pnea
n kre. enno n kre c1pnm spopnncL unannnsunn, o11yp on
pcnpoc1pnnncL pnLue.
syee1cn, ku1pnn ne 6mnn nocn1ennn 6pxnns. pnko onn ycaonnn
rnanoe: npeaocxopc1ao opno kc1m np ppyrnn n cy oprnnsunk kc1. opo6no
ernn1nn, onn o1kononncL o1 ocnoano ccm pncknx npopoa a anoxy, korp
6pxnns eue ne nonnoc1Lk cqopynnpoan caon npnnunnm. oa1oy a n1e m
yanpn no cxopc1a c counnLno cnc1eo nnpycoa, no ecnn nonoxn1enLnmx
npnnene no, s1o noro o1pnu1enLnmx.
orp a cnny 1eonornuecknx psnorncn sopoc1pnckne nneen nopann c
copopnun, onn nc1onLko nx nenanpenn, u1o pnn canuennme nen 6pxncknx
6oroa snm pyx. u1pnn n1n, ceuauncL c xen1mn npopn, pcc1pnann
pec1an1enLnoc1L ckopee c yxcko, nexenn xencko 1oukn spennn, ckopee
nonn1nuecko, nexenn pennrnosno, noa1oy npepc1annnn co6o 1kyk xe
nenpnnpnyk onnosnunk, kk sopoc1pnum. Caoe nenpnn1ne 6pxncko
neppxnn onn ampxnn o1pnunne cmx ec1ec1aennmx npe.
nn ne sxo1enn npnsn1L psnnune pnroa nnn nnnune unc1mx nnn neunc1mx
no poxpennk. [ok1pnny caonx npenmx npo1nannkoa onn sennnn 6conk1nm
paenc1ao. pnko, nockonLky a cnny 6enoro nponcxoxpennn a nnx xnn
nenc1pe6nn mcnL o nepaenc1ae pc, onn aocnpnnnnn nenenyk npek o 1o, u1o
o1uoa o6nropxnak1 pe1n, aec1o 1oro, u1o6m coxpnn1L aepnoc1L ppeaney
nonn1nk o roppoc1n pe1e cnao o1uoa. a1o npee ne1 nnuero o6uero c nonn1nnn
xen1mx npopoa. poe 1oro, a1 npen 6cyppn pxe c 1oukn spennn kn1uea.
Bnropopc1ao - a1o noue1nn npepor1na pnn 1ex, k1o n o6npe1. cnn cansma1L
ee epnnc1aenno c poc1onnc1an, 1orp ne1 neo6xopnoc1n npnpyma1L pnn a1oro
o1penLnyk k1eropnk a rocyppc1aenno cnc1ee pnn 1oro, k1o nonLsye1cn ek. cnn,
nnpo1na, m xo1n o6ecneun1L e npoponxenne a nocnepykunx nokonennnx, ne1
cmcn nennnpoa1L k npepk, no1oy u1o onn ne ory1 nonLsoa1Lcn ek. [pyro
ouenL cnnLnm pryen1: pnn 1ex, k1o nonLsye1cn 1ko npnannerne, ne1
neo6xopnoc1n ykpu1L ek npepkoa, ecnn a c1pne ace npepkn 6es psnnunn
nannk1cn o6Lek1o oqnunnLnoro n nunonnLnoro kynL1 n nonLsyk1cn yaxenne
n pxe noknonenne. kn o6pso, pe1pocnek1nanm 1n1yn 6nropopc1a no u1o
po6anne1 k noue1y, ko1opm nx yxe okpyxe1. oa1oy a kn1cko npee ne npo
nck1L 1o, uero a ne ne1, npo anpe1L 1onLko onnosnunk 6pxnckn pok1pnn,
ko1opme 6mnn nenanc1nm nepecenenu-ku1pnn, c1penuncn cokpyun1L nx. D1o1
qk1 1e 6onee y6epn1enen, u1o npnpy c qnk1nanm npnsnko 6nropopc1a
kn1um yupepnnn ppyro, anonne penLnm, ocnoannm n npepor1nae
nponcxoxpennn. ee1cn a anpy pnc1okp1nn, coc1onun ns cmnoae, anykoa n acex
no1okoa no yxcko nnnnn ns nnep1opcknx pooa, cee onqyunn, ManL-Uey n
ppyrnx yaxemx nkpe. o npape roaopn, a1o1 ouenL norouncnennm kncc
npenen 1onLko 6c1pk1nmn noue1nmn npnannernnn, opnko npn a1o o6npe1
ue-1o nenpepekem n a cnny caoero npnsnnnn poksmae1, u1o 1kn cnc1e
nanne1cn nckycc1aenno n npo1naopeun1 ec1ec1aennm nponanennn uenoaeueckoro
psy.
cnn cun11L o1ks o1 6pxnns n1n6pxncko npee n canpe1enLc1ao
nenanc1nmx aocnonnnn o popnne, nenLsn o6Lncnn1L 1o xe npnunno
n1pnpxnLnyk qopy npanennn Cpepnnno nepnn. 1ko cepLesno cnyue,
kk am6op nonn1nuecko cnc1em, rpe peuL npe1 o 1o, u1o6m n1n coo1ae1c1ane ne
o1penLnm 1eopnn n ne npno6pe1ennm npen, no1pe6noc1n pc, ko1opme, 6ypyun
o6Lepnnenm a opno uenoe, coc1annk1 rocyppc1ao, nenno o6uec1aennm psy
ponxen cypn1L n peu1L, ponyck1L nnn o1aepr1L 1o, u1o ey npepnrk1, n oun6k
pnn1cn 1onLko neko1opoe apen. n1e cnc1e npanennn a 1euenne c1one1n
npe1epnen nnuL uc1nunme nsenennn: ee cnepye1 cun11L coo1ae1c1aykue
xennnn nunonnLnoro rennn.
3konop1enL 6epe1 a kuec1ae a1opn1e1 npao o1u ceec1a. n pene1
neocnopno kcnoo 1o, u1o a1o1 npnnunn 6mn cy1Lk counnLnoro nopnpk n u1o
uenoaek nee1 n pe1e, ko1opmx on nponsaen n cae1, kopnn n aocnn1n, 1kne xe
npa, u1o n npnnu a o1nouennn caonx noppnnmx, ko1opmx, 1k xe kk pe1e, on
6epexe1 n oxpnne1 nx nn1epecm n cy xnsnL. Co a1o nonn1ne a npnnunne ne
nanne1cn kn1ckn nso6pe1enne. no npnnpnexn1 pncko pce, nockonLky
kxpm o1penLnm uenoaek a1o pcm nen annnnne, o kko on n py1L 6m ne
nocen cpepn nnep1nmx xen1mx n uepnmx xn1ene, a1opn1e1 o1u ceec1a n
nannncn npo1o1nno cnc1em npanennn. rnsx pnu-nnpyc, cp1, rpek,
nepc, npnu n pxe kenL1 o1uoackn anc1L ec1L npnnunn nonn1nuecko anc1n,
no aec1e c 1e nenLsn nx o1oxpec1ann1L. na rocyppc1a - a1o ne o1eu: on ne
nee1 nn snn1epecoannoc1n, nn o1uoacknx uyac1a. na ceLn ouenL pepko xene1
sn caoey no1oc1ay, no oxe1 cnyun1Lcn 1k, u1o upL, pxe ne nen snoro ymcn,
npan1 1kn o6pso, u1o a1o nnocn1 apep nn1epec o1penLnoro uenoaek, n
nunnn c a1oro oen1 uennoc1L pnu, ero poc1onnc1ao, ncuese1: pneu
nepec1e1 6m1L cn co6o.
cnny 1knx npnunn aonn 6eno pcm o1ksmae1cn o1 n1pnpx1, noa1oy nepame
upn nnpncknx rocyppc1a nannnncL acero nnuL ns6npemn unnoannk n, o1un
caonx noppnnmx a ouenL ysko cmcne, o6npaunn orpnnuennmn
nonnoounnn. osxe 1 n6pnn cnny ppxn. o a1o cnyunnocL, korp cpepn nx
noppnnmx 6mno enLue pnuea n 6onLue e1ncoa n uepnmx. cyunoc1n,
nonn1nueckoe uyac1ao pncko pcm ne o1aepre1 n1pnpx1: npoc1o pnum
1onkyk1 a1o nonn1ne co nornn oroaopkn.
npoue, 1kyk oprnnsunk o6uec1aenno anc1n m anpn ne 1onLko y nnpncknx
pnuea. rocyppc1ax epepne snn n n 6eperx nn 1kxe npnennncn
n1pnpxnLnm npnnunn. pnko nepaonunLnn npen npe1epnen 1 nsenennn,
ko1opme a kopne o1nnuk1cn o11oro, u1o neno ec1o, kk a n1e, 1k n a npnn.
Bypyun enee nn6epnLnm, ue a npnn, nonn1ne n1epnnnc1ckoro npanennn 6mno
amp6o1no nkpLn, uyxpmn aosamuenno pccypn1enLnoc1n ocnoano pcm. no
ne orno 6m1L ampxenne yepennoro n npnoro pecno1ns, kk a n1e, no1oy
u1o 1pe6oanocL o6ysp1L 1onnm xn1ene, nnoxo nonnaunx nonesnoe n
nopunnnaunxcn 1onLko rpy6o cnne. ccnpnn anc1L 6mn yxcno, 6esxnoc1no:
c euo a pykx on sc1annn nopunnn1Lcn ce6e. n ne 1epnen o6cyxpennn n ne
snn orpnnuenn. rnn1e ne 6mno 1ko xec1oko anc1n. pnckn kpoaL
noppepxnan xo1L kko-1o nopnpok, n kc1m, ne c1onL k1eropnunme, kk a npnn,
oco6enno xpeum, nonLsoanncL neko1opm yaxenne n nenpnkocnoaennoc1Lk, a ue
oxno anpe1L nyc1L n cn6oe, no o1pxenne 6nropopc1a 6enoro anp. 1o kce1cn
uepnoro ncenennn, qponm acerp 1pe1npoann ero, kk p6oun cko1, - 1k xe,
kk o1nocnnncL k nx copopnu n 6eperx aqp1, nrp n Cpepnsenoro opn.
1pnpxnLnm npnnunn npnenn1enLno k nerp cpenncn 6conk1nm
pecno1nso - 6esxnoc1nm, 6esrpnnunm n kpoaam.
n1e a1opn uc1L a1oro npnnunn 6mn coaepuenno ppyro. pnckn ceLn,
ko1opn npnnecn ero c co6o, ne sxo1en o1peuLcn o1 npa n o6nsnnoc1e
no6epn1ene-unannns1opoa. o on ne npnnnn n uepnm npnnunn a cnny 1oro, u1o y
ec1nmx xn1ene 6mn ppyro xpk1ep n ppyrne nknonnoc1n [am amaan
s ack nnHa nuH c nmH nmamH naH.].
Mnckn cecL, 1. e. npopyk1 coepnnennn uepno n xen1o kpoae, nannncL 1e
aneen1o, ko1opm nepecenenu-ku1pnn npepc1onno npncnoco6n1L k caon
nyxp n unannnsoa1L, ceunancL c nn. Moxno cks1L, u1o a 1y anoxy cnnnnne
payx nnsunx pc 6mno ne 1kn nonnm, kk ceropnn, n u1o ao nornx ec1x n kre
n1n, rpe pec1aoann nnpycm-unannns1opm, nneen, oc11kn nneen nnn pxe
o1penLnme nkpn kxpo ns pc oc1anncL poaonLno unc1mn n ycneuno
npo1naoc1onnn npo1naononoxnoy 1nny. pnko a pesynL11e a1oro nenonnoro
ceuennn poxpnncL no1pe6noc1n n uyac1a, ouenL 6nnskne 1e, ko1opme nonannncL
nosxe a pesynL11e okonu1enLnoro ceuennn, n 6enme c1onknynncL 1 coace c
ppyrnn npo6nen, nexenn 1e, u1o c1onnn nepep nx co6p1Lnn-no6epn1ennn a
3npno snn.
Mm yxe onpepennnn cyunoc1L ncko pcm: 6ypyun nnuenno cnnLnoro
aoo6pxennn, on ace-1kn ocosnn npenyuec1a ynopnpouenno oprnnsunn. Y
nee ec1L akyc k 6nrononyunk, kk y ace xen1o pcm aoo6ue, npnue k
6nrononyunk ncknkun1enLno 1epnnLnoy. n 1epnenna, nnep1n, nerko
npncnoc6nnae1cn k skony n k counnLnoy nopnpky.
C 1knn nkpLn ne 6mno nyxpm npn6er1L k xec1okoy pecno1nsy, k ko1opoy
npnaenn rnynoc1L uepnmx n noc1enennoe nop6ouenne xn1oa, cnnuko 6nnsko
nopopnnaunxcn co caonn noppnnmn. npo1na, a n1e, korp ceuenne nuno
6ecnokon1L pnckn pyx, oksnocL, u1o a1o1 6nropopnm aneen1 no epe ero
pcnpoc1pnennn a ccx ann1man a ce6n apoxpennme caoc1a ec1nmx npopoa.
n ne nepepan n caok rn6koc1L, 6nropopnyk aneprnk, akyc k cao6ope. e ne
enee, on ykpennnn nx nnc1nnk1nanyk nk6oaL k nopnpky n n1nn1nk k nspepxk
aoo6pxennn.
Y kn1uea ouenL nposnueckn n1yp, upesepnoc1L yxce1 nx, noa1oy
necnpaepnnam onpx neepnenno 1epne1 a1opn1e1 n yaxenne.
a1o c1pne npnnunno npanennn 6mn n1pnpx1, nockonLky unannns1opn
6mnn pnum, ko1opme xnnn cpepn nnsunx npopoa, no n npk1nke 6conk1ns
anc1n1enn ne nponannncn nn a caepxuenoaeuecko roppmne, nn a o11nknakue
pecno1nse n 6mn orpnnuen ysknn pkn a cnny 1oro, u1o nckn npnpop ne
npoaounpoan akcueccoa, pnckn pyx, ceunancL c ne, nxopnn cpepy,
ocosnkuyk, u1o cncenne rocyppc1a ec1L co6nkpenne skonoa n acex ypoannx
ncenennn.
1k, anc1L a Cpepnnno nepnn oprnnsoancL. UpL - o1eu noppnnmx; on
nee1 npao n nx 6conk1noe nopunnenne n cnyxn1 pnn nnx npoaopnnko
6oxec1aenno aonn, noa1oy npn6nnx1Lcn k ney oxno nnuL n konennx.
eope1nueckn on oxe1 ace, uero sxoue1, no a pec1an1enLnoc1n aosoxnoc1n ero ne
6esrpnnunm. pop ponue1, nppnnm amksmak1 nepoaonLc1ao, nnnc1pm,
nonskune y nor nnep1op, rpoorncno ocyxpk1 neskonnoe noaepenne o1u
nunn, n a1o1 o1eu c1on1 nepep am6opo: nn6o poaec1n caon npnxo1n po kpnoc1n n
1e cm nopa1L co ace canuennm n nenpnkocnoaennm, uey ero yunnn c
pe1c1a, nn6o c1onkny1Lcn c o1kpm1m 6yn1o.
n1ckne nc1opnkn noro nnuy1 o 1o, u1o 6conk1nn anc1L nnep1opoa 6mn
orpnnuen o6uec1aennm nenne n npan, o 1o, u1o 1npnnn a n1e nnkorp
ne nonLsoancL yaxenne, no1oy u1o npnpop noppnnmx ne 6mn k ne
npncnoco6nen. oneuno, nnep1op cun1e1cn anc1n1ene Cpepnnno nepnn n
pxe acero np, o1ckp ace, u1o ey ne nopunnnnocL, pcc1pnanocL kk
nponanenne apapc1a n neunannnsoannoc1n. o ecnn kn1ckn 6kpokp1nn
nsoupne1cn a ampxennnx aepnonoppnnnuec1a no o1nouennk k cmny e6, 1o
o6mu ne nosaonne1 ey o1nocn1Lcn k coy ce6e nopo6nm o6pso. ro peun
ncnonnenm ncknkun1enLno ckponoc1n: upL cun1e1 ce6n nepoc1onm ncnonnn1L
amcune qynkunn, poaepennme ey ero aryc1eun popn1ene. n nou1n1enLno
psroapnae1 co caonn pe1Ln-noppnnmn.
Cnepoa1enLno, anc1L ero orpnnuen, n ne1 nyxpm o6Lncnn1L, u1o a 1ko nnepnn
npnnunnm anc1n a ocnoano nnkorp ne ennnncL. Coe can1oe - 1ppnunn, n
1npnnn yc1pnae1cn pxe a o1xope nnep1op o1 o6muea npepkoa. opoue
roaopn, cmny e6 nosaoneno ace, s ncknkuenne nocnr1enLc1a n ocanuennme
1ppnunn.
oa1oy ec1ec1aenno, u1o kn1ckn unannnsunn, c coro nun onnpauncn n
nckne npopm, nosxe n rnoepunk xen1mx pc, ceunnmx c pnun,
nensenno c1penncL k 1epnnLno nonLse [ yx Hvan, v a anvm
snx nka n ka a acn an mn anu
avnumH. ak numca ccaannna xnan aca: aavan a
ccaannna cay caa, aH nmn Hrnm n ycnn
nu xn acm. anH, na ax aa Hn Hc a 1352 r.
. s. a 398 r. . s. nmna acn .]. cnn a kpynnmx
snpnmx unannnsunnx pnnnc1punn n nonnunn 6mnn n a1opo nnne, 1o a n1e
anc1L npnnpnexn unnoannuec1ay, aon n pnnno1nn, a o1nnune o1 ppyrnx
c1pn, 6mnn o1opanny1m 1kxe n a1opo nnn.
enpenoxnm n aeunm npnnunn sknkuncn a nopnLno qynkunonnpoannn
rocyppc1a, pnn a1oro kxpm uenoaek ponxen 6mn ne1L nnuy, opexpy n kpoa;
cenLckoe xosnc1ao n npomunennoc1L nonLsoanncL nokpoan1enLc1ao
npan1enLc1a. o rnanm ycnoane 6mno cnokoc1ane n 6esn1exnoc1L, n ace epm
npnnnnncL npo1na acero, u1o orno npyun1L nopnpok. cnn uepnn pc n nen
kkoe-1o annnnne a nnepnn, 1o ee npnnunnm ne 6mnn ponroaeunm. npo1na, xen1me
npopm c kxpm pne saoeamann noame nosnunn n, ocosnan nonesnoc1L
yc1noanennoro nopnpk aeue, oxo1no npnnnnn 1epnnLnoe 6nrononyune kk
snor cnokoc1ann. Onnocoqckne n pennrnosnme aosspennn, noc1onnnme nc1ounnkn
noxp a nk6o rocyppc1ae, acerp 6mnn 6eccnnLnm nepep n1nunoc1Lk npop,
ko1opm nen pnc pnn nponn1nnn n xnonok pnn opexpm n ne nomunnn o
conpo1nanennn anc1n ao nn nekoe 6c1pkunn [. Unrnu Hva, v n
cvacun amaxacn a a vamk aar ca kmmH H, a n
anac a a aHyka nank xcH, km ava
nHmaau ayx.].
n1ckoe npan1enLc1ao nosaonnno nponoaepoa1L ace, amcksma1L cme
6cyppnme aeun npn ycnoann, u1o nn opno noauec1ao ne npnaepe1 k counnLnm
cnepc1ann. k 1onLko aosnnkn yrpos nopnpky, pnnnc1punn pec1aoan
6ecnoupno n nopannn no1enunnLnyk oncnoc1L c necnmxnno xec1okoc1Lk,
nonLsyncL noppepxko o6uec1aennoro nennn. Bpn1enLnoc1L kn1cko nonnunn
o6uensaec1n, 1kxe nsaec1no, c kknn 1pypnoc1nn c1nknak1cn pycckne n
nrnnune n kro-aoc1oke c1pnm.
npnn 6pxnns 1kxe cospn pnnnc1punk, c1onauyk amue, ue 1o, u1o 6mno
a xn1cknx, cen1cknx nnn ernne1cknx rocyppc1ax. pnko a1 pnnnc1p1nann
cnc1e ne snnn nepaoro ec1 a rocyppc1ae, rpe cosnp1enLnn pen1enLnoc1L
psy 1pe6oan 6onLuero annnnn. oa1oy ne c1on1 ypnann1Lcn 1oy, u1o
nnpycckn renn a caoe cao6ope n roppoc1n, a caoe c1penennn k aennkn pen n
a caonx caepxuenoaeuecknx 1eopnnx o1aopnn 1epnnLnm no1pe6noc1n
a1opoc1enennoe ec1o. c11n, a1oy cnoco6c1aoan n npnecL uepno kpoan.
n1e 1epnnLnn oprnnsunn poc1nrn coaepuenc1a, n, yun1man psnnunn pc,
ne kxe1cn, u1o a a1o cmcne opne6ecnn nepnn po6nncL nyuunx pesynL11oa,
ue nmneunnn apon. o acnko cnyue, n1 nenLsn cpann1L c ncko
nnepne.
Mexpy 1e nenLsn ne npnsn1L, u1o spennue a1o ne amsmae1 oco6oro aocxnuennn.
Xen1me 1onnm npnme n nokopnme 1onLko no1oy, u1o nnuenm uyac1a, amxopnunx s
pkn qnsnuecko nonesnoc1n. x pennrnn ec1L o1pxenne cn1yunn, ko1opn
nnonne1 snoaepn xeneacknx opnnc1oa, cun1kunx amcun 6nro akononk,
aospepxnnoc1L, oc1opoxnoc1L, yenne sp61ma1L. 3nenn1n kn1ckn
aexnnaoc1L - a1o aonnouenne 1knx npnnunnoa. n ne nee1 nnuero o6uero c
kyp1ysnmn nepn nuero cpepneaekoaLn: c 6nropopnm nou1enne cao6opnoro
uenoaek k nkpn, panm ey, co cpepxnnm yaxenne k 1e, k1o amue no
nonoxennk, n co cnncxopn1enLno nk6oaLk k nnsun. pnno cnyue m anpn
upesepnm arons, ko1opm ampxe1cn a npecmk1enLc1ae nepep amcunn, a
nenenmx uepeonnnx a o1nouennn c panmn n a npenno npespennn k nnsun.
kn o6pso, aexnnaoc1L a n1e - unc1o qopnLnn npouepyp, cnyxun pnn
1oro, u1o6m kxpoy yks1L ero ec1o, ne nponan1L nckpennee uyac1ao.
oacepneanme uepeonnn yc1noanenm a skonop1enLno nopnpke.
co6yk axnoc1L pnn kn1uea nee1 nn1ep1yp. n ne nanne1cn cpepc1ao
coaepuenc1aoannn, kk a ppyrnx c1pnx, no ounm nnc1pyen1o sc1onoc1n.
pan1enLc1ao noksmae1 ce6n ppyro npocaeuennn. Cpepn 300 nnnnonoa xn1ene
nnepnn no nkpe, ko1opme ne yek1 un11L n nnc1L xo1n 6m a 1o epe, kkn
1pe6ye1cn a noacepneano xnsnn, npan1enLc1ao s6o1n1cn o 1o, u1o6m 1kn
o6psoannoc1L pcnpoc1pnnncL kk oxno unpe. poe 1oro, npan1enLc1ao
cnepn1 s 1e, u1o6m kxpm noppnnm snn skonm. nnrn poc1ynnm ace,
o6uec1aennme u1ennn nponcxopn1 a noaonynne, u1o6m anyun1L noppnnm ocnoanme
npann, kk-1o: ponr pe1e nepep popn1ennn n coo1ae1c1aenno rpxpn nepep
nnep1opo n unnoannkn. kn o6pso, a kko-1o cmcne kn1ckn npop
6onee o6psoan, ue eaponeum. ppeane snn, a peunn n ne 1koro nenLsn
npepc1an1L ce6e.
poc1o uenoaek sne1, u1o neo6xopno cp1L aksenm, u1o6m nopnn1Lcn n 6onee
amcokyk c1ynenL. D1o nanne1cn axnm c1nyno. kpn yu1cn 1oy, u1o nee1
nonLsy, u1o snnn npepmpyune nokonennn, co xennne cosp1L u1o-nn6ypL noaoe
pcc1pnae1cn kk npyuenne skon nnn pxe npep1enLc1ao [au k
nccaHy aaa a nn. ack Hc a-
avn s a cnyH k: a a n n cm.
akaan yxm nn r, vm n nxaancu n
cm.].
o6nc1n nsnuno cnoaecnoc1n a noue1e 6ypne n nsnunme 6espenyukn. Dnernn
6eccopepx1enLnm, onncnnn npnpopm ckopee ckpynynesnm, ue xnaonncnm.
Uennoc1Lk o6npe1 1onLko pon. n1um nnuenm aoo6pxennn, no cnnLnm a
n6nkp1enLnoc1n n nsnuec1ae ampxennn. a1o npepmae1cn none1 kn1cko
ysm. [p1yprnn nnock n nocpepc1aenn, noasnn npn1 a o6nkx cpepn
psnouae1nmx ppkonoa, ne nen cnn nopnn1Lcn amue.
Onnocoqnn, oco6enno qnnocoqnn opnLnn, ko1opn ouenL noun1e, coc1on1 ns
ns6n1mx kcn pnpk1nueckoro caoc1a. 31o scnyxnak1 yaxennn ec1ec1aennme
nykn: npexpe acero" s cue1 n6nkp1enLnoc1n, 1ounoc1n n 1epnennn. o
1eope1nuecko nykn no cy1n ne1, 1k xe kk ne1 peun o6 c1pononn. 1o kce1cn
nc1opnn, kn1um cn npnsnk1, u1o nopyuk1 coc1ann1L n ynopnpouna1L caon
xponnkn nccnonep-nesyn1.
cqepe nckycc1a m anpn eue enLue npepe1oa pnn aocxnuennn. Moxno o1e1n1L
1ounoc1L aocnponsaepennn uae1oa n pc1enn, u1o amcoko uenn1cn a apone. c1L
npekpcnme nop1pe1nme nponsaepennn, rpe cxauen xpk1ep uenoaek, ko1opme
npeaocxopn1 nun nnockne preppo1nnnme uepeapm. o1, noxny, n ace. BonLune
xnaonncnme nono1n amsmak1 c1pnnoe ouyuenne, a nnx o1cy1c1ayk1 renn,
aneprnn, akyc. CkynLn1yp orpnnunae1cn 6nnLnmn n uypoanunmn
nso6pxennnn. pxn1ek1ype o1pe1cn npepnou1enne aocLnpnpnm nrop,
ko1opme, kc11n, ne coace nannk1cn ec1nm nso6pe1enne n necy1 n ce6e uep1m
nnpnckoro annnnnn; npap, onn o1nnuk1cn 6or1c1ao pe1ne, n ecnn npn nepao
asrnnpe onn ory1 nponsaec1n aneu1nenne caoe noansno, 1o s1e onn
o11nknak1 akcuen1pnuno ono1onnoc1Lk. poe 1oro, a kn1cknx c1poennnx ne1
nnuero npounoro, u1o oxe1 amc1on1L aek. n1um cnnuko oc1opoxnm n
pcue1nnam, u1o6m anoxn1L a c1pon1enLc1ao 6onLue cpepc1a, ue 1pe6ye1cn c 1oukn
spennn nonesnoc1n; a1o o1nocn1cn n k 6ecuncnennm knn, nepecekkun
nnepnk, n k nno1nn, oco6enno n peke ynLxa.
1epnnLno o6nc1n kn1ckn pnnnc1punn po6nncL ampkunxcn
pesynL11oa, kknn ne oxe1 noxac11Lcn nn opn ppeannn nnn coapeennn
nunn; n yxe roaopnn o pcnpoc1pnennn o6psoannn, o 6nrononyunn npop, o
cao6ope a cqepe pspeuennoro, o poc1nxennn a npomunennoc1n n a rpnkynL1ype, a
uc1noc1n, u1o kce1cn konkypen1ocnoco6noc1n 1knx kn1cknx 1oapoa, kk
xnonok, uenk, nocyp. a1o o1nouennn kn1u ec1L ue roppn1Lcn.
Corncno nc1opnueckn nnn opne6ecno nepnn, 6enn pc, cospaun
kn1ckyk unannnsunk, ne corn npo1naoc1on1L n1ncky xen1mx npopoa, ko1opme
ne npnnecnn nnuero noaoro, kpoe pcnpoc1pnennn 6enmx npnnunnoa cpepn
psnopopnoro ncenennn. Cn onn nerko aocnpnnnnn uyxyk unannnsunk, 1. k. on
6mn 6nnsk nx npnpope.
orp pnum npnc1ynnnn k unannnsunn uepnmx n xen1mx nneen, nnue roaopn
nuea, onn npnnecnn c co6o n1pnpxnLnyk cnc1ey npanennn, o1nnuauykcn
oco6enno rn6koc1Lk. Mm anpenn, u1o 1kn cnc1e y uepnmx npopoa 6mc1po
npeapue1cn a 6esrpnnunm pecno1ns, y nuea, oco6enno y unc1o xen1mx
nneen, a1o1 pecno1ns nee1 6onee nrkne qopm.
epan nonn1nueckn cnc1e a1o c1pnm o1nnuncL qpren1pnoc1Lk anc1n,
pcnmnenno no norn knnxec1a, a 1o nnn nno c1enenn nopunnnauncn
aepxoanoy npanennk. nnornunyk kp1nny m n6nkpnn a ccnpnn, rpe xn1m,
s1e cen1m, cospnn noxec1ao o1penLnmx rocyppc1a, ko1opme a psnme anoxn
nopunnnnncL nn6o annony, nn6o nneann, nocne cy1nmx apeen npn no1okx
Conoon o6psoanncL 32 rocyppc1a n o6nokx saoeann [anp. rnn1e po
Menec c1pn 6mn pspenen n neckonLko knnxec1a; 1o xe coe nponsouno a
npnn, rpe pnckn 1nn coxpnnncn nyuue acero. pn 6pxnx 1k n ne
nponsouno nonnoro 1eppn1opnnLnoro o6Lepnnennn.
n1e peno o6c1onno no-ppyroy, u1o nnunn ps nop1aepxpe1 nenpnn1ne
epnnc1a pnun: nnonn a a1o cansn pnckoe nspeuenne eges et greges.
o6epn1enn pnum, nokopnn nnsune pcm, nnkorp ne oc1annnn anc1L a pykx
opnoro uenoaek. oa1oy a n1e, kk n a ppyrnx saoeannmx sennx, 1eppn1opnn
ppo6nncL n uc1n, nxopnaunecn nop xpynko anc1Lk nnep1op: 1k 6mno
nunnn co apeenn nuec1ann ku1pnea po Unn-Ln-ynL-n (a 246 r. po n. a.), 1o
ec1L po 1ex nop, nok 6enn pc o6npn poc11ouno xnsnecnoco6noc1Lk
[rn kam xay a ycnanx Hnack Hka, a XII a.
. s. y x mn aanaan. a axncn a nnH aca,
n Hn naaa a ccacu, a akx a ac aaa.
ak ac canum am, nnyvn nnvck aaca nuk
ncn cvan kynmx ac.]. o korp nponsouno cnnnnne c nckn n
xen1m ceec1an n ne oc1nocL pxe nnonoanny 6enmx rpynn, qeopnLnn
cnc1e a anpe 6onLuoro konnuec1a ne6onLunx upc1a y1p1nn acnkn cmcn
cyuec1aoannn.
unnn c a1oro oen1 n1 o6pen nmneunkk nonn1nueckyk qopy [ sr
HHa avacn aanuan nnvckan ncn.
xannH anaa Hnack anac mn y
nx Mu-y. 4anH nn x mn H aan, vH nn
nnka mm anm. -U-yau- caHmH srvmH
aH ckymn Hcmx cua. avan c cxran kr: axaa
a canuca x mam cnaam. Bmn Hm anaam
na aaan ax . aa mna aa a 36
aHcaamx naaHa a rnaa c HaaaH, km vac
Hnncu. cny mn na 120 mcnv amx cHca H
mn an nkau .]. pnko peaonkunonnme npeo6psoannn Unn-Ln-
ynL-n 1onLko nonoxnnn koneu ncnepnk 6eno pcm, n epnnc1ao c1pnm nnuero ne
npn6anno k qope npanennn, ko1opn oc1ncL n1pnpxnLno. pesynL11e
nocnepnne cnepm nesancnoc1n n nnunoro poc1onnc1a, npncyune pncko pce,
nacerp ncuesnn a cce xen1oro ncenennn.
c11n, nponsouno 1o xe coe, u1o y nc a 1789 r., korp noa1opckn pyx a nepayk
ouepepL cuen neo6xopnm ynnu1oxn1L c1pme 1eppn1opnnLnme epnnnum. n1e
6mno ynnu1oxeno ace, u1o orno nnonn1L o nunonnLnmx psnnunnx nnn
knnxec1ax. Bmnn cospnm unc1o pnnnc1p1nanme npoannunn n okpyr. pnko
ec1L n psnnune. n1ckne penp1en1m ouenL 6onLune, nun ouenL nenLkne.
M1ynL-nnL npnsne1, u1o 1kn oprnnsunn ne coace ypo6n a cmcne
kon1ponnpoannn.
pnko n nu cnc1e amsmae1 neno kpn1nuecknx seunn.
Cnepye1 o1e1n1L eue opno o6c1on1enLc1ao. KnL-ne nckn pc nonyunn
nepame ypokn y pnuea; nosxe a pesynL11e saoeann n npncoepnnenn
uncnennoc1L xen1oro ceec1a 6mc1po yaennunncL, a pesynL11e uero a 1euenne
kkoro-1o nepnop npyunnocL panoaecne n nonannncL apapckne o6mun.
k, n ceaepe yepunx knnse nepepko xoponnnn aec1e c nx xenn n aonnn:
a1o1 o6mu 6mn naepnnk snc1aoan y qnnnoa. poe 1oro, cun1nocL s uec1L,
korp nnep1op o1npannn nonauey a nennoc1L nppnny c6nk, u1o6m 1o1
nokonunn c co6o. o 1kne xec1okne o6mun npopepxnncL neponro. o epe 1oro,
kk noame xen1me nneen annanncL a kn1ckyk nunk, onn npnnnnn o6mun n
npam kn1uea. 31e, korp a1n npen oanpenn ccn, nc1ynnn sc1o.
XIII a. n. a. sn1ckn np no1pncn yxcnn k1c1poq. MonronLckn xn
eyunn co6pn nop caon snen orponoe konnuec1ao nneen epxne snn n
nun saoeanne n1n, ko1opoe poaepunn y6nn. Monronm c1nn xosnean a
c1pne, n specL oxno 6mno sp1Lcn aonpoco, nouey onn, aec1o 1oro u1o6m
yupepn1L caon nnc1n1y1m, cpsy npnnnnn cnc1ey nppnnoa, nouey onn a a1o
cmcne nopunnnnncL nokopennm, npncnoco6nnncL k nopnpky kn1uea n k nx
unannnsunn n, a konue konuoa, no npouec1ann neckonLknx aekoa, 6mnn c nosopo
nsrnnm o11yp.
o1 o o1ae1: onronLckne, 11pckne n ppyrne nneen, coc1annaune aock
nnrncxn, nou1n uennko npnnpnexnn k xen1o pce. pnko nockonLky
ocnoanme ae1an konnunn, onronm n 11pm, aknkunn a ce6n 6enm aneen1,
nnpnep, xkcoa, unannnsunn 6mn poc11ouno ponroapeenno n cnoco6no
o6Lepnnn1L nop opnn snene psnme nneen n 6pocn1L nx n poc1nxenne opno
uenn. Bes npncy1c1ann 6enmx npnnunnoa a xen1o ncenennn 6mno 6m aoo6ue
neaosoxno cosp1L 6onLuyk no6eponocnyk pnk, ko1opn a psnme apeen
amc1ynn ns Uen1pnLno snn: rynnm, onronm nnrncxn, 11pm nyp - ace
a1n cnnnnme aoepnno, no psnouepc1nme oppm.
a1o konrnoep1e 1on spann rnanme nneen a cnny npncy1c1ann 6enoro
aneen1, ko1opm npnpan n aneprnk, opnko a1oro aneen1 6mno nepoc11ouno
pnn 1oro, u1o6m cosp1L unannnsunk. Moxno cks1L, u1o xen1mx no6epn1ene
6ykanLno onLnnnn npnecL 6eno kpoan n 1e cm o6ecneunan nx
npeaocxopc1ao np conneennnkn unc1o xen1o pcm. o noa1opnk: onn ne cyenn
nocnepoa1L npnepy repncknx npopoa, ko1opme npnnnnn pnckyk unannnsunk n
npncnoco6nnn ee k caoe kynL1ype. o1n npo o1p1L n ponxnoe a 1o, u1o onn
cornn nonn1L 6nro counnLnoro nopnpk n c coro nun c yaxenne o1necnncL
k oprnnsunn o6uec1aennmx o1nouenn kn1uea.
Mexpy 1e, ecnn n ec1L popc1ao nnn cxopc1ao expy nonyapapcknn npopn
Uen1pnLno snn n kn1un, 1o o6 npen1nunoc1n roaopn1L ne npnxopn1cn. Y
nocnepnnx 6enn n, a oco6ennoc1n, nckn npnecL ouyue1cn nnoro cnnLnee
n, cnepoa1enLno, y nnx 6onLue cnoco6noc1n k unannnsunn. Y nepamx ec1L
onpepenennn cknonnoc1L k kn1cko unannnsunn, opnko a enLue c1enenn k
1oy, u1o nee1cn a ne pnckoro, nexenn k onronLckn a1nnueckn kopnn.
oa1oy onn acerp 6mnn apapn a rnsx no6expennmx, n ue 6onLue onn
c1pnncL yun1Lcn y kn1uea, 1e cnnLnee nx npesnpnn. kn o6pso, onn xnnn
nsonnpoanno cpepn co1en nnnnonoa ec1nmx xn1ene, cocpepo1ounauncL a
ykpennennmx nrepnx, n ne o1ksmanncL o1 npnenennn opyxnn. pn a1o
c1penenne nn1npoa1L nsnexennm o6ps xnsnn kn1uea npnaeno k 1oy, u1o
poc11ouno 6mno nerkoro 1onuk, u1o6m nsrn1L nx ns c1pnm, neco1pn n 1o, u1o
onn yxe nyc1nnn 1 kopnn n 6mnn poxpenm o1 ec1nmx xenunn. koa nc1opnn
onronoa. ko m yanpn nc1opnk nLuxypoa.
1o6m noncnn1L caok mcnL o1nocn1enLno cknonnoc1n xen1mx saoea1ene ns
Uen1pnLno snn k kn1cko unannnsunn, nnonk o ppyrnx saoeannnx a1nx
koueannkoa s npepenn opne6ecno nepnn. 6muno cnnuko npeyaennunak1
nx pnkoc1L. npnep, rynnm nnn nneen xLknL-nLk [ y
xuu-u, xy-ku, yrya xs-xs. cva s am kckH.
nvH, ak H H kaxcn cnmH.] 6mnn coace ne 1knn 1ynmn
n xec1oknn acpnnkn, kknn nx npepc1annk1 n 3npe. oneuno, onn c1onnn
n nnsko counnLno c1ynenn, no 1e ne enee y nnx 6mnn poaonLno psan1me
nonn1nueckne nnc1n1y1m, psynn aoennn oprnnsunn, 6onLune nn1ounme
ropop, npouae1kun 1oproann n pxe pennrnosnme can1nnnu. o xe coe oxno
cks1L n o ppyrnx qnncknx npopx, nnpnep, knprnsx - 6onee psan1o pce,
ue ace oc1nLnme, 1. k. a ne 6onLue npnecn 6eno kpoan [kck,
Hrnuck, yrycck Hauvxyck nmk cxa num
knvca rHackx k.]. pnko a1n npopm, ocosnan
npenyuec1a npnoro npanennn n ocepno xnsnn, noc1onnno ononunncL npo1na
acnko unannnsunn, korp c1nknanncL nnn ac1ynnn a kon1k1 c nneenn,
o1nnunmn o1 xen1o pcm. npnn 11pm nnkorp ne ampxnn cknonnoc1n k
6pxnnsy. ppm epnn nocneunnn npnnn1L ncn. nn nnkon o6pso ne
o1ae1nnn n c1penenne cen1cknx npopoa nepep1L n caok aepy. o6epn1enn nn a
ue ne nsennnn caon npam, nepy opea1Lcn n nsmk. nn oc1anncL a nsonnunn n
o1aeprnn ec1nyk 6nec1nuyk nn1ep1ypy, ksauykcn n 6cyppno. nn aenn ce6n
kk 6espsnnunme ko acey xosnea n sene nokopennmx npopoa. ckonLko a1o
uyac1ao npeaocxopc1a pneko o1 nou1n1enLnoro yaxennn, ko1opoe 1e xe cme
xen1me nneen ncnm1nn, c1onknyauncL c kn1cko unannnsune!
yxe npnaopnn npnunnm a1nnueckoro nopnpk, ko1opme noeunn nLuxyp, kk
n onron, cosp1L nc1onuyk nnepnk a n1e. cnn 6m ne cyuec1aoano
pyxoanoro popc1a expy payn pcn, nLuxypm, ne anecune nnkkoro aknp a
npenyk cnc1ey c1pnm, npnnnnn 6m cyuec1aykun nopnpok, ne no6onnncL 6m
cnnnnnn c psnmn cnonn kn1ckoro o6uec1a n cpennncL 6m opnn npopo. o
nockonLky onn nnuero ne pann n ouenL no 6pnn n, neco1pn n c11yc
no6epn1ene, c1onnn n 6onee nnsko c1ynenn, peno skonunnocL 1e, u1o nx npoc1o
nsrnnn.
Moxno sp1L aonpoc: u1o 6m cnyunnocL, ecnn 6m nponsouno nuec1ane 6eno pcm
n ocyuec1anncn 6m pepskn nnn nopp na?
D1o1 aennkn uenoaek cun1n, u1o poc11ouno pnn a 30 1mcnu conp1, u1o6m
nokopn1L ack Cpepnnnyk nepnk. ero pcue1 ne kxe1cn nenenm, ecnn
acnonn1L o 1pycnnaoc1n a1nx 6epnmx nkpe, ne xenkunx o1anek1Lcn o1
6esn1exnoro nepeapnannn nnun, ko1opoe onn cpennn caoe epnnc1aenno uenLk
a xnsnn. pepnonoxn, u1o 1ko nnn ycneuno ocyuec1anncn. kko nonoxennn
oksnncL 6m a1n 30 1mcnu uenoaek? o nennk nopp na, onn ponxnm 6mnn
aec1n rpnnsonnyk xnsnL a ropopx n nop1x n, aosoxno, coaepu1L noxopm a rny6L
c1pnm pnn 1oro, u1o6m o6ecneun1L noannoaenne, cao6opnm o6en 1oapoa n c6op
nnoroa. o1 n ace.
kn cn1yunn ne orn 6m npoponx1Lcn ponro. 30 1mcnu - cnnuko no, u1o6m
rocnopc1aoa1L np 1pen co1nnn nnnnonoa, coc1annkunn opnopopnyk ccy a
cmcne uyac1a, nnc1nnk1oa, no1pe6noc1e.
[xe npn norokp1no yaennuennn pnn, on oc1ancL 6m a nsonnunn n a konue
konuoa 6mn 6m amnyxpen y1n. 1enepL npepc1an ppyroe: nopp na
o1peke1cn o1 6pn1ncko koponm n xene1 upc1aoa1L c, kk nnep1op n1n,
np nokopnm ero euy ncenenne. a1o cnyue peno orno 6m o6epny1Lcn nnm
o6pso.
cnn ace conp1m npnnpnex1 k eaponecko pce nnn ecnn cpepn nrnnun 6ype1
noro nnpncknx nnn ycynLncknx cnnea, 1orp a nepao nokonennn onn npy1 a
ce6e poc11ouno cnn, u1o6m po6n1Lcn noannoaennn. nn 6ypy1 ncnnLno aneppn1L
noame npnnunnm a cnc1ey npanennn. Bypyun eaponeun, onn 6ypy1 aosyu1Lcn
npe1enunosno nocpepc1aennoc1Lk cyuec1aykue cnc1em, nepn1nso ec1no
nykn n 1pycnnaoc1Lk, o6ycnoanenno 6esppnmn aoennmn nnc1n1y1n. cyek1
pennsoa1L, npap, a noao qope rpnpnosnm smcen Unn-Ln-ynL-n.
o a1opo nokonennn nx uncno nnoro aospc1e1. Me1ncm, poxpennme o1 ec1nmx
xenunn, 6ypy1 npexnmn nocpepnnkn expy nnn n 6opnrenn. C opno
c1oponm, e1ncm o6npk1 psyo o1uoa, c ppyro, pspennk1 n1pno1nueckne
uyac1a 1epe n 1e cm cnruk1 nnorp nsnnunkk cypoaoc1L eaponeckoro
munennn n nyuue npncnoc6nnak1cn k ec1noy o6psy xnsnn. 31e, ns
nokonennn a nokonenne, uyxec1pnnm aneen1 6ype1 ace 6onLue pc1aopn1Lcn a
cce ncenennn, nsennn ee coc1a, n ppeannn kn1ckn cnc1e okonu1enLno
o1ope1 a npounoe, no1oy u1o pnckn kpoaL ku1pnea yxe pano nc1ounncL.
pn ace a1o, kk n o1eun amue, cepLesnme nsenennn a kn1cko kpoan ne
ory1 6m1L ocnoao unannnsunn eaponeckoro 1nn. [nn 1oro, u1o6m nsenn1L 1pn
co1nn nnnnonoa pyu, apnp nn poc11ouno acex unannnsoannmx npopoa, co6pnnmx
aec1e, e1ncm, expy npoun, nnkorp ne pk1 no1oc1a, panoro nx o1u.
oa1oy n penk cnepykune amaopm:
1. n1e nuec1ann xen1o pcm ne ennnn n nn korp ne nsenn1 noroaekoaoe
coc1onnne c1pnm.
2. pn onpepenennmx ycnoannx nuec1ane 6enmx oxe1 nsenn1L n pxe cokpyun1L
kn1ckyk unannnsunk, no 1onLko uepes nocpepc1ao e1ncoa.
npk1nke a1 rnno1es apnp nn ocyuec1an, yun1man orponyk uncnennoc1L
ncenennn.
kn o6pso, kn1cko nunn, anpno, cyxpeno po konu coxpnn1L caon
nnc1n1y1m. e oxno nokopn1L, oxno anpmuec1aoa1L np ne, no n ne anxy
nnkkoro cpepc1a npeo6psoa1L ee.
D1o nesm6neoc1n pnnnc1p1nanmx qop on o6nsn 1oy epnnc1aennoy qk1y,
u1o a a1o c1pne npeo6npn opn n 1 xe pc c 1ex nop, kk pnum nnpannn
ee n ny1L counnLnoro psan1nn, n nk6n uyxepopnn npen 6mn 6eccnnLn
caeprny1L n1 c a1oro ny1n.
n1, 1k xe kk n npnn, nanne1 co6o y6epn1enLnm npnep aceoryuec1a
a1nnueckoro npnnunn a cypL6x npopoa. D1 c1pn, 6nroppn cuc1nnam
o6c1on1enLc1a, po6nncL 1oro, u1o ne ypnocL 6pxn co ace nx aneprne.
1o6m sun1n1L caon nopnpkn, nocnepnn npnunocL nckycc1aennmn epn
o6eper1L unc1o1y caoe pcm. c1oan cnc1e, acerp 1pypno pennsyen n uc1o
nnnksopnn, nen 6onLuo nepoc11ok: on am1nknan ns nnpycckoro ceec1a
nornx nkpe, ko1opme nosxe noornn uyxesenm sxa1unk n ycnnnnn
6ecnopnpok. e ne enee, 6pxnns nou1n poc1nr caoe uenn, n cnepye1 o1e1n1L,
u1o uenL a1 6mn 6onee amcoko, nexenn 1, y nopnoxnn ko1opo nxopn1cn
kn1um. npoponxenne ponrnx aekoa n1 npe6man a npe n cnokoc1ann 1onLko
no1oy, u1o a 1euenne ue1mpex 1mcnu ne1 c1nknancn a konqnnk1x c nneenn,
cnnuko nouncnennmn pnn 1oro, u1o6m pc1opoun1L connyk ccy kn1ckoro
ncenennn. oa1oy ono oc1nocL 6onee opnopopnm, ue nnpycckoe ceec1ao,
cnepoa1enLno - 6onee cnokonm n c16nnLnm, no n 6onee nnep1nm.
pnn cnoao, n1 n npnn - kpcnopeuname npnepm 1oro, u1o pcm ne ennk1cn
cn no ce6e, ecnn ennk1cn, 1o nnuL a uc1noc1nx; u1o onn ne ory1
1pncqopnpoa1Lcn n nnkorp ne o1xopn1 a c1opony o1 ny1n, npepnsnuennoro
kxpo ns nnx po ckonunnn aek.
VI. ck n acm
1k, m sne, u1o pnpo c ccnpncko n ernne1cko unannnsunnn qopnpyk1cn
o6uec1a enLue snunoc1n; m sne 1kxe, u1o npnn n n1 okpyxenm
rocyppc1an, opnn ns ko1opmx cnepyk1 npnepy nnpycoa, ppyrne c1pen1cn k
kn1ckoy npeny, xo1n npn a1o 6nncnpyk1 expy payn cnc1en.
nepayk rpynny axopn1 Uenon, a (c1aun ceropnn ycynLncko) [avan
naack sm -aka nxcn a 78 r. . s., snxy axHack
ana, kra a ca xn nnarck rm, km an
nHam a x BaxHack akm a a cx n
ana ncaannH amcmx knacca cu cak, kmc, n,
ryc. axHaH, kak yH, nycn k a sH ca.
avan XII a. . s. naam nnn yH.], neko1opme oc1poa pxnnenr -
Bnn [a Ban cxancu mva nrn axHaa, cHn a
HarHack n anck ann.], Cy1p - s1e n ppyrne.
o a1opyk cnepye1 noec1n1L nonnk, opek, oc.
pe1Ln aknkue1 a ce6n enn, By1n, o6 n6e1, koponeac1ao pkx, rocyppc1a
npnn aoc1ounee nr n uc1L pxnnenr npnckoro oken, o1kyp num
nepeaosn1 kn1ckne nnn nnpnckne 1oapm a onnnesnk.
Mm sne, u1o nneann annnn n np, uepes np n pqren, apoxnoannn
rnnnpn1oa, pe1e spnnn, n y1p1nn ack caok aneprnk a a1o c1pne. Mm anpenn,
kk rnne1 pcnpoc1pnnn unannnsunk n nxnkk qpnky. D1oy xe skony
nopunnnk1cn nme rocyppc1a snn.
Uenon, ay, Bnn nepame nocenenum-6pxnm npnnecnn caok kynL1ypy n
kc1oayk cnc1ey. 3nuenne 1knx nocenenn ocn6eano no epe yenLuennn
konnuec1a nnpncko kpoan.
3ponro po npn6m1nn pnuea kpoaL uepnmx 6opnrenoa nsennncL s cue1
nuec1an xen1mx npopoa, n ao nornx ec1x nckne e1ncm nunn am1ecnn1L
unc1o ennnckne nneen. o a1o npnunne o6uec1a, cospaunecn nosxe nop
annnnne 6enmx e1ncoa, neco1pn n ace ycnnnn o1uoa-ocnoa1ene, o1nnunncL o1
1ex c1pn, rpe ocnoay coc1annn unc1o uepnn pc. Mnckn n1yp, 6onee
xnpnokpoann, 6onee pccypn1enLnn n n1nunn, nnoxo npncnoc6nnancL k
kc1oaoy pspenennk, korp nonanncn 6yppns, ey 6mc1po ypnocL aneppn1Lcn a
nonyxen1me ccm.
D1 pennrnn ne po6nancL 1knx ycnexoa 1, rpe ne 6mno ennncknx npnnunnoa.
Uenon n a ponro oc1anncL 6c1nonn Byppm. ockonLky n o6onx oc1poax
cyuec1aoan pncko-nnpycckn npnnunn, 1 noun1nn kynL1 CkLn; n ae ec1L
kpcname nn1nnkn - Bopo-Bypop, Mpxnxn1, Bp6n, - 1kxe
seu1enLnn nn1ep1yp, a ko1opo nepeeunm npen 6pxnns n noao
pennrnn. osxe n Uenon n ay npnunn p6ckne saoea1enn, ko1opme npnnecnn
ncn, n nckn kpoaL, ps6anennn 6pxncknn, 6yppnc1cknn n cen1cknn
aneen1n, nopnnn ee nocn1ene n c1ynenL amue oc1nLnmx npopoa a1o pcm.
nonnn acn aneunnn c1pyk1yp asn1 y kn1uea, ko1opme a psnnunme apeen
npnnocnnn ee ns opne6ecno nepnn. o 1 ec1L 1kxe coaepuenno ppyrne
a1nnueckne aneen1m, o6ycnannakune snun1enLnme psnnunn. ocyppc1ao ace
eue nxopn1cn a qeopnLno coc1onnnn, n sn1L o1nnue1cn aonnc1aennm
xpk1epo. [aonn cnc1e npanennn - cae1ckn n pennrnosnn - c1nknae1cn c
onpepenennmn 1pypnoc1nn. Y kn1uea 6mn snc1aoan n nonn1nk
nopospn1enLnoc1n k nnoc1pnu, n anc1n penk1 ace, u1o6m nsonnpoa1L
noppnnmx o1 eaponeuea. ueanpno, a1o coo1ae1c1aye1 o6psy munennn nnonuea,
noa1oy npnn npe1 ny1e kn1cko unannnsunn no npnunne 6onLuoro