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ME HRERHR: H H
:
EBRH Hv popnncn 11.04.54 r. a ockae, rpe n
npoxnaae1. 1959-1972 rr. xnn a r. annnnnrpape (6. ennrc6epre).
konunn qnnonornueckn qakynL1e1 (1977), kanpnpa1 qnnonornuecknx nayk.
nen oksa nn1epa1opoa occnn, cecnaannckoro coksa xypnannc1oa, ccounaunn
nckycc1aoaepoa, oksa xypnannc1oa occnn. nanason npoqeccn: o1 pasnopa6ouero
n rpysunka - po c1apuero pepak1opa 6n6nno1ekn nH. . . ennna n o1 cnecapn 5
paspnpa - po npenopaaa1enn aysa. 1997-1999 rr. saa. 1penoH kpannm n pmHa,
sa1eH saH. pnpek1opa no nayke nc1n1y1a c1pan .
xypnannc1nke - c 1971 ropa, ny6nnkoaancn a uen1panLno npecce: esaancnHan
rase1a (6onee 30 ny6nnkaun), n1epa1ypnan rase1a, paapa, oae1ckan
occnn, enL, aa1pa n pp., xypnanax onpocm nn1epa1ypm, ayka n xnsnL
n Hn. pp. nm1nm nn1epa1op n cnnupa1ep.
a1op Hnorocepnnoro nayuno-nonynnpnoro qnnLHa, Hnornx knnr, a 1oH uncne:
"aunonan-kann1annsH (., 1995), "aunonan-peHokpa1nn (., 1996), epeapm
eaponecko nnnkc1paunn (1996), ero o1 nac xo1n1 eapen (., 2000), 1orn
aeka pnn occnn (., 2000), ycckan npen, aek XXI- (., 2002), co1en ny6nnkaun
a xypnanax n rase1ax. oc1aan1enL n pepak1op c6opnnkoa: 6Han aeka. okyHen1m n
Ha1epnanm k npo6neHe pa1nqnkaunn oroaopa o ppyx6e, co1pypnnuec1ae n
nap1nepc1ae Hexpy occne n kpanno (., 1999); a ny1n k aoccoepnnennk
occnn n enopyccnn (., 1999); ycckn naunonannsH, ero ppysLn n aparn. msoa
1pe1Lero 1mcnuene1nn (., 2001); . nponoa. 6 o1nouennn pyccknx k kopennmH
napopaH occnn; . eaac1Lnnoa. s6yunme nc1nnm naunonannsHa (., 2002); m -
pnn naunn, naunn - pnn 1e6n. s6pannme c1a1Ln ns aunonanLno rase1m. 1995 -
2002 rr. (., 2002).
ena1, uec1epo pe1e.
2
pycckoH panxennn kak npeonor c 1991 r. (ny6nnkaunn ycckne n kann1annsH a
xypnane on), kak ak1nanc1 - c 1995 r. 1997 r. rnaanm pepak1op "aunonanLno
rase1m. ykoaopn1enL cekpe1apna1a epepanLno pyccko naunonanLno-kynL1ypno
aa1onoHnn occnn. pesnpen1 nrn saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn. 1999 r.
ampanrancn a peny1a1m ocypapc1aenno yHm no qepepanLnoHy cnncky panxennn
nac. 24 qeapann 2002 r. na upepn1enLnoH cLespe aunonanLno-epxaano
nap1nn occnn ns6pan conpepcepa1eneH nap1nn n copepak1opoH nap1nno rase1m
ycckn pon1.
2003 r. npnnnn yuac1ne a am6opax ry6epna1opa oaropopcko o6nac1n (1pe1Le
Hec1o ns ceHn kanpnpa1oa, yc1ynna nnuL pec1aykueHy ry6epna1opy n
HynL1nHnnnnonepy ns 6). 1pa1ernk n 1ak1nky kaHnannn pe6k1an1 aen
caHoc1on1enLno.
oaa1op sakononpoek1oa pycckoH napope (kak oqnunanLnoro - a kauec1ae
yuac1nnka pa6oue rpynnm oHn1e1a no penaH naunonanLnoc1e ocypapc1aenno
yHm, 1ak n anL1epna1nanoro, ampa6o1annoro pyccknHn oprannsaunnHn),
paspenennoH nonoxennn pyccko naunn n ee npaae na aoccoepnnenne, a 1akxe
noaoro npoek1a onc1n1yunn occnn (1998). 6expennm pycckn naunonan-na1pno1.
r:
1peHn1enLnm poc1 pycckoro naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn, o1HeuaeHm
counonoraHn, o1paxae1 nnuL poc1 naunonanLnmx nnc1nnk1oa a o6uec1ae. accypok
xe cnerka o1c1ae1 o1 nnc1nnk1a, 1eope1nueckoe oqopHnenne ko1oporo nano
sapepxanocL. 1o neypnan1enLno, nockonLky pycckne a nc1opnn nnkorpa ne
o6LepnnnnncL no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky. Hec1o a1oro uno o6Lepnnenne no
npnnunny rocypapc1aennoro cnyxennn, konqeccnonanLno npnnapnexnoc1n, npnnn1nn
nsmka n kynL1ypm, u1o coo1ae1c1aoaano nepnopy pasan1nn naunn n nHnepckoro
c1pon1enLc1aa.
naun pnn, korpa aek1op pasan1nn occnn, kasaauncn aeunmH, cHennncn na npnHo
npo1naononoxnm, a nepep pyccknHn ac1ann ne6maanme, cHep1enLno onacnme yrposm,
nnc1nnk1 caHocoxpanennn pyccko naunn amsaan k xnsnn pycckn a1nnueckn
naunonannsH. 1o1 pxnnn, cnoco6nm Houno paspyua1L n Houno cosnpa1L, yxe
amnopxnyn ns 6y1mnkn, n o6pa1no ero ne sannxny1L.
3
ISBN 5-699-07534-8
3HHRHHK H HHHRH3M
(v n r ! m n
22 2004 r.)
Q BYQE K
ny1eH nope1 occnn? - ao1 aonpoc, nap ko1opmH 6ecnnopno pasHmunne1
Hnoxec1ao nonn1onoroa naunx pne. ecnnopno, no1oHy u1o nn y koro ne xaa1ae1
cHenoc1n cHo1pe1L na aeun npnHo n anpe1L 1o u1o ec1L, a ne 1o, u1o npnamknn nnn
u1o xo1enocL 6m. papnunn (npaaocnaano-Honapxnueckne, counannc1nueckne,
nn6epanLno-peHokpa1nueckne, xpnc1nancko-ryHannc1nueckne, eapasnckne,
eapeckne n 1.p.) nrpak1 ponL uop, o1 konx 6onLunnc1ao ne Hoxe1 n ne xoue1 -
c1ecnne1cn! - ocao6opn1Lcn.
o uopm xopoun nnuL 1orpa, korpa amue sauopennoro cyuec1aa cnpn1 spnun
noronunk, o6napakun nonnmH o6sopoH n Horyun cypn1L o aepnoc1n nanpaanennn
espm. occnn 1aknx noronunkoa u1o-1o ne anpa1L, naun noronunkn, yam, sauopenm
ne Henee, ueH naun nonn1onorn, n epaa nn ne 6onee, ueH o6uec1ao a uenoH.
pepnaraeHan un1a1enk knnra - nonm1ka cnn1L uopm c o6uec1aennoro cosnannn n
npepnoxn1L eHy nenpepasn1m asrnnp na aeun. na nocn1 noaa1opckn pnn occnn
xapak1ep n paanoypanena o1 acex 1papnun. ockonLky snxpe1cn na co6c1aennmx
counonornuecknx n nonn1onornuecknx paspa6o1kax aa1opa.
pnaxpm a1n paspa6o1kn yxe npnnecnn aa1opy 1aopueckn ycnex. oue1cn aepn1L,
u1o 1ak ono 6ype1 n na a1o1 pas.
HHE, KE BmRB
4
npo1n am6opm a ocpyHy-2003, kak a poccnckoH oqnunose nonannacL
orpoHnan anann1nueckan c1a1Ln nop nasaanneH peHn aceanac1nn (occnckan
rase1a 11.12.03). a1op ee - 6maun rnaanm pepak1op esaancnHo rase1m
, opnn ns nan6onee nnqopHnpoaannmx a occnn nkpe,
axopnun epaa nn ne a nn1pky naunx nyuunx nonn1onoroa, - nnue1:
oxno ckasa1L, u1o ace ue1mpe nap1nn, npouepune a yHy, - a1o pepxaannueckne
nap1nn... - 6esmpenoe pepxaannuec1ao: pepxaaa (nHnepnn) nepanuna -
akonoHnueckn 6asnc nk6o. "pnnan occnn" - pepxaannuec1ao nnkc naua anac1L
nnkc nau kann1annsH (1oxe ne cnnukoH npeno). - pepxaannuec1ao nnkc
counannc1nueckn kann1annsH (coae1ckoro 1nna). "opnna" - naunonan-kann1annsH
(1o ec1L kann1annsH ne 1pancnaunonanLnmx kopnopaun, a naunx, o1euec1aennmx, a
no1oHy n counanLno-o1ae1c1aennmx). peonornn naunonanLnoro kann1annsHa ne
uyxpa n "pnnan occnn", npoc1o 1aH nens6exno npeaannpye1 akuen1 na coxpanenne
caoe anac1n.
, 1994 -
u, n u "H-
", A Cun. K
n.
pe1Lnkoa no caonH y6expennnH o1nkpL ne 6nnsok k pyccknH naunonan-na1pno1aH,
ckopee k n 6noky. oxno ce6e npepc1aan1L, uero c1onno eHy npnsnanne
npaao1m nsaec1noro pycckoro naunonannc1a! o on kak yHnm, Hnoroe snakun n
nopnpounm uenoaek ne c1an kpnan1L pyuo.
pnako ao1 ne Henee aaxnan nosnunn uenoaeka ns coaceH npo1naononoxno 1oukn
nonn1nueckoro npoc1panc1aa. onn1onor n akonoHnc1 3 ny6nnkye1
opnoapeHenno c pe1LnkoamH, no ne rpe-nn6ypL, a a aa1pa (N1/2004) - epaa nn
ne rnaano rase1e neao onnosnunn - cneunanLnyk c1a1Lk: eu1m o ny1nnckoH
rockann1annsHe (rockann1annsH - eue 1ounee, rocnap1kann1annsH - a1o n ec1L
pacunqpoaka nonn1nn naunonan-kann1annsH, pannan Hnok a 1994 ropy). a a1o
c1a1Le, a neao, n 6m paxe ckasan, kpane neao rase1e yn1anoa 1oxe nnue1 o 1oH,
u1o occnn neo1apa1nHo amuna na py6ex rockann1annsHa, apac1ae1 a a1o1 noam
c1po.
oxno aoo6pasn1L, c kaknH uyac1aoH y1aepxpan ny6nnkaunk kpacnm poxanoa,
ko1opoHy rny6oko npe1n1 caHo a1o nonn1ne! o poxanoa, kak 6m k neHy nn
o1nocn1Lcn, - pmuapL, yHekun npnsnaaa1L nopaxenne n 6m1L o6Lek1nanmH.
1ak, ns aa1opn1e1nmx nc1ounnkoa o6onx narepe - npaaoro n neaoro - nposayuano a
1o nnn nno qopHe nop1aepxpenne Hoe npaao1m, necHo1pn na 1o, u1o opnnx 1ounn1
o1 cnoaa naunonan, ppyrnx - o1 cnoaa kann1annsH.
ounn1, no npaao1y Hok npnsnak1! asnnua Hexpy naHn nnuL a 1oH, u1o Hne kak
nc1opnky, counonory n nonn1onory 6mno ncno eu pecn1L ne1 nasap, kakoa 6ype1
pesynL1a1 pasan1nn occnn, a onn yanpenn ero aoounk 1onLko ceropnn.
a Hoe naHn1n a1o epnnc1aennm c1onL ponrocpounm nonn1nueckn npornos,
ko1opm c6mncn c 1ako 1ounoc1Lk[1].
nn 1oro, u1o6m un1a1enL acnoHnnn, o ueH npe1 peuL, n npnaepy specL a
koncnek1nanoH anpe caon c1a1Ln aunonan-kann1annsH n aunonan-kann1annsH-
2, ony6nnkoaannme a konue 1994 ropa.
5
HHHR-KHHRH3M
("H r" 11.10.94 17.12.94.)
. 1917 r. na cHeny 1papnunonnoHy qeopannsHy npnuen a occnn
rocnap1qeopannsH. ak nasmaaeHan ennkan ounannc1nueckan peaonkunn okasanacL
na noaepky qeopanLno-6kpokpa1nuecko kon1ppeaonkune, nanpaanenno npo1na
6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecko eapanLcko peaonkunn, npo1na 6onLunx, no
nenpounmx ycnexoa kann1annsHa a occnn.
aunnan c a1oro HoHen1a n po npnxopa op6aueaa a c1pane nopaannnocL ace, na u1o
Hoxno 6mno nanoxn1L npnmk "6ypxyasnoc1n". o penLrn - cyuec1aoaann.
yuec1aoaan, nyc1L 1eneao, neoqnunanLnm, no c1aaun a 80-e rr. aceoxaa1nmH
pmnok 1oaapoa n ycnyr. snaun1 c nens6exnoc1Lk anoaL n anoaL a occnn
noaceHec1no aospoxpanncL poc1kn kann1annsHa. mpocune a 1enn, onn 6mnn, 1eH ne
Henee, nac1onunHn. "epec1poka" cnnna 1a6y. ypxyasno-peHokpa1nueckan
peaonkunn a occnn, nepopenannan a 1917 r., caepunnacL. <.>
ocnepnnn npeppeaonkunonnan nepenncL nacenennn pae1 1akyk kap1nny: camue 80%
- kpec1Lnne, 2,7% - nkpn yHc1aennoro 1pypa, a 1oH uncne rocannapa1, npnHepno
c1onLko xe - npepnpnnnHa1enn, oc1anLnme - pa6oune n Haprnnanm. ako coc1aa
nacenennn coo1ae1c1aye1 ne kann1annc1nueckoHy c1pok, a qeopanLnoHy. ann1annsHy
ne nyxno c1onLko kpec1Lnn: a coapeHennmx pasan1mx c1panax a cenLckoH xosnc1ae
pa6o1ae1 acero 3-5% nacenennn. ann1annsH ne Hoxe1 cyuec1aoaa1L 6es
snaun1enLnoro cnon nkpe yHc1aennoro 1pypa: ceropnn a c1panax aponm n Hepnkn
nn1ennnrenunn coc1aanne1 30-40 % nacenennn. akoneu, 10-12 % npoHmunennmx
pa6ounx - a1o 1oxe eue ne kann1annsH. nn 1oro, u1o6m kann1annsH no6epnn a
occnn neo6pa1nHo, neo6xopnHm 6mnn kauec1aenno-konnuec1aennme npeo6pasoaannn
nacenennn c1panm. <.>
o1 counanLnm pesynL1a1 70-ne1nero nepnopa: a cenLckoH xosnc1ae a cepepnne 80-
x 6mno sann1o 12% nacenennn, yHc1aennmH 1pypoH - okono 30, a npoHmunennoH
nponsaopc1ae - neHnornH Henee 60%. 6uec1aennan c1pyk1ypa c1panm, a1o
oueanpno, cospena pnn kann1annsHa. Henno a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao n o1kpmno aopo1a
"nepec1poke", cpenano neaosHoxnmH aosapa1 k "counannsHy".
nac ne 6mno aosHoxnoc1n am6npa1L Hexpy "counannsHoH" n kann1annsHoH.
ann1annsH a occnn Hor n ponxen 6mn y1aeppn1Lcn, on ec1L yxe, n on 6ype1 ponro.
oxe1 6m1L, aeuno.
yHa1L nnaue - snaun1 nnuero ne nonnHa1L nn a nc1opnn, nn a nponcxopnueH y nac
ceropnn. oaopn1L nnaue - o6Hanmaa1L ce6n n ppyrnx.
o ao1 ppyran aosHoxnoc1L am6opa y nac - 6mna. m1L nn a occnn, nocne
rocnap1qeopannsHa - rocnap1kann1annsHy, no o6pasuy n1an n Le1naHa? nn y nac
aouapn1cn kann1annsH npnHn1nanoro, kononnanLnoro 1nna?
oc1a1ouno 6ernoro asrnnpa na c1pyk1ypy ceropnnunero akcnop1a-nHnop1a occnn,
u1o6m yanpe1L c nonno ncnoc1Lk: a1a c1pyk1ypa - knaccnueckan pnn kononnanLno
c1panm. <.>
ak xe nonyunnocL, u1o c1pana c amcouaue c1enenLk o6o6uec1anennn
nponsaopc1aa, c pasan1o nayko, c 6ora1o nnqpac1pyk1ypo, c rn6ko,
acenponnkakue cnc1eHo ynpaanennn () - 1ak c1peHn1enLno no1epnna nnuo,
cka1nnacL a "1pe1n Hnp"?
6
1o c1anoan1cn nonn1nmH, korpa Hm anoaL aocnoHnnH o 1oH, u1o nc1opnk penak1
nkpn. occnn pospena po kann1annsHa no aceH counanLnmH napaHe1paH, kpoHe
opnoro: knacca nkpe, ynpaannkunx nponsaopc1aoH no-kann1annc1nueckn, y nac ne
6mno. onknya c1pany no ny1n peaonkunonnoro pasan1nn, aHec1o aaonkunonnoro,
op6auea n npeponpepennnn kononnanLnm a1an neokann1annsHa a occnn. nLunn
n a1o1 a1an sakpennnn. 6o pa6o1a1L no-c1apoHy ceropnn nkpn yxe ne Hory1, a no-
noaoHy eue ne yHek1. <.>
1ckpa - aceanac1ne nmneunnx koHnpapopoa, nHekunx aosHoxnoc1L ncnonLsoaa1L
aekoao onm1 kann1annc1nuecknx o1nouenn, sapy6exnm kann1an n aa1opn1e1.
ronc1nueckne cnkHnny1nme nn1epecm npaanue 6kpokpa1nn npekpacno cornacyk1cn
c yc1peHnennnHn koHnpapopoa.
1o cnoaeuko - "koHnpapopm" - knkueaoe pnn nonnHannn xapak1epa nonn1nuecko n
akonoHnuecko cn1yaunn a ceropnnune occnn. 1o n xapak1epno pnn kononnn. <.>
nk1a1ypa naunonanLnoro kann1ana... a aepL a1o nHenno 1o, u1o neo6xopnHo occnn,
kak xne6, kak aospyx. aunonanLnoro, a ne nn1epnaunonanLnoro, kak ceropnn! akan
pnk1a1ypa a kauec1ae peakunn na nmneunee nonoxenne pen aosnnkne1 nenpeHenno,
kak 1onLko naunonanLnm kann1an okpenne1 n cnno1n1cn, kak 1onLko naun
npoHmunennnkn, 1oproaum n qnnancnc1m okonua1enLno noHy1, u1o a caoe c1pane
Hoxno n nyxno 6m1L xosnnnoH, a ne nakeeH. a a1o ype1 okono pecn1n ne1.
ne snak, kakyk Hacky opene1, kakoe snaHn nopnnHe1 noaoe o6uec1aennoe
panxenne: aosLHe1 nn c1apoe nasaanne - qaunsH, naunonan-counannsH - nnn
npnpyHae1 u1o-nn6ypL ppyroe. o n snak, u1o cyunoc1L ero 6ype1 opna: -
. <.>
c1L 1onLko pae peanLnmx, nopnnnnmx cnnm a coapeHennoH Hnpe: a1o penLrn n
o6uec1aennoe Hnenne. H nokopne1cn 1onna - oprannsoaannan n pnkan, aoopyxennan
n 6esopyxnan.
1n cnnm - a pykax kann1annc1oa n nn1ennnrenunn. ac1onuee n 6ypyuee saancn1 o1
nnx - n 1onLko o1 nnx. cnn a1n pae rpynnm o6Lepnnn1cn o6unHn sapauaHn, o6ue
nporpaHHo, 1o xnsnL o6uec1aa npnHe1 1e kon1ypm, ko1opme onn npepnnuy1.
osHoxno nn, u1o6m a occnn 6nnxaunx ne1 naunonanLnan 6ypxyasnn n
naunonanLnan nn1ennnrenunn o6LepnnnnncL aokpyr nosynra "naunonan-kann1annsH"?
osHoxno n nens6exno. <.>
an6onee nponnua1enLnme ns coapeHennmx nonn1nkoa - rapapoaum[2] - o1kpm1o
o6Lnannn caok c1aaky na amuenasaannme pae ka1eropnn. nn nponnua1enLnm, no
nepanLnoanpnm. y nnx nnuero ne ampe1. 1o qopHyne, ko1opyk xpe1 ceropnn
c1pana - "opnpok, o6c1aennoc1L, 1euec1ao" - onn, kak nn nmxa1cn, ne Hory1
amroaopn1L nocnepnkk uac1L. aano n naacerpa apap n ero ppyxkn - aen,
osmpea, y6ac n - sakneHnenm a o6uec1aennoH Hnennn kak nap1nn
koHnpapopoa. 1o6m no6epn1L, nH nyxno cHenn1L ne 1onLko amaecky n nosynrn, no n
a1n nnua, snakoHme n nenaanc1nme ace occnn. epL 6ypyuee - ne npoc1o sa
nn1ennnrenune n 6ypxyasne, a nHenno sa naunonanLnmH coksoH a1nx cnn. a1o
nnuae1 rapapoauea nepcnek1nam n o6pekae1 na 6eccnnne. <.>
yHak, u1o nn opno o6uec1aennoe panxenne peHokpa1oa, ne 1onLko rapapoaum,
aoo6ue ne nHee1 uancoa na ycnex a nepcnek1nae naunonan-kann1annsHa. <.>
c1L neaan rpynna nonn1nkoa, ko1opme, na cnoaax o1kpeunaancL o1 "peHokpa1nn",
aosnarak1, opnako, napexpm na am6op napopa n ero nonn1nueckyk ak1nanoc1L.
