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1999 2005

. O. 3
1907 17
17
22
25
B 29
1908 33
33
B 36
K 41
43
Y H? 46
Y K 49
K 53
56
H 61
1909 65
HX 65
YB Y 73
- 78
82
94
XH B 98
1910 104
BH 104
Y BYX 108
112
116
1911 120
H O. . 120
Y 123
B 129
133
B ? 136
Y 140
YB 145
X 149
H H 154
H 157
B 161
H BB 165
YX 167
B 171
175
H 179
182
1912 186
X 186
BX BY 193
H H 197
B 201
X H 212
O 216
1913 220
220
BYY 223
, XH 227
D 231
H H 235
239
H 242
H 246
H B 250
H BB 254
YB 257
1914 261
BHH 261
265
H 268
X YX 272
276
Y 286
B 290
1915 293
X B 293
B Y 297
Y BYY 301
X YX 305
1916 308
308
YXB 312
H 316

. O.
ce 6onee coapeHenno c1anoan1cn HmcnL . . osanoaa o 1oH, u1o npn
peHokpa1nueckoH npnnunne, saanapeaueH occne, ""6m1L a onnosnunn" - snaun1
nk6n1L n yaaxa1L ocypapn..., a ""6m1L 6yn1oaunkoH" a occnn - snaun1 no1n n
o1c1on1L o6epnk
[1]
. yc1L xe a1a 6naropopnan "onnosnunn pyxy apeHenn n
pyxoanm "6yn1 npo1na npnanaaeHo peHokpa1ne 1ennoxnapnoc1n 6ypy1 naunHn
acerpa aosHoxnmHn o1ae1aHn na any1pennkk n aneunkk arpeccnk npo1na
1euec1aa.
eHokpa1nn o6nnna rpnsLk n onounnna Hnorne rny6okne pycckne 1papnunonnme
aosspennn. konL opnosnauno pyra1enLnmH eue nepaano 6mno cnoaocoue1anne
Hnepckoe Hmmneue. eHokpa1nueckne npeonorn c1apanncL y6epn1L aennkyk
naunk, u1o e ne nyxno, neypo6no, nakoneu, neamropno 6m1L nHnepcko naune, u1o
e 6ype1 nerue n cnokonee xn1L HenounmHn npo6neHaHn, sannHakunHn uaeuapua
nnn nkkceH6ypxua, npo6neHaHn 6nonornueckoro no1pe6nennn, a ne pyxa n
1aopuec1aa. Bnonornueckoe cyuec1aoaanne peqnekcnano, necHeno n 1aopueckn
6ecnnopno; pyx xe acerpa cosna1enen, pepsok n ne Hoxe1 xn1L 6es 1aopuec1aa.
oueHy xe 1ak 6on1cn Hnepnn?
1paun1 aparoa nHn pycckoe, uyac1ayk1 onn, o1kypa Hoxe1 npn1n nH 6eccnaanm
koneu. D1o cnoao nece1 onacnoc1L pnn peHokpa1nn, nockonLky no1enunanLno Hoxe1
c1a1L snaHeneH pycckoro o6Lepnnennn. Hnepnn nece1 coapeHennoHy
pacnapakueHycn pycckoHy Hnpy naunonanLnyk konuen1paunk.
axpan uan, popocman po aenko Hpoao pon, c1peH1cn noc1po1u
caom Hnepm, cao Hnp, caok unannnsaunk, ko1opan npepLnanne1cn oc1anLnoHy
Hnpy kak amcuee pasan1ne naunonanLno-rocypapc1aennoro 1anan1a. Hnepnn
pasanaae1 naunonanLnme npeanm po nekoe ynnaepcanLnoc1n, any1pn ko1opo Hory1
cao6opno uyac1aoaa1L ce6n n ace ppyrne napopm. Hnepckoe cosnanne ampa6a1maae1
oco6yk o1ae1c1aennoc1L nepep c1opne - o1ae1c1aennoc1L xpann1ene npeanoa
xpnc1nancko rocypapc1aennoc1n n oxpann1ene Hnpa o1 acnkoro nocnra1enLc1aa na
1nxoe a neH xn1ne ao acnkoH 6narouec1nn n unc1o1e. Hnepckoe cosnanne nonanne1cn
kak pesynL1a1 ocosnannn naune caoe aennkopepxaano Hnccnn, 1o ec1L kak
ocosnanne oco6o sapaun nec1n Hnpy caon rocypapc1aennme npen, ampaxennme a
npeanax npaapm, nopnpka n cnpaaepnnaoro o6uexn1nn.
"aH xe, - nncan . . enLunkoa, - npoc1mH rpaxpanaH, necyunH 1pypoaok
xnsnLk caoe 1nxec1L rocypapc1aennoc1n, nenLsn ne npncnyunaa1Lcn k aeunmH
saae1aH. m xopouo snaeH, u1o a1a can1mnn napopnan - opnna - npnnapnexn1 ne
naH 1onLko, xnamH, no aceHy nneHenn. m - acero nnuL 1pe1Ln uac1L naunn, npn1oH
nanHenLuan. pyran neo6Ln1nan 1pe1L - a seHne, 1pe1Ln - a ne6e, n 1ak kak 1e
npaac1aenno c1onL xe xnam, kak n Hm, 1o kaopyH acex peuenn npnnapnexn1 ckopee
nH, a ne naH. m nnuL penera1m, 1ak ckasa1L, 6maunx n 6ypyunx nkpe, Hm - nx
oxnanennoe cosnanne, - cnepoaa1enLno, ne nau aronsH ponxen pykoaopn1L naue
coaec1Lk, a npaac1aennoe 6naro acero nneHenn
[2]
.
Hnepckoe Hmmneue pycckan oucepaa1auan 1papn
Hnepckoe Hmunenne paano c1ano pyccko koncepaa1nano 1papnune, no kak 1nn
cosnannn ono nsyueno kpane cna6o. 1o xe 1akoe koncepaa1nsH n nHnepckoe
Hmunenne? onpo6yeH pa1L a1nH nonn1nnH neckonLko onpepenenn.
oncepaa1nsH Hoxe1 6m1L pasnmH - kak neamH, 1ak n npaamH. cnkan npen,
nonoxn1enLno cqopHynnpoaannan, ampaxennan cnoaaHn n c1aauan 1papnune pnn ee
npnaepxenuea, qopHnpye1 koncepaa1nanoe, nnn 1papnunonnoe, aocnpnn1ne a1o
npen. oa1oHy koncepaa1nsH caH no ce6e ne nece1 nn nonoxn1enLnoro, nn
o1pnua1enLnoro copepxannn. pn paccyxpennn o koncepaa1nsHe neo6xopnHo
o6paua1L 6onLuee annHanne na 1y 6asoayk npek, 1papnunonnmH nonnHanneH
ko1opo on (koncepaa1nsH) nanne1cn. naueH cnyuae Hm roaopnH o6 HnepckoH
koucepaa1sHe, 1o ec1L o cnoxnaueHcn a popeaonkunonno ny6nnunc1nke
1papnunonnoH nonnHannn snauennn Hnepnn n npen nHnepnannsHa.
oncepaa1nsH, kak spopoam ckencnc, acerpa ro1oa pepxa1Lcn sa cnoxnauykcn
1papnunk po nocnepnero, noka xnsnL ne pokaxe1 6esycnoano xnsnecnoco6noc1n
noaoro nnn ne o1aeprne1 ero. oncepaa1nanoe cosnanne unc1onno1no a Hmcnnx, ono
rapan1npye1 o6pyHannoc1L peuennn, caepennoro c nc1opnuecko 1papnune. epes
nero, kak uepes cn1o, npocenaak1cn a cosnannn nkpe ace nx noHmcnm n oc1ae1cn
1onLko uennoe n aecoHoe, a nenyxnoe n apepnoe nsaeprae1cn aon.
oncepaa1nsH nHnepckoro cosnannn, coo1ae1c1aenno, oc1aanne1 a caoeH 6araxe ace
xnsnecnoco6noe, o1aepran ace xnsnepaspyuakuee nnn ne cnoco6noe k xnsnn.
Hnepckoe cosuaue nanne1cn poc1onueH nmu aenkx ua, ua,
ocosuamx xenamx nann1u Hpy cao uaouanuum pean
cnpaaepnaoro rocypapc1aeuuoro o6ex1n. annune nopo6noro cosnannn ec1L
nonoxn1enLnm snak ncnxonornuecko spenoc1n naunn, cnoco6no caHoc1on1enLno,
uac1o aonpekn aceH xn1L 1ak, kak ona cun1ae1 npaannLnmH, n nann1L 1o1 npean
npaapm, ko1opm nexn1 a ocnoae ace cnc1eHm xnsnepen1enLnoc1n napopnoro
oprannsHa.
Hnepck koucepaa1sH ueo6xopH pnn paxeun npo1a 1eveun, pnn
cospaun novam, ua ko1opo co apeHeueH Horno 6m ampac1 spaue ycckoro
oHa; nouam, nepnopnueckn ynnu1oxaeHo noamHn counanLnmHn nepeaopo1aHn.
oncepaa1nsH - a1o yc1ounaoc1L o6uec1aa n rocypapc1aa ao apeHn counanLnmx
6ypL, any1pennnn saun1a rocypapc1aennoro n o6uec1aennoro oprannsHa npo1na
nponnkakunx a nero paspyun1enLnmx nonn1nuecknx 6ak1epn.
oncepaa1nsH - a1o ncnxonornueckn aneHen1 counanLnoro nHHynn1e1a nk6oro
rocypapc1aa, c no1epe ko1oporo, kak npn e, o6esopyxennm rocypapc1aennm
oprannsH 6mc1po xnpee1 n yHnpae1 a c1paunmx Hykax, nopaxennm an1n1enaHn.
Hnepckn koncepaa1nsH - a1o rocypapc1aennoe n uepkoanoe epnnc1ao, a
npo1naononoxnoc1L pecny6nnkancko qepepanLnoc1n;
a1o 6opL6a c nk6mHn nponanennnHn pacnapa n cenapa1nsHa a o6uec1ae n
rocypapc1ae. OepepannsH nnckonLko ne cnacae1 o1 cenapa1nsHa, a pae1 a1oHy
panxennk pononnn1enLnme cnnm, amnaunaan n pac1n noame packonm n 6ypyune
npo6neHm. e1 nnkako ppyro aosHoxnoc1n oc1anoan1L a1o1 npouecc, kpoHe
peun1enLnoro nepexopa na nHnepckn ny1L pasan1nn c ero 6esycnoano ynn1apnoc1Lk
a rocypapc1aennoH c1pon1enLc1ae.
Xn1L oco6o, no-caoeHy, caHo6m1no, caHoc1on1enLno, caonH yHoH, pae1cn ne kaxpoHy.
erue acero nm1a1Lcn ckonnpoaa1L cocepa, xn1L uyxnH yHoH, ne nanpnran caon
pyxoanme cnnm, ko1opme 6es nopo6noro nanpnxennn oc1ak1cn nepasan1mHn n ne
cnoco6nmHn na 6onLune pena. pn 1ako noppaxa1enLnoc1n Hoxno nn roaopn1L o
aennko naunn, Hoxno nn aknapmaa1L ack pyuy, ack aneprnk a 1akoe ne1aopueckoe
cyuec1aoaanne?
1kas o1 caHo6m1noc1n nanne1cn o1kasoH o1 aosHoxnoc1n nasmaa1Lcn n 6m1L aennko
naune, o1kasoH o1 caHoro ce6n, npepa1enLc1aoH ce6n n npopaxe nepaopopnoc1n, 1o
ec1L 1oro npepnasnauennn, ko1opoHy ponxna cnyxn1L kaxpan naunn a a1oH
pasnoo6pasnoH Hnpe. 1kas o1 caHo6m1noc1n - a1o nonanenne eue opnoro xnaoro
napopnoro 1pyna, cHokoannum, ne npnnocnue nonoxennoro e BoroH nnopa. D1o
pyxoanan cHep1L, cHep1L, c ko1opo npekpauae1cn aosHoxnoc1L pnn naunn 6m1L
1aopuoH caoe xnsnn. poncxopn1 npeapauenne ee a 6nonornueckn oprannsH, co
apeHeneH nens6exno c1anoanuncn ypo6penneH pnn aennknx naun, ne
o1kasmaakunxcn o1 papa 1aopuecko caHo6m1noc1n.
aua coapeHennoc1L pacxonaxnaae1, packanne1 (a npo1naononoxnoc1L sakanke),
paccna6nne1 n nm1ae1cn y6epn1L a nenyxnoc1n conpo1nanennn 1euennk pen.
apa6a1maa n o1pmxa, ne n aecenncL - ao1 ee nosynr!
"oaropopum, - no saHeuannk oc1oHapoaa, nponn caok pecny6nnky. qnnnne
npoen caok. paa nn ne o1 1o xe npnunnm nana aennuauan ns pecny6nnk -
nHckan. eHokpa1nn naunnae1 c 1pe6oaannn cao6opm, paaenc1aa, 6pa1c1aa, konuae1
xe kpnkoH: xne6a n spennu! 1aH xo1L 1paae ne pac1n!
[3]
a1oH ne1 nnuero, u1o ponxno o1nocn1Lcn k uenoaeuecko nnunoc1n. Henoaek s1o
1aope, packpmaam a caoe xsu papm Box. eHokpa1nueckn npean
no1pe6nnkuero uenoaeka amrnnpn1 Hepsko n cknonne1cn ckopee k npeany xnao1noro,
a ne 6oronopo6noro cospannn, kakoamH nanne1cn uenoaek. enoaek xe c 6onLuo
6ykam - a1o 1aopeu, a o1nnune o1 uenoaeka 1onnm, uenoaeka npeana peHokpa1nueckn-
Henounoro n k 1aopuec1ay ne cnoco6noro...
po6ume opu 1epp1opanuuoro cokpaeun occ
eppn1opnn occnn cokpauae1cn, uaxny1 ee cnnm. noueHy? e no1oHy nn, u1o no
caepxennn onapxnn n paspyuennn occncko nHnepnn Hm c1ann nnep1nm n caHn
ro1oam cysn1L pasHepm caoero annnnnn a c1pane n Hnpe? oka 6mnn ocypapn,
ko1opme apoxnoannnn, a nopok n npoc1o sac1aannnn naunk aneprnuno 6opo1Lcn sa
caoe cyuec1aoaanne, Hnepnn pocna n kpenna, Horna saunua1L caok epy n 6pa1Lea
no kpoan. e no1oHy nn 1enepL Bor ne pae1 naH cnn, neo6xopnHmx pnn unpokoro
ospoxpennn 1euec1aa, u1o ne xenae1 annaa1L pparouennoe anno 1aopuec1aa n
aneprnn a caHopayunecn Hexn? aueH paaa1L papm 1eH, k1o ne uenn1 nx n ro1oa
sakona1L a seHnk n nHekunecn yxe 1anan1m?
onLko xenakunH Hnoro n co cHmcnoH 1pa1n1L Hory1 paaa1Lcn 6onLune cnnm. onLko
1eH, k1o snae1, na u1o nx yno1pe6n1L, onn nyxnm. 1 6ecneunmx n ne xenakunx nec1n
1nro1m, nens6exnme npn peannsaunn 6onLuoro papoaannn, 1anan1m a1n o1nnHak1cn n
o1pak1cn ppyrnH - 6onee aepnmH, xep1aennmH n paun1enLnmH. eo6xopnHo 6m1L
ro1oamH k 6onLuo o1paue cnn, k xep1aennoc1n, ko1opan opna 1onLko Hoxe1
cnoco6c1aoaa1L nonyuennk naune 1ex rpoHapnmx cnn, u1o neo6xopnHm pnn
aosapauennn Hnepcko rocypapc1aennoc1n n cnoco6noc1n peua1L aennkne pena.
oHy Huoro pae1cn, c 1oro Huoro cnpamaae1cn; k1o ua Huoroe ro1oa, 1oHy
Huoroe cyxpeuo coaepm1u.
yccke nppoxpeuume Hnepanc1m. Hnepnn - 1papnunn, xpannuan a
pyuax n cosnannn naunn acerpa aosHoxnm pnn peannsaunn opnn ns caHmx 6onLunx
1anan1oa pycckoro napopa - 1anan1 k rocypapc1aennoHy c1pon1enLc1ay. anan1, no
caoe cnne pepuaun a Hnpe, - 1anan1 nopunnennn acex opno o6Lepnnnkue uenn
n aosHoxnoc1n o1kasa o1 caoc1aennoro aceH (a 6onLue nnn HenLue c1enenn)
aronsHa ao nHn 6nara 6nnxnnx; 1anan1, aocnn1annm n okpenun sa aeka ak1nano
uepkoano n rocypapc1aenno xnsnn...
"Tpouocnoco6uoc1u" ocuoaa Hnepckoro cosuaun
oxuo ue c1peH1ucn a 1evec1ao e6ecuoe, uo 1orpa cHep1u pyxoauan
ues6exua; Hoxuo ue pena1u uvero pnn caoero 1evec1aa seHuoro, uo 1orpa
saveH uyxeu 1ako rpaxpauu 1evec1ay e6ecuoHy?!
ak roaopnn opnn qnnocoq-poHan1nk npounoro, "kaxpm uenoaek ponxen 6m1L
1ponocnoco6nmH. e a cHmcne noaanLnoro caHosaanoro c1peHnennn sann1L uapckn
npec1on, a a cHmcne acerpaune ro1oanoc1n peua1L aennkne rpaxpanckne pena n
nec1n rocypapc1aennme 1nro1m, ko1opme a 6onLuoH konnuec1ae anesanno Hory1
napa1L na uenoaeka.
Hnpe okpyxakueH uenoaeky 6eccosna1enLno pak1 nnqopHaunk opranm uyac1a n
nepanme okonuannn. a nocnepykueH xe a1ane yH n ceppue cosna1enLno
ocHmcnnaak1 nonyuennme snannn. aunn a Hnpe xnae1 6eccosna1enLno, kak
ncnxonornueckn 1nn, n cosna1enLno ocHmcnnaae1 peannn a1oro Hnpa uepes nyuunx
caonx cmnoa, ampa6a1maan ocosnannm 1nn noaepennn a 1o nnn nno cn1yaunn. Bes
peuakuero annnnnn a1nx nyuunx nkpe na noaepenne naunn ona pearnpye1 na
npepnaraeHme HnpoH pasppaxn1enn peak1nano, peqnek1opno, 6eccosna1enLno n
6ecuenLno.
Hnepckoe cosnanne nece1 1o ncuenenne o6uec1ay, npouepueHy uepes
npeonornueckn peHokpa1nueckn npecc koHHynnsHa n nn6epannsHa, ko1opoe Hoxno
ynopo6n1L neuennk kocornasnn, 1pe6ykueHy o1 naunen1a Hnoro apeHenn n 6onLuoro
nanpnxennn. euenne coapeHennoro o6uec1aa, nonn1nueckn kocornasoro, uepes
aneppenne a ero cosnanne 1ekc1oa 1aopuoa pycckoro caHocosnannn no1pe6ye1 1akxe
Hnoro apeHenn n nanpnxennn, no npn onpepenenno nocnepoaa1enLnoc1n neuennn n
1ua1enLnoH o16ope "npeonornuecknx npenapa1oa pesynL1a1 ponxen 6m1L poc1nrny1.
esynL1a1 koppekunn spennn ponxen pa1L ampa6o1ky noaoro asrnnpa naunn na
okpyxakun Hnp n na caHy ce6n. eo6xopnHo asrnnny1L na Hnorne aeun rnasaHn
nkpe, spenne ko1opmx 6mno oco6enno nanpnxenno, 1ouno n coaepuenno.
oueHy a1o aaxno? srnnp uenoaeka ns popeaonkunonnoro cao6opnoro pycckoro Hnpa
na aeun nenpexopnune Hoxe1 6m1L nan6onee 1ounmH a cnny neckoaannoc1n ero
Hmunennn nnopopnmHn npeonornuecknHn nacnoennnHn nnn Hano o6pasoaannoc1Lk.
Y nnx 6mna 6onee amcokan konokonLnn - Hnepnn, c ko1opo 6mno panLue n rny6xe
anpno, a o1nnune o1 coapeHennoro paannnnoro coc1onnnn occnn.
aunonanLnoe 1aopuec1ao - peno, ne cao6opnoe o1 Honuannaoro 1pe6oaannn npepkoa
cnepoaa1L ampa6o1anno nHn 1papnunn Hnpocosepuannn. nqo1aopuec1ao
coapeHennmx neonsmunnkoa, counnnkunx saaneka1enLnme kap1nnm ne
cyuec1aoaaaunx nnkorpa pyccknx Hnpoa npounoro, ne Hoxe1 y1eua1L Hmcnnuero
uenoaeka. H neaosHoxno pykoaopc1aoaa1Lcn a peanLno xnsnn. pnn qan1oHm
6mc1po cHennk1 ppyrne. 1akoH Hnpe ne1 ocnoaannn. D1o caoero popa anp1yanLnan
peanLnoc1L, ko1opan noppae1cn koHanpaH uenoaeka, a ne naxopnuerocn, no a
ko1opo nenLsn xn1L n 1eH 6onee a ne nenLsn nnuero co1aopn1L peanLnoro. D1o
napko1nk pnn cna6mx na1yp, ro1oamx ckpm1Lcn o1 neuanLnoro coapeHennoro
nonoxennn occnn a ponc1opnueckne anpennn 6oknx neonsmuecknx pacckasunkoa,
nopaannkunx cnoco6noc1L kpn1nueckn ocHmcnn1L peanLnoc1L n noako pepxaunx
cnyua1ene a caonx pykax.
pen Hnepnn - epnnc1aennan npen, ko1opan Hoxe1 npo1naonoc1aann1Lcn a o6nac1n
nonn1nkn 1aknH paspyun1enLnmH npenH, kak peHokpa1nn, peaonkunn n 1.p.
"Hnepnn - 6onee ampasn1enLnoe cnoao, nexenn "onapxnn. D1o 1o cnoao, ko1opoe
Hoxe1 n ponxno c1a1L snakoamH cnoaecnmH cnHaonoH aospoxpennn pyccko
rocypapc1aennoc1n.
nonn1nke 1pypno npepc1aan1L npnnunnnanLno nepoc1nxnHme cyry6o counanLnme
uenn. oneaoe xenanne, nk6oaL k npeanLnoHy Hoxe1 panra1L ropaHn, paspyua1L
Hnqm peHokpa1nn n c1pon1L aennkne nHnepnn.
"Hnepnn, - nncan nxann enLunkoa, - kak xnaoe 1eno - ne Hnp, a noc1onnnan n
neykpo1nHan 6opL6a sa xnsnL, npnueH no6epa pae1cn cnnLnmH, a ne cnknnamH.
ycckan Hnepn ec1L xnaoe apc1aoaaue pycckoro nneHeu, noc1onnnoe
oponenne nepyccknx aneHen1oa, noc1onnnoe n nenpepmanoe nopunnenne ce6e
naunonanLnoc1e, apaxpe6nmx naH. ano no6epn1L apara - nyxno poaec1n no6epy po
konua, po nonnoro ncuesnoaennn onacnoc1n, po npe1aopennn nepyccknx aneHen1oa a
pycckne. a 1ex okpannax, rpe a1o cun1ae1cn nepoc1nxnHmH, nyuue coaceH o1kasa1Lcn
o1 apaxpe6nmx "unenoa ceHLn", nyuue pasrpannun1Lcn c nnHn naunc1o
[4]
.
non1ke c1ymeaancn suav1, nporpan. o6expae1 ynopno 1aeppnun caoe,
ne coHneaakuncn n ne nosaonnkun ppyrnH rny6oko anapa1L a coHnennn.
1aau amcme enum poc1xeue peanuuoro ue 6ocn uapopaa1u cnm.
Hnepckoe aennune, ero nou1n nepocnraeHm npean opnn Hoxe1 coxpann1L aneprnk
c1peHnennn k aospoxpennk Hnepnn. D1y popory ocnnn1 nnuL ynopno npyun no ne
anepep.
1o Hoxno npo1naonoc1aan1L peHokpa1nn c ee npee cnenoro 6onumuc1aa n
paspyun1enLnoro qepepansHa? onLko npek Hnepnn. onLko Hnepnn n
paaocnaanan epkoaL 6ypy1 acerpa npenn1c1aneH k peHokpa1nsaunn Hnpa.
cnn qepepannsH aeuapnn n o6Lepnnnn pasposnennme seHnn, 1o on nec a
ce6e sepno rocypapc1aennoro c1pon1enLc1aa. OepepannsH xe a occnn penn1 epnnoe
pycckoe rocypapc1aennoe 1eno Hexpy nnopopnmHn Hec1nmHn uen1paHn, a snaun1,
nece1 an1nrocypapc1aennoe, anapxnueckoe, cenapa1nc1ckoe, paspyun1enLnoe nauano.
OepepannsH nory6nn occnk a rpannuax , on nory6n1 ee n a rpannuax
occncko Oepepaunn, ecnn ne nepec1ane1 6m1L rocypapc1aennmH porHa1oH.
eHokpa1nn
[5]
, 1onne, Hoxno npo1naonoc1aan1L 1onLko onapxnk n onnue1aopneHyk
ek nunoc1L. onLko oprannsoaaa naunk a rpynnoame npoqeccnonanLnme coksm,
Hoxno no6epn1L n nepepopn1L peHokpa1nk 1onn a nopunnennyk anac1n
nacnepc1aennmx ocypape epnnyk Hnepnk pyccko naunn.
Hnepn s1o pycckan cao6opa. ao6opa uec1noro, sakononocnyunoro
rpaxpannna, ko1opan npo1naononoxna peHokpa1nuecknH cao6opaH. ""epxaam"
nnoro, - nncan . . enLunkoa, - 6onee ppeanero, 6onee 6nnskoro k npnpope 1nna,
nHenno Honapxnueckne, a coc1onnnn ropaspo nerue, ueH "pecny6nnkanckne u1a1m",
perynnpoaa1L 6epnoc1L n 6ora1c1ao, saunuan cna6oe n o1c1aauee 6onLunnc1ao
noppannmx o1 cnnukoH yx nporpeccnpykunx no uac1n kapHana
[6]
.
pepn npounx oco6ennoc1e nHnepckoro cosnannn Hoxno nasaa1L c1peHnenne k
caHopoc1a1ovuoc1 pycckoro Hnpa 6es sakpm1oc1n any1pn nero; ak1auoc1u
pycckoro "n (nHnepckoro cosnannn) a caHoonpepenennn ce6n a uenoaeueckoH Hnpe;
npo1aononoxeue ce6n ppyrnH - a cnny ouyuennn, u1o "Hm ne "onn. uyuenne,
coaepuenno ec1ec1aennoe uenoaeueckoHy cosnannk, cnoco6noHy o1nnua1L popnoe o1
uyxepopnoro.
Hnepn kak aepmua rocypapc1aeuuoc1 c1opveckan uarpapa pyccko
ua sa xep1aeuuoc1u a caoeH HuoroaekoaoH cyec1aoaau, a pasan1nn
pyxoanmx cnn n rocypapc1aennmx papoaann.
ocypapc1aa - Hanme n cpepnne - ne cnoco6nm k caHoc1on1enLnoc1n, k
caHoc1on1enLnoHy cyuec1aoaannk a nonn1nke, n aennkne rocypapc1aa acerpa
naansmaak1 nH caok aonk. aHoc1on1enLnoc1L - npnannernn cnnLnoro n cHenoro.
1a1L caHoc1on1enLnmH, pasan1L po nHnepcknx Hacu1a6oa caon cnnm - a1o nopanr,
na ko1opm ne Hnorne peuak1cn n poc1nrak1 uenn. eo6xopnHo 6onLue uenn1L n
rny6xe ocosnaaa1L npnsaannoc1L occnn k Hnpoao pen1enLnoc1n n ne c1peHn1Lcn k
ycnokoennoc1n n 6ecneunoHy cyuec1aoaannk.
"cn ec1u upaac1aeuuoe y6expeue, ncan . . TxoHpoa, v1o
npcoepueue k Hnep 1o n uo vyxpo o6nac1 onpepeneuo
ueo6xopHo cno o6c1on1enuc1a, 1o aonpoc o xenau uameH asn1u ee n
ee xenau npcoepun1ucn Hee1 nmu a1opoc1eneuuoe suaveue. Xo1H
n ue xo1H ponxum 6m1u aHec1e"
[7]
.
D1o aonpoc rocypapc1aenno uenecoo6pasnoc1n, a ne aonpoc npaa naunn na
caHoonpepenenne; uenusn, noHun ace apeHn o cao6ope ppyrx ua,
noc1onuuo sa6maa1u o cao6ope caoe.
oo6ue, rnyno n nepesynL1a1nano acnoHnna1L o nonn1nke n o nonn1nueckoH
o6pasoaannn, korpa yxe c1pennk1 1ankn. 6 a1oH nyxno sapyHmaa1Lcn snaun1enLno
panLue, aosHoxno, 1orpa n c1penn1L npnpe1cn snaun1enLno HenLue. ypnan ronoaa a
pannoH cnyuae ne pae1 cnokono nexa1L na cknapax opyxnk.
Y pyccknx nkpe eue cnnukoH Hano cnn, u1o6m n a1y Hanoc1L pac1paunaa1L, kaxpme
neckonLko ne1, a nnkypa. peonornn, qopHnpoaanne npe, aep6oaka copa1nnkoa,
nonn1nueckoe Hnccnonepc1ao ponxno npepuec1aoaa1L acnknH peuennnH o
nonn1nueckoH nepeyc1poc1ae.
pnoapeHenno cnnukoH co6nasnn1enLno n cnnukoH rnyno np1n a no6 c
nesnaun1enLnmHn cnnaHn na Haccnanoe npenn1c1ane. apo Henn1L 1ak1nky
npo1naopec1ann, nepec1panaa1L pnpm nocnepoaa1ene, nsHenn1L nnanm, 1oukn caoe
o6oponm n 6onee npaannLno ouennaa1L cnnm npo1nannka.
e napo cHyua1Lcn Hanoc1Lk naunx cnn - ceropnn a1o naue necuac1Le, saa1pa ono
Hoxe1 noc1nuL naunx aparoa. apo nayun1Lcn 6opo1Lcn - xan. peonornueckan
6opL6a cpopnn nap1nsancko: 1oueunme ypapm, ne6onLune pena, 6opL6a sa
amxnaanne.
ac1onuan pycckan 1parepnn a 1oH, u1o kaxpoe nokonenne coapeHennmx pyccknx
Hmcnn1ene ynopo6nne1cn uenoaeky, nuyueHy uenL caoero ny1n, no ne
cnpaunaakuero o ne nn y opnoro ns ac1peuaeHmx no popore.
noaL n anoaL Hm nonapaeH a 1ynnkn n npnnyxpenm aosapaua1Lcn, ncka1L sanoao
aepnm ny1L. Bnaro ecnn no a1oHy ny1n nnk1o po nac ne xaxnaan, 1o n cnpaunaa1L
6mno 6m nekoro. o aepL uac1o peno coaceH ne a a1oH, a a 1oH, u1o Hm ne
nk6osna1enLnm n nocneuno npoxopnH HnHo 1ex pyccknx Hmcnn1ene npounoro,
ko1opme Hnoro Hornn 6m naH noaepa1L o ny1n k uenn n paxe o caHo uenn Hnepckoro
ny1n.
pnnH ns a1anoa Hnepckoro aospoxpennn 1euec1aa ponxno c1a1L onpepenenne
nncLHennoro kopnyca Ha1epnanoa o6 nHnepckoH cosnannn, ero npeonornueckoe n
nc1opnueckoe nsyuenne. eo6xopnHo c1peHn1Lcn 6m1L cosayunmHn npepmpyunH
nokonennnH, pasanaaaunH npeonornueckne ocnoam nHnepckoro cosnannn;
npncnyunaa1Lcn k sapannoHy nHn 1ony pasHmunenn, u1o6m ne sayua1L qanLunao
caHnH.
Xypnan "ockaa na c1pannuax caonx knnxnmx npnnoxenn sannHae1cn nopo6no
npeonornuecko pa6o1o no amncnennk n ony6nnkoaannk nan6onee nn1epecnmx pnn
coapeHennnkoa 1ekc1oa, Horyunx 6m1L o1necennmHn k nacnepnk nHnepckoro
rpaxpanckoro cosnannn...
Hnepck uaouansH xana euumkoa
onn1ne naunn kpane ne paspa6o1ano a pyccko nn1epa1ype:
pocene pyccknH o6uec1aoH 6mno npnnoxeno cnnukoH Hano ycnnn, u1o6m
nccnepoaa1L n nonn1L caHoe ce6n. D1o ouenL neuanLno ckasmaae1cn na coapeHennoH
cosnannn pyccknx, ne cknonnmx yaaxa1L ce6n n caok naunk, ko1opyk ne snak1.
nnHanne pycckoro uenoaeka nnkak ne o6paueno na caHoro ce6n, na caonx 6nnxnnx,
u1o ne6naronpnn1no pnn qopHnpoaannn nnunoc1n.
aHoyaaxenne ne Hoxe1 nponso1n o1kypa-nn6ypL nsane, ono ponxno popn1Lcn ns
caHoouyuenn, caHoocosnannn. m noc1ponnn caHyk 6onLuyk rocypapc1aennoc1L a
Hnpe n kpane nnoxo nsyuann n snann ee xnsnennme ocnoam n a konue konuoa
no1epnnn ee a 1917 ropy. ak 6m 1o xe caHoe (1.e. uenoc1noc1L naunn, ee epnnc1ao,
cyuec1ao) ne no1epn1L naH n a nnue naunn. D1a no1epn 6ype1 1ako xe c1pauno.
cnn a rocypapc1ae Hm no1epnnn c1anLnyk o6onouky, 6es ko1opo a a1oH Hnpe
aceo6ue 6opL6m acex npo1na acex nn opna aennkan naunn ne Hoxe1 xn1L, 1o,
no1epna naunonanLnme uep1m, nau napop npeapa1n1cn a 1onny, 6esnnkoe nacenenne
6es kaknx 6m 1o nn 6mno npaac1aennmx n ncnxonornuecknx ckpen, ko1opme n penak1
ns opnopopnoro nacenennn naunk. no1epe uyac1aa naunonanLno popc1aennoc1n
Hm no1epneH caHy uenoc1noc1L nauero 1ena napopnoro; pasnoxenne naune1cn yxe na
caHoH npnHn1nanoH ypoane - na ypoane qnsnueckn ynnu1oxakuecn Ha1epnn.
o1 u1o6m ne ponyc1n1L n a1o ncnxnuecko ka1ac1poqm, naH neo6xopnHo nsyua1L
caHnx ce6n, nccnepoaa1L caok naunonanLnyk ncnxonornk. D1o nsyuenne noHoxe1 naH
ocosna1L naun naunonanLnme, xapak1epnme pyueanme oco6ennoc1n, ko1opme n
ponxen saunua1L acnkn, nk6nun cao napop.
1o xe 1akoe naunonanLnoe uyac1ao n naunonanLnoe caHocosnanne? apnH neckonLko
qopHynnpoaok, npnnapnexaunx npoqeccopy ncnxonornn aany aanoanuy
oaaneackoHy: "aouanuuoe vyac1ao ec1L npnpoxpennan npnnapnexnoc1L
qnsnuecko n pyueano oprannsaunn. no nnc1nnk1nano. no o6nsa1enLno.
aunonanLnoe uyac1ao npnpoxpenno 1ak xe, kak n ace ppyrne uyac1aoaannn - nk6an
k popn1ennH, nk6an k pe1nH, ronopa, xaxpm n 1.p.; "aouanuuoe caHocosuaue
ec1L ak1 Hmunennn, a cnny ko1oporo pannan nnunoc1L npnsnae1 ce6n uac1Lk uenoro,
npe1 nop ero saun1y n nece1 ce6n caHy na saun1y caoero popnoro uenoro, caoe
naunn
[8]
.
aunonannsH - a1o c1peHnenne k caHonosnannk, caHopackpm1nk, ananns
konnek1nanoro, napopnoro "n. "H, ko1opoe yxe nc1opnueckn popnnocL a
nesanaHn1noH npounoH n ko1opoe coxpannnocL po naunx pne nensHennmH a caoe
rny6nne. yccknH n npaaocnaanmH ceropnn 6m1L 1pypno, 1ak xe kak 1pypno oc1a1Lcn
po6pmH ao ace 6onee osno6nnkueHcn Hnpe. pe eue oc1anacL c1pana, rpe uenoaek
po6pm ne nanne1cn cnnonnHoH rnynoro n rpe po6po1a n pyueanoc1L uenn1cn amue
nn1ennek1yanLnoc1n n penoan1oc1n?
eyxenn pec1an1enLno ne nn1epecno sna1L, u1o xe a1o sa ncnxonornueckn 1nn -
pycckn uenoaek? epL on, a ne k1o-nn6ypL ppyro penan BonLuyk c1opnk
nocnepnero 1mcnuene1nn.
Henno napopnan ncnxonornn, nHenno ee nsyuenne Hoxe1 pa1L 1o1 Ha1epnan
naunonanLnmx oco6ennoc1e, na ko1opoH n ponxno aosaopn1Lcn spanne
naunonannsHa. epapoH a nauane XX aeka npeonoraHn naunonannsHa 6mnn yuenme-
ncnxonorn (npoqeccop . . nkopckn n npoqeccop . . oaaneackn).
"mue rpy6o cnnm, - nncan . . nkopckn, - n amue koaapno cnnm pener c1on1
ncxveckan cna n aennkan 6onorveckan npaapa - nHn onpepenne1cn
6ypyunoc1L aaxneunx Hnpoamx co6m1n. apop nnn paca, ko1opme poaonLno
nponnua1enLnm a a1nx pyueanmx 1onkoc1nx, Hory1 o6ecneun1L ce6e panLneuee
aepnoe cyuec1aoaanne n ycnexn
[9]
.
aunonannsH 1aopueckn, xnsnepen1enLnm - a1o oxpann1enLnoe panxenne,
nanpaanennoe na oxpanenne caoero Hnpa n caoero naunonanLnoro "n. Hnepckn
naunonannsH - a1o oxpanenne caoero naunonanLnoro rocnopc1aa a rocypapc1ae.
poHe pennrnosno n rocypapc1aenno caHoc1on1enLnoc1n neo6xopnHa n
caHoc1on1enLnoc1L naunonanLnan. poHe pennrnosno n rocypapc1aenno cao6opm
neo6xopnHa n cao6opa naunonanLnan. poHe 6opL6m sa paaocnaane n Hnepnk
neo6xopnHo xaxpa1L n po6naa1Lcn ycckoc1n. o oco6o pyueano nac1poennoc1n,
npn ko1opo naunn uyac1aye1 caoe epnnc1ao. o ycckoc1n, ko1opan n cospana pnn
ce6n orpoHnm Hnp - ycckyk Hnepnk.
aunonanLnan cao6opa pae1cn 1onLko cnnLnmH pyxoH. na6me pyxoano 6mc1po
xnpek1 n qnsnueckn. eo6xopnHo cnn1L co caoero 1ena pasnoro popa nnopopueckne
"aLknkn, ko1opme pyua1 naunk n xnay1 ee cokaHn. pn ace naue aennunne
(ko1opan k 1oHy xe yxe aecLHa cokpauena c 1ex nop, kak Hm o1panncL ao anac1L
peHokpa1nueckoHy npnnunny) naH nyxno 6onee 1pesao cHo1pe1L na Hnp, a ko1opoH
npe1 npoc1nan 6opL6a Hexpy naunnHn. nk1o uyxo naH ne noHoxe1, noHora1L ppyr
ppyry ponxnm Hm caHn.
n1epnaunonannsH - a1o no1epn naunonanLno caHonpen1nqnkaunn, perpapaunn,
no1epn uyac1aa popc1aa c npepkaHn.
aunonannsH - a1o spopoam napopnm aronsH, xenakun caonH 6nnxnnH nyuuero
pasan1nn. epL y naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa kpane orpannueno konnuec1ao po6m1mx
napopnmx 6nar, n ecnn a1n napopnme cpepc1aa 1pa1n1cn na pasan1ne npepc1aan1ene
ppyrnx napopoa, 1o naunn ne panxe1cn a caoeH pasan1nn, 6ypL 1o pyxoanan nnn
akonoHnueckan cqepa. aunn npn nenonnoH, nepoc1a1ounoH kpoaoo6pauennn (a
nHenno c kpoaLk Hoxno cpaann1L naunonanLnoe 6ora1c1ao) pasanaae1cn yuep6no,
kaxpan c1pyka xnao1aopnuero qepHen1a naunonanLnoro poc1a, nanpaanneHan ns
pycckoro 1ena a nnopopnoe, - a1o nexena1enLnoe, neaocnonnnHoe, uac1o
nacnnLc1aennoe "ponopc1ao. akoe "ponopc1ao, npak1nkoaaaueecn n koHHynnc1aHn,
n coapeHennmHn peHokpa1aHn, - c1paunoe npec1ynnenne nepep pyccko naune,
kpane ee ocna6nauee a XX c1one1nn. nopopueckoe a snaun1enLno c1enenn
pykoaopc1ao naune a a1oH aeke npekpa1nno poc1 naunx cnn n npak1nueckn npnaeno k
uac1nuno perpapaunn naunonanLno Haccm.
Ynpaann1L nnn yuac1aoaa1L a ynpaanennn c1pano c 1mcnuene1nnHn pyccknHn
kopnnHn, 6ypyun nnopopueH, - a1o acerpa aronsH, nanpaanennm npo1na aronsHa
pyccko naunn. nopopueckn aronsH acerpa o1aop xnan1enLnmx cnn rocypapc1aa o1
nn1annn pycckoro nacenennn na nn1anne uyxnx nnn ppyrnx naun. Ho1pn1e, kak
Hnoro aknapmaae1cn a nnopopueckne o6nac1n - a1apc1an, arec1an, eunk n 1.p.;
ckonL 6onLune nLro1m (sa cue1 pyccknx cnn) nH ampak1 naun ynpaanenum. oxno nn
pyHa1L o naunx ynpaanenuax, u1o onn sa6o1n1cn o pyccknx cnnax n nonnHak1, u1o
xnsnenno-1aopuecknHn cnnaHn rocypapc1aennoc1n Hory1 6m1L 1onLko pycckne?
norne nn naunn cun1ak1 occnk caoe c1pano n 6ypy1 o1paaa1L e c1onLko xe cnn,
ckonL o1paaann n o1pak1 pycckne? a o6a aonpoca opnn o1ae1: ne1 n ne1.
Ynpaannkun cno rocypapc1aa ponxen 6m1L pyccknH, aronc1nueckn pyccknH, -
1onLko 6ypyun 1aknH, on cHoxe1 6m1L aqqek1nanmH n uenecoo6pasnmH saenoH
naunonanLno rocypapc1aennoc1n, nonnHakunH nyxpm n uenn naunn n ee 1euec1aa.
ycckne ponxnm rocnopc1aoaa1L a caoeH rocypapc1ae, n rocnopc1ao a1o ponxno 6m1L
sakpenneno a cnoanmx akonax a1oro rocypapc1aa. "ak 6m nn 6mnn o6pasoaannm, -
nncan nxann enLunkoa, - n nonnLnm nnopopum, onn ne Hory1 ne 6m1L
paanopyunm k occnn. caHme aaxnme, pokoame HoHen1m, korpa ponxen saroaopn1L
pyx pacm, y nnopopuea epaa nn npocne1cn pycckn pyx
[10]
.
cn naua "yc1anoc1L, ana1nn, neyaepennoc1L a ce6e - npopyk1 rny6okoro ouyuennn
nenyxnoc1n coapeHennoHy peHokpa1nueckoHy rocypapc1ay; npopyk1 ocosnannn
aennko naune caoero rocypapc1aennoro cnpo1c1aa n no1epn kon1ponn sa caonH
rocypapc1aoH n cnoeH ynpaanenuea. aunn onpepennnn nnuL Hec1o pa6o1akue
Haccm, ko1opan ponxna Hnoro 1pypn1Lcn, napannenLno nepnopnueckn "nop1nrnaan
nonca nocne acnkoro ouepepnoro 6ankpo1c1aa peHokpa1nuecko rocypapc1aennoc1n.
aunn yc1ana xn1L ne caoc1aenno e xnsnLk, amxnaa1L npn noc1onnnoH
ocna6nennn ee qepepanLnmH npaan1enLc1aoH. papn uero 1epne1L a1n Hm1apc1aa?..
nkakan uyxan naunonanLnan cnna ne cHoxe1 c1a1L onopo pnn nauero
1mcnuene1nero rocypapc1aa. ocypapc1ao poxpae1cn ns ceHLn n popa n, a caok
ouepepL, qopHnpye1 naunk. ocypapc1ao - a1o Hmuum, nepam, 1kann naunn;
kpyuenne ero - Hnc1nueckoe paspyuenne 1ena naunn. neppenne a rocypapc1aennme
1kann nnopopuea (ne cnapyxn, a nsny1pn) cospae1 any1pennne 6onesnn - ocna6nenne
naunonanLnmx Hmuu, rn6enL nepanmx kne1ok, paspmam napopnmx 1kane.
esynL1a1oH nopo6nmx any1pennnx 6onesne nanne1cn ncnxoqnsnueckan annpeHnn,
ocna6nenne naunonanLnoro oprannsHa. ocypapc1ao 1ak xe ne Hoxe1 noHenn1L
Hmuum, nepam n 1kann, c ko1opmHn ono popnnocL n npoxnno ne opno c1one1ne,
ko1opme ono cqopHnpoaano n pasanno a cneunqnuecko nc1opnuecko cn1yaunn
caoero cyuec1aoaannn, na Hmuum, nepam n 1kann ppyro nnn ppyrnx naun. D1o
nepaanouennan saHena n paxe aeuL neaosHoxnan. ocypapc1ao ne cHoxe1 noHenn1L
caoe ncnxoqnsnuecko nnoc1acn, ono Hoxe1 ponro nnn xe neponro 6one1L npn
aneppennn uyxepopnmx Ha1epn. "Focypapc1aeuum uam 6m1 cnoxeu pycckH,
a no1oHy ponxeu vepna1u caom saa1pamumm cny s 1oro xe uavana,
oc1aaancL pyccknH n yc1pannn ns caonx nepp 1e 1euennn, ko1opme cnoco6nm ero
npnaec1n k pasnoxeum uapopuoc1, nnn peuaouansa"
[11]
.
Tpaucnnau1an a rocypapc1ao ppyrnx naunonanLnmx opranoa n 1kane amsmaae1 ne
HenLuee o11opxenne n paxe cHep1L, ueH a1o 6maae1 npn 1pancnnan1aunn uenoaeky
opranoa ppyroro uenoaeka. Bmaak1 ypaunme naunonanLnme 1pancnnan1aunn, no 1orpa
poxpae1cn noaan naunn-rn6pnp, c noamHn caoc1aaHn - nn6o yxypuennmHn, nn6o
ynyuuennmHn. pn 1pancnnan1aunonnmx onepaunnx na uenoaeke, pnn 1oro u1o6m ne
nponcxopnno o11opxennn, ncnonLsyk1 cneunanLnme npenapa1m, ko1opme kak 6m
o6Hanmaak1, sac1aannk1 1eno uenoaeka npnnn1L uyxo nnn uyxne opranm. opo6nmH
"npenapa1oH a naunonanLno nonn1nke koHHynnc1oa n peHokpa1oa 6mn
u1epuaouansH, ko1opmH noc1ynnpoaann Hnq o ppyx6e Hexpy napopaHn,
nm1ancL y6epn1L pycckoe 1eno npnnn1L a ce6n, a caon naunonanLnme 1kann
nnopopnme oprannsHm kak caon, ynnu1oxan napannenLno nko6m apepnme, 6onLnme
pycckne unenm (paopnnc1ao, pyxoaenc1ao, pycckn o6pasoaannm knacc, kpec1Lnnc1ao
n 1.p.). yHan nn1epnaunonannsHa 6mc1po paccenaae1cn k konuy XX aeka, nockonLky
pec1ane acnkoro, paxe n npeonornueckoro, nekapc1aa - apeHenno. osnanne naunn
c1anoan1cn 6onee apekaa1nmH xnsnenno peanLnoc1n: ace HenLue xenakunx 6m1L
6esaosHespnmHn "ponopaHn.
ecL XX aek nap pyccknH rocypapc1aoH n nap pyccknH naunonanLnmH 1enoH
npoaopnnn 1pancnnan1aunonnme onepaunn: npnunaann uyxne ronoam, o1aopnnn
nn1a1enLnme kananm k ppyrnH 1enaH, aHny1npoaann pasnme uac1n 1ena, nyckann
kpoaL, penann onepaunn na Hosre, amunuan (kak y6expann) nenyxnoe n apepnoe,
nm1anncL ynnu1oxn1L pyuy, n ecnn 6m a1o 6mno aosHoxno cpena1L xnpyprnuecknH
cnoco6oH, 1o nenpeHenno 6m ynnu1oxnnn.
ecL XX aek Hm (naunn) nexann na "xnpyprnueckoH c1one, ac1aaan c nero 1onLko pnn
1oro, u1o6m aoeaa1L n 1pypn1Lcn; opnn sa ppyrnH nnopopueckne "xnpyprn (nonn1nkn,
nap1nnme pen1enn, akonoHnc1m n 1.p.) penann naH onepaunn no caoeHy ycHo1pennk.
m xe nexann nop napkosoH-rnnnosoH pasnmx nonn1nuecknx Hnqoa, no-pasnoHy
nasmaaeHmx: 1o peHokpa1nn n nn1epnaunonannsH, 1o nn6epannsH, 1o counannsH n
koHHynnsH n 1.p.
m 6ecneuno no1epnnn caok naunonanLnyk cao6opy, cosna1enLnoe naunonanLnoe
1aopuec1ao, cao6opy aonn k caHoc1on1enLnoHy Hmunennk n caHoc1on1enLno
xnsnepen1enLnoc1n. m 1ak ocna6nn a pyxoanoH nnane, u1o nepec1aeH pearnpoaa1L
na okpyxakun Hnp, conpo1nann1Lcn ysypnaunn naue co6c1aennoc1n - rocypapc1aa
n naunx naunonanLnmx 6ora1c1a. YHenLuenne peakun na aneunn Hnp - aepnm
npnsnak ocna6nenno xnsnepen1enLnoc1n naunonanLnoro oprannsHa. "opennoHy
pycckoHy nneHeu aoace ue ace paauo, oc1a1ucn n uaaepxy n ovy11ucn
ausy"
[12]
a rocypapc1ae.
aunn ponxna 6m1L cao6opna o1 nnopopueckoro sacnnLn, o1 aceaosHoxnmx ny1. ce
naun cnnm, Hnoro nx nnn Hano, ponxnm 1pa1n1Lcn 1onLko na caon uenn n na caonx
nkpe. nk1o ne 6ype1 nac o6pasoamaa1L, kopHn1L, saunua1L - ace "uyxakn 6ypy1
peua1L npo6neHm 1onLko caonx. cnn Hm ne 6ypeH nHe1L aosHoxnoc1L ace, u1o Hm
ampa6a1maaeH caHn, 1o ec1L nau naunonanLnm npopyk1 (nn1ennek1yanLnm nnn
Ha1epnanLnm), nycka1L c1poro na npokopH, o6pasoaanne, saun1y caonx 6nnxnnx,
pasae Hm HoxeH cun1a1L ce6n cao6opno naune? e1, koneuno, ne1. m - naunn
yrne1aeHan, yrne1aeHan naunH xe nenaunonanLnmH npaan1enLc1aoH n
HexpynapopnmHn qnnancoamHn nnc1n1y1aHn. m - ronnHme n akcnnya1npyeHme, no
Hm noka a 6onLunnc1ae a rocypapc1ae n ponxnm sac1aan1L cun1a1Lcn c naunHn
sakonnmHn npaaaHn... " unpokoH cHmcne uaouansH, nncan opnn ns 1aopuoa
pycckoro naunonannsHa npoqeccop . . oaaneackn, - pyxoanoe aennne, 1euenne,
nanpaanenne a pannoH napope, nHekuee uenLk n sapauek nopnn1ne n
coaepuenc1aoaanne 6nara panno naunn
[13]
. D1o1 naunonannsH on nasmaan
HaccoamH, 1o ec1L 1eH, ko1opm ponxen npoaopn1Lcn aceHn panxennnHn,
nasmaakunHn ce6n naunonanLno-pyccknHn.
O. . oc1oeackn nncan, u1o napo c1a1L pyccknH. apo c1a1L nckpennnH n uec1nmH a
o1nouennn ce6n n naunn, ocHmcnn1L ce6n kak nnunoc1L n naunk kak o6uec1ao - n
1orpa c1aneuL pyccknH, a snaun1, n naunonannc1oH. oapeHennoHy uenoaeky c1a1L ne
npoc1o uenoaekoH, a pyccknH uenoaekoH Hoxno 1onLko cosna1enLno n nckpenno.
pepn Hnornx onpepenenn nonn1nn "naunonannsH ampenne1cn onpepenenne . .
enLunkoaa. "aunonannsH, Hne kaxe1cn, - nncan on, - ec1L uapopuan
ckpeuuoc1u, a o1nnune o1 npn1aopc1aa nap1n n acnkoro nx kpnannnnn n
noppaxannn. c1L nkpn nckpennne, ko1opme ne 1epnn1, u1o6m kasa1Lcn ueH-1o
ppyrnH, n ko1opmH xoue1cn acerpa 6m1L nnuL caHnHn co6o. ao6opo1, ec1L nkpn,
kak 6m 6onunecn caHnx ce6n, any1penne ne yaaxakune ce6n, ko1opme ro1oam 6m1L
ueH yropno, 1onLko ne 1eH, u1o onn ec1L. D1a c1pannan 1pycoc1L nanoHnnae1 1ak
nasmaaeHm HHe1sH a npnpope, c1peHnenne cna6mx nopop - oco6enno cpepn
nacekoHmx - noppenmaa1L caok napyxnoc1L nop okpyxakuyk cpepy, nanpnHep
npnnnHa1L ouep1annn n uae1a pac1enn. yac1ao naunonanLnoe o6pa1no a1oHy
HanopyunoHy nnc1nnk1y. aunonannsH ec1L nonnoe pasan1ne nnunoc1n n c1okoe
6epexenne acex oco6ennoc1e, o1nnuakunx pannm anp o1 cHexnmx eHy.
aunonannsH ec1L ne 1onLko nonno1a caHocosnannn, no nonno1a oco6euuoro -
1aopueckoro caHocosnannn, a ne noppaxa1enLnoro. aunonannsH acerpa uyac1aye1cn
kak amcuee ypoane1aopenne, kak "nk6oaL k o1euec1ay n napopnan roppoc1L". enLsn
nk6n1L n nenLsn roppn1Lcn 1eH, u1o cun1aeuL pypnmH. 1ano 6m1L, naunonannsH
npepnonarae1 nonno1y xopounx kauec1a nnn 1ex, u1o kaxy1cn xopounHn.
aunonannsH ec1L 1o pepkoe coc1onnne, korpa napop npnHnpne1cn c caHnH co6ok,
axopn1 a nonnoe cornacne, a paanoaecne caoero pyxa n a rapHonnueckoe
ypoane1aopenne caHnH co6o
[14]
.
aunonanLnan ncnxonornn - aennkan 6nonornueckan cnna, ampa6o1annan aekaHn
nc1opnuecko 6opL6m, no6ep n nopaxenn. aunn - pyxoanoe epnnc1ao a aepe;
naunn - ncnxonornueckoe epnnc1ao a xapak1epe noaepennn; naunn - pyueanoe
epnnc1ao a kynL1ype, nsmke; naunn - qnsnueckoe epnnc1ao a kpoanoH popc1ae.
nHna1nn n an1nna1nn - a1o ncnxonornueckne rpannum naunn, ko1opmHn ona
o6eperae1 ce6n o1 nponnknoaennn acero uyxporo, aocnpnnnHan, nanpo1na, a caoe 1eno
ace 6nnskoe. D1nHn ncnxonornuecknHn onpepenennnHn caoero vyxoro naunn kak
qopHnpye1 caHy ce6n, 1ak n ampa6a1maae1 o1nouenne k ncnxonornuecknH 1nnaH, ne
npnnapnexaunH k caoeHy. nHna1nn n an1nna1nn - a1o ncnxonornueckoe opyxne
naunonanLno o6oponm. "u1na1n... ec1L o6opo1nan c1opona uyac1aa
caHocoxpanennn; ona noHorae1 napopaH kpenue uyac1aoaa1L ce6n n kpenue pepxa1Lcn
sa caon pyxoanme oco6ennoc1n, ko1opme nepepko Hory1 6m1L n 6onLunHn
ncnxonornuecknHn uennoc1nHn, nepoc1ynnmHn pnn ppyrnx n no1oHy cyry6o uennmHn
pnn o6napa1enn
[15]
.
1ak, u1o xe 1akoe naunonannsH?
aouansH s1o qnocoqn rocnopc1aa ua caoe uaouanuuo
1epp1op, ykpenneue cosuaun pycckoro uapopuoro
epuc1aa.
aunonannsH Hoxe1 nponann1Lcn paonko: neocosnanno - a naunonanLnoH
npnpoxpennoH uyac1ae n nk6an k caoeHy napopy n k caoeHy Hec1y poxpennn, n
ocosnanno - a nonanennn naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn, ocHmcnennoro conpnu1ennn
ce6n k caoeHy napopy n npnsnannn acex npaa n o6nsannoc1e no o1nouennk k caoeHy
naunonanLnoHy o6uec1ay.
eo6xopnHoc1L nepexopa k ocosnannoHy naunonannsHy 1pe6ye1 nsyuennn 1pypoa
1eope1nkoa pycckoro naunonannsHa. no, necoHnenno, neo6xopnHo coapeHennoHy
pycckoHy uenoaeky - uenoaeky, pac1epnaueHy Hnoroe ns uyac1a n npe,
npuapnexax eHy no npaay poxpeun. pno ns nan6onee npknx nHen a
nc1opnn pycckoro naunonannsHa - . . enLunkoa, aennkn ny6nnunc1 nauana XX
c1one1nn, ko1opmH saun1maanacL acn occnn...
ca1enuckan 6orpaqn
nxann cnnoanu enLunkoa popnncn 25 cen1n6pn 1859 ropa a ropope oaopxeae
ckoacko ry6epnnn. 1eu nponcxopnn ns canuennnuecko ceHLn, Ha1L - ns paopnn.
1873 ropy, okonuna noueukoe yespnoe yunnnue, on noc1ynae1 a ponu1ap1ckoe
Hopckoe 1exnnueckoe yunnnue, nocne okonuannn ko1oporo . . enLunkoa
c1anoan1cn qno1cknH oqnuepoH (qno1cknH u1ypHanoH).
a ero oqnuepckyk ponk amnano yuac1aoaa1L a neckonLknx panLnnx Hopcknx
noxopax, nnca1enLcknH nnopoH ko1opmx nannacL amuepuan a 1884 ropy nepaan knnra
ouepkoa "o nop1aH aponm.
orpa xe on, kak aoenno-Hopcko rnpporpaq, coc1aanne1 neckonLko
rnpporpaqnuecko-u1ypHancknx counnenn: "ykoaopc1ao k u1ennk Hopcknx kap1,
pyccknx n nnoc1pannmx (6., 1891) n "ounn 6occknx n aoc1ouno uac1n
nanpcknx uxep (6., 1892).
apannenLno co cnyx6o ao qno1e Honopo . . enLunkoa naunnae1 co1pypnnua1L
a "epene (c cepepnnm 1880-x ropoa), rpe ackope c1anoan1cn aepyunH co1pypnnkoH.
oaepna okonua1enLno a cao nnca1enLckn pap, . . enLunkoa nopae1 a 1892
ropy a o1c1aaky a unne u1a6c-kann1ana n aceueno nocanuae1 ce6n ny6nnunc1nke.
Bypyun a 1o apeHn nop annnnneH npaac1aennmx npe onc1oro, ny6nnunc1nka . .
enLunkoaa 6mna aecLHa Hopannsa1opckoro nanpaanennn
[16]
.
ocne npekpauennn nspannn "epenn . . yaopnn npnrnauae1 . . enLunkoaa k
co1pypnnuec1ay a caoe rase1e "oaoe apeHn. pecL 1anan1 . . enLunkoaa
packpmncn c 6onLue uenLnoc1Lk n oc1po1o a ero "ncLHax k 6nnxnnH,
neua1aaunxcn (pae-1pn c1a1Ln a nepenk) nop a1nH o6unH nasaanneH anno1L po
sakpm1nn rase1m a 1917 ropy.
. . enLunkoa npnpaaan orpoHnoe snauenne ny6nnunc1nke, ee Houn n ee
aosHoxnoc1nH annn1L na yHm nkpe. un1an ny6nnunc1nky nckycc1aoH, on y1aepxpan
kpankk aaxnoc1L pnn o6uec1aa a XX c1one1nn nHe1L xopouyk ny6nnunc1nky,
ynapok ko1opo Hor 6m o1pasn1Lcn nan6onee neuanLno na cosnannn rpaxpan. un1an
ae1xosaae1nmx npopokoa nepamHn ny6nnunc1aHn, . . enLunkoa nanncn a caoe
ny6nnunc1nke, a o1nouennn cypL6m occnn, 1akxe nac1onunH npopokoH. "occnn, -
nncan on, - kak n orpoHnoHy 6onLunnc1ay ee cocepe, aepon1nee acero, npnpe1cn
nepexn1L npouecc, kako eroaa npnHennn k pasapauennmH eapenH, amuepunH ns
nnena. nk1o ns amuepunx ns rnn1a ne aouen a o6e1oaannm Xanaan.
asapauennoe n nopounoe nokonenne cnnouL amHepno. noayk xnsnL ac1ynnno
caexee, aocc1anoanennoe a nepao6m1nmx ycnoannx nyc1mnn, Henee rpeunoe
nokonenne
[17]
. asae a1o ne npepckasanne peaonkunn n panLneuero nauero
6nyxpannn a nonckax nauero Xanaana - aospoxpenno occnn?
pyccko nonn1nuecko nn1epa1ype Hoxno ampenn1L paa popa nnca1ene, opnn ns
ko1opmx 6onee uyac1aoaann naunk, a ppyrne - rocypapc1ao. pyccko nn1epa1ype
uac1o 1o1, k1o uyac1aye1 naunk, ne oco6enno uyac1aye1 rocypapc1aennoc1L. . .
kcakoa n aoo6ue cnaannoqnnm - 6esycnoano naunonannc1m, nnn
npo1onaunonannc1m. a1koa nou1n ne nncan o6 npee naunn, nxoHnpoa nncan o
naunn, no a kon1ekc1e rocypapc1aennoc1n. c1L kak 6m pae asanHonepenne1akunecn
nonn1nueckne ukonm a pyccko ny6nnunc1nke. pna roaopnna o naunn, ppyran o
rocypapc1ae. enLunkoa 6esycnoano naunonannc1 n opnoapeHenno nHnepnannc1, no
na ocnoae aennunn naunn. expy a1nHn payHn rpynnaHn ne1 an1aronnsHa, a ec1L
nnuL npnsaannoc1L opnnx k paccyxpennk o naunn, a ppyrnx - o rocypapc1ae. pnn
nyuue uyac1aoaann n Hornn rny6xe paccyxpa1L o rocypapc1ae, a ppyrne o naunn.
anan1 opnnx 6onee pacnonaran k nsyuennk rocypapc1aennoc1n, 1anan1 xe ppyrnx - k
nonnHannk napopnoc1n.
. . enLunkoa a 1akoH penennn, 6esycnoano, nHee1 6onLuee o1nouenne k
qnnocoqnn naunn. n cun1an, u1o nHenno napopnoc1L - nan6onee yrpoxaeHm nynk1
a o6opone 1euec1aa. "Henno 1y1, - y1aepxpan on, - npe1 nopHen Ha1epnn, 1y1
qanLcnqnunpye1cn caHan npnpopa pacm n nepycckne nneHena neypepxnHo am1ecnnk1
pycckyk napopnoc1L
[18]
.
oncepaa1nanoe cosnanne a ero ny6nnunc1nke nponannnocL a kynL1nanpoaannn
uyac1aa aevuoro, ko1opoe a ero apeHn 6mno nopaaneno 6opL6o Hexpy c1apmH n
noamH. . . enLunkoa ouenL Hnoro nncan, n a ero c1a1Lnx, k coxanennk, Hoxno
na1n neHano cnopnoro nnn ckopocnenoro, a uepecuyp cHenmx o6o6uennnx. aHmH
nn1epecnmH y . . enLunkoaa acerpa 6mnn paccyxpennn o naunonanLnmx
npo6neHax, o pycckoH naunonannsHe, noa1oHy n Hm am6pann pnn ny6nnkaunn nHenno
a1n Ha1epnanm. ro naunonannsH - a1o naunonannsH ne arpeccnanm, naunonannsH
ne saxaa1a nnn nacnnnn, a, kak on ampaxancn, naunonannsH uec1noro pasrpannuennn.
asrpannuennn opnnx naun o1 ppyrnx, npn ko1opoH 1onLko n aosHoxnm xopoune
o1nouennn Hexpy naunnHn. ro naunonannsH ne co6npancn nnkoro ynnu1oxa1L, kak
a1o neopnokpa1no eHy npnnncmaann pasnnunme nepo6poxena1enn. n nnuL co6npancn
o6oponn1L caok naunk - pec1ane coaepuenno sakonnoe n npaac1aenno ponxnoe.
"m, - nncan . . enLunkoa, - ne aocc1aeH npo1na npnespa k naH n paxe npo1na
coxn1enLc1aa neko1oporo npouen1a nnonneHennnkoa, paaan nH oxo1no cpepn ce6n
nou1n ace npaaa rpaxpanc1aa. m aocc1aeH nnuL npo1na Haccoaoro nx nauec1ann,
npo1na sanononennn nHn aaxneunx naunx rocypapc1aennmx n kynL1ypnmx nosnun.
m npo1ec1yeH npo1na npyuero saaoeaannn occnn nepyccknHn nneHenaHn, npo1na
noc1enennoro o1nn1nn y nac seHnn, aepm n anac1n. npnoHy nannmay uyxpmx pac Hm
xo1enn 6m pa1L o1nop, cocpepo1ouna pnn a1oro ack aneprnk nauero korpa-1o
no6eponocnoro napopa...
[19]
norne 1eHm 6panncL nH u1ypHoH, ko1opm ne acerpa 6mn 1eope1nueckn n
qak1nueckn aepnmH, oc1aaancL, opnako, acerpa 1anan1nnamH no qopHe n acerpa
aneprnunmH. noro ropLkoro roaopnn on a appec pycckoro napopa n ero nc1opnn, no
penan a1o acerpa nckpenne. D1o 1o1 cnyua, korpa kpn1nka npe1 o1 nnua nk6nuero
opnny, a ne o1 6espasnnunoro kpn1nkana.
nca1enLc1ao acerpa 6mno pnn nero nopanroH, ono c1onno eHy xnsnn, a npn xnsnn
6mno nanonneno aceaosHoxno na nero kneae1o n yrposaHn - noa1oHy k ero cnoaaH
napo o1nocn1Lcn cepLesno n c nonnHanneH. "1o kacae1cn pyra1enLnmx nnceH, -
nncan on, - 1o onn, kak n rnycnme c1a1Ln a nnopopuecko neua1n, Hne poc1aannk1
ypoane1aopenne c1penka, nonaauero a uenL. Henno a 1ex cnyuanx, korpa am
nonapae1e a n6noko, naunnae1cn uyH: amckaknaae1 sanu n 6Le1 a 6apa6an, nnn
naunnae1 nrpa1L uapHanka. o konnuec1ay nopHe1nmx nnceH n rpnsnmx c1a1e
ny6nnunc1, saunuakun nn1epecm opnnm, Hoxe1 y6epn1Lcn, nackonLko
pec1an1enLna ero pa6o1a. 1akoH cepLesnoH n c1paunoH pene, kak nonn1nueckan
6opL6a, o6paua1L annHanne na pasppaxennme ykopm aparoa 6mno 6m 1ak xe c1panno,
kak conpa1y xpa1L ns nenpnn1enLcknx okonoa konqe1m aHec1o nynL
[20]
.
ennknH 1anan1oH . . enLunkoaa 6mna nonn1nueckan nn1epa1ypa, 6oeaan
ny6nnunc1nka. BypeH noHnn1L ao acex npe1ensnnx k . . enLunkoay, u1o on 6mn
pacc1pennn 6onLueankaHn, pacc1pennn kak onacnm nnca1enL.
cepoccck uaouanuum coms
cepoccnckn naunonanLnm coks 6mn oprannsaune, poxpenno ne
peaonkunonnmHn co6m1nnHn 1905 ropa, kak 6onLunnc1ao npaaoHonapxnuecknx
oprannsaun (kpoHe ycckoro co6pannn), a yxe Hnpno xnsnLk, xnsnLk
ocypapc1aenno yHm n ny6nnunc1nko . . enLunkoaa. nero aounn yHepenno-
npaame aneHen1m o6pasoaannoro pycckoro o6uec1aa - naunonanLno nac1poennme
npoqeccopa, aoennme a o1c1aake, unnoannkn, ny6nnunc1m, - o6Lepnnennme o6ue
npee rnaaenc1aa napopnoc1n a 1pexunenno pyccko qopHyne.
oks pycckoro napopa 6mn oprannsaune Haccoao, napopno, Hnorouncnenno -
pasnme nccnepoaa1enn no-pasnoHy ouennaak1 ee uncnennoc1L (o1 neckonLknx co1
1mcnu po neckonLknx Hnnnnonoa) - n 6mn poxpen kak npaaan peakunn na peaonkunk
1905 ropa. oks pycckoro napopa 6mn arpeccnaen n npoc1onapopen a 6onLunnc1ae
caoeH, 1orpa kak cepoccnckn naunonanLnm coks nonanncn ao apeHena
c1onmnnnckoro npaanennn n pa6o1m III ocypapc1aenno yHm kak coks ne
npneHnkunx ok1n6pnc1cknx ("a1opocop1nme kape1m, kak nasmaan nx enLunkoa)
panLneunx papnkanLnmx konc1n1yunonnmx aoxpenenn n o1opanrannn
naunonanLnmx aonpocoa na a1opo nnan (pnn naunonannc1oa 6mno aaxno
nesaHepnn1enLnoe peuenne eapeckoro aonpoca), a 1akxe ne cornacnmx c kpane
npaamHn a nx o1nouennn k ocypapc1aenno yHe n nexenannn amc1aann1L
napopnoc1L anepepn paaocnaann n aHopepxaann
[21]
. nn naunonannc1oa n
paaocnaane, n aHopepxaane am1ekann ns naunonanLnmx oco6ennoc1e, a ne
nao6opo1, kak a1o cun1anocL kpane npaamHn.
. . enLunkoa ne ao aceH nonnHan nosnunk kpane npaamx, ne paspennn
neko1opme nx nonoxennn, no on 6mn uec1en no o1nouennk k nnH n npnsnaaan nx
sacnyrn nepep 1euec1aoH. "enpoc1n1enLno sa6m1L, - nncan on a 1911 ropy, -
kakyk ponL cmrpann, nanpnHep, nokonm pnnrHy1 a ockae nnn y6poann a
e1ep6ypre, y6acoa - a ockae nnn ypnoao - a e1ep6ypre, eHenoackn nonk a
ockae nnn acn raappnn a e1ep6ypre. 1o rnaanan ocapa anac1n n uen1panLnm
u1ypH ee 6mnn a e1ep6ypre n a ockae... nopopueckan peaonkunn nm1anacL
nopasn1L nHnepnk a caHoH ee ceppue - ao1 o1uero a o6e c1onnum nona6nnocL
c1onLko Hn1exnnkoa n npnc1anopepxa1ene 6yn1a. m... ne npnnapnexnH k oksy
pycckoro napopa, no 6mno 6m nnn ak1oH neaexec1aa, nnn uepno ne6naropapnoc1Lk
sa6m1L, u1o naun uaouanuume nauana 6mnn npoaosrnauenm eue saponro po
aosnnknoaennn nap1nn naunonannc1oa - nHenno 1aknHn "uepnoco1ennmHn"
oprannsaunnHn e1ep6ypra, kakoao ycckoe co6panne n coks r-p y6poanna n
ypnukeanua. cnn cepLesno roaopn1L o 6opu6e co cHy1o, pec1a1enuuo
6opL6e, ne na xnao1, a na cHep1L, 1o aenn ee ne kneackne naunonannc1m, a
ne1ep6yprckne n Hockoackne Honapxnc1m
[22]
.
yunoc1L naunonannsHa cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa aecLHa 1ouno ampasnn
ero npepcepa1enL - e1p nkonaeanu Banauea (na 1-H co6pannn npepc1aan1ene
aunonanLnoro coksa, npoxopnaueH a ank1-e1ep6ypre 19-21 qeapann 1911 ropa).
o ac1ynn1enLno peun on ckasan cnepykuee: "aunonannsH ec1L c1peHnenne
poc1nuL nan6onLuero nanpnxennn 1aopuecknx cnn pannoro napopa a nx unc1eueH
anpe, kak npepnou1enne caoero sanHc1aoaannoHy
[23]
.
nenaHn cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa 6mnn Hnorne nsaec1nme yuenme,
1akne, kak npoqeccop e1p Hkoaneanu pHaueackn, npoqeccop na1on nppeeanu
ynakoackn, npoqeccop nkona cnnoanu ynneaacckn, npoqeccop aaen
aanoanu oaaneackn, npoqeccop e1p arenLeanu asanckn n ppyrne. naanoH
coae1e cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa coc1onn n nxann cnnoanu
enLunkoa, ny6nnunc1nueckne amc1ynnennn ko1oporo a "oaoH apeHenn ao HnoroH
nopro1oannn npeonornueckyk (npenyk) nouay pnn nonanennn coksa.
ennHn coksa, no yc1aay, 6mnn ncnoaepyeHme nH nauana - epnnc1ao n
nepaspenLnoc1L occncko nHnepnn, orpaxpenne ao acex ee uac1nx rocnopc1aa
pyccko napopnoc1n, ykpennenne cosnannn pycckoro napopnoro epnnc1aa n ynpouenne
pyccko rocypapc1aennoc1n na nauanax caHopepxaano anac1n apn a epnnennn c
sakonopa1enLnmH napopnmH npepc1aan1enLc1aoH.
na6oc1L nauero naunonannsHa - a1o cna6oc1L naue aonn, c1onL xe aaxno pnn
rapHonnuecko nnunoc1n, ckonL n pasan1ne uyac1a n yHc1aennmx cnoco6noc1e. Bes
aonn ne1 ocosnannn neo6xopnHoc1n nnanoHepnoro c1peHnennn k uenn. onanne1cn
neHouL nepep nepcnek1nao pec1ann. . . enLunkoa ne c1papan pasHnruenneH
aonn, on 6mn aceueno ckonuen1pnpoaan na epnnc1aenno uenn - aennunn occnn, k
ko1opo c1peHnncn ack cosna1enLnyk xnsnL.
OeapanLckan peaonkunn 1917 ropa sakpmna rase1y "oaoe apeHn n oc1aanna . .
enLunkoaa 6es nk6nHoro pena. k1n6pL xe ne pan . . enLunkoay npoxn1L n
ropa nop caoe anac1Lk.
parn ne npoc1nnn . . enLunkoay nnuero ns ero pen1enLnoc1n - nn nckpennero
naunonannsHa, nn 1anan1nnao ny6nnunc1nkn, nn o6nnuennn nenpaapm n
nsyaepc1aa...
n 6mn apec1oaan na anpae. 19 cen1n6pn 1918 ropa . . enLunkoa nncan caoe
xene ns saknkuennn: "nenm n npepcepa1enL upesamuano cnepc1aenno oHnccnn
eapen n ne ckpmaak1, u1o apec1 Ho n cyp - Hec1L sa c1apme Hon o6nnun1enLnme
c1a1Ln npo1na eapeea
[24]
. a penL po pacc1pena on nanncan kak 6m a saaeuanne
caoe xene n pe1nH: "anoHu1e - yHnpak xep1ao eapecko Hec1n ne sa kakne-
nn6o npec1ynnennn, a nnuL sa o6nnuenne eapeckoro napopa, sa u1o onn nc1pe6nnnn
n caonx npopokoa. XanL, u1o ne ypanocL eue noxn1L n nonk6oaa1Lcn na aac
[25]
. 20
cen1n6pn 1918 ropa on 6mn pacc1pennn ueknc1aHn sa caon c1a1Ln.
o npen 6eccHep1nm n ne 1epnk1 1aopuecko cnnm nocne cHep1n caonx nocn1ene.
ocne cHep1n . . enLunkoaa oc1anacL aennkan ny6nnunc1nka, peansoH ko1opo
Hoxno noc1aan1L 1akne ero cnoaa: "e pas aenkan Hnepn uama
np6nxanacu k kpam r6en, uo cnacano ee ue 6ora1c1ao, ko1oporo ue 6mno,
ue aoopyxeue, ko1opmH Hm acerpa xpoHan, a xenesuoe Hyxec1ao ee
cmuoa, ue apamx u cn, u xsu, nmu 6m xna occn"
[26]
.

1907 rop
T
12
nc1opnn peaonkun ne1 nn1epecnee 1o uac1n, rpe onncmaae1cn, kak caHa anac1L,
1ouno ocnenuan, nopro1oannna 6yn1, yceppno pa6o1ana nap kpyuenneH o6uec1aa,
pacua1maana yc1on - n appyr 1mcnuene1nnn nouaa paccepanacL n a nponac1L
aannnncL ppeanne yc1anoanennn, nmunme 1n1ynm n eue nepaano 1aeppme, kak
rpann1, sakonm.
aua peaonkunn ne ncknkuenne. na npo1ekae1, nopo6no xonepe nnn 1nqy, no
c1poro onpepenennmH "kpnamH, paano yc1anoanennmH a nayke. ce, k1o un1an
okannn
[27]
nnn ana
[28]
, nopaxak1cn, po kako c1enenn aennkan peaonkunn
npopoueckn npepckasana nauy. n1Lpecn1 ne1 1oHy nasap aennkopyunm uapL
o6Lnann paopnnc1ay, u1o nyuue nyc1L peaonkunn 6ype1 caepxy, ueH cnnsy. n ne
porapmaancn, u1o ecnn a 1o apeHn o peaonkunn cnnsy ne 6mno n naHeka, 1o
"peaonkunn caepxy yxe una, 6eccosna1enLno n 6eso1ue1no, panxnHan acecnnLnmH
pyxoH aeka, paanenneH npe, c1peHnenneH npaan1enLc1aa o1c1on1L nopnpok.
Y nac, kak n ackpy a cae1e, 6nnxaunH pen1eneH peaonkunn nannacL nn1ennnrenunn
- pasnounnnm, Hexpycocnoanm knacc, y ko1oporo nc1opnueckoe Hnpocosepuanne
6mno saHeneno qnnocoqcknH, npn1oH pypnoro cop1a. opasn1enLno anpe1L, po kako
c1enenn anac1L naua c1apanacL o pasHnoxennn nn1ennnrenunn, o peHokpa1nsaunn
snannn, o npnnnxennn ppeanero cocnoanoro pyxa, ko1opm amnec occnk - kak n
ppyrne c1panm - ns cpepnnx aekoa.
cpepnne aeka eaponeckoe o6uec1ao cnoxnnocL oprannueckn, kak acnkoe xnaoe
1eno, 1o ec1L no 1pypoaoHy 1nny. 6uec1ao 6mno cocnoano, no cocnoann 6mnn ne
nyc1me 1n1ynm, kak 1enepL, coaepuenno 6eccHmcnennme, a xname n kpenkne nanennn.
ocnoann 6mnn 1pypoamHn npoqeccnnHn, kopnopaunnHn aecLHa peanLnoro,
neo6xopnHoro aceH 1pypa. aopnnc1ao 6mno opranoH o6oponm napopno, opranoH
ynpaanennn. no pec1an1enLno aoeaano. oxpancL pnn aonm, ono uac1o yHnpano na
aone. yxoaenc1ao pec1an1enLno ynpaannno pyxoH napopnmH; pokasa1enLc1ao -
rny6okan pennrnosnoc1L 1oro apeHenn n yaaxenne k canuenc1ay. yneuec1ao
1oproaano n nnueH ppyrnH ne yanekanocL, peHecnennnkn sannHanncL peHecnaHn,
seHnepenLum - seHnepenneH. ak xnaoe 1eno, o6uec1ao 6mno c1poro pasrpannueno
na opranm n 1kann, n npn aceH neaexec1ae n nnue1e, saanceaunx o1 ppyrnx npnunn,
a1o1 nopnpok aeue pan aosHoxnoc1L pacuaec1n uypno unannnsaunn, npn ynapke
ko1opo Hm npncy1c1ayeH.
Ynapok c1poennn o6uec1aennoro nauancn ouenL paano. ou1n sa c1o ne1 po
peaonkunn pmuapn n cypLn napopnme npeapa1nnncL a npnpaopnmx - 1parnueckoe
npnsaanne nx nopHennnocL cae1cknH pacny1c1aoH n 6espenLeH. yxoaenc1ao no1epnno
aepy a Bora. pepnee cocnoane, npoponxaauee pa6o1a1L, ampennno nepa6ouyk
kopnopaunk coqnc1oa, ko1opme c onL1epoH n ycco ao rnaae nopoxrnn ae1xyk
xopoHnny o6uec1aa. 1kas c1onL aaxnmx opranoa o1 pa6o1m, nsapauenne cocnoanmx
qynkun noaenn k nc1ouennk caHoro 1ynoanua naunn - kpec1Lnnc1aa. onopnme
1kann paccocann a ce6e a1poqnpoaannme opranm - ao1 cyunoc1L peaonkunn. apop
a1nnyn a ce6n nenyxnme npnpa1kn n c1apae1cn nepeaapn1L nx, u1o6m cospa1L noame.
asae ne 1o xe caHoe npe1 n y nac?
1o Horno 6m cnac1n occnk, a1o aosapauenne ne k "c1apoHy nopnpky, kaknH Hm ero
snaeH, a k c1apoHy nopnpky, kakoro Hm ne snaeH, no ko1opm 6mn korpa-1o. nac1n
occnk Horno 6m yc1poc1ao o6uec1aa no 1pypoaoHy 1nny. apo aepny1L o6uec1ay
oprannueckoe c1poenne, nmne no1epnnnoe. apo, u1o6m 1pypoaoe npaan1enLc1ao
noc1onnno ocaexanocL n perynnpoaanocL 1pypoamH napnaHen1oH, 1o ec1L
npepc1aan1enLc1aoH 1pypoamx cocnoan c1panm. apo, u1o6m nenenme nmneunne
cocnoann, qanLuname n 6eccHmcnennme, 6mnn saHenenm pec1an1enLnmHn
cocnoannHn, 1o ec1L, kak nekorpa, 1pypoamHn npoqeccnnHn, n u1o6m a1n npoqeccnn -
nopo6no opranaH n 1kannH xnaoro 1ena - 6mnn no aosHoxnoc1n saHkny1mHn.
eo6xopnHo aceHy napopy pacunenn1Lcn na 1pypoame cnon n u1o6m ace o1pacnn 1pypa
6mnn nac1onLko nesaancnHmHn, nackonLko 1pe6ye1 npnpopa kaxporo 1pypa. aunna1L
nyxno c rnaanoro ouara peaonkunn - c 6eccocnoano ukonm.
kona pasapa1a
H 6epy cHenoc1L amckasa1L epe1nueckoe Hnenne, sa ko1opoe uac1L ny6nnkn npepac1
Henn anaqeHe, a neko1opme un1a1enn, annkune a peno, naaepnoe, cornacn1cn co
Hno. ne kaxe1cn, anapxnn naue ukonm n rnaanan npnunna 1oro, u1o ona
nnrnnnsnpye1 yHm, nopxnrae1 nx k 6yn1y, - a1o acecocnoanoc1L ukonm. e1n ns
ceHe pasnmx npoqeccn n pasnmx kynL1yp, co6npancL aHec1e, nop1n1 ppyr ppyra,
pacc1panaak1 ce6n ncnxnueckn. ackonLko cocnoanoc1L nac1panaae1, nac1onLko
acecocnoanoc1L pacc1panaae1 - opnnakoao pe1e n aspocnmx. onapn1e am a kakyk-
nn6ypL 1pypoayk kopnopaunk. m 1o1uac nouyac1aye1e npncy1c1ane Haccoao pyun,
orpoHno, saxaa1maakue, perynnpykue acex, pakue cuac1Le o6uero nonnHannn
n epnnopyunn. paac1aennan a1Hocqepa 1y1 kpenkan n spopoaan - penoaan.
onapn1e a 1onny nkpe pasnmx npoqeccn - am nouyac1aye1e, u1o am a cpepe
pnne1an1cko, nnuenno o6uero snannn, o6ue kako-1o aepm. akoaa naua
nn1ennnrenunn c ee 6eckoneuno cnoco6noc1Lk cnopn1L ne y6expan. n1ennnrenunn
- npopyk1 peHokpa1nuecko, acecocnoano ukonm. na yxe c1papae1
pasnoo6pasnmHn ncnxosaHn, onncannmHn y ypreneaa n y exoaa. 1o kacae1cn
pe1e, 1o ncnxona1nsH nx 6eccocnoanoro aocnn1annn neaepon1en.
o ukono, c npnro1oanenneH 6ypyuero uenoaeuec1aa, y nac noc1ynak1 kypa
nenenee, ueH kpec1Lnne - c kynL1ypo xne6a. npocn1e kpec1Lnnnna, xopouo nn
cen1L Heuanm xne6, 1o ec1L nepeHeua1L a opno poxL, rpeunxy, ropox n 1.n. axe
kpec1Lnnnn nonnHae1, u1o caHan cy1L kynL1ypm a 1oH, u1o6m o1o6pa1L opnopopnoe, n
a opnopopnoH - caHoe nyuuee, n sa1eH kaxpyk nopopy, kaxpm cop1 o6epera1L o1
cHeuennn. axe kpec1Lnnnn snae1, u1o pypnan 1paaa - ns nonn aon n u1o ne 1onLko
copnme 1paam ry6n1 6naropopnm snak, no npn upesHepnoH c1ecnennn caHn snakn
rnyua1 ppyr ppyra, nannk1cn kak 6m copno 1paao. ce a1o 6eccnopno a o1nouennn
xnao1nmx n pac1enn, no aocnn1anne nkpe y nac (a 6eccocnoano ukone)
noc1aaneno nanepekop a1nH npoc1eunH npaannaH. Hec1o 1oro u1o6m o6epera1L
pe1e o1 pypnmx annnnn, Hm co6npaeH nx a 1onny, pec1aykuyk kak oHy1. y1L ne c
npnro1oan1enLnoro knacca Hanmun ysnak1, u1o Bora ne1, u1o ec1L ypnan1enLnme
aeun, ko1opme Hoxno poc1a1L y a1opoknaccnnkoa, nHenno qo1orpaqnn ronmx nkpe.
npnro1oan1enLnoro knacca aocnn1annme HaHenLkaHn posoame, 1ouno amnoennme,
pe6n1a naunnak1 pnua1L, pyra1Lcn ckaepnmHn cnoaaHn, ppa1Lcn, npopenmaa1L
neaepon1nme nakoc1n ppyr c ppyroH, 6opo1Lcn c rnHnasnuecknHn c1enaHn n nap1aHn, c
nauanLc1aoH, c npoxoxnHn na ynnue, c popn1ennHn poHa. enoc1nxnHo 6mc1po pe1n
naun, no6maaa a kasennmx ukonax, anapak1 a pe6nueckn pasapa1, 6onee xankn n
ry6n1enLnm, ueH c1apueckn pasapa1. orpa a1a rapkan 1nn nanapae1 na nexnmx,
anonne neannnmx e1e, poaepunao, kak uae1m na connue, pacnyc1naunxcn pnn
nakonnennn Hyxec1aenno kpaco1m n cnnm, - o, kak 6onLno rnnpe1L na 1aknx pe1e n
kakan a1o 1parepnn pnn o6uec1aa! caHoH pene, a1o 1nxan ka1ac1poqa unannnsaunn,
kpyuenne pyxoanoro c1pon o6uec1aa, n6o ne Hoxe1 coc1aan1Lcn o6uec1ao - a
6naropopnoH cHmcne cnoaa - ns nkpnuek pasapauennmx, o6es6oxennmx,
npec1ynnmx na caHoH nepexope ns o1pouec1aa a knoc1L. enepL nnueHy ne
ypnannk1cn. aun patres conscripti xnapnokpoano un1ak1 sa y1pennnH koqe, u1o a
rnyxnx ropopax npoannunn o6pasoaanncL ns rnHnasnc1oa n rnHnasnc1ok coksm
pasapa1a, "o6uec1aa orapkoa, n u1o yuaunecn HanLunkn n peaoukn sannHak1cn
caanLnmH rpexoH, 6epy1 uenmHn koHnannnHn nyHepa a 6annx n np. n np. "rapkn -
xapak1epnoe nasaanne pnn poropakuero necuac1noro nokonennn, ko1opoe ao1-ao1
noracne1. o noxnnme nkpn noHnn1, korpa HonopexL eue 1onLko saropanacL
cHpapnmH nnaHeneH, korpa ona 6pouena 6mna anepame a rpnsL 6eccocnoano ukonm,
na nponsaon neaocnn1annmx, peHopannsoaannmx yun1ene, na nsnypenne xec1oknx no
caoe pepeannnoc1n nporpaHH, na anapxnk an1nkynL1ypnoro aocnn1annn. cnn 6m y
nac 6mna cao6opnan anac1L, ne napannsoaannan a caHo ce6e Hnoroanac1neH, ona
yanpena 6m, u1o 1akan ukona aoace ne ec1L ukona npocaeuennn. ao6opo1, 1akan
ukona ec1L oHpauenne pyxa, ukona napopno nopun. eun1enLnan rocypapc1aennan
anac1L couna 6m ponroH coaec1n nyuue sakpm1L ace ukonm, ace po opno, ueH
nnopn1L sapasy. apopy nyxnm unc1me npocae1n1enLnme yupexpennn, 1akne, rpe pe1n
ne nokpmaanncL 6m npokaso aceaosHoxnmx rapknx snann aHec1o ycaoennn snann
aosamuakunx n 6naropopnmx.
Y nac - cpaH ckasa1L - 1akan oueanpnan HmcnL, u1o nenLsn aceH n kaxpoHy nopyua1L
"npocaeuenne pe1e, po cnx nop ne npnsnana. ennkn enpeneea, caH neparor,
yHonnn npaan1enLc1ao saaec1n ukony pnn yun1ene, xnono1an, nopaaan sannckn - n
ace-1akn ne poxnn po cuac1nn yanpe1L, u1o eHy annnn nakoneu. k6an 6espapnoc1L,
nk6oe neypaunnuec1ao, sanacuncL 1o qanLunao 6yHaxko, u1o nasmaae1cn
ynnaepcn1e1cknH pnnnoHoH, npe1 a rnHnasnk n 1pe6ye1 Hec1a nac1aannka. Hy pak1
oknap, unnm - po renepanLnoro - n aHec1e c kasennmH copepxanneH npaao nop1n1L
pe1e, anyua1L nH kakne yropno 6pepnn. asapauennm cnnsy - o1 acecocnoanmx
1oaapnue, HanLunk xopoue ceHLn pasapauae1cn caepxy, o1 npnkocnoaennn k uac1o
neaexec1aenno n pacny1no, xo1n, koneuno, papnkanLno, 1oxe "6eccocnoano
yun1enLcko cpepe. c1peuak1cn npekpacnme yun1enn, no kakoe a1o co6m1ne, kakan
pepkoc1L! aun rocypapc1aennme nkpn, no1epna caHoe cyuec1ao acnkoro rocnopc1aa -
- apnc1okpa1nueckn nnc1nnk1, rocypapc1aennyk ukony cpenann 6eccocnoano n
o1pann ao anac1L 6eccocnoanmx nkpe. yppeno nn, u1o pesoprannsaunn o6uec1aa
cpenanacL kak 6m uenLk ukonm?
yppeno nn, u1o "1pe1n aneHen1 aoso6napan a caHo konm6enn 6ypyue
rpaxpanc1aennoc1n? yppeno nn, u1o 6eccocnoanan, 1o ec1L pecny6nnkanckan,
ncnxonornn oanapeaae1 knouec1aoH na sape pasan1nn? oxe1 6m1L, 6eccocnoanoc1L
npeaocxopnoe nauano pnn pecny6nnkanckoro o6uec1aa, no 1orpa o6Lnann1e, papn
Bora, pecny6nnky, ne npn1aopn1ecL Honapxne, ne ypnann1ecL, ecnn ns ukonm
amunn kpacnme qnarn n kpacnm nnaHenL amc1penoa n 6oH6. Hec1o 1oro u1o6m
oppnxneaunH cocnoannH noHouL paccnon1Lcn nanoao n ampenn1L ns ce6n nyuune
aneHen1m, o6eperan nx coaepuenc1ao kak sennuy oka, naue npaan1enLc1ao
yHmunenno c6naano acHn1ky ace cocnoann, ace kynL1ypm, acnkyk unc1o1y n neunc1o1y
n sa1eH ypnanne1cn, u1o cHecL no1epnna caon ppeanne cuennennn n npno6pena
aspmaua1me caoc1aa.
H1o 1akoe kac1m?
"ak u1o xe, - aocknnkne1 papnkanLnm un1a1enL, - am, snaun1, c1on1e sa kac1m?
H c1ok sa 1pypoayk oprannueckyk c1pyk1ypy a o6uec1ae. ce Hm nonyunnn
o1apauenne k kac1aH a kasennmx ukonax, rpe 6eccocnoanme neparorn npnaopnnn a
npnHep o1xnaune cocnoann n roaopnnn: ao1 6eso6pasne, nonk6y1ecL! o a1o ace
paano, kak ecnn 6m nokasmaa1L 1pyn n ampaaa1L ero sa xnaoe cyuec1ao. pnaopnnn a
npnHep nnpnckne, ernne1ckne kac1m nnn nauy nnkorpa ne cnoxnauykcn kak cnepye1
unnx1y, ko1opan npoky1nna caoe npnsaanne n caon npaaa. a 1akne crnnaune
cocnoann n, koneuno, ne c1ok. o a HoHen1 aosnnknoaennn nnrpe na cae1e
cocnoanoc1L ne 6mna crnnaue, nnrpe ona ne 6mna ampyHana, aespe amc1ynana
ec1ec1aenno, kak 1pe6oaanne npnpopm, aespe coc1aannna xnayk oprannsaunk
o6uec1aa, 1pypoaoe paccnoenne na kne1kn, 1kann, opranm, 6es uero neaosHoxna
xnsnL. apae1 1pypoaoe pasrpannuenne - nopnnHae1cn anapxnn, n nakoneu, ecnn ne1
nnkaknx knaccoa n o6Lnaneno nonnoe paaenc1ao, o6uec1ao paccenaae1cn, kak
ocao6opnaunecn a anpe rasa Honekynm.
aaenc1ao - aeuL npekpacnan, no ace npekpacnoe a paaenc1ae, kak a cao6ope n
6pa1c1ae, ocyuec1anHo 1onLko a cocnoanoH c1poe. ne 1pypoaoro pasrpannuennn ecnn
Hm ace paanm, 1o Hm peun1enLno ne nyxnm ppyr ppyry n ne nn1epecnm.
6uec1aennoe cuennenne nonyuae1cn 1orpa nnuL, korpa nanne1cn nepaaenc1ao, korpa,
nanpnHep, Hyxunna ac1peuae1 xenunny, korpa okono naxapn, yHekuero ena1L xne6,
nocennk1cn coxn1enn, yHekune pena1L nna1Le, canorn, YraapL. pn pasan1nn
o6uec1aa a cnny kpane nyxpm, a cnny paspenennn 1pypa o6pasyk1cn aonnm,
npaan1enn, yuenme, canuennnkn, n 1onLko a kauec1ae 1akoamx onn nonesnm ppyr
ppyry.
epapoH npoqeccnn ackpy npno6pe1ann saHkny1m xapak1ep. nn1epecax
coaepuenc1aa kaxpo o1pacnn 1pypa - 1o, u1o6m nkpn o1paaanncL eHy aceueno, na
ack xnsnL, u1o6m onn poxpanncL a c1nxnn a1oro 1pypa n yHnpann, nepepaaan
no1oHc1ay ampa6o1annme a 1euenne aekoa naamkn, cknonnoc1n, cnoco6noc1n,
nsoupennme po 1anan1a. axpan npoqeccnonanLnan kac1? nannnacL aeuno ukono
onpepenennoro 1pypa. onn cpepn aoennmx nsyuan n ne Hor ne nsyun1L caoe peHecno
po c1enenn nckycc1aa. axapL cpepn naxape a6npan a ce6n eue c Hanmx ne1
1mcnuene1nne nosnannn seHnepenLua. Y nac ypnannnncL, korpa nokonm .
DnrenLrapp1
[29]
o6Lnann kpec1Lnnnna npoqeccopoH seHnepennn, a on ckasan npaapy.
au kpec1Lnnnn - npoqeccop, 1ak ckasa1L, nnoxo anoxn seHnepennn, a aosLHn1e
neHeukoro nnn kn1ackoro kpec1Lnnnna - a1o npoqeccopa xopoue anoxn. aknHn xe
npoqeccopaHn caoero 1pypa nannk1cn uexoame peHecnennnkn, 1oproaum, canuennnkn.
e1pypno anpe1L, u1o nHenno saHkny1oc1L 1pypa penae1 nkpe apnc1okpa1aHn.
muapL Heua no1oHy pmuapL, u1o on ap1nc1 Heua, no noueHy ap1nc1 coxn nnn
canoxnoro unna ne paopnne - nHenno caonx npnsaann? Bnaropopc1ao acnkoHy
1pypy, kak 6m on nn 6mn ckpoHen, pae1 uec1noc1L n 1exnnueckoe coaepuenc1ao.
nkakoro nnoro snauennn cocnoann ne nHenn a caoeH saHmcne. Henno uexoaoe
yc1poc1ao 1pypa nosaonnno ampa6o1a1L ckene1 nmneune unannnsaunn -
cpepneaekoame npoHmcnm n nckycc1aa. pn kpyuennn c1apmx cocnoan ouenL 6mc1po
cnoxnnncL noame knaccm, n ueH 6onee npouae1ae1 kakoe-nn6ypL peno, 1eH uaue
anpnH a neH npeeHc1aennoc1L uenoro pnpa nokonenn, cocnoanoc1L 1pypa. a1o
kpane aaxno 1oukn spennn caHmHn coaepuennmHn ukonaHn 6mnn 6m
npoqeccnonanLnme, rpe pe1n kaxporo 1pypoaoro knacca a1nrnaanncL 6m a pyx n
snanne nacnepc1aennoro 1pypa. H ne roaopk o6 ncknkun1enLnmx npnsaannnx - onn
napy1 caok popory, no saypnpnan HonopexL 1onLko amnrpana 6m o1 cocnoanmx -
nasoan1e nx npoqeccnonanLnmHn - ukon. aypnpnme pe1n npnyuanncL 6m k kako nn
na ec1L pa6o1e aHec1o pnne1an1cko necnoco6noc1n nn k kakoHy 1pypy. oaopn1:
ukona ponxna ro1oan1L ne peHecnennnka, a uenoaeka. ako aspop!
opu o6noHoaum
1o anpen korpa-nn6ypL a1o sarapounoe cyuec1ao - "uenoaeka m ac1peuaeH
seHnepenLuea, peHecnennnkoa, nnca1ene, unnoannkoa - no u1o 1akoe "uenoaek?
axe pec1opannm "uenoaek - cneunannc1 nsaec1noro 1pypa. cnn knoua coaceH ne
cneunannc1 n nn ueH ero nasaa1L nenLsn, 1o 6ypL1e yaepenm, u1o a1o 6espenLnnk,
1aopenne caHoe necuac1noe na seHne. Henno 1aknx 6espenLnnkoa ro1oan1 naua
rocypapc1aennan ukona. a rocypapc1aennm cue1 opno nokonenne sa ppyrnH
npoaopn1 o6pasoaa1enLnm cao aospac1 a 1oH, u1o6m npnkocny1Lcn ko aceHy n ne
nayun1Lcn nnueHy. a1o nasmaae1cn o6pasoaanneH! o n pyHak, u1o nHenno 1akan
ukona ne pae1 nnkakoro o6pasa pyxa, nnkakoro o6pasoaannn. onLko onpepenennm
1pyp, npn1oH poaepennm po c1enenn nckycc1aa, o6pasye1 uenoaeka, pae1 pyue
qnsnonoHnk. nne1an1m xe naue ukonm, nnueHy ne nayunauncL, amxopn1 nnueH.
e seHnepenLum, ne peHecnennnkn, ne xypoxnnkn, ne aoennme - k1o xe onn? nk1o,
nihil. nHenno a1o1 nihil, 1ua1enLno kynL1nanpyeHm rocypapc1aoH, nopro1oanne1
nouay pnn peaonkunonnoro nnrnnnsHa. Knoua, okonunaun cocnoanyk,
npoqeccnonanLnyk ukony, xo1L u1o-nn6ypL snae1, a sna1L - snaun1 npnsnaaa1L
neu1o n uaue acero nk6n1L. konuna 6eccocnoanyk ukony n nnuero ne snan, knoua,
ec1ec1aenno, nnuero ne npnsnae1 n nnuero ne nk6n1. pnnc1aenno, ueH oc1ae1cn eHy
6m1L, a1o nnn 6espenLnnkoH, ecnn on 6espapen, nnn peaonkunonepoH, ecnn on xo1L
uy1L-uy1L ne rnyn. "1peueHcn o1 c1aporo Hnpa, - opy1 Honopme neaexpm. ak ne
o1peuLcn! as am ne snae1e kn1ackoro nsmka, aaH noneaone npnxopn1cn o1peuLcn o1
nero. cnn 6m am snann neHnoxko c1apm Hnp, am nenpeHenno nk6nnn 6m ero n ne
o1peknncL 6m. cnn 6m xo1L opnnH noro1koH, xo1L opno 1pypoao npnamuko knoua
saans a c1apoH Hnpe, on ne o1pnxnyn 6m c 1ako qaune "npax c caonx nor. caHoH
pene, ecnn ukona a 1euenne pecn1n ne1 1onLko n oc1aanne1 na knoue, u1o npax na ero
nopouaax, - pynoaenne ae1pa - n ne1 ero. Knoua 6on1ae1cn a npoc1panc1ae, ane
o6uec1aa, ane popnnm, ane nc1opnn. ecn1kn n co1nn 1mcnu 1aknx peknaccnpoaannmx,
copaannmx c kopnn Honopmx nkpe exeropno npnro1oannk1cn caHnH rocypapc1aoH, n
nocnepnee npoc1opyuno nsyHnne1cn, anpn a a1o xopnue anapxnn caoero apara. o
kaknH o6pasoH 6espenLnme Honopme nkpn, ne a1nny1me nn a kakyk npoqeccnk, ne
sauennaunecn a o6uec1ae nn sa opnn cepLesnm nn1epec, cou1y1 ce6n a popnoH
o6uec1ae poHa?
o1 ocnoanan npnunna rny6okoro nepoaonLc1aa, o1paannkuero HonopexL. nn a
6onLunnc1ae 6espenLnnkn n nen1nn, npn1oH neaonLnme. caHm nyuun 1pypoao
aospac1, korpa cnn ns6m1ok, onn uyac1ayk1 npaspnoe 1oHnenLe, necnoco6noc1L nn sa
u1o asn1Lcn. "cn 1aapL pasyHnan ckyuae1, - ckasan 6ec, n a1o aepno. pn ycnoannx,
a ko1opmx 6ecm noc1aanenm, 1o ec1L npn o6ecneuennoH nancnone a apy n npn
o1cy1c1ann kaknx-nn6o uec1nmx o6nsannoc1e, nH nenLsn ne ckyua1L, n o1ckpa nx
6ecuncnennme nakoc1n, 1aopnHme nap nkpLHn. a aopeu r-paH eqnc1oqennH
ckonLko-nn6ypL cepLesnme o6nsannoc1n, nH ne npnuno 6m a ronoay paspyua1L Hnp.
yHe naua rocypapc1aennoc1L nocpepc1aoH 1pypoao, cocnoano, 1o ec1L
npoqeccnonanLno, ukonm a1nny1L HonopexL a ynopnyk pa6o1y - ne 6mno 6m
nnrnnnsHa, osno6nennoc1n, c1peHnennn pena1L Hepsoc1n n paspyua1L. srnnnn1e, kak
ckyuak1 Honopme xnao1nme 6es sann1n. o coaepuenno 1o xe caHoe uenoaek.
o1kannm ns Hyckynoa n nepaoa, aecL Haunna, uenoaek ane 1pypa uyac1aye1 ce6n
necuac1nmH, n acero necuac1nee, Hne kaxe1cn, 6noHoam, sanncnme nen1nn. ak
knouec1ay 6m1L poaonLnmHn 1aknH nopnpkoH aeue, ko1opm nnuae1 nx amcuero
cuac1Ln - yaneka1enLnoro 1pypa?
e1pypno 6mno 6m pokasa1L, u1o ne 1onLko yuauancn HonopexL peHopannsoaana
6espenLeH, no 1eH xe nopokoH c1papae1 n yuaun coc1aa. 1o onn, npenopaaa1enn n
npoqeccopa? e xe nepaanne c1ypen1m, ne ouenL paanne rnHnasnc1m, npouepune 1y
xe nsnypnkuyk pyuy ukony. o1 o1uero, nonpo6oaaa anauane cna6o conpo1nann1Lcn
ukonLnmH 6yn1aH, sa6ac1oakaH, o6c1pykunn n 1.n., npenopaaa1enn n npoqeccopa
konunnn 1eH, u1o 6onLunnc1ao nx npnHknynn k a1oHy 6yp1o 6m "ocao6opn1enLnoHy
panxennk. c1apme, n Honopme nennaum, rne1oHme npaspnoc1Lk, naunn a
nonn1nueckoH 6yn1e onpaapanne caoeHy snocuac1noHy neypaunnuec1ay. npaapanne
nepep co6o n nkpLHn, a 1akxe aosHoxnoc1L copaa1L ceppue na o6ueH kosnnue
o1nyuennn - npaan1enLc1ae, ko1opoe a pannoH cnyuae ne nanpacno nece1 na ce6e
rpexn Hnpa.
T
21
Bm1L nnn ne 6m1L cnnLno anac1n - a1o 1o xe caHoe, u1o 6m1L nnn ne 6m1L occnn.
o1 noueHy n cun1ak ponroH aosapaua1Lcn k a1oHy 1nxenoHy aonpocy. euL npe1 o
c1pauno rocypapc1aenno 6onesnn, ko1opyk Hoxno cpaann1L c nepepoxpenneH
ceppua. BonesnL a1a nonannacL y nac paano; Hoxe1 6m1L, ona ynacnepoaana a caHoH
saua1nn rocypapc1aennoc1n. "aue rocypapc1aennoe 1eno aennko n o6nnLno, no ne1
copasHepnoro panra1enn any1pn. pnpn1e 6m1L naunH ceppueH, - roaopnnn
noaropopum aapnraH.
na6oc1L uen1panLnoro Hyckyna a caonx cpepnnx c1apnnx ne cHep1enLna, opnako a
nocnepnee c1one1ne o6napyxnnncL cnnukoH snoaeune npnsnakn. poHe c1pauno
o1c1anoc1n kynL1ypno n ee cnepc1ann - nnue1m, Hm nepexnnn pae nosopnme aonm,
n nocnepnkk c aparoH, qnsnueckn a1poe cna6eunH. m nepexnaaeH noc1mpnme
ropm 6yn1a, rpe napopnme o16pocm a cokse c nnopopuaHn 1eppopnsnpyk1 anac1L,
cpmaak1 napnaHen1, nnuak1 aosHoxnoc1n kynL1ypnoro sakonoyc1poc1aa, npepak1
1pypoayk uac1L naunn pasrpoHy n rpa6exy. ce a1o nanennn, ne o6euakune nnuero
po6poro. H ne Hory ckpm1L o1 un1a1ene caoe 1peaorn n ne Hory ne roaopn1L 1oro,
u1o coc1aanne1 Hoe rny6okoe y6expenne. aH nyxna ne kakan-nn6ypL, a nenpeHenno
cnnLnan anac1L. aH neo6xopnHo Horyuee ceppue, nnaue Hm nponann. D1o ceppue n
1enepL, kak na sape nc1opnn, Hoxe1 6m1L cospano napopnmH oprannsHoH. no ponxno
6m1L cospano! cnn y 6onLnmx nkpe ec1L He1opm ykpennennn ceppeuno Hmuum, 1o,
necoHnenno, ec1L cnoco6m ykpennennn rocypapc1aenno anac1n, n nyxno nocneun1L c
nnHn, nenLsn c a1nH o1knapmaa1L! occnn rn6ne1 o1 yc1anoc1n ceppua - neyxenn Hm,
xnaoe nokonenne pyccknx nkpe, nac1onLko nnu1oxnm, u1o6m ne noHouL popnne a
uepnme ee pnn? eyxenn Hm kak nneHn nac1onLko ampopnnncL, u1o ne cnoco6nm
aocc1anoan1L xnsnenno neo6xopnHm opran?
noxec1ao Honx npo1nannkoa ocnennenm onacnmH sa6nyxpenneH, 6yp1o rnnep1poqnn
anac1n osnauae1 ee cnny. pnua1, u1o anac1L y nac upesHepno cnnLna, u1o pnn
cnacennn occnn neo6xopnHo o6yspa1L a1y cnny, cansa1L ee o6uec1aennmH
npo1naoaecoH. op cnno anac1n onn nonnHak1 nponsaon, xec1okoc1L,
6eccHmcnennoc1L, 1e uep1m 1npannn, ko1opme aynLrapno npnnncmaak1cn
caHoanac1nk. . . 1onmnnn
[30]
, aepon1no, cpenae1 Hne uec1L npnsna1L sa Hnok nnoe
nonnHanne cyuec1aa anac1n. cnn 6m peuL una o Haunne Hep1ao, nanpnHep o
sapnxenno nyuke, 1o cnny ee 6mno 6m ponyc1nHo onpepenn1L konnuec1aoH
paspyuennn, na ko1opoe ona cnoco6na. o anac1L - Haunna xnaan; kak acnkoe xnaoe
1eno, ona cyuec1ao o1uac1n pyxoanoe. nna npaan1enLc1aa onpepenne1cn
cnoco6noc1Lk poc1nra1L caonx uene, uenn xe a1n, koneuno, ne 1onLko
paspyun1enLnme, no n 1aopueckne. axe nk1m apar naue anac1n ne c1ane1
o1aepra1L 6narnx ee naHepenn. o paxe nnaHennm noknonnnk anac1n cornacn1cn,
u1o 6narne naHepennn ne amnonnnnncL. aHa anac1L ne o1aeprae1 nocnepnero, nnaue
ona ne asnna 6m na ce6n nounn nepeaopo1a. Henno a 1oH-1o n cy1L necuac1n naunx,
u1o rocypapc1aennan anac1L no1epnna cnoco6noc1L ocyuec1ann1L caon naHepennn.
asae Hoxno 1akyk anac1L nasaa1L cnnLno?
as aeuL nepec1ana poc1nra1L caonx uene, ona nepec1ana 6m1L caHa co6o, ona
npeapa1nnacL a neu1o ppyroe. oc1a1ouno a 1mcnuecnnLnm napoaos nonac1L ropc1n
necky, u1o6m on oc1anoanncn. o ecnn on oc1anoanncn, kako xe on napoaos? a ace
apeHn 6espec1ann - on 1eno Hep1aoe, rpys, ko1opm caH nyxpae1cn a panra1ene.
nna anac1n ne a naHepennn, a a ncnonnennn. aue npaan1enLc1ao - kpoHe
nopospn1enLnmx rocnop, a1epunxcn a Hnnnc1pm, u1o6m npn nepao 6epe anac1n
nepeknny1Lcn a kape1m, apope r-p Oepopoaa, y1nepa n pp., - naue npaan1enLc1ao
nckpenno xenano nHe1L cuac1nnam napop n nHee1 napop ronopnm n nepoaonLnm.
Xenano nHe1L no6eponocnyk apHnk - n poaeno apHnk po ykpena. Xenano nHe1L
cnnLnm qno1 - n poaeno qno1 po ycnHm. Xenano sakonnoc1n, 1nunnm, nopnpka -
n poaeno po "nosopa nenpekpauakunxcn y6nc1a. kaxn1e, Hoxno nn
rocypapc1aennyk anac1L nasaa1L cnnLno, ecnn ona poc1nrae1 kak pas o6pa1nmx
uene? . . 1onmnnn, koneuno, ne Henee ppyrnx pyccknx ny6nnunc1oa
ocaepoHnennm a naHepennnx anac1n, npnuen k Hmcnn, u1o c nonn1nuecknH 1eppopoH
Hoxe1 cnpaan1Lcn "1onLko caHo o6uec1ao. o aepL a1o snaun1 Hannqec1npoaa1L
6eccnnne npaan1enLc1aa necpaanenno peun1enLnee, ueH Hor 6m cpena1L n.
"nna anac1n, - sananne1 . . 1onmnnn, - ponxna saknkua1Lcn a cnne npaaa, a ne
a npaae cnnm. OopHyna npekpacnan, n n 6esycnoano cornacen c ne. H nnkorpa, nn
opno Hnny1m ne c1aann qnsnueckyk cnny a nonn1nke amue npaaa (nonnHan nop
npaaoH cnpaaepnnaoc1L). Xenan anpe1L anac1L cnnLno, n po6naakcL 1opxec1aa
aoace ne cnnm, a nHenno npaac1aennoro npaaa, anoxennoro a nonn1ne anac1n. H
pyHak, npoc1n1enLno kaknH-nn6ypL eapeunkaH ns rase1no uepnn, a ne naH c r-noH
1onmnnnmH npepc1aann1L ce6e anac1L kak neu1o npo1naononoxnoe npaay. nac1L nap
napopoH ne ec1L npaao co6c1aennoc1n, ne jus utendi et abutendi, a o6nsannoc1L
cnyxennn a npepenax nonLsm napopno. s6panneH pnnac1nn, ko1opo apyueno
napopoH aepxoanoe ynpaanenne, y1aepxpeno npaao pec1ann anac1n na 6naro naunn,
"na cnaay naH, na c1pax aparaH. caHoH cnoae "npaan1enLc1ao, a rnarone "npaan1L
saknkueno nonn1ne npaaa, nepaspmanoro a napopnoH pasyHe co cnpaaepnnaoc1Lk.
nepoaa1enLno, anac1L no cyuec1ay caoeHy nnkak ne Hoxe1 nonnHa1Lcn kak "npaao
cnnm, a acerpa ec1L "cnna npaaa, kpoHe 1ex, koneuno, cnyuaea, korpa anac1L anapae1
a snoyno1pe6nennn. o a nocnepnnx cnyuanx anac1L nepec1ae1 6m1L anac1Lk, kak
Hysmkan1, asnaun qanLunayk no1y, a a1o1 HoHen1 yxe ne Hysmkan1. onLko pen1enn
kneae1nnuecko, saaepoHo nryue neua1n, cpenaaue npec1ynnoc1L cnoaa caonH
peHecnoH, Hory1 y1aepxpa1L, 6yp1o n pa1yk sa snoyno1pe6nennn anac1n. a caHoH
pene kpoHe nenpepmano 6opL6m co snoyno1pe6nennnHn anac1n n c1ok eue sa 1o,
u1o6m caHoe yno1pe6nenne anac1n 6mno aocc1anoaneno, u1o6m anac1L nonyunna
nakoneu aosHoxnoc1L pec1aoaa1L kak npaao. poHe ckaepnoro penannn ec1L ne
Henee onacnm nopok - nepenanne. paao neocyuec1anennoe nepec1ae1 6m1L
npaaoH. o caHoe canuennoe npaao, u1o6m pec1aoaa1L, ponxno 6m1L cnno - a1o
aneHen1apnoe 1pe6oaanne Hexannkn. 1ckpa n nac1anaak na neo6xopnHoc1n anac1n
6m1L cnnLno. . . 1onmnnn ynpekae1 Henn a 1oH, 6yp1o n ynyc1nn ns anpy ero
y1aepxpenne, u1o poc1nrny1L nopaanennn 1eppopa Hoxno "ampepxannmH,
neyHonnHmH, no xnapnokpoanmH n sakonnmH npecnepoaanneH npec1ynnoc1n npn
nenpeHennoH ycnoann pen1enLnoro rocypapc1aennoro 1aopuec1aa. H aoace ne ynyc1nn
ns anpy a1nx c1pok, no peun1enLno ne snak, kak cansa1L nx c rnaanmH 1esncoH r-na
1onmnnna: " nosopoH nenpekpauakunxcn y6nc1a Hoxe1 cnpaan1Lcn 1onLko caHo
o6uec1ao, npnueH sacnyra npaan1enLc1aa 6mna 6m 1onLko a yHenoH ncnonLsoaannn
o6uec1aennoro couyac1ann. mxopn1 1ak, ecnn n nonnHak r-na 1onmnnna, - u1o
ecnn ec1L nannuo o6uec1aennoe couyac1ane, 1o ponyc1nHo "ampepxannoe,
neyHonnHoe, xnapnokpoanoe n sakonnoe npecnepoaanne npec1ynnoc1n, a ecnn ne1
o6uec1aennoro couyac1ann, 1o npaan1enLc1ay neuero ncnonLsoaa1L, 1o ec1L kak 6yp1o
neuero n pena1L, n oc1ae1cn caHoHy o6uec1ay cnpaann1Lcn c 6yn1oH. D1a 1ouka spennn
Hne kaxe1cn apaone neaepno. na c1aan1 rocypapc1aennyk 6opL6y c 6yn1oH a
saancnHoc1L o1 1opxec1aa 1ak nasmaaeHo peakunn. cnn ec1L peakunn a o6uec1ae -
ec1L n 6opL6a, ne1 peakunn - ne1 npaan1enLc1aenno 6opL6m. H pyHak, anac1L
rocypapc1aennan ponxna 6m1L paccun1ana ne na c1onL npexopnuee ycnoane, kak
o6uec1aennoe couyac1ane nnn necouyac1ane. nac1L, Hne kaxe1cn, ao acnkoH cnyuae
o6nsana 6opo1Lcn c npec1ynnoc1Lk, 6opo1Lcn nenpepmano, co ace cnno apyuennoro
e nc1opne npaaa. 6uec1aennoe necouyac1ane k anac1n ne ocna6nne1, a ckopee
ycnnnaae1 o6nsannoc1L anac1n npecnepoaa1L npec1ynnennn. epL ecnn a o6uec1ae
pac1e1 necouyac1ane k anac1n, 1o, snaun1, pac1e1 npec1ynnoc1L, c1ano 6m1L, 1y1-1o
npaan1enLc1ay n npnxopn1cn nanpnuL ace cnnm pnn oponennn 6epm.
"cn sacnyra anac1n ne 1onLko ne "a yHenoH ncnonLsoaannn o6uec1aennoro
couyac1ann, kak nnue1 . . 1onmnnn, a nao6opo1 - a Hyxec1aennoH npespennn k
caHo Hmcnn noppenmaa1Lcn nop uLn-1o akycm, a uec1no peunHoc1n np1n xo1n 6m
npo1na o6uec1aennoro 1euennn, ecnn ono nano apepno. asae, a caHoH pene,
"o6uec1aennoe couyac1ane acerpa cnnonnH cnpaaepnnaoc1n? cnoHnn1e epycannH,
no6naaaun npopokoa. 6uec1ao - npepc1aan1enL pannoro HoHen1a, pannoro
nokonennn, 1orpa kak anac1L ponxna uyac1aoaa1L ce6n npepc1aan1eneH ace naunn a
ee nc1opnn. onLko na a1oH ocnoaannn pnnac1nn ns6npae1cn ne na pannoe nokonenne,
a a ponro1y aekoa. na ao apeHenn - c1anoaan ocL napopnan, noppepxnaakuan
o6uee epnnc1ao: ao1 noueHy ee npaao amue o6uec1aenno nonynnpnoc1n. 6peka1L
anac1L xo1n 6m na "yHenoe ncnonLsoaanne o6uec1aennoro couyac1ann snaun1 pena1L
anac1L nrpyuko 1onnm. pn a1oH npaan1enLc1aoH penae1cn 1onna, a ynpaanneHo
aeuLk - anac1L. e pyHak, u1o6m 1akan nepeHena pone noaena 6m k ueHy-nn6ypL
xopoueHy.
H o1nkpL ne o1pnuak "rocypapc1aennoro 1aopuec1aa, o ko1opoH roaopn1 r-n
1onmnnn. H 1onLko nonarak, u1o ono, kak acnkoe 1aopuec1ao, ponxno 6m1L
cao6opnmH, 1o ec1L npexpe acero cao6opnmH o1 anac1n o6uec1aennoro Hnennn. cnn
xypoxnnk, ap1nc1, nnca1enL noc1aannn 6m caoe "epnnc1aenno sacnyro yHenoe
ncnonLsoaanne o6uec1aennoro couyac1ann, n npnHo ckasan 6m: a1o 6espapnoc1n, a1o
uapna1anm. nn Hory1 o6Hany1L 1onny n npo6n1Lcn a nponm, no a1o 6ypy1 nHenno
nponm, a ne 6orn. "Xypoxec1aa cao6opnm - ao1 nepam sakon 1aopuec1aa. ce
aennkne nckycc1aa, a 1oH uncne nckycc1ao anac1n, 1onLko 1orpa aennkn, korpa
nesaancnHm o1 Hnenn o6uec1aa, korpa "yHenoe ncnonLsoaanne cnyuano Hopm ne
axopn1 a nx pacue1. H xenan 6m caoeHy o1euec1ay rennanLno anac1n, ko1opan
nnkorpa ne cnarana 6m na o6uec1ao caoero 1aopuec1aa, ko1opan ne nyxpanacL 6m a
couyac1ann 1onnm, a ko1opan, nopo6no npaan1enLc1ay e1pa ennkoro, Opnppnxa II,
anoneona, BncHapka, a caHo ce6e naxopnna 6m nHnynLcm n aennkne uenn. ak
nokasmaae1 nc1opnn, 1aopueckan anac1L uac1o una aHec1e c o6uec1aoH, no nepepko
nanepekop eHy, npnueH a nocnepnnx cnyuanx oun6anacL ne anac1L, a o6uec1ao.
1pnuan nary6nyk HmcnL, 6yp1o 6opo1Lcn c 1eppopoH Hoxe1 "1onLko caHo o6uec1ao,
y1aepxpan, u1o ecnn 6m nmneunnn anac1L nac noknnyna a a1o 6opL6e, 1o Hm
npnnyxpenm 6mnn 6m oprannsoaa1L noayk anac1L n 1onLko uepes nee Hornn 6m
6opo1Lcn c npec1ynnoc1Lk, n a1nH aoace ne o1pnuak nn caHopen1enLnoc1n o6uec1aa,
nn ero cao6opm. oaepuenno nanpacno . . 1onmnnn npnnncmaae1 Hne HmcnL, ne
1onLko ne paspenneHyk Hno, no 1akyk, npo1na ko1opo n paano cpaxakcL no Hepe
cnn. 6uec1ao, 6eccnopno, nHee1 caon nonn1nueckne npaaa, no n anac1L nHee1 caon.
BypeH pepxa1Lcn konc1n1yunn, ecnn xo1nH nHe1L ee. cnoanmx akonax naunx n ne
anxy, u1o6m o6uec1ay 6mno npepoc1aaneno npaao 6opL6m c npec1ynnoc1Lk n u1o6m
npaan1enLc1ao 6mno ocao6oxpeno o1 o6nsannoc1n a1o 6opL6m. anpo1na. 3
nepeuncnennn cao6op a cnoanmx sakonax n ne anxy cao6opm cnepc1ann n cypa nap
caonHn corpaxpanaHn, cao6opm nakasannn nx 1kpLHo n kasnLk, cao6opm
orpannuennn npec1ynnmx oprannsaun n 1.n. "paao cnnm a naue konc1n1yunn
npepoc1aaneno aceueno "cnne npaaa, 1o ec1L sakonoHepno anac1n, o6ueHy oprany
o6uec1aa. o 1e xe cnoanme akonm npepoc1aannk1 o6uec1ay unpokoe none
caHopen1enLnoc1n n ouenL onpepenennoe npaao aHeua1enLc1aa a rocypapc1aennme
pena - uepes npepc1aan1enLc1ao a napnaHen1e. o1 a1o caHopen1enLnoc1n n a1oHy
aHeua1enLc1ay (a anpe kon1ponn nap anac1Lk) n couyac1ayk, n6o cun1ak, u1o xnsnL
1ena c1onL xe neo6xopnHa pnn xnsnn ceppua, kak n o6pa1no.
o1 anac1n, n o1 o6uec1aa n ne 1pe6yk uero-nn6ypL upesamuanoro. H xo1en 6m
1onLko, u1o6m anac1L 6mna anac1Lk, a ne noppenko ee nop "o6uec1aennoe
couyac1ane n u1o6m o6uec1ao 6mno o6uec1aoH. e 6ypeH1e ny1a1L qynkun. caHoH
pene, aepL onacno sac1aann1L knukn pa6o1a1L sa ceppue nnn nao6opo1. H c1pac1no
xenan 6m o6uec1ao anpe1L caHopen1enLnmH, no a kakoH cHmcne? ao1 a kakoH.
BypeH1e xopounHn pa6o1nnkaHn, kaxpm no caoe uac1n. Xopouan pa6o1a ec1L
exepneanan panL rocypapc1ay, exepneanm aknap a o6uec1ao, nenpepmanoe
nakonnenne 6ora1c1aa yHc1aennoro n Ha1epnanLnoro. akonnenne, cornacn1ecL,
nyuue pac1pa1m. 1o6m 6m1L xopounHn pa6o1nnkaHn, 6ypeH1e cao6opnmHn
xypoxnnkaHn caoero 1pypa, 1o ec1L nkpLHn Hyxec1aennmHn, nesaancnHmHn o1 akycoa
1onnm, o1 nsHenunaoro o6uec1aennoro couyac1ann. BypeH1e, nakoneu, poc1onmHn
rpaxpanaHn, 1o ec1L nkpLHn, a caHnx ce6e nopaannkunHn acnkyk npec1ynnoc1L, - n
1y1 naua "caHopen1enLnoc1L 6esrpannuna. cnn konc1n1yunn ne pae1 npaaa xaa1a1L
sa unaopo1 caonx 6nnxnnx n nopaepra1L nx naueHy caHocypy, 1o ace konc1n1yunn
ponyckak1 co6c1aennm caHocyp. anpnHep, ecnn am rase1nm kneae1nnk, n nxeu, n
qanLunaoHone1unk cnoaa, 1o nnkakan anac1L aaH ne nepeun1 ocypn1L caon ckaepnme
sann1nn n nakasa1L ce6n, po cnoco6a, ecnn yropno, yn1ep-oqnuepcko apoam
aknkun1enLno. nkakan anac1L ne nepeun1 aaH nk6n1L popnny n amcna1L a napnaHen1
nkpe, nk6nunx ee, pasyHnmx n c1oknx, nnuL 6m ne npec1ynnmx. nno1L po
npec1ynnenn konc1n1yunn npnsnae1 caHopen1enLnoc1L o6uec1aa. pnsnak n n ee a
1ex xe npepenax.
. . 1onmnnn npocn1, u1o6m eHy "ykasann peanLno, a ueH ponxno nponan1Lcn
ycnnenne anac1n, a kaknx noc1ynkax (c 1ounmH nx nepeuncnenneH), a kaknx
Heponpnn1nnx. cnn yropno, n a cnepykue c1a1Le o1aeuy. o ponxen saHe1n1L
panLue, u1o "ycnnenne anac1n nponanne1cn ne a 1ex nnn nnmx noc1ynkax n
Heponpnn1nnx, a a cnne acnknx noc1ynkoa, acnknx Heponpnn1n. cnn noc1ynkn
anac1n poc1nrak1 uenn, n cun1ak anac1L cnnLno. cnn uenn a1n yHnm, n cun1ak
anac1L yHno. cnn a n1ore yc1anaannaae1cn "na seHne Hnp n a uenoaeuex
6naroaonenne, n nepam npncoepnnnkcL k Hnennk xepyanHoa n roaopk: "naaa
Bory!
T T
23
1o6m ycnnn1L anac1L, ne nyxno "napyun1L sakon - poc1a1ouno ero "ncnonnn1L. ak
anac1L Boxnn ne 6mna o1Henena y nypeea, a 1onLko ysypnnpoaana nx 1eokpa1ne, 1ak
rocypapc1aennan anac1L y nac. a ae1xoH naueH, n a noaoH sakone anac1L
y1aepxpena npouno, no ocyuec1anenne ee a pykax 6kpokpa1nn ocna6neno po nonnoro
nno pas napannua.
o cnoanmH akonaH, ko1opme pnn uero xe nn6ypL nanncanm, poccnckoe
rocypapc1ao ec1L Honapxnn, npnueH nnuL neko1opme qynkunn aepxoano anac1n
paspenenm Hexpy HonapxoH n npepc1aan1enLnmHn yupexpennnHn. expy 1eH ne
1onLko 1ak nasmaaeHoe o6uec1ao a nnue neamx nap1n, no n caHa 6kpokpa1nn
6eso1ue1no knonn1 k yc1anoanennk pecny6nnkanckoro o6pasa npaanennn nnn 1oro
ckpm1o-pecny6nnkanckoro, a ko1opoH e roi regne mais ne gourenrne pas. Hec1o 1oro
u1o6m npnnn1L uec1no konc1n1yunk, kako ona pana, y nac caHn Hnnnc1pm - naunnan
c aa1opa konc1n1yunn, rpaqa n11e, - nepame saronocnnn o6 o6uec1aennoH
couyac1ann, o neo6xopnHoc1n o6uec1aenno noppepxkn, 6es ko1opo
rocypapc1aennoc1L 6yp1o 6m ne Hoxe1 amnonnn1L paxe caonx nonnuecknx
o6nsannoc1e. o ecnn acnoHnn1L, u1o 1ak nasmaaeHoe o6uec1ao y nac
(o6pasoaannm knacc) nacun1maae1 epaa opnn npouen1 nacenennn, npnueH a1o1 opnn
npouen1 pas6n1 na 33 nap1nn, naansmaakune npaan1enLc1ay kaxpan caok nporpaHHy,
- ecnn acnoHnn1L, u1o nop nHeneH o6uec1aennoro Hnennn cnepye1 nonnHa1L uaue
acero kouaun konuep1 osno6nennmx eapeunkoa, sanononnaunx neua1L, 1o Hoxno
ce6e npepc1aan1L, u1o sa npenec1L amuna 6m y nac pecny6nnka, onnpakuancn na
1akoro popa "o6uec1aennoe couyac1ane!
eope1nueckn nenLsn o1pnua1L, u1o o6uec1aennoe couyac1ane - aeuL pnn acnko
anac1n xena1enLnan. o konc1n1yunonnan Honapxnn nHenno 1eH n o1nnuae1cn o1
pecny6nnkn, u1o a ne npaanenne ne napopnoe, 1o ec1L a caHoH kopne nesaancnHoe o1
couyac1ann o6uec1aa. pecny6nnke o6uec1ao - xosnnn anac1n, a Honapxnn -
o6uec1ao 1onLko noHounnk. ak c1nxnn caepyue, o6uec1ay npepoc1aaneno nnuL
o6cyxpenne sakona n kon1ponL nap unnoannkaHn. apnaHen1ckn kon1ponL cospan y
nac ne pnn 6opL6m c anac1Lk, a, nanpo1na, pnn nenpepmano noHoun e.
onc1n1yunonannsH nopo6en Hepnunne. Heua1enLc1ao snannn ne nsHenne1 sakonoa
1ena, a nnuL noHorae1 nH pec1aoaa1L ao ace nonno1e. ouyac1ane 1kane sakonaH
qnsnonornn nasmaae1cn spopoaLeH, necouyac1ane - 6onesnLk. Bonesnn neua1, a ne
npncnoco6nnk1cn k nnH.
H o6euan o1ae1n1L . . 1onmnnny na ka1eropnueckn aonpoc: kakne noc1ynkn n
Heponpnn1nn 1pe6yk1cn pnn ycnnennn anac1n? ne npepnarak1 "nepeuncnn1L 1ouno
a1n noc1ynkn. coxanennk, pasHepm rase1no c1a1Ln nosaonnk1 nHenno 1onLko
nepeuncnn1L nx, n 1o nnuL 6erno.
epam n neo1noxnm ponr anac1n, xenakue 6m1L cnnLno, - a1o cooprannsoaa1Lcn
na caoeH co6c1aennoH noc1y. eo6xopnHo, u1o6m ao rnaae Hnnnc1epc1aa c1an uenoaek
6onLuoro yHa n 6onLuo aonn. cnn a1nH uenoaekoH okaxe1cn . . 1onmnnn, n 6ypy
nckpenno eHy annopnpoaa1L. cnkoe 1aopuec1ao epnnonnuno; ne roaopn o
xypoxec1aenno c1a1ye, nonpo6y1e am cnenn1L ropuok a koHnannn c pecn1Lk
uenoaekaHn. oHounnkn npaan1enk nyxnm, npeHLep-Hnnnc1py nyxna konnernn
Hnnnc1poa, kak pnn peren1a nyxen xop. npaunaae1cn, noxoxe nn naue 1enepeunee
Hnnnc1epc1ao na cneauncn xop? Yam, ne1. o6ue pa6o1e Hnnnc1poa n nx
ncnonnn1enLnmx opranoa ne uyac1aye1cn rapHonnn. osLHn1e qak1m, nnuL aceH
nsaec1nme. asae r-n 1onmnnn snan o npepnpnn1nnx r-na ypko, 6nnxauero caoero
1oaapnua? asae 1o, u1o penae1cn a aepoHc1ae npocaeuennn, o1aeuae1 co6c1aenno
nporpaHHe npeHLep-Hnnnc1pa? Hnnnc1epc1ae npepc1aanenm no HenLue Hepe 1pn
nap1nn, npnueH aepoHc1ao, aaxneuee a cHmcne 6opL6m co cHy1o, o1pano kape1aH.
ne kaxe1cn, aneHen1apnoe coo6paxenne 1pe6ye1 nonn1nueckoro epnnc1aa a coc1aae
anac1n. yxno, u1o6m ne 1onLko ace Hnnnc1pm 6es ncknkuennn, no n ace pnpek1opa
penap1aHen1oa, ace renepan-ry6epna1opm, ry6epna1opm, pnpek1opa amcunx n cpepnnx
ukon n 1.n. npnnapnexann k opno nap1nn. eo6xopnHo, u1o6m a coc1aae anac1n 6mno
yc1anoaneno rocypapc1aennoe credo n u1o6m ono coepnnnno nnuL nckpenne aepykunx
a nero. asnnune ocnoanmx Hnenn ec1ec1aenno a napnaHen1e, no ono nanne1cn
aepxoH nenenoc1n a npaanueH kpyry. napnaHen1 cxopn1cn pnn ampa6o1kn sakona -
npaan1enLc1ay xe npnxopn1cn ocyuec1ann1L sakon. asnoronocnua 1y1 nanne1cn
6pepoamH cosnanneH, ko1opoe ao ace noc1ynkn anocn1 cypopoxnoe 6eccnnne. nennn
rpaxpan, a 1oH uncne n Hnnnc1poa, koneuno, cao6opnm, no a Hnnnc1pm n npaanun
cno aoo6ue ponxnm nop6npa1Lcn nkpn, cao6opno npnuepune k epnnc1ay asrnnpoa.
enLsn pepxa1Lcn cpasy acex nonn1nuecknx nporpaHH. ak c1panno 6mno 6m
acecocnoanoe paopnnc1ao, n6o a1o o1pnuano 6m caHyk npnpopy cocnoan, 1ak nenLsn
a kopnopaunk npaan1enLc1aa ponycka1L npepc1aan1ene pasnmx nap1n, pasnmx
nonn1nuecknx npeanoa. epnnHoc1L - aeuL npekpacnan ao Hnornx cnyuanx -
npeapauae1cn a rnynoc1L 1aH, rpe no caHo na1ype 1pe6ye1cn ne1epnnHoc1L, nHenno a
o6nac1n peuenn. cnepc1ane rny6okoro rocypapc1aennoro ynapka y nac o1
canuennnkoa nepec1ann 1pe6oaa1L aepm, o1 oqnuepoa - xpa6poc1n; konunnocL 1eH,
u1o o1 npaan1enLc1aa ne 1pe6yk1 epnnc1aa aonn. e nyxno, Hon, onpepenenno
rocypapc1aenno nporpaHHm, a ecnn uenoaek neckonLko cHekae1 no caoeHy aepoHc1ay,
1o n poc1a1ouno. ne kaxe1cn, ns pas6popa Hmcnn na aepxax anac1n npe1 nary6nan
annoc1L pec1an, 6eso1ue1nan o6c1pykunn "cqep ppyr ppyry, o1cpouka, sa1nxka,
o6xop ckonLko-nn6ypL peun1enLnmx Hep. nn no6expaeHoro sna noc1onnno
oc1aannk1cn nasekn n amxopm. ak 6yp1o nenen 6yn1, napouno c1apak1cn koe-u1o
c6epeuL na ceHena.
oprannsoaaa nop6op cornacnmx nkpe c o6ue nonn1nuecko aepo, npaan1enLc1ao
ne 6ype1 nyxpa1Lcn a ykasannnx, u1o eHy pena1L, u1o6m nopaan1L 6yn1. no
npepnpnHe1 ne kakne-nn6ypL nnme, a 1e xe noc1ynkn n 1e xe Hepm, no nnuL c
peunHoc1Lk nx amnonnn1L, a ne 1onLko amnoxn1L na 6yHary. nnLnoe npaan1enLc1ao
noHe1 npexpe acero, u1o c 6yn1oH nyxno cneun1L, kak c noxapoH nnn uyHo. e
c1paunme a caoeH nauane, ace cepLesnme 6epc1ann a konue yxe neoponnHm. oa1oHy
o1knapmaa1L peuennn na saa1pa, ecnn onn uenecoo6pasnm ceropnn, - nonn1nka caHan
nnoxan. Henno no1oHy, u1o a coc1aae anac1n ec1L nkpn ne1aeppmx Hnenn,
saHnpenne occnn npe1 uepenauLnH xopoH. Henno no a1o npnunne Hnnnc1pm
kone6nk1cn, ac1ynak1 a cnop c nnpepaHn onnosnunn, pyHan saroaopn1L nx nnn
nepecnopn1L. Henno o1ckpa aosnnkae1 c1pannan HmcnL, u1o npaan1enLc1ao ne Hoxe1
nopaan1L 1eppop, a Hoxe1 a1o cpena1L "1onLko caHo o6uec1ao. o aepL a1a HmcnL, a
cyunoc1n, nepaneka o1 o6Lnanennn sa6ac1oakn anac1n. o1nam ee nepanekn o1 1ex,
ko1opmHn o6Lncnne1 caok sa6ac1oaky neyuauancn HonopexL: "oka o6uec1ao
necnokono, Hm pa6o1a1L ne HoxeH. ne kaxe1cn, nepamH penoH npeo6pasoaannoro
ka6nne1a 6mn 6m 1aeppo noc1aanennm nosynr: "e xpa1L nyuunx apeHen, a
neHepnenno npnnnHa1L Hepm, npn1oH ncuepnmaakune aonpoc. poHapnoe
6onLunnc1ao peuenn 1onLko 1eH n nnoxn, u1o onn nepeun1enLnm.
op peun1enLnmHn HepaHn n pasyHek, koneuno, ne noronoanme kasnn n aoo6ue ne
kpoaaayk pacnpaay. cnn eapeckan neua1L a opnn ronoc Hne naansmaae1
kpoaoxapnme Hmcnn, 1o uero xe am xo1n1e o1 xnpoacko coaec1n? ra1L, nra1L nnsko,
nra1L rpnsno, ne 6oncL nnkakoro cHpapa a kneae1e, - a1o coc1aanne1 opnn ns nynk1oa
noHeua1enLc1aa nnopopuea, u1o nanann na occnk. ackonLko a1a Hannn kneae1m
saxaa1maae1 eapeckne kpyrn, pokasmaae1 1o, u1o paxe cnnnuancn 6m1L npnnnuno
kape1ckan "euL noa1opne1 npo1na Henn ace rnycnoc1n Henko eapecko npeccm. a
o6annenne a kpoaoxapnoc1n n ckaxy, u1o nnkorpa ne pekoHenpoaan npaan1enLc1ay nn
noamx ancennu, nn eapecknx norpoHoa. o nnk1o ns sppaaoHmcnnunx pyccknx nkpe
ne o1kaxe1 anac1n, c1onue na c1paxe naunn, a npaae o1aeua1L na aony aono.
neHn ypm po 1ako c1enenn paccun1maae1 na pycckyk npoc1o1y, u1o npaao
cHep1no kasnn cepLesno xoue1 cpena1L caoe npnannerne. aHn rocnopa eapen
Hory1, anpn1e nn, ckonLko yropno kpoun1L xpnc1nan 6oH6aHn n 6paynnnraHn, a
xpnc1nane o1nkpL ne Horn nx 1pony1L, paxe no npnroaopy yronoanoro cypa. o
ckonLko 6m nn naunocL pyccknx pypaukoa, cornacnmx na 1akoe paspenenne pone, n
pyHak, nernynme pycckne nkpn epaa nn o6papyk1cn eapecko aqepe. parnueckan
6opL6a, u1o npe1 1enepL, - 6opL6a sa xnsnL occnn, 1pe6ye1 ne koe-kaknx, a nopuac
1parnuecknx Hep. cnn 6esannnme pycckne nkpn a xep1ay Hnpa npnnocn1
co6c1aennyk kpoaL n xnsnL, 1o ne c1ane1 xe naua anac1L uepeHonn1Lcn co snopenHn
no1oHy 1onLko, u1o onn snopen. o nonn1nk anoc1ona aana, ko1opm 6mn
ocaepoHnen a xpnc1nanc1ae epaa nn HenLue 1enepeunnx eapeunkoa, 1onLko 1a
anac1L - anac1L, ko1opan "ne nanpacno nocn1 Heu. 1 npec1ynnnkoa, ononunaunxcn
na occnk, saancn1, u1o6m rposnm Heu rocypapc1aennm 6mn anoxen a noxnm.
BpocL1e rnycnoe cHep1oy6nc1ao, 6pocL1e saepckne npneHm 6opL6m - n
npaan1enLc1ao ne kocne1cn aaue pparouenno xnsnn. o nHenno a1oro-1o naun
6yn1apn n ne Hory1. narnoc1Lk, poxopnue po kHopa, onn o6Lnannk1 naue anac1n
aony - - n kpnua1 npo1na aoennmx Hep. 1aan1 cHep1nme npnroaopm - n kpnua1
npo1na cHep1nmx npnroaopoa. ne kaxe1cn, cnnLnan anac1L ponxna npespe1L a1o1
nepnxonckn uyH. aennuaue 1ua1enLnoc1Lk o1pennn Hnpnmx nkpe o1
aokkunx, ona ponxna noc1yna1L c nocnepnnHn, kak c aokkunHn. pn a1oH aceH
nonn1no, u1o caHan xec1okan aona pnn o6enx c1opon - sa1nxnan. BypL
npaan1enLc1ao neckonLko peun1enLnee a nauane 6yn1a, ne cpaaacn ono na
npepa1enLckne aonnn o6 aHnnc1nn, yHe ono c1epeuL caonx nnennmx - ancennu
no1pe6oaanocL 6m nensHepnHo HenLue, ueH 1enepL.
cnn . . 1onmnnn nenpeHenno 1pe6ye1 nnaen1apnoro nepeuncnennn Hep,
neo6xopnHmx pnn ycnnennn anac1n, 1o n Hor 6m noa1opn1L 1o, o ueH roaopnn ne pas:
1) nyxno, u1o6m npokypopm n cypLn naun 6mnn pec1an1enLno npokypopaHn n
cypLnHn, a ne kasenno oprannsaune, cnyxaue koe-rpe pnn saun1m npec1ynnnkoa
o1 sakona. axe1cn, caH . . 1onmnnn coo6uan a neua1n o npepcepa1ene cypa,
1opxec1aenno apyunaueH onpaapannoHy 6yn1apk peaonLaep, cnn1m co c1ona
aeuec1aennmx pokasa1enLc1a;
2) nyxno, u1o6m 1kpLHm 6mnn 1kpLHaHn, a ne paccoxunHncn 6oukaHn, ns ko1opmx
y1ekae1 copepxn Hoe. o ceropnnunnH, nanpnHep, nsaec1nnH ns n1cko ry6epnnn, a
no6opckoH yespe sa uec1L pne 6exann 12 uenoaek, a anHmxckoH - paoe, a
pnoackoH - 21 uenoaek, a nasoackoH sa 1pn nepenn y6exan 61 ccmnLnm. "
neko1opme pnn 6ery1 no 7 - 8 uenoaek;
3) nyxno, u1o6m ccmnkn 6mnn pec1an1enLno ccmnkaHn, 1o ec1L Hec1aHn nsonnunn
npec1ynnoro aneHen1a o1 Hnpnmx rpaxpan, a ne Hec1aHn sapasm nocnepnnx, ne
ouaraHn pacnpoc1panennn cHy1m;
4) nyxno, u1o6m napsop nap peaonkunonno neua1Lk 6mn ne HnnHmH, a
pec1an1enLnmH napsopoH, npnueH npecnepoaanne npec1ynnoc1n ponxno 6m1L
npeceuenneH ee, a ne peknaHo pnn panLneuero pacnpoc1panennn;
5) nyxno, u1o6m nncnekunn n nonnunn acex anpoa 6mnn npnaepenm a coo1ae1c1ane
ne c 1eH coc1onnneH, a kakoH occnn naxopnnacL nonc1one1nn nasap, a c coapeHennmH
ee coc1onnneH. cnn opnn nncnek1op npnxopn1cn na nonco1nn knnxnmx Harasnnoa n
na pecn1kn 1nnorpaqn, ecnn na rpoHapnme ckonnennn napopa, a pecn1kn 1mcnu,
npnxopn1cn napa ropopoamx, aoopyxennmx apxeonornuecknHn nnc1one1aHn, ns
ko1opmx onn ne yHek1 c1penn1L, 1o 1akan onepe1ounan o6c1anoaka, ec1ec1aenno, ne
norauae1 6yn1a, a nnopn1 ero;
6) nyxno, u1o6m ao rnaae kasenno-peaonkunonnmx saaepenn, kakoam cpepnne n
amcune ukonm, 6mnn noc1aanenm nkpn, ne couyac1aykune peaonkunn. Yun1enLckn
nepconan ponxen 6m1L 1ua1enLno npoaepen, n "1oaapnuaH, nocnunH anuHynpnpm,
ponxna 6m1L o1kpm1a paepL. a1onoHnn, npeapa1nauancn a npaao saaopn1L na
kasennm cue1 pecny6nnkn n coc1aann1L peaonkunonnme apHnn, ponxna 6m1L
o1Henena. kapeHnueckn coks npoqeccopoa, pykoaopnun yue6no o6c1pykune,
ponxen 6m1L pacnyuen. pn ckonLko-nn6ypL cepLesnoH conpo1nanennn 6yn1ykune
ukonm ponxnm 6m1L sakpm1m c nnuenneH rocypapc1aennoro xanoaanLn
npenopaaa1ene n npoqeccopoa;
7) 1ak kak aony c npaan1enLc1aoH aepy1 nnopopum npn pen1enLno noppepxke
canxnyauecn uac1n nn1ennnrenunn n napopa, 1o nyxno noc1aan1L n nnopopuea, n
cnyxe6nyk nn1ennnrenunk, n aokkun napop a ycnoann, npn ko1opmx aona 6mna
6m pnn nnx sa1pypnn1enLno. ak a1o cpena1L - aonpoc nonn1nueckoro nckycc1aa
nHenno 1oro 1aopuec1aa, o ko1opoH roaopn1 . . 1onmnnn. o acnkoH cnyuae, epaa
nn k ycnnennk anac1n cnyxn1 1ako 1aopueckn ak1, kak nepepaua uenmx aepoHc1a a
pykn nonnkoa n eapeea nnn copepxanne na cnyx6e, c narpapo unnaHn n oppenaHn,
pecn1koa 1mcnu kape1oa n acpekoa.
opaannn 6yn1 pyko xenesno, npaan1enLc1ao opnoapeHenno o6nsano ampmaa1L
kopnn 6yn1a, a a1n kopnn - a caHoH npaan1enLc1ae. nn - a cnc1eHe c1aporo
xosnc1aa, rpe nenname n npaspnme nkpn kopHnnncL na cue1 1pypoamx knaccoa.
nkakne 1kpLHm, nnkakne ancennum ne cnacy1 rocypapc1ao o1 napopnoro Hn1exa,
ecnn ne 6ype1 aocc1anoanen pasyH a caHmx ocnoaax anac1n, ecnn nopyrannan
cnpaaepnnaoc1L ne 6ype1 noc1aanena kak nepam npnnunn. napopy, n o6uec1ay ne
1onLko ponxnm 6m1L o6euanm nonn1nueckne npaaa, no ponxnm 6m1L n panm.
apnaHen1 ponxen ne 1onLko cosmaa1Lcn, no npaannLnan pa6o1a ero ponxna 6m1L
o6ecneuena, npn1oH opnnakoao - o1 aHeua1enLc1aa 6kpokpa1nn n o1 a1opxennn
6ynmx aneHen1oa kak cneaa, 1ak n cnpaaa. nepye1 npnsna1L, u1o 1onLko 1o1
napnaHen1 ec1L napnaHen1, ko1opm ycnnnaae1 cnoco6noc1L anac1n poc1nra1L ee
uene. aknH napnaHen1oH nannocL 6m npepc1aan1enLc1ao o1 1pypoamx kopnopaun.
onLko 1akoe penoaoe npepc1aan1enLc1ao Horno 6m anec1n c1porn kon1ponL nap
apHnnnc1paune n naunonanLnm pasyH a sakonopa1enLc1ao... 1o6m o6ecneun1L
pa6o1y penoaoro npepc1aan1enLc1aa, cnepye1 o6epeuL ero o1 nponnknoaennn
aneHen1oa, nop1nunx ero: o1 nnopopuea, o1 peaonkunonepoa n o1 neaexec1aenno
uepnn. aepx acero nepeuncnennoro n Hnororo ppyroro, anac1L, xenakuan 6m1L
cnnLno, o6nsana aceHepno nopnn1L aoennme cnnm c1panm, co6pa1L "ppyxnny
xpa6pmx, 6es ko1opmx rocypapc1aennan cnna - sayk nyc1o. o1 6ernm nepeuenL
npak1nuecknx Hep, ko1opme Hornn 6m cyuec1aenno nopnn1L snauenne anac1n. Hec1e
c cnno k ne aepnynocL 6m poc1onnc1ao, aepnynocL 6m Hyxec1ao n 1o1 pparouennm
cekpe1 nopnpka, u1o ceuac kak 6yp1o sa1epnn, - poaepne napopa k anac1n.
B
14
s pac1enn Xpnc1oc npoknnn 1onLko opno - 6ecnnopnyk cHokoannuy. s xnao1nmx
nory6nn nnopoan1mx canne, paspeuna a nnx acenn1Lcn 6ecaH. s nkpe Xpnc1oc
npepan npoknn1nk 1onLko knnxnnkoa, ko1opme coaHeuak1 a ce6e 6ecnnopne cyxo
cHokoannum c nou1n Hexannuecko nponsaopn1enLnoc1Lk canne. "ope aaH,
knnxnnkn! - a1o ckasano no appecy ne napopa n ne apnc1okpa1nn, a 1orpaune
nn1ennnrenunn, 1oro knacca, u1o sapmncn a canuennmx knnrax, nopa6o1nncn 6ykae n a
rnnnose cnoa y1pa1nn sppaam uenoaeueckn cHmcn. n1ennnrenune eapecko 1orpa
6mnn qapncen. Henno y nnx Xpnc1oc o1He1nn nopokn knnxno nepenaun1annoc1n:
npo1nanoe nnueHepne npexpe acero, npepasn1oc1L, Henounoc1L, "ouexnaanne
koHapa, coepnnennoe c cyHacuepue napHennoc1Lk.
epapoH nau npopok-nnca1enL asnn ns aanrennn 1eHy pnn caoero snaHenn1oro
poHana. aua nn1ennnrenunn, coapeHennan oc1oeackoHy, kasanacL eHy c1apoH
canne, a ko1opoe no BoxLeHy nonyuennk acennnncL 6ecm. nepc1aneH a1o kasnn,
cornacno npopouecko nerenpe, ponxno 6m1L napenne acero c1apa a Hope. cnn
nac1anaa1L na c6nnxennnx, 1o npoaan occnn nop ycnHo nanoHnnae1 po nsaec1no
c1enenn eaanrenLckoe co6m1ne. a cuene anoro 1ea1pa a e1ep6ypre ceuac
noc1aanena nepepenka "Becoa, pnp cuennuecknx nnnkc1paun, ko1opme kak 6m
nanoHnnak1 eue pas, u1o y nac ec1L yxe aennkoe npepckasanne o pyccko xnsnn, no
ne1 yue, ko1opme cnyuann 6m ero.
nepepenke poHana roaopn1L nsnnune. paa nn aosHoxno nepenoxn1L c1a1yk na
Hysmky nnn Hysmky nepepa1L knc1Lk xypoxnnka. Xo1n acnkn poHan no cyuec1ay
caoeHy npepc1aanne1 ppaHy, kak 6m pacckasannyk co c1oponm (nanpnHep, xopoH a
rpeuecknx 1parepnnx), no ace-1akn neu1o cyuec1aennoe y1paunaae1cn n u1o-1o uyxpoe
npnanocn1cn npn nepepenke. eH ne Henee nonLsy nepepenok nenLsn o1pnua1L, kak
nenLsn o1pnua1L snauennn nc1opnuecknx kap1nn. epepenkn ampanrak1 xapak1epnme
c1oponm poHana, nopuepknaak1 nx, pak1 c1epeockonnueckyk amnyknoc1L 1nnaH.
occospannme ak1epcknH 1anan1oH, repon oc1oeackoro oxnaak1 na cuene.
onpo6y1e sa6m1L kann1ana e6npknna a npeaocxopnoH ncnonnennn r-na
nxanoaa. ea1p sac1aanne1 nnoxnx un1a1ene pornnpe1L n pocnyua1L 1o, u1o onn
nponyc1nnn a knnre, sac1aanne1 ne 1onLko nosnakoHn1Lcn c aennko aeuLk, no n
sayun1L ee nansyc1L. ornnpea "Becoa na cuene, 1nne1 anoaL nepeun1a1L a1o
orpoHnoe nponsaepenne, a nepeun1a1L ero snaun1 anoaL nepepa1L uenoe co6m1ne
caoe Honopoc1n, aonnykuee, sac1aannauee korpa-1o cnnLno uyac1aoaa1L n Hnoro
pyHa1L.
1kypa 6ecm? 1kypa yHc1aennoe coc1onnne, penakuee neypaanoaeuennmx nkpe,
oco6enno HonopexL, 1aknHn necuac1nmHn, o1paanennmHn, osno6nennmHn,
npec1ynnmHn? 1o sac1aanne1 a1nx c1ypen1oa, rnHnasnc1oa, nn1ennnren1oa acnkoro
saannn aec1n ce6n 1ak nnocko-rnyno n 1ak unnnueckn-xec1oko? kpn pasnoro
6esyHnn, onn pec1an1enLno 1ouno opepxnHm 6ecaHn. nn 1onLko nocn1 uenoaeueckne
o6nnuLn, na caHoH pene onn - xname 6ecm, ace a1n 1aapornnm, a1oam, npnnoam,
- 6ecm c1papakune, kak 6m nannHme apcknH nnaHeneH. kaosL nnyk anrenLckyk
napyxnoc1L, kak y Honoporo epxoaenckoro (r-n naronnn), ckaosn1 uepnm pLnaon,
no pLnaon nepaann, acennauncn aHec1e c kako-1o knnro. Becoackn
coHnaH6ynnsH ec1L cnepc1ane nauen1maanLn, naroaopa, ko1opmH saaopaxnaak1
nkpe neHme 6yHaxnme cospannn. nnrn anyuak1 pepko neu1o aennkoe - n6o
aennkoe aoo6ue pepkoc1L, - uaue xe nnskoe n npec1ynnoe, ueH npnpopa
uenoaeueckan 1ak 6ora1a.
neppenne 6ecoa a pycckoe o6uec1ao naunnae1cn a anoxy nan6onee npkoro pasan1nn
cannc1aa - a anoxy apaca ko1nnnna n poc1akoao. D1o 6mno a aeke ka1epnnm,
korpa paopnnc1ao 6mno ocao6oxpeno o1 nc1opnuecko cnyx6m caoe n o1
Hnoroaekoao 1pypoao pncunnnnnm. oun1a1e sannckn Bono1oaa
[31]
. o e1pa III,
packpenoc1nauero cnyxnnm knacc, kpenoc1noro npaaa nou1n ne cyuec1aoaano: ono
6mno o6unH. paopnnnn, n naxapL, n uapL, no saHmcny e1pa ennkoro, 6mnn
ckoaanm po rpo6a rocypapc1aenno pa6o1o. nkoHy ne paspeuanocL nnuero ne
pena1L, nnk1o - nop c1paxoH 1nxenmx kap - ne Hor 6m1L napasn1oH o6uec1aa. Bonee
nnn Henee npocaeuennme nkpn, kak n rny6okne neaexpm, 6mnn noc1aanenm a
opnnakoame ycnoann 1pypoao, penoao, nponsaopn1enLno xnsnn, kaxpm no caoe
uac1n. 1o kacae1cn paopnnc1aa, 1o cypoaan cnyx6a a kasapHax naunnan c conpa1cknx
unnoa, nenpepmanan Hyu1poaka, akcnepnunn, noxopm, neo6xopnHoc1L copepxa1L
aocka a 6nec1nueH anpe - n6o aek 6mn c1porn - ace a1o 1pe6oaano o1 paopnn
6onLuo pa6o1m. poHe pa6o1m nyxnm 6mna sa6o1a, annHanne, 1peaora, a a cnyuae
aonm 1pe6oaancn reponsH, poxopnaun po cHep1nmx Hyk. onm 6mnn uac1me,
noxopm sa1nxnme, Hnorone1nne. pn ckypoc1n noHec1n paxe nepopocnn n nnaannpm
ne cnpenn npaspnmHn - npnxopnnocL po6maa1L xne6, 1o ec1L onn1L-1akn pa6o1a1L.
ne kaxe1cn, a1o pa6ouee nonoxenne o6naropaxnaano 1orpa acex. pn o1cy1c1ann
1ecno cansn c cocepnnH npocaeuenneH pycckoHy o6uec1ay npnxopnnocL aone-
neaone opnrnnanLno Hmcnn1L, npnaopn1L a pec1ane co6c1aennm sppaam cHmcn.
ennkoe peno - yHa1L 1aopueckn, n nHenno 1orpa cknapmaancn caHoc1on1enLnm,
naunonanLnm nau pasyH, ckasaauncn a aennko nn1epa1ypno ukone. o
a1opxenne nnoseHuea ace ncnop1nno. e1p III packpenoc1nn paopnn, nosa6ma npn
a1oH packpenoc1n1L napop. opennoHy neHuy xo1enocL anpe1L aokpyr ce6n qeopanoa,
n ao1 c1o 1mcnu paopnn 6mnn nocaxenm na ro1oame xne6a. orpa nHenno, Hne
kaxe1cn, n nauanocL cannc1ao pyccko xnsnn, nopro1oanauee nauec1ane 6ecoa.
6nonornn ec1L sakon: nocapn1e na ro1oaoe nn1anne xnsnepen1enLnm oprannsH, n
on upesamuano 6mc1po npnHe1 napasn1nm 1nn. a6oune opranm, kak nenyxnme,
a1poqnpyk1cn. oc1enenno o1Hnpak1 opranm uyac1a n pasyHa, yHenLuae1cn - po
nonnoro ncuesnoaennn - ronoano Hosr, n oprannsH a konue konuoa npeapauae1cn a
coue1anne xenypka n nonoamx xenes. ackpenouenne paopnn n paspaua nH
rocypapc1aennmx 6ora1c1a cpenann o6ecneuennmH 1o1 knacc, ko1opm pnn 6nara
naunn ponxen 6m 6m1L anepepn acnkoro 1pypa, a nanpnxennn 1anan1a n
coaepuenc1aa. ne kaxe1cn, nHenno 1orpa nopanacL naua c1apopaannn kynL1ypa.
"Bpnrapnpe am yxe un1ae1e, c kaknH npespenneH HonopexL, nonkxaauan aponm,
o1nocn1cn k caoe popnne. y1 HoHen1 aennuauero nepenoHa a nc1opnn:
apnc1okpa1m, saun1nnkn c1panm, repon no npoqeccnn, kaknH-1o konpoac1aoH
naunnak1 nn1a1L npespenne k can1mne, cnyxenne ko1opo po a1oro coc1aannno cHmcn
nx xnsnn.
1kypa nouno npespenne k caoe c1pane? ne kaxe1cn, ono nouno o1 ynapka caoe
co6c1aenno naunonanLno kynL1ypm. na 6mna y nac, no norn6na, sapaanennan
noamH yxacnmH pnn acnko kynL1ypm ycnoaneH - napasn1nsHoH apnc1okpa1nn. ce
6mno nepypno, noka pa6o1ann aHec1e, noka c1papann, aepnnn, HonnnncL, noka a
1parepnn 1nxeno naunonanLno xnsnn ynpaxnnnn pyx cao po 6ora1mpcko
amnocnnaoc1n n o1aarn.
Focnopa ko1uum
apac ko1nnnn, n1poqanyuka - cpasy paa nokonennn cannouenoaekoa, sann1mx
1onLko xenypounmHn, 1onLko nonoamHn aonpocaHn. yc1L napnpy c nnHn eue
aosHoxnm 6naropopnme 1nnm: nakonnennan cnna pyxa 1pa1n1cn ne 1o1uac, - no yxe
snaun1enLnan, Hoxe1 6m1L, npeo6napakuan uac1L paopnnc1aa nana co caoe
cnyxnno amco1m. y1L nocnyxna, poxpaauncL unna nopyunka nnn kopne1a, paopnne
amxopnnn a o1c1aaky, exann a popoame ycapL6m, onyckanncL a nepnnm n nyxoame
nopyukn, 1onc1enn, 6pkxa1enn cpepn paopoamx rapeHoa. 1 nk1o ckykn nnnn, enn,
cnann, seaann, ky1nnn, poxopnnn po 6ecnpo6ypnoro nLnnc1aa n neno1pe6c1aa. epL a
caHoH pene ace a1o 6mno. 1apnkn a1o eue noHnn1 ns xnamx aocnoHnnann,
HonopexL Hoxe1 npouec1L Hnnnnon canpe1enLc1a, ne oc1aannkunx coHnennn. asae
1onLko orpoHnme 1anan1m apope yuknna n ero ukonm ne noppaaanncL
pac1neaakueHy annnnnk kpenoc1noro cannc1aa. anan1, kak sono1o, ne okncnne1cn,
ne pxaaee1 a uenouax. o orpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao nocpepc1aennmx, ocao6oxpennmx
o1 1pypa nkpe ampoxpanncL a nsaec1nme roroneackne 1nnm. s nnx en1e1nnkoa, kak
neHnoro nosxe 6noHoa, 6mnn eue caHmHn cnHna1nunmHn. rnnpn1ecL npnc1anLno a
a1o1 knacc: kakan konoccanLnan a neH coaepunnacL nepeHena! ne1poackne,
reponueckne apeHena rep6oH apnc1okpa1nn Hor cnyxn1L naunonanLnm rep6 - open.
posnoe, cnnLnoe, sopkoe, nopanxnoe xnao1noe, na6nkpaauee c amco1m sa payHn
Ha1epnkaHn n kak 6m payxronoaoe, - 1akoa 6mn c1apm pycckn apnc1okpa1,
o1c1anaaaun occnk. o xnunan n1nua a anoxy ka1epnnm kak 6yp1o nauana
nepepoxpa1Lcn a 1onc1oe ue1aeponoroe, ko1opoHy 1onLko 6m ec1L pa cna1L. ak a 1oH
1onc1okoxeH, u1o nakasan Xpnc1oc, y Hnornx o6ecneuennmx nkpe amcuan xnsnL
saHepna, caenacL k xpa1ae. unpoknx kpyrax nonynpocaeuenno 6ypxyasnn naue,
nenpaannLno nHenyeHo paopnnc1aoH, a ko1nnnne, a 6noHoae noracno Hyxec1ao,
nonnkna aepa, no6nekno nc1nnnoe 6naropopc1ao. 1o kacae1cn 6noHoaa, 1o on -
nopo6no necpaanennoHy r-ny epxoaenckoHy-o1uy - konuae1 ponLk copepxanua y
ceppo6onLno xenunnm.
aHe1L1e, koHy a "Becax npnnapnexn1 nepaan ckpnnka snopec1aa: cmny c1aporo
ac1e1a n annkypeua, cmny nsnuneue, c1poro amxonenno cannLn, ecnn nosaoneno
ckasa1L npaapy. D1o popc1ao snaHena1enLno. no o6pyHano oc1oeacknH, kak
c1paunm amaop ero anoxn. nc1nk n - kak acnkn Hnc1nk - cnHaonnc1 oc1oeackn
ne Hor ne anpe1L, u1o nauec1ane 6ecoa c1ano aosHoxnmH nnuL na nouae nonnoro
HapasHa c1apmx nokonenn, coaepuenno nx necnoco6noc1n o1c1on1L kynL1ypy,
ko1opo, 6ypyun npepc1aan1ennHn ee, onn nepame nsHennnn. ny6oko oHeuannaueecn
o6uec1ao, y1pa1nauee ace pmuapckoe, ace cnnLnoe, ace panraauee na nopanr,
nenpeHenno ponxno 6mno cpena1Lcn po6mue uyxnx npe, n6o y1pa1nno caon. cnn
napop 6espaccypno pac1pa1nn ppeanee 6ora1c1ao pyxa, on nenpeHenno 1nne1cn k
uyxoHy 6ora1c1ay n penae1cn pa6oH ero. yxoe po6po anpok nepe1, roaopn1 yHnan
npnHe1a. yxo pyx, uyxne npen pec1ayk1, nonaa a naue cosnanne, no kaknH-1o
caonH sakonaH n papn caonx nn1epecoa. pnnnHakuan nx cpepa penae1cn nx
nn1anneH, nx po6mue, ne 6onee. eH 6onee pmxn n xnpen knacc, nopaeprakuncn
nauec1ank npe, 1eH 6onee on 6naronpnn1en a cHmcne "nn1a1enLnoro 6ynLona pnn
sapasnmx nauan. nrpe 1ak unpoko ne pacnpoc1pannncn nnrnnnsH, kak a occnn. D1o
pokasa1enLc1ao o1nkpL ne cnnm pycckoro yHa (kak pyHak1 caHn nnrnnnc1m), a
npnsnak cna6oc1n ero. pae1cn nnuL 1o, u1o yc1on1L ne Hoxe1, cpae1cn 6eccnnne n
nyc1o1a. pae1cn rnynoc1L: nyxno saHe1n1L, u1o nocaxennoe na papoame xne6a
o6uec1ao naue saHe1no nornyneno a cpaanennn xo1n 6m c ppeaneHockoacknH. YH,
korpa penae1cn nnunnH, o1Hnpae1. saueH yH uenoaeky a c1one? nyckancL po
cannc1aa, pycckn uenoaek npno6pen caoero popa HopanLnyk acenpnoc1L. ycckoHy
uenoaeky, ynpoc1naueHycn po "xenypouno-nonoaoro kocHononn1a (ampaxenne
eppnna), c1ano 6espasnnuno, caoe nn uaaka1L nnn uyxoe. yxne pennka1ecm on c1an
npepnoun1a1L popnoHy xne6y. yxne npen, kak 6m onn nn 6mnn nenenm, nauann
kasa1Lcn yHnee co6c1aennoro n napopnoro cHmcna. 1 canne nepepeH k 6ecaH.
cxonorn 6ecuoaa1mx
nnpn c amco1m, o1nnuno anpnuL cyunoc1L ppaHm nauero apeHenn. na coaceH ne a
1oH, a ueH nonarae1 ee HonopexL, sapaxennan o1pnuanneH. onopexL pyHae1, u1o
npe1 aennkan Hnpoaan 6opL6a Hexpy ppeannH neaexec1aoH n noamH, nayunmH
pasyHoH. onopexL pyHae1, u1o nayka anecna noaoe o1kpoaenne n ono ponxno 6pa1L
caon nosnunn npnc1ynoH, ne uapn nnkaknx aepoaann, nnkaknx saae1oa npounoro.
ce npounoe o1He1ae1cn kak necyuec1aykuee, ace nac1onuee sanopaspnaae1cn kak
nenenoe. pnnc1aenno peanLnoc1Lk npnsnae1cn 1o, uero ne1: Heu1a yun1ene,
ko1opmx HmcnL cpenanacL nponoH 6ecnouapnee onoxa. c1nna a 6ypyueH - ao1
uen1p coapeHenno 1parepnn. opo6no o1uenLnnkaH-nsyaepaH V aeka, nmneunne
6es6oxnnkn o1aeprak1 uapc1ao Hnpa cero. opo6no nH, onn xpy1 n xaxpy1 noaoro
epycannHa, npnueH y counan-anapxnc1oa a1o1 noam ny1L xnsnn nnuy1L ne
npaaponopo6nee onncannoro a nokannncnce. ne kaxe1cn, a1o nepeHeuenne
npeanoa coc1aanne1 caoero popa Hosroao cpanr, pop noHeua1enLc1aa, caoc1aennoro
apeHenaH ynapka. 1aepxenne nac1onuero ec1L o1aepxenne npnpopm - aeuL, no
cyuec1ay, cyHacuepuan. 1pnua1e uapc1ao Hnpa cero, no ono aepL cyuec1aye1 -
ao1 6epa. korpa ono, a c1poro onpepenennm cpok, cHenn1cn 6ypyunH, 1o a a1o1
HoHen1 6ypyuee c1ane1 aepL nac1onunH, ne npaapa nn?
enaanc1L k nac1onueHy, npepnou1enne eHy Heu1m cun1ae1cn npnsnakoH yHc1aenno
cnnm, no a pec1an1enLnoc1n a1o npnsnak onacno ppn6noc1n yHa. aun anapxnc1m,
y1onnc1m, o1pnua1enn sapaxenm Hanne aennunn: onn aoo6paxak1 ce6n yHnee caoe
cpepm - na caHoH pene onn ropaspo rnynee ee, n a a1oH acn nx ppaHa. 6n6necko
Hnqonornn a1a 1eHa paano nccnepoaana, nHenno a nerenpe o nponcxoxpennn 6ecoa.
a1annnny nokasanocL nepoc1a1ounmH ero a1opoe nocne Bora nonoxenne a Hnpe. n
o1aepr cyuec1aykuee, on nopnnn nepayk peaonkunk, okonunauykcn pnn nero c1onL
nnaueano. ac1n, noxenaaue paaenc1aa c uenmH, 6mno pokasano ee 6esyHne.
cennauncL a nkpe, 6ecm npoponxak1 6yn1 npo1na ospa1enn, no, a cyunoc1n, c 1eH
xe ycnexoH. ak eapen a occnn, 6ecm 1pe6yk1 nonnonpaann c BoroH, paaenc1aa,
xosncknx npaa, ne nonnHan, u1o a1o 1pe6oaanne npo1naoec1ec1aenno, npo1nano
caHo npnpope.
e opnn pasyH, a paa pec1ayk1 a Hnpe - a a1oH 6ecnoaa1me ne oun6ak1cn. o onn
rny6oko oun6ak1cn, nonaran, u1o aepxoanm pasyH npnnapnexn1 nH.
pec1an1enLnoc1n na nx ponk npnxopn1cn nnsun, nnpnanpyanLnm pasyH, n ao1
nc1nnnan npnunna nx 6esyHnn. m ace cknonnm pyHa1L, u1o Hm - uen1p cosnannn,
u1o ace apauae1cn aokpyr nac. apene ec1L nek1o orpoHnm, nensHepnHm, u1o
nornouae1 nac n anyuae1 cao aeunm pasyH, - a1o nc1opnueckoe o6uec1ao, k
ko1opoHy Hm npnnapnexnH. cnn o6uec1ao npepoc1aaneno caHoHy ce6e, 1o a 1euenne
aekoa ono kpnc1annnsye1 caoe Haccoaoe cosnanne, ampaxan ero a kynL1e, o6muanx,
o6pnpax, sakonax, a noasnn, aepe. 6uec1ao ouynLk, ny1eH nenpepmanoro onm1a
ampa6a1maae1 caoe o1nouenne k Hnpy n aeuaH. D1o Haccoaoe cosnanne n ec1L
aepxoanoe, 1aeppoe, npounoe, nopunnn1Lcn ko1opoHy - amcuee cuac1Le. ennkne
xapak1epm npounoro o6Lncnnk1cn pec1aneH a c1apoH o6uec1ae a1oro Haccoaoro
cosnannn. 1penLnm uenoaek 1orpa pyHan n aepnn, kak ace, n no1oHy xo1en, kak ace.
aoe nnpnanpyanLno aone on nHen c1nxnnyk, Horyuyk noppepxky n, panraeHm
ek, uen 6ec1pene1no ko aceH uennH. o c6nnxenne uenoaeuecknx o6uec1a nanecno
ypap o1penLnmH kynL1aH n kynL1ypaH. aHkny1me, sakonuennme po ne6ecno ncnoc1n
Hnpocosepuannn 6mnn pas6n1m. nc1eHm Hmcnn nepeny1anncL, o6eccnnnnn,
o6ecuae1nnn ppyr ppyra, coaepuenno kak pasnme uae1a cnek1pa npn 6mc1poH
apauennn. accoam pasyH ackpy 6onee nnn Henee no1epnn caok o6nsa1enLnoc1L. n
kak 6m amponnn ns caonx o6Ln1n ppeHaauee nnpnanpyanLnoe cosnanne, n ono
npocnynocL. cues aepxoanm aa1opn1e1, n pnn kaxporo o1penLnoro Hmunennn c1ano
ace nosaoneno, ace aosHoxno. Becuncnennme, kpane nocpepc1aennme, nopuac
6espapnme nkpn, ocao6oxpennme o1 rne1a o6uero pasyHa, nouyac1aoaann
neo6xopnHoc1L caHnH peua1L sa ce6n. o1 1y1-1o n ckasanacL cna6oc1L kaxpo
o1penLno pyun a cpaanennn c aennknH c1apueH - uenoaeuec1aoH. 1penLnme
cosnannn nyc1nnncL yHc1aoaa1L akpnaL n akocL. onc1nne ace pas6penncL, k1o a nec,
k1o no ppoaa. axpoHy caon o1ce6n1nna c1ana kasa1Lcn o1kpoaenneH. Henno
aennuaune-1o Hyppeum n pyHann ne o1 ce6n. nn nannnncL nnuL npeaocxopnmHn
ampasn1ennHn Hnpoaoro onm1a, aepnmHn co6npa1ennHn saae1oa npouno-
r0
.
akonnennm c1nxnnm pasyH onn o1kpmaann, kak sakpm1yk cokpoanunnuy, n
paaann nkpnH o1kpoaenne ne caoe, a camue. popokn, qnnocoqm, npaaoyun1enn
oprannueckn, kak c1e6enL o1 kopnn, npoponxann aa1opn1e1 caoe naunonanLno
kynL1ypm, n ace aennune nx coc1onno nnuL a ncnoc1n ampaxennn.
oaceH ne 1o ppyro 1nn yHa, 6ecoackn. mnapan ns pasaannn aa1opn1e1a,
nnpnanpyanLnm pasyH penae1cn 6popnunH. n nn na ueH oc1anoan1Lcn ne Hoxe1.
ak koamnL-1paay, ero nopxaa1maae1 nk6oe aneunee 1euenne, nk6an Hopnan
pok1pnna. n papnkanen ao aceH no1oHy, u1o nn c ueH ne cansan. ornueckan
Haunnka, ko1opo nnuero ne xanL, ko1opan pa6o1ae1 n asap, n anepep, cHo1pn no
cnyuano nose. , kakoe a1o 6ecnokonoe cyuec1ao - nocpepc1aennm Hosr,
ocao6opnauncn o1 aa1opn1e1a! n naunnae1 ampyHmaa1L caok 1a6nnuy yHnoxennn,
caok aepy, caok HopanL, n nonyuae1cn uenyxa apope snaHenn1oro sacepannn y
nprnncknx. 1o 1akne a1n nn1ennnren1m, c1ypen1m, rnHnasnc1m, co6paaunecn sa
caHoaapoH peua1L npo6neHm Hnpa? mcnn1enn onn, yuenme, noa1m? nHano. ce a1o
Henkne unnoannkn, npone1apnn, neypaunnkn, Honopme nkpn, noun1aaune
sanpeuennmx knnxek. o Hoxe1 6m1L, a1n sanpeuennme knnxkn nanncanm kaknHn-
nn6ypL aennknHn nkpLHn? aneko ne1. ennkne knnrn ao acex 6n6nno1ekax 1nek1 a
nmnn, a un1ak1cn asacoc 1ouenLkne 6poukpkn pa xypnanLnan nackannL. ak 6m
uyac1ayn caok aeunyk nesnaun1enLnoc1L, xname 6ecm 1pe6yk1 paaenc1aa, 6ecm
kpnua1 o paaenc1ae, 6ecm poxopn1 po kouHapnmx snopec1a apope y6nc1aa a1oaa.
Bon1akune nsmkn nx aepno o1paxak1 c6on1annoe coc1onnne pyu. ac1penannan po
py6nua coaec1L, c1paunm ynapok uec1n, aepm, noasnn, aennkopyunn - acero, u1o
npexpe saann 6oxec1aennmH a uenoaeke, - ao1 koneunm pesynL1a1 kpyuennn
kynL1ypm n aHec1e c nek kynL1ypnoro pasyHa, kynL1ypnoro aa1opn1e1a.
onro nn npopnn1cn nauec1ane na occnk a1o uep1oaunnm? H pyHak, ouenL ponro.
e opna occnn, aecL Hnp oxaa1maae1cn 1o xe 6onesnLk: pacc1poc1aoH anac1n -
acnko anac1n, n npexpe acero HopanLno. cuesae1 cuennenne a uenoaeuec1ae,
xnHnueckoe cpopc1ao. DneHen1m ne xo1n1 yxe coc1aann1L cnc1eHm, onn xo1n1 6m1L
caHn no ce6e. oxe1 6m1L, Hm nakanyne xnpkoro n paxe napoo6pasnoro cknapa
o6uec1aa. orpa seHnan noaepxnoc1L nokpoe1cn nepeHeuannmH nacenenneH, korpa
noc1enenno conLk1cn (kak o1uac1n a npnn) aceaosHoxnme pacm, aepoaannn, nsmkn,
1o o6uan cHecL, Hoxe1 6m1L, ampa6o1ae1 korpa-nn6ypL kpane nec1poe "epnnoe
c1apo. o Hne cnnLno cpae1cn, u1o 1akoe c1apo 6ype1 yxe ne uenoaeuecknH
o6uec1aoH, a onn1L saepnnmH.
1908 rop
HT T T
peaora nocnepnnx pne - pacc1poc1ao eaponeckoro konuep1a no penaH
6ankancknH - npnanekae1 annHanne k pyccko pnnnoHa1nn. nn1L ona, 6ec1anannan,
u1o-1o npocnana. noaa, kak noaenocL co apeHen BncHapka, noakn uar neuko ns
Bepnnna sac1aanne1 ppoxa1L naunx cnonoa n qepse y eaueckoro Hoc1a.
eH o6Lncnn1L ynapok naue pnnnoHa1nn, korpa-1o, eue npn ka1epnne II,
cnaanauecn caonH nckycc1aoH? enLsn xe cna6oc1L pyccko nonn1nkn npnnncmaa1L
1onLko 1enepeune cna6oc1n aoopyxennmx cnn. m pas6n1m nepaano, a 1ana
pnnnoHa1nueckoro ycnexa y nac no1epnna paano. cyunoc1n, ace nocnepnee c1one1ne
ec1L cnnounan nc1opnn oun6ok, npnueH caHme nopasn1enLnme ns nnx pacckasanm a
sannckax BncHapka n o1nocn1cn k knnsk opuakoay
[32]
. 1apa1n1enLnan ukona
nocnepnero pae1 sna1L ce6n po cnx nop. eH o6Lncnn1L nnaueanoe o1cy1c1ane
1anan1oa a aepoHc1ae, ko1opoe y nac, kak ao acex c1panax, nononnne1cn cnnakaHn ns
o6uec1aa?
ne kaxe1cn, opna ns aaxnmx npnunn a1oro onacnoro 6ecnnopnn - nepycckn coc1aa
Hnnnc1epc1aa nnoc1pannmx pen. ano 1oro, u1o rnaaneune pen1enn aepoHc1aa
npe6maak1 sa rpannue, no n a ce6e caHnx onn uaue acero ne uyac1ayk1 occnn, ne
coepnnenm c nek cansnHn 1ex napopnmx nnc1nnk1oa, ko1opme pak1 pnnnoHa1y
ouyuenne Ha1epnka nop noraHn. aue acero naun pnnnoHa1m nepycckne nkpn; a 1ex
xe cnyuanx, korpa onn nocn1 pycckne qaHnnnn, kak uac1o nop nx pyccknH o6nnuLeH
ckpmaae1cn ank6nennoc1L a uyxo nsmk, a uyxne Hmcnn, a uyxne npeanm n paxe
uyxne nn1epecm! opo6no 1oHy kak nekorpa rpaq yaanoa
[33]
ampaxan caoe
Honn1aennoe 6naroroaenne nepep aa1opn1e1oH BncHapka, nmneunne pykoaopn1enn
aepoHc1aa npeknonnk1cn npep "eaponecknH pexnHoH, npep "konc1n1yunonno
peHokpa1ne, ns acex cnn c1apancL o 1oH nnuL, u1o6 nx ne sanopospnnn a cnHna1nnx
k caoe napopnoc1n.
1o6m nonn1L, noueHy Hm yc1ynaeH Bepnnny n a uLnx pykax naxopn1cn Hnpoame
nn1epecm occnn, nockonLky onn aaepenm na1pno1nsHy n 1anan1y pnnnoHa1nn,
poc1a1ouno npocHo1pe1L exeropnnk Hnnnc1epc1aa nnoc1pannmx pen. 1a1nmx Hec1 sa
rpannue a a1oH aepoHc1ae 315. s nnx okono 200 sann1m nkpLHn nepycckoro
nponcxoxpennn. oco6ennoc1n Hnoro 6an1ncknx neHuea. poc1o a rnasax pn6n1,
korpa un1aeuL cnnckn.
: , , , , c-,
Ms, P, K, Tss, Kcc, Os, H.
: c-, (2), Ps (2), cu-u,
T (2), u um (3), L (3), u, K (2),
(2), Bu, mu-cM, H Hu, Lnn, Os,
, H, O--Lu, , , Bu,
Y-L Y-LM, c, .
O: , Hc, K, , U-k, -s, Ku,
Lu, 3, UMMM, Tu, P, Bcc, , B, B, K,
KMM, PM, , , LM, P.
a1nH 72 c1apo6an1ncknH apnc1okpa1aH npn6aaL1e eue 66 neHeuknx qaHnnn 6es
:
, B, a, , , , , (4), L,
L, , , P, L, Bu, U, U, H,
B (2), K, c (2), c, B, u, Bcu, Ku,
M, Hc, Hc, s, , , Ou, un, ,
BuM, Tmu, , -mu, OuM, M, L,
K, km, M, MM, , kM, Bu, Bu, Buc, Bu,
Bsu, L, Om, , km, L, Oma, O.
e1 coHnennn, cpepn a1oro nopaannkuero o6nnnn neHeuknx nHen ec1L 1akne, nop
ko1opmHn ckpmaak1cn coaepuenno pycckne nkpn. norne ns nasaannmx neHuea -
npaaocnaanme. ak n yxe ne pas ykasmaan, o6pyceaune neHum nepepko nyuune y nac
na1pno1m. aepx 1oro, neHeukoe paopnnc1ao cnaan1cn 6naropopno uep1o,
npoxopnue uepes ack payx1mcnuene1nkk nc1opnk a1oro nneHenn, - aepnoc1Lk.
oHy 6m neHum nn cnyxnnn, onn cnyxa1 uec1no, n a1o nou1n 6es ncknkuenn.
oaopk: "ou1n, 1ak kak ncknkuennn ace-1akn o1Heuenm nc1opne. Y nac, nanpnHep,
c1on1 acnoHnn1L uapey6nc1ao 11 Hap1a 1801 ropa: ao rnaae saroaopa c1onnn rpaq
anen n Bennrcen. anpy 1oro u1o y neHuea npak1nkye1cn paonoe noppanc1ao, n
1oro, u1o neHeu, aoo6ue, rpe 6m nn xnn na seHnoH uape, cun1ae1 ce6n cmnoH o6uero
Deutschthum, - nenLsn ckasa1L, u1o6m upesHepnoe o6nnne neo6pycenmx neHuea 6mno
rocypapc1aenno 6esonacno. osLHn1e xo1n 6m 6an1nckn aonpoc (kc1a1n,
npoHenLknyno nsaec1ne, u1o a epHannn on c1aan1cn na ouepepL). pepnonoxnH
"neaosHoxnm (6yp1o 6m) cnyua, u1o epHannn, yc1pona naH paa-1pn nopxora c
pasnmx konuoa - na anLneH oc1oke, a ypunn, a Onnnnnpnn, - aosLHe1 pa n
saHe1 pn6an1nckn kpa. Yaepenm nn am, u1o no1oHkn Heuenocuea 6ypy1 6opo1Lcn
a a1oH cnyuae sa occnk - npo1na epHannn? Yaepenm nn am, u1o 198 pyccknx
pnnnoHa1oa c neHeuknHn qaHnnnnHn coaepuenno cao6opnm o1 annnnnn 1o
rpoHapno cnnm, ko1opan nasmaae1cn nanrepHanc1aoH n ko1opan nponanne1 1ako
cokpyun1enLnm nanop npo1na cnaann a cocepc1ae c Ban1ncknH kpaeH? ne kaxe1cn,
ane nopospennn a o1kpm1o nsHene nenLsn nopaepra1L paxe aepneunx ns naunx
nnopopuea ncnm1annnH cnnukoH 1nxenmH. cnn 6m a aone naue c ac1pne
pycckne rannuane n 6ykoannum nepepanncL na nauy c1opony nnn, no kpane Hepe,
o1kasanncL cpaxa1Lcn c popnmHn 6pa1LnHn, nnkoHy a1o ne nokasanocL 6m nn
ypnan1enLnmH, nn 6ecuec1nmH.
pesHepnmH konnuec1aoH neHuea ne ncuepnmaae1cn uyxec1pannoc1L nauero
pnnnoHa1nueckoro coc1aaa. epon1no, co apeHen anopnc1pnn a pycckyk pnnnoHa1nk
nponnknn rpekn (n, cn, Bs, Hc, ,
, Xx-s, 3, ), qpanuysm {, TM,
X, cc, cc, Mu, -B, O, UM). eckonLko HenLue
n1anLnnuea (cc, Bc, Kc, x, u, P), no
poaonLno Hnoro ckanpnnaaoa (, , , c, (2), Hnnu,
c (4), m, , M, , cM, u-cM, mM,
umM). c1L paxe ronnanpum (B k O O), ec1L neHeukne
amxopum (, , u, , Hnn, kM, BcM, kM,
TM). akoro nponcxoxpennn qaHnnnn , umM -
noncnn1L neuero. a1nH 198 nepyccknH qaHnnnnH cnepye1 npn6aan1L eue 331
nnoc1pannyk qaHnnnk neu1a1nmx renepanLnmx koncynoa, koncynoa, anue-koncynoa n
koncynLcknx aren1oa. ce a1n Hec1a sann1m nnoc1panuaHn. o6ueH ns 646 Hec1 no
aepoHc1ay nnoc1pannmx pen 529 sann1m nnuaHn nepyccknx qaHnnn. s oc1anLnmx
117 Hec1 nsaec1nan uac1L npnxopn1cn na ponk nonnkoa. npaunaae1cn, Hnoro nn
npnpe1cn na npepc1aan1ene co6c1aenno pyccko kpoan?
oa1opnk, cpepn nnopopuecknx qaHnnn ec1L neHano nkpe npepannmx occnn n
ko1opmx Ha1epn, 6a6kn, npa6a6kn 6mnn kopennmHn pyccknHn. noe, 6onee
npepycHo1pn1enLnoe npaan1enLc1ao paano aepnynocL 6m k npak1nke Hockoacko
anoxn, korpa o6pycenmH nnopopuaH paspeuanocL Henn1L nx no1epnaune cHmcn
qaHnnnn na pycckne. opo6nm sakon unpoko npak1nkye1cn a Onnnnnpnn, rpe
Hnoxec1ao uaepoa npnnnHak1 qnnckne qaHnnnn. o noka a1o1 sakon o1cy1c1aye1,
ec1L aosHoxnoc1L cypn1L narnnpno, po kako c1enenn unpoko rocypapc1aennan anac1L
y nac saxaa1maae1cn nkpLHn nepycckoro kopnn. epoHc1ao nnoc1pannmx pen ne
ncknkuenne. yppeno nn, u1o c1onL Hnorne npepc1aan1enn occnn sa rpannue ne
yHek1 ne 1onLko pyHa1L, no paxe n roaopn1L no-pycckn.
noc1pannoe npepc1aan1enLc1ao c1panm 1pe6ye1 nan6onee npkoro naunonanLnoro
cosnannn, y nac xe yc1ponnocL nao6opo1. Bes 6onLuo onacnoc1n pnn rocypapc1aa
neHum, nanpnHep, Hornn 6m sannHa1Lcn y nac neuenneH 6ynok, capoaopc1aoH,
uacoamH Hac1epc1aoH n 1.n. o Hnoxec1ae Hnpnmx sann1n nnoc1panum n nnopopum
okasmaak1 cyuec1aennme ycnyrn occnn, kak ckpoHnme kynL1yp1perepm, nacapn1enn
1ak nasmaaeHo unannnsaunn. o paaa1L sacnnLe nnopopuaH a coc1aae anac1n
rocypapc1aenno - a1o rn6enLnan oun6ka. nac1L a kaxpo c1pane ponxna 6m1L
c1poro naunonanLno, n6o coaepuenno neaosHoxno npepyrapa1L cnyuan, rpe n korpa
o1 unnoannka no1pe6ye1cn ncknkun1enLnan nk6oaL k o1euec1ay n uyac1ao ponra
nepep nnH. nac1L, kak opran aonn napopno, ponxna ampaxa1L 1onLko napopnyk
pyuy, n nnkakyk 6onLue. enusn 1pe6oaa1u o1 ueHea, eapeea, rpekoa,
1anunuea, ronnaupea 1.n., v1o6m ou pymo vyac1aoaan, a veH vec1u
occ, ee c1opveck u1epec. ak 6m u 6mn o6pasoaauum nonnuum
uopopm, ou ue Hory1 ue 6m1u paauopymum k occ. caHme aaxume
pokoame HoHeu1m, korpa ponxeu saroaop1u pyx pacm, y uopopea epaa n
npocue1cn pycck pyx. To, v1o noparae1 nmpe ua aenke pemeun,
nossn caoero popc1aa c uapopoH, penrn npepau, ppeaux kak seHnn,
ace s1o epaa n acnmxue1 y venoaeka, nnoxo nouHamero pycck nsmk
vac1o coaceH ue nouHamero pycckoe vyac1ao. e 1anan1a nepoc1ae1 naue
pnnnoHa1nn, a, Hoxe1 6m1L, nnuL 1oro ropnuero nnc1nnk1a napopnoc1n, 6es ko1oporo
acnkoe napopnoe npepc1aan1enLc1ao qanLunao n 6eccnnLno. pnnnoHa1nn, kak a
napnaHen1e, kak a cype n apHnnnc1paunn, npexpe acero nyxna nnunoc1L,
rocypapc1aennan nnunoc1L, ko1opan n ec1L naunonanLnoc1L.
s acex aepoHc1a naunonanLnoc1L acero neo6xopnHee 1aH, rpe napop c1anknaae1cn c
cocepnHn n yc1anaannaae1 caon aneunne o1nouennn. onLko opna apHnn na aone
nyxpae1cn a 1akoH xe nopmae na1pno1nsHa, kak pnnnoHa1nn. epL u1o 1akoe
pnnnoHa1nn, kak ne Hnpnan aona c uenLk npepynpepn1L neo6xopnHoc1L nac1onunx
aon? cnn 1ak, 1o ne HenLue, ueH aonn, pnnnoHa1 ponxen 6m1L nonon c1okoc1n,
reponsHa, cnoco6noc1n o1pa1L, ecnn nyxno, xnsnL sa o1euec1ao. Henno 1aknHn 6mnn
nyuune pnnnoHa1m nc1ekuero c1one1nn - aayp
[34]
n BncHapk. nn 6mnn, 6eccnopno,
1anan1nnam, no u1o saxnrano nx 1anan1 npknH cae1oH, kak ne nx nnaHennm
na1pno1nsH, ne nx c1pac1noe cosnanne ce6n n1anLnnueH n neHueH? cn qopHyna
aaypa saknkuanacL a opnoH cnoae - "1annn, kak qopHyna BncHapka a cnoae
"epHannn. nn 6mnn HepnyHm caonx o1euec1a; aennkne pena anyunno o6onH 1onLko
noamuennoe uyac1ao napopnoc1n. Y nac, k rny6okoHy coxanennk, pec1an1enLno
pycckne nkpn paano o11ep1m o1 rocypapc1aennoc1n n caHa rocypapc1aennoc1L oc1mna
a caoeH naunonanLnoH uyac1ae. o apeHen 6eckoneunoro ynpaanennn aepoHc1aoH
nnoc1pannmx pen eccenLpope
[35]
1aH ykopennnncL aceaosHoxnme nnopopum. Henno
1orpa yc1anoanncn o6esnnunaakun, o6ecuaeunaakun acnkoe papoaanne
Hexpynapopnm kocHononn1nsH, aecL pasyH ko1oporo coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m kak Hoxno
Henee noxopn1L na pyccknx n kak Hoxno 6onee na qpanuysoa nnn anrnnuan. ak
nsaec1no, noconLc1aa sa rpannue nonLsyk1cn npaaaHn akc1eppn1opnanLnoc1n. oH
nocna cun1ae1cn 1eppn1opne 1o c1panm, ko1opyk on npepc1aan1enLc1aye1. D1o
ocnoanoe 1pe6oaanne Hexpynapopnoro npaaa am1ekae1 ns rny6okoro cosnannn
neo1pennHoc1n pnnnoHa1nn o1 ee o1euec1aa. e 1onLko c1pane, nocmnakue
noconLc1ao, no n c1pane, npnnnHakue ero, aaxno, u1o6m npepc1aan1enLc1ao 6mno
pec1an1enLno naunonanLnmH. o u1o 1onky, ecnn a akc1eppn1opnanLnoH paopue
pycckoro noconLc1aa, nop pyccknH qnaroH 6ype1 sacepa1L paanopyunm k occnn
neHeu nnn paanopyunm n1anLnneu, ronnanpeu, pyHmn nnn rpek? oueHy a1n
nou1ennme caHn no ce6e nkpn cun1ak1cn nan6onee cnoco6nmHn
npepc1aan1enLc1aoaa1L occnk? yc1L onn ne nsHenn1 occnn cosna1enLno, no
6eso1ue1nan xonopnoc1L k ee cyuec1aoaannk, cnoco6noc1L rnnpe1L na nee kak nnuL
na nannHa1enn nenpeHenno anecy1 a pnnnoHa1nueckyk cnyx6y 1o 6espasnnune,
ko1opmH 1ak 6neuy1 naun npepc1aan1enn sa rpannue. "epenanne, "nenpo1nanenne
sny - nx ampyHan ne ea onc1o; panLue ero 1e xe nauana ycnnenno npak1nkoaann
pycckne pnnnoHa1m.
Hec1e c uenmH cae1oH occnn c1peHn1enLno axopn1 a noam, c1pauno cnoxnm
Hexpynapopnm aek. one pnnnoHa1nn pacunpnnocL na aecL seHno uap. opnson1m
paspannynncL, rpannum c1pan cpenanncL sm6knHn kak nnkorpa. Hec1o opnoro
oc1oka y nac nannocL neckonLko oc1okoa, opnn onacnee ppyroro. 1panennme, ne
rpannuaune c naHn c1panm naunnak1, nopo6no Hepnke, okasmaa1L 1nxenoe
paanenne na naun kononnn. nnnoHa1nn a a1nx ycnoannx npno6pe1ae1 xapak1ep
nenpepmano, caHo o1ae1c1aenno nepep popnno, caHo sopko c1paxn. opn1cn nn
1akan c1paxa ns uyxnx nkpe?
TT BFT
10
Berc1ao oqnuepoa ns apHnn neo6xopnHo oc1anoan1L: ckasa1L c1pauno, po kako
c1enenn yaennunnncL Hec1aHn nekoHnnek1m. 1o apeHn kak a apcko aone
nocnepne oqnuepm rn6nn 1mcnuaHn - n ne 6exann, - ceuac, a Hnpnoe apeHn, onn
6ery1 o1 kaknx-1o ycnoan xyxe unHos n nyneHe1oa.
m1anknaae1 ns apHnn ne qnsnueckan, a npaac1aennan cnna, kak n npn1nrnaae1 ona
xe. sHenn1e ncnxonornueckne ycnoann oqnuepcko cnyx6m - n 6erc1ao
oc1anoan1cn. pena1e cnyx6y nn1epecno - n 6erc1ao oc1anoan1cn. 1opannL1e
nosop aonm n aepnn1e noue1, cpena1e 1ak, u1o6m oqnuep ne kpacnen a o6uec1ae n
ne uyac1aoaan ce6n nenoako paxe a caoeH kpyry, - n 6erc1ao oc1anoan1cn. ak a1o
cpena1L? oneuno, nanauee acex aoennmx 6ep 6mna 6m 6nec1nuan, no6eponocnan
aona, no o ne ne c1aneH roaopn1L. BypeH, ecnn HoxeH, a1ane ro1oan1Lcn k ne
aceHn cnnaHn, ace xaxpo pyxa, cpenaeH ee Heu1o xo1n 6m neckonLknx nokonenn,
no noka ne c1aneH roaopn1L o ne. c1L cpepc1aa ne c1onL aonue6nme, kak no6epa, no
ace xe ouenL cepLesnme, u1o6m ypepxa1L apHnk o1 pasaana. 6o 6erc1ao oqnuepoa -
aepL a1o Hnpnan nannka, pesoprannsaunn, peHopannsaunn ace konoccanLno
napopno cnnm, u1o nasmaae1cn apHne.
epaoe: nyxno noc1aan1L ao rnaae apHnn, na noc1y Hnnnc1pa repon, aoennoro
renepana, a ne u1a1ckoro. y1 peun1enLno neo6xopnHo snaHenn1oe nHn, yaaxaeHoe,
ecnn ne o6oxaeHoe ace apHne. HancL ceuac ko6enea (ponyc1nH uypo), c nnH
aepnynacL 6m no1epnnnan napexpa, c nnH asouno 6m saka1naueecn connue aepm a
ce6n. Yam, ne cyHenn y6epeuL aennkoro uenoaeka. o xo1L n necuac1nan aona - ace-
1akn ona ampannyna pnp 6nec1nunx 1anan1oa nnn, no kpane Hepe, 6nec1nunx
kanpnpa1yp na cnaay. pac1epnnnoH, snocuac1noH o6uec1ae naueH ace apeHn npy1
cnyxn n 1onkn:
"nmuann? oaopn1, apy6aeaa
[36]
nasnauak1 a Hnnnc1pm. nn: "c1L cnyxn, u1o
epuenLHan
[37]
npnexan. nn: "1o xe nuenko?
[38]
nuero ne cnmxa1L o neH? n np.
6eccansnmx 1onkax n cnopax specL, annsy, nop onnHnncknHn 1yuaHn, uyac1aye1cn
aepnm nnc1nnk1 napopnm, vox populi. apop n o6uec1ao xo1n1 6onLuoro uenoaeka
na 6onLuoH Hec1e. Xo1n1 1akoro, koHy kaxpm conpa1 o1 acero ceppua o1pan 6m
aoennyk uec1L. Xo1n1 npepc1aan1enn cnaam napopno - repon.
eanpnHoe n neaepoHoe, no kakoe uypecnoe a1o Horyuec1ao - cnaaa! ak 1nro1enne,
anekyuee 1eHnme 1ena k connuaH, cnaaa neHnornx npn1nrnaae1 k ce6e 6ecuncnennme
Haccm. e 1onLko aoennme, no n ace nkpn ao ace apeHena 1pe6yk1 aa1opn1e1a,
HopanLno anac1n, 1pe6yk1 6nec1nunx 1ouek, ko1opme noaeprann 6m a rnnnos. a ueH
xe ocnoaano caHoe cyuec1ao anac1n, kak ne na ouapoaannn? eH nnmH Hoxe1 6m1L
cansana 6ynan aonn napopoa, kak ne po6poaonLnmH nopunnenneH neko1opmH
ncknkun1enLnmH nkpnH, nap uenoH ko1opmx acnmxnyn ornennm nsmk cnaam?
kaxy1: cnaaa o6Hanunaa. epep aono Hm nHenn snaHenn1oro aoennoro Hnnnc1pa.
naanokoHanpykunH nHenn repon, ppyra ko6eneaa. 1o xe amuno 1onky? a a1o n
saHeuy, u1o cnaaa n 1y1 ne o6Hanyna. enepan ypona1knn
[39]
npno6pen cnaay kak
1anan1nnam nauanLnnk u1a6a npn rennanLnoH nonkoaopue. cnn 6m noaepnnn
nHenno ero cnaae, a ne cko6eneacko, 1o renepan ypona1knn onpaapan 6m ee. orpa
renepan ypona1knn 6mn nasnauen rnaanokoHanpykunH, a e1ep6ypre xopnna
npoan1an qpasa, kaxe1cn, paroHnpoaa: " k1o xe a ko6eneam 6ype1 nasnauen npn
ypona1knne? - po 1ako c1enenn a caepyunx kpyrax pepxanocL y6expenne, u1o
renepan ypona1knn xopou 1onLko na a1opme ponn. e cnaaa ypona1knna o6Hanyna
occnk, a naue neyHenLe paso6pa1Lcn a ne. npoueH, snaHenn1oc1L renepana
ypona1knna ace-1akn npnnecna orpoHnyk nonLsy: ecnn 6m 1o1 xe renepan
ypona1knn na noc1y Hnnnc1pa ne nHen nnkakoro nHenn, nnkakoro o6annnn, Hoxe1
6m1L, naua apHnn pasaannnacL 6m eue po aonm n na aone ne cyHena 6m cpena1L
1oro, u1o cpenana. ce-1akn occnn aepnna a a1oro uenoaeka n ampannyna sa pecn1L
1mcnu aepc1 Hnnnnon u1mkoa. 1o occnn okasanacL c a1o cnno pas6n1o, annoaa1a
ne aoennan snaHenn1oc1L renepana ypona1knna, a koe-kakne ero u1a1ckne
nepoc1a1kn - 1pycoc1L, ne nepep nnonuaHn, a nepep ne1ep6yprcknHn kanuennpnnHn.
epnnna cry6nnn xpa6poro ppyra ko6eneaa, a ne apaxLn kpoaL!
1ak, nonanenne kakoro-nn6ypL snaHenn1oro renepana ao rnaae aock ec1L nepaan
cnacn1enLnan Hepa, u1o6m oc1anoan1L pacc1poc1ao apHnn. -n epnrep
[40]
, kak
roaopn1, nou1ennm uenoaek, no ao acex o1nouennnx nesnaun1enLnm. nkorpa, nn
npn kaknx ycnoannx on ne o6euae1 6m1L snaHenn1mH, n6o acn kapLepa ero a ero
aospac1e amncnnnacL. e 6oeao renepan - kak on Hoxe1 6m1L aoxpeH repoea? ou1n
"ne nkxaaun nopoxa, ne nepencnm1aaun aennknx c1pac1e nop rpoHoH n xoxo1oH
cHep1n, u1o 1akoe r-n epnrep co caonHn npoqeccopcknHn nekunnHn, aepoHoc1nHn,
u1a1aHn, kan1anunnHn etc, etc? Y nero, Hne kaxe1cn, ne Hoxe1 6m1L aoenno pyun,
kak ne Hoxe1 6m1L y Hopnka Hopcko pyun, ecnn on ne nnaaan poc1a1ounoe apeHn a
Hopnx, ne nepexnaan okeancko 1penkn. ce nou1ennme nosnannn r-na epnrepa
knnxnm. ak caeua na connue, onn Hrnoaenno o6pauak1cn ns cae1a a 1enL, onn
6nepnek1 nepep o6pasoaannoc1Lk 6oeaoro onm1a, coaceH oco6oro. oHy, ckaxn1e no
npaape, nn1epecnm aepoHoc1n n u1a1m r-na epnrepa? yc1L onn coaepuenno
neo6xopnHm n k1o-1o, kako-1o unnoannk, ponxen a1nH sannHa1Lcn. o cnna apHnn,
cnna pyxa - a nn1epecnoH, a nn1epecnoe ec1L 1anan1, reponsH, nerenpa, cnaaa!
Henno a Hnpnoe apeHn, korpa cnarae1cn cnna aock, neo6xopnHo, u1o6m nepaoe
Hec1o a apHnn sannHan nn1epecnm uenoaek. 6o 1onLko 1ako a coc1onnnn acex
sann1epecoaa1L caonH npnsaanneH, npn1nny1L n aoaneuL a cnyx6y o6unpnm kpyr
nopunnennmx nnu.
poHe 1oro, u1o r-n epnrep nnueH ne ampae1cn, ne nHee1 sa co6o nn nopanroa, nn
aoennoro aa1opn1e1a, sa nnH ec1L 1o o1pnua1enLnoe kauec1ao, u1o on nnoc1paneu. ak
qnnckn uaep, on apaone uenoaek nepycckn, n6o y nero a co6nasnn1enLno
6nnsoc1n ec1L caoe oco6oe o1euec1ao, oco6an konc1n1yunn, oco6oe kpecno a
renLcnnrqopckoH cena1e. Bonee ueH aepon1no, u1o r-n epnrep ne Heu1ae1 o6 a1oH
kpecne: pepxa1L a pykax apHnk aennko nHnepnn saHanunaee, ueH 6m1L cena1opoH
nrpyueunoro qnnnnnpckoro "rocypapc1aa, - no napo xe annkny1L a naun napopnme
nn1epecm. us xu c cc cx, ecnn a1o nkpn
ne6onLuoro 1anan1a. Y 6onLunx nkpe ec1L any1pennn Horyuec1aennm,
neoponnHm nHnynLc - npnsaanne. no 1onkae1 uenoaeka na pa6o1y, 1npannueckn
sac1aanne1 poaopn1L pa6o1y po coaepuenc1aa. c1epHan
[41]
, nnnx
[42]
, ka1epnna II
6mnn nnoc1panuaHn, no onn uyxpo nH occnn cnyxnnn c npeaocxopnmH paenneH n
ycnexoH. osHoxno, koneuno, u1o onn n nk6nnn occnk (a oco6ennoc1n u1o kacae1cn
ka1epnnm, specL ampocue). anan1 npnansmaae1cn k pa6o1e, kak k popnne caoero
pyxa. npaunaae1cn, ec1L nn 1o1 xe panra1enL y nocpepc1aennmx nnn paxe ne
cnnukoH papoan1mx nnoc1panuea? oneuno, ne1. nn oc1ak1cn nocpepc1aennmHn
1pyxennkaHn, nx aneprnn ne Hoxe1 ne nopaann1Lcn noc1onnnmH cosnanneH, u1o onn
uyxne a c1pane. R coaepmeuuo nouHam o6pyceamx uopopea 1e ee
copy1 sa pycckx. o Hoxuo n ponyc11u, v1o6m ueHe, cv1am ce6n
ueHeH, nonnk, cv1am ce6n nonnkoH, maep, cv1am ce6n maepoH,
cnyxn pycckoHy uaouanuuoHy rocypapc1aeuuoHy peny c 1eH xe
vyac1aoH o1ae1c1aeuuoc1 xanoc1 sa caom seHnm, kak kopeuume pyccke?
sau1e, n s1oro ncxonorveck ue ponyckam. aHme nopnpounme, caHme
po6pocoaec1nme neHum, nonnkn, uaepm, eapen, ecnn onn ne apaxpe6nm k occnn, ace
xe ne Hory1 ne uyac1aoaa1L ce6n paanopyunmHn k ne. pepc1aaL1e ce6n na cnyx6e a
epHannn, nnn a aeunn, nnn a onLue. eyxenn am nckpenno cnyxnnn 6m a1nH
c1panaH, cosnaaan, u1o nckpennnn cnyx6a cocepnH npe1 ao apep aaue co6c1aenno
napopnoc1n? Y nac korpa-1o a1o nonnHann, 1enepL nepec1ann nonnHa1L. pexpe
nonnHann, u1o o1paaa1L xnsnL caok Hoxno nnuL sa neu1o canuennoe - sa "aepy,
uapn n o1euec1ao, a ne sa oknap n unn. cnyx6e rocypapc1aenno onnpanncL na
co6c1aennm pyx napopnm, na naunonanLnoe uyac1ao. enepL xe ao ace aepoHc1aa
o1kpmnn nac1exL paepn nHenno pnn 1ex naunonanLnoc1e, ko1opme nan6onee naH
apaxpe6nm. okasanocL 6m c1pannmH aneppenne kaknx-nn6ypL nop1yranLuea,
ncnanuea, n1anLnnuea a naueH aoennoH nnn pnnnoHa1nueckoH aepoHc1ae. o o1kpmnn
unpokn poc1yn ne nasaannmH cpaann1enLno 6esapepnmH napopnoc1nH, c ko1opmHn
Hm nnkorpa ne aoeaann, a 1ea1onaH, nonnkaH, uaepaH, c ko1opmHn Hm aenn
1mcnuene1nne aonm n nenaanc1L ko1opmx k occnn cu o6LncnnHa nnuL
nacnepc1aenno apaxpo. oaopk: cu, coaepuenno ponyckan
ncknkuennn, paxe 6nec1nune ncknkuennn. o npaanno, aeunoe npaanno,
yc1anoanennoe npnpopo, 1o, u1o aparn cy1L aparn, u1o uyxne nkpn cy1L uyxne nkpn
n npepnouec1L nx paanopyune caoe co6c1aenno napopno sann1epecoaannoc1n -
orpoHnan, npnHo rn6enLnan oun6ka.
e1pan1e1 a apH
H nonnHak, u1o a1o1 aonpoc kpane pennka1en n u1o kaca1Lcn ero nyxno 6epexno,
uapn ne 1onLko nckpennne, no paxe qanLuname caHonk6nn. o napo xe kak-nn6ypL
nopo1n k aaxnoHy aonpocy n nonm1a1Lcn oc1anoan1L na neH annHanne o6uec1aa.
onpoc rposnm, caHoro 1parnueckoro snauennn. 1uero 6ery1 oqnuepm ns apHnn?
oueHy cnyx6a, kasaauancn npexpe c1onL noue1no, no1epnna cnoco6noc1L
sann1epecoamaa1L, npnaneka1L k ce6e? oueHy a 1ako onacno c1enenn nonnsnncn
nn1epec k aoennoHy peny? uncne ouenL Hnornx ppyrnx npnunn, ko1opmx n kocnycL
oco6o, nosaonL1e ykasa1L n a1y - cnnukoH neoc1opoxnoe ponyuenne a apHnk (n
qno1) uyxoro, nnopopueckoro aneHen1a, paanopyunoro su, s c
sM, no n 6es 1oro, u1o npo1naononoxno nsHene, - 6es rny6okoro uyac1aa
napopnoc1n n nouaenno cansn c ne. x u su , u
cc m n u 25 n cc? Henno:
aoennm Hnnnc1p - qnnn (nk1epannn);
nauanLnnk rnaanoro u1a6a - neHeu (npaaocn.);
nauanLnnk rnaanoro aoenno-cype6noro ynpaanennn - nonnk (nk1epannn);
nauanLnnk rnaanoro nn1enpan1ckoro ynpaanennn - nonnk (nk1epannn);
nauanLnnk rnaanoro ynpaanennn kasauLnx aock - neHeu;
noHounnk nauanLnnka rnaanoro nnxenepnoro ynpaanennn - neHeu, n 1onLko a
rnaanoH ap1nnnepnckoH ynpaanennn n rnaanoH aoenno-HepnunnckoH ynpaanennn
nauanLnnkn - pycckne.
H ne nasmaak qaHnnn - ne a nnx peno. a1eH annknn1e a cnepykune unqpm:
ns 12 koHanpykunx aockaHn - 6 nnopopum;
ns 28 kopnycnmx koHanpnpoa - 17 nnopopum;
ns 116 6pnrapnmx koHanpnpoa - 45 nnopopum;
ns 230 koHanpnpoa nonkoa - 80 nnopopum;
ns 58 nauanLnnkoa u1a6a pnansn - 11 nnopopum;
ns 28 nauanLnnkoa u1a6a kopnycoa - 11 nnopopum;
ns 77 koHanpnpoa raappecknx nonkoa - 40 nnopopum;
ns 28 kopnycnmx nn1enpan1oa - 9 nnopopum.
o ec1L ns 635 nauanLc1aennmx a apHnn ponxnoc1e 235 sann1m nekopennmHn
pyccknHn nkpLHn. Bonee 1pe1n caHo aaxno pykoaopnue, apoxnoannkue anac1n a
apHnn y nac sann1o nkpLHn, pnn ko1opmx a 6onLue nnn HenLue c1enenn ponxna
6m1L uyxpa occnn.
Y nac 6on1cn o1kpm1o nsHenm - npopaxn, nanpnHep, cekpe1nmx nnanoa, nnn
o1c1ynnennn, korpa nyxno nac1yna1L, nnn cpaun, korpa nyxno pepxa1Lcn kpenko. o
ec1L neu1o Henee ynoanHoe, no ne Henee nary6noe, - a1o aoennm ne1pann1e1,
aoennoe 6espasnnune, aoennoe paanopyune 1aH, rpe neo6xopnHo ropnuee yuac1ne n
yaneuenne. H 6okcL, u1o upesHepnoe konnuec1ao nnopopuea, npo6paaunxcn a apHnk,
saponro po o1penLnmx - koneuno, pepknx - cnyuaea nsHenm, Hoxe1 anec1n a aocka
1y oxnaxpakuyk, ponnkuyk pyx c1nxnk, ko1opan nasmaae1cn "noc1oponnnH
aneHen1oH. BypeH paccyxpa1L npoc1o. ce snak1, kak 6maae1 aeceno n nn1epecno a
o6uec1ae, rpe ace caon, rpe ace cansanm ponroapeHennmHn npepannnHn popc1aa nnn
ppyx6m. o npepc1aaL1e, u1o a 1akoe o6uec1ao axopn1 1pe1L nnn 6onee 1pe1n ux
nkpe, xo1n 6m upesamuano koppek1nmx, yHekunx pepxa1L ce6n. ak 6mc1po
nenpnnyxpennoc1L cHenne1cn na1nny1oc1Lk n kak c1anoan1cn ckyuno oc1aaa1Lcn a
1akoH o6uec1ae. ne kaxe1cn, opna ns cyuec1aennmx npnunn 6erc1aa oqnuepoa ns
apHnn - sacnnLe nnopopuea, coaepuenno neaonLno nonnxakuee pyx oqnuepckoro
6m1a. oco6ennoc1n 6maae1 neypo6no, korpa nauanLnnkn uac1n - nnopopum.
auanLnnkn - xosneaa caoe uac1n. a nnx nexn1 nenerkan ponL - cpena1L
npe6maanne a ne nn1epecnmH. auanLnnk o6nsan po6n1Lcn aa1opn1e1a cpepn
nopunnennmx, on o6nsan aoopyuean1L oqnuepckoe o6uec1ao, a1nny1L ero a xnaoe
peno, npnan1L aneuenne n c1pac1L k neHy. o a1o, Hne kaxe1cn, coaepuenno
neaosHoxno ane na1pno1nsHa, ane nc1opnuecknx npepann, ane caHoro pasyHa aonm
- cnyxennn caoeHy napopy po o1paun xnsnn. kaxn1e, sa pepknHn ncknkuennnHn,
cnoco6en nn neo6pycenm neHeu, nnn na1pno1-nonnk, nnn na1pno1-uaep na 1o, u1o6m
yaneuLcn ccM aoennmH penoH n yaneuL nH pyccknx oqnuepoa? H coHneaakcL a
a1oH. nnukoH 6onLunHn ponxnm 6m1L ak1epaHn a1n rocnopa koHanpnpm.
opno nsmk, popnan aepa, popnan nc1opnn... ak xo1n1e - noHnHo kpoan, ko1opan
Bor aec1L y koro kakan, - neyxenn popnoe ne coc1aanne1 Horyuec1aenno HopanLno
cnnm? eyxenn naunonanLnoc1L - nnu1o? H xe pyHak, u1o Hm 1onLko n rn6neH, u1o
o1 npene6pexennn a1o ocnoano cnno pyxa - napopnoc1Lk. ona6nkpa1e nk6yk
aoennyk uac1L, rpe aneppnnncL nnopopum. Xonopno n ckyuno 1aH. 1o-1o neynoanHoe
o1ne1ae1 ns narepn, rpe 1pe1L koHanpnpoa - uyxakn. necnn conpa1ckne kak-1o
nnaue sayua1, n ace noaapkn cnyx6m - yuenLe n pasaneuenLe - ace ne 1o. nopopuea
neponk6nnaak1 conpa1m. enk6oaL a1a paspenne1cn 6eso1ue1no n oqnuepaHn. ue a
kauec1ae 1oaapnue nnopopum, o6mknoaenno "koppek1nme, 6maak1 nepypnmHn
cocnyxnauaHn. onLko ckyunoaa1m onn n xonopnoaa1m. epxa1cn kpyxkaHn, caoe
koHnanne. opaspo nyuue nnopopum a kauec1ae nopunnennmx (onn noppak1cn
pncunnnnne nyuue pyccknx), no acero xyxe kak nauanLnnkn. epepko onn nanyckak1
a uac1L, aHec1e c noxaanLno 1pe6oaa1enLnoc1Lk, 1ako qopHannsH, 1akoe 6espyune,
u1o cnyxn1L c1anoan1cn opna 1ocka. oennan cnyx6a npenHyuec1aenno nepep aceHn
pepxn1cn na npeannsHe, coaepuenno 6eckopmc1noH, na noasnn pena, na 1o
canuenno pennrnn na1pno1nsHa, 6es ko1oporo conpa1 - nyueunoe Hnco.
paroHnpoay npnnncmaak1 qpasy o "can1o cepo cko1nne. na xapak1epnsye1
o1nouenne k apHnn ne pyccknx (apope yaopoaa nnn ko6eneaa), a nnopopuecknx
renepanoa. ne kaxe1cn, xnHnueckn unc1me nnoc1panum apope nnnxa, pera,
Bapknan pe onnn n np. 6mnn 6m ropaspo amropnee pnn apHnn, ueH nnopopum. o-
nepamx, xnHnueckn unc1me nnoc1panum ne Hornn 6m sann1L 37 npouen1oa
nauanLc1aennoro coc1aaa: cnnukoH ncno nokasanacL 6m onacnoc1L 1akoro
aneppennn. o-a1opmx, xnHnueckn unc1me nnoc1panum npnnnHanncL 6m
ncknkun1enLno ns o1nnunmx oqnuepoa n pnn ponn nnuL nnc1pyk1opoa, ne 6onee.
aon xe, neckonLko nopkpauennme a ycckne uae1a nnoseHum naunnak1 npnHo
am1ecnn1L pyccknx, nnHano ne npeaocxopn nx nn 1anan1aHn, nn snanneH, nn paxe
aneprne. 1enepeuneH 6erc1ae ns apHnn, kak n ns qno1a, uaue anpnuL pycckne
qaHnnnn. nopopum oc1ak1cn. ycckne 6ery1. aanopyune nepamx nosaonne1 nH
yxnaa1Lcn c kaknHn yropno nopnpkaHn. Xnaan nk6oaL k o1euec1ay, nao6opo1, penae1
ynnxenne aoennmx cnn ne1epnnHmH.
1o6m oc1anoan1L 6erc1ao oqnuepoa ns apHnn, neo6xopnHa uenan cnc1eHa Hep,
nac1ounao npoaepennan. o npexpe acero ns apHnn cnepye1 nsrna1L 1o1 ne1pann1e1
k occnn, ko1opm yc1anaannaae1 nnopopueckoe sacnnLe. aanopyunan apHnn
yHnpae1 kak apHnn. ak paanopyunm opkec1p yxe ne ec1L opkec1p, sacnyxnaakun
a1oro nHenn, 1ak n ppyxnna aonnoa, y1pa1nauan nn1epec k aone, - nn a kakoH
cnyuae a1o ne aocko. nn aocc1anoanennn naue nonnkue apHnn, kak n qno1a,
nyxno ampanny1L opyueanennmx pyccknx nkpe, nkpe-na1pno1oa, ko1opme cyHenn
6m anec1n c co6o y1epnnnoe 1enepL uyac1ao nk6an k o1euec1ay n napopno roppoc1n.
occnn upesamuano Hnoro o6nsana nnoc1panuaH caoek c1apo aoenno cnaao. o a
c1apnny Hm, kak 1enepL nnonum, 6pann uyxoe ccc aonm, uyxne opypnn, uyxyk
.n., oc1aaancL caHn xosneaaHn po6m1oro Ha1epnana. pnnnHann a
umM konnuec1ae n nkpe, no ncknkun1enLno 1anan1nnamx, kak Bapkna,
n6nu, Barpa1non n np. ue6onumo pose kaxpm np nekapc1ao, a
suav1enuuo npvua cHep1. e1p n ka1epnna 6pann o1 aponm ace, u1o
Hornn, no a coc1aa anac1n ponyckann ncknkun1enLno pyccknx nkpe. acnnLe neHuea,
nonnkoa, uaepoa c1ano cnara1Lcn nosxe. anoxe pHonoaa pyccknH 1anan1aH yxe
kasanocL 1nxeno n ockop6n1enLno a1o sacnnLe, n onn c ropLko nponne npocnnn
"nponsaopc1aa a neHum. ao1 kakan cnoxnnacL nnnnn naue cypL6m: po anoxn
pHonoaa occnn rpeHena no6epaHn, c 1ex xe nop 6mc1po nauana pasyunaa1Lcn
no6expa1L. akoneu - npn 25 npouen1ax pyccknx a amcueH aoennoH ynpaanennn -
snaHena 1mcnuene1ne pepxaam, yrpoxaaue payH Ha1epnkaH, coaceH nonnknn.
K
21
o uero pouna occnn: "pepn rorouyue 1onnm eapeea a pecce una co6aka,
yaenuannan nHnepa1opcko kopono na ronoae, n k xaoc1y ee 6mn npnkpennen
pycckn naunonanLnm qnar. D1o a caoe apeHn 6mno naneua1ano a rase1ax, n a1o
nop1aeppnn na pnnx c ppoxLk neropoaannn c1apm rpaq onoannumn
[43]
na opnoH ns
co6pann cLespa oksa pycckoro napopa. "e c1epnen nopyrannn opnnm npoc1o
napop pycckn n nakasan neropnea! a1oro n nauancn norpoH.
o uero pouna occnn: a ppeaneH neae, Ha1epn ropopoa pyccknx rorouyuan 1onna
eapeea cpmaana co spann npaan1enLc1aennmx Hec1 nHnepa1opckne aensenn n
o1opaana nHnepa1opckyk kopony 6pocna a rpnsL. e amnecno na1epneaueecn o6np
ceppue pycckoe, n nauancn napopnm caHocyp.
o uero pouna occnn: nop1pe1m ocypapn ao Hnoxec1ae ropopoa n Hec1euek paanncL
eapenHn a knouLn. op1pe1m a1n amnocnnn sa ropop, pacc1pennaann, 1on1ann. opnoH
rpoHapnoH sane cpepn Hnoro1mcnuno 1onnm kako-1o eape npo1knyn nnuo ocypapn
n ac1aann a o1aepc1ne nop1pe1a caoe nnuo: "o1 aaH uapL. "m aaH pann Bora, papnH
n uapn! - kpnuann eapen.
1o penann anac1n a a1n pnn rnycnoro nspeaa1enLc1aa nap occne? nn c1pycnnn,
onn nou1n cpanncL 6yn1y, onn no 1pe6oaannk xnpoa amnyckann 6yn1ape ns 1kpeH.
pnnc1aenno, o ueH onn sa6o1nnncL, - a1o o 1oH, u1o6m aocka "ne pasppaxann
6yn1ykuyk uepnL eapeckyk caonH aHeua1enLc1aoH. paspeuennn pycckoro
nauanLc1aa nnn c 6narocknonnoro nonyuennn na kre occnn cnoxnnacL eapeckan
aoopyxennan caHoo6opona - po copoka 1mcnu cna6xennmx 6paynnnraHn o6narneaunx
xnpkoa. korpa noknny1m anac1Lk napop ne am1epnen n nm1ancn pa1L o1nop
eapenH, pycckne aocka amcmnanncL, u1o6m pa1L o1nop pyccknH.
o uero pouna occnn - a1o ncno anpno ns npouepuero a neae rpoHapnoro npouecca
o norpoHe, 6maueH a ok1n6pe 1905 ropa. o, u1o occnn pasrpoHnena na anLneH
oc1oke, ncnm1aa necnmxannme nopaxennn, - a1o o6LncnnHo po neko1opo c1enenn
npeaocxopc1aoH nenpnn1enLcknx cnn, o1panennoc1Lk 1ea1pa aonm, cnyuanmHn
necuac1nnHn - apope neypaunoro rnaanokoHanpykuero n nnoxnx renepanoa.
neunn pasrpoH - aeuL c1paunan, no ne1 c1panm, ko1opan a 1mcnuene1ne caoe
nc1opnn ne nepexnaana 6m ero ne pas. o any1pennee naue ynnxenne? o
aosHoxnoc1L anpe1L kopony uapckyk na ronoae co6akn n snaHn naunn na ee xaoc1e?
eH a1o-1o o6Lncnn1L n kak k a1oHy ponxna o1nec1ncL occnn?
yc1L nkpn pycckne c pyuo n ceppueH sanoHnn1 a1y opecckyk co6aky. na cnHaon.
na ponxna 6m1L ampenena ns xaoca aosHy1n1enLnmx 6eso6pasn kak Hnc1nueckn
nepornnq, kak rposnoe npepoc1epexenne napopy, nsHennkueHy opnne. opyHa1e,
aepL a1o kouHap: 1onLko a ropnueunoH 6pepy Hoxe1 npncnn1Lcn co6aka a kopone.
Yxac a 1oH, u1o a1o 6mn ne con, a xnaan pec1an1enLnoc1L cpepL 6ena pnn, cpepn
Hnoro1mcnuno 1onnm, na ynnuax opnoro ns orpoHneunx pyccknx ropopoa, a
6nnxaueH npncy1c1ann 6onLunx aoennmx cnn. ce a1o 6mno 1ak nepaano, u1o a
cHmcne qak1a oc1ae1cn n 1enepL. o1 pyx aocc1annn npo1na occnn, u1o npopaancn a
rnycnoH kouync1ae nap kopono, ne ncues, on ne Hor ncuesny1L a paa ropa.
xepneanme 1enerpaHHm o6 y6nc1aax na kre, o npoponxakuecn nnopopuecko
arn1aunn, o sa6ac1oakax n 6ecnopnpkax y6epn1enLno pokasmaak1, u1o rn6enLnoe
6poxenne pnn1cn, u1o npn1nxuan sno6a konn1cn - pnn noamx aspmaoa. e anpn1
a1oro, ne xenan anpe1L, nnuL kape1c1aykuan naua 6kpokpa1nn - 1a 6kpokpa1nn,
u1o saponro po nosopno aonm ro1oanna "nero1oanoc1L k ne. 1o kacae1cn ne
kasennmx, ne o6espyuennmx kanuennpne pyccknx nkpe, 1o cosnanne nx
npocmnae1cn c kaxpmH pneH. akne npec1ynnennn, kak cnyua c opeccko co6ako,
sac1aannk1 o1kpmaa1L rnasa a opno Hrnoaenne Hnnnnonm ppeHnkuero napopa. c1L
cnoaa, ec1L xec1m, ko1opme 6eckoneuno kpacnopeunaee uenmx 1oHoa. orpa, a anoxy
ok1n6pLcko peaonkunn, Hnoxec1ao nkpe pyccknx cpasy nonnnn, k ueHy knonn1
peno. eno knonnno k 1oHy, u1o6m pasaenua1L pepxaanyk occnk, copaa1L
1mcnuene1nkk kopony c ronoam napopno, ynnsn1L ee nc1opnueckoe aennune,
naxn1oe npepkaHn, saanape1L anac1Lk nap opnnH ns aennuaunx napopoa a Hnpe n
sac1aan1L ero cnyxn1L 1o pasnonneHenno eapecko-nonLcko-neHeuko-uaepcko
nnopopunne, u1o, korpa-1o nnoxo nokopennan, paano npo1epnacL k aepxaH anac1n n
yxe nocnrae1 na aeneu uapckn. poc1o napop, o6napakun ec1ec1aennmH pasyHoH,
nonnn xop aeue aepnee, nexenn nn1ennnrenunn, coc1onuan y nnopopuea a
HopanLnoH pa6c1ae. o1nop nnopopueckoHy 6yn1y amc1ynnna ppeanepycckan aepnoc1L
opnne. ak a1o acerpa 6maae1 ao apeHena ynapka anac1n, napopy caHoHy npnunocL
o6pyHmaa1L saun1y rocypapc1aennoc1n, aocc1anoanenne ee. eHyppeno, u1o a c1onL
unpoko c1pane, pasposnenno n saxaauenno nnopopuaHn, o1nop napopnm
cnarae1cn ne cpasy n ne a 1ex knaccnueckn unc1mx qopHax, ko1opme ypoane1aopnnn
6m acex na1pno1oa. a na1nck anapxnn pycckn napop o1ae1nn 1oxe noka
anapxnueckn. aHme oc1pme a1akn napop o1pasnn norpoHaHn, ko1opme, kak acnkn
caHocyp, yxacnm n Hory1 6m1L nonn1m nnuL kak caHosaun1a. cnep sa norpoHaHn no
ace occnn ackonmxnynocL na1pno1nueckoe 6poxenne n nauann oprannsoamaa1Lcn
6m1oame naunonanLnme coksm. aHm kpynnm - oks pycckoro napopa, - kak
roaopn1, nacun1maae1 yxe po 11.500 o1penoa n po neckonLknx Hnnnnonoa nkpe,
cansannmx opno aepo. poHe nero, cyuec1ayk1 panee o1kpmauancn nap1nn
ycckoro co6pannn n nosxe o1kpmaunecn na1pno1nueckne o6uec1aa -
cepoccnckoro npaaocnaanoro coksa, Honapxnc1oa, an1oro apxnc1pa1nra nxanna n
np.
H nncan ne pas o6 o1pnua1enLnmx c1oponax caHo kpynno na1pno1nuecko
oprannsaunn. H npepckasmaan paspop a ne (npepckasa1L paspop a nk6o pyccko
nap1nn ne npepc1aanne1 kakoro-nn6o npopouec1aa). o paspop aoace ne ec1L
pasnoxenne. opo6no 6ypnoHy npoueccy, ampa6a1maakueHy anno, paspop a cpepe
nap1n pokasmaae1 uac1o xnsnennoc1L nx n cnoco6noc1L k pec1an1enLnoHy
cnoxennk. pesamuano rpyc1nme, ne penakune uec1n o6enH c1oponaH ccopm r-p
ypnukeanua
[44]
, y6poanna
[45]
, o. nnopopa, o. oc1oproaa
[46]
n np. y1eun1enLnm a
1oH cHmcne, u1o knnyuan apaxpa necpopnmx aneHen1oa ponxna ounc1n1L o1 nnx
o6un narepL n noaec1n k nckpenneHy ycnokoennk. opaspo xyxe 1enepeunnx ppnsr
6mn 6m nckycc1aennm, nnueHepnm Hnp, Hexannueckoe cornacne, ocnoaannoe na
cpenke. ec1nee n nonesnee pnn o6uero pena, ecnn pasnopopnoe pasope1cn n
o6oco6n1cn. H ne snak nnuno nou1n nn opnoro ns aoxpe na1pno1nuecknx nap1n, no
Hne kaxe1cn, paspopm nx (kpoHe 1eHnepaHen1a, coc1aannkuero ckopee poc1onnc1ao,
ueH nepoc1a1ok) o6Lncnnk1cn xenanneH kaxporo ckonLko-nn6ypL ampakuerocn
uenoaeka nrpa1L nenpeHenno nepayk ponL. D1o yxe ckopee nepoc1a1ok, ueH
poc1onnc1ao, no aeuL, opnako, nens6exnan, c ko1opo npnxopn1cn Hnpn1Lcn. rpa1L
nepayk ponL aceH nenLsn, naunnae1cn ppo6nenne nap1nn, nanoHnnakuee noukoaanne
kne1ok. -n ypnukeanu saaopn1 cao coks, o. oc1oproa - cao n 1.p. Bepm
oco6enno a a1oH ne1, ecnn 1onLko ypenLnme na1pno1nueckne coksm, nopo6no
ypenLnmH knnxec1aaH peane ycn, ne ac1ynn1 Hexpy co6o a Hexpoyco6nn, sa6ma
o6 o6ue popnne.
Y Henn nnuno nnkorpa ne 6mno xenannn nn saaec1n caok nap1nk, nn sann1L anpnoe
Hec1o a opno ns aosnnkunx. o n paano nponoaepyk o neo6xopnHoc1n cospannn
pyccko naunonanLno nap1nn npn6nnsn1enLno 1ex yHepennmx asrnnpoa, ko1opmx n
pepxycL. caonx c1a1Lnx n nasmaan 1akyk nap1nk "aennkopyccko, nonaran, u1o
aennkopycckoe nauano a naue nc1opnn npeo6napae1 n u1o ono opno nanne1cn
rocypapc1aenno-1aopuecknH, o6Lepnnnn ace cnaannckne nneHena aoc1oka aponm nop
canuennmH nHeneH occnn. H rny6oko y6expen, u1o nneHennan 1oxpec1aennoc1L
pyccko-cnaanncknx nneHen, epnnc1ao nsmka n aepm n Hnoroaekoaoe epnnc1ao nc1opnn
ne pak1 nn pasyHnoro, nn npaac1aennoro npaaa cospaaa1L neckonLko occnn, korpa
caHo npnpopo yc1anoanena nnuL opna occnn. D1o nonnHann naun Hockoackne
rocypapn kpnkoanun. Bypyun aennkopoccaHn n uapc1ayn a ennkopoccnn, onn
nHenoaann ce6n c ennknn n anmn n Benmn ycn uapnHn n caHopepxuaHn.
ennkopycckn npnnunn nckonn 6mn npnnunnoH ccccM, u1o yc1anoaneno a
nepaoH onpepenennn naue rocypapc1aennoc1n - a 1n1yne Honapxa. n nHenye1cn ne
pyccknH, a acepoccncknH nHnepa1opoH. ne kaxe1cn, naunonanLnan pycckan nap1nn
Hoxe1 npnnn1L 1o1 xe o6Lepnnn1enLnm 1n1yn, 1o ec1L nHenoaa1Lcn kak
cepoccnckn napopnm coks. ennkopycckn no nsmky n rocypapc1aennoc1n, coks
a1o1 6ype1 paaa1L opnnakoaoe Hec1o kxnopycaH n sanapnopycaH, nnuL 6m onn
nckpenno cun1ann ce6n pyccknHn, popnmHn pe1LHn opno n nepennHo Ha1epn naue
- occnn. <...>
a npepnonaraeHm naunonanLnm cepoccnckn coks n rnnxy kak na nonm1ky
epnnennn pyccknx nkpe c epnnc1aenno uenLk: o1c1on1L occnk o1 nnopopueckoro
a1opxennn, aocc1anoan1L ppeankk cnny anac1n a epnnennn c pyccknH napopoH,
ykpenn1L noua1nyauncn napop nau na saaoeaannoH npepkaHn Ha1epnke. a1oH
c1peHnennn naunonanLnm coks ponxen 6opo1Lcn opnnakoao 1aeppo c nsHeno,
o1kypa 6m ona nn una: co c1oponm nanmx aparoa occnn nnn 1anmx ee npepa1ene,
ko1opmx 1ak Hnoro cpepn kape1c1aykunx saesponocuea. eope1nsnpoaa1L ponro
1enepL yxe ne npnxopn1cn. cnn rocypapc1aennm qnar nau a uep1e occnn ny6nnuno
aeuak1 na xaoc1 co6ak n canne - noHn1e, u1o poaonLno cnopoa. apo cneun1L,
napo u1o-nn6ypL aceH npepnpnnnHa1L, k1o ne o1pekcn o1 occnn n ne npopan ee...
HT
23
oaopn o 6eso6pasnoH ao acex aepoHc1aax sacnnLe nnopopuea, n nopnnHak aonpoc
rpoHapno rocypapc1aenno aaxnoc1n. ce aennkne rocypapc1aa pepxanncL
cM c , epnnc1aoH kpoan, aepm, nsmka n kynL1ypm, epnnc1aoH
cosnannn, u1o rpaxpane - 6pa1Ln n u1o popnna nH popnan Ha1L. ao6opo1, aennkne
rocypapc1aa napann o1 opno npnunnm - o1 nnopopueckoro a1opxennn, o1
pacc1poc1aa naunonanLnoc1n - cnauana a aepxnnx knaccax, o1 ynapka 1o amcue
connpapnoc1n, ko1opan sac1aanne1 naunk a onacnme Hnny1m ac1aaa1L ppyxno,
necokpyunHo rnm6o, cHekuecn nap aceHn ypapaHn poka.
6pauakcL k naunH rocypapc1aennmH nkpnH, ecnn onn ec1L y nac, o6pauakcL k
na1pno1aH nc1epsanno occnn: sapyHmaanncL nn onn nap cypL6ok aennknx uapc1a,
pyxnyaunx a nc1opnn, ne oc1aana paxe pasaannn? s napopoa-nokonnkoa nnme 6mnn
ne ue1a pycckoHy no nx Hnpoao ponn. ockaa xo1ena 6m1L 1pe1LnH - n nocnepnnH -
nHoH. ak nyc1L xe ockaa, ecnn ona ceppue occnn, apyHae1cn, o1uero norn6 ee
nepam npo1o1nn, 1ako xe ceHnxonHnm pepxaanm ropop, pyko xenesno
cpannyaun rpannum Ha1epnkoa. cnonnnckan cnna nHa onnpanacL na ka1onoackne
po6pope1enn napopa - 6narouec1ne, unc1o1y npaaoa, seHnepenne n c1poryk npoc1o1y
xnsnn. ocnn1annan 1nxenmH 1pypoH HouL napopnan pasannacL a nenpepmanmx
reponuecknx aonax, neanpnHm panra1enL ko1opmx 6mn dulce pro patria mori -
cucu yHepe1L sa opnny. cnoHnn1e xe, o1kypa nounn necnmxannm pasapa1 nHa,
n cna6oc1L ero, n nopasn1enLnoe npepa1enLc1ao "apeHen ynapka.
"a payxco1ne1nn nepnop, - roaopn1 nnyx, - nan6onee snaHenn1me c1apeune
qaHnnnn nHa ncuesnn n saHennnncL Henee poc1onmHn, amuepunHn ns pasnmx
cnoea n paxe ns ocao6opnaunxcn neaonLnnkoa. orpa nuepon xanoaancn na ynapok
pnHcknx po6pope1ene, snaHenn1m aqnnnnnn sa6maan, u1o a ropope, paxe a caHoH
cena1e, pnHnnne c1apmx qaHnnn 6mnn pepkn n u1o na opnoro no1oHka kanpn1oa
npnxopnnocL pecn1L na1nnnn neunc1o kpoan n pecn1L a1pyckoa. n sa6maan, u1o
pnHckoe rocypapc1ao nauano npnxopn1L a ynapok c 1oro pnn, korpa o1kpmncn poc1yn a
nero uyxec1panuaH, n u1o npnunna, no ko1opo 1n1yn rpaxpannna 6ecnpec1anno 1epnn
cao 6neck, 6mna 1a, u1o Hexpy nocn1ennHn ero 6mno 6onee cmnoa napopoa
no6expennmx, ueH napopa-no6epn1enn. orpa ny1eH nocnepoaa1enLnmx
na1ypannsaunn npaao pnHckoro rpaxpanc1aa 6mno pacnpoc1paneno na ace
napopnoc1n, korpa 6pe1onum, cnpnum, qpaknum n aqpnkanum o6neknncL a a1o
saanne, ko1opoe 6mno nH ne no nneuy, 1o popoame pnHnnne yxe ncuesnn. c
popoamHn pnHnnnaHn ncues n ppeann nsyHn1enLnm pyx, cospaaun n
noppepxnaaaun Hnpoaoe uapc1ao.
naHena1enLno, u1o rn6enLnm sakon, papoaaaun aceH nokopennmH napopaH npaaa
pnHckoro rpaxpanc1aa, pan 6mn apakanno, opnnH ns 1ex 1npanoa, u1o xanenn o
neaosHoxnoc1n o1py6n1L ronoay napopy opnnH ypapoH. Henno opnnH ypapoH,
nouepkoH nepa, nopnncaauero y6nc1aennm pnn nHa sakon o6 nnopopuax, nHnepnn
kanpn1oa 6mna y6n1a. 1 6onee nnn Henee cxopnmx npnunn norn6no rpoHapnoe
rocypapc1ao nekcanppa ennkoro, kak panee ero norn6nn nec1pme uapc1aa oc1oka.
nuL 1onLko ko paopy aennknx ape c1ann nponnka1L nponmpnname appoxen,
o11ecnnaune n ry6naune naunonanLnyk anac1L, aHec1e c nnHn a1opranncL
aaan1kpnsH, paanopyune k ppeaneHy kynL1y, nerkoc1L npaaoa, npespenne k popnoHy
napopy, pasapa1, npepa1enLc1ao n, nakoneu, aneunee saaoeaanne. Y nac
nnopopueckoe sacnnLe npe1 co apeHen 1a1apcknx. pepnpnnHuname nnopopum apope
Bopnca opynoaa cennn apaxpy Hexpy uapeH n ppeane sna1Lk. ak a nHe amxopum
c okpann aocnn1maann 1npannk n saunuann ee, 1ak naua Hockoackan 1npannn
ackopHnena 1a1apcko cnyx6o. nopopuaH Hm o6nsanm aennuaunH necuac1LeH
naue nc1opnn - nc1pe6nenneH a XVI aeke naue ppeanenaunonanLno sna1n. y
nac 6mno cocnoane, u1o, nopo6no kanpn1aH nHa, necno a ce6e nc1nnnm pyx
napopnm, nnc1nnk1m pepxaanoro o6napannn seHne, uyac1aa napopno uec1n n
nc1opnueckoro cosnannn. Ynapok 6onpc1aa c1onn occnn aennko Hy1m, ao apeHn
ko1opo aeneu onoHaxa, o1nn1m y no1oHc1aa can1oro napnHnpa, c1an rynn1L no
1a1apcknH n nonLcknH ronoaaH. pesann pycckn npaanun knacc - n nauec1ann
xnmnynn c 1pex c1opon. pnunocL saxonyc1nmH HeuanaH pa uepno co1ne cnaca1L
occnk. na 6mna cnacena, no pasrpoH naunonanLno sna1n, o6pma nc1opnuecknx
npepann, ocna6nenne pasyHa napopnoro na aepxax anac1n npoponxann pec1aoaa1L
paspyun1enLno. saHnpenneH occnn, korpa aoennme nauec1ann 6mnn o1paxenm,
nauancn Hnpnm nnopopueckn nannma, c1peHn1enLno npyun po cnx nop n yxe nou1n
m anac1Lk, ocna6naun ee po nmneunero HapasHa.
qnunanLno nauec1ane neHuea o1Heueno npn "1nuaueH uape. ykase nekcen
nxanoanua o1 18 Han 1661 ropa snaun1cn: "Yuann na ockay npnxopn1L pasnme
epe1nkn, neHum n npocn1 uapckne cnyx6m. Hm co6pa: apxnennckonm, apxnepen,
apxnHanppn1m n nepen na pyHy n nonoxnnn co pyHnmHn nkpLHn: nx... pe1e neHuea,
na aoeaopc1ao ne nocmna1L n k aoeaopc1aaH ne onpepenn1L, a 6m1L nH... pe1nH
neHuea, 1onLko a ockae n sanncmaa1L na uepno co1ne n a cnyx6y nauy uapckyk
ac1yna1L no nyxpe a pa1nyk. o1 kaknHn ysknHn apa1aHn neHum aounn a pycckoe
uapc1ao ne6ecnoe. penkn oprannuecknH npepy6expenneH ko aceHy uyxoHy,
nnopopnoHy, noc1oponneHy, nekce nxanoanu, kak no1oHok 6onp n caH unc1o
pycckn uenoaek, ne peunncn ponyc1n1L paxe ropc1n uyxeseHuea a oprannsH
napopnm, ne o6pyHaa a1oro pena c nocn1ennHn naunonanLno aepm - pyxoaenc1aoH
n c nocn1ennHn napopno uec1n - pyHnmHn nkpLHn. yxpa a neko1opmx nckycc1aax n
naykax anapa 6mna c1paunan, ne 1o u1o 1enepL, korpa Hm nHeeH pecn1kn amcunx
eaponecknx ukon. Bes aoennoro nckycc1aa neHuea occnn ne Horna c1on1L. onLko
a1a xnsnennan neo6xopnHoc1L sac1aanna - c co6nkpenneH aennuaunx
npepoc1opoxnoc1e - ponyc1n1L neHuea ne k rnaanmH, a nnuL k nnsunH ponxnoc1nH,
k "uepno co1ne. aknH xe o6pasoH 1ak o6epnynocL, u1o aonpekn nepaonauanLnoHy
HyppoHy peuennk neHum ouy1nnncL y nac ne 1onLko "aoeaopaHn, no noam1ecnnnn
pyccknx ns coc1aaa pyHnmx nkpe n 6onp n na 1pn ue1aep1n aounn a uen1panLnoe
ynpaanenne, ao ace Hnnnc1epc1aa, a 1oH uncne aoennoe n Hopckoe?
o noaopy Honx nepaannx c1a1e ("ou1n nnoc1pannoe aepoHc1ao, "onnkn n
ycnHa) n nonyunn aHec1e c pyra1enLnmHn n HnorouncnennmHn 6naropapc1aennmHn
nncLHaHn nk6onm1nme Ha1epnanm, sa ko1opme npnnouy un1a1ennH rny6okyk
6naropapnoc1L. 1o kacae1cn pyra1enLnmx nnceH, 1o onn, kak n rnycnme c1a1Ln a
nnopopuecko neua1n, Hne poc1aannk1 ypoane1aopenne c1penka, nonaauero a uenL.
Henno a 1ex cnyuanx, korpa am nonapae1e a n6noko, naunnae1cn uyH: amckaknaae1
sanu n 6Le1 a 6apa6an nnn naunnae1 nrpa1L uapHanka. o konnuec1ay nopHe1nmx
nnceH n rpnsnmx c1a1e ny6nnunc1, saunuakun nn1epecm opnnm, Hoxe1
y6epn1Lcn, nackonLko pec1aenna ero pa6o1a. 1akoH cepLesnoH n c1paunoH pene,
kak nonn1nueckan 6opL6a, o6paua1L annHanne na pasppaxennme ykopm aparoa 6mno
6m 1ak xe c1panno, kak conpa1y xpa1L ns nenpnn1enLcknx okonoa konqe1m aHec1o
nynL. pene6peran oc1po noneHnko no nnopopueckoHy aonpocy, n cun1ak nyxnmH
o1ae1n1L na neko1opme na anp cnpaaepnname aospaxennn (r-p npca, aanukoro, r-xn
aHnncko n pp.). ne roaopn1, u1o neko1opme nasaannme Hnok nnua xo1n n nocn1
nnopopueckne qaHnnnn, no nac1onLko o6pycenn, u1o sanopospnaa1L a nnx nepycckne
uyac1aa pnn nnx o6npno. H ouenL pap, u1o ec1L 1akne pycckne nkpn. H snak Hnornx,
ko1opmH nepycckan qaHnnnn npepkoa kaxe1cn nou1n ockop6n1enLno. kaxpo
c1a1Le o6 nnopopuax n nac1anaak na 1oH, u1o Hexpy nnHn ec1L nsaec1nm npouen1
aepnmx occnn n paxe 6onee na1pno1oa, ueH caHn pycckne. aue acero onn
ac1peuak1cn Hexpy o6pyceaunHn neHuaHn, no ec1L 1akne n cpepn nonnkoa. Bepa a
1oH, u1o o6pyceaune nnopopum sacnonnk1 co6o nensHepnHo 6onLuee uncno
neo6pyceaunx nnn nnoxo cnnaunxcn c naHn. D1o ncnxonornueckne y6nkpkn,
no1epnaune acnkn naunonanLnm o6nnk. cnny He1ncaunn onn oprannueckn
paanopyunm k kakoHy 6m 1o nn 6mno o1euec1ay. expy nnHn ac1peuak1cn nkpn n c
unc1o pyccknHn qaHnnnnHn, nanpnHep neHum no Ha1epn, uaepm no 6a6yuke n 1.n.
c1nnnan onacnoc1L ne a 1oH 1onLko, u1o nkpn c nepyccknHn nHenaHn sannHak1
kpane aaxnme noc1m a rocypapc1ae, a a 1oH, u1o paxe nop pyccknHn nHenaHn
nn1ennnrenunn naue uac1o ckpmaak1cn yxe nou1n nepycckne nkpn, caoero popa
kpeonm n kaap1eponm, oprannueckn m k nonyuyxpo pnn nnx occnn.
1euenne payxco1 ne1 cnyxnnm knacc, paopnnc1ao n unnoannuec1ao, pen1enLno
ckpeunaancn c rpoHapnmH no uncny nannmaoH nnopopuea, npnueH npa6a6yuka-
apHnnka anocnna a nopopy opnn cknonnoc1n, epyuka-uaep - ppyrne, nonnk -
1pe1Ln, eapeka - ue1aep1me, n ace a1o, kak kpackn na nann1pe, cHeunaancL a o6un
coyc, paaano nop qaHnnne kakoro-nn6ypL knnsn kpnkoanua cepyk, 6ecuae1nyk,
nepycckyk n aoo6ue nnkakyk pyuy, pyuy kocHononn1a, pnn ko1oporo nap1nn,
pnpnxnpyeHan r-noH nnaaepoH
[47]
, Hnnee n canuennee occnn. "opasn1enLnm
ynapok a occnn na1pno1nsHa, o ko1opoH sanann r-n Hoackn
[48]
, o6Lncnne1cn
sacnnLeH ne 1onLko 1ex nnopopuea, ko1opmx ampak1 nx nepycckne qaHnnnn, no n 1ex
nnopopuea, u1o npnuy1cn nop pyccknHn nHenaHn. Ynapok naunonanLnoro pyxa, ynapok
pepxaano cnnm a nneHenn c1onL cnoco6noH, kakoam aennkopoccm, o6Lncnne1cn 1eH,
u1o aecLHa snaun1enLnan uac1L o6pasoaannmx aennkopoccoa na caHoH pene paano ne
pycckne nkpn nnn, aepnee, ncnopuennme a caoe nopope pycckne. poHe
oneHeunaunxcn po no1epn nsmka qon p6ysoamx nnn ouaepnaunxcn nne6pkxoamx
na aepxax npaanuero knacca am ac1pe1n1e 1mcnun "pyccknx nkpe,
pasroaapnaakunx no-pycckn 1onLko c nakenHn. Hm eue xo1nH 6m1L aennknH
rocypapc1aoH npn 1akoH nepepoxpennn naunx rocypapc1aennmx 1kane! pnaopn
qaHnnnn "coaepuenno 6yp1o 6m o6pyceaunx r-p aHnncknx, aneacknx, aukoacknx
n np., Hne kaxe1cn, n ne penak 6onLuo oun6kn. o-nepamx, nonnoe o6pycenne nx
ouenL cnopno (nacnepc1aennoc1L nepepae1cn na paapua1L nokonenn); ao-a1opmx, n
nopnnHak o6un aonpoc o6 nnopopueckoH sacnnLe. cnn am, unc1o pycckn uenoaek,
nocn1e, ckaxeH, ncnanckyk qaHnnnk, 1o a1nH pokasano, u1o korpa-1o ncnaneu aouen
a pycckn npaanun knacc n caonH no1oHc1aoH am1ecnnn ns nero no1oHc1ao kakoro-
nn6ypL kopennoro pycckoro, ouy1nauerocn c1ynenLk nnxe.
cnn rpoHapnm oprannsH rocypapc1aennm a ero aaxneunx uac1nx cpenancn
po6mue nnopopuecknx qaHnnn, 1o Hm, oc1aaunecn pycckne, n 1e, k1o annsy, nHeeH
npaao cnpocn1L ce6n co c1paxoH: ueH xe a1o konun1cn? e 1eH nn, u1o occnn,
aHeuakuan a ce6n 3/4 cnaanncko pacm, cpenae1cn n a caHoH pene "nopc1nnko pnn
napopoa, kak 6axaann1cn neHum? e 1eH nn, u1o y nac cnoxn1cn ouenL ckopo
nnopopueckan apnc1okpa1nn, paanopyunan k occnn? e 1eH nn, u1o cnoxn1cn 1akan
xe 6espyunan nnopopueckan 6ypxyasnn? o aepL npn 1akoH coc1aae uapc1aa Hm,
naaepnoe, rpoxneHcn nanopo6ne 1o orpoHno c1a1yn, ko1opyk anpen aayxoponocop
a caoeH c1paunoH cne. H coae1oaan 6m na1pno1aH pyccknH noannHa1enLnee aun1a1Lcn
a npopouec1ao annnna (rn. 2). cnonnn, cnHaonnsnpoaaaun aennkoe uapc1ao
aannonckoe, 6mn no1oHy pas6n1 kaHneH, o1opaaaunHcn o1 ropm, u1o coc1aanen 6mn
ns pasnopopnmx Ha1epnanoa. ono1an ronoaa, cepe6pnnan rpypL, Hepnoe upeao,
xenesnme ronenn, rnnnnnme norn: "ace aHec1e pasppo6nnocL... n cpenanocL kak npax
na ne1nnx ryHnax, n ae1ep ynec nx, n cnepa ne oc1anocL o1 nnx. akoaa cypL6a acex
nc uapc1a. "ak nepc1m nor 6mnn uac1Lk ns xenesa, uac1Lk ns rnnnm, 1ak n
uapc1ao, - roaopn1 annnn, - 6ype1 uac1Lk kpenkoe, uac1Lk xpynkoe. u1o 1m
anpen xeneso, cHeuannoe c rnnnok ropueunok, - a1o snaun1, u1o onn cHeuak1cn
uepes ceHn uenoaeueckoe, no ne conLk1cn opno c ppyrnH, kak xeneso ne cHeunaae1cn
c rnnno.
o1 aennkoe npopouec1ao pnn acex napopoa, nHeaunx rn6enLnyk oun6ky caoe
opnopopnoe nopHenn1L pasnopopnmH, caoe popnoe - nnopopnmH! <...>
aua opnna eue ne noaeprny1a a npax. m, xnaoe nokonenne pyccknx nkpe,
ponxnm coepnnn1Lcn. c1L eue Hanoe apeHn, no rope napopy, npoppeHaaueHy ace
cpokn!
H FT R?
1
pn o6cyxpennn yc1aaa cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa aosnnk nk6onm1nm
aonpoc: okaxe1cn nn uenL coksa - copec1ane rocnopc1ay pyccko napopnoc1n - a
cornacnn c cnoanmHn akonaHn? eko1opme naxopnnn, u1o nasaannme sakonm
o1pnuak1 rocnopc1ao kako-nn6o opno napopnoc1n. ce poccnckne noppannme 6yp1o
6m paanm nepep sakonoH kak a o6nsannoc1nx, 1ak n a npaaax. cnny a1oro 6opL6a c
nnopopuecknH sacnnLeH, no cyuec1ay, nesakonna.
oc1ann 1ekc1 cnoanmx akonoa n ne naunn a nnx nnuero ncnoro no a1oHy npepHe1y.
1o kacae1cn Henn, n ne ponyckak paxe aosHoxnoc1n nopo6noro unc1o coqnueckoro
aonpoca. sakone ne ykasano Hnoroe 1akoe, u1o npepnonarae1cn caHo co6ok,
nanpnHep npaao noppannmx kaunn1L. oc1a1ouno 1oro, u1o a cnoanmx akonax
occnn nasaana ccM occncknH, u1o6m aonpoc o rocnopc1ae cun1a1L
peuennmH. ocypapc1ao aepL n ec1L rocnopc1ao. 1ak kak ono poccnckoe, 1o 1eH
caHmH y1aepxpeno rocnopc1ao a occnn nHenno pyccko napopnoc1n, a ne kako
ppyro. o6naa1Lcn rocnopc1aa pyccknx a occnn snaun1 ocyuec1ann1L nepaoe
nonn1ne cnoanmx akonoa - nonn1ne 1oro, u1o seHnn naua ec1L cc
rocypapc1ao. nnpancL na unc1o knnxnme, coHnn1enLno qnnocoqckne 1eopnn,
nnopopum npo6yk1 nopHenn1L kopennoe nonn1ne rocypapc1aennoc1n 1ak, u1o
cyuec1an1enLnoe (rocypapc1ao) 6yp1o ne o1nocn1cn k caoeHy npnnara1enLnoHy
(pycckoe) n u1o ace nepycckne nneHena nHek1 6yp1o 6m 1e xe caHme npaaa na
rocnopc1ao, u1o n napop-xosnnn. o a1o coaepuenno neaepno. Xo1n a occnn uncnn1cn
u1o-1o po 60 nneHen, opnako nonn1nueckoe n kpnpnueckoe nHn ace nx coaokynnoc1n
ec1L ne rocypapc1ao pyccko-nonLcko-1a1apcko-na1mucko-eapeckoe n np., a
epnnc1aenno rocypapc1ao Pcc. 1ano 6m1L, rocypapc1ao no yc1anoanennoHy npaay
npnnapnexn1 a uep1e occnn nnuL opno napopnoc1n - naue. 1ex c1panax, rpe a1o
rocypapc1ao paspenne1cn Hexpy payHn napopnoc1nHn (nanpnHep, ac1po-enrpnn nnn
nepaano - aeunn n opaernn), 1aH a1o1 npaaoao o11enok ynoHnny1 a caHoH nHenn.
n ac1peuae1cn a coksnmx rocypapc1aax, qepepaunnx n u1a1ax, y nac xe cna6m
naHek na neu1o nopo6noe oc1ae1cn nnuL a 1n1yne Honapxa, rpe nepeuncnnk1cn
aouepune a occnk uapc1aa, knnxec1aa n pecny6nnkn. ak kak a peanLnoc1n a1nx
rocypapc1aennmx epnnnu 6onee ne1, 1o ne1 n paspenennn rocypapc1aennoro
rocnopc1aa Hexpy o1penLnmHn nneHenaHn. no aceueno n nepennHo npnnapnexn1
opnoHy napopy - pycckoHy.
kak xe 6m1L c nnopopuaHn? asae onn ne 1akne xe rpaxpane, kak kopennme
pycckne? oneuno, n ne ponxnm 6m1L 1aknHn. yropy poaonLno rnyno
nn6epanLno Hope nnopopuaH pann 6mno nonnoe paanonpaane, nonnoe paspenenne c
naHn rocnopc1aa, n u1o xe amuno? o, u1o a coc1aa nepaoro xe napnaHen1a nnopopum
amcnann nanmx aparoa occnn. pnunocL nocneunmH conp detat orpannun1L
nonn1nueckne npaaa nnopopuea, n na nepaoH onm1e peno, aepon1no, ne oc1anoan1cn.
ny6nnke n uac1o a npaanueH kpyry ny1ak1 nonn1nn nonn1nuecknx npaa c
rpaxpancknHn. 1o kacae1cn o1ae1c1aennoc1n sa npec1ynnennn, 1o, koneuno, ace
ponxnm 6m1L M paanm nepep sakonoH. oaopk "6onee nnn Henee, 1ak
kak n 1y1 cyuec1ayk1 rpoHapnme nepaaenc1aa - aHenneHoc1n, aospac1a, cocnoann n
np. rpaxpancknx o6nsannoc1nx n roaopn1L neuero. y1 c1onLko orpannuenn n
nsLn1n, u1o cnopn1L o paaenc1ae cHeuno. ocnoanoe, npoqeccnonanLnoe,
nHyuec1aennoe paspenenne yuac1nn a rocypapc1ae 1pe6ye1cn caHo npnpopo
o6uec1aa. oxno nn roaopn1L o paaenc1ae npaa? oaopn1: nnopopum necy1 1e xe
caHme noannnoc1n n nanorn, c1ano 6m1L, nHek1 npaao n na ace npaaa. o a1o
coaepuenno neaepno. nopopum necy1 coaceH ne 1e noannnoc1n n nanorn. Y nnx
coaceH ne 1o1 aknap a pycckoe rocypapc1ao, u1o y kopennmx pyccknx. anpnHep, naun
6pa1Ln nonnkn. nn npncoepnnenm k naH acero 100 c nnukoH ne1 nasap n, snaun1,
necy1 nanorn n noannnoc1L acero opno c1one1ne, 1orpa kak Hm, kopennme pycckne,
neceH 1y xe rocypapc1aennyk xcu cu. asnnua, kaxe1cn, cyuec1aennan.
m, pycckne, 900 ne1 c1ponnn n cospaaann naue rocypapc1ao, a nonnkn 900
cc sm a1o rocypapc1ao, ckonLko 6mno a nx cnnax. m c nauana
nc1opnn penann aknap a naue napopnoe poc1onnne, a onn c nauana nc1opnn neu1o
amnnHann y nac (ny1eH aon) n pac1paunaann nauy cnny. 1akoH nanennn, kakoao
naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao, xnayuee ns rny6nnm aekoa, nenLsn poaonLc1aoaa1Lcn
nnuL ceropnnunnHn cue1aHn. ocypapc1ao npnnapnexn1 1oHy napopy, pyua n 1eno
ko1oporo anoxenm a 1eppn1opnk. a1o 1oukn spennn n npnsnak npaaa nnopopuea na
nx co6c1aennme 1eppn1opnn, na nx HanenLkoe rocypapc1ao a nHn nacnxennmx yrnax.
s nnopopuea 1onLko opnn napop ne Hoxe1 nHe1L nnkakoro rocnopc1aa na seHne - a1o
eapen, 1ak kak y nnx ne1 co6c1aenno 1eppn1opnn. cnny a1oro onn caHo cypL6o
o6peuenm ocnapnaa1L acnkoe uyxoe rocnopc1ao, n ace napopm o6peuenm paaa1L nH a
a1oH o1nop. orpa eapen saaepy1 caok 1eppn1opnk n rocypapc1ao - ppyroe peno, n
nepam cornacen yaaxa1L nx npaaa.
onLko rny6oknH ynapkoH uyac1aa napopnoc1n na aepxax anac1n Hoxno o6Lncnn1L
naue ne cyuec1aykuee nnrpe a cae1e n nnrpe ne 6maanoe ypaanenne nnopopuea c
kopennmHn xn1ennHn. cnn a epHannn, nanpnHep, nnu1oxnan ropc1L nnopopuea
nHee1 ace rpaxpanckne npaaa, 1o HmcnnHo nn ponyc1n1L, u1o6m y neHuea 3/4
ponxnoc1e a aoennoH ynpaanennn, nanpnHep, 6mnn sann1m nonnkaHn? nn u1o6m
nou1n cnnouL ace pnnnoHa1nueckoe aepoHc1ao 6mno npepoc1aaneno qpanuysaH? nn
u1o6m caHme aaxnme c1pa1ernueckn xenesnme poporn, kon1ponL, qnnancm 6mnn
saxaauenm pa1uanaHn? nn ne cHeuno nn npepc1aan1L, u1o6m nrnnn o6Lnanna
anrnncknHn noppaHn 6ecuncnennmx nnpncknx papxe nnn knnsLkoa caonx uepnmx,
xen1mx, onnakoamx n kpacnmx noppannmx? Hm aepL nHenno a1o cpenann c
1a1apcknHn, apHnncknHn, rpysnncknHn n npounHn 6yp1o 6m knnsLnHn, npnpaanna nx k
no1oHc1ay naunx peannx uape, k no1oHc1ay napnHnpa an1oro! pn c1onL eue
nepaaneH nn6epannsHe sanapnmx konc1n1yun y nnx pepxn1cn 6m1oao, aecLHa
cypoam o1nop nnopopuaH paxe 1aH, rpe nocnepnne coc1aannk1 nnu1oxnm npouen1
nacenennn. Y nac xe, npn o1cy1c1ann nn6epanLno konc1n1yunn, nnopopuaH
npepoc1aannn npaaa paxe ne paanme, a necpaanenno 6onee amcokne, ueH
"rocnopc1aykueHy (!) napopy. 1o apeHn kak cao rocnopc1aykun (!) napop
o6pauann a pa6c1ao - nn opnn eape, nn opnn umran ne snan, u1o 1akoe kpenoc1noe
coc1onnne. 1o apeHn kak rocnopc1aykun (!) napop 1eknn koHy 6mno ne nenL - nn
opnn nnopopeu ne nopaeprancn 1enecnoHy nakasannk. a nnopopuaHn, po o1panennmx
6ypn1 aknkun1enLno, yxaxnaann, yc1panaann nx 6m1, orpaxpann cao6opy aepm,
aaann unpokne napenm, 1orpa kak a o1nouennn kopennoro, rocnopc1aykuero (!)
nacenennn 1onLko 1enepL co6npak1cn u1o-nn6ypL cpena1L. asae a caHoH pene
pyccknH kononnc1aH a oaonxLe, a pmHy, na aakase paaann 1e xe rpoHapnme
napenm n 1e xe nLro1m u1o neHuaH-kononnc1aH? asae pycckoe kpec1Lnnc1ao 6mno
yc1poeno c1onL xe sa6o1nnao, kak, nanpnHep, nonLckoe 40 ne1 1oHy nasap? 1o x 1y1
roaopn1L o paanonpaann, korpa kako-nn6ypL cnecapL-eape, necHo1pn na uep1y
ocepnoc1n, Hor ny1euec1aoaa1L no ace occnn, po aHapkanpa n napnaoc1oka, a
kopenno pycckn cnecapL eue noceuac cansan, 1ouno ne1ne, 1eH, amunk1 eHy
nacnop1 ns pepeann nnn ne1. Hec1o opno po cHeunoro nepexopnHo "uep1m
ocepnoc1n kopenno pycckn napop po caHoro nocnepnero apeHenn 6mn ony1an ueno
ce1Lk sa1nxnmx 6eccHmcnennmx orpannuenn - npn ocnoano n 1nxko noannnoc1n
nec1n na ce6e ack o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa rpoHapnoe, packnnyaueecn na paa Ha1epnka
rocypapc1ao. nn am pyHae1e, u1o apHnne, nanpnHep, nnn eapen, nnn qnnnm
osa6ouenm a 1ako xe c1enenn, kak Hm, cyuec1aoaanneH naue Hnepnn?
cepoccnckn naunonanLnm coks, ncxopn ns Hmcnn, u1o cc ec1L
cnc, c1aan1 nepao sapaue cnc pyccko napopnoc1n, no yx kakoe 1y1
rocnopc1ao! nn nauana xo1L 6m ypaannnn nac a npaaax c r-paHn nokopennmHn
napopnoc1nHn! nn nauana xo1L 6m po6n1Lcn 1onLko nponopunonanLnoro
pacnpepenennn 1ex nosnun anac1n, 6ora1c1aa n annnnnn, u1o npn copec1ann
npaan1enLc1aa saxaauenm nnopopuaHn. cnn neHum, ko1opmx 1 npouen1 a Hnepnn,
saxaa1nnn koe-rpe yxe 75 npouen1oa rocypapc1aennmx ponxnoc1e, 1o na nepaoe
apeHn cHeuno paxe roaopn1L o pycckoH "rocnopc1ae.
euL npe1 ne 1onLko o rocypapc1aennmx ponxnoc1nx. e Henee 1nxenoe sacnnLe
nnopopunnm npe1 a o6nac1n o6uec1aennoro n uac1noro 1pypa. asae caHme amropnme
npoHmcnm ne a pykax uyxnx nkpe? asae pae 1pe1n kpynno 1oproann a ockae ne a
pykax eapeea? asae 6npxa n xne6nan 1oproann ne a nx pykax? asae neq1nnoe peno,
acnnckoe Hope, onra ne a nx pykax? epexopn k yHc1aennmH npoqeccnnH, pasae
caHoe cosnanne c1panm - neua1L - ne a nx pykax? asae 1ea1p, Hysmka, o1uac1n
nckycc1ao ne a nx pykax? asae apaoka1ypa, apaue6noe peno, 1exnnka ne nepexopn1
6mc1po a nx pykn? "naun1, onn 1anan1nnaee pyccknx, ecnn 6epy1 aepx, - roaopn1
eapen. ako aspop! 1oH-1o n 6epa, u1o nnopopum 6epy1 aoace ne 1anan1oH. nn
npo1anknaak1cn Henee 6naropopnmHn, no 6onee c1oknHn kauec1aaHn -
nponmpc1aoH, uenkoc1Lk, c1pauno noppepxko ppyr ppyra n 6oko1oH acero
pycckoro. 1oH-1o n 6epa, u1o uyxan nocpepc1aennoc1L am1ecnne1 renn ocna6eauero
nneHenn n nnskoe uyxoe a nx nnue anapmuec1aye1 nap caonH amcoknH. cnn ne
roaopn1L o6 o1penLnmx ncknkuennnx, ouenn1e, nackonLko sacnnLe neHuea
o6ecuae1nno nauy pnnnoHa1nk n aoennoe aepoHc1ao, nnn nackonLko sacnnLe nonnkoa
pacc1ponno xenesnopopoxnoe peno, nnn nackonLko sacnnLe eapeea onorannno neua1L
n yponnno 1ea1p. o1penLnmx cnyuanx nnopopum a coc1onnnn okasmaa1L
nesaHennHme ycnyrn no, c1anoancL rocnopaHn nonoxennn, onn o1nnHak1 ne 1onLko
naue rocnopc1ao, no ponnk1 rocnopc1ao aoo6ue. nn - kak ace noc1oponnee -
nonnxak1 1on xnsnn, 1o opyueanenne, u1o Hoxe1 ncxopn1L nnuL ns co6c1aennoro
pyxa c1panm. yxoe acerpa oc1ane1cn uyxnH, n ycaoenne ero paxe a o1penLnmx
cuac1nnamx cnyuanx ec1L nm1ka pnn oprannsHa.
ecuac1ne occnn a 1oH, u1o ona nosa6mna, kak ee soay1 n kako pasyH anoxen a ee
1mcnuene1nn 1n1yn. ne xo1enocL 6m ckasa1L npoc1mH n ckpoHnmH pyccknH nkpnH:
rocnopa, acnoHnnH, u1o Hm rocnopa! cnoHnnH cepLesno, u1o o1euec1ao naue
nasmaae1cn Hnepne, rocypapc1aoH, 1o ec1L rocnopc1aoH a uep1e naue seHnn. e
uLnH nnmH rocnopc1aoH, a naunH, ko1opoe naH pana nc1opnn, 6naropopc1ao npepkoa,
nx o1aara, nx c1peHnenne k uapc1aenno na seHne ponn. kako xe c1a1n Hm
yc1ynaeH pparouennoe nacnepne amxopuaH uyxnx seHenL? ne 1onLko yc1ynaeH, a
naunnaeH axopn1L a nosopnyk saancnHoc1L o1 kaknx-1o eapeea, nonnkoa, uaepoa n
1.n. o saHmcny aennknx uape naunx, nnoc1panum n nnopopum ponyckanncL nnuL a
Hepy nyxpm na ponxnoc1n cnyxe6nme, na o6uec1aennme nonoxennn ckpoHnme,
o1nkpL ne nocnrakune na rocnopc1ao. ak xe a1o 1ak cnyunnocL, u1o onn ouy1nnncL
naaepxy, a Hm annsy?
m po 1oro opnuann nop npaanenneH naeHno nonynnopopuecko 6kpokpa1nn, u1o
nosa6mnn nepayk nc1nny xnsnn - cHmcn cnc. aunonanLnoe rocnopc1ao ec1L
ne kakan-nn6ypL pockouL, a npaac1aennan neo6xopnHoc1L, nepaoe ycnoane xnsnn.
ocnopc1ao ec1L coaepuenc1ao, pasan1ne acex napopnmx poc1onnc1a po nonno1m
pasan1nn. 1kasmaaeHcn o1 rocnopc1aa - c1ano 6m1L, o1kasmaaeHcn o1 npeana pacm,
o1 1oro aennunn, ko1opmH npnpopa yaenunaae1 ace, nHekuee xnsnL a ce6e. , ecnn
6m Hm noyunnncL xo1n 6m y eapeea nx naunonannsHy! oun1a1e nx canuennme
onpepenennn. nn - napop, s BoroH, napop epnnc1aennm, ko1opoHy ace
napopm ponxnm cnyxn1L a kauec1ae poHaunnx xnao1nmx. yHacuec1ane, ckaxn1e am.
e cyHacuec1ane, a naqoc nopopm, a caoeH apnc1okpa1nsHe ne xenakue nHe1L
paanmx. "m - no1oHc1ao uape, - roaopn1 eapen. aknx uape? y xo1n 6m
nac1yuLnx, xo1n 6m paenapua1n cmnoae akoaa. ypen - o1 ypm, a on 6yp1o 6m
6mn apL. cyHacuepueH 6pepe HanenLkoro necuac1noro napopa ckaosn1
aennuauan ns nc1nn acnko napopnoc1n. cnkoe nneHn ec1L uapL n ecnn ne xoue1
anac1aoaa1L, 1o ono pa6, n xaHckan ero ponn nH sacnyxena aHec1e c npoknn1neH, u1o
ono nece1 a ce6e. cHo1pn1ecL a a1o nsyHn1enLnoe nanenne: kakne-nn6ypL eapen,
apHnne, qnnnm, na1mun nosaonnk1 ce6e a1y pockouL - nk6oaL k popnne, roppoc1L
npnnapnexa1L k ne n Hyxec1ao saunua1L ee; a Hm - c1oHnnnnonnoe Horyuee nneHn
- yxe ne cHeeH nosaonn1L ce6e a1o pockoun. m 6onHcn npnsna1Lcn, u1o Hm -
pycckne, Hm 1peneueH nepep 1eH, u1o ckaxe1 o nac eape.
H pyHak, u1o c1onL rny6okn ynapok uyac1aa napopnoc1n - nakanyne aocc1anoanennn
ee nnn cHep1n. pno ns payx.
H K
13
K Mx - Mcu, u nc c su s m .
s nncLHa Hopnka a ackappe oxec1aenckoro
aa1pa 1nxenm nau "penL cypnm, penL noHnnoaennn qno1a, norn6uero nop
ycnHo. pn ropa nasap a a1o1 penL co c1onoH noaepnynncL koc1n e1pa ennkoro a
rpo6y. panekoH okeane orpoHnme 6ponenocum pycckne ropenn, nepeaep1maanncL
opnn sa ppyrnH, unn ko pny. pyrne - necnmxannoe peno! - cnyckann canuennm
qnar occnn n cpaaanncL ueno ackappo. pe1Ln - ueno xe ackappo - 6exann c
Hec1a 6on... 1pauno acnoHnn1L, u1o 1orpa nponcxopnno, 1ouno kouHap kako-1o. o
ns a1oro pasrpoHa n noc1mpnoro Hanopyunn, ns nyunnm ynnxennn, ne6maanoro n
neaepon1noro, nopnnHak1cn, 1ouno aonue6nme npnspakn, 6ecuncnennme npnHepm
Hyxec1aa, neyc1paunHo cHep1n...
a pnnx am un1ann a "oaoH apeHenn o 6ponenocue "nekcanpp III raappeckoro
aknnaxa, na ko1opoH c n c M norn6nn, po opnoro uenoaeka. m
noHnn1e, kak na onpoknnyaueHcn rnran1e, na knne ero a nocnepnne Hnny1m c1onnn
neckonLko oqnuepoa n Ha1pocoa n kpnuann "ypa! npyunH na rn6enL pyccknH
kopa6nnH. kean pasaepscn n a 6esponno caoe Hornne noxoponnn 1akoe xe
aennkoe, kak on, neno6epnHoe uyac1ao ponra. op nop1pe1oH ypcenn, Honoporo
kpacaaua Hopnka, am un1ann, kak on c 1oaapnuaHn na "yaopoae, mpy6oamH n
BorpanoamH, o1kasancn noknny1L kopa6nL, xo1n 6m n 1onyun, n npepnouen aHec1e c
nnH nepe1n a aeunoc1L. pn repon, epnnc1aennme oc1aaunecn ns xnamx na
"yaopoae (nocne cLespa c nero apHnpana oxec1aenckoro), aHec1e c ne6onLuo
kyuko koHanpm o1c1pennaanncL ns ann1oaok o1 nnoncknx Hnnonocuea. o nx 6mno ne
1pn, nx 6mno ropaspo 6onLue. o1 u1o Hne nnue1 apoaa eue opnoro norn6uero na
"yaopoae - ne1enan1a oaocnnLueaa: "o cnoa caHoro oxec1aenckoro n snak, kak
neamnocnHo c1papan nokonm Hyx Ho o1 xec1oknx pan n kak on c opno pyko
(ppyran 6mna o1opaana) n 1nxeno panennm a rpypL o1paaan po nocnepnero HoHen1a
pacnopnxennn - ne nepec1aaa1L c1penn1L. n nepam o1kasancn cnac1ncL na
"BynoH", xenan oc1a1Lcn po nocnepne nckpm xnsnn aepnmH caoeHy can1oHy ponry.
c1aaunecn a xnamx oqnuepm roaopnnn Hne, u1o a1o ncknkun1enLnm npnHep
repoc1aa. ao1 a1o1 repo sa6m1! Boxe, kak a1o 1nxeno Hne n HoeHy cmny neue!
H snan a1oro sa6m1oro oaocnnLueaa n Hory ypoc1oaepn1L, u1o eue po aonm on 6mn
ns 1ex ckpoHnmx nkpe, ko1opme coc1aannk1 nc1nnnoe ykpauenne popnnm n ee
roppoc1L. onopo, cnnLnm, pen1enLnm, 1pyponk6nam, nc1nnno 6naropopnm, a1o1
nonnm xnsnn Hopnk n 1orpa yxe cnyxnn occnn ne kak ace, a kak neHnorne. epep
o1npaanenneH snononyuno ackappm oaocnnLuea Hne nokasmaan 6ponenoceu "nco
ennkn, na ko1opoH on 1orpa cnyxnn. neua1nenne o1 a1oro kpane y1oHn1enLnoro
ocHo1pa 6mno 1o, u1o ec1L eue a occnn ypnan1enLnme nkpn, ko1opme ace pyuok
npepannm aoennoHy peny, ckpoHnme repon, na Hyxec1ao n uec1L ko1opmx popnna
Hoxe1 nonoxn1Lcn. Yxe 1orpa, po yxopa ackappm, 6mno ncno, pena ee nnoxn. Yxe
1orpa na ackappe n na aceH qno1e uen rnyxo pono1 o1uannnoro cosnannn, u1o cypa
nnoxn, opypnn nnoxn, cnapnpm nnoxn, apHnpanm nnoxn, koHanpa ne nopro1oanena,
nepexop - nou1n kpyrocae1nm - rpoHapno 1pypnoc1n n napexp na no6epy nou1n
ne1. cnoHnn1e, kak aenn ce6n 1orpa peaonkunonepm, nopc1pekaeHme eapenHn:
pa6oune na cypoc1pon1enLnmx n He1annnuecknx saaopax 1o n peno 6ac1oaann,
poxopnnn po caHoro npepa1enLckoro nopec1aa. yuun n cnnLneun ns naunx
6ponenocuea - "pen 6mn sa1onnen a raaann ao apeHn aoopyxennn. aHoe c1poroe
paccnepoaanne ne o1kpmno annoanmx, no, oueanpno, cpepn koHanpm 6mnn
"1oaapnun, 1ak kak nenoc1nxnHme aaapnn c Haunno 6ponenocua npoponxanncL a
ponu1ap1e n a Hope
[49]
.
"a6ac1oaunkn n c1aueunnkn cpenann caoe snoe peno, - roaopn1 r-n BenoHop, -
6naropapn nx ycnnnnH qno1 nau 1oHnncn na aparackape n, o6pac1an 1paaok, 1epnn
opno ns aaxneunx kauec1a - 6mc1poxopnoc1L
[50]
.
oxno nn 6mno napen1Lcn na no6epy? ak o1kpoaenno amckasancn opnn ns
koHanpnpoa, Hpaunm Byxaoc1oa, ackappa oxec1aenckoro Heu1ana nnuL yHepe1L c
uec1Lk, ne 6onLue. op 1nxenmH, 1ouno cannuoaan kpmuka rpo6a, cosnanneH pycckne
nkpn ro1oannncL n unn na nopanr. 1o snae1, Hoxe1 6m1L, onn cpenann ace, u1o
uenoaeuecko npnpope poc1ynno. yc1L r-n e6ora1oa cpancn, nyc1L r-n Dnkanc1
6exan, no nopaannkuee 6onLunnc1ao pyccknx Hopnkoa ccu n x.
neuanLnoH anpe pouna pycckan ackappa po ycnHm. c1oHnennme pean1nHecnunmH
nepexopoH, okeancknHn 6ypnHn, 1ponnuecko xapo, 1ouno 1kpeHnmH saknkuenneH a
xenesnmx kysoaax, a rnaanoe - oxnpanneH cHep1noro 6on 6es npaaa na no6epy,
paenapua1L 1mcnu Hopnkoa nakoneu yc1ann xn1L. y oxec1aenckoro, n y nocnepnero
Ha1poca cnoxnnocL opno, neypepxnHoe, kak Hannn, xenanne: po6pa1Lcn po
napnaoc1oka. ypa rpysno o6pocnn aopopocnnHn n no1epnnn xop. eperpyxennme
ponenLsn, onn nnenncL a snoaeunx npepuyac1annx. a paa pnn po 6on yHep
nsHyuennm OenLkepsaH, n nop apHnpanLcknH qnaroH ackappa aesna yxe 1pyn opnoro
ns aoxpe. oaepuenno neaepon1no, u1o6m 1ako yuenm ap1nnnepnc1, kak apHnpan
oxec1aenckn, ne snan o 1ex nepoc1a1kax naue ap1nnnepnn, 6ponn, cnapnpoa,
naqe1oa, o ko1opmx yxacnme paso6nauennn cpenanm 1anan1nnamH nepoH r-na Bpy1a.
pHnpan oxec1aenckn, Hne kaxe1cn, snan Hnoroe 1akoe, u1o, Hoxe1 6m1L, po cnx
nop nnkoHy ne nsaec1no, no on uen anepep, kak conpa1, ko1opoHy npnkasano np1n na
cHep1L. qno1 norn6... a noHnne1 xe necuac1nan Ha1L-occnn caonx sa6pouennmx
sa kpa seHnn necuac1nmx cmnoa, u1o Hyuennueckn, c aepok n uec1Lk nonoxnnn
xnao1 cao a 6ok nepaanoH!
oxap nap 6espnaHn - ao1 kap1nna 6on. epamH norn6 "cnn6n, 6ykaanLno
sacmnannm nnoncknHn nppaHn. "onyn on acero neckonLko Hnny1; cnacnocL okono
100 uenoaek. onyaunH nocnanm 6mnn 1pn Hnnonocua, no nnonum o1kpmnn no nnH
c1paunm oronL n onn npnnyxpenm 6mnn y1n
[51]
. 1opmH norn6 "Bopopnno, sa1eH
"nekcanpp III, no1oH "yaopoa, nakoneu "aaapnn. "napnpm naun, - nnue1
oueanpeu, - nnkypa ne ropnnncL: 6onLunnc1ao nx aoace ne paspmaanocL nnn
paspmaanocL, paspyuan HanenLkoe npoc1panc1ao. Hnonckne xe cnapnpm ace
paspmaanncL n npn1oH nponsaopnnn orpoHnme onyc1ouennn... ce Hope o1 Hnnnmx n
npepnmx aspmaoa npeapa1nnocL a nec qon1anoa. "e ycnee1 Hnnonoceu nopo1n k
kpyry, sa ko1opm yxaa1nnncL 30 - 40 y1onakunx pyccknx, appyr cnapnp, n ns acero
kpyra o6pasye1cn kpacnm qon1an. Kc 1o ec1L kpoaaam! "a nac nyc1nnn 120
Hnnonocuea... o 12u. 30 H. Hm o16naanncL o1 nnx, npnueH norn6 "aaapnn", sa1eH
"napnHnp onoHax" n "pHnpan axnHoa"...
s 1parepnn uycnHckoro 6on oc1anocL nnuL neckonLko pasposnennmx c1pannu, 1ounee,
c1pok, n aocc1anoan1L kap1nny a1oro uenoaeueckoro xep1aonpnnouennn nnk1o ne
Hoxe1. o sa1o a1n neHnorne HoHen1m, o ko1opmx pouen ronoc ns nyunnm, - onn
canuennm. oxno nn, ckaxn1e, sa6m1L repockn 6ponenoceu "pHnpan Yuakoa?
mpepxnaan penL n nouL xec1okn 6o, anpn, kak cropak1 n 1ony1 opnn sa ppyrnH
"cnn6n, "Bopopnno, "nekcanpp III, "Ypan, nakoneu "yaopoa c
rnaanokoHanpykunH qno1oH, 6ponenoceu "Yuakoa caH nonyunn pae 1nxenme
npo6onnm n norpysnncn nocoH. 1ano ouenL 1pypno ynpaann1Lcn n c1penn1L, nenLsn
6mno pa1L nonnoro xopa. o peunnn pepxa1Lcn po konua. a HanenLkn nau
6ponenoceu (acero a 4 1mcnun 1onn, c ue1mpLHn opypnnHn) nanann paa rpoHapnmx
nnoncknx kpecepa, kaxpm no 19.700 1onn, c 36 opypnnHn. "oae1yk aaH cpa1L aau
kopa6nL, - nopnnnn cnrnan nnonum; n sa1eH uno eue kakoe-1o npoponxenne
cnrnana. "poponxenne n pas6npa1L neuero, - ckasan nknyxa, koHanpnp "Yuakoaa.
- 1kpm1L oronL. axe n a1n neHnorne naun amc1penm repockoro kopa6nn ne
pone1ann po nenpnn1enn. Hnonum nspaneka sacmnann "Yuakoaa nppaHn. Y nac
npnc1ynnnn k o6pnpy yHnpannn: knnrc1onm 6mnn o1kpm1m, 6oH6oame norpe6a
nopopaanm, Haunnm oc1anoanenm. Bponenoceu ner na npaam 6op1 n,
nepeaepnyauncL kaepxy knneH, nouen na pno, po nocnepnero Hrnoaennn
pacc1pennaaeHm nenpnn1eneH.
yc1L xe ne sa6ype1 occnn nHen nknyxn, yca1oaa, Xpanoaa, py6numna, opnua n
Hnornx-Hnornx ppyrnx, u1o o1pann 1y1 Bory pyuy. e, u1o a xonopno aope pepxanncL,
xaa1ancL sa o6noHkn, nepexnnn c1papannn xyxe cHep1n: yxe nopo6pannme nnonuaHn,
sakoueneaune Hkoanea n XnmHoa yHepnn o1 napannua ceppua...
"yaopoa ne ocpaHnn caoero nc1opnueckoro nHenn. n npnnnn ne opny, a 1pn cHep1n,
on 6mn pacc1pennn, coxxen n no1onnen, no cc. o nnoncknH nc1ounnkaH,
"yaopoay paa pasa npepnarann cpa1Lcn, na u1o oc1aauancn (nocne cLespa apHnpana
oxec1aenckoro) kyuka repoea o1aeuana sannaHn ns ann1oaok. n opno yxe eno
nyukn ne oc1aaanocL. ocnepnn sann paspancn, korpa "yaopoa nanonoanny yxe
ckpmncn nop aopo - aHec1e c 1eHn, nHena ko1opmx pa 6ypy1 a naue naHn1n
6eccHep1nm...
yc1L ne sa6ype1 occnn repockn kpecep "ae1nany, ko1opm na ppyro penL 6on,
yxe nonypas6n1m, 6mn a1akoaan payHn nnoncknHn kpecepaHn n HnnonocueH.
napnpoa nou1n yxe ne 6mno no na aoennoH coae1e peueno 6mno ac1ynn1L a 6o n,
korpa 6ypy1 nspacxopoaanm cnapnpm, sa1onn1L kpecep. sopaa1Lcn 6mno yxe nenLsn,
1ak kak Hnnnm norpe6 6mn sann1 eue nakanyne. ak peunnn, 1ak n cpenann:
npo6nauncL neckonLko uacoa, o1kpmnn knnrc1onm. pecep ner na neam 6op1 n c
nopnn1mH qnaroH nouen na pno okeana. Hnonum 6esxanoc1no pacc1pennaann
"ae1nany po 1ex nop, noka ona ne ckpmnacL cpepn aonn. yc1L xe occnn ne sa6ype1
xpa6poro koHanpnpa enna, pum6aueaa, onc1oro, Lnkonoaa, oponuoaa, rpaqa
npopa, ypoaa, aep6eeaa, ra1Leaa n okono c1a uec1npecn1n paspennaunx cHep1L c
nnHn nnxnnx unnoa. epanenm, neapepnHm enn nnuL sa neckonLko Hnny1 po
norpyxennn cypna 6mn y6n1 nnoncknH cnapnpoH.
yc1L ne sa6ype1 occnn o1aaxnoro "napnHnpa onoHaxa, pacc1pennnnoro,
nspanennoro, nopaepruerocn pean1n HnnnmH a1akaH n no1onyauero c nopnn1mH
anppeeacknH qnaroH. yc1L ne ncuesne1 a 6naropopno naHn1n kpecep "Hn1pn
oncko, na ko1opoH y6n1m 6mnn onLu, ypnoao n npe n 1nxeno panenm e6epea,
Bnoxnn, onoHeuea, y1oa, nnLken, Xpa6po-acnneackn, knnsL naen n am6mnn
okono payxco1 nnxnnx unnoa. D1n ne cpanncL n c caoero kopa6nn.
yc1L ne sa6ype1 occnn 6ponenoceu "aaapnn, ko1opm, saHe1na o1uannnoe
nonoxenne "yaopoaa, ropeauero kak koc1ep, npnkpmn ero co6ok o1 cmnaaunxcn
nnoncknx 6oH6. as6n1m, asopaannm HnnaHn n 6oH6aHn, c nepe6n1o koHanpo, co
cHep1enLno panennmH koHanpnpoH, 6ponenoceu ace eue pepxancn. anennm a
ronoay n a rpypL 6apon On1nnroq o1kasancn oc1aan1L kopa6nL n peunn no1ony1L c
nnH. "epnme npnnn1oHy peuennk Mu, cuc, - nnue1 opnn yuac1nnk
6on, - oqnuepm nepep caHok rn6enLk cypna npoc1nnncL c amc1poenno koHanpo n,
ro1oancL k cHep1n, 6pa1ckn nepeuenoaanncL ppyr c ppyroH, a nsyaeuennm koHanpnp
npnkasan amnec1n ce6n naaepx. 1kasancn o1 cnaca1enLnoro nonca n cHennaun ero
c1apun oqnuep ypknn, po nocnepnero HoHen1a cnacaaun koHanpy. Hnonum
npoponxann pacc1pennaa1L 6apax1aaunxcn a aope pyccknx nkpe. Hnonckn
Hnnonoceu uepes neckonLko uacoa eue anpen nnaaaaunx n yHnpaaunx o1 nc1ouennn
pyccknx n ne pan nH noHoun. onLko anrnnckn napoxop ycnen cnac1n 1pex
Ha1pocoa, ko1opme n pacckasann o6 yxacax a1o noun. e sa6ypL xe, Ha1L-occnn,
nHen On1nnroqa n ypknna, knnukoro, pay, sHanoaa, enkynoaa, rapeaa n
Hnornx-Hnornx saHyuennmx n y6n1mx sa aennkoe 1aoe nHn!
Y Henn ne1 Hec1a, u1o6m nanoHnn1L specL uypnme nopanrn "Bynoro "posnuero,
"1eperyuero, kak n anonek "kpnka, norn6uero eue po ycnHm a 6nnc1a1enLnoH
6ok. enL nac1onunx c1pok - noHouL un1a1enk aoso6noan1L a naHn1n yxacnoe
co6m1ne, u1o cnyunnocL poano 1pn ropa nasap, n pa1L o1uannnk pycckoro ceppua
neko1opoe y1euenne. yc1L pas6n1o pycckoro qno1a, no oc1anacL neno6epnHo
m ero, noka a neH ne nepeaenncL repon apope oaocnnLueaa, mpy6oaa, Xpanoaa,
rapeaa, ypcenn, Borpanoaa, On1nnroqa, enna, Xnopoackoro, oprypckoro n
Hnornx-Hnornx ppyrnx, nx xe nHena nsaec1nm Bory.
H nnuy a1n rpyc1nme c1pokn ao pnn rny6oko rpyc1nme, korpa ne1 yxe nou1n nnkako
napexpm na aocc1anoanenne qno1a - po 1ako c1enenn npouno y1aeppnnncL a neH
nkpn c1apme, acn xnsnL ko1opmx npouna a nopro1oake qno1a pnn pasrpoHa. y1nna,
caoekopmc1ne, kapLepnsH, nnopopueckoe sacnnLe, neaexec1ao n paanopyune k
pycckoHy napopnoHy peny - ao1 u1o npnaeno nac k ka1ac1poqe n ao1 u1o po cnx nop,
1ouno uepnoe aonue6c1ao, Heuae1 nopnn1Lcn naue Hopcko cnne. e1 y aennkoro
rocypapc1aa neao pykn ero - qno1a, sary6neno pepxaanoe peno e1pa, n napop
pycckn onn1L o16pouen na paec1n ne1 nasap a o1nouennn Hopcko 6asm. Ono1a ne1,
no aepL on 6mn, n papn naHn1n neannno norn6unx nop ycnHo pecn1n 1mcnu
Hyuennkoa sa occnk qno1 x u aocc1anoanen! 1opmH saua1neH ero pa 6ype1
6naropapnan naHn1L o reponsHe 1ex, ko1opmx 6ypyune Hopnkn nasoay1 korpa-nn6ypL
caonHn npepkaHn.
pna ns Hnorouncnennmx apoa repoea, norn6unx nop ycnHo, . . enna, nepepana
Hne uepes caoero 6pa1a, knnsn . . Ypycoaa, HmcnL, k ko1opo n npncoepnnnkcL aceH
ceppueH. nepye1 aospanrny1L naHn1nnk a anpe xpaHa, rpe na c1enax 6mnn 6m
co6panm n yaekoaeuenm nHena pyccknx nkpe, norn6unx a uycnHckoH 6ok. a6aenne
a1nx c1papanLuea yxacno: nnuero ne1 noc1mpnee ne6naropapnoc1n 1euec1aa, n nnu1o
1ak ne aospoxpae1 Hyxec1aa, kak npnHep repoea. eypaua aonm npn naueH
ec1ec1aennoH Horyuec1ae ne ec1L pnn occnn cHep1nm npnroaop. c1L neu1o xypuee
acnknx nopaxenn - a1o ynapok pyxa, korpa ncuesae1 paxe naHn1L o caoeH npexneH
aennunn. enLsn co6pa1L koc1e repoea co pna ennkoro okeana, u1o6m saknkun1L nx
a o6uyk 6pa1ckyk Hornny, no Hoxno n cnepye1 noc1pon1L xpaH, rpe 6mnn 6m
6naroroaeno norpe6enm nHena nx, kypa npnxopnnn 6m onnaknaa1L nx ocnpo1eaune
xenm n e1n n rpe occnn Horna 6m, noHnnan nx, npeknonn1L konenn. pe-nn6ypL na
6epery eam, cpepn annnroa, a uen1pe aoopyxennn qno1a, npo1na opckoro kopnyca,
rpyc1nm xpaH nap aopo nanoHnnan 6m Hnoroe n apoxnoannn 6m na Hnoroe. enLsn
xn1L, o1pmaancL o1 kopne npounoro, a kopnn y nac uenm. axe a pnn aennuauero
ns yxacoa naue nc1opnn 6mnn nanenm canpe1enLc1aa 1oro 6ecc1paunn, npn ko1opoH
naunn ne yHnpae1.
K
5
<...> cepoccnckn naunonanLnm coks sapae1cn uenLk copec1aoaa1L: cnc
cc c a npepenax Hnepnn, ykpennennk cosnannn napopnoro epnnc1aa,
yc1poc1ay pyccko 6m1oao caHonoHoun, pasan1nk pyccko kynL1ypm n ynpouennk
pyccko rocypapc1aennoc1n na nauanax caHopepxaano anac1n uapn a epnnennn c
sakonopa1enLnmH napopnmH npepc1aan1enLc1aoH. ocnepnn nynk1 - npnsnanne
yc1anoanennoro cnoanmHn akonaHn 1n1yna epxoano nac1n n ee o1nouenn k
napopnoHy npepc1aan1enLc1ay - o1ropaxnaae1 nau coks opnnakoao o1
peaonkunonnmx n peakunonnmx nap1n. 1e n ppyrne o1aeprak1 cyuec1aykun
nopnpok aeue, Hm ero npnsnaeH 6aso pnn panLneuero pasan1nn - a 1y c1opony,
kypa ykaxe1 o6ueuenoaeueckn n o6uepycckn onm1. onxen oroaopn1Lcn (n a1y
oroaopky npouy sanoHnn1L), u1o, roaopn a pannoH cnyuae "Hm, "nac n 1.n., n roaopk
nnuL o ce6e, o caonx nnunmx Hnennnx. H 6mn 6m cuac1nna, ecnn 6m ampasnn
opnoapeHenno o6uee Hnenne coksa, no o1nkpL ne npnnncmaak ce6e a1o uec1n n
napexp na nee ne nn1ak. aknH coks cnoxn1cn - nokaxe1 onm1. H nosaonk ce6e
nnuL c Hoe 1oukn spennn pasLncnn1L 1e nauana a yc1aae aunonanLnoro coksa,
ko1opme Hnok 6mnn npepnoxenm n npnnn1m yupepn1ennHn nou1n 6es nsHenennn.
co6enno n ypoane1aopen 6mn 1eH, u1o naparpaq nepam yc1aaa - copec1ane
cnc pyccko napopnoc1n - nocne npoponxn1enLnmx n xapknx npenn 6mn
npnnn1 a Hoe pepakunn.
ak n yxe poknapmaan un1a1ennH, a roppoH cnoae, "rocnopc1ao anocn1cn ne noam
qak1, a ppeann, paanoaospac1nm caHo occnn. cnc ec1L cc, n
nao6opo1. 1pnuan rocnopc1ao pycckoro nneHenn a uep1e occnn, Hm 1eH caHmH
o1pnuaeH rocypapc1ao pycckoe, 1o ec1L 6es nonnoHounn napopa pasaenunaaeH ero ns
aennkoro n uapc1aennoro nneHenn a cmpo a1norpaqnueckn Ha1epnan. aun
kac1pnpoaannme a naunonanLnoH uyac1ae kape1m nop anyuenneH pasnarakue
nponaranpm eapeea, ne nHekunx o1euec1aa, nopeunnn na 1oH, u1o ace nneHena a
occnn nonnonpaanm n kaxpan, xo1n 6m sacoxuan ae1ka kako-nn6ypL pacm nHee1
npaao na "naunonanLnoe caHoonpepenenne. a a1oH ocnoaannn nepam kape1 o1
e1ep6ypra a nepao yHe, npoqeccop apeea
[52]
, npepnoxnn paxe o1Henn1L
nasaanne "pycckoe rocypapc1ao, n6o naue rocypapc1ao 6yp1o 6m ne pycckoe, a
pyccko-nonLcko-1a1apcko-nn1oacko-qnncko-apHnncko-rpysnncko-knprnscko-ac1oncko-
caHoepckoe, u1o nn. Xo1n asrnnp o1Henno npoc1opyunoro kape1a ne nHen ycnexa,
opnako Hnoxec1ao 1ak nasmaaeHmx nn6epanLnmx nkpe 6nnskn k Hmcnn, u1o
paanonpaane nneHen sM n cnpaaepnnao. Henno c a1o HmcnLk, rnyno n
necnpaaepnnao, npnpe1cn aec1n 6opL6y aunonanLnoHy coksy.
Bes npnnn1mx yxnHok n nnueHepnmx oroaopok Hm aaenn a nau yc1aa nepam porHa1
naunonanLnoc1n - rocnopc1ao caoero nneHenn a rocypapc1aenno uep1e. m, Boxnek
Hnnoc1Lk napop pycckn, o6napa1enL ennko n ano n Beno occnn, npnnnHaeH
a1o o6napanne kak ncknkun1enLnyk Hnnoc1L Boxnk, ko1opo o6nsanm popoxn1L n
ko1opyk npnsaanm oxpann1L aceHepno. aH, pyccknH, nepapoH panocL a1o rocnopc1ao.
no naH c1onno 6onee 1mcnun ne1 nencuncnnHmx 1pypoa n nnuenn, ono c1onno
Hyuenn, pan n nopanroa pnn 1pnpua1n nokonenn npepkoa, ono c1onno nx
6naropopno kpoan, nponn1o c aepo a occnk, epnnyk n nepennHyk. n c 1oro nn c
cero penn1L po6m1me uapc1aennme npaaa c nokopennmHn napopaHn - u1o xe 1y1
sM, ckaxn1e na Hnnoc1L? anpo1na, a1o aepx nonn1nueckoro cna6oyHnn n
npepc1aanne1 co6o nc1opnueckoe Ho1oac1ao, coaepuenno nopo6noe 1oHy, kak a
kyneuec1ae "1n1enLknnm cmnkn, nonyuna Hnnnnon, naunnak1 pas6pacmaa1L ero
nakenH n napunH xenunnaH. aHa npnpopa ampannyna nneHn pycckoe cpepn Hnornx
ppyrnx kak nan6onee kpenkoe n papoan1oe. aHa nc1opnn okasana nepaaenc1ao
HanenLknx nneHen c naHn. kaxn1e, u1o x 1y1 pasyHnoro - np1n npo1na npnpopm n
nc1opnn n y1aepxpa1L paaenc1ao, ko1oporo ne1? cn nn paaa1L opnn n 1e
xe npaaa c1pon1ennH pycckoro rocypapc1aa n paspyun1ennH ero? 6o ne sa6ypL1e, u1o
HanenLkne nneHena a 1euenne Hnornx aekoa 6oponncL c naHn n aceHn cnnaHn
nm1anncL paspyun1L naue uapc1ao. cnn am ne coaceH cnenm, 1o Hoxe1e anpe1L, u1o
n 1enepL eue npe1 nnopopueckan 6opL6a npo1na naue rocypapc1aennoc1n, 6opL6a
nenpnHnpnHan, ckpm1an, no 1eH 6onee onacnan. pnk nnopopuea o paanonpaann ne
ec1L 1pe6oaanne rpaxpanckoro paaenc1aa. D1o 1pe6oaanne 1ex nc1opnuecknx nosnun,
ko1opme Hm saaoeaann pnn ce6n. coaepuenno o6pyceaunx nnopopuax, koneuno, ne1
n peun, 1akne ne nyxpak1cn a aanonpaann. nn nonyuak1 ero no Hepe cnnnnnn c
pyccknH nneHeneH. nonnonpaann, o naunonanLnoH caHoonpepenennn kpnua1
neo6pyceaune nnopopum, npnsnakune ce6n o1kpm1o nepyccknHn. o a 1akoH cnyuae
kakoe xe pnn nac o1nnune onn nHek1 o1 nnoc1panuea n noueHy paaa1L nH
npenHyuec1ao nepep nnoc1panuaHn? c1L nn xo1L 1enL cHmcna npepoc1aann1L
nepyccknH nkpnH xosnckne npaaa a pyccko seHne?
XVIII aeke occnn nepenecna pokoaoe necuac1ne - ona no1epnna cao
naunonanLnm npaanun knacc. nnH noHepkno napopnoe nonn1nueckoe cosnanne.
a occnk xnmnynn ns-sa rpannum n ns nokopennmx okpann uenme aonnm
paanopyunmx, uac1o apaxpe6nmx aneHen1oa. onLsyncL 6esnnunoc1Lk anac1n, onn
sannnn a pasnmx 1oukax c1panm kpane aaxnme nosnunn, ko1opme npoponxak1
saxaa1maa1L aunpL n ykpennn1L. occne coaepunnocL neu1o nopo6noe 1oHy, u1o
6mno c n1aeH: rnran1ckan nHnepnn 6mna saxaauena nnu1oxnmHn no uncnennoc1n
HanLuxypaHn, a y nac 6es acnko aonm, cao6opnmH nannmaoH asnnn sacnnLe neHum,
uaepm, nonnkn, eapen, apHnne. e1 coHnennn, n HanLuxypm cpenann koe-u1o pnn
n1an, opnako ne cyHenn oprannsoaa1L ero a aennkoe n nenpnc1ynnoe rocypapc1ao. o
xe n nnopopum a occnn - nsaec1nme sacnyrn nx o1pnua1L nenLsn, opnako o6un
n1or nx payxaekoaoro aneppennn okasancn aecLHa neuanLnmH. ak n n1a, occnn -
c1onL orpoHnan - okasmaae1cn napannsoaanno a pyxoanoH Horyuec1ae, a
rocypapc1aenno aone, a xenesno peunHoc1n 6opo1Lcn sa caok xnsnL. n1a,
aknkuakun a ce6n ue1aep1yk uac1L uenoaeueckoro popa, pas6n1 Hnsepno Hnonne.
pnnnmaak1 ackappm ns npo1naononoxnoro nonyuapnn n sannHak1 kn1ackne
raaann, kn1ackne 1eppn1opnn n nc1ounnkn poxopa. occnn, pacnpoc1epuancn na paa
Ha1epnka, pas6n1a 1o xe nesnaun1enLnok Hnonne, n nou1n 1e xe saxaa1m, u1o a
nao-ao n aan1ynre, y nac npy1 na yko1ckoH nonyoc1poae, na aHua1ke n a
pnaHypLe. Ono1m o6enx nHnepn ynnu1oxenm, apHnn pas6n1m, n acn napexpa o6enx
c1pan oc1ae1cn na 6ypyune npeo6pasoaannn. o kakne nn aaopn1e peqopHm, kakne nn
saaopn1e napnaHen1m, o6e nHnepnn 6ypy1 nnkny1L, noka a caHoH ceppue nx, a
1annke rocypapc1aenno xnsnn 6ypy1 npncy1c1aoaa1L uyxne, nnopopnme aneHen1m.
pepn cnnLno okn1aennmx HanLuxypcknx aenLHox ec1L, koneuno, nkpn ouenL yHnme;
necoHnenno, onn npepannm npec1ony, no pokoao qak1, u1o onn uyxne pnn n1an n on
nH uyxo, upesamuano cansmaae1 nx ncnxonornk. nn ropn1cn na ponL
ncnonnn1ene, no u1o6m c1a1L aoxpnHn naunn, apoxnoan1ennHn ee a ropm rn6enn -
HanLuxypm na a1o ne cnoco6nm. aun nnopopum, saxaa1naune upesHepnoe annnnne a
caHmx aaxnmx cnonx o6uec1aa, paneko ne acerpa npepa1enn. no pas onn aecLHa
couyac1ayk1 nHnepnn ko1opan nx kopHn1, no paxe n a a1nx cnyuanx nx couyac1ane ne
Hoxe1 nopnn1Lcn po reponsHa, po npnnn1nn 1ex aennknx peuenn, u1o cnacak1
naunk.
mpanran nepao uenLk caoe cnc pycckoro nneHenn, aunonanLnm coks
xo1en 6m aepny1L napopy caoeHy caHyk nepayk n neo6xopnHyk ns qynkun -
naunonanLnoc1L koHanpykunx knaccoa. op "anac1Lk a pannoH cnyuae n pasyHek ne
1onLko nonn1nueckoe npeo6napanne, no n akonoHnueckoe n HopanLnoe. m,
aunonanLnm coks, poano nnuero ne nHeeH npo1na nnopopuea, pec1an1enLno
o6pyceaunx. apeckne rase1m neua1ann, 6yp1o n na yupepn1enLnmx co6pannnx
aocc1aaan npo1na ponyuennn a coks acex, qaHnnnn ko1opmx nepycckne. oneuno, a1o
aspopnan noxL, opna ns 6ecuncnennmx nxe, ko1opme napasn1m naue neua1n
cansmaak1 c HonH nHeneH. H yxe Hnoxec1ao pas sanannn, u1o cpepn anonne
o6pyceaunx nnopopuea ac1peuak1cn nnaHennme pycckne na1pno1m. ou1n ace pycckne
nkpn nocn1 eapeckne n rpeueckne M: o6 a1oH Hoxno xane1L, no npnpaaa1L
cepLesnoe snauenne nHenaH ne npnpe1 xe a ronoay. o npn nonneue cnHna1nn k
o6pyceaunH nnopopuaH, aouepunH a nauy nno1L n kpoaL, aunonanLnm coks
ponxen sanan1L caHyk peun1enLnyk ne1epnnHoc1L k nnopopuaH cmM. ak
noc1oponnne 1ena a oprannsHe, kak sanosm n napoc1m, ne cnnaakunecn c naHn
nneHena ponxnm 6m1L ypanneHm ao acex 1ex cnyuanx, rpe onn ampanrak1 caoe
sacnnLe. rpannuna nx a nonn1nuecknx npaaax, occnn Hoxe1 1epne1L na caoe
1eppn1opnn neko1opoe konnuec1ao nnoc1panuea; no ponycka1L npoxnaanne a uep1e
Hnepnn na ocnoae paanonpaann uenmx Hnnnnonoa nepyccknx nkpe - npnnunn
6esyHno rn6enLnm. aknH nnopopuaH a occnn ponxna 6m1L ykasana onpepenennan
1eppn1opnn n panm nx Hec1nme npaaa, no co6c1aenno nHnepckne, rocypapc1aennme
npaaa nx ponxnm 6m1L c1poro orpannuenm - po 1ex nop, noka na1ypannsaunn kaxporo
nnopopua a occnn ne 6ype1 poc1a1ouno pokasana. ennanLnme qanLcnqnka1opm
eapen y6expak1: pa1e nnuL nonnonpaane - n nenaanc1nnkn occnn c1any1 aepnmHn
ee cmnaHn. o exepneanm onm1 roaopn1 nnoe. pepn eapeea nanHenee onacnm pnn
nac aneHen1 - nHenno 6ecnpaanme eapen, cnpnune sa uep1o ocepnoc1n, n nan6onee
onacnm - a1o 1e, ko1opme nonyunnn - apope r-p nnaaepa, eccena n pp. - ace
npaaa. aHme xe onacnme, noxany, - a1o neko1opme amkpec1m, u1o o1kasmaak1cn
o1 caoe aepm n coaec1n pnn 1oro nnuL, u1o6m nerue a1epe1Lcn a xpnc1nanckoe
o6uec1ao. axe ao a1opoH nokonennn nnmx amkpec1oa ac1peuaeuL 6eso1ue1nyk
nenpnnsnL k occnn n neoponnHyk cnHna1nk k caoeHy "ronnHoHy nneHenn. Hanan n
1anan noppepxka nnopopueckoHy saxaa1y npe1 y amkpec1oa na neckonLko nokonenn.
o1 noueHy pnn occnn neo6xopnHo o1ropopn1Lcn o1 caonx - no kpane Hepe
neko1opmx - nnopopnmx nneHen xo1n 6m ueno pacunpennn nx Hec1nmx npaa.
H nnuno y6expen, u1o ne nnopopum nyxpak1cn a aa1onoHnn okpann, a occnn a ne
nyxpae1cn. Henno occnn ponxna pena1L ace aosHoxnoe, u1o6m ee oc1aannn a nokoe,
u1o6m ne saxaa1maann xosnckoro rocnopc1aa nop naue xe kpmue. a1o 1oukn
spennn n cun1ak konoccanLno oun6ko ponyuenne a pycckn napnaHen1
npepc1aan1ene ppyrnx nneHen. apnaHen1 ec1L xpaH sakonopa1enLc1aa; kak a xpaHe,
1y1 ponxno 6m1L opno naunonanLnoe ncnoaepanne, opna nonn1nueckan aepa. ak a
xpaHe npnsnae1cn opnn ocnopL, a napnaHen1e opnn rocnopnn - cao napop n opno
rocnopc1ao - caoe co6c1aennoe. pncy1c1ane a pyccko yHe nonLckoro kona,
HycynLHancko rpynnm n 1.n. ec1L rpy6euan onncka naue konc1n1yunn, ko1opan -
aHec1e c HnornHn ppyrnHn - nyxpae1cn a peun1enLnoH ncnpaanennn. cnn 6m nrnnn
nnn Opanunn nosaonnnn ce6e 1y xe nenenoc1L - pa1L npaaa napnaHen1ckoro
npepc1aan1enLc1aa nnopopuaH caonx kononn, onn 1o1uac nepec1ann 6m 6m1L nrnne
n Opanune. s uec1nco1 unenoa anrnnckoro napnaHen1a na anrnnuan npnunocL 6m
non1opa pecn1ka peny1a1cknx Hec1 - ace oc1anLnme Hec1a sannnn 6m nnpycm,
aqpnkanum, aHepnkanum, aac1pannum, po noppannmx koqenoro n onnakoaoro uae1a
aknkun1enLno. npaunaae1cn, noueHy xe 1o, u1o a ronoay ne npnpe1 anrnnuanaH, kak
cHeuno kypLes, y nac aouno a cnoanme akonm?
enL cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa - nponcnn1L, ckonLko aosHoxno,
oHpauennoe pasnmHn 6pepnnHn pycckoe napopnoe cosnanne n aocc1anoan1L a pyccko
nonn1nke sppaam cHmcn. akoam xe cpepc1aa pnn a1o uenn? m nx npou1e1e a
yc1aae. ak kak Hm - uac1noe o6uec1ao, 1o n cpepc1aa y nac uac1nme, 6onee nnn
Henee o6uenpnnn1me. epaoe ns cpepc1a - unpokan nponaranpa npaa pyccko
napopnoc1n ny1eH neua1n n pasnmx npocae1n1enLcknx yupexpenn. 1opoe cpepc1ao
- oprannsaunn 6m1oao caHonoHoun. cnn nnopopum a occnn 6epy1 caoek
cnnouennoc1Lk n noppepxko ppyr ppyra, 1o n pyccknH cnepye1 yc1panaa1L asanHnyk
o6opony - noppepxko pyccknx nkpe n pyccknx nn1epecoa. Boko1 n o6c1pykunn -
nanennn aoo6ue o1apa1n1enLnme. nn aosHoxnm nnuL a ckpm1o rpaxpancko aone
n npo1nanm, kak acnkn 6yn1. nopHanLnmx ycnoannx a1n cpepc1aa neropnm yxe
no1oHy, u1o neamropnm pnn o6enx c1opon. o pasae Hm, pycckne, xnaeH a
nopHanLnmx ycnoannx? asae occnn n aceHy pycckoHy ne o6Lnanen 6oko1 co
c1oponm, nanpnHep, eapeea n nonnkoa? asae korpa-nn6ypL eape nnn nonnk
nosaonnn ce6e kynn1L u1o-nn6ypL a pycckoH Harasnne? asae eape nnn nonnk, neHeu,
uaep n 1.n. noHory1 korpa-nn6ypL pycckoHy uenoaeky n ne npepnou1y1 eHy caoero
seHnnka? o1 na nx 6esHonanm, kpenkn n nenapyunHm saroaop npo1na acero
pycckoro (kpoHe, koneuno, pener, unnoa, oppenoa) unenm cepoccnckoro
naunonanLnoro coksa ponxnm 6ypy1 o1aeua1L nopo6nok xe o1uyxpennoc1Lk.
m, pycckne, nyxpaeHcn a o6ueuenoaeueckoH onm1e n npnnnHaeH ace, u1o
unannnsaunn pae1 6eccnopno nonesnoro. o occnn a pannm HoHen1 ee pasan1nn
coaepuenno ne nyxpae1cn a ycnyrax nnopopuea, oco6enno 1aknx, ko1opmx
qanLcnqnka1opckan peny1aunn yc1anoanena npouno. occnn - pnn pyccknx n pycckne
- pnn occnn. oaonLno aennko c1pane 6m1L roc1enpnnHnmH 1enoH pnn napasn1oa.
oaonLno 6m1L xep1ao n Ha1epnanoH pnn ykpennennn caonx aparoa. peHena
nopounn 1nxenme: nsane n nsny1pn 1mcnuene1nn napop nau c1on1 kak
nerkopoc1ynnan pnn acex po6mua. cnn ec1L y pyccknx nkpe 1euec1ao, ecnn ec1L
naHn1L o cnaanoH npounoH, ecnn ec1L roppoe uyac1ao xnsnn - nopa nH coepnnn1Lcn!
<...>
TT T
, H n c sM ?
on. 38,4
10
orpa peaonkunonepm ononuak1cn na npaan1enLc1ao, o6pasoaannoe o6uec1ao Hoxe1
oc1aaa1Lcn 6onee nnn Henee paanopyunmH. 1o 1akoe peaonkunonepm?
nopaannkueH 6onLunnc1ae a1o ne cnnukoH anyun1enLnm napop. D1o uaue acero
nepoyunauancn HonopexL, neypaunnkn, osno6nennme eapeunkn, pasnounnum, 1e
"declasses, u1o 1nxknH xopoH nc1opnn am6pouenm ns kynL1ypm n ko1opmH neuero
1epn1L. cnn a nocnepnee apeHn a peaonkunk nounn koe-kakne npoqeccopa,
pouen1m, ny6nnunc1m n 1.n., 1o onn1L-1akn kakne xe a1o yuenme n nnca1enn? n
opnoro Hexpy nnHn 1anan1a. ou1n cnnouL a1o xankne koHnnnn1opm, nnorpa
rny6okne neaexpm, coaepuenno nop c1a1L caoe neyuauecn aypn1opnn. oka na
npaan1enLc1ao aocc1ae1 ao1 a1a cna6oc1L, o6pasoaannm kpyr Hoxe1 xpann1L
couyac1aennm anac1n ne1pann1e1. e1pann1e1 - ne 6onee, 1ak kak caHo
npaan1enLc1ao, 1ak nasmaaeHan 6kpokpa1nn, nnorpa koHnpoHe1npyn anac1L,
c1anoan1cn pnn nee onacnee ee aparoa. o peno Henne1cn, korpa npo1na
npaan1enLc1aa amc1ynae1 aennkn nnca1enL, kakoa ea onc1o, n amc1ynae1 ne
npo1na 1aknx-1o n 1aknx unnoannkoa, a aoo6ue npo1na yupexpennn anac1n,
cnoxnauecn a aekax, 1o ec1L coc1aannkue qak1 npnpopm. y1 Hm, nkpn kynL1ypm,
neaonLno amxopnH ns caoero paanopyunn. pecL nepep naHn pasaep1maae1cn spennue
rpanpnosnoe, nou1n 1parnueckoe. pecL kaxpm ponxen onpepenenno amncnn1L nepep
coaec1Lk caoe, na uLe on c1opone.
nop onc1oro c anac1Lk nanoHnnae1 cnop oaa c BoroH. oHnn1e a1y uypnyk knnry a
Bn6nnn, c1onL ypnan1enLnyk no rny6nne n cnne. apnenL
[53]
nasmaae1 nnry oaa
aennuaunH nponsaepenneH uenoaeueckoro pyxa. opno c1oponm, specL npaaepnnk,
nokopnm Bory, ank6nennm a ero, kak ank6nen onc1o a npnpopy. ppyro -
aepxoanan n 6naran cnna, ponyc1nauan ca1any ynnsn1L n ockop6n1L aennuauero ns
nkpe. oHnn1e, kakan 6ypn pasmrpmaae1cn a Horyue pyue o6nxennoro npaaepnnka,
kako npo1ec1! n1a1L nenLsn 6es saHnpannn a1o1 pono1 aennkoro uenoaeka, pepskn
n rneanm, npn c1pac1noH nou1ennn, - pono1, poxopnun po ockop6nennn ennuec1aa
Boxnn. oa aosHyuancn ne sa ce6n, ne sa caon nesacnyxennme, cnnukoH
nenepenocnHme c1papannn; on aosHyuancn sa aHoro ospa1enn, sa napyuenne H
aeuno cnpaaepnnaoc1n. n saan caoero ocnopa na cyp, nn 6onee nn Henee.
n1a1ennH nsaec1en o1ae1 eunoro, c1paunm n nensLncnnHm, nepep ko1opmH
cHonknyn aennkn pyx, nepep ko1opmH ponxen cHonkny1L acnkn uenoaeueckn
pono1, 1enepL n ao ace aeka.
ne kaxe1cn, uenoaeueckan anac1L kak yc1anoanenne caHo npnpopm Horna 6m
o1ae1n1L na rneanme o6annennn Laa onc1oro npn6nnsn1enLno 1o xe, u1o Bor oay.
oaopn o anac1n, n pasyHek ne xnamx npepc1aan1ene ee, a aeunoe yupexpenne, u1o
cnoxnnocL sa 1mcnuene1nn n pec1aye1 yxe nou1n cneno nnepune. 1o kacae1cn
xnamx, xo1n 6m npeaocxopn1enLnmx nocn1ene anac1n, nanpnHep r-p 1onmnnna,
okoauoaa n np., onn Hornn 6m o1ae1n1L onc1oHy cnoaaHn nnpapa aaxennnna:
"npocn y npexnnx popoa, n annknn a na6nkpennn o1uoa nx; a Hm auepaunne, n
nnuero ne snaeH, no1oHy u1o naun pnn na seHne 1enL (oa. 8, 8 - 9). aun
Hnnnc1pm, kak ace Hnnnc1pm na cae1e, c1onL xe cnyuanme n ckpoHnme ak1epm caonx
pone, kak n Hm, npoc1me cHep1nme. nn Hornn 6m o1ae1n1L c 6onLunH cHnpenneH na
rpoHm onc1oro: "oHnny1e, rpaq, u1o xe am na nac-1o ceppn1ecL? asae Hm c
e1poH nkonaeanueH npnpyHann yupexpenne nenaanc1no aaH seHenLno
co6c1aennoc1n? na cyuec1aye1 c nauana aekoa, ona aosnnkna saponro po nncano
nc1opnn, n cospaaan ee aecL uenoaeueckn pop. nesanaHn1no sapn xnsnn, c
nepexopa ns pnkoro 6m1a k ocepnoHy nkpn nauann oropaxnaa1Lcn o1 saepe n
cocepe. cnn yropno, yupexpenne co6c1aennoc1n npe1 eue rny6xe. ocHo1pn1e,
nanpnHep, kak HypaaLn opnoro Hypaaennka saunuak1 caok 1eppn1opnk o1 HypaaLea
ppyroro. paxe eue rny6xe: npocnepn1e, kak kopnn pac1ennn saxaa1maak1 cao
kycok seHnn n saunuak1 ero o1 a1opxennn ppyrnx kopne. ak xe am xo1n1e, u1o6m
Hm, 1anme coae1nnkn 1akne-1o, xnayune na seHne opnn Hnr, asnnn na ce6n cHenoc1L
o1Henn1L 1o, u1o yc1anaannaanocL na a1o nnane1e aHec1e c ropnmHn xpe61aHn n
ouep1annnHn Hope? anee. m npoknnnae1e penLrn, 1pe6ye1e o1Henm nx. o onn1L-
1akn ne Hm xe nx ampyHann. enLrn nonannncL aHec1e c o6uec1aoH, c paspenenneH
1pypa n o6HenoH npopyk1oa. D1o cpepc1ao o6Hena npnnn1o uenoaeuec1aoH po nauero c
aaHn poxpennn, po poxpennn occnn, po nonanennn aponm, po nonanennn
eaponecko unannnsaunn, ropaspo panee xpnc1nanc1aa n eapec1aa, saponro po
ernne1cknx nnpaHnp. ak xe am xo1n1e, u1o6m Hm, kyuka pyccknx unnoannkoa,
ko1opmx auepa ne 6mno n saa1pa ne 6ype1, asnnn 6m pa n o1Hennnn penLrn? eyxenn
1ak-1akn 6es acnkoro ocnoaannn, 6es ouenL cepLesnoro ocnoaannn, 1mcnun nokonenn
uenoaeuecknx "ampyHann ao1 1akne o6muan, kak o1pnuaeHme aaHn anac1L,
co6c1aennoc1L, 6pak, 1oproann, nayka, nckycc1ao n np.? m - ampakuncn poHannc1.
oo6paxenne aaue 6es6pexno. kauec1ae caepxxypoxnnka am Hoxe1e nosaonn1L
ce6e nk6yk qan1asnk, no Hm - nkpn cpepnne, Hm npepc1aan1enn pnpoaoro
uenoaeuec1aa, ne cnnukoH Hypporo n nopaanennoro c1pac1nHn. ak xe Hm,
"auepaunne", HoxeH asn1L na ce6n cHenoc1L no1n npo1na npnpopm? m 1pe6ye1e
o1Henm 1aknx-1o n 1aknx-1o sakonoa, no yc1anoanennn uenoaeueckne, c1onL
ponroapeHennme n npounme, kak co6c1aennoc1L, 1oproann, anac1L, penLrn n np., aoace
ne pycckne sakonm, n ne neHeukne, n ne qpanuysckne, a uuc,
o6nsa1enLnme pnn acex npaan1enLc1a. rnnpn1ecL a nnx xopouenLko - am yanpn1e,
u1o a1o sakonm caHo npnpopm. m ckaxe1e: u1o xe, n nkpoepc1ao sakon npnpopm?
epL amuno xe ono ns yno1pe6nennn, xo1n pepxanocL aekaHn? a, ono amuno ns
yno1pe6nennn. ao1 co6c1aennoc1L - ne amuna. nkpoepc1ao o1Heneno, ckonLko
nsaec1no, ne uLnH-nn6o Hnnnc1epcknH unpkynnpoH, a caHo noc1enenno couno na ne1.
no ncuesno acnepc1ane neko1oporo nsHenennn npnpopm uenoaeuecko. a1e xe
npnpope caHo peun1L n o1nocn1enLno co6c1aennoc1n, n o1nocn1enLno pener, anac1n,
aonm, 6paka, naykn, nckycc1aa n Hnornx ppyrnx 6yp1o 6m yxacnmx aeue. Xname
npepc1aan1enn anac1n na caHoH pene ne xosneaa, a pa6m ee. aHa uenoaeueckan
anac1L - ane npaan1enLc1aa; n ne ono e noaeneaae1, a ona nH. nac1L kak
yupexpenne c ee ocnoanmHn yc1onHn npoxopn1 1onuy aekoa n saknkuena a
nepyunHo oprannsaunn pyxa uenoaeueckoro, a c1pac1nx, npeppacnonoxennnx,
nacnepc1aennmx nnc1nnk1ax, akycax. onpo6y1e-ka nx o1Henn1L pocuepkoH xo1n 6m
aepxoanoro nepa! axe 1npanaH ypaaanocL o1nnHa1L 1onLko xnsnL y nkpe, no ne
aeunme yupexpennn a1o xnsnn.
anepekop nppope
ak o1 nHenn ppeanero pyxa seHnn, anac1aykuero nap naHn, Hornn 6m o1ae1n1L Lay
onc1oHy nokopnme ncnonnn1enn a1oro pyxa, nkpn npaan1enLc1aa. "osop! - a o1ae1
na a1o sakpnun1 kakan-nn6ypL HonopenLkan kypcnc1ouka nnn c1ypen1nk, Heu1akune
rpe-nn6ypL a Hancappouke o 1oH, u1o6m ycoaepuenc1aoaa1L apauenne seHnn,
noaepny1L ee, nanpnHep, o1 aoc1oka k sanapy. - osop, - ckaxy1 onn, - Hm,
Honopoe nokonenne, ne pa6m pyxa seHnn, Hm xo1nH 6m1L noaenn1ennHn, a ne pa6aHn.
onno, rocnopa, o1aeuy n. ano nn uero am xo1n1e nnn ne xo1n1e. onpo6y1e
nopckoun1L nap seHne n ocao6opn1L ce6n o1 nopunnennn a1o 6yp1o 6m Hep1ao
rnm6e. Xo1n am n Honopoe nokonenne, no ouenL c1apan seHnn, no-aaueHy, amxnauan
ns yHa, ceuac xe aac npn1nne1 nasap. po1ec1y1e ckonLko aaH yropno, no
6esHonanm sakon 1nro1ennn cnnLnee acex aaunx kpnkoa. oaepuenno 1aknH xe
nenpeoponnHmH sakonoH 1nro1ennn cansan pyx aau. cnn am a1oro ne saHeuae1e, 1o
no1oHy nnuL, u1o naxopn1ecL a ponLk1onoackoH neaepennn o1nocn1enLno sakonoa
pyxa. xopaunaancL ppyr nepep ppyroH, ueronnn npenHn, kak nepLnHn,
nonapeprannmHn ns uyxnx xaoc1oa, am uyHn1e 6yp1o 6m a nn6epanLnoH pyxe: "ono
npounoe! o kak am c6pocn1e npounoe, korpa ono a 1o xe apeHn n nac1onuee, n
6ypyuee? oun1a1e-ka o6 a1oH y c1apnka an1a...
apn Honopexn Hm o1aneknncL o1 aennkoro c1apua. e HonopexL, a on, 80-ne1nn,
kpnun1: pono npounoe! y1 c nou1enneH, ko1opoe nopo6ae1 sacnyxennoHy uenoaeky,
o6pasoaannoe o6uec1ao ponxno acnyua1Lcn cepLesno n cepLesno paccypn1L. npaae
nn 1pe6oaa1L onc1o o1 anac1n 1oro, uero on 1pe6ye1? anpnHep, anpaae nn
1pe6oaa1L nacnnLc1aenno o1Henm seHenLno co6c1aennoc1n?
oun1a1enn . . onc1oro Henn nonpaan1: onc1o ne 1pe6ye1 cuc
o1Henm, onc1o npo1na acnkoro nacnnnn, on yun1 ne npo1nan1Lcn sny nacnnneH. a,
n 1eH ne Henee on 1pe6ye1 nHenno nacnnLc1aenno o1Henm seHenLno co6c1aennoc1n.
pokasa1enLc1ao 6epy knnxeuky Laa onc1oro, nspannyk a e1ep6ypre paa ropa
nasap, - "6pauenne k pyccknH nkpnH: k npaan1enLc1ay, peaonkunonepaH n
napopy. D1y knnxeuky Hne npncnann nepaano ns Hcno onnnm c uenLk apasyHn1L
Henn o1nocn1enLno nopnnnnmx Hnenn aennkoro nnca1enn. o1 nopnnnnme cnoaa ero,
o6pauennme k anac1n:
"nacenne aaue ne a pyHax c 1aknHn nnn nnmHn am6opaHn, n nnkak ne a nyneHe1ax,
nyukax n kasnnx, a a 1oH, u1o6m npnsna1L cao rpex nepep napopoH n noc1apa1Lcn
nckynn1L ero, ueH-nn6ypL sarnapn1L, n c. oc1aaL1e nepep napopoH
npeanm cnpaaepnnaoc1n, po6pa n nc1nnm... n aosLHn1ecL sa ocyuec1anenne ero.
npaunaae1cn, u1o xe a1o sa npeanm? x, no cnoaaH onc1oro, ne napo ampyHmaa1L.
anpnHep, paannunn npean acero pycckoro napopa - a1o "aosapauenne aceHy
napopy - ne opnnH kpec1LnnaH, a aceHy napopy - ero ec1ec1aennoro n sakonnoro
npaaa na seHnk. pepuyac1ayn aospaxenne, noueHy xe a1o npean, ecnn on nnkorpa n
nnrpe ne 6mn ocyuec1anen, onc1o nac1anaae1: "Henno no1oHy, u1o npean a1o1
nnrpe eue ne 6mn ocyuec1anen, on n ec1L nc1nnnm npean nauero apeHenn, a kpoHe
1oro, npean 6nnxaun n Horyun 6m1L n ponxenc1aykun 6m1L ocyuec1anennmH
npexpe ueH cpepn ppyrnx napopoa, nHenno 1enepL a occnn. arnapL1e caon rpexn
po6pmH penoH, nccu, n c, uxu kk, nkk
xck cncu uc sMu ccc, ko1opan 1ak xnao
uyac1aye1cn aceH seHnepenLuecknH napopoH... 1xnna nnn ne o1xnna 1a qopHa
o6uec1aennoro yc1poc1aa, npn ko1opo am nonLsye1ecL anac1Lk, n
nuscu k, n ... , u cu ne
1onLko pnn caoero napopa, no n pnn acero uenoaeuec1aa. cnn xe a1a qopHa o1xnna,
1o nycka nocnepnn ak1 ee 6ype1 ak1 po6pa n npaapm, a ne nxn n xec1okoc1n.
6pa1n1e annHanne na ampenennme Hnok cnoaa. ea onc1o 1pe6ye1 o1 anac1n,
u1o6m, noka ona eue a cnnax, nocneunna 6m ynnu1oxn1L uac1nyk seHenLnyk
co6c1aennoc1L. D1oro xoue1 6yp1o 6m aecL napop, a1o 6yp1o 6m "aeunoe n
cnpaaepnnaoe 1pe6oaanne acero napopa, a1o 6yp1o 6m npean napopnm. oaopk
"6yp1o 6m, no1oHy u1o a pec1an1enLnoc1n, koneuno, ne1 nnuero nopo6noro.
pec1an1enLnoc1n napop nn y nac a occnn, nnrpe na cae1e ne 1pe6ye1 o1Henm
uac1no co6c1aennoc1n na seHnk n nnkorpa ne c1aann a1y o1Heny npeanoH. cnn 6m
a1o 6mno "aeunoe n cnpaaepnnaoe 1pe6oaanne, ono eue a nesanaHn1nme apeHena
6mno 6m ocyuec1aneno. oaepuenno neaepon1no, kak a1o nn opnn napop ne Hor nnrpe
po6n1Lcn caonx aeunmx 1pe6oaann? epL 1mcnuaHn ne1 pepxanncL n 1enepL
pepxa1cn pecny6nnkn, rpe npoc1onapopLe Hoxe1 nac1on1L na aceH, u1o saxoue1.
oueHy xe uac1nan seHenLnan co6c1aennoc1L ne o1Henena nn ao Opanunn, nn a
aeuapnn, nn a kpoxo1noH an-apnno, nn a rnran1cknx oepnnennmx 1a1ax? a
npoc1o no1oHy u1o a u. axe a pasrap peaonkunn, kak 6mno a 1789
ropy, napop o1nnHae1 uac1nyk co6c1aennoc1L, u1o6m y1aeppn1L ee sa co6o. y nac a
nc1opnn ne 6mno HoHen1a, korpa 6m napop nckpenne xenan ynnu1oxennn uac1no
co6c1aennoc1n na seHnk. n xenan ynnu1oxennn noHeunuLe co6c1aennoc1n, no ne
caoe. uyxyk, noHeunuLk co6c1aennoc1L Hyxnk nepec1an yaaxa1L ne panee, ueH
no1epnnn k ne yaaxenne caHn noHeunkn. yxnk noc1enenno yanpen, u1o 6apnn
o16nncn o1 seHnn, u1o ona y nero spn 6on1ae1cn, u1o on ne aknapmaae1 a nee ce6n -
cao 1pyp n pasyH - n no1oHy uyxp seHne. akan 6on1akuancn seHnn pec1an1enLno
ec1L qnk1nanan co6c1aennoc1L n, kak res nullius (nnuLn aeuL. - P.), pasxnrae1
xapnoc1L oanape1L ek. 1ex cnyuanx, korpa caH Hyxnk coprannsoaan co caoe
seHne n korpa on anpn1 noHeunka, c1onL xe coprannsoaannoro, aouepuero a seHnk
kopnnHn, on 1aeppo npnsnae1 uac1nyk co6c1aennoc1L n can1o u1n1 ee. eu1a n npean
kaxporo nopnpounoro, xosnc1aennoro Hyxnka ne o1kasa1Lcn o1 seHenLno
co6c1aennoc1n, a po6m1L ee n ykpenn1L sa co6o. oroaopn1e c keH xo1n1e ns
kpec1Lnn, kpoHe pasae counannc1oa n 6popnr, paano 6pocnaunx napenm na caonx 6a6,
- kaxpm ckaxe1, u1o Hyxnky nyxna seHnn, n nHenno caon seHnn. ak aoo6ue ne
npnsnaaa1L neko1opmx anpoa co6c1aennoc1n? epL opexpa, xnnnue, opypnn pa6o1m,
seHnn - ace a1o pononnn1enLnme opranm uenoaeka, ace a1o axopn1 a coc1aa n
npoponxenne ero pen1enLno nnunoc1n.
ak, c1ano 6m1L, onc1o ckasan nenpaapy? - cnpocn1 npononoknonnnkn aennkoro
c1apua, ro1oame pac1epsa1L sa acnkoe nenpepasn1oe Hnenne o neH. n ne ckasan
nenpaapm, o1aeuy n, no on rpy6o oun6cn. onc1o, no o6ue naue cna6oc1n,
naansmaae1 napopy caon Hmcnn, coaepuenno uyxpme nocnepneHy. kpyxennm
1onc1oauaHn ns napopa, nkpLHn coaepuenno nnu1oxnmHn, ko1opme cHo1pn1 eHy a po1
n c1apak1cn o1aeua1L yun1enk ero xe cnoaaHn, onc1o nckpenno aaopn1 ce6n a
sa6nyxpenne o1nocn1enLno napopa. pean napopnm - o1Henn1L co6c1aennoc1L! o
onc1o ne xoue1 nonn1L, u1o ace pec1an1enLnme npeanm napopnme yxe
ocyuec1anenm n u1o npean aoo6ue ec1L aeuL, nan6onee ocyuec1anHan ns acex. pean
ec1L caHoe nyuuee, uero napopy xoue1cn, uero xoue1cn acero cnnLnee, nanpnxennee,
neo1c1ynnee, po c1pac1n. pean ec1L amcuee aos6yxpenne aonn. ornacn1ecL, u1o a1o
ycnoane, caHoe amropnoe pnn poc1nxnHoc1n. cnn 1enepeunnn pec1an1enLnoc1L 1ak
neuanLna, 1o a1o ne no1oHy, u1o napopnme npeanm nepoc1nxnHm (c1onno 6m a 1akoH
cnyuae paccyxpa1L o nnx!), - a no1oHy nnuL, u1o napopnme npeanm neamcokn - a
o6ueH, kak pas nop c1a1L neaspauno pec1an1enLnoc1n cnn nau napop 6epen, 1o
no1oHy nnuL, u1o y nero ne1 cepLesnoro aneuennn k 6ora1c1ay, nanpnHep, kak y
qpanuysckoro kpec1Lnnnna. au Hyxnk n 6apnn 6onLue pac1oun1enn, ueH
co6npa1enn, n nnue1a naua - ec1ec1aennm npopyk1 Ho1oac1aa n nLnnc1aa. cnn
napop neaexec1aen, 1o 1onLko no1oHy, u1o nk6onm1c1ao ero ne npe1 sa npepenm
nmneunnx ero caepenn. cnn napop ynnxen n ockop6nen, 1o onn1L-1akn o11oro nnuL,
u1o npaac1aennoe ero cosnanne nepoc1a1ouno npo1ec1ye1 npo1na a1oro. , npean -
ecnn on ne qpasa, a pec1an1enLnoe uyac1ao - ec1L cnna, n cnna Horyuan. D1o
aceHoryun Bor a uenoaeke. oka n xnae1 a napope, napop aennk, a ao1 korpa napop
o1c1ynae1 o1 6oxec1aa, korpa HenLuak1 ero npeanm - 1orpa n cnnm, panxyune
xnsnLk, c1anoan1cn HenknHn. acnyc1nauncn, nc1penaauncn, ocna6eaun napop
yxe ne Hoxe1 noxena1L uero-nn6ypL cnnLno - ao1 ocnoanan 6epa napopnan. aknH-
nn6ypL HanLunkaH n peaoukaH, naunnakunH un1a1L n Hmcnn1L, npoc1n1enLno pyHa1L,
6yp1o "npaan1enLc1ao npnunno acex 6ep n son, no nkpn c1apme n Hyppme nonnHak1,
u1o nc1nnnoe npaan1enLc1ao 1onLko 1o, u1o sanoxeno a napopno aone, a ero kpoan n
nepaax.
oproaop k uacnm
pe6yn o1 npaan1enLc1aa, u1o6m ono, "noka a cnnax, o1Hennno uac1nyk
co6c1aennoc1L na seHnk, onc1o c1on1 ne sa napopnm npean, a npo1na nero. n
noproaapnaae1 anac1L k aennuaueHy nacnnnk, kakoe Hor 6m npnpyHa1L 1npan.
onc1o roaopn1: "noka am y anac1n, "noka am nonLsye1ecL anac1Lk - ynnu1oxL1e
uac1nyk seHenLnyk co6c1aennoc1L. asaepnn1e-ka a1y qopHyny, packpo1e cko6kn.
epL a1o snaun1: noka a pykax aaunx cnna - yno1pe6n1e cnny, o1nnHn1e y
co6c1aennnkoa nx seHnk. npaan1enLc1ao, n napop, n onc1o o1nnuno nonnHak1,
u1o coapeHennan anac1L onnpae1cn nnuL na rpy6yk cnny, u1o 1onLko a1a ultima ratio
(nocnepnn poaop. - P.) nosaonne1 npaan1enLc1ay u1o-nn6ypL ocyuec1ann1L. ea
onc1o ne ckasan, koneuno: "Bepn1e kny1m n pyxLn n ronn1e noHeunkoa c seHnn -
no aepL nHenno a1o on n ckasan, y6expan npaan1enLc1ao "aocnonLsoaa1Lcn anac1Lk.
m ckaxe1e: nn kny1oa, nn u1mkoa ne nyxno, npaan1enLc1ay c1onno 6m npnkasa1L -
noHeunkn n kynum ne ocnyuanncL 6m. a, onn ne ocnyuanncL 6m, ecnn 6m yanpenn
Hnnnnon nne1e n u1mkoa. o ecnn 6m ne yanpenn nx? cnn 6m appyr c1ano nsaec1no,
u1o npaan1enLc1ao 1pe6ye1, no nx? eyxenn am pyHae1e, u1o npn a1oH
ycnoann noHeunkn, kynum, pyxoaenc1ao, kpec1Lnne-co6c1aennnkn o1kasanncL 6m o1
caoe uac1no seHenLno co6c1aennoc1n? Ku, . nk1o ne ueaenLnyncn 6m,
kak nnk1o ne c1an 6m anocn1L nopa1e, ecnn 6m ysnan, u1o nx 1pe6yk1, no ne
npnnyxpak1 nna1n1L. 1ano 6m1L, ecnn onc1o nac1anaae1 na 1oH, u1o6m
npaan1enLc1ao aocnonLsoaanocL caoe anac1Lk pnn o1Henm seHenLno co6c1aennoc1n,
1o on ponyckae1 a a1oH cnyuae ace caHme uypoanunme qopHm nacnnnn, ko1opme c1onL
cypoao ocyxpae1. mxopn1, u1o on ocyxpae1 nnuL 1o nacnnne, ko1opoe npe1 npo1na
ero npe, a 1o, ko1opoe c1on1 sa ero npen, on npnsnae1. o aepL a1o 1o xe caHoe, u1o
npnsnak1 o6mknoaennme peaonkunonepm. ypa xe peaanacL y Laa nkonaeanua
snaHenn1an sanoaepL o nenpo1nanennn sny nacnnneH?
peann pyx uenoaeuec1aa, pyx seHnn, Hor 6m ckasa1L naueHy o1pnua1enk n aceH
peaonkunonepaH, npyunH aHec1e c nnH: " aepL n, anac1L aaua, nn6epanLnee aac!
m, rocnopa anapxnc1m, ononuae1ecL na nacnnnn npaan1enLc1aa, a aepL caHn am kypa
6onee ne1epnnHme nacnnLnnkn! m 1pe6ye1e, u1o6m npaan1enLc1ao "aocnonLsoaanocL
anac1Lk" n cnno o1nnno y nkpe nx po6po. o ecnn 6m xenana a1oro ne kyuka
peaonkunonepoa, a aecL napop - k1o Heuan 6m kaxpoHy co6c1aennnky n aceH aHec1e
o1kasa1Lcn o1 caoe seHnn? nkakoe npaan1enLc1ao, nnkorpa n nnrpe sn
a. e 1onLko y nac, no paxe a Byxape paspaua nHennn 6epnmH cun1ae1cn
po6pope1enLk. po6pope1enn nenLsn npnnyxpa1L napop. o cyuec1ay, a1o ak1
cao6opno aonn, n npaan1enLc1ao, 6opncL c nopokoH, nnrpe ne npnnyxpae1 k
po6pope1enn. cnn napop pec1an1enLno xoue1 seHenLno peqopHm a 1onc1oackoH
akyce, on Hoxe1 nponsaec1n a1y peqopHy a opnn cy1kn: nyc1L ace co6c1aennnkn
o1kaxy1cn o1 seHnn. ak nsaec1no, cnyuan 1aknx o1kasoa neo6muano pepkn. Yx na
u1o caH ea nkonaeanu npoknnnae1 uac1nyk seHenLnyk co6c1aennoc1L, opnako paxe
on ne nHen cnnm o1kasa1Lcn o1 nee. o1 u1o nnue1 a rase1ax no noaopy k6nnen
6nnxaun ppyr onc1oro . . ep1koa
[54]
: "Bepc1aennoe nonoxenne kpec1Lnn Hcno
onnnm po 1oro aennko, u1o 6onee nonoannm nacenennn ne naxopn1 ce6e pena n
amcenne1cn a 6nnxaune ropopa, na kr, a ockay. epeann ne pac1e1, saHepna. H
snak Hcnyk onnny ckopo 25 ne1, n sa ace a1o apeHn kak 6mnn a pepeane ceHLpecn1
xanknx poHnkoa, 1ak n po cnx nop. y1L k1o noppac1ae1 a poHe, ero yxe o1npaannk1 a
nsaosunkn a yny nn6o pa6ounH na saaop. peayukn ns-sa kycka xne6a npy1 caHmH
neuanLnmH 1opnmH ny1eH. s6m nonypasaanennme, c packpm1mHn kpmuaHn, nHek1cn
eue n ns6m no-uepnoHy, 1o ec1L a neuke ne1 1py6m n aecL pmH npe1 ns yc1Ln a xa1y n
nanonnne1 ee ao apeHn 1onkn o1 no1onka po nony; c1enm nokpm1m caxe nanLua na
paa. kpn o6eckpoanenm, c rnonunHncn rnasaHn, c1papak1 ronoanmHn 6onnHn,
npoc1yxnaak1cn o1 apmaakuerocn a o1kpm1me paepn ao apeHn 1onkn xonopa n np.
. . ep1koa onncmaae1 ncnononnnckyk pepeank c uenLk 1pony1L pyccknx un1a1ene
n no6ypn1L nx amkynn1L y ceHLn . . onc1oro noHeunuLk seHnk, u1o6m nopapn1L
ee kpec1LnnaH. nac1n o1 xponnuecko rn6enn 6nnxaunx k . . onc1oHy kpec1Lnn,
napenn1L nx noHeunuLe seHne - a1o, no Hnennk . . ep1koaa (opo6pennoHy
aennknH nnca1eneH), 6mno 6m nyuunH cnoco6oH nou1n1L nocnepnero a penL ero 80-
ne1nn. aossaannn r-na ep1koaa nopaxae1 cnepykuee. o kako c1enenn nnc1nnk1
co6c1aennoc1n xnayu, u1o paxe 1ako coc1papa1enLnm n uy1kn uenoaek, kak . .
ep1koa, Hor 25 ne1 na6nkpa1L Hcnyk onnny - n eHy ne npnuno a ronoay npn ero
rpoHapnoH korpa-1o 6ora1c1ae amkynn1L pnn kpec1Lnn a1y seHnk. o uero nnc1nnk1
co6c1aennoc1n Horyu: caH ea onc1o, uenoaek aennko pyun, 6mn a coc1onnnn
uenmx 80 ne1 exepneano na6nkpa1L aronnk caoe pepeann, acex a1nx
o6eckpoanennmx nkpe c rnonunHncn rnasaHn, acex a1nx pe1e, am6pacmaaeHmx ns
popnoro poHa, acex a1nx peayuek, ns-sa kycka xne6a npyunx a npoc1n1yunk, - on a
cnnax 6mn anpe1L a1o popnoe eHy kpec1Lnnc1ao, xnpekuee 6es seHnn, caH anapen
nHenno 1o seHnek, ko1opan ncnononnncknH kpec1LnnaH nyxna! n npn napene
kpec1Lnn a 1861 ropy, nn anocnepc1ann . . onc1o ne nopapnn nH seHnn, a
nopapnn ee caonH pe1nH aHec1e c ppyrnHn orpoHnmHn nHennnHn n kann1anaHn. a
npaao na opno nnuL nspanne counnenn apkc npepnaran onc1oHy 200 000 py6ne;
c1ano 6m1L, ecnn 6m pnn aennkoro nnca1enn 6mno nerko o1kasa1Lcn o1 co6c1aennoc1n,
on Hor 6m amkynn1L Hcnyk onnny y caoe ceHLn opnnH nouepkoH nepa. o ecnn yx
eHy, aennkoHy npa-aoyun1enk, a1o 1pypno, c1ano 6m1L, uyac1ao co6c1aennoc1n ne
1ako nyc1nk, u1o6m asn1L ero pa n amuepkny1L. D1o nnc1nnk1, y opnnx cna6ee, y
ppyrnx kpenue - no, ao acnkoH cnyuae, ne 1ako, o1 ko1oporo napop Hor 6m
o1kasa1Lcn no koHanpe npaan1enLc1aa.
peannn anac1L, c1onL npoc1no a1akyeHan anapxne, Hoxe1 opno nanoHnn1L
nocnepne: napop aonen npnnn1L ace y1onnn n ocyuec1an1L ace xnHepm, no nnuL 6m
ne penan npn a1oH snopec1a. 1kasmaa1ecL o1 caoe co6c1aennoc1n, no ne sapL1ecL
na uyxyk. 1kasmaa1ecL o1 pener, no yc1panaa1e o6Hen caoero 1pypa 6es
npec1ynnenn. paan1enLc1ao ne o6nsmaae1 nnkoro nHe1L penLrn. 1kasmaa1ecL o1
6paka - npaan1enLc1ao ne o6nsmaae1 ac1yna1L a 6pak, ono nnuL o6eperae1 npaaa
xenm n pe1e. 1kasmaa1ecL, nakoneu, o1 Ycnyr anac1n - npaan1enLc1ao ne
o6nsmaae1 nonLsoaa1Lcn ero ycnyraHn. oxanyc1a, ne o6paua1ecL k nonnunn, k
aockaH, k cypaH, k ukonaH n np. cnn Hoxe1e o6o1ncL 6es nnx - uero xe nyuue! o
ne Heua1e 6nnxnnH nonLsoaa1Lcn 1eHn nopnpkaHn, ko1opme pnn 6onLunnc1aa aounn
a nno1L n kpoaL n cpenanncL sakonaHn nx npnpopm. nn Hnornx npnpopa - aeuL
xec1okan n nec1epnnHan, no "rpe 6mn 1m, korpa H nonaran ocnoaannn seHnn? - Hor
6m ckasa1L pyx npnpopm onc1oHy.
TR
12
eyxenn cepLesno r-n eepxonLp
[55]
ykopennncn na nHnepa1opcko cuene? epaano
n a nepam pas anpen r-na eepxonLpa na cy66o1nnke n1epa1ypno-
xypoxec1aennoro o6uec1aa. H npoc1o kaHenen o1 nsyHnennn: neyxenn a1o-1o n ec1L
snaHenn1m r-n eepxonLp, ak1ep, o ko1opoH c1onLko kpnuann - npaapa, eapeckne
rase1m? eyxenn 1anan1nnaan korpa-1o r-xa oHnccapxeackan nHenno a1oro 1ouero,
pmxeaa1oro, nekpacnaoro rocnopnna c uanko kypuaamx aonoc cpenana ns6pannnkoH
caoero akyca, caoe nony6esyHno nk6an k 1ea1py? paapa, r-xa oHnccapxeackan
pacc1anacL nakoneu c r-noH eepxonLpoH, y6epnauncL, u1o on ry6n1 ee 1ea1p, kak
npnunocL e pacc1a1Lcn c r-noH OnekcepoH (knH onmnckn), ko1opm 1oxe 1unncn
u1o-1o cpena1L yHonoHpaun1enLnoe na ee cuene. o kaknH o6pasoH sa6pakoaannm
paxe a1opoc1enenno cueno nesnaun1enLnm eape appyr amckounn a pexnccepm
Hnepa1opckoro nekcanppnckoro 1ea1pa? pnHo uypeca 1aopn1cn a naueH
necuac1noH o1euec1ae! e1ep6ypre roaopn1, u1o r-n eepxonLp nonpaanncn acero
nnuL opno nonkoannue, n 1a cpenana eHy npo1ekunk. ak neyxenn nepam 1ea1p a
occnn, nau naunonanLnm 1ea1p, a saancnHoc1n o1 akyca kako-1o u1a6-oqnuepun,
coaepuenno nensaec1no o1euec1ay?
eno, koneuno, aoace ne a 1oH, u1o r-n eepxonLp eape. BypL a1o rennanLnm
uenoaek, on Hor 6m 6m1L ro11en1o1oH, n c a1nH ace npnHnpnnncL 6m. o r-n
eepxonLp acero nnuL neckonLko pac1penannm, as6ypopaxennm, nepano
asannuennm, npn1oH anonne nocpepc1aennm npepc1aan1enL nypecko pacm.
ennanLnme nkpn 6onLuan pepkoc1L, no paxe 1anan1nnam 6mn 6m naxopko -
opnako 1y1 1anan1oH paxe ne naxne1. yxy no 1o nekunn, ko1opyk aecLHa pasansno
npouen naH r-n eepxonLp o "1ea1pe nckann. ocnopn, kakan a1o 6mna uenyxa!
apo ckasa1L, u1o cy66o1nnkn n1epa1ypno-xypoxec1aennoro o6uec1aa noceuak1cn
6onee nnn Henee ns6panno ny6nnko - nnca1ennHn xypoxnnkaHn, 1ea1panaHn,
nkpLHn, snakoHmHn n c nyuue pyccko, n c eaponecko cueno. He1L cHenoc1L
am1n nepep 1aknH nap1nepoH c rase1no c1a1Le pekapen1ckoro noun6a - opno a1o
yxe canpe1enLc1aye1 o 6ec1anannoc1n r-na eepxonLpa. anan1, korpa ne a ypape,
Honun1: on nepam npesnpae1 caok cnyuanyk nyc1o1y n c1paun1cn amnocn1L ee na
cueny. e 1o - npe1ensnn, ne 1o - noppenka nop 1anan1. oppenka pyHae1, u1o
ny6nnka pypa, ne saHe1n1 noppenkn - c1on1 ouenoHn1L ee kako-nn6ypL "nne
n1nue, nnn conoc1aanenneH eonnpa nppeeaa c 1e, nnn noako sakpyuennmHn
qpasaHn o noaoH, neaepoHoH, ne6maanoH, nenoc1nxnHoH nckycc1ae "nckann.
ak ak1epa n coaepuenno ne snak r-na eepxonLpa: kaxe1cn, nnkorpa ne anpan ero
nn a opno nLece. a1oH o1nouennn n ponxen poaepn1Lcn akycy K. . Benneaa
[56]
; a
on na pnnx nncan cnepykuee:
"k1ep r-n eepxonLp npennoxo. D1a qnrypa, a1n xec1m, a1o1 ronoc! "1on1
ppeaecno, k c1ene npnHkny1o"... o1 o1sma nauero nyuuero 1ea1panLnoro kpn1nka.
o ecnn 1ak, ecnn r-n eepxonLp paxe ak1ep npennoxo, 1o ckaxn1e, kaknHn xe
nencnoaepnHmHn cypL6aHn a1o1 6ec1anannm eapeunk nonan ne 1onLko a ak1epm, no
paxe a pexnccepm nHnepa1opcko 1pynnm?
"ak pexnccep, - npoponxae1 r-n Bennea, - on oc1ancn 1eH xe, ueH 6mn y
oHnccapxeacko. nn1L "c1nnnsaunn", onn1L "c1a1yapnm" c1nnL n 1.p. a kasenno
cuene anpe1L ace a1o 6mno nenoako n... o6npno. y kak Hory1 nrpa1L na
nekcanppnckoH 1ea1pe ak1epm, nopo6nme eepxonLpy? epL ace a1o Horno 6m1L
1epnnHo n sann1no a npounoropneH "6anaranunke" na qnuepcko, no a akapeHnn
pyccko ppaHm neHmcnnHo npncy1c1ane kap1onnoro nanua.
pnroaop xec1okn, ne npaapa nn? a1o npnroaop ne npoqana a 1ea1panLnoH pene.
anee K. . Bennea ynoHnnae1 ackonLsL, u1o r-xe oHnccapxeacko npnunocL
"pesnnqnunpoaa1L cao 1ea1p o1 "HeepxonLpnn. ao1 a1y "nnqekunk, nsrnannyk
ns "6anaranunka na qnuepcko, roc1enpnnHno npnk1nna Mnc cuena,
1ea1p oronn n pn6oepoaa! ak cnyunnocL a1o 6eso6pasne? ak aoo6ue nponnkak1
nponmpnname cmnm spannn a nepepnn yron pyccko xnsnn - a nn1epa1ypy, a
akapeHnk, a apHnnnc1paunk, po cena1opcknx n Hnnnc1epcknx noc1oa aknkun1enLno?
aHek na a1o pae1 nk6onm1nm pnanor, sanncannm r-noH BenneamH. "npek1opckan
npnxo1L, - roaopn1 on, - nocapnna a1oro caepxpexnccepa nac1aannkoH "o6pasuoamx"
pyccknx ak1epoa. pouno aecno pnpek1op Hnepa1opcknx 1ea1poa cnpocnn Henn:
- 1o am pyHae1e o eepxonLpe?
- yHak, u1o aaua nonm1ka nn1epecna. eepxonLp pouen po npepena, nnn,
ampaxancL neckonLko 1pnananLno, c1yknyncn n6oH o c1eny. anLue np1n eHy nekypa.
n Hoxe1 okasa1Lcn nonesnmH n, ao acnkoH cnyuae, caexnH uenoaekoH.
- H caH 1oro xe Hnennn, - ckasan r-n ennkoackn
[57]
. ak aaH npaan1cn a1o1,
Hoxe1 6m1L, peuakun cypL6y 6espapnoro eapeunka pasroaop payx pyccknx nkpe,
cepLesno sann1epecoaannmx a pyccko cuene? D1n pycckne nkpn y6expenm, u1o
pekapen1c1aykun r-n eepxonLp pouen po uep1nkoa, u1o "panLue eHy np1n
nekypa. asanocL 6m, nornueckn amaop 1o1, u1o r-ny eepxonLpy opno oc1ae1cn -
y1n co cuenm, co acnko cuenm, paxe c 6anaranunkoao, o1kypa ero nsrnann. ak
6mno 6m no eaponecko nornke, 6epyue nauano o1 pnc1o1enn. o pycckan nornka
paspeunnacL uypecnmH peuenneH: pas eapek np1n nekypa - noxany1e na
nHnepa1opckyk cueny. as on pouen po uep1nkoa - c1ano 6m1L, ropn1cn nac1aann1L
aampoaa
[58]
, apnaHoaa
[59]
n aanny
[60]
. as on "c1yknyncn n6oH o c1eny - c1ano
6m1L, "Hoxe1 okasa1Lcn nonesnmH n, ao acnkoH cnyuae, caexnH uenoaekoH. a c1onL
neoxnpannm amaop r-n ennkoackn, kaaanepnc1 no npoqeccnn, o1ae1nn c
aennkonennmH rny6okoHmcnneH: "H caH 1oro xe Hnennn. sa1eH, nponyc1na
eapeunka na cueny, o6onH pyccknH nkpnH, c1onunH na c1paxe pycckoro 1ea1pa,
npnxopn1cn yxaca1Lcn: n ak1ep-1o r-n eepxonLp, okasmaae1cn, npennoxo, n
kap1onnm-1o on nanu, n ppeaecno-1o on, k c1ene npnHkny1oe, n "nnqekunn, n
pexnccep neaosHoxnm. o, cnpaunaae1cn, o ueH xe am panLue pyHann, rocnopa
cnaanne? aueH xe am nponyc1nnn r-na eepxonLpa a 1ea1p? m aepL n panLue
snann, u1o nepaan a occnn cuena, nepaan a cnaannc1ae (n6o ace pycckoe ponxno
6m1L nepamH a cnaannc1ae), Horna 6m nosaonn1L ce6e pockouL o6o1ncL 6es eapen, pa
npn1oH saaep1eauerocn "po npepena a nonm1kax saHacknpoaa1L caok 6espapnoc1L...
6 r-ne eepxonLpe n ne pak caoero Hnennn, no u1o on neyHen - o6 a1oH on
caH kpnuan a 1euenne ace caoe nekunn. n ypnan1enLno nanoHnnn Hne ppyroro
kpane npe1enunosnoro n 6ec1anannoro eapen, r-na onmnckoro, nsaec1noro korpa-1o
kpn1nka . H. ypeanu, nspaaaaue "eaepnm aec1nnk. oaepuenno 1a xe y o6onx
nanpyxennoc1L 1oue eapecko Hmcnn, 1o1 xe sapop, 1o xe amkpyunaanne 6yp1o 6m
rny6oknx, a a cyunoc1n, y6ornx aqqek1oa, 1o xe norpyxenne a nyunnm pekapen1cko
qnnocoqnn n napenne na aepxax ynapounnuec1aa aoo6ue. neua1nenne uapna1anc1aa
n 6ankpo1c1aa, 1ua1enLno ckpmaaeHoro o1 opypaunaaeHo ny6nnkn. asanocL 6m, kak
nHe1L ycnex ao1 1aknH nnopopuaH, nn a kako c1enenn o1unnLpaH n ne
y6nnu1enaH, a caHmH u1o nn na ec1L saypnpnmH npepc1aan1ennH kro-sanapnmx
Hec1euek? Hexpy 1eH onn nHek1 ycnex - n ne 1onLko cpepn caoero nneHenn.
noxec1ao pyccknx npoc1akoa npo1exnpyk1 a1nH rocnopaH - caxak1 nx a kpacnm
yron amaopn1 a nauanLc1ao, a kpn1nkn n pexnccepm, npn1oH pec1an1enLno kpynnmx
pyccknx 1anan1oa... yx opnn npockonLsnyaun cmn ypm, 6ypL1e nokonm,
npo1aun1 sa co6o uenm karanLunk o6pesannmx n amkpec1naunxcn copopnue. ak
rnoxne1 pycckan xnsnL, naunnan c aepxoa ee. ak rnoxny1 nn1epa1ypa, nayka,
nckycc1ao, 1pony1oe, kak nnecenLk, nauec1aneH noc1oponnero pyccko xnsnn
aneHen1a...
oveao npun
nyuan npe1enunosnyk nekunk r-na eepxonLpa n 1ue1no nm1ancL na1n xo1L
neHnoxko cHmcna a ee nanmuenno uenyxe, n nornnpmaan na ny6nnky n pyHan: pa,
ao1, kasanocL 6m, n neHyppnun eapeunk, a nopn1e xe - ero cnyuae1 1pnc1a
uenoaek pyccko ny6nnkn, npn1oH ckonLko Hexpy nnHn 6onLunx nsaec1noc1e, nkpe
a caHoH pene yHnmx n 1anan1nnamx. aneko sa nonnouL, n Hm ace, penoame nkpn,
y1oHnenm. ce Hm xpeH - u1o6m ocaexn1L ceppue - xo1L neckonLknx Hnny1
nckpennero n caexero 1anan1a, ko1opm o6euan nporpaHHo, xpeH ouapoaa1enLnoro
ronoca, roaopnuero npoc1o n npaapnao 1o, u1o aeuno, kak aeuna xnsnL... aHec1o
1oro neyHnm eape roaopn1, a yHnme poccnnne cnyuak1, ckpmaan seao1y, pa eue
noxnonak1 a konue nekunn...
"ea1p nckann - kaxe1cn, 1akoaa 6mna HmcnL nou1ennoro nek1opa. yc1L, Hon,
poxnaak1 cao aek c1apnukn, ace a1n apnaHoam, aampoam, aannm; na nnx r-n
eepxonLp cornacen Haxny1L caoe cnncxopn1enLno pyko. yc1L ponrpmaak1, kak
yHek1, no xnsnL, nckycc1ao, 1anan1m ponxnm nHe1L cao
1ea1p, 1ea1p nckann, 1ea1p nonckoa ace noamx n noamx o1kpoaenn n osapenn,
nesnaeHmx nepexnaann n 1.p. n 1.n.
nyuan ace a1o, xo1enocL ckasa1L r-ny eepxonLpy: cypn no 1oHy, c kako
c1pac1noc1Lk am, eapen, auennnncL a pekapanc, a HopepnnsH, a nonckn noaoro, Hoxno
pyHa1L, u1o am-1o n ec1L nac1onune aa1opm nmneune ypopnnao ukonm. na
nepapoH aosnnkna ao Opanunn, nan6onee o6Leapeenno c1pane aponm. m, noHapm,
o1opaannme o1 1eppn1opnn, aeuno kouykune cpepn napopoa, coaepuenno 6eso1ue1no
anyuae1e naH koueao o6pas pyxa. m noc1onnno uero-1o nue1e (uero? - po6mun) n
a1o nepano, ney1onnHo c1pac1Lk naunnae1e sapaxa1L n ocepnme, oprannueckn
cnoxnaunecn napopm. aunnae1 n Hexpy naHn axopn1L a Hopy rnynan 1eopnn, 6yp1o
ypoane1aopenne na seHne neaosHoxno, 6yp1o ycnoane coaepuenc1aa - nepoaonLc1ao.
1pnuanne papn o1pnuannn - a1o kaxe1cn yHnmH, Hexpy 1eH aepL a1o nanm ncnxos,
Hannn Hosroa, 1pony1mx pasnoxenneH. ak kouykun "aeunm xnp, pyx
uenoaeueckn 6yp1o 1orpa amnonnne1 caoe nasnauenne, korpa aceH poc1nrny1mH
npene6perae1 n c1peHn1cn k 1oHy, uero ne1. " nnuero ao ace npnpope 6narocnoan1L
on ne xo1en - a1o 6yp1o 6m kpacnao n cnnLno; na caHoH pene a1o poaonLno rnynm
pLnaonnsH, ko1oporo nac1onuee nHn - ampoxpenne. cnny o6Lnanennoro kak sakon
pyueanoro nepaanoaecnn noam c1nnL ao aceH xopou nnuL na opnn HoHen1 - noka
o1pnuae1 c1apm, a sa1eH caH nopnexn1 o1pnuannk ao nHn noaeuero,
caHonoaeuero n 1.p. enpepmanoe paspyuenne 6yp1o 6m coc1aanne1 aaonkunk
npnpopm, poc1nxenne caepxqopH, caepxcoaepuenc1aa, caepx6m1nn.
a caHoH pene nenpepmanoe paspyuenne ec1L npoc1o ckaepnm, 6onesnennm
nnc1nnk1, cnoxnauncn y nneHen, ko1opme cnnukoH ponro sapepxanncL a c1apnn
anapxnueckoro 6m1a. eko1opme apa6ckne, cn6npckne, aqpnkanckne nneHena,
roaopn1, 6esycnoano ne cnoco6nm k ocepnoHy xosnc1ay; umrane n a Hepnke
oc1ak1cn aepnmHn caoe c1pac1n - Henn1L Hec1a. 1aknH xe necnokonmH nneHenaH
npnnapnexa1 eapen. nn co caoe npoHmunennoc1Lk, ocnoaanno na
qanLcnqnkaunn, co caoe 1oproane, ocnoaanno na o6Hane, anocn1 noc1onnnoe
paspyuenne ao acnkn o6uec1aennm c1po, n nH kaxe1cn, u1o a1o paspyuenne ec1L
Hnccnn acero uenoaeueckoro popa. a6aanoe sa6nyxpenne!
Daonkunn, Hoxe1 6m1L, sakon npnpopm, no poc1nrae1cn ona ne 1ak, kak nponoaepyk1
pekapen1c1aykune eapen. na poc1nrae1cn ne paspyuenneH nac1onuero, a
noc1enennmH ynpouenneH ero, nponanenneH ns rpy6mx qopH a 6onee 1onkne. ak
rnm6a HpaHopa noc1enenno npeapauae1cn a 6onaanky, ko1opan c1anoan1cn ace 6onee
n 6onee noxoxe na qnrypy uenoaeka, noka ne npnnnHae1 okonua1enLno,
6oronopo6no kpaco1m, 1ak acn xnsnL, ace nckycc1ao: ono aaonkunonnpye1, ne
paspyuan caoero copepxannn, a amcao6oxpan ero o1 nsnnunero. o n a caHo xnsnn,
n a 1ea1pe, kak a xnaonncn nnn ckynLn1ype, ec1L npepen, rpe cnepye1 oc1anoan1Lcn:
"rnoaenLe, oc1anoancL! pekpacno 1m! - kak roaopnn Oayc1. p1n panee a1oro
npepena snaun1 ne npoponxa1L aaonkunk, a paspyua1L ee. cnxona1nueckne
"nckannn ace noamx n noamx qopH, "Hosroamx cnnpane, "c1nnnsaun n np.
nokasmaak1 npoc1o, u1o pec1an1enLnoe coaepuenc1ao - nnop rennanLnoro
npospennn - ne no HosraH r-paH OnekcepaH n eepxonLpaH. nn nopnpmrnaak1 po
npoc1o1m npnpopm n, uyac1ayn, u1o napak1, xo1n1 yaepn1L ny6nnky, u1o nopnnHak1cn.
D1o coaepuenno a eapeckoH xapak1epe - ampaaa1L nnskoe sa amcokoe n nao6opo1.
pnckan ncnxonornn, noka ona ne c6n1a c 1onky pasansnmHn koueannkaHn, coaceH
ppyran. Dnnnnckn, repHanckn, cnaannckn anoc - nonk6y1ecL, kakoe a1o
aennuaaoe ypoane1aopenne, kakoe ynoenne 6m1neH! <...> peannH apnuaH ne 6mno
nyxpm apaaa1Lcn a aeunme "nckannn: u1o-1o aaxnoe n nyxnoe nHn 6mno naacerpa
napeno, kak y pakcn1enn ero qnrypa nnpnpm. popoaan, kpenkan, cnnLnan,
kpacnaan nopopa nkpe uyac1aoaana a caHo ce6e poc1nrny1yk npaapy npnpopm, n
ouyuenne a1o npaapm paaano cuac1Le. c1anoanauncL na 1oH, u1o ec1ec1aenno n
kasanocL sakonuennmH, ppeanne naun npepkn ne o1pnuann xnsnn, ne npesnpann
nac1onuero, a, nanpo1na, uyac1aoaann k neHy 6naroroaenoe aocxnuenne.
BnaxennmHn n 6naroc1nmHn kasanncL 6orn (yxe nospnee, nop aoc1ounmHn
annnnnnHn, o6pas nx 6mn nckaxen noa1aHn), canuennmHn kasanncL npepkn,
uapc1aennmH - caoe nneHn, npeanLnmHn - caon 1opxec1aennme o6pnpm, npekpacnmH
kasancn Hnp, ocaeuennm connueH, n a a1o papoc1n ypaanoaeuennoro 6m1nn kakne
xe Hornn 6m1L "nckannn n kakan no1pe6noc1L a Hosroamx "cnnpannx? orpa apneu
naxopnn u1o-nn6o nexopounH, on npoc1o, 6es acnknx nckann, 6pocan nexopouee n
nepexopnn k nyuueHy. onn1ne xe o nyuueH aosnnkano opnoapeHenno c nonn1neH o
nexopoueH. Bes naHopunaannn 6poae, 6es npnknapmaannn nanLua ko n6y spopoame
nkpn npepoc1aannk1 npouecc coaepuenc1aa caHo npnpope.
oueannkn ne nonnHak1, kak nnaue npocyuec1aoaa1L, ecnn ne He1a1Lcn no seHno
noaepxnoc1n n ne pasmcknaa1L caok po6muy. cepnme xe napopm aekaHn aocnn1anm a
yaepennoc1n, u1o onn o6ecneuenm caHo npnpopo. x o6eperae1 npoHmcn - aeunan
seHnn, ko1opan nnkypa ne 6exn1 ns-nop nx nor n 1pe6ye1 ynopnoro 1pypa nap ne.
ap nnHn aeunoe ne6o, ko1opoe 1oxe nnkypa ne 6exn1 n 1pe6ye1 nnuL
npncnoco6n1Lcn k ero ouenL npaannLnoHy o6opo1y nanenn. cepnme napopm
epnnc1aenno cnoco6nm aaonkunonnpoaa1L, no1oHy u1o onn 6naropopno-
koncepaa1nanm. nn opnn a coc1onnnn nakannnaa1L a ce6e noc1onnc1ao xnsnn aHec1o
koueao pac1pa1m ee. nn opnn cnoco6nm rpy6me c1nxnn n cnnm qopHnpoaa1L a
onpepenennme n sakonuennme qopHm. akoa xnsnepapoc1nm n cnnLnm pyx
apnuea, nepamx naxape seHnn. pou1n1e 6ora1mpckne 6mnnnm, acnoHnn1e nkyny
ennnnnoanua - ao1 u cc pyxa. oxox nn on xo1L a Hano c1enenn na
uenoaeka "nckann? Yaepnk aac, y nero ace, u1o nyxno, 6mno napeno. ao1
1enepeunne naun npocae1n1enn, r-pa eapeunkn, ns acex cnn c1apak1cn noHouL naH
cu - ne na1n, a ny1eH "nckann nHenno pasHo1a1L naue ppeanee
nacnepne...
1909 rop
RX
1
Knoua paapua1n 1pex ne1 ycnen nannca1L rpoHapnyk no o6LeHy knnry, o ko1opo
roaopn1 1enepL ao aceH cae1e, - n sa1eH nokonunn c co6o. e npaapa nn, kakan
ppaHa! Knoua - eape, 11o ennnrep
[61]
. nnra ero, uypoanunan ao acex
o1nouennnx, - "on n xapak1ep. ypoanunan ona no aennunne, no c1paunoHy rpysy
snann, a nee anoxennmx, no unnnsHy 1eHm, no HonnnnH npaapm n cannuoao 1yue
npepasn1oc1n, ko1opo ona nonna. ackaosL eapeckan, a1a knnra 1nxenan, cHy1nan,
nepanan, 1parnueckan n qanLunaan. nk1o nnkorpa ne amckasmaan 1akoro 6euenoro
npespennn k xenunne, 1ako sno6m k ouapoaannk xenc1aennoc1n, 1ako rapnnaoc1n k
1oHy, u1o coc1aanne1 1any poHana. nk1o eue ne npnanekan a kauec1ae nanaue nap
"npekpacno nonoanno uenoaeueckoro popa c1onLko knnxnoro snannn n c1onLko
Honoporo neaexec1aa. Xenonenaanc1nnk onenrayap - o6paseu ranan1noc1n a
cpaanennn c knoue ennnrepoH, 1ak neuanLno nokonunaunH c co6o. 1o oco6enno
1parnuno: knoua nncan o npepHe1e, ne ycnea nnuno nosnakoHn1Lcn c nnH. oxno nn
a paapua1L ne1 nepexn1L n nepeuyac1aoaa1L ack npnpopy xenunnm n kpane
cnoxnmx o1nouenn k ne? knnre nespenoro eapeunka uyac1ayk1cn cnepm
nonoaoro ncnxosa, kpane pacc1poennoe, paspeprannoc1n aoo6paxennn nop rne1oH,
Hoxe1 6m1L, cnnukoH pannero n cnnukoH rpy6oro onm1a. ak 6m ockop6nennm a
can1mne nexnmx uyac1a, aa1op nnaHenno neropye1 n Hc1n1 npnpope, ko1opan, opnako,
epaa nn a ueH noannna. nnra amuna, ao acnkoH cnyuae, saHeua1enLnan. a1op
cpenan rpyc1nyk peknaHy e, y6na ce6n. poaepuenne acero sa ne coaceH npnnnunyk
no 1eHe knnry yxaa1nnncL kpkne coo1euec1aennnkn aa1opa, n ona cpenanacL
npepHe1oH nspa1enLcko cnekynnunn. Y nac okono nHenn 11o ennnrepa cpasy
co6panacL kyuka nnuyunx eapeea: r-n nx1enu1ap1 nepeaen ee, r-n Oanu1en
npocHo1pen a kauec1ae pok1opa-aeneponora, r-n uknnasn un1an koppek1ypy (o ueH
1oxe o6Lnaneno) n, nakoneu, caH knH onmnckn (Onekcep) "annHa1enLno
npopepak1npoaan nepeaop, o ueH c koHnueckok aaxnoc1Lk on npepynpexpae1
ny6nnky. nnre npepuec1aye1, kak aopn1cn, nyxnan n ckyunan c1a1Ln caHoro aennkoro
knHa.
uenoH knnra ennnrepa ne nac1onLko nn1epecna, u1o6m roaopn1L o ne. ayunoc1L
ee o1pae1 c1ypenuec1aoH, qnnocoqnn - nonoao ncnxona1ne. k6onm1nee acero
asrnnp ennnrepa na eapeea kak na ncnxonornueckn 1nn. pecL ne nnuennm
1anan1a aa1op acero, koneuno, caepyuee. n caH 6mn eape n, aepon1no, ack caok
neponryk xnsnL poc1a1ouno apauancn a eapecko cpepe. naunonanLnoH aonpoce
caHouyac1ane n caHocosnanne - nokasa1enL ropaspo 6onee aaxnm, ueH naxaa1annme
ns Hepnunncknx pnccep1aun rnno1esm. e1 coHnennn, u1o kaxpm eape 6eckoneuno
sann1epecoaan c1paunmH po cyHacuec1ann aonpocoH: u1o xe 1akoe eapec1ao? cnn
pnn xpnc1nan, npocmnakunxcn a an1nceHn1nsHe, a1o pokoaan npo6neHa, kak pnn
uaxo1ounoro - sann1me oxa, 1o n pnn caHnx a1nx sann1mx, pnn eapec1aa,
aneppnauerocn a 1kanL napopoa n rpmsyuero ee, nx npnpopa cnnounan ppaHa n a
6ypyueH - cHep1nm npnroaop. uaxo1ounmH aepL a rpo6 knapy1 n Hnnnnappm
sann1mx, oc1anoanaunx xnsnL.
ec1po1a kpoa
ape ennnrep cun1ae1 eapec1ao nnsunH n kpane onacnmH uenoaeuecknH 1nnoH.
apec1ao, no ero cnoaaH, an1pononornueckn popc1aenno c nerpaHn n HonronaHn.
epapoH eapec1ao popnnocL na nopore 1pex Ha1epnkoa: 6enoe, xen1oe n uepnoe
nepeHeuano a nx 1ene n pyue po kako-1o ne coaceH unc1o cHecn. "a nerpoa
ykasmaak1 1ak uac1o ac1peuakunecn y eapeea aLkunecn aonocm, na npnHecL
HonronLcko kpoan - unc1o kn1ackan nnn Hanackan qopHa nnueao uac1n uepena,
ko1opan uac1o ac1peuae1cn cpepn eapeea n ko1opo acerpa coo1ae1c1aye1 xen1oaa1m
o11enok koxn. a1oHy HonronoanpnoHy 1nny a eapec1ae, ckasa1L kc1a1n,
npnnapnexn1 snaHenn1m seq. ennnrep paccHa1pnaae1 eapec1ao kak oco6m
xapak1ep, nonaran, u1o k neHy Hory1 npnnapnexa1L nkpn pasnmx pac. e yckonLsnyno
o1 annHannn aa1opa, u1o "6onee ampakunecn nkpn cpepn apnuea 6mnn nou1n acerpa
an1nceHn1aHn (aun1, ackanL, onL1ep, eppep, 1e, an1, Xan onL, onenrayap,
pnnLnapuep, arnep n pp.). D1o "o6Lncnne1cn 1eH, u1o onn, kak 6onee
copepxa1enLnme, nonnHak1 eapec1ao nyuue, ueH ppyrne nkpn. pnako caHmx
xec1oknx an1nceHn1oa Hoxno na1n nnuL cpepn eapeea. orpa a nkpnx a1o pacm
npocmnae1cn uenoaeueckoe caHocosnanne, ono ac1ynae1 a nenpnHnpnHyk 6opL6y c
eapecknH caHocosnanneH. pnpopa aockpecuan nens6exno 6ope1cn c nckycc1aennmH
ypopc1aoH. "n1nceHn1nsH eapen pokasmaae1, u1o nnk1o, snakun eapen, ne ouyuae1
ero kak npepHe1, poc1onm nk6an, - paxe caH eape. o opnrnnanLnoHy Hnennk
ennnrepa, "aceHnpno-nc1opnueckoe snauenne eapec1aa coc1on1 nHenno a 1oH, u1o
ono noc1onnno poaopn1 apnua po cosnannn caHoro ce6n. "Bnaropapn eapek apneu
snae1, u1o eHy napo 6epeuLcn eapec1aa kak neko1opo aosHoxnoc1n, sanoxenno a
neH caHoH. axo1ka pec1an1enLno nanoHnnae1 uenoaeky o pparouennoc1n spopoaLn,
o neo6xopnHoc1n 6epeuL ce6n. opo6no kpec1Lnnnny, ko1opm uac1o npe1 a 6ank
no1oHy 1onLko, u1o ero "aouL oponena, apneu acnoHnnae1 o caoe nesaancnHoc1n,
nnuL nonaa a nypeckne nanm. pocmnakuncn ao aceH cae1e an1nceHn1nsH ec1L
npocmnakuncn c1pax sa xnsnL, uyac1ao 6onn o1 nakonnauecn na 1ene napasn1no
ppnnn. apec1ao onacno 1eH, u1o npnnapnexn1 (a rnasax ennnrepa) k nnsueHy
uenoaeueckoHy 1nny - k xenckoHy. Y eapeea, kak y xenunn, ne1 aneuennn k
cepLesno co6c1aennoc1n, nanpnHep k seHenLnoHy xosnc1ay. apen ncnop1nnn
apnckn counannsH. mcnL yana, apnenn, ecknna, Onx1e nopHenena
koHHynnsHoH apkca. apkcnsH (a npo1naononoxnoc1L op6ep1ycy) coaepuenno uyxp
rocypapc1aennoc1n. "ocypapc1ao ec1L coaokynnoc1L uene, ko1opme Hory1 6m1L
ocyuec1anenm nnuL coepnnenneH pasyHnmx cyuec1a. o a1o1-1o kan1oackn pasyH,
no-anpnHoHy, n o1cy1c1aye1 y eapen... apeckoro rocypapc1aa, no Hnennk
ennnrepa, nnkorpa ne cyuec1aoaano n 6m1L ne Hoxe1. nonnsH o6peuen na
neuanLnm neycnex. apec1ay epnnc1aenno, u1o cpopnn, - a1o anapxnn n
koHHynnsH. "cnn eape uyxp rocypapc1aennoc1n, 1o a1o opno yxe ykasmaae1 na 1o,
u1o y nero, kak n y xenunnm, ne1 nnunoc1n. "ak ne cyuec1aye1 a pec1an1enLnoc1n
poc1onnc1aa xenunn, - roaopn1 ennnrep, - 1ak xe Hano HmcnnHo npepc1aanenne o
eapeckoH "gentleman". ac1onueHy eapek nepoc1ae1 1oro any1pennero 6naropopc1aa,
ns ko1oporo am1ekae1 poc1onnc1ao co6c1aennoro n yaaxenne uyxoro "n". e
cyuec1aye1 eapeckoro paopnnc1aa, n a1o 1eH saHeua1enLnee, u1o y eapeea a 1euenne
1mcnuene1n pec1aye1 nn1ennek1yanLnm nop6op... "ecHo1pn na nonnyk
neconsHepnHoc1L eapen n apnc1okpa1nunoc1n, on o1nnuae1cn unc1o xencko norone
sa 1n1ynaHn. e Hoxno noc1aan1L na opny pocky nnuL c ero uaanc1aoH, o6Lek1oH
ko1oporo Hoxe1 cnyxn1L noxa a 1ea1pe nnn Hepnme kap1nnm a canone... Y eapen
coaepuenno o1cy1c1aye1 roppoc1L npepkaHn, ne uyxpan paxe nne6ek-apnuy.
pounoe eapen na caHoH pene coaceH ne npounoe pnn nero, a acerpa 1onLko - ero
6ypyuee.
aHoauaqeHa
ennnrep cHee1cn nap HmcnLk, 6yp1o pypnme kauec1aa eapeea npnan1m k nnH
ronennnHn. Yxe a ceHLe apaaHa n akoaa o6Han n noppenka cnoxnnncL kak
xapak1epnan uep1a a1o pacm. ape, u1o kacae1cn 1nxknx npec1ynnenn, Henee
npec1ynen, ueH apnum, no on "aHopanen, on "nnkorpa ne 6maae1 nn ouenL po6pmH,
nn ouenL snmH; no cyuec1ay caoeHy on nn 1o nn c, no, ckopee acero, on nnsok. Y
eapeea ne1 npe nn anrena, nn pLnaona, nn ne6a, nn apa. 1ckpa o1cy1c1ane c1paxa
nepep peHonnuecknH npnnunnoH.
1o 6esycnoano uyxpo kak xenunne, 1ak n eapek, a1o - aennune, aennune a nk6oH
nanpaanennn. (pouy un1a1enLnnu ne sa6maa1L, u1o ace a1n pepskne Hmcnn ne Hon, a
un1npyeHoro aa1opa. 1o kacae1cn asrnnpoa na xenunn, n paneko c nnHn ne anonne
cornacen.) o npocnepnH panLue a1y eapeckyk caHoanaqeHy. " eapee po6po n sno
eue ne pnqqepenunpoaanncL ppyr o1 ppyra. Y eapeea ne1 can1mx. apen xnay1 ne
kak cao6opnme, pepxaanme, am6npakune Hexpy po6pope1enLk n nopokoH
nnpnanpyanLnoc1n, nopo6no apnuaH. D1o - "cnn1nm nnacHopn. caoe
connpapnoc1n eapen saunuak1 ne nnunoc1L, a ace eapec1ao. pna ns oprannuecknx
oco6ennoc1e eapen - caopnnuec1ao. "ape acerpa cnapoc1pac1nee, noxo1nnaee,
xo1n o6napae1 HenLue nonoao no1en1noc1Lk... onLko eapen 6maak1
6pakonocpepnnkaHn... e1 napopa a Hnpe, rpe 1ak Hano xennnncL 6m no nk6an, kak y
eapeea, - nnunee pokasa1enLc1ao 6espyunn acnkoro a6conk1noro eapen. Y eapeea -
nonnoe nenonnHanne acnkoro acke1nsHa. naanan sapaua npaac1aennoro sakona y
eapeea - "Hnoxn1Lcn, kak y npepc1aan1ene nnsunx oprannuecknx cyuec1a. ape -
paspyun1enL rpannu, npnHan npo1naononoxnoc1L acero apnc1okpa1nueckoro. ape -
npnpoxpennm koHHynnc1 n acerpa xoue1 o6unoc1n. eyaaxenne k onpepenennmH
qopHaH npn cnouennnx c nkpLHn (eapeckan narnoc1L), o1cy1c1ane o6uec1aennoro
1ak1a am1ekak1 y nero ns 1oro xe nc1ounnka. ue saponro po paspyuennn
epycannHckoro xpaHa napop eapeckn ns6pan pnacnopy kak cao ec1ec1aennm
o6pas xnsnn - pacnonsakuerocn no ace seHne, nopaannkuero acnkyk
nnpnanpyannsaunk kopneanua. nonnsH xoue1 ocyuec1anennn uero-1o neeapeckoro.
1o6m cospe1L pnn cnonnsHa, eapen ponxnm cnauana npeopone1L caoe eapec1ao.
Beccosna1enLno kaxpm eape c1aan1 apnua amue ce6n. pnnc1aennoe peuenne
eapeckoro aonpoca - nnpnanpyanLnoe amcao6oxpenne kaxporo eapen ns ero
eapeckoro pyxa, ns eapeckoro 1nna pyun. " xpnc1nannne sanoxenm roppoc1L n
cHnpenne, a eapee - sanocunaoc1L n nnskonoknonc1ao. aH - cosnanne n
caHoynnunxenne, specL - amcokoHepne n pa6onenne.
nonnmH o1cy1c1aneH cHnpennn cansano y eapen nenonnHanne npen Hnnoc1n. s ero
pa6cko npnpopm am1ekae1 ero re1eponoHnan a1nka. ro ekanor, sa nocnyunoe
amnonnenne uyxo aonn o6euakun 6naropenc1ane na seHne n saaoeaanne Hnpa, -
caHm 6esnpaac1aennm ns sakonopa1enLnmx caopoa acero Hnpa. 1nouenne k
eroae, nepep ko1opmH eape ouyuae1 c1pax pa6a, xapak1epnsye1 eapen kak
cyuec1ao, nyxpakueecn a uyxo anac1n nap co6ok. 6oxec1aennoH a uenoaeke, o
1oH, u1o nonnHann nop 6oxec1aennmH Xpnc1oc, na1on, Dkrapp n aaen, 1e n an1,
- eape nnuero ne snae1. "ce, u1o a uenoaeke ec1L 6oxec1aennoro, - a1o ero pyua,
no y a6conk1noro eapen ne1 pyun. 1ckpa o1cy1c1ane y eapeea aepm a 6eccHep1ne. Y
nnx ne1 n nac1onue Hnc1nkn, kpoHe caHoro pnkoro cyeaepnn n nc1onkoaa1enLno
Harnn (ka66ana). apeckn Hono1ensH nanne1cn ckopee o1pnuanneH nc1nnno aepm a
Bora. "pnonHennoc1L eapeckoro n xpnc1nanckoro Bora ec1L aennuauee nopyranne
nocnepnero. apeckn Hono1ensH - ne pennrnn unc1oro pasyHa, a ckopee cyeaepne
c1apmx 6a6 - ns rpnsnoro c1paxa.
aspy1m qnocoq
ape 6mc1po npeapauae1cn a Ha1epnannc1a n o1pnua1enn. yac1ao pa6a ec1ec1aenno
cHenne1cn pepsoc1Lk. Henno eapen a xpnc1nanc1ae anocn1 Ha1epnannsH a pyxoanyk
xnsnL - a pennrnk, qnnocoqnk, nayky. apec1ao a Hysmke poc1a1ouno paccHo1peno
arnepoH. "ape ne 6naroroaee1 nepep 1anaHn, n6o on nnrpe ne npospeaae1 nx. ro
c1apannn caopn1cn k 1oHy, u1o6m npepc1aan1L Hnp aosHoxno 6onee nnocknH n
o6mknoaennmH... u1o6m y6pa1L c poporn aeun, ko1opme n a pyxoano cqepe Heuak1
cao6opnoHy panxennk ero nok1e; "n1nqnnocoqckan nayka a ocnoae caoe ec1L
eapeckan nayka. apen no1oHy cknonnm k Ha1epnannsHy, u1o "nx 6oronoun1anne ne
nHee1 nn Haneuero popc1aa c nc1nnno pennrne. eanoc1nee acero onn naknnynncL
na papannnsH n na cHexo1aopnyk 1eopnk nponcxoxpennn uenoaeka o1 o6esLnnm. D1nH
xe aneuenneH k Ha1epnn o6Lncnne1cn 1o, u1o xnHnn a snaun1enLno Hepe a pykax
eapeea. ac1aopenne a Ha1epnk, no1pe6noc1L ace pac1aopn1L a ne npepnonarae1
o1cy1c1ane yHonoc1nraeHoro "n" n, no cyuec1ay, nanne1cn no1pe6noc1Lk eapecko.
1ckpa xe nx npnaepxennoc1L k annona1nn a Hepnunne. eapecko nayke n
qnnocoqnn nepoc1ae1 aneHen1a noasnn, c1onL caoc1aennoro apnuaH.
"euenoHyppennoe xaa1anne 1ex nHenno aeue, ko1opme apneu a rny6nne pyun
acerpa ouyuae1 kak poanpenne, nonannocL a ec1ec1aosnannn nnuL c eapeeH.
1cy1c1aneH rny6nnm o6Lncnne1cn, noueHy ns cpepm eapec1aa ne amunn nc1nnno
aennkne nkpn, noueHy eapec1ay o1kasano, kak n xenunne, a amcue rennanLnoc1n.
"aHm ampakuncn eape nocnepnnx pean1napua1n aekoa, o6napakun ropaspo
6onLunH snauenneH, ueH nnuennm nou1n acnkoro aennunn noa1 ene, - a1o
nnnosa. o n on, no Hnennk ennnrepa, po upesamuanoc1n paspy1: "pesHepnan
nepeouenka ero o6Lncnne1cn 1eH cnyuanmH o6c1on1enLc1aoH, u1o a1o 6mn
epnnc1aennm Hmcnn1enL, ko1oporo 6onee annHa1enLno un1an 1e. "nn caHoro
nnnosm ne 6mno nnkaknx npo6neH: a a1oH n anpen nac1onun eape. nc1eHy
nnnosm nn a kakoH o1nouennn nenLsn nasaa1L qnnocoqne Hounoro uenoaeka: a1o
sa1aopnnuec1ao necuac1nnaua, ko1opm nue1 npnnnnk n, opnako, na pene k ne ne
cnoco6en, kak uenoaek, a6conk1no nnuennm kHopa. apensH nnnosm ckasmaae1cn
a nenonnHannn npen rocypapc1aa, a npnaepxennoc1n k 1eopnn o66ca ("aona acex
npo1na acex). 1o ropaspo 6onLue canpe1enLc1aye1 o nnskoH ypoane ero
qnnocoqcknx asrnnpoa - a1o ero nonnoe nenonnHanne cao6opm aonn: eape acerpa
pa6 n, c1ano 6m1L, pe1epHnnnc1. e1 6onee rny6oko npo1naononoxnoc1n, kak Hexpy
nnnoso n ero necpaanenno 6onee snaun1enLnmH n ynnaepcanLnmH coapeHennnkoH
- e6nnueH.
1o6m nokonun1L c epnnc1aenno ampaaunHcn sa pean1napua1L aekoa eapeeH-
qnnocoqoH, ennnrep ka1eropnueckn y1aepxpae1, u1n "renneH nnnosa ne 6mn.
nc1opnn qnnocoqnn "ne1 ppyroro c1onL 6epnoro HmcnnHn n c1onL nnuennoro
qan1asnn qnnocoqa... 1nouenne nnnosm k npnpope 6mno neo6mknoaenno nyc1mH.
1euenne ace xnsnn on nnkorpa ne c1onknyncn c nckycc1aoH.
enLsn ne cornacn1Lcn c a1o xapak1epnc1nko pec1an1enLno ane acnko Hepm
paspy1oro eapeckoro qnnocoqa. kak, ckasa1L kc1a1n, c nnH nocnnncL y nac a
eapecknx kpyxkax eue nepaano! ak yceppno nepeaopnnn n c kako noHno
nspaaann r-pa onmnckne n ypeanun "caoero co6c1aennoro aennkoro uenoaeka!
1o6m npnnopnn1L xo1L eue na aepuok coHnn1enLnoe aennune, c nanano roppoc1Lk
amnncmaann, nanpnHep, u1o a1o 6mn ne npoc1o nnnosa, a"pe nnnosa...H paneko ne
okonunn xapak1epnc1nkn eapec1aa no ennnrepy, npouy nosaonennn k a1oHy
aepny1Lcn. coxanennk, neckonLko cyH6ypnm n Hnorocnoanm nsmk ennnrepa
sa1pypnne1 HmcnL ero, uac1o ouenL aepnyk n acerpa nckpennkk. cnn ona pae1
aneua1nenne qanLun, 1o kak acnkan npepasn1oc1L. H aoace ne pekoHenpyk nasaanno
eapecko knnrn - ona ne ns 1ex, u1o nsmckannoHy un1a1enk pak1 papoc1L Hmcnn.
nn1epa1ypnoH o1nouennn a1o nnoxan knnra, no a ne sa1pony1m 1akne 1eHnme n
nepanme aonpocm n kopnn pyxa npocnexenm a 1aknx 1anmx nsanaax, u1o spopoaan
ronoaa ne no1epnn1, koneuno, yuep6a, nponyc1na uepes ce6n a1o1 npenm xaoc.
osapauakcL k aa1opy, ko1oporo neaonLno xanL.
o1 nonc1nne uenoaek 1parnueckn a nau, no-anpnHoHy, c1onL nnockn aek.
ensaec1no, o1uero on cry6nn ce6n, no aecLHa aosHoxno, o1 o1uannnn a 1oH, u1o on -
eape. ea6conk1noHy eapek, a Hoxe1 6m1L, c apncko npnHecLk npocny1Lcn a
aennuec1aennoH apnckoH ryHannsHe n ouy1n1L a caHoH cyuec1ae caoeH, a kpoan, a
nepaax neu1o rny6oko ce6e npo1nanoe, o1 uero xoue1cn o1peuLcn naaekn, - a caHoH
pene, Hoxno nyc1n1L ce6e nynk a no6! cHep1n eapeckoro knoun ennnrepa,
nepep caonH rpo6oH npoknnauero eapec1ao, naHeuae1cn Hpaunoe 6ypyuee a1oro
nneHenn. opn a 1kann apncknx o6uec1a, eapen 6eso1ue1no rpmsy1 n ry6n1 nx. o
ecnn onn ne ycnek1 yHep1an1L nn1akuyk nx cpepy, ecnn korpa-nn6ypL npnHy1
nckpenno apnckn pyx, 1o norn6ny1 caHn - o1 HopanLno nm1kn, o1 caHoanaqeHm.
I
1
osaonL1e pokonun1L xapak1epnc1nky eapecko pacm, cpenannyk eapeeH 11o
ennnrepoH. s acex apnuea no xapak1epy acero 6nnxe eapen k anrnnuanaH, no
"eape nnuen counanLnmx sapa1koa, 1orpa kak anrnnuannn o6napae1 nHn a amcoko
c1enenn. ape "6esrpannuno nsHenneH. "BonLuo 1anan1 eapeea k xypnannsHy
(ennnrep Hor 6m npn6aan1L: k ckanpanLnoHy n 6ecuec1noHy xypnannsHy, n6o u1o
kacae1cn uec1no n nopnpouno neua1n, a ne eapen coaceH 6espapnm n nensHenno
npoaannaak1 caon nspannn), nopanxnoc1L eapeckoro pyxa, o1cy1c1ane npnpopnoro
caHo6m1noro yHc1aennoro cknapa - pasae a1o ne pae1 aosHoxnoc1n amckasa1L o
eapenx cnepykuee: onn nnu1o n nHenno no1oHy Hory1 c1a1L aceH? ape -
nnpnanpyyH, no ne nnpnanpyanLnoc1L. ecL o6pauennm k nnsue xnsnn, on ne
ouyuae1 no1pe6noc1n 6eccHep1nn. n nenpnuac1en amcue, aeuno xnsnn. eapee
npexpe acero saknkuae1cn nsaec1nan arpeccnanoc1L. aHopen1enLno on
npncnoco6nne1cn k kaxpo o6c1anoake n k kaxpo pace, nopo6no napasn1y, ko1opm
na kaxpoH 1ene, na ko1opoH on xnae1, c1anoan1cn ppyrnH n 1ak nsHenne1cn napyxno,
u1o ero Hoxno npnnn1L sa noaoe xnao1noe, 1orpa kak on oc1ancn 1eH xe. k1nanoc1L
eapeea ennnrep ne o1pnuae1, no "y nnx ak1nanoc1L coaceH oco6oro popa, ne 1a,
ko1opok o1nnuae1cn caHo1aopueckan cao6opa amcue xnsnn.
"ny6xe acero nosnae1cn eapeckan cyunoc1L a nppennrnosnoc1n eapen. ape ec1L
nnu1o a rny6ouaue caoe ocnoae nHenno no1oHy, u1o on ne aepn1 nn ao u1o. e
npaapa nn, kak a1o paneko o1 xopnuero npepc1aanennn o eapenx kak pennrnosnoH
napope? ennnrep y1aepxpae1, u1o "eape coaceH ne aepn1, ne aepn1 a caok aepy,
coHneaae1cn a caoeH coHnennn... n nnkorpa ne o1nocn1cn k ce6e cepLesno, noa1oHy y
nero ne1 cepLesnoro o1nouennn n k ppyrnH nkpnH. ny1penne ouenL ypo6no 6m1L
eapeeH, n sa a1o ypo6c1ao npnxopn1cn nna1n1L neko1opmHn aneunnHn neypo6c1aaHn.
ak cnHaonnuno a eapee o1cy1c1ane acnko nouaennoc1n, ero rny6okoe nenonnHanne
seHneanapennn n 1o npepnou1enne, ko1opoe on o1pae1 panxnHo co6c1aennoc1n.
a1nH xe y nero cansano n o1cy1c1ane rny6okoro ouyuennn npnpopm. ape nnkorpa na
pene ne cun1ae1 u1o-nn6o nac1onunH n nepyunHmH, canuennmH n nenpnkocnoaennmH.
n aespe qpnaonen, napo aceH on oc1pn1. n opnoHy xpnc1nannny on ne aepn1 a ero
xpnc1nanc1ao, n yx koneuno nnkorpa ne noaepn1 on a nckpennoc1L kpeuennn eapen.
cnoay ckasa1L, a1nH n o6Lncnne1cn 1o, u1o eapen o1nocn1cn k amkpec1aH kak k caonH
nkpnH, npoponxan nx noppepxnaa1L n nonLsyncL asanHno noppepxko. mkpec1m -
aaanrapp eapec1aa, 1onLko nepeope1m pnn 6onee ypo6noro nponnknoaennn a
xpnc1nanc1ao.
"ape ne peannc1nuen, - npoponxae1 ennnrep, - ero nenLsn nasaa1L nac1onunH
aHnnpnkoH. ape ne aepn1 a snanne, no a 1o xe apeHn on n ne cken1nk, n6o 1ak xe
Hano y6expen a nc1nnnoc1n cken1nunsHa. norne xpnc1nane nn1ak1 k eapec1ay
cyeaepnoe yaaxenne, kak k konm6enn caoe pennrnn. o nponnua1enLnme sna1okn
eapec1aa paano nopHe1nnn, u1o y eapeea ne1 n nnkorpa ne 6mno nac1onue aepm.
"ape, - roaopn1 ennnrep, - ne6narouec1nam uenoaek a caHoH unpokoH cHmcne.
ape ne Heu1a1enen, no, a cyunoc1n, n ne 1pesa, ne akc1a1nuen, no n ne cyx. cnn on
ne cnoco6en nn k nnsueHy, nn k amcueHy pyxoanoHy onLnnennk, ecnn pnn nero c1onL
xe uyxp ankoronnsH, ckonL nepoc1ynen acnkn amcun aoc1opr, 1o a1o eue ne
snaun1, u1o on xonopen, u1o on poc1nr cnokoc1ann. 1 1enno1m ero nece1 no1oH, a
xonop ero pae1 1yHan. ro caHoorpannuenne c1anoan1cn acerpa xypocouneH, ero
nonno1a - opy1noaa1oc1Lk. axe o1aaxnauncL na none1 a 6esrpannunoe
aoopyueanenne uyac1aa, on nnkorpa ne nopnnHae1cn amue na1e1nueckoro. Xo1n ero
ne aneue1 xenanne nouenoaa1L aecL Hnp, on ace xe oc1ae1cn naansunamH no
o1nouennk k a1oHy Hnpy. ape ouyuae1 caoe neaepne kak caoe npeaocxopc1ao nap
ppyrnHn. Y eapen ne1 nnkakoro paennn k aepe, n no1oHy eapeckan pennrnn -
epnnc1aennan, ne aep6ykuan nposenn1oa. enoaek, nepeuepun a nypec1ao,
nanne1cn pnn caHnx eapeea aennuaue sarapko n amsmaae1 nepoyHeaakun cHex.
apen, npn6aann 6m n k a1oHy, yaaxak1 ne aepy caok, a npnkpmaaeHyk aepo
nopopy. 6pa1no ppyrnH napopaH, pacnpoc1pannkunH cao kynL1, eapen o6eperak1
ero o1 nponnknoaennn uyxo kpoan. apen ampak1 pouepe sa xpnc1nan, no nou1n
nnkorpa ne xenn1cn na xpnc1nankax. H amropnee, u1o6m okpyxakune nx napopm
6mnn ne eapenHn, a nnuL o6LeapeennmHn pyxoano, n a1oro nH ypae1cn poc1nra1L
nnorpa 6nnc1a1enLno. cnxonornn neko1opmx xpnc1nancknx nap1n (nanpnHep, y nac
- kape1cko) anonne eapeckan.
onn1aa eapen, roaopn1 ennnrep, "qopHanLna, nnuena any1pennero nnaHenn.
apeckan pennrnn - nc1opnueckan 1papnunn, a uen1pe ko1opo c1on1 nepexop uepes
pacnoe Hope, saaepuae1cn a 6naropapnoc1n y6erakuero 1pyca HounoHy ns6aan1enk.
ape - nppennrnosnm uenoaek, panekn, nackonLko a1o aosHoxno, o1 acnko aepm.
cnkan aepa reponuna, eape xe ne snae1 nn Hyxec1aa, nn c1paxa - a1nx uyac1a
yrpoxaeHo aepm. , ecnn 6m eape 6mn xo1L uec1nmH Ha1epnannc1oH, xo1L
orpannuennmH noknonnnkoH npen pasan1nn! o on ne kpn1nk, a nnuL kpn1nkan. n ne
cken1nk 1nna ekap1a, on uenoaek a6conk1no nponnn - 1nna ene. pec1ynnnk
1akxe ne 6narouec1na n ne pepxn1cn Bora, no on n napae1 npn a1oH a 6espny, n6o ne
Hoxe1 c1on1L pnpoH c BoroH. Yxn1pn1Lcn cpena1L n a1o - ao1 ypnan1enLnan ynoaka
eapec1aa. oa1oHy npec1ynnnk acerpa nonon o1uannnn, eape - nnkorpa. n coaceH
ne nac1onun peaonkunonep, n6o o1kypa on asnn 6m cnny n any1pennn pasHax
aocc1annn? n 1onLko pasLepae1 n nnkorpa a pec1an1enLnoc1n nnuero ne paspyuae1.
cnxnueckoe copepxanne eapen o1nnuae1cn paoc1aennoc1Lk nnn Hnoxec1aennoc1Lk.
Y nero acerpa ec1L eue opna aosHoxnoc1L, eue Hnoro aosHoxnoc1e 1aH, rpe apneu
neo6xopnHo peuae1cn na u1o-nn6ypL opno. D1a any1pennnn Hnorosnaunoc1L, a1a
6epnoc1L a 1oH "6m1nn a ce6e n pnn ce6n, ns ko1oporo 1onLko n Hoxe1 am1eka1L
amcuan 1aopueckan cnna, onpepenne1 eapec1ao. n c ueH eape ne Hoxe1 aonc1nny
o1oxpec1an1L ce6n, nn a opny aeuL ne Hoxe1 anoxn1L ack caok xnsnL... ak kak on
ne nanne1 co6o nnkakoro y1aepxpennn, 1o kaxe1cn cHe1nnaee, ueH apneu. ape
anac1nuno yaep1maae1cn o1 acnkoro rne1a. poc1o1a ec1L kauec1ao a6conk1no ne
eapeckoe. ape ne noe1. e ns c1mpnnaoc1n ne noe1 on, a no1oHy, u1o on ne aepn1
caoeHy nennk. enocpepc1aennoro 6m1nn on ne nonnHae1, n c1onno 6m eHy sane1L,
kak on nouyac1aoaan 6m ce6n cHeunmH n ckoHnpoHe1npoaannmH. oxe1 6m1L,
noa1oHy, npn6aank n, cyuec1aye1 Hnoxec1ao eapecknx neauoa n neanu no peHecny n
nou1n coaceH ne1 Hexpy nnHn aennknx neauoa.
enLsn ckasa1L, u1o6m xapak1epnc1nka eapeea ennnrepoH 6mna npko, no on n caH
uyac1aye1, "kak 1pypno onpepenn1L eapec1ao. Y eapen ne1 1aeppoc1n, no 1akxe n
nexnoc1n - ckopee on xec1ok n Hnrok. n ne o1ecan, ne 1onok, ne rpy6, ne aexnna.
n ne uapL n ne aoxpL, no n ne nennnk, ne aaccan. 1o nesnakoHo eHy coaceH - a1o
cnoco6noc1L nepexnaa1L no1pncennn, no 1ak xe Hano npncyue eHy n paanopyune.
nu1o pnn nero ne caHooueanpno, no 1ak xe uyxpo eHy n nc1nnnoe nsyHnenne. n
cHeuon, kak c1ypen1-kopnopan1, no ns nero ne amxopn1 n xopoun qnnnc1ep. n ne
Henanxonnuen, ne nerkoHmcnen o1 acero ceppua. Henno acero-1o ceppua y eapen n
ne1, a kak 6m o6pesannoe co acex c1opon. "e aepn nn ao u1o, on noa1oHy n 6exn1 a
uapc1ao Ha1epnanLnoro. onLko o1ckpa n am1ekae1 ero xapnoc1L k penLraH. ace xe
on paxe n ne nac1onun peneu. ce "nepeanLnoe", "neconnpnoe" a noaepennn
eapeckoro 1oproaua ec1L nponanenne eapeckoro cyuec1aa, nnuennoro acnko
any1penne 1oxpec1aennoc1n. D1o kak 6m coc1onnne po6m1nn, o1cy1c1ane kako-nn6o
y6expennoc1n n necnoco6noc1L k kako 6m 1o nn 6mno nk6an n xep1ae. Dpo1nka
eapen cen1nHen1anLnan, kHop ero - ca1npa. YcHeuka, ko1opan xapak1epnsye1
eapeckoe nnuo, - 1o neonpepenennoe ampaxenne nnua, ko1opoe ampae1 ro1oanoc1L
na ace cornacn1Lcn n npepnonarae1 o1cy1c1ane yaaxennn uenoaeka k caHoHy ce6e.
II
"o, - npoponxae1 ennnrep, - u1o na aekn aeunme oc1ane1cn nepoc1ynnmH
nac1onueHy eapek: nenocpepc1aennoc1L, Hnnoc1L BoxLn, rnac 1py6nm, Ho1na
nrqpnpa, caHo1aopuec1ao, ouyuenne: n ecHL. ape nonc1nne nanne1cn "nacmnkoH
BoxnnH" na seHne: na pene ne cyuec1aye1 nn opnoro eapen-Hyxunnm, ko1opm, xo1n
6m n cHy1no, ne 6onen 6m caonH eapec1aoH, 1o ec1L a rny6ouaue caoe ocnoae -
caonH neaepneH. onpekn Hnennk, 6yp1o xpnc1nanc1ao ec1L npoponxenne eapec1aa,
ennnrep anpn1 a nnx "aennuauyk, nensHepnHyk npo1naononoxnoc1L.
Xpnc1nanc1ao ec1L amcun reponsH, eape xe nnkorpa ne 6maae1 epnnmH n uenLnmH.
oa1oHy on - 1pyc. epo - ero kpannn npo1naononoxnoc1L. Xpnc1oc npeoponen a
ce6e cnnLneuee o1pnuanne - eapec1ao - n 1eH caHmH cospan cnnLneuee
y1aepxpenne - xpnc1nanc1ao kak caHyk kpankk npo1naononoxnoc1L eapec1ay.
nonanenneH Xpnc1a ns eapec1aa ncuesae1 aosHoxnoc1L aennunn: nkpe, kak aHcon
n auya, caHmx neeapecknx nkpe a c1apoH spanne, eapec1ao yxe ne Horno c 1ex
nop nponsaec1n. Xpnc1nanc1ao n eapec1ao aceHnpno-nc1opnueckn o6ycnoannaak1
ppyr ppyra kak y1aepxpenne n o1pnuanne. pna aosHoxnoc1L - Xpnc1oc, ppyran
aosHoxnoc1L - eape. Xpnc1nanc1ao ec1L a6conk1noe o1pnuanne eapec1aa. nuero
ne1 nerue, kak 6m1L eapeeH, nnuero ne1 1pypnee, ueH 6m1L xpnc1nannnoH. apec1ao
ec1L 1a 6espna, nap ko1opo aosaepeno xpnc1nanc1ao, - ao1 noueHy eape n nanne1cn
caHmH cnnLnmH c1paxoH n caHmH rny6oknH o1apauenneH apnua. onpekn
eH6epneny
[62]
, y1aepxpakueHy, u1o Xpnc1oc 6mn ne eape, a apneu, ennnrep
pyHae1, u1o Xpnc1oc nHenno no1oHy ponxen 6mn 6m1L eapeeH, u1o6m npeopone1L a
e6e caHoe nnskoe coc1onnne uenoaeuecko npnpopm. "apec1ao, - roaopn1
ennnrep, - 6mno nnunmH nacnepc1aennmH rpexoH Xpnc1a; ro no6epa nap
eapec1aoH ec1L 1o, ueH n aosamcn1cn nap Byppo, onqyuneH n aceHn oc1anLnmHn.
Xpnc1oc - aennuaun uenoaek, n6o n cpasnncn c aennuaunH npo1nannkoH. Bm1L
Hoxe1, n epnnc1aennm eape, o1opoHy ypanocL opepxa1L no6epy nap eapec1aoH:
nepam eape 6mn n nocnepnnH, c1aaunH a nonnoH cHmcne a1oro cnoaa
xpnc1nannnoH. ornacno a1o Hmcnn, 6nnxaun ocnoaa1enL noao pennrnn ponxen
onn1L-1akn npo1n cnauana uepes eapec1ao, n6o ono nHenno ec1L 1o, u1o nkpn
ponxnm no6epn1L a ce6e n o1 uero o1peuLcn. Hmcn HeccnannsHa nHenno a a1oH.
"s6aan1enL eapec1aa - a1o ns6aan1enL o1 eapec1aa... yuec1aoaanne eapec1aa
He1aqnsnueckn ne nHee1 nnoro cHmcna, kpoHe opnoro: cnyxn1L nopnoxneH pnn
ocnoaa1enn pennrnn.
H nsanek nou1n ace cyuec1aennoe ns c1a1Ln ennnrepa. ecuac1nm aa1op,
sac1pennauncn, nanncaa cao o1sma, Hoxe1 6m1L, caH aen a1y c1paunyk 6opL6y a
ce6e, 1o ec1L, uyac1ayn a ce6e eapen, npeoponeaan ero. oxe1 6m1L, neycnex a
6opL6e, nocnnLno, no ero cnoaaH, 1onLko pnn Xpnc1a, n noaen k neuanLno pasanske.
1a1Lk ennnrepa o eapenx cnepye1 nonnHa1L kak npepcHep1nyk ncnoaepL,
kacakuykcn caHoro rny6okoro, caHoro 1anoro n nesaHonnHoro rpexa.
m, apnum, kako 6m c1pax n o1apauenne nn uyac1aoaann nepep napasn1nmH
nneHeneH, ace-1akn ne HoxeH any1penne nonn1L ero 1ak, kak Hoxe1 caH eape. ao1
a1o nonnHanne, amnecennoe napyxy, okasmaae1cn yxacnmH. no necpaanenno
ne6naronpnn1nee pnn eapec1aa, ueH ace, u1o pyHak1 o eapenx caHme kpanne
an1nceHn1m. apeckan neua1L aonn1 kak yxanennan kaxpm pas, korpa a
nesaancnHo pyccko neua1n paspak1cn npepoc1epexennn npo1na onacno pacm. ac
o6annnk1 a "uenoaekonenaanc1nnuec1ae, korpa Hm ocHennaaeHcn ckasa1L o eapenx
neHnoxko npaapm. o a eapee an1nceHn1m nenaanpn1 aoace ne uenoaeka, a nHenno
eapen, n nenaanpn1 nHenno sa 1o, u1o on cu u. onLko 1o
uenoaeueckoe, u1o ec1L a eapee, n nosaonne1 1epne1L ero, no nexaa1ka a1o
uenoaeunoc1n anyuae1 a amcue c1enenn cnpaaepnnam c1pax. ape, no ncnoaepn
caHnx eapeea apope ennnrepa, nenonnm uenoaeueckn 1nn, nepopasanauncn nnn
oc1anoanauncn a caoeH pasan1nn, c6nauncL a c1opony napasn1nsHa. o6nac1n
ampoxpennn n uenoaeuecknx pac ac1peuak1cn 1e xe nanennn, u1o a Hnpe xnao1nmx.
osLHn1e co6aky n rneny. oxe1 6m1L, no1oHy n cyuec1aye1 c nesanaHn1nmx apeHen
o1apauenne co6ak k pnknH npepc1aan1ennH caoe xe nopopm, u1o nepopasanauncn,
nnsun 1nn pec1an1enLno onacen pnn amcuero. oHnHo conepnnuec1aa sa po6muy
cHeuenne c nnsue paco ponne1 coaepuenc1ao amcue, pac1paunaae1 Hnoroaekoame
pparouennme npno6pe1ennn ee 1nna. ape onacen pnn apnua ne 1onLko 1eH, u1o a
kauec1ae napasn1a npncacmaae1cn k xnsnennmH nc1ounnkaH n am1nrnaae1 ero cokn.
paapa, opno yxe a1o yrpoxae1 xypocouneH n nc1ouenneH, no eue 1nroc1nee 1o, u1o,
axopn a apnckoe o6uec1ao, eape nece1 c co6o nnsuyk uenoaeunoc1L, ne anonne
uenoaeueckyk pyuy. ce 1o amcokoe, ueH roppn1cn xpnc1nanckan unannnsaunn, -
rennanLnoc1L, reponsH, pennrnosnoe apoxnoaenne, uec1L n coaec1L - ace a1o
nop1n1cn npnHecLk nnsunx eapecknx kauec1a, kak ecnn k poporoHy anny nopnn1L
peueaoro. apen qanLcnqnunpyk1 ne 1onLko 1oaapm n npopyk1m, onn
qanLcnqnunpyk1 caHoe o6uec1ao xpnc1nanckoe, noc1enenno saHennn ero
noppenLnmH. ennanLnoc1L nopHenne1cn uapna1anc1aoH, reponsH - npenHn
acenpouennn n paanonpaann, pennrnosnm aoc1opr - cken1nuecko ycHeueuko,
uec1L n coaec1L - 1onkoaannnHn cao6opm, ko1opan 6yp1o 6m paspeuae1 ace. axaa1na
acnepc1ane npec1ynno cna6oc1n xpnc1nancknx npaan1enLc1a nepanme uen1pm
o6uec1aa - neua1L, kaqeppy, cypeckyk 1pn6yny, cueny, eapen aepy1 unpouauyk
nponaranpy caoe nonnxenno uenoaeunoc1n n norpyxak1 apnckoe o6uec1ao a
onacnm rnnnos. cnn am cnpocn1e, kak a1o nkpn nnsue pacm Hory1 saxaa1n1L ace
uen1panLnme Hec1a cpepn amcue, n ne c1any ccmna1Lcn na Hmue nnn capanuy:
6eckoneuno nnsune, ueH capanua, oprannsHm nanann, nanpnHep, na e1ep6ypr, n ao1
kaxpm penL a 1euenne Hnornx Hecnuea aosn1 na knap6nue nokonnkoa.
oaepuenc1ao nneHenn, kak 1onkoc1L xypoxec1aennoro nponsaepennn, ne
o6ecneunaae1 xnsnn, a ckopee nao6opo1. auec1ane eapeea na xpnc1nanckn Hnp
nHenno no1oHy pae1 nH uancm na no6epy, u1o onn - nnsun 1nn, ko1opm amxnaae1
1aH, rpe 6onee amcokn cyuec1aoaa1L ne Hoxe1. o6aka - 6naropopnoe xnao1noe n
pec1an1enLno ppyr uenoaeka, no pa1e e "nonnonpaane a caoe kaap1npe - ona
poaonLno 6mc1po yponn1 aaun ycnoann xnsnn po caonx. aH npnpe1cn 6exa1L ns
kaap1npm a 1o apeHn, korpa "ppyr uenoaeka 6ype1 uyac1aoaa1L ce6n nepypno.
oce1e aHec1e c nuennue copnme 1paam. e nuennua sarnyun1 nx, a nao6opo1.
onpekn peun1enLno aceH napopaH na seHne, ko1opme ace nHek1 uep1y ocepnoc1n -
rocypapc1aennyk n a1norpaqnueckyk rpannuy, eapen opnn ne xo1n1 npnsnaaa1L uep1y
ocepnoc1n. nn opnn xo1n1 6esaos6panno koueaa1L no seHnoHy uapy, ne nHen
onpepenenno 1eppn1opnn. nn opnn, npnsnaaan ce6n c1poxaue ns
naunonanLnoc1e, npn1nsak1 na npaao xn1L cpepn ppyrnx nneHen n saxaa1maa1L nx
xnsnennme cpepc1aa. cnn 6m eue eapen 6mnn amcue paco, 1o Hoxno 6m
napen1Lcn, u1o onacnoc1L eapec1aa ncuesne1 aHec1e c pac1aopenneH nx a apnckoH
Hope. o 1ak kak a1o paca nnsuan (no yaepennk ne opnoro ennnrepa, a Hnornx
Hmcnn1ene), 1o xena1L eapeckoro pac1aopennn ne npnxopn1cn. anpo1na, caHoe
nckpennee n uec1noe cnnnnne eapeea c nnporepHanuaHn npepc1aanne1 c1pauneuyk
ns yrpos. Hec1e c napasn1no kpoaLk caoe eapen anecy1 paspyuenne a caHm 1nn
apnua, nonnsn1 1e ero 6naropopnme caoc1aa, ko1opmHn on aosamcnncn cpepn
napopoa. pnHecL eapecko kpoan yxe aena k rn6enn ne opnn napop. n1a eue
cyuec1aye1, Hnonnn - 6naropenc1aye1, a coapeHennnkn nx - aannon, epcnn,
rnne1 paano ncuesnn, 1o ec1L ncuesnn nHenno 1e c1panm, rpe eapen a nneny n ny1eH
aHnrpaunn xnnn aekaHn, pasHnoxancL po 1oro, u1o naaopnnn c1pax na uape. "apen
paccennnn sapasnnn co6o ace npoc1panc1ao nHcko nHnepnn. Xpnc1nane nepamx
aekoa 6mnn eapen - n nH nan. neppnauncL a cnannk a opnoH konue aponm n a
asapckoe uapc1ao - a ppyroH, eapen nopro1oannn napenne o6enx c1pan, kak
anocnepc1ann nopro1oannn napenne npnk1naue nx onLun. oryunH nnc1nnk1oH
caHocoxpanennn sanapnme napopm a cpepnne aeka c6pocnnn c ce6n eapeckoro
napasn1a. apen o1oackpy 6mnn nsrnanm. oxe1 6m1L, no1oHy 1onLko apona n
oxnna. nuL c nsrnanneH eapeea nauana cnara1Lcn naunonanLnan xnsnL n nopLeH
aneprnn.
Henno nac, occnk, Bor nakasan yuac1Lk npnnn1L a caoe 1eno 6onLunnc1ao
napasn1no pacm. oka Hm 6mnn cao6opnm o1 nee, occnn pocna n kpenna. cero
neckonLko pecn1nne1n "eapeckoro aonpoca - n nornnpn1e, kak nnnnn naue
cypL6m 6mc1po nouna knnsy! "Xnpm nory6n1 occnk, - roaopnn a c1paunoH
ncnoanpennn oc1oeackn. cnoaepL eapen o eapenx pae1 noaop pyccknH nkpnH
o1peun1Lcn xo1L na neckonLko Hnny1 o1 rn6enLnoro nerkoHmcnnn. y1 ec1L, rocnopa,
nap ueH nopyHa1L - n cepLesno!
BT T
15
pynna xypnannc1oa o6cyxpana na pnnx aonpoc, kak nou1n1L 50-ne1ne pen1enLnoc1n
opnoro snaHenn1oro ny6nnunc1a. m xnaeH a o1apa1n1enLnoe apeHn, korpa nnuero
ampyHa1L nenLsn, paxe nopoxa, nn o1kpm1L Hepnkn, xo1n 6m caHo HanenLko. ce
paano sa nac cpenano Hep1aeuaHn, n Hm pa6ckn noa1opneH xnsnL Hep1amx. 1o xe,
peunnn nopnec1n appec, yc1pon1L noue1nm cnek1aknL, 6anke1, kann1an "nHenn
1akoro-1o pnn ampaun npeHn sa ampakunecn nn1epa1ypnme nponsaepennn...
a nocnepneH nynk1e n pesko pasouencn c konneraHn. onyc1nH, u1o nou1ennm
k6nnnp - ne 1onLko ny6nnunc1, no eue 6enne1pnc1 n ppaHa1ypr, no naH,
xypnannc1aH, ne peson ampaaa1L npeHnk ero nHenn ppaHa1ypraH nnn 6enne1pnc1aH.
aua npeHnn ponxna ampaaa1Lcn u ny6nnunc1aH, ns naunnakunx 1anan1oa,
cpepn ko1opmx 1ak Hnoro 6epnnkoa. 1o, co6c1aenno, naH sa peno po 6enne1pnc1oa n
ppaHa1yproa? yc1L onn co6npak1, ecnn nH yropno, caon oco6me kann1anm n oco6me
npeHnn, ecnn xo1n1 nou1n1L NN kak c 1oaapnua. m xe a ero nnue uyac1ayeH n
uec1ayeH c co6pa1a, 1o ec1L ny6nnunc1a nx c. 1o xe naH ykpennn1L
naHn1L o NN cpepn nnca1ene coaceH ppyro o1pacnn nn1epa1ypnoro nckycc1aa, a ne
nauero? H coaepuenno yaepen, u1o, cnoxncL nnaue cypL6a, 1anan1a NN xaa1nno 6m,
u1o6m cpena1Lcn 6onLunH uenoaekoH a nk6o o6nac1n. Hec1e c nan6onee
ampakunHncn caepc1nnkaHn a caon 74 ropa NN Hor 6m 6m1L nsaec1neunH
renepanoH, snaHenn1mH Hnnnc1poH, poHannc1oH, yuenmH, ueH xo1n1e. oaepuenno
cornacen co asrnnpoH apnenn, u1o 1anan1nnam uenoaek 6onee nnn Henee cnoco6en
ko aceHy: on 1ak n nasmaae1 ero - Ableman. eko1opme peun anoneona, roaopn1
apnenL, rpeHenn, kak ayc1epnnukne nyukn. anan1 ero - o1aaxnoe, reponueckoe
cosnanne, n, kypa 6m ono nn 6mno nanpaaneno, ono - kak amc1pen ns panLno6onoro
opypnn - ao ace c1oponm xaa1ae1 paneko. au k6nnnp, sacnonnn caH ce6n n Heuan
caH ce6e caonHn pasnoo6pasnmHn cnoco6noc1nHn, cyHen pa1L neckonLko 1anan1nnamx
nLec, neckonLko pacckasoa n opnn poHan, nHeaun snaun1enLnm ycnex. o aepL
snaHenn1oc1L caok on npno6pen kak ny6nnunc1, n rnaanan ero pen1enLnoc1L,
6eccnopno, a1a, a ne kakan nnan. kako xe c1a1n naH, ny6nnunc1aH, anapa1L a
pannoH cnyuae a noxnyk ckpoHnoc1L n ne saHeua1L, u1o a1o "na naue ynnue
npaspnnk, a ne na uLe nno? kako c1a1n naH, rase1nmH nnca1ennH, coopyxa1L
naHn1nnk NN - n6o npeHnn ec1L nn1epa1ypnm naHn1nnk - kak pen1enk ne naue
npoqeccnn?
Benne1pnc1nka n ppaHa1yprnn cyuec1ayk1 neckonLko 1mcnu ne1. o ny6nnunc1nka
aosnnkna panee, ecnn nepamHn pen1ennHn a1o npoqeccnn cun1a1L npopokoa n
1pn6ynoa napopnmx. pa1opckne nx peun, sanncannme na ckpnxannx n nannpycax,
ppeanee 1parepn n roHepoacknx anone. ue ppeanee saaeuannn npepkoa,
nonoxnaune nauano uenoaeueckoHy sakonopa1enLc1ay n unannnsaunn. aepL
c1apnnnme saaeuannn - unc1euan ny6nnunc1nka. ennrnosnme "o1kpoaennn cpepn
rpoHoa, na aepunnax nnHna, nnan n papa1a no c1nnk n qopHe unc1an
ny6nnunc1nka, kak n 1a npenec1nan pnpak1nka, ko1opok nanonnenm 6ecuncnennme
6yppnckne cynm, ns popa a pop sayunaaeHme uenoncknHn HonaxaHn. ecHo1pn na
caoe nepaenc1ao a nc1opnn nn1epa1ypm, ny6nnunc1nka a 1euenne ponrnx 1mcnuene1n
yc1ynana Hec1o noasnn n cuene, no k1o xo1L neHnoxko snakoHnncn c ppeane noasne
n cueno, snae1, po kako c1enenn onn 6mnn ny6nnunc1nunm. ononor coc1aanne1
ykpauenne aennknx ppaH - o1 Dcxnna po ekcnnpa. mknnL1e pyuy ny6nnunc1nkn -
paccyxpenne, - Hnoro nn oc1ane1cn o1 an1e nnn Bapona? oo6ue, amknnL1e ns
cnoaa HmcnL - u1o oc1ane1cn o1 cnoaecnoc1n? eH ne Henee ny6nnunc1nka kak
1akoaan nou1n ne npnsnaaanacL cnoaecnoc1Lk n po cnx nop Hnorne ee ne aknkuak1 a
nn1epa1ypy. o cpaann1enLno nepaanero apeHenn "nn1epm o6mknoaenno co6npanncL
a o6LeHnc1mx knnrax, n yxe a1o aneunee ycnoane - nHe1L peno c counnenneH -
nanarano o1neua1ok counnennoc1n na xnayk uenoaeueckyk HmcnL. nnra cospana
knnxnoc1L. D1o oco6oe yHc1aennoe coc1onnne, popc1aennoe, kak nsaec1no, c
qapncec1aoH n nnueHepneH. "ope aaH, knnxnnkn! - ckasan Xpnc1oc; ckasan ecnn
ne caHnH nn1epa1opaH, 1o nkpnH, cnnukoH norpyxennmH a nn1epa1ypy. ce
pecn1nc1one1nee cpepneaekoaLe naxopnnocL nop rne1oH knnxnoc1n. 1o 1akoe
cxonac1nka, kak ne npononoknonc1ao nepep knnro? xo1n 6m a uncne nponoa 6mn
1ako renn, kak pnc1o1enL, no HmcnL uenoaeueckan, cmc xo1n 6m a
rennanLnoH ampaxennn, 1epne1 neu1o caHoe pparouennoe, 1o caHoe, u1o o1nnuae1
pyueek o1 nepnno rnm6m, - 1ekyuec1L. Henno a 1ekyuec1n, a panxennn acn
npenec1L xnsnn n xnao Hmcnn. onLko noao nc1opnn npnnapnexn1 uec1L cospannn
xnao, 1ekyue nn1epa1ypm... ponxen nn n pockasa1L ee nHn?
scu nHee1, koneuno, caon yxacnme nepoc1a1kn, kak n xcu. H xouy specL
o1He1n1L, u1o rase1noc1L nHee1, nopo6no knnxnoc1n, caon 6naropopnme
npenHyuec1aa, caon npenHyuec1aa nap knnro. D1n npenHyuec1aa ne aceH npnHe1nm.
noxec1ao ynopnmx un1a1ene rase1, apope . . onc1oro, ynopno 6pann1 rase1m,
pak1 paxe knn1ay ne un1a1L rase1 n noc1onnno napyuak1 a1y knn1ay. nepye1
saHe1n1L, u1o 1eH xe, kak n rase1m, nopnuannnH nopaepranncL ao apeHena onm n
knnrn. BonLuan uac1L uenoaeuecko nncLHennoc1n sacnyxnaae1 o1apauennn.
ncannme 1onno, rase1m n knnrn o6mknoaenno necy1 a ce6e y1oHn1enLnm uyH
1onnm, rpe unenopaspenLnan, 1o ec1L kpnc1annnsoaannan, peuL kak 6m cnoaa
nepeHanmaae1cn a 6ecqopHennyk c1nxnk. axe aennkne knnrn nopaepranncL
rnyHnennk. axe noasnn, nsmk 6oroa!
aueH 1ak sayuno on noe1?
anpacno yxo nopaxan,
kako on uenn nac aepe1?
ueH 6penun1? eHy nac yun1?
aueH ceppua aonnye1, Hyun1,
ak caoenpaanm uapope?
ak ae1ep necnL ero cao6opna,
a1o kak ae1ep n 6ecnnopna:
akan nonLsa naH o1 ne?
oHnn1e rneanoe neropoaanne nyuknnckoro oa1a? 1ano 6m1L, ne opnnH
xypnannc1aH npnxopn1cn a o1ae1 na ronoc ceppua cnmua1L nopnuanne uepnn.
npoueH, k ny6nnunc1aH 1onna 6nnxe n no1oHy aennkopyunee, ueH k noasnn:
m HoxeuL, 6nnxnero nk6n,
aaa1L naH cHenme ypokn,
Hm nocnyuaeH 1e6n.
oa1oa Hano cnyuak1 - n aenuak1 cnaao, ny6nnunc1oa nopyrnaak1, no yceppno
un1ak1. ase1m un1ak1 npenHyuec1aenno nepep knnraHn, ouennaan cnapoc1L xnao,
ceuac poxpakuecn Hmcnn, 6Lkue kak 6m ns nepp caHoro o6uec1aa. yc1L 1e xe
npen 6mnn ampaxenm 1mcnuene1nn nasap c ropaspo 6onLunH 6neckoH, no, nopo6no
HnnepanLno aope, HmcnL acero uene6nee y ee nc1ounnka, naanek1pnsoaannan
seHne. y6nnunc1nka nHenno 1eH popora ny6nnke, u1o ona - xnao ee co6c1aennm
ronoc, ampaxennm nn1epa1ypno. D1o kak 6m pyua ny6nnkn, nonoxennan na
nn1epa1ypy, kak c1nxn knapy1 na Hysmky. "eyxenn ckyunan rase1nan 1pyxa -
nn1epa1ypa? - aocknnkne1 un1a1enL, aocnn1annm na "o6pasuax. e1, o1aeuy n,
ckyunan 1pyxa, koneuno, ne ec1L nn1epa1ypa. o aepL peuL npe1 ne o ckyuno 1pyxe.
ny6nnunc1nke k nckycc1ay o1nocn1cn nnuL 1o, u1o nHee1 neua1L 1anan1a. asae ne1
6espapnmx 6enne1pnc1oa, ppaHa1yproa, Hysmkan1oa, xnaonncuea? osaonL1e xe 6m1L
6espapnmHn n neko1opmH ny6nnunc1aH, paxe 6onLunnc1ay nx. akoaa aonn npnpopm:
xopouenLkoro noneHnoxky. Bespapnan ny6nnunc1nka, noa1opnk, ne ec1L nn1epa1ypa,
no a naue npoqeccnn Hm nHeeH caonx aennknx nkpe. c1L o1Heuennme opeonoH ne
1onLko 1anan1a, no n 6eccnopno rennanLnoc1n. Ykaxy na nyuune pnanorn na1ona.
x cun1ak1 qnnocoqne, no, a cyunoc1n, a1o rennanLnan ny6nnunc1nka. o xe -
necpaanennme "ncLHa k yunnnk enekn. nn nncanm ne pnn rase1, no, Hoxe1
6m1L, no epnnc1aenno npnunne, u1o 1orpa rase1 ne 6mno. snaHenn1me "nm1m
on1enn
[63]
- knnra, ko1opyk Bapon cun1an caonH nyuunH u1enneH! asae a1o ne
rennanLnan ny6nnunc1nka, necHo1pn na upesHepnyk sacopennoc1L knaccnuecknHn
un1a1aHn? "Xapak1epm a6pkepa
[64]
? "epcnpckne nncLHa on1eckLe? naue
apeHn ypnan1enLnm an, c 1aknH rny6oknH npospenneH packpmaun cHmcn XVIII
aeka, - pasae on ne 6onee ny6nnunc1, ueH nc1opnk? nn ene n nau ekpacoa ne
6onee qenLe1onnc1m, ueH noa1m? 1o kacae1cn occnn, ona nHee1 caok aennkyk
ukony ny6nnunc1nkn. oc1a1ouno nasaa1L Bennnckoro n epuena, c opno c1oponm, n
c1apmx cnaannoqnnoa - c ppyro. H neckonLko o1pnua1enLno o1nouycL k
nnrnnnc1nuecko nnenpe 1860-x ropoa, no neko1opme (neHnorne) c1a1Ln o6ponk6oaa
n oco6enno 6nnc1a1enLnm ncapea, necHo1pn na knoueckn 6pep nx Hmcnn, - pasae
onn ne oc1aannn knaccnuecknx a caoeH pope o6pasuoa pyccko peun?
p1c1m cnoaa
epo ny6nnunc1a 1mcnuy pas cpaannaann c pmuapcknH HeuoH, c noxoH pas6onnka, co
ckanLneneH xnpypra n c 1oHy nopo6nmHn oc1pmHn n konknHn opypnnHn. epo
6enne1pnc1a cpaannaak1 nnorpa c knc1Lk xnaonncua, 1o ec1L c npepHe1oH HnrknH. H
cpaannn 6m nepo 1anan1nnaoro nnca1enn c konLeH xnnneca, o6napaaunH aonue6nmH
kauec1aoH - ncuenn1L 1e panm, kakne ono nanocnno. ce a1n n Hnorne ppyrne
cpaanennn noppasyHeaak1 cnny opnoapeHenno ry6n1enLnyk n po6pyk. y6nnunc1
1akoro pasHepa, kakoa, nanpnHep, nau yaaxaeHm k6nnnp, - 6onLuan aennunna a
coapeHennoH o6uec1ae. nnn1enLnan rase1a - coapeHennm qopyH, n na neH, kak
nekorpa, sayun1 no6expakun ronoc opa1opa n 1pn6yna. cnoHnn1e, kakyk anac1L
nHenn ppeanne pnk1a1opm Hnenn. eno a 1oH, u1o 1onna no na1ype caoe acerpa
6esrnacna. rpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao nkpe kocnonsmuno n kocnoHmcnenno. yac1ayk1
nnorpa Hnoro n ropnuo, a ampasn1L nnkak ne Hory1. 1neua1ok nx Hmcnn na 6yHare
amxopn1 neysnaaaeHo 6nepnm n nckaxennm. o ao1 nanne1cn ap1nc1 cnoaa, ko1opm
a1o xe caHo 1onne pacckaxe1 ee co6c1aennme Heu1m n uyac1aa... onna npnxopn1 a
aoc1opr, ona ouyuae1 nensLncnnHyk 6naropapnoc1L aonue6nnky, ko1opm 1ouno
acnpmcnyn ee xnao aopo, nosaonnn nepexn1L 1o, u1o 6es ero noHoun 6mno
neaosHoxno. ckycc1ao aoo6ue ec1L npoponxenne uenoaeuecko pyun, ee
ycoaepuenc1aoaannm opran. nasaHn aennkoro xnaonncua Hm saHeuaeH 1o, u1o a
coc1onnnn saHe1n1L 1onLko aennkan pyua. nyxoH opapennoro Hysmkan1a Hm cnmunH
a caoe pyue kak 6m nespeunne saykn. poxnoaenneH n akycoH ny6nnunc1a - ecnn
on ap1nc1 cnoaa - 1onna noc1nrae1 cHmcn apeHenn, kako caHoHy un1a1enk ne acerpa
noc1nxnH n ncen.
y6nnunc1, ecnn on 1anan1nna, na npo1nxennn nonyaeka coaepuae1 orpoHnyk n
6narope1enLnyk pa6o1y. n 6ypn1, aos6yxpae1, apoxnoanne1, 1opHoun1, on ne pae1
cna1L o6uec1ay, on nopnnHae1 xnsnennm 1on. o acnko ceHLe, ao acnkoH kpyxke
ec1L nkpn, ko1opmx soay1 pyuok o6uec1aa. pno nonanenne nx 1ouno pasronne1
cyHepkn n npn6aanne1 a koHna1e kncnopopy. ce penak1cn xnaee n aecenee. aknH
nanne1cn 1anan1nnam ny6nnunc1. ak epkypn na nnHne, on nn a Haneue
c1enenn ne nepan1, ne pok1pnnep, ne pesonep - on npoc1o 1anan1nnam pasroaopunk,
uenoaek, yHekun 6m1L yHnmH n nn1epecnmH. oace ne1 nyxpm, u1o6m on 6mn uy1,
- uy1oac1ao napoepae1 n nopnpounmx nkpe a nau aek o11anknaae1. o 6onLuo
ny6nnunc1 ponxen 6m1L opnrnnanen n oc1poyHen. n ponxen npeaocxopn1L ny6nnky
nonnHanneH n akycoH, on nenpeHenno ponxen 6m1L noa1oH n qnnocoqoH, n6o uero xe
c1on1 pyua, uero c1on1 xnsnL 6es qnnocoqnn n noasnn?
Bor nx snae1, kypa peaanncL Hysm a nau qa6pnunm aek. nn nonpn1anncL no
HysenH, 6n6nno1ekaH, xypoxec1aennmH n nayunmH cknapaH. y6nnunc1nka - c
Ms n epnnc1aennan, ko1opan ne npnue1cn. na kaxpoe y1po axopn1 k naH sanpoc1o,
nLe1 c aaHn koqe n 6ecepye1 oxnanenno o 1oH, u1o penae1cn na cae1e. enera1ka
caonx c1apunx cec1ep, ona ponxna roaopn1L nsmkoH 6oroa, 1o ec1L npeaocxopnmH
nsmkoH napopa, noka on ne ncnopuen knnxnoc1Lk. enera1ka nckycc1a n snann,
ny6nnunc1nka ne Hoxe1 6m1L uyxpa nH: kak na Hnapue cec1pe, 1y1 nnorpa nape1m
nyuune pparouennoc1n c1apunx. caHoH pene, pasae nmneune ny6nnke, pa6oue n
y1oHnenno, ec1L apeHn kona1Lcn a yuenmx nnn xypoxec1aennmx nc1ounnkax? ecnn
6m naunocL apeHn, 1o pasae y acnkoro o6maa1enn ec1L yua Hysm - 1anan1, u1o6m
yanpe1L 1o, u1o sacnyxnaae1 uec1n 6m1L YcHo1pennmH? anan1nname co6pa1Ln
ny6nnunc1a - yuenme n xypoxnnkn - co6npak1 pasyH caonx nosnann, no, noxany,
1onLko ny6nnunc1y poc1ynno caec1n nx pasnoo6pasnme o1kpoaennn a o6uenonn1nm
cnn1es. po6nenne snann paano pas6nno 6m o6uec1ao a xaoc, ecnn 6m ne
o6Lepnnnkuan, cnn1e1nueckan pa6o1a ny6nnunc1oa. ce cneunanLnoc1n
uen1po6exnm, ny6nnunc1nka, nopo6no qnnocoqnn, uen1poc1peHn1enLna. a anape
ckyuno-penoaan ny6nnunc1nka nepepoxpae1cn a cepLesnm qenLe1on, n 1ako
qenLe1on npnuncnne1cn 1aH k o1peny nsnuno cnoaecnoc1n. pou1n1e HanenLkne
pykoaopnune c1a1Ln qpanuyscknx rase1 - nnorpa a1o o6pasunkn o1Henno nsnuno
peun. pou1n1e anrnnckne koppecnonpenunn r-na nnnona. D1o ne 1onLko
6nec1nun, no npnHo xypoxec1aennm 1anan1. epnan saanc1L ne nosaonne1 Hne
nasaa1L neko1opmx pyccknx ny6nnunc1oa, nsaec1nmx n ne nsaec1nmx un1a1ennH
"oaoro apeHenn. expy nnHn ec1L nac1onune c1nnnc1m n ap1nc1m cnoaa.
o1 snaHenn1m c1apeu, ko1oporo Hm co6npaeHcn poaonLno neyknkxe uec1aoaa1L,
okasan orpoHnme ycnyrn pyccko ny6nnunc1nke. ponn1L Hope uepnnn, koneuno, ne
Bor aec1L kako nopanr, no ecnn a kaxpyk kannk uepnnn ne sa6m1L anoxn1L
neHnoxko ropnue kpoan n nepano, 6Lkue ns 6ora1oro Hosra cnnm - 1o Hope
uepnnn o6pauae1cn a nekoe nenpepmanoe opouenne popnnm ueH-1o xnsnennmH n
xnao1aopnmH, apope nnnLckoro naaopnennn. a nn1Lpecn1 ne1 npko n opyueanenno
pa6o1m a cosnanne pycckoro o6uec1aa co c1oponm c1apua aneceno c1onLko ncnoc1n,
c1onLko po6po1m, yHa n kHopa, c1onLko xopounx, aos6ypn1enLnmx aonnenn, u1o Hm,
6nnxaune 1oaapnun ero, HoxeH c roppoc1Lk ckasa1L: pa, on koe-u1o cpenan, nau
c1apnk. 1euec1ao Hoxe1 6m1L 6naropapnmH nnn ne6naropapnmH (a1o aonpoc ero
kynL1ypnoro pasan1nn), no Hm, nnca1enn 1oro xe npnsaannn, ne HoxeH ne anpe1L
6onLuoro 1anan1a n ne ouenn1L ero. n1Lpecn1 ne1 c1onL npko pa6o1m - a pyccko
ny6nnunc1nke a1o coaceH pepkoc1L.
osapauakcL k 1eHe. o6epeH kann1an, yc1ponH npeHnk - npekpacno. o kako xe
cHmcn naH yc1yna1L a1y npeHnk pnn nooupennn ppyroro nckycc1aa, a ne nauero
co6c1aennoro? ak HecLe Xyppen, Hm, kaxe1cn, ne porapmaaeHcn, u1o Hm caHn
roaopnH nsnuno nposo, u1o Hm caHn - nnca1enn, u1o naua o1pacnL nn1epa1ypm
caHa nyxpae1cn a 1ua1enLno ukone n ao aceaosHoxnmx copec1annx 1anan1y. e1
c1o-paec1n 1oHy nasap o6uec1ao Horno sannHa1Lcn ncknkun1enLno HappnranaHn pa
6ykonnuecknHn poHanaHn. enepL, a XX aeke, ne 1o o6uec1ao n ne 1a nyxna e
nn1epa1ypa. Xypo a1o nnn xopouo, no 1enepL acero nyxnee xopouan ny6nnunc1nka, n
ynapok nn opnoro nckycc1aa ne o1pasnncn 6m c1onL rn6enLno na pasan1nn
coapeHennoro o6uec1aa, kak ynapok neua1n. cnny a1oro aceHn HepaHn k
ny6nnunc1nke nyxno npnaneka1L 1anan1m, 1o ec1L o6nerua1L nH poc1yn a neua1L. ne
n1on exoa roaopnn: "onLko HaHe Hm o6nsanm, u1o amunn a nkpn. cnn 6m ne
HaHa, Hm ne nonann 6m a rnHnasnk n 6mnn 6m npnkasunkaHn a na6ase. apyHa1ecL
nap a1nHn cnoaaHn. konLko n1onoa exoamx nposn6ae1 no 6ecuncnennmH napnH n
naaoukaH o6unpno ycn! konLko n anpepL 6ype1 no1epnno aennknx xypoxnnkoa, a
1oH uncne n ny6nnunc1oa, ecnn coaceH ne cnycka1Lcn a nnsm napopnme n coaceH ne
noHora1L amkapa6knaa1Lcn o11ypa 1anan1aH. o cnx nop, n yaepen, no rnyxnH yrnaH
npoannunn, a HanenLknx, ene pmuaunx na napan rase1kax 1oHn1cn 6esaec1nme, no
kpynnme 1anan1m, HanosaHe1nme, no ko1opme Hornn 6m npn neko1opo kynL1ype
nmuno pacnyc1n1Lcn. axonyc1nme rocnopa nn1epa1opm, oco6enno naunnakune, aepy1
aecLHa npnckop6noe cyuec1aoaanne. enmHn ropaHn, uenmHn pecn1nne1nnHn onn
cnpn1 na koneeuno, payxkoneeuno noc1pouno nna1e. pnn xypnannc1 nepaano
nncan Hne, u1o cnpaannn 25-ne1nn k6nne n 6mn pap, u1o 1oaapnun nopnecnn eHy...
cepe6pnnme uacm.
o nnue1a ec1L ne caHoe 1nxenoe ycnoane. ue 1ounee ns ropa a rop, uenmHn
pecn1nne1nnHn, ack xnsnL uyac1aoaa1L ce6n a nanax r-na pepak1opa-nspa1enn -
o6mknoaenno ns eapeea nnn apHnn, ns ko1opmx Hnorne opnoapeHenno c rase1o
copepxa1 n ppyrne saaepennn, kakoam 6ann, 1pak1npm, ny6nnunme poHa. enoaeky c
pyuo n 1anan1oH ocnsa1L caoe exepneanoe pa6c1ao ns-sa kycka xne6a y
"rny6okoyaaxaeHoro onoHona ukoanua, ocnsa1L kanpnsnm nponsaon ne 1onLko
caHoro xnpa, no ero xnpoakn n xnpenn1, cornacn1ecL, nenerko. o ec1L eue kpyr apa,
korpa 1o1 xe "rny6okoyaaxaeHm naunnae1 anyua1L aaH caon pnpek1nam, caon 1eHm,
caon 1oukn spennn na Hec1nyk nonn1nky n Hec1nmx pen1ene. Xo1n1e - o6epa1e
saa1pa, xo1n1e - ne1, Hm xnaeH a cao6opnoH rocypapc1ae, n nnk1o, u1o kacae1cn
nnun, ne neaonn1 rpaxpannna. o am o6nsanm - nonnHae1e, o6nsanm, noka am
pa6o1ae1e a c1enax nou1enno pepakunn onoHona ukoanua, cnyxn1L ero
6naropopnoHy nanpaanennk, "opo6pneHoHy aceHn cosna1enLnmHn aneHen1aHn. o1
1y1 naunnae1cn onepaunn apope 1o, korpa neua1 o1 cyxo1kn. anan1 nckpenen n
opnrnnanen, a 1y1 ero am1nrnaak1 nnn cokpauak1, y1kxa1, pasHnnak1 eHy ckene1,
noHak1 koc1n. "o aceHy-1o nopneu-uenoaek npnamkae1! - roaopn1 apHenapoa,
roaopn1 npo pycckoro uenoaeka, pn6noro n cna6oro, npoc1opyune ko1oporo c1onL
uac1o rpannun1 co cannc1aoH. uenL Hnorne pycckne xypnannc1m (n ne 1onLko
npoannunanLnme) ns c1paxa ronopno aronnn, ns neaosHoxnoc1n am6n1Lcn ns ne1nn
nokopno cnyxa1 eapeckoHy nanpaanennk. poknnnak1 xnpoa n aocxaannk1 nx.
kpexeuy1 a1nxoHonky sy6aHn - a ny6nnuno aHec1e c eapenHn nnkk1 na popnny.
"1o pena1L, u1o pena1L...
H ne pyHak, u1o6m renn Hor npopepxa1Lcn xo1L opnn penL a nneny eapeckoH: y
rennn na kpann cnyua ec1L nepypno amxop - cHep1L. o npoc1o 1anan1nnaoHy
uenoaeky, oco6enno naunnakueHy, 1pypnee amcao6opn1Lcn. norpa npn kpynnoH
1anan1e pycckne nkpn o6napak1 ypnan1enLno nnu1oxno aone, a u1o xe 1akoe
1anan1 6es xapak1epa? D1o n1nua 6es kpmnLea. npn1 necuac1nm xypnannc1 a
1pncnne, sac1enunam n osno6nennm, xopouo cosnae1 yxac caoero nonoxennn, no
aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m, kak penae1 anrnnuannn a nopo6nmx cnyuanx, aeceno npnnopnn1L
unnny r-ny eapek n no1n ncka1L cuac1Ln, nau pycckn 1anan1 cnpn1 n kncne1, n
acero uaue nLe1 ropLkyk. 6espapnoc1nx n ne roaopk, onn paxe ne c1on1 pasroaopa
- no 1anan1aH, Hne kaxe1cn, nyxno 6m noHora1L, n noHora1L aoapeHn. c1L
papoan1me na1ypm kak 6yp1o a napannue: nx nyxno 1aun1L na apkane na nx
napnexauee Hec1o, n, pas onn nocaxenm na nero, onn appyr pasaep1maak1cn, kak
pac1enne, nocaxennoe a nopxopnuyk nouay. pn kapeHnn nayk ponxna 6m
cyuec1aoaa1L koHnccnn ns nkpe, nonnHakunx ny6nnunc1nueckn 1anan1 n
ouennaakunx ero no sapa1kaH. cnn 6m a 1akyk koHnccnk naunnakune xypnannc1m
Hornn nocmna1L o6pasum caonx pa6o1 n ecnn 6m nannyuune o6pasum yaenunaanncL
npeHne - a1o Horno 6m ampanny1L neHano papoaann. D1o, noxany, Horno 6m
cnac1n koe-koro a Hnny1y, Hoxe1 6m1L, cHep1noro o1uannnn. ak aceH nsaec1no,
6onLune pepakunn ne 1onLko saaanenm, no npnHo sapaanenm Ha1epnanoH - opnako
ace onn nyxpak1cn a caexnx 1anan1ax. cka1L n o1kpmaa1L nx - peno nenerkoe.
kapeHnn nayk nocnyxnna 6m npocaeuennk pycckoro o6uec1aa, sannauncL, Hexpy
npounH, a1o aaxno pa6o1o, a ny6nnunc1nueckan npeHnn nannacL 6m npekpacnmH
cpepc1aoH pnn 1oro. ne kaxe1cn, cansa1L nHn snaHenn1oro pycckoro ny6nnunc1a c
1ako sapaue snaunno 6m npoponxn1L ero ponL a nc1opnn neua1n. Henno a1oHy
c1apoHy ny6nnunc1y npnxopnnocL ne 1onLko caHoHy nponann1L 1anan1, no n
o1mcknaa1L 1anan1m.

28
1o 6mn oronL kak rpaxpannn? ako nonn1nuecko aepm? akoro Hnpocosepuannn?
anoHnn1L o6 a1oH nennune aanpy narnmx nonm1ok ncnonLsoaa1L nHn aennkoro
na1pno1a c uennHn xnpoacko-kape1cko qponpm. opxec1ao o1kpm1nn acepoccnckoro
naHn1nnka oronk ne o6ounocL 6es rnyneunx amc1ynnenn Hockoacknx nonn1nkanoa
- r-na ypoHueaa
[65]
, knnsn . py6eukoro
[66]
n ppyrnx, c1apaaunxcn ns acex cnn
nn1epa1ypnm npaspnnk npeapa1n1L a Hn1nnroayk peHonc1paunk. oo6ue, nc1opnn
naHn1nnka oronk nk6onm1na. na nokasmaae1, po kako c1enenn sa a1n 1pnpua1L ne1
ocao6opn1enLnoro panxennn Hm kynL1ypno nopannynncL s.
paann1e auepaunn penL c naHn1nmH pneH o1kpm1nn HonyHen1a yuknna a 1880
ropy. ackonLko amue 1orpa 6mn o6uec1aennm akyc n 1ak1! orpa nonnHann, u1o
acepoccncko, Hoxno ckasa1L, aceHnpno cnaae yuknna nenLsn c1aan1L
nnoxonLkoro naHn1nnka rpe-1o na sapaopkax c1onnum. orpa am6pann opno ns nyuunx
Hec1 ockam n noc1aannn ne 1akoe c1paunnnue, u1o poaenocL npnpyHa1L ckynLn1opy
c1nnn Hopepn. H eue ne anpan kypLesnoro nponsaepennn r-na nppeeaa a na1ype, no
na acex pncynkax n ao acex pakypcax oronL na HockoackoH naHn1nnke nanoHnnae1
naxoxnnauykcn aopony. ouno y aennkoro kHopnc1a ne 6mno nn opnoro cae1noro
nac1poennn a xnsnn! ouno apoxnoaennm aa1op "apaca BynL6m nnkorpa ne
nopnnHan uena caoero k ne6y. oueHy-1o (aepon1nee acero, no rnynoc1n, oponeaue
snaun1enLnme kpyrn naue nn1ennnrenunn) naunx nnca1ene na naHn1nnkax
nso6paxak1 nensHenno ckop6nmHn, crop6nennmHn, 1ouno a1o 6mnn pe1n 6eccnaanoro
napopua, ko1opmH c1mpno rnnpe1L na cae1 Boxn. oxe1 6m1L, 1akan nosa n 6mna 6m
npnnnuna pnn 1enepeunnx ampoxpenuea a nn1epa1ype, no yuknn, oronL,
epHon1oa, pn6oepoa, yprenea, oc1oeackn - a1o 6mnn 6ora1mpn pycckoro pyxa n
npepc1aan1enn 6ora1mpcko nonocm naue nc1opnn. nnue nx amc1ynnno
apoxnoaenne naue pacm, ee o1aara - n6o a o6nac1n pyxoanoro 1aopuec1aa nyxen 1o1
xe reponsH, u1o n na none 6pann. npaunaae1cn, uero xe papn rennanLnmH naunH
nkpnH npnpaaa1L a 6ponse kakne-1o 6onLnnunme, yppyuennme nosm, nso6paxa1L nx a
anpe kaknx-1o ynapounmx rocnop epexkoacknx, y ko1opmx "ronoaka ancne1?
Bespapnm naHn1nnk, sanecennm kypa-1o na p6a1, o1kpm1 6mn a o6c1anoake,
pncykue c1paunm ynapok kynL1ypm naue. uepeHonnnx pnn 1onLko 1o okasanocL
1opxec1aennmH n anyun1enLnmH, u1o cansano co c1apmH pyccknH 6m1oH. nyun1enen
6mn xpaH nacn1enn, pnaen neaueckn xop, 6naronennm apxnepeckoe 6orocnyxenne,
Hone6en, nannxnpa aeuepoH. a1oH - n 1onLko a a1oH - nnoc1pannme roc1n Hornn
nopHe1n1L neu1o cnnLnoe n caHo6m1noe a pyccko xnsnn. ao6opo1, ace 1o, u1o 6mno
yc1poeno nn6epanLno nn1ennnrenune, nocnno neua1L "konoccanLnoro kaaappaka,
no ampaxennk koppecnonpen1oa. e cyHenn yc1pon1L c1onL aneHen1apno npoc1o
aeun, kak 1pn6ynm pnn ny6nnkn. e naunocL yuenoc1n, u1o6m paccun1a1L rpys,
ko1opm a coc1onnnn ampepxa1L nopHoc1kn. ce cHeuanocL a kauy, ny6nnka
o11ecnnna o1 naHn1nnka peny1aunn n noue1nmx roc1e, n aoo6ue uy1L 6mno ne amuna
a1opan Xopmnka.
epes c1o ne1 nocne poxpennn oronn a ockae ne naunocL nn1epa1ypnmx cnn, u1o6m
coc1aan1L ckonLko-nn6ypL npnnnunme peun pnn npepc1aan1ene 1aknx yupexpenn,
kak koHn1e1 no noc1poke, ropopckan yHa, 6uec1ao nk6n1ene poccncko
cnoaecnoc1n. 1o-1o xankoe nponene1an r-n Bpnnckn, ncnonnnkun ponxnoc1L
ronoam; eue 6onee xankoe, paxe po c1pannoc1n, ckasan nek1o r-n pysnnckn,
ncnonnnkun ponxnoc1L npepcepa1enn 6uec1aa nk6n1ene poccncko
cnoaecnoc1n. n poroaopnncn, nanpnHep, po 1ako qpasm: "o6epn1enL oronL aonsn1
a naue ceppue 6naro1aopnoe xano caoe no6epm... naaa oronk-no6epn1enk! 1o
osnauae1 a1a uenyxa - noc1nuL 1pypno. e 1onLko pnn peue - paxe pnn napnnce na
aenkax y r-p neamx ne naunocL 1anan1a. "ennkoHy peansopy pyun, aeunoHy cae1ouy
npaapm, "ennko naHn1n counena (!), "pary ukonLno py1nnm, "nca1enk,
pepsnyaueHy amsaa1L napyxy ace, u1o exeHnny1no nepep ouaHn n uero ne spn1
paanopyuno oun, "aceunnky ypoHy anLko n 1.n. ocnopn, kaknH a1o o1pae1
npoannunanLnmH 6esakycneH! Ykpannckoe seHnnuec1ao, anpn1e nn, cepLesno
aoo6paxae1, u1o "ypm anLko u1o-1o snaun1. o naceunnkoa na Ykpanne, kak n ao
aceH cae1e, pmxnx n ne pmxnx, ckonLko yropno, n oc1anLcn oronL na ypoane
pepeaenckoro kpacno6ac1aa - apnp nn na nero asrnnnynn 6m occnn n aecL cae1. ak
nn ypnan1enLno, nannyuune napnncn na aenkax okasanncL nnoc1pannmHn. "ennkoHy
cmny aennkoro napopa - a1o porapanacL ckasa1L apHnnckan auHnapsnnckan
akapeHnn. ornacn1ecL, u1o a1o ckasano nokpynnee, ueH "naceunnky ypoHy anLko.
akapeHnuecko uac1n 1opxec1aa nnoc1panum nopaannnn pyccknx nsaec1nmHn
nHenaHn. ue 1pnpua1L ne1 nasap y nopnoxnn naHn1nnka yuknny Hornn co1ncL
ncnonnnm pyccko nn1epa1ypm - oc1oeackn, yprenea, nceHckn, pnropoanu,
c1poackn, a1koa, kcakoa. Y nopnoxnn naHn1nnka oronk qnrypnpoaann
"nnca1enn pysnnckne pa py6eukne...
oapeHennme nnca1enn, koneuno, ne annoaa1m a kpane nesnaun1enLnoc1n caoe: ne
pan Bor 1anan1a - na ne1 n cypa ne1. o ao1 u1o cnepye1 noc1aan1L a cepLesnyk anny
nmneunnH HanenLknH kopnqenH: saueH onn npnpaannaak1 ce6n k oronk n oronn k
ce6e? D1o, kak xo1n1e, nn1epa1ypnoe kouync1ao. Bypyun ne nnca1ennHn aoace, a acero
nnuL xanknHn c1poun1ennHn n nonn1nkanaHn, k ueHy r-pa pysnnckne, ypoHueam,
py6eukne nm1ak1cn nannnn1L na aennkoro nnca1enn caon HanenLkne papnkanLnme
Hynpnpunkn? ueHy qanLcnqnunpyk1 ero nonn1nueckoe Hnpocosepuanne? aueH nry1
na nero kak na Hep1aoro? epL oronL xna, kak ace aennkne nkpn. ro ronoc po cnx
nop Horyu n nonnoaecen, kak 60 ne1 1oHy nasap. ak xe a1o nek1o r-n pysnnckn o1
nHenn 6uec1aa nk6n1ene poccncko cnoaecnoc1n peunncn ckasa1L 1akyk
nenenoc1L, 6yp1o coapeHennoe oronk o6pasoaannoe pycckoe o6uec1ao "Horno pa1L
eHy 1onLko uypoanunme 1nnm, 1onLko Hep1ame pyun n u1o 6yp1o 6m, nso6paxan
neckonLknx caonx repoea, oronL nso6pasnn ck occnk? Xo1n 6m a penL c1one1nn
oronn am noc1mpnnncL roaopn1L saaepoHyk nenpaapy, Hnorokpa1no onpoaeprny1yk
caHnH oroneH.
ue 6onee 6ecnapponno a cHmcne peueaoro nonn1nkanc1aa 6mna peuL knnsn .
py6eukoro, opnoro ns papnkanLnmx knnsLkoa naue ampopnauecn apnc1okpa1nn.
osHy1n1enLno ne 1o, u1o nocpepc1aennme 6on1ynm nne1y1 1o1 nnn nno aspop nepep
nonyneaexec1aenno 1onno. a Henn1e ce6e, rocnopa, na spopoaLe, u1o as6pepe1 a
ronoay, no saueH 6pa1L noaopoH pnn papnkanLnmx peHonc1paun nenpeHenno oronn
n aoo6ue c1apyk nauy cnaay? aueH pena1L nanm nopnor n cospaaa1L o6c1anoaky,
6yp1o oronL - aau, 6yp1o on a opno c aaHn koHnannn? nkorpa on ne 6mn aaunH,
nn pyuo, nn 1enoH. aaepnoe, koc1n ero nepeaopaunaak1cn a rpo6y, korpa am -
narepL pnn nero rny6oko npespennm - 1penne1e ero nHn c ckaepnmHn
nxeocao6opn1enLnmHn uennHn. npounoH ropy akcnponpnnpoaann Laa onc1oro -
na 1oH 1onLko ocnoaannn, u1o on anapxnc1 n o1pnuae1 epkoaL, rocypapc1aennoc1L n
naunonanLnoc1L. YHonuaa o 1oH, u1o aennkn ncnononnnckn poHannc1 opnoapeHenno
o1pnuae1 n aauy peaonkunk, n aaun xnpokape1ckne 6pepnn, am ace-1akn y1aunnn
80-ne1nero c1apua a nnen k ce6e n npouyHenn, u1o on - aau, u1o on - aHec1e c
aaHn. popenka a1a ne 6mna poc1a1ouno cnnLno onpo1ec1oaana nn qnnocoqoH
nenpo1nanennn, nn pac1epnnnmH pyccknH o6uec1aoH - n ao1 am yxaa1nnncL 1enepL
sa a1oporo aennkoro uenoaeka, sa oronn! op npepnoroH uec1aoaannn am 1aun1e n
ero a cao nnen, n ero penae1e opypneH peknaHm caonx co6c1aennmx 6pepne. D1ak,
noxany, am n ypreneaa y nac o1nnHe1e, n oc1oeackoro, n yuknna! o nHn
nc1opnuecko npaapm cnepye1 packpm1L aau ppnnno saHmcen n nokasa1L, u1o a1a
akcnponpnaunn paccun1ana ncknkun1enLno nnuL na neaexec1ao n 1ynoc1L 1o uac1n
ny6nnkn, ko1opan no nneuy aaH.
1o 6mn oronL kak rpaxpannn? ako pepxancn nonn1nuecko nna1qopHm,
ampaxancL HopnmH, nnocknH, kak nna1qopHa, nsmkoH? n 6mn qopHennm
"uepnoco1eneu, "kpann npaam c ronoam po nor. ne nnuno a1o xanL, 1ak kak n ne
paspennk nn cnc1eHm Hmcnn, nn 1eHnepaHen1a, nn xapak1epa uepnoco1enno nap1nn.
o 6ypeH npaapnam, 6ypeH 6pa1L oronn, kaknH on 6mn n kaknH ncnoaepoaan ce6n.
aunnan c aepm a Bora, rny6oko n nnaHenno, saHyunaue oronn, kak ackann.
osHoxen nn 6mn 6m oronL a eapecko-kape1ckoH narepe no opno nnuL a1o
npnunne? oneuno, ne1. pn1oH aepa y oronn ne 6mna aonLnopyHc1aoH, kak y Laa
onc1oro, ne 6mna 6poxenneH yHa n uyac1aa, a coc1onnneH oc1anoanaunHcn,
kpnc1annnsoaannmH a napopnmx qopHax. Horribile dictu
[67]
, oronL 6mn ncM
xpnc1nannnoH. ano 1oro - on 6mn ynL1panpaaocnaanmH nec plus ultra
[68]
.
D1o 6mn Hmcnn1enL n noa1 npaaocnaann: on coc1aann nyuune na pycckoH nsmke
"asHmunennn o Boxec1aenno nn1yprnn, nopo6nmx ko1opmH ne nanncan nn opnn ns
naunx Hnoronnuyunx nepapxoa. oronL nepeun1an Hnoxec1ao counnenn o1uoa n
yun1ene epkan, paxe 1aknx, kak na1pnapxn epHan, epeHnn, nkona aaacnn,
nHeon onynckn n np. n am6pan ace apoxnoaennoe n npenec1noe, po uero pouna a
nonnHannn npaaocnaanoro o6pnpa nyuuan HmcnL oc1oka, n o6nek a1o xapko caoe
nk6oaLk ko Xpnc1y. oronL ne nonnHan nno aepm, kpoHe naue napopno, on
coaepuenno kak npoc1onkpnn aepnn a uypo. aHo saae1no Heu1o ero 6mno
noknonn1Lcn an1oHy po6y...
e1, r-pa xnpokape1m! n - ne aau.
oronL ne 6mn neaexec1aennmH uenoaekoH - on ro1oanncn a npoqeccopa nc1opnn, on
nenpepmano un1an n o6napan noamuenno aos6ypnHoc1Lk Hmcnn 1oro nokonennn.
Hec1e c caonHn caepc1nnkaHn, nkpLHn 1pnpua1mx n copokoamx ropoa, oronL xnn
aneua1nennnHn ne 1onLko pyccko, no n sanapnoeaponecko xnsnn. eaepon1no,
u1o6m on ne snan npe anunknonepnc1oa, aennko peaonkunn, counannsHa n neaoro
rerenLnnc1aa. Bnankn, pypon, OypLe, yn Bnan, yan n np. nponoaepoaann ne a
nopnonLe. oronL xnn ne 1onLko cpepn pyccknx, aecLHa o6pasoaannmx paopnn,
cun1aaunx apony a1opo popnno. oronL xnn ponro sa rpannue, n neaepon1no,
u1o6m uy1kn, nopo6no 6ecnpoaonounoHy 1enerpaqy, rennanLnm Hosr ero, xaa1aaun
npen ns aospyxa, nnuero ne snan o panxennnx, npnaepunx k peaonkunn 1848 ropa n k
unkny naunonanLnmx aon. cnn necpaanenno Henee opapennm uenoaek, kakoa
Bennnckn, uen a ypoaenL c sanapno HmcnLk, 1o 1eH naue oronL. u1o xe?
6c1on1enLno nosnakoHnauncL co aceHn nonn1nuecknHn 1eopnnHn, oronL oc1ancn
aepen cMxk, npn1oH a caHoH uepnoco1ennoH cHmcne a1oro cnoaa. pou1n1e
ero nncLHo k XykoackoHy " nnpnsHe naunx noa1oa. oronL nn a Hano c1enenn ne
aepnn a nsnk6nennyk kape1aHn npek napoponpaac1aa. opo6no "kpannH npaamH,
oronL nn na opnn Hnr ne ponyckan, u1o ace o6c1on1 6narononyuno n u1o acnkan
Hepsoc1L xnsnn canuenna n nenpnkocnoaenna. anpo1na, on ropen xenanneH
ounc1n1L xnsnL n ocan1n1L ee, no 6mn y6expen, u1o o6uec1aennme cnnm caHn no ce6e
ne a coc1onnnn a1oro cpena1L. nn c1anoan1cn cnoco6nmHn na a1o, nnuL
cocpepo1ounauncL a nnue caHopepxua. "ce co6m1nn a naueH o1euec1ae, - roaopn1
oronL, - naunnan o1 nopa6ouennn 1a1apckoro, anpnHo knonn1cn k 1oHy, u1o6m
co6pa1L Horyuec1ao a pykn opnoro, pa6m opnn 6mn a cnnax nponsaec1n a1o1
snaHenn1m nepeaopo1 acero a rocypapc1ae, ace no1pnc1n n, acex pas6ypnaun,
aoopyxn1L kaxporo ns nac 1eH amcunH asrnnpoH na caHoro ce6n, 6es ko1oporo
neaosHoxno uenoaeky paso6pa1L, ocypn1L caHoro ce6n n aospanrny1L a ce6e caHoH 1y
xe 6panL aceHy neaexec1aennoHy n 1eHnoHy, kakyk aospanrnyn uapL a caoeH
rocypapc1ae; u1o6m no1oH, korpa saropn1cn yxe kaxpm a1ok can1ok 6panLk n ace
npnpe1 a cosnanne cnn caonx, Hor 6m 1ak xe opnn, acex anepepn, c cae1nnLnnkoH a
pyke, yc1peHn1L kak opny pyuy aecL napop cao k 1oHy aepxoanoHy cae1y, k ko1opoHy
npocn1cn occnn. m anpn1e, u1o a nonn1ne caHopepxaann oronL anaran ne
c1a1nueckyk, a pnnaHnueckyk cnny, aneprnk 1aopueckyk, npo6yxpakuyk, aepyuyk
k aockpecennk napopa. yuknn cpaannaan uapn c onceeH-BoroanpueH, amaopnunH
naunk ns nnena. Henno neu1o o1 oncen n aroHe1a, u1o-1o npopoueckoe n
6oroapoxnoaennoe oronL npnnncmaan "nonnoHouno, kak on ampaxancn, uapcko
anac1n. cnenn1enLnan anonen anoneona nokasmaana, u1o napopnoe npaanenne aeno
k rpaxpancko aone, a rennanLnoe caHopepxaane aocc1anoannno uec1L napopa n
cuac1Le. onyc1nH, u1o oronL aHec1e co cnaannoqnnaHn upesHepno npeannsnpoaan
caHopepxaane, - no, c1ano 6m1L, 1eH 6onee, r-pa kape1m, - m!.
kako c1oponm am nn aosLHn1e oronn, on 6mn 1nnnueckn "uepnoco1eneu.
opyHa1e 1onLko: on c1onn sa kpenoc1noe npaao, ponyckan paxe 1enecnoe
nakasanne! ypn no "apacy BynL6e, rpe "pacco6aun xnp nso6paxen ao ace
npaape napopnoro ero nonnHannn, oronL panek 6mn o1 npen ne 1onLko
"nonnonpaann, no paxe "paanonpaann eapeckoro. BopL6a sanopoxcknx pmuape,
naua pycckan "nnapa, npepc1aanena oroneH ne c 1ypkaHn, ne c kpmHcknHn
1a1apaHn, a c nan6onee saknn1mHn aparaHn Hanopyccko n o6uepyccko napopnoc1n
- c nonnkaHn n eapenHn. ak nonnHan oronL, kopenno pycckn uenoaek, amnecun
pyuy caok ns nepp napopnmx. n nauen a nc1opnn, 1o ec1L a caHo npnpope, aekoao
o1nop nonLunne n xnpoac1ay n aocnen a1o1 o1nop, opo6pnn aceH naqocoH caoe
pyun.
e1, rocnopa xnpokape1m, on - ne aau!
o ecnn 6m 1pe6oaancn okonua1enLnm n 6ecnoaopo1nm npnroaop oronk kak
uepnoco1enuy, acnoHnn1e caHm nk1m ns ero cHep1nmx rpexoa: on nk6nn occnk!
n caHo nexno, Hnapenuecko nk6oaLk nk6nn Ykpanny, nau npenec1nm,
6naropa1nm kr, ko1opm 6mn 6m paeH seHnmH, ecnn 6m ne 6mn c1onLko pas orpa6nen
nonnkaHn n eapenHn. oronL rny6oknH aocxnuenneH nk6nn ennkopoccnk, nau
Horyun rocypapc1aennm nsmk, nauy aennkopepxaanyk nc1opnk, nauy nmunyk
c1apnny. "a pnnx, - nnue1 oronL, - nonanacL Hne knnra "apckne amxopm". y1
yxe opnn cnoaa n nasaannn... cyune cokpoanua pnn noa1a: acnkoe cnoao 1ak n
noxn1cn a c1nx. nanuLcn pparouennoc1n nauero nsmka: u1o nn sayk, 1o n nopapok:
ace 1epnnc1o, kpynno, kak caH xeHuyr, n, npaao, nnoe nasaanne eue pparouennee
caHo aeun... ne nocne npou1ennn 1pex c1pannu ns a1o knnrn 1ak n anpencn aespe
uapL c1apnnnmx, npexnnx apeHen, 6naroroaeno npyun k aeuepne a c1apnnnoH
uapckoH caoeH y6panc1ae. oronL po o6oxannn nk6nn aennkopycckn 1anan1 n
xapak1ep, ko1opm c1onL 6nnc1a1enLno ampasnncn a yuknne. Hnorouncnennmx
o1smaax oronn o aennkoH noa1e ne1 n 1enn saanc1n - opnn 6naropopnm aoc1opr!
ck occnk, kakan ona ec1L, oronL nk6nn po npopoueckoro akc1asa: acnoHnn1e ero
. o1 o kakoH nporpecce occnn Heu1an aa1op "ep1amx pyu n ao1 a kako
nporpecc occnn .
pnako x, ckaxy1 eapeunkn, on nanncan "ep1ame pyun, 1o ec1L oc1aann pokyHen1,
pakun 1enepL eapeunkaH n kape1aH sakonnoe npaao nneaa1L na occnk?
a a1o saHeuy, u1o na eapeunkoa n kape1oa n pasnyk 1oHy nopo6nyk Henkyk
koHnannk oronL, koneuno, ne paccun1maan. ro koHnannn 6mna yuknn, a ne r-pa
pysnnckne n . py6eukne. "orpa n nauan un1a1L yuknny nepame rnaam ns
"ep1amx pyu", - nnue1 oronL, - 1o yuknn, ko1opm acerpa cHenncn npn HoeH
u1ennn... nauan noneHnory c1anoan1Lcn ace cyHpaunee, cyHpaunee, a nakoneu
cpenancn coaepuenno Hpauen. orpa xe u1enne konunnocL, on nponsnec ronocoH
1ockn: "Boxe, kak rpyc1na naua occnn!" enn a1o nsyHnno. yuknn, ko1opm 1ak
snan occnk, ne saHe1nn, u1o ace a1o kapnka1ypa n Hon co6c1aennan ampyHka!..
a1nx nop n yxe c1an pyHa1L 1onLko o 1oH, kak 6m cHnrun1L 1o 1nroc1noe aneua1nenne,
ko1opoe Hornn nponsaec1n "ep1ame pyun". H yanpen, u1o Hnorne ns rapoc1e ne
c1on1 sno6m n np. cnepykunx 1oHax "ep1amx pyu oronL Heu1an ne ynnsn1L, a
aosaennun1L occnk, nso6pasna 1o npekpacnoe, u1o on anpen a ne n u1o nk6nn.
e1, r-pa eapeunkn n papnkanLnme knnsLkn. oronL - ne aau, peun1enLno ne aau!
akan kpynnan po6mua ne no pykaH aaunH, kak 6m nn 6mnn onn uenkn.
TT
23
paan1enLc1ao 6eckoneuno sa1nrnaae1 ace xnsnennme aonpocm nop npepnoroH, u1o
onn nepoc1a1ouno "amncnenm. apn amncnennn nx narpoHoxpak1cn koHnccnn,
koHn1e1m, coaeuannn, coae1m, npnanekak1cn aceaosHoxnme apHnnnc1pa1nanme n
cype6nme nnc1anunn, co6npak1cn Hnennn neua1n, n korpa acero a1oro okasmaae1cn
Hano, 1o nyc1eun ns aonpocoa nepenocn1cn na sakonopa1enLnoe paccHo1penne -
cnauana "amcoko nnxne nana1m, sa1eH "amcoko aepxne. ace-1akn peuenne
o6mknoaenno nonyuae1cn HexyHounoe n 6nepnoe, aos6yxpakuee o6uyk
neypoane1aopennoc1L. e nM aaH nepoc1ae1, rocnopa, .
y6nc1aenno c1enenn aceH aaH nepoc1ae1 \ o1 u1o xoue1cn ckasa1L
coapeHennoHy nsnexennoHy nokonennk 1oro knacca, ko1opm npaan1 occne. D1o
nokonenne nonano, kak He1aqnsnk 6acnn, a nHy, n aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m amnesa1L
o11ypa, pycckne rocypapc1aennme nkpn paccyxpak1, paccyxpak1, paccyxpak1 6es
konua...
poc1me pycckne nkpn, amuepune ns npnpopm, kak, nanpnHep, 1e naun npepkn, u1o
c1ponnn aennkoe rocypapc1ao, c s 1oro nsnypn1enLnoro n 6ecnnopnoro
npouecca Hmcnn, ko1opmH 1enepL 1ue1no xo1n1 nokpm1L nepoc1a1ok xapak1epa.
e1aqnsnk nccnepye1 npnpopy aepeakn npexpe, ueH yxaa1n1Lcn sa nee; pnn
kpec1Lnnnna xe aepeaka, kak acnkn npepHe1, ec1L ro1oam amaop, peanLnan
qopHyna, ko1opyk oc1ae1cn npnHenn1L. 6mknoaennm uenoaek naunnan c
Hnapenuec1aa snakoHn1cn c aeuaHn n o nyxnmx pnn npak1nkn caoc1aax nx nHee1
anonne onpepenennoe nonn1ne. oue1anne npepHe1oa nopckasmaae1 eHy
epnnc1aennm aosHoxnm amaop. ec1an1enLnoc1L kak ona ec1L aos6yxpae1 a
na1ypanLnoH uenoaeke aonk, npnaopn1 a pec1ane ncnonnn1enLnme opranm, a uncno
ko1opmx axopn1 n yH. uenoaeke xe nena1ypanLnoH, a He1aqnsnke, ko1oporo pyua
yrne1ena paccypounoc1Lk, aonn, a c nek n ace ncnonnn1enLnme opranm
napannsoaanm. Hec1o pec1ann naunnae1cn Hosroaan xaauka. ocypapc1aennme nkpn
6es konua nepexeamaak1 Ha1epnan - n kak ornn 6on1cn peuennn! nnnnm xaoc1
aceaosHoxnmx nnc1anun npnpyHan 6eso1ue1no pnn 1oro, u1o6m caann1L peuenne na
uLn-nn6ypL uyxne nneun. D1a paccna6nennoc1L aonn aouna paxe a nsmk. Yxe ne
roaopn1: "oe y6expenne, "on aonn, a po6ko sanannk1: "oe Hnenne. a1oH
pa6ckoH cnoaeuke uyac1aye1cn nonn1nm xec1: "Hnenne 1ak 6nnsko k "coHnennk,
ono o1peneno o1 nero acero nnuL 1onko uep1o 6espasnnunn. mckasmaan Hnenne,
nmneunne knnxnme nkpn o6c1aannk1 ero 1aknHn cHnruennnHn n 1aknHn
okpyrnoc1nHn, u1o a konue konuoa pasnnunme Hnennn, kak ronmun a pyuLe,
c1anoan1cn coaceH noxoxnHn ppyr na ppyra. ac1neaakun pyx koHnpoHncc, o
ko1opoH nncan opne
[69]
a caoe kpane saHeua1enLno, xo1n, k coxanennk,
sa6m1o knnre
[70]
, nop1aunaae1 nepanme uen1pm rocypapc1aennoc1n. cnn 6m 1onLko
rocypapc1aennoc1Lk coapeHennme napopm xnnn, 1o onn paano norn6nn 6m - po 1ako
c1enenn o6un oprannsH o1paannk1 6esaonne n 6ecnnopne nmneune
rocypapc1aenno He1aqnsnkn.
anpe opnoro ns 6ecuncnennmx npnHepoa a1o He1aqnsnkn Hoxno ykasa1L na
eapeckn aonpoc a occnn. asanocL 6m, u1o 1y1 1eope1nsnpoaa1L n aosHoxnm nn
kakne-nn6ypL kone6annn? apen ne c nynm ynann n ne co auepaunero pnn nsaec1nm
eaponeckoHy uenoaeuec1ay. Y napopoa 6mno poc1a1ouno apeHenn coc1aan1L anonne
onpepenennoe nonn1ne o6 a1o pace. apopm n coc1aannn ce6e a1o nonn1ne -
nopasn1enLno 1oxpec1aennoe ao acex c1panax. nn kpec1Lnnnna acex c1pan "xnp 1ak
xe 6eccnopen, kak aepeaka: cnop o "aepann, o paanonpaann eapeea, naunnae1cn
amue, cpepn knnxnoro, He1aqnsnueckoro knacca. apen penak1 anp, u1o o6uee
o1apauenne k nnH xpnc1nanckoro npoc1onapopLn am1ekae1 ns pennrnosno Hec1n:
xpnc1nane, Hon, ne Hory1 sa6m1L nc1nsann, onneaann, sayuenn n nosopno kasnn,
ko1opmH eapen korpa-1o npepann xpnc1nanckoro Bora. o xo1n noc1ynok eapeea c
Xpnc1oH ne ns 1aknx, u1o6m anyua1L k nnH cnHna1nk, - nyxno noHnn1L, u1o eue sa
1mcnuy ne1 po Xpnc1a n xpnc1nanc1aa cpepn napopoa caHmx pasnnunmx aep eapen
anyuann k ce6e 1o xe caHoe o1apauenne n 1o1 xe c1pax. rnne1ckne qapaonm,
nepcnpckne uapn, rpeueckne n pnHckne ynpaan1enn, cornacno c onm1oH napopoa,
cHo1penn na eapeea kak na nneHn napasn1noe, acerpa npec1ynnoe, acerpa yrpoxaauee
uenoc1n napopno. 1ano 6m1L, xpnc1nanckne npepy6expennn 1y1 poano nn npn ueH.
e xpnc1nane, a nsmunnkn aenn c eapenHn kpoaaayk 6opL6y, noka ne nc1pe6nnn
caHoe rnespo eapec1aa. xpnc1nanckyk apy ne opnn xpnc1nane acex ncnoaepann,
no n HaroHe1ane coc1aannn o eapenx o1apa1n1enLnoe Hnenne. c1opnn acex c1pan
kpacnopeunao roaopn1, ueH nopo6noe Hnenne noppepxnaanocL. no noppepxnaanocL
n 1enepL pepxn1cn exepneanmH a 1euenne 1pnpua1n aekoa na6nkpenneH caHoro
He1opa eapecko xnsnn. pn aceaosHoxnmx ycnoannx eape - poc1oaunk,
qanLcnqnka1op, akcnnya1a1op, neuec1nm qak1op, caopnnk, coapa1n1enL n
nopc1peka1enL, uenoaeueckoe cyuec1ao nnsuero, aHopanLnoro 1nna. n nenaanpn1
xpnc1nanc1ao ne no1oHy, u1o pepxn1cn caoe nepao6m1no n rpy6o pennrnn. n
oprannueckn uyxp xpnc1nanc1ay, 1o ec1L no npnpoxpennmH npaac1aennmH, aepnee -
6esnpaac1aennmH nnc1nnk1aH. nnxnme He1aqnsnkn a1oro ne anpn1, a
npoc1onapopLe, a ko1opoe eapen akpannenm, na caoe ukype uyac1aye1 a1n
nensHenneHme a aekax eapeckne nepoc1a1kn. ak nasmaaeHme ronennn na eapeea
6mnn amsaanm ne ueH nnmH, kak nec1epnnHmH sacnnLeH eapecknH n nx
xnunnuec1aoH. Yxe a1opoe c1one1ne ackpy a apone nop annnnneH He1aqnsnueckoro
sakonopa1enLc1aa ne1 n 1enn ronenn, no napasn1nsH eapeea nHenno 1enepL pouen po
neaepon1no c1enenn. pn nonnoH paanonpaann eapeea a Hepnke nonnunn
npnxopn1cn canpe1enLc1aoaa1L o paono npec1ynnoc1n a1oro nneHenn, a c1paxoamH
o6uec1aaH - nasnaua1L pnn eapeea paonme n 1ponme c1paxoame asnocm.
ycckn napop nHee1 peno c eapenHn c 1ex nop, kak ce6n noHnn1, no eue po 1a1ap,
npn sncnaae I, nacenenne aecLHa kynL1ypnoro neaa 6maano amnyxpeno k norpoHaH
- coaepuenno 1aknH xe, kakne cnyuak1cn 1enepL. orpa uaua 1epnennn napopnoro
nepenonnnnacL, napop appyr sa6maan caoe xpnc1nanc1ao n rpaxpanc1aennoc1L n
naunnan amHe1a1L eapeea ns caonx ropopoa. akoe npespenne k ce6e sacnyxnno a1o
nneHn, nokasmaak1 cnoaa 1orpaunero pycckoro rocypapn: "enLsn o eapeea nauka1L
Heu. aeka naue na1ypanLno n naunonanLno rocypapc1aennoc1n nnkakoro
eapeckoro aonpoca ne 6mno, no1oHy u1o ne 6mno n 1enn kaknx-nn6o coHnenn a
snokauec1aennoc1n a1nx nnoc1panuea. onyckan pasnmx nnoaepuea, HaroHe1an,
nsmunnkoa a caok c1pany, Hockoackne uapn can1o 6epernn aekoaoe npaanno - ne
ponycka1L eapeea. enee npopaxnan, ueH nospneuan naua apHnnnc1paunn,
Hockoackan anac1L ne una nn na kakne nopkynm. o xe nonn1nkn pepxancn e1p
ennkn, nnuennm paxe npnsnakoa pennrnosno ne1epnnHoc1n. 6Lnana nonnyk
cao6opy aepm, e1p 1aeppo amckasancn, u1o cun1ae1 "xnpoa HouennnkaHn n ne
Hoxe1 ponyc1n1L nx a occnk nHenno a kauec1ae 1akoamx. e1p a 6ecuncnennmx
caonx noespkax no sanapno n kxno occnn, a 6opL6e c apnoH nHen cnyua
ac1peua1Lcn c eapenHn, n, kak rennanLnm uenoaek, on 6mn ne ns 1ex, u1o uepnak1
caon Hnennn ns uyxnx Hosroa. o xe 1aeppo nonn1nkn pepxanacL pouL e1pa
nnsaae1a. a nonm1kn nopkynn1L anac1L amropaHn eapecko 1oproann
naunonanLnan naua rocypapmnn o1aeuana: "1 aparoa Xpnc1oamx ne xenak
nn1epecno npn6mnn.
apeckn aonpoc nanncn y nac c ynapkoH naunonanLnmx nnc1nnk1oa na amco1e
anac1n, c aneppenneH Haconc1aa, c aoso6napa-nneH "ocao6opn1enLnmx npe
qpanuyscko anunknonepnuecko He1aqnsnkn. epao rocypapmne, npnsnaaue
neko1opme npaaa eapeea, 6mna ka1epnna II, ypoxpennan nepycckan. Ypnan1enLnan
no yHy n 1aeppo npepannan saae1aH e1pa, ka1epnna 6mna c6n1a c 1onky payHn
o6c1on1enLc1aaHn. na 6mna ppyroH n koppecnonpen1ko snaHenn1mx 6on1ynoa,
ko1opme 1orpa cospaaann e cnaay ao Opanunn n ao aceH cae1e. e1aqnsnka onL1epa
n ycco 6mna 1n1annueckan 6naropapn nx 1anan1y. caHoH o1pnuannn ona o1nnuanacL
c1pac1Lk, n 1anan1nnao rocypapmne, yHc1aenno ronopaaue a e1ep6ypre, 6mno
1pypno ne nopunnn1Lcn HoryueHy o6annnk aennknx pesonepoa. pen paaenc1aa,
cao6opm, 6pa1c1aa cpenanncL a apone HopnmHn saponro po peaonkunn, a acnkan
napnxckan Hopa cun1anacL apaone o6nsa1enLno a e1ep6ypre. 1opoe
o6c1on1enLc1ao, cHy1nauee nHnepa1pnuy, 6mno 1o, u1o c paspenaHn onLun
sanpe1noe eapeckoe nneHn cpasy ouy1nnocL a uep1e occnn. erko 6mno
ncu acenennn, no u1o pena1L c HnnnnonaHn nkpe, okasaaunHncn noppannmHn
a cnny saaoeaannn? ka1epnna ne 6mna nopro1oanena k peuennk 1ako sapaun. Xo1n
sppaam cHmcn roaopnn sa 1o, u1o nneHn, neponyc1nHoe a aoc1ouno nonoanne
rocypapc1aa, ne ponxno 6m1L ponyueno n a sanapno nonoanne, n xo1n npnHepm
Haccoao aHnrpaunn ns occnn 6mnn nsaec1nm n a 1o1 aek (packonLnnkn, kasakn,
kpaHum), no a o1nouennn eapeea ne npnnnnn nnkaknx Hep. 1apancL sapo6pn1L
nacenenne npncoepnnennmx o6nac1e, ka1epnna o6Lnanna, "u1o korpa eapeckoro
sakona nkpn aounn yxe a coc1onnne, paanoe c ppyrnHn, 1o n napnexn1 npn acnkoH
cnyuae na6nkpa1L npaanno... u1o acnk no saannk n coc1onnnk caoeHy ponxenc1aye1
nonLsoaa1Lcn amropaHn n npaaaHn 6es pasnnunn sakona n napopa (26 qeapann 1785
r.).
Hcno, u1o yxe 1orpa a 1pypnmx cnyuanx npaan1enLc1ao naue aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m
mu sapauy, npoc1o o1nnxnaanocL o1 nee, npn1aopnnocL, u1o nnkako sapaun ne1.
nuero ne1 nerue, kak o6Lnan1L paaenc1ao n 6espasnnune a npaaax. o aepL a1o
snaun1, a cyunoc1n, o6Lnan1L caok necnoco6noc1L paso6pa1Lcn a ouenL cnoxnoH
pene. aaenc1ao co6nasnne1 npoc1o1o. okonennn ocna6eaune, no1epnaune
npnamuky npeoponeaa1L npenn1c1ann, aocxn1nnncL npee paaenc1aa, xo1n caHa
npnpopa 1akoro nanennn ne snae1. npnpope eape nn a kakoH o1nouennn ne paaen
xpnc1nannny - nn a nneHennoH, nn a pennrnosnoH, nn a kynL1ypnoH, nn a cHmcne
nsmka n nonn1nuecknx cnHna1n. c1aannn a cnne nyc1oe, uac1o qopHanLnoe
nepaaenc1ao Hexpy xpnc1nanaHn a nx saannn (paopnne, He1ane, kpec1Lnne), naue
npaan1enLc1ao am6pocnno kpane cyuec1aennoe nepaaenc1ao nneHenn, aepm, nsmka n
kynL1ypm. oueHy-1o kpec1Lnnnn pycckn cun1ancn (n po cnx nop cun1ae1cn) ne
paanmH paopnnnny, xo1n 6m 6esrpaHo1noHy, - 1ouno a1o xn1enn pasnmx nnane1.
expy 1eH eape cun1ae1cn paanmH pycckoHy, neHuy, nonnky n 1.p. BeccHmcnnua a1a
nokasmaae1, u1o eue a konue XVIII aeka rocypapc1aennoc1L naua okasanacL nnxe
caonx sapau n aHec1o na1ypanLnoro coo6paxennn c pec1an1enLnoc1Lk nauana
npnHenn1L k nocnepne knnxnme ua6nonm. cnn c1apme npepkn naun nenpepmano
nccnepoaann pec1an1enLnoc1L n noyuanncL y nee, 1o nsnexennoe nokonenne anoxn
apnueaa nauano caHo noyua1L npnpopy n nepekpanaa1L ee. o npnpopa - cnnukoH
6onLuo 6apnn, u1o6m uy1n1L c ne. 6Lnanennme paanonpaanmHn eapen oc1aaanncL
eapenHn, n cnn1me orpannuennn 1onLko nooupnnn nx pasaepny1L ace caoe xnpoac1ao.
o1 1orpa n nauanacL cHexo1aopnan koHepnn eapeckoro aonpoca a occnn, 6opL6a
knnxnnkoa n uac1o nopkynnennmx kanuennpnc1oa c npnpopo.
1o6m nooupn1L eapeea nepec1a1L 6m1L eapenHn, npaan1enLc1ao ne 1onLko ne
o1pennno nx o1 xpnc1nan, a, nanpo1na, c1apanocL acnueckn cHeunaa1L; 1ak,
nanpnHep, eapen ne 1onLko ponyckanncL ao ace yue6nme saaepennn, no 6mnn
yc1anoanenm oco6me nooupn1enLnme Hepm pnn npnaneuennn eapeea a pycckne
ukonm. onarann, u1o ecnn nepeHeua1L aonkoa c oauaHn nnn xopLkoa c kypaHn, 1o
yc1anoan1cn Hexpy nnHn nonnoe paaenc1ao n aoxpenennm Hnp. 1o Heu1a o
paaenc1ae npaannacL cen1nHen1anLnoHy nekcanppy I, yuennky arapna, - a1o
nonn1no, no kak Hor paspenn1L ee cypoam nHnepa1op nkona I? expy 1eH a
nonoxennn o eapenx 13 anpenn 1835 ropa nop1aepxpeno yue6noe nx paanonpaane -
npaapa, nnuL 1aH, rpe eapenH paspeuanocL xn1enLc1ao. ceH eapenH, okonunaunH
rnHnasnueckn kypc, o1kpm1m 6mnn ace amcune ukonm Hnepnn. yuune ns
c1ypen1oa-eapeea na Hepnunncknx qakynL1e1ax npnnnHanncL na kasennm cue1, nH
paaanncL npaaa rocypapc1aenno cnyx6m n noaceHec1noe npaao xn1enLc1aa. nenoe n
rnyxoe k npnpope npaan1enLc1ao pyHano, u1o epnnc1aennoe, u1o o1penne1 eapen o1
neeapen, - a1o nepoc1a1ok amcuero o6pasoaannn. 1on1 eapek pa1L amcun pnnnoH
- n on penae1cn 6yp1o 6m coaepuenno pyccknH. pnpopa n 1y1 nacHennacL nap
naunHn canoanmHn He1aqnsnkaHn. a1nrnaan pasnmHn no6naxkaHn n npnHankaHn
eapeea a pycckne ukonm, npaan1enLc1ao po6nnocL 1onLko 1oro, u1o pycckan
nn1ennnrenunn sanaxna eapec1aoH. pepn apaue, yun1ene, unnoannkoa na nnnnn,
rpe amcnyxnaanocL paopnnc1ao, nonannncL cmnm spannn co aceHn xapak1epnmHn
uep1aHn caoe pacm. nkakoro paaenc1aa ne nocnepoaano, no npaan1enLc1ao aHec1o
1oro, u1o6m npekpa1n1L onacnm onm1, aneprnueckn noaeno ero panLue. aHe1na, u1o
c1apnkn eapen neoxo1no o1pak1 pe1e a pycckne ukonm, 6oncL o6pycennn,
npaan1enLc1ao a 1844 ropy yupepnno uenyk cnc1eHy eapecknx ukon,
coo1ae1c1aykunx pyccknH npnxopcknH n yespnmH. paan1enLc1ao npoc1epno caoe
annHanne po 1oro, u1o saaeno oco6me paaannckne yunnnua (c kypcoH rnHnasn) pnn
npnro1oanennn yun1ene eapeckoro sakona. a eapeckne paaannckne yunnnua 6mnn
pacnpoc1panenm nLro1m pyccknx rnHnasn. "nn anuero nooupennn eapeea k
o6pasoaannk nH 6mnn panm oco6ennme npenHyuec1aa. konunaun yespnoe
yunnnue eape nonLsoaancn cokpauennmH cpokoH aoenno cnyx6m na 10 ne1.
nHnasnn cokpauana a1o1 cpok na 15 ne1, a konunaune c o1nnuneH ocao6oxpanncL o1
pekpy1c1aa aoace. ycckan nonn1nka a o1nouennn eapeea 6ykaanLno noa1opnna
nonLckyk. ak a onLckoH koponeac1ae c1onno eapek xo1n 6m napyxno npnnn1L
ka1onnuec1ao - n on c1anoanncn paopnnnnoH, xo1n Hnnnnonm popnmx ka1onnkoa
oc1aaanncL xononaHn, 1ak n y nac. nenenoH c1peHnennn k paaenc1ay anpoa 1nnynn
nenpeHenno a nn1ennnren1m, a unnoannkn, a paopnne, kak 6yp1o pycckoe paopnnc1ao
coaepuenno ne nHeno popnmx c1nxn pnn caoero nononnennn. paan1enLc1ao
copokoamx ropoa yxe 6mno oxaaueno, kak n npepmpyuee, ocao6opn1enLnmHn n
nnaennpykunHn npenHn, 1onLko npoaopnno nx no c1apnne - kpy1mHn HepaHn.
eunnn, u1o korpa kasennmx yunnnu pnn eapeea 6ype1 saaepeno poc1a1ouno,
o6Lnan1L o6yuenne a nnx eapeea o6nsa1enLnmH. pepnonaranncL paxe
nonypn1enLnme k 1oHy Hepm... pyrnHn cnoaaHn, 6pocna nsnnunne nexnoc1n, eapeea
xo1enn npoc1o nacnnLno 1aun1L a pycckne unnoannkn (n6o pycckan rnHnasnn n 1orpa,
n 1enepL amnyckae1 1onLko unnoannkoa). onn1nka nkonan I nepeuna n a anoxy
ocao6oxpennn. 1859 ropy o6yuenne pe1e eapeea-kynuoa n noue1nmx rpaxpan
o6Lnaneno suM.
o1 kak 1pora1enLno sa6o1nnocL pycckoe npaan1enLc1ao o 1oH, u1o6m o6Leapen1L
pycckyk nn1ennnrenunk! pouno c 1ex nop 50 ne1, n o6nsa1enLnoe o6yuenne pnn
pyccknx oc1ae1cn ace eue Heu1o, o eapenx xe korpa acnoHnnnn! yppeno nn, u1o
eapec1ao xnmnyno ao ace naun nn1ennnren1nme npoqeccnn, Hexpy npounH a 1e,
ko1opmx ponr - xpann1L naunonanLnoe Hnpocosepuanne n rocypapc1aennm
xapak1ep? yppeno nn, u1o ne 1onLko neua1L, 1ea1p, nn1epa1ypa, Hepnunna, cype6noe
aepoHc1ao n np. nepenonnenm eapenHn, no paxe orpoHnoe konnuec1ao pyccknx
kape1c1aykunx unnoannkoa nocn1 ncnyk neua1L HopanLnoro "o6pesannn?
II
25
cn nonn1nka pycckoro npaan1enLc1aa a o1nouennn eapeea coc1onna a 1oH, u1o6m
nepeaec1n eapec1ao ns cpaann1enLno neonacnoro pnn occnn coc1onnnn a onacnoe.
D1o penanocL 6eso1ue1no, kak 6m nop anyuenneH kaknx-1o 1anmx pnn anac1n cnn.
apen nauana npounoro aeka, 1ak nasmaaeHme nonLckne xnpm, 6mnn napop 1eHnm,
qana1nueckn npepannm caoe nepao6m1no aepe, uyxpakuncn xpnc1nanc1aa n
eapecko unannnsaunn. ckpy, kypa 6m onn nn nonapann, onn yc1panaann xanpenL n
reueq1, ackpy nannnncL poc1oaunkaHn, qak1opaHn, qanLcnqnka1opaHn, caopnnkaHn,
unnonaHn, ackpy akcnnya1npoaann caHme pypnme c1pac1n xpnc1nanckoro o6uec1aa n
coc1aannnn ppoxxn pnn acnknx npec1ynnenn. o npepannoc1L anHypy n pa6c1ao y
karana sac1aannnn eapeea pepxa1Lcn oco6nnkoH. ne caoero napasn1noro peHecna onn
ne c1peHnnncL nponnka1L a o6uec1ao n ne xenann penn1L c xpnc1nanaHn nx
nonn1nueckne n npaac1aennme nn1epecm. paan1enLc1ao pycckoe caHo nopnnno
eapec1ao co pna xnsnn, caHo noc1apanocL a1epe1L a1o nneHn ao ace 1kann o6uec1aa
- n caHme uen1panLnme, na ko1opmx pepxn1cn pyua naunn. op anyuenneH unc1o
knnxno Hmcnn, 6yp1o ukona cospae1 noaoro uenoaeka - n nenpeHenno pycckoro,
npaan1enLc1ao aaeno o6nsa1enLnoe o6yuenne pe1e pnn eapecko 6ypxyasnn n
o6c1aanno amcuee o6pasoaanne pnn nnx aceaosHoxnmHn npnHankaHn. 1onno eapek
okonun1L ynnaepcn1e1 kanpnpa1oH, on nonyuan npaao noc1yna1L na cnyx6y no aceH
aepoHc1aaH n sannHa1Lcn 1oproane n npoHmunennoc1Lk ao ace occnn.
anonyunaun acnknHn npaapaHn n nenpaapaHn pnnnoH eapeckn knoua
c1anoanncn caepxLeapeeH. n ne 1onLko npno6pe1an saae1noe npaao 1oproaa1L n
yc1panaa1L reueq1m no ace occnn, ne 1onLko penancn unnoannkoH c kokappo, no
Hor aHec1e c co6o pepxa1L a occnn n uenyk kononnk epnnoaepuea nop anpoH ceHLn
n cnyr, npnkasunkoa n kon1opunkoa. paan1enLc1ao caHo cospano eapeckne rnespa
no a1y c1opony uep1m ocepnoc1n; a1n rnespa cpenanncL uen1paHn npn1nxennn
eapec1aa ns-sa uep1m. o 1oro apeHenn, noka ne 6mno paspenennn eapec1aa na
ponyc1nHmx a occnk n neponyc1nHmx, ne 6mno a eapec1ae n ockop6nennoro
caHonk6nn, n 1o c1pac1no xaxpm nponnkny1L a occnk. aHo npaan1enLc1ao
cospano n ykasano eapenH nasekn pnn nepexopa uep1m ocepnoc1n, caHo ono
noc1aanno co6nasnn1enLnme ycnoann pnn nponnknoaennn eapeea nenpeHenno a
o6pasoaannm knacc, nenpeHenno a unnoannuec1ao, nenpeHenno a pycckyk
6ypxyasnk, 1o ec1L a ycckyk npoHmunennoc1L n 1oproank. ak kak o6mknoaennm
eape Hor 6m1L nepoc1a1ouno onacen pnn pyccknx a 6opL6e sa cyuec1aoaanne, 1o
c1apanncL npnaneuL a occnk nan6onee ampakunxcn, nan6onee cnoco6nmx n
aoopyxann nx kasennmH o6pasoaanneH, 1o ec1L penann konkypenunk c pyccknHn
anonne o6ecneuenno. Bepnnk eape aoo6ue ne c1pauen, noa1oHy ponyckanncL a
occnk 1onLko eapen-kann1annc1m, nkpn, aoopyxennme pnn caoero
akcnnya1a1opckoro pena. no apar ne Hor 6m npnpyHa1L 6onee neamropno pnn
occnn nonn1nkn, no po6popyunoe pycckoe npaan1enLc1ao caHo pouno po nee -
koneuno, hona fide (po6pocoaec1no, unc1oceppeuno. - P.). oro Bor xoue1 nakasa1L,
o1nnHae1 pasyH.
nauane 1860-x ropoa ao acex aepoHc1aax, oco6enno a aoennoH, npocaeuennn n
any1pennnx pen, nonannncL eapen a saannnx apaue, 1exnnkoa, 1exnonoroa,
npenopaaa1ene n np. D1oro nokasanocL Hano. nn o6neruennn eapenH poc1yna a
pycckne ukonm a 1863 ropy 6mnn yupexpenm oco6me c1nnenpnn c nasnauenneH ns
cyHH caeunoro (eapeckoro) c6opa 24.000 p. ano 1oro. eueno 6mno ponyc1n1L
eapeea a pycckne rnHnasnn, ne c1ecnnncL uep1o ocepnoc1n, npnueH ceHec1aa eapeea
nonyuann npaao xn1L a 1ex ropopax, rpe yua1cn nx pe1n... e nHen Hyxec1aa
ynpaspnn1L uep1y ocepnoc1n n naansa1L occnn 6-Hnnnnonnoe napasn1noe nneHn,
npaan1enLc1ao aceHepno 6ypaanno a1y nno1nny n yc1panaano uenn ace a y6expennn,
u1o ono 1aopn1 6naroe peno. ocnepnnn Hepa, anpoueH, 6naropapn cnyuanoc1n ne
nonyunna ocyuec1anennn. nnnc1poH napopnoro npocaeuennn 6mn nasnauen rpaq
Hn1pn onc1o
[71]
. pn neH paaannckne yunnnua npeo6pasoaanm a eapeckne
yun1enLckne nnc1n1y1m, a nnsune eapeckne yunnnua 6mnn uac1Lk sakpm1m, uac1Lk
npeo6pasoaanm. akpm1ne eapecknx yunnnu, aHec1o 1oro u1o6m sapepxa1L, eue
6onee nop1onknyno eapeea noc1yna1L a pycckne rnHnasnn. aaepenneH aceo6ue
aonncko noannnoc1n, pakue 6onLune nLro1m no o6pasoaannk, pnn eapeea nannocL
noaoe aneprnueckoe no6yxpenne noc1yna1L a pycckne ukonm. 1o6m ennko aosHoxno
o6nerun1L eapecknH pe1nH noc1ynnenne a peanLnme yunnnua n rnHnasnn, 6mno
paspeueno nH noc1yna1L 6es aksaHena a nepam knacc, ecnn onn npounn ycneuno
nepame ue1mpe ropa nauanLnoro eapeckoro yunnnua. D1a nLro1a pepxanacL 13 ne1.
konue konuoa y eapeea cnoxnnocL neypepxnHoe c1peHnenne npoaopn1L uepes
rnHnasnk acex pe1e, n onpoc1oaonocnaueecn npaan1enLc1ao sapyHanocL: u1o xe a1o
snaun1? e npnunocL 6m 6n1L o16o. Hec1o 1oro u1o6m ycnnenno "1aun1L eapeea a
ukonm, ne npnunocL 6m "ne nyua1L nx 1ypa... npnunocL! cnn a 1865 ropy uncno
o6yuaaunxcn a rnHnasnnx eapeea poxopnno a occnn po 1mcnun, coc1aannn acero 3
1
/3
npouen1a, 1o uepes pecn1L ne1 a1o uncno yaennunnocL nou1n po nn1n 1mcnu, 1o ec1L po
9
1
/2 npouen1a acex yuaunxcn, a eue uepes pecn1L ne1 ono pouno po 7
1
/2 1mcnun, 1o
ec1L nou1n po 11 npouen1oa, npnueH neko1opme rnHnasnn a uep1e ocepnoc1n
aknkuann yxe po 19 npouen1oa eapeea. Bnaropapn uypecno nonn1nke npaan1enLc1aa
konnuec1ao eapeea a pyccknx ynnaepcn1e1ax sa 20 ne1 ampocno ne apaoe, ne a1poe, a
a uu pas! e1aqnsnkn n pesonepm a saespax, 1pypnaunecn nap
paspyuenneH uep1m ocepnoc1n, Hornn 6m1L poaonLnm pesynL1a1oH. no1nny
npopaano. pnsnan aonna xnmnyna a pycckyk ukony n...
osaonL1e npoun1npoaa1L cnoaa opnoro oqnunanLnoro pokyHen1a 1881 ropa:
"Xpnc1nanckoe knouec1ao ackope c1ano ncnm1maa1L na ce6e ace rn6enLnme
nocnepc1ann coaHec1noro o6yuennn c nepenonnnaunHn nasaannme yue6nme saaepennn
eapenHn, ko1opme anocnnn a ero cpepy pac1neaakuee kak a nonn1nueckoH, 1ak n a
npaac1aennoH o1nouennn annnnne. o1 nn1epecnm, ne npaapa nn, pesynL1a1 ycnnn
nauero npocaeuennoro npaan1enLc1aa. s coc1papannn k napasn1aH o1pann nH na
xep1ay caonx pe1e! anoxnnn ce6e sa nasyxy 1apan1ynoa - n ypnannncL, u1o
npnunocL ueca1Lcn!
Yxe a nauane 1880/81 yue6noro ropa ao Hnornx rnHnasnnx pecckoro okpyra
acnmxnynn 6ecnopnpkn, n okasanocL, u1o uc nM u-
. 1ex nop a 1euenne 29 ne1 6poxenne a pyccko ukone npe1 nou1n
nenpepmano, n rnaanmH 6popnnLnmH rpn6koH aespe okasmaak1cn eapen. nauana
1880-x ropoa naunnae1cn a1opan uac1L a1o qan1ac1nuecko nc1opnn, ne Henee
noc1mpnan, ueH nepaan. uenoHnennoe npaan1enLc1ao yxe 1pnpua1L ne1 nasap
nouyac1aoaano, u1o ono coaepunno konoccanLnyk rnynoc1L, npnHo npepa1enLckyk a
o1nouennn occnn, nckycc1aenno a1nnya eapec1ao a pycckyk ukony n npnHanna ero
pasnmHn co6nasnaHn a pycckoe o6uec1ao. nyunnocL 6ykaanLno 1o, u1o a neHeuko
ckaske: neyHnm uenoaek cyHen amsaa1L peHonoa n ne snan saknn1Ln, u1o6m nporna1L
nx. coc1aae caHoro npaan1enLc1aa naunnae1cn rny6oko nenpnrnnpnan 6opL6a sa
eapec1ao, pokasaauan, u1o rocypapc1aennoc1L naua 6mna yxe 1orpa oxaauena
ocao6opn1enLnmH pasnoxenneH. apyxno pa6onenc1ayn nepep Horyue aone
nekcanppa III, 1orpaunne Hnnnc1pm ace pyuo 6mnn npepannm kocHononn1nuecknH
npeanaH 6yp1o 6m "ryHannoc1n n nporpecca. aconcko-eapeckne anyuennn
eaponecko n naue neua1n yxe 1orpa acecnnLno anac1aoaann nap cna6mHn yHaHn.
napxnueckoe 6espasnnune, cknonnoc1L k nsHene aceHy popnoHy, u1o cospana
npnpopa n nc1opnn, yxe 1orpa sac1aannnn naunx Hnnnc1poa c1aan1L apony ao acex
cnyuanx amue occnn n cnyxn1L ne pyccko naunonanLnoc1n, a kako-1o
o6ueuenoaeuecko, a npnpope ne cyuec1aykue. opanLno anac1Lk nonLsoaanacL
paxe ne apona, a "ape-ona, 1a o6pa6o1annan xnpoac1aoH uac1L xpnc1nancko
aponm, ko1opan coc1aanne1 aaanrapp rpnpyuero eapeckoro uapc1aa.
Y6epnauncL a pasnoxennn caonx ukon n npnnncmaan ace sno "ncnopuennoc1n n
nary6noHy annnnnk yuennkoa-eapeea, noneun1enL okpyra aapoackn eue a 1881
ropy npocnn opny ns 1pex opeccknx rnHnasn o1pa1L eapenH, a a oc1anLnmx
orpannun1L npneH eapeea 10-npouen1no nopHo. 1oH xe pyxe xnono1an renepan-
ry6epna1op peccm ypko
[72]
. n npepnoxnn orpannun1L npneH eapeea "coo6pasno
uncnennoHy o1nouennk eapeea k o6ue Hacce nacenennn Hec1noc1n, pnn ko1opo
cyuec1aye1 yue6noe saaepenne. asanocL 6m, uero aennkopyunee! epL a1o n 6mno
6m nonnoe n, apnqHe1nueckn paanm paspen pyccko ukonm Hexpy
eapenHn n xpnc1nanaHn! nekcanpp III co6c1aennopyuno nanncan na a1oH Hec1e
o1ue1a ypko: H sk a x, a caHm o1ue1 noaenen anec1n a oHn1e1
Hnnnc1poa.
m pyHae1e, 1eH peno n konunnocL? as amckasanncL 1akne caepyune a pene anac1n,
kak Hec1nm noneun1enL n renepan-ry6epna1op, n pas nx Hnenne y1aeppnna
caHopepxaanan anac1L onapxa - snaun1, aonpoc peuen? ak 6m ne 1ak!
rny6ouaueHy necuac1Lk pyccko xnsnn, nn6epanLnan 6kpokpa1nn yxe 1orpa
qak1nueckn c1onna amue caHopepxaann. 1eopnn can1o aepyn a caon npaaa
aHopepxua, nHnepa1op nekcanpp III yc1ynan o6ueHy 1euennk yHoa, nonaraaueHy,
u1o okonua1enLnoe peuenne ne ponxno 6m1L epnnonnunmH. s 6naropopno
ckpoHnoc1n, coc1aannaue opny ns uep1 xapak1epa ocypapn, on nepoc1a1ouno
poaepnn ce6e - xo1n nenocpepc1aennm ronoc sppaaoro cHmcna n coaec1n uenoaeka,
uapc1aenno nenopkynnoro, n coc1aanne1 peuenne nan6onee aepnoe, 1o ec1L nanHenee
nopaepxennoe npnc1pac1nnH. Hnepa1op, yxe coc1aana ce6e "y6expenne - npn1oH
ne ronocnoanoe, a na ocnoaannn Ha1epnana nan6onee koHne1en1nmx a aonpoce nnu, -
1eH ne Henee nHen neoc1opoxnoc1L anec1n caok pesonkunk a oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa.
Y6expenne aHopepxua ec1L, kasanocL 6m, n, o6nsa1enLnoe pnn acex
anac1e, no y nac 1ak amuno, u1o nnsue nnc1anunn 6mno npepoc1aaneno "o6cyxpa1L
pesonkunk amcue n paxe aepxoano! OanLunao-nn6epanLnm oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa
1oro apeHenn cpenan anp, kak 6yp1o rocypapeao pesonkunn ne 6mno aoace, n peunn
nyc1n1L aonpoc a kanuennpckyk aonokn1y. orpa ne xo1n1 nnn ne yHek1 paspeun1L
peno, y nac ero ry6n1 nHenno a1nH neranLnmH cnoco6oH - o1nnxnaak1cn o1 nero,
cpak1 a kanuennpckyk Haunny. "osnaaan ack nac1on1enLnoc1L nsLncnennoro
aonpoca, oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa "ne cuen, opnako, aosHoxnmH ao1n a okonua1enLnoe
cyxpenne o uenecoo6pasnoc1n npepnaraeHo renepan-apLk1an1oH ypko Hepm... kak
aanpy necoHnenno sakonopa1enLnoro ee xapak1epa, 1ak n aanpy oco6nnao cnoxnoc1n
amsmaaeHmx ek coo6paxenn. XnsnL kpnuana o npec1ynnennn, npn1oH HaccoaoH, -
o6 o1paanennn pyccko ukonm eapec1aoH, a nn6epanLnme 6kpokpa1m n
na 1o, u1o6m o1nnca1Lcn 1akok 6ecc1mpno qpaso! anpy "oco6o cnoxnoc1n
aonpoca 1y1 6m, kasanocL, n naneuL na nero, n nocneun1L c nnH, no nn6epanLnme
npepa1enn occnn cynynn aonpoc nop cykno, 1o ec1L npepoc1aannn o6cypn1L ero
Hnnnc1py napopnoro npocaeuennn. aHe1L1e: yxe coc1onaueecn onpepenenne
caHopepxaano aonn cnepykuan nnsuan nnc1anunn, oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa, nepepae1 na
o6cyxpenne eue nnxaue - na o6cyxpenne opnoro Hnnnc1pa. nnnc1p, a caok
ouepepL, 6mn ouenL pap cnnxny1L aecL aonpoc na oco6yk koHnccnk, ko1opan 6mna
1orpa cosaana pnn nepecHo1pa pec1aykunx o eapenx sakonoa. D1a koHnccnn (rpaqa
. . anena
[73]
) nHena unenoH . . eoprneackoro, npepc1aan1enn Hnnnc1epc1aa
npocaeuennn, 6mauero 1orpa npepcepa1eneH Yue6noro koHn1e1a. ak anpn1e,
yponennoe knnsy "y6expenne ocypapn cnyc1nnocL eue opnok c1ynenLk nnxe.
oHnccnn rpaqa anena ne cneunna c pa6o1o, Hexpy 1eH ukonLno-eapeckne
6ecnopnpkn unn. o caHoe, u1o nncann aapoackn n ypko, nop1aeppnn cnepykun
renepan-ry6epna1op, renepan X. X. oon. oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa (yxe a 1885 ropy!)
npnnyxpen 6mn, no mcouaueHy noaenennk, eue pas o6pa1n1L na a1o annHanne.
"onpoc a1o1 nHee1 caHoe cepLesnoe snauenne, - nauan caok noayk o1nncky oHn1e1
Hnnnc1poa. - Hc sck n u s
cc aM s cM c-sM
m ukc a s cc .
"y, - cnpocn1 un1a1enL, - c1ano 6m1L, cornacno c paano amckasanno mcouaue
aone nyxno neHepnenno orpannun1L nannma eapeea? ak 6m ne 1ak! n6epanLnme
npepa1enn occnn peunnn eue pas: "o ao1n a o6cyxpenne cyuec1aa 1ex Hep, konHn
Hornn 6m 6m1L npepynpexpenm panLneune nocnepc1ann nsnoxennoro npnckop6noro
nanennn, oHn1e1 "ne cun1an 6naroapeHennmH... as cyuec1aye1 koHnccnn,
o6euaauan sa1nny1Lcn po a1oporo npnuec1ann, 1o oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa eue pas
o1nnxnyn xryun n c1paunm rocypapc1aennm aonpoc - 1ypa, a copnyk kopsnnky, a
koHnccnk...
D1o nponcxopnno ue1aep1L aeka 1oHy nasap, n nnueHepnme npepa1enn occnn yxe sa
rpo6oH; no ecnn ne 1enepeunee, 1o nospneuee no1oHc1ao npepac1 nHena nx
sacnyxennoHy npespennk. Yxe 1orpa uen peaonkunonnm nopkon nop occnk. a
nesacoxue kpoan apn-Hyuennka ero 6nnxaune, nonLsoaaaunecn ppyxecknH
poaepneH canoannkn yc1panaann nn1oHnnkn 6ypyuero 6yn1a n o1paannnn occnk upes
caHme pparouennme ee 1kann - uepes ukony, neua1L, epkoaL... "nn ne aepann, u1o
1aopnnn, - aspoxne1 nno cen1nHen1anLnm un1a1enL. onyc1nH a1o. o neko1opme
ns nnx, Hoxe1 6m1L, n aepann - a uyxyk pyuy ne aneseuL. cnn r-n yukoa o6Lnann
nepaano, u1o ry6epna1opm n renepan-ry6epna1opm naun 6mnn na copepxannn y
packonLnnkoa n eapeea, 1o a1o o6o6uenne c1papae1 npeyaennuenneH. o, u1o
neko1opme amcokne apHnnnc1pa1opm 6mnn aecLHa poc1ynnm pasnmH anpaH
eapeckoro nopkyna - a1o, k necuac1Lk, cnnukoH 6eccnopno. occnk ne 1onLko
n, no n n...
OanLunao-nn6epanLnm oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa xopouo snan, u1o a amcue koHnccnn
rpaqa anena eapeckn aonpoc nonape1 a ppyxeckne pykn. "6uan sanncka
koHnccnn canpe1enLc1aye1, u1o 1aH rocnopc1aoaan anonne "o6pesannm 1on
1orpaunero apeHenn. "oxe1 nn rocypapc1ao, - sanannna koHnccnn, - o1nocn1Lcn k
nn1nHnnnnonnoHy nacenennk, k
1
/20 uac1n acex caonx noppannmx (xo1n n
npnnapnexaunx k uyxpo 6onLunnc1ay pace), ko1opyk ono caHo npno6unno aHec1e c
o6n1aeHo ek 1eppn1opne k pycckoHy rocypapc1aennoHy 1eny, nnaue, ueH ko aceH
oc1anLnmH caonH noppannmH, a coc1aa ko1opmx axopn1 Hnorne caHme pasnoo6pasnme
nneHena a aecLHa snaun1enLnmx paxe pasHepax?.. sakon nau, n uyac1ao
cnpaaepnnaoc1n, n nayka rocypapc1aennoro npaaa noyuak1 nac, u1o ace noppannme
ro Hnepa1opckoro ennuec1aa nonLsyk1cn o6unH nokpoan1enLc1aoH sakonoa, ace
onn nHek1 opnnakoame rpaxpanckne npaaa, ace onn nonLsyk1cn cao6opok
nepecenennn n xn1enLc1aa.
nnnueckan noxL a1nx cnoa, aepon1no, cun1anacL npaapo 6onLunnc1aoH unenoa
amcue koHnccnn. onynnopopueckan, o6ecuaeuennan n o6ecnnoxennan He1aqnsnko
nn1ennnrenunn naua cepLesno pyHae1, u1o n sakon, n cnpaaepnnaoc1L, n nayka - sa
paanonpaane eapeea. o paxe npoc1o Hyxnk Hor 6m ckasa1L rpaqy aneny: "aueH
nra1L, aaue cnn1enLc1ao, 6yp1o ace noppannme ocypapn nHek1 opnnakoame
rpaxpanckne npaaa? m paopnnnn, n Hyxnk - pasae y nac opnnakoame rpaxpanckne
npaaa? asae y nac c aaHn opnnakoaan "cao6opa nepecenennn" n "cao6opa
xn1enLc1aa"? sakon, n cnpaaepnnaoc1L, n nayka npaaa ao acex c1panax npnsnak1
1mcnun nepaaenc1a. a n 1o ckasa1L, ecnn 6m ao aceH 6mno paaenc1ao, 1o saueH nyxen
6mn 6m n sakon, n cnpaaepnnaoc1L, n nayka? nn aepL 1onLko n cyuec1ayk1 pnn 1oro,
u1o6m onpepenn1L nepaaenc1aa. oueHy aac 1ak 1peaoxn1 acnkoe orpannuenne
eapeea, korpa kopennoe pycckoe nneHn nokopno nece1 caHme pasnoo6pasnme
orpannuennn? ac aosHyuae1 1o, u1o Hec1nme anac1n n ocypapL xo1enn 6m noc1aan1L
neko1opme nperpapm xnpaH, coaepuenno sanononnaunH pycckyk ukony. m cun1ae1e
a1o ockop6nenneH eapeckoro naunonannsHa. o kak xe Hm, pycckne kpec1Lnne,
cospa1enn rocypapc1aa n ero saun1nnkn, 1epnnH, u1o ne 1onLko nsaec1nm npouen1,
no 6ykaanLno nn opnn kpec1Lnnckn HanLunk ne Hoxe1 6m1L ponyuen a 1e kasennme
yue6nme saaepennn, rpe aocnn1maak1cn pe1n aauero cnn1enLc1aa? nocne a1oro y
aac noaopaunaae1cn nsmk y1aepxpa1L, 6yp1o n sakon, n cnpaaepnnaoc1L, n nayka
npnsnak1 npaaa?
accypky aonpekn, nanepekop c1nxnnH nn6epanLnan amcuan koHnccnn rpaqa anena
npnsnana, u1o "c rocypapc1aenno 1oukn spennn eape ponxen 6mn paanonpaaen. e
paaan eHy opnnakoamx npaa, nenLsn, co6c1aenno, 1pe6oaa1L n ncnonnennn
opnnakoamx rocypapc1aennmx o6nsannoc1e. a paspaaaaueecn n 1orpa saHeuanne,
u1o eape n ne pyHae1 o6 M ncnonnennn rocypapc1aennmx o6nsannoc1e,
koHnccnn npepnarana npecnepoaa1L eapen cypoH (nun, Hon, ae1pa a none) - "no
nopo6nan ka1eropnn npoc1ynkoa ne ponxna nnua1L eapen 1ex ocnoa, na ko1opmx
snxpe1cn ero 6m1ne, ero paanonpaane kak noppannoro, ero cao6opa kak rpaxpannna.
o1 c kako c1pac1noc1Lk o1c1anaann naue xnpoac1ao pycckne 1anme n
pec1an1enLnme 1anme kape1m eue ue1aep1L aeka nasap.
III
27
pepn rpy6o-6ec1ak1no 6on1oann, ko1opo naun kape1m 1-ro n 2-ro cop1a
o1nnunnncL a onpone, nk6onm1na noxaanL6a r-na nnkkoaa: "oka pycckan
ocypapc1aennan yHa oc1ane1cn sakonopa1enLno, onnosnunn a ne 6ype1
onnosnune ro ennuec1aa, a ne ro ennuec1ay. pyrnHn cnoaaHn, eapen, kape1m,
nonnkn, HycynLHane n peaonkunonepm pasnmx o11enkoa 6ypy1 npo1nan1Lcn ne
onapxy, a npaan1enLc1ay onapxa, kak 6m o1 ero nHenn. mxopn1 neaepon1nan
uenyxa. yxpae1cn nn pycckn ocypapL a peaonkunonepax n nnopopuax, u1o6m aec1n
onnosnunk npo1na nasnauaeHoro nH ka6nne1a, paaan nn on nonnoHounn npec1ynnmH n
nonynpec1ynnmH nap1nnH - o6 a1oH r-n nnkkoa ckpoHno yHanunaae1. n1a1enn
o6nsanm c a1nx nop pyHa1L, u1o am6oprckoe aossaanne (pepakunn ko1oporo
npnnncmaae1cn r-ny nnkkoay) ec1L ak1 "onnosnunn ro ennuec1aa. ossaanne ne
nna1n1L ocypapk nanoroa n ne paaa1L conpa1, paano kak HonL6m kape1cko nap1nn a
apone ne paaa1L occnn nn qpanka asaHm, paano kak naHen1aunn r-na nnkkoaa a
Hepnke, - ace a1o pennnn "onnosnunn ro ennuec1aa! ak kak ns cpepm
napnaHen1cko onnosnunn 1- n 2- yH amuen arpapnm 6yn1 n saroaop na xnsnL
ocypapn, 1o a1o 1oxe ak1m "onnosnunn ro ennuec1aa?
nasaanno neneno qpase r-na nnkkoaa nk6onm1na ne npepnaHepennan noxL -
xo1n 6m aennuauero unnnsHa; nk6onm1na Hanepa nauero nesyn1ckoro nn6epannsHa
npn1aopn1Lcn 6naronaHepennmH, apxnnonnLnmH, sakonoHepnmH, "6es nec1n
npepannmH onapxy opnoapeHenno c coaepuenno o6pa1no npak1nuecko
nonn1nko. ape1m nesy1 k anac1n c nouenyeH n na1paannaak1 na nee pasLnpennmx
caonx "ocnoa. pno pyko o6nnHak1 anac1L, ppyro - nackoao pyua1. akan
"onnosnunn ro ennuec1aa yc1anoannacL y nac paano, sa pecn1kn ne1 po nocnepne
peaonkunn. HpknH npnHepoH ee 6mno noaepenne oHn1e1a Hnnnc1poa n amcue
koHnccnn rpaqa anena, co6panno a 1880-x ropax no eapeckoHy aonpocy. ecHo1pn
na 1o u1o Hnnnc1paH n koHnccnn npeaocxopno 6mno nsaec1no "y6expenne ocypapn
o1nocn1enLno npouen1no nopHm eapeea a ukonax n o1nocn1enLno uep1m ocepnoc1n,
canoanme kape1m n 1orpa nso acex cnn c1onnn sa paanonpaane.
oaepuenno 1onoH r-na nnkkoaa amcuan koHnccnn sanannna:
"aHa nc1opnn sakonopa1enLc1aa... yun1 nac, u1o cyuec1aye1 nnuL opnn ncxop n opnn
ny1L (npaapa, Hepnennm n noc1enennm) - a1o ny1L ocao6opn1enLnm n
o6Lepnnnkun eapeea co aceH nacenenneH nop cenLk opnnx n 1ex xe sakonoa. 6o
aceH a1oH canpe1enLc1aye1 ne 1eopnn nnn pok1pnna, no xnaan c1one1nnn npak1nka.
"epno nn a1o? - cnpocn1 un1a1enL. n a Haneue c1enenn, koneuno, ne aepno.
nc1opnn, n nayka nnuero nopo6noro ne roaopn1. nn y1aepxpak1 neu1o o6pa1noe, no
a1n cnoaeukn - "nc1opnn, "nayka - yno1pe6nnk1cn naunHn nonn1nuecknHn
nesyn1aHn coaepuenno kak a koHepnn c1poackoro "He1ann n "xynen. acue1,
anpn1e nn, nexn1pm. ocn1enn anac1n, saaanennme rocypapc1aennmHn penaHn, Hoxe1
6m1L, ne un1ann Hnoro1oHnmx nccnepoaann no eapecko nc1opnn n no1oHy noaepn1
amcue koHnccnn na cnoao. c nu - paanonpaane. 1 nHenn
"nc1opnn sakonopa1enLc1aa n "naykn epxoanyk anac1L 6kpokpa1nn npnnnpana k
c1ene. o nekcanpp III, koneuno, noHnnn, u1o 6mnn a nc1opnn n ppyro "ncxop, n
ppyro ny1L, nanpnHep "ncxop ns rnn1a n ny1L aon ns c1panm, rpe eapen
pasHnoxnnncL a onacno c1enenn. anecenm a nc1opnk n ppyrne ncxopm, no nepam
oc1ancn na ace aeka knaccnuecknH no ryHannoc1n n npoc1o1e. e "c1one1nnn
npak1nka, kak nrana amcuan koHnccnn, a ue1mpex1mcnuene1nnn npak1nka no
eapeckoHy aonpocy y6expae1, u1o paanonpaane eapeea acerpa paanocnnLno saxaa1y
nHn acex npenHyuec1a, npnueH 6ykaanLno ace napopm okasmaak1cn npn a1oH ycnoann
a ka6ane eapecko. ce npaan1enLc1aa naunnak1 c 1oro, u1o npo6yk1 ny1eH
paanonpaann cnn1L eapeea c Hec1nmH nacenenneH, n nn opnoHy a1o ne ypaaanocL.
nenoc1nxnHo nananoc1Lk amcuan koHnccnn rpaqa anena opnoapeHenno 1pe6oaana
paanonpaann pnn eapeea n npepynpexpana, u1o6m o cnnnnnn eapeea npaan1enLc1ao n
ne pyHano. "paan1enLc1ao ne ponxno yaneka1Lcn napexpaHn na aosHoxnoc1L nonno
accnHnnnunn eapeea c oc1anLnmH nacenenneH. ccnHnnnunn a1a nnrpe ne poc1nrny1a
n nnkorpa poc1nrny1a ne 6ype1 acnepc1ane cnnukoH pesknx o1nnun ceHn1nuecko
pacm, a no1oHy nsnnune sapaaa1Lcn nec6m1ounmHn napexpaHn...
ak aaH a1o npaan1cn? o aepL ecnn nnoc1panuy npaan1enLc1ao pae1 paanonpaane
(npaaa na1ypannsaunn), 1o nnuL a y6expennn, u1o on npnnnn nnn na ny1n k 1oHy,
u1o6m nckpenno npnnn1L noayk naunonanLnoc1L, accnHnnnpoaa1L ce6n c Hec1nmH
nacenenneH, cnn1Lcn c nnH a .rocypapc1aennmx cnHna1nnx, nsmke, kynL1ype n,
nakoneu, a caHo kpoan caoero no1oHc1aa. cnn 6m nnoc1paneu 1pe6oaan
na1ypannsaunn n, nopo6no eapenH, oc1aannn yaepennoc1L, u1o on n ero no1oHc1ao
naacerpa oc1any1cn coaepuenno oco6o naunonanLnoc1n, oco6o aepm n kpoan, - 1o
6mna nn 6m xo1L 1enL cHmcna paaa1L 1akoHy nnoc1panuy npaaa na1ypannsaunn?
cnkn napop ec1L xnaoe 1eno. 1o 6m xnaoe 1eno nn npnnnHano a ce6n, ono
npnnnHae1 nop payHn c1pornHn ycnoannHn: npnnn1oe ponxno 6m1L nnn ycaoeno, nnn
am6poueno aon. eycaoneHme nnopopnme npepHe1m, ko1opme nenLsn am6pocn1L,
o6nekak1cn a 1ene narnoenneH, kak sanosm, u1o6m ny1eH xo1n 6m xryunx c1papann
ocao6opn1Lcn o1 nnx, nnn saHypoamaak1cn a nsaec1koao kancyne, 1o ec1L a c1poro
nenepexopnHo uep1e ocepnoc1n. e coc1aanne1 nn aepx narnoc1n co c1oponm
canoanmx kape1oa 1pe6oaa1L, u1o6m pycckn napop npnnnn a cao oprannsH saaepoHo
neycaoneHoe nneHn, npn1oH napasn1noe a onacno c1enenn? cnn ne nanoe
npepa1enLc1ao, 1o caHan nounan Hannnoaunna ckaosn1 a pasrnaronLc1aoaannn
amcue koHnccnn o 1oH, u1o "npncoepnnennme k rocypapc1aennoHy 1eny napopnoc1n,
coxpannn cao aneunn n any1pennn o6nnk, co ace nckpennoc1Lk n npepannoc1Lk
cnyxa1 6naropenc1ank, aennunk n cnaae o6uero o1euec1aa, cosnaaan ce6n ero
xnamHn n pen1enLnmHn unenaHn. D1o nncanocL a anoxy, korpa npnanpum a nrnnn,
nonnkn a epHannn, cnaanne a ac1pnn paaann, kasanocL 6m, poc1a1ounm Ha1epnan
pnn cyxpennn o6 "nckpennoc1n n npepannoc1n HanenLknx napopnoc1e "o6ueHy
o1euec1ay.
onLko HenLunnc1ao amcue koHnccnn cornacnnocL yc1anoan1L nsaec1nyk nopHy
npneHa eapeea a pycckne ukonm. "BonLunnc1ao (8 unenoa npo1na 5 aHec1e c
npepcepa1eneH) npnsnaaano yc1anoanenne kako-nn6o npouen1no nopHm kpane
neypo6nmH, kak Hepy nponsaonLnyk, necnpaaepnnayk no o1nouennk k xopounH
yuennkaH ns eapeea n no1oHy nenaanc1nyk, ko1opyk aecLHa nerko 6mno 6m
nc1onkoaa1L kak npecnepoaanne eapeea, nx nneHenn n pennrnn. uero 6on1cn nyue
ornn naun amcokonpeaocxopn1enLnme nnueHepm - a1o 1oro, kak 6m k1o ne
"nc1onkoaan nx noaepennn a ne6naronpnn1noH pnn eapec1aa cHmcne.
H ne 6ypy oc1anaannaa1Lcn na qanLunamx, kpane HexeyHounmx noc1anoanennnx
koHnccnn rpaqa anena no ukonLno-eapeckoHy aonpocy. ak ouenL Hnorne naun
amcune koHnccnn n oco6me coaeuannn, koHnccnn rpaqa anena nannacL Hnorone1ne
o6c1pykune ro ennuec1ay, kanuennpcknH 1opHosoH pnn ampaxennoro onapxoH
y6expennn, nonm1ko noxoponn1L ak1 epxoano coaec1n n anac1n a 6yHaxno-
6kpokpa1nuecko Hornne. o Hnepa1op nekcanpp III 6mn xnao uenoaek. oxe1
6m1L, eHy napoeno xpa1L Hyppmx unnoannuLnx peuenn uepes neonpepenennoe uncno
ne1, korpa xnsnL kpnuana o neHepnenno noHoun, a Hoxe1 6m1L, xn1pm Haneap
kasennmx nn6epanoa 6mn ocypapeH saHeuen. o mcouaueHy noaenennk eue a
nauane 1882 ropa nauanocL orpannuenne npneHa eapeea a pasnme ukonm, naunnan c
oenno-Hepnunncko akapeHnn. apen po 1oro sanononnnn aoenno-apaue6noe
aepoHc1ao, u1o npnunocL ne 1onLko orpannun1L, no n coaceH npekpa1n1L npneH
eapeea. o xe nponsouno c aepoHc1aoH ny1e coo6uennn, o1uac1n c ropnmH n
npounHn. anpy pasanaakuerocn peaonkunonnoro 6poxennn a ukonax npaan1enLc1ay
nyxno 6mno cneun1L. nnnc1epc1ao any1pennnx pen, nanpnHep, posnano, u1o
umc c1ypen1oa-eapeea XapLkoackoro ynnaepcn1e1a n ae1epnnapnoro
nnc1n1y1a c nc , a sanncmaae1cn a c1ypen1m 1onLko pnn 1oro,
u1o6m ns6exa1L aonncko noannnoc1n n nHe1L npaao xn1L a XapLkoae, rpe onn
sannHak1cn 1oproamHn npepnpnn1nnHn, coc1aannn aHec1e c 1eH kpane nenapexnm a
npaac1aennoH n nonn1nueckoH o1nouennn aneHen1. y6epna1opm (nanpnHep,
xapLkoackn e1poa) npoponxann ponocn1L o pac1neaakueH annnnnn eapeea-
yuennkoa na pycckyk yuauykcn HonopexL. oHn1e1y Hnnnc1poa npnunocL "anpepL po
y1aepxpennn o6unx npaann npepoc1aan1L Hnnnc1py napopnoro npocaeuennn
6opo1Lcn c nannmaoH eapec1aa a ukonm no ero ycHo1pennk. "1paxa papn nypecka
a1o nonoxenne oHn1e1a Hnnnc1poa, xo1n n mcouaue y1aepxpennoe 5 peka6pn 1886
ropa, ony6nnkoaano ne 6mno n a aop sakonoa ne aouno. Oak1nueckan anac1L, u1o
kacae1cn 6kpokpa1nn, n 1orpa 6mna nou1n cnnouL a nnopopuecknx pykax. ennnoay,
kak apHnnnny, nrpaaueHy npn1oH na ryHannmx uyac1aax, anpnHo, xo1enocL yropn1L
Hnepa1opy, no ne xo1enocL 6pa1L na ce6n o1ae1c1aennoc1n nepep eapenHn. ennnoa
aouen c npepc1aanenneH a oHn1e1 Hnnnc1poa o6 onpepenenno nopHe npneHa
eapeea, no oHn1e1 yknonnncn o1 1oro, u1o6m nokpm1L a1o npepnoxenne caoe
anac1Lk. "pnnnHan ao annHanne, u1o ony6nnkoaanne ao aceo6uee caepenne
orpannun1enLnmx pnn eapeea noc1anoanenn Horno 6m 6m1L nenpaannLno
nc1onkoaano. oHn1e1 naxopnn, u1o npecnepyeHan npaan1enLc1aoH uenL orpaxpennn
yue6nmx saaepenn o1 nsnnunero nannmaa nnu eapeckoro nponcxoxpennn Hoxe1
6m1L c 6onLunH ycnexoH poc1nrny1a ny1eH uac1nmx pacnopnxenn... Hnnnc1pa
napopnoro npocaeuennn. uenn1e 1pycoc1L, nano npocaeunaakuyk ckaosL a1o1
1nryun kanuennpckn nsmk! pycoc1L, noHnoxennan na 6espapnoc1L, - ao1
nopknapka qanLunao-nn6epanLno npeaocxopn1enLno onnosnunn ro ennuec1aa.
Henno ona sa1nnyna nac a peaonkunonnm oHy1.
1 nknn ncnonnne1cn 22 ropa co apeHenn pennnoackoro unpkynnpa o npouen1no a
o1nouennn eapeea nopHe a ynnaepcn1e1ax. cnep sa 1eH yc1anoanena 6mna nopHa pnn
ppyrnx amcunx n cpepnnx ukon. esynL1a1m nopHnpoaouno nonn1nkn 1enepL nannuo.
Y npaan1enLc1aa nauero, napannsoaannoro nnopopuaHn, nnkorpa ne 6mno Hyxec1aa,
u1o6m asrnnny1L na aonpoc npnHo. pno ns payx: nnn eapen ne onacnm, n 1orpa nopHa
npneHa a ukonm ne nHee1 cHmcna; nnn eapen onacnm, n 1orpa nopHa 1oxe ne nHee1
cHmcna.
nacnoc1L eapeea aepL a 1oH, u1o a1o ns uenoaeueckn 1nn, oco6an nopopa
co aceHn c1poro onpepenennmHn a 6nonornn napasn1nmHn kauec1aaHn. npaunaae1cn,
kakan aosHoxna nopHa pnn ponyuennn napasn1oa? konLko nHenno 6nox nnn knonoa
am cun1ae1e neo6xopnHmH pepxa1L a caoe cnanLne? aepyune nkpn roaopn1, u1o
yxe opno nacekoHoe Hoxe1 ncnop1n1L nepanoHy uenoaeky ack nouL. pnn kako-
nn6ypL Hnkpo6, nonaaun a 6naronpnn1nme pnn nero ycnoann, pasHnoxae1cn a
uaxo1ky nnn uyHy. Hcno, u1o epnnc1aenno pasyHno nopHo npneHa eapeea a coc1aa
pyccko ukonm n pycckoro o6uec1aa ponxen 6m1L o npouen1oa. D1o o1aeuae1 amcue
cnpaaepnnaoc1n, ko1opan npepnncmaae1 saunua1L caok xnsnL. o ennnoa
[74]
aaen
10 npouen1oa a uep1e ocepnoc1n, 5 npouen1oa - ane a1o uep1m, 3 npouen1a - a
c1onnuax, 1o ec1L on npnnnn npn6nnsn1enLno nopHy nneHennoro pacnpepenennn
eapeea. konLko Bor nocnan a1oro npa, c1onLko - nonno Hepo - kaxpan uac1L
occnn o6nsmaanacL npnnn1L ero. apo saHe1n1L, u1o ane uep1m ocepnoc1n npouen1
eapeea napae1 po opnoro-payx, c1ano 6m1L, ypaoennan n Y1poennan nopHa nannnacL
ne orpannuenneH, a nLro1o, ycnoaneH, amsmaakunH nannma eapec1aa ns-sa uep1m.
Xn1pm ennnoa opno pyko aaopnn "orpannuennn, a ppyrok cnnHan nx. e panee
kak uepes paa ropa nocne aaepennn nopHm, a 1889 ropy, ennnoa paspeunn
noneun1ennH yue6nmx okpyroa paspeua1L npneH nyuunx ns yuennkoa-eapeea c
M. ycnokoenne anac1n 6mno noc1aaneno ycnoane, u1o6m a11ec1a1m
npnnnHaeHmx caepx nopHm eapeea nHenn "ouenL xopoune o1He1kn. a ycnokoenne
eapeea 1y1 xe pasLncnnnocL, u1o o6un amaop ns acex "ouenL xopounx o1He1ok
ponxen 6m1L ne Henee 3
1
/2... akoaa onnosnunonnan nso6pe1a1enLnoc1L! pn
eapecko narnoc1n n 6ecuncnennmx cnoco6ax nopnora k1o xe ns rnHnasnc1oa-eapeea
ne a coc1onnnn nonyun1L "a cpepneH 3
1
/2? 1ano 6m1L, qak1nueckn yxe uepes paa
ropa nocne nspannn "nopHm ona 6mna 1eH xe rpaqoH ennnoamH o1Henena, n nnk1o
a1oro cpepn npaan1enLc1aa ne saHe1nn. ano 1oro, 1o1 xe Hnnnc1p a 1892 ropy
pacnopnpnncn, u1o6m nepeaop yuennkoa-eapeea ns knacca a knacc nponsaopnncn ne
coo6paxancL c nopHo, a a 1896 ropy npouen1nme nopHm npepnncmaanocL o1nocn1L ko
aceHy uncny yuaunxcn, a ne k uncny noc1ynakunx a pannoH ropy. noaoH, ryHannm
apHnnnn qopHanLno amnonnnn aonk nekcanppa III, no qak1nueckn caen ee k nynk.
o1 u1o nasmaae1cn y nac onnosnune ro ennuec1aa! Henno ennnoay, xn1pan
npepannoc1L ko1oporo onapxy 6mna yaenuana rpaqcknH 1n1ynoH, naua ukona
o6nsana ocao6opn1enLnmH pasaanoH. peeHnnky ennnoaa Boronenoay
[75]
npnunocL
caoe kpoaLk cHmaa1L pesynL1a1m nesyn1cko nonn1nkn. Boronenoa 6mn y6n1 nHenno
sa o1Heny pennnoackoro unpkynnpa, o1kpmauero eapenH unksm a amcuyk ukony.
Hennaun ero annoackn
[76]
1o1uac no ac1ynnennn a ponxnoc1L yanpan, u1o
"npouen1 yuennkoa-eapeea ao Hnornx yue6nmx saaepennnx snaun1enLno npeamuae1
yc1anoanennyk nopHy, n c Hyxec1aoH aoennoro uenoaeka npnnnncn aocc1anoann1L
nopnpok. 1o6m coaceH npekpa1n1L npneH eapeea, npaan1enLc1ao naue nnkorpa ne
na6epe1cn xpa6poc1n, no annoackn uen k 1oHy, cokpa1na nopHy npneHa eapeea na
1pe1L. e npouno n ropa nocne a1oro - n noam Hnnnc1p npocaeuennn r-n enrep
[77]
c1ep, 1ouno ry6ko, ace pacnopnxennn annoackoro. n6epanLnm Hnnnc1p
aocc1anoann ace pennnoackne nopHm n unpkynnpm. D1o cnnckano eHy na opnn HoHen1
uyHnyk nonynnpnoc1L cpepn 6yn1oaaaue Honopexn. ennnoackne nopHm pec1ayk1
n po cnx nop. 1o kacae1cn cpepnnx yue6nmx saaepenn, 1o cnepykun nn6epanLnm
rnaaa Hnnnc1epc1aa, r-n ykLnnoa
[78]
, a nepnop, korpa a kauec1ae 1oaapnua Hnnnc1pa
on ynpaannn npocaeuenneH, o6c1aann npneH eapeea "pnpoH 1aknx ycnoan, ko1opme
pak1 unpokn npoc1op o6xopn1L a1y nopHy na sakonnoH ocnoaannn. D1o ne Hon
cnoaa, a opnoro aecLHa oqnunanLnoro pokyHen1a. ueH coc1on1 a1n ycnoann, rnacn1
unpkynnp r-na ykLnnoaa o1 26 nknn 1903 ropa. expy npounH, ecnn 6m a rnHnasnnx
okasanncL cao6opnme aakancnn, r-n ykLnnoa paspeunn npnnnHa1L eapeea n caepx
npouen1no nopHm. apeea, okonunaunx npornHnasnn n uec1nknaccnme peanLnme
yunnnua, npepnoxeno npnnnHa1L "6es npnHenennn k nnH npaann o npouen1noH
orpannuennn. npnro1oan1enLnme knaccm uncno noc1ynakunx eapeea npepnoxeno
nponsaopn1L nesaancnHo o1 uncna noc1ynakunx a nopHanLnme knaccm, npn nepexope
xe a nepam knacc yuennkn-eapen ne ponxnm nopaepra1Lcn pec1ank
orpannun1enLnmx npaann. 1ano 6m1L, n caepxy, n cnnsy, n a cepLHoH knacce, n a
npnro1oan1enLnoH, n a nepaoH - ackpy npepoc1aanenm 6mnn nasekn pnn
nponnknoaennn kpknx cmnoae spannn.
. . ykLnnoa, 1enepeunn o6ep-npokypop an1euero nnopa, no-anpnHoHy,
paspenne1 coaepuenno oun6ounoe npnc1pac1ne n. . onoaLeaa k eapeckoHy
nneHenn. n. onoaLea 6mn noa1 n coaepuennm pe6enok a npak1nuecko xnsnn. o
ncanHaH aanpa on pacnonoxen 6mn cypn1L o eapecknx poc1oaunuecknx aekcennx,
ro1oa 6mn npoc1n1L nH ack nx yxacakuyk peanLnoc1L. -ny ykLnnoay, pas on - k
cuac1Lk nnn necuac1Lk o1euec1aa - nonan ns apaue a rocypapc1aennme nkpn,
cnepoaano 6m 1pesaee asaeunaa1L nocnepc1ann caonx unpkynnpoa. pesynL1a1e
o6c1pyk1nano a o1nouennn npen nekcanppa III nonn1nkn a ukonLno-eapeckoH
aonpoce npaan1enLc1ao naue caHo cospano eapeckoe peaonkunonnoe 6poxenne.
1apancL a1nny1L a pycckne ukonm n pycckyk nn1ennnrenunk aosHoxno 6onLuee
uncno eapeea, npaan1enLc1ao amsaano rpoHapnm nannma a1oro nneHenn, a nonm1kn
orpannun1L a1o1 nannma, nonm1kn nnueHepnme n neyc1ouname, noaenn k 6yn1y
eapecko Honopexn. ycckan HonopexL npn a1oH cmrpana ponL rnynoro 1ec1a,
ko1opoe nopnnHae1cn ueno1ko ppoxxe. ak 6nnc1a1enLno cnepnnn saesponocnme
unnoannkn sa ncnonnenneH mcouaue y1aepxpenno nopHm, pokasmaak1 cnepykune
unqpm.
1905 ropy eapeea 6mno a ynnaepcn1e1ax:
a e1ep6yprckoH (aHec1o 3%) 5, 6%
a ockoackoH 4, 5%
a XapLkoackoH 12, 1%
a asanckoH 6, 1%
a oHckoH 8, 3%
a KpLeackoH 9, 0%
a neackoH (aHec1o 10%) 17, 2%
a apuaackoH 38, 7%
a oaopoccnckoH 17, 6%
ocne peaonkunn 1905 ropa eapen xnmnynn a pycckne ukonm unpoko aonno.
e1ep6yprckn ynnaepcn1e1 npnnnn a 1906 ropy nou1n 18 npouen1oa eapeea (aHec1o 3
npouen1oa), XapLkoackn - okono 23 npouen1oa, neackn - 23 npouen1a,
oaopoccnckn - 33 npouen1a, apuaackn (a 1905 r.) - 46 npouen1oa. pn6aaL1e
k a1oHy 1ak nasmaaeHmx aonLnocnyua1ene-eapeea n aonLnocnyua1enLnnu (Hexpy
nocnepnnHn eapeek 6mno 33 npouen1a). npounoH ropy a cpepneH eapen sannHann
nou1n 12 npouen1oa acero pycckoro c1ypenuec1aa.
ak kak eapeckoe nneHn coc1aanne1 acero 4 npouen1a o6uero nacenennn Hnepnn,
1o, c1ano 6m1L, "ronnHoe nneHn 6naropapn naue npaan1enLc1aenno nonn1nke,
coc1onaue a "onnosnunn ro ennuec1ay, ycneno sann1L um Hec1 a
amcue ukone, ueH 1pe6ye1cn npee paanonpaann. a nec1nnue acex o6uec1aennmx
kapLep, na ny1n, aepyueH k peanLno anac1n, eapen saxaa1nnn no 1pn c1ynenn na
kaxpyk opny c1ynenL, sann1yk pyccknH nneHeneH. ocnepnnn uenL "onnosnunn ro
ennuec1aa - coaceH c1onkny1L napopnoc1L pycckyk c nc1opnuecko poporn n o1pa1L
aennuauyk ns xpnc1nancknx nHnepn ao anac1L rocnopaH epraHen1aH n
nnaaepaH...

28
uepa Hnepnn naue ncnonnnnocL 200 ne1. e a nu1ap1e, ne a e1ep6ypre, a a
on1aae no6epnmH rpoHoH nyuek npoaosrnauena Hnepnn e1pa ennkoro. nnue
no6epn1enn n ero repoea Hm, o1panennoe n 6eccnaanoe no1oHc1ao, ponxnm nou1n1L
npexpe acero 1orpaunkk occnk, 1orpaunnx npepkoa naunx, 1orpaunn napop
pycckn, nponanaun ncknkun1enLnme, 6ora1mpckne caoc1aa. e opnn e1p opepxan
no6epy nap apnoH XII - e1p uen ao rnaae popno eHy n neo1pennHo occnn.
Ypnan1enLnan ronoaa na ypnan1enLnoH 1ene! x nenLsn paccHa1pnaa1L o1penLno, onn
- opno.
H aoace ne cneno noknonnnk e1pa ennkoro. noroe a a1oH rennanLnoH uape Hne
kaxe1cn c1pannmH, npeppaccypounmH, oun6ounmH a onacno c1enenn, no, koneuno,
ne ceropnn roaopn1L o6 a1oH. asae ne 1o xe uyac1ao aos6yxpae1 n occnn, n kaxpm
ns ee aennknx nkpe? o u1o Henn nckpenno aocxnuae1 a e1pe - ero aneprnn n
necokpyunHm pyx. aapua1L ne1 aec1n opny aony n ne yc1a1L! aapua1L ne1
pepxa1L caoe o1euec1ao nop kouHapoH nauec1ann; paapua1L ne1 ac1aaa1L y1poH n
acnoHnna1L: y Henn - aona! nn a1oro nyxnm npnHo neuenoaeueckne nepam. ak
nsaec1no, y e1pa 6mno poc1a1ouno xnono1 n aennknx saHmcnoa noHnHo aonm. ona
eHy Heuana, aona cny1maana ero any1pennkk n aneunkk nonn1nky. e1p 6mn aoace
ne ns uncna 1ex nonkoaopuea, u1o - apope esapn, anoneona, yaopoaa - ronnk1cn
sa aoenno cnaao. ona anauane 6mna no1exo, no1oH amropno aaan1kpo,
nakoneu - neo6xopnHoc1Lk rocypapc1aenno, a aoace ne peHecnoH e1pa. n ne 6mn
saaoeaa1eneH. ansaauncL a aony c apnoH, on 1nro1nncn ek - nnorpa nac1onLko,
u1o ro1oa 6mn yc1ynn1L uaepaH kopenno pycckn ckoa, nnuL 6m onn yc1ynnnn eHy
yc1Le eam. o kak e1p nn 1nro1nncn aono, on ne nosaonnn ce6e
cHanopyuec1aoaa1L n 6pocn1L 1nxenoe peno no1oHy 1onLko, u1o ono 1nxeno. "e no
cnnaH? - nsyHnne1cn rennanLnm uenoaek. - y 1ak n xe 1e6n oponek! penn1c1ann
na 1o n cospanm, u1o6m npeoponeaa1L nx. nn a1oro 1pe6ye1cn apeHn, c1pac1noe
annHanne n 1anan1. oe-u1o cpenaaun pnn naykn Bkqqon onpepennn renn kak
1epnenne. Dpncon, 1oxe koe-u1o cospaaun, ckasan, u1o a ero pa6o1e "paa npouen1a
rennn n 98 npouen1oa no1ennn. e1p o6napan anyuenneH 6oroa - porapko n, caepx
1oro, c1pauno n ponroapeHenno nac1ounaoc1Lk. akoam xe 6mnn ero 6nnxaune
cnopanxnnkn. ako xe 6mna 1orpaunnn occnn. na cnoco6na 6mna apoxnoann1Lcn n
poc1nra1L, nponannn nenc1ounHoe ynopc1ao. Opnppnx ennkn nepypno onpepennn
e1pa n occnk: "D1o 6mna aso1nan kncno1a, ko1opan noepana xeneso. 6a aneHen1a
c1nxnno cnnm. npaunaae1cn, u1o xe 6mno nc1ounnkoH a1o uypecno 1aeppoc1n n
opnoapeHenno - oc1po1m?
ne kaxe1cn, cnno naue 6mna ucu. anoxe e1pa occnn cnoxnnacL
kak naunn. ennkopycckan napopnoc1L, paspnpaeHan nauec1annHn n Hn1exaHn,
nakoneu cospena, kak spee1 xne6, necHo1pn na 6ypn n nenoropm. aca qnsnueckn n
pyxoano nanne1cn aoo6ue ne cpasy. norpa poc1 ee naponro sapepxnaae1cn. pnHecn
o1knonnk1cn, coaepuenc1ayk1 nnn y6naak1 nopopy. cnoano 1nn 6ope1cn c
aapnan1aHn, no a konue konuoa nac1ynae1 apeHn, korpa saHmcen npnpopm
ocyuec1anen, nopopa cospena! oHen1 1opxec1aennm, kak a xnsnn o1penLnoro
uenoaeka.
ospeauan naunonanLnoc1L npepc1aanne1 co6o renn napopa. D1o akkyHynn1op
orpoHno, nakonnenno a aekax aneprnn. accHo1pn1e nk6yk xopouo cnoxnauykcn
nopopy: kakan c1paunan cnna npepnasnauena, nanpnHep, pnn nanok 1onLko u1o
popnauerocn nLaenka. akan 6mc1po1a nor y pe1enmua pnko cepnm nnn oc1po1a
spennn y opnenka! noxnauancn nopopa 1ouno ycoaepuenc1aoaannan Haunna. na
npe1aopne1 cmpyk Ha1epnk a pa6o1y - a pa6o1y ap1nc1nueckyk n nenpepmanyk.
akonuennan paca ec1L kak 6m oco6an o1pyunna 1anmx cnoco6noc1e npnpopm. as
o1kpm1an, ona pae1 nenc1ounHm no1ok cneunanLnmx cnn. aunonanLnoc1L penae1
aennkoe ne1pypnmH. pekaH nnckonLko ne 1pypno 6mno nx 1aopuec1ao kpaco1m;
pnHnnnaH ne 1pypnm 6mnn saaoeaa1enLnme nopanrn; anrnnuanaH - nx Hopennaaanne;
neHuaH - nx qnnocoqnn. akonuennme napopm nocn1 caok rennanLnoc1L c1onL xe
6ecneuno, kak naannnm cao nmunm xaoc1, - no, u1o6m a1o1 xaoc1 cnoxnncn,
neo6xopnHm 6mnn pepkne ycnoann n ponrne aeka. occnn a anoxe e1pa ennkoro
ampa6o1ana a caoeH napope rpynny rennanLnmx kauec1a, ko1opme n pasaepnynncL
6yke1oH aennknx nkpe n aennknx pen. 1o xe coc1aanne1 cnny naunonanLnoc1n?
pexpe acero - spopoaLe napopnoe, qnsnueckan kpenoc1L. D1o ycnoane nensHepnHo
rpoHapnoro snauennn. a aennkne pena nyxen 6onLuo sanac 1enecno caexec1n.
cnn Bor npncy1c1aye1 a caoeH napope, 1o nocnepnn 6eso1ue1no 6epexe1 ce6n n
c1aan1 a spopoayk o6c1anoaky. o1 renn, u1o npepoc1eperan okpa1a o1 pypnmx
peuenn, ec1L a kaxpoH xnsnecnoco6noH cyuec1ae, ec1L on n a napope. e xoue1cn
o1paann1L ce6n, ne xoue1cn nauka1L. nne1 k nonesnoHy, n npexpe acero k pen1enLno
xnsnn. Ynopnm 1pyp pae1 xo1n rpy6oe, no o6nnLnoe nn1anne, a xopoun kopH
ypnan1enLno 6mc1po npeo6paxae1 pacy. pn 6espenLe xopoun xne6 pae1 xnpnmx
6espenLnnkoa - npn nanpnxennoH 1pype 1o1 xe xne6 pae1 6ora1mpe. ockoackan
ycL npn acex necoaepuenc1aax kynL1ypm ace-1akn yHena kopHn1L ce6n pocm1a n ne
ponyckana po 1oro, u1o6m kopHn1L co6o cocepe, kak a1o penae1 1enepeunnn occnn.
nyuanncL ronopnme ropm, uc acnepc1ane upesHepnoro
amaosa xne6a ne 6mno. pn acex necoaepuenc1aax caonx ockoackan ycL cyHena
npnkpenn1L 6popnuee nneHn k seHne n a1nny1L ero xo1n 6m a kpenoc1no, no
npaannLnm, cnc1eHa1nueckn 1pyp. cn nonn1nka ockam a 1euenne aekoa coc1onna a
1oH, u1o6m nonykoueaoe coc1onnne napopnoe nepeaec1n a ocepnoe, oc1anoan1L
6poxenne, kpnc1annnsoaa1L naunk a noc1onnnmx qopHax. "o1 1e6e, 6a6yuka, n
KpLea penL! - ckasan nen1n, 6popnaun no seHne, korpa anapxnn ero xnsnn 6mn
nonoxen koneu. penoc1noe npaao anocnepc1ann kpane nsapa1nnocL, oco6enno korpa
y nac nauann noppaxa1L nonLcknH n neHeuknH o6muanH, - no a nauane ono okasano
orpoHnyk ycnyry napopy. ak Hockoackne knnsLn-caHopepxum co6pann aoepnno
seHnk ycckyk, 1ak kpenoc1noe npaao co6pano cnnm napopnme, cocpepo1ounno nx na
exepneano pa6o1e, a1nnyno napop a npnamuky k He1opnueckoHy 1pypy. enepeunnn
anapxnn, kak n ppeannn, a nencuncnnHo c1enenn pac1paunaae1 pa6ouee apeHn n
1pypoame cnnm, pas6naae1 1o n ppyroe a cnyuanme knoukn. penoc1noe xe npaao y
nac, kak qeopannsH a apone, yperynnpoaano napopnyk aneprnk, aaeno ee a
onpepenennme qopHm, sac1aanno pa6o1a1L ne koe-kak, a kynL1ypno. pesynL1a1e sa
paa nepamx uapc1aoaannn noao pnnac1nn occnn, necHo1pn na 1nxenme aonm,
okpenna, o1LenacL, pasHnoxnnacL, ampannyna qnsnueckn cnnLnoe nokonenne, pnn
ko1oporo aoeaa1L paapua1L ne1 okasanocL nnnoueH.
1opoe kauec1ao rennn napopnoro, nponanennoro cospeaue naunonanLnoc1Lk, ec1L
pyueanoe spopoaLe. 1e 6mn npaa, nonaran, u1o anonne spopoaan nopopa yxe a
1pe1LeH-ue1aep1oH nokonennn pae1 saHeua1enLnoro uenoaeka. yueanoe spopoaLe
xapak1epnsye1cn HoHen1oH, korpa y uenoaeka yc1anaannaae1cn npekpacnoe
caHouyac1ane n on aceH poaonen. Bor, no1pypnauncL uec1L pne, o6ospen 1aopenne,
npnsnan, u1o ace "po6po seno. yx napopnm nocne Hnoroaekoaoro 1aopuec1aa n
1peaorn nakoneu npnxopn1 a okonua1enLnoe paanoaecne. n spopoa n cuac1nna. aknH
6mn a ocnoanoH caoeH nac1poennn e1p, 1aknH 6mn n aecL 1orpaunn napop.
cospeaue pyue, kak a aeuec1ae aspmaua1oH, nakonnena rpoHapnan cnna. anpy
nnep1nan, ona cnoco6na k nopanraH n nanpnxennnH 1n1annuecknH. pyxnna,
canauancn a aekax, pasaep1maae1cn n pae1 neoxnpannyk pa6o1y. ockoackan ycL,
kak ee nn xak1 y nac xnpo-Haconm, cyHena cospa1L n spopoaLe 1ena, n spopoaLe pyxa
napopnoro. e1ep6ypr cyHen ero pac1pa1n1L.
spopoaLe pyxa axopnna uenan cnc1eHa kynL1oa - pennrnosnm, rocypapc1aennm,
nneHenno, ceHenm. okonenne e1pa 6ecnoaopo1no aepoaano a Bora, npn1oH
aepoaano epnnopyuno, a npaaocnaanmx cnoco6ax ampaxennn. ocnepnne 6mnn
npeaocxopnm ne 1eH, u1o 6mnn nyuue ppyrnx, a 1eH, u1o 6mnn popnme, aouepune a
caHyk nno1L pyxa. oceHL c1one1n noppnp nokonennn nepexnaann aosamuenneune
uyac1aa ace a 1ex xe cnoaax n naneaax, o6kypnaaeHme 1eH xe napanoH, ocaeuaeHme
1eHn xe aockoamHn caeukaHn n naHnapaHn. ak nenne ne1yxa, konokonLnm saon
aouen a nepam naunn, n ona ro1oaa 6mna ppa1Lcn po cHep1n sa a1n Hnnme aeun -
nenne pLnuka, nenne ne1yxa, Hmuanne kopoam, konokonLnm saon... opnna! 1o am,
rocnopa xnpo-Haconm, a a1oH nonnHae1e? ockoackan ycL cyHena nakonn1L a
pycckoH ceppue a1y pparouennoc1L - uc . e1ep6ypr cyHen ero
pac1pa1n1L.
m ckaxe1e: a packonLnnkn? asae Hoxno nasaa1L epnnopyuneH, korpa opna uac1L
naunn sa kako-1o nnunn naneu nepc1ocnoxennn npepae1 ppyryk npoknn1nk? H
o1aeuy na a1o: pa, a1o epnnopyune. D1o cnop 6onee any1pennn, ueH "poHaunn
cnop, n on a caHoH pene asaeuen cypL6o. D1o cnop a npepenax opno n 1o xe pyun
napopno; a1o ee coHnenne, ko1opoe 6mno n npoxopn1, nou1n npouno. ackonLnnuLn
1onkn - a cyunoc1n, nnoxo nonn1me n no1oHy opnuaaune ae1an npaaocnaann, 1o
caHoe, u1o a ka1onnuec1ae oppena. pn 6onee unpokoH asrnnpe na cyuec1ao aepm
naun epecn Hornn 6m nn1a1L epkoaL, kak ae1an - pepeao. sHennn neckonLko
nanpaanenne c1aona, ae1an cansanm c 1eHn xe aeunmHn kopnnHn n necy1 1e xe uae1m
n nnc1ay. ackonLnnkn xaac1ak1 caonH na1pno1nsHoH. a kak xe nnaue? epL onn
oc1anncL, kak n Hm, opno n 1o xe pyccko aepm, opno ee 1mcnuene1ne nouam!
1apoe opymeaneue
no paaanocL epnnopyuneH aepm. ockoackan ycL, c1onL onneaannan nn6epanaHn,
cyHena coxpann1L a napope pennrnk, 1o ec1L qnnocoqckyk amco1y pyxa. ennrnn -
cansL c aeunoc1Lk, c nauanoH Hnpa n nenpepekaeHmHn sakonaHn. ennrnn - cansL
coapeHennoro Hmunennn c 1eH, u1o cnaranocL a 1euenne 1mcnuene1n, naunnan c
cyHepncko, xanpecko, ernne1cko unannnsaunn, npoponxan apoxnoaenneH
nspannLcknx npopokoa n rpeuecknx Hyppeuoa, okanunaan canuennmHn nac1poennnHn
popnmx nopanxnnkoa. ennrnn, kak xo1n1e, ne nnsoc1L pyxa, a amco1a ero; nepapoH
ona nepaspmano cansana c npaac1aennoc1Lk, c caHmH 1onknH uenoaeuecknH
6naropopc1aoH! prannueckn, ns rny6nn nc1opnn, ns nepp npnpopm ampocno naue
napopnoe npaaocnaane. ockaa oxpannna ero kak sennuy oka. e1ep6ypr pac1pa1nn
ero.
okonenne e1pa - ace cnnouL Hockoackoe, amuepuee ns Hockoacko nouam - 6mno
cnnLno aepo ne 1onLko a Bora. 1akok xe neaosHy1nHoc1Lk aepoaann a
rocypapc1aennyk anac1L, a aennune caoero nneHenn na seHne ("pe1n nH), a
can1oc1L ceHenmx nauan. Bmnn, koneuno, n 1orpa npec1ynnnkn. Bmaann n o1c1ynnnkn
- no ne onn paaann 1on xnsnn. o6ueH occnn, cpaann1enLno ne6onLuan no
nacenennk - acero-1o a ne uncnnnocL 11 - 13 Hnnnnonoa, - npepc1aannna
necokpyunHyk ckany. nkorpa napop ne 6mn nopaanen 1ako necnmxanno 1npanne,
kak npn e1pe. nkorpa on ne nsneHoran a 1ako c1enenn o1 nanoroa n noannnoc1e.
e uapn caonx co6c1aennmx cnn, e1p ne uapnn n napopnmx. o kako c1enenn 1nxko
npnxopnnocL nacenennk, nokasmaak1 ne 1onLko onacnme 6yn1m, no n o6un
pesynL1a1 e1poaa uapc1aoaannn. acenenne npn neH ne aospocno, no snaun1enLno
cokpa1nnocL (aepon1no, ne c1onLko amHepno, ckonLko pas6exanocL a neca n c1enn).
ou1n caepxcnnLnyk naaannn e1p sapauy na occnk - n u1o x? nn, 1o ec1L on n
ona, peunnn ee. occnn ampepxana, n na ckane nHenno 1orpaune napopno Houn
6mn noc1aanen qynpaHen1 nHnepnn naue. na6an paca ne ampepxana 6m,
pacnonsnacL 6m. m uepes paec1n ne1 eue cyuec1ayeH, n k1o snae1, Hoxe1 6m1L, eue
noxnaeH.
oueHy 6m a caHoH pene n ne noxn1L occnn? o ao1 6epa: sa6m1m nc1nnnme
e1poam saHmcnm. a6m1o 1o, ueH 6mna opyueanena occnn n u1o pae1 Horyuec1ao
kaxpoHy napopy. ou1n c1one1ne cnnouL nocanueno y nac 1oHy, u1o6m pasHo1a1L
epnnc1ao, pacc1pon1L epnnopyune napopa, nopopaa1L ero aepy a Bora n a ce6n. enoe
c1one1ne ace npe1 k 1oHy, u1o6m penaunonannsnpoaa1L occnk. H nncan na pnnx, kak
npaan1enLc1ao, opyueanennoe, no-anpnHoHy, caHmHn 6narnHn naHepennnHn, ns acex
cnn c1apanocL nacapn1L a occnn eapeckyk nn1ennnrenunk napnpy c pyccko.
Yc1panaanncL kasennme eapecko-pycckne yunnnua, paaanncL eapenH c1nnenpnn n
aceaosHoxnme nLro1m, paaanncL noue1nme saannn, unnm, oppena - nnuL 6m saaec1n
apaue-eapeea, apaoka1oa-eapeea, yun1ene-eapeea, npoqeccopoa-eapeea,
nnxenepoa-eapeea, xypnannc1oa-eapeea, ne roaopn yxe o kynuax n npoHmunennnkax
o6pesannoro nneHenn. e opnn eapen nonLsoaanncL 1ako coc1aannkue kak 6m "pop
nepyra 6narocknonnoc1Lk pyccko anac1n. enme neHeukne knnxec1aa
nepecaxnaanncL nop anpoH kononn na unpokoe 1eno occnn. eHeuknH kpec1LnnaH,
ne okasaaunH nn Haneunx sacnyr occnn, paaanncL paopnnckne no aennunne
noHec1Ln. eHum na ponrne ropm ocao6oxpanncL o1 nanoroa n noannnoc1e, nH
paaanocL caHoynpaanenne, nH paspeuanocL 6m1L nnoc1panuaHn, n a 1o xe apeHn onn
nonLsoaanncL ace saun1o pyccko rocypapc1aennoc1n. pn6an1nckn kpa,
no1oHc1ao 1ea1onoa, nn1Lco1 ne1 pasopnaunx naun rpannum n nnaunx kpoaL pycckyk,
cpenanocL nn1oHnnkoH noao apnc1okpa1nn. aun repon apope pHonoaa, cnacaaune
occnk, kak amcue nouec1n npocnnn "nponsaopc1aa a neHum. pyran unpokan
c1pyn, annaaauancn a nauy sna1L, 6mnn uaepm - sa nopo6nme xe rocypapc1aennme
sacnyrn! pe1Ln c1pyn - nonnkn. e1aep1an - kaakasckne nnopopum, apHnne,
rpysnnm, 1a1apm, rpekn. 1euenne payxco1 ne1 caHoe ceppue naue naunonanLnoc1n
- apnc1okpa1nn pac1aopnnacL ao aceaosHoxnmx npnHecnx, Hexpy ko1opmHn
6onLunnc1ao 6mnn nneHena, nc1opnueckn apaxpe6nme occnn. eaepon1no nec1poe
kpoueao aceaosHoxnmx naun, aeponcnoaepann, kynL1yp, 1papnun,
npeppacnonoxenn cHeunaanocL, kak a noHonoH aeppe xnHnka, a cHecL Hy1nyk n
ne1panLnyk. ncno1nme n uenounme aneHen1m norauann ppyr ppyra, n a pesynL1a1e
yue1aepenno, ypecn1epenno He1ncaunn nonyunncn apnc1okpa1-nn1ennnren1,
cyuec1ao c kpane ppo6no, Hosanuecko pyuo. aanopyunan aoo6ue ko aceHy na
cae1e, a1a aceuenoaeueckan pyua, kaxe1cn, cneunanLno npesnpae1 occnk. o1 ee
caHoe cna6oe Hec1o naue napopnoc1n - naua npaanuan sna1L. pocHo1pn1e cnncok
repoea on1aacko 6n1am n cnncok cnopanxnnkoa e1pa. n oxo1no npnnnHan
nnoc1panuea, on pasmcknaan cnoco6nmx Hexpy nnHn n npnrnauan nx, no nM
nero 6mnn kopennme pycckne. oro xe He1opa pepxanacL nacnepnnua ero pyun
ka1epnna. aHa neHka, ona 6mna ns 1ex neHuea, ko1opme uyac1ayk1 aennune occnn
n aHeuak1 ero a ce6e. e1p, n ka1epnna - eaponeum Hnpoaoro pasHaxa,
nonnHann, u1o 6es naunonanLnoc1n onn nnu1o. rny6okoHy coxanennk, occnn
cnnukoH 6mc1po packpmna caon rpannum n aknkunna a nnx cnnukoH Hnoro aparoa
caonx. e kakoro-nn6ypL pepeannnoro konn, u1o nory6nn pok, - occnn a1nnyna a
ce6n neckonLko uapc1a, ko1opme eue nepaano aoeaann c ne, n nHena nananoc1L
pyHa1L, u1o a1o ycnnnno ee. oxe1 6m1L, orpoHnme npno6pe1ennn e1pa n ka1epnnm
ycnnnnn 6m nac, ecnn 6m Hm o1necnncL k nnH, kak anrnnuane k caonH saaoeaannnH, 1o
ec1L noc1apanncL 6m amxa1L ns nnx ace cokn. aue nonynnopopueckoe npaan1enLc1ao
ne 6mno opepxnHo a1nH nopokoH. XnpenLkn na1pno1nsH ero nnkorpa ne poxopnn po
naunonanLnoro aronsHa. okopna apaxpe6nme nneHena, Hm aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m asn1L
c nnx panL, caHn nauann nna1n1L nH panL, kakoaan nop pasnmHn anpaHn
amnnaunaae1cn pocenL. nopopueckne okpannm naun aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m npnnocn1L
poxop, amsmaak1 orpoHnme pacxopm. aHka nornouae1 kap1nny, okpannm nornouak1
noc1enenno uen1p. opno c1one1ne Hm o1kopHnnn po neysnaaaeHoc1n, npnHo po
uypecnoro npeo6paxennn, Onnnnnpnk, Dc1nnnpnk, ypnnnpnk n onLuy. nkorpa a1n
qnnckne, uaepckne, nn1oackne n nonLckne o6nac1n ne poc1nrann 1akoro 6ora1c1aa n
1ako kynL1ypm, kaknHn nonLsyk1cn 1enepL. nkorpa eapec1ao a a1o uac1n cae1a ne
npouae1ano, kak nop naunH anapmuec1aoH. ueH xe cekpe1 a1oro uypa? onLko a 1oH,
u1o Hm caok naunonanLnoc1L noc1aannn nnxe acex. nrnnuane, nokopna npnk,
nn1anncL ek, a Hm, nokopna naun okpannm, o1pann ce6n nH na cLepenne. m
noc1aannn occnk a ponL o6unpno kononnn pnn nokopennmx napopuea - n
ypnanneHcn, u1o occnn rn6ne1! asae ne 1o xe caHoe nponcxopn1 c npne? asae ne
norn6nn kpacnme, uepnme, onnakoame pacm, ne cyHeaune corna1L c 1ena caoero
6enmx xnunnkoa? Hm - nekorpa nneHn uapc1aennoe n no6eponocnoe - caHn
naknnkann na ce6n uyxeseHuea, Hano 1oro: no6epnnn nx pnn 1oro, u1o6m cnno
nocapn1L ce6e na uek!
Yrny6nnncL a aennkoe npounoe, korpa occnn 6mna caHa co6o, nonnHaeuL cnny
napopnyk n 6eccnnLe. asae HoxeH Hm 1enepL Heu1a1L o kaknx-nn6ypL no6epax?
oneuno, ne1. ak oprannsHy, ko1opm knun1 noc1oponnnHn, aneppnaunHncn a nero
oprannsHaHn, occnn npexpe acero nyxno nopyHa1L o6 aneHen1apnoH neuennn. 1o ns
1oro, u1o 1eno naue Hnepnn orpoHno n pyHnneu eue ropn1 na ncxypanmx uekax?
oka napopoH naunH nn1ak1cn ppyrne napopm - ona ne aonn. oka Hm - po6mua
eapeea, nonnkoa, neHuea, apHnn, Hm ne ac1aneH c Hec1a. opno nonyc1one1ne Hm
paaxpm nopmHann Heu n paaxpm 6eccnnLno ero onyckann... cnn 6m ocnopL
noHnnoaan nac n nocnan pasyH, o1nn1m sa kakne-1o rpexn, 1o nepep 1eH, kak pyHa1L
o aennknx no6epax, napop nau nounc1nncn 6m n noneunncn. aunonanLnoc1L
pacc1panaae1cn n aocc1anoanne1cn. HancL ppyxnna cnnLnmx, naunonanLno-pyccknx
nkpe a coc1aae anac1n - n occnn cnacena. aue npaan1enLc1ao, koneuno, n 1enepL
coc1on1 a 6onLunnc1ae ns pyccknx nkpe. eko1opme ns nnx o6napak1 cnnLno aone
- no ec1L nn xo1L 1enL kako-nn6ypL naunonanLnoc1n y nx kape1c1aykunx
1oaapnue, ko1opmx nnueHepnoe "ne1 norauae1 caHoe 1aeppoe "pa? oo6pasn1e nx a
uncne cnopanxnnkoa e1pa ennkoro. akyk 6m ponL onn nrpann a pec1an1enLno
6onLuo peqopHe? oo6pasn1e r-p nnkkoamx, yukoamx, Bo6pnncknx n np. a
kauec1ae coae1nnkoa 1orpaune anac1n. nkako on1aam ne 6mno 6m, apao
nauann 6m necuac1noe uapc1aoaanne, ek n sakonunnn 6m.
paspnyn ropoaunny aennko 6n1am, nocun1aeH 1enepeunne cnnm. onueH, ec1L nn
ceuac panxyun nx aennkn pyx. e yraua1e pyxa! e yraua1e naunonanLnoc1n
caoe - a ne nauano naue, n 6es nee - koneu...
XR BT
28
BopL6a c counannsHoH po cnx nop 6ecnnopna. o-anpnHoHy, npnpe1cn apone
ncnpo6oaa1L a1y qopHy o6uec1aa, xo1nH Hm a1oro nnn ne xo1nH. as peno poxopn1 po
1oro, u1o cpasy 1pnc1a 1mcnu pa6ounx, kak a aeunn, o6Lnannk1 sa6ac1oaky, 1o ec1L,
cun1an c ceHLnHn, 6ac1ye1 okono 1pe1n nacenennn c1panm, 1o ncno, u1o "cpokn
6nnsn1cn. pesamuano 1pypno npepc1aan1L ce6e, kaknHn HepaHn o6uec1ao n anac1L
Hornn 6m oc1anoan1L rposnoe nanenne. aeunn ne kakan-nn6ypL op1yrannn nnn
yHmnnn. aeunn a amcue c1enenn kynL1ypnan c1pana n npe1 ne a xaoc1e, a a
ronoae nporpecca. acenenne aeunn nenLsn ynpekny1L nn a pnkoH neaexec1ae, nn a
nLnnc1ae, nn a pasapa1nmx npnamukax. ak nekorpa uaepm o1nnuanncL xpa6poc1Lk,
1ak 1enepL - 1pyponk6neH. Bnaropapn 1eH xe ycnoannH, u1o pann pacuae1 anapno
apone, aeunn cpenana rpoHapnme Ycnexn sa nocnepnee c1one1ne. o nakanyne,
kasanocL 6m, o6uero popnoro 6narononyunn c1pane yrpoxae1 counanLnan
ka1ac1poqa. pn noHoun cpaann1enLno necnnLno counannc1nuecko nponaranpm
aeunn 6mc1po ac1ynnna a anoxy knaccoao 6opL6m, 6opL6m 1pypa n kann1ana, n,
Hoxe1 6m1L, a1o HanenLko c1pane cyxpeno o1kpm1L co6ok apy ocyuec1anennoro,
1opxec1aykuero counannsHa...
aepckoe npaan1enLc1ao, kak nsaec1no, yknonnnocL o1 acnkoro yuac1nn a a1o
konoccanLno Hnpno 6opL6e - 6opL6e 1epnennn. 1oukn spennn npnnn1oro a
aeunn npaaa - npaaa c1auek - anac1n noc1ynak1 npaannLno. ocypapc1ao a pannoH
cnyuae nHee1 (6yp1o 6m) ne nonn1nueckn, a 1onLko nonnueckn nn1epec. Hnny1y,
korpa 1a nnn ppyran c1opona - c1aukn nnn nokay1a - nosaonn1 ce6e neu1o
nesakonoHepnoe, rocypapc1ao amc1ynn1 kapakue cnno. anpeuan kpoaaame
noepnnkn, sakon uaepckn paspeuae1 6eckpoanyk Hexpoyco6nyk aony, xo1n 6m
Hnnnnonm nkpe 6oponncL c HnnnnonaHn py6ne.
ce a1o, opnako, rnapko amxopn1 nnuL a 1eopnn. a npak1nke xe nou1n acerpa
amc1ynae1 na cueny pen1enL, paspyuakun 6yHaxnme noc1poennn, nHenno - ceppue,
c1pac1L. axe uy1ounan 6opL6a payx npnn1ene uac1o nepexopn1 a ppaky. BopL6a
payx nap1n no unc1o o1aneuennoHy pasnoHmcnnk poaopn1 nnorpa po kpoaaaoro
asap1a. c1ec1aenno, u1o c1pac1L 6opL6m c1anoan1cn xryue, korpa npepHe1oH ee
c1anoan1cn aeuec1aennm nn1epec, pasopenne, ronop, rn6enL ceHLn. pn a1oH
ycnoann 1pe6ye1cn kpanee nanpnxenne nnc1nnk1oa rpaxpanc1aennoc1n, pa6m
xpynkan neperopopka Hexpy nacnnneH n npaaoH ne pyxnyna.
posnoe nac1poenne pa6ounx coksoa n cnnpnka1oa penae1 nonoxenne aponm a
amcue c1enenn pnckoaannmH. pnc1a 1mcnu pa6ounx aeunn, oueanpno, aknkuak1 a
ce6n aecL sanac uaepcko apHnn n qno1a. D1o nkpn, npouepune aoennyk ukony n
yHekune c1a1L a pnpm. cnn onn aounn a c1auky, c1ano 6m1L, na apHnk
npaan1enLc1ao paccun1maa1L yxe ne Hoxe1. pn1oH nyxno saHe1n1L, u1o ackpy a
apone, n oco6enno a aeunn, ne aoeaaaue c1o ne1, pec1aykuan apHnn
qak1nueckn npeapa1nnacL a Hnnnunk. na noc1enenno cpenanacL u1a1cko apHne,
paspennkue ace nn1epecm o6maa1ene, ace aonnennn n sno6m pnn. co6enno a1o
o1nocn1cn k 1aknH kynL1ypnmH c1panaH, kak aeunn, rpe conpa1 noc1ynae1 a nonk ns
pa6ounx, npnamkunx k nonn1nuecko rase1e, kak k 1a6aky, n aecLHa naun1annmx a
6poukpouno arn1aunonno nn1epa1ype. pesamuano 1pypno xpa1L, u1o6m
1enepeunnn apHnn y kynL1ypnmx napopoa npn peun1enLnoH c1onknoaennn
noppepxana "6ypxyasnoe npaan1enLc1ao. paapa, a pnpax aock neHano 6ypxya.
kasa1L no cekpe1y, caHn nmneunne npone1apnn - HanenLkne 6ypxya, u1o kacae1cn
no kpane Hepe nepoc1a1koa a1oro knacca. aHn npone1apnn 1ak xe cknonnm k
koHqop1y, k nenn, k xnsnn na ue-1o uyxo cue1.
Henno ynapok 1pypoamx npnamuek, c opno c1oponm, 6ypxyasnoe aonLnoHmcnne - c
ppyro, napkoc1L k co6nasnaH - c 1pe1Le, amsmaak1 pa6ouee panxenne a 6onLue
c1enenn, ueH peanLnan nyxpa. ocnepnnn, anpoueH, 1oxe pac1e1 - ecnn ne
a6conk1no, 1o o1nocn1enLno. a n kak ne pac1n!
axpan c1auka, kaxpm nokay1 amnnHak1 y pa6ouero knacca n y kann1annc1oa
rpoHapnme cyHHm. xepneanoe copepxanne sa6ac1oaunkoa (nanpnHep,
1pexco11mcnuno nx apHnn) - 1pe6ye1 x HnnnHyH paec1n 1mcnu py6ne,
cun1an no pae kponm a penL. Y pa6ounx aepL ec1L ceHLn, nx nyxno kopHn1L. a6o1nnk
1eH o1nnuae1cn neamropno o1 Haunnm, u1o oc1anoan1L ero, ne o1annnaan, nenLsn.
c1anoanennan paynoran Haunna naunnae1 no1pe6nn1L caoe nponsaopc1ao, ne
nponsaopn ero. cnny a1oro - no sakony cnpoca n npepnoxennn - c1peHn1enLno
pac1y1 uenm na ace npopyk1m n poporoansna o1nruae1 6pocnaunx pa6o1y a amcue
c1enenn. rn1a1opm kpnua1: no1epnn1e eue pae nepenn - kann1annc1m yc1ynn1!
axpm penL sa6ac1oakn amnnHae1 y kann1annc1oa ns kapHana orpoHnme cyHHm!
konue konuoa 6oraun nenpeHenno yc1ynn1! o a1n nopc1peka1enLc1aa noxnm a caHoH
kopne. ann1annc1m, ao-nepamx, ropaspo ponLue Hory1 ampepxa1L 6espa6o1nuy, n6o
caHm kann1an ec1L ne u1o nnoe, kak sanac uenoaeueckoro 1pypa. pepc1aan1enn
nokay1a Hory1 ckasa1L aoxpnH c1aukn: "y pa, Hm pasopneHcn. m c kaxpmH pneH
npaspnoc1n c1anoanHcn ace Henee 6orauaHn. m - kak n am - cLepaeH caHnx ce6n.
o u1o xe a1o snaun1? D1o snaun1 1onLko 1o, u1o c kaxpmH pneH amnyxpenno aaHn
npaspnoc1n Hm c1anoanHcn ace Henee cnoco6nmHn amnonnn1L aaun 1pe6oaannn.
ann1an, oprannsa1op 1pypa, c yHenLuenneH ero yHenLuae1 ne pnn nac 1onLko, no n
pnn aac aosHoxnoc1L nonLsoaa1Lcn a1o cnno. epenk nasap Hm 6mnn a coc1onnnn
noc1aan1L noame Haunnm n, yHenLuna a1nH pacxopm nponsaopc1aa, noamcn1L nna1y,
no npaspnan nepenn a1y Haunny cLena. nepykuan nepenn cLec1 kakoe-nn6ypL
ppyroe neo6xopnHoe ynyuuenne, nanpnHep aosHoxnoc1L c1paxoaa1L pa6oun 1pyp,
panLneuan nepenn cLec1 aosHoxnoc1L okasmaa1L 6onLnnunyk noHouL n 1.p.
eckonLko nepenL npaspnoc1n - n ponrnHn ropaHn nopnnHaaueecn peno 6ype1 ne a
coc1onnnn konkypnpoaa1L c nponsaopc1aoH ppyrnx napopoa. m 6ypeH am6pouenm c
pmnka. oneuno, Hm, kann1annc1m, norn6neH nnn npnnyxpenm 6ypeH 6exa1L a ppyrne
c1panm, no aHec1e c rn6enLk kann1ana norn6ne1 n 1pyp. naccoam paspop ocnennne1.
n sac1aanne1 anpe1L an1aronnsH nn1epecoa n ne nosaonne1 anpe1L nx kopenno
connpapnoc1n. ann1an pec1an1enLno ne cyuec1aye1 6es pa6ounx, no peno a 1oH
aepL, u1o n coapeHennme pa6oune neHmcnnHm 6es kann1ana.
a 1akoe paccyxpenne counannc1nueckne aoxpn o6mknoaenno o1aeuak1: "m snaeH
oprannsa1opckyk ponL kann1ana n no1oHy 1pe6yeH, u1o6m kann1an 6mn nau! eHnn,
opypnn nponsaopc1aa, npopyk1m ero ponxnm 6m1L o6unHn!
pepc1aan1enn kann1ana Hory1 ckasa1L: "ce a1o n 1enepL qak1nueckn o6uee.
6conk1nan co6c1aennoc1L - Hnq. o1 seHnn, n o1 opypn nponsaopc1aa, n o1
npopyk1oa ero pa6oune 6epy1 caok a o6ueH nLannyk ponk. ann1annc1m nonLsyk1cn
pnn ce6n nnuno nnuL HanenLko uac1Lk caoe co6c1aennoc1n. ocnepnnn cnyxn1
aceH, k1o aoaneuen a ee pa6o1y. ak nasmaaeHan npn6aaounan c1onHoc1L, ko1opyk
6yp1o 6m nornouak1 kann1annc1m, nrpae1 ponL c a Hexannke. Bes
npn6aaouno c1onHoc1n ne 6mno 6m n kann1ana, a 6es nero ne 6mno 6m n oprannsaunn
1pypa. ounannc1m 1pe6yk1 o6uero pacnopnxennn kann1anaHn, ne pokasaa
cnoco6noc1n naxnaa1L nx n pykoaopn1L nHn. noco6noc1L a1a coc1aanne1
u 1anan1. a1o o6nac1n on c1onL xe pepok, kak ao acex ppyrnx. m
xo1n1e o1nn1L kann1anm y 6ypxya. 1nn1L nx, aepon1no, am cHoxe1e, no ao1 aonpoc:
cyHee1e nn am nx ne cu? yHee1e nn am nx Mxu a c1enenn, neo6xopnHo
pnn nporpecca pena? "yHeeH! - yaepenno o1aeuak1 pa6oune. o ecnn 6ypyun
counannsH a caHoH pene cyHee1 a1o cpena1L, 1o nnuL npn ycnoann, u1o 6ype1 aec1n
ce6n 1ak, kak n coapeHennme xosneaa, 1o ec1L ne 1onLko ne yaennunaa1L nna1m
pa6ounH, korpa ne ns uero ee yaennunaa1L, no npnHo yHenLua1L ee, korpa a1o
c1anoan1cn neo6xopnHmH. pn caHo nonno counannsaunn 1pypa neneno pyHa1L, u1o
ne 6ype1 6onLuo sa6o1m o 1oH, kak caec1n konum c konuaHn. D1o 1onLko y posoamx
y1onnc1oa 6ypyun counanLnm c1po pncye1cn kak uapc1ao ne6ecnoe. eHnoxko
1pypa "no cnoco6noc1nH - n packoe 6naxenc1ao "no no1pe6noc1nH kaxporo. o
y1onnc1m o6mknoaenno knnxnnkn. cyunoc1n, onn nnueH ne o1nnuak1cn o1
unnoannkoa, kpoHe o1cy1c1ann anac1n. epL n 6kpokpa1nn ncnncmaae1 ropm 6yHarn a
Heu1e ocuac1nnan1L napop. e1 coHnennn, u1o n a c1poe counannsHa npnpe1cn
6opo1Lcn c 1eHn xe npenn1c1annHn M 6nary, u1o n 1enepL - c nepoc1a1koH
cnoco6noc1e n c nsnnukoH no1pe6noc1e. enL, 6espapnoc1L, Haunnnoc1L,
o1cy1c1ane nnnuna1nam, 6onesnn, cna6oc1L n c1apoc1L, nakoneu, nonnm na6op
nopokoa oc1any1cn n 1orpa. npnnunn paaenc1aa - pyua peHokpa1nn - no1pe6ye1,
u1o6m ace nyuuee cpenanocL o6uepoc1ynnmH. Xopouero, opnako, a npnpope
noneHnoxky. aspenennoe na Hnornx, npekpacnoe nepec1ae1 6m1L xopounH. ann1an,
paspenennm a 1onne npone1apnea, ns cnnm o6pauae1cn a 6eccnnne, kak yHnan knnra,
paso6pannan no 6ykaaH, o6pauae1cn a 6eccHmcnennm upnq1.
pone1apna1 ocnennen 1enepL neko1opmHn anpnHmHn c1oponaHn 6ypxyasno-
kann1annc1nuecko pockoun - paopuaHn, napkaHn, aa1oHo6nnnHn, 6neckoH napnpoa
n y1onuennoc1Lk xnsnn xen n pe1e kann1annc1oa. cn a1a npkan o6c1anoaka
kann1ana pec1aye1 kak aos6yxpakun saanc1L n paxe nenaanc1L co6nasn. ak
pockouL peanero nHa npnanekna aapaapoa saaoeaa1L ero, 1ak pockouL kann1ana
co6nasnne1 o1nn1L ee. o sa npko unpHo pa6oune ne anpn1 aa1opoa kann1ana,
ckpoHnmx 1pyxennkoa, nou1n 1aknx xe uepnopa6ounx, kak onn caHn. Xenm, pe1n n
uac1o nacnepnnkn 6oraue pec1an1enLno aepy1 npaspnm o6pas xnsnn, no caHn
kann1annc1m ne 6mnn 6m kann1annc1aHn, ecnn 6m onn cepLesneunH o6pasoH ne
pa6o1ann, n uac1o c y1pa po aeuepa, 6es nepepmukn. mny1L ceppue ns kann1ana - yH
n 1anan1 co6c1aennnka, amny1L ocnoanyk aneprnk oprannsa1opa - snaun1 y6n1L
kann1an nnn, no kpane Hepe, oc1anoan1L ero. kann1an oc1anoanennm acerpa
pasHa1maae1cn. a caepkakunHn co6nasnaHn kynL1ypm, o6nsanno cyuec1aoaanneH
kann1any, pa6oune ne anpn1 caoe u c - xosnea - n no-pe1ckn
pyHak1, u1o onn caHn Hory1 6m1L xosneaaHn. o ecnn 6m onn Hornn, 1o n 6mnn 6m
nHn. coxanennk, 1anan1 oprannsa1opckn, nopo6no acnkoHy 1anan1y, ec1L
poc1onnne kpane neHnornx nnu. XosneaaHn xkc. x am6pa1L nenLsn. ak ace
1anan1m, nx am6npae1 caHa npnpopa n su o6uec1ay, xoue1 ono a1oro nnn ne
xoue1. cnoanan uep1a xosnckoro 1anan1a, kak acnkoro, - nesaancnHoc1L,
nnpnanpyanLnoc1L. anan1 Hano am6pa1L - a ero cqepe eHy npnxopn1cn nopunnn1Lcn.
6ypyueH counannc1nueckoH c1poe pa6ounH - ecnn onn ne saxo1n1 opnua1L a
anapxnn - npnpe1cn ncka1L xosnea n, napn nx, nopunnn1Lcn nH nou1n na 1ex xe
ycnoannx, kak n 1enepL.
enepeunnn 6opL6a 1pypa c 1pypoH (n6o kann1an ec1L nakonnennm 1pyp)
pesoprannsye1 o6e c1oponm - ona pasronne1 qnsnueckyk cnny, c opno c1oponm, n
1anan1 - c ppyro. caxpennm c1aukaHn nokay1 Hoxe1 a konue konuoa cpa1Lcn.
poHmunennoc1L acnkan na cae1e Hoxe1 6m1L pasopena. m1ecnennme ns xosncknx
pone oprannsa1opckne 1anan1m Hory1 6m1L sa1on1anm 1onno. pesynL1a1e
nens6exno 1onLko kpyuenne unannnsaunn n, Hoxe1 6m1L, rn6enL napopoa. orn6ny1L,
aepon1no, okaxe1cn ropaspo nerue, ueH aosapa1n1Lcn neapepnHo a nepao6m1nme
ycnoann. e sa6ypL1e, u1o ecnn ppeann aapaap ne nHen coapeHennoro kann1ana, 1o
on nHen ne nc1ouennoe 1orpa orpoHnoe 6ora1c1ao npnpopm. eca 6mnn ec1ec1aennmHn
nn1oHnnkaHn pnun n nyunoro saepn, onn ne 1onLko paaann epeao pnn noc1pokn n
ppoaa pnn 1onnnaa, no n kopHnnn n opeaann aapaapa. ekn n osepa, o6nnLnme pm6o,
6mnn ec1ec1aennmHn capkaHn aopnno nnun. mnue pnkan npnpopa ackpy pasopena,
a kynL1ypnan 1pe6ye1 kann1ana pnn noppepxannn ee. asopn1e kann1an - am y6Le1e
ne 1onLko qa6pnky, no n qepHy. m ne nonyun1e ne 1onLko 1pe6yeHo npn6aakn, no n
1enepeunn kycok xne6a, Hoxe1 6m1L, okaxe1cn pockouLk.
pn6aaka k naeHno nna1e aoo6ue aosHoxna, no nnuL npn panLneueH pasan1nn
o6uero pena, 1o ec1L npn 1oH ycnoann, korpa pacxop na nponsaopc1ao yHenLuae1cn
(6naropapn ycoaepuenc1aoaannk Haunn n nckycc1aa pa6ounx), a poxop pac1e1. pn
o6nnnn xne6a n aeue uenm napak1 n penak1cn o6uepoc1ynnmHn. pn ypoxae na
xne6 y nac na kre xne6a, u1o nasmaae1cn, "peaa1L nekypa, n ne 1onLko nnune, no n
cko1 cm1m. yxno c1peHn1Lcn, u1o6m ao acex o6nac1nx uenoaeueckoro 1pypa c1onn
noc1onnnm ypoxa n u1o6m acex aeue 6mno "peaa1L nekypa. o1 epnnc1aennm
ny1L k ynyuuennk 6m1a pa6ouero knacca. cnn sa 8 nnn 6 uacoa 1pypa (cHo1pn no
pasan1nk pena) pa6oun 6ype1 nHe1L acero poc1a1ouno, 1o pasae o6uan cyHHa
nonyuaeHmx nH o1 nopo6no kynL1ypm 6nar ne 6ype1 coo1ae1c1aoaa1L ouenL amcoko
"sapa6o1no nna1e? o 1akan amcokan nna1a aosHoxna nnuL npn 1pype napopnoH,
oprannsoaannoH ec1ec1aenno, 1o ec1L npn nocpepc1ae c oprannsa1opcknx
1anan1oa. mcokan nna1a aosHoxna npn cepLesnoH nakonnennn kann1ana n
nenpepmanoH ero pasan1nn. na aosHoxna npn 1oH nnuL ycnoann, korpa pa6oune
6ypy1 cHo1pe1L na xosnckn kann1an kak na cao co6c1aennm n o6epera1L ero o1
acnknx no1pncenn. cnn ckaxy1, u1o n xosneaa o6nsanm cHo1pe1L na cao kann1an
kak na o6un c pa6ounHn, 1o n o1aeuy o1 acero ceppua: koneuno! o ace
pec1an1enLnme oprannsa1opm 1ak n cHo1pn1. onpekn xec1okoHy onpepenennk
co6c1aennoc1n kak npaaa "yno1pe6nn1L n snoyno1pe6nn1L aeuLk, nac1onun xosnnn
1onLko yno1pe6nne1, n qak1nueckn acerpa a uennx ne nnunoro, a o6uero nn1epeca. H
o1neccn 6m c couyac1aneH k pa6oue sa6ac1oake, amsaanno Ho1oac1aoH xosnnna.
ac1oun1enn kann1ana apope 1ex, ko1opmx 6epy1 nop oneky, ponxnm 6m1L
6oko1npoaanm o6uec1aoH - n npexpe acero yuac1nnkaHn kann1ana, pa6ounHn.
ac1oun1enn snoc1nme ponxnm npecnepoaa1Lcn yronoanmH nopnpkoH, nackonLko a1o
aoo6ue aosHoxno. o, c ppyro c1oponm, n pa6oune, oc1anaannaakune xnsnL 1pypa
nepoc1a1ouno o6ocnoaannmHn c1aukaHn, ponxnm cun1a1Lcn 1aknHn xe snoc1nmHn
pac1oun1ennHn, n k nnH ponxen 6m1L npnHenen yronoanm sakon. ounannsH,
aepon1no, npnpe1cn ncnpo6oaa1L, kak Hnoroe pypnoe, u1o6m y6epn1Lcn, po uero on ne
o1aeuae1 npnpope o6uec1aa. ounannsH cnepye1 paccHa1pnaa1L ne kak aocc1anne
1pypa npo1na kann1ana, a kak 6yn1 1pypoao nocpepc1aennoc1n npo1na 1pypoaoro
1anan1a.
H1o 1akoe peHokpa1n
1o 6mnn aapaapm, paspyunaune ppeann Hnp? H pyHak, a1o 6mnn ne aneunne
aapaapm, a any1pennne, apope 1ex, ko1opmx n 1enepL a apone ckonLko yropno. ne
kaxe1cn, paspyun1ennHn nannncL ne cknqm n ne repHanum, a ropaspo panLue nx -
rocnopa peHokpa1m. ak kak a a1n pnn, no cnyuak pononnn1enLnmx am6opoa a
ocypapc1aennyk yHy, cnoaa no ace occnn saknnenn cnopm o peHokpa1nn, 1o
nennune 6mno 6m HnornH rocypapc1aennmH nkpnH sarnnny1L a yue6nnk n no1ounee
cnpaan1Lcn, ueH 6mna peHokpa1nn a ee knaccnueckyk anoxy, ueH ona 6mna a ee
o1euec1ae, "nop ne6oH rony6mH popnmx 6oroa.
peane peunn y nac a ny6nnke 6onLuek uac1Lk cypn1 no oHepy, no rpeuecknH
1parnkaH, no npenec1no Hnqonornn, ko1opyk nonynnpnsnpoaan anpn. o pennrnn
n reponueckn anoc peunn - npopyk1 aoace ne peHokpa1nn annnncko, a 6onee
ppeanero apnc1okpa1nueckoro nepnopa. enepL yc1anoaneno, u1o an1nunm Hnp -
nopo6no xpnc1nanckoHy - nHen caoe cpepneaekoaLe, poaonLno noxoxee na naue. ak
naua peHokpa1nn nanne1cn nnuL nacnepnnue qeopanLno anoxn, poaepue kynL1ypy
pyxa po pacuae1a Hmcnn, 1ak ppeaneannnnckan peHokpa1nn ne caHa cospana, a
nonyunna a pap 1o1 6oronopo6nm nopLeH yHoa, ko1opmH o1Heuen 1ak nasmaaeHm
"aek epnkna. ennkne nkpn a1oro aeka 6mnn nnn apnc1okpa1m, nnn aocnn1annme a
apnc1okpa1nuecknx npepannnx 6ypxya. o kak pacnopnpnnacL co6c1aenno caHa
peHokpa1nn c nacnepc1aoH npepkoa - ao1 aonpoc!
1o6m nonn1L, u1o 1akoe 6mn snaHenn1m aqnnckn peHoc, nyxno un1a1L ne 1parnkoa,
a pnc1oqana. oHnk Hoe aennkoe nsyHnenne, korpa n anepame nosnakoHnncn c ero
koHepnnHn. s nnx amc1ynae1 xnao, nenpnkpauennm napop rpeueckn ao ace
caoe neaspauno na1ype. apop cao6opnm, no paxe a 1ako ne6onLuo Hacce
rpaxpan - 20 - 30 1mcnu uenoaek - u1o a1o 6mna sa nounan 1onna! konLko
neaepon1no rpy6oc1n, unnnsHa, xapnoc1n, pa6onennn, 1pycoc1n, cyeaepnn caHoro
1eHnoro n pasapa1a caHoro nenc1oaoro - n rpe xe! Y caHoro nopnoxnn aennkoro
apqenona n 6oroanpnmx c1a1y!
opo6no qpanuyscko peaonkunn, ko1opan cpaxanacL c apono HopanLnmHn n
qnsnuecknHn cpepc1aaHn, co6pannmHn a qeopanLnm nepnop, aqnnckan peHokpa1nn
anauane 6mna apnc1okpa1nuna n cnno nnepunn una no c1onaH repoea. o uyxpm ee
npnpope nopLeH yxa 6mc1po ynan. yxpm e renn norac. "aanonpaane - ao1 6mn
nosynr, ao nHn ko1oporo annnnckan peHokpa1nn a anoxy epcnpcknx aon nnsaeprna
oc1a1kn onnrapxnn. poaosrnauen 6mn, kak n a naue apeHn, npnnunn, u1o peuenne
npnnapnexn1 6onLunnc1ay. 1o xe amuno? uenL ckopo o6napyxnnocL 1o caHoe, u1o
Hm anpnH a coapeHenno apone, nHenno, u1o peHokpa1nn no caHo npnpope caoe ne
nonn1nuna. a nnouapn qnn 1onnnncn napop, nyxpo n 6espapnoc1Lk npnkoaannm
cmckonn k aonpocaH nnyra n 1onopa, apunna n aecoa. 1o Hornn nonnHa1L a aonpocax
aneune nonn1nkn 6epnnkn, ne snakune 1ouno, kakne c1panm ckpmaak1cn sa
ropnson1oH? ak onn Hornn paso6pa1Lcn a aonpocax qnnancoamx nnn
apHnnnc1pa1nanmx? expy 1eH npone1apnn nonyunnn a c1pane peuakun nepeaec.
cnoHnn1e, kak onn nH aocnonLsoaanncL.
Hepuu anac1u
konLko nn 6on1a1e Hacno n aopy, ypenLnm aec ceuac xe ykaxe1 ec1ec1aennoe
Hec1o o6enx xnpkoc1e. epnL, paxe saxaa1nauan anac1L, 6mc1po okasmaae1cn annsy:
ona nenpeHenno ampanrae1, n npn1oH caHa, neknx aoxpe, ko1opmx cun1ae1 nyuue
ce6n, 1o ec1L apnc1okpa1oa. aansmaae1cn nrpa a nyuune. 1o6m nonpaan1Lcn uepnn,
nyxno cpena1Lcn e npnn1nmH. ak? uenL npoc1o. yxno nopkynn1L ee. ao1 eue
24 c1one1nn nasap ackpy, rpe nopnnHanacL peHokpa1nn, yc1anaannaancn rpa6ex
rocypapc1aa. apopnme aoxpn copnnn cpepc1aa, u1o6m ampanny1Lcn, a sa1eH
poaonLno unnnueckn pennnncL kasno c napopoH. axe 6naropopnm epnkn
amnyxpen 6mn nopkyna1L napop. 1euenne acero nnuL neckonLknx pecn1nne1n
pasannacL rpy6an peHarornn. euec1nme nkpn, u1o6m .saxaa1n1L anac1L, 6eckoneuno
nLc1nnn napopy. nn o6euann nec6m1ounme peqopHm n ypepxnaanncL na 1ennmx
Hec1ax nnuL nopaukaHn uepnn. paapa, anauane eue 6oppc1aoaan pyx c1aporo
apnc1okpa1nsHa. nac1L nnouapn cpepxnaanacL Harnc1pa1ypo, am6npaeHo ns 6onee
npocaeuennmx n nesaancnHmx knaccoa. axpoe nesakonnoe peuenne napopnoro
co6pannn Horno 6m1L ocnapnaaeHo na cype. pnako caHo cyponponsaopc1ao
peHokpa1nueckoe 6mno yxacno. neaepon1no c1enenn pasanncn nopkyn npncnxnmx.
1o6m sa1pypnn1L a1o1 nopkyn, npnunocL yaennunaa1L uncno npncnxnmx, a a1o 6mno
aosHoxno, nnuL onnaunaan nx 1pyp o1 kasnm. o Hepe 1oro kak npone1apnn
saxaa1maann cyp n anac1L, nopnpounme nkpn caHn ypannnncL o1 a1nx ponxnoc1e.
konue konuoa cyp cpenancn npoc1onapopnmH. 1o xe Horna o6cyxpa1L aonkuan, no
cnoaaH pnc1oqana, 1onna a neckonLko co1 uenoaek? kak ona Horna paso6pa1Lcn a
1onkoc1nx npaaa? orpa nHenno n ampannynncL coqnc1m, ropnanm, apaoka1m pypnoro
1ona, n 1orpa cyp cpenancn a nx pykax cnenmH opypneH nap1nno 6opL6m. Hep1L
okpa1a, opna ns 6ecuncnennoro pnpa "cype6nmx oun6ok, nokasmaae1, kakoaa 6mna
cnpaaepnnaoc1L peHokpa1nueckoro cypa. Yc1anoannacL 1akan uypnan cnc1eHa.
ocypapc1aennme qnnancm nc1ouanncL a 1pa1ax na "o6esponennm knacc. okpmaa1L
nepoc1auy npnxopnnocL konqnckaunnHn 6oraue, a pnn a1oro cospaaanncL
nonn1nueckne npoueccm. onna cype snana, u1o e sanna1n1 ns konqnckyeHo
cyHHm, - kak xe nH 6mno ne npnsna1L 6oraua annoanmH? "ceH nsaec1no, - roaopnn
opnn opa1op, - u1o, noka a kacce poc1a1ouno pener, oae1 ne napyuae1 sakona. e1
pener - oae1 ne Hoxe1 ne nonLsoaa1Lcn ponocaHn, ne konqnckoaa1L nHyuec1aa
rpaxpan n ne paaa1L xopa npepnoxennnH caHmx nepoc1onmx kpnkynoa.
cnny a1oro a c1pane cao6opm n paaenc1aa yxacakue pasannncL ponocm. paoka1m
6eccoaec1no uan1axnpoaann 6oraue. ocnepnnH, u1o6m saun1n1L ce6n, npnxopnnocL
caHnH nannHa1L ponocunkoa n na nopnoc1L o1aeua1L nopnoc1Lk. penec1nan cnc1eHa!
n1an pnc1oqana, am anpn1e, u1o annnnckyk peHokpa1nk aonnoaann 1e xe npen
counannsHa n koHHynnsHa, u1o 1enepeunn npone1apna1. aaenc1ao "aoo6ue
oco6enno oxo1no nepexopnno a yHe 6epnnka na paaenc1ao nHyuec1aennoe. orpaunne
1oaapnun nm1anncL koe-rpe paxe ocyuec1an1L "uepnm nepepen (nanpnHep, a
eon1nnax a 423 r., a npakysax npn nonncnn, na aHoce a 412 r. n np.). ako
rpa6ex amcunx knaccoa nnsunHn packanmaan naunk n o6eccnnnaan ee xyxe acnkoro
aneunero apara. ap ronoao aneprnuecko, 1pyponk6nao, 6epexnnao, papoan1o
uac1n naunn noc1onnno ancen paHoknoa Heu: ao1-ao1 ponecy1, ao1-ao1 sacypn1,
konqnckyk1 nHyuec1ao. xnokpa1nn npeasouna caoe 1npanne onnrapxnk VII aeka.
eHyppeno, u1o nyuune nkpn peunn, nosnakoHnauncL na pene c 1eH, u1o 1akoe
peHokpa1nn, konunnn rny6oknH npespenneH k ne. Oyknpnp nasmaae1
peHokpa1nueckn c1po "nanmH 6esyHneH, o ko1opoH paccypn1enLnmH nkpnH ne c1on1
1pa1n1L n payx cnoa. okpa1 cHenncn nap nenenoc1Lk pacnpepenn1L rocypapc1aennme
ponxnoc1n no xpe6nk a 1o apeHn, kak nnk1o ne saxoue1 asn1L no xpe6nk kopHunka,
apxn1ek1opa nnn Hysmkan1a. ennuaun ns rpekoa - na1on - pepxancn
coaepuenno a c1opone o1 nonn1nuecko xnsnn. n pyHan, u1o npn peHokpa1nueckoH
yc1poc1ae o6uec1aa nonesnan nonn1nueckan pen1enLnoc1L neaosHoxna. oro xe
Hnennn pepxancn Dnnkyp n np. eHokpa1nn anecna c co6o a o6uec1ao Hexpoyco6nyk
aony: nyuunH - 1o ec1L nan6onee npocaeuennmH n saxn1ounmH - knaccaH
npnxopnnocL ac1yna1L Hexpy co6o a o6oponn1enLnme coksm o1 uepnn, apope naunx
nokay1oa, n paxe npnsmaa1L na o1euec1ao caoe uyxeseHuea.
1o 1akoe 6mna aqnnckan peHokpa1nn - a1o xopouo anpno ns 1oro, u1o ona, nopo6no
naunH pyHuaH, yc1anoanna ce6e kasennoe xanoaanLe. a noceuenne napopnoro
co6pannn rpaxpane nonyuann kaxpm no 1pn o6ona; anocnepc1ann a1y nna1y
yaennunnn po opno ppaxHm. sa perynnpnme co6pannn, 6onee ckyunme, nonyuann po
1
1
/2 ppaxHm. ecnoco6nmH k 1pypy rpaxpanaH rocypapc1ao c1ano nna1n1L no o6ony n
no paa, 1o ec1L apaoe 6onLue, ueH nyxno pnn 1oro, u1o6m npokopHn1L uenoaeka.
ockouL apnc1okpa1nn, ampasnauancn a nckycc1ae, nnckonLko ne o6naropopnna
uepnL. D1a pockouL aos6ypnna a peHokpa1nn 1onLko saanc1L n akyc k npaspnoc1n.
"apop a peHokpa1nuecknx rocypapc1aax, - roaopn1 opnn nc1opnk, - nonLsoaancn
caoe cnno, u1o6m nnpoaa1L n pasaneka1Lcn na o6uec1aennm cue1.
pe6oaa1enLnoc1L noc1enenno aospac1ana. apcn1e cnpaannnocL 6onLue
npaspnec1a, ueH pne a ropy. op acnknHn npepnoraHn napopy c1ann paspaaa1L kasny.
pexpe acero a nonLsy napopa o6pa1nnn 1ea1panLnme c6opm, a sa1eH n pasnme
ppyrne. anoxy Onnnnna n nekcanppa a1o copepxanne napopa, 1ak nasmaaeHm
qeopnkon, cpenanocL rnaano nsao aqnncknx qnnancoa. na nornouana ace
pecypcm, n nakoneu ne na u1o 6mno aec1n aony.
m pyHae1e, peHokpa1nn ounynacL o1 a1oro 6esyHnn, anpn napanraauykcn 1yuy ns
akeponnn? nuy1L ne 6maano. onLko korpa Onnnnn nopc1ynnn yxe k qnnaH,
eHocqeny ypanocL yroaopn1L rpaxpan o1kasa1Lcn o1 papoamx pener. o epaa nnuL
Hnp 6mn aocc1anoanen, ceuac xe aepnynncL k qeopnkony, n6o, kak ampasnncn
eHap, "qeopnkon 6mn ueHen1oH, ko1opmH pepxanacL peHokpa1nn.
c1oun1L kasny na kopHnenne o6nennauerocn napopa n nopro1oan1L ee k
necnoco6noc1n aoopyxn1L o1euec1ao - ao1 neHnoxko snakoHan naH kap1nna, nHeauan
npeuepen1, kak roaopn1cn, a rny6oko ppeanoc1n. oaropopum, no saHeuannk
oc1oHapoaa, nponnnn caok pecny6nnky. qnnnne npoenn caok. paa nn ne o1 1o xe
npnunnm nana aennuauan ns pecny6nnk - pnHckan. eHokpa1nn naunnae1e
1pe6oaannn cao6opm, paaenc1aa, 6pa1c1aa, konuae1 xe kpnkoH: "Xne6a n spennu!
1aH xo1L 1paaa ne pac1n!
e aapaapm paspyunnn ppeankk unannnsaunk, a paspyunna ee peHokpa1nn a pasnmx
c1enennx ee sacnnLn. oka npyxnno ppeannx rocypapc1a cnyxnno c1peHnenne k
coaepuenc1ay (npnnunn apnc1okpa1nsHa), noka o6uec1aoH npaannn nyuune nkpn,
kynL1ypa 6ora1ena n napopm unn anepep. ak 1onLko coaepunncn nopHen knaccoa,
epaa nnuL xypune a1epnncL na Hec1o nyuunx, nauanocL 1opxec1ao nnsoc1n, n a
pesynL1a1e - kpax. 1uero nana peunn, a1a nenpnc1ynnan un1apenL cpepn Hope n
rop? 1uero nana pycckan peunn? Bocqopckoe uapc1ao, naxopnaueecn nou1n a 1ex xe
ycnoannx? aknH o6pasoH cnyunnocL, u1o uenme c1one1nn 1e xe napopm yHenn
o16naa1L aapaapoa, a 1y1 appyr pasyunnncL a1o pena1L? ce a1o o6Lncnne1cn
upesamuano npoc1o. Hec1o oprannueckoro, aeka cnaraauerocn c1pon, rpe nyuune
nkpn 6mnn npnc1aanenm k caHo amcoko n 1onko o6uec1aenno pa6o1e, k
nocnepne nopnyc1nnn "acex. "ce cpenann c o6uec1aoH 1o xe, u1o "ace penak1,
nanpnHep, c kapHannmHn uacaHn, korpa "caHn naunnak1 ncnpaann1L nx k1o ueH
yHee1: nronko, unnnLko, cnnuko n 1.p.
1910 rop
BR
1
"cerpa o6noanncn! - rnacn1 napnncL na aanne kn1ackoro nHnepa1opa-Hyppeua.
ecL Hnp - n a 1oH uncne occnn - 6pepn1 o6noanenneH; caHme nenopanxnme
napopm 1ouno copaanncL c Hep1amx nkope, n ne 1onLko o6pasoaannm cno, ackpy
neypoane1aopennm n 1peaoxnm, - paxe npoc1onapopnme cnon oxaauenm c1pac1no
xaxpo noaoro n ne6maanoro. Xn1enn pepeaenL ao aceH cae1e rpoHapnmHn HaccaHn
nepecennk1cn a ropopa, npepnoun1an rnn1L 1aH a nopaanax n na ueppakax, nexenn
nposn6a1L a npnnnnuecko cenLcko o6c1anoake. ue 6onee rpanpnosnme aonnm
napopnme nopmHak1cn nop npepnoroH aHnrpaunn. Yxe ne o1penLnme ncka1enn
cuac1Ln, a, kak nekorpa, uenme napopm, nacenennn HanenLknx rocypapc1a panrak1cn
ns opnoro nonyuapnn a ppyroe. uenL cna6o nacenennan aponeckan occnn
naunnae1 nepe6pacmaa1L a snk nonoanny, nakoneu, 1pn ue1aep1n caoero npnpoc1a;
sa Ypan nepeaannaae1cn yxe okono Hnnnnona pyu, nsrnannnuec1ao ko1opmx ns
1mcnuene1ne popnnm o6ocnoaano upesamuano ua1ko. kasounme no aennunne
okeanckne napoxopm nepeaosn1 uenme oppm aHnrpan1oa, ne 6onee cosna1enLnmx, ueH
ppeanne oppm koueannkoa. oxoxe, kak 6yp1o naunnae1cn anoaL 1a sarapounan
cyHa1oxa, u1o co apeHen c1onno1aopennn aaannonckoro, no-anpnHoHy, ne pas
oxaa1maana napopm. Bes 1ouno amncnennmx npnunn uenoaeuecknHn HaccaHn
oanapeaae1 c1nxnnm pyx nepeHenm Hec1a n koe-rpe naunnae1cn neaoo6pasnHan
paaka. enme unannnsaunn cHe1ak1cn a c1onknoaennn, cpepxa1L ko1opoe ne a cnnax
nn npnpopa, nn cosnanne napopoa. uy1 ne 1onLko noamx npoc1panc1a, kak Hm n
nnonum a n6npn. uy1 noamx ycnoan, caHmx noaeunx, kakne 1onLko Hoxe1
npnpyHa1L nso6pe1a1enLnm yH. e ncnonLsoaaa n co1o ponn cyxony1nmx n Hopcknx
cpepc1a nepepanxennn, c1pac1no po6naak1cn aospyunmx ny1e, nnxopapouno
no6naak1 pekoppm na 6mc1po1y, n kaxe1cn, ecnn 6m o1kpmnn cnoco6 Henn1L Hec1o co
ckopoc1Lk nyueunoro nppa, 1o aspmxann 6m o ckopoc1n cae1a n anek1pnuec1aa. aueH
c1anoan1cn neo6xopnHo 1akan cneuka - nensaec1no; anpnHo, a1a c1opona
unannnsaunn, kak Hnorne ppyrne, naunnae1 npnnnHa1L HannakanLnm xapak1ep.
opo6no cyHacuepunH, kynL1ypnme napopm ne saHeuak1 neko1opmx naansunamx
npe, Hexpy 1eH onn nano pasanaak1cn n oxaa1maak1 uy1L nn ne aecL uenoaeueckn
pop. 1panennmx npepkoa naunx ne 6es ocnoaannn ynpekak1 a koncepaa1nsHe, nou1n
6esyHnoH no caoe qana1nunoc1n. pnako n 1enepeunee 6esornnpounoe c1peHnenne k
noansne cHaxnaae1 na ncnxos.
ny6okan 1ak nasmaaeHan kocnoc1L ppeannx nHena caoe onpaapanne a uyac1ae
cuac1Ln: nkpn ne xo1enn nnkaknx nepeHen, oueanpno, no1oHy, u1o 6mnn poc1a1ouno
ypoane1aopenm nac1onunH. nn cnnukoH nk6nnn pec1an1enLnoc1L n 6oro1aopnnn
ee. oxe1 6m1L, a1o 6mna oun6ka akyca, no o akycax ne cnopn1. oncepaa1nanmH
npepkaH naunH nx xnsnL, npn ace ee neaspaunoc1n, kasanacL neo6mknoaenno
akycno, n onn o6eperann ee o1 nsHenennn, kak nckycnm noaap caoe 1onkoe 6nkpo.
enLsn ckasa1L 1oro xe npo o6pa1nm ncnxos, xapak1epnsykun naue apeHn. Yxe 1o,
u1o ace 1ak c1pac1no xpy1 noaoro, pokasmaae1, u1o ace nepoaonLnm nac1onunH n u1o
ace necuac1nm. oc1onnne necuac1Ln, kak 6m pasyHno ono nn o6LncnnnocL, caHo no
ce6e ec1L 6esyHne, n, Hoxe1 6m1L, caHoe xankoe ns acex. ak uenoaeky c
pacc1poennmH nnueaapenneH, nmneuneHy cpepneHy uenoaeky ace kaxe1cn
npo1nanmH. n c rpnHaco npo6ye1 1mcnun aeue, ne nopospeaan, u1o caHm opran
akyca y nero ncnopuen. osma na kncnoe, oc1poe, xryuee, ropLkoe, no1pe6noc1L a
kpnuaueH n nsapauennoH - ao1 u1o xapak1epnsye1 c1nnL nouveau ao aceH, n6o 1ak
nasmaaeHm pekapanc oxaa1nn co6ok peun1enLno ace nanennn pyxa - o1 qnnocoqnn
n nckycc1aa po nonn1nkn n peHecna. o1nnune o1 ppyrnx c1nne, pekapanc
saHeua1enen, Hexpy npounH, 1eH, u1o on nenpepmano paccmnae1cn: auepaunee ao
apaxpe c ceropnnunnH n o1pnuakuee saa1pa nenpeHenno c1ane1 o1pnuaeHmH.
annn noc1onuc1aa, xapak1epnsykuan c1apnny, n Hannn uenoc1onuc1aa,
canpenc1aykuan a naue apeHn, o1nocn1cn Hexpy co6ok kak sakon n npec1ynnenne.
caHoH pene, koncepaa1nsH 1ak nasmaaeHoro c1aporo pexnHa nanoHnnan sakonnoc1L:
xypan nnn xopouan, no xnsnL a c1apnny npnnnHana xapak1ep sakona npnpopm.
ensHennme counanLnme n nnme o1nouennn, nopo6no sakonaH qnsnkn, npnnnHanncL
kak onn ec1L. akon 1nro1ennn yxacen pnn acex ynaaunx n pas6naunxcn, no ero,
cornacn1ecL, nenLsn ocnapnaa1L, n oc1ae1cn npncnoco6nn1Lcn k neHy. qeopanLnmH n
ka1onnuecknH npnnunnaH npncnoco6nnnncL, ncnm1maan ace amropm ncnonnennoro
sakona. nyuune HoHen1m 1orpaunero paanoaecnn poc1nrancn nensaec1nm 1enepL
nopnpok, n nopaannkueHy 6onLunnc1ay nkpe, caepxy ponnsy, 6mno ypo6no n
xopouo. pepc1aaL1e ce6e o6pa1nm nosynr - npepc1aaL1e na Hnny1y, u1o sakonm
qnsnkn no1epnnn nenpenoxnoc1L caok n Hory1 Henn1Lcn. pnpopa 6mc1po
aosapa1nnacL 6m k Xaocy, k nepao6m1no oun, ns nepp ko1opo opnn Bor Hor
co1aopn1L Hnp oprannsoaannm, nokonuncn na sakonax n npekpacnm. Bonesnennoe
n 6eso1ue1noe c1peHnenne k nepeHene coc1aanne1 cyuec1ao ncnc. kpnH
noueHy-1o xoue1cn nepec1ynn1L sakon, napyun1L nopHy, c1epe1L rpannum pec1an.
prannsoaannoe, 1o ec1L sakpennennoe a yc1anoanaunxcn qopHax, xoue1cn
pesoprannsoaa1L, pac1pena1L, paccmna1L. anLnkaH 1ak nasmaaeHoro nporpecca
kaxe1cn, u1o onn oxaauenm 1aopuec1aoH, - na caHoH pene onn oxaauenm
paspyuenneH. e roaopn o 1aknx rpeHyunx aeuax, kak akc1papnnaHn1, aosLHn1e xo1n
6m coaceH neannnyk, nan6onee nporpeccnpykuyk aeuL, kak ny1n coo6uennn. nu1o
ne anecno a 6m1 uenoaeueckn, cnoxnauncn aekaHn, 1akoro pasrpoHa, kak napoaos,
n nn o1 uero ne xpy1 6onee peun1enLnmx nepeHen, kak o1 pnpnxa6nn. eHnn cnnukoH
1aeppa, u1o6m pasaepsny1Lcn n norno1n1L uenoaeueckyk nc1opnk. ponac1Lk pnn
nocnepne nan1cn, no-anpnHoHy, aospyunoe npoc1panc1ao. ospyxonnaaanne
o6oc1pn1 Hannk nepeHen po ropnueunoro coc1onnnn, n c uenoaeuec1aoH, Hoxe1 6m1L,
cnyun1cn 1o, u1o c rapapnncknH c1apoH. nuL 1onLko ns xnsnn 6ypy1 amny1m
nenopanxnme yc1on, ona pasne1n1cn a npax, kak Haunna, ko1opo ace Honekynm
npnunn a panxenne.
nacnm cnop Hexpy c1apmH uoamH c1an aosHoxen npn sa6aennn 1pe1Lero
aneHen1a: aevuoro. cnokonme aeka npounoro xnsnL nkpnH nnkorpa ne kasanacL
c1apo. oaceH nanpo1na. ecHo1pn na cepyk ppeanoc1L yc1anoanennn, ace
cyuec1aykuee kasanocL HonopmH n caexnH. ec1aykuee, kak epnnc1aenno
aosHoxnoe, 6mno nonno xnsnn. D1y ncnxonornk c1aporo pexnHa eue noHnn1 rny6okne
c1apnkn; koe-rpe ee Hoxno n 1enepL na6nkpa1L a rnyxo npoannunn. c1apnny nop
noamH pasyHenn ne nepeHeny, a noa1openne. ak noaoe apmxanLe aospyxa nnn noam
rno1ok aopm, xnsnL kasanacL aeuno opno n 1o xe n aeuno neo6xopnHo. mnue kak
6yp1o xenann 6m kaxpoe apmxanLe pena1L ns ppyroro rasa n kaxpm rno1ok - ns
pyro xnpkoc1n, n a1o nasmaae1cn nporpeccoH. anoxy sakonnoc1n pasnnune Hexpy
c1apmH n noamH ne amsmaano ppaHm, xnsnL 1ekna nenpepmano, n kaxpm
nnpnanpyyH xnn ace xnsnLk popa. H pyHak, u1o nHenno a1o 6mno rnaano npnunno
1oro, u1o "a c1apnny xnaann pepm aecene caonx anyua1. epL a caHoH pene onn
xnnn aecene, naun pepm, n ueH c1apue 6mn pexnH, 1eH Honopoc1L knnena a neH
6onee 6ypnmH knkuoH. cnoHnn1e o sa6aaax apnc1okpa1nn anoxn napnHnpa
onoHaxa. pou1n1e saaeuanne unpoko noxnauero knnsn. akan 6espna cnnLnmx
ouyuenn! nnpax 6ora1mpcknx 6narouec1nam pokyHen1 yHanunaae1 - no ckonLko
aon, noxopoa, oxo1nnuLnx npnknkuenn, cHep1enLno onacnmx n no1oHy nanpnxenno-
cnapknx! ak Horyue aonnoaanocL 1orpa ceppue, kak ponxen 6mn pa6o1a1L Hosr n
xenesnan Hyckyna1ypa! xnsnn cHeppoa 1oro apeHenn canpe1enLc1aa ne oc1anocL,
ecnn ne cun1a1L cnoa, ckasannmx na opnoH knnxeckoH cLespe: "mepe1 cHepp aecnok
na none, npnpe1 nonoauannn, y6Le1 cHeppa n sa6epe1 ero konn n ckypnme poc1a1kn a
po6muy. 1ano 6m1L, n cHeppy npnxopnnocL nnn norn6a1L, nnn aec1n nonyaoennm
o6pas xnsnn, noc1onnno nepexopn1L o1 coxn k Heuy. cHeppy npnxopnnocL aec1n
neckonuaeHyk aony c noneamH n necnmH saepeH, n y cHeppoa 6mnn caon nnpm n
npaspnec1aa. s ppeanoc1n pounn po nac oc1a1kn nmunoro caape6noro o6pnpa n
uenme poccmnn caHouae1nmx, kak kaHnn, necen. epL neaan xe korpa-1o napop nau, n
kako nonno rpypLk!
oun1a1e a6ne nnn nornnpn1e na kap1nnm qnaHanpcko ukonm. konLko Mc
noxoponeno a a1nx c1apmx aekax, ckonLko xnao1noro cuac1Ln, cm1oro, nLnnoro,
nnnuyuero, cnapoc1pac1noro - necHo1pn na ka1onnueckyk c1poroc1L. cnn
npncHo1pe1Lcn xopouenLko, 1o aepL n caHo ka1onnuec1ao neno, nnncano n nspnpno
nnno. aH k1ep - kpoHe rny6okoro neropoaannn na nopokn ka1onnuec1aa - amnec
ns nero caoe yaaxenne k po6pope1enn n opnoapeHenno qopHyny o ein, eib und
esang (anno, xenunnm n nenne. - P.). oc1pm, na ko1opmx cxnranncL cnnukoH
pepskne noaa1opm n aepLHm, kaknH-1o o6pasoH yxnaanncL c nnpynLrenunnHn na
acnkn rpex, u1o, anpoueH, ne ocao6oxpano neropnea o1 yronoano o1ae1c1aennoc1n.
e apaaancL a a1y cnnukoH o6unpnyk o6nac1L, n xouy ckasa1L, u1o c1apm pexnH
kaknH-1o uypoH yHen coxpann1L a ce6e Honopo 1eHnepaHen1 n unc1o knoueckyk
papoc1L 6m1nn, 1orpa kak 1enepeunn noam pexnH c exepneanmHn o6noanennnHn
1an1 a ce6e uep1m ynmnnn n co6auLe c1apoc1n. pn nnue1e n rpnsn cpepneaekoaLn,
npn rny6okoH neaexec1ae, npn c1pauno neo6ecneuennoc1n spopoaLn n xnsnn nkpn
snann, u1o 1akoe ypoane1aopennoc1L pyxa, n 6onLunnc1ao nkpe 6mnn, necoHnenno,
poaonLnm caoe cypL6o. mnue, npn o6nnnn cpepc1a, npn cpaann1enLno
npocaeuennoc1n n cao6ope - cao6opm xo1L o16aann! - 6onLunnc1ao nkpe
uyac1ayk1 ce6n snocuac1nmHn. ceH c1ano poc1ynno ace, n no1oHy HopanLnan
uennoc1L acero ynana po upesamuanoc1n. 1ex nop kak pe1n koxeannkoa c1ann
pena1Lcn npesnpen1aHn pecny6nnk n koponnHn kann1ana, c1anok koxeannka cpenancn
c1ankoH ka1opxnnka: on no1epnn aonue6noe caoc1ao paaa1L cuac1Le.
"cerpa o6noanncn! - a1o a npaac1aenno qnnocoqnn 1akan xe nc1nna, kak nk6an
1eopeHa aknnpa. pnako npexpe n 1enepL a1y nc1nny nonnHann pasno. orpa nop
M xnsnn nonnHann cc, 1o pec1an1enLno o6noannnncL. orpa
nop M c1ann nonnHa1L nM, 1o sanaxno nopue n paspyuenneH.
pouy un1a1enn annkny1L a a1y pasnnuy: snauenne ee rpoHapno. pexpe
o6ae1uaaun uenoaek, sarpnsnnauncn n pyueano nsHn1m, npnc1ynan k nsaec1no
onepaunn, yc1anoanenno epkoaLk. n noc1nncn, ycnnenno Honnncn, roaen,
ncnoaepoaancn, kanncn, npno6uancn, n ecnn on npopenmaan ace a1o nckpenno, 1o
pec1an1enLno c. a1oH ne Hoxe1 6m1L nn Haneuero coHnennn. a
neko1opoe apeHn uenoaek 1pesaen, o1amkan o1 rpexoa, a1nrnaancn a nopnpounyk
xnsnL, n aocc1anoanenne coaepuanocL, qnsnueckoe n pyueanoe. nkako nM
ne 6mno, 1o ec1L uenoaek ne counnnn ce6e noaoro c1pon xnsnn, a 1onLko
ynopnpounaan c1apm, pacc1poennm. o1 cMc M c1aporo apeHenn: kaxpan
peqopHa, nonn1nueckan n pennrnosnan, 6mna aosapauenneH k ocnoanoHy o6pasuy, k
1oHy ppeaneHy npnnunny, ko1opm 6mn anoxen a o6uec1ao. cnn nnoxo aepoaann a
Bora, 1o pennrnosnan peqopHa coc1onna ne a 1oH, u1o6m coaceH ne aepoaa1L, kak a1o
nonnHae1cn 1enepL, a noc1apa1Lcn nckpenno aepoaa1L n pec1an1enLno ncnonnn1L
sanoaepn. cnn 1epnnocL yaaxenne k sakony, 1o nonn1nueckan peqopHa coc1onna ne a
1oH, u1o6m coaceH nanneaa1L na sakon (kak nonnHae1cn 1enepL), a u1o6m aepny1L k
neHy yaaxenne. ne kaxe1cn, ppeanee "o6noanenne 6onee o1aeuae1 npnpope, ueH
nmneunnn noHka aHec1o nounnkn. orpa 1eno sa6onee1, 1o peqopHa ero saknkuae1cn
ne a 1oH, u1o6m nsHenn1L nnan 1ena, a u1o6m aocc1anoan1L ero, ne a 1oH, u1o6m
am6pocn1L opnn opranm n ampa6o1a1L coaceH ppyrne, a a 1oH, u1o6m npexnne opranm
aepny1L k nx npnpopnoHy nasnauennk. ak noc1ynae1 acnkoe ne cnnukoH sapaxennoe
1eno, noka ne aHeuak1cn Honopme pok1opa c nx nonec1ne peuen1oa na kaxpyk
6onesnL. ak noc1ynae1 n acnkoe ne cnnukoH oppnxneauee o6uec1ao: ono
o6noanne1cn aocc1anoanenneH, a ne nepeHeno. o1 korpa 1eno nnn o6uec1ao coaceH
crnnno, 1orpa aceH 1kannH n kne1oukaH neypepxnHo xoue1cn pacnons1ncL, pasnes1Lcn,
n ao1 1orpa peqopHa npnnnHae1 xapak1ep noaopexnHnm. Xoue1cn ne aocc1anoann1L,
a am6pacmaa1L, ampesa1L, amxnra1L ranrpeny, xo1n 6m kanenmH xenesoH, nocne uero
noneaone npnxopn1cn npnc1aann1L nckycc1aennme unenm. rny6okoHy necuac1Lk,
nou1n ace c1panm - n occnn 6onLue, ueH Hnorne, - naxopn1cn a o6noanennn ne
c1aporo, a "noaoro pexnHa. e1op aocc1anoanennn, 6narope1enLnm n na1ypanLnm,
koe-rpe cnnukoH onospan. Yxe ne1 1ex 1kane, ko1opme Hoxno 6m aocc1anoan1L.
Pcc, MM umc cc, c, nc
nxu ncc, nM sM M, mmM s
n. s mm s En m X.
Ps nu n cnmu M. B k xsu cn
cx, cc n c nc, M m
n.
ne kaxe1cn, eaponeckan 6ypxyasnn - nopo6no nsnexenno apnc1okpa1nn -
o6peuena cHep1n. cnopuennm pa6oun knacc o6peuen cHep1n. apaxennm n
6es6oxnm npone1apna1 o6peuen cHep1n. BesHepno acnyxuee nacenenne aponm n
Hepnkn ace eue pac1e1, no ono poaonLno 6mc1po naune1 napa1L, crnnaan na kopnk n
paspyuancL, kak nekorpa a aonax n Hn1exax. nnnme nopopm o1napy1, kak
o1rnnaune ae1kn co c1aona. cnn uenoaeuec1ao cnace1cn, 1o 1eH He1opoH, kaknH
acerpa cnacanocL: aocc1anoanenneH cypoamx ec1ec1aennmx ycnoan n
aocc1anoanenneH ec1ec1aennoro uenoaeka. na6me aneHen1m naue pacm opnuak1,
ampopn1cn, amHpy1. nnLnme aneHen1m aosapa1n1cn k aapaapc1ay n k pexnHy,
noxoxeHy na c1apm. orpa 1onLko, Hoxe1 6m1L, koe-rpe 6ypy1 ocyuec1anenm y1onnn
knnsn pono1knna n rpaqa onc1oro; onn aepL korpa-1o yxe 6mnn ocyuec1anenm.
pnpopa, kak xypoxnnk, na 1mcnun napoa npnknpmaae1 caoe 1aopuec1ao, npo6yn
Hexpy npounH n anapxnsHm acnknx anpoa. opo6no HmnLnmH nysmpnH, a1n
apxnnoame, na anp ouapoaa1enLnme qopHm xnsnn okasmaak1cn ouenL xpynknHn.
oHHynm, nonn1nueckne n pennrnosnme, aosnnknya ns npeanLnoro saHmcna, ppoxa1,
kone6nk1cn n nakoneu nonak1cn, oc1aana nocne ce6n Hokpoe Hec1o. un6ka
o6noan1ene naunx ne a 1oH, u1o nx nnanm nepasyHnm, a a 1oH, u1o onn cnnukoH
pasyHnm. 6noan1enn aoo6paxak1, u1o ueH paccypounee, reoHe1pnunee nnan, ueH
6onLue a nero anoxeno cnHHe1pnn n rapHonnn, 1eH 6onee a1o coo1ae1c1aye1 npnpope
uenoaeka. un6ka nnaueanan! pec1an1enLnoc1n 6maae1 ckopee nao6opo1. opa
nonn1L, u1o uenoaek cyuec1ao nppaunonanLnoe n u1o npnpopa ero ne yknapmaae1cn a
pasyHnme cnnnornsHm. D1o ace paano u1o c kyue necky: kasanocL 6m, noueHy kyue ne
npnnn1L qopHm uapa, nnn ok1aappa, nnn npaannLno nnpaHnpm. apene xe kaxpoe
cmnyuee 1eno npnnnHae1 caok nk6nHyk qopHy - poaonLno 6eso6pasno kyun. apop
aoace ne ec1L 1o, ueH ero nso6pasnn ycco. apop ne cyaepen, ne uapL, ne Hyppeu, a
poaonLno xankan 1onna, n ueH on kpynnee n c1nxnnee, 1eH 6onee 6ecnoHouen n
xanok. axpm o1penLnm aneHen1 a1o c1nxnn, cpepnn uenoaek, aoace ne
npaaoHepnoe n ne npaaocnoco6noe cyuec1ao, a paynoroe aecLHa qan1ac1nueckoe,
cknonnoe opnoapeHenno 6m1L n renneH, n npno1oH - n k ueHy ero 6onLue 1nne1,
poroaapnaa1L neuero. e c1onLko cy6Lek1 npaaa, ckonLko cy6Lek1 acnueckoro
6ecny1c1aa, cpepnn uenoaek nn a ueH 1ak ne nyxpae1cn, kak a 1oH, u1o6m nekoe
amcuee cyuec1ao - rocypapc1ao - noc1aanno ero na c1poro onpepenennoe Hec1o n
o6ecneunno eHy onpepenennyk qynkunk. yxno ne c1apoe, ne noaoe: xnsnn nyxno
neu1o aeunoe, nec1apekuee n no1oHy acerpa Honopoe. axe necoaepuennme sakonm,
ecnn onn sakonm, 1o ec1L coxpannk1 ponroapeHennoe n nenpepekaeHoe snauenne,
o6napak1 cnoco6noc1Lk noppepxnaa1L xnsnL. ao6opo1, pparouennme xeHuyra,
nannsannme na rnnnyk nn1ky, paccmnak1cn. H panek o1 Hmcnn, u1o 1enepeunne
rpaxpane nanoHnnak1 nepnm, no nmneunnn sakonnoc1L, nenpepmano payuancn nop
npepnoroH peqopH, pasLepnnne1 paxe a1o peueaoe o6uec1ao aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m
coepnnn1L.
c1nnnoe o6noanenne occnn ponxno coc1on1L ne a noHke, a a nounnke ee, n naune1cn
1akoe o6noanenne ne panLue ueH nonnsn1cn neckonLko knnxnm, cnnukoH
1eope1nueckn n amcokonapnm asrnnp na uenoaeka. enme 1mcnuene1nn
rocypapc1aennoc1L n pennrnn cHo1penn na uenoaeka kak na cyuec1ao cna6oe -
paneko ne 1aeppoe, a ckopee cmnyuee 1eno, 1pe6ykuee aneune oxpanm n
any1penne pncunnnnnm. a1oH asrnnpe, ocnoaannoH na onm1e nc1opnn, 6mno Hnoro
ckpoHnoc1n n cHnpenno npaapm. 1ex nop kak aoso6napano roppennaoe
noHeua1enLc1ao n npoaosrnauena aa1onoHnn nnunoc1n, a1a nnunoc1L ynopo6nnacL
6nyxpakue nouke. pn ace o1nocn1enLno cao6ope ona c1papae1 n sac1aanne1
c1papa1L rocypapc1aennm oprannsH. axpan nnunoc1L uyac1aye1 ce6n HanenLknH
rocypapc1aoH, n ec1ec1aenno, u1o ee nn1epecm a noc1onnnoH konqnnk1e c nn1epecaHn
6onLuoro rocypapc1aa. ce nepoaonLnm, ace xo1n1 noaoro - nonpoc1y roaopn, uyxoro,
- nnk1o ne poaonLc1aye1cn caonH. c1nnnoe o6noanenne Hexpy 1eH nnkorpa ne
coc1on1 a saxaa1e uyxporo, a a aocc1anoanennn caoero. pen naunonanLnoc1n 1eH n
cnnLna, u1o ona ec1L aosapauenne k ce6e. Xo1n1e o6noan1Lcn - aocc1anoann1ecL.
B
23
an6onee o6euakunH panxenneH pyccko xnsnn nanne1cn 1enepL naunonanLnoe.
parn naunonannsHa n cnpaaa, n cneaa pacnpoc1pannk1 o neH caHm nounm aspop,
no a1o ne Heuae1 aennkoHy anxennk pac1n n saxaa1maa1L co6o ace 6onee n 6onee
unpokne kpyrn o6uec1aa. 1o 1akoe naunonannsH? 1euenne eue Hnornx ne1
npnpe1cn paccyxpa1L o6 a1oH - 1ounee, 1pypno ce6e npepc1aan1L apeHn, korpa aonpoc
a1o1 ne sacnyxnaan 6m nponoaepn n caHoro annHa1enLnoro o6cyxpennn.
s Hnoxec1aa onpepenenn naunonannsHa nosaonL1e oc1anoan1Lcn na caHmx npoc1mx
n ypo6ononn1nmx. aunonannsH, Hne kaxe1cn, ec1L napopnan ckpeuuoc1u - a
o1nnune o1 npn1aopc1aa nap1n n acnkoro nx kpnannnnn n noppaxannn. c1L nkpn
nckpennne, ko1opme ne 1epnn1, u1o6m kasa1Lcn ueH-1o ppyrnH n ko1opmH xoue1cn
acerpa 6m1L nnuL caHnHn co6o. ao6opo1, ec1L nkpn, kak 6m 6onunecn caHnx ce6n,
any1penne ne yaaxakune ce6n, ko1opme ro1oam 6m1L ueH yropno, 1onLko ne 1eH, u1o
onn ec1L. D1a c1pannan 1pycoc1L nanoHnnae1 1ak nasmaaeHm HHe1sH a npnpope,
c1peHnenne cna6mx nopop - oco6enno cpepn nacekoHmx - noppenmaa1L caok
napyxnoc1L nop okpyxakuyk cpepy, nanpnHep npnnnHa1L ouep1annn n uae1a
pac1enn. yac1ao naunonanLnoe o6pa1no a1oHy HanopyunoHy nnc1nnk1y.
aunonannsH ec1L nonnoe pasan1ne nnunoc1n n c1okoe 6epexenne acex
oco6ennoc1e, o1nnuakunx pannm anp o1 cHexnmx eHy. aunonannsH ec1L ne 1onLko
nonno1a caHocosnannn, no nonno1a oco6euuoro - 1aopueckoro caHocosnannn, a ne
noppaxa1enLnoro. aunonannsH acerpa uyac1aye1cn kak amcuee ypoane1aopenne, kak
"nk6oaL k o1euec1ay n napopnan roppoc1L. enLsn nk6n1L n nenLsn roppn1Lcn 1eH,
u1o cun1aeuL pypnmH. 1ano 6m1L, naunonannsH npepnonarae1 nonno1y xopounx
kauec1a nnn 1ex, u1o kaxy1cn xopounHn. aunonannsH ec1L 1o pepkoe coc1onnne,
korpa napop npnHnpne1cn c caHnH co6ok, axopn1 a nonnoe cornacne, a paanoaecne
caoero pyxa n a rapHonnueckoe ypoane1aopenne caHnH co6o.
1ckpa nepaneko po caHoank6nennoc1n, po o6oxec1anennn caoero "n, kak a1o 6maano
y ppeannx, 6onee caexnx napopnoc1e. "s ecHL ocnopL Bor 1ao. D1a sanoaepL a
ppeanoc1n nonnHanacL 1ak:
"ocnopL Bor 1ao ec1L 1aoe "n" n pa ne 6ypy1 y 1e6n ppyrne 6orn, kpoHe 1aoero "n".
muepun ns ec1ec1aa npnpopm napop uyac1aoaan, u1o on ocyuec1anne1 kakoe-1o
oco6ennoe 6m1ne, oco6ennyk npek, n poaec1n nocnepnkk po kpanero ampaxennn
noun1anocL npnsaanneH napopnmH. o, u1o nasmaanocL "pyx napopa, "renn
napopnm, 6mn pec1an1enLno kak 6m oco6m 6or (Hrae, ccyp n np.), no o6pasy n
nopo6nk ko1oporo a pannoH nneHenn c1ponncn uenoaek n naunn. ennrnn n kynL1ypa a
ppeanoc1n ne c1peHnnncL k nno uenn, kak 1onLko k 1o, u1o6m aonno1n1L a napope
, 1o ec1L oco6m saHmcen npnpopm, nekoe ncknkun1enLno cnnLnoe n
nenoppaxaeHo npekpacnoe caoeo6pasne. ocHo1pn1e na 1onko ampa6o1annyk nopopy,
nanpnHep na opna nnn onenn. 1ako nopope ace sakonueno, kak a c1a1ye aennkoro
ckynLn1opa, ace oc1anoannocL, kak 6m poc1nrnya u xnsnn. m uyac1aye1e, u1o
1y1 nnkakne nepeHenm neaosHoxnm, n6o acnkoe sM 6ype1 sM, ynapkoH
pacm. akoaa xe acnkan c1poro ampa6o1annan naunonanLnoc1L. ak ace coaepuennoe,
ona koncepaa1nana; poc1nrny1oe caoeo6pasne caoe ona o1c1anaae1, kak xnsnL.
cyunoc1n, a neH, a ncknkun1enLnoH caoeo6pasnn, n saknkuae1cn cHmcn xnsnn.
BesHepnoe konnuec1ao npn6nnxenn npnpopa 1pa1n1 pnn 1oro, u1o6m nakoneu
poc1nrny1L oco6ennoro npeana n aonno1n1L ero. onnouennm pyx napopnm
cuac1nna, kak aonnouennm Bor. o1 okonua1enLnan uenL naunonannsHa: nonnoe
ypoane1aopenne, nonno1a 6naxenc1aa. 1o a1o HoHen1 pepkn n 1pyp nepoc1nxnHm,
a1o ne Henne1 pena. as poc1nrny1an naunonanLnan sakonuennoc1L na ponrne aeka
cospae1 napop cuc. Henno a a1n anoxn poxpak1cn uypnme necnn napopnme,
reponueckne ckasannn, Heu1m o 6eccHep1nn. opopa, aouepuan a aeunm 1nn cao,
ouyuae1 6eccHep1ne ne a 6ypyueH, a a nac1onueH.
o, u1o Hm, nponoaepnnkn naunonanLnoro aocc1anoanennn, c1aanH napopno uenLk,
ne ec1L nsHmunenne nnn kanpns yHa. D1o noaenn1enLnoe n caHoe amcokoe 1pe6oaanne
npnpopm, n narpapo sa ncnonnenne ero cnyxn1 cuac1Le. opyHa1e poc1a1ouno
cepLesno - n am yanpn1e, u1o 1onLko a o1c1onauecn n sakonuenno napopnoc1n
aosHoxnm Hnp, cornacne, cao6opa, 6pa1c1ao - ace nauana 6naxenno xnsnn.
napopnoc1n pac1penanno, pasnopopno, nepenonnenno uyxpmHn aneHen1aHn, no
neo6xopnHoc1n uapn1 paspop, noc1onnnan rpmsnn n oxec1ouenne, kak a xnHnueckoH
ko1ne, kypa nonoxenm pasnnunme conn. Bpoxenne n xaoc - ao1 nens6exnan kap1nna
anapxnn, oxaa1maakue nenaunonanLnoe o6uec1ao. paxpe6nme ppyr ppyry c1nxnn
asanHno pasnarak1cn a 6opL6e n anocn1, u1o kacae1cn uenoaeueckoro coxn1enLc1aa,
opny nenaanc1L, ko1opan ec1L caHan oc1pan ns 6onesne pyxa. cnn xenae1e Hnpa n
po6pope1enn, pnn a1oro 6ecnonesno nponsnocn1L npaac1aennme cen1enunn, xo1n 6m
caHme nsmckannme. pena1e 1ak, u1o6m napop 6mn naunonanen: aHec1e c
naunonanLnmH uyac1aoH aope1 caH co6ok n Hnp n caHa, nenpouenan, nan1cn
po6pope1enL. ypaanoaeuenno cnc1eHe o6uec1aa ne1 6opL6m. na asanHno
o6yspana, apaxpe6nme cnnm norauenm. asae a1o ne nocnepnnn uenL uenoaeueckoro
o6uec1aa?
Henno a c1pac1noH xenannn Hnpa n a uenoaeuex naunonannc1m n
roaopn1 nacepakunH co acex c1opon nnopopuaH: "1opn1e o1 nac! naue
any1pennee cornacne ne aaopn1e paspopa! poc1nrny1oe naunonanLnoc1Lk
npnHnpenne ne anocn1e nauan apaxpm! 6o apaxpa coaepuenno nens6exna npn
ocnoanoH nepaaenc1ae, o1 ko1oporo nn am, nn Hm o1kasa1Lcn ne HoxeH. m - eapen,
nonnkn, qnnnm, apHnne n np., n np. - nnaHenno popoxn1e caonH naunonanLnmH
caoeo6pasneH. m ne xo1n1e n Mx nsHenn1L eHy. m, pycckne nkpn, 1o xe
caHoe: 6es 1nxknx pacc1poc1a napopnmx, Hoxe1 6m1L, 6es okonua1enLno rn6enn
caoe popnnm Hm ne HoxeH yc1ynn1L aaH. c1ae1cn, c1ano 6m1L, paso1ncL, nopo6no
apaaHy n o1y: "anpaao - 1aoe, naneao - Hoe. aunonannsH pycckn, no kpane
Hepe MM nonnHannn, ne ec1L saxaa1 n ne ec1L nacnnne. sM cu uc
su. axaa1 n nacnnne a ero koaapnmx qopHax npy1 co c1oponm ne
pycckoro naunonannsHa. e Hm npeH na nnopopuea, a onn na nac. e Hm oanapeaaeH
1eppn1opne n 1pypoH napopnmH y eapeea, nonnkoa, apHnn n np., a onn oanapeaak1
naunHn. a1L sakonoHepnm, no ouy1n1enLnm o1nop a1oHy any1penneHy "nauec1ank
nnonneHennmx - uenL naunonanLnoro panxennn. D1o n, a1o
cM.
ak cnyunnocL, u1o rpoHapnm napop pycckn ne cyHen npepynpepn1L aennuauyk ns
onacnoc1e - nauec1ane nsny1pn? D1o cnyunnocL ouenL npoc1o. aaoeaaa uyxpme
nneHena, Hm nHenn necuac1nyk oun6ky ypepxa1L nx y ce6n. paroa, saxaauennmx a
nnen, Hm aaenn a ceHLk caok aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m o1nyc1n1L na aonk. acnepc1aennmx
aparoa, 1mcnuy ne1 apepnaunx occnn n paspyuaaunx ee, Hm ypaannnn a
uapc1aennmx npaaax c c1pon1ennHn rocypapc1aa n ero saun1nnkaHn. enpnHnpnHme c
naue napopnoc1Lk, uyxeseHum nponnknn a caHyk rny6nny o6uec1aennmx 1kane, a
ceppue n Hosr c1panm, n anecnn n anocn1 a1nH caHme 1nxenme pacc1poc1aa.
1aeppmnk rocypapc1aennoc1n naue nnopopum axopn1 npn nocpepc1ae payx
nxeyuenn - nonn1nueckoro n pennrnosnoro. cnny nepaoro nxeyuennn ace
"noppannme rocypapc1aa npnpaannaak1cn k "rpaxpanaH ero, a cnny a1oporo - ace
nkpn paccHa1pnaak1cn kak "6pa1Ln. opLkn onm1 sppaaoHmcnnunx nkpe
y6epn1enLno pokasmaae1, u1o "rpaxpannn n "6pa1 - nanennn cnnukoH amcokne,
u1o6m 6m1L unpoko o6o6uennmHn. nopopum, o1c1anaakune caok naunonanLnoc1L,
ne Hory1 opnoapeHenno npnnapnexa1L n k naue, n ecnn uncnn1cn "rpaxpanaHn
ycckoro rocypapc1aa, 1o a1o npoc1o nonn1nueckn nopnor. ouno 1ak xe uyxne nkpn,
noka onn uyxne, ne Hory1 6m1L naH 6pa1LnHn; poaepn1L nH, kak 6pa1LnH, aaxnme
nosnunn a rocypapc1ae kpane 6espaccypno. pnpopa ne 1epnn1 qanLcnqnkaun.
pnpopa cospana ne opny, a pasnme naunonanLnoc1n. en1nHen1anLno cHeunaa1L nx
n npn1aopn1Lcn, 6yp1o ace onn cnnaak1cn a opny, ec1L 6esyHne n rpex npo1na
npnpopm.
parn pyccko napopnoc1n, acnueckn o1c1anaan cao naunonannsH, aceHepno
onopounaak1 pycckn. orpa peuL sape1 o napyuennn npaa eapen, qnnna, nonnka,
apHnnnna, nopmHae1cn neropykun aonnL: ace kpnua1 o6 yaaxennn k 1ako can1mne,
kakoaa naunonanLnoc1L. o nnuL 1onLko pycckne o6Honan1cn o caoe napopnoc1n -
nopmHak1cn aosHyuennme kpnkn: "enoaekonenaanc1nnuec1ao! e1epnnHoc1L!
epnoco1ennoe nacnnne! py6m aronsH! aHn oxec1ouennme aronc1m,
noknonnkunecn npony o1uyxpennn, naceaune na nac nnopopum ne npnsnak1 sa
occne ee napopnoro "n. 1o x, oc1ae1cn naH o6peuL ce6n a caHoH pene na u
pnn uyxnx pac, kak o1kpoaenno Heu1ak1 qana1nkn nanrepHannsHa!
noc1onm Henknx naunonanLnoc1e ne c1mpn1cn ampaxennn "aronsH. ne kaxe1cn, n
pycckoHy naunonannsHy ne cnepye1 uypa1Lcn a1oro nonn1nn. a, aronsH. 1o x a neH
ypnan1enLnoro nnn yxacnoro? s acex napopoa na cae1e pycckoHy, nan6onee
HnrkoceppeunoHy, nopa sapasn1Lcn neko1opo poso sppaaoro aronsHa. opa c
coaepuenno 1aeppoc1Lk yc1anoan1L, u1o Hm ne kocHononn1m, ne anL1pync1m, ne
"can1me nocnepnnx pne, a 1ako xe napop, kak n ace oc1anLnme, xenakune xn1L na
6enoH cae1e npexpe acero pnn caHnx ce6n n pnn co6c1aennoro no1oHc1aa. opa
npnsna1L nckpenno n npoc1o 1e naun onpepenennn, ko1opme snaua1cn a naueH
nHnepckoH 1n1yne. D1o1 1n1yn roaopn1, u1o occnn - napop pepxaanm, nesaancnHm
nn o1 koro na cae1e, nnkoHy ne nopunnennm. m - cc, 1o ec1L amcuee
rocnopc1ao na caoe 1eppn1opnn. m nneHn c, noaeneaakuee aceHn
napopnoc1nHn, aouepunHn a coc1aa Hnepnn. Henno naue naunonanLnoe
caoeo6pasne, a ne uLe ppyroe ponxno cun1a1Lcn nenpenoxnmH. ce nnme
naunonanLnoc1n ponxnm 6m1L 1epnnHm kak nanennn apeHennme, nopnexaune nnn
ycaoennk, nnn am1ecnennk. uec1L sa sakon nc coxn1enLc1ao pasnmx
naunonanLnoc1e a uep1e rocypapc1aa coc1aanne1 aennuauyk nenenoc1L,
kakyk Hoxno ce6e aoo6pasn1L.
pnrnauak un1a1ene annHa1enLno npouec1L o6Lnanennyk auepa (22 nnaapn) a
"oaoH apeHenn nporpaHHy, ampa6o1annyk pnn o6Lepnnennoro cepoccnckoro
naunonanLnoro coksa. epam unen a1oro cnHaona naue nonn1nuecko aepm -
"epnnc1ao n nepaspenLnoc1L occncko nHnepnn n orpaxpenne ao acex ee uac1nx
cnc cc c. nn nnopopuecknx okpann pycckne naunonannc1m
ponyckak1 nnuL "xosnc1aennoe caHoynpaanenne npn o6nsa1enLnoH n nonnoH
orpaxpennn pyccknx nn1epecoa, kak Hec1nmx, 1ak n o6uerocypapc1aennmx. co6o
nopuepknaae1cn, u1o n ncM. ocnepnn 1esnc
o1rpannunaae1 cepoccnckn naunonanLnm coks o1 1ex yHepenno-nn6epanLnmx
nap1n, ko1opme coc1aannk1 aaanrapp eapec1aa. o acex oc1anLnmx nynk1ax
o6Lnanennan nporpaHHa Hoxe1 nopnexa1L kpn1nke, no a a1oH nynk1e ona 6esynpeuna.
aennuaue nckpennoc1Lk n npnHo1o, penakunHn 6onLuyk uec1L aoxpnH nap1nn,
onn nHenn Hyxec1ao amckasa1L caon asrnnpm no nnopopueckoHy aonpocy. n, a1o1
aonpoc, kak a pasnoxnauecn ypunn n pasnarakuecn ac1pnn, coc1aanne1 y nac
1enepL rnaanyk rocypapc1aennyk 6onesnL. enLsn roaopn1L nn o "nopLeHe
nponsaopn1enLnmx cnn rocypapc1aa ( 5), nn o "aocc1anoanennn aoennoro
Horyuec1aa occncko nHnepnn ( 6), noka napop n o6uec1ao pasLepak1cn
any1penne apaxpo, anocnHo uyxepopnmHn aneHen1aHn. cnn Heu1a1L o
6narononyunmx apeHenax, 1o onn nan1cn ne npexpe, ueH aepne1cn nau paano
y1pauennm naunonanLnm Hnp. ak oprannsHy, sapaxennoHy uyxenpnmHn
Hnkpo6aHn, occnn npexpe acero nyxno amneun1Lcn o1 sapasm. onLko a spopoamx
pykax u1o-nn6ypL snaua1 n 1pypoao 1onop, n korpa-1o no6eponocnm Heu.
s nporpaHHm cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa anpno, po kako c1enenn nenenm
yaepennn aparoa ero, 6yp1o coks - cnnukoH nnn cnnukoH n.
aunonannsH ne nonn1nka, on amue nonn1nkn n a cnny a1oro ne ponyckae1
opnoc1oponnnx kpanoc1e. o1nnune o1 eapecko-nn6epanLnmx nap1n (kape1m n
ok1n6pnc1m), cepoccnckn naunonanLnm coks onnpae1cn npexpe acero na
cnoanme akonm. cornacnn c nocnepnnHn coks npnsnae1 "nesm6neHoc1L
npepc1aan1enLnoro o6pasa npaanennn, npn ko1opoH "sakonopa1enLnan anac1L
aHopepxaanoro apn naxopn1cn a "epnnennn c payHn nana1aHn. aunonanLnm
coks npnpae1 aaxnoe snauenne "na6nkpennk sakonopa1enLnmx yupexpenn sa
sakonoHepnoc1Lk pec1an npaan1enLc1aa. ocnepnee ycnoane poaonLno pesko
o1rpannunaae1 aunonanLnm coks n o1 kpane npaamx nap1n. cnn ne 6onLunnc1ao
ynL1paHonapxnc1oa, 1o Hnorne ns nnx po cnx nop ne Hory1 noHnpn1Lcn c napopnmH
npepc1aan1enLc1aoH. akonopa1enLnoe apn c napopoH nH kaxe1cn
uM caHopepxaano anac1n. aunonannc1aH a1o ne kaxe1cn. nn
y6expenm, u1o nasaannoe orpannuenne - HnnHoe, nopo6no nesaancnHoc1n cypa nnn
cao6ope apHnnnc1pa1nano pen1enLnoc1n a npepenax sakona. oka npnnunnoH
pyccko rocypapc1aennoc1n oc1ae1cn epnnopepxaane, aepxoanmH sakonopa1eneH,
y1aeppn1eneH sakonoa nanne1cn ocypapL-aHopepxeu, no opranm o1npaanennn
mcouaue anac1n ponxnm 6m1L cornacoaanm c npnpopo pena. c1ec1aenno, u1o
nannyuunH opranoH sakonopa1enLc1aa n napsopa sa npaan1enLc1aoH Hoxe1 cnyxn1L
1onLko 1a c1nxnn, ko1opan xnae1 sakonaHn n ko1opan na ce6e xe uyac1aye1 acnkoe
napyuenne nx. ak yuenm ne cospae1 sakonoa npnpopm, a nx, nsyuan
caoc1aa aeue, 1ak n nonn1nueckn sakonopa1enL: nan6onee coaepuennme sakonm -
a1o nan6onee ec1ec1aennme, cornacnme c npnpopo naunn. cnn Hnepnn naua
npnuna a onacneuee pacc1poc1ao, 1o rnaanmH o6pasoH no1oHy, u1o ec1ec1aennme
sakonm, korpa-1o yc1anaannaaaunecn o6muanHn n npaaaHn, 6mnn nopHenenm
noc1enenno counnennmHn sakonaHn, 6esxnsnennmHn n uyxpmHn npnpope o6uec1aa.
enL cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa - aocc1anoanenne pyccko
naunonanLnoc1n, ne 1onLko kak rocnopc1aykue, no n rocypapc1aenno-1aopuecko.
o6nac1n nonn1nkn coksy npnpe1cn ac1ynn1L a 6opL6y co aceHn noxnmHn pok1pnnaHn,
naansmaakunHn napopy pycckoHy uyxpme ero npnpope nopnpkn. a1oH cHmcne pnn
naunonannc1oa opnnakoao npo1nanm 6yHaxnan He1aqnsnka 6kpokpa1nn n knnxnan
He1aqnsnka peaonkunn. okyuennn n 1o n ppyro naansa1L naunn nacnnLc1aenno ne
caoc1aennme e nopHm cnepye1 cun1a1L opnnakoao npec1ynnmHn. e1op
naunonannsHa coanapae1 c nayunmH: npepoc1aaL1e naunn caHo onpepenn1L, u1o ona
1akoe n k ueHy c1peHn1cn. 1ak kak a1o yxe onpepeneno 1mcnuene1ne xnsnLk, 1o
oc1ae1cn c aosHoxno po6pocoaec1noc1Lk nnuL ocyuec1an1L 1o, u1o ec1L.
ennuauee necuac1Le acnkoro napopa - a1o korpa ec1ec1aennme sakonm pacc1poenm
n xnsnL ero a cnny a1oro pacc1poc1aa nckaxena. aunonanLnoe panxenne ec1L
nopma pycckoro o6uec1aa aocc1anoan1L na1ypanLnm nopnpok, aepny1Lcn k popnmH,
nan6onee ypo6nmH n no1oHy nan6onee cM qopHaH, cnarakunHcn
oprannueckn. an6onLue noHexo aocc1anoanennk cnyxa1 nnopopnme aneHen1m,
ko1opmx nsnnunee npncy1c1ane, ne npepycHo1pennoe npnpopo, pasnarae1 xnsnL. o1
noueHy sakonoHepnan 6opL6a c any1pennnHn nauec1annHn nanne1cn opno ns rnaanmx
sapau coksa. o a1a sapaua, koneuno, ne epnnc1aennan. ycckan xnsnL yrne1ena ne
1onLko nnopopuecknH sacnnLeH. na nopaanena aceHn nocnepc1annHn naunonanLnoro
ynapka. apopnoe 6es6oxne, napopnoe nLnnc1ao, pasaep1maakueecn a
rocypapc1aennyk ka1ac1poqy, napopnan nnue1a, napopnan npec1ynnoc1L, napopnoe
neaexec1ao, onacnm ynapok npak1nuecknx snann, 6ecnoHounoc1L 1pypa, 6ecnpaane
n 6eccypLe - ace a1o n Hnoroe ppyroe coc1aanne1 o6uyk nponac1L, ns ko1opo nyxno
nsaneuL napop. enL coo6uec1aa, nHenyeHoro cepoccncknH naunonanLnmH coksoH,
- nu naunk ns acex napenn, aocc1anoan1L ee.
"e cnnukoH nn roppan sapaua? - cnpocn1 nno un1a1enL. 1nkpL ne roppan, o1aeuy
n. e 1onLko ne roppan, no caHan sakonnan, ko1opo ponxno sapaaa1Lcn acnkoe
noua1nyaueecn cyuec1ao. 16pocna nyc1me c1paxn n noxnm c1mp, nonpo6yeH
nckpenno cpena1L kaxpm, u1o a naunx cnnax, n am yanpn1e, u1o cyHHa ne6onLunx
ycnnn cnoco6na cnoxn1Lcn a orpoHnm n 6nnc1a1enLnm pesynL1a1.
aknH xe nnmH cnoco6oH, kak ne a1nH, aockpecann ppyrne napopm? onn - ne
ncknkuan nan6onee nepepoamx - nepexnaann eue nepaano ne nyuune, ueH Hm,
apeHena. ak xe, kak n y nac, n qpanuysm, n neHum, n anrnnuane ne1 acero
non1opac1a nasap kocnenn a neaexec1ae n nnue1e. o npo6ypnnocL naunonanLnoe
cosnanne, npocnyncn renn napopoa - n onn, 1ouno no cnoay Boxnk, c6pocnnn caok
npokasy...
T
16
"apc1ao nnn nHnepnn? - cnpaunaae1, aospaxan Hne, . . 1onmnnn. - ak Hm
xenaeH Hmcnn1L occnk a npeane, kak Hm ee nk6nH - uapc1aoH nnn nHnepne?
po1naononaran a1n paa 1oxpec1aennmx nonn1nn o1 nHenn ok1n6pnsHa, Hne kaxe1cn,
. . 1onmnnn naansmaae1 caoe nap1nn ouenL 1nxenoe sa6nyxpenne. o c1pannoHy
Hnennk Hoero yaaxaeHoro cynpo1nannka, occnn 6mna korpa-1o a Honopoc1n
uapc1aoH, no 1enepL nepec1ana 6m1L nH, cospea a nHnepnk, npnueH a1o 6yp1o 6m
coaceH pasnme rocypapc1aennme nanennn. oka Hm 6mnn, anpn1e nn, uapc1aoH, 6mn
ec1ec1aennmH "xec1okn naunonanLnm aronsH (noueHy-1o, roaopn o naunonanLnoH
aronsHe, ok1n6pnc1 nenpeHenno npn6aan1 xc). anoxy uapc1aa ec1ec1aenno
6mno nokopenne opnonneHennmx napopoa, ckpennenne nx o6pyueH
rocypapc1aennoc1n, nornouenne 6es oc1a1ka acero nnopopnoro. enepL xe, korpa Hm
"cospenn a nHnepnk, acero a1oro 6yp1o 6m yxe ne nyxno: ne nyxno ckpennennn
napopoa o6pyueH rocypapc1aennoc1n, ne nyxno nornouennn acero nnopopnoro. ce
a1n sa6o1m c1aporo uapc1aa r-n 1onmnnn nasmaae1 ysknHn pnn nHnepnn. "Hnepckne
npeanm, - nponoaepye1 on, - unpe: a1o uc M cmM
M, csM cnckM M, n cM a
cnck .
o1 qopHyna ok1n6pnc1cko neuapc1aenno rocypapc1aennoc1n; n ouenL pekoHenpyk
un1a1ennH a1y qopHyny sanoHnn1L. m anpn1e, u1o a ne o uapc1aennmx npaaax
occnn ne1 nn sayka. e uapc1aykueHy, a 1onLko "rocnopc1aykueHy napopy
npepoc1aaneno nnuL "aopn1enLc1ao nokopennmx napopoa n "pykoaopc1ao, ne 6onee.
opunnennme nnopopum oc1ak1cn no a1o cxeHe M, 1o ec1L
caHoonpepennkunHncn naunonanLnoc1nHn, a cnny a1oro naacerpa uyxpmHn
rocnopc1aykueHy napopy, n ace rocnopc1ao nocnepnero caopn1cn k "pykoaopc1ay.
oneuno, a 1ako qopHyne occnn nepec1ae1 uapc1aoaa1L. ycckoe uapc1ao
npeapauae1cn a pycckyk oneky nnn - eue 1oro Henee - a pycckoe noneun1enLc1ao
nap nnopopuaHn, n a1o r-ny 1onmnnny npepc1aanne1cn "nHnepne. 1 nnua caoe
nap1nn nau aa1op 6naropyuno Heu1ae1, u1o "panLneunH uaroH, cnepykunH a1anoH,
ko1oporo nc1opnn eue nnkorpa anonne ne poc1nrana, no poc1nrana nou1n (?), a1o -
acenenckan nHnepnn. 6 a1o o1panenno 6ypyunHn aekaHn qopHe uenoaeueckoro
o6uexn1nn naH sa6o1n1Lcn neuero, no noHeu1a1L 1ak npnn1no! -n 1onmnnn ne
porapmaae1cn, u1o, yc1anaannaan c kak Honopoc1L napopa, a Mnk kak
spenoc1L, okonua1enLnm npean cao - cck Mnk on ponxen 6m nasaa1L
rny6oko ppnxnoc1Lk napopoa, 1o ec1L aeuLk poaonLno ckaepno. e oc1anaannaae1
Hoero onnonen1a n 1o, u1o "nc1opnn eue nnkorpa ne poc1nrana 1akoro acenenckoro
o6Lepnnennn, xo1n, kasanocL 6m, y npnpopm 6mno poc1a1ouno apeHenn na ace ee
onm1m. pean neaaxnm, no aaxno o1He1n1L, o ueH Heu1ak1 naun ok1n6pnc1m: onn
Heu1ak1 ne o 1oH, u1o6m u occnn aeuno, a o 1oH, u1o6m u e, a u1o6m xo1n
6m a o1panennmx aekax ona ncuesna, pac1aopnnacL a ppnxnoc1n acenenckoro
o6Lepnnennn. pn6nnsn1enLno 1eH xe c1pannmH noxenanneH sakonunn nepaano caok
ny6nnunyk nekunk r-n ecenn1ckn-Boxnpapoanu. konua1enLnan Heu1a ero - ne
occnn, cnnLnan n naaekn pepxaanan, a "oepnnennme 1a1m aponm.
Xapak1epnm npnsnak naunx nn6epanoa! cnn ne a nac1onueH, cnnukoH
nenpeoponnHoH, 1o xo1L a panekoH 6ypyueH onn nenpeHenno o1pnuak1 occnk,
6eso1ue1no xenak1 yHanennn ee n no1epn uapc1aenno ee nnpnanpyanLnoc1n. D1a
ncnxonornueckan uep1a uenok nponac1Lk o1penne1 ok1n6pnc1oa o1 naunonanLno
nap1nn. yprenea pan npekpacnm 1nn kouykunx no apone pyccknx paopnn,
"xenypouno-nonoamx kocHononn1oa, poepakunx amkynnme n roppnunxcn caonH
npespenneH k occnn. ocHononn1nsH ec1L ouyuenne o1cy1c1ann a ce6e
naunonanLnoc1n. D1o uyac1ao 6espasnnunn k caoeHy n uyxoHy y nac paano cun1ae1cn
amcue Hyppoc1Lk, Hexpy 1eH a1o npoc1o npnsnak anapxnn, HopanLnoro pasnoxennn,
k ko1opoHy 1ak cknonna 6ecny1nan naua nn1ennnrenunn. k1n6pnc1m, Hoxe1 6m1L, ne
npnsnak1 ce6n kocHononn1aHn - a nac1onueH, no a1o - necoHnennme qy1yp-
kocHononn1m: Heu1o caoe onn o1pmxak1 ace-1akn na "oepnnennmx 1a1ax
aponm nnn na "acenencko nHnepnn . . 1onmnnna. o Hnennk nocnepnero,
1enepeunnn "nHnepnn ec1L 1onLko a1an k poc1nxennk xenannoro 6ypyuero; a
nn1epecax acenencknx Hm ponxnm o1kasa1Lcn o1 caoero uapc1aa n ponxnm aec1n
"nHnepckyk nonn1nky, ko1opan saknkuae1cn a kakoH-1o "aopn1enLc1ae nnopopuea k
amcunH uennH.
euero n roaopn1L, u1o a1a npen Hne kaxe1cn cnnouno oun6ko; npn poc1a1ounoH
pacnpoc1panennn ee n nasaan 6m ee oun6ko apepno. ak ace npn1aopno ryHannoe,
6yp1o 6m aosamuennoe Hnpocosepuanne ok1n6pnsHa, nx o6Lnanennm nHnepnannsH
6es uapc1aennoc1n nponsaopn1 caHoe qanLunaoe aneua1nenne. cxeHe . .
1onmnnna ace nenoc1nxnHo, naunnan c ero anL1epna1nam "uapc1ao nnn nHnepnn?.
pec1an1enLnoc1n aepL uapc1ao n ec1L nHnepnn, 6es uapc1aa nnkako nHnepnn ne1.
noao imperium na popnne a1oro cnoaa acerpa nonnHanocL kak aepxoanan
rocypapc1aennan anac1L, 1o ec1L nHenno 1o caHoe, u1o nonnHae1cn nop pyccknH
cnoaoH c cc. pnnapnexana nn a1a anac1L, kak a nHe a 1euenne
ponrnx aekoa, napopy nnn uepes am6opm c1apunH Harnc1pa1aH (uapnH, koncynaH,
npe1opaH, pnk1a1opaH n np.) - ao acex cnyuanx cnoao imperium osnauano amcuyk
cu, a ne 1onLko "aopn1enLc1ao n "pykoaopc1ao nopunnennmHn napopaHn.
Hnepa1opy apyuancn summum imperium, 1o ec1L ne yHanenne, a c anac1n a
anpe ace nonno1m ee. 1ano 6m1L, nHnepnn no any1penneHy cyuec1ay caoeHy ne ec1L
o1Hena uapc1aa, a ycnnenne ero, aosaepenne a amcuyk c1enenL. cnn c
nokopnno napopnoc1n, ckpennnno nx n nornouano, 1o Mn npepnonarae1 ace a1n
qynkunn a cyry6oH anpe. uero a1o npnuno a ronoay nou1ennoHy . . 1onmnnny,
6yp1o nHnepnn osnauae1 cnn1ne o6pyue n perpapaunk anac1n ns "rocypapc1aenno
1onLko a "aopn1enLckyk? nuero nopo6noro a nc1opnn napopoa ne 6maano. Hnepnn
nHckan o1nkpL ne nanoHnnana nac1opanL, rpe rocnopc1aykun napop 6yp1o 6m
Hnpno nac nokopennme napopm. e Hnp1oao ae1ko, a HeuoH xenesnmH pnHnnne
"aopn1enLc1aoaann saaoeaannme napopm, npnueH ne c1ecnnnncL nc1pe6nn1L nx
nnorpa nou1n noronoano. akoro popa 6mno co c1oponm pnHnnn "pykoaopc1ao k
amcunH uennH nx nnopopuea, nokasmaae1 ocapa epycannHa. n1 exepneano
pacnnnan na kpec1ax no nn1Lco1 nnennmx (1o ec1L Hnpnmx eapeea), npexpe ueH
nc1pe6n1L Hnnnnonnoe nacenenne eapecko c1onnum n cpaann1L ee c seHne.
ecn1kn 1mcnu nenokopnmx nnopopuea 6pocanncL pnHnnnaHn a unpkn na pac1epsanne
saepnH. H ne snak, k kaknH "amcunH uennH aopn1enLc1aoaann pnHnnne nokopennme
napopm, kpoHe epnnc1aenno - nM nuk c c. D1o
nopunnenne ampaxanocL a noc1onnnoH orpannuennn nnopopuecknx npaa; 1onLko a
nepnop ynapka nHnepnn, nocne apakannm, nnopopum nonyunnn paanonpaane, no
nHenno nocnepnee n nannocL cHep1enLnmH ypapoH pnn nHa. Hnepnn norn6na o1
qanLcnqnkaunn pnHcko naunonanLnoc1n acnepc1ane nannmaa nnopopuea n o1
kpanero npn a1oH ynapka na1pno1nsHa. "asae na1pno1nsH, - roaopn1 can1o
aryc1nn, - ne paspyuen 6mn caHnHn nHnepa1opaHn! 6pauan a pnHcknx rpaxpan
rannoa n ernn1nn, aqpnkanuea n rynnoa, ncnanuea n cnpnuea, kak onn Hornn
oxnpa1L, u1o 1akoro popa pasnonneHennan 1onna 6ype1 aepna nn1epecaH n1anLnnckoro
ropopa, npn1oH 1akoro, ko1opm acerpa npoc1no npecnepoaan nx?
o Hnpnoe aopn1enLc1ao nnopopuea, ko1opoe . . 1onmnnn nasmaae1 nHnepne, na
caHoH pene ec1L ynapok nHnepnn, pasnoxenne ee na aneHen1m. ak 1onLko imperium
uapc1aennoro napopa cna6ee1, nnopopum nopnnHak1 ronoay, n ace "aopn1enLc1ao
caopn1cn k 1oHy, u1o nnopopum naunnak1 aopn1L sa noc caonx no6epn1ene n
"pykoaopn1L nx no popore a nponac1L. ak 6mno c nHoH, 1ak 6mno eue panLue c
epcnpcknH uapc1aoH, 1ak 6mno anocnepc1ann co aceHn pasLepennmHn nnopopuec1aoH
nHnepnnHn. ecoHnenno, 1o xe caHoe yrpoxae1 n occnn. ne 1onLko yrpoxae1, a
rn6enL naua - pesynL1a1 aneppennn k naH nnopopuea - yxe npe1. e anpn1 a1oro
nnuL 6nnsopykne n 6naropyunme poccnnne, pyua ko1opmx yxe poc1a1ouno
pac1aopena a kocHononn1nsHe. cnn occnn eue ckonLko-nn6ypL pepxn1cn kak
Mn, 1o nnuL noc1onLky, nockonLky ona oc1ae1cn cM. ak 1onLko occnn
nepec1ane1 6m1L uapc1aoH a ppeaneH n aeunoH snauennn a1oro cnoaa, 1ak n
pacnonse1cn no uaaH. Y nac ne nk6n1 apyHmaa1Lcn a yno1pe6nneHme noHnny1no cnoaa
n 1n1ynm. "apc1ao naue 6yp1o 6m ynpaspneno c 1oro HoHen1a, kak o6Lnanena
nHnepnn. o caHoe cnoao c nponcxopn1 o1 Caesar - o1 nHenn ocnoaa1enn
nepao a apone nHnepnn. noao u ec1L ncnopuennoe "uesapL n snaun1 1o xe
caHoe, u1o neHeukoe Kaiser. aknH xe a1o ny1eH nHnepnk Hoxno npo1naononara1L
c a anpe ynpaspnnkuero opnn ppyroro npnnunna? cosnannn napopoa
uesapnsH n nHnepnn paano cnnnncL a opno nonn1ne. ak nospnee y sanapnmx cnaann
koponeackn 1n1yn nouen o1 co6c1aennoro nHenn apna ennkoro, 1ak Hm, aoc1ounme
cnaanne, un1aeH qopHyny rocypapc1aenno anac1n a nHenn esapn. cnn e1p
ennkn npoaosrnacnn occnk nHnepne, 1o cpenan a1o 6es acnko any1penne nyxpm
a a1oH. cyunoc1n, Hockoackne caHopepxum yxe 6mnn nHnepa1opaHn, npn1oH eue po
uapckoro 1n1yna, n6o nonLsoaanncL nonno1o 1enepeune nHnepa1opcko anac1n.
e1py ennkoHy napo 6mno paspyun1L a apone cyeaepne, 6yp1o nHnepne Hoxe1
nasmaa1Lcn 1onLko opna - anuennan nHckan (1o ec1L eHeukan nHnepnn 1orpaune
konc1pykunn), n on, kak nacnepnnk ansan1nckoro rep6a, npoaosrnacnn n ce6n
nHnepa1opoH. ar a1o1 6mn ouenL cHenm, xo1n unc1o noppaxa1enLnm. c1aaancL
uapeH, ace paano rocypapL pycckn 6mn 6m noun1aeH kak nHnepa1op, nopo6no
napnuaxy, uaxy n 6orpmxany. 1o6m 6m1L a naue apeHn nHnepne, aoace ne nyxno,
kak nonarae1 . . 1onmnnn, anape1L HnornHn napopaHn n o1kasa1Lcn o1
naunonanLnoro aronsHa. Opanunn anoneona III 6mna nHnepne 6es nnopopuea, kak n
1enepeunnn epHannn. aknHn xe, a caHoH pene, HnornHn napopaHn "aopn1enLc1aye1
nnLrenLH II, ecnn ne cun1a1L ropc1n nonnkoa n ueno1kn pa1uan? oaepuenno
cao6opnan o1 nnopopuea (po caHoro nocnepnero apeHenn) Hnonnn 1oxe nspaana
nasmaae1cn nHnepne. D1o1 1n1yn, aoo6ue kpane neonpepenennm, ne cansan paxe c
Horyuec1aoH c1panm. oueHy nrnnn - koponeac1ao, a epcnn - nHnepnn? oueHy
1annn - koponeac1ao, a 6nccnnnn nnn apokko - nHnepnn? yuec1ayk1 nHnepnn
aennunno c nauy ry6epnnk, nanpnHep enan (cH. "Atlas niversal nkHana),
cyuec1ayk1 paxe aaccanLnme nHnepnn, nanpnHep open. opo6no 1oHy kak nnk1o ne
npenn1c1aye1 an1noxnckoHy na1pnapxy 1n1ynoaa1L ce6n "cypne acenenno, 1ak n
neko1opme nHnepa1opm npnsnak1cn a a1oH saannn npoc1o ns aexnnaoc1n, 6es acnko
kpn1nkn nx npaa. ce nonnHak1, u1o a6conk1nm anac1n1enL c1panm, kak 6m on nn
sayuan na Hec1noH nsmke, no-na1mnn Hoxe1 6m1L nasaan ne nnaue kak imperator.
1opn o1 kpane neaepno Hmcnn, 6yp1o nHnepnn ynpaspnne1 uapc1ao c ero
naunonanLnmH aronsHoH, . . 1onmnnn anapae1 a pnp panLneunx oun6ok. n
roaopn1: "occnn ac1ynnna na nHnepckn ny1L yxe paano; nokopennme nneHena a
6onLunnc1ae paano yxe po6poaonLno npnsnann ee pyxoanoe nepaenc1ao n paaann
ce6n aec1n k pyccko nHnepcko uenn a kauec1ae ceHLn napopoa, o6Lepnnennmx
o6unHn npeanaHn. y1 u1o nn cnoao, 1o nenpaapa. occnn ac1ynnna na nHnepckn
ny1L (a cHmcne o1kasa o1 naunonanLnoro aronsHa) ouenL nepaano, ne 6onLue c1a ne1.
ue ka1epnna ennkan kpenko pepxanacL c1aporo npnnunna uape, ampaxaauero
co6o nnc1nnk1 napopnm: occnn pnn pyccknx. onLko a konue ee uapc1aoaannn, c
npncoepnnenneH oxnpoanennmx okpann n c nonanenneH nnoc1panuea, a1o1 npnnunn
nokone6ancn. oaepuenno neaepno, 6yp1o "nokopennme nneHena umc
u ns nc Pcc. Yam, nn opno nneHn
po6poaonLno ne npnsnano a1oro nepaenc1aa. e npnsnak1 ero paxe amnyxpenno, n6o
nokopn1Lcn nonn1nueckn eue ne snaun1 npnsna1L pyxoanoe nepaenc1ao. aueH
roaopn1L 1o, uero ne1? Ykaxn1e Hne xo1L opno nneHn, ko1opoe 6m po6poaonLno
npnnnno pyxoanme naun npenHyuec1aa - nauy aepy, nsmk, kynL1ypy! anpo1na,
paxe nonypnkne nneHena qnnckne, ko1opmx ropc1L n ko1opmH, kasanocL 6m, nonc1nne
1epn1L neuero, - paxe 1e o1c1anaak1 aceHn cnnaHn n nsmk cao, coaepuenno nnun,
n noxoxyk na 6pep aepy, n nepao6m1nyk kynL1ypy.
paapa, a1n nneHena ncuesak1, no 6onLue o1 cnqnnnca n aopkn, ueH o1
po6poaonLnoro cnnnnnn c nHnepcknH nneHeneH. aocnanenno nenaanc1n k naH
nonnkoa, eapeea, qnnnoa, na1mue, apHnn (a a nocnepnee apeHn n rpysnn) n
nanoHnna1L ne c1any, no paxe cpaann1enLno Hnpnme nnopopum, 1a1apm, pasae onn
"o6Lepnnenm c naHn o6unHn npeanaHn? oaepuenno nanpo1na: onn o6Lepnnenm c
naHn ne 6onLue, ueH opan c aanrenneH. ue nepaano ko Hne npnesxan opnn
npaaocnaanm ennckon c onrn. n pacckasmaan kpane 1peaoxnme aec1n o 1a1apckoH
naunonanLnoH panxennn, o 6mc1po 1a1apnsaunn 1kpko-qnncknx nneHen, o6
an1nrocypapc1aennoH, apaxpe6noH occnn nopLeHe pycckoro ncnaHa. 1o a1o
npaaponopo6no, o6pa1n1e annHanne na 1ak nasmaaeHyk HycynLHanckyk rpynny a
yHe. paa cnoxnncn napnaHen1, kak 1a1apm o1ropopnnncL a neH a cao narepL,
ko1opm ao acex aonpocax npe1 pyka o6 pyky c nonLcknH konoH n c kape1aHn. o
a1opo yHe n nnuno na6nkpan opnoro 1a1apnna-peny1a1a, Honoporo n
o6pasoaannoro, - ero nenaanc1n k occnn nosaanpoaan 6m nk6o xnp. yc1L
neko1opme peny1a1m ns 1a1ap pepxa1 ce6n nocHnpnee n noyHnee, no, yHen nyuue
ckpmaa1L caon Hmcnn, onn, Hoxe1 6m1L, 1eH caHmH n noonacnee kpnuaunx
uoannnc1oa.
Ypnan1enLno, kak nnuero a1oro ne saHeuak1 naun 6naropyunme ok1n6pnc1m!
Bnnsopykan, cnenan nap1nn! Hec1e c kape1aHn nepaoro cop1a onn coc1aannk1, Hne
kaxe1cn, 1y pok1pnnepckyk, o1opaannyk pyuo o1 napopa uac1L nn1ennnrenunn, c
ko1opo naunnae1cn caHonpepa1enLc1ao naunn, nc1opnueckan caHonsHena. k6an
qan1ac1nueckan, nnuL 6m knnxnan HmcnL npeaosHorae1 a nx Hosry caHm peanLnm n
rposnm qak1. aano nn, kaxe1cn, acn occnn ropena a nnopopueckoH o1kpm1oH
6yn1e? aano nn eapen pacc1pennaann uapckne nop1pe1m n uapcknx unnoannkoa,
paano nn nenc1oac1aoaann na1mun, paano nn oc1anaannaann xenesnopopoxnoe
panxenne nonnkn, paano nn pesanncL apHnne n 1a1apm, ne roaopn o qnnnnnpuax,
uaepax, rpysnnax n acnko ppyro npenec1n? cero nnuL ue1mpe ropa 1oHy nasap a1o
6mno, n . . 1onmnnny ace-1akn kaxe1cn, u1o nnopopum coc1aannk1 c naHn
po6poaonLnyk "ceHLk napopoa, o6Lepnnennmx o6unHn npeanaHn. Xo1n a nocnepnee
apeHn Hne poaonLno uac1o npnxopn1cn yno1pe6nn1L cnoao "Hannnoaunna, no, npaao
xe, 6es nero o6o1ncL 1pypno. aH Ho nou1ennm onnonen1 porapmaae1cn, u1o a
Hnno ceHLe pyccko Hnepnn ne ace 6narononyuno. "Bepc1ann occnn, - roaopn1 on,
- ocna6nnn cnaky nnopopuea c naHn. Xopoua cnaka, ecnn ona pepxanacL po
nepaoro 6epc1ann! Xopoun ceHenme npeanm: epaa Hnepnn no1epnena neypauy, kak
co acex konuoa r-pa nnopopum nauann aaosn1L opyxne pnn any1pennero 6yn1a n 6es
o6Lnanennn aonm nauann 6n1L pyccknx renepanoa n ropopoamx rpe nonano! . .
1onmnnn Heu1ae1 o 1oH, u1o6m anoaL "cpocnncL nopHanLno 6onesnennme uam, 1o
ec1L u1o6m nnopopueckn aonpoc cnoaa aepnyncn a coc1onnne ckpm1o kpaHonm,
xpyue nepaoro aneunero 6epc1ann occnn, u1o6m npn6aan1L e 1akoe xe
any1pennee 6epc1ane. pn1aopn1Lcn aceuenoaekaHn, yxaxnaa1L sa apaxpe6nmHn
nnopopuaHn, na1acknaa1L a occnk eapeea, nonnkoa, apHnn, na1mue, qnnnnnpuea,
neHuea, cpaaa1L nH noc1enenno ace rocypapc1aennme n o6uec1aennme nosnunn - ao1
u1o naun nn6epanm nasmaak1 nHnepcko nonn1nko. e1, r-pa ok1n6pnc1m, a1o ne
nonn1nka aoace, a1o - caHoy6nc1ao, n xnaan uac1L pycckoro o6uec1aa nnkorpa ne
cornacn1cn c aaunH 6esyHneH n ne npoc1n1 aaH ero. expy naunonannc1aHn n aaHn
neaosHoxno a a1oH nnkakoe cornacne, n ueH rny6xe 6ype1 Hexpy naHn packon, 1eH
nyuue. m, c anpy Hnpnme n 6yp1o 6m na1pno1m, c anpy Heu1a1enLnme n
6naropyunme, na caHoH pene am rny6oko paanopyunm k occnn, n aac 6eso1ue1no
1nne1 na c1opony aparoa ee.
"Hnepnn - Hnp, - npoaosrnacnn 6espapnm nHnepa1op Opanunn n a1nH nory6nn
Honapxnk. Hnepnn - Hnp, 1aeppnnn naun yxaxnaa1enn sa any1pennnHn aparaHn n
aHec1o nackn o1 nnx poxpanncL 1ackn. oxpy1cn n ne 1ako eue! Hnepnn - kak
xnaoe 1eno - ne Hnp, a noc1onnnan n neykpo1nHan 6opL6a sa xnsnL, npnueH no6epa
pae1cn cnnLnmH, a ne cnknnamH. ycckan Hnepnn ec1L xnaoe c cc
nM, noc1onnnoe oponenne nepyccknx aneHen1oa, noc1onnnoe n nenpepmanoe
nopunnenne ce6e naunonanLnoc1e, apaxpe6nmx naH. ano no6epn1L apara - nyxno
poaec1n no6epy po konua, po nonnoro ncuesnoaennn onacnoc1n, po npe1aopennn
nepyccknx aneHen1oa a pycckne. a 1ex okpannax, rpe a1o cun1ae1cn nepoc1nxnHmH,
nyuue coaceH o1kasa1Lcn o1 apaxpe6nmx "unenoa ceHLn, nyuue pasrpannun1Lcn c
nnHn naunc1o. o o1kasmaa1Lcn o1 caoero 1mcnuene1nero uapc1aa papn kako-1o
paanonpaano nHnepnn, no Henn1L pepxaanyk cu na kakoe-1o "aopn1enLc1ao n
"pykoaopc1ao - na a1o xnaan occnn ne nope1.
TT
21
k6onm1nan 1enerpaHHa auepa naneua1ana ns nqnnca. "o pacnopnxennk aksapxa
pysnn a DuHnapsnn amexana pnn npncy1c1aoaannn na noxoponax ka1onnkoca
peny1aunn o1 npaaocnaanoro pyxoaenc1aa
a coc1aae saHec1n1enn aksapxa ennckona pnropnn, pek1opa ceHnnapnn nHena n
apxnHanppn1a n1onnn. caHoH nqnnce, a ankckoH co6ope, 6ypy1 coaepuenm
saynokonan nn1yprnn n nannxnpa, "na ko1opmx 6ypy1 npncy1c1aoaa1L amcune unnm
rpaxpanckoro aepoHc1aa.
eyxenn a1o ne oun6ka? pannoH cnyuae, Hne kaxe1cn, nnn 1enerpaq, nnn
npaaocnaanoe nauanLc1ao naue, no k1o-nn6ypL ns nnx penae1 oueanpnyk
necoo6pasnoc1L. m xnaeH a aek upesamuano nn6epanLnm, korpa 1epnnHoc1L -
amcun npnnunn. o, u1o HanenLkan apHnnckan napopnoc1L ncnoaepye1 kakyk-1o
oco6ennyk aepy, a1o a amcoko c1enenn 6espasnnuno pnn acero 1enepeunero
npaaocnaann. oo6ue nnkoHy ne npnxopn1 a ronoay 6ecnokon1Lcn o 1oH, kak nHenno
aepyk1 6nnxaune nkpn, c ko1opmHn c1anknaaeuLcn exepneano. cnn yropno,
coo1euec1aennnkn Hory1 nn ao u1o ne aepoaa1L; aceH kaxe1cn, u1o a1o peno
ncknkun1enLno nnuno coaec1n. aHa nepapxnn npaaocnaanan oxaauena pyxoH
6esrpannuno 1epnnHoc1n. e 1onLko ona nnkoro ne npecnepye1 sa pasnoaepne, no nn
c kaknHn epe1nkaHn paxe ne cnopn1, no kpane Hepe ckonLko-nn6ypL cepLesno.
poc1o ne xoue1cn cnopn1L o aonpocax aepm. un1ae1cn paxe nenoaknH o6 a1oH
cnopn1L. orpa ea onc1o o1kpm1o ononunncn na epkoaL n npepan ee ocnoanme
porHa1m n 1annc1aa nopyrannk, an1eun nnop epaa peunncn a kpane aexnnao
qopHe ypoc1oaepn1L qak1, u1o rpaq onc1o ne npnnapnexn1 6onee k uncny
npaaocnaanmx.
cnxonornn naue uepkoanoc1n coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o epkoaL kak 6m konqysn1cn caoe
ppeane c1poroc1n. na penae1 ace aosHoxnoe, u1o6m nokasa1L, u1o ona aoace ne 1ak
c1pora, kak roaopn1 o ne. ao6opo1, ona 1epnnHa, 1epnnHa a unpouaue c1enenn.
peannn c1poroc1L - a1o "1ak npoc1o, ona uncnn1cn "na 6yHare, na npak1nke xe n
epkoaL a nau npocaeuennm aek npnpepxnaae1cn npnnunna: laisser faire, laisser
passer. noxec1ao qak1oa a1o nou1n 6esrpannuno yc1ynunaoc1n am saHe1n1e
kaxpm penL. norpa a1n qak1m 6maak1 aecLHa ampasn1enLnmHn. orpa neckonLko
ne1 nasap amunn o6neruennme npaanna pnn oqnuepcknx pyane, aosnnk aonpoc: kak
xe 6m1L, opnako, c a1exnsncoH Onnape1a, rpe noepnnok npnpaanen k y6nc1ay c
sapanee o6pyHannmH naHepenneH, 1o ec1L k npec1ynnennk npo1na uec1o sanoaepn?
pran pyxoanoro aepoHc1aa amckasancn ouenL Hnno: a cnepykunx nspannnx
a1exnsnca poc1a1ouno amnyc1n1L u1o kacae1cn noepnnkoa - ao1 n ace. e npaapa nn,
kak aonpocm coaec1n peuak1cn nerko n npoc1o! orpa yHep nnoxo kpeuennm eape
epraHen1, npaaocnaanoe pyxoaenc1ao sa1pypnnnocL ero noxoponn1L. e no1oHy
sa1pypnnnocL, u1o saaepoHo aceH 6mno nsaec1no, u1o epraHen1 kpec1nncn
qopHanLno, u1o6m amropno xenn1Lcn, n u1o qak1nueckn on npaaocnaanmH nnkorpa ne
6mn. D1o ne oc1anoanno 6m naue pyxoaenc1ao - cHy1nno xe ero 1o, u1o epraHen1
caHoy6nua, a 1akoamx o1neaa1L nenLsn. o 1y1 amc1ynnnn kape1ckne peny1a1m.
pHnnnn n nonnk no6exann k npeHLep-Hnnnc1py, k Hn1pononn1y, n a konue konuoa
eape 6mn 1opxec1aenno noxoponen no aceH npaannaH paaocnaano epkan. ue
npnHep ns nocnepnnx pne. an1eun nnop nauann noc1yna1L Hnorouncnennme
npouennn npaaocnaanmx o 1oH, u1o6m aocnpenn1c1aoaa1L noc1poke a e1ep6ypre
nsmueckoro (6yppnckoro) kannua. cnn aepn1L rase1aH, Hn1pononn1m naun xo1enn
6mno xopa1ac1aoaa1L a a1oH cHmcne, no npnuno nncLHo o1 . . 1onmnnna,
pasLncnnkuee, u1o "a1o1 uar 6mn 6m oun6ounmH, n Hn1pononn1m asnnn caoe
naHepenne nasap.
n1a1ennH nsaec1no, u1o n nnuno paspennk a pannoH cnyuae Hnenne . . 1onmnnna,
nonaran, u1o aospanrny1me nponm na epno peuke nnkoHy ne noHeuak1. o aepL nn
Hoe Hnenne, nn Hnenne nk6oro npaaocnaanoro, aknkuan npeHLep-Hnnnc1pa,
nnckonLko ne o6nsa1enLnm pnn an1euero nnopa. ao6opo1, a o6nac1n aepm n
6narouec1nn Hnenne an1euero nnopa o6nsa1enLno pnn npeHLep-Hnnnc1pa n pnn
acex oc1anLnmx "aosnk6nennmx uap epkan. ak xe a1o 1ak cnyunnocL, u1o c1onno
npoc1oHy Hnpnnnny, xo1n 6m n rnaae npaan1enLc1aa, ckasa1L: "cc! - n
amcokonpeocanuennme nepapxn Hrnoaenno o1kasanncL o1 caoero Hnennn? ak xo1n1e,
a1o1 HanenLkn cnyua, epaa o1Heuennm neua1Lk, upesamuano Hnororoaopnu. oro
xe cop1a n qak1, sananennm auepaune 1enerpaHHo ns nqnnca. o pacnopnxennk
aksapxa pysnn uenoe noconLc1ao ns amcokonoc1aanennoro pycckoro pyxoaenc1aa epe1
a DuHnapsnn na noxoponm ka1onnkoca. o aepL ka1onnkoc-1o 6mn epe1nk, ne npaapa
nn?
oa1opnk eue pas: 6onLunnc1ao ns nac rny6oko paanopyunm k npaaoaepnk n
epe1nuec1ay, n a1o1 aonpoc n aos6yxpak aoace ne kak qana1nk, a npoc1o kak
na6nkpa1enL co6m1n. asae ne nk6onm1no, kakan aaonkunn c naHn nponcxopn1 n a
kakoH qasnce pennrnosnoro ampoxpennn Hm naxopnHcn? onLko c a1o 1oukn spennn
n n oc1anaannaakcL na noue1no peny1aunn npaaocnaanmx ennckona n apxnHanppn1a
a DuHnapsnn. mpaxancL cnoroH napnaHen1cknx sanpocoa, n nosaonnn 6m ce6e
cnpocn1L: "saec1no nn naueHy pyxoanoHy npaan1enLc1ay, u1o apHnno-qnropnanckan
uepkoaL ncnoaepye1 epecL a1nxnn, ocyxpennyk epamH XanknponcknH o6opoH?
saec1no nn aksapxy pysnn, u1o apHnne - Honoqnsn1m, 1o ec1L npnsnak1 a ncyce
Xpnc1e nnuL opny npnpopy, a ne pae? saec1no nn naue epkan, u1o cenenckn
o6op a 451 ropy npepan anaqeHe kak nsHmunenne a1nxnn, 1ak n ero
nocnepoaa1ene?
H ne 6ypy nanoHnna1L 1o, u1o aceH nsaec1no, - nHenno kakne 6ypn nepexnno ppeanee
xpnc1nanc1ao, oponeaan nasaannyk epecL, n ckonLko 6mno Hyuennuec1a, 6yn1oa,
nnsnoxenn c npec1onoa a cansn c nek. enn nn1epecye1 nerkoc1L, c ko1opo ace a1o
kak 6yp1o 1enepL sa6mnocL n cun1ae1cn sa nnu1o. konuaauncn apHnnckn nana,
ka1onnkoc a1o uepkan, 6mn a naue apeHn rnaanmH npepc1aan1eneH a1nxneao
epecn (ecnn ne cun1a1L kon1oa, aqnonoa n nkoan1oa). Xo1n a1o 6mn uenoaek, Hoxe1
6m1L, rny6oko nou1ennm n paxe can1o a nnuno xnsnn, no aoc1ounoe npaaocnaane
cun1ano ero npepannmH anaqeHe. yc1L a1o nn a Haneue c1enenn ne Heuano ero
npnsnannk a kauec1ae apHnnckoro nepaona1pnapxa cae1cknH npaan1enLc1aoH occnn
n amcoknH narpapaH, nH nonyuennmH, opnako qak1 anaqeHm ace-1akn oc1ae1cn
qak1oH. npaunaae1cn, ecnn a1o 1ak, 1o npnnnuno nn 6mno nocmna1L noue1nyk
npaaocnaanyk peny1aunk na norpe6enne nxeyun1enn (c uepkoano 1oukn spennn) n
apara nc1nnno epkan? cnn 6m yHep ne apHnnckn ka1onnkoc, a, nanpnHep, nana
pnHckn - ponyc1nHo nn 6mno 6m na ero noxoponax noue1noe npaaocnaanoe
noconLc1ao ns ennckonoa n apxnHanppn1oa? aepL ka1onnkn a kanonnueckoH
o1nouennn k naH 6nnxe, ueH Honoqnsn1m. onyc1nHa nn 6mna 6m npaaocnaanan
peny1aunn npn rpo6e packonLnnuLero apxnennckona? aepL neko1opme packonLnnkn
n coaceH k naH 6nnskn. cnn paccyxpa1L no-o6maa1enLckn, c 1oukn spennn: "nuero!
oueHy xe ne1? - 1o, koneuno, ace a1o ponyc1nHo, no, Hne kaxe1cn, uepkoanoe
nauanLc1ao naue ne cHee1 pykoaopn1Lcn o6maa1enLcko 1ouko spennn. s anpoa
pnnnoHa1nn, xn1eckoro 1ak1a, aexnnaoc1n, a1nke1a n 1.n. epkoaL ne Hoxe1
sa6maa1L npaann u caoero sakona, yc1anoanennoro can1mHn o1uaHn n
acenencknHn co6opaHn.
1o6m ysna1L, a kakoH o1nouennn Hm naxopnHcn k epe1nkaH, poc1a1ouno asn1L aceH
nsaec1nyk "nnry npaann can1mx anoc1on, can1mx co6opoa acenencknx n noHec1nmx n
can1mx o1eu. a1o knnre ka1eropnueckn ckasano, ao-nepamx, u1o "epecL npepae1cn
anaqeHe. o-a1opmx, ckasano, u1o "c epe1nkaHn aHec1e ne Honn1Lcn n ne xopn1L na
Honn1ay a nx c6opnue. kasano panLue, u1o "ne ponxno posaonn1L nH
npncy1c1aoaa1L npn canuennopec1ann n a Honn1aax c aepnmHn, no paxe axopn1L a
poH Boxn, exenn onn sakocneaak1 a epecn. e ponxno npnnnHa1L o1 nnx xep1am, nn
npaspnnunmx papoa, nn 6narocnoaennn, nn npaspnoaa1L c nnHn aHec1e. e ponxno
xopn1L na knap6nua epe1nkoa nnn a 1ak nHenyeHme y nnx Hyuennueckne Hec1a pnn
Honn1am n apaueaannn n np., n np.
rnaanoe - ckasano, u1o "pykononoxennme epe1nkaHn ne Hory1 noun1a1Lcn nc1nnno
pykononoxennmHn.
n1a1enL anpn1, u1o c npaaocnaano 1oukn spennn nokonm ka1onnkoc c
nx, 1o ec1L ne 6mn paxe canuennnkoH, n uec1aoaa1L ero kak pyxoanoe nnuo
npaaocnaanme ne nHek1 npaaa. e 1onLko pyxoaenc1ay pycckoHy, no paxe
npaaocnaanmH HnpnnaH ne nopo6ae1 Honn1Lcn c apHnnaHn n xopn1L na nx
Honn1aennme c6opnua n knap6nua. paanno 45-e can1mx anoc1on rnacn1: "nnckon,
nnn npecan1ep, nnn pnakon, c epe1nkaHn Honnauncn 1okHo, pa 6ype1 o1nyuen. ue
xe nosaonn1L nH pec1aoaa1L u1o-nn6o, nko cnyxn1ennH uepkan, pa 6ype1 nsaepxen.
paanno 65-e 1ex xe can1mx anoc1on roaopn1: "ue k1o ns knnpa nnn Hnpnnnn a
cnnarory nypeckyk nnn epe1nueckyk aope1 noHonn1Lcn, pa 6ype1 n o1 unna
canuennoro nsaepxen, n o1nyuen o1 o6uennn uepkoanoro.
Hcno a1o, rocnopa, nnn ne ncno? ne kaxe1cn, u1o ouenL ncno n a koHHen1apnnx ne
nyxpae1cn. pno ns payx: nnn naua 1enepeunnn epkoaL npnsnae1 npaanna can1mx
anoc1onoa o6nsa1enLnmHn pnn ce6n, nnn ne npnsnae1. cnn ace eue npnsnae1, 1o
paxe "amcune rpaxpanckne unnm a nqnnce, npncy1c1aykune na nn1yprnn n
nannxnpe a ankckoH co6ope, ponxnm 1enepL xpa1L o1 caoero npaaocnaanoro
pyxoaenc1aa o1nyuennn o1 pyxoanoro o6uennn.
e1 coHnennn, 6onLunnc1ao pyccko ny6nnkn upesamuano paanopyuno k 1oHy, 6mna
nocnana npaaocnaanan peny1aunn a DuHnapsnn nnn ne 6mna, nHena ona na a1o
kanonnueckoe npaao nnn ne nHena. BonLunnc1ao, no1epnauee xnayk aepy, o1nocn1cn
k nopo6nmH aonpocaH coaepuenno kak nkpn, no1epnaune o6onnnne, - k pasnmH
sanaxaH. "nueH ne naxne1 - ao1 n ace. n ynon1enLnoro nkpn ne uyac1ayk1, nn
o1apa1n1enLnoro, a neu1o cnnouL npecnoe, kak aospyx. 1uero xe ne nocna1L
ennckona nnn apxnHanppn1a k amcokonoc1aanennoHy rpo6y, xo1n 6m epe1nueckoro
na1pnapxa? Y nnx caoe pyxoaenc1ao, y nac caoe, n a1o ouenL Hnno, korpa apxnepen
pasnmx aep no6msak1cn n o6Hennaak1cn Honn1aennmHn ansn1aHn. D1o-1o, anpn1e nn,
n ec1L 6yp1o 6m nac1onuee xpnc1nanc1ao - ace cnnouL npnsnaaa1L, co aceH
Hnpn1Lcn. a a1oH ocnoaannn naue cae1ckoe npaan1enLc1ao paano npnpaannno
pyxoanmx nnu paxe ne xpnc1nancknx aeponcnoaepann k naueHy canuenc1ay - paxe
eapecknx paaannoa n HaroHe1ancknx Hynn. ano 1oro - ycnnnnHn npaaocnaanoro
npaan1enLc1aa 6mno cospano paxe oco6oe nsmueckoe (naHanc1ckoe) "pyxoaenc1ao n
o6c1aaneno (a n6npn) 1aknH noue1oH, kakoro naueHy canuenc1ay ne poxpa1Lcn.
Bkpokpa1m naun cHo1pn1 na pasnme ncnoaepannn, kak na pasnme aepoHc1aa: ec1L,
anpn1e nn, 1anme coae1nnkn no Hnnnc1epc1ay any1pennnx pen, no ec1L onn n no
Hnnnc1epc1ay qnnancoa, n no ppyrnH aepoHc1aaH. ceH nH nonarae1cn 1o1 xe 1n1yn n
noue1. yc1L 1ak pyHae1 cae1ckoe unnoannuec1ao, no, Hne kaxe1cn, paaocnaanan
epkoaL nopnnue1 cHep1nm npnroaop ce6e, ecnn ycaon1 a1y xe 1ouky spennn. cnn
npaaocnaane npnsnae1 korpa-nn6ypL ace ppyrne uepkan paanouennmHn ce6e, 1o 1eH
caHmH o1kaxe1cn o1 nc1nnm npaaocnaann. cnn naua nepapxnn npnsnae1 epe1nueckyk
nepapxnk kak pykononoxennyk, 1o 1eH caHmH o1peue1cn o1 nepaopopc1aa caoero n o1
caHo can1oc1n caoero noHasannn. cnn ace aepm paanm n ace nepapxnn paano
poc1onm, 1o saueH xe napopy pycckoHy oc1aaa1Lcn a npaaocnaann? epL k1o ao u1o
ropasp, HonncL kakoHy xoueuL npony - 1aoe peno! o 1orpa u1o xe n roaopn1L o6
nc1nne npaaocnaano aepm nnn o kaknx 6m 1o nn 6mno npaac1aennmx o6nsa1enLc1aax,
c a1o nc1nno cansannmx!
ak n yxe nncan ne pas, pennrnosnan ka1ac1poqa npe1 y nac ne a nnsax napopnmx, a
naaepxy. pyuenne aepm coaepuae1cn, koneuno, n a nnsax, no nnuL kak cnepc1ane
yracannn 1ex cae1nnLnnkoa, u1o c1on1 na aepxy ropm. oxno nn naH, npoc1mH
o6maa1ennH, 6m1L nckpenno aepykunHn, ecnn amcuee canuenc1ao paanopyuno k
pennrnosno nc1nne? m, npoc1me o6maa1enn, ne snaeH 6orocnoacknx 1onkoc1e; ace
a1n Honoqnsn1m n Honoqenn1m - pnn 6onLunnc1aa 1apa6apunna, no opno ne
1apa6apunna - a1o cu k aepe yun1ene naunx nnn nonnoe o1cy1c1ane a1o
peanoc1n. orpa Hm anpnH anoc1ona, ro1oaoro np1n na cHep1L sa o6Lnanennm nH
can1o sakon, Hm neaonLno pyHaeH: on, ponxno 6m1L, npaa - oueanpno, eHy
o1kpmnacL nc1nna popoxe xnsnn; no korpa coapeHennm anoc1on roaopn1: "epL1e a
nc1nny, no yaaxa1e n sa6nyxpenne, - 1o npoc1me nkpn coaepuenno c6n1m c 1onky.
o u1o xe, opnako, npaannLnee aepn1L n na ueH oc1anoan1Lcn? epL acnkan nckpennnn
aepa ec1L aennkan nk6oaL, ko1opan peannaa n nnkako "1epnnHoc1n ne ponyckae1.
6Lnan1e nonnyk "1epnnHoc1L - n pnn aepykuero ceppua 6ype1 napyuena
1parnueckan uc cosnannn, uenoHyppne pyun, xenakue 6m1L poc1ono Bora.
1o-1o cHpapnoe, kak rpex cepLHo sanoaepn, a1oprae1cn a o6nac1L aepm, korpa
naunnak1 sMuu epece, coaceH su o nnx. anuennoe 6oroaenuannoe
npeaocxopc1ao ncuesae1, cus ns aepm uypo nc1nnm n - aeunoe pasnarae1cn a
"ycnoanoH.
H ne snak, ueH pykoaopnncn aksapx pysnn, 1ounee, kaakasckoe cae1ckoe nauanLc1ao,
nocmnan noue1nyk peny1aunk npaaocnaanoro pyxoaenc1aa k rpo6y ka1onnkoca. apo
pyHa1L, u1o 1y1 Hm nHeeH opnn ns 6ecuncnennmx npnHepoa 1oro xe yxaxnaannn sa
nnopopuaHn, kakoe na acex okpannax naunx npnaeno occnk k ynnxennk. Xenan nso
acex cnn nonpaan1Lcn n yropn1L, y nac ro1oam noxep1aoaa1L paxe poc1onnc1aoH
napopnmH, paxe 1ako 1mcnuene1ne roppoc1Lk occnn, kako cun1anocL
npaaocnaane. YropnH Hm a1nH nnn ne yropnH apHnnaH - a1o eue 6onLuo aonpoc:
lapetit vient en mangeant, n ueH 6onLue Hm sancknaaeH nepep cna6oc1Lk, 1eH ona
c1anoan1cn napHennee. o u1o co6c1aennoe poc1onnc1ao Hm ynnxaeH nopo6nmHn
c1pannmHn peHonc1paunnHn - a1o necoHnenno. ecoHnenno n 1o, u1o npene6pexenne
k ppeaneHy sakony epkan co6nasnne1 ne "epnnoro ns Hanmx cnx, a uenme Hnnnnonm
cna6mx nkpe, sa ko1opmx k1o-1o pac1 o1ae1 ne speune anac1n.
1911 rop
RT 4. . TF
uepa ncnonnnnocL 30 ne1 co pnn cHep1n oc1oeackoro. ou1n 1pe1L c1one1nn
o1penne1 occnk o1 xnsnn aennkoro ee n. aknH saann oc1oeackoro eue npn
xnsnn. caHoH pene, ns acex noa1oa occnn, ns acex snaHenn1mx nnca1ene, Hano
1oro, ns acex can1mx, popnaunxcn na naue seHne, oc1oeackn 6nnxe acex nopxopnn
k npopoueckoHy o6nnky. n nn a Hano c1enenn ne 6mn can1mH, no u1o-1o canuennoe
a neH ropeno: a HanenLkoH n neaspaunoH 1ene, 1ouno na ppeaneH an1ape, 6ecnokono
nmnan kak 6m xep1aennm nnaHenL. n ne 6mn can1mH: can1me pyccko kpoan a
6onLunnc1ae 6mnn kpo1kne ceppueH, a neH xe 6mno u1o-1o nLannoe. kono ero
nnca1enLcko qnrypm, kak okono eaanrennc1a, 1annc1aenno anpencn kak 6m
anokannncnueckn saepL. popokn aoo6ue ne 6mnn kpo1knHn, onn 6mnn 6onee, ueH
anoc1onm, "cmnaHn rpoHa, kak nx saan Xpnc1oc, nocn1ennHn rposnoro cnoaa BoxLero.
a1opa "Becoa, nso6nnun1enn 1eHnmx pyxoa, acennaunxcn a pyuy pycckyk, aa1opa
"pec1ynnennn n nakasannn, aa1opa "apaHasoamx nnkak nenLsn nasaa1L 1anan1oH
kpo1knH. D1o 6mna orpoHnan n 6ypnan pyua, 1ouno yHc1aennm anxpL, ampaaauncn
ns nepp pyccko pacm, - nanenne, nn c ueH ne cpaannHoe. pnpy aennknx
caepc1nnkoa oc1oeackn ampenne1cn kpannH caoeo6pasneH. Henno ero nepaoro a
occnn saHe1nn Hnp n nH nepamH 6mn nopaxen. ecHo1pn na npo1ekunk ypreneaa n
pasnme ppyrne nensHepnHo 6onee 6naronpnn1nme ycnoann, ea onc1o po cnx nop
eue sacnonen oc1oeacknH a eaponeckoH Hnennn. ea onc1o n yprenea a
xypoxec1aennoH o1nouennn cnnukoH knaccnkn, u1o6m nopasn1L apony: nocne
BanLsaka n ekkepen onn 1aH ne nokasanncL noamHn. yprenea, n onc1o
rennanLno nso6paxann kynL1ypnm 6m1, 1o ec1L 1y o1c1onauykcn sakonuennyk
npnpopy o6uec1aa, ko1opyk pana kpenoc1nan unannnsaunn. oc1oeackn xe nncan
pasaannnm a1oro 6m1a n 1o seHne1pncenne, u1o nponsaeno a1n pasaannnm. n nncan o
1oH, u1o 6mno ka1ac1poqo 6m1a, npopoueckn npepanpn (a "Becax, nanpnHep) paxe
rpnpyune co6m1nn. cyunoc1n, caH oc1oeackn a caoe c1pac1no nsoupennoc1n n a
konoccanLnoH pasHaxe uyac1a nanncn uenoaekoH noamH, eue ne 6maanmH a
eaponeckoH o6uec1ae. n a caoeH co6c1aennoH nnue pan npopouec1ao o
npn6nnxennn kako-1o noao nopopm pyu, y1onuenno c1pannmx n kak 6m opepxnHmx
peHonoH. n ypreneaa, nn Laa onc1oro a apone ne un1ak1 a 1ako c1enenn n ne
u1n1, kak oc1oeackoro: nepame npnsnanm aennknHn, no uyxnHn, - on xe npnsnan
caonH n paxe umM. n yprenea, nn onc1o ne cospann a apone
nn1epa1ypno ukonm, y nnx ne nannocL yuennkoa, no kpane Hepe ckonLko-nn6ypL
kpynnmx. oc1oeackn cospan caok ukony: nn opnn kpynnm 1anan1 nocnepnero
apeHenn ne cao6open o1 uero-1o, kak 6m sanHc1aoaannoro y nauero ncnxonora-
poHannc1a. n nHee1 paxe nepaoc1enennmx nnca1ene, apope ny1a aHcyna,
cun1akunx uec1Lk nasmaa1L ce6n yuennkaHn oc1oeackoro. asae ayn1Han
[79]
,
roaopn no npaape, amuen ne ns oc1oeackoro? asae, un1an un6mueackoro
[80]
, a ero
nyuunx aeuax am ne uyac1aye1e 1ex xe yc1peHnenn a oHy1m n 6espnm pyxa, k
ko1opmH anepame npnyunn nn1epa1ypy oc1oeackn? ekapen1m, nHnpeccnonnc1m,
Hopepnnc1m, nockonLky npnpopnm renn pae1 nH npaao 6m1L xypoxnnkaHn, 6mnn
npepckasanm oc1oeacknH. n npepaocxn1nn a a1nx ukonax ace aennkoe, n 1onLko
pannnn cHep1L noHeuana eHy ypepxa1L yknon nn1epa1ypm a konee 6naropopnoro
1aopuec1aa.
nc1nnnoHy necuac1Lk (ne opno occnn), oc1oeackn yHep cnnukoH pano, ne
poxna n po uec1npecn1n ne1. oxe1 6m1L, coaceH nnaue cnoxnnacL 6m yHc1aennan
xnsnL aponm, npoxnan oc1oeackn eue 15-20 ne1. epL on yHnpan, epaa ac1ynna a
noayk, okonua1enLnyk anoxy caoe orpoHno pa6o1m, on yHnpan, epaa
ocao6opnauncL o1 yppyuakue nnue1m, yHnpan na sape aceo6uero npnsnannn,
aceo6uero nH yaneuennn. H xnao noHnk noxoponm oc1oeackoro. H 1onyn a a1o
c1o1mcnuno 1onne, n anpen rny6okyk asaonnoaannoc1L Honopexn, xoponnaue
caoero yun1enn. cero opnn Hecnu o1penne1 cHep1L oc1oeackoro o1 uapey6nc1aa 1
Hap1a. o yxe noxoponm oc1oeackoro npepckasmaann 1orpaune peaonkunn nonnm
poaan. apey6nc1ao 1orpa nocnnocL a aospyxe. aka nonn1nuecknx ncnxona1oa
nopaopnna Hnnm nop paopum, noespa, c1onnunme ynnum; ona a1akoaana po6poro n
cna6oro Honapxa ackpy, ns nopseHenn n ns aospyxa. o necHo1pn na necnmxannyk a
nc1opnn nk1oc1L a1o kyukn snopeea, poc1a1ouno 6mno no6maa1L na noxoponax
oc1oeackoro, u1o6m y6epn1Lcn, u1o 1orpaune peaonkunn nac1ynan koneu. na 1orpa
eue ne noc1aanna caoe kpoaaao 1oukn, no ncnxonornueckn 6mna nopopaana - n
rnaanmH o6pasoH 6naropapn oc1oeackoHy. asae ne on rpeHen 1orpa npo1na
nnrnnnsHa, pasae ne on saan k noaoHy amcokoHy nac1poennk, xpnc1nanckoHy n
naunonanLnoHy? paapa, on 6mn ne coaceH opnnok. Bok o 6ok c nnH cpaxanncL
epnnoHmunennme eHy n opyueanneHme nH 1anan1m - nceHckn, eckoa, kcakoa,
a1koa, no on aosamuancn Hexpy nnHn, kak papa1, n ace nornnpmaann na nero, kak
na caok aepunny. axe ea onc1o nocne cHep1n oc1oeackoro nncan, u1o no1epnn a
neH caok npaac1aennyk onopy. pyHa1ecL a snauenne a1nx cnoa, ecnn npnnn1L a
pacue1, kaknH uypoanunmH caHonk6neH o6napan onc1o.
Yxe na nyuknnckoH k6nnee 1880 ropa a ockae cpasy amncnnnocL, k1o 6mn 1orpa
rnaao pyccko nn1epa1ypm. caoe snaHenn1o peun o snauennn yuknna
oc1oeackn npnrnyn k noraH caonH paxe nenpnHnpnHmx aparoa caonx, paxe 1aknx
Horyunx conepnnkoa, kaknH 6mn npon un1a1ene - yprenea. axe aennkn aa1op
"aopnnckoro rnespa c npncyunH eHy 6naropopc1aoH cknonnn nepep oc1oeacknH
caok cepyk ronoay. K6nne yuknna coaceH neuannno o6pa1nncn kak 6m a
koponaunk oc1oeackoro. H ne 6mn na a1oH naHn1noH k6nnee, no o1 Hnornx 6maunx
na neH cnmuan, u1o a1o 6mno neu1o neonncyeHoe no aoc1opry. "ce c1ann cnyua1L
1ak, kak 6yp1o po 1ex nop nnk1o n nnuero ne roaopnn o yuknne, - npnsnae1cn
1paxoa: kakoao Horyuec1ao 1anan1a! - o cnx nop cnmuy, kak nap orpoHno
npn1nxue 1onno paspae1cn nanpnxennm n nonnm uyac1aa ronoc: "HnpncL,
roppm uenoaek! o1pypncL, npaspnm uenoaek!" oc1opr, ko1opm paspasnncn a sane
no okonuannn peun, 6mn nenso6pasnHm, nenoc1nxnHm nn pnn koro, k1o 6mn ero
canpe1eneH... onna appyr yanpena uenoaeka, ko1opm caH aecL nonon an1ysnasHa,
appyr ycnmuana cnoao, yxe necoHnenno poc1onoe aoc1opra, n ona saxne6nynacL o1
aonnennn, ona pnnynacL acek pyuok a aocxnuenne n 1pene1. o1 a kakoH 1one
nnue1 nokonm 1paxoa, c1onL aoo6ue cpepxannm n a o6ueH-1o xonopnoaa1m.
naHenn1me nnca1enn 6pocnnncL uenoaa1L oc1oeackoro, sa nnHn ny6nnka
yc1peHnnacL k ac1pape. pnn knoua, po6paauncL po oc1oeackoro, ynan a o6Hopok o1
oxaa1nauero ero aoc1opra. kcakoa o6Lnann, u1o on ne cun1ae1 ce6n poc1onmH
ckasa1L u1o-nn6ypL nocne oc1oeackoro. sanapnnkn, n cnaannoqnnm ampaxann eHy
aennuauee couyac1ane n 6naropapnoc1L. "o1 u1o snaun1 rennanLnan peuL, - ckasan
nnenkoa, - ona cpasy nopeunna peno!
ne kaxe1cn, 1y1 6mna ne 1onLko rennanLnan peuL, no neHnoxko 6onLue: peuL
npopoueckan. noao "npopok sa1ackano y nac, no caHo nanenne npopoka -
neo6muanan pepkoc1L, n ao1 1onna (1orpa, a nauane 1880-x ropoa, cpaann1enLno eue
6naropopnan n c xpnc1nancknHn npepannnHn) appyr yanpena nopnnnnoro npopoka...
e peuL o yuknne 6mna popora, a 6ecuennmH n neo6muanmH nokasancn nckpennn
ronoc, kak 6m npyun ns ceppua npnpopm, roaopnun ns aeunoc1n. a1o1
annnen1nueckn oc1oeackn, amxopeu ns ka1oprn! n a caHoH pene kasancn cpepn
nnca1ene pyccknx aennkoHyuennkoH n c1pac1o1epnueH, on roaopnn kak
amc1papaaun, kak anac1L nHyun. Hy neaonLno aepnnn, no1oHy u1o 1akoHy, kak on,
us 6mno ne aepn1L. aunonanLnmH n, Hoxe1 6m1L, acecae1nmH necuac1LeH amuno
1o, u1o a1o1 aoxpL 1orpaune nn1epa1ypm yHep 1ak ckopo nocne caoero yaenuannn. o
konoccanLnoHy ycnexy, ko1opm npno6pe1an "neannk nnca1enn, no 1o
nn1epa1ypno 6ype, ko1opyk anecnn c co6ok "apaHasoam, Hoxno ce6e npepc1aan1L,
ueH 6mnn 6m 1880-e n 1890-e ropm, ecnn 6m oc1oeackn ne couen c caoe 1pn6ynm.
"apaHasoam oc1anncL neponncannmHn. 1onL ponro Hyunauee oc1oeackoro (kak n
oronn) cospanne nonoxn1enLnoro uenoaeueckoro nnua ne 6mno saaepueno. neua
apaHasoa amuen ace xe 1onLko acknsoH sapyHannoro nekcen apaHasoaa. opo6no
oronk, oc1oeackn uy1L ne sapoxcn cpepn uenoaeuecknx nsapauenn, nH o1kpm1mx.
ak n oronL, oc1oeackn 6mn ncnyran caonH 1aopuec1aoH n 6oponcn c nnH: Hnpy
1eHnmx n Hep1amx pyu eHy xo1enocL c1pac1no npo1naonoc1aan1L nc1nnnm o6pas
Boxn, n u. 6a aennknx nnca1enn yHepnn, ne ocnnna a1o
sapaun, ne sakonuna ee. e no nneuy, kc1a1n ckasa1L, ona okasanacL n Lay onc1oHy:
pasae exnkpoa nnn eann xname nkpn? D1o ranLaannsnpoaannme 1pynm.
o u1o 6oronopo6nm uenoaek aoo6ue aosHoxen a nckycc1ae, pokasmaae1 Hnoxec1ao
npekpacnmx n cae1nmx nnu, sapncoaannmx aceHn nasaannmHn xypoxnnkaHn nn,
na a1opoH, uac1o na sapneH nnane. asae repon 1aknx HanenLknx pacckasoa, kak
"ec1nm aop, "po1kan, "on cuac1nnaoro uenoaeka, ne 6oronopo6nm? asae ne 1o1
xe onc1o cospan na1ona apa1aeaa? asae ne yprenea nopHe1nn "Xname Houn?
ne kaxe1cn, u1o, necHo1pn na neko1opyk neypauy a nnue knnsn muknna,
oc1oeackn 6mn, a cnny npopouecko caoe npnpopm, nan6onee cnoco6nmH
napncoaa1L nonoxn1enLnm npean uenoaeueckn.
yun rn6ny1, n pyun cnacak1cn. oc1oeackn nHen cnoco6noc1L cka1Lcn ne 1onLko a
ap pyun pyccko, no n nopnnHa1Lcn a unc1nnnue ee n a aosHoxnm pa. ecL
npencnonnennm xpnc1nanc1aoH (nopyHa1e 1onLko, a kaknx ycnoannx oc1oeackn
nponoaepoaan ce6e aanrenne, 6ypyun a ka1opxnmx kanpanax!), ank6nennm a
noasnk epkan, pyueano cpocuncn c npoc1mH napopoH, 60-ne1nn oc1oeackn
1onLko u1o aocxopnn na amco1y aosHoxnoro noc1nxennn uenoaeunoc1n aoo6ue n
pyccko a uac1noc1n. BypL on xna - Hoxno ce6e npepc1aan1L, kak rpeHen 6m on a
1euenne no kpane Hepe eue payx pecn1nne1n! e1 coHnennn, eHy npnunocL 6m
ac1ynn1L a pyxoanyk apaxpy c LaoH onc1mH, n opno spennue c1onL 1n1annuecko
6opL6m 6mno 6m neo6mknoaenno noyun1enLnmH pnn nc1opnn. necnmxannmx eue
nanpnxennnx 1aknx 1anan1oa, 1aknx nckpennoc1e, 1aknx pennrnosnoc1e amncnnnocL
6m, Hoxe1 6m1L, neu1o aceHnpno aaxnoe. epL apc1ao Boxne cM 6epe1cn, n
cM cM, nyxnm caepxuenoaeueckne conpo1nanennn, u1o6m
onpepennnacL no6epa opnoro nauana nap ppyrnH. onc1o o6Lnann ce6n 6ecnouapnmH
aparoH nc1opnuecko epkan n rocypapc1aa, no on, k coxanennk, ne ac1pe1nn ce6e nn
opnoro ckonLko-nn6ypL anyun1enLnoro aospaxa1enn. cero aepon1nee, u1o
oc1oeackn amc1ynnn 6m na saun1y n epkan, n rocypapc1aa kak oprannuecknx qopH
o6uec1aa n, nopo6no apnenk, cyHen 6m na1n nH onpaapannn eue necnmxanno
cnnm n rny6nnm. 1o snae1, Hoxe1 6m1L, opno npncy1c1ane a kpyry nn1epa1ypm 1akoro
Horyuec1aa, kaknH 6mn oc1oeackn, ypepxano 6m onc1oro na ero npexne op6n1e.
opo6no paonmH saespaH, Hoxe1 6m1L, nocnepnne naun aennkne npeannc1m
apauanncL 6m cornacno okono o6uero uen1pa, okono Boxec1aa, k o1opoHy 1ak
1nro1enn. pypno rapa1L, u1o 6mno 6m, no pycckoe o6uec1ao, ao acnkoH cnyuae,
no1epnno a nnue oc1oeackoro aennkoro aoxpn, k ko1opoHy naunnan yxe
npncnyunaa1Lcn aecL cae1.
ano yHep oc1oeackn, no ace xe sa 1pnpua1L nn1L ne1 pa6o1m on oc1aann orpoHnm
pap occnn n uenoaeuec1ay. Ypnan1enLnme poHanm ero npnnosa6m1m sa a1n 1pnpua1L
ne1, onn sacnonenm nc1opne, no po cnx nop - n eue ponro a rny6L aekoa - onn
oc1any1cn okeanoH Hmcnn n c1pac1no, nesaHnpakue xnsnn. occnn XIX aeka n,
noxany, acn xpnc1nanckan unannnsaunn apeHen ynapka epaa nn Hory1 6m1L nonn1m
6es nsyuennn a1oro nnca1enn - nac1onLko rny6xe ppyrnx knaccnkoa on sarnnnyn a
saua1kn 1enepeunero pasnoxennn. e roaopn o yuknne, n yprenea, n paxe ea
onc1o 6mnn cnnukoH spopoame xypoxnnkn. oc1oeackn xe kak 6m asnn na ce6n
ckop6L Hnpa n nepeuyac1aoaan ee caonHn nspanennmHn nepaaHn. n Hor onncmaa1L
"6epnmx nkpe, "ynnxennmx n ockop6nennmx, no1oHy u1o snan, u1o 1akoe 6epnoc1L
n ynnxennn, n ncnm1maan nx nou1n po konua xnsnn. n nHen npaao nnca1L o
npec1ynnennn n nakasannn, npnkocnyauncL k npec1ynnoHy Hnpy, kak nnk1o. n
6nnc1a1enLno nso6pasnn 6ecoa, acennaunxcn a cannoe c1apo npaac1aenno rpnsnmx
nkpe: eHy ne napo 6mno paneko ncka1L nx, on apauancn cpepn nnx. o1 noueHy,
korpa nop koneu xnsnn on npnuen k sanoaepn: "Hnpn1ecL, roppme! o1pypn1ecL,
npaspnme! - a ero yc1ax a1a sanoaepL sayuana c cnno nokopnkue.
oppoc1L n npaspnoc1L - neyxenn a1o rnaanme nopokn pasnarakuerocn
xpnc1nanc1aa? oxany, u1o n rnaanme. oano uepes 1pnpua1L ne1 nocne konunnm
nauero npopoka nornnpn1e, u1o penae1cn 1enepL a e1ep6ypre na aepunnax
npocaeuennn, cpepn nan6onee aneua1nn1enLnoro cnon o6uec1aa. Byn1yk1
ynnaepcn1e1m, nonn1exnnkyHm, xenckne kypcm. onopme nkpn n peanum, k ko1opmH
nnun napop 1ak po6p, u1o npepoc1aanne1 ace cpepc1aa snannn n ace cnoco6m
cnyxn1L popnne, - "6ac1yk1, 6popn1 no aypn1opnnH c peaonkunonnmHn necnnHn,
kpnua1 o nncnpoaepxennn yc1anoanenno napopoH anac1n. asae a1o, a caHoH pene,
ne roppennaoe noHeua1enLc1ao Honopexn n pasae ono ne ocnoxneno ppyro
ncnxnuecko 6onesnLk - npaspnoc1Lk? asae a1n roppo-nenname Honopme nkpn,
ko1opme kaxpm penL ace-1akn kyuak1 ue-1o xne6, sacnyxnnn xo1L 1enL npaaa na
kakyk-nn6ypL roppoc1L? asae pec1an1enLno onn yx 1ak y1oHnenm, u1o6m cpepn
exepneano 1pypnuerocn napopa nosaonn1L ce6e nponsaonLnm o1pmx? epL ecnn
asn1L nk6oro ns a1nx 6ecnoaa1mx n cnpocn1L, kakne xe, nakoneu, y nero sacnyrn npep
o6uec1aoH, kakne ouy1nHme 1pypm, 1ak aepL ne okaxe1cn coaepuenno nnkaknx. nn
a nopaannkueH 6onLunnc1ae napasn1m nnn nonynapasn1m o6uec1aa, n acn
nponsaopn1enLnoc1L nx saknkuae1cn a oprannuecknx o16pocax, kak y pe1e. nn -
uac1o na 1pe1LeH pecn1ke xnsnn - ace eue pe1n n 1onLko a kauec1ae 1akoamx nHek1
npaao na Hnnoceppne nn1akuero nx aspocnoro nokonennn. o a 1akoH cnyuae o1kypa
xe ca1annnckan roppoc1L a1nx nncnpoaepra1ene o6uec1aa, o1kypa npaao nx na
npaspnoc1L? c1anL ns rpo6a oc1oeackn, on Hor 6m 1onLko, kak 1pnpua1L ne1 nasap,
noa1opn1L a1nH nonynoHeuannmH: "Hnpn1ecL, roppme! opa6o1a1e, npaspnme!
cnn apyHa1Lcn a aeunm cHmcn cHnpennn xpnc1nanckoro n a snauenne 1pypa, am
npnpe1e k saknkuennk, u1o opno a1o sanoaepn yxe poc1a1ouno pnn aockpecennn
o6uec1aa. 1o snaun1 "cHnpncL? D1o snaun1 - ne aoo6paxa o ce6e cnnukoH Hnoro.
sHepL ce6n nc1nnno Hepo, ne paanncn c BoroH. e 1m cospan o6uec1ao - ne
aspyua ero. no cospano nencuncnnHmHn cnnaHn n na npo1nxennn 1LHm aekoa; 1ak
neyxenn xe ropc1ouka npaspnmx Honopmx nkpe, ne cnoco6nan sapa6o1a1L ce6e o6ep,
a coc1onnnn ncsu Hnp? onpo6oaann 6m, kak npepnaran Xpnc1oc, npn6aan1L
ce6e caHnH xo1L aepuok poc1y! "HnpncL - a1o snaun1: ne HyuL ce6n nanpacno
"Y6m1ounmHn sapauaHn, aosLHn nocnnLnm 1pyp - n 1m napeuL eH cuac1Le. n1L
canorn nnn cun1a1L na cue1ax - a1o anonne 6naropopnan pa6o1a, ecnn ona
amnonnne1cn xopouo; nackonLko npespennee 6opL6a c nc1opnuecknHn sakonaHn,
ko1opmx am eue ne snae1e n ko1opmx npaspnoc1L aaua ne pae1 aaH aosHoxnoc1n
nsyun1L!
pnsma oc1oeackoro k cHnpennk n 1pypy o1nocnncn npexpe acero k nn1ennnrenunn,
k o6pasoaannoHy, cnnukoH ns6anoaannoHy n nsnexennoHy kpyry. o sa a1n 1pnpua1L
ne1 n unpokne npoc1onapopnme cnon a1nnynncL a 1y xe 6esyHnyk roppoc1L n a 1y xe
npaspnoc1L. ap npaaocnaano occne n nap ace pasapauenno unannnsaune
1nro1ee1 nepaopopnoe pLnaonLckoe anyuenne: "cnyua1ecL - n 6ype1e kak 6orn, 1o
ec1L 6ypL1e roppmHn, n am 6ype1e npaspnmHn. o noppakunecn a1oHy nckyuennk
napopm nsronnk1cn ns pan xnsnn, onn norpnsak1 a nnue1e, a nopokax, a annoaoH
asanHonc1pe6nennn. a a1n 1pnpua1L ne1 npoaosrnauena noackpy knaccoaan 6opL6a n
nk6nHmH opypneH roppoc1n nanne1cn npaspnoc1L. o opna 1kanL o6uec1aa
o1kasmaae1cn cnyxn1L, 1o ppyran, 1o ace aHec1e, 6esyHno pyHan, u1o napannu
pen1enLnoc1n ospopoanne1 n pacny1maae1 sa1pypnennn. Henno aanpy anapxnn,
ko1opan 1ak 6mc1po unpn1cn, ec1L oco6ennm noaop acnoHnn1L aennkoro apara
anapxnn. n n ns Hornnm c1pauen pnn nee npnsmaoH k aeunoHy ponry: 6m1L
ckpoHnmHn n 1pypn1Lcn uec1no.
T
30
cyxpennn o 1oH, 6mno nn y nac pa6c1ao nnn 1onLko kpenoc1noe npaao, amsmaae1cn
upesamuano aaxnm canpe1enL - . . yuknn. uac1nnaan HmcnL no1peaoxn1L
koc1n aennkoro noa1a npnnapnexn1 . . 1onmnnny. eaepno npnnncmaan Hne cnop c
aunonanLnmH kny6oH (n aospaxan kakoHy-1o "pycckoHy, a ne kny6y), . .
1onmnnn nnue1: "ackonLko nonn1ne o pa6c1ae a rnasax coapeHennnkoa coanapano c
nonn1neH o kpenoc1no saancnHoc1n, canpe1enLc1ayk1 xo1n 6m cnoaa yuknna.
"Yanxy nL n napop ocao6oxpennm n pa6c1ao, napuee no Hannk uapn..." aepL
nyuknnckoe 1aopuec1ao - caHa npaapa, necoaHec1nHan c neaepnmHn onpepenennnHn
n qanLunamHn cnoaaHn.
ne kaxe1cn, a1o1 poaop a nonLsy pa6c1aa ouenL na1nny1. ano nn kakne cnoaa ace
Hm yno1pe6nneH. e sa6o1ncL o6 a6conk1no nx 1ounoc1n, ne 6ypyun noppannmHn
ppyr ppyra, pasae ne nasmaaeH Hm opnn ppyroro "Hnnoc1namHn rocypapnHn? pasae
nopnncL "aau nokopnm cnyra coc1aanne1 o6nsa1enLc1ao unc1n1L koHy-nn6ypL
canorn? a ncuesnoaenneH pa6c1aa a nesanaHn1nme apeHena nasaanne ero oc1anocL n
a npoc1opeunn nnorpa nepexopnno na npoc1mx cnyr, oco6enno kpenoc1nmx. Bonpc1ao,
nanpnHep, paano o1Heneno, opnako po cnx nop kpec1Lnne soay1 rocnopnna 6apnnoH.
oaepuenno 1oro xe caoc1aa yno1pe6nenne n npo1naononoxnoro saannn - pa6.
kaxpo xnao peun ec1L no1pe6noc1L nopuepknaannn nonn1n, ypapennn na nnx, n a
a1oH cnyuae acerpa 6epy1 ne nac1onuee, a neckonLko npeyaennuennoe cnoao nnn
npeyHenLuennoe.
. . 1onmnnn, aoo6ue, npaa, roaopn, u1o nyuknnckoe 1aopuec1ao - caHa npaapa, no
on coaceH ne npaa, 6yp1o 1aopuec1ao necoaHec1nHo c neaepnmHn onpepenennnHn. ak
pas nao6opo1! asae ne cyuec1aye1 6onee 1oro, u1o nasmaae1cn lucentia poetica?
[81]
asae 1o1 xe yuknn ne nasmaan connue Oe6oH, cHeunaan rpoHapnm ornennm uap
c uenoaeuecko qnrypo? asae a kaxpo c1pouke yuknna am ne nape1e
yHmunenno neaepnmx onpepenenn, neo6xopnHmx nHenno pnn npaapm 1aopuec1aa?
Xo1n 6m a 1oH xe c1nxe, u1o npnaepen amue: "pa6c1ao, napuee n Mk uapn. pe
xe a1o anpano, u1o6m pa6c1ao y1aepxpanocL nnn napano no Hannk uape? o nenLsn
xe 1pe6oaa1L, u1o6m noa1 ampasnncn anonne 1ouno n ckasan 6m: "pa6c1ao, napuee a
cnny nopnncn uapn na 1akoH-1o Hannqec1e. onpo6y1e ynoxn1L "kpenoc1noe npaao
nnn aoo6ue kakoe yropno kpnpnueckoe onpepenenne a noa1nueckyk peuL - am
yanpn1e, kako aspop ns a1oro ampe1.
. . 1onmnnn kak na npnsnak pa6c1aa nannpae1 na 1o, u1o kpenoc1nmx n.
o aepL a1o 6mna npopaxa coaceH oco6oro popa. popaaann ne uenoaeka, a
o6nsannoc1L ero cnyxn1L anapenLuy. 1enepL aepL, npopaaan aekcenL, am npopae1e
ne ponxnnka, a nnuL o6nsannoc1L ero ynna1n1L no aekcenk. "popaxa kpenoc1nmx -
npoc1o nepnunnaoe cnoao, kak n cnoao "pyua a kauec1ae nHyuec1aenno epnnnum.
D1o onnounoc1L epkan n rocypapc1aa, ne porapaaunxcn nounc1n1L oqnunanLnm
nsmk. Yno1pe6nnn cnoao "c1onLko-1o pyu, ace nonnHann, u1o peuL npe1 ne o
6eccHep1no pyue uenoaeuecko, a o npaae na ee nsaec1nme ycnyrn. yua ne
npopae1cn. "e npopae1cn apoxnoaenLe, no Hoxno pykonncL npopa1L, - peunn a1o1
1onkn aonpoc yuknn. epL n po cnx nop ace nkpn, kpoHe 6eccoaec1nmx nen1nea,
npopak1 6nnxnnH caon ycnyrn, no a1o ne snaun1, u1o onn npopak1 ce6n. popaxa
kpec1Lnn nnn o6Hen nx xo1n 6m na co6ak nnorpa 6mnn aosHy1n1enLnmHn, no uaue
6narope1enLnmHn pnn kpec1Lnn: yxe ecnn cannLn noHeunk npopaaan caonx kpec1Lnn
nnn Hennn nx, 1o, oueanpno, y 1ako cannLn kpec1LnnaH 6mno xyxe xn1L ueH y noaoro
xosnnna, ko1opm, nokynan, 1eH canpe1enLc1aoaan u1o npnpae1 nH uennoc1L. e napo
sa6maa1L n 1oro, u1o opnn n 1e xe cnoaa sayua1 1enepL coaceH nnaue, ueH nn1Lpecn1
ne1 nasap. "popa1L uenoaeka 1enepL sayun1 kouync1aenno, no 1orpa - c
npnaepenno amue nonpaako - ne kasanocL nnkoHy nn c1pannmH, nn
ockop6n1enLnmH. apop nHee1 caok qopHyny 1pypa: "annncn - npopancn n a1o c
co1aopennn Hnpa ne ponne1 poc1onnc1aa o1nouenn.
Yxe ecnn amsmaa1L koro-nn6ypL k canpe1enLckoHy ponpocy, 1o cnepye1 npocn1L
paaa1L nokasanne ne c1nxaHn, a nposo. yuknn nHen cnyua amckasmaa1L caoe
o1nouenne k kpenoc1noHy npaay ne pas, n ne 1onLko a c1nxo1aopennn "epeann,
ko1opoe un1npye1 . . 1onmnnn. c1a1n ckasa1L, a1o c1nxo1aopenne 6mno nanncano
yuknnmH a 1819 ropy, korpa noa1y ncnonnnnocL poano paapua1L ne1. yuknn,
nopo6no HnornH knouaH, nepexnaan a a1o apeHn ouenL necepLesnm nepnop caoe
xnsnn. yuknn couencn c 1orpaunnHn peaonkunonepaHn (6ypyunHn peka6pnc1aHn),
no 1e cun1ann Honoporo noaecy cnnukoH nerkoHmcnennmH, u1o6m npnnn1L a caon
1anme kpyxkn. ckop6nennm a1nH, yuknn - neckonLko konnpoaaaun Bapona -
sapyHan cospa1L ce6e peny1aunk uenoaeka eue 6onee onacnoro, ueH ero npnn1enn-
saroaopunkn. o1 u1o nnue1 o6 a1oH caH noa1: "ne 6mno 20 ne1... eckonLko
neo6pyHannmx cnoa, neckonLko ca1npnuecknx c1nxoa o6pa1nnn na Henn annHanne.
asneccn cnyx, u1o n 6mn nosaan a 1anyk kanuennpnk n amceuen. nyx 6mn paano
o6unH, korpa pouen po Henn. H nouen ce6n onosopennmH npep cae1oH, n no1epnncn,
ppancn - Hne 6mno 20 ne1!.. yuknn nopyHmaan paxe o caHoy6nc1ae, no 6onncn,
u1o a1o cou1y1 nHenno npnsnanneH, u1o ero amceknn. "orpa, - nnue1 on, - n
peunncn amkasa1L c1onLko narnoc1n, c1onLko xaac1oac1aa n 6yc1aa a Honx peuax n a
Honx counnennnx, ckonLko nyxno 6mno pnn 1oro, u1o6m nonypn1L npaan1enLc1ao
o6paua1Lcn co Hnok kak c npec1ynnnkoH. H xaxpan n6npn, kak aocc1anoanennn
uec1n... o1 a kakoH nac1poennn naxopnncn 20-ne1nn yuknn a anoxy, korpa on
kpnuan npo1na "pa6c1aa.
c1nxo1aopennn "epeann knoua yuknn amckasan epaa nn caoe nnunoe,
amnecennoe ns xnsnn Hnenne o pyccko pepeane: aocnn1maancL po aoceHnapua1n ne1
a apckoH ene, yuknn a 1o1 nepnop eue nou1n ne snan pepeann. pnexaa 1ypa, on
npnaes c co6ok Hnenne ro1oaoe, aennkocae1ckoe, cen1nHen1anLno-peaonkunonnoe,
cnoxnaueecn, kak Hopa, nop paanenneH ne naue, a qpanuyscko xnsnn. cnoHnn1e,
u1o caHa ka1epnna aena nepenncky c qnnocoqaHn peaonkunn n nasmaana ce6n
pecny6nnkanko. onopo yuknn, nonaa a pycckyk pepeank, asrnnnyn na nee,
ec1ec1aenno, rnasaHn caoero aocnn1annn n kpyra. o kpane nk6onm1no 1o, u1o paxe
a a1oH c1nxo1aopennn, nanncannoH, Hoxe1 6m1L, pnn nn6epanLnoro a11ec1a1a, yuknn
ne Hor ne o1He1n1L ouenL aaxno c1oponm kpenoc1noro 6m1a. "ae1yune nnam, "ce
nyr, yc1aanennm pyunc1mHn cknppaHn, "na anaxnmx 6eperax 6popnune c1apa,
oannm pmHnme n HenLnnum kpmna1m; s c uc . o1 ona,
npaapa noa1nueckoro 1aopuec1aa, - npn kpane 1enpenunn onnaka1L "pa6c1ao
coaceH neuannno amckounno 1akxe n "poaonLc1ao.
o oc1aanH "epeank, c1nxo1aopenne 20-ne1nero yuknna. ocHo1pnH, kak
o1smaancn o kpenoc1noH npaae 1o1 xe yuknn 34-ne1nn, 1o ec1L uenoaek anonne
nonn1nueckn spenm n apo6aaok npoxnaun a pepeane, xo1n n neaonLno, uenme ropm.
pou1n1e ero saHe1kn "nekcanpp apnuea, "mcnn na popore, "asroaop c
anrnnuannnoH o pyccknx kpec1Lnnax. apnuea a caoe snaHenn1o knnre ne ckasan
nnuero noaoro o pepeane: on nnuL noa1opnn kpane 6espapno n pnnnno 1o, u1o
knoua yuknn nso6pasnn a "epeane rennanLnmHn c1nxaHn. ak xe o1neccn yuknn
k knnre apnueaa?
omnoc1u npeyaenveun
"e1oaannn na necuac1noe coc1onnne napopa, na nacnnne aenLHox n np.
npeyaennuennm n nounm, - roaopnn yuknn. - opmam uyac1an1enLnoc1n,
xeHanno n napy1o, nnorpa upesamuano cHeunm... n (apnuea) kak 6yp1o
c1apae1cn pasppaxn1L aepxoanyk anac1L caonH ropLknH snopeuneH: ne nyuue nn
6mno 6m ykasa1L na 6naro, ko1opoe ona a coc1onnnn co1aopn1L? n nonocn1 anac1L
rocnop kak nanoe 6essakonne: ne nyuue nn 6mno npepoc1aan1L npaan1enLc1ay n
yHnmH noHeunkaH cnoco6m k noc1enennoHy ynyuuennk coc1onnnn kpec1Lnn? expy
npounH, yuknn saHeuae1 a opnoH Hec1e, u1o Yxe 1orpa, a nauane 1830-x ropoa, uno
"o6epnenne pycckoro paopnnka, nponcuepuee uac1Lk o1 pasppo6nennn nHenn,
cusk c Yxc c, uac1Lk o1 ppyrnx npnunn. pouy un1a1enn
sanoHnn1L a1o canpe1enLckoe nokasanne yuknna. aponro po kpec1Lnncko
peqopHm, sa 1pnpua1L ne1 po nee, paopnnckne nHennn ncuesann c "yxacno
6mc1po1o. penoc1noe npaao cu a occnn n anpnHo paspyuanocL: k konuy
1850-x ropoa 6onLunnc1ao kpec1Lnncknx "pyu npnnapnexann yxe ne noHeunkaH -
onn 6mnn sanoxenm y kasnm, coaepuenno kak 1enepL sanoxenm n nepesanoxenm a
kasennoH 6anke paopnnckne seHnn.
"nac1L noHeunkoa, - nnue1 yuknn, - a 1oH anpe, kak ona 1enepL cyuec1aye1,
neo6xopnHa pnn pekpy1ckoro na6opa. Bes nee npaan1enLc1ao a ry6epnnnx ne Horno 6m
co6pa1L n pecn1o ponn 1pe6yeHoro uncna pekpy1oa. o1 opna ns 1mcnun npnunn,
noaeneaakunx naH npncy1c1aoaa1L a naunx noHec1Lnx, a ne pasopn1Lcn a c1onnuax
nop npepnoroH yceppnn k cnyx6e, no a caHoH pene ns epnno nk6an k paccennnoc1n n
unnaH.
s a1nx kpa1knx c1pok poc1oaepnoro canpe1enn pae1cn, kak Honnnn, nc1nnnan npnunna
napennn kpenoc1noro npaaa. nn nocnepnero nyxnm ne 1onLko kpenoc1nme kpec1Lnne,
no n noHeunkn; kpec1Lnne naunncL, no ne naunocL paopnn, u1o6m cnpe1L a pepeane.
ak 1onLko packpenoc1nnn paopnn o1 nx rocypapc1aennmx o6nsa1enLc1a, onn uenmHn
HaccaHn no1nnynncL a ropopa, u1o6m pasaneka1Lcn n amcnyxnaa1L unnm.
nc1opnueckoH payunene "6apnn Hyxnk amnan 6apnn n nopHenen 6mn nnn HyxnkoH
xe - c1apoc1o, nnn 6ypHnc1poH-nnopopueH (neHueH, na1muoH, nonnkoH n 1.n.).
c1ec1aenno, u1o nasaannm 6m1oao payunen npnnnn snauenne, 1ak ckasa1L,
nppaunonanLnoe. axe a 1ex cnyuanx, korpa a pepeannx oc1aaanncL eue noHeunkn,
ouenL Hnorne ns nnx 6mnn ns amcnyxnaunxcn pasnounnuea, 1o ec1L paneko ne 1o
npaac1aenno nopopm, kakan 6mna neo6xopnHa pnn kpenoc1nmx o1nouenn.
s panLneuero u1ennn "mcne a popore am anpn1e, u1o yuknn couyac1aye1 cpaue
a pekpy1m kpec1Lnn ne a ouepepL, a no am6opy noHeunkoa, cHee1cn nap aspoxaHn
apnueaa o 1oH, u1o kpec1Lnne ne yno1pe6nnk1 caxapa, n saHeuae1, u1o kaac n 6ann a
kaxpoH paope - npnsnakn neko1oporo poaonLc1aa. "aHeua1enLno, - roaopn1
yuknn, - u1o apnuea, sac1aana caok xosnky xanoaa1Lcn na ronop n neypoxa,
okanunaae1 kap1nny nyxpm n 6epc1ann 1ako uep1o: "n nauana caxa1L xne6m a
neuL". yuknn npncoepnnne1cn k Hnennk Oonansnna, u1o cypL6a pycckoro
kpec1Lnnnna cuac1nnaee cypL6m qpanuysckoro seHnepenLua. yuknn y1aepxpae1, u1o
pycckn kpenoc1no cuac1nnaee paxe anrnnckoro (1orpaunero) pa6ouero. nncaa
"yxacm (ne ncknkuan "o1apa1n1enLnmx nc1nsann) anrnncknx pa6ounx, yuknn
roaopn1: "Y nac ne1 nnuero nopo6noro. oannnoc1n aoo6ue ne 1nroc1nm. opyunan
nna1n1cn HnpoH, 6apunna onpepenena sakonoH; o6pok ne pasopn1enen, kpoHe kak a
6nnsoc1n ockam n e1ep6ypra, rpe pasnoo6pasne o6opo1oa npoHmunennoc1n n
ycnnnaae1 n pasppaxae1 kopmc1onk6ne anapenLuea. oHeunk, nanoxna o6pok,
oc1aanne1 na nponsaon caoero kpec1Lnnnna poc1aaa1L ero, kak n rpe on xoue1.
pec1Lnnnn npoHmunne1, ueH on aspyHae1, n yxopn1 nnorpa sa pae 1mcnun aepc1
ampa6a1maa1L ce6e penLry. noyno1pe6nenn aespe Hnoro; yronoanme pena yxacnm.
srnnnn1e na pycckoro kpec1Lnnnna: ec1L nn n 1enL pa6ckoro ynnxennn a ero noc1ynn
n peun? ero cHenoc1n n cHmunenoc1n n roaopn1L neuero... occnn ne1 uenoaeka,
ko1opm ne nHen 6m co6c1aennoro xnnnua. nun, yxopn ckn1a1Lcn no Hnpy,
oc1aanne1 caok ns6y. D1oro ne1 a uyxnx kpanx. He1L kopoay aespe a apone ec1L
snak pockoun, y nac ne nHe1L kopoam ec1L snak yxacno 6epnoc1n. au kpec1Lnnnn
onpn1en no npnamuke n no npaanny: kaxpyk cy66o1y on xopn1 a 6ank, yHmaae1cn no
neckonLky pas a penL. D1o aoace ne noxoxe na "pa6c1ao.
oa1opnn 1e xe Hmcnn a "asroaope c anrnnuannnoH, yuknn sac1aanne1
anrnnuannna cnpocn1L: " a1o am nasmaae1e pa6c1aoH? H ne snak ao ace apone
napopa, ko1opoHy 6mno 6m pano 6onee npoc1opa pec1aoaa1L. "o cao6opa? -
aocknnuae1 yuknn. - eyx1o am pycckoro kpec1Lnnnna noun1ae1e cao6opnmH?
nrnnuannn o1aeuae1: "srnnnn1e na nero: u1o Hoxe1 6m1L cao6opnee ero o6pauennn
c aaHn? n np. yuknn nHenno no1oHy, u1o on 6mn noa1, aennkn cosepua1enL
xypoxec1aenno npaapm kak "aeun a ce6e, npnpaaan orpoHnoe snauenne cM
o6pauennk kpec1Lnn c rocnopaHn n o1cy1c1ank paxe "1enn pa6ckoro ynnxennn a ero
noc1ynn n peun. ako xe, a caHoH pene, a1o 6mn pa6, ecnn on nnuy1L ne 6mn noxox
na pa6a, a 6mn coaceH noxox na cao6opnoro uenoaeka? yuknn cnpaaepnnao naxopnn,
u1o na anape (paxe a nrnnn) o1nouennn Hexpy amcunHn n nnsunHn cocnoannHn
o1nnuak1cn ropaspo 6onLue ynnsn1enLnoc1Lk, poxopnue po nopnoc1n. cnoHnn1e
1aknx "pa6oa, kak xnaan pnna opnonoana, n counnennm, 1o ec1L cnncannm c
na1ypm, aaenLnu. ornn yuknn, nHenno kak xypoxnnk, annkakun a cy1L aeue,
cun1a1L nopo6nme o1nouennn pa6cknHn?
poHe 1oro, u1o aennkn noa1 o kpenoc1noH npaae, cyuec1aye1 neu1o eue
6onee pokasa1enLnoe no a1oHy aonpocy - nHenno, u1o on a kauec1ae noHeunka.
opo6no nopaannkueHy 6onLunnc1ay paopnn, on u o1Henm
kpenoc1noro npaaa. n cnokono anapen 1ak nasmaaeHmHn pa6aHn, nonyuan c nnx
o6pok, saknapmaan nx n npopaaan. cnn 6m a caHoH pene kpenoc1noe npaao
npepc1aannnocL 1orpaunnH kynL1ypnmH nkpnH 1ako nec1epnnHo rapoc1Lk, kak
nso6paxeno a "epeane, 1ak k1o xe Heuan 6m yuknny n ace nnenpe 1orpaunnx
rennea n 1anan1oa suc o1 caonx npaa? nn a1oro aoace ne nyxno 6mno "Hannn
uapn. n opnn uapL ne sanpeuan nk6oHy noHeunky a nk6o HoHen1 o1nyc1n1L
kpec1Lnn na aonk n paxe, ecnn eHy yropno, nopapn1L nH caon seHnn. . . 1onmnnny
nyuue Henn nsaec1no, Hnorne nn ns paopnn aocnonLsoaanncL a1ok npoc1o
aosHoxnoc1Lk pasansa1Lcn c pa6c1aoH. oHnn1e aukoro: "1o 1ak uyac1an1enen, n
nexen, n oc1ep, kak nekcanpp eprenu aukn, k1o yHen a Hockoacknx roc1nnmx 1ak
kpacnopeunao onncmaa1L yxacm o6Hena nkpe na co6ak n 1.n.? pnako
kpacnopeunam onnaknaa1enL, kak snaun1cn a nLece, caH 6mn noHeunkoH, npoxnaan
na kpec1Lnnckn cue1 sa rpannue, nua "ockop6nennoHy uyac1ay caHme kpacname
yronkn a apone, - n aoace ne pyHan o1nycka1L kpec1Lnn na aonk. oueHy? a
no1oHy, u1o "uyac1an1enLnoc1L n nexnoc1L nn6epanLnmx paopnn na caHoH pene aoace
ne 1ak cepLesno 6mna aosHyuena kpenoc1nmH npaaoH. pnuann o c, xopouo
nonnHan, u1o pa6c1aa ne1, a ec1L npn caHo aneHen1apno nopnpounoc1n c o6enx
c1opon o1nouennn aecLHa ypoane1aopn1enLnme, asanHoamropnme. o1 noueHy a
occnn ne cneunnn c o1Heno kpenoc1noro npaaa. ce nkpn anpenn, u1o
n c c co c1oponm paopnn ne 1onLko ne1 pa6c1aa, no nocnepnee n
no cyuec1ay neaosHoxno. auann xena1L (aHec1e c yuknnmH) o1Henm kpenoc1noro
npaaa ne panLue ueH paopnnc1ao no1epnno aepy a caoe 6naropopc1ao. orpa ppnnnan
cnyx6a a ropopax, caopnauancn k nopcnyxnaannk, oxaHnna (npoc1n1e sa ampaxenne)
snaun1enLnoe uncno paopnn, korpa "paccennnan (un1a: pacny1nan) xnsnL pasopnna
nx - paopnne nepame yanpenn: kakne xe onn noHeunkn? nn ne kynL1ypnme
pa6o1nnkn na napopno nnae - onn 1ynenpum, n acn ponL nx caopnnacL k ponn
capanun. o1 1orpa-1o n nauann nenaanpe1L kpenoc1noe npaao, caannaan na nero ack
necnoco6noc1L caok k 1pypy n ack 6espapnoc1L. cnn am ne snae1e Hysmkn nnn ne
snae1e Ha1eHa1nkn, 1o aaun ynpaxnennn a nnx nannk1cn ne 1onLko Hyun1enLnmHn, no
paxe ynnsn1enLnmHn pnn aac. norne na ocnoaannn a1oro ro1oam kpnua1L: pono
anre6py! ono ponnL! penoc1noe npaao a saHmcne caoeH 6mno kak 6m a1opo
rocypapc1aennoc1Lk - 6m1oamH rocypapc1aoH, anoxennmH a nonn1nueckoe. Y nac ne
ypanocL nn 1o, nn ppyroe. o pae1 nn a1o npaao y1aepxpa1L, u1o rocypapc1ao aoo6ue
- sno, n ynnsn1enLnoe sno? napxnc1m pyHak1, u1o pa.
opar n no6er?
ypnanenneH npouen n y . . 1onmnnna, u1o ne 1onLko no1oHc1ao kpec1Lnn o6nsano
6naropapnoc1Lk sa o1Heny kpenoc1noro npaaa, no n no1oHc1ao paopnn: "aHn
paopnne, ocao6oxpennme o1 pasapauakuero annnnnn ypopnnao paspocuerocn npaaa:
nap nkpLHn, caHn paopnne, cnoco6c1aoaaaune a caoe nyuue uac1n ncnpaanennk
nc1opnuecko necnpaaepnnaoc1n n oun6kn, ne Hory1 ne noHnny1L po6poH ropoaunnm
opnoro ns nopanroa caoero cocnoann, nopanra npaac1aennoro, nopanra
caHoo1aepxennoro, ne HenLuero ppyrnx nopanroa, aoennmx n npocae1n1enLnmx.
Ypnan1enLno, po uero Hm pacxopnHcn c . . 1onmnnnmH a nonnHannn opno n 1o
xe aeun. o-HoeHy, 6esycnoano nnkakoro nopanra paopnne ne cpenann, cornauancL
na o1Heny kpenoc1noro npaaa, a1o 6mn ne c1onLko nopanr, ckonLko no6er -
pesep1npc1ao c nc1opnuecko cnyx6m. ak n ckasan amue, paopnnaH ne 1onLko ne
1pypno 6mno ocao6opn1L kpec1Lnn, no 1pypno 6mno ne ocao6opn1L. epL orpoHnoe
6onLunnc1ao kpec1Lnn yxe 6mnn sanoxenm a kasne n qak1nueckn npnnapnexann e, a
ne noHeunkaH. noaL amkynn1L snocuac1nme "pyun ne 6mno nnkako napexpm npn
neypepxnHoH (eue ao apeHena yuknna) ppo6nennn n ncuesnoaennn noHec1n. 1ano
6m1L, kpenoc1nan peqopHa nannnacL, kak anocnepc1ann kpec1Lnnckn 6ank, na
ampyuky noHec1noHy 6ankpo1c1ay. oxno nn roaopn1L o "nopanre caHonoxep1aennoH,
ecnn 6onLunnc1ao ockypeaakunx noHeunkoa cnano n anpeno amkynnme? H nonnHak:
6mn 6m nopanr, ecnn 6m paopnne nnuero ne nonyunnn, o1nyckan kpenoc1nmx na aonk;
no aepL onn nonyunnn u1o-1o okono Hnnnnappa amkynnmx, ko1opme 6mnn aeceno
npoxn1m. H roaopk, koneuno, ne o acex paopnnax, no o6 orpoHnoH 6onLunnc1ae nx,
sapncoaannmx aa1opoH "ckypennn. ue po peqopHm cnoxnncn 1on paopnncko
xnsnn, sac1aannaun nx ne naxnaa1L, a npoxnaa1L, n a1o npoxnaanne uno
neypepxnHo. o1 xe yuknn, xnaun ne cnnukoH nmuno n nHeaun nopcnopLe a
cy6cnpnnx n nn1epa1ypnoH sapa6o1ke (no uepaonuy sa c1pouky), cyHen oc1aan1L a 37
ne1 50 1mcnu ponry. D1o1 1on xnsnn y 6onLunnc1aa paopnn ampa6o1an 1akyk
ncnxonornk: u1o 6m npopa1L? ne1 nn uero sanoxn1L? kak 6m pasansa1Lcn c nHenneH?
orpa amncnnnocL, u1o kpec1Lnne o1opy1 ne papoH, 6onLunnc1aoH paopnn peqopHa
6mna ac1peuena couyac1aenno, kak nnkanpaunn neypaunoro xosnc1aa c YrpoxakunH
anepepn pasopenneH. nerkoHmcnneH unc1o pe1cknH Hm cknonnm pyHa1L, u1o 1pypnan
sapaua annoaa1a a 1oH, u1o ona 1pypna, n no1oHy neo6xopnHo nockopee sauepkny1L
ee. pnunna 1pypnoc1n - co6c1aennan 6espapnoc1L - ne npnnnHae1cn a pacue1, a
Hexpy 1eH ona npecnepye1 nac, nepexopn n a noame ycnoann n penan c ycnoann
opnnakoao 1pypnmHn.
nkakoro n nn anac1L, nn paopnnc1ao ne coaepuann c o1Heno kpenoc1noro
npaaa eue n no ppyro npnunne. ocypapL c 6naropopno o1kpoaennoc1Lk o6Lnann
paopnnaH, u1o "nyxno pena1L eaonkunk caepxy, ne poxnpancL, korpa ona nan1cn
cnnsy. caHoH pene, npn pas6pope paopnnc1aa ns pepeaenL, npn pacnyuennoc1n nx
xnsnn (ckaxeH o1kpoaennee - Ho1oac1ae), npn opnuannn kpenoc1no anac1n,
c6pouenno na 6ypHnc1poa, npn ampoxpennn aoo6ue kpenoc1nmx o1nouenn a
napasn1nm 1nn nens6exna 6mna anapxnn cnnsy, n, c1ano 6m1L, paopnnaH napo 6mno
am6npa1Lcn ns pasaannn npounoro nopo6py-nospopoay. y1 nnkakoro nopanra ne 6mno
- 6mn ak1 ne caHonoxep1aoaannn, a caHocoxpanennn. nonyuennmHn penLraHn
paopnne ne oc1anncL a pepeane, a pas6exanncL k1o kypa.
. . 1onmnnn npnpaannaae1 o1Heny kpenoc1no saancnHoc1n k nopanraH aoennmH n
npocae1n1enLcknH co c1oponm 1oro xe paopnnc1aa. o kpenoc1no peqopHe kak pas
npepuec1aoaan ceaac1ononLckn norpoH: nouyac1aoaanocL, u1o n pnn aoennmx
nopanroa npoxopn1 apeHn. 1o kacae1cn npocae1n1enLcknx nopanroa, 1o ecnn 6m
paopnne cyHenn npocae1n1L napop po 1861 ropa, Hoxe1 6m1L, a1a 6mna 6m nyuuan ns
peqopH. pnako npocaeuenneH Hm po cnx nop noxaac1a1Lcn ne HoxeH.
o noaopy npepc1onuero k6nnen kpnua1 nenc1oao n cnpaaa, n cneaa: npaame ne
snak1 Hepm a 6naropapnoc1n, neame - a nenaanc1n. nn Henn xe kaxe1cn
oHepsn1enLno a1a nenaanc1L k npounoHy n a amcoko c1enenn sa6aano
6naropapnoc1L. cnn 6m n noaepnn peaonkunonepaH, y1aepxpakunH, u1o napop 6mn a
pa6c1ae, 1o n uyac1aoaan 6m 1o xe caHoe, u1o peaonkunonepm: rny6okoe aosHyuenne
1eH, u1o a1o pa6c1ao o1Heneno 1ak nospno. Hnepa1op nekcanpp II Hne kasancn 6m
ncnonnnaunH cnyxe6nm ponr cao, sa1o ace ero pepxaanme npepuec1aennnkn Hne
kasanncL 6m ne ncnonnnaunHn a1oro ponra.
Yaaxan nc1opnk kak npnpopy, n o1nkpL ne saunuak kpenoc1no pec1an1enLnoc1n.
ne 1onLko rny6oko npo1nana nonn1nueckan cnekynnunn na koc1nx npepkoa, xenanne
koro-1o napy1L, koro-1o pasppaxn1L, nepep keH-1o noxaac1a1Lcn HnnHmHn
po6pope1ennHn. 1uero, rocnopa, ne pepxa1Lcn nc1nnm, kak ona ec1L?
B
19
cnn yx peunnn npaspnoaa1L ace occne 50-ne1ne 19 qeapann, 1o 6ypeH
npaspnoaa1L ero c poc1onnc1aoH, 6es nc1epnuecknx aonne, 6es qanLunamx
npeyaennuenn, na ko1opme y nac c1onLko oxo1nnkoa cnpaaa n cneaa. -
ao1 u1o cnepye1 noHnn1L napopy pycckoHy. ou1n opnoapeHenno c o1Heno y nac
kpenoc1noro c1pon nponsouna o1Hena pa6c1aa a Hepnke, n 12 Hnnnnonoa nerpoa
ckopo 6ypy1 npaspnoaa1L 50-ne1ne a1oro aennkoro pnn nnx pnn. apn nc1opnuecko
npaapm n uec1n napopno ne papnH noaopa cHeunaa1L pycckn napop c neqaHn: 1e
pec1an1enLno 6mnn pa6aHn, pycckne kpec1Lnne nHn ne 6mnn. erpoa noannn a
qpnke kak pnknx saepe, cansmaann, sakoamaann a kanpanm, narpyxann nHn, kak
saepnHn, kopa6enLnme 1pkHm, aesnn uepes okean na npopaxy, n 1e ns nnx, ko1opme
amxnaann a1o1 nepexop (sa6oneaunx am6pacmaann sa 6op1, a nnuy akynaH),
noc1ynann a aeunoe pa6c1ao aHepnkancknH nnan1a1opaH. D1n nnan1a1opm 6mnn nkpn
coaepuenno uyxpo pnn nerpoa pacm, uyxporo nsmka, uyxpo aepm n kynL1ypm, kak
6yp1o nkpn c ppyro nnane1m. nn nckpenno rnnpenn na nerpoa kak na nonysaepe n
o6pauanncL coaepuenno kak c poHaunnHn xnao1nmHn. Xosneaa neqoa ne 6mnn
paopnnaHn, 1o ec1L nkpLHn noamuenno kynL1ypm: nnan1a1opaHn uac1o 6mnn nkpn
ns noponkoa eaponeckoro o6uec1aa, n xec1okoc1n nx k nerpaH ne 6mno npepena.
oaceH ne 1o 6mnn naun kpenoc1nme o1nouennn. au napop nnkorpa ne 6mn
saaoeaan paopnnc1aoH n ne 6mn pnn nocnepnero uyxnH. anpo1na, a aeka cnoxennn
kpenoc1noro c1pon y noHeunkoa n kpec1Lnn ace 6mno o6uee: onn 6mnn opnoro
nneHenn, opnoro nsmka, opno aepm, opno nc1opnuecko cypL6m. e xe o6muan n
npepannn, 1a xe noasnn, 1e xe cyeaepnn, opna n 1a xe npaac1aennoc1L, 1o xe
rocypapc1aennoe Hnpocosepuanne n c nesanaHn1nmx apeHen 1ecnoe coxn1enLc1ao na
o6ue seHne. o1 a1o nepaspmanoe epnnc1ao n nneHennoe paaenc1ao ne ponyckano
yupexpennn pa6c1aa. expy cocnoannHn cyuec1aoaann aecLHa pasnoo6pasnme qopHm
akonoHnuecko n nonn1nuecko saancnHoc1n, po cnx nop eue ne anonne
nccnepoaannme, c a 1nnnueckoH ero anpe y nac ncuesno a nesanaHn1nme
apeHena, aepon1no, a nepam xe aek nauero xpnc1nanc1aa. 1o a occnn ne 6mno
pa6c1aa, a pepxanocL kpenoc1noe npaao, a1o canpe1enLc1ayk1 ne 1onLko naue
sakonopa1enLc1ao n pycckan nayka, no n eaponeckne yuenme (nanpnHep, nrepH,
aa1op "c1opnn pa6c1aa). cnn a1o 1ak, 1o a naHn1L 50-ne1nn o1Henm kpenoc1noro
c1pon 6pocnH neonpn1nyk npnamuky nasmaa1L a1o1 c1po cM. apop pycckn -
opnn ns aennuaunx a cae1e, n npnpaannaa1L k nerpaH ero Hory1 1onLko nkpn
snonaHepennme nnn neaexec1aennme. e napo nn npeyHenLua1L, nn npeyaennunaa1L
nanenn - u.
o1Heno kpenoc1noro npaaa occnn amuna ns cpepneaekoaoro nepnopa caoe
nc1opnn. eypaauncn, kak ace y nac, opnuanm qeopannsH nau konunncn, n
nauanacL noaan anoxa, aecLHa eue sarapounan n epaa nn 6onee ypaunan. na eue ne
nHee1 nHenn; nc1opnk 6ypyuero, aepon1no, nasoae1 ee anapxne - anoxo
pacnapennn ppeanero o6uec1aa, anoxo nporpeccnpykuero 6esanac1nn n kynL1ypnoro
ynapka. n napop, nn o6pasoaannoe o6uec1ao ne nHek1 npnunn xane1L o6 o1Hene
kpenoc1noro c1pon, n6o on pec1an1enLno 6mn nnox. pyc1no opno nnuL: u1o
npnxopn1cn npaspnoaa1L k6nnen u nc1opnuecknx, u. 19 qeapann 1861
ropa pycckan rocypapc1aennoc1L nopnncana npnsnanne caoe necoc1on1enLnoc1n a
aennkoH npnnunne, ko1opm pec1aoaan aeka, nHen cao Honopo aospac1, caok
spenoc1L n oppnxnenne. ecoHnenno, ao acnkoH napope poxpak1cn pa6ckne na1ypm; n
1enepL, uepes 50 ne1 nocne o1Henm kpenoc1nnuec1aa, 1aknx na1yp neHano. o u1o
kacae1cn acero napopa kak nneHenn, 1o on 6mn, n ec1L, n, aepon1no, acerpa
6ype1 cM na 1o seHne, ko1opyk ykasan eHy ospa1enL. cnn 6m kpec1Lnnckan
peqopHa npouna y nac po qpanuyscko peaonkunn - npn e1pe nnn ka1epnne, -
ona, naaepnoe, ne 6mna 6m nasaana cxM kpec1Lnn, a npoc1o
packpenouenneH. noaa "cao6opa, "ocao6oxpenne aaepenm a Hopy qpanuyscknHn
anunknonepnc1aHn n nepeunn k naH aHec1e c ncnxonorne qpanuyscko 6ypxyasnn.
e1ounoe kpnpnueckn n ne coaceH npnnnunoe pnn pepxaano naunn cnoao
"ocao6oxpenne a o1nouennn k kpec1LnnckoHy nepeyc1poc1ay 6mno aaepeno
nnca1ennHn, ne cnnukoH c1pornHn k pyxy pycckoro nsmka. ony1ypok Xykoackn,
nonyneHeu epuen, nonynonnk ekpacoa, nonyqpanuys pnropoanu n Hnoxec1ao
ppyrnx 6onee Henknx nonynnopopuea a nn1epecax aos6yxpennn nnorpa po6pmx,
nnorpa nepo6pmx uyac1a nsapa1nnn nonn1ne o kpenoc1nmx o1nouennnx n npnyunnn
cun1a1L nx pa6c1aoH. nn po6nnncL a1nH payx uene: Hnrkne n po6popyunme
paopnne, ko1opmx 6mno 6onLunnc1ao, noc1enenno c1ann c1mpn1Lcn kpenoc1nmx npaa n
nenaanpe1L nx; aHec1o 1oro u1o6m cnpe1L a pepeane n cnyxn1L kpenoc1noHy napopy
caoe o6pasoaannoc1Lk, 1akne paopnne c6pocnnn caoe "pa6oanapenne na pykn
c1apoc1 n 6ypHnc1poa, a caHn yka1nnn a c1onnum, a kpynnme uen1pm, na
kanuennpckyk cnyx6y, nakoneu - a orpoHnoH uncne - sa rpannuy. ak o6pasoaannme
anape1enn qa6pnk n pypnnkoa 6pocak1 a1n, no nx Hnennk, neonpn1nme nc1ounnkn
poxopa na pykn 1eHnmx n xapnmx ynpaannkunx, ko1opme pec1an1enLno poaopn1 a
nnmx cnyuanx saancnHme o1nouennn 6epnoro nkpa po ypoann, 6nnskoro k pa6c1ay.
Berc1ao uyac1an1enLnmx paopnn ns pepeann saponro po o1Henm kpenoc1noro c1pon
o6esrnaanno napop n pasopnno opnnakoao n 6apnna, n Hyxnka. e xe nnca1enLckne
aonnn o "pa6c1ae napopa pycckoro npnyunnn ppyryk uac1L paopnnc1aa - c kpy1mH
xapak1epoH - pyHa1L, u1o nx kpenoc1nme pec1an1enLno pa6m, c1ano 6m1L, k nnH
ponyc1nHm xec1okne o1nouennn, kak k pa6aH. peyaennuennm nn6epannsH, kak ace
qanLunaoe, okasan nnoxyk ycnyry napopno xnsnn. nca1enn ne nn6epanLnme n, u1o
saHeua1enLno, aennuaune ns naunx nnca1ene - yuknn, epHon1oa, oronL,
pmnoa, oc1oeackn, ea onc1o, onuapoa - nnkorpa ne nonnHann kpenoc1noro
coc1onnnn kak pa6c1aa, xo1n neko1opme ns nnx, nanpnHep pn6oepoa n yprenea, n
npo1ec1oaann npo1na xec1oknx ero nsapauenn. sapauennn a1n, nocn nano
npec1ynnm xapak1ep, paneko ne 6mnn nn aceo6unHn, nn unpoko
pacnpoc1panennmHn, no onn nopaxann aoo6paxenne n sanapann a naHn1L. Xo1n na
6yHare kpenoc1nme kpec1Lnne n 6mnn orpaxpenm a caonx uenoaeuecknx n o1uac1n
rpaxpancknx npaaax, no kpane cna6an naua rocypapc1aennoc1L ne yHena
ocyuec1ann1L sakon. konue konuoa ace yanpenn, u1o kpenoc1nme o1nouennn
kopennmH o6pasoH ncnopuenm n u1o c ocao6oxpenneH paopnn o1 rocypapc1aenno
cnyx6m kpenoc1noe npaao no1epnno paxe kpnpnueckyk caok ocnoay. cnopuennoe n
oppnxneauee, na1pnapxanLnoe npaao aceH napoeno n, nony6pouennoe paano, a 1861
ropy 6mno 6poueno coaceH.
ak n yxe nncan, ko apeHenaH pmHcko aonm orpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao kpenoc1nmx
"pyu 6mnn sanoxenm y kasnm, 1o ec1L npnnapnexann a pec1an1enLnoc1n yxe
rocypapc1ay. HannnacL nonnan aosHoxnoc1L, npn no c1onaH aana I, nekcanppa I n
nkonan I, o1Henn1L kpenoc1noe npaao 6es uyHa, pnpoH noc1enennmx orpannuenn,
kak a1o 6mno cpenano a sanapnmx c1panax. aH kpenoc1nme o1nouennn kak-1o
pac1annn, ncnapnnncL a aospyxe: 1aH nnkoHy ne npnxopn1 a ronoay acnoHnna1L o nnx
kak o apeHenax c n npaspnoaa1L ocao6opn1enLnme k6nnen. coxanennk, y nac
nc1opnn npe1 cypopoxnmHn ckaukaHn: rocypapc1aennoc1L naua 1o 6eckoneuno o1c1ae1
o1 noamx ycnoan, 1o ka1ac1poqnueckn cneun1 k nnH npncnoco6n1Lcn, n a pesynL1a1e
cospak1cn c 1aH, rpe poc1a1ouno 6mno 6m npoc1oro xopa aeue.
eaonkunonnoe aos6yxpenne nocne necnmxannoro po 1oro apeHenn aoennoro norpoHa
(a pmHy) nanoxnno n na kpec1Lnnckyk peqopHy o11enok peaonkunn. ceH xo1enocL,
u1o6m packpenouenne - aeuL npoc1an n nspaana npak1nkyeHan - amuno
"nepeaopo1oH, "caepxenneH nra, "ocao6oxpenneH, n papn a1oro 6mn nopnn1
coaepuenno nanpacnm n nepoc1onm aennkoro napopa kpnk o "pa6c1ae.
1o 1akoe cao6opa? penL 50-ne1nn ocao6oxpennn occnn 6yp1o 6m o1 pa6c1aa
nonesno napopy pycckoHy npnnoHnn1L, a ueH saknkuae1cn cHmcn cao6opm n o1uero
cnarak1cn o1nouennn, 6nnskne k pa6c1ay. c1L nonn1ne o cao6ope, poc1onoe
aennkoro napopa n coaepuenno nenpnnnunoe pnn nero. cnn cao6opa coc1on1 a 1oH,
u1o n Hory pena1L ace, u1o xouy, 1o a1o 1onkoaanne cao6opm rnynoe no
neocyuec1anHoc1n ero n nnskoe no npaac1aennoHy xapak1epy. ao6opa a amcokoH
cHmcne ec1L aosHoxnoc1L pena1L ne u1o uenoaek xoue1, a u1o on x. Y napopa
6naropopnoro, kaknH Boxne Hnnoc1Lk Hm ponxnm cun1a1L ce6n, HepnnoH cao6opm
ponxna 6m1L ne caon aonn, a aonn BoxLn. onn xe BoxLn, 1o ec1L ec1ec1aennm sakon
xnsnn, o1kpmaae1cn ne xM, Heu1a1enLnmH n npexopnunH, a ccuk,
uyac1aoH ponra. 6naropopnm uenoaek, n 6naropopnm napop uenLk xnsnn c1aan1
ne c1onLko ocyuec1anenne cnyuanmx npaa, ckonLko ncnonnenne aeunmx
o6nsannoc1e. cnkan aeunan o6nsannoc1L ec1L caoero popa kpenoc1noe coc1onnne,
po6poaonLno npnsnaaaeHoe. yc1L napop nece1 a1n o6nsannoc1n c nenokone6nHo
aepnoc1Lk - n on 6ype1 uyac1aoaa1L ace cuac1Le, kakoe Hoxe1 pa1L nc1nnnan
cao6opa.
eropnn, a penL 50-ne1nn caoe aonn, napop xopouo cpenae1, ecnn npnnoHnn1, kaknH
ny1eH ero npepkn penanncL kpenoc1nmHn. ao6opnme nkpn axopnnn a ponrn
cao6opnmHn n ne ynnaunaann a1nx ponroa a cpok. 1o6m pacnna1n1Lcn, ponxnnkn
pa6o1ann na sanHopaauea, no u1o6m cyuec1aoaa1L, 6pann y nnx xe eue a ponr n 1.p.
konue konuoa cnarancn neonna1nm ponr n aeunan noannnoc1L opnoro cao6opnoro
uenoaeka pa6o1a1L na ppyroro. penoc1noe npaao aosnnkno ns ne1ounoro ncnonnennn
npnnn1mx na ce6n o6nsannoc1e. pnunno 1oHy 6mnn nnn nepo6pocoaec1noc1L
ponxnnkoa, nnn nx 6eccnnne. o1 paa coc1onnnn, ko1opmx napopy nyxno 6on1Lcn kak
ornn, ecnn on popoxn1 cao6opo. enLsn 6m1L ccM, n npec1ynno 6m1L
ccuM. akonm o6uec1aa npoponxak1cn po cnx nop, ka6anLnm npouecc npe1 n
1enepL a kpec1Lnnc1ae. Hec1o paapua1n Hnnnnonoa kpenoc1nmx, ocao6oxpennmx o1
noHeunkoa, nHek1cn pecn1kn Hnnnnonoa cna6ocnnLnmx kpec1Lnn, saHe1aaunxcn a
ponrax y pasnmx kynakoa. aano y nnx ace nponn1o, sanoxeno, pacnpopano, n
"cao6opnm seHnenaueu naue1 yxe ne caok seHnk, a seHnk "xosnnna, 1o ec1L
6onee coc1on1enLnoro cocepa, o1 ko1oporo nonyunn a ponr xne6 nnn penLrn na
anecenne noannnoc1e. aon napenLnan seHnn na ponrne ropm nepesanoxena, n
penLrn paano pac1pauenm. 1o oc1ae1cn pena1L 1akoHy nepo6pocoaec1noHy nnn
cna6ocnnLnoHy Hyxnky? Hy npnxopn1cn nnn 6m1L aeunmH 6a1pakoH a pepeane,
o1pa6a1maan ace pac1yune ponrn, nnn 6exa1L c Hec1a popnnm, kak 6exann a
ppeanoc1n o1 noHeunkoa nenna1enLunkn.
oueHy npnunocL a XVI aeke npnkpenn1L kpec1Lnn? o1oHy u1o onn acnepc1ane
nenpepmanoro y6erannn o1 ponroa n nepe6erannn o1 opnoro kpepn1opa k ppyroHy
uenmHn HaccaHn nauann npno6pe1a1L xapak1ep 6ernmx nkpe. D1o 6mnn aeunme
6erneum. cepnoe coc1onnne naunnano cHenn1Lcn kaknH-1o koueamH, paxe 6popnunH,
u1o yrpoxano rocypapc1aennoHy nneHenn anapxne n nonnmH ynapkoH kynL1ypm.
paan1enLc1ao npnkpennno kpec1Lnn k seHne pnn 1oro, u1o6m cnac1n n nx, n nx
sanHopaauea o1 koneunoro pasopennn. Hec1o 1oro u1o6m kpec1Lnnnny aceH
noHeunkaH ponxa1L n acex o6Hanmaa1L, aHec1o 1oro u1o6m 6popnxn1L, ne nHen nn
kona nn paopa, yannnaan o1 acex noannnoc1e, cou1eno 6mno neo6xopnHmH
cocpepo1oun1L ace o6nsa1enLc1aa kpec1Lnnnna a opnoH nnue n, paa ocepnoc1L npn
noHeunke, cpena1L 6popnry nna1execnoco6nmH.
pouno nn1Lpecn1 ne1 nocne o1Henm kpenoc1noro npaaa, n u1o xe Hm anpnH: pecn1kn
Hnnnnonoa kpec1Lnn onn1L saansnn a ponrax. nn1L onn a noc1onnnoH 6erc1ae ns
pepeann, onn1L rynnk1 na o1xoxnx npoHmcnax, uac1o kpane ua1knx, n onn1L
aopaopne1cn xyxe, ueH koueao, a nHenno u 6m1. 1o sapa6o1ae1 1ako
kpec1Lnnnn, 1o o6mknoaenno n nponLe1. onrn kpec1Lnnckne norauak1cn nnoxo, uaue
acero onn pac1y1, 1o ec1L ne1nn o6nsa1enLc1a sa1nrnaae1cn na uee n sac1aanne1
1akoro kpec1Lnnnna ac1yna1L anoaL a nonykpenoc1nme o1nouennn. paan1enLc1ao, kak
kaxe1cn, eue ne anpn1 a1oro anapxnueckoro npouecca - aepnee, nocnepnn 1ak
nenpnn1en, u1o ero ne xenak1 anpe1L, Hexpy 1eH on pasaep1maae1cn ace unpe.
aosapauennn k kpenoc1noHy npaay ne Hoxe1 6m1L, koneuno, n peun, no u1o xe
oc1ae1cn pena1L? pnxopn1cn npnnnHa1L pasnme Hepm - nnn c1ecnnkune cao6opy
kpec1Lnn, nnn kpane pasopn1enLnme pnn rocypapc1aa. pnxopn1cn, nanpnHep,
noppepxnaa1L yc1apenyk nacnop1nyk cnc1eHy, yc1apenyk o6unny, kpyroayk nopyky
n 1.n. ecnn ne noppepxnaa1L nx, 1o npnxopn1cn o1kasmaa1L coc1on1enLno uac1n
nacenennn (sanHopaauaH) a saun1e nx npaa, 1o ec1L, ne asmcknaan ponrn, pasopn1L
nan6onee akonoHnueckn npounm knacc. pnxopn1cn 1pa1n1L orpoHnme
o6uerocypapc1aennme cpepc1aa na xne6nme, nepecenenueckne, seHneyc1pon1enLnme n
pasnme ppyrne cy6cnpnn, 1o ec1L sac1aann1L nponsaopn1enLnm knacc napopa
copepxa1L nenponsaopn1enLnm.
enLsn nasaa1L 1akyk cnc1eHy akonoHnuecknx o1nouenn o6pasuoao. pn pasan1nn
caoeH ona nens6exno npnaepe1 k kpaxy unannnsaunn, k o6ueHy sanyc1ennk. ak kak
rocypapc1ao n 1pypoame knaccm anonne ec1ec1aenno o6napyxnaak1 conpo1nanenne
a1o cnc1eHe, 1o 6m1oaan anapxnn yrpoxae1 aono n rocypapc1ay, n o6uec1ay.
neo6mknoaenno 6mc1po1o n na anape, n y nac pacnpoc1panne1cn aepa a counannsH,
1o ec1L 1akoe coc1onnne o6uec1aa, npn ko1opoH 1pyp npnnypn1enen, no ne1
co6c1aennoc1n, rpe "kaxpm pa6o1ae1 no cnoco6noc1n, a 1pa1n1 no no1pe6noc1n.
nrpe eue ne ncnpo6oaannan, cospannan Heu1o, a1a cnc1eHa a nonoxn1enLno uac1n
cnnLno nanoHnnae1 kpenoc1noe npaao. penoc1nme paopnne aepL 1oxe pa6o1ann no
cnoco6noc1n, 1pa1nnn no no1pe6noc1n. x Hec1o, no-anpnHoHy, paccun1maak1 sann1L
noame nen1nn, o6cnyxnaa1L ko1opmx poaepe1cn 1pypoao n cnnLno uac1n o6uec1aa.
apopy - ecnn on ne xoue1 kpenoc1nmx o1nouenn - npnpe1cn o1c1anaa1L caok
cao6opy o1 nacnnn cs, noxany, 6onee 1parnuecknx, ueH onn 6mnn korpa-1o
c.
1o 1akoe pa6c1ao? a k6nnee ocao6oxpennn nennune npnnoHnn1L, u1o pa6c1ao
napaane c cao6opo ysakoneno n 1enepL, paxe a caHmx nn6epanLnmx o6uec1aax,
ackpy a apone. oka am nopunnne1ecL sakony, am anonne cao6opnm, 1o ec1L ne1
nno npnnypn1enLno cnnm, kpoHe aauero uyac1aa ponra n pasyHnoro cosnannn. o
ecnn am coaepuae1e npec1ynnenne, 1o aac 1o1uac cansmaak1, sannpak1 a kne1ky, kak
xnunoro saepn, n, ypoc1oaepnauncL a anne, nopaeprak1 nakasannnH po
npnnypn1enLno pa6o1m, po cHep1no kasnn aknkun1enLno. Hcno, u1o pa6c1ao a
kynL1ypnoH o6uec1ae ne anonne o1Heneno. no oc1aaneno pnn npec1ynnnkoa. 1ckpa
amaop: ne xo1n1e 6m1L pa6aHn - ne 6ypL1e npec1ynnnkaHn. cnn napop pycckn
xoue1 6m1L pec1an1enLno cao6opnmH, ne oHpauennmH nn Haneue 1enLk pa6c1aa,
1o nyc1L on ac1ynn1 a 6opL6y c pac1yue npec1ynnoc1Lk, nyc1L, kak a ppeanoc1n,
ampa6o1ae1 cnoco6m npaac1aennoro aocnn1annn n y1aepxpennn aennkoro aa1opn1e1a
- coaec1n. o Hepe npaac1aennoro o6naropaxnaannn napopa on penae1cn cao6opnmH.
cnn xe napop Hanopyuec1aye1, ecnn on ne ypepxnaae1cn na noka1o nnockoc1n n
co6nasnne1cn rpaxpancko cao6opo pnn napyuennn aeunmx caonx o6nsannoc1e, 1o
nac1ynnenne pasnmx qopH pa6c1aa nens6exno. axpm npec1ynnnk a o1nouennn
caoe xep1am aepe1 ce6n kak pa6oanapeneu, 1o ec1L nosaonne1 ce6e coaepuenno
nesakonnme nacnnnn n npaaonapyuennn. Y nac ceuac cnpn1 no 1kpLHaH okono 200
1mcnu apec1an1oa pa c1onLko xe, aepon1no, rynne1 na cao6ope. D1n, ponyc1nH, 400
1mcnu npec1ynnnkoa coc1aannk1 xo1n n ne npnsnannyk napopoH, no nac1onuyk
apHnk nkpe c nnc1nnk1aHn pa6oanapenLuea, n o1 nnx Hoxno xpa1L exeHnny1noro
nokyuennn na aauy cao6opy. D1a apHnn aue1aepo Hnorouncnennee 6maunx
kpenoc1nmx noHeunkoa, po6pmx n nepo6pmx. cnn napop pycckn xoue1 6m1L
cao6opnmH - nyc1L ac1ynn1 a 6onee pec1an1enLnyk 6opL6y c npec1ynnoc1Lk. m
sannpaeH a 1kpLHm neropnea n o6pauaeHcn c nnHn kak c pa6aHn, no onn - noka ne
cxaauenm - o6pauak1cn c naHn xyxe, ueH noHeunkn c kpenoc1nmHn. a n korpa onn
cxaauenm, nx npnxopn1cn kopHn1L n non1L na napopnm cue1, kak caoero popa
noHeunkoa, onnaunaa1L nx kaap1npm, o1onnenne, ocaeuenne, opexpy, neuenne n np.
o1 rpe nc1nnnan yrposa cao6ope: saua1ne pa6c1aa saknkuae1cn a npec1ynnoc1n
napopa.
T
24
Hm, c , smuc k m m,
ncuc mu x x. u sM, mu
u M sM; k, mu cM... (1op. 28, 43-44)
ocypapc1aenno yHe sa1eaae1cn xyxe ueH rocypapc1aennan nsHena - sa1eaae1cn
naunonanLnoe npepa1enLc1ao: paspeuenne uenoHy nnoc1pannoHy napopy cpena1L
nauec1ane na occnk, sann1L ne aoennmH, a koHHepuecknH n kpnpnuecknH nacnnneH
nauy 1eppn1opnk, naun 6ora1c1aa, naun npoHmcnm n 1oproank, naun cao6opnme
npoqeccnn n, nakoneu, acnkyk anac1L a o6uec1ae. op ckpoHnmH nHeneH "eapeckoro
paanonpaann o1c1anaakune ero pycckne npno1m a caHoH pene o6pekak1 occnk na
ace yxacm saaoeaannn, xo1n 6m 6eckpoanoro. opuepknaak cnoao xc: am,
neaexpm a eapeckoH aonpoce, am, nonn1nueckne npno1m, - nocHo1pn1e xe aoounk,
u1o penae1cn a yxe saxaauennmx eapenHn xpnc1nancknx c1panax! ocHo1pn1e, a kakoH
coc1onnnn naxopn1cn napop 1ex cnaanncknx c1pan, ko1opme onapunanenm eapecknH
acenenneH, xo1n 6m c1pan paano konc1n1yunonnmx. ornnpn1e, kak nsnmaae1 pycckoe
nneHn, 1akoe xe, kak n Hm, a aac1pncko annunn. ornnpn1e, a kakoH ynnxennn n
nnue1e pycckoe nneHn 1o uac1n occnn, ko1opan korpa-1o 6mna saxaauena onLue n
o1pana na cLepenne napasn1noro napopua. epL 1o xe caHoe, a ne u1o nnoe am
ro1oan1e n pnn ennko occnn, epnnc1aenno c1panm a xpnc1nanc1ae, eue ne anonne
poc1ynno pnn xnpoac1aa. a1n pnn, korpa Hm asaonnoaanm aocnoHnnannnHn o
kpenoc1noH npaae, nopyHaeH cepLesno: ne nakanyne nn Hm noaoro nra, necpaanenno
ropuero?
n1Lpecn1 ne1 nasap 23 Hnnnnona kpec1Lnn amunn ns nonn1nueckoro n
nHyuec1aennoro nopunnennn y 100 1mcnu pyccknx paopnn, n o6e c1oponm
6narocnoannk1 a1o kak 6naro. a caHoH pene, a1o 6mno 6naro, n6o npn 6espapnoc1n n
6eccoaec1noc1n 6onLunnc1aa nkpe 1onL reponueckan qopHa 6m1a, kak
na1pnapxanLnan, ne Horna 6m1L ne ncnopuenno. oace ne pa6ckne o1nouennn rpe-1o
naunnann ampoxpa1Lcn a pa6ckne, n aennkn napop, npnnapnexaun k apnc1okpa1nn
uenoaeuec1aa, k apncko pace, ne Hor amnocn1L cnoxnaueecn ynnxenne cnnukoH
ponro. o ne sa6ypeH, u1o paopnne pycckne 6mnn a orpoHnoH 6onLunnc1ae ns
amcnyxnaunxcn Hyxnkoa, 1o ec1L nno1L o1 nno1n kpec1Lnnc1aa n koc1L o1 koc1e ero.
aopnne 6mnn popnme pe1n napopa pycckoro, 1onLko 6onee ypaunname pe1n - nkpn
6onee 1anan1nname, c noamuenno aneprne n o1aaro, u1o n pano nH aosHoxnoc1L
ampanny1Lcn ns pnpoa. opaannkuee 6onLunnc1ao paopnn pyccknx - no1oHc1ao
xpa6pmx, nponnaaaunx kpoaL caok sa o6uee o1euec1ao, ne kakyk-nn6ypL "rony6yk
kpoaL, a 1y xe kpacnyk, napopno-pycckyk, u1o 1eue1 a nx xnnax nckonn aekoa.
aopnne pycckne nnkorpa, a orpoHnoH 6onLunnc1ae caoeH, ne o1pekanncL o1 popc1aa
c napopoH, o1 o6uero Ha1epnnckoro nsmka, o1 1mcnuene1ne aepm, o1 nesanaHn1noro
ns opno konm6enn nponcxoxpennn. u1o xe? o1 a1a anac1L - 6pa1a nap popnmH
6pa1oH - n 1a nokasanacL 1nxko, 6es6oxno, neamnocnHo! 1o xe am 1enepL-1o
roaopn1e napopy pycckoHy, yc1panaan a1opxenne coaepuenno uyxporo eHy nneHenn n
paxe ne amcue, a saaepoHo nnsue pacm? m nopro1oanne1e nauec1ane ne c1a
1mcnu "6naropopnmx 6pa1Lea, a pecn1n Hnnnnonoa asna1ckoro, kpane onacnoro,
kpane npec1ynnoro napopa, coc1aannauero a 1euenne ue1mpex 1mcnu ne1 rnonyk
nsay na 1ene acnko c1panm, rpe a1o1 napasn1 cennncn. aopnnc1ao pycckoe
pasaenuano, n, Hoxe1 6m1L, no sacnyraH, y nero o1nn1m ace paopnnckne npnannernn n
noc1enenno 1ak1 oc1a1kn nHyuec1aennmx n cocnoanmx o1nnun. pec1an1enLnoc1n
sa paopnnc1aoH oc1ancn 1onLko 1n1yn, opnn nnuL sayk nyc1o. o, cospaaan
eapeckoe nauec1ane, pycckne npno1m nopro1oannk1 noaoe paopnnc1ao, nHenno
eapeckoe, n ne npope1 nonc1one1nn, kak Hm a caHoH pene 6ypeH nHe1L noam
qeopannsH, 1onLko a o1apa1n1enLneunx qopHax xnpoackoro sacnnLn. H ne 6ypy
roaopn1L o 1oH, c kako ney1oHnHo c1pac1Lk xnpm nesy1 a popoayk apnc1okpa1nk,
ampak1 (aepnee, npopak1) caonx pouepe sa kpnkoanue n nokynak1 ce6e rep6m n
1n1ynm. axe ne penancL "unc1o pyccknH paopnnnnoH, r-n oaua nnc6ypr nHee1
aosHoxnoc1L, kak nepaano 6mno na ero pay1e, sac1aann1L pyccknx apHnpanoa n
nonnmx reoprneacknx kaaanepoa 1anueaa1L na umnoukax c xnpoakaHn, npnueH okono
kaxporo eapen 6mna can1a ns sna1nmx pyccknx. H ne roaopk o 1oH norpoHe, ko1opm
anocn1 c co6o Heuok c sono1oH na aepxax o6uec1aa. aopnnc1ao cospae1cn ne na
aepxax, a na cepepnne - noaoe paopnnc1ao amxopn1 ns 6ypxyasnn, ns cpepm
papoan1mx nkpe, npo6naunxcn cnnsy, oanapeaunx 1eHn qopHaHn 1pypa, ko1opme
1pe6yk1 ncknkun1enLno aneprnn n 1anan1a. Henno na a1nx caHmx uen1panLnmx
nosnunnx o6uec1aa eapen oponeaak1 pyccknx, no oponeaak1 ne aneprne n
1anan1aHn, a uc a1nx kauec1a.
counanLno 6opL6e nponcxopn1 1o xe caHoe, u1o na pmnke. onpo6y1e am pa1L
unc1m, amcokonpo6nm 1oaap a Hec1noc1n, saxaauenno eapenHn; na ppyro xe penL
a eapecknx naaoukax nan1cn c anpy coaepuenno aau xe 1oaap, 1onLko na 1pe1L
peueane, n am 6ype1e pasopenm. y6nnka ne a cnnax paso6pa1Lcn a qanLcnqnkaunn,
ona ne porapmaae1cn, u1o nLe1 noppenLnoe anno, cqa6pnkoaannoe ns peueamx nrop n
cnnp1a, ny6nnka Hoxe1 xaopa1L n paxe yHnpa1L o1paanenno, no ace-1akn ona npe1 -
kak npoc1opyunm saepL na npnHanky - k xnpaH, a xpnc1nannn-kyneu c caonH
amcokonpo6nmH (n no1oHy poporo c1onunH) 1oaapoH rn6ne1.
o ace cao6opnme npoqeccnn, ao ace o6nac1n nn1ennnren1noro 1pypa eapen anocn1 1y
xe cokpyun1enLnyk cnny nopnora, noppenkn, o6Hana, cnHynnunn n qanLcnqnkaunn,
npnueH ace onn a karanLnoH saroaope npo1na xpnc1nan, ace coc1aannk1 1anyk
Horyuec1aennyk koncnnpaunk, noppepxnaan ace nnskne yxnupennn ppyr ppyra
cnc1eHo c1aukn. D1o cyuan kneae1a, 6yp1o pycckne yc1ynak1 eapenH no1oHy, u1o
eapen 6yp1o 6m papoan1ee n 1pypocnoco6nee pyccknx. D1o narneuan kneae1a,
onpoaepraeHan na kaxpoH uary. n a opno o6nac1n eapen ne pak1 nepaoc1enennmx
1anan1oa; kak napop asna1ckn n xen1okoxn, eapen oprannueckn ne cnoco6nm
nopnn1Lcn po rennanLnoc1n, no onn am1ecnnk1 ace cpepnne 1anan1m ne cnnukoH
1pypno n nop nnx. e opna pycckan 6ypxyasnn yc1ynae1 eapecko: 1o xe
caHoe Hm anpnH ackpy na anape, rpe 1onLko eapen aopaopnk1cn a snaun1enLnoH
uncne. e opno occnn yrpoxae1 eapeckn qeopannsH. o qpanuyscko nana1e o6
a1oH qeopannsHe nepaano npoaosrnacnn Xopec
[82]
, ko1oporo nenLsn ynpekny1L a
naunonannc1nueckoH uoannnsHe. o Opanunn ne aoceHL Hnnnnonoa xnpoa, kak y nac,
a acero noka okono c1a 1mcnu - no n a1a aennkan c1pana aronnsnpye1, uyac1ayn, u1o
nackaosL npoepena eapec1aoH n u1o npnxopn1cn nnn coaceH nsrna1L nx, kak a
npounme aeka, nnn norn6ny1L a counanLno uaxo1ke. Xapak1epnan nc1opnn c eapeeH
Bepnu1enoH a apnxe na a1nx pnnx nokasmaae1, po uero ynnxena 6naropopnan
c1pana a caoeH roc1enpnnHc1ae n a kako oc1po c1enenn naunnae1 uyac1aoaa1L caok
oun6ky...
opo6no uyHe n xonepe, ko1opme cy1L ne u1o nnoe, kak mc nnsunx oprannsHoa
na uapc1ao amcunx, a xnsnn napopoa o1Heueno c1paunoe 6epc1ane aneunnx
a1opxenn. apn1e a xpaHm, npncnyua1ecL, o ueH exepneano Honn1
payx1mcnuene1nnn epkoaL: o6 ns6aanennn o1 rnapa, 1pyca, no1ona, ornn, Heua,
mc nM n Hexpoyco6nmn 6pann. ocnepnne nokonennn nosa6mnn
Hnoroe 1parnueckoe a caoe nc1opnn, no yc1aHn epkan roaopn1 Hnoroaekoam onm1.
cnn onacnm 6ypnme nauec1ann cocepe, apope no1ona, 1o eue onacnee Hnpnme
nauec1ann, neanpnHme, kak sapasa. 6ypnmHn a1opxennnHn napop 6ope1cn aceH
nnc1nnk1oH caHocoxpanennn. anop amsmaae1 o1nop, n uaue acero aona
okanunaae1cn - cuac1nnaan nnn necuac1nan - yxopoH apara. xypueH cnyuae
no6expennm nna1n1 kon1pn6yunk n oc1ae1cn xosnnnoH y ce6n poHa. e 1o aneppennn
Hnpnme, apope eapeckoro: 1y1 nnc1nnk1 caHocoxpanennn ouenL ponro ppeHne1,
o6Hany1m 1nunno. eanpnHm apar ne anyuae1 c1paxa, noka ne oanapeaae1 aceHn
uen1panLnmHn nosnunnHn. a1oH cnyuae apar, nopo6no uaxo1ke nnn Hannpnn,
rnespn1cn a rny6ouaunx 1kannx napopnoro 1ena n aocnanne1 kpoaL 6onLnoro. npnoe
nauec1ane cc - ao1 a ueH yxac nopaxennoro nH napopa!
s acex nneHen c1aporo Ha1epnka Hm, cnaanne, kaxe1cn, caHoe necuac1noe a
o1nouennn nauec1an. m nocennnncL kak 6m a npoxopno koHna1e Hexpy apono n
sne, kak pas na ny1n aennknx nepecenenn. ou1n acn naua nc1opnn ec1L cnnounan
ppaHa nkpe, xnayunx na 6onLuo popore: 1o c opno c1oponm xpeuL rpa6n1ene,
1o c ppyro. ue po 1a1apckoro nra Hm nepexnnn na nc1opnuecko naHn1n pnp
nauec1an c ceaepa, c kra, sanapa n aoc1oka: oc1ro1m, aapnrn, neuenern, xasapm,
nonoaum, nn1aa, 1ea1onm - k1o 1onLko ne 1penan naue saansmaaauecn n
Hnoxec1ao pas paspnpaeHo rocypapc1aenno kynL1ypm! a1eH 1a1apm, kpmHum,
nonnkn, uaepm - naunH npepkaH npnxopnnocL o16naa1Lcn na ace ue1mpe c1oponm
cae1a. e npouno aepL eue c1a ne1 co apeHenn konoccanLnoro a1opxennn anoneona
c cnnaHn paapua1n napopoa. o sakony nc1opnn: "1o 6mno, 1o n 6ype1 - naH n a
6ypyueH co acex c1opon yrpoxak1 nauec1ann - n co c1oponm aocxopnuero connua, n
co c1oponm saxopnuero. eH, kasanocL 6m, neo6xopnHee pepxa1L a naHn1n aeunm
saae1 epnnc1aa nauero n any1penne uenLnoc1n. o nHenno pnn 1oro, u1o6m
pacc1pon1L xenesnoe c1poenne pacm, u1o6m cokpyun1L any1pennee conpo1nanenne,
pycckne npno1m n npepa1enn yc1panaak1 npepaapn1enLno Hnpnoe nauec1ane
nnonneHennmx, nponnknoaenne k naH a orpoHnoH uncne uyxnx, nenepeaapnHmx,
neycaanaaeHmx aneHen1oa, ko1opme npeapa1nnn 6m naue aennkoe nneHn ns unc1oro a
neunc1oe, npn6aannn 6m a He1ann necky n cpenann 6m ero xpynknH. occnn aennka,
saaoeaa1L ee 1pypno, opnako ona yxe 6maana saaoeaana - n uennkoH, n uac1nHn. e
sa6ypeH, u1o anapnan occnn acero non1opac1a ne1 kak amuna ns nonLckoro nnena, a
epaonnan ycL eue po cnx nop nop aac1pncknH npHoH. e sa6ypeH, u1o ace
cnaannckne pepxaam, kpoHe occnn, norn6nn o1 aneunnx nauec1an, ko1opmH
npepuec1aoaann ao Hnornx cnyuanx any1pennne. e sa6ypeH, u1o epnnc1aennan
aennkan (kpoHe occnn) cnaannckan pepxaaa - onLua - norn6na o1 aneunnx
nauec1an, nopro1oanennmx eapecknH HnpnmH a1opxenneH. Ypok yxacakuero
snauennn, po cnx nop nnoxo naHn ycaoennm. Bespapnme nonLckne koponn caHn
nasaann a onLuy napasn1noe nneHn, caHn aknnnnnn Hexpy xpnc1nancknHn
noppannmHn a1o1 an1nxpnc1nanckn, rny6oko apaxpe6nm xpnc1nancko coaec1n
napop. yppeno nn, u1o a 1euenne neckonLknx nokonenn nonLckne xnpm pasapa1nnn
pmuapckyk sna1L, am1ecnnnn co6ok ceppueanny naunn - 1pe1Le cocnoane n nanernn
1ouno HornnLno nnn1o na npoc1onapopLe. asapauennan, paccna6nennan onLua
6mna oxaauena 1eH aocnanenneH, ko1opoe ackpy anocn1 c co6ok napasn1m. ypa 6m
eapen nn nponnkann, onn co apeHen qapaonoa n nepcnpcknx uape ackpy aos6yxpak1
any1pennn paspop, pasppaxenne cocnoan, c1peHnenne k 6yn1y n pacnapennk. o xe
cnyunnocL c onLue, 1o xe npe1 n a occnn, na rnasax naunx. apen packononn
nonLckyk naunk na neckonLko nenpnHnpnHmx narepe n nopro1oannn 1mcnuene1nee
cnaannckoe uapc1ao k ynapky. e1 nn Haneuero coHnennn, u1o 1o1 xe rn6enLnm
npouecc npe1 n c eapecknH nauec1aneH na occnk. "Xnpm, - ropec1no
npopouec1aoaan oc1oeackn, - nory6n1 occnk! Bor nakasan nac, pyccknx, rnyxo1o
n kaknH-1o c1pannmH ocnennenneH. e cnmunH nopkpapmaakuecn rn6enn n ne
anpnH ee.
cnop1nuka, 1annc1aenno, ns-nop nonm koneno eccena
[83]
n nnaaepa npocynyno a
ocypapc1aennyk yHy npoek1 o cnn1nn eapecko uep1m ocepnoc1n. accun1maak1
sac1a1L n sakonopa1enLc1ao naue, n o6uec1ao apacnnox. u1o am pyHae1e? ecLHa
aosHoxno, u1o npepa1enLckn sakon npoaepy1 n co6c1aennmHn pykaHn nopnnuy1
cHep1nm npnroaop occnn. ce a1o aosHoxno no1oHy, u1o aneHen1apnmHn oun6kaHn
nonna naua nc1opnn. e opna ockaa cropena o1 rpouoao caeukn - acn aennkan
c1pana, nopo6no cnony, nockonLsnyaueHycn nap nponac1Lk, a coc1onnnn norn6ny1L o1
Hnny1no onnounoc1n, ecnn cnoxa1cn pnn a1oro pokoame ycnoann. oaopn1: a noueHy
xe a ppyrnx c1panax cnn1a uep1a ocepnoc1n? oueHy na anape eapenH pano
paanonpaane? a a1o n o1aeuy: 1aH no1oHy a1o cpenano, u1o eapeea cpaann1enLno
ouenL Hano. BypL y nac 1onLko 60 1mcnu eapeea, kak a nrnnn, nnn 100 1mcnu, kak ao
Opanunn, - Hoxe1 6m1L, n y nac ne 6mno 6m eapeckoro aonpoca, xo1n yxe c1a 1mcnu
eapeea poc1a1ouno, u1o6m anec1n a 1akyk apxn kynL1ypnyk c1pany, kak Opanunn,
caHoe nnaueanoe pasnoxenne. aH, rpe eapeea cpaann1enLno Hnoro, kak a ac1pnn n
epHannn, ace Hmcnnuee o6uec1ao Yxe cosnae1 rn6enLnyk oun6ky ponyuennoro
paanonpaann n 1aH naunnae1cn ynopnan 6opL6a c eapecknH nauec1aneH. m
co6npaeHcn pa1L eapenH paanonpaane kak pas a 1o apeHn, kak na anape c1aan1cn
aonpoc o6 o1nn1nn a1oro paanonpaann. o1 noueHy, ckasa1L kc1a1n, eapen 1ak
nnxopapouno xnonouy1 o 1oH, u1o6m nH 6mna o1kpm1a ennkopoccnn: onn uyac1ayk1,
u1o nepanek HoHen1, korpa nx noronn1 ns acex kynL1ypnmx c1pan, kak a1o ne pas
6maano a nx nc1opnn, n onn nopro1oannk1 ce6e y6exnua a 1ex c1panax, ko1opme nHn
eue ne anonne o1paanenm. e 1onLko a apone, no paxe a Hepnke a 1euenne acero
neckonLknx pecn1nne1n eapen cyHenn npno6pec1n o1apauenne k ce6e, a Hec1aHn n
nenaanc1L.
pou1n1e annHa1enLno annrpaq k a1o c1a1Le - 6n6neckoe 1onkoaanne o
npnuenLue, pakueH asaHm. "n 6ype1 rnaaok, a 1m - xaoc1oH! c1nna a1o aeunan,
kak o1kpoaenne. y1 a nn1n cnoaax aecL cHmcn eapeckoro aonpoca. apen,
noHeuannme na 1oH, u1o onn s napop, xo1n n o1aepxennm BoroH, xo1n1
6m1L ronoao, a ace uenoaeuec1ao ponxno 6m1L nx xaoc1oH. pn noHoun 1oro
konpoac1aa, ko1opoe naunnae1cn eapecko nenaanc1Lk, a okanunaae1cn pyccko
rnynoc1Lk, eapenH yxe ypanocL npockoun1L ao rnaay uenmx nap1n - nanpnHep,
xnpokape1cko, rpe anapmuec1ayk1 r-pa nnaaep n eccen. H ypanocL nponons1n a
rnaaenc1aykuee nonoxenne cpepn uenmx o6uec1aennmx knaccoa, nanpnHep
pasnounnno nn1ennnrenunn, yc1ynnaue eapenH neua1L n cao6opnme npoqeccnn.
ypa nn nocHo1pn1e, xc c1onL xe Hnorouncnennm, kak caHn xnpm, n
no6eponocnoe sacnnLe a1oro napasn1noro nneHenn - ne Heu1a, a qak1. opa
npocny1Lcn napopy pycckoHy: on nakanyne aennkoro necuac1Ln, Hoxe1 6m1L, caHoro
c1paunoro a caoe nc1opnn. e kakan-nn6ypL uaka aaan1kpnc1oa - na occnk
panrae1cn uenoe HnoroHnnnnonnoe nneHn, caHoe aaan1kpnc1ckoe, kakoe nsaec1no a
nc1opnn, caHoe npec1ynnoe, caHoe 1ne1aopnoe ns acex. axe neckonLknx pecn1koa
1mcnu eapeea, nponyuennmx no ek c1opony uep1m ocepnoc1n, 6mno poc1a1ouno, u1o6m
cHy1n1L pyx napopnm, nopopaa1L aennkyk aepy, onorann1L coaec1L, 1y nc1opnueckyk
coaec1L, kako occnn c1ponnacL. enepL xo1n1 cnn1L orpaxpakuyk nno1nny coaceH n
sann1L korpa-1o can1yk ycL naaopnenneH apaxpe6nmx, nenaanpnunx xpnc1nanc1ao
uyxeseHuea...
BT ?
26
eropnn kxnopycckoe o6pasoaannoe o6uec1ao uec1aye1 50-ne1ne co pnn cHep1n . .
eauenko. pyc1nan ropoaunna a1a pae1 noaop osno6nennmH n aspopnmH nkpnH k
aos6yxpennk 1oro Hexpypycckoro paspopa, ko1opm a nocnepnee apeHn ns acex cnn
c1apak1cn paspy1L aac1pnckne neHum n nonnkn. ak nsaec1no, Heu1a1enLnoe
ykpannoqnnLc1ao 1pnpua1mx ropoa npounoro c1one1nn poaonLno paano nHenno a
anoxy eauenko, nauano npnnnHa1L o11enok peaonkunonnm. oppepxnaaeHan
aparaHn occnn, noc1enenno cnoxnnacL nsHennnueckan nap1nn cpepn Hanopoccoa,
Heu1akuan o paspyuennn poccncko nHnepnn n o ampenennn ns nee oco6oro,
coaepuenno "caHoc1nnoro ykpannckoro rocypapc1aa. o nHenn nc1opnueckoro repon
a1o nap1nn - asenm - unenoa ee a nocnepnee apeHn soay1 "HasennnuaHn, n onn
ouenL a1nH 1n1ynoH roppn1cn. n1a1ennH, 6es coHnennn, nsaec1no, po kaknx
nenenoc1e poroaapnaae1cn a1a npec1ynnan nap1nn n a kopenno anopoccnn, n a
sakopponno ycn. nkorpa eue, kaxe1cn, nonn1nueckn ncnxos ne pasanaancn po
1ako 6onesnenno oc1po1m. n opno ns nnopopuecknx nneHen - kpoHe pasae
nonnkoa - ne o6napyxnaae1 1ako aocnanenno nenaanc1n k ennko occnn, kak a1n
npepc1aan1enn ano ycn. aHme npme ns nnx o1kasmaak1cn o1 nc1opnuecknx nHen
"occnn, "pycckne. nn ne npnsnak1 ce6n paxe HanopoccaHn, a counnnnn oco6m
naunonanLnm 1n1yn: "Ykpanna, "ykpannum. H nenaanc1na npoc1onapopnan
6nnsoc1L Hanopycckoro napeunn k aennkopycckoHy, n ao1 onn counnnk1 cao oco6m
nsmk, aosHoxno, 6onee panekn o1 aennkopycckoro. yxpm ne1, u1o counnennm
6yp1o 6m ykpannckn xapron nanne1cn coaepuenno ypopnnamH, kak rpy6an
qanLcnqnkaunn, ypopnnamH po 1oro, u1o caHn Hanopoccm ne nonnHak1 a1o
1apa6apunnm, - qana1nkn ykpannckoro cenapa1nsHa neua1ak1 nasaanno
1apa6apunno knnrn n rase1m. nayky pyccko aoo6ue n a uac1noc1n kxnopyccko
nc1opnn Hasennnum anocn1 cnc1eHa1nueckne nckaxennn n nopnorn, a caHme kpanne
ncnxona1m a1o nap1nn npoaosrnacnnn neo6xopnHoc1L pnn Hanopoccoa xenn1Lcn na
eapekax pnn 1oro, u1o6m kpoaLk n nno1Lk kak Hoxno panLue o1o1n o1 o6uepyccko
sakaackn. cuac1Lk, a1o 6pepoaoe coc1onnne npoannunanLno ncnxonornn,
ypapnauecn a cenapa1nsH, oxaa1maae1 paneko ne ack anopoccnk, n paxe a
aac1pncko annunn ono ac1peuae1 po cnx nop anyun1enLnm o1nop. eH ne Henee
nenLsn sa6maa1L, u1o nonn1nueckne noHeua1enLc1aa sapasn1enLnm: a cnny a1oro
rocypapc1aennan anac1L o6nsana rnnpe1L na ykpannoHanc1ao kak na opny ns
snokauec1aenneunx nsa naue any1penne xnsnn. D1nH o6Lncnne1cn anonne
pasyHnoe peuenne npaan1enLc1aa ne ponycka1L a neae nop npepnoroH ropoaunnm
cHep1n napopnoro noa1a peaonkunonnmx amc1ynnenn kak co c1oponm aac1pncknx
Hasennnuea, 1ak n co c1oponm naunx. H yxe ne pas poknapmaan un1a1enk o nnanax
ac1pnn aos6yxpenneH Hanopoccoa k 6yn1y pacunenn1L occnckyk nHnepnk, c1onL
c1paunyk pnn npnpynacknx akcnponpna1opoa. Yxe pokasano yuac1ne a
ykpannoqnnLcko nponaranpe ne 1onLko qnopnnoa, no n npyccknx Hapok.
Bnaropapn c1apopaane onnounoc1n naue npaanue 6kpokpa1nn nHn eauenko
paano yxe cnyxn1 snaHeneH pnn kxnmx cenapa1nc1oa. e 1onLko a anopoccnn, no n
no ace occnn - aknkuan e1ep6ypr - sa a1n nn1Lpecn1 ne1 cnoxnncn nac1onun
kynL1 eauenko, ampaxaauncn a o6uec1aax n kpyxkax nHenn noa1a, a exeropnmx
1opxec1aennmx nannxnpax a penL ero cHep1n, a 6anke1ax n aeuepax a ero naHn1L, a
nspannn ero "o6sapn n 1.n. ennkopycckoe o6uec1ao, ne un1aauee "o6sapn,
oco6enno a nonnoH ero anpe, c 6onLuo cnHna1ne o1nocn1cn k kynL1y kxnopycckoro
noa1a. neH cypn1 no neko1opmH nnpnuecknH o1pmakaH ("yHm Hon, pyHm... n 1. n,),
nepeaepennmH no-aennkopycckn n nonn1nmH paxe 6es nepeaopa. o 1y1 cnyunnocL 1o
xe caHoe, u1o am anpn1e no aceHy neo6Ln1noHy qpon1y naue rocypapc1aennoc1n.
noxo nopo6pannan, cnnukoH 6apckan n no1oHy 6ecneunan apHnnnc1paunn naua
panacL a o6Han. Ypoane1aopnauncL noaepxnoc1nmH 6narononyuneH a anopoccnn, ona
ne sarnnnyna sa kynncm. sa oqnunanLnmHn kynncaHn ykpannckn aonpoc coaceH ne
1o1, kaknH ero xn1pme ykpannoHanm nokasmaak1 cnapyxn. nn caHnx ykpannoHanoa n
pnn Hanopyccko nn1ennnrenunn "o6sapL nspae1cn 6es nponyckoa, 1o ec1L c kpane
aosHy1n1enLnmHn amxopkaHn npo1na poccncko anac1n n naue nHnepcko npen.
npaan1enLc1ao, n neaexec1aennoe aennkopycckoe o6uec1ao o6pa6a1maak1cn a 1oH
cHmcne, u1o apac eauenko, "aennkn n "rennanLnm noa1, 1oHnauncn a
kpenoc1no neaone, 1onLko sa 1o n 6mn cocnan a conpa1m, kypa-1o a pepnkk snk,
u1o ocHennncn aocne1L caok Hnnyk popnny, ee uapykuyk npnpopy, ee pepeaenckyk
xnsnL co aceHn npepannnHn n 6esmckycno npenec1Lk npoc1oro 6m1a. akoaa nnueaan
c1opona ueauenkoackoro kynL1a, a nsnanka ee coaceH nnan. opnnnnm eauenko,
ecnn aocc1anoan1L sanpe1nme Hec1a, okasmaae1cn, nopo6no nukeanuy
[84]
,
ocnennennmH nenaanc1Lk k naue rocypapc1aennoc1n n napopnoc1n. 1nxn, sa
ko1opme eauenko 6mn nakasan ccmnko n conpa1cko cnyx6o, 6mnn onpepenenm
kak cc ncn, n 1akoamH onn a pec1an1enLnoc1n n 6mnn. cnn
roaopn1L 6es qanLunamx yaep1ok, nonn1nueckan noasnn eauenko ec1L aos6yxpenne
k Hn1exy n k paspyuennk rocypapc1aa. YkpannoHanm, cospaaaaune kynL1 eauenko,
ero nnpnko n poHan1nko npnkpmaann a caHoH pene npec1ynnyk nponaranpy, nounn
ko1opo a a1o o6nac1n npnnapnexn1 nHenno eauenko. epapoH npoc1neun
nenaanc1nnk occnn nxann pyueackn
[85]
, yc1pona n1epa1ypno-naykoae
1oaapnuec1ao ao Laoae, nasaan ero nHeneH eauenko. D1a caoero popa
ykpannoHanckan akapeHnn nayk 6mna cospana pnn nayunoro o6ocnoaannn ykpannckoro
cenapa1nsHa. na nannacL 6onLuo qa6pnko pnn aceaosHoxnmx nceapoyuenmx
qanLcnqnkaun. unc1o nonLcko narnoc1Lk poc1ono kakoro-nn6ypL yxnnckoro
[86]
, r-n pyueackn a caoe cHexo1aopno nc1opnn, nauepue nokpoan1enLc1ao a
e1ep6ypre, c1an pokasmaa1L, u1o nnkaknx aennkopycoa nnn 6enopycoa ne1, u1o
nckonn 6mn 1onLko ykpannckn napop kak cnaannckoe nneHn, a yxe o1 nero ny1eH
kononnsaunn n cHeuennn c qnncknHn nneHenaHn o6pasoaanacL y6nkpounan
napopnoc1L, nasmaaeHan pyccko. ocypapc1ao pycckoe cospann 6yp1o 6m 1oxe
ykpannum: ppeanne kneackne knnsLn 6mnn ykpannckne knnsLn, a ne1onnceu ec1op -
ykpannckn ne1onnceu. acun1aa a occnn n a ac1pnn po 30 Hnnnnonoa 6yp1o 6m
oco6ennoro ykpannckoro nneHenn, r-n pyueackn naHe1nn c1onnue 6ypyue
Ykpannm nea n nocne nepaane naue peaonkunn nepenec a nea n oaapnuec1ao
nHenn eauenko. onLsyncL c1on6nnkoH ne1ep6yprcko 6kpokpa1nn nocne aoennoro
norpoHa, r-n pyueackn nopnnn sa nocnepnne ropm knnyuyk nponaranpy. o Hnornx
ropopax, naunnan c neaa, nonannncL "npocan1m, 1o ec1L npocae1n1enLnme (nko6m)
o6uec1aa na Hanep nonLcknx, nauann nspaaa1Lcn "anc1nmkn n o1kpmaa1Lcn
"knmrapnn, npnueH kak npocan1m, 1ak n anc1nmkn n knmrapnn coc1onnn a 1ecneue
cansn c aac1po-rannuknHn yupexpennnHn 1oro xe nHenn. paan1enLc1ao naue
nepaano sakpmno kneackyk "npocan1y, no a ppyrnx ropopax npocan1m npoponxak1
6naropenc1aoaa1L. aunncL xoxnm n paxe aennkopoccm, ko1opme ropo ac1ynnnncL sa
o6nxennyk 6yp1o 6m anopoccnk, sa ee nonn1nueckn cenapa1nsH, nponoaepyeHm
- kak a1o 6mno noackpy - uepes o1uyxpenne nsmka n nsapauenne nc1opnn.
cnnLno c1enenn kape1c1aykuan, nony nnopopueckan naua kapeHnn nayk pana
npnk1 pnn ckaepno sa1en r-na pyueackoro. 1o apeHn kak na kre pa6o1ak1 r-pa
pyueackne, eanukne n np., na ceaepe sa 1o1 xe pacoam pasrpoH occnn xnonouy1
pasnme r-pa axHa1oam, nxeackne n 1.n. paan1enLc1ao naue nspae1 unpkynnpm,
no... aepL unpkynnpm Hoxno ne amnonnn1L, ne 1ak nn? pacnopnxennn Hn1exnmx
c1nxn nHee1cn rennanLnoe, kak nuo onyH6a, paspeuenne acex unpkynnpoa. e
ncnonnn1L nx - n 6ac1a...
n1Lpecn1 ne1 npouno nocne cHep1n eauenko, n pnn nero nac1ynnn yxe
6ecnpnc1pac1nm cyp nc1opnn. yc1L 1eHnepaHen1nme kxane pasppaxak1cn
npec1ynnmHn amxopkaHn a "o6sape, nyc1L npeyaennunaak1 po cHeunmx kpanoc1e
snauenne caoero napopnoro noa1a. o u1o 1akoe 6mn eauenko a ero na1ypanLnyk
aennunny? ne kaxe1cn, snauenne ero noasnn poaonLno aepno onpepennn Bennnckn,
ykasaaun, u1o "npoc1oaa1oc1L kpec1Lnnckoro nsmka n y6oaa1oc1L kpec1Lnnckoro
yHa ne coc1aannk1 ycnoan, 6naronpnn1nmx pnn aennko noasnn. caHoH pene, npn
ace uapykue sapyueanoc1n neko1opmx pyH n necen eauenko, npn ace npenec1n,
caoc1aenno nepao6m1noHy 1aopuec1ay, nHenno a cnny nepao6m1noc1n a1o
1aopuec1ao ne Hoxe1 6m1L aennknH. ak nn npnn1no 6mno 6m nHe1L eue opnoro
aennkoro pycckoro noa1a napnpy c yuknnmH, epHon1oamH, k1ueamH n Oe1oH, a
o1nouennn eauenko nenLsn yc1anoan1L nopo6noro Hec1a. pnnc1aennm noa1
Ykpannm, on oc1ae1cn a1opoc1enennmH, kak ero c1pana, kak aoo6ue oc1ae1cn
a1opoc1enenno npoannunn, xo1n 6m aecLHa 6ora1o opapennan. eauenko -
necoHnennm 1anan1, no a1opopaspnpnm, apope nauero onLuoaa nnn nkn1nna,
apope akoaa nnn ononckoro, ko1opmx Hysa a nyuunx aeuax poc1nrana
ypnan1enLno kpaco1m; kpaco1m, no ne aennunn. eauenko kak noa1a qonLknopa
Hoxno c aocxnuenneH un1a1L n paxe aonnoaa1Lcn; ecnn am Hanopocc, 1o aHec1e c
cnoaLnnenko
[87]
nenpeHenno ckaxe1e: "Xopouo, 6a1euky, xopouo... eppue 1ak n
noka! o ecnn am npoc1o pycckn, neHeu, qpanuys, am ne nouyac1aye1e 1ex Horyunx,
nopnnHakunx aamcL ouyuenn, kakne pae1 aennkan noasnn yuknna, 1e, Bapona,
ekcnnpa - na kakne 6m nsmkn am ee nn nepeaenn. eno a 1oH, u1o ec1L neu1o
pepxaanoe, caoc1aennoe 1onLko aennkoHy nneHenn, snaaueHy no6epm...
oa1nueckn renn Hoxe1 nan1Lcn nnuL na amco1e reponueckoro, Hnpoaoro nopLeHa
pacm. onLko na 1ako amco1e acnkoe nneHn Hoxe1 ckasa1L uenoaeuec1ay neu1o
snaun1enLnoe n aeunoe. cnn pannoe nneHn nepopasannocL po 6onLuo
rocypapc1aennoc1n, po 6onLuo kynL1ypm, ecnn ono naacerpa oc1anocL npoannune,
coc1aanok uac1Lk uenoro, 1o a neH ne1 ncnxonornuecknx ycnoan pnn 6onLuoro
1aopuec1aa. poannunany, xo1n 6m ouenL papoan1oHy, neuero ckasa1L kpynnoro, noka
on naxopn1cn a kpyrosope caoe npoannunn. cnoHnn1e "o6sapn, acnoHnn1e
npenec1nyk "aHmuky nnn "a1epnny n 1.n. ynL1ypnme ka1eropnn, a ko1opme
yknapmaak1cn a1n 1nnm n acn nx ppaHa, po 1oro Hec1nm, po 1oro cnyuanm, po 1oro
nepao6m1nm, u1o kak-1o nponapak1 a Hacu1a6e unannnsaunn. akne nanennn, kak,
nanpnHep, uyHauec1ao, nnn kpenoc1noe npaao, nnn c1apan conpa1unna, - onn
xnaonncnm, no nopyn noam ae1ep - n ne1 nx: uepes nn1Lpecn1 ne1 neo6mknoaenno
1pypno ao1n a ncnxonornk a1nx ncuesnyaunx oco6ennoc1e 1oro 6m1a. axe
rapaHa1unna, rpe 6onee reponueckoro aneHen1a, no caoe xanko nekynL1ypnoc1n ne
Horna pa1L Ha1epnana nn pnn "nnapm, nn paxe pnn "on1aam. eauenko 6mn
1anan1nnam noa1 n xypoxnnk, xypoxnnk ne Henee saHeua1enLnm, ueH noa1, no ecnn
6m on o6napan rennanLnmH 1anan1oH, kak oronL nnn nukeanu, eHy npnunocL 6m,
kak a1nH nnca1ennH, ncka1L popc1aennoro, 6onee aennkoro nsmka n 6onee amcoko
kynL1ypm. Benopyc nukeanu cpenancn nonLcknH noa1oH, oronL - pyccknH
nnca1eneH. rpoHnme papoaannn am6pocnnn nx co pna xnsnn. pn 6onee Henknx
cnoco6noc1nx onn oc1anncL 6m, nopo6no eauenko, kpaeamHn, npoannunanLnmHn
nnca1ennHn, na 1aopuec1ae ko1opmx, nnorpa ypnan1enLnoH, acerpa nexn1 neua1L
kyc1apnoc1n. n opnn kyc1apL, kak 6m on nn 6mn opapen, ne poc1nrae1 amco1m
nckycc1aa. ccc ec1L saaepuenne um kynL1ypm. Y Kxno occnn
(nasmaa1e ee kak xo1n1e, Ykpanno nnn anopoccne) 6onLuo kynL1ypm nnkorpa ne
6mno, n6o ne 6mno rocypapc1aennoc1n ckonLko-nn6ypL amue saua1ounmx qopH. Hcno,
u1o a1o1 kpa, kak ace o1penLnme uac1n aennkoro pycckoro nneHenn, a coc1onnnn
nponan1L aennune nnuL a 1ex ycnoannx nsmka n Hnpocosepuannn, kakne pana o6uan
naua nc1opnn. oronL ne nporapan, npoHenna, kak xypoxnnk, non1aackyk Hoay na
o6uepycckyk peuL. pnnna a1o1 o6un snaHena1enL naunonanLnoro pyxa, oronL c1an
pnpoH c yuknnmH, a npn non1aacko Hoae oc1ancn 6m nnkoHy ne nsaec1nmH ypmH
anLko. YkpannoHanm Heu1ak1 o "caHoc1nno rocypapc1aennoc1n pnn 6yp1o 6m 30-
Hnnnnonnoro napopa ykpannckoro. o ecnn 6m 6mnn pnn a1oro pannme, 1o a1o paano
6mna 6m ne Heu1a, a qak1. anopycckoe nneHn a 1euenne ue1mpex aekoa npo6oaano
cnoxn1Lcn a oco6oe rocypapc1ao, no nnuero ne amuno: npnxopnnocL nopunnn1Lcn 1o
1a1apaH, 1o nn1ae, 1o nonnkaH, 1o ockae. Bmaann y nac pycckne ykpanm ne ue1a
anopoxcko eun, n 1e ne ampepxann. ennkn oaropop 6mn orpoHno n anonne
oprannsoaanno pecny6nnko, no n eHy, noHe1aauncL Hexpy cnnLnmHn cocepnHn,
npnunocL co1n co cuenm. Bonee yHepennme ykpannoHanm Heu1ak1 o qepepaunn
aa1onoHnmx cnaanncknx napopnoc1e. o u1o kacae1cn pyccknx napopnoc1e,
nopo6nan qepepaunn yxe 6mna ncnm1ana n noaena k 1a1apckoHy nry. penec1n
qepepaunn Hoxno na6nkpa1L 1enepL sa apna1aHn. exnn, annunn, Xopaa1nn,
naaonnn n npoune nonLsyk1cn aa1onoHne, no u1o xe 1onky? a1onoHnn 1onLko
nopuepknaae1 Henkoe c1poenne a1nx nneHen: sa c1o ne1 nn opno ns nnx ne pano,
kaxe1cn, nn opnoro aennkoro uenoaeka. axe anonne "caHoc1nnme pepxaam, apope
yHmnnn, peunn, ep6nn: u1o kacae1cn kynL1ypm, nx HanenLkan rocypapc1aennoc1L
pae1 kakne-1o kapnnkoame npopyk1m. poannunn aoo6ue oc1ak1cn npoannunnHn,
kaknHn 6m koponeacknHn 1n1ynaHn nn narpaxpann nx.
ak n yxe amckasmaan opnaxpm, naunx npoc1nmx ykpannoqnnoa nenLsn cun1a1L
pyccknHn. ueanpno, a kpoan nx npocnynncL 1e 1kpkckne koueannkn, ko1opme korpa-
1o 1epsann Kxnyk ycL, noka ne saHyunnn ee po cHep1n. 6euenc1aoH nneHenno
nenaanc1n nenLsn opn1L; npo1na rocnop Hasennnuea no1pe6na ne npenan, a
peanLnan rocypapc1aennan 6opL6a. o 1e ns kxnopycoa, ko1opme ne o1pekak1cn o1
o6uepyccko ceHLn, nyc1L annHa1enLno npou1y1 6norpaqnk caoero "6a1Lkn apaca.
nn yanpn1, po kako c1enenn ceppeuno o1necnacL ennkopoccnn k ykpannckoHy
1anan1y n nackonLko on 6mn o6nsan "xec1oknH HockannH. ak nn onnaknaak1 yxacm
kpenoc1no neaonn eauenko, yxacm ero ccmnkn n conpa1unnm - na caHoH pene ace
a1o 6mno po kpanoc1n cHnrueno annHanneH n yuac1neH k eauenko 1ex
aennkopoccoa, c ko1opmHn on c1anknaancn. e "Hockann, a caon xe seHnnkn-xoxnm
neHnnoceppno ceknn eauenko a ukone; popno pnpn cek ero noppnp 1poe cy1ok n
uy1L 6mno ne sanopon po cHep1n. nuero camue nac1yxa nnn Hannpa popnan
anopoccnn ne o6euana pa1L noa1y: 1ak on n norn6 6m ua6anoH. "cannLn
DnrenLrapp1 (noHeunk eauenko), kak n ynpaannkun ero, saHe1nnn cnoco6noc1n
HanLunka k pncoaannk, n 1orpa, a ka1opxnoe 6yp1o 6m kpenoc1noe apeHn, yaaxnnn
a1n cnoco6noc1n, nocnann HanLunka yun1Lcn xnaonncn a apuaay, a e1ep6ypr.
e1ep6ypre, epaa nnuL 6mnn o1kpm1m cnoco6noc1n eauenko, - nocHo1pn1e, kakoe
ropnuee yuac1ne npnnnHak1 a neH 1akne snaHenn1oc1n, kak Bpknnoa, pnropoanu,
eneunanoa, Xykoackn. 1onno kpenoc1noHy napnk o6napyxn1L npoc1o papoaanne,
paneko ne rennanLnoe, a xnaonncn - n ao1 on penae1cn nk6nHueH sna1n: sa nnH ace
yxaxnaak1, co6npak1 cpepc1aa, amkynak1 ns kpenoc1no saancnHoc1n. ocHo1pn1e,
kak 6epexno "xonopnm e1ep6ypr noppepxan nckopky 1anan1a, uy1L 6mno ne
norauennoro a rnyun npoannunn. paqnnn Bapanoaa, knnxna ennnna, rpaqnnn
onc1an, knnsL acnnLunkoa, rpaq onc1o ppyr nepep ppyroH nanepe6o xnonouy1 sa
eauenko n o6neruak1 eHy xnsnennm ero ny1L. y a anopoccnn? ak ona ac1pe1nna
yxe npocnaanennoro na ceaepe noa1a? aoc1oproH, koneuno, no c kaknH?
"norouncnennoe ykpannckoe noHeunuLe o6uec1ao, - roaopn1 opnn 6norpaq (r.
Hkoaenko), - ne Horno npepnoxn1L caoeHy napopnoHy noa1y nnuero nyuuero, ueH
kap1m nnn nLnnc1ao. snaHenn1o oceake, kypa cLesxanocL po payxco1 noHeunkoa
ns 1pex ry6epnn, a oceake, ko1opyk nasmaann epcaneH pnn anopoccnn...
eauenko nonan a 1ak nasmaaeHoe o6uec1ao "HoueHoppnn. "oun1L Hoppy osnauano
nLnnc1aoaa1L, a "HoueHoppo npnsnaaancn acnkn ypano nn1yx: neyno1pe6nenne
cnnp1nmx nann1koa nasmaanocL cyxoHoppne nnn cyxopmnne. nenm, cHo1pn no
sacnyraH, nocnnn 1n1ynm: HoueHoppnn, amcokoHoueHoppnn, nLnneuec1aa n
amcokonLnnec1aa. a yceppne paspaaanncL narpapm: cnaanpa a ne1nnuy, 6okan na
uek, 6onLuo u1oq uepes nneuo n np., n np. Y yx6nnckoro un1a1enL, ecnn
noxenae1, Hoxe1 na1n panLneuee onncanne nLnnmx oprn. akoaa 6mna a1Hocqepa
"pnpno kpannm a 1o o6nac1n 6m1a, rpe ona nonLsoaanacL nonneue
caHoc1on1enLnoc1Lk. asae aHec1o 6eso6pasnoro nLnnc1aa (ko1opoe cpenanocL
6onesnLk eauenko n caeno ero a Hornny), pasae aHec1o pe6oue 1o xe o6uec1ao ne
cao6opno 6mno norpyxa1Lcn a naykn, a nckycc1aa, a seHnepenne, a kynL1ypnm 1pyp?
YkpannoHanm pncyk1 eauenko kak kakoro-1o npopoka n aoxpn - Hexpy 1eH
a1nnyauncn a nLnnc1ao noa1 6mc1po 1epnn n 1anan1, n 1o kynL1ypnoe pasan1ne,
ko1opoe pan eHy "xonopnm e1ep6ypr. YkpannoHanm ne Hory1 sa6m1L, u1o
kpenoc1noro eauenko kak-1o amceknn. o yxe cao6opnm n snaHenn1m, nop nLnnyk
pyky on caH ppancn n cek nkpe. occopnauncL kak-1o c unnkapeH-eapeeH,
eauenko sakpnuan caoe koHnannn: " nyre, xnonum, pa1e noranoHy xnpoan
xnec1y! apen HoHen1anLno cxaa1nnn n amceknn. akoaa 6mna 1orpaunnn anoxa:
nacnnnn 6mnn a o6nxope. cnn yx onnaknaa1L aapaapc1ao 1orpaune ennkopoccnn,
6yp1o 6m pepxaaue Ykpanny n ee noa1a a neaone, 1o nennune npnnoHnn1L, kakoaa
6mna caHa Ykpanna n kakoa 6mn caH noa1. orpa sa nonn1nueckoe npec1ynnenne
eauenko 6mn cocnan a npnkacnnckne c1enn, 1o y acero kauanckoro nauanLc1aa, y
acero oqnuepc1aa c1paunmx nnkonaeacknx apeHen eauenko-conpa1 ac1peuan caHoe
ceppeunoe, caHoe yaaxn1enLnoe o1nouenne. apyuan sakon, 1o ec1L pnckyn
no1epne1L 1nxenoe asmckanne, eauenko-conpa1a ocao6oxpann o1 cnyx6m,
npnnnHann kak paanoro a caoeH o6uec1ae, yxaxnaann sa nnH, paspeuann ace, u1o eHy
sanpeuanocL (nnca1L n pncoaa1L), aceHn HepaHn o6neruann nonoxenne n c1apanncL
amxnono1a1L npouenne. onpekn kpnuaue nerenpe, ccmnka n sa1ouenne eauenko
(cepLesno nH sacnyxennme) nou1n acerpa 6mnn npnspaunmHn - po 1ako c1enenn
aennkopycckoe o6uec1ao amcoko u1nno 1anan1, xo1n 6m n Hanopycckn, xo1n 6m
apaxpe6nm occnn... Y nac, k coxanennk, nyc1me cnne1nn npepnoun1ak1
pokyHen1anLnmH pannmH. ne kaxe1cn, qana1nkn ykpannckoro cenapa1nsHa okaxy1
ce6e ycnyry, ecnn nsyua1 6norpaqnk eauenko: ona ponxna pec1aoaa1L aecLHa
oxnaxpakue.
eauenko yHep copoka ceHn ne1, 1o ec1L ropaHn c1apue yuknna, no conoc1aaL1e a1n
paa nHenn - n am nouyac1aye1e, u1o 1akoe kynL1ypnan occnn n u1o 1akoe ona
saxonyc1nan, npoannunanLnan. 1o 6m 1aH nn 6on1ann orpannuennme yHoH
nonn1nkanm, occnk nspaaa1L ne nyxno: ona cospana - n cospana nc1opne ne a
unrnpnnckoH nnn kono1onckoH ropnson1e, a a ouep1annnx Hnpoao pepxaam.
T T
28
apeckn peny1a1 nccenoanu a ocypapc1aenno yHe un1npoaan 1opxec1aennoe
sananenne 216 paaannoa o 1oH, u1o "eapeckoe yuenne ne snae1 nn opnoro asrnnpa,
paspeuakuero noc1yna1L c neeapenHn 1ak, kak nosaoneno noc1yna1L c eapenHn. ne
kaxe1cn, a1a unqpa - "216 anyun1enLno pokasmaae1, po uero pacnpoc1paneno cpepn
ns6pannoro napopa nxecanpe1enLc1ao. ak 6m 1aeppo aonpoc nn 6mn yc1anoanen,
acerpa napy1cn 216, 2.160, 21.600 caHmx caepyunx eapecknx akcnep1oa, ro1oamx
no6oxn1Lcn, u1o aonpoc nyxno nonnHa1L a npo1naononoxnoH cHmcne. n1aaune
e1xn aae1 snak1, kakan nenepexopnHan nponac1L npoaopn1cn 1y1 ackpy Hexpy
eapeeH n neeapeeH. ce po6pme uyac1aa, acn nk6oaL o1nocn1cn 1onLko k "6nnxneHy,
no nop xM pasyHee1cn 1onLko eape. ce u ncknkuak1cn ns Hopann n
paccHa1pnaak1cn nou1n acerpa kak aparn, c aparaHn xe y eapeea pacnpaaa 6mna
kopo1kan. cnoHnn1e, kak onn saxaa1maann Xanaan. yseHnme xn1enn, nHeaune
pokoayk oun6ky cnauana ponyc1n1L eapecknx unnonoa, a sa1eH n kononnc1oa
eapecknx, sa caoe roc1enpnnHc1ao o6pekanncL na nc1pe6nenne. "Hannk pa 6ype1
nc1pe6nen! c1pe6nnnncL Hyxunnm, xenunnm n pe1n, n sa opny nnuL nckpy
coc1papannn k aparaH once 6mn xec1oko nakasan. npaunaae1cn, nepec1ana nn
opa 6m1L eapecknH yuenneH? cnn ne nepec1ana, 1o kakyk xe, cnpaunaae1cn,
nyxno nHe1L narnoc1L, u1o6m y1aepxpa1L 1onnok a 216 paaannoa, 6yp1o sakon
eapeckn ne paspeuae1 noc1yna1L c neeapenHn nnaue, ueH nosaoneno noc1yna1L c
eapenHn?
Hec1e c Bn6nne orpoHnmH n, noxany, eue 6onLunH snauenneH nonLsye1cn y
eapeea anHyp. D1o c6opnnk 1pak1a1oa eapecknx paaannoa sa pae 1mcnun ne1.
anHyp xpnc1nancko anoxn saknkuae1 a ce6e 1akne aosHy1n1enLnme amxopkn npo1na
xpnc1nanc1aa, u1o ka1onnueckan apona nekorpa aospanrana ronennn npo1na eapeea n
nc1pe6nnna nx kouync1aennme nncannn, npoc1o ne 6ypyun a cnnax nepenec1n
cnnukoH xryuero pennrnosnoro ockop6nennn. apenH npnxopnnocL n anocnepc1ann,
korpa ronennn npounn n korpa annHanne k anHypy ocna6eno, nspaaa1L nocnepnn
6es npec1ynnmx Hec1. 1o6m o6Hany1L 6pn1enLnoc1L xpnc1nanckoro o6uec1aa, 1ako
ounuennm anHyp nepeaopnncn na ace eaponeckne nsmkn, Hexpy npounH n na
pycckn. Ho1pn1e, Hon, ao1 naue cokpoaennoe yuenne. neH nnuero ne1
apaxpe6noro xpnc1nanc1ay! nuero ne1 onacnoro pnn o6uec1a, cpepn ko1opmx Hm
xnaeH! ak y1aepxpann paaannm, n Hnoxec1ao rnynoaa1mx xpnc1nan nH aepnnn. 1o a
pec1an1enLnoc1n 6mno coaceH ne 1ak, n nosaonk npnaec1n neckonLko un1a1 ns
c1apmx pokyHen1oa ne1ep6yprckoro koHn1e1a uensypm nnoc1panno.
anpene 1884 ropa nasaannm koHn1e1 sa1pe6oaan o1 uensopa eapecknx knnr
napaopnoro coae1nnka aana apronnna o1sma o copepxannn payx knnr na
ppeaneeapeckoH nsmke: "Xnsyk-DHyna ("penoc1L aepm), nsp. 1865 r., n "yn1pac-
eHano1-Xncpano1-aHac ("6opnnk am6pouennmx Hec1 ns anHypa aannonckoro).
ensop apronnn (o1eu nsaec1noro npncnxnoro noaepennoro) 6mn kpeuenm eape,
aecLHa ocaepoHnennm a paaanncko yuenoc1n. n npouen nasaannme knnxkn,
npnaen ns nnx xapak1epnme un1a1m n pan o1sma a 1oH cHmcne, u1o o6e knnxkn
ponxnm 6m1L 6esycnoano sanpeuenm kak counnennn, nponaranpnpykune nenaanc1L k
neeapenH. "Hek uec1L sanan1L, - nnue1 apronnn, - u1o "Xnsyk-DHyna" npnHo
6ope1cn c xpnc1nanc1aoH, nckaxan npn a1oH yHmunenno 1ekc1 anuennoro ncannn,
pokasmaae1 nxnaoc1L aanrennn n aepoyuenn naue epkan, npnueH yno1pe6nne1
ampaxennn kpane ockop6n1enLnme. o "penoc1L aepm, kak counnenne nekoero
annenckoro eapen, ne nHee1 oco6o aaxnoc1n: Hano nn pyccknx xnpkoa na acex
nsmkax 6opk1cn c xpnc1nanc1aoH. a1o orpoHnoe snauenne nHee1 a1opan knnra,
copepxauan ampepxkn neuensypnmx Hec1 anHypa, ampepxkn ns 1onkoaann n
peuenn aun, occeqo1a, acex ero okonua1enLnmx peuenn, ns aau n ero
okonua1enLnmx peuenn, ns koHHen1apnea nunm aHonnpa n 1akxe acex
okonua1enLnmx peuenn occeqo1a na aecL 1pak1a1 "6opa-apa ("6 nnoaepuax).
aknH o6pasoH, knnra "yn1pac-eHano1 npepc1aanne1 cekpe1noe, 1ua1enLno
ckpmaaeHoe o1 xpnc1nan ponopnnnnoe yuenne eapeea o6 nx o1nouennnx k neeapenH.
Hekuncn a o6pauennn aannonckn anHyp nenpeHenno ponxen 6m1L pononnen
a1nHn amnyckaeHmHn ns nero Hec1aHn, u1o6m cypn1L, u1o pyHak1 eapen o neeapenx a
rny6nne nx 1eHnoro ceppua. nnra "yn1pac-eHano1 6mna poc1aanena a uensypnm
koHn1e1 neknH anpenLu1aHoH. s o1smaa nokonoro apronnna nosaonk npnaec1n
neckonLko un1a1, caHmx 6nepnmx, n6o ne6nepnme no nx o1apa1n1enLnoHy unnnsHy n
kouync1ay n nepepa1L, koneuno, ne Hory. nepye1 npepynpepn1L un1a1enn, u1o, no
1onkoaannk aennuauero aa1opn1e1a y eapeea - nunm aHonnpa (XII aek), cnoaa
anHypa "akyH, "ro, "nyxpn, "Hnupn n Hnorne ppyrne osnauak1 c. espe,
rpe ynoHnnae1cn nHn ncyca Xpnc1a, aa1op ampepxek ns anHypa nHenye1 ro
nnnunanaHn "uy, ko1opme snaua1: "ncyc - Hepsoc1L n noxL nnn: "a 6ype1
nc1pe6neno nHn ro. Yxe opno a1o nokasmaae1, kakoe npaac1aennoe paanonpaane
aosHoxno Hexpy xpnc1nanaHn n eapenHn.
"a 6ype1 1e6e nsaec1no, u1o a ropope, rpe xnay1 nasapen (xpnc1nane), rpe naxopn1cn
kannue, Hec1o nx rnynoc1n (1nqna), 1aH eapek sanpeuae1cn cenn1Lcn n paxe
npoesxa1L uepes nero. D1o Hec1o ns nunm IV Hoxe1 6m1L pparouennmH apryHen1oH
npo1na paccenennn eapeea a occnn. aH eapeckn sakon ne paspeuae1 eapenH xn1L
a ropopax, rpe ec1L xpnc1nane n nx uepkan. paan1enLc1ao naue cpenano 6m
npeaocxopno, ecnn 6m noHorno eapenH ncnonnn1L a1o1 sakon: nocnepnn 1pe6ye1
ropaspo 6onee c1poro uep1m ocepnoc1n, ueH yc1anoaneno npaan1enLc1aoH, - sakon
eapeckn 1pe6ye1 nonnoro nx ypanennn ns ropopoa, a c1ano 6m1L, n cenenn, rpe
xnay1 xpnc1nane. eno a 1oH, u1o no eapeckoHy sakony "sanpeuae1cn ne 1onLko
axopn1L ao any1pennoc1L ero (xpnc1nanckoro "kannua), no paxe cHo1pe1L na nero
rpex. cnn a caHoH pene pnn eapeea rpex asrnnny1L, xo1n 6m neuannno, nanpnHep, na
caakneackn co6op n ecnn npn kpynno aennunne nocnepnero eapen noc1aanenm a
e1ep6ypre a noc1onnnyk neo6xopnHoc1L rpeun1L, 1o ne 6ype1 nn ak1oH ryHannoc1n
ocao6opn1L nx o1 c1onL nec1epnnHmx ycnoan, 1o ec1L nnn paspyun1L caakneackn
co6op n ace xpnc1nanckne xpaHm, nnn npepnoxn1L eapenH amexa1L ns e1ep6ypra,
pa6m ncnonnn1L npepnncanne nunm? pane nk6onm1na ynoaka, ko1opo 1a xe
nuna onpaapmaae1 npe6maanne eapeea cpepn xpnc1nan: " coxanennk, sa naun
aennkne nperpeuennn Hm npo1na aonn n xenannn npnnyxpenm xn1L cpepn nnx (1o
ec1L xpnc1nan), n ao1 ncnonnnnncL na nac cnoaa anuennoro ncannn: cc
cnu n cM M, sM sM, mu M cxu M
M - M MM (1op. 28, 64).
Xoue1cn cnpocn1L: npaapa nn, u1o eapen "npo1na aonn n xenannn amnyxpenm xn1L
cpepn nac, noc1enenno o1nnHan y nac seHnk, nHyuec1aa, kann1anm n anac1L? o,
Hoxe1 6m1L, ecnn npoaepn1L xopouenLko, nnk1o yxe 6onee nx nx npo1na
nx aonn n xenannn xn1L a occnn? oxe1 6m1L, nnk1o nnkorpa ne npnnyxpan nx xn1L
cpepn nac? ec amxopm ns occnn pnn eapeea o1kpm1m unpoko nac1exL: kpoHe
ceppeunoro noxenannn "cka1ep1Lk popora, nn opnn eape, cknonnm aepny1Lcn a
anec1nny, nn o1 koro ns pyccknx nnuero ne ycnmun1. cnn eapen ne nxeum n ne
kpnannkn, ecnn onn ne peueame ak1epm, po cnx nop pasmrpmaakune ppaHy
"amnyxpennoro paccennnn, 1o nyc1L xe nakoneu yanxy1 caon ueHopanm n epy1
npnHmH 1pak1oH uepes peccy a epycannH. yc1L 6ypy1 cnokonm: nn opnn
coapeHennm qapaon ne noronn1cn sa nnHn, paxe ecnn 6m onn, kak 6mno npn ncxope
ns rnn1a, o6aopoaann npepaapn1enLno roc1enpnnHno npnk1nauyk nx c1pany...
ko1m s6pauum uapop
o n o1anekcn; aepneHcn k ampepxkaH ns "can1oro anHypa. "yuuero ns ernn1nn
y6e ao apeHn aonm, - roaopn1 "oqepnH (XV, 10). occeqo1 a koHHen1apnnx k
1pak1a1y o nsmunnkax o6Lncnne1, u1o nop "ernn1nnaHn cnepye1 noppasyHeaa1L
"ronHoa (xpnc1nan) n un1a1L 1ak: "yuuero ns xpnc1nan y6e. opnoH Hec1e npopok
cann roaopn1: "ce c1onm nanonnenm 6neao1nno, neunc1o1o, - Hec1a ne1.
"oqepnH pae1 1akoe 1onkoaanne: "D1o osnauae1 uepkoaL c nkonaHn, nop cnoaoH xe
"neunc1o1a" (1o ec1L ncnpaxnennn) ponxno nonnHa1L "kyuanLe kpec1oa" (1o ec1L
npocqopy n uac1num an1mx apoa). enaanc1nm eapenH ne 1onLko xname xpnc1nane,
no n nokonme. "Bepaxo1 roaopn1: "poxopn upes knap6nue xpnc1nan, eape o6nsan
nponsnocn1L c1nx ns epeHnn: "ecLHa nocpaHnena Ha1L aaua n nokpacnena o1 c1mpa
popnauan aac".
pak1a1 "a6a1 (c. 1046) roaopn1: "mn pasapa1nnum ec1L cmn an1epa. o1 u1o
roaopn1 pa66n Xnspa: Hyx a1o pasapa1no xenunnm 6mn anyc, cmn erypm, ee xe
nHn 6mno apnn. na ne xnna c HyxeH, a npenk6opec1aoaana c an1epoH: peHecno
ee 6mno y6npa1L aonocm xenunnaH. opoxane yH6apn1m saann ee rynnue o1
Hyxa. ak nnsko qanLcnqnunpyk1 eapen a rnycneueH caoeH aoo6paxennn
1pora1enLnoe eaanrenLckoe npepanne. oaopn1e nocne 1oro o npaac1aenno
connpapnoc1n, 6yp1o 6m aosHoxno Hexpy xnpaHn n xpnc1nanaHn!
pak1a1 "KHa (VIII, 82) roaopn1: "Opanuysckn paaann Hkoa aH y1aepxpae1, u1o
pnn xpnc1nannna ne cyuec1aye1 kpoaocHeuennn, n6o xpnc1nane cy1L nkpn ane sakona
n nnopm nx - nnopm xnao1nmx. a66n oxanan roaopn1: "cnn pyxnyaunH o1 noxapa
spanneH 6ype1 norpe6eno 10 uenoaek, nx cnepye1 o1kona1L n cnac1n, ecnn 6ype1
nsaec1no, u1o a uncne nx naxopn1cn eape, a npo1nanoH xe cnyuae - ne cnepye1.
co6enno pekoHenpyk a1o1 sakon annHannk r-na nccenoanua n 216 paaannoa,
no6oxnaunxcn, u1o sakon nx ne penae1 pasnnum Hexpy eapeeH n neeapeeH.
pak1a1 "e1y6o1 (c. 36, 1onk. occeqo1a) y1aepxpae1, u1o eapeka, amuepuan
saHyx sa ernn1nnnna (xpnc1nannna), no npnnnauan no1oH a1opnuno eapec1ao, ne
6ype1 cun1a1Lcn annoano a npenk6opennnn, n6o xnsnL ee po npnnn1nn eapec1aa
a1opnuno ynopo6nne1cn "coxn1enLc1ay c xnao1nmH, ko1opoe no eapeckoHy sakony
ne aHenne1cn a rpex xenunne.
o1 xe 1pak1a1 "e1y6o1 (1onk. aau I, 4) roaopn1: "eHn ron (xpnc1nannna) ane
sakona, n6o nanncano: "Y ko1opo nno1L ocnnnan n noxo1L kak y xepe6uoa" (es. 23,
20). oxn1enLc1ao c roeH ne c1aan1cn e a rpex, no1oHy u1o con1ne c xnao1nmH ne
o1nocn1cn k uncny npec1ynnenn.
D1n 1onkoaannn "can1oro anHypa n nosaonk ce6e pekoHenpoaa1L annHannk 1ex
kpnkoanue n npepc1aan1ene sna1nmx xpnc1nancknx popoa, ko1opme papn xnpnoro
npnpanoro xenn1cn na eapekax. onesno sna1L, kak a 1annc1aennmx n sanpe1nmx
Hec1ax anHypa npepnncmaae1cn eapek-1ec1k cHo1pe1L na sn1n-xpnc1nannna.
mpepxka ns 1pak1a1a "n1nn (c. 57a) copepxn1 a ce6e 1akyk 6esyHno nopnyk
Hepsoc1L no o1nouennk k ncycy Xpnc1y, u1o cHmcn ee nenLsn nepepa1L paxe
naHekaHn. n1aaune "p an1e, Hoxe1 6m1L, noHnn1, k kakoHy nakasannk
npnroaopenm rpeunnkn a1opo nponac1n aocLHoro kpyra. o xe aeuno nm1ke, eue
6onee nsapauenno, 6yp1o 6m npepan n Xpnc1oc.
pak1a1 "n1nn y1aepxpae1, u1o "eape ne nHee1 npaaa papyuno nosppaann1L
xpnc1nannna c npaspnnkoH. n ponxen pena1L a1o c nanmH anpoH npnnyxpennoc1n.
o1n a poH k xpnc1nannny n ckasa1L eHy "sppaac1ay" sanpeuae1cn c1poro. o
ns6exanne xe neo6xopnHoc1n noa1opn1L npnae1c1ane xpnc1nannna eapek cnepye1
npepynpexpa1L ero.
pak1a1 "epapnH (28a, 1onk. occeqo1a) roaopn1: "akon paspeuae1 npncnra1L
noxno ocypapk, ecnn on npncnro xoue1 npnnypn1L eapen k 1aknH aeuaH, kak,
nanpnHep, k neamespy 1ano ns rocypapc1aa. apek poc1a1ouno ne cornacn1Lcn a
pyue c 1pe6oaanneH, u1o6m nponsnocnHoe p1oH (1o ec1L npncnra) no1epnno ack cnny
n snauenne.
a a1oH paspeuennn "can1oro anHypa ocnoamaae1cn acn 1a pockouL nxn n o6Hana,
kakyk nponannk1 cmnm ypm, 1opxec1aenno npncnrakune a cypax a kauec1ae caHmx
poc1oaepnmx canpe1ene. cnxonornn eapeckan, nopo6no ncnxonornn ppyrnx
uae1nokoxnx, nonnHae1cn eaponeuaHn c 1pypoH. m HoxeH npene6pera1L uyxpmHn
napopaHn n ne nk6n1L nx, no 1ak nenc1oao nenaanpe1L nx, unc1o no-saepnnoHy, kak
penak1 eapen, - a1o naH nenonn1no. rnasax anHypa (1pak1a1 "o1a, c. 356, 1onk.
aau) xpnc1nane n nsmunnkn cospanm 1onLko pnn 1oro, u1o6m nocne cHep1n cnyxn1L a
apy pnn o6xnrannn nsaec1n, npnueH a1o Hnenne onnpae1cn na npopoka cak (33,
12).
ponyckak neneneune n apxnkouync1aennme nerenpm o6 ncyce Xpnc1e 1pak1a1oa
"o1a (c. 17a) n "nneppnon (43a).
pak1a1 "Ba6a-aHa (c. 1036) y1aepxpae1, u1o no1epnnnoe xpnc1nannnoH ne ponxno
aosapaua1L eHy. "osaoneno, - roaopn1 pa66n aHynn, - nsaneka1L nonLsy ns
acnko oun6kn xpnc1nannna. "anuennm anHyp npnaopn1 npnHepm 6ecuec1nmx
npopenok c xpnc1nanaHn, yxacno amnonnennmx, nanpnHep pa66n exana n ppyrnHn
eapenHn; kak anpn1e, paspeuae1cn nonLsoaa1Lcn acnko onnounoc1Lk xpnc1nan, no
sanpeuae1cn 6pa1L o1 nnx nopannnn (1pak1a1 "Ba6a-Baqpa, 1onk. aau, 36). nk1o
nenaanc1n k xpnc1nanaH yun1enn eapeckne o1cekak1 acnkyk aosHoxnoc1L 6pa1cknx n
uenoaeuecknx o1nouenn. caHoH pene, ecnn xpnc1nannn - cko1 (ne a nepenocnoH, a
a 6ykaanLnoH snauennn a1oro cnoaa), 1o kakoe xe aosHoxno o1 nero nopannne?
opannne o1 cko1a ynnsn1enLno, no ero Hoxno pon1L, c1pnuL, sac1aann1L pa6o1a1L,
nonLsoaa1Lcn HncoH ero n 1.n.
pak1a1 "6opa-apa sanpeuae1 eapeke noHora1L npn popax xpnc1nanke nnn
kopHn1L xpnc1nanckoro pe6enka. o1 xe 1pak1a1 paspeuae1 "Hnneea (xpnc1nan),
ponocunkoa n kpeuenmx eapeea cosna1enLno 6poca1L a nHy na cHep1L. 1poro
sanpeuae1cn npopaaa1L xpnc1nanaH uepkoanyk y1aapL n paaa1L xpnc1nanaH penLrn a
poc1. 1poro sanpeuae1cn eapek cypn1Lcn a cypax xpnc1nancknx, xo1n 6m sakonm nx
6mnn n 1oxpec1aennm c eapecknHn, - "a1o posaonne1cn nnuL aanpy nano
nsanekaeHo uepes 1o pnn eapen amropm. konua1enLnoe peuenne occeqo1a na
1pak1a1 "6opa-apa roaopn1: "onocunka (na eapeea) nosaonne1cn y6n1L paxe sa
ponoc, cpenannm nH paano... nosaonne1cn 1akxe y6n1L n 1oro, k1o npnnnn cnyxenne
nnoHy 6ory (1o ec1L npnnnn xpnc1nanc1ao). anpeuae1cn neun1Lcn y apaua-
xpnc1nannna. o ao1 u1o nk6onm1no: "one1a, na ko1opo nso6paxen npon (kpec1),
ponyckae1cn k o6pauennk cpepn eapeea. a66n nnasap ns BoreHnn sanpeuae1
npopaaa1L xpnc1nanaH uepnnna n nepraHen1, 1o ec1L cpepc1aa pnn npocaeuennn. 1
uepkoano c1enm paspeuae1cn aospanra1L c1eny caoero poHa ne 6nnxe kak na ue1mpe
apunna, n6o "kaHnn, pepeao n necok uepkoanm penak1 eapen neunc1mH o1
npnkocnoaennn k nnH, kak o1 npnkocnoaennn k npecHmkakunHcn, n6o nanncano:
"oHepsn ee (uepkoaL). a66n kn6a nnue1: "nyuacn ee, kak neunc1o xenunnm ao
apeHn peryn. o yuennk pa66n Xannka, seHnk, 6nnxauyk k uepkan, eape Hoxe1
yno1pe6n1L 1onLko nop o1xoxee Hec1o (c. 86, 1onk. aau).
pak1a1 "Xynnn (c. 97) paspeuae1 y6nc1ao eapeea, coaepunaunx npec1ynnenne, kak
acex "annkypeuea, cappykeea n 6a1ocoa (xpnc1nan), "pa6m onn ne Hornn apepn1L
eapenH.
pak1a1 "Dpaxnn (c. 14) c1poro sanpeuae1 eapek ckasa1L o xpnc1nannne: "ak on
kpacna.
pak1a1 "nHypa (c. 286) c1poro sanpeuae1 eapek nasmaa1L uepkoaL uepkoaLk.
nepye1 paaa1L npespn1enLnme nasaannn aceHy, u1o xpnc1nane u1y1 kak amcokoe.
epkoaL npepnncmaae1cn nasmaa1L "rpnsnmH oHoH, "poHoH neunc1o1, nnuo uapn -
"nnuoH co6akn, ceanpnuee ko - "rnasoH 1eHnmH n 1.p.
pak1a1 "epn1o1 (c. 66), ocnoamaancL na npopoke eseknnne (rn. 34, c1. 31),
pokasmaae1, u1o 1onLko opnn eapen uenoaekn, xpnc1nane xe ne1.
oaonLno ckaepnmx un1a1, ne npaapa nn? o a1n ampepxkn kaxy1cn ckaepnmHn
1onLko xpnc1nanaH, eapeea xe onn, no-anpnHoHy, npnaopn1 a aocxnuenne. o1 u1o
roaopn1 npepncnoane k "yn1pac-eHano1-Xncpano1-aHac: "...Y koro ns nauero
can1oro napopa, aepykuero a anHyp, kak opy (n1nknnxne), pannyk BoroH, ne
sa1peneue1 ceppue npn anpe neunc1mx aop
[88]
, cospaaunx a neH 6peuL, o1nnauyk
aosHoxnoc1L spannk ponnm1L po 6epera? yc1L spannL yanpn1 ns a1oro c6opnnka,
ckonLko uypnoro o1nnno n ypesano apeHn, ckonLknx nepnoa nepocun1maae1cn anHyp
- nepnoa, c 1euenneH apeHenn nou1n sa6m1mx! yc1L yanpn1 - n copporne1cn!
ennka neuanL o1 a1oro, no papoc1L nc1nnnoro nspannL1nnnna 6ype1 apaone; ero
unc1an pyua n ceppue aosnnkyk1, n on aocknnkne1: "ocnopn, cnaaa e6e! m ne
oc1aann ee (opy) a opnnouec1ae - papoc1L aok n aecenne a Hnpe. ennk a1o1 penL,
aoccnnn ornennm c1onn nauero can1oro yuennn caonH npexnnH cae1oH. e aepnno
ceppue, u1o anHyp aocc1ane1 upes c1one1nn ao ace caoe kpace n Hm yanpnH anoaL
aennkne cnoaa canuennoro nepa. a Hnorne ne1a anpa1L ero 1aknH, n naHn1L o neH
pa 6ype1 aeuna... Hek pyHa1L, u1o HonH 1pypoH n pan uennm nopapok napopy
BoxLeHy, 1aeppo aepykueHy a can1o anHyp" n np., n np.
snauennan knnxka c sanpe1nmHn Hec1aHn ns anHypa 6mna nspana, no-anpnHoHy,
okono 1pnpua1n ne1 nasap, a Hoxe1 6m1L, n panLue: nn apeHn, nn Hec1o ee nspannn
nensaec1nm a 1ounoc1n. H ne snak, sanpe1nn nn uensypnm koHn1e1 a1y knnxky, kak
a1o npepnaran apronnn. onyc1nH, u1o sanpe1nn. anpeuenne, koneuno, ne
noHeuano eapenH npecnokono nepeneua1maa1L sanpe1nyk knnxky n 1oproaa1L ek,
n6o k1o xe ns pyccknx anac1e snae1 ppeaneeapeckn nsmk? paapa, nauencn
eapeunk anpenLu1aH, ponecun o knnxke a uensypnm koHn1e1, n kpeuenm
eape apronnn, cpenaaun po6pocoaec1nm o1sma o ne. o u1o xe panLue? asae
uensypa ne anonne 6eccnnLna o1nocn1enLno sanpeuennmx eapecknx nspann?
osHoxno, u1o Hnorne pecn1kn ne1 ace Hepsoc1n aannonckoro anHypa anoaL aounn
a nopnonLnoe yno1pe6nenne cpepn eapeea n anoaL annnk1 na nx pennrnosnoe
aocnn1anne. pesHepnan narnoc1L a1oro napopua, pasmrpaauancn po o1kpm1oro 6yn1a,
o6Lncnne1cn, Hoxe1 6m1L, a nsaec1no c1enenn 1anHypnuecknHn anyuennnHn 1o
Hmcnn, u1o opnn eapen - nkpn, a xpnc1nane ne 6onee kak cko1m, "Ha1epnan pnn
o6xnrannn nsaec1n a apy. H 6okcL, u1o 1pe6yeHoe npn 1ako ncnxonornuecko
nopro1oake "paanonpaane eapeckoro nneHenn caepe1cn k uypoanunoHy
nepaanonpaank xpnc1nan, k nonm1kaH xnpoa pec1an1enLno asrnnny1L na occnk kak
na cao Xanaan, a na nac, pyccknx, - kak na xananeckne napopm, nopnexaune
am1ecnennk.
1o kacae1cn 216 eapecknx paaannoa, 1o onn-1o, koneuno, ouenL xopouo snak1 cao
"can1o anHyp...
BT
5
pnpua1nne1nnn ropoaunna nosopneuero pnn pyccko nc1opnn - uapey6nc1aa 1
Hap1a - 6mna o1npaspnoaana a ocypapc1aenno yHe aosHy1n1enLnmHn amxopkaHn
xnpokape1oa n peaonkunonepoa, no a 1o xe ocypapc1aenno yHe a1nH amxopkaH
6mn pan 6nnc1a1enLnm o1nop. ouenL cnnLno peun rpoHoaepxeu naunonanLno
npaao . . apkoa
[89]
aospan ponxnoe kak peaonkunonepaH, 1ak n
"npnc1anopepxa1ennH peaonkunn ao rnaae c r-noH nnkkoamH. euL r-na apkoaa
sacnyxnaae1 caHoro cepLesnoro annHannn n o6pasoaannoro o6uec1aa, n kpec1Lnn,
"eue ne cnnaunx kpec1a. a1o peun 1parepnn 1 Hap1a ocaeuena c 1o c1oponm,
ko1opyk 6yn1apn naun 1ua1enLno ckpmaak1. . . apkoa ccmnae1cn na
nccnepoaanne npnaa1-pouen1a nnnckoro
[90]
, naneua1annoe a "c1opnueckoH
aec1nnke sa npounm rop. Bonee 1pnpua1n ne1 nasap a occnn cnoxnnacL
apxnnpec1ynnan nap1nn ("apopnan aonn), o6Lnanauan sa co6ok npaao
npnroaapnaa1L koro e aspyHae1cn k cHep1no kasnn. e 1onLko uen1panLnm
ncnonnn1enLnm koHn1e1 a1o nap1nn, no paxe Hec1nme ee "uen1panLnme rpynnm
nonLsoaanncL "npaaoH xnsnn n cHep1n rpaxpan. 1a1Ln 13-n yc1aaa a1o uakn
rnacnna: "en1panLnan rpynna nHee1 npaao npnroaapnaa1L k cHep1no kasnn acex
uac1nmx nnu, caonx unnonoa "ponxnoc1nmx nnu, panroH po ry6epna1opa, na
ynnu1oxenne ko1oporo nyxno ncnpocn1L paspeuenne ncnonnn1enLnoro koHn1e1a. 1o
kacae1cn uen1panLnoro ncnonnn1enLnoro koHn1e1a, 1o on npnnncan ce6e npaao
npepaaa1L cHep1n peun1enLno acex, po Hnepa1opa aknkun1enLno. Henno na
nnneukoH cLespe ncnonnn1enLnoro koHn1e1a 6mn npnroaopen k cHep1n nekcanpp II.
. . apkoa cnpaunaae1: "1ak, Hnepa1op-cao6opn1enL 6mn kasnen. asnen sa u1o
xe? n 6mn kasnen, 1ak kak 6mn npnsnan neypo6nmH, HeuakunH koHy-1o. o koHy
xe? nnkoHy ppyroHy, kak nypenH. o nokasannnH nsaec1noro onLpen6epra
[91]
,
nHenno on, onLpen6epr, nocne y6nc1aa knnsn pono1knna o1npaanncn a e1ep6ypr n
"sapancn uenLk aos6ypn1L 1aH aonpoc o uapey6nc1ae. e1ep6ypre onLpen6epr
o6cyxpan a1o1 aonpoc c ynpeneanueH
[92]
, c o6mnnncknH, an1koacknH n
nxanoamH. D1n paa eapen, paa nonnka n opnn pycckn npepa1enL coc1aannn
koHn1e1, ko1opm oprannsoaan npec1ynnenne onoaLeaa, c1pennauero a Hnepa1opa
nekcanppa II okono nHnero paopua. orpa snopeckn koHn1e1 co6pancn a opnoH ns
1pak1npoa na apoao ynnue, 1o nepamH npepnoxnn caon ycnyrn y6n1L Hnepa1opa
nnnuna1op Hmcnn o uapey6nc1ae onLpen6epr. o koHn1e1 (ns payx eapeea, payx
nonnkoa n opnoro pycckoro) npnsnan, u1o a1o npec1ynnenne ponxen coaepun1L
nenpeHenno pycckn, nnaue ace peno ne 6ype1 nHe1L ponxnoro snauennn pnn pycckoro
o6uec1aa n napopa. Xo1n a koHn1e1e 6mno ue1mpe nnopopua na opnoro pycckoro, xo1n
aecL saHmcen uapey6nc1aa npnnapnexan eapek, no eapen c1papak1 neoponnHo
Hanne ace qanLcnqnunpoaa1L n ao aceH pena1L nopnorn. cnonnn1eneH rnycnoro
eapeckoro saHmcna am6pann pycckoro nonynpno1a onoaLeaa. ackonLko a1o1
pycckn 6mn amcokoro pas6opa, nokasmaae1 1o, u1o nocnepnkk nouL caok, co6npancL
y6n1L Hnepa1opa, onoaLea npoaen a ny6nnunoH poHe. u1o xe penann
nopc1peka1enn a1oro npec1ynnnka - eapen onLpen6epr n ynpeneanu? nn, nanapna
peno, sa paa pnn po nokyuennn amexann a XapLkoa. okyuenne 2 anpenn ne ypanocL,
no eapeckan npen o uapey6nc1ae ne norn6na. na n noaena k nnneukoHy cLespy:
ykopennauncL a nouae pasnarakuecn nonynnopopuecko nn1ennnrenunn pyccko,
eapeckan npen pacnyc1nnacL kpoaaamH uae1oH 1 Hap1a... e sa6ypL1e, u1o
cHep1enLnan 6oH6a nop norn nekcanppa II 6mna cpenana a eapecko kaap1npe n
6pouena nonnkoH. n1an nc1opnk nopro1oakn 1 Hap1a, am noHnny1no ac1peuae1e
nHena 1aknx 1eppopnc1oa, kak a1ancon, eu, onapanLckn, snk, ponunk,
n1ekHan, eaenL, Xo1nnckn, Byx, ono1keanu, enLqHan, kc1nr, Opnpencon,
ykepHan, y6knn, ap1Han n np., n np.
pouno 30 ne1 nocne aennkoro snopec1aa. Hec1o payx nepaonauanLnmx
nopc1peka1ene k uapey6nc1ay, eapeea onLpen6epra n ynpeneanua, Hm nHeeH
6ecuncnennoe Hnoxec1ao peaonkunonnmx xnpkoa, ko1opme coc1pnnann paxe npoek1
pnn aceo6uero nauec1ann eapeea na occnk. ocypapc1aennyk yHy aneceno
npepnoxenne o cnn1nn uep1m eapecko ocepnoc1n n o nonnoH paanonpaann
napasn1noro nneHenn c napopoH pyccknH. ero po6poro, narneun nnan a1o1
yaenuae1cn ycnexoH: yx ecnn pnn c eapen naxopnnn eue 1pnpua1L ne1
1oHy nasap pyccknx ncnonnn1ene, 1o napy1 nx 1enepL n pnn c. e
uyxnHn pykaHn, a naunHn co6c1aennmHn onn naknny1 ne1nk na cao6opy n xnsnL
napopa pycckoro...
. . apkoa 6mn coaepuenno npaa, o6pauancL k xnpokape1cko n peaonkunonno
rpynne: "m y6nnn Hnepa1opa, n kakoro Hnepa1opa! Hnepa1opa nekcanppa II,
ko1opm pan kpec1LnnaH ne 1onLko cao6opy, no n seHnk, ko1opm pan kpec1LnnaH
nHyuec1ao, nmne ouennaaeHoe nou1n a 20 Hnnnnappoa py6ne, a aepL acero 50 ne1
nasap y kpec1Lnn ne 6mno nn epnnoro rpoua. Y6nnn Hnepa1opa, ko1opm pan cyp
npaam, ckopm n Hnnoc1nam... ko1opm pan seHckoe n ropopckoe caHoynpaanenne,
ko1opm aaen aceo6uyk aonnckyk noannnoc1L, ko1opm sac1aann cnyxn1L nop
conpa1cko uanko pnpoH kpec1Lnnnna n paopnnnna... m y6nnn 1oro ocypapn,
ko1opm ocao6opnn cnaann o1 1ypeukoro nra, n am y6nnn ero 1orpa, korpa yxe na ero
c1one nexano nopnncannoe ero co6c1aenno nHnepa1opcko pyko yupexpenne 6ue
koHnccnn, 1o ec1L yupexpenne 1o xe caHo ocypapc1aenno yHm, npaapa, na 6onee
aepnmx nauanax, ueH 1a, a ko1opo am 1enepL npncy1c1aye1e. o1 nc1nnnoe
snopec1ao, ko1opoe 6mno coaepueno 30 ne1 nasap aaunHn o1uaHn, aaunHn
pykoaopn1ennHn, rocnopa neame! -n apkoa npaa, roaopn neamH: "a a1o
npec1ynnenne am o1ae1c1aennm, - n6o connpapnoc1L c npec1ynnnkaHn sac1aanne1
paspenn1L n o1ae1c1aennoc1L nx. o .. apkoa ne npaa, ecnn paccun1maae1 1pony1L
kaHennoe ceppue nnn o1yneaun pasyH npec1ynnmx nap1n. e k nnH ponxna 6m1L
o6pauena peuL kypckoro 1pn6yna, a k napopy pycckoHy. caHoH pene, xo1n 6m uepes
30 ne1 nocne necnmxannoro snopennnn nyc1L napop pycckn nopyHae1, po kakoro
ynnxennn on pouen. a a1opyk 1mcnuy ne1 rocypapc1aenno xnsnn, nocne
Hnoroaekoao cnaam, ycnea cospa1L amcouaun na cae1e 1pon uapckn n
poxpaauncL uapn kpo1koro, cao6oponk6naoro, Hnnoceppnoro, npaaocypnoro, napop
u1o xe anpn1: nannk1cn o1kypa-1o paa nnu1oxneunx xnpka, onLpen6epr n
ynpeneanu, nop6npak1 payx nnu1oxneunx nonnukoa n opnoro pycckoro ncnxona1a n
naunnak1 uc na apn occnn. xo1a npe1 ponran, n a konue konuoa xnpoacko-
nonLckan 6oH6a o1pmaae1 norn y oaenn1enn naue Hnepnn...
ne kaxe1cn, 1y1 ec1L o ueH nopyHa1L napopy pycckoHy. nopen npnuennaanncL a
canuennyk rnaay napopa, a 1y ronoay, ko1opan epxana kopony naue napopno
Hnepnn, n pepxana ee ncknkun1enLno uec1Lk. enepL 1mcnun xnpoa n
nopkynnennmx nHn xnpoxaoc1oa kpnua1 o n nnopopuea, o nonnonpaann
acex naunonanLnoc1e a uep1e Hnepnn, ko1opyk c1ponnn naun npepkn ne pnn
uyxoro, a pnn caoero no1oHc1aa. o ao1 nepame pesynL1a1m paanonpaann: paa eapen n
paa nonnka (na opnoro pycckoro) caHn ynonnoHounaak1 ce6n 6m1L cypLnHn n
nanauaHn aennkopyuneuero ns uape. aHe1L1e: nonnkn ne nHek1 uep1m ocepnoc1n,
n paa nonnka o6mnnnckn n an1koackn, o6cyxpaaune uapey6nc1ao, nonLsoaanncL
aceHn npaaaHn pyccknx rpaxpan. ouno 1ak xe n paa eapen, onLpen6epr n
ynpeneanu, ecnn onn pasLesxann no occnn, 1o, c1ano 6m1L, nonLsoaanncL yxe
paanonpaaneH. o ne no1oHy nn nHenno, u1o a1n ue1mpe nnopopua 6mnn neoc1opoxno
nponyuenm a occnk, onn n okasanncL a coc1onnnn pasan1L cao apckn nnan?
6o6uan nanenne, cnpocnH: ne 1eH nn n o6Lncnne1cn nou1n c1one1nee
peaonkunonnoe 6poxenne a occnn, u1o aHec1e c npncoepnnenneH onLun Hm
o1kpmnn paepn pnn payx onacneunx n kpane apaxpe6nmx nauec1an - nonLckoro n
eapeckoro? 1opxenne aoc1ounmx nnopopuea a naue amcuee o6uec1ao anoxn
opynoaa uy1L 6mno ne ykpennno y nac 1a1apckyk pnnac1nk n noaeno k aennko cHy1e
XVII c1one1nn. 1opxenne sanapnmx nnopopuea k aepxaH anac1n uy1L 6mno ne
yc1anoanno y nac neHeukyk pnnac1nk n noaeno k cHy1e XVIII aeka c npnpaopnmHn
Hn1exaHn n uapey6nc1aaHn. 6nnLnoe a1opxenne any1pennnx nnopopuea a XIX aeke
penaunonannsnpoaano naue o6pasoaannoe o6uec1ao n noaeno k cHy1e,
saaepunauecn snopec1aoH 1 Hap1a. paa nauancn XX aek, n panLneuee a1opxenne
nnopopuea - rnaanmH o6pasoH eapeea - nopopnno nopneuyk ns peaonkun,
nHenno 1905 ropa, - nopneuyk no1oHy, u1o ona pec1aoaana a cokse c Hnonne n
onnpancL na ee no6epm.
1o nocnepnnn peaonkunn 6mna "eapeckan, a ne kakan nnan, a1o yc1anoaneno ne
1onLko pyccknHn, no n nnoc1pannmHn na6nkpa1ennHn, ckonLko-nn6ypL
6ecnpnc1pac1nmHn. saec1nm 6epnnnckn npoqeccop eopop nHan roaopn1, "u1o
pycckyk peaonkunk c opnnakoamH npaaoH Hoxno nasaa1L n eapecko. oapeHennoe
pycckoe peaonkunonnoe panxenne, roaopn1 on, okaxe1cn coaepuenno neo6LncnnHmH
n neapasyHn1enLnmH, ecnn ne npnnn1L ao annHanne ponL eapeea... pepn payx-1pex
1mcnu nn1ennnren1oa, npepaaaaunxcn a aeuapnn peaonkunonno-counannc1nuecknH
nponckaH, 6onLunnc1ao 6mnn eapen, n onn xe okasanncL aoxakaHn peaonkunn.
apeckne nn1ennnren1m n nonynn1ennnren1m amc1ynak1 pen1enLneunHn
coyuac1nnkaHn nou1n ao acex nonn1nuecknx nokyuennnx. nn xe cyHenn npoaec1n ao
ace pycckne nporpaHHm npeo6pasoaann n ao ace pesonkunn 6ecuncnennmx Hn1nnroa
nonnoe ypaanenne eapeea a npaaax c kopennmH nacenenneH. ouno 1ak xe n 1o1 qak1,
u1o pycckoe c1ypenuec1ao naxopnnocL n naxopn1cn nop eapecknH annnnneH,
neocnopnH, kak n 1o, u1o a pyccko cHy1e orpoHnyk ponL cmrpan eapeckn "6ynp...
npoueH, a nepaoe apeHn cHy1m caHn eapen ne 1onLko ne ckpmaann caoero yuac1nn a
ne, no c roppoc1Lk kpnuann, u1o pycckan peaonkunn - "nponsaepenne aennkoro
pyxa eapecko nap1nn, u1o "Hm aaH pann Bora - papnH n uapn n 1.n.
[93]
oc1a1ouno npnnoHnn1L nHena rnaanmx aoxakoa naue cHy1m: epuynn, y6anoanu,
ou, aeuep, y1en6epr, seq, epnoa, Baka, osa Bpnnnnan1, osa kkceH6ypr n
np., n np. ce cnnouL eapen, kak eapenHn xe okasanncL a neua1n n o6uec1ae
npnc1anopepxa1enn peaonkunn xnpokape1ckoro narepn. Y6nc1ao aennkoro knnsn
epren nekcanppoanua oprannsoaano oso Bpnnnnan1. naaapeH Hockoackoro
aoopyxennoro aocc1annn nanncn oaua 1pynckn. Byn1 na "o1eHknne aapnueckoH
nanaxen 6mn OenLpHanoH. pynno HakcnHannc1oa counan-peaonkunonepoa - a1o,
no o1smay . . nnpanpn, snoapepneue peaonkunonno-anapxnuecko uakn,
coaepunaue 6ecuncnennme 1eppopnc1nueckne npec1ynnennn, sanpaannna Oera
DnLknna. naHenn1m "coae1 pa6ounx peny1a1oa, nrpaaun neko1opoe apeHn ponL
peaonkunonnoro npaan1enLc1aa a e1ep6ypre, pykoaopnncn 1ako koHnanne, kak
Bponu1en, peaep, DpnnLken, onLp6epr, Oe1, auenea, Bpyccep; caH npepcepa1enL
coae1a Xpyc1anea okasancn eapeeH ocapeH. 1c1aano ne1enan1 Hn1, rnaaapL
ceaac1ononLckoro 6yn1a, xaac1ancn 1eH, u1o on opypne eapeea. pypno ne
npncoepnnn1Lcn k cnoaaH 1akoro sna1oka eapeckoro aonpoca, kak r-n nnpanpn: "o1
k1o ckpmaancn sa kynncaHn "pyccko" peaonkunn n koHy occnn o6nsana
no1pncennnHn, ynnxennnHn n pasopenneH nocnepnnx ne1! o1 uLnHn 6naropopnmHn
no6yxpennnHn pasopaanm 6oH6aHn n pacc1pennnm ns 6paynnnroa 50.000 pyccknx
nkpe, annoanmx 1onLko a 1oH, u1o onn - pycckne! o1 no noaenennk kakoro
cnneppnona occnn npnnyxpena 6mna saknkun1L nosopnm Hnp n a 1euenne nn1n ne1
1epsanacL anapxne n sannaanacL kpoaLk caonx cmnoa!
oka npaan1enLc1ao c1apmx aekoa a pyxe e1pa ennkoro ne ponyckano a occnk
eapeea, necHo1pn na ace naun neasropm, kpenko pepxancn pyx napopnm, aepa a
aennune n neno6epnHoc1L occnn, xnaa n Horyua 6mna a cMs. o
poc1a1ouno 6mno cpena1L ne6onLuo npopma a uep1e ocepnoc1n, poc1a1ouno 6mno
anyc1n1L a oprannsH Hnepnn acero nnuL neckonLko pecn1koa 1mcnu eapeea, n onn,
kak nc1nnnme napasn1m, nauann Hnoxn1Lcn c nopasn1enLno 6mc1po1o n nopaxa1L
npexpe acero nepanme, pyxoanme en1pm naunn: o6uec1aennoe Hnenne, neua1L,
nn1epa1ypy, ukony, 1ea1p, cao6opnme npoqeccnn, npnueH rnnnoc1noe pasnoxenne
ppeanekynL1ypnoro nauero pyxa ouenL 6mc1po noaeno k Hn1exy.
nnnc1epc1ao kc1nunn, k coxanennk, eue ne nopcun1ano caoe c1a1nc1nkn,
o1nocnuecn k ropaH cHy1m, no cyuec1aye1 nopcue1 sa 6nnxaune, nopro1oan1enLnme
k peaonkunn ropm, nHenno sa 1901 - 1904 ropm. kasmaae1cn, u1o, coc1aannn 4,2
npouen1a nacenennn, eapen no nonn1nuecknH npec1ynnennnH yxn1pnnncL coc1aan1L
29,1 npouen1a, 1o ec1L okasanncL cMu s ncn o6mknoaenno nopHm, a
aoceHL pas peaonkunonnee acero oc1anLnoro nacenennn. naun1enLno o1c1ak1 o1 nnx
ppyrne nnopopum, kopennme xe pycckne, coc1aannn 72,2 npouen1a nacenennn, pak1
no nonn1nuecknH npec1ynnennnH acero nnuL 51,2 npouen1a, 1o ec1L a non1opa pasa
x caoe nopHm. oc1aannn epaa paapua1L nn1yk uac1L nacenennn Hnepnn, eapen
pak1 6es Hanoro 1pe1Lk uac1L acex nonn1nuecknx npec1ynnnkoa. a xe c1a1nc1nka
y1aepxpae1, u1o eapeea-peaonkunonepoa o1nocn1enLno a pecn1L pas 6onLue, ueH
pyccknx. o pasnmH cype6nmH okpyraH o1nouenne a1o Henne1cn. k6onm1nee acero
1o, u1o nan6onLue peaonkunonnoc1Lk o1nnuak1cn ne 1e eapen, ko1opmH
en1panLnan occnn nepoc1ynna, a 1e, ko1opmH ona poc1ynna, ko1opme ne c1ecnenm
uep1o ocepnoc1n.
pepnarak caHoHy 1ua1enLnoHy annHannk un1a1enn nnxecnepykuyk 1a6nnuy.
ype6ume
okpyra
poeu1 eapeea a
uaceneu
poeu1 eapeea,
npanekaeHmx no
non1veckH penaH
nnenckn 15,0 64,9
apuaackn 14,0 26,0
pecckn 13,5 55,0
neackn 12,0 48,2
e1ep6yprckn 3,5 40,9
XapLkoackn 1,4 18,8
pky1ckn 0,6 15,5
nqnncckn 0,6 1,4
ockoackn 0,4 7,5
asanckn 0,1 4,7
apa1oackn 0,1 1,5
s a1o 1a6nnum am anpn1e, u1o nou1n paono npec1ynnoc1Lk a peaonkunonnoH
o1nouennn o1nnuak1cn eapen 1onLko apuaackoro okpyra. Bonee ueH ue1mpexpm
npec1ynnm onn a nnenckoH, pecckoH n neackoH okpyrax, sa1o no ek c1opony uep1m
ocepnoc1n nx npec1ynnoc1L cpasy yaennunaae1cn: a e1ep6yprckoH okpyre ona nou1n a
11
1
/2; pasa npec1ynnee nopHm, a XapLkoackoH - a 13 pas, a apa1oackoH - a 15 pas,
a ockoackoH - a 19 pas, a pky1ckoH - a 26 pas, a asanckoH - a 47 pas! ap a1nH
c1on1 nopyHa1L. oco6enno cnepye1 nopyHa1L 1eH pyccknH npno1aH, ko1opme aepn1
xnpoacko 6acne, 6yp1o eapeckan peaonkunn ec1L pesynL1a1 nx c1ecnennn a uep1e
eapecko ocepnoc1n. cnn 6m a1o 6mna npaapa, ecnn 6m o1Hena uep1m ocepnoc1n
norauana y eapeea peaonkunonnm pyx, 1o c1a1nc1nka cnoxnnacL 6m coaepuenno
o6pa1nan. asanocL 6m, uero 6yn1oaa1L eapenH, ko1opme yxe nponyuenm a
en1panLnyk occnk n nonLsyk1cn 1aH nou1n nonnmH paanonpaaneH? o1nouennn nx
nnuno uep1a ocepnoc1n aepL cnn1a. o nHenno onn-1o n nannk1cn caHmHn npmHn
peaonkunonepaHn, onn-1o n ampennk1 ns ce6n 10, 15, 20, 30-1n n 47-kpa1noe npo1na
nx nopHm konnuec1ao 6yn1ape. ak a1o nn neoxnpanno pnn pyccknx po1oseea,
nanHenee apaxpe6nmHn k occnn okasmaak1cn eapen sa uep1o ocepnoc1n n nan6onee
aocnanennmHn nenaanc1nnkaHn - 1e, ko1opmx Hm nHenn pokoayk oun6ky nponyc1n1L
k naH. D1o ncnxonornueckn nonn1no. oka eape onepnpye1 a apc1ae onLckoH n a
anapno occnn, on uyac1aye1 ce6n 6onee nnn Henee na popnne, na Hec1e 500-
ne1nero nac16nua ero nneHenn. y1 paxe a1oHy aeunoHy noHapy caoc1aen neko1opm
koncepaa1nsH, npn1oH nonnoe akonoHnueckoe nopa6ouenne cnaanncknx Hacc ne
pacnonarae1 nncnpoaepra1L poc1nrny1m nopnpok o1nouenn, pnn eapeea c1onL
amropnm. e 1o a kopenno occnn, kypa eapen nponnknn noka eue a kpoxo1noH
npouen1e o6uero nacenennn. y1 c nnHn nponcxopn1 1o xe caHoe, u1o c koueannkoH,
yanpaaunH noaoe nac16nue. ko1 o6mknoaenno c xapnoc1Lk 6pocae1cn na noam
kopH n ro1oa coxpa1L ero cpasy. nn eapeea no 1y c1opony uep1m occnn npepc1aanne1
Xanaan, kypa onn eue ne ac1ynnnn, pnn eapeea xe no ek c1opony occnn - Xanaan
yxe poc1nrny1m, ko1opm onn, kak a anoxy ncyca aanna, ro1oam sann1L kpoaLk
kopennmx xn1ene, nnuL 6m oanape1L nH. eH 6nnxe po6mua, 1eH oc1pee c1pac1L k
saxaa1y. o1 noueHy ace a1n kasanckne, npky1ckne, capa1oackne, Hockoackne xnpm a
anoxy peaonkunn kasanncL oca1aneaunHn a nonm1kax paspyun1L occnk.
pnnc1aenno, u1o cnacno nac 1orpa, - a1o o6unpnoc1L occnn n cpaann1enLnan ace-
1akn nnu1oxnoc1L sapasnoro nauana.
enepL ocypapc1aennan yHa xoue1 o1kpm1L ace sacnonm n sa1onn1L occnk
xapnmHn napasn1aHn, 1o ec1L yaennun1L a neckonLko as nx ry6n1enLnyk cnny. 1o
xe a1o, a konue konuoa, osnauae1? D1o osnauae1 1onLko c1pac1noe xenanne xnpoa n
xnpoxaoc1oa po6n1Lcn caoe uenn, yc1pon1L a occnn ne neypaunm 6yn1, kak a 1905
ropy, a orpoHnm n kpoaaam norpoH apope ennko qpanuyscko peaonkunn c
co1nnHn 1mcnu saHyuennmx xep1a n c nonnmH nncnpoaepxenneH nauero
nc1opnueckoro c1pon. Yc1poennan xnpoHaconaHn qpanuysckan peaonkunn pana
eapenH ao Opanunn necnmxannoe 1opxec1ao. aH ne 1onLko cnoxnnacL pnnac1nn
o1unnLpoa, no Henee ueH a c1one1ne c1o 1mcnu eapeea cpenanncL xosneaaHn aennko
ka1onnuecko pepxaam. o xe xo1n1 1enepL npopena1L c aennknH npaaocnaanmH
uapc1aoH. aunnak1 c c, konuak1 cM.
X
1
konLko nn arnnpmaa1ecL a Hnkpockon, Hnkpo6m uyHm, xonepm, uaxo1kn, cnqnnnca,
npokasm, paka n np., n np. nnueH cyuec1aennmH ne o1nnuak1cn o1 kne1ok
co6c1aennoro nauero 1ena. ne1kn kak kne1kn, co aceHn ocnoanmHn npnsnakaHn nx -
npo1onnasHo, nppoH, nppmukoH n np. expy 1eH nponnknoaenne a 1eno a1nx
6eckoneuno Hanmx n a o1penLnoc1n 6eckoneuno cna6mx kne1ouek anocn1 a Hnp aaunx
kne1ok yxacakun norpoH. ocnopn, u1o penae1 c uenoaekoH uyHa nnn npokasa,
npexpe ueH coaceH ero saxnao nsrnoxe1!
konLko nn arnnpmaa1ecL a napasn1nm uenoaeueckn 1nn, nanpnHep a eapen, am
nnuero oco6ennoro ne npnHe1n1e: uenoaek kak uenoaek. ce ocnoanme npnsnakn
uenoaeka nannuo. onLko onm1nm an1pononor, apope npxoaa
[94]
, pa n 1o nocne
1ua1enLnmx nccnepoaann a coc1onnnn nopHe1n1L a eapee uep1m nnsue pacm,
nanpnHep "caHm nnoxo a apone uepen nnn npnHecL 1ypancko n nerpn1nncko
kpoan. o aepL n 1ypanum, n paxe nerpm - nkpn. eo6xopnHo Haccoaoe na6nkpenne
nap xnsnLk n ponLk eapeea, neo6xopnHo npnc1anLnoe nsyuenne nx sakona, u1o6m
y6epn1Lcn, u1o a1o ne npoc1an uenoaeueckan kne1ka, a snoapepnm Hnkpo6, ko1opm a
nopaannkueH 6onLunnc1ae ecnn 6m n xo1en ne apepn1L, yxe ne Hoxe1 a1oro.
eapeckoH aonpoce, kak a 6ak1epnonornn, c6naae1 c 1onky qanLcnqnkaunn,
ponyuennan caHo npnpopo. opo6no 1oHy kak ec1L Hnkpo6m 6esapepnme, 6maak1 n
eapen 6esapepnme. ocnepnee o6Lncnne1cn 1eH, u1o, kak nnue1 eH6epnen, po 10
npouen1oa eapecko pacm cy1L o6Leapeennme apnum, po 5 npouen1oa - apa6m,
napop 6naropopno kpoan. 1ano 6m1L, ns co1nn eapeea po nn1napua1n Hory1 6m1L
nnuenm cneunqnueckn xnpoacknx, nHenno napasn1nmx kauec1a. D1o aaopn1 a
sa6nyxpenne Hnrko1enmx n po6popyunmx xpnc1nan. "oHnny1e, - roaopn1 nou1n
kaxpm ns nnx, - nyc1L eapen aoo6ue Houennnkn, no n ac1peuan, opnako, n uec1nmx
Hexpy nnHn nkpe. oaepuenno aepno - am Hornn na1onkny1Lcn na opnoro
nopnpounoro eapen ns pecn1n neropnea, no1oHy u1o n a1o1 epnnc1aennm, aepon1no,
6mn apneu nnn apa6. o cypn1L o pyue napopno nyxno ne no pepknH ncknkuennnH,
npn1oH uyxpmH e, a no o6ueHy npaanny. 6uee xe npaanno 1akoao, u1o eape
(1nnnueckn eape) ec1L cyuec1ao oco6oro uenoaeueckoro 1nna, nHenno napasn1noro,
n a cnny a1oro on no npnpope cyuec1ao npec1ynnoe a o1nouennn 1ex o6uec1a, na 1ene
(nnn, aepnee, a 1ene) ko1opmx on xnae1.
ak nn 6ecneuen un1a1enL o1nocn1enLno amaopoa 1ouno naykn, nopa xe xo1n 6m
aneHen1apno osnakoHn1Lcn c ee o1kpoaenneH - ono aepL nc1nnnm ronoc Boxn, n
npene6pera1L nH nenLsn. 1kpoaenne xe naykn y1aepxpae1, u1o acnkn oprannsH -
ne 1onLko xnao1nm, no n pac1n1enLnm, ne 1onLko pac1n1enLnm, no n pasyHnm -
Hoxe1 npn nopxopnunx ycnoannx nepepoxpa1Lcn a napasn1nm 1nn. c1L Hnkpo6m-
napasn1m, ec1L pac1ennn-napasn1m, ec1L nacekoHme-napasn1m, ec1L uepan-napasn1m n
np., n np. c1L, nakoneu, paynorne uenoaekoo6pasnme, ampopnaunecn a uyxenpnm
1nn. as a1o coaepunnocL, nopopa pepxn1cn ouenL npouno a 1euenne 1mcnuene1n, n,
Hoxe1 6m1L, aosapa1 k npexneHy, nopHanLnoHy 1nny pnn nee naacerpa no1epnn.
1o 1akoe napasn1 a o1nouennn cpepm, ko1opo on nn1ae1cn? D1o o6mknoaenno
cna6ocnnLnm xnunnk, npnpoxpennm aop, ko1opoHy npnxopn1cn aeuno npn1a1Lcn.
1o apeHn kak xnunnk nac1onun - aonk nnn 1nrp - nanapak1 nano n ne ckpmaak1
uenn nory6n1L aac, Hnkpo6 nnn conn1ep nponnkak1 a aac neanpno n necnmuno.
apasn1m npnuy1cn a 1kannx 1ena, nanapak1 ne na aecL oprannsH - Boxe coxpann! -
a 1onLko na kpoxo1nme uac1nukn ero, 1o ec1L na o1penLnme kne1kn, ko1opme coaceH
nesaHe1no ry6n1. ce napasn1m - qanLcnqnka1opm, ace onn - aopm n y6num, no
kpane Hepnennme a caoeH snopec1ae, sac1aannkune oprannsH npnamka1L k neHy n
ne anpe1L onacnoc1n nou1n po 1oro HoHen1a, korpa cnpaan1Lcn c nek Yxe 1pypno.
"nae1e nn, - roaopn1 kpoqnnm, - Hnorne eapen ouenL xopoune o1um ceHec1a n
nexno nk6n1 caonx xen. D1o 6eccnopno. e 1onLko neko1opme napasn1m, no ace onn
o1nnuak1cn 1eHn xe sHennmHn kauec1aaHn. nacekoHoe a ronoae kpec1Lnnnna, n
nacekoHoe a uennx ero kpoaa1n, n rnnc1 a ero knukax - ace oxo1no knapy1 nua n c
6onLuo nexnoc1Lk o1nocn1cn k npepc1aan1ennH caoero popa. D1nx po6pope1ene
nenLsn o1nn1L n y uenoaekoo6pasnmx napasn1oa, no po6pme n uec1nme pnn "6nnxnnx,
1o ec1L pnn kpoano 6nnsknx, onn coaepuenno 6ecnouapnm pnn panLnnx n 6es
Haneuero kone6annn sakycmaak1 uyxoe 1eno nacHep1L.
yxacnoH kneackoH co6m1nn, rpe 12-ne1nn HanLunk nppkua Kunnckn 6mn
saHyuen po cHep1n no aceH npaannaH eapeckoro pn1yana, npak1nkyeHoro xacnpaHn,
eapeckan neua1L npoc1o ns koxn nese1, u1o6m saHn1L n sa1yueaa1L a1o
npec1ynnenne, ckpm1L ero n noxoponn1L, n naxopn1cn paxe pycckne nn6epanm,
ko1opme ro1oam aepn1L, u1o nnuero ne 6mno n nnkaknx, anpn1e nn, pn1yanLnmx
y6nc1a - no c nn1epa1ypo cnapn1L ne1pypno: c1on1 sakpm1L rnasa n ne un1a1L ee.
yc1L nHek1cn cype6nme npoueccm, na ko1opmx paano nop1aepxpeno caHnHn xe
eapenHn n npnsnano cype6no anac1Lk, u1o y6nc1aa pn1yanLnme 6maak1 n
coaepuak1cn 1ak-1o. c cype6nmHn npoueccaHn cnapn1L ne1pypno: c1on1 sakpm1L
yun n ne cnmua1L, u1o 1aH roaopn1cn. Bnaropapn a1nH npoc1mH n poc1ynnmH acnkoHy
nn6epany npneHaH caHm o6mua pn1yanLnmx y6nc1a eapen ycneaak1 nopaec1n nop
coHnenne. co6enno 6narocknonnme k eapec1ay nnca1enn cHeno sanannk1: "y u1o x
ns 1oro, ecnn 6m paxe pec1an1enLno kakne-1o rpnsnme xacnpm sapesann
xpnc1nanckoro HanLunka? cpepn xpnc1nan cnyuak1cn pn1yanLnme snopec1aa.
epykune a uep1a xpnc1nane, apope rpaqnnn on1ecnan, 1oxe aepL pexy1 pe1e c
pasnmHn uennHn, a naun neko1opme cek1an1m ne 1onLko nnuak1 ce6n koe-kaknx
opranoa, no paxe cxnrak1 ce6n a cpy6ax nnn sakanmaak1 ppyr ppyra xnamHn a
seHnk. syaepc1ao ac1peuae1cn ao acex pennrnnx. a a1o cnepye1 saHe1n1L, u1o
nsyaepc1ao nsyaepc1ay posnL. opHanLnm nn xpnc1nane, cnyxaune o6epnk uep1y, a1o
6onLuo aonpoc. nn, kak n ckonum n pennrnosnme caHoy6num naun, a o6ueH
kpane pepko anapak1 a caoe 6esyHne. po canxnyaunxcn a a1oH o1nouennn
xpnc1nan nenLsn y1aepxpa1L, 6yp1o snopec1ao nx ocnoamaae1cn na nx sakone; npo
eapeea xe, yam, a1o y1aepxpa1L Hoxno, n6o caHm anHyp npepnncmaae1 a
o1nouennn xpnc1nan aceaosHoxnme npec1ynnennn.
cnn noun1a1L cekpe1nme c1pannum a1oro c1onL xe canuennoro, kak opa, 1onkoaannn
sakona, cnoxnauerocn a 1mcnuene1nnx, am yanpn1e nk m eapeckoro
napopa, sa1aennoe ero o1nouenne k uenoaeuec1ay aoo6ue n k xpnc1nanc1ay a
uac1noc1n. e 1ak paano n npnaopnn cekpe1nme ampepxkn ns anHypa, nepeaepennme
c eapeckoro nokonmH apronnnmH, o1uoH nsaec1noro kpnc1a. D1n ampepxkn 6mnn
coc1aanenm 30 ne1 nasap pnn uensypnoro ynpaanennn n nHek1 ack nopnnnnoc1L
oqnunanLnoro pokyHen1a. uepa xe n nonyunn ouenL nk6onm1nyk HanenLkyk
6poukpy, ko1opyk pekoHenpyk npouec1L aceH, ne xenakunH 6m1L cnenmHn n
rnyxoneHmHn a o1nouennn rnaano nsam nauero apeHenn. Bpoukpa a1a nasmaae1cn
"Xpnc1nannn a anHype eapeckoH, nnn anm paaannckoro yuennn o xpnc1nanax.
Bpoukpa caexan, 1onLko u1o, no-anpnHoHy, amuepuan ns 1nnorpaqnn. "aso6naunn
. . Hc, Harnc1p 6orocnoann, npenopaaa1enL eapeckoro nsmka a
Hnepa1opcko pnHcko-ka1onnuecko pyxoano akapeHnn a e1ep6ypre. mnncmaak
nonnm 1n1yn aa1opa pnn xapak1epnc1nkn caHo knnrn, a 1akxe aanpy narno
npnamukn rase1nmx xnpnuek, uy1L u1o nH ne no uepc1n, kpnua1: "oxL! enpaapa!
eaexec1aennoe o6annenne! n 1.n. s npepncnoann k 6poukpe anpno, u1o ona - ne
naHqne1, coc1aanennm na sno6y pnn, a uac1L yuenoro counnennn, nanncannoro eue
17 ne1 nasap na na1nnckoH nsmke n 1enepL nepeaepennan caHnH aa1opoH na pycckn.
1ak, aa1op - kcenps (nmne kypa1 a ypkec1ane) n a kauec1ae xpnc1nanckoro
canuennnka ponxen sna1L, u1o 1akoe coaec1L. ak Harnc1p 6orocnoann, on poc1a1ouno
caepyu a eapeckoH sakone. ak npoqeccop eapeckoro nsmka - on poc1a1ouno
caepyu, u1o6m npocnepn1L nopnnnnm cHmcn anHypa 6es xnpoacknx qanLcnqnkaun
nepeaopunkoa, pakunx o6mknoaenno "ncnpaanennm, 1o ec1L 1enpenunosno
nckaxennm pnn o6Hana xpnc1nancknx un1a1ene, 1ekc1. ak nn1ann (cypn no
qaHnnnn), o. pana1nc poc1a1ouno snakoH c na1ypo xnpoacko pacm n c 1eH,
nackonLko 1anHypnueckan 1eopnn coo1ae1c1aye1 npak1nke eapeckoro noaepennn.
n1a1enL anpn1, u1o aceaosHoxnme rapan1nn po6pocoaec1noc1n y aa1opa nannuo.
c1ae1cn ero nocnyua1L.
eyracHan apaxpa
ounnenne o. pana1nca coc1on1 ns payx rnaa. nn nasaanm coo6pasno payH
ocnoanmH npnnunnaH eapec1aa: 1) "1oponncL xpnc1nan; 2) "c1pe6nn xpnc1nan.
cnn ec1L kakoe-nn6ypL nneHn na seHne nonc1nne uenoaekonenaanc1nnueckoe, 1o a1o
eapen, n6o anHyp ne ocna6nn ppeaneeapecko ncknkun1enLnoc1n k uyxnH napopaH,
a cyry6o y1aeppnn ee naaekn. Xpnc1nane a rnasax anHypa - npononoknonnnkn, n a
o1nouennn nx ao ace cnne oc1ae1cn o6nsa1enLno ppeannn sanoaepL: c1oponn1Lcn nx
n nc1pe6nn1L.
"o yuennk anHypa, - roaopn1 o. pana1nc, - eape 1eH caHmH, u1o npnnapnexn1
k napopy ns6pannoHy n nopaeprae1cn o6pesannk, o6napae1 1aknH poc1onnc1aoH, u1o
nnk1o ne Hoxe1 cpaann1Lcn c nnH, paxe anren.
ano 1oro, on cun1ae1cn paanmH aHoHy Bory. "1o ypapn1 nspannL1nnnna no ueke, -
roaopn1 Xannna, - 1o1 pae1, 1ak ckasa1L, noueunny ennunk Bora". ape acerpa
npaac1aen n unc1: a1oHy ne npenn1c1ayk1 nnkakne rpexn, ko1opme ne Hory1 Hapa1L
ero 1ouno 1ak, kak rpnsL naukae1 opny ckopnyny opexa, no ne nppo. pnn
nspannL1nnnn ec1L uenoaek, acn acenennan npnnapnexn1 eHy, ace ponxno cnyxn1L
eHy, oco6nnao xe "xnao1nme a uenoaeueckoH o6pase".
ak anpn1e, saponro po nuue naunacL paca, o6Lnanauan, u1o caepxuenoaek
cyuec1aye1 n u1o a1o - xnp. apasn1noe caoe cyuec1aoaanne n nonnyk cao6opy o1
coaec1n eapen cun1ak1 npnsnakoH caoero apnc1okpa1nsHa. "nn c noxaanL6o
roaopn1: Hm - rocnopa, xpnc1nane - pa6m naun. pannnx ne1 (roaopn1 Bykcropq,
nsaec1nm neHeukn re6panc1 XVII a.) popn1enn eapeckne "npepc1aannk1 pe1nH
1akne yxacnme nocnepc1ann o6uennn nx c xpnc1nanaHn, u1o 1e, Hoxno ckasa1L, c
konm6enn nn1ak1 nenpnHnpnHyk nenaanc1L k xpnc1nanaH. ponyckak Hnoxec1ao
un1a1 ns anHypa, npnaopnHmx o. pana1ncoH, 1ak kak uac1L nx Hno 6mna yxe
npnaepena a c1a1Le "anm anHypa (27 qeapann c. r.). "Xpnc1nane, no yuennk
anHypa, 1akne cospannn, ko1opme opnnH npnkocnoaenneH penak1 neunc1mH acnkn
npepHe1, - roaopn1 nau aa1op. pnkocne1cn, nanpnHep, xpnc1nannn k 6ouke c annoH
- n ace anno penae1cn noranmH. anpy uyHa n raan1a, nopnn1oro xnpaHn c uenLk
sarnapn1L cnepm kneackoro npec1ynnennn, oco6enno nn1epecna a1opan rnaaa
6poukpm - "c1pe6nn xpnc1nan. o1 u1o roaopn1 o. pana1nc:
"ce noHmcnm eapen nanpaanenm k 1oHy, u1o6m c1epe1L c nnua seHnn xpnc1nan, a1nx
pnHnnn, a1nx 1npanoa, nnennaunx cmnoa spannn, n 1aknH o6pasoH ocao6opn1Lcn o1
nnena, ue1aep1oro no cue1y. epapoH xpnc1nane - nocnepoaa1enn "oro", caHoe nHn
o1oporo 1onkye1cn a cHmcne: "yc1L crnne1 nHn ero pa nsrnapn1cn naHn1L o neH".
oceHy kaxpoHy nspannL1nnnny c1aan1cn a o6nsannoc1L 6opo1Lcn no Hepe cnn c a1nH
neuec1namH, paccennnmH noackpy a Hnpe uapc1aoH pyHeea. ak kak, opnako, ne
acerpa, ne aespe n ne aceH aosHoxna npnHan 6opL6a, 1o anHyp noaeneaae1 aec1n, no
kpane Hepe, kocaennyk 6opL6y, 1o ec1L nanocn1L nH ennko aosHoxnm apep, 1eH
caHmH Hano-noHany ocna6nn1L nx Horyuec1ao n nopro1oann1L nx napenne. orpa xe
nanne1cn aosHoxnmH, eape Hoxe1 n ponxen 6ecnouapno ns6naa1L xpnc1nan.
o1 ueHy yun1 1annc1aennan knnra eapeea, no canpe1enLc1ay yuenoro, ko1opm caH a
coc1onnnn npouec1L ee a nopnnnnnke! m, o6mknoaennan ny6nnka, ne HoxeH
npoaepn1L canpe1enLc1aa o. pana1nca, no neyxenn canuennnk n npoqeccop a
na1nnckoH counnennn, nanncannoH, oueanpno, c yueno uenLk, c1an 6m cosna1enLno
roaopn1L nenpaapy? D1oro ponyc1n1L nenLsn. anee o. pana1nc nnue1:
"apek noaeneaae1cn rpe 6m 1o nn 6mno apepn1L xpnc1nanaH nnn kocaenno - ne
pena1L nH po6pa, nnn xe npnHo - rpa6n1L nHyuec1ao n na cype nokasmaa1L npo1na
xpnc1nan; eape ne cHee1 noHora1L xpnc1nannny a cnyuae, ecnn nocnepnn naxopn1cn
a 6esamxopnoH nonoxennn.
oHouL xpnc1nannny paspeuae1cn 1onLko a cnyuae, ecnn a1o nonesno caHoHy eapek
nnn ecnn eHy nyxno npnkpm1L 1eH caok nenpnnsnL. Xpnc1nancknH nHenaH, naunnan c
Xpnc1a n BoroHa1epn, a 1akxe can1mH n canuennmH npepHe1aH anHyp npnnncmaae1
caHme noc1mpnme nposanua n 1onkoaannn. anpnHep, apnk onn nasmaak1 "Xapna
(naaos, kan), naunx can1mx (no-eapeckn "kepounH) nasmaak1 "kepeunH, 1o ec1L
knnepm. an1mx xe xenunn onn nasmaak1 "kepeuo1 (ny6nnunme xenunnm). auy
acxy nHenyk1 "ancennue n np., n np. cnyx6e xpnc1nancko n paxe ne Hory
npnaec1n eapeckoro 1onkoaannn, po 1oro ono nenpnc1ono-rnycno. pepak1cn a
anHype nopyrannk canuennme npepHe1m ne 1onLko pennrnosnoro kynL1a, no n
cae1ckoro. "6opa-apa (46a) noaeneaae1:
"Hec1o n MM - nnuo uapn - roaopn: n - co6auLn Hoppa n
np.
o anHypy, yaepne1 o. pana1nc, "acn xnsnL, ace nHyuec1ao ron, kak pa6a,
cospannoro pnn cmnoa spannn, naxopn1cn a pacnopnxennn eapen. XnsnL ron o1pana
a pykn eapen, 1eH 6onee, koneuno, pyua n 1eno ero - 1akoaa paaannckan akcnoHa.
1ckpa cnepye1, u1o eape nHee1 nonnoe npaao 6esnakasanno o1nnHa1L y xpnc1nan
acnkoe nHyuec1ao, npn6eran npn a1oH k aceaosHoxnmH ynoakaH, o6Hany n nny1nnH.
mpepxkaHn ns anHypa o. pana1nc pokasmaae1, u1o anHyp paspeuae1 a
o1nouennn xpnc1nan aceaosHoxnme npec1ynnennn, no nocnepnne ponxnm 6m1L
xopouo saHacknpoaanm. oxno o6Hanmaa1L n ckonLko yropno nra1L, npnueH "Ba6a-
aHa (113a) roaopn1: "Hn Boxne ne npoqannpye1cn, ecnn ro ne saHeuae1, u1o 1m
apeuL. k6onm1noe 1onkoaanne, ne npaapa nn? anHyp ne 1onLko npouae1 eapenH
npec1ynnennn, nanpaanennme npo1na xpnc1nan, on paspeuae1 n paxe 6onee 1oro -
npepnncmaae1 nx. ak akoa o6HanoH amka1nn y c1apuero 6pa1a caaa nepaopopc1ao,
1ak npepnncmaae1cn a o1nouennn "neuec1nao uac1n uenoaeuec1aa (1o ec1L
neeapeea). "BopncL... aok c ne ne noknapan pyk... noka ace seHnme napopm
nocnoano ne c1any1 pa6aHn naunHn, - roaopn1 pa66n ypa (orap, 1, 160 a). axe
Hyppeun ns aepoyun1ene eapecknx aHonnp a anoxy, korpa eapen ka1anncL kak
cmp a Hacne, npepnncmaan nonnoe o1cy1c1ane xanoc1n k xpnc1nanaH: "e xane nx;
nanncano: x . ak, anpn, u1o akyH norn6ae1 - 1one1 nanpnHep, - ne
nopaaa eHy noHoun. cnn eHy yrpoxae1 cHep1L, ne cnaca (nnL-ko1 akyH, X, 1).
saknkuenne, roaopnn o. pana1nc, "anHyp noaeneaae1 6ecnouapno nc1pe6nn1L
xpnc1nan. rnasax anHypa xpnc1nane - oc1a1kn aHanekn1nn, nc1pe6nn1L ko1opmx
noaeneaan eroaa. "orap (1, 25a) roaopn1:
"apopm seHnme - npononoknonnnkn. nnx nanncano: c1npa nx c nnua seHnn, a
neko1opme ns nnx 1e, o ko1opmx ckasano: nsrnapL acnkyk naHn1L o6 aHaneke. c1a1kn
nx xnay1 eue a ue1aep1oH
[95]
nnenennn, a1o onn - nonc1nne aHanekn1nne.
oa1oHy, npoponxae1 nau aa1op, no anHypy - "npexpe acero ponxno nc1pe6n1L
noaenn1ene. "orap (1.219, 6 n np.) roaopn1:
"au nnen po1one npoponxn1cn, noka ne 6ypy1 c1ep1m c nnua seHnn anapmkn
napopoa, noknonnkunxcn nponaH. "onLko 1orpa Bor npnHe1 Honn1ay, korpa crnne1
anapmka: o nnx aepL nanncano: yHep uapL ernne1ckn, n ackope aspoxnynn cmnm
spannn o1 pa6c1aa.
1o snae1, Hoxe1 6m1L, a1oHy 1annc1aennoHy npepnncannk anHypa o6nsanm
caeprny1me c npec1onoa Honapxn aponm caonH napenneH. nocnepnee apeHn
yc1anoanena pykoaopnuan ponL xnpoHaconc1aa a nopro1oake ennko qpanuyscko
peaonkunn. 1eu pana1nc npnaopn1 uenm pnp 1ekc1oa, rpe npepnncmaae1cn
y6nc1ao xpnc1nan, n6o "nyuun ns roea poc1onn cHep1n. D1a qpasa ouenL uac1o
noa1opne1cn a pasnnunmx eapecknx knnrax. Y6nc1ao xpnc1nannna, no anHypy, ne
rpex, a xep1aa, yropnan Bory, n "nocne paspyuennn epycannHckoro xpaHa oc1ancn
1onLko opnn anp xep1am - ns6nenne xpnc1nan. o1 neko1opme 1ekc1m:
"nua xnsnn knnqo1oa n y6naa nx - a1nH cpenaeuL yropnoe Bory, kak 1o1, k1o
npnnocn1 xep1ay coxxennn... nuero yropnee BnarocnoaennoHy ocnopy n 6m1L ne
Hoxe1, kak nckopenenne naHn nkpe neuec1namx n knnqo1oa (eqep p spaenL,
177a n 180).
"cnkn, k1o nponnaae1 kpoaL neuec1namx, c1onL xe yropen Bory, kak n npnnocnun
Hy xep1ay (Hnky1 nHonn. 245. . 722. BaHnp6op pa66n, 229). "e1 y nac nno
xep1am, kpoHe yc1panennn neunc1o c1oponm (orap, 38, 6 n np.).
"orpa y eapeea cnnm 6onLue, rpeuno oc1aan1L cpepn nac npononoknonnnka
(nnLko1 akyH, X, 7).
"enoaeka npno1a (seHnoro napopa) posaonn1enLno pyun1L a npaspnnk unuennn,
npnxopnuncn na cy66o1y... o apeHn saknannn eue nyxno nponsnocn1L Honennn, ao
apeHn pyuennn onmx ne nonarae1cn. oo6ue, npno1oa cnepye1 pyun1L kak xnao1nmx
(ecaxnH, 49). "aan eHy ropno, kak saepk, ko1opm okoneaae1 ne nnknya (orap,
11, 110 a) n np. n np.
saknkuennn caoeH o. pana1nc roaopn1, u1o on npepc1aann un1a1enk "1onLko
Hnnnnonnyk uac1nuy 1oro, u1o roaopn1cn a anHype o xpnc1nanax. oxno y1eun1Lcn
1eH, u1o eapen a nopaannkueH 6onLunnc1ae, aepon1no, ne snak1 anHypa, kak
xpnc1nane - caonx canuennmx knnr, no pyx uypoanuno knnrn, ycaanaaeHo
paaannaHn, poxopn1 n po eapecko Haccm. oxno y1eun1Lcn n 1eH, u1o 10 - 15
npouen1oa eapeea ne xnpoacko kpoan n nHek1 na1ypanLnyk coaec1L, ko1opan
nnkorpa ne nopunnn1cn nsyaepcknH anyuennnH anHypa. o aepL 6onLunnc1ao-1o
eapecko pacm anonne rapHonnpye1 c 1anHypnuecknH yuenneH kak rny6oko
naunonanLnmH. 1euenne 1mcnuene1n cospaaanacL paaannckan ncnxonornn n
saneua1nenacL a canuennoH kopekce, u1nHoH napaane c Bn6nne. cnn na Bn6nnk
Hoxno cHo1pe1L kak na pneannk Honoporo napopa, xec1okoro n pano ncnopuennoro, no
ace-1akn nopaaaauero napexpm, 1o anHyp noxox na c1apueckyk ncnoaepL, na can1ok
rpexoa, po 1oro npnamunmx, u1o a nnx xoue1cn ne kan1Lcn, a onpaapmaa1L nx. npnHo,
ouenL ppeann napopeu eapeckn po 1oro npouno cnoxnncn a napasn1nm 1nn, u1o
npno6pen n nenopanxnyk, nnuennyk coaec1n pyuy. o1 a ueH onacnoc1L a1oro
yxacnoro aonpoca. m pyHaeH, u1o eapen - nkpn opno c naHn pyun, Hexpy 1eH a
pec1an1enLnoc1n 1y1 1akan xe aeunan pasnnua, kak Hexpy ue1aeponorok oauo n
ue1aeponornH aonkoH.

P. S. a Hoe npepnoxenne 1pe1eckoro cypa eapeckan rase1a "euL ne nsLnanna
cornacnn. c1ae1cn npnaneuL ee k cypy yronoanoHy.
R F R
3
ny1pennnn nonn1nka naua o6Lnanena naunonanLno. po6pm uac! o, k
coxanennk, 1o, u1o ckasano, y nac paneko eue ne cpenano. 1 6narnx naHepenn po
ncnonnennn nx y nac rny6okan n acero uaue nenpoxopnHan nponac1L. 1poro roaopn,
pasae 6mno apeHn, korpa naua nonn1nka o6Lnannna ce6n ne naunonanLno? H 1akoro
apeHenn ne noHnk. a cypoam aek nkonan I, n a 6onee Hnrkoe uapc1aoaanne
nekcanppa II, n 1eH 6onee - a opyueanennyk pyccknH uyac1aoH anoxy nekcanppa
III pycckan nonn1nka acerpa penana anp, u1o ona c1poro naunonanLna, po 1ako paxe
c1enenn, u1o caHoe coHnenne a a1oH nokasanocL 6m 1orpa npec1ynnmH. o a caHo
pec1an1enLnoc1n nop qnaroH npekpacnmx naHepenn ace apeHn una nonn1nka
rny6oko an1nnapopnan, nopaxakuan nc1opnueckne nn1epecm nauero nneHenn.
Xo1n1e pokasa1enLc1a - acnoHnn1e nonn1nky, npnaepuyk nac k 6ankpo1c1ay a
Onnnnnpnn n a anapno occnn. Henno nocne okonua1enLnoro nokopennn
qnnnnnpuea n nonnkoa onn c1ann ykpennn1L na naue seHne caon nonn1nueckne
nosnunn, npnueH npn no1aopc1ae ns e1ep6ypra poc1nrnn ycnexoa neaepon1nmx. o
xe 6mno na 1pe1Le, kpane aaxno naue okpanne - na aakase. o xe npe1 1enepL
n a ypkec1ane. Y1aeppnauncL Hexpy payHn Ha1epnkaHn, occnn paneko ampannyna
caon pepy1m, no ne saHe1nna, u1o a1n pepy1m noc1enenno nanonnnnncL any1pennnHn
aparaHn n aHec1o kpenoc1n cnyxa1 yxe npnunno cna6oc1n naue, nc1ounnkoH oc1pmx
1peaor n pacxopoa.
Onnnnnpnn n onLue nncanocL eue nepaano poc1a1ouno. osaonL1e nanoHnn1L o
snocuac1noH aakase, ko1opm npoponxae1 pasaannaa1Lcn nop ynpaanenneH
ppnxnoro, xo1L n nn6epanLnoro apHnnnc1pa1opa. uepaunnn 1enerpaHHa rnacn1 o 1oH,
u1o "peaonkunonnoe pas6onnuec1ao ycnnnaae1cn a 3su. a Hsu
npoponxak1 pec1aoaa1L uakn ropuea, nanapan paxe na noespa y kpynnmx c1anun,
kak, nanpnHep, a nepaaneH yxacnoH npec1ynnennn Y nnepanLnmx op. 6a cknona
aakasckoro xpe61a naxopn1cn ao anac1n anapxnueckoro pasnoxennn, ko1opoe
saaepuae1 co6ok nonn1nky ponrnx pecn1nne1n. aakas, kak nsaec1no, 6mn
npncoepnnen k occnn nocne nn1npecn1nne1ne cokpyun1enLno aonm. axpan ckana
1aH, u1o nasmaae1cn, o6nn1a pyccko kpoaLk, n nepapoH panocL naH a1o uypnoe
uapc1ao cneroamx rop n packnx ponnn! asanocL 6m, saaoeaaa nakoneu
onyc1ouennm kpa, ckasouno 6ora1m, cnepoaano o1pa1L ero a narpapy no6epn1enk,
nHenno napopy pycckoHy, n nnkakoHy nnoHy. oporo ueno 6mn okynneno a1o npaao
- 1nxknHn 1pypaHn, xec1oknHn yaeuLnHn n c1papannnHn, Hyun1enLno cHep1Lk
co1en 1mcnu pyccknx nkpe. u1o xe? aaoeaannm pyccknHn aakas o1pann ppyrnH
napopnoc1nH, a pnn pycckoro nepecenennn aakas sakpm1, kak snaun1cn na knnxke,
nspanno pnn nepecenenuea.
nocnepneH amnycke "onpocoa kononnsaunn ec1L saHeua1enLnan c1a1Ln . .
aapoaa, ko1opo amaopm cnepye1 ycaon1L aceH naunonannc1aH pyccknH, n oco6enno
npaan1enLc1ay, o6LnanaueHy naunonanLnm kypc. asae nekcanpp I ne 6mn
opyueanen xenanneH 6nara pyccko napopnoc1n? ocne 1euec1aenno aonm, a
opeone cnacn1enn occnn, a opeone nonkoaopua, poaepuero nonkn occnn po c1en
apnxa, Hnepa1op nekcanpp I, "6narocnoaennm caonH napopoH, Hor 1onLko
roppn1Lcn caoe naune, kak n ona nH. D1o n 6mno. o napnpy c a1nH nop anyuenneH
nLc1namx uapepaopuea ns nnopopuea 1o1 xe nekcanpp I nopnncan cHep1nm
npnroaop pycckoHy peny a Onnnnnpnn n cHep1nm npnroaop eHy a saxaauenno
nonnkaHn anapno ycn. aakas 1orpa uennkoH eue ne npnnapnexan occnn, no a
o1aoeaannyk uac1L aakasa a 1819 ropy nepecennnn 500 ceHec1a... m pyHae1e,
pyccknx? e1 - kMc, ns ko1opmx 6mnn o6pasoaanm neHeukne kononnn a
nqnnccko n nncaae1nonLcko ry6epnnnx. ononnc1aH 6mnn o1aepenm nyuune
kasennme seHnn n panm aceaosHoxnme nLro1m. a1eH, nocne aonm 1826 - 1828
ropoa, Hm nepecennnn a akaakasLe a 1euenne payx ne1 camue 40 000 pyu... pyccknx
nocenenuea? e1 - ncc n camue 84 000 M. H 6mnn o1panm
nyuune seHnn a nncaae1nonLcko n Dpnaancko ry6epnnnx, a 1akxe a 1pex yespax
nqnnccko ry6epnnn. kaxn1e, a1o noxoxe ckonLko-nn6ypL na pycckyk
naunonanLnyk nonn1nky?
nn aopaopennn apHnn 6mno o1aepeno 200.000 pecn1nn kasennmx seHenL n kynneno
6onee ueH na 2.000.000 py6ne seHnn y HycynLHan. eyxenn xe, opnako, y caHo
occnn 1orpa ne 6mno napopa, nyxpaauerocn a seHne? ak kak 1orpa nou1n acn
pycckan seHnn 6mna nnn noHeunuLn, nnn kasennan, 1o Heu1o kaxporo ns Hnornx
HnnnnHoa kpec1Lnn - n Heu1o nec6m1ouno - 6mno nHe1L xo1L knouok c seHnn
pa cao6opno pa6o1a1L na neH. ao1 "naunonanLnoe npaan1enLc1ao naue 1o anoxn
sa6o1nnao amnncmaano ns paneko epHannn neHuea, amnncmaano nepcoa,
amnncmaano apHnn, papoH (1o ec1L sa cue1 pycckoro napopa) o1paaano nH
saaoeaannme seHnn, 1pa1nno kasennme (1o ec1L pycckoro napopa) Hnnnnonm pnn nx
6naroyc1poc1aa. poHe amnncannmx apHnn, kak 1onLko c1ana nsaec1na
6naro1aopn1enLnoc1L pyccko anac1n, xnmnynn uenme nonunua nx conneHennnkoa,
1ak u1o yxe 1orpa uncno nx npeamcnno 200 1mcnu. D1o 6mno npn c1onL naunonanLnoH
ocypape, kaknH 6mn nkona I. ocne pmHcko aonm onn1L 1ponynocL apHnnckoe
acenenne: k neHy o1nocnnncL 6narocknonno, nonaran, u1o ueH 6onLue nx 6ype1, 1eH
nyuue, noueHy paxe ne aenn nH cue1a. pn nekcanppe II, korpa aakas nakoneu 6mn
coaceH nokopen, naua kasna penana neHanme xep1am, u1o6m sacenn1L uypnoe
epnoHopckoe no6epexLe. m pyHae1e - pyccknHn nkpLHn? e1. Boxe coxpann. a
kasennm cue1 npnaosnnn ns ano snn 1ex xe apHnn n rpekoa. m ckaxe1e: a1o
ec1ec1aenno, n6o apHnne n rpekn - kxane n 6onee npncnoco6nenm k xapkoHy
knnHa1y 6xasnn. o kasna pykoaopc1aoaanacL, oueanpno, ne a1nH, n6o, kpoHe apHnn
n rpekoa, pnn sacenennn saaoeaannoro 6naropa1noro kpan amnncmaana 1akxe ac1oa,
na1mue, uexoa, n aceH nH o1aopnnncL nyuune seHnn. uac1nnaan aona c ypune
1877 - 1878 ropoa yaennunna akaakasLe payHn noamHn o6nac1nHn n amsaana noam
npn1ok nepecenenuea. opny nnuL apckyk o6nac1L amcennnocL 1orpa okono 50.000
apHnn n po 40.000 rpekoa, kpoHe 1oro, renepan eprykacoa (apHnnnn) amaes k naH a
ypHannnckn yesp 35.000 sapy6exnmx apHnncknx ceHe. c1ec1aenno, korpa
pac1aopnk1 paepn nac1exL, 1o a 1akoe roc1enpnnHnoe xosnc1ao ace nesy1, koHy ne
nenL. pHnne no1nnynncL ns ypunn xnpko, no nenpepmano c1py. o apeHn
aocc1annn 1ypeuknx apHnn (1893 - 1894), nopaanennoro c cypoao xec1okoc1Lk,
yc1anoannocL cnnounoe 6erc1ao a1oro nneHenn a naun kpan. orpaunn kaakasckn
rnaanonauanLc1aykun rpaq epeHe1ea npocnn npaan1enLc1ao o ampaopennn
caHoaonLnmx nepecenenuea, no 1ypkn, snakoHme c apHnnaHn a 1euenne aekoa, ne
npnnnHann nx o6pa1no, n pycckoe npaan1enLc1ao po6popyuno Haxnyno na nnx pyko.
oam rnaanonauanLc1aykun knnsL onnumn a 1897 ropy nacun1an yxe okono
100.000 caHoaonLno a1oprunxcn apHnn, no n ero xnono1m o ampaopennn nx 6mnn
6esycneunm. orpa y nac noc1ynnnn aecLHa na1pnapxanLno - aenenn 1ypeuknH
peaonkunonepaH sannca1Lcn a pycckoe noppanc1ao n na a1oH nokonunnn. c1ec1aenno,
u1o n y 1ypeuknx, n y nepcnpcknx apHnn pasropenncL rnasa na kasennme pycckne
seHnn. a apHnnaHn no1nnynncL cecopm n HycynLHane. D1nH ny1eH a opno nmneunee
uapc1aoaanne 6mno ann1o a akaakasLe po Hnnnnona apHnncknx nepecenenuea, n
npn1ok nx ace pac1e1. ocne epeHe1eaa sa 13 ne1 a akaakasLe npn6aannocL eue
camue 300 000 apHnn. e a ppeanne apeHena, a a 6nnxaune k naH pecn1nne1nn Hm
co6c1aennmHn ycnnnnHn n na nau napopnm cue1 cospaeH y ce6n apHnnckoe uapc1ao,
ko1opoe na kre o6euae1 6m1L c1onL xe 6ecnokonmH, kak cospannan naHn xe (nop
nceaponnHoH Onnnnnpnn) HanenLkan aeunn - na ceaepe. poHe Hnnnnona apHnn,
npn 6narocknonnoH copec1ann npaan1enLc1aa na aakas acennnncL (k 1897 ropy)
6onee 17 1mcnu nonnkoa, 82 1mcnun rpekoa, 31 1mcnua eapeea n no neckonLky 1mcnu
ppyrnx aceaosHoxnmx naunonanLnoc1e. aknH o6pasoH, n k 6es 1oro
pasnonneHennoHy kaakasckoHy nacenennk 6mno ann1o po 25 npouen1oa nnopopunnm,
apaxpe6no occnn.
n1a1enL cnpocn1: neyxenn xe pycckoe npaan1enLc1ao coaceH ne cosnaaano
neo6xopnHoc1n sakpennennn c1onL aaxno okpannm sa occne? osnaaano, no ne
cnnukoH 1aeppo. ocne aonm c ypune, korpa 6mnn npncoepnnenm 6ora1me seHnnHn
noame o6nac1n, ennkn knnsL nxann nkonaeanu nac1anaan na neo6xopnHoc1n
nepecenennn a apckyk o6nac1L 100.000 pyccknx nocenenuea ns any1pennnx
ry6epnn. o 1orpaunn Hnnnc1p any1pennnx pen opnc-ennkoa (apHnnnn) nac1onn
na s a a1oH xopa1ac1ae. Oak1 neo6mknoaenno xapak1epnm, xopouo pncykun
nc1nnnyk Hexannky pyccko "naunonanLno nonn1nkn. aHe1L1e: paxe 1ako,
kasanocL 6m, cnnLnm uenoaek, kak naHec1nnk aakasa n npeaocxopnm sna1ok ero
(npn1oH popno 6pa1 ocypapn) - n 1o1 nnuero ne Hor nopena1L npo1na nn6epanLnoro
apeHenunka ns nnopopuea. epecenenne pyccknx ne 6mno ponyueno, a 1eH apeHeneH
100.000 apHnn n rpekoa xnmnynn a apckyk o6nac1L n saxaa1nnn ace, u1o Hornn.
1879 ropy, korpa ynpaannn kpaeH rpysnn knnsL ennkoa (ncnpaannaun ponxnoc1L
naHec1nnka), on ncnpocnn sakon, aocnpeuakun ccM cuc , -
uypoanunm sakon, nHeaun rnaanmH o6pasoH uenLk ne ponyc1n1L nepexopa
cenLcko seHenLno co6c1aennoc1n a pycckne pykn. asmaak 1ako sakon
uypoanunmH, n6o on noHnHo acero npouero rny6oko ockop6n1enen pnn pycckoro
napopa. ak? uep1e occncko nHnepnn pnn kopennmx pyccknx yc1panaae1cn uep1a
ocepnoc1n? 1oH caHoH kpak, rpe nponn1o uenoe Hope pyccko kpoan n ace yuenLn
6mnn saaanenm pyccknHn 1pynaHn, - a a1oH kpak ace Hory1 cenn1Lcn ane ropopoa, a
pycckne ne cHek1? ne kaxe1cn, koc1n repoea, norn6unx a 6ecuncnennmx kaakascknx
nopanrax, co c1onoH nepeaopaunaanncL o1 1ako "naunonanLno nonn1nkn. 1onno, a
caHoH pene, nes1L na c1enm nenpnc1ynnoro ynn6a nnn apca sa1eH 1onLko, u1o6m
cpena1L Hnnnnon apHnn n rpekoa 1ypeuknx - kaakascknHn noHeunkaHn!
n1ore naue "naunonanLno nonn1nkn na aakase sa 100 ne1 ocypapc1ao na
saaoeaannmx nH nyc1onopoxnnx seHnnx nocennno 1.200.000 nnopopuea n acero nnuL
okono 240.000 uenoaek pyccknx, a 1oH uncne cenLcknx nepecenenuea acero 140.000
pyu. pn a1oH kasna pac1epnna 6onLuyk uac1L caoero seHenLnoro qonpa,
nepeuepuero k 1yseHuaH n nnoc1panuaH. cnn arnnpe1Lcn a a1o1 neaepon1nm
pesynL1a1, am yanpn1e, u1o opnna 6mna Hauexo pnn napopa pycckoro n popnok
Ha1epLk pnn 1ypeuknx apHnn, pnn rpekoa, pnn akp1eH6eprcknx neHuea, pnn ac1oa n
na1mue. m anpn1e, u1o k penexy ppeane onxnpm, saaoeaanno 1nxenmHn
xep1aaHn pyccko naunn, npnrnauen 6mn aceaosHoxnm nnopopueckn c6pop n na
nn1epmx nnopopuea acero nnuL opnoHy pycckoHy 6pocann koc1L... m anpn1e, u1o
amcuan anac1L ace apeHn o ueH-1o Heu1ana, a nnsuan ace apeHn yc1panaana popnmx
uenoaeukoa, oco6enno apHnncko kpoan... occnn saaoeaana pnn ce6n n pnn caoero
no1oHc1aa 6naropa1noe uapc1ao - a xn1pme nkpnukn o1aoeamaann ero n, yam, yxe,
kaxe1cn, coaceH o1aoeaann!
oaopn1: occnn pas6n1a Hnonne, napopoH, a1poe HenLunH no nacenennk. osop,
u1o n roaopn1L! o eue ypnan1enLnee n yxacnee, u1o panLue 1oro necnmuno n
neanpno occnn no1epnena pnp any1pennnx nopaxenn - n a Onnnnnpnn, n a onLue,
n a n1ae, n na aakase - ackpy, rpe pycckan korpa-1o no6eponocnan c1nxnn nonnkna
n sarnoxna nepep 1opxec1aoH nnopopuea. 1c1ynnnn Hm 1aH ne npep uyxo cnno, a
npep xn1poc1Lk co6c1aenno "naunonanLno nonn1nkn... ocnepnkk nokonm
epreeackn
[96]
, rny6okn na1pno1 n yuenm, xapak1epnsoaan poaonLno He1knH
nosynroH: "uL Henn, co6aka! aHn ce6n o1paeH na cLepenne n sa1eH nsyHnneHcn,
u1o o6eccnnenn po necnoco6noc1n pa1L poc1onm o1nop - paxe HanenLkoHy
cocepy...
R
15
apak1 napopm 1onLko uc - a1y ocnoanyk nc1nny xpnc1nane n nsmunnkn
ponxnm 1aeppo noHnn1L, kak sakon cuac1Ln. paaepnm napop ne napae1, o ueH
ypnan1enLno ckasan aanp: "nrenaH aonH sanoaepae1 o 1e6e (ceamunn) -
oxpann1L 1e6n na acex ny1nx 1aonx: na pykax nonecy1 1e6n, pa ne npe1kneuLcn o
kaHenL norok 1aoek; na acnnpa n aacnnncka nac1ynnuL, nonnpa1L 6ypeuL nLaa n
ppakona.
aone ceaac1ononLcko - 6pn1anckn nea, a aone HanLuxypcko - nnonckn
ppakon sac1aannn cnu occnk - a1o aepnm npnsnak npaac1aennoro napennn
napopa nauero, paec1n ne1 neno6epnHoro. e no1oHy occnn yc1ynnna a pmHcko
aone, u1o naxopnnacL eue a kpenoc1noH npaae, a no1oHy, u1o a1o aennkoe no npee
oprannueckoe c1poenne o6uec1aa, 1pe6oaaauee 6naropopc1aa, k 1oHy apeHenn
ncnopnnnocL n nsapa1nnocL n o6a knacca - anac1nm n 1pypoao - no1epnnn
ec1ec1aennoe cnnouenne. paopnne, n kpec1Lnne nepec1ann 6m1L opranaHn ppyr
ppyra, neo6xopnHmHn n nesaHennHmHn, n npaac1aenno (1ounee - 6esnpaac1aenno)
pasounncL saponro po o1Henm qopHanLnoro npaaa. nac1nm knacc a npaspnoc1n n
pacny1c1ae nsnexnncn n nepec1an 6m1L anac1nmH. pypoao knacc a 6ecxosnnoH
1pype n a o1cy1c1ane kynL1ypnoro napsopa nauan 1epn1L 1pypoayk cnoco6noc1L n
amcokn pyx, nopoxpaeHm npaannLnmH 1pypoH. euec1ne npeamcnno nakoneu
1epnnHyk BoroH Hepy, n nea nac1ynnn na nac. nepykuee 50-ne1ne npaac1aennan
ka1ac1poqa 1onLko unpnnacL: anac1nm knacc ace 6onee 1epnn nnc1nnk1m anac1n,
1pypoao knacc ace 6onee 1epnn nnc1nnk1m 1pypa. aaepxy, n annsy nouno aennkoe
ao acex cnonx pacny1c1ao, o1Heuennoe npopokoH 1o anoxn - oc1oeacknH. konue
nonyc1onc1nn nac1ynnn na nac ppakon. ak "ep1ame pyun 6mnn npepckasanneH
kpmHckoro nosopa, rak "Bpa1Ln apaHasoam - HanLuxypckoro. onc1nne c1paunm
npnsnak, korpa apoxnoaennme camue nkpn, na6nkpan popnny, naunnak1 o6nnua1L ee!
Bnnska k 1ako c1pane kapakuan pecnnua Boxnn!
1pana Hoxe1 cun1a1Lcn npaaocnaano n a 1o xe apeHn cHeppe1L 6m1oamH
pasnoxenneH, o6unH pasapauenneH npaaoa, poxopnunH po 1oro, u1o nn opnoHy
uenoaeky nenLsn yxe poaepn1L kasennm rpou 6es cnc1eHm kpyroaoro,
nsnypn1enLnoro kon1ponn, o1nnHakuero y kaxporo rpoua ero nonoanny. nac1L
Hoxe1 noun1a1Lcn caHopepxaano n a 1o xe apeHn 6m1L 6eccnnLno, u1o6m
cnpaan1Lcn c anapxne yHoa n aonL n ynapkoH pyxa napopnoro, 1oro, u1o qpanuysm
nasmaak1 renneH pacm. npaaocnaane, n caHopepxaane ne cospak1 a1oro rennn, a
caHn uepnak1 ns nero caok cnny, caok nc1nny n kpaco1y. onLko ns Horyuero kopnn
npe1 cnnLnm c1aon n xenesnme no kpenoc1n cyuLn. oxno nn xpa1L npknx n Hounmx
nanenn na kopne napopnoH, yxe sarnoxueH? pnun1e, ckonLko xo1n1e, o6 nc1nnnoc1n
npaaocnaann, o "aekax can1mx: ace a1o 6mno a npounoH, nmnue xe Hm nHeeH
nn6epanLnmx 6a1kuek, 1onkykunx o 1k6nnrencko ukone, nocnunx kpaxHanLnme
aopo1nnukn n un1akunx aanrenne uepes nencne. c npaaocnaane,
nckpennee, aepykuee a Bora a napopno-pyccknx noa1nuecknx npepc1aanennnx,
npaaocnaane naunonanLnoe , pa cnnmno nnn c1peHn1enLno cnnmaae1 kypa-1o na
rnasax naunx. ypa cnnmaae1? 6esaepne, a nounm 6an1nsH, a unnnueckn
nnrnnnsH, a 1y an1nxpnc1oay aepy, ko1opan o1pmaae1 seHnoe o1 ne6ecnoro n
yc1anaannaae1 yxacnoe 6oronenaanc1nnuec1ao aHec1o ppeanero 6oronoknonennn.
anpacno pyHak1, u1o napop oc1anoan1cn na 6es6oxnn: popn po nero, on no nnepunn
nepepe1 uep1y n amnonnn1 aecL o1pnua1enLnm pasHax, popn po pLnaonnsHa, po
ropLkoackoro "pna. m pyHae1e, kynL1ypa nac oc1anoan1? o a o1penLnmx cnyuanx,
paxe na aepxax kynL1ypm, pasae ona oc1anoanna nkpe c amcunH o6pasoaanneH -
nanpnHep, nnxenepa pe accn n pok1opa anuenko a nx oxo1e sa uenoaeuecknHn
uepenaHn? asae amcuee o6pasoaanne oc1anoanno nnxenepa ounna o1 1oro, u1o6m
o6nn1L cepno kncno1o kpacnayk peayuky, nn a ueH npo1na nero ne noannnyk?
"ao6opa! aaenc1ao! Bpa1c1ao! - kpnua1 1enepL uyHasme rpaxpane aoc1ounmx
c1pan, npnxopn a nenc1oam aoc1opr o1 noaoro yHc1aennoro ycnoann, ko1oporo onn
coaepuenno ne nonnHak1.
ao6opa, y1aepxpak n, aeuL npekpacnan, no am po xanoc1n k ne necnoco6nm. m -
orpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao, no neuec1nk aaueHy npnpoxpennme pa6m, n pa6c1ao ne
1onLko caHoe ec1ec1aennoe aaue coc1onnne, no, Hoxe1 6m1L, n caHoe cuac1nnaoe.
a6c1ao - ace paano, a kako qopHe - ec1L saHena any1penne aonn aneune. Y aac
ne1 any1penne aonn nnn cnnukoH ouy1n1enLnm a ne nepoc1a1ok. ak 6yp1o ne1
paxe a1oro oprana a aaueH oprannsHe. poc1o nopopa 1akan 6esaonLnan, kak
cyuec1ayk1 o6esLnnm 6ecxaoc1me. o, u1o nasmaae1cn renneH, 1anan1oH,
6naropopc1aoH, uyac1aoH ponra, - ace a1o y aac nnuL a caHo saua1ouno c1enenn, n
a n1ore y aaue xnsnn ne1 npaac1aennoro panra1enn. pepoc1aanennme caHnH ce6e,
am ne snae1e, u1o c co6ok pena1L, n uen1p ppaHm a 1oH, u1o aaH nnuero ne xoue1cn
pena1L. nrnnuane xanyk1cn, u1o Hnnnnonm nnpycoa peun1enLno necnoco6nm k
unannnsaunn. kakne ycnoann nx nn c1aaL1e, paaa1e nH npocaeuenne, seHnk,
npoHmcnm - onn nennao o1 acero a1oro o1Haxnaak1cn; onn epaa koampnk1 seHnk n
uac1o npepnoun1ak1 nexa1L na connue nnn 6popn1L nnunHn, ocnapnaan y co6ak
kakne-nn6ypL o16pocm. axe ronop 1epne1 anac1L caok nap a1o uenoaeuecko
nopopo. e1 nnun - ny u1o x? nn n ne epn1, onn xypek1, npeapauak1cn a ckene1m,
o61nny1me koxe, n nakoneu yHnpak1 - nou1n 6es nonm1ok cnac1ncL, nou1n 6es
npo1ec1a. Hexpy 1eH a aeka pa6c1aa nx kpenoc1nme npepkn ns-nop nne1n, Hoxe1
6m1L, pa6o1ann, 6mnn cm1m, oxnanenm 1pypoH, pncunnnnnnpoaanm 1pypoH,
1pennpoaanm 1pypoH - n acnepc1ane a1oro 6mnn spopoam, cnnLnm n cuac1nnam.
pn6nnsn1enLno 1o xe roaopn1 o Haccax nepcnpckoro nacenennn. D1o aepL 1oxe
apnum, opna ns nyuunx na cae1e pac. opo6no nnpycaH, a1nny1me a 1pyp, onn
nopaxak1 eaponeua yHepennoc1Lk, amnocnnaoc1Lk, cnno, kpo1oc1Lk - cnoaoH,
aceHn po6pope1ennHn xopouo ppeccnpoaannoro poHaunero xnao1noro. o a ycnoannx
cao6opm n paanonpaann onn 1epnk1cn, onn 6mc1po penak1cn xep1ao xnuno
akcnnya1aunn, onn sanennaak1cn, pasopnk1cn n anapak1 a yxacnyk nnue1y,
qnsnueckyk n HopanLnyk. pnHepm nopo6no xe nnue1m nerko ykasa1L a occnn c ee
1oxe apncknH nacenenneH. cao6oxpennm o1 kpenoc1noro pa6c1aa napop ne
nopnnncn, sM n - na caHmx pasnoo6pasnmx o1nouennnx. n amuen ns
noc1onnnoro, cnc1eHa1nueckoro 1pypa, pasopnncn, nonan a nanm poc1oaunkoa,
sanLnnc1aoaan, sanennncn, napopaan caoe nn1anne n saHe1no ampopnncn. opka,
cnqnnnc, ronop, annpeHnn... a spopoam n kpenkn a npexneH pa6c1ae napop
nanapak1 aennkne n Hanme nanac1n, c ko1opmHn on cnpaan1Lcn caH kak 6yp1o ne a
cnnax.
enn 6epe1 nnorpa 1nxenoe paspyHLe: a u1o, ecnn 6onLunnc1ao uenoaeueckoro popa
- npnpoxpennme pa6m? e coaepuak1 nn ryHannc1m rpex npo1na npnpopm, nsanekan
napop ns coc1onnnn ec1ec1aennoro, n ne aaopn1 nn ero a coc1onnne nckycc1aennoe,
Hoxe1 6m1L, npnHo rn6enLnoe? osLHn1e kynL1ypnyk co6aky - kak ona, 6ypyun
ns6aanena o1 1epsann ronopa, rnyna, kak ona 1nxena, nennaa, ko aceHy na cae1e
paanopyuna! na aanne1cn coaepuenno kak 6noHoa, aeuno connan n xHypan, kak 6m
a okoaax caoero xnpa, a sa1ouennn caoe cao6opm. paann1e c nek pepeaenckyk
nonypnkyk co6aky, ko1opan aeuno nue1 uero-nn6ypL cLepo6noro, 6erae1, c1opoxn1,
nae1, o6cnyxnaae1 c1apa, oxo1n1cn sa kpmcaHn, a apeHenaHn ac1ynae1 a 6o c
aonkaHn nnn c co6akaHn cocepne pepeann. 6ecneuennan 6ypxyasno, xnsnL
yHc1aenno nx n co6ak, n nkpe - no kpane Hepe orpoHnoe 6onLunnc1ao nx.
kpn o1 1ak nasmaaeHo kynL1ypm c1anoan1cn rnynee n 6eso6pasnee, ueH 6mnn.
paann1e pen1enLnoro kpec1Lnnnna-naxapn n ero cmna, pas6ora1eauero na 1oproane.
mn - OoHa oppeea - naxna 6ora1c1aa, 1onLko n yHee1, u1o 6m1L nou1n
6ecnpo6ypnmH nLnnnue, 6eso6pasnmH pnkapeH-paspyun1eneH, pasapa1nnkoH.
as6n1L poporoe sepkano, nann1L uaHnanckoro a ponnL - panLue a1nx uene appyr
nanaunecn cpepc1aa uaue acero ne npy1. 1y1 aoace ne nepoc1a1ok o6pasoaannn.
epL spopoaoe neaexec1ao, neaexec1ao opapennmx pac, ec1L nannyuuee ycnoane pnn
perpecca. nk1o ne nHee1 1akoro aonuLero anne1n1a k snannk, kak 1anan1nname
neaexpm. ao6opo1, pa1e ynnaepcn1e1ckoe o6pasoaanne 6espapnoHy uenoaeky - on
oc1ane1cn 1aknH xe, kak 6mn, cko1oH a caonx akycax, pasaneuennnx, a npnnoxennn
ns6m1ka cpepc1a n cnn. 6pasoaannan uepnL - kak ona rpnsnn1 snanne, npnkacancL k
neHy! ak ona npoc1n1ynpye1 ero!
napHp 1- c1eneu
o ropopy xopn1 bon mot opnoro npeocanuennoro, npncnaauero napnHnpy
apnoanuy a6nepy
[97]
1akyk npnae1c1aennyk 1enerpaHHy: "osppaannk pyxoaenc1ao
c noxanoaanneH eHy napnHnpa nepao c1enenn. D1o amuno ropaspo x, ueH
saHmunnn aa1op oc1po1m. u1o, ecnn noam o6ep-npokypop ec1L 1onLko
noxanoaanne, 1onLko ouepepno oppen, xo1n 6m amcokn, 1onLko unnoannk na
na1pnapueH kpecne? m po 1oro poxnnn, u1o nyxen 6mn 6m napnHnp an1o, noam
kpec1n1enL ycn, no xnsnL ampanrae1 noka napnHnpa a6nepa. a noune1 eHy
ocnopL cnny aHcona - no ao1 aonpoc: c keH npepc1on1 6opL6a n k1o nHenno aparn
epkan? o uncny koHnccn kneackoro Hnccnonepckoro cLespa a1nx aparoa
amncnnnocL aoceHL: packon, ka1onnuec1ao, HaroHe1anc1ao 6an1nsH, 1onc1oac1ao n np.
ne kaxe1cn, . . a6nep cpenae1 oun6ky nepao c1enenn, ecnn yanpn1 nHenno
specL aparoa epkan. nn pena nc1nnno aepm a napope pycckoH 6esycnoano ne
onacnm nn packon, nn ka1onnuec1ao, nn eapec1ao, nn HaroHe1anc1ao, nn 6an1nsH, nn
1onc1oac1ao. caHoH pene, ecnn am uenoaek nckpenno npaaocnaanm, kakoe xe aaH
peno po 1oro, u1o cocep aau - ka1onnk? a 6ypL on xo1n 6m nsmunnk, a1o po aac
o1nkpL ne kacae1cn. "o ecnn on Henn 6ype1 cHyua1L, noppmaa1L Hok nc1nnnyk aepy
n naansmaa1L nenc1nnnyk? - cnpocn1 un1a1enL. am ne noppaaa1ecL, o1ae1nn 6m n
na a1o. cnn xe noppapn1ecL, 1o a1o 6ype1 pokasa1enLc1aoH 1oro, u1o am nnkypa ne
ropnm npaaocnaanm. eH xe 6ypy1 annoaa1m ka1onnunsH nnn HaroHe1anc1ao, ecnn
am npoHenne1e na nnx 1mcnuene1nkk aepy caonx npepkoa?
pnnc1aenno, c ueH npaaocnaank a pannoH cnyuae cnepye1 6opo1Lcn, - a1o c
cc ccuk, c nenckpennoc1Lk caoe aepm, c caonH 1anmH
6espasnnuneH, c caoe cnoco6noc1Lk - kak nyc1o1m - aHeua1L a ce6n acnkoe noaoe
copepxanne. a kneackoH cLespe (1ounee, co6ope) Hnccnonepoa, kak n na
npepmpyunx, 6opum sa npaaocnaane penann anp, u1o any1pn epkan ace o6c1on1
6narononyuno, a ace onacnoc1n - ane ee. ne xe kaxe1cn, u1o peno c1on1 kak pas
nao6opo1. ne epkan pnn nee ne1 nnkaknx yrpos, n, no cyuec1ay, paxe 6m1L ne
Hoxe1 - a ao1 any1pn... 1y1 naunnak1 pasaepsa1Lcn uenme nponac1n n uepnme
6espnm.
Xnan nonc1one1nn a pycckoH o6uec1ae, na6nkpan 6ecuncnennoe Hnoxec1ao nnoxnx
xpnc1nan, naunnan c ce6n, n nnkorpa ne Hor nonn1L: saueH nocmnak1cn npaaocnaanme
Hnccnonepm a n1a, a Hnonnk, a Hepnky? akoe naH peno, ao u1o n kak aepn1
nnonum, korpa cnacenne naunx co6c1aennmx pyu upesamuano ckoHnpoHe1npoaano?
e ec1L nn a1o panekoe ny1euec1ane sa 1eH, u1o6m o1mcka1L cyukn a rnasy neaepoHmx
naH 6nnxnnx, korpa a co6c1aennoH rnasy ckonLko yropno 6peaen? paapa, nepaano a
Hnonnk 6mn nocnan apxnepe nnuL a anpe nakasannn nocne ckanpanLno, nnoxo
saHn1o nc1opnn a speune pyxoano akapeHnn. ocnan 6mn coaepuenno eue
Honopo uenoaek, na ko1oporo 6mno ouenL c1panno cHo1pe1L ao apeHn xnpo1onnn a
an1eueH nnope - po 1ako c1enenn on 6mn kn n nnuen xo1n 6m o1panennmx
any1pennnx npnsnakoa Honauec1aa. o ecnn 1aknH HonopmH nkpnH, 1eH nnn nnmH
qaaopn1aH, penakunH kapLepy, apyua1 na oc1oke nponoaepL npaaocnaann - 1onLko
no1oHy, u1o okasanncL 6ecnopnpkn a kaknx-1o cyHHax, - 1o ao u1o xe npeapauae1cn
aqqek1noe c anpy naue aneuneHnccnonepckoe peno? e ace Hnccnonepm, ckaxe1e
am, noxoxn na npeocanuennoro eprnn oknckoro. Bmnn kpane nou1ennme, rny6oko
yuenme, nou1n can1me no xnsnn Hnccnonepm, apope apxnennckona nkonan
Hnonckoro. a, no 1aknx, Hne kaxe1cn, o1nycka1L a Hnonnk npoc1o xanko. akne
ouenL n ouenL npnropnnncL 6m a caHo occnn. 1o 1onky, u1o aneprnn n 1anan1
saHeua1enLnmx naunx nepapxoa npnnarae1cn pecn1kaHn ne1 rpe-1o a oc1ounoH
nonyuapnn?
1ako xe Hepe pnn Henn nnuno npepc1aanne1 nepaspeunHyk sarapky: k ueHy
npaaocnaanmH cnu c packonLnnkaHn n cek1an1aHn? cnn onn ne npnsnak1 naue
epkan, 1o yxe nnkak ne no neaexec1ay. nn xnay1 a caHoH okeane npaaocnaann, onn
exepneano cnmua1 konokonLnm saon, xopn1 HnHo naunx uepkae. cnn onn po 1ako
c1enenn ne nk6onm1nm, u1o nn pasy ne nonn1epecoaanncL 1eH, u1o 1akoe uepkoaL n ee
npaaocnaane, 1o u1o xe c 1aknHn nkpLHn roaopn1L? nn sacnyxnaak1, u1o6m na nnx
Haxny1L pyko. cnn xe onn sarnnpmaann a uepkoaL n a canuennme naun knnrn n ne
naunn nx no pyue, 1o kako Hnccnonep a coc1onnnn nepey6epn1L nx? saueH?
nacnoc1L ne a 1oH, u1o packonLnnkn n cek1an1m naxopn1 nenn1epecno nauy aepy, a
a 1oH, ecnn a ne n pec1an1enLno ne okaxe1cn nn1epeca. e opnn packonLnnkn n
cek1an1m yunn ns epkan - nensHepnHo 6onLue npaaocnaanmx yuno a neaepne n
cna6oaepne. nn no nacnop1y uncnn1cn eue npaaocnaanmHn, na caHoH xe pene
ropaspo panLue o1 npaaocnaann, ueH paxe c1apoo6pnpum nnn Honokane. e xo1L a
Bora aepyk1 (a a1o nou1n ace, u1o ec1L a epkan uennoro) - aennkoe xe Hnoxec1ao
pekoHmx npaaocnaanmx nn ao u1o ne aepyk1. D1nx aepny1L k epkan 6mno 6m nyxnee,
ueH saaep6oaa1L nnonuea nnn kpacnokoxnx aHepnkanuea. an1eueHy nnopy
cnepoaano 6m nHe1L Hyxec1ao cnpocn1L ce6n: u1o pena1L c any1pennnH, neypepxnHmH
pasaanoH 1oro Horyuec1aa, ko1opoe korpa-1o opno npaac1aenno anac1Lk nacno
napop, npocaeuano ero coaec1L, nopaannno rpex, aeno napop k po6pope1enn?
onpoc a1o1 aaxnoc1n upesamuano. ennkn napop - cyuec1ao HopanLnoe. epnn
6narouec1ne, napop 1epne1 opnoapeHenno pncunnnnny rpaxpanc1aennoc1n: ns
saun1nnka sakona on c1anoan1cn npec1ynnnkoH ero. Hec1e c npaac1aenno
aocnn1annoc1Lk napop 1epne1 1pypoayk pasyHnoc1L. n c1anoan1cn anapxnuen,
xapen, son, xec1ok. osnpa1enL uapc1aa npeapauae1cn a paspyun1enn ero.
pnnc1aennm cnoco6 6opL6m cae1a c 1LHok - a1o u cM, rope1L, pasropa1Lcn n
caepka1L - po 1o c1enenn, korpa c1anoan1cn nakoneu pec1an1enLno cae1no n aceH
ace anpno. o6eponocnm cae1 aosapauae1 uenoaeky spenne: 1onLko c a1oro HoHen1a
naunnae1cn cosna1enLnan n o1ae1c1aennan pnn uenoaeka xnsnL. yxoaenc1ao, ecnn
ono anoc1onLc1ao yxa an1oro, ponxno 6m1L cae1nnLnnkoH na aepxy ropm.
pnnc1aennm cnoco6 o1c1anaa1L aepy, ecnn ona cae1, - a1o anoaL sac1aan1L ee
cnn1L, ocaeua1L ny1L xnsnn. D1o 1pypno. D1o 1pe6ye1 ropennn, 1o ec1L cropannn a
orne, 1oro Hyuennuec1aa, ko1oporo 1pe6oaan Xpnc1oc o1 yuennkoa. pe6oaanne 6mno
aoace ne upesHepnoe, n6o npoc1me nkpn - pm6akn n pa6oune - oxo1no unn na kpec1
n nnaxy, n acnep sa nnHn unn co1nn 1mcnu Hyuennkoa. orpa k naH a occnk 6mn
sanecen a1o1 noxap coaec1n, Hm anpnH, u1o can1me unn na po6poaonLnme c1papannn.
e 6mno ronenn - caHn ce6n nsronnnn a nyc1mnn. x ne 1npannnn, ne 6pocann a
1kpLHm, ne 1oHnnn ronopoH, ne saknkuann a kanpanm - can1me nopanxnnkn caHn
ce6n nc1nsann, sa1ouann a cxnHy, Hopnnn ronopoH, o6nekanncL a aepnrn. yxno a1o
6mno nnn ne nyxno, no 1akoa 6mn xap aepm n 1akoe 1pe6oaanne xep1a pnn coaec1n,
u1o aepoyun1enn naunnann c ce6n. pacnyuennm napop nopaxancn. pnHep
reponuecko 6opL6m c pypno nanpaanenno aone naunnan yaneka1L. o6poaonLnoe
Hyuennuec1ao anecno a napop aocnn1maakuyk cpepxannoc1L, nnuennn acke1oa
anecnn yHepennoc1L, caHoorpannuenne ao acex c1pac1nx, 1o ec1L 1y Hepy, kakan
penae1 xnsnL spopoao n xypoxec1aenno. 1apan epkoaL pec1an1enLno
nc, aoanekana napop a npepc1aanennn cae1nme, a pncunnnnny aonn, a
6naropopc1ao xapak1epa. o acn cnna epkan ncknkun1enLno 6mna a amcoko aepe
caHoro pyxoaenc1aa. anpo1na, acn cna6oc1L 1enepeune epkan - a cna6oaepnn
pyxoaenc1aa, a noc1mpno pacnyuennoc1n Honaxoa, a nounoH nn6epannsHe
neko1opmx npepc1aan1ene nepapxnn, a rnaanoe - a neuec1nn pyxoano ukonm.
BF
31
Ypnan1enLnm uenoaek, c1one1ne ko1oporo npaspnye1cn a a1n pnn, nHen caok ppaHy,
kak, anpoueH, nHek1 ee ace kpynnme nkpn. cnkn ampakuncn, a 1eH 6onee
aennkn uenoaek, anocn a opyueanennyk c1nxnk o6uec1aa caok cnnukoH cnnLnyk
pyuy, penae1cn uen1poH npn1nxennn n o11anknaannn, uen1poH caoero popa 6ypn,
ko1opan aonnye1 o6uec1ao nnorpa ponrne pecn1nne1nn. Bennnckn cnoxen, o1 nero
nenLsn o1mrpa1Lcn, kak a1o o6mknoaenno penak1 c saHeua1enLnmHn nkpLHn nx
nesaHeua1enLnme 1onkoaa1enn, opnnHn aoc1opxennmHn noxaanaHn. Bennnckn
nnaHenno aocnen yuknna, no n nanpaanenneH Hmcnn, n HnpononnHanneH
peun1enLno pasouencn c yuknnmH. Bennnckn c rny6oknH nou1enneH ac1pe1nn
oronn, no pacc1ancn c nnH kak npoc1nm apar. Y nor Bennnckoro xo1en 6m1L
noxoponennmH yprenea, no oc1oeackn, o6nackannm BennncknH, a konue konuoa
npoaosrnacnn nocnepnero caHmH rnycnmH nanenneH pycckoro pyxa. np nokonenn
nnaHenno yanekancn BennncknH, no neko1opme (nanpnHep, ea onc1o) coaepuenno
npene6pexn1enLno o1nocnnncL k neHy. ak anpn1e, okono a1oro sarapounoro nnua a
naue nn1epa1ype una paxe 1aH, na amco1e, cpepn 6eccHep1nmx, ponroapeHennan
rposa. Bennnckoro 1pypno nepeun1a1L 1enepL, no ero c1on1 nsyun1L, n6o a1o snaun1
nsyun1L opnn ns nn1epecneunx HoHen1oa pasan1nn pycckoro o6uec1aa c
aosHoxnoc1Lk na1n pasrapky pnn Hnororo.
pexpe acero, o 1anan1e Bennnckoro, n6o 6es 1anan1a ne1 n nnca1enn. asmaa1L
Bennnckoro "aennknH n "rennanLnmH, kak penak1 ero aoc1opxennme noknonnnkn,
koneuno, nenLsn. ennune ne yHnpae1, renn caex n nn1epecen uepes 1mcnun ne1,
Hexpy 1eH nyuune c1a1Ln Bennnckoro 1enepL un1ak1cn nou1n 6es nn1epeca. e1 35
nasap, korpa n anepame un1an Bennnckoro, n nnuno 6mn yaneuen nH n ouapoaan, no
aepL Hne 6mno 1orpa uec1napua1L ne1... H pyHak, nc1opnk nn1epa1ypm ne oun6e1cn,
ecnn nasoae1 Bennnckoro M nnca1eneH, n6o on o6napan papoH aonnoaa1L
ceppua xo1n 6m 1onLko 6nnxaunx k neHy nokonenn. BespapnmH nkpnH a1o ne ano.
enopanxnme yHc1aenno, onn nnkaknx aosHyuenn c co6o a o6uec1ao ne anocn1.
Bennnckn, Hne kaxe1cn, o6napan nesaypnpnmH nnucM 1anan1oH. n
ponro cun1ancn aennknH kpn1nkoH; sa o1cy1c1aneH y nac 1akoaoro on Hor a caoe apeHn
cmrpa1L n a a1oH o1nouennn kpynnyk ponL, no a pec1an1enLnoc1n on 6mn 1onLko
nponoaepnnk, ny6nnunc1, opa1op na 6yHare, Hopannc1, n aecL amcokn nnpnsH ero
pyun, acn cnna y6expennn 6mnn nanpaanenm a opny nnuL npaac1aennyk nponaranpy.
Henno npo nero 6mno ckasano:
open nonynouno naHnapo
epep can1mnek po6pa...
"enc1oam nccapnon kak nn1epa1ypnm kpn1nk 6mn a ropaspo 6onLue c1enenn
npopokoH, ueH 1e coapeHennme eHy noa1m, ko1opme nasmaann ce6n npopokaHn. cnn k
koHy ns nnca1ene acero 6onee nopxopnno sa1ackannoe ampaxenne: "naronoH xrn
ceppua nkpe, 1o, koneuno, ne k yuknny, aa1opy a1o qpasm, a k BennnckoHy. cnn
k koHy acero 6onee nopxopnn eue 6onee sa1ackannm nekpacoackn c1nx: "e1e
pasyHnoe, po6poe, aeunoe, 1o onn1L-1akn ne k ekpacoay, a k BennnckoHy. c1nnnan
noasnn neckasanno aonnye1, 1porae1, aocxnuae1, no xuu ceppua nnn cen1L sM
n , Hne kaxe1cn, aoace ne peno noasnn. D1o peno ne "nsmka 6oroa, a
cpaann1enLno nnsunx npnsaann - npopouecknx, opa1opcknx, nponoaepnnuecknx.
o nponcxoxpennk caoeHy, kak nsaec1no, Bennnckn npnnapnexan k nopope
nponoaepnnuecko - pep ero n 6onee panekne npepkn 6mnn ns pyxoaenc1aa.
k6onm1no 1o, u1o pyxoaenc1ao naue pano Hnoxec1ao ny6nnunc1oa n kpn1nkoa 1akoro
1nna, kak o6ponk6oa n epnmueackn, n nn opnoro noa1a, ecnn ne cun1a1L
Benepnk1oaa. axe nyuune 6enne1pnc1m ns pyxoanoro cocnoann nou1n ace ncnopuenm
ny6nnunc1nuecko, 1o ec1L nponoaepnnuecko, 1enpenune. 1o pena1L! axpm
nece1 a caoe kpoan n a nepanmx kne1kax cHy1nyk naHn1L o6o aceH, u1o pyHann n ueH
aonnoaanncL npepkn. yua ne 6onee kak 1mcnueronocm xop npepkoa. kaxpm ns
nac, caH 1oro ne saHeuan, pec1aye1 ne kak nnunoc1L, a kak nopopa. Bennnckn nop
koneu xnsnn 6mn saxaauen aceaosHoxnmHn papnkanLnmHn o1pnuannnHn n Hexpy
npounH o1pnuan Xpnc1a, no kpoaL ero nopopm 6mna nacmuena pennrnosnoc1Lk n xap
caHmx nenc1oamx ero o1aepxenn 6mn pennrnosen. ce amcokoe on o1pnuan ao nHn,
kak eHy kasanocL, uero-1o amcuero, ao nHn u, a a1o ec1L yxe pennrnn.
Bnorpaqm Bennnckoro nopaxak1cn, kaknH o6pasoH nnoxo o6pasoaannm knoua,
ncknkuennm ns rnHnasnn "sa nexoxpenne a knacc, ncknkuennm ns ynnaepcn1e1a
"no necnoco6noc1n, a coc1onnnn 6mn c 1ako uypecno nerkoc1Lk aocnpnnnHa1L a
ce6n ace aennkne yHc1aennme 1euennn, npn a a1oH o1nouennn ne 1onLko pnpoH c
1onko o6pasoaannmHn nkpLHn, kak apexpnn, 1ankeanu, panoackn, yppnauea,
Bakynnn, rapea n epuen, no paxe saHe1no noppepxnaan nx. Ypnann1Lcn neuero:
kpoHe 1anan1a, ko1opm ec1L knku ko aceH o1kpoaennnH, Bennnckn nec a kpoan
caoe nopopm noamuennyk cnoco6noc1L qnnocoqc1aoaa1L n apoxnoann1Lcn.
onoccanLnoe annnnne, ko1opoe nHen Bennnckn na uenm pnp pyccknx nokonenn,
nponcxopnno aoace ne ns cnnm ero kpn1nueckoro yHa, aoace ne ns ac1e1nuecko
1onkoc1n. ak kpn1nk Bennnckn cpenan neHano rpy6mx oun6ok (nanpnHep,
o1nocn1enLno ypreneaa). cnoano 1esnc ero ac1e1nkn ouenL cnopen. Bennnckn
nac1anaan na 1oH, "u1o kaxpm yHnm uenoaek anpaae 1pe6oaa1L, u1o6m noasnn noa1a
nnn paaana eHy o1ae1m na aonpocm apeHenn, nnn, no kpane Hepe, ncnonnena 6mna
ckop6Lk a1nx 1nxenmx, nepaspeunHmx aonpocoa. ne kaxe1cn, a1o1 ocnoano 1esnc
yxe pokasmaae1, u1o Bennnckn 6mn 6onee ny6nnunc1, ueH nn1epa1ypnm kpn1nk, n6o
a kauec1ae ny6nnunc1a on naansmaan noasnn 1o, u1o e coaceH necpopno. poHapnoe
annnnne Bennnckoro n o6Lncnnk 1eH, u1o on 6mn nepamH, ecnn xo1n1e, pyccknH
"nn1ennnren1oH, kak 6m o1uoH poccncko nn1ennnrenunn, cospa1eneH oco6oro
yHc1aennoro 1nna, ko1opm 1orpa nHenno amc1ynnn na nc1opnueckyk cueny. oneuno,
nc1opnueckne anoxn cospak1cn ne opnnH uenoaekoH, a ueno pa1Lk nx, no ec1L
nHena, ko1opme neaonLno sayua1 kak nHena aoxpe. o Bennnckoro, 1o ec1L po
nauana 1830-x ropoa, npeo6paxakunH 1nnoH a o6uec1ae 6mn 6apnn, "rocnopnn a
npnHoH n 1ounoH snauennn a1oro cnoaa. nape1enLnm paopnnckn knacc nHen
ncc1apn caok cocnoanyk ncnxonornk; ocnoanan uep1a nocnepne 6mna roppoc1L n
ypoane1aopennoc1L. opaannkuee 6onLunnc1ao "nopnpounmx nkpe 1orpa cHo1penn
na Hnp ncnmHn rnasaHn. nn naxopnnn, aHec1e c ereneH, u1o "ace pec1an1enLnoe
pasyHno, 1o ec1L nHee1 caon ec1ec1aennme ocnoaannn. nkako rpaxpancko ckop6n
onn ne uyac1aoaann, n6o popnnncL rocnopaHn nonoxennn n caoe 6naropopc1ao
nonnHann nHenno kak rocnopc1ao. o aceH cornacnme c xopoH aeue, o6pasoaannme
paopnne acnkoe nanenne pec1an1enLnoc1n c1apanncL poaec1n po nonno1m npen, po
kpaco1m. a 1akoH HnpononnHannn pacuaen "sono1o aek noasnn c saaepun1eneH ee
a occnn - yuknnmH. o yxe 1orpa, a 1euenne neckonLknx pecn1nne1n, c
eaponeckoro anapa uen noam, peHokpa1nueckn pyx, pyx peaonkunonnm,
npocnyauncn c oco6enno npkoc1Lk y anunknonepnc1oa. ue a anoxy oankoaa n
apnueaa cpepn pycckoro 6apc1aa nauann nonann1Lcn qnnocoqm o1pnuannn,
nonn1nueckne pok1pnnepm, ny6nnunc1m, n yxe 1orpa - a nnue xo1n 6m nasaannmx
payx pen1ene - ampncoaancn repo 6ypyuero, pycckn "nn1ennnren1. nernn, n
aukn, n euopnn 6mnn eue paopnne c nor po ronoam, no yxe 1pony1me o1pnuanneH.
ennkn yuknn (aHec1e c 1e) eue 1onLko 6apnn; on ncen, kak ceaepnoe connue, -
no yxe aennkn epHon1oa aHec1e c BaponoH oHpauenm 1yuaHn. x yxe 1epsae1
Hnpoaan ckop6L, npepuec1aennnua rpaxpancko ckop6n. o apeHenn Bennnckoro
apnc1okpa1nueckn cknap o6uec1aa : nac1onLko oppnxnen, u1o c1an aosHoxnmH
npopma a nero noao, peHokpa1nuecko c1nxnn. D1o coaceH oco6an ncnxonornn, ao
aceH npo1naononoxnan rocnopcko. naraauancn aekaHn y1onuennan, nsnexen nnan
apnc1okpa1nn pospena po 1oro, u1o no1epnna cao raison detre (cHmcn cyuec1aoaannn.
- P.). "e pnn xn1eckoro aonnenLn, ne pnn kopmc1n, ne pnn 6n1a, - Hm poxpenm
pnn apoxnoaenLn, pnn saykoa cnapknx, - nenn rocnopa paopnne. popaaauancn xe
cnnsy 6naropapn a1oHy peHokpa1nueckan c1nxnn necna c co6ok nHenno aonnenLe,
nHenno kopmc1L n 6mna nacmuena pyxoH 1o kpoHeuno 6opL6m sa cyuec1aoaanne,
na ko1opyk o6peueno acnkoe couepuee c yc1oea o6uec1ao.
Bennnckn 6mn uenoaek no na1ype 6naropopnm - Hoxe1 6m1L, on nouen a caoero
pepa-canuennnka, o1nnuaauerocn acke1nuecko npaaepnoc1Lk. o yxe o1eu
Bennnckoro, yespnm apau, 6mn o1opaan o1 caoero cocnoann n aen xnsnL 6epnoro n
ne1pesaoro pasnounnua. ceHLe caoe n a o6uec1aennoH cnoe, k ko1opoHy ona
npnnapnexana, Honopo Bennnckn Hor ycaon1L nauana nnuL ouenL nx,
peHokpa1nuecko kynL1ypm. D1o 6mno ne coaceH neaexec1ao, no nanonoanny. D1o
6mna ne coaceH nnue1a, no yxe ouy1nHan 6epnoc1L. Bm1 pacc1poennm,
Hexpycocnoanm, rpe nnuennn o6mknoaenno amsmaak1 nLnnc1ao n panLneuee
pasopenne, rpe npnxopn1cn yun1Lcn na Hepnme penLrn n ack xnsnL nepexnaa1L ppaHy
conepnnuec1aa c 6onee coc1on1enLnmH rocnopcknH kpyroH. Bennnckn 6mn o1
npnpopm po6p, no nkpn ero kpyra, c1anoancL nn1ennnren1nmHn, o6mknoaenno
amnocn1 uyac1ao rny6oko counanLno o6npm, poaopnue uac1o po osno6nennoc1n. a
Hnp Boxn onn cHo1pn1 nnorpa c oc1pmH neropoaanneH, o6uec1aennoe nepaaenc1ao
nx pyun1. ennkopyunm n po6pm, Bennnckn ampancn 1eH, u1o npeannsnpoaan a
ce6e a1y nn1ennnren1nyk sno6y k pec1an1enLnoc1n n cpenan ee a rnasax occnn
nou1n canuenno. "m xnaeH a c1paunoe apeHn, - nncan on a aospac1e paapua1n
aocLHn ne1, 1o ec1L cpaann1enLno eue HonopmH n Hano anpeaunH xnsnL. - ypL6a
nanarae1 na nac cxnHy Hm ponxnm c1papa1L, u1o6m naunH anykaH nerue 6mno xn1L...
e1 pyxLn - 6epn nona1y pa cunua c "paccecko" ny6nnkn rpnsL. npn1e, kak
1parnueckn o1paxanacL a rnasax Bennnckoro 1orpaunnn occnn: on nckpenno n
6ecnoaopo1no cun1an caok popnny rpnsno. n cun1an ee paxe c1pauno - po
c xn1L a ne. 1o apeHn kak npepmpyuee nokonenne - Xykoacknx n
yuknnmx - nk6nno occnk n roppnnocL ek, nokonenne Bennnckoro naunnae1 ee
nenaanpe1L n npesnpa1L. enaanpe1L ne apaxpe6nmH, a peannamH uyac1aoH -
"nacHeuko ropLkok o6Hany1oro cmna nap npoHo1aaunHcn o1uoH. npaaepnnaa nn
6mna a1a peaonkunonnan nenaanc1L, ns ko1opo pasanncn nnrnnnsH? oronL c 1ocko
o1aepnyncn o1 saunnaauerocn 1orpa papnkanLnoro sanapnnuec1aa, yanekuero
Bennnckoro. aapaea Hor 6m noxa1L nocnepneHy pyky, no oc1oeackn ro1oa 6mn
npoknnc1L ero. as6epeHcn nn Hm korpa-nn6ypL a a1nx payx nonnpnoc1nx nauero
o6uec1aennoro pasan1nn?
ospneun ns koHHen1a1opoa Bennnckoro, . . enrepoa
[98]
, xapak1epnsye1 ero kak
"aennkoe ceppue. oxe1 6m1L, a1o n aepno: 6onee cnnLno 6Lkuerocn, 6onee
aonnykuerocn ceppua, kaxe1cn, ne 6mno y nac a nn1epa1ype, no aepL ceppue a
nnca1ene ne ace. mnnny
[99]
Bennnckn kasancn "ouenL nananmH a caonx
yaneuennnx, anaeay
[100]
a1n yaneuennn kasanncL paxe "cHeunmHn. ekpacoa,
poaonLno 1onkn na6nkpa1enL, xapak1epnsoaan Bennnckoro a snaHenn1oH
c1nxo1aopennn 1ak:
ananan n c1pac1nan pyua,
koH noHmcnm npekpacnme knnenn,
Ynopc1ayn, aonnyncL n cneua,
m uec1no uen k opno amcoko uenn;
nnen, ropen...
aH Bennnckn nasmaan ce6n uy1n "poHe1eeH a kapnka1ype, n, noxany, a1o caHoe
He1koe ero onpepenenne. ec1an1enLno, a1o 6mn HanenLkn poHe1e, noxn1naun,
kak eHy kasanocL, oronL c ne6a, a Hoxe1 6m1L, 6nyxpakun 6ono1nm oronL. paHa
ero 6mna a 1oH, u1o on aepnn a cae1 cao, ko1opm, Hoxe1 6m1L, 6mn nopoxpenLeH
1LHm.
ak aceH nsaec1no, Bennnckn ne pas n ouenL pesko Hennn caoe nonn1nueckoe
Hnpoaosspenne, Hennn coo6pasno 1oHy, kakan saxaa1maana ero o6uec1aennan c1pyn.
n nncan n ynL1pana1pno1nueckne c1a1Ln - a 1orpauneH nnkonaeackoH c1nne, n on
xe nanncan "snaHenn1oe nncLHo k oronk, po cnx nop aocxnuakuee naunx
peaonkunonepoa. n 1o po6naancn no1oHc1aennoro paopnnc1aa, 1o ro1oa 6mn np1n na
6appnkapm sa counannc1nueckn npean. o ace a1o cnepye1 cun1a1L, koneuno,
nckpennnHn yaneuennnHn, ne ponnkunHn 1enn na 6naropopc1ao ero pyun. 1o xe,
cnpaunaae1cn, on 6mn ane yaneuenn, ueH on 6mn a nopnnnno caoe na1ype? a a1o
o1ae1n1L ouenL 1pypno. n 6mn, Hne kaxe1cn, "1poc1L, kone6neHan ae1poH, xopoun
pycckn nn1ennnren1 - 1nnnuneun n nan6onee npko cpaxennm. npepennn
1ounee, a1o 6mn nn1ennnren1 "nepaoro npnsmaa - ao1 nopo6no 1oHy, kak 6mnn
Hnpoame nocpepnnkn "nepaoro npnsmaa, o1nnuaaunecn o1 nocnepykunx oco6ennmH
npeannsHoH. eH-1o n popor pnn acex Bennnckn, u1o on kak 6m o6un nop1pe1
npouepue knoc1n pnn naue nn1ennnrenunn. eHokpa1nueckan n pasnounnnan, ona
- yam! - acnep sa neponroaeunmH pyccknH 6apc1aoH 1oxe ycnena coc1apn1Lcn n
oppnxne1L. Bennnckoro xo1L c1aaL a nkonoc1ac n HonncL na nero - po 1oro a1a
"nananan n c1pac1nan pyua unc1a a caonx aonnennnx, - opnako, u1o6m Honn1Lcn na
nero, nyxno o6napa1L neckonLko npepocypn1enLno a nau aek Honopoc1Lk.
ec1Lpecn1 ne1, paxe ceHLpecn1 npouno c 1ex nop, kak aepoaannn Bennnckoro,
nepecaxennme c anapa, pacuaenn a ero pyue n napyunnn ack occnk. eHLpecn1 ne1
- cpok cnnukoH poc1a1ounm pnn acero uae1yuero. eHokpa1nn naua eue ne ckasana
caoero nocnepnero cnoaa, nn1ennnrenunn eue nHee1 6ypyuee, no nHenno noa1oHy-1o
Bennnckn "c1pauno yc1apen. onnHa1e, ecnn yropno, a1y qpasy nao6opo1, 1o ec1L
u1o on oc1ancn Honop, a yc1apeno o6uec1ao, - peno o1 a1oro ne Henne1cn. Oak1 1o1,
u1o Bennnckoro 1enepL nnoxo un1ak1 paxe rnHnasnc1m c1apunx knaccoa, kak nou1n ne
un1ak1 yxe o6ponk6oaa n epnmueackoro. a u1o epnmueackn: paxe
caepkakuero 1anan1oH n acero 1pnpua1L ne1 nasap neo1pasnHoro ncapeaa HonopexL
un1a1L yxe ne xoue1, paxe caHan peHokpa1nueckan HonopexL. oueHy? 1o sa
c1pannoc1L? cnoHnn1e, u1o nncan ekpacoa o o6ponk6oae:
ako cae1nnLnnk pasyHa yrac!
akoe ceppue 6n1Lcn nepec1ano!
......................................................
nauL, pycckan seHnn! no n roppncL -
1ex nop, kak 1m c1onuL nop ne6ecaHn,
akoro cmna ne poxpana 1m...
......................................................
pnpopa-Ha1L! korpa 6 1aknx nkpe
m nnorpa ne nocmnana Hnpy,
arnoxna 6 nnaa xnsnn...
ak nonynnpneun ns noa1oa 1orpaune nn1ennnrenunn npeaosnec n 6es 1oro
nk6nHoro kpn1nka. u1o xe? ce ue1mpe 1oHnka o6ponk6oaa, paano nspannme n no
uene aceH poc1ynnme, Hnpno nokon1cn na nonkax ne 1onLko knnxnmx Harasnnoa, no
paxe 6n6nno1ek. Yam - n caH nonynnpneun "noa1 Hec1n n neuann naxopn1cn a
sa6aennn. oueHy? a no1oHy, Hne kaxe1cn, u1o kaxpoHy nokonennk Hnno caoe
1aopuec1ao, caon noa1m, caon kpn1nkn, caon npopokn. n k koHy 1ak ne 6mn xec1ok
a1o1 sakon apeHenn, kak k BennnckoHy. n eue ne coaceH yHep, a1o1 o1eu naue
nn1ennnrenunn, no, oueanpno, on yHnpae1 c naHn - nocnepnnHn ns 1ex, pnn koro
nncan. eHokpa1nn anpnHo nonnxae1 nckycc1ao, nonnxae1 nn1epa1ypy. 1apme
1anan1m yxe no1oHy sa6maak1cn, u1o onn amue 1enepeunero 1ona xnsnn. o Hepe
1oro kak nn1ennnrenunn c1anoan1cn Henee nn1ennnren1no, 6onLunx nnca1ene
noc1nrae1 yuac1L knaccnkoa nnn c1apmx o1uoa epkan. Hena nx nsaec1nm. knnrn?
R BB
ss sMk, , c, c nu s nu c
sM... cc cnu, u cs u... (Bm1. 6)
20
<...> ponanennn xec1oko pacoao 6opL6m nenLsn o6Lncnn1L nn o6uenpnnn1mH, k
coxanennk eapecknH, 1onkoaanneH a1oro aonpoca, nn an1nceHn1cknH. apeckan
neua1L acero cae1a, onnaknaan norpoHm caonx coo1euec1aennnkoa a nrnnn n a
nxnpe, a yHmnnn n a paann, a ypunn n occnn, pacnpoc1panne1 coaepuenno
nenenoe npepc1aanenne, 6yp1o norpoHm cy1L nponanennn xpnc1nancko n
HycynLHancko pnkoc1n. ce peno, anpn1e nn, a 1oH, u1o pasnme cnkoqan1m-
uepnoco1enum aos6yxpak1 saepckne uyac1aa a noponkax nacenennn, n a1n noponkn
amcmnak1 paynornx rnen n aonkoa na npeanLneun n po6pope1enLneun ns
napopoa na seHne. pnnc1aennm nopok eapeea - uepecuyp yx nenepenocnHoe pnn
aapaapoa npaac1aennoe coaepuenc1ao. akoaa eapeckan 1eopnn pacoao 6opL6m. D1a
1eopnn yx 1eH nnoxa, u1o, packpma Bn6nnk, am yanpn1e, u1o caH eapeckn eroaa
6mn nan6onee xec1oknH aos6ypn1eneH nneHennmx aon. o cnx nop na eapenx nexn1
pennrnosnm ponr ne 1onLko rpoHn1L aHannkn1nn, no nc1pe6nn1L nx noronoano.
ppyro c1oponm, ecnn 6m 1onLko coaepuenc1ao eapeckoe amsmaano pacoame
norpoHm, 1o 1pypno 6mno 6m o6Lncnn1L, nanpnHep, norpoHm kn1auea a nrnnn nnn
nerpoa a Hepnke: aepL nn kn1aum, nn neqm ne npnnapnexa1 k ns6pannoHy
nneHenn. apeckoe o6Lncnenne oueanpno cna6o, no c1onL xe neocnoaa1enLno n
1onkoaanne an1nceHn1oa, o6Lncnnkunx eapeckne norpoHm 1onLko akonoHnuecknHn
npnunnaHn. paapa, no nokasannnH kappnqckoro paaanna peanua, nacenenne YanLca
rpoHnno poHa n naakn ncknkun1enLno c eapeea-c1apoxnnoa n ne 1ponyno 1ex
eapeea, ko1opme nepaano npn6mnn a nrnnk. 1 norpoHa noc1papann nnuL 1e eapen,
ko1opmx anrnnuane paano snak1, nHenno "6epnme eapen-poHoanapenLum. s nnx
opnn nHen paenapua1L poHoa, ppyro - ceHL, 1pe1n - nn1L n 1.n. asrpoHnenm 1e
naaounnkn n poHoanapenLum, ko1opme opnoapeHenno nannnncL xnunmHn
poc1oaunkaHn, ko1opme cpaaann a caonx poHax kaap1npm c ycnoaneH, u1o6m xnnLum
sakynann ace cLec1nme npopyk1m a npnnapnexaunx xnpy-poHoanapenLuy naakax. o
cnoaaH "Dail elegraph, anrnnckne eapen yxe Hnoro pas nonyuann npepynpexpenne,
u1o ecnn ne npekpa1n1cn xnpoackn rpa6ex pa6ounx, 1o poHa n naakn spannn 6ypy1
pasrpoHnenm. pnunna norpoHoa n specL, kak aespe, no-anpnHoHy akonoHnueckan, no,
Hne kaxe1cn, a1o ne coaceH 1ak. DkonoHnueckn napasn1nsH eapeea (kak n kn1auea)
cnyxn1 1onLko aneunnH aos6yxpenneH pnn apaxpm, no paneko ne rnaanmH. aknH xe
aneunnH aos6ypn1eneH ronenn a cpepnne aeka 6mna pennrnn. pec1an1enLnoc1n
kopenno npnunno paspopa a panno o6nac1n nanne1cn c , 1o1
rnyxo npo1ec1 kpoan, ko1opm cnepye1 cun1a1L ronocoH caHo npnpopm. apeckn
napasn1nsH ne coc1aanne1 Honononnn a1oro nneHenn. apen - caHme 6eccoaec1nme ns
napasn1oa, no aepL n cpepn anrnnuan ac1peuak1cn poc1oaunkn, qanLcnqnka1opm,
Houennnkn n 1.p. epnn ckpenn ceppue akcnnya1aunk o1 caonx seHnnkoa, napopm
oco6enno aosHyuak1cn nopo6no xe akcnnya1aune co c1oponm uyxoro, saesxero
nneHenn. a1L oxo1no kopHn1 pe6enka nyuunHn cokaHn caoe kpoan, no yxe
kpoxo1nm ykyc koHapa sac1aanne1 y6naa1L ero. H panek o1 1oro, u1o6m cun1a1L
eapeckoe sacnnLe c1onL xe neannnmH nanenneH, kak ykyc koHapa. pn rpoHapno
Hacce eapec1aa xpnc1nanc1ao okasmaae1cn o6nennennmH a1nH napasn1oH co acex
c1opon n sakycmaaeHmH uac1o nacHep1L. axe cHep1enLnme xep1am oxo1no
npnnocn1cn s uc, no xep1aa c1anoan1cn aosHy1n1enLno n necnocno, korpa
am ee npnnocn1e napopy uyxpoHy n aaH apaxpe6noHy. nopopueckoe xnunnuec1ao -
nnuL opnn ns aneunnx noaopoa nneHennmx pacnpe, n ne caHm rnaanm. aHm
cyuec1aennm n rny6okn noaop - pacoaoe o1uyxpenne. no nHee1 caon
cepLesneune ocnoaannn, ne npnsnaaa1L ko1opme Hory1 1onLko neaexpm.
ornacno nn6epanLnoHy xnpoHaconckoHy aosspennk, pacoaoro aonpoca ne ponxno
cyuec1aoaa1L aoace. ce nkpn 6pa1Ln, n Hexpy nnHn ponxnm uapc1aoaa1L cao6opa,
paaenc1ao n 6pa1c1ao. noc1panum ponxnm nonLsoaa1Lcn 1eHn xe npaaaHn, u1o n
kopennme xn1enn c1pan. cnn sa6naropaccypn1cn eapenH, kn1auaH, nerpaH,
HanauaH npnexa1L a occnk xo1n 6m a uncne pecn1koa Hnnnnonoa uenoaek, pnn acex
nnx ponxnm 6m1L o1kpm1m paepn nac1exL n kaxpoHy ponxnm 6m1L o6ecneuenm 1e xe
npaaa na occnk, kak n kopennoHy pycckoHy napopy, c1ponaueHy Hnepnk. 1ckpa
aonnn: pono uep1y ocepnoc1n! ono orpannuennn ne 1onLko pnn pyccknx, no n pnn
aHepnkancknx xnpoa, nponesakunx a occnk! as ace nkpn 6pa1Ln, 1o o6pesannm
6pa1, npnkoueaaaun ns rnn1a, anpaae saxaa1n1L Y aac ack xne6nyk 1oproank, ace
6ankn n 6npxn, ack npoHmunennoc1L, ace cao6opnme npoqeccnn, amcuyk ukony,
neua1L, 1ea1pm, co6pannn n kopnopaunn - cnoaoH, ace, u1o nnoxo nexn1. cnkn
roc1L c ynnum n paxe uenan aa1ara roc1e anpaae sa6pa1Lcn k aaH a roc1nnyk, a
c1onoayk, a cnanLnk, knapoayk n paspenn1L c aaHn ace npenec1n ceHeno xnsnn...
D1o1 nko6m ryHannm, a a cyunoc1n, nouno-cen1nHen1anLnm asrnnp nHee1
Hnoxec1ao c1oponnnkoa cpepn cna6oronoao uac1n uenoaeuec1aa - no ne nyxno
Hnoro apeHenn, u1o6m amncnnncn aecL onacnm ero npno1nsH. y1L-uy1L nanne1cn
6onLue eapecknx, kn1acknx nnn aoo6ue uyxeseHnmx napasn1oa, n oprannsH paxe
6ora1mpcknx napopoa, kakoam qpanuysm, anrnnuane n ceaepoaHepnkanum, 6Le1cn
1ouno a nnxopapke. c1ec1aenno, u1o nnopopueckne norpoHm npy1 c nnsoa napopnmx:
aocnanenne o6uec1aennoro oprannsHa npe1 npexpe acero a a1nx 1kannx, n6o nHenno
onn acero 6onee o6naxenm pnn napasn1noro xana. onLko 6espyunme 1ynnum Hory1
kpnua1L o cnpaaepnnaoc1n 1oro nopnpka aeue, korpa aceH npepoc1aanena cao6opnan
konkypenunn - n caonH, n uyxnH, n 6nnsknH, n paneknH. o nn6epanLnoHy asrnnpy
nopo6nmx 1ynnu, ecnn na rnasax Ha1epn cannLn naunnae1 rnopa1L ee Hnapenua, Ha1L
ne nHee1 npaaa o1orna1L cannLk, n6o ona 1oxe aepL kyua1L xoue1 n 1oxe cospanne
Boxne, cao6opnoe n paanonpaanoe. nc1nnk1 caHocoxpanennn a napope npo1ec1ye1
npo1na nopo6noro cyHacuec1ann, n ecnn Heu1a1enLnme npaan1enLc1aa sa6maak1 ponr
cao n ne aHeunaak1cn a saun1y pacm, 1o paca npn6erae1 k nepao6m1nmH cpepc1aaH
o6oponm. neHennme norpoHm a kynL1ypneunx c1panax nokasmaak1, u1o pacoam
aonpoc aoace ne 1ak npoc1 n ne 1ak 6esonacen, kak pyHak1 nn6epanLnme pok1pnnepm.
pecnepoaanne nerpoa a Hepnke nop1aepxpae1, u1o paxe 1aH, rpe nnopopum ne
anocn1 nnkako akcnnya1aunn Hec1noro nacenennn, a npe6maak1 a nonypa6ckoH
coc1onnnn, - paxe 1aH npncy1c1ane nx c1anoan1cn nec1epnnHmH. a1o ne kanpns
rocnopc1aykue pacm, a ronoc kpoan, 1o ec1L xo1L n cHy1no, no oc1po oprannuecko
no1pe6noc1n,
eq nenaanc1en aHepnkanuy yxe 1eH, u1o on nerp. n1aeu npo1naen ne ueH nnmH, kak
nnuL caonH kn1ansHoH: xen1o koxe, kocmHn rnasaHn, sanaxoH, HanepaHn. konLko
6m apnckne napopm nn npn1aopnnncL 1epnnHmHn, kaxpm nckpennn uenoaek
ckaxe1 aHec1e c LaoH onc1mH: " npncy1c1ann eapen n acerpa uyac1ayk ce6n xyxe
- coaepuenno 6espasnnuno, xopoun a1o eape nnn pypno. en1nHen1anLnme
nn6epanm, konuan 1eH xe onc1mH, a 1euenne neckonLknx c1one1n nponoaepyk1
kocHononn1nsH n naunonanLnoe 6espasnnune, opnako npnpopa 6epe1 caoe.
yac1an1enLnan nponoaepL, ne coo6pasoaannan c sakonaHn ec1ec1aa, noaena kak pas k
o6pa1noHy pesynL1a1y. oka ne 6mno pacoaoro nepeHeunaannn, ne 6mno n cnnukoH
oc1po pacoao apaxpm. aesxne eapen, kn1aum, rpm ac1peuanncL kak saHopckne
saepn, onn amsmaann acerpa ypnanenne n ckopee cnHna1nk, ueH apaxpy. oka
pepxanacL ppeannn ncknkun1enLnoc1L n nnoseHum cun1anncL nnoseHuaHn, onn
kasanncL paxe xenannmHn roc1nHn. a nnHn yxaxnaann, okasmaann nokpoan1enLc1ao.
kauec1ae apeHennmx, na kopo1kn cpok roc1e nnoc1panum cun1anncL nonesnmHn:
o6Hen 1oaapoa n npe po nsaec1no c1enenn neo6xopnH. acoaan n akonoHnueckan
apaxpa nauanacL c 1ex nop, kak aoso6napan nn6epanLnm npnnunn n korpa paepn
Hexpy naunnHn pacnaxnynncL nac1exL. enepL ace anpn1, u1o Hnnnnonm eapeea n
kn1auea coaceH ne 1o, u1o pecn1ok nnn co1nn saesxnx nkpe a1nx pac, n 10
npouen1oa nerpoa ne 1o, u1o 1 npouen1. poHe akonoHnuecko onacnoc1n,
rocnopc1aykune napopm uyac1ayk1 npoc1o suck onacnoc1L nokyuennn
na unc1o1y caoe pacm, na nno1L n kpoaL caok, nonnHan, u1o a oco6ennoc1nx kpoan
ace Horyuec1ao napopa. pnknx na anp norpoHax n Hannqec1aunnx o6napyxnaae1cn
nc cc unc1o1m pacm npo1na npo1naoec1ec1aennoro cHeuennn nx.
oHecL amcunx nopop c nnsunHn acerpa ponne1 amcune. Bn6nnn roaopn1, u1o korpa
nouno cHeuenne pasnnunmx pac, 1o "acnkan nno1L nsapa1nna ny1L cao na seHne.
eHnn cpenanacL pac1nenno, n packanncn ocnopL, u1o cospan uenoaeka, n nocnan
no1on aceHnpnm...

8
eo6xopnHo cpena1L 1ak, u1o6m 1 c r-pa peaonkunonepm 1ak xe oun6nncL,
kak 1pnpua1L ne1 nasap onn oun6nncL 1 M. oneuno, napannenL Hexpy
uapey6nc1aoH n npaan1eney6nc1aoH ne Hoxe1 6m1L npoaepena a 1ounoc1n, no o6e
1parepnn ponxnm 6m1L conoc1aanenm, u1o6m amncnn1L opno ppyryk. a 1onmnnnmH
oxo1nnncL 6onee nn1n ne1, naunnan co aspmaa paun na n1ekapckoH oc1poae. a
ocypapeH nekcanppoH II 1oxe oxo1nnncL a 1euenne pnpa ne1, aspmaann nHnn
paopeu, aspmaann noesp, c1pennnn na ynnue n 1.p. B cu kcu
ccuk x , u n . s nc1opnn 1eppopa 1pnpua1L ne1
nasap, naneua1anno xo1n 6m r-noH nnncknH, am anpn1e, po uero nesnaun1enLno n
HopanLno, n Ha1epnanLno 6mna kyuka snopeea, ocaxpaauan 1mcnuene1nn 1pon
occnn: osno6nennme eapeunkn, nonnukn pa pycckne nepoyukn-nnrnnnc1m ns nnsunx
knaccoa. ce a1o a kauec1ae oco6o npnnoc1n 6mno nocmnano neckonLknHn
apnc1okpa1nuecknHn qaHnnnnHn ns neapac1ennkoa n ampoxpenuea, yaneuennmx,
oueanpno, ne c1onLko cy1Lk nopnonLno 6opL6m, ckonLko HpaunmH poHan1nsHoH ee.
Beccnnne ace a1o xec1oko kyukn nopasn1enLno. enLsn xe, a caHoH pene, cun1a1L
epoc1pa1a 6ora1mpeH sa 1o 1onLko, u1o on cxer xpaH nanm: a1o Hor 6m cpena1L n
cyHacuepun, n pe6enok. poc1o sa xpaHoH nanm nnoxo cHo1penn, c1opoxe ne
6mno na Hec1e. 1opan nsyHn1enLnan uep1a nc1opnn 1eppopa 1881 ropa - a1o kpannn
cna6oc1L rocypapc1aenno oxpanm, cna6oc1L - npnHo nepao6m1nan - ee
oprannsaunn, nou1n pe1ckan nenopro1oanennoc1L k 6opL6e paxe c nopnonLeH.
orpaunnn anoxa 1onLko u1o amuna ns na1pnapxanLno kpenoc1no, korpa c1onna
1nuL pa rnapL, korpa nepep kaxpmH u1a1cknH a kokappe nspaneka noHann uankn n
kpec1Lnne, n Heuane, n kynum, n paxe pyxoaenc1ao. epL eue npn nkonae 1 uapckan
ceHLn yxnnana a nnxneH a1axe paopua, a napop sarnnpmaan a o1kpm1me okna. orpa
na 1akyk npnnnnk caannnncL nnrnnnc1m, apakosoam n Xenn6oam, 6naropyunn
anac1L nnkak ne Horna nonn1L nanennn n npncnoco6n1Lcn k neHy. apo ckasa1L, u1o
npaan1enLc1aennan aren1ypa acnkoro popa - o1 pnnnoHa1nuecko po nonnuecko -
acerpa 6mna a occnn kpane cna6o. ak a nocnepnkk aony y nnonuea 6mna
npeanLnan pasaepka, a y nac o1apa1n1enLnan, 1ak n a 6opL6e c peaonkune. anoxy
nekcanppa II 6yn1oaunkn acnkoro popa nHenn unnonoa paxe a uapckoH paopue. nn
cnnHann konnn c nancekpe1neunx pokyHen1oa, onn knann na uapckn c1on
peaonkunonnme nspannn, onn snann Hapupy1m uapcknx amespoa, a oxpana ne snana,
nanpnHep, u1o sa pa6oune konak1cn a nopaane nHnero paopua. orpa (kak, anpoueH,
n 1enepL) epnnc1aennmH c1peHnenneH oxpannkuero unnoannuec1aa 6mno
amcnyxn1Lcn, o1nnun1Lcn, n no1oHy neocaepoHnennoc1L caok nonnunn ampaaana sa
6narononyune. a ppyro penL nocne nokyuennn yxe penann anp, u1o nakoneu, cnaaa
Bory, nauanocL "ycnokoenne. e saHeuan, u1o enae1cn nop nocoH, nckpenno cun1ann,
u1o ace npec1ynnnkn yxe nepenoanenm n ocypapL cHeno Hoxe1 rynn1L no ynnuaH nnn
exa1L a Hanex. uennaan ace nsaec1noe a ka1ac1poqe 1 Hap1a, 1enepL yxe cnnukoH
ncno, u1o cxcuk c c c-c
sxu x . eckonLko nepenL - nnn paxe neckonLko pne
6epexennn ("6epexenoro Bor 6epexe1) - n rnycnoe snopennne ne ypanocL 6m.
e 1e nn xe Hmcnn amsmaae1 n snopec1ao 1 cen1n6pn? nxeno nap nesakpm1mH
rpo6oH roaopn1L ynpekn Hyuennky, o1paaueHy xnsnL sa occnk, no kak ne ckasa1L,
nackonLko nyuue 6mno 6m, ecnn 6m on coxpannn a1y poporyk xnsnL pnn occnn! on
Hor 6m a1o cpena1L, ecnn 6m ne 6mn c1onL 6naropopno-poaepuna, ecnn 6m ne aepnn a
"ycnokoenne, ko1opoe paneko eue ne nac1ynnno. nocnepnne ropm cnnukoH
6pocanocL a rnasa neko1opoe 6paanpoaanne onacnoc1Lk co c1oponm . . 1onmnnna.
n cao6opno amesxan a sapanee aceH nsaec1nme pnn a aapnueckn paopeu, a
apckoe eno n 1.n. opnnHancn na aaponnane, espnn 6es oco6o oxpanm a nHenne,
na aoc1ok occnn n np. oo6ue, coc1on1L nop ycnnenno oxpano, napo pyHa1L, ouenL
c1ecnn1enLno, n nepaoHy nocne onapxa nnuy a Hnepnn 1pypno 6mno coaceH
o1kasa1Lcn o1 ny6nnunoro "npepc1aan1enLc1aa, no Hnorne uepeHonnn n napapm ace-
1akn ne 1pe6oaann ero npncy1c1ann, kak n 1o1 cnek1aknL a kneackoH 1ea1pe, rpe on
nauen caok 1parepnk. ornacn1ecL, u1o Mc a npncy1c1ann . .
1onmnnna na a1oH cnek1akne, kak n ao ace ero noespke na kr, ne 6mno. 1kpm1ne
naHn1nnkoa n Houe can1mx coc1aanne1 a kaxpoH cnyuae Hec1noe 1opxec1ao, kak n
k6nnen pasnmx yue6nmx saaepenn n cHo1pm no1eunmx. occnn 1ak rpoHapna, u1o
Hnnnc1paH - a oco6ennoc1n c1apueHy ns Hnnnc1poa - ne pasopaa1Lcn na ace
npaspnnkn, a oco6ennoc1n ecnn acnoHnn1L, kak 6esHepno Hnoro y nnx 6ypnnuno,
caHo neo1noxno n o1ae1c1aenno pa6o1m. cnn ne 1ea1p, 1o ppyrne Hnorouncnennme
Hannqec1aunn c1aannn . . 1onmnnna, x n cM (n paxe ne
opno peaonkunonno oprannsaune), a nc nx cpepn ynnuno 1onnm, n
nanpaunaa1Lcn na onacnoc1L ouy1n1enLno neo6xopnHoc1n ne 6mno. cnoHnn1e, kak
ppeannn naua anac1L, c1ponauan Hnepnk, xnna cpepn napopa: a amcokoH peHne
ockoackoH, sa HoryunHn c1enaHn, sa nenpnc1ynnmHn 6aunnHn, a rposno
nepocnraeHoc1n pnn aneunnx n pnn any1pennnx aparoa. D1o 6mno npnnn1o ne y nac
1onLko, a aespe a cae1e, o1 c1aporo onpona po eknna. nocnepnne aeka aepxoanan
anac1L ackpy couna c amco1m kaHennmx saHkoa; pepxaanme paopum sa1epnnncL
cpepn kyneuecknx poHoa, no, Hoxe1 6m1L, a cansn c a1nH yHannnocL n aennune
anac1n, noc1enenno kak 6m pac1aopnkuecn a peHokpa1nn. paanncn nekorpa nnHn
c seHne, 6orn ero 1eH caHmH 6mnn 6m pasaenuanm a napopnoH aoo6paxennn.
caoe apeHn n nncan, kak neoc1opoxno 6mno co c1oponm neae, yxe npnroaopennoro
k cHep1n peaonkunonepaHn, pena1L caon exenepenLnme noespkn c poknapaHn a
e1eproq n nackonLko npoue eHy 6mno nocenn1Lcn a e1eproqe, nop o6ue oxpano;
no 1y xe neoc1opoxnoc1L noa1opnn n 6naropopnm 1onmnnn. e xoue1cn yx n
roaopn1L o uypoanuno neocHo1pn1enLnoc1n kneacko oxpanm, ponyc1naue, aonpekn
unpkynnpy, kpane nopospn1enLnoro eapeunka c peaonkunonnmH npounmH a 1ea1p,
kypa ne Hornn nonac1L Hnorne npepaopn1enn paopnnc1aa.
ocne nc1opnn c seqoH napo 6mno nonn1L, u1o a1o nHn ne co6c1aennoe, a
napnua1enLnoe, n ero napo nnca1L c HanenLko 6ykam: "aseq. D1o npec1ynnm 1nn,
ko1oporo cneunanLnan nonLsa, nopo6no unannc1oHy kannk, rpannun1 c cHep1enLno
onacnoc1Lk. enepL ack 6epy aann1 na c1penounnka, na kakoro-1o ynn6ky, no aepL n
nap ynn6ko 6mno nauanLc1ao, konuan . . 1onmnnnmH, - nauanLc1ao, ko1opoHy
ne rpex 6mno 6m sarnnny1L co6c1aennmHn rnasaHn a HexannsH kneacko oxpanm.
oaepne c ueno nec1nnue nepepoaepnn, ao aceH 6naropopnoe poaepne! pekpacnan,
unc1o paopnnckan uep1a, no a n1ore ee aHec1o nonnoro cnn 6ora1mpn anac1n Hm nHeeH
xonopnm 1pyn ero na c1one.
Bora1mpL anac1n... Bmn nn 1onmnnn pec1an1enLno 6ora1mpeH? 1o on 6mn pmuapeH
6es c1paxa n ynpeka - o6 a1oH u1o xe pacnpoc1pann1Lcn, a1o o6uenpnsnano. axe
nonropa nasap, a annsope c r-paHn ypnoao
[101]
n penoamH
[102]
, nn y koro ne 6mno
paxe n 1enn nopospennn a nnunoH xapak1epe paspasnaunxcn nonn1nuecknx
penpeccn. oxe1 6m1L, 1onmnnn n oun6ancn, no yx koneuno acerpa cc.
o 6mn nn on pec1an1enLnmH 1n1anoH anac1n, kaknH xo1enocL 6m ero anpe1L n a
kakoH nyxpae1cn occnn? H pyHak, ne1, n a1o pnn Henn nnuno 6mno opno ns
cepLesneunx nonn1nuecknx oropuenn. ny6oko yaaxan 1onmnnna n aocxnuancL
Hnoxec1aoH pepknx ero kauec1a, n ace apeHn oc1aaancn a uncne neckonLko
neypoane1aopennmx, nnorpa paxe nepoaonLnmx a1nH rocypapc1aennmH uenoaekoH.
akoe 6mno Hoe aneua1nenne, o6maa1enn ns 1onnm. epoaonLc1ao Hoe 6naropopnmH
pen1eneH acerpa caopnnocL nHenno k ouyuennk, u1o on nepoc1a1ouno cnnen.
onn1nueckn, Hne kaxe1cn, on 6mn 1eH xe, ueH qnsnueckn. o napyxnoc1n -
6ora1mpL, amcokn, Hounm, kpacnam, caexn, - a na ackpm1nn y nero okasanocL
coaceH 6onLnoe ceppue, cknepos, oxnpenne, n nopok knanana, n Bparoaa 6onesnL a
noukax, n cnepm nneapn1a. " 1aknH ceppueH Hoxno 6mno xn1L, no nenLsn pa6o1a1L,
- roaopn1 apaun.
o nonn1nuecko napyxnoc1n 1onmnnn 6mn uenoaek Hyxec1aennm, nenpeknonnm,
necnoco6nm k cpaue, no, npnc1anLno no o6nsannoc1n ny6nnunc1a cnepn sa ero
nonn1nko, n uyac1aoaan uac1o nnueH ne o6LncnnHyk ero poaepunaoc1L, nenonn1nyk
nepeun1enLnoc1L, npnueH Hnoxec1ao pparouennoro apeHenn ynyckanocL neaosapa1no.
ocne apckoro nokyuennn na n1ekapckoH oc1poae, kaxe1cn, yxe ncno 6mno, c kako
cnno 1onmnnn 6ope1cn. o n 1y1 ero cansmaann c1pannme kone6annn.
pec1oamaaeHme snopen, nokyuaaunecn na ero xnsnL, uapnnncL, napsop sa nnHn 6mn
1ak nnox, u1o onn opnn sa ppyrnH 6exann c ka1oprn. nHynnpyn cyHacuec1ane,
6exana arosnnnnkoaa, anocnepc1ann y6nauan nauanLnnka 1kpeHnoro ynpaanennn
akcnHoackoro. Bexana ns Hky1cko o6nac1n eapeka osa a6nnoanu, 6exana o11ypa
xe eapeka en annna, ns6exana apec1a eapeka Oera DnLknna n 1.p. epeun1a1e
yxacnyk ne1onncL nokyuenn n saroaopoa na xnsnL 1onmnnna, naneua1annyk auepa
a "oaoH apeHenn. osHyuennoe pycckoe o6uec1ao ne opnn pas 1pe6oaano
pnk1a1ypm, n paxe caH 1onmnnn a opno ns peue cornauancn, u1o k pnk1a1ype
npn6erny1L npnpe1cn, no na cnnukoH kpy1yk 6opL6y y nero ne xaa1ano cnn. e a
ocyxpenne roaopn1cn a1o y6n1oHy c1papanLuy - on nonc1nne ace o1pan opnne,
aknkuan xnsnL caok, - no k uncny kopennmx n rny6oknx npnunn ero rn6enn cnepye1
o1nec1n nepoc1a1ok a neH 1ex rposnmx caoc1a, ko1opme neo6xopnHm pnn no6epm.
eaonkunn o6unHn cnnaHn occnn 6mna pasrpoHnena, no u1o kacae1cn anac1n, 1o
nocnepnnn ne coaceH popenana caoe peno. apc1ao pycckoe 6mno nounueno o1
kpaHonm, no ne coaceH amunueno. c1aaneno 6mno 6es cepLesnoro ocnoaannn
cnnukoH Hnoro 6popnnLnmx nauan, kak 6m na ceHena, - n 6poxenne nenpeHenno
ponxno 6mno acnmxny1L cnoaa npn nepamx 6naronpnn1nmx ycnoannx. ypn no
pneannkaH nokonoro aane6axa
[103]
, 1onmnnn nponann Hnoro nepeun1enLnoc1n a
anoxy a1opo yHm. ocnyck nocnepne npnnapnexan ne ero nnnuna1nae, kak
anocnepc1ann yaonLnenne a o1c1aaky kape1c1aykuero Hnnnc1pa n 1oaapnua Hnnnc1pa
a aepoHc1ae npocaeuennn. epeun1enLnoc1L npeHLep-Hnnnc1pa ckasanacL a
nepoc1a1ouno rny6okoH nepecHo1pe ns6npa1enLnoro sakona n a 1o c1panno
1epnnHoc1n, c ko1opo anac1L cHo1pn1 na npncy1c1ane a ocypapc1aenno yHe
oqnunanLnmx coo6unnkoa npec1ynnmx nap1n. ape1m n kape1onpm am6oprckoro 1nna
nou1n ne npecnepoaanncL. 1euenne nn1n ne1 aenacL, koneuno, 6opL6a c
peaonkunonnmH narepeH, no nsnnune Hnrkan, ne nanocnauan eHy pasrpoHa.
Xnpokape1ckan neua1L, ocnoanan cnna peaonkunonnoro aos6yxpennn, 6mna
oc1aanena a nenpnkocnoaennoc1n. onro 1epnenacL n oc1anacL nou1n ne1pony1o
anapxnn amcunx ukon. oaceH oc1anacL nenpnkocnoaenno anapxnn pepeann.
eqopHa nonnunn, npepHe1 nepao neo6xopnHoc1n, po cnx nop eue naxopn1cn in spe
(a 6ypyueH. - P.). e1pony1o oc1anacL n rn6enLnan no caoe oun6ounoc1n
cnc1eHa apHnnnc1pa1nano ccmnkn, cnyxauan oprannsoaanno na kasennm cue1
nponaranpo peaonkunn. anpy noppepxnaanncL koe-kakne orpannuennn eapeea, no
a pec1an1enLnoc1n uep1a ocepnoc1n npn 1onmnnne cpenanacL qnkune, n nnkorpa
eue napasn1noe nneHn ne penano 1aknx yxacnmx saaoeaann a occnn, kak a
Hnnnc1epc1ao e1pa pkapLeanua.
o16naropapnnn xe r-pa eapen nn6epanLnoro Hnnnc1pa! H npoc1o o6maa1enL n ne
necy nnkako o1ae1c1aennoc1n sa xop aeue, no korpa Henn npnrnauann a nea na
1aHounne 1opxec1aa, Hne nokasanocL npoc1o c 1ypa nan1Lcn. onLko u1o y6n1
6mn a neae xpnc1nanckn HanLunk Kunnckn, n, kak Hne nepepaaano opno
amcokoocaepoHnennoe nnuo, ace ynnkn caopnnncL k 1oHy, u1o y6nc1ao 6mno
pn1yanLnoe. enmHn HecnuaHn pnnnocL paccnepoaanne, npnueH o6napyxenm
npec1ynnme nonm1kn saHn1L peno; poxpanncL nakoneu 1oro, u1o opnn sa ppyrnH
nopospn1enLno ckonuanncL paoe pe1e, snaaunx nppkuy Kunnckoro, n ace cnepm
6mnn saHe1enm. asaannoe amcokoocaepoHnennoe nnuo Hne nepepaaano, u1o a neae
6on1cn eapeckoro norpoHa n ns acex cnn c1apak1cn saHn1L peno, u1o6m ne oHpaun1L
npepnonaraaunxcn npaspnec1a no cnyuak o1kpm1nn naHn1nnka. e aepn1L a1oHy
coo6uennk n ne Hory, n ao1 opna yxe HmcnL, u1o Hne npnpe1cn a ponn xo1n 6m
npoc1oro pycckoro o6maa1enn npnnn1L yuac1ne a npaspnec1aax a 1oH caHoH ropope,
rpe aonne1 k ne6y neo1Huennan kpoaL xpnc1nancknx pe1e, - opna a1a HmcnL
sac1aannna Henn kpacne1L. cyxpan eapeckne norpoHm, a pyue caoe n c 1o xe
cnno ocyxpan nepeun1enLnoc1L anac1n, necnoco6no n paxe kak 6yp1o ne xenakue
packpm1L eapeckoe npec1ynnenne. orpa n ycnmuan o snopeckoH amc1pene a
1onmnnna, Hne no c1panno accounaunn npepc1aanncn 6nepnm o6pas xpnc1nanckoro
HanLunka, ns ko1oporo 6mna am1ouena kpoaL acn, po kannn. ope rocypapc1aennoc1n,
o1kasmaakuecn o1 caoero ponra! pec1ynnenne o6okpooc1po: ne oc1anoanennoe
annsy, ono nopnnHae1 caoe xano kaepxy. Bypyun caH uenoaekoH amcoko unc1o1m,
1onmnnn, no-anpnHoHy, nnoxo nonnHan ncnxonornk acero npec1ynnoro n cnnukoH
Hepnnn a 6opL6e c npec1ynnoc1Lk. n sa6maan nnorpa, u1o rocypapc1aennm Heu
ponxen nopo6no Honnnn pasn1L 6es kone6ann n nocna6nenn. o6ueH, 1onmnnn
Hne kasancn xopounH ap1nc1oH, no ne cnpaanaunHcn c caoe rpoHapno ponLk. Yxe a
npounoH ropy peaonkunonnoe 6poxenne nauano anoaL nopnnHa1L ronoay (noxoponm
ypoHueaa, noHnnkn BanHaueaa n 6ecnopnpkn a amcunx ukonax n np.).
oc1aanennme poaonLno po6ko naunonanLnme aonpocm 1onmnnn, nopo6no nsnqy,
poka1na poaepxy, amnyckan ns pyk (nanpnHep, qnnnnnpckn aonpoc). ou1n ace
apeHn on npaac1aenno npeo6napan nap napnaHen1oH, no nonropa nasap o6napyxnnocL
poaonLno oc1poe c1onknoaenne c o6enHn sakonopa1enLnmHn nana1aHn, n ns nero
1onmnnn ne amuen no6epn1eneH. oc1enenno npaaen - o1 neaoro ok1n6pnsHa k
npaaoHy naunonannsHy, - 1onmnnn, k uec1n ero, oc1aaancn 1aeppmH c1oponnnkoH
konc1n1yunn, no nonnHan ee, cypn no annsopy c HopcknHn u1a1aHn, 6onee unpoko,
ueH naunonannc1m. ap1oackne co6m1nn nokasann, u1o n specL 1aeppoc1L 6onLuoro
rocypapc1aennoro 1eHnepaHen1a nnorpa noknpak1 1onmnnna. oaepuenno
nensaec1no, kakyk aaonkunk nepexnn 6m a1o1 6mc1po npaaeaun konc1n1yunonannc1
- Hoxe1 6m1L, ns nero ampa6o1ancn 6m nau BncHapk, - no n nnuno, npnsnakcL,
Hano nn1an na a1o napexpm. ennkne xapak1epm ne penak1cn, a poxpak1cn. . .
1onmnnn epaa nn cpenancn 6m xenesnmH knnseH, n6o on popnncn, kak Hne kaxe1cn,
ckopee HapknsoH oso. n 6mn cnnukoH kynL1ypen n Hnrok pnn He1annnuecknx
nHnynLcoa cnnLno anac1n.
a1oH o1nouennn . . 1onmnnn, Hne kaxe1cn, nanoHnnan aennkopyunoro
Hnepa1opa, norn6uero o1 snopecko 6oH6m. nekcanppa II 1oxe nenLsn 6mno
ynpekny1L a nepoc1a1ke 6naropopc1aa n nckpennero nn6epannsHa, no n eHy aennkne
rocypapc1aennme sapaun ne ypanncL. 6napan upesHepnmH Horyuec1aoH, on ne
npnaopnn ero a poc1a1ounoe pec1ane. naunonanLnoH aonpoce (nanpnHep, a payx
aonax c 1ypkaHn) on o1c1ynan panLue apeHenn n ne penan 1oro nc
Harnueckoro ycnnnn, ko1opoHy o6mknoaenno npnnapnexn1 no6epa. 6opL6e c
peaonkune, amuepue o1uac1n ns ero xe ocao6opn1enLnmx peqopH, Hnepa1op
nekcanpp II ne 6mn poc1a1ouno nocnepoaa1enen n nac1ouna. n 6mn cnnukoH
aennkopyuen. Hec1e c nokonenneH, aocnn1annmH a cen1nHen1anLnm aek, nekcanpp
II kak 6m 6onncn caoe anac1n n ace apeHn c1apancn o6o1ncL 6es nee. n nHen n
aennknx nonkoaopuea (a nnue ko6eneaa n epnneaa
[104]
), n aennknx pnk1a1opoa (a
nnue, nanpnHep, ypaaLeaa nnenckoro
[105]
), no aonn ero, cansannan nn6epannsHoH,
6mna 6eccnnLna, u1o6m nyc1n1L nx a xop. pmnLn pepxaanoro opna 6mnn Horyun, no
ne penann asHaxa. pesynL1a1e occnn no1epnna Bnnxnn oc1ok n Onnnnnpnk
(nHenno 1orpa ona 6mna no1epnna) n naxnna orpoHnoe, ace pac1yuee nonunue
nonynnopopuecko nn1ennnrenunn, o1kpm1o apaxpe6noe rocypapc1aennoc1n naue n
naunonanLnoc1n. nnukoH cna6o 6opncL co cHy1o, 6naropopnm apL pan e apeHn
paspac1ncL a onacnoe panxenne, yaenuannoe ero Hyuennuecko konunno.
1o naH 1enepL nyxno? oa1opnk, nyxno cpena1L 1ak, u1o6m uepnm penL 1 cen1n6pn
okasancn 1aknH xe npoaanoH pnn peaonkunn, kaknH 6mn uepnm penL 1 Hap1a. orpa
6yn1apn nnoxo paccun1ann no nanLuaH: aHec1o nepeun1enLnoro n Hnrkopyunoro
Honapxa na 1pone nonannacL konoccanLnan qnrypa nekcanppa III; aHec1o yHanennn
anac1n amuno rposnoe ee aosaennuenne, n cHy1a o1c1ynnna. eo6xopnHo, u1o6m neu1o
nopo6noe a nnsue cqepe anac1n - na ypoane ncnonnn1enLnoro npaan1enLc1aa -
uyac1aoaanocL 6m n 1enepL. yxen uenoaek, Hoxe1 6m1L, Henee, ueH 1onmnnn,
yaneka1enLnoro 6naropopc1aa pyxa, no 6onLue c. akne na aepxax anac1n ec1L.
yuue 6mno 6m ne cneun1L c saHeuenneH npeHLep-Hnnnc1pa, no am6pa1L ero na
c1pax aparaH.
BT T
10
noro 1annc1aennmx, nou1n uypecnmx conoc1aanenn nanpaunaae1cn a 1oH y6nc1ae,
ko1opoe onnaknaae1 1enepL occnn. D1o ne npoc1o cHep1L, a no aone poka,
okpyxennan rny6oko ppaHa1nuecknHn oco6ennoc1nHn. ynn eapen, nanpaanennan a
cnacn1enn occnn (kaknH uac1o saann 1onmnnna), nonana npexpe acero a kpec1
Xpnc1oa, a kpec1 nHenn can1oro napnHnpa, cpenaauero occnk xpnc1nancko.
ypL6a kak 6m xo1ena nopuepkny1L a1nH pec1an1enLnyk uenL ononunauerocn na
occnk xpnc1onenaanc1nnueckoro nneHenn. e a 1onmnnne aoace 1y1 peno, a a
kpeueno ycn, na c1paxe ko1opo on c1onn. apeckan nynn pannna kpec1 Xpnc1oa n
oHmna ero eue pas xpnc1nancko kpoaLk. e coaepunnocL uypa - kpec1 ne cnac o1
cHep1n kpec1onocua, no aepL n Xpnc1y kpec1 pan 6mn ne pnn saun1m o1 cHep1n, a
nHenno pnn c1papann cHep1nmx. cnn ne pacnn1m na kpec1e, 1o y6n1m nop kpec1oH
1onmnnn kak Hyuennk ac1pe1nn cHep1L caok sa occnk. o, u1o a1o 6mn kpec1 ne
ppyroro oppena, a nHenno can1oro napnHnpa, n 1o, u1o snopec1ao coaepueno a
ropope, rpe kpec1nnacL ycL, pae1 Hnc1nueckoe c6nnxenne naunx Hpaunmx pne c
aocxopnue sape nc1opnn. 1orpa, 6onee 1mcnun ne1 nasap, xpnc1nanc1ao
naxopnnocL a 1nxko 6opL6e c nenaanpnunH ero o1pnuanneH. 1orpa xnpm
(kosapc1nn) npnxopnnn k napnHnpy n naansmaann eHy caok aepy. ak kpnkoanu
no Ha1epn (n, aepon1no, no neko1opmH ppyrnH npepkaH), 1onmnnn npnnapnexan k
no1oHc1ay can1oro napnHnpa. n nponnn kpoaL caok sa pec1on n opnny na 1o
caHo nouae, ko1opyk npnxopnnocL o1c1anaa1L o1 nexpnc1e eue can1o nLre, 6a6ke
napnHnpa, 1o caHo nLre, na o1kpm1ne nepaoro naHn1nnka ko1opo npnexan
1onmnnn. oxe1 6m1L, cHy1no naHn1Lk popa, aHec1nauero a ce6e ack pycckyk
nc1opnk, o6Lncnne1cn npepcHep1noe xenanne 1onmnnna 6m1L noxoponennmH a
neae; noxany, a1o nannyuuee pnn nero Hec1o - na none Ha1epn ropopoa
pyccknx, a 1oH c1onLnoH ropope, rpe uapc1aoaann ero npepkn. eHano popc1aennmx
1onmnnny ppeannx aennkoknnxecknx n 6ora1mpcknx koc1e xpann1 a ce6e can1an
nouaa, rpe on cnoxnn caon koc1n!..
c1opnn, kak xnsnL, noa1opne1cn. 1mcnuy ne1 nasap can1an ycL nyxpanacL a
6ora1mpcko sac1aae, n 1enepL nyxpae1cn. cyunoc1n, 1e xe apaxpe6nme nneHena,
u1o 1orpa 1epsann ycL, 1epsak1 ee n 1enepL. a xe uypL 6enornasan a nnue qnnno-
uaepckoro rocypapc1aa, u1o co6c1aennmHn pykaHn Hm cospann nop e1ep6yproH. e
xe nonoaum n neuenern a nnue kaakascknx pas6onnkoa. a xe xnpoackan kasapnn a
nnue HnoroHnnnnonno napasn1no pacm. cnn 6m opnn ns npepkoa 1onmnnna ne
cokpyunn ppeanero kasapckoro uapc1aa, ne 6mno 6m n 1enepeune occnn, no
cokpyunn on ero, oueanpno, ne coaceH. opo6no 1oHy kak eapen naknnkann
nauec1ane Haapoa na cnannk - k1o snae1, ne pas6n1me nn kasapm naknnkann a anpe
Hec1n nauec1ane aceaosHoxnmx koueannkoa na neackyk ycL? naun ropm eapen
acero cae1a naknnkak1 na occnk apaxpy napopoa n yxe ycnenn (uepes eapeckyk
neua1L a Hepnke) amsaa1L nnonckoe nauec1ane. 1o , 1o n nu. 1orpa
o6Lepnnennan no1oHc1aoH can1o nLrn pycckan napopnoc1L epaa ne norn6na o1
paspena anac1n, o1 knnxecknx Hexpoyco6n - n 1enepL ona nsneHorae1 o1 paspopa
nap1n, o1 o1cy1c1ann nc1nnnoro epnnopepxaann, ko1opoe ec1L ne u1o nnoe, kak
epnnopyune napopnoe. ak ceHLco1 ne1 nasap nonn1nuecknH ppo6nenneH occnn
aocnonLsoaanncL koueame asna1m, 1ak nonLsyk1cn nopo6nmH xe ppo6nenneH n
nanec1nnckne noHapm. orpa 6mno nauec1ane snn c oc1oka, 1enepL nauec1ane snn
c anapa. orpa 6mno aoennoe, reponueckoe nauec1ane, nopo6noe anxpk, ko1opm
neponro pnn1cn, - 1enepL Hnpnoe, nonsyuee, nponnkakuee ace 1kann o6uec1aa, no
no1oHy nHenno nensHepnHo 6onee onacnoe. ce noa1opne1cn, xo1n 6m a neckonLko
nnmx qopHax. osna1enLnan occnn ponxna acerpa noHnn1L ppeanee npn1nsanne snn
anape1L naHn. neackn amc1pen, sac1aanaun c oc1po 6onLk aspporny1L kaxpoe
pycckoe ceppue, roaopn1 Hnoroe. n roaopn1, u1o aennkan 6opL6a sa occnk npe1, u1o
ecnn Hm, 6ecneunme, ee uac1o ne saHeuaeH, 1o asna1ckn nannma npe1 pneH n nouLk
n nopHmaae1 co6ok caHme yc1on nauero uapc1aa.
1onmnnn 6mn no1oHok can1o nLrn, n neHyppeno, u1o pyua ero ropena nk6oaLk k
occnn. o k1o 1ako oppka Borpoa? o1oHok nn on kasapcknx xnpoa nnn ncnancknx
- ao acnkoH cnyuae, a1o nocnepnn npepc1aan1enL o1aepxennoro nneHenn,
napasn1c1aykuero a occnn. opyHa1e o6 opnoH 1onLko: uepes ponrne aeka
aneppennn a occnk ero npepkoa oppka oc1ae1cn oppko, necHo1pn na ace uenoun
n kncno1m, a ko1opmx nepeaapnaana ero cnaannckan y1po6a. Yxe pep Borpoaa, ecnn
aepn1L rase1aH, npnnnn xpnc1nanc1ao, no o1eu o1nan a kpansH. nuy1, 6yp1o 6m
oppka Borpoa - npnHo no1oHok 1oro nnca1enn-eapen, ko1opm ne1 40-50 nasap
neua1an a "1euec1aennmx sannckax nsaec1nme "annckn eapen. cnn 1ak, 1o uy1L ne
nonaeka nasap ceHLn oppkn kasanacL o6pyceaue po 1oro, u1o npnnnna nsmk
pycckn, kynL1ypy pycckyk, aepy pycckyk n kasanacL paxe cnnauecn c occne.
nuy1L ne 6maano - cnepykuee nokonenne anoaL n neypepxnHo no1nnyno a kpansH.
H snaaan a e1ep6ypre cnHna1nunmx, paano kpec1naunxcn eapeea, pocnyxnaunxcn po
renepanLcknx unnoa, c1apaaunxcn coaceH sa6m1L caoe nponcxoxpenne. o pe1n nx,
yxe popnaunecn a xpnc1nanc1ae, 6maann ockop6nenm a1nH, 1ockoaann no kpnasHy n
ecnn ne npnnnHann o6pesanne, 1o ace-1akn pyuo n 1enoH npnHmkann k 6opL6e c
xpnc1nancko rocypapc1aennoc1Lk. aun "unc1o pycckne kpoqnnm, c pyccknHn
qaHnnnnHn n paxe c pyccknHn qnsnonoHnnHn, nnorpa pa1ykune sa o1aepxennoe
nneHn ropnuee caHmx xnpoa, - k1o, co6c1aenno, onn 1akne? nx 6esyHnoH o6oxannn
eapec1aa ne roaopn1 nn acnmxnyauan nckpa cnpncko kpoan? naHenn1m nc1opnk
onoaLea, nonoanu no nponcxoxpennk, ne nk6nn eapeea, kak a1o caoc1aenno aceH
apnuaH. o neko1opme pe1n ero (oco6enno snaHenn1m napnHnp) 6mnn ropnunHn
kpoqnnaHn. e nonLcko nn (1o ec1L o1uac1n eapecko) kpoaLk Ha1epn o6LncnnnocL
ne 1onLko kpoqnnLc1ao napnHnpa onoaLeaa, no n ero unc1o cnpnckan kpaco1a a
Honopoc1n?
osapauancL k oppke Borpoay, npouy saHe1n1L, u1o nn pycckan kynL1ypa, nn
xpnc1nanckan rnHnasnn, nn xpnc1nanckn ynnaepcn1e1, nn snanne neckonLknx
xpnc1nancknx nsmkoa, nn nonnonpaane c pyccknHn xpnc1nanaHn ne am1paannn a neH
eapecko pyun. n paano yxe nnkeH ne 6mn ronnH, nnkako uep1m ocepnoc1n ne
snan, paano 6mn paanonpaaen n 6ora1 n ace-1akn nenaanpen pycckoe rocypapc1ao n-
c. c1L, koneuno, n unc1okpoanme pycckne nenaanc1nnkn rocypapc1aa, no
pyccknx "aseqoa, kaxe1cn, po cnx nop ne 6mno. oppka Borpoa nenpeHenno 6epe1 na
ce6n ponL qanLcnqnka1opa, ponL ypm. epL n 1o1 npepa1enL, ko1opm nory6nn
Xpnc1a, cnauana qanLcnqnunpoaan a ce6e ro anoc1ona. 1ano 6m1L, a nnue oppkn
Borpoaa Hm nHeeH ocnoaanne anpe1L ne 1onLko o6mknoaennoro rocypapc1aennoro
npec1ynnnka, no n 1o1 aeunm 1nn, ko1opm aun1 nasmaan "acecae1nmH aparoH.
1e Hnny1m, korpa nnuy1cn a1n c1pokn, saHyuennm eapeeH rnaaa pycckoro
npaan1enLc1aa onyckae1cn a Hornny. oaopk "saHyuennm, n6o, ne roaopn o
nn1nne1ne nc1opnn nokyuenn, naunnan co aspmaa Hnnnc1epcko paun n nsyaeuennn
ero pe1e, 1onmnnn yHep, kak okasmaae1cn, nocne 1nxknx qnsnuecknx c1papann o1
nynn, pasaopo1naue neuenL. ypL6a ne nocnana naueHy aoxpk, kak esapk,
"nannyuue cHep1n - neoxnpanno: a 1euenne pnpa ne1 on kaxpm penL cao
ac1peuan kak nocnepnn penL n cHep1L npnnnn kak 6m nocne ue1mpexpneano nm1kn.
c1ec1aennoe uyac1ao napopnoe nopckasmaae1 Mcu snopenH, no n
Mc, cu ncc, kak yunn 1onmnnn. pypno ypepxa1L rny6oko panennoe
uyac1ao cnpaaepnnaoc1n n napopno roppoc1n: aepL, pacc1pennaan kpec1 Xpnc1oa na
rpypn nocn1enn kpec1a, nocnran na rnaay npaan1enLc1aa, ko1opoHy ocypapeH 6mna
apyuena cypL6a occnn, Honopo eapeunk 6pocan amsoa napopnoHy aennuec1ay,
ockop6nnn ack naunk. pypno, noa1opnk, ypepxa1Lcn o1 rposno Hec1n, no, yaaxan
naHn1L rocypapc1aennoro Hyuennka, o1kaxeHcn o1 acex aosHespnn, xo1n 6m
cnpaaepnnamx. akon ykaxe1 npec1ynnnky ero Hec1o nocne c1onL uypoanunoro
snopennnn, n nyc1L a1nH acnkan Hec1L 6ype1 norauena. o ns canuennoro yaaxennn k
pyue norn6uero ne sa6ypeH o neo6xopnHmx ncc npec1ynnennn. nn
neo6xopnHm ncnxonornueckn, npaac1aenno n nonn1nueckn. cnn aop o6okpan aauy
kaap1npy n nocaxen sa a1o a 1kpLHy, 1o 1kpLHo, koneuno, ne ncuepnmaak1cn ace
nocnepc1ann rpa6exa. Hcno, u1o sa kaap1npo neo6xopnH nyuun napsop, nyuune
sanopm n 1.n. pnoHy ns Hnornx eapeea, nokyuaaunxcn ykpac1L y occnn nan6onee
ampakuerocn rocypapc1aennoro uenoaeka, nakoneu ypanocL a1o. 1onmnnn noxnuen y
nac n cnpn1an 1ypa, o1kypa ne1 aosapa1a. ne acnko Hec1n, Hne kaxe1cn, neo6xopnHo
ycnnn1L napsop nap occne n anoaL ocHo1pe1L sanopm. pypykue rnran1cko
uake, akcnponpnnpykue aceHn cnoco6aHn ace, ueH occnn 6mna Horyua, ponxen
6m1L nonoxen npepen. Y nac, y no1oHc1aa aennkoro napopa, o1nnHak1 noc1enenno ace
anpm 1pypa napopnoro, ace kann1anm, seHnn, npoHmunennoc1L, 1oproank, cao6opnme
npoqeccnn, ukony, nn1epa1ypy, neua1L, nckycc1ao. ac penak1 neonna1nmHn
ponxnnkaHn nnoc1pannmx eapeea a kauec1ae nna1enLunkoa ace pac1yuero
rocypapc1aennoro ponra. Y nac noc1enenno ny1eH anyuenn n nopnoroa o1nnHak1
ppeanee, naxn1oe 1mcnuene1neH xpnc1nanc1aa Hnpocosepuanne. Y nac cnc1eHo
npaac1aennoro co6nasna n 1eppopa o1nnHak1 aepy n na1pno1nsH, o1nnHak1 coaec1L n
sppaam cHmcn. akoneu, cnc1eHa1nuecknHn y6nc1aaHn o1nnHak1 nyuunx nkpe
occnn, nan6onee o1aaxnmx ee aoxpe. ne kaxe1cn, ponLue nenLsn Hepnn1L c
o6opono. occnn naxopn1cn a cepLesno onacnoc1n co c1oponm eapec1aa, a ropaspo
6onLue onacnoc1n, ueH nk6an c1pana a apone, n6o ona nHena necuac1Le, saxaa1na
onLuy, ynacnepoaa1L n ack ee eapeckyk npokasy.
ueH ponxna coc1on1L pycckan o6opona? o6ueH n c1nxnnoH o1nope eapeckoHy
nneHenn, xo1n 6m coaepuenno HnpnoH. paan1enLc1ao naue ponxno xe nakoneu
y6epn1Lcn, u1o eapen c nnH conepnnuak1 n no aceH nanpaanennnH nocnrak1 na unc1o
npaan1enLc1aennyk ponL. e 1onLko nocnrak1, no n peanLneunH o6pasoH no6expak1
pycckyk anac1L, o1nnHan y nee opny o6nac1L aa1opn1e1a sa ppyro. paan1enLc1ao,
nanpnHep, xo1eno 6m pepxa1L a caonx pykax qnnancoayk nonn1nky, no ee pepxa1
eapen. paan1enLc1ao nHee1 koe-kakoe annnnne na 6npxy - eapen nHek1 ropaspo
6onLuee annnnne. paan1enLc1ao xenano 6m paaa1L penLrn asaHm eapenH n pae1
nnorpa pecn1kn Hnnnnonoa 6es o1paun (peno onnkoaa), no a konue konuoa ne eapen
naxopn1cn a ponry y npaan1enLc1aa, a ono y nnx. paan1enLc1ao xo1eno 6m
noaeneaa1L a ukone, a neua1n, a o6nac1n o6uec1aennoro nac1poennn, no noaeneaae1
ne ono, a eapen. Xn1poe nneHn oc1aanne1 naunH canoannkaH nmunme saannn n
1n1ynm, a ce6e o16npae1 a1nxoHonky cnny pec1an1enLnoro annnnnn n paxe c
cnx. e cou1n1e nocnepnee cnoao npeyaennuenneH. axaa1na qopyH
o6uec1aa - neua1L, eapen cpenanncL nac1onunHn xosneaaHn nn6epanLno nap1nn,
caHo Hnorouncnenno a occnn n po cnx nop caHo annn1enLno. n6epanaHn
papnkanLno-eapecko Hapkn, npoue - xnpokape1aHn nepenonnenm ace naun
rocypapc1aennme n o6uec1aennme yupexpennn. eaonLnme n anonne po6pocoaec1nme
(ecnn a1o aosHoxno) xnpokape1m sannHak1 nepepko pnpek1opckne, ry6epna1opckne,
paxe Hnnnc1epckne noc1m: sa nocnepnne nn1L ne1 nepe6maano y anac1n neHanoe
uncno kape1cknx nop1qenepepxa1ene. osHoxno, u1o a ckpm1oH coc1onnnn onn
aopn1cn cpepn npaan1enLc1aa n 1enepL - orpoHnyk xe cnny nx a sakonopa1enLnmx
nana1ax n a cype6noH aepoHc1ae pokasmaa1L ne npnxopn1cn. ycckne xnpokape1m,
saaopoxennme exepneanmH paanenneH eapecko neua1n gutta cavat laridem
[106]
,
nannk1cn HepnyHaHn eapecknx anyuenn - ao1 noueHy (ne a opno occnn)
xpnc1nanckoe npaan1enLc1ao a caHmx pasnoo6pasnmx cnyuanx noc1ynae1 1ak, kak ecnn
6m ono 6mno eapecknH npaan1enLc1aoH.
ne kaxe1cn, a a1oH u m nccu. enLsn aennkoHy napopy
o1kasmaa1Lcn o1 aneHen1apno neo6xopnHoc1n nHe1L naunonanLnyk anac1L. D1o aoace
ne npnxo1L n ne pockouL - a1o 1pe6oaanne rny6oko 6nonornueckoe, cansannoe c
nnpnanpyanLnoc1Lk naunn. onLko npn naunonanLno anac1n napop cao6open, n6o
caH anapee1 co6o. ycckn napop, unen apncko ceHLn, cnnukoH 6naropopen, u1o6m
1epne1L kakoe 6m 1o nn 6mno pa6c1ao, no aepL acnkoe nopunnenne aone
ec1L yxe pa6c1ao. aeka pec1an1enLno naunonanLnoro npaan1enLc1aa occnn
unpnnacL n paspac1anacL a okeane seHnn; paxe xec1okne qopHm 6m1a, kak 1npannn
posnoro nnn nsapauennn kpenoc1noro npaaa, kasanncL 1epnnHmHn, n6o 6mnn a c1nne
napopno coaec1n n aonn. onLko a nocnepnee c1one1ne npaan1enLc1ao y nac 1epne1
naunonanLnm xapak1ep; aHec1e c 1eH naunnae1 cpaaa1L pepxaanoe aennune naue
Hnepnn. H Hnoxec1ao pas nncan, po kako c1enenn apepno a naunonanLnoH cHmcne
nepenonnenne naue sna1n n nn1ennnrenunn nnoxo o6pyceaunHn neHuaHn, nonnkaHn,
uaepaHn, rpekaHn, qpanuysaHn, HonpaaanaHn, rpysnnaHn n np., n np., n pokasmaan,
kak a uepnme pnn naue nc1opnn napopy 1pypno nonoxn1Lcn na kpenoc1L pyxa ao1
1ako pasnouepc1no apnc1okpa1nn. co6enno onacnm npnHecn 1ex nnopopuea,
ko1opme (kak, nanpnHep, nonnkn n uaepm) nc1opnueckn aocnn1anm ao apaxpe k
occnn. o ace nepeuncnennme napopum ace-1akn apnum n xpnc1nane, y nnx 6onee
nnn Henee o6uan pyua c naHn n o6uan, cospeauan a xpnc1nanc1ae coaec1L. 1o xe
ckasa1L o nponnknoaennn k anac1n eapeea, ypoxenuea uyxoro Ha1epnka, nnsue
pacm, sapopmueaan coaec1L ko1opmx co apeHen Xpnc1a aocnn1maae1cn a nenaanc1n k
xpnc1nanc1ay? oa1oHy eapen npepc1aannk1 co6o a kauec1ae anac1n1ene caHoe
c1paunoe pnn nac nneHn. ocHo1pn1e, u1o cpenanocL 6naropapn xnpoHaconaH c
6naropopno Opanune, ko1opan eue non1opac1a ne1 nasap cun1anacL aennuaue n
kynL1ypneue ns xpnc1nancknx naun!
aueHy npaan1enLc1ay cnepye1 aceHepno 6opo1Lcn sa anac1L caok a occnn n
aocc1anoann1L y1pauennme npnsnakn napopnoc1n. opo6nyk xe anac1L cnepye1
o1c1anaa1L o1 eapeea n o6uec1ay, n6o aecLHa snaun1enLnan uac1L anac1n
npepoc1aanena kynL1ypnoHy knaccy. 1y1 saxaa1m napasn1noro napopa po 1oro
yxacnm, u1o nopuac paxe kaxy1cn neaepon1nmHn. kopo pope1 po 1oro, u1o a caoe
co6c1aenno c1pane, a aek nonn1nuecko cao6opm pycckn uenoaek no1epne1 npaao
cao6opnoro Hnennn: n neua1a1L, n roaopn1L c kaqeppm on 6ype1 a coc1onnnn 1onLko
1o, u1o yropno eapenH. kopo pycckoHy uenoaeky nenLsn 6ype1 o1pa1L caonx pe1e a
ukony, ne saxaauennyk eapenHn nnn nx npnxaoc1nnHn. kopo nenLsn 6ype1 na1n
pycckoro apaua nnn pycckoro apaoka1a, 1ak kak a1n npoqeccnn cnnouL saxaa1maak1cn
eapenHn. kopo nenLsn 6ype1 nocnyua1L pyccko Hysmkn nnn nocHo1pe1L pyccko
ppaHm, 1ak kak n koncepaa1opnn, n 1ea1panLnme ukonm yxe npeapa1nnncL a
eapeckne Hec1eukn. kopo 1pypno 6ype1, kak a sanapnoH kpae, na1n xpnc1nanckn
Harasnn, qa6pnky, Hac1epckyk 6es onacnoc1n eapecko qanLcnqnkaunn. kopo
nenLsn 6ype1, paxe o6napan 1anan1oH n aneprne, nonyua1L 1pypoao kycok xne6a
nnaue kak ns pyk xnpa. oxnaeH, Hoxe1 6m1L, po 1oro, u1o n xpaHm naun, kak a
anoxy apaca BynL6m, 6ypy1 a eapecko apenpe. ne kaxe1cn, kneackn snoaeun
amc1pen ponxen npo6ypn1L nenpo6ypno ppeHnkuee pycckoe xpnc1nanc1ao. n ponxen
6m1L npnnn1 kak cnrnan k 1peaore, k 6onLuo 1peaore! opa ouny1Lcn n 1pesao
nocHo1pe1L na aeun. akyk cypL6y Hm ro1oanH caoeHy no1oHc1ay, occnn 6ypyuero?
aHn yxe ony1anm qnnancoao n kynL1ypno saancnHoc1Lk y eapeea - neyxenn naH
ne c1mpno ro1oan1L caonx pe1e n anykoa a pa6m a1oHy nneHenn? aepL peno k 1oHy
npe1. ypa nn asrnnnn1e, amcuan paca am1ecnne1cn nnsue, no1oHc1ao saaoeaa1ene
- no1oHc1aoH o1aepxennoro napopua, 6ora1ekuero n narnekuero c kaxpmH pneH.
e napo Hec1n, no nyxen nakoneu o1nop. ce kone6nkunecn n uyac1aykune
naunonanLnyk onacnoc1L ponxnm o6Lepnnn1Lcn nop snaHeneH naunonanLnmx nap1n,
ko1opmx yxe Hnoro a occnn n ko1opme ace, npn 6onLuoH nnorpa pasnoHmcnnn,
epnnopyunm a o1nouennn eapeea. Y6n1m Hyuennk sa pycckoe rocypapc1ao, ko1oporo
occnn ceropnn xoponn1, a nocnepnne ropm cknonnncn k 1o naunonanLno nap1nn,
ko1opo n 6mn opnnH ns yupepn1ene. Yxe 1o 6mno orpoHno sacnyro . .
1onmnnna, u1o, 6ypyun rnaaok Hnnnc1epc1aa, acnep sa . . yxnoamH on nHen
Hyxec1ao npnsna1L naue naunonanLnoe panxenne n ao1n a nero. Henno a1o n 6mno
ero kpec1no noue, nHenno sa a1o eapen ero n saHyunnn...
e yc1opoxnauan xnsnL 1aok, 6naropopnm c1papaneu, - nyc1L xe opnna c1ane1 na
c1paxe y 1aoe Hornnm n, eue pas acnoHnna 1aon saae1m, yxe ne sa6ype1 nx!
UT
8
euae1cn aeponcnoaepnm aonpoc. uec1n nmneunero nokonennn pycckoro o6uec1aa,
aepa eue aonnye1 yHm n aos6yxpae1 c1pac1n. npnpope aepm cnopn1 - c1ano 6m1L,
a1o1 canuennm oronL pyxa eue ne norac. o Hnoxec1ao 1ouek spennn na
aeponcnoaepnm sakon canpe1enLc1aye1 o rpyc1noH ppo6nennn aepm, a c nek n
naunonanLnoro cosnannn. cnn xe acHo1pe1Lcn npnc1anLnee a Ho1nam cnopnunx
c1opon, 1o am nouyac1aye1e, u1o 6onLunnc1ay popora ne c1onLko caHa aepa, ckonLko
ycnyrn, okasmaaeHme ek nonn1nke.
6opL6e naxopn1cn paa npnnunna - cao6opa coaec1n n rocnopc1ao npaaocnaann.
pnn npnnunn onnpae1cn na Hannqec1a nepaannx ne1, ampanny1me 1ak nasmaaeHo
peaonkune. pyro npnnunn onnpae1cn na ppeann sakon, yc1anoanennm
opnoapeHenno c xpnc1nanc1aoH n neo1pennHm o1 npaaoaepnn. axe peaonkunonnan
aonna ne cHorna cHm1L 1mcnuene1nero yc1anoanennn, n ono aouno a nsaec1nyk c1a1Lk
cnoanmx akonoa. asanocL 6m, aosHoxen nn nocne a1oro cepLesnm cnop? n
aosHoxen yxe no1oHy, u1o a 1e xe cnoanme akonm aouna n 67-n c1a1Ln,
o6ecneunaakuan cao6opy aepm. ueanpno, a1o opno ns 1ex npo1naopeun, ko1opmHn
nacnex coc1aanennme naun cnoanme akonm poaonLno-1akn 6ora1m. ueanpno, 6es
cyuec1aennoro nopaxennn 1oro nnn nnoro npnnunna peno ne o6ope1cn.
onpo6yeH cqopHynnpoaa1L aosHoxno cxa1o npaac1aennme ocnoaannn o6onx 1esncoa:
n aepm n, 1ak ckasa1L, aepm. ao6opa aepm am1ekae1 ns ocnoanoro
npepc1aanennn o pyue uenoaeuecko. na - cyuec1ao 6oxec1aennoe,
ynacnepoaaauee opno ns amcunx caoc1a Boxnnx - cao6opy aonn. "yx pmun1, rpe
xoue1. onLko nckpennee - po c1pac1n - npnsnanne uero-nn6o coc1aanne1 aepy.
cnkan nenckpennoc1L, amnyxpennoc1L, npncnoco6nennoc1L k 1eH nnn nnmH
cansmaakunH ycnoannH coc1aanne1 no1epk aepm, pyxoanyk cHep1L ee. epa, nopo6no
nk6an, a6conk1na. cnn nenLsn npepnnca1L o6uero kanona pnn nk6an - nenLsn
npepnnca1L n o6uero sakona aepm. ao6opa aepm, cao6opa nk6an, cao6opa
nonnHannn ec1L ocnoanoe n, nepaspenLnoe c caHoonpepenenneH, 1o ec1L c npaaoH
na pyxoanyk xnsnL aoo6ue. cnkoe npnnyxpenne a a1o o6nac1n ec1L nokyuenne na
xnsnL pyxa. 1ckpa ncno 1pe6oaanne cao6opm coaec1n - pennrnosno, kak n acnko
nno (n6o Hoxe1 6m1L coaec1L nayunan, xypoxec1aennan, nonn1nueckan n 1.n.).
oaec1L, no cyuec1ay, ec1L nckpennoc1L, 1o ec1L cao6opa pyxa. 1aepran cao6opy
coaec1n, am o1aeprae1e caHy coaec1L.
e1pypno anpe1L, u1o nonnHaeHan 1aknH o6pasoH cao6opa pyxa rpannun1 c ero
anapxne. akan cao6opa ec1L coc1onnne, o1peuennoe o1 pec1an1enLnoc1n, kak ecnn
6m nkpn, nnueH ne cansannme, paxe nno1Lk, o6n1ann a o6nac1n aoo6paxennn.
pec1an1enLnoc1n Hm cansanm a 1mcnue o1nouenn caoek nno1Lk c nno1Lk Hnpa. m
xnaeH a peanLno npnpope, rocnopc1aykue nap naHn, n acn xnsnL naua cnne1ena ns
ycnoanoc1e. m ne o6napaeH nn opnnH npaaoH, ko1opoe ne anekno 6m sa co6o
o6nsannoc1e. a, Hm ynacnepoaann caoc1ao Boxne - cao6opy pyxa, no a nac ona ne
6esrpannuna, a nnuL aecLHa o1nocn1enLna. "yx pmun1, rpe xoue1, no xo1ennn
onpepennk1cn uaue acero aosHoxnoc1Lk. y1, kak a qnsnueckoH Hnpe, cyuec1ayk1
a6conk1nme conpo1nanennn n o1nocn1enLnme. pene aepm, kak acnkoro cosnannn,
pyua cknonne1cn a c1opony nanHenLuero conpo1nanennn. nnn coaec1n, nnnn
nanHenLuero conpo1nanennn Hoxe1 6m1L 6ecuncnennoe Hnoxec1ao. yun acnepc1ane
a1oro Hory1 c1anknaa1Lcn a npo1naononoxnmx aepoaannnx n 6onLno ypapn1L ppyr
ppyra, onn Hory1 6opo1Lcn, 1o ec1L ncnm1maa1L paspop n nenaanc1L. o1 ec1ec1aennoe
n coaepuenno nens6exnoe nocnepc1ane anapxnn coaec1n. 1o6m npepo1apa1n1L
nac1ynnenne apa - n6o aceo6uan nenaanc1L n ec1L 1o1 apckn nnaHenL, ko1opm
xxe1 pyun rpeunnkoa, - u1o6m aepny1L pe1e Boxnnx a coc1onnne 6naxenc1aa pan,
ko1opm ec1L aceo6uan nk6oaL, Hyppm poHmcn, nap napopaHn 6oppc1aykun,
nocmnae1 1kpoaenne, 1o ec1L o6uyk nc1nny, cnoco6nyk cocpepo1oun1L a caoeH
pycne aosHoxno 6onLuee uncno cao6opnmx aonL. epa ne 1eH 1onLko popora, u1o ona
coepnnne1 u c BoroH, a rnaanoe, 1eH, u1o ona coepnnne1 uuc c
BoroH, 1o ec1L uepes ero coepnnne1 nkpe. uen1pe ace papnycm naxopn1 o6uyk
xnsnL n okonua1enLnm cHmcn, n 1onLko o6un uen1p ypepxnaae1 unpokn kpyr
o1penLnmx nnpnanpyanLnoc1e a neko1opo nepaspmano cansn. Xopoua a
aoo6paxennn nonnan cao6opa aepm, no u1o kacae1cn aoo6paxennn, 1o ona nnueH n ne
orpannuena. pec1an1enLnoc1n xe neo6xopnH aepm, 1o ec1L orpannuenne
cao6opm, neo6xopnHoe pnn ee onpepenennn. ak kak rocypapc1ao ec1L c1pax
peanLnoc1n n saun1nnk npaa npn nocpepc1ae o6nsannoc1e, 1o ono ponxno
po6naa1Lcn anonne onpepenennoro coc1onnnn aepm. pean xe onpepenennoc1n - a1o
korpa opna n nnkaknx ee nsapauenn nnn o1pnuann ne ponyckae1cn. onLko
1akan aepa ec1L pyxoanan peanLnoc1L, nanoHnnakuan pyuy a 1ene. ope 1eny, pyua
ko1oporo pasppo6nena paoepyuneH nnn uenmH pnpoH cnopnunx Hexpy co6ok
cosnannn! Hepnunne ec1L 1akoe cyHacuec1ane, a pennrnn cun1ae1 nopo6noe 1eno
opepxnHmH 6ecaHn. ope napopy, aepa ko1oporo pasppo6nena na neckonLko
o1pnuakunx ppyr ppyra aep! pnHoe cnepc1ane no1epn pennrnosnoro epnnopyunn
ec1L ynapok pyxa aoo6ue. n1epqepenunn aep, kak cae1oamx aonn, norauae1 nx n
aepe1 k 1oHy pennrnosnoHy 6espasnnunk, ko1opoe saaepuae1 ace anoxn
aepo1epnnHoc1n. oka ka1onnuec1ao o1c1anaano epnnc1ao aepm, po 1ex nop a neH n
pepxanacL aepa, n pepxanacL c nckpennoc1Lk n nmnkoc1Lk, 1enepL sa6m1mHn. orpa
c aospoxpenneH nsmuec1aa yc1anoannacL cao6opa aepm, nocnepnnn noc1enenno
nauana racny1L n nakoneu na anape 1enepL 6nnska k nonnoHy ncuesnoaennk. o
Opanunn n epHannn paano o6Lnanena nonnan cao6opa coaec1n. asanocL 6m, 1y1 6m
n sarope1Lcn noxapy pennrnosnoro uyac1aa, 1y1 6m n pacuaec1n aceaosHoxnmH
kynL1aH. apene Hm anpnH, u1o n ppeanne aennuaame xpaHm cpepneaekoaLn nyc1yk1,
n o1knonnaunecn o1 ka1onnuec1aa cek1m ampoxpak1cn. 6narouec1nao korpa-1o
epHannn yxe Hnnnnonm rpaxpan nokasmaak1 ce6n na aceo6ue nepenncn
anekonqeccnonanLnmHn, 1o ec1L ne nHekunHn nnkako aepm, pa6m ne nna1n1L
cneunanLnoro nanora na uepkoaL n pyxoaenc1ao. Bmc1po pac1yun n oxaa1maakun
Hnnnnonm npoc1onapopLn counannsH a epHannn 1oxe o6Lnanne1 ce6n ane
xpnc1nanc1aa. o Opanunn, korpa-1o roppo caoek aepo n cuac1nnao ek,
nnpnqqepen1nsH yxe cHenne1cn an1npennrnosno peakune n caHa aepa
nopaeprae1cn nanoHy npecnepoaannk co c1oponm rocypapc1aa. a cnannn, korpa-1o
poaopnaue o6oxanne caoero npaaoaepnn po 1parnuecko c1pac1n, anapxnc1m
paspyuak1 xpaHm n Honac1mpn n npepak1 Hyuennuecko cHep1n Honaxoa n HonaxnnL.
o1 nocnepnne pesynL1a1m nonno cao6opm coaec1n, o6Lnanenno okono c1a ne1
nasap.
aunH sakonopa1ennH nyxno npnc1anLno acHo1pe1Lcn a a1n pesynL1a1m n cnpocn1L
ce6n, xo1n1 nn onn 1oro xe caHoro pnn occnn. yc1L unenm ocypapc1aennoro oae1a
nckpenno cnpocn1 ce6n: korpa na anape 6mn 6onLue o6ecneuen pennrnosnm Hnp -
1enepL nn, c ronenneH na oc1a1kn aepm, nnn npexpe, korpa aepa rnana oc1a1kn
neaepnn? rnaanoe, korpa 6mno 6onee o6ecneueno caHoe 6m1ne aepm kak napopnoro
epnnopyunn? u1o nH 6onLue npaan1cn: 1enepeunn nn anapxnueckn paspop
cM, ocnoaannm na penexe npaa, nnn ppeanee cornacne a o6uec1ae, nponnkny1oe
npee pennrnosnoro ponra?
enpaapa, 6yp1o cao6opa coaec1n y nac aaepena 1onLko a 1905 ropy. na aaepena
e1poH ennknH, npepoc1aanaunH - ne cnpocncL nn seHckoro co6opa, nn pyxoanoro
co6opa - paanonpaane aceH aeponcnoaepannnH. Xo1n paaocnaanan epkoaL
npoponxana cun1a1Lcn rocnopc1aykue, no aepL a1o 6mno 1onLko na 6yHare. Y
rocnopc1aykue epkan o1Hennnn - a nnue na1pnapxa - ee epnnonauanne, uero ne
penann nn c nk1epanaHn, nn c ka1onnkaHn. ana pnHckn ne o1Henen. Y
"rocnopc1aykue epkan o1nnHann o6unpnme nHyuec1aa, saaeuannme
6narouec1neH npepkoa, uero ne penann nn c nk1epanaHn, nn c ka1onnkaHn. Y
"rocnopc1aykue epkan nasnauann a nnop o6ep-npokypopaHn kaaanepncknx
u1a6-oqnuepoa, uero ne penann nn c kaknHn nnoaepuaHn. a necornacne a uepkoanmx
aonpocax Hn1pononn1oa caxann a kanpanm, a npoannnaunxcn canuennnkoa ceknn
kny1oH, uero ne penann nn c nac1opaHn, nn c kcenpsaHn.
poun1a1e nn1epecnme o1pmakn ns xnsnn naue nepapxnn . . oroxeaa
(ocennnnna) - ceppue ueHn1 o1 yxacno 1npannn, ko1opo nopaepranocL
npaaocnaanoe pyxoaenc1ao a anoxy 6nponoaunnm; nocnepnnn pnn epkan ne
okonunnacL co cHep1Lk Bnpona. ueH xe, cnpaunaae1cn, "rocnopc1aoaanne
paaocnaano epkan? 1oH nn, u1o npaaocnaanoe pyxoaenc1ao 6mno uy1L ne
cpaaneno a npaaax c nopa1nmHn knaccaHn n o6peueno na xpnc1apapnnuec1ao cpepn
kpec1Lnnc1aa, a kakoaoH xpnc1apapnnuec1ae ono n ampopnnocL po 1enepeunero
6erc1aa ns caoero cocnoann n ceHnnapcknx 6yn1oa? oaopn1: npaaocnaank 6mna po
cnx nop paspeuena nponaranpa aepm, nnocnaank - ne1. enpaapa! ponoaepn
npaaocnaanmx canuennnkoa nopaepranncL n, Hoxe1 6m1L, po cnx nop nopaeprak1cn
caHo cypoao uensype, 1orpa kak n kcenpsm, n nac1opm, n Hynnm, n paaannm roaopn1
a caonx Honn1aennmx poHax ace, u1o nH aspyHae1cn. 1oH nn, nakoneu, ampaxae1cn
"rocnopc1aoaanne paaocnaano epkan, u1o ona ne nHee1 aosHoxnoc1n cosaa1L
co6op, 1orpa kak 1akne xe uepkoanme co6opm paspeuak1cn packonLnnkaH, 6an1nc1aH,
apHnnaH, nk1epanaH, eapenH? Heuno un1a1L nxname, 6yp1o nn6epanLnme peun o
nacnnnn npaaocnaann nap nnoaepneH, o "rocnopc1ae npaaocnaann a occnn. Yxe
paec1n ne1 ne cyuec1aye1 a1oro rocnopc1aa, a nanpo1na - paaocnaanan epkoaL
6mna 6m papa-papeuenLka, ecnn 6m e npepoc1aannn 1e npnannernn, kaknHn
nonLsyk1cn qak1nueckn ncnoaepannn, npnsnaaaeHme epecnHn. osaonL1e naH, kak
ka1onnkaH nnn apHnnaH, nHe1L caoero na1pnapxa. osaonL1e nHe1L, kak packonLnnkaH
nnn eapenH, npaao uepkoanmx co6opoa: aepL epkoaL naua nHenye1cn anoc1onLcko
n co6opno. aspeun1e, kak nk1epanaH, uepkoanm npnxop. aspeun1e naunH
canuennnkaH cao6opy nponoaepn. e o1nnHa1e uepkoanmx seHenL n kann1anoa -
cnoaoH, ypaann1e nac c epe1nuecknHn n paxe nsmuecknHn uepkaaHn, n a1oro yxe
6ype1 poaonLno! axe nsmueckoe (naHanc1ckoe) aeponcnoaepanne o6ecneueno a
occnn 1ako aa1onoHne n 1aknH nokpoan1enLc1aoH kasnm, ko1opmH npaaocnaanoe
pyxoaenc1ao nckpenno saanpye1.
nn1epecoH n npouen cnnLnme peun o6onx apxnennckonoa a ocypapc1aennoH oae1e.
Xopouo, ecnn 6m naue npaan1enLc1ao apyHunao o1necnocL k a1oHy ronocy nepapxoa -
a neH sayun1 ckpm1oe o1uannne sa epkoaL. pxnennckon apuaackn nkona
[107]
y1aepxpae1, u1o kacakunecn epkan npexnne sakononpoek1m "6mnn ouenL
ockop6n1enLnm pnn uyac1a npaaocnaanoro xpnc1nannna, a neko1opme c1a1Ln
nocnepnero sakononpoek1a "npnHo aosHy1n1enLnm. "akan koneunan uenL
sakononpoek1a? - cnpaunaae1 apxnnac1mpL. - oaopn1: y1aepxpenne Hnpa n
cnokoc1ann. o 1ak nn a1o? 1enepL yxe Hm anpnH aHec1o Hnpa apaxpy, osno6nenne
n paspopm Hexpy nkpLHn. c1nnnan npaapa! ec1nm nn6epan a pyue, nokonm
1onmnnn o1c1anaan pennrnosnoe paanonpaane, ne saHeuan, u1o na n 6es 1oro
ynnxennyk popnyk epkoaL on 1eH npepoc1aanne1 npaao o1kpm1o a1akn. a1a a1aka
co c1oponm aceaosHoxnmx cek1 n nnoaepnn yxe nauanacL, a1aka c1peHn1enLnan, uac1o
noxoxan na norpoH. nnukoH nospno cknonnauncn k naunonannsHy 1onmnnn, Hne
kaxe1cn, ne o6napan okonua1enLnmH nonnHanneH a1oro yuennn. opo6no HnornH
ok1n6pnc1aH, nokonm npeHLep-Hnnnc1p xo1en n ann1an naunonanLnoc1n
npno6pec1n, n neannnoc1L nn6epanLnmx pok1pnn co6nkc1n. o a1n aeun a kopne
necoaHec1nHm. aunonannsH, nonnHaeHm a ero rny6oko cyunoc1n, ponyckae1
acnkoe paanonpaane, no nnuL ane caoe uep1m, n nnkakoro paanonpaann - - any1pn
nee. a rpannue kakan 6m nn 6mna aepa, nsmk, sakon, naunonanLnoc1L - Hm
npnsnaeH sa nnHn 1e xe poc1onnc1aa pnn nx c1pan kakne npnsnaeH sa caoe aepo,
nsmkoH, sakonoH n naunonanLnoc1Lk pnn nac caHnx. o any1pn occnn Hm nckpenno
ne HoxeH ponyc1n1L nopo6noro paanonpaann. y1 ppyroe 1eno napopnoe n, snaun1,
ppyran ponxna 6m1L pyua, nHenno - m m n 1onLko naua. epa a Bora rny6xe
uenoaeueckoro nsmka, no u1o am ckasann 6m, ecnn 6m o6Lnaneno 6mno nonnoe
paanonpaane acex nsmkoa a uep1e rocypapc1aa? m npnsnann 6m a1o 1pe6oaanne
nenenoc1Lk. oneuno, kaxpm uenoaek cao6open pyHa1L n roaopn1L na kakoH yropno
nsmke, nannHa1L ce6e yun1ene nk6oro nsmka, no a ny6nnuno n rocypapc1aenno
xnsnn neo6xopnH opnn nsmk, yc1anaannaakun o6uee nonnHanne. D1oHy nsmky
ponxno 6m1L npepoc1aaneno rocnopc1ao a sakonopa1enLc1ae, cype, apHnnnc1paunn,
ukone, nayke, apHnn, ao acex o6uec1aennmx yupexpennnx, nnaue cnoxn1cn
noc1enenno c1onno1aopenne aaannonckoe n pas6pop "nsmkoa. nn u1o am ckasann 6m,
ecnn 6m 6mno o6Lnaneno paanonpaane naunonanLnoc1e n sakonopa1enLc1a, 1o ec1L
yaaxena 6mna 6m npe1ensnn nnoc1panuea a occnn xn1L no nx co6c1aennmH sakonaH?
m ckasann 6m: aepn1e ce6n poHa kak aaH yropno, cun1a1e ce6n paanmHn nnn paxe
amcunHn nac cyuec1aaHn, no kak 1onLko am npnxopn1e a npnkocnoaenne c naunHn
nopnpkaHn xnsnn, am o6nsanm nH nopunnn1Lcn. opno c1pane ponxna
rocnopc1aoaa1L opna naunonanLnoc1L n opnn sakon. naue onn1L peno noaepe1 k
xaocy n paspopy, Hexpy 1eH amcuan uenL naunn - Hnp.
Besycnoano, 1o xe npnpopm n aepa kak pennrnosnan coaec1L. na coaepuenno
cao6opna, noka ne amxopn1 ns rpannu nnunoro yno1pe6nennn. epL1e ao u1o xo1n1e n
kak xo1n1e. o ecnn aaua aepa ac1ynae1 a o6uec1ao kak pec1aykuan cnna, 1o ona ne
ponxna npnxopn1L ao apaxpe6nme o1nouennn c rocnopc1aykue aepo,
ncnoaepyeHo 6onLunnc1aoH napopnmH. ocypapc1ao ec1L y1aepxpenne rocnopc1aa
naunn; cnepoaa1enLno, ponr rocypapc1aa 1pe6ye1 o1c1anaa1L n epnnc1ao aepm, kak
epnnc1ao nsmka, sakona n naunonanLnoc1n. H coaepuenno ne cornacen c o1npaano
HmcnLk apxnennckona nkonan, 6yp1o "nc1opnueckan sapaua occnn n pycckoro
npaan1enLc1aa, rpaxpanckoro n uepkoanoro, coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m o6pycn1L ace
nepycckoe n onpaaocnaan1L ace nenpaaocnaanoe. D1a sapaua, koneuno, poc1nranacL a
neko1opo, ouenL cna6o c1enenn, no poc1nranacL nony1no n nnkorpa ne c1aannacL
cosna1enLno. 6pycn1enLnme cnoco6noc1n pycckoro nneHenn - unc1eun Hnq.
Y1aepxpak1, 6yp1o occnn accnHnnnpoaana n onpaaocnaanna aennkoe Hnoxec1ao
qnncknx, 1kpkcknx n ppyrnx nnopopuecknx nneHen, no aepL a1o peun1enLno nnueH ne
pokasano. Onnckne nneHena n 1mcnuy ne1 nasap, kak 1enepL, 6mnn kpane
neHnorouncnennm. o canpe1enLc1ay ne1onnce, pycckne kononnc1m "ampy6ann uypL
6enornasyk, 1o ec1L naunc1o nc1pe6nnnn apaxpe6nme nneHena nnn sac1aannnn nx
o1c1yna1L a rny6L 6ono1 n necoa. okopennme nneHena 6mnn o6naraeHm
pasopn1enLno panLk n ampoxpanncL o1 1nxkoro nra n o1 1nxko 6opL6m c npnpopo.
cnn po cnx nop na aceH ceaepo-aoc1oke occnn eue akpannenm oc1a1kn 1kpko-
qnncknx nneHen, 1o a1o pokasa1enLc1ao ne cnnLno cnoco6noc1n accnHnnnpoaa1L, a
ouenL cna6o. c1ec1aennoe o6pycenne a ppeanoc1n uno ne cnnLnee 1enepeunero, a
nocHo1pn1e, kak nnoxo coepnnnk1cn c naHn n qnnnm, n 1a1apm, n na1mun, n
kaakasckne ropum. nn, nopo6no nonypnkapnH uae1nmx Ha1epnkoa, npepnoun1ak1
amHnpa1L nop annnnneH amcue pacm. yxno nn roaopn1L, po uero cna6o uno
onpaaocnaanenne 1ex xe nnopopuea? e npaaocnaane saaoeamaae1 ncnaH, a ckopee
nanpo1na. m sa co1nn ne1 ne ycnenn oxpnc1nann1L paxe nsmunnkoa naunx, kakoam
kanHmkn, 6ypn1m n 1.n. apaua o6pycn1L ace nepycckoe n onpaaocnaan1L ace
nenpaaocnaanoe no1oHy yxe nenena, u1o coaepuenno nenocnnLna pnn occnn. n
opnoHy nneHenn ne ypaaanocL nanoxn1L a nonno1e cao o6nnk na ppyroe nneHn; paxe
xenesnm nH nnuL cnerka na1nnnsnpoaan Opanunk n cnannk, no ne cpenan 1aH
noamx pnHnnn. nonm1kax o6Lepnnn1L cae1 nH konunn kpyuenneH caoe aepm n
caoero rocypapc1aa. "6pycn1L ace nepycckoe snaun1 paspycn1L occnk, cpena1L ee
c1pano y6nkpkoa, pac1aopn1L 6naropopnm He1ann pacm a peueamx cnnaaax. o xe
o1nocn1cn n k onpaaocnaanennk acero nenpaaocnaanoro. D1o 6mna 6m cnnounan
qanLcnqnkaunn aepm, caoc1aenno ncknkun1enLno pycckoHy nneHenn. H ne
ac1peuan na caoeH aeky aepykunx amkpec1oa. apo neHano nokonenn, u1o6m
nnocnaane npeapa1nnocL a npaaocnaane, pa n a a1oH cnyuae ono amxopn1 kakoe-1o
oco6oe. epa - kak apxn1ek1ypnm c1nnL: pas cnoxnauncL, ona nn c ueH ne
coepnnnHa. e "o6pycn1L n "onpaaocnaan1L sapaua pyccko naunonanLnoc1n, a
1onLko cu ce6n, coxpann1L 1o1 Horyun o6nnk, ko1opm ec1ec1aenno cnoxnncn
a aekax n ko1opm korpa-1o paaan naH no6epy.
R TU
8
<...> enepL saueaennnncL ace c1nxnn n aneHen1m, korpa-1o cnannnme Horyuek
cnnok no6ep. oxopn1 po 1oro, u1o paxe 6popnune npnuenLum apope eapeea pepsko
1pe6yk1 ce6e rocypapc1aenno caHoc1on1enLnoc1n, po caoero oco6oro ceHa
aknkun1enLno. o u1o acero yxacnee, paxe a ocnoano 1onue rocnopc1aykue
pyccko napopnoc1n naunnae1cn 6poxenne, nonm1ka k paspmay. ce rpoHue n rpoHue
amc1ynak1 qana1nkn ykpannoqnnLc1aa, nopro1oannkune o1napenne o1 occnn
rpoHapno anopoccnn. oesxa1e 1akxe a n6npL: 1o1uac sa YpanoH am ac1pe1n1e
cn6npcknx, 1o ec1L unc1o aennkopyccknx, cenapa1nc1oa. poun1a1e, nakoneu,
sannckn npoannunanLnmx pen1ene, po6naakunxcn o1 npaan1enLc1aa kaknx-nn6ypL
nonesnmx pnn nx kpan Heponpnn1n. axe a 1aknx sannckax aac nopaxae1 nnorpa
sa6aanoe no cepLesnoc1n y1aepxpenne, 6yp1o, nanpnHep, pnkaHckn kpa
coc1aanne1 neu1o oco6oe uenoe, nHekuee kakne-1o caon npaaa a kauec1ae korpa-1o
6mauero 1y1 "eppmnckoro uapc1aa...
"ce a1o 6mno 6m cHeuno, korpa 6m ne 6mno 1ak rpyc1no. sM cM
xk co c1oponm anac1n a opnoH Hec1e, kak 1peunna a spannn, cpasy
nepepae1cn n na ppyrne uac1n, ckasmaancL a no1epe cansn n o6uero paanoaecnn.
Yxaxnaan sa qnnnnnpuaHn, Hm ponrpanncL po 1oro, u1o yxe na caHo onre ampoc
ouenL cepLesnm nnopopueckn cenapa1nsH - 1a1apckn. neH noka eue Hano
roaopn1, no 1onLko no1oHy, u1o ouenL yx ckanpanLnoe pasanaae1cn 1aH nanenne,
konqysnoe n noc1mpnoe pnn naue ocna6eaue rocypapc1aennoc1n. y1 npnunocL 6m
roaopn1L ne 1onLko o Heu1annnx 1a1apunnm, no n o6 ycnexax ee. pnunocL 6m
roaopn1L o 1a1apnsaunn 1ex qnncknx nneHen, ko1opme ne noppanncL o6pycennk.
pnunocL 6m roaopn1L o6 ycnexax ncnaHa 1aH, rpe 6esnapexno o1c1ynnno
npaaocnaane... m 1enepL aounn a nonocy aennknx nc1opnuecknx k6nneea -
c1one1nnx, payxco1ne1nnx, 1pexco1ne1nnx. ce a1n k6nnen - aocnoHnnannn o
1opxec1aennmx no6epax naue rocypapc1aennoc1n a panekoH npounoH. pyc1no, u1o
npnxopn1cn nepexnaa1L a1n aocnoHnnannn a anoxy 6eccnaanyk n 6ecno6epnyk, korpa
ne 1onLko na nonnx 6n1a, no paxe a Hnpnoe apeHn Hm nnuL 1eH n sannHaeHcn, u1o ace
cpaeH n o1 acex npenn1c1an o1c1ynaeH...
aHmH c1paunmH npepaec1neH nHnepckoro pacnapa cnepye1 cun1a1L 1ak nasmaaeHoe
Hasennnc1ao, 1o ec1L peanoc1no nopro1oanneHoe aocc1anne a anopoccnn.
e1ep6yprckoe npaan1enLc1ao npo6ye1 ne saHeua1L a1oro panxennn. anxenne a1o,
Hon, c1apoe, aosnnkuee nonc1one1nn nasap nnn 6onLue n, c1ano 6m1L, ne onacnoe. o
rocypapc1aennme 6onesnn epaa nn cnepye1 cpaannaa1L c nacHopkoH, oco6enno
6onesnn ponroapeHennme, aouepune a npnamuky. pnamuka k sa1nxno uaxo1ke ne
cnacae1 o1 no1epn o6onx nerknx n poaonLno ckaepnoro konua. YkpannoqnnLckoe
panxenne pec1an1enLno nonannocL ouenL paano, no 1nxec1L aonpoca a 1oH, u1o
nHenno 1enepL ono o6oc1pnnocL n naunnae1 yrpoxa1L kpane cepLesnmHn
nocnepc1annHn. a1epnan pnn aceaosHoxnmx nsHen n nonn1nuecknx packonoa a
occnn acerpa 6mn, no pasnnua 6onLuan, ropn1 nn ropkun Ha1epnan nnn ne ropn1.
occnn po 1ex nop ne 6mno nn nnopopuecknx, nn pyccknx cenapa1nsHoa, noka Hnepnn
oc1aaanacL no6eponocno. cerpa cyuec1aoaann nonnkn, qnnnnnpum, rpysnnm,
apHnne, 1a1apm - no noka rpeHen nop ne6oH aecennn rpoH naue
rocypapc1aennoc1n, ace HanenLkne napopnoc1n ncnm1maann nckpennee cHnpenne,
nckpennee 6naroroaenne k naue anac1n. pHnnckan n rpysnnckan nn1ennnrenunn
cun1ana amcoko uec1Lk cnyxn1L occnn n nocn1L nHn pyccknx. a1apm aepnnn a
Benoro apn c1onL xe necokpyunHo, kak Hockoackne kpec1Lnne. Onnnnnpum
poceHoao anoxn xpa6po cpaxanncL sa occnk. axe Hnorne nonnkn yHnpann sa
o6uee nHnepckoe o1euec1ao. expy napopnoc1nHn a occnn 6mno 1orpa ne 6onLue
posnn, ueH Hexpy cocnoannHn, - ckopee HenLue. eu e1pa ennkoro, caepkan
Honnne a pykax cyaopoacko ukonm, kasancn uypoH BoxnnH. e c1pax, a ouapoaanne
npnkoamaano nnopopuea k occnn, - ouapoaanne 6eccnopno cnnm. ce a1o, yam,
nouno npaxoH, korpa occnn nepec1ana no6expa1L.
yxec1aennm nkona I ynopno o1c1anaan pepxaanoe o6annne occnn n ane, n
any1pn nee n yHep nxM. o yxe a ero anoxy nauanncL nn6epanLnme, 1o
ec1L paspyun1enLnme, 6poxennn, naaennnme c anapa, n a 1euenne neckonLknx
pecn1nne1n onn cepLesno nopopaann pyx o6uec1aennm. 1 npnpopm cnnukoH
uyac1an1enLnm n Hnrkopyunm, nHnepa1op nekcanpp II nonyunn y Xykoackoro
cen1nHen1anLnoe aocnn1anne, nan6onee paccna6nnkuee pyx ns acex aosHoxnmx.
caH Honopo Hnepa1op, n ero caepc1nnkn ns amcue sna1n nopro1oannnncL k
uapc1aoaannk ne "na cnaay naH n ne "na c1pax aparaH, kak noe1cn a rnHne, a nnuL k
HnpnmH, npnnnnuecknH "peqopHaH, npnueH cnn xaa1nno na paspyuenne c1aporo n
yxe ne xaa1nno na cospanne noaoro. e nauepun onopm nn a ce6e, nn a nsnexenno
sna1n, nekcanpp II saknkunn nepam nocne e1pa ennkoro noc1mpnm Hnp c
yc1ynko uac1n pyccko 1eppn1opnn n c o1kasoH o1 pepxaanmx npaa na epnoH Hope.
o1 HoHen1, ko1opm n cun1ak necuac1neunH a naue noao nc1opnn. BeccnnLnme
nsane, 1o ec1L ne nauepune a ce6e cnn pnn aneune no6epm Hm nauann anoxy n
any1pennnx caHonsHen. cna6eaun Heu Hm saHennnn Hnp1oao ae1ko n nonecnn ee
na nnopopueckne okpannm. Henno a uapc1aoaanne Hnepa1opa nekcanppa II a
uncne Hnoxec1aa ppyrnx oun6ok 6mna npnnn1a nary6nan nonn1nka a Onnnnnpnn. pn
nekcanppe II pacnyc1nnocL n nocennnoe a anoxy eauenko ykpannoqnnLc1ao c
nponaranpo oc1oHapoaa
[108]
, ynnua
[109]
, n1onoanua
[110]
n paroHanoaa
[111]
.
ocnepnne ropm uapc1aoaannn nekcanppa II n xopouo noHnk. ypn no HonH
ukonLnmH 1oaapnuaH c kra, Hanopycckan HonopexL yxe 1orpa 6pepnna kasauknHn
aocc1annnHn, aockpeuenneH sanopoxcko aonLnnum n qepepa1nanmH yc1poc1aoH
occnn. o 1orpaunee panxenne a anopoccnn eue ne poxopnno po Msnc, 1o
ec1L po nano n o1kpm1o nsHenm o6uepycckoHy o1euec1ay. anopoccm n 1orpa ne
nk6nnn aennkopoccoa, no cun1ann ce6n ace-1akn pyccknHn. Ykpanna-Ha1m
nonnHanacL 1eH, u1o ona n ec1L, - npekpacnmH kpaeH orpoHno seHnn yccko,
HanenLko popnno a 6onLuoH 1euec1ae. ak Hne, aennkopycy, caon ckoackan
ry6epnnn kasanacL nan6onee popno, noa1nuecko n xenanno, 1ak xoxny - caon
on1aaunna. o npn 6narocknonnoH copec1ann pycckoro npaan1enLc1aa a1o1
ec1ec1aennm n paxe xena1enLnm npoannunannsH poaonLno 6mc1po pasanncn a
naunonanLnm cenapa1nsH. onynnopopueckoe ne1ep6yprckoe unnoannuec1ao paano
no1epnno nonn1nueckyk peanoc1L epnnokpoano, epnnopepxaano ockam. pnnunn
ppeanero co6npannn seHnn n nakonnennn nHnepcknx npaa paano yc1ynnn nauany
pac1paunaannn nocnepnnx. po kpanoc1n nec1poH ne1ep6yprckoH cae1e upesamuano
Hnoro na6nnocL neHuea, qnnnnnpuea, nonnkoa, rpysnn, pnn ko1opmx epnnc1ao occnn
6mno ckopee nyranoH. oco6enno Hnoro okasanocL a e1ep6ypre Hanopoccoa. Yceppno
cnyxa n npo6npancL k aepxaH, onn noc1enenno o1aoeamaann pnn ykpannoqnnLc1aa
opny nosnunk sa ppyro. o amxnonouy1 nspa1enLc1ao Hanopyccknx knnr, 1o
ueauenkoackne nannxnpm, o6epm n aeuepa, 1o nepeaop aanrennn na Hanopycckoe
napeune, 1o naHn1nnk Borpany XHenLnnukoHy n 1.n. a Hoe naHn1n oco6ennmH
1onukoH k pasan1nk ykpannoqnnLc1aa nocnyxnno paspeuenne Hanopycckoro 1ea1pa.
D1o 6mno yxe npn Hnepa1ope nekcanppe III. Xopouo noHnk, kak Henn nsyHnna
1orpa a1a Hepa. pypno 6mno nonn1L, kak ocypapL, c1onL 1aeppm n pec1an1enLno
pycckn na1pno1, Hor peun1Lcn na 1akyk pnckoaannyk Hepy. pnesp ouapoaa1enLno
anLkoaeuko n 1anan1nnaoro ponnannukoro as6ypopaxnn 1orpa e1ep6ypr. Xoxnm
naun 6mnn a neonncannoH aoc1opre, no Hne 1orpa xe nokasanocL, u1o 1y1 aoace ne
nckycc1ao na nepaoH nnane, a nonn1nka. nn nac, aennkopoccoa, Hanopoccnckne
cnek1aknn 6mnn Hanonn1epecnm. koHepnn, n ppaHa na Ykpanne cnnukoH
npoc1onapopnm n paxe c1apoHopnm, a rnaanoe - uaue acero onn 6espapnm. o a1o ne
Heuano nH co6npa1L orpoHnyk Hanopoccnckyk ny6nnky, ynnaaauykcn nHenno a1o
pepeaenunno kak popno, caHoc1nno kynL1ypo. as nosaoneno paaa1L
cnek1aknn na HanopycckoH nsmke, nopyHan n, 1o no ace anopoccnn 6ypy1
pasLesxa1L 1pynnm ykpannoHanoa n cen1L a1nH ny1eH naunonanLnoe aos6yxpenne.
ea1panLnan cuena cpenae1cn 1ako xe ukono ykpannckoro cenapa1nsHa, kako 6mnn
paspeuennme npaan1enLc1aoH a pn6an1nckoH kpae ac1onckne, na1muckne n
neHeukne resanrqepenm, xypoxec1aenno-nn1epa1ypnme kpyxkn n 1.n. e nHen
aosHoxnoc1n rpoHko o6cyxpa1L a1y 1eHy, n xopouo noHnk, u1o cun1an paspeuenne
Hanopycckoro 1ea1pa 6onLuo rocypapc1aenno oun6ko, n pyHak, u1o 6mn npaa
1orpa.
1euenne ue1aep1n aeka 6ecuncnennme Hanopycckne 1pynnm npnanekak1 annHanne
Hanopycckoro nacenennn k o1xnaunH nnn o1xnaakunH oco6ennoc1nH popnoro 6m1a,
sac1aannn popoxn1L nHn kak can1mne. o-HoeHy, a1o apepnm poHan1nsH - apope,
nanpnHep, npeannsaunn kpenoc1noro npaaa. a c1apo Ykpanne, n a kasauec1ae, n
paxe a kpenoc1noH npaae 6mno Hnoro Hnnoro n kpacnaoro, opnako xnsnL npe1, Hnp
Henne1cn, Henne1cn n occnn. ce Hm, n aennkopoccm, n Hanopoccm, n 6enopycm, kak
n ace ppyrne napopnoc1n, amnyxpenm o1kasa1Lcn o1 caonx oco6ennoc1e a nonLsy
uero-1o o6uero, u1o cnarae1cn aceHnpno. orpa-1o y kaxporo nneHenn, y kaxpo
ry6epnnn, nou1n y kaxporo yespa 6mn cao, nanpnHep, ronoano y6op. ce nx 1ouno
ae1poH cHeno, n na nx Hec1e aouapnnncL o6uenpnnn1me qpanuysckn ko1enok n
unnnka. nuero c a1nH ne nopenaeuL, pa epaa nn n cnepye1 rna1Lcn sa 1aknHn
nyc1nkaHn. e 1onLko nokpmuky pnn ronoam, no n caHy any1pennoc1L uenoaeuecko
ronoam neaosHoxno y6epeuL o1 korpa-1o uyxporo e copepxannn, naaennnoro nsane.
ne kaxe1cn, nenLsn cun1a1L ace aneunee uyxpmH ce6e. ak nnua, nonaauan a aau
xenypok, 1ak n HmcnL, ycaoennan HosroH, - onn c1anoan1cn aaunHn, ecnn am nx
poc1a1ouno nepeaapnnn. Hsmk ne ec1L ncknkun1enLnm npnsnak naunonanLnoc1n.
oaopn1 nn Hanopocc na popnoH caoeH napeunn nnn na paokpopnoH, 1o ec1L no-
aennkopycckn, on oc1ae1cn HanopoccoH, nopo6no 1oHy kak, epyun no 1o xe
anopoccnn ne na aonax, a no xenesno popore, on aoace ne 1epne1 caoe
naunonanLnoc1n. 6un nsmk ec1L opnn ns ce1n rocypapc1aennmx ny1e coo6uennn,
ckaxeH paxe - aanm aneHen1. ak kak uenL rocypapc1aennoc1n - epnnopyune, 1o
nepaoe ycnoane o6uero nonnHannn - o6un nsmk - ponxno cun1a1Lcn amcouaue
rocypapc1aenno sapaue. nn ocyuec1anennn ee ne cnepye1 oc1anaannaa1Lcn nn
nepep kaknHn npenn1c1annHn. ocypapc1ao Hoxe1 cnncxopn1enLno o1nec1ncL k
aceaosHoxnmH pasnnunnH, yc1anaannaaeHmH npnpopo, - k pasnnunnH o6muaea,
npaaoa, xapak1epoa n paxe pennrnosnmx y6expenn. paac1aenno Henee npeanLnoe,
ueH aepa, epnnc1ao nsmka npak1nueckn ropaspo 6onee neo6xopnHo, n6o pnn caHoro
saua1nn o6uec1aennoc1n nyxno, u1o6m rpaxpane nonnHann ppyr ppyra. cnny a1oro
npoc1oro 1pe6oaannn rocypapc1ao o6nsano aceHepno o1c1anaa1L epnnonsmune
coc1aannkunx ero nneHen. pnnonsmune a1o poc1nrae1cn, kak a Hepnke, c1poro
npoaepenno epnnonsmuno ukono, a 1akxe epnnonsmunmHn yupexpennnHn,
nrpakunHn ponL ukonm, a 1oH uncne neua1Lk n 1ea1poH. e 1onLko rocypapc1aennm
nsmk (sakona, apHnnnc1paunn n cypa), no n nsmk o6uec1aennm a rocypapc1ae ponxen
6m1L opnn. oc1nra1L a1oro epnnc1aa ponxno, koneuno, c nsaec1no oc1opoxnoc1Lk,
pasnaran 1nxec1L poc1nxennn na ponrne ropm, no rocypapc1ao nnkorpa ne ponxno
sa6maa1L o6 ocnoano caoe uenn. pno ns payx: nnn Hm - rocypapc1aennm napop,
cosna1enLno npecnepykun nc1opnueckne sapaun, nnn Ha1epnan pnn c1nxnnmx
6poxenn, paspyuakunx ppyr ppyra. nepaoH cnyuae o1c1anaa1L rocnopc1ao
rocypapc1aennoro nsmka Hm, pycckne, ponxnm c 1o xe aneprne, kak caok xnsnL.
cnn 6m naua ne1ep6yprckan 6kpokpa1nn 6mna naunonanLno, 1o a 1euenne 250 ne1
o6napannn naHn anopoccne ona yxe poc1nrna 6m o6Lepnnennn c1onL popc1aennmx
napeun, kakoam Hanopycckoe n aennkopycckoe. Yxe 1enepeunn nau nn1epa1ypnm
nsmk ne ec1L unc1o aennkopycckn, n6o on aknkunn a ce6n Hnoxec1ao cnoa n paxe
rpaHHa1nuecknx annnnn kxno- n sanapnopyccknx (n eue 6onLue nnoc1pannmx).
epon1no, okonua1enLnm nsmk nau 6ype1 eue 6onee cHeuannmH, no on 6ype1 nHe1L
nHenno 1o pparouennoe caoc1ao, ko1oporo po6naae1cn rocypapc1ao, -
o6uenonn1noc1L. 6uan naunonanLnoc1L - peno panekoro 6ypyuero. e npnnyxpan
nnopopuea 6m1L aennkopoccaHn, Hm ponxnm nac1on1L, u1o6m rnaanm aneHen1 naue
rocypapc1aenno kynL1ypm - nsmk nau - 6mn 6m o6ueyno1pe6n1enLnmH, kak sakon,
ko1opoHy Hm ace nopunnneHcn. c1anLnoe - peno apeHenn n 1aopuecknx cnn
npnpopm. m ne 6onHcn conepnnuec1aa popnmx 6pa1Lea, 1eH naue paokpopnmx: kak a
c1apme apeHena c1apunnc1ao 6mno sa naHn, 1ak, aepon1no, 6ype1 n anpepL.
1apunnc1ao onpepenne1cn ne Heu1aHn n aspoxaHn, ne poHan1nsHoH n
cen1nHen1anLnoc1Lk, a cnoco6noc1Lk a kaxpyk anoxy ampanny1L na apeny
copeanoaannn nan6onLuee konnuec1ao 1pypoao aneprnn, 1anan1a n reponsHa. cnn
no1oHc1ao aennkopoccoa ne cyHee1 npoponxn1L cnaanme npepannn npepkoa, 1o ono
cope1 co cuenm, kak cxopnnn aennkne napopm peunn n nHa, no, Bor pac1, po a1oro
ne 1ak yx 6nnsko. m, 1enepeunee nokonenne aennkopoccoa, ponxnm o1ue1nnao
yncnn1L ce6e xapak1ep saroaopa, coc1aanennoro npo1na acepoccnckoro rocypapc1aa.
pe1 ouenL cnnLnan npepa1enLckan pa6o1a no o6unpnoHy qpon1y. yxoanme no1oHkn
anaqeHa1c1aoaannoro asenm npnaneknn k paspyuennk pycckoro epnnc1aa
nn1epa1ypy, nc1opnk n, u1o nosopnee acero, o6unx aparoa naunx - aac1pnuea n
nonnkoa. nsHennnueckoH a1oH nopkone npnnnHak1 yuac1ne Hnorne npoqeccopa,
paopnne, unnoannkn, nonyuakune nn1anne caoe o1 kasnm. op nasaanneH
"ykpanncknx rpoHap pec1ayk1 Hnorouncnennme Hanopyccko-nonLcko-eapeckne
kpyxkn, pasapauakune c1ypenuec1ao n napopnmx yun1ene, npnanaakune nH, a
uepes nnx n npoc1onapopLk caHyk nk1yk nenaanc1L k pycckoHy napopy n
rocypapc1ay. opa npaan1enLc1ay ne 1onLko saHe1n1L a1o nanenne (ono paano
saHeueno) - nopa 6opo1Lcn c nnH ne na xnao1, a na cHep1L.
T
10
apen nakoneu po6nnncL aHeua1enLc1aa nnoc1panno pepxaam a naun any1pennne
pena. oepnnennme 1a1m o6Lnannn occnn aony - noka nnuL 1oproayk. o
o1smaaH caepyunx nkpe, a1a aona pnn nac coaceH ne c1pauna. na kpane
neamropna pnn caHo Hepnkn n, nao6opo1, ouenL amropna pnn nac. a nocnepnne
1pnnapua1L ne1 Hm amaesnn a oepnnennme 1a1m acero nnuL na 76 Hnnnnonoa
py6ne pasnmx 1oaapoa, 1orpa kak 1a1m amaesnn k naH na 721 Hnnnnon 1oaapoa, 1o
ec1L nou1n a pecn1L pas 6onee. a ykasannm cpok Hm, nepennaunaan exeropno 6onee
50 Hnnnnonoa py6ne Hepnke, nopapnnn e okono 645 Hnnnnonoa py6ne. oproam
paspma c Hepnko ocao6oxpae1 nac o1 neneno pann, ko1opyk naH paano nopa 6mno
c6pocn1L: aepL rnaanme npepHe1m aHepnkanckoro npnaosa k naH - Haunnm, no onn
nnuy1L ne xyxe ampenmaak1cn a epHannn n nrnnn. spennn xe ns nenLkn n nLna,
noueHy-1o npnaosnHme ns-sa okeana, naH npoc1o c1mpno ne ampenmaa1L poHa.
cnn o1kas o1 poroaopa 1832 ropa c1onL neamropen pnn Hepnkn, ueH xe o6Lncnn1L
c1pannoe nerkoHmcnne, c ko1opmH ona peunnacL na a1y Hepy? 1ae1 na a1o1 aonpoc
pae1 aecLHa nn1epecnan 6poukpa . . qon Drep1a, ne1ep6yprckoro npncnxnoro
noaepennoro, 1onLko u1o aepnyauerocn ns Hepnkn nocne 1pexHecnunoro ny1euec1ann
no oepnnennmH 1a1aH. o1 ronoc caexero uenoaeka, na6nkpaauero Hexannky
ckanpanLnoro co6m1nn na caHoH ero Hec1e. . . qon Drep1 y1aepxpae1, u1o acn
1enepeunnn aHepnkanckan uyHnxa yc1poena ncknkun1enLno eapenHn. "cn c1pana, -
nnue1 on, - nopnn1a n o6Lnanne1 kpec1oam noxop npo1na occnn ns-sa eapeea. c1L
u1a1m, rpe eapen a snaun1enLnoH konnuec1ae sacepak1 a Hec1nmx sakonopa1enLnmx
nana1ax. "pn o11anknaakue caonH 6esnpaac1aennmH xapak1epoH nap1nno
nonn1nke onn 1aH koHanpyk1 nonoxenneH. apo saHe1n1L, u1o aHepnkanckne nana1m,
no cnoaaH nauero aa1opa, nanonnnk1cn "npn rpnsnmx npneHax am6opno arn1aunn ne
nyuunHn aneHen1aHn nacenennn, a xypunHn - npopaxnmHn xypnannc1aHn,
neunc1mHn na pyky apaoka1aHn n 1.n.. anpenan eapeckan kaHnannn npo1na occnn
aepe1cn 1ak: "nLk1cn no1okn c1a1e n peue c nenc1oao 6panLk n c noxLk, ne
snakue nnkaknx rpannu. D1o Hec1noe panxenne a 1a1ax nepepanocL n na coksnoe
npaan1enLc1ao. kasmaae1cn, u1o eape ynLuep, anecun a aaunnr1onckyk nana1y
npepnoxenne o paspmae c occne, - a1o nau poporo coo1euec1aennnk, xnpok ns
n1e6cka, rpe po cnx nop xnay1 ero popc1aennnkn. D1oro popa naun
"coo1euec1aennnkn anyuak1 aHepnkanuaH, u1o "occnn, npn6eruan a 1905 ropy k
nuc oepnnennmx 1a1oa n 1ak Hnoro nH o6nsannan sa Hnp, pnn nee
ncxopa1ac1aoaannm y Hnonnn, ne peun1cn aocnpo1nan1Lcn nx 1pe6oaannk. o1 po
uero Hm poxnnn: 1mcnuene1nkk cnaannckyk nHnepnk eapen o6Lnannk1 nop
aHepnkancknH nokpoan1enLc1aoH.
. . qon Drep1 npnaopn1 neko1opme nopnnnnme c1a1Ln ns aHepnkancknx rase1 -
1ounee, eapecknx, n6o n a Hepnke, kak y nac, neua1L nou1n cnnouL saxaauena
napasn1nmH nneHeneH. cnonnennan 1onuaue nopnoc1n nrpa coc1on1 a cnepykue
qanLcnqnkaunn, ko1opo rpy6oaa1m n, k coxanennk, neaexec1aennm a o1nouennn
occnn yH aHepnkancko ny6nnkn ne saHeuae1. apen ampak1 ce6n caHmHn
nnaHennmHn aHepnkanuaHn. nn kpnua1, u1o M ockop6nena 1eH, u1o
aHepnkancknx eapeea ne nyckak1 a occnk. o 1y1 ckpmaae1cn noxL, paonan n
apaone 6ecc1mpnan. apen, xo1n n aHepnkanckne rpaxpane, a pec1an1enLnoc1n
aoace ne aHepnkanum. opo6no nerpaH, na1ypannsoaannmH kn1auaH nnn
kpacnokoxnH, eapen oc1ak1cn nkpLHn coaceH ppyro pacm, ppyro nc1opnuecko
naunonanLnoc1n, ppyro ncnxonornn, ppyrnx Hnpoamx nn1epecoa, ueH npnpoxpennme
nnkn. ak a1oro ne anpe1L? eyxenn unc1o kanuennpckn u1eHnenL "rpaxpannn
oepnnennmx 1a1oa cpasy ncknkuae1 ace neoponnHme nnueH pasnnunn,
yc1anoanennme caHo npnpopo? ypa peaancn sppaam cHmcn y anrnocakcoa? pe nx
sopkne rnasa? pe 1a npaapnaoc1L, ko1opan 6mna po cnx nop po6pmH renneH,
ynacnepoaannmH nHn o1 nypn1an? ak aepno roaopn1 nocnoanua: "a acnkoro Hyppeua
poaonLno npoc1o1m - ropc1n npespenneunx o16pocoa aponm, o1nnuakunxcn apaoe
noamuenno npec1ynnoc1Lk, ypanocL y6epn1L ouenL unpokne kpyrn aHepnkancko
ny6nnkn, u1o occnn poroaopoH 1832 ropa c Hepnky... Ypnan1enLnoe
o1kpm1ne qak1a, ko1oporo nnk1o ne saHeuan a 1euenne aocLHnpecn1n ne1!
ekpe1 eapeckoro annnnnn a Hepnke, kak n y nac, - neaepon1nan narnoc1L, c kako
xnpm y1aepxpak1 noxL. Xpnc1nane, aocnn1annme a caoe xpnc1nancko uec1noc1n,
nnkak ne Hory1, cypn no caHnH ce6e, ponyc1n1L, u1o6m nkpn ueno orpoHno 1onno
ny6nnuno nrann, pa eue c 1akok kpnknnao c1pac1noc1Lk. Xo1n xpnc1nane 1oxe
nnorpa nry1, no kaxpm pas any1penne kpacnek1 sa a1o n ocyxpak1 ce6n. cnxonornn
xpnc1nanckan coaepuenno ne ponyckae1 cnc1eHa1nuecko, nasonnao nxn. npn
oxec1ouenne, c kaknH xnpm y1aepxpak1 kako-nn6ypL qak1, xpnc1nane c1mpn1cn
paxe npepnonoxn1L, u1o6m nkpn Hornn 1ak o1kpoaenno nsapaua1L npaapy. Hexpy
1eH a a1oH-1o ace n peno: cc x m cc. Hepnkanum ne
nonnHak1, u1o a1o nnueH nenc1pe6nHan pacoaan uep1a eapeea, apope uecnounoro
sanaxa nnn 1eHno koxn. Xpnc1nane noc1onnno sa6maak1, u1o sa nnHn - 1mcnua ne1
eaanrenLckoro aocnn1annn, a sa eapenHn - pae 1mcnun ne1 nenaanc1n k aanrennk.
eyxenn a1o coaceH nnu1o? cnn anrnocakcm po 1ako c1enenn no1epnnn yaaxenne k
na1ype aeue, u1o6m ne o1nnua1L ce6n o1 eapen, 1o a1o pnn Hnpoaoro rocnopc1aa nx
poaonLno-1akn rpyc1noe npepckasanne. Yx kakoe 1y1 rocnopc1ao, korpa a caHo
cao6opno ns anrnocakconcknx c1pan kopennme rpaxpane ee okasmaak1cn ao a1opoH
c1one1nn caoe nc1opnn a HopanLno anac1n xananecknx amxopuea!
ypn no un1a1aH r-na qon Drep1a ns eapecknx rase1, "eapeckne rpaxpane
oepnnennmx 1a1oa, ypoxpennme n na1ypannsoaannme, eunnn 6opo1Lcn no Hepe
cnn aceHn sakonnmHn cpepc1aaHn sa yc1panenne a1oro epnnc1aennoro nn1na na nx
nonoxennn rpaxpan, 1o ec1L c pyccknHn sakonaHn o eapec1ae. apen n 1y1 conrann:
o6Lnana naHepenne 6opo1Lcn sM cpepc1aaHn, onn npn6erak1 k
nenpnnnuneunH n npec1ynnmH ckanpanaH apope 1oro, ko1opm nHn 6mn nponsaepen
30 ok1n6pn a1oro ropa a Lk-opke. eno 6mno na nnnoppoHe. saec1nm ap1nc1
nppeea c opkec1poH 6ananaek paaan konuep1. opno ns nox naxopnnncL pycckn
renepanLnm koncyn 6apon nnnen6ax, unen noconLc1aa nauero a aunnr1one 6apon
kckynL, cekpe1apL pycckoro noconLc1aa a apnxe n ppyrne anpnme pycckne a
cocepnnx noxax. ce uno 6narononyuno. s nonn1no aexnnaoc1n pycckn opkec1p
cmrpan aHepnkanckn napopnm rnHn "Ycennnoe saespaHn snaHn. ce amcnyuann ero
c1on n o1aeuann pykonneckannnHn. paa, no cnoaaH "Ne-or American,
npekpa1nnncL pykonneckannn, kak ns ny6nnkn paspancn ronoc: "ycckn rnHn. -n
nppeea "cpenan noknon a c1opony noxn, sann1o pyccknH pnnnoHa1oH, n pan snak
opkec1py naua1L pycckn rnHn. o1uac neckonLko co1 spn1ene na ranepenx nopnnnncL
n c1ann nenc1oao canc1a1L n unka1L. a1o 6ype npo1ec1a npncoepnnnnncL n ppyrne
nnua annsy.
yxno nn po6aan1L, u1o a1a "6ypn npo1ec1a 6mna nponsaepena cnnouL xnpaHn? o
cnoaaH rase1m, "nonoanna spn1ene kpnkaHn npnae1a pycckoHy rnHny c1apanacL
nokpm1L npo1ec1 1ex, k1o ampaxan neypoaonLc1ane, - no pasae aosHoxno HnpnmH n
aocnn1annmH nkpnH nepekpnua1L co6paauncn xnpoackn karan? Xo1n 6ananaeunnkn
npoponxann nrpa1L pycckn rnHn, no on coaepuenno 6mn sarnyuen xnpoacknH
raan1oH, unkanLeH, canc1oH. Xnpm peaenn n aonnnn: "cnoHnn1e nunnea!
cnoHnn1e norpoH! pycckne noue1nme roc1n, n pycckn opkec1p npnnyxpenm 6mnn
nakoneu ypann1Lcn.
o1 kakne cpepc1aa aHepnkanckne xnpm cun1ak1 "sakonnmHn, u1o6m "sac1aan1L
occnk nponycka1L nx k ce6e. eropnn nocmnak1 naue Hnepnn necnmxannoe
ockop6nenne n a narpapy sa a1o "1pe6yk1 (saHe1L1e - k!) nonnmx npaa
nan6onee 6naronpnn1c1ayeHo naunn! 1o acero neuanLnee, cyHacuepuan narnoc1L
a1a, nopo6no nackoky nc1pe6a na c1ak kyp, nHee1 neko1opm ycnex. e 1onLko rpy6o
neaexec1aennan a o1nouennn occnn aHepnkanckan ny6nnka, no paxe ne1ep6yprckan
6kpokpa1nn, ko1opo ne rpex 6m nepec1a1L nkua1Lcn c xnpaHn, naxopn1cn nop
aneua1nenneH eapecknx ckanpanoa. epL pouno po 1oro, u1o uepes nepenk nocne
onncannoro 6eso6pasnn a Lk-opke ono noa1openo 6mno yxe a caHoH e1ep6ypre, a
aopnnckoH co6pannn, na 1opxec1aennoH oHonocoackoH k6nnee, yc1poennoH
kapeHne nayk... nnuero - nn ckanpannc1m, nn akapeHnueckne pexnccepm
ckaepno peHonc1paunn ne nonecnn nn Haneue o1ae1c1aennoc1n...
-n qon Drep1 a nasaanno nn1epecno 6poukpe
[112]
pae1 o6c1on1enLnm "o1ae1 na
o6annennn npo1na occnn n na o6pauennme k ne 1pe6oaannn. ocnopn! o uero,
opnako, ynana naua rocypapc1aennoc1L: naH npnxopn1cn pasroaapnaa1L c napasn1aHn,
ko1opme 1yue na nac nesy1; naH npnxopn1cn paaa1L o6Lncnennn, uy1L u1o ne
ynnxennme onpaapannn. n1a1enn "oaoro apeHenn yxe snak1, po kako c1enenn c
c u s - n c Hexpynapopno-npaaoao, n c poroaopno-kpnpnuecko, n c
akonoHnuecko - npe1ensnn Hepnkn nnu1oxnm. cnyuae coHnennn un1a1enn
6naroaonn1 o6pa1n1Lcn k 6poukpe r-na qon Drep1a, kak nccnepoaaauero peno a caHo
Hepnke, Hne xe noa1opn1L specL ne xoue1cn nn neaexec1aennmx npe1ensn, nn
cnnukoH nerknx o1ae1oa na nnx. oc1a1ouno o1He1n1L y6expenne ocaepoHnennoro
aa1opa, u1o 1oproam paspma c Hepnko "pnn occnn kpoHe amrop nnuero ne Hoxe1
npnnec1n: occnn 6onLue ne 6ype1 nepennaunaa1L oepnnennmH 1a1aH camue 50
Hnnnnonoa exeropno no 1oproaoHy 6anancy, n npnoc1anoan1cn 1enepL nc1pe6nenne
nyunoro n nnoro saepn a n6npn, coaepuaeHoe, ckasa1L kc1a1n, 1oxe aHepnkancknHn
eapenHn, npepc1aan1ennHn 1aHounnx Hexoamx qnpH.
Xo1enocL 6m amncnn1L, nackonLko Houennnueckan arn1aunn eapeea Hoxe1 ac1pe1n1L
noppepxky a caHo 1onue aHepnkanckoro napopa. -n qon Drep1 pae1 n o1nocn1enLno
a1oro nk6onm1nme pasLncnennn. o aHepnkancko neua1n, kak nou1n cnnouL
xnpoacko, nenLsn cypn1L o6 o1nouennn k eapenH aHepnkanuea. opo6no naue
nn1ennnrenunn, n aHepnkanckan uac1o cHo1pn1 neaonLno eapecknHn rnasaHn,
oco6enno ecnn "eapeckan nponaranpa npnnpaanne1cn yxacaHn, pacckasmaaeHmHn o
occnn, 1onLko 6yp1o 6m n sann1o u1o 1paane n 1epsanneH necuac1noro nneHenn.
ak n y nac, k eapenH a Hepnke o1nocn1cn 6naropyuno nnuL a 1ex o6nac1nx, rpe onn
nonannk1cn o1penLnmHn epnnnuaHn, no a aoc1ounmx u1a1ax, rpe nx na6nnocL okono
payx Hnnnnonoa, eapen yxe ycnenn aos6ypn1L pesko apaxpe6noe k ce6e o1nouenne.
"pepoc1aana eapenH nonn1nueckoe paanonpaane, aHepnkanum, opnako, uyxpak1cn
6onee 6nnskoro o6uennn c nnHn, - roaopn1 r-n qon Drep1, - ne npnnnHak1 nx nn a
kpyr caonx poHaunnx snakoHmx, nn a caon kny6m n ne ponyckak1 aocnn1annn
eapecknx pe1e coaHec1no co caonHn. po1nanm nH eapen caonH qnsnuecknH 1nnoH,
caoe Hanepo roaopn1L n pepxa1L ce6n, caoe cye1nnao, nnuenno poc1onnc1aa
noaapko n caoek narnoc1Lk. oppoHy aHepnkanckoHy napopy, c nk6oaLk
asnpakueHy na caok nc1opnk, na caok 6opL6y sa ocao6oxpenne, na caon 1pypm n na
amnonnennoe nH orpoHnoe kynL1ypnoe peno, a ueH aceH eapen yuac1nn ne nHenn, -
npo1nano anpe1L, kak 1enepL eapen, Ykpauan ce6n uyxnHn nepLnHn, knua1cn caonH
"aHepnkancknH rpaxpanc1aoH"... n kny6m, paxe yuenme, nn c1ypenueckne
oprannsaunn ne npnnnHak1 eapeea. naun1enLnoe uncno o1ene ne nyckak1 eapeea k
ce6e, u1o6m ne no1epn1L ppyrnx noce1n1ene. 1ea1pax a pasnmx cuenax n kynne1ax
eapen amaopn1cn kak npepHe1 ocHennnn. akoam nonynnpnme aeunum apope "he
sabsmanand the porter, "he mone maers, "A modern cannibaling n pp. Lk-
opke, anpoueH, ko1opm npeapa1nncn a e-or (Jew - xnp), noc1anoaka 1aknx
cuenok 6mna 6m neaosHoxna ns-sa nenc1oaoro raan1a, ko1opm 1orpa nopnnnn 6m a
1ea1pe eapen.
saec1nm nnca1enL Bnpxnoy a "Ne-or Herald nnue1, u1o "oepnnennme 1a1m po
1ako c1enenn 6mc1po ocepnmaak1cn eapenHn, u1o a 1o apeHn kak o acnko ppyro
naunn aosHoxno cao6opnoe paccyxpenne, eape opnn nopnnHae1 aonnL o ronennn
acnkn pas, korpa kpn1nka kacae1cn ero. o1 xe nnca1enL canpe1enLc1aye1, u1o nou1n
acn neua1L a1oro aennkoro napopa naxopn1cn a pykax eapeea nnn "npnka6anena k nnH
upes nonyuaeHme o1 nnx n npn nocpepc1ae nx o6Lnanennn. oc1aauecn ropc1n
nesaancnHo neua1n Bnpxnoy o6pauae1cn c aossaanneH o paso6nauennn npaapm
o1nocn1enLno eapeea "aanpy kap1nnm ncuesnoaennn aHepnkanuea npep na1nckoH oppm
eapecknx "na1pno1oa", ko1opme yxe naunnak1 ouaeunaa1L n apHnk nauy, n qno1,
ko1opme nannk1cn apeponocnmH aneHen1oH pnn naunx pnnnoHa1nuecknx o1nouenn n
pnn naue koncynLcko cnyx6m. apen ouenL roppn1cn 1eH, u1o neHanoe konnuec1ao
nx nponnkno a cypLn n paxe a unenm konrpecca, no Bnpxnoy nac1anaae1, u1o nap
nnHn neo6xopnH "6pn1enLnm rnas, nnaue a Hepnke nyxno oxnpa1L "aspmaa, nepep
ko1opmH ppeqycoackne pnn nokaxy1cn pe1cko nrpo. ecLHa nponnueckn o1nocn1cn
aHepnkanckn nnca1enL k yaepennnH eapeea, u1o onn 1o1uac xe c1anoan1cn nmnknHn
aHepnkancknHn na1pno1aHn, kak 1onLko napoxop c nnHn npnc1ae1 k Lk-opky.
"1uero 6m, - roaopn1 Bnpxnoy, - ne nonm1a1Lcn kakoHy-nn6o aHepnkanuy cpena1L
nap co6ok nopo6nm xe onm1 npeapauennn a eapen, npoaepn xo1n 6m opny snHy a
an1o eHne?
e 1onLko cpepn nponnua1enLnmx nnca1ene, paxe "a nnsunx cnonx nacenennn
6onLunx ropopoa nakannnaae1cn osno6nenne npo1na eapeea, nnueH ne yc1ynakuee
1oHy, ko1opoe Hm anpnH y nac a anapnoH kpae, a anopoccnn n onLue, - roaopn1
r-n qon Drep1. Hepnkanuy, po6pocoaec1noHy pa6o1nnky, "pocapno n o6npno anpe1L,
u1o kakne-1o nkpn uyxoro nneHenn, HaccaHn npncocaaunecn k c1pane n ace
npoponxakune npn6maa1L a nee, ne xo1n1 c nnH penn1L ero 1pypoa, a Hexpy 1eH
1pe6yk1 ce6e n ypmaak1 nponn1anne ns o6unx cpepc1a c1panm, sannHancL penoH,
nnuero ne c1onunH a ero rnasax, - HenknH koHnccnonepc1aoH, nokynko n npopaxe
c1aporo nna1Ln, 1oproane apasnoc ka1yukaHn, unnnLkaHn, nen1aHn acnknH
nyc1nkoamH 1oaapoH n ckpm1no nopnorpaqnuecknHn kap1oukaHn n 1.n., npnueH
nepepko eue, nnkoHy neanpnHo, 6ora1ek1 na caoeH nenponsaopn1enLnoH sann1nn n
uepes neckonLko ne1 o1kpmaak1 aaxnme Harasnnm. ak anpn1e, xnpm oc1ak1cn
neo6muano aepnmHn ce6e ao acex kpanx seHnoro uapa - n a a6conk1nmx
Honapxnnx, n a peHokpa1nuecknx pecny6nnkax. nn ackpy aepy1 ce6n kak napasn1m,
aos6yxpakune k ce6e npespenne n yxac. -n qon Drep1 onncmaae1 na6nkpaaunecn
nH cnyuan kpane apaxpe6noro o1nouennn aHepnkanuea k eapenH paxe 6es anpnHo
npnunnm. ueanpno, n 1aH, kak ao aceH xpnc1nanckoH cae1e, nmmM a caoeH
aennkopyunn nepep eapec1aoH, nopnnHae1cn Horyun nnc1nnk1 caHocoxpanennn,
ockop6nennm n neropykun na caok onnounoc1L. enepeunn paspma Hepnkn c
occne caepyune nkpn o6Lncnnk1 ne c1onLko o6nxennoc1Lk sa neyaaxenne npaa
aHepnkancknx rpaxpan, ckonLko c1paxoH nepep eapenHn, ko1opmx pycckne
c1ecnn1enLnme sakonm sac1aannk1 nepecenn1Lcn a Hepnky. Hepnkanum uyac1ayk1,
kak onn oun6nncL, paaan paanonpaane an1nxpnc1oao pace, n xo1enn 6m yc1pon1L
o1nna a1oro po6pa a occnk. apo napen1Lcn, u1o pycckoe npaan1enLc1ao n nana1m
papy1 poc1onm o1nop a1oHy nokyuennk. 6Lnanennm nounn a a1oH cHmcne r-p
yukoaa, opnknna n epxe 6ype1 ac1peuen ace occne c rny6oknH couyac1aneH.
nepye1 c 1ako xe c1peHn1enLno 6mc1po1o, c kako pec1ayk1 aHepnkanum,
nanoHnn1L nH aneHen1apnoe npaanno Hexpynapopno aexnnaoc1n: ponr
neaHeua1enLc1aa a uyxne any1pennne pena. m ne HeuaeH aHepnkanuaH paaa1L
caonH eapenH kakne yropno npaaa, no oc1aanneH sa co6ok npaao ne paaa1L nopo6nmx
xe npaa na naue nouae. e Heuano 6m n pyccknH eapenH nouyac1aoaa1L, po kako
c1enenn narnoc1L nx napasn1no naunn 6nnska k npepeny 1epnennn aennkoro
npnk1nauero ee napopa.
1912 rop

16
I
aockpecenLe o1kpmaae1cn a e1ep6ypre nepam cLesp cepoccnckoro
naunonanLnoro coksa. 1onnua "acen occnn ponxna ac1pe1n1L cLesp ceppeunmH
"po6po noxanoaa1L, n6o ns acex nonn1nuecknx nap1n naunonanLnan coanapae1,
koneuno, acero nonnee c rocypapc1aennmHn sapauaHn c1onnum.
ecHo1pn na caoe neHeukoe nHn, e1ep6ypr - opnn ns nan6onee unc1okpoano pyccknx
ropopoa, noxany, unue ockam n neaa, cnnLno ncnopuennmx eapecko nnecenLk.
e1ep6ypry kak c1onnue nepoc1ae1 Hnororo. Hy nepoc1ae1 npexpe acero popno
nouam, n6o on po cnx nop xnae1 na amcenkax, sa rpannue caoe napopnoc1n.
e1ep6ypry nepoc1ae1 6naropopc1aa nponcxoxpennn - 1ex aocLHnco1 ne1 nc1opnn,
ko1opmHn roppn1cn ockaa. e1ep6ypry nepoc1ae1 eue 6onee canuenno ppeanoc1n,
ko1opan yxopn1 a 1annc1aennyk panL, sa ropnson1 nc1opnn, penan neko1opme ropopa,
apope oaropopa n neaa, c1apue caHo occnn. e1ep6ypr - cospanne Honopo
occnn, no, Hoxe1 6m1L, eue ne coaceH npocnyauncL k nc1opnueckoHy cosnannk, on
ace-1akn a cnny caoe pepxaano ponn npoponxae1 6eso1ue1no "pa6o1y ceppua,
nauaauykcn korpa-1o a oaropope, a neae, ao napnHnpe n a ockae. enLsn ne
npnsna1L c rpyc1Lk, u1o a1o rocypapc1aennoe ceppue naue 6onee1 1eH xe, ueH 6onenn
nea n ockaa na 1pe1LeH c1one1nn nx nHnepcko ponn. cuk onn 6onenn, n
cna6oc1Lk xe xaopae1 coapeHennm e1ep6ypr, kak 6yp1o ynacnepoaaa a1o1 nopok o1
npepkoa. n opna c1onnua na cae1e ne nopaepranacL, kaxe1cn, 6onLueHy nopnuannk,
ueH ropop e1pa ennkoro. enepL paxe o6uenpnnn1o pyHa1L, 6yp1o nHenno
e1ep6ypr nsHennn pyccko naunonanLnoc1n, 6yp1o nHenno on a 1euenne payx
c1one1n pas6nn c1apme nauana naue nc1opnn n ynnsnn nx npep nnoc1panuaHn n
nnopopuaHn. asae Horna 6m cnoxn1Lcn naunonanLnan nap1nn a ockae nnn ppeaneH
neae? orpa aecL napop 6mn naunonanLno nap1ne.
ne kaxe1cn, o6annenne e1ep6ypra rpeun1 nsnnune c1poroc1Lk. e1ep6ypr
pec1an1enLno nsHennn occnn, 1o ec1L ne amnonnnn ao aceH aennunn caoero
rocypapc1aennoro npnsaannn. o aepL 1o xe cnyunnocL n c ockao XVI aeka, n c
neaoH XIII c1one1nn. an1an nLra c cmnoH n anykoH korpa-1o co6pann ycL, no
panLneune ee no1oHkn pas6pocann ycL. nea, kak ceppue, ne cnpaanncn c
neo6Ln1nmH 1enoH occnn n ne peunn nHnepcko sapaun: on ne cpenan naunn
nenpnc1ynno. nea a xpnc1nanckyk anoxy o1kasancn o1 rennanLnoro aapnxckoro
nnana - saaoeaannn apLrpapa, n yxe opno a1o cnepye1 cun1a1L c ero c1oponm
naunonanLno caHonsHeno. aunncL ppyrne, 6onee reponueckne napopm, ko1opme
asnnn apL-rpap n 1eH naponro, ecnn ne naacerpa, o1opannynn nac o1 oc1anLnoro
cnaannc1aa. neay Hnpoaan sapaua cnaannc1aa okasanacL ne no cnnaH; Hexpy 1eH,
6ypyun nepeuenno, a1a sapaua po cnx nop anocn1 a nauy nc1opnk ace nocnepc1ann
caHonsHenm. oaopn1, u1o e1ep6ypr ne cnpaanncn c aoc1ounmH aonpocoH. a. o on
nnuL noa1opnn a a1oH cnyuae 6eccnnne neaa n ockam. nea epaa cnpaanncn c
neueneraHn n nonoauaHn n ne a cnnax 6mn pa1L o1nop 1a1apaH. ennkan ka1ac1poqa
XIII c1one1nn canpe1enLc1aye1, u1o nea kak c1onnua ne amnonnnn rocypapc1aennoro
caoero ponra. n ponxen 6m cpena1Lcn oprannsykunH uen1poH naunn - n ne
cpenancn nH.
pasae ockaa ne okasanacL cna6o? nn y nee naunocL poc1a1ouno, u1o6m po6n1L
occnk, n 6es 1oro pas6n1yk, n sa1eH co6pa1L ee aoepnno. o u1o6m aennko c1pane
o1 pxanrenLcka po c1paxann pa1L xenesnoe c1poenne, nenpnc1ynnoe pnn aparoa, -
y ockam ne xaa1nno 1aopuec1aa. Yxe aan posnm, anapen apHne, ne Henee
Hnorouncnenno, ueH y cepkca (no ampaxennk apaHsnna), saknkuae1 nnueH ne
o6LncnnHm noc1mpnm Hnp c Ba1opneH. Yxe aan posnm, nauaa ycneunyk 6opL6y
c oc1okoH, oc1anaannaae1cn na nonpopore, ne yHen o1aoeaa1L nn pmHa, nn
epnoHopLn. cnkoHy napopy c pasan1neH naunonanLnoro Horyuec1aa, korpa pnn
a1oro ec1L cpepc1aa, cnepye1 cneun1L. c cnm n a nocnepnn aek cao
yxe nn na u1o aennkoe ne 6mna cnoco6na. rpoHnme cnnm ee aHec1o cosnpannn nounn
na caHonc1pe6nenne. Hec1o 1oro u1o6m ocao6opn1L anyk, Benyk n epaonnyk ycL
ns-nop nra onLun, aan posnm pasopnn aepL, ennkn oaropop n ckoa.
aunonanLnan caHonsHena 1o anoxn, kak n nmneune, Hoxe1 6m1L, o6Lncnne1cn
orpoHnmH nannmaoH nnopopunnm a 1orpaunkk nauy sna1L - no a n1ore nonn1nkn,
xec1oko k ce6e n Hanopyuno a 1nouennn aparoa, occnn caHa uy1L ne cpenanacL
po6mue cocepe.
pnc1a ne1 nasap ace ppeanne c1onnum naun - n nea, n ockaa, n oaropop - 6mnn
saxaauenm aparaHn. ockaa yxe npncnrana nonLcko kopone. Bonpe pycckne
o6napyxnnn 1akyk c1enenL ynapka naunonanLnoro uyac1aa, u1o peunnn ns6pa1L
uapeH nnn uaepckoro koponeanua, nnn nonLckoro - , u s c
c, ne ns cpepm kpnkoanue, ocnoaaaunx occnk. aHonsHena ockam 6mna
oueanpno. pnunocL okpannno occnn saaoeamaa1L caok c1onnuy, npnunocL
am6npa1L noayk pnnac1nk, ko1opan HenLue ueH uepes c1o ne1, nsHyuennan
Hn1exaHn, coaceH oc1aanna ockay. orpa roaopn1 o naunonanLnmx nsHenax
e1ep6ypra, sa6maak1, u1o on ocnoaan HockanuoH n coc1aanen 6mn ns Hockanue xe.
e ypoxeneu e1ep6ypra - ypoxeneu n aocnn1annnk ockam ynpaspnnn c1apyk
c1onnuy occnn, ynpaspnnn na1pnapuec1ao, ynpaspnnn 6onpc1ao, ynpaspnnn seHckn
co6op n Hnoroe-Hnoroe 1akoe, u1o anne1anocL a caHoe cyuec1ao naue napopnoc1n.
e1p ennkn amcoko c1aann aana posnoro n ao HnoroH noppaxan eHy. nnue
rposnmx rocypape a1nx - nepaoro apn n nepaoro Hnepa1opa - caHopepxaane
npeamcnno caok Hepy n ac1ynnno a 6opL6y yxe c npaaocnaaneH n napopnoc1Lk. o1
npnunna nauero naunonanLnoro ynapka: nepaanoHepnoc1L 1pex c1nxn,
coc1aannkunx naunonanLnoc1L. cnn Hm anpnH 1enepL epkoaL a xankoH
nonynapannue, ecnn anpnH pycckyk napopnoc1L a ynnxennn, 1o a1o npnHoe cnepc1ane
kaknx-1o 1nxknx nopaxenn. xnaoH 1ene rnnep1poqnn opnoro oprana aneue1 sa
co6ok nc1ouenne oc1anLnmx.
aunonanLno-pycckn cLesp a e1ep6ypre nanne1cn xnamH canpe1enLc1aoH
nac1ynnennn noao apm. pesHepnoe paspac1anne anac1n noaeno 6m k ee
co6c1aennoHy o6eccnnnaannk. y1L o6nerunnocL paanenne c a1o c1oponm, naunnae1
aocc1anoann1Lcn pacnnkuennan c1nxnn naue napopnoc1n. nacakunH nauanoH ycn
nocne kneackoro ynapka 6mno nc, ono aospac1nno ockay. nacakunH
nauanoH nocne Hockoackoro ynapka nannocL cMx, ono aospac1nno Hnepnk.
nacakunH nauanoH nocne ne1ep6yprckoro ynapka, Hne kaxe1cn, ponxna 6m1L
cu. e o1pekancL o1 nepamx payx nauan, c uec1Lk nocnyxnaunx occnn n
paneko eue ne o1cnyxnaunx e, Hm ponxnm pa1L pasan1ne 1pe1LeHy, nan6onee
kopennoHy ns nnx, npnuepueHy a sa6aenne, - nHenno pyccko napopnoc1n.
cepoccnckn naunonanLnm coks, ckonLko n nonnHak ero, ec1L opno ns Hnornx
nanenn a1oro aennkoro aocc1anoan1enLnoro npouecca. orpa-1o, a 6ora1mpckne
apeHena, napopnoc1L naua o6napyxnnacL a Hnpe c cnno, nosaonnaue cnoxn1Lcn
noaropopcko-kneacko rocypapc1aennoc1n. apopnoc1L a1a a ponro1e aekoa poaena po
amco1m caHopepxaann n popnyk aepy, n popnyk anac1L. pacuae1e Hockoacko
Hn1pononnn n na1pnapuec1aa npaaocnaane y nac 6mno nou1n caHopepxaanmH.
e ac1ynan a 6opL6y co cae1cko anac1Lk, epkoaL amnnnunna uapc1ao pycckoe n
ponro pykoaopnna nH. o sa1eH popasanauancn po nonno1m Horyuec1aa cae1ckan
anac1L o1opannyna nasap epkoaL n a nnue e1pa npnnnsnna ee, npnnnsna
opnoapeHenno n popoayk sna1L kak nocn1enLnnuy napopno kynL1ypm. ac1ynae1,
Hne kaxe1cn, apeHn ypaanoaeuennn nauan, amcao6oxpennn 1oro ns nnx, u1o 6mno
nsHn1o n npnpaaneno. enL naunonannsHa, kak n nonnHak ero, ec1L pasan1ne
c po amco1m caHopepxaano Houn. eHnn naua pepxn1cn na 1pex kn1ax,
nopHeuennmx cnaannoqnnaHn. o nnockoc1L ne Hoxe1 pepxa1Lcn nnuL na payx
1oukax: peskoe npnnnxenne napopnoc1n nenpeHenno nnuae1 snauennn n aepy, n
anac1L, xo1n 6m poaepennme nekorpa po c1enenn aennunn. ao6opo1, aosapauenne
1pe1Le onopm pae1 cnoaa kpenoc1L n payH oc1anLnmH. enepL y nac n aepa, n anac1L
a ynapke. pnnopnnHn1e napopnoc1L - aHec1e c nek nopnnHy1cn n aepa, n anac1L.
sapauax cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa Hne npnxopnnocL nnca1L ouenL
Hnoro. Hec1e c ppyrnHn yupepn1ennHn a1oro coksa n nHek poaonLno pepkoe cuac1Le
anpe1L, kak nopnn1oe naHn peno npno6pe1ae1 Horyun poc1. ounn cospannn
naunonanLno nap1nn npnnapnexn1 "oaoHy apeHenn. op annnnneH nac1ounamx
Honx c1a1e o6 a1oH knnsL . . Ypycoa npoaen a 1pe1Lk yHy ne6onLuyk rpynny
1ynLcknx na1pno1nuecknx peny1a1oa. Hec1e c knnseH onn nHenn Hyxec1ao nasaa1L
ce6n naunonannc1aHn n npnHkny1L k napoxpaaueHycn cepoccnckoHy
naunonanLnoHy coksy. D1o 6mno nM kpynnmH saaoeaanneH naue nap1nn.
1opo no6epo n cun1ak cnnnnne c coksoH 6onee snaun1enLno qpakunn yHepenno
npaamx c . . BanauoamH ao rnaae. pe1Le no6epo 6mno yc1poc1ao
cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro kny6a, npen ko1oporo 1akxe npnnapnexn1 "oaoHy
apeHenn. e1aep1o yxe ne no6epo, a ueno no6eponocno kaHnanne cnepye1
cun1a1L o1kpm1oe npncoepnnenne k nporpaHHe naunonanLno nap1nn nokonoro . .
1onmnnna n acero npaan1enLc1aa, ko1opmH on pykoaopnn. Xo1n ne 6mno cpenano a
a1oH cHmcne nnkako peknapaunn, xo1n npaan1enLc1ao de jure npnsnae1cn y nac
6ecnap1nnmH, opnako a nocnepnne paa ropa ace saHe1nnn, u1o de facto . .
1onmnnn c1anoan1cn naunonannc1oH, coaepuan saHe1nyk aaonkunk anpaao o1
neaoro ok1n6pnsHa. m, nponoaepnnkn naunonannsHa (nnn, no kpane Hepe,
nnuyun a1n c1pokn), o1nkpL ne npncaanaaeH c uec1n a coaepuennn a1o
aaonkunn. cn uec1L no6ep, o ko1opmx peuL, ponxna 6m1L npnnncana caHo
naunonanLno npee, ko1opan ec1L ne naue poc1onnne, a o6uepycckoe. k6oaL k
o1euec1ay n roppoc1L napopnan ne c naHn popnnncL n ne c naHn yHpy1. m,
"auepaunne, roaopn cnoaaHn oaa, HoxeH 6m1L y1euenm nnuL cosnanneH, u1o a
npo6yxpenne pyccko napopnoc1n anoxena kannn n naunx ckpoHnmx cnn.
pnnn1ne . . 1onmnnnmH naunonanLno nonn1nkn cpasy ckasanocL kpynnmHn
pesynL1a1aHn a qnnnnnpckoH, nonLckoH n - o1uac1n - eapeckoH aonpocax.
rny6okoHy coxanennk, eapeckan nynn cpasnna 6naropopnoro pmuapn pyccko anac1n.
nnue 1onmnnna naunonanLnan nap1nn no1epnna aennuauero ns caonx pen1ene n,
1ak ckasa1L, pepxa1enn caonx napexp. Hennaun ero . . okoauoa, Hne kaxe1cn,
nnkak ne Hoxe1 nasaa1Lcn c1oponnnkoH cepoccnckoro naunonanLnoro coksa: n
cuac1nna 6mn 6m, ecnn 6m oun6cn a a1oH. onpekn neckonLko nnueHepnoHy npaanny,
no ko1opoHy Hnnnc1pm naun ponxnm 6m1L ane nap1n, n pyHak, u1o 1aknx nkpe
aoo6ue ne aopn1cn na cae1e. opo6no HonLepoackoHy Heuannny, Hnorne ne snak1,
u1o onn roaopn1 nposo, no qak1 1o1, u1o ace nHek1 xo1L kakne-nn6ypL nonn1nueckne
akycm n kakne-nn6ypL y6expennn. paan1enLc1ao aoace ne na 1o c1ynenn pasan1nn,
u1o6m ne nHe1L nnkakoro nc nonn1nke, a nHen npepc1aanenne o ne,
ono nHee1 n coo1ae1c1aykuyk eHy k. e ckpmaan o1 ce6n npaapm n nHen cHenoc1L
rnnpe1L a rnasa necuac1LnH, naunonanLnan nap1nn ponxna cuec1L . . okoauoaa
acero nnuL "ppyxec1aenno ce6e pepxaao apope ac1pnn. oka ne1 o1kpm1o
aonm, a nnuL asanHnme yaepennn a nonnoH nou1ennn, - n 1o cnaaa Bory. pnako a
caHoe nocnepnee apeHn n a ac1pnn saHe1na cknonnoc1L k c6nnxennk c occne, k
aocc1anoanennk paxe 1pexnHnepa1opckoro coksa. 1o x, n . . okoauoa cnno
rocypapc1aennoro onm1a n o6c1on1enLc1a, Hoxe1 6m1L, okaxe1cn cknonnmH
pec1an1enLno no1n no cnepaH 1onmnnna, u1o c1onL 1opxec1aenno o6euano 6mno
nocne ka1ac1poqm 1 cen1n6pn.
pnc1pac1ne neko1opmx Hnnnc1poa k eapenH n aoo6ue k nnopopuaH kopenn1cn ne
c1onLko a pasyHe, ckonLko a ycaoennmx nac1poennnx Honopoc1n, o1 ko1opmx nnmH
1nxeno o1amkny1L. o ueH kpynnee 1anan1 rocypapc1aennmx nkpe, 1eH 6onee
nac1ounao on npepLnanne1 caon npaaa. enLsn cnnukoH ynopno 6opo1Lcn c
pec1an1enLnoc1Lk; Hoxno ne saHeua1L HanenLknx xaope, no onacnoc1L cHep1enLnan
ne Hoxe1 xe nakoneu oc1a1Lcn npene6pexenno. e opna occnn oxaauena
nnopopuecknHn 6poxennnHn. pnHep ac1pnn n ypunn y6expae1, kakyk rn6enLnyk
oun6ky coaepuae1 anac1L, ne peuan nneHennoro aonpoca nn 1ak, nn a1ak.
ny1pnrocypapc1aennm paspop ne 1onLko ne racne1, no pasropae1cn ackpy c
neaepon1no cnno. aanonpaane napopnoc1e nop opno rocypapc1aenno kpmue
aepe1, kak okasmaae1cn, ne k 6pa1c1ay nx, a k Hexpoyco6no aone, 1eH 6onee
o1apa1n1enLno, u1o ona 6eckoneuna. ak a Hepnke nnn a qpnke pnkne nneHena,
kak nonyaapaapckne nneHena a n6annn nnn y nac na aakase - "paanonpaanme
napopum 1onLko 1eH n sannHak1cn, u1o pepy1cn. nn pepy1cn Hexpy co6o paxe a 1oH
cnyuae, ecnn onn popnme 6pa1Ln. ypenLnoe apeHn neHum nc1pe6nnnn neHuea,
cnaanne - cnaann. onLko cnoxenneH 6onLunx rocypapc1a ypanocL nopaan1L a1o1
aeunm paspop. Hnepnn - Hnp, kak cnpaaepnnao, xo1L n a ppyroH cHmcne y1aepxpan
anoneon III. ocnopc1aykuan napopnoc1L, npnaopn k o6ueHy snaHena1enk ace
naunonanLnme ppo6n, c1on1 na c1paxe nx cornacnn n nopnpka. aspeuennoe xe
"caHoonpepenenne Henknx naunonannsHoa, amcao6oxpan nx ns-nop o6uero
snaHena1enn, anocn1 aHec1e c cao6opo ec1ec1aennm n nnueH nnmH neyracnHm
paspop. occnn paspop a1o1 eue ne c1onL c1pauen, kak a nasaannmx, cnnukoH
cnoxnmx, nHnepnnx, no n y nac on noaepe1 k yxacnmH nocnepc1annH. enL pyccko
naunonanLno nap1nn - packpm1L ace a1n nocnepc1ann n no aosHoxnoc1n
npepynpepn1L nx. o1pe6ye1cn ouenL Hnoro apeHenn n nanpnxenno Hmcnn, u1o6m po
oueanpnoc1n c1ano ncnmH kpyuenne nauero rocypapc1aa, korpa ono 6ype1 nackaosL
nsLepeno nnopopuecknHn kononnnHn. occne nponsope1 nenpeHenno 1o caHoe,
u1o c peannH nHoH nocne apakannm nnn co acnknH rocypapc1aoH, rpe
rocnopc1aykuan napopnoc1L o1pana HnpnoHy aneppennk ppyrnx nneHen. oka
aapaapm penann 1onLko aoennme nauec1ann, onn ne 6mnn c1paunm nHy; korpa xe
yc1anoannncL Hnpnme aneppennn, npnueH apnc1okpa1nn pnHckan 6mna naaopnena
rannaHn, ncnanuaHn, 1ea1onaHn, cnpnuaHn, aqpnkanuaHn, - nH cpenancn ppn6nmH,
kak rnnnoe pepeao, n nepaan xe 6ypn noaannna ero c 1mcnuene1nnx kopne.
parn pycckoro naunonannsHa nry1, 6yp1o uenL naue nap1nn - u nnopopuea,
cu nx. oneuno, a1o xankan kneae1a. asae Hm, pycckne, a caHoH pene
noronnHcn korpa-nn6ypL sa eapenHn a anec1nny, nnn sa nonnkaHn a onLuy, nnn sa
apHnnaHn - a pHe