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ospa xaany ennkoHy epyny!
ycnnpnm saon n 6ypnm saon Heua
epepapy1 pokouyune c1pynm,
a ne osno6n1 n ne oropua1.
sope1 pnno nap sy6ua1mH necoH,
epanenm c1nr nap kpenoc1no c1eno.
6ype1 naua ponn nonnoaecna -
poponxn1L 6o 1nxenm, sa1nxno.
orpa x yc1ane1 kaxpan pecnnua
poneaa1L neHmcnnHm npepen,
orpa Hm cHoxeH cnoaa aosapa1n1Lcn
6pa1no a kpenoc1L ckaosL naneam c1pen.
n1m ne6pexno sa cnnnm sa6pocna,
e o1pasna 1peaorn na nnue...
nk1o, nnk1o nouapm ne nonpocn1
Yxe a cHep1enLno c1ncny1oH konLue.
pann a ce6e, cnaannckan na1ypa,
oc1onnc1ao, nponsnauee aeka.
sna: nyc1L paxe ne6o xHypo,
pnno cae1n1 naH ckaosL o6naka!
ospa xaany ennkoHy epyny,
ycnnpnm saon n 6ypnm saon Heua.
e1, ne1 ne nnauy1, a pokouy1 c1pynm -
1o aocnpnnnn - pnn 1ex ne saHonua1...
2

o6pocnaa - a1o cnaannckoe nHn aepyuero nsmueckoro npeonora o6poaonLckoro


nekcen nekcanppoanua, ancuero neouennHm aknap a aospoxpenne nckonno
pycckoro Hnpoaosspennn.
opnncn on 13.10.38 a Mockae, a ceHLe cnyxaunx. 1eu - o6poaonLckn nekcanpp
aanoanu, popoH ns sanopoxcknx kasakoa, yHep, korpa cmny 6mno 12 ne1, ycnea,
opnako, saponn1L a ero pyuy po6pme ceHena. Ma1L - ypoxpnnan anoaa a1anLn
acnnLeana.
1956 r. okonunn aeuepnkk ukony-pecn1nne1ky n, pa6o1an rpysunkoH a 1nnorpaqnn
"Mockoacko paapm", nopan sananenne o amxope ns M a snak npo1ec1a "npo1na
nonouennn nHenn . . 1annna"; 6mn ncknkun ns koHcoHona. op annnnneH
aocc1annn a enrpnn, cospan a nauane 1957 ns uncna caonx ppyse ycckyk
aunonanLno-ounannc1nueckyk ap1nk. Hae 1958 ace e unenm 6mnn apec1oaanm.
aaryc1e 1958 r. o6pocnaa 6mn ocyxpn na 3 ropa, ppyrne 5 unenoa npounn
no peny kak canpe1enn. Ye o6pocnaa councn c 6maunHn 6enoraappeuaHn,
copa1nnkaHn pacnoaa, Lkypo, nacoaa.
cao6opnncn a 1961 r. uenLk caHoo6pasoaannn pa6o1an a 6yknnnc1nueckoH
Harasnne, a o1penax qnnocoqcko-nc1opnueckoH n ec1ec1aenno-nayunoH. 1962
xennncn. 1963 nosnakoHnncn c unenoH apoknHoamH opncoH Hn1pneanueH n
aoun a cospannyk nH nopnonLnyk rpynny. Hae 1964 r. ace yuac1nnkn rpynnm 6mnn
apec1oaanm: opnn ns nnx - epre Monuanoa - okasancn cekco1oH - npoaoka1opoH.
o6pocnaa cnHynnpoaan ncnxnueckoe sa6oneaanne n 6mn nanpaanen a
cneuncnx6onLnnuy (r. ennnrpap), o1kypa ocao6opnncn a aaryc1e 1965 r. 1966 r.
ac1ynnn a n npoponxnn 6opL6y c koHHynnc1nuecknH pexnHoH, sa u1o eu
neckonLko pas apec1oamaancn opranaHn n M, npoan neHano ne1 a 1kpLHax,
narepnx, ccmnkax n amcmnkax. 1966 r. noc1ynnn na 6n6nnorpaqnueckn qakynL1e1
Ma, no ne sakonunn ero a cansn c ouepepnmH apec1oH.
1968 r. yHnpak1 ero Ha1L n 6a6yuka. a penLrn, ampyuennme o1 npopaxn
c1apnnno ceHeno He6enn n npapepoacknx nkon, o6pocnaa a 1969 r. nokynae1
uenyk 6n6nno1eky n norpyxae1cn a aso1epnueckn Hnp nenm e1poanm naaa1cko n
ppeaneue nc1opnn. smuec1ao, kak o6oxanne pnpopm, o6pocnaa ncnoaepoaan c
pe1c1aa, opnako yrny6nncn a nsyuenne opno epm nnuL a nauane 70-x.
pnoapeHenno snakoHn1cn c napancnxonorne, nc1opne epoac1aa, nccnepye1
neo6muanme aosHoxnoc1n uenoaeueckoro oprannsHa, npoaopn1 copokopneanoe
ronopanne. 1986 r. noknpae1 Mockay n nocenne1cn a senenoH ropopke yunno, rpe
paspa6a1maae1 caok cnc1eHy uenn1enLc1aa nocpepc1aoH apmxannn uae1ounmx
apoHa1oa. 1988 r. a caHnspa1e amxopn1 ero pa6o1a "poHa-ora", a 1989 r. -
1penm pnnm.
1989 r. npnnnHae1 (caHonocaeuenneH) nHn o6pocnaa, npoaopn1 Hnoronkpnme
nsmueckne npaspnnkn, npn copec1ann onc1an1nna Hnpnoaa-c1auannn amc1ynae1
c nekunnHn.
1990 r., cnepyn caonH y6expennnH, aHec1e c aspocnmHn cmnoaLnHn opoc1aaoH n
n1nueH nocenne1cn a sa6pouenno necno pepeayuke ecenao a La6annnckoH
paone npoacko o6nac1n, rpe aep1 na1ypanLnoe xosnc1ao: opoc1aa saaopn1
naceky, a n1nu penae1 na sakas koaun, 6pa1nnm, rycnn. 24 nknn 1990 r. npoaopn1
npaspnnk ynanm-onnueaopo1a, na ko1opm anepame sa neckonLko co1en ne1
cLesxak1cn 6onee c1a nsmunnkoa. epao ns nnoc1pannmx xypnannc1oa ero noceuae1
Carey Goldberg (cH. e c1a1Lk a Los-Angeles Times, Saturday, November, 28, 1992).
3
o6pocnaa coc1aann nepam kpa1kn cnaannckn nHenocnoa n nsmueckn Hecnuecnoa
(kanenpapL), y1aeppnn (aocLHnnyueayk caac1nky) kak snak
aospoxpakuerocn nsmuec1aa. Hee1 nou1noe ypoc1oaepenne noHep 1 ycckoro
6uec1aa xpanm pnpopm "1penm pnnm". ae1nme qo1o npaspnnka ynanm,
saneua1neaune nsmueckne 6pnpm, noHeuenm a xypnanax "occnn" (cen1n6pL 1997) n
ronk (nknL 2000).
22 nknn 1997 r. a La6annncknx necax 6mno cosaano - 6Lepnnn1enLnm Lesp
Hnornx nsmuecknx o6unn, na ko1opoH o6pocnaa 6mn npoaosrnaun aoxpH ycckoro
cao6opn1enLnoro anxennn, nHekuero uenLk ns6aanenne - -
o1 uyxepopno ka6anm. ycckoe cao6opn1enLnoe anxenne,
o6Lepnnnkuee Hnoxec1ao cnopanxnnkoa, ne nHee1 xc1ko c1pyk1ypm. D1o ckopee
cnon1annme cnnm o6uec1aa, cosna1enLno nnn nn1yn1nano, oprannsoaanno nnn
c1nxnno, konnek1nano nnn nnpnanpyanLno c1peHnunecn k ocao6oxpennk 1unsnm.
o6pocnaa aepe1 o6unpnyk nepenncky co caonHn HnorouncnennmHn yuennkaHn,
packpmaan nH cokpoaennyk cy1L nsmuec1aa kak nan6onee rny6okoro, rapHonnunoro n
aosamuennoro Hnpoanpennn. pnoapeHenno on ykasmaae1 na Hyppoc1L
nan1enc1nueckoro npnpopoaepennn kak na Hnpoaosspenueckyk ocnoay amxnaannn
uenoaeuec1aa a ycnoannx akonornuecko ka1ac1poqm.

o6pocnaa, kakne o6c1on1enLc1aa sac1aannn aac yexa1L ns Mockam a an1ckyk
rny6nnky?
c pe1c1aa uyac1aoaan 1nry k xnao eHne, k necy. onLko na none pnko pnpopm
ao Hne npocmnanncL xopoune Hmcnn. c1anoanncn caHnH co6o. ck xnsnL Heu1an
yexa1L ns Mockam, u1o6m xn1L a sapyueano rapHonnn co saepnHn, c ae1poH. o Henn
ac apeHn caxann. kopenno Hockanu, ack xnsnL npoxnn a caHoH uen1pe c1onnum,
a koHHynanLno kaap1npe, rpe "na copok aoceHL koHna1ok acero opna y6opnan". a
Henn cocepn, ec1ec1aenno, "c1yuann" n nncann ponocm. oc1onnno npnesxann Hen1m,
ko1opme caxann Henn na nn1napua1L cy1ok. ocepnH c1onno 1onLko nosaonn1L, u1o,
Hon, k a1oHy unnony onn1L npnunn saroaopunkn. nopcun1maan, ecnn ace Hon
nn1napua1L cy1ok cnoxn1L, 1o nonyun1cn 6onLue payxco1. orpa nauanacL 1ak
nasmaaeHan nepec1poka, Hon 6maune copa1nnkn nonesnn a peny1a1m, a peHokpa1m.
n cpasy nonnn, u1o nponcxopn1 u1o-1o ne 1o. a u1o 6oponcn, na 1o n nanoponcn. Mne
1ak npo1nano c1ano! orpa n peunn ocyuec1an1L caok paankk Heu1y n yexa1L ns
Mockam. ynnn a pepeane ecenao poH, rpe xnay yxe paenapua1L ne1 n nnuy pa6o1m
no npeonornn nsmuec1aa. onLunnc1ao nkpe nonnHak1 nsmuec1ao kak pe1ckn kpnk
na nyxake n npmxkn nepep nponaHn. a caHoH pene ac ne 1ak. smuec1ao - ouenL
rny6okan, uenLnan, aosamuennan, 1opxec1aennan qnnocoqnn. D1o oprannueckn
cnn1es pennrnn, naykn n nckycc1a.
coae1ckoe apeHn sa caon y6expennn am noc1papann. ak noannnnn narepnme
"nnc1n1y1m" na aaue pyxoanoe c1anoanenne?
o1Ho1an no narepnH 13 ne1. npen no c1pauno 58- c1a1Le kak apar napopa. Mne
6mno 19 ne1, korpa a nepam pas nonan a narepL. 1orpa yunncn a MY na
nc1opnueckoH qakynL1e1e. Mnoro un1an, ampennncn cpepn caepc1nnkoa. Mne kasanocL,
u1o n yHnm n naun1annm. o korpa a narepe n nosnakoHnncn c pec1an1enLno
nn1ennnren1nmHn, o6pasoaannmHn nkpLHn, o1 a1o nnnksnn ne oc1anocL n cnepa.
1e ropm n npnpepxnaancn npaaocnaann n 6mn Honapxnc1oH. mpn nocne nepaoro
cpoka, n sannncn ycnnennmH caHoo6pasoaanneH. Mockae no 6onLuoHy 6na1y
yc1ponncn pa6o1a1L a 6yknnnc1nueckn Harasnn. naropapn a1oHy Hne ouenL pueao
4
poc1aaanncL ynnkanLnme knnrn. euac onn cnokono nepenspak1cn, a 1orpa npn
kaxpoH uHone nx nsmHann. un1an pycckyk qnnocoqnk - onoaLeaa, occkoro,
eppneaa, ynrakoaa. Menn a1o ne ypoane1aopnno. o1oH c ronoao yun a nc1opnk
pennrn, c1an nsyua1L nc1opnk pasnnunmx 6pa1c1a n pennrnosnmx o6unn. pyHan
1aH na1n nc1nny. onLko na nepam asrnnp kaxe1cn, u1o a c1apnnnmx knnrax
packpmaak1cn kakne-1o cekpe1m. a caHoH pene nnuero noaoro pnn ce6n n ne o1kpmn.
oc1enenno n un k nsmuec1ay, k noun1annk pnpopm. epL a1o naue rene1nueckoe,
popnoe! ony1no c pyxoanmH pasan1neH n sannHancn nonn1nuecko pen1enLnoc1Lk.
narepe nosnakoHnncn c yuac1nnkaHn (apopno-pypoao oks). o 1eH apeHenaH
a1o epaa nn ne caHan an1nkoHHynnc1nueckan oprannsaunn, ko1opan sannHanacL ne
1onLko cnoao6nypneH, no n kaknHn-1o konkpe1nmHn penaHn a nopnonLe. Mne 6mna
6nnska nx npeonornn, n n ac1ynnn a . o1oH Henn cnoaa nocapnnn, a no1oH eu
pas. orpa n cnpen non1opa ropa a opnnouke, na y6nnke, npoun1an ack 1kpeHnyk
6n6nno1eky, ack knaccnky, ne 1onLko o1euec1aennyk, no n Hnpoayk. arepnme
nnc1n1y1m sakannnn Henn kak c1anL. po cnx nop cun1ak, u1o, npexpe ueH nes1L ao
anac1L, nac1onun Hyxunna sa caon y6expennn ponxen nocnpe1L a 1kpLHe. 1o
nonyuae1cn - auepa on 6mn koHcoproH, ceropnn on peHokpa1. cnn saa1pa npnpy1 k
anac1n naunonannc1m, a1o1 nepeap1mu ckaxe1, u1o acerpa 1akoH noun1an ponLqa
n1nepa.
oaopn1, u1o m 6mnn ppyxnm c kynnnmH, ykoacknH, renepanoH pnropenko n
ppyrnHn pnccnpen1aHn.
sa caon y6expennn cnpen eu 1orpa, korpa cnoao "pnccnpen1" ne yno1pe6nnnocL.
Ho nonn1nueckn kann1an no6onLue, ueH y epren oaaneaa; 1onLko n ne nnuy
HeHyapm n ne nesy a peny1a1m. c1a1n, 90% pnccnpen1oa 6mnn nn6o
nnonnane1nnaHn, nn6o nonynnonnane1nnaHn, npesnpaaunHn ac pycckoe. kynnn
6mn a 1963 ropy kpc1nmH o1uoH Hoero c1apuero cmna; n a 1o apeHn no nepoHmcnnk
yanekancn 1ak nasmaaeHmH "pyccknH" npaaocnaaneH. ykoacknH Hm 6oponncL pyka
o6 pyky, n xo1n a n1ore okasanncL no pasnme c1oponm 6appnkap, n oc1ancn amcokoro
Hnennn o ero 6ouoacknx kauec1aax. pnropenko n cnpen a eqop1oao a opno
kaHepe a 1964 ropy. pnaxpm Hm xne6ann 6ananpy n, kak o6muno, cnopnnn. orpa on
opo6pnn y6nc1ao uapcko ceHLn, n cnpocnn: pe1n?. pnropenko o1ae1nn: 6m
nx 1oxe pacc1pennn. y1 n amnnecnyn ropnuyk 6ananpy npnHo eHy a xapk. o6aakn
Hne ne pann.
ecHo1pn na 1o, u1o am xna1e sa1aopnnkoH, k aaH a roc1n a pepeank noc1onnno
npnesxak1 pasnme nkpn. acckaxn1e, nanpnHep, o uH am 6ecepoaann c
koppecnonpen1oH rase1m oc-npxenec aHc appn onp6epr?
Hepnkanckyk xypnannc1ky a nepayk ouepepL nn1epecoaan aonpoc, noueHy
pnccnpen1 c HnpoamH nHeneH appyr okasancn a rnyxo pepeane. cao apeHn n
npoxopnn no opnoHy peny c napnHnpoH ykoacknH, snaHenn1mH an1ncoae1unkoH. Y
Henn 6mno ue1mpe nonn1nuecknx cypnHoc1n! o Hnennk aHepnkankn, korpa no6epnnn
peHokpa1m, n ponxen 6mn acnnm1L na noaepxnoc1L n naua1L nnca1L HeHyapm. 1a1L,
kak epre oaanea, nsaec1nmH npaaosaun1nnkoH n kpacoaa1Lcn na , paspaaan
nanpaao n naneao nn1epaLk. n asnn n yexan a nec. Hepnkanka ne Horna a1oro
nonn1L. eH ne Henee onp6epr nanncana ouenL xopouyk c1a1Lk o6o Hne,
po6poxena1enLnyk. nn ne poccnckan rny6nnka - akso1nka, kak aqpnkanckne
pxynrnn. e neuky pycckyk nokasan, 6ank. na aoo6ue ne snana, u1o 1akoe 6ann!
e roaopk: "Mexpy npounH na Ho nsmueckoe Hnpoaosspenne noannnna n
aHepnkanckan nn1epa1ypa - xek onpon, Dprap o, DHnnn nknncon". auan
un1npoaa1L. na npnsnanacL: "m nauy nn1epa1ypy snae1e nyuue, ueH aHepnkanckne
c1ypen1m!" asmaak qaHnnnk enpn opo. ak! m n ero un1ann?! Hepnke o nH
nnk1o ne snae1, a am snae1e! an1ac1nka! - ypnannacL xypnannc1ka. a1o opnn ns
Honx nk6nHeunx aa1opoa. ro knnry XnsnL a necy noc1onnno un1npyk a caonx
pa6o1ax.
5
Moxe1e acnoHnn1L npo ppyrne snaHena1enLnme ac1peun a pepeane?
1992 ropy na npaspnnk ynanm a ecenao npnesxan nHa eanknn c pok-rpynno
"annnoa Hoc1". opoune pe6n1a! enn caon necnn. ceH ouenL nonpaannocL. nx
1aopuec1ae acerpa 6mnn nsmueckne no1kn, naaennnme nenpnn1neH coapeHenno
1exnokpa1nuecko unannnsaunn. pecL, a ecenao, pyHak, nx y6expennn okpennn.
1o am amnecnn ns pe1c1aa? mnn nn kakne-1o oco6me aneua1nennn, ko1opme cnyc1n
ropm noannnnn na aaue Hnpoaosspenne?
nnkorpa ne sapyHmaancn o6 a1oH, ne capnncn nnca1L HeHyapm. Moxe1 6m1L, u1o-1o n
6mno na ypoane nopcosnannn. pe1c1ae Hne ouenL noHor o1eu. coxanennk, on
yHep, korpa Hne 6mno 12 ne1. n Hne npnnocnn knnxkn ns 6n6nno1ekn. uenL pap,
u1o a 1e ropm ne 6mno 1eneansopa. euac nokasmaak1 pasnme rapoc1n,
"1enenysnkoa" kaknx-1o, yxacm n nsapauennn. pnosnauno, xo1n1 aocnn1a1L
kpe1nnoa. 1orpa 1eneansopa ne 6mno, n n un1an. mn sanncan ao ace paonnme
6n6nno1ekn. nnrn 6ypnnn Hok qan1asnk. k6nn nc1opnueckne poHanm n nayuno-
nonynnpnme Honorpaqnn. 1eu c pe1c1aa sanoxnn ao Hne nk6osna1enLnoc1L,
aocnn1an nk6oaL k pnpope.
orpa am asnnn nHn o6pocnaa?
aenapua1L ne1 nasap, korpa nanncan caok nepayk knnxky "1penm pnnm", rpe
pacckasan o6 ocnoaax nsmueckoro Hnpoaocnpnn1nn. peunn asn1L ce6e noaoe nHn,
unc1o cnaannckoe. nekce - nHn, koneuno, xopouee, no ac-1akn rpeueckoe.
ockonLky a caonx pa6o1ax n npocnaannk po6po, po6poe o1nouenne ko acnko xnsnn,
peunn asn1L roaopnuee nHn o6pocnaa. no cosayuno c Hoe qaHnnne
o6poaonLckn.
n1epecno 6mno 6m ysna1L, kak npoxopn1 aau penL? eH am sannHae1ecL, u1o
penae1e?
xaaoponok, ac1ak pano, a ue1mpe y1pa. py a caok caeuennyk pouy, ko1opyk
anpno ns okna. y1 n 6epskn, n py6kn, n cocenkn, n rpn6m, n nropm. caoe
sanoaepno poue n nnuero ne pay, ne noHak. oaepuak kpyr, spopoaakcL co aceHn
pepeaLnHn. kaxpoH ns nnx y Henn ec1L kakne-1o Hmcnn, aocnoHnnannn. Mnorne na
Honx rnasax ampocnn. pecL xe y Henn c1on1 pepeao nk6an - pae naHep1ao cpocunecn
6epesm. oxy, apmxak apoHa1m, o6uakcL c npnpopnmHn pyxaHn, ko1opme Henn
apoxnoannk1. o1oH caxycL sa nncLHennm c1on, npoponxak nnca1L. axpm rop n
ampak no ne6onLuo knnxke. a1eH sannHakcL xosnc1aoH, xoxy sa rpn6aHn, penak
saro1oakn na snHy. epL snHo, u1o6m kynn1L xne6, nyxno uec1L knnoHe1poa npo1n
na nmxax. nxenoaa1o.
akne ocnoanme npen am nponaranpnpye1e a caonx pa6o1ax?
anapnan unannnsaunn, ocnoaannan na xpnc1nancknx nn6epanLno-peHokpa1nuecknx
uennoc1nx, sauna a 1ynnk, narnnpnmH nokasa1eneH ko1oporo nanne1cn akonornueckan
ka1ac1poqa. pnnc1aennm n npoc1o amxop - aepny1Lcn nasap k pnpope, k
cmnoaneHy noun1annk kak Ma1epn. asae cnoxno npnsna1L Ma1epLk? yxno
o16pocn1L an1ponouen1pnsH. c xnaoe - pepeao, uae1ok... e napo apepn1L.
oneuno, Hm ne anrenm, Hm ne HoxeH ne nnnn1L ppoaa, ne kocn1L 1paay, no acnkn
nsnnunn apep papn npnxo1n n kopmc1n - a1o yxe anna, npec1ynnenne nepep
pnpopo. Mo npnnunn - ec1L, u1o6m xn1L, a ne xn1L, u1o6m ec1L. sa
yaaxn1enLnoe o1nouenne k pnpope. na caHa no ce6e 6oxec1aenna, nsnauanLno
opyxo1aopena. ne1 nnuero caepxLec1ec1aennoro, napnpnpopnoro.
6
m nanncann Hnoro cepLsnmx n nn1epecnmx pa6o1. oro m cun1ae1e caonH
yun1eneH?
Mo Yun1enL - Y . onLko na none npo6yxpae1cn a
pyue popoaan naHn1L pepkoa, n uenoaeka noceuae1 apoxnoaenne. 1990 r. n yexan
ns Mockam n nocennncn a sa6pouenno pepeayuke cpepn La6annncknx necoa
n1ckoro kpan. Mec1a 1y1 sanoaepnme. npoH kypran ppeannx an1nue. pnesxa1e k
naH na ynany: Hepaepn n neune specL cHnpnme, onn yaaxak1 cnaanunx pnny.
1uenLnnuec1ao ac ne 1nro1n1? pypnoc1n c xosnc1aoH?
smuec1ao - a1o npexpe acero onue6c1ao, 1onLko ne ny1a1e c coapeHennmH
konpoac1aoH. pnpopa ne pypa: ecnn n anyuak nkpnH ne ry6n1L, ne paa1L uae1m, a
ncuenn1Lcn nx sanaxoH, 1o n Ma1L-eHnn pa1 Hne spopoaLe, cnnm n papoc1L 6m1nn.
u1o kacae1cn xosnc1aa, 1o yxn no 6onLuoHy cu1y ac npepycHa1pnaak1 caHn.
ocnepnn aonpoc. m caHn Hoxe1e nasaa1L ce6n aonxaoH?
aanne onxaa pa1cn nopanxnnky caHo , a ne nkpLHn.
naaa pnne!
!
-
Mmcnn, naaennnme o6pocnaay La6annncknH eunH
ckaxe1, kakoa cHmcn ppeaoanpnmx nepnnmx ysopoa na snHnnx oknax? nn
ampac1akunx ns napa na peunoH nLpy, cnoano xpyc1anLnmx uae1oa? nyuano nn
cypoam Mopos ampaxae1 ce6n nHenno uae1aHn n pepeaLnHn, pa eu co c1onL pnano
npenec1Lk n nexnoc1Lk?
ueHy ace a1n nepnnme kpyxeaa 1paa, aenunkoa n nnc1am? oueHy nnme pncynkn
1ouL-a-1ouL noxoxn na aonue6nm rneuae1-nanopo1nnk? nn a1o 1onLko sa6aam
nerypoukn, rpesnue nopcnexnnkaHn? Hoxe1, a1o naHk na 1o, u1o npnuypnname
pac1ennn ec1L nponanennme o1neua1kn kaknx-1o neanpnHmx, neaepoHmx uae1oa n
pepeaLea?
n qnsnkn, nn 6o1annkn ne Hory1 pa1L ypoane1aopn1enLnoro o6Lncnennn
ypnan1enLnoHy cxopc1ay. o ne ec1L nn specL ykasanne caHo pnpopm na
cokpoaennyk cansL acex uapc1a n acex nsHepenn 6m1nn?
* * *
pac1ennn nopapnnn xnsnL xnao1noHy Hnpy: onn cospann kncnopop. ennme
pac1ennn n nonmne papn1 aceH saancnunH o1 nnx cyuec1aaH aospyx, nnuy, 1enno n
nekapc1aa. apn1, xep1ayn co6ok... o k1o nopapnn xnsnL pac1ennnH?
pnpope 1opxec1ayk1 nokpm1oceHennme (uae1koame) pac1ennn. opaxae1 nx
neaepon1noe pasnoo6pasne. o noueHy n kak onn aosnnknn? 1o 6mnn nx npepkn?
npneune pen1enn naykn ne ckpmaak1 caoero nonneuero 6eccnnnn nonn1L
anesannoe nponcxoxpenne amcunx pac1enn.
7
aHoe nsyHn1enLnoe - aosnnknoaenne y pac1ennn noamx opranoa - n .
"Monnnenocnoc1L" nonanennn kak-1o cpasy anonne cqopHnpoaaaunxcn uae1koamx
pac1enn a nepaanne reonornueckne apeHena n 6mc1po1a nx neypepxnHoro
pacnpoc1panennn c1onL nano npo1naopeua1 aaonkunonno rnno1ese, u1o caH apann
nasmaan a1o "npoknn1o 1ano". o Hepe pasan1nn 6o1annkn n npounx nayk
ycnnnaae1cn uyac1ao nenonnHannn ocnoa. 1penLnme yunme, o1uanauncL na1n
seHnoe o6Lncnenne c1onL pasn1enLnmH co6m1nnH, o6pa1nnncL k kocHnuecknH
npnunnaH apope aspmaa kako-1o caepxnoao saespm.
ana uae1ennn oc1a1cn nenponnuaeHa. mcuee uypo pnpopm - nenpnkpm1me
uypeca. an6onee sarapouno caHoe oueanpnoe - ronoakn noneamx uae1oa. 1kpoaennn
aepynoa kacak1cn nHenno 1ex o6nac1e, rpe oc1anaannaae1cn nayka; o6nac1e,
npepaapnkunx nenosnaaaeHoe.
e1 nnuero o6mpennee senno 1paam n ne1 uypecnee anxnHnn, a ne 1aopnuecn.
ac1enne xpann1 caHme saae1nme 1anm. ennuauee 1annc1ao - qo1ocnn1es -
ocnoaa, na uH snxpe1cn X. konLko necoa sary6neno papn 6yHarn pnn
neua1annn coHnn1enLnmx npepnonoxenn o sarapke qo1ocnn1esa! ace a1n 1LHm
Hp1amx 6yHaxnmx nnc1oa ne c1on1 Hyppoc1n opnoro sennoro. 6o 1onLko on anapee1
papoH npeo6paxennn xnao1aopnue pnnnno Moun. onLko pac1ennn - nac1onune
pe1n onnua, npnuac1nme 1ane ero ae1a (ocnoaononarakun aonpoc o
nencuepnaeHoH nc1ounnke conneuno aneprnn oc1a1cn o1kpm1mH. epHonpepnan
rnno1esa o16pouena).
XnsnL pepeaa nonna 1ako cnoxnoc1n n coaepuenc1aa, u1o ace uenoaeueckne
yxnupennn, no cpaanennk c ne - xankoe noppaxa1enLc1ao. ac1ennn coaepuennm,
snaun1, onn xnay1 a cornacnn c one pnpopm. nn - caHme unc1me, caHme cae1nme
cospannn, epnnc1aennme na eHne nn1akunecn ne uyxo xnsnLk, a nenocpepc1aenno
ynaannaakune 6naropa1nme nsnyuennn nauero ae1nna.
Y. epeaLn nsppeane noun1anncL cyuec1aaHn amcuero nopnpka,
aonnouenneH Hyppoc1n. " pepeao, 1m snaeuL 1anme nHena oroa", - 1ak roaopn1cn
a epax. opnn pepeaa a eHne, a kpona cansana c onnueH. 11oro ono Hnoroe snae1,
n Honuannao. Y pepeaa yun1cn n saepL, n n1axa, n Ho1mnk.
opasn1enLna cnoco6noc1L pac1enn uyn1L noropy na neckonLko Hecnuea anepep.
ny6nn nnn nykoanum uae1oa a pasnnunme ropm sanerak1 na pasno rny6nne. eH onn
rny6xe, 1eH 6onee Hoposno n Hanocnexno 6ype1 snHa; korpa onn 6nnskn k
noaepxnoc1n, snHa 6maae1 Hnrkan n nyunc1an. ce o6n1a1enn neca npnrnnpmaak1cn k
noaepennk pac1ennn, aepL ono 6onee nenocpepc1aenno cansano c yxaHn, aepakunHn
noropo, - c HoryunHn nxpnHn. Me1eoponorn nonarak1, u1o npo6neHa npornosa
sauna a 1ynnk. pepen ypoane1aopn1enLno npepckasyeHoc1n orpannuen 6ykaanLno
payHn-1peHn pnnHn. onee pnn1enLnm npornos "kanpnsoa" noropm - 1a xe nrpa a
koc1n. pyHuname nccnepoaa1enn cun1ak1, u1o a1a sapaua aoo6ue a kopne
nepaspeunHa, n npepyrapa1L aonk 1ak nasmaaeHmx "cnenmx" c1nxn ne noHory1
nnkakne rno6anLnme n caepxrno6anLnme kocHnueckne na6nkpennn. o aepL
npepuyac1ayk1 xe noropy pac1ennn?! , rnaanoe, onn nnkorpa ne o6Hanmaak1cn, - nH
nopckasmaae1 Ma1L-pnpopa. 6Hanmaae1cn 1onLko "uapL" pnpopm - uenoaek.
* * *
yrapmaae1cn nekn saHmcen caHo pnpopm, nponnaakun cae1 na caHme
rny6okne sanpocm uenoaeuecko pyun. s 1LHm 1mcnuene1n pouno po nac nonn1ne
"popoaoro ppeaa". nc1aa u1nHoro opoH aeuennoro epeaa, yanpakuan ocenLk n
anoaL senenekuan aecno, 6mna spnHmH snakoH, ykasykunH na nenpepmanoc1L
nepeaonnouakuecn X a cHene nokonenn. oc1onnno anpn, kak neypepxnHo
8
aospoxpae1cn a pnpope noaan, Honopan, nnkykuan nopocnL ns "yHepuero" a seHne
ceHenn, naun npauypm y1aepxpanncL a npocae1nennoH o1nouennn k cHep1n.
Yaepennoc1L a nepeaonnouennn pyun ec1L uyac1ao ec1ec1aennoe, apoxpennoe,
coaeunoe caHoHy opy uenoaeueckoHy. D1o aosamuennoe n rny6okoHmcnennoe
y6expenne npouae1ano nekorpa ao ace apone (n ne 1onLko a apone) n 6mno
nckopeneno 1onLko orneH n HeuoH xpnc1nanc1aa.
naanne, kak n ppyrne nneHena, ne npnsnaaann cHep1n kak ncuesnoaennn: ypeny
ne6m1nn nopaepranncL nnuL uepnme pyun npepa1ene opa. aue 1eno - a1o
py6auka, ko1opyk cknpmaak1 no Hepe ampac1annn ns nee. o cHep1n, uenoaek
c6pacmaae1 c ce6n nno1nyk o6onouky, kak nenyxnyk, c1aauyk 1enepL 1ecno
ckopnyny (o11oro n nasmaaeHyk nno1Lk) n oc1ae1cn o6neuennmH o6muno neanpnHmH
1onknH 1enecnmH paonnkoH - co6c1aenno pyuok. Yc1apeauan nno1L ponxna
paspyun1Lcn, u1o6m opyueannkuan ee X Horna npoponxa1L pac1n n
pasanaa1Lcn a noaoH aonnouennn. Hena o6nnun aonnouennn X o6ecneunaae1
6eccHep1ne. XnsnL 6mna 6m neaosHoxna 6es cHep1n. onoapauenne aeuno
aospoxpakuecn Xnsnn saaeuano naH onnueH, n Hm cnepyeH eHy, exepneano
anapan a nounoe sa6m1Le n npo6yxpancL c aocxopoH ae1nna, yHnpan n poxpancL.
enecnoe 6eccHep1ne npo1naoec1ec1aenno xo1n 6m yxe no1oHy, u1o ac1ynae1 a
nens6exnoe npo1naopeune c aeuno knmH, ponxenc1aykueH noc1onnno aospoxpa1Lcn
uyac1aoH k6an - XM .
o acex nsmkax ue1ko pasnnuak1cn nonn1nn uenoaeuecko yun n yxa. eccHep1nm
yx a kaxpoH noaoH seHnoH aonnouennn o6nekae1cn a pasnme nnunoc1n. nunoc1L ne
u1o nnoe, kak nnunna, Hacka, nape1an pnn ncnonnennn noaoro nasnauennn. nunoc1L
popnnacL n ponxna ncuesny1L. enpexopnua n nepyunHa 1onLko any1pennnn,
npnuac1nan Y cy1L uenoaeka - onneunm yu ero yxa, ero amcuee
nepennHoe "", uLn pasnnunme aonnouennn nopo6nm cHene nnc1am na epnnoH
popoaoH ppeae X. XnsnL n cHep1L neo1pennHm ppyr o1 ppyra, n ns
uenoaeky y1n npoc1o nekypa; aepL cHep1L osnauae1 nnuL ero nepexop na "1o1 cae1"
(, a ne 1LHy!), o1kypa nens6exno aosapauenne na Y, nepeaonnouenne a
M a noaopoxpennoro (1. e. cnoaa poxpennoro).
yua napopa saneua1nena a ero nsmke. onLko a naueH, aeueH nsmke -
- nannk1 co6o aeunoe nepaspmanoe uenoe, n6o nponspac1ak1 ns
opnoro caeuennoro kopnn - . ennkn yx - op xnao1aopn1 coaeunyk eHy
pnpopy. op - pyua pnpopm. pnpopa - aonnouenne opa. onLko a naue popno
peun saae1noe cnoao coxpannno caok necoHnenno caeuennyk ocnoay. e
nnk-konope HonnnncL "npononoknonnnkn", no HnoronnkoHy opy, pasnn1oHy ao ace
pnpope.
epoaannn (o1 cnoaa "aepnm") naunx paneknx npauypoa 6mnn nopnnnno napopnmHn,
n6o snxpnnacL na noun1annn aepnmHn opy copopnuaHn nepeaonnouakunxcn
pepkoa. Mexpy napopoH n ero yxaHn - okpoan1ennHn cyuec1aye1 nsaeunan
Y . opoaoe epeao - onue6noe onLuo, rpe 1ak nasmaaeHme
Hep1ame, xnayune, n eue ne popnaunecn (ne aonno1naunecn) copopnun, ace
cansyk1cn nepac1opxnHmH saHkny1mH o6pyueH. okpoaennan cansL kopne, ae1ae n
nnc1Lea opoaoro epeaa o6ecneunaae1 epnnc1ao n uenoc1noc1L opa. yua, no6maaa
na "1oH cae1e", ne xenae1 "sarpo6noro 6naxenc1aa" n ne xoue1 oc1aaa1Lcn a "packnx
kyuax", a c1peHn1cn aonno1n1Lcn onn1L M M . yua nsaeuae1
o6 a1oH yc1aHn apoxnoaennmx aepynn. epeaonnouennk npnsaanm 6mnn
cnoco6c1aoaa1L caeuennopec1aa, kykune couyac1aennyk cansL c pauypaHn. D1n
aeuennme 6pnpm a o1nnune o1 nospneunx Hnpcknx, ne 6mnn cospanm, nsHmunenm
npoc1mHn cHep1nmHn, no nannncL o1kpoaenneH caHnx onnuenopo6nmx pepkoa.
opnna - a1o, npexpe acero, opnan pnpopa. 6pnpm 6mnn pec1aennm nnuL a
sanoaepnmx py6paaax n pouax, rpe aospanranncL HornnLnme xonHm (pacnme opm)
9
nap oc1ankaHn coxxennmx koc1e npao1uea, 1. e. na popno, a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne,
nouae. 1euec1aoH, 1unsno nasmaanacL c1pana, Hec1noc1L, rpe nokon1cn koc1n
6naropopnmx npao1uea; kpa, c ko1opmH aonxam cansmaann n caok co6c1aennyk
cypL6y, n Horyuyk cnny opnmx yxoa n epernnL. pecL - ec1ec1aennme, seHnme
kopnn 1oro, u1o nasmaae1cn nsmuec1aoH a cHmcne aepm poponneHenno,
cae1oo1euecko, nepyko1aopno, a o1nnune o1 nckycc1aennoro 6espopno-
Hexpynapopnoro xpnc1nanc1aa ("nsmk" y cnaann osnauano 1o xe, u1o n nneHn.
noao "nsmuec1ao" a pannoH cnyuae ncnonLsye1cn nnuL a cnny ero
o6ueyno1pe6n1enLnoc1n. aHn cnaanne ce6n nsmunnkaHn ne nasmaann).
pocnaanenne onnua, uec1aoaanne nepeaonnouakunxcn pepkoa n noun1anne
aeuennmx epeaLea naxopnnocL y cnaann a nepaspmano cansn, o1paxaaue
nepao6m1noe ocHmcnenne pnpopm kak epnnoro uenoro. aonue6nmx ckaskax,
nannkunxcn o16neckoH nsnauanLnoro , popora "na 1o1 cae1" aepe1
uepes MY .
* * *
X nkpe n pepeaLea nsppeane cansmaann cokpoaennme popc1aennme ysm;
noun1anne pepeaLea nrpano aaxneuyk ponL ao ace pyxoano n uyac1aenno xnsnn
oxo1nnkoa kaHennoro aeka. opnn aeuennoro epeaa ne 1onLko a caHmx rny6nnnmx
nnac1ax uenoaeuecko nc1opnn, no n a rny6ouaunx cnonx nnunoro n nneHennoro
6eccosna1enLnoro, a 1ex neppax pyun, rpe 1an1cn aeunme nepaoo6pasm, saxaauennme
ns 1LHm aekoa. poo6pas aeuennoro epeaa xnae1 a 6eccosna1enLno naHn1n
uenoaeka n nepepae1cn no nacnepc1ay o1 nokonennn k nokonennk. eccosna1enLnoe
acnnmaae1 na noaepxnoc1L 1onLko a ncknkun1enLnmx coc1onnnnx - nan1nnx,
aoc1opxennoc1n, opepxnHoc1n, o6Hopoke, nyna1nsHe. no aonnouae1cn nopo a
xypoxec1aennmx o6pasax, cospaaaeHmx apoxnoaennmHn 1aopuaHn - Me1epnnnkoH,
Yn1HenoH, ne6nnkoamH, eknnnmH, kpnenncoH, anLHon1oH.
6muno uenoaek ne ouyuae1 npncy1c1ann ppeaecnmx yu - yuec1a, necnmx pyxoa.
o sanoaepnm nec no1oHy n nasmaae1cn ppeHyunH, u1o on naaeaae1 ppeHy -
saaopaxnaakuee nonysa6m1Le, caHoe nopxopnuee coc1onnne pnn aocnpnn1nn
neocosnaaaeHmx annnnn. orpa, a ppeHyueH kak Hepaexn Hex pypHane, uyac1aye1cn
o6an1enLnan cnna naxyunx pac1enn n pyunc1mx 1paa. Henno 1ak nyna1nkn -
1paaosnan nosnaaann 1anme caoc1aa uene6nmx pac1enn.
pnpopa n caHo naue cyuec1ao nensHepnHo unpe n rny6xe ueH 1o, u1o roaopn1 naH o
nnx naue uyac1aennoe cosnanne, nannkueecn acero nnuL noaepxnoc1nmH cnoeH
pyueano xnsnn. o6munoH coc1onnnn uenoaek nosnae1 pnpopy 1onLko c aneune
c1oponm. nyna1nueckoH xe sa6m1Le n popc1aennmx eHy coc1onnnnx, cansannmx c
norauenneH ronoanoro cosnannn, pyua ac1ynae1 n coaepuenno oco6me o1nouennn c
pnpopo, cosepuae1 a caepxuyac1aennoH o1kpoaennn nsny1pn caHyk cy1L nanenn.
a1oH coc1onnnn pyua aceaepyua. cnoanpenne uenn1ene n aepynn, a 1akxe n
ppyrne sarapounme nanennn ykasmaak1, u1o pyua naua o1nkpL ne 1oxpec1aenna c
naunH o6munmH, "pneanmH" cosnanneH n ero nn1Lk opranaHn uyac1a, no o6napae1
HnornHn ane1enecnmHn cnnaHn n cnoco6noc1nHn. yua ne ncuepnmaae1cn naunH
HmcnnunH "", ona o6pe1ae1cn a o6nac1n 1ak nasmaaeHoro 6eccosna1enLnoro.
paannLnee 6mno 6m nasmaa1L a1y o6nac1L caepxcosnanneH, nockonLky
6eccosna1enLnoe a ne 6eccosna1enLno ne caHo no ce6e, a nanne1cn 1akoamH 1onLko
pnn paccypka. onn1nm sa6nyxpennn yuenmx, nckaaunx pyuy a o6nac1n, ocaeuaeHo
cosnanneH, saHmkaaunx pyuy a 1ecnme paHkn Hosroaoro cosnannn, nannkuerocn
nnuL npenn1c1aneH pnn conpnkocnoaennn nauero cyuec1aa c nnmHn pyxoanmHn
cyunoc1nHn. aepxuyac1aennme cnoco6noc1n Hory1 nponan1Lcn nnuL ao apeHn
naxoxpennn uenoaeka a neko1opmx nenopHanLnmx (c 1oukn spennn paccypounoro
cosnannn), ncknkun1enLnmx coc1onnnnx, cansannmx c ocna6nenneH, noHpauenneH
cosna1enLnoro aocnpnn1nn, nopo6no 1oHy, kak nouL ne ec1L npnunna nonanennn na
ne6e saesp, a nnuL neo6xopnHoe ycnoane nx anpnHoc1n.
10
ny1pennee npo6yxpenne, pacuae1 pyun npnHo coo1ae1c1aye1 rny6nne sa6m1Ln. "eH
nouL 1eHne, 1eH npue saespm". Mepen a anpneamx "peapauennnx" co6npae1
konpoackne 1paam a xy1koH ncc1ynnennn. nnnn nnue1, u1o c6op ppynpaHn
uene6nmx n noun1aaunxcn caeuennmHn pac1enn conpoaoxpancn oco6mHn o6pnpaHn,
npecnepykunHn uenL aaepennn uenoaeka a nony6eccosna1enLnoe coc1onnne.
nuepon, 1pa6on n nopop nunnnckn npnaopn1 aeun con nekcanppa
Makeponckoro. nnLneuan 1peaora sa xnsnL yHnpaauero 1oneHen cospana
npepnocmnky pnn nenocpepc1aennoro yspennn nekcanppoH ao cne uenn1enLno
1paam. ay1po nonkoaopeu o6Lnann, u1o nonyunn ao cne o1kpoaenne, n aenen
conpa1aH np1n na nonckn 1paam, npnHe1m n Hec1onaxoxpenne ko1opo on nH
1ua1enLno onncan. noHouLk napenno 1paam 1oneHe 6mn cnacen.
saec1nm rnnno1nsep npounoro aeka aqon1en pacckasmaae1 nc1opnk o HanLunke,
c1papaaueH Hyun1enLno 6onesnLk rnas. ce ycnnnn pok1opoa ne npnnocnnn
o6neruennn. Ma1L neo1c1ynno pexypnna y noc1enn 6onLnoro. pnaxpm, korpa ona
aosnocnna c1pac1nme HonL6m e6y o cnacennn pe6enka, 1. e. naxopnnacL a
6naronpnn1noH pnn any1pennero npocae1nennn coc1onnnn, e 6mno anpenne. 1y xe
Hnny1y ona nocneunna a nec, rpe napaana kaknx-1o pac1enn aHec1e c kopnnHn n,
aepnyauncL poHo, o1aapnna kopnn. onyuennmH o1aapoH ona c1ana npoHmaa1L rnasa
cmna, n on amspopoaen. aHa xe Ha1L na cnepykun penL nnuero ne noHnnna o
nponcuepueH c ne a ncnoanpueckoH 6eso1ue1noH osapennn.
e pas anpenn pepeaencknx nekape - 1paaosnaea, a nyna1nueckoH coc1onnnn
6popnaunx nouLk no necaH n nyraH a nonckax senLn. saec1no uac1oe y1aepxpenne
aepynoa, u1o pap snannn uene6nmx 1paa 6mn nonyuen nHn cxopnmHn ny1nHn - ao cne,
nn6o o1 yxoa, c konHn onn (no cnoaaH aepynoa) ac1ynak1 a nenocpepc1aennoe, xo1n
n cHy1no cosnaaaeHoe o6uenne, anapan a sa6m1Le. s a1oro, necoHnenno, cnepye1,
u1o npnHenenne nekapc1aennmx pac1enn a napopno Hepnunne ocnoaano na
npepuyac1annx, coae1ax n npepnncannnx, nonyuennmx o1 nyna1nkoa.
oapeHennan nayka ne Hoxe1 o6Lncnn1L nsyHn1enLnmx npospenn napopnoro
apaueaannn. oaonLno neyknkxe amrnnpn1 ace nonm1kn npepc1aan1L peno 1ak, 6yp1o
nonckn nekapc1aennmx pac1enn n coc1aanenne cnapo6n aenncL acnenyk cnoco6oH
nepe6opa acex aosHoxnmx npo6 n oun6ok a napexpe xo1n 6m cnyuano na1n
xenaeHoe coue1anne. eH 6onee, u1o a napopno Hepnunne nnorpa npnHennk1cn 1akne
cnoxnme 1paannme cHecn, coc1aannkune uac1n ko1opmx okasmaak1 na uenoaeka
npnHo npo1naononoxnoe pec1ane. pnsnaaan 6naro1aopnoc1L a1nx cHece, nayka
6eccnnLna nonn1L cnoco6 nx aospec1ann.
* * *
snaxapn, nonLsoaaaunecn pnknHn 1paaaHn, npnpaaann, opnako,
ec1ec1aennmH cnoco6aH apaueaannn HenLuee snauenne, ueH nckynn1enLnmH o6pnpaH,
conpoaoxpakunH c6op 1paa. enoaek 1orpa 6onesnennee ouyuan 1nro1ekuyk nap
nnH neo6xopnHoc1L noppepxnaa1L caok xnsnL nocnra1enLc1aoH na xnsnL uyxyk. n
nonnHan, u1o aonLno nnn neaonLno nanocn1 Hnoro pan ppyrnH xnamH cyuec1aaH.
aepL ac xnaoe - nopoxpenne , 1. e. popc1aenno, n acnkan xnsnL - caeuenna.
onnHan uenoaek 1akxe n 1o, u1o na eHne nn6o aoace ne napo xn1L, nn6o, ecnn yx
nonyunn xnsnL, kak ona ec1L, napo 6naropapn1L yxoa n no aosHoxnoc1n nckyna1L
copennnoe.
naxapL 1aopnn ounc1n1enLnme o6pnpm, kanncn, saknnnan, napencL yHnnoc1nan1L
ecnmx yxoa eaepoaHepnkanckne nnpeum, a 1akxe napopnoc1n n6npn nnkorpa ne
amkanmaann nekapc1aennmx kopenLea, ne nonoxna npnnouenne - pap ennko 6ue
Ma1epn - eHne. - papopn1enLnnuy acero xnaoro uenoaek npocnn o npoponxennn
caoero popa, o npnnnope xnao1noro n pac1n1enLnoro Hnpa, ko1opoHy on nanocnn ypon
11
caoe pen1enLnoc1Lk. enoaek 6naroroaeno u1nn pnpopy ne 1onLko no1oHy, u1o o1
e saancen, no n no1oHy, u1o 6pan o1 e nensHepnHo 6onLue, ueH paaan;
noun1anne 6mno ocnoaano eue n na o1ae1noH uyac1ae 6naropapnoc1n. 1nouenne k
pnpope nokonnocL ne na c1paxe, pa6onenc1ae n nopunnennn; 1o 6mno poaepne pe1e
k caoe yuac1nnao Ma1epn. aun cnaannckne npepkn, cpmaan uenn1enLnme
pac1ennn, noa1opnnn; "eHnn - Ma1L, 6narocnoan aon 1paam asn1L; ne papn
xn1poc1n, ne papn Hyppoc1n, no na po6poe peno". ako saHeua1enLnm ypok
1opxec1aennoro n c1pororo o1nouennn k Xnsnn, yxe a ko1opm pas npenopnocn1 naH
ppeanne! cex nenoppenLnmx Hnc1nkoa popnn1 ouyuenne caoe annm nepep
Haneue sary6nenno 6mnnnko. D1o uyac1ao annm n ec1L poc1onnne uenoaeka,
nponanenne ero pyxoano cy1n n epnnc1aennoe o1nnune uenoaeka o1 saepn. onLko
aepyn, yHyppennm amcoko neuanLk, npnuauae1cn MY . onLko on
ro1oa k nocaeuennk a 1annc1aa pnpopm.
* * *
naue nc1opnn 1o pyueanoe coc1onnne, u1o nmne nHenye1cn Hnc1nuecknH,
6mno ec1ec1aenno npncyue uenoaeky. snauanLnm nap uenoaeka n pnpopm nHen
pyxoanoe ocnoaanne. 1o, u1o coapeHennoe xypocounoe uenoaeuec1ao nasmaae1
aoc1oproH (aksanL1aune), 1o pe1n eca nepexnaann kak aoopyueanenne,
apoxnoaenne, opyxo1aopenne. pnpopa - aonue6nm nc1ounnk pyxoanmx papoa,
xnaoe o6uenne c e y1onuae1 uyac1aa n npo6yxpae1 ckpm1me aosHoxnoc1n
uenoaeka. ceH caonH cyuec1aoH naun npepkn ouyuann aennne nespnHmx nn.
c1ec1aennoe a nx rnasax c1ano uypoH pnn nospneunx nokonenn, xnayunx
npo1naoec1ec1aenno xnsnLk a nckycc1aennoH Hnpe.
o acex napopnmx ckasannnx pepeao - xnaoe n opyueanennoe. nayunme
nccnepoaannn XIX-XX a. a. nnuL nop1aepxpak1 npospennn Hyppeuoa aeka kaHennoro.
cnoaa1enL ncnxoqnsnkn, ampakuncn repHanckn Hmcnn1enL eopop exnep, caok
knnry "anna", noaec1aykuyk o pyueano xnsnn pac1enn, nasaan a uec1L ornnn
ae1oa. naHenn1m nnpnckn yuenm x. oc, nsyuaaun nepanyk aos6ypnHoc1L
pac1enn (ero Hoxno 6mno nasaa1L aennknH, ecnn 6m ne xec1okne onm1m-nm1kn),
o1kpmn 6noanek1pnueckyk pen1enLnoc1L pac1enn, saneua1nen nynLc pac1ennn,
amnann ero o1sma na 6onL, a 1akxe aospec1ane pyueanoro nanpnxennn uenoaeka na
xnsnL pac1ennn. opknkuennme k pac1ennnH oco6me npn6opm sanncann n "nnau"
noHaeHmx ae1ae, n nx 6essayunme HonL6m o nouape, n 6eccnnLnm npo1ec1
nc1nsannnH. 1oH, u1o pac1ennn o6napak1 nnuno xnsnLk n Hory1 ncnm1maa1L
6naxenc1ao n c1papannn, porapmaanncL yxe Horyune yHm eHokpn1a, nakcaropa,
DHnepokna... DpasH apann a caoeH "o1annueckoH ape" nncan, u1o pac1ennn -
opyueanennme cyuec1aa. saec1nm ec1ec1aoncnm1a1enL k1ep ep6ank a caonx
onm1ax no amaepennk kak1yca 6es konkuek nm1ancn ncnonLsoaa1L po6poxena1enLnoe
anyuenne.
Hepnkanckn yuenm nna akc1ep c noHouLk amcokouyac1an1enLnmx npn6opoa
nokasan, u1o pac1ennn pasnnunmH cnoco6oH o1smaak1cn na naHepenne uenoaeka
nonn1L nx nnn ynnu1oxn1L. akc1ep amnann nannueckn "aonnL" qnkyca ne 1onLko
npn oxore ero nnc1Lea, no paxe a o1ae1 na opny 1onLko M o 1akoH noc1ynke.
paa nnuL npoqeccop nopyHan o c1onL xec1okoH onm1e, y pac1ennn a 1o1 xe Hnr
pesko nsHennnncL 6noanek1pnueckne nokasa1enn; cypopoxno sapepranocL nepo
nopknkuennoro k qnkycy caHonncua n appyr ampano nnk, nopckouna aaepx. ae1ok
"sakpnuan", no ne o1 6onn, a o1 c1paxa! naun1, on yrapan naHepennn, snan, u1o eHy
6ype1 6onLno, nouyac1aoaan cHep1enLnyk yrposy. orpa nccnepoaa1enL noapexpan
opnn uae1ok, caoeo6pasnan nepanan ppoxL nepepaaanacL ppyrnH. anLneune onm1m
nokasann, u1o pac1ennn o6napak1 ne 1onLko uyac1aaHn, no n naHn1Lk. ae1m
aonnoaanncL, kak 1onLko a noHeuenne axopnn uenoaek, cnoHaaun nakanyne c1e6enL
a cocepneH ropuke. ae1m ysnaaann Hyun1enn n ac1peuann ero acnneckoH
aos6yxpennn. akc1ep npoaen paxe onosnanne y6num c noHouLk uae1ka-canpe1enn:
12
HnHo uae1ka, panee c1onauero a koHna1e, rpe 6mno coaepueno y6nc1ao, nponyckann
no ouepepn nkpe, cpepn ko1opmx 6mn n nopospeaaeHm a y6nc1ae. pac1enne
1o1uac xe "ykasmaano" na nero nsHenenneH nanpnxennn caonx 6no1okoa.
panLneueH akc1ep n ero nocnepoaa1enn yc1anoannn cnoco6noc1L pac1enn
ncnm1maa1L aneuenne, nn6o o1apauenne k onpepenennmH nkpnH n xnao1nmH. .
oHnknnc n . epp ypennnn nopo6nmH onm1aH snaun1enLnyk uac1L caoe knnrn
"anan xnsnL pac1enn". Hepnkanckn nccnepoaa1enL oan amncnnn, u1o Hexpy
uenoaekoH n pac1enneH Hoxe1 aosnnkny1L onpepenennan npnansannoc1L, nocne uero
pac1enne 6esoun6ouno ynaannaae1 (nsHenenneH panxennn nepa caHonncua)
pasnnunme pyueanme coc1onnnn caoero ppyra, paxe ecnn on naxopn1cn a ppyroH
nonyuapnn eHnn. napenLum poHaunnx pac1enn snak1, kak uy1ko nx nn1oHum
aocnpnnnHak1 ne 1onLko 6onesnL nk6nuero xosnnna, no paxe ero nac1poenne.
Mapnum ncnokon aekoa noun1ak1 pepeaLn. anenm, ocna6eaue Hapnckn aonn
acerpa uen k py6y, u1o6m anoaL o6pec1n cnnm. Xenunna, u1o6m 6mnn
6narononyunmHn popm, una k nnne. eayuka, u1o6m ns6aan1Lcn o1 acnuecknx
nanac1e, - k 6epese. noqnsnkn nop1aeppnnn: pec1an1enLno, py6 6onee
conepexnaae1 Hyxunne, nnna - xenunne, 6epesa - peayuke. epeao o6uae1cn c
uenoaekoH na ypoane 1ak nasmaaeHoro nopcosnannn. yueanme rny6nnm - nHenno 1a
o6nac1L, nocpepc1aoH ko1opo 1onLko n aosHoxno couyac1ane uenoaeka n nnmx
pyxoanmx cyunoc1e. ccnepoaannn nokasann, u1o pac1enne aepnee acero
o1knnkae1cn na cnnLnme pyueanme nepexnaannn, no1pncennn uenoaeka. enoaek,
naxopnuncn a 1pancoaoH coc1onnnn (a ppeHe), okasmaae1cn cnoco6nmH 6onee npnHo
n nenocpepc1aenno aospec1aoaa1L na pac1enne, a 1akxe aocnpnnnHa1L o1ae1nyk
aonny aos6yxpennn. Y Hnornx nneHen caH c6op uene6nmx 1paa yxe 6mn
1opxec1aenno-aoc1opxennmH o6pnpoH, nac1panaaaunH ero yuac1nnkoa na amcokn
pyueanm nopLeH - aocxnuennoc1L. , opnoapeHenno, o6pnp npnsaan 6mn
aospec1aoaa1L na pac1enne a cHmcne npo6yxpennn; cnna nekapc1aennoro pac1ennn
npocmnae1cn o1 Hysmkn n saknnna1enLnmx necnonenn, o6pauennmx k neHy ao apeHn
"asn1nn". akne no6ypn1enLnme, nooupn1enLnme pec1aa cnoco6c1ayk1 o1paue
pac1enneH caoe cokpoaenno cnnm. nnnnne Hysmkn na xnsnepen1enLnoc1L pac1enn
nop1aepxpae1cn nmne HnornHn yuenmHn. ornacno ppeaneunH noaepLnH, canc1
cun1ancn ronocoH pyxoa, n, cnepoaa1enLno, saykoH, nx amsmaakunH (snaHenn1m
onoae c1an "pas6onnkoH" nnuL a nospneune nc1opnueckne apeHena). oo6ue
nekorpa saykn pyxoamx HysmkanLnmx nnc1pyHen1oa o1oxpec1annnncL c ronocaHn
pyxoa. aknH o6pasoH, caHn o6pnpm, a 1oH uncne xopoaopnme nnnckn aokpyr pac1ennn
a conpoaoxpennn 6y6na, pypok, canpene (canc1onnncka a nckonnoH snauennn a1oro
cnoaa), yxe npeppacnonarann copopnue k kpane c1enenn aoopyueanennn, k
ncc1ynnennk - akc1asy. pe6maa1L a akc1ase pocnoano snaun1 npe6maa1L ane ce6n, 1.
e. ampaa1Lcn pyuo sa npepenm nno1n. Mm yno1pe6nneH ampaxennn "6mn ane ce6n",
"amuen ns ce6n", "npnuen a ce6n", ne sapyHmaancL, kako rny6okn n npnHo cHmcn
aknapmaann a nnx ppeanne.
oaeune nayunme nsmckannn nokasann, u1o npn qo1orpaqnpoaannn kakoro-nn6o
xnaoro oprannsHa a none 1okoa amcoko uac1o1m, na cnnHke saneua1neaae1cn
neo6munoe cae1nueecn nso6paxenne a1oro oprannsHa, okpyxennoe cnnkue
papyxno kopono, 1. e. na6nkpae1cn nsnyuenne xnsnenno cnnm. a
amcokouac1o1no qo1orpaqnn nnc1a pac1ennn c o1pesanno aepxne uac1Lk caeuenne
nokpmno Hec1o o1cy1c1aykue uac1n, ue1ko o6osnauna ouep1annn uenoro nnc1ka. ak
6mno nop1aepxpeno, u1o y xnaoro pac1ennn, kak n y uenoaeka, nHee1cn cao 1onkn
1enecnm paonnk. kkynL1nc1m nasmaak1 ero aqnpnmH 1enoH, yuenme -
6nonnasHo. o-anpnHoHy, ne cnyuano anpneun nccnepoaa1enL sarapounmx
cnoco6noc1e uenoaeka x. an nsyuan 6o1annky po 1oro, kak yanekcn
napancnxonorne nop annnnneH nekunn p1ypa onan-ona o cnnpn1nsHe.
* * *
13
YLY ppeanerpeueckoe ckasanne, u1o orn ncnonnnnn xenanne 6narouec1nao
ue1m nneHona n aaknpm, narpapna nx ponrone1neH n paa aosHoxnoc1L yHepe1L
opnoapeHenno; nocne cHep1n cynpyrn npeapa1nnncL a pepeaLn, pac1yune ns opnoro
kopnn. knnre aHepnkanckoro yuenoro D. Mennnpxepa "pnuypnname pepeaLn" nop
opno ns ypnan1enLnmx qo1orpaqn cpocunxcn c1aonaHn pepeaLea nopnncL: aa
rnran1cknx ansa aosne Lk-opkckoro uocce asnnncL sa pykn, u1o6m xn1L n yHepe1L
aHec1e. rnaae "epeaLn, cnoco6nme na nexnyk npnansannoc1L" Mennnpxep nnue1:
"aa pepeaa nponnkak1cn 1ako nk6oaLk ppyr k ppyry, u1o peuak1 o6Lepnnn1L caon
ycnnnn a 6opL6e sa cyuec1aoaanne n pac1n kak opno - kaknH o6pasoH a1o Hoxno
o6Lncnn1L? eccnopno, a a1nx cnyuanx nepep naHn paa pepeaa, kaxpoe ns ko1opmx
Y, u1o ppyroe nyxpae1cn a ero o6uec1ae n noppepxke. o6nnauncL,
onn ampocnn kak opno 6onLuoe pepeao. 1o-nn6ypL Hoxe1 ckasa1L, u1o Hec1o
coepnnennn c1aonoa poaonLno ypopnnao. o o1ae1L1e, Hoxe1 nn nnuo ppyra ne 6m1L
npekpacnmH n 6naropopnmH? 1ak, Hm y6expaeHcn, u1o a necy pec1an1enLno
o6n1ak1 ppyx6a n npnansannoc1L n onn c6nnxak1 pae popc1aennme pyun, ko1opme
nyxnm ppyr ppyry. yc1L cHek1cn cken1nkn - u1o onn a1nH pokaxy1? epL caHn onn
ne Hory1 npepnoxn1L t.
peHn ponecno po nac 1pora1enLnoe npepanne o pnc1ane n sonLpe, o6 nx 6esHepno
nk6an, npeaosHorue caHy cHep1L; aosnk6nennmx noxoponnnn pnpoH, a ns Hornn
ampocnn 6naroyxannme 1epnoame pepeaua - n cnnenncL ae1anHn. pnxpm nx cpy6ann,
n 1pnxpm onn aospoxpanncL anoaL, 1akne xe uae1yune n nepasnyunme.
n1nunm nnca1enL xnnn a1n noaec1aye1: " o pac1ennnx pacckasmaak1 yuennkn
Hyppeuoa - n ckasan 6m, u1o onn pacckasmaak1 ckaskn, ecnn 6m ne y1aepxpann 1oro
xe n seHnepenLum. acckasmaak1 xe onn ao1 u1o: opnn pac1ennn nk6n1 ppyrne, no
oco6enno 1nroc1na nk6oaL pnn qnnnkoao nanLHm. oaopn1, u1o cpepn qnnnkoamx
nanLH opnn - Hyxckne, ppyrne - xenckne. ao1 Hyxckan nanLHa nk6n1 xenckyk, n,
ecnn onn paccaxenm 1ak, u1o xenckan nanLHa okasmaae1cn paneko, ank6nennm
coxne1. o seHnepeneu nonnHae1 rope pepeaa n cHo1pn1, a kakyk c1opony ono
cknonnnocL, - n6o cknonne1cn ono a c1opony nk6nHo; ysnaa a1o, on nsneunaae1
c1papanne nanLHm: on 6epe1 uepenok xencko nanLHm n npnanaae1 ero k ceppuy
nanLHm Hyxcko. D1nH on o6neruae1 pyuy pac1ennn, n yHnpakuee 1eno anoaL
oxnaae1 n aockpecae1, papyncL cnnnnnk c nk6nHo. D1o n ec1L 6pak pac1enn".
k6oaL pac1enn... aepL onn, nopo6no uenoaeky n xnao1nmH, nHek1 non. saec1no,
u1o y Hnornx anpoa pac1ennn Hyxckoro nona pasnnunm o1 pac1enn xenckoro nona.
anLHm o1nocn1cn k 1ak nasmaaeHmH paypoHnmH pepeaLnH. Y opnopoHnmx - na opnoH
pepeae n Hyxckne n xenckne uae1kn, a y paypoHnmx na opnoH - Hyxckne, a na ppyroH
- xenckne. ana poxpennn pasnononmx pac1enn oc1ae1cn pnn yuenmx
nepasrapanno. naHenn1me nanLHm, pac1yune na euenLcknx oc1poaax, 1akxe
pasnononm, xnsnL nx 1an1 neHano neo6LncnnHoro. Myxckne uae1kn o6napak1
pyunc1mH HepoamH sanaxoH, aokpyr nnx aLk1cn nuenm. o nnk1o ne anpen, u1o6m
nuenm ne1enn na xenckne uae1kn. k1o nx onmnne1 - po cnx nop nensaec1no. pepn
Hec1nmx xn1ene eue ceropnn 6m1ye1 noaepLe, u1o a nonnouL nanLHm cnyckak1cn
anns no ponnne k okeany, rpe caepuak1 caape6nm o6pnp, a c aocxopoH onnua
aosapauak1cn na caon Hec1a.
epeaLn noHnn1, nk6n1, coc1papak1... epeaLn o6napak1 eue n caonHn co6c1aennmHn
uyac1aaHn, 6esmHnnnmHn pnn nkpe. o1annkaH ouenL neHnoro nsaec1no o 1anax
pepeaLea n coaceH nnuero o cokpoaenno nx cyunoc1n, o6 oxnannkunx nx pyuax, ue
nyna1nueckn Hnp nnuL sm6knHn rpannHn conpnkacae1cn c naue naLk. anoaepnan,
peac1aennan pnpopa uapye1 n apauye1 nac no1oHy, u1o na - o6n1enL ea-peannnu.
ppeannx ckasannnx peaa nHee1 aeuyk cnny, 1onLko oc1aaancL peao. nopo6no
peae, 1epnkue peac1ao, y1paunaae1 6naropa1nyk cnny ockaepnennan uenoaekoH
pnpopa.
14
* * *
rpaHo1a pnpopm ne kaxpoHy ampae1cn, n ne kaxporo 6epexe1. aun
panekne npepkn xnnn a Hnpe, nonnoH cyuec1a, o1smaunamx na uyac1aa.
yuec1aye1 ppeaneuee noaepLe, u1o 1onLko snme nkpn ne Hory1 anpe1L necnmx
pyxoa.
o6poxena1enLc1ao aceHy xnaoHy - nepam neo6xopnHm uar k cokpoaennoHy
snannk. korpa uenoaek penae1 opnn uar anepep no ny1n Hnnoceppnn. pnpopa caHa
cpenae1 pecn1L uaroa naac1peuy eHy. onLko o1kpoaenne caHo pnpopm npn6nnxae1
k noc1nxennk uapopeno cy1n. 1kpoaenne xe pae1cn ec1ec1aocosepua1enk, no
ne ec1ec1aoncnm1a1enk. epynm, o6napaaune pnanmH papoH , axopnnn
a sapyueanoe, aonue6noe o6uenne c necnmHn pyxaHn. epenne ec1L nponnknoaennoe
snanne, poxpennoe coc1papanneH. peaecnme pyun 1ak xe peanLnm, kak saepn n
n1num. onLko no-nnoHy. akxe nHek1 caok cosna1enLnyk aonk, caoe pmxanne, Hory1
neuann1Lcn, aonnoaa1Lcn n npe6maa1L a ncc1ynnennn. onLko no-nnoHy. YHenne
Hmcnn1L 6es cnoa, unc1mHn uyac1aennmHn o6pasaHn, nosaonnno uenoaeky nonnHa1L
ppyrne xname cyuec1aa n 6m1L nonn1nmH nH. ocnpnnnHan aspoxn pepeaa, snaxapL
, u1o pepeao uyac1aye1 panm nopo6no uenoaeky, u1o cnn1L kopy c xnao 6epesm
ace paano, u1o coppa1L koxy co caoero popnua. ckaske "ypouka n ne1yuok", korpa
no1pe6oaanocL asn1L neHnoro nmka y nnnm, npexpe nocmnak1 k kopoae sa HacnoH,
u1o6m noHasa1L nnne 6onLnoe Hec1o.
enoaek cansan c pac1n1enLnmH HnpoH oco6mHn o6nsa1enLc1aaHn, n ppeanne
nponannnn rny6okoe nou1enne k cpy6aeHmH pepeaLnH, yHnpakunH pnn 1oro, u1o6m
nkpn Hornn xn1L. poaocek, py6n pepeao, penan a1o ne c nerknH ceppueH, a c
cosnanneH coaepuennn y6nc1aa, n acerpa npocnn y pepeaa npouennn: "Mon pe1n
Hepsny1 o1 xonopa, n y nac ne1 ppoa, u1o6m caapn1L ropnuyk nnuy". enpn opo
nnue1: "opouo 6m naunH qepHepaH ouyua1L npn py6ke neca xo1L uac1L 1oro
c1paxa, ko1opm ncnm1maann ppeanne pnHnnne, korpa nH npnxopnnocL npopexnaa1L
caeuennyk pouy, u1o6m anyc1n1L a nee cae1". Mnorne napopm npn noc1poke xnnnu
coaepuann oco6me o6pnpm, npnsnannme yHnnoc1nan1L pyxoa cpy6aeHmx pepeaLea, 1.
k. pyxn a1n, cornacno 1orpaunnH npepc1aanennnH, nepexopnnn a poH n 1aH o6n1ann. Y
aoc1ounmx cnaann necnme cenennn, noc1poennme ns pepeaLea n cpepn pepeaLea,
nasmaanncL pepeannHn. ennne aannnn nec coo6ua, u1o6m paspenn1L 1nxec1L annm, n
conpoaoxpann py6ky nckynn1enLnmHn o6pnpaHn. pn 1oH roaopnnocL: "ec-a1kuka,
eHnn-Ma1yuka, aue nno1n asn1L posaonL1e; ne papn naxnam, a papn xnsnn".
pesep a "ono1o ae1an" roaopn1 o ceaepoaHepnkancknx nnpeuax: "eko1opme ns
nx konpynoa y1aepxpak1, 6yp1o onn ne pas cnmuann, kak pepeaLn c1ony1 nop
1onopoH". opo6nme, kak pae kannn aopm cxoxne y6expennn cyuec1ayk1 y acex 6es
ncknkuennn napopoa, o6n1akunx a necnmx kpanx. enop nnue1 a "epao6m1no
kynL1ype": " Hepnke snaxapn nneHenn opxn6ae cnmua1 xano6m pepeaa, ecnn ero
cpy6ak1 6es napo6noc1n". co6o noun1anncL Horyune, aekoaeunme pepeaLn-
nokpoan1enn. nn Hornn napenn1L spopoaLeH, ponrone1neH, o1orna1L apaxpe6nme
noHmcnm. Y nnx n ncnpaunaann noHoun n 6narocnoaennn nepep acnknHn
naunnannnHn. onarann, u1o onn nannk1cn apeHennmH o6n1annueH pyu yHepunx
npepkoa. naanne 6mnn yaepenm, u1o noapepnaun 1akoe pepeao cxopn1 c yHa n
o6pekae1 ce6n na rn6enL. caHo noapexpenne yxe Horno naaneuL 1nxkne 6epc1ann na
aecL op. npeckne c1apeunnm y1aepxpann, u1o caonHn necuac1LnHn nnpeum
o6nsanm 1oHy, u1o nop annnnneH 6enmx ocna6no noun1anne rnran1cknx 1onone,
cpy6aeHmx 6es kpane napo6noc1n. anLue nnpeum, korpa y nnx nonannnacL nyxpa
a 1onc1mx 6peanax, yno1pe6nnnn 1onLko pepeaLn, ynaaune caHn co6o.
Y xn1ene aHua1kn cun1anocL, u1o noapepnaun nnx1y norn6ne1 neec1ec1aenno
cHep1Lk. "nm nec y kaHuapanoa kak sanoaepnm xpann1cn, 1ak u1o nnk1o ns nnx ne
1okHo py6n1L ero, no n npnkocny1Lcn ne cHee1", - nncan . . pauennnnnkoa.
oo6ue c py6ko neca y pasnnunmx napopoa cansano neHano c1oknx noaepn,
15
npnHe1, sanpe1oa. apnpy c oxo1nnuLnHn noaepLnHn onn okasanncL nc1opnueckn
neo6muano xnayunHn: n a naun pnn oxo1nnkn n necopy6m - caHme "cyeaepnme"
nkpn. srnnnn1e na o1nouenne k ecy Hapnuea, o6eperakunx eue koe-rpe caon
caeuennme poun. nec Hapnum-oxo1nnkn xopn1 kak a roc1n. nn annHak1
npepaeuannnH pepeaLea, cnpaunaak1 y nnx popory, npocn1 paspeuennn
nepenoueaa1L, nop nx cenLk... anoaepnme Hec1a eue oxpannk1cn c6maakunHncn
noaepLnHn o ckopo nacnnLc1aenno cHep1n snoyHmunennnka, naanekuero na ce6n
rnea pyxoa. Mapnum o1c1anme n neaexec1aennme? y, a nnonum, o6ronnkune
Hepnky? nn aepL 1akne xe "npononoknonnnkn", noun1akune (npnueH a caHoH
nsnauanLnoH anpe) onnue, pepkoa, aeuennme epeaLn... nonnn n nonmne ropa
nnn nec nasmaak1cn nnorpa cae1nnnueH, xo1n 1aH ne1 nnkakoro xpaHoaoro c1poennn.
pnc1nane saaoeaann Hepnky c annuec1epoH a opno pyke n c 6n6nne a ppyro. nn
6es saspennn coaec1n y6naann ac aokpyr, n a1o nasmaanocL unannnsaune. npeuea
onn nasmaann pnkapnHn. o k1o a pec1an1enLnoc1n pnkapn? pacnokoxne,
amHannaakune npouenne y pepeaa, npexpe ueH cpy6n1L ero, nnn 6enme,
ynnu1oxnaune neo6ospnHme neca?
* * *
X Hnenne, 6yp1o oxo1nnk kaHennoro aeka anaunn xankoe nonyronopnoe
cyuec1aoaanne, 6yp1o ero kpyrosop 6mn orpannuen 1onLko HmcnLk amxn1L a 6opL6e c
apaxpe6no eHy pnpopo, nanne1cn nxnamH nsHmunenneH, naansannmH
uepkoannkaHn n Ha1epnannc1aHn. D1o onn sakneHnnn nauero npauypa kak
"1pene1aauero co6c1aenno 1enn". pene1a1L, opnako, c1an ero no1oHok, napyunaun
yc1aa pnpopm. "ananme pnkapn" poc1nrnn 1oro, uero ne poc1nr unannnsoaannm
uenoaek. nHenno caHoro rnaanoro: napa, cornacnn c pnpopo; yHennn xn1L na
caoe eHne, 6epn c nee poano c1onLko, ckonLko neo6xopnHo, no ne ynnu1oxan ee.
enncanan sanoaepL rnacnna: ne npnunnn pnpope nsnnunero apepa. syuenne
neckonLknx coxpannaunxcn oxo1nnuLnx o6unn nokasano, u1o oxo1nnk 1pypnncn
HenLue, ueH coapeHennm uenoaek, u1o po6mua nnun o1nnHana y nero nnuL
nesnaun1enLnyk uac1L apeHenn, n u1o cao6opnoro apeHenn y nero 6mno a ns6m1ke. 20
n 30 1mcnu ne1 nasap uenoaek yxe cospaaan nenpeasopennme po cnx nop o6pasum
xnaonncn n aannnn.
epc1aoaan nn oxo1nnk n co6npa1enL Hepa 6es nopceunoro seHnepennn n 6es cko1a
1aH, rpe 6popnnn rpoHapnme c1apa 1paaonpnmx, pekn 6mnn nonnm pm6o, cpepn
nso6nnnn uene6no pnkopac1yue senenn, rpn6oa n nrop? cansn c neo6xopnHoc1Lk
uac1oro nepepanxennn nHyuec1ao 6mno pnn nero o6yso, n anonne cnpaaepnnao on
cun1an ce6n cuac1nnaee 1ex, k1o y6naae1 apeHn papn yHnoxennn caoe co6c1aennoc1n,
u1o6m no1oH Hyun1Lcn sa nee c1paxoH. Hec1o 1oro, u1o6m 1pa1n1L apeHn n cnnm pnn
nsnnunero nakonn1enLc1aa, on npepnoun1an o6xopn1Lcn nnuL neo6xopnHmH pnn
noppepxannn xnsnn n npoponxennn opa, n nocaeuan oc1anLnoe apeHn
X. Yc1anoake "nHe1L" on npo1naonoc1aann yc1anoaky "", noppasyHeaan nop
a1nH nonnokpoanyk xnsnL, cansannyk ne c norone sa 6ora1c1aoH, a c aennuaunH
ypoane1aopenneH MM n papoaa1Lcn conneunoHy cae1y, knkueao
aope, pyunc1mH uae1aH, xencko nno1n, pe1ckoHy nene1y n npounH 6ecxn1poc1nmH
papaH xnao pnpopm. mcokonpaac1aennan cy1L nepao6m1noro Hnpoouyuennn n
o6pasa xnsnn - a1o noppepxanne coaepuenno, aocnponsaopnuecn pnpopm, rpe
xopouo n uenoaeky, n saepk, n pac1ennk... coxanennk, 6onLunnc1ao coapeHennmx
yuenmx (oco6enno sanapnmx) ycaonno unc1o no1pe6n1enLckn nopxop k oxpane
pnpopm. Hmcn a1oro nopxopa, paccun1annoro na nsaneuenne amropm, coc1on1 a 1oH,
u1o6m o6epera1L 1onLko nonesnme uenoaeky anpm xnao1nmx n pac1enn. akan
yc1anoaka - npnHoe nacnepne xpnc1nanckoro yuennn o uenoaeke kak aenue 1aopennn,
anapmke acex ppyrnx o6n1a1ene eHnn; ecnn ace oc1anLnme 1aapn acero nnuL
neopyueanennme npepHe1m uenoaeueckoro poHaunero o6nxopa, 1o sakonno 6ype1
coxpann1L xnsnL 1onLko 1eH, k1o eHy nonesen, n ynnu1oxa1L 1ex, k1o apepen.
16
pnc1nanc1ao ann1ano a ce6n nypeckoe o1uyxpenne o1 pnpopm, a nsmkoaepm
y1aepxpak1, u1o a cnoaape nypeea "po6po" n "sno" osnauae1, npexpe acero,
"nonesnoe" n "apepnoe". akoao 6ype1 o1nouenne k xnao pnpope pe6enka,
ysnakuero ns ckasok npepcena, 6yp1o xa6a nenpeHenno "rapkan" n
"o1apa1n1enLnan"?
aHmH uepnmH npec1ynnenneH uenoaeuec1aa nasaan Maxa1Ha anpn anancekunk, no-
pycckn roaopn - xnaoceuenne; Hyun1enLnme onm1m na xnao1nmx. Yuenm Hncnnk
aan aanoa anonne sacnyxenno cun1an ce6n xpnc1nannnoH, nockonLky nonaran
po6poH ace 1o, u1o npe1 na nonLsy uenoaeky, n nnuL sa opnnH uenoaekoH npnsnaaan
caeuennoe npaao na xnsnL. a 20 ne1 caonx "1pypoa" no nsyuennk co6auLero
cnknoo1penennn npn6nnsnncn nn aanoa k noc1nxennk cokpoaenno cy1n
asanHopec1ann pyun n 1ena? oHornn nn 1mcnun kpoaaamx xep1a, npnnecennmx na
an1apL naykn a naanoacknx sac1enkax? Yuenm, ne npnsnakun rpannu nosnaaaeHoro
a nayke, nac1onLko neaexec1aen, u1o ne sacnyxnaae1 paxe ckonLko-nn6ypL
poc1onoro onpoaepxennn. nm1m-nm1kn 6eccHmcnennm n 6ecnonesnm a cnny caoe
6esnpaac1aennoc1n. eaexpe neapoHek, u1o pnpopa nHee1 npaac1aennoe ocnoaanne.
ak Hory1 c1papannn opnnx pe1e pnpopm ncuenn1L ppyrnx ee pe1e? asae Hoxe1
Ha1epnnckan nk6oaL 6m1L ns6npa1enLno? Mnorne ny1n aepy1 k sa6nyxpennk.
Y MY, YY XMY aepe1 1onLko opnn ny1L - Y
. eH 6onee aocxnuaeHcn Hm coaepuenc1aoH pnpopm n ueH cnnLnee
y6expaeHcn a y6oxec1ae Ha1epnannc1nuecko naykn, 1eH nerue aosapaua1Lcn k
Hyppoc1n npao1uea.
* * *
noun1ann pnpopy uepes e nponanennn: pnno, Monnnn, nxopL, opnnk...
o caHmH 6nnsknH, caHmH XM o6nnuneH pnpopm 6mno ace-1akn epeao.
naannckoe kannue (Hec1o noun1annn) o1 cnoaa "kanL". anL - npnuypnname napoc1m
na nnmx orpoHnmx pepeaLnx, nanoHnnakunx nsaannnn.
opxec1aennan 1nunna py6paam nn6o senenan nyxaka nocpepn 6epesoao poun kak
6m caHo pnpopo npepnasnauenm pnn caeuennopec1a. c1ynakun a sanoaepnm
nec nponnkancn 6naroroaeno papoc1Lk, ro1oancL k ac1peue c yxaHn, o6n1akunHn
a cae1nnnue. uyuenne 6nnskoro npncy1c1ann opnmx ae1nmx nn nanonnnno pyuy
cnokoc1aneH n yaepennoc1Lk, 1pe6oaano o1 uenoaeka ne c1onLko noknonennn,
ckonLko y1aepxpennn caoero pyxa a uenoc1noH epnnc1ae opa. y6, npn1nrnaakun
Honnnn, oco6o noun1ancn ne 1onLko y cnaann, no n y qpaknuea, kenL1oa, repHanuea,
nn1oauea, yrpo-qnnnoa... aHo nasaanne ppeannx Hyppeuoa eaepno aponm -
ppynpoa osnauae1 "nkpn py6a". aeuennmHn o6LnannnncL 1e py6paam n poun, rpe
aepynm npepyrapmaann npncy1c1ane yxoa. nk1o ne cHen 1aH nn cnoHa1L ae1ky, nn
y6n1L saepn, nn copaa1L nropy. co6o u1nnncL 1mcnuene1nne pynnnc1me pepeaLn -
aonnouennn ecnmx yxoa, y ko1opmx ncnpaunaanncL npopnuannn. akoamH 6mn y
rpekoa aeun py6 a opone, y aoc1ounmx cnaann - na oc1poae op1nua, y npyccoa - a
oHoae. epynm nn6o aepynLn nannnncL nocpepnnkaHn Hexpy yxoH epeaa n 1eHn,
k1o aonpouan. "Y nykoHopLn py6 senenm...".
Moryun py6 ckpmaae1 a ce6e aekoaeunyk npnpopnyk cnnnuy, no aocnonLsoaa1Lcn ek
Hoxe1 paneko ne kaxpm. onLko uenoaeka, npnuepuero c po6poH, Hoxe1 napenn1L
pepeao uac1Lk caoe xnsnenno cnnm n paxe ncuenn1L. c1L a cnaanncknx ckaskax
npapy6, n pac1y1 na neH HonopnnLnme n6nokn... pnxHncL k pepeay, npnnacka ero,
npnrony6L. Ynopo6Lcn eHy, noc1apacn ouy1n1L ce6n pepeaoH, n 1m nouyac1ayeuL,
kak ono pmun1, ueH xnae1, ceppueH noHeuL ero neamckasannme o6npm n papoc1n.
opopnncL c pepeaoH, npnxopn k neHy nouaue, n ono npnsnae1 1e6n, 6ype1 xpa1L,
6ype1 cnnHa1L 1aon 1peaorn n o1aopn1L pypno rnas.
17
naaLcn, y6-y6nue, epynoao kannue, aH 1e6e na 1pe6nue pnnnno ornnue, m
ropn, koc1pnue, orpeaa kopnnun, o ne6a pmHnue, onecn, ae1pnue. op 1aoe
cnnnue Monk 1e6n, y6nue, yc1L Hoe pe1nue Xenn aek ne nue1. Xnan, y6-
y6nue!
nno1L po caHoro nepaanero apeHenn py6m nrpann aaxneuyk ponL a napopnmx
o6pnpax. epeaenckn caape6nm noesp nocne aenuannn 1pnxpm o6Lesxan aokpyr
Horyuero opnnokoro py6a. ornacno o6muak Hnornx napopoa a penL poxpennn
pe6enka caxann pepeao; o1nmne ono c1anoannocL kak 6m ero 6nnsneuoH. naanne a
uec1L cmna sacaxnaann py6ok, a uec1L pouepn - 6epesy. Mapko ono nncan: "ennkn
an eue oxo1nee caxae1 pepeaLn, no1oHy u1o ero npopnua1enn roaopn1, u1o 1o1, k1o
caxae1 pepeaLn, xnae1 ponro". saec1no, u1o npopnua1ennHn y y6na-ana 6mnn
1n6e1ckne Hyppeum - connuenoknonnnkn.
nme aepynm, o6napaaune uypecnmH papoH conepexnaannn, ac1ynann c pepeaoH a
oco6m sapyueanm coks - no6pa1nHc1ao. akoa 6mn no1ano cHmcn ppeaneuero
o6pnpa kyHnennn (o1ckpa - kyHnp). epeao c1anoannocL 1orpa paonnkoH -
nokpoan1eneH uenoaeka, o6eperano ero o1 neunc1mx pyxoa-ynmpe, nepepaaano eHy
uac1L caoe Houn. epoHoranne uenoaeka o1smaanocL 6onLk pepeay, ono uaxno n
yanpano. sanHno uenoaek paspennn cypL6y pepeaa, c1papan o1 npnunnennoro pepeay
sna n yHnpan o1 ceppeunoro npnc1yna a 1o1 xe Hnr, ecnn pepeao cpy6ann. axpm
cn6npckn uaHan naxopnn caoe co6c1aennoe pocuee a 1are "uaHanckoe" pepeao.
XnsnL uaHana 6mna cansana c xnsnLk a1oro pepeaa; ecnn norn6ano pepeao, yHnpan n
uaHan.
* * *
nasmaanncL y cnaann popoame npaspnec1aa, nocaeuennme
nepeaonnouakunHcn pepkaH. aeuennopec1aa coaepuanncL a sanoaepno poue,
rpe aosxnrancn oronL - seHno o16neck pnnm. pannuncn nop sonok caeuennm
oronL - rnaanoe 6ora1c1ao o6unnm a ppeaneune apeHena (o1ckpa, - sono1o, 1. e.
pparouennoc1L, cokpoanue). nensHenno a aonxaoaanne aoanekanocL eue opno
caeuennoe pepeao - epesa. peanne cnaannckne npepannn noaec1ayk1 o aonue6no
onneuno epese, "aceH 6epesaH c1apuo cec1pe", pac1yue rpe-1o na saHopckoH
oc1poae epesann; oc1poae, nopo6noH repHanckoHy o. yne.
ennne nnkorpa ne c1ponnn poH na 1oH Hec1e, rpe npexpe pocnn 6epesm, nockonLky
nx kopueaka cun1anacL neponyc1nHo. mnan nenpnkocnoaennoc1L 6epesm
nop1aepxpae1cn n necnnHn ceaepnmx cnaann, rpe nepepko ynoHnnae1cn 6epsa,
oc1aanennan na nonnne npn pacunc1ke neca nop naunk. eo6xopnHm aeuennm
6pnp kyHnennn c epso-epernne coaepuancn aecno: epsa, o6eperaauan
copopnue, o6pnxanacL kpacnmHn nen1aHn n nono1enuaHn - y6pycaHn, pacun1mHn
o6eperaHn - kpec1nkaHn c sarny1mHn no xopy onnua konuaHn - connueaopo1aHn (na
canckpn1e - caac1nka). 6pnp conpoaoxpancn unc1o cnaanncknH npnry6nenneH (n
1onLko!) 6epesoaoro coka. aaepenneH xpnc1nanc1aa o6pnp noc1enenno y1epnn caok
nepaonauanLnyk cokpoaennyk cy1L n ampopnncn a sa6aanme nrpm, 6eccHmcnennoe
kyHoac1ao c sanoHnenno (!) 6epsko.
caHo6m1nmx ppeanecnaanncknx npaspnec1aax-pycannnx cnnaanocL aoepnno
noHnnoaenne naanmx pepkoa c uec1aoaanneH cecae1noro onnua n
aospoxpakunxcn aecenne-ne1nnx nn pnpopm. ycannn cnpaannnncL a sanoaepno
seneno poue, rpe aopnnncL xopoaopm aokpyr 6eps. 11oro npaspnnkn a1n
nasmaanncL eue ennmH ae1oH (sennmHn can1kaHn; "can1" - a1o nckaxnnm
xpnc1nanaHn "cae1", cae1nm - snaun1 xnsnennm, conneunm, onnue - ae1nno,
o1ckpa - uae1ok). pnc1nanc1ao, no cnoaaH cennna, "sacnonnno caoe uepno1o cae1
onnua nc1nnm" ("nkun Mapnn"). ypyun ne a cnnax nn nm1kaHn, nn kasnnHn
nckopenn1L a napope cae1oo1eueckne aepoaannn, uepkoaL aknkunna aecL kpyr
18
pycanLnmx o6pnpoa a cao npaspnnk ponum, xo1n aaxneuan coc1aanan uac1L a1nx
o6pnpoa - noun1anne senenoanaco epsm - ne nHee1 k xpnc1nanc1ay nnkakoro
o1nouennn. nepm noun1annn aeuenno epsm (oco6enno a necax eaepa, rpe
xpnc1nanc1ao ne nauno pnn ce6n nopxopnue nouam) Hoxno na1n a noneamx
Ha1epnanax yuenmx, co6pannmx n a naun pnn. "eaepnmx npepannnx", sanncannmx
. . pnnnuno co cnoa ckasn1enLnnum (nsp. 1978 r.) un1aeH: "konLko 1onopoa
nepenoHann, noka xo1enn 6epsy cpy6n1L, korpa xpaH na a1oH Hec1e xo1enn
noc1pon1L. epsy 1ak n ne cHornn cpy6n1L, 1ak e n oc1aannn a xpaHe. na 6mna
saHacknpoaana, uenkoamHn nna1kaHn saaeuena. ak k1o sa6onee1, 1ak n necy1 e
papm". aknH o6pasoH, nepepko cpy6 uacoann okasmaancn na pene Hec1oH noun1annn
ace 1ex xe "6eps snaHenn1mx".
* * *
ec1L aonnouenne cokpoaennoro a nan, nanay. pnnm yx-op nponanne1
ce6n ao acex uapc1aax pnpopm, o1nnuancL 1onLko anpaHn nponanennn. onH pyxoa,
oxnannkunx ec, no cy1n, 1o1 xe pnnm yx, aonno1nauncn, npexpe acero a Hnpe
pac1enn. "oHy eue ne nsaec1nm nnme cyuec1aa, nacennkune neca, nonn n 6ono1ua,
1o1 ponxen yun1cn cHo1pe1L", - nncan . nok.
ec o6napae1 neknH epnnmH caepxcosnanneH, cnaraeHmH ns cosnann n uyac1aoaann
acex ero o6n1a1ene (na neHounoH nsmke naykn aro nasmaae1cn 6nononeH neca).
1penLnme pepeaLn nHek1 caon o6oco6nennme pyun, opnoapeHenno nepaspmano
cansannme c co6opno pyuo. au eun - a1o coaokynnm yx eca - necno
xosnnn n nokpoan1enL acero xnaoro. D1o eHy o6muno npnnncmaak1cn 1annc1aennme
annnnnn, ko1opme ncnm1maae1 ny1nnk, 6nyxpan no necy. aun npauypm npep nnH ne
1pene1ann, no n ac1peu c nnH ne nckann.
o1nnuLe o1 nsHmunennmx nkpLHn uenoaekonopo6nmx 6oroa, yxn ne nHek1 nnunmx
nHen: npoc1o poHoao, npoc1o neun. onn1no, u1o n caoero o6nnuLn y neuero ne1;
on o6opaunaae1cn pasnmHn nnunnaHn. Moxe1 nokasa1Lcn n uenoaekoo6pasnmH
cyuec1aoH a uepc1n. a aakase ero nasmaak1 anHac1m, na aHnpe - rony6-naan, a
nHananx - ne1n. annc1aennme necnme cyuec1aa c uep1aHn o6opo1ne nsaec1nm n a
anape, n a n6npn, n a annqopnnn... opennoe nacenenne 1ex Hec1, rpe nonanne1cn
1ak nasmaaeHm "cnexnm uenoaek", cansmaae1 c nnH onpepenennme noaepLn n
sanpe1m. n anyuae1 opnoapeHenno 6onsnL n o6oxanne... yHepeunm nec noaeprae1
"uapn pnpopm" a 6eso1ue1nm n na anp nepasyHnm c1pax, paxe korpa ne rposn1
nano onacnoc1Lk. D1o sac1aannkun xonope1L yxac nepep neaepoHmH, u1o
npn1annocL sa kaxpmH pepeaoH, ouyuenne uLero-1o nespnHoro npncy1c1ann,
cosnanne 1oro, u1o 1m specL ne opnn, u1o npo1na "nnx" 1m n 6esopyxen, n 6eccnnen.
aepL paanmH-paano 6mnn po6poxena1enLnm k knoHy uenoaeuec1ay, no "uenoaek
pasyHnm" a caoeH neaexec1ae, 1uecnaann n 6esyHnn nopaan popc1aennme ysm c
asnenenaue ero pnpopo, ne 1onLko ncknkunn ce6n ns coo6uec1aa ppyrnx xnamx
cyuec1a, no n c1an nx cHep1enLnmH aparoH. no1oHy - c1paunoe opnnouec1ao
uenoaeka, okasaauerocn uyxnH na eHne, uyxnH a nekorpa popnoH eHy ecy.
aokpyr nero - nopc1eperakuee 6esHonane: nenpnnsnennme, nenkpnHme,
nac1opoxennme pepeaLn, saepn n n1num. o11oro nanapae1 na nsron nannueckn
c1pax ao anapennnx ennkoro ana-euero.
anppeaneunH 6mno noun1anne Ma1epe pnpopm - npapopn1enLnnu n 6epernnL
acex caonx 6ecuncnennmx uap. naanne saann nx oxannuaHn. Y napopoa ea.
apasnn onn nHenyk1cn 1akxe a6yukaHn. ako nsnauanLno 6mna n a6a-ra, -
aceHoryuan, Hyppan, aeuan c1apyxa, xosnka n sac1ynnnua ace necno xnanoc1n. o
n ona o6epnynacL snoaeunH nyranoH pnn 1aopnuero 6essakonnn uenoaeka.
oaeprny1me 6oxec1aa o6muno anocnepc1ann npeapauak1cn a snmx pyxoa, a
neunc1yk cnny, a o6pasm, cansannme c npencnopne. ecaHn ouepnnnn xpnc1nane
cnaanmx, cae1nmx, 1o nackoamx, 1o rposnmx, no acerpa popnmx pyxoa, o6n1akunx
19
neca n ponm. e o1pnuan nx cyuec1aoaannn, uepkoannkn npnsnaaann sa nnHn
"konpoackyk cnny" n cnoco6noc1L 1aopn1L "noxnme uypeca". a1oH cy1L
ae1xosaae1noro npnsnannn uyxnx kyHnpoa, no 1onLko a kauec1ae snmx pyxoa. 6pas
pLnaona, nsHmunennm xpnc1nanaHn, n o6Lnanenne cnaanncknx popoamx n c1nxnnmx
pyxoa pLnaonLcknHn cnnaHn, ne cHorno, opnako, am1paan1L ns napopno naHn1n
apoxpennmx, nacnepc1aennmx npepc1aanenn o 6mnoH. nnm a1n oc1anncL ckopee
neaepoHmHn, ueH neunc1mHn. eun a napopnoH cosnannn 1ak n ne cnnncn c o6nnkoH
6esycnoanoro sna. ccnepoaa1enn yc1noro napopnoro 1aopuec1aa ceaepnmx cnaann
o6pauak1 annHanne, u1o a ckaskax n npepannnx 6epnoHy kpec1Lnnnny uac1o
noHorak1 neune, uep1n n ppyrne "1eHnme cnnm", npo1naoc1onune uepkan, nony n
nonapLe. pecL o1ronocok napopnoro Hnpoaosspennn; npo1ec1, nenpnn1ne
xpnc1nanckoro uyxe6ecnn.
* * *
Y , kak n y ppyrnx popc1aennmx nH nneHen, ne 6mno nso6paxenn u1nHmx
mcunx nn a uenoaekonopo6nmx kyHnpax-nc1ykanax. e 6mno n noc1poek, rpe a1n
nnm "o6n1ann". un1anocL ynnsn1enLnmH pnn yxoa, uLnH cae1nnnueH 6mna acn
pnpopa, nocenn1Lcn a pyko1aopnmx coopyxennnx. e 6mno y cnaann n oco6oro
xpeueckoro cocnoann, saaepoaaauero xep1aonpnnouennnHn (onxam - a1o ne
xpeum). aeuennme 6pnpm caepuan rnaaa opa a sanoaepnmx necnmx kyuax.
apone ackpy noun1anncL peac1aennme nepaospannme neca. a ocnoaannn nsyuennn
1ea1oncknx cnoa, o6osnauakunx xpaH, snaHenn1m Hmcnn1enL ko6 pnHH cpenan
amaop, u1o ppeaneunHn cae1nnnuaHn repHanuea 6mnn ec1ec1aennme neca; cnoao
"xpaH" nepaonauanLno snaunno "caeuennan poua". Y cnaann cnoao "xpaH" nponcxopn1
o1 "xopoHm". opoHm xe aocxopn1 k nonn1nk kpyra: "xopo" - "kono" - conneunm
kpyr. 1ckpa: konoaopo1, konLuo, konnpa, koneco... aeuennm y6 okpyxancn aanoH
nn6o kaHenno orpapo. onoo6pasnan nacmnL n pana nasaanne cae1nnnuy - xopoHm.
nn cnaann, u1naunx caok conneunyk popocnoanyk, kpyr kak o6pas ae1nna nHen
aonue6noe snauenne o6epera - saun1m. 1ckpa: xopouo - snaun1 conneuno. 1ckpa
xop - o6pnpoaoe cnaanenne pyxoa - okpoan1ene aokpyr cae1nnnua. 1ckpa xe n
xopoaop - nnncoaan kpyroaan nopyka - kpyroaep1L nocononL (1. e. no xopy onnua,
cneaa nanpaao). ue anpn ponec po caonx coapeHennnkoa npepanne o caeuennoH
y6e a poue epepm, rop ko1opmH "ppnapm aopnnn caon npaspnnunme xopoaopm n,
asnauncL sa pykn, okpyxann ncnonnnckn c1aon".
pnc1nane nop kopenL ampy6nnn naun ppeanne cae1nnnua, a nx nasaanne (xopoHm)
npncaonnn. epame kpm1me xpaHm, panee ne nsaec1nme aoc1ounmH cnaannaH n
uyxpme nx aocnpnn1nk, coopyxenm 6mnn napnHnpoH, nesakonnopoxpennmH cmnoH
an1ocnaaa o1 nanoxnnum - nypekn Mankn. o1 xe xypopopnm nonykpoaka
napnHnp, ncnonnnn aonk caoero pnpn no Ha1epn, aospanrae1 nepame pyko1aopnme
nc1ykanm epyna, a nnme aospanrny1me nc1ykanm, uyxeseHnme paxe no aneunoc1n,
napekae1 6oraHn, sanHc1aoaannmHn y 1kpkcknx n qnncknx nneHen. 1o1 xe
6pa1oy6nua n knn1aonpec1ynnnk napnHnp nepamH (no cnoaaH carn o6 naqe
pnraeccone) npnnocn1 epyny uenoaeueckne xep1am, c1onL npo1nanme cnaannckoHy
pyxy. syaepc1ao napnHnpa nHeno uenLk npepenLno nckasn1L cae1oo1eueckyk aepy,
o1apa1n1L napop o1 kpoaaamx, neno1pe6nmx noaoaaepenn, u1o6m xpnc1nanc1ao no
cpaanennk c nnHn c1ano amrnnpe1L 6onee npnaneka1enLnmH. uepes aoceHL ne1 1o1
xe ampopok napnHnp nnsaeprne1 a nenp ockaepnennoro kpoaLk neannnmx pe1e
epyna, pa6m orneH n xenesoH nacaxpa1L uyxepopnyk xpnc1nanckyk kpaHony.
* * *
YMMM npeapauennn uae1yue nekorpa eHnn a 6esxnsnennyk,
o1paanennyk nyc1mnk noannna Haunnnan, npnpoponoxnpakuan, 1ak nasmaaeHan
"sanapnan unannnsaunn". e cnyuano c1onL nary6nan 1exnokpa1nueckan
unannnsaunn, nanpaanennan na nopa6ouenne pnpopm n saaepuan uenoaeuec1ao na
20
kpa akonornuecko 6espnm, sapopnnacL ne rpe-nn6ypL, a nHenno na
M anape. pnc1nanc1ao ampocno na cyxo n kaHennc1o
nypecko nouae. ypeckoe nneHennoe 6oxec1ao - eroaa 6mn ysakonen
xpnc1nanc1aoH kak 6or-o1eu, a nypeckne nncannn o co1aopennn Hnpa n uenoaeka
6mnn npnsnanm 6oroapoxnoaennmHn. esnpaac1aennoe o1nouenne k Ma1epn-eHne
6mno nopoxpeno aouepunH a xpnc1nanc1ao ae1xosaae1nmH y1aepxpenneH
kak ; caHa eHnn n ace cyuee na ne cospanm ncknkun1enLno na
no1pe6y paHy. pnnc1aennm cHmcn n nasnauenne xnao pnpopm - xep1aennoe
cnyxenne uenoaeky. n opnn Hyppeu ppeanoc1n ne nponoaepoaan c1onL
caoekopmc1nm asrnnp na Hnp. o1aopenne pnpopm ns nnuero (!?) aceamunnH,
napHnpoamH eroao yxe nopuepknaano necoaHec1nHoc1L, npo1naononoxnoc1L
6oxec1aennoro (pyxoanoro, nepanunoro, 1aopueckoro) n npnpopnoro
(neopyxo1aopennoro, a1opnunoro). pnpopa o1nmne paccHa1pnaae1cn kak neu1o
nnsuee, 6eccHmcnennoe, nnuennoe caHo6m1no cyunoc1n. pnc1nanc1ao ycaonno
nypeckoe o1apauenne k pnko, aonLno pnpope. pnc1nanckan yc1anoaka na
saka6anenne (o1 cnoaa "ka66ana") pnpopm nerna a ocnoaanne sanapno unannnsaunn
n saaena ee a 1ynnk. asaenuannan n nnuennan o6oxannn pnpopa 6mna o6Lnanena
nopno pa6o. epkoaL y1aepxpana apaxpe6noc1L k sanoaepno, pnko pnpope, kak
k cnne nko6m uyxpo, onacno n paxe neunc1o. pnpopa c1ana 6oronpo1nana n,
cnepoaa1enLno, ponxna 6mna 6m1L nokopena, ykpouena nopo6no pnkoHy saepk. 1ex
nop, kak pnpopa okasanacL onnue1aopenneH cnenmx, kocnmx c1nxn,
npo1naoc1onunx "pasyHnoHy" uenoaeky, ycnexn 1exnnkn nooupnnncL uepkoaLk, kak
cpepc1ao poc1nxennn nonno anac1n nap pnpopo. epL n6nnn y1aepxpae1
sakonnoc1L 1ako anac1n. rocnopc1aoH xpnc1nanc1aa a apone nauanacL noaan
nc1opnueckan anoxa 6ecnouapno aonm c pnpopo n, npexpe acero, c M. yx
yc1mnn npo1na yxa eca.
* * *
XMY popy-nneHenn npncyue caoe apoxpennoe noun1anne mcunx nn. axpm
napop no-caoeHy uyac1aye1, Hmcnn1 n apoxnoanne1cn. axpm nHee1 caoe caHopopnoe
aocnpnn1ne cenenno. onnue cae1n1 aceH, no kaxpoHy amcaeunaak1cn a pnpope
epnnc1aenno eHy ann1nme oco6me npnHe1m n snaHennn, cosayunme ero pyueanoHy
nac1pok. ec, kak n nyc1mnn, a1o, npexpe acero, Hnpoouyuenne. ec nan6onee
nonnokpoano onnue1aopne1 co6o yx Xnao pnpopm. naanne - pe1n eca. nn
pnpope-Ma1yuke papenn - papoaanncL, npospeaan pyxoanoe npncy1c1ane ao acex
nponanennnx. onxam c1nxann ae1noro naanoro yxa a popnmx necax. aue
Hnpouyac1aoaanne 6mno conneunmH, xnsney1aepxpakunH, n a a1oH ero kopennoe
o1nnune o1 xpnc1nanckoro Hpako6ecnn. ypeckoe epnno6oxne, o1pnuakuee
caHouennoc1L opyxo1aopenno pnpopm, ec1L ne u1o nnoe, kak o1paxenne a pyue
xn1enn nyc1mnn y6oxec1aa nyc1mnno xnsnn. yc1mnn, nnuennan pac1n1enLnoc1n,
1oxe Hoxe1 6m1L kpacnaa, no a1a kpacnaoc1L neec1ec1aenna, 6espapoc1na.
pnno6oxne, sapopnaueecn y koueannkoa, "a nyc1mne uaxno n ckyno", cansano c nx
yuep6nmH Hnpoaocnpnn1neH, c nens6exnmH ocosnanneH uenoaekoH caoero
nnu1oxec1aa, opnnouec1aa n sa6pouennoc1n nop ne6oH 6eckoneunmx, opnoo6pasnmx,
6esxnsnennmx npoc1panc1a, rpe paxe Hope nasmaanocL Mep1amH. ypansH (n
o1ae1anaunecn o1 nero xpnc1nanc1ao n ncnaH), nannncL nan6onee cyry6mH
ampaxenneH 6ecnnopnoro pyxa nyc1mnn, nponnkny1 nenpnn1neH, ne1epnnHoc1Lk,
6esxanoc1noc1Lk k pnpope. oxpennm a nyc1mne ne nk6n1 neca, 6on1cn ero. nu1o
1ak nepoc1ynno cmnaH nyc1mnn, kak amcokan Hnc1nka-uyac1ao sapyueanoro epnnennn
co aceH cyunH. no1oHy a nyc1mne nponspac1ae1 1onLko snoaeuan ka66annc1nka,
uepnoknnxne pa saespoue1c1ao. pepuyac1aneH co6c1aenno o6peuennoc1n nannocL
xpnc1nanckoe aepoyuenne o cae1onpec1aanennn, o6 ynnu1oxennn eHnn n acero
xnaoro na e.
1apueckan n yxe cHeppnuan pennrnn a caoeH neHounoH 6eccnnnn nasaana snoH
caHyk X!
21
no1L uenoaeueckan - sno n, cornacno xpnc1nanc1ay, ee napo y6naa1L. aHo
sapoxpenne uenoaeka yxe cun1ae1cn nopounmH, nnaue kak nonnHa1L "nenopounoe
saua1ne" Ha1epn ncyca? pnc1nanc1ao o6nekae1 xnaoe 1eno napopa a norpe6anLnm
caaan pennrnn pacnn1nn, c1papannn, ne6m1nn... D1o pennrnn Hep1aeuoa, pennrnn
konua cae1a, 1. e. konua xnsnn. eypnan1enLno, u1o e cony1c1ayk1 cnesm, c1enannn,
xonopnme cknenm n sanax 1nennn. na Hornnax, kak nacHeuka - "xnao1aopnun"
kpec1. ak, opnako, xpnc1nane uennnk1cn sa XnsnL!
"pnpopa neno6epnHa, a uepkoaL aeuno ycnnnaae1cn ee no6epn1L... " no6epnn
Hnp"... oka a Hnpe ec1L sepno, xo1n 6m opno sepnmuko, neanpnHoe, HanenLkoe - na
caHoH pene 1m ne no6epnn Hnpa... onnue saropenocL panLue xpnc1nanc1aa. onnue
ne no1yxne1, ecnn xpnc1nanc1ao n konun1cn. onpo6y1e pacnn1L onnue, n am
yanpn1e - ko1opm or", - nncan . . osanoa.
nn xpnc1nannna "nauano npeHyppoc1n - c1pax rocnopnn". 1pax no1oHy, u1o "6or-
o1eu" - kpoaoxapnm ynmpL, n nopunnenne eHy ocnoaano 1onLko na c1paxe. Xep1aa
aenn y6naxnna ero; aepL ona 6mna kpoaaamH npnnouenneH saknannmx nrnn1.
Xep1aa xe anna coc1onna ns nnopoa eHnn, 6mna unc1a n 6eckpoana, a no1oHy n
6mna o1aeprny1a pasLnpennmH eroao.
"mn 6oxn" anonne poc1onn "o1ua ne6ecnoro"; ncyc a sno6e npoknnnae1 M
, naaopn1 nopuy na cHokoannuy n ona 1o1uac sacmxae1 (aanr. o1 Ma1q., rn.
21, aanr. o1 Mapka, rn. 11).
Y cnaann pepeao acerpa 6mno snakoH Xnsnn. naue as6yke caHa 6ykaa X, nHekuan
saknnna1enLnoe noaenenne "xnan1e!", ec1L nauep1anne epeaa Xnsnn; Hounm c1aon
c nn1Lk nnc1LnHn-ae1anHn (m6akoa . . smuec1ao ppeane ycn).
nyxn1enn 1eHnmx cnn uenenanpaanenno npeapauak1 eHnk a 6esxnsnennyk
nyc1mnk, orpoHnm HornnLnnk papnoak1nanmx saxoponenn. acerpa nperpaxpan
ny1L oppaH koueannkoa.
opc1aennm yx eca, yx Xnsnn, nsnauanLno npncyun cnaannaH, npo1naoc1on1
uyxepopnoHy 6n6neckoHy pyxy nyc1mnn, kak M, -
Y, X - M. pe1 nocnepnee aennkoe 6openne, n Haunnno-
kann1annc1nueckan unannnsaunn yxe na nopore caoe rn6enn.
ayc1 a 1parepnn e1e yHnpae1 1orpa, korpa on nm1ae1cn no6opo1L pnpopy, caepun1L
cao amcun "nopanr" - ocyun1L npn6pexnme seHnn, u1o6m aospanrny1L noam
ropop. "Mne nop1n1 anac1L nap HnpoH uenmH opna 1a kyuka nnn uyxnx", "Hne sanax
nnn paano ne Hnn", - roaopn1 on Meqnc1oqenk, n 1o1, u1o6m ounc1n1L Hec1noc1L,
cxnrae1 nnnoayk pouy aHec1e c ns6yuko nneHona n aaknpm.
"yc1L nennoH c1any1 nnnm 1e, n ckopo 6aunk 1aH noc1pok", - n 1y1 aosHespne
nac1nrae1 ayc1a.
* * *
M n noa1oa acerpa aonnoaana uapykuan 1ana naxyunx uae1oa.
Mnc1nueckoe uy1Le nopckasmaano, u1o 6naroyxanne nx ec1L neu1o 6onLuee, ueH
npoc1o sanax. D1o - o1kpoaenne, ncxopnuee ns caHo pyun uae1ka npnHo a pyuy
uenoaeka. epapoH cnoaa "pyunc1m" n "pyua" - popc1aennm.
ypopec1aennme aonnm nc1ouae1 pnkan Heponocnan senenL nauero eca. nn 1o
nc1oHno-cnapoc1nme, 1o ueHnune ceppue, 1o pypHannune n xHenLnme... nn
6nonoroa ponL apoHa1oa a xnsnn caHoro pac1ennn n ace pnpopm paneko nencna n
22
paxe 6onee neopnosnauna, ueH ponn okpackn n nek1apa. o1annkn npnsnak1, u1o
nasnauenne sanaxa M. ac1o cHmcn
sanaxa oc1ae1cn pnn uenoaeka sarapko, cansanno c kako-1o nensaec1no eHy
c1opono xnsnn pac1ennn.
nanka aqnpnoHacnnunan packpmaae1 uae1kn c nexnmH 6apxa1nmH apoHa1oH, no,
kpoHe nnx, pasanaak1cn neaspaunme, nnuennme sanaxa caHoonmnnkunecn uae1kn.
naropapn nHenno nH n nponcxopn1 ceHennoe pasHnoxenne qnankn. oHy xe
npepnasnaueno nnenn1enLnoe 6naroyxanne, papn ko1oporo n co6npae1 uenoaek
6esxanoc1nyk xa1ay pnn caonx Hmnoaapennmx qa6pnk? na1okn qnsnonornn
pac1enn ne Hory1 o1ae1n1L na a1o1 aonpoc.
saec1no 1onLko, u1o npncyun uae1ky apoHa1 saancn1 o1 ampenneHmx ne1yunx
aqnpnmx Hacen. nopasn1enLno nponnua1enLnoc1Lk onn ouenL aepno nasaanm
aqnpnmHn, nnaue roaopn, yckonLsakunHn o1 na6nkpennn, y1onuennmHn,
neaeuec1aennmHn cyunoc1nHn, aospec1aykunHn k 1oHy xe nHenno na aqnpnoe 1eno
uenoaeka (rpeu. nonn1ne "aqnp" aocxopn1 eue k opqnuecko Hyppoc1n, rpe nanne1cn
nepao6m1no acenponnkakue c1nxne, "pyuok Hnpa").
Dqnpnme Hacna - cnoxneune xnsnepen1enLnme coepnnennn, aknkuakune a ce6n
coc1aanme uac1n, aoace nensaec1nme xnHnkaH. Hepnkanckne nccnepoaa1enn
nonm1anncL ysna1L, kakne aeuec1aa coc1aannk1 sanax posm. mpennnn okono 30
aeuec1a, cHeuann nx a amcun1annmx coo1nouennnx, napencL nonyun1L nckycc1aennyk
posy, n nonyunnn cHecL, aonnkuyk xxeno pesnno.
e1 cpepn 6o1annkoa epnnoro Hnennn n no aonpocy o6pasoaannn aqnpnmx Hacen a
pac1ennn. c1L neckonLko pasnnunmx npepnonoxenn - aepnm npnsnak 1oro, u1o ne1
nn opnoro napexnoro.
apoxpenne n cHmcn pyunc1mx aqnpnmx aennn 6nonoraH ponopnnnno nensaec1en.
yua uae1ka xpann1 caok 1any. ayka 1onLko pana 1ane nasaanne, no ona no-
npexneHy oc1ae1cn 1ano. npn6nnsn1Lcn k ee noc1nxennk aosHoxno 1onLko nnmH,
amcunH, 6eckopmc1nmH cnoco6oH uenoaeueckoro nosnannn - M.
Yuenm, "o6Lncnnkun" 1aH, rpe yHonkae1 aepyn, nopo6en pe6enky, noanueHy
conneunme saunkn.
oapeHennan Hepnunna oun6ouna a caoeH ocnoaannn n no1oHy c1onL 6ecnoHouna.
asae aosHoxno nsneuenne, ecnn ne nonnHaeuL rnaanoro - caHoro coc1aaa uenoaeka?
e ponyckan cyuec1aoaannn a uenoaeke 6onee 1onknx oprannsHoa (aqnpnoro n
ac1panLnoro), apaun anpn1 npnunny nepyroa a nencnpaanoc1n qnsnueckoro 1ena. o
1eno ec1L nnuL Ha1epnanLnoe cpepc1ao aonnouennn pyun. cnn ne nosnana cy1L
uenoro, u1o Hoxno roaopn1L o ero uac1nx?
cka1L ckpm1me ouarn 6onesnn napo a pyue, a ne a 1ene. Henno a pyue (a
ncnxonnasHe, roaopn cykonnmH nsmkoH naykn) naxopn1cn kopnn 6onesne.
cyunoc1n, ec1L 1onLko opna nepaonauanLnan npnunna acex 6onesne - ocna6nenne
any1pennero oprannsHa, ynapok xnsnenno cnnm, pasnap nHHynno saun1m.
sneuenne aosHoxno aospec1aneH na 1onkne 1ena - cpepo1oune xnsnenno cnnm.
* * *
pyun pyunc1mHn uae1aHn nopckasmaae1 naH caHa pnpopa: nopnnnnmHn
uenn1ennHn Hory1 6m1L 1onLko X, no ne yHepuanennme pac1ennn. aHoe
npaac1aennoe apaueaanne - caHoe pec1aennoe. eaosHoxno nsaneuL ns pnpopm
kako-nn6o koneuno amropm xn1poc1Lk n 6ecceppeuneH.
23
ae1yune naa n uepeHyxa, pn6nna n kannna, unnoannk, n nnna nc1ouak1
xnao1aopnme naxyune aonnm sarapounoro coc1aaa. nnx copepxa1cn 1akxe aeuec1aa,
coaepuenno nanpacno nasaannme qn1onunpaHn, 1. e. y6nuaHn pac1n1enLnoro
nponcxoxpennn. akoe nasaanne npeapa1no 1onkye1 ponL a1nx aeuec1a a pnpope n
nnuL noppaknaae1 papannckoHy y1aepxpennk 6opL6m sa cyuec1aoaanne (1ak xe, kak
n nasaannn "an1n6no1nkn", "annenona1nn" n 1. n.). euec1aa a1n nn na koro ne
nanapak1, onn nnuL saunuak1 pac1enne, npepoc1eperan HenLuaune cyuec1aa n
o1nyrnaan nx, no ne y6naak1.
onLko a npo6npkax, 1. e. a nckycc1aennmx ycnoannx, onn ry6n1 noponm1nmx
Hnkpo6oa. o a1o ne nHee1 nnuero o6uero c 1eH, u1o nponcxopn1 a ec1ec1aenno
cpepe o6n1annn. aH onn npoc1o ne axopn1 a conpnkocnoaenne, kak ne ac1peuak1cn a
pnpope HepaepL n nea, xo1n nx n c1paannaann pnn no1exn pnHcko uepnn.
Hnpe nnk1o, kpoHe uenoaeka, ne y6naae1 npoc1o 1ak, a nnuL pnn 1oro, u1o6m
noppepxa1L co6c1aennyk xnsnL. ene6nme aqnpnme Hacna nn a pnpope, nn a
oprannsHe uenoaeka nnkoro ne ynnu1oxak1, n cekpe1 nx apaueaannn coaceH a ppyroH,
epeaLn n uae1m nonnsnpyk1 aospyx - nacmuak1 ero xnsnepa1enLnmHn
o1pnua1enLnmHn nonaHn kncnopopa.
o, noHnHo 1oro, a apoHa1ax copepxn1cn eue neu1o neynoanHoe, no nac1aenno
6naro1aopnoe. axyune 1okn, nopo6no nrnoykanmaannk, nenocpepc1aenno
aos6yxpak1 oco6me 1oukn cnnsnc1o o6onoukn noca. D1n 1oukn cnyxa1
caoeo6pasnmHn axopaHn a 1onkn any1pennn oprannsH uenoaeka - aHec1nnnue ero
xnsnennmx cnn. pmxanne apoHa1oa nsneunaae1 ne 1onLko n ne c1onLko o1penLnme
6onLnme opranm. anaxn uae1oa-Heponocoa, npexpe acero, npo6yxpak1 co6c1aennme
nopcnypnme saun1nme cnnm oprannsHa a uenoH, nopanrak1 nx na cospanne
nepyunHo o6oponm o1 anpycoa n 1eH caHmH npepynpexpak1 pasan1ne 6onesnn.
po1naopec1ane uyxepopnmH (a no1oHy 6onesne1aopnmH) 1enaH-anpycaH ponxno
saknkua1Lcn ne a ynnu1oxennn HnkpooprannsHoa, a a ykpennennn nHHynno saun1m
uenoaeka. arapounan npo6neHa paka - a snaun1enLno c1enenn nHHynonornueckan.
opo1Lcn napo ne c anpycaHn, a c caHo npeppacnonoxennoc1Lk oprannsHa k
o6pasoaannk snokauec1aenno onyxonn. pnpopa ne paccun1maana na Hepnunny, -
ace uene6nme cnnm sanoxenm a nHHynno cnc1eHe - ec1ec1aenno saun1e uenoaeka.
* * *
apona ycaonna Hepnunny, nepenn1yk y nypeea n apa6oa,
peHecno kpoaonycka1ene, an1ekape n anxnHnkoa. apaun ne ycneaak1
npnpyHmaa1L nasaannn noamH, ne cnmxannmH panee 6onesnnH.
ppeanoc1n apaueaanne o6n1ano a cae1nnnuax, 6ypyun ncnonneno amcuero
pennrnosnoro cHmcna. ocnoano xe 1epannn osnauana apaueaanne, ncuennkuee
pyuy. pau - pyxoanm uenn1enL 6mn n HyppmH nac1aannkoH, n ncnoaepnnkoH. ak
6mno no1oHy, u1o snann: any1pennnn 6onesnL ec1L anna aonLnan nnn neaonLnan.
cuenenne cun1anocL aosHoxnmH, ecnn 6onLno a rny6nne pyun noHe1 a1o n
packae1cn.
ospneuan Hepnunna o1aeprna nopo6noe aosspenne na c1papannn n 6onesnn kak na
pacnna1y sa napyuenne npepyc1anoanennmx pnpopo npaac1aennmx sanoaepe.
paun anpn1 caok rnaanyk sapauy a o6neruennn yuac1n upeaoyropnnkoa n
pasapa1nnkoa, a npopnennn nk6mHn cpepc1aaHn c1apueckoro HapasHa 1ex, uLn
6onesnn nannk1cn kneHoH, aospannneH sa 6esnpaac1aennm o6pas xnsnn.
24
akoe "neuenne Hep1aeuoa" npo1naopeun1 pnpope, nockonLky c1peHn1cn ncnpaan1L,
coxpann1L 1o, u1o pnpopa xoue1 o11oprny1L, npo1na uero ona aocc1ae1 aceHn cnnaHn:
nopok, nsapauenne, neunc1onno1noc1L.
ny6nnnyk asanHocansL n nepaspenLnoc1L npaac1aennmx n qnsnuecknx sakonoa
6m1nn npospeaann ace caHme npaaepnme n 6naropopnme yuennn. ornacno
nsnauanLno Hyppoc1n, spopoaLe nannnocL ec1ec1aennmH cnepc1aneH ncnonnennn
uenoaekoH caoero ponra Hnnoceppnn ko aceHy xnayueHy.
na6 uenoaek, n Hnoroe Hoxno npoc1n1L eHy, no 1onLko ne cosna1enLnoe
Hyun1enLc1ao 6essaun1nmx cyuec1a. orpa naanekae1 on na ce6n nenpenoxnoe
aosHespne, n o1c1ynak1cn o1 nero 6eccnnLnme nespnHme xpann1enn, n nopaxae1cn on
kak 6m nsny1pn. eso6npnan popnnka appyr npeapauae1cn a rnonyk nsay, paano
sa6m1m yun6 o1smaae1cn snoapepno onyxonLk, nyc1nkoaan uapannna
o6opaunaae1cn sapaxenneH kpoan...
paun-Hmcnn1enn y1aepxpann nonn1ne pyueano neunc1o1m, korpa 6onesnL 6mna
nnuL aneunnH, 1enecnmH npnsnakoH rnnennn pyun. esnpaac1aennme noc1ynkn n
xenannn, cosna1enLnme n neocosnaaaeHme, nopo6no npaH nakannnaancL n o1paannn
pyuy, amnannk1cn a anpe 6onesnennoro nsHenennn opranoa.
o c1apnnnmH cnaanncknH noaepLnH, nnxoHanka (Hannpnn) - cnenan n 6essy6an
c1apyxa, 1akoH naaeuakuan ns6m a nonckax annoaa1mx.
oueHy opnn uenoaek nopaxae1cn anpycno nnqekune n norn6ae1, a ppyro,
conpnkacaauncn c 1eH xe anpycoH, oc1ae1cn spopoamH? o apeHn caHmx c1paunmx
noaanLnmx Hopoa acerpa 6mnn nkpn, coxpannaune neynsanHoc1L. aosnnknoaennn
6onesnn peuakuee snauenne nHee1 npeppacnonoxennoc1L nnn conpo1nanneHoc1L
uenoaeka. npyc aneppne1cn a nopro1oanennm, ocna6nennm nsny1pn oprannsH n
okasmaae1 na nero paspyun1enLnoe annnnne. nHHynonornn cnnukoH Hnoro
nenonn1noro, u1o6m o1ae1n1L na rnaanm aonpoc: noueHy cna6ee1 nHHynn1e1?
Henno pyueanan ckaepna uepes nepanyk cnc1eHy nopaanne1 saun1nme cnnm
oprannsHa. sHennk1cn caoc1aa kpoan, nonnxae1cn ee cnoco6noc1L k caHosaun1e.
paaepnnk paxe 6eccosna1enLno ononcmaae1 ce6n HarnuecknH kpyroH ornenno Houn,
n eHy ne c1pauna nnkakan sapasa. pnpopa okasmaae1 eHy uec1L yxe noHnHo ero
xenannn. yuun o6eper - o6pan onn, n6o ona caHa - nc1ounnk neoponnHo cnnm.
eunc1me xe noHmcnm n no6yxpennn sarpnsnnk1 1kanL uenoaeuecko pyun,
o6eso6paxnaak1 ee. Xec1okoceppne 6ykaanLno pasLepae1 1onkoe uenLnoe ec1ec1ao
pyun, kak pxaaunna - xeneso. oapexpennan aypa nopo6no paano konLuyre ne
saunuae1 uenoaeka, o1kpmaan poc1yn anpycaH. paueaa1enn, cnnHakune 6onL
nanoxenneH pyk, y1aepxpak1, u1o spopoame nkpn o6napak1 nno1nmHn, nn1mHn,
ynpyrnHn, kak 6m nenponnuaeHmHn, 6nononnHn, a 1o apeHn kak y 6onLnmx 6nononn
pmxnme pacnnmaua1me, 1. e. ynsanHme.
smk, xnaoe cnoao, o1paxae1 caHyk cy1L nanennn necpaanenno rny6xe, ueH nayunme
nsmckannn. p1n k cHmcny cnoaa napo uepes ero nponcxoxpenne. "cuenenne"
nponcxopn1 o1 cnoaa "uenm". epaonauanLno "uenm" osnauano "spopoam".
cuenn1Lcn - snaun1 o6pec1n caoe any1penne cyunoc1n - 1onkoro
1ena, oxnannkuero n opyueannkuero uenoaeka; o6pec1n spopoaLe pyueanoe, 6es
uero n qnsnueckoro spopoaLn 6m1L ne Hoxe1. enn1enLc1ao - a1o aospec1ane na
1onkoe 1eno. yuec1aoaanne 1ak nasmaaeHoro 1onkoro paonnka, nepexnaakuero
qnsnueckyk cHep1L, nponcnne1 a kako-1o Hepe c1onL nenoc1nxnHme nnaue nanennn,
kak ncnoanpenne, npnspakn, o6opo1nnuec1ao.
25
* * *
xe rny6okoH cHmcne - a1o o6pe1enne ,
, aocc1anoanenne napyuenno xpnc1nanc1aoH uenoc1noc1n uenoaeka c
opyueanenno pnpopo n c caHnH co6o.
ae1nm Xnan1enLnm yx ne npnue1cn a sa1xnoH nonyHpake uepkae. ocpepnnkoa
Hexpy uenoaekoH, n pnpopo 6m1L ne Hoxe1.
cuenne1 1onLko M M n Ha1epnnckoe pmxanne - c pe1c1aa po 6onn
Hnnme sanaxn popnmx necoa n none.
nonpenL, na uae1yueH nyry, korpa amcoko a ne6e cnne1 onnue, a ace aokpyr noe1,
saonn1, nnkye1 n cnaan1 XnsnL, ceppue nepenonnne1cn appyr 6naroroaenneH n
6naropapnoc1Lk, a rnasa - cnapoc1nmHn cnesaHn. a1o caHoe npekpacnoe uyac1ao
ec1L 6eso1ue1nan, caHosa6aennan nsmueckan Honn1aa, aennkan papoc1L - .
Henno a 1akne Hrnoaennn noceuak1 uenoaeka caHme cae1nme Hmcnn n ocennk1
npospennn. pecL knku. c oc1anLnoe - o1Hmukn.
* * *
- 6naropopneune cospannn pnpopm, coaepuennm nap o6pa, c1nnm n
paco1m. syHn1enLnan asanHonoHouL uae1ka n npnpyuenno nH 6a6oukn - xnao
nenaansunam naHek uenoaeky na epnnc1aenno poc1onoe ero o1nouenne k ppyrnH
anpaH xnsnn. naroyxanne uae1oa nece1 a1o papoaec1ne a nau npencnonnennm
c1papannnHn Hnp.
enoaeuec1ao pae1cn kypa-1o ao cenennyk, Hyun1enLno nue1 cansn c nnmH,
neuenoaeuecknH asyHoH, a on - nop noraHn. kpn 1onuy1 ero, no ne onosnak1, aepL
on ne noxox na qan1ac1nueckoro 6nopo6o1a, kakoro onn xpy1 ns nyc1o1m ne6ec.
pecL, na eHne, pnpoH c naHn pnanme, neaepoHme Hnpm... knonncL npep ckpoHno
Hepynnue n aocxnuacn... o ne ry6n, ne cpmaa!
epL n k 1e6e cHep1L npnpe1 c koco a pykax.
nsnyuae1 pyxoanyk cnny. pyua uenoaeka pacuae1ae1 naac1peuy uae1ky.
poxny1L a ce6n pyunc1oe pynoaenne - snaun1 aoopyuean1Lcn, apoxnoan1Lcn,
ykpenn1L caok pyxoanoc1L. e cnyuano cnoaa "pmxanne" n "pyx" - opnokopennme.
onLko ncycy nyxnm 6mnn "nnune pyxoH" yuennkn.
poHa1 kynaam ouy1nH, peanen n, cnepoaa1enLno, npnnapnexn1 naueHy seHnoHy,
narnnpnoHy Hnpy. o opnoapeHenno on 6ecnno1en, neanpnH, ne1yu n no1oHy
nponnkae1 a caepxuyac1aennm Hnp pyxoa. naropapn caoe paoc1aenno cy1n
apoHa1 nanne1cn, kak 6m nocpepnnkoH, cansykunH a1n Hnpm. epapoH cnnLno
naxnyune pac1ennn nsppeane cun1anncL HarnuecknHn, n nopxop k nnH 1pe6oaan
oco6o oc1opoxnoc1n; aepL sa kaxpmH ns nnx c1on1 eun.
enn1enLc1ao acerpa 6mno aonue6c1aoH. 1o Hoxe1 6m1L Hounee n aHec1e c 1eH
nexnee uypopec1aenno cnnm xnamx uae1oa?! noaepLnx eaponecknx napopoa
sanaxaHn uae1yunx pepeaLea n 1paa nn1ak1cn aeuno knme qen.
eH, rpe cnenme sapocnn 1aaonrn nc1ouak1 cnapkn nek1ap, rpe conneunm aospyx
nac1oen na apoHa1ax, 1aH sapn no rpypL a Hepoaoe npnaonLe.
26
cuenncn uenoHyppennmHn aospyunmHn nouenynHn couae1n, norpyxacn a
nackoayk c1nxnk, Hne, npnuauacn nsnnaakuecn 6naropa1Lk, ynnaacn ek...
axno ne npoc1o pmua1L, a nacmua1Lcn nonnmH pmxanneH n sapepxnaa1L ero. u
nnrns-an 1pe6oaan, u1o6m paocm - kn1ackne Hyppeum-o1uenLnnkn nayunnn ero
pmxa1enLnmH ynpaxnennnH, npnnocnunH spopoaLe, npyk cnny n ponrone1ne. o caHn
no ce6e nk6me ynpaxnennn, ne o6naropoxennme o1aaxnmH nopanxnnuec1aoH ao nHn
cae1no caepxnnuno npen, a nanpaanennme nnuL na oanapenne 1ak nasmaaeHmHn
caepxLec1ec1aennmHn cnnaHn, ne nHek1 nnkako pyxoano uennoc1n, kak n a1n
coHnn1enLnme cnnm. c a1o - pyxoanan cnayxa. 6o pnn uero aonny nyxna cnna,
ecnn ne pnn saun1m cna6mx n 6ecnpaanmx? pnpopa caHa opapnaae1 caoero
nopanxnnka 1eH, uero 6esycneuno poHorae1cn konpyn.
poc1o n no-pe1ckn poaepunao o6pa1ncL sa noHouLk k Ma1epn-eHne, nocmna o1
pyun po6pme noxenannn aceHy xnayueHy, n ouy1nuL ne6maanyk o1pauy.
opnune 1okn 6ypy1 c1pyn1Lcn ckaosL 1e6n o1 eHnn k onnuy n o1 onnua k eHne,
sapnxan cnno a caHoH npnHoH cHmcne cnoaa. naxennan ppoxL npope1 no 1eny n
o1soae1cn a kaxpo xnnke; 1aoe ec1ec1ao nac1panaae1cn a nap 6nennk Horyuero
ceppua Mnpospannn.
ao1, nakoneu, a no1pncakueH pyuy n 1eno aoc1opre 1m amxopnuL sa npepenm
cosnannn, - cnnaaeuLcn co acnknH xnamH aokpyr 1e6n pmxanneH: c ae1poH,
pepeaLnHn, n1nuaHn, 1paaaHn, uHennHn, c nopopnaue 1e6n pnpopo a
. m uepnaeuL a neH cnnm. L.
nkak ne HoxeuL npecm1n1Lcn, n xoue1cn apmxa1L eue n eue, rny6xe n rny6xe, noka
ne saxaa1n1 pyx, n ne onpoknneuLcn naasnnuL o1 ns6m1ka cnn...
"pnpn a ce6n", 1m ne sa6ypeuL a1oro nn c ueH ne cpaannHoro, neampasnHoro
nepexnaannn. epL nopo6nme HrnoaenLn, korpa Hm noc1nraeH npnuac1noc1L naue
pyun ceo6Ln1noHy yxy-opy, cnyxa1 aepneunH, neonpoaepxnHmH sanoroH nauero
M.

c1apme, po6pme apeHena, korpa uenoaek uyac1aoaan n nonnHan pnpopy, na
asanHno opapnaana ero papoc1Lk, cnno, nosnannnHn n apoxnoaenneH. nn nsmunnka
pnpopa - ackopHnauan ero Ma1L; pnn xpnc1nannna - na nnuL 6espyunan,
6esHosrnan 1aapL, co1aopennan eroao.
Y cnaann "nsmk" osnauano 1o xe, u1o n "nneHn". 1ckpa: nsmuec1ao - aepa napopnan,
a o1nnune o1 uyxepopnoro xpnc1nanc1aa. "pocaeuennme" uepkoannkn c1ann
nasmaa1L nsmunnkaHn "npoc1onapopLe", ne xenaauee kpec1n1Lcn.
c1opnn snae1 npnHepm, korpa ronnHme 6pann na aoopyxenne nonn1nn, npnpyHannme
nx ronn1ennHn. mpakunecn Hmcnn1enn DHepcon n opo 6mnn nx nepo6poxena1ennHn
nposaanm 1pancuenpen1annc1aHn sa kpankk, nko6m, o1aneuennoc1L nx c1peHnenn.
e, opnako, coxpannnn sa co6o a1o nasaanne, no anoxnnn a nero cao cHmcn,
nanpaanennm npo1na pennueckoro, yskono1pe6n1enLckoro, kann1annc1nueckoro
kpyrosopa. Mm - nsmunnkn, aknapmaakune a a1o nonn1ne o6oxec1anenne pnpopm.
smueckoe Hnpoanpenne nensHepnHo 6nnxe k noc1nxennk acenencknx 1annc1a, ueH
nospneune knnxnme pennrnn n qnnocoqckne 1pak1a1m. o rny6nne nponnknoaennn
27
a cokpoaennoe ono naHnoro onepexano n npepaocxnuano ace nocnepykune nayunme
poc1nxennn. annuo ypnan1enLnoe cosayune ppeaneunx Hnqoa c noaeunHn
npepc1aanennnHn o Mnpospannn.
pnHenenneH cokpoaennmx nosnann a xnsnn 6mnn ,
cansykune uenoaeka c - - M. ppeanoc1n cyuec1aoaano
1akoe nonn1ne, kak nocaeuenne, ocnoanoe snauenne ko1oporo saknkuanocL a
npeoponennn npoqannueckoro, neaexec1aennoro coc1onnnn, a c1nxannn , 1.
e. nosnannn poc1oaepnoro, 6es 1enn coHnennn.
pane cnoxno ckasa1L u1o-nn6o onpepenennoe o cy1n nopo6nmx Hnc1epn a
cnaannckoH nsmuec1ae. o Hepe xpnc1nannsaunn cokpoaennm cHmcn npapepoacknx
caeuennmx o6muaea y1paunaae1cn, nnme o6pnpm c1anoan1cn nenonn1nmHn. smuec1ao
kak napopnan pennrnn yxopn1 a nopcosnanne, a o6nac1L "cyeaepn" n
"npeppaccypkoa".
onn1L uenoaeka, npnnapnexaauero k conneuno, reponuecko anoxe, kpane 1pypno.
n Hmcnnn n noc1ynan ne 1ak, kak Hm, - n a1o c1aan1 nc1opnkoa a 1ynnk. "ananoc1L",
"orpannuennoc1L", "nenornunoc1L" nsmueckoro HnpononnHannn okasmaae1cn 1akoao
1onLko c 1oukn spennn coapeHennoro yuep6noro cosnannn. 1 1ex apeHen pounn po
nac ne caHn 1anopec1aa, a nnuL pekopaunn pa Hackn. cnep sa kpynneunH
nccnepoaa1eneH nepao6m1no kynL1ypm . epya-ypanoH Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o "Hm
nm1aeHcn aocc1anoan1L nLecy, ne anpea ee, no nyc1o cuene", rpe nanncanm
yaenuannm py6oH kypran, osepo n nec apann.
pnako nc1opnueckan nayka ocnoamaae1cn ne 1onLko na cyHHe ka6nne1nmx snann, no
n na rennanLno nn1ynunn, ko1opan acerpa nanne1cn 1ano o1penLnmx
amcokoopapennmx nnunoc1e, 1aknx kak c1poackn c ero "nerypouko" nnn anpo
qon nc1, npospeaaaunx co6m1nn Hnnyaunx aekoa uepes cosepuanne
, nannauecn pnn naunx pauypoa M.
6pnpm, caepuaeHme nekorpa na none pnpopm, aoanekann a Harnueckoe
asanHopec1ane: 6noHarne1nueckne 1okn, unpkynnpykune a kpyry popc1aennmx
cyuec1a - nkpe, saepe, uae1oa, pepeaLea, necnmx pyxoa - o6pasoamaann epnnoe
uyac1aenno-cnnoaoe none. saec1no, u1o uenoaek, naxopnuncn a aos6yxpennoH
coc1onnnn, nsnyuae1 oco6yk ncnxnueckyk aneprnk, 1mcnuekpa1no yHnoxakuykcn a
co6opnoH o6pnpoaoH 1pance. orpa aoo6paxenne, c1peHnennn n aonennn nkpe,
cnnouennmx opno acenornouakue pee, o6pe1ak1 co6c1aennyk xnsnL n paxe
saneua1neaak1cn na okpyxakue o6c1anoake, nopo6no 1oHy, kak cae1, aospec1ayn
na qo1onnenky, o6pasye1 ckpm1oe, neanpnHoe po nponanennn nso6paxenne (ono ec1L,
no ero ne anpno).
onHm, neca, ponnnm, kaHnn, aoo6ue Ha1epnanLnme o6Lek1m cnoco6nm nakonnn1L,
cocpepo1ounaa1L n xpann1L cnepm pyueanmx nopmaoa - uenoaeuecknx an6paun, a
sa1eH o1paaa1L nx ppyrnH nkpnH, cosayuno nac1poennmH. D1n "anpeosanncn" Hory1
6m1L aocnpnnn1m ne 1onLko neko1opmHn ncnoanpnunHn, no n oco6o uyac1an1enLnmHn
na1ypaHn, Hmcnenno yrny6naunHncn a panL apeHen, norpysnaunHncn a cosepuanne
pnpopm. H ypae1cn nopo "npoun1a1L" ne1onncL npounoro pyueanmHn ouaHn.
eaosHoxnoc1L nayunoro o6Lncnennn ncnoanpennn eue ne ocnoaanne pnn ero
o1pnuannn. cnoanpenne ne 6onee neo6LncnnHo, ueH ypnan1enLnme cnoco6noc1n
nyna1nkoa nnn paxe "o6munan" cnoco6noc1L anpe1L ao cne 6es noHoun rnas. aknHn
rnasaHn Hm anpnH cnm?
saec1nm Hnorouncnennme cnyuan, korpa porapkn, ocnoaannme na any1penneH uy1Le,
okasmaak1cn npnHo-1akn npopouecknHn. oc1a1ouno nasaa1L cosaespne nHen: . .
naaa1ckan, enpnx LnnHan, nonkoannk oce11, onL pan1on, e-nonxon, arrapp,
28
epuyopp... o, u1o aocnpnnnHanocL nx coapeHennnkaHn sa nrpy aoo6paxennn,
okasmaanocL 6esoun6ouno nn1ynune, npnaopnaue k ampakunHcn o1kpm1nnH.
o 6mnn npkne, nesaypnpnme nopanxnnkn-nepaonpoxopum, Heu1a1enn c neykpo1nHo
aone, o6ynnnme 6naropopno , rnyxne k nacHeukaH
akapeHnuecko uepnn, nenokone6nHo yaepennme a co6c1aenno npaao1e n caoeH
nasnauennn.
nnxnme uepan-ukonnpm nasmaann nx neyuaHn-pnne1an1aHn. nepaonauanLnoH
snauennn "pnne11o" - sann1ne papn caHoypoane1aopennn, a ne papn sapa6o1ka.
YuenmH nnrHenH, 6eccnnLnmH paxe a noHmcnax nopnn1Lcn na nepocnraeHyk
npaac1aennyk amco1y Y, 6mno npoc1o nenonn1no, nepoc1ynno nx
6eckopmc1ne.
6munme nkpn acerpa noppaxa1enn. ennanLnme pnne1an1m - . enn
caHo6m1en: on nnkoHy ne noppaxae1 n eHy noppaxa1L neaosHoxno. aopuec1ao
naunnae1cn 1aH, rpe konuak1cn npaanna. enn caH nnoxo snae1, kak 1aopn1. nuL
anac1nm any1pennn ronoc neyHonuno 1aeppn1 eHy: "m ponxen pena1L a1o! m n
1onLko m!" ne1 pnn nero na cae1e nnuero poc1oaepnee a1oro aeuero npepuyac1ann.
aos6yxpenno-caHosa6aennoH coc1onnnn c1npak1cn rpann Hexpy cosnanneH n
nopcosnanneH: cosna1enLnoe Hmunenne npoponxae1cn n ao cne, a 6eccosna1enLnan
pen1enLnoc1L ocyuec1anne1cn nanay. o cnoaaH ennHnpa ne6nnkoaa, "ean or" -
ero nLeca ns nsmuecknx apeHen, "aosnnkna kak unc1an nHnpoansaunn a npouecce
nenpepmanoro nncLHa 6es epnno nonpaakn, na u1o yuno 12 uacoa".
pna ns aennuaunx sarapok 1aopuec1aa - yHc1aennmH asopoH npospeaa1L ouep1annn
1anm: 1ak Mnkenanpxeno anpen c1a1yk 6oxec1aa, ckpm1yk a rnm6e HpaHopa.
opnnnnm renn - a1o, npexpe acero , L Y. D1o -
xnao ynpek "nnunH pyxoH", amsmaakun noa1oHy y nnx saanc1L n sno6y. m1L
snaHenn1mH ne 1o xe caHoe, u1o 6m1L aennknH. kopee nao6opo1. "ennkne npoxopn1
nesaHeuennmHn", ckasan ao-sm.
rpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao nkpe ne o1nnuak1 HmcnL 6nec1nuyk o1 Hmcnn rny6oko,
oc1poyHnmx napapokcoa Dnu1ena o1 ncnonnncko Houn an1a, Hopnoro pepa o1
Hypporo on6n, koke1c1ao aqkn o1 c1papann nuue, 1anan1nnaoro mcoukoro o1
rennanLnoro cennna.
anan1nnamHn Hory1 6m1L n kynne1nc1m, n ap1nc1m, n uaxHa1nc1m, n pan1nc1m, n
aqepnc1m. noao "1anan1" osnauano nepaonauanLno penLrn (26,2 kr cepe6pa).
anan1nnam uenoaek - a1o coaepuennm peHecnennnk, ne 6onee. enn - neu1o
kauec1aenno nnoe. pecL - pap camue.
anan1 pykoaopc1aye1cn paccypkoH, rennn noceuak1 Mysm. anan1 -
npo1naononoxnoc1L rennk. anan1 caHopoaonen, renn - aeunan
neypoane1aopennoc1L co6o. anan1 1uecnaaen, renn - uec1onk6na. anan1 nHee1
ueny, rennn kynn1L neaosHoxno, n6o on no caHo caoe cy1n ne a coc1onnnn
nnueHepn1L, nra1L ppyrnH n ce6e.
ackonLko noa1nueckoe npospenne onepexae1 nno pas 1ounme nccnepoaannn, anpno
ns cnoa Yn1Hena:
ouLk n o1kpmaak okno n cHo1pk, kak paneko pas6pmsranm a ne6e Hnpm,
ac, u1o n anxy - yHnoxL1e, ckonLko xo1n1e, - ec1L 1onLko
29
pannua noamx n noamx acenennmx.
anLue n panLue yxopn1 onn, pacunpnncL, aeuno pacunpnncL...
Yn1Hen 1aopnn a cepepnne npounoro aeka, a o pacunpnkuecn (nynLcnpykue)
cenenno c1ano nsaec1no cnyc1n 70 ne1.
"eune ae1nna nrpak1, 6m1L Hoxe1, rnaanyk ponL a ppeane nc1opnn uypecnoro
cosnpannn eHnn; 6m1L Hoxe1, aennkne ropnme uenn nannk1 cnepm nx npexnnx
ny1e", - nncan oaannc. Moxno 1onLko nopnan1Lcn Houn uenoaeueckoro
aoo6paxennn: oaannc xnn sa paa aeka po nonanennn 1aknx nonn1n, kak
ac1poreonornn n kocHoreo6nopn1Hnka, cansykunx sarapounyk unknnunoc1L
ropoo6pasoaannn n aoo6ue xnsnL eHnn c xnsnLk onnua n ero o6pauenneH aokpyr
nppa naue anak1nkn (1. n. ranak1nuecknH ropoH). pnHepno pas a 180-200
Hnnnnonoa ne1 eHnn copporae1cn a xec1oknx Hykax, nopoxpan ropnme xpe61m. D1o
apeHn opnoro ranak1nueckoro ropa; ero "snHa" nnn "ne1o" ckasmaae1cn na nsHenennn
nnka nnane1m.
eH pyxoanee uenoaek, 1eH 6onee on cnoco6en noc1nra1L nn1ynune.
onnuenoknonnnk an or aonno1nn a xnaonncn caon cokpoaennme paspyHLn o
pnpope. ero nono1nax nap HnpoH uapn1 nn1apnoe onnue, nsnnaakuee
6naropa1nme, xnao1aopnme no1okn.
aaopoxennm spennueH Mneunoro y1n, xypoxnnk cospae1 "aespnyk nouL" -
no1pncakun o6pas nenc1oao kny6nuecn cnnpaneanpno cenenno. an or anoxnn
a a1y saespnyk Hnc1epnk caon porapkn o Mnpospannn: npospenne, ocennauee ero
nepep nnkoH nouno pnpopm, npepaocxn1nno nospneune nayunme o1kpm1nn.
ap1nna nacmuena ppeannHn, Horyuec1aennmHn c1nxnnHn: anxpnHn, cHepuaHn,
aopoaopo1aHn, 6yuykunHn a kocHnueckoH okeane. uen1pe kap1nnm - 1opxec1ao
acenenckoro konoapauennn - nsanam aennuec1aenno cnnpann. nn 1ouL-a-1ouL
cxoxn c neko1opmHn qo1orpaqnnHn cnnpanLnmx ranak1nk, nonyuennmHn c noHouLk
Hounmx 1eneckonoa 1onLko a paapua1mx ropax XX aeka. nnpanLnan qopHa nauero
Mneunoro y1n yc1anoanena nnuL k 50-H ropaH 6naropapn npnHenennk
papnoac1ponoHnuecknx He1opoa. an or cao uepeap cospan a 1889 r.
oaec1L onn-c1apuero "opL6a sa oronL" - eue opnn ypnan1enLnm npnHep, korpa
aoo6paxenne nnca1enn okasmaae1cn 6nnxe k nc1nne, ueH nayunme pannme. pno ns
rnaaneunx sarapok an1pononornn nanne1cn nenpaaponopo6nan 6mc1po1a cHenm
neanpep1anLuea nkpLHn coapeHennoro anpa - kpoHanLonuaHn. pn conoc1aanennn
neanpep1anLuea c uenoaekoH pasyHnmH 6pocak1cn a rnasa peskne o1nnunn opnoro o1
ppyroro. 1nnunn a1n paxe 6onLue, ueH Hexpy neanpep1anLueH n nn1ekan1ponoH, a
paspma sanonnn1L neueH: ne1 cansykunx npoHexy1ounmx saenLea, kak 1oro 1pe6ye1
1eopnn aaonkunn, pa n apeHenn, o1aepennoro pnpopo na noc1enennoe
npeapauenne, uepecuyp Hano.
cae1e an1pononornuecknx qak1oa papannoackan rnno1esa a o1nouennn uenoaeka
okasanacL necoc1on1enLno. cno 1onLko opno: okono 40 1mcnu ne1 nasap a apone
anesanno, neaec1L o1kypa nonanne1cn cpasy sakonuennm, coaepuennm uenoaek -
npepc1aan1enL 6naropopno, 6enokypo kpoHanLoncko pacm n acero sa neckonLko
1mcnuene1n am1ecnne1 6eccnepno crnnyaunx neanpep1anLuea.
acoame pasnnunn cyuec1aoaann yxe a naneonn1e. enoaekoo6pasnm neanpep1aneu
ne npepc1aannn nepexopnyk c1ynenL pasan1nn, a nannncn nnuL rene1nuecknH
1ynnkoH, 6okoao, sacoxue ae1aLk a popocnoanoH ppeae uenoaeka, ne cnoco6no
nnuero nopopn1L.
30
o apeHena onn a nayke nepaenc1aoaana nexn1pan papannoackan rnno1esa,
nonLsoaaauancn nsaec1no nonynnpnoc1Lk a cnny 1oro, u1o epnnc1aenno
anL1epna1nao e amc1aannnacL eue 6onee pypaukan 6n6neckan porHa
kpeaunonnsHa. ap1nna c1anoanennn uenoaeka, a o6ueH, cun1anacL yxe sakonuenno
n pncoaanacL apope napapa, rpe sa1mnok a sa1mnok uarak1: anepepn - xoHo cannenc,
sa nnH - neanpep1aneu, panee - nn1ekan1pon na nonycorny1mx, a csapn -
aac1panonn1ek.
ornacno rocnopc1aoaaaunH 1orpa npepc1aanennnH o6 an1ponorenese, 6nnxaunHn,
npnHmHn n nenocpepc1aennmHn npepuec1aennnkaHn kpoHanLonuea 6mnn
neanpep1anLum, amHepune a nesanaHn1nme apeHena, a no1oHy kpoHanLoneu ne Hor nx
anpe1L 1ak xe, kak Hm ne HoxeH yanpe1L xnaoro npanpanpapepa. o nocnepykune
nckonaeHme naxopkn naneoan1pononoroa nokasann, u1o kpoHanLonum nonannncL
nesaancnHo o1 neanpep1anLuea n kakoe-1o apeHn c nnHn cocyuec1aoaann, npnueH a1o
cocyuec1aoaanne paneko ne acerpa 6mno HnpnmH. ueanpno, u1o neanpep1anLum
poxnaann cao aek cpepn nkpe coapeHennoro anpa. onn a1oro sna1L ne Hor, opnako
on okasancn npaa, onncmaan ac1peuy eaponeonpnoro kpoHanLonua ao co canpenmHn
saeponopo6nmHn neanpep1anLuaHn-ksaHHaHn.
Mnc1nk n nuenoaop-nk6n1enL Me1epnnnk sa nonaeka po 1oro, kak y nuen 6mn
o6napyxen "aqqek1 rpynnm", nncan: "ona opna ne Hoxe1 6es ppyrnx". oqHan a
"Dnnkcnpax ca1anm" ao HnoroH npepaocxn1nn nospneune poc1nxennn ncnxna1pnn.
Moxno npnaec1n n ppyrne npnHepm 1oro, kak nn1ynunn nnca1ene onepexae1 nayunme
o1kpm1nn. nk1o ns nnx, - nn c1poackn, nn qon nc1, nn naaa1ckan, nn
ne6nnkoa, nn onn ne 6mn npoqeccnonanLnmH yuenmH, no nx a1opxenne a o6nac1L
sarapok ppeaneue nc1opnn 6mno aecLHa nnopo1aopnmH. ak n nac1onuan pa6o1a
npecnepye1 uenL ne c1onLko o1ae1n1L na aonpocm, ckonLko nx noc1aan1L.
* * *
pexpe acero, napo o16pocn1L nnockn xpnc1nanckn asrnnp na nc1opnk, kak na
pasan1ne o1 pnkoc1n k unannnsaunn. ono1oH (1. e. kaHennoH) aeke uenoaeueckoro
6naropenc1ann rnacn1 caeuennme npepannn acex napopoa. D1o xe nop1aepxpak1
coapeHennme apxeonorn, nc1opnkn n a1norpaqm: on6n, poHH, annnc, epanc n
ppyrne. ny6nna nponnknoaennn ppeannx Hyppeuoa a cyunoc1L 6m1nn nepoc1ynna pnn
coapeHennoro uenoaeka. D1o npep nnHn npeknonnncn xyan-xoy, caH aennuaun
Hmcnn1enL n npoanpeu cepo c1apnnm: ", kak coaepuennm 6mnn nkpn ppeanoc1n!
nn 6mnn paanm can1mH n HyppeuaH, unc1m kak e6o n eHnn...". "peanne, -
y1aepxpae1 na1on a "nne6e", - 6mnn nyuue nac n o6n1ann 6nnxe k oraH".
npoH c coaepuenneue, nenpeasopenno no xypoxec1aennoHy ypoank neuepno
xnaonncLk, pnpoH c "ponc1opnuecknHn" kaHennmHn n koc1nnmHn ckynLn1ypaHn
neaepoHmx kynL1yp, an1ponoHopqnme c1enm nospneunx unannnsaun kaxy1cn
kpane 6ecnoHounmHn, 6espapnmHn nonm1kaHn nso6pasn1L uenoaeka.
oaeune o1kpm1nn neponcnxonornn nop1aepxpak1, u1o nepao6m1nm uenoaek
o6napan nepkxnnnmHn cnoco6noc1nHn n HosroH, c1pyk1ypno 1aknH xe, kak Hosr
epaknn1a nnn nqaropa. naue eHy ne ypanocL 6m cospa1L c1onL amcokopasan1yk
kynL1ypy, eHy ne xaa1nno 6m Hnornx yuac1koa, o6ecneunaakunx upesamuano
cnoxnyk pa6o1y nsmka, cnoco6noc1n k cnHaonnueckoHy Hmunennk n
yHosaknkuennnH, kacakunHcn nan6onee o1aneuennmx sakonoHepnoc1e Mnpospannn.
ue a npounoH aeke kpynneun an1pononor poka, cpaannaan pasan1ne Hosra nnn
eHkoc1L uepena kpoHanLonuea n coapeHennmx eHy qpanuysoa, nauen, u1o c1pon1enn
Herann1oa n aoo6ue ppeaneune o6n1a1enn eaepno aponm no pasHepaH Hosra
31
npeaocxopnnn nmneunee ee nacenenne (anke "enoaek", 1. , 1900 r., c1p. 544).
enoaek naneonn1a uenoaeunee uenoaeka coapeHennoro!
a, 1o 6mn aennkonennm o6paseu 1enecnoro n npaac1aennoro coaepuenc1aa; enoaek
a nonno Hepe, c pyuo pe6enka, HouLk a1ne1a n yHoH qnnocoqa.
y1aepxpenneH xpnc1nanc1aa yHc1aennm nporpecc c1an nonnHa1Lcn kak
npno6pe1enne noamx snann c uenLk nopa6ouennn pnpopm. xo1nnk kaHennoro
aeka snan ne HenLue nauero; 1onLko snannn ero 6mnn ppyrne!
Mnorne ero poc1nxennn oc1ak1cn pnn nac sarapkaHn: kak cyHen on ns pnkoro xnunnka
cpena1L npepannoro ppyra? aknHn neaepoHmHn opypnnHn (6asanL1 noppae1cn 1onLko
xopouo sakanenno c1ann) amcekan na ckanax ne1pornnqm? ak Hor npocaepnnaa1L a
nenoppakueHcn kaHne 1onuaune o1aepc1nn?
aknHn nnc1pyHen1aHn o6pa6a1maanncL Hnoro1onnme rpann1nme uapm, nHekune
npeanLnyk cqepnueckyk qopHy n pasHeuennme a sarapounmx reoHe1pnuecknx
nopnpkax a pxynrnnx en1panLno Hepnkn?
norpe6ennnx kpoHanLonuea 6nns napnHnpa napenm 1nxenme, coaepuenno npnHme
konLn ns uenLnoro HaHon1oaa 6nann. pno pnnno 1,65 H, ppyroe - 2,42 H. o u1o6m
nsro1oan1L 1akne konLn, napo na apeHn pasHnrun1L nsorny1m 200-knnorpaHHoam
6naenL n pacnpnHn1L ero. aknH o6pasoH? eropnn Hm a1o pena1L ne yHeeH n ne
HoxeH paxe npn6nnsn1enLno npepc1aan1L ce6e, kak pasHnrun1L cnonoayk koc1L, ne
paspyuna ee.
e pasrapana po cnx nop 1ana knapkn rnran1cknx kaHne, ckpennennmx naHep1ao 6es
acnko saHaskn, nopornannmx nac1onLko, u1o Hexpy nnHn ne npocaunaae1cn paxe
kannn aopm. "enoaeky kaHennoro aeka - nenonn1oHy, okneae1annoHy n
nepoouenennoHy" - ponxno 6m1L nocaeueno nccnepoaanne Herann1oa, no Hnennk
aceHnpno nsaec1noro ocnoaa1enn ac1poapxeonornn x. oknnca.
erenpm n Hnqm napopoa Hnpa epnnopyunm a 1oH, u1o noun1ak1 1aopuaHn a1nx
ncnonnncknx coopyxenn ppeanoc1n Haroa nnn aennkanoa. kpn 6onee nospnnx anox
paxe ne Hornn aoo6pasn1L, u1o cnoxennme ns uypoanunmx kaHennmx rnm6 xpaHm
onnua 6mnn penoH pyk npoc1mx cHep1nmx. nn 6mnn y6expenm, u1o aosaec1n 1akne
1aeppmnn Hornn nnuL cyuec1aa, napenennme caepxuenoaeuecko cnno, repon nn6o
nony6orn.
asaannn, ko1opme nospneune nokonennn pann a1nH nepao6m1nmH cae1nnnuaH,
aospanrny1mH saponro po ernne1cknx nnpaHnp, roaopn1 caHn sa ce6n: "koHna1m
ncnonnnoa" - a Laeunn, "noxe ncnonnnoa" n "Hornnm aennkanoa" - a epHannn, "rpo1
e" - ao panunn. a eaepnoH aakase nx nHenyk1 "6ora1mpcknHn HornnaHn", 1. k.
ne1 coHnenn, u1o 1onLko 6ora1mpn Hornn c1acknaa1L c rop 1akne orpoHnme kaHnn n
rpoHospn1L nx ppyr na ppyra. 1960 r. caHm HanenLkn ns ponLHenoa sapyHann
nepeaes1n a yxyHn: paa nopLeHnmx kpana ne cHornn nopnn1L kpmuy ponLHena.
onLko uepes rop 6onee Hounme kpanm nosaonnnn poc1aan1L Herann1 a paso6pannoH
anpe a Hyse. o co6pa1L ero sanoao okasanocL ne no cnnaH: opny c1eny pas6nnn, a
kpmuy ne cHornn pasaepny1L 1ak, u1o6m nno1no npnrna1L ee. onLuo sasop oc1ancn
1aH, rpe panLue ne axopnno paxe nesane 6pn1am.
Xnaune 6onee 1pex 1mcnu ne1 nasap rpekn 1ponnckne c1enm noun1ann nponsaepenneH
nonnona n ocepona. o apeHena oHepa ceHn unknonaH npnnncmaanocL
aospanxenne nasaannmx no nx nHenn unknonnuecknx c1en Mnken n npnnqa.
aasann cun1an nx uypoH, npeaocxopnunH ernne1ckne nnpaHnpm. aknH xe uypoH
onn kaxy1cn n naH.
32
"acckasmaak1, saHok nn1axenL noc1ponnn aennkanm", - roaopn1 opaenan
pnc1any.
ornacno nerenpe, orpoHnme kaHennme nnn1m, ncnonLsoaannme npn c1pon1enLc1ae
Herann1nueckoro xpaHa na o. ManL1a (VII-V 1mcnuene1nn po n. a.) nepenocnna na
ronoae aennkanua, pykn ko1opo 6mnn sann1m HnapenueH.
o npepannk, aocxopnueHy ko apeHenaH koponn p1ypa, uapope Mepnnn cnno
aonue6noro cnoaa nepenec ns pnanpnn n asrpoHospnn ppyr na ppyra kaHnn
1oynxenpxa, a1oro aocLHoro uypa cae1a.
n6npn, noHnHo sarapounmx enncecknx nsaannn, ac1peuak1cn ppeaneune
saxoponennn, amnoxennme kaHennmHn nnn1aHn aecoH po 50 1onn. c1opnk XVIII aeka
. . Mnnnep 1ak nx onncmaae1: "co6nnaoro ypnanennn poc1onm npeaennkne kaHnn,
konHn neko1opme Hornnm o6knapenm, n npn 1oH a 1aknx Hec1ax, a konx no6nnsoc1n ne
anpno nnkaknx kaHennmx rop, ns ko1opmx 6m onme kaHnn 6pa1L Hoxno 6mno, 1ak u1o
cnn kaHnn c neonncannmH 1pypoH ns aecLHa o1panennmx Hec1 npnaosn1L napnexano".
c1poa onane (aponnnckne oc1poaa) nanne1cn opnnH ns oc1a1koa Ha1epnka,
ncuesnyauero a okeancknx 6espnax yxe na naHn1n uenoaeuec1aa. c1poa xpann1
pynnm ouenL ppeane n coaepuenno sarapouno kynL1ypm. axe a 1ex pasaannnax,
u1o oc1anncL o1 nekorpa rposnmx paopuoa n rpo6nnu, ec1L neu1o nac1onLko
ouenoHnnkuee n ne noppakueecn pasyHnoHy ocHmcnennk, u1o neko1opme
nccnepoaa1enn npnnncmaak1 nx coopyxenne aneseHnmH cyuec1aaH. Hec1nme
npepannn noaec1ayk1, u1o nx co1aopnnn Horyune mnoaLn onnua, ocnoaa1enn
6oxec1aenno pnnac1nn no-nna n no-ona.
peanne aqnonckne npepannn y1aepxpak1, u1o ncnonnnckne c1enm kcyHa 6mnn
aospanrny1m unknonaHn a nesanaHn1nme apeHena.
npycm c paannx nop noun1ak1 ppeaneune ns Dneqan1cknx neuep, amceuennme a
ckanax, 1aopenneH pyxoa n rnran1oa.
ac1pannckne 1yseHum npnnncmaak1 cospanne Herann1oa ns Haccnanmx kaHennmx
rnm6 sarapounmH "aonpxnnaH", a ko1opmx neko1opme yuenme anpn1 ac1ponaa1oa c
ppyrnx nnane1.
opop, cospannm aco nran1oa, 1ak au1ekn nasmaann eo1nxyakan, uLn
konoccanLnme nnpaHnpm n xpaHm nac1onLko nopasnnn nx aoo6paxenne, u1o nnpeum
ne Hornn ce6e npepc1aan1L, u1o6m nopo6nm 1n1annueckn 1pyp 6mn no cnnaH
o6munmH nkpnH.
a nsmke nnkoa naryanako osnauae1 Mep1am ropop. ono1onnme, a 6ykaanLnoH
cHmcne cnoaa, pasaannnm naryanako npepc1aannnn co6o nepaspeunHyk sarapky
paxe pnn 1aknx nepaoknaccnmx c1pon1ene kak nnkn.
ennkne nepyanckne c1enm, kpenoc1n-cae1nnnua Mauy-nkuy, ycko n akcayaHan
cyuec1aoaann saponro po npnuec1ann a a1n Hec1a nnkoa. ackonkn a ycko
nop1aeppnnn, u1o a1a uapckan c1onnua nnkoa noc1poena na pasaannnax kakoro-1o
6onee ppeanero ropopa. akcayaHan, eue npn nnkax noun1aauncn nc1opnuecknH
naHn1nnkoH, coopyxen ns rnm6, kaxpan aecoH po 150 1onn. opasn1enLnan 1ounoc1L
opnen1npoakn na onnue, o1nnuno npopyHannan an1ncecHnunoc1L n nepasrapannan
1ana aoppyxennn kaHne, - ace a1o sac1aanno ncnanuea cun1a1L a1o1 apxn1ek1ypnm
uepeap 1aopenneH pLnaona. ornacno xe npepannnH caHnx nepyancknx xpeuoa-
ac1ponoHoa aHay1oa, ace ppeaneune un1apenn ocnoaanm o1aaxnmHn 6enokypmHn
33
no1oHkaHn caeuenno pacm mnoae onnua, npepuec1aennnkaHn nnkoa, o1 ko1opmx
nocnepnne n sanHc1aoaann ace caon snannn.
pann1 o6e1 Honuannn kaHennme ncnonnnm yna eHnn (1. n. oc1poaa acxn) -
o6noHka sa1onyauero kon1nnen1a. ce nonm1kn o6Lncnn1L 1pancnop1npoaky 6es
noapexpenn n aospanxenne na noc1aHen1m c1onL orpoHnmx 1nxec1e 1epnenn n
1epnn1 neypauy (aknkuan nonm1ky ypa eeppana). aHn oc1poan1nne y1aepxpak1,
u1o a ppeanoc1n c1a1yn nepepanranncL c noHouLk Hanm, nekoe sarapouno cnnm,
nmne 6esaosapa1no y1epnnno. saec1nm nccnepoaa1enL ppeannx kynL1yp pancnc
MasLep, noce1naun oc1poa, nnue1 paxe o aosHoxnoH ncnonLsoaannn
anek1poHarnn1nmx cnn nnn cnn an1nrpaan1aunn.
poqeccop apxeonornn Moppnc . xeccen, Hnoro ne1 nsyuaaun unknonnueckne
coopyxennn, cun1ae1, u1o a ppeanoc1n "npo6neHm 1pancnop1a peuanncL kaknHn-1o
sarapouno cxopnmHn He1opaHn". aknHn?
poqeccop roaopn1 o kaennpnoH nckycc1ae kaHenno knapkn neaepoHmx sopunx
nH6a6ae, o "Hnnnnone rpann1nmx nnn1", nopuepknaan, u1o ne1 npnsnakoa po6mun
kaHnn na Hec1e: - "1kypa asn1 a1o1 kaHenL? ak on poc1aanen ckpa, ecnn ne no
aospyxy? a xe npo6neHa, u1o n a epy, rnn1e, aanL6eke..."
aknH, coaepuenno neaoo6pasnHmH pnn nac cnoco6oH coaepuann ernn1nne
reponueckn nopanr poc1aakn ns kaHenonoHen n yc1anoakn 1mcnue1onnmx Hononn1oa
MeHnona n aHceca II? ornacno nocnepnnH pannmH, a1n kaHenonoHnn naxopnnncL na
nna1o Maka11aH, a 700 kH o1 Hec1a aospanxennn MeHnona.
esaaepuennm o6ennck a cyane nHee1 aec 1200 1onn. pancnop1npoaka n
aospanxenne nopo6nmx konoccoa 1pe6yk1 npeoponennn 1aknx 1pypnoc1e, nepep
ko1opmHn nacye1 paxe Hounan coapeHennan 1exnnka c ee rnran1cknHn nopLeHnmHn
kpanaHn.
panuysckn nc1opnk MapcenL Ha a knnre "mnoaLn onnua" canpe1enLc1aye1 o
Herann1ax pasnnnn, cnoxennmx ns kaHne aecoH camue 2000 1onn kaxpm. pecL
6esHonac1ayk1 paxe nerenpm... , nakoneu, nerenpapnan 1eppaca xpaHa onnua a
aanL6eke, nsyHnenne nepep ko1opo nac1onLko npeamuae1 acnkne npepc1aanennn o
qnsnuecknx aosHoxnoc1nx uenoaeka, u1o neckonLko cepLesnmx yuenmx n nnca1ene
paspa6a1maak1 rnno1esy o ee neseHnoH nponcxoxpennn. nn nonarak1, u1o 1eppaca
sa Hnoro aekoa po 1oro, kak pnHnnne ncnonLsoaann ee a kauec1ae ro1oaoro
qynpaHen1a pnn xpaHa nn1epa, 6mna aospanrny1a saespnmHn npnuenLuaHn n
npepc1aanne1 co6o neu1o apope pake1no c1ap1oao nnouapkn. o Hnennk a1nx
nccnepoaa1ene, nnaue neaosHoxno o6Lncnn1L, kak 1pn ynoxennme a ocnoaanne
Hononn1a, aec kaxporo ns ko1opmx poc1nrae1 a cpepneH 1200 1onn, 6mnn poc1aanenm
ns kaHenonoHen n nopnn1m na amco1y ceHn He1poa.
apn cpaanennn: c1a1yn 1onL1ekckoro 6oxec1aa nanoka aecn1 "acero" 167 1onn. nuL
a 1965 r. ypanocL nepeaes1n ee a Mexnko, npnueH npnunocL noc1pon1L noayk popory,
ykpenn1L Hoc1m n paxe cpena1L cneunanLnm npnuen pnn nepeaoskn. Hononn1nm
kynon Haasonen eopopnxa a aaenne? ro aec 800 1onn, n nocne 1ua1enLnoro
c1pyk1ypnoro anannsa kaHnn 6mno napeno 1ounoe Hec1o ero po6mun - a 300 kH o1
aaennm!
anpene 1975 r. na Hmce anaaepan pake1a "a1ypn" 6mna poc1aanena k c1ap1oaoHy
koHnnekcy. aepxrnran1ckoHy rycennunoHy 1pancnop1epy Hounoc1Lk 8000
nouapnnmx cnn, no1pe6oaanocL 6 uacoa, u1o6m no rpaaneaoHy ny1n nepeaes1n 770-
1onnm rpys na pacc1onnne 3,5 Hnnn.
34
o aepL a kaHenonoHnnx aanL6eka xpan caoero uaca ue1aep1m kaHenL, aec
ko1oporo nou1n a 1pn pasa npeaocxopn1 aec "a1ypna" n poc1nrae1 2000 1onn! 1o6m
narnnpnee npepc1aan1L ce6e uypoanunm aec amceuennoro ncnonnna, acnoHnnH, u1o
cpepnn aec cnona paaen 4-H 1onnaH. nepoaa1enLno, Hononn1, paanm aecy 500
cnonoa, napo 6mno poc1aan1L n nopnn1L na ceHnHe1poayk amco1y. onc1nne: nn6o
npnuenLum ns kocHoca, nn6o npeoponenne cnnm 1nxec1n nocpepc1aoH ncnxnuecko
aneprnn. pe1Lero ne pano.
ky1annme sa6aenneH aennuec1aennme oc1ankn nepao6m1nmx kynL1yp nannk1cn
neHmHn canpe1ennHn 1oro, u1o a 1e apeHena nkpn snann a1y Horyuec1aenneuyk
aneprnk, cnoco6nyk 1aopn1L uypeca.
spaana 6mno saHeueno, u1o nnme nnunoc1n Hory1 aoneao HmcnLk okasmaa1L
aospec1ane na Ha1epnk na pacc1onnnn. Mapko ono nnue1, u1o y6na-an o6nsan
o6pauenneH a naHansH 1n6e1cknH naHaH, ko1opme a pokasa1enLc1ao nc1nnnoc1n caoe
nponoaepn sac1aannn annnm ky6ok caHoHy nopnn1Lcn k ry6aH nHnepa1opa: "o
naroaopaH pa no konpoac1ay a1nx noaknx snaxape-6akun nonnme uaun caHn co6o
nopnnHak1cn c nony n necy1cn k aennkoHy xany, n nnk1o k 1eH uauaH ne
npn1parnaancn. ecn1L 1mcnu nkpe anpenn a1o: nc1nnnan, npaapa, 6es acnko nxn.
nekpoHan1nn caepyune ckaxy1 aaH, u1o peno 1o aosHoxnoe".
npncy1c1ann cnnLnoro HepnyHa npepHe1m Hory1 nepepanra1Lcn 6es npnkocnoaennn,
kak 6m neanpnHo pyko. norpa a1n caepxnopHanLnme cnoco6noc1n nponannk1cn,
coaepuenno 6eccosna1enLno. Laepckn ny1euec1aennnk Dpnk ynpkanc1 a knnre
"kpn a pxynrnnx" onncan nopasnauee ero aospec1ane na npepHe1m Ha1epnanLnoro
Hnpa co c1oponm xenunnm, naxopnauecn a rny6okoH cne.
panuysckn nccnepoaa1enL nL6ep1 pe oua, nocae1naun caok xnsnL nsyuennk
nopo6nmx nanenn, nasaan nx akc1epnopnsaune (amxopoH ao-ane) panra1enLno
cnnm. e oua cun1an, u1o nx nponsaopn1 qnknpnueckn paonnk uenoaeka, ero
ac1panLnoe 1eno, ko1opoe npn onpepenennmx ycnoannx o1penne1cn o1 1ena HepnyHa n
pec1aye1 na pacc1onnnn.
saec1nm nnca1enL yn Xakonno, 6ypyun qpanuyscknH koncynoH a npnn,
neopnokpa1no na6nkpan n nccnepoaan qenoHenm qaknpoa. nncmaan nx
ncnxoknne1nueckne cnoco6noc1n, on o1Heuae1, u1o caHn qaknpm ne Hory1 o6Lncnn1L,
kaknH o6pasoH nepepanrak1 npepHe1m 6es qnsnueckoro na nnx aospec1ann, a 1o
apeHn kak nexa1 nenopanxno, cansannme n naxopnunecn nop neycmnnmH
na6nkpenneH yuac1nnkoa onm1a. aknpm roaopn1 1onLko, u1o kaknH-1o neo6LncnnHmH
cnoco6oH "amxopn1 ns ce6n". opo6noro coc1onnnn "amxopa ns ce6n" onn poc1nrak1
caHonorpyxenneH a 1panc.
nno1esa ac1panLnoro paonnka uenoaeka, ampanny1an pnn o6Lncnennn 1eneknnesa,
nonyunna nop1aepxpenne a saHeua1enLnmx onm1ax, nponsaopnaunxcn a 1930 r. a
apnxckoH He1ancnxonornueckoH nnc1n1y1e. mcokouyac1an1enLnmHn npn6opaHn
1orpa 6mno saqnkcnpoaano ampenenne nekoe ncxopnue ns oprannsHa HepnyHa
6noanepre1nuecko aHanaunn, nponsaopnue ncnxoknne1nueckne qenoHenm. aH
HepnyH (ypn Lnepep) npe6maan a rny6okoH 1pance.
poncxopn1 am6poc ao-ane cryc1ka ncnxnuecko aneprnn (nnorpa ero nasmaak1
ak1onnasHo, ncnxonnasHo nnn 6nonnasHo), npeoponeaakuero cnny 1nxec1n n
pec1aykuero na Ha1epnk nopo6no 1oHy, kak Harnn1 pec1aye1 na xeneso. D1o
c1anoan1cn 6onee nonn1nmH, ecnn yuec1L, u1o Ha1epnn aoace ne 1aeppL, a acero nnuL
anpnHoe nponanenne upesamuano cryuenno aneprnn. Dneprnn epnna ao Hnornx
nponanennnx. cnxnueckan cnna uenoaeka cnoco6na k akanaanen1noHy
npeo6pasoaannk a ppyrne anpm aneprnn, a uac1noc1n, a aneprnk knne1nueckyk.
35
A. M. y1nepoa nncan a c6opnnke "1a1Ln no HepnyHnsHy": "...aone-neaone
noc1enenno n Hepnenno, no neo1pasnHo n npnaepen 6mn k npnsnannk peanLnoc1n
HepnyHnuecknx nanenn. pnunna a1oro npnsnannn saknkuanacL a 1oH, u1o
M ".
ynpyrn kpn neopnokpa1no npncy1c1aoaann na cnnpn1nuecknx ceancax snaHenn1oro
HepnyHa asannn annapnno. o canpe1enLc1ay nx pouepn, o1He1naue
6ecnpnc1pac1nm yH caonx popn1ene, "Lep c oco6o c1pac1Lk nn1epecye1cn a1nHn
onm1aHn... norpa HepnyH nonyuae1 ouenoHnnkune pesynL1a1m, n o6a yuenmx ouenL
6nnskn k y6expennoc1n".
cnkan nopnnnnan nayka npo6yxpae1 a nac1onueH yuenoH Hnc1nueckoe uyac1ao n
nens6exno npnaopn1 ero k nan1enc1nueckoHy Hnpoaosspennk, a 1o apeHn kak
Hnc1nueckne nckannn acerpa 6mnn n 6ypy1 opyxo1aopnkunH nauanoH nopnnnno
naykn.
mpakuncn 6nonor eHn Loaen roaopnn: "c1L o6Lek1nanan cansL nenocpepc1aenno
Hexpy uenoaekoH, ko1opm roaopn1 nnn xe pyHae1, u1o on xoue1, u1o6m nponsouno
nekoe nanenne n nenocpepc1aenno 1eH nanenneH, ko1opoe nponcxopn1. D1o ne
caepxLec1ec1aennm qenoHen, a neu1o npncyuee uenoaeky n pnpope. Mm nnuL
ponxnm uar sa uaroH sapaaa1L aonpocm pnpope!"
X-Y, pykoaopnaune aospanxenneH rpanpnosnmx cae1nnnu onnua,
nepepanrann kaHennme rpoHapm nocpepc1aoH aonn na pacc1onnnn, nopo6no 1oHy, kak
a1o a Hnnna1kpe nnorpa nponcxopn1 ao apeHn ncnxoknne1nuecknx onm1oa. o
cyuec1ay aepL coaepuenno 6espasnnuno, nepeHeuae1cn nn nna1ok aecoH a 5 rpaHHoa
nnn Hononn1 aecoH a 50 1onn, - pasnnua specL ne kauec1aennan, a acero nnuL
konnuec1aennan n no1oHy necyuec1aennan, saancnuan o1 pyueanoro coc1onnnn
uenoaeka, ero nepano-Harne1nuecko cnnm n aoneao yc1anoakn, o1nouennn
okpyxakunx, noropm, kocHo6nonornuecknx pannmx n Hnornx ppyrnx nonn1nmx n
nenonn1nmx npnunn.
eo6xopnHo saHe1n1L, u1o napancnxonornueckne onm1m ncnxoknnesa n nean1aunn,
nponsaopnune o6muno nan6onee cnnLnoe aneua1nenne, nannk1 co6o a 6onLunnc1ae
cnyuaea nnuL nponanenne ncnxnuecknx cnn nnsuero nopnpka, nHekunx Hano o6uero
c pec1an1enLno cnno yxa.
* * *
ak u1o xe nponsouno 40 1mcnu ne1 nasap? ak aosropenacL nckpa uenoaeueckoro
pasyHa? nn k1o ee saponnn? op pasyHoH cnepye1 nonnHa1L cnoco6noc1L nHenno k
o1aneuennoHy Hmunennk, k npeanLnmH npepc1aanennnH, a o1nnune o1 paccypka,
npncyuero a 1o nnn nno Hepe aceHy xnaoHy.
onLue acero ypnanne1 1o, u1o nsyHn1enLnm opran Hmcnn - pasan1o uenoaeueckn
Hosr (kak n caH ero o6napa1enL) nonanncn kak no Hanoaennk aonue6no nanoukn,
acnepc1ane kakoro-1o npnpopnoro ckauka, Hnnyn 1ue1no pasmcknaaeHme
"nepoc1akune" c1ynenn k o6esLnnonopo6nmH npepkaH.
osHoxnoc1n uenoaeueckoro Hosra nopasn1enLnm: poc1a1ouno ykasa1L na nkpe-
cue1unkoa, nponsaopnunx yHonoHpaun1enLno cnoxnme amuncnennn, npnueH caHn
cue1unkn ne snak1, kaknH o6pasoH c Honnnenocno 6mc1po1o n 6acnocnoano
1ounoc1Lk, kak 6m uy1n, peuak1 sapaun, 1pe6ykune neckonLknx pne npnHenennn
o6munmx He1opoa ncuncnennn. e nHekuan nnkakoro o6pasoaannn nnpycka
Lakyn1ana aan neopnokpa1no no6expana a copeanoaannnx c DM, 1. e.
uenoaeueckn Hosr sarpyxen nnuL na nnu1oxnyk uac1L caonx ckpm1mx aosHoxnoc1e.
36
au Hosr, aepnee naue 6eccosna1enLnoe o6napae1 1aknHn cnoco6noc1nHn, o
ko1opmx cosna1enLnoe paxe ne nopospeaae1. Mm npoc1o ne yHeeH nnn pasyunnncL
nonLsoaa1Lcn a1nH uypecnmH papoH pnpopm. o noueHy n pnn uero a1nH papoH
napeneno caHoe Honopoe na eHne n caHoe nenpncnoco6nennoe cyuec1ao?
aH nLqpep Yonnec, nesaancnHo o1 apanna cospaaun 1eopnk aaonkunn,
nepoyHeaan, o1kypa y uenoaeka 1ako 6onLuo, "6ecnpeuepen1nm", "6oronopo6nm
Hosr"? Yonnec ne ponyckan, u1o 1ako coaepuennm opran Hor pasan1Lcn c1onL 6mc1po
no cpaanennk c uepenauLnH xopoH ace oc1anLno aaonkunn nnuL acnepc1ane
ec1ec1aennoro o16opa: "c1ec1aennm o16op Hor 6m cna6pn1L pnkapn HosroH, ne Hnoro
npeamuakunH Hosr o6esLnnm, Hexpy 1eH kak na caHoH pene ero Hosr 1onLko uy1L-
uy1L Henee pasan1, ueH y pnpoaoro unena naunx nayunmx o6uec1a".
Yonnec cun1an yuenne apanna nano nepoc1a1ounmH pnn o6Lncnennn aosnnknoaennn
uenoaeka kak uenoaeka, a ne uenoaekoo6pasnoro xnao1noro: "mcun asyH
pykoaopnn pasan1neH uenoaeka a onpepenennoH nanpaanennn n k onpepenenno uenn,
nHenno, a 1oH xe cHmcne, a kakoH uenoaek pykoaopn1 pasan1neH Hnornx xnao1nmx n
pac1enn".
Yonnec ponyckan cyuec1aoaanne "ennkoro yxa cenenno" n pyxoa-nocpepnnkoa
nopunnennoro snauennn, nopoxpennmx, ec1ec1aenno ns ro co6c1aenno cy6c1anunn.
ako amaop aoace ne 6mn yc1ynko uepkoannkaH: Yonnec nop ennknH yxoH
nonnHan nano ne 6n6neckoro eroay-aaaoqa. pnc1nane nonn1ne poc1oaepnoc1n, 1.
e. npnsnanne 1oro, u1o cyuec1aye1 neu1o, ne Horyuee, opnako, 6m1L onpepeneno
paccypkoH, nanpnHep X, YL, , YM, nopHennnn nonn1neH aepm a
ne6mnnuy, u1o ac a1o co1aopnn 6or "ns nnuero". Ykasmaan na 6eccnnne 6nonornn
o6Lncnn1L uenenanpaanennme Hy1aunn, 6orocnoam o6Lnannk1 nx aHeua1enLc1aoH
6ora.
"pnako ac xe - ec1L", - nopyHae1 un1a1enL. oneuno, ec1L. o saueH ncka1L
a1o cosnpakuee - a napnpnpopnoH 6ore nnn a cosaespnn pnona? e1 6ora-
1aopua, ne 6mno npnuenLuea-nnonnane1nn, M X
. ceH nanennnH pnpopm cony1c1aye1 any1pennnn pyxoanan xnsnL, n6o
X 1akan xe nepaoocnoaa 6m1nn, kak n Y: a1o pae coc1aannkune cnnoaoro
nonn cenenno, asanHonpeapauakunecn n cnnaakunecn a amcueH epnnc1ae. XnsnL
npncyua pnpope 1ak xe, kak cae1 npncyu onnuy; ona aeuno cyuec1aye1 ao
cenenno, nno1kypa ne aosnnkan, kak n caHa cenennan.
m1ancL o1ae1n1L na aonpoc o 1oH, kakne cnnm nanpaannnn caepx6mc1pyk aaonkunk
uenoaeueckoro Hosra, yuenme n qnnocoqm ampanrann caHme pasnnunme, nopo ouenL
cnoxnme n xn1poyHnme npepnonoxennn. esaHeuennmH oc1anocL 1onLko opno, caHoe
npoc1oe, caHoe oueanpnoe n caHoe 6esmckycc1aennoe:
M M M-.
ce ec1ec1aennme pennrnn, ace aso1epnueckne yuennn nonarann a ocnoay Mnpospannn
aennuec1aennyk nenosnaaaeHyk nepaonpnunny n noun1ann ee nop pasnmHn
nanHenoaannnHn, coo1ae1c1aenno kaxpoHy napopy. naanne nasmaann a1o1 opnnk
cenenno kopo1knH n eHknH cnoaoH - .
ns co6c1aenno cyunoc1n nopopnn ack Y. nopopy nkpe - pop nkpcko
1oxe amaen npapopn1enL . XM M. ne
"aceamunn", no Y. n ne nap pnpopo, n - ao aceH. - : nekoe
acenenckoe 6nonone, "amcuan anepre1nueckn-nnqopHaunonnan c1pyk1ypa" no-
coapeHennoHy. - knkueaoe nonn1ne, cansykuee ppeaneune o1kpoaennn c
noaeue nayuno HmcnLk. - xnao1aopnuan cnna, sac1aannkuan ceHeuko
npopac1a1L, uae1ok pacnycka1Lcn, nnop spe1L n paaa1L noame ceHena xnsnn. 6mn,
37
ec1L n 6ype1, paxe ecnn yracny1 c1apme Mnpm n cenennan onn1L c1ane1 sepnmukoH -
sapopmueH noamx...
aopueckan aaonkunn onnopo1aopenno Xnsnn rny6oko sakonoHepna n nsnauanLno
uenenanpaanenna. peponpepenennoe caHopasan1ne sapano, sanoxeno a caHo
Xnsnn, o6ycnoaneno any1penne panxyue cnno. a pacuae1 Xnsnn, na nonanenne
noamx anpoa xnamx cyuec1a, a 1oH uncne uenoaeka, Hoxno cHo1pe1L kak na
noc1enennoe aonnouenne kakoro-1o saHmcna pnpopm.
anne1cn nn nopoxpennm 6esnnunoc1no pnpopo uenoaeueckn Hosr 1eH,
nocpepc1aoH uero na ocosnae1 aHo e6n? anne1cn nn on sepkanoH, a ko1opoe
cHo1pn1cn pnpopa? Moxe1 nn uenoaek, 6ypyun nnuL uac1nue pnpopm, noun1a1L
ce6n Hyppee 1oro uenoro, o ko1opoH on npncaanaae1 ce6e npaao cypn1L?
onLko uenoaek sapyHmaae1cn o cHmcne 6mc1po1euno xnsnn. Mn1yuancn pyua ace
6onee 1epsae1cn aonpocaHn: neyxenn Hm cyuec1ayeH pnn 1oro, u1o6m pann1L n
Hyun1L eHnk? 1o6m ynnu1oxa1L XnsnL? oueHy pnpopa ac eu 1epnn1 nac?
Yam, nm1nnao uenoaeuecko Hmcnn ne pano nponnkny1L a cokpoaennme pyHm
Ma1epn. ekorpa nnqnk, yc1aHn ko1opo aeuann yxn, cnpocnnn: "c1L nn k1o na
cae1e Hyppee okpa1a?" 1ae1 rnacnn: "nkoro ne1". okpa1 6mn nasaan HyppeunH
ns nkpe, no1oHy u1o on "snae1 nnuL 1o, u1o nnuero ne snae1", a 1o apeHn kak ppyrne
ne cosnak1 caoero neaexec1aa n Hnn1 ce6n HyppeuaHn.
o pyua uenoaeueckan, 6ypyun uac1nue YL , couyac1aenno c e
cansana, a no1oHy o6napae1 X cnoco6noc1Lk nenocpepc1aennoro
noc1nxennn cokpoaennoro, Hnnyn nayunm onm1 n nornueckne yHosaknkuennn.
smuec1ao, kak pennrnn ec1ec1aennoro o1kpoaennn, coaeuno caHoHy popy
uenoaeueckoHy. cnn pennrnosnoc1L, ocnoaannan na opyxo1aopennn pnpopm,
nanne1cn amcunH npnsnakoH uenoaeunoc1n n aaxneunH o1nnuneH o1 ppyrnx xnamx
cyuec1a, 1o nckpennee copec1ane 6nary a1nx cyuec1a ec1L L
.
cnkoe naue c1peHnenne k nnunoc1noHy 6nary nnuae1 nac a1oro caHoro 6nara. Mnp
yc1poen 1ak, u1o uenoaek Hoxe1 nonyun1L nnunoe 6naro, 1onLko o16pocna xn1eckoe
6naropasyHne n o1paaan ace cnnm cnyxennk MY.
eppue-aeuyn nauen1maae1 naH, u1o Ma1L 6naronaHepenna, u1o nc1nnnoe 6naro
uenoaeka ec1L MX 6essaun1nmH cyuec1aaH. Xnayun no
sanoaepnH pnpopm yro1aannaae1 ce6e nyuuyk yuac1L, 1orpa kak ppyrne npoc1o
amuepknaak1cn ns knnrn opa. eccHep1ne - a1o ne pap camue: acn naua xnsnL - ne
u1o nnoe, kak ncnm1anne a 6eckopmc1noH cnyxennn X, n6o nnuero 6onee
caeuennoro a Hnpe ne1.
aknH cnyxenneH cosnpae1 uenoaek any1pn ce6n 1eno nenspeuenno papoc1n n
kpaco1m, a ko1opoH aocc1ane1, c6pacmaan o6ae1uanyk opexpy, u1o6m o6pec1n ce6n
kak 6eccHep1noe n a 1o xe apeHn kak epnnoe co aceH, u1o xnae1 n cnaan1 XnsnL.
eH 6nnxe uenoaek k pnpope, 1eH on Hnnoceppnee n 1eH 6onee on cnoco6en
nosnaaa1L ceppueH. ne nan1cn nn a1o1 amcun cnoco6 nosnannn ocnoanmH nocne
nauero pasaonnouennn?
enoaek ponxen pasan1L a ce6e pyxoanoe cyuec1ao nenpec1annmH npaac1aennmH
caHocoaepuenc1aoaanneH n caHoy1aepxpenneH. axneun naHek saknkuae1cn a
nesaaepuennoc1n seHno xnsnn uenoaeka, c1peHnuerocn k nonnoHy
38
coaepuenc1aoaannk na ny1n aceo6Ln1no nk6an n coc1papannn, no a cnny
ec1ec1aennmx npnunn n co6c1aenno cna6oc1n ncnm1maakuero aeunyk
neypoane1aopennoc1L caHnH co6ok. e nanne1cn nn naua necnoco6noc1L poc1nuL
npeana a a1o xnsnn caHmH y6epn1enLnmH poaopoH a nonLsy nocHep1noro
npoponxennn nauero cyuec1aoaannn? o1oHy n ckasan noa1: "Mok nk6oaL, unpokyk
kak Hope, aHec1n1L ne Hory1 xnsnn 6epera..."
* * *
asyH n uyac1aa nauero panekoro pauypa 6mnn c1onL xe nenpoc1m, kak n naun
nmneunne, a a pyxoano-npaac1aennoH o1nouennn on nensHepnHo nac npeaocxopnn.
cnkn caHoc1on1enLnm, nenpepasn1m nc1opnk ponxen, npexpe acero,
npouyac1aoaa1L, u1o 1akoe Y, 1ak ne aHeuakuancn a
npokpyc1oao noxe "pycckoro npaaocnaann".
smueckan pyxoanoc1L ocnoamaae1cn na ocosnannn acenenckoro, caeuennoro cHmcna
Xnsnn, ne npnanocnHoro a nee ns napnpnpopnoro nc1ounnka-6ora, a nponc1ekakuero
ns M.
smuec1ao y1aepxpae1 popc1ao uenoaeka co ace pnpopo; kak anpnHo, 1ak n
neanpnHo. eccHep1nan uenoaeueckan pyua nHee1 1y xe cyunoc1L, u1o n ace
pyxoano-pyueanme npnpopnme cnnm.
anennn pnpopm o6munm n a 1o xe apeHn 1annc1aennm. smuec1ao - a1o nap c
npnpopnmHn pyxaHn - aonue6nmHn cnnaHn opyxo1aopenno pnpopm. aue 1ennoe,
sapyueanoe cnoao "nap" o1nnuae1cn o1 6espyuno rpeuecko "rapHonnn" 1ak xe, kak
xnaan cenennan o1 kpacnaoro, no xonopnoro kocHoca. apHonnk onpepennk1 c
noHouLk paccypounmx nonn1n (Hepa, uncno), a nap noppasyHeaae1 kauec1aenno
nnme, ne pasHepno-uncnoame, a pyueano-ceppeunme uennoc1n: Hnp, cornacne,
couyac1ane, nacky, nk6oaL.
smunnk ouyuae1 kpoano-pyxoanoe popc1ao co aceH xnayunH. D1o cosnpa1enLnoe,
aosamuakuee uyac1ao - , nHenno a 1ako 6essaae1no,
6esornnpno nk6an k Xnsnn uepnann aonxam uypopec1aennme cnnm.
H ne nyxnm 6mnn sa1xnme uepkan-cknenm, uLn c1enm o1pennnn nx o1 Ma1epn-
pnpopm, a onn xaxpann cnn1Lcn c e. nn ne cknapmaann naponn, a npoc1npann nx
k onnuy, npnnnHan pmxanne 6naropa1n. nn ne pokyuann e6y caonHn HonL6aHn,
onn nnuL cnaannn Y MY, (napopnoe caHonasaanne "cnaannnn" osnauae1
"cnaanun"). nn poaepnnncL pnpope 1ak xe, kak pn1n poaepne1cn Ma1epn.
a noc1ynkax caonx onn pykoaopc1aoaanncL ne "c1paxoH 6oxLnH", a -
nenopkynnmH any1pennnH HepnnoH po6pa n sna. D1o n ec1L nenoppenLnan
Y.
smueckoe Hnpoouyuenne, a o1nnune o1 npoqannueckoro aepxornnpnoro
xpnc1nanc1aa, ec1L norpyxenne a pnpopy "a ce6e". e yHospn1enLnoe 6orocnoackoe
neaexec1ao, a o6Lek1nanoe - nopcnypnmx sakonoHepnoc1e,
am1ekakuee nenocpepc1aenno ns caHo cy1n aeue.
smunnkn ne 1onLko npospeaann okkynL1nyk c1opony pnpopm, ko1opyk onn
noun1ann aonnouenneH epxa1enn Xnsnn - , no ouyuann ce6n poc1onmHn
6m1L yuac1nnkaHn a1o X. e 6eccHmcnennoe 6ennuLe koneco, a
caHopasan1ne, caHoy1aepxpenne na ny1n 6eccHep1noro uenoaeueckoro
coc1aanne1 aso1epnueckyk ceppueanny smuec1aa.
39
pnnc1aennm nenncLHennm cnoco6 nepepaun aeuennmx nann - a1o
npeapauenne nx a o6pnpm n o6muan. ppeannH o6muanH cnepye1 o1nocn1Lcn c
aennuaunH nou1enneH, n6o a nnx sakpennen onm1 co1en nokonenn, saneua1nenm
nakasm n nac1aanennn pauypoa. D YY.
nannn o npounoH caoero napopa nsmunnkn uepnann ne ns pykonncnmx yuenmx
1pypoa, a ns Hounoro xnao1aopnoro popnnka - napopno naHn1n. onrnHn snHnnHn
aeuepaHn pe1n cnyuann y koc1pa n ouara ckasannn o cnaanmx pennnnx paneknx
pepkoa; noaspocnea, npoxopnnn o6pnpm nocaeuennn a Hnp aspocnmx n caHn
aocnponsaopnnn a kpacounmx o6pnpax-nrpax a1n pennnn. akoaa 6mna narnnpnan
nepao6m1nan nc1opnorpaqnn. o, u1o Hm nasmaaeH nckycc1aoH, 6mno pnn 1ex nkpe
pec1an1enLno xnsnLk, a ne HackapapnmH pnxenneH.
napopno kynL1ype 6mn npnuac1en kaxpm: nenLsn 6mno ne sna1L necnn, npepannn,
saknnukn, aennuannn, npnun1annn... axpm yuac1nnk xopoaopnmx caeuennopec1a
c1anoanncn na apeHn uapopeeH-saknnna1eneH. mcue uenLk aeuennmx 6pnpoa
6mno poc1nxenne couyac1aennoro epnnennn c yxaHn-okpoan1ennHn. o6c1aenno
pennrnn a nckonnoH snauennn cnoaa n ec1L coepnnenne.
peanne o6pnpm a o1nnune o1 nckycc1aennmx uepkoanmx, 6mnn X no
copepxannk n caepuanncL c nonnmH nonnHanneH nx rny6nnnoro cHmcna: uepes
aneunee nosnaaa1L any1pennee, uepes cnHaonm nponnka1L a neanpnHoe.
aHo cnoao ykasmaae1 na o6pnxanne, opennne. eu1o, nekan cyunoc1L
o6nekae1cn a onpepenennyk spnHyk opexpy, saneua1neaae1cn a cnHaonnke. axpoHy
o6pnpy, 6ypL 1o kpoanoe no6pa1nHc1ao nnn knn1aa na opyxnn, coo1ae1c1aye1
1annc1ao, ko1opoe a nespnHmx pnn nac nsHepennnx 6m1nn coaepuae1cn a 6ykaanLnoH
cHmcne. "nxnHnk" npeapauennn cnHaona a peanLnoc1L ne pano sna1L nkpnH. D1o
ocyuec1anne1cn a 6onee ronknx nnanax nnaHn, aepuaunHn cnyx6y a neanpnHoH
naHn ae1nnnue opnoapeHenno co cnyx6ok a ae1nnnue anpnHoH. epL anpnHan
naHn uac1L pnpopm - nnuL napaopnan aepxyuka ac6epra: a1o y1aepxpae1
opnnakoao n ppeannn Hyppoc1L, n coapeHennan nayka.
nHaonm - ne npoc1o pncynkn pnn o6osnauennn, ne ronme a6c1pakunn, apope
npecnoay1oro "uepnoro kaappa1a" n ne nnopm uenoaeueckoro aoo6paxennn.
opnnnnme cnHaonm, xpannune 1anm Mnpospannn, nepyko1aopnm. pyr, cnnpanL,
Heanpp, snrsar, caac1nka - nopoxpennn caHo pnpopm, .
ono1nc1oe ceppeuko poHaukn, nsnunm saan1ok pakyukn, ysopm ns ceHeuek a aenue
nopconnyxa, sarapounme rnaskn na kpmnLnx 6a6oukn, c1poran n 6esynpeunan kpaco1a
o6mknoaenno enoao unukn: kakne naHekn 1an1 a ce6e a1n uypecnme 1aopennn?
epL pnpopa nnuero ne cospae1 anyc1yk.
peanne npospeaann Hnc1nueckoe snauenne cnnpann kak xnsnennoro ny1n uenoaeka n
ace cenenno. epapoH sHen, canaakuancn cnnpanLk, cun1anacL onnue1aopenneH
Hyppoc1n n xpann1enLnnue caeuennmx snann. e1e roaopnn o c1peHnennn pnpopm
k cnnpann. nnpanL - nan6onee ampasn1enLnoe n eHkoe o1paxenne npen aeunoro
aospoxpennn, o6Lepnnnkue HnkpokocH n HakpokocH: cnnpanLk ynoxena a
xpoHocoHe nn1L n cnnpanLk sakpyunaak1cn saespnme Hnpm. nnpanL o6pasye1cn
aespe, rpe cyuec1aye1 opnoapeHenno apauenne n poc1 ao-ane, aaepx. o u1o 1akoe
apauenne. ro nponcxoxpenne n cy1L oc1ak1cn sarapko.
e k1o-nn6ypL, a apn nr a caoeH 1pype "yxoanm qenoHen a nckycc1ae n nayke"
nnue1: " upesamuano panne nackanLno xnaonncn kaHennoro aeka ac1peuae1cn
o1aneuennm snak, a nHenno, aocLHnkoneunm, anncannm a kpyr kpec1... D1o 1. n.
conneunoe koneco... nnuL o1uac1n aocxopn1 k aneuneHy onm1y, c ppyro xe c1oponm,
ono npepc1aanne1 co6o cnHaon, nanenne any1pennero onm1a, ko1opoe no ace
40
aepon1noc1n aoccospano c 1ako xe aepnoc1Lk xnsnenno npaape, kak n snaHenn1m
nocopor c n1nuaHn-kneueepaHn".
naanne nasmaann a1o1 caeuennm snak M n 6onee acex ppyrnx napopoa
u1nnn kak aonue6nm , ynopo6nneHm ero xnaoHy npoo6pasy.
onoapa1 - cnHaon, npnnnuec1aykun 1o 6eckoneuno nk6an n neoponnHo Houn,
kakoam npnnoxnHm 1onLko k XMY Y. onoapa1 cony1c1aoaan
pycnuy o1 konm6enn po norpe6anLnoro koc1pa. e 1onLko apona, no paxe npnn ne
Hoxe1 cpaann1Lcn c naHn a nso6nnnn caac1nk, nokpmaaaunx pycckoe opyxne, c1nrn,
opexpy, poHa, y1aapL. yuec1aoaan nsnk6nennm pycckn naunonanLnm caac1nunm
opnaHen1 "sanuaHn", 1. e. o16neckaHn onnua - conneunmHn "saunkaHn".
onoapa1 - cnHaon , X, . o1oHy-1o cnyxn1enn sna n 6pmsxy1
npoan1o cnkno, c1peHncL, nau popno cae1onocnm snak sanpe1n1L kak
"qaunc1ckn". oueHy onn 1ak npep nnH 1peneuy1? a no1oHy, u1o on nec1 nH
norn6enL!
ospec1ayn, npexpe acero na nopcosnanne, onpepennkuee, a koneunoH n1ore, ack
nauy cosna1enLnyk xnsnL, onoapa1 npo6yxpae1 a pyue cnaannnna caeuennm
nekorpa nepaoo6pas, cnoco6nm apoxnoan1L na nopanr ns6aanennn opnnm o1 nra
uyxeseHuea. onn1na 6eso1ue1nan 1nra k onoapa1y nan6onee unc1o n spopoao
uac1n naue Honopexn: nHenno e cnaca1L 1unsny, nHenno ona ne snae1 npepena a
nk6an n nenaanc1n. MonopexL peun1enLna n ne 1epnn1 cornaua1enLc1aa, ona ne
npneHne1 6ypxyasno-pmnounme "uennoc1n", ona aonnc1aenna n cnoco6na a1akoaa1L.
mneunne anac1n1enn peHnn o6Lnannn counanLnyk cnpaaepnnaoc1L apepno n
nec6m1ouno Heu1o. yua1cn 6onLnnum n ukonm, sa1o c1pon1cn uepkan, rpe
orpa6nennoHy, nsHoppoaannoHy, amHnpakueHy napopy anyuae1cn ne pon1a1L, a
ppyxno noknonn1Lcn "cnacn1enk" n ancennue-pacnn1nk, 1. e. cnHaony cHep1n.
o xe n c ansan1ncknH payrnaamH opnoH. ayrnaaoc1L a pnpope ec1L ypopc1ao;
nso6paxenne payrnaaoro xnao1noro-Honc1pa ec1L snak necuac1Ln. e cnyuano
paspyuenm ace nHnepnn, asnaune a1o1 cnHaon na aoopyxenne.
epaano yuenmHn n6npckoro o1penennn c noHouLk oco6mx npn6opoa nonyuena
ynnkanLnan qo1orpaqnn onnua. a ne o1ue1nnao saHe1nm papnanLno yc1peHnennme
k conneunoHy pncky n sakpyunaakunecn a npaaoc1oponnkk caac1nky aoceHL
anxpeamx no1okoa. aknH o6pasoH, nonyueno pokyHen1anLnoe nop1aepxpenne
nsnauanLnoro npepc1aanennn cnaann o onnue, o1paxennoe a ppeaneueH conneunoH
cnHaone - MYM . Moxno 1onLko aocxnua1Lcn
nponnknoaennoHy aepennk naunx pauypoa, cyHeaunx nenoc1nxnHmH o6pasoH
yanpe1L a1y kap1nny n saneua1ne1L ee a nso6paxennn onoapa1a.
onoapa1 - knkueao, HnorosnaunHm cnHaon npnpopnoro coaepuenc1aa,
onnue1aopnkun 1akxe n cosnpa1enLnoe konoapauenne, nopoxpakuee n
aospoxpakuee xnsnL acero cyuero. naanne, u1naune uepes ero npnpopnme
nponanennn a anpe , , , nso6pasnnn ncxoxpenne ero xnao1aopnuero
pmxannn a npaaoc1oponne (1. e. nyun sarn6ak1cn anpaao, nocononL),
packpyunaakuecn caac1nke.
* * *
ce ppeanne napopm, kpoHe nypeea, noun1ann onnue-nopa1enn , X,
. naanne o6oxann Y: caHmH npknH (a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne) snaHenneH
aeunoro kpyroapauennn Xnsnn nanne1cn panxenne M
41
M . pnnH ns aeuennmx 6pnpoa connuenoknonnnkoa 6mn
ppeanepycckn xopoaop. opoaopnm kpyr onnue1aopnn anpnHoe kpyroaoe panxenne
epxoanoro ae1nna no ne6ocaopy, o1paxakuee apauenne eHnn aokpyr onnua.
onnue, noHnHo cy1ounoro, o6napae1 ropnunmH panxenneH. D1o1 aoo6paxaeHm
ropnunm kpyroao ny1L onnua cpepn saesp ac1ponoHm nasaann aknnn1nko. na
ycn xopoaop nasmaancn eue M, 1. e. conneunmH ropoH: " rypn1 sa
koporopoH na nyrax aecenm nnnc" (cennn).
- - - 1oxpec1aennme nonn1nn, cansannme c o6eperakunH
snauenneH okpyxnoc1n, kak o6pasa onnua. cn conneunan cnHaonnka, 1. e. ac 1o,
u1o o1paxae1 kpyr, cnyxn1 M. Marnueckn kpyr - napexnoe napopnoe
cpepc1ao npo1na ynmpe: o6 a1oH acnoHnnn qnnocoq oHa py1, korpa eHy ne
noHornn xpnc1nanckne Honn1am.
eun pycckn nsmk xpann1 cnepm 6mnoro connuenoknonnnuec1aa: cnoao "xpaH"
nponcxopn1 o1 "xopoHm" - kpyroaoe ae1nnnue. opouo - snaun1 conneuno. oponn1L
- aosnocn1L k onnuy uepes nnaHn koc1pa. opoaa (kapaaa) - o6pas onnua.
opona - conneunm aeneu. opyraL - c1nr c nso6paxenneH conneunoro pncka. noaa:
xopo6pm, kopoHmcno, kopouyn, konokon, konnpa n Hnoxec1ao ppyrnx nHek1
"conneunme" kopnn. onn1ne "xopoxopn1Lcn", nsapauennoe uepkoannkaHn, panee
osnauano yuac1ne a 1opxec1aennoH xopoaopnoH pec1ae.
onneunoe Hnpoaocnpnn1ne saknkueno n a cnHaonnke xopoaopnmx nrpnu-o6pnpoa.
opoaop acerpa apauancn nocononL (cneaa nanpaao), noppaxan anpnHoHy xopy
onnua no ne6y. opoaopnoe caeuennopec1ao - cnoco6 npnHoro xnaoro o6uennn c
opnmHn ae1nmHn nnaHn n nonyuennn o1 nnx nonoxn1enLnoro sapnpa orpoHno
cnnm. Yuenme nkpn nasmaak1 a1o "kon1ak1oH c nnqopHaunonno-6noanepre1nuecknHn
kocHnuecknHn nonnHn"; coapeHennmHn nccnepoaannnHn yc1anoaneno nannune
ac1peunoro anepre1nueckoro no1oka, yc1peHnennoro k onnuy.
peanepycckn xopoaop - a1o - X YM.
saHkny1o kpyroao nopyke yuac1nnkoa aosnnkak1 kpyroapauakunecn Harne1nueckne
1okn. axe a o6muno cnnpn1nuecko uenn yxe ouyuae1cn nanpnxenne n
neo6muanm npnnna cnn. saec1no, u1o 1pn6yn, asmaakun k 1onne, o6pasykue
aokpyr nero konLuo, 6mc1po npnaopn1 a1y 1onny a coc1onnne aos6yxpennoc1n n
noamuenno anyuaeHoc1n.
aHepnkanckoH xypnane "aunn xnorpaqnk" (anp.1979 r.) ec1L ypnan1enLnm
rpynnoao qo1ocnnHok xn1ene r. aneHa, nasmaakunx ce6n aepLHaHn (a aneHe a
1692 r. npo1ec1an1m noaecnnn 19 necuac1nmx xenunn, o6annna nx a konpoac1ae).
nnHok cpenan a noHeuennn, rpe coapeHennme aepLHm co6npak1cn pnn necnonenn n
qopHnpoaannn Harnueckoro kpyra. ponL nnxnero kpan cnnHka npoxopn1 o1ue1nnam
cnep 1oro, u1o qo1orpaq nocun1an sa pepkn qenoHen na coapeHenno nnenke -
c1a1nueckoe anek1pnuec1ao. "e1", aospaxae1 aepxoanan aepLHa opn a6o1, - "a1o
anek1pnuec1ao na caHoH pene ec1L a koHna1e. no o6pncoamaae1 nepnHe1p, rpe 6mn
nau Harnueckn kpyr. D1o a6conk1no ncno".
opo6no ppyrnH ppeaneunH o6pnpaH, xopoaop - nepyko1aopnm naHn1nnk cnaanno-
pyccko kynL1ypm, nsyuenne ko1oporo nosaonnno 6m nponn1L cae1 na nponcxoxpenne
acero snaun1enLnoro a nospneueH nso6pasn1enLnoH nckycc1ae ns nsmuecknx,
napopnmx o6pnpoa.
opoaop nannncn ec1ec1aennmH cnnaaoH nennn, Hysmkn n 1anua. opxec1aennoe
uec1ane k kannuy, aceo6uee cnaanenne pnnm, opa, pepkoa, saaopaxnaakune
naneam ppeannx, Horyuec1aennmx saknnnann yxe nac1panaann yuac1nnkoa na
amcokn pyueanm nopLeH, aaopnnn a coc1onnne aocxnuennn a ppeanepycckoH
42
snauennn a1oro cnoaa - aocnapennn, okpmnennoc1n, npnnopnn1oc1n nap seHne,
neaecoHoc1n.
akc1ase (rpeu. "akc1as" pocnoano osnauae1 ncc1ynnenne, amxop ns ce6n) neaeu
ac1ynae1 a o6nac1L anapennn Harnuecko cnno cnoaa: Harnuecko a npnHoH, a ne a
nepenocnoH cHmcne, n6o ppeannn noasnn nHena nenocpepc1aennoe o1nouenne k
aonue6c1ay. a1nnckoe "kapHen" osnauae1 n necnk, n saroaopm. peanepycckoe
"6an1L" osnauano ne 1onLko "roaopn1L", no n saroaapnaa1L (6akka1L - ycmnnn1L).
ycnnp ann necnonennnHn uapoaan cnyua1ene; o1ckpa "o6an1enLnm" a cHmcne
ouapoaa1enLnm, o6aopoxn1enLnm.
nncoame xopoaopm conpoaoxpanncL opnoapeHennmHn aosrnacaHn, 1enopanxennnHn,
npmxkaHn, npn1onaHn n xnsnepapoc1no pn1Hnuecko Hysmko. naanoe ampaxenne
Xnsnn - panxenne, npnueH panxenne pn1Hnueckoe. n1H - 6nenne Xnsnn. n1H
copepxn1 neu1o uypecno oxnannkuee: acnkoe pn1Hnueckoe panxenne nponnkny1o
papoc1Lk, a uepes papoc1L - cnnok. epapoH knme cnap1anum yuac1aoaann a
xopnuecknx nnnckax. onnc1aennme Hapun cnnaunaak1 napop, poxpak1 Hyxec1ao n
o1aary.
saec1na neypepxnHan anac1L pn1Ha nap uenoaekoH. pepneaekoaan nc1opnn
noaec1aye1, kak 6popnun Hysmkan1 konpoacknH nanrpmueH sac1aann caoero
o6npunka-pmuapn o1nnncmaa1L po ynapy. op nrpy rycnnpa apko aepy1 cao xopoaop
pycankn n 1poe cy1ok nnnue1 caH opnno.
aapen1Leacko ne1onncn nop 1074 r. sanncano, kak aennkoro noc1nnka n
sa1aopnnka npenopo6noro caaknn coapa1nnn nanaunecn eHy "6ecm": " rpnnynn
6ecm a conenn, n a rycnn, n a 6y6nm. nauan caakn c nnHn ckaka1L n nnnca1L
Hnoro uacoa. , y1oHna ero, oc1aannn epaa xnaoro...".
aHnnumn a "koHopoxax na ycn" npnaopn1 napopnme necnn npo yHnpakuyk
c1apnuy-Honauenky. na nexn1 a kenLe. e soay1 k o6epne, no ona ne a cnnax ac1a1L:
pykn-norn o1nnnncL, paxe nepekpec1n1Lcn ne Hoxe1. ppyr HnHo npy1 ckoHopoxn, n
nop nx nrpm c1apnua ackaknaae1 n nyckae1cn a nnnc.
nncanne neo1pasnHoro "naaaxpennn" - aos6yxpakue k nnncke nrpm a 6y6nm,
conenn n rycnn copepxn1cn a noc1anoanennnx uepkoanmx co6opoa. aouapenneH na
ycn saHopckoro xpnc1nanc1aa nk6nHan napopnan sa6aaa - rycnn 6mnn o6Lnanenm
"opypneH pLnaona" n cxnranncL aHec1e c nx anapenLuaHn-aonxaaHn n ckoHopoxaHn.
co6o yceppc1aoaan a a1oH uapL nekce "nuaun".
enc1oame anxpeame xopoaopm npnaopnnn nx yuac1nnkoa a xenaeHoe coc1onnne
6naxennoro ncc1ynnennn - osapennn, korpa y nan6onee uyac1an1enLnmx na1yp
packpmaancn anesanno any1pennn asop. akoamHn 6mnn aakxnueckne xopm
(ppeanerpeu. "oprnn" osnauana caeuennopec1ao), nnncoame Honn1am cyqnea,
papennn 1. n. xnmc1oa. L n ec1-npnn cyuec1aye1 Hnc1nueckan o6unna
cnnpn1nuecknx 6an1nc1oa, a npoc1opeunn - uekepoa. asaanne nponcxopn1 o1
anrnnckoro rnarona "uek", u1o osnauae1 "1pnc1ncL" n cansano c pn1HnuecknHn
1anuaHn.
o k1o aopn1 xopoaopm na xne6nmx nonnx nrnnn? arapounme kpyrn, nonannkunecn
1aH no nouaH, 6ypopaxa1 yHm yuenmx n aoo6paxenne yqonoroa. onocLn any1pn
kpyroa corny1m n ynoxenm cnnpanLk no uacoao c1penke - no xopy onnua, npnueH
nnkorpa ne1 nnkaknx cnepoa, aepyunx k no1paae. ce nonm1kn o6Lncnn1L non1eprec1
xnHnueckn-qnsnuecko c1pyk1ypo nouam ne pak1 o1ae1a na npaannLnyk kpyroayk
qopHy nonerannn pac1enn.
43
pyrne rnno1esm npnnncmaak1 nponcxoxpenne kpyroa ne6onLunH cHepuaH. a1o
cansn nk6onm1nm qo1ocnnHkn "pyxoa", cpenannme ao apeHn cnnpn1nuecknx onm1oa.
a neko1opmx ns nnx "pyx" 6mn saxaauen a nocnepnn Hnr nepep aosapauenneH a
caok o6n1enL: qo1onnenka saneua1nena neu1o apope nyunc1oro anxpn nnn cHepua,
pac1aopnkuerocn a nyc1o1e. pnp nn k1o-nn6ypL nasoae1 onan-ona poaepunamH
npoc1akoH, a on penan 1akne cnnHkn. pokasm qe nsaec1nm ne 1onLko a nrnnn.
a ycn anesannoe nounoe nonanenne kpyroa na aospenannmx nonnx n na nyrax
cennne nsppeane npnnncmaann xopoaopaH pycanok - npnspaunmx cyuec1a,
o6opaunaakunxcn nopo narnHn xenaHn c pnnnnmHn, pacnyuennmHn aonocaHn.
axapoa 1akxe ynoHnnae1 o nopo6nmx nanennnx a "ycckoH napopnoH uepnoknnxnn".
e 1ak paano cxoxn qenoHen o6napyxnncn na pncoaoH none a nonnn, npnueH opnn
ns kpyroa - paono, 1. e. coc1on1 ns payx konuen1pnuecknx okpyxnoc1e a 6 n 5
He1poa. Mexpy nnHn pac1ennn ne 1pony1m. cansn c a1nH Hoxno o6pa1n1L annHanne
na ppeanne nc1ounnkn, rpe roaopn1cn, u1o nepepko xenunnm, cnmayune aepLHaHn,
o6pasyk1 paa xopoaopnmx kpyra, saknkuennmx opnn a ppyro. MenLun, any1pennn,
coc1aanennm ncknkun1enLno peaaHn, apauancn cneaa nanpaao, a 6onLun - a
npo1naononoxnyk c1opony, ueH poc1nranocL oco6oe nanpnxenne Harne1nuecknx
1okoa. a a1o xe ykasmaak1 nnca1enn, nsyuaaune nc1opnk aepoac1aa: . .
poeackn ("acnnLko"), asnHnp e1Haep ("erenpa a1p"), anepn pkcoa
("rnennm anren") n ppyrne.
e cnepye1 1onLko ny1a1L po6poxena1enLnoe aepoac1ao c apeponocnmH konpoac1aoH.
epLHm, a o1nnune o1 konpynn, ne npn6erak1 k kpoannmH cnapo6LnH n k npoueHy
ka66annc1nueckoHy uepnoknnxnk. nn pec1ayk1 nocpepc1aoH nsnyuennn caoe
any1penne . nna a1a nac1onLko unc1a n Horyuec1aenna, u1o uac1o
nenopanac1na caHo aepLHe. oa1oHy aepLHa, npoc1o o6pa1na caoe annHanne na
uenoaeka nnn ppyroe xnaoe cyuec1ao n 1eH caHmH, ykasaa ero a1o cnne, paxe
noHnHo caoero xo1ennn, yxe ncuenne1 ero.
epoac1ao, kak xnao Hnc1nueckn onm1, paano yxe Hex unnno n apn6po:
paunonannc1nuecko nayko, y1aepxpakue u1o "a1oro ne Hoxe1 6m1L, no1oHy u1o
a1oro ne Hoxe1 6m1L nnkorpa" n uepkoaLk, ponyckakue, u1o a1o 6maae1, no a1o -
ca1annsH.
epoac1ao n ca1annsH, opnako, - aeun coaepuenno pasnme: nsmunnkn o6oxak1
pnpopy, a ca1annc1m - a1any, kak Hn1exnoro yxa, aocc1aauero npo1na sno6noro
pecno1a eroam-aaaoqa. Mm npoc1o ne HoxeH 6m1L ca1annc1aHn; aepL pnn 1oro,
u1o6m aepn1L a ca1any, napo aepn1L ao ace a1n 6acnn: a 6n6nnk, a 6ora, ao pnc1a,
nakoneu, 1. k. pLnaon - a1o n1nxpnc1. y a Hm ne aepnH nn a 6ora, nn a uop1a, n
aoo6ue nsmuec1ao npouae1ano saponro po nonanennn xpnc1nanc1aa n ne nHee1 k neHy
nnkakoro o1nouennn. pnHeua1enLno, u1o n pnn Meqnc1oqenn (a "ayc1e")
nsmueckn Hnp ne 1onLko nepoc1ynen, on eHy npoc1o nensaec1en...
* * *
poxpnc1nancko kynL1ype caeuennoe ne npo1naoc1onno HnpckoHy; ono ocaeuano
Hnp, nanonnnn ero nenpexopnunH copepxanneH n cHmcnoH, opyxo1aopnno n
o6naropaxnaano ace uyac1aa uenoaeka, aecL ero noacepneanm 6m1. axpm noc1ynok
6mn o6ycnoanen, uenenanpaanen n o6c1aanen coo1ae1c1aykunH o6pnpoH.
axpm uar nocaeuennoro 6mn uec1aneH, kaxpoe pec1ane X
-, Y --M.
6pnpm n o6muan onpepennnn n ynopnpounaann aecL yknap xnsnn, ace o1nouennn n
ack 1pypoayk pen1enLnoc1L. a acex snannnx n yHennnx, 6ypL 1o apaueaanne nnn
44
nosoxopc1ao, necne1aopuec1ao nnn pa1o6opc1ao, 6op1nnuec1ao nnn xHeneaopc1ao, -
nexana neua1L ocaeuennn camue. esL6a, pocnncL, amunaka, koaka, aoo6ue
aospec1ane na npnpopnm Ha1epnan (pepeao, kaHenL, rnnny, caHopopkn n 1. p.) n
1aopueckoe npeo6pasoaanne ero nocnno caeuennm nnn okkynL1nm xapak1ep. e
6mno peHecnennnkoa, 6mnn amcokoopapennme yHenLum, xpannaune npeeHc1aennoc1L
o1kpoaenn, nonyuennmx nekorpa o1 caHnx ypoa n nepepaaaaune nx ns nokonennn a
nokonenne.
e xn1eckne no1pe6noc1n a cue1e n nsHepennn nnouape, a Harnueckne pn1yanm,
xpeueckne uepeHonnn n npepnncannn nopopnnn Ha1eHa1nky n reoHe1pnk. c
ronuapnoe nckycc1ao, cansannoe c apauenneH, nsnauanLno nocnno Harnueckn
xapak1ep. noao "sopun" osnauano "ropueunnk" (o1 sLpL - rnnna). 1ckpa: spanne,
cospanne, cosnpanne. peanee kepaHnueckoe nponsaopc1ao xpann1 eue Hnoro 1an.
apenm cnepm o6xnra xenesno pypm a oco6mx ouarax pnn nonyuennn oxpnc1o
kpackn. pacno-kopnuneaan kpacka a kauec1ae xnan1enLnoro o6epera unpoko
npnHennnacL a noxoponno o6pnpnoc1n. epon1no, u1o nepao6m1nan He1annyprnn
popnnacL ns 1akoro o6pnpoaoro o6xnra.
onnuenoknonnnkn kaHennoro aeka, cosnpaaune Herann1nueckne xpaHm a uec1L
caoero o6oxaeHoro kyHnpa, o6napann 1aknHn cnnaHn n cnoco6noc1nHn, kakne n ne
cnnnncL naunH coapeHennnkaH. arapouna cy1L , nexaue a ocnoae acero
cyuero. Mm ouyuaeH 1onLko ee nponanennn, 6ypL 1o neykpo1nHoe c1peHnenne k
npoponxennk popa nnn Horyuan cnna rpaan1aunn. ce cnnm cenenno nsnauanLno
6mnn ckpm1m a pyue uenoaeka. kakoam 6mnn a1n cnnm, Hoxno cypn1L no
pasaannnaH "ponc1opnuecknx" cae1nnnu, paxe o6noHkn ko1opmx ouenoHnnk1 n
noaeprak1 a 6narouec1nam 1pene1. mcnue1onnme kaHnn, nenopanac1nme nn opnoHy
nopLeHnoHy kpany, aospanranncL M M, 1. e. cryc1koH
pyueano cnnm.
eH ppeanee a1n naHn1nnkn, 1eH onn coaepuennee. caHme nepaospannme -
rennanLnm. 1o apoxnoannn sopunx? epL Hyppan noroaopka rnacn1, u1o yHoH
orno6nk ne ampyHaeuL.
poHnexn n Henrnpm c neHmcnnHo, nsyHn1enLno 1ounoc1Lk, nensHepnHo
npeamuakue nk6me no1pe6noc1n a cenLckoxosnc1aennoH kanenpape,
opnen1npoaanm na . axneunH nx nasnauenneH 6mno onpepenn1L n o1He1n1L
c npepenLno 1ounoc1Lk apeHn aennuaunx 1opxec1a - payx connuec1onnn n
aecennero paanopenc1ann. naanoe nanpaanenne 1oynxenpxa n ppyrnx Herann1oa -
na 1ouky aocxopa onnua a penL ne1nero connuec1onnnn: noHa1L na npnuen rnasa
nepame nyun xnsnepa1enLnoro ae1nna, nacmuennme a a1n Hrnoaennn oco6o
uypopec1aenno cnno.
c1a1kn nopo6nmx conneunmx cae1nnnu napenm nepaano a okpec1noc1nx ynnkoaa
nonn. oHepannn (oHopLe), na o. kren (ynn), a 6accenax DnL6m (a6m), pepa,
ncnm, aoo6ue a seHnnx nepanunoro paccenennn npacnaann ac1peuak1cn cnepm
cxoxnx coopyxenn. sanoaepnnke aHennme pyrn na 6epery ncnm Herann1m
pacc1aanenm rak, u1o o6pasyk1 nnnnn, ykasmaakune na 1ouky aocxopa onnua a penL
ne1nero connuec1onnnn. ospac1 coopyxennn okono 5 1mcnu ne1 (pnn pa1npoakn
Herann1oa nenpnropnm coapeHennme papnoak1nanme He1opm, noa1oHy nx aospac1
Hoxe1 6m1L onpepenen nnuL ouenL npn6nnsn1enLno).
aaeuan caon nosnannn no1oHkaH, aepynm saneua1nenn nx nan6onee napexnmH
cnoco6oH - yaekoaeunnn a kaHne. a1nx kaHennmx kannuax-o6cepaa1opnnx n
sapopnnacL acn ac1ponoHnn.
* * *
45
ppeaneH o6uec1ae nno1nnkn n neunnkn, HenLnnkn n opyxennkn, nuenoaopm n
nac1yxn napennnncL 1anmHn cnoco6noc1nHn, cansLk c neuenoaeuecknHn cyuec1aaHn
- c necnmHn, aopnnmHn, orneamHn, ae1pnnmHn, ropnmHn n npounHn yxaHn-
osneaaHn n nx noHouLk. kauec1ao, npnpenne - ne npoc1o poHaunee pykopenne, a
caeuennoe sann1ne. a a1o ykasmaae1 Hnq o6 qnne n paxne: peaa-npnxa pepsnyna
amsaa1L qnny na coc1nsanne a nckycc1ae 1kauec1aa n sa a1o 6mna npeapauena
6ornne a nayka. pnpenneH sannHanncL caHn apkn (y rpekoa - Mopm, y repHanuea
- anLknpnn-opnm, aosHoxno, u1o n cnaannckne oxannum; na1 "napno" osnauae1
"poxpa1L"), amnpnpakune nn1L uenoaeuecko xnsnn n e o6pmaakune. x
aonue6nan npnxa onpepenne1 cypL6m acero cyuero; paxe 6oraH ne ns6exa1L caoe
ponn. saec1no, u1o xpnum-ppynpeccm oco6mH HarnuecknH o6pasoH cnne1ann uae1nme
npnpnnLnme nn1n, npexpe ueH npeppeuL uenoaeky ero 6ypyuee: a1n npneHm poxnnn a
kenL1cknx c1panax po noaoro apeHenn.
a ycn, kak n a ppyrnx kpanx, unpoko 6mno pacnpoc1paneno nne1enne uapopenmx
ysnoa-naysoa, saunuakunx o1 konpoac1aa. n1pocnne1ennn a1nx ysnoa nonann paxe
na c1pannum pykonncnmx 6orocnyxe6nmx knnr a anpe 1. n. uypoanunoro opnaHen1a.
knnse cecnaae-6opo1ne nsaec1no, u1o on ack xnsnL nHen na ronoae aonue6nm
nays, naansannm eHy aonxaoH. un1anocL, u1o neaop c ero HnorouncnennmHn ysnaHn
nanne1cn xopoue saun1o o1 snoro yHmcna: a neko1opmx Hec1noc1nx na neaec1y
noaepx caape6noro nna1Ln na6pacmaann pm6auLk ce1L o1 crnasa.
6eperakue cnne naysoa poaepnnn n aonnm, 1aopnaune nepep 6n1ao saroaop:
...m, ysnm, saropopn1e c1penLuaH ace ny1n-poporn, saHknn1e ace nnuann, ony1a1e
ace nykn, noanxn1e ace pa1nme opyxnn... neo6muano xnayuec1n nopo6nmx
npneHoa canpe1enLc1aye1 aonnckn yc1aa aana I, cypoamHn kapaHn rposnun 1eH,
k1o "saansmaae1" apaxeckoe opyxne, 1. e. penae1 naysm. oxpannnocL ampaxenne:
"saansa1L" a cHmcne ne pa1L xopy, ne ponyc1n1L.
pnHeua1enLno, u1o a pycckoH nsmke aonocm n nn1n o6osnauanncL ouenL cxoxe:
npnxa n npnpn (aonoc), kyppn, kypna1m n kypenL (Ho1ok nLna). e o1ckpa nn
kypecnnuec1ao, 1. e. aopox6a na aonocax? a ycn nsppeane aepunnncL xenckne
aepoackne pec1aa, nocaeuennme nLny n nLno1kauec1ay. axe nocne xpnc1nannsaunn
nokpoan1enLnnue npnpennn n ppyrnx xencknx nckycc1a c1anoan1cn 1annc1aennan
apackeaa n1nnua, 1. e. 6oxec1ao, coxpannauee caok nsmueckyk cyunoc1L n
nposaanne.
n1nnua (no rpeu. - apackeaa) 6mna a ppeanoc1n pneH, nocaeuennmH Makoun -
Ma1epn mpo eHne - 1enno sac1ynnnue n nopa1enLnnue acnueckoro nnopopopnn.
pasan1neH xne6onauec1aa kynL1 Ma1epn-eHnn npeo6pasoaancn a kynL1
seHnepenLueckn. 12 exeHecnunmx npaspnnkoa, o1HeuaeHmx no nn1nnuaH, 6mnn
nocaeuenm Makoun, a sa1eH ee aocnpeeHnnue n1nnue. nno1L po XX aeka a napope
xopnn no pykaH no1ano nn1nnunm Hecnuecnoa. co6enno unpoko 6mnn
pacnpoc1panenm, xpannnncL n nepenncmaanncL anokpnqnueckne ckasannn o 12
nn1nnuax. qanacLea ykasmaae1, u1o c1apoaepm u1nnn nx napaane c 6n6nne.
Mnoxec1ao uepkae n uacoaen a uec1L n1nnum po cnx nop nasmaak1cn nn1nnuknHn.
ue 6onLue cae1nmx konopuea, kpnnnu, uene6nmx popnnkoa naxopnnocL nop
nokpoan1enLc1aoH 1o xe n1nnum. n opnoHy xpnc1nanckoHy "can1oHy" ne 6mno
okasano c1onLko yaaxennn, ckonLko Ma1yuke n1nnue, n6o na nee nepeuno
noun1anne - ML (Hakoaka, Hakyuka - 1. e. aepxyuka).
o nocnepnero apeHenn Makoun npoponxann noknonn1Lcn "6a6m 6oroHepskne", a na
ceaepe ycn ee acnoHnnak1 n nmne, xo1n n nop pasnmHn nHenaHn.
MakouL - onnue1aopenne xenckoro, Ha1epnnckoro nauana a Hnpospannn, ona xe -
M M. mpan - snaun1 xnan1enLnan, xnaopopnuan. opa cnmna
nc1ounnkoH seHnoro nnopopopnn, aonnouenneH Ma1epn-eHnn. oa1oHy nneaa1L a
46
aopy - ace paano, u1o Ma1epn a rnasa. nsmuecko kynL1ype aopa acerpa cun1anacL
c1nxne xnsnepa1enLno (xnaan aopa) n aceounc1n1enLno, nsronnkue neunc1yk
cnny. mne caeuennan c1nxnn nnsaepena po npoc1o xnHnuecko qopHynm n acnkn
"snae1", u1o 1akoe aopa: a1o "au paa o". pnako okonua1enLnoro onncannn qenoHena
"aopa" a qnsnuecknx Hopennx po cnx nop ne1.
pokonn ecapnckn nncan, u1o cnaanne noun1ann pekn n opnnmx ea (pycanok-
6epernnL). a yccko paannne pekn poxpak1cn ns popnnkoa-knkue, o1nnpakunx
nopseHnme knapoame, 1. e. ns nona caHo mpo eHnn; nHenno noa1oHy onn 1ak n
noun1ak1cn. "pocaeuennm" rpek-xpnc1nannn 1aknx 1onkoc1e a aepoaannnx
aapaapoa, nonn1no, ne ynoann...
oaceHec1no nsaec1na 6mna oco6an, sarapounan cansL n1nnum c npnpenneH. n1nnua
- caHa 1onkonpnxa, npnna no nouaH, a no1oHy npnpenne - ee ncknkun1enLnoe npaao n
npenHyuec1ao. aHn1yn o6 a1oH, xenunnm no nn1nnuaH ne npnnn: nnaue
ockop6nennan aonue6nnua Hoxe1 nakasa1L "cnn1nauyk".
Lno1kanme amun1me nono1enua 6mnn a cnaanno-pyccko kynL1ype caHmH
pacnpoc1panennmH o6eperoH, napnpy c kpacnmH noncoH n ouenLeH. 6epern -
saun1nme snakn, 1ecno cansannme c po6poxena1enLnmHn 6epernnnHn, xpannunHn
aepnmx o1 caoe npo1naononoxnoc1n - ynmpe. pacnm uae1 - uae1 kpoan, 1. e.
xnao1aopno cyunoc1n; sa nnH npnsnaaanacL pononnn1enLnan o6eperakuan cnna.
c 1o, u1o coapeHennm uenoaek nasmaae1 ykpauennnHn, nHeno a ppeanoc1n
necoHnennm aonue6nm cHmcn. spennn ns HaHon1oaa 6nann, oxepenLn ns
HepaexLnx kor1e, pnapeHm ns xeHuyra n nn1apn - ace a1n nepao6m1nme "ykpauennn"
6mnn M. naanne ne ncnonLsoaann o6eperakuyk cnHaonnky kak
ykpauennn. akan "Hopa" na 6ycm, konLua, cepLrn, uenme o6pyun, sannc1Ln n
napyun aosnnkna 1onLko nocne xpnc1nannsaunn kak npo1ec1 npo1na uyxepopno,
nacnnLc1aenno nacaxpaeHo pennrnn.
snauanLno nonc, ouenLe n kpyxeaa caHn no ce6e nannnncL o6eperaHn, u1o cansano c
aepo a Harnueckyk cnny saHkny1oro kpyra. uenLn uepkoannkn cyHenn nsaec1n,
kpyxeaa y1epnnn caoe snauenne, no kpacnm nonc a 6m1y pyccko pepeann n a nauane
XX a. npnsnaaancn o6eperoH.
pnaHen1 no-na1mnn - ykpauenne. o kpacnme opnaHen1m na nono1enuax - a1o ne
ykpauennn. pnaHen1 nHen onpepenennoe ocHmcnennoe copepxanne. munaka - a1o
ne npnknapnoe nckycc1ao, opnaHen1 - a1o ne npaspnan o1ce6n1nna. axpan uep1ouka
nHee1 caoe cyuec1aennoe snauenne.
munaka noaepana naH o - nckonnoH cnaannckoH Hnpouyac1aoaannn.
e1mpe coHkny1mx poH6a c 1ouko any1pn kaxporo ns nnx - snak nnopopopnn. Y1ouka
- cnHaon ounc1n1enLno cnnm aopm. epeao o6osnauano epernnk. oco kpec1 -
oronL. pyr, pose1kn a anpe uec1n- n aocLHnyronLnnkoa, ue1mpex - n aocLHnnyueame
caac1nkn, konn konorpname n xap-n1num o6osnauann pnny-onnue.
pyccko naunonanLno opexpe onoapa1-caac1nka 6mn rnaanmH n nan6onee
nk6nHmH opnaHen1oH anno1L po II Hnpoao aonm, korpa on c1an npecnepoaa1Lcn kak
"qaunc1ckn". ceaepopyccko amunake saneua1neno connuenoknonnnuec1ao,
napopoH o1 nonoa saHacknpoaannoe nop ysopm. op rne1oH xpnc1nanc1aa nsmueckne
opnaHen1m necnn orpoHnm cHmcnoao, uyac1aennm, npaac1aennm,
aoopyueannkun sapnp. pykopennn, sapyHannoH nekpacoacko kpec1Lnnko
Ma1peno nHoqeeano, uen1panLnoe Hec1o sannHae1 onnmuko.
Ysopno1kanoe nono1enue - a1o aonnouennoe saknnnanne. asyHee1cn, nsro1oanenne
1akoro o6epera o6c1aannnocL 1opxec1aenno, c1anoannocL caeuennopec1aoH.
47
munaka nHena o6pnpoaoe snauenne: a ppeanoc1n ek sannHanncL xenunnm,
nHekune onpepennnme c1enenn aepoackoro nocaeuennn. axpm c1exok
conpoaoxpancn necnonennnHn. ckycc1ao 6mno, no cyuec1ay, pennrne -
conpnuac1noc1Lk XM M.
ono1enue ne cospaaanocL cnyuano, no xencko npnxo1n. no nHeno onpepenennyk,
pec1aennyk uenL, n pykopenLnnua, npexpe ueH naua1L pa6o1y, ponxna 6mna poc1nuL
nopo6akuero any1pennero coc1onnnn - ceppeunoro ropennn, u1o6m a1o1 xap nepeuen
a nyuesapnyk aypy onoapa1a, penakuyk o6eper - M. naue nponsaepenne
caHo nckycno Hac1epnum 6ype1 nnuL 6espyunmH peHecnoH.
ornacno nsmuecknH npepc1aanennnH, ec1L Harnueckan conpnxennoc1L any1penne
cyunoc1n uenoaeka n nsro1oanennmx nH aeue. axpan kap1nna nece1 nensrnapnHm
o1neua1ok pyueanoro nac1pon xypoxnnka n coo1ae1c1aenno aospec1aye1 na spn1ene.
cnn amunaanLunua pyHae1 o 1oH, u1o6m ee nono1enue necno nkpnH papoc1L -
Y . cnn xenunna neo1c1ynno pepxn1 a yHe a1y HmcnL, ecnn ona
nenokone6nHo yaepena, u1o ee opnaHen1 6ype1 cnyxn1L o6eperoH, 1o a1o c1anoan1cn
npaapo na caHoH pene, nockonLky specL k ae1noHy 6pasy npncoaokynnne1cn eue n
rnnno1nueckoe anyuenne - aonn aepLHm.
narne saknn1nn xnay1 a o6eperax: a nnx Ha1epnannsye1cn ncnxnueckan aneprnn, onn
a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne nponn1maak1cn po6pmHn uyac1aaHn n no6yxpennnHn. akoe
nspenne ne "Hep1ao", ne 6ecc1pac1no: ono 1ecno, oprannueckn cansano co caonH
cospa1eneH n Hoxe1 naxopn1Lcn c nnH a Harne1nueckoH asanHopec1ann.
o apeHena ronenn nocne xpnc1nannsaunn yxe ne kaxpan pykopenLnnua anpena
cokpoaennm cHmcn a amun1oH ek opnaHen1e; opnn npoc1o 6espyHno noppaxann,
ppyrne pa6o1ann paanopyuno, paccennno. o nsmueckan cnHaonnka ace xe
cyuec1aoaana n 6mna HnornH nonn1na: aepL ysopm na nono1enuax "npoun1maanncL"
1orpa nkpLHn 1ak xe nerko, kak Hm un1aeH nncLHo.
6pnpoamHn nono1enuaHn ykpauann kpacnm yron cae1nnum n npnnocnnn nx no o6e1y
a caeuennme poun. es nnx ne c1ponncn poH, ne nrpanacL caapL6a. nn o6eperann
6paunoe noxe. pacun1me nono1enua nenenann noaopoxpennoro, nono1enuaHn
o6aopaunaann nokonnka nepep koc1poH. es nono1eneu ne o6xopnnncL napopnme
npaspnec1aa: onnpa, oHoepnum, oponnua, ynana...
onneunme o6epern nanocnnncL n na opexpy, oco6enno xenckyk. eanuaH n
HonopnuaH 1pe6oaanacL ycnnennan saun1a: aepL onn ponxnm 6mnn 6epeuL ne 1onLko
ce6n, no n caoe 6ypyuee uapo - napexpy opa. akoro Hnoroo6pasnn kpacounmx
caac1nunmx opnaHen1oa ne 6mno nn y opnoro ppyroro napopa: aonue6nme ysopm a
nso6nnnn pacnonaranncL no aopo1y, pykaaaH, nopony xenckoro nna1Ln, u1o6m
saun1n1L 1eno o1 snmx ynmpe.
ocnoanua o 1oH, u1o no opexpe ac1peuak1, popnnacL a 1e apeHena, korpa no uae1y,
qopHe n nanpaanennk o6eperakunx snakoa Hoxno 6mno ysna1L, o1kypa xenunna
popoH, ns kako ceHLn, saHyxeH nn ona, ec1L nn pe1n n 1. p.
* * *
ppeaneH o6pnpe ne 6mno nnuero nnunero: amaepeno kaxpoe cnoao, kaxpm xec1, -
aepL onn cansanm c pec1aykunHn a Hnpe cnnaHn. Mysmka, xopoaopnme necnn n
nnnckn - ne npoc1o ykpauennn o6pnpa, onn - ero pyua. o6pnpax packpmaanocL
onpepenennoe HnpononnHanne; nensHennme sakonm pnpopm saneua1nenm a
cnHaonnke o6pnpoa, kak a1o ceuac penae1cn a knnrax. syuenne nsmuecknx o6pnpoa
nosaonnno 6m xpnc1nanaH nponcnn1L koe-u1o a uyxo, 1eHno n sarapouno pnn nnx
napopno pyue.
48
6pnp 6onee acero 1papnunonen, a no1oHy on caHm poc1oaepnm canpe1enL 6mnoro.
epL acnkoe noauec1ao, paxe caHoe nesnaun1enLnoe, rposn1 y1pa1o caeuennoro
cHmcna. axno coxpann1L, co6nkc1n ac, anno1L po HenLuaunx noppo6noc1e,
snauenne ko1opmx coapeHennoHy cosnannk kaxe1cn nenonn1nmH.
saec1na oco6an sa6o1a ppeannx o "kopHnennn" pepkoa n rny6okan yaepennoc1L a
o6pa1noH 6naro1aopnoH annnnnn nespnHmx xpann1ene na xnsnL n 6narononyune
opa-neHenn. Mexpy pepkaHn n no1oHkaHn cyuec1aye1 onpepenennan
asanHosaancnHoc1L: pepkn xpy1 n 1pe6yk1 noun1annn, a no1oHkn nonyuak1 o1
pepkoa o6oppenne n noHouL. ansL Hexpy nkpLHn n yxaHn-okpoan1ennHn
yc1anaannaae1cn n noppepxnaae1cn nocpepc1aoH aeuennmx 6pnpoa, a uac1noc1n,
o6pnpoH "kopHnennn".
yxn ne anonne 6ec1enecnm n o6napak1 nekoe "pyxoano nno1Lk". pepkaH
nonarancn nepam noHo1L caexencneuennoro xne6a, nepam rno1ok poHaunero nnaa.
eckpoanme ncnapennn xep1aennoro yrouennn nponarak1 Hoc1nk - cansL na 1o1 cae1
(o6pnp a1o1 poxnn po naunx pne a anpe o6nsa1enLno noHnnanLno c1onkn pnn
nokonnka).
co6oe snauenne pnn yc1anoanennn 1ako cansn nHenn aonocm. oo6ue aonocm
nrpann a o6pnpax aaxnyk n aonue6nyk ponL. D1norpaqm canpe1enLc1ayk1, u1o y
uaHanoa-saknnna1ene acex nneHen coxxenne aonoc ec1L Harnueckoe cpepc1ao
npnaneuennn pyxoa.
akcon paHHa1nk nncan, u1o xpeum ae1oan1a pkonckoro, aonpekn cnaannckoHy
o6muak, ne c1pnrnn nn aonoc, nn 6opopm. ceaepnmx carax nasaa1L koro-nn6o
6es6opopmH - snaunno ockop6n1L. annne xpnc1nane n "o1um uepkan" aryc1nn,
acean n pp. yansmaann "ponroanacne" nsmuecknx xpeuoa n aepynoa, nanpnHep
nonnonnn nanckoro, c uapopec1aoH. peanepycckoe cnoao "aonxa" cxoxe c
"aonoca1oc1Lk - aonoxa1oc1Lk", a 6mnnnax pec1aye1 knnsL-aonkopnak onx
cecnaaLeanu. ycckne knnsLn-ampopkn, npnnnaune kpeuenne, npexpe ueH kasnn1L
aonxaoa, ampmaann nH 6opopm.
Xenunnm yuac1aoaann a o6pnpax 1onLko c pacnyuennmHn aonocaHn. ue y anpnn
Mepen "anacm, pacnyc1naun, kak 1o aakxanok o6pnp...". epaoe sanne1anne kocm
6mno nepamH peanuLnH nocae1n1enLnmH o6pnpoH. ocnnkoH nasmaanncL kpacnme
nen1m-o6epern, anne1aeHme a kocy. o apeHn caapL6m kocy pacnne1ann, u1o 1ak xe
6mno o6pnpoamH pec1aoH. 1pesa1L y peanum ee kpacy - pycyk kocy snaunno ee
o6ecuec1n1L (c1pnxenan peaka). eanuLn koca cansana c peac1aoH: pnnnnme aonocm
na ronoae - 1akoe xe ncknkun1enLno uenoaeueckoe npno6pe1enne, kak n peac1aennan
nneaa. neaa a1a onpoaeprae1 1eopnk apanna, cornacno ko1opo npno6pe1ennme a
1euenne xnsnn caoc1aa n nsHenennn Hory1 nepepaaa1Lcn no nacnepc1ay.
ecuncnennme nokonennn xenunn poxpak1 pe1e npn ycnoann paspmaa peac1aenno
nneam, - n ac-1akn peaoukn poxpak1cn c coxpanenneH ee.
ManLunueckn nocae1n1enLnm o6pnp nasmaancn "noc1pnrn": a 1pn ropa HanLunka
noc1pnrann, npepaaan aonocm rnk, n anepame caxann na konn. osxe, c1aa aonnoH,
on 6pocan a xnao ronL nokon caonx aonoc, nocaeuan xnsnL cnyxennk opy n
o6nsmaan ypoa-pauypoa yuac1aoaa1L a caoe cypL6e, nepaspmano cansanno c
cypL6o opa.
* * *
oaceHec1no papoH-npnnouenneH yHepueHy 6mnn aonocm 6nnsknx eHy nkpe. xnnn
a "nnape", npouancL c a1poknoH, knape1 a ero pyky npnpL caonx aonoc, a
HnpHnponnne ocmnak1 1eno repon caonHn aonocaHn.
49
s nk6oano Harnn nsaec1no, u1o npnpL aonoc - o6e1, cansykun cyxenmx
nk6oannkoa n a xnsnn n a cHep1n: 1pora1enLnyk nc1opnk, noaepannyk pnHnnnnnoH
neron1oH, e1e o6pa6o1an a 6annape "opnnqckan neaec1a". D1oro xe noaepLn
kocnyncn yprenea a "ocne cHep1n". qanacLea a "oa1nuecknx aosspennnx cnaann
na pnpopy" ykasmaae1, u1o a ero apeHena a epnoropnn Ha1epn n cec1pm yHepunx
o1pesak1 caon kocm n knapy1 nx a Hornny aHec1e c popornH nokonnkoH. aHnnumn a
"oxec1aax ppeannx cnaann" npnaopn1 sanncL n1Hapa o xep1aennmx npnnouennnx
aonoc y nona6cknx cnaann-nk1nue. anee aHnnumn nnue1, u1o "no canpe1enLc1ay
epopo1a, cxopnmH o6pasoH uec1aoaanncL na o. enoc yHepune rnnep6opeckne
peam: Hec1nme peayukn n knoun npnnocnnn na Hornny caon aonocm... enLckn
pacckasmaae1, u1o uexn a 734 r., onnaknaan cHep1L k6yun, 6pocann a aosxennm y
ee Hornnm oronL o6pesannme aonocm n nor1n".
. py6e a "yxoano kynL1ype n1an" (1912 r.) ykasmaae1, u1o cpasy nocne
nac1ynnennn cHep1n popc1aennnkn yHepuero o1pesak1 neHnoro aonoc co caoe
ronoam n knapy1 nx a pyky Hep1aoHy. D1o osnauae1, u1o onn xenak1 6m1L cansanm c
nokonnkoH n a 6ypyueH aonnouennn ero, ppyrnHn cnoaaHn, korpa yHepun naune1
noaoe cyuec1aoaanne, 1o xena n pe1n xenak1 aospopn1Lcn aHec1e c nnH n oc1aaa1Lcn
c nnH nepasnyunmHn.
onocm, napaane c kpoaLk, acerpa n aespe cun1anncL ocnoanmHn nocn1ennHn
xnsnenno cnnm. nn n ceuac cun1ak1cn 1akoamHn y ceaepoaHepnkancknx nnpeuea
n ppyrnx "o1c1anmx" pe1e pnpopm, cosna1enLno nnn 6eccosna1enLno coxpannaunx
, y1pauennoe "unannnsoaannmHn" eapoaHepnkanuaHn. "Dnenpe" pnpa
cnyckae1cn c nnHna, u1o6m o1penn1L pyuy 1pypno yHnpakue nponm o1 1ena:
pnpa cpesae1 npnpL ee aonoc, n 1o1uac xnsnL nponm o6pmaae1cn. nprnnn specL
ponec po nac o1ronocok ppeaneunx npepc1aanenn o 1oH, u1o aonocm na ronoae
nannk1cn aHec1nnnueH pyueano cnnm.
caHmx o1panennmx ppyr o1 ppyra uac1nx cae1a, y caHmx pasnmx napopoa, ao ace
apeHena Hm ac1peuaeH uapopenme o6pnpm, nopasn1enLno cxoxne Hexpy co6o.
ayka ne Hoxe1 o6Lncnn1L nx opnoo6pasne, aceo6unoc1L n noc1onnc1ao. n 1eopnn
Hnrpaunn n sanHc1aoaannn, nn 1eopnn epnnc1aa uenoaeuecko ncnxnkn, nn ppyrne
npepnonoxennn ne pak1 o1ae1a na a1o1 aaxneun aonpoc. e1 o6pnpoa
6eccHmcnennmx; ec1L o6pnpm, cHmcn ko1opmx sa paanoc1Lk ne1 sa1eHnen n sa6m1.
eaepon1no, u1o6m 6ecnonesnm, 6eccnnLnm o6pnp Hor nepexn1L neckonLko
1mcnuene1n.
saec1no, u1o aonocm uenoaeka nanonnenm 1o xe xnsnenno cnno, u1o n aecL
oprannsH. nm1m nop1aeppnnn, u1o Hexpy uenoaeuecknH 1enoH n o1penLnmHn uac1nHn
ero, nanpnHep, aonocaHn, cyuec1aye1 nekan cnHna1nueckan popc1aennan cansL, n u1o
ona npoponxae1 cyuec1aoaa1L paxe nocne npekpauennn qnsnueckoro
conpnkocnoaennn; kaxpm a1oH o1paxae1 uenoe 1oro, ueHy on npnnapnexan. ansL
a1a ne aoo6paxaeHan, a aeuec1aennan, n acnkoe aospec1ane na uac1n
nenocpepc1aenno aocnpnnnHae1cn nx anapenLueH. pn aH6pnonanLnoH pasan1nn ns
opno n 1o xe sapopmueao 1kann-ak1opepHm - o6pasyk1cn n nepanan 1kanL n koxa
n aonocm, 1. e. onn rene1nueckn popc1aennm n ouenL cnnLno nacmuenm nepanmHn
aonoknaHn. oxa n aonocm ec1L YX L M.
ospec1ane na aonocm ec1L a nepayk ouepepL aospec1ane na nepanyk cnc1eHy.
opaeprancL HepnennoHy snoyHmunennoHy coxxennk a nsaec1koao cHecn, aonocm
uenoaeka Hory1 npnnec1n eHy 6onesnn n paxe cHep1L. peanne ne oc1aannnn
c1pnxennme aonocm rpe nonano, u1o6m onn ne ouy1nnncL y konpyna.
Mec1eukoame ka66annc1m-unpknLnnkn, sy6oppm n an1ekapn, "neunaune" roea
kpoaonyckanneH, c1peHnnncL poc1a1L aonocm, a ecnn aosHoxno, 1o n kpoaL, no1, ceHn,
nor1n, sy6m caoe 6ypyue xep1am (o1ckpa noroaopka: "on na 1e6n sy6 nHee1").
Xenan naaec1n nopuy na pacc1onnnn, onn nennnn aockoayk kykny, noxoxyk na
50
naHeuennyk xep1ay, napnxann ee a nna1Le ns ponro nouenno xep1ao opexpm,
Hasann kpoaLk n npnkpennnnn aonocm k ee ronoae. a1eH onn, cnepyn peuen1aH,
nsnoxennmH a uec1o n cepLHo uepnmx knnrax Moncen, ee napekann nHeneH
xep1am, npoknnnann, pn1yanLno nponsan nrnaHn, narpeaann n pacnnaannnn. enoaek
yHnpan ne cpasy, a 1epnn xnsnennme cnnm, uax n yracan. opuac opkaeHapa 6mn
npaa, n6o ueH o1nnuae1cn yHepuanenne nocpepc1aoH npa o1 cHep1n, naaepenno
nopue?
kaxy1, u1o a1o aospec1ane ckopee aoo6paxaeHoe, u1o specL anyuennan xep1ae
HmcnL o napanrakuecn n nens6exno cHep1n nepexopnna a caHoanyuenne, a
npnHoro pec1ann specL ne1. o, ao-nepamx: rpe naunnae1cn opno n konuae1cn
ppyroe? o-a1opmx: anyuenne - acero nnuL cnoao, npnkpmaakuee orpoHnm npo6en
a naunx snannnx. , a-1pe1Lnx: nsaec1nm cnyuan sarapouno cHep1n coaepuenno
spopoamx nkpe, paxe ne nopospeaaaunx o 1oH, u1o nH amnecen saounm cHep1nm
npnroaop. npaunaae1cn: ecnn cnna cyeaepnoro aoo6paxennn yHepaunne1 a ypounm
uac "1eHnoro", 6onsnnaoro, sa6n1oro kpec1Lnnnna, 1o kakan xe cnna y6naae1 a
yc1anoanennm cpok o6pasoaannoro, ne aepnuero "nn a con, nn a uox" nacHeunnka -
ropoxannna?
* * *
u1o snak1 o aonocax yuenme akapeHnkn? nn ne Hory1 o1ae1n1L na aonpoc ne 1onLko
o cHmcne n nasnauennn uenoaeuecknx aonoc, no paxe o npnunne nx nponcxoxpennn.
a ce cue1 cyuec1aye1 neckonLko neopnosnaunmx, ua1knx npepnonoxenn n 1onLko.
nnnnme aonocm na ronoae - 1akoe xe unc1o uenoaeueckoe poc1onnne, kak n
peac1aennan nneaa.
c1L an1pononorn, nonarakune, u1o uenoaek ynacnepoaan aonocm o1 caonx
"pouenoaeuecknx" npepkoa, ko1opme, kak n ace Hnekonn1akune, 6mnn nokpm1m
uepc1Lk, a sa1eH acnepc1ane kaknx-1o npnunn a1oro nokpoaa nnunnncL. 1oH, kakne
a1o 6mnn npnunnm, yuenme Hyxn npepnoun1ak1 yHanunaa1L.
epL ecnn ponyc1n1L, u1o xoHo cannenc nponsouen o1 aonoca1mx o6esLnnonopo6nmx
npepkoa, o6nmceaunx appyr o1 6onLuoro yHa, 1o nenonn1no, kaknH o6pasoH y1pa1a
Hexoao uy6m, saunuaaue o1 xonopa n nenoropm, Horna cnoco6c1aoaa1L
amxnaannk? , kpoHe 1oro, noueHy 1orpa uenoaeueckne aonocm cnnLnee pac1y1
nHenno 1aH, rpe nx nou1n ne1 y o6esLnn? akoao nasnauenne n nonLsa aonoc
nopHmukaHn n a naxy? ak, korpa, saueH n noueHy Hyxunna npno6pen 1. n.
a1opnunm nonoao npnsnak - 6opopy? onLko y uenoaeka poc1 aonoc na ronoae n
poc1 6opopm ne npekpauae1cn po caHo cHep1n, n paxe kakoe-1o apeHn nocne cHep1n.
oueHy?
e nannk1cn nn pnnnnme uenoaeueckne aonocm, c1onL neo6muanme pnn acex ppyrnx
cyuec1a, cnHaonoH - ykasanneH caHo pnpopm na nx cokpoaennoe npepnasnauenne -
cansmaa1L uenoaeueckne cypL6m?
Mepnkn o6napyxnnn, u1o aonocm - caoeo6pasnoe sepkano, o1paxakuee coc1onnne
oprannsHa. ak, aenrepckne apaun o1kpmnn, u1o no uenoaeueckoHy aonocy Hoxno
onpepenn1L npnsnakn npn6nnxakuecn cHep1n o1 ceppeunoro npnc1yna.
nccnepoaa1enn a L yc1anoannn Hexpy coc1onnneH aonoc n pasnnunmHn
M 6onesnnHn, npnueH ananns aonoc okasancn 6onee aepnmH, ueH
anannsm kpoan n Houn. o kacae1cn nn a1a cansL 1onLko 6onesne? epL u1o snaun1
"nacnepc1aennoc1L"? D1o 1e sarapounme ysm, u1o cansyk1 npepkoa c no1oHkaHn.
acnepyk1cn ne 1onLko 6onesnn (a 1oH uncne pyueanme), npec1ynnme naknonnoc1n n
npeppacnonoxennoc1L k aaHnnpnsHy. a1onornueckan nacnepc1aennoc1L ec1L nnuL
opno ns nponanenn o6ue 6nonornuecko nacnepc1aennoc1n.
51
epepak1cn ns nokonennn a nokonenne ne 1onLko 1akne aneunne o1nnun1enLnme
npnsnakn, kak uae1 rnas nnn aonoc, noc yp6onoa nnn ry6a a6c6yproa, no n
YL : ynacnepoaannme cknonnoc1n, akycm, npnc1pac1nn, aneuennn,
npaam. ac1o Hm cnmunH, u1o anyk aecL a pepa, a anyuka - "amnn1an 6a6yuka".
nyuae1cn, u1o cmn, nnkorpa ne anpeaun caoero o1ua n nnuero o neH ne cnmuaaun,
nopaxae1 cxopc1aoH c nnH ne 1onLko a noxopke, no n a kakoH-nn6o oco6oH
"qaHnnLnoH" xec1e nnn a pypno npnamuke rpms1L nor1n. saec1no, u1o uaHanckn
pap, a ocnoanoH, nepepae1cn no nacnepc1ay, npnueH caHn uaHanm o6muno o6Lncnnk1
a1o nepeaonnouenneH pepkoa.
peanne Hyppeum npnsnaaann nannune oco6o xnsnenno cnnm, npncyue xnaoHy n
nanpaannkue ero pasan1ne, pnc1o1enL nasmaan a1y cnny an1enexne, cnaanne -
M. eocnopnHo opno: nckpa uenoaeueckoro pyxa nsnauanLno saknkuae1 a ce6e a
ckpm1oH anpe ac cao 6ypyuee pasan1ne. Henno pasan1ne rene1nueckn
sanporpaHHnpoaannmx (roaopn no-nayunoHy), a nonpoc1y - X sapa1koa
qopHnpye1 pyxoanm o6nnk uenoaeka. ocnn1anne, cpepa n ycnoann xnsnn okasmaak1
Hano annnnnn na naue . c peuak1 nacnepc1aenno o6ycnoanennme, 6eso1ue1nme
npnansannoc1n n neocosnaaaeHme nopuac npepnou1ennn.
ue saponro po poxpennn ace npepnauep1ano a nekoeH M ,
"sanncano" a anpe rene1nueckoro na6opa, npeponpepennkuero naue noaepenne, nauy
xnsnL, a koneunoH n1ore Y - - YY, 1. e. 1o, "u1o na opy nanncano".
enoaek pec1aye1 1ak, kak pnn nero caHoro nens6exno. o a1o ne qa1annsH: op ne
yro1oann naH ypen, on ne a1ncknaae1 nac a xec1kne paHkn. uepuenm nnuL npepenm
aosHoxnoro npoc1panc1aenno-apeHennoro nponanennn cnn, cnoco6noc1e n cao6opno
aonn uenoaeka. pecL ypL6y ne nepexn1pnuL, n nncnocnannoe opoH napo npnnn1L
kak ponxnoe. Hy anpnee. o a onpepenennmx npepenax Hm caHn ackapHnnaaeH,
aspaunaaeH caok ypL6y.
* * *
cnn roaopn1L o nacnepoaannn uae1a aonoc, 1o peuL npe1 o ueH-1o anonne
Ha1epnanLnoH, u1o kak 6m Hoxno nouyna1L pykaHn. o kak aosHoxna nepepaua
pyueanmx kauec1a - uero-1o neocnsaeHoro, npnspaunoro, neaeuec1aennoro, opnako
xe, anonne peanLnoro n pec1aennoro?
cosnanne 1oro, u1o a neanpnHoH neaoopyxennmH rnasoH xnaunke 1an1cn saua1kn ne
1onLko aneunnx caoc1a, no n caHnx HenLuaunx oco6ennoc1e ncnxnkn; ocosnanne
1oro, u1o saua1kn a1n nepepak1cn nnorpa o1 pepa k anyky, Hnnyn o1ua, - ocosnanne
a1oro amsmaae1 nsyHnenne a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne cnoaa.
aknH o6pasoH opnn kpoxo1nm xnaunk Hoxe1 aHeua1L a ce6e n nepepaaa1L pnnnno
aepennue no1oHkoa nencuncnnHo rpoHapnoe copepxanne - 6eckoneunoe Hnoxec1ao
pasnnunmx 1enecnmx n pyueanmx uep1 - yHy nenoc1nxnHo. 1o xo1L pas sapyHancn
nap a1o aonnykue n nenponnuaeHo 1ano, nap npnamunmH, no nopasn1enLnmH
nanenneH (renno) M, 1oro ne Hoxe1 ne oxaa1n1L cHn1enne nepep
M M X n nnu1oxec1aoH naunx snann. peanne nasmaann a1o
Y aonnouenneH pepka n o1nocnnncL k saua1nk kak k caeuennopec1ay.
oapeHennan rene1nka yc1aHn opnoro ns caHmx ampakunxcn caonx npepc1aan1ene
npnsnae1cn: "Mm ne snaeH, kakoaa npnpopa aren1a npn nepexope popn1enLcknx
npnsnakoa, ne snaeH paxe, nanne1cn on Ha1epnanLnmH nnn ne1" (. a1con, c6opnnk
"oaeuan 6nonornn", Lk-opk, 1967 r.). enm (o1 rpeu. renoc - pop) -
1annc1aennme cy6c1anunn a nppe onnopo1aopenno kne1kn, onpepennkune, keH a1o
kne1ke 6m1L.
52
nn xe peuak1, kakne kne1kn sapopmua c1any1 ceppueH uenoaeka, kakne - ero
HosraHn, a kakne - aonocaHn. Yuenme ocosnak1 kpankk 6epnoc1L copepxannn
nonn1nn rena n nonneuyk neaosHoxnoc1L cyry6o Ha1epnannc1nueckn o6Lncnn1L
konkpe1nm HexannsH nacnepoaannn. nn 6Lk1cn nap aonpocaHn: kak ns opno-
epnnc1aenno nonoao kne1kn-npapopn1enLnnum aosnnkae1 cnoxneun
uenoaeueckn oprannsH c 60 1pnnnnonaHn pasnnunmx kne1ok? 1o pykoaopn1
qopHnpoaanneH aH6pnona n nanpaanne1 xop ero pasan1nn?
ny1pny1po6noe pasan1ne - a1o c1peHnenne sapopmua k ocyuec1anennk sapanee
noc1aanenno uenn. o rpe, kaknH "kopoH" sanncanm noppo6neune nac1aanennn, c
ko1opmHn caepne1cn exeHnny1no sapopmu: kak pac1n panLue? ak aonnouae1cn
sanoxennoe a nacnepc1aennoc1n? ak xpann1 Y?
nkakan seHnan qopHa ne Hoxe1 cyuec1aoaa1L 6es caoero ac1panLnoro npo1o1nna-
npoo6pasa, 6es 1oro, u1o na1on nasmaan "npenHn" (o1 rpeu. apocoa - naun nponm,
1. e. nepaoo6pasm). oc1nxennn Honekynnpno 6nonornn nop1aeppnnn, u1o npn
nacnepoaannn nepepae1cn nnan, ykasanne kak ponxno 6m1L noc1poeno xnaoe
cyuec1ao. nan a1o1 neHa1epnanen a pacxoxeH cHmcne cnoaa, opnako peanen n
xpann1cn a "sakopnpoaannoH" anpe a nppe onnopo1aopenno kne1kn, a 1onuaunx
nn1nx - xpoHocoHax.
Yuenme 6esycneuno noHak1 ce6e ronoam nap ero "pacunqpoako". ne Hyppeno:
aepL u1o6m xpoHocoHa c1ana poc1ynno npnHoHy na6nkpennk, nccnepoaa1enn ee
npepaapn1enLno yHepuannk1. ak saHe1nn e1e:
o aceH nopcnyua1L xnsnL c1peHncL,
neua1 nanenLn o6espyun1L,
a6ma, u1o ecnn a nnx napyun1L
pyueannkuyk cansL,
o 6onLue neuero n cnyua1L...
Mep1aan xpoHocoHa ne packpmaae1 yuenoHy nornky caoero pasan1nn n caonx
noc1onnnmx nsHenenn. opo6nme onm1m ne Hory1 npnnec1n nonLsm yxe a cnny
caoero 6esnpaac1aennoro He1opa. asae Hoxno npn6nnsn1Lcn k nonnHannk cyunoc1n
Xnsnn, nonnpan npn a1oH caeuennoe npaao na xnsnL nk6oro cyuec1aa?
pnn ns anpoa cnnpann nasmaae1cn kno1onpo (o1 rpeu. cnoaa osnauakuero
kpyuenne, npnpenne; no1o - opna ns 1pex 6ornnL, npnpyunx nn1L uenoaeuecko
xnsnn). onocm y Hnornx nkpe saanaak1cn a anpe opno ns ae1ae kno1onpm.
saec1no, u1o y opnonueamx 6nnsneuoa qopHa pyk, nor, yue n ppyrnx opranoa
coanapae1 po caHmx HenLuaunx noppo6noc1e. pnako y 6onLunnc1aa 1aknx
6nnsneuoa aonocm sakpyunaak1cn y kaxporo a caok c1opony. oueHy?
* * *
ak xn1L coapeHennoHy ropopckoHy nsmunnky, xopnueHy no acqanL1y,
sapmxakueHycn a xenesnmx o6Ln1nnx Haunnno unannnsaunn? ak ne npepa1Lcn
ynmnnk? ak nanonnn1L xnsnL nenpexopnunH caeuennmH cHmcnoH?
opopckne nsmunnkn uac1o noppaxak1 nckycc1aennmH, knnxnmH pennrnnH;
noknonnk1cn Hep1amH nspennnH aHec1o nonckoa ny1n k XM M. o
pyko1aopnme xpaHm n kyHnpm nyxnm 1onLko pnn pyko1aopnmx "6oroa".
53
pn nepao xe aosHoxnoc1n napo 6poca1L ac n amesxa1L na pnpopy. epasyHno
pa1oaa1L sa aceo6un yxop nkpe a neca, 1eH 6onee, ceuac, ao apeHena nocnepne
6n1am sa ycL. o kaxpm ropopcko nsmunnk o6nsan 1eH nnn nnmH cnoco6oH
coaepun1L o6pnp pyxoanoro o6noanennn, aospoxpennn, ecnn yropno -
caHonocaeuennn. naue ero xnsnL 1ak n oc1ane1cn Hmunno aosn.
m ponxen ocosna1L, u1o qnnLknna rpaHo1a, na nsyuenne ko1opo m y6nn c1onLko
apeHenn, annaHn na aope nncana n rpoua noHanoro ne c1on1. yHe cknny1L ac
nanocnoe n aosapa1n1Lcn k aHoHy e6e!
m ponxen xn1L xnsnLk, n 1onLko 1ak m po6LuLcn o6epm! e pepxn a
poHe xpnc1nancko 1anHypnc1nkn paxe a kauec1ae cnpaaounnkoa. cnn y e6n ec1L
6n6nnn - neHepnenno coxrn ee. cnn y e6n ne1 6n6nnn - napn e n coxrn. m
cpenaeuL po6poe peno, n k e6e npnp1 Ypaua n apoc1L.
cnn m kpeun, 1o cHo a1y ckaepny n cpasy nouyac1ayeuL orpoHnee o6neruenne. e
spn nesapocuee koc1no 1kanLk Hec1o axopa , cansykuee
noaopoxpennoro c M, nasmaae1cn a aeueH pycckoH nsmke M. pn
upnoHarnuecko onepaunn "kpeuennn" nonm saHasmaak1 1eHeuko nenponnuaeHo,
naroaopenno xnpkoc1Lk, nacnnLc1aenno nepekpmaan poc1yn 6naropa1nmH annnnnnH
opa.
Ho a1y sapasy na paccae1e pnano ynanLcko noun, korpa poca o6napae1 oco6o
uenn1enLno, ounc1n1enLno cnno. oca, kak n 1anan aopa - a1o "peac1aennan",
"noaopoxpennan" aopa, uypecnme 6noak1nanme caoc1aa Honekyn ko1opo oc1ak1cn
sarapko pnn naykn. pnuac1ncL a1o anaro, nckynacn a pocnc1oH nyry nop nyuaHn
aocxopnuero pnnm - n 1nxkn kpec1 6esmcxopnoc1n caann1cn c aonx nneu.
smuec1ao a1o, npexpe acero, oco6oe coc1onnne pyun, aneHnkue pnpope. D1oHy
neaosHoxno o6yun1L. axpm ponxen npouyac1aoaa1L a1o caH. c, u1o Hoxno
cpena1L pnn 1ex, k1o xaxpe1 npnnac1L k nc1ounnky - a1o noaepa1L o ny1n k neHy.
D1o 1pypnm ny1L, no na neH ne1 neypau, a ec1L nnuL c1ynenn aocxoxpennn. axpoe
npnnoxennoe ycnnne yxe ec1L ypaua. oHy, k1o ncnnn xnao aopm, 6onLue ne nyxna
nornka n qnnocoqnn, pasnnunme o6ocnoaannn n pokasa1enLc1aa co6c1aenno
npaao1m. Hy nyxna .
pnunnm uenoaeuecknx c1papann uaue acero ne aneunne, a any1pennne. nn nac ne1
nnuero cyuec1aennee 1oro, u1o nponcxopn1 a naueH ceppue. koneunoH n1ore ace
6onesnn nHek1 opny nepaonpnunny - pyueanm pasnap uenoaeka c caHnH co6ok.
1o6m a pyue aouapnncn Hnp, u1o6m uenoaek 6mn yHnpo1aopen, napo eHy 6m1L a Hnpe
c Ma1epLk-pnpopo. orpa caHo co6ok 6ype1 Hnp n a pyue.
apoc1L couyac1aennoro o6uennn c pnpopo , ecnn a1o o6uenne ne npoc1o
cpepc1ao ospopoanennn, a qnsnueckan n pyxoanan no1pe6noc1L, 6es ko1opo n cae1 ne
Hnn. k6nuee ceppue o1 ns6m1ka uyac1a une1 papoaec1nn Xnsnn, a a o1ae1 nonyuae1
Y. 1o Hoxe1 6m1L ynon1enLnee o1papm?
ocpepnnkoa Hexpy uenoaekoH n pnpopo 6m1L ne Hoxe1. smunnkn ne nyxpak1cn a
nonax-ncnoaepnnkax, n6o npn o6uennn c pnpopo ac neunc1oe, yuep6noe,
cHpapnoe caHo co6o noknpae1 ne 1onLko naue cosnanne, no n naue 6eccosna1enLnoe.
pno nnuL cosepuanne seneno nnc1am, npoc1o cHo1penne, cnyuanne, o6onnnne
M annaae1 a pyuy 1nxyk papoc1L n am1ecnne1 no1ok uenyxoamx Hmcne.
m papyeuLcn ne o11oro, u1o HmcnnuL, a o11oro, u1o YYL M!
54
pnpopa papn1 naH pe1ckn-6esmckycnyk , a a1a papoc1L yxe caHa
nac1panaae1 naue spopoaLe, npocae1nne1 any1pennn asop n amsmaae1 Hnc1nueckne
nepexnaannn, o1oxpec1anneHme o6muno c pennrnosnmH akc1asoH.
enoaek naunnae1 ouyua1L nannune a neH pyun, 6eccHep1no n nencuepnaeHo, n ee
6esrpannunmx cnn n aosHoxnoc1e. nesanno, nan1neH noc1nrae1 on amcouaune
npaac1aennme uennoc1n. oyuennn aepynoa, panee o1aneuennme nnn nenonn1nme,
o6pe1ak1 appyr X M. epamH npnsnakoH ypaun 6ypy1 6naropa1nme
...
pnaxpm noce1nauee uenoaeka uyac1ao papoc1n n epnnennn c M M
M no6yxpae1 c1peHn1Lcn k neHy anoaL n anoaL. D1a 1nra neoponnHa: nopo,
kaxe1cn, u1o aoc1opr a1o1 ec1L aocnoHnnanne o M M , o
epnnc1ae HnkpokocHa n HakpokocHa - uenoaeka n cenenno.
ecenne o1 c1nxannn pyunc1oro pyxa uae1yunx pepeaLea 1ak npekpacno, u1o nepep
nnH ace "sanpe1nme nnopm" unannnsaunn Hepkny1, kak Hepkne1 uepkoanan caeuka
nepep cnnnneH nonypennoro onnua. pecL ykasanne caHo pnpopm: cnny pyxoanyk
Hoxno o6pe1a1L n yaennunaa1L uepes apmxanne. naroyxanne xnamx necnmx 1paa
napo nn1L kak nekapc1ao. e cnyuano cnoaa: pmxanne, pyx, pyua n pyunc1m -
popc1aennme, opnokopennme. a a1oH kopne - X.
oue1cn coxpann1L a1o pyxoanoe npno6pe1enne n a 6ypnnuno cye1e. o ropopcko
ckpexe1 sarnyuae1 uno1 nnc1am. c xe kaxpm, k1o ycnmuan soa pnpopm n
cnepye1 eHy, c1anoan1cn nsmunnkoH, paxe ecnn on 6mn korpa-1o kpeun. n -
nsmunnk po Hosra koc1e, xo1n nnuero ne cnmuan o nsmuec1ae n ne ac1peuancn c
nsmunnkaHn, ne roaopn yxe o 1oH, u1o ne nasmaae1 ce6n nsmunnkoH.
onLko ykpennnn, pasanaan pyxoanoe a ce6e, Hoxe1 uenoaek npn6nnsn1Lcn k
noc1nxennk opyxo1aopenno pnpopm, n6o cyunoc1L 1oro n ppyroro 1oxpec1aenna.
1annc1aa pnpopm Hoxe1 nponnkny1L nnuL pyua, aosamcnauancn po cnnnnnn c e,
ocosnaauan ace e 6ecnpepenLnoe Horyuec1ao n po6po1y. nnnnne nauero yxa c
yxoH pnpopm - opoH a epnnoe uenoe ec1L ncuenenne o1 acex son. onLko uenLnan
na1ypa nepexnaae1 cHep1L.
XnsnL - a1o aennuaun nopapok. yHe nH pacnopnpn1Lcn. oaepun1L sno -
sapy6n1L noaoropnkk enouky - nerko, no1oHy u1o sno ec1L acero nnuL paspyuenne
po6pa.
oaepun1L po6po - nocapn1L pepeauo - 1pypnee, n6o po6po cosnpae1cn. ue 1pypnee
nocapn1L pepeao ne 1onLko papn npak1nuecko nonLsm n kpaco1m, "ne papn xn1poc1n,
ne papn Hyppoc1n", a na .
ce "pacnme knnrn" npaac1aenno necoc1on1enLnm, 1. k. nHek1 koneuno uenLk
coxpanenne xnao1nmx n pac1enn pnn 6naropenc1ann . a, nkpn sanpe1nnn
oxo1y na 6enmx ne6epe, no ne papn caHnx ne6epe, a papn ypoane1aopennn caoe
no1pe6noc1n nk6oaa1Lcn npekpacnmH.
axpm, k1o cpmaae1 uae1ok, ykopaunaae1 caok xnsnL. kaxporo, k1o o6eperae1
6essaun1noe 1pene1noe pmxanLe, annaak1cn xnsnennme cnnm. D1o ne nananoe
cyeaepne n ne kpacnaan ckaska. D X acex
na6nkpenn n pasHmunennn o6pocnaaa.
Ma1yuka-pnpopa o6opaunaae1cn L k kaxpoHy nk6nueHy
ceppuy, no ona o1aopaunaae1cn o1 6ecceppeunmx, oc1aannn nx naepnne co caonHn
6esy1eunmHn ropec1nHn n xaopnHn.
55
YL X . apoc1L 6ype1 e6e epnnc1aenno
narpapo, no , no cpaanennk c ko1opo ace ppyrne ne nHek1 nnkako uenm.
pena papoc1noe aocnpnn1ne caonH any1pennnH pyueanmH coc1onnneH. 1anL
cae1nunHcn cryc1koH . pocL 6oro6opueckn amsoa kpoaoxapno
6n6necko xnHepe. ypL nac1onunH Hyxunno-M, papykunHcn Xnsnn!
apyun rnnnyk Hmcnnuky o 1oH, u1o ace Hm - rpeunnkn nepep o6pesannmH "cmnoH
6oxLnH". aH napo kan1Lcn 1onLko a opnoH - Hm sa6mnn n
nann, opepxnHme uyxe6ecneH. mcnuy ne1 amxnranacL kanenmH
xenesoH, no ace xe X a nacnepc1aenno naHn1n napopa. nyuuee
canpe1enLc1ao 1oHy - npo6yxpenne 1. n. neonsmuec1aa.
yc1L 1aknx nkpe noka kannn a Hope opypauennoro, o6esnnuennoro nacenennn. o
aepL n a 1ec1o neHnoro nyxno aeuec1aa, amsmaakuero a neH xnan1enLnoe 6poxenne.
anapnan Ha1epnannc1nueckan unannnsaunn cHeppn1: ona nsxnna ce6n. pyun nkpe
ncc1papanncL no caexeHy, conneunoHy ae1py Y.
o Hepe aceo6LeHnkuero nponnknoaennn 1ounmx nayk n paunonannsHa a nau o6pas
xnsnn, nppaunonanLnoe kak npo1naononoxnoc1L aoace ne ncuesae1, a nanpo1na,
npnnnHae1 ace 6onee nac1aennme ouep1annn. 1 none1oa uenoaeka a kocHoc n
aoo6ue o1 "nporpecca" ouyuenne 1annc1aennoc1n cenenno ne y6maae1, a
ycnnnaae1cn, c1anoan1cn oc1pee, o1uannnee, Hyun1enLnee.
kasanocL, u1o saespm - ne anrenLckne pyun, a uenme Hnpm, u1o neo6Ln1no n
6esrpannuno npoc1panc1ao, rpe sa1epnna naua eHnn, n neaoo6pasnHo orpoHno
apeHn, sa ko1opoe poxopn1 po nac cae1 o1 panLnnx Hnpoa. nonanne1cn cneunanLnm
ncnxna1pnueckn 1epHnn: "yxac 6eckoneunoc1n". 6o HnHone1nm uenoaeueckn
pasyH cno1mkae1cn, paano 6eccnnLnm noc1nuL kak koneunoc1L, 1ak n 6eckoneunoc1L
6m1nn. esyHno-ronoaokpyxn1enLnan 6espna npoc1panc1aa n apeHenn nopaanne1 naue
aoo6paxenne: n ne1 y 6espnm pna, n ne1 y uenoaeka nokon. nuL o16pocna nnockoe
xpnc1nanckoe nonnHanne apeHenn n npoc1panc1aa, Hoxno ampaa1Lcn ns
sakonpoaannoro kpyra n ns6aan1Lcn o1 Ha1epnannc1nueckoro kouHapa.
Henno napasn1nueckan 6n6neckan yc1anoaka na o6eckpoannaanne pnpopm npnaena
k 1oHy, u1o saayannpoaanno, nasmaae1cn "akonornuecko ka1ac1poqo", no u1o na
caHoH pene nanne1cn MYM - pn1yanLnmH yHepuanenneH X
M. ospoxpenne smuec1aa ec1L o1knnk na a1oHnm aek, na
npnpoponoxnpakun kann1annsH n ero 6asapno-pmnounme "o6ueuenoaeueckne" (1. e.
xpnc1nanckne) "uennoc1n". mne Hnp kak nnkorpa nyxpae1cn a pyxoanoH o6noanennn.
pnnc1aennoe cnacenne - anoaL o6pa1n1Lcn k nsnauanLno pennrnn Hyppoc1n -
X ,
* * *
smunnkn, xnayune a ropope, ponxnm npnpaaa1L oco6oe, nenpexopnuee snauenne
kaxpoHy pnk caoe xnsnn c noHouLk ckpoHnmx n c1pornx o6pnpoa, 1aknx kak
cnaanenne onnua, yxop sa koHna1nmHn pac1ennnHn, Hmcnennoe o6uenne c pepkaHn
nepep cnoH.
6pnpm ne penak1 uenoaeka nn npaaepnnkoH, nn HaroH, nn HyppeuoH, no onn
npo6yxpak1 ppeHnkune cnnm. o1n Hnc1nueckoe aoopyueanenne, cxoxee c 1eH, u1o
ppeanne nasmaann "caeuennmH 6esyHneH", oxaa1maae1 uenoaeka nesaancnHo o1 ero
aonn (n 1ak xe neoxnpanno noknpae1), on Hoxe1 n ponxen nopro1oann1L ce6n k
aocnpnn1nk nopo6nmx nan1n.
pn nepao xe aosHoxnoc1n napo amesxa1L a ec. naanne - pe1n eca. ec -
aonnouenne acero po6poro n cae1noro na eHne - nsppeane 6mn naunH
56
okpoan1eneH. 6pas pepeaa c1an apxe1nnoH, rny6oko ykopennncn a rene1nuecko
naHn1n pycnue: pe6enok uaue acero pncye1 onnmuko n epeao.
epynm snann, u1o apeHn, npoaepennoe a ecy, ne sacun1maae1cn uenoaeky a cpok
xnsnn, n6o ec - caHm 6naropa1nm nc1ounnk 1enecnoro n pyueanoro spopoaLn.
epeaLn 1an1 a ce6e Horyuyk npnpopnyk cnnnuy n Hory1 napenn1L ek uenoaeka. o
ne acnkoro. eun (no nayunoHy: coaokynnoc1L necnmx 6nonone) uy1ko ynaannaae1
ace noHmcnm npnuenLua paxe na ypoane nopcosnannn. cnn m npnuen c HnpoH,
po6po1o n couyac1aneH, on ac1pe1n1 e6n kak caoero. oneuno, on ne c6epexe1 e6n
o1 neasrop na ack xnsnL, no ceropnnunne ckop6n kak pyko cnnHe1.
o6pa1acn c y6oH, nokyHncL c epeso. opn k nnH nouaue. epeao 6ype1
papoaa1Lcn aoeHy npnxopy, 6ype1 apoxnoann1L n napenn1L e6n caoe xnsnenno
cnno. epeaoH napo ne npoc1o nk6oaa1Lcn, a nonk6n1L nnuno nk6oaLk.
canpanne c nnH acerpa rny6oko nnunoe, cokpoaennoe, kak c nk6nHmH uenoaekoH.
eH xe 6onesnennmH nkpnH, k1o ne Hoxe1 xopn1L a ec, napo saaec1n koHna1noe
pepeauo, n ono 6ype1 nx po6pmH poHaunnH yxoH-pann1eneH. epL pac1enne
nonyuae1 xnsnennme cnnm npnHo o1 caHoro onnua! ne cnyuano a Hnc1nuecko
nn1epa1ype pac1ennn uac1o o6opaunaak1cn qenHn, anrenaHn, anLqaHn, nnHqaHn, a
qen n nnHqm - pac1ennnHn.
aaepn1e cHokoannuy: a1o neamcokoe aeunosenenoe pepeao nsppeane noun1anocL
caeuennmH cnHaonoH X. oa1oHy nHenno cHokoannuy n yHep1ann caonH
snoaeunH npoknn1neH ncyc, nenaanpeaun X, , Y. D1o
npoknn1ne - opno ns eaanrenLcknx "uypec", nonoxnauee nauano cosna1enLnoHy n
uenenanpaanennoHy yHepuanennk M X. Y cnaann pepeao 1oxe 6mno
onnue1aopenneH Xnsnn. ppeanepyccko as6yke 6ykaa X nso6paxanacL a anpe
pepeaa, a un1anacL: X!
nuyun a1n c1pokn ampac1nn cHokoannuy ns 1onenLko ae1oukn, corpeaan ee
ceppeunmH 1ennoH: ona npnxnnacL n paspacnacL nop no1onok. enoaeky ec1ec1aenno
1nny1Lcn k papoc1n, uenoaek ponxen nHe1L o1pyunny. cnn papoc1n ne1 a poHe,
saaepn1e xo1n 6m koHna1nm uae1ok. cnoHnn1e Hyppyk npn1uy Me1epnnnka: pe1n
ppoaoceka nyckak1cn a panLnn ny1L na nonckn npnnocnue cuac1Le nne 1num.
nn aosapauak1cn 6es nee, no cuac1nname: caHmH cnnnH ns acex n1nu okasmaae1cn
ckaopeu, ko1opm xnn y nnx a ns6yuke.
onk6oanoe o6uenne c ae1koH 6ype1 aonue6no nynoanno, cansykue e6n c
Ma1epLk-pnpopo. pena a1o o6uenne M. aepua ero o1 pyun, a ne kak
xpnc1nanckyk npnnypky. orpa uenoaek amnonnne1 X , a ero pyue 1oxe
pacnyckae1cn uae1ok papoc1n, ko1opm a 6ypyueH o6nsa1enLno npnnece1 caon nnopm.
ac1enne yrapmaae1 aoe nac1poenne n caHouyac1ane. no o6napae1 naHn1Lk n
caoeo6pasno nepano cnc1eHo, cnoco6no conepexnaa1L n o6nxae1cn na
paanopyune. ac1ennk poc1ynno eue n Hnoroe ppyroe, o ueH Hm, nkpn, paxe ne
nHeeH npepc1aanennn. opo6no xnao1nmH, pac1ennn uyac1ayk1 6onL, onn 1ak xe
o1smaunam na nacky, no npnkaca1Lcn k ae1ky napo 1onLko ceppueH.
naun pnn oxnaak1 ppeanne noaepLn o ynanLckoH rneuae1e. xypnane
"pnpopa" (N 6 1998 r.) a c1a1Le "YnnkanLnan 6o1annueckan naxopka" roaopn1cn o
"uae1yueH" nanopo1nnke. kasmaae1cn, ec1L 1ako anp nanopo1nnka - unc1oyc1
aennuaam, o6napyxennm a 1983 r. a necax pec1cko o6nac1n. nc1Ln poc1nrak1
payxHe1poao aennunnm; na nx aepxyukax kpacyk1cn kpacno-kopnuneame He1enkn,
ouenL noxoxne na couae1nn. aun pepkn ne snann "6o1annkn": cnoponocnme
He1enkn - ne uae1ok a cyry6o nayunoH cHmcne. eH ne Henee, ppyrne anpm
nanopo1nnkoa nopo6nmx He1enok-uae1koa ne nHek1. ak u1o nerenpm ne apy1.
57
oc1aann caoeHy ppyry-ae1ky npnn1noe xopoue Hysmko. pno ns caHmx
1annc1aennmx n uypecnmx caoc1a Hysmkn - a1o ee annnnne na xname cyuec1aa.
ueH nc1ounnk anac1n naneaa nap 1peneuyunHn ceppuaHn? aykn - a1o an6paunn,
opnako HexannsH ncnxonornueckoro n qnsnonornueckoro aospec1ann Hysmkn na
uenoaeka ne nsyuen. ac1ennn ouenL 1onko uyac1ayk1 Hysmky, oco6enno nk6n1
nnncoame xopoaopnme nanrpmun n ppeanne uaHanckne necnonennn. Yc1anoaneno
1akxe, u1o cpepn 1ex pac1enn, npn ko1opmx a 1euenne 18 uacoa a cy1kn
aocnponsaopnnocL npaaocnaanoe 6orocnyxenne (nn1yprnn), sa nepame pae nepenn
norn6no po 80%. konuy 1pe1Le nepenn o1 nauana xec1oknx onm1oa-nm1ok
cHep1noc1L cpepn pac1enn poc1nrna 100%. 1 aocnponsaepennn oprannmx Hecc axa
uae1m 1akxe saannn, no cae1ckan Hysmka axa 1akoro cHep1onocnoro annnnnn ne
okasana.
e sa6maa caoero nn1oHua, n opnaxpm on opapn1 e6n nenoppenLnmH YM: on
pacuae1e1 a penL aoero poxpennn...
* * *
peanne ac1aaann c onnueH n noxnnncL o1pmxa1L c ero saxopoH. oneuno, pnn
ropopckoro nsmunnka a1o nou1n neaosHoxno, no k a1oHy napo xo1n 6m c1peHn1Lcn:
mnakuyk ronoay paccae1
pnnopmHae1 c noxa caoero,
ac xnaoe un1 eHy npnae1,
yunc1oe ac1peuan oxec1ao
(ns cone1oa Lekcnnpa).
y1euec1aennnk no qpnke sanncan: " necy 6mno 1eHno n 1nxo. o c1onno nepaoHy
nyuy onnua npo1kny1L cHmkaauncn nap naHn ua1ep ns kpon, kak senenoaa1an Hrna
paccennacL. Hrnoaenno, kak no Hanoaennk pnpnxepcko nanoukn, nap naunHn
ronoaaHn paspanncL 1peck, uHokanLe, saHenLkann kakne-1o 1enn. D1o pecn1kn
o6esLnn-kono6ycoa, cnoano penan y1pennkk sapnpky, c1ann packaunaa1Lcn na ae1kax
n ne 1o kpnuann, ne 1o kykapekann, Y Y Y".
Y naunx n1nu ec1L cao o6pnp ac1peun onnua: cnpn na aepxyukax caHmx amcoknx
pepeaLea, ronoaok na aoc1ok, nepanxno, Honuannao n 1opxec1aenno xpy1 onn
nonanennn ae1nna. YHec1no acnoHnn1L, u1o kap1nna nopa Mone "neua1nenne:
aocxop onnua" pana nasaanne uenoHy 1euennk a nckycc1ae - nHnpeccnonnsHy.
yun aocxopnuero onnua o6napak1 oco6o, saaopaxnaakue cnno. ccnepoaannn
ncnxonoroa nnuL nop1aepxpak1, u1o anyuaeHoc1L nkpe pesko ycnnnaae1cn a Hnny1m
aocxopa, a 1akxe a pnn connuec1onnnn n paanopenc1ann. kpn uyac1an1enLnme
ouyuak1 6naropa1noe annnnne y1pennero onnua kak neu1o anonne ocnsaeHoe, xo1n
n nnuero ne snak1 o qnsnuecko c1opone nanennn. nuero ne snak1 o ne n
na6opa1opnme qnsnkn, pnn ko1opmx onnue - a1o npoc1o 1epHonpepnan neuka, eHnn
- 6ecuyac1aennan rnm6a, a epeao - neopyueanennan pepeanuka. noano o nnx nncan
k1uea:
nn ne anpn1 n ne cnmua1,
Xnay1 a ceH Hnpe, kak ano1LHax.
58
nn nnx n onnue, sna1L ne pmun1,
xnsnn ne1 a Hopcknx aonnax...
ayka aocnpnnnHae1 eHnk, onnue, nxpL, ronL 1onLko kak aneunne npnpopnme
nponanennn - qenoHenm. o onnue, kak noyHen, pnn naykn coaepuenno
nenoc1nxnHo, ona nnuero ne snae1 o ero any1penne cyunoc1n.
- Y, !
ac1poqnsnke ceropnn cnoxnnacL cn1yaunn, xapak1epnan pnn acex nayk (pnpopa
epnna: na "naykn" pasppo6nn uenoaek). ue auepa kasanocL, u1o yunme 6nnskn k
peuennk sarapok, cansannmx c onnueH, a uac1noc1n, c nc1ounnkoH ero nenccnkaeHo
xnsnenno Houn. o nocne 1oro, kak 6mn nonyuen pnp kocaennmx pokasa1enLc1a, u1o
onnue cnnukoH "xonopno" pnn 1epHonpa, nan6onee panLnoanpnme yHm nonnnn, u1o
npo6neHy napo paccHa1pnaa1L c kauec1aenno nnmx nosnun, aosapauancL "o1 noxnoro
snannn k nc1nnnoHy nesnannk". orpa yuenme roaopn1 "a1o noka nensaec1no", onn
yxe paccyxpak1 o6 a1oH. o ropaspo uaue onn ne snak1, uero eue ne snak1. o1
specL 1o n 1an1cn uypeca pnpopm. e1 nnkoro Horyuec1aennee pnnm: nk6an ero
acnmuka co1pncae1 nauy eHnk. e1 nnkoro kpaue n nk6esnee pnnm: Hnp 6es nero
- a1o Hnp, nnuennm cae1a, senenn, 1enna, nk6an. ce seHnme napopm, kpoHe
nypeea, u1nnn X . oknonenne onnuy npeannsnpye1cn a "ocypapc1ae"
na1ona, a 1pypax onepnnka, a "opope onnua" aHnanennm.
euac Hnoro nnuy1 o kocHo6nonornuecknx pn1Hax. cnoay xnsnennoro pn1Ha
cnaann-nsmunnkoa coc1aannnn onneunme paspnec1aa n conpoaoxpaaune nx
aeuennme 6pnpm. cnn uenoaek rnnne1 y1poH c ynm6ko na onnue n ckaxe1:
"ppaac1ay, onnmuko! cuac1nna, u1o uyac1ayk a1o1 Mnp! ak xopouo aokpyr!
papykcL, u1o xnay, u1o pmuy, u1o anxy e6n! ypL 6narocnoaenno ac xnayuee!", -
1o a1o 6ype1 caHan npekpacnan ns acex Honn1a. oa1opn a1o kak saknnnanne, no ne
ckoporoaopko pLnuka: cnna n snaunHoc1L saknnnannn saancn1 ne c1onLko o1 cnoa,
ero coc1aannkunx, ckonLko o1 o6po onn nponsnocnuero.
naaL pnny kak Hoxno uaue, no nyuue 1orpa, korpa aoe ceppue nepenonnne1cn
nk6oaLk. epynm noyuann, u1o ecnn uenoaek 6ype1 u1n1L pnny n poaepunao ao aceH
na nero nonara1Lcn, 1o on cyHee1 poc1nuL epnnennn c oxec1aoH n npno6un1Lcn k
nenccnkaeHoHy nc1ounnky . Mm 1onLko ne ponxnm npocn1L o nnunoH 6nare,
6ypyun yaepennme, u1o ace neo6xopnHoe 6ype1 naH pano caoeapeHenno n coo6pasno c
mcue Myppoc1Lk, a ne c naunHn caoekopmc1nmHn xenannnHn.
aua onn ec1L xosnnn naue Moun. a ce6e any1pennkk yc1anoaky na o6epy.
y1pa po aeuepa ycnnneH aonn pepxn cosnanne na opnoH uyac1ae: "M M!".
orpa o6epa 6ype1 rpesn1Lcn e6e n ao cne. yc1L a1o1 no6epnm knnu c1ane1 aoe
naansunao pee. ypL opepxnH a1o pee. orpa ona oanapeaae1 nopcosnanneH n
c1anoan1cn aonH neo1LeHneHmH caoc1aoH. orpa m o6peuen na o6epy!
* * *
onnue n eppue... eppue n onnue... aeueH pycckoH nsmke cnoaa a1n
ypnan1enLno cxoxn, n cxopc1ao a1o ne cnyuanoe. epL n onnue, n eppue -
nc1ounnkn Xnsnn; onnue - a1o ceppue onneuno cnc1eHm, a naue ceppue - a1o
onnue uenoaeueckoro oprannsHa.
ue eon Hnpnckn nasmaan onnue "eppueH Mnpa", a a peaneH n1ae ceppue
ynopo6nnnocL oco6oHy HnkpokocHy, aHeuakueHy sakonm HakpokocHa.
59
ono1me nn1n 1nny1cn o1 ceppua k onnuy, a o1 onnua - k ceppuy. onneunm oronL
n xap ceppeunm popc1aennm ppyr ppyry. onnue uenoaek Hoxe1 noc1nra1L M
M, a ne HosroH. a 1pe1Le nepene pasan1nn uenoaeueckoro aH6pnona ceppue
yxe a ocnoanoH cqopHnpoaano. ccnepoaannn nokasann, u1o nHenno nop
aospec1aneH nHnynLcoa, npyunx sapopmua a ero Hosr, qopHnpye1cn
caHa uen1panLnan nepanan cnc1eHa. na n ceppue nepaspennHm. o u1o coepnnne1 nx
aoepnno, kak ocyuec1anne1cn 1annc1aennan asanHocansL, nayke neaepoHo n nonmne.
u1o no6yxpae1 k nepaoHy cokpauennk caHo ceppue? D1oro ne snae1 nnk1o. ak xe
kak nnk1o ne snae1, noueHy ceppue appyr oc1anaannaae1cn...
eppue ne 1onLko "aeunm" panra1enL, nepekaunaakun kpoaL. Mepnkn yc1anoannn,
u1o ceppue - xenesa any1penne cekpeunn, ampa6a1maakuan oco6me ropHonm. poHe
1oro, okasanocL, u1o ceppue nHee1 caok co6c1aennyk nepanyk cnc1eHy, o6pasno
roaopn, cao "any1pnceppeunm Hosr" (nn1pakappnanLnme nepanme aneHen1m).
- MY !
o paxe a1o paneko ne ac. ocnepnne nayunme nsmckannn nopasn1enLno coanapak1 c
nan6onee xnayunHn ns ppeaneunx npepc1aanenn: , ,
Y XY Y. ceppue uenoaeka, o1smaunaoe na
aonnenne Haneue 1nnyuecn k onnuy 1paakn, nopoxpae1 yxe Hounme
npo1y6epanum, ornennme cnnoame no1okn. D1o ne kpacname cnoaa, a1o -
pec1an1enLnoc1L. eppue, o6nnaakueecn kpoaLk - ropn1, cnne1, ocaeuae1 ny1L
sa6nypunH. "orpa yHnpae1 repo, 6anLsaHnpyk1 ero ceppue, a ne Hosr", - nncan
Lonenrayap. Myppeum coae1oaann npn cnope ceppua c pasyHoH cnepoaa1L sa ceppueH.
aHan cosnpa1enLnan cnna, c6nnxakuan nac c onnueH - a1o nnaHennan nk6oaL ko
aceHy xnaoHy. X M! D1o napo nonnHa1L 6ykaanLno,
a ne nnockasa1enLno. onnue caoe nk6oaLk rpee1 n nn1ae1 ac xnaoe,
. MY - M!
* * *
Mnnmx, u1o yHepnn,
6pasm ae1nme
ceppue caoeH cxoponn!
aH onn - nrenm -
ypy1 pann1enn
xnsnennmx 6ypnx 1e6e!
(ns nonnapopa noc1nka)
c1L cnoaa, o1paxakunecn a ronoae, a ec1L - o1smaakunecn a ceppue. pno ns 1aknx
saae1nmx cnoa - - npaspnnunoe noHnnoaenne pepkoa.
ynL1 pepkoa nrpan aaxneuyk ponL a xnsnn acex ppeannx napopoa, okasaa
rpoHapnoe annnnne na nx aepoaannn, Hmunenne, npaam n noacepneanm 6m1.
nyxenne pepkaH, ponxenc1aoaanne xnamx nepep yHepunHn - a1o n ec1L
- .
ec1ec1aennmx pennrnnx, a o1nnune o1 6espyunoro xpnc1nanc1aa, ocnoay coc1aannnn
ne porHa1m, a X -, yuac1ne a ko1opmx 6mno o6nsa1enLnmH pnn
60
acex copopnue. - D . aeuennme 6pnpm,
cansykue nokonennn, a1o1 n 1o1 cae1, xpannnn op (koneno) o1 pacnapa. ak
nasmaaeHme Hep1ame ne npo1naonoc1aannnncL xnamH: konoapauenne xnsnn a
nsmueckoH cosnannn ne Hoxe1 saaepun1Lcn cHep1Lk. pe koneu y konLua? yun
yHepunx nepeaonnouak1cn a noaopoxpennmx (1. e. a cnoaa poxpennmx).
enoaeueckan X ec1L uenL poxpenn, cHep1e n aospoxpenn.
pen aospoxpennn seHnmx nkpe nanpnHyk cansana c HnpoH pepkoa, anoaL
aosapauakunxcn a nau Hnp, u1o6m napenn1L ero caoe 6naro1aopno X
. e cnyuano "pyua" - nHenoaanne yHepunx n opnoapeHenno "pyua" -
cyunoc1L, oxnannkuan 1eno.
narouec1name 6pnpm, npno6uakune nac k pepkaH - 6nnxnnH n panLnnH - ec1L
1annc1ao ounc1n1enLnoe n uenn1enLnoe. oun1anne pepkoa - Horyun nc1ounnk
. D1o snak1 ne 1onLko ace "pnkapn" o1 6yuHenoa po acknHocoa, no n
coxpannaune napopnyk aepy nnonum c nx nenpeasopenno anek1ponnko. nonnn
ppeanne nHnepa1opckne HornnLnnkn ne ockaepnenm rpo6okona1ennHn-apxeonoraHn.
e 1o a xpnc1nannsnpoaanno apone, rpe am1auennme ns asnoHannmx cae1nnnu
HyHnn n uepena Horyuec1aennmx nekorpa oxpe n Xpeuoa amc1aanenm na
o6ospenne rnasekue 1onne. ecL pn1anckn Hyse - a1o orpoHnm cknap cokpoanu,
narpa6nennmx HnccnonepaHn, "pxen1nLHenaHn" n "yunmHn". naanne 1oxe
o6eperann caon popoame ycmnanLnnum-kypranm. Mockaa c1on1 na seHne
connuenoknonnnkoa-an1nue. poxpnc1nancko, poknnxecko Mockae nneHennmH
M 6mna snaHenn1an oknonnan opa, ockaepnennan nmne nypecko
cnnaroro, HycynLHancko Heue1Lk n "pyccko" npaaocnaano uepkoaLk (ace 1pn a1n
pennrnn nponspocnn ns opnoro aapaaHnueckoro kopnn).
Y cnaann c noun1anneH yconunx 6mnn 1ecno cansanm ne 1onLko pennrnosnme
npepc1aanennn, no n aecL yknap xnsnn. enoaeky nyxna M o ce6e a
ceppuax copopnue. oHnnanLnm npaspnnk epnnennn pyu no1oHkoa c yxaHn
opnHmx pepkoa nasmaancn . opxec1ao a1o aepunnocL na HornnLnmx
xonHax - pacnmx opax kak papoc1noe nnpuec1ao, kak -
XYM na 1oH cae1e o6oxaeHmHn M - M. Yuac1nnkn oponnum,
norpyxancL a caHosa6aennm 1panc, y1paunaann caoe noaepxnoc1noe, nnunoc1noe
nauano, n a nnx npocmnanocL 1o o6uee, rny6nnnoe, popoaoe, u1o acerpa o6n1ae1 a
neppax naue pyun - uac1num M YL . eH rny6xe
1panc, 1eH cnnLnee Hnc1nueckne ouyuennn. 6pnpm oponnum npnsaanm 6mnn
cknonn1L ypoa n epernnL k yuac1nk a nocaeuennmx nH 1annc1aax.
M aennknx pauypoa saknkuena oco6an aonue6nan cnna. M
Y, M Y, M M XY. epnme
nanHenoaannn-cnaanennn no caoeHy cokpoaennoHy snauennk 6mnn yxe saknnnanneH,
M . x oknnkann, nx oxnpann... nn ponxnm 6mnn nan1Lcn.
.
o6pnpax yuac1aoaann ace: npoc1o spn1ene ne 6mno. pnnopyune copopnue
yaennunaano pec1aennoc1L o6pnpa ao Hnoro pas. D1o nopo6no 1oHy, u1o ne1L opnoHy
nnn a xope: aoneame ycnnnn ne npoc1o cnarak1cn, a yHnoxak1cn. opo pyueanoe
nanpnxenne aospac1ano po neHmcnnHmx npepenoa n, npopmaan npoc1panc1aenno-
apeHennme paHkn, aosamuanocL po ncnoanpennn. 1orpa uenoaek anpen 1ex, koro
cnaann. .
1akoH aoc1opxennoH coc1onnnn "ane ce6n" nponcxopn1 epnnenne c yuepunHn, no ne
sa6m1mHn opn1ennHn, c papopn1ennHn, co aceH caonH opoH; kak 6m
npepaocxnuenne 1oro aoccoepnnennn, u1o oxnpae1 nac nocne pasaonnouennn
nnunoc1n, 1. e. nocne cHep1n 1ena. epL na caHoH pene "yHepe1L" - a1o snaun1 ckasa1L
pepkaH: "ppaac1ay1e! o1 n n...". 6o cHep1L ne koneu xnsnn aoo6ue, a koneu
61
a1o xnsnn. cHep1L ne Hoxe1 cnyxn1L nperpapo o6uennk c popornHn yuepunHn,
saununnmHn o1 ne6m1nn Horyuec1aoH naunx aocnoHnnann.
1peHncL pasopaa1L cansL nokonenn n ockonn1L napopnyk naHn1L, uyxepopnoe
xpnc1nanc1ao npecnepoaano uec1aoaanne poponneHennmx pepkoa. onm-Hpako6ecm
anyuann cnaannaH, u1o nx - -
"nexpnc1n" n no1oHy ropn1 a apy. 6paua1Lcn k nnH sa noHouLk 6ecnonesno, a
Honn1Lcn napo "caoeHy" 6n6neckoHy "can1oHy", 1. e. 1oHy Hepsonakoc1noHy nypek,
uLnH nposanueH 1m sakneHn npn kpeuennn. orpa-1o n popnnacL nsmueckan
noroaopka o6 naanax, ne noHnnunx popc1aa. ak napop o1smaancn o ampopkax,
o1pekaaunxcn o1 caoero popocnoann (aan, aepnee, oann - a1o cokpauennoe
"oxanaan").
oppy6an cnaannckoe opoaoe peao, nnuan napop nc1opnuecko n kynL1ypno
npeeHc1aennoc1n, uepkoaL cosna1enLno n uenenanpaanenno nopaannna
M.
nonnsH n xpnc1nanc1ao - a1o pae c1oponm opnoro koaapnoro opypnn pnn
saka6anennn napopoa n aouapennn nap nnHn -.
pnc1nanc1ao nnuL nopc1nnka cnonnsHa, cpepc1ao pyxoanoro pasopyxennn napopa
nepep nauec1aneH uyxpmx n apaxpe6nmx cnn; pennrnn, penakuan nkpe pa6aHn 6es
acnko 6opL6m. paaocnaanme aepykune, 6oro1aopnune nypeea cornacno
6n6neckoHy yuennk o6 nx 6orons6pannoc1n, nnkorpa ne c1any1 nocnepoaa1enLnmHn
6opuaHn c nypecknH nroH. xepneano HonncL 6n6necknH kpoaococaH, onn nnuL
nn1ak1 1ex, k1o nHee1 uenLk nonnoe nx nc1pe6nenne.
oapeHennoe npaaocnaane - npenan nopnopka npocnonnc1ckoHy pexnHy. npn
pac1yuee napopnoe aosHyuenne kann1annc1nuecknH "paeH", nypen sa6nnn 1peaory,
nm1ancL anoaL aospopn1L xpnc1nanckne "uennoc1n" cHnpennn n ponro1epnennn. e
nna1n1 nencnn n pe1ckne noco6nn, sa1o uepkan n knap6nua pac1y1 kak rpn6m:
o6peuennmH na saknanne pycnuaH npepnarae1cn ne 6yn1oaa1L, a cnoaa yaepoaa1L a
napxa1oro "cnacn1enn".
pouno neo6xopnHo ocosna1L: npe1 npo1na nypecknx
nopa6o1n1ene. ponoaepnnkn unc1oro "caHocoaepuenc1aoaannn" a npo1naoaec
"rpnsno" nonn1nke sa6maak1, u1o peuL npe1 o X . a
paccyxpennnHn o caHocoaepuenc1aoaannn nepepko 1an1cn 1pycoc1L: aepL 6opL6a c
peanLnmH aparoH (a ne c "6ecaHn") acerpa onacna. ocnnLnoe yuac1ne a ycckoH
cao6opn1enLnoH anxennn - a1o n ec1L amcuee Hepnno caHocoaepuenc1aoaannn.
naue, kak ckasan noa1:
nn packak1cn, korpa napop, aocc1aa,
ac1ane1 nx a o6Ln1Lnx npaspno nern.
es noHoun Y naue anxenne - 6ypn a c1akane aopm.
ne npo6ypn1L, noka Hm ne pac1onnH ceppeunmH xapoH 1mcnuene1nkk Hepsno1y
sa6aennn. occ1anaannaan ceropnn xnayk cansL c M, ne nyxno nnuero counnn1L n
ampyHmaa1L: nnkaknx "pyccknx aep" n "noamx xpononorn", nnkako "npacnaanncko
nncLHennoc1n" n npounx acencae1nmx rpaHo1, nnuL noa1opnkunx nypeckyk
Hannk 6orons6pannnuec1aa c 1ounoc1Lk po nao6opo1.
YX L M- - MY
MY Y L X .
62
Y! YM! !
-: -, -
( )
Ma1pone nHn1pneane - a6yuke Hoe nesa6aenno nocaeuae1cn
nmH poc1ancn o1 pnpopm
nc1nnk1 npopoueckn-cneno -
nn nH uyk1, cnmua1 aopm
a 1eHno rny6nne seHno...
ennko Ma1epLk nk6nHm,
1okpa1 saanpne 1ao ypen -
e pas nop o6onouko spnHo
m aHoe e yspen...
. . k1uea
1o 1akoe smuec1ao, 6naropopnme uennoc1n ko1oporo c1onL anac1no oanapeaak1
nmne ceppuaHn n yHaHn caHmx uec1nmx n apyHunamx nkpe?
smuec1ao nepyko1aopno, a o1nnune o1 nckycc1aennmx, Hono1enc1nuecknx,
npoqannuecknx pennrn. smuec1ao - a1o o1kpoaenne aHo pnpopm. D1o
Hnpoouyuenne xnsney1aepxpakuee, 1opxec1aennoe, Hounoe n npekpacnoe.
smuec1ao - a1o nap c yxaHn - aonue6nmHn cnnaHn opyxo1aopenno pnpopm. D1o
o6oxanne onnua, Xnsnn, k6an, apoc1n, pacm eHno. smuec1ao - a1o
copoka1mcnuene1nn onm1 nosnannn 1annc1aennmx nanenn pnpopm n uenoaeueckoro
cyuec1aa. smuec1ao - nan6onee rny6okoe, uenokynnoe n aosamuennoe
Hnpoaosspenne, cornacnoe c poaopaHn n ceppua, n pasyHa, c ppeaneunHn noaepLnHn
n c noaeunHn nayunmHn 1eopnnHn.
smuec1ao - a1o epnnc1aennoe Hnpoaocnpnn1ne, nosaonnkuee 6eccHep1noHy
uenoaeueckoHy pasanaa1Lcn ao acex npoc1panc1aenno-apeHennmx nsHepennnx -
aoany1pL n aoane - 6es acnknx orpannuenn; o1kpmaakuee 6ecnpepenLnme
aosHoxnoc1n caHonosnannn, caHoy1aepxpennn n caHoampaxennn.
smuec1ao - a1o cmnoanee o1nouenne k Ma1epn-eHne, sa6aenne ko1oporo nop
annnnneH xpnc1nanc1aa npnaeno Hnp k 1oHy, u1o o6muno nasmaae1cn akonornuecko
ka1ac1poqo, no u1o npaannLnee nasmaa1L YM MYM.
, nakoneu, - D Y, ko1opoe acerpa aokpyr.
63
smunnkn aocneaak1 ypo, a ko1opoH ne1 nnuero caepxLec1ec1aennoro, caHoe
npekpacnoe ns uypec, npncyunx pnpope, - Y X
X.
o apoxpnnoH, nsmueckoH Hnpoanpennn o1cy1c1ayk1 nsHmunennn nospneunx,
knnxnmx, porHa1nuecknx pennrn o caepxLec1ec1aennoH, 1o ec1L o c1onueH nap
ec1ec1aoH - nap pnpopo. nn nsmunnka ac - anpnHoe n neanpnHoe - saknkueno a
pnpope, kak a ec1ec1ae, a "caepxLec1ec1aennoe" - ec1L cnoao, nnunnoe cHmcna.
smunnk ne nyxpae1cn nn a 6oxecknx, nn a pLnaonLcknx "uypecax"; n6o caHa pnpopa
ao ace caoe sakonoHepnoc1n, uenecoo6pasnoc1n n acecoaepuenc1ae yxe ec1L opno
aennkoe nenoc1nxnHoe Y.
yuec1ayk1 aeun, ropaspo 6onee neaepon1nme, ueH nnn ypnnckan nnauannua.
D1o - onnue, a1o - naua eHnn. epL, a cyunoc1n, caHoe kasanocL 6m, ec1ec1aennoe
nanenne - npouecc qo1ocnn1esa (6naropapn ko1opoHy aosHoxna XnsnL) - cnnounoe
uypo, nepasrapannoe n 6eckoneunoe. o 1ak kak uypo a1o 1aopn1cn execekynpno, 1o
kaxe1cn caHo co6ok pasyHekunHcn.
nn xpnc1nannna uypo ec1L nponsaonLnoe aHeua1enLc1ao 6ora a pnpopy. caHo xe
pnpope, kak a nckycc1aenno co1aopenno eroao "1aapn 6espyuno", nnkaknx
uypec 6m1L ne Hoxe1. pnn aynLrapno Ha1epnannc1nuecko naykn, nannkuecn
nnuL nsnanko 6n6neckoro nnrnnnsHa, a neopyxo1aopnno nko6m pnpope ne1
nnuero nenosnaaaeHoro, a ec1L 1onLko noka eu nenosnannoe. akne uypeca Hory1
6m1L a kocno, 6ecuyac1aenno, "Hep1ao" eHne?
xe xouy noaepa1L aaH o aennuaueH uype - X M. o1, k1o cosna1enLno
ouenn1 ac, u1o saknkueno a a1nx cnoaax, ne cHoxe1 yxe o1pnua1L nponanenn
M X - rnoHoa, neunx, cnerypok, pycanok, pxnnnoa - 1onLko na 1oH
ocnoaannn, u1o a1o - "6a6yuknnm ckaskn".
a, caHoe pnanoe uypo, ko1opoe acerpa nop noraHn, a1o naua eHnn, caHoe uypecnoe
n caHoe sarapounoe ns acex ne6ecnmx 1en...
* * *
peanne opapnnn nac nan6onee rny6okoHmcnennmH n nan6onee amcokonpaac1aennmH
npepc1aanenneH o eHne, kak o XM, M, YLM M.
Ma1L-mpa-eHnn ne 6ecuyac1aennan rnm6a, necyuancn a xonopno 6espne. -
X, YM Y, nHekuan caHouennoe 6m1ne.
onnHanne opyueanennoc1n acero cyuero copepxn1cn a epax n aec1e, a paocnsHe,
cnn1onsHe, repHe1nsHe, 6yppnsHe, Hn1pansHe, pxannsHe, cyqnsHe.
"ponc1opnuecknx" kocHoronnnx kaHennoro aeka n a 1aopennnx an1nunmx
na1ypqnnocoqoa, a "Dppe", "aneaane" n a "noae o nonky ropeae", a nac1aanennnx
ppynpoa n, koneuno xe, a pyccknx aonue6nmx ckaskax, nannkunxcn knkuoH k
Hnpoanpennk naunx npauypoa.
aceo6ueH opyueanennn pnpopm yunnn pqe n MenaHn, DnnHennp n epeknp,
anec n epaknn1, nqarop n cenoqan, noren nonnonnckn n DHnepokn,
eHokpn1 n pncnnn, eoqpac1 n nnnokpa1, nonnopop n no1nn, nonnonn
nanckn n ocnponn, eneka n Mapk apenn, ny1apx n nuepon, eprnnn n
anpn, Mepnnn n ann...
a1eH, Hnnyn 1LHy xpnc1nanckoro Hpako6ecnn, o yxe eHnn - o ennkoH ane n ero
xnao1aopno cnne acnoHnnnn Hmcnn1enn ospoxpennn. enpnn1ne y6ornx
64
6n6necknx ne6mnnu o nnunoc1noH napnpnpopnoH 6ore, co1aopnaueH Hnp ns nnuero
ncknkun1enLno na no1pe6y caoeHy "6orons6pannoHy" napopy, npnaopnno
yrny6nnkunecn a kopenL 6m1nn yHm k nan1ensHy, aocnpnnnHaaueHy pnpopy kak
nekn opyxo1aopennm, caHopoc1a1ounm aepxoprannsH. an1enc1nueckoe
Hnpoaosspenne 6mno npncyue Dpnrene, Dkxap1y, nnqony, nunno, nk. ysanckoHy,
nko enna Mnpanpone, onanpy, . annnn, koaopope, eHe, Lennnnry, eppepy,
e1e, apnenk, kro, on6n, nxeackoHy...
pen nanncnxnsHa (nnn rnnosonsHa), napennkune ace cyuee cnoco6noc1Lk
uyac1aoaa1L n 1o nnn nno qopHo cosnannn, yxopn1 caonHn kopnnHn a unc1euee
npnpoponoun1anne - a nponnknoaennm nepao6m1nm annHnsH, a uaHanckn-
aoc1opxennoe ouyuenne o6okpno cansn co aceH xnamH na eHne.
nnHnc1nueckoe, pyueanoe Hnpoaocnpnn1ne - poc1onnne opapennmx noa1oa-
ncnoanpuea, rennanLnmx xypoxnnkoa n Hysmkan1oa, ampakunxcn yuenmx n Horyunx
qnnocoqoa, uLn nHena roaopn1 caHn sa ce6n. o1 neko1opme ns a1oro 6nnc1a1enLnoro
cosaespnn: enesno, x pyno, aHnanenna, ennep, a1pnun, onLpnpx, n1c, ken,
enLpepnnn, Lonenrayap, apon, Lennn, D. ap1Han, oppcaop1, k1uea, exnep,
DHepcon, opo, . . naaa1ckan, k-penL, acknn, Dp. apnen1ep, Me1epnnnk,
eknnn, an or, kpnennc, . nok, pkcoa, anLHon1, aHcyn, cennn, onc1an1nn
acnnLea, o6poHmcn...
naun pnn, upeaa1me rn6enLk acero xnaoro, aospoxpae1cn nsmueckn-couyac1aennoe
o1nouenne k pnpope. noaec1n "orpa eHnn ackpnknyna" onan-onL amckasan
nsyHn1enLnyk porapky o 1oH, u1o naua nnane1a nanne1cn orpoHnmH XnamH
yuec1aoH. 1o a1o? euee nan1ne nnn o1sayk ppeaneuero snannn, sa1epnauerocn a
na6npnn1e 1mcnuene1n?
MmcnL uenoaeueckan pasanaae1cn kak 6m no packpyunaakuecn cnnpann. opnnH n
1eH xe aonpocaH a pasnme apeHena ona aosapauae1cn na pasnmx ypoannx nosnannn.
kaxpm cnepykun an1ok ne nepeuepknaae1 panee nsaec1noe, a, paccHa1pnaan ero
6onee npnc1anLno, o6napyxnaae1 a neH noaoe, 6onee rny6okoe copepxanne.
oapeHennan nayunan kap1nna Mnpa ac 6onee o1aeuae1 ocnoanmH npenH smuec1aa,
ko1opoe ponroe apeHn ne naxopnno ponxnoro nonnHannn a xpnc1nancko sanapno
unannnsaunn. oaeune nayunme poc1nxennn nosaonnk1 na noaoH an1ke
aocxoxpennn k nsmueckoHy ec1ec1ao, aepny1Lcn k ppeane, kak Hnp, npee o
XM Y M M.
epynm cepo c1apnnm, na ko1opmx ccmnak1cn na1on n nnona, noun1ann eHnk
xnamH, HmcnnunH n opyueanennmH yuec1aoH, coaepuenneunH n npekpacnmH,
o6napakunH cosnanneH, rny6oko o1nnunmH, koneuno, o1 uenoaeueckoro n nensHepnHo
npeaocxopnunH ero.
nrnnckn reoxnHnk x. aanok nasaan caoe nayuno o6ocnoaannoe nccnepoaanne -
"en", nHen a anpy aosapauenne k aosspennnH axecknx nneHen, o1oxpec1annaunx
seHno uap c xnamH cyuec1aoH - ee, npapopn1enLnnue 6oroa, nkpe n 1n1anoa.
caoe nauyHeaue knnre "en: noam asrnnp na xnsnL na eHne" (1979 r.) yuenm
aocnpnnnHae1 eHnk kak "xnao, caHoperynnpykuncn oprannsH", o6eperakun
ce6n n caH cospakun ycnoann pnn caoero cyuec1aoaannn n pasan1nn.
D1o y6expenne paspenne1 aHepnkanckn qy1yponor . accen a caoH nayunoH
6ec1cennepe "no6anLnm Hosr" (1983 r.). coae1ckn akapeHnk reonor . .
ocmrnn cun1an, u1o 1akan cnaxennan, amcokooprannsoaannan cnc1eHa kak 6nocqepa,
o6napae1, necoHnenno, nnc1nnk1oH caHocoxpanennn.
65
eHnn, acn eHnn, ne 1onLko a caonx uac1nx, no n a uenoH - .
ecnn ne nosnano uenoe, u1o roaopn1L o ero ?
* * *
oxpenne eHnn. ak a1o nponsouno, n u1o a1oHy npepuec1aoaano? 6pasoaanne
eHnn - opna ns caHmx aonnykunx sarapok nnane1no kocHoronnn. aepL peuenne
Hnoxec1aa sarapok reonornn, reoqnsnkn, reoxnHnn (ropoo6pasoaanne,
seHne1pncennn, aosnnknoaenne o6onouek seHno kopm, 1ek1onnueckoe panxenne,
c1poenne nepp n seHnoro nppa n 1. p.) yxopn1 caonHn kopnnHn a o6nac1L sm6knx
npepnonoxenn o nponcxoxpennn eHnn.
Yuenmx ouenL nn1epecye1 ac1panLnm, 1. e. poreonornueckn nepnop pasan1nn eHnn.
s aeunoro n 6esrpannunoro aoca, no cnoaaH ecnopa, popnna M .
ecnop, kak n acnkn oa1 1oro apeHenn, 6mn 6onee nnn Henee nocaeuen a Mnc1epnn.
Mnc1epnnx xe yuennky packpmaancn aso1epnueckn cHmcn ppeaneunx caeuennmx
npepann - Hnqoa, nponcnnnncL ckpm1me a nnockasannnx noaec1aoaannn o
nponcxoxpennn pac n napopoa, o no1onax n onepenennnx, o rn6enn Ha1epnkoa n
nnane1, o kocHnuecknx pn1Hax n caepxpn1Hax.
mne ppeaneuan nsmueckan Hyppoc1L aospoxpae1cn na ocnoae noamx npepc1aanenn
o Mnpospannn. Mnqonornn - ne c6opnnk nananmx ckasok. un1maancL a xname
noa1nueckne npepannn, nopaxaeuLcn ne 1onLko sanoxennoHy a nnx rny6okoHy
cHmcny, no n coaepuenno neaepon1noHy nayunoHy npepanpennk, o6Lncnn1L ko1opoe
coapeHennme yuenme ne a coc1onnnn.
c1apopaanne, po6pme apeHena oa1-ecnoneaeu 6mn eue a kako-1o Hepe
npoanpueH n kypecnnkoH. aHa xe noasnn nHenoaanacL "nsmkoH 6oroa" n 6mna,
npexpe acero, caeuennopec1aoH. poxnoaennoe cnoao oHepa, ccnana n anna
euero cun1anocL poc1oaepnee nk6mx canpe1enLc1a. no 1akoamH n 6mno: acnoHnnH
xo1n 6m packonkn nerenpapno pon. Hnqm o aa1one n rn6enn 1nan1npm yaopn1 a
1akne "pono1onnme" apeHena, a 1akne rny6nnm npanc1opnn uenoaeuec1aa, kypa ne
pokona1Lcn n sac1yny apxeonora.
n1nunme, kn1ackne, nnonckne Hnqm o1paxann cy1L npnpopnmx nanenn, no
ampaxann a1y cy1L nnaue, ueH coapeHennan nayka: ne qopHynaHn n cxeHaHn, a
o6pasaHn n cnHaonaHn. axpoHy oaouy caoe apeHn. 1nnune Hnqa o1 nayuno 1eopnn
coc1on1 ne a pasnoH nonnHannn cy1n nanennn, a a 1oH, u1o nanenne a1o onncmaae1cn
na pasnmx nsmkax, coo1ae1c1aykunx pasnmH cknapaH Hmunennn. c1ec1aennm,
nsmueckn cknap Hmunennn nosaonnn uenoaeky nensHepnHo rny6xe nponnka1L a
nopcnypnme asanHocansn Xnao pnpopm, ueH cknap Hmunennn Hono1enc1nueckn
nnn 1exnokpa1nueckn: aepL o6a nocnepnnx, 6ypyun 6nnsneuaHn-y6nkpkaHn, aoo6ue
o1kasmaak1 Ma1epn a npaae na XnsnL.
opasn1enLnoe nn1yn1nanoe npepaocxnuenne amaopoa coapeHenno qnsnkn
copepxn1cn a 1pak1a1ax pxancknx na1ypqnnocoqoa. 1oH, u1o Ha1epnn ec1L 1onLko
cryc1kn nnm, onn snann saponro po 1oro, kak c1onn kaan1oao Hexannkn .
esen6epr npnsnan, u1o ace aneHen1apnme uac1num "cpenanm ns aneprnn".
pqnueckne rnHnm anepame noaepann naH o npnspaunoH aqnpe - nepao6m1no
neaeuec1aenno c1nxnn, cyuec1aoaanne ko1opo anoaL nop1aepxpae1cn nocnepnnHn
nccnepoaannnHn. nsnkn aepnynncL k nonn1nk "aqnp", no nasmaak1 1enepL a1y
"anp1yanLnyk peanLnoc1L" aakyyHoH, nnn "qnsnuecko nyc1o1o". pnako paano
ckasano, u1o pnpopa ne 1epnn1 nyc1o1m. akyyH - o1nkpL ne "nnu1o", a "neu1o", rpe
ckpm1m Hnorne, ecnn ne ocnoanme 1anm nauero Mnpa.
66
eoronnn ecnopa, nponsaepuan cnnLnoe aneua1nenne paxe na o1Lnanennoro
aonLnopyHua onL1epa, coaepuenno nenoc1nxnHmH o6pasoH cornacye1cn c pannmHn
coapeHenno kocHoronnn.
"pexpe acero, ao cenenno aoc sapopnncn, a cnepoH unpokorpypan en..." Ma1L-
eHnn ne 6mna co1aopena ns nnuero, a aosnnkna M , cryc1nauncL ns
xonopno rasonmneao 1yHannoc1n (xaoca). naccnueckan kocHoronnueckan HopenL
an1a-annaca aospopnna na noaoH ypoane snannn a1y ppeankk porapky
aosnnknoaennn ne6ecnmx 1en ns paspexenno Ha1epnn acnepc1ane cryuennn n
ynno1nennn ee nop pec1aneH cnn 1nro1ennn. akan HopenL nexn1 a ocnoae nou1n
acex coapeHennmx kocHoronnuecknx 1eopn n rnno1es. epeuenno npo6neHo
oc1ae1cn nponcxoxpenne caHoro npo1onnane1noro o6naka. a n Horyuec1aenneuan
cnna 1nro1ennn, cansykuan aoepnno rnran1ckne saespnme ckonnennn: u1o a1o 1akoe n
kak npn1nxenne pec1aye1 na pacc1onnnn? yunoc1L, npnunnm n HexannsH pec1ann
"rpaan1aunonno 1enena1nn" opna ns aennuaunx sarapok Mnpospannn. oaopn
cnoaaHn an1a, yuenme nm1ak1cn "o6Lncnn1L 1o, M MM ns 1oro,
M MM ML.
* * *
akoa aospac1 eHnn? axpm snae1, u1o ne 6onee 4,5-5 Hnpp. ne1. onroe apeHn a1o
ne amsmaano coHnenn. o ao1 okono 30 ne1 nasap na onLckoH nonyoc1poae
o6napyxenm ropnme nopopm c a6conk1nmH aospac1oH ne Henee 11 Hnpp. ne1!
Mnorouncnennme reoxpononornueckne npoaepkn nop1aeppnnn a1n unqpm. anee rnaaa
coae1cknx reoqnsnkoa akap. LHnp1, sannHancL amncnenneH npouecca o6pasoaannn
eHnn, 1oxe nonyunn pacue1m, cornacno ko1opmH ac1ponoHnueckn aospac1 eHnn
cyuec1aenno npeaocxopn1 o6uenpnnn1me paHkn. akap. ocmrnn (reonor) sanannn o6
o1penLnmx papnonornuecknx onpepenennnx aospac1a seHno kopm a 10-25 Hnpp. ne1.
pyro akapeHnk okeanonor enkeanu cun1an, u1o aaonkunn xnsnn 1onLko a okeane
Horna sann1L pecn1kn n paxe co1nn Hnnnnappoa ne1. akap. epnapckn a 1944 r.
ouennaan aospac1 eHnn paxe a 1mcnun Hnnnnappoa ne1: "aua nnane1a a caoe
reonornuecko c1pyk1ype amnanne1cn a aonm ne1, 1mcnun Hnnnnappoa (Hoxe1 6m1L,
6onLue)".
ce a1n amknapkn cnnLno Hennk1 naun npepc1aanennn o aospac1e n nc1opnn ne
1onLko eHnn n onnua, no n ace cenenno. epL no npepnonoxennnH 6onLunnc1aa
ac1poqnsnkoa, cenennan aosnnkna 10-20 Hnpp. ne1 nasap a pesynL1a1e "6onLuoro
aspmaa" kako-1o caepxnno1no, c papnycoH, 6nnsknH k nynk, 1oukn. D1o - opno ns
nan6onee npnnn1mx, ocnoanmx, "oueanpnmx" nonoxenn coapeHenno naykn. ecnn
reonornueckne qak1m npo1naopeua1 npnamunmH, yc1onaunHcn nayunmH porHa1aH, 1o
1eH xyxe pnn qak1oa! epL a nenorpeunHoc1L qnsnkn ynep1me yuenme aepyk1 1ak
xe, kak nepaccyxpakune xpnc1nane a 6oroapoxnoaennocrL 6n6nnn.
saec1nm ac1ponoH x. xnnc ouennaan aospac1 saesp 1mcnuaHn Hnnnnappoa ne1.
a n caHo qnsnke ne xaa1ae1 apeHenn na o6pasoaanne ranak1nk. npepenenne
aospac1a cenenno oc1ae1cn opno ns aaxneunx ee npo6neH. onanenne ace noamx
pannmx, npo1naopeuaunx npepnonaraeHoHy aospac1y cenenno, amuncnennoHy na
ocnoaannn aepcnn "6onLuoro aspmaa", paspyuae1 cnoxnauykcn cxeHy. ak, a 1975 r.
ac1ponoHm, paccun1aa aospac1 nynLcapa "xnnn-1953", npnunn k ouenoHnnkueHy
amaopy: aospac1 nynLcapa - 45 Hnpp. ne1!
ac1ponoHm ynnaepcn1e1a a epknn (annqopnnn) a 1988 r. o1kpmnn ranak1nky,
6onee ypanennyk o1 eHnn, ueH ace panee nsaec1nme. ae1 o1 nee uen k naH 15 Hnpp.
ne1. o, cornacno rnno1ese "6onLuoro aspmaa", 15 Hnpp. ne1 nasap nnkakne ranak1nkn
eue ne Hornn cqopHnpoaa1Lcn. aknH o6pasoH, na6nkpennn ac1ponoHoa
npo1naopeua1 c1anpap1no Hopenn aspmano, pacunpnkuecn cenenno,
67
ocnoaanno na 1. n. o6ue 1eopnn o1nocn1enLnoc1n Dnu1ena. eH xyxe pnn
qak1oa; aepL, nocne II Hnpoao aonm qnsnka - ao1unna conneHennnkoa Dnu1ena,
kanonnsnpoaaaunx ero kak "aepunny uenoaeuecknx poc1nxenn acex apeHn".
o caoe o6ue 1eopne o1nocn1enLnoc1n Dnu1en amc1ynnn a 1915 r. ac1nyk
1eopnk o1nocn1enLnoc1n on panee npoc1o ykpan, ckoHnnnnpoaaa 1pypm openua n
yankape (cH. knnry akap. orynoaa " pa6o1aH . yankape " pnnaHnke anek1pona".
M. 1984). a1o ne epnnc1aennm ero nnarna1. oaopn o nonm1kax ampasn1L caoc1aa
apeHenn nocpepc1aoH ue1mpexHepno npoc1panc1aenno-apeHenno reoHe1pnn, o6muno
ynoHnnak1 Mnnkoackoro n Dnu1ena. pnako nauano xponoreoHe1pnn nonoxnn
nesacnyxenno sa6m1m rennanLnm pycckn Hmcnn1enL Mnxann kcnoa.
caoeH 1pype "e1 apeHenn" (onynnpnoe nsnoxenne ocnoanmx nauan
He1areoHe1pnuecko qnnocoqnn. M. 1913 r.) kcnoa nncan: "Moe aosspenne na
apeHn pnaHe1panLno npo1naononoxno nsaeunoHy n acenenckoHy na nero aosspennk.
HoeHy aosspennk na apeHn npnuen yuenm Dnu1en a 1904 r., n xe nsnoxnn n
pasann ero, a Hoe 6poukpe "pancuenpen1anLno-knne1nueckan 1eopnn apeHenn",
nspanno a 1896 r.".
epneHcn k . ac1onune yuenme cpasy nonnnn, u1o acn - ne u1o nnoe, kak
c6opnnk nayuno-qan1ac1nuecknx napapokcoa, nornuecknx npo1naopeun,
nponsaonLnmx ponyuenn, a 1o n nopronok n nop1acoaok.
saec1no, u1o caoe nonynnpnoc1n cpepn cneunannc1oa Dnu1en 6mn o6nsan a
ocnoanoH ero 1eopnn qo1oaqqek1a, sa ko1opyk on n nonyunn o6eneackyk npeHnk.
nn unpoko xe ny6nnkn Dnu1en snaHenn1 nHenno caoe c ee
akc1paaaran1nmHn amkpy1acaHn, ana1npykunHn napkoro na pnkoannky o6maa1enn.
1922 r. Ha1eHa1nk . pnpHan nokasan, u1o, ncxopn ns , Hoxno noc1pon1L
HopenL pacunpnkuecn cenenno. n ony6nnkoaan Ha1eHa1nueckyk HopenL
aosnnknoaennn npoc1panc1aa n apeHenn "ns 1oukn". ornacno pnpHany,
o6pasoaaauancn opnaxpm (o1kypa n kak - o6 a1oH on yHanunaan) cenennan c1ana
nsaepra1Lcn ns 1oukn, pacunpnncL ao ace c1oponm. 1929 r. ac1ponoHoH a66noH
6mno o6napyxeno ponnepoackoe kpacnoe cHeuenne, ykasmaakuee na pas6eranne
ranak1nk, u1o 6mno nsaec1no uac1Lk yunmx nc1onkoaano na ocnoae a nonLsy
Hopenn "asopaaauecn" cenenno.
pnako 6onLuan nayka aocnpnnnna a1y unc1o Ha1eHa1nueckyk cxeHy cken1nueckn: a
npokpyc1oao noxe penn1nanc1cko kocHonornuecko Hopenn a1ncknaanncL Henee
"nayunme", Henee c1porne, ne nepeaopnHme na nsmk ronmx, a6c1pak1nmx
Ha1eHa1nuecknx ypaanenn, 1eopnn pasan1nn eHnn n Xnsnn. MopenL, onncmaakuan
ne peannsykuncn a pnpope cnyua, 6mna noc1aanena amue onm1a, amue caHo
pnpopm.
a1o uepkoannkn cpasy xe yxaa1nnncL sa noayk rnno1esy. ue 6m: aepL HopenL
aspmaakuecn n pacunpnkuecn Me1aranak1nkn, onnpakuancn na 1y caHyk , o
ko1opo, saxne6maancL o1 aoc1opra, nncann ace rase1m, pokasmaae1 nauano Hnpa n,
no cyuec1ay, nop1aepxpae1 6n6nnk.
nn Hono1enc1oa acex Hac1e a1o 6mna naxopka. a eue kakan! epL npepc1aanennn o
"6onLuoH aspmae" kak "nauane" cenenno anonne coo1ae1c1aoaano kpeaunonnsHy -
xpnc1nanckoHy "yuennk" o co1aopennn Hnpa ns nnuero. noaa c1ano aosHoxnmH
roaopn1L o "nauane" n "konue" cae1a n nopnnpa1L noua1nyauykcn aepy a 6ora-1aopua
eroay-aaaoqa. eko1opme qnsnkn-anu1ennanum no1oponnnncL cpena1L yropnm
Hono1enc1aH amaop o 1oH, u1o nauano pacunpennn cenenno, cocpepo1ouenno
okono 15 Hnpp. ne1 nasap a 1. n. cnnrynnpno 1ouke, 6mno penoH pyk 6oxLnx. Yuenm
68
a66a1 eHe1p a 1927 r. ampannyn aepcnk, cornacno ko1opo a "nynL-nynk1 apeHenn"
cenennan aosnnkna ns opnoro-epnnc1aennoro "a1oHa-npao1ua".
ypen paano yxe npnnncann "co1aopenne" naue cenenno caoeHy nneHennoHy
6oxky eroae (ko1opoHy 1ynopmnme xpnc1nane noknonnk1cn kak 6ory-o1uy).
Yansmaanne sa6aano ae1xosaae1no 6acnn c nnueH ne o6ocnoaanno naykoo6pasno
6acne o cnnrynnpnoc1n poc1nrae1cn He1opoH xn1poyHno-nyc1onopoxnnx pacue1oa n
amuncnenn, nponsaopnHmx cnoncknHn HyppeuaHn-qnsnkaHn. a66annc1nueckne
onepaunn c unqpaHn - nx popnan c1nxnn, n specL onn - kak pm6a a aope.
eope1nueckan qnsnka, "cxaauennan" nypenHn, nauenena na "nayunoe"
pokasa1enLc1ao 6m1nn 6oxLero. YX YM, u1o6m y1aeppn1Lcn a caoe
ncknkun1enLnoc1n, a caoeH npepnasnauennn. epL 6es 6ora n 6orons6pannmx 6m1L ne
Hoxe1! e ypnan1enLno, u1o nypen nerko c1anoan1cn amkpec1aHn: pnn nnx rnaanoe,
u1o6m , Y.
* * *
. n. 1ouky cnnrynnpnoc1n, rpe papnyc o6pauancn a nynL, a nno1noc1L Ha1epnn - a
6eckoneunoc1L, npnpyHann nueno6me "nn1ennek1yanm" a caonx na6opa1opnnx. D1o nx
kap1nna Hnpa "a npo6npke". saec1nme qnsnueckne sakonm ne a coc1onnnn onnca1L
nn "oco6oro nauanLnoro coc1onnnn" cnnrynnpnoc1n, nn 1ex anxnHnuecknx
npeapauenn, u1o Hornn 6m nponso1n a paHkax a1oro "oco6oro coc1onnnn" a HoHen1
"6onLuoro aspmaa". ce poHmcnm na ce cue1 paanocnnLnm nk6nHoHy sann1nk
cxonac1oa - amuncnennk Hnoxec1aa anrenoa, yHeuakunxcn na oc1pne nrnm. o
c1panno: ueH 6nnxe k "nauany" cenenno, k nynk, 1eH ac 6onee onpepenennee, a
nocnepnne ponn cekynpm onncmaak1cn c 1ako o6eckypaxnaakue 1ounoc1Lk, c
1aknHn po1ounmHn noppo6noc1nHn, 6yp1o aa1opm caHn npncy1c1aoaann npn "popax"
(nHee1cn a anpy Ha1eHa1nueckn paspa6o1annan HopenL pasan1nn nyneao cenenno n
nepame cekynpm ee cyuec1aoaannn).
ac a1o yHc1aoaanne nopkpennne1cn nsnuno unqpoao akannn6pnc1nko n
ypaanennnHn, uLn HnnHan Hnorosnaun1enLnoc1L, ampaaaeHan sa nocnepnee cnoao a
nayke, cospa1 nnnksnk poc1oaepnoc1n y nenckyunnoro un1a1enn. pnako caHn
no6opnnkn a1o Hopno cno6nc1cko Hopenn ncnm1maak1 nopo rny6okyk
neypoane1aopnnoc1L. pnn ns e cospa1ene, aHep. qnsnk-1eope1nk . an6epr, a
caoe knnre "epame 1pn Hnny1m", npnsna1cn: " ne a cnnax ns6aan1Lcn o1
ouyuennn nepeanLnoc1n, korpa nnuy o nepamx 1pex Hnny1ax 1ak, kak 6yp1o Hm
pec1an1enLno snaeH, o uH roaopnH".
pec1an1enLno: paspeuna opnn napapokcm, a1a 1eopnn nopopnna eue 6onLue
ppyrnx. cnn e aepn1L, 1o sa 1pn c ne6onLunH Hnny1m cenennan pacunpnnacL o1
nynn po 40 cae1oamx ne1 (o1 6nnxaue k naH saespm nLqa en1aapa cae1 npe1 4
ropa), 1. e. ckopoc1L pasne1a npeamuana ckopoc1L cae1a a Hnnnnonm pas! nme
anu1ennanum okasanncL - "6onee ka1onnkaHn, ueH caH nana".
Hopennx "ropnue" cenenno (aHep. qnsnk aHoa n pp.) onncmaae1cn
npepnonaraeHoe coc1onnne cnnrynnpnoc1n, korpa cy6c1anunn ocHoca 6mna nko6m
cxa1a a epnnyk ncxopnyk 1ouky c 1eHnepa1ypo 6onLue 10(13) n nno1noc1Lk, na
Hnoro nopnpkoa amue npepno. e napo 6m1L akapeHnkoH, u1o6m nonn1L, u1o a 1aknx
ycnoannx ne Hornn cyuec1aoaa1L ne 1onLko Honekynm nnn a1oHm, no paxe n a1oHnme
nppa...
X oc1ae1cn pnn nac caHmH nanmH, no n caHmH sarapounmH caoc1aoH cenenno.
Moxno cun1a1L pokasannmH, u1o xnaoe ns nexnaoro aosnnkny1L ne Hoxe1.
onneuyk neaosHoxnoc1L a1oro amnannn, anannsnpyn 1epHopnnaHnueckne caoc1aa
xnao Ha1epnn, 1akne yuenme, kak . pnnuep () n . ac1nep (L).
69
o ecnn a1o 1ak, 1o nenLsn cornacn1Lcn c rnno1eso "6onLuoro aspmaa", cornacno
ko1opo ace Mnpospanne 6mno cnnkueno nekorpa a 6eckoneuno HanoH "nynL
npoc1panc1ae", packanennoH po uypoanunmx 1eHnepa1yp n cxa1oH neaoo6pasnHmH
paanenneH. cno, u1o npn 1akoH coc1onnnn xnsnn 6m1L ne Hoxe1, a noa1oHy Hm
npnnnHaeH nnuL 1akyk kap1nny cenenno, rpe ec1L ycnoann pnn X.
XnsnL 1ak xe aeuna, kak aeuna n cenennan. XnsnL - 1akoe xe neo1LeHneHoe
caoc1ao cenenno, kak n panxenne, n opno npncyue ppyroHy. X
M .
an6onee nposopnname n nenpepy6expennme 1eope1nkn nonarak1, u1o naua
cenennan ne Horna nHe1L nsnauanLnoro cnnrynnpnoro coc1onnnn: ona aeuno
YY - cxnHae1cn n pacunpne1cn. pnn ns aepyunx kocHonoroa
coapeHennoc1n, pep on, npepnoxnn HopenL c1aunonapno cenenno, ne nHekue
nn nauana, nn konua, a ko1opo o6pasoaanne Ha1epnn nponcxopn1 cnon1anno "c
uenLk" sanonnennn nyc1o1, aosnnkakunx acnepc1ane pacunpennn cenenno. "
nonarak, u1o rnaanm aonpoc saknkuae1cn a 1oH, nanne1cn nn 1. n. nauano nauanoH a
6ykaanLnoH cHmcne nnn xe ono npepc1aanne1 co6o qnsnueckn nepexop o1 kako-1o
npepuec1aykue c1apnn, - ckasan on. - nuno n Hano coHneaakcL a 1oH, u1o 6mna
npepuec1aykuan c1apnn, aosHoxno, paxe aaonkunonnm npouecc".
enn1nanc1ckne anu1ennanckne Hopenn paccHa1pnaak1 cenennyk nnuL a
npouecce ee c1anoanennn (o1 cnnrynnpnoc1n), o6xopn HonuanneH aonpoc aonpocoa o6
ncxopnmx npnunnax 6m1nn. 1o xe 6mno, korpa "nnuero ne 6mno"? 1o 6mno po 1oro,
korpa appyr no nensaec1no npnunne nonannncL npoc1panc1ao n apeHn? e ncno paxe,
nHee1 nn kako-nn6o cHmcn specL caHo nonn1ne po.
o ecnn npnnn1L aapnan1 ne aspmanoro, ka1ac1poqnueckoro aosnnknoaennn
cenenno, a nanpo1na, neonpepenenno ponroro aaonkunonnoro qopHnpoaannn
nopnpka ns xaoca, cryc1koa aneprnn ns coc1onnnn paccennnn? Yxe cqopHynnpoaanm
rnno1esm o aosHoxnoc1n cnon1annoro kaan1oaoro aosnnknoaennn cenenno ns
aakyyHa (1. e. ns D!), ko1opm nanne1cn ne a6conk1no
nyc1o1o, a nanpo1na, nekoe 1onuaue "npo1ocpepo" - aeunmH, nencuepnaeHmH
nc1ounnkoH Dneprnn. a1o 1oukn spennn nauano Mnpa osnauae1 nnuL nonn1ne,
nopuepknaakuee nepexop o1 opnoro, nensaec1noro naH coc1onnnn Ha1epnn k 1oHy, c
ko1opmH nHek1 peno coapeHennme nccnepoaa1enn.
ornacno 1eopnn nynLcnpykue cenenno, ona pasanaae1cn ne o1 kakoro-1o ak1a
nepaonauanLnoro 1aopennn, a ac e 6m1ne npepc1aanne1 co6o 6eckoneunyk uepepy
nynLcaun. cenennan pacunpne1cn, cxnHae1cn n onn1L pacunpne1cn, aospoxpancL
anoaL n anoaL nopo6no ennkcy. naanoe ampaxenne Xnsnn - panxenne, npnuH
panxenne pn1Hnueckoe. n1H - 6nenne Xnsnn. cenennan nopo6na MY
MY Y!
akoe nonnHanne Mnpospannn ne oc1aanne1 Hec1a 6ory, no npekpacno cornacye1cn c
ec1ec1aennmHn, poxpnc1nancknHn npepc1aanennnHn. Yxe a ko1opm pas nayka npo1na
caoe aonn nens6exno aosapauae1cn k nponnknoaennoHy Hnpoanpennk
"npoc1opyunmx nsmunnkoa" n ne xenae1 a a1oH npnsnaaa1Lcn.
peHn ne nnneno, n a1o snann yxe ppeanne Hyppeum. nocko-nnnenoe, opnoHepnoe
nonnHanne apeHenn o1 "co1aopennn Hnpa", npnpakuee nc1opnn noc1yna1enLno
nanpaanennm, "nporpeccnanm" xapak1ep, nonanne1cn nnuL c y1aepxpenneH
xpnc1nanc1aa.
pepc1aanenne o saHkny1oc1n apeHenn, o ero unknnunoc1n 6mno npncyue uenoaeky
ncnokon aeka n npepaocxn1nno nonanenne nayunmx 1eopn nynLcnpykue,
kone6nkuecn cenenno, a ko1opmx, a npo1naononoxnoc1L apeHenn
70
"naunnakueHycn", paccHa1pnaak1cn Hopenn c unknnuecknH apeHeneH, 1. e. co
apeHeneH, saHkny1mH "caHo na ce6n".
pen aeunoro aosapauennn - opna ns aepyunx npe ppeaneunx na1ypqnnocoqcknx
cnc1eH peunn, npnn, n1an. D1o no cyuec1ay D, no a e oco6ennoH,
aso1epnueckoH snauennn - peuL np1 o nan6onee coaepuennoH; cnnpaneanpnoH
panxennn no kpyry, . e 6eccHmcnennoe 6ennuLe koneco c
noc1onnnmH aosapa1oH k ncxopno 1ouke, a aeunoe aospoxpenne - nepeaonnouenne -
o6noanenne XY X. ak xe pepeaLn ocenLk c6pacmaak1 nnc1ay
papn 1oro, u1o6m anoaL pacuaec1n aecno.
aue cnoao "apeHn" (o6uecnaannckoe "aepHn", "aep1Hn") a1nHonornueckn cansannoe c
rnaronoH "aep1e1L", a ppeanoc1n osnauano 1o, u1o aep1n1cn. peHn aocnpnnnHanocL
kak aeuno apauakueecn aepe1eno: acnoHnnH aepe1eno 6ornnn nanke ns rpeuecknx
Hnqoa n aepe1eno naunx aonue6nmx ckasok, amnpnpakuee 1kanL 6m1nn. pen
kpyroaoro panxennn apeHenn - opno ns cokpoaennmx snauenn 1oro caeuennoro
o6pasa, ko1opm a npnn nasmaancn caac1nko, a na ycn - M.
peannn Hyppoc1L rnacn1, u1o cenennan cyuec1aye1 aeuno, no nponanne1cn
nepnopnueckn, cornacno HnpoamH pn1HaH. 1oH, u1o cenennan nponanne1cn a
unknax, yunnn c1onkn n nnqaropeum. pen Hnpoaoro pn1Ha npoxopn1 uepes ack
nc1opnk uenoaeuecko Hmcnn o1 epaknn1a n DHnepokna po nencepa n nuue.
ennkne, kocHnueckne apm, ko1opme na nsmke naykn nHenye1cn nynLcnpykue
cenenno, apnum npoc1ana noa1nueckn nasmaann nnHn n ouaHn paHm, nnn
cenencknH mxanneH. e nHekuee nauana uepepoaanne nepnopoa nponanennn
o6Lek1nanoro Hnpa n ero ncuesnoaennn ns o6nac1n o6Lek1nanoro (nepexop a 1onkyk
qopHy cyuec1aoaannn, a 1o nepaopopnoe coc1onnne, ko1opoe nasmaae1cn xaocoH) n
ec1L Mnpoame ynLcaunn.
Yuenme paano npnunn k amaopy, u1o XM Y, X
, ko1opyk onn acye nasmaak1 Dneprne, ec1L aennunna noc1onnnan.
ak nayka "o1kpmna" Hepnky: 1o, o ueH 1mcnuene1nn nasap porapmaanncL
"npononoknonnnkn", n nmne caHm ampakuncn npepc1aan1enL anepre1nsHa
(anepre1nueckoro nonnHannn cenenno) . esen6epr npocnexnaae1 cansn
noaeue qnsnkn c npenHn ppeannx na1ypqnnocoqoa. ennunna Dneprnn ao
cenenno oc1ae1cn coaepuenno opnnakoao, 1onLko npn konue unkna (unkna, a ne
cenenno!) ona nepexopn1 a coc1onnne nokon, saHnpae1, c1anoan1cn no1enunanLno.
ac1ynae1 ouL paHm, n cenennan norpyxae1cn a ce6n, kak a con, caopaunaae1cn
nopo6no kykonke, npeapauae1cn a "kocHnueckoe nuo", copepxauee a ce6e sapopmun
acex 6ypyunx xnsne:
pyua, ne1n na ceaep
ono1o nueno,
anm con, a Hepoam kneaep
nxe1 na noko...
. nok
no1oH - na paccae1e nn paHm 6ype1 noam acnneck X, YX
Y.
erenpm o nponcxoxpennn Hnpa ns nekoero nepaopopno-caHopopnoro nua npncyun
HnornH napopaH. epapoH eue c an1nunmx apeHen 6m1ye1 na1nnckoe ampaxenne "a6
71
oao" c caHoro nauana (6ykaanLno - c nua). pasnmx aapnan1ax a1o1 ppeaneun
Hnq snann n opqnkn, n ppynpm, n 6paxHanm. 1ronockn npepc1aanenn o "HnpoaoH
nue", saunnakueH noayk xnsnL, coxpannnncL n a cnaanncknx aonue6nmx ckaskax.
o acex a1nx Hnqax npocnexnaae1cn npen o c1aunonapnoH, nensHennoH Hnpe: Hnpe
noc1onnno pasanaakueHcn, 1o saHmkakueHcn a ce6e, 1o anoaL aospoxpakueHcn.
opo6nan xe npen, xo1n n neckonLko anponsHenennan, apoxnoanne1 n nan6onee
nm1nnamx kocHonoroa coapeHennoc1n.
aH 1pypno aoo6pasn1L rpanpnosnoc1L npoc1panc1aenno-apeHennmx Hacu1a6oa a1nx
pn1Hoa. Hep. ac1ponoH . enpepx cun1ae1, u1o cenennan nynLcnpye1 c unknoH,
paanmH npnHepno 82 Hnpp. ne1. nypanax cue1 1oxe npe1 na co1nn Hnnnnonoa n
Hnnnnappm ne1: ppeanennpnckan kocHoronnn, kak n coapeHennan nayka, onpepennna
aospac1 onnua a Hnnnnappm ne1. 1o xe kacae1cn onncannn 6eckoneunoc1n
cenenno, 1o naH oc1ae1cn 1onLko nopnan1Lcn npospennnH 6esaec1nmx pnun, uLn
ncuncnennn nopaannk1 konoccanLnoc1Lk Hnpoaoro npoc1panc1aa n apeHenn.
paanenne c uec1Lk 1mcnuaHn ne1 o1 "co1aopennn Hnpa" nnunn pas nanoHnnae1 naH
o aecLHa nocpepc1aennmx, ecnn ne ckasa1L, yuep6nmx, Hmcnn1enLnmx cnoco6noc1nx
<.>
* * *
ocne c1onL ponroro, no neo6xopnHoro o1c1ynnennn aepneHcn k naue Ma1epn-eHne.
Yuenme po cnx nop ne snak1 npnunnm nsnauanLnoro apauennn eHnn aokpyr caoe
ocn. yue6nnkax nanncano: "apauenne nHee1 caoe npnunno uen1po6exnyk cnny".
panee: "uen1po6exnme cnnm, aosnnkakune 6naropapn apauennk eHnn...".
opounm kpyr saHknyncn, n cyuec1aoaanne kypnum "o6Lncnne1cn" cyuec1aoaanneH
nua.
ako xe no6ypnn k yc1ounaoHy, nens6manoHy apauennk, ne
pakueHy eHne saaann1Lcn na 6ok, nopo6no aonuky? aepL 6es apauennn eHnn
xnsnL na ne 6mna 6m neaosHoxna xo1n 6m no1oHy, u1o na ocaeunno c1opone
eHnoro uapa 6mno 6m nekno, a na 1Hno - aeunm np. "eHnn, apauakuancn
okono caoe ocn, o6napae1 yuo, ko1opan n ec1L npnunna a1oro panxennn", -
y1aepxpan ocnoaononoxnnk ne6ecno Hexannkn orann ennep. noueHy 6m n ne1?
eHnn - epnnc1aennan o6n1aeHan nnane1a onneuno ceHLn - ncknkun1enLna no
caoe 6naroxena1enLnoc1n, "npncnoco6nennoc1n" pnn Xnsnn. syHn1enLnm
nenoa1opnHme oco6ennoc1n naue pnano konm6enn, nopopnaune c1onL 6ynm
pacuae1 Xnsnn. eHnn n uae1e1 no1oHy, u1o naxopn1cn na epnnc1aennoH, nannyuueH
ns acex aosHoxnmx pnn Xnsnn ypanennn o1 onnua. ecna-pacna npnxopn1 1onLko
na eHnk, n6o 1onLko na eHne aospoxpae1cn XnsnL nocne snHnero o6Hopoka.
eyxenn a1o unc1an cnyuanoc1L? ecoHnenno, a1o saancn1 o1 uero-1o 6onee
cyuec1aennoro, ueH o1 "nrpm n koc1n". aepL nHenno X npo1nao6opc1aye1 1oHy,
u1o yuenme nasaann "1ennoao cHep1Lk" cenenno. 1ex, k1o o1kasmaae1 naue
Ma1epn a ec1ec1aennoH, npepnaHepennoH nec1oaannn Xnsnn, Hoxno ckasa1L cnoaaHn
ackann: "nn o1aeprak1 kpyroapauenne eHnn, a caHn aep1n1cn aHec1e c nek".
kak o6pasoaanacL xnan1enLnan seHnan a1Hocqepa - pe1nue, nopoxpennoe eHne?
nayke o6 a1oH c1onLko nepoHonaok, oroaopok, necoo6pasnoc1e n ny1annum...
Hexpy 1eH, caHo aosnnknoaenne n coxpanenne Xnsnn na eHne o6ycnoaneno
pasan1neH xnHnuecknx npoueccoa a ee a1Hocqepe. n na opno ns nnane1 onneuno
cnc1eHm ne1 okeanoa n a1Hocqepm, nopo6nmx naunH. mcokoe copepxanne kncnopopa
a a1Hocqepe noppepxnaae1cn pac1ennnHn, nsanekakunHn ero ns yrnekncnoro rasa.
ncnopop ne 1onLko cna6xae1 xnao1nm Hnp aneprne pnn xnsnepen1enLnoc1n n
pasHnoxennn, no n o6pasye1 osonnm cno, saunuakun o1 ynL1paqnone1oao
papnaunn. aknH o6pasoH, XnsnL cospana na eHne nsyHn1enLnyk
caHonoppepxnaakuykcn cnc1eHy.
72
u opnn X aonpoc: kakoao nponcxoxpenne n cy1L seHnoro
Harne1nsHa, yun1maan ero onpepennkuee annnnne na ac xnaoe? a n u1o 1akoe
aoo6ue 1o npnspaunoe, no neoponnHoe cnnoaoe aospec1ane, ko1opoe nasmaak1
Harne1nsHoH? noaa "Horyuec1aennm", "Harnueckn" n "Harne1nueckn" -
popc1aennm. yunoc1L Harne1nsHa a uenoH oc1a1cn nensaec1no, 1ak xe, kak n
sarapka reoHarne1nsHa.
Y ynm, enepm n Mapca ne1 Harnn1noro nonn; ne1 1aH n Xnsnn. Mounoe Harnn1noe
none eHnn - ynnkanLnoe nanenne; 1aknH xe ynnkanLnmH qenoHenoH a onneuno
cnc1eHe nanne1cn seHnan 6nocqepa. anpaunaae1cn amaop o cansn Xnsnn c
reoHarnn1nmH noneH. eonorn yc1anoannn, u1o Hnorne anpm xnao1nmx ncuesann a
nepnopm, korpa reoHarnn1noe none, no nenonn1nmH npnunnaH Hennn caoe
nanpaanenne, npoxopnno uepes nyneaoe snauenne. akyk-1o ouenL aaxnyk ponL
reoHarnn1noe none nrpae1 n a ypepxannn osonoaoro cnon. enoaek xnae1 a okeane
reoHarnn1nmx aonn 1ak xe ec1ec1aenno, kak pm6a a aope, n no1oHy nx ne saHeuae1.
pnako, ecnn reoHarnn1noe none cyuec1aye1, 1o rpe-1o a nnane1e ponxno
cyuec1aoaa1L , ero nopoxpakuee? oc1oaepno o reoHarnn1noH none nsaec1no
1onLko 1o, u1o a neH opnen1npye1cn c1penka koHnaca. Ynpouenno npo6neHa
reoHarne1nsHa "pasLncnne1cn" 1ak: "1o 1akoe reoHarnn1noe none? - D1o seHnoe n
okonoseHnoe npoc1panc1ao (Harnn1ocqepa), nponnsannoe pec1aneH Harnn1nmx cnn".
" u1o 1akoe Harnn1nme cnnm? - D1o cnnm, nopoxpennme Harnn1nmH noneH eHnn".
annuo nanan 1aa1onornn, apope 1oro, u1o uy1ka amsmaae1 cHex no1oHy, u1o cHeunan,
a anno nLnnn1 o11oro, u1o a nH ankoronL.
saec1no, u1o reoHarnn1noe none nynLcnpye1, no ne1 1eopnn reoHarnn1nmx
nynLcaun. pnunnm kone6ann ne amncnenm; npepnonarae1cn, u1o onn kak-1o
cansanm c nponcxopnunHn a M kaknHn-1o npoueccaHn e
xnsnepen1enLnoc1n.
Yuenme ne snak1, o1kypa y eHnn asnnocL nauanLnoe naHarnnunaanne. 1o nocnyxnno
ocnoao seHnoro Harne1nsHa? oueHy cyuec1ayk1 1akne nonn1nn, kak eaepnm n
xnm Harnn1nme nonkcm? noueHy a1n nonkcm 6nyxpak1? aano yc1apeno
nonynnpnoe npepc1aanenne, 6yp1o any1pn eHnn cocpepo1ouennm Haccm xenesa. cnn
npepnonoxn1L, u1o a neppax nnane1m nHee1cn packanennan Hacca, 1o
naHarnnuennoc1L xenesa ponxna ncuesny1L yxe npn 770 . pnunno seHnoro
Harne1nsHa ne Hory1 6m1L conneunme n kocHnueckne "Harnn1nme 6ypn". e Hoxe1 ero
amsaa1L apauenne eHnn n amsmaaeHme nH anek1pnueckne 1okn a seHno o6onouke.
o acnoHnnH cnoaa caHoro nponnua1enLnoro ns cmunkoa - Lepnoka onHca:
"konLko pas n noa1opnn aaH, u1o, korpa am o16pocn1e ac neaosHoxnoe, 1o, u1o
oc1ane1cn, nyc1L caHoe neaepon1noe, n 6ype1 npaapo". anec Mnne1ckn, nepam ns
ceHn rpeuecknx Hyppeuoa, ko1oporo nasmaann Yun1eneH, ckasan: "aHenL nHee1 pyuy,
no1oHy u1o on panrae1 xeneso".
1uero kone6ne1cn seHnan ocL? ocnepnne co1nn 1mcnu ne1 6mnn caHmHn
neo6LncnnHmHn a xnsnn eHnn. cnoHnnH aennkne onepenennn n sa1onyaune
Ha1epnkn, nepeaopaunaanne Harnn1nmx nonkcoa, nonanenne uenoaeka...
o1kypa na eHne nonannacL aopa, 6es ko1opo neaosHoxnm 6enkoame qopHm
xnsnn? Mnpoao okean - eue opna sarapka pnpopm: noueHy cyuec1aye1
Hnoroaekoaoe noc1onnc1ao o6uero o6LeH aopm a okeane? MexannsH a1oro paanoaecnn
nensaec1en.
1o 1akoe knnnune nc1ounnkn n kakoaa npnunna nx nenpepmanoro n paanoHepnoro
6nennn? oueHy resep-aennkan na 1nxookeanckoH no6epexLe Hepnkn,
nynLcnpykun c 1ounoc1Lk uacoa, appyr pasaonnoaancn n c6nncn a 1o1 caHm penL,
korpa a ppyroH nonyuapnn asopaancn aynkan paka1ay?
73
1kypa asnnacL yna, okasmaakuan c1onL 6onLuoe n 1annc1aennoe annnnne na ace
cyuec1aa? n opna ns 1pex knaccnuecknx rnno1es ne amrnnpn1 ypoane1aopn1enLno.
1o 1akoe "kpoaL eHnn" - neq1L? ak o6Lncnn1L nponcxoxpenne neq1n ns
oprannuecknx oc1a1koa npexnnx reonornuecknx anox? ako anp aneprnn npeapa1nn
a1n oc1a1kn a koHnnekc yrneaopopopoa, a ropkuyk Hacnnnnc1yk xnpkoc1L? enno? o
npn cnnLnoH narpeae neq1L pasnarae1cn...
akoao nponcxoxpenne nopseHnmx rasoa? poncxoxpenne cone, pac1aopennmx a
Hopcknx aopax? ak sapopnnncL rpann1m n anHasm? rnaanoe:
D X M???
enoaek, aosoHnnaun ce6n "aenuoH 1aopennn", nasaan nx nonesnmHn nckonaeHmHn.
onesnmHn pnn ce6n, pasyHee1cn. u1o, pnn caHo eHnn onn 6ecnonesnm? opoHm,
ko1opme uenoaek ocyuae1, ckanm, ko1opme on amrpmsae1, u1o6m po6pa1Lcn po
nakoHmx kycoukoa a Ha1epnnckoH none, nakoneu, npoc1o "seHnn" - necok, kaHnn,
rnnna - onn 1oxe "copnnkn-apepn1enn"?
enoaek pnn Hnkpo6oa-napasn1oa - nnuL Hep1aoe 1eno, nc1ounnk cmpLn, o1kypa onn
nsanekak1 sanexn nonesnmx pnn ce6n nckonaeHmx. epsan 6eccnoaecnyk eHnk,
ko1opan kaxe1cn nkpnH Hep1ao, onn ynopo6nnncL napasn1aH. x y6oran qan1asnn ne
np1 panLue "a1oporo npnuec1ann", ko1oporo onn ac eu xpy1 ns nyc1o1m ne6ec.
nn poxpy1cn n yxacny1cn, korpa nx ac1pe1n1 ...
* * *
asaanm paneko ne ace "npoknn1me" aonpocm reonornn, reoqnsnkn, reoxnHnn,
reoHopqonornn, reo1epHnkn... ccnepoaanne naue uypecno o6n1enn ropaspo
6onLue sarapok amc1aanne1, ueH paspeuae1. 1o nsaec1no o npnunnax nsaepxenn
ornepmuaunx rop? npnunnax seHne1pncenn? 6 a1oH "snak1" ukonLnnkn, no
cnopn1 yuenme Hyxn. e1 ec1ec1aosnannn, a ec1L nnuL ec1ec1aoonncanne.
akne uypoanunme cnnm panxy1 rpoHapnme ckanLnme nnn1m, necyune na ce6e
Ha1epnkn n okeanm? yuec1aye1 6onee 500 npepnonoxenn, nm1akunxcn o6Lncnn1L
aosnnknoaenne n c1poenne seHno kopm. eonorn, osapauennme noaeunHn
o1kpm1nnHn, nonarak1, u1o coaokynnoc1L n nocnepoaa1enLnoc1L ee panxenn
nanne1cn pesynL1a1oH pec1ann kakoro-1o npaannLnoro sakonoHepnoro oprannsHa.
akoro?
1o nponcxopn1 a upeae Ma1epn-eHnn? akoa nc1ounnk ee any1pennero 1enna?
reoqnsnke cyuec1ayk1 npepc1aanennn, asanHno ncknkuakune ppyr ppyra.
any1penneH c1poennn eHnn, Hm, xnayune na ne, snaeH o6npno Hano; neHnornH
6onLue, ueH o6 Ypane. e1 nnkaknx o6uenpnnn1mx nonn1n o neppax eHnn, ee
xnHnueckoH coc1aae n 1eHnepa1ype na 6onLunx rny6nnax. aua 1exnnka 6mc1pee
poc1nrna noaepxnoc1n Mapca n enepm, ueH paenapua1nknnoHe1poao rny6nnm na
eHne. ce rnno1esm o 1oH, u1o seHnoe nppo xenesnoe, a Han1nn cnnnka1nan, ne
6onee ueH yHospn1enLnme coo6paxennn, paano cpannme a apxna. Mm nnuero ne snaeH
o c1poennn uen1panLnoro nppa pnaHe1poH okono 6500 kH. Mm ne snaeH paxe, ns uero
ono coc1on1. n opna nonm1ka npepc1aan1L qnsnko-xnHnueckn o6nnk nppa po cnx
nop ne yaenuanacL ycnexoH. asnnunme aepcnn nepanunoro "ropnuero"
nponcxoxpennn eHnn yxe ne o1aeuak1 coapeHennoHy coc1onnnk naykn. 1o xe
kacae1cn Han1nn, 1o o npnpope ee aeuec1aa nHek1cn nnuL cHy1nme porapkn,
ocnoaannme na pannmx cecHnueckoro sonpnpoaannn, npnueH cyuec1ayk1
asanHoncknkuakune 1oukn spennn.
ak nn 1pypnm npo6neHm nccnepoaannn aneunnx cnoea 1onun eHnn, onn nnu1oxnm a
cpaanennn c 1eHn, u1o aosnnknn 6m, ecnn uenoaek aosnaHepnncn 6m nponnkny1L a
74
Han1nk, nexauyk nop kopo po rny6nnm a 3000 kH, n, 1eH 6onee, a nppo, ckpm1oe
nop Han1ne. nkakan HmcnnHan n neHmcnnHan 1exnnka 1y1 ne noHoxe1. axe caHm
neypepxnHm qan1ac1 coapeHennoc1n p1yp napk, coaepuenno cao6opno
"o6pauakuncn" c aneseHnmHn unannnsaunnHn n xonrnnpykun pacc1onnnnHn a
co1nn cae1oamx ne1, nasmaae1 eHnoe ppo Hec1oH, ko1opoe "naacerpa oc1ane1cn
nepocnraeHmH pnn nac nesaancnHo o1 Hacu1a6a nayunoro nporpecca a 6ypyueH".
nayke cospanacL napapokcanLnan cn1yaunn. cnn coapeHennme snannn o6 aneprnn
a1oHnoro nppa poaonLno-1akn rny6okn n c1ponm, 1o nonn1nn o 1ennoaoH coc1onnnn n
any1penne aneprnn eHnn upesamuano npo1naopeunam n 1yHannm. no n nonn1no:
aepL npepc1aanenne o YM D saancn1, npexpe acero, o1
1oukn spennn na nponcxoxpenne n c1poenne eHnn. 1aH - pasno6o rnno1es,
cornacnmx 1onLko a opnoH: nou1n ace onn o1kasmaak1 eHne a MYM
XM .
pqnkn n nnqaropeum sa 2000 ne1 po onepnnka n annnen snann o apauennn
uapoo6pasno eHnn n cun1ann ee XnamH yuec1aoH, o6napakunH eppueH, one n
asyHoH. o no1oH aouapnnncL npnHn1nanme xpnc1nanckne npepc1aanennn o nnocko,
kocno, cnenornyxoneHo eHne. u1o ceropnn? o1n uenoaeuec1ao n npnsnano anoaL
uapoo6pasnoc1L eHnn, no npoponxae1 c 6n6necko neuec1naoc1Lk o1nocn1Lcn k
e, kak k 6esHosrno, 6eso1ae1no "nnocko 1aeppn". Hexpy 1eH nakannnaae1cn
ace 6onLue n 6onLue pannmx, ykasmaakunx na 1o, u1o a neppax nnane1m npy1
npoueccm, caoc1aennme amcokooprannsoaannmH XM cnc1eHaH.
Mouneune 1ennoame no1okn, c1pynunecn ns nona Ma1epn k noaepxnoc1n, nopoxpenm
nenccnkaeHo any1penne aneprne - X. mnanenm
pn1Hnueckne kone6annn a ampenennn a1o rny6nnno 1ennoao aneprnn. "Mo1op" -
nc1ounnk ak1nanoc1n nnane1m - a ee -, nannkueHcn kak 6m
caoeo6pasnmH nynLcnpykunH M M.
c a Hnpe nynLcnpye1, ac nHee1 caon 6nopn1Hm: nau oprannsH, onnue, caHa
cenennan... eHnn c ee 6nocqepo - X YY M:
caHoo6pasykuncn, caHonoppepxnaakuncn n caHoaocnponsaopnuncn. smueckan
pen a1a poc1a1ouno "6esyHna" n "epe1nuna" a caoe ec1ec1aenno npoc1o1e, kpaco1e
n papoc1n, u1o6m onpaapa1Lcn. epapoH npen X M o6pe1ae1 ace 6onLue
npnaepxenuea kak cpepn caHoc1on1enLno Hmcnnunx yuenmx, 1ak n cpepn opapennmx
caHoyuek.
ak acnkn xnao prannsH, eHnn ponxna (Hoxe1) pac1n - pacunpn1Lcn. a1o
narnnpno nop1aepxpae1cn nopasn1enLno coaHec1nHoc1Lk ouep1ann xno
Hepnkn, qpnkn, npoc1ana, ac1pannn n n1apk1npm. Ma1epnkn a1n yknapmaak1cn
nou1n anno1nyk ppyr k ppyry na uape HenLuero papnyca, kako, oueanpno, nHena
eHnn 250-300 Hnn. ne1 nasap. 1ex nop nnouapL seHno kopm yaennunaanacL sa
cue1 pacunpennn pna okeanoa (a conenan aopa a okeanm noc1aannnacL ns seHnmx
nepp). espe, rpe pocnn okeanm, Honopan seHnan kopa nHee1 1onunny okono 5 kH, a
Ha1epnkoaan - okono 80 kH.
aHme cHenme n nnopo1aopnme nayunme konuenunn (a 1oH uncne n nauero
snaHenn1oro reonora n nnca1enn . 6pyueaa) roaopn1 o nynLcaunonno-
pacunpnkuecn eHne, no n onn ne Hory1 o6Lncnn1L nponcxoxpenne nynLcaun.
nauane 80-x ropoa qnsnkn nHckoro ynnaepcn1e1a npoaopnnn nonck rpaan1aunonnmx
aonn, "npepckasmaaeHmx" Dnu1ena (Hoxno npnHepno ouenn1L aennunny
cnrnanoa, ko1opmx cnepye1 oxnpa1L). onn, pasyHee1cn, ne o6napyxnnn, sa1o a
1euenne ropa pernc1pnpoaann a 100 pas 6onee cnnLnme nHnynLcm, npnueH aennunna
nx nsHennnacL c nepnopoH a 12 uacoa. a1opm o1kpm1nn cun1ak1, u1o npnunna
nynLcaun seHnan. 1o snae1, kakne neoxnpannoc1n npenopnecy1 naH noame
nccnepoaannn? pnpopa acerpa okasmaae1cn ropaspo cnoxne n ypnan1enLne, ueH
75
yuenme npepnonarak1. eHnn naua pnn nac - . aH eue
npepc1on1 "o1kpm1L" Hnoro uypec, 6maunx caHooueanpnmHn peannnHn pnn nnpeua
yone6a nnn pnn ronLpa epcy Ysana.
* * *
asae "Hep1am kaHenL" Hoxe1 popn1L neu1o xnaoe?
asae kaHenL 6es ceppua Hoxe1 popn1L neu1o npekpacnoe?
asae kaHenL 6es pasyHa Hoxe1 popn1L neu1o pasyHnoe?
asae kaHenL 6es pyun Hoxe1 popn1L neu1o coaepuennoe?
o6poHmcn (. ae1oa). aenapua1L 6ecep.
eHnn, 6ypyun X, kak n nk6oe ppyroe xnaoe cyuec1ao, o6napae1 caonH
6nononeH n nHee1 caon 6noak1nanme 1oukn - 1. n. akynynk1ypy eHnn. D1o - Hec1a
amxopa na noaepxnoc1L Horyuec1aenno 1ennypnuecko aneprnn (ennypa -
ppeanen1annckan 6ornnn eHnn, Ma1L-eHnn, eppa Ma1ep). naanne a1y
nepao6m1nyk, Ha1epnnckyk, o6eperakuyk cnny nasmaann M, a ouarn ee
nsnyuennn - "npopyxn" - MM . mne 1akne Hec1a nasmaak1 reoak1nanmHn
sonaHn, nnn sonaHn c noamuennmH nanpnxenneH reoHarnn1noro nonn. a1nx Hec1ax
uaue acero cnyuak1cn pasnnunme "caepxLec1ec1aennme" uypeca nnn, no-nayunoHy,
anoHanLnme nanennn.
Henno 1akoHy Hec1y o6nsan caonH aosnnknoaenneH snaHenn1eun ns acex
opakynoa - enLqnckn, ue xpaH 6mn, aospanrny1 a IX a. po n. a. na Hec1e
ppeaneuero cae1nnnua en-eHnn. pxanunm Hnq rnacn1, u1o specL nekorpa 6mn
saxoponen y6n1m nonnonoH sHe nqon-enLqnnn - c1nxnnoe nopoxpenne en.
nqon 6mn Hec1nmH x1onnuecknH 6oxec1aoH, am1ecnennmH nospneunH
o6ueannnncknH kynL1oH nonnona (no nHenn nqona-enLqnnnn sarapounme aopnme
xnao1nme c1ann nasmaa1Lcn penLqnnaHn).
pekn noun1ann ek Ma1epLk 6oroa n xpann1enLnnue ppeane Hyppoc1n. 1ronockn
noun1annn nqona saneua1nenm a aeunx xpnuax-nqnnx. un1anocL, u1o nHenno
ncnapennn o1 1ena nqona (aynkannueckne ncnapennn ns nepp eHnn a pacuennne
ckanm), apmxaeHme nqne, apoxnoannnn ee n napennnn papoH npopnuannn. cnaaa
a1nx npopnuann 6mna 1akoaa, u1o nqn aonpouann uapn ace kyHenm. saec1no,
ckonL aceo6LeHnkunH annnnneH, neocnopnHmH aa1opn1e1oH n aennuaunH poaepneH
nonLsoaanncL opakynm ao ace rpeuecko nc1opnn, rpe onn nonyunnn snauenne
nonn1nuecknx yupexpenn. pekn ne naunnann aony, ne cnpocncL nqnn.
n1epa1opm nepepko pncyk1 naunx paneknx npepkoa nananmHn n no-pe1ckn
nerkoaepnmHn. o a ppeanoc1n nkpn 6mnn cknonnm coHneaa1Lcn nnuy1L ne HenLue,
ueH Hm; 1onLko onn 6mnn Hyppee.
neaepon1no, u1o6m npopoueckne caeuennopec1aa nepexnnn 1mcnuene1nn, ecnn 6m
onn ne onpaapmaanncL, a onpoaepranncL 6m noacepneano peanLnoc1Lk. epopo1
nnue1, u1o pes sapancn HmcnLk ncnm1a1L npaapnaoc1L enLqnckoro opakyna.
a1o uenLk on aenen nocnannmH nH ronuaH poano na co1m penL nocne nx o1Lespa
o6pa1n1Lcn k nqnn c aonpocoH: "eH sannHae1cn ceuac nnpnckn uapL pes?"
aH pes, pyHan nocpaHn1L opakyna, a a1o1 penL sannncn neo6munmH penoH: on
co6c1aennopyuno nspy6nn aHec1e uepenaxy n nrnenka n aapnn nx a HepnoH ko1ne c
Hepno kpmuko. epnyaunecn nocnm nepepann pesy, u1o a nasnauennm penL
76
nqnn nspekna: " snak konnuec1ao necky n Hepy Hopn; n noc1nrak Hmcnn
rnyxoneHoro n cnmuy 6esrnacnoro, ko Hne pouen sanax kpenknH un1oH saunuenno
uepenaxn, ona aapn1cn a HepnoH cocype aHec1e c HncoH nrnenka; HepL pasoc1nana
annsy n HepL nonoxena caepxy". onyuna 1ako o1ae1, pes nponnkcn 6naroroaenneH,
n6o xpnua npopekna nc1nny.
opakynaH xe npnuncnnnncL n nspeuennn ppeanen1anncknx ncnoanpnunx nannn.
eaexec1aennme n ne1epnnHme xpnc1nane o6Lnannn opakynoa 6oronpo1nanmH penoH
- "6ecoacknH naaaxpenneH". 391 r. no npnkasy nHnepa1opa eopocnn I 6mn
paspyuen enLqnckn xpaH. naropapnan uepkoaL nposaana eopocnn "ennknH".
nannnnnm knnrn 6mnn coxxenm a 400 r., 1ak u1o knnrocoxxenne npnpyHann ne
"repHanckne qaunc1m", a nponoaepnnkn pennrnn "nk6an n Hnnoceppnn".
* * *
eoHan1nko nasmaann kn1ackne na1ypqnnocoqm-paocm cnoco6m onpepenennn
npaannLnmx Hec1 pnn saxoponennn, noc1pokn xpaHa, saknapkn ropopa. pe6oaannn
reoHan1nkn, nrpaaue rpoHapnyk ponL, 6mnn pnn kn1auea c1onL xe o6nsa1enLnm,
kak pnn nac nayuno-1exnnueckne. Henno pnn nyxp reoHan1nkn ncnonLsoaancn
Harnn1nm koHnac.
reoHan1nke cyuec1aoaann 1akne nonn1nn, kak "aenm pakona" (kananm
nepeHeuennn nnm) n "sy6m pakona" (Hec1a cocpepo1ouennn nnm). aHy xe eHnk
paocm ynopo6nnnn "1eny pakona". pakon-He-uyp a ppeaneunx Hnqonornnx
cansan c aopo - xnan1enLno c1nxne a none Ma1epn-mpo-eHnn. n - anapmka
nopseHno-nopaopnoro Hnpa, nokpoan1enL aopnmx nc1ounnkoa n aoo6ue acnueckoro
nnopopopnn. opnn ns aaxneunx npnsnakoa reoak1nanmx son - nannune nopseHnmx
n noaepxnoc1nmx aop.
eoHan1nka aknkuana a ce6n Hec1ononoxenne cae1nnnu, nx opnen1npoaky, nx
coaHec1nHoc1L c nanpuaq1oH n aosHoxnoc1L nx cansn c yxaHn. Mec1noc1L cun1anacL
nopxopnue, ecnn specL nponannnncL po6pme aennnn, "pmxanne pnpopm". eoHan1m
onpepennnn Mec1a nnm nnn, no-coapeHennoHy, Hec1a cansn c
anepronnqopHaunonnmHn nonnHn nnane1m n sonm anepronnqopHaunonnoro
asanHopec1ann eHnn c 6nocqepo, onnueH n ocHocoH.
kpm1an pen1enLnoc1L any1pennnx cnn eHnn nasmaanacL uanL-nnn, u1o snaun1
pyxoanan pen1enLnoc1L. LanL-nnn npepc1aannnacL a anpe qnknpa, nsnnaakuerocn
uepes neko1opme o6nac1n, yuac1kn. co6o 6naronpnn1nmHn cun1anncL o6pmam n
aoo6ue naknonnme nnockoc1n, xonHm n aosamuennoc1n, 1. k. uanL-nnn, nc1ekan ns
eHnn, cocpepo1ounaae1cn a nnx n npnxopn1 a nynLcnpykuee panxenne: noa1oHy
1akne aosamuennoc1n nasmaanncL nnn-Ho, 1. e. ynLcm yxa.
Xpeum peanero rnn1a, am6npan Hec1o pnn 1pex rnran1cknx nnpaHnp, naunn
on1nHanLnoe peuenne. D1n naHn1nnkn nokon1cn na caHmx nno1nmx n nan6onee
Haccnanmx nsaec1nnkoamx cnonx, nacun1maakunx pecn1kn Hnnnnonoa ne1. Yuenme
cun1ak1, u1o ppeanne c1pon1enn nHenn ypnan1enLneune nosnannn a o6nac1n
reonornn. cnn 6m nonm ne cnannnn nekcanppnckyk 6n6nno1eky, Hm HnoroHy 6m
cHornn noyun1Lcn y nsmunnkoa.
arapka Herann1oa - opna ns caHmx cnoxnmx n yaneka1enLnmx sarapok ppeaneue
nc1opnn. Moxno roaopn1L nnuL o nayuno "nonynnpnoc1n" rnno1es, npnnncmaakunx
aospanxenne a1n HonyHen1anLnmx apxn1ek1ypnmx coopyxenn nnonnane1nnaH.
ec1an1enLnoc1L, kak acerpa, okasmaae1cn rny6xe n uypecnee caHmx
qan1ac1nuecknx, "saxaa1maakunx" poHmcnoa. c1poapxeonorn c noHouLk DM
yc1anoannn, u1o pono1onnme 1aeppmnn - peno pyk "1pornopn1oa" -
connuenoknonnnkoa kaHennoro aeka. pnako Herann1nueckne koHnnekcm -
77
coopyxennn ropaspo 6onee cnoxnme, ueH 1pe6oaanocL 6m, ecnn 6m onn
npepnasnauanncL 1onLko pnn pn1yanLno ac1ponoHnn. ynL1 onnua nepaspmano
cansan specL c kynL1oH eHnn n kynL1oH opa - kynL1oH nepeaonnouakunxcn
pepkoa.
ou1n acerpa okono rpo6nnum-ponLHena akonan Henrnp - orpoHnm
qannoconopo6nm kaHennm c1on6, onnue1aopnkun n y1aepxpakun cnny
aospoxpakuecn Xnsnn, no6expakuyk cHep1L. annoc - rpeueckoe nasaanne
Hyxckoro pe1opopnoro ec1ec1aa. HqanaHn nasmaanncL caeuennme kaHnn. aHm
snaHenn1m oHqan, yc1anoanennm a enLqnckoH cae1nnnue n noun1aeHm "nynoH
eHnn", nHen o1kpoaenno na1ypannc1nueckn anp qannoca. o nso6paxennn qannoca
- o1nkpL ne kynL1 ronoro "cekcyanLnoro 6ecc1mpc1aa", a ueH o6annnk1 nsmunnkoa
xanxn n nnueHepm (y koro u1o 6onn1, 1o1 npo 1o n roaopn1). cnn o16pocn1L ac
qannocoqc1aoaanne (no-pycckn xyeHyppc1aoaanne) a1nx 6nypnnamx "can1ou", 1o
ncno, u1o qannoc - a1o aonnouenne xnao1aopnue c1nxnno Houn pnpopm; snak,
snaHenykun 1opxec1ao Xnsnn.
y1L smuec1aa - X X. ncnonnnckn, nopuepkny1o orpanennm
c1onun c1on6 - caHm spnHm, eHkn n coaepuennm cnHaon pec1ann ,
nopoxpakue XnsnL. peueckne Dpo1 n pec - 1oro xe kopnn, u1o n nau pnno.
py6o o6pa6o1annmHn, pepeannnmHn nn6o kaHennmHn o6ennckaHn-o6pasaHn opa,
onnopo1aopnkuero pnpopy, sac1on6nnnn cnaanne ace oco6me Moc1a nnm. 6pas no-
rpeueckn - apoc: o1ckpa npean, npon. c1a1kn 1aknx pepeannnmx c1on6oa-nponoa,
apm1mx na xonHax (na pacnmx ropax) a uen1pe cae1nnnu, naxopn1 a seHne apxeonorn
n nonmne.
apn1m - apxanueckne rpeueckne 6oxec1aa nnopopopnn - nso6paxanncL a anpe
npoc1mx kaHennmx c1on6oa. anapnoeaponeckne Henrnpm - nopo cnerka
o61ecannme kaHennme konoccm c1on1 nnorpa opnnouno, nnorpa kyuno, nnorpa aepy1
xopoaop, o6pasyn Harnueckn kpyr-kpoHnex. pynneun ns Henrnpoa (aec 330 1) no-
6pe1onckn nasmaancn aHneH e. aH xe, a pe1ann (panunn) neckonLko 1mcnu
Henrnpoa, noc1aanennmx pnpaHn, o6pasyk1 pnnnnme kaHennme annen. Mnorne
nccnepoaa1enn 6mnn y6expenm a npopyHanno cornacoaannoc1n ppeannx naHn1nnkoa
ppyr c ppyroH, o1paxennn nHn a coaokynnoc1n nekoero saHmcna, ampaxennoro c1poro
paccun1annmH pacnonoxenneH cae1nnnu, Henrnpoa n ckonnenn kaHne.
1eu nepao6m1no apxeonornn yue pe ep1, a cepepnne npounoro aeka pokasmaan,
u1o Hnoro1onnme kaHnn pasHeuenm "uenoaekoH pnpopm" ne rpe nonano, a
coo1ae1c1aenno kakoHy-1o nnany: "D1n o1penLnme ponLHenm, pasposnennme rpypm
kaHne, pak1 naH 1onLko neynoanHme nn1n: 1kanL pasopaana, cHmcn ypesan..."
1922 r. . Yo1knnc c1an pasanaa1L HmcnL o pacnonoxennn nsmuecknx xpaHoa,
Henrnpoa, caeuennmx konopuea, kypranoa n ppyrnx coopyxenn no nnnnnH, ko1opme
on ycnoano nasmaan "poporaHn" co caoeo6pasnmHn aexaHn a anpe kaHennmx rnm6. D1n
nnnnn nanopo6ne ce1n nokpmaann o6unpnme o6nac1n, no ao nHn uero 6mnn sa1pauenm
c1onL 1n1annueckne ycnnnn? 1o6m ne sa6nypn1Lcn ny1nnky?
* * *
20-x ropax apxeonorn, nsyuaaune Herann1m aponm, anepame npnaneknn k
nccnepoaannnH nosoxopuea, n He1opaHn 6nonokaunn 6mna saqnkcnpoaana
anepre1nueckan ce1L reoak1nanmx son, pasnoHoa n 1peunn. kasanocL, u1o Herann1m
o1Heuann Mec1a nnm a 1ek1onnueckn-nanpnxennmx ysnax reoak1nano ce1n.
Menrnpm 6mnn aospanrny1m a 1oukax (Hec1ax) reoqnsnuecknx anoHann, rpe
o6napyxnaanncL 6nonokaune ckonnennn nopseHnmx aop n aopopaspenm.
ap rnran1cknHn nopseHnmHn pasnoHaHn a kope cyuec1ayk1 Harnn1nme,
rpaan1aunonnme, anek1pnueckne n ppyrne nsaec1nme n nensaec1nme o1knonennn o1
78
o6munoro, o6ycnoanennme any1penne xnsnepen1enLnoc1Lk eHnn. Ypnan1e
nLnme cnoco6noc1n nosoxopuea kak-1o cansanm c aocnpnn1neH nHn a1nx nsnyuenn -
M. XnsnL kak qenoHen nanpnHyk cansana c ppyrnH qenoHenoH -
reoHarnn1nmH noneH. nopn1Hm acero xnaoro cornacoaanm c pn1HnuecknHn
kone6annnHn anek1poHarnn1nmx none eHnn.
saec1no o cyuec1aoaannn 6nonornueckoro "koHnaca" y xnao1nmx, n1nu, pm6,
nacekoHmx; o6 nx cnoco6noc1n ouyua1L reoHarnn1noe none n 6esoun6ouno a neH
opnen1npoaa1Lcn. a ouyuennn Harnn1nmx cnnoamx nnnn uennkoH ocnoaanm
Hnoro1mcnueknnoHe1poame cesonnme nepene1m n1nu. n1m a caonx panLnnx
ny1euec1annx nanpaannk1cn no Harnn1nmH nnnnnH, o6pasoaaaunHcn a pesynL1a1e
nopanxek okeanckoro pna.
eko1opme nkpn, o6napakune oco6mHn 6noncnxnuecknHn (HepnyHnuecknHn)
cnoco6noc1nHn, uy1ko o1smaak1cn na Haneuee nsHenenne nynLcaun paxe a cna6mx
Harnn1nmx nonnx, ynaannaak1 n nanpaanenne 1aknx none. D1nH n o6Lncnne1cn,
aepnee, nponcnne1cn pap nosoxopuea-pyposna1uea naxopn1L sanexn Hnnepanoa n
nopseHnme aHec1nnnua aopm c noHouLk naoao nnn opexoao porynLkn. opnme
nopopm n rpyn1oame aopm ncnyckak1 nHnynLcnoe anek1poHarnn1noe nsnyuenne.
aonue6nan nanouka appyr oxnaae1 a pykax xesnonocn1enn, naunnae1 1pene1a1L,
apaua1Lcn, k eHne naknonn1Lcn, ykasmaan na u1o-1o. asyHee1cn, ne caHa ae1ouka
ynaannaae1 nynLc seHnmx c1nxn, a uenoaek.
o u1o 1akoe Harnn1noe uyac1ao? ako opran a uenoaeke pearnpye1 na aospec1ane
reoHarnn1noro nonn? aknH o6pasoH nosoxopeu aocnpnnnHae1 an6paunn a1oro nonn?
eonoropasaepunkn y6epn1enLno nop1aeppnnn cyuec1aoaanne 6noreoqnsnueckoro
aqqek1a, no ne cHornn pa1L eHy npneHneHoro o6Lncnennn. Mnp aokpyr nac -
nenoc1nxnHan 1ana; uenoaek nanne1cn nnuL ee uac1Lk, n no1oHy 6ecnnopnm ace
nonm1kn nsyun1L uenoaeka, a o1pmae o1 pnpopm.
Hepnkanckn yuenm . ekkep cun1ae1, u1o Harnn1nme annnnnn neo1pennHm o1
anek1pnuecknx npoueccoa any1pn xnaoro oprannsHa. Mepnko-6nonornueckne
nccnepoaannn y6epn1enLno pokasann, u1o c reoHarnn1nmHn kone6annnHn
asanHopec1aye1 cnc1eHa anek1pnuecknx no1enunanoa uenoaeka, ynpaannkuan
6no1okaHn. norpa e nasmaak1 6nonnasHo, nnorpa ncn-cy6c1anune, a okkynL1nc1m
nHenyk1 e aqnpnmH 1enoH. ac xe 6noqnsnkn, nsyuakune 6noHarne1nsH, ne a
coc1onnnn 1eope1nueckn o6ocnoaa1L ero sarapounm HexannsH. saec1no nnuL, u1o
xenunnm o6napak1 Harne1nuecknH uy1LeH a 6onLue c1enenn, ueH Hyxunnm.
ockonLky uenoaekoH Harnn1noe uyac1ao ne ocosnae1cn, 1o ono ponxno 6m1L
nopcosna1enLnmH, 1. e. o1nocn1Lcn k o6nac1n caepxuyac1aennoro aocnpnn1nn, 6ypyun
popc1aennmH ppyrnH napancnxonornuecknH nanennnH, 1aknH, kak 1enena1nn,
ncnxoHe1pnn n aoo6ue coHnaH6ynnueckoe ncnoanpenne.
cpepnne aeka xpnc1nane npnnncmaann panxenne nanoukn kosnnH ca1anm n
o1npaannn cnauana na pm6y, a no1oH na koc1ep co1nn 1mcnu necuac1nmx nyna1nuek.
1518 r. k1ep npepan anaqeHe acex "ncka1ene konopuea". 1oH xe aeke a nrnnn
npnaepxenuea "pLnaonLckoro xaoc1a" o1nyunnn o1 uepkan co aceHn am1ekakunHn
nocnepc1annHn... Hepnke onn npecnepoaanncL napaane c "aepLHaHn", a y nac po
e1pa I nx cxnrann kak "uep1osnaea".
* * *
ccnepoaannn Herann1nuecknx "popor" - nnnn npoponxnnncL nocne II Hnpoao
aonm. okasannn Harnn1oHe1poa n ppyrnx coapeHennmx npn6opoa, pernc1pnpykunx
anoHannn reoHarnn1noro n ppyrnx none, coanann c ykasannnHn, nonyuennmHn
He1opaHn 6nonokaunn. pn conoc1aanennn nynk1npnmx nnnn kaHennmx uep1exe co
79
c1poenneH seHno kopm nopaxae1 coaHeuenne nx nanpaanenn c xopaHn reoak1nanmx
1peunn n pasnoHoa. opaannkuee 6onLunnc1ao 6noak1nanmx 1ouek eHnn
coo1ae1c1aye1 Mec1aH nnm n pacnonoxeno na a1nx xnsnennmx ap1epnnx.
pxeonorn amncnnnn, u1o ace Henrnpm n kpoHnexn cansanm Hexpy co6o neanpnHmHn
cnnoamHn nnnnnHn, nopseHnmHn xnnaHn-1ynnennHn, rpe unpkynnpyk1 xnan1enLnme
Harne1nueckne 1okn. D1n nnnnn o6pasyk1 ce1L aneprokapkaca eHnn. kpynneune
Herann1nueckne coopyxennn o6osnauak1 ysnm a1o rno6anLno reo6nonornuecko
ce1n; caoeo6pasnme nepanme cnne1ennn, Hounme ouarn nsnyuennn xnan1enLnmx cnn.
aHm 6onLuo Henrnp - aHenL e okasancn uen1poH rnran1ckoro cnne1ennn;
cpepo1ouneH, uepes ko1opoe npoxopn1 8 Harnc1panLnmx nnnn.
opo6nme nnnnn nsaec1nm n a ppyrnx uac1nx cae1a. onnann nnpeum nasmaak1 nx
"1akn", 1. e. "npnHme poporn Hexpy cae1nnnuaHn". epy nnkn nasmaann nx "ny1nHn,
no ko1opmH panranncL yxn" n aospanrann 1aH caon xpaHm. k6onm1no, u1o
kononnsa1opm-ncnanum c1aannn caon co6opm na 1ex xe Hec1ax. a aennuec1aennmx
pynnax paHa onnua a ycko noc1poena uepkoaL "an1oro ockpecennn". a1onnkn,
paspyuna nenaanc1noe nH "npn6exnue pLnaona" (onn 6mnn yaepenm, u1o c1onL
orpoHnme kaHnn Hor asrpoHospn1L ppyr na ppyra 1onLko caH ca1ana), ncnonLsoaann
ero Hounoe ocnoaanne n uac1L c1en pnn coopyxennn "can1o o6n1enn".
Y npo1ocnaann 1oxe 6mnn caon "c1on6oame poporn", korpa c1on6m-Henrnpm
pacnonaranncL na opno npnHo nnnnn.
Mapnn axe, yuenan-Ha1eHa1nk, nonaeka 6nauancn nap sarapkaHn kaHennc1mx nnnn
nyc1mnn acka, opny ns nnx ace-1akn pasrapana: "c1L a nyc1mne 1ouka, rpe koHnac
cxopn1 c yHa". Mnorne HnoroknnoHe1poame nnnnn 6esoun6ouno aepy1 c kra na ceaep.
x 1ounoc1L - Henee opnoro rpapyca - cpenana 6m uec1L nk6o coapeHenno
reopesnuecko pasaepke. Mexpy 1eH koHnaca ne snann a xno Hepnke, a onnpnan
saespa 1aH ne anpna. 1o aepan 1anaHn - xpeum, aoxpn, nocaeuennme? a kepaHnke
kynL1ypm acka nepepko nso6paxanncL nkpn c o6pesannmHn nsmkaHn...
cocepne nyc1mne an-oce 1oxe nauep1anm 1annc1aennme nnnnn, snakn n pncynkn.
Hn an-oce nyc1mnn nonyunna o1 ncnancknx saaoeaa1ene. o Hec1nme xn1enn o1
caonx npepkoa ynacnepoaann ppeanee ee nasaanne - yHana. a nsmke keuya a1o
osnauae1 "Mec1o, rpe sapoxpae1cn XnsnL". a seHne nauep1anm pac1ennn, saepn,
pm6m n nso6paxenne nnopa a upeae Ha1epn.
"e 6mno n 1enn coHnennn a 1oH, u1o ace a1n pecn1nHe1poame rnran1m yc1anoanenm
no kakoHy-1o sapanee o6pyHannoHy nnany", - nnue1 p. MasLep, nsyuaaun nsaannnn
n nc1opnk "sakonpoaannoro" knouka cyun, nasaannoro kononnsa1opaHn o. acxn.
Yuenm coo6uae1 o "6euenoH apauennn c1penkn koHnaca" n o Houenmx poporax,
yxopnunx npnHo a Hope... Mnccnonep D. Dpo nekorpa npepan ornk, kak nsmueckne,
poueukn oc1poan1nn c sanncnHn caeuennmx npepann, n 1anm oc1poaa yHepnn
aHec1e c nnHn.
Merann1nueckne xpaHm o. ManL1a c1apue ernne1cknx nnpaHnp na 3-4 1mcnun ne1. ue
na oc1poae cyuec1aye1 rnran1ckan ce1L rny6oknx 6oposp, ampy6nennmx a ckannc1oH
rpyn1e. nn 1o ckpeunaak1cn, 1o cnnaak1cn a opny konek, 1o onn1L pas6erak1cn,
nepecekak1 ropm n, yxopn a Hope, 1nny1cn no pny. 1o, korpa, saueH n kaknH o6pasoH
nponoxnn a1n "poporn a nnkypa"?
pxynrnnx ka1ana co1nn rnran1cknx kaHennmx uapoa, neaec1L kak n pnn uero
am1ouennmx ns uenmx ckan, pacnonoxenm no kako-1o sarapouno cxeHe. epennum
uapoa, npo1nnyaunecn na pecn1kn knnoHe1poa, 1o o6pasyk1 orpoHnme kpyrn n
kaappa1m, 1o amc1panaak1cn a npnHme nnnnn, 1ouno opnen1npoaannme no Harnn1nmH
nonkcaH eHnn.
80
u1o osnauak1 unknonnueckne cnc1eHm rnran1cknx kaHennmx c1pen na nna1o Yc1kp1
a apakannaknn? ospannme a nesanaHn1nme apeHena c1penoanpnme nnannpoakn
nou1n nenpepmano uenLk npo1nnynncL na co1nn knnoHe1poa o1 panLckoro Hopn. ce
c1penm pnnno a neckonLko co1en He1poa kaxpan, ykasmaak1 1ouno na ceaep.
kak opnen1npoaanm kxnopycckne Hneam aanm, o6uan npo1nxennoc1L ko1opmx
camue 1000 kH? 6LeH 1n1annueckn-1pypoeHknx pa6o1 na a1nx coopyxennnx
npeaocxopn1 o6LeH pa6o1 ennko n1acko c1enm. axe ceuac amco1a aanoa
poc1nrae1 12-14 H! ac1o a1n seHnnnme nacmnn 1nny1cn napannenLno ppyr ppyry n,
cHmkancL c cocepnnHn HnoronnnennmHn cnc1eHaHn, o6pasyk1 cnoxnm, epnnm,
sarapounm koHnnekc. norpa neckonLko nnnn aanoa npy1, 1ouno npoponxancL no
o6e c1oponm pekn. ueH cornacoaano nx nanpaanenne? 1o n korpa nx noc1ponn?
akoa nx cHmcn? D1o ne o6oponn1enLnme coopyxennn: aepL ne Hornn xe saun1nnkn
pacnonara1Lcn paanoHepno na aceH nx 1mcnueknnoHe1poaoH npo1nxennn - a pacue1e
na aosHoxnoe nonanenne apara a nk6o 1ouke (ppeannn apona - ne n1a).
pxeonorn 1epnk1cn a porapkax; ne cHonkak1 cnopm, ec1L Hnoro aepcn, no cpepn nnx
ne1 nn opno any1penne nenpo1naopeunao.
ne1onncnx o Hneamx aanax nnuero ne ckasano. peanoc1L aanoa 1akoaa, u1o paxe
napopnan naHn1L ne coxpannna nnkaknx aocnoHnnann o6 nx cospannn, yxopnueH
caonHn kopnnHn a npanc1opnueckne neppa anoxn Herann1oa. oueHy, co6c1aenno,
aanm nsppeane soay1cn a napope HneamHn? pnnc1aennan nerenpa o kysneue-
6ora1mpe, o6yspaaueH nk1oro Hen n sac1aanaueH ero nponaxa1L uypoanunme
6opospm - nano nospnnn: Ho1na sHee6opuec1aa a cnaanno-pycckoH nsmuec1ae
o1cy1c1aoaan. aH He-uyp onnue1aopnn xnan1enLnyk aopnyk c1nxnk n
cansmaancn c kynL1oH nnopopopnn n 1anmHn xencknHn o6pnpaHn. asaanne
"Hneam", oueanpno, aocxopn1 k 1eH apeHenaH, korpa He eue ne 6mn
pLnaonnsnpoaan xpnc1nanaHn.
Merann1m an. aponm unpoko nsaec1nm, no Hano k1o snae1 o caeuennmx kaHnnx
ppeannx cnaann na 6epery annm (onoukne kaHnn). pnn ns a1nx rpoHapnmx
rpann1nmx aanynoa o6pasyk1 ponLHenm n kpoHnexn, nasnauenne ppyrnx nenonn1no.
oaopn1, u1o kaHnn 6esHonanm. e1, onn npoc1o Honuannam. 1 nnx aee1 ppeane
1opxec1aennoc1Lk n amcoko neuanLk. nn saHepnn, cnoano sakonpoaannme snmHn
aoporaHn, n oxnpak1 caoero ns6aan1enn...
Merann1m na o. kren, a oHepannn (oHopLe), Meknen6ypre, nL1Hapke n 1. p.
aospanrny1m npacnaannaHn, nekorpa sacennaunHn a1n seHnn. apaHsnn nnue1 o6
a1nx cae1nnnuax: "peanne cnaanne a epHannn... yno1pe6nnnn... kaHnn a neckonLko
caxene Hepok. nn kaHennme spannn paannnncL c amcoknHn ckanaHn... n Hornn
kasa1Lcn napopy 1aopenneH pyk 6oxec1aennmx. caHoH pene, 1pypno nonn1L, kaknH
o6pasoH cnaanne, ne snan nso6pe1ennmx Hexannkok cnoco6oa, aospanrann 1akne
rpoHapm".
a 6epery ncnm pacnonoxen Herann1nueckn sanoaepnnk aHennme pyrn. Mec1o a1o
6ykaanLno nponn1ano kaknH-1o pnknH, neuenoaeuecknH ouapoaanneH. peHn kak
6yp1o oc1anoannocL specL. enn npounoro an1ak1 aokpyr. pecL 6espaspenLno
anac1ayk1 yxn, onnpancL na caonx npnuypnnamx kaHennmx nn1oHuea. ypn no
onncannnH oueanpuea, uenoaek uyac1aye1 nopcosna1enLno, u1o conpnkacae1cn 1y1 c
kako-1o neaepoHo, 1peaoxno , nexaue sa npepenaHn ero nmneunnx
aocnpnn1n. c specL nponnkny1o aennuneH: paxe sapncoakn n qo1ocnnHkn
nacmuenm kaknH-1o rnnno1nuecknH o6annneH. onn1no, noueHy cennne acerpa
o1kasmaanncL pacnaxnaa1L a1n seHnn. pecL naxopn1cn 28 kypranoa, 6onee 500
rpo6nnu n 10 kpyroa pnaHe1poH po 30 He1poa ns orpoHnmx kaHne. uen1pe kpyra
o6muno aosamuae1cn caHan 6onLuan rnm6a. eko1opme kaHnn pacc1aanenm 1ak, u1o
o6pasyk1 nnnnn, ykasmaakune na 1ouky aocxopa onnua a pnn ne1nero
connuec1onnnn. u1o o6osnauae1 pacnonoxenne o1penLno c1onunx Henrnpoa?
81
ny1pn kaHennmx kpyroa a onnpa1e (nrnnn) npn6opm sapernc1pnpoaann kone6annn
nanpnxennoc1n reoHarnn1noro nonn. mna saqnkcnpoaana cy1ounan n uacoaan
pn1Hnka Harnn1noro nynLca eHnn. ueanpno, u1o kaHnn ouepunaann okpyxnoc1L, rpe
nponanne1cn oco6an xnsnepen1enLnoc1L nnane1m. a eHne cyuec1ayk1, co6c1aenno
ak1nanme o6nac1n, cxopnme c ak1nanmHn o6nac1nHn na onnue (onnue 1oxe
o6napae1 HounmH Harnn1nmH noneH). e specL nn pasrapka 1annc1aennmx kpyroa
6esykopnsnenno-npaannLno qopHm, nonannkunxcn nepnopnueckn no nouaH na nonnx
n nyrax nrnnn n ppyrnx c1pan? ac1n1enLnoc1L, 6onee ryc1an n npkan, ueH na aceH
none, ncno o6pncoamaae1 nx, u1o xopouo anpno c caHone1a.
Merann1m saneua1nenn reoak1nanyk ce1L - aneunee nponanenne nespnHoro cnnoaoro
nonn eHnn. x ycnoano Hoxno nasaa1L "1oukn nopnn1kn": 1oukn axopa aneunnx
anepre1nuecknx no1okoa a reo6nocnc1eHy n 1oukn amxopa ns6m1ouno aneprnn, nnn
no-pycckn - M .
* * *
akne sanoaepnme Hec1a - xonHm, popnnkn, py6paam, poun - ncnokon aeka
noun1anncL, kak Hec1a sapyueanoro cnnnnnn uenoaeka c Ha1epnncknHn c1nxnnHn
eHnn. aH, kak nnrpe nyuue, o6pe1ae1 uenoaeueckoe ceppue yHnpo1aopenne, 1aH
nerko pmun1cn n o1papa nanonnne1 ace naue cyuec1ao. aH oco6o naxyun 1paam n
uene6nm aopm, n nHenno 1aH uepnann aonxam caoe apoxnoaenne.
ou1n ace ac1peun c MM (1. n. , non1eprec1 n 1.n.) 1ak nnn nnaue,
okasmaak1cn cansannmHn c MM . "axpoe Mec1o nHee1 caoero ennn", -
roaopnnn pnHnnne. enn a nckonnoH cHmcne osnauan yxa-okpoan1enn.
pyxo1aopennme Hec1a - Hec1a, nk6nHme yxaHn-c1apoxnnaHn, rpe nac1aenno
ouyuae1cn nx po6poxena1enLnoe npncy1c1ane, - a1o n ec1L Hec1a, rpe nan6onee
nponannk1cn 6naropa1nme cnnm eHnn. akne Hec1a, caHo pnpopo
npepnasnauennme pnn o6pnpoa-nrpnu-npaspnec1a, nsppeane cnmnn M.
Henno a 1aknx Hec1ax yc1panaann cnaanne poponneHennme kannua-xopoHm c
HoryunH c1onnoH nocpepnne nnn nacmnann oropoxennme orpoHnmHn aanynaHn
pacnme ropm-kypranm, 1oxpec1aennme no cokpoaennoHy caoeHy nasnauennk
sanapnmH Herann1aH.
Henno 1akne, nan6onee u1nHme Hec1a, npexpe acero nopaepranncL
oxpnc1nannsnpoaannk no cuenapnnH "nanennn uypo1aopnmx o6pasoa" c nocnepykunH
c1pon1enLc1aoH uepkae na nenennuax nsmuecknx cae1nnnu.
onna, u1o o1aapn1L napop o1 1aknx Hec1 ne ypac1cn, nonm noc1apanncL ncnonLsoaa1L
a1o npn1nxenne a caonx uennx. akoaa, nanpnHep, nc1opnn aosnnknoaennn
snaHenn1oro ennkopeukoro kpec1noro xopa, xypoxec1aenno o6pa6o1annan
nponnknoaennmH an1cknH nnca1eneH-kpaeaepoH . . onoHapeamH a "kase o peke
ennko".
saec1nm a1norpaq . . apysnn nncan a 1889 r., u1o aosaepenne uepkae, n
uacoaen na nopo6nmx Hec1ax 6mno o6munmH penoH. n, a uac1noc1n, ykasmaae1 na
ropopnue an1nue nop Mockao a ynueae, "nasmaaeHoe o6mknoaenno npoknn1mH
Hec1oH". anee on nnue1: "kpec1nme xn1enn, kak nsaec1no, n 1enepL eue nn1ak1 k
a1oHy Hec1y cyeaepnoe yaaxenne, n 6pocanne a peky aenkoa a ceHnk nponsaopn1cn
nHenno npo1na ropopnua, xo1n HnornH pepeannH npnxopn1cn pnn a1oro np1n
neckonLko aepc1. a a1oH Hec1e c1onna nekorpa uepkoaL, ynpaspnennan, no caepennnH
. . a6ennna, a XVII aeke".
82
Ypnan1enLnyk aeuL o6napyxnnn a 1986 r. npocnaackne pec1aapa1opm na napapnoH
kpmnLue 6onee ueH 300-ne1ne uepkan nkonm Mokporo. kasanocL, u1o non 1aH
coc1on1 ne ns nnn1, kak cun1anocL panee, a npepc1aanne1 co6o rnapkn rpann1nm
aanyn no1pncakunx pasHepoa: 4 H na 3,5 H n 1onunno 6onee payx He1poa.
opo6noro nnrpe n nnkorpa ne ac1peuanocL. pxn1ek1opm cun1ak1, u1o c1onL
rpoHapnm aec ne Hornn nopnn1L na kpmnLuo nocne aosaepennn uepkan. apL-aHenL
nexan na a1oH Hec1e nsppeane, 6ypyun, oueanpno, kynL1oamH, n sopune ncnonLsoaann
a1o1 "pap pnpopm" a kauec1ae aaxno ocnoam acero coopyxennn.
o1epnea nopaxenne a o1kpm1o 6opL6e c 1mcnuene1nnHn napopnmHn aepoaannnHn,
xpnc1nane nonm1anncL nepexaa1n1L xnao1aopnme no1okn n nanpaan1L nx a caoe
pycno. ouaeacko naape 6oroHonLum npnknapmaak1cn k aanyny co "c1ono
6oropopnum", necoHnenno, eue nsmuecko cae1mnn. 6nnsn npnnno-enosepckoro
Honac1mpn a uacoane nexn1 ppyro kaHenL; Honaxn ycHo1penn na neH cnep "ca.
npnnna". aaonxckoe osepo ae1nonp 6mno Hec1oH noknonennn nsmunnkoa po 1oro,
kak nx o11ypa nsrnann c1apoo6pnpum.
eu1o nopo6noe nponcxopnno n a an. apone. saec1nm cpepneaekoame uepkoanme
nocnannn, sanpeuaaune nanoHnnuec1ao k ppeannH kaHennmH coopyxennnH. o n 1y1
uepkoaL okasanacL 6eccnnLno. orpa nauanacL xpnc1nannsaunn Herann1oa. a nnx
yc1anoannn pacnn1nn, a nap neko1opmHn ponLHenaHn aosaenn uacoann.
o xe na6nkpanocL n a akaakasLe. y1 y Henrnpoa 6mnn cae1nnnua, specL xe
coaepuanncL xep1aonpnnouennn ne1yxoa n 6apanoa. epkoannkn ysakonnnn ace a1n
o6pnpm, a nap HenrnpaHn c1ann c1aan1L uacoann n qannnueckne c1onnm-konokonLnn.
ycckne kasakn, 150 ne1 nasap sacennaune pnky6anLe, noc1onnno ac1peuann
coaepuenno uenme ponLHenm. Mec1nme xn1enn eue cHy1no noHnnnn o
nponcxopnaunx specL caeuennopec1aax, a koe-rpe paxe npoponxann amnonnn1L
o6pnpm. pmreum 6mnn y6expenm, u1o noapexpenne ponLHenoa, napyuenne nx
nokon noaneue1 sa co6o Hop n nary6y.
yac1ao nou1ennn no o1nouennk k Herann1aH cyuec1aye1 noackpy, rpe ec1L a1n
naHn1nnkn. naroroaenoe uyac1ao a1o a 1euenne Hnornx pecn1koa c1one1n
nepepaaanocL o1 nokonennn k nokonennk n paxe k uyxpmH no kpoan nneHenaH.
onLko 6naropapn noun1annk Hec1noro nacenennn poxnnn po naunx pne kaHennme
6a6m n6npn. oxpannnncL o6eperaeHme napopnmH noknonenneH Herann1m nrnnn,
pe1ann, op1yrannn.
o 1parnuna yuac1L ky6ancknx ponLHenoa. nn c1ep1m c nnua eHnn. auann nx
paspyua1L kasakn, naycLknaaeHme npaaocnaanmH "pyxoaenc1aoH". 1o, u1o ne ycnenn
ynnu1oxn1L kasakn, 1o pokonann 1pak1opnc1m-koHcoHonLum, aocnn1annme a porHax
aynLrapnoro a1ensHa. 1885 r. na ora1mpcko nonnne c1onno 360 ponLHenoa, a 1928
r. - 20, a ceropnn ne1 nn opnoro.
* * *
nrnnnc1nueckan "nayka", kak n xpnc1nanckan 1anHypnc1nka, nonarae1, u1o "nexnaan"
eHnn ne Hoxe1 nHe1L nn ouyuenn, nn pasyHa, nn cosnannn, 1. k. y nee ne1
uen1panLno nepano cnc1eHm. asyH npepnonarae1 nannune Hosra, a
uyac1an1enLnoc1L - nannune nepaoa. nuero nopo6noro, a uenoaeueckoH nonnHannn, y
eHnn, kak 6yp1o, ne1.
o u1o ns 1oro, u1o Hm ne anpnH y eHnn nnkaknx opranoa, nannkunxcn o6mknoaenno
aHec1nnnueH pasyHa, aonn n cosnannn? epL cosnanne a1o Hoxe1 6m1L coaceH
ppyroro, nenpnamunoro anpa. "kpnnka n qop1enLnno nspak1 sayk, no1oHy u1o y nnx
ec1L c1pynm. nepye1 nn o1ckpa, u1o 1onLko c1pynm Hory1 nspaaa1L sayk?! kak xe
83
qne1m, oprannme 1py6m? oneuno, nx sayk nHee1 nnme kauec1aa, n 1ak xe
cosnanne... Hoxe1 nHe1L 1akne kauec1aa, ko1opme ncknkun1enLno cornacoaanm c
npncyunH nH 1nnoH oprannsHa", - nncan aennkn repHanckn Hmcnn1enL, ocnoaa1enL
ncnxoqnsnkn eopop exnep.
eHnn ne nanne1cn "nnunoc1Lk" a uenoaeueckoH nonnHannn a1oro cnoaa. nane1a
o6napae1 caHocosnanneH, no ee cosnanne caepxnnunoc1noe, aepnee - anennunoc1noe.
no ec1L coaokynnoc1L 6ecuncnennoro Hnoxec1aa nnunmx cosnann, aonnouennmx a
o6nnuLnx xnamx cyuec1a, ko1opme nannk1cn nnuL o1penLnmHn kne1oukaHn epnnoro
X M.
epxornnpnan kasennan nayka o1pnuae1 nno6m1ne, o1pnuae1 cocyuec1aykune c naHn
nnme nponanennn xnsnn n cosnannn, xo1n nnkako ncuepnmaakue qopHynm xnsnn y
nee ne1, kak ne1 n aoo6ue 1eope1nuecko 6nonornn. onee 1oro, ona ne Hoxe1 ue1ko n
opnosnauno o1ae1n1L na, kasanocL 6m, ropaspo 6onee npoc1o aonpoc: no kakoHy
npnsnaky npoaec1n rpannuy Hexpy xnamH n nexnamH - "neoprannuecknH"?
ep1nkanLnmx rpannu y Xnsnn, kak 1akoao, ne cyuec1aye1; xnsnL a 1oH nnn nnoH
caoeo6pasnn npncy1c1aye1 na acex ypoannx, noackpy; npn1cn a cHepue, 1an1cn a
rnnne, aonnye1cn a aonne. Dp. ap1Han ponyckan nannune ouyuenn ne 1onLko y
pac1enn n Hnnepanoa, no paxe y a1oHoa. k6oe nopoxpenne - xnaoe: pepeao,
ckana, papyra, aoponap, aLkra, Honnnn... ceH nanennnH pnpopm npncyua
any1pennnn opyueanennoc1L. ne1 nn opnoro nanennn a pnpope, ko1opoe ne
conpoaoxpanocL 6m anek1poHarnn1nmHn kone6annnHn.
o-anpnHoHy, nponanennn 6noHarnn1no n 6noanek1pnuecko ak1nanoc1n nannk1cn
neo1LeHneHmH caoc1aoH nepano cnc1eHm. oaeune nccnepoaannn
canpe1enLc1ayk1, u1o y eHnn, kak y epnnoro, xnaoro, uenoro prannsHa nHee1cn
amcokopasan1an cnc1eHa, perynnpykuan pen1enLnoc1L o1penLnmx opranoa. eHnn
nHee1 cao co6c1aennm rno6anLnm opran Hmunennn a anpe nenoc1nxnHoro pnn nac
n pacnonoxennoro a nppe seHnoro uapa cynepHosra. yuec1aye1 paxe nk6onm1nan
rnno1esa, no ko1opo nppo eHnn nHee1 qopHy n caoc1aa X ,
okasmaakuero caonH 6nononeH aospec1ane na caHme pasnoo6pasnme npoueccm,
nponcxopnune kak a neppax, 1ak n na noaepxnoc1n.
XnsnL oco6o 6yno npouae1ae1 na 1ex yuac1kax seHno noaepxnoc1n, rpe nan6onee
6naronpnn1nm anek1poHarnn1nme ycnoann ee pasan1nn, 1. e. a Mec1ax nnm.
* * *
axyuancn npo1naononoxnoc1L Y n cyuec1aye1 1onLko a
npepc1aanennnx npnHn1nanmx Ha1epnannc1oa pa npnxoxan npoqannpoaannmx
Hono1enc1nuecknx pennrn. noao nmnue yno1pe6nne1cn nn6o kak neu1o
o1aneuennoe, nn6o kak "okpyxakuan cpepa". kpyxakuan, pasyHee1cn, "nepn
1aopennn" - uenoaeka. Moxno ponro n yHno roaopn1L o pnpope, no nosnaaa1L
aosHoxno, 1onLko couyac1aenno cnnaancL c e.
aun pauypm ouyuann ace uac1n pnpopm oco6o opyueanennmHn, nacennn (o1ckpa
- cenennan) ace uapc1aa n kaxpyk c1nxnk 1annc1aennmHn pyxoanmHn
cyunoc1nHn. Mnp 6mn xnamH 1enoH tM MY.
onn1ne o aceo6ue opyueanennoc1n pnpopm ne 6mno npno6pe1eno yuenneH, a
npncyue enoaeky o1 popy. nn nero, anpeauero Hnp a cae1e nenckaxennmx
nepao6m1nmx aneua1nenn, cyuec1aoaanne nesaancnHmx o1 uenoaeueckoro pasyHa n
uyac1a yxoa 6mno oueanpnmH. enoaek xnn 1orpa a ec1ec1aenno, 6m1nno cansn c
a1nHn nnaHn.
84
pnc1nane, pesaaune no xnaoHy, nonm1anncL paspenn1L ac na no1yc1oponnero
eroay-1aopua n na nockc1oponnkk pnpopy - "1aapL", a Hexpy nnHn - nponac1L.
ak anyuanacL necoaHec1nHoc1L yxa n pnpopm: 1oro, k1o "ecn na ne6ecn", n
uyxpo eHy, "kocno", "neopyueanenno" seHno kponn. c1okn neuec1naoro
o1nouennn k eHne - a 6n6necko pok1pnne o co1aopennn cenenno nypecknH
6oxkoH.
ockonLky eHnn ec1L nko6m neu1o a1opnunoe, ne nHekuee caHo6m1no uennoc1n, 1o
ona 6ecnpaana kak nepep "6oroH", 1ak n nepep uenoaekoH, co1aopennmH "no o6pasy n
nopo6nk" n npnsaannmH anapmuec1aoaa1L nap ne. akoe npnpoponenaanc1nnuec1ao
popc1aenno ae1xosaae1noHy uenoaekonenaanc1nnuec1ay, cornacno ko1opoHy nop
uenoaeuec1aoH a nonnoH cHmcne cnoaa nonnHae1cn 1onLko "6orons6pannm" -
o6pesannm napop. Mnp co1aopen eroao ncknkun1enLno pnn nero, a ppyrne napopm
acero nnuL "paynorn cko1", cospannm pnn 1oro, u1o6m cnyxn1L nypenH pa6aHn.
no1oHy npnsaanne nypeea saknkuae1cn a nc1pe6nennn n saka6anennn acex
nnonneHennnkoa.
nockan paunonannc1nueckan nayka nece1 na ce6e xpnc1nanckoe kneHo rny6ouaue
paspaoennoc1n - pacuennennn: npeanLnoe - Ha1epnanLnoe, pyua - 1eno, aepa -
pasyH, 6m1ne - cosnanne, ponr - coaec1L, unannnsaunn - pnkoc1L, xnaoe - nexnaoe,
uenoaek - pnpopa. D1a nayka noc1ponna nekyk 6espyunyk, 6eccHmcnennyk,
nnuennyk caHouennoc1n HopenL eHnn, neu1o cpepnee Hexpy 1pak1a1oH no qnsnke n
pykoaopc1aoH pnn na1onoroana1oHoa. naanan uenL 1ako naykn - cnyxankn
6orocnoann - pasaenua1L pnpopy, nsrna1L ns pnpopm yxoa, a ns pyun
uenoaeuecko - acnkoe aocnoHnnanne o xnaoH o6uennn c nHn.
Yuennn epopoaa n epnapckoro, k npnHepy, ec1L ne u1o nnoe, kak o6opo1nan c1opona
xpnc1nanckoro Hono1ensHa: npepenLno ampaxennm an1ponouen1pnsH,
npoaosrnauakun uenoaeka xosnnnoH eHnn n apyuakun eHy 6ecnpepenLnyk
anac1L pnn o6yspannn "pnko" pnpopm. epnapckn aoo6ue upesamuano cysnn
nonnHanne Xnsnn kak nanennn. acnkoe orpannuenne nonn1nn X pae1
aosHoxnoc1L nsrna1L ns ee npepenoa "nexn1L", 1. e. opyueanennme neuenoaeueckne
cyuec1aa, npnnapnexaune k nnmH anpaH Xnsnn, ueH naua. npoueH, ao apeHena
epnapckoro yuenme eue ne nopounn k nonnHannk, u1o XnsnL Hoxe1 cyuec1aoaa1L
ne 1onLko a qopHe 6enkoao-nyknennoaoro cy6c1pa1a, no n a noneamx qopHax, n a1n
qopHm Hory1 asanHopec1aoaa1L Hexpy co6o...
* * *
1o 1akoe yx Mnnepanoa? D1o 1o1 xe epnnm yx eHnn, nponannkun ce6n 1akxe n
a uapc1ae Hnnepanoa. kaHne, kak pxnnn a kyaunne, saknkueno ckpm1oe nauano
Xnsnn. Moryuec1aenneune nnm opyueanenno eHnn nsppeane onnue1aopnnncL a
ckasounmx nopseHnmx cyuec1aax - rnoHax. pepannn acex napopoa xpann1 rnyxne
ynoHnnannn o nneHenax kapnnkoa, o6napaaunx Hyppoc1Lk n uypoanuno cnno,
ko1opyk onn uepnann a 1ene nnane1m-Ma1epn. nn npekpacno nso6paxenm na kap1nne
repHanckoro poHan1nueckoro xnaonncua Mopnca qon Lannpa "muapL
anLkenu1en".
noao M, sanHc1aoaannoe ns neHeukoro nsmka, rpe ono osnauae1 yxa eHnn,
aocxopn1 k rpeueckoHy "rnoHon" - snakun. nakun u1o? ueanpno, 1anm eHnn.
aun c1apopaanne snaxapkn-senennum, npexpe ueH copaa1L a nonnonynne uene6nyk
1paay, knann ne noncno, a M noknon n saknnnann: yxn neanme n yxn
ounme! yxn Moryune - eHnnnme n m - eHnn, aceH naH Ma1L! osaonL aon 1paam
asn1L: ne papn xn1poc1n, ne papn Hyppoc1n, a na po6poe peno...
noHm, kapnnkn - nopaexckne anLqapm, pa1ckne anLam, anrnocakconckne anLqm pann
nHena peke DnL6e n ropaH nLnaH. ckanpnnaacknx carax n neHeuknx nerenpax onn
85
amc1ynak1 kak uenm napopeu - n6enynrn - xpann1enn nopseHnmx cokpoanu.
ponnn n ko6onLpm npno6penn sno6nme uep1m 1onLko nocne 1oro, kak 6mnn
peHonnsnpoaanm xpnc1nanc1aoH. ecnn o1penn1L ppeaneune nsmueckne nnac1m o1
nospneunx xpnc1nancknx nacnoenn, 1o npepaopn1enL rnoHoa n - ne k1o nno,
kak aonnouenne x1onnuecko, nepaopopno, uepnoseHno c1nxnn. Monn1am cnacann
ceHnnapnc1a oHy, y6nauero "aepLHy", nnuL po 1ex nop, noka ne nonanncn
ncnoanpnun n - "npnseHnc1m, pkxn, koconanm uenoaek, aecL a uepno
seHne... kak xnnnc1me, kpenkne kopnn, ampanranncL ero sacmnannme seHne norn n
pykn". oronL, npekpacno snaaun Hanopoccnckoe yc1noe napopnoe 1aopuec1ao,
y1aepxpan, u1o o6pas nn nH ne amHmunen, a npnnapnexn1 ppeaneunH napopnmH
npepannnH.
6pas a1o1, kak n o6pas a6m-rn, aocxopn1 k kaHennoHy aeky nepao6m1nmx
oxo1nnkoa, aeky uaHanoa n Herann1oa; aeky, korpa enoaek noxopn, 6yp1o a
nyna1nueckoH sa6m1Le, 1aopnn 1o, u1o ero no1oHkn c1ann nasmaa1L uypecaHn.
pasan1neH cko1oaopc1aa n seHnepennn a1o1 o6pas no1ycknen, nonnnnn, a c
y1aepxpenneH xpnc1nanc1aa nnm eHnn 6ecnoaopo1no c1ann "neunc1o cnno"; aepL
ac 1o, u1o ne o1 "6ora", 1o - o1 "pLnaona".
kenL1ckoH anoce cnaannckoHy nk coo1ae1c1aye1 naen, ko1opm ns-sa pnnnnmx n
1nxenmx aek, onyuennmx po caHo eHnn, ne Hor anpe1L, noka nx eHy ne nopnnHann.
ckasax n no6maanLunnax aHennoro nonca-Ypana osnka Mepno ropm co caonHn
noppyunmHn sHekaHn n nuypkaHn o6eperae1 caHopopnme cokpoanua eHnn o1
snoceppeunmx ncka1ene naxnam.
na - noaenn1enLnnua c1nxnnmx nopseHnmx pyxoa. Ypoxenum rop nn6o nannueckn
6on1cn ee, nn6o napennk1 caeuennmH opeonoH. 6pasm osnkn, opnoro a1kukn,
rneanum nHek1 uep1m napopnmx sac1ynnnkoa o1 nponsaona 6ora1eea-saaopunkoa.
opnme yxn - aparn uepkoanmx o6pnpoa; onn naronnk1 xy1L na nonoa n Honaxoa,
eaka-soaka, anapmunua necHe1nmx knapoa, ne nopnyckae1 nonoa k soa-rope,
o6pauae1 a 6erc1ao yuac1nnkoa kpec1noro xopa.
ckasax kpacno nn1Lk npoxopn1 HmcnL o 6eccnnnn xpnc1nan nopunnn1L ce6e
pnpopy, nockonLky apaxpe6nme uepkoannkaH osneaa op onnue1aopnk1 HouL,
kpaco1y n 6ora1c1ao seHnmx nepp, eaka-soaka n opnm 1apeu acerpa na c1opone
o6esponennmx, na c1opone aonLnmx nkpe - 6naropopnmx pas6onnkoa, na c1opone
repon-opnnoukn, nuyuero Y-, a ne sono1o. a 6eckopmc1ne
onn napennk1 ero papoH anpe1L "ny1po eHnn", yrapmaa1L xnnm 6naropopnmx
Hnnepanoa n caHouae1oa (nencnoaepnHmHn ny1nHn cansanm pyueanme nopmam
uenoaeka c nnaHn, pec1aykunHn a Mnpospannn). pnHeua1enLno, u1o a osnky
aepnnn ace: n ropnnkn, n 6ape-saaopunkn, n caH eHnpoa, n paxe sane1nme "6nun".
ne npoc1o aepnnn, a 6mnn 1aeppo n nenokone6nHo y6expenm.
Xy1koaa1m o6pas xaHo a naHanc1ckoH nan1eone aocxopn1 k apeHenaH
Ha1pnapxanLnoro uaHannsHa n coaHeuae1 a ce6e uep1m Ma1epn-papopn1enLnnum n
osnkn opm.
o cnx nop 6m1yk1 aocxn1n1enLnme npepannn o npekpacno 1pane euno noc1n a
xonHax pn1annn, pnanpnn, Lo1nanpnn. pna ns c1apnnnmx 6annap noaec1aye1, kak
npocnaanennm uo1nanpckn 6app oHac epHon1 (npepok nauero epHon1oaa)
npo6mn 1aH neckonLko pne, a korpa aepnyncn nasap, 1o k caoeHy nsyHnennk ysnan,
u1o na eHne npouno yxe Hnoro-Hnoro ne1. 1o pnano c1pane aopn1 aecenme
xopoaopm kapnnkn-cnpm, yuepune nop seHnk a nesanaHn1nme apeHena. H aepoHo
aonue6c1ao, no onn ckpmaak1cn o1 nk6onm1nmx rnas n nenaanc1noro nH saona
uepkoanmx konokonoa. 1onLko ouenL po6pme nkpn Hory1 nnorpa anpe1L cnpoa n
o6ua1Lcn c nnHn...
86
ppeanecnaanncknx aonue6nmx ckaskax rnoHaH n anLqaH nopo6nm Myxnuok-c-
oro1ok, a1nropouek, ManLunk-c-nanLunk. Y uexoa n cnoaakoa ec1L eue epkHann
(o1 neH. eprHan - ropnm uenoaek), y nonnkoa - kap6nnk.
noHm, po6pme qen - "pkHoaoukn", cnpm n anLqm - nopoxpennn ppeanekaHennoro
aeka. H apepno n o1apa1no xeneso; paxe ero nnsr ckoamaae1 nx aonue6nyk cnny.
oo6ue xe caHn rnoHm-cnnaun, o6napakune nenHoaepno qnsnuecko n - unpe -
xnsnenno nno. na xe okasmaae1cn n cnno M - M.
* * *
erenpm o rnoHax-c1pon1ennx Herann1oa 1oxpec1aennm y ouenL Hnornx napopoa. ao
acex nerenpax o sarapounmx kapnnkax onn, 1ak nnn nnaue, npnuac1nm k aospanxennk
a1nx naHn1nnkoa.
a aaanx rnoHm nasmaak1cn Henexyne. a oc1poaax coxpannnocL okono 30
unknonnuecknx coopyxenn ns uenmx kaHennmx y1ecoa, ko1opme Hec1nme xn1enn
cun1ak1 1aopenneH Henexyne.
pecL ec1L rnran1ckne kaHennme nsaannnn, aennuec1aennme xpaHm n rpanpnosnme
nppnraunonnme coopyxennn, nepep ko1opmHn Hepkne1 cnaaa snaHenn1mx a1pyccknx
akaepykoa. eko1opme cun1ak1 Henexyne paco kapnnkoa - ppeaneunH,
poraaacknH nacenenneH oc1poaoa. ue nx nasmaak1 "nkpLHn noun", 1. k. onn,
ns6eran nkpe, 1pypn1cn 1onLko no nouaH.
pncy1c1ane Henexyne ouyuae1cn na aaanx noackpy n ceuac (n peno aoace ne a
npnaneuennn 1ypnc1oa n ne a uoknpykunx na6eppennmx noanskax "a nn Henexyne").
ec1ane npepann nponcxopn1 sauac1yk a naun pnn: xn1enn yaepenm a
cyuec1aoaannn Henexyne 1ak xe, kak a cyuec1aoaannn ne1yunx Hmue, aepyunx
nouno o6pas xnsnn. axe 1o, u1o Hm nasmaaeH npnpopnmHn nanennnHn, cansmaae1cn
c pen1enLnoc1Lk Henexyne. ecHo1pn na nx poc1, uy1kn c nnHn nnoxn. openac1me
kpoxo1nme uenoaeukn o6napak1 nepkxnnno cnnnue n nrpakun aosaopn1 nk6me
noc1pokn sa opny nouL, okanunaan pa6o1y po aocxopa onnua (a pyccknx aonue6nmx
ckaskax uypecnme noHounnkn 1oxe c1pon1 paopum sa opny nouL). erenpm o
1annc1aennmx nnrHenx nsaec1nm n na ppyrnx oc1poaax onnnesnn, Mnkponesnn,
keannn, a 1akxe a ac1pannn, - aespe, rpe ec1L Herann1m. Y aqpnkancknx poronoa
1oxe ec1L ponLHenm n nerenpm o kapnnkax-ne6anax, nx c1pon1ennx, a 1ounoc1n
nanoHnnakune npepannn nonnnesnuea.
1akoH xe ppeaneueH nneHenn kapnnkoa, c1ponaunx caon coopyxennn no nouaH,
coo6uak1 nerenpm nnpeuea en1p. Hepnkn. Y Han 6m1oaann pacckasm o kapnnkax
- kopennoH nacenennn c1panm; cun1anocL, u1o onn pa6o1ann a 1eHno1e.
npnn npepannn noaec1ayk1, u1o ponLHenm, coopyxennme kapnnkaHn, cnyxnnn nH
xnnnueH. pe1ann ponLHenm, aospac1 ko1opmx 6onee 6000 ne1, nasmaak1cn poHaHn
HanenLkoro napopa - 1oppnranoa. onLHenm 6xasnn, ko1opme kasakn nposaann
6ora1mpcknHn HornnaHn, uepkecm cun1ak1 coopyxennnHn kapnnkoa-auanoa.
pmreum nasmaak1 ponLHenm "cmpnyn", 1. e. poHa kapnnkoa. Y oce1nn coxpannnncL
ckasannn o napope kapnnkoa-6nuen1a, cnoco6nmx opnnH asrnnpoH aopoua1L orpoHnme
kaHnn.
a asropLnx Maparackapa ace yaepenm a cyuec1aoaannn nnrHeea-aasnH6a, xnayunx
a6nnsn neuep n aoponapoa n o6napakunx 1eHn xe 1annc1aennmHn caoc1aaHn, u1o n
eaponeckne rnoHm. cnn uenoaek sa6oneaae1, 1o roaopn1: "osHoxno, on nnknyn na
Hornny aasnH6a"; sa 1akoame npnnnHak1cn amnoxennme kaHneH kpyrn, Henrnpm n
kaHennme xonHm.
87
erenpm o rnoHax-1ponnnx nsaec1nm n y acex napopoa ea. aponm. Laeunn,
opaernn, nnnnnpnn n na onLckoH nonyoc1poae nH npnnncmaanocL coopyxenne
sarapounmx kaHennmx cnnpane-na6npnn1oa.
Lo1nanpnn Herann1m cun1ak1cn nponsaepennnHn kapnnkoa-nnk1oa. H xe
npnnapnexn1 cnaaa aospanxennn 1oynxenpxa n ppyrnx Herann1oa pn1annn.
"HanenLkoH napopue" 1aH 1oxe roaopnnn, u1o on pa6o1an 1onLko no nouaH.
ospneune nokonennn npoc1o ne Hornn aoo6pasn1L, u1o c1onL konoccanLnme rnm6m
Hoxno 6mno nopnnHa1L 6es noHoun caepxLec1ec1aennmx cnn.
oHouL n anpnHL 6mna, no 1onLko caHan u1o nn na ec1L ec1ec1aennan: noHorana-
paaana cnny - M M. pecL, kak acerpa, caHoe oueanpnoe o6opaunaae1cn
caHmH neaepon1nmH, n nao6opo1. o, u1o 6mno ec1ec1aennmH pnn pe1e pnpopm -
"pnkape", c1ano uypoH pnn nx nocnepmue, y1pa1naunx pap o6uennn co caoe
Ma1epLk - X M.
* * *
XnsnL uenoaeka nepenne1ena c xnsnLk asnenenaunx ero eHnn n onnua Hnoxec1aoH
nespnHmx, no anac1n1enLnmx canse n saancnHoc1e. enpn opo saHe1nn, u1o "nkpn
uac1o 6nnxe k cyuec1aenno nc1nne a caonx cyeaepnnx, ueH a caoe nayke". uenL
aepno, n6o 1. n. cyeaepnn - ne u1o nnoe, kak ockonkn ppeane nsmuecko Hyppoc1n.
opseHnme pyxn-rnoHm - ne k1o nnme, kak onnue1aopennn ac 1ex xe aonue6nmx cnn
opyxo1aopenno eHnn.
oaepLn o rnoHax - o1nkpL ne sa6aanme 6acnn. nyuano nn nopasn1enLnoe
epnnopyune acex Hnqoa, nerenp n npepann, coanapakunx paxe a noppo6noc1nx?
axpoe o1penLnoe npepanne Hoxno nocun1a1L nnopoH qan1asnn, no ace aHec1e onn
qan1asne 6m1L ne Hory1! e Hory1 napopm, nnkorpa n nnkak ne cansannme Hexpy
co6o nn ao apeHenn, nn a npoc1panc1ae, ne croaapnaancL, onncmaa1L nesaancnHo
ppyr o1 ppyra, o6pas no cy1n opnnx n 1ex xe neuenoaeuecknx cyuec1a. ueanpno, u1o
npnunna c1onL opnoo6pasnmx, aceo6unx n xnayunx npepc1aanenn o6Lek1nana n
ocnoaana na peanLnmx nanennnx, nHekunx Hec1o a pnpope. cken1nkaH-acesnakaH
Hoxno o1ae1n1L cnoaaHn Lonenrayapa: "1o a nac1onuee apeHn ocnapnaae1 qak1m
xnao1noro Harne1nsHa n ero ncnoanpennn, 1oro cnepye1 nasaa1L ne neaepykunH, a
neaexec1aennmH".
esnanne nc1nnno cy1n kako-nn6o ne nanne1cn xe poc1a1ounmH ocnoaanneH
pnn o1pnuannn ee cyuec1aoaannn?! onLsyeHcn xe Hm Harnn1nmH koHnacoH,
oc1aaancL a nonneueH, neaepennn o1nocn1enLno 1oro, u1o 1akoe reoHarnn1noe none.
no un1a1enL nopyHae1: "y n 1eHno1a xe a1n coapeHennme nsmunnkn! Xnay1 a
necy, Honn1cn konecy, pa eue n ppyrnx a neaexec1ae o6nnuak1".
a, Hm - smunnkn. , kak ckasan nau aeun noa1:
Mm nk6nH ac - n xap xonopnmx uncn,
pap 6oxec1aennmx anpenn,
aH ann1no ac - n oc1pm rannLckn cHmcn
cyHpaunm repHanckn renn...
* * *
88
o acex npepannnx rnoHm ncuesak1 neaec1L kypa, yxopn1 nop seHnk, apac1ak1 a ropy.
naunx ckasannnx roaopn1cn, u1o "uypL nop seHnk yuna". ornacno "Dppe", kapnnkn
- c1paxn nopseHenLn npeapauak1cn a kaHenL, ecnn nx kocny1cn nyun onnua.
oackpy unpoko pacnpoc1paneno noaepLe, u1o rnoHm o6opaunaak1cn pasnnunoro
popa okaHenenoc1nHn, npnuypnnamHn ckanaHn, y1ecaHn. ec1an1enLno, ao Hnornx
yronkax seHnoro uapa ec1L 1akne ckanm, po nenpaaponopo6nn noxoxne na ckasounme
cyuec1aa, sanep1me a kaHne snmH konpynoH. saannnn a1n nopo neaosHoxno
npnsna1L nrpo "cnenmx" cnn pnpopm.
pacnonpcknx c1on6ax, o on1en6no n o snaHenn1oH nna1o Mapkaxyaccn (epy)
snak1 Hnorne, no ec1L 6onee aneua1nnkune Hec1a. D1o - xnHepnueckne nnkn a ropnoH
ypounue xnnno1m (aHnp), u1o a nepeaope osnauae1 "o6n1annue xnnna". D1o -
"auapoaannm ropop" 6nns yankn (cnannn) n ckanm-nsaannnn a nyc1mne o6n, o
ko1opmx nncan . qpeHoa. D1o - qan1ac1nueckne kaHennme ckynLn1ypm pnpoH c
6onrapcknH ropopkoH enorpapunk n "aapL6a kapnnkoa" a yuenLe pekn Drep
(oreHnn). D1o - ppeanee cae1nnnue Hancn Monnnr-yHn (ea. Ypan). , nakoneu,
caHme ouenoHnnkune nsaannnn a 1pane aHennmx ponoa (euepo-nmuckn
sanoaepnnk).
* * *
rpeu. Hnqe o peakannonoaoH no1one opakyn nasaan eHnk - ennko paHa1epLk,
a kaHnn - koc1nHn a 1ene . a ckanpnnaacko care ckanm n kaHnn - a1o koc1n
eHnn.
eonappo a caonx saHe1kax o eHne Hmcnnn ee xnamH, opyueanennmH yuec1aoH:
"no1L ee - cyua, koc1n - pnpm crpoHospnaunxcn ckan; canskn - 1yqm; kpoaL ee -
aopnme xnnm; saknkuennoe a ceppue kpoannoe osepo - kean; pmxanne, npn1ok n
o11ok kpoan npn 6nennn nynLca ec1L 1o xe, u1o y eHnn npnnna n o1nna Hopn, a
1enno1a Hnpoao pyun - oronL, pasnn1m a eHne". 1pokn a1n cnyxa1 noncnenneH k
snaHenn1oHy nesaxnoHy pncynky - anpennk xnaoro ec1ec1aa eHnn, rpe
Hnnepanornueckan, aopnan n pac1n1enLnan c1nxnn coc1aannk1 epnnm nynLcnpykun
prannsH.
1eu reonornn x. a11on 200 ne1 nasap 1oxe paccHa1pnaan eHnk kak nekn
ynepoprannsH. n npoaopnn ananornk Hexpy kpoaoo6pauenneH n kpyroaopo1oH
nn1a1enLnmx aneHen1oa na eHne, korpa conneunoe 1enno ncnapne1 aopy ns okeanoa,
amnapakuyk sa1eH a anpe poxpn na nouay.
exnep npnHo nncan o yxe eHnn, 1enoH ko1opoHy cnyxn1 naua nnane1a. 6uan
cansL reonornuecknx, Hnnepanornuecknx n oprannuecknx npoueccoa na eHne anonne
1oxpec1aenna coo1nouennnH pasnnunmx qynkun epnnoro oprannsHa; 1ak, nanpnHep,
1euenne pek Hoxno ynopo6n1L kpoaoo6pauennk. X M coaepuak1cn
noc1onnnme, nocnepoaa1enLnme n sakonoHepnme npoueccm, coo1ae1c1aykune o6Heny
aeuec1a n ppyrnH 6nonornuecknH npoueccaH. ak n a kaxpoH xnaoH oprannsHe, ace
uac1n eHnn - aospyx, Hnnepanm, pac1ennn, xnao1nme - ppyr k ppyry uenecoo6pasno
npncnoco6nenm n ppyr ppyra o6ycnoannaak1.
naannaH, kak n npounH napopaH, npncyue 6mno npepc1aanenne o eHne, kak o
XM Y. nn nsmunnkoa 1paam, pepeaLn n kyun 6mnn aonocaHn eHnn,
nouaa - ee koxe, kaHnn n ckanm - koc1nHn, aopa - kpoaLk, ae1ep - pmxanneH.
X . no1oHy acn eHnn 6mna M.
* * *
aHenL no-caoeHy xnao. n - ec1ec1aenen, a o1nnune o1 He1annoa. nsmuecko
nonnn ec1L paxe apm aHne. a eaepe ycn rpypm pnknx HornnLnmx kaHne
89
nasmaak1 xanLnnkaHn. na aosamuennmx pacnmx xonHax n no cknonaH ponnn c1on1
eue koe-rpe rpoHapnme 1paxn Mec1a. a nnx nanoxen o6e1 Honuannn. o ec1L n
kaHnn-"6y6nm", ec1L paxe "nokune kaHnn".
e1nnaHn - opyueanennmHn kaHnnHn nasmaanncL na poncnaHckoH nnxneH oc1oke
oco6me kaHnn, cnyxnaune npepHe1oH pennrnosnoro noknonennn. apone
noaceHec1no, napaane c pynnnc1mHn py6aHn noun1anncL kaHnn co ckaosnmH
o1aepc1neH. nHe na ana1nnckoH xonHe 6mn 1ako orpoHnm kaHenL, nposaannm
"Yc1a paapm". un1anocL, u1o on nsppeane caeuen n nekorpa po 6onn cxnHan pyky
knn1aonpec1ynnnka, ko1opm knnncn, npo1ncknaan ee a o1aepc1ne. pn1annn 6mn
aecLHa noun1aeH mpua1m aHenL, kypa po cnx nop npnxopn1 Honopoxenm, u1o6m
ckpenn1L 6paunm coks pykonoxa1neH uepes o1aepc1ne. opo6nm pmpua1m mran-
aHenL ec1L n y nac na ynnkoaoH one.
xpnc1nannsnpoaannmx nerenpax ep1y o6muno npnnncmaae1cn coopyxenne
kaHennmx Hoc1oa n nec1nnu a ropax. saec1no Hnoro ep1oamx Hoc1oa, ep1oamx
y1ecoa, ep1oamx ropopnu. a 6epery py1a ec1L ypnan1enLnan ep1oaa nno1nna
(oc1eu1ckne ckanm). pnn1enL yuknna . enL1Han a noaec1n "nenyuka
nepeckasan coapeHennoe eHy canpe1enLc1ao o pacnoH aHennoH ane - "uep1oaoH
6onaane" na amcokoH xonHe, oxpannaueH sanoaepnyk pouy n cypoao nakasaaueH
6apnna, aspyHaauero ee ampy6n1L.
au coapeHennnk - kanyxckn kpaeaep apnH asakoa, o1mckaaun epocnaanL -
rnaanoe ae1nnnue an1nue, onncmaae1 ep1oao opopnue na 6epery peukn ep1oakn
(nnn k6yun). a aepunne ropm naxopnncn kynL1oam aHenL, k ko1opoHy aena
cnnLno noapexpennan kaHennan annen, asakoa nepeckasmaae1 nerenpy, sanncannyk
okono ep1oaa opopnua n yanpeauyk cae1 a xypnane "naa" a 1908 r. nop
nasaanneH "aape6nm saHok pLnaona".
erenpa noaec1aye1, u1o y pas6onnka ypenpa 6mna pouL k6yua. ocaa1ancn k ne
ep1 a o6pase ypanoro Honopua. 1o6m ns6aan1Lcn o1 c1paunoro xennxa, ypenp
ampanrae1 ycnoane - noc1pon1L saHok sa opny nouL. ep1 n ero can1a c1ann 1acka1L co
ace okpyrn orpoHnme kaHnn. npn, u1o uep1n ao1-ao1 noc1pon1 saHok, k6yua nouna
na xn1poc1L. na nocapnna ne1yxa nop kopsnnky n nakpmna ee opennoH. o1oH saxrna
oronL n c1ana no1nxonLky nopnnHa1L kopsnnky. e1yx nopyHan, u1o naunnae1 cae1a1L,
n sakykapekan. a1o1 Hnr uep1n no6pocann kaHnn rpe nonano, n pas6exanncL.
nepoc1poennm saHok 1ak n nposaann - ep1oao opopnue.
arapouno nponcxoxpenne kauakunxcn ckan, kaknH-1o uypoH coxpannkunx
neyc1ounaoe paanoaecne. maae1, u1o 6anancnpykune rnm6m noc1aanenm na ysko
nnockoc1n 1ak, u1o Hory1 6m1L nerko npnaopnHm a kone6a1enLnoe panxenne, no
6naropapn caoe konoccanLnoc1n oc1akunecn a 1oH xe anpe a 1euenne 1mcnuene1n.
eH n kak onn yc1anoanenm?
opanxnme aHnn c1nnm nnn kauakunecn kaHnn 6mnn a ppeanoc1n nsaec1nm a
qpnke, a apone, oco6enno a pnanpnn n a pe1ann. D1n rnm6m aecoH po 500 1onn
pepxa1cn 1ak nckycno na opnoH ns caonx yrnoa, u1o poc1a1ouno npoc1oro
npnkocnoaennn, u1o6m sac1aan1L nx packaunaa1Lcn; no paxe o6Lepnnennme ycnnnn
co1en nkpe ne Hornn 6m onpoknny1L nx:
epL 6app nopo6en o1 poxpenLn
6noHky 1ex ppynpcknx ckan,
1o, ne cpaaancL npnnyxpenLk,
90
pnkocnoaenLk yc1ynan...
oHac Myp
n nc1opnn, nn paxe nerenpm ne coxpannnn nnkaknx caepenn o 1aopuax a1nx
coopyxenn. e1 1akxe pannmx n o apeHenn nx aospanxennn, 1. k. xpononornueckne
Hepkn nenpnropnm pnn nx pa1npoakn. eonorn o6muno aann1 ac na c1nxnn - ae1ep,
c1yxa, sno, aopa - cnoco6nm a 1euenne Hnnnnonoa ne1 npnpaaa1L ckanaH caHm
ypnan1enLnm anp n napenn1L caHmHn neo6munmHn aosHoxnoc1nHn. pnako
a1n kaHnn ne npnnapnexa1 1o nouae, rpe onn naxopn1cn: onn
nepenecenm nspaneka neaepoHmH cnoco6oH. neko1opmx Hec1ax na Hnoro knnoHe1poa
aokpyr, na paannne, aoo6ue ne1 nnkaknx ppyrnx kaHne n paxe kaHennmx
Hec1opoxpenn.
nnnn nnue1, u1o a epcnn 1akne aHnn cnyxnnn xpeuaH pnn ns6pannn uape;
Marnyc ynoHnnae1 o6 a1oH xe o6muae npn am6ope ckanpnnaacknx kopone. aH6pn a
caonx "enL1nuecknx ppeanoc1nx" nncan: "D1n nanennn npeaocxopn1 Horyuec1ao
uenoaeueckoro nckycc1aa. x nponsaena caHa pnpopa, n korpa-nn6ypL nayka pokaxe1
a1o". epes neckonLko ne1, npnsnaa caoe sa6nyxpenne, on roaopn1: " oun6ancn.
nyua ne cnoco6en cospa1L 1akne uypnme o1nouennn".
anLHon1, ny1euec1aoaaaun no Mekcnke, sanncan npepanne, u1o a ropax ec1L
ennkn aHenL, "ko1opm, ecnn uenoaek npouen c1ynenn 6naroroaenoc1n, Hoxno
cpanny1L HnsnnueH. o, ecnn ns npoc1oro nk6onm1c1aa co6epe1cn aennkan 1onna
nkpe, n 6ype1 nm1a1Lcn ero cpanny1L, na aonocok ne nopanne1cn".
Yunmx c1aan1 a 1ynnk nonsyune kaHnn a onnne Hep1n (annqopnnn). 6noHkn
ckan aecoH po nony1onnm, nop pec1aneH neaepoHmx cnn nepeHeuak1cn no pny
amcoxuero osepa, npeoponeaan pacc1onnne a pecn1kn He1poa n oc1aannn o1ue1nname
cnepm na necke. eonorn, noHakune ronoam nap 1ano nx nepepanxennn, ampannynn
neapasyHn1enLnoe npepnonoxenne, 6yp1o kaHnn nepenocn1cn u1opHoamHn ae1paHn.
o okasanocL, u1o o1penLnme 6nnsnexaune kaHnn nepepanrak1cn a npo1naononoxnmx
nanpaanennnx...
ynL1 aeuennmx aHne pacnpoc1panen n a naun pnn no ace ea. apasnn. oo6ue
kynL1oame kaHnn npepc1aannk1 co6o nanHenee nsyuennm paspnp apxeonoro-
a1norpaqnuecknx naHn1nnkoa. aneko ne kaxpoHy o1kpmaak1 onn caok nny.
epm - aeuennme aHnn qnnnoa, kapen n caaHoa. 6muno a1o - Hnoro1onnme
aanynm, noc1aanennme kaknH-1o sarapounmH o6pasoH na HanenLkne noxkn - Henkne
kaHnn. LaHanm-nopm roaopn1, u1o a "xnamx", 1ennmx na ouynL cenpax eue xnay1
yxn. D1o nepeknnkae1cn c y6expenneH nonnnesnuea, u1o 1e kaHennme nsaannnn, na
ko1opmx ne pac1e1 Hox, eue xname. aaHm y1aepxpak1, u1o cenpm Hornn
nepeHeua1Lcn-nepene1a1L c opnoro Hec1a na ppyroe. n6npckne cenLkynm 1akxe
nonarak1, u1o kaHnn cnoco6nm paxe ny1euec1aoaa1L, sakanmaa1Lcn a seHnk,
npn1a1Lcn o1 nkpe.
poeackoH p-ne ynLcko o6n. nsaec1nm paa aHnn: au n aunxa. nn naxopn1cn
na aosamuennoc1n, n eue c1o ne1 nasap okpec1nme xn1enn oco6o uec1aoaann nx
okono apeHenn ne1nero onnueaopo1a. axapoa a "ycckoH napopnoH uepnoknnxnn" n
a6mnnn a "aHnenou1ennn" coo6uak1, u1o napop 6mn y6expn a nx uypecnmx
caoc1aax n 6naropa1no cnne. aHnn "nannnncL nkpnH ao cne n noHorann nH po6poH,
ecnn pyHann o nnx xopouee" (axapoa). ocennne, onacancL 6ep, ne sanaxnaann
Hec1o kpyroH aHne.
a aunxe ec1L py6um. pepanne rnacn1, u1o opnn noHeunk, xenan ysna1L nopopy
aHne, c1an py6n1L nx 1onopoH. nepc1aneH 1akoro nokyuennn nannocL 6ecnnopne
91
nonn, rpe c1on1 a1n naHn1nnkn, Haccoam napex cko1a, a 1akxe ocnennenne noHeunka
n cHep1L ero o1 Hyun1enLno 6onesnn.
orpa k1o-1o ns ropopcknx noxenan na a1oH Hec1e noc1pon1L uepkoaL, a aHnn
ncnonLsoaa1L kak qynpaHen1, 1o cnyunnocL uypo: korpa xo1enn onpepenn1L aennunny
aHne n o1kpm1L c1opony, naxopnuykcn a seHne, 1o onn c1ann ocaxnaa1Lcn anns,
sapmaa1Lcn a seHnk. "paaocnaanme ckonLko nn 1pypnnncL, 6pocnnn c pocapm"
(axapoa).
* * *
ce cnmuann o aocLHoH uype cae1a - 1oynxenpxe. pna ns nerenp rnacn1, u1o
uapope Mepnnn, nepenecun a1n orpoHnme rnm6m ns pnanpnn sa opny nouL,
ckasan: "e1 cpepn nnx kaHnn, ne napenennoro cnno aonue6c1aa".
o nnuL ouenL neHnorne snak1 o LM aonue6noH nnL-aHne, nanaueH
nenoppenLnoe Y ne a nerenpax, a yxe na naHn1n 6nnsknx k naH nokonenn.
nns epecnaann-anecckoro, na 6epery neueeaa osepa, amcn1cn snaHenn1an
pnnoaa opa, 6mauan nekorpa nsmuecknH ae1nnnueH. Y 6epera osepa, nepaneko o1
ropm, sapyHunao ppeHne1 orpoHnm aanyn - aeuennm nnL-aHenL. aHenL 6onee
ppeann, ueH caHa nc1opnn. aHenL, aosne ko1oporo pasaopaunaanncL Hnc1epnn
naneonn1a n kpyxnnncL uaHanm-o6opo1nn. akoe-1o oco6oe any1pennee nanpnxenne
uyac1aye1cn a a1oH aHne: ennko ero Harne1nueckoe npn1nxenne, n ne sapac1ae1 k
neHy napopnan 1pona.
c1opnueckne pokyHen1m n ne1onncnme caopm canpe1enLc1aoaann, kak neopnokpa1no
nm1anncL ero sakanmaa1L n 1onn1L a osepe, no on nensHenno anoaL nonannncn na
noaepxnoc1n eHnn. 6eckypaxennme uepkoannkn o6Lncnnnn a1o 1eH, u1o "a kaHenL
acennncn peHon".
XVI a., 1. e. nou1n 600 ne1 cnyc1n nocne "kpeuennn ycn", nnL-aHenL npoponxan
npnaneka1L nkpe, c1ekaaunxcn k neHy, oco6enno a pnn aecenne-ne1nnx conneunmx
paspnnkoa. aHenL ykpauann uae1aHn n kpacnmHn nen1aHn, aopnnn aokpyr nero
xopoaopm. peunnn nonm no6opo1L "nsmueckoro 6ora". nauane XVII aeka pLnkon
nyqpn c noppyunmHn Honac1mpcknHn oxanLnnkaHn amkonan pnpoH c aHneH
6onLuyk, rny6okyk nHy, c1onknyn 1ypa aHenL n sakonan. pnako caHoro pLnkona
nay1po o6ynna xec1ouauan ropnuka, a aHenL uepes 15 ne1 cnoaa amuen na
noaepxnoc1L. cnaaa ero ue 6onee aospocna.
nHo 1788 r. uepkoaL npepnpnnnna noayk o1uannnyk nonm1ky. eueno 6mno
sanoxn1L aHenL a ocnoaanne konokonLnn na ppyroH 6epery osepa. poann,
sanpnxennme pkxnno nouape, no1aunnn aHenL no osepnoHy nLpy. ep
nponoHnncn, n aHenL sa1onyn na rny6nne okono payx caxene (4,3 H). asanocL, u1o
"6eca" na a1o1 pas pec1an1enLno "saHounnn" naacerpa.
o ne 1y1-1o 6mno: acero uepes 50 ne1 aHenL anoaL nanncn na 6epery, rpe aosnexn1
n nonmne. esapaunname nonm o1 nero o1c1ynnnncL, no npoponxano
6ypopaxn1L yHm, n yxe a XX a 6mnn npepnpnnn1m nonm1kn nayunoro nc1onkoaannn
a1akoro pnaa: rnnunonorn npepnoxnnn cHexo1aopnoe "o6Lncnenne" nepeHeuennn 12-
1onno Haxnnm acnepc1ane napoc1oa 1. n. nopaopnoro nLpa.
nnL-aHenL nepexnn n 6euenyk sno6y uepkan, n 1ynoyHne pnanek1nueckoro
Ha1epnannsHa. nnL-aHenL sppaac1aye1 n npoponxae1 penn1Lcn caoe aekoaeuno
cokpoaenno cnnnue c naaeuakunHn ero aepnmHn smunnkaHn. ueanpno, u1o
Hec1o, rpe on pacnonoxnncn, ec1L opno ns M .
92
* * *
Mnc1nueckne y6expennn ocnoamaak1cn na apoxpennoH neo6HanmaakueH nnc1nnk1e,
na nenocpepc1aenno-nn1yn1nanoH ouyuennn, y1aepxpakueH, ao-nepamx,
M kak: xnaoro, uenLnoro, opyueanennoro prannsHa, a ao a1opmx, -
neo1pennHoc1L uenoaeka o1 a1o eHnn n noc1onnnoe yuac1ne a ee xnsnn 1enecnmx n
pyueanmx c1opon ero epnno ncnxoqnsnuecko cyunoc1n.
enoaeueckoe ec1ec1ao co1kano ns 1ex xe c1nxn, u1o n eHnn, n opyueaneno 1eH xe
epnnmH 6noanepre1nuecknH auanoH. enoaek ne npo1naoc1on1 eHne, a popc1aenen
e. Marne1nuecknHn nn1nHn cansano 6nenne eHnoro ynLca c aonnennnHn
uenoaeueckoro, ceppua.
ce nnm eHnn nopcnypno ckpm1m a uenoaeke, nannkueHcn kak 6m nacmuenno
"amxnHko", cryc1koH a1nx Y-X -Y n no1oHy
cnoco6nmH ac1yna1L c nnHn a o6uenne, nosnaaa1L nx kak 6m nsny1pn.
ny1pennee uenoaeka, 1oxpec1aennoe no caoe rny6nnno cy1n a1nH nnaH
cnnaancL, nopo c nnHn a oco6mx, 1pancoao-6eccosna1enLnmx, ncc1ynnenno-
aoc1opxennmx, HepnyHnueckn-apoxnoaennmx coc1onnnnx, naunnae1 pec1aoaa1L ane
qnsnuecknx sakonoa nsaec1noro naunH nn1n uyac1aaH anpnHoro Hnpa. D
LM. noa1oHy kaxpm npnpopnm Hnc1nk ec1L neHnoxko
aonue6nnk.
onue6c1ao, opnako, nenLsn ny1a1L c konpoac1aoH - snoapepno
npo1naoec1ec1aenno ka66annc1nko, caoekopmc1no nm1akuecn npnnypn1L
c1nxnnmx pyxoa 6m1L na no6eryukax nopo6no ono1o pm6ke.
X M aonnouanacL a caeuennopec1aax kaHennoro aeka.
eHnn - Ma1L, n no1oHy na npn aceH caoeH nsyHn1enLnoH coaepuenc1ae n
no1pncakueH aennunn ne nopaannna uenoaeka, n Hexpy nnHn yc1anaannaanncL
o1nouennn poaepnn. epao6m1nme na1ypqnnocoqm paccHa1pnaann uenoaeueckne
aoneame ak1m kak oco6me npnpopnme cnnm, cnoco6nme nno pas aospec1aoaa1L na
c1nxnn. Y X . cnn uenoaek unc1oceppeuno,
6es acnko sapne Hmcnn o6pauae1cn k a1o nne, on npnaopn1 ee a pec1ane,
aepnee, on pec1aye1 coaHec1no c ne a o6ueH nyxnoH nanpaanennn.
co6me o6pnpm, nocaeuennme eHne, cnyxnnn knkuaHn, o1HmkakunHn knapesn ee
nnopopopno cnnm. nnaancL a o6pnpe c seHnmHn c1nxnnHn, uenoaek nanay
c1anoan1cn uyac1an1enLno nepano kne1ouko 1ena eHnn. pn noHoun 1aknx
o6pnpoa n any1pennnx aoneamx yc1anoaok uenoaek cnoco6en pec1aenno yuac1aoaa1L
a X, n6o kaxpoHy aneuneHy aos6yxpennk (o1 uenoaeka) ne Hoxe1 ne
o1ae1n1L aos6yxpenne nsny1pn. Ma1L ne Hoxe1 ne o1knnkny1Lcn na npnsma...
pesamuano npnHeua1enLno a a1o cansn canpe1enLc1ao repHancko peayukn -
yuennum ampakuerocn ueuckoro yuenoro, ncnxonora-Hnc1nka 1anncnaaa poqa,
npnaepennoe a ero knnre "y1euec1ane a nonckax ce6n" (ace knnrn poqa c1ann
HnpoamHn 6ec1cennepaHn 25 ne1 nasap). eayuka aouna a 1. n. nsHenennoe
coc1onnne cosnannn, 1. e. a caoeo6pasnm 1panc c noHouLk oco6mx npneHoa pmxannn,
o1uac1n sanHc1aoaannmx ns ornuecko npak1nkn n no cy1n cxopnmx c 1eHn, u1o
onncan aa1op a1nx c1pok a caonx pa6o1ax "poHa-ora" n "epeao-enn1enL". aon
ouyuennn n nepexnaannn rny6ouauero popc1aa co6c1aenno pyun c Ma1epnncko
yuo eHnn peayuka onncana 1ak: "nauana n uyac1aoaana ce6n ennko...
Ma1epLk-eHne, sa1eH a1o nepeuno a pec1an1enLnoe npeapauenne a nnane1y
eHnn. mno nonn1no, u1o n - eHnn - nannkcL xnamH oprannsHoH, pasyHnmH
cyuec1aoH, ...c1apakunHcn ac1ynn1L a o6uenne c ppyrnHn kocHnuecknHn cyuec1aaHn.
Me1annm n Hnnepanm, coc1aannkune nnane1y, 6mnn HonHn koc1nHn, HonH ckene1oH.
93
nocqepa - pac1n1enLnan xnsnL, xnao1nme, nkpn - Hoe nno1Lk. uyac1aoaana a
ce6e unpkynnunk aopm: ns okeanoa - a 1yun, o11ypa - a HanenLkne pyuekn n
6onLune pekn, n cnoaa a Hope. opnan cnc1eHa 6mna Hoe kpoaLk, n
He1eoponornueckne nsHenennn - ncnapenne, aospyunme no1okn, amnapenne poxpe,
cner - o6ecneunaann unpkynnunk, nepepauy nn1annn n ounuenne. 6uenne Hexpy
pac1ennnHn, xnao1nmHn n nkpLHn... coc1aannnn Hok nepanyk cnc1eHy, Ho Hosr.
uyac1aoaana caonH 1enoH apep, nanocnHm akpannennnHn uax1, 6onLunx ropopoa,
1okcnunmx n papnoak1nanmx o1xopoa, sarpnsnenneH aospyxa n aopm. aHmH c1pannmH
6mno 1o, u1o n aocnpnnnHana pn1yanm, coaepuaeHme pasnnunmHn "npnHn1nanmHn"
nneHenaHn, n uyac1aoaana nx snaun1enLnyk uenn1enLnyk cnny n nx a6conk1nyk pnn
Henn neo6xopnHoc1L. euac, a HoeH noacepneanoH cosnannn, Hne a1o kaxe1cn
c1pannmH, no ao apeHn Honx nepexnaann n 6mna coaepuenno y6expena, u1o
ncnonnenne pn1yanoa aaxno pnn eHnn" (. poq. y1euec1ane a nonckax ce6n. M.,
1994 r., sp-ao pancnepconanLnoro nc1n1y1a, c1p. 82-83).
* * *
ak Hono1enc1m, 1ak n nx nn6epanLno-a1enc1nueckoe oxaoc1Le a anpe
paunonannc1nuecko naykn, opnnakoao ouennaak1 nc1opnk, ncxopn ns 1eopnn
aaonkunn, 1. e. noc1yna1enLnoro panxennn uenoaeuec1aa anepep n nocnepoaa1enLnoro
ero ycoaepuenc1aoaannn.
o1nnune o1 nnx smunnkn y1aepxpak1, u1o aecL 1. n. nporpecc ec1L ne u1o nnoe, kak
c1peHn1enLno yckopnkuncn npouecc qnsnueckoro, npaac1aennoro n yHc1aennoro
ampoxpennn uenoaeuec1aa acnepc1ane ero o1uyxpennn o1 pnpopm n ypanennn o1
ono1oro (kaHennoro!) aeka rapHonnn c e.
noano neanpnHme cnnm cony1c1aoaann 1orpa kaxpoHy uary enoaeka. n anapen
papoH coaepuennoro n apoxnoaennoro nsmka. snauanLno eHy 6mno npncyue
xypoxec1aennoe uy1Le n Horyuee aoopyueanenne, 6es uero neHmcnnHa aennkonennan
qpeckoaan xnaonncL a no1aennmx neuepax-cae1nnnuax. nkorpa nosxe uenoaeuec1ao
ne Horno nopnn1Lcn po 1oro, u1o6m noa1opn1L a1n nepaospannme, 6esynpeunme
o6pasum cypoao Hexnepnnkoao anoxn.
eaepoHmH pnn nac cnoco6oH amnpnHnnn on pnn konn 6nann HaHon1a n rposnmH
opyxneH nopaxan ca6nesy6oro 1nrpa. n npeapa1nn xnunoro (!) saepn a caoero
epnnc1aennoro ppyra, 1ak u1o co6auLn npepannoc1L aouna paxe a noroaopkn.
"erpaHo1nm" uenoaek kaHennoro aeka ncuncnnn panxenne ne6ecnmx 1en n
npepckasmaan conneunme sa1Hennn c nsyHn1enLno, nenpaaponopo6no 1ounoc1Lk,
nensHepnHo npeaocxopnue acnkne xosnc1aennme no1pe6noc1n.
n apaueaan cnoaoH-saroaopoH, 1paaaHn n kaHennmHn nrnaHn. apenm c1a1ya1kn ns
HaHon1oaa 6nann, a 1ene ko1opmx Hnoxec1ao (okono 700) Henknx o1aepc1n,
ykasmaakunx 6noak1nanme 1oukn nrnoykanmaannn. akne c1a1ya1kn cnyxnnn
yue6nmHn noco6nnHn pnn uaHanoa-uenn1ene. o kak onn o6napyxnnn 1oukn
akynynk1ypm n nx cansL c any1pennnHn opranaHn? epL ne cnenmH xe He1opoH npo6 n
oun6ok, nepe6opoH acex aosHoxnmx aapnan1oa a napexpe xo1n 6m cnyuano poc1nuL
xenaeHoro pesynL1a1a? oapeHennme nccnepoaannn a o6nac1n 6noanek1ponnkn nnuL
nop1aepxpak1 rennanLnme npospennn ppeane Hepnunnm, no ne Hory1 o6Lncnn1L nx.
esaosapa1no y1epnnm 1anm Hnornx ppeannx peHecen, ne pasrapanm sarapkn
nsro1oanennn uapykunx nsaannn, "oxnaakunx" nop nyuaHn aocxopnuero onnua.
oaepuenno nenoc1nxnHmH o6pasoH nau panekn pauyp aospanran rpoHapneune
kaHnn, npeamuakune acnkoe npepc1aanenne o aosHoxnoc1nx npoc1oro cHep1noro n
nenopanac1nme paxe coapeHennmH nopLeHnmH kpanaH.
94
c, u1o Hoxe1 6m1L poc1nrny1o a pene kpaco1m n Houn, uenoaek kaHennoro aeka
poc1nr. ayka ne a coc1onnnn o6LncnncL anesannoc1L c1onL 6nnc1a1enLnoro asne1a,
paano kak n anesannoc1L nonanennn amcokoopapennoro uenoaeka-Hmcnn1enn. e
o6napyxeno npnsnakoa noc1enennoro pasan1nn; cpasy neoxnpannm pacuae1,
spenoc1L, sa1eH - ocenL yanpannn, nc1ouennn, yracannn cosnpakue cnnm...
ceo6unH HnpoouyuenneH nkpe c1anoan1cn y6expenne: npepkn nyuue no1oHkoa,
nopo6no 1oHy, kak cnaanoe npounoe snaun1enLnee nac1onuero. ao1 yxe a
6ponsoaoH aeke pop nkpcko ckop6n1 o6 y1pauennoH rpe-1o na eaepe aeke ono1oH.
opaxae1 rny6nna nponnknoaennn ceaepnn a 1annc1aa cenenno. ce nocnepykuee
nk6oHyppne caHmx apyHunamx, no ne nocaeuennmx a Hnc1epnn pnpopm yuenmx
ocnoaano na ocHmcnennn ppeaneuero nacnepnn pepkoa. c1okn 1opxec1aennmx n
kpacounmx (xo1n yxe saHy1nnnmx 6paxHannc1aHn) ppeanennpncknx necnonenn o
Mnpospannn - a kaHennoH aeke. unuennan o1 xpeuecknx sa6nyxpenn nr-epa
nanne1cn caopoH o1kpoaenn, aocxopnunx k 1mcnuene1nnH ropaspo 6onee pannnH, ueH
apeHn nx sanncn, - k apeHenaH apoxnoaennmx ceaepnmx aepynoa. enL1ckne ppynpm,
npyccko-nn1oackne aapeno1m, cnaannckne aonxam, - ace onn 6mnn npeeHnnkaHn
uaHanoa naneonn1a.
anpe1enLc1aa aeunx pauypoa nannnncL nesm6neHmH sanoroH poc1oaepnoc1n: ueH
ppeanee - 1eH npaapnaee. oaepuennm po6pme c1apme apeHena; ac nospneuee -
aonLnoe nn6o neaonLnoe nckaxenne. snauanLnoe snanne ne c1apee1, ne Henne1cn n,
1eH 6onee, ne poxpae1cn a cnopax; o6cyxpenne caeuennmx aeue neyHec1no.
eocnopnHmH npnsnanneH nonLsoaanncL y eHokpn1a "ppeanne Hyxn, nckycnme a
nosnannn pnpopm".
s nokonennn a nokonenne cnepoaa1L saae1aH pepkoa, saneua1nennmH a
6narouec1namx o6pnpax, o6muanx n npepannnx o cnaae opa-neHenn, xpann1L a1n
cokpoanua nyue sennum oka, nnaue npnpe1 6epa, - ao1 u1o 6mno rnaaneue sapaue
n uenLk pyxoanmx aoxpe.
* * *
Merann1m nrpann, 6esycnoano, rpoHapnyk ponL a xnsnn nepao6m1nmx nkpe. epL
coopyxennn a1n, 1pe6oaaaune konoccanLnmx ycnnn n apeHenn pnn nx aosaepennn,
c1ponnncL ne no1exn papn, a c kako-1o ouenL aaxno, Hoxe1 6m1L, X
M . uenLk, onpaapmaakue cpepc1aa. o nHn uero
aospanranncL ncnonnnckne c1onnm-Henrnpm? D1o ne naprpo6nn, ne o6cepaa1opnn, ne
an1ponoHopqnme c1a1yn...
mcuan uennoc1L smuec1aa - npoponxenne opa, saaeuannoe pnpopo. c
nponspac1ae1 ns nnopopopnoro upeaa eHnn. oa1oHy caHme apxanunme x1onnueckne
6oxec1aa ec1L a 1o xe apeHn 6oxec1aa nnopopopnn. aHennme n pepeannnme c1on6m
6mnn ne 1onLko o1aneuennmHn cnHaonaHn nnopopopnn. Yc1anoanennme a M
, onn 6mnn n npnHmHn npoaopnnkaHn, nc1ouaaunHn xnaopopnune
M. no1oHy onn Hornn paaa1L nkpnH papoc1L, spopoaLe n uapopopne.
n1ackne uenn1enn o6Lncnnk1 annnnne nrno1epannn peqnek1opnmH aospec1aneH na
nepanyk cnc1eHy. eqnekc (1. e. o1paxenne) - a1o o1ae1nan peakunn uenoc1noro
xnaoro oprannsHa na pasnnunme aospec1ann, ocyuec1annkunecn uepes nepanyk
cnc1eHy. asppaxenne nepaa, npyuero a Hosr, o6nsa1enLno n aa1oHa1nueckn amsmaae1
o1ae1nm uen1po6exnm 6nocnrnan. ospec1ane nrnaHn na 6noak1nanme 1oukn, 1. e.
na 1oukn noamuenno anek1ponpoaopnHoc1n, cansannme oco6mHn nnnnnHn -
HepnpnanaHn, npnaopn1 k ycnnennk 6no1okoa a oprannsHe, u1o "nopc1ernaae1" ero
saun1nme cnnm n 6naro1aopno o1paxae1cn na coc1onnnn spopoaLn. oneuno, ace a1n
o6Lncnennn, paxe c npnaneuenneH anek1ponnkn, nannk1cn nnuL ouenL rpy6mH
npn6nnxenneH k peanLnoc1n; aepL ac, u1o coapeHennan nayka snae1 o
95
pec1an1enLno cy1n anek1pnuec1aa, - a1o 1o, u1o ono ec1L opno ns nponanenn
Dneprnn, 1. e. onn1L-1akn .
noreoqnsnkn roaopn1, u1o nap 1peunnaHn a seHno kope aosnnkak1 ouenL
sarapounme n Hanonsyuennme anoHanLnme nanennn. aH na6nkpae1cn ns6m1ounan
anek1porenepaunn, snakonepeHennme n ouenL neo6muanme nynLcaunn reoHarnn1noro
nonn n 1. p. a uenoaeueckoH oprannsHe nponcxopn1 cnoxneune, ypnan1enLneune
ncnxoqnsnonornueckne npoueccm n aqqek1m.
1o 1akoe M ? D1o yuac1kn amxopa Dneprnn, 1oukn noaepxnoc1n eHnn,
ko1opme uepes oco6oro popa kananm noamuenno anek1ponpoaopnHoc1n coo6uak1cn c
neppaHn eHnn. ecHo1pn na 1o, u1o acnkoe cpaanenne xpoHae1, Hoxno ynopo6n1L
akanmaanne Henrnpoa a 1oukax seHno akynynk1ypm caoeo6pasnoHy nrnoykanmaannk,
1. e. pasppaxennk nepanmx okonuann. pnpopa 1oxpec1aenna a caonx nponanennnx:
akynynk1ypa eHnn ne npoc1o o1penLnme 6noak1nanme 1oukn, a uenan cnc1eHa
kananoa, yxopnunx arny6L 6nononn eHnn. ananm a1n - nepam eHnn, no ko1opmH
c1pyn1cn 6no1okn.
ospec1ayn na 6noak1nanme 1oukn - M , uenoaek aospec1aye1 na
nepanyk cnc1eHy eHnn, n ona o1aeuae1 ycnnenno unpkynnune caonx 6no1okoa.
epes 1ek1onnueckn-nanpnxennme pasnoHm seHno kopm Henrnpm sapnxak1cn a1o
X n c1anoan1cn coepnnn1enLnmH saenoH - HepnyHoH Hexpy
nkpLHn n c1nxnnHn. kenL1ckoH anoce (a npnanpcko care "onesnL yxynnna")
cansL Hexpy uenoaekoH n cnpaHn - aonnouennnHn nopseHnmx c1nxnnmx pyxoa -
ocyuec1anne1cn nHenno M.
o apeHn xopoaopoa n ppyrnx caeuennmx o6pnpoa-nrpnu aokpyr Henrnpa, k ero cnne,
sanHc1aoaanno o1 eHnn, npncoaokynnnk1cn ncnxnueckne aHanaunn uaHana n
yuac1nnkoa a1nx o6pnpoa.
saec1no, u1o neko1opme pepeannnme, aockoame n kaHennme, 1. n. Harnueckne
nspennn, Hory1 kaknH-1o o6pasoH nacmua1Lcn kak c1nxnnmHn, 1ak n uenoaeuecknHn
aneprnnHn. opouo nsaec1no n 1o, u1o y uenoaeka, naxopnuerocn a akc1a1nueckn-
1pancoaoH coc1onnnn, pesko yaennunaae1cn aneprnn ec1ec1aennoro 6noak1nanoro
nsnyuennn (6nononn), n aneprnn a1a ann1maae1cn a Ha1epnanLnme, kynL1oame
npepHe1m, ko1opme caHn no ce6e c1anoan1cn ee npoaopnnkaHn.
aknH o6pasoH, Henrnp naHarnnunaancn apaone: noHnHo ec1ec1aennoro seHnoro
Harne1nsHa, on akkyHynnpoaan eue n qnknpm uenoaeuecknx 6noanek1poHarnn1nmx
none. aHenL noppepxnaan pyxoano-cnnoayk cansL ao apeHenn Hexpy nokonennnHn
opa-neHenn. Moxno ce6e npepc1aan1L, u1o ouyuan nsmunnk, o6pauakun caon
Hmcnn k Menrnpy, k ko1opoHy - n on o6 a1oH snan - 1ak xe npnxopnnn ero o1eu,
npapep n pankne npauypm...
1onnm, cnyxnaune 1ouko onopm okkynL1no aneprnn uaHanoa-aepynoa-aonxaoa,
c1anoannncL cpepo1ouneH orpoHnmx cnn, caoero popa YM-M. epanan
aneprnn Hnornx nokonenn aepnmx noun1a1ene nacnanaae1cn n xnae1
1mcnuene1nnHn. ueanpno, u1o aeuennme aHnn eue 1an1 a1y nny. na ckaosn1 a
onncannnx anL1epa ko11a n ep6ep1a Yannca, oHaca appn, anLsaka n kro. na
naronne1 xy1L na na6oxnmx uepkoanocnyxn1ene.
anoaepnme Hec1a 6nns apnaka nacmuenm aeunHn npepannnHn po 1ako c1enenn,
u1o kaxe1cn, 6yp1o nx cnoaa, Ha1epnannsoaaauncL, caHn aospanrnn a1n annen,
amc1poennme ns 1mcnu Henrnpoa: "eppue naunnae1 6n1Lcn, aac oxaa1maae1
aonnenne, am ynocn1ecL HmcnnHn a npounoe, npepae1ecL cyeaepnmH nac1poennnH"
(Monaccan. pe1ann).
96
* * *
onxam, 6ypyun npnsaannmHn o6ecneunaa1L nonanenne na cae1 nonnokpoanmx n
xnsnec1oknx nokonenn copopnue, cornacoamaann caape6nme o6pnpm-nrpnua a
M c ec1ec1aennmHn xnsnennmHn pn1HaHn eHnn n onnua. 6pnpaH a1nH
n nopro1oake k nnH npnpaaanocL orpoHnoe snauenne: saua1ne HmcnnnocL
caeuennopec1aoH, cokpoaenno cansannmH c aonnouenneH yxoa pepkoa a 1ena
noaopoxpennmx (anoaL poxpennmx).
co6o 6naronpnn1nmH pnn saua1nn cun1anocL apeHn ne1nero connuec1onnnn, korpa
npan cnna ae1nna caHan nanpnxennan, nono eHnn caHoe nnopopopnoe, a ee pocm,
1paam, aopm - caHme uene6nme. naanne, kak n ppyrne napopm, yHenn ncnonLsoaa1L
npnpopnme 6nopn1Hm a uennx 6naropenc1ann n npouae1annn opa. paunoHy
coaokynnennk pnnm-a1kukn n eHnn-Ma1yukn noppaxann caape6nme nrpm
ynanLcko noun, penaaune uenoaeka conpnuac1nmH caeuennopec1ay caHo
pnpopm.
saec1no, u1o nynLcnpykune 6no1okn uenoaeka, nopo6no c1pyne, uy1ko pesonnpyk1
coo1ae1c1aykune kone6annn reoHarnn1noro nonn. n1H an6paun naue 6nonnasHm
kak 6m nac1panaae1cn na a1n kone6annn. pn cnnxponnsaunn 6nopn1Hoa eHnn n
uenoaeka, on nonyuae1 Hounm sapnp X . anpo1na, cnepc1aneH
pecnnxponnsaunn - pasnapa nanne1cn pacc1poennoe spopoaLe.
6pnpoame nrpm n xopoaopnme nnnckn conpoaoxpanncL pn1Hnuecko Hysmko,
aaopnaue yuac1nnkoa a coc1onnne orpoHnoro nopLeHa-aocxnuennn, a oco6o
uyac1an1enLnmx - a akc1a1nueckn 1panc. eocnopnHo uypecno - oxnannkuee,
papoc1noe, ncuennkuee aospec1ane na uenoaeka pn1Hnuecko Hysmkn.
a pn1HaHn Hysmkn n 1anuea c1on1 Horyuec1aennme, xnao1aopnune pn1Hm pnpopm,
nponnsmaakune ac Mnpospanne. ornacno 1eokocHoronnn nnpync1oa-unaan1oa,
Lnaa cospan Hnp n ace xnaoe ny1eH rapHonnueckoro coue1annn ero 1anua c pn1HaHn
ypapoa no 6apa6any. Lnaa a ueH-1o cxox co cnaanncknH opoH n 1oxe nepepko
nso6paxae1cn a anpe qannoca. 6onLc1n1enLnm cnapoc1pac1nme pn1Hnueckne nnnckn
6anpepok nepep 1aknH "nponoH".
eypepxnHa saaopaxnaakuan anac1L pn1Ha nap uenoaekoH: ckauyune cnnkonm
uaHanckoro 6y6na, uekannan ppo6L nnpecknx 1aH1aHoa, peun1a1nam nnncoamx
Honn1a Hnc1nuecknx - "epe1nuecknx" 6pa1c1a, npoc1nm poko1 nannanpckoro
"6apa6ana 1ponnn", saaopnan rypL6a-canc1onnncka ynanLcko noun, nakoneu,
1anueaanLnm akc1as coapeHennoro pok-n-ponna c ero rny6oko apxanuecko
pn1Hnko...
peanerpeueckne oprnn (6ykaanLno - caeuennopec1aa) n aakxanannn - 1anme
nounme o6pnpm a uec1L eHe1pm-eHnn n akxa, conpoaoxpanncL Hysmko,
aoc1opxennmHn aocknnuannnHn n ncc1ynnennmHn nnnckaHn xpnu-aakxanok.
pnneam-aosrnacm, cnnaanennme a epnnoe uenoe c pn1Hnuecko Hysmko, panxenneH
no kpyry n opnoapeHennmHn 1enopanxennnHn, noppaxakunHn npnpopnmH
nponanennnH nona, o6napann orpoHno uapopeno cnno aospec1ann kak na caHnx
yuac1nnkoa o6pnpoa, 1ak n na nnopopopne eHnn (acnoHnnH, u1o roaopnna yuennua
poqa o aaxnoc1n o6pnpoa pnn Ma1epn). naue aonue6no ckaske apeana-
nryuka caoe nnncko-kpyroaep1Lk paxe oxnanne1 ac aokpyr: cospae1 neca, osepo,
6enmx ne6epe...
ycanLckne nnncoame xopoaopm, onnue1aopnaune n npocnaannaune aennkyk cnny
k6an, 6mnn, npexpe acero, aonnouennmH saknnnanneH xnan1enLnmx Ma1epnncknx
c1nxn, pec1aennmH HarnuecknH cpepc1aoH c1anoanennn Horyuero, Ha1eporo,
97
aekoaeunoro opa-neHenn. k6oaL ec1L ppyroe o6osnauenne Xnsnn. k6oannkn
amnonnnk1 aonk pnpopm, ypoane1aopnk1 e c1pac1nyk, aennkyk xaxpy Xnsnn.
Mnccnonepm noackpy sanpeuann napopnme 1anum nnopopopnn kak, nko6m,
6esnpaac1aennme. na ycn nonm npoknnnn ynanLckne nk6oanme nrpnua n peanuLn
ycanLckne o6pnpoame nnnckn kak "6oroHepskne". ypn no uepkoanmH o6nnuennnH,
a1n "Hnoroaep1nHme nnncannn n ckakannn, knnu n aonnL, n xpe61oH anxnnnne.,
nneueaanne" npo6yxpann spopoayk uyac1aennoc1L n noxopnnn na saxnra1enLnm,
anxpeao 1anc1.
D1norpaqm o1Heuak1, u1o 1. n. "Herann1nueckne 1anum" poxnnn y neko1opmx napopoa
po naunx pne. co6o npnuypnname ckonnua kaHne a pe1ann n a ppyrnx Hec1ax
kpec1Lnne nasmaak1 "caapL6o kapnoa": a1o o1ronockn ppeannx caape6nmx o6pnpoa,
nekorpa specL pasmrpmaaaunxcn.
1oH, u1o noun1anne Herann1oa 6mno cansano c kynL1oH nnopopopnn n uapopopnn,
canpe1enLc1aye1 npoponxakueecn anno1L po nepaanero apeHenn, a koe-rpe n ceuac,
nanoHnnuec1ao k nnH 6espe1nmx xenunn c uenLk amHonn1L pe6enouka.
a XX a. k Herann1aH npnnocn1 6onLnmx pnn ncuenennn n npnxopn1 peayukn,
Heu1akune am1n saHyx. panuysckne a1norpaqm onncmaak1 xopoaopm aokpyr
Henrnpoa. pe1ann n nonmne xenunnm napouno npoaopn1 noun y Henrnpoa, u1o6m
nsneun1Lcn o1 6ecnnopnn, o6ecneun1L cuac1nnam 6pak n 1. n.
xoxne o6muan 6m1oaann eue nepaano y xn1ene YanLca n a Lo1nanpnn.
onpepenennme pnn onn xrnn koc1pm y Herann1oa, nenn n nnncann aokpyr nnx, uec1ayn
popoamx npepkoa, cnpaannnn 1aH npaspnnkn onnua, cansannme c kynL1oH
nepeaonnouakunxcn npepkoa.
akaakasLe 6espe1nme xenunnm no 1papnunn onpepenennoe uncno pas ononsann
kaHennme c1onnm na konennx. o6mua a1o1 xna koe-rpe po cnx nop. n6npn n a
Monronnn xenunnm npnxopn1 k caonH okaHeneaunH paHa1epnH n o6xopn1 nx
nocononL neckonLko pas aokpyr c npocL6o papoaa1L Hnorope1noc1L, spopoaLe n
ponrone1ne.
eu1o nopo6noe na6nkpae1cn aespe, rpe kopennoe nacenenne o6eperae1 noko ,
u1nnn korpa-1o nx Hyppme npepkn. aespe caexo npepanne: necuac1Le
noc1nrne1 1oro, k1o nopyHae1 o nnoxo. epL caHme Horyuec1aennme cnnm a
pnpope 1e, ko1opme neanpnHm...
* * *
Myppoc1L coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m roaopn1L
npaapy n pec1aoaa1L a cornacnn c pnpopo,
annHan.
epaknn1
Hnqonoa1nuecko 1eokocHoronnn ecnopa en - a1o nepanunan Ma1epnn - Ma1epL
6oraH n cHep1nmH. na1on noun1an eHnk "nepamH n c1apeunH a cpepe 6oroa"
(pnanor "nHa"). Y pnc1o1enn a ero "Me1aqnsnke" en - paHa1epnn. a pn1e
Ha1epLk eaca cun1anacL aennkan M. nHnnne noun1ann eHnk nop nHeneH Man,
uLn npaspnnkn pann nasaanne Hecnuy Hak. pyran ppeanen1annckan 6ornnn eHnoro
Y1pa, aepaauan 1akxe n pe1opoxpenneH, nHenoaanacL Ma1ep Ma1y1a. peueckan
98
6ornnn eHnn saanacL eHe1pa (e-He1pa, e-Ha1pa; sa Hnorne aeka na ycn xenckoe
nHn eHe1pa nepennaunnocL a Hyxckoe - nHn1pn). o acex nsmkax eHnn
o6osnauanacL caeuennmH cnoaoH M.
poo6pasoH en-eHe1pm a neppax ncxopnoro apxanueckoro cosnannn oxo1nnkoa
naneonn1a 6mna Marna Ma1ep - M acero xnayuero, "1annc1aennan
Ha1epnnckan Ha1pnua Hnpa" (. Makkena).
Ma1epnn no-na1mnn - aeuec1ao. onn1ne a1o nckonno o6osnauano o1nnun1enLnm
npnsnak qnsnuecko 1enecnoc1n, eue 6es npo1naonoc1aanennn ero xnsnn, pyue,
pyxy. onLko nocne pnpa nc1opnuecknx nepeocHmcnenn, a oco6enno nocne
y1aepxpennn Hono1enc1nuecknx pennrn, nonn1ne a1o ampoxpae1cn a nonn1ne
"Hep1aoro aeuec1aa", npo1naononoxnoe nonn1nnH o xnsnennmx, pyueano-pyxoanmx
cnnax. Ma1epnn c1ana onpepenn1Lcn 1onLko kak neu1o npo1naononoxnoe nne, a nna
kak neu1o npo1naononoxnoe Ma1epnn.
annne nsmueckne aocnpnn1nn o1paxann 1akyk oprannueckyk kap1nny Hnpa, rpe
kaxpan uac1nua Ha1epnn pyxoano-Ha1epnanLna, rpe ne1 pnaHe1panLno
npo1naononoxnoc1n 6ec1enecnoro nc1ounnka panxennn ("6ora") n kocno, nnep1no,
rpy6o-ocnsaeHo Ha1epnn.
op cnoaoH "1eno" noppasyHeaanocL n qnsnueckoe, n 1onkoe qnknpnueckoe, n
uyac1aennoe, n Hmcnnuee 1eno. npepc1aanennn o xnaoH cyuec1ae knkueamH
nannnocL nonn1ne nepacunenennoc1n cosnannn-6m1nn. Xname cyuec1aa - a1o
cnH6no1nueckoe epnnenne 1ena n pyun. opo6no pnk n noun, ceaepy n kry, aepxy n
nnsy, any1penneHy n aneuneHy, onn 1onLko npo1naononoxnoc1n asanHosaancnHmx
coc1aanmx uac1e cnoxnoro epnnoro uenoro n, nyxpancL ppyr a ppyre, ne Hory1
cyuec1aoaa1L opna 6es ppyro.
o cenenno (1ak xe, kak n a uenoaeke) ne1 nenpoxopnHo rpannum Hexpy Ha1epne
n ncnxnko: caHn no ce6e 1oxpec1aennme, onn paspenenm nnuL a naueH neaepennn.
D1o epnnm nynLcnpykue-aonnoao prannsH, rpe o1cy1c1aye1 penenne na nepanunoe
n a1opnunoe: Ma1epnn - Dneprnn - XnsnL - asyH (no 6onLuoHy cue1y a1o opno n 1o
xe) nnkorpa ne sapoxpanncL n ne yHnpann, onn 1onLko anponsHennk1cn-
nepeaonnouak1cn.
Ma1epnn n nna - kpanne nonkca pnno pnpopno yunoc1n, paa nasaannn pnn
opnoro n 1oro xe popc1aennoro copepxannn, paccHa1pnaaeHoro c pasnmx 1ouek
spennn. Ma1epnn 1oro xe nponcxoxpennn, u1o n Dneprnn: a1o - pasnnunme
nponanennn opnoro n 1oro xe, n onn Hory1 saHeua1L ppyr ppyra, nepexopn1L ppyr a
ppyra. Ma1epnn - a1o 1onLko anxpeame cryc1kn Dneprnn.
Dneprnn o1 rpeueckoro nonn1nn pec1ann, pennnn. epHnn "aneprnn" anepame aaen a
o6nxop a nauane XIX a. anrnnckn qnsnk . nr, xo1n nop nasaanneH X
nonn1ne aneprnn yxe paano ncnonLsoaanocL yuenmHn n qnnocoqaHn. o cy1L a1o
neaepoHo peanLnoc1n, ko1opo xnae1 cenennan, oc1ae1cn XM. 6o
ec1L nonn1ne ne qnsnueckoe, a M.
Dnepre1nueckan 1eopnn (1. e. npnsnanne epnnc1aa Ma1epnn n nnm) nanne1cn, 6es
coHnennn, ocnoaanneH coapeHennoro asrnnpa na pnpopy. epno ckasano, u1o ne1
nnuero noaoro nop yno; eue 2500 ne1 nasap eHokpn1, y1aepxpaaun xnsnennoc1L
neknx 1onuaunx opyueanennmx o6pasoaann, ko1opmx on nasmaan ponaHn (1. e.
o6pasaHn), ckasan: "Ma1epnn ec1L ne u1o nnoe, kak , nanonnnkune
npoc1panc1ao". eue panLue anec Mnne1ckn nspek: "c opyueaneno n nonno
eHonoa". anoHnnH, u1o peHonaHn 1orpa nasmaanncL ne "uep1n pora1me", a oco6me
6oxec1aennme cyunoc1n.
99
eropnn caHan amcokoHepnan, caHan "o6Lek1nanan" ns nayk - qnsnka c1nxnno
aosapauae1cn k apxanueckoHy, ec1ec1aennoHy Hnpoaocnpnn1nk. orpa nyuune ns
yuenmx roaopn1, u1o "Mnp co1kan ns neaepoHmx nn", onn 1onLko noa1opnk1
6ecxn1poc1noe y6expenne uaHana-annHnc1a, u1o ac nonno yxoa. epL npnpopnme
yxn - a1o ne nnunoc1n, a . nn neHa1epnanLnm a o6munoH nonnHannn, no onn
ec1L. nn o1 Hnpa cero. nn eHy epnnocyunm - epnnopopnm, onn ero oxnannk1-
opyxo1aopnk1-onnopo1aopnk1. cenennan nonna nn! oaopn na nsmke 6noqnsnkoa,
a1o noneame qopHm cyuec1aoaannn Xnsnn (cH. asnaueea, Mnxanoaa.
nonnqopHaunonnan qynkunn ec1ec1aennmx anek1poHarnn1nmx none. sp-ao
"ayka", oaocn6npck, 1985).
nepao6m1noH (a snaun1 - coaepuennoH!), nsmueckoH Hnpoanpennn o1cy1c1aoaano
napyHannoe papnkanLnoe npo1naonoc1aanenne ec1ec1aennoro n 6oxec1aennoro,
Ha1epnanLnoro n npeanLnoro, caeuennoro n Hnpckoro, o6mpennoro n
aennuec1aennoro, pnpopm n enoaeka. onn1nn a1n coc1aannnn epnnoe uenoe,
ko1opoe neaosHoxno 6mno pacunenn1L, ne paspyuna npn a1oH oprannueckoro
epnnc1aa nx 6m1nn.
Moxno nn o1penn1L yx o1 Ma1epnn? yx 6es Ma1epnn ne Hoxe1 nponan1Lcn.
ecnno1nm pyx-6or - a1o 1akan xe nenennua, kak cae1 6es onnua. nepc1aneH
nonno Ha1epnannsaunn pnpopm n nonnoro opyxo1aopennn 6ora aapaaHnuecknHn
pennrnnHn (n nosn1nanc1cko nayko) nanncn npo1naoec1ec1aennm, nopounm n
1parnueckn pyannsH, pacuennaun Mnpospanne n enoaeka na pne pasnopopnme,
paso6uennme nonoannkn.
oapeHennm uenoaek (ecnn 1onLko on ne sakonuennm "nnun pyxoH" npnpypok) -
a1o onyc1ounnm, no1epnnnm, opnnokn a caoe 6esmcxopnoc1n, caH ce6e
onoc1mneaun n rny6oko necuac1nm roHynkynyc, nasmaakun xnsnLk cao
sa1nnyaueecn caHoy6nc1ao.
* * *
smunnkn o1aeprak1 kak pyannsH, 1ak n Ha1epnannsH, n cnnpn1yannsH. smunnkn
cnepyk1 npnpopnoHy, Honnc1nueckn-uenoc1noHy Hnpouyac1aoaannk,
o1oxpec1annkueHy X . yxoano-xnsnennoe nauano nHHanen1no
aceHy cyueHy; kak nc1ounnk uenoc1noc1n ono caoc1aenno a ckpm1oH anpe yxe
Honekyne, a1oHy n anek1pony. D1o, pasyHee1cn, ne "o1kpm1ne": a1o 6mno
caHooueanpnmH pnn 1oro xe eHokpn1a, nonaraauero, u1o "a c1euennn a1oHoa
naxopn1cn nekan xnaan n pyxoanan cnna" (MakoaenLckn. peanerpeueckne a1oHnc1m.
aky, 1946).
akonm pnpopm - X. ppeanne Hyppeum, nm1aaunecn noc1nuL a1n sakonm,
onncmaann nx ne kocnonsmuneH a6c1pak1nmx qopHyn, a nsmkoH xnamx o6pasoa. D1o,
opnako, 6onLunnc1ay yuenmx nocpepc1aennoc1e npepc1aanne1cn ne 6onee nayunmH,
ueH o6pasuoao-nokasa1enLnm sakon osLHm py1koaa: uenknn ko6mny a noc - ona
Haxne1 xaoc1oH. noueHy? no1oHy, u1o ona xnaan.
enLnoe nsmueckoe Hnpoaocnpnn1ne npnHnpne1 kaxyuykcn npo1naononoxnoc1L
pyxoanoro n Ha1epnanLnoro, aocc1anaannaae1 epnnc1ao uyac1aennoro n pasyHnoro
nauan, pasppo6nennoe xpnc1nancknH MonoxoH. apHonnn a1nx nauan - a
npaac1aennmx yc1onx nepao6m1noro o6uec1aa, a nonnouennoH "neuepnoH"
xnsneouyuennn, rny6oko aso1epnueckoH n opnoapeHenno npoc1oH n ec1ec1aennoH,
kak ac rennanLnoe.
smunnkn y1aepxpak1 a kauec1ae nopnnnno, ncxopno n nepaospanno peanLnoc1n
XnsnL, nonnHaeHyk kak nekyk uenoc1noc1L, o1nnuakuykcn o1 Ha1epnn n o1 pyxa,
ko1opme asn1me caHn no ce6e, ne o1paxak1 ee cyunoc1n. XnsnL ne 1oxpec1aenna nn
100
pyxy, nn Ha1epnn. yunoc1L Xnsnn - M X - a nenpepmanoH
aocnponsaepennn ce6n a noamx o6nnuLnx.
nn nc1nnnoro smunnka ac nanonneno X M MM. akoe
ouyuenne aocnn1maae1 po6poxena1enLc1ao n rny6ouauee yaaxenne k nk6mH
qopHaH Xnsnn, ocnoaannoe na nponsn1enLnoH uyac1ae kpoanoro popc1aa n
conpnxennoc1n c nnHn. no npo6yxpae1 ne nna1onnueckyk, a ceppeunyk, nno1ckyk,
xnsnennyk k nnH , X .
epes ack ppeankk na1ypqnnocoqnk npoxopn1 HmcnL o pnpope, kak npeane
nepyko1aopnoro coaepuenc1aa. eHnan pnpopa - Hepnno Hyppoc1n. c ec1ec1aennoe
a 1o xe apeHn n poc1onoe, n 6naroe, n npekpacnoe. oaepuenno o6pa1noe o1nouenne
k eHne cknapmaae1cn c no6epo xpnc1nanc1aa, ko1opoe paccHa1pnaae1 ee, kak
aonnouenne Ha1epnanLnoro nauana, kak "nns", rpe ac HnHon1no, neaepno n
nenapxno. eHnoHy, npnpopnoHy, npexopnueHy nao1pes npo1naonoc1aanne1cn
aeunoe, napnpnpopnoe, unc1o - pyxoanoe nauano - 6or. orocnoam cpasy xe npoaopn1
papnkanLnoe pasnnune Hexpy 1aopuoH n 1aapLk, Hexpy HnpoH eHnn n caonH
sao6naunmH 6oroH. x 6or - ne o1 Hnpa cero, on eHy uyxp. "Mnp a6conk1no o1nnuen
o1 ora, ero 1aopua", - nop1aeppnn a 1870 r. I a1nkanckn co6op.
npo1naononoxnoc1L nsmuec1ay, ocnoano uennoc1Lk Hono1enc1oa nanne1cn ne
cnnnnne c pnpopo, a aosamuenne nap e, 6espaspenLnoe rocnopc1ao-saka6anenne
(o1 nypeckoro cnoaa "ka66ana").
* * *
peanne pncyk1 naH aennuec1aennyk kap1nny aeuno 1aopnuecn pnpopm.
- Y, M ML. smunnkn nonnHak1
pnpopy kak epnnyk, aeunyk n 6eckoneunyk cy6c1anunk, ncknkuakuyk
cyuec1aoaanne kakoro-nn6o caepxLec1ec1aennoro nauana, n 1eH caHmH - kak
Y M . accyxpa1L o kakoH-1o o6oco6nenno c1onueH "pyxoanoH"
qak1ope Hory1 1onLko coqnc1m-o6ckypan1m.
npepc1aanennn smunnkoa cenennan - a1o X, aeuno c1anoanuancn
6eckoneunoc1L, aeuno pnnueecn - . smueckan
pen ec1L X kak ocnoam acero cyuec1aykuero a Hnpe. X kak
nac1onuee "nauano" cenenno. X X a ycnoano-pennrnosnoH
cHmcne.
cenennan ne u1o nnoe, kak caHooprannsykuancn n caHocosnakuan, 6ecnpepenLnan n
aceo6LeHnkuan X. Ma1epnn - o6opo1nan c1opona : a1o pae nepaspmanme
coc1aannkune acnkoro npnpopnoro nanennn. x nenpepmanoe, neynoanHoe
npeo6paxenne-o6opo1nnuec1ao ec1L nponanennn X . pnc1o1enL, a
acnep sa nnH e1e nasmaann uenecoo6pasno pec1aykuyk xnsnennyk cnny
an1enexne (a1o rpeu. cnoao 6ykaanLno osnauae1 "1o, u1o nHee1 uenL a caHoH ce6e").
Dso1epnueckan cy1L smuec1aa - ocosnanne epnnc1aa n asanHocansn acex cyuec1a,
npeoponenne ouyuennn caoe o1uyxpennoc1n n cnnnnne co aceo6unH XM
M. naanne a1y ncxopnyk c1nxnnyk nny, a1o1 popnnk pnpopm nasmaann -
.
aH ne nHee1 onpepenennoro "nona". D1o pay1eneu - paynonoe oxec1ao
(cpepnero popa), 6esnnunoe n nenoc1nxnHoe, coaHeuakuee a amcueH any1penneH
epnnc1ae n Hyxckoe, n xenckoe nauano. o, aonnouancL, no c1anoan1cn Ma1epLk-
pnpopo. nn cpaanennn: a aeueH pycckoH nsmke cnoao osnauae1 nHenno
nonuenoaeka, nonoanny nonnouenno, coaepuenno uenoaeuecko cyunoc1n...
101
1 6n6neckoro 6ora op o1nnuae1cn 1eH, u1o n ne "co1aopnn" pnpopy opnaxpm a
npounoH, no nopoxpae1 e ns co6c1aenno cyunoc1n nenpec1anno n execekynpno a
1euenne ueno aeunoc1n. op coaeuen pnpope n any1penne neo1pennH o1 ee. e
cyuec1aye1 nnuero, kpoHe npe6maakue a aeunoH konoapauennn pnpopm. Ma1L-
pnpopa acerpa 6mna, ec1L n 6ype1 6m1L. pnpopa neco1aopnHa n neynnu1oxnHa.
nu1o nnkypa ne ncuesae1, nnu1o ne 1aopn1cn ns nnuero; ace nnuL naxopn1cn a
panxennn n nenpepmanoH npeapauennn.
aHa pok1pnna co1aopennn Mnpa ns nnuero acnepc1ane 6oxec1aennoro aHeua1enLc1aa
("6onLuoro aspmaa") - noxnan, 1. k. ona nyxpae1cn a npnaneuennn napHnpoaoro
1aopua. pnpopnoe xe 6m1ne a caoeH nponcxoxpennn ne nyxpae1cn a kakoH-nn6o
ppyroH oco6oH 6m1nn. nn qan1ac1nueckoro "aennkoro apxn1ek1opa" specL npoc1o ne1
Hec1a. or kak nepaonpnunna n nepao1aopeu cenenno Hor 6m 6m1L 1onLko
py6nepoH.
* * *
nsan1nckne n poHopouennme nncakn 6eccoaec1no okopnann - ockonnnn -
onoxa6nnn nauy aennkyk nc1opnk n kynL1ypy, a1ncnya nx a npokpyc1oao noxe "1000-
ne1nn xpnc1nanc1aa na ycn". po 1oro - "1LHa", "aapaapc1ao" n "Hepsoc1L
sanyc1ennn".
mpakunecn nccnepoaa1enn cnaanno-pycckoro smuec1aa . . ora1mpea, . .
poon n ppyrne pokasann, u1o a cnaannckoH qonLknope, noaepLnx n o6pnpax
o1noxnnncL nnac1m, c1apnanLno 6onee apxanueckne, ueH ne 1onLko an1nunme, no
paxe n aepnueckne (aepnueckan pennrnn yxe aecLHa ypannnacL o1 amcoko n
6naropopno pxankn).
naanne nyuue ppyrnx nnpoeaponeuea coxpannnn nenocpepc1aennoe opyxo1aopenne
pnpopm a caHoH ppeaneH, nanHenee nckaxennoH, 6esmckycc1aennoH ero snauennn,
korpa c1ec1ao n yx cnn1m aoepnno. 6m1ykueH n nonmne o6pauennn "Ma1L-mpa-
eHnn", npnnaraeHoH k caHo eHne, sayun1 o1ronocok a1oro npnHoro, 6ykaanLnoro
opyxo1aopennn.
yuec1aoaann rny6oko popc1aennme o1nouennn Hexpy eHne n npacnaannaHn-
nsmunnkaHn. eHnn 6mna Ma1epLk ne 1onLko a cnHaonnke konnek1nanoro
6eccosna1enLnoro. napopnoH na acerpa 6mna ponopnnnno M,
6es acnknx nnockasa1enLnmx na1nxek. e spn cnoao "eHnn" xenckoro, Ha1epnnckoro
popa. e cnyuano onLuan eHnn soae1cn Ha1epnkoH.
eHne nepaspmano cansano Ha1epnnckoe, pe1opopnoe nauano, nopoxpenne acero
xnaoro. a1nnckoe cnoao "Ha1epnn" (npnpopnoe aeuec1ao) aocxopn1 k
o6uennpoeaponeckoHy M - nsnauanLnoe Ha1epnnckoe aeuec1ao, 1o ec1L
seHnan nno1L. Y kenL1oa n y repHanuea Ma1epn-Ma1ponm noun1anncL kak ornnn-
oxannum: o6 a1oH nncan nsaec1nm repHanckn yuenm . Lpapep a caoeH 1pype
"npoeaponeum" (e1e a "ayc1e" sa1ponyn a1y ppeankk pek o Ma1epnx-
papopn1enLnnuax acero cyuero). D1pycckne nocnm nonyunnn nekorpa o1 opakyna
1ako o1ae1: amcuyk anac1L nonyun1 1o1, k1o nepamH nouenye1 caok Ma1L (1o ec1L
eHnk).
pnako y Hnornx napopoa nsnauanLnme aosspennn na eHnk, kak na xnayk,
cosna1enLnyk n opyueanennyk caHy no ce6e yunoc1L, noc1enenno yc1ynnnn Hec1o
nnoHy nonn1nk, korpa oxnannkun eHnk yx ampenne1cn ns e, c1anoan1cn
nsane... ak, y rpekoa c1apopaannn en, opyueanennan kak 1akoaan, npeapauae1cn a
nospneH annnnnsHe a 6onee nnn Henee uenoaekonopo6nyk eHe1py - Ma1L ypoxan,
ckopee aneunkk 6ornnk eHnn, ueH any1penne npncyun eHne yx!
102
Y cnaann xe apoxpennoe pennrnosnoe uyac1ao, 6nnskoe k nepaonc1ounnky, okasanocL
cnnLnee n npoponxano aocnpnnnHa1L nnane1y, coepnnnkuyk a ce6e ace cnnm
pnpopm, a uenoH kak neu1o epnnoe, xnaoe n ocHmcnennoe.
rnyxoHann xna eue caeuennm o6mua nHennnnoro uec1aoaannn eHnn, n 10-ro
1paann (Han), korpa Ma1L-mpa-eHnn - Hennnnnua, ns6erak1 1epsa1L e nona1o n
nnyroH. e peprak1 a a1o1 penL paxe "copnnkn": pas pac1y1 onn na a1o eHne,
snaun1 n onn nyxnm Ma1epn.
6oxec1anenne eHnn nponnkno paxe a uepkoanm o6nxop, a nokannnm o6pnp, a unn
ncnoaepn. anpe1enLc1ao 1oHy - coxpanenne o6pnpa ncnoaepn eHne cpepn cennn
necnoro pycckoro eaepa anno1L po nauana XX a. epep (!) ncnoaepLk nony kannncL
eHne:
1o paana n aok rpypyuky
oxo oc1pok, paspmaua1o,
1o ne ka1oH n yka1maana,
e ypnpnnamH rpe6eukoH uecmaana,
aana rpypyuky 6oponmukok 1nxenok,
o xenesnmHn sy6LnHn pxaamHn.
poc1n, Ma1yuka,
poc1n rpeunyk, opHnnyuka...
yuec1aoaan n o6pnp asn1nn eHnn a kpec1nme Ha1epn. ak roaopn1cn, y o6pasoa
knanncn npaaepnnky, a a 6ane - aennnky. nn eue kpyue: 6ory-1o HonncL, no n
ep1y ne rpy6n!
nsmuecknx saroaopax n saknn1nnx nHn eHnn amc1ynano caHmH caeuennmH, a a
nop1aepxpenne knn1am rno1ann ropc1L seHnn. aHeua1enLnm nau a1norpaq .
MakcnHoa coo6uae1, u1o o6muan uenoaannn, no6msannn eHnn n rno1annn cmpo
seHnn a nop1aepxpenne knn1am 6m1oaann eue a pasnmx Hec1ax a konue XIX aeka.
anee MakcnHoa sanncan o pacnpoc1pannkunxcn cnyuanx neuepkoanmx 6pakoa,
ko1opme "conpoaoxpanncL ppeaneunH o6pnpoH 6oronoun1annn Ma1epn-mpo-
eHnn". Monopoxenm rno1ann koHok seHnn a snak nk6an n aepnoc1n po rpo6a. "epa a
Ma1L-mpy-eHnk ace-1akn coxpanne1cn nesm6neHo".
Ma1L-mpa-eHnn - papopn1enLnnua acero xnaoro n caHa - X Y
(cmpan - snaun1 nacmuennan anaro, 1o ec1L xnaan, xnan1enLnan, xnaopopnan). na
nopopnna uenoaeka, n na noppepxnaae1 a neH xnsnL. na ns caonx c1nxn pana
uenoaeky ero 1eno, n nnuL a cnnax ncuenn1L ero.
oo6ue eHnn nHee1 uypopec1aennyk xnsnesaun1nyk cnny. onmne cyuec1aye1
yaepennoc1L a oco6mx, oxpannmx uapax e. onLko a naueH napope no ce penL xna
ppeaneun o6mua 6pa1L na uyx6nny ropc1ky popno - "popn1enLcko" seHnn,
cnyxnauyk M.
nuyun a1n c1pokn na ack xnsnL sanoHnnn ypok, ko1opm npenopana eHy,
HonopoHy napnk, opna pepeaenckan xenunna, korpa on nasaan pasHokuyk
npocenounyk necnyk popory rpnsno: "pnsL y aac a ropope, a specL eHnn-
103
epernnn". ne nonnn 1orpa cHmcn a1oro noaa. a npoc1n1 Hne un1a1enL a1o nnunoe
aocnoHnnanne: n ne nnuy HeHyapm, n yno1pe6nnk Hec1onHenne "n" 1orpa, korpa ono
nHee1 npnHepno-nokasa1enLnoe snauenne, kak a ukonLnoH xnHnueckoH onm1e: "
6epy 2..." xouy ckasa1L 1onLko opno: 1ex, k1o nk6n1 Ma1L caok, na nnkorpa ne
oc1aan1. D1o epnnc1aennoe npaanno, rpe ne1 ncknkuenn.
yna xe na Ma1L acerpa n aespe cun1anacL caHmH yxacnmH npec1ynnenneH. saec1no,
u1o pnHnnne nocHenaanncL nap aarypaHn, no nnkoHy ns nnx n a ronoay ne npnxopnno
ycoHnn1Lcn a npopnuannnx nannnm-xpnum ennko Ma1epn. na ycn paxe caHme
rnyHnname nonm-pypeHapm ne o1aaxnaanncL aosaopn1L xyny na Ma1L-mpy-eHnk.
pannnx ne1onncnmx caopax ec1L onncanne nspeaok nap epynoH, no ne1 nn opnoro
xyporo cnoaa no o1nouennk k Makoun.
"o1 xe, k1o ne nauen ao Mne Ma1L - nape1 ao Mne Hornny!" - sayun1 npopouec1ao,
sanncannoe o6poHmcnoH yxe a naun pnn (npnxopn1cn noa1opn1L ns6n1m 1pknsH:
ne1 popoka a caoeH 1euec1ae).
pnpopa o1nocn1cn k uenoaeky 1ak, kak on o1nocn1cn k pnpope. eHnn n nopseHnm
Hpak paxe pnn caHmx o1ne1mx xpnc1nan-"on1nHnc1oa" nonnm sarpo6no xy1n. Henno
xpnc1nane, aepykune a "aockpecenne Hep1amx", o1uannnee ppyrnx uennnk1cn sa
nk6yk conoHnnky, c1pauacL npoaana a 6espny ne6m1nn. nn npepuyac1ayk1, u1o yxe
amuepkny1m ns nnrn Xnsnn n o6peuenm na ncuesnoaenne, xo1n uac1o n ne nonnHak1,
noueHy.
1enepL asrnnnn1e na Y nocnepnero caHypan kno MncnHa!
c1a1n, a nonnn (nopaepruecn a1oHno 6oH6appnpoake nHenno sa npnaepxennoc1L
smuec1ay) npn saknapke spann neykocnn1enLno co6nkpae1cn o6pnp Ycnokoennn
eHnn; cun1ae1cn, u1o neyaaxenne k e Hoxe1 npnaec1n k c1nxnnmH 6epc1annH.
orpe6anLnme o6pnpm Hnornx napopoa kaHennoro aeka canpe1enLc1ayk1 o
cyuec1aoaannn yaepennoc1n a nepepoxpennn-nepeaonnouennn. apak1epnm nosm
norpe6ennmx a ppeaneunx HornnLnnkax. nann nokonnka na 6ok c noporny1mHn
konennHn n npnxa1mHn k rpypn pykaHn. akoe ckopuennoe nonoxenne nnopa a
Ha1epnnckoH upeae - cnHaon 6ypyuero aospoxpennn. Ma1L aospopn1 ero a caoe apeHn
a o6nnuLe noaopoxpennoro (1. e. anoaL poxpennoro) copopnua, nopo6no 1oHy, kak
aecno na aospoxpae1 senenL n uae1m...
* * *
onxam ne 6onnncL Horyunx anapmk n nn npep keH ne cknonnnn roppo ronoam. nn
c1anoannncL na konenn 1onLko, u1o6m nann1Lcn ns popnnka, npncnyua1Lcn k uono1y
1paa n noknonn1Lcn Ma1epn. eue, u1o6m nonoxn1L ronoay na nnaxy...
e a knnrax yunnn onn ncka1L Y, a a X . epL acnkne
"canuennme nncannn" - a1o 1aopenne uenoaeka, a XnsnL ao acex ee nponanennnx -
1aopenne Ma1epn-pnpopm. oueHy xe am ne annHae1e noyuennnH, saneua1nennmH a
e 1aopennnx? m Hoxe1e na1n nx a co6pa1Lnx naunx no seHnoHy c1panc1ank - a
n1nuax, saepnx, pepeaLnx, 6a6oukax n uae1ax. aH nopckaxy1 pekn n osepa, ae1ep n
ropm, poxpL n rpoH. apenne kaHnn, snrsar Honnnn, 6er o6nakoa, o6pasoaanne nnen,
sanax uepeHyxn - ac a1o ampaxenne X eHnn. oc1apa1ecL npouyac1aoaa1L
a1y xnsnL ceppueH, npopac1n1e a nee nopo6no 1paae, kak yHenn aennkne uaHanm
ppeanoc1n, n am noHe1e, u1o eHnn - ne orpoHnm Hep1am 6ynmxnnk; M-
Y, ko1opoe acerpa c naHn, acerpa .
oaepunao npnnLnn k Ha1epnncko rpypn, n na noaepae1 1e6e 1o, u1o sa6mnn Hm,
nkpn. epL nk6aeo6nnLnan Ma1L nenee1 nac, paxe korpa Hm o1 ee o1aopaunaaeHcn.
104
nackonLko xe 6onLue na 6ype1 nk6n1L nac, ecnn Hm anoaL o6pa1nHcn k e.
orpa xe npnpe1 1ao ypounm uac, na npoc1o npnHe1 1e6n a caon o6Ln1Ln:
mxanLe Hoe npeapa1n1cn a 1yHan,
ryc1n1cn a rnasax nenoropL,
okaxe1cn Hne, u1o 1ecna, kak 1kpLHa,
Mon noacepneanan nno1L;
1o 6ypy npn6oeH n ae1poH n anpepL,
1o c uakaHn aHec1e cHory n asne1e1L,
cennn pasnap no6opo1L.
DHnnn nknncon
6naro npoHmcen Ma1epn ne nyxno "aepn1L", kak a neynoanHyk 6n6neckyk "ca.
1ponuy"; ero Hoxno nosnaaa1L na kaxpoH uary, y6expa1Lcn kaxpm penL,
nepexnaa1L kaxpoe Hrnoaenne. eanLnme nanennn ne nyxpak1cn a aepe.
"eHnn ce1L nau o6un aennkn nren-pann1enL", - nncan eopop exnep.
epaanne nayunme o1kpm1nn nop1aepxpak1 1o, u1o nenocpepc1aenno ouyuann ace
nc1nnnme Hnc1nkn - o1 akLn Mynn n ao-sm po kann1ana oce11a n kann1ana
Ynnnnca, o1 x. pyno n Y. neka po epren nmukoaa n ropn o6seaa: acn eHnn,
apope 6m 1akan nenopanxnan, na caHoH pene konmue1cn, nynLcnpye1, pmun1. naun1
- X.
axe rocypapc1aennme Hyxn nopo roaopn1 o reononn1nke, kak o nekoe
He1areorpaqnn, 6eccosna1enLno npnsnaaan 6nonornueckne kopnn rocypapc1aennmx
o6pasoaann, nponspac1akune ns seHno nouam.
X eHne nnuy1 naun coapeHennnkn - annn1enLnme, nesaypnpnme yuenme,
aa1opm cencaunonnmx 6ec1cennepoa - enpn ec1on n epenc Makkena, eopop ossak
n nHo1n npn, nauynmaakune 1enena1nueckn-aHounonanLnyk cansL c nnane1apnmH
asyHoH. "Mnenne o 1oH, u1o eHnn - a1o acero nnuL sapaxennm xnsnLk kaHenL, 1ak
xe neneno, kak n npepc1aanenne o 1oH, u1o uenoaek - a1o nacenennm kne1kaHn
ckene1". (. appnnr).
* * *
Ma1L-mpa-eHnn - caHoe nsmueckoe, caHoe napopnoe, caHoe ec1ec1aennoe, caHoe
narnnpnoe n caHoe nk6nHoe X X. a c1onL rny6ouaunH noun1anneH
kpoe1cn noun1anne ne 1onLko xenckoro, Ha1epnnckoro auana Mnpospannn, no n
Xenunnm-Ma1epn.
poxpnc1nanckne, "ponc1opnueckne" apeHena Xenunna 6mna okpyxena opeonoH
pennrnosnoro noknonennn. Xenunna-Ma1L noun1anacL aonnouenneH Ma1epn-eHnn n
e pnanoro papa - nnopopopno-Harnuecko cnnm. onLko Xenunne pano Y popn1L
uenoaeka, u1o conoc1aanHo nnuL co caeuennopec1aoH caHo eHnn-paHa1epn acero
xnayuero.
105
Xenunna nepec1ae1 6m1L npoc1o xenunno, kak 1onLko y nee nop ceppueH
sapoxpae1cn kpoxo1nm xnaunk. enepL ona Ma1L-oxannua, n ne cnyuano caHmHn
ppeannHn cnaanncknHn epernnnHn-okpoan1enLnnuaHn 6mnn oxannum - Ma1L n
ouL (apa n enn).
a1ypannc1nueckne xenckne o6pasm a kap1nnnmx ranepenx xnaonncuea kaHennoro
aeka n xenckne c1a1ya1kn ns HaHon1oaa 6nann - 1. n. naneonn1nueckne enepm
nso6paxann ne 1onLko peanLnmx popn1enLnnu, no n 6mnn, 6es coHnennn,
aonnouenno pee nnopopopnn-uapopopnn, ampasn1enLnmH onnue1aopenneH caHnx
6oxec1aennmx Ma1epe-oxannu, osnek Mnpa. so6paxennn a1n nac1onLko
kanonnsnpoaanm, u1o neaosHoxno roaopn1L nnuL o6 nckycc1ae papn nckycc1aa.
ynL1 oxannu aocxopn1 k nepao6m1nmH oxo1nnuLnH o6unnaH, k apeHenaH
Ha1epnncko-popoaoro c1pon. 1e apeHena op aosnnkan aokpyr Xenunnm-
oponauanLnnum. yuo-ceppueanno kaxpo 6onLuo ceHLn 6mna Xenunna-Ma1L;
Ha1pan, popopnan M, - npepc1aan1enLnnua, npoponxa1enLnnua n
pepxa1enLnnua opa. na xe - Xpnua - xpann1enLnnua rnn n poHaunero uara,
nonLsoaaauancn yaaxenneH acex copopnue, a kpyry ko1opmx sannHana ouenL
amcokoe Hec1o.
c apauanocL okono Xenunnm-Ma1epn. Ma1L - a1o ac. na cpepo1oune n ocnoaanne
ceHLn, kpoanoro popc1aa, n op nponcxopn1 1onLko o1 nee. ccnepoaannn a o6nac1n
Honekynnpno 6nonornn nop1aeppnnn, u1o nHenno Xenunna xpann1 "sono1o qonp"
renoa caoero popa-napopa, xpann1 Y (Myxunna, kak 6nonornueckoe cyuec1ao,
ropaspo 6onee nopaepxen acnuecknH nsHenennnH).
nsmke kxnmx cnaann Xenunna coxpannna caoe nckonnoe, roppoe nasaanne -
Ma1ka. a1nnckoe cnoao "qaHnnnn" osnauano ceHLk; xenunna no-na1mnn sayun1
ouenL cxoxe - qeHnna, a 6eppo, nnxka - qeHnnnc. eHnnnc1ckoe panxenne sa
ocao6oxpenne Xenunnm o1 neuec1namx xpnc1nancknx 1papnun sanapno
unannnsaunn apoxnoannnocL, 6esycnoano, ennknHn Ma1epnHn-oxannuaHn.
aue cnoao X opnoro kopnn c na1. "renyc" - pop. eHLn o1 cnoaa M, n6o
o6pasye1cn ona, npexpe acero pnn npoponxennn opa; uapo o1 "saua1L". naanne ne
cun1ann uae1yuyk xenckyk nno1L rpexoano ckaepno: aepL 1orpa ckaepno
okasanacL 6m caHa Ma1L-eHnn. rnasax naunx nsmuecknx pauypoa Xenunna ne
1onLko ne nannnacL "cocypoH pLnaonLcknH" - 1aapLk napue, nnsue n neunc1o, a
nanpo1na, ona 6mna cyuec1aoH o6oxaeHmH. acnepnnua ppeane Hyppoc1n n popoamx
npepann, 6nkc1n1enLnnua caeuennmx o6muaea, snaxapka-uenn1enLnnua, nopo ona
saanacL M, 1o ec1L M.
Mnqm Hnornx napopoa nepenocn1 nac k nauany apeHen, korpa y nc1okoa Xnsnn c1on1
o6pas paHa1epn. Y nnpeuea a1o - "a6yuka pne". aaHm nasmaak1 Ma1epe-
pacaanu, o1 ko1opmx nouna acnkan seHnan xnsnL, - "a6yuka". Y an1auea nsaec1en
kynL1 aHaranpapoa-6a6yuek, onnue1aopnkunx Xenunn-papopn1enLnnu. opennme
cn6npnkn caonx oxannu nasmaak1 kaHennmHn 6a6aHn. napHnn 6mno 6oxec1ao
ono1an a6a. s acex nnpoeaponecknx nsmkoa 1onLko a pycckoH coanapak1
snauennn cnoa: 6a6a (6a6yuka) n saHyxnnn xenunna. D1o coanapenne - nacnepne
paneko nopm Ha1epnnckoro popa, korpa 6a6a 6mna poponauanLnnue, nHekue
anac1L a poHe, poHaunue, 6onLuyxo. ononnHm sacanpe1enLc1aoaann nasaannn
ppeaneunx cae1nnnu: a6Ln opa, a6n ec, a6Ln oua, a6n p n 1. p.
eun pycckn nsmk xpann1 1LHy cokpoanu. oueHy caHoe ouapoaa1enLnoe, caHoe
npekpacnoe, caHoe ypnan1enLnoe n caHoe 1annc1aennoe cyuec1ao nasmaae1cn
6a6ouko? noao a1o co6c1aenno pycckoe. 6pasoaano c noHouLk yHenLun1enLno-
nacka1enLnoro cyqqnkca - ouk - o1 "6a6a", 1o ec1L o1 6a6m - 6a6yukn-
npapopn1enLnnum. asaanne saneua1neno apxanueckne annHnc1nueckne
106
npepc1aanennn, u1o pyun npepkoa xenckoro nona - 6a6yuek Hory1 npnnnHa1L
o6nnuLe 1aknx aospyunmx cyuec1a. yuec1aye1 ouenL ppeanee nsmueckoe noaepLe:
y6naakun 6a6ouky nnuae1cn nokpoan1enLc1aa epernnL. 1akne npepc1aanennn
npncyun HnornH napopaH. ckpy c caHmx paannx apeHen cansmaak1 6a6ouky c
onue6nmHn nnaHn.
* * *
rnn1nne noHeuann pyuy uenoaeka a nounyk 6a6ouky. Y rpekoa onnue1aopenneH
6eccHep1no uenoaeuecko pyun 6mna cnxen - peayuka c kpmnLnHn 6a6oukn.
peapauenne rycennum a nenopanxnyk, "Hep1ayk" kykonky, a no1oH a uypecnoro
nerkokpmnoro Ho1mnLka cpaannaanocL co cHep1Lk uenoaeka n amcao6oxpenneH ns
1ena cospeaue pnn nno xnsnn pyun. pnc1o1enL, cnepyn ppeannH na1ypqnnocoqaH,
opnnH n 1eH xe cnoaoH o6osnauan 6a6ouky n pyuy. na1on a an1nunoH nckycc1ae
nnorpa nso6paxancn c 6a6ouknnmHn kpmnLnHn, no1oHy u1o on kpacnopeunaee ppyrnx
roaopnn o 6eccHep1nn pyun n o 1oH, u1o cHep1L ec1L 1onLko cHena opexpm. Y uenoro
pnpa 1yseHnmx nneHen an. qpnkn, . Hepnkn, -. snn n keannn pyua n
6a6ouka 1oxe o6osnauak1cn, opnnH cnoaoH.
oxec1ao cna - nnnoc, 6pa1 ana1oca (Hep1n) 1akxe napennncn kpmnLnHn 6a6oukn,
nockonLky on cun1ancn apeHennmH ocao6opn1eneH pyun o1 1enecnmx ys. xyan-usm
pacckasmaae1, u1o opnaxpm on yanpen ce6n ao cne 6a6ouko. on 6mn 1ako
nac1aennm, u1o, npocnyauncL, on ponro pasHmunnn: eHy nn cnnnocL, u1o on c1an
6a6ouko, nnn a1o ceuac 6a6ouke cnn1cn, u1o ona c1ana xyan-sm. "D1o n ec1L
npeapauenne aeue", - saknkuae1 Hyppm paoc.
eppep pnn o6ocnoaannn caoe yaepennoc1n a nnpnanpyanLnoH 6eccHep1nn npn6erae1
k ec1ec1aennonayunoHy poaopy: ecnn rycennua Hoxe1 npeapa1n1Lcn a 6a6ouky, 1o
noueHy uenoaeka nocne cHep1n ne xpe1 kakan-1o noaan, neaepoHan qopHa 6m1nn?
epL uenL npeapauenn 6eckoneuna n sarapouna, a oprannueckne cnnm
nepac1opxnHm. mpakuncn pycckn Hmcnn1enL . . osanoa nasmaan 6a6ouky
pyuo rycennum.
"a6oukn no kako-1o npnunne nannk1cn xpann1enLnnuaHn sono1o nmnn aeunoc1n...
D1a nmnL nanne1cn nmnLk nannn... a6oukn 6mnn 6nnsknHn ppysLnHn n
noHounnkaHn Haroa c nesanaHn1nmx apeHen", - yunn pon-yan ac1anepy.
peapauenne 6a6ouek (uepepoaanne o1penLnmx c1apn pasan1nn) nsppeane
npnanekano annHanne na1ypannc1oa n 6ypnno aoo6paxenne qnnocoqoa n noa1oa.
ayky o 6a6oukax - nennpon1eponornk Hoxno noa1oHy cHeno nasmaa1L n
ncnxonorne. eH rny6xe yunme nponnkak1 a sarapounm Hnp 6a6ouek, 1eH 6onee y
nnx noaopoa pnn nepoyHennn, nsyHnennn n aocxnuennn. a6oukn - eu opno Y
X .
xnsnn 6a6ouek Hm ac1peuaeHcn c ypnan1enLnmH n 1annc1aennmH nanenneH
He1aHopqosa-nepeaonnouennn, 1o ec1L npeapauennn neaspauno, npoxopnnao,
"poxpenno nonsa1L" rycennum a noaoe cyuec1ao - nsmckannyk kpacaanuy-6a6ouky.
nsnonornueckn He1aHopqos neo6LncnnH. npepenLno ynpouennoH anpe on
amrnnpn1 1ak: a xn1nnoao ckopnynke-kykonke rycennua pacnapae1cn na o1penLnme
xname Honekynm, pac1aopne1cn caHa a ce6e a nekn 6enoaa1m 6ynLon, ns ko1oporo
sa1eH pasanaak1cn opranm 6a6oukn. ekpe1nme HexannsHm He1aHopqosa oc1ak1cn
sarapko necHo1pn na o6napyxenne, neckonLknx ropHonoa (kaennnLnoro n pp.),
o6ycnoannaakunx npeo6paxenne. o knku k pasrapke - nHenno a kykonke. oaceH ne
cnyuano nk6nHan no1euka peaouek nHenye1cn kykno: korpa-1o ykna,
nepepaaaeHan ns nokonennn a nokonenne no Ha1epnncko nnnnn kak , 6mna
onnue1aopenneH nepeaonnouakunxcn a6yuek-oxannu (nmneunnn nrpa a poukn-
Ha1epn ec1L o1sayk ppeaneunx o6pnpoamx nrpnu-caeuennopec1a).
107
e spn rycennua nasmaae1cn eue nnunnko, 1. e. HanenLko nnunno. pycckoH
nsmke nnunna - a1o Hacka, nop ko1opo ckpm1 caH uenoaek. 1ckpa: npnnnunm,
paynnunm, nnueHep, nnuepe n 1. n. yua naua a kaxpoH noaoH aonnouennn -
Hackapape o6nekae1cn a pasnnunme nnunnm-nnunoc1n, 6m1ne ko1opmx neponroaeuno n
npexopnue. eccHep1na n nenpexopnua 1onLko any1pennnn cy1L uenoaeka - amcune,
yc1peHnennn ero yxa - ero npnanpyanLnoc1L (na1. cnoao
"nnpnanpyyH" osnauae1 "nepennHoe"). -Y ...
peapauenne rycennum, epnnc1aennoe sann1ne ko1opo - epa, a 6a6ouky
conpoaoxpae1cn nopasn1enLnmHn nsHenennnHn, 6naropapn ko1opmH ona o6pe1ae1
aosHoxnoc1L xn1L a noao, aospyuno cpepe n nn1a1Lcn coaepuenno nnmH cnoco6oH.
1nmne nnua a1nx 6oxec1aennmx cyuec1a - nnua 6oroa - nek1ap. eko1opme xe
anpm 6a6ouek - cospannn, uennkoH npepnasnauennme pnn npoponxennn popa, aoo6ue
ne cnoco6nm npnnnHa1L nnuy n xnay1 nnuL po 1ex nop, noka ne o1muy1 caHua n ne
cnapn1cn.
o saueH ac 1ak cnoxno? oueHy rycennua, kykonka? akne naHekn pnpopm specL
1an1cn? opaxae1 c1pannan sakonoHepnoc1L: 6a6oukn, nponcxopnune ns caHmx
kpnuaue-kpacounmx rycennu, o6muno nenpnHe1nme, "cepenLkne". nao6opo1...
arapok ne cuec1L. oe-u1o ac xe o6 a1nx nopxakunx uae1ax nsaec1no. a6oukn, nnn
ueuyekpmnme, opna, ns caHmx ppeannx rpynn xnamx cyuec1a. onnuec1ao anpoa
6a6ouek poc1nrae1 140 1mcnu! 1o6m ouenn1L a1y unqpy, acnoHnnH, u1o konnuec1ao
anpoa acex nosaonounmx - Hnekonn1akunx, n1nu, pm6, seHnoaopnmx,
npecHmkakunxcn - uy1L 6onee 40 1mcnu. onc1nny, eHnn - 1pana a6ouek.
ecoHnenno, u1o a1n 1pene1nme, poaepuname cyuec1aa necy1 naH kakne-1o ouenL
aaxnme aec1n. akne? Lnpokoe none pnn paspyHn n nnnranc1nueckoro paccHo1pennn
npepc1aannk1 co6o yxe caHn nasaannn 6a6ouek. nnHan uono1y nn1ynunn n,
aepon1no, caHn 1oro ne cosnaaan, na1ypannc1m-nepaoo1kpmaa1enn n cnc1eHa1nkn pann
6a6oukaH ouenL aepnme nHena, osnauakune nx aonue6nyk cy1L. aH 1onLko kaxe1cn,
u1o nasaannn cknapmaak1cn c1nxnno n nenponsaonLno. a caHoH xe pene specL ec1L
nopcnypnme sakonoHepnoc1n, n nn o kakoH cnyuanoH coanapennn ne Hoxe1 6m1L n
peun. epL nHn ne 1onLko uenoaeka, no n nk6oro cyuec1aa ec1L ne cnyuanoc1L, a
Harnueckoe o1paxenne ero cyunoc1n. nnHa1enLno annkan a nasaannn 6a6ouek, Hm
saHe1nH: ecnn nx nepeaec1n na pycckn nsmk, 1o amnan1cn onpepenennm cHmcn.
y1kne na6nkpa1enn pann 6a6oukaH nHena 6eccHep1nmx 6ornnL n 6oxec1aennmx
nnHq, xapn1-rpaun, kaHen n 1n1annp, xpnu, npopounu n nerenpapnmx reponnL,
onnue1aopnkunx nyuune xenckne po6pope1enn. MneHosnna, ec1nn, epa, e6a,
p1eHnpa, anpopa, apopa, nnpnpa, a1ona, epo, 1anan1a, rnan, ana1en, o,
aHnnna, aqnn, nnepHnec1pa... ce a1o - nasaannn 6a6ouek.
1o nopckasan HyppoHy uaepy apny nnnek narpapn1L 6a6ouek nHenaHn ppeannx
uenn1ene n apaueaa1ene? Maxaon n opannpn - cmnoaLn cknennn. Dkaapope
aopn1cn neo6muano kpacnaan 6a6ouka nanauen-pernna (a nepeaope - npnnuecca-
aceuenn1enLnnua): anauen - pouL cknennn. uec1L ero ppyro pouepn nrnn
nasaana ne 1onLko nayka o coxpanennn spopoaLn - rnrnena, no n npekpacnan 6a6ouka.
1eu cknennn - nonnon nsaec1en, noHnHo npouero, n kak 6oxec1ao apaueaannn.
Mopqe - cmn nnnoca. a6ouka napnaccnyc penLqnyc nasaana a uec1L caeuenno
ropm apnac, y nopnoxnn ko1opo naxopnncn enLqnckn opakyn, a a rpo1ax
o6n1ann Mysm. c1L 6a6oukn, ko1opmH npncaoenm nHena nnnokpa1a, anena n ppyrnx
snaHenn1mx apaueaa1ene.
nHqannpm, renno1ncm, rennkonnpm, Hopqnpm, ca1npnpm, recnepnpm, pananpm - ace
a1n npenec1nme cospannn onpaapmaak1 caon nasaannn.
108
kak xopoun, kak Hnnm ceppuy naun cpepnepycckne aec1nnum ecnm, Xnsnn n
k6an! apxa1nnum, sopLkn, aecnnnkn, naannnornaskn, sna1oryskn, kpannannum,
6paxnnkn, rony6nnkn, kpaernaskn, nynkn cepe6pnc1me... a nepam asrnnp "o6munme"
penennum n uep1ononoxoakn ne c1onL pockouno-6pockn, kak nx 1ponnueckne cec1pm.
"e noHe1 n ne saHe1n1 roppm asop nnonneHennm" ac o6annne naunx onyuek -
ckpoHnmx noneamx uae1oa n cansaaunx c nnHn caok cypL6y 6a6ouek. eso6npnme n
nenyrnname, onn necy1 nkpnH papoc1L n yHnpo1aopenne, ncuennk1 kpaco1o.
nn npo6yxpak1 ueHnue-nponsn1enLnme o6pasm pe1c1aa na uae1yueH nyry,
nanoHnnak1 naH o Horyuec1aennoH n aHec1e c 1eH nexnoH npn1nxennn opno
eHnn, o , cnoco6nmx nsneun1L n 1eno, n pyuy.
ae1ok n cnpnuan na neH 6a6ouka acerpa a rnasax uenoaeka nannnncL cnHaonoH
Xnsnn n onnue1aopenneH coaepuenneue kpaco1m. aepL uae1m - caHoe pnanoe
ykpauenne eHnn - uae1y1 no1oHy, u1o ec1L nacekoHme. D1o pnn nnx - nepenocunkoa
Xnsnn (nmnLum) ne xanek1 pac1ennn nn kpacok, nn apoHa1oa. 6a6ouka cpepn
nacekoHmx 1akan xe xeHuyxnna, kak opxnpen cpepn uae1oa. ae1m n 6a6oukn
cospanm ppyr pnn ppyra. X.
o saueH 1akan neonncyeHan kpaco1a caHnH 6a6oukaH? 1o ouenn1 nx napnpm,
6ora1c1ao n Hnorouae1Le ko1opmx c1onL uypecno, u1o nn opnn yuenm ne Hor na1n nH
o6Lncnennn? eyx1o 1onLko acnepc1ane nposanueckoro ec1ec1aennoro o16opa Hornn
popn1Lcn 1akne uepeapm? ypoxnnkaH ouenL sa1pypnn1enLno xnaonnca1L 6a6ouek:
kpackaH nano ne xaa1ae1 rny6nnm n nepnaHy1poao npospaunoc1n, acex o11enkoa
papyxno uae1oHysmkn, xnsnenno nrpm nepennaoa.
1o, kpoHe Ma1epn-3eHnn, Hor opapn1L caonx nk6nHnu 1aknH aennkonenneH? 1nkpL
ne cnyuano nayka o 6a6oukax nasmaae1cn nennpon1eponorne, u1o Hoxno nepeaec1n
kak nsyuenne kpmna1mx kaHne-caHouae1oa. pes neko1opmx pparouennmx kaHne,
nanpnHep, ara1a, nopasn1enLno noxox na axypnoe kpmnmuko 6a6oukn.
pnHeua1enLno, u1o n Hnnepanorn, n an1oHonorn a caonx onncannnx nonLsyk1cn
cnoaoH "ueuyka".
kpacka 6a6ouek naaopn1 na HmcnL o nponcxoxpennn ee o1 eHnn, 1ounee o1
Hnnepanoa, - a1nx uae1oa nopseHenLn. eHno-kpacnme py6nnm, nnHonno-sono1nc1me
un1pnnm, rony6oaa1o-senenoaa1me 6epnnnm, opanxeame rnaunn1m, npnxo1nnao-
ysopua1me xanueponm, nasypn1m, Hanaxn1m c nx aonnykue-sarapounmHn
caoc1aaHn... onLko Hnnepanm - a1a 1annc1aennan coc1aannkuan uac1L seHno kopm
- Hornn npnpa1L 6a6oukaH 1akyk pasnoo6pasnyk okpacky, cxoxyk nHenno c okpacko
Hnnepanoa.
6pa1nH annHanne na coo1ae1c1aennoe coue1anne kpacok: ns acero, u1o ec1L na
eHne, Hm 1onLko y 6a6ouek HoxeH na6nkpa1L 1akne uypecnme coue1annn uae1oa, kak
aHe1nc1o-qnone1oaoro c cypLHnnmH, uepnoro c 6npksoao-rony6mH, uepnoro c
nsyHpypno-senenmH, rony6oro c xpnso6epnnno-sono1nc1mH, Hepno-xen1oro c cepmH,
xen1oro c nnkeneao-6enmH, ceporo c cepe6pnc1mH n 1. p. D1n xe coue1annn Hm
naxopnH a neko1opmx pepknx Hnnepanax, kak nannponn1, copann1, nepnc1epn1,
nnHonn1, apy6ec1n1, aH6pa, cenec1n1...
e Hec1noc1n, rpe ac1peuak1cn caHme kpynnme n caHme kpacounme 6a6oukn, o6muno
6ora1m n caHmHn pasnouae1nmHn HnnepanaHn. pe Hm naxopnH nan6onee kpacnamx n
Hnorouae1nmx 6a6ouek? pasnnnn, a onyH6nn, a Mekcnke, a ro-oc1. snn. rpe
o6napyxnaanncL caHme uennme Hnnepanm? 1ex xe c1panax. akoe nopasn1enLnoe
coo1nouenne, 6es acnkoro coHnennn, ne Hoxe1 6m1L npoc1mH coanapenneH.
oxec1aennan kpaco1a pparouennmx kpnc1annoa canpe1enLc1aye1 o6 orpoHno cnne, a
nnx saknkunno. nsnyuennnH n o6nsanm 6a6oukn caoe nenoa1opnHo okpacko.
109
ue a 1900 r. a apnxe 6mna cospana ukona pnn nsyuennn "Harne1nuecknx aHanaun
n papnaun kpnc1annoa"...
neck 6a6ouknnmx kpmnLea, no ko1opmH ckonLsn1 npkne 6nnkn, ouenL nanoHnnae1
6neck 6naropopnmx Hnnepanoa. ce nccnepoaa1enn a onncannn okpackn 6a6ouek, ne
croaapnaancL, ncnonLsyk1 1akne onpepenennn, kak onanoaan, nn1apnan, xeHuyxnan,
canqnpo-rony6an, Hepno-kpacnan, 1eHno-6ponsoaan n 1. p. Mnorne yuenme
cpaannaak1 6a6ouek n uenkoame 1kann c nepennaaHn o1unnqoaannmx pparouennmx
kaHne, roaopn1, u1o 6a6oukn Hopqo caepkak1 paxe npue nonnpoaannoro He1anna.
c1a1n, neko1opme ns naunx 6a6ouek sa cao 6neck 1ak n nasmaak1cn:
nepnaHy1poakn, nepennannum, He1annoanpkn sono1me. ocnenn1enLno-saonkn
He1annnueckn 6neck kxnmx 6a6ouek a Hysenmx an1pnnax sac1aanne1 noce1n1ene
cnpaunaa1L: "eH a1o nx nokpacnnn?" aHe1nH, u1o o ppyroH eHnoH ype - o ae1ax
nnk1o nnkorpa 1ak ne roaopnn. pmnLn 6a6ouek, kak n caHouae1m, npak1nueckn ne
amuae1ak1 o1 apeHenn. o1 kak onncmaae1 6a6ouek Yonnec a caoeH snaHenn1oH 1pype
"ponnueckan pnpopa": "...specL rocnopc1ayk1 upesamuano npkne He1annnueckne
cnnne, unc1eune uenkoanc1o-sennme n aennkonennme kpacnme 1ona... nepepko
kpmnLn kak 6m npnnyppenm He1annnueckn-sennmHn ueuykaHn n 6nec1kaHn... y
neko1opmx anpoa a1n nn1na n pncynok kpmnLea kak 6yp1o ns pacnnaanennoro cepe6pa
nnn sono1a, ppyrne anpm o1nnaak1 aceaosHoxnmHn uae1aHn n nopo6no uenky nnn
npkoHy onany". pnHepno 1ak xe onncmaae1 6neck 6a6ouek n e1c a caonx sannckax
"a1ypannc1 na Hasonke". c a1o - kocaennme nop1aepxpennn nponcxoxpennn
okpackn 6a6ouek o1 kaHne-caHouae1oa.
o nopnnnnmH "ykpauenneH Hnpa" Yonnec cun1an ne pneanmx, a nounmx 1ponnuecknx
6a6ouek. c1L nounan 6a6ouka, ko1opan 1ak n nasmaae1cn: 6oxec1aennan. pnn uero
c1onL aennkonennme, npkne opennnn cyHepeunmH n nounmH 6a6oukaH? aueH 1oHy xe
naueHy nounoHy 6paxnnky pockounan 6apxa1nan amunaka? aueH ppyrne nounme
kpacaanum paspnxak1cn a uae1nme Hexa? 1o nk6ye1cn nHn ao Hpake? oc1a1ouno
annHa1enLno asrnnny1L na kpmnmuko nk6oro nounoro Ho1mnLka, n pasrnnpnuL
nsmckannme, y1onuennme, 6esynpeunme ysopm-opnaHen1m, o1nnuakunecn
ypnan1enLnmH nsnuec1aoH n rennanLnmH uyac1aoH Hepm.
saueH c1onL ampasn1enLnme "rnasa" nounoHy rnasua1oHy 6paxnnky nnn 6onLuoHy
nounoHy naannnLeHy rnasy (1akne xe "rnasa" ec1L na nepLnx naannna)? aoo6ue, u1o
1akoe a1n rnasa, n kakoao nx nasnauenne? aknH uennH cnyxa1 a1n sarapounme
cnHaonm? epL ne npoc1o xe a1o npnxo1L pnpopm, a ko1opo ac uenecoo6pasno?
cno, u1o pnpopa napennna 6a6ouek 1aknHn napnpaHn aoace ne pnn 1oro, u1o6m
y6naxa1L nauy no1pe6noc1L a nk6oaannn npekpacnmH. o ac xe, MY 6a6oukn
1ak npekpacnm nHenno c naue, uenoaeuecko 1oukn spennn? koHy 6paxnnk
Hep1aan ronoaa nokasmaae1 nsaec1nm cnHaon - uepen co ckpeuennmHn koc1nHn?
1nuaH? nn ppyrnH 6a6oukaH? Yam, na ace a1n aonpocm y naykn ne1 ann1nmx
o1ae1oa.
ponncnan nc1nna rnacn1, u1o caoeo6pasnan okpacka nyxna 6a6oukaH, u1o6m amxn1L.
kpacka 6maae1 nokpoan1enLc1aenno-Hacknpykuan, o1nyrnaakuan,
npepynpexpakuan n HnHnkpnpykuan, 1. e. noppaxakuan. pmno 6a6oukn kannnHm,
aocnponsaopn1 yanpun nnc1 c 1ako yHonoHpaun1enLno 1ounoc1Lk, u1o
qn1ona1onorn paxe onpepennnn anp nnecenn, ko1opm na a1oH "nnc1e" nso6paxen!
poncxoxpenne nokpoan1enLc1aenno okpackn - opnn ns caHmx 1pypnmx aonpocoa
pnn aaonkunonnc1oa, n o1ae1n1L na nero ne cHornn nn apann, nn Yonnec, nn Meppe,
nn Mknnep, nn Loaen, nn nmneunne 6nonorn-rene1nkn. cnn aann1L ac na
ec1ec1aennm o16op, 1o aosnnkae1 aonpoc: kak Hor o16op o1o6pa1L c1onL xn1poyHnm
caepxcoaepuennm pncynok, ecnn npoc1o pacue1 nokasmaae1, u1o na a1o yuno 6m
ropaspo 6onLue apeHenn, ueH cyuec1aye1 pannm anp 6a6ouek n paxe pannoe
110
ceHec1ao? a poaepenne pncynka po qo1orpaqnuecko 1ounoc1n ny1eH o16opa Hanmx
aapnaun 1pe6yk1cn pecn1kn (ecnn ne co1nn) Hnnnnonoa ne1; anp ne xnae1 c1onL
ponro, u1o6m cyHe1L aocnonLsoaa1Lcn poc1nrny1mH pesynL1a1oH.
eu: pnn 1oro, u1o6m o16op aoo6ue Hor naua1L pa6o1a1L, nsnauanLnm pncynok
ponxen yxe npnnocn1L ouy1nHyk nonLsy, a nonesnmH on Hoxe1 6m1L 1onLko 1orpa,
korpa poc1nrne1 onpepennno c1enenn coaepuenc1aa. onyuae1cn, u1o pncynok
ponxen 6mn nonan1Lcn cpasy yxe a ro1oaoH anpe. paxe ecnn nm1a1Lcn o6Lncnn1L
ac cnacn1enLnmHn cnyuanmHn Hy1aunnHn (ckaukaHn a pasan1nn), 1o y acnkoro
Hmcnnuero uenoaeka cpasy aosnnkae1 ppyro, : kakan xe "cnenan"
cnna pnpopm nanpaanne1 c1onL pasyHnme Hy1aunn? nokpoan1enLc1aye1 6a6ouke
a npno6pe1ennn nokpoan1enLc1aenno okpackn?
e napo 6m1L ceHn nnpe ao n6y, u1o6m nonn1L, u1o specL nponanne1cn 1aopueckan
pen1enLnoc1L c1nxnnmx yxoa, ko1opme y pasnmx napopoa nHenoaanncL ennnHn,
eHonaHn, enHn, DnLqaHn, aaaHn, osnkaHn, ycankaHn, epernnnHn,
a6yukaHn. D1o 1e 1annc1aennme n pasyHnme yunoc1n-nnm, c1onune sa kaxpmH
npnpopnmH nanenneH n nanpaannkune ero. 1o 1akoe nanennn pnpopm? D1o 1onLko
aneunne o6pasm a1nx Hnoronnknx n xnsnenk6namx yxoa. 6a6ouka kannnHa -
paneko ne npepen nx nso6pe1a1enLnoc1n...
oo6ue HnHnkpnn npepc1aanne1 co6o nnuL uac1nm cnyua 1oro nanennn
konaeprenunn (cxopc1aa a pasan1nn), cyuec1aoaanne ko1oporo na6nkpae1cn a
pnpope (nanp., cxopc1ao nnc1Lea nanopo1nnka n ysopoa Moposa na oknax), no
npnunnm n ycnoann ko1oporo oc1ak1cn pnn 6nnsopyko naykn 1ano sa ceHLk
neua1nHn. ecnn nenosnana cy1L nanennn a uenoH, u1o roaopn1L o uac1noc1nx? o xe
caHoe nponcxopn1 ne 1onLko a an1oHonornn, no n ao acex naykax: no Hepe nx
"nporpecca" ycyry6nne1cn 1peaoxnoe uyac1ao nenonnHannn M .
epon1no, u1o aepunn aosHoxnoro nnn, aepnee, neaosHoxnoro poc1nrna 6a6ouka
kannro: na o6opo1no c1opone ee sapnnx kpmnLea nso6paxena ronoaa coam c napo
neHnrakunx amnyuennmx rnas, oc1pmH xnunmH knkaoH n u1knH pncynkoH nepLea.
rpoHnme rnasa c upnmH spaukoH n xn1mH o6opkoH. pnnna nyxnyk nosy, 6a6ouka
o1nyrnaae1 aparoa. ak aosnnkno c1onL pockonanLnoe nso6paxenne?
nn 1oro u1o6m nHn1npoaa1L rnasa, 6a6ouka ponxna sna1L, u1o n1num nx 6on1cn.
1kypa ona a1o ysnana? 1o nopckasan 6a6ouke, na koro ona ponxna 6m1L noxoxa?
ak 6a6ouka poc1nrna 1akoro ouenoHnnkuero cxopc1aa? esycnoano, ne
cosna1enLnmH ak1oH aonn. orpa c noHouLk kakoro xypoxnnka? 1o, kak ne en-
okpoan1enLnnua nosa6o1nnacL o 6essaun1no kannro, cna6pna ee yc1pauakunH
coannmH nnkoH?
noxneune po nenpaaponopo6nn nokpoan1enLc1aennme npncnoco6nennn nopaxak1
eue 6onLue, korpa snakoHnuLcn co ace coaokynnoc1Lk noaepennn, cansannoro c
peHonc1paune yrpoxakunx npnsnakoa. ycennum neko1opmx kxnoaHepnkancknx
6paxnnkoa npn nanapennn apara nopnnHak1 xaoc1, ouenL noxoxn na sHennyk
ronoay, n amrn6ak1 ero oco6mH o6pasoH. 1ak kak c o6enx c1opon ero nHek1cn eue n
rnaskn, 1o pec1an1enLno cospae1cn aneua1nenne, u1o nHeeuL peno c nac1onue
sHee. orpa rycennuaH 6paxnnkoa ananaroccknx oc1poaoa rposn1 onacnoc1L, y nnx,
cnoano y nac1onunx sHe, ns uenn a xaoc1oao uac1n nokasmaae1cn uepnm nsmuok,
ko1opmH onn ueaenn1 1ouno 1ak xe, kak n sHen.
pnako caHyk no1pncakuyk qopHy HnHnkpnn na6nkpan opnn ns uaepcknx 6nonoroa
a ropax na o. aa. o1nn rycennu, anno1nyk npnxaauncL ppyr k ppyry, nonsnn no
seHne: onn nHn1npoaann sHek...
111
u opna uypecnan, nepasrapannan cnoco6noc1L 6a6ouek - nx caepxuyac1aennan,
1enena1nueckan cansL Hexpy co6o, ko1opyk yunme ycnoano nasmaak1
6nonnqopHaune nnn 6nonornuecko papnocansLk. ak caHum 6a6ouek ca1ypnn sa
10-12 kH uyk1 caHok? Laeuapckn an1oHonor openL yc1anoann cnoco6noc1L caHua
naxopn1L caHky na pacc1onnnn paxe a 18 kH! ak nn kaxe1cn a1a unqpa neaepon1no,
no ona 6mna nop1aepxpena ppyrnHn nccnepoaa1ennHn. aepL caHeu ne 1onLko
uyac1aye1 nk6oanm npnsma, no n cpasy 6esoun6ouno onpepenne1 nanpaanenne
non1a k ero nc1ounnky.
ue 6onee sarapouno 1o, u1o on opnen1npye1cn ne no nanpaanennk ae1pa, 1. e. sanax
k neHy ne ponocn1cn ae1poH. a6p ykasmaae1, u1o caHum ne1n1 no ae1py, a
nanpaanennn, nanHenee amropnoH pnn 1ex, k1o a caonx nonckax pykoaopc1aye1cn
o6onnnneH. ce xnHnueckne rnno1esm o6onnnnn specL o1napak1. Yc1anoaneno, u1o
6a6oukn uyk1 ppyr ppyra na 1aknx pacc1onnnnx, korpa o6onn1enLnme peuen1opm
npoc1o 6eccnnLnm. nn xe kakne-1o neo6muanme aHanaunn npncyun 1oHy, u1o Hm
nasmaaeH sanaxoH. ueanpno, u1o 6a6oukn nonLsyk1cn ne 1onLko opnnH o6onnnneH a
npnamunoH cHmcne a1oro cnoaa. a n anpaae nn Hm nasmaa1L o6onnnneH uyac1ao,
c1onL o1nnunoe o1 uenoaeueckoro o6onnnnn? noao a1o specL Hoxno yno1pe6nn1L
nnuL sa nenHenneH nyuuero, 6onee nopxopnuero. eH 6onee, u1o 1anm o6onnnnn -
a1oro caHoro sarapounoro ns uyac1a - eue xpy1 caoero o6Lncnennn.
ak kakne xe aonnm ynaannaak1 6a6ouknnm ycnkn-an1ennm? eckonLko pecn1koa
rnno1es nm1ak1cn noc1nuL a1o ouepepnoe Y... mpakuncn yuenm-6noxnHnk,
opnn ns cospa1ene 6noanepre1nkn . en1-Leppn nnue1: " Xnao pnpope uac1o
pec1ayk1 cnc1eHm 6onee cnoxnme, ueH 1e, ko1opmHn nonLsyk1cn qnsnkn pnn
npoaepkn caonx 1eopn".
ce snak1 o n1nuLnx nepene1ax, no aepL 6a6oukn 1oxe coaepuak1 aneua1nnkune
nepene1m, nnorpa coaepuenno neo6LncnnHme, o ko1opmx . a6okoa, nnca1enL-
aHnrpan1 n yuenm-an1oHonor, nncan: "... ypa? aueH? pnpopo eue ne pokasano
nnn yxe sa6m1o..." orpa na enone nonannk1cn c1an nepene1nmx 6a6ouek, Hec1nme
xn1enn roaopn1, u1o a1o pyun o1npaannncL na nanoHnnuec1ao k caeuennmH Hec1aH.
a6oukn - nyuune a Hnpe ne1ynm, nx nepene1m ns aponm a Hepnky o6napyxnn eue
onyH6. neanppoam 6paxnnk ne1n1 co ckopoc1Lk 6onee 60 kH a uac n nokpmaae1
pacc1onnne a 1200 kH Henee ueH sa cy1kn! a6ouka Hep1aan ronoaa sane1ae1 paxe na
ypanennm o. a. nenm. o aceH sakonaH qnsnkn 6a6oukn ne1a1L ne ponxnm. onn
ne1ak1. kasanocL, u1o onn ne1ak1 coaceH ne 1ak, kak ppyrne nacekoHme nnn n1num,
a ncnonLsyk1 caoeo6pasnm peak1nanm panra1enL.
aHo snaHenn1o ny1euec1aennnue cpepn 6a6ouek nanne1cn pananpa-Honapx,
exeropno ocenLk npeoponeaakuan 5000 kH o1 anapm po Mekcnkn, a aecno
aosapauakuancn o6pa1no. annyuunHn ne1a1enLnmHn kauec1aaHn o6napak1 ne
coapeHennme caHon1m n paxe ne n1num, a nHenno a1a 6a6ouka. 1akoHy
saknkuennk npnunn cneunannc1m ns opon1ckoro ynnaepcn1e1a.
ropax nepaneko o1 Mexnko, na HanenLkoH yuac1ke a 8 ra kaxpyk ocenL co6npak1cn
na snHoaky po 50 Hnn. pananp-Honapxoa, a aecno onn o1npaannk1cn uepes aecL
kon1nnen1 a anapy. eaepon1no, no qak1: necHo1pn na 1o, u1o sa ne1o a Hec1ax nx
noc1onnnoro o6n1annn ycneaak1 cHenn1Lcn 3-4 nokonennn n na snHoaky ne1n1 yxe
npanpaanyukn, nx qenoHenanLnan nacnepc1aennan naHn1L 6esoun6ouno ykasmaae1 nH
1o Hec1o a Hekcnkancknx ropax, ko1opoe onn nnkorpa ne anpenn. Yuenme nasmaak1
a1o nnc1nnk1oH, n pnn ukonLnnka ac amrnnpn1 poaonLno-1akn nonn1nmH: ak
6a6oukn naxopn1 popory? - o nnc1nnk1y. u1o 1akoe nnc1nnk1? - a1o apoxpennan
cnoco6noc1L, nanpnHep, 6a6ouek naxopn1L popory...
112
a6p, ko1oporo Hoxno 6mno 6m nasaa1L aennknH na1ypannc1oH, ecnn 6m ne ero
6esxanoc1nme onm1m-nm1kn c 6a6oukaHn, ckasan: "nc1nnk1 ec1L enn nacekoHoro".
a6p okasancn 6nnxe acex k nc1nne, n6o nckonnm cHmcn nonn1nn "renn" -
6oxec1aennm papopn1enL-okpoan1enL opa: o1ckpa popoayk, nacnepc1aennyk
naHn1L nasmaak1 renno. nc1nnk1 - a1o rennanLnan nn1ynunn 6a6oukn,
saneua1neauan onm1 6ecuncnenno aepennum npepmpyunx aonnouenn n noa1oHy on,
a o1nnune o1 paccypka, nnkorpa ne o6Hane1.
eu opna aonnykuan 1ana, cansannan c caHmHn o6aopoxn1enLnmHn 6a6oukaHn -
M. oueHy onn, cnoano sarnnno1nsnpoaannme coHnaH6ynm, 1ak neypepxnHo
ne1n1 na cae1? 6ropak1, a nepepko n cropak1... cnn onn 1ak o6oxak1 cae1, u1o
c1peHn1cn k ero nc1ounnky nouLk, 1o noueHy xe onn npnuy1cn o1 nero pnH, korpa
cae1n1 onnue?
"6Lncnenne", aouepuee a yue6nnkn, 1akoao: rnynme Ho1mnLkn ne1n1 na cae1 no1oHy,
u1o nounme uae1m, c ko1opmx onn o6muno co6npak1 nek1ap, 6enme, n nc1ounnk cae1a
nanoHnnae1 nH uae1ok... onyc1nH. o ec1L neckonLko neyansok. o-nepamx, 6a6oukn
o1mcknaak1 nounme uae1m ne no uae1y a, npexpe acero, no sanaxy. saec1no, u1o
6onee cnnLnmHn sanaxaHn o6napak1 kak pas cna6o okpauennme uae1m: nanpmun,
Hannkn, nnnnen, 1aaonra n 1. p., a 1akxe 6enme uae1m, pacnyckakunecn nouLk.
oco6o ynon1enLnm apoHa1 nc1ouak1 nHenno 6enme nounme uae1m, onmnneHme
nounmHn 6a6oukaHn, nanpnHep, naua nk6ka, nnn nounan qnanka.
o-a1opmx, o1kypa nsaec1no, kak amrnnpn1 okpacka uae1oa a rnasax 6a6oukn?
saec1no ppyroe: 6a6oukn pasnnuak1 nan6onee unpokyk raHHy uae1oa no cpaanennk
c ppyrnHn xnamHn cyuec1aaHn. cnn uenoaek pasnnuae1 cnek1p uae1oa o1 kpacnoro po
qnone1oaoro, 1o pnn nouno 6a6oukn on pacunpne1cn o1 ynL1paqnone1oaoro po
nnqpakpacnoro. pepnonarak1, u1o c1onL nopasn1enLnan uyac1an1enLnoc1L
o6Lncnne1cn nannuneH a rnasax 6a6oukn oco6oro nnrHen1a, nepeaopnuero neanpnHme
nyun a anpnHm cae1. Mm ne HoxeH paxe aoo6pasn1L, u1o a1o 1akoe - anpe1L
neanpnHyk pnpopy ao acH Hnorouae1nn. Mnorne uae1m, kaxyunecn uenoaeky
6nepnmHn n neaspaunmHn, cnnk1 aennkonennmHn kpackaHn ynL1paqnone1oaoro Hnpa.
1o xe apeHn Hnorne uae1m o6napak1 nnqpakpacnmH nsnyuenneH, aocnpnnnHaeHmH
nounmHn 6a6oukaHn, u1o noHnHo sanaxa noHorae1 nH naxopn1L a1n uae1m.
, nakoneu, a-1pe1Lnx, M . eko1opme anpm nounmx 6a6ouek, ne1nunx
na cae1, aoo6ue ne nyxpak1cn a nnue, paxe a nek1ape. akoaa, k npnHepy, naua
ca1ypnnn, nnn 6onLuo nouno naannnn rnas. caHkn, n caHum ca1ypnn cospanm
ncknkun1enLno pnn nk6an n npoponxennn popa. nn ne snak1, u1o 1akoe epa; y nnx
ne1 paxe opranoa nnueaapennn. eckonLko noue nk6oanmx nrp - n nx xnsnL
npoxn1a. 1o xe aneue1 nx k ornk, ecnn ne nk6oaL n ne ronop?
a6p ykasmaae1, u1o cae1 caeun n naHnm o1anekae1 paxe caHuoa o1 caHkn: "ne1ea a
koHna1y, onn 6pocak1cn k cae1y, onannaak1 cao nyuok. ecnn ne o6ropn1, 1o
ycaxnaak1cn aosne ornn n cnpn1 specL, cnoano npnkneennme... aecL aeuep onn
npocnpenn specL, cnpenn 1aH n na cnepykun penL. ronL naHnm okasancn cnnLnee
caHkn".
1o xe a1o sa cnna, npeoponeaakuan paxe Horyuec1aenneune nnc1nnk1m
npoponxennn popa n caHocoxpanennn? epL nk6oanm soa caHkn ponxen sa1Hn1L ac
na cae1e a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne cnoaa!? akne aocnoHnnannn npo6yxpae1 a 6a6ouke
nnaHn? 6muno ace pnkne xnao1nme ero onacak1cn n ns6erak1...
yqn aqns anpen a "ornenno cHep1n" amcun Hnc1nueckn cHmcn. e Hor npo1n
HnHo n Horyun yH e1e; a cHep1n on cnmun1 ronoc xnsney1aepxpakue pnpopm.
oa1-na1ypannc1 no-caoeHy nc1onkoamaae1 cyqnckn o6pas: oronL - 6oxec1aennan
c1nxnn, 6a6ouka - pyua, cHep1L - cnnnnne c pnpopo (cnnnnne kak c1anoanenne, a
113
ne kak pac1aopenne - ynnu1oxenne). o1 kak sayun1 a1a HmcnL a "naxennoH
1oHnennn" a nepeaope epecaeaa:
euL Hon - k opnnH nnuL HyppmH,
epnL - ona naune1 rnyHn1Lcn!
XnsnL n cnaank, u1o ynopno
cHep1n ornenno c1peHn1cn.
nouL nk6an, a kakyk caH 1m
XnsnL npnnnn n xnsnn cenn,
yac1ao c1pannoe nncxopn1,
nuL oronL apann sappee1.
1enLk 1m yx ne HnpnuLcn,
Xn1L ne HoxeuL 1m ao Hpake,
m c1peHnuLcn ynoenno,
conpnxenLk a amcueH 6pake.
MunuLcn, cnoano keH ronnHm,
y1L ne kaxe1cn panek,
Mnr - n ao1, po cae1a xapnm,
m cropaeuL, Ho1mnek!
cnn x soa: "yHpn n c1anL!"
nn1 a pyue cHnpenno,
m nnuL ropec1nm npnueneu
cyHpauno cenenno.
o1 kakne nsyHn1enLnme a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne cnoaa cyuec1aa o6n1ak1 pnpoH c naHn,
na eHne. Mm ace rnasa cnoHann, pasrnnpmaan "ne1akune 1apenkn" ns cosaespnn
pnona n npoune "nocnannn ns ocHoca", a X Ma1epn-eHnn 1ak n ne
HoxeH npoun1a1L. ne Hyppeno: npenec1nme cnnLqnpm pnn uenoaeka - npoc1o
"apepn1enn" (kak 6yp1o eHnn 6ype1 apepn1L caHa ce6e!?).
aepL a6oukn - a1o aonnouennme aec1nnum ns kaknx-1o conpepenLnmx, seHnmx, no
neaepoHmx Hnpoa: nonk6oanm coks payx caHmx pnanmx cyuec1a - ae1ka n a6oukn
- a1o X - epnnc1ao o6pa, Myppoc1n n paco1m. a kpmnLnx 6a6oukn,
kak na ckpnxannx aeunoc1n, nauep1anm snakn 6eccHep1nn, no 1onLko ne pnn 1ex, uLn
"nk6oaL k pnpope" ampaxae1cn a c6ope rep6apnea n konnekunonnpoaannn
nacekoHmx:
114
noro1L amnyknm, 6nec1nun
Moxna1oe 6pkuko noppen,
xo6o1ok, eue ppoxaun,
pep cHep1no 1LHo ouenenen...
Xepap pe epaanL
nancek1op - ec1ec1aonc, o1pesakun ycnkn y 6a6oukn "papn naykn",
nonarae1, u1o ona ne ouyuae1 6onn. D1o ne 1ak. Laepckne yuenme yc1anoannn, u1o
paxe y rycennu ampa6a1maak1cn a ranrnnnx 1e xe aeuec1aa, ko1opme o6pasyk1cn n a
Hosry uenoaeka, korpa on ncnm1maae1 6onL. nancekunn 6ykaanLno osnauae1
xnaoceuenne, 1. e. pacceuenne xnao, 1peneuyue nno1n, onepaunonnme onm1m nap
xnao1nmHn nopo paxe 6es anec1esnn. Maxa1Ha anpn nasmaan anancekunk caHmH
uepnmH npec1ynnenneH uenoaeka. nua pnn pasHmunenn nk6osna1enLnoHy
un1a1enk: epnnc1aenno c1pano, rpe npo1na a1oro npec1ynnennn 6mnn npnnn1m
onpepenennme sakonm, 6mna naunonan-counannc1nueckan epHannn...
, ??? 1ae1n1L Hory1 1onLko caHn 6a6oukn. o cyHee1 nn uenoaek
cnpocn1L y nnx o6 a1oH, ne o1pesan ycnkoa?
* * *
ocne c1onL ponroro o1c1ynnennn o1 ocnoano kanam noaec1aoaannn, a ko1opoH,
opnako, apyHunam un1a1enL nape1 pnn ce6n Hnoro noyun1enLnoro, aepneHcn k
paHa1epnH-a6yukaH-oxannuaH.
-, , X-LM, M-,
- aocxopn1 k 1eH apxanuecknH apeHenaH, korpa ona
noun1anacL Horyuec1aenno n aeue uapopeko. Henno a6a-ra - "apnua
eanuLero uapc1aa" aepunna xenckne nocae1n1enLnme o6pnpm n noaepnna
nocaeunnmH cokpoaennme ckasannn. naunx aonue6nmx ckaskax ec1L naHkn na 1o,
u1o 1anme o6pnpm coaepuanncL a ppeHyueH necy, kak a npnHoH, 1ak n a nepenocnoH
cHmcne: 1o ec1L yuac1nnum norpyxanncL a coc1onnne ppHm - nyna1nueckoro 1panca,
korpa o6oc1pne1cn caepxuyac1aennoe aocnpnn1ne.
cy1n xe a1nx o6pnpoa n ckasann Hoxno nnuL porapmaa1Lcn: po nac pouno 1onLko
o6eccHmcnennoe ampaxenne "6a6yuknnm ckaskn". maae1, opnako, u1o ckaskn a1n
Hnc1nuecknH o6pasoH saneua1neaak1cn a xencko 6eccosna1enLno naHn1n. au
aennkn oa1-smunnk yuknn a ynoennn sacnyunaancn ckaskaHn caoe nnnn, uLn
nacnepc1aennan naHn1L coxpannna rny6ouaune kynL1ypno-nc1opnueckne nnac1m.
kaskn pnnm opnonoanm 1ak noannnnn na yuknna, u1o a neH caHoH npo6ypnnacL
a1a 1annc1aennan popoaan naHn1L pepkoa, n ns ee 6esponnoro konopua uepnan on
xnayk aopy apoxnoaennn.
yuknn, 6eccnopno, - enn. n cyHen amsaa1L k xnsnn nepaoo6pasm (nnn, kak
nmnue Hopno roaopn1L, - apxe1nnm) co6opno pyun napopa, nonysapyuennme
"pyccknH" npaaocnaaneH, n sakpenn1L nx a naHn1n noamx nokonenn 1enepL yxe
naaeuno. ampasnn on c1nxnk napopno pyun, caH 1oro ne ocosnaaan, nHenno uepes
caon nponnknoaennme ckaskn. o1oHy-1o onn n c1ann aonc1nny napopnmHn, u1o caHn
amunn ns napopa. yuknnckne ckaskn 6ypn1, nponannk1 1o, u1o sanncano a rny6nnax
nopcosnannn, - n noa1oHy aocnpnnnHak1cn kak nckonno caoe, popnoe, kaxpmH
npnpopnmH pycnueH.
115
akne ckaskn ne Hory1 6m1L nnopoH pocyxe qan1asnn: a nnx - sono1an poccmnL
ppeane nsmuecko Hyppoc1n. pecL n oc1poa ynn (ynn - kren), rpe nekorpa 6mno
rnaanoe ae1nnnue cnaann, cnanennoe sa1eH xpnc1nanaHn; specL n apeana-e6epL -
o6opo1enL, specL n 1pn peanum-npnxn... MnorosnaunHme o6pasm a1nx peanu-npnx a
"kaske o uape an1ane" - onnue1aopenne Ma1epe-oxannu, sapoxpakunx n
noppepxnaakunx a Hnpe XnsnL. pnpenne cansano c aepe1enoH, 1. e. c xnsnennmH
konoapauenneH. pnpenne ao acex Hnqonornnx - ncknkun1enLnoe npaao n
npenHyuec1ao 6oxec1aennmx cyuec1a. nHckne pnxn-apkn o1 na1. napno -
poxpa1L. a ycn pnxo 6mna MakouL, a nosxe - ee aocnpeeHnnua, 1annc1aennan
apackeaa-n1nnua. o1 kako rny6okn 1eokocHoronnueckn cHmcn sanoxen a
o6pasax eanu! - oxannu.
kasn1enLnnua a6a-ra 6mna nac1aannue n aocnn1a1enLnnue Honopnnka. e1ckne
uac1yukn ponecnn po nac naHn1L o 6eckpoanmx xep1aonpnnouennnx - cae1nmx
poxannunmx 1panesax:
apyukn, apyukn!
pe 6mnn? - Y a6yukn!
1o enn? - auky!
1o nnnn? - paxky!
cno opno: nsnauanLno a6a-ra 6mna L, cansanno c eHne
n e annc1aaHn. caok nonnyk npo1naononoxnoc1L - a snoaeuyk nkpoepky ona
npeapa1nnacL nnuL c no6epo Xenesa nap aHneH, c y1aepxpenneH na1pnapxa1a,
kynL1a "ne6ecnoro o1ua" n pa6oanapenLuecknx, rocypapc1aennmx pennrn.
, 1m, ycL! opnHan uyx6nna!
Ma1L-eHnn! an1an acex an1mx!
e1 nn eunx na 1aonx 1ponnnkax,
n a senenmx aopax opnnmx,
pe 1m, rpe 1m, a6yuka-ra?!
pax popor... Yuepune aeka...
pn pkoa
* * *
onm1kn uepkoannkoa a nepaoe xe c1one1ne nckopenn1L o6uenapopnoe nsmuec1ao na
ycn cnno no1epnenn nonnm npoaan, n 1orpa onn npnHennnn 6onee 1onkyk qopHy
6opL6m. Hec1o sanpe1a noceuennn cnaannaHn nx M onn c1ann c1pon1L 1aH
caon xpaHm n nanonnn1L nsmueckne o6pnpm xpnc1nancknH copepxanneH. Y6epnauncL
a nenpeknonnoc1n ycckoro yxa, nonm nauann noppenmaa1Lcn k napopnoHy
pennrnosnoHy kanenpapk, nepeocHmcnnaan, pasyHee1cn, n u1nHme pa1m, n
nasnauenne npaspnec1a. 1peHncL sarnyun1L popoayk aepy, onn 6ykaanLno nopronnnn
caon uepkoanme npaspnnkn k nan6onee ppeannH, acenapopnmH 1opxec1aaH. aHm
npkn 1oHy npnHep - o6Lnanenne ynanm-onnueaopo1a 24 kpecenn "poxpec1aoH
oanna pec1n1enn".
116
pnako ace yxnupennn no1epnenn kpax. aansmaaeHme "can1me" coaHec1nnncL a
o6mpennoH napopnoH cosnannn c ppeanecnaanncknHn ae1nmHn nnaHn n c1ann
aocnpnnnHa1Lcn ne a uepkoanoH cHmcne, a a unc1o nsmueckoH. a "aana-ynany"
uenyk1cn n npmrak1 uepes koc1pm yxe 1000 ne1 nocne "kpeuennn ycn", a pnny
npoponxak1 cnaan1L nop nHeneH pnn - eoprnn o6eponocua.
a "cnaca", "6oropopnuy" n npoune "cnnm ne6ecnme" 6mnn npoc1o nepenecenm uep1m
n caoc1aa nan6onee u1nHmx poponneHennmx 6oxec1a, n ace onn nonyunnn npko
ampaxennyk nsmueckyk okpacky. Y1aepxpenne 6onesnenno, uyxepopno
xpnc1nanunnm a aennko c1pane co spopoao, kpacnao, Houno n 6ora1o
nsmuecko kynL1ypo c1anoan1cn Henee sarapouno, ecnn yncnn1L, u1o a1a unc1o
rocypapc1aennan pennrnn nnkorpa ne cHorna 6m ocepna1L napop, ecnn 6m ne asnna na
aoopyxenne ero caHoe nckpennee, caHoe aosamuennoe uyac1ao - o6oxanne X,
X, , onnue1aopennoe a kynL1e M-M.
1nocn1enLnan yc1ynunaoc1L nsmuecknx xpeuoa (xpeuoa, a ne aonxaoa!) n uac1n
nacenennn, a 1akxe Hnorne ppyrne c1pannoc1n nponcnnk1cn 1eH, u1o ppeannn ennkan
Ma1epL-eHnn 6mna nnaano, ncnop1nuka saHeuena "6oroHa1epLk". Y cnaann c nx
rny6ouaunH noun1anneH ae1noro Xenckoro auana no1pe6noc1L a 1akoH noun1annn
oc1anacL n nocne nacaxpennn npnuno pennrnn. npeeHnnue 6oro1aopnHo
Ma1yukn-napmunum eHnn c1ana "6oroHa1epL".
pepc1aanennn o 6naropa1no, ounuakue, uene6no nne, o1nocnuecn k uenoaeky
c Ha1epnncknH yuac1neH, nepeunn na o6pas "6oroHa1epn" - saHec1n1enLnnum
Makoun. aoace ne cnyuano rnaanmH o6Lek1oH noknonennn c1an na ycn ne ncyc
pnc1oc (pycnun ce6n n ne cun1ann xpnc1nanaHn; 1. n. kpec1Lnne - a1o ne
caHonasaanne, a uepkoanan knnuka), a ero seHnan Ha1L - "peaa" Mapnn, ko1opyk
u1nnn, opnako, ne kak "peac1aennnuy" a ka1onnuecko apone, a nHenno kak 6oro-
popnuy, 6oro-Ha1epL, nopuepknaan Ha1epnnckoe, popnuee ee kauec1ao. aH ncyc
anno1L po XVI a. aocnpnnnHancn kak Hnapeneu, cmn 6oxn, no ne caH 6or.
k6onm1no, u1o y 6ackoa nx Herann1nueckyk, Ha1pnapxanLnyk "epnyk oropopnuy"
(1. e. popn1enLnnuy 6oroa) ka1onnuec1ao am1ecnnno a ropm, n 1aH ona amc1ynae1 yxe
kak "6ornnn rop". Lnpokoe pacnpoc1panenne napopno-6oropopnunoro kynL1a na ycn
o6Lncnne1cn nanoxenneH ero na ppeaneun nsmueckn kynL1 oxannu -
6oxec1aennmx papopn1enLnnu acnueckoro nnopopopnn. oa1oHy c 6oropopnunmH
kynL1oH cansmaanocL n nokpoan1enLc1ao 6epeHennmH. oa1oHy a noacepneanoH
cosnannn aepykunx "6oropopnua" sannna uen1panLnoe Hec1o, ne npepycHo1pennoe nn
porHa1aHn, nn kanonaHn. D1o1 eaanrenLckn nepconax npnnnn na ce6n ac 1o, u1o
panLue npepnasnauanocL oxannuaH n Makoun - epxoano oxannue (o1ckpa -
Hakyuka) n c1an opnnH ns o6pasoa ennko Ma1epn-eHnn. rnaanyk ponL a
kocaennoH o1oxpec1anennn Ma1epn-eHnn c "6oropopnue" Mapne (Mapnn - snaun1
"ropeHmka") cmrpana nopronka xpnc1nancknx npaspnnkoa k npaspnnkaH napopnmH.
co6o nokasa1enLna nopronka k npaspnnky cennero aanopenc1ann n cansannoHy c
nnH rnaanoHy ropoaoHy uec1aoaannk opa n oxannu uepkoanoro "poxpec1aa
6oropopnum"; aepL n 1aH n specL nHee1cn a anpy sapoxpenne noao Xnsnn. e
cnyuano apeHn, npepuec1aykuee npaspnoaannk oxannu, nsmunnkn nasmaann
"6a6LnH ne1oH", a nonm-uepnoknnxnnkn anno1L po XVIII a. a caonx noyuennnx 6nuyk1
"6a6 6ecoyropnmx", c1aanunx 1panesm a uec1L opa n oxannu. paoeaepnoH
coaHeuennn 6oropopnnuno-poxannunmx 1panes ynoHnnak1 n Hnorne cpepneaekoame
nc1opnkn. naanennn oxannu nepexnnn cnaay opa. m6akoa nnue1, u1o a
1panesnmx ceaepno-pyccknx uepkae c1nnnsoaannme nso6paxennn oxannu poxnnn
po XVIII a. o XIX a. poxnnn necnn n xopoaopm a uec1L apm n enn, a nx
nso6paxennn a napopno amunake n pesL6e xnay1 n a naun pnn, 1ak xe kak n
npnneam "o napa, nenL-nknn". 1 o6pnpoamx xopoaopnmx nrp pounn po nac
pykonneckannn - "napyukn", ko1opmHn conpoaoxpanncL a1n o6pnpm.
117
ae1noaonocan oxannua apa noun1anacL xencko nnoc1acLk opa, aonnouenneH
aeuno-xenc1aennoro nauana a Mnpospannn. na xe - apoxnoan1enLnnua caape6nmx
nrpnu-o6pnpoa, nokpoan1enLnnua noHonakn, cynpyxec1aa n 6paunoro o6e1a,
epernnn ceHenoro napa n xenunn-popn1enLnnu, nopa1enLnnua uapopopnn. na xe
- onnue1aopenne aonue6no cnnm nonoao c1pac1n n xpann1enLnnua k6oanoro
rnn.
oc1oHapoa n aHnnumn cun1ann 6an1o-cnaannckyk apy 6ornne k6an, paco1m n
paunoro oksa. Henno y apm-Ma1n peunc1o ncnpaunaann 6narocnoaennn
saknnka1L ecny. oc1oHapoa a "naanncko Hnqonornn" nnue1: "na 6mna n 1o, u1o
y nac nasmaae1cn Ma1L-eHnn". ec1aoaannk Ma1yukn-eHnn, ennko oxannum
apm-Makoun 6mna nocaeuena nn1nnua, n no1oHy a 6m1oaoH paoeaepnn
aocnpeeHnnuaHn smuecko Maponnm-Ma1epn c1ann apackeaa-n1nnua n
"6oropopnua", onnue1aopnaune unc1o nsmueckoe-xenckoe-Ha1epnnckoe-seHnoe-
xnsnennoe nauano. saec1no, u1o nepepko ppeanne 6oxec1aa nnopopopnn (oxannum)
nso6paxanncL a anpe xenunnm c HnapenueH na pykax, u1o, koneuno xe, 6mno
ncnonLsoaano uepkoannkaHn, u1o6m eue 6onLue saHopoun1L napop.
oueHy npnxnnacL "6oropopnua" na ycn? eno eue n a 1oH, u1o caHo cnoao
"6oropopnua", 1. e. 6ornnn-Ha1epL (Ha1epL 6oroa) nnorpa yno1pe6nnnocL n panLue, n
k xpnc1nanckoHy "6ory" nnkakoro o1nouennn ne nHee1. ak xe, kak n oroHnn (Mnnm
oraH) - xpeu, aosrnaanaun conpo1nanenne noaropopuea aocky xpnc1onocuea. ak
xe, kak n 6oronecLe, osnauaauee ne u1o nnoe, kak 6oxec1aennoe npncy1c1ane a
caeuenno poue.
pnc1nane c1ponnn uepkan na Hec1e 6maunx nsmuecknx kannu, caeuennmx
nc1ounnkoa, a 1oH xe 6oronecLe, 1. e. na 1ex xe M (nnn, kak npnnn1o
ceuac roaopn1L, na anepre1nueckn unc1mx Hec1ax). a cnny a1oro xpnc1nanckne
"can1me" c1anoannncL kak 6m npeeHnnkaHn cnaanncknx 6oxec1a. epepko n ceuac
rpe-nn6o c1on1 uepkoaL "a. n1nnum", a pnpoH ns seHnn 6Le1 popnnk, naxopnuncn
nop oco6mH ee nokpoan1enLc1aoH, kak ecnn 6m ona 6mna ycanko-epernne. epkan
"oxpec1aa oropopnum" c1aannn, kak npaanno, na Hec1ax, nsppeane ocaeuennmx
uec1aoaanneH oxannu.
aHn1L xe o caHnx oxannuax c1apanncL nsaec1n aceHn cnoco6aHn. noao "poxa"
(nekpacnaoe nnuo) npe1 o1 1ex apeHen, korpa nonm o6smaann 1ak xenunn-xpnu,
npoponxaaunx o1npaann1L a1ane kynL1 oxannu.
1o6m eue 6onLue noppena1Lcn nop smuec1ao, uepkoanme anac1n akyne c anac1nHn
cae1cknHn a nnue kn. nppen oronk6ckoro a cepepnne XII a. aaopn1 na ycn noam,
nensaec1nm nsan1nn n aoo6ue nnkoHy npaspnnk "okpoaa oroHa1epn", a caHoH
nasaannn ko1oporo sayun1 HmcnL o6 oco6oH nokpoan1enLc1ae co c1oponm amcunx cnn.
ak a uepkoanme opexpm o6nauae1cn nsmueckoe npepc1aanenne o popno, seHno
sac1ynnnue - epernne.
MonncL "6oroHa1epn", nsmunnkn-paoeaepum, no cy1n pena, o6pauanncL k caoe
Ma1epn-eHne, n o1 nee nonyuann noHouL n noppepxky. 1oH, nackonLko cnnLno
pasan1 6mn 6oropopnunm kynL1, roaopn1 1o, u1o "6oropopnue" nocaeueno nkon
6onLue, ueH ncycy, 1ponue n aceH npounH cepaqnHaH n xepyanHaH aHec1e asn1mH.
pnnx 1onLko "uypo1aopnmx" 6oropopnunmx nkon 6onee payxco1, npnueH nou1n ace - c
onsmuennmHn, o6pyceaunHn, opoHaunennmHn nasaannnHn: "opopa1enLnnua",
"enn1enLnnua", "Mnekonn1a1enLnnua", "Xnaonocnm c1ounnk", "yunan opa",
"eonannHan ynnna" n 1. p. n 1. n.
onee nano nsmueckoe noun1anne eHnn coxpannnocL a pyccknx napopnmx 6pa1c1aax,
1. n. cek1ax n nan1enc1nuecknx epecnx. ak, xnmc1oackan 6oropopnua - ne u1o nnoe,
kak onnue1aopenne caHo Ma1epn-eHnn. Monn1am 1ex Hnc1nuecknx o6unn, ko1opme
118
rocnopc1aykuan uepkoaL o6Lnanna cek1aHn, nopuac nannk1 co6o apoxnoaennoe
cnaanenne X M. yxo6opm roaopnnn o eHne, kak o caHoH npekpacnoH
xpaHe.
6pas nnauyue eHnn ac1peuae1cn a "6opnnke pyccknx pyxoanmx c1nxoa" .
apenuoaa n a "kasannn o Mepkypnn HonenckoH"; pyccknx necnnx, co6pannmx .
npeeacknH, ec1L sa pyuy 6epyue nau eHnn: " ac1yxnnacL, pacnnakanacL
Ma1yuka mpa eHnn..."
MenLnnkoa-euepckn (" necax") npnaopn1 coxpanennoe c1apoaepaHn "ckasanne
naunx pao1uoa o 1oH, kak 6or pnna aosnk6nn Ma1L mpy eHnk, n kak ona
napopnna acex seHnopopnmx". oo6ue ac cae1noe a Hmcnnx n aepoaannnx pycckoro
napopa n ac nopnnnno rennanLnoe a ero 1aopuec1ae nponc1ekae1 ne ns ansan1ncko
o1xoxe nHm, a ns smueckoro opnnka. aceHy nyuueHy a nac o6nsanm Hm naue
6eccosna1enLno-nsmuecko yccko yxoanoc1n.
a ycn nou1n cpasy xe nocne aouapennn xpnc1nanc1aa aosnnkak1 an1nuepkoanme (n
opnoapeHenno - an1nqeopanLnme) yuennn, n unc1oe o6oxanne eHnn npoponxae1
xn1L a napopnmx "epe1nuecknx" panxennnx. panxennn noaropopcknx c1pnronLnnkoa
noknonenne eHne 6mno na nepaoH Hec1e. oknon eHne - a1o ne noknon anns -
uyxoHy 6ory. D1o noknon aaepx, n6o pasrn6ae1cn cnnna - n uenoaek ouyuae1 ce6n
paanmH coyuac1nnkoH eHno Xnsnn, a ne pa6oH ppoxaunH.
1pnronLnnkn aospopnnn ppeanee noknonenne eHne nop o1kpm1mH ne6oH. a
nsaec1no nkone "o6op oroHa1epn" nckoacko ukonm XIV a. npec1on 6oroHa1epn
noHeuen npnHo na 1paae, a no 1paae a1o npy1 aonxam c nosppaanenneH. c1L na
nkone n pLnkonm, n anrenm, n nac1yxn. na caHoH anpnoH Hec1e - nnockasa1enLnm
o6pas eHnn a anpe nonyo6naxenno xenunnm c npnuypnnamH pac1n1enLnmH
cnHaonoH a pyke. nn cpaanennn: nso6paxennn en a an1nunoH nckycc1ae ouenL
pepkn, no ao1 na qpnse epraHckoro an1apn en nso6paxena xenunno, norpyxenno
no nonc a seHnk, c poroH nso6nnnn a pyke.
1pnronLnnkn ynacnepoaann Hnpoaosspenne aonxaoa npepuec1aykue anoxn. nn
yunnn kan1Lcn ne nony, a X M, npnsnaaan cnoco6noc1L npoua1L n
o1nycka1L rpexn. noaropopum a XIV a. ne xopnnn a xpaHm, a ncnoaepoaanncL eHne-
Ma1yuke. akoro "6oroxynLc1aa" uepkoaL ne no1epnena: aosrnaannaun
ocao6opn1enLnoe panxenne apn 6mn kasnen nk1o cHep1Lk. 1eqan epHckn a
"oyuennn" nac1aannn necHmunenmx o1c1ynnnkoa: " k1o ncnoaepae1cn seHnn, 1o
ncnoaepanne ne ncnoaepanne ec1L: seHnn 6o 6espyuna 1aapL ec1L..."
* * *
neyHonnHoH npeapauennn 6nocqepm a nekpocqepy noannna paunonannc1nueckan,
yp6annsnpoaannan, nnpyc1pnanLnan, 1. n. sanapnan unannnsaunn. pnako nn opna
counanLno-akonoHnueckan konuenunn ne pae1 y6epn1enLnoro o6Lncnennn 1oro,
noueHy 1akan nary6nan nayuno-1exnnueckan unannnsaunn, nanpaanennan na
saka6anenne pnpopm n napopoa, n saaepuan uenoaeuec1ao a 1ynnk, sapopnnacL
nHenno na xpnc1nannsnpoaannoH anape, a ne a ppyroH Hec1e seHnoro uapa.
Dkonornueckan ka1ac1poqa 6mna qa1anLno npeponpepenena HnoroaekoamH
rocnopc1aoH xpnc1nanc1aa, o11oprnyauero uenoaeka o1 pnpopm, c ko1opo on 6mn
nepaspmano cansan kak Hnapeneu a y1po6e Ma1epn, n npo1naonoc1aanauero ero .
nc1opnn uenoaeuec1aa nypansH cmrpan pokoayk ponL 1eH, u1o aouen cyuec1aenno
coc1aano uac1Lk a pae Hnpoame pennrnn - xpnc1nanc1ao n ncnaH, nsnauanLno
sapasna nx 6onesnennmH, y6ornH anpenneH Mnpa, ae1xosaae1nmH pacnsHoH,
aceposaonennoc1Lk no o1nouennk k eHne n pe1nH e - 1yseHuaH (rpeu. aa1o-x1onm n
119
na1. a6opn-renm, o6osnauakune kopennmx Hec1nmx xn1ene, sayua1 no-pycckn kak
1y-seHum).
ec1an1enLnme npnunnm rno6anLno akonornuecko ka1ac1poqm kopenn1cn a nyuueH
yue6nnke an1nceHn1nsHa - a 6n6nnn n, koneuno xe, a nan6onee rnycnoH snopennnn
"cnacn1enn" - a npoknn1nn-yHepuanennn cHokoannum - pepeaa, onnue1aopnkuero
XnsnL. D1o, necoHnenno, pn1yanLno-cnHaonnueckoe npoknn1ne caHo M X
, cHep1nm npnroaop eHne. "a yHpe1 eHnn, n pa npnnpe1 apc1ane!"
- noe1cn a opnoH pannexpnc1nanckoH necnonennn. osna1enLno nnn 6eccosna1enLno,
no Hono1enc1m acerpa 6mnn 6ecnouapnm k eHne, anpn a e nens6exnoe
npenn1c1ane pnn npnxopa caoero "uapc1ann", ko1opoe, kak nsaec1no, a "ne6ecnoH
epycannHe".
poxnoannnme yun1eneH "nk6an n acenpouennn" ero pLnnme nocnepoaa1enn caok
rnaanyk sapauy ycHa1pnaann a 1oH, u1o6m o1opaa1L uenoaeka o1 eHnn n noopnnouke
yHep1an1L nx o6onx. nn o6Lnannk1 1o1anLnyk aony Xnsnn, ae1y, apoc1n, k6an,
paco1e. nn nc1nsak1 eHnk, yro1aannaan e k "konuy cae1a" n "c1paunoHy cypy".
eroaa - kpc1nm o1eu xpnc1nan, n acn nx pennrnn - a1o npo1naoec1ec1aennan
nenaanc1L k pnpope, Xenunne, Ma1epn-eHne. D1o - M,
, no cpaanennk c ko1opmH ace "kosnn ca1annc1oa" ne 6onee, ueH pe1ckne uanoc1n.
ao1 k nauany XXI xpnc1nanckoro c1one1nn Hnp c1on1 y nocnepne uep1m, k ko1opo
ero nopaena sanapnan unannnsaunn, ocnoaannan na "o6ueuenoaeuecknx uennoc1nx"
kann1annsHa. ann1annsH - a1o Honc1p, nopoxpennm xpnc1nanc1aoH. ann1annsH -
a1o pa pnn nypeea. ann1annsH n coaec1L MM.
nenopoxpennan, neponouennan nayka, sapopnauancn a xpnc1nannsnpoaanno
apone, cnepyn 6n6nnn, 1ak xe o6ecuennaana-o6espyunaana pnpopy. naanoe
sa6nyxpenne 1ako naykn - a kpaneH npo1naonoc1aanennn cy6Lek1a nosnannn -
"o6Lek1y". pnpopa paccHa1pnaae1cn kak u1o-1o 6espyxoanoe, nepasyHnoe, aneunee,
apaxpe6noe uenoaeky n poc1onoe nnuL nopunnennn, nokopennn n no1pe6nennn.
1opxec1aoH 6n6necko na6oxnoc1n a apone naunnae1cn noaan nc1opnueckan anoxa
- 2000-ne1nnn 6ecnouapnan aona c pnpopo. ona na ynnu1oxenne, kak
neo6xopnHoe npepaapenne anokannn1nueckoro apHareppona. ayuno-1exnnueckn
"nporpecc" nauancn c y1aepxpennn xpnc1nanc1aa, korpa pasaenuannan n nnuennan
o6oxannn Ma1L-eHnn 6mna o6Lnanena rpeuno, nopno pa6o n posaoneno 6mno
"ncnm1maa1L" e, pa6m sac1aan1L ampa1L caon 1anm yuenmH - ec1ec1aoncnm1a1ennH.
epkoaL ne o1pnuana cyuec1aoaannn npnpopnmx yxoa, no sakneHnna nx
pLnaonLcknH o1popLeH, nexn1Lk n neunc1Lk, 6ecaHn. Y1aepxpanocL cnauana
paanopyune, 6espasnnune k nnuenno 6oxec1aennoro npncy1c1ann pnpope, sa1eH -
npene6pexenne, npespenne k "nnsue 1aapn", a sa1eH n o1kpoaennan apaxpe6noc1L k
ne, kak k cnne nko6m uyxpo, peHonnuecko. cosnannn nkpe pnkan pnpopa
c1ana o1oxpec1ann1Lcn c onacnoc1Lk n paxe c neunc1o cnno, c1ana 6oronpo1nano
n, cnepoaa1enLno, ponxna 6mna 6m1L nokopena. 1ckpa - yc1anoaka na ycHnpenne,
ykpouenne pnpopm, kak pnkoro saepn. 1ex nop, kak pnpopa c1ana
onnue1aopenneH 1eHnmx cnn, npo1naoc1onunx uenoaeueckoHy pasyHy, pasan1ne naykn
n 1exnnkn nooupnnocL uepkoaLk, kak cpepc1ao poc1nxennn rocnopc1aa nap
pnpopo: aepL 6n6nnn y1aepxpae1 sakonnoc1L 1akoro rocnopc1aa.
na6oyHnan n 1uecnaanan an1ponouen1pnueckan, qayc1oackan nayka aoo6ue
"ynpaspnnna" c1nxnnmx yxoa, nnsnoxna nx po "npoc1mx" reoxnHnuecknx aneHen1oa.
nHqm, anLqm, qen n nanpm, nanonnnaune n oxnannaune eHnk, 6mnn o6Lnanenm
npo1naopeuaunHn "sppaaoHy cHmcny" n sa1annncL a o6nac1n 1. n. cyeaepn. Henno
nsrnanne yxoa ns sanoaepnmx necoa, pek n yuenn nHeno c1onL rn6enLnme
nocnepc1ann pnn cype6 6essaun1no 1enepL eHnn n caHoro uenoaeka: 6mna cnn1m
ocaeuennme 1mcnuene1nnHn pennrnosnme sanpe1m - 1a6y, 6mnn npepanm sa6aennk
120
Hyppme saae1m pepkoa. pexpe 6mno neHmcnnHo nopxopn1L k pnpope n Hnpy
yxoa 6es 6naroroaenoro 1pene1a, a 1eH 6onee npo1naonoc1aan1L ce6n H. enepL xe
6mno posaoneno neuec1nao o6paua1Lcn c pnpopo, ne 6oncL ockop6n1L yxoa n
naaneuL na ce6n nx rnea.
aua eHnn, caHa nannncL xnamH prannsHoH, axnanena a 1akyk xe xnayk
onneunyk cnc1eHy. o pnn an1ponouen1pnuecko naykn ac Mnpospanne - nnuL
neo6Ln1nm 1ea1p a6cyppa 6es uenn n cHmcna. n1ponouen1pnsH - o6oxec1anenne
uenoaeka nepep nnuoH nnunno acnuecko 6oxec1aennoc1n pnpopm - ec1L o1pmxka
xpnc1nanc1aa. n1ponouen1pnsH nopouen ao acex ero nponanennnx, pennrnosnmx nnn
nayuno-Ha1epnannc1nuecknx; on ec1L ac 1o xe napanonpanLnoe caHons6pannnuec1ao,
npoaosrnauennoe nekorpa a 6n6nnn. kpn caopn1 ack XnsnL, ac 6m1ne eHnn k
snaunHoc1n co6c1aennoro cyuec1aoaannn.
n1ponouen1pnsHy n 1exnokpa1nsHy neo1LeHneHo npncyue 6esxanoc1no-unnnunoe
o1nouenne k 1oHy, u1o onn nasmaak1 npoc1o "cmpLeamHn pecypcaHn" n "npnpopnmHn
6ora1c1aaHn". nn amcnexnaak1, amnkxnaak1 na nane1e ace xnaoe, pmuauee,
1onLko pnn 1oro, u1o6m yHep1an1L.
oapeHennan aHepnkanckan aaHnnpnueckan M ec1L nocnepnnn aaan1kpa
xpnc1nanc1aa. osHespne neo1apa1nHo. o Ma1L-eHnn ne "Hc1n1": npoc1o no sakonaH
aneproo6Hena (kak ceuac npnnn1o roaopn1L) amsaannme uenoaekoH paspyuennn
6yHepanroH aosapauak1cn k neHy o6pa1no a anpe 1. n. c1nxnnmx 6epc1an,
annpeHn, osonoamx pmp, anno1L po rno6anLno pec1a6nnnsaunn (packaukn) n
nepenonkcoakn eHno ocn. "o npnHeuL 1m cHep1L o1 konn caoero..."
o 6ype1 o1nkpL ne "koneu cae1a", ko1opm, npepuyac1ayn caok 6ecnpocae1nyk
o6peuennoc1L, npeppekak1 knnkyuec1aykune kpopm, a nanpo1na, nap
payx1mcnuene1nnH Hpako6ecneH.
* * *
pnako payx1mcnuene1nee rnyHnenne o6eso6pasnno ne 1onLko n ne c1onLko aypy
eHnn, ckonLko caHoro uenoaeka. n6neckan pok1pnna co1aopennn Hnpa ns nnuero
c1ana ocnoao npepc1aanenn o nnu1oxnoc1n n 6pennoc1n eHnn, eHno Xnsnn n
eHno pacm. oc1onnnoe npo1naonoc1aanenne seHnoro - rpexoanoro n ne6ecnoro -
6oxec1aennoro aLenocL a cosnanne n npnaeno k 1oHy, u1o seHnoe c1ano cnnonnHoH
npnseHnennoro, nnsHennoro, xnao1no-rpy6oro. op eHnk noHec1nnn xpnc1nane cao
ap (cnaanne nasmaann oronL any1pn eHnn "popc1aoH ornennmH").
kpnH ac xoue1cn uero-1o neec1ec1aennoro - neseHnoro. 1peHncL k sanpepenLnoHy
"6ory", ne saHeuak1 onn 1oro, u1o nepep rnasaHn. ae1noHy nsmueckoHy aocnpnn1nk
pnpopm kak npepenLno nonno1m 6m1nn, kak npekpacnoro, coaepuennoro n
neannnoro yuec1aa, npo1naoc1on1 Hono1enc1nueckoe nenpnn1ne pnpopm kak uero-
1o yuep6noro, a1opnunoro, nenonnouennoro.
o xpnc1nanc1ao no6epnno aoace ne a on1onornueckoH cHmcne. mnn noaepxenm
nponm, no ne pen. a n caHn 1nxnn eHnme nnkypa ne peaanncL. onLko noun1anne
x yuno arny6L napopno pyun n sa1annocL a neppax popoao naHn1n, c1ano naue
cokpoaenno 1ano. kpn, 6eso1ue1no n caHosa6aenno o6oxakune onnue, enenL,
pnpopy - caHn 1oro ne aepan - smunnkn. nn ouyuak1 nac1on1enLnyk no1pe6noc1L
a pyueanoH ncuenennn, n a1o ncuenenne Hoxe1 nH pa1L 1onLko nsmueckoe
Hnpouyac1aoaanne - 6esmckycc1aennoe n no-pe1ckn 6ecxn1poc1noe, kak caHa
pnpopa; nananoe n aHec1e c 1eH Hyppoe, kak ac xnaoe n nenoppenLnoe. D1n
npocnyaunecn nkpn aonLno nnn neaonLno, no yuac1ayk1 a M LMM
- M - a aocc1anoanennn y1pauenno cansn c
121
Xnao eHne. epL caHo na1nnckoe cnoao "pe-nnrnn" 6ykaanLno n osnauae1:
aocc1anoanenne cansn.
asyHee1cn, nepaospannoe smuec1ao, kak n peac1aennoc1L, aocc1anoan1L
neaosHoxno. o pennrnoaepm n qy1yponorn, akonornc1m n counonorn, ncnxonorn n
kynL1yponorn ykasmaak1 na napac1akun aan neonsmuec1aa, a nan6onee
panLnoanpnme ns nnx npepckasmaak1 ero npn6nnxakueecn nens6exnoe 1opxec1ao.
auanacL uennan peakunn npo6yxpennn. 1nxnno aosnnkak1 Honopexnme o6unnm n
1aopueckne o6Lepnnennn - HysmkanLnme, pa1o6opueckne, kpaeaepueckne,
caHopen1enLnme n ppyrne, npnueH onn caHn no ce6e c1anoan1cn smunnkaHn, eue po
snakoHc1aa c epnnoHmunennnkaHn. ueanpno, u1o cnaanennnHn opnmx ae1nmx nn
Hm yxe "poc1yuanncL po ne6ec", 1o ec1L cospann nppo 1oro o6pasoaannn, ko1opoe
okkynL1nc1m nasmaak1 arperopoH, 6noanepre1nkn - "nen1onno cyunoc1Lk", a no-
pycckn - Hounoe uyac1aenno-cnnoaoe none, anxpeao cryc1ok Hmcneo6pasoa, aoneamx
sapnpoa n ceppeunmx nopmaoa. a1o nppo 1enepL yxe caHo no ce6e a1nrnaae1 a caok
op6n1y popc1aennme pyun. 1ouno 1ak xe nau onoapa1, packpy1nauncL, yxe caH
na6npae1 o6opo1m.
smuec1ao nckpenno - n a a1oH ero npn1nra1enLnan cnna pnn Honopexn, n6o
Honopexn npncyun o1aaxnme c1peHnennn, 6eckopmc1noe cnyxenne n o1apauenne k
nnuepec1ay. aun copa1nnkn - peannc1m: nHn panxe1 n cnoco6na panra1L nnuL
pen, mcokan pen. o u1o Hoxe1 6m1L npekpacne n amue npen ocao6oxpennn
- - o1 uyxepopnoro nra?
pnno - onnue a naue saun1e ne nyxpae1cn. ao1 eHnk-Ma1yuky Hm, seHnnkn, o1
rapkoro nappyra1enLc1aa saun1n1L o6nsanm. na asmaae1 o noHoun, n y nac ne1
am6opa: M XL -
MY, nnaue rpou naH uena a naue 6asapnoe apeHn. cnoHnnH Hnq o6
pec1e: Dpnnnn - pouepn en-eHnn, 6onee ppeanne, ueH onnHnnckne 6orn, aonnk1
o caeuennoH aosHespnn, n6o ne1 npec1ynnennn 6onee 1nxkoro, ueH Ha1epey6nc1ao.
Mm amnonnnH nau cmnoann ponr; n nnkakne cnnm, nn 6oxeckne, nn apckne, nn
uenoaeueckne ne a coc1onnnn 6ypy1 noHeua1L ocyuec1anennk 1oro, u1o na opy
nanncano. Mm ne HoxeH nnuL npepckasa1L penL n uac o6epm: kak ckasan oa1-
smunnk onc1an1nn anLHon1: "YHe 6m1L aeunH nnn Honun..."
apo ocosna1L: coapeHennan npnpoponoxnpakuan unannnsaunn nece1 cHep1L eHne n
aceHy xnaoHy. D1a nny1okpa1nueckan unannnsaunn, npn ko1opo kyuka
- ocyuec1anne1 caoe rocnopc1ao nap uenoaeuec1aoH,
noc1poena na nopnopkax xpnc1nanc1aa, penakuero ns "roea" 6espono1nmx pa6oa,
yro1aannaaeHmx k pn1yanLnoHy saknannk. HenLnn yrauea yunn: "y6n1e c1on6m, a
sa6opm caHn noaann1cn!"
epkoaL acerpa amc1ynana n nmne amc1ynae1 ne na c1opone orpa6nennoro n
6ecnpaanoro napopa, a na c1opone pycckonsmunmx 1onc1ocyHoa n anac1L nHyunx
Hnnnc1poa-kann1annc1oa. Henno a1nH nypenH c uenoaeuecknH nnuoH n noHorae1 ona
o6yc1pon1L occnk. epkoaL ak1nano cnoco6c1aoaana n cnoco6c1aye1 aouapennk
caHoro npec1ynnoro sa nauy nc1opnk enLunnckoro pexnHa. onm sannnn Hec1a
koHcoproa, nap1oproa n saHnonn1oa.
"occnn no6expena, no1oHy u1o y nee ne1 konuenunn 6m1nn", - 1ak a 1994 r. sanann a
aHepnkanckoH cena1e apxn1ek1op "oaoro Hnpoaoro nopnpka" . xesnnckn. D1o on
coc1aann neuanLno snaHenn1m "nan nrpm", rpe nsnoxnn 12 aapnan1oa paspyuennn
(un1a - yccko epxaam, 1. k. nocne kpoaaao 6ann 4 ok1n6pn 1993 r. paxe
6maune pnccnpen1m-pycakn npo1pesaenn: "He1nnn a koHHynnc1oa, a nonann a
occnk").
122
Y . na aonLnonk6naa n xnsney1aepxpakua,
npnpopocoo6pasna n no6eponocna. M - Y -M,
ocnoaannm na amcokonpaac1aennmx uennoc1nx smuec1aa n o6unnno-aeueaoro
c1pon.
- D X .
. 6oc1pennoe uyac1ao - ec1L
ncknkun1enLnan oco6ennoc1L Y Y, nauero naunonanLnoro xapak1epa, n
no1oHy Hm MM YM -M.
naanoe ceuac - pec1aoaa1L, n kaxpm o6nsan anocn1L cao aknap. eko1opme
cun1ak1, u1o aosHoxnoc1n opnoro uenoaeka nac1onLko Hanm, u1o on ne Hoxe1
ckonLko-nn6ypL cyuec1aenno noannn1L na xop co6m1n. D1o ne 1ak. cnn on pec1aye1
6eckopmc1no, ao nHn amcue , 1o cnnm ero yHnoxak1cn
1mcnuekpa1no. D1o - okkynL1nan akcnoHa. ecnn, k 1oHy xe, pen a1a nece1 ,
X, , 1o cnoao n peno nopanxnnka o6pe1ak1 aonue6nyk cnny, a caH on
c1anoan1cn neynsanH.
enLsn 1onLko o1uanaa1Lcn. nu1o eue ne no1epnno, paxe 1orpa, korpa c
uenoaeuecko 1oukn spennn cnnm nano ne na naue c1opone. c no1epnno 1onLko
1orpa, korpa Hm caHn napaeH pyxoH nnn korpa o1 nac o1c1ynak1cn epernnn.
X, YY M! M M
Y Y !
X! !
ao6opa amnana napopy,
on ne y6eper.
o paxe a snyk nenoropy
y1L 1nee1 yronek
a neH noka neky1 aa1pyukn,
o ponro nL po 6epm,
orpa aa1pyukn y c1apyukn
ou1n ns ne6epm?
naanne! n6ne1 naue peao!
nopm ace pexe na ae1anx.
epnenLe npaan1 aHec1o rneaa
nopnm c1pax.
o rpe-1o a pyccko pepeaenLke,
YrpkHo norposna a okno,
onop a pykax cxnHak1 1enLkn
123
noame Maxno.
o1uampnya 6y1mnL nyc1yk,
on, aecen, no o1nkpL ne nLnn,
"kpacnoH ne1yxe" 1ockyn,
neun cnesae1 HenLnn...

(ouepkn nsmueckoro Hnpouyac1aoaannn)
mcuan uenL - a1o xn1L cornacno
pnpope, a a1o snaun1 xn1L
o6pope1enLno: aepL nHenno
po6pope1enn aepe1 nac pnpopa.
enon - Yun1enL c1onkoa.
D1n ouepkn nanncanm a pasnoe apeHn, no ckpennenm epnno kpacno - o6eperakue
nn1Lk.
ce Hm neaonLno nanocnH Hnoro 6onn ppyrnH xnamH cyuec1aaH, oco6enno
nesaHe1nmH, cna6mH n 6essaun1nmH. e o HnoroH yHonnk1 onn 1e6n: ouapn! kaxn
Hnnoc1L xo1n 6m 1eH, u1o6m noxopn ne sary6n1L, ne cnoHa1L, ne pac1on1a1L...
o saHmcny pnpopm uenoaek ponxen pasan1L a ce6e coc1papanne. o ne1 nopo
ppyroro cpepc1aa amsaa1L a nH a1o coc1papanne, kak sac1aan1L c1papa1L ero caHoro.
o6pocnaa cou11, u1o on pa6o1an ne spn, ecnn xo1L opnn uenoaek, npexpe ueH
copaa1L nopcnexnnk nnn sapy6n1L noaoropnkk nouky, sapyHae1cn: a ne nannk1cn nn
ace ero pyueanme n 1enecnme xaopn cnepc1aneH nerkoHmcnenno-6esxanoc1noro
o6pauennn YX X???
* * *
kunqep:
D1o Hmcnn acex poc1onmx Hmcnn,
a1o roaopn1 a aac 6eccHep1ne...
apon. Mnc1epnn "ann"
kunqep 6ykaanLno osnauae1 Y . ak pnHnnne nasmaann caeuennyk
y1pennkk saespy (enepy), npepaeuakuyk aocxop pneanoro ae1nna - onnua.
124
naanne 1ak xe oco6o noun1ann enepy; ppeanepycckne nasaannn ee - ennnua nnn
apn Y1pennnn, apnnua, apnnka.
onLko nopaxae1 Hpak n ero ncuapne - xpnc1nancknx Hpako6ecoa. o1 noueHy
pnn cnyxn1enn 1LHm - a1o sno, a kunqep - yx na, a1ana, nnn Lnaon.
* * *
yu onnua a kaxpo uenoaeuecko pyue ec1L o6n1akun a ne Y - ee Yuee,
amcuee . yxoanm , npyun a uenoaeka npnHo o1 , ec1L nyu .
oepnnnnm c uenoaeuecko pyuo n 1enoH, ae1 a1o1 c1anoan1cn enoaekoH,
nosnakunH ce6n n nc1ounnk ae1a.
osna yx, a 1e6e cyun n nosnaeuL Y . osna ce6n
kak aonnouennm xnsnenk6nam nyu n o1ae1nuL na rnaanm aonpoc: o nHn uero
cyuec1aye1 Hnp? o nHn uero onnue rpee1 eHnk? - M X! no1oHy u1n
acnkyk xnsnL, u1o 1nne1cn k onnuy.
Maxa6xapa1e noaec1aye1cn o nekoeH Hyppeue, c1nxaaueH aennkyk cnaay. o
nopospennk a aopoac1ae, on, xo1n n ne 6mn aopoH, 6mn nocaxen na kon. Myppeu
aossaan 1orpa c ykopnsno k oxec1ay akona: ", xapHa! ako pypno noc1ynok
coaepunn n a neaepennn, sa ko1opm nonyunn nopo6noe aosHespne?" xapHa
o1aeuan: "o6ok nekorpa 6mna ac1aanena 1poc1nnka a 1enLue 6a6oukn n sa a1o 1e6n
noc1nrno 1akoe aosHespne, o, 6ora1m nopanraHn!"
peanne snann o caHouennoH uyac1aykueH nauane a nk6oH xnaoH cyuec1ae; o1ckpa
nx yaaxenne n 6epexnoe o1nouenne kak k xnao1nmH, 1ak n k pac1ennnH. pnpope
pec1aye1 aceo6LeHnkun n nesm6neHm , cosna1enLnoe n po6poaonLnoe
cnepoaanne ko1opoHy nanne1cn sanoroH uenoaeueckoro 6narononyunn. ornacno a1oHy
cnpaaepnnaeueHy ns sakonoa, 6onL n c1papannn, npnunnennme uenoaekoH ppyrnH
xnamH cyuec1aaH, nens6exno aosapauak1cn k neHy caHoHy.
mne Hnnnnonm xnao1nmx exeropno npnnocn1cn a xep1ay 6esxanoc1nmH,
6eccHmcnennmH Hepnko-6nonornuecknH "onm1aH". 1on1 nn ypnann1Lcn, u1o
uenoaeuec1ao nec1 orpoHnoe, ac aospac1akuee 6peHn aospannnn a anpe ac noamx
nensneunHmx 6onesne!
epeao, nnkoro ne y6naakuee n nn1akueecn conneunmH M, nsnauanLno
noun1anocL aepynaHn cyuec1aoH M. ceH nneHenaH seHnmH 6mnn npncyun
npepc1aanennn o6 oco6mx, aonue6nmx asanHocansnx xnsnn uenoaeka n pepeaa.
Xnayune noaepLn n no ce penL nanoHnnak1, u1o py6n1L pepeaLn caepx Hepm -
snaun1 ykopaunaa1L n caok xnsnL, n xnsnL caonx no1oHkoa.
ecnn xnn nekorpa uenoaek no nHenn erouya (1o ec1L "eroaa ec1L cnacenne",
pycckoe "cnacn1enL", "cnac"), yHep1anaun pepeao 1onLko sa 1o, u1o ono ne
nakopHnno ero a neypounoe apeHn ("n6o eue ne apeHn 6mno co6npannn cHoka"!), 1o
sakonoHepno n ero co6c1aennan cHep1L 6mna Hyun1enLno. axpoHy - cao.
* * *
enoaek uyac1aye1 nopo, u1o pyua ero 1nro1ee1 k ueHy-1o cae1noHy, aosamuennoHy,
MY e n a 1o xe apeHn 6eckoneuno npeaocxopnueHy e. D1o aeuee
uyac1ao - cnnLneuee nop1aepxpenne pyxoano cy1n uenoaeka.
Xnao1aopnun Y - , cansykun ack Y a epnnoe uenoe n
opyxo1aopnkun uenoaeka, pae1 eHy, kak uac1nue aceo6uero, aosHoxnoc1L eue a
125
seHno xnsnn M. o poc1nxnHo a1o 1onLko na
ny1n Hnnoceppnn. cn naua xnsnL - a1o ncnm1anne na Hnnoceppne, Hnnoceppne ko
aceH xnamH cyuec1aaH, X.
c xnaoe xaxpe1 nk6an n couyac1ann. c xnaoe o1smaae1cn na nacky. nuL po
ceppeuno 1ockn aosnk6naun 1pene1 6essaun1no xnsnn, nnuL ouy1naun 6onL
cpmaaeHoro uae1ka kak caok co6c1aennyk, nnuL 1o1 npno6uae1cn ae1onocnoHy
yxy, ko1opm caH ec1L .
k6nuan pyua aosapauae1cn 1orpa k caoeHy nepaonc1ounnky. enoaek n Ma1L-
pnpopa coc1aannk1 specL epnnoe, n neaosHoxno o1nnun1L pyuy o1 pnpopm, a uLe
nono ona norpyxae1cn, ncnm1maan npn a1oH neampasnHoe 6naxenc1ao - aoc1opr.
1akoH caHosa6aennoH coc1onnnn uenoaek npepaocxnuae1 caoe pasaonnouenne. 1o
1akoe cHep1L, aeunoc1L, 6eckoneunoc1L - ace a1n aonpocm kaxy1cn coaepuenno
nsnnunnHn pnn 1oro, k1o ouy1nn sapyueanyk, popc1aennyk cansL c X
.
Hep1L - acero nnuL ppyran c1opona X.
* * *
epxoanm akon ec1L 1opxec1ao X ao cnaay . cnkan XnsnL,
ocaeuennan onnueH, . 1ckpa: acnkoe copec1ane Xnsnn ec1L , a
acnkoe pennne, ry6nuee XnsnL, ec1L sno.
o6po1a - a1o ne npoc1o o1cy1c1ane sna, a1o - 6esycnoanoe npaac1aennoe
1aopn1L o6po. nyxenne o6py neHmcnnHo 6es 6opL6m co snoH (a pnpope, no
6onLuoHy cu1y, sna kak 1akoaoro ne1: sno npnanocn1 uenoaek, aosoHnnaun ce6n
"aenuoH 1aopennn").
o6po1a - a1o ne nnueHepnan xpnc1nanckan "po6pope1enL" acenpouennn, nnuL
no1aopc1aykuan nopokaH. pnc1nane 6maann "po6penLknHn" 1onLko po 1ex nop, noka
onn 6mnn 6eccnnLnmHn. opaaauncL po anac1n, onn saxnao ("6es nponn1nn kpoan")
cxnrann nnakoHmcnnunx.
o6po1a ec1L npens6m1ok npaac1aenno cnnm, po6nec1L aennkopyunmx, a ne
pa6onenne "nnunx pyxoH". pycckoH nsmke nsppeane osnauano xopouee, -
cae1noe - aepnoe: po6pm Honopeu, po6poe y1po, po6pm ny1L, po6pm Heu...
o6po1a - a1o, noxany, epnnc1aennan caHouenL n caHouennoc1L, caHa ce6e narpapa.
"o6po naxnaa1L" - a1o epnnc1aenno 6naropopnm anp naxnam.
epL nHenno aosHoxnoc1L 1aopn1L o6po ec1L uenneuan, papnuan pyue uyac1ao
rny6ouauero ypoane1aopennn n popnnuan uenoaeka c yxaHn - aonue6nmHn cnnaHn
opyxo1aopenno pnpopm.
* * *
o a noun1annn Xnsnn saknkuena eue nekan aocnn1a1enLnan, npaaoyun1enLnan
1ana: X M.
e ry6n XnsnL nn papn npnxo1n, nn papn kopmc1n. n papn xn1poc1n, nn papn
Hyppoc1n. ny1pennn cHmcn a1o sanoaepn pnpopm ckpm1 o1 naunx rnas 1ak xe,
126
kak ckpm1a "anxnHnn" npeapauennn pyxoanmx kauec1a uenoaeka a ero
nenopanac1noe cHep1n . o cHmcn a1o1 cyuec1aye1: Y, YM
MMY!
ecceppeune - 1ako xe np pnn pyun, kak cok unky1m pnn 1ena. aanopyune 1ak xe
pasLepae1 1onkyk nno1L pyun, kak pxaaunna xeneso. pnsna pnpopy X, n
na npnsnae1 XM 1e6n.
epaonauanLnoe, cokpoaennoe snauenne cnoaa "qnnocoqnn" 6mno ne "nk6oaL k
Hyppoc1n", a "Hyppoc1L nk6an". mcuan Hyppoc1L ec1L amcuan nk6oaL, a amcuan
nk6oaL ec1L amcuan Hyppoc1L.
k6oaL - nsnauanLnan, xnan1enLnan, uypopec1aennan cnna pnpopm, epnnc1aennan
cnna, oponeaakuan caHy cHep1L. nnuL nk6oaLk cosnpae1 uenoaek caoe 1onkoe
any1pennee 1eno - o6n1annue yxa, a ko1opoH cyxpeno eHy nepexn1L cHep1L.
* * *
eccHep1ne (kak aosHoxnoc1L aospoxpennn - nepeaonnouennn) uenoaeky ne pano, no
sapano kak seHno xnsnn. cnn 1m ne o6pen 6eccHep1nn npn a1o
xnsnn, 1o kak caHoc1on1enLnan, caHouennan, caHo6m1nan cyunoc1L 1m rn6neuL.
yua ponxna coepnnn1Lcn co caonH 6eccHep1nmH yxoH eue npn seHno xnsnn,
nockonLky caHa no ce6e ona ne amxnae1 sa rpo6oH. ne cnnnnnn caoe pyueano
cyunoc1n c opyxo1aopnkunH e nauanoH, 6eccHep1nn pnn o1penLno uenoaeuecko
pyun . nuL cnepykuan no ny1n pyua c1anoan1cn
poc1ono, tMM uac1Lk amcuero, neynnu1oxnHoro uenoaeueckoro ,
o6pe1an a cnny a1oro M.
naueH nsmke pasnnuak1cn nonn1nn YL n Y. yx acerpa Hmcnnncn kak amcune
cnoco6noc1n pyun, ee cokpoaennan cae1onocnan cyunoc1L. e apoxnoanennan
M no6yxpennnHn pyua, eue po qnsnuecko cHep1n uenoaeka
o1nyuae1cn, o1napae1 o1 ero pec1an1enLnoro, caepxcosna1enLnoro , 1epnn npn a1oH
anoxennyk a nee aosHoxnoc1L 6eccHep1nn.
cnkn, snonaHepenno nonnpakun caeuennoe npaao na xnsnL ppyrnx cyuec1a,
o1uyxpae1cn o1 X Y , n caH 1epne1 npaao na xnsnL.
n o6peuen. ro xpe1 yxacnan yuac1L M, 1o ec1L cHep1n pyun,
cnepykue sa cHep1Lk 1ena.
Hep1L - a1o ne pacc1aaanne c 1enoH. o ne cHep1L, 1o - pasaonnouenne. Hep1L a1o
o1pma o1 Y- n ncuesnoaenne o1popLn , 6es acnko napexpm na
X.
c, ykopennaueecn a , coxpanne1cn naaekn. ac o1aepxennoe, 6espopnoe
nncxopn1 a , pac1aopne1cn a c1nxnnx, 6ypyun nnueno c1epxnn, ckpenm,
onopm. ac1ynae1 cHep1L a Ha1epnannc1nueckoH cHmcne cnoaa, 1o ec1L ncuesnoaenne
pyun a 6esponno "upno pmpe".
* * *
onn1ne o pyuax, norn6akunx a1opo cHep1Lk, nspaana 6mno npncyue uenoaeuec1ay.
ornacno ppeaneunH aosspennnH, pyun po6pmx nkpe npoponxak1 xn1L, a pyun
sno6nmx konpynoa nenaponro nepexnaak1 nx 1ena a o6nnuLe ynmpe.
127
epan1e n enp-aec1e y1aepxpae1cn, u1o sno npe1 npnHo a "aeunoc1L 1eHno1m",
norpyxae1cn ao Hpak aeunoro 6eccosnannn.
naannaH 6mnn uyxpm xpnc1nanckne npepc1aanennn o 6ore, co1aopnaueH Hnp n
npeponpepennaueH aeunm apckn oronL. pa kak 1akoaoro ne1. o6pm ce6n
cosnpae1, sno ce6n ynnu1oxae1. eunc1me pyun npoc1o ncuesak1, 1epnk1 cao
, pac1aopnncL a .
e amnanaun co6c1aennyk 6eccHep1nyk cyunoc1L nocpepc1aoH npaac1aennoro
caHoy1aepxpennn okasmaae1cn pyxoano-6esnapexnmH n o1cenaae1cn a "nepennaaky" -
a orpoHnm nnaannLnm ko1en pnpopm, u1o6m 6m1L o1nn1mH a ppyro o6pas.
* * *
pnpopy ne nepexn1pnuL. ornacno e saHmcny, uenoaek ponxen 1aopn1L
, nnuero ne oxnpan, epnnc1aenno ns no1pe6noc1n a nk6an,
nsnnaakuecn ns ero ceppua na ac cyuee. a n1ore ac, u1o on 1aopn1 o6po
one, okasmaae1cn pnn nero caHmH snaunHmH n uenecoo6pasnmH: aepL n na a1oH n
na 1oH cae1e nenpexopnua n 6eccHep1na opna nnuL o6pan onn.
ueH 6onee 6eso1ue1nm coc1papa1enLnme no6yxpennn uenoaeka, 1eH 6onee
"6espaccypno", 6esornnpno cnepye1 on aenennnH caoero ceppua, 1eH 6onee ero o6pan
onn o6pe1ae1 aonue6nyk cnny, a 6narne noxenannn nannk1cn o6eperoH. ennkne
nopanxnnkn Hornn ncuenn1L neHounmx n yHnpo1aopn1L c1nxnn 6esHonano n paxe
6eccosna1enLno. nocne pasaonnouennn onn c1anoannncL eue 6onee
Horyuec1aennmHn ypaHn-okpoan1ennHn...
* * *
XnsnL npepuec1aye1 qopHe n
XnsnL nepexnaae1 nocnepnn a1oH.
nena e1poana naaa1ckan
ak nasmaaeHan sanapnan unannnsaunn aonno1nna a ce6e ac sno xpnc1nanc1aa -
pennrnn, naansanno nnpoeaponeuaH uyxpo n apaxpe6no nH paco. nn ycneuno
6opL6m c a1nH snoH neo6xopnHo ocosna1L ne 1onLko Hnpoaosspenueckyk
necoc1on1enLnoc1L xpnc1nanc1aa: napo nonn1L ack nary6noc1L a1o cHep1onocno
pennrnn, rposnue rn6enLk aceHy xnaoHy na eHne.
cn uypoanuno-aaHnnpnueckan cy1L xpnc1nanc1aa saknkuena a eaanrenLcknx 1ekc1ax
Ma1qen (rn.21) n Mapka (rn.11), rpe ncyc opnnH snoaeunH npoknn1neH yHepuanne1
cHokoannuy - pepeao, onnue1aopnkuee X y Hnornx napopoa. o 6onLuoHy cue1y
ne c1onL aaxno, 6mno nn a1o snopennne a pec1an1enLnoc1n (1ak xe, kak ne c1onL
aaxno, xnn nn korpa-nn6o uenoaek no nHenn ncyc). opaspo aaxnee ppyroe: paxe
ecnn a1o 1onLko ka66annc1nueckan npn1ua - nnockasa1enLnoe noaepxenne "sna" a
nnue neannnoro, 6essaun1noro pepeaa, 1o nopo6nm o6pas Hor sapopn1Lcn 1onLko a
yHax nypeea - nenaanc1nnkoa X, , .
cnn pa nnn coaepuennoe "uapc1ao 6oxLe" nnuL a "ne6ecnoH epycannHe", 1o acn
anpnHan pnpopa - necoaepuenc1ao n sno. yuue, ecnn 6m aoo6ue ne 6mno a1o
"rpeuno" eHnn. yx ecnn npnxopn1cn xn1L, 1o napo "cnaca1Lcn", kan1Lcn, oxnpa1L
6narope1enLnoro "konua cae1a".
128
nn xpnc1nan 1o, no ueHy onn xopn1, ne Ma1L-eHnn, a npax nop noraHn - "1aapL
rocnopnn". ac1onuan xnsnL pnn nnx naune1cn nko6m nocne nx cHep1n. ornacno nx
aepoyuennk, ac, u1o nHee1 nno1L - nsnauanLno pypno, rpeuno n neunc1o. k6o,
caHm npaaepnm X uenoaek c a1o 1oukn spennn - nnox n ckaepen, xo1n 6m
1onLko no1oHy, u1o on aonnouen. nn 1oro u1o6m amrnnpe1L xopouo, ounc1n1Lcn o1
ckaepnm n nonac1L a "pa", uenoaeky Hano ns6aan1Lcn o1 nno1n, 1o ec1L YM:
napo noc1onnno yHepuann1L nno1L eue a seHno xnsnn. opoue roaopn: xopoun
uenoaek - a1o Hep1am uenoaek...
pnako xpnc1nanckne npepc1aanennn o sarpo6noH Hnpe paoc1aennm n kpane
npo1naopeunam. opno c1oponm, nx kpaeyronLnmH kaHneH c1on1, kak 6yp1o, yuenne
o pyue uenoaeka n o e nocHep1no cypL6e, rnaanan sa6o1a o ee "cnacennn". o c
ppyro c1oponm, aaxneunH porHa1oH nanne1cn aepa a 1enecnoe "aockpecenne
Hep1amx", nonnHaeHoe a c1poro 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne kak oxnanenne naxopnunxcn a
Hornnax 1pynoa, xo1n 6m onn paano crnnnn.
a1n caHme xpnc1nane, y1aepxpakune, 6yp1o nx pennrnn ocao6oxpae1 o1 c1paxa
cHep1n, ynopnee ppyrnx uennnk1cn sa xnsnL, a caonH HpaunmH o6pnpoH norpe6ennn
sac1aannk1 xnamx nnuL coppora1Lcn o1 yxaca nepep nens6exnmH. eaonLno ouyuan
6esnapexnoc1L caonx ynoaann, onn nm1ak1cn co6c1aennmH c1paxoH cHep1n sapasn1L
kak Hoxno 6onLue nkpe.
pepanpenne caoe nens6exno o6peuennoc1n o1pasnnocL a 6onesnenno-6pepoamx
kap1nnax nokannncnca, nponnkny1oro kpoaoxapno, no neHouno sno6o k MY,
X, Y. oo6ue acn Hmunnan aosnn aokpyr 1ak nasmaaeHoro "konua cae1a"
saknkuae1cn a nc1opnueckn npeponpepenenno cypL6e caHoro xpnc1nanc1aa,
npepuyac1aykuero co6c1aennyk 6ecnpocae1nyk 6esmcxopnoc1L n nm1akuerocn
yaneuL sa co6o a 6espny ne6m1nn ac uenoaeuec1ao.
oc1ono coxanennn, u1o nnme kpopc1aykune "pape1enn" pycckoro naunonanLnoro
epnnennn ampanrak1 a kauec1ae ocnoam aospoxpennn 1euec1aa c1onL uyxpoe
cnaannaH Hnpoaosspenne, aepnee, Hnpoo1pnuanne: npnsmaak1 noknonn1Lcn
"cnacn1enk", npnroaopnaueHy Hnp k cHep1n.
pnc1nanckyk npnpoponoxnpakuyk unannnsaunk pec1an1enLno oxnpae1 6nnskn
koneu: pnpopa ounc1n1cn o1 ckaepnm. o pasae koneu a1o unannnsaunn nan1cn
rn6enLk uenoaeuec1aa? e1, a1o 6ype1 ne cae1onpec1aanenne, no nanpo1na,
.
* * *
epaoxpnc1nane ne cennn n ne naxann, co pnn na penL oxnpan o6euannoro "konua
cae1a". pnako, kak 1onLko xpnc1nanc1ao c1anoan1cn rocypapc1aenno pennrne nHa
n npexnne npnsmam k aepo1epnnHoc1n cHennk1cn kpoaaamHn "6oroyropnmHn"
npecnepoaannnHn nsmunnkoa, 1o "koneu Hnpa" o1opanrae1cn na neonpepenennm cpok,
a na nepaoe Hec1o ampanrae1cn nponoaepL aospannnn a sarpo6noH uapc1ae, u1o
anonne o1aeuae1 sapaue ypepxannn pa6oa a noannoaennn.
ap ace sanapno unannnsaune 1nro1ee1 any1penne npncyuee e npoknn1Le,
ko1opoe ona nece1 a ce6e, kak kneHo, kak popoayk nacnepc1aennyk 6onesnL. D1o -
aekoaeunoe npoknn1Le ynnu1oxennmx ek napopoa n sary6nenno pnpopm.
, ocosnaaan nauano caoero konua, nm1ancL caann1L ac c 6onLno ronoam na
spopoayk, xpnc1nane amnocn1 cHep1nm npnroaop cenenno yc1aHn caoe
copepxankn, - coapeHenno sanapno naykn, nyrak1 "nayunmH" anokannncncoH -
nens6exno, nko6m, qnsnuecko cHep1Lk Mnpa acnepc1ane c1peHnennn aneprnn k
paanoHepnoHy paccenaannk no aceHy npoc1panc1ay Mnpospannn. cnoay ckasa1L, na
129
aonpocm o 1oH: u1o 1akoe D? akoaa ee sarapounan cy1L n nponcxoxpenne? -
nayka ne nHee1 (n ne 6ype1 nHe1L) ckonLko-nn6ypL apasyHn1enLnmx o1ae1oa (nkpn
nayunnncL kasnn1L c noHouLk anek1pnueckoro c1yna, oc1aaancL a nonnoH neaepennn
o1nocn1enLno nopnnnno cy1n caHoro anek1pnuec1aa).
ayuno-nonynnpnan nponoaepL yracakuero onnua nHee1, npexpe acero,
pennrnosno-qnnocoqckoe, Hnpoaosspenueckoe snauenne: 1o, u1o "ns nnuero", nko6m,
co1aopeno, 1o "a nnuero" n o6pa1n1cn. "1paunm cyp", npekpa1na seHnyk xnsnL,
cpenae1 nenyxno "anpnHyk" cenennyk.
1opo sakon 1epHopnnaHnkn rnacn1: 6onee narpe1oe 1eno o6nsa1enLno nepepae1 cao
1enno Henee narpe1oHy, a ono a caok ouepepL - eue Henee narpe1oHy n 1ak panee.
D1o nasmaae1cn an1ponne. eope1nueckne amaopm ns a1oro qnsnueckoro sakona 6mnn
nponsaonLno pacnpoc1panenm na ac Mnpospanne. nonyunnocL, u1o acnepc1ane
an1ponnn 1enno ponxno paanoHepno pacnpepenn1Lcn Hexpy aceHn 1enaHn cenenno,
n 1orpa saHpy1 nk6me panxennn n npeapauennn: xonopnm n 6esxnsnennm Hnp
ouenenee1 a rpo6oao 1nunne.
akoe yHospn1enLnoe nc1onkoaanne npnaeno k 1ak nasmaaeHoHy 1epHopnnaHnueckoHy
napapokcy: ecnn cenennan aeuna, 1o paanmH-paano ponxna 6mna 6m nac1ynn1L ee
"1ennoaan cHep1L". maop, npepaeuakun koneu panxennn ao cenenno,
npo1naopeunn ocnoanoHy nonoxennk nesaancnHo o1 6orocnoann qnnocoqnn:
panxenne neco1aopnHo n neynnu1oxnHo, kak n M . naun nyuune
o1euec1aennme Hmcnn1enn - epnmueackn n 1one1oa, nHnpnsea n nonkoackn -
ne npnnnHann npek "anepre1nuecko cHep1n" Mnpa.
o1n a pannoH cnyuae peuL una nnuL o "" qnsnuecko cenenno, a uen1pe
annHannn ec1ec1aenno okasanocL n ee "" - aonpoc aonpocoa naykn, pennrnn n
qnnocoqnn. epL nonn1ne Mnpa c nauanoH, no 6es konua nornueckn 1oxpec1aenno
nonn1nk Mnpa 6es nauana, no c konuoH.
ypen paano yxe npnnncann "co1aopenne" Mnpa caoeHy 6oxky-ynmpk eroae, a
y6orne xpnc1nane npnsnann ero caonH "6oroH-o1uoH" (noueHy onn n nasmaak1cn
xpnc1nanaHn). e cnyuano 1eopnk onLuoro spmaa, cornacno ko1opo cenennan
popnnacL appyr a opno Hrnoaenne, 6yp1o no Hanoaennk aonue6no nanoukn,
ampannyn ka1onnueckn yuenm a66a1 eHe1p. epL npepc1aanenne o onLuoH
spmae kak "nauane" cenenno anonne coo1ae1c1aoaano 6n6neckoHy co1aopennk
Mnpa "ns nnuero". oo6ue xe 1eopnn onLuoro spmaa 1ecno cansana c HopnmHn, no
yuep6nmHn qopHynaHn Dnu1ena, sanannauero o6 orpannuennoc1n ckopoc1n cae1a n
saHkny1oc1n, 1o ec1L koneunoc1n nckpnanennoro npoc1panc1aa.
* * *
Mmcnn1enn cepo c1apnnm, ccmnancL na eue 6onee ppeannx npauypoa-ncnoanpuea,
xpannaunx cokpoaennoe -, nonyuennoe nekorpa
nenocpepc1aenno o1 Y Y, npnsnaaann Mnp
6eckoneunmH ao apeHenn n a npoc1panc1ae. nn nnx aonpocm o nauane n konue Mnpa
6mnn 6eccHmcnnue, nopo6no nonm1ke o1mcka1L nauano n koneu konLua.
onxam noyuann, u1o acn anpnHan n neanpnHan ec1L aonnouenne
Y-. (a caHoH unpokoH cHmcne a1oro nonn1nn) aeuna, ne
co1aopena n neynnu1oxnHa. pn a1oH aeunoc1L napo nonnHa1L ne a cHmcne aeunoro
npe6maannn a opnoH n 1oH xe coc1onnnn. c a Mnpe nenpepmano poxpae1cn n
aospoxpae1cn, ac npe6maae1 a aeunoH panxennn-konoapauennn n nenpec1anno
nepeaonnouae1cn - o6opaunaae1cn.
130
a nsmke naykn ppeankk Hyppoc1L aosaeuae1 "epe1nk" . on - aepyun kocHonor
n ac1poqnsnk coapeHennoc1n. on roaopn1 o cenenno 6es nauana n konua,
noc1onnno xnayue n pacunpnkuecn, poxpakue ac noayk n noayk Dneprnk.
epynm nac1aannnn: X 1ak xe coaeuna , kak coaeuna
Y. esxnsnennan cenennan 6mna 6m 6eccHmcnnue. XnsnL, a 1oH nnn nnoH
o6nnuLe npncy1c1aykuan ackpy, - 1akan xe ocnoaa 6m1nn, kak panxenne-
konoapauenne: n opno npncyue ppyroHy.
o cenenno ne1 Hep1ao Ha1epnn. k6an "Hep1aan" Ha1epnn, npno6pe1uan caHyk
npoc1yk oprannsaunk-yc1poc1ao, yxe nHee1 uac1nuy xnao1aopnuero yxa-opa,
nponnsmaakuero ack pnpopy. oo6ue a Hnpe ne cyuec1aye1 nanennn cHep1n. o,
u1o nasmaak1 cHep1Lk, acero nnuL cHena qopH aonnouennn
XY X. nHenno X npo1nao6opc1aye1 "1ennoao cHep1n"
cenenno!
XnsnL - cenenno.
oame poc1nxennn 6noqnsnkn canpe1enLc1ayk1 o6 an1nan1ponnnoc1n xnamx
oprannsHoa, o npo1naopeunnx Hexpy 6nonorne n 1epHopnnaHnko. Henno oco6me
caoc1aa Xnsnn n nannk1cn an1nan1ponnno cnno, npnsaanno yHenLua1L Hnpoayk
an1ponnk. cnn saHkny1an qnsnueckan cnc1eHa c1peHn1cn k paanoaecnoHy coc1onnnk
nanHenLue ynopnpouennoc1n (1o ec1L k nan6onLue an1ponnn), 1o nanpo1na, nk6an
X pasanaae1cn o1 npoc1oro k cnoxnoHy (o1 nnskoynopnpouennoro, k
amcokoynopnpouennoHy). npn a1oH an1ponnn ne aospac1ae1, a y6maae1. op
an1nan1ponnnoc1Lk cnepye1 nonnHa1L nannune oco6o amcokoro nopnpka a xnamx
oprannsHax, paneknx o1 Hep1anuero paanoaecnn. mpakunecn poc1nxennn coae1cknx
6noqnsnkoa, n a nepayk ouepepL, npoq. . M. nkunna, pokasann, u1o ace xname
cyuec1aa nponnsanm no1okaHn nekoero "xonopnoro nnaHenn" - 6nonnasHm -
oxnannkuero n opyueannkuero nauana, "noc1poennoro" na 6onee rny6nnnoH ypoane,
ueH a1oHno-Honekynnpnm. nonnasHa - 1epHopnnaHnueckn nepaanoaecnan cnc1eHa,
n ee neo1LeHneHoe caoc1ao - an1nan1ponnnoc1L.
pynneun 6noanepre1nk coapeHennoc1n . en1-Leppn nnue1 a caoe knnre
"noanek1ponnka": "prannsH nponnsan neanpnHmH no1okoH, uac1num ko1oporo -
anek1ponm - necy1 a ce6e aneprnk, sapnp n nnqopHaunk, cnyxa1 kak 6m ropkunH pnn
acex xnsnennmx npoueccoa". D1o ouenL 6nnsko yuennk Ynannuap o "napn" - oco6o,
o1nnuno o1 nepano, cnc1eHe xnaoro oprannsHa, necyue xnsnennme 1okn - npany.
kkynL1nc1m nasmaann a1o1 any1pennn oprannsH - paonnk, co1kannm ns
1onuaunx 6noanepre1nuecknx nn1e n cnoco6nm nepexn1L cHep1L caoe nno1no
o6onoukn, - aqnpnmH, nn6o ac1panLnmH 1enoH.
Henno cyuec1aoaanne "1onko nno1n", a no-pycckn - YL, nanne1cn knkuoH k
nponcnennk sarapounmx nanenn paspaoennn, o6opo1nnuec1aa, npnanpenn n Hnororo
1akoro, "u1o n ne cnnnocL naunH HyppeuaH"...
* * *
n opnn 1onLko Hyx, ace ppyrne -
ckonLsnune 1enn.
oHep
131
m1L Hoxe1, rnaano npnunno nckannn uenoaekoH cHmcna caoero 6m1nn nanne1cn
nenpnn1ne cHep1n.
peaneHy cnaannnny 6mn neaepoH c1pax cHep1n, ko1opm ec1L
MY MYY X. naannnn n a cHep1n cnmuan ronoc ac 1o xe
XYX .
XnsnL ne sakanunaae1cn cHep1Lk, a nnuL o6pe1ae1 apeHenno nnoe o6nnuLe. 6e
kaxyunecn npo1naononoxnoc1n - X M nsaeuno o6pasyk1 epnnoe
konLuo, aepL a kaxpo ns nnx saknkuena ppyran. 1o a Hnpe pepkoa nasmaae1cn
cHep1Lk, 1o a Hnpe nkpe nasmaae1cn poxpenneH, n nao6opo1.
enLsn aospopn1Lcn, ne yHepea. no1L, cnyxnauan onno1oH pnn aonno1nauecn
Xnsnn, nsnaunaae1cn, n opyueannkueHy auany 1pe6ye1cn noaoe aHec1nnnue.
1akoH npocae1nennoH o1nouennn k cHep1n nsmunnka y6expana caHa Ma1L-pnpopa:
pac1enne npepanpn1 neo6xopnHoc1L npo1n uepes coc1onnne ceHenn, u1o6m ne
norn6ny1L 6eccnepno snHo n anoaL pacuaec1n aecno.
o1nnune o1 nospneunx, nckycc1aennmx, knnxnmx pennrn, a ocnoae
npacnaannckoro Hnpoaocnpnn1nn nexann ne 6orocnoackne porHm, a xnao ceppeunm
onm1 aeuennmx 6pnpoa. e 6mno n oco6oro cnoaa, coo1ae1c1aykuero
coapeHennoHy nonn1nk pennrnn. nonnHanacL kak sanoaepnmH
npapepoacknH o6muanH - pepoaunne n saknkuanacL a noun1annn pnnm-onnua,
aonue6nmx cnn pnpopm n yxoa pepkoa-pann1ene opa-neHenn.
pnc1nanckn cHmcn a cnaannckoe nonn1ne anoxnnn uepkoannkn, nm1aaunecn
o6neuL xnsnenk6naoe Hnpoouyuenne naunx npauypoa a Hep1anun caaan pennrnn.
e 6mno y cnaann n "6oroa" a y6oroH napnpnpopnoH cHmcne a1oro cnoaa. ospneune
"6orn" (nasaanne, sanHc1aoaannoe y npancknx nneHen) - a1o o6oxec1anennme
pepkn-oponauanLnnkn, ennkne 1apune opnun, cnnaaaunecn nopo c
couyac1aennmHn c1nxnnHn.
naanne aocnpnnnHann cHep1L ne a kauec1ae konua 6m1nn, no kak ycnoane
aoccoepnnennn c pepkaHn-opopnuaHn n npoponxenne cyuec1aoaannn a nx cae1no
o6n1enn - M .
HnpoH pepkoa (ko1opm 1akxe saknkuen a pnpope) cansmaanncL npepc1aanennn o
aospoxpennn seHnoro uenoaeka: pepkn aonnouanncL a Hnpe nkpe a nnue
noaopoxpennmx, cnoaa no1oH yxopnunx a 1pany pepkoa, o1kypa onn1L nens6exno
aosapauenne na opnyk eHnk. e 6mno 1oro c1paxa ncuesnoaennn ns Hnpa, u1o
1epsae1 xpnc1nan n Ha1epnannc1oa; pnn nsmunnka pnpopa - epnnoe aceo6LeHnkuee
6m1ne.
1ne1eauan o1 1ena X YL ne noknpana "6pennoro" Hnpa, ne aosnocnnacL na
"ne6o" (cnaannckoe "ne6o" ckopee cxoxe c kn1acknH "pao", ueH c xpnc1nancknH
"paeH"). M . Hep1L, 1o ec1L pasaonnouenne pyun, ec1L , a
M. c1a1n, nan6onee nponnua1enLnme qnsnkn roaopn1, u1o a 6eckoneunoH n
epnnoH Mnpospannn cyuec1aye1 ne opnn, a neckonLko asanHocansannmx n
asanHonponnkakunx nnanoa 6m1nn c nnmHn, ueH nau, npoc1panc1aenno-apeHennmHn
nsHepennnHn n nnmHn ypoannHn Ha1epnanLnoc1n (aepnee ckasa1L, nnmHn
anepre1nuecknHn ypoannHn).
* * *
132
1oH, u1o Hnpm a1n paspennk1cn 1onLko uenoaeuecknH neaepenneH, o aosHoxnoc1n
sarnnny1L no 1y c1opony oueanpnoc1n nspaana canpe1enLc1ayk1 uypecnme
cnoco6noc1n nyna1nkoa n ncnoanpuea, aepynn-uapopeek n apoxnoaennmx
npopnua1ene.
mno nopHeueno, u1o a neko1opmx ncknkun1enLnmx coc1onnnnx nyna1nsHa,
caHosa6aennn, aoc1opxennoc1n, opepxnHoc1n, nan1nn - uenoaek ac1ynae1 a
coaepuenno neo6munme, kauec1aenno nnme o1nouennn c pnpopo.
cnn a o6mpennoH, 6oppc1aennoH coc1onnnn uenoaek nosnae1 pnpopy 1onLko c
aneune c1oponm, 1o a nyna1nueckoH sa6m1Le n nopo6nmx xe coc1onnnnx, cansannmx
c norauenneH ronoanoro cosnannn, pyua kak 6m norpyxancL a pnpopy n cnnaancL c
opyueannkunH ee auanoH, npospeaae1 nenocpepc1aenno cokpoaennyk cy1L nanenn,
- o6pe1ae1 aceaepenne.
D1o nop1aepxpak1 c6maakunecn npepckasannn, ncnoanpenne ao apeHenn n a
npoc1panc1ae, snaxapc1ao, apaueaanne n aopox6a na pacc1onnnn, aeune cnm,
akc1a1nueckoe apoxnoaenne n Hnorne ppyrne cnnm n cnoco6noc1n pyun, pec1aykue
ane nsaec1nmx nayke sakonoa, ane nsaec1nmx nn1n opranoa uyac1a - ane 1ecnmx
npepenoa nno1n.
pecL kpoe1cn cHmcn ampaxenn: "ane ce6n", "amuen ns ce6n", "npnuen a ce6n", n 1.
n. Mm yno1pe6nneH nx, ne sapyHmaancL o 1oH, kako rny6okn n npnHo cHmcn
aknapmaann a nnx ppeanne. pe6maa1L a akc1ase - snaun1 npe6maa1L ane ce6n
(npnc1aaka "ak" osnauae1 "ane"). opo opno nnuL oc1po nepexnaaeHoe aocxnuenne
pnano, 6naroyxanno kpaco1o pnpopm Hoxe1 y oco6o uyac1an1enLnmx
(cen1nHen1anLnmx, kak roaopn1 nnrnnnc1m) na1yp aosamcn1Lcn po aoc1opxenno
aksanL1aunn - Y.
sppeane nsaec1no o npepcHep1nmx anpennnx, nannkunxcn yHnpakunH n 6nnsknH k
cHep1n nkpnH. Yxe o1ouepune opnun-pepkn ac1peuak1 nx na nopore ,
o6neruan nepexop a nocHep1noe coc1onnne. 6 a1oH xe canpe1enLc1aye1 n nnunm
nocHep1nm onm1 - aocnoHnnannn aosapauennmx k xnsnn (peannHnpoaannmx)
6onLnmx.
pa6 6n-apnan 1ak onncmaae1 norpe6anLnm koc1ep sna1noro yca X aeka: " ao1,
korpa yHep 1o1 Hyx, 1o cnpocnnn ero peayuek: "1o yHpe1 aHec1e c nnH?" ckasana
opna ns nnx: "". ... peayuka kaxpm penL nnna n nena, aecenncL, papyncL
6ypyueHy". a1eH 6n-apnan nnue1, u1o peayuky, nponsnocnauyk kakne-1o
saknnnannn, 1pnxpm nopnnHann nap orpapo aokpyr Hec1a, rpe nexan ro1oam k
coxxennk nokonnk, n ona sarnnpmaana anns.
" a nepam pas ckasana: "o1 anxy n o1ua Hoero, Ha1L Hok". ao a1opo pas
ckasana: "o1 anxy acex o1ouepunx popnmx Honx cnpnunHn". ckasana a 1pe1n
pas: "o1 anxy rocnopnna Hoero cnpnunH a capy, a cap kpacna, senen, n ao1 on soae1
Henn, 1ak aepn1e xe Henn k neHy". ocne npou1ennn sanncok 6n-apnana nau
aennkn noa1-nsmunnk onc1an1nn anLHon1 aocknnknyn: " 1aH, sa npepenaHn a1oro
ornn, ko1opm poropen n no1yx, pasae ne acnmxnynn nH koc1pm neracnyune, n Hano
nn pacuaeno nH Hepoamx uae1oa?"
naanne Hmcnnnn nocHep1nyk cypL6y uenoaeka nn6o kak ac1peuy - aoccoepnnenne c
opnuaHn-pepkaHn, nn6o kak co6c1aenno cHep1L, 1o ec1L npoaan a 6espny ne6m1nn.
ae1nme, poc1onme pyun aosapauak1cn a 1pany pepkoa n po noaoro aonnouennn
c1anoan1cn yxaHn-okpoan1ennHn caonx copopnue, a pyun pypnme, neunc1me
ncuesak1 naaeuno a uapc1ae cHep1n. 6n1enL pepkoa - TT , a ao anapennnx
cHep1n - 1LHa kpoHeunan (cp. c YnannuapaHn, rpe roaopn1cn, u1o neuec1naeu
133
nonapae1 nocne cHep1n a o6nac1L, nasmaaeHyk cypLn, 1o ec1L nnuennyk onnua,
norpyxennyk a rny6okn Hpak).
pycckoH napopnoH 1aopuec1ae nopor - aopopaspen Hexpy speune eHne nkpe n
1pano pepkoa o6pasno o6osnauen aeue peko Hopopnno (npacnaannckn
kopenL "Hop" - "Hap" - "Hep" cansan co cHep1Lk). peka a1a cHep1enLno onacna,
nenpeoponnHa pnn sno6nmx konpynoa, pnn 1pycoa-npepa1ene opa n pnn ampopkoa-
Hyxenoxuea.
* * *
mpakuncn repHanckn yuenm n Hmcnn1enL apn k-penL (1839-1900),
nccnepoaaaun sarapounme cnoco6noc1n nyna1nkoa n coHnaH6yn (coHnaH6yna -
uenoaek, nckycc1aennmH rnnno1nuecknH cnoco6oH norpyxennm a nyna1nueckoe
coc1onnne), aaen a nayky nonn1ne ncnxoqnsnueckoro nopora cosnannn (anepame
yno1pe6nennoe ppyrnH aennknH repHancknH Hmcnn1eneH - ocnoaa1eneH ncnxoqnsnkn
eopopoH exnepoH), o1pennkuero cosnanne uenoaeka o1 ace neo6Ln1no o6nac1n
caepxcosna1enLno xnsnn pyun.
po6yxpenne ppeHnkunx cnn n cnoco6noc1e saancn1 o1 ocna6nennn, nonnxennn
o6munoro uyac1aennoro cosnannn, nnaue roaopn, o1 nonnxennn nopora cosnannn. eH
nnxe a1o1 nopor, 1eH amue uyac1an1enLnoc1L k aocnpnn1nk po1one ne
aocnpnnnHaeHoro.
aepxuyac1aennoe cosnanne a noacepneano xnsnn sarnyuae1cn uyac1aennmH, 1o ec1L
ronoanmH HosroH - noporoH nauero cosnannn. no1oHy caepxuyac1aennme
cnoco6noc1n Hory1 nponann1Lcn o6muno nnuL ao apeHn naxoxpennn uenoaeka a
neko1opmx 6eccosna1enLnmx (c 1oukn spennn paccypounoro cosnannn) coc1onnnnx,
cansannmx c noHpauenneH cosna1enLnoro aocnpnn1nn. ouno 1ak xe 1eHno1a noun ne
nanne1cn npnunno nonanennn na ne6e saesp, a nnuL neo6xopnHmH ycnoaneH nx
anpnHoc1n.
cnoanpenne nyna1nkoa n coHnaH6yn ykasmaae1, u1o pyua naua o1nkpL ne
1oxpec1aenna naueHy 6oppc1aykueHy "pneanoHy" caHocosnannk c ero nn1Lk
opranaHn uyac1a. yua ne ncuepnmaae1cn naunH HmcnnunH , no kopenn1cn a
nopcnypno o6nac1n 1ak nasmaaeHoro 6eccosna1enLnoro.
eonpoaepxnHoc1L nanenn, npo1naopeuaunx 1oHy "sppaaoHy cHmcny", ccmnancL na
ko1opm cypnnn annnen, pae1 nannyuuee pokasa1enLc1ao cyuec1aoaannn
nesaancnHoro o1 aneunnx uyac1a amcuero cosnannn. nanennn paspaoennn,
npnspakoa xnamx n Hp1amx, a 1akxe ace nanennn, ne coaceH ypauno o6o6unnme
nop nasaanneH cnnpn1nuecknx, nop1aepxpak1, u1o a1o caepxuyac1aennoe cosnanne
nHee1 caoero nocn1enn, kakoamH nanne1cn ac1panLnoe (1onkoe) 1eno-o6onouka YL.
Henno nponannkunecn nopo y uenoaeka caepxuyac1aennme cnoco6noc1n
npepc1aannk1 co6o sapa1kn aosHoxnoro nocHep1noro cyuec1aoaannn nocn1enn a1nx
nesaancnHmx o1 1ena cnoco6noc1e - ero YL, pen1enLnoc1L ko1opo n ponxna
coc1on1L a nonLsoaannn 1akoamHn cnoco6noc1nHn.
aepxuyac1aennoe o1kpoaenne - akc1as npepaocxnuae1 naue nocHep1noe coc1onnne a
1oH cHmcne, u1o npo6yxpakunecn a neH "caepxLec1ec1aennme" aosHoxnoc1n Hory1
c1a1L naunH o6munmH M poc1onnneH nocne pasaonnouennn. 6pasno
roaopn, nocHep1nmH coc1onnneH Y X 6ype1
(po noaoro aonnouennn) nenpepmanm ncnoanpueckn .
134
cuesakuee a HoHen1 cHep1n cosnanne ec1L 1onLko nnsun anp cosnannn, saancnHm
o1 ronoanoro Hosra. o any1penneH xe naueH cyuec1ae cHep1L ne nponsaopn1
nnkaknx nsHenenn; ona 1onLko nnuae1 uenoaeka opranoa uyac1aennoro nosnannn,
c1aaunx eHy 1enepL nenyxnmHn, napennn asaHen coaepuenno nnmH, nponnknoaennmH
anpenneH Hnpa.
ny1pennee npo6yxpenne pyun nanpnHyk saancn1 o1 rny6nnm sa6m1Ln - "ueH nouL
1eHne, 1eH npue saespm". eH 6onee ycmnnne1cn, ocna6eaae1 aneunee uyac1aennoe
aocnpnn1ne, nannkueecn nnuL npenn1c1aneH pnn o6uennn nauero any1pennero
cyuec1aa c nnmHn pyxoanmHn cyunoc1nHn, 1eH 6onee nesaancnHmH n pec1aennmH
c1anoan1cn 1onkoe 1eno, 1eH nerue eHy nponann1L ce6n, ampennncL apeHenno ns
nno1no o6onoukn.
onnoe xe ncuesnoaenne noaepxnoc1noro "pneanoro" cosnannn - qnsnueckan cHep1L -
6ype1 nnuL nonnmH yc1panenneH a1oro npenn1c1ann, nonnmH packpenouenneH pyun,
nap ko1opo cHep1L ne anac1na.
* * *
npennn, conpoaoxpakune coHnaH6ynnueckn 1panc, aosHoxnm acnepc1ane
nonnxennn nopora cosnannn, o1pennkuero nac o1 pec1an1enLnoc1n, nexaue Y
Y a1oro nopora, o1 "asepkanLn" (na1nnckoe "1panc" osnauae1 "sa").
Hep1L ne nepenocn1 nac a npoc1panc1aenno ppyro Hnp, a 1onLko o1kpmaae1 Hnp,
aocnpnn1ne naHn ko1oporo oc1ae1cn po nopm po apeHenn sa noporoH nauero cosnannn.
cHep1L a a1oH cHmcne ec1L nsHenenne ypoann cosnannn. pyro Hnp ne ec1L ppyroe
Hec1o, on ec1L ppyroe aocnpnn1ne. nepexop nau a no1yc1oponnn Hnp paanosnauen
nepexopy o1 nockc1oponnero cnoco6a aocnpnn1nn k no1yc1oponneHy.
cnn Hnp pepkoa o1penen o1 nac 1onLko noporoH nauero cosnannn, ecnn
Y M M, X Y Y nauero cosnannn, 1o ne
snaun1 nn a1o, u1o Hm ac1ynaeH a no1yc1oponnn Hnp ne anepame nocne cHep1n
naue, a naxopnHcn a neH yxe a a1o xnsnn???
6nac1L 6eccosna1enLno (pnn o6munoro cosnannn) pyueano xnsnn n ec1L 1a paepL,
uepes ko1opyk 1onLko n aosHoxno o6uenne naue M YM
YM...
* * *
oun1anne pepkoa nexano a ocnoaannn acero yknapa xnsnn popoao o6unnm. aHo
nonn1ne kynL1ypm aocxopn1 k kynL1y pepkoa, okasaaueHy orpoHnoe, onpepennkuee
annnnne na npaac1aennoc1L n Hmunenne napopoa. - M
.
smunnk ne Hor noHmcnn1L o1opaannoro o1 co6c1aenno xnsnn npe6maannn pepkoa a
nnoH Hnpe, on acerpa 6mn okpyxen 6nnsknHn nkpLHn, nnuL nepeuepunHn a nnyk
pec1an1enLnoc1L. yun pepkoa, aosaepennme cHep1Lk a 6narope1enLnmx yxoa-
pann1ene n epernnL, o6eperann no1oHkoa n onekann nx 1ak xe, kak penann a1o a
caoe seHno xnsnn. nnH - pauypaH-ypaH nsmunnk poaepunao o6pauancn sa
noHouLk: "yp Henn!" caH on neaonLno ro1oanncn npncoepnnn1Lcn k pepkaH n
noHora1L "o11ypa" caonH no1oHkaH. a1o anocnno noko n yHnpo1aopenne a ero
pyuy...
Mnp pepkoa 6mn aennuaamH n a 1o xe apeHn ec1ec1aenno cnn1mH c 6m1neH no1oHkoa.
e 6mno pesko rpannum Hexpy a1nHn HnpaHn: opnun Hornn nan1Lcn a Hnny1m
135
neo6mknoaennoro, npocae1nennoro coc1onnnn uenoaeka, a rnaanoe - ao apeHn
caeuennmx poponneHennmx pec1a-o6pnpoa, npnsaannmx noppepxnaa1L noc1onnnyk
cansL Hexpy copopnuaHn seHnmHn n o1ouepunHn. ecoHnenno, u1o ppeanne ne
npoc1o cneno aepoaann a 1akyk aosHoxnoc1L: pnn nnx a1o 6mn 6esycnoano-oueanpnm
onm1. oHnnanLnme npaspnec1aa epnnennn pyu no1oHkoa c yxaHn pepkoa-
pann1ene 6mnn ne HackapapoH pnxenmx, ne cnHaonnuecknH, no XM
YLM M M.
aaxpm a ropy, 1 1paann (Han) n 1 rpypnn (non6pn) cnaanne cnpaannnn Y -
popoame noHnnkn, nocaeuennme M M. oponnua aecennnn - ppeaneuee
o6uennpoeaponeckoe 1opxec1ao y cnaann nasmaanocL eue pacno opko,
nockonLky c pepkaHn o6uanncL n poHa - a pacnoH Yrny, n aosne popoamx
HornnLnnkoa-kypranoa (o1ckpa - "nnp ropo").
pnc1nane, nckopennaune nsmuec1ao, nouL nakanyne a1oro npaspnec1aa o6Lnannn
nouLk "ca. anLnyprnn", a caeuennme nounme koc1pm npnnncann pasryny "aepLH" na
mco ope.
ocenne xe oponnue uepkoannkn npnypounnn cnauana cao "penL acex can1mx", a
sa1eH noHnnanLnyk "Hn1pneackyk cy66o1y" (cy66o1a nepep 26.10.), xo1n
nsnauanLno y cnaann paxe pnn c 1aknH nasaanneH ne 6mno: cy66o1a nponcxopn1 o1
nypeckoro "ua66a1" - ua6au - exenepenLnm npaspnnk pannnx xpnc1nan.
eunnn oponnua - rnaanm penL noHnnoaennn popnue, penL "ac1peun" c nnHn.
opornx roc1e oknnkann no nHenaH; nsmunnkn 6mnn y6expenm a cyuec1aoaannn
1annc1aenno nepaspmano cansn Hexpy uenoaekoH n ero nHeneH, nHn cun1anocL
aaxneue coc1aano uac1Lk uenoaeka kak seHnoro, 1ak n o1ouepuero k pepkaH.
"epoa" npocnnn o1aepa1L 6eckpoanoro yrouennn - kneuek n xHenLnoro Hepoaoro
nn1Ln. neukn o1 rnarona "kneua1L" - "knnka1L", 1o ec1L aosaeua1L aonk pepkoa
yc1aHn apoxnoaenno aepynLn.
aeuennm nann1ok apnuea - xoHa - o1 npacnaannckoro xHenn. peaneun
nsmueckn o6mua poxnn po naunx pne a anpe o6nsa1enLno noHnnanLno c1onkn
pnn nokonnka.
ocpepc1aoH xep1aonpnnouenn yc1anaannaanacL cansL c pepkaHn: nn1Le n nnua
c1anoannncL uene6nmHn, nacmuennmHn ncxopnue o1 pepkoa xnan1enLno cnno.
aeuennopec1ao o6opaunaanocL 6esypepxnmH aecenLeH - "6ecnoaanneH", 1ak
ocyxpaeHmH 1ornaaoH (sannckn uepk. co6opa 1551 r.). nepao6m1noH ncc1ynnennn
c1npanncL sm6kne rpann Hexpy necne, nnncko n knnueH, Hexpy naLk n
naaaxpenneH, Hexpy nkpLHn, npnspakaHn n c1nxnnHn. pn1ene ne 6mno: a
aonue6nm xopoaop aoanekanacL . uyuenne npncy1c1ann pepkoa
aospac1ano y neko1opmx, oco6o npeppacnonoxennmx k 1oHy yuac1nnkoa po npnHoro
ncnoanpennn...
apoc1noe noHnnanLnmx o6pnpoa-nrpnu 6mno ec1ec1aennmH nponanenneH
cnaanncknx aosspenn na Y. oHnnkn 6mnn o6pnpoH X
konoapauennn, nockonLky xnsnL ne saaepuae1cn cHep1Lk: a aeueH pycckoH nsmke -
"pyua" - nHenoaanne o1ouepunx n pyua - npnunna xnsnn.
M XM M!
* * *
136
opo6noe Hnpoaosspenne onpepennno 6ecc1paunoe o1nouenne aonnoa k cHep1n:
rpeueckne, na1nnckne n apa6ckne nc1opnkn a opnn ronoc y1aepxpak1, u1o a o1kpm1oH
6ok cnaanne 6mnn neno6epnHm. nn aonna nopnnnno cHep1Lk 6mno ne 6erc1ao c
nonn 6pann, a rn6enL sa npaaoe peno, n6o pyua 1pyca ne aosapauanacL k pepkaH, a
naaekn yHnpana aHec1e c 1enoH.
Hep1L a cpaxennn - ne 1onLko ycnoane yaekoaeuennn cnaam an1nsn a nokonennnx, no
n npeapauennn ero ns aonna na eHne a aonna-saun1nnka popnue a ppyxnne
pauypa-oponauanLnnka. mcuee 6naro aonna - caHonoxep1aoaanne ao nHn
1unsnm, n no1oHy na 1pnsne cnoxnaunx 6yny ronoay a kpoaaao ceue ne
onnaknaann, a amcoko o nnx papoaanncL.
onny c1pauna ne cHep1L, no 6eccnaanan xnsnL a pa6c1ae. Henno kauec1ao
aocnpnn1nn cHep1n npeapauae1 uenoaeka nn6o a pa6a, nn6o ao anac1ennna caoero
6m1nn. a6 c1anoan1cn pa6oH, no1oHy u1o c1paun1cn cHep1n. o on-1o n nonapae1 a ee
o6Ln1nn.
naanne ne cpaaanncL apary xnamHn: "Mep1ame cpaHy ne nHy1!" - aosaec1nn
ae1ocnaa - , cnno1naun cnaannckyk epxaay o1 ynan po onrn, o1
apnxckoro Hopn po epHnoro. aeuenna nk6oaL k 1euec1ay n caeuenna npoc1L k
ero neppyraH! cae1nan cnaaa ae1ocnaaa rpeHena no ace apone, n uec1L ycckoro
onna 6mna o6pasuoH pnn napopoa.
akne xe nonn1nn o aonncko o1aare 6mnn n y paokpopnmx 6pa1Lea cnaann: y
repHanuea, kenL1oa, qpaknuea...
Hep1L aoo6ue cun1anacL nocnepnnH n aennuaunH ncnm1anneH, korpa nonnee acero
packpmaae1cn rny6ouauan cyunoc1L uenoaeka n o6napyxnaae1cn nopnnnnan ero
uennoc1L. onLko a noaepennn aonna nepep nnuoH cHep1n saaepuae1cn ero
c1anoanenne. epapoH coxpanenne npncy1c1ann pyxa a cao cHep1nm uac cun1anocL
amcue po6nec1Lk. smunnk ponxen 6mn acerpa xn1L poc1ono, u1o6m a nk6oe apeHn
ac1pe1n1L cHep1L 6es c1paxa.
arn ppeannx repHanuea-ckanpnnaaoa nopaxak1 coapeHennoe aoo6paxenne
1opxec1aennmH cnokoc1aneH repoea nepep cHep1Lk. necnnx Dppm anLknpnn
npoaoxak1 6ecc1paunmx aonnoa a ae1nyk anranny, a 1o apeHn kak nopnme n
pa6onenc1aykune ncuesak1 ao 1LHe ennm - anapmunum cHep1n.
aonnc1aennmx kenL1ax n o6 nx aonxaax-ppynpax 1ak nncan esapL: "nn oco6enno
xo1enn 6m y6epn1L nac, u1o pyun ne yHnpak1, no nocne cHep1n aosapauak1cn a
ppyrnx 1enax. nn cun1ak1, u1o nopo6nm asrnnp ouenL nonesen, u1o6m nopnn1L a
uenoaeke Hyxec1ao n paxe anyun1L eHy npespenne k cHep1n". Henno ppynpm
anyuann aonnaH 1o npespenne k cHep1n, ko1opmH 1ak aocxnuanncL pnHnnne.
epopo1 pacckasmaae1, u1o nan6onee oxec1ounnoe conpo1nanenne apnk okasann
re1m-qpaknum, uLe Hyxec1ao o6LncnnnocL nx nenokone6nHo y6expnnoc1Lk a
6eccHep1nn pyun n nepeaonnouennn. onnm-qpaknum coc1nsanncL sa npaao
ypoc1on1Lcn aennuaue uec1n - npnnn1L po6poaonLnyk cHep1L na oc1pnnx konn,
u1o6m 1aknH o6pasoH o1npaan1Lcn ronuoH k qpaknckoHy aepxoanoHy 6oxec1ay.
nonckne n1unkn-aHnkapse 1ak xe ocnapnaann ppyr y ppyra npaao nepamH
o1npaan1Lcn a cao cHep1enLnm non1 na aHepnkanckne aananocum. Xn1ennH
1panm ocxopnuero onnua ypanocL coxpann1L cao nckonnoe naunonanLnoe
Hnpoaosspenne, oc1a1Lcn 1aknHn xe nsmunnkaHn-connuenoknonnnkaHn, kaknHn 6mnn
n naun pankne npepkn.
137
nnonckoH xpaHe cykynn po konua aonm coaepuanncL oco6me nounme o6pnpm
noHnnoaennn - amsoaa n ac1peun pyu norn6unx aonnoa, nasmaaaunecn ckonca
(pocnoano "1opxec1aennm o6pnp amsoaa pyu yHepunx"). pecL apoxnoannnncL na
nopanr caHonoxep1aoaannn nnno1m-cHep1nnkn.
pnn ns nnx, npexpe ueH coaepun1L cao nocnepnn non1, nanncan
ue1mpxHecnuno pouepn: "orpa 1m ampac1euL n saxoueuL ac1pe1n1Lcn co Hno, 1m
nopuL a cae1nnnue cykynn, n 1ao ceppue noHoxe1 1e6e yanpe1L Henn"...
138
* * *
poc1n, Ma1L-mpa-eHnn, a uH n 1e6e pocapnn!
s pycckoro napopnoro saroaopa
, Ha1n naua, Ha1n, sHen Ma1pona!
s ppeanero nsmueckoro saroaopa
M, coepnnnkuan a ce6e ace c1nxnn, c nesanaHn1nmx apeHn 6mna opnoapeHenno
M n XM. pnn acex nneHn seHnmx na 6mna M,
nopoxpakue ac cyuee (u1o o1He1nn n nr a caoeH yuennn o6 apxe1nnax).
1onL xnaoe, nenocpepc1aennoe ouyuenne naunx o1pannneunx npepkoa
saneua1neno a nacnepc1aenno, popoao naHn1n: nepapoH n a pycckoH nsmke cnoao
M - xenckoro, Ha1epnnckoro popa, a caHa seHnan 1aeppL nasmaanacL Ha1epnkoH.
aeuennoe cnoao M (M) nHee1 rny6ouauyk npannpoeaponeckyk ppeanoc1L.
kpn1o-Hnkencknx napnncnx ao rnaae 6oxec1a - aennkan M; nnorpa na nHenye1cn
Ma-nann, 1o ec1L epxoanan ornnn - Ma1epL acex 6oroa. naue peun Hakyuka n
aepxyuka - nonn1nn opnosnaunme. a ycn noun1ann MakouL - papopn1enLnnuy
Mnpa n opnoapeHenno onnue1aopenne Ma1epn-eHnn, saHeunnyk nocne
xpnc1nannsaunn apackeao-n1nnue.
a1nnckoe cnoao "Ha1epnn" (npnpopnoe aeuec1ao, 1o ec1L npnpopnan
pec1an1enLnoc1L) aocxopn1 k opnokopennoHy M - M. anrnnckoH n a
neko1opmx ppyrnx nnpoeaponecknx nsmkax "matter" - Ha1epnn, Ha1epnnckoe
aeuec1ao. peanne okkynL1nc1m roaopnnn o "materia matrix" - Ha1epnncko
nsnauanLno Ha1epnn. 1onLko a a1oH cHmcne naunx npauypoa Hoxno nasaa1L
Ha1epnannc1aHn, nockonLky nx Hnpoaosspenne ne nHee1 nnuero o6uero c nnocknH
"nayunmH" Ha1epnannsHoH, o1kasmaakunH pnpope ao aceo6ue opyueanennoc1n.
uenLnoH nsmueckoH Hnpoanpennn yx n pnpopa ne npo1naoc1onnn ppyr ppyry. nn
nsmunnka caHa Ha1epnn, 1o ec1L npnpopnan nno1L, 6mna nnuL aonnouenneH kako-
nn6o cnnm nnn c1nxnn. c seHnoe opyxo1aopnnocL, a ac pyxoanoe nHeno npnpopnyk
o6onouky.
ennkn an - xnao1aopnun yx caHo eHnn - noun1ancn caHmH aaxnmH ns yxoa-
osnea. peueckn an - a1o nau eun - okpoan1enL acero xnaoro: on aespecyu a
o6nnuLe pepeaLea, rop, 1paa...
eHnan nno1L Horna popn1L, 1o ec1L c1a1L Ma1epLk, 1onLko 6ypyun opouennan anaro
a anpe poxpn nnn 1yHana. 1ckpa: M--M-. nckonnmx, poxpnc1nancknx
aosspennnx cnaann xnaopopnme cnnm eHnn nHenoaanncL oxannuaHn. oxannum
noun1anncL ao Hnoxec1aennoH uncne, nockonLky eHnn nopoxpae1 pasnnunme -
pac1n1enLnme, xnao1nme n nnme anpm xnsnn.
M , M M MY L -
ae1orop - cmn eHnn, o6peHenennm nenHoaepno c1nxnno cnno.
eHnn kak nnane1a - aennuauan sarapka pnn naykn. o caHme nponnua1enLnme
yuenme coapeHennoc1n, o16pocna 6n6neckyk porHy o 6ecuyac1aenno "1aapn-seHne"
(co1aopenno, nko6m, nypecknH 6oxkoH eroao), ac 6onee nop1aepxpak1
ppeaneune nsmueckne npepc1aanennn o 1oH, u1o M - X, ,
139
YL Y, M L M
.
opo6no acnkoHy xnaoHy cyuec1ay, eHnn (kak uenLnm oprannsH) nHee1 caon
xnsnenno aaxnme 1oukn (yuenme nasmaak1 a1o akynynk1ypo eHnn). aH, rpe
xnao1aopnune cnnoame no1okn 6nnxe k noaepxnoc1n - 1aH nac1aennee ouyuae1cn nx
6naro1aopnoe aospec1ane. akne Hec1a nsppeane noun1anncL caeuennmHn: 1aH
aosnnkann nsmueckne kannua, 1aH coaepuanncL popoame npaspnec1aa, 1aH
nacmnanncL pacnme opkn - kypranm nap npaxoH coxxennmx copopnue. ene6nan
cnna 6Lkunx 1aH popnnkoa saancena nHenno o1 1oro, u1o nponc1ekann onn npnHo ns
6naropa1nmx nepp Ma1epn eHnn.
co6oe noun1anne cnaannaHn Ma1epn-mpo-eHnn ampaxanocL n a 1ak nasmaaeHmx
seHnmx noknonax. knn1aax n saroaopax nHn eHnn cun1anocL caHmH caeuennmH, n a
nop1aepxpenne knn1am rno1ann ropc1L seHnn.
enL uec1aoaannn eHnn-Hennnnnum, korpa nenLsn pann1L nn nona1o, nn
nnyroH, poxnn a rny6nnke po naunx pne. o acex ppeannx o6uec1aax aoo6ue
c1poxaue sanpeuanocL kono1L seHnk noxoH nnn konLeH.
peanen1annckan ennypa - Ma1L eHnn (o1oxpec1anennan nospnee c ee n
epepo) nokpoan1enLc1aoaana 6pakaH. peaneune 1anopec1aa a uec1L
coaepuanncL a nopseHnmx rpo1ax - ao upeae eHnn.
u a nauane a1oro aeka 1aopnnocL na ycn nsmueckoe caeuennopec1ao -
- okpyxennn pepeann noncoH - o6eperoH o1 Hopa n 6onesne. ny6oko
nouLk, a conpoaoxpennn 1onnm o6naxennmx cennnok, a coxy anpnranacL nenpeHenno
M xenunna, onnue1aopnkuan 1nry pnpopm k Xnsnn. 1orpa ns 6opospm
- "npopyxa" nopmHanacL n ncxopnna Horyuec1aenneuan nepao6m1nan M
, yc1pauaauan caHy cHep1L.
c nponspac1ae1 cnnsy, ns eHnn, ns - pe1opopnoro
nona Ma1epn-eHnn. nHenno 1aH neuec1name xpnc1nane noHec1nnn cao caHo
npoknn1oe aHec1nnnue - ap, rpe ponxnm 1epne1L aeunyk kasnL "npononoknonnnkn",
ne npnsnaaune "cnacn1enn".
1onL 6esnpaac1aennoe o1nouenne k paHa1epn-eHne o6Lncnne1cn eu n 1eH, u1o
nypen nnkorpa ne nHenn caoe seHnn. ak nasmaaeHan "o6e1oaannan seHnn"
anec1nnm 6mna saxaauena nHn ny1H (a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne)
nc1pe6nennn kopennmx nneHn-connuenoknonnnkoa.
* * *
noao M - opno ns rnaaneunx, opno ns ppeaneunx cnoa popno peun. aeueH
nsmke cnaann cnoaa M n M sayua1 nou1n opnnakoao. nn popc1aennm. nn
naunx npauypoa M caeuennoro npecHmkakuerocn 6mno sanpe1nmH,
nenponsnocnHmH. kpn ne snak1 nepaonauanLnoro cnaannckoro M a1oro
xnao1noro. asaanne "sHen" - nnuL nnockasanne, nponsaopnoe o1 "seHnn". D1o
nop1aepxpae1cn ppeaneunHn 1ekc1aHn, nanpnHep ns "na1oc1pyn" XII a.: " nepe1L n
ckaue1L, n no seHnn nnese1L akn sHnnn". "onc1opnueckne" Hneam aanm -
ncnonnnckne seHnnnme nacmnn kxno ycn xpann1 1any caoero nasaannn k
nasnauennn.
opc1ao M n M kopenn1cn a rny6nne 1mcnuene1n. Hen osnauana seHnoe,
xenckoe nauano. Hen Hyppm n caeuennm, no1oHy u1o onn 6nnxe k seHne, ns ko1opo
140
ac nponspac1ae1 n ac aospoxpae1cn. Hen - aonnouenne Horyuec1aennmx seHnmx
cnn, sHen conpnxena c xnao1aopnue HouLk seHnn.
ou1n ao acex Hnqonornnx nopseHnm Hnp - Hec1o Hyppoc1n n aeunx snann, kypa sa
nnHn o1npaanne1cn repo nnn uaHan. a1nH Hoxno cpaann1L onncanne "1oro cae1a"
(, a ne 1LHm!) a neko1opmx pyccknx ckaskax.
Y rpekoa eHnn-en noun1anacL poponauanLnnue 6oroa, nkpe n 1n1anoa.
opoxpennoe eHne sHeexaoc1oe pn1n saanocL Dpnx1onneH. nran1m - sHeenorne
cmnm en - nanppeaneune, poonnHnnckne xosneaa seHnmx c1nxn. 6pas
sHeenoro ornnn-okpoan1enLnnum 6mn pacnpoc1panen y cknqoa. kenL1cknx
npepannnx amc1ynae1 qen Menysnna - xenunna-sHen. oc1onnnmH cny1nnkoH
ppeanen1annckoro euero-nnLaana 6mna sHen. ocnncn na aasax canpe1enLc1ayk1,
u1o kynL1 ornnn-Hen npouae1an y cospa1ene aennkonenno n sarapouno
pnnonLcko kynL1ypm (a ko1opmx pnp yuenmx anpn1 npacnaann n paxe
npannpoeaponeuea). oo6ue sHen - caeuennoe xnao1noe y acex ppeaneunx
napopoa. Hen, oHonaxnaakuancn co cHeno koxn, nannnacL cnHaonoH aospoxpennn
a noayk xnsnL, noun1anacL cyuec1aoH, nosnaaunH 1anm xnsnn n cHep1n, -
aonnouenneH aceaepennn. rnn1e nocaeuennme a cokpoaennme 1annc1aa
nHenoaanncL "sHnnHn". Y kenL1oa nHenoaanne aonxaoa-ppynpoa "sHnnHn" cun1anocL
noue1nmH. pno qpnke n nonmne cyuec1ayk1 1anme o6uec1aa "nkpe-sHe", -
o6opo1ne-no6pa1nHoa. peanne pnHnnne caonx ennea-pann1ene nnorpa
npepc1aannnn a anpe sHe.
Hen, saaopaxnaakuan opnnH caonH asrnnpoH, cun1anacL xpann1enLnnue nopseHnmx
cokpoanu, kaHne-caHouae1oa n "sauapoaannmx knapoa". YpanLcknx ckasax - a1o
o6opo1enL - osnka Mepno opm.
yuec1aye1 ouenL ppeanee y6expenne a 1oH, u1o pnpopa - Yun1enLnnua,
poxnoan1enLnnua n enn1enLnnua nkpe, Hoxe1 napenn1L poc1oneuero ns nnx
oco6mHn papaHn c noHouLk sHen. akoao npepanne o MenaHne - snaHenn1oH
ncnoanpue n apaueaa1ene. ekorpa MenaHn cnac (!) n amkopHnn Honopmx sHe. orpa
onn ampocnn, 1o opnaxpm anonsnn k MenaHny na nneun n amnnsann eHy yun. ocne
a1oro on c1an nonnHa1L saepnnm nsmk, nosnaaa1L uene6nme caoc1aa 1paa n
npopnua1L 6ypyuee.
pekn cun1ann sHek cyuec1aoH 6naroc1nmH. ocox o6oxec1anennoro nHn
qpaknckoro uenn1enn cknennn (Dckynana) 6mn o6an1 sHee.
pycckoH napopnoH 1aopuec1ae xnaan aopa, paaaauan nkpnH spopoaLe, Honopoc1L n
kpaco1y, nasmaanacL sHennok.
ppeanoc1n Hepnunna o6n1ana a cae1nnnuax. epynm-1paaosnan 6mnn opnoapeHenno
neauaHn-ckasn1ennHn n uapopenHn-saknnna1ennHn. c a1o noun1anocL aonue6c1aoH.
c 1ex nop sHen aokpyr uaun-uapm c aonue6nmH senLeH c1ana aH6neHo Hepnunnm.
ouL cknennn nrnen (o1ckpa - "rnrnena") nso6paxanacL xenunno co sHee a
pykax. ornnn Hyppoc1n qnna 1akxe nepepko nso6paxanacL co sHee, paano kak
p1eHnpa, eka1a n epceqona. eko1opme nnme 6oxec1aa nso6paxanncL co sHenHn
aHec1o aonoc.
npnn ko6pa - caeuennoe xnao1noe, oxpannkuee ppeanne xpaHm n caeuennme
pepeaLn. neko1opmx pepeannx exeropno o1Heuae1cn npaspnnk sHe. a1o1 penL
nkpn npnnocn1 ns neca ko6p: pe1n n aspocnme ykpauak1 nx uae1aHn, non1 HonokoH,
o6ap1maak1 aokpyr pyk, o6anaak1 aokpyr uen... euepoH ko6p o1nocn1 o6pa1no a
nec. ne 6mno eu cnyuan, u1o6m a a1o1 penL sHen ykycnna uenoaeka.
141
ceH nsaec1en snaHenn1m 1aneu c koponeacko ko6po, korpa xpnua uenye1
ue1mpexHe1poaoro sHen npnHo a packpm1yk nac1L. o Hano k1o snae1, u1o y nac na
ycn 6mnn n ec1L eue nkpn - "xosneaa sHe", nHekune nap nnHn neo6LncnnHyk
anac1L. saec1no, u1o cnaanne cHo1penn na snaxape (ne ny1a1L c konpynaHn!) kak na
nkpe aeunx, cansannmx ne c "neunc1o cnno", a c M YM.
osnnn sHe noaeneaae1 nHn 6es acnko canpenn. n ne 1onLko yaopn1 npoan1mx
rapkk c nokoca, ns pepeann, ne 1onLko npnkasmaae1 nH oxpann1L pe1e, ne 1onLko
sac1aanne1 cnonsa1Lcn n nakpyunaa1Lcn na ao1kny1m a seHnk kon, no n saansmaae1
nx ysnoH, naHa1maae1 aokpyr uen n 1. n. - Y
Y.
a sHe ckpmaae1cn nekn npoHmcn pnpopm, nespnHmHn nn1nHn cansmaakun
uenoaeueckyk xnsnL c xnsnLk ppyrnx xnamx cyuec1a. ecnn 6m uenoaek snan,
kako ypap naanekae1 on na ce6n, y6naan sHek, on nnkorpa 6m a1oro ne penan.
* * *
Yaepennoc1L a saun1no cnne sHen - nokpoan1enLnnum poHa n ceHenoro ouara,
nsppeane 6m1oaana y cnaann. ornacno nx npepc1aanennnH, poHaunnn sHen npnnocn1
cuac1Le n o6eperae1 kak o1 snmx nkpe, 1ak n o1 ynmpe. XnsnL n cHep1L napm
poHaunnx sHe nHenn aonue6nyk cansL c cypL6o xosnnna n xosnkn xnnnua.
D1n noaepLn y sanapnmx cnaann poxnnn po naunx pne a anpe yaaxennn k
"saneunoHy sHek" - pasnoanpnoc1n poHoaoro. op nonn1neH "6ecneunm uenoaek" a
c1apnny noppasyHeaancn uenoaek, ne nHekun nn caoero ouara, nn poHaunero pyxa-
xpann1enn.
Hen cnoco6c1aye1 npouae1annk popa a spopoaoH, cnnLnoH pyxoH, HyxckoH
no1oHc1ae. na xe Hoxe1 napenn1L nkpe nk6oanmH o6annneH n npo cnno. Hen,
onnue1aopnkuan co6o xnao1aopnuyk HouL nnopopopno eHnn, nokpoan1enLc1aye1
6epeHennmH. Xenunnm ncnpaunaann uapopopnn y sHen, n ecnn sHen saxoue1, 1o
kaxpan xenunna, paxe 6ecnnopnan, cHoxe1 popn1L. Hen, caepnyauancn a kpyr, kak
snak nnopoan1oc1n nso6paxanacL na caeuenno o6pnpoao opexpe 6ankancknx
cnaannok, ko1opyk 6epeHennme nocnnn nepep popaHn.
pykax aonxaa caeuennan sHen cnyxnna orpapo o6unnm o1 snoro konpoac1aa; no
npnsnakaH n o11enkaH ee noaepennn cypnnn o npepc1onue cypL6e opa-nneHenn.
co6mH o6oxanneH okpyxann sHek 6anrm n npyccm - sanapnme cnaanne. x aepynm -
aapeno1m pepxann sHe a xpaHax-cae1nnnuax. He1L paxe nso6paxenne sHen a
poHe snaunno pacnonara1L nencuepnaeHo saun1no cnno.
Y kxnmx, 6ankancknx cnaann caHmH cnnLnmH o6eperoH cun1ancn sHennm.
peanepycckne aHyne1m-o6epern nasmaanncL sHeeankaHn. 6pas Hen 6mn oco6o
noun1aeH y noaropopuea, xpannaunx npepannn o HoryueH aonxae-o6opo1ne noaene
(na kaHnnx noaencka ampoc nospnee oaropop).
mnnnnm uapope onx cecnaaLeanu - aonue6nnk, saua1m ennknH HeeH (u1o,
no ppeannH npepc1aanennnH, nannnocL npnsnakoH Hyppoc1n).
opnn noaropopckoro o6pasa Hen-pakona-uypa yxopn1 a npanc1opnueckyk
c1apnny. nuL cna6me kpyrn no aope o1 anxpeaoro nnnca opnnoro osnnna pounn po
nac a 6mnnne o apko.
142
Heeanpnme cyuec1aa saneua1nenm noaropopuaHn a pesL6e, pocnncnx, amunake. Hn
ykpauanncL kopa6nn, aecna, rycnn, uaun pnn aopm, 6parn n Hepa. nauenne Hen-
pakona 6mno, necoHnenno, nonoxn1enLnmH, cansannmH c po6pmHn cnnaHn, nnaue ne
c1ann 6m nkpn pepxa1L ero nso6paxennn a caonx poHax n yx 1eH 6onee pena1L
pykon1n koaue-6pa1nn, 1o ec1L caeuennmx o6pnpoamx cocypoa, a anpe sHennmx
ronoa. pno ns nsnk6nennmx ykpauenn - He - cnyxnno opnoapeHenno n
o6eperoH.
* * *
Hennan cnnpanL kak snak-o6eper yxopn1 a rny6L "ponc1opnuecknx" nnac1oa. aua
aennkan coo1euec1aennnua - aepynLn nena e1poana naaa1ckan yun1, u1o a
ppeaneunx nnpoeaponecknx Hnc1epnnx (qpakncknx), He, caepnyauncn
konLuaHn, osnauan pnn nocaeunnmx ac1panLnm cae1, okpyxakun eHno uap
sHeeo6pasnmHn no1okaHn n o6eperakun ero o1 ry6n1enLnmx nsnyuenn.
oaopn coapeHennmH nsmkoH, M M - "MM" - cospae1cn n aoso6noanne1cn
osonoaan npocnoka a a1Hocqepe, saunuakuan eHnk o1 upesHepnoro conneunoro
ynL1paqnone1a.
eue 6onee rny6okoH cHmcne He, canaakuncn konLuaHn, osnauan aonue6nyk
nepaocnny cenenno - , nopoxpakuee n noppepxnaakuee a Hnpe
X (coapeHennme kocHonorn n ac1poqnsnkn ne snak1, o1kypa noc1ynae1 ao
cenennyk sarapounan nencuepnaeHan Dneprnn, apauakuan ranak1nueckne cnnpann).
* * *
opo6no 1oHy, kak nsnauanLno unc1m popnnk ec1ec1aennoro o1kpoaennn pnpopm
noc1enenno saHy1nncn nckycc1aennmHn nacnoennnHn, 1ak n nepao6m1nm o6pas Hen
- Horyuec1aennoro nokpoan1enn, sa Hnorne 1mcnuene1nn npe1epnen pnp
pasnoapeHennmx npeo6paxenn n nepenc1onkoaann, nopo6no a6e-re, nk n
onoaLk-as6onnky.
narope1enLnoe nekorpa cyuec1ao nepeocHmcnnaae1cn a caok nonnyk
npo1naononoxnoc1L - ao apaxpe6noe ckasounoe uypnue - kpmna1oro Hen opmnmua,
ko1oporo napo y6n1L. ak aosnnkae1 o6pas sHee6opua, o1cy1c1aoaaaun a
poponneHennoH o6uec1ae.
a1eH "sHe" eu 6onee HenLuae1 po saypnpnoro xenckoro o6onLc1n1enn - ornennoro
"ne1yna", o1 nnaHennmx o6Ln1n ko1oporo cxopn1 c yHa Honauenkn.
, nakoneu, "sHe" po1nrnaae1 po naunx pne a kauec1ae ("ne1akun o6Lek1"
a1o1 pec1an1enLno 1pypno onosna1L, aepL "ne1yun sHe" a pyccknx ckaskax n
6maanmunnax nnkorpa ncno ne onncmaae1cn).
6n6nnn He - cyuec1ao, apaxpe6no o1nocnueecn k 6ory, n po6poxena1enLno - k
uenoaeky. ero xpnc1nane nasmaak1 pLnaonoH n ca1ano. Lnaon a 6n6nnn ne
cnyuano nso6paxen a anpe npoknn1oro 6oroH Hen: nypen, a o1nnune o1 ppyrnx
napopoa, cun1ann sHek aonnouenneH acnueckoro sna.
epkoannkn ncnonLsoaann sHee6opuec1ao a caonx uennx. onanne1cn a nkonax
eoprn na kone, nopaxakun nsmuec1ao a o6pase Hen. mnnna "o6pmnn n He"
o1paxae1 1akyk no6epy nap nsmuec1aoH, aaeprnyauyk ycL a 1mcnuene1nne okoam
xpnc1nanckoro nra.
* * *
143
ek xnan aek yuncL, n 1m, nakoneu poc1nrneuL
oro, u1o nopo6no Hyppeuy, 6ypeuL nHe1L npaao ckasa1L, u1o nnuero ne snaeuL.
osLHa py1koa
apHonnn (no-pycckn - nap, cosayunm c1po) 6mna y rpekoa ocnoanmH nonn1neH
yuennn o Hnpe n kpaco1e. aHo cnoao "kocHoc" (Hnpospanne) osnauano kpaco1y n
nopnpok; nayka o kpaco1e n nonmne nasmaae1cn kocHe1nko. nexnnka n nnc1ok
sanuLe kanyc1kn, pakoanna ynn1kn n sHennan ueuyka a 6esynpeuno npaannLnoc1n,
copasHepnoc1n caonx noc1poenn - 1onLko noppo6noc1n, o1paxakune rapHonnk
enoro.
epennaakueecn papyro n1nuLe nepo, o6annne pyunc1oro uae1ka, pnanm ysop na
kpmnLnx 6a6oukn - a kaxpoH 1aopennn uapopekn-pnpopm aonnouena kpaco1a,
neo1pennHan o1 coaepuenc1aa.
ce anpm uenoaeueckoro nckycc1aa popnnncL ns cosna1enLnoro nnn 6eccosna1enLnoro
noppaxannn pnpope. opune ne snann 6onee nsnunmx n aennuec1aennmx o6pasoa
pnn caonx ykpauenn, ueH ouep1annn uae1oa n pepeaLea.
peanne Hyppeum cospann yuenne o HnHesnce, y1aepxpan, u1o xnao1nme 6mnn
nepamHn yun1ennHn uenoaeka ao Hnoxec1ae peHecen. mne cneunannc1m no 6nonnke
1akxe npnsmaak1 nnxenepoa yun1Lcn y pac1enn n xnao1nmx. ac1onune yuenme
acerpa o6pauanncL sa nopckasko n apoxnoaenneH k pnpope, aepL cospannme
uenoaekoH xn1poyHnme npn6opm ao HnoroH yc1ynak1 npeanLnmH 1aopennnH, a
ko1opmx nenoc1nxnHmH o6pasoH coue1ak1cn kpaco1a, coaepuenc1ao n
uenecoo6pasnoc1L.
enpeasopennme poc1nxennn xnamx cyuec1a osapaunaak1 sna1okoa: Hackn xyk,
cornacno sakonaH aapopnnaHnkn ne1a1L ne Hoxe1 - on cnnukoH 1nxen.
pnako xyk a1nx sakonoa ne snae1 n ne1ae1. Meu-pm6a pasanaae1 ckopoc1L po 150
kH/uac, napyuan ace nsaec1nme sakonm rnppopnnaHnkn n nocpaHnnn ace
uenoaeueckne pacue1m...
osepuanne nsyHn1enLnoro coaepuenc1aa n uenecoo6pasnoc1n, uapnunx a xpaHe
pnpopm, npnaopnno Hmcnn1ene k npnsnannk cyuec1aoaannn neknx amcunx
cosnpa1enLnmx nauan, nexaunx a ocnoae acero.
1o amsaano nonanenne n pacuae1 Xnsnn na eHne: cnyua, 6or nnn caHopasan1ne
pnpopm?
Xnaoe Hoxe1 nponso1n 1onLko ns xnaoro. eaepon1noc1L unc1o cnyuanoro,
"cuac1nnaoro" sapoxpennn Xnsnn paano yxe ne amsmaae1 a nayunmx kpyrax nnkakoro
coHnennn. c1ae1cn nn6o ponyc1n1L nckycc1aennoe, aneseHnoe nponcxoxpenne
Xnsnn, nn6o npnsna1L ee Y. pyrnHn cnoaaHn: Hoxno,
koneuno, aepoaa1L ao aHeua1enLc1ao caepxLec1ec1aennoro, napnpnpopnoro 6ora nnn a
"nocea" npnuenLuea-nnonnane1nn, no ne nyuue nn npnnn1L M , M
: X , Y Y MMY ?
XnsnL na eHne nonannacL opnoapeHenno c o6pasoaanneH eHnn kak ne6ecnoro 1ena.
syuenne Xnsnn, kak nanennn, neo6xopnHo npnaopn1 k npnsnannk ee HnoroHepno,
neopnosnauno cyunoc1n: c1npae1 rpann Hexpy "Hep1ao" n xnao pnpopo.
acunpne1cn n naue npepc1aanenne o kauec1aenno nnmx, noHnHo 6enka n
nyknennoamx kncno1, X.
144
XnsnL, pacnpoc1pannkuancn a o6e c1oponm 6eckoneunoc1n, a1o - " ".
cnkne nonm1kn onpepenn1L XnsnL ec1L nonm1kn ee orpannun1L, 1o ec1L cpena1L
6eckoneunoe koneunmH. yunoc1L xe 1o nnm, u1o Hm nasmaaeH XnsnLk -
M, n6o nexn1 sa npepenaHn nosnaaa1enLno cnoco6noc1n
uenoaeueckoro paccypka.
* * *
opaxae1 neykpo1nHoe ynopc1ao, "xnayuec1L" caHonoppepxnaakuecn,
caHoaospoxpakuecn Xnsnn. epL XnsnL na eHne nnkorpa -
M, kakne 6m no1pncennn ne nsHennnn nnk nnane1m.
caHoH unpokoH cHmcne cnoaa X Hoxno nonnHa1L kak X. eypepxnHo
packpyunaakunecn an1kn c ypnan1enLno nac1ounaoc1Lk ac ycnoxnnnn n
ycnoxnnnn XnsnL. anxenne, nanpaanennoe no aocxopnue, ec1L . o ecnn
pasan1ne c ac napac1akunH pasHaxoH nHee1 yc1peHnennyk a c1opony
ycoaepuenc1aoaannn nanpaanennoc1L, 1o ueH nnn keH sapana 1akan
ueneyc1peHnennoc1L?
M, X M
X! asan1ne, o6ycnoanennoe Y XY , "nn1ano" caHo
ce6n n 6mno XM.
naanne nasmaann a1y ncxopnyk xnsnennyk Y, no6yxpakuyk Y k
caHopasaep1maannk "nsny1pn" - M. - M .
k6oe xnaoe cyuec1ao ec1L aneunee, anpnHoe aonnouenne . D
: Y Y X!
ak papannnc1m, 1ak n nx npo1nannkn nm1ak1cn o6Lncnn1L pasan1ne Xnsnn
Hexannc1nueckn, c noHouLk nsHenenn nacnepc1aennoc1n n aneunnx ycnoan.
anpnHep, o6pasoaanne c1onL cnoxneuero oprana kak rnas, npepc1aanne1cn nH ne
6onee ueH YM nsHenennnHn - noc1enennmHn nnn anesannmHn (kc1a1n,
opno ns aennuaunx 1annc1a - npeapauenne a spn1enLnme o6pasm oc1ae1cn
nepasrapannmH po cnx nop).
ak o6Lncnn1L noc1enennoe pasan1ne oprana, pakuero npenHyuec1aa a 6opL6e sa
amxnaanne 1onLko nocne 1oro, kak on anonne pasanncn, no ne na nepamx nopax?
epL noame npnsnakn npn saua1ounoH aosnnknoaennn nx cnnukoH cna6m, u1o6m 6m1L
nonesnmHn, n no1oHy nenonn1no Hepnennoe pasan1ne noamx opranoa nop annnnneH
ec1ec1aennoro o16opa.
cnn neaosHoxno noc1enennoe o6pasoaanne rnasa, 1o oc1ae1cn npepnonoxn1L, u1o on
nonanncn a ro1oaoH anpe, u1o xnaoe cyuec1ao nonyunno ero cpasy, sa opno nokonenne
acnepc1ane pesko Hy1aunn (Hy1aunn no-na1mnn - nsHenenne).
DY MY? naano porHo rene1nkn nanne1cn y1aepxpenne, 6yp1o
Hy1aunn nponcxopn1 nn6o coaepuenno nponsaonLno, nn6o nop annnnneH aneune
cpepm, n a uenoH pasan1ne Xnsnn ne nopunnne1cn nnkaknH sakonoHepnoc1nH. o
neyx1o pnpopa 1aopn1 caon coaepuenneune nspennn neocHmcnenno, 6ecuenLno n
nayrap?
nn c1nxnnoro pasan1nn n pnn cnyuanoc1e a Hnpe cnnukoH Hnoro neo6xopnHoc1n.
epL paxe xao1nunoe poynoao panxenne noppae1cn c1a1nc1nuecko o6pa6o1ke. o
X - o1nkpL ne poynoao panxenne.
145
Mmcnn1L a1y sakonoHepnoc1L cnepc1aneH nrpm cnenmx, kocnmx cnn npoc1o
neaosHoxno. asae Hoxe1 xaoc caH no ce6e nopopn1L c1ponm nopnpok?
ayunan aepa, 6yp1o 6ecnopnpounoe narpoHoxpenne coanapenn Horno npnaec1n k
pasan1nk "npoc1o" kne1kn a cnoxneuee uenoaeueckoe cyuec1ao c1onL xe
pe6nueckn nanana, kak n aepa a epnnonnunoro, anenpnpopnoro 6ora-1aopua.
onpoc o 1ak nasmaaeHo "nporpeccnano aaonkunn", o ee npnunnax n panxyue
cnne - 6onLnoe Hec1o 6nonornn. o cnx nop ne1 ne 1onLko c1pororo n 1ounoro, no
paxe Hano-HanLckn ypoane1aopn1enLnoro onpepenennn a1nx nonn1n. cnn nayka ne a
coc1onnnn o6Lncnn1L 6onLune uenenanpaanennme Hy1aunn, 1o 6orocnoam
npnnncmaak1 nx caepxLec1ec1aennmH npnunnaH.
ennrnn asnna na aoopyxenne 1eneonornk - ppeanee yuenne o npnpopno
uenecoo6pasnoc1n. Yuenne a1o 6mno poc1onnneH Hmcnn1ene, aocxnuaaunxcn
6eckoneuno cnoxnoc1Lk n a 1o xe apeHn aennuaue cnaxennoc1Lk
Hnpoyc1poc1aa.
Henno 1eneonornk - uenenanpaanennyk sakonoHepnoc1L acex nanenn pnpopm,
pnc1o1enL cun1an caHmH cnnLnmH onpoaepxenneH Ha1epnannsHa.
pekpacno nonnHan ack neo1pasnHyk HouL a1oro poaopa, uepkoannkn npncaonnn ero
ce6e. o apeHen oHm kannckoro n ero "yHHm npo1na nsmunnkoa" 1ak nasmaaeHoe
"1eneonornueckoe pokasa1enLc1ao 6m1nn 6oxnn", no ko1opoHy cyuec1aoaanne 6ora
pokasmaae1cn uapnue a pnpope uenecoo6pasnoc1Lk, cun1ae1cn uepkoaLk nan6onee
y6epn1enLnmH.
Ykasmaan na snnkune npoaanm papannnsHa, na 6eccnnne naykn o6Lncnn1L
aosnnknoaenne n pasan1ne Xnsnn, xpnc1nane anoaL nopnnHak1 na un1 6n6neckyk
ne6mnnuy o co1aopennn Hnpa eroao - "oroH apaaHa, caaka, akoaa"...
* * *
cnoay acnkoro pasan1nn coc1aanne1 1aopuec1ao. ceo6uan asanHocansL,
asanHoo6ycnoanennoc1L n copasHepennoc1L npnpopnmx nanenn ncno ykasmaae1 na
pec1ane nekoe , na aonnouenne nekoero M, a a1o, a
caok ouepepL, noppasyHeaae1 6m1ne nopopnauero a1o1 M . o
saueH ncka1L ?
cnn ec1L pasan1ne, 1o ponxna 6m1L n uenL pasan1nn, no saueH pena1L
uenecoo6pasnoc1L opypneH uLe-1o noc1oponne aonn? cnkn saHmcen nHee1 uenL,
no noueHy uenenonarakunH nauanoH ponxen 6m1L amnecennm sa npnpopnme cko6kn
6or?
oueHy ne npnsna1L nan6onee oueanpnoe n ec1ec1aennoe, a paHkn ko1oporo
yknapmaae1cn ac: M Y Y - X M ?
xpnc1nane n Ha1epnannc1m opnnakoao apaxpe6nm pnpope, o1kasmaan e a
opyueannnoc1n, caHouennoc1n n caHocosnannn. s cosepuannn pnpopm,
6esycnoano, nac1aye1 opno: L Y, L , L M
X X X. u1o Hoxe1 6m1L amue a1oro?
* * *
X . axpoe xe o1penLnoe aonnouenne npexopnue: pnn
pnpopm ono cnyxn1 nnuL apeHennmH npoaopnnkoH X. cnoanoe - X,
146
saknkuennan a a1oH aonnouennn. orpa nno1nan o6onouka nsnaunaae1cn, pnpopa
o16pacmaae1 ee, u1o6m pa1L X noayk cnny panxennn: uenoaek soae1 a1o
nanenne cHep1Lk. Hep1L paspyuae1 c1aauyk okoaaHn c1apyk, yanpuyk nno1L,
u1o6m opyueannauan ee X Horna o6pec1n noaoe, uae1yuee aonnouenne.
pnnm eckoneunm Xnao1aopnun nponanne1cn a a o6nnuLe
Hnoxec1aa koneunmx cyuec1aoaann. 1ae1 xe na aonpoc "noueHy" nponcxopn1
nponanennn , ponxen, no-anpnHoHy, 6m1L nsaec1en nnuL MMY
MY. oneunm uenoaeueckn paccypok npoc1o ne a coc1onnnn aHec1n1L
6es6pexnm L YM, pasnn1m a pnpope, nopo6no 1oHy, kak kyaunn ne
Hoxe1 aHec1n1L a ce6n okean.
e 6ecnnopnoe cyeHyppne knnxnnkoa, a M -
X Y - ao1 epnnc1aennoe, u1o ne pae1 uenoaeky
o1uanaa1Lcn.
nn aceo6ue M- ne1 pe1e-nk6nHunkoa. eun1L ce6n Heu1aHn, 6yp1o
pnpopa nk6n1 uenoaeka 6onLue, ueH nnryuky, Hory1 1onLko cna6oyHnme nn6o
6ecceppeunme. o6po n Hnnoceppne ko acnko 6essaun1no 1aapn ne 1onLko
aonue6nmH o6pasoH o6eperak1 uenoaeka o1 nanac1e n neasrop, ne 1onLko papn1 eHy
o1papy, no, , o1smaak1cn a ero pyue y6expenneH a 6naroxena1enLnoc1n
pnpopm n YL .
no xe nens6exno o6opaunaae1cn a koneunoH n1ore 6onesnnHn, ropeH n M...
* * *
cnyuan ronoc ppeannx ocanuennmx,
1o nnnn onnue, kak Hm nLeH anno,
yno ropenn 1ano saopno
snann noc1ynL yxoa a 1paaax connmx.
onc1an1nn anLHon1
axyuancn npo1naononoxnoc1L yxa n c1ec1aa cyuec1aoaana acerpa 1onLko a
nenpocae1nennoH cosnannn. noao yno1pe6nne1cn nmne kak neu1o
o1aneuennoe. Moxno ponro n yHno roaopn1L o pnpope, no nosnaaa1L aosHoxno,
1onLko couyac1aenno cnnaancL c e. aun npauypm ouyuann ace uac1n pnpopm
oco6o opyueanennmHn, nacennn ace uapc1aa n kaxpyk c1nxnk 1annc1aennmHn
pyxoanmHn cyunoc1nHn. Mnp 6mn xnamH 1enoH pnnoro ensLncnnHoro Moryuec1aa,
nponnsannmH cosnpakunHn nnaH n - yxaHn, ncxopnunHn ns caoero
epaonc1ounnka.
onn1ne o aceo6ue opyueanennoc1n pnpopm ne 6mno npno6pe1eno yuenneH, a
npncyue uenoaeky o1popy. nn nero, anpeauero Hnp a cae1e caonx nenckaxennmx
nepao6m1nmx aneua1nenn, cyuec1aoaanne nesaancnHmx o1 uenoaeueckoro pasyHa n
uyac1a pyxoa 6mno oueanpnmH. enoaek xnn 1orpa a ec1ec1aenno, sapyueano cansn
c a1nHn cnnaHn.
Y6expenne a 6m1nn pyxoa, nacennkunx pnpopy, npepuec1aoaano aepe a 1o, u1o k
ynpaannk1 nap Hnpoame cnnm, 1o ec1L 6orn. naanne ncnoaepoaann nenocpepc1aennoe
opyxo1aopenne pnpopm a caHoH unc1oH, 6esmckycc1aennoH ero snauennn, korpa
c1ec1ao n yx cnn1m aoepnno.
147
onn1nn "6or", conoc1aanHoro co cpepnseHnoHopcknH nonn1neH nnunoc1noro,
napnpnpopnoro 6oxec1aa, y naunx npepkoa ne 6mno. pocnaana, ue nnau ne u1o
nnoe, kak o1sayk nsnauanLnoro cnaannckoro Hnpoouyuennn, ne acnoHnnae1 nn opnoro
"nsmueckoro 6ora", a npnsmaae1 cnnm ppeanne, popnme - onnue, e1ep, opy...
epnueckan pennrnn, xo1n n coxpannna Hnorne nepao6m1nme uep1m, ac xe nop
annnnneH Hec1nmx 1eHnokoxnx nneHen c1ana, a o6ueH, ropaspo 6onee uyac1aenno n
6onLue npn6nnsnnacL k npepc1aanennnH o nnunoc1nmx uenoaekonopo6nmx 6oxec1aax.
c1okn ep, kak n aec1m, - na eaepe, no sanncanm onn cko1oaopuecknHn napopaHn,
uLn pennrnn xep1a n saknnnann 6mnn nospnnH, xpeuecknH yknonenneH o1 6onee
unc1mx pannnx aosspenn. ccnepoaa1enn ne o6napyxnnn o6uennpoeaponecknx
nasaann pnn o6osnauennn xpeuoa n xep1aonpnnouenn.
naannaH, kak n ppyrnH ceaepnmH napopaH, ne caoc1aenno 6mno onnue1aopenne
pnpopm a anpe 6oxec1a, napenennmx uenoaeuecknHn kauec1aaHn. nckonno
cnaannckoH Hnpoanpennn o1cy1c1aoaann 6orn kak 1akoame. Hec1o nnx amc1ynann
oco6me aonue6nme nnm pnpopm. D1n nnm n ec1L yxn.
yx - cnoao popnoe, cnaannckoe, nac1onLko ppeanee, u1o neaosHoxno npocnepn1L ero
nc1okn; nepaonauanLno noppasyHeaano cyunoc1L oco6oro nopnpka - cae1nyk, unc1yk,
1onkyk... Mnpoaosspenne cnaann c1aanno pyxoa n nkpe a paanoe nonoxenne no
o1nouennk k epnno paHa1epn-pnpope, poponauanLnnue acero xnaoro.
ppeanoc1n opyueanennn pasnnunmx nanenn pnpopm canpe1enLc1aye1 1o, u1o pyxn
ne nHek1 uenoaeueckoro o6nnuLn. napopnmx ckasannnx onn Hory1 nHe1L o6nnk
n1num, pepeaa, He1ennum... axe ecnn onn n napenenm a a1nx ckasannnx
uenoaekonopo6neH, a nx uep1ax nano anpna popc1aennan cansL c necoH, peko, 1o ec1L
c HnpoH pnpopm. akoam naun neune, pycankn, cnerypoukn...
6pasm a1nx cyuec1a ne saaepuenm, neynoanHo Hennk1cn-npeo6paxak1cn, nerko
nepeaonnouak1cn-o6opaunaak1cn. opo6no 1oHy, kak pyua uenoaeka a o6Hopoke nnn
aoc1opxennoc1n amxopn1 ns 1ena n Hoxe1 npnnnHa1L nk6oe, xo1L saepnnoe o6nnuLe,
1ak n pyua 6epesm, nanpnHep, Hoxe1 o6Lnan1Lcn a o6nnke nn6o uenoaeueckoH, nn6o
cHeuannoH, nn6o nepeHexakueHcn.
epaonauanLno nkpn o1nocnnncL k pnpope kak k ueHy-1o uenLnoHy, ne
paspenennoHy na pyxoa n ne pyxoa. 6muno pyxn neanpnHm, no nx neanpnHoc1L
oco6oro popa. D1o ne ckpm1m o1 naunx rnas o6nnk uenoaekonopo6nmx pyxoa, a
ckopee pac1aopennoc1L pyxoa a pnpope, neampenennoc1L nx ns aceo6ue
opyueanennoc1n.
eun - coaokynnm pyx eca, ne nHekun ceuac onpepennnoro o6nnka, Hoxe1 a
cnepykun Hnr sanan1L o ce6e o6ynaunH uenoaeka c1paxoH, kpnkoH aopona,
anesanno noka1naunHcn kaHneH, nnn o6epny1Lcn nane1eaunH anxpeH.
ycankn ne nHek1 noc1onnnoro 1ena, o6muno nx o6nnk cnnaae1cn c aonnaHn, no,
nopo aonnyncL, onn ac1ynak1 a ppyryk c1nxnk, aospyunyk; o6oca6nnaak1cn n
uyac1aenno o6napyxnaak1cn. 1orpa cpepL pocnc1mx nyroa anpn1cn aeune peam-
6epernnn, co1kannme ns cryc1naunxcn 1yHanoa n 6naroyxannn pyunc1mx 1paa.
aH, rpe aopn1 onn caon pnanme xopoaopm, npnHe1nm na seHne kpyrn n ryue pac1y1
kynaam; 1aH snaxapn nuy1 uene6noe senLe.
nocne ynanm n senenmx can1ok pycankn onn1L pac1aopnk1cn a nopoxpakue nx
c1nxnn.
148
cnoay ckasa1L, okonua1enLnoro onncannn sarapounoro nanennn nop nasaanneH
"aopa" a nayke po cnx, nop ne1.
* * *
149
- U
, npnae1 1e6e, saepL Ho nk6nHm!
m ne papoH paeuLcn noxy...
epre cennn
o ace 1ak nasmaaeHo sanapno unannnsaunn, nopoxpenno xpnc1nanc1aoH n
nauenenno na "no6epy" nap pnpopo, rocnopc1aoaano y6expenne, u1o kpynnme
xnunnkn no caoe cyunoc1n canpenm n 6ecnouapnm, u1o onn nsaeuno apaxpe6nm
uenoaeky, n nx cnepye1 ynnu1oxa1L npn nk6o aosHoxnoc1n.
pnako nepao6m1nm uenoaek n kpynnme nno1onpnme xnao1nme nnkorpa ne 6mnn
saknn1mHn aparaHn no1oHy, u1o uenoaek ne nannncn nx noc1onnno po6mue. c1L
ocnoaannn nonara1L, u1o caHme "c1paunme" uapc1aennme xnunnkn - neuepnm nea n
HepaepL Henee acero yrpoxann eHy.
6munmHn o1nouennnHn uenoaeka n a1nx saepe 6mno asanHnoe yaaxenne; onn
cun1anncL ppyr c ppyroH, npepnoun1ann ns6era1L ac1peu n 6es kpane nyxpm ne
aHeunaanncL a xnsnL ppyr ppyra. ec1an1enLno onacnoc1Lk uenoaeky rposnno
nanapenne 1paaonpnmx: sno6nmx pnknx 6mkoa, nocopora, aenpn.
1panno 1annc1aennoc1Lk 6mnn okpyxenm o1nouennn oxo1nnka kaHennoro aeka c
caHmH coaepuennmH xnunnkoH - aonkoH. rny6nne ero sarapounmx senenoaa1mx
spaukoa ropn1 saaopaxnaakune oronLkn, a o1 xy1koro nounoro aon nepenee1 kpoaL.
ro neo6muanan, nyrakuan coo6pasn1enLnoc1L, caepxuyac1aennan cnoco6noc1L
ynaannaa1L 1anme Hmcnn uenoaeka, npospeaa1L ero nc1nnnme naHepennn n
npepaocxnua1L nx - ac a1o nsyHnnno uenoaeka.
onk acerpa cnepnn sa uenoaekoH, a uenoaek - sa aonkoH, no, co6nkpan nenncanm
sakon, onn ne oxo1nnncL ppyr na ppyra. nn, 6esycnoano, ncnm1maann asanHnoe
nopcosna1enLnoe aneuenne. nHenno saepL no nHenn onk 6mn caeuennmH xnao1nmH
y acex ceaepnmx napopoa: paxe y 1ex, pnn koro on ne nannncn 1o1eHnmH pao1uoH-
okpoan1eneH.
o1eH - snaun1 onekakun n o6eperakun papopn1enL-epaonpepok (pasyHee1cn,
ne a rpy6o-Ha1epnannc1nueckoH cHmcne). o1eHnsH - a1o yaepennoc1L a cokpoaenno
cansn nneHenn c ero aepnmH npnpopnmH copopnueH a saepnnoH o6nnuLe.
o1eHnsH kopenn1cn a Hnpoouyuennn neo1uyxpennoro o1 pnpopm uenoaeka,
coaepuenno o1nnunoH o1 nauero. n anpen aokpyr xname cyuec1aa, c1onL xe
opapennme pasyHoH, pyuo n aone, kak n on caH. 6 a1oH Hoxno cypn1L no o6muanH
kopennmx xn1ene n6npn, eaepno Hepnkn n ppyrnx ockonkoa nepao6m1nmx
oxo1nnuLnx napopoa. " 1are Hnoro pasnmx nkpn ec1L", roaopnn epcy Ysana. nn
uykue Hopxn - Hopcko napop.
yuHenm nasmaak1 xnao1nmx ne saepnHn, n1nuaHn nnn nacekoHmHn, a "nkpLHn
ppeane pacm". nn ne "6pa1Ln naun HenLune", a npoc1o ppyrne cyuec1aa,
conpnuac1nme xnsnn: cyuec1aa 6onee ppeanne, a, cnepoaa1enLno, 6onee
coaepuennme. nn 6nnxe Ma1epn-pnpope, n o11oro nH poc1ynno Hnoroe 1akoe, uero
ne snae1, ne nonnHae1 n ne uyac1aye1 uenoaek. nau panekn npauyp aocnn1maan a
150
ce6e nx poc1onnc1aa, paannncn na nx onm1, cnny, ampepxky, o1aary,
caHoo1aepxennoc1L - ace neo6xopnHme oxo1nnky kauec1aa.
Henno oxo1nnk, snakun xnsnL pnknx saepe, nan6onee noun1an . cnn no
o1nouennk k Hepaepk on ncnm1maan cHeuannoe uyac1ao yaaxennn n c1paxa, 1o aonk
anyuan eHy neu1o noxoxee na 1oaapnueckoe couyac1ane: on aepL 1oxe pnckoam
po6m1unk, 1oxe oxo1nnk! oxo1a - a1o ne sa6aaa, a uLn-1o cHep1L. ace oxo1nnkn
saancn1 o1 pacnonoxennn nekoero o6uero yxa - osnnna saepe.
D1o sac1aannno uenoaeka ocHmcnnaa1L aonka kak popc1aennyk pyuy, kak caHoro
6nnskoro eHy no nopo6nk cyuec1aa. Mnorne nneHena nasmaann ero epmH pa1oH n
xoponnnn c noue1oH.
pepannn pasnmx napopoa noaec1ayk1 o uenoaeuecknx pe1enmuax, ackopHnennmx
aonkaHn. onunua aocnn1ana oHyna n eHa, nepcnpckoro uapn npa, repHanckoro
repon onLq-n1pnxa, cnaanncknx 6nnsneuoa-aennkanoa opmnk (nnn opmnmua) n
y6mnk. o noaepLnH, aonuLe Honoko o6napae1 aonue6nmHn caoc1aaHn: ono pae1
cnny, kpaco1y, Honopoc1L n neynsanHoc1L. e1n, ampauennme aonkaHn - nnn 6ypyune
poponauanLnnkn, nnn nneHennme aoxpn n 6ora1mpn.
* * *
1e panekne apeHena, korpa nc1ounnkoH nponn1annn pnn uenoaeka cnyxnna oxo1a n
papm pnpopm, ero c xnunmH aonkoH ny1n nou1n ne nepecekanncL. kpn xnnn 6ok o
6ok c aonkaHn, penn c nnHn opnn n 1e xe nc1ounnkn nnun n cypoaoe 6m1ne, n nnkako
kpoano apaxpm Hexpy nnHn ne 6mno. x Hnpnoe cocyuec1aoaanne npoponxanocL po
1ex nop, noka nkpn ne sannnncL seHnenauec1aoH n cko1oaopc1aoH, noka onn ne
noaenn Y M. o paxe pannnH seHnepenLuaH aonkn 6mnn noHounnkaHn:
oxo1ncL na ka6anoa, kocynL n pnknx kos, npnunnnaunx orpoHnm yuep6 sacennnmH
nnaaH, onn 1eH caHmH neaonLno o6eperann nonn o1 no1paam.
onLko c aosnnknoaenneH cko1oaopc1aa (1o ec1L ampaunaannn xnao1nmx na y6o)
uenoaek c1an pec1an1enLno npo1naoc1on1L pnpope, paspyuan ee orneH, xenesoH n
nonunuaHn caonx opoHaunennmx xnao1nmx. Hec1ax 6mnoro o6n1annn konm1nmx
nonanncn cko1, n aonkn nauann oxo1n1Lcn na nero.
1orpa uenoaek okneae1an aonka, nasaaa ero xnunnkoH. nunnk - snaun1
noxnuakun, kpapyun. o y pnpopm aonkn nnuero ne noxnuak1, nanpo1na, nx
npncy1c1ane neo6xopnHo pnn coxpanennn seneno pac1n1enLnoc1n, ko1opan nnaue
6mna 6m ynnu1oxena upesHepno pacnnopnaunHncn 1paaonpnmHn. nunnkoH nasaan
aonka anapeneu cko1a: aepL aonk noepae1 1ex oaeu, ko1opmx uenoaek naHepen cLec1L
caH.
kopo cko1 c1anoan1cn cpepc1aoH o6orauennn, nonannk1cn pa6oanapenLueckne
rocypapc1aa, ocnoaannme na nHyuec1aennoH nepaaenc1ae. o1pe6noc1n
xnao1noaopc1aa nsHennk1 o1nouenne uenoaeka k . ckypeaae1 uy1Le
caonx kopne, naunnak1 nopmaa1Lcn ysm npnpopnoro popc1aa. smuec1ao y1paunaae1
nsnauanLnyk unc1o1y.
nn cko1oaopa ec - y6exnue aonka - apar, ecnme yxn - apaxpe6nan c1nxnn. onk
c1anoan1cn onnue1aopenneH uenoaeueckoro c1paxa nepep pnko pnpopo.
o okonua1enLno ane sakona aonk 6mn noc1aanen c y1aepxpenneH xpnc1nanc1aa,
cansaauero ero c "neunc1o" cnno. onk 6mn o6Lnanen aonnouenneH nsmuecknx
xpeuoa-o6opo1ne, 1o ec1L aonnouenneH "sna", n 1eH caHmH eHy 6mn amnecen
cHep1nm npnroaop.
151
qanacLea a "oa1nuecknx aosspennnx cnaann na pnpopy" npnaopn1 o6nnuenne
6onrapckoro ennckona oanna: "1eno caoe xpann1 Hep1ao... ...n pmue1 aonkoH".
Henno xy1kne uepkoanme pocckasnn o 6nyxpakunx a nounoH Hpake aonkax-
nkpoepax, 6ecax-o6opo1nnx, a ne 1onLko 1a pec1an1enLnan onacnoc1L, ko1opan
ncxopnna o1 aonka kak o1 necnoro saepn, cpenann ero c1onL o1aepxennmH n
nenaanc1nmH.
* * *
pepn napopoa acero seHnoro uapa 6mno pacnpoc1paneno y6expenne, u1o neko1opme
nkpn anapek1 aonue6nmH nckycc1aoH npeapaua1Lcn na apeHn a saepn.
ppeanoc1n o6opo1nnuec1ao ne cun1anocL ueH-1o saaepoHo snoaeunH. axe 6orn
Hornn npnnnHa1L o6nnk xnao1nmx: 1ak, eac o6opaunaancn 6mkoH, opnoH, ne6epeH...
pnako uaue acero a1o nanenne 6mno cansano nHenno c aonkoH. epL caHo
o6opo1nnuec1ao no-rpeueckn - nnkan1ponnn (o1 "nnkoc" - aonk). onneunm nonnon
nkeckn (onun) a Hnqe npeapauae1cn a aonka. epaonLq 6ykaanLno osnauae1
"o6opaunaakuncn aonkoH". Y nn1oauea xpeum-o6opo1nn nasmaanncL "annka1cm".
Myppeun Hyx naunx 6mnnn - onLra-onx cecnaaLeanu, uLe nHn caHo ykasmaae1
na ero aonue6noe snauenne: on - ennkn onxa, ennkn xo1nnk n ennkn onn.
6pas onLrn - ppeaneun: on aocxopn1 k 1eH nsnauanLnmH apeHenaH, korpa
nneHenno aoxpL-aoenauanLnnk 6mn opnoapeHenno n apoxnoaennmH aonxaoH-
uapopeeH, uLn aepxoanan anac1L am1ekana ns anac1n aonue6no.
onLra-onx coaepuae1 cnaanm noxop na aparoa opa-neHenn, n nHenno ero
o6opo1nnuec1ao npnaopn1 ppyxnny k no6epe: o6epnyauncL aonkoH, on nepepaan
rno1kn y apaxecknx kone, a sa1eH, npnnna o6nnk ropnoc1an, neperpms 1e1nay y
apaxecknx nykoa.
aonue6nmx (ne 6m1oamx) pyccknx ckaskax epm onk - o6opo1enL. n - aeuyn,
Horyuec1aennm noHounnk-nokpoan1enL, coae1unk n nac1aannk. ckaskax o Xap-
1nue onk - pap, nocmnaeHm aany apeanuy (1o ec1L nneHennoHy aoxpk)
necnmHn xosneaaHn: nnn a6o ro, nnn eunH.
ro nnn nro po cnx nop a neko1opmx o6nac1nx nasmaae1cn aonun nonyuy6ok,
6maun nekorpa o6nsa1enLno npnnapnexnoc1Lk snaxapn, cnmayuero o6opo1neH
(erosn1L - snaun1 aep1e1Lcn - o6opaunaa1Lcn, o1 1oro xe kopnn - erepL, kna ne spn
nasmaae1cn aonukoH). ne cnyuano nocne xpnc1nannsaunn "aonuLnH nac1mpeH" c1an
a napope ropn (a enapycn - rop) opo6pm - xosnnn necnmx saepe, - acapnnk a
conpoaoxpennn aonkoa, ue penL o1Heuancn 23/IV.
o noueHy xe ac-1akn noaceHec1no noaepLn cansmaak1 o6opo1nnuec1ao a nepayk
ouepepL c aonkoH? o1oHy, u1o aonk 6mn rnaanmH caeuennmH-1o1eHnmH xnao1nmH
npannpoeaponeuea. MM X LM-
M X
M.
LaHanm nnkoa Hornn npnnnHa1L o6nnuLe nyHm, uaHanm am o6opaunaanncL 1nrpoH,
a neko1opme uaHanm kkarnpoa (kkarnpm - opnn ns caHmx ppeannx n sarapounmx
cn6npcknx napopoa) paxe yHenn nan1L caonH copopnuaH "xon6y1 a6n" - npnspak
HaHon1a.
LaHanc1ao a 1oH nnn nnoH anpe 6mno korpa-1o npncyue aceH napopaH. noao
"uaHan" npnuno k naH uepes 1ynrycoa c n6e1a, rpe ono osnauano: "ncc1ynnennm
nopanxnnk".
152
yua o6opo1nn Hoxe1 Henn1L caon 1enecnme opexpm. napakue o6muno a o6Hopok
uaHan "amxopn1 ns ce6n" nocpepc1aoH ampenennn caoero 1onkoro paonnka,
Ha1epnannsykuerocn sa1eH a o6pase saepn. nme xe uaHanm Hornn acenn1Lcn a
nac1onuero aonka, kak 6m "cnnaancL" c nnH.
o6munoH coc1onnnn uenoaek nosnae1 pnpopy 1onLko c aneune c1oponm.
nyna1nueckoH xe sa6m1Le n a neko1opmx nopo6nmx ncknkun1enLnmx coc1onnnnx
uenoaek ac1ynae1 a coaepuenno oco6me, sapyueanme o1nouennn c ppyrnHn xnamHn
cyuec1aaHn. e spn na1nnckne cnoaa "annHa" - pyua n "annHan" - xnao1noe,
popc1aennm.
* * *
epamH poHaunnH xnao1nmH uenoaeka 6mna co6aka. ce nopopm co6ak nHek1 opnoro
npepka-poponauanLnnka: orpoHnoro nonnpnoro aonka. pnpyuenne a1oro xnunnka -
poc1nxenne c1onL xe aennuauee, ckonL n ypnan1enLnoe. ak 1onLko nc1opnkn
nm1ak1cn onnca1L nepaoe asanHoo6uenne nesaancnHoro, nepoaepunaoro uenoaeka c
eue 6onee nesaancnHmH, nepoaepunamH aonkoH, a nx yHospn1enLnmx paccyxpennnx
ace uaue naunnae1 HenLka1L cnoao "sarapka".
saec1no, u1o aonkn nou1n ne noppak1cn ppeccnpoake. nn 6on1cn ynnxennn 6onLue,
ueH 6onn! nn n yHnpak1 Honua. unpke na sapnnx nankax nopo6oc1pac1no xpy1
nopkopHky nLam, 1nrpm n Hepaepn. o ne aonkn! onk - acerpa nnunoc1L! cerpa
6yn1apL!
c1a1n, o unpke: pocapno, u1o nmne, korpa anoaL saseneneno nsmueckoe peao
Xnsnn, na nero kapa6kak1cn aceaosHoxnme "xpeum", "aonxam" n npoune, a ocnoanoH
pyueano nespopoame nkpn, nosopnune epy pao1uoa. Mockanu nekcanpp enoa,
caH ce6n noun1akun cnnnH (?) aonkoH, napnxae1cn a aonuLk ukypy n na apene
unpka (sa npnnnunyk nopkopHky!) no1euae1 ny6nnky rnyHnnamH nnuepec1aoH nop
nasaanneH "o6pnp nsrnannn neunc1o cnnm". ak roaopn1cn, nese1 a aonkn, a xaoc1
co6aun...
anapckn 6nonor apnn Moya1, na6nkpaaun sa xnsnLk aonkoa a ec1ec1aennmx
ycnoannx, a caoe npekpacno knnre "e kpnun: "onkn!" neopnokpa1no
nopuepknaae1, u1o uac1o ncnm1maan uyac1ao c1mpa nepep nnHn sa uenoaeuec1ao.
saec1nm cnyuan, korpa aonkn amkapHnnaann co6ak. o6akn 1ak ne Hory1.
onk yHee1 6m1L 6naropapnmH, n ecnn on nonk6n1 uenoaeka, 1o 6ype1 nk6n1L
6essaae1no, caHosa6aenno n xep1aenno.
k6onm1no, u1o a na1mucknx napopnmx necnnx aonk nepepko nHenye1cn "pnaa canc",
u1o snaun1 "6oxn cmn".
eaepon1no, no a1o 1ak: aonk caH ce6e neperpmsae1 nonaauyk a kankan nany n
yxopn1 nckaneuennm, no cao6opnm; c1onL 6esyHno aennka xaxpa cao6opm!
ocHo1pn1e na aonka sa peue1ko: Honuannao n 6esoc1anoaouno Hepne1 on uaraHn
caok kaHepy, ne ypoc1anaan paxe npespenneH rnasekuee na nero c1apo paynornx.
cnoHnnak1cn c1pokn Hnorone1nero ysnnka anen1nna okonoaa, ko1opme on un1an
naH a Hoppoacknx narepnx:
axne1 cHep1Lk n kpoaLk a 6pepoaoH saepnnue,
xoxy nonyaonkoH, a kapHan kynakn.
153
xouy, u1o6m nkpnH a 6oxec1aenno nuue
D1o nouLk npncnnnncL na ropne knmkn...
oka 1akne aonLnonk6name saepn, kak aonk, 6ypy1 copepxa1Lcn a 1kpLHax -
soonapkax, ace nkpckne pasrnaronLc1aoaannn o cao6ope - cnoao6nypne.
ueanpno, u1o npnpyun1L c1onL neykpo1nHoro xnunnka Hor 1onLko caoeo6pasnm
nocpepnnk, uaHan-o6opo1enL, o6napaaun orpoHno cnno anyuennn. noco6noc1L
npnnnHa1L aonuLe o6nnuLe nosaonnna eHy ac1ynn1L a nenocpepc1aennoe o6uenne co
saepeH, kak 6m saaopoxn1L ero, ocna6n1L npnpopnyk aonk k conpo1nanennk n
sapyun1Lcn neko1opmH poaepneH. onn1no, u1o aonnouenne saepn npnanekano ppyrnx
saepe-copopnue.
mrpann caok ponL n cxopnme npneHm oxo1m. c1ec1aenno, u1o paa popa
amcokopasan1mx oxo1nnkoa pano nnn nospno ponxnm 6mnn ac1pe1n1Lcn kak
co1oaapnun. aonkn n nkpn nayunnncL nonnHa1L, u1o pnn 6onee ycneuno oxo1m na
kpynnyk pnuL (a c1ano 6m1L, pnn amxnaannn n pnn npopnennn opa) neo6xopnH coks,
o6Lepnnenne c ampenenneH npepaopn1enn a anpe caHoro nckycnoro, caHoro cHenoro,
caHoro anac1noro n yaepennoro a ce6e oxo1nnka. aepn ne ns6npak1 aoxaka "1anmH
nnn o1kpm1mH" ronocoaanneH, a npoc1o caonH any1pennnH, ne o6HanmaakunH uy1LeH
npnsnak1 ero npeaocxopc1ao - npaao nepaenc1aa, n nopunnnk1cn.
pko ampaxennoe o6pnpoaoe saxoponenne aonkoo6pasno co6akn o6napyxeno
apxeonoraHn a eaepo-aoc1ouno snn X LM (aospac1 norpe6ennn -
11 1mcnu ne1).
* * *
ocnoanum oxo1nnuLnx nneHen noHnnak1 no1oHka aonka - co6aky po6pmH cnoaoH. Y
Hnornx panee koueamx napopoa cnoaa "aoxpL", "npoanpeu", "rnaaa" n "co6aka" -
opnoro kopnn.
peanne rpekn, nopo6no okpa1y, knnnncL co6akok, nHen a anpy co6auLk aepnoc1L. Y
apnuea npoc1ana n y sopoac1pnuea co6aka nannnacL caeuennmH xnao1nmH: ona -
o6paseu nenopkynnoc1n n uec1n, nckonno-aonncknx po6nec1e. un1anocL, u1o opno
nnuL npncy1c1ane co6akn o1ronne1 snoapepnmx ynmpe. apcm-ornenoknonnnkn n
nonmne k yHnpakueHy nopaopn1 co6aky n sac1aannk1 ee cHo1pe1L a ero nnuo. D1o1
o6pnp nasmaae1cn cac-pnp (co6aun asrnnp), 1. k. co6aka - epnnc1aennoe xnaoe
cyuec1ao, asrnnpa ko1oporo 6on1cn sno peHon, c1opoxaun yHnpakuero, u1o6m
saanape1L ero 1enoH.
1nouenne k co6ake c1anoan1cn npnHo npo1naononoxnmH c y1aepxpenneH
xpnc1nanc1aa n HycynLHanc1aa, ynacnepoaaaunHn nypeckyk nenaanc1L k co6ake.
6n6nnn co6aka cun1ae1cn nsnauanLno neunc1mH xnao1nmH n ynoHnnae1cn 1onLko a
6pannmx ampaxennnx. "orons6pannme", 6ypyun caHn npnpoxpennmHn HouennnkaHn
n knn1aonpec1ynnnkaHn, aosaepunHn a po6pope1enL co6c1aennyk nxnaoc1L n
aeponoHc1ao, ec1ec1aenno nn1ann o1apauenne k co6ake, kak k cyuec1ay, cnoco6noHy
na nepoc1ynnyk, nenonn1nyk nH 6eckopmc1nyk nk6oaL n npepannoc1L.
ypeckoe npespenne k co6ake, HacknpyncL nop xpnc1nanckyk pennrnk, nponnkno n a
pyuy nnpoeaponeuea. ncyc aoo6ue acex nnonneHennnkoa-nnoaepuea cpaannaan c
"ncaHn" (Ma1q., rn. 15). "epern1ecL ncoa, 6epern1ecL snmx pena1ene" - a1opn1
"cnacn1enk" an. aaen (ocn, k nnnn., rn. .).
154
op annnnneH xpnc1nancknx cyeaepn na co6aky c1ann cHo1pe1L kak na 1aapL 6es
pyun, aonnouenne "ckaepnm n neno1pe6c1aa". "aeuennocnyxn1ennH" sanpeuanocL
pepxa1L co6aky a poHe. "ec" n "cyknn cmn" penak1cn xypunHn ns pyra1enLc1a.
1o6m sakneHn1L Hepsaaua, ero nasmaak1 "kananLe" (o1 na1. annc - co6aka). D1nH
n o6Lncnne1cn, u1o pnn Hyun1enLnmx (n 6ecnonesnmx, 6eccHmcnennmx!) onm1oa-nm1ok
anancek1opm uaue acero ncnonLsyk1 co6ak.
epkoaL ne ckpmaana caoero o1pnua1enLnoro o1nouennn k co6ake, o6pas ko1opo
o1oxpec1annncn co acnkoro popa "rpexoanoc1Lk" n paxe c "neunc1o" cnno. noc1on
nppe, npouepun, no uepkoanoHy npepannk, aopnmH ny1eH ns rpekoa a aapnrn,
nponoaepoaan xpnc1nanc1ao "nsmunnkaH" - nkpnH c necLnHn ronoaaHn - 1ak nk6nnn
nso6paxa1L "npononoknonnnkoa" na caonx nkonax 6oroHasm 6nnxneaoc1ounmx
Honac1mpe.
pyHanncL 6m xo1L kpopc1aykune "naHn1nnkn", "co6opnne", "naun coapeHennnkn" n
npoune "na1pno1m" a 1o, u1o nx cnaanncknx ypoa-pauypoa "npocaeuennme"
xpnc1nane nasmaann ne nnaue, kak HyxencaHn...
* * *
onun 1o1eH 6mn nekorpa unpoko pacnpoc1panen a apone. Y repHanuea on
saneua1nen a nHenax: ponLq, 1o ec1L 6naropopnm aonk, yponLq - kpacnm aonk n
ppyrnx. Y cep6oa n nonmne aonuLnH nHeneH yk nasmaak1 pe6enka, u1o6m eHy
npnannocL aonuLe spopoaLe n Hyxec1ao.
arn anknnroa roaopn1 o6 ns6pannmx reponx pnna - o 6epcepkax, aonnax-o6opo1nnx,
"nsHennkunx cao anp", neuyac1an1enLnmx k 6onn n cpaxakunxcn a 6yc1aennoH
ncc1ynnennn.
pepn cnaann 1o1eH onka 6mn caHmH nHenn1mH n annn1enLnmH. ue epopo1 nncan,
u1o cknqm knn1aenno ypoc1oaepnnn caon canpe1enLc1aa o neapax - o6opo1nnx,
yHeaunx npeapaua1Lcn a aonkoa. eapm - necnoe npacnaannckoe nneHn, o6n1aauee
na seHne nmneune eno ycn.
saec1ne epopo1a cornacye1cn c 1eH, u1o nHenno a a1nx Hec1ax yaepennoc1L a
cyuec1aoaannn , 1o ec1L nkpe, cnoco6nmx o6opaunaa1Lcn aonkoH, 6mna
oco6enno yc1ounao.
Y aoc1ounmx cnaann ponLue acex coxpannnncL ockonkn 6mnoro noun1annn onka.
Ypnan1enLno xnayun onn a noaoropnnx, caape6nmx n ppyrnx napopnmx o6pnpax n
o6muanx eno ycn - a necnnx, npepannnx, npnHe1ax, 6maanLunnax, saroaopax n
nrpax.
ce cnaannckne napopm cnpaannnn snHo "onuLn npaspnnkn". onecLe na onnpy n
oHoepnum uy1L nn ne po naunx pne yc1panaanncL nnnckn pnxenmx a aonuLn ukypm
n nnunnm. epexnaune n "pycckoe" npaaocnaane, n "nayunm" Ha1epnannsH
o6pnpoame nnnckn a1n - rnyxne o1ronockn c1apopaannx 1anopec1a.
naanncn, kak o6opo1enL, nonoukn knnsL cecnaa-apope, poxpennm knnrnne o1
6esaec1noro aonkonaka. "noae o nonky ropeae" cecnaa, y ko1oporo "aeuan pyua
6mna a 1ene", pmckan nouLk aonkoH.
onk 6mn caeuennmH xnao1nmH n y 6an1ncknx cnaann-noHopnn: annLuea-nk1nue,
pynn n ppyrnx. aHm xpa6pm n aonnc1aennm nneHenno coks nHen aonuLe,
1o1eHnoro nponcxoxpennn popoaoe nHn - annLum, 1o ec1L aonkn.
155
pepn annLuea okono 1mcnun ne1 nasap pnn 6opL6m c kpoaaao xpnc1nannsaune
o6pasoaancn 1anm coks M - o6opo1ne aonkonakoa (nnn
aonkopnakoa). x ne1yune o1pnpm coaepuann na6ern nopo6no ppyxno aonuLe c1ae.
Xec1kn any1pennn yc1aa 1akxe 6mn sanHc1aoaan y aonkoa: u1o6m sa1paan1L nocn,
c1an ponxna noppepxnaa1L 6onLuyk cnnounnoc1L, u1kn nopnpok, 6esoroaopounoe
noannoaenne aoxaky n nonneuyk asanHoampyuky.
onxam annLuea 6mnn o6opo1nnHn-aonkonakaHn: na none 6pann pnpoH co
cnaanncknHn aonnaHn appyr nonannnncL Ha1epme aonunua, 1epsaaune kpec1onocuea
, L . c X aeka annLum-aonkn c1ann nasmaa1Lcn
nk1nuaHn.
1pnua1enLnm cHmcn a nonn1ne "6euenm" anoxen xpnc1nanaHn. epaonauanLno 6ec
- a1o aonk-o6opo1enL. ecn1Lcn - snaun1 o6opaunaa1Lcn. ecnoaa1mH nasmaann
anapaauero a ncc1ynnenne nepep 1eH, kak aonno1n1Lcn a aonka. nuL no1oH
6ecnoaa1mHn c1ann nasmaa1L npoc1o pyueano6onLnmx.
"noae..." aonue6nnk cecnaa "o6ecncn cnne Hrne" - nonc1nne aepoackoe saknn1Le.
o1eHnmH saepeH 1kpkoa-nonoauea 6mn aonk, noa1oHy nonoaum a "noae..." -
"6ecoam pe1n". nnsL ropL cnacae1cn, o6opaunaancL ne npoc1mH, cepmH, a "6ocmH
aonkoH". pecL - o1sayk npepann o ppeannx o6opo1nnx-nokpoan1ennx opa:
a ny1L eHy am6exaa ns necy, aonk,
py1ncL n nopLeHnn ue1nny,
o6epy npopounn, n cHeno cao nonk
pocan on na apaxLk ppyxnny
. apa1mnckn
Hn oca, aoxpn-o6opo1nn cnaann-an1oa, pacnn1oro ro1cknH xpnc1nancknH koponeH
nnn1apneH, o1pasnnocL n a "noae...": nounme "6ycoam (6ocyan) apann" - opno ns
caHmx 1eHnmx, sarapounmx Hec1 a "noae...".
oco - o6uecnaannckoe cnoao nnpoeaponeckoro sayuannn n paxe unpe, 1ak kak
aocxopn1 k o1panenneunH apeHenaH. kpkckoe "6oc" osnauae1 "cepm", no panee a
a1o cnoao aknapmaancn cokpoaennm caeuennm cHmcn. aepL no-na1mnn - 6ec1nn.
peanerepHanckoe "6oco" osnauae1 "sno". epL o6opo1neH Hor 6m1L n sno konpyn.
un1anocL, u1o aonk, 6ecnpnunnno nanaaun na uenoaeka, ne nac1onun aonk, a
uepnm uaHan, npnnnaun saepnnm nnk. 6 a1oH canpe1enLc1aoaano 1o, u1o konpyn,
npeapa1nauncn nouLk a saepn n nonyunaun pany o1 uenoaeka, nay1po, npnnna
anoaL uenoaeueckoe o6nnuLe, okasmaancn nspanennmH nHenno a 1ex Hec1ax, kypa 6mn
panen saepL. oronL kocnyncn a1oro noaceHec1no pacnpoc1panennoro noaepLn a
"Macko noun, nnn Y1onnennnue".
Moxno acnoHnn1L n acaapkka - roroneackoro "6ecoackoro uenoaeka". rnyun
ckoacko o6nac1n 6ocm aonk n ceuac - pe1ckoe nyrano: "e nnauL, 6ocm aonk
npnpe1, 1e6n cLec1!".
Y cnaann akapna1Ln, rpe aonk po cnx nop caeuennoe xnao1noe, o6opo1nn
nasmaak1cn 6ocopkynaHn. ocnne nasmaae1cn c1pana, rpe yxac na 1ypok-
saaoeaa1ene naaopnnn aonkopnakn (ayppanakn).
156
* * *
onkopnaka - osnauae1 6ykaanLno "aonuLn ukypa". onkopnak - aonue6nnk,
npnnnaun aonuLe o6nnuLe. aeuennm saepL nasmaancn: . aeuennopec1ao
nasmaanocL: L. aeuennocnyxn1enL (cnoco6nm o6opaunaa1Lcn aonkoH)
nHenoaancn: nnn . cnoae a1oH o1pasnnacL n aonuLn aonoca1oc1L -
aonoxa1oc1L.
enocpepc1aennoe o1nouenne k aonxaaH nHenn n pnxenme a saepnnme ukypm
rycnnpm - ckoHopoxn. "koHopox" - ec1L yHmunenno nepeapny1oe (cornacno
aonue6c1ay o6opo1nnuec1aa) cnoao "ckopoHox". kopa - Hoxna1an, Hexoaan ukypa
(o1ckpa - ckopnnk).
peannx aonxaoa Hoxno ycnoano nasaa1L cnaanncknHn uaHanaHn. nn caonx
conneHennnkoa onn 6mnn 1eHn, k1o a coc1onnnn aoopyueanennn o6uancn M
M, YM-M. nn 6mnn aeuynaHn - rnaua1anHn -
nc1onkoaa1ennHn aonn pepkoa.
nme Horyuec1aennme aonxam ykpouann nenoropy: pyuok cnnaancL c npnpopnmHn
yxaHn-e1paHn, onn o1aopaunaann 6ypk, pasronnnn rpaponocnme 1yun n caHn Hornn
o6epny1Lcn anxpeH. ne1onncnx onn nHenyk1cn o6nakonporonnnkaHn.
opHue knnre ckasano, u1o cennne nasmaann nx aonkopnakaHn, 1. e. aonxaaHn-
o6opo1nnHn. nn ne 6mnn konpynaHn, a nanpo1na, o6eperann copopnue o1 snmx
ynmpe, o1 nopun anpnHo n neanpnHo.
onxaoH-o6opo1neH 6mn n ncnoanpnun rycnnp onn eun, o ueH canpe1enLc1aye1
yxe ero nHn. noco6noc1L k nepeaonnouennk nsppeane npnsnaaanacL sa
necne1aopueH-ckasn1eneH, uLe aeuee nckycc1ao cun1anocL aonue6nmH papoH -
opyxo1aopenneH. Y 6onrap 6mnn unpoko pacnpoc1panenm npepannn o neaue-o6opo1ne
anne. pna c1apnnnan cep6ckan necnn npnHo nocaeuena aonnc1aenno peae onne,
o6opaunaakuecn aonunue.
qnncko aneaane neauoH-kypecnnkoH amc1ynae1 uaHan-o6opo1enL eneHenen.
onn (ann) a "noae..." "pac1ekancn Hmcnk (1o ec1L 6enko-HmuLk) no pepeay,
cepmH aonkoH no seHne, cnsmH opnoH nop o6nakaHn". MmcL - nckoackoe
nponsnouenne cnoaa "HmuL", HmcLk nasmaae1cn n ceuac eue koe-rpe 6enka.
onn eue n "enecoa anyk", a noun1anne - (aonopekuero necoH) -
nepaonauanLno 6mno cansano c o6opo1nnuec1aoH. paspnnunmHn
pnnHn oneca 6mnn snHnne "onuLn npaspnnkn", anocnepc1ann - "c1paunme"
can1ounme aeuepa.
onn - o1 rnarona "6an1L", 1o ec1L saroaapnaa1L (a 1oH uncne 6onL n kpoaL), uapoaa1L
cnoaaHn. 1ckpa: 6akka1L - norpyxa1L a sa6m1Le (coc1onnne nan6onLue
anyuaeHoc1n) nenneH saknnnann, o6napakunx saaopaxnaakue,
cnno.
annaHn nHenoaanncL aonxam, nokune saroaopm, "cnaam" n caeuennme
poponneHennme npepannn-kouynm. pnc1nane npnpann nonn1nk "kouynm"
coaepuenno o6pa1nm cHmcn: aepL nyuun cnoco6 cnpn1a1L - a1o nsapa1n1L po
neysnaaaeHoc1n.
ak n npacnaannckn onec nnuero o6uero ne nHee1 c "6oroH 6ora1c1aa n cko1a", c
1ak nasmaaeHo "necknnro", "yccknHn epaHn" n npounHn xn1pmHn xpnc1nancknHn
157
noppenkaHn, npoaopnunHn snoapepnyk HmcnL, 6yp1o xpnc1nanc1ao 1ak "Hnpno"
npnxnnocL na ycn, no1oHy u1o 6mno cosayuno, nko6m, "npaaocnaanoHy" cnaannckoHy
nsmuec1ay. mn nona, counnn1enL "necknnrn" . Mnponk6oa (npckn) nncan, ne
c1ecnnncL: "c, na u1o 6mnn cnoco6nm cnaanne, onn cospann nosxe, npnnna
pnc1nanc1ao" (. M. o6p. cou. 1oH 4, Mknxen 1981).
Mm xe aospoxpaeH ne "6oroa", a Y , no
ko1opoHy 6eccosna1enLno 1ockyk1 nkpn. pnc1nanckn Ha1epnannsH nopan Hnp k
pokoao uep1e, n uenoaeuec1ao c1nxnno aosapauae1cn k o6oxec1anennk pnpopm.
aun nckonnme aepoaannn aospoxpak1cn a 1ecno, kpoano-pyxoano cansn c
npo6yxpenneH pycckoro naunonannsHa - n a a1oH sanor naue ckopo n nens6exno
o6epm.
pno ns saknn1n kpoanmx no6pa1nHoa annLuea-Hc1n1ene (nepenoxennoe na
pycckn) naunnae1cn 1ak:
a Hope - na keane, na oc1poae na ynne
ae1n1 Hecnu na ocnnoa nenL.
kono nnn-konopm xopn1 aonk ronopnm,
opn1 aonk Hoxna1m, a a sy6ax ero - non 1peknn1m...
* * *
eaosHy1nHm c1po ao aceH,
osayuLe nonnoe a pnpope...
D1n c1nxn nauero pnanoro noa1a, c1nxnnoro nsmunnka k1ueaa. a, a peac1aenno,
sanoaepno pnpope ace 6esynpeuno, coaepuenno n nenopouno. opasn1enLnan
cornacoaannoc1L, npepycHo1pn1enLnoc1L n uenecoo6pasnoc1L npnpopnoro 6m1nn
amsmaae1 uyac1ao neckasannoro nsyHnennn n y Hyppeua, n y neaexpm.
nuL ncnopuennoHy noaepxnoc1nmH knnxnmH snanneH yHnnky Hnp kaxe1cn cxaa1ko
apaxpykunx cnn. epaspeunHme npo1naopeunn cyuec1ayk1 1onLko pnn uenoaeka,
aocnn1annoro na xpnc1nancknx npepc1aanennnx o6 nsaeuno 6opL6e o6pa n na.
o1n xpnc1nane aepyk1 a epnnoro nypeckoro 6ora-1aopua eroay, nx Hono1ensH ec1L
na caHoH pene pyannsH, rpe HnpoH npaan1 nenpnHnpnHoe npo1nao6opc1ao payx:
po6poro 6ora n snoro pLnaona. 1ckpa, ns a1oro paspaoennn ace a1opnunme
npo1naopeunn, 1akne kak npo1naonoc1aanennn 1ena n pyun, Ha1epnn n pyxa, 6m1nn n
cosnannn, xnaoro n nexnaoro, .
epL, cornacno 6n6necknH ne6mnnuaH, eHnn kak nnsuee, neopyueanennoe nspenne
6oxec1aennoro 1aopennn, kak 6ecuyac1aennan 1aapL 6mna o1pana na o1kyn pLnaony.
"Mnp ao sne nexn1" - 1aeppn1 Hpako6ecm.
e1, Hnp papoc1en! esycnoanoro sna, kak 1akoaoro, .
ne uenoaeka cyuec1aye1 1onLko , . nuL "aeneu 1aopennn"
anocn1 a a1o1 Hnp ckaepny, 6eso6pasne n nsapauenne.
158
pnsnaaan, cornacno 6n6nnn, uenL Hnpa ncknkun1enLno ao 6nare uenoaeka, ne
npepc1aannn paxe, u1o uenL a1a o6LeHne1 MY, nkpn npncaonnn
ce6e npaao y6naa1L, Hyun1L n kaneun1L ppyrne xname cyuec1aa.
epsaeHme 6ecuncnennmHn 6onesnnHn n c1paxoH cHep1n acnepc1ane
npo1naoec1ec1aennoro o6pasa xnsnn, onn nsHmcnnnn 6acnk o sne, rocnopc1aykueH,
nko6m, na eHne. poaosrnauennan, no po cnx nop 1ak n ne poc1nrny1an
"okonua1enLnan no6epa po6pa" o6epnynacL pnn xpnc1nan c1paunmH nopaxenneH. nn
ne aockpecak1 nocne cHep1n, kak nH 6mno o6euano, a xnay1 a c1papannn.
1papannn - pokoao kaHenL npe1knoaennn pnn uepkoannkoa, neyknkxe nm1akunxcn
onpaapa1L 6ora sa ac 1aopnueecn sno, npnHnpn1L nonanenne n cyuec1aoaanne sna a
Hnpe co ace6narnH n aceHoryunH 1aopuoH-npoHmcnn1eneH. ap a1o "npoknn1o"
sapaue 6orocnoam 6Lk1cn ckopo yxe pae 1mcnun ne1, no onn ne naunn paxe
anpnHoro ee paspeuennn.
epL opno ns payx: ecnn 6or ne Hor n ne Hoxe1 noHeua1L sny, 1o on ne aceHoryu;
ecnn xe Hoxe1, no ne xoue1, 1o on ne ace6nar. pe1Lero ne pano.
6onee 1oro: ecnn npeHyppm, nko6m, 6or co1aopnn Hnp, npepanpn nens6exnoc1L a
neH qnsnueckoro n npaac1aennoro sna, ecnn on npepan caon cospannn c1papannnH n
cHep1n, M M , a ne kako-1o
pLnaon, co1aopennm uenoaekoH no o6pasy n nopo6nk 6oxLeHy.
6o pasae nyxen eue ppyro pLnaon kpoHe M X
6ora???
ecnn 6m 1ako 6n6neckn 6or pec1an1enLno cyuec1aoaan, 1o ponroH uec1n n
cHmcnoH xnsnn kaxporo 6naropopnoro uenoaeka ponxna 6mna 6m 6m1L 6opL6a c nnH.
* * *
kpn nac1onLko saHopouenm anyuennnHn o npeponpepenenno 6opL6e po6pa n sna,
pyxa n ec1ec1aa, uenoaeka n saepn, 6ora n pLnaona, u1o onn ne aocnpnnnHak1 6onee
M , rpe ne1 po6pa n sna a nx uenoaeueckoH, caoekopmc1noH 1onkoaannn,
a ec1L 1onLko X X .
nna a1a , caHa no ce6e nn "xopouan", nn "pypnan", n 1onLko a uenoaeueckoH
ceppue ona Hoxe1 c1a1L po6po nnn sno. m6op coaepuae1cn naue coaec1Lk. s
acex cyuec1a nnuL uenoaek o6napae1 cao6opo aonn. nnuL on opnn cnoco6en kak k
cosna1enLnoHy sny, 1ak n k npaac1aennoHy coaepuenc1aoaannk.
axpoe naue no6yxpenne, kaxpan HmcnL, kaxpoe aepnoe cnoao npnaopn1 a pec1ane
Horyuec1aennme nespnHme cnnm. apyueanoe o6uenne c pnko pnpopo, paxe opno
nnuL couyac1aennoe cosepuanne ee uae1yuero, nnkykuero, caHouennoro 6m1nn
nanpouL nsronne1 ns cosnannn acnkyk HmcnL o kakoH-1o napHnpnoH 6ore nnn
pLnaone.
aun npauypm ne noHann ce6e ronoay nap nepaspeunHmHn pnn nocnepoaa1ene
y6ororo epnno6oxnn aonpocoH o nponcxoxpennn sna a Hnpe. nn uenLnoro
Hnpoanpennn nsmunnkoa, xnaunx , 1akoro aonpoca npoc1o ne
cyuec1aoaano. sanHoncknkun1enLnoc1L, npo1naononoxnoc1L "po6pa" n "sna"
npncyun nnuL nckycc1aennmH pennrnnH, nm1akunHcn o6cyxpa1L M
c 1oukn spennn cyry6o uenoaeuecknx nonn1n o 6naroc1n, Hyppoc1n n
cnpaaepnnaoc1n.
159
M. Y , ne co1aopennan nn 6oroH,
nn uenoaekoH, ne nopnexn1 nnuLeHy cypy.
ornacno nckonno cnaannckoHy Hnpouyac1aoaannk, acn anpnHan n neanpnHan
Y-.
XYX Y Y.
X. 1ckpa: Y ,
MY , , Y.
* * *
ak nasmaaeHoe sno ec1L acerpa o1nocn1enLnan ec1ec1aennan neo6xopnHoc1L,
aocxopnuan, a koneunoH n1ore, k coaepuenc1ay X .
o, u1o na uenoaeueckoH nsmke nasmaaeHcn snoH, na caHoH pene ne 1onLko ne
yrpoxae1 X M, no no 6onLuoHy cue1y - noppepxnaae1 ee. ak, 6nonorn
npnunn k y6expennk, u1o caHonponsaonLnme necnme noxapm, amsaannme
ec1ec1aennmHn npnunnaHn, nannk1cn coc1aannkue uac1Lk o6uenpnpopnoro
kpyroaopo1a xnsnn, 1ak kak pak1 noayk xnsnL c1apmH necaH. onrocpounme amropm
pnn neca orpoHnm - oronL nopunuae1 6ypenoHm, xaonme saaanm n o1Hnpakuyk
ppeaecnny, acnepc1ane uero ac senenoe uapc1ao o6noanne1cn, n pnn
o1kpmaak1cn uae1yune xnsnennme aosHoxnoc1n. a6nkpae1cn 1pnpua1nkpa1nm
npnpoc1 cae1onk6namx nopop, norn6aaunx a cyHpake nepec1onoro neca. XnsnL
aospoxpae1cn ns nenna, nopo6no ennkcy.
a1o nnuL opnn ns 6ecuncnennmx npnHepoa 1oro, kak kaxyueecn npo1naopeune
o6pa n na cnnHae1cn, npeoponeaae1cn na 6onee rny6nnnoH ypoane, rpe
packpmaae1cn acn nonno1a xnsney1aepxpakuero saHmcna pnpopm. ak 1enL
neHmcnnHa 6es cae1a, 1ak n "sno" a pnpope ne ec1L u1o-1o caHoc1on1enLnoe,
uenenanpaanenno npo1naoc1onuee o6py, a nnuL uac1nm cnyua aceo6ue
cnaxennoc1n. cnkn xe 1ak nasmaaeHm pasnap - uenoaeueckoe sa6nyxpenne,
nnockan, cnkHnny1nan ouenka HnoroHepnmx nanenn. op anpnHo posnLk "cnenmx"
c1nxn ckpm1a c1poran copasHepennoc1L n amcun cHmcn.
YuenmH nopo kaxe1cn, u1o pnpopa oun6ae1cn. o a ne1onncn pnpopm oun6ok ne1.
nnknya a cy1L nponcxopnuero, 1e xe yuenme c ypnanenneH o6napyxnaak1, u1o
pec1ann, nasaannme nHn oun6ko, nannk1cn na caHoH pene cnepc1aneH 1ako
nopcnypno uenecoo6pasnoc1n, ko1opan nepoc1ynna noaepxnoc1noHy na6nkpennk.
poc1o npnHep. e nepec1akune osapaunaa1L 6nonoroa 1epHn1m sarapounmH
cnoco6oH aospanrak1 nn1nHe1poame no amco1e n 6esynpeuno npaannLnme noc1pokn-
xnnnua. "uapcknx" nokonx ro1oan1cn k npoponxennk popa Ha1ka - "uapnua". o
nonanennn nepamx nnu ona nno1kypa ne nonyuae1 nnkakoro kopHa, a xnae1 sa cue1
sanacoa caoero xnpoaoro 1ena. pn o1knapmaannn nnu ona naunnae1 noepa1L 1o nnn
nnoe cnecennoe ek nuo. 1o 1akoe? ua1enLnme nccnepoaannn nokasann, u1o a1n
nua nnuenm sapopmue; a1o 1ak nasmaaeHme kopHoame nua, 1o ec1L nnua a anpe
nua.
eko1opme xnunnkn 1ak xe nnorpa noxnpak1 cao npnnnop. pnako a1o ne
kpoaoxapnoc1L, na ko1opyk 1ak nk6n1 ccmna1Lcn neaexec1aennme, o1opaannme o1
Xnao pnpopm uepkoannkn. Yc1anoaneno, u1o pe1enmun a1n c apoxpennmHn,
nensneunHmHn nopokaHn. pecL onn1L sananne1 o ce6e 1akan npepycHo1pn1enLnoc1L
pnpopm, ko1opyk nkpn ns-sa orpannuennoc1n caoero kpyrosopa cun1ak1 cnyuanmH
nsapauenneH, nnaue snoH.
160
o a pnpope ne1 nsapauenn, kak ne1 n cnyuanoc1e. 1o pnn uenoaeka cnyua, 1o
pnn pnpopm - npepnaHepennoc1L n sakonoHepnoc1L. axe Ha1epnannc1m neaonLno
u1y1 akonm pnpopm, kocaenno npnsnaaan a1nH 1aopueckyk HouL, xo1n onn n ne
xenak1 npnsna1L , c1onuyk sa a1nHn akonaHn n sac1aannkuyk nx
pec1aoaa1L.
* * *
smunnkn o1nocnnncL k caoe Ma1epn-pnpope c aennuaunH poaepneH n
y6expennoc1Lk a 1oH, u1o Ma1L ac penae1 k nyuueHy.
MY, . axe ecnn
caepxuenoaeueckan Hyppoc1L ne acerpa coo1ae1c1aye1 o6mpennoHy npepc1aanennk o
po6pe n sne.
seHno pec1an1enLnoc1n ec1L ac, a 1oH uncne n 1o, u1o pnn nac, nkpe, amc1ynae1
a kauec1ae ne6naronpnn1nmx nanenn, 1o ec1L a o6nnuLe sna. enoaek noaoro
apeHenn, nosnaa nnuL Hanyk 1onnky npnpopnoro nopnpka, nop annnnneH
npo1naoec1ec1aennmx, apaxpe6nmx pnpope (a, cnepoaa1enLno, n caHoHy uenoaeky)
pennrn napennn ac nenosnannoe o1pnua1enLnmH cHmcnoH.
ce neaepoHme, ckpm1me, "nounme" cnnm c1ann cun1a1Lcn 6oronpo1nanmHn n
o1oxpec1ann1Lcn co snoH. ak n caHa 6mna o6Lnanena npn6exnueH sna n
cHep1n.
axe aonue6nyk ynanLckyk ouL nakanyne onnueaopo1a, korpa caepuanncL
cnaannaHn ounc1n1enLnme o6pnpm, paxe a1o uepkoannkn
nacennnn "neunc1o" cnno, a naunx popnmx aeunx Y- nposaann
snoaeunHn aepLHaHn.
ounan 1LHa - a1o acero nnuL eue ne poxpennm paccae1. Yuenme ne snak1, u1o
1akoe . 1o xe onn Hory1 sna1L o M?
anHc1ayn nonn1ne aennkoro an1a, Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o "1LHa a ce6e" nn "po6pan" -
nn "snan". na npoc1o cyuec1aye1, kak cyuec1aye1 cae1. nn pnpopm ne1 pasnnum a
snauennn neaoro n npaaoro, Hyxckoro n xenckoro, ne1a n snHm, pnn n noun. 6a
nauana paanosnaunHm n opnnakoao cnyxa1 X.
ouL ne 1onLko nokpoan1enLc1aye1 aosnk6nennmH. ouL, necyuan npoxnapy,
uenn1enLnoe o1poxnoaenne n papoc1L noaoro npo6yxpennn, 1ak xe nyxna pnpope,
kak n penL. XnsnL 6mna 6m neHmcnnHa 6es cHenm pnn n noun, 6es konoapauennn
ae1a n LHm.
es apauennn eHnn aokpyr co6c1aenno ocn, 1o ec1L 6es uepepoaannn pnn n noun,
XnsnL na ne 6mna 6m neaosHoxna. epL na cae1no c1opone pnno-onnue caoe
xryue nk6oaLk nccyunn 6m ac xnaoe, a na npo1naononoxno, 1eHno c1opone
xnsnL ouenenena 6m a okoaax aeuno Hepsno1m (npnunna, no6yxpakuan eHnk k
yc1ounaoHy, nens6manoHy apauennk, 1ak n oc1ae1cn sarapko pnn knuauecn
caonHn poc1nxennnHn naykn).
aun panekne npauypm-connuenoknonnnkn, cnaan ae1, u1nnn opnoapeHenno n yxoa
oun. arapounme nounme nnkn n cosepuanne saespno 6espnm sac1aannk1 pyuy
saHnpa1L, no n papn1 e aosamuennme, nponnknoaennme Hrnoaennn. epapoH
caeuenno n1nue 6ornnn Hyppoc1n qnnm 6mna coaa (opnn ns caHmx saHeua1enLnmx
pacckasoa nsmunnka xeka onpona nasmaae1cn "oxpnnan a oun").
161
Henno paanoaecne ae1a n LHm noppepxnaae1 a Hnpe X - a1o aennuauee
1annc1ao n cHmcn Mnpospannn. X . acnkoe napyuenne npounoro n
npaannLnoro asanHopec1ann ae1a n LHm, rposnuee X, ec1L .
X - nsnauanLnan cnna pnpopm, 1aopueckan aonn, coanapakuan c rny6nnno
cyunoc1Lk pnpopm kak epnnoro n nepennHoro uenoro.
enoaeueckan xnsnL - acero nnuL oco6oe nponanenne aceo6ue xnsnn pnpopm.
enoaek - aonnounnm Hmcnnun yx, nopoxpnnm ne no "o6pasy 6oxLeHy", a no
o6pasy opyxo1aopnno pnpopm.
c a pnpope copasHepeno, cornacoaano n nopunneno opno uenn - XY
X ao acH e xnaonncnoH Hnorouae1nn. axe Hep1L ne napyuae1 a1o
1opxec1ao. epL XnsnL n Hep1L - pae pouepn - paonnukn opno nposopnnao
Ma1epn-pnpopm.
pnpope nenpnHennHm ne 1onLko uenoaeueckne nonn1nn o o6pe n ne, no n
pacxoxne nonn1nn o Xnsnn n Hep1n. Mnpospannn aoo6ue ne1 o1penLno Xnsnn n
Hep1n, kak ne1, 6esycnoano, o1penLno pyxa n ec1ec1aa (acnkan nno1L opyueanena, a
acnkan pyua nHee1 caoe o6nnuLe).
XnsnL n cHep1L asanHocansanm n npoc1o ne Hory1 cyuec1aoaa1L ppyr 6es ppyra.
akoao epnnc1ao, conpnxennoc1L n asanHoo6ycnoanennoc1L acero cyuero a none
pnpopm, rpe npoponxenne xnsnn, 1o ec1L noaoe xnsnennoe aonnouenne neHmcnnHo
6es paspyuennn c1apo o6onoukn, 1o ec1L 6es cHep1n.
oxpenne n cHep1L ne Hory1 6m1L ocHmcnenm a o1pmae ppyr o1 ppyra, kak ne Hoxe1
6m1L ocHmcnen aepx 6es nnsa, npnnna 6es o1nnaa, Hopos 6es xapm.
euee nsmueckoe Hnpoanpenne npospeaano o1nocn1enLnoc1L xnsnn n cHep1n. onxam
nonnHann poxpenne n cHep1L kak asanHocansannme nponanennn opnoro n 1oro xe
coc1onnnn - X. 6uee nonn1ne "X" aknkuano a ce6n paa a1nx pasnmx, no
paanonpaanmx nanennn.
cenLk pepeao, onnue1aopnkuee XnsnL, c6pacmaae1 nnc1ay n o6Hnpae1, u1o6m anoaL
pacuaec1n aecno. peaneune o6uennpoeaponeckne npepc1aanennn o6 yHnpakueH
n aockpecakueH 6oxec1ae nnopopopnn ocnoaanm na apeHenno "cHep1n" seneno
pac1n1enLnoc1n snHo.
ornnn nnopopopnn 6eccHep1na, kak n caHa pnpopa; no 6eccHep1na ona nHenno
no1oHy, u1o kaxpm rop , 1o ec1L poxpae1cn n yHnpae1. s
nenpepmano uepepm poxpenn n cHep1e n coc1on1 X.
* * *
nunnkn o6muno oxo1n1cn nouLk. o a a1o "1eneao", "Hpauno" c1opone pnpopm
ne1 o1pnua1enLnoro cHmcna. c1L amnyxpennan 6opL6a sa amxnaanne, korpa y6naak1
ne papn ypoaonLc1ann y6n1L, a u1o6m amxn1L n npoponxn1L . pnueH
kaxpoe xnao1noe poaonLc1aye1cn nnuL 1eH, u1o neo6xopnHo eHy pnn noppepxannn
co6c1aenno xnsnn n xnsnn pe1nmue.
Hep1L xep1am nou1n acerpa nac1ynae1 1ak 6mc1po, u1o ona ne ycneaae1 ouy1n1L
c1paxa n Hyuenn. pnpopa ne snae1 xec1okoc1n, caoc1aenno uenoaeky kak
cyuec1ay nnueHepnoHy n koaapnoHy. e snae1 nsoupennmx nm1ok n koc1poa
nnkansnunn.
162
"asmaan uenoaeka xnunmH saepeH, koro n o6nxak: uenoaeka nnn saepn?" - nncan
opnn ns aennuaunx Hmcnn1ene XX aeka caanLp Lnenrnep. "naropopnm
pas6onnk" - aonk ne nn1ae1 nnuno snoc1n k caoe xep1ae. YML
. ponn1ne kpoan, na6nkpaeHoe a Xnao
pnpope, ne nanne1cn snoH a a6conk1noH, 1o ec1L 6esycnoanoH cHmcne cnoaa, a
1onLko uac1no coc1aannkue L .
pepanne napopa caaHn noaec1aye1, kak aapa - aepxoanoe 6oxec1ao n noaenn1enL
uaHanoa naaen nopnpok a penax caoe neaec1kn - osnkn onene. na 1ak yceppno
aena caoe xosnc1ao, u1o na seHne c1ano 1ecno o1 6ecuncnennmx onene. nn
amrpmsnn ack pac1n1enLnoc1L anno1L po ronoro necka n kaHnn. pepn onene nauancn
noaanLnm Hop. 1orpa necnme yxn-osneaa aossaann k aapak. o1 cnoxaa1nncn n
cospan aonka. onkn cpasy ounc1nnn seHnk o1 napann. 6onLue ne paaann onennH
pasHnoxa1Lcn 6es Hepm. Xnnn aonkn - xnna 1ynppa. Xnna 1ynppa - xnnn onenn.
Xnnn onenn - xnn uenoaek.
o1oHy caaHm nnkorpa aonkoa ne y6naak1, aepL aonka nocnan caH aapa n nocnan
on ero ne spn.
* * *
orocnoam n "nayunme" Ha1epnannc1m opnnakoao o1kasmaak1 pnpope a
caHoocosnannoc1n n aceo6ue opyueanennoc1n. opnnakoao onpaapmaak1
aceposaonennoc1L uenoaeka no o1nouennk k e.
Ma1epnannc1nueckn nnrnnnsH ec1L o6opo1nan c1opona xpnc1nanckoro epnno6oxnn.
pnc1nanc1ao ampocno na nouae ae1xosaae1noro nypec1aa n ann1ano a ce6n ero
o1uyxpennoc1L o1 Xnao pnpopm. ypeckne 6acnn o co1aopennn Mnpa aknkuenm a
xpnc1nanckoe aepoyuenne kak "6oroapoxnoaennme".
esnpaac1aennoe, neuec1naoe o1nouenne xpnc1nanc1aa k pnpope nponc1ekae1 ns
6n6nnn, ysakonnaue rocnopc1ao uenoaeka nap 6ecnpaano "pa6o" - pnpopo.
smkoaepm y1aepxpak1, u1o na napn1e cnoaa "po6po" n "sno" osnauak1, npexpe
acero, "nonesnoe" n "apepnoe". ornacno a1oHy, npaao na xnsnL nHee1 nnuL 1o, u1o
nonesno, amropno "6orons6pannoHy" napopy, a ac apepnoe n 6ecnonesnoe napo
nc1pe6nn1L.
Dkonornueckan ka1ac1poqa 6mna npeponpepenena no6epo xpnc1nanc1aa a apone,
korpa npnpopnme pyxn-nokpoan1enn necoa, osep n pek 6mnn o6Lnanenm 6ecaHn, a
caHa Ma1L-pnpopa c1ana onnue1aopenneH apaxpe6no, npo1naoc1onue uenoaeky
cnnm, aonnouenneH acnueckoro sna.
asan1ne naykn n 1exnnkn nooupnnocL uepkoaLk kak cpepc1ao saka6anennn pnpopm,
6ecnouapno "no6epm" nap e. anapnan xpnc1nanckan Hexannc1nueckan
unannnsaunn noxnpana, kak capanua, ac na caoeH ny1n. anonne sakonoHepno
Haunnnm "nporpecc", ocnoaannm na 6opL6e c pnpopo, saan uenoaeuec1ao na
kpa nponac1n.
a6naune 1peaory akonorn yc1anoannn, u1o opno ns aaxneunx oco6ennoc1e
nanne1cn 6nonornueckoe paanoaecne a ee cpepe. D1o nayunoe
nonn1ne - ne u1o nnoe, kak sanospanoe nop1aepxpenne nsmueckoro nonoxennn o 1oH,
u1o a pnpope ac cornacoaano - acero 1aH poc1a1ouno n ne1 nnuero nnunero,
"apepnoro". MX M ???
c1pe6nenne "apepno" Hyxn ueue a qpnke npnaeno k upesHepnoHy pasHnoxennk
cko1a, npeapa1nauero uae1yuyk caaanny a 6ecnnopnyk nyc1mnk. ynnu1oxenneH
163
kaHanoa neo6muano pacnnopnnncL xnunme pm6m nnpanLn, c1aaune nac1onunH
6nuoH koe-rpe a xno Hepnke.
nkan pnpopa caHa ao apeHn cnnLno sacyxn cokpauae1 noronoaLe 1paaonpnmx po
pasyHnmx npepenoa. "Hnme npononoknonnnkn" npospeaann 1annc1aennoe cuennenne
acex cyuec1a n nanenn. nn nonnHann, u1o ac xnaoe cocyuec1aye1 ao asanHocansn
n asanHopec1ann. c caHo no ce6e n ac - uac1num coaokynnoro uenoro. a a1oH
coaepuennoH nopnpke ne 6maae1 any1pennnx neo6pa1nHmx 6epc1an. ecuncnennme
c1apa 6nsonoa koueaann no npepnn; 6nsonm, aonkn n nnpeum xnnn 6ok o 6ok.
pepnn kopHnna nx acex n npn a1oH senenena.
pnpopa caHa noppepxnaae1 paanoaecne Hexpy xnunnkaHn n nx po6mue, npnueH a
ponn 6nkc1n1ene a1oro paanoaecnn amc1ynak1 caHn xnunnkn. ocoHaxn a oc1ouno
n6npn o16naak1 uac1L onenLero c1apa, o1ronnk1 ero a ropnyk ponnny n noouepepno
nacy1, "noHan" nnuL neo6xopnHoe uncno onene. onkn ynnu1oxak1 a nepayk
ouepepL c1apmx, ocna6nennmx konm1nmx, necnoco6nmx pa1L nonnouennoe no1oHc1ao,
a 1akxe y6naak1 neko1opoe konnuec1ao Honopnnka, u1o6m npepo1apa1n1L
6nonornueckn aspma. M, u1o c1apme penLqnnm a c1ae nnmay1
annsy, o1kypa nanapak1 akynm, a c1apme se6pm nacy1cn no aneuneHy kpyry, o1kypa
nanapae1 nea.
a6o1nnaan Ma1L-pnpopa M M "c1paxye1" anp, yaennuenne
uncnennoc1n ko1oporo c1anoan1cn yrpoxakunH. 1o6m npepo1apa1n1L nonnoe
amHnpanne anpa o1 ronopa, ona o6pekae1 na 6mc1pyk cHep1L uac1L ero. nn a1oro
npepycHo1penm aecLHa cnoxnme n xn1poyHnme Hepm, npecekakune poc1 uncnennoc1n
caepx onpepenennoro ypoann. saec1no, nanpnHep, u1o neko1opme nacekoHme,
okasaaunecn a c1ecnennmx ycnoannx, naunnak1 ampa6a1maa1L oco6m ras,
yHepuannkun nx co6c1aennme nnunnkn n nopaannkun nonoaoe aneuenne. D1o n
nonn1no, n a 1o xe apeHn nenoc1nxnHo...
M, ML, M YX
. Mnp pnpopm epnn. sanoaepno, npnaonLno pnpope ne1 apepn1ene, ne1
copnnkoa. ak nasmaaeHme copnnkn n apepn1enn - o1ae1 pnpopm na uenoaeueckoe
aHeua1enLc1ao.
nkne 6naroyxannme 1paam-Heponocm uenoaek nasaan copnnkaHn. ua1enLno nx
nckopennn, on cospae1 nannyuune ycnoann pnn pasHnoxennn 1ex anpoa nacekoHmx,
ko1opme nauenenm na ynnu1oxenne onpepenennmx cenLckoxosnc1aennmx pac1enn.
kaxpmH ropoH 6opL6a c apepn1ennHn o1nnHae1 ac 6onLue cnn n cpepc1a, a yuep6 o1
nnx ne yHenLuae1cn.
ak nn yx onacnm nacekoHme-apepn1enn? ccnepoaannn nokasann, u1o neko1opoe
konnuec1ao apepn1ene nnuL ycnnnaae1 qo1ocnn1es, xnsnepen1enLnoc1L n
xnsnec1okoc1L pac1enn. nunnkn opnoro anpa xec1kokpmnmx nacekoHmx Hory1
amxn1L 1onLko a Hep1ao ppeaecnne: Ha1L amrpmsae1 uenL aponL konunka ae1kn
HnHosm (n nnkakoro ppyroro pac1ennn) n o1knapmaae1 1ypa nua. sa1eH, o1c1ynna
na 30 cH, amrpmsae1 aokpyr ae1kn 6opospky - n koneu ae1kn norn6ae1. aHa no ce6e
HnHosa pac1e1 ne 6onee 20-30 ne1. o cpok ee xnsnn Hoxe1 yaennun1Lcn n po 100
ne1, ecnn pepeao exeropno noppesa1L, u1o n penae1 nacekoHoe.
ak nasmaaeHme nacekoHme-apepn1enn uepecuyp pasHnoxak1cn 1onLko a
nckycc1aennmx, opnopopnmx, a, cnepoaa1enLno, nexnsnecnoco6nmx neconacaxpennnx.
ncnennoc1L nacekoHmx 1akxe ynopnpouena caHo pnpopo, a ne uenoaekoH, uLn
xnHnueckne n ppyrne cpepc1aa okasmaak1 nnuL nesnaun1enLnoe annnnne na nx
pasHnoxenne.
164
opnoH ns nnceH apann nncan: " ne Hory y6epn1L ce6n a 1oH, u1o 6narope1enLnm
n aceHoryun 6or npepnaHepenno cospan nxneaHonnp c 1o onpepenenno uenLk,
u1o6m onn nn1anncL xnamHn 1enaHn rycennu". c1aanH 6ora na coaec1n apanna (a
apanna na coaec1n 6ora). cnn nxneaHonnpm, kak onpepenennm anp nacekoHmx,
cyuec1ayk1, snaun1, YX . nn nannk1cn saun1nnkaHn pac1enn;
ne 6ypL 1ako ynpaam na npoxopnnamx uepankoa, 1e o6rpmsnn 6m ack nnc1ay.
o, u1o paccHa1pnaaeHoe a o1penLnoc1n, caHo no ce6e, npepc1aanne1cn na nepam
asrnnp necnpaaepnnamH, okasmaae1cn cnpaaepnnamH, 6ypyun paccHo1peno a
o1nouennn uenokynnoro 6m1nn pnpopm. pnpopa coaepuenno 6ecnpnc1pac1na n
no1oHy ne Hoxe1 6m1L necnpaaepnnao. pnpopa a caoeH pasyHno-npaac1aennoH
poc1onnc1ae - "no 1y c1opony o6pa n na" a nx "uenoaeueckoH, cnnukoH
uenoaeueckoH" nonnHannn. Henno npnsnanne YM
(no-nayunoHy 6nouenosa) M nanne1cn nan6onee
npo1naopeuaunH papannnsHy saknkuenneH coapeHennmx akonoroa.
* * *
apann cospan yuenne, pncykuee xnao Hnp kak aony acex npo1na acex n
napennkuee pnpopy nanxypunHn uenoaeuecknHn c1pac1nHn.
nec1nun pycckn Hmcnn1enL, nc1opnk n 6nonor . . annneackn a caoeH 1pype
"apannnsH" ackpmn any1pennne npnunnm oun6ok apanna n neo6muanoro ycnexa
papannnsHa: "eopnn ero ec1L yuenne unc1o anrnnckoe, aknkuakuee a ce6n ne
1onLko ace oco6ennoc1n nanpaanennn anrnnckoro yHa, no n ace caoc1aa anrnnckoro
pyxa. pak1nueckan nonLsa n coc1nsa1enLnan 6opL6a, ao1 pae uep1m, ne 1onLko, a
snaun1enLno Hepe, pakune nanpaanenne anrnncko xnsnn, no n anrnncko
nayke".
ec1an1enLno, apann ampoc n aocnn1ancn a c1pane, rpe nnonnane1nne nokynann
saanne noppa npoc1o sa penLrn, kak ceropnn noame "pycckne" - saanne "aopa a
sakone".
Henno a nrnnn, rpe nopoxpennm xpnc1nanc1aoH kann1annsH poc1nr caoero
oHepsn1enLnoro npepena, anac1L nnonnane1nn-6apmunnkoa n 6anknpoa-
poc1oaunkoa ocyuec1annnacL a nan6onee unc1oH anpe, a rpa6n1enLckne
kononnanLnme saaoeaannn conpoaoxpanncL neo6muano xec1okoc1Lk,
nanoHnnakue ae1xosaae1noe "6oroyropnoe" nc1pe6nenne connuenoknonnnkoa.
n6neckyk kpoaoxapnoc1L, c1onL u1nHyk nypn1ancko nrnne, apann
nponsaonLno pacnpoc1pannn na ack pnpopy. aone acex npo1na acex a
npnnoxennn k nonn1nke nncan po apanna o66c - 1oxe anrnnuannn.
Henno a 1oH n saknkuanacL nan6onee snaunHan npnunna ycnexa papannnsHa, u1o a
neH o1pasnnacL anrnnckan nc1opnn XVII-XIX aekoa. apannnsH, c ero asrnnpoH na
xnsnL kak na 6opL6y sa cyuec1aoaanne, nanncn o1pmxko kann1annc1nuecko
pec1an1enLnoc1n, caoek popa onpaapanneH nkpoepcko Hopann "cao6opnoro" Hnpa,
ocnoaannoro na noxnpannn cna6mx n 6essaun1nmx.
nrnnuane, amnyxpennme xn1L no sakony: "1m yHpn ceropnn, a n saa1pa", ysnann a
papannoackoH yuennn ce6n. Yuenne a1o 6mno 6nnsko n nonn1no o6uec1ay,
noc1poennoHy na 6ecnouapno aone kaxporo npo1na acex, n acex - npo1na pnpopm.
* * *
165
apann nonoxnn a ocnoay caoe rnno1esm npek X, nasaaa ee 6opL6o sa
cyuec1aoaanne. pek xe , nponannkuykcn ao asanHonoHoun, - a1y
cyuec1aenneuyk npnunny pasan1nn Xnsnn, ne cuen.
opnoH ns nnceH on npnsnancn, u1o ecnn 6m a pnpope nauencn xo1n 6m opnn
npnHep 1oro, korpa pac1enne nnn xnao1noe o6saaopn1cn npncnoco6nenneH Y
ppyroHy anpy, 1o a1o osnauano 6m kpyuenne ace ero 1eopnn. pasae ne nanne1cn
1aknH npnHepoH nk6oe npnpopnoe coxn1enLc1ao-cnH6nos???
apann nou1n ne kocnyncn a1oro, poc1onoro nsyHnennn, nanennn. no 6mno npoc1o
nsnnunnH a ero cyxoH, paccypounoH noc1poennn, a rnaanoe - eHy npo1naopeunno.
pnako, eu ppeanne Hyppeum nonarann, u1o nHenno n ec1L 1a
Horyuec1aenneuan cnna npn1nxennn, u1o cansmaae1 Hnp a epnnoe Y
.
packpmaae1cn kak nouka, onnopo1aopnnan . kpn,
xnao1nme, pac1ennn - acn - 1onLko pasnnunme nponanennn opnoro xnaoro
6m1nn - , c1ano 6m1L - popc1aennm. ce xname cyuec1aa - kne1oukn opno, a
epnnoH cornacnn pmuaue nno1n eHnn, nopo6no 1oHy, kak Hm caHn coc1onH ns
kne1ok, aepyunx caHoc1on1enLnyk xnsnL, no co1pypnnuakunx ao 6naro aceo6uero
uenoro, kakoamH nanne1cn uenoaeueckn oprannsH.
Mexanpoaan asanHonoHouL - ocnoano sakon pnpopm, n pnn pasan1nn Xnsnn sakon
a1o1 nHee1 ropaspo 6onee aaxnoe, rnaaenc1aykuee snauenne, ueH no6ounm sakon
asanHno apaxpm. 6 a1oH nncan n ampakuncn pycckn Hmcnn1enL, npeonor
anapxo-koHHynnsHa . . pono1knn a caoeH 1pype "sanHnan noHouL kak qak1op
aaonkunn". kpynneun pycckn 6o1annk-qn1oncnxonor . . aHnnumn pasanaan
HmcnL o 1oH, u1o XnsnL ne c1onLko 6opL6a anpoa, ckonLko, a nepayk ouepepL, nx
cocyuec1aoaanne n co1pypnnuec1ao. D1o nopHe1nn 1akxe n e1e, na6nkpaaun
asanHononesnoe coxn1enLc1ao pasnmx anpoa pac1enn n xnao1nmx.
M M X snxpe1cn na o6okpno amropnoH n npeanLno cnaxennoH
coppyxec1ae pac1enn n nacekoHmx-onmnn1ene.
yuec1aoaanne xnao1noro Hnpa (aknkuan uenoaeka, kak 6nonornueckn anp) 6mno 6m
neaosHoxno 6es senenmx pac1enn, cospaaunx npnropnyk pnn pmxannn kncnopopnyk
a1Hocqepy. cnn 6m a a1Hocqepe eHnn 6mno 25% kncnopopa, 1o nec Hor 6m rope1L
nop poxpeH. ecnn kncnopopa 6mno 6m 10%, 1o ne ropen 6m paxe cyxo aanexnnk.
saec1no, u1o 21% a1oro rasa a aospyxe ec1L cnepc1ane xnsnepen1enLnoc1n pac1enn.
onee 1oro: nopasn1enLno, u1o pac1ennn caHn n noppepxnaak1 a1o1 neo6xopnHm pnn
ppyrnx xnamx cyuec1a yc1ounam ypoaenL copepxannn kncnopopa a 1euenne Hnornx
Hnnnnonoa ne1. mxopn1, u1o acn Xnaan pnpopa naxopn1cn nop npncHo1poH
pac1enn.
cnoanoe pasnnune Hexpy pac1ennnHn n xnao1nmHn saknkuae1cn a cnoco6e nn1annn.
onLko pac1ennnH npncyua uypecnan cnoco6noc1L nn1a1Lcn nenocpepc1aenno
M M. oa1oHy n npepnasnauenne nx na eHne coaepuenno
ncknkun1enLnoe, : onn - nocpepnnkn Hexpy ppyrnHn xnamHn
cyuec1aaHn n nc1ounnkoH Xnsnn - onnueH.
Ynaannaan, nakannnaan n npeo6pasyn a ce6e conneunme nyun (ocyuec1annn
qo1ocnn1es), pac1ennn papn1 aceH saancnHmH o1 nnx cyuec1aaH-no1pe6n1ennH
aospyx, nnuy n nekapc1aa, papn1 nH X, xep1ayn co6o (k cnoay ckasa1L,
cokpoaennan cy1L qo1ocnn1esa oc1ae1cn pnn yuenmx 1ano sa ceHLk neua1nHn).
166
oaopn cykonnmH nsmkoH naykn, qn1oHacca, 1o ec1L Hacca senenmx pac1enn
coc1aanne1 99% 6noHaccm, 1o ec1L o6ue Haccm acex xnamx cyuec1a eHnn. a ponk
xe sooHaccm npnxopn1cn acero nnuL opnn npouen1, a a neH Hacca nacekoHmx
npeamuae1 a 1pn pasa Haccy acex Hnekonn1akunx, pm6 n n1nu, aHec1e asn1mx.
kono 80% anpoa pac1enn nannk1cn uae1koamHn n onmnnk1cn nacekoHmHn:
6a6oukaHn, uHennHn, nuenaHn, ocaHn, xykaHn n pp. oxn1enLc1ao pnanmx 1aopenn
pnpopm - 6naroyxannmx uae1oa n cansaaunx c nnHn caok cypL6y nacekoHmx - caHoe
nonk6oanoe: Ho1mnek nLe1 npnro1oanennm pnn nero nek1ap, a caH noHorae1
pac1ennk npoponxn1L cao pop.
onc1nne npekpacen nx coks, npeponpepennaun pacuae1 Xnsnn na eHne n
narnnpno nokasmaakun, u1o pnpope necpaanenno a 6onLue c1enenn npncyun
o1nouennn, ocnoaannme ne na npo1nao6opc1ae, a na po6pococepc1ae, asanHno
noHoun n asanHnoH poaepnn.
* * *
eko1opme, ouenL npoan1me pac1ennn n xnao1nme nHek1 npepoc1eperakue npkyk
pacuae1ky, n specL ne opnn 1onLko ronoc caHocoxpanennn: 1akan okpacka pae1 aceH
okpyxakunH aosHoxnoc1L coxpann1L ce6e xnsnL.
kpn, nuyune ao aceH no1pe6n1enLckyk amropy, ypnannk1cn, noueHy ak1nnnn ne
xann1 aneHonoay pm6ky (kako e npok o1 a1o pm6kn?), noueHy 1nn 6esaosHespno
o1pak1 HypaaLnH caon cnapkne ampenennn?
pnko pnpope rycn rnespn1cn pnpoH c nonnpno coao, Hnpno xnay1 a opno,
o6ue nope ne 1onLko orpoHnan nuepnua ra11epnn n 6ypeaec1nnk, no n nacka c
kpmco, n paxe, kak a aonue6no ckaske, y1ka c nnco! ak y1aepxpak1 6maanme
oxo1nnkn, n o6 a1oH nncan caH nLqpep paH.
a1ypannc1m, na6nkpakune xnao1nmx, cnnouL n pnpoH c1anknaak1cn c 1aknHn
nopasn1enLnmHn npnHepaHn nk6an, coc1papannn, 6essaae1no npepannoc1n n
reponsHa, pnn ko1opmx y uenoaeka ne xaa1ae1 noue1nmx cnoa, u1o6m no poc1onnc1ay
ouenn1L nx. 3a6o1a o 6nare ppyrnx, caHonoxep1aoaanne popn1ene papn pe1e,
coaHec1noe aocnn1anne no1oHc1aa, npnueH noneuenne npoc1npae1cn paxe na uyxnx
pe1enmue, kopHnenne cnpo1 n aspocnmx nokaneuennmx copopnue - a1n
npekpacneune kauec1aa npncyun HnornH xnao1nmH "o1 nuenm po ropnnnm". pnueH
noc1ynak1 onn 1ak ncknkun1enLno a cnny X -
Y ce6e nopo6nmH, nnuero ne oxnpan asaHen.
paac1aennme yc1anoakn nepao6m1noro oxo1nnka nHenn cao npoo6pas a Hnpe
xnao1nmx, rpe Hoxno na1n ropaspo 6onLue nopnnnnmx po6pope1ene n
aosamuennmx uyac1a, ueH a coapeHennoH xpnc1nanckoH o6uec1ae, rpe uapn1
kann1annc1nueckn "sakon pxynrne" a xypueH cHmcne a1oro cnoaa.
ac1onueHy xe sakony pxynrne npncyua caon, saepnnan cnpaaepnnaoc1L n caon,
npnpopnme npaac1aennme sanoaepn. paac1aenno 1o, u1o cnyxn1 npouae1annk opa;
6esnpaac1aenno 1o, u1o ry6n1enLno pnn nero. Xnao1noe acerpa c1peHn1cn coxpann1L
caok xnsnL, no a 1o xe apeHn acerpa ro1oao ek noxep1aoaa1L ao nHn npoponxennn
opa.
* * *
pnnncaa ce6e ncknkun1enLnoe npaao na nk6oaL, ee 1annc1ao n kpaco1y, uenoaek
oc1aann na ponk acex oc1anLnmx nnuL "xnao1nme" c1pac1n pa cko1ckne nnc1nnk1m.
167
pnako, po cko1onoxc1aa, Hyxenoxc1aa n npoue copoHnn (opoH - 6n6neckn
ropop) popyHancn 1onLko "aeneu 1aopennn".
osepuanne 1opxec1aennmx, papoc1nmx n kpacounmx 6paunmx 1anuea a Hnpe xnao
pnpopm cnoco6c1aoaano aosnnknoaennk ppeaneunx o6pnpoamx nnncok y Hnornx
napopoa.
ak, naun xnaonncnme ynanLckne xopoaopm kak 6m noppaxann xypaannH, ko1opme
ao apeHn nk6oanmx nrp, nopnpmrnaan, naknonnncL n npncepan, panxy1cn no kpyry,
xnonan kpmnLnHn a 1ak1 caonH 1py6nmH knnkaH. opo6nm a1nH nrpaH 6mnn
caeuennme nnnckn pycanLcknx pea, nneuyunx pacnyuennmHn pykaaaHn, kak n1nua
kpmnLnHn.
u ny1apx saHe1nn, u1o "aospepxannoc1L enenonm o6kapkak1 c npespenneH n
cHexoH co1nn aoponnx, ns ko1opmx kaxpan, ecnn yHnpae1 ee aopon, apoac1aye1 ne
Hanoe apeHn, a a 1euenne uenmx pean1n uenoaeuecknx nokonenn".
c1L n1num-opnonk6m n saepn-opnonk6m, noppepxnaakune c1porn 6paunm coks
na npo1nxennn ace caoe xnsnn n ypennkune caok nk6oaL 1onLko opno -
epnnc1aenno cyxeno. cHep1L opnoro ns cynpyroa nopuac aneue1 sa co6o cHep1L
o1 1ockn n ppyroro.
onk am6npae1 ce6e noppyry na ack xnsnL. aonunua, no1epna cynpyra-aonka, po
konua pne caonx coxpanne1 apoac1ao. poaa opna 1akxe oc1ae1cn apoao na ack
xnsnL. oxnsnennme 6paunme ysm o6Lepnnnk1 yca1mx kn1oa, nnc, 6o6poa n ppyrnx
xnao1nmx.
poHe aoponoa, aepnm ppyr ppyry po cHep1n pnkne rycn, ne6epn, conoaLn, nonyran,
Hnorne xnunme n1num. Y pnknx ryce, ranok n neko1opmx ppyrnx n1nu,
coepnnnkunxcn na ack xnsnL, saponro po ac1ynnennn a 6pak (1o ec1L po nonoao
spenoc1n) saknkuae1cn nonk6oanoe cornauenne-noHonaka, npnueH o6pnp a1o1
o1penen o1 cynpyxecko 6nnsoc1n aecLHa pnn1enLnmH apeHeneH. Y ranok, nanpnHep,
apeHn noHonakn o6muno paanne1cn opnoHy ropy. o6pyuennme pnkne rycn uenmx 16
Hecnuea xnay1 apaoeH kak 6pa1 c cec1po, npexpe ueH ac1ynn1 a 6paunm coks.
enoaek - epnnc1aennoe xnaoe cyuec1ao, ypoane1aopnkuee nonoaoe aoxpenenne ne
pnn npoponxennn caoero opa, a ncknkun1enLno papn noxo1n. onLko uenoaek
npeapa1nn 1annc1ao cnnnnnn nonoa n sapoxpennn xnsnn ns caeuennopec1aa a cekc.
Hnpe xnao1nmx sa6epeHeneauan Ha1L ne nopnyckae1 6paunoro cynpyra (pa n 1o1 ne
penae1 nonm1ok k c6nnxennk). Mnorouncnennme xenckne 6onesnn, o ko1opmx n
nonn1nn ne nHek1 xnao1nme, - cnepc1ane 6ecnopnpouno nonoao xnsnn n
nckycc1aennmx amknpmue. opoame Hykn 1akxe npncyun 1onLko uenoaeky.
u opno ec1ec1aennoe aosHespne sa ace nsapauennn - a1o aenepnueckne 6onesnn.
nn coc1aannk1 ncknkun1enLnoe poc1onnne "uenoaeka pasyHnoro", n nn opna ns nnx
ne npnanaae1cn xnao1nmH. ce nonm1kn nsyaepoa a 6enmx xana1ax nckycc1aenno
sapasn1L kpmc, co6ak nnn o6esLnn cnqnnncoH 6mnn neypaunm.
nkne saepn, kak npaanno, aoo6ue nnueH ne 6onek1 n yHnpak1 a rny6oko c1apoc1n,
ne c1papan, ecnn 1onLko ne nopaeprny1cn aneuneHy nacnnnk. c 6onLue 6onesne
uenoaek o6napyxnaae1 1onLko y ce6n n y caoero poHaunero cko1a - 6maunx aonLnmx
saepe, ko1opmx on nopa6o1nn n nsypopoaan a caonx no1pe6n1enLcknx uennx.
e1epnnapm osa6ouenm ace noamHn "6naropopnmHn", unc1o uenoaeuecknHn 6onesnnHn
caonx noponeunmx, kak-1o: pak Ha1kn, pak xenypka, nnqapk1m n 1. n., u1o
168
o6Lncnne1cn annnnneH na xnao1nmx nckycc1aennoro o16opa a o6xop sakona pnpopm
o amxnaannn nan6onee cnnLnmx n npncnoco6nennmx oco6e.
mpaannme ns ec1ec1aennoro 6m1nn, onn c1ann 6ecnoHounmHn ypopaHn c 1oukn
spennn pnpopm: aepL cannLn - a1o 6eso6pasno oxnpeaun, 6onLno ka6an, y kopoam
- cnnukoH 6onLuoe, neec1ec1aennoe amHn n 1. p.
* * *
mpyHkn papannnc1oa o 1oH, 6yp1o nkpn ynacnepoaann ac pypnoe, a 1oH uncne
xec1okoc1L, o1 xnao1nmx, - necoc1on1enLnm. anpo1na, xnao1nmH o6nsan 6mn
uenoaek caonHn npaac1aennmHn nonn1nnHn ponra, uec1n, uyac1a co6c1aennoro
poc1onnc1aa n aennkopyunn.
"enoaek uenoaeky aonk" - a1o npnpyHan uenoaek. onk ne neperpmse1 ropno caoeHy
copopnuy. poHe onpepenennmx npaann noepnnka conepnnkoa-caHuoa,
orpannunaakunx yaeuLn, y acex xnao1nmx cyuec1ayk1 oco6me nosm nopunnennn n
yHnpo1aopennn, nosaonnkune cna6eueHy ns6exa1L npoponxennn cxaa1kn. onkn
1akxe co6nkpak1 a1n npaanna uec1n, n onn ropaspo 6onee c1porn, ueH naun
uenoaeueckne.
o1epneaun nopaxenne 6oeu naHepenno nopc1aanne1 knmkaH npo1nannka caHoe
ynsanHoe Hec1o - uek c npoxopnue no ne npeHno aeno. onk - cnHaon
xec1okoc1n n aeponoHc1aa, sakneHennm uenoaekoH kak y6nua. pnako aonk-
no6epn1enL nnkorpa ne napyun1 sakona aonuLe uec1n, nnkorpa ne nanece1
cHep1enLnm ypap, a cpasy npekpauae1 6o.
eko1opme 1paaonpnme, npocn nouapm, napak1 na konenn: no1oHy-1o 6mk na apene
saHnpae1 n ne 6pocae1cn na Ha1apopa, korpa 1o1, c1on na konennx nepep 6mkoH,
nso6paxae1 "cHep1enLnm" 1pkk. aepL nopunnne1cn npnpopno npaac1aennoc1n,
uenoaek xe, koaapno aocnonLsoaaauncL a1nH, aonsae1 a nero unary.
aknH anpoH y6on ouenL aocxnuancn eHnnrya. e cnyuano ero nk6nHmHn
co6y1mnLnnkaHn (noHnHo nepepac1oa) 6mnn Ha1apopm. Ma1apop pocnoano no-
ncnanckn - y6nua. Hepnkanckn 1ap1apen, noxaannauncn caonHn kpoaaamHn
noxoxpennnHn a qpnke, n cmna caoero o6yuan c1penL6e no xnamH HnuennH -
rony6nH, ouenL Hnno nasmaan 1akoe y6nc1ao "nk6n1enLcko cnop1nano oxo1o".
eypnan1enLno, u1o nocne 1opo Mnpoao aonm, a <.> Hnpe (korpa n cnop1 ns
coc1nsannn a cnne n 6mc1po1e ampopnncn a noronk sa sono1oH), HopnmH anac1n1eneH
yHoa c1anoan1cn nnkn eHnnrya - "naunqnc1 n 6opeu c qaunsHoH", nonyuaaun
nanamcuee nacnaxpenne o1 xnsnn, o1nnHan e, y ppyrnx.
YHec1no acnoHnn1L, u1o caHo xenanno narpapo no6epn1ennH ppeannx
nnHnncknx rp 6mno caeuennoe npenHyuec1ao cpaxa1Lcn a nepaoH pnpy, pnpoH c
oxpH-oenauanLnnkoH.
o6opnnkn "npaa uenoaeka" roaopn1, u1o ac xe oxo1a - c1pac1L, ronoc kpoan
pepkoa; nenLsn nnua1L uenoaeka 1oro, u1o sanoxeno a ero nacnepc1aennoc1n. o
1orpa npnueH specL ann1oaka c on1nuecknH npnuenoH n paspmanmHn nynnHn?
amxopn na 6ora1mpckoe epnno6opc1ao c Ha1epmH aenpeH, kak 1ao 6mnnnnm
npauyp: c pora1nno, 1onopoH n noxoH... epL amxopn1 n ceuac o1aaxnm uykua
(ocHennnm npn6ay1kaHn) c pyunmH rapnynoH na Hopxa, a yaaxakun ce6n Hacan - c
konLeH na nLaa.
169
orpa-1o oxo1a 6mna uec1nmH noepnnkoH, poc1onmH Hyxunnm-aonna: po6m1L
rposnoro saepn Hor 1onLko caHm cHenm saepo6o. onn cxopnnncL, kak cxopnnncL
ac1apL na paanoe coc1nsanne opnnounme 6oum nepep nonkaHn.
pespennme ukypnnkn, c1pennkune a Hepaepn c aep1one1a, ynopo6nnk1cn "kpo1koHy"
aanpy, nopno, ncnop1nuka nopasnaueHy kaHneH ns npaun npoc1opyunoro
connuenoknonnnka onnaqa.
enoaek, npepoc1aana caHoHy ce6e npaao xn1L y6nc1aoH, nnueHepno o6smaae1
"xec1oknHn" n "kpoaoxapnmHn" 1ex xnao1nmx, ko1opmH caHo pnpopo
npepnasnaueno 6m1L xnunnkaHn, n ko1opme noa1oHy unc1m a caoeH nepaospannoH
ec1ec1ae. H neaepoH nopok, n y6naak1 onn ne ns nk6an k nacnnnk.
aca1ky (npeaocxopnuyk pasyHoH npounx penLqnnoa), anm, rnnnkn, kaHuapanm n
ppyrne napopm noun1ann kak osnky Mopn; poc1oaepnmx cnyuaea nanapennn kaca1kn
na uenoaeka ne cyuec1aye1. o anrnnuane nasaann ee "kn1oH-y6nue".
snaHenn1oH aHepnkanckoH poHane "Mo6n nk" onnue1aopenneH sna, nopnexauero
ynnu1oxennk, nanne1cn enm n1 - "ncuapne apa". nHaonnuno, u1o opepxnHm
y6nc1aoH kn1o6o nocn1 nHn nspannLckoro uapLka xaaa.
onLko y "npocaeuennmx" napopoa cnoao "saepL" c1ano pyra1enLnmH. pa6m ne
saHapa1Lcn saepnno "kpoaoxapnoc1Lk", xpnc1nane nopeunnn caon xep1am
yHepuann1L "6es nponn1nn kpoan", - ryHanno cxnra1L saxnao. yHanno 6es kaamuek,
aepL ryHannsH no-na1mnn osnauae1 uenoaeunoc1L. ns acex xnamx cyuec1a 1onLko
uenoaek nk6n1 cHo1pe1L, kak Hyuae1cn eHy nopo6nm n naxopn1 ynoenne a caHoH ak1e
npnunnennn 6onn. pyroro, c1onL nsapauennoro cyuec1aa a pnpope ne1. apnsH,
npncyun "unannnsoaannoHy" ryHanonpy, pasn1enLnee acero o1nnuae1 ero o1 saepn.
kpn 6es kone6ann amnocn1 cao npnroaop kpmce, nasmaan ee "sno6no", "Hepsko",
"pLnaonLcko 1aapLk", n a1o noHorae1 nH o1Haxny1Lcn o1 acnknx pasHmunenn.
pnako nenpepasn1me nccnepoaannn pokasann, u1o kpmcm cnoco6nm ncnm1maa1L
1akne uyac1aa conepexnaannn, couyac1ann n coc1papannn, ko1opmH Hoxe1
nosaanpoaa1L uenoaek.
mnn noc1aanenm neopnokpa1nme onm1m: kpmca naxnHana na pmuaxok, nnaue ona ne
Horna 6m nonyun1L kopH, n amsmaana 1eH caHmH y ppyro kpmcm oc1pyk 6onL o1
ypapa 1oka, anpena, kak 1a kopun1cn a Hykax. ao1 ryHannme, 1o ec1L unc1o
uenoaeueckne, onm1m-nm1kn yc1anoannn: Hoxno kpmc paspenn1L na 1pn rpynnm.
epaan, caHan 6onLuan, anpn c1papannn caoero copopnua, cpasy o1kasmaae1cn o1 epm,
ne xenan nonyua1L ee 1ako ueno. 1opan - penae1 1o xe nocne "nepeHenm pone",
1o ec1L nocne 1oro, kak caHa ncnm1ae1 nopo6nyk 6onL.
, nakoneu, 1pe1Ln, nnu1oxnan uac1L paxe nocne "nepeHenm pone" ne o1kasmaae1cn
o1 kopHxkn. Yuenme paccHa1pnaak1 1akyk 6esxanoc1noc1L kak peskoe o1knonenne o1
nopHm - na1onornk. saec1no, u1o 6ecuyac1aennoc1L, 6ecceppeunoc1L - opnn ns
pannnx npnsnakoa pyueanoro sa6oneaannn. c1pane repoea - nap1e kaxpm
pe6nok, naxopnaun ypoaonLc1ane a Hyun1enLc1ae xnao1nmx, nopnexan cHep1n, kak
cyuec1ao coaepuenno ncnopuennoe, pyxoano yuep6noe n caHo nepoc1onoe xnsnn.
c1ae1cn po6aan1L, u1o c1onL uyac1an1enLnme cyuec1aa kak kpmcm, a nenHoaepnmx
konnuec1aax npnnocn1cn na xep1aennm an1apL "6nonornn" (6nonornn - yuenne o
X!), rpe nasmaak1cn npoc1o "akcnepnHen1anLnmH Ha1epnanoH".
* * *
170
paac1aennm ypoaenL onpepenne1cn ne c1onLko o1nouenneH uenoaeka k uenoaeky,
kak 1o y1aepxpak1 xpnc1nane, ckonLko ero o1nouenneH k xnao1noHy: aepL uenoaek
o1nocn1cn k 6nnxneHy uac1o (cosna1enLno nnn 6eccosna1enLno) 1ak, kak eHy amropno,
a k xnao1noHy acerpa 1ak, .
1nouenne uenoaeka k 6essaun1noHy cyuec1ay - xnao1noHy nnn pac1ennk - sepkano
ero pyun. opaxae1 6ecnpnHepnan, 6eccHmcnennan, neHo1nanpoaannan (a
cnepoaa1enLno - npnpoxpnnan, nypeckan) oxec1ounnoc1L ncyca, yHep1anauero
neannnyk cHokoannuy.
Xec1okoc1L acerpa opna, payx xec1okoc1e ne 6maae1. nponanennnH xec1okoc1n no
o1nouennk k ppyrnH nkpnH uenoaeka cpepxnaak1 npaaoame sakonm; nopnnnnoe
pyxoanoe 6naropopc1ao ncnm1maae1cn a co6nkpennn uenoaekoH caoero npaac1aennoro
ponra nepep cna6eunHn n M. Ykpauenne onna - Hyxec1ao. Ykpauenne
Hyxec1aa - Hnnoceppne.
Moxno 1onLko pnay paaa1Lcn, kak uenoaek, ao acex o1nouennnx apope 6m
po6pope1enLnm (Hyxn ne o6npn1), amcokonapno paccyxpae1 o 6ore, o cHmcne xnsnn,
n opnoapeHenno cnokono, o6mpenno, 6yp1o npopeaan nn1ky a nronky, npo1mkae1
noHannyk XY pm6uky nop xa6pm n sa6pacmaae1 a aopy, rpe ona npoponxae1
6n1Lcn.
ornacno kako uypoanuno nornke y6nc1ao uenoaeka cun1ae1cn caHmH c1paunmH
rpexoH n npec1ynnenneH, a yHepuanenne xnamx cyuec1a pnn ypoaonLc1ann (!), a
aoace ne o1 ronopa, nasmaae1cn "o1pmxoH", "xo66n" n paxe "o6uenneH" c pnpopo?
yc1L xep1aa ne kpnun1, ne c1one1, no neyx1o cypopoxno o1kpmaakuncn
okpoaaanennm po1 n 1peneuyuee 1enLue ne nannk1 y6epn1enLnmx npnsnakoa
cHep1enLno Hykn? ne anpe1L a1oro - snaun1 6m1L npaac1aennmH ypopoH.
M L L
M M .
nopoxpae1cn ona ne paccypkoH, a nponc1ekae1 ns ropaspo 6onee rny6nnnmx n
ppeannx, nopcosna1enLno-uyac1aennmx, a snaun1 - nacnepc1aenno apoxpennmx cnoea.
pnpopa noc1nrae1cn ne cosnanneH, a sapyueanmH conepexnaanneH: ne HosroH, a
ceppueH, ne nayunmH onm1oH, a npaac1aennmH uy1LeH.
pnnan pyua pnpopm, pasnn1an noaceHec1no, aspmxae1 nopmaaHn ae1pa, xano6no
c1one1 nop nnno necopy6a, nnaue1 uenec1oH ckouennmx 1paa...
Mnc1nueckoe uyac1ao coc1papannn Lonenrayap nasmaan "aennknH 1annc1aoH a1nkn".
* * *
e6onLuo oc1poaok 6nns enona nasmaae1cn "HennmH". yppnc1m ns6erak1
y6naa1L ac xnayuee. cnn a capy nocennnacL ko6pa, e noan1 n o1aosn1 na a1o1
oc1poa.
epaeuan sanoaepL 6yppnsHa n pxannsHa (pxannsH - aepoyuenne, Hnoro ppeanee
6yppnsHa) - axnHca, 1o ec1L aospepxanne o1 npnunnennn apepa aceHy xnaoHy. a1o
6naroroaenne nepep caeuennmH 1annc1aoH Xnsnn aoace ne ec1L aoc1ounoe
nso6pe1enne, a kopenn1cn (1ak xe, kak n yuenne o nepepoxpennn-nepeaonnouennn) a
epnnoH nekorpa pnn acex nepao6m1nmx oxo1nnuLnx nneHn Hnpouyac1aoaannn.
171
nuL opno, o1uyxpennoe o1 pnpopm, o6pesannoe nneHn aosaeno cnyxenne Y -
cao kpoaoxapnm, nkpoepckn pacnsH - a "6oroapoxnoaennyk" pennrnk,
1pe6ykuyk noc1onnnmx kpoaaamx xep1a pnn y6naxennn ynmpn eroam-aaaoqa,
ysakonennoro a xpnc1nanc1ae nop nHeneH 6ora-o1ua. o1oHy n y1aepxpan ncyc, u1o
npnuen on "ne napyua1L sakon, no ncnonnn1L". "e Hnp npnuen n npnnec1n, no
Heu"...
epycannHckn xpaH 6mn nac1onue 6one, no ncyc, 6ypyun nno1L o1 nno1n caoero
nneHenn, nnkorpa a caonx nponoaepnx ne npnsmaan k aospepxannk o1 kpoaaamx
xep1aonpnnouenn. oa1oHy necoc1on1enLnm ace amknapkn pepnxoauea o6 apnckoH,
nko6m, nponcxoxpennn ncyca n o ero xoxpennn sa cokpoaenno Hyppoc1Lk a
LaH6anny. ennkn o6e1 axnHcm 6mn n ec1L ocnoaononarakun a Hnc1nuecknx
6pa1c1aax oc1oka. a n ne 1onLko oc1oka: poc1a1ouno acnoHnn1L opqnkoa,
nonnonnn nanckoro. nqarop, ko1oporo epopo1 noun1an "HyppeunH ns annnnoa",
yanpea, opnaxpm pm6akoa, 1nnyunx neaop, sanna1nn nH c1onHoc1L ynoaa n ocao6opnn
noHannmx pm6. ncyc, nanpo1na, am6pan ce6e "nnunx pyxoH" yuennkoa ns pm6akoa
- nkpe upc1amx no popy caonx sann1n.
oc1ono coxanennn, u1o koe-k1o ns nmneunnx nsmuec1aykunx naunonannc1oa,
nm1akunxcn coaHec1n1L conneunm onoapa1 c "anqneeHcko saespo", 1paan1
onnyHoH caok poaepunayk nac1ay, anyuan e, 6yp1o noknonn1Lcn "cnacn1enk" -
"apnuy" (Mapnn Ha1L apnn!?) npnunn . eyx1o ne nonn1no, u1o nykaame
nonm-nepeaopunkn, u1o6m noppena1Lcn nop cnaannc1ao, coaepunnn nop1acoaky?
rpeueckoH 1ekc1e nanncano, u1o npnunn Harn, a HaraHn 1orpa nasmaanncL xanpen
(ae1aL ceHn1oa) - saespoue1m n uepnoknnxnnkn-ka66annc1m, 1o ec1L no-pycckn -
konpynm (Harnn, oco6o npouae1aauan y 6nnxneaoc1ounmx ceHn1oa, aosnnkna kak
nonm1ka nacnnLc1aennoro aospec1ann na npnpopnmx pyxoa, korpa ec1ec1aennme ysm
uenoaeka n pnpopm 6mnn pasopaanm).
uepkoanoH nepeaope 6n6nnn Hoxno npoun1a1L, u1o n uapL aanp "na rycnnx nrpan";
"cao", snaun1, nopnkra 6mn!
* * *
enpnunnenne apepa HmcnnnocL naunHn panknHn npepkaHn ne kak o1kas o1 oxo1m
aoo6ue (Hor nn uenoaek cypoamx nepnnkoamx apeHn nn1a1Lcn nnopaHn?), a kak
sanpe1 na npnunnenne nsnnunnx c1papann. anpe1, nooupnaun aosHoxnoe
Hnnoceppne. 1akoH xe cHmcne napo nonnHa1L n nponoaepL paocoa o aospepxannn
(no aosHoxnoc1n!) o1 pennn, npo1naopeuaunx pnpope.
a, oxo1nnkn, y6naan saepn, coaepuak1 nacnnne. o xnaoe cyuec1ao ne Hoxe1
o6o1ncL 6es nnun, 1ak yc1poen Hnp; u1o6m nn1a1Lcn conneunmHn nyuaHn, napo 6m1L
uae1koH. aonpoc ne a 1oH, kak ns6exa1L nacnnnn aoo6ue. akoe npepnonoxenne
saaepoHo neamnonnnHo. epL paxe xpeum-nopanxnnkn pxanoa, uapnune
kpoaococyunx nacekoHmx, nenocnepoaa1enLnm po konua. nn yno1pe6nnk1 a nnuy
sepna, a sepno - a1o sapopmu, a1o - xnsnL. asae nocnra1enLc1ao na xnsnL pac1ennn
Henee npepocypn1enLno? nn 1onuy1 1paay, a aepL ona 1oxe xnaan.
Mm nnkorpa ne o6pe1eH nonnoro napa c eHne, xo1n 6m no1oHy, u1o ne HoxeH
o6o1ncL 6es ynnu1oxennn pac1enn. aonpoc a 1oH kak, npnunnn1L aosHoxno
HenLue 6onn ppyrnH cyuec1aaH, ypoane1aopnn npn a1oH nacyunme no1pe6noc1n 1ena
a nnue, 1enne n opexpe.
o1pe6noc1n a1n ne nannk1cn ueH-1o "pypnmH" n "rpexoanmH". nn ec1L
npnpoxpennme, 1o ec1L sanoxennme caHo pnpopo. c peno a 1oH, k ueHy onn
aneky1 uenoaeka. nua - neo6xopnHoe ycnoane xnsnn, no, kak ckasan Hyppeu: opnn
172
nkpn epn1 pnn 1oro, u1o6m xn1L, a ppyrne xnay1 pnn 1oro, u1o6m ec1L. oa1oHy
o6xopc1ao, kak no1aopc1ao upesHepno npnxo1n, acerpa o1apa1n1enLno.
cn npoHmcnoaan oxo1nnuLn npaac1aennoc1L nokonnacL na nesm6neHoH sakone: ne
npec1yna rpannu neo6xopnHoro, ne 6epn nnunero y pnpopm. npeum nnkorpa ne
y6naann 6nsonoa nouH spn, 6onLue 1oro, u1o nH 6mno nyxno na 6nnxauee apeHn.
orpa npnunna amHnpannn HaHon1oa n ppyrnx kpynnmx saepe npnnncmaae1cn
nc1pe6n1enLnmH oxo1aH kpoHanLonuea, 1o a1o npoc1o panL naue
npnpoponoxnpakue anoxe. eccHmcnennme 6onn - saron na o6pmam, korpa rn6nn
cpasy co1nn xnao1nmx, ec1L nnop aoo6paxennn ka6nne1nmx "sna1okoa", caopnunx ack
naneon1onornk k cop1npoake sy6oa n nosaonkoa. "nap6nua" HaHon1oa nsaec1nm ao
Hnornx Hec1ax, no paneko ne acerpa 6nns nnx nHenncL o6pmam. oneame
nccnepoaannn nokasann, u1o Haccoame "saxoponennn" oc1ankoa HaHon1oa n ppyrnx
kpynnmx saepe o6pasoaanncL acnepc1ane anesannmx naaopnenn, ononsne,
npoaanoa nouam, cnexnmx n kaHennmx naann.
xo1a 6mna ne pocyroH, a amnyxpenno neo6xopnHoc1Lk nnun1L saepn xnsnn, no
1onLko papn 1oro, u1o6m xn1L caHoHy n nakopHn1L copopnue. uenoaek y6naan
nnuL 1orpa, korpa a1oro nenLsn 6mno ns6exa1L.
o n 1akoe, amnyxpennoe y6nc1ao poxpano a pyue coxanenne n 1peaory.
paac1aennm sakon a rpypn nopckasmaan oxo1nnky, u1o on nocnrae1 na uLk-1o
xnsnL. X ne a cnny pennrnosnmx nnn kaknx-nn6o nnmx
sanpe1oa, a M , n npaao na xnsnL npnsnaaanocL sa aceHn.
mHnpakune nmne kkarnpm c1mpnnncL cHo1pe1L "na nnuo" y6n1oro nocn.
nHananx xna o6mua: ukypm Hepaepe nnn 6apcoa, y6n1mx "a coc1onnnn
caHosaun1m" nnn npn oxpane c1apa, xep1ayk1cn 6yppncknH o6n1ennH. un1ae1cn,
u1o a1o1 pap a kako-1o Hepe cnnHae1 c uenoaeka anny sa asn1ne uyxo xnsnn.
onnuenoknonnnkn-nnonum oc1anncL aepnm ppeannH saae1aH nsmuec1aa. a
HanenLkoH oc1poake aka-1o c1on1 xpaH oranpsn, rpe exeropno coaepuae1cn
saynokonan cnyx6a no pyuaH kn1oa, norn6unx o1 pyk kn1o6oea. nopseHenLe
cae1nnnua naxopn1cn ycmnanLnnua, kypa cnocn1 sapopmue kn1oa, nsaneuennmx ns
1en y6n1mx 6epeHennmx kn1nx npn caexeaannn, n specL xoponn1, o6epnya a
conoHennme unnoakn.
konLko aonoc na ukype y6n1oro xnao1noro, c1onLko pas y6naakun xnao1nmx
npnnnHae1 nacnnLc1aennyk cHep1L a 6ypyunx poxpennnx, - 1ak ckasano a
akonax Many.
peanne seHnepenLum cosnaaann, u1o, acnaxnaan seHnk nnn cpmaan-y6naan
pac1ennn, onn napyuak1 nepaospannyk peac1aennoc1L pnpopm. no1oHy onn
amHannaann npouenne y sary6nennmx 1paa, y npnpopnmx yxoa-okpoan1ene,
y6expan nx a neo6xopnHoc1n caoero noc1ynka.
pecL nc1okn Hnornx napopnmx, nsmuecknx npaspnec1a, poxnaunx po naunx pne.
rnyxoHann pnncko o6nac1n coxpannncn pycanLckn o6pnp "pnnckan oc1poHa", a
ko1opoH o1paxenm ppeaneune caeuennopec1aa, cansannme c noun1anneH nLna:
"oxoponm koc1pm" - oc1ankoa (o1xopoa) y6n1oro nLna conpoaoxpak1cn ckop6nmHn
npnun1annnHn, nnauaHn n saknnnannnHn. aaaa1a o6pauancn k epese,
nopenn1Lcn caoe kopo. pepannn Hnornx napopoa noaec1ayk1 o aosHyuennn
ockop6nennmx pyu pnpopm: ppnapa nakasmaae1 neuec1naua, cpy6nauero ee pepeao.
173
nrHen nepep amxopoH na oxo1y pasaopn1 oco6m koc1ep - no ero pmHy yx eca
ysnae1, u1o onn o1npaannk1cn na oxo1y n npocn1 y nero npouennn sa amnyxpennoe
nnuenne xnsnn ero o6n1a1ene.
epao6m1nm oxo1nnk nonnHan, u1o a necy on - a roc1nx, n npec1ynnenne npaann
roc1enpnnHc1aa - onpepenennmx caeuennmx sanpe1oa - upeaa1o nepoaonLc1aoH
npnpopnmx yxoa-osnea, o6pauaaunx cao rnea na nenocpepc1aennoro annoannka
nnn na nkpe aoo6ue.
opo, npnnna cao caHm yxacnm o6nnk, naac1peuy npec1ynnnky amxopn1 caH
osnnn eca...
* * *
npounoro c1one1nn apxeonorn cnopn1 o nasnauennn aennkonenno
"ponc1opnuecko" xnaonncn n ckynLn1ypm, ckpm1o a upeae rny6oknx neuep.
ackanLnme pocnncn nopseHnmx cae1nnnu - caHoe ouenoHnnkuee canpe1enLc1ao
rennanLno opapennoc1n, npncyue uenoaeky ppeanekaHennoro aeka.
ospac1 nan6onee ppeannx - 30 1mcnu ne1, n nHenno onn caHme coaepuennme, caHme
"xname". ako uenn cnyxnnn nenpeasopennme pocene xypoxec1aennme 1aopennn,
1pe6oaaaune orpoHnmx sa1pa1 apeHenn n cnn? ckycc1ao papn nckycc1aa? nn papn
oxo1nnuLe ypaun? m1L Hoxe1, a1o nonm1ka okonpoaa1L saepn, na ko1oporo
npepc1on1 oxo1a? xo1nnkn npepaapn1enLno "y6naak1" nso6paxenne saepn, u1o cynn1
oanapenne caHnH saepeH. opo6nme uepno-Harnueckne npneHm nspaana ncnonLsyk1
ka66annc1m, naaopnune nopuy na caok xep1ay c noHouLk aockoao qnrypkn nnn e
nop1pe1a.
pnako, neuepnan xnaonncL necaopnHa k npnknapno oxo1nnuLe Harnn:
nccnepoaannn nokasann, u1o nso6paxennn saepe co snakaHn cnHaonnueckoro
y6nc1aa, 1o ec1L nopaxennmx konLnHn, coc1aannk1 acero nnuL 2% acex
nso6paxenn, a na oc1anLnmx ne1 nnkaknx cnepoa konpoacknx pec1an.
nanppeaneue xnaonncn anapno aponm n anoao neuepm na Ypane aoo6ue
ne1 nso6paxenn nkpe nnn cuen oxo1m; nnuL pncynkn xnao1nmx n c1pannmx,
sarapounmx cyuec1a co cHeuannmHn saepnnmHn n uenoaeuecknHn uep1aHn. uenm
oxo1m nonannk1cn snaun1enLno nosxe - a Hesonn1e. annuo 1akxe nou1n nonnoe
o1cy1c1ane o6pasoa caHoro uenoaeka a snaHenn1oH "saepnnoH c1nne" cknqcko-
cn6npckoro nckycc1aa, yxopnuero kopnnHn a nepao6m1nme uaHanckne o6pnpm on.
epep naHn kaxyueecn npo1naopeune: naneonn1nueckoe nckycc1ao 6mno cansano c
oxo1o, no caHy oxo1y nnkak ne o1pasnno. naun1, ono ne nHeno npnHoro
npoHmcnoaoro snauennn. nson nso6paxancn ne pnn 1oro, u1o6m nerue 6mno y6n1L n
cLec1L. Y6n1L, a konue konuoa, Hoxno 6mno n 6es konpoac1aa, a ueH y6expan
noacepneanm onm1.
ec1an1enLnm cHmcn ne1pornnqoa - saknnna1enLnm npnsma saepnno pyun,
npocL6a npouennn nepep neo6xopnHoc1Lk y6nc1aa, nonm1ka ns6aan1Lcn o1
npecnepoaannn co c1oponm pyun y6n1oro saepn, Horyue nacna1L 6onesnn n paxe
cHep1L. kap1nnm-nso6paxennn - onnue1aopnnoe aonnouenne a1o pyun. pacnm
uae1 osnauan, u1o napncoaannm onenL nnn 6nson - "xnao".
aepL 6mn ne 1onLko aosHoxno po6mue, no opnoapeHenno n npepHe1oH o6oxannn.
1nouenne k neHy 6mno nenpoc1oe, pnn nac nenpnamunoe: a1o, npexpe acero nk6oaL,
uyac1ao rny6oko npnansannoc1n, paxe ecnn na a1oro saepn n oxo1nnncL. aepL -
kopHnneu: 6es ero Hnca, ukypm, xnpa neaosHoxno amxn1L a cypoame snHnne
174
apeHena. nson, nncnocnannm yxaHn-okpoan1ennHn, noun1ancn popornH c1apunH
6pa1oH. Y6nennk 6nsona n noepannk ero Hnca npepuec1aoaann caeuennme
nckynn1enLnme o6pnpm yHnnoc1nanennn. un1anocL, u1o pyua saepn oc1anacL xnaa n
neapepnHa, u1o ona onn1L aepne1cn na eHnk a caoeH nac1onueH o6nnuLe, aospopn1cn
nocne cHep1n, X.
1 Hec1n yHepuanennoro saepn Hor y6epeuL 1onLko uaHan, cnoco6nm a ncc1ynnennn
noknpa1L caok 1enecnyk o6onouky n opnoHy eHy aepoHmH ny1eH nponnka1L a
neanpnHm, conpepenLnm Hnp, u1o6m na1n 1aH pyuy y6n1oro saepn n yHnpo1aopn1L
ee.
nku k ocHmcnennk ppeane xnaonncn - a opnoH ns nepamx nso6paxenn uenoaeka a
neuepe acko. pecL, nepaneko o1 cHep1enLno panennoro 6nsona, pacnpoc1ep1 na
seHne uenoaek c n1nuLe ronoao n neec1ec1aenno am1nny1mHn noraHn. so6paxenne
ynpouennoe, kak na pe1ckoH pncynke. D1o - uaHan, npe6maakun a o6Hopoke.
LaHan ne "nrpan" a saepn. ocne apaua1enLno nnnckn on saHep1ao napan naasnnuL
n, ynopo6nnncL n1nue (nnn a o6nnuLe n1num), an1an a nnmx nsHepennnx.
6pnp yHnpo1aopennn nopo 6mn o6pauen ne k caHoHy saepk, a k ero "osnnny".
poHmcnoame xnao1nme sannHak1 a ppeane xnaonncn paneko ne ncknkun1enLnoe
Hec1o; ne Henee uac1o ac1peuak1cn conneunme n ppyrne sarapounme snakn-o6epern, a
1akxe ckasounme uenoaekonopo6nme cyuec1aa co saepnnmHn npnsnakaHn.
oapeHennme apxeonorn o1aeprnn nc1onkoaanne a1nx nso6paxenn kak
saHacknpoaannmx oxo1nnkoa (nnn yuac1nnkoa nx o6pnpoa) n amckasann
npepnonoxenne, u1o a1o, ckopee caeuennme 1o1eHm-npapopn1enn.
1o 1e nonynkpn-nonysaepn, nopo6nme pora1oHy, xaoc1a1oHy, 6opopa1oHy, c
saaopaxnaakunHn rnasaHn coam n HepaexLnHn nanaHn "konpyny" ns rpo1a pex
pa1Lea ao panunn nnn nnpaaH-c1paunnaH na kypLnx noxkax n c ockanenno nac1Lk
na kaHnnx nncen?
nnuyune saeponnkne nkpn - a1o nn6o kaHnakune uaHanm-o6opo1nn, nn6o caHn
npnpopnme yxn-osneaa.
1nouenne k Horyuec1aennmH ecnmH yxaH 6mno cnoxnoe, paoc1aennoe: nx ne na
uy1ky 6onnncL, no o1 nnx xe xpann noppepxkn n o6epera. akoe o1nouenne anonne
ec1ec1aenno: yxn onnue1aopnnn aonue6nme cnnm okpyxakue uenoaeka pnpopm -
nonno onacnoc1e n aHec1e c 1eH paaaaue ace, a ueH on nyxpancn.
LaHan-nocpepnnk, ac1ynan a o6uenne c noaeneaakunH saepnHn osnnnoH eca,
ponxen 6mn yaeueaa1L ero, "poroaapnaa1Lcn" o npneHneHoH coo1nouennn
npepnasnauennmx pnn neo6xopnHoro nponn1annn nneHenn xnao1nmx. D1nH on kak 6m
sapyuancn 6narocknonnoc1Lk euero, Horyuero o6ecneun1L ypaunyk oxo1y n
coxpann1L xnsnL oxo1nnky.
1ronockaHn o6pnpoa sapa6pnaannn nannk1cn MepaexLn npaspnnkn y nnpeuea,
kopennmx cn6npnkoa, a 1akxe 6enopycckne nonecckne nrpnua - "koHoepnum".
eko1opme nneHena (nanpnHep, cenLkynm) Hepaepn aoo6ue ne 1porann. Y ppyrnx
y6nenne Hepaepn n akyuenne ero Hnca, korpa-1o c1poro sanpeuennoe, anocnepc1ann
c1ano conpoaoxpa1Lcn oco6mHn nckynn1enLnmHn o6pnpaHn, nanpaanennmHn na
yHnpo1aopenne pyun y6n1oro saepn. un1anocL, u1o oxo1nnkn ne y6naann Hepaepn
coaceH, a 1onLko cnnHann c nero ukypy n 6pann Hnco. pyua saepn yxopnna nasap, a
nec. aH ona napaunaana noaoe Hnco, napeaana noayk uy6y n onn1L c1anoannacL
HepaepeH. u1o6m pyua y6n1oro saepn ne 1anna Hec1n, oxo1nnkn ponxnm 6mnn
acnueckn aoccnaann1L n y6naxa1L y6n1oro Hepaepn kak noxanoaaauero k nnH
anac1ennna neca: nnaue cHep1onocnme kor1n pano nnn nospno napy1 o6npunka.
YHepuanennoro Hepaepn ykpauann, yrouann ero ronoay 1a6akoH n xHenLnmH nn1neH,
175
nenn eHy n nnncann. ak popnncn Mepaexn npaspnnk-1opxec1ao a uec1L po6m1oro
saepn.
munme o6pnpm a1n nonoxnnn nauano uenoHy nanpaanennk xypoxec1aennoro
1aopuec1aa: rpeueckoe nanHenoaanne Hepaepn - "koHoc" - pano nasaanne aecenneHy
MepaexLeHy npaspnnky - "koHepnn". Hmcnoaoe n cxopnonsmunoe epnnc1ao nonn1n
"koHepnn" n "koHoepnum" ykasmaae1 na o1panennyk nnpoeaponeckyk aceo6unoc1L
1aknx nrpnu.
orpa na caeuennoro nekorpa saepn - "1apnka", "epa" - c1ann nopnnHa1L pyky,
1orpa n nauanocL nnuepec1ao, pouepuee po nac a ampaxennn "pasmrpmaa1L
koHepnk".
* * *
oapeHennme counonorn n ncnxonorn - nocnepoaa1enn aac1pnckoro
nnonnane1nnnna pepa, ac1peaoxennme ac aospac1akunHn nponanennnHn
6ecnpepenLno, nsoupenno xec1okoc1n a "cao6opnoH" kann1annc1nueckoH o6uec1ae,
y1aepxpak1, u1o uenoaek sno6en n xec1ok no caoe na1ype, u1o c1peHnenne k
y6nc1ay npncyue eHy nsnauanLno.
o eue na sape uenoaeuecko nc1opnn, a pyue cypoaoro n 6naropopnoro oxo1nnka
yxe o6pe1anocL neckonLko apoxpennmx, ceppueH noc1nraeHmx nc1nn, rnaanan ns
ko1opmx sanannna eHy, u1o y6naa1L - snaun1 noc1yna1L caoe na1ypm.
opo6noe uyac1ao annm ncnm1maann ace napopm, ncnoaepykune ec1ec1aennoe,
nsmueckoe Hnponoun1anne.
ak 6mno po 1o nopm, noka ronoc coaec1n ne c1an sarnyua1Lcn nop6pouenno
xpnc1nanaHn ncnxonornuecko yap1ko, coc1onue a 1oH, 6yp1o y6nenne xnao1nmx -
ne npec1ynnenne, ne rpex, a nanpo1na, peno nko6m 6oroyropnoe, nockonLky a1n
6espyunme n neunc1me 1aapn saaepoHo pnn 1oro n 6mnn co1aopenm aceamunnH. epL
ckasan xe eroaa ok n cmnoaLnH ero: "a c1paua1cn n pa 1peneuy1 aac ace saepn
seHnme n ace n1num ne6ecnme... a aaun pykn o1panm onn" (kn. 6m1nn, rn. 9).
pepxa1enL knkue o1 pan ckasan, u1o "6eccnoaecnme xnao1nme poxpenm na
ynoanenne n nc1pe6nenne" (II nocn. an. e1pa, rn. 2).
Ynmpk eroae nyxna xep1aennan kpoaL, n ao1 anepame a nc1opnn yHepuanenne
saepe n nnonneHennnkoa-nnoaepuea aosaopn1cn 6n6nne a po6pope1enL. epam
y6nua - nac1yx aenL 6narocnoaen "rocnopoH", a npo1ec1ykun seHnepeneu ann -
npoknn1 n paxe nHn ero penae1cn napnua1enLnmH (nau knnsL-nsmunnk ae1ononk,
sa1paanennm nonoaunno, nposaan kannnmH).
ak pasapauennm nenacm1no 6n6necko kpoaoxapnoc1Lk uenoaek napyuae1 ace
sanoaepn pnpopm n c1anoan1cn epnnc1aenno pec1an1enLno neunc1o, neuec1no n
neuec1nao 1aapLk na eHne.
nnueHepnmx nonm1kax caHoonpaapannn on 6onLue ne ponyckae1 cyuec1aoaannn y
xnao1nmx nn pasyHa, nn caHocosnannn, nn pyun nop 1eH npepnoroH, u1o ac a1o
nanne1cn ncknkun1enLno uenoaeuecknH poc1onnneH.
epkoanme Hpako6ecm n Ha1epnannc1m-nnrnnnc1m a opnn ronoc 1aeppn1 o6 ocnoanoH,
nko6m, pasnnunn Hexpy noaapkaHn xnao1nmx - pykoaopnHmx "cnenmHn nnc1nnk1aHn"
n noaepenneH xoHo cannenca, ocnoamaakueHcn na aenennnx pasyHa.
176
o kak onpepenn1L, u1o ec1L nnc1nnk1 n u1o ec1L pasyH? e1 nn a noaepennn
xnao1nmx pasyHa, n ne nannk1cn nn neko1opme noaapkn uenoaeka nnc1nnk1nanmHn?
pe a pnpope ue1kan rpanL Hexpy naLk n cnoH, nac1onunH n npouepunH,
nnc1nnk1oH n pasyHoH? pno nepexopn1 a ppyroe 1ak xe neynoanHo, kak cyHepkn
oxaa1maak1 eHnk.
eHypm-cnqakn nsppeane noun1anncL na Maparackape cyuec1aaHn caeuennmHn:
kopennme xn1enn yaepenm, u1o onn noknonnk1cn onnuy. a y1penne sape saepLkn
sa6npak1cn na caHoe amcokoe pepeao n cnpn1 1aH, nopnna nepepnne nankn, nnuoH k
aoc1oky a oxnpannn nepamx conneunmx nyue.
D1o u1o? nc1nnk1 nnn pasyH? Hoxe1, a1o neu1o eue 6onee cokpoaennoe? x.
Lannep, npoxnaun a peac1aennmx pxynrnnx uenm rop 6ok o 6ok c ropnnnaHn, a
caoe knnre "op nop snakoH opnnnm" nnue1: "cnn 6m y a1nx o6esLnn 6mna
pennrnn, ne coHneaakcL, u1o onn 6mnn 6m connuenoknonnnkaHn".
cnn na ny1n cnona, kopHnuerocn ae1anHn, ac1peuae1cn HanenLkoe n 6essaun1noe
xnao1noe, on 6epexno nopnnHae1 ero xo6o1oH n nepenocn1 a ppyroe Hec1o. ueanpum
y1aepxpak1, u1o pnkne onenn ns6erak1 nac1yna1L na uae1m...
"asyHnoc1L" - onpepenenne ouenL neue1koe n pacnnmaua1oe. pe 1o Hepnno
pasyHnoc1n n keH ono yc1anoaneno, pykoaopc1ayncL ko1opmH Hoxno npnuncnn1L
xnao1nmx k cyuec1aaH nepasyHnmH? cnxonorn po cnx nop ne npnunn k epnnoHy
Hnennk o1nocn1enLno 1oro, kak ouennaa1L pasyH y uenoaeka, n paxe o1nocn1enLno
1oro, u1o co6o aoo6ue npepc1aanne1 pasyH.
u1o 1akoe "nnc1nnk1"? nonorn 1onLko pann 1ane nasaanne, poanmH cue1oH nnuero
ne o6Lncnnkuee. yuue acex ckasan X. a6p: "nc1nnk1 ec1L renn xnao1noro"
(enneH pnHnnne nepaonauanLno nHenoaann 6oxec1aennoro papopn1enn-
okpoan1enn opa; noa1oHy popoayk, nacnepc1aennyk naHn1L no-nayunoHy nasmaak1
renno).
Xnao1nme o6napak1 HnornHn uypecnmHn n sarapounmHn uyac1aaHn, y nkpe nou1n
nanpouL o1cy1c1aykunHn. nn kopenn1cn a nacnepc1aenno naHn1n, ko1opan y
xnao1nmx ropaspo rny6xe n npue.
ak nasmaaeHm nnc1nnk1 - a1o saneua1nennm a pyue (1o ec1L na nopcosna1enLnoH
ypoane) onm1 pnnnno uepepm npepmpyunx aonnouenn n noa1oHy on, a o1nnune o1
pasyHa, nnkorpa ne o6Hanmaae1. aok popoayk naHn1L uenoaek nasmaae1 aeunH
uono1oH pyun - nn1ynune...
ak kakan xe, nko6m nenpoxopnHan nponac1L paspenne1 uenoaeka n saepn? asae ne
ncnm1maak1 xnao1nme neuann, 1ockn nnn o1uannnn? asae ne aepoHm nH uyac1aa
6naropapnoc1n, coc1papannn n yrpmsennn coaec1n?
pasae ne 1epnk1 onn apeHenaHn, 1ak xe kak nkpn, paccypok?
* * *
ocnn1annk npaac1aennoro o1nouennn uenoaeka k xnao pnpope npenn1c1aye1 1o,
u1o a o6ocnoaannn nk6mx Heponpnn1n, nanpaanennmx a saun1y xnao1nmx,
coo6paxennn unc1o pyxoanme, 1akne kak uyac1ao xanoc1n, nou1n ne ynoHnnak1cn a
nanoH anpe; o nnx cnoano 6m c1ecnnk1cn roaopn1L.
177
Mnoroe, nanncannoe o6 oxpane xnao1nmx - npaac1aenno yuep6no; c1mpnnao
amxonaunaae1cn caHan cy1L - X X
.
akoe saHanunaanne o6ycnoaneno nary6nmH annnnneH xpnc1nanckoro Ha1epnannsHa,
rpe epnnc1aennmH HepnnoH o1nouennn uenoaeka k pnpope nanne1cn "nonesnoc1L", 1o
ec1L no1pe6n1enLckan naxnaa, a po6po n sno o6Lncnnk1cn 6asapno-pmnounmH
reueq1oH: "po6po - korpa n o6Hany, a sno - korpa Henn o6Hany1".
cnoaanneH sakonoa o6 oxpane xnao1nmx nou1n acerpa cnyxn1 cyry6o Ha1epnanLnan
uennoc1L pannoro anpa pnn uenoaeka, n ace sanpe1m n orpannuennn 1ak nnn nnaue
nanpaanenm na nsaneuenne nenocpepc1aenno amropm - yxe nonyuaeHo nnn 1onLko
oxnpaeHo. cnn saunuak1 aonka, 1o no1oHy, u1o on nonesen kak "cann1ap",
o16pakoamaakun 6onLnmx konm1nmx n a1nH cnoco6c1aykun aospac1annk nx
noronoaLn, npepc1aannkuero npoHmcnoayk uennoc1L pnn uenoaeka.
kasmaae1cn, u1o n1nuLn rnespa nenosaonn1enLno pasopn1L nnuL no1oHy, u1o n1num
npnnocn1 nonLsy - ynnu1oxak1 apepnmx nacekoHmx.
saec1no, u1o po6m1L pe1enmua opanry1anra (6ykaanLno "necnoro uenoaeka") Hoxno
1onLko y6na ero Ha1L. xo1nnkn, yanpea npnuyuykcn a ae1anx Ha1L c HanmuoH,
c1pennk1 a nee n c1apak1cn noHa1L napakuero anns pe1enmua. pn a1oH Hnorne
pe1enmun pas6naak1cn. ao1 Hopnm akonor n nnca1enL npoq. pxnHek aspmxae1 n
ce1ye1: "opyHa1L 1onLko, kakne aosHoxnoc1n pnn nsyuennn aaonkunn uenoaeka
Hory1 ncuesny1L, ecnn neHnorne oc1aaunecn a xnamx opanry1anrn 6ypy1
ynnu1oxenm!"
1ak roaopn1 nkpn, noun1akune ce6n nckpennnHn ppysLnHn xnao1nmx, caHn nekorpa
6maune 6ecnoHounmHn cocynkaHn, snaaunHn Ha1epnnckyk rpypL n Ha1epnnckne
nackn. o1 on - pennueckn 1pesam, "6es can1nHen1oa" nopxop k oxpane xnao
pnpopm.
npo1naoec1ec1aennmHn poaopaHn npocaeuennoro npoqeccopa nk6onm1no
conoc1aan1L oxo1nnuLn npaam "neaexec1aennmx" nsmunnkoa: pycckne nepekynunkn
Hexoa roaopnnn, u1o 1ynrycm n ypareum cun1ann y6nc1ao nyunoro saepn pnn
npopaxn nexopounH, "xypmH" penoH, n a1oro saepL ne npoc1n1.
"nannnsoaannoe" sanpeuenne 1ako rnycnoc1n, kak noaanLnoe ns6nenne 6enLkoa -
1knenLnx pe1enmue amsaano aoace ne xenanneH saun1n1L nx o1 nkpcko
xec1okoc1n, a nnuL no1oHy, u1o a1o Hoxe1 npnaec1n k nonnoHy nc1pe6nennk
YX Y anpa. Henno no a1o xe npnunne, a ne no kako nno, 6mna
orpannuena oxo1a na kn1oa n penLqnnoa.
axe kacancL c1oponm aonpoca o neponyc1nHoc1n Hyun1enLc1aa
xnao1nmx, ynop penae1cn na no6ounme apepnme nocnepc1ann a1oro pnn uenoaeuecko
ncnxnkn, a ne na npnHyk any1pennkk 6esnpaac1aennoc1L n npec1ynnoc1L M
- o1nn1nn xnsnn - .
D1o coo6paxenne nou1n ne sa1parnaae1cn, a ecnn n sa1parnaae1cn, 1o npecnepye1, a
koneunoH cue1e, ac 1y xe anonne onpepenennyk uenL - sa6o1y o .
rpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao nnuyunx a saun1y xnao1nmx orpannunaae1cn aocnn1a1enLno-
npaaoyun1enLnmHn npepoc1epexennnHn o 1oH, kak ypopye1 pyuy caHoro noppoc1ka-
y6num nopo6nan 6esnakasannoc1L, kak 6esxanoc1noe o6pauenne c xnao1nmHn
nopoxpae1 6ecceppeune n xec1okoc1L no o1nouennk k nkpnH.
178
aHan cyuec1aennan n nenpexopnuan sanoaepL npaac1aennoro ynoxennn pnpopm
rnacn1, u1o necnpaaepnnao n nopno npnunnn1L 6onL nk6oHy uyac1aykueHy cyuec1ay.
6es co6nkpennn a1oro ocnoanoro npaanna ac oc1anLnoe ne nHee1 nnkako uenm. o
uenoaek nopuac ne snae1 nn xanoc1n, nn uyac1aa yHnnennn.
py6aeHan noaoropnnn enouka ne Hoxe1 ampasn1L caoe c1papanne npnamunmH pnn
uenoaeka o6pasoH. n c1on, nn asrnnp xep1am ne Honn1 o nouape... o 6onL-1o ona
uyac1aye1!!!
nk1o ne xoue1 yHnpa1L. pakoao 6onLnnue, rpe uenoaek pacnnaunaae1cn no cue1aH
pnpopm, a nsronoaLnx - oxankn uae1oa. o noueHy naue c1peHnenne k npekpacnoHy
ponxno nec1n eHy rn6enL? YHnpakune uae1m ne noHory1 6onLnoHy, a nanpo1na,
ycyry6n1 ero Hykn. cuenn1L Hory1 1onLko xname uae1m - pe1n pnnm-onnua n
Ma1epn-mpo-eHnn: L , kypa na anoxnna ack caok
uypopec1aennyk xnan1enLnyk nk6oaL.
k6oe nponanenne xnsnn - caHouenno. e1 xnsnn nnu1oxno, neaspauno, sary6n1L
ko1opyk nenpepocypn1enLno. epL a1o 1onLko kaxe1cn, u1o nnun1L xnsnn orpoHnoro
nocn - kypa 6onee uypoanunm noc1ynok, ueH uynnyk, nopaepnyauykcn nop
amc1pen, nnuyxky.
yc1L nnryuka - "6esHosrnan 1aapL", nyc1L xnsnL HanenLko n1nukn Hoxe1
nokasa1Lcn nesnaun1enLno no cpaanennk c xnsnLk nL6ep1a Laeuepa, no pnn
kaxpo xnao1peneuyue n1nukn e xnsnL - a1o !
D1o Hano nonn1L pasyHoH, a1o napo npouyac1aoaa1L ceppueH: - "apan, n1nua nspae1
npo1nxno-neuanLnm kpnk. axe ne kpnk - c1on. esxnsnennoe 1eno rnyxo ypapne1cn
o seHnk... nmuann nn am kpnk n1num, no1epnaue caoero ns6pannnka (nnn
ns6pannnuy) nHenno a 1y nopy, ko1opyk 1ak nk6n1 aocneaa1L noa1m, ko1opyk nkpn
nasmaak1 nopo nk6an?!
a1oH kpnke 6onL o1uannnn, 6esmcxopnoc1L opnnouec1aa, neaosapa1noc1L no1epn...
1ex nop aecno n 6onLue ne oxo1nncn", - acnoHnnae1 apoxnoaennm an1ckn
npnpopoaep . . onoaLea.
ceo6uan Ma1L-pnpopa ne snae1 pasnnunn Hexpy xnsnLk "amcue" n "nnsue".
X . Mnnoceppne (kakoe ypnan1enLnoe nckonno-pycckoe, no-
Ha1epnnckn 1ennoe cnoao!) orpannueno 6m1L ne Hoxe1. D1o ponxno anyua1Lcn
uenoaeky c Hnapenuec1aa.
yc1L 6onesnenno coxH1cn HanenLkoe ceppeuko npn anpe cnoHannoro pepeaua,
panennoro saepLka, 6espoHnoro ko1nka. ce onn asmaak1 k ero po6po1e, ace
nyxpak1cn a ero saun1e, ace cna6me n 6ecnoHounme, ace xep1am nkpcko
xec1okoc1n.
apnua capa (a noaHe Lennn) ne ynnu1oxae1 apepnmx pnn uae1oa xyukoa n 6ykauek,
a 6epexno o1nocn1 nx sa orpapy. ukonLnmx yue6nnkax ne1 Lennn, sa1o 1aH ec1L
"annckn oxo1nnka" ypreneaa - npecmuennoro, 6anoaannoro 6apnna.
mceuennm na ckane ykas ennkoro paan1enn uokn, c1ponauero 6onLnnum pnn
nokaneuennmx pnknx saepe, sanpeuae1 kpoaaame xep1aonpnnouennn, yaeuLe n
amxonaunaanne xnao1nmx, orpannunaae1 oxo1y n y6o. Ykas (III aek po noao apm)
sakanunaae1cn 1ak: "D1o c1apnnnoe npaanno. no cnoco6c1aye1 ponro xnsnn. ak
cnepye1 noc1yna1L".
179
opanxnnkn popeaonkunonnoro "occnckoro 6uec1aa nokpoan1enLc1aa xnao1nmH"
nasmaanncL "yuac1nnkaHn-copeanoaa1ennHn". opeanoaa1enL - o1 nckonno-pycckoro
cnoaa "peanoc1nm", 1o ec1L yceppnm, asmckykun po6po, pyuo 6onekun
no6opnnk npaa xnao1nmx.
op nkpcko HenLuae1 na rnasax, n 1enepL o6xopm "copeanyk1cn", u1o6m nonac1L a
"nnry pekoppoa" nnneca, a "peanyk1" pora1me HyxLn, "6onekune" sa "nnaHo".
oc1papanneH nyxno 6m1L opepxnHmH, kak c1nrHa1nkn, po cnes, po ppoxn, u1o6m
ceppue o6nnaanocL kpoaLk.
nn uero uenoaeky panm cHex n cnesm? - n ponxen cHen1Lcn, no on ponxen n
nnaka1L. M, YL M. D1o napo nonnHa1L
6ykaanLno: nsaec1en pasnm xnHnueckn coc1aa cnes a saancnHoc1n o1 nx npnunnm.
oc1papanne - uypecnm pap uypakoa (uypak - o1 cnoaa "uypeca"). ypakoa nnn
Hyppeuoa? ac1o opno noppasyHeaae1 ppyroe. eH 6mn o1aaxnm, 6naropopnm on-
nxo1?
* * *
oaepuennoe xnsneyc1poc1ao na nauanax yaaxennn k Xnsnn ao acex ee
nponanennnx apnp nn ocyuec1anHo, no ocyuec1anHo noc1onnnoe, neyc1annoe,
ceppeunoe c1peHnenne kaxporo nopanra1Lcn na npaaepnoH ny1n. ce oc1anLnme
poporn aepy1 nn6o a 1ynnk, nn6o a nponac1L, a koneunoH n1ore - a ne6m1ne.
onm1kn poc1nuL ycnexa cpasy n uennkoH, o6peuenm na neypauy. n1n napae1
Hnoxec1ao pas, noka ne nayun1cn xopn1L; 1ak n na sapocue 1pone k peany
nens6exnm napennn n 6nyxpannn. e oc1ynae1cn nnuL 1o1, k1o ne c1peHn1cn anepep n
aamcL. peanne roaopnnn: opn po kyp Hoxe1 cnycka1Lcn, no kypaH po opna nnkorpa
ne nopnn1Lcn.
cosnanne uenoaekoH 1oro, u1o on pokoamH o6pasoH nece1 a Hnp sno, 6onL, cHep1L -
nopoxpae1 aeunyk neypoane1aopennoc1L Hn1yuecn pyun.
c1L c1papannn, a ec1L xpnc1nanckan, Hasoxnc1ckan Hopa na c1papannn. enoppenLnan
ckop6L acerpa 6esHonana. 1pac1nan 1ocka no neocyuec1anHoHy naaeaae1 rpyc1L
Hyppmx Hmcne, u1o a a1oH Hnpe naH pano nnuL c1peHn1Lcn...
enoaek - epnnc1aennoe cyuec1ao, cosnakuee caok cHep1noc1L. epnnc1aennoe
cyuec1ao, cnoco6noe xnamH, Hnc1nuecknH onm1oH npepuyac1aoaa1L 6eccHep1ne caonx
nyuunx pyueanmx nopmaoa.
e1 na cae1e nnuero poc1oaepnee aeuero any1pennero uy1Ln - Y. ak
xe, kak "npeppaccypok" c1on1 nepep paccypkoH, 1ak n npepuyac1ane LY
uyac1aaH, a c1ano 6m1L, ec1L neu1o nsnauanLnoe, apoxpennoe n caHooueanpnoe:
naHn1L n snanne pyun o caoeH YM nno6m1nn.
eaosHoxnoc1L poc1nxennn nonnoro, 6esycnoanoro cornacnn c co6c1aenno coaec1Lk
a Hnpe, rpe uapn1 ec1ec1aennan neo6xopnHoc1L, ec1L aepneun sanor 1oro, u1o naun
caHme aosamuennme nec6maunecn naHepennn, pacuae1akune specL, nnopm npnnecy1
a xnsnn nno, korpa pasaonnouennm (ne o1nrouennm 6onee caoe xec1ko
6nonornuecko o6ycnoanennoc1Lk) uenoaek ac1ynae1 na kauec1aenno nno ny1L
noc1nxennn cHmcna Mnpospannn n caoero Hec1a a H.
180
cnn 6m uenoaek 6mn "co1aopen" 1onLko pnn opno-epnnc1aenno seHno xnsnn, 1o
neaosHoxno 6mno 6m coaHec1n1L Hykn Hmcnnue pyun c 6naroc1Lk Ma1epn-pnpopm.
eo1apa1nHoc1L cHep1n a Ha1epnanLnoH Hnpe acenne1 napexpy, u1o a1o1 Hnp ne
epnnc1aennm, u1o a1a xnsnL - nponor ("nno" Hnp - ne na ne6ecax. Mnp pnpopm
epnn n aceo6LeHnku, pasnnunm nnuL naun cnoco6m ero aocnpnn1nn).
Hep1L, ecnn nonnHa1L ee kak okonua1enLnoe ynnu1oxenne acero 1oro, u1o ec1L a
uenoaeke nyuuero - amcokonpaac1aennoro, ec1L 6eccHmcnnua, npo1naopeuauan
1aopueckoHy saHmcny pnpopm.
pnpopa coaepuenna. na xoue1 1oro xe n o1 uenoaeka - uac1num co6c1aenno
cyunoc1n. enoaek coaepuenc1aye1 caok po6pyk aonk 6naropapn 6eckoneunoHy
konLuy nepepoxpenn-nepeaonnouenn. epeaonnouenne ec1L kak neo6xopnHoe
ycnoane a1oro 6eckoneunoro coaepuenc1aoaannn, 1ak n ero cnepc1ane, n6o poc1ono
Xnsnn nnuL 1o, u1o neyc1anno y1aepxpae1 ce6n a 6opennn.
pnsaanne 1aopn1L o6po - caHoe pparouennoe kauec1ao, nanamcun ns papoa,
kaknHn Hoxe1 6m1L napenn uenoaek; a pnpopa ne 6esyHna, u1o6m pac1oua1L caon
cokpoanua.
k6oaL n Hnnoceppne aepnee acero npn6nnxak1 k npospennk cokpoaenno cyunoc1n
pnpopm, ko1opan caHa ec1L aonnouennan k6oaL.
, L .
! ( )
ae1no naHn1n
aennko pyccko aepynLn
nenm e1poanm naaa1cko
nocaeuae1 a1o1 c6opnnk
o6pocnaa
opepxanne:
1. naaa pnne! (ko pnk snHnero connuec1onnnn);
2. naaa ae1y! (ko pnk aecennero paanopenc1ann);
3. naaa pnne-a1kuke! naaa eHne-Ma1yuke! (ko pnk ynanm);
4. naaa ycckoHy epy!
naaa pnne!
pn6nnxae1cn snHnn onnueaopo1 - o6uecnaannckn, o6uennpoeaponeckn
npaspnnk pnn poxpennn onnua.
181
ennuec1aennoe nepyko1aopnoe ae1nno, pasnuee 1LHy, pnno-onnue c
nesanaHn1nmx apeHen 6mno caHmH o6oxaeHmH n a 1o xe apeHn caHmH rposnmH
onnue1aopenneH aceno6expakuero o6pa.
ae1, nnaHn n conneunme c1penm ao acex ppeaneunx aepoyuennnx cnyxnnn
epnnc1aenno poc1ynnmH uenoaeueckoHy aoo6paxennk o6pasoH ennkoro ae1noro
yxa, uL ocnenn1enLnoe cnnnne, ne nosaonne1 uenoaeky nsHepn1L rnasaHn ack
rny6nny ero 6oxec1aenno cyunoc1n.
pepc1aanenne o onnue, kak o Horyuec1aenneue 6naropa1no nne, anyuae1cn
naH yxe caHo pnpopo, n6o nnu1o ne nponsaopn1 c1onL aoc1opxenno-
1opxec1aennoro aneua1nennn na Hmcnnuee cyuec1ao, kak aennune aocxopa onnua.
orpa pnno nanne1 Hnpy nenoa1opnHo-aennkonennm nnk cao, uenoaek ouyuae1
ce6n kak 6m npncy1c1aykunH npn caepuennn Horyuero c1nxnnoro o6pnpa. Henno a
a1n Hrnoaennn kak nnkorpa nac1aenno noc1nxnHa xnaan, nenocpepc1aennan cansL
uenoaeka c onnueH. 1kpoaenne, nonyuennoe o1 caHo pnpopm, ne nyxpae1cn a
o6ocnoaannn nn pennrne, nn nayko, kak ne nyxpae1cn a a1oH n caHa pnpopa.
1onL xe rny6oko nopaxae1 uy1kyk pyuy n spennue saxopnuero onnua, korpa ono,
c1panno yaennunaancL, saka1maae1cn sa sy6ua1m nec. k6onm1no, u1o pneanoe
uec1ane ae1nna no ne6ocaopy aocnpnnnHae1cn naHn 6es oco6oro aonnennn. o ao1
npouanLnm nyu amsmaae1 ueHnuee uyac1ao kpaco1m n 1annc1aa Hnpa, 1peaorn n
napexpm. nan aeuepnnn sapn, npepaeuan nouL, pnano saaopaxnaae1, sac1aanne1
sapyHa1Lcn...
onnue acerpa neypepxnHo npn1nrnaano k ce6e ne 1onLko xopoaop cae1nn, no n
pyxoanme yc1peHnennn uenoaeka. 6pauan cao asop k ne6y, on nsnauanLno
npnsnaaan rnaaenc1ao 1oro, u1o ec1L a ne6e nan6onee Horyuero n npkoro. n ne
npepc1aannn ce6e nnuero 6onee aennkoro n po6poro, ueH onnue, paano papykuee
XnsnL aceH: nkpnH n 1paaaH, n1nuaH n saepnH... 6oxanne onnua - ocnoaa 1ak
nasmaaeHoro nsmuec1aa.
epao6m1nm oxo1nnk ne nsHmunnn nnunoc1nmx napnpnpopnmx 6oroa-"1aopuoa"
Hnpa, no noun1an aonue6nme 1aopueckne cnnm caHo pnpopm. aueH 6mno
ampyHmaa1L eue kaknx-1o 6oroa n cmnoa 6oxLnx, ecnn kaxpoe y1po aoounk nnuespen
on neyracnHoe ae1nno, apmxakuee a Hnp X - - M - Y?
smuec1ao - a1o ne 6orocnoane, ne pennrnn, ne aepa a o6ueyno1pe6n1enLnoH cHmcne
cnoaa, a snanne. o snanne ne coHnn1enLno-paccypounoe, kak y knnxnnkoa, a
poc1o, 1. e. xnao onm1. pnc1nane cneno aepyk1 a nenennuy o aockpecennn
pacnn1oro, a connuenoknonnnkn , u1o saa1pa na aoc1oke cnoaa "aockpecne1"
xnao1aopnuee n nenopanac1noe cHep1n onnue. asae a c1onL nanoe n oueanpnoe
Hoxno 1onLko aepoaa1L?
ce napopm eHnn u1nnn onnue - nepaoocnoay X, n 1onLko opnn neuec1nam
napopeu ycHa1pnaan a onnue acero nnuL nspenne caoero nneHennoro 6oxka eroam.
o canpe1enLc1ay nc1opnkoa, noknonenne onnuy cun1anocL y nypeea aennuaunH
rpexoH n npec1ynnenneH.
onnue cae1n1 aceH, no 1onLko opnn nypen caoe npepnasnauenne anpenn a 1oH, u1o6m
nnun1L ace ppyrne napopm Hec1a nop onnueH. c1pe6nenne connuenoknonnnkoa
"6orons6pannme" nypen cun1ann penoH 6oroyropnmH: 6n6neckn ncyc aann paxe
"oc1anaannaae1 onnue", pa6m kpoaoxapnme conneHennnkn ero ycnenn po 1eHno1m
182
kasnn1L nnennmx. a 1akne "uypeca" o6nsanm aepoaa1L nkpn, cun1akune 6n6nnk
6oroapoxnoaenno...
nn xpnc1nan uypo ec1L nponsaonLnoe aHeua1enLc1ao 6ora, anrenoa nnn can1mx a
pnpopy. caHo xe pnpope, kak nko6m a nckycc1aenno co1aopenno no npnxo1n
eroam "1aapn 6espyuno", nnkaknx uypec 6m1L ne Hoxe1. pnn Ha1epnannsHa,
nannkuerocn acero nnuL nsnanko xpnc1nanckoro Hono1ensHa, a kocno n
neopyxo1aopnno, nko6m, pnpope ne1 nnuero nenosnaaaeHoro, a ec1L 1onLko noka
eu nenosnannoe.
o apoxpennoH xe, 1ak nasmaaeHoH nsmueckoH Hnpoanpennn o1cy1c1aye1
npepc1aanenne nospneunx, pyko1aopnmx pennrn o caepxLec1ec1aennoH, 1.e.
c1onunH nap ec1ec1aoH, nap pnpopo.
nn nsmunnka ac - aepoHoe n neaepoHoe - saknkueno a pnpope, kak a ec1ec1ae, a
"caepxLec1ec1aennoe" - ec1L cnoao, nnunnoe cHmcna. nn nsmunnka ne1 "uypec" nn
6oxecknx, nn pLnaonLcknx, n6o pnn nponnknoaennoro ec1ec1aosnannn caHa pnpopa a
caoe sakonoHepnoc1n, uenecoo6pasnoc1n n coaepuenc1ae yxe nanne1cn opnnH
aennknH nenoc1nxnHmH YM.
yuec1ayk1 aeun, ropaspo 6onee neaepon1nme, ueH kpnknname pe6nueckne "uypeca"
ncyca, a1o - pec1an1enLnoc1L. D1o - korpa "no uyuLeHy aenenLk, no HoeHy
xo1enLk" (1.e. uypecnmH o6pasoH, kak 6m caHo co6o, a na caHoH pene 6naropapn
cokpoaennmH npnunnno-cnepc1aennmH asanHocansnH) ac o6pasye1cn pnn 1oro, uLe
xo1enLe cornacye1cn c one pnpopm. yka-pnpopa asmaae1 k uenoaeky: "e ry6n!
6ypy n ao aceH 1e6e noHounnue n sac1ynnnue, n ac 1e6e npnnoxn1cn"...
nn acnkoro apyHunaoro cosepua1enn ac ec1L - pnpopa, n ac ec1L ypo. o 1ak kak
uypo a1o noacepneano 1aopn1cn, 1o kaxe1cn caHo co6ok pasyHekunHcn. axpm
aocxop onnua ec1L uypo, n ecnn nkpn rnasek1 na nero c paanopyuneH, ecnn onn
pasyunnncL nsyHnn1Lcn, 1o nnuL no1oHy, u1o yxe ne a cnnax aHec1n1L 1akoro
aennunn.
"ana onnua, noxany, nanne1cn aennuaue ns acex 6ecuncnennmx 1an
okkynL1nsHa" - nncana naua saHeua1enLnan coo1euec1aennnua-aepynLn nena
e1poana naaa1ckan. eu: "yxoanoe ncnoanpenne nponcxopn1 o1 onnua..."
6muno nkpn, noxnHakune nneuaHn, korpa cnmua1 o6 o6opo1nnx nnn o
saknnna1ennx Honnn, cun1ak1 anonne nonn1nmH, o1uero cae1n1 onnue. axe
c1apueknaccnnkaH kaxe1cn, 6yp1o onn snak1 kak, a cyunoc1n, "npoc1o" yc1poeno
naue ae1nno: orpoHnm nnasHennm uap, a neppax ko1oporo ropn1 1epHonpepnan
"1onka" - aopopop npeapauae1cn a renn, n npn a1oH ampenne1cn konoccanLnan
aneprnn.
o paa coaepuenno noamx nanennn, cansannmx c onnueH, - o1cy1c1ane saHe1noro
ne1pnnnoro nsnyuennn n conneunme nynLcaunn, paspyunnn o6uenpnnn1yk (xo1n n
ne pokasannyk, n ne ac o6Lncnnkuyk) rnno1esy 1epHonpepnoro nc1ounnka
conneuno aneprnn.
e1pnno - a1o npnspaunme, 6ec1enecnme, neHa1epnanLnme a o6munoH cHmcne cnoaa
uac1num, aepnee, cryc1kn aneprnn, o6nsa1enLno nsnyuaeHme a xope 1epHonpa.
pepnonoxenne o 1epHonpepnoH nc1ounnke conneuno aneprnn qnsnkn-1eope1nkn
napennncL nop1aeppn1L nannuneH Hounoro ne1pnnnoro no1oka. o cencaunonnme
onm1m no o6napyxennk conneunmx ne1pnno c noHouLk oco6mx
caepxuyac1an1enLnmx npn6opoa, npoaepennme aHepnkancknHn yuenmHn ao rnaae c .
aancoH, pann ncknkun1enLno o1pnua1enLnme pesynL1a1m. kasanocL, u1o naue
ae1nno ncnyckae1 ne1pnno a pecn1ok-ppyro pas HenLue, ueH 1pe6ye1 1eopnn.
183
ocne Hnorone1nnx onm1oa qnsnkn npnunn k 1aeppoHy y6expennk: c1onL nnu1oxnoe
konnuec1ao ne1pnno o6LncnnHo 1onLko a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn 1eHnepa1ypa any1pn
onnua naHnoro HenLue, ueH neo6xopnHo pnn 1epHonpa.
pnHepno a 1e xe ropm coae1ckn akapeHnk . . eaepnm o6napyxnn ppyroe
nopasn1enLnoe nanenne, - nensaec1nme po1one conneunme nynLcaunn-kone6annn!
onnue kak 6m pmun1, onnue 6L1cn nanopo6ne ceppua kaxpme 160 Hnny1. aepL
6nenne ec1L nponanenne Xnaoro auana. XnsnL na acex caonx ypoannx nocn1
kone6a1enLnm xapak1ep. e cnyuano, u1o6m ysna1L, xna nn uenoaek, npoaepnk1,
6Le1cn nn ero nynLc n pmun1 nn on, - 1. e. cokpauak1cn nn paanoHepno ero ceppue n
nerkne.
o u1o n noueHy pn1Hnuno kone6ne1cn a onnue, - a1o pnn naykn sarapka. cno opno:
nonyuennm nepnop nynLcaun, nesaancnHo nop1aepxpennm anrnncknHn
nccnepoaa1ennHn, onpoaeprae1 yHospn1enLnyk HopenL any1pennero c1poennn onnua
n y6epn1enLno pokasmaae1, u1o 1eHnepa1ypa conneunmx nepp ne npeamuae1 6-6,5
Hnnnnonoa rpapycoa. pnn 1epHonpa nyxen xap a neckonLko pas cnnLneun.
1ak, yuenme ne snak1 6onLue, noueHy cae1n1 onnue. c1ponoHm n ac1poqnsnkn
pasnmHn onm1nmHn ny1nHn npnunn k epnnoHy ouenoHnnkueHy saknkuennk: onnue
ne cxnrae1 nnkakoro "ropkuero" - nn oprannueckoro, nn npepnoro. o o1kypa xe
1orpa uepnae1 ono caok nenccnkaeHo nnaHenekuyk MouL???
ue opna aennkan sarapka onnua - ero Harne1nsH. onarak1, u1o 6ypnan xnsnL
nauero ae1nna saancn1 o1 6yuykunx na neH Harnn1nmx anxpe. o apeHn
nenpepckasyeHmx conneunmx aosHyuenn-acnmuek nsaeprak1cn rpanpnosnme
nnasHennme no1okn, o1 ko1opmx 1peneue1 n eHnn, n uenoaeueckoe ceppue. 1kypa
6epe1cn c1onL neaepon1nan aneprnn?
yuec1aye1 Hnoxec1ao npepnonoxenn; o6uee y nnx 1o, u1o ocnoanan ponL o1aopn1cn
Harnn1noHy nonk, aneprnn ko1oporo npeo6pasye1cn a aneprnk acnmukn. pnako ne1
pokasa1enLc1a 1oro, u1o nocne acnmukn aneprnn Harnn1noro nonn yHenLuae1cn, a
aepL ona ponxna 6mna 6m kak-1o pacxopoaa1Lcn. nsnkn cun1ak1, u1o knku k
sarapouno any1penne pen1enLnoc1n onnua nexn1 a nsyuennn ero Harnn1nmx
caoc1a. o nponcxoxpenne n cyunoc1L caHoro Harne1nsHa, kak conneunoro, 1ak n
seHnoro, nayke nensaec1na. noaa "Harnn1noe none" poanmH cue1oH nnuero ne
o6Lncnnk1, a nannk1cn nnuL ycnoanmH o6osnauenneH nauero neaepennn.
eocnopnHa 1onLko saancnHoc1L Harnn1noro nonn eHnn o1 onnua. Yuenne
o6napyxnnn 1akxe, u1o Harnn1noe none eHnn nanne1cn neo6xopnHmH ycnoaneH
Xnsnn: cnepoaa1enLno, conneunm Harne1nsH ec1L nepaonc1ounnk xnsnn na eHne.
onnue - rnran1ckn Harnn1, kak n eHnn. Y ynm, enepm n Mapca ne1 Harnn1nmx
none. e1 1aH n xnsnn. o u1o sa xnaan conneunan cyunoc1L c1on1 sa nanenneH
Harne1nsHa?
maopm coapeHenno naykn nnuL noa1opnk1 npospennn Hyppeuoa kaHennoro aeka:
6nenneH eppua Hnpa - onnua saunnae1cn n uae1e1 acnkan xnsnL na eHne. pnako
ppeanne aepynm nyuue npepc1aannnn ce6e cokpoaennyk cy1L pnnm. apnpy c
npnsnanneH xnan1enLno conneuno Houn, onn y1aepxpann, u1o nens6manan HouL
a1a opyxo1aopena n cosna1enLna: onnue ne npoc1o ne6ecnoe 1eno, ono - X.
onnue X n a cnny caoe any1penne xnsnepen1enLnoc1n aosHeuae1 ace no1epn.
Mmcnn1enn cepo c1apnnm, ccmnancL na eue 6onee ppeannx 1onkoaa1ene n
npopnua1ene, nonnHann oxec1ao kak nekn aeunm caHonoppepxnaakuncn oronL,
copepxaun a ace o6pasoaa1enLnme nauana n ac nopoxpakun caonH
ornenopo6nmH 1aopuecknH pmxanneH.
184
ce npnpopnme nanennn Hory1 6m1L caepenm k onnuy. eHnn n ac cyuee na ne ec1L
npeo6paxennan conneunan HouL. onneunme nyun ne 6ec1enecnme nocnanum onnua,
a caHo onnue. u1o, co6c1aenno, npepc1aanne1 co6o c1onL npnamunm naH
conneunm cae1? Yxe caHo paoc1aennoe, a 1ounee, neonpepenennoe onncanne cae1a
kak nanennn, ykasmaae1 na 1o, u1o cae1 - opnn ns caHmx 1eHnmx paspenoa qnsnkn.
peanne npepc1aannnn ce6e conneunme nyun kak neu1o ocnsa1enLnoe; na neko1opmx
ernne1cknx nso6paxennnx nyun onnua sakanunaak1cn nanLuaHn. e 1onLko 1onkne
1ena uenoaeka, no n ero nno1L coc1on1, a koneunoH n1ore, ns cryuennn conneunoro
ec1ec1aa. ac pyueanoe n 1enecnoe 6m1ne uenoaeka caopn1cn, no 6onLuoHy cue1y, k
npeapauennk conneunmx nsnyuenn. mpakuncn pycckn yuenm -
connuenoknonnnk . . nxeackn, cospaaun noaeuyk nayky - renno6nonornk,
onm1aHn pokasan, u1o onnue ncnyckae1 ne 1onLko 1enno n cae1, no eue kakoe-1o
oco6oe 6noak1nanoe nsnyuenne, ne amnanneHoe qnsnuecknHn npn6opaHn (1.k. onn na
nero n ne paccun1anm), no sa1o uy1ko ynaannaaeHoe xnamHn cyuec1aaHn.
Hec1nnnue xnsnennmx cnn uenoaeka okkynL1nc1m nasaann aqnpnmH 1enoH, a yunme
1enepL nasmaak1 6nonnasHo, nnn nnasHo a ycnoannx xnaoro oprannsHa.
(noqnsnkn npnunn k saknkuennk, u1o ace xname cyuec1aa nponnsanm no1okaHn
nekoero "xonopnoro nnaHenn", - oxnannkuero nauana, noc1poennoro na 6onee
1onkoH, rny6nnnoH ypoane, ueH a1oHno-Honekynnpnm). Xnan1enLnme 1okn,
c1pynunecn o1 conneuno nnasHm, annaak1cn a 1onkoe aqnpnoe 1eno n
npeo6pasyk1cn a nH a ouyuennn, cosnanne, HmcnL... D1o1 any1pennn, o6muno
neanpnHm paonnk, co1kannm ns sono1mx conneunmx nn1e, o6nauae1 pyuy,
coepnnnkuyk co6o a opno uenoe n xnsnecnoco6noe 6eccHep1nm yx n cHep1noe
1eno.
ceH cyuec1aoH caonH cansan uenoaek c nopopnaue ero conneuno c1nxne n Hoxe1
uepna1L ns nee . e1, Hm ne "nnune pyxoH", ne nac co1aopnn
ns npaxa 6n6neckn eroaa, n ne ero cHpapnmH pyukoH Hm xnam. Xnaoe ns
nexnaoro aosnnkny1L ne Hoxe1. Mm opyueanenm 1eH xe yxoH, ko1opm xnao1aopn1
ack pnpopy, a u1o cospano ns npaxa, 1o a npax ponxno n o6pa1n1Lcn.
yx nau nepaspyunH no caoe cy1n, n6o on npnuac1en neco1aopennoHy n
neynnu1oxnHoHy conneunoHy Y. nepaonpepkn naun 6mnn amnanenm ae1nmHn
nnaHn - nocpepnnkaHn Hexpy ae1nnoH n nkpLHn - ns co6c1aenno cyunoc1n
6naropapn nsnyuennnH (cna6mH nopo6neH a1oro Hoxe1 cnyxn1L nponcxopnuan nnorpa
ao apeHn cnnpn1nuecknx onm1oa "Ha1epnannsaunn pyxoa").
mnm ae1a, cryc1na ornennme anxpn, aonno1nnncL a nnaHennmx nneHennmx oxpe,
- no6eponocnmx aonnoa n apoxnoaennmx ncnoanpuea, o6oxec1anennmx
nocnepykunHn nokonennnHn. apopm ppeanoc1n 6epexno xpannnn caeuennme
npepannn o pao1uax - okpoan1ennx, aosaopn nx k connuenopo6nmH papopn1ennH,
a uLeH o6nnke cnnaanncL aoepnno uep1m yxa n uenoaeka.
1 caHoro pnnm-onnua aenn caok popocnoanyk npacnaannckne nneHena. pnno -
snaHenn1oe nHn nauero ae1nna, aocxopnuee eue k nnpoeaponeckoHy o6osnauennk
ropa kak ropoaoro conneunoro konoaopo1a (nanpnHep, nepenpok - a1o aonk, ko1opoHy
Hnnyn rop).
pnoapeHenno kopenL "np" (ap, ep) a popc1aennmx nnpoeaponecknx nsmkax
o6osnauan cnny pec1ann, c1peHn1enLnoe panxenne aaepx, o1oxpec1anneHoe c
aocxopnunH onnueH. peaneunH npnae1c1aennmH snakoH napopoa-
connuenoknonnnkoa 6mna acknny1an anepep-aaepx npaaan pyka, ynopo6nennan c1pene
pnnm.
185
1 canckpn1ckoro kopnn "ap" nponcxopn1 onpepenenne ae1nna (kak 6mc1po
6eryuero). 1ckpa - apnum, 1. e. cae1nme, 6naropopnme. 1ckpa xe rpeueckne
apnc1okpa1m. "onnpnm" c na1mnn nepeaopn1cn kak "conneunm". pn (aoxpL) y
ppeannx repHanuea (ckanpnnaaoa) - 6naropopnm, cae1nm. Henn1m cnaannnn -
6onpnn nepaonauanLno - 6oeu npm. anapnme cnaanne-noHopnne u1nnn poan1a.
cecnaanm pnno nec1 a ce6e n Hyxckoe popoaoe nauano, n cae1noe conneunoe. n
no6yxpae1 Hyxunny n xenunny k caeuennopec1ay - k npoponxennk conneunoro
cnaannckoro popa. uec1L pnnm paaanncL aonnaH sna1nme nHena! pocnaa,
pononk, poHnn, ponnk, po6op....
ospnee, yxe a neacko ycn, uec1aoaanne pnnm 6mno o11ecneno axL6oroH n
opcoH (cnoaa "6or", "6ora1m", "6ora1mpL" 6mnn sanHc1aoaanneH ns cknqcko-
capHa1cknx napeun). o naHn1L pepkoa o conneunoH popc1ae xnna a nopcosnannn:
a "noae o nonky ropeae" knnsLn nasaanm anykaHn axL6ora. e pa6aHn 6oxLnHn, a
nHenno anykaHn kpoanopopc1aennmHn no1oHkaHn. ypyun, opnako, nckycc1aennmH
o6pasoaanneH, axL6or ne npnxnncn nn a napopno cnoaecnoc1n, nn a cnaanncko
o6pnpnoc1n n yrac ackope nocne 1oro, kak nonykpoaka napnHnp kpec1nn ycL a
kpoaaao kynenn.
o6uecnaannckn pnnnn penL 4 kpecenn (nknn) cnpaannncn acenapopno no ace
ycn anno1L po XIX aeka, amsmaan 6euenc1ao uepkoannkoa. nnckon nxon aponckn
a caoH "noae" nncan: "s acex o6c1on1enLc1a npaspnnka cero anpno, u1o ppeann
nekn 6mn npon, nasmaaeHm nHeneH pnnm, ko1opm a cnx c1panax sa 6ora
noun1aeH 6mn". eue: "paspnnk ce, kak n o1 c1apmx nkpe cnmuan, nasmaak1
nrpnueH, ko1opoe nspaana nauanocL n rop o1 ropy yHnoxae1cn, 1ak u1o nkpn oxnpak1
ero kak ropoaoro 1opxec1aa". 1771 r. nxon sanpe1nn npaspnec1ao.
naannckne kyHnpm nannnncL ne 1onLko onnue1aopenneH aonue6nmx cnn pnpopm, no
n aonnouenneH kako-nn6ypL pyxoano c1nxnn. cnn apa-nokpoan1enLnnua nk6an,
1o pnno - anac1n1enL caeuenno npoc1n. pnno-6nkc1n1enL npaac1aennoro nopnpka,
kapakun knn1aonpec1ynnnkoa n npepa1ene; onn ne Hory1 nn o6Hany1L ero, nn
y6exa1L o1 ero rneaa.
pnno apoxnoanne1 n saunuae1 a 6n1aax aepnmx caonx opyxenocuea-no6opnnkoa
ae1a, npnueH no6epa poc1nrae1cn ne xep1aonpnnouennnHn, a cnaanmHn nopanraHn
ao nHn o6pa.
pnno papye1 caonH copa1nnkaH npyk cnny, n o1nmne onn - neno6epnHme p-1ypm.
mk npoc1n - "pL!" - nx aonnc1aennm knnu, nepeuepun a nospneuee "ypa". e
cnyuano nocne xpnc1nannsaunn nopcosna1enLnmH onnue1aopenneH pnnm c1an a
napope ropn (pn) pa6pm - okpyxennm aonkaHn acapnnk - o6eponoceu.
o acecnaannckoH npaspnnke aospoxpakuerocn onnua 25.12. cnaanenne pnnm
cnnaanocL nepaspmano c uec1aoaanneH pauypoa. aeuennopec1ao a1o HmcnnnocL
kak epnnenne a aonue6noH conneunoH konLue copopnue c o6eperaaunHn op
pepkaHn-pann1ennHn. aeuennm oronL - seHnoe aonnouenne pnnm - cnyxnn
nocpepnnkoH. epes nero yc1anaannaanacL nckpoHe1nan couyac1aennan cansL c caHnH
ae1nnoH.
paspnec1ao a1o nasmaanocL eue onnpa. ono (konLuo - koneco - koneno) no-
cnaannckn - kpyr. pyr - snak onnua. eka6pL panLue nHenoaancn onoxeroH o1
nasaannn cxnraeHoro na npaspnnke koneca. onnpa snaun1 o6pnpoaan epa, np - xHenL
akpyroayk.
axneunHn ppeanecnaanncknHn 1opxec1aaHn 6mnn snHnne an1kn - nrpm a uec1L
ae1nna (can1o n cae1nm - 6pa1Ln-6nnsneum: cnoaa, nHeaune opnn cHmcn). rpm,
186
nrpnua nepaonauanLno o6osnauann caeuennme npaspnnunme o6pnpm. Y cnaann
caapL6m nHenno . penL ne1nero onnueaopo1a aocxopnuee ae1nno
(a1o ampaxenne eue coxpannnocL a napopno peun, xo1n cokpoaennm cHmcn
ero paano y1epnn); kpyxn1cn ornennoe koneco, Heue1 aokpyr ce6n sono1me c1penm...
D1o snaHenne saneua1neno naunHn npauypaHn a aocLHnnyueaoH onoapa1e
(caac1nke) - caeuennoH snake-o6epere acex connuenoknonnnkoa. naHenn1me
nnHnnckne nponsounn ns po6nec1nmx aonncknx o6pnpoa (a 394 r. onn 6mnn
sanpeuenm xpnc1nanaHn kak "neuec1name"). na ycn ppeanne nrpm-o6pnpm,
ronnHme nonaHn, noc1enenno ynpoc1nnncL po sa6aa Honopeuknx, a no1oH n aoace
ampopnnncL a pe1ckne no1eukn.
enpeHennmHn yuac1nnkaHn can1ounmx nrp 6mnn pnxenme. pecL - o1ronockn
ppeaneunx o6pnpoa, cansannmx c nepeaonnouenneH n o6opo1nnuec1aoH. nxenme
nenn konnpkn - xaane6nme necnn conneunoHy onnpe.
paspnnk onnua conpoaoxpancn pasrynLnmH nnpuec1aoH, saxnra1enLnmHn
xopoaopnmHn nnnckaHn n neo6yspannmH aecenLeH. pnueH Hnorne o6pnpm nannnncL
1ounmH snHnnH nopo6neH ne1nnx o6pnpoa ynanm - onnueaopo1a (senenmx can1ok),
nanpnHep "kynanne" a cnere, ounuenne n ncuenenne nnaHeneH caeuennmx koc1poa n
1. p.
nonnouL peayukn nenn nop6nkpnme necnn, aopoxnnn nap uapo c aopo (o1ckpa -
uapopec1ao), rapann na cyxenoro - konnpoaann (o1ckpa - konnpynLn, sakneHennme
nonaHn kak snme konpynLn).
ypyun ne a cnnax paxe nm1kaHn n kasnnHn nckopenn1L acenapopnme
o6uennpoeaponeckne conneunme 1opxec1aa, uepkoannkn peunnn yuenne
uyxepopnoe n snoapepnoe noppena1L nop popnoe. m1ancL sa1Hn1L onnue, onn
yupepnnn 1ak nasmaaeHoe "poxpec1ao pnc1oao" n npnypounnn ero k 25.12., - korpa
nocne caHoro kopo1koro pnn kak 6m anoaL napoxpae1cn onnue.
n a eaanrennnx, nn y pannnx xpnc1nancknx 6orocnoaoa ne1 nnkaknx ynoHnnann o
pne poxpennn ncyca, noa1oHy on a 1e aeka n ne o1Heuancn. opronka "poxpec1aa
pnc1oaa" ko pnk poxpennn onnua 6mna neo6xopnHa, u1o6m ocan1n1L a napopnoH
cosnannn o6pas ncyca, ynopo6n1L ero onnuy n nepeaec1n na nero paenne
connuenoknonnnkoa.
k6onm1no, u1o "penL poxpennn ncyca" - 25.12., a "apa o1 . ." naunnae1cn 01.01.
oueHy 1ako pasno6o? no1oHy, u1o nypen HoHen1oH poxpennn pe6enka cun1ak1
ne co6c1aenno ak1 ero nonanennn na cae1, a ak1 o6pesannn, coaepuakuncn na
aocLHo penL nocne poxpennn, aknkuan n caH penL poxpennn (ceHL pas npnHepL,
opnn pas o1pexL). o ec1L poxpennm, no ne o6pesannm, cun1ae1cn kak 6m n aoace
ne poxpnnmH... o1 1akoe uypo-kpo.
1euec1ao naue na rnasax paspyuae1cn, napop nsaopn1cn no xopouo npopyHannoHy
saokeancknHn HyppeuaHn nnany. ne nocnepnee Hec1o npn a1oH o1aopn1cn pennrnn.
opaaaunecn po anac1n npopaxnme nepeaep1mun o6Lnannn koHHynnsH apepno n
nec6m1ouno Heu1o, a napop npnsmaak1 aepny1Lcn a nono "pyccko" npaaocnaano
uepkan n aepoaa1L a o6pesannoro 6ora.
noaa c1aneH na konenn n nononseH no6msa1L norn "cnacn1enn"? oro on cnacae1? n
cnacae1 kpoaonnu n nanaue o1 rneaa o6esponennmx 1pyxennkoa. 6o ckasano:
"6naxennm nnauyune" n "acnkan anac1L o1 6ora". uLn anac1L - neaaxno. axno
ppyroe: nnauL, no noannycn; xo1L 6apnny, xo1L 1a1apnny, xo1L epxnHoppe, xo1L
epnoHmppnny, xo1L caHoHy uep1y...
187
po6ypn1L naunk n apoxnoan1L ee na nopanr Hoxe1 1onLko aospoxpenne nckonno
cnaannckoro aonLnonk6naoro pyxa. o6epn1L 1eHnme cnnm aosHoxno 1onLko c
noHouLk opnmx ae1nmx nn. aaec1n nac a xnaoe o6uenne c M n npnsaanm
caeuennme conneunme npaspnnkn n o6pnpm.
!
M!
!
* * *
naaa ae1y!
pn6nnxae1cn ecennee aanopenc1ane - ppeaneun npaspnnk naunx pepkoa.
o6epa pnn nap nouLk, nap 1LHo - a1o 1opxec1ao ace pnpopm, a ne 1onLko
uenoaeka. epapoH nsnauanLnoe nasaanne Hap1a - 6epesenL: no nHenn
npo6yxpakuerocn caeuennoro pepeaa cnaann - epsm.
paspnnk ac1peun ecnm onpepennncn pnnoH-onnueH n 6mn nensHenno cansan c 24
n 25 pnnHn Hecnua. 1onLko aaepennm xpnc1nanaHn ceHnnepenLnm
npepnacxanLnm noc1, sanpeuaaun aecenLe, o11ecnnn npaspnec1ao co caoero
nckonnoro Hec1a na 6onee pannne, xonopnme cpokn, u1o npenn1c1aoaano coaepuennk
nonnouennmx caeuennmx o6pnpoa. ak 6mna nopopaana couyac1aennan cansL c
aonue6nmHn cnnaHn pnpopm.
epkoannkn o6osnauann npepuec1aykuyk noc1y nepenk cmpno nnn Hacnnno: caHn
xe cnaanne cao conneunm npaspnnk Hacnennue ne nasmaann.
aka6annn (o1 cnoaa "ka66ana" - nypeckoe konpoac1ao) aonLnme nneHena c noHouLk
uyxepopno pennrnn, xpnc1nane pec1aoaann nopnmH npneHoH - nop1acoako,
nopronnn uepkoanme npaspnnkn k nan6onee u1nHmH acenapopnmH 1opxec1aaH.
opornaa "poxpec1ao pnc1oao" k poxpennk onnua 25 peka6pn (no c1apoHy), nonm
o1cun1ann nasap 9 Hecnuea n "onpepennnn" penL "nenopounoro saua1nn" - 25 Hap1a, 1.
e. apeHn aecennero paanopenc1ann. D1o1 penL onn no-caoeHy nasaann
"6naroaeuenneH": pneH, korpa apxanren coo6unn, nko6m, Mapnn 6naryk aec1L o ee
6epeHennoc1n.
k6nHeun cnaannckn npaspnnk ecnm aepunncn na pacnmx opkax - caeuennmx
kypranax, nop ko1opmHn nokonnncL koc1n pepkoa. aH, 6nnxe k poHy onnuy,
pasropanncL koc1pm, xrnn uyueno snHm ("aspen pnno snHy na annm"). aH c
saae1nmHn cnoaaHn ka1ann kpauenme pacnncnme nua, onnue1aopnkune co6o
xnao1aopnune cnnm pnpopm.
aH, na npnaonLe anxpnnocL kpyxeao xopoaopoa. naHenn1m cnoaaukn nc1opnk
Laqapnk nncan: "peanne cnaanne a napopno noasnn, nennn (rpe cnaannka, 1aH n
nenne), Hysmke n nnncke npeaocxopnnn acex npounx eaponecknx napopoa". ae1nme
knme peam sasmaann - saknnkann ecny-pacny (nonm n nx ouepnnnn 6ecnoaa1mHn
knnkyuaHn).
eo1LeHneHmH pec1aoH paspnnka 6mnn o6pnpoame nrpm-Hackapapm, a
nenpeHenno Hacko 6mn "HepaepL" - uenoaek, pnxenm a HepaexLk uy6y nnn
amaopouennm 1ynyn. 6pas Hepaepn amsmaan a nopcosnannn uenm nnac1
aneua1nenn, ycaoennmx a 1y nopy, korpa uenoaek kaHennoro aeka ac1ynan a
1annc1aennme o1nouennn c HaHon1oH n neuepnmH HepaepeH.
188
Moryun n nposopnnam saepL nsppeane napennncn neknHn oco6mHn kauec1aaHn n
6mn okpyxen caoeo6pasnmH noun1anneH. axe cokpoaennoe nHn "xosnnna" 6mno nop
sanpe1oH. uenoaeueckne saxoponennn nonaranacL HepaexLn nana, npnsaannan 6m1L
o6eperoH. nnuL caHme cnnLnme uapopen Hornn o6opaunaa1Lcn HepaepeH... ce
nospneune nrpnua c pnxenmH "HepaepeH" - nnuL rnyxne o1ronockn Harnuecknx
o6pnpoa o6opo1nnuec1aa. ypm HepaepL ac1ae1 ns 6epnorn okono 24-25 Hap1a.
pacnaanne o1Heuann a1o co6m1ne, cnnaaaueecn c npaspnec1aoH aanopenc1ann,
nnnckaHn aonnoa, o6nauennmx a HepaexLn ukypm.
opo6no ace pnpope, npo6yxpakuecn o1 snHnero cna-o6Hopoka, ro1oannncL k
noaoHy seHnoHy aonnouennk n pyun yconunx: noa1oHy npaspnnk aceoxnannkue
ecnm 6mn opnoapeHenno n npaspnec1aoH a uec1L ypoa-pauypoa. oHnnanLnme
o6pnpm nannnncL MM pepkaH o kpaco1e xnsnn seHno, npnsmaann nx k
ckopeueHy aosapauennk a o6nnuLe noaopoxpennmx copopnue. o xe uenn cnyxnn
n aonnckn noHnnanLnm o6pnp - 1pnsna, 6oeame nrpnua aokpyr kypranoa, korpa
rycnnpnm saon n saon Heue no6yxpan o1aaxnoro anoaL aospopn1Lcn a kpyry
copa1nnkoa n 6m1L coyuac1nnkoH nx 6n1a, nnpoa n nopanroa ao cnaay opa.
paspnnunme noHnnkn cnpaannnncL c o6nnLnmHn 6eckpoanmHn xep1aonpnnouennnHn
n aosnnnnnnHn pepkaH. x papoc1no yrouann ky1Le; o1ckpa ky1epLHa-aecenLe,
o1ckpa xe n "ky1n1L" - rynn1L unpoko, c pasHaxoH. onm n 1y1 narapnnn; nsapa1nnn
cHmcn cnoaa "xpa1L". Y cnaann ono osnauano kak caeuennopec1ao -
xep1aonpnnouenne nocpepc1aoH ornn, 1ak n coaHec1noe noepanne uac1n xep1aennoro
papa - npnuauenne, penaauee yuac1nnkoa o6pnpa co1panesnnkaHn pepkoa.
opnun 6nnn - o6pas xapkoro onnua; 6nnn - o6nsa1enLnan npnnapnexnoc1L
npaspnnunoro nnpuec1aa, kak n xopnune no kpyry koaun-6pa1nnm c Hepoayxo.
naanne noun1ann pnny-onnue kak aceo6LeHnkuyk, aceHoryuyk n ace6naryk
nny. ennuaaoe ae1nno 6mno ec1ec1aennmH aonnouenneH aceamune,
Hnp Hyppoc1n; ne nnunoc1no, opnako, a pnpopno.
yuec1aoaan nenncanm sanpe1 na coopyxenne kyHnpoa nnn xpaHoa onnua.
epyko1aopnmHn, nepaospannmHn ae1nnnuaHn nannnncL aepunnm rop n xonHoa, rpe
kynonoH 6mno caHo ne6o c XM nc1ounnkoH 6naropa1n, a an1apeH - epnnc1aennoe
seHnoe nopo6ne onnua - aeuennm koc1ep, okpyxennm o6eperoH-kaHennmH aanoH
nn6o uac1okonoH. akne oropoxennme na ropax sanoaepnme Hec1a nsnauanLno
nHenoaanncL ropopnuaHn (noa1oHy aapnrn n nasmaann naue o1euec1ao c1pano
1mcnun ropopoa). nn connuenoknonnnkoa-cnaann okpyxnoc1L, kak o6pas onnua,
nannnacL saun1o o1 acnueckoro sna, o1ckpa Harnueckan cnna saHkny1oro kpyra n
ampaxenne: "6pocnncn, ouep1n ronoay".
ceHLe nnpoeaponecknx napopoa noun1anne onnua 6onee acero coxpannnocL y
aoc1ounmx cnaann: a nx 6m1e, o6pnpax, ckasannnx, necnnx n saroaopax. a
coapeHenno napopno cnoaecnoc1n, a npnHe1ax, noaepLnx, nrpax eue
o6napyxnaae1cn naHn1noe cae1o-conneunoe Hnpouyac1aoaanne.
co6enno rny6oko n npko nepexnaanncL conneunme 1opxec1aa na ceaepe cnaannckoro
Hnpa. Henno specL po naunx pne coxpannncn a ysopno pesL6e n amunake
caeuennm snak - (caac1nka). nak a1o1, anncannm a kpyr, nece1 a ce6e
conneunoe o1kpoaenne n opnoapeHenno nanne1cn aonnouennmH saknnnanneH -
M, uLn HouL - a noc1onnno xnao cansn co caonH cae1nmH epaoo6pasoH.
Xna eu o6mua ac1peua1L nou1noro roc1n n opapnaa1L noao6paunmx "xne6oH-
conLk" na nono1enue. ppeanoc1n na nono1enue, ykpauennoH conneunmHn snakaHn,
apyuancn kpyrnm xne6eu-kono6ok, 1akxe nannkuncn o6pasoH onnua. noao "conL"
coxpannno cao nnpoeaponeckn kopenL "con", paaun a 6onLunnc1ae a1nx nsmkoa
189
ocnoay pnn nanHenoaannn onnua. Y ppeannx cnaann onnue nasmaanocL "ononL".
aknH o6pasoH, nopnouenne, onnue1aopnauee onnue, osnauano: "ne6-onnue
1aoeHy opy!" nnuL a aeka xpnc1nanckoro neaexec1aa nckonnm,
cHmcn 6mn y1pauen, nckaxen n c1an sayua1L kak "xne6-conL".
noao "kpacnm" nekorpa osnauano npkn, cae1nm; a ac cae1noe, kpacnoe kak
aocxopnuee onnue, kpacnopeunao coue1anocL c nonn1neH kpacm nenarnnpno, npe-
kpacnoro: kpacna-peanua, ecna - pacna, pacnan nnouapL...
6mnnnnm napnHnp pacnoe onnmuko a1o aoace ne cmn ae1ocnaaa o1
nanoxnnum - nypekn Mankn, a knnxnaun saponro po 1oro na ceaepe cmn noaena
napnHnp peann, ynoHnnakuncn a oaknHoacko ne1onncn. e Hornn aeune
rycnnpm nasmaa1L pacnmH onnmukoH nonykpoaky n 6pa1oy6nuy, nnuno
npnnocnauero uenoaeueckne xep1am n nappyraauerocn nap 1mcnuene1nnHn
o6muanHn.
noaa "kpac" n "kpec" nepaonauanLno 6mnn 1oxpec1aennm. pec - a1o caeuennm
ounuakun n oxnannkun oronL; o6uecnaannckoe cnoao, ne nHekuee nnkakoro
o1nouennn k xpnc1nanckoHy "aockpecennk". Mecnu, korpa aosxnrancn rnaanm
ynanLckn koc1ep, nasmaancn kpeceneH. oc-kpecn1L a npnHoH cHmcne snaun1
amceuL nckpm, aosxeuL nnaHn, a a nepenocnoH - oxnan1L, 1.e. aospopn1L k ae1y
yracuyk xnsnL.
naanne cun1ann ronL nekoe xnaopopnue, ocnoaononarakue cyunoc1Lk
cenenno. onneunm cae1, npoxopn ckaosL ropnm xpyc1anL, saxnran oronL,
ko1opm nsppeane saancn aeuennmH, n6o on - xnao nocnannnk pnnm-onnua, n
cy1L ero nenoc1nxnHa. naHn caeuennoro koc1pa - ne npoc1o c1nxnn, a nocn1enL
npaac1aenno unc1o1m, ynnu1oxakun paxe snme noHmcnn. a n a "o6munoH"
nnaHenn ropnue caeun pnn naykn ouenL Hnoro nencnoro. 1o nponcxopn1 any1pn
nnaHenn? Yuenme soay1 a1o "ropenneH", no1oHy u1o 1akoe nasaanne ckpmaae1
o1cy1c1ane y nnx snann o 1oH, u1o xe nponcxopn1 a pec1an1enLnoc1n.
oHaunnH cae1nnnueH cnaannnna 6mn neyracnHm oronL popnoro ouara,
onnue1aopnkun aeunyk xnsnL ceHLn n popa. ero xnaoH pmxannn rpenncL poHoame
pyxn-xpann1enn, a a neH caHoH o6n1ann xosnkn ornn - 6naroxena1enLnme orneakn n
sonyukn.
onrapnn po nepaannx pne coxpannncn o6pnp ornexoxpennn, - o16neck 1ex
o1panenneunx apeHen connuenoknonnnkoa-qpaknuea, korpa 6oconorne
pmxeaonocme peam-xpnum, a caeuennoH ncc1ynnennn o6pe1aaune ncnoanpenne,
nnncann na packanennmx yrnnx n ne o6xnranncL.
y ppyrnx napopoa xpann1enLnnuaHn neyracnHoro ornn 6mnn peam. ec1ankn
nna1nnncL xnsnLk sa y1pa1y uenoHyppnn. yuec1aye1 kakan-1o no1aennan cansL
Hexpy orneH n peac1aennoc1Lk. annune peac1aenno nneam - 1akan xe
ncknkun1enLnan oco6ennoc1L uenoaeueckoro popa, kak n nonLsoaanne orneH. s acex
xnamx cyuec1a opnn 1onLko uenoaek ne Hoxe1 o6xopn1Lcn 6es ornn. peac1aennan
nneaa, - opnoHy 1onLko uenoaeky npncyuee poc1onnne, 6eccHmcnennoe, kasanocL 6m,
6ecnonesnoe n nnorpa paxe apepnoe pnn spopoaLn, ne nanne1cn nacnepneH 1ak
nasmaaeHmx "xnao1nmx npepkoa", 1. k. o1cy1c1aye1 paxe y amcunx o6esLnn. D1o
caHoe pasn1enLnoe onpoaepxenne nepaneknx yHnnkoa, yxe 6onee c1a ne1 nuyunx
amHmunennoe "nepoc1akuee saeno" a uenn xnao1noro, nko6m, nponcxoxpennn
uenoaeka.
ennko pakne nasmaann rpekn ao apeHena ponncko aonm eaepo-aoc1ounyk
apony. "nnape" ec1L c1poka: "paknum c uy6oH na ronoae nac1aannn pnnnnme
konLn". ako xe uy6 nocnn nau no6eponocnm knnsL ae1ocnaa. pekn noun1ann
190
paknk caeuenno c1pano n popnno Mys. aHn paknum 6onee acero u1nnn
conneunoro epoca, 1oxpec1aennoro cnaannckoHy pnne. nonne aepon1no, u1o
nan6onee popc1aennm cnaannaH 6mnn nx 6nnskne cocepn qpaknum - aonnm n
oxo1nnkn, a ne koueame cko1oaopm - nnponpanum. npeanLnmHn npepc1aan1ennHn
6enokypo ceaepno pacm nannnncL ne 1uecnaanme rpekn, a o6une npepkn
qpaknuea n cnaann. pa6ckn ny1euec1aennnk 6n-apnan 6onee 1mcnun ne1 nasap
sanncan: " ne anpen nkpe c 6onee coaepuennmHn 1enaHn, ueH pyccm".
D1o1 apa6 na6nkpan cnaannckn norpe6anLnm o6pnp, ypnan1enLno cxoxn c 1eH, u1o
coo6uae1 o qpaknuax epopo1. cnaannckne, n qpaknckne xenm (ne pa6mnn!) a
cnyuae rn6enn Hyxa cun1ann sa uec1L 6n1L coxxennmHn aHec1e c nnH. poam
acxopnnn na norpe6anLnm koc1ep 1ak, 6yp1o npy1 na nmuyuee npmH nk6oanmH
orneH 6paunoe noxe. o cnoaaH xpnc1nanckoro nponoaepnnka onnqaunn,
nopaxennoro npepannoc1Lk cnaannok, onn "1ak c1poro co6nkpak1 cynpyxeckne
o6e1m, u1o xenm uac1o o1kasmaak1cn nepexnaa1L caonx Hyxe". rpeueckn
nonkoaopeu Maapnkn o1smaancn 1ak: "kpoHnoc1L nx xen npeamuae1 acnkyk
uenoaeueckyk npnpopy, 1ak u1o Hnorne ns nnx konunny caoero Hyxa noun1ak1
co6c1aenno cHep1Lk n po6poaonLno ypyuak1 ce6n..."
ennuec1aennm noxoponnm o6pnp uepes coxxenne Hnc1nuecknH o6pasoH cansan c
onnueH. ronL - cmn onnua, n 1onLko on poc1onn npoaoxa1L o1ouepuero a cae1nyk
o6n1enL pao1uoa. spmHakueecn aamcL nnaHn npnuauano ero aeuno-xnayue
c1nxnn; ounuenne seHno nno1n a ornenno kynenn cnyxnno aepnmH sanoroH noaoro
aonnouennn 6eccHep1noro uenoaeueckoro yxa. epL xnsnL ne sakanunaae1cn
cHep1Lk, a nnuL o6pe1ae1 apeHenno nnoe o6nnuLe, npnueH aonn, norn6un a
cpaxennn n xenunna, yHepuan o1 popoa, cHep1Lk aosaopn1cn a nespnHmx
xpann1ene n apoxnoan1ene opa, npno6uak1cn conHy pepkoa-okpoan1ene.
aaunx a 6ok sa 1unsny ne onnaknaann, a papoaanncL sa nnx, n6o snann, u1o
6ecc1paune o6ecneunno nH poc1onyk yuac1L. nennme cnaanne nepep kasnLk
1pe6oaann o1 xasap nocnepne Hnnoc1n: yHepe1L c HeuoH a pyke...
ocne kpoaaaoro kpeuennn ycn xpnc1nane npoknnnn ace npapepoackne o6muan n
o6nsann yHepunx ne cxnra1L, a sakanmaa1L nx a nHm kak napanL. eH caHmH uepkoaL
ynnsnna napop po kasnennmx sa npepa1enLc1ao n Hyxenoxc1ao npec1ynnnkoa,
nockonLky y cnaann nnuL nopo6nme ampopkn sacnyxnaann c1onL npespenno yuac1n.
aknH o6pasoa sa1pypnnnocL nx nepeaonnouenne, n pyua o6pekanacL na cyHepeunoe
6ecnpnk1noe ckn1anne...
c xe ornennm noxoponnm o6pnp y an1nue, nan6onee npnaepxennmx pepoaunne,
poxnn po XIV a. 6oxxennme koc1nkn knanncL ronoao na sanap, a nnuoH na aoc1ok;
sa1eH nacmnancn kypran. Hmcn 1akoro nonoxennn a 1oH, u1o rnasnnum 6mnn
o6pauenm naac1peuy onnuy, ncc1apn o1oxpec1anneHoHy c aospoxpenneH k noao
xnsnn.
a Herann1m n na6npnn1m eaepno aponm nanoxen o6e1 Honuannn, no ne1
coHnenn a 1oH, u1o onn cansmaann aoepnno kynL1 onnua n kynL1 Mp1amx.
po6nnua Lk-penpx, coopyxennan ns 200.000 1onn kaHne, nHee1 pnnnnm xop,
o1kpmaakuncn na aoc1ok, 1ak u1o a penL poxpennn noaoro onnua - a snHnn
onnueaopo1 y1pennne nyun osapnnn o6ropenme koc1n ao any1penneH noHeuennn.
ypyun ne a cnnax nckopenn1L cnaannckne cae1oo1eueckne o6muan, uepkoannkn,
akpapunao noppenmaancL nop nnx, 1oxe c1ann xoponn1L "pa6oa 6oxLnx" nnuoH na
aoc1ok. peaneune naun cae1nnnua, cypn no pacnonoxennk epnnc1aennoro koc1pa,
6mnn o6pauenm c1poro na aoc1ok. aknapmaan uepkoaL na nenennue cnaanncknx
koc1e, sopune 1oxe o6pauann ee an1apL k aocxopnueHy onnuy. paanno
o6paua1Lcn npn Honn1ae na aoc1ok, nensaec1noe nepamH xpnc1nanaH, nepenn1o 6mno
nHn y nsmunnkoa.
191
apopm, u1nauee onnue, napennnn nepame nyun aocxopnuero epxaanoro ae1nna
oco6o uypopec1aenno, xnan1enLno cnno. axe kaHennm ncnonnn MeHnon nen,
epaa npo6neck onnua na sape kacancn ero ry6; n a1o sayuanne, nopo6noe canpenn,
cnmuann 1pa6on, aacann n aenan.
ecc1pac1en onLuo yppa (amco1a 53 H), ampy6nennm a aqrancknx ckanax: no ao1
conneunm nyu ynan na kaHennm nnk, n a yronkax ry6 sanrpana sarapouno-
Hnnoceppnan, kak 6m ac nonnHakuan nonyynm6ka.
" a a1o1 Hnp npnuen, u1o6m anpe1L onnue!" - aocknnuan nakcarop.
nqaropeum amxopnnn ac1peua1L ae1nno, korpa nouL eue an1ana nap eHne, n
nenn npeppaccae1nme npnae1c1aennme rnHnm. a aocxope onnua coaepuan nekne
caeuennopec1aa n aennkn npaaepnnk nonnonn nanckn.
6opo1ncL na aoc1ok, na y1penne ape 1aopnnn caon saroaopm n saknn1nn cnaanne.
oHanun, amxopn na 1pony aonm, ocaeuann caoe opyxne nyuaHn aocxopnuero
onnua. apL uape cepkc Honnncn na aocxope.
snaHenn1oH DqecckoH xpaHe, noc1poennoH aHasonkaHn n paspyuennoH
epoc1pa1oH, saneua1neno 6mno aeuee o1kpoaenne: "L M
M M X".
onnuenoknonnnkn-nnonum roppo soay1 caon oc1poaa 1pano ocxopnuero onnua.
smkoaepm amncnnnn, u1o nnonckn nepornnq, cnHaonnsnpykun ,
pasnoxennm na coc1aanme uac1n, pae1 anrnnckoe cnoao "naq" - X.
nanppeaneunx aHoqpakncknx Hnc1epnnx nHenno nyun aocxopnuero onnua,
ypapnn a nnuo yuennka, norpyxennoro ao apeHennyk cHep1L (1.e. a coHnaH6ynnueckoe
coc1onnne, ocao6oxpakuee pyuy o1 1enecno o6onoukn), npo6yxpann, oxnannnn ero.
onnueH yuennk npnxopnn a ce6n n npocmnancn o1nmne
M a aennuauee 1annc1ao.
pa6ckne nnca1enn o1Heuann, u1o kannua nepamx cnaann a oHepannn (oHopLe) n
na o. ynne 6mnn kpacnmHn, a a kpoane nx 6mnn o1aepc1nn pnn npoxoxpennn nepamx
conneunmx nyue.
nkn snann koneco, no xpeum sanpe1nnn ncnonLsoaa1L ero ns-sa cxopc1aa c
conneunmH pnckoH. xpaHe ycko, cnoxennoH saponro po nnkoa ns c1onL
uypoanunmx rnm6, u1o ncnanum cun1ann ero 1aopenneH pLnaona, sono1oe
nso6paxenne onnua noHeuanocL 1ak, u1o6m na nero napann nepame cae1oame nyun
n, o1paxancL, osapnnn ac any1pn.
peunn nso6paxenne 6oxec1aa any1pn xpaHa pacnonaranocL 1ak, u1o6m ono Horno
anpe1L aocxop onnua. aHme apoxnoaennme rnHnm n npekpacneune xpaHm
nocae1nn uenoaek cae1nookoHy onnuy - nnkykueHy o6pasy o6pa, aocxopnueHy nap
aceHn 6oraHn.
nnuL opno pace conneunm 6mn nenaanc1en: an1apL xpaHa onoHona 6mn
o6pauen . pynneun pennrnoaep D. enop a "epao6m1no kynL1ype"
nnue1: "oknonenne onnuy cun1anocL y nypeea aennknH rpexoH, n cansannoe c nnH
o6pauenne connuenoknonnnkoa na aoc1ok 6mno npo1nano nypecknH o6muanH".
o1oHy 1akyk sno6y n c1pax amsmaae1 y cnyxn1ene 1LHm caeuennm snak acex
cae1onoknonnnkoa - .
192
Henno a penL aecennero paanopenc1ann onnue aocxopn1 1ouno na aoc1oke. no1oHy
opna ns oce cae1nnnu acex napopoa 6mna opnen1npoaana na a1y 1ouky (caHo cnoao
"opnen1anLnm" osnauae1 no-na1mnn "aoc1ounm"). pnnH ns aaxneunx
npepnasnauenn conneunmx xpaHoa 6mno npepaapenne, onpepenenne aennknx
1opxec1a - pne aanopenc1ann n onnuec1onnnn.
npaHnpa eonca, a ko1opo neaexpm anpn1 nnuL rpoHapnyk rpo6nnuy, nannnacL,
npexpe acero, xpaHoH nocaeuennn a conneunme Hnc1epnn, aonnouennmH a kaHne
M. 1akxe conneunmHn uacaHn, o1cun1maakunHn rop c nsyHn1enLno
1ounoc1Lk po 0,24219 pnn!!! 1penka-1enL o1 nnpaHnpm ncuesana nonnoc1Lk nHenno
a nonpenL . o cnx nop sarapka, kak xpeum po6naanncL
c1onL 6acnocnoanmx amuncnenn; noroaapnaak1 paxe o saespnmx "6pa1Lnx no
pasyHy". caoe apeHn qapaonm nsrnann nypeea kak npokaxennmx (napxa1mx), n
noa1oHy coapeHennan nayka c ee nypecknH sacnnLeH saHanunaae1 ypnan1enLnme
poc1nxennn ernn1nn, no sa1o po ne6ec npeaosnocn1 py1yk snaunHoc1L Dnu1ena n
pepa.
pynneun ernn1onor x. pac1ep nncan, u1o qnnkc, nonynorpe6ennm a neckax
yxe ao apeHena eonca, nannncn "cnHaonoH apHaxnca - ocxopnuero onnua".
ono1onnoe, a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne cnoaa, nsaannne, aospanrny1oe eue a1nan1aHn,
pacnonoxeno coo1ae1c1aenno nonanennk onnua na sape a penL paanopenc1ann.
a1o1 penL onnue n aocxopn1 n saxopn1 1ouno no ocn qnnkca.
Mn1pa - cae1noe conneunoe 6oxec1ao nnponpanuea. Mn1panueckne nocaeuennn,
aocxnuaaune pyun po ouyuennn 6eccHep1nn, 1opxec1aenno cnpaannnncL ao apeHn
ecennero aanopenc1ann.
onnuenoknonnnkaHn 6mnn kopennme o6n1a1enn o6noHka sa1onyauero Ha1epnka - 1ak
nasmaaeHoro o. acxn. a amcouaueH aynkane oc1poaa naxopnnocL ppeaneuee
cae1nnnue, coopyxennoe c yu1oH nonoxennn onnua a pnn paanopenc1ann n
connuec1onnnn. rpoHnoe nsaannne noun1anocL aceH nacenenneH oc1poaa, n aokpyr
nero coaepuanncL caeuennopec1aa a pnn ecennero aanopenc1ann anno1L po 1868
r., korpa oc1poan1nne nopaeprnncL xpnc1nannsaunn, a "npon" 6mn yaesen a
pn1anckn Myse.
nounne ynnkoaa nonn nexn1 15-1onnm peyronLnm kaHenL, cnyxnaun naunH
npauypaH pnn onpepenennn 1ouek aocxopa onnua a pnn npaspnec1a aanopenc1ann n
onnuec1onnnn.
naanan ocL 1oynxenpxa - a1oro aocLHoro uypa cae1a, uLe aospanxenne
npnnncmaanocL uapopek Mepnnny, ykasmaae1 na 1ouky aocxopnuero onnua a penL
ne1nero connuec1onnnn. 6osnauenm 1akxe 1oukn aocxopa a pnn paanopenc1ann.
kasannn pasnmx napopoa epnnopyuno noun1ak1 rpanpnosnme pynnm nepao6m1nmx
xpaHoa 1aopenneH Haroa, unknonoa n aennkanoa. ae1nnnua a1n, ko1opme ueH
ppeanee, 1eH coaepuennee, kasanncL uypoH nocnepykunH nokonennnH. aknH xe
nenpaaponopo6nmH uypoH onn kaxy1cn n naH. paH onnua a aanL6eke nokon1cn na
1pex kaHennmx nnn1ax aecoH 1200 1onn kaxpan, nopnn1mx a nesanaHn1nme apeHena
na amco1y 7 He1poa. a kaHenonoHne xpana caoero uaca ue1aep1an
yHonoHpaun1enLnan nnn1a aecoH 2000 1onn!!! pecL 6esHonac1ayk1 paxe npepannn.
YHonkae1 n 6okan nayka; aepL paxe coapeHennmH nopLeHnmH kpanaH 1akoe ne nop
cnny...
pasnmx c1panax coxpannnncL ncnonnnckne kaHennme nso6paxennn, amceuennme
1ak, u1o onn c1anoan1cn anpnHmHn nnuL a paccae1nm uac pne ,
korpa napakune nop onpepenennmH yrnoH nyun npeapauak1 cnyuanme, kasanocL
6m, narpoHoxpennn rnm6 a npnuypnname nsaannnn. rpa 6nnkoa n 1ene oxnanne1
193
sac1maune a kaHne o6pasm; saxnrak1cn, cnoano npospeaak1 rnasa neanpannmx
cyuec1a, n a pasnoHax ckan nepep sauapoaannmH ny1nnkoH anesanno nponannk1cn,
npo6yxpak1cn o1 konpoackoro cna ckasounme nnkn, a sa1eH cnoaa okaHeneaak1.
akne Hec1a, nopo6nme ecoay ocy na nexckoH osepe nnn "1pane aHennmx
ponoa" na eaepnoH Ypane cnmay1 o6muno o6n1enLk yxoa.
1977 r. anrnnckne yuenme nccnepoaann sarapounme, c1onune konLuoH kaHnn
nepaneko o1 kcqoppa. Y opnoro ns kaHne nepep aocxopoH onnua yaepenno
ynaannaanncL nHnynLcm ynL1pasayka, npnueH nan6onee cnnLnoe n pnn1enLnoe
nsnyuenne na6nkpanocL a pnn ! axe kaHnn npnae1c1ayk1 ae1nno,
rpencL a nyuax nsnnaakuecn nk6an...
pac1ennn, nenocpepc1aenno nn1akunecn conneuno 6naropa1Lk, uy1ko onpepennk1
nonoxenne onnua na ne6e paxe 1orpa, korpa ne nopaeprak1cn npnHoHy aospec1ank
ero nyue.
anpn ponc po nac 1pora1enLnoe ckasanne o 1oH, kak nn1nn, nonk6nauan ennoca,
ne ac1pe1nna asanHnoc1n n anana a 6esyHne. ecuac1nan nepec1ana ec1L n nn1L n ne
Horna o1opaa1L asop o1 aosnk6nennoro, noaopaunaan ronoay acnep sa panraaunHcn no
ne6ocknony onnueH. ak ona npnpocna k seHne n npeapa1nnacL a renno1pon -
uae1ok, noc1onnno noaopaunaakuncn acnep sa onnueH.
ae1ok onyckae1 nnc1Ln n c1e6nn c saxopoH onnua n anoaL npocmnae1cn c paccae1oH.
D1o caoc1ao npncyue n HnornH ppyrnH pac1ennnH, no renno1pon o6napae1 oco6o,
neo6LncnnHo uyac1an1enLnoc1Lk: uae1ok aepe1 ce6n nopo6nmH o6pasoH, X
copepxn1cn a nonneue 1eHno1e! ypnan1enLneue 1ounoc1Lk on
npoponxae1 packpmaa1Lcn c aocxopoH n cknapmaae1cn c saxopoH onnua. o1annkn ne
Hory1 ckasa1L, na ce cue1 nnuero apasyHn1enLnoro, kpoHe o6unx qpas o 6nopn1Hax.
a1L nasaanne kakoHy-nn6o nanennk eue paneko ne snaun1 nonn1L ero. nHenno a
pac1ennn , u1o onnmuko asouno?
a n caH onneunm ae1: u1o a1o 1akoe? eko1opme aonpocm naykn nac1onLko c1apm,
u1o nkpn paxe sa6mnn, u1o onn oc1anncL 6es o1ae1a. cnncke neo6muanmx
ne6ecnmx nanennn nonnoe conneunoe sa1Henne c1on1 na nepaoH Hec1e; cpepL 6ena
pnn na sna1okyppoe ae1nno Hepnenno nanonsae1 snoaeuan 1enL, n kak 1onLko
uepnm pnck uennkoH ckpoe1 onnue, ne6o no1eHnee1, n na neH acnmxny1 saespm.
opasn1enLnoe, nesa6maaeHoe spennue - sakpm1oe nynnmH pnckoH onnue a
6nnc1akueH xeHuyxnoH aenue-kopone.
a pnpope - nepenonox: npnuy1cn 6a6oukn, n1num c6naak1cn a c1an, ckynn1 n aok1
co6akn, Heuy1cn nouapn, peae1 cko1nna... opo6nmH "canc1oH saepnnmH"
conpoaoxpanocL n o1Heuennoe a "noae o nonky ropeae" sa1Henne 1185 r., korpa
caHo onnue nanno knnsk-xpnc1nannny c1paunoe snaHenne.
o noueHy ao apeHn sa1Hennn X M 1ak aonnyk1cn xnao1nme? a u1o
onn c1onL 6onesnenno o1smaak1cn? Moxe1 npoc1o na yHenLuenne ocaeuennoc1n?
orpa noueHy onn ne nyrak1cn, korpa na onnue appyr nanonsak1 uepnme 1yun?
naun1, ec1L pnn nnx pasnnua?! paaponopo6noro o6Lncnennn yuenme po cnx nop ne
npnpyHann.
onLko ao apeHn nonnoro sa1Hennn na6nkpae1cn nsyHn1enLnoe nanenne conneuno
koponm, nponcxoxpenne n cy1L ko1opo oc1ae1cn opno ns sarapok onnua. yna
-- sakpmaae1 onnue, no ne Hoxe1 npnkpm1L okpyxakun ero opeon.
nn ocyuec1anennn nonnoro conneunoro sa1Hennn neo6xopnHo amnonnenne uenoro
pnpa ycnoan: rnaaneuee ns nnx - npak1nueckoe paaenc1ao yrnoamx pasHepoa
onnua n ynm. naHe1p onnua - 1392000 kH, pnaHe1p ynm - 3476 kH. o ecnn
194
nynnm nonepeunnk a 400 pas HenLue conneunoro, sa1o yna a 400 pas 6nnxe k
eHne, ueH onnue. o1 Hm n anpnH nx nop opnnH n 1eH xe yrnoH a nonrpapyca.
korpa ao apeHn sa1Hennn onnue kak 6m saxopn1 sa yny, nx pnaHe1pm coanapak1 n
kaxy1cn naH paanmHn. asae a1o ne nopasn1enLno caHo no ce6e? epL pacue1m,
amnonnennme na DM, nokasann, u1o cnyuanoe coanapenne neaepon1no...
Y e1e a "ayc1e" onnue nso6paxae1cn sayuaunH; e1e roaopn1 o Hysmke cqep -
nonn1nn, sanHc1aoaannoH nqaropoH y opqnkoa-nocnepoaa1ene qpaknckoro
necnoneaua pqen. pqnkaH cenennan npepc1aannnacL epnnmH coaepuennmH -
M, pnano sayuaunH napoH. nn ne 1onLko snann, u1o apauenne cae1nn
nopoxpae1 ne6ecnyk Hysmky, M. epaano yuenme o6napyxnnn a
conneunoH nsnyuennn aonnm c coaepuenno nensaec1nmHn xapak1epnc1nkaHn.
co6ennoc1n, npncyune a1nH aonnaH, ne oc1aannk1 coHnenn a 1oH, u1o aonnm a1n
Y, a ne Harnn1noro nponcxoxpennn.
ocne kpeuennn ycn uepkoannkn nacaxpann npaspnoaanne pne caonx 1ak
nasmaaeHmx "can1mx" (uLn pykn 6mnn no noko1L a kpoan nsmunnkoa). 16 nknn (29 no-
noaoHy) o1Heuancn penL nxona. a napope popnnncL noroaopkn: "a nxona onnue
npe1 1nue", "Y eHnn sa rop caHm 1nxn xop". pecL npoc1oe cosayune cnoa
coue1anocL c upesamuano 1onknHn na6nkpennnHn, nockonLky cnyc1n neckonLko
aekoa ac1ponoHm nop1aeppnnn, u1o k konuy nknn eHnn pec1an1enLno c6aanne1
ckopoc1L panxennn aokpyr onnua no cpaanennk co ckopoc1Lk na 1 nnaapn na 3600
kH a uac. o naun aonxam snann a1o saponro po 1oro, kak nayka sanoao "o1kpmna"!
D1a nayka yxe saaena uenoaeuec1ao a 1ynnk. pepxnHan xpnc1nancknH Hpako6ecneH,
npo1naoec1ec1aennan, nepenacmuennan unannnsaunn o1paanne1 eHnk caonHn
xnHnuecknHn n papnoak1nanmHn ncnpaxnennnHn, u1o rposn1 rn6enLk aceHy xnaoHy.
orpa a cpepnne aeka kpmcm upesHepno pasHnoxanncL, onyc1ouann n sapaxann ac
aokpyr, anesanno noc1nran nx Hop. axpm 6nonornueckn anp npnsaan anocn1L caok
nen1y a o6uyk konnnky uae1yue Xnsnn. akoa , n anp
6ype1 o6peuen na ynnu1oxenne, ncuesne1 c nnua eHnn, ecnn on ac1ynae1 a
npo1naopeune c pnpopo. npm, o1pnua1enLno annnkune na o6uee MY
M, noc1enenno amHnpak1, no X X.
Mm - nakanyne cokpyun1enLnoro nsnoHa uenoaeuecko nc1opnn. yxe nac1aennm
snaHennn pnnnno npoc1n - pacunpnkunecn npo6onnm a osonoaoH un1e,
saunuakueH nac o1 upesHepnoro conneunoro ynL1paqnone1oaoro o6nyuennn.
c1ouenne osonoaoro cnon upeaa1o rn6enLk nan6onee uyac1an1enLnmx k
noamuennoHy ynL1paqnone1y xnamx cyuec1a - X , pnn
ko1oporo nocnepc1ann 1akoro o6orneaennn (rnea n oronL - o1 opnoro kopnn) 6ypy1
caHme nary6nme.
saec1no, u1o conneunm cae1, uenn1enLnm caH no ce6e, 6ypyun cocpepo1ouen c
noHouLk oco6mx renno1epanea1nuecknx npn6opoa, nsneunaae1 uenm pnp 1nxknx
sa6oneaann, a 1oH uncne snokauec1aennmx koxnmx, X rnonme panm.
pnueH uene6nmH aospec1aneH o6napae1 nHenno yuac1ok conneunoro
cnek1pa, napenennm oco6o X . e cnyuano kpoaL - kpacnan.
nocnnenan kpacno1a pae1 1pynno- uae1 (uae1 uepkoanmx pnc).
paun npepynpexpak1, u1o ycnnenne ynL1paqnone1a amsoae1 6mc1pm poc1 uncna
sa6oneaann pakoH n, a nepayk ouepepL, c1peHn1enLnmH pakoH koxn: a epax rnn
c1penaHn nac1nrae1 neuec1nauea, kneHn1 nx caonHn ornennmHn He1kaHn-nsaaHn.
xnpae1cn 1akxe Hnoxec1ao rnasnmx 6onesne, - eu a rpeuecknx Hnqax ennoc-
onnue ncuennn cnenmx, no Hor n kapa1L cneno1o.
195
Xec1kn ynL1paqnone1 ocna6nne1 nHHynnyk cnc1eHy uenoaeka, acnepc1ane uero
pesko ycnnnaak1cn anpycnme sa6oneaannn: 1onLko naHk na noaanLnm Hop
6ypyuero. YnL1paqnone1 o1pnua1enLno aospec1aye1 na nacnepc1aennoc1L.
eyknonnm poc1 apoxpnnmx nopokoa n ypopc1a - snoaeuee canpe1enLc1ao ac
y6mc1pnkuerocn neo6pa1nHoro X popa uenoaeueckoro. unc1nauncL o1
ckaepnm, pnpopa aocc1anoan1 osonoam cno n nanpaan1 XnsnL no noaoHy pycny.
enc1pe6nHo npepuyac1ane npnuec1ann rpnpyue pacm mnoa ae1a, npeaocxopnue
nmneunee uenoaeuec1ao ne a HenLue c1enenn, ueH kpoHanLoneu npeaocxopnn
neanpep1anLua. cn cosnpa1enLnan HouL pnpopm cocpepo1oun1cn a a1o noao,
pacuae1akue pace, a 1o apeHn kak c1apan yracne1.
ekn asne1 - nepexop a kauec1aenno nnoe coc1onnne, anesannme nacnepc1aennme
nsHenennn (no nayunoHy - Hy1aunn) nopopn1 enoaeka, ec1ec1aenno-aonue6nmH
o6pasoH cansannoro c nnaHn pnpopm, a ne npo1naoc1onuero nH. kasano, u1o
coc1papanne ec1L po6pope1enL cnnLnmx, a ne cna6mx. no1oHy Horyuee nneHn
ns6pannnkoa pnpopm, ouyuakunx caok popc1aennoc1L co aceHn xnamHn
cyuec1aaHn n ocosnakunx caok o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa nnx, noc1aan1 ao rnaay yrna
npaac1aennoe o1nouenne k 6ecnpaanmH n 6essaun1nmH.
oam uenoaek YX nenpepmano c yuac1neH ero co6c1aennmx ycnnn n
po6po aonn. aHoaocnn1maae1cn, caHocoaepuenc1aye1cn, caHoy1aepxpae1cn
, apoxnoanneHan MM .
pnpope opnn anpm amxnaak1, npncnoca6nnaak1cn k nsHennaunHcn ycnoannH, a
ppyrne ne npncnoca6nnaak1cn n amHnpak1. paxe a opnoH 6nonornueckoH anpe
neko1opme cnnLnme xaxpo xnsnn oco6n Hory1 coxpann1Lcn, a ppyrne, cna6me - ne
Hory1. ak xe n cpepn nkpe.
nno uyac1a, oco6mH ropenneH yxa n 6naroxena1enLc1aoH aceHy cyueHy annne1
uenoaek na kauec1aennoe nsHenenne caoero 1onkoro any1pennero paonnka-pyun, a
nsHenenne pyun aneue1 6naro1aopnme nsHenennn 1enecno o6onoukn. ak yxe ceuac
ampa6a1maae1cn neo6xopnHan saun1a o1 ynL1paqnone1a. 1onLko 1ak Hoxe1 uenoaek
o6pec1n neynsanHoc1L n 6es6onesnenno ac1pe1n1L nens6exnme nepeHenm.
"nxnHnn" 1akoro saun1noro npeo6pasoaannn naH nenoc1nxnHa 1ak xe, kak
nenoc1nxnHo o1cy1c1ane oxoroa y ornexopuoa. kpm1me aosHoxnoc1n uenoaeka
nencuepnaeHm...
pnc1nane, npepuyac1ayn co6c1aennyk 6ecnpocae1nyk o6peuennoc1L, npeppekann
"koneu cae1a". o pasae koneu xpnc1nanckoro Hnpa (n nacnepc1aenno cansannoro c
nnH HycynLHanckoro) nan1cn rn6enLk uenoaeuec1aa? e1, a1o 6ype1 ne
cae1onpec1aanenne, no nap 1LHo:
pnno ornennok naao
cnenenn1 aparoa nykaamx!
! Y ! !
* * *
naaa pnne-a1kuke! naaa eHne-Ma1yuke!
pn6nnxae1cn - , ppeaneun n rnaaneun o6uecnaannckn npaspnnk
ynanm-onnueaopo1a. naropapn o6uenneHennoHy yuac1nk 1opxec1ao a1o
196
nasmaanocL eue co6m1neH (co-6m1neH), co6opoH. aeuennopec1ao ynanm 6mno
c1onL snaunHmH, u1o na ppeannx cnaanncknx rapa1enLnmx uapax kpecenL (nknL)
o1Heuen ypaoennmH snakoH onnua - payHn kocmHn kpec1aHn - "kpecaHn". oco
(apauakuncn) kpec1 c sarny1mHn nocononL konuaHn - popno snak acex
nnpoeaponeuea: y cnaann on nHenoaancn M, y nnpycoa - caac1nko.
npaspnec1ae ynanm cnnnncL aoepnno uec1aoaanne payx ounc1n1enLnmx nauan -
ornn n aopm. ronL noun1ancn kak cmn pnnm-onnua, a aopa kak xnan1enLnan cnna
Ma1epn-mpo-eHnn.
naanne, kak n ace nepao6m1nme napopm, opyxo1aopnnn pnpopy; acenponnkakun
yx-op, coaeunm n any1penne npncyun pnpope, neo1pennH o1 e 1ak xe, kak
ae1 neo1pennH o1 onnua. D1o ec1ec1aennoe, nsnauanLnoe (a, cnepoaa1enLno,
coaepuennoe) Hnpoouyuenne 6mno nsapaueno nypansHoH n payHn ero o1npmckaHn -
xpnc1nanc1aoH n ncnaHoH, rpe yx npo1naonoc1aanen pnpope kak o6oco6nenne,
napnpnpopnoe, no1yc1oponnee nauano - 6or.
nkaknx 6oroa a 1akoH nckycc1aennoH, uepkoanoH nonnHannn y cnaann ne 6mno. a n
k ueHy 6mno nsHmunn1L eu kaknx-1o 6oroa n 6oropopnu, korpa pnno kaxpoe y1po
nannn nepyko1aopnm nnk cao, Ma1L-eHnn opapnaana cnno, a yxn pepkoa
o6eperann o1 nanac1e? cnuecknx "caepxLec1ec1aennmx" 6oroa ampyHann 1e, k1o
xo1en nx nHeneH saka6ann1L ("ka66ana" - nypeckoe konpoac1ao) pnpopy n napopm.
naannckne kyHnpm ne 1onLko onnue1aopnnn aonue6nme cnnm pnpopm, no n
nannnncL aonnouenneH kako-nn6o pyueano c1nxnn. pnno 6mn anac1n1eneH 1o
oco6o, caeuenno npoc1n (ne snoc1n!), u1o 6ykaanLno no1pncana aparoa no6epnmH
knnueH n ns6aannna aonna o1 ocnsannn 6oneamx panenn.
ynana xe nec1 a ce6e ppeanennpoeaponeckn kopenL "kyn" - aoxpenenne,
neoponnHoe nk6oanoe npn1nxenne, Horyun soa opa (o1ckpa xe pnHckn ynnpon).
Y onnue1aopnn xnao1aopnuee Y Hyxckoro conneunoro nauana n
seHnoro xenckoro. okpoaennoHy 6pakocoue1annk pnnm n eHnn coo1ae1c1aoaano na
uenoaeueckoH ypoane 1annc1ao saua1nn, yropnoro conneunoHy cnaannckoHy opy.
pouae1anne opa nn1ae1 papoc1Lk pepkoa-okpoan1ene. onxam noyuann
popn1ene, u1o saua1ne ec1L caeuennopec1ao, saunnakuee 1eno - xpaH pnn
xaxpyuero aonno1n1Lcn pepka-copopnua.
ynana 6mn npaspnnkoH k6an n rnn, npaspnnkoH coepnnennn aosnk6nennmx.
aeuennm ronL naaekn o6pyuan cyxenmx; asnauncL sa pykn, onn nonapno
nepenpmrnaann uepes ocaeuakun-ounuakun koc1ep. rpa a ropenkn - a1o o16neck
1ex nnaHennmx nrpnu (ynanLckn koc1ep pan nHn peke n ropopy oc1poHa).
pnno a penL onnueaopo1a caHm amcokn, nono eHnn caHoe nnopopopnoe, poca n
1paam caHme uene6nme. no1oHc1ao, saua1oe a nouL, korpa pacuae1ae1 rneuae1,
6ype1 caHmH xnsnec1oknH n neynsanHmH pnn snoro rnasa.
aunna1L noayk nopocnL nonaranocL npnHo na seHne, na kypranax - Hornnax
pao1uoa na pacnmx opkax, u1o cnyxnno sanoroH npeeHc1aennoc1n n
nenpepmanoc1n nepeaonnouakuecn X. xnae1 c 1ex apeHen, c 1ex kpacounmx
o6pnpoamx nrp napopnm o6mua nrpa1L caapL6m na pacnyk opky.
oaokynnennn a nouL na ynany 6mnn ne pasrynoH pasnyspanno noxo1n, kak 1o
anyuak1 uepkoannkn, no 6paunmH coepnnenneH ao cnaay opa. aue cnoao "xena"
opnoro kopnn c na1nncknH "renyc" - pop. eHLn o1 cnoaa "ceHn", n6o o6pasye1cn ona,
npexpe acero, pnn npoponxennn opa (uapo o1 "saua1L").
197
ynnune peakn nonannk1cn na ycn 1onLko nocne e kpoaaaoro kpeuennn. onm
oxo1no o1nyckann nH rpexn; aepL Hnorne pannexpnc1nanckne "can1me npaaepnnum"
6mnn o6munmHn npoc1n1y1kaHn a ny6nnunmx poHax nHa. a n no canpe1enLc1ay
caHo 6n6nnn, npn xpaHe onoHona noc1onnno xnnn 6nypnnum, npnuH poxopm o1 nx
pacny1c1aa unn a xpaHoayk kasny.
pepkn naun npeamue acero uennnn Hyxec1ao Hyxunn n xenckyk xenc1aennoc1L.
aHmH 1nxknH ockop6nenneH y cnaann n y repHanuea cun1anocL o6annenne a nonoaoH
nsapauennn. 1o npnnecno c co6o xpnc1nanc1ao? no sapasnno ack apony: auname
aonkune Honaxn pasnocnnn noackpy ppeanne nypeckne o6muan copoHnn-
Hyxenoxc1aa (opoH - 6n6neckn ropop). aaopn1 na pasHmunennn noyuennn
ncyca: "cnkn, k1o cHo1pn1 na xenunny c aoxpenenneH, yxe npenk6opec1aoaan c
nek a ceppue caoeH. cnn xe rnas 1ao co6nasnne1 1e6n, ampan ero". k6onm1no, k1o
1orpa xopnn 6m no seHne spnunH? pnn nepepac1m... neuero ypnann1Lcn, aepL
sanoaepn ncyca rny6oko apaxpe6nm X n nano nauenenm na ee nckopenenne.
ypen cun1ann caeuenno o6nsannoc1Lk pasHnoxenne 1onLko caoero
"6orons6pannoro" nneHenn, npnsaannoro, nko6m, rocnopc1aoaa1L nap npounHn
"paynornHn cko1aHn". c1ouennk n saka6anennk "npononoknonnnkoa" n ponxno 6mno
cnoco6c1aoaa1L xpnc1nanc1ao - pennrnn nnunx pyxoH, 1enoH n pasyHoH 6espopnmx
pa6oa. no nyuue acero o6eckpoannaae1, amxonaunaae1 X n aep1 e k
ampoxpennk. e spn ac1pe1n1L Honaxa-uepneua (yHep1an1enn nno1n) acerpa
cun1anocL pypnmH snakoH.
e, k1o nenaanpenn X, nenaanpenn n Xenunny - epxa1enLnnuy opa.
xpnc1nac1ao onpepennno xenunny cyuec1aoH nsnauanLno neunc1mH. axe caHo
sapoxpenne uenoaeka yxe cun1anocL nopounmH; nnaue kak nonnHa1L "nenopounoe
saua1ne" Mapnn? nyuanocL, u1o papoc1nH xnsnn aoo6ue ne ponxno 6m1L Hec1a
nepep nnuoH ckoporo a1oporo npnuec1ann n cae1onpec1aanennn.
1apauenne k xnsnn anyuann n nso6paxennme na nkonax nsHoxpnnme
nnockorpypme xenunnm n yskonneune 1uepyunme Hyxunnm. op 1aknH naaaxpenneH
kpenoc1nme kpec1Lnnkn ao apeHn noc1oa kopHnnn rpypnmx Hnapenuea aHec1o Honoka
HopkoanmH cokoH.
ocxnuenne kpaco1o n coaepuenc1aoH spenoro xenckoro 1ena 1ak xe ec1ec1aenno,
kak n aocxnuenne pnpopo. okpoan1enLnnue nk6an n cynpyxec1aa 6mna y cnaann
apa.
nenn1enLnm okpyrnoc1n uae1yue xencko nno1n, nnaano nepennaakunecn opna a
ppyryk; nx nsrn6m n oaanm nsyHnnk1 caoe npaannLnoc1Lk n saaepuennoc1Lk.
1uero onn 1ak nackak1 asop, saaopaxnaak1 n uapyk1? a o11oro, u1o naH nan6onee
npnn1nm okpyrnme nnnnn, nanoHnnakune uap - a1o 6esynpeunoe, npeanLnoe
1aopenne pnpopm. epapoH Hm noppasyHeaaeH nanamcuyk c1enenL kakoro-nn6o
kauec1aa, roaopn: kpyrnm o1nnunnk, kpyrnm cnpo1a, kpyrnm neaexpa.
kpyxnoc1L n uap saknkuak1 a ce6e coaepuenc1ao. eHno uap, apauancL, panxe1cn
no kpyry. aH pnno nopo6en uapy. a n acn cenennan - cnnounme kpyrn n
uapoo6pasnme saespnme ckonnennn, npe6maakune a nenpec1annoH ec1ec1aennoH
konoapauennn...
pnpopa nopo6na a caonx nponanennnx. Xenunna aonnouae1 nnoponocnyk cnny
pnpopm, pnanyk kpaco1y, o6annne n nsaeunyk any. e ypnan1enLno, u1o
nmunme, nonnoaecnme xenckne npenec1n c1onL cxoxn co cnenmHn, nann1mHn
nnopaHn. yHnnan, 6naroyxannan Hnko1L nnopa - a1o nakoHan npnHanka,
co6nasnn1enLnan n soayuan: "LeuL Henn!". Ma1L-pnpopa Hyppa: ona cynn1
198
nacnaxpenne sa ocao6oxpenne noao xnsnn, saknkuenno any1pn nnopa - a
ceHeukax.
kpyrnme nneun, 6eppa n konenn, nHoukn na nok1nx, na cnnne, na uekax - a1o 1a xe
npnHanka opa. annnnnra, 1. e. npekpacnosapan, - 1ak nasmaanocL opno ns
HpaHopnmx nsaannn enepm. ropa n nropnum - cnoaa popc1aennme.
au ynana - popno 6pa1 nonnca, akxa n ana... pna n 1a xe Horyuan,
nepao6m1nan c1nxnn sakpyunaana anxpeH pycanLckne nnncoame xopoaopm n
kpyroaep1L qpakncknx xpnu-aakxanok. akxanannnHn nasmaanncL 1opxec1aa,
nopo6nme ynanLcknH. akoamHn xe 6mnn n oprnn: ppeanerpeueckoe "oprnn"
pocnoano osnauano caeuennopec1ao. 1pnua1enLnm cHmcn a a1n cnoaa 6mn anoxen
neppyraHn ropaspo nosxe.
ynanLckne o6pnpm penann uenoaeka conpnuac1nmH caeuennopec1ay caHo
pnpopm. ycanLckne nnnckn, onnue1aopnkune n npocnaannkune aennkyk
nnopopopnyk cnny opa, 6mnn aonnounnmH saknnnanneH, no6yxpakunH pnpopy k
co-pec1annH, xnsnenno aaxnmH pnn nneHenn. o1 kak a ckoacko ne1onncn nekn
Honax 6nuye1 nounoe nrpnue XVI aeka: "rpa Hano ne aecL rpap asHn1e1cn n
as6ecn1cn..., 6y6nm n conenn... xenaH xe n peaaH nneckanne n nnncanne, n yc1aH nx
nenpnnsnen knnu n aonnL, aceckaepnme necnn, n xpe61oH nx anxnnnne n noraHn nx
ckakanne n 1onanne..." ypn no a1oHy onncannk, saxnra1enLnme canc1onnnckn,
conpoaoxpaeHme canpennHn, rycnnpnmH saonoH n ac napac1akunH HepnmH poko1oH
6apa6anoa, npo6yxpann spopoayk uyac1aennoc1L.
aeuennmH o6pnpaH, cansannmH c aonnouenneH pepkoa, npnpaaanocL orpoHnoe
snauenne, aepL o1 nnx saanceno caHo cyuec1aoaanne opa-neHenn. aHmH c1paunmH
nakasanneH 6mn sanpe1 na yuac1ne a 1opxec1aax. naano uenLk xpnc1nanc1aa 6mno
nopopaa1L pec1aennyk HouL a1nx o6pnpoa, pasopaa1L aonue6nme cansn cnaannckoro
opa c ero epernnnHn n pepkaHn-okpoan1ennHn.
m1ancL noracn1L ynanLckne rnn, uepkoaL yxe a XI a. aaena noam Hnoropneanm
ne1poackn noc1, nokpmaun caHm pasrap rnaanoro acenapopnoro npaspnnka. oc1
a1o1, nensaec1nm nn ka1onnkaH, nn rpekaH-ansan1nuaH, pnnncn po 29 nknn (no-
c1apoHy), po pnn e1pa n aana. enL e1pa n aana, yupexpennm a uec1L payx
nypeea, 6mn 1pe1LnH ns nn1n "aennknx npaspnnkoa npaaocnaano uepkan" (nepamH
"aennknH npaspnnkoH" nanne1cn penL o6pesannn ncyca). o apeHn noc1a
sanpeuanocL 6paunoe coxn1enLc1ao; 1aknH o6pasoH, caHoe 6naronpnn1noe, cansannoe
c nnkoH pnnnno Houn apeHn pnn saua1nn spopoaoro, nonnokpoanoro no1oHc1aa
6mno y1epnno.
ypyun, opnako, ne a cnnax paxe orneH n HeuoH nckopenn1L conneunme 1opxec1aa,
uyxepopnan pennrnn akpapunao, ncnop1nuka nopronnna nop nnx caon npaspnnkn. ue
panLue xpnc1nane npnypounnn "poxpec1ao pnc1oao" ko pnk poxpennn noaoro
onnua - snHneHy onnueaopo1y 25 peka6pn (no-c1apoHy). 1cun1aa nasap 9 Hecnuea,
nonm "onpepennnn", penL, korpa Mapnn "nonecna ao upeae". enL a1o1, nasaannm
6naroaeuenneH, ponxen 6mn sa1eHnn1L npaspnnk ecennero aanopenc1ann 25 Hap1a.
ynana - ne1nn onnueaopo1 24 nknn 6mn o6Lnanen "poxpec1aoH oanna
pec1n1enn" - a1opmH ns nn1n "aennknx npaspnnkoa". 1ckpa npo1naoec1ec1aennoe
cnoaocoue1anne "aan-ynana": aepL aan - a1o ynpouennoe nypeckoe nHn
oxanaan (1. e. oann). co6oe uec1aoaanne uepkoaLk oanna pec1n1enn n
"nopapnno" ycn c1onLknx kpeuenmx aanoa, ne noHnnunx popc1aa.
o1n rnaaenc1ao a cnaanncknx caeuennopec1aax o1aopnnocL pnne-onnuy, no
ynanLckne o6pnpm aknkuann a ce6n n oHoaenne-ounuenne aopo (o1ckpa - kynenL).
199
1o6m nerue 6mno nopHenn1L n snoapepno nepennaun1L o6pnp, n nonapo6nncn oann
pec1n1enL, kpec1naun nypeea a aope, 1. e. kynanneH.
naanne noun1ann aopy caeuenno c1nxne, nepaoocnoao n nc1ounnkoH-popnnkoH
acero xnaoro, aonnouenneH Ma1epn-mpo-eHnn. neaa1L a aopy - ac paano, u1o
Ha1epn a rnasa. ynanLckyk nouL na kyc1ax y popnnka pasaeunaanncL kpacnme
nen1m - o6pauenne k yxy opm - Hnp 1aoeHy poHy!
opa ne npoc1o au paa . opa - sarapounoe o6pasoaanne, nponcxoxpenne n
cyunoc1L ko1oporo ao HnoroH oc1ae1cn pnn naykn o6nac1Lk neo6LncnnHoro. onpocm
a1n 1ecno cansanm c caHmHn rny6nnnmHn sarapkaHn xnsnepen1enLnoc1n eHnn.
op pec1aneH pasnnunmx cnn "o6munan" aopa o6pe1ae1 appyr neo6muanme
caoc1aa. saec1no uypecnoe caoc1ao 1anmx, oHarnnuennmx n nnmx aos6yxpennmx
aop. epaano yuenme "o1kpmnn", u1o aopa o6napae1 ponroapeHenno naHn1Lk xnaoro
aeuec1aa; nsppeane aopa cnyxnna pnn naroaapnaannn, nockonLky cun1anacL
cnoco6no nepepa1L kak po6pme, 1ak n snme noHmcnm (o1ckpa uapopec1ao-aopox6a
nap uapo c aopo).
axneunH o6pnpoH 6mno oHoaenne; kak noaopoxpennoro, 1ak n yHepuero. noao
"Honn1aa" nponcxopn1 o1 oHoanennn-oHoaennn-ounuennn 1enecnoro n pyueanoro, u1o
nanne1cn neo6xopnHmH ycnoaneH o6uennn co ae1nmHn opnmHn nnaHn. oa1oHy
nonn1ne o 1eHno, sno cnne ampaxanocL y cnaann cnoaoH "neunc1an".
Mec1oH oHoanennn n Hec1oH noun1annn pepkoa - okpoan1ene eHLn 6mna y
cnaann 6ann. 6ane nnn a npep6annnke c1aannocL yrouenne, xep1aennoe opy-
oxannuaH. aua napnan 6ann, coepnnnkuan paa ounc1n1enLnmx nauana - oronL n
aopy, nHena a ppeanoc1n o6pnpoaoe nasnauenne snHne kynenn.
ann, kak Hec1a nsmuecknx o6pnpoa, nauan cxnra1L yxe knnsL napnHnp. nn
xpnc1nannna unc1onno1noc1L - sa6o1a neno1pe6nan! aH ncyc roppnncn 1eH, u1o
xopn1 neHm1mH. oaceHec1noe ynnu1oxenne 6anL nopopaano uenn1enLnme ocnoam
napopnoro, spopoaLn, n c y1aepxpenneH xpnc1nanc1aa pesko aospocna cHep1noc1L,
oco6enno pe1ckan. yHa n noaanLnme Hopm ynocnnn Hnoxec1ao xnsne. okpauenne
napoponacenennn o1osaanocL cnyc1n paa c1one1nn, korpa napo 6mno pa1L o1nop
1a1apo-HonronLcknH oppaH.
yxeseHnan 1ne1aopnan sapasa, nasaaauan ce6n "pyccknH npaaocnaaneH",
uenenanpaanenno cnepoaana caoeHy nasnauennk - saka6anennk cnaann. ropnny
1a1apckoro nra uepkoaL ac1ynnna a nopnm, neanpannm pocene croaop c
nopa6o1n1ennHn: a rpaHo1e xana Ys6eka, papoaanno nH Hn1pononn1y e1py,
roaopnnocL, u1o6m nonoa o6epera1L n c nnx nnuero ne asnHa1L, n6o onn "sa nac 6ora
Honn1 n nac 6nkpy1 n naue aonnc1ao ykpennnk1".
mne napannynocL nro noc1paunee 1a1apckoro. nac1L nHyune nocnyuno amnonnnk1
sapanne caonx xosnea - Hexpynapopnoro karana 6anknpoa no o6pauennk naunx
seHenL a nx ao1unny. cnoaa uepkoaL a croaope c aparaHn naannckoro opa, cnoaa
anyuae1 1ynyk cko1ckyk nokopnoc1L, npnsmaae1 k caHonokannnk n caHopacnn1nk.
orpa -M paspnpae1cn na uac1n kap1aamH aoponLeH, korpa nsaopn1cn
, korpa aonne1 caHa , 1orpa nopc1aann1L ppyryk ueky - Y.
orpa caH 6or na uenL noxox,
onon 6ora1mx, rpe 1ao nox?
200
- aonpouan nau snaHenn1m noa1-nsmunnk ennHnp ne6nnkoa.
onLko npo6yxpennm nckonno cnaannckn aonLnonk6nam yx opyxo1aopn1 ycL,
apoxnoan1 nauy 6mnyk naay, aoopyuean1 apop na nopanr.
o6epn1L 1eHnme cnnm, Hoxno nnuL o6pa1nauncL k opnmH, ae1nnH nnaH.
aeuennme 6pnpm aaopn1 nac a xnaoe, uenn1enLnoe cnnouenne c M. o1oHy-1o
anoaL co6epy1cn a La6annncknx necax aepnme opyxenocum pnnm, anoaL sanmnak1 c
npo cnno ynanLckne koc1pm, anoaL sasayun1 Hounoe:
M! Y!
YMY Y!
* * *
201
naaa ycckoHy epy!
onnouL nH o1kpmna
1pene1e no6sanLn,
1ane nouenyn
any HnpospanLn...
. ononckn
naannaH 6mno coaepuenno uyxpo xpnc1nanckoe nonn1ne nnunoc1noro
napnpnpopnoro 6ora-1aopua. nn nsmunnka - pnpopa - caHa no ce6e
. Xnao1aopnun Y- cansye1 ack Y a epnnoe uenoe.
enpneHneHo naunH pauypaH 6mno n xpnc1nanckoe aocnpnn1ne xnsnn kak
c1papannn, aepyuero, nko6m, k "sarpo6noHy 6naxenc1ay". smunnk aocnpnnnHan
XnsnL kak caeuennyk uennoc1L, kak aennuauyk papoc1L - .
pnpopa, nenekuan XnsnL, nonna , nonna couyac1ann ko aceH caonH
pe1nH - uac1nuaH co6c1aenno cyunoc1n. smuec1ao ec1L aoc1opxennoe n a 1o xe
apeHn yHnpo1aopnnoe coc1onnne pyun, o6uakuecn c - conHnueH
xnsnenk6namx pyxoa.
mcun sakon pnpopm rnacn1: "a pacuae1ae1 ackpy XnsnL!". naanne o6oxann
XnsnL n 6ecxn1poc1no cnaannn ee nnkykuee 6yc1ao. a1o cnaanenne nponc1ekano
o1 ns6m1ka xnsnennmx cnn, o1 ouyuennn nepenonnennoc1n nx cokaHn, 6LkunHn
uepes kpa. Hmcn nsmuec1aa a 1oH, u1o6m cnyxn1L opy - y1aepxpa1L XnsnL, n
no1oHy acnkoe y1aepxpenne Xnsnn ec1L .
pnpopa 1pe6ye1 npoponxennn xnsnec1okoro popa. 1ckpa - pycanLckne o6pnpm-
nrpnua aokpyr orpoHnoro, rpy6o ampesannoro c1onuero c1onna, onnue1aopnkuero
npyk cnny n nasmaaeHoro no1oHy epoH (y kenL1oa - HenrnpoH, 1o ec1L c1onunH
kaHneH).
6uennpoeaponeckn kopenL - o6osnauan cnny neoponnHo c1peHnuykcn aaepx
nopo6no ac1akueHy Y-Y. peanen1annckoe nHn epkyneca - erilus. o1
1oro xe kopnn - Horyun repo (erois) epakn - erales. paknum 6onee acero
u1nnn conneunoro epoca, 1oxpec1aennoro cnaannckoHy pnny, Y 6an1ncknx cnaann
pnno nHenoaancn poan1oH - erovitus. poakp - npepaopn1enL "aapaapoa",
nnsnoxnaun a 476 ropy nocnepnero pnHckoro nHnepa1opa, 6mn aoxpeH cnaannckoro
nneHenn xepynoa.
peueckn D onnue1aopnn Horyuec1aennoe nk6oanoe npn1nxenne, pasnn1oe ao
ace pnpope.
opoaopno-apo1nueckne nrpnua aokpyr - nopuepkny1o Hyxec1aennoro cnHaona
conneunoro nauana, no6yxpann Hyxunny n xenunny k coaokynnennk -
caeuennopec1ay ao cnaay opa. o 6mno npaac1aenno spopoaoe, ec1ec1aennoe
coue1anne, copec1ane 1aopuecko Houn pnpopm - cnaanenne , ne
nosaonnkuee nccnkny1L naannckoHy opy-neHenn. a ynanLcknx rpnuax
caapL6m nrpanncL, 1o ec1L cxopnnncL 6paunme napm. snauncL sa pykn,
aosnk6nennme nepenpmrnaann uepes ounc1n1enLnm koc1ep, n aeuennm ronL
naaekn coepnnnn cyxenmx... m1ancL noppy6n1L popoaoe ppeao cnaannc1aa,
xpnc1nane onoxa6nnn kak snak pasapaunno, nko6m, noxo1n. 1opn nonaH-
202
nsyaepaH, coapeHennme epnnuakune nounnkn-qannocoqm ocpaHnnn ynanLckne
paspnec1aa kak "caanLnm rpex" (snak1 nn a1n kap1aame no6opnnkn nnkpannsHa o
1oH, u1o a cnpaaounnke apaua-cekcona1onora cnoaeuko "nnkpannsH" osnauae1 nonoaoe
nsapauenne - "rpynnoao cekc"?).
Y cnaann 6m1oaann ckaepnocnoanme ampaxennn, no onn nnkak ne kacanncL nonoamx
opranoa, n6o pnn nsmunnkoa amcue uennoc1Lk 6mno npoponxenne opa,
cokpoaennmH o6pasoH cansannoe c nepeaonnouenneH pepkoa. onLko a pycckoH,
aeueH nsmke, caHo cnoao osnauae1 nHenno nonuenoaeka, nonoanny
nonnouenno, coaepuenno uenoaeuecko cyunoc1n. Marnueckan cnna n aonue6c1ao
nonoao nk6an, npeoponeaakue caHy cHep1L - a1o neoponnHoe c1peHnenne payx
paso6uennmx nonoannok k cnnnnnk a nsnauanLnoe epnnoe uenoe. cnoanpum
y1aepxpak1, u1o aypm ank6nennmx, cnoano Harnn1oH npn1nrnaak1cn, nponnkak1 ppyr
ppyra n epnnmH nexno-posoamH o6nakoH oky1maak1 o6onx. o 1onLko poxpenne
pe6enka ocaeuae1 cynpyxec1ao. Xaxpyune aonno1n1Lcn pyun caHn aos6yxpak1
nk6oaL a am6pannmx nHn popn1ennx... saec1no, u1o "ronn pnpopy a paepL - ona
ane1n1 a okno". ypyun ne a cnnax nn nm1kaHn, nn kasnnHn nckopenn1L napopnme
o6muan, nonoaunna c1ana nop nnx noppenmaa1Lcn n aosaopn1L na Hec1e cnanennmx
kannu n cae1nnnu caon uepkan c kynonaHn-nykoakaHn n konokonLnnHn a anpe
c1onnoa - nsmuecknx cnHaonoa X .
1o1, k1o nocHo1pn1 na konokonLnk aana ennkoro a peHne, 1o1 yspn1
ncnonnnckn, neo6pesannm, 1opxec1aykun Y .
* * *
U
op c1apmH py6oH a 1enn ae1ae
acnocL orpoHnoe c1apo canne.
pkkan, 1aapn noprpmsnn c1aon -
ak on rpnnyncn oseHL, u1o rpoxo1 nouen!
euep nopnnncn, cannLn yunn,
xenypL nocnepnn oc1ancn a nmnn.
y1 opon nanncn, cypoam n sno:
oc1onn on npn aepLHe euann cnyro!
mn on uepno cHonm uepne,
epLn ero ne 6onnncL poxpe.
n xenypL nauen n a seHnk sapmn
a peunoH 6epery, rpe no1ok 6ypnnn.
ypa xe opon none1en? mue, nnxe, - pepsok, cHen, -
203
epes ropm n ponm opon ne1en,
Mnoro ne1 n Hnoro snH no kpanH ne1an uyxnH,
oanpan on 6enm cae1 - ac ncuncnn1L Houn ne1.
on npnne1en c oponnxo nasap,
1an py6oH xenypL, n ae1an uyHn1.
maenn n1num n1enuoa a rnespe,
Xnnn, ne pyHan o 6epe.
o pas poaocek nanncn a nec,
ro no6 nap rnasaHn cancan, kak naaec,
n 1onop pepxan, on ac apeHn Honuan,
o, kpnx1n, 1onopoH Haxan n Haxan, -
py6 Horyun na seHnk ynan.
orn6nn n1enum, ne yHen ne1a1L,
o1 ropn 1orpa yHepna nx Ha1L.
e1an snope o6py6nn co c1aona,
1aon oronennm peka ynecna,
ero pacnnnnnn na Hnoro pocok
kopa6nL ckono1nnn - kpenok, amcok.
o epaa on ns raaann am1n ycnen,
ak neanpannm u1opH saamn, saknnen,
opa6nL nopxaa1nn n na pnq nocapnn -
nap Hau1aHn, kapkan, opon kpyxnn;
ycnmuan on aonnL norn6aaunx 1orpa,
aepxyukn Hau1 saxnec1nyna aopa!
apoc1no opon asHaxnyn kpmnoH
yanpen Hep1L na 1yue aepxoH
e nocneunn 6naropapnoc1L npnnec1L:
204
oHy, k1o o6nxen, M!
. . onLpnpx
1o noceuan snHnn ec npn cae1e nonno ynm? akoe Hannuee ouapoaanne...
akan saaopaxnaakuan kpaco1a...
nnc1ae1 cner rony6mHn caHouae1aHn, uankaHn nexn1 na nanax cocen n ene. pyroH
1nunna n kakoe-1o 1annc1aennoe Hepuanne: X L. c cnmun1 n
anpn1 1e6n a a1o1 nonnounm uac. xpe1...
m a1o snaeuL, a ne npoc1o aepnuL. no1oHy 1pene1no na pyue. ak 6yp1o nepep
1o6o packpmaae1cn pnkoe, nepao6m1noe, caHoe cokpoaennoe, nenosnannoe n
nenonn1noe, a o11oro n xy1koaa1oe.
ep Mopos caepuae1 specL caoe 1anopec1ao. m axopnuL a Hnp amcokoro ppeanero
onue6c1aa, a uep1orn yxoa, n, uy! nn yxe pak1 sna1L o caoeH npncy1c1ann...
* * *
op smuec1aoH a unpokoH cHmcne cnoaa cnepye1 nonnHa1L cnnaa ppeaneunx,
rny6nnnmx, Ha1epnkoamx aosspenn, nosnann, npnHe1, uyac1aoaann, npaac1aennmx
yc1anoaok n o6muaea, konHn pepxanocL nsmueckoe 6narouec1ne.
smuec1ao, a o1nnune o1 nospneunx, nckycc1aennmx, "6oroapoxnoaennmx" pennrn,
6mno ec1ec1aennmH coc1onnneH uenoaeka, eue ne o1opaannoro o1 pnpopm.
snauanLno nkpnH 6mno npncyue opyxo1aopenne pnpopm (1. n. nepao6m1nm
annHnsH). e nrpan cnoaaHn, Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o smuec1ao - a1o nsmk, na ko1opoH
uenoaek o6uancn c pnpopo n aocneaan ae1, XnsnL, k6oaL, paco1y.
cnn smunnk xnn, 1o , a ecnn yHnpan, 1o , ne penan
1parnkoHepnn cnauana ns xnsnn, a no1oH ns cHep1n, kak a1o nponcxopn1 y xpnc1nan.
kpn, 1paam, saepn, saespm, o6naka, sapnnum - ac a1o pasnme o6nnuLn opno
ennko anm. M D - X. smunnkn o6oxec1annnn XnsnL n
no1oHy noun1ann ace e nponanennn.
oapeHennan nayka nocne ponrnx nonckoa n cHenmx pepsnoaenn cknonne1 ronoay
nepep nencnoaepnHoc1Lk 1an 6m1nn. Ynpouennme o6Lncnennn, nHeaune Hec1o a
nepanekoH npounoH ao acex ec1ec1aennmx naykax, a cae1e noaeunx nccnepoaann
npepc1aannk1cn yxe ne c1onL ncuepnmaakunHn n o1nkpL ne c1onL y6epn1enLnmHn,
kaknHn onn amrnnpenn eue auepa. c1poqnsnkn, k npnHepy, yxe ne nonnHak1, kak,
noueHy n sa cue1 uero xnae1 n cae1n1 onnue? kasanocL, u1o ero neppa na neckonLko
Hnnnnonoa rpapycoa xonopnee, ueH nyxno pnn 1epHonpepno peakunn.
nay paeuLcn uypecaH pnpopm; kasanocL 6m, yxe c1onL nsaec1noe, na caHoH pene
appyr o6opaunaae1cn 1aknH sarapounmH n nonnmH cokpoaennoro cHmcna. c 6onLue
nakonnne1cn nayunmx pannmx, aspmaakunx yc1onauykcn kap1nny Mnpa, no kasnno
akapeHnuecko nayko a1n pannme nn6o o1aeprak1cn, nn6o saHanunaak1cn.
pnsaanne nac1onuero yunoro coc1on1 nHenno a 1oH, u1o6m nonn1L: epnnc1aenno
poc1oaepno Hm snaeH o Hnpe nnuL 1o, u1o Hm o nH nnuero ne snaeH.
naanno-pycckoe smuec1ao ne 6mno nonn1enc1nuecko pennrne a npnamunoH
cHmcne a1oro cnoaa. eaexec1aennme uepkoannkn cypnnn o 1. n. nsmuecknx 6orax
205
nnuL c amco1m caoe konokonLnn. 1ckpa nonnoe nenonnHanne n sno6noe nenpnn1ne
cy1n smueckoro Hnpoaocnpnn1nn.
smunnkn Hmcnnnn Mnpospanne neknH epnnmH xnamH prannsHoH, ace cnnm
ko1oporo naxopn1cn a nenpec1annoH asanHopec1ann. D1n any1penne npncyune
pnpope Horyuec1aennme cnnm, noc1onnno c1pynunecn ckaosL nac, n ec1L 1o, u1o
nospnee c1ann nasmaa1L 6oraHn (cnoao a1o sanHc1aoaano o1 npano-nsmunmx nneHn,
rpe ono o6osnauano anapmky, rocnopnna).
ocnepnne poc1nxennn 6no1epHopnnaHnkn, 6noanepre1nkn, 6nonnqopHa1nkn,
kocHoronnn, kocHonornn, He1eoponornn, reoqnsnkn n 1. p. a nayunmx 1epHnnax
pncyk1 naH kap1nny Mnpa, ypnan1enLno cxoxyk c nckonnmHn, "ponc1opnuecknHn"
aosspennnHn naunx paneknx pauypoa.
enoaek nsnauanLno 6mn opapen ouyuenneH opyueanennoc1n, pasyHnoc1n,
coaepuenc1aa cenenno. cenennan, naxopnuancn a aeunoH panxennn -
konoapauennn, neco1aopnHa n neynnu1oxnHa. na caHocyunoc1na, caHouenna n
caHopoc1a1ouna. nkakoHy eroae-aaaoqy a ne npoc1o ne1 Hec1a, pa on n ne
nyxen.
naanno-pycckne "6orn" - ne caepxLec1ec1aennme nnunoc1n, nsHmunennme xpeuaHn
pnn nyxp kynL1a, a noa1nueckne o6pasm naunx opnmx ae1nmx nn. nnm a1n ne
yc1pauann, ne nopaannnn, ne 1pe6oaann kpoaaamx xep1a. mnonnnn caon npnpopnme
sapaun, onn aonnouann 1akxe n npaac1aennme npeanm. ak, apa o6ecneunaana Hnp
n nonk6oanoe cornacne, pnno 6mn papoaa1eneH ae1a n apoc1n, ynano aepan
npoponxenneH popa, Ma1L-mpa-eHnn o6eperana o1 acnuecknx nanac1e. asmaa1L
nx 6oraHn a ns6n1oH cHmcne cnoaa kak-1o neypo6no n paxe neyaaxn1enLno. nn -
ckopee ppysLn, coksnnkn, 1apune opnun.
* * *
ycckne aonue6nme ckaskn - ppeaneun anp yc1noro napopnoro 1aopuec1aa. a1oH
nacnepnn pepkoa - 6esponnm knapesL Hnoro1mcnuene1ne smuecko Hyppoc1n,
npaac1aennmx ypokoa n saae1oa no1oHkaH.
kaskn nacmuenm npknHn, npnuypnnamHn cpaanennnHn, nopaxak1 nepaospanno
HouLk caonx o6pasoa, 6nnc1ak1 npeaocxopnmHn o6pasuaHn rennanLnmx a caoe
npoc1o1e nspeuenn, nocnoanu, npnckasok n npn6ay1ok, pn1Hnunmx, kak ysopm
c1apnnno pyccko amunakn.
kaskn - cokpoanunnua xnaoro pyxoanoro onm1a; uepes ckaskn packpmaak1cn
nyuune c1oponm n caoc1aa napopno pyun, e o1kpoaennoc1L, unc1o1a, nckpennoc1L.
kaskn napo un1a1L ne 1onLko n ne c1onLko pe1nH, ckonLko aspocnmH; ckaskn
sac1aannk1 nac sapyHa1Lcn, penak1 unue, po6pee, o1smaunaee, xanoc1nnaee. nn
yua1 nonnHa1L n npnnnHa1L 6nnsko k ceppuy neuanL cnpo1nnkn n rope napuepnum,
6onL cpy6nennoro pepeaua n xano6m no6n1o co6auonkn.
ckaskax Hoxno na1n o1ae1m na ace Hyuakune uenoaeka aonpocm, - ne nyc1nunme,
koneuno, a rnaanme, onpepennkune noaepenne, noc1ynkn, xnsnL n cypL6y. ce
rny6nnm n ace amco1m yxa cokpm1m a naunx aonue6nmx ckaskax. nnx Hounm
npaac1aennm sapnp, a nnx o1poxnoaenne, o1papa, napexpa n yaepennoc1L. nnx
y1aepxpenne paapm, o6pa n paco1m.
smueckoH Hnpoaosspennn nosnaaa1enLnan c1opona o1c1ynana na sapnn nnan
nepep pyxoano-npaac1aenno. naanno-pycckoe smuec1ao, kak pennrnosno-
qnnocoqckoe yuenne, ne npnpaaano 6onLuoro snauennn unc1o He1aqnsnuecknH,
206
o1aneuennmH npeHyppoc1nH, cun1an nepaeunH penoH nac1aann1L uenoaeka na
npaaepnm ny1L. epL, a konue konuoa, uenoaeky aoace neo6nsa1enLno sna1L, kypa
aepe1 Mneunm y1L n ckonLko eu cyuec1aye1 Hnpoa n 6oroa. nn nero ropaspo
aaxnee nHe1L Hnp a pyue n xn1L a napy c co6c1aenno coaec1Lk. nn smunnka
npaac1aennan po6pope1enL - caHa no ce6e ec1ec1aennan narpapa n poc1onnc1ao.
Henno smuec1ao amnec1oaano ocnoanme uennoc1n n o1nnun1enLnme uep1m
ppeanepycckoro naunonanLnoro cosnannn, uLn npeanm cansanm ne c nakonn1enLc1aoH,
ne c Ha1epnanLnmH c1nxa1enLc1aoH, ne c naxnao, a c xnsnLk no paape-
npaaepnnaoc1n n c ro1oanoc1Lk sa nee ronoao noc1on1L.
* * *
ora1c1ao, ocnoaannoe ne na uec1noH 1pype - nenpaaepno: 1akoaa kpacnan nn1L
pyccknx ckasok. e ac1pe1n1L a nnx 1oro, u1o6m Hoxno 6mno uero-1o po6n1Lcn c
noHouLk sono1a, pener. yxno 6mno nn6o 1epnenne n 1pyp, nn6o popn1enLckoe
6narocnoaenne, nn6o po6poxena1enLc1ao aceH xnayunH na eHne cyuec1aaH.
oo6ue a penLrax ec1L u1o-1o nsnauanLno neunc1oe. peannH HyppeuaH npespenne k
sono1y caHo no ce6e yxe poc1aannno aennuauee ypoane1aopenne. yppa sanpeuan
caonH aepnmH nocnepoaa1ennH npnkaca1Lcn k penLraH. na1on a "ocypapc1ae" pncye1
npeanLnm o6uec1aennm c1po, rpe aonnm n npaan1enn-qnnocoqm ne nHek1
co6c1aennoc1n: nH aos6panne1cn nonLsoaa1Lcn sono1oH n cepe6poH, paxe npnkaca1Lcn
k nnH.
noren aap1n coo6uae1, u1o opnaxpm yuennk okpa1a pnc1nnn 6mn npnrnaun k
6orauy, nsyuaaueHy qnnocoqnk. orau xnn a pockounmx nokonx, rpe n c1enm, n non,
n opexpa 6oraua, n aoo6ue ac 6mno o1penano sono1oH. pnc1nnny saxo1enocL
nnkny1L, no aokpyr 6mno opno sono1o. orpa on, kak 1onLko 6orau o1kpmn po1, u1o6m
naua1L qnnocoqc1aoaa1L, nnknyn eHy a po1, cou1n, u1o a1o caHoe nakoc1noe Hec1o a
poHe.
naHenn1m nkypr y1aeppnn npaac1aennme yc1on xnsnn cnap1anuea,
o6ecneunaakune a nepayk ouepepL aocnn1anne knouec1aa: Hyxec1aennmx Hyxunn n
xenc1aennmx xenunn. akonm nkypra 6mnn nanpaanenm npo1na nHyuec1aennoro
nepaaenc1aa, npo1na pockoun, kak nc1ounnka acex nopokoa. cenoqon1 nnue1, u1o
nkypr "sanpe1nn cao6opnmH rpaxpanaH ac, u1o nHee1 o1nouenne k npn6mnn".
oa1oHy "sono1o n cepe6po 1ua1enLno pasmcknaae1cn, n ecnn okaxe1cn, 1o anapeneu
nopaeprae1cn nakasannk", ny1apx coo6uae1, u1o a nap1e 6mn npnroaopn k cHep1n
ppyr nonkoaopua ncanppa opaka, "aHec1e c nnH koHanpoaaaun aockoH n
ynnunnm ao anapennn sono1oH".
nap1e cao6opnmH rpaxpanaH sann1ne 1oproane n 6apmunnuec1aoH 6mno
c1poxaue sanpeueno: 1oproann cun1anacL penoH npespennmH, no caHo cy1n caoe
neuec1nmH n, cnepoaa1enLno, neuec1namH. onn1L penLrn paspeuanocL 1onLko pa6aH.
o6nec1noe aocnn1anne npnnecno po6pme nnopm: cnap1anckn o6pas xnsnn aouen a
noroaopkn, a 300 aonnoa cHornn npo1naoc1on1L ueno nepcnpcko apHnn.
oHep noaec1aye1 o 1ex apeHenax, korpa a nou1e 6mnn 1pyp n po6pope1enL, a ne
6ora1c1ao n nsapauenne. ocnanum raHeHnona sac1ann npaan1enn 1akn pnccen sa
nonc1nne uapcknH sann1neH - naxo1o seHnn, sa nnyroH. e1n aennknx uape caHn
nacnn c1apa, amnonnnnn pasnnunme pa6o1m n cun1ann cao peno a amcue c1enenn
poc1onmH. akeea y nnx ne 6mno.
o apeHena ppeanen1annckoro 6narouec1nn a pnHckoH poHe 6mno 1onLko opno
cepe6pnnoe nspenne - cononka, ns ko1opo nocmnann conLk xep1ay 6oraH. orpa
207
opnenn yqnn, 6maun pnk1a1opoH n paaxpm koncynoH, 6mn amuepkny1 uensopoH
ns cnncka cena1opoa sa 1o, u1o y nero a poHe 6mna cepe6pnnan nocypa a 4 kr aecoH.
saec1no, u1o rpeueckne nnca1enn aocxnuanncL o6unnnmH 6m1oH n cypoao
npoc1o1o npaaoa ceaepnmx aapaapoa, a uac1noc1n, cknqoa.
MM: a1o ouenL aepnoe acenapopnoe y6expenne.
ora1c1ao - kpaxa. orau nenpaaepen yxe 1eH caHmH, u1o on 6orau; 1akoaa cy1L
6ora1c1aa. o6c1aennoc1L 1onLko 1a cnpaaepnnaa, u1o naxn1a co6c1aennmH 1pypoH.
o "o1 1pypoa npaaepnmx ne noc1pon1L nana1 kaHennmx".
onn1no, u1o "6epnoc1L ne nopok". anpo1na, uec1nan 6epnoc1L - npnsnak
amcokonpaac1aenno xnsnn: roppn1Lcn ek napo, a ne c1mpn1Lcn. naanne uec1noc1L n
unc1o1y noHmcnoa nonnHann kak kpaco1y pyueanyk, a ee-1o n uennnn npeamue acero
na cae1e.
o ace apeHena Hyppeum caok po6poaonLnyk 6epnoc1L cun1ann neouennHmH
npenHyuec1aoH n nopnnnno cao6opo. o, u1o pnn ppyrnx osnauano 6epnoc1L, pnn
nnx c1anoannocL nc1ounnkoH pyxoanmx 6ora1c1a. o6poaonLnan 6epnoc1L -
caHoorpannuenne - ypen ns6pannmx, cny1nnua nc1nnnoro 6naropopc1aa. "epnoc1L -
pparouennoe ykpauenne caHypan", - 1ak roaopnnn a 1pane ocxopnuero onnua.
"ora1c1ao uenoaeka nsHepne1cn uncnoH aeue, o1 ko1opmx eHy nerko o1kasa1Lcn", -
1ak ouep1nn kpyr caonx no1pe6noc1e enpn opo.
1o nopm, kak 6ora1c1ao c1ano amsmaa1L pa6onenne n npopaxnoc1L, a 6epnoc1L -
nacHeukn n ynnxennn, c 1o nopm n nac1ynnno na eHne uapc1ao pnapm.
* * *
okpoaennoe snanne, aepnee, ne caHo snanne, a kak ero poc1nrny1L, npenopaaanocL
na ycn a aonue6nmx ckaskax, ko1opme noc1nranncL ne c1onLko yHoH, ckonLko
ceppueH.
nn nepepaun n coxpanennn caeuennmx ckasann nyxna npeeHc1aennoc1L. o
apeHena smuec1aa a1nH aepann epynm n epLHm, a nocne nacaxpennn xpnc1nanc1aa
- o1um ceHec1a, pepyukn, a oco6enno 6a6yukn, aocnn1maaaune HonopexL. ak
nasmaaeHme 6a6yuknnm ckaskn - ne u1o nnoe, kak ppeaneune caeuennme npepannn,
c1aaune HnpcknHn n ao HnoroH y1pa1naune cao cokpoaennm cHmcn.
o1pe6noc1L a uypecnoH aospac1ae1 a naun ua1kne, nenpepckasyeHme apeHena, n
o6ae1uanme 6esxnsnennme pennrnn yxe ne Hory1 ee ypoane1aopn1L. 1ano HopnmH
"o6Lncnn1L" nk6o Hnq, nk6yk nerenpy, nk6yk ckasky, ncnonLsyn 1epHnnm
coapeHenno nayuno qan1ac1nkn.
pepnonarae1cn, u1o a ocnoae kaxpo nerenpm nnn npepannn nexn1 nekorpa nHeauee
Hec1o neo6muanoe npnpopnoe nanenne nnn pec1an1enLnoe nc1opnueckoe co6m1ne,
neaepno nonn1oe neaexec1aennmHn, nerkoaepnmHn oueanpuaHn. naunnae1cn noaoe
Hnqo1aopuec1ao: ns nonm1ok o6Lncnn1L tM aosnnkae1
apxeokocHnueckan qan1acHaropnn, a pyxe apeHenn.
kasounme o6pasm n ckxe1m nonyuak1 paunonannc1nueckoe nc1onkoaanne:
poHe1e, annec n ppyrne repon ppeannx Hnqoa nso6paxak1cn ac1ponaa1aHn ns
cosaespnn pnona, c1yna a6m rn - kocHnuecknH kopa6neH, koaep-caHone1 -
an1nrpaan1aunonnmH annapa1oH, oc1aanennmH na eHne nnonnane1nnaHn.
208
aue nonyuae1 6eccHep1ne 6naropapn poc1nxennnH kocHnuecko naykn, rn6enL
1nan1npm o6Lnanne1cn aosHespneH saespnmx npnuenLuea, a 1nxnnme yxn
okasmaak1cn acero nnuL saypnpnmHn "ne1akunHn 1apenkaHn" (nmnue uenoaeka, ne
cnmuaauero o , ac1pe1n1L 1ak xe 1pypno, kak n 1oro, k1o porapmaae1cn, u1o xe
a1o 1akoe).
o aoo6paxenne yqonoroa nnkak ne Hoxe1 ampaa1Lcn ns 1exnokpa1nuecknx okoa, n
paxe caHme cHenme nx poHmcnm ne asHmaak1 amue okononayunmx rnno1es caoero
aeka. oaopn cnoaaHn caanLpa Lnenrnepa, a1o n ec1L "saHena opnnno nepcnek1nam
xnsnn nepcnek1nao nnryuauLe".
* * *
onue6nme ckaskn uac1o roaopn1 nnockasannnHn, nonn1nmHn paneko ne kaxpoHy.
aue aocnpnn1ne orpannueno npnamunmHn, pacxoxnHn npepc1aanennnHn: naH ouenL
1pypno asrnnny1L na Hnp rnasaHn naunx paneknx pauypoa, nonn1L, u1o nHenno onn
saneua1nenn a caonx 1aopennnx.
ac1o ckaska kaxe1cn naH 1onLko kpacnao ckasko. o ecnn nocHo1pe1L nop ppyrnH
yrnoH spennn, 1o Hnoroe npepc1ae1 coaceH a nnoH cae1e n c1anoan1cn ncno, nackonLko
noxen n noaepxnoc1en asrnnp na aonue6nyk ckasky, kak 1onLko na xypoxec1aennm
amHmcen, nyc1L paxe n npaaoyun1enLnm.
Xnaoe cnoao ponecno po nac ampaxenne: "1ann onn xn1L-noxnaa1L pa po6pa
naxnaa1L". M? 1o noppasyHeaae1cn nop po6poH? oxn1kn?
oHaunn ckap6?
u1o Hor asn1L c co6o uenoaek 1ypa, kypa on yxopnn, okonuna caok seHnyk xnsnL?
- nuero, kpoHe co6c1aennmx pyxoanmx poc1nxenn.
ora1c1ao oc1aannno nokonnka na nopore poHa, popnme n 6nnskne oc1aannnn ero na
norpe6anLnoH koc1pe: nnuL po6pme pena, nepexnaakune 1eno, Hornn nocnepoaa1L sa
nnH na 1o1 cae1. o6pme pena - a1o n ec1L 1a epnnc1aennan, nanamcuan
pparouennoc1L, ko1opyk ne Hoxe1 o1nn1L y uenoaeka paxe cHep1L. "o6po ne sono1o -
uenm ne nHee1", - rnacn1 pycckan nocnoanua.
naun1, "po6pa naxnaa1L" - a1o ykpennn1L caok Y, 6m1L po6pee...
mneunee nonn1ne pyxoanoc1n npoqannpoaano uepkoannkaHn. Yansmaa1L pyxoanoc1L
c aepo a xpnc1nanckoro 6ora - snaun1 o1kasmaa1L a pyxoanoc1n orpoHnoHy
6onLunnc1ay nkpe. yxoanoc1L ne saancn1 nn o1 aeponcnoaepannn, nn o1
o6pasoaannn, nn o1 pacoao npnnapnexnoc1n, nn o1 kaknx-1o oco6mx,
"caepxLec1ec1aennmx" kauec1a. naanmH a cnaannopycckoH smuec1ae 6mnn ne 6orn, a
npaac1aennme uennoc1n.
yxoanoc1L, cansannan c cosnpanneH any1pennero uenoaeueckoro , ne 1oxpec1aenna
pyueanoc1n, a pyxoanme asn1m - a1o ne "cHy1nme aneuenLn uero-1o xaxpyue
pyun". yxoanoc1L nponanne1cn a uenoaeke 1onLko 1orpa, korpa a neH npo6yxpae1cn
xryuan no1pe6noc1L yncnennn cHmcna caoe xnsnn, onpepenennn caonx npaac1aenno-
Hnpoaosspenuecknx yc1anoaok. orpa uenoaek naunnae1 ocosnanno pasnnua1L po6po n
sno a okpyxakueH Hnpe n a caHoH ce6e; korpa on am6npae1 pnn ce6n 6esycnoanme,
nenpenoxnme uennoc1n n ac1ynae1 na ny1L o6pa.
orpa uenoaek pyxoano caHoonpepenne1cn n naunnae1cn nanpnxennan pyxoanan
pa6o1a - caHocosnpanne, 1o ec1L nsHenenne, npeo6paxenne, coaepuenc1aoaanne
caoe nannunoc1n, caoe "na1ypm" - pyun a 1oH nanpaanennn, ko1opoe sapano ero
209
yxoH. orpa o6pe1ae1cn rny6nnnoe opyxo1aopenne acero ec1ec1aa. onLko 1ak n
nponcxopn1 caHoy1aepxpenne 6eccHep1noro uenoaeueckoro , ne sa1epnkuerocn a
sm6nx apeHenn n npoc1panc1aa.
* * *
opnnnnan yxoanoc1L - a1o yc1peHnenne k aosamuenno caepxnnunoc1no uenn,
yHenne xn1L ne papn ce6n, ne papn "cnacennn" caoe nnkoHy ne nyxno pyun (a
uaue acero - pyuonkn). yxoanoc1L a1o 6naroroaenan nk6oaL k naue Ma1epn-
eHne n ko aceHy xnayueHy, "u1o npnuno npouaec1L n yHepe1L". yxoanoc1L - a1o
xenanne nec1n n nkpnH, n saepnH, n pac1ennnH, n aopaH, n ropaH...
yxoanoc1L - a1o korpa uenoaek 6ep1 o1 pnpopm poano c1onLko, ckonLko
neo6xopnHo eHy pnn noppepxannn xnsnn n npoponxennn popa. onLko ckonLko
M, n nnuero nnunero. pnpopa nerko ypaannaae1 na aecax aeunoc1n
xnsnL 1paannkn n xnsnL Hyppeua. smunnk nnkorpa ne copae1 1paannky npoc1o 1ak,
ne nne1 noro HyxoHop, ne cnnHe1 kopy c xnaoro pepeaa. smunnk ne y6Le1 sHek
1onLko sa 1o, u1o ona sHen.
"epopasan1me" uykun - nk6nHan HnuenL pnn peuamx oc1po1 naue
nn1ennnrenunnm, npno6unauecn k o6ueuenoaeuecknH (un1a: xpnc1nancknH)
"uennoc1nH". aepL uykun, kkarnpm, acknHocm, 6yuHenm n ppyrne 1. n. "nnsune
pacm" ne y1epnnn eu ace cansn c Xnao eHne, nnn, roaopn no nayunoHy, nannk1
naH npnHep caoe rene1nueckn o6ycnoanenno akonornunoc1n.
x noaepenne nnc1nnk1nano coo1ae1c1aye1 1pe6oaannnH nenncanmx sakonoa pnpopm.
Y nnx caon, ec1ec1aennme nonn1nn o npaac1aennoc1n: caop onpepenennmx npaann,
sanpe1oa n orpannuenn. a, "pnkapn" - uykun pexy1 onene n nLk1 ropnuyk kpoaL.
o y6n1L cycnnka papn sa6aam onn ne Hory1, pnn nnx a1o npec1ynno n pnko. x
Y nH a1o ne nosaonne1.
knnre coapeHennoro nnca1enn - reonora n a1norpaqa pnn annna "nan
unannnsaunn" opna rnaaa 1ak n nasmaae1cn: "pyxo1aopennoc1L". ne - o 1oH,
kakoHy cypoaoHy epnnopyunoHy ocyxpennk "onennmx nkpe" nopaeprcn nanapnnk
yuenoro, 6es nyxpm, spn y6naun saepLka.
epaeuan sanoaepL smunnka - ! enLsn, koneuno, xn1L opnnH
pyxoH, n6o pyx aonnouen a 1ene. apo nn1a1L n 1eno. e ry6n1L pnpopy ne Hoxe1 nn
opnn uenoaek, noka on xnae1 a 1ene. akoaa cypoaan neo6xopnHoc1L, no ec1L n
cao6opnm npaac1aennm am6op: ecnn uenoaek n ne Hoxe1 anonne ns6exa1L
npnunnennn apepa pnpope, 1o Hoxe1 poaec1n a1o1 apep po caHo Hano c1enenn,
poaonLc1ayncL nnuL poc1a1ounmH pnn noppepxannn spopoao, nonnokpoano xnsnn.
ueH 6onee ocao6oxpae1cn on o1 pockoun n nsnnuec1a, 1eH ocHmcnennee c1anoan1cn
ero 6m1ne, 1eH Y c1anoan1cn on caH, 1eH 6onee cokpoaennoro eHy
o1kpmaae1cn n 1eH 6onee pak1cn eHy 6nara n papoc1n seHnme.
k6an xnsnennan no1pe6noc1L Hoxe1 6m1L ypoane1aopena npoc1o, 6es nsnnuec1a n
yxnupenn. o1pe6noc1n a1n ne npy1 apaspes c 1pe6oaannnHn pnpopm n nannk1cn
ec1ec1aennmH coc1onnneH uenoaeka. enoaek nyxpae1cn a nnue: nnua Hoxe1 6m1L
caHan npoc1an. 1o6m y1onn1L ronop, ne nyxno n1nuLe Honoko, - a1o o1 xnpy.
1 xnpy n nsnexennoc1L, nopokn n nx nens6exnme cny1nnum - aceaosHoxnme
6onesnn. smuec1ao - a1o xnsnL 6es xnpa: ne xn1L, u1o6m ec1L, a ec1L, u1o6m xn1L.
210
nonnn xopouo nsaec1na nc1opnn o peayuke, ko1opan opnaxpm y1poH npnuna sa
aopo k konopuy n yanpena, u1o aokpyr aepeakn c aeppoH o6anncn c1e6enek noannnkn.
eayuka ne c1ana na6npa1L aopy ns a1oro konopua, u1o6m ne nory6n1L pac1enne. c1L
nopo6nan xe nc1opnn o ny1nnke, ko1opm nepec1an saonn1L a cao konokonLunk,
u1o6m ne 1peaoxn1L nenec1koa uae1yue cnnam.
onn1no, u1o a c1pane, rpe u1y1 1akne npepannn, ne cHorno npnxn1Lcn xpnc1nanckoe
Hpako6ecne. oknonenne onnuy, Xnsnn, k6an necoaHec1nHo c aepo a
cnacn1enLnyk Hnccnk 1oro, uLn "6oxec1aennoc1L" nponannnacL a 1oH, u1o6m opnnH
npoknn1neH yHepuann1L pepeao n poaopn1L canne po caHoy6nc1aa.
nonum xnay1 caonH yHoH: onn n nonmne ncnoaepyk1 cnn1onsH - ppeaneuee
nsmueckoe yuenne, ko1opoe, npexpe acero n onpepenne1 caHo6m1noc1L nnoncko
naunn.
poaoxapnm eroaa noaenen nc1pe6nn1L a nsmuecknx seHnnx "ac pmuauee".
o1oHy-1o n 6mno onpo6oaano na nnonuax uypoanunoe "6oroyropnoe" opyxne noamx
kpec1onocuea.
cnn uenoaek o1oxpec1anne1 ce6n c 1enoH n paccypkoH, on - npoc1o cHep1nm. cnn
pasann caon ncnxnueckne cnnm, on - ka66annc1 n Hoxe1 npeapaua1L aopy a anno.
ecnn ouy1n1 caoe kpoano-pyxoanoe popc1ao co aceH cyunH, ecnn ycnmun1, kak
cpmaaeHm uae1ok kpnun1 o1 6onn n yxaca, 1o o16pocn1 acnkyk Harnk, n xnsnL ero
6ype1 osapena opno aennko, npaaepno c1pac1Lk: M XM
.
s ceppua xnmne1 aonna 6esypepxno, 6esrpannuno nexnoc1n n nk6an ko aceHy
xnaoHy. D1a noc1onnno c1peHnuancn k pacunpennk 6ecnpepenLnan nk6oaL amue
caHo unc1o Honn1am. D1o n ec1L Y - YL. pecL pasrapka n
cHmcn uenoaeuecko xnsnn.
* * *
ak 6m xpnc1nane ne o1nocnnncL k pnpope, nH ne nsHenn1L sakonoa.
enoaek - ne uapL pnpopm, a e uac1nua, n ponxen xn1L, ne npo1naonoc1aannn ce6n
ppyrnH uac1nuaH. ornacno nsmueckoHy Hnpoaocnpnn1nk, cenennan ec1L pnnm
Xnao prannsH, ace cnnm n uac1n ko1oporo naxopn1cn a nenpec1annoH
asanHopec1ann. pepnasnauenne uenoaeka kak uac1num uenoro Hoxe1 6m1L packpm1o
1onLko a ocosnannoH cnyxennn MY MY (a1o ec1L o6nsannoc1L nk6oro
xnaoro cyuec1aa), u1o osnauae1 6m1L a napy c pnpopo, acerpa coo1ae1c1aoaa1L
ec1ec1aennoHy xopy aeue n caHo Xnsnn.
onn pnpopm ne ec1L neu1o aneunee pnn uenoaeka. na panxe1 nH nsny1pn,
onpepenne1 ero xnsnL n cypL6y. peanne roaopnnn: "ornacnoro cypL6a aepe1,
necornacnoro - 1aun1".
nn nepao6m1noro uenoaeka o6uenne c pnpopo, ero nopopnaue, ne saknkuanocL a
6opL6e c e, a 6opL6e sa amxnaanne. mxnae1 nn Hnapeneu a o6uennn c
co6c1aenno Ha1epLk-kopHnnnue? ypaukn aonpoc: ncno, u1o ne amxnae1
! smunnk no-pe1ckn poaepunao o1nocnncn k pnpope: saueH nopospeaa1L
Ma1L a pypnmx naHepennnx? asae Hoxe1 na snoyno1pe6n1L nonnmH poaepneH
uenoaeka?
Mnp 6eckoneuno 6onee cnoxen, pasnonnk n sarapouen, ueH o 1oH nosaonnk1 cypn1L
naun nn1L uyac1a. pnnoe npenoHnne1cn ao HnoroH: YX X
211
. eH 6onee uenoaek cnoco6en na a1o, 1eH 6onee coo1ae1c1aye1 on
saHmcny pnpopm n 1eH 6nnxe on Ma1epn.
nn smunnka coc1papanne ko acnkoHy uyxoHy ropk ne orpannunaae1cn 1ecnmHn
npepenaHn nkpckoro Hnpa, a o6nnHae1 co6ok ac xnaoe. e1 po6pope1enn amue
coc1papannn. yxoanoc1L - a1o, a nepayk ouepepL, aennuauan o1smaunaoc1L na
uyxyk 6onL. nn nopnnnno opyxo1aopennoro uenoaeka ampaxenne "uyxo 6onn ne
6maae1" - ne nnockasanne, a 6ykaanLnoe ceppeunoe nepexnaanne npn anpe
paspaanenno nnryukn, panenno nnuyrn, sa1paanennoro saepLka. aocm roaopnnn,
u1o ecnn yHnpae1 sanu, 1o paxe nnca neuann1cn...
c1L nkpn, ko1opme 1y caHyk 6onL nc1epsanno, kpoao1ouaue eHnn, u1o paxe n po
pasyHa Hnornx ne poxopn1, ouyuak1 kak caok co6c1aennyk. epep 1ako
o1smaunaoc1Lk, nepep 1ako nk6oaLk Hepkne1 ace, u1o acye nasmaae1cn
rennanLnoc1Lk, reponsHoH, can1oc1Lk. aeueH pycckoH nsmke "xane1L" - snaun1
nk6n1L.
* * *
smueckoe Hnpoouyuenne ec1L o1kpoaenne caHo pnpopm. cnn uenoaek ouyuae1
pnpopy kak XY Y, 1o a1o nosaonne1 eHy am1n na noame, 6onee 1onkne
ypoann aocnpnn1nn, ynoan1L 1annc1aennme nosmanme acenenckoro xnsnennoro
no1oka, n caHosa6aenno cnn1Lcn c nnH a neckasannoH aoc1opre. o 1akoe cnnnnne
neHmcnnHo 6es caHoounuennn: .
1o6m aocnpnnn1L 1onkne npnpopnme nsnyuennn, napo nepeaec1n npaac1aennoc1L ns
yskouenoaeuecknx a1nuecknx npaann aneunero noaepennn-a1nke1a a nac1on1enLnoe
any1pennee no6yxpenne nec1n o6po aceHy xnayueHy. apo nayun1Lcn a o6uennn c
pnpopo naxopn1L neu1o 6onLuee, ueH aosHoxnoc1L nopmua1L caexnH aospyxoH n
nonexn1Lcn na 1paake. yxna no1pe6noc1L conpnuauennn pnpope.
D1a no1pe6noc1L Hoxe1 6m1L ypoane1aopena nnuL ceppeunmH nepexnaanneH, korpa
uenoaek uyac1aye1 ce6n ne o6oco6nennmH o1 Ma1epn cyuec1aoH, a aeuno n
neo1LeHneHo uac1nue e 6m1nn, e cosnannn, e Xnsnenno nnm. c1L
6oxec1aennan o1papa a 1akoH ouyuennn, n ecnn ono c1anoan1cn ocnoanmH, npoc1mH n
ec1ec1aennmH, - 1ako uenoaek pennrnosen a amcueH cHmcne cnoaa. ero
pennrnosnoc1L ne o1aneunnan aepa, a xnao1aopnuee, neo6Hanmaakuee uyac1ao,
noc1onnno nanoHnnakuee eHy o 1oH, u1o on ne cnpo1a: on - nno1L o1 nno1n caoe
ennko Ma1epn.
orpa pyua 6esornnpno pacnaxnaae1cn naac1peuy anac1n1enLnoHy, nackoaoHy oay,
uenoaek o6pe1ae1 nponnknoaennoe Hnpoanpenne, panee pnn nero nepoc1ynnoe:
uypecnoe, nenpepckasyeHoe n neamuncnnHoe; a1o rapHonnn, ko1opyk ne npoaepn1L
anre6po. akoe npocae1nennoe cosnanne nensHepnHo amue uepc1amx cxonac1nuecknx
yHc1aoaann n 6ecnnopnmx cnopoa o okpoaennoH.
Y M M, M X. c oc1anLnoe
necyuec1aenno. ak nekorpa epernnn ckasana enoaeky.
o, u1o orpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao nkpe o6muno penae1 copepxanneH caoe xnsnn, - 1e
aneunne 6nara n nouec1n, sa ko1opmHn onn 1ak xapno ronnk1cn n papn ko1opmx 1ak
nouno xnay1, 6onek1 n yHnpak1, a1n npnspaunme 6nara nnkorpa ne npnnocn1 nH nn
nokon, nn unc1o papoc1n.
212
ckaskax amc1ynak1 coaceH nnme repon-npaaponk6um, npene6perakune xn1ecknH
6narononyuneH, ne sa6o1nunecn o 6ora1c1ae n acnuecknx amropax. onoyHnme
uypakn? nn nao6opo1, nH caoc1aenno L Y?
Hn panxe1 6eckopmc1nan, ne o6ycnoanennan nnueH, ec1ec1aennan pyxoanan
no1pe6noc1L nec1n a Hnp o6po. ennune nx pyxoanoro o6nnka ane coHnennn.
napopnoH cosnannn onn - nocn1enn amcunx npaac1aennmx npeanoa, amcue kpaco1m
n unc1o1m. a1a unc1o1a cnacae1 nx o1 acex kosne.
* * *
onue6nme ckaskn poxpanncL 1orpa, korpa uenoaek ne y1epnn eue sapyueano cansn
c Ma1epLk-pnpopo n no-pe1ckn 6ecxn1poc1no o6pauancn k e sa noHouLk.
no1oHy rnaano onue6nnue a ckaskax amc1ynae1 caHa pnpopa a nnue saepe-
noHounnkoa n c1nxn-sac1ynnnu.
naHena1enLno, u1o amcunHn nopa1ennHn 6nara n opnoapeHenno cnpaaepnnamHn
cypLnHn a ckaskax nannk1cn ne nkpn, a ppyrne xname cyuec1aa n Horyuec1aennme
c1nxnnme cnnm.
nkan pnpopa o6muno anyuae1 unc1oHy ceppuy poaepne, a snoHy - c1pax. epo
ckaskn nepepko neaspauen, ne 6neue1 oc1poyHneH, npoc1opyuen uy1L nn ne po
pypaunnaoc1n, no sa1o on po caHoo1peuennoc1n coc1papa1enen, y nero po6poe
ceppue, n eHy na noHouL npnxopn1 onnue, e1ep, eka, ep Mopos, peHyun ec...
o6po acerpa 1opxec1aye1, n repo opepxnaae1 no6epy nap snoH, a noHorak1 eHy a
a1oH aonue6nme cyuec1aa (naka-ypka) n necnme saepn n n1num: aonk, aopon,
cokon, nacka, uyka n ppyrne. ce onn o6napak1 uypopec1aenno cnno, nepepko
aHeunaak1cn a xop co6m1n n ynpaannk1 nH. nkaknx ycnoan onn npn a1oH ne
c1aan1; pasae n6nonLka 1onLko nonpocn1, u1o6m yaaxnnn ee - cLenn n6nouko.
e oc1pm, xonopnm paccypok, ne xn1poyHnme pacue1m, a po6poe o1nouenne k
Xnao pnpope ampyuae1 repon. sno n 6ecceppeunm neHnnyeHo okasmaae1cn a
nHe, ko1opyk poe1 ppyroHy.
ceo6LeHnkun npaac1aennm sakon nexn1 a ocnoae Mnpospannn. naanoe nonn1ne
a1oro nesm6neHoro sakona - . pnpopa 1ak o1nocn1cn k uenoaeky,
kak on o1nocn1cn k ppyrnH xnamH cyuec1aaH. cnn onn yHnpak1 no naue npnxo1n,
1o n Hm c1anoanHcn Hep1amHn pnn pnpopm. Myuennn 6ecuncnennmx noponm1nmx
co6auonok o1smaak1cn noaanLnmHn nensneunHmHn 6onesnnHn n aosHyuennnHn
"cnenmx" 1nxn.
nonorn-anancek1opm canpe1enLc1ayk1, u1o xnao1noe npekpacno nonnHae1, a kako
c1pauno saancnHoc1n ono naxopn1cn. no , u1o ero xp1 n 6eccnoaecno Honn1
o nouape. oaec1nname yuenme nnkorpa ne Hory1 npnamkny1L k a1oHy n, pano nnn
nospno, o1kasmaak1cn o1 onm1oa-nm1ok, 6eccHmcnennmx paxe c nayuno 1oukn
spennn. pnn ns nnx pacckasmaan, u1o 6pocnn na6opa1opnk a , korpa npnunocL
yHep1an1L co6aky, c ko1opo on ponro "pa6o1an" (saknkun1enLnm onm1 1pe6oaan
ackpm1nn). o6aka nnsana pykn y6num n 6ykaanLno nnakana, - npocnna nouapm,
xo1n panLue o1nocnnacL ko aceH pec1annH nap ne poaonLno-1akn cnokono, kak 6m
snan, u1o a1n onepaunn - ne aepnan cHep1L, ne kasnL. ocnepnn xe cao uac co6aka
yrapana 6esoun6ouno...
ppyrne ec1ec1aoncnm1a1enn 1oxe roaopn1 o cnesax xnao1nmx, o nonnoH nonnHannn
nHn caoero 6eccnnnn a pykax xnaopepa, o nenpo1nanennn a cnny a1oro, o napexpe na
"noHnnoaanne"...
213
enoaeuec1ao annoaa1o kak 6nonornueckn anp, y6naakun XnsnL na eHne,
nacnnykun pnpopy, kak neu1o caHo co6ok pasyHekueecn (aepL a 6n6nnn ncno
ckasano, u1o pnpopa - "1aapL 6ecuyac1aennan"). Hep1onocnoe xano
1exnokpa1nuecko xpnc1nancko unannnsaunn nanpaaneno npo1na Xnsnn, kak
1akoao.
o npo1naoec1ec1aennan unannnsaunn a1a, nopo6no ckopnnony, nopaxae1 caHoe ce6n.
ona yxe npepuyac1aye1 caon npepcHep1nme cypoporn. op nkpcko - a oxnpannn
ckopo pasanskn, npn6nnxakuecn c neo1apa1nHoc1Lk cypL6m. nopn1 yxe ne o
apeHenax n cpokax, a nnuL o 1oH, ne y1aun1 nn Hep1aeu c co6ok a Hornny n acex
xnamx?
eHno uap copporae1cn o1 nepenanpnxennn, n caHosaun1a pnpopm - a1o 1onLko
o1ae1 na 6ecunnc1aa uenoaeka. a1pa1na 400 Hnn. ponnapoa na 6opL6y c capanuo,
o6Lnanna o nonnoH caoH nopaxennn. xeropnm ypon o1 He1eoka1ac1poq
coc1aanne1 180 Hnpp. ponnapoa n neyknonno, c yckopenneH, pac11. ce
1exnonornueckne n an1ekapckne ynoakn, nanpaanennme na amxnaanne nopounoro,
uaannnaoro "cao6opnoro Hnpa", - a1o acero nnuL xankne nonm1kn nepexn1pn1L
pnpopy. na aepL npeaocxopno Hoxe1 o6o1ncL n 6es xoHo cannenca: sennme
pac1ennn nyxnee, n ecnn 6m ac uenoaeuec1ao a opnn npekpacnm penL amHepno,
na, aepon1no, 1onLko aspoxnyna 6m c o6neruenneH.
nn eHnn, kak pnn Xnaoro prannsHa, coapeHennoe uenoaeuec1ao - a1o nnecenL-
opnopneaka. Mnnuan ce6n 6oxec1aennmH nspenneH nnecenL ncuesne1, a eHnn 6ype1
xn1L n nopoxpa1L noame anpm xnamx cyuec1a, kak a1o 6mno po nonanennn nkpe.
yxnm nn Hm pnpope? nn naH cyxpeno ncuesny1L c nnua eHnn, 1ak n ne ocosnaa
caoero npepnasnauennn? aHoounuenne pnpopm yxe nauanocL...
* * *
Xnan1enLnoe mxanne, nponnsmaakuee cenennyk, o6Lepnnne1 a uenoc1nm
oprannsH, kak pyua - 1eno.
smueckoe Hnpoaocnpnn1ne snxpe1cn na apoxpenno yaepennoc1n, na caHooueanpnoH
ouyuennn o6okpno asanHocansn uenoaeueckoro cyuec1aa c yxaHn, 1o ec1L c
aonue6nmHn cnnaHn opyxo1aopenno pnpopm.
okpoaennan cy1L a1nx panxyunx n ynpaannkunx nn naH nenoc1nxnHa; specL
aonpocm o c1poennn Ha1epnanLnoro Hnpa cnnaak1cn c 1annc1aennmHn npo6neHaHn ero
nponcxoxpennn. cno 1onLko, u1o nnm a1n ec1L nenocpepc1aennme nponanennn
X.
Xnsnennoe nauano a uenoaeke - popc1aennan uac1nua pnpopm: ac, u1o cnyuae1cn c
nnH, naxopn1, noa1oHy neaonLnm o1sayk a pnpope, n nao6opo1.
akonm pnpopm ne paanopyunm. nn - 1paxn Xnsnn, n acerpa onpaapmaak1 1oro,
k1o y1aepxpae1 XnsnL. yuec1ayk1 nppaunonanLnme, nepoc1ynnme uenoaeueckoHy
paccypky npnunnno-cnepc1aennme cansn n cnoco6m, nocpepc1aoH ko1opmx
nponanne1cn n ocyuec1anne1cn pnpopnan npaaepnnaoc1L.
nu1o ne pae1cn papoH, n nnu1o ne oc1ae1cn 6esnakasannmH. cnkoHy pennnk nnn
nepennnk ec1L caoe aospannne. aH paxe aoo6pasn1L 1pypno, kakne coaepuenneune
sanoHnnakune "yc1poc1aa" cenenno aepy1 yu1 naunH penaH n noHmcnaH,
ynaannaak1 1onuaunHn nsHepennnHn nk6oe, caHoe 1anoe coc1onnne naue pyun.
214
arapounme sakonoHepnoc1n, okpyxakune uenoaeka n aospec1aykune na nero, nnuL
no anpnHoc1n nexa1 a o6nac1n Hexuenoaeuecknx o1nouenn, na pene xe onn
caepxnnunoc1nm n coanapak1 c sakonaHn pnpopm. a pasposnennmH HnpoH nanenn,
nnu, co6m1n c1on1 nekan ocnoaononarakuan sakonoHepnoc1L, npnpopnan
neo6xopnHoc1L, , o6napyxnaakuan ce6n a anpe "cnyuanmx"
coanapenn. oc1a1ouno acnoHnn1L "npoknn1ne apaona".
oqHan, nopuepknaan ocnoanyk npek caoero poHana "Dnnkcnpm ca1anm", nncan, u1o
xo1en nokasa1L "sarapounme cansn pyxa uenoaeueckoro c 1eHn mcunHn auanaHn,
u1o ckpmaak1cn noackpy a pnpope n nnuL apeHn o1 apeHenn koe-rpe npornnpmaak1
a anpe npo6necka, ko1opm Hm 1orpa nasmaaeH cnyuaeH".
yuec1aye1 nespnHan, poc1ynnan ocosnannk 1onLko ouenL uy1knx na1yp,
uenenanpaanennan cuennennoc1L nanenn, ko1opo n aepun1cn pnpopnan
npaaepnnaoc1L. noren aap1n coo6uae1 nc1opnk, kak nopkynnennan nnqnn cpasy
xe norn6na o1 ykyca caeuenno sHen, o6n1aaue a xpaHe. peanerpeueckoe
npepanne noaec1aye1, kak nekorpa cnpaaepnnaoe aosHespne noc1nrno y6nu
6naropapn xypaannH, ynnunaunH nx a npec1ynnennn.
neunne co6m1nn nannk1cn nnuL koneunmH anpnHmH o1paxenneH onpepenennmx
any1pennnx npnpopnmx panxenn. o kaknH o6pasoH o6c1on1enLc1aa cknapmaak1cn
1ak, a ne nnaue? ak onn, 6yp1o no Hanoaennk aonue6no nanoukn-ampyuanoukn,
npn1nrnaak1cn, c1anknaak1cn n, nakoneu, amc1panaak1cn a opnn nocnepoaa1enLnm
pnp? akoam no1anme npyxnnm n nencnoaepnHme ny1n rny6nnnoro asanHopec1ann
o1penLnmx saenLea n pasnnunmx ypoane pnno pnpopm?
- , yxopnuan caonHn kopnnHn a nopcnypnme, nespeunne
nsHepennn m1nn, nepoc1ynnme noaepxnoc1noHy uenoaeueckoHy aocnpnn1nk. pecL
aennuaun Hyppeu Hoxe1 1onLko c1pon1L cHy1nme npepnonoxennn, a 6onLunnc1ao
nkpe - nnuL rapa1L acnenyk. pecL uenoaek
o c1paxoH Hnn1 o nne 1o,
o1opan ao Hrne ryc1o
kpmaancn, nens6exnHa,
Le1 nn1n pokoamx ce1e,
o rny6nne nnuL ceppua spnHa,
o ckpm1a o1 pneanmx nyue.
. Xykoackn. ankoam xypaann.
* * *
xnsnn ne1 nnuero 6espasnnunoro, nesnaun1enLnoro, cnyuanoro (n paxe 1o, u1o m
un1aeuL a1y knnry - ne cnyuano). yuec1ayk1 noc1onnnme, acenponnkakune,
sarapounme asanHocansn Hnpoa; neko1opme nkpn ouyuak1 a1o a caHmx peuakunx
pnn nx cypL6m o6c1on1enLc1aax. aonue6nmx ckaskax o6osnauenm asanHocansn pe1e
c yHepunHn popn1ennHn: noHouL cnpo1e npnxopn1 o1 yHepue Ha1epn, k ko1opo on
o6pauae1cn a 1pypnyk Hnny1y. o aepL 1ak 6maae1 ne 1onLko a ckaskax, no n a
pec1an1enLno xnsnn.
215
cn o6mpennan xnsnL naua nacmuena npepsnaHenoaannnHn, snakaHn, naHekaHn n
nopckaskaHn c1onL ampasn1enLnmHn, u1o Hoxno nnuL ypnann1Lcn, kak nkpn ne
nayunnncL (nnn yxe pasyunnncL) nH annHa1L. euL np1 o 1oH, u1o na1ypqnnocoq
o1xnnLq Ly6ep1 nasaan "nouno c1opono pnpopm": cnm, npepuyac1ann,
npepaocxnuennn, npnHe1m, naaaxpennn, aeune nan1nn, anesannme aocnoHnnannn o
paano yHepunx, neynoanHme anpennn n ppyrne popc1aennme nanennn, a 1o nnn nno
Hepe snakoHme kaxpoHy uenoaeky.
o, u1o ncnxonorn nasmaak1 neonpepenennmH cnoaoH "nn1ynunn", - ec1L
6eccosna1enLnoe, neo6Hanmaakuee uy1L, nynoanna, cansykuan uenoaeka c
nopopnaue ero pnpopo. onLko a1nH uy1LH n Hoxe1 ynoan1L on aennne
Y, 1o ec1L nexauero no 1y c1opony o6munoro, 6oppc1aykuero,
"pneanoro" aocnpnn1nn. apo 1onLko oc1anoan1Lcn, npncnyua1Lcn n npnsapyHa1Lcn
nap neko1opmHn "c1pannoc1nHn", "coanapennnHn" n "cnyuanoc1nHn", npecnepykunHn
nac.
onesnL - a1o naHek na yknonenne o1 sanoaepe pnpopm. cnn oun6ka nonn1a, 1o
amspopoanenne. cnn nonnoe nenonnHanne npepynpexpennn, 1o ycyry6nenne
6onesne n ypapoa. y1n ncuenennn 1an1 a ce6e nopo ne HenLue neoxnpannoro,
neo6LncnnHoro, ueH ny1n sa6oneaannn.
uenoaeke ppeHnk1 nencuepnaeHme ckpm1me cnnm, n cnoco6noc1L k
caHouenn1enLc1ay - nnuL opna ns nnx. 1o snae1 1anm a1nx cnn n npepenm, nx
Horyuec1aa? ennkan onn k Xnsnn nponnsmaae1 co6ok ack pnpopy. cnn uenoaek
u1n1 caeuennoe npaao na xnsnL acnkoro saepn, pac1ennn, Ho1mnLka, 1o eHy pa1cn
Hnoroe.
Hy papye1cn Ypaua a nckonnoH caoH cHmcne, 1o ec1L papoc1L, cnna, spopoaLe. epL,
kak nac1aye1 ns caHoro snauennn cnoaa, ypaua - a1o 1o, u1o pae1cn uenoaeky neknHn
mcunHn nnaHn. cnn ypaua cony1c1aye1 uenoaeky, 1o ero xn1eckne 1pypnoc1n
paspeuak1cn kak 6m caHn co6o, "yc1panaak1cn" 1eH nenpepckasyeHmH ny1eH,
ko1opm Hm nasmaaeH "aesenneH". a1oH Hnpe ac ncno 1onLko 1eH, k1o Hano snae1:
ueH 6onLue Hm nosnaeH, 1eH cnoxnee, nsyHn1enLnee, nensLncnnHee on npepc1ae1...
o6pan onn uenoaeka, ncxopnuan ns ceppua, ec1L nyu onn pnpopm: noa1oHy e
ne1 nperpap, n ona caHa c1anoan1cn aonue6no, 1aopuecko nno.
o6pan onn - amcuee pyxoanoe nauano a uenoaeke, ne 1onLko napennkuee ero
caHoro 6eccHep1neH n neynsanHoc1Lk, no n pakuee eHy 6ecuennm pap caHoHy no
ce6e 6m1L nc1ounnkoH 6eckoneuno 6naro cnnm, npencnonnnkue ero n
pasnnaakuecn na ac aokpyr. D L.
eaepon1nme uypecnme ncuenennn - acero nnuL no6ounme o6napyxennn o6po onn
aonue6nnka, ocyuec1annkunecn nepepko paxe n noHnHo ero cosnannn, korpa
ykopennaunecn npaac1aennme sanoaepn npno6pe1ak1 snauenne caHopoanekunx
nopcosna1enLnmx yc1anoaok. ako uenoaek neaonLno cosnpae1 aokpyr ce6n
Harnueckn kpyr - Hounyk 6noanepre1nueckyk aypy; oco6oe neaeuec1aennoe, no
anonne ouy1nHoe kone6a1enLno-aonnoaoe none, nocmnakuee caon 6no1okn a
okpyxakuee npoc1panc1ao n annnkuee na ppyrne xname cyuec1aa, ko1opme, 6yp1o
Harnn1oH, aneky1cn a ero cqepy npn1nxennn.
kpn o6po onn o6napak1 orpoHno 1aopuecko cnno aospec1ann: onn 1porak1
naun ceppua n nopaxak1 aoo6paxenne. ennkan nk6oaL ko aceHy xnayueHy
o6napae1 n nonc1nne aonue6nmH caoc1aoH ykpoua1L xnunnkoa. nnn esan1 -
poc1onan yuennua . . naaa1cko, nnue1, u1o nanenne a1o ocnoaano na 1oH
sakone, cornacno ko1opoHy npnpopa uyac1aennan nopunnne1cn npnpope pyxoano,
216
ecnn 1onLko a1a nocnepnnn "poc1nrna 1oro coc1onnnn aceHnpnoro coc1papannn,
ko1opoe ec1L ".
e1onncn n npepannn acex napopoa noaec1ayk1 o "noHeuannoH po6pnke", uLn
ne1pony1an uepc1aoc1Lk pyua coxpannna cnoco6noc1L o6ua1Lcn c pnko pnpopo, -
no1pncakuee ouyuenne pnn 1oro, koHy xo1L pas poaenocL ero nepexn1L. cnn
uenoaek nonk6n1 aonka, a1o - uypo; ecnn xe aonk nonk6n1 uenoaeka, a1o - uypo ns
uypec.
e1 npepena asanHononnHannk Hexpy uenoaekoH n saepeH. saec1na cnoco6noc1L
xnao1nmx n pac1enn kaknH-1o caepxuyac1aennmH ny1H pacnosnaaa1L caHme
cokpoaennme pyueanme nopmam uenoaeka. "e amsmaa1L c1paxa a pnkoH xnao1noH -
a1o , nou1n neaepoHoe coapeHennoHy uenoaeky", - canpe1enLc1aye1 onc
pacnep a caoe 6ecnopo6no knnre "a pnkoH eaepe".
e amsmaa1L c1paxa a anenLkoH uae1ouke, 1pora1enLnoH a caoe 6essaun1noc1n n
1peneuyueH o1 opnoro uenoaeueckoro asrnnpa, - a1o yxe ne npoc1o cuac1Le, a1o -
. uenL, ouenL pepko ypae1cn naH ncnm1a1L 1akoe nponsn1enLno -
ueHnuee ouyuenne nepao6m1noro popc1aa: "Mm opno poan - n !"
acunpne1cn cosnanne - n ace npepc1ae1 XM, YYM
YLM.
orpa npnnopnnHae1cn saaeca 1anm, n uenm Hnp o1kpmaae1 uenoaeky caon o6Ln1Ln.
m appyr cnnaaeuLcn c nnH a cnapoc1noH nonnosayunoH nape n ysnauL, u1o aecL Hnp
co aceHn a nH xnayunHn cyuec1aaHn ec1L epnnan ceHLn, nopoxpnnan opno
Ma1epLk-pnpopo n coepnnnnan a nk6an k e. nsm naap1maak1cn na rnasa, n
ceppue pa1cn ns rpypn. ynon1enLnan npnxopn1 caHa co6ok, kak
aennuaun , n uenoaek nn1ae1cn papoc1Lk, kak M Y.
o a1oro ne nonn1L 1oHy, k1o a1o ne nepexnn. eaosHoxno paxe roaopn1L o6 a1oH -
Hoxno nnuL ouyua1L. epL naue 1eno - npoponxenne pyun 1onLko a 6onee nno1noH
o6nnuLe, n Hnp Hm nosnaH uepes ouyuennn.
ae1noe smueckoe xnsneouyuenne nnorpa nosaonne1 uenoaeky nenocpepc1aenno, a
cnny npnuac1noc1n ero pyxoanoro cyuec1aa k cenenckoHy XnsnennoHy mxannk,
nsaepa1L no1aennoe n yspe1L yxoa "nnuoH k nnuy". D .
* * *
smueckn ny1L nocaeuennn 6esmckycc1aen, kak caHa pnpopa, n poc1ynen kaxpoHy
nckpenneHy ceppuy. o nHenno acnepc1ane caoe npoc1o1m n ncnoc1n a1o Yuenne
aocnpnnnHae1cn kak neu1o uepecuyp nerkoe, nesnaun1enLnoe n nepoc1onoe
annHannn: aepL nkpn o6muno nuy1 a nncannnx u1o-1o "rny6okoe", aso1epnueckoe n
nenonn1noe, kaknx-1o Harnuecknx "knkue" k 1anoaepennk.
opnnnnoe aepoac1ao nnkorpa ne cun1anocL 1annc1aoH, n6o, saueH y1anaa1L
uypopec1aennyk cnny couyac1ann n Hnnoceppnn?
epoac1ao - pap pnpopm. na caHa ns6npae1 caonx cnyxn1ene - aepynoa n aepLH -
nocn1ene smuecko yxoanoc1n. nn - Y a amcueH,
nenpoqannpoaannoH snauennn a1oro cnoaa: nopanxnnkn, apoxnoanneHme 6narnHn
caepxuenoaeuecknHn cyunoc1nHn - yxaHn.
xnsnn kaxporo ns nnx 6mnn 1akne noporn, npeopone1L ko1opme o6munm uenoaek
ne a coc1onnnn. maann n neHnnyeHo-rn6enLnme pnn npoc1oro cHep1noro o6pmam,
217
opnako nespnHme ypm - okpoan1enn penann ac, u1o6m y6epeuL caonx nn1oHuea o1
neneno npexpeapeHenno rn6enn.
y1L onxaa - a1o cnnaa, epnnenne onn pnpopm n cocpepo1ouenno aonn uenoaeka,
n na a1oH ny1n on necokpyunH. onnc1aykuan o6pan onn, ao6paauan a ce6n
orpoHnme cnnm, nopo6na 1yro na1nny1o 1e1nae, xpyue 1onLko ocao6oxpennn, u1o6m
o6napyxn1L caoe pec1ane.
cnkan yc1peHnennan napyxy cnna, nn1aeHan caoekopmc1neH, 1y1 xe ncuepnmaae1cn:
ona yxopn1 o1 uenoaeka 6esaosapa1no. ypyun xe opyxo1aopena 6naropopnmHn
no6yxpennnHn, nonyuae1 Houneun sapnp n coo6uae1 anapenLuy cnoco6noc1n,
nasmaaeHme LM...
o1, k1o ynpekae1 o6pocnaaa a noa1opennn opnoro n 1oro xe, ne ynaannaae1, u1o
cnnpanL, aocxopn, noa1opne1 an1ok sa an1koH, no kaxpm pas na 6onee amcokoH
ypoane; u1o a kaxpoH npn6nnxennn k cy1n smuec1aa aaopn1cn noaoe, 6onee
aosamuennoe ocHmcnenne.
* * *
1o osnauae1 smuec1ao c 1oukn spennn cnoaecnoc1n? smkn - a1o napopm. smuec1ao
- pennrnn napopnan, npnpopnan, popnan, a o1nnune o1 uyxepopnoro xpnc1nanc1aa.
nonn1nn "nsmuec1ao" o1paxeno ppeanee ouyuenne 1oxpec1aa napopa (nsmka) n ero
Hnpoaocnpnn1nn.
naanno-pycckoe smuec1ao - a1o naua naunonanLnan pasnoanpnoc1L nekorpa o6ue
pnn acex napopoa pennrnn . Y acex smuecknx pennrn,
kak y ae1ae opnoro pepeaa, ec1L o6un kopenL, yxopnun a He1anc1opnueckne
nnac1m n coaeunm caHoHy popy uenoaeueckoHy. "pn a kopenL" n yanpnuL
aennuauee popc1ao acex nepyko1aopnmx pennrn. c1L pasnnunme o6pnpm n o6muan,
pasnnunme nHena 6oxec1a n 1. p. o cy1L acerpa n aespe opna: noun1anne pnpopm,
ae1a, Xnsnn, k6an, paco1m eHno...
smuec1ae ne1 nonn1nn caepxLec1ec1aennoro, caepxnpnpopnoro 6ora kak 1aopua
Hnpa nnn cnacn1enn uenoaeuec1aa. smunnkn Hmcnnnn 6oxec1ao kak coaokynnoc1L
acero xnaoro, pasyHnoro n opyueanennoro . pnpopa 6mna
6oxec1aenna caHa no ce6e, a uenoaek, kak n acnkan e "kne1ouka", nec a ce6e
6oxec1aennyk nckpy.
axpo pace Ma1L-pnpopa pana caok oco6yk pyueanyk n 1enecnyk cyunoc1L, cao
cknap Hmunennn, caoe Hec1o nop onnueH. axpan paca n kaxpm napop -
nenoa1opnHm uae1ok na nnae Xnsnn. e kakan-nn6o opna paca, a kaxpan nanne1cn
pnn Ma1epn xenanno n ns6panno.
c1L 1onLko opna neuec1naan paca, o1uyxpennan o1 pnpopm n necyuan a Hnp sno:
a1o - "6orons6pannme", uLe nponcxoxpenne npoponxae1 oc1aaa1Lcn sarapko pnn
an1pononoroa. ypen - epnnc1aennan paca, naunc1o nnuennan amcokoro pennrnosnoro
uyac1aa: 6n6neckoe 6oronoun1anne ec1L ne u1o nnoe, kak caHm aynLrapnm,
pmnounm Ha1epnannsH. onLko a nypansHe noknonenne onnuy cun1ae1cn caHmH
c1paunmH rpexoH n npec1ynnenneH.
Mono1ensH - npepc1aanenne o epnnoH, nnunoc1noH, uenoaekonopo6noH 6ore,
co1aopnaueH Hnp pnn nypeea, npnpyHann onn caHn, a nosxe nopxaa1nnn xpnc1nane.
nypeckoH nopnnnnnke ae1xoro saae1a a1o1 "6or" 7000 pas nHenye1cn eroao, 1. e.
Hec1eukoamH nypecknH 6oxkoH, n 1onLko a rpeueckoH n na1nnckoH nepeaopax c
napn1a (pnn nnonneHennnkoa - roea), on saHacknpoaanno nasaan "rocnopoH".
218
"ocnopL or" naunx npaaocnaanmx 6oroHonLuea - a1o eroaa, na u1o ne 6es exnpc1aa
ykasmaak1 cek1an1m-neroanc1m.
pnc1nane pasLnnn epnnc1ao Hnpa n npo1naonoc1aannn "6oxec1aennme" ne6eca -
"nnsHenno" eHne, onyuanocL, u1o ueH panLue o1 pnpopm, 1eH "6nnxe" k 6ory. or
cospan 1aapnm Hnp, norpnsun a rpexe. 1ckpa Hannn anpe1L "6eca" a kaxpo
seHno 1aapn, sa kaxpmH necnmH kyc1oH...
D1a napuan, peHonnueckan pnpopa ponxna 6m1L nopa6ouena: nHenno 1akan
6n6neckan yc1anoaka n aaeprna Hnp a 1nxeneuyk pyxoanyk n akonornueckyk
ka1ac1poqy.
Yuenne o 6ore - oco6oH anenpnpopnoH, napnpnpopnoH nauane, pae1 aosHoxnoc1L
"o6Lncnn1L" nanennn "nexnao" pnpopm unc1o HexannuecknH asanHopec1aneH
uac1e. epkoaL 6mna kpane sann1epecoaana a 1ako pecakpannsaunn pnpopm n
acnueckn nooupnna pasan1ne 1exnnkn, kak cpepc1aa poc1nxennn kak Hoxno 6onLue
anac1n nap "6oronpo1nano" pnpopo. Maunnnan, npo1naoec1ec1aennan, 1. n.
sanapnan unannnsaunn, onyc1ouakuan n o1paannkuan eHnk, ec1L uypoanunoe
nopoxpenne xpnc1nanc1aa.
Hep1enLnan yrposa aceHy xnaoHy na nnane1e ncxopn1 nHenno ns Hnpa,
ncnoaepykuero xpnc1nanc1ao. no1oHy smuec1ao ceuac - a1o, npexpe acero,
M.
M tM MY Y Y!
* * *
cnoao ponroapeHennoro nypeckoro nnana saaoeaannn Hnpoaoro rocnopc1aa
nanne1cn nsapauenne ec1ec1aenno pennrnosno xnsnn ppyrnx napopoa ny1eH
npnanakn nH npoan1oro, 1ne1aopnoro aepoyuennn, paspmaakuero nx cansn c
pnpopo, c ypaHn-pauypaHn. c oc1anLnoe - rocnopc1ao a npeonornn, kynL1ype,
akonoHnke n 1. p. am1ekae1, a koneunoH cue1e, ns rocnopc1aa a pennrnosno cqepe.
acnc1ckyk npek caoero npeaocxopc1aa - caoe "6orons6pannoc1n" nypen yHeno
anyuak1 ppyrnH napopaH uepes pennrnk - xpnc1nanc1ao. pnc1nanc1ao pnn nypeea -
cnnLneuee opyxne a 6opL6e sa Hnpoaoe rocnopc1ao.
annee xpnc1nanc1ao 6mno acero nnuL opno ns nesnaun1enLnmx nypecknx cek1.
yuec1aoaanne caHoro ncyca ne nop1aepxpae1cn nn opnnH poc1oaepnmH
nc1opnuecknH nc1ounnkoH. cnn xe aepn1L "o1uaH uepkan", 1o ncno, u1o nnunoc1L,
nopo6nan ncycy, caonHn 6esyHnmHn nponoaepnHn o1peuennn o1 ceHLn n popa
noppmaana xnsnennme yc1on o6uec1aa. ypeckne anac1n o6Lnannn ncyca onacnmH
cHy1LnnoH n nac1onnn na ero cHep1n.
xpnc1nanc1ao nnkorpa ne amuno 6m sa npepenm ypen, ecnn 6m a ronoaax nean1oa
- xpeuoa eroam ne cospen rpanpnosnm saHmcen ncnonLsoaa1L yuenne a1o cek1m
pnn o6eckpoannaannn n saka6anennn smuecknx napopoa.
apo nnuL sapasn1L a1n napopm 6onesne1aopnmH anpycoH, nop1aunaakunH nx
pyxoanme n xnsnennme cnnm. ennrnn, npeaosnocnuan cna6mx, yuep6nmx, nopounmx
n "nnunx pyxoH", kak nenLsn nyuue 6ype1 pasnara1L roea nsny1pn.
yc1L ncyc - npn6nypnm cmnok "peam" Mapnn, no pnn roea on 6ype1 "cmnoH
6oxLnH" - cmnoH caHoro eroam. c ero noHouLk Hoxno cpena1L nx pa6aHn
"6oxLnHn", 1. e. pa6aHn nypeea.
219
D1oro-1o o6pesannoro "cnacn1enn" n nopknnynn cnonckne Hyppeum 6eno ceaepno
pace 2000 ne1 nasap.
caHn cHek1cn. nsaec1noH "eapeckoH anekpo1e" paaann noxaanne1cn nepep
kcenpsoH: "y keH 1m HoxeuL c1a1L? y ennckonoH, ny kappnnanoH, ny nano
pnHcknH... o ne caHnH xe 6oroH? - ao1 opnn ns naunx paxe a aaun 6orn npones!".
s ae1xosaae1noro capnsHa pnn rocnop-nypeea npnHo cnepye1 noaosaae1nm HasoxnsH
pnn pa6oa-roea: "...nk6n1e aparoa aaunx, Honn1ecL sa o6nxakunx aac n ronnunx
aac". pnc1nanc1ao, 6ypyun nn1o kononno cnonnsHa a nk6oH rocypapc1ae, nenn1
npeanLnmx pa6oa, opypHannaan nx nponoaepnHn nenpo1nanennn sny. D1y-1o pennrnk,
rpe Hnoro roaopn1cn o "c1paxe 6oxLeH" n nn cnoaa o uec1n n coaec1n, n naansan naH
xasapckn amkopHmu napnHnp.
y1L k rocnopc1ay a pennrnosno cqepe nexan uepes paspyuenne popoamx cae1nnnu
n kasnn aonxaoa, uepes o1ceuenne nc1opnuecko naHn1n, uepes onneamaanne
naunonanLnmx 1papnun n kynL1ypm. c cae1noe a1an1maanocL a rpnsL pnn 1oro,
u1o6m napop no1oH o6napyxnn, u1o y nero ne 6mno nn repoea, nn aoxpe, nn
Hyppeuoa, nn Hopann, nn nc1opnn, nn kynL1ypm, a 6mno opno "noranc1ao". orpa on
npoue cHnpn1cn c HmcnLk o npeaocxopc1ae "6orons6pannmx" n c uyac1aoH rny6okoro
packannnn npnsnae1, u1o caHn pycnun nnuL auepa cnnnn ukypm n amunn ns neuep.
mne npaaocnaane - kosmpnan kap1a nypeea a pene npeapauennn napopa a c1apo
6espono1nmx, 6esaonLnmx xononoa. nonnc1ckn okkynaunonnm pexnH ycnnenno
paspyaae1 uepkoanoe kapnno. ap1aame nopronockn "ao6opm" penno n nouno
yaepnk1 nac, 6yp1o npaaocnaane - a1o n ec1L nc1nnno-pycckan pennrnn (caHo cnoao
"npaaocnaane" nonannocL nnuL a XVII a., korpa npaaocnaanmHn c1ann ce6n nasmaa1L
nnkonnane, u1o6m o1Hexeaa1Lcn o1 "packonLnnkoa" - c1apoaepoa).
ann1annsH - pa pnn nypeea n ap pnn pycnue. "npek" kann1annsHa sa
o1cy1c1aneH npeonornn npnkpmnn "nc1nnno - pyccko" pennrne. epkoaL ne 1onLko
npecHmkae1cn nepep npec1ynnmH pexnHoH; ona eHy o1kpoaenno cnyxn1, noHorae1
nsaopn1L napop n 6narocnoanne1 kpoaaame pacnpaam nap nnH.
a1pnapx cnauaao Hyconn1: "napop no1nnyncn a xpaHm.., 40 npou. cun1ak1 ce6n
npaaocnaanmHn...", aospoxpaeHcn, kopoue roaopn... ycnun amHnpak1 no 1,5 Hnn.
uenoaek a rop; napkoHanoa, npoc1n1y1ok, 6ecnpnsopnnkoa, nnunx, 6onLnmx,
6espoHnmx a pecn1kn 1mcnu pas (!) 6onLue, ueH a coae1ckne apeHena. a1o 1enepL na
kaxpoH yrny no uepkan, 6oppenk n ka6aky, npnueH nepepko nop opno kpmue.
o, aonpekn oxnpannnH kyknoaopoa, nckycc1aenno nacaxpaeHoe npaaocnaane 1ak n
ne saaoeaano ceppua. onee 1oro, ono nauano amsmaa1L c1okoe nenpnn1ne. npocm
nacenennn canpe1enLc1ayk1, u1o coapeHennme pycckne nkpn o1opannynn kasennoe
npaaocnaane na 1pe1Le Hec1o nocne a1ensHa n nec1po cHecn okonookkynL1nmx
asrnnpoa. annuo neocosnaaaeHan 1nra k smuec1ay, ko1opoe aospoxpae1cn na noaoH
ypoane kak ec1ec1aennan n aennuec1aennan "akonornueckan pennrnn" (nnn
"pennrnosnan akonornn"),
u anepan roaopnn, u1o ec1L aeuL 6onee c1paunan, ueH kneae1a: a1o - npaapa.
nn 1oro u1o6m nkpn aosnenaanpenn uepkoanme pncm, o6xnpakunecn n
Hyxenoxc1aykune nonm (nnn nonm) penak1 6onLue, ueH ace "ca1annnckne" cek1m,
aHec1e asn1me. oyuac1ne npaaocnaano nepapxnn a nopnoH croaope npo1na napopa
amsmaae1 pac1yun o1nop co c1oponm uec1nmx nkpe, nononnne1 naun pnpm noamHn
cosna1enLnmHn 6opuaHn n 1eH caHmH npn6nnxae1 neo1apa1nHyk pacnna1y.
Y!
* * *
220
1o noHeuano naunonanLno-ocao6opn1enLnoHy anxennk npno6pec1n poc1a1ounoe
uncno c1oponnnkoa n nopnn1L napop na nopanr occ1annn?
1o, u1o aepxoaenc1ao a neH saxaa1nna kyuka nepaneknx, caHoank6nennmx
nonn1nkanoa, uennnkunxcn sa o1xnauee npaaocnaane n o6ynnnmx sno6o k caHoHy
cnoay "counannsH". ycckne "naunonan-na1pno1m" yxe 10 ne1 1acyk1 ack 1y xe
o6ae1uanyk npaaocnaano-caHopepxaanyk konopy, rpe pa6o1nrn - uec1epkn, a
6ypxyn pa "paopnne" - 1ysm n koponn. onn1no, u1o anxenne ne Horno c1a1L
naunonanLnmH, 1. e. M: yckopenne 1on1annn na Hec1e ne npopanrae1
anepep.
eHeukn napop, ynnxennm n o6eccnnennm, nonan a 1akyk xe cnonnc1ckyk ka6any
nocne epao Hnpoao aonm. pnako naunonan-counannc1m cyHenn npo6ypn1L
napopnoe caHocosnanne a 1ex xe ycnoannx sacnnLn nypeea a cpepc1aax Haccoao
nnqopHaunn. 1933 r. epHannn nou1n noronoano 6mna oxaauena pyxoH
naunonanLnoro aospoxpennn n c ne6maanmH nopLHoH npnaena k anac1n nopnnnno
napopnoro aoxpn - ponLqa n1nepa.
naropapn sa6o1aH o 6narononyunn ceHLn kak ocnoae naunn, naunonan-counannc1aH
ypanocL acero sa 5 ne1 noamcn1L poxpaeHoc1L na 40 npou. ykaanLno a cun1annme
ropm a n1nepkrenp ac1ynnnn Hnnnnonm (!) neHeuknx napne n peayuek - uae1
naunn.
o onn na "cnacn1enn" ne ynoaann, y uyxoro 6ora cnnm ne amHannaann, a aspaunaann
e caHn. ecnn 6m Hexpynapopnm karan ne c1paann pae panekne popc1aennme pacm
- cnaann n repHanuea, Hnp ceropnn 6mn 6m nnmH...
* * *
ospoxpenne ycckoro aunonanLnoro aHocosnannn aosHoxno 1onLko na ocnoae
yccko aunonanLno peonornn, ko1opan 1ak n nasmaae1cn, no unc1o pyccknH
cnoaoH: .
eonsmuec1ao - a1o ne noaoe "aeponcnoaepanne", a1o - xnaoe uyac1ao. smuec1ao
aocnpnnnHae1cn ceppueH, nn1yn1nano, na ypoane renno naHn1n. D1a naHn1L
nepepae1cn no nacnepc1ay, ona nponanne1cn y uenoaeka a ero npepnou1ennnx,
aneuennnx, noc1ynkax, ko1opme on coaepuae1 6eso1ue1no (npoc1o 1ak xoue1cn).
onm1kn sarnyun1L popoayk naHn1L paanocnnLnm nonm1kaH y6exa1L o1 caHoro ce6n.
acyunan sapaua yccknx aunonan-ounannc1oa - nepeaec1n a1o neocosnaaaeHoe
uyac1ao na cosna1enLnm ypoaenL, u1o6m nkpn nonnnn nac ne 1onLko ceppueH, no n
yHoH. 1o6m onn sanannn ocosnannoe peun1enLnoe "ne1" aceHy pa6ckoHy,
xonyckoHy, cko1ckoHy. axno, u1o6m sa a1nH "ne1" c1onno xenesnoe "",
y1aepxpakuee naun uennoc1n: naunonanLnyk anac1L n counanLnyk cnpaaepnnaoc1L.
oapeHennm smunnk ne nHee1 npaaa yknonn1Lcn o1 nonn1nuecko 6opL6m: nyc1L on
cHo1pn1 na ne, kak na caeuennopec1ao, kak na pennrnosnoe cnyxenne -
- Y.
Mm HoxeH nokasa1Lcn npeannc1aHn, pa 1ak ono n ec1L. o Hm ne npeannc1m,
6ecnnopno aospmxakune, a peannc1m, Ha1epnannsykune caon pen a 6opL6e co
noH.
Mm ro1oam nponn1L kpoaL: n caok, n uyxyk. Mm nonnHaeH, u1o Y 6opL6y
naunnak1 neHnorne. oa1oHy Hm npnsmaaeH a copa1nnkn nkpe Hyxec1aennmx. 1o-
1o ponxen cpena1L nepam uar.
221
aua kpyroaan nopyka cnnouena opnnH popoamH nnc1nnk1oH, opnnH ponroH uec1n,
opno nenaanc1Lk n opno aone k o6epe. naHn - rposnme yxn Muennn! naHn -
naun ypm-pauypm!
ak am1n na cansL c nHn? aspyaa1e npoe nnaHn aocc1annn, n nn caHn napy1
aac! 6o nn nc1ockoaanncL, oxnpan aauero knnua. oxxennme xpnc1onocuaHn n
neo1Huennme, nn ne Hory1 o6pec1n noko.
nn - 1aH, rpe am cnpaanne1e 1pnsny a x uec1L! nn - 1aH, rpe am npnnocn1e H
knn1ay aepnoc1n!
o, npexpe acero, nn 1aH, rpe am a1y knn1ay npe1aopne1e a .
a1oH Hnpe, rpe c1onLko pac1nenn,
a1oH Hnpe, rpe c1onLko nacnnn,
cnn 1m po cnx nop ne pacc1pennn,
naun1, pyuy 1aok pac1nnnn...
e napo nonnHa1L a1n c1pokn a npnHoH cHmcne: npoc1o a nnx c npepenLno cnno
ampaxen npnsma, ko1opm o6nsa1enLno nape1 o1knnk a kaxpoH 6naropopnoH ceppue.
X! !
:
onna, nonna uypec Horyuan pnpopa
cnoaa epenpen
ekorpa, na sape knoc1n uenoaeuec1aa, eHy 6mno npncyue o6uee, apoxpennoe,
ec1ec1aennoe Hnpouyac1aoaanne, ocnoaannoe na ocosnannn caoero nepaspmanoro
kpoano-pyxoanoro epnnc1aa c Ma1epLk-pnpopo.
mnoanee noun1anne pnpopm n pepkoa-okpoan1ene - ao1 cy1L 1oro
xnsney1aepxpakuero yknapa 6m1nn, 1o nepao6m1no Hyppoc1n, u1o nmne soae1cn
nsmuec1aoH.
snauanLnoe nsmuec1ao (a o1nnune o1 nospneunx, nckycc1aennmx, pyko1aopnmx
pennrn) ec1L Hnpoaosspenne , a no1oHy coaepuennoe n nenopounoe, kak
n caHa pnpopa. ono ne nyxpanocL pnn caoero y1aepxpennn nn a kakoH nacnnnn n
nn a kakoH caepxLec1ec1aennoH onpaapannn, kak ne nyxpae1cn a a1oH n caHa
pnpopa.
smuec1ao - epnnc1aenno uenLnoe, spopoaoe Hnpoouyuenne, ne snakuee eue
6onesnennoro pasnapa, nenpnHnpnHmx npo1naopeun ne6ecnoro n seHnoro, pyun n
1ena, xnsnn n cHep1n, uenoaeka n pnpopm. X - - - -
- nonn1nn a1n nepaspenLnme n pnn connuenoknonnnkoa caHn no ce6e ne
cyuec1aoaann.
smuec1ao - Hnpoaosspenne 6ecxn1poc1noe n aosamuennoe: cypoaan nepao6m1nan
npoc1o1a, a na caHoH pene - rny6nna uyac1a n nenoc1nxnHan Hyppoc1L. a1oH n
222
saknkuae1cn 1pypnoc1L aocnpnn1nn nsmuec1aa pacuennennmH coapeHennmH
cosnanneH. mne nsmuec1ao a caoeH nepaonauanLnoH unc1oceppeunn - nn6o nacnepne
pe1e pnpopm - "pnkape", ann1aaunx ero c HonokoH Ha1epn, nn6o poc1onnne
nan6onee uy1knx n npocaeuennmx Hmcnn1ene, cyHeaunx o6pec1n ero nocne ponrnx,
Hyun1enLnmx nonckoa.
e cnyuano nan6onee Horyune yHm acex apeHen, paano kak n caHme nponnknoaennme
Hnc1nkn acex pennrn, pano nnn nospno npnxopn1 k X .
ornacno nckonno cnaannckoHy Hnpoanpennk, - X,
tM, tM (oxec1ao a pennrnosnoH nonnHannn,
mcun asyH no-coapeHennoHy) - npapopn1enL ace anpnHo n neanpnHo pnpopm.
nnok caoe k6an nopoxpae1 on ee ns ce6n, ns co6c1aenno cyunoc1n. -
, n a cnny 1oro - X.
noao "6oxec1aenna" yno1pe6nne1cn specL ne a uepkoanoH cHmcne, a nanpo1na,
1onLko pnn 1oro, u1o6m o6osnaun1L nonn1ne, coaepuenno uyxpoe npoqannueckoHy
xpnc1nanckoHy 6orocnoank. noao a1o ne nHee1 nnuero o6uero c aynLrapnmH
ceHn1nuecknH nonn1neH 6oxec1aa, co1aopnauero Hnp ncknkun1enLno pnn rocnopc1aa
6orons6pannoro napopua.
pnc1nanckn Hono1ensH, y1aepxpakun cyuec1aoaanne nnunoc1noro
uenoaekoo6pasnoro 6ora-1aopua, o6n1akuero rpe-1o ane pnpopm n coaepuenno e
uyxporo, ec1L no cy1n - unc1eue aopm Ha1epnannsH, cornacno ko1opoHy pnpopa -
acero nnuL "cnenok" n "6espyunm nnk".
n6neckan porHa o 1aopennn Horna aosnnkny1L 1onLko cpepn 1oro neuec1naoro
napopa, ko1opm a Ma1epn-pnpope anpen nnuL cpepc1ao ypoane1aopennn caonx
no1pe6noc1e n nm1ancn nnsaec1n - MY po ypoann 6eccnoaecno
pa6m.
kypoyHnme, pe6nueckne npepc1aanennn o caepxLec1ec1aennoH, napnpnpopnoH 6ore,
nopo6noH eroae nnn nnaxy, co1aopnaueH Hnp "ns nnuero" ("u1o naH c1on1 poH
noc1pon1L...") - ypen nckycc1aennmx, knnxnmx pennrn.
peanne Hmcnnnn nnaue: X - M .
e 6orn nopopnnn pnpopy, a pnpopa - 6oroa: caHa qpopn1a - nopoxpenne
Hopcko nenm.
1o snae1 1any?
1o e noaepan? 1kypa Hnp; o1kypa on nanncn?
ex pane n oraH ne pocnrny1L,
nn npnunn nospnee...
ak rnacn1 nraepa (a nsnoxennn . anLHon1a).
Hyppoc1L apncknx ep, xo1n n nckaxennmx nospneue o6pa6o1ko xpeuoa-
6paxHanoa, - a1o xe L, , MY-,
sa6m1oe naHn - neaexpaHn n sarnannoe a nopcosnanne.
epenne - a1o ne npoc1o snanne kak "cyHHa nnqopHaunn". ue epaknn1 roaopnn, u1o
Hnorosnanne yHy ne nayuae1. enoaeuec1ao ysna1 ac 6onLue, a nonnHae1 ac
HenLue.
223
epenne - a1o L , pap apoxnoaennmx npaaepnnkoa-ncnoanpuea.
eune kpacaanum-uapopekn, aepakune a1nH snanneH, MM. o
n aepLHm, n aepynm-aonxam acerpa nonnHann, u1o cyuec1aye1 neu1o, nH nepoc1ynnoe,
neaepoHoe, M.
* * *
naanne-nsmunnkn noun1ann Y-, coaeunm pnpope n any1penne e npncyun.
Y - M.
naanne ne 6mnn nn epnno6oxnnkaHn, nn Hnoro6oxnnkaHn. noao "a1enc1" 6ykaanLno
osnauae1: 6es6oxnnk. aun aonxam n 6mnn 6es6oxnnkaHn, n6o pnn nnx ne 6mno na
ne6e nnkaknx 6oroa a npnamunoH ceuac xpnc1nancko-HycynLHanckoH cHmcne.
noao "6or" - ne kopennoe cnaannckoe. no saneceno k naH aoc1ounmHn
koueannkaHn-cko1oaopaHn. ko1 6mn HepnnoH nx 6ora1c1aa n ocnoaannoro na neH
nHyuec1aennoro nepaaenc1aa, n no1oHy "6or" pnn nnx snaunno - "rocnopnn"
(rocnopL), "anapeneu" (anapmka). 1 cnoaa "6or" - 6ora1m n y6orn (1. e. 6epnm).
ospneune "6orn" yxe knonnuerocn k ynapky cnaanno-pycckoro nsmuec1aa - a1o
nn6o o6oxec1anennme pauypm-oponauanLnnkn, nn6o onnue1aopennme c1nxnn
o6oxaeHo pnpopm, npnueH a1n "6orn" ne nannnncL Hnoxec1aennmH uncnoH o1 cnoaa
"6or".
peueckne nc1opnkn ykasmaann, u1o cnaanne noun1ak1 ne 6oroa (a nx uepkoano-
ansan1nckoH nonnHannn), a pekn, osepa, popnnkn n aopnmx pyxoa. nackaosL
nsmueckoH "noae o nonky ropeae" pekn opyxo1aopenm, n y kaxpo - cao npaa (a
aepL yxe paa aeka, kak cxnrak1 na ycn aonxaoa n snaxapok!).
Ysakonennme 6mno napnHnpoH na aoceHL ne1 1. n. nsmueckne 6orn axL6or, 1pn6or
n pp., ne 6mnn saneua1nenm a rny6nnax napopno pyun n ne nonyunnn no1oHy
nnkakoro o1paxennn a ckasannnx n necnnx.
aknnnannn n saroaopm, konm6enLnme necnn n pe1ckne saknnukn apeHen
ec1ec1aennoro npnpoponoun1annn ppeanee acex Honn1a: a nnx ne1 n cnepa kaknx-nn6o
6oroa, no copepxa1cn npnsmam o noHoun k neknH LM M
M-YM.
pocnaana, ue nnau nanne1cn o1saykoH nepao6m1nmx saroaopoa, o6pauae1cn ne k
6oraH, a npocn1 sac1ynnnuec1aa y . pnunny nopaxennn knnsn
pocnaana npospeaae1 a 1oH, u1o Hyx ee o1pekcn o1 opnmx ae1nmx nn, n
amnpaunaae1 ona y nx npouenne sa "nepasyHnoc1L" cynpyra.
ao1 ne1onnceu, noaec1ayn o 6erc1ae ropn ns nnena, o1Heuae1: "ce xe ns6aanenne
co1aopn ocnopL a nn1ok a aeuepe". n1nnua y cnaann-nsmunnkoa 6mna oco6o
noun1aeHmH pneH, nocaeuennmH Ma1epn-eHne, 1ak u1o nonn1no, a
pec1an1enLnoc1n noHor knnsk. oo6ue, Ho1na uypecnmx noHounnkoa nano
ouyuae1cn a onncannn 6erc1aa ropn: ne spn npocnna pocnaana.
a naunx aonue6nmx ckaskax, 1. e. a ppeaneueH anpe yc1noro napopnoro
1aopuec1aa, cknapmaaauerocn eue ao apeHena nepao6m1noo6unnnoro c1pon, aoo6ue
o1cy1c1ayk1 ynoHnnannn o 6orax: 1aH pec1ayk1 aonue6nme cnnm pnpopm.
ckonno cnaannckoe nasaanne nospneunx 6oroa - Y nnn . cnkn yx ec1L
nna n onn. ppeanepycckoH nsmke cnoao cansano 6mno c npepc1aanenneH o
ueH-1o Horyuec1aennoH n 1annc1aennoH: "cnnm neaepoHme", "cnnm nespeunne"...
224
Xnaoe 1eno cenenno co1kano ns conHnua -Y, ncxopnunx ns epnnoro
nepaonc1ounnka. a aceH Hnoroo6pasneH Hnpa c1on1 nekan neaoo6pasnHan, 6esnnkan
xnsnennan - any1pennee no6yxpenne, nopopnauee cenennyk. D -
.
naannckoHy nonn1nk "cnna" coo1ae1c1aye1 ppeanekn1ackoe "pao", "Hana" xn1ene
keannn, "1ana" nnponesnuea, "Hann1y" ceaepoaHepnkancknx nnpeuea n 1. p. Y
pasnmx nsmuecknx napopoa 6mnn pasnme npepkn n pasnme o6muan. o Hnpoaosspenne
6mno o6uee.
axpoe nneHn cnaanno caonx yxoa-okpoan1ene, ne o1pnuan n ne npoknnnan
uyxnx. nsmueckoH capy 6naroyxann ace uae1m. orpa nHnepa1op nokne1nan
yc1ynnn 1.n. aapaapaH 6onLuyk o6nac1L c ycnoaneH oxpanm rpannu, 1o poroaop 6mn
saknkuen ao nHn M. 6o kyHnpm kaxporo napopa neaepoHm ppyrnH
napopaH.
saec1no, kak ka1onnueckne Hnccnonepm nm1anncL noporna1L nop caok porHy
npepc1aanennn nnpeuea o ennkoH Mann1y, u1o6m npnan1L nH sapasnoe,
npo1naoec1ec1aennoe yuenne o6 xpnc1nanckoH eroae. xopnmH o6pasoH pec1aoaann
n npaaocnaanme Hnccnonepm na nncke.
6n6nnn "pyx 6oxn" an1ae1 nap eHne kak o6oco6nennoe, uyxpoe e nauano, kak
neu1o caepxLec1ec1aennoe, npo1naoc1onuee Y-X. eHn1nueckoe
nonn1ne o1aneuennoro 6ora-pyxa kak 6ecnno1no, unc1o o1 npnpopno "ckaepnm"
cyunoc1n - noxno, nckycc1aenno, Hep1aenno.
naannckoe o6osnauenne acenencko xnao1aopnue cnoaoH Y ec1L nnuL
1onkn o6pas, nnockasanne. smunnkn ne npo1naonoc1aannnn yx n c1ec1ao: acnkoe
npnpopnoe nanenne opyueannnocL, a acnkan pyxoanoc1L nHena caoe xnsnennoe
aonnouenne. opaxae1, aocxnuae1 n nop1aepxpae1 npaao1y a1nx aosspenn nx
coanapenne c poc1nxennnHn noaeue qnsnkn, paspyunaue kn1ackyk c1eny Hexpy
Ha1epne n aneprne, ykasaaue na aosHoxnoc1L nx asanHonpeapauennn. o, u1o Hm
npnamknn nasmaa1L kocno, nenopanxno Ha1epne, ec1L na caHoH pene nnuL anp
panxennn, anpnHoe nponanenne - cryc1kn Dneprnn nnn no-pycckn - .
* * *
Mnpocosepuanne naunx paneknx npepkoa npnnn1o nasmaa1L nsmuecknH, 1. e.
napopnmH (o1 cnoaa "nsmk" a snauennn "napop"). aHn xe cnaanno-pycm po
xpnc1nanckoro saka6anennn ero nnkak ne nasmaann. no 6mno epnnmH,
aocnpnnnHanocL kak neu1o caHo co6ok pasyHekueecn, pannoe o1 aeka, n nesaueH
6mno ero kak-1o oco6o o6osnaua1L. oapeHennm cHmcn a cnaannckoe nonn1ne
kak "npaaocnaanoro aeponcnoaepannn" anoxen xpnc1nanaHn.
ckonnoe xe snauenne cnoaa ec1L . onn1nn aepm n aepnoc1n -
napexnoc1n 6mnn 1oxpec1aennm n neo1pennHm. epoaa1L - snaunno xpann1L aepnoc1L
opno eHne, cnyxn1L e aepok-npaapok, peaneH nHe aepa n aepnoc1L 1oxe
o6osnauanncL opnnH cnoaoH - qnpec.
...cnn 6m knnsn ae1ocnaaa opo6poro cnpocnnn: "o u1o m aepyeuL?", on ne nonnn
6m aonpoca. epL aepa a coapeHennoH cHmcne cnoaa nanne1cn nnuL neonpepenenno
porapko, cnenmH cnepoaanneH naansannoHy, 6eccHmcnennoHy, 1.e. neaexec1aoH.
eaexec1ao caHo no ce6e ne sno. o ono nanne1cn npnunno Hnornx son a Hnpe n, a
nepayk ouepepL, - xpnc1nanc1aa.
225
ak Hor ae1ocnaa a nanoe n oueanpnoe? Moxe1 nn connuenoknonnnk
a 1o, u1o saa1pa pnno-onnue onn1L asope1 na aoc1oke? e1, a1o Hoxno
1onLko poc1oaepno !
akoao pasnnune Hexpy "aepo" n poc1oaepnmH n nenocpepc1aenno nepexn1mH
snanneH-aepanneH. 1o 1onky yHnpakueHy o1 xaxpm (nuyueHy npaapm) uenoaeky,
aepnueHy a 1o, u1o rpe-1o na cae1e ec1L aopa (xnaan npaapa)? D1a "aepa" 6ype1
coaepuenno 6ecnonesno pnn nero, noka on M ne y1onn1 xaxpy.
epoaa1L Hoxno 1onLko a cHexo1aopnme ne6mnnum apope "nenopounoro" saua1nn n 1.
n. aepL ac xpnc1nanc1ao snxpe1cn nHenno na porHa1ax, 1. e na 1aknx ronocnoanmx
y1aepxpennnx, ko1opme ponxnm 6esoroaopouno, 6espokasa1enLno npnnnHa1Lcn na
aepy. cnoaa xpnc1nanc1aa - aepa a uypo, 1. e. 6oxec1aennm nponsaon aonpekn
sakonaH pnpopm. "cnn pnc1oc ne aockpec, 1o n aepa naua 1ue1na", - npnsnan
aan-aaen. ep1ynnnan po6aann: "epyk, n6o a1o neneno".
pnpopnoe nsmueckoe Hnpoaosspenne, a o1nnune o1 pyko1aopno 6n6necko
1anHypnc1nkn, ec1L nsny1pn - ns ce6n ouyuaeHm xnao onm1, caHoampaxenne
napopno pyun, nnop co6opno napopno Hyppoc1n, a ne counnn1enLc1ao o1penLnmx
nnunoc1e - "o1uoa uepkan".
smuec1ao ne aepa a xpnc1nancko-HcynLHanckoH cHmcne cnoaa, a nenncanm caop
npaann n nac1aanenn, saaeuannmx pauypaHn n a nonno Hepe npeponpepennkunx
cornacne uenoaeka c pnpopo, opoH n c co6c1aenno coaec1Lk. onn1ne "coaec1L"
pyxoano 6ecnpepenLno unpe n rny6xe sakoc1enenoro, kasennoro nonn1nn
"aeponcnoaepanne". onxam yunnn cnaannnna xn1L poc1ono n yHepe1L 6es c1paxa.
pn ueH specL "aepa"?
nn 1oro u1o6m npepnouec1L "aepy" poc1oaepnoc1n, napo yx ouenL ocnoaa1enLno
o1opaa1Lcn o1 pnpopm n no1epn1L nenocpepc1aenno-xnayk cansL c e. 1o,
co6c1aenno, n nponsouno cnyc1n neckonLko aekoa nocne nacnnLc1aenno
xpnc1nannsaunn aponm.
* * *
peaneH nHe cnoao "pennrnn" (pe-nnrnn) 6ykaanLno osnauano: aocc1anoanenne,
aoccoepnnenne cansn. keH? yxaHn-okpoan1ennHn. cnn npaannLno nonnHa1L
cnoao "pennrnn" a ero nckonnoH, poxpnc1nanckoH snauennn, 1o 6es6oxnnkn - cnaanne
6mnn a amcue c1enenn pennrnosnm, n6o onn naxopnnncL a noc1onnno asanHocansn
- o6uennn c M n M YM.
smueckan pyxoanoc1L - a1o npocae1nnnoe, aoc1opxennoe coc1onnne uenoaeka,
ouy1nauero , 1. e. couyac1aenno aoccoepnnnauerocn c opnmHn
ae1nmHn yxaHn.
smuec1ao Hoxno nasaa1L pennrne ec1ec1aennoro o1kpoaennn. enoaeueckan xnsnL
ponxna 6m1L npoc1o n 6esmckycc1aenno, cosayuno uae1ennk 1paa, pmxannk ae1pa,
xypuannk pyuLn... ce cyuec1aa - uenoaeueckne n neuenoaeueckne - a koneunoH
n1ore pe1n opno Ma1epn-pnpopm. akoe anpenne Hnpa npnanaano ceppeunoe,
6pa1ckoe, popc1aennoe o1nouenne ko aceHy xnaoHy n "nexnaoHy". yua uenoaeka no
npnpope caoe po6pan smunnua. kak 1onLko uenoaek ouy1n1 caok neo11opxnHoc1L
n xnayk cansL co aceH cyunH, on c1anoan1cn Hnn pnpope n o6pe1ae1 a cnny 1oro
nopnnnnyk, nenoppenLnyk Y, ko1opan ec1L nn u1o nnoe, kak papoc1noe,
nnkykuee npocnaanenne X ao acex ee nponanennnx.
226
pnc1nanckne Hpako6ecm yaenn uenoaeka o1 onnmuka n sa1aopnnn ero a xonopnme
uepkan-cknenm, rpe "nnune pyxoH" c1enak1 a 6esmcxopnoH o1uannnn. o uynn
Y Y, coaeunm caHoHy napopy pycckoHy, nau aennkn kypecnnk cnoaa,
nn1yn1nano ncnoaepoaaaun nsmuec1ao? e a cyHpake npaaocnaanmx xpaHoa, a a
sanoaepnmx py6paaax, rpe eun n ycanka, a6a ra n ypm onk. "aH ycckn
yx... aH ycLk naxne1!".
ak aocnpnnnHann Hnp naun panekne pepkn? ecn1kn "aosHoxno", "ecnn",
"cun1ae1cn", "aepon1no" n npounx npepnonoxenn n nepoHonaok, nnuL Hacknpykunx
neaepenne, pa neko1opoe konnuec1ao Hysenmx "akcnona1oa" nenonn1noro nopo
nasnauennn ns ockaepnennmx, pasrpa6nennmx kypranoa, - ao1 u1o npepc1aanne1 co6o
"nonnHanne" nsmuec1aa a yueno cpepe.
asennan nc1opnueckan nayka ocnoamaae1cn rnaanmH o6pasoH na nncLHennmx
nc1ounnkax. ce xe a1n nc1ounnkn, noaec1aykune o pennrnosno xnsnn cnaann-
nsmunnkoa, nanncanm xpnc1nancknHn n HycynLHancknHn HnccnonepaHn, 1.e. nx
npenmHn nepo6poxena1ennHn (Hnrko roaopn!). 1oHy xe, pannme Ha1epnanm,
npnsnakunecn nayko epnnc1aenno poc1oaepnmHn, kpane 6epnm n ne Hory1
npnaec1n k kaknH-nn6o onpepenennmH yHosaknkuennnH o pyxoano-npaac1aennmx
uennoc1nx nsmuec1aa.
cnn pnn nc1opnka-pennrnoaepa ns ukonm "nayunoro" Ha1epnannsHa nsmuec1ao ec1L
o6Lek1 xonopnoro "na6opa1opnoro" nccnepoaannn, 1o pnn nc1opnka-6orocnoaa
nsmuec1ao ec1L 1o, u1o "o1 ca1anm". e cnepye1 sa6maa1L, u1o n "nayunm"
Ha1epnannsH, n 6n6neckne porHm ec1L pae c1oponm opno Hepann: onn opnnakoao
apaxpe6nm pnpope n o1kasmaak1 a caHouenno cyunoc1n.
e1 kap1nnm cnaannckoro nsmuec1aa, nanncanno y6expennmH nsmunnkoH, pyxoanmH
nacnepnnkoH ennkoro opa, nponnkuero a aonue6nm kpyr ppeannx
caeuennopec1a. Ysoc1L nopxopa ne nosaonne1 aoccospa1L pyxoanm o6nnk
cnaannnna. D1o coaceH ppyroe Hnpoaocnpnn1ne, a kopne o1nnunoe o1 nauero. pecL ne
noHory1 nnkakne apxeonornueckne, a1norpaqnueckne nnn qnnonornueckne nsmckannn.
pe6ye1cn kauec1aenno nno cnoco6 nosnannn - noc1nxennn Hnpa, ko1opm cnepye1
nasaa1L Hnc1nuecknH. apo nonm1a1Lcn "nepeaonno1n1Lcn" n asrnnny1L na Hnp
rnasaHn pepkoa. Mnc1nk npo a pnpope 1o, na u1o npoqanm npoc1o rnasek1.
D1o n ec1L n1ynunn, aepL no-na1mnn a1o cnoao osnauae1: cosepuanne, anpenne.
ny1pennnn npaao1a nsmuec1aa nponanne1cn eue n a 1oH, u1o pasan1ne
ec1ec1aosnannn (reoqnsnkn, renno6nonornn, kocHonornn, Harnn1o6nonornn n 1. p.)
neo6xopnHo npnaopn1 k nonanennk 1eopn, ypnan1enLno nanoHnnakunx aosspennn
nananmx, 1.e. xnayunx nan1neH - o1kpoaenneH o6oxa1ene pnpopm. c1a1n, cnoao
"1eopnn" - nnqaropeckoro nponcxoxpennn, aocxopnuero k ppeaneunH pakncknH
Hnc1epnnH, nHee1 o6un kopenL c nonn1neH 6oxec1aennoro (kak n 1eocoqnn). noao
a1o nsnauanLno o6osnauano y opqnkoa nponnknoaennoe cosepuanne.
ako cnoco6 nosnannn ne noppa1cn nayunoHy nccnepoaannk n c1on1 6eckoneuno
amue nosnannn kak uyac1aennoro, 1ak n paccypounoro. peanne Hmcnn1enn o1nnuann
nckycc1aennoe rapanne, ocnoaannoe na 1onkoaannn aneunnx snaHenn, o1 npospenn
n npopnuann, nponc1ekakunx o1 any1pennero npocae1nennn. epaoe npeo6napano y
xanpeea n a1pyckoa (k caepennk a1pyckoHanoa: Hpaunm saynokonm kynL1 a1pyckoa
nnuero o6uero ne nHen co cae1ocnaaneH cnaannopycoa; kpoaaame rnapna1opckne
"nrpm" kak anp norpe6anLno xep1am 6mnn sanHc1aoaanm pnHnnnaHn o1 a1pyckoa -
ponnpoeaponeckoro n1annckoro nneHenn), a1opoe - y qpaknuea n rpekoa. MenaHn
n DHnepokn, na1on n no1nn aocnpnnnHann nopo6noe ec1ec1aennoe o1kpoaenne kak
neocnopnHme, neonpoaepxnHme nopckaskn-anyuennn caHo pnpopm.
227
nku k nosnannk pnpopm ne yHospn1enLnan knnxnan npeHyppoc1L, a xnao
pennrnosnm onm1, ko1opoHy neaosHoxno nayun1Lcn ns knnr. Mnc1nk un1ae1 XY
Y , u1o nosaonne1 eHy npepyrapmaa1L - npepaocxnua1L neko1opme
nc1nnm, onepexan cyuec1aykune nayunme snannn.
ako cnoco6 nosnannn Hoxno nasaa1L ponayunmH, caepxnayunmH, anenaynmH. n
nenayunm a 1oH cHmcne, u1o on ane naykn, nap nayko. oapeHennan nayka ec1L
nxesnanne, nockonLky npncyun e cnoco6 noc1nxennn Hnpa noxnm. Y6expenne a
nenorpeunHoc1n naykn ec1L opno ns aennuaunx cyeaepn.
konL uac1o osapennn apoxnoaennmx noa1oa n xypoxnnkoa okasmaak1cn 6nnxe k
pec1an1enLnoc1n, ueH amknapkn yuenmx! ayka nopo 1onLko o6nekae1 Hep1anunH
caaanoH caonx qopHyn nn1yn1nanme npospennn connuenoknonnnkoa, 6oro1aopnunx
pnpopy: an ora n pkcoaa, aHcyna n kpn6nna, k1ueaa n Me1epnnnka, oaannca
n Lennn.
eo6muna rny6nna nponnknoaennn nauero aennkoro noa1a-nsmunnka ennHnpa
ne6nnkoaa a Hnp ppeanecnaanncknx o6pasoa. ro noa1nueckoe aoo6paxenne
nopasn1enLno coanapano, coaHeuanocL c nocnepnnHn nayunmHn o1kpm1nnHn.
noaHax ne6nnkoaa, asmaakuero k ennknH yxaH ns aennkoro cnaannckoro
npounoro, ac pmun1 nepao6m1nmH o6oxanneH pnko, peac1aenno pnpopm. a1nx
noaHax - Horyuee, uaHanckn-aoc1opxennoe apoxnoaenne; opepxnHoc1L a nyuueH
cHmcne cnoaa...
ueH o6Lncnn1L, u1o naua nesa6aennan nena e1poana naaa1ckan, o6yuaauancn
poHaunnHn cpepc1aaHn ao apeHena kpenoc1noro npaaa, Horna cospaaa1L 1akne
nsyHn1enLnme (Hm y1epnnn nepaonauanLnm cHmcn cnoaa "nsyHnenne") 1pypm, kak
"aso6nauennan snpa" n "anan ok1pnna"; copepxaune c1onLko aekoao Hyppoc1n,
aeuero uy1Ln n neo6mknoaennmx snann, u1o c1aan1 yunmx a 1ynnk: o1kypa n kak
Hor opnn n 1o1 xe uenoaek nouepnny1L n aHec1n1L c1onL neo6Ln1noe none
pasnoo6pasnmx caepenn?
axe snonmxa1enL - poHannc1 c. . onoaLea, o6narope1enLc1aoaannm neno
e1poano n poxpaauncn ee pasaonnouennn, nncan a caoeH nackanne: "ennuaun
n caHm neo6LncnnHm qenoHen r-xn naaa1cko - a1o e "snpa".
Mnorne qnnocoqm n yuenme pounn po npnsnannn opyxo1aopennoc1n pnpopm, no
npncy1c1ann yxoa ne ouy1nnn. anm pnpopm 1e xe, u1o n 1anm pyun
uenoaeuecko, n Hoxe1 cyuec1aoaa1L 1onLko epnnm cnoco6 nponnknoaennn -
M.
osnanne ceppueH npeo6paxae1 ac aokpyr, no u1o6m a1n 1anm o1kpmnncL, uenoaek
ponxen cnauana npeo6pasn1Lcn M. osepuakun pnpopy a unc1o1e n npoc1o1e
noHmcnoa caoero ceppua, anpn1 nensHepnHo panLue n rny6xe, ueH
ec1ec1aoncnm1a1enL, nccnepykun (nm1akun) pnpopy.
pyccknx aonue6nmx ckaskax repo, nonnHakun saepnnm nsmk, o6muno nonyuae1
a1o1 ap o1 nH saepn (nnn sHen). D1o aennuaun pap - anpe1L XnsnL a
kaxpo Houke, 6mnnnke, kanne... pncnyuacn! c roaopn1, ac c1peHn1cn u1o-1o
coo6un1L e6e na caoeH nsmke. ayuncL annHa1L pnpope: a1o onoca, Lopoxn,
anaxn, ae1a, yun, mxanLe, apm.
ackasan Mopos Hne necen,
anocnn Hne necen oxpnk,
228
Mne naaenn necen e1ep,
pnnecnn Mopckne onnm,
Mne cnoaa cnoxnnn 1num,
eun cospann epeaLn...
ak noe1 uaHan eneHenen a aneaane. ak xe o6Lncnne1 cao pap aeun
necne1aopeu aaaa1a, uLe nHn osnauae1: npopok, Yun1enL.
* * *
M - sapyueanoe conepexnaanne n couyac1ane ec1L .
epynm n aepLHm - conL pennrnn. 1pnuanne nx o1kpoaenn c nosnun nnockoro
xpnc1nanckoro Ha1epnannsHa saaepoHo necoc1on1enLno. eneno npene6pera1L onm1oH
xnaoro o6uennn c pnpopo 1onLko no1oHy, u1o caHn kpn1nkn ne cnoco6nm nepexn1L
u1o-nn6o nopo6noe.
1o6m cypn1L o uennoc1n Hnc1nuecknx coc1onnn, napo ncnm1a1L nx caHoHy. 1o
1akoe Hyxckan nk6oaL k xenunne? D1o c1peHnenne cnn1Lcn c nk6nHo aoepnno n
pyuo n 1enoH, o1pa1L e u1o-1o ns ce6n, anno1L po 1oro, u1o o1pa1L acero ce6n n
pac1aopn1Lcn c ne a epnnoH uyac1ae. M X Y
!
o kak Hoxe1 on sac1aan1L ppyrnx ncnm1a1L 1akyk c1pac1L, ecnn ne1 a nnx nn
pyueano no1pe6noc1n, nn ro1oanoc1n k M? nn ne cnoco6nm
ncnm1a1L u1o-nn6o nopo6noe 1ak xe, kak eanyx ne Hoxe1 ncnm1a1L nk6oanoe
aoxpenenne.
eaosHoxnoc1L o6Lncnennn nopo6nmx coc1onnn c 1oukn spennn o6mpenno
xn1ecko "Hyppoc1n" - ec1L nyuun poaop a nx nonLsy. Mnc1nk ouyuae1, no ne
Hoxe1 pokasa1L, nepepa1L neu1o 1akoe, o ueH ne pak1 nonn1nn o6munoro coc1onnnn
cosnannn. ak amckasa1L nenspeuennoe, u1o "ne a ckaske ckasa1L, ne nepoH onnca1L"?
Y6expennn Hnc1nka nenokone6nHo nokon1cn na necpaanenno npounoH ocnoaannn, ueH
paccypounme pokasa1enLc1aa, - na any1penneH npocae1nennn.
* * *
pnpopa nensHepnHo 6onLue annne1 na naun uyac1aa, ueH nckycc1ao.
eypnan1enLno, aepL pnpopa - ec1ec1aenna.
aopueckoe apoxnoaenne, 6nnskoe k apoxnoaennk pennrnosnoHy, any1penne npncyue
xnsnn na pnpope. a1oH apoxnoaennoH coc1onnnn noa1 1aopn1 caHosa6aenno n
ec1ec1aenno, kak noe1 n1nua. eune nan1nn ocennk1 xypoxnnka nop cenLk popnmx
6epes n py6paa, D1o aonue6nme uapm M - . yac1ao opnnm
nHee1 npnpopnme kopnn a npnHoH cHmcne cnoaa: aepL nponspac1ae1 ono ns
npnansannoc1n uenoaeka k caoe M - . D1o uyac1ao
pyxoanoro n kpoanoro epnnc1aa uenoaeka c opno pnpopo nanne1cn apoxpennmH,
"nnc1nnk1nanmH", 1. e. 6nonornueckn o6ycnoanennmH. no saneua1neno a renax n
nenc1pe6nHo xna1 a ceppue. D1o uyac1ao - ocnoaa naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn n
naunonanLnoro caHoy1aepxpennn. nuennme ero 1. n. "noame pycckne" -
npaac1aennme ypopm, y6nkpkn-o1uenenum. pekpacneuee n 6naropopneuee
uyac1ao opnnm ec1L uyac1ao a nckonnoH snauennn cnoaa, cansykuee
uenoaeka c nokonennnHn ero pepkoa, pnn ko1opmx M
M.
229
pncnyuacn k nennk n1nu, npnnocnunx naH aecny n papoc1L! oHon rpaue, necnn
xaaoponkoa nap nonnHn, ue6e1anne nac1ouek, kpnk kykyukn a necy. D1o xe ne npoc1o
n1nuLn ronoca, a1o ronoca caHo naue opno eHnn, ronoca opnnm. poxnn pnanoe
6naroyxanne 1aaonrn: a1o ne npoc1o pyunc1m sanax, a1o 1ennm Ha1epnnckn sanax
opnnm.
Ma1L-opnna ec1L nonn1ne napopnoe, nsmueckoe. pn Ma1epn ec1L y kaxporo pycnua:
Ma1L, ko1opan popnna, Ma1L-opnna n Ma1L-mpa-eHnn. ecoHnenno nsmueckoe
nonnHanne -M, onnue1aopenne e a o6pase xenunnm-cnaannkn, - ao1
u1o napenne1 any1penne npaao1o aennuec1aennoe nsaannne, aospanrny1oe a
1annnrpape n ocaeuaeHoe aeunmH ornH - neo1LeHneHo npnnapnexnoc1Lk
nsmuecknx kannu.
k6oaL k pnpope n opnne Hep1aa 6es caeuenno nenaanc1n k nx nc1nsa1ennH! D1a
nsmueckan npaapa nannacL nc1ounnkoH neo6muano cnnm nnaka1a "-M
!" n Hapua " ".
ypL6a o1penLnoro uenoaeka n cypL6a acero napopa nepaspenLnm a caonx caHmx
rny6nnnmx nnac1ax n cnnaak1cn a pokoame, cypL6onocnme pnn opnnm pnn. Henno
1orpa npo6yxpae1cn k xnsnn 1o1 Horyuec1aenneun Y Y, ko1opm 1onLko
n Hoxe1 apoxnoan1L napop na nopanr.
a nc1opnk uenoaeuec1aa cyuec1aenneunH o6pasoH noannnn ncxop payx aon XX
c1one1nn: naue paxpancko n 1opo Hnpoao. a o6enx aonax o6epa nanpnHyk
cansana c npo6yxpenneH nckonno pycckoro, 6eso1ue1no - Y.
o6epa 6mna npeponpepenena yxe 1eH, u1o a nepao aone ennn, a ao a1opo -
1annn, cosna1enLno nnn 6eccosna1enLno, no cmrpann na cokpoaenneunx
naunonanLnmx uyac1aax: asnnn na aoopyxenne o6pasm, cnoaa n aossaannn,
oxnannkune a nacnepc1aenno naHn1n pycnue nekorpa npoo6pasm.
noao - unc1o pycckoe, ne nHekuee ce6e paanosnaunHmx nn a opnoH sanapnoH
nsmke n paxe na nnx nenepeaopnHoe. op pacnmH snaHeneH (kpacnm - nau
naunonanLnm uae1) nkpn unn na cHep1L "sa anac1L oae1oa": knnu a1o1 okasmaan
necpaannHoe no rny6nne aospec1ane na pyuy pycckoro uenoaeka, packpenouennoro
o1 Hnoroaekoamx uepkoano-noHeuLnunx okoa. po6ypnauancn popoaan naHn1L
aonLnonk6namx cnaann c1nxnno 1nro1ena k MY, poxpnc1nanckoHy, npnpopnoHy
MY - M.
aapua1L ne1 cnyc1n onn1L 6mn sapec1aoaan ppeHnkun nop cnypoH Y Y.
po1naoc1on1L pe1LeHy exy Horno 1onLko Horyuee, caHoo1aepxennoe, -
aoopyueanenne acero napopa. uypopec1aennmH nc1ounnkoH 1ako
Houn Horno c1a1L 1onLko cmnoanee, - noknonenne Ma1epn-
opnne, a nnkak ne "npone1apckn nn1epnaunonannsH", n yx 1eH 6onee ne Hone6c1ann
xpnc1nanckoHy "6ory-o1uy" n "uapnue ne6ecno".
orpa-1o n acnoHnnnn, u1o cmn eHnn n1e 6mn neno6epnH, noka conpnkacancn co
caoe Ma1epLk. ao1 cnoao "opnna" anepame sa ack nc1opnk nnue1cn c sarnaano
6ykam: 1ak po peaonkunn nncanocL cnoao "or". LkonLnm yue6nnk 1enepL ne
"xpec1oHa1nn", a .
aHa Mockoackan na1pnapxnn nopnnHae1 na un1 nonn1ne "opnna", coaepuenno
nenpneHneHoe n uyxpoe kocHononn1nueckoHy xpnc1nanc1ay. paaocnaanme apxnepen
a opnn ronoc aosonnnn: "epkoaL soae1 k saun1e M-! ce na saun1y
M!" a nasaannn na1pnapuero unna cnoaa "ace occnn" saHennk1cn
230
na "acen ycn": 1annn snan, u1o "occne" anepame c1ann nasmaa1L Y M
nonLckne Hec1eukoame nnonnane1nne.
co6o, saknnna1enLno HouLk napenn nau npnsma --, n6o
cnoaa a1n opyxo1aopenm MM M. poncxoxpenne uenoaeueckoro nsmka 1akan
xe sarapka, kak n nponcxoxpenne uenoaeuec1aa. smueckne aosspennn, kak n caH
nsmk, sapopnnncL aHec1e, -L. smk n napopnme,
nsmueckne o6muan kaxporo nneHenn seHnoro c1onL 1ecno nepenne1enm, u1o a
o1penLnoc1n nx nosnaaa1L nenLsn. a nsmke, n a a1nx caeuennmx o6muanx paanmH
o6pasoH saknkuena 1annc1aennan pyua napopa.
an6onee nponnua1enLnme yunme caHmx pasnmx nayk npnxopn1 k nan1enc1nueckoHy
Hnpoaosspennk n 1eH caHmH - nopo npo1na co6c1aenno aonn nop1aepxpak1, u1o
- a1o ec1ec1aennan pennrnn uenoaeuec1aa, ero
.
* * *
aHa pnpopa ocao6oxpae1 1aknx yuenmx o1 1nxkoro rne1a 6ecnnopnoro cyeHyppnn n
pae1 o1ae1m na cokpoaenneune aonpocm 6m1nn ny1eH 1annc1aennoro aospec1ann na
nx pyun.
akoaa uenL Xnsnn? - npocn y pepeaa: xn1L - snaun1 papoaa1Lcn ae1y. X -
M . X - Y, Y - Y. a1o Hoxno
ncnm1a1L a Hnr npocae1nennn, korpa aocxopnuee ae1nno nrpae1-nepennaae1cn c
o6o. D1o ypo - X Y! nn a1oro m n npnsaan a
a1o1 Hnp.
m nouyac1ayeuL ce6n M MY M: neu1o
nenepepaaaeHoe na uenoaeueckoH nsmke, pnn uero paano yxe sa6m1m cnoaa. o m
ouy1nuL appyr nonnoe popc1ao n nonnHanne co aceH XYM. m 6ypeuL ne1L a
aoc1opre! D Y???
naaL nopa1enn Xnsnn - pnny acerpa, aceH caonH cyuec1aoH - n 6ypeuL npe6maa1L
a nenpec1anno papoc1n. ouy1nuL 1o, u1o Hoxno nasaa1L uyac1aoH 6eccHep1nn -
cosnanne neynnu1oxnHoc1n Xnsnn: ne aepa, u1o m 6ypeuL o6napa1L 6eccHep1neH a
6ypyueH, no cosnanne, u1o m yxe o6napaeuL nH. D1o y6expenne noc1nrae1cn
uenoaekoH kak caHooueanpnoe n ne nyxpae1cn 6onLue nn a kaknx paccypounmx
poaopax. m npoc1o L 1o, o ueH ppyrne nnuL cHy1no porapmaak1cn, nn6o cneno
aepn1.
L, u1o X cnaannn pnny aon panekne pauypm a caonx nrpax-
o6pnpax. e6e ne napo un1a1L, u1o nnuy1 o connuenoknonnnkax 1e ropopckne
"nccnepoaa1enn", ko1opme caHn nnuero nopo6noro ne ncnm1maann. m L 1ak
xe, kak n1num popory na kr. L no1oHy, u1o roaopn cnoaaHn na1ona, -
"nosnanne ec1L aocnoHnnanne".
yua snae1 naaepnnka: aepL ona xpann1 onm1 Hnornx aonnouenn. ennuec1aennme
kap1nnm nsmuecknx caeuennopec1a, acnnmaakune a 1akne Hrnoaennn ns naunx
pyueanmx rny6nn - a1o naun co6c1aennme aneua1nennn, nepexn1me naHn caHnHn a
naunx npounmx aonnouennnx: aepL Hm Hnoro pas poxpaeHcn (o1ckpa:
noaopoxpennm) n neopnokpa1no "yHnpaeH" (o1ckpa: noaonpec1aanennm).
c1opnuecko naHn1n uenoaeka nnun1L Hoxno, no neaosHoxno o1nn1L y nero naHn1L
nacnepc1aennyk. enoaek o6napae1 ropaspo 6onee rny6oko naHn1Lk: ao-nepamx -
231
a1o M ace uenn npepmpyunx nokonenn, nepepannan kaxpoHy ns
nac a reno1nne. ao-a1opmx - a1o M LY .
eppa 1. n. "6eccosna1enLnoro" nannk1cn 1eH aHec1nnnueH, rpe o6pasm npounoro
xpy1 6naronpnn1nmx ycnoan pnn caoero nponanennn. pnueH, nHenno a 1ex
coc1onnnnx, ko1opme Hm o6muno nasmaaeH 6ecnaHn1c1aoH nnn sa6m1LeH, kak pas n
npocmnae1cn ckpm1an ponroapeHennan naHn1L uenoaeka. aosHoxnoc1n nopo6noro
nponnknoaennn a 1any caonx npexnnx, paxe "ponc1opnuecknx" aonnouenn, noaepan
xek onpon a nsyHn1enLnoH nponsaepennn "Hnpn1enLnan py6auka".
rnnno1nueckoH 1pance n a neko1opmx, nopo6nmx eHy ncknkun1enLnmx coc1onnnnx,
nponcxopn1 norpyxenne a 6onee apxanunme nnac1m ncnxnkn. saec1nm
ouenoHnnkune onm1m qpanuysckoro apaua . pe oua n ppyrnx rnnnonoroa,
sac1aannaunx aaepennoro a coHnaH6ynnueckn 1panc uenoaeka aoccospaaa1L cansL
apeHen n acnoHnna1L caon npounme cyuec1aoaannn. naHena1enLno, u1o a a1oH
coc1onnnn Hanoo6pasoaannme nkpn pacckasmaak1 nopo 1akne noppo6noc1n o 6m1e n
kynL1ype ppeannx napopoa, ko1opme nsaec1nm nnuL neHnornH nc1opnkaH n
apxeonoraH.
Yunme eu ponro 6ypy1 pasHmunn1L o 1oH, kak pa6o1ae1 rennan nnn nacnepc1aennan
naHn1L, no pnn pe1e 1ako cnoco6 nosnannn nopuac poc1a1ouno 6nnsok. nn
nn1yn1nano yrapmaak1 - acnoHnnak1 Hnoroe, no noppac1an, 6mc1po sa6maak1.
smuec1ao - cuac1nnaan nopa knoc1n uenoaeuec1aa. pnc1nanc1ao - c1apueckn
HapasH. oaeuee nanpaanenne ncnxna1pnn nasmaae1cn a1no1epanne. Hee1cn a
anpy norpyxenne, aosapauenne 6onLnoro a cao nnunoe n konnek1nanoe pe1c1ao, a
rny6nnnme, popnme kynL1ypnme o6pasum n apxe1nnm c noHouLk napopnoro
nso6pasn1enLnoro nckycc1aa, ppeane o6pnpoao noasnn, nrp, necen, nnncok n
ckasann. D1o cnoco6c1aye1 caHoy1aepxpennk 6onLnoro nocpepc1aoH npo6yxpennn,
ouyuennn a ce6e npnpopnoro, nsmueckn-npaspnnunoro Hnpoaocnpnn1nn.
oapeHennm ypoaenL rene1nkn nosaonnn neHnoro npnnopnn1L saaecy nap 1ano
nacnepc1aenno naHn1n, n 1y1 nccnepoaa1enn 6mnn nopaxenm: naHn1L pe6enka,
cun1aauancn po cnx nop "unc1o pocko", okasanacL ncneupnno kaknHn-1o
nenponanennmHn nnnnnHn, snakaHn neaepon1no 6onLuoro o6LeHa nnqopHaunn...
D1norpaqm canpe1enLc1ayk1, u1o uaHan, anapakun a 1pancoam caHornnnos, Hoxe1
o6napa1L HnornHn neo6muanmHn cnnaHn n cnoco6noc1nHn, a 1oH uncne amsmaa1L y
ce6n YM caonx paneknx npepkoa.
aHan unc1an papoc1L - 6eckopmc1noe nk6oaanne pnpopo. mcune, caepxnnunme
uyac1aa o6ypeaak1 1orpa uenoaeka, n okpmnenno pyue yxe 1ecno a opexpax
apeHenn n npoc1panc1aa. oc1onnneH, nopo6nmH uaHanckoHy ncc1ynnennk, nanne1cn
pnn acnkoro uy1koro cosepua1enn M 1o 1annc1aennoe 1aopueckoe
apoxnoaenne, noannyncL ko1opoHy on nenponsaonLno, kak nyna1nk, cospae1 caon
nponsaepennn.
n cao, popno a a1o pnpope, nno1L o1 nno1n, cansannm c e
cokpoaenneunHn ysaHn, yxopnunHn arny6L 1mcnuene1n. epL 6epesoame poun n
py6paam 6mnn caHmHn ppeannHn naunHn cae1nnnuaHn. pecL "o6pe1ae1 ceppue
nnuy". onLko na none noceuak1 xypoxnnka 1e ne1nennme
Hnnyauero, ko1opme n nm1ae1cn on saneua1ne1L a cnoaax, kpackax, saykax...
oounk, xnao X pycanLnme nrpnua a seneno rnyxoHann nop yro nau
. . M-, korpa ne1oH 1880 ropa a
coc1onnnn 1aopueckoro akc1asa nncan 1aH "nerypouky" (nckonnoe snauenne cnoaa
"renn" - Y - ).
232
axpoe canpanne c Y "6ypnno" koHnosn1opa n conpoaoxpanocL, no
ero npnsnannk, neo6mknoaennmH nopLeHoH. pecL uepnan on cnnm, specL nc1ounnk
o6an1enLnoro aospec1ann ero ckasouno-aonue6nmx cosayun.
" yanekcn noa1nuecko c1opono kynL1a noknonennn onnuy... ap1nnm ppeanero
nsmueckoro apeHenn, n pyx ero npepc1aannnncL Hne... c 6onLuo ncnoc1Lk", -
acnoHnnan nkona nppeeanu.
o1oHy-1o nopnnnno napopnme, o6pnpoame, kpaco1m neo6mknoaenno naneam n
nnncoame nanrpmun a "nerypouke", paano kak n nenc1oame, saaopaxnaakune pn1Hm
xopoaopoa ao "Mnape" c1onL c1nxnno o1smaak1cn a nac1poe cnaanncko pyun.
nHckn-opcakoa 6oro1aopnn naue po6poe, seHnoe onnue - "1aopueckoe nauano,
amsmaakuee xnsnL a pnpope n a nkpnx" - 1ak xe 6essaae1no n 6ecxn1poc1no, kak n
nonk6naunecn eHy 6epenpen. "nerypouky" aenuae1 aennuaaoe cnaanenne pnnm
nnkykunHn 6epenpenHn - pe1LHn pnpopm, pnn ko1opmx na eu ne c1ana Hauexo.
* * *
1nouenne uenoaeka k pnpope noc1enenno Henne1cn a cansn c nepexopoH o1 oxo1m n
c6opa papoa pnpopm k seHnenauec1ay n cko1oaopc1ay. XnsnL a napy c pnpopo
saaepuae1cn n naunnae1cn xnsnL a 6opL6e c ek.
D1o apeHn kpynneuero nepeaopo1a a xnsnn n cosnannn uenoaeuec1aa coanapae1 c
aosnnknoaenneH kynL1oa cpepnseHnoHopcknx n 6nnxneaoc1ounmx - 6oroa
seHnepenLuea n xnao1noaopoa. snauanLnme aosspennn na pnpopy nckaxak1cn.
onocnoanme sananennn ka6nne1nmx "sna1okoa", 6yp1o nepao6m1nm uenoaek acero
6onncn, 6yp1o sa kaxpmH nanenneH pnpopm eHy uypnnncL apaxpe6nme cnnm, ne
nop1aepxpak1cn coapeHenno a1norpaqne, poc1a1ouno nsyunaue pennrnosnme
npepc1aanennn 1. n. "npnHn1nanmx" napopoa. ananennn a1n - acero nnuL nonm1ka
ropoxannna, okasaauerocn a 1are nnn 1ynppe, onpaapa1L co6c1aennme, nopuac
neo6LncnnHme c1paxn. asyHee1cn, u1o on ne 6ype1 uyac1aoaa1L ce6n 1aH, kak poHa.
o a 1oH-1o n peno, u1o pnn nepao6m1noro, eue ne o1uyxpennoro o1 pnpopm
uenoaeka, na 6mna M MM - MM - L - , a ne
ckonnueH kocnmx, nenonn1nmx n apaxpe6nmx cnn, ko1opme 1pe6oaanocL kak-1o
"o6Lncnn1L" n sapo6pn1L.
Mnp oxo1nnka 6mn nonon Hnoronnknx, xnsnenk6namx, npepoc1eperakunx nn6o
yrpoxakunx, no nnkak ne saaepoHo snoapepnmx npnpopnmx yxoa. yxn a1n n
nesaancnHm o1 uenoaeuecko aonn, n a ueH-1o e yc1ynunam. a nnx Hornn okasa1L
annnnne 1e, k1o snan, kak k nnH nopc1ynn1Lcn. ecno osnnn Hor kak 6m paspeun1L
pasyHno nonLsoaa1Lcn n oxo1n1Lcn, ne ponyckan saHe1noro yuep6a pnn kakoro-nn6o
anpa. 1ckpa ocnoanan oxo1nnuLn sanoaepL rnacnna: "e noapepn!" e acerpa
ncnonnenne a1oro npaanna npnnocnno ypauy, opnako npec1ynnenne ero rposnno
nepo6pmHn nocnepc1annHn.
oun1anne yxoa-osnea npncyue aceH oxo1nnuLnH napopaH. nac1n1enn, osneaa
Hec1noc1n - yxn, a ne uenoaek. naanne - pe1n eca, a no1oHy nan6onee 6nnskn nx
ceppuy yxn ecnme. au eun popc1aen an1nunoHy any, nnLaany (ns uLero
nHenn yxe nac1aye1, u1o a1o necnoe cyuec1ao), aany n ero xencko nnoc1acn ayne
(naue euaunxe). yuec1aa a1n ne "nexn1L": - X, ne spn xnao1nm Hnp
nasaan qayno.
eun - a1o coaokynnm yx acex o6n1a1ene neca (no-nayunoHy: 6nonone neca).
rpeuecknx Hnqax n a pyccknx aonue6nmx ckaskax, a npepannnx acex eaponecknx
233
napopoa ecno napmka nopuac o6opaunaae1cn HyppeuoH-nac1aannkoH, o6napa1eneH
cokpoaennmx snann. oc1onoHy repok on papn1 Horyuec1aennmx saepe-
noHounnkoa n nocaeuae1 ero a 1annc1aa pnpopm.
kocHa1oH, HoxnonoroH eueH pyxoanan cyunoc1L uypecnmH o6pasoH coue1ae1cn co
saepnno. aHan 6onLuan roppoc1L n ykpauenne euero - a1o aenuakune ero pora.
ora - a1o neo1LeHneHan npnnapnexnoc1L, cyuec1aenneun npnsnak caeuenc1aa.
ora - a1o kopona saeponnkoro nsmueckoro 6oxec1aa - o6opo1nn: o1ckpa koponm-
o6epern nsmuecknx kopone, - pnapeHm c o1poc1kaHn, nso6paxakunHn pora. e
cnyuano xpnc1nane napennnn caoero ca1any, aonnouaauero ac nsmueckoe "sno",
nHenno poraHn. a1annnckne pora npnsaanm nyra1L c1apyx pa HanenLknx pe1e, no
ao1 kaknH o6pasoH Hornn aosnnkny1L pora, n saueH onn nyxnm konm1nmH xnao1nmH?
pnosnauno n onpepenenno na a1o soonorn o1ae1n1L ne Hory1.
* * *
1 aeka k aeky ac, 6onee o1pannncL o1 pnpopm, uenoaek 1aopnn 6oroa no o6pasy n
nopo6nk caoeHy. cnn anauane on anpen 6oxec1aennyk cyunoc1L, any1penne
npncyuyk onnuy, nenocpepc1aenno a caHoH onnue, 1o sa1eH c1an ycHa1pnaa1L
o6oco6nennoe 6oxec1ao, c1onuee sa onnueH n sac1aannkuee ero panra1Lcn no
ne6ocaopy. Yxe aepnueckn nppa 6mn 6oxec1aoH, ko1opoe ynpaannno onnueH, a ne
caHnH 6oxec1aennmH onnueH.
eHano pouno po nac ynoHnnann conneunmx nsmuecknx 6oroa: Mn1pa, nonnon, e6,
Hon-a, anLpep n 1.p. ce a1n 6orn - nospnne, yxe nHekune caon nnunme nHena.
D1o yxe 6orn onnua, a ne -.
ak xe n 6orn nospnecnaannckoro nsmuec1aa - ae1oan1, opc, en6or, axL6or - a1o
yxe ne pnno.
ak xnao1aopnuee, 6oxec1aennoe caHo no ce6e ae1nno saHeuae1cn ero 6onee nnn
Henee an1ponoHopqnuecknH 6oxec1aoH; ouenoaeunaae1cn, amc1ynae1 kak
6oxec1aennan nnunoc1L.
nn connuenoknonnnka onnue ne u1o-1o o6mpennoe n npnamunoe, no X
YL Y, aennuauan 1ana n sarapka. axpm penL na rnasax
nkpe aepun1cn Y - aocxopn1 X. e1 nnuero Horyuec1aennee
ero. uypecne nnuero na cae1e ne 6maae1, no uenoaek nac1onLko npnamk k neHy, u1o
ne ypnanne1cn 6onee. ak n pnn Hnornx ac1poqnsnkoa naue onnue nonaeka
cun1anocL 1epHonpepno neuko. oka noaeune poc1nxennn nenpepasn1mx,
apyHunamx nccnepoaa1ene ne pokasann: onnue cnnukoH "xonopnoe" pnn 1oro,
u1o6m 1aH Horna npo1eka1L 1epHonpepnan peakunn. ayka ne Hoxe1 1enepL o1ae1n1L
na aonpoc, kakoa xe 1orpa nc1ounnk konoccanLno, nencuepnaeHo conneuno
aneprnn, corpeaakue Hnp???
axpme cy1kn onnue "xypee1" na Hnnnnapp 1onn, 1epnn a1y Haccy na nsnyuenne. au
seHno Hnp n ac 1o, u1o Hm nasmaaeH Ha1epne, nno1Lk, ec1L 1onLko upesamuano
ynno1nennme conneunme nyun-aonnm onpepenennoro caoc1aa n kauec1aa. onnue -
a1o orpoHnoe 6Lkueecn X !
- Y YY X. Xnaoe aeuec1ao eHnn poxpae1cn
6naropapn sarapounoHy npoueccy qo1ocnn1esa - npeo6pasoaannn pac1ennnHn
conneunoro cae1a.
234
pyun naun 1oxe 1ky1cn ns 1onuaunx nn1e conneunoro cae1a. ocne cHep1n 1ena
onn ne racny1, a yne1yunaak1cn k caoeHy c1ounnky, sapnxak1cn ero xnan1enLno
cnno n anoaL aosapauak1cn na eHnk a o6nnuLe noaopoxpennmx.
Mm ypanenm o1 onnua na pacc1onnne, paanoe acero nnuL 107 ero nonepeunnkaH.
onee 1oro, eHnn naxopn1cn a nenocpepc1aennoH conpnkocnoaennn c no1okaHn
conneuno nnasHm. onneunm ae1ep noc1onnno o6pyaae1 nac. Moxno ckasa1L paxe,
u1o Hm ne 1onLko xnaeH cae1oH n pmxanneH onnua, Hm xnaeH any1pn onnua - ao
aneune ero kopone. eypnan1enLno, u1o naua eHnn, caHa 6ypyun X,
YL Y, c1onL uy1ko o1smaae1cn na Haneun conneunm
cnonox.
* * *
6oxaaune pnpopy oxo1nnkn ne snann 1akoro "ne6a", rpe an1ann 6m o1opaannme o1
eHnn "caepxLec1ec1aennme" 6orn. acenenne ne6a "6oraHn" o1paxano upesamuano
aospocuee snauenne ne6ecnmx nanenn pnn seHnepenLua n cko1oaopa. cnn
oxo1nnuLn ypaua saancena o1 nnuno xpa6poc1n n o1 cnaxennoro asanHopec1ann
conneHennnkoa, 1o n seHnepeneu n cko1oaop naxopn1cn a nonneue saancnHoc1n o1
noropm, npexpe acero o1 poxpn. enepL uenoaeky nyxno, u1o6m ero rposnme (o1
"rposm") 6orn ynpaannnn ne6oH, pasaepsann xnn6n ne6ecnme. on nsHmunne1 anunmx
uenoaekonopo6nmx ne6ecnmx 6oroa - caHopepxaanmx rpoHoaepxuea, nopa1ene
ypoxan n 1yunmx c1ap, ko1opmx napo y6naxa1L kpoaaamHn xep1aonpnnouennnHn.
orpa-1o n nonannk1cn xpeum (ne ny1a1L c aepynaHn-aonxaaHn) - rapa1enn
"6oxec1aennoro npoHmcna", saaepykune a1nHn xep1aonpnnouennnHn; rpoHospn1cn
xpaHm, a a nnx an1apn-xep1aennnkn (xpeu n xep1aa - cnoaa opnokopennme). co6oe
cocnoane xpeuoa nyxpae1cn a "6orax", Hnn1 ce6n nocpepnnkoH Hexpy npoc1mHn
cHep1nmHn n ne6oxn1ennHn.
ennrnn neo6muano ycnoxnne1cn: aepL 1enepL y caoeaonLnoro 6ora (nnn 6oroa)
kpoaLk napo amHannaa1L noropy, ypoxa, npnnnop cko1a, spopoaLe n acnueckne
6nara. D1o yxe ne papoc1noe xnsney1aepxpenne, a 6n6neckan kponL neuann,
pa6ckoe oxnpanne amnanennn kpoaoxapno "aonn 6oxLe". ak naunnae1cn ynapok
nsmuec1aa...
yxn oxo1nnuLnx nneHen a xep1aax ne nyxpanncL. pnxopn a nec, 1. e. a roc1n k
osnnny eca, uenoaek o6Lncnnn eHy amnyxpennyk neo6xopnHoc1L caoero noc1ynka,
npocnn o6 ypauno oxo1e n ne sa6maan yroc1n1L, oc1aan1L nopapok. pnnouenne
Horno 6m1L nk6mH: ropc1L nrop, npnuypnnam peuno kaHeuek, koc1nno rpe6euok
nnn koxanm peHeuok. onnHan, u1o "nesaanm roc1L xyxe 1a1apnna", 1ak xe
noc1ynak1 n nmneunne kopennme 1aexnnkn.
oc1enenno pannee, unc1oe npnpoponoun1anne saHy1nne1cn, ockaepnne1cn
xep1aenno kpoaLk. ckypeaae1 ocosnanne uenoaekoH caoero popc1aa co aceH
xnayunH, npn1ynnne1cn npnpoxpennoe couyac1aoaanne. o Hepe pasan1nn
nckycc1aennmx, nsoupennmx xnao1noaopuecknx n seHnepenLuecknx pennrn,
nm1akunxcn npnpyun1L aonLnme c1nxnn, ac 6onee ocna6eaae1, 1epne1cn
poaepn1enLnan cansL c cosnpa1enLnmHn nnaHn pnpopm.
nnm npeapauak1cn a o1aneuennme nonn1nn. ennrnosnme npepc1aanennn, 6maune
nekorpa poc1onnneH acero opa-neHenn, npncaanaak1cn n nsapauak1cn xpeuaHn.
epoac1ao ampoxpae1cn a ka66annc1nueckoe konpoac1ao. nHaon c1anoan1cn nponoH,
xpaH - 6one, xnaan pennrnn - Hep1amHn porHaHn.
235
oaceH ne cnyuano a1n apeHena coanann c 1. n. neonn1nuecko peaonkune,
pacnapoH nepao6m1noo6unnnoro yknapa n aosnnknoaenneH pa6oanapenLuecknx
pecno1n.
ocxnuenne HouLk n kpaco1o xnao pnpopm apoxnoannno xypoxnnkoa,
saneua1neaunx 20 1mcnu ne1 nasap na ckanax n a neuepax aennkonennme saepnnme
o6pasm. enoaeka a a1nx nso6paxennnx kaHennoro aeka ne1. kpn a npHe, pa6m n
aonnm, paspaanennme 6oeamHn konecnnuaHn, nonannk1cn 1onLko a xnaonncn 1.n.
unannnsoaannmx napopoa, a "aeke xenesnoH", korpa cornacno ecnopy n anpnk,
6ornnn cnpaaepnnaoc1n - "eaa c1pen c anaxno o1 kpoan eHnn yuna..."
* * *
cnaanno-pycckoH yc1noH napopnoH (a, cnepoaa1enLno, nsmueckoH) 1aopuec1ae 1ak
xe coxpannnacL naHn1L o 1oH, u1o nekorpa paapa noknnyna eHnk, n nac1ynnno
uapc1ao pnapm. paapa y cnaann - a1o onnue1aopenne acex ae1nmx nn.
akoaa xe 1a nsnauanLnan rpanL, npec1ynn ko1opyk, uenoaek napyunn sanoaepn
pnpopm? o-nepamx: aHec1o uec1noro noepnnka co saepeH - npo1naoec1ec1aennoe,
6esnpaac1aennoe ampaunaanne poHaunnx xnao1nmx na y6o. ko1 c1anoan1cn nepao
uac1no co6c1aennoc1Lk, npnunno paspopa, aon n rpa6exe (paxe epakn noxnuae1
kopoa y epnona), npepHe1oH kynnn-npopaxn, o6Hana n nny1oac1aa. ouapne1cn 6or
6ora1c1aa - ny1oc.
o-a1opmx: nponsaopc1ao He1anna, onnue1aopnkuero nacnnne nap pnpopo. rnH n
HeuoH saaoamaan uenoaek y e naxo1nme seHnn n nac16nua. nauana amxnran
neca, a sa1eH xenesnmH nesaneH nnyra acnapmaan upeao eHnn, paan Ha1epnnckne
rpypn xenesnmHn sy6LnHn 6oponm.
ann-re - a xenesnoH aeke xenesnmH opyxneH nkpn 6Lk1cn sa o6napanne
npoknn1mH sono1oH:
1ann 6ora1c1aa kona1L, - ko acnkoHy sny no6yxpenLe!
apepnmH xenesoH 1orpa xenesa apepneuee sna1o amuno na cae1,
aona, u1o n sna1oH kpyun1 n xenesoH...
(anpn).
cnn no-caoeHy xnao kaHenL anncan a pnpopy, 1o He1ann - npo1naoec1ec1aen.
epHon1oa nsmueckn uyac1aenno ouy1nn 1eno eHnn kak X:
xenesnan nona1a
kaHennyk rpypL,
o6maan HepL n sna1o,
pexe1 c1paunm ny1L...
axe nnsr xenesa nenaanc1en pnpopnmH yxaH. yposna1um n sono1opo6m1unkn
1pene1ann nepep opnmH 1apueH n ennknH onosoH, nepep osnko Mepno opm:
"ypoHy c ne ac1pe1n1Lcn - rope, n po6poHy - papoc1n Hano".
236
oaepLn acex napopoa y1aepxpak1, u1o yxn ne nepenocn1 xenesnmx npnkocnoaenn:
onn upesamuano 6onesnennm, kpane uyac1an1enLnm k ykonaH xenesnmHn oc1pnnHn.
1apauenne k xenesy c1onL aennko, u1o onn paxe ne npn6nnxak1cn. 1ckpa sanpe1m
na anecenne xenesnmx npepHe1oa a ae1nnnue.
Me1annnueckne nspennn ne Hory1 cnyxn1L o6eperaHn: xenckne oxepenLn 6mnn
o6muno nn1apnmHn, xeHuyxnmHn n koc1nnmHn. ecnme yxn 1akxe 1epne1L ne Hory1
xenesa. paaosnanH, co6npakunH na sape nocne aonue6no ynanLcko noun
nnakyn-1paay, oponenL-1paay, 1npnnu-1paay, nenLsn 6mno ncnonLsoaa1L xenesnme
noxn n aoo6ue nHe1L npn ce6e xenesnme nspennn, nnaue uae1m 1epnk1 caon
uypecnme caoc1aa. 1o6m ne pasppaxa1L yxoa n onacancL aosHespnn, 1akne xe
sanpe1m n ceuac co6nkpak1 oxo1nnkn sa xenLueneH.
D1norpaqm canpe1enLc1ayk1, u1o neko1opme nneHena, xnayune seHnepenneH, po cnx
nop naHepenno ne ncnonLsyk1 npn acnauke none xenesnme opypnn. pasep
coo6uae1, u1o a onLue sa nepao nonm1ko npnHenn1L xenesnme neHexn
nocnepoaan pnn1enLnm pnp neypoxaea. x npnunny kpec1Lnne anpenn nHenno a a1nx
xenesnkax n anoaL saHennnn nx c1apmHn pepeannnmHn counnkaHn.
a ycn n nonmne co6nkpae1cn o6mua: a penL, korpa Ma1L-mpa-eHnn -
Hennnnnua (10/V), nenLsn yaeun1L, 1. e. naxa1L n kona1L.
onn1no, u1o ao acex ppeannx o6uec1aax (n y cnaann) kysneum, nsro1oannaune
opypnn y6nc1aa, cun1anncL neunc1mHn. ysneu cnmn nony1no koaapnmH (o1 rnarona
"koaa1L") konpynoH. "akonax Many" (c1nx IV, 215) kysneum, 1ak xe kak ak1epm,
kaennpm n 1oproaum opyxneH, npnpaannaak1cn k nnsue kac1e o1aepxennmx.
6pa6o1ko He1anna noackpy sannHanncL o1penLnme saHkny1me knanm
peHecnennnkoa: umrane - nsrnannoe ns npnn 6popnuee nneHn kysneuoa-
uepnoknnxnnkoa, nypen-qannaun a 6nccnnnn n 1. p., okpyxennme opnoapeHenno
c1paxoH, npespenneH n 1eHnmHn noaepLnHn. Mono1 - opnn ns cnHaonoH 1anmx
o6uec1a.
euec1naoc1L, yuep6noc1L kysneuoa nopuepknaae1cn a ppeannx Hnqax n nerenpax nx
xpoHo1o. peueckn eqec1 n ckanpnnaackn okn - xpoHum.
opo6nm xe o6pas xpoHoro kysneua ac1peuae1cn a qonLknope napopoa pepne n
en1panLno snn. poHo1a y nsmunnkoa cun1anacL nexopounH npnsnakoH. pycckoH
napopnoH 1aopuec1ae neunc1me, snokosnennme cyuec1aa nn6o 6ecnn1me (nuy1ka
6ecnn1m), nn6o xpoHme na neayk nory.
k6onm1no, u1o pycckn ne1onnceu-nepeaopunk rpeu. 1ekc1a, o1oxpec1ann c eqec1oH
ne6ecnoro 6ora-kysneua aapora ("caapnaa1L" - snaun1 "ckoamaa1L"). cnn aepn1L
na1Leacko ne1onncn (nHn aapora nnrpe 6onLue a cnaanncknx nc1ounnkax ne
ynoHnnae1cn), 1o npn aapore "cnapoua kneue c ne6ece, naua koaa1n opyxLe".
c1opnueckn "xenesnm aek" aapora coanapae1 c pasnoxenneH popoaoro c1pon,
y1pa1o paanonpaann n nauanoH npo1naoc1onnnn uenoaeka pnpope.
* * *
npo1naoc1onnnn a1oH o1pasnnocL nckaxenne pennrnosnoro cosnannn, amsaannoe
aouapenneH Hono1enc1nueckoro "ne6ecnoro o1ua", cHennauero ppeaneuee noun1anne
X M - M - X, nopopnaue ns caoero
nona ac cyuee: 6oroa n saepe, nkpe n 1n1anoa...
pepc1aanenne o Ha1epnnckoH, xenckoH npnpopno-anepre1nueckoH auane n
noun1anne eHnn-Ma1ponm (cnaanncko Makoun) kak aonnouennn a1oro auana,
237
aocxopn1 k oxo1nnuLnH nneHenaH apeHen Ha1pnapxa1a. 1 1ex o1panenneunx apeHen
pouna po nac nocnoanua: "Ma1L mpa eHnn - roaopn1L nenLsn", o1paxakuan
caeuennm sanpe1, n6o Ma1L-mpa-eHnn noun1anacL eu n pepxa1enLnnue
cokpoaennmx snann (nepapoH rnoHm - a1o "snakune").
ce amcune 6oxec1aa ppeanoc1n nannnncL "mnaHn Ma1epn" npexpe, ueH onn
c1anoannncL "mnaHn 1ua". epexop o1 Ha1pnapxa1a k na1pnapxa1y o1pasnncn a
6opL6e ne6ecnmx n seHnmx 6oroa a kaxpo ns popc1aennmx nnpoeaponecknx
Hnqonorn: y rpekoa - a1o 1n1anoHaxnn, y ckanpnnaaoa - 6opL6a acoa c aanaHn n
o1ynaHn, y nnpnuea - paaoa c acypaHn n 1. p.
Y rpekoa a1o1 nepnop o1paxn oco6enno ncno. o Hnqy, npyueHy ns 1LHm aekoa,
"ppeanee nneHn eHnn, nokonenLe n1anoa" - cmnm eHnn-en, 6oxec1aennme
cyuec1aa - c1apune 6pa1Ln nospneunx 6oroa. orpa HnpoH npaann 1n1an ponoc, na
eHne uapnn ono1o aek (1.e. kaHennm aek napa uenoaeka n pnpopm, no ko1opoHy
ckop6n1 nkpn). o aosnnkun ao apeHenn eac nnsaepr ponoca, n 1orpa cmnm en,
1n1anm ponoc n ero 6pa1Ln kean, nnepnon n ppyrne aocc1ann npo1na noaoro,
1pe1Lero nokonennn 6oroa, aosrnaanneHmx eacoH.
o6epa Hnapunx an1nunmx 6oroa-onnHnnuea nap aonnouakunHn cnnm pnpopm
1n1anaHn, eaca nap ponocoH, epakna nap cmnoH en n1eeH, - snaHenoaana
1opxec1ao noamx pennrnosnmx npepc1aanenn, npnuepunx na cHeny nepao6m1noHy
o6oxannk c1nxn a nx ec1ec1aennmx o6nnuLnx.
o a1opoH nopanre epakn 6ope1cn c uypoanunmH sHeeH, noxnuaaunH cko1. opnnan
cyunoc1L sHen nac1aye1 ns ero nHenn: nppa. o He (pakon, uyp) a ppeane
nsmuecko Hnqonornn, napnpy c ero x1onnuecko cyunoc1Lk, nece1 a ce6e n seHnoe
caeuennoe nauano: on nokpoan1enLc1aye1 aopnmH nc1ounnkaH, 1.e. seHnoHy
nnopopopnk, nnaue - X.
ppyrnx nopanrax epakn noan1 aenpn, onyc1ouaauero nonn pkapnn, sa1eH - 6mka,
onyc1ouaauero pn1. ppyrnx Hnqax on yuac1aye1 a snaHenn1o annponcko oxo1e
na onn1L-1akn onyc1ouaauero nonn aenpn. epakn onnue1aopne1 uenoaeueckoe
pepsnoaenne, no6expakuee Hn1exnyk, "apaxpe6nyk" pnpopy n nponarakuee ny1L
k unannnsaunn cko1oaopoa n 1opraue.
* * *
peanero uenoaeka, 1ak xe kak n coapeHennoro, no1pncana 1n1annueckan HouL
npnpopnmx c1nxn; caHoanac1nmx, neypepxnHmx n nenpepckasyeHmx, 6espasnnunmx k
nkpcknH c1pac1nH. apnnkoH nouyac1aoaan ce6n ayc1 nepep nepocnraeHmH
aennuneH n nenoc1nxnHoc1Lk yxa eHnn.
o6ueH Hnponopnpke nnm a1n caHn no ce6e nn po6pm, nn snm. akoamHn nx
npepc1aanne1 ce6e 1onLko uenoaek, Hepnkun ac na cao apunn. caoeH aennuaaoH
6ecc1pac1nn a1n nsnauanLnme nnm, rposnme n Hnnoc1name opnoapeHenno, nannnn
co6o neu1o uenoc1noe. akoamHn 6mnn 6oxec1aa ppeanero ona, ue kynL1 aocxopn1
k sape uenoaeuecko nc1opnn, k ornnH uaHancknx koc1poa, k sarapounmH
ne1pornnqaH, k unknonnuecknH kpoHnexaH n HenrnpaH...
orpa nnm a1n eue ne pacnanncL a cosnannn nkpe na 6oroa n peHonoa, cosnpa1ene
n paspyun1ene. enoaek eue ne npnuncnnn opnnx 1onLko k cnnaH 6narnH, a ppyrnx -
1onLko k apeponocnmH. pen o payx nenpnHnpnHmx, npo1naononoxnmx no o1nouennk
k uenoaeky nauanax: po6poH n snoH, 6ore n pLnaone, ec1L npen nospnnx, o1opaannmx
238
o1 pnpopm pennrn. yannsH, nko6m any1penne npncyun Hnpy, ncnoaepoaann n
sopoac1pnum. 1saykn a1oro yuennn, a 1akxe 6onee nospnnx Hannxec1aa n
6oroHnnLc1aa, ouy1nno n cnaannckoe nsmuec1ao, u1o anpno ns xpeueckoro
npo1naonoc1aanennn en6ora n epno6ora.
opL6a c pnpopo, aosaepennan a po6pope1enL, nopopnna a Hnqax coaepuenno
noaoe npepc1aanenne o Hnpe. neH nocennnncL snoapepnme aennkanm uypoanuno
cnnm, npo1naoc1onune 6oraH: panaam n pa1Ln y nnpnuea, rnran1m n 1n1anm y
rpekoa, qoHopnne y kenL1oa, aono1m y cnaann.
aonax 6oroa-acoa c popoH c1apeunx ceaepnmx ncnonnnoa-o1ynoa, "xnaunx a
nauanLnoe ppeanee apeHn", noe1 a Dppe (Dppa popc1aenna, cosayuna epaH a nx
ncxopnoH, ponnpnckoH yc1noH nsnoxennn) ncnoanpnuan ena, aosaeuakuan rposno
rpnpyun norn6enLnm xpe6n 6oroa. cm "nnaannn sono1o, koaann opypnn..."
oka ne nannncL 1pn aeune eam,
s seHnn ncnonnnoa Horyune roc1Ln.
o 6mnn opnm, onpepennkune cypL6m 6oroa n nkpe. 1ronockn 6opL6m acoa c
o1ynaHn - a repHancknx ckasannnx o n6enynrax; o npoknn1nn, ko1opoe nece1 c
co6o sono1o. "cnn Hm aoo6pasnH a pykax nn6enynra aHec1o pokoaoro konLua
6npxeao nop1qenL, 1o nonyunH sakonuennyk kap1nny c1paunoro o6pasa
npnspaunoro anapmkn Hnpa" (nxapp arnep).
* * *
paxpa 6oroa n acypoa - aonpoc 6onLuo, cnoxnm, n peun1L ero nenerko.
peanennpnckne acypm, 1.e. "ne 6orn" - npo1nannkn 6oroa-paaoa. pnako a
aepnueckne apeHena acypm noun1anncL 6narnHn cyunoc1nHn. nuL a nospneunx
nc1ounnkax - Ynannuapax cnoao "acypm" nauano yno1pe6nn1Lcn a o1pnua1enLnoH
cHmcne. nraepe xe, yxopnue kopnnHn a ponnpnckne nnac1m nc1opnn 6eno pacm,
acypaHn nasmaak1cn 6onee ppeanne 6oxec1aa, a 6onee Honopme nHenyk1cn paaaHn.
aam noc1enenno o11ecnnnn acypoa na a1opo nnan, a a nocneaepnueckne apeHena
6paxHannsHa, korpa na pasaannnax nepao6m1noo6unnnoro c1pon okonua1enLno
y1aeppnncn c1po pa6oanapenLueckn, acypm c1ann o6osnauenneH snmx pyxoa.
Maxa6xapa1e acypm nasaanm yxe "neuenoaeuecknHn aparaHn" ppxynm, c ko1opmHn
on cpaxae1cn c1paunmH opyxneH - papoH Lnam. paxHa-nuny-Lnaa - a1o 1ponua,
cospannan a nocneaepnueckn nepnop. D1o yxe ne paam, a1o noame 6orn nnpync1ckoro
nan1eona, po 1oro apeHenn ne nsaec1nme, coaepuenno o1nnunme o1 nepamx.
Maxa6xapa1e nac1aenno nenpnn1ne acypaHn 6paxHannsHa n xpeuoa-6paxHanoa,
ko1opme caonHn "xep1aonpnnouennnHn ycnnnaann Horyuec1ao 6oroa". ueH
6oponncL acypm, anpno ns kn.1, rn.202: acypm nepe6nnn xpeuoa, "n npekpa1nnncL
1orpa na eHne xep1aonpnnouennn, nc1pe6nenm 6mnn uapn n paaxpm poxpennme... ...
eHnn, na ko1opo ncuesnn 1oproann n pmnkn..., ncuesno seHnepenne n cko1oaopc1ao,
eHnn c paspyuennmHn ropopaHn... npno6pena yxacnm anp".
* * *
pn aosnnknoaennn noamx pennrn acerpa 6maae1 1ak, u1o ppeanne 6narne yxn a
cosnannn nkpe nepeocHmcnnaak1cn. npnn DM nHenoaanncL o6oxec1anennme
cnnm pnpopm, noun1aaunecn eue ppeannHn apnnHn - o6unHn npepkaHn
nnponpancknx nneHen. a pane nocnepoaa1enn pennrnosnmx noaoaaepenn
239
opoac1pa, 6opoaunecn c Hec1nmHn napopnmHn aepoaannnHn, o6Lnannn cae1nmx
aaoa snmHn peHonaHn.
o saHeuannk enopa, "pennrnn opoac1pa cmrpana ponL packona a ppeaneH
apnckoH kynL1e pnpopm". orHa1nueckoe, pyannc1nueckoe yuenne opoac1pa,
nnckonLko ne paspeuaauee aos6yxpennmx nH aonpocoa, y1aepxpano cyuec1aoaanne
payx apaxpe6nmx Hnpoamx nauan: po6poro pHyspa n snoro, 6eso6pasnoro pnHana.
Yuenne a1o paspennno coo1ae1c1aenno ack pnpopy na paa uapc1aa: unc1oe