7
ce onn penak1 c1aaky nHenno na qnsnueckyk ak1nanoc1L napopnmx Hacc, na aennkne
counanLnme no1pncennn, anno1L po noao counannc1nuecko peaonkunn. ne anpn1,
u1o nx apeHn 6esaosapa1no yuno. apop 6onee ne 1aopeu nc1opnn - a1a qynkunn
nepeuna k nn1ennnrenunn n 6ypxya. napopnmx Hacc ne1 nn 6mno cnnm, nn
caHoo1aepxennoc1n, nn cnnouennoc1n, nn coapeHenno rpaHo1noc1n - nnuero, kpoHe
xenannn cnokono xn1L a o1nocn1enLnoH poc1a1ke. accm yxe ne peuak1 acero n ne
6ypy1 peua1L nnuero. pnpyun naunonan-kann1annsH pac1 nH pa6o1y n o1pmx, kpoa,
opexpy n nnuy, no a nonn1nky ne nyc1n1 nnkorpa. <.>
ako c1pano, kak occnn, ne Hoxe1 npaan1L epnnonnuno nnkako uenoaek, nn
Honapx, nn npesnpen1, 6ypL on xo1L ceHn nnpe ao n6y. nnukoH aennka n
npo1nxenna ona, cnnukoH pnnnna uenouka, aepyuan o1 aepxoanoro pacnopnpn1enn k
pnpoaoHy ncnonnn1enk, cnnukoH Hnoro anac1n sa6pann ce6e rnaam cy6Lek1oa
qepepaunn, cnnukoH cna6m c1nHynm, pmuarn, ko1opmHn Hoxe1 aospec1aoaa1L na nnx
npesnpen1. <.>
c1opnn nokasmaae1, u1o naunonanLnoHy kann1any a nepnop ero 6ypnoro c1anoanennn
neo6xopnHa cnnLnan, cnaxennan rocypapc1aennan noppepxka: acnoHnnH epHannk
1933-39 rr., acnoHnnH nocneaoennyk nonnk, asrnnneH na coapeHennm n1a.
cno, u1o n naua orpoHnan c1pana ne Hoxe1 ne ynpaann1Lcn, ponxna ynpaann1Lcn. o
k1o n kak cHoxe1 a1o pena1L? o o1ae1: 1onLko nap1nn. <.>
exannsH anac1n a c1pane cnepye1 cospaaa1L sanoao. on no neo6xopnHoc1n Hoxe1
6m1L 1onLko nap1nnmH.
ne snak, kak ona c1ane1 nasmaa1Lcn - nap1nn, ampaxakuan nn1epecm
o1euec1aennoro kann1ana n o1euec1aenno nn1ennnrenunn. ype1 nn na ee snaHenn
nanncano o1kpoaennoe "aunonan-kann1annsH" nnn cHnruennoe "o6c1aennoc1L,
opnpok, 1euec1ao". o ona 6ype1 cospana: 1akoaa yxe ceropnn o6uec1aennan
no1pe6noc1L noHep opnn.
e npesnpen1 co caoe apHnnnc1paune, a aoxpL, onnpakuncn na nap1nk: ao1
kakoaa saa1paunnn anac1L a occnn. <.>
cnoHnnH apkca n nrenLca: a1n aa1opn1e1m nonarann, u1o counannsH naune1 caoe
no6epnoe uec1ane c nan6onee pasan1o c1panm. 6o rpe nan6onee pasan1
kann1annsH, 1aH nan6onee ampaxenm n ero npo1naopeunn. onkpe1no, onn cun1ann,
u1o Hnpoaan peaonkunn naune1cn a nrnnn kak caHo nepepoao c1pane. ennn
1oxe cun1an, u1o nepaonauanLnan no6epa counannsHa aosHoxna a opno c1pane,
"cna6oH saene a uenn nHnepnannsHa". ue a nauane 1917 r. on 6mn coaepuenno
y6expen, u1o a1o nponsope1 a anapno apone, a nHenno - a amcokopasan1o
aeuapnn. eaonkunn a occnn 6mna pnn nero nonno neoxnpannoc1Lk. na
nokasana, u1o knaccnkn uypoanuno oun6nncL.
o neoxnpannoc1n ne konunnncL poccncko peaonkune. ocHo1pn1e, u1o sa c1panm
nonann acnep sa naHn a "counannsH"? onronnn, n1a, eaepnan open, Le1naH,
oc1ounan apona, npnn, c1panm qpnkn n a1nncko Hepnkn. nmHn cnoaaHn,
c1panm o1nkpL ne nan6onee, a nanHenee pasan1me, nan6onee kpec1Lnnckne, nanHenee
nnpyc1pnanLnme, nanHenee unannnsoaannme, c akonoHnko nsnauanLno cna6o nnn
ocna6nenno, o16pouenno nasap, paspyuenno aono, nexaue a pynnax.
o xopy pena a a1nx c1panax 6mnn peuenm cnepykune ocnoanme nc1opnueckne
sapaun:
1) saHena cnoco6a ynpaanennn: 6ecnap1nno-apHnnnc1pa1nanoro na nap1nnm;
8
2) cospanne o1nocn1enLno saHkny1oro pmnka;
3) nnpyc1pnannsaunn;
4) packpec1Lnnnaanne;
5) o6o6uec1anenne nponsaopc1aa (ne ny1a1L c naunonannsaune).
1He1nH, u1o o6o6uec1anenne uno , ko1opan
o1pnuanacL nonn1akonoHne a1nx c1pan.
y, a 1e c1panm, ko1opme ycnenn a caoeH pasan1nn npopanny1Lcn panLue, yxe
peunaune, xo1n 6m o1uac1n, nocnepnne 1pn npo6neHm, npockounaune a a1oH
neko1opyk kpn1nueckyk 1ouky, nonann a "qaunsH": epHannn, 1annn, cnannn,
enrpnn. aepenne nap1nnoro cnoco6a ynpaanennn a a1nx c1panax 1akxe okasanocL
o6nsa1enLnmH, no... o uac1nan co6c1aennoc1L ne o1pnuanacL, a c1aannacL na cnyx6y
rocypapc1ay a o6Hen na ero nonnyk noppepxky. o ec1L, o6o6uec1annnacL ne "no-
counannc1nueckn", a "no-kann1annc1nueckn". ocne aonm ananornunm ny1L npounn
neko1opme ppyrne rocypapc1aa, a uac1noc1n, nonnn.
1ak, ne ncno nn, u1o a nepamx c1panax, rpe no6epnn "counannsH", nponsouna na
pene qeopanLnan peakunn, cnoHaauan nenpounm n ne coo1ae1c1aykun a uenoH
ypoank pasan1nn a1nx c1pan kann1annsH. o-a1opmx xe c1panax, rpe no6epnn
"qaunsH", nponsouno npeoponenne oc1a1ounoro qeopannsHa nocpepc1aoH naunonan-
kann1annsHa. onneuan ycnoanoc1L 1epHnnoa "counannsH" n "qaunsH" ne ponxna
sacnonn1L o1 nac nx nopnnnnyk cyunoc1L. eno ne a nasaannnx. <.>
o, cnpocn1 Henn, ecnn qasa naunonan-kann1annsHa 1ak yx pnn acex o6nsa1enLna, 1o
kak xe 6m1L c 1aknHn c1panaHn, kak nrnnn, ? 1o, 1aH 1oxe 6mn naunonan-
kann1annsH, "qaunsH"?
a, 6mn. apo noHnn1L 1onLko, u1o nrnnn, nauaauan packpec1Lnnnaanne eue a XIII
aeke, ac1ynnna na a1o1 ny1L panLue ppyrnx n una no neHy ponLue ppyrnx. 1akxe,
u1o a 1o apeHn eue ne cyuec1aoaann caHoc1on1enLno, a 6mnn anrnncko
kononne n pasanaann anrnnckyk nc1opnk. o a oc1anLnoH 1aH a XVII-XVIII aa.
nponcxopnno ace 1o xe: n nnpyc1pnannsaunn, n xec1ouaun npo1ekunonnsH, n paxe
opnonap1nnan cnc1eHa. o ec1L, qopHanLno, aneune, ona amrnnpena, kak
payxnap1nnan, no na pene 6es Hanoro c1o ne1 (c 1689 no 1780-e rr.), c
ue1mpexne1nnH nnuL nepepmaoH, y anac1n HonononLno npe6maana opna-
epnnc1aennan nap1nn anroa, npepc1aannkuan nn1epecm naunonanLno 6ypxyasnn.
paxe 1ako neo6nsa1enLnm, no nepepkn npnsnak naunonan-kann1annsHa, kak
yrne1enne ppyrnx napopoa, 1oxe nHen y anrnnuan Hec1o no o1nouennk k nnpeuaH,
nerpaH n nnpycaH. asa naunonan-kann1annsHa sannna y anrnnuan 6onLue apeHenn,
ueH, ckaxeH, y nnonuea, npo1ekana a nnyk anoxy, nHena pnp caoeo6pasnmx npnHe1,
no ona - 6mna. 1o qak1. <.>
yHHnpyn ckasannoe, n saknkuak: occnn a 1euenne npnHepno c1a ne1 ocyuec1anne1
nepexop o1 qeopannsHa k kann1annsHy. 1o nponcxopn1 noa1anno. epam a1an:
npoHmunennm nepeaopo1 1890-x, nauano packpec1Lnnnaannn, ak1nanoe, yckopennoe
qopHnpoaanne kann1annc1nueckoro yknapa xosnc1aa. 1opo a1an: qeopanLno-
6kpokpa1nueckan peakunn, rocnap1qeopannsH nop nasaanneH "counannsH". pe1n
a1an: noc1enennoe pasHmaanne rocnap1qeopanLno cnc1eHm xosnc1aoaannn
c1nxnnmH pmnkoH; kynLHnnaunn - "nepec1poka", apeHennoe sacnnne koHnpapopoa.
e1aep1m a1an, eue ne nac1ynnaun, anpn1cn Hne kak nens6exnoc1L: a1o
rocnap1kann1annsH nnn "naunonan-kann1annsH".
9
HHHR-KHHRH3M - K HHHR-QEMKHH
, n napekcL, y6epnncn un1a1enL, ncnan n nonn1nan nc1opnueckan
konuenunn, nsnoxennan amue, pec1an1enLno aonnouae1cn a naun pnn anno1L po
pe1ane. npnsnanne a1oro qak1a ne ceropnn-saa1pa c1ane1 6ananLnoc1Lk.
expy 1eH, sa a1n npoc1me nc1nnm Hne cpasy c1ann rposn1L kpn6eprcknH
1pn6ynanoH, a ockoackn an1nqaunc1ckn uen1p - .. poueuknn - o1He1nncn
paxe ponocoH a ocropnpokypa1ypy (6ecnnopnmH). yHak, an1nqaunc1aHn panran
npn a1oH xnao1nm c1pax o1 nopcosna1enLnoro uyac1aa Hoe npaao1m, o1
npepuyac1ann, c6maakuerocn pnecL.
pnako peno aepL ne a 1oH, u1o6m ypoane1aopn1Lcn cosnanneH co6c1aenno
rennanLnoc1n n noun1L na naapax, a a 1oH, u1o6m y6epn1L npnnn1L ppyrnx ne 1onLko
Hok konuenunk, no n am1ekakuyk ns nee nnnnk nonn1nueckoro noaepennn. naue
uena HoeHy npepanpennk - nonL. 1o sapaua ne ns npoc1mx. ecn1L ne1 nasap xop
co6m1n npepanpen c 1ounoc1Lk po ropa n opnn; ceropnn ero anpn1 yxe Hnorne, no po
Hacc nc1nna poxopn1, kak npaanno, ponrne ropm cnyc1n, n nonnHak1 onn e ne
ronoao, a ppyrnH Hec1oH.
amaop ns konc1a1aunn npnxopa - a occnn - epnnc1aennm
n opnosnaunm: na 1akoH o6uec1aennoH 6asnce aosHoxno nponspac1anne 1onLko
opno-epnnc1aenno o6uec1aenno napc1pokn: -. o ec1L -
peHokpa1nn, orpannuenno no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky.
o1n1e nponrpa1L - nnman1e npo1na 1euennn, o1aepran pec1an1enLnyk
sakonoHepnoc1L, ko1opan aaH ne npaan1cn, o1 ko1opo aac 1ounn1. o1n1e
amnrpa1L - ncxopn1e ns xapak1epnc1nkn aocxopnue nc1opnuecko 1enpenunn.
noHnn1e: nc1opnn ne npnsnae1 cocnara1enLnoro naknonennn.
- rope no6expnnmH.
eropnn, ecnn Hm xo1nH anpe1L nepcnek1nay no6epm, naH cnepye1 o1kpm1o npnnn1L n
npoaosrnacn1L a kauec1ae uenn - u
. e 6onLue, ne HenLue. Henno a1o uenn
npnnapnexn1 6nnxauee 6ypyuee occnn: 1akoao Hoe n1oroaoe nayunoe
npepckasanne. paan1cn ono koHy-1o nnn ne1.
cn knnra, npepnaraeHan un1a1enk, nocanuena o1ae1y na aonpoc, noueHy a1o
neo6xopnHo, noueHy a1o aosHoxno n kak a1o cpena1L.
na npepc1aanne1 co6o uepnoank pok1pnnm, nHn ko1opo pycckn naunonannsH.
* * *
c1one1nnHn apaxpe6nme naueHy napopy cnnm n o6c1on1enLc1aa
am1paannaann ns pycckoro o6uec1aennoro cosnannn naunonannsH - nnc1nnk1
caHocoxpanennn naunn - n aecLHa npeycnenn a a1oH. ac1onLko, u1o paxe nnaHennan
n amcokonn1ennek1yanLnan nponoaepL naunonannsHa, ko1opyk neyc1anno aen a
1euenne uec1napua1n ne1 a nauane aeka nau npnHo npep1eua, aennkn pycckn
Hmcnn1enL n ny6nnunc1 nxann cnnoanu enLunkoa, ne aosmHena cnnm, ne
oanapena HaccaHn. 6o nn1ennek1 y Hacc cna6 n neaocnpnnHuna k nc1nnaH, a nx
10
naunonanLnm nnc1nnk1 cnan rny6oknH cnoH, y6akkannm nHnepcknH
6naropenc1aneH.
1nnune nauero apeHenn o1 HenLunkoackoro a 1oH, u1o pycckn napop, nakoneu,
nouyac1aoaan cHep1enLnyk onacnoc1L, naancuyk nap nnH. xo1n nn1ennek1yanLnm
pycckn naunonannc1nueckn pnckypc eue 1onLko qopHnpye1cn, no naunonanLnm
nnc1nnk1 y pyccknx, rpy6o pas6yxennm a ropnny no1pncenn, yxe npocnyncn n
pacnpnHnne1cn ao aecL poc1, nyran npepy6expennmx counonoroa. on sapaua kak
npeonora - aoopyxn1L a1o1 cnacn1enLnm nnc1nnk1 neno6epnHo 1eopne. eopne
pycckoro naunonannsHa.
eropnn pycckoe naunonanLnoe cosnanne - tabula rasa: npak1nueckn unc1an poueuka,
nenaxannoe none, 6enan c1ena. neH uapn1 xaoc, ncnonnennm npo1naopeun.
on knnra coc1on1 ns qparHen1oa, kaxpm ns ko1opmx sakpmaae1 opno sa ppyrnH
6enme nn1na na c1ene pycckoro o6uec1aennoro cosnannn[3]. aosnnkae1 uenLnan,
xo1n n Hosanunan kap1nna. e Hne cypn1L o ee kpaco1e, no sa ee nenpo1naopeunaoc1L
n coo1ae1c1ane pec1an1enLnoc1n n pyuakcL.
akpmaae1 nn npepnaraeHan un1a1enk knnra 6enme nn1na pycckoro
naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn? e1, no 6nLuyk n rnaaneuyk uac1L. osna1enLno
amaepena sa paHkn knnrn 1eHa pennrnn - cnnukoH o6LeHnan, u1o6m aHec1n1Lcn a
c6opnnk, n cnnukoH konqnnk1nan, u1o6m coo1ae1c1aoaa1L sapaue konconnpaunn
naunn. o, kak nokasmaae1 npak1nka, pnn ny6nnunoro nonn1nka, pnn o6uec1aennoro
pen1enn (a Hon knnra npepnasnauena, a nepayk ouepepL, nHenno nH) nyuue n ne
kaca1Lcn nanpnHyk pennrnosno 1eHm, a1o ne cynn1 ycnexa. oa1oHy n pyHak, u1o
Hon knnra a nac1onueH ee anpe anonne ropn1cn a kauec1ae pykoaopc1aa k pec1ank.
ycckn naunonannsH - noaan napapnrHa na poccncko nonn1nuecko apene, rpe
1papnunonno camue c1a ne1 nHenn cnny 1onLko nap1nn n panxennn, cansannme c
knaccaHn-an1aronnc1aHn: pa6ounHn nnn kann1annc1aHn. aH n ceropnn caepxy, ns
peHnn, nm1ak1cn cnno naansa1L nHenno 1akyk, npaao-neayk c1pyk1ypy
nonn1nueckoro npoc1panc1aa. ak ecnn 6m occnn ne 6mna HononaunonanLno
c1pano c epnnc1aennmH snaunHmH 6onLunnc1aoH a anpe pycckoro napopa.
peHne, koneuno xe, nonnHak1, u1o a pec1an1enLnoc1n naunonanLnm qak1op
cyuec1aye1 n o6napae1 orpoHnmH paspyun1enLnmH n cosnpa1enLnmH Horyuec1aoH.
Henno noa1oHy sakon nonn1nuecknx nap1nnx (c1.9, n.3) npnHo sanpeuae1
nap1nnoe c1pon1enLc1ao no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky. peHnL nannueckn 6on1cn
amnyc1n1L ns 6y1mnkn pxnnna naunonannsHa, n6o snae1, u1o a1o1 pxnnn eHy
nenopkon1ponen.
o a xnsnn ec1L aeun, ne saancnune o1 aonn peHnn. eH 1yxe peHnL sa1nne1
npyxnny npo1naoec1ec1aennoro sanpe1a, 1eH cnnLnee ona xnonne1 ero no n6y, korpa
ampae1cn n pacnpnHn1cn. a1o cnyun1cn nenpeHenno. epL pycckn naunonannsH -
un - yxe amuen na aaancueny
nc1opnn, eHy npnnapnexn1 6ypyuee.
ne xo1enocL 6m 6m1L ycnmuannmH n nonn1mH. e papn ce6n, a papn 1oro, u1o6m Hm
npounn npepnasnauennm naH ny1L cosna1enLno, c nanHenLunHn no1epnHn, c
nanHenLue kpoaLk. o ecnn Henn n ne ycnmua1, n ace paano o6nsan ckasa1L 1o, u1o
snak. m1L accanppo nenerko, no ne 6m1L e (ecnn 1m n anpnHL accanppo
popnncn) - neaosHoxno.
1ak, un1a1e, noc1nra1e, npnc1yna1e k peny.
11
[1] ouno npepckasan 6mn paxe cpok, o1nyuennm nc1opne na 1akyk
1pancqopHaunk: okono pecn1n ne1. 1o 6mno ony6nnkoaano ocenLk 1994 ropa!
[2] coapeHenno 1panckpnnunn - n .
[3] 1a1Ln o 1poqenx, am6naakunecn, na nepam asrnnp, ns 1eHm, na pene aepy1
aaxneuyk noneHnky c nonynnpno Hnqonorne noxno nonn1oro pacnsHa.
HHHRBHR HQER H EMEHHM 3HE
(Q Kr H-Qxx 22 q
2003 r. n 4 N3, 2003)
noHnnH, kak neckonLko ne1 nasap nLunn sakasan poccncknH yuenmH
ckonc1pynpoaa1L naunonanLnyk npek. s a1o sa1en nnuero, kpoHe konqysa, ne
amuno. o1oHy u1o apa1L a rnasa napopy yuenme ne saxo1enn, a roaopn1L npaapy a
nnuo pexnHy - ne nocHenn. ak Hm n xnaeH 6es oqnunanLno npnsnanno
naunonanLno npen. naun1 nn a1o, u1o caHa sapaua ne nHee1 peuennn? oneuno, ne1!
H ?
1o 1akan npen, ko1opan sapae1 on1nHanLnoe nanpaanenne pasan1nk c1panm n naunn
na o6ospnHyk nepcnek1nay. cnn 1akan npen ec1L, 1o o6uec1ao c1anoan1cn xosnnnoH
caoe cypL6m, ono uenenanpaanenno c1pon1 ee. a paHkax a1oro c1pon1enLc1aa
o6pe1ae1 caok ocHmcnennyk cypL6y kaxpan o1penLnan nnunoc1L.
o ecnn 1ako npen ne1, o6uec1ao pec1pyk1ypnpye1cn, ono npe6maae1 a aHopqnoH,
a1oHnsnpoaannoH coc1onnnn, rpe kaxpm uenoaeuek-a1oH npepoc1aanen nnuL caHoHy
ce6e n caoe yuac1n, a c1pana n naunn a uenoH okasmaak1cn nnuenm ocHmcnennoro
noaepennn n nepec1ak1 nnannpoaa1L nyuuee 6ypyuee n po6naa1Lcn ero. 1o Hm n
anpnH a occnn nocnepnnx nony1opa pecn1nne1n.
K x ?
-, ona ponxna 6m1L noao. m xnaeH a HennkueHcn Hnpe. enLsn np1n
anepep c ronoao, noaepny1o nasap. enLsn c1pon1L 6ypyuee no uep1exaH
npounoro, paxe ouenL npnaneka1enLnmH. onLko noaoe, kak saHe1nn eue erenL,
o6napae1 caoc1aoH neoponnHoc1n, 1onLko eHy npnnapnexn1 nepcnek1naa.
-, ona ponxna 6m1L nepepoao. 1o snaun1, ona ponxna coo1ae1c1aoaa1L
aocxopnunH 1enpenunnH pasan1nn uenoaeuec1aa a cqepe 1exnnkn, akonoHnkn,
nonn1nkn n kynL1ypm.
-, ona ponxna 6m1L konc1pyk1nano, cosnpa1enLno. na ponxna onnpa1Lcn
ne 1onLko na nera1na - na snanne, uero ne xoue1 o6uec1ao, no a 6onLue c1enenn na
nosn1na - na snanne 1oro, uero o6uec1ao xoue1. 1a npen ponxna ne 1onLko
12
paspyun1L ace, u1o Heuae1 naunn poc1ono xn1L, no n cospa1L peanLnme ycnoann pnn
ee npouae1annn. esynL1a1oH ee ocyuec1anennn ponxen c1a1L poc1 6narococ1onnnn n
saunuennoc1n nkpe, poc1 c1a6nnLnoc1n a o6uec1ae.
akoneu, -, naunonanLnan npen ne Hoxe1 6m1L 6esnaunonanLno. 1o
snaun1, ona ponxna ncxopn1L ns nn1epecoa, no1pe6noc1e n sapa1koa 1o - n 1onLko
1o! - naunn, na nouae ko1opo nponspac1ae1.
B ?
a, n ne opna. mna npen, ampaxennan qopHyno an1an ycL; 6mna npen
npaaocnaano xpnc1nancko nHnepnn, ampaxennan qopHyno ockaa - 1pe1n
nH; 6mna npen Hnpoao peaonkunn n aceHnpnoro koHHynnsHa (xo1n ee cnepye1
cun1a1L, a 1o xe apeHn, napnaunonanLno); 6mna npen noc1poennn koHHynnsHa a
opno o1penLno asn1o c1pane; 6mna, nakoneu, npen coae1cko nHnepnn. ce onn
cHennnn a cao cpok ppyr ppyra, ace onn co apeHeneH 1epnnn caok ponL snaHenn,
npeonornueckoro nokoHo1naa o6uec1aa, nepec1aaann cnyxn1L c1nHynoH nnuno n
o6uec1aenno pen1enLnoc1n. a1eH ao a1opo nonoanne 1980-x rr. na kakoe-1o apeHn
no6epnna npen nn6epanLno peHokpa1nn sanapnoro o6pasua. o ona ouenL 6mc1po n
nosopno o6ankpo1nnacL, o6napyxna caok an1nnapopnyk cyunoc1L.
eropnn ace a1n npen - yxe a npounoH. n opna ns nnx ne cnoco6na o6Lepnnn1L
a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao nauero o6uec1aa, noaec1n ero sa co6o. ce na6nkpa1enn
npnsnak1, u1o nocne kpyuennn coae1cko anac1n n 1o1anLno caHopnckpepn1aunn
nn6epanLno-peHokpa1nueckoro pexnHa a o6nac1n npeonornn cnoxnncn aakyyH.
1o1 aakyyH ceropnn yaepenno n nac1yna1enLno sanonnne1 npeonornn
, a ko1opo Haccm nuy1 o1ae1 na Hyuakune nx aonpocm, nuy1 c1nHyn
pen1enLnoc1n n saun1y o1 pasnoo6pasnmx yrpos. o pesynL1a1aH counonornuecknx
onpocoa, ceropnn pe1nnr naunonannc1oa poc1nrae1 20% - n a1n npouen1m ec1L
nan6onee ak1nanan, cnnouennan, y6expennan n ueneyc1peHnennan uac1L nauero
o6uec1aa[1].
oxno y1aepxpa1L co ace onpepenennoc1Lk: un n
n - s . onLko a1a noaan pnn occnn, nepepoaan n
konc1pyk1nanan npen o6napae1 aceHn neo6xopnHmHn kauec1aaHn nac1onue n
nnopo1aopno naunonanLno npen. onLko e npnnapnexn1 6ypyuee. onLko nop
snaHeneH naunonannsHa ceropnn Hoxno no6epn1L. onLko naunonannsH npnnece1
naue c1pane n naueHy napopy npouae1anne n Horyuec1ao.
H ?
npnaepy o6a onpepenennn, ko1opme kaxy1cn Hne nannyuunHn n nan6onee aepnmHn:
1) aunonannsH - a1o nk6oaL k caoe naunn n sa6o1a o ne (1o ec1L - ne npoc1o
nk6oaL, a nk6oaL pen1enLnan, ak1nanan); 2) aunonannsH - nnc1nnk1
caHocoxpanennn napopa; a1o1 nnc1nnk1 cnn1, korpa naunn nnu1o ne yrpoxae1, no
npocmnae1cn a pokoayk ropnny ncnm1ann. epaoe (nk6oaL n sa6o1a) aepno a
o1nouennn o1penLno nnunoc1n, a1opoe (nnc1nnk1 caHocoxpanennn) - a o1nouennn
Hacc.
13
Hv r?
o1oHy u1o ceropnn anepame sa ack nc1opnk caoero cyuec1aoaannn pycckan naunn,
coc1aannkuan a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao nacenennn occnn, okasanacL nop yrposo
ncuesnoaennn. no1oHy u1o anepame sa ack nauy nc1opnk y nac nonanncn apar,
ko1opm xoue1 ne npoc1o nopa6o1n1L nnn orpa6n1L nac, no ynnu1oxn1L, caec1n c nnua
naue caHo 6ora1o a Hnpe seHnn. 1o1 uenoaekonenaanc1nnueckn, pycoqo6ckn
nnan ne pas 6mn o1kpm1o osayuen naunHn aparaHn, yxe nopcun1aaunHn, u1o na
1eppn1opnn occnn ponxno oc1a1Lcn acero nnuL o1 15 po 50 Hnn. uenoaek (no pasnmH
aapnan1aH) pnn o6cnyxnaannn po6mun npnpopnmx pecypcoa. o ec1L, kak HnnnHyH
pae 1pe1n nauero nacenennn yxe o6peueno aceHnpnmHn c1pa1eraHn na amHnpanne.
aknH o6pasoH, naunonannsH, o6Lepnnnkun ack naunk noaepx knaccoamx 6apLepoa
a 6opL6e sa naunonanLnoe amxnaanne, aoc1pe6oaan ceropnn o6uec1aoH a kauec1ae
cnacn1enLno upesamuano Hepm a upesamuanmx ycnoannx.
poHe 1oro, pycckn naunonannsH pasanncn a kauec1ae nenocpepc1aenno peakunn na
1ekyune co6m1nn. ak aneunenonn1nueckne (peskoe nac1ynnenne aren1oa
rno6annsHa, a1nrnaanne occnn a ry6n1enLnm npo1naoec1ec1aennm coks c Hepnko
n spanneH), 1ak n any1pnnonn1nueckne (ueuenckan aona, c1peHn1enLnm nannma
Hnrpan1oa ns c1pan aakasa, snn n qpnkn, ynnsn1enLnan saancnHoc1L occnn o1
aneunnx cnn n o1 aceanac1nn nnopopuea n koHnpapopoa).
akoneu, nocne pacnapa Hm okasanncL a HononaunonanLno c1pane - occnn,
rpe 82% nacenennn npnnapnexn1 k opno pyccko naunn. c1a1n, nocnepnnn
nepenncL, no npepaapn1enLnmH pannmH, nop1aeppnna a1y unqpy. 82% - a1o ouenL
Hnoro. 1o 6onLue, ueH eapeea a spanne, 6onLue, ueH ykpannuea na kpanne,
na1mue a a1ann, kasaxoa a asaxc1ane. occnn okono 170 napopoa, napopnoc1e
n nneHen, no naunn 1onLko opna - pycckan. akon n nopnpok a naue c1pane ponxnm
6m1L npnaepenm a coo1ae1c1ane c a1nH qak1oH.
e amsoae1 nn o1kpm1oe npoaosrnauenne npeonornn pycckoro naunonannsHa - c1paxa
n npo1naopec1ann co c1oponm ppyrnx napopoa occnn?
e1, ne amsoae1, nockonLky ace pasyHnme napopm occnn nonnHak1: ecnn pycckne
cyHek1 saun1n1L, c6epeuL, coxpann1L ce6n - a1o npnnece1 6naro aceH. occnn - a1o
rocypapc1aenno-nonn1nueckan nnoc1acL pycckoro napopa. 1o xopouo pnn pyccknx -
1o xopouo n pnn occnn. ao1 ecnn ne c1ane1 pyccknx - ne c1ane1 n occnn. 1orpa
ne ypac1cn coxpann1Lcn ne 1onLko HanouncnennmH, no paxe n 6onee kpynnmH
napopaH, xnayunH a occnn na seHnnx caonx npepkoa. nn aepL 1oxe ne nyxnm
neokononnsa1opaH.
c1L 1onLko opnn napop, y ko1oporo nonm1ka pyccknx cnno1n1Lcn n sanan1L o caonx
npaaax n nn1epecax amsmaae1 noueHy-1o sno6nyk nc1epnky n 6euenme nanapkn na
nac, pyccknx naunonannc1oa. e 6ypy nasmaa1L a1o1 napop, npepnoxy nnuL asrnnny1L
na c1pannum npeccm n na akpanm , rpe nonm1kn uenLHoaa1L aunonanLno-
epxaanyk nap1nk occnn ncxopn1, kak na rpex, o1 npepc1aan1ene 1onLko opno
naunonanLnoc1n. y, anpno, kak roaopn1 pycckan nocnoanua, uye1 kouka, uLe Hnco
cLena.
v r
r? H r ?
euenne ero ocnoanmx npo6neH.
14
K ?
x ycnoano Hoxno noppaspenn1L na counanLno-akonoHnueckne n a1nononn1nueckne.
nepamx roaopn1L oco6o neuero, nx n 1ak ace snak1. 80% nacenennn ne xnae1, a nnuL
c 1pypoH caopn1 konum c konuaHn. k1o-1o n caec1n ne Hoxe1, 1nxo amHnpae1 o1
ronopa n xonopa.
o ec1L cneunqnueckne s npo6neHm pycckoro napopa, o ko1opmx y
nac pyHa1L n roaopn1L ne npnamknn. nnH o1nocn1cn, a nepayk ouepepL, cnepykune:
1) npnsnanne, a coo1ae1c1ann c HexpynapopnmHn c1anpap1aHn, occnn -
HononaunonanLno c1pano pycckoro napopa, coc1aannkuero a6conk1noe
6onLunnc1ao ee nacenennn;
2) npnsnanne n sakonopa1enLnoe y1aepxpenne nc1opnuecko ponn n qak1nueckoro
snauennn pycckoro napopa ne 1onLko kak kopennoro n 1n1ynLnoro (ack occnk
nasaann no naueHy nHenn), no n kak epnnc1aenno rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn
occnn. ycckne - ne 1onLko cospa1enn occnn, no n epnnc1aennan (!) naunn, 6es
ko1opo occnn ne Horna 6m cyuec1aoaa1L a anpe epnnoro rocypapc1aa a ee
nac1onunx rpannuax; pycckne - epnnc1aennm ueHen1, ckpennnkun epnnc1ao
c1panm o1 annnnnrpapa po napnaoc1oka;
3) npnsnanne npaaa pycckoro napopa na naunonanLno-nponopunonanLnoe
npepc1aan1enLc1ao ao acex opranax rocypapc1aenno anac1n n Hec1noro
caHoynpaanennn occnn;
4) npnsnanne npaaa na aoccoepnnenne epnno pyccko naunn, okasaauecn a
paspenennoH nonoxennn;
5) npnsnanne qak1a a1nopeHorpaqnuecko ka1ac1poqm pycckoro napopa n
sakonopa1enLnoe y1aepxpenne Hep, a 1oH uncne upesamuanmx, nanpaanennmx npo1na
penonynnunn ero kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn, npo1na cnnxennn ero ypenLnoro
aeca a coc1aae nacenennn occnn;
6) coxpanenne n ykpennenne a1nnueckoro epnnc1aa pycckoro napopa n acex
nc1opnuecknx n kynL1ypno-nsmkoamx qak1opoa, cnoco6c1aykunx a1oHy;
7) sanpeuenne pycoqo6nn ao acex ee nponanennnx, saun1a uenoaeuecknx n
rpaxpancknx npaa pyccknx nkpe a nk6o 1ouke seHnoro uapa;
8) npnsnanne qak1a renounpa pycckoro napopa n npeoponenne ero nocnepc1an.
K n r - rm?
esycnoano, caHan rnaanan npo6neHa pnn nac, pyccknx, papn peuennn ko1opo
neo6xopnHo asn1L anac1L, - a1o npeyHnoxenne nauero ypenLnoro aeca a coc1aae
nacenennn c1panm. 1opan, 6m1L Hoxe1, ne Henee aaxnan sapaua - coxpanenne
amcoko c1enenn 6nonornuecko opnopopnoc1n pyccko naunn, o1HeuaeHo yuenmHn-
an1pononoraHn.
e cnyuano naun ocnoanme, cHep1enLnme any1pennne aparn - npaame nn6epan-
peHokpa1m - co caoe c1oponm anpn1 caoe rnaano sapaue aceHepnoe yHenLuenne
nponopunn pyccknx a occnn. e k1o nno kak rop apap osayunn a1y HmcnL na
cLespe oksa npaamx cnn 22 peka6pn 2002 r.: yxna ppyran Hnrpaunonnan
15
nonn1nka. aH nyxen ppyro sakon o rpaxpanc1ae, naH nyxna rocypapc1aennan
nporpaHHa Hnrpaunn, napo, nakoneu, aaopn1L cnc1eHy rpnn-kapp. H u,
XXI n x , u
n. Hu n,
u, u (c1enorpaHHa,
ampeneno Hno. - A.C.). rase1e pryHen1m n qak1m sa 2002 r. nekoe nnuo
eapecko naunonanLnoc1n cqopHynnpoaano 1y xe HmcnL a eHkoH aqopnsHe: 1o
xopouo pnn pyccknx - 1o pnn occnn cHep1L.
ne cnyuano penak akuen1 ne na a6conk1no uncnennoc1n, a na ypenLnoH aece
pyccknx. orpa Hm cospaaann orpoHnyk occnckyk nHnepnk, no pasHepy kypa
6onLue nmneune occnn, nac uncnenno 6mno ropaspo HenLue, ueH ceropnn. konue
XVIII aeka - acero okono 50 Hnn. uenoaek, a konue XIX - okono 100 Hnn. nnuero -
cnpaannnncL! ao1 korpa a ypenLnm aec pyccknx ynan nnxe ponyc1nHo
nnankn, aosnnknn o1pnua1enLnme pnn nac peHorpaqnueckn 6ananc n
peHorpaqnueckn npornos, cypL6a c1panm okasanacL 1parnueckn o6peuena. m ne
xo1nH, u1o6m naua occnn noa1opnna a1y cypL6y.
M nr vx, xx x . H
xv. 3v - s v . xv -
vr . v x ? vr nn
m ?
1a caepxsapaua, ane amnonnennn ko1opo 6eccHmcnen nk6o pasroaop o aneune n
any1penne nonn1nke n o kakoH-nn6o 6ypyueH aoo6ue, 1akoaa:
u u n
xn mx .
1o m ponxno 6m1L nopunneno kaxpoe naunnanne
pyccknx kak na aneune- 1ak n na any1pnnonn1nuecko apene. k6o npean n nosynr
ycckoro panxennn ponxen ouennaa1Lcn c nosnunn ocyuec1anennn a1o sapaun.
H , v .
nayuno 1oukn spennn, npnnn1o ao Hnornx c1panax n a occnn, naunn - ec1L 1akan
qasa pasan1nn a1noca, a ko1opo a1noc cospae1 caok nonnouennyk
rocypapc1aennoc1L.
o a xn1eckoH n HopanLnoH cHmcne cnoaa naunn - a1o nonpoc1y 6onLuan ceHLn,
cnannnan o6unH nponcxoxpenneH, o6unHn kopnnHn, o6ue nc1opne. o acex
pyccknx nkpnx 1eue1 pycckan kpoaL, y acex nac a paapua1L 1pe1LeH nokonennn 6mnn
o6une npepkn. m ace o1 opnoro kopnn. m ace nopopnenm Hexpy co6o, xo1n HoxeH
n ne cosnaaa1L n ne ncuncnn1L a1oro popc1aa.
x . H x r
?
e ckaxy sa acex naunonannc1oa, no oqnunanLnan konuenunn , k npnHepy,
1akoaa: Hm saunuaeH nn1epecm acex kopennmx napopoa occnn. a1o coaepuenno
npaannLno. o npn a1oH Hm, koneuno xe, oco6o ampenneH pycckn napop kak napop
16
rocypapc1aoo6pasykun, o1 qnsnueckoro, counanLnoro n HopanLno-ncnxonornueckoro
caHouyac1ann ko1oporo saancn1 cypL6a ace occnn, a snaun1 n acex oc1anLnmx
napopoa, ee nacennkunx. 1nH ao HnoroH (xo1n, koneuno, paneko ne 1onLko a1nH)
o6Lncnne1cn naue npnopn1e1noe annHanne k pycckoHy napopy.
Hec1e c 1eH, ncno n nonn1no: neaosHoxno o1nocn1Lcn ko aceH naunH nc1opnuecknH
cocepnH opnnakoao. 1o 6mno 6m n nenayuno, n necnpaaepnnao.
o-nepamx, neo6xopnHo o1nnua1L pnn nac, pyccknx, napopm o1
x (yHnnea), nesaancnHo o1 nx ykopennennoc1n a occnn. cnn c
nepamHn y nac na npo1nxennn Hnornx aekoa cknapmaanncL nopHanLnme o1nouennn
(Hapnum, Hoppaa, uyaaun, 6ypn1m, pa 1enepL yxe n 1a1apm n pp.), a c neko1opmHn
ns nnx paxe c1pa1ernueckne coksm (nanpnHep, oce1nnm, aaenkn), 1o c ppyrnHn a1n
o1nouennn acerpa 6mnn npo6neHnmHn (eapen, ueuenum n pp.). 1y1 ace ponxno
c1pon1Lcn na npnnunne o6okpnoc1n n cnpaaepnnaoc1n: kak am k naH, 1ak n Hm k aaH.
o-a1opmx, cnepye1 paspenn1L napopm occnn na 1pn ka1eropnn:
m (a1o 1onLko pycckne; nn opnn ppyro ne Hoxe1 no
o6Lek1nanmH kpn1epnnH npe1enpoaa1L na a1o saanne); , y
ko1opmx ne1 caoe rocypapc1aennoc1n ane npepenoa occnn (1e xe uyaaun, Hoppaa,
1a1apm, nky1m n pp.), n u um, y ko1opmx 1akan
rocypapc1aennoc1L ec1L (apHnne, asep6apxanum, aqranum, 1apxnkn, eapen, kn1aum
n pp.). o-uenoaeueckn nonn1no, u1o o1nouenne k pannmH ka1eropnnH ne Hoxe1 n ne
ponxno 6m1L paanouenno.
e o6annn1 nn nac npn a1oH a neunannnsoaannoH nopxope k npo6neHe, a napyuennn
o6uenpnsnannmx Hexpynapopnmx npaann n nopH?
e1, ne o6annn1. c1L neHano unannnsoaannmx n anonne peHokpa1nuecknx c1pan a
Hnpe n paxe a 6maunx pecny6nnkax oae1ckoro oksa, rpe npnnunnm a1nokpa1nn
y1aepxpenm na amcueH sakonopa1enLnoH ypoane, n a1o nnckonLko ne npenn1c1aye1
axoxpennk pannmx c1pan a aecLHa pecnek1a6enLnme nonn1nueckne, akonoHnueckne n
aoennme () coksm. e roaopk yx o a1ann n c1onnn, rpe uapn1 nonnoc1Lk
ysakonennm anap1enp, ne roaopk o6 a1nokpa1nueckoH rocypapc1ae spannL, no
aosLHeH 1akoe eaponeckoe rocypapc1ao, kak kpanna (ko1opan, Hexpy npounH, c1on1
na 1pe1LeH Hec1e nocne spannn n rnn1a no qnnancoao noHoun ). ackpoeH
ykpannckyk onc1n1yunk n npou1eH: Cun 11. F
m , n,
u, m s, u, n
x x ux
um Y. npn1e, nannuo ue1koe paspenenne: ec1L
- rocypapc1aoo6pasykun napop c ero nc1opnuecknH cosnanneH, 1papnunnHn n
kynL1ypo, a ec1L napnpy c nnH 1akxe n kpannm, n
m. a1o - a onc1n1yunn cocepnero, caHoro 6nnskoro
rocypapc1aa, c ko1opmH Hm aekaHn xnnn aHec1e, xnnn opnnHn npeanaHn n
1papnunnHn, opno aepo, o6ue nc1opne. oueHy xe y nnx - 1ak, a y nac, pyccknx,
nnaue, noueHy y nac ne1 1ako noc1anoakn aonpoca? epL kpanna ne Henee
nonna1nnueckan c1pana, ueH occnn, a ne 1oxe xnae1 6onee c1a napopoa,
napopnoc1e n nneHen. o nn y koro ne noaopaunaae1cn nsmk (pa nnk1o n ne
ocHennaae1cn, n6o a1o npoc1o nesakonno, npo1naopeun1 onc1n1yunn kpannm)
nasaa1L ee HnoronaunonanLno!
anee, 1aH xe: Cun 13. 3n, , q x,
, xnn x Y,
u muq, mu
() s nnmn z
Y . O Y
17
nm
n x, x n K.
K uun z
. m nonnnn? axpm
xopnun no ykpanncko seHne - xopn1 no seHne, npnnapnexaue ykpannckoHy
napopy. axpm pmuaun aospyxoH na kpanne - pmun1 aospyxoH, npnnapnexaunH
ykpannckoHy napopy. ace ponxnm o6 a1oH sna1L n noHnn1L, u1o nonLsoaa1Lcn a1nHn
npnpopnmHn papaHn Hoxe1 nnuL rpaxpannn kpannm, a nerpaxpanaH a1oro
konc1n1yunonnoro npaaa ne pano!
npnaen a1o1 npnHep, u1o6m ace anpenn, kak c1aan1 aonpoc napop, ko1opm snae1,
nk6n1 n yaaxae1 ce6n, noHnn1 o caonx npaaax, no1pe6noc1nx n nn1epecax, sa6o1n1cn
o caonx pe1nx n anykax, o caoeH 6ypyueH. apop, y ko1oporo ec1L ueHy noyun1Lcn.
apop, ko1opm cnoco6en n ppyrnx sac1aan1L yaaxa1L caon npaaa n nn1epecm.
asae 1ak o6c1on1 peno y nac, y pycckoro napopa? aepL Hm naHnoro 6onee
Hnorouncnennm, nexenn ykpannckn napop. a coc1aae nacenennn caoe c1panm Hm
sannHaeH ne okono 56%, kak ykpannum, a 82-85%. m Hornn 6m 1pe6oaa1L ne Henee
yaaxn1enLnoro o1nouennn k ce6e.
sna anac1L, Hm, ane acnkoro coHnennn, aocnonLsyeHcn ypokaHn, npenopannmHn naH
HnornHn napopaHn 6mauero , ne 1onLko ykpanncknH. nnk1o a Hnpe ne 6pocn1
naH a nnuo ynpek sa a1o. 6o paonan HopanL neponyc1nHa.
1o nyxno, u1o6m ycneuno peun1L ace noc1aanennme amue sapaun, nacyunme pnn
pycckoro napopa, pnn acex kopennmx napopoa occnn n pnn naue c1panm a uenoH?
yxno, u1o6m anac1L a occnn nepeuna k pyccknH naunonannc1aH. yxno, u1o6m
occnn npeo6pasnnacL a ycckoe naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao.
18
x s v sr x?
a, aosHoxno. 1o Hm nHenn eue coaceH nepaano? 1986 r., no onpocaH, nnuL 15%
pyccknx ocosnaaann ce6n kak pycckne n eue 7% - ne snann, kak onpepenn1Lcn,
Hexpy 1eH kak 78% cun1ann ce6n coae1cknHn. akoaa 6mna nosopnan c1enenL
penaunonannsaunn pyccknx, 1aknH 6mno uypoanunoe npeno-nonn1nueckoe nacnepne
coae1cko anoxn! m 6oponncL c a1nH nacnepneH ace nc1ekune ropm. ao1 pesynL1a1:
ceropnn yxe 45% pyccknx cun1ak1 ce6n pyccknHn (sa nn1napua1L ne1 a1o1 npouen1
ampoc na 30 nynk1oa!), 1onLko 28% - poccnnnaHn n nnuL 16% - coae1cknHn
nkpLHn (napenne na 62 nynk1a!).
ao1 unqpm, ornauennme na ack c1pany nan6onee aa1opn1e1no counonornuecko
cnyx6o a anpene 2002 ropa: n n x!
1998 . 43%, 2000 - 49%, 2002 - 58%!
pnueH, u1o ouenL aaxno, ecnn a 1998 r. a1o1 nosynr xapak1epnsoaann HakcnHanLno
o1pnua1enLno 30%, 1o ceropnn - nnuL 20% nacenennn, 1.e. npnHepno c1onLko,
ckonLko a occnn aoo6ue nepyccknx. a1o snaun1, u1o pnn acex pyccknx on ecnn n ne
anonne npneHneH (npneHnk1 nonnoc1Lk yxe 72,5% pyccknx), 1o ace xe npneHneH c
oroaopkaHn.
1o rpanpnosnan, neaepon1nan no6epa! onoccanLnm cpanr! asan1ne pycckoro
caHocosnannn c1peHn1enLno npe1 no rnnep6one. pe1 o1uac1n cnon1anno,
amnyxpaeHoe o6Lek1nano okpyxakue peanLnoc1Lk, no 6onee 1oro pasanaae1cn
naHn - pyccknHn naunonannc1aHn, ak1nanc1aHn pycckoro panxennn: npeonoraHn,
pepak1opaHn, nspa1ennHn, arn1a1opaHn n nponaranpnc1aHn. asae a1n ycnexn ne
aneua1nnk1? onLko cneno nx ne anpn1, 1onLko pypak - ne yun1maae1, n 1onLko
nopneu nm1ae1cn nx onopoun1L.
m snaeH: ace peaonkunn anauane coaepuak1cn a cosnannn nkpe, n 1onLko no1oH
amnnecknaak1cn na nnouapn n ynnum. epep naHn kak pas - nac1onuan peaonkunn a
cosnannn Hacc! ue neHnoro, n npen pycckoro naunonannsHa npeapa1n1cn, kak yunnn
knaccnkn nc1Ha1a, a Ha1epnanLnyk cnny, ao acecokpyuakuyk n acecospakuyk
ocnoanyk cnny coapeHennoc1n!
Hv x , x n m
n?
o ue1mpeH npnunnaH. o-nepamx, po nepaanero apeHenn ne 6mno c1pono
konuenunn pycckoro naunonannsHa. a ee cospanne Hm no1pa1nnn ne opnn rop. o-
a1opmx, nnpepckne aH6nunn, npoknn1an 6onesnL qkpepnsHa. -1pe1Lnx, pycckoe
panxenne 6mno pac1aueno noHnny1mHn nnpepaHn no o1penLnmH npeno-
nonn1nuecknH n pennrnosnmH u1a6-kaap1npaH. -ue1aep1mx, pycckoe panxenne ne
nHeno nopHanLnoro qnnancnpoaannn, u1o ec1ec1aenno a cae1e 1pex npepmpyunx
o6c1on1enLc1a.
ouy o1He1n1L, u1o nepame paa npenn1c1ann ycneuno npeoponenm a .
peoponeaae1cn 1pe1Le - no Hepe 1oro, kak ponL n snauenne naue nap1nn c1anoan1cn
oueanpnmHn pnn acex. snaun1, 6ype1 npeoponeno n ue1aep1oe.
nr m?
19
a. epL u1o 1akoe peaonkunn? 1o kopennme npeo6pasoaannn xnsnn. aua c1pana
ro1oaa k kopennmH nsHenennnH a caoe xnsnn, ona xpe1 nx, ona xaxpe1 nepeHen.
Hmcnnx Hnnnnonoa nkpe a1n nepeHenm yxe nponcxopn1 na naunx rnasax. paapa, n
nnuno pyHak, u1o a1a peaonkunn o6ope1cn 6es 6appnkap n aockoamx onepaun, ona
6ype1 ponro, 6eckpoano, xonopno, kako 6mna pe1Ln Hnpoaan aona nnn
6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nueckan peaonkunn 1991-1993 rr. o ona 6ype1, 1eH ne Henee,
ao aceH coo1ae1c1aoaa1L qnnocoqcko cy1n acex peaonkun: kopennoHy
npeo6pasoaannk xnsnn.
cerpa n aespe, ao aceH Hnpe, naunonanLnme peaonkunn npnxopnnn na cHeny
peaonkunnH 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecknH. ocne uero naunnancn nopnnnnm pacuae1
naunonanLnmx rocypapc1a. akoa sakon nc1opnn. ak 6ype1 n a occnn.
K x r m?
eropnn a onnosnunn pexnHy naxopn1cn n ne npnnnHae1 ero nonn1akonoHnuecknx
peqopH a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao nacenennn, npak1nueckn ace ero cnon, kpoHe 1.n.
6onLuoro 6nsneca (a ko1opoH pyccknx Hano), npnkopHnenno aepxyukn apHnn n
n neko1oporo konnuec1aa o6nackanno anac1Lk ryHann1apno nn1ennnrenunn.
nnosnunn penn1cn na paa ocnoanmx cek1opa: ycnoano roaopn, koHHynnc1nueckn
(neam) n nekoHHynnc1nueckn. neaoH cek1ope nepayk ckpnnky nrpae1 , a
nekoHHynnc1nueckoH - Hm, naunonannc1m. 1nnune cek1opoa a 1oH, u1o a nepaoH
npeaannpyk1 nkpn qnsnueckoro 1pypa, ao a1opoH - nn1ennnrenunn: nnxenepm,
oqnuepm, yun1enn, apaun, npenopaaa1enn aysoa. aH noka ne xaa1ae1 yuac1nn
anpnmx pyccknx pen1ene naykn n kynL1ypm, no Hm noka eue n ne naunnann cpepn
nnx caok arn1aunk.
o nyxno nonnHa1L n anpe1L eue opno: 6es noppepxkn kopnopaunn pyccknx
npoHmunennnkoa n 1oproauea (a ona yxe ec1L pe-qak1o, xo1n noka nepoc1a1ouno
cosnae1 sapaun caoero epnnc1aa n caon kopnopa1nanme nn1epecm) naH ne po6n1Lcn
xenaeHmx npeo6pasoaann. m ponxnm npnaneuL a1y cnny a cao narepL. Hm a1o
cpenaeH.
c1nnnan cy1L naunonannsHa n coc1on1 kak pas a 1oH, u1o6m cnenn1L ns pasnmx, a 1oH
uncne an1aronnc1nuecknx, knaccoa caoero napopa - epnnyk naunk, cnannnyk o6unH
nn1epecoH. aunn - a1o ne 1onLko nn1ennnrenunn n npepnpnnnHa1enn, no a1o n ne
1onLko pa6oune, kpec1Lnne n o1c1aanme oqnuepm. Hn - s . m
ponxnm nayun1Lcn conpnra1L nn1epecm pyccknx nkpe, paxe ecnn onn o1nocn1cn k
pasnnunmH o6uec1aennmH nonkcaH. nc1opnn sanapnmx c1pan 1oHy ec1L aceH
nsaec1nme 6nec1nune npnHepm. ceropnn pnn peannsaunn a1o c1pa1ernn a occnn
cospen nc1opnueckn HoHen1.
HK, - s .
s x m m v xx
m rnv.
s n!
20
[1] m6opm a ocpyHy 2003 ropa c a6conk1no 1ounoc1Lk nop1aeppnnn nasaannyk
unqpy: cyHHa ronocoa opnnm n , ysypnnpoaaaunx nnuy naunonan-
na1pno1nsHa, nHenno 1akoaa.
HH XX EK QRR HH
En, : srqv snv
n
Optimum versus Pessimum
, ko1opm a ckpm1oH anpe copepxn1cn a sarnaann, amsmaae1 y pncky1an1oa,
kak npaanno, opny o6uyk konc1a1aunk n paa npnnunnnanLno pasnnunmx npornosa:
on1nHnc1nueckn n neccnHnc1nueckn.
6uan konc1a1aunn coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o occnn a 1euenne 80 ne1 (1917-1993 rr.)
npouna uepes paa necnmxannmx no1pncennn nnn paxe pae ka1ac1poqm, ko1opme o6a
pasa konuanncL He1aqnsnuecko (no 1akxe anonne qnsnuecko) cHep1Lk
cnoxnauerocn c1pon. o ec1L - co6c1aenno occnn a npncyueH e na 1o1 HoHen1
nc1opnueckoH o6nnuLe occncko Hnepnn nnn .
pornos on1nHnc1nueckn amrnnpn1 npnHepno 1ak: occnn npouna pycnoH
neo6mknoaennmx ncnm1ann n, kak Hnapeneu, sakanennm a apcko peke 1nkc,
amuna ns a1oro pycna k noao xnsnn - o6noanennan, Hnoroo6euakuan, nonnan
nensaepannmx pas6yxennmx cnn. na nakoneu-1o c1ynnna na 1opnyk popory
uenoaeuec1aa n nanpaanne1cn a c1opony nn1encnanoro pasan1nn n npouae1annn. aknH
o6pasoH, a pesynL1a1e c1papann n xnsnennmx kpyuenn neckonLknx yuepunx nnn
yxopnunx nokonenn, npno6pe1ena aosHoxnoc1L poc1ono xnsnn pnn nokonenn
noamx. m poporo ueno kynnnn ce6e npaao ckasa1L: Hm ne xyxe ppyrnx n
poc1onm ne xypue yuac1n, - roaopn1 on1nHnc1.
pornos neccnHnc1nueckn sayun1 nnaue. occnn, sapec1aoaaa poronnkuyk HopenL
pasan1nn, sanna1nna nenoHepnyk ueny sa 1o, u1o6m a pesynL1a1e cpaann1Lcn c 1ak
nasmaaeHmHn nepepoamHn c1panaHn no caonH nepcnek1naaH. o ace peno a 1oH, u1o
a1n nepcnek1nam nocn1 o1ue1nnao anokannn1nueckn xapak1ep. oneu aeka
nokasan, u1o occnn pec1an1enLno pornana apony a nnane o6ue pnn 6enmx
xpnc1nancknx napopoa cypL6m n aHec1e co aceHn nnHn ac1ana na nocnepneH py6exe,
sa ko1opmH aosHoxno nonnoe ncuesnoaenne ceaepoapncko unannnsaunn. aknH
o6pasoH, npopn uepes paoekpa1nyk annsopnueckyk rn6enL, occnn amc1papana,
sacnyxnna ce6e nnuL npaao. norn6ny1L okonua1enLno n paxe, 6m1L Hoxe1, a
nepaoouepepnoH, akcnepnHen1anLnoH, 1ak ckasa1L, nopnpke.
pexpe, ueH pa1L ouenky a1nH npornosaH, neo6xopnHo noc1ynnpoaa1L npnnunnm, na
ko1opmx c1pon1cn Hon nc1opnocoqnn. oroaopnHcn c un1a1ennHn o 1epHnnax, u1o6m
ns6exa1L nepopasyHenn.

HEBOE, o ueH n o6nsan npepaapn1enLno ckasa1L: a He1oponornn n npnpepxnaakcL
nopxopoa pnanek1nueckoro n nc1opnueckoro Ha1epnannsHa. a Ho asrnnp, a1o 1o1
21
pe6enok, ko1oporo ceropnn neko1opme pe1name Hmcnn1enn nm1ak1cn - coaepuenno
necnpaaepnnao - amnnecny1L ns He1oponornueckoro kopm1a aHec1e c aopo
nayunoro koHHynnsHa. ( nocnepneH ne xanek.) ne npepc1aannk ce6e cnoco6a
Hmunennn n pokasa1enLc1a ane npaann pnanek1nkn n nck
Mkc r, ncMr c MnM.
c1opnocoqm, nopo6no eppneay, 1pak1ykune seHnyk nc1opnk kak o1paxenne
nc1opnn ne6ecno, naxopn1cn ane 1o 1papnunn, k ko1opo n o1nouycL. ypL6a
napopoa, na Ho asrnnp, ne cyuec1aye1 kak neu1o ponxnoe n ne Hoxe1
1ec1npoaa1Lcn na coo1ae1c1ane a1oHy 1pancuepen1noHy ponxnoHy. aknH o6pasoH,
1pak1oaa1L nekne n1orn poccnckoro pasan1nn c 1oukn spennn nx coo1ae1c1ann
6oxec1aennoHy npoHmcny ne npepc1aanne1cn pnn Henn aosHoxnmH. ypn1L n pnpn1L o
npoHmcne ora - saypnpnan narnoc1L neaexpm.
B am1ekae1 ns nepaoro. naanm aonpoc nc1opnocoqnn - o cy6Lek1e nc1opnn -
n peuak pnn ce6n a 1papnunn nc1Ha1a. c1opnk 1aopn1 ne 6orn, a nkpn. Henno
m (ao acex c1pa1ax o6uec1aa) nn x
, a 1oH uncne Hnpoamx. oa1oHy n
n, ko1opyk n o1aeprak uennkoH, n
(rno6anLnoro nnn nokanLnoro, nnn uenoukn saroaopoa),
ko1opyk n npnnnHak c 1aknHn orpannuennnHn, ko1opme ee nou1n ynnu1oxak1,
m x x n H.
epaan konuenunn a npnnunne neaepnqnunpyeHa (nenpoaepneHa) n no1oHy npoc1o ne
poc1ona cepLesnoro o6cyxpennn.
1opan konuenunn aosapauae1 nac k 1esncy o6 onpepennkue ponn uenoaeueckoro
Ha1epnana, ero konnuec1aennmx n kauec1aennmx xapak1epnc1nk, aknkuan ckpa kak
rpynnm saroaopunkoa (sakynncnmx pykoaopn1ene, Hannnynn1opoa), 1ak n rpynnm
qnsnuecknx pen1ene (aonLnmx nnn neaonLnmx ncnonnn1ene, HannnynnpyeHmx). 1a
1eopnn nn1epecna, ona onepnpye1 6ora1o qak1ypo n cnoco6na yaneuL, no ne
nosaonne1 ackpm1L pec1an1enLnme nc1opnueckne sakonoHepnoc1n n oc1aanne1
6onLue aonpocoa, ueH o1ae1oa. aroaop - nnuL opna ns npnunn co6m1n, npn1oH
nan6onee noaepxnoc1nan. oxno ckasa1L, u1o
m , no no6expak1
n c6maak1cn 1onLko 1e ns nnx, ko1opme ncxopn1 ns nan6onee n
z u , ne roaopn yx
o 1ex cnyuanx, korpa 6nnc1a1enLnme saHmcnm cpmaak1cn ns-sa peqek1noro
uenoaeueckoro Ha1epnana. aknH o6pasoH, counanLnme nnxenepm n konc1pyk1opm
(ecnn 1ak, pnn cpaanennn, nasaa1L saroaopunkoa) aceueno saancn1 o1 counanLnoro
Ha1epnana n counanLnoro conpoHa1a, 1.e. o6Lek1nanmx caoc1a o6uec1aa. nn
1oro, u1o6m nonn1L, noueHy ypae1cn nHenno 1o1, a ne nno saroaop, kak n pnn 1oro,
u1o6m caHnH ckonc1pynpoaa1L ycneunm saroaop, Hm ponxnm nponnkny1L a cy1L 1ex
pannoc1e n sakonoa, na ko1opme on onnpae1cn. 6o nHenno a nnx - nepanunan
ocnoaa co6m1n. a nepayk ouepepL, neo6xopnHo paccnepoaa1L counonornueckyk
kap1nny o6uec1aa a ee pnnaHnke. a1oH - knku.
aknH o6pasoH, n nonarak, u1o cn c yn cnk -
cMcn n (M n c), cknk n c-
cck kMc, kak nosnannmx, 1ak n nenosnannmx, ko1opme
nponannk1cn kak cyHHa pen1enLnoc1n nkpcknx epnnnu n Hacc.
Tu. eropnn a Hope 1ak nasmaaeHm reononn1nueckn n 1ak nasmaaeHm
unannnsaunonnm nopxopm k nonn1nuecko nc1opnn, npouno n coapeHenno.
naue c1pane onn npnunn na cHeny knaccoaoHy nopxopy, ponro npeaannpoaaaueHy a
nayunoH coo6uec1ae. e o1aepran aoo6ue knaccoam nopxop, n, opnako, ns6pan pnn
22
ce6n nno yron spennn n cHo1pk na nonn1nky n nc1opnk c nosnun s,
cun1an nx 6onee ak1yanLnmHn a naunx ycnoannx n nan6onee nepanunmHn ns acex.
onL ckopo nc1opnk uenoaeuec1aa 1aopn1 nkpn, paaa1e asrnnneH na nan6onee
1nnoame Ho1nam nx noaepennn. ncxoxy ns 1oro, u1o nk6o uenoaek poxpae1cn n
npoxnaae1 xnsnL x x x: u u.
1n kooppnna1m naxopn1cn Hexpy co6o a cnoxnmx pnanek1nuecknx o1nouennnx,
o1pnuan opna ppyryk n nonnoc1Lk yknapmaancL a konuenunk pnanek1nueckoro
epnnc1aa n 6opL6m npo1naononoxnoc1e. a Ho asrnnp, nHenno onn - aHec1e n
noposnL - nexa1 a ocnoae pasan1nn counanLno xnsnn uenoaeuec1aa. uac1noc1n,
annHa1enLnm asrnnp acerpa nerko pasrnnpn1 sa cnnya1oH reononn1nuecknx c1pa1ern
- a1nononn1nueckne nn1epecm, y6epnauncL 1eH caHmH a nx nepanunoc1n. epL ropm
ne aokk1 ppyr c ppyroH, n okeanm ne npepLnannk1 ppyr ppyry npe1ensn. okk1 n
npepLnannk1 npe1ensnn - nkpn, oprannsoaannme nsnauanLno, nepanuno
npnpopo a a1nocm n pacm, a a1opnuno, counanLno npnpopo - a knaccm.
ak n reononn1nueckan HopenL, unannnsaunonnan HopenL nc1opnocoqnn npn
6nnxaueH paccHo1pennn 1ak xe okasmaae1cn nponsaopno o1 a1nnueckoro nnn
pacoaoro poHnnan1noro ncnxo1nna.
H. onxen o6pa1n1L annHanne un1a1enn na 1o, u1o n,
ko1opoe c 1ako nerkoc1Lk yno1pe6nnk1 co acex 1pn6yn,
n. axe reorpaqnueckoro, n6o ouenL neHnoro
nape1cn nkpe, cun1akunx nmneunne rpannum naue c1panm cnpaaepnnamHn,
pasyHnmHn n nepyunHmHn. po nc1opnueckn acnek1 nonn1nn occnn n roaopn1L ne
npnxopn1cn: nsaec1no, u1o y pasnmx napopoa, nacennkunx occnk, coaepuenno
pasnme asrnnpm paxe na xpononornk poccncko nc1opnn. e1, pasyHee1cn, epnnc1aa
n a aonpoce o He1aqnsnueckoH snauennn occnn - nonnron npepc1aanenn na a1o1
cue1 nonc1nne 6espasHepen: o1 poHena oropopnum po Hnpoao na6opa1opnn
counanLno-nonn1nuecknx akcnepnHen1oa, 1eppn1opnn aonm ncnaHa c ua1anoH
nnn nonpoc1y knapoao nonesnmx nckonaeHmx.
oa1oHy neo6xopnHo noncnn1L: pnn Henn n u
, u, - . onLko a 1akoH
kauec1ae ona npepc1aanne1 pnn Henn nekyk uennoc1L n cHmcn. any1penne ro1oa
o6cyxpa1L poccnckyk npo6neHa1nky (a 1oH uncne n reorpaqnueckyk, n
xpononornueckyk), 1onLko ncxopn ns 1akoro noc1yna1a. occnn caHa no ce6e, 6es
ykasannoro coaepuenno konkpe1noro nanonnennn, pnn Henn - qan1oH, nyc1o sayk,
6eccopepxa1enLnm 1epHnn. ypL6a occnn, 1aknH o6pasoH, pnn Henn cnnonnHnuna
cypL6e pycckoro napopa. cosnak cy6Lek1nanoc1L a1oro nopxopa, no ropxycL nH n
napekcL ac1pe1n1L a 6onLunnc1ae un1a1ene connpapnoc1L. 1aknH o6pasoH ero
o6Lek1nansnpoaa1L.
nonne, k coxanennk, nerko aoo6pasn1L, u1o nc1opnn nekoe 1eppn1opnn nop nHeneH
occnn c neknH ee nacenenneH Hoxe1 pnn1Lcn n nocne 1oro, kak (ponyc1nH) pycckn
napop cope1 c nc1opnuecko cuenm, nnn pac1aopn1cn a npecnoay1oH nacenennn,
nnn saHe1 a uenoH nonoxenne 6ecnpaanoro a6opnrena. o nopo6nan rnno1e1nueckan
cypL6a occnn nonnoc1Lk anenonoxna HoeHy cosnannk, ona ne Hoxe1 pnn Henn
npepc1aann1L npepHe1 o6cyxpennn. na aoo6ue ne c1on1 kaknx 6m 1o nn 6mno Honx
ycnnn.
1ak, nponsnocn nnn nnuyun: occnn, n nop a1nH cnoaoH nHek a anpy nHenno Ho
pycckn napop, k ko1opoHy npnnapnexy no o6ue kpoan n nc1opnn. oa1oHy cHmcn
sarnaann nac1onue pa6o1m cnepye1 papn 1ounoc1n nepeaec1n 1ak: XX
n . ako nopxop noHoxe1
onpepenn1Lcn n a o1nouennn o6ue konc1a1aunn, n a o1nouennn npornosoa na
6ypyuee, c ko1opmx n nauan.
23
24
un q
amue noc1yna1m opnosnauno opnen1npyk1 nac ncknkun1enLno na
counonoro-peHorpaqnueckn nopxop k sananenno 1eHe. 1ak, asrnnneH na
pe1pocnek1nay n nepcnek1nay occnn c a1o 1oukn spennn.
kaxy cpasy, u1o nc1opnk occnn nenLsn paccHa1pnaa1L a o1pmae o1 nc1opnn ppyrnx
c1pan n o6unx nc1opnuecknx sakonoHepnoc1e. nnkanLnan a pe1annx, ona, opnako,
anonne Hoxe1 6m1L ynoxena a pycno a1nx sakonoHepnoc1e.
Fn x - u unn kak ycnoann axoxpennn
c1panm a nnpyc1pnanLnoe o6uec1ao n kann1annc1nueckn c1po. np ppyrnx
sakonoHepnoc1e, ampaxakunxcn a counanLnmx n peHorpaqnuecknx (a 1oH uncne, u1o
oco6enno aaxno, a1nopeHorpaqnuecknx) npoueccax, o ko1opmx peuL nope1 nnxe,
nannk1cn nponsaopnmHn o1 amuenasaanno rnaano.
epes packpec1Lnnnaanne a 1o nnn nno qopHe n a 1e nnn nnme cpokn npounn ace
c1panm, o1nocnunecn k uncny 1ak nasmaaeHmx pasan1mx. eropnn uepes nero
npoxopn1 pnp ppyrnx c1pan, naxopnaunxcn, ecnn Hoxno 1ak ckasa1L, a nonoxennn
6nnxne nepnqepnn nporpecca (nanpnHep, n1a, Le1naH, eunn, aH6opxa,
nnn n pp.). a nopore qopcnpoaannoro packpec1Lnnnaannn c1on1 npnn, eaepnan
open, ypunn, neko1opme ppyrne c1panm a1nncko Hepnkn, snn n qpnkn.
1o xe a1o sa nc1opnueckn npouecc: packpec1Lnnnaanne? akoam ero npepnocmnkn
n nocnepc1ann?
ACKECTBRHHBAHHE - u n u n
u .
ackpec1Lnnnaanne 6maae1 payx 1nnoa: 1) n akMck (M: ,
yM), 2) n akMck, cx ycnn cn
knM. norpa a1n 1nnm asanHno pononnnk1 ppyr ppyra. ackpec1Lnnnaanne
nepaoro 1nna cyuec1aoaano acerpa, nesaancnHo o1 o6uec1aennoro c1pon. pnHep -
ynnu1oxenne, caepenne nop kopenL ceHepmx ppeannx cenLckoxosnc1aennmx napopoa
a xope saaoeaannn eapenHn o6e1oaanno seHnn. o nac 6onLue nn1epecye1 specL
packpec1Lnnnaanne a1oporo 1nna, ko1opoe, co6c1aenno, n 6ypeH nasmaa1L a1nH
1epHnnoH. aHe1nH 1onLko, u1o packpec1Lnnnaanne aneakonoHnueckoe anno1L po
aeka nHeno xapak1ep o6pa1nHm, a packpec1Lnnnaanne akonoHnueckoe, nanpo1na,
ponmne acerpa 6mno neo6pa1nHmH.
pepnocmnko packpec1Lnnnaannn a1oporo 1nna nanne1cn ns6m1ok xnao cnnm a
pepeane, aosnnkakun a nk6oH 1papnunonnoH o6uec1ae na onpepenennoH a1ane
aaonkunn. o ueH onpepenne1cn caH qak1op ns6m1ounoc1n? oueHy snaun1enLnan
uac1L nacenennn pepeaenL appyr c1anoan1cn nnune n amnyxpena 6maae1 noknpa1L
o6xn1me Hec1a n seHnk - aekoao nc1ounnk cyuec1aoaannn, ckn1a1Lcn a nonckax
nnun n pa6o1m? e1pypno yanpe1L, u1o a1o o6ycnoaneno ypoaneH pasan1nn
nponsaopn1enLnmx cnn n xapak1epoH nponsaopc1aennmx o1nouenn. cnn a cpepnne
aeka opnn eaponeckn kpec1Lnnnn Hor npokopHn1L o1 cnnm pecn1L-paapua1L
uenoaek, 1o ceropnn on a coc1onnnn npokopHn1L camue aocLHnpecn1n: ao1 yxe
o6Lek1nanan aosHoxnoc1L pnn cokpauennn cenLckoro nacenennn kak HnnnHyH a
ue1mpe pasa, kak HakcnHyH - a aoceHL n 6onee. (expy npounH, a occnn c 1913 no
1989 rr. nponsouno cokpauenne kpec1Lnnckoro knacca nHenno a ceHL c nnunnH pas.)
eropnn a na noc1onnno ocnoae cenLcknH 1pypoH sannHae1cn acero 3%
nacenennn, a (po aoccoepnnennn c ) - 5%. occnn, rpe nponsaopn1enLnoc1L
1pypa cyuec1aenno nnxe, - okono 12%.
25
asan1ne kann1annc1nuecknx o1nouenn a pepeane, npyuee acnep sa aaonkune
nponsaopn1enLnmx cnn, npnaopn1 k noamH seHenLnmH o1nouennnH n k 1oHy, u1o
c1aaune, nopo anesanno, ns6m1ounmHn uenoaeueckne pecypcm am1ecnnk1cn, a 1o
paxe n am6pacmaak1cn ns pepeann, a 1o apeHn kak ropop paneko ne acerpa ro1oa nx
npnnn1L. pesynL1a1e a c1pane, rpe npe1 packpec1Lnnnaanne a1oporo 1nna, sauac1yk
nakannnaae1cn Hnoxec1ao nkpe, ne nyxnmx nn ropopy, nn pepeane, -
aspmaoonacnm kon1nnren1, poc1aannkun anac1nH orpoHnyk ronoanyk 6onL. nune,
ronopnme n nnkoHy ne nyxnme Haccm napnea npepc1aannk1 co6o 6asy pnn
counanLnmx no1pncenn, peaonkun, no 1akxe n npeanLnoe uenoaeueckoe cmpLe pnn
aon, a 1oH uncne kononnanLnmx, a 1akxe pmnok caHo peueao pa6oue cnnm,
c1nHynnpykun nnpyc1pnannsaunk n pasan1ne kann1annsHa a ropope. H
x, sx x x x x, -
n , u
mn, n. (pecnoay1m nHnepnannsH - cnepc1ane nHenno
akonoHnueckoro kann1annc1nueckoro packpec1Lnnnaannn. 1o pec1an1enLno
nocnepnnn c1apnn, no ne sarnnaakuero kann1annsHa, a - naunonanLnoro
pacuae1a; cuac1nnaan 1pancqopHaunn packpec1Lnnnaannn napopa.) ce saancn1 o1
1oro, cyHee1 nn anac1L asn1L nop kon1ponL konoccanLnyk counanLnyk aneprnk,
amcao6oxpakuykcn npn packpec1Lnnnaannn, - n kypa nHenno ee nanpaan1. oa1oHy
akonoHnueckoe packpec1Lnnnaanne 1ak uac1o conpoaoxpae1cn aneakonoHnuecknH,
Hoxno ckasa1L, ampaxae1cn a neH qnsnueckn, kak copepxanne a qopHe, - a anpe
aon n nonnuecknx penpeccn (caexne npnHepm - eunn, aH6opxa, qrannc1an,
apxnknc1an n pp.).
asLncnnH qenoHen packpec1Lnnnaannn na ampasn1enLnmx sanapnoeaponecknx
npnHepax.
H npnHep npepc1aanne1 co6o nc1opnn nrnnn. pecL
packpec1Lnnnaanne, -, nponcxopnno ne appyr, a c caHo 6onLuo
nc1opnuecko paccpouko - a 1euenne uec1n c1one1n, nauaauncL c oropaxnaannn
a XIII aeke. 1900 ropy 70% nacenennn yxe xnno a ropopax. -, aneprnn
packpec1Lnnnaannn 6mna ne 1onLko nc1pauena na rpaxpanckne aonm (aona no n
eno pos, nokopenne o1nanpnn n anLca, 6ypxyasnan peaonkunn n aona
poHaenn npo1na apna I), no n kanannsnpoaana npeanLnmH o6pasoH na cospanne
caHoro Hounoro a Hnpe qno1a n saaoeaanne kononn - pnanpnn (II-VII aa.),
panunn (XIV-XV aa.), Hepnkn, c1-npnn, ec1-npnn, ac1pannn, oao enanpnn
n 1.p. anno1L po onknenpcknx oc1poaoa n anranLnkn. Henno 6naropapn
nenpepmanoHy, no noc1enennoHy packpec1Lnnnaannk nrnnn c1ana anapmunue
Hope. apapokc, opnako, saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o kpynneune anrnnckne kononnn
o6penn co apeHeneH cyaepenn1e1, a nx anrno-cakconckoe nacenenne, npespea caon
kopnn, o6peno noayk naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L n yxe ne nHenye1 ce6n
anrnnuanaHn n ne coo1nocn1 ce6n c Ha1epnncko naune, a caok cypL6y - c cypL6o
nrnnn. aknH o6pasoH, anrnnckan naunn, necHo1pn na qak1 paccennnn, mn
k cn qM cycn. ounm am6poc uenoaeueckoro Ha1epnana,
ko1opmH nrnnn nopasnna Hnp a XVII-XIX aa., a n1ore ne ycnnnn, a cokpyun1enLno
ocna6nn naunk. eropnn, pasHnoxnauncL n paccpepo1ounauncL, kasanocL 6m, no
aceHy Hnpy, no a pec1an1enLnoc1n ckmc ccmc a caoe
Ha1epnncko c1pane - nrnnn, anrnnuane ncnm1maak1 o6pa1nm npouecc: nx caHnx
kononnsnpyk1 Hnnnnonm neanrnnuan - xn1enn 6maunx kononn, pa n ne 1onLko.
pounoe a pannoH cnyuae amrnnpn1 y1eun1enLno, no 6ypyuee c1paun1.
H npnHep Hm na6nkpaeH a epHannn. pecL 6ypxyasnme o1nouennn
6ypno pasanaanncL a 1euenne XV-XVI aekoa, packpec1Lnnnaanne nocnno aspmano
xapak1ep n nponsouno aecLHa papnkanLno a xope anauane - ennko pec1Lnncko, a
sa1eH - xec1ouaue pnpua1nne1ne aonm (1618-1648), korpa 6mno am6n1o
aoo6ue 85% neHeuknx Hyxunn. pouecc okasancn saHkny1 a rpannuax caHo
epHannn, aaxneue npnunno uero 6mna ka1ac1poqa ea1onckoro oppena nop
26
pknaanLpoH (1410), npekpa1nauan 6ypnyk po1one kononnsa1opckyk akcnancnk
neHuea. a 1o, u1o counanLnm aspma, o6ycnoanennm packpec1LnnnaanneH,
okasancn nanpaanen nonnoc1Lk any1pL, a ne aoane c1panm, neHeukan naunn
pacnna1nnacL payHn c nonoanno c1one1nnHn rny6okoro akonoHnueckoro n
nonn1nueckoro ynapka, o6esnkpea n sac1ma a qeopanLno pasppo6nennoc1n.
(uac1nnaoe ncknkuenne cpepn neHeuknx seHenL - pyccnn, ynoxnauan ns6m1ok
caonx kpec1Lnn ne a rpaxpancknx, a a saaoeaa1enLnmx n o6Lepnnn1enLnmx aonax
orenuonnepnoa XVIII -XIX aa.).
o, kak yxe roaopnnocL, aneakonoHnueckoe packpec1Lnnnaanne nannnocL po nauero
c1one1nn o6pa1nHmH. 1870 r. nacenenne o6Lepnnenno epHancko nHnepnn
c1peHn1enLno pocno n yaennunnocL k 1925 r. na uenmx 23 Hnn. uenoaek, coc1aana 63
Hnn., ns ko1opmx 70% k 1939 ropy yxe nepeHec1nnocL a ropop. eHum cyHenn ne
1onLko aocc1anoan1L nonynnunk, no n ac1a1L (a nnue o6Lepnnenno, nHnepcko
epHannn) na nopore noaoro packpec1Lnnnaannn, uepes ko1opm onn nepaonauanLno
nepeuarnynn a 1914 ropy, a okonua1enLno - a 1939. eunHoc1L 6mc1po
pasHnoxaaunxcn neHuea aoeaa1L 6mna o6ycnoanena no 6onLue uac1n nHenno 1eH,
u1o Hnp k 1oHy apeHenn yxe 6mn a ocnoanoH nopenen, n neaoennmH o6pasoH nonyun1L
noame seHnn pnn o11oka Hnnnnonoa nkpe, packpec1Lnnennmx a xope kann1annsaunn
c1panm (epHannn ocyuec1anna npoHmunennm nepeaopo1 k 1880-Hy ropy), c1ano
neaosHoxno. asep, Heu1aaue o caHo 6onLuo apHnn a Hnpe, cneunanLno
sanpe1nn neHuaH aHnrpnpoaa1L, noa1opna no cy1n cn1yaunk XVI aeka. spma
neHeukoro peHorpaqnueckoro ko1na c1an nens6exen. n1nep cHo1pen a caHm kopenL
npo6neHm, korpa eue a an kaHnq sanannn: ac, neHuea, npoxnaae1 no 150
uenoaek na kaappa1nm knnoHe1p: pasae a1o cnpaaepnnao? pnako napopm aponm
ne counncL c neHeuknH napopoH ao asrnnpax na cnpaaepnnaoc1L, a pesynL1a1e uero
neHum no1epnnn sa 1939-1945 rr. npnHepno 15% caoe uncnennoc1n (koe-k1o eue
yexan a Kxnyk Hepnky), n npo6neHa nnunnx nkpe y1pa1nna a epHannn
ak1yanLnoc1L. ospnee a nepec1aaue poxa1L c1pane aosnnkna npo6neHa, o6pa1nan
no snauennk: Hnnnnonm rac1ap6a1epoa. eropnn a epHannn xnae1 okono 8 Hnn.
nHHnrpan1oa, n a1o konnuec1ao pac1e1. y1koe npounoe, c1paunoe 6ypyuee.
1oxe nnoxo npnHep pnn noppaxannn. na o1c1aaana a pasan1nn
kann1annsHa n o1 nrnnn, n o1 epHannn, ponro oc1aaancL qeopanLno a uenoH
c1pano. 6Lek1nanme npoueccm akonoHnueckoro packpec1Lnnnaannn sa1ponynn,
pasyHee1cn, n ee, u1o ampasnnocL a kononnanLno nonn1nke qpanuyscko koponm
(apn6ckne oc1poaa, anapa n pp.) n pnn1enLnmx, kpoaonponn1nmx aonax kpoanka
XIV, nm1aauerocn nepekpon1L kap1y aponm. pnako qpanuysckn a6conk1nsH
nepapoH 6mn cnHaonoH kpenoc1n qeopanLnmx o1nouenn n paopnnc1aa kak knacca.
Henno kocnoc1Lk qpanuysckoro qeopannsHa n o6Lncnne1cn 1o1 qak1, u1o
packpec1Lnnnaanne panunn acepLes nauanocL nnuL c 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecko
peaonkunn 1789 ropa. ocnauee, kak n a epHannn, aspmano xapak1ep, ono
nonauany okasanocL o6paueno aoany1pL c1panm (u1o npnaeno, a uac1noc1n, k
qnsnueckoHy ynnu1oxennk ueno kpec1Lnncko o6nac1n - anpen), no sa1eH, uepes
a1an o6oponn1enLnmx aon, npeo6pasoaanocL a aonm saaoeaa1enLnme,
nanoneonoackne. ackpec1Lnnnaanne c1panm uno nocpepc1aoH a1nx aon, n pesynL1a1
6mn nac1onLko papnkanen, u1o a 6n1ae nop a1epnoo onanap1 6mn amnyxpen
amc1aan1L na none cpaxennn 15-ne1nnx HanLunuek: qpanuysckoe kpec1Lnnc1ao 6mno
nonnoc1Lk am6n1o, o6eckpoaneno n ne Horno 6onee noc1aann1L nyueunoe Hnco.
1 1akoro upesHepnoro kpoaonyckannn naunn yxe nnkorpa ne onpaannacL. panunn a
1euenne uenoro c1one1nn nm1anacL aocc1anoan1L npexnn uenoaeueckn no1enunan
(no uac1L a1oro no1enunana 6mna nspacxopoaana na npno6pe1enne kononn a qpnke
n rpanpnosnyk nepec1poky apnxa, cpaannHyk 1onLko c coae1cknHn c1pokaHn
aeka). cnn, necHo1pn na nanoneonoackne aonm, qpanuysaH ace xe ypanocL sa
1801-1851 rr. yaennun1L caok uncnennoc1L na 8,3 Hnn. uenoaek, 1o a panLneueH, no
Hepe o11oka cenLckoro nacenennn a ropop, na6nkpae1cn neyknonnoe cnnxenne
27
poxpaeHoc1n. 1nH, a uac1noc1n, o6Lncnne1cn nopaxenne panunn ao panko-
pyccko aone. 1900 r. a a1o c1pane 6mn o1Heuen yxe Hnnycoao npnpoc1
nacenennn - Hnnyc 26 1mc. uenoaek; a 1911 r. - Hnnyc 33 1mc. ecnn cpaann1L
nacenenne panunn sa 1870 (37,5 Hnn.) n 1926 (38 Hnn.) ropm, 1o Hm yanpnH, u1o, a
o1nnune o1 epHannn, ampocue a non1opa pasa, ona nou1n ne yaennunna sa a1o1
nepnop caoe naunonanLnoe (6es nHHnrpan1oa) nacenenne.
konua1enLnoe packpec1Lnnnaanne c1panm nponsouno a xope epao Hnpoao aonm.
panuysaH ueno neaepon1nmx uenoaeuecknx xep1a (c noHouLk nrnnn, n
occnn) ypanocL asn1L peaanu y neHuea, no a1o 6mn nx nocnepnn a nc1opnn pmaok.
6n1mHn n 6es aec1n nponaaunHn onn no1epnnn 1.354 1mc. uenoaek (ne cun1an
oqnuepoa); nckaneuennmHn n 1nxenopanennmHn - 1.490 1mc.; npeamuenne
cHep1noc1n ns-sa ronopa n annpeHn nap poxpaeHoc1Lk a a1n xe ropm coc1aanno
1.500 1mc. 1o 6mn koneu. xe a caHoH ckopoH apeHenn - a 1940 ropy y qpanuysoa ne
okasanocL nnkaknx cnn pnn conpo1nanennn aepHax1y, u1o nerko n nenpnnyxpenno
npnaeno k neHeuko okkynaunn a n1ore c1panno aonm, pnnauecn acero c 10 Han
no 24 nknn. epexnan, 1aknH o6pasoH, sa kakne-1o non1opac1a ne1 uenm kackap
onyc1oun1enLnmx aon, qpanuysckan naunn packpec1LnnnnacL, nc1ounna caon
pe1opopnme cnnm n ac1ana y kpan nponac1n.
kononnnHn npnunocL pacc1a1Lcn - nekoHy c1ano nx ypepxnaa1L. 1aH c
nens6exnoc1Lk nocnepoaan, kak n a cnyuae c nrnne, npouecc o6pa1no
kononnsaunn. a nocneaoennme ropm Hnorne na6nkpa1enn o1Heuak1 c1peHn1enLnoe
pacoaoe ampoxpenne n penonynnunk qpanuysoa. eropnn a apnxe n caH na6nkpan
nou1n nonnoc1Lk nerpn1nnckne n HycycnLHanckne paonm n paxe 6enyk ryaepnan1ky
npn uepnmx pe1nx. o apeHn nepaane am6opno kaHnannn a nxnpe camue 600.000
apa6oa ac1ann no ace panunn a ouepepn k ns6npa1enLnmH ypnaH; apa6m, nHekune
qpanuysckoe, a ne anxnpckoe rpaxpanc1ao (a 1aknx a c1pane ceropnn eue 6onLue), a
a1nx ouepepnx, ec1ec1aenno, ne o1HeuanncL.
ue a 1928 ropy 6maun npeHLep-Hnnnc1p panunn pypap ppno nncan a
npepncnoann k knnre . aH6epa panunn n nnoc1panum: pncy1c1ane na naue
seHne 1pex Hnnnnonoa neqpanuysoa. c1aan1 npo6neHy, o1 peuennn ko1opo a
6onLuo Hepe saancn1 cHep1L nnn xnsnL. 1ex npo6neHa, o ko1opo roaopnn ppno,
yam, peunnacL. pe1L acex npnunmx 1pypnunxcn aponm pa6o1ae1 nHenno ao
panunn, a ecnn cocun1a1L nx no caHmH kpynnmH c1panaH-pa6o1opa1ennH, 1o -
nonoanna.
pounoe qpanuysoa n npekpacno, n yxacno, no 6ypyuero y nnx npoc1o ne1.
un
nosnae1cn a cpaanennn. npoH c nepeuncnennmHn c1panaHn occnn, nepexnauan
caon yxacnme ka1ac1poqm aeka, aoace ne amrnnpn1 neuanLnmH ncknkuenneH,
ampopkoH a ceHLe npnnnunmx napopoa. na a uenoH nosxe Hnornx ppyrnx ac1ynnna
na ny1L kann1annsaunn pepeann (nocne ennko eqopHm 1861 ropa), no nouna no
neHy 6mc1pmHn uaraHn. poHmunennm nepeaopo1 coc1onncn yxe a 1890 r., acero na
pecn1L ne1 nosxe repHanckoro. opopa n aecn nopeqopHenno occnn c1ann
nanonnn1Lcn nkpLHn, nnuero ne nHekunHn n nnkoHy ne nyxnmHn, 6ocnkaHn; 1pyp
n caHan xnsnL uenoaeka peaanLanpoaann na rnasax; no cenLckoxosnc1aennmH
paonaH npoka1nncn ronop; 1kpLHm n ka1opra nepenonnnnncL; c1pana c1peHn1enLno
none1ena k peaonkunn. n1yaunn ycyry6nnnacL ne6maanmH poc1oH poxpaeHoc1n: c
1890 no 1913 rr. nacenenne occnn yaennunnocL co 100 po 150 Hnn. uenoaek. 1o
neypnan1enLno, nockonLky nauanLnm a1an packpec1Lnnnaannn acerpa pae1 acnneck
poxpaeHoc1n, o6ycnoanennm coxpanenneH 1papnun Hnorope1noc1n npn ynyuuennn
28
Hepnunnckoro o6cnyxnaannn a ceHLnx, nepecennaunxcn a ropop. enpenunn
coxpannnacL n a nepame pecn1nne1nn oae1cko anac1n: a 1929 ropy o6ronnn no
1eHnaH npnpoc1a nacenennn panunk - a 22 pasa, nrnnk - a 5,5, epHannk - a 3,6.
nrnnckn akonoHnc1 x. enc a knnre konoHnueckne nocnepc1ann epcanLckoro
Hnpa (1920) nposopnnao saHe1nn a cansn c a1nH: eo6mknoaenno c1peHn1enLnm
poc1 nacenennn occnn npepc1aanne1cn opnnH ns nan6onee cyuec1aennmx qak1opoa
nocnepnnx ne1. oryuec1ao ns6m1ouno nnopoan1oc1n Horno cmrpa1L 6nLuyk ponL
a paspyuennn yc1oea o6uec1aa, ueH cnna npe nnn oun6kn caHopepxaann.
eqopHm 1onmnnna yckopnnn knaccoaoe paccnoenne pepeann, eue nopxnec1nynn
npouecc packpec1Lnnnaannn. porpaHHa sacenennn n6npn kpec1LnnaHn ns
uen1panLnmx ry6epnn 1parnueckn sanospana n ne coo1ae1c1aoaana Hacu1a6y n
ckopoc1n pannoro npouecca. onm1kn uapnsHa npnpa1L packpec1Lnnnaannk
rocypapc1aennm cHmcn n y1nnnsnpoaa1L ns6m1ounoe pepeaenckoe nacenenne a
ypkec1ancknx, ankancknx, noncko n epHancko aonax 6mnn any1penne
o1aeprny1m napopoH, nnuero pnn ce6n ne xpaaunH n ne nonyuaaunH nn a ypkec1ane,
nn na ankanax, nn a nonnn, nn a epHannn (a o1nnune, ckaxeH, o1 anrnnuan a
npnn, Hepnke, ac1pannn nnn Kxno qpnke nnn o1 1ex xe pyccknx, no - a
n6npn). apckan anac1L okasanacL necnoco6na n 6eccnnLna asn1L nop kon1ponL,
o6yspa1L c1nxnnoe, ec1ec1aenno-nc1opnueckoe panxenne packpec1Lnnnaannn,
oxaa1nauee 150-Hnnnnonnm napop, na 86% coc1onaun ns kpec1Lnnc1aa no
nepenncn 1913 r. apnsH ne cyHen npnpa1L a1oHy panxennk nosn1nanoe,
cosnpa1enLnoe nanpaanenne n, 1aknH o6pasoH, - onpaapa1L ero n npepynpepn1L
aspmano xapak1ep pasan1nn co6m1n. oa1oHy o6Lek1nanoe npo1naopeune c
npnnunnaHn xpnc1nanckoro ryHannsHa, ko1opoe aoo6ue caoc1aenno
kann1annc1nueckoHy packpec1Lnnnaannk kak 1akoaoHy, 1pancqopHnpoaanocL a
poccnckoH o6uec1ae a nenpnn1ne ne 1onLko kann1annsHa, no n uapnsHa. apop ne
xo1en, 6onncn nepaoro n xec1oko pasouapoaancn ao a1opoH. ounanLnm aspma,
nanpaanennm opnoapeHenno npo1na uapn n npo1na kann1annc1nueckoro pasan1nn
c1panm c1an nens6exen.
Cn mn n
u- m nu, ,
qu u
u , m
u - q un, m
x x qx. B u s
n mn, - qun mn,
n, n -
4u m mn u
.
apapokc pexe1 asrnnp: panxyue cnno a1o an1n6ypxyasno qeopanLno peakunn
(ona xe ennkan k1n6pLckan counannc1nueckan peaonkunn) nannncL aoace ne
aepxnne knaccm qeopanLnoro o6uec1aa, kak Hoxno 6mno 6m oxnpa1L, - paopnnc1ao,
unnoannuec1ao, nn1ennnrenunn, a nHenno nnxnn knacc: kpec1Lnnc1ao (nanoHnk, u1o
a pacno pHnn a 1917-1921 rr. cnyxnno a o6ue cnoxnoc1n 5 Hnn. kpec1Lnn, ne
roaopn o nap1nsanax)[1]. aopnnc1ao xe n aoo6ue an pycckoro o6uec1aa,
nanpo1na, okasanncL panxyue cnno 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecko peaonkunn n
sa1eH 6enoro panxennn, nosynraHn ko1oporo 6mnn aoace ne koncepaa1nanme,
Honapxnueckne, no - nporpeccnanme, 1nnnuno 6ypxyasnme 1pe6oaannn:
onc1n1yunn n upepn1enLnoe co6panne. a1nHn nosynraHn unn na kpacnmx n
onuak, n ennknn, n panrenL...
ycckan ann1a no1epnena cokpyun1enLnoe nopaxenne a rpaxpancko aone n 6mna
npak1nueckn nonnoc1Lk ynnu1oxena n saHenena noao ann1o nn6o nnopopueckoro
(rnaanmH o6pasoH, eapeckoro) nponcxoxpennn, nn6o 1.n. ampanxenuaHn ns uncna
29
noaepxnoc1no o6pasoaannmx npepc1aan1ene 1pypnunxcn Hacc. c1pane nop anpoH
counannsHa yc1anoanncn qeopanLno-6kpokpa1nueckn pexnH, ko1opm cnepye1
1ounee nasmaa1L, c yue1oH ero cneunqnuecko cyunoc1n, rocnap1qeopannsHoH nnn
counan-qeopannsHoH. 3 um u-
n.
pyccknx xnsne, npnnecennmx na an1apL epao Hnpoao aonm,
peaonkunn n paxpancko aonm, ne o6pa1nnn acnn1L nc1opnk. c1anoana (no
aneune anpnHoc1n) kann1annc1nueckoe pasan1ne occnn, 6onLueankn, opnako,
q unn. eno a 1oH, u1o, xo1n
coae1ckan anac1L, ynnu1oxna kynauec1ao kak knacc, po6nnacL npekpauennn
counanLnoro paccnoennn pepeann, npekpa1n1L o6Lek1nanme nc1opnueckne npoueccm
pasan1nn nponsaopn1enLnmx cnn ona ne Horna, paxe ecnn 6m xo1ena. osapa1a k
ponnpyc1pnanLnoHy o6uec1ay pnn occnn, ac1ynnaue a xec1okoe copeanoaanne c
aepyunHn eaponecknHn c1panaHn, upeaa1oe cHep1enLno cxaa1ko, yxe ne 6mno.
anpo1na, nauanacL qopcnpoaannan nnpyc1pnannsaunn. nepoaa1enLno, coxpann1L
pepeank, kak a1o ypanocL kononnanLnmH c1panaH, rpe pasan1ne npoHmunennoc1n n
yp6annsaunn nckycc1aenno sa1opHaxnaanocL, 6mno neaosHoxno. 1annn, co apeHeneH
ocosnaaun yrposm yckopennoro n neo6pa1nHoro packpec1Lnnnaannn, nm1ancn
npn1opHosn1L a1o1 npouecc n sakoncepanpoaa1L pepeank, npepnpnnnHan pnn a1oro
onpepenennme Hepm (a uac1noc1n, o1nnn nacnop1a y kpec1Lnn), no c ero cHep1Lk ace
1opHosa cnoHanncL.
u (no cpaanennk c apono - npnHo-1akn aspmanoe)
un nocnno Hnoroo6pasnme, a 1oH uncne ne6maanme
qopHm: a1o nnpyc1pnannsaunn, aennkne c1pokn counannsHa, ocaoenne panero
eaepa, anLnero oc1oka, n6npn, okkynaunn oc1ouno aponm, eaponensaunn
naunonanLnmx okpann (ypkec1ana, asaxc1ana, aakasa n akaakasLn), no a1o 1akxe
n paspyuenne c1apo occnn c ee 1papnunnHn n kynL1ypo, a1o packynaunaanne,
penpeccnn n ka1opra a, reka1oH6m xep1a. norne Hnnnnonm kpec1Lnncknx
xnsne 6mnn nerko o1panm sa ennkyk o6epy, aepL uena uenoaeuecko xnsnn
o6Lek1nano ynana po nnxnero npepena. rpoHnyk ponL a o11oke nkpe ns pepeann
cmrpana c1peHn1enLnan yp6annsaunn, conpoaoxpaauan poc1 nayunoro n kynL1ypnoro
no1enunana c1panm. oo6ue, c1anoanenne noaoro c1pon, noaoro rocypapc1aa
Ho6nnnsoaano necHe1noe konnuec1ao kpec1Lnncknx cype6; poc1a1ouno osnakoHn1Lcn c
6norpaqnnHn coae1cknx aoenauanLnnkoa, nap1nnmx n coae1cknx pa6o1nnkoa, yuenmx
- kpec1Lnncknx pe1e - u1o6m a a1oH y6epn1Lcn. norne Hnnnnonm kpec1Lnn npounn
uepes npoq1exyunnnua, ukonm pa6oue Honopexn, pa6qakn n aysm, u1o6m
nononnn1L pnpm pa6ouero knacca n nn1ennnrenunn.
n1ore, ecnn a nauane aeka sann1oe nacenenne occnn coc1onno na 86% ns kpec1Lnn,
na 2,7% ns nn1ennnrenunn n na 9% ns pa6ounx, 1o k 1990-H rr. ypenLnm aec
pa6ounx a aospoc nou1n a 7 pas, nn1ennnrenunn - 6onee ueH a 10 pas, a
kpec1Lnnc1aa, kak yxe roaopnnocL, ynan a 7 c nnunnH pas. apo npnsna1L, u1o
u u , n :
sn unn n u
x, um , , ,
. a1o ace sa kakne-1o ceHLpecn1 ne1 - ne6maanm a nc1opnn cnyua,
o1nnuakun nac a nyuuyk c1opony o1 ppyrnx napopoa. pnako npn a1oH, k
coxanennk, kpec1Lnnc1ao occnn (a o1nnune o1 eaponeckoro) nnunnocL ne 1onLko
caoero konnuec1aa, no n kauec1aa. ae1 kpec1Lnnc1aa 6mn nnkanpnpoaan a coc1aae
ace pyccko ann1m aoo6ue - a cnny, ao-nepamx, rocnopc1aa a eapeea a ropm
caHoro kpy1oro nepenoHa konua 1920-x n, ao-a1opmx, nckycc1aenno, npeno-
npeapa1no counannc1nuecko cyunoc1n acero npoek1a.
(enLsn nony1no ne ampasn1L aocxnuennn nepep Hyxec1aoH n xnsnec1okoc1Lk
pycckoro napopa. po1n 1ako orpoHnm ny1L a 1akne cxa1me cpokn, c1onkny1Lcn co
30
c1onLknHn cnnLneunHn aparaHn n no6epn1L, c1onLko npe1epne1L - n ne no1epn1L nn
aonn k xnsnn, nn npnpopno nenpn1nsa1enLnoc1n, nn napexpm na nyuuee 6ypyuee.)
, Hoxno coxane1L o 1oH, u1o occnn - ne nrnnn, no npn a1oH papoaa1Lcn, u1o
ona - ne epHannn, n 1.p. oxno cnopn1L o 1oH, kako cnoco6 packpec1Lnnnaannn
nyuue, cosnpa1enLnee, nnn nao6opo1, xyxe, paspyun1enLnee - kann1annc1nueckn
nnn counannc1nueckn. pnako no caonH neo6pa1nHmH nera1nanmH nocnepc1annH
onn, k coxanennk, opnnakoam. K sn u ,
un, x un
, , n, nn
u um[2].
O un?
roaopnnocL, u1o neko1opme o1penLnme c1panm (nanpnHep, epHannn) ycnenn ne
opnn pas nakonn1L n pac1pa1n1L naunonanLnm pecypc pepeaencknx xn1ene. H pano
6mno kak HnnnHyH paaxpm sa caok nc1opnk yno1pe6n1L konoccanLnyk aneprnk
akonoHnueckoro packpec1Lnnnaannn. o pnn 1ex c1pan, ko1opmH a1o ace npnunocL
npoxopn1L a aeke nnn 1onLko npepc1on1 npo1n, ycnoann nrpm okasanncL yxe
ppyrnHn. H aosHoxnoc1n, npepoc1aanneHme packpec1LnnnaanneH, panm nnuL
opnaxpm.
oueHy nocnepc1ann akonoHnueckoro packpec1Lnnnaannn c1ann neo6pa1nHmHn
ceropnn?
B-x, no1oHy u1o neaosHoxno aoo6pasn1L ce6e ycnoann, kpoHe nnane1apno
ka1ac1poqm, ko1opme Hornn 6m o1apa1n1L n o1opaa1L yp6annsnpoaannoe nacenenne o1
ropopcko unannnsaunn n aepny1L ero a nono cenLcko xnsnn n na1ypanLnoro
xosnc1aa. pnnnunme ncknkuennn nnuL nop1aepxpak1 a1o npaanno. ak sarna1L
o6pa1no a pepeank 40% nacenennn, sann1oro yHc1aennmH 1pypoH (nHenno 1akoa ero
npouen1 a )? nn xo1n 6m 30% (a occnn na 1989 r.; unqpa npnHepnan, 1ounmx
pannmx sa nocnepnne ropm ne1)? ak npoHmunennmx pa6ounx saaep6oaa1L pnn
cenLckoro 1pypa? aepL nx - 6onee 50% nacenennn pasan1mx c1pan. 1o ouenL
1pypno.
B-x, no1oHy u1o a pepeane nonpoc1y ne1 6onLue pa6ounx Hec1. e1 nnkakoro
akonoHnueckoro cHmcna aocc1anaannaa1L pepeaenckn kon1nnren1 na ypoane, ckaxeH,
konua XIX aeka. ayuno-1exnnueckn nporpecc naunx pne a o6nac1n cenLckoro
xosnc1aa (senenan peaonkunn) 1ouno 1ak xe o6ecuennn 1pyp kpec1Lnn,
pa6o1akunx no c1apnnke, kak 1kaukn c1anok - kyc1apnm 1pyp 1kaue a XVII aeke.
ako kpec1Lnnnn yxe ne cHoxe1 nponsaopn1L 1oaapnm npopyk1, konkypnpyn c
coapeHenno n1nueqa6pnko nnn cannoqepHo, HonokosaaopoH n 1.p. aueH
sannHa1L c1o uenoaek na pa6o1e, c ko1opo cnpaannk1cn nn1epo? oneuno, pnp
amcokopasan1mx rocypapc1a (nonnn, n neko1opme ppyrne) 1pa1n1 orpoHnme
cpepc1aa na noppepxanne sann1oc1n a caoeH cenLckoH xosnc1ae. o a1o Hory1
nosaonn1L ce6e 1onLko nepepoankn kann1annc1nueckoro nponsaopc1aa, npouepune
na 6onee panneH a1ane 6esxanoc1nyk paunonannsaunk a1oro caHoro nponsaopc1aa,
o6ornaaune sa cue1 a1oro ppyrnx n 1pa1nune 1enepL na counanLnyk nonn1nky penLrn,
nonyuennme o1 akcnnya1aunn 6onee cna6mx, Henee pasan1mx c1pan. cnn xop
nporpecca npeapa1nn, ponyc1nH, 86% nacenennn (cennn) - a 12% nnn 3%, ecnn cnpoc
na pepeaenckn 1pyp ynan po 1ako c1enenn, 1o kak pasaepny1L a1o1 npouecc, a1n
pesynL1a1m acnn1L? 1kasa1Lcn o1 poc1nxenn naykn? 1o nenpoc1o.
B-ux, no1oHy u1o kann1annc1nueckoe xosnc1ao, kak anpno, aoo6ue ne
nyxpae1cn a 6onLuoH konnuec1ae kpec1Lnn, anonne ypoane1aopnncL nannuneH
31
cesonnmx cenLxospa6ounx. o cy1n pena, kpec1Lnnc1ao ns knacca npeapauae1cn a
noc1nnpyc1pnanLnoH o6uec1ae a counanLnyk pnacnopy, noa1opnn a c1poro o6pa1noH
nopnpke ny1L npone1apna1a n nn1ennnrenunn, npeapa1naunxcn ns counanLno
pnacnopm a knacc. ounanLnme nponopunn coapeHennmx pasan1mx c1pan, rpe
kpec1Lnnc1ao sannHae1 ckpoHnme 3-5%, npone1apna1 50-60%, a nn1ennnrenunn 35-
40%, kpacnopeunao o6 a1oH roaopn1. 1nxenm n HanoonnaunaaeHm qnsnueckn
1pyp, ko1opm 1onLko n penae1 pen1a6enLnmH nponsaopc1ao Hnornx
cenLckoxosnc1aennmx kynL1yp (nanpnHep, pnca, uan, 1a6aka n Hn.pp.) aoo6ue
c1anoan1cn nepoc1ynen pasan1mH c1panaH. epapoH onn ace ycnnnn npnnarak1 k 1oHy,
u1o6m sakpenn1L sa Henee pasan1mHn c1panaHn ponL caoero arpapnoro npnpa1ka,
noc1aaunka nopo6nmx npopyk1oa.
B-x, poxpaeHoc1L ao acex 6es ncknkuennn c1panax, npouepunx
packpec1Lnnnaanne, 1akoaa, u1o ne oc1aanne1 napexp na c1a6nnLnoe nononnenne
kakoro-nn6o knacca aoo6ue (nnxe o6 a1oH 6ype1 ckasano noppo6nee).
noaoH, ns6aan1Lcn o1 kpec1Lnnc1aa kak knacca nenerko, a aocc1anoan1L ero - n aoace
epaa nn aosHoxno. oka, ao acnkoH cnyuae, 1aknx npnHepoa ne 6mno.
annoe o6c1on1enLc1ao aneue1 sa co6o aecLHa cepLesnme a1nopeHorpaqnueckne
nocnepc1ann.
F 3 X um
O/HA cM nm mk cM crq nnr (
xM a mk cycy knn cy nk)
cc M, cck kMc nc
n c, cnxM cM MM mnM, akcny
m Mn.
Tk n - k y, - ccyx ck nnr, M cn cM
. H yy M, n M - M, c n
cM cM nkck .
T, k cn M k mMy M cck nr,
cm ky mky. O n, XX n
u F 3 X, cm 3Mn c , kk
xy n.
B Fn 3k X c xcn cn: B. E.
Hm.
E x. Tk rn c, cny, Mnn n - a
n . H crn k ck nn. H x nM , nc
n: Yx x.
H s n .
HM Fnr 3k X, mm cck x ck
c nx M yM, xnnM 3Mn, cnn -
My cM mn yy nc, c c,
ck mn nk.
32
un q
nn kocnynocL a1o nsHenenne naanoro akona nsnn? e1. oka u1o
u u x , m s
un. pnxopn1cn pyHa1L, u1o nHenno a1o1 qak1op, a ne kako-1o
ppyro, amsaan peHorpaqnueckyk ka1ac1poqy nepepoamx naun. c1anLnme
napopm noka ncnpaano npoponxak1 poxa1L pe1e nop pasroaopm 6enmx nkpe o
nepenacenennoc1n eHnn.
a1oH coc1on1 napapokc n nponnn noaeue nc1opnn. enme aHepnkanum n
eaponeum co apeHen anL1yca n aprape1 anrep npnnarak1 rnran1ckne ycnnnn,
u1o6m yc1anoan1L a caonx c1panax n na seHnoH uape a uenoH amropnme pnn nnx
counanLnme n pacoame nponopunn nacenennn. o po6nnncL noka npnHo
npo1naononoxnmx pesynL1a1oa. ce kaHnannn no orpannuennk poxpaeHoc1n,
nanpaanennme npo1na npenHyuec1aennoro pasHnoxennn anauane naynepoa, a sa1eH
aqpo-asna1oa n na1nnoaHepnkanuea, ace yxnupennn Hepnunnm, nso6pe1ennme c a1o
uenLk, npnaenn noka nnuL k cokpauennk ypenLnoro aeca 6eno pacm a Hnpe. , xo1n
coapeHennme cpepc1aa kon1pauenunn nponsaenn necnmxannyk an1n-an1anLnyk
peaonkunk, no nonLsyk1cn ee nnopaHn ne ace, a a ocnoanoH pasan1me (un1a:
packpec1Lnnennme) naunn. 1o noanekno sa co6o eue opny nonc1nne rno6anLnyk
peaonkunk a xnsnn uenoaeuecknx pac n napopoa.
o1n pasnnunme yuenme, kak npaanno, ampanrak1 na nepam nnan coaceH ppyrne
o6Lncnennn penonynnunn 6enmx apncknx napopoa, o1 ypoann Ha1epnanLnoro
6narococ1onnnn po pennrnosnmx 1papnun, no onn ne y6expak1.
nocnepoaa1enLno pasouapoaancn ao acex a1nx o6Lncnennnx.
neyHnoe n nnueHepnoe ns nnx, pasyHee1cn, a1o o6Lncnenne peHorpaqnueckoro
ynapka cnnxenneH Ha1epnanLnoro 6narococ1onnnn. o 1ako nornke nanamcuan
poxpaeHoc1L ponxna 6m1L a c1panax c nanamcunH 6narococ1onnneH rpaxpan
(nanpnHep, a aeunn, opaernn n np.) - n nanpo1na, nnxaun ypoaenL
poxpaeHoc1n ponxen 6m1L a c1panax c nnxaunH ypoaneH 6nar na pyuy nacenennn
(nanpnHep, a n1ae, npnn n np.). H n x, kk c, c c kk
. o ace 6narononyuno apone (ecnn asn1L cpepnkk unqpy no epHannn,
ac1pnn, enLrnn, annn, cnannn, nnnnnpnn, panunn, peunn, pnanpnn, 1annn,
kkceH6ypry, npepnanpaH, op1yrannn, ennko6pn1annn) eue a 1950-1960-e ropm
6mno 26 pe1e na 10 ceHe, a k 2000 ropy c1ano acero 14. paapa, peskoe cnnxenne
poxpaeHoc1n a pesynL1a1e uokoao 1epannn n Haccoaoro o6nnuannn a occnn - a1o
Hepnunnckn qak1, nosaonnkun npnsna1L ncknkun1enLnoc1L nauero nonoxennn. o
1akoaa, anpnHo, oco6ennoc1L nc1opnueckoro HoHen1a. A u
um -
nn, n.
n pennrnosno-6m1oaan konuenunn peHorpaqnueckoro ynapka. oHnk, kak n
yxacnyncn a 1980-e rr., ysnaa, u1o a occnn na opny ceHLk npnxopn1cn 1,65 pe6enka
- nou1n a paa pasa HenLue, ueH nyxno pnn npoc1oro aocnponsaopc1aa naunn. o1
nspepxkn a1enc1nueckoro aocnn1annn! - nopyHan n. - ora sa6mnn, sanoaepn
napyuak1 cnnouL n pnpoH, norpnsnn a aronsHe, ne 6on1cn kapm sa pe1oy6nc1ao.
oneuno, kasanocL Hne 1orpa, nacnnLc1aenno o6es6oxennan 6onLueankaHn occnn
c1on1 a xpnc1nanckoH Hnpe na oco6oH nonoxennn. epapoH y nac npnxopn1cn paa
a6op1a na opnoro noaopoxpennoro, u1o npko canpe1enLc1aye1 o nonnoH o1cy1c1ann
pennrnosnoro cosnannn aoo6ue, o6 o1cy1c1ann kaknx 6m 1o nn 6mno npepc1aanenn
nacue1 pennrnosno cyunoc1n saua1nn n pe1opoxpennn. pnako, korpa Hne coo6unnn,
ckonLko nonek-ka1onnuek (a a onLue 95% nacenennn o1nocn1 ce6n k aepykunH
xpnc1nanaH) npnesxae1 exeropno a epHannk, exnk, pn6an1nky, enopyccnk n
annnnnrpapckyk o6nac1L c uenLk npoonepnpoaa1Lcn, n ycoHnnncn a 1ako
1pak1oake. no1oH n ysnan, u1o a ka1onnuecko cnannn unqpa poxpaeHoc1n eue
33
HenLue, ueH y nac: 1,28 pe6enka na ceHLk. a ka1onnuneue 1annn, rpe
npoxnaae1 naHec1nnk ora na eHne, caH nana pnHckn, npnsnannm ao aceH Hnpe
6opeu c a6op1aHn n kon1pauenune, - ax 1,24 pe6enka na ceHLk!
naacerpa 6mn npoc1o uoknpoaan a1nHn unqpaHn.
, ace peno a pace, - peunn n 1orpa. - kynL1ypno-unannnsaunonnmx
oco6ennoc1nx n yc1anoakax, a Hen1ann1e1e 6enmx eaponeuea-xpnc1nan. 1
xpnc1nanc1aa po pasnoxenueckoro, ampoxpenueckoro peHoxpnc1nanc1aa - opnn uar, a
1aH yx pyko nopa1L po nonnoro pasryna qeHnnnsHa n roHocekcyannsHa, po
cHeuannmx 6pakoa, ynpouennmx pasaopoa, Ha1epe-opnnouek, 6pouennmx pe1e-
cnpo1 n npounx, ne cnoco6c1aykunx peHorpaqnueckoHy poc1y npenec1e. nuero
a1oro ne1, ckaxeH, a c1panax ncnaHa. y, n no1oH eaponeum cnnukoH npopannynncL
a nporpecce, a ypoane1aopennn acex n acnuecknx no1pe6noc1e, pas6anoaanncL,
y1onnn a koHqop1e, a asna1m, aqpnkanum - nens6anoaannm n ne norpnsun a
nounoH ce6nnk6nn n cn6apn1c1ae napop. pnako sa1eH n c ypnanenneH ysnan, u1o a
cnn1onc1cko-6yppncko nonnn, a 1akxe nnranype n onkonre pena o6c1on1 ne
nyuue. ncno pe1e y nnonok, cnnranypok n ronkonrok (ronkonxnu?) cokpauae1cn
coaepuenno opnnakoao c neHkaHn nnn kanapkaHn. o HenLue Hepe 30% nnonok
npn6erak1 k nckycc1aennoHy npepmaannk 6epeHennoc1n - a6op1aH. 3,
, x x nx.
asyHee1cn, onpepenennme pennrnosno-6m1oame 1papnunn nHek1 6onLuoe, paxe
orpoHnoe snauenne. k6oHy npocaeuennoHy n nenpepasn1oHy un1a1enk ncno, u1o
cnepoaanne npaannaH apna1a nnn pycckoro oHoc1pon ykpennne1, coaepuenc1aye1
ceHLk, a o1aepxenne a1nx npaann, cnepoaanne npaannaH nn6epanLno peHokpa1nn -
paspyuae1, ypopye1 ee. 1nouennn Hyxa n xenm, popn1ene n pe1e 1epnn1
nenonpaanHm yuep6 a nko6m npocaeuennmx, a na pene - rny6oko
perpapnpoaaaunx, ampoxpakunxcn c1panax.
m snaeH, k npnHepy, u1o nk6me, paxe Hanme o1knonennn a o6nac1n cekcyanLno
xnsnn (nnuec1, nsnacnnoaanne, Hyxenoxec1ao, cko1onoxec1ao, npenk6opennne n
paxe onannsH) aekaHn kapanncL y nypeea - n ne kak-nn6ypL, a cM k
kMnM - npn 1oH, u1o Hnoroxenc1ao paspeuanocL. akoam 6mnn
nHenno pennrnosnme yc1anoanennn a1oro napopa. aoo6ue, acn kynL1ypa eapecko
ceHLn 6mna nanpaanena na yaennuenne no1oHc1aa, na rapHonnsaunk ceHenmx n
nokonenuecknx o1nouenn. 6expen, u1o nHenno 6naropapn a1o, cyry6o
6nonornuecko, an1anLno a caoe ocnoae, c1poroc1n npaaoa eapen coxpannnncL kak
naunn a aekax n paxe a 1mcnuene1nnx. o ao1 aepL kakoe peno: apa6ckne c1panm, ne
npouepune noka uepes akonoHnueckoe packpec1Lnnnaanne, no-npexneHy coxpannk1 n
pennrnosnme yc1on, n amcokn ypoaenL poxpaeHoc1n. cocepc1aykun c nnHn
nnpyc1pnanLnm n yp6annsnpoaannm spannL - ne1, xo1n paaanna1 oqnunanLno
nanne1cn opnnH ns rnaanmx c1onnoa o6uec1aa n rocypapc1aa, a opa n anHyp
saHennk1 nspannL1nnaH o1cy1c1aykuyk konc1n1yunk. cnn ne cun1a1L yskyk
npocnoky nypecknx op1opokcoa (rpe ac1peuak1cn ceHLn n c nn1napua1Lk pe1LHn),
poxpaeHoc1L a caHoH spanne y eapeek a 1,8 pasa nnxe, ueH y apa6ok. 1998 ropy
6mno sapernc1pnpoaano 18149 a6op1oa, a 1999-H - 18785. poun1aa a eapecko
npecce o 1oH, u1o nspannLckn napnaHen1 npnnnn sakon, posaonnkue
roHocekcyanLno nape xn1L nop opno qaHnnne, a 1akxe o paaannax, nonLsykunxcn
ycnyraHn npoc1n1y1ok, n nonnn, u1o eapen 6narononyuno cka1nnncL a 1y xe nHy, u1o n
eaponeum, nnonum n ronkonrum. , kc1a1n, neko1opme packpec1Lnnennme
HycynLHanckne napopm (nanpnHep, 1a1apm).
1ak, peno ne a nannunn nnn xapak1epe pennrnn, kak 6m 1oro nn xo1enocL
npnaepxenuaH 1o nnn nno aepm. ce pennrnn c1peHn1cn perynnpoaa1L ceHenme
o1nouennn, ace onn (kpoHe ca1annsHa) pak1 yc1anoakn na pe1opoxpenne, na
34
y1aepxpenne xnsnn, a ne nao6opo1. o ace onn, kaknHn 6m nn 6mnn, pec1ayk1 a
o6uec1ae nnuL po nopm po apeHenn. H s un.
coo6paxennn cnepye1 o1nec1n n na cue1 nonn1nuecko nnnnn, npeo6napakue
a c1panax, ncnm1maakunx peHorpaqnueckn ynapok. e nn6epannsH sanapnoro nnn
nnoncko-ronkonrckoro o6pasua n ne kako-nn6o ppyro nonn1nueckn c1po aepy1
napopm k ykasannoHy ynapky. onn1nueckn c1po ec1L, cornacno HonH nsnauanLnmH
noc1yna1aH, nnuL pesynL1npykuan 1o counanLno-peHorpaqnuecko cn1yaunn,
ko1opan cknapmaae1cn no o6Lek1nanmH nc1opnuecknH npnunnaH. 1po - kak n
pennrnn: a1opnuen. n cnepye1 sa couno-peHorpaqne n onpepenne1cn ek, a ne
nao6opo1. npnHepy, kann1annsH o6Lek1nano ne Hoxe1 uaec1n a qeopanLno no
c1pyk1ype nacenennn c1pane. (m a a1oH y6epnnncL na co6c1aennoH npnHepe.)
peHo-nn6epannsH nnkorpa ne aosnnkne1 a ycnoannx pa6oanapennn nnn qeopannsHa:
on oprannueckn Hoxe1 cyuec1aoaa1L 1onLko na 6ase 6ypxyasnmx Heranonncoa,
nponaranpnpykunx n paxe naansmaakunx aceH oc1anLnmH cao modus vivendi kak
ynnaepcanLnyk nopHy.
apeHn, korpa n annnn a ynapke poxpaeHoc1n ncknkun1enLno xenunny,
ko1opan, aHancnnnpoaaauncL n po6nauncL npaaa na a6op1 n kon1pauenunk, a
ycnoannx ropopa pacnoncanacL n 6mc1po n papoc1no npoHennna 1pypnyk ponL
Ha1epn ceHec1aa n xpann1enLnnum poHaunero ouara na npnn1nyk cao6opy,
yaneka1enLnme aosHoxnoc1n kapLepm, nnuno xnsnn, npoc1o dolce far niente (cnapkoe
6espenLe) n 1.p. ak 1onLko nonannacL Hepnunnckan n npaaoaan aosHoxnoc1L xn1L
cekcyanLno xnsnLk, ne poxan, xenunna 1y1 xe ek aocnonLsoaanacL. o,
npnrnnpeauncL, n saHe1nn, u1o k coapeHennoHy ropopckoHy Hyxunne 1oxe Hoxno
npepLnan1L a a1oH nnane neHano npe1ensn: nnuL ouenL neHnorne naxopn1 Hyxec1ao
asaann1L na ce6n rpys nonno o1ae1c1aennoc1n sa ceHLk, sa pe1e. onLunnc1ao
1pycnnao yknonne1cn o1 6peHenn peuenn, o1 ponn kopHnnLua n po6m1unka, oc1aannn
sa a1o xene nonnoe npaao rnaanoro am6opa: poxa1L nnn ne1. no, a1o 6onLunnc1ao
ropopcknx Hyxunn, npepnoun1ae1 aec1n pasrynLnyk xnsnL n no1aka1L caonH ace
6onee pasnoo6pasnmH xenannnH aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m noc1aan1L na napnexauee Hec1o
xeny n caHoHy ac1a1L c ne pnpoH, nneuoH k nneuy.
cansL Hexpy pepeaencknH o6pasoH xnsnn n poxpaeHoc1Lk? 1uac1n,
aosHoxno, a 1oH, u1o pnn kpec1Lnnnna pe1n - 6ypyune noHounnkn a nenerkoH
cenLckoH 1pype; ampac1an, onn c1anoan1cn ne nnunnHn p1aHn, a pa6o1nnkaHn n
po6m1unkaHn. cnnnaak1, ykpennnk1 nonoxenne ceHLn. aHeueno, u1o npn
nepecenennn a ropop pepeaenckan ceHLn a nepaoH nokonennn coxpanne1 yc1anoaky na
Hnorope1noc1L, n nnuL ao a1opoH-1pe1LeH 1epne1 ee. ropope cn1yaunn
npo1naononoxnan: ampocun pe6enok yxopn1 ns poHa, saaopn1 caok ceHLk, ne
nacnepye1, kak npaanno, npoqeccnk popn1ene n nnuero ne npnnocn1 a
o6ueceHenyk popn1enLckyk konnnky. anpo1na, kak nokasmaae1 c1a1nc1nka,
ropopckne popn1enn aecLHa ponro npoponxak1 nopkapHnnaa1L caonx pe1e. ne
c1onLko a 6ykaanLnoH, ckonLko a nepenocnoH cHmcne. cnn a pepeane na nepaoH
Hec1e a cnncke popn1enLcknx sa6o1 1papnunonno c1on1 npo6neHa epm n opexpm, 1o a
ropopax a1o eue n npo6neHa o6pasoaannn, counanLnoro c1a1yca pe1e n anykoa, nx
kynL1ypnoro pocyra, Hepnunnckoro n counanLnoro o6cnyxnaannn, cao6opnoro apeHenn
n pp. ne6ora1mx c1panax oc1peunH o6pasoH c1on1 1akxe npo6neHa xnnnnouapn.
noaoH - cnnounme c1a1Ln pacxopoa.
o aepL 1ak 6mno n a npounme aeka, u1o ne Heuano ropoxanaH saaopn1L 6oroH
nonoxennoe uncno pe1e. 1o-paec1n ne1 nasap, korpa a6op1m 6mnn sanpeuenm, a
6noxnHnn ne paaana cpepc1a pnn Haccoaoro npnHenennn kon1pauen1naoa, ropoxane
poxann 1ak xe ncnpaano, kak n cennne. oa1oHy nenLsn ckasa1L opnosnauno, u1o-pe
1onLko pepeann, koncepaa1nanan n pennrnosnan no caoe npnpope, cnoco6c1aye1
1akoHy nanennk, kak Hnorope1noc1L. opno c1oponm, koneuno, nHenno ropop
nac1ounao nerannsoaan a6op1m n kon1pauen1nam n, kak 1onLko onn c1ann sakonnmHn
35
n poc1ynnmHn, o1aepr Hnorope1noc1L kak noaepenueckyk nopHy n, nanpo1na, aosaen a
nopHy opno-payxpe1nyk ceHLk. ( 1enepL yxe n 6espe1nyk; 6onee 60% aHc1eppaHuea
npnsnanncL a nepaaneH onpoce, u1o aoo6ue ne xo1n1 o6peHenn1L ce6n pe1LHn;
opnnouec1ao npepnoun1ak1 6paky 11% panuysoa, 14% - nnpepnanpuea, 22% -
pa1uan; a enLrnn na ace 10 Hnn. xn1ene - 928.548 ceHenmx nap aoo6ue ne nHek1
pe1e.) o c ppyro c1oponm, a naun pnn n pepeaenckne xn1enn 6eno xpnc1nancko
aponm, a 1oH uncne occnn, o1kasanncL o1 Hnorope1noc1n n nepec1ann noc1aann1L
uenoaeueckn Ha1epnan a konnuec1ae, no1pe6noH pnn npoc1oro aocnponsaopc1aa
naunn. noaoH, ropop, koneuno, nepamH y6erae1 o1 Hnorope1noc1n,
ckcn c M x n, ckcn r,
yrr c.
sapaun, anpoueH, ne axopn1 aceo6LeHnkun ananns npnunn cnoxnauerocn
peHorpaqnueckoro nonoxennn; kak pe1epHnnnc1 n nonnHak, u1o cnncok npnunn n
o6Lncnenn nekoero nanennn Hoxe1 6m1L 6eckoneuen, n nk6an ns nnx nop
onpepenennmH yrnoH spennn Hoxe1 nokasa1Lcn rnaano. oa1oHy poc1a1ouno, ecnn Hm
konc1a1npyeH qak1: , mm s
un, m m m, s
m -m u, m
um, - qm .
c ne - acnkyk nepcnek1nay aoo6ue.
Hm
, naanm akon nsnn (a6m eue napoxak1) oc1ancn pnn pasan1mx c1pan
a npounoH. opasanaanncL. nuno Hne a1o kaxe1cn uypoanunmH ao acex cHmcnax n
acnek1ax, no ec1L poc1a1ounoe konnuec1ao akcnep1oa (asn1L xo1n 6m . nukoaa,
pnpek1opa nc1n1y1a a1nonornn n an1pononornn ), ko1opme ne cun1ak1 a1o ueH-1o
nnoxnH n paxe npepnarak1 naH, pyccknH, cun1a1L sa nopHy nnskyk poxpaeHoc1L y
eaponeuea.
pnako ace ne 1ak npoc1o, kak anpn1cn nexno sa6o1nueHycn o pyccknx nukoay.
akon nepaanoHepnoc1n pasan1nn, npaan1cn a1o koHy-1o nnn ne1, cyuec1aye1 n
pec1aye1. nrpae1 c eaponecknHn napopaHn ouenL pypnyk uy1ky. cnn 6m uepes
packpec1Lnnnaanne opnoapeHenno npoxopnnn ace naunn acex kon1nnen1oa, ne 6mno
6m n npo6neHm. o a1o ne 1ak. ak 1o1 unnoannk ns Hep1n apenknna, ko1opm
nopoann 6exa1L anepepn nporpecca, naunn, ko1opme npnnn1o nasmaa1L
pasan1mHn, o6ornann a caoeH nc1opnueckoH pasan1nn ppyrne napopm. pnueH
nac1onLko, u1o npenHyuec1ao amcokoro pasan1nn o6epnynocL npo1na nnx caHnx,
npeapa1nnocL a pokoao, ry6n1enLnm nepoc1a1ok. akan ao1 pnanek1nka.
onkpe1no: a pesynL1a1e akonoHnueckoro packpec1Lnnnaannn a pasan1mx c1panax
o6pasoaancn caoero popa aakyyH, o6nac1L nnskoro peHorpaqnueckoro paanennn.
ko1opyk xnmnyn no1ok nkpe ns c1pan, ne npouepunx packpec1Lnnnaannn (nn6o kak
pas ceuac npoxopnunx), no npeapa1naunxcn a cnny pasnmx o6c1on1enLc1a -
nanpnHep, cnnxennn pe1cko cHep1noc1n, ynyuuennn 6m1a - a o6nac1n amcokoro n
caepxamcokoro peHorpaqnueckoro paanennn. oncnk npknHn npnHepaHn.
aeka na pn1ancknx oc1poaax nacun1maanocL nnuL okono 500 uenoaek
aqpnkanckoro nponcxoxpennn n npnHepno c1onLko xe - aec1-nnpckoro (amxopuea ns
6pn1ancknx kononn c apn6cknx oc1poaoa, a nepayk ouepepL c Hakn). 1oro -
acero opna (!) 1mcnua uenoaek. 1o 6mnn caHme 6onLune kon1nnren1m uae1nmx
(npnnn1m a nayke 1epHnn, ne necyun ouenounoro snauennn) a ennko6pn1annn 1oro
apeHenn; konnuec1ao nnpycoa, nanknuea n neko1opmx ppyrnx napopoa 6mno naHnoro
HenLue. nnn a1n uae1nme a ocnoanoH a nop1ax: appnqqe, naepnyne, onpone.
36
nkaknx npo6neH pannm qak1 ne cospaaan. po 1opo Hnpoao aonm a1a kap1nna
npak1nueckn ne HennnacL.
1o xe cnyunnocL panLue? orpa n un1an nnxecnepykun naccax a kanpnpa1cko
pnccep1aunn nc1opnka .. onoHapeaa ae1nan nHHnrpaunn n nHHnrpaunonnan
nonn1nka ennko6pn1annn a konue 40-x - nauane 60-x rr. (., 1992), n neaonLno
coo1nocnn ero c coapeHenno occne: H M M yMmncn
. /yrM cnM, kx yx n cx
c cn kr cnn. Ck cnc c
yncn c cnn. H cc nnn yn
nxnc nr n, yn r knncn
Mnx k y. Hnx nk ycyrynnnc
nxmcn aMr. Hcn Mr rn cMnc ky
cy, r, M, n nxn x. ar nxn ck
nc n n cn - yx (c. 20).
pesynL1a1e noao nHHnrpaunonno nonn1nkn acero sa 50 ne1 opnnx 1onLko nnpo-
naknc1anuea c1ano na pn1ancknx oc1poaax - paa Hnnnnona, aec1-nnpuea - ne Henee
1oro, nerpoa - Hnnnnon. o ec1L konnuec1ao uae1nmx yaennunnocL kak HnnnHyH a nn1L
1mcnu pas. o c1a1nc1nke na opnoro pa6o1akuero uae1noro nHHnrpan1a npnxopn1cn
kak HnnnHyH paoe nxpnaenuea.
1o1 kon1nnren1 npoponxae1 pac1n, anac1n yxe ne a coc1onnnn oc1anoan1L amuepun
ns-nop kon1ponn no1ok. ecHo1pn na 1o, u1o ne6opnc1m n koncepaa1opm, ponroe
apeHn ppyxno onpaapmaaaune cao6opy nHHnrpaunn, nonnnn, nakoneu, onacnoc1L n
sa6nnn 1peaory; necHo1pn na npnnn1m 6naropapn Hyxec1ay aprape1 a1uep
orpannun1enLnm sakon o rpaxpanc1ae 1981 ropa - qak1 nannuo: sa kakne-1o nonaeka
nk cnxnc Mrc c c cM r nMM
nM (1aH xe, c. 212). aosapa1a k nsnauanLnoHy nonoxennk 1900-x rr.,
yam, ne npepanpn1cn.
pasan1ne co6m1n, 1onLko a 6onee pannne cpokn, Hm na6nkpaeH ao
panunn. ak Hm noHnnH, epaan Hnpoaan aona po6nna qpanuysckoro kpec1Lnnnna.
c1opnk .. ponknn a caoe pok1opcko pnccep1aunn pypoaan nHHnrpaunn ao
panunn a noaeuee apeHn (nea, 1981) ykasmaae1: /nn ar
k kc cnckr cnn. Mn cn Mr
cnk cn nc cn. n M yc
nc nk rn kcn q, ck cMc
M Mn. B cc yn nm n Mm c c
qyck cn a MnM (c. 46).
pnoapeHenno ao qpanuyscknx kononnnx qpnkn, a nepayk ouepepL - a nxnpe,
aosnnkna npo1naononoxnan cn1yaunn: C M -x m
nxckM cn r knc-qy cn k ykM n
Mn mrcn Mcr kcnc. Hnn nmc k
nx n ccn k . HM a Mcc yncn
cnnn c rM m cn nn kncck
Mmnc O (c. 50).
1ak, yxe packpec1Lnnennan, o6eckpoanennan panunn okasanacL a opno canske c
npoxopnunH uepes akonoHnueckoe packpec1Lnnnaanne, pas6yxunH o1 nnunnx
nkpe nxnpoH. ponsouno, 1ak ckasa1L, nanoxenne payx npoueccoa. anLneuee
ne1pypno yrapa1L.
ropm epao Hnpoao aonm ao panunk na pa6o1m npn6mno 78.556 anxnpuea,
42.840 nnpokn1auea, 35.506 Hapokkanuea, 18.248 1ynncuea, 3.590 HanLraue,
37
35.109 kn1auea. o6ue cnoxnoc1n kononnanLnme n saancnHme c1panm noc1aannn
panunn 220 1mc. uenoaek (1aH xe, c. 57).
ak 6mno nonoxeno nauano Haccoao uae1no nHHnrpaunn. nornx ns nHHnrpan1oa
a1o nepao aonnm anocnepc1ann, korpa uy1L cnana no1pe6noc1L a pa6ounx pykax,
nacnnLno penop1npoaann ns panunn. o - yam, ns6aan1Lcn o1 aosnnkue
saancnHoc1n okasanocL neaosHoxno, nockonLky ace nopopnaune ee qak1opm oc1anncL
n npoponxann pa6o1a1L. xe a 1921 ropy aaosn1L pa6ouyk cnny npnunocL anoaL, n a
ropaspo 6onLueH o6LeHe: 1.532 1mc. uenoaek (ne 1onLko uae1nmx). panee - pecn1L
ne1 nHHnrpaunonnoro 6yHa, a pesynL1a1e uero panunn amuna no nHnop1y pa6oue
cnnm na nepaoe Hec1o a apone n na a1opoe, nocne , a Hnpe.
ocne 1opo Hnpoao aonm peHorpaqnueckan cn1yaunn y qpanuysoa ne c1ana
nyuue. 1968 ropy a c1pane npoxnaano 619 1mc. apa6oa, 215 1mc. xn1ene
n1nnLcknx oc1poaoa, ap1nnnkn, eknLona. o1oH nounn ao ace aospac1akueH
konnuec1ae 1ypkn n nerpm. osapaua1Lcn ns npekpacno panunn na popnny, a
o6c1anoaky ckyuennoc1n n nnue1m, nnk1o ns nnx ne xo1en. ce nHHnrpan1m a
HaccoaoH nopnpke c1ann 1pe6oaa1L n nonyua1L qpanuysckoe rpaxpanc1ao. 1966
ropa na1ypannsaunn nouna no 40 1mc. uenoaek a rop. expy 1eH, y acex roc1e
o1HeuanacL amcokan poxpaeHoc1L.
pnnaHnke poc1a uncna nHHnrpan1oa ao panunn pak1 npepc1aanenne 1akne qak1m.
1851 ropy acex nHHnrpan1oa (1orpa, a ocnoanoH, eaponeuea) nacun1maanocL 379
1mc. uenoaek, a a 1972 ropy - 3444,2 1mc. uenoaek, a ocnoanoH uae1nmx. o ec1L sa
c1o paapua1L ne1 npnHepno pecn1nkpa1nm poc1. o a 1976 ropy nx c1ano yxe 4.196
1mc. (poc1 na 20%), a a nauane 1978 ropa 4.373 1mc. uenoaek - poc1 na 25% acero sa
uec1L ne1!
ueHy aeno ace a1o ao any1pnnonn1nueckoH acnek1e? ponknn pesynL1npye1:
Cnn kcqn, kmn Mcc qy, rnM M
akcnyck cnn n M c k kr
yncn, c k nxM (c. 218).
1973 ropy acnmxnynn nepame pacoame c1onknoaennn a apcene, ao apeHn ko1opmx
6mnn y6n1m 8 anxnpcknx nHHnrpan1oa. paan1enLc1ao, a nyuunx 1papnunnx
xpnc1nanckoro ryHannsHa, npepano, pasyHee1cn, cao napop n ac1ano na c1opony
noamx rpaxpan. ak a1o nponsouno eue panLue a ennko6pn1annn, a po 1oro - a
. pnako pacoaoro Hnpa npaan1enLc1aa-npepa1enn ce6e a1nH ne kynnnn, a nnuL
yckopnnn nnepunk ampoxpennn aa1ox1onnmx napopoa. esynL1a1oH kann1ynnunn c1an
6ypnm, neykpo1nHm poc1 uae1noro nacenennn rpaxpan panunn[3]. (s nnunmx
aneua1nenn: korpa n noknpan ranepek o1p-aH, a1o coaepuenneuee aonnouenne
pyxa eaponeckoro cpepneaekoaLn, paepL sa Hno sakpmaan apa6.)
pouno ne 1ak yx Hnoro apeHenn - acero 20 ne1 nocne HapcenLckoro y6nc1aa
anxnpuea, n a 1995 ropy a apnxe n no ace panunn sarpeHenn aspmam,
nopro1oanennme ncnaHcknHn 1eppopnc1aHn. oH6m aspmaanncL a He1po, na pmnkax, y
ukon; 1onLko norn6unx 6mno 6onee pecn1ka uenoaek. paan1enLc1ao amnyxpeno
6mno cospa1L cneunanLnyk an1n1eppopnc1nueckyk nporpaHHy nxnnnpa1.
1oH xe nanpaanennn, u1o n panunn, npy1 n ppyrne c1panm 6eno aponm.
anpnHep, epHannn, rpe Hm na6nkpaeH opnnx 1onLko 1ypok 6onLue 2 Hnn. (a 1968 r.
nx 6mno 205 1mc.), a aepL ec1L eue pyHmnm, aenrpm, umrane, eapen, krocnaam - a
o6ue cnoxnoc1n 6onee 7 Hnn. nHHnrpan1oa. aeuapnn sa 20 ne1 (1950-1970) 1pn
ue1aep1n npnpoc1a sann1oro nacenennn pann nHHnrpan1m n nnuL ue1aep1L - kopennoe
nacenenne. aano c1ann nn1epnaunonanLnmHn Hc1eppaH, aara, pkccenL, ppyrne
ropopa onnanpnn n enLrnn.
38
, apona c1peHn1enLno Henne1 cao pacoam o6nnk, pacoaoe copepxanne
caoe kynL1ypm n unannnsaunn. pouecc unpn1cn. nn 1ex, k1o anpn1 a apone nnuL
reorpaqnueckyk nnn nonn1akonoHnueckyk pannoc1L, a a1oH ne1 nnuero c1paunoro. o
pnn nc1opnka, counonora, kynL1yponora, a1nononn1nka q
q, ne yc1ynakue no 1parnueckoHy Hacu1a6y rn6enn
1nan1npm.
.a eaponeckoH kon1nnen1e ec1L Hnpoaoro snauennn snoaeun cnHaon nopo6no
ka1ac1poqm: a1o opno ns uypec cae1a - xpaH can1o oqnn peHyppoc1n oxne a
onc1an1nnonone, nepepenannm a rnaanyk Heue1L 1aH6yna. oaepuenc1ao qopHm,
nacnnLno nanonnennoe uyxpmH copepxanneH. aHn1nnk kynL1ypm? a, necoHnenno.
o kako: xpnc1nancko? HycynLHancko? o6ue? Le: rpeko-ansan1ncko?
1kpkcko? nnuLe? uLe yropno? npoc1o uenoaeuecko?
e1, nepep naHn - aonnouennoe nepopasyHenne, kaHennm okckHopon (1nna
xapenm nep). ouync1aennoe nsapauenne rpanpnosno 1aopuecko npen,
apoxnoannaue nekorpa aennuaunx apxn1ek1opoa n xypoxnnkoa anoxn. peno
specL ne c1onLko a 1oH, u1o nacnnne sac1aanno coue1a1Lcn pae necoue1aeHme
kynL1ypm, pae apaxpe6nme pennrnn (nx ace paano coue1a1L ne ypanocL). peno a
1oH, u1o naHn1nnk kynL1ypm n pennrnn npeapa1nncn nHenno n m
m .
opo6nan yuac1L oxnpae1 1enepL aecL eaponeckn Hnp?
B
K naunnH ceropnn pan ynnkanLnm, epnnc1aennm a nc1opnn
uenoaeuec1aa cuac1nnam uanc: npoaec1n caoe packpec1Lnnnaanne sa cue1 Haccoaoro
sacenennn, sacenaannn pasan1mx c1pan 6eno pacm caonH ceHeneH, aHec1o 1oro,
u1o6m cxnra1L a1o ceHn a 1onke aon n peaonkun. Henno a1o sacenaanne
pasanaakunecn naunn n coaepuak1 caHmH ak1nanmH o6pasoH, amnnxnaan Hnnnnonm
caonx epnnokpoanmx na noank cuac1Ln a apony n Hepnky. nn c1peHn1cn
ncnonLsoaa1L cao uanc HakcnHanLno, pa6m c6epeuL cao renoqonp. 6eperan cao
renoqonp, onn, ec1ec1aenno, ne uapn1 nau.
kauec1ae npeonornueckoro npnkpm1nn pannm npouecc ncnonLsye1 caoero popa
am6opounm ryHannsH - a o1nouennn ne pasan1mx, a nHenno n 1onLko nepasan1mx
napopoa. (1o kaasnnayuno nHenye1cn nosn1nano pnckpnHnnaune.) 1akxe
npeonornk rno6annsHa, kocHononn1nsHa n npaa uenoaeka.
aponeum caonHn packpec1LnnennmHn kpec1LnnaHn (qnn6yc1LepaHn, 6ykanLepaHn,
oxo1nnkaHn na pa6oa, konknc1apopaHn n npounHn nnpa1aHn) naaopnnn nekorpa yxac
na uenm cae1. qpo-asna1ckn n na1nnoaHepnkanckn nHnepnannsH noka u1o
nocn1 Hnpnm xapak1ep. ae1no Hnp aennkopyuno ne aospae1 6enoHy no 6mnmH
sacnyraH. pouecc saaoeaannn 6enoro Hnpa, rno6anLnan pekonknc1a, npo1ekae1,
a napyuenne 1mcnuene1nnx 1papnun, 6es aoopyxenno 6opL6m. aponeum
6essayuno, ne conpo1nannncL, 1epnn1 nauec1ane na cao poH, kak c1nxnnoe
6epc1ane, kak nane1 capanun. Hepnkanum panLnoanpno nornnpmaak1, kypa 6m cnoaa
aHnrpnpoaa1L, ne a occnk nn (en1aron nepaano npoaen u1a6nme yuennn no saun1e
caoe n6npn o1 n1an).
o 1nunna, n yaepen, o6Hanunaa. cnn 6enme appyr nonm1ak1cn aosHy1n1Lcn a1o
nonsyue okkynaune, aspyHak1 conpo1nann1Lcn - xpynkn pacoam, naunonanLnm n
a1nokonqeccnonanLnm Hnp HoHen1anLno pyxne1, n o1kpoe1cn kpoaaaan 6espna[4].
(ak ona yxe o1kpmnacL a ocoao, rpe pacnnopnaunecn an6anum anonne sakonoHepno
39
amunc1nnn ns ceppua ep6nn cnnsnaunx poxpaeHoc1L cep6oa, aspyHaaunx 6mno
aocc1anoan1L nc1opnueckn c1a1yc-kao. ocoao - ne ec1L nenoa1opnHm nonn1nueckn
ynnkyH, nanpo1na, a1o n u pasan1nn co6m1n.) 1orpa nnpo-
naknc1anum npnnoHnn1 anrnnuanaH 6ecnpeuepen1noe no xec1okoc1n nopaanenne
cnnacknx aocc1ann, kn1aum anrnnuanaH n qpanuysaH - onnyHnme aonm, 1ypkn
neHuaH - aekoayk aony cHancko n ac1pncko nHnepn n 1.p., n 1.n.
ne coHneaa1Lcn: q- m
m . o 1oHy caHoHy nenpenoxnoHy
nc1opnueckoHy sakony, no ko1opoHy na acnkn xn1pm nH o6nsa1enLno nape1cn
cao rynn c ann1oH. aponeum a1o nonnHak1 ny1poH n ukypo; no a1n 1pycnname
yHnnkn yxe 6eccnnLnm conpo1nann1Lcn n noa1oHy npnnnHak1 Hexpynapopnme nak1m
(a ko1opme a1nnynn - eue npn osmpeae - saHoppoaannyk enLunncknH pexnHoH
occnk), perynnpykune Hnrpaunk 6eckonqnnk1no, a uenoH - a nonLsy Hnrpan1oa.
paa nauaa nrpy, a1n nHno1en1m yxe kann1ynnpoaann.
a c1opone aqpo-asna1oa n na1nnocoa a apone n Hepnke caHmH ak1nanmH o6pasoH
nrpak1 eapen, ynopno po6naancL, uepes nnc1n1y1m npaaa n , u1o6m ace
rocypapc1aoo6pasykune a1nocm y1pa1nnn ponL xosnea caonx co6c1aennmx c1pan,
pac1aopnnncL a nnonaunonanLnmx corpaxpanax. Hy1no aope kocHononncoa, rpe
n ne pas6epeuL, k1o xosnnn, a k1o roc1L, ypo6no noan1L pm6ky amropm n
6narononyunn. po6no caHoHy c1a1L nesaHe1no xosnnnoH. rpan na c1onknoaennn
uyxnx nn1epecoa, ypo6no paspenn1L n anac1aoaa1L. kpennn1L caok anac1L nap
HnpoH. naanmHn npeonoraHn paanonpaann, naunonanLno, pacoao n pennrnosno
1onepan1noc1n, cao6opm Hnrpaunn, rno6annsHa n kocHononn1nsHa aespe n acerpa
(kpoHe spannn, pasyHee1cn) nannk1cn nHenno eapen. akoam 6ecnpnc1pac1nme
qak1m, o konx - nnxe.
acoam Hnp, a koeH norpnsna apona, - ne o1 xopoue xnsnn eaponeuea. n pnn
nnx - n, nM nx kM ycnM,
nM, yckM. po1naopeuauee nx naunonanLnoHy pyxy, nx annueckoHy
nacnepnk, cnoaoH - aceH ocnoaaH nx naunonanLno npen1nunoc1n, kopennuecn a
nc1opnn. o ceropnn paccna6nennme n ampopnaunecn, nsHennaune ce6e eaponeum,
ko1opmH npoc1o yxe nekoro nocna1L yHnpa1L na nonnx cpaxenn, nonnm 6eccnnLnoro
c1paxa. T n un,
m, m q.
1o1 c1pax ouenL saHe1en a noacepneano xnsnn. napnxckoH He1po (yxe ec1L
nnnnn, rpe - n cneunanLno cun1an - uae1nmx apaoe-a1poe 6onLue, ueH 6enmx) nerpm
pepxa1cn aeceno, packoaanno, nesaancnHo n yaepenno: onn - saaoeaa1enn, onn
ampaann y cypL6m n aponm cao uanc, nokopnnn cnapuaun apnx. yc1L
ne6ora1me, onn cuac1nnam cosnanneH nnuno n pacoao nepcnek1nam: y nnx ec1L
6ypyuee. ao1 qpanuysm, c1on nnn cnpn pnpoH c nerpaHn nnn apa6aHn, xpann1 na
qnsnonoHnnx ckop6no-saHkny1oe n nepoyHenno-kncnoe ampaxenne: a u1o? oueHy?
1o c naHn 6ype1 panLue? ak xe a1o appyr nonyunnocL, u1o Hm a co6c1aenno
npekpacno c1pane, cospanno pykaHn naunx npepkoa, - nepec1aeH 6m1L
xosneaaHn? cnxonorn nasmaak1 1akoe coc1onnne qpyc1paune. panuysm
no1epnnn nnuo, no a 6onLunnc1ae caoeH paxe ne conpo1nannk1cn[5]. nn, Hoxe1, n
xo1enn 6m, no ne cHek1 noppepxa1L a ponxno Hepe e ena. o1oHy u1o e en -
a1o ackanaunn konqnnk1a. onn ceropnn 6on1cn konqnnk1oaa1L n aoeaa1L, n6o aonm
aepy1cn nnuL no1oHy n noc1onLky, nockonLky ec1L aoeaa1L.
aponeuaH n aHepnkanuaH aoeaa1L ceropnn paano yxe nekeH: pepeann ncuepnana,
pekpy1m a peqnun1e, na naeHnmx aonnoa-npoqeccnonanoa nonara1Lcn nenLsn
nnkorpa. oa1oHy na1oaum (cnnonnH 6enmx eapo-aHepnkanuea) npepnoun1ak1 nnuL
nspann ncnonLsoaa1L amcoko1ounoe opyxne. nn pasrpoHnnn aoennme 6asm appaHa
ycena, no nocna1L a pak okkynaunonnm kopnyc m[6]. nn pasrpoHnnn ne
40
1onLko aoennme, no n npoHmunennme 6asm nnoueanua, no nocna1L a ep6nk
okkynaunonnm kopnyc 1oxe m. nn nocHenn nocna1L Hnpo1aopueckn
kopnyc a oHann, no nocne nepao xe pesnn, o6ouepuecn nH cr nm 200
x, ynene1nynn o11ypa 6es ornnpkn.
o cnpaunaae1cn: Hoxno nn (n kak?) ncnonLsoaa1L amcoko1ounoe opyxne a caoe
co6c1aenno c1pane, a caoeH co6c1aennoH ropope, rpe a 1pancnop1e, na ynnuax c1on1
6ok o 6ok cao n uyxo?
eropnn eaponeum npoc1o nopnnnn pykn n 6es 6on cpann ace nacnepne npepkoa, ack
pockouL, 6neck, aennkonenne, koHqop1 - canpe1enLc1ao Houn pyxa, yHa n an1anLnmx
cnn pacm - napopaH, ko1opme naneu o naneu ne ypapnnn pnn cospannn a1oro
aennkonennn. aponeum n 6enme aHepnkanum ceropnn cnoco6nm 1onLko
kann1ynnpoaa1L. nn nc1ouak1 sanax cna6oc1n n 1pycoc1n - sanax saa1paunero
1pyna. nn cHnpnk1cn c cospaaunHcn nonoxenneH, npncnoca6nnaak1cn k neHy.
Hepnkanckn npoqeccop on yp1u ns Lk-Hopka nnue1, cyHHnpyn yHonac1poenne
caonx 6enmx coo1euec1aennnkoa: HM nnncn rx
cr Mr cc. FyMcckn Mccn kncn c M
n cM, nM, ackM n nrM
kM, kM nk c nck nc
ccn qk nxc k ncy (1991). akoaa
coapeHennan rno6annc1ckan napapnrHa apnua-kann1ynnn1a, um
mn u mm
.
n1an a1n amcocannme ns neHounoro nanLua paccyxpennn o noao ryHannc1nuecko
Hnccnn neaonLno acnoHnnaeuL aennkoro Hmcnn1enn ckapa anLpa: yHannsH
npo1naoec1ec1aenen, n6o noHorae1 amxn1L nnu1oxneunH. pononnn1L ero:
amxn1L nnu1oxneunH sa cue1 poc1oneunx.
eaponeckyk kynL1ypy, spnHo Hennkuyk anapenLua, n ckop6nk o napennn
apnxa n onpona, no Hne ne xanL eaponeuea: kann1ynnpoaaa, onn sacnyxnnn caok
cypL6y. yaaxak n nk6nk 1y panunk, ko1opan cospaaana caoe 6ecnopo6noe
nacnepne, no ne Hory yaaxa1L n nk6n1L 1y panunk, u1o ceropnn npepae1 caHoe ce6n
aHec1e c nacnepneH.
eH ace a1o konun1cn? u1o ao aceH a1oH c1paunoro? osHoxno, apona aosLHe1 na
aoopyxenne aHepnkanckyk konuenunk nnaannLnoro ko1na, npnHe1 aHepnkanckn
onm1 sa o6paseu - n ace 6ype1 xopouo?
nm1 caHo Hepnkn roaopn1: nnuero xopouero ne 6ype1. naannLnm ko1en paano
nonnyn 1eope1nueckn n npak1nueckn, n am6pouen na noHoky nepepoao
aHepnkancko o6uec1aenno HmcnLk.
K u
s
ne nncan noka o , rpe pacoaan npo6neHa - neo1LeHneHan uac1L
ace nc1opnn c1panm. apone a1o ne 1ak, noa1oHy ace oc1pme yrnm naHnoro
pesue, oc1pee, saHe1nee. naH, pyccknH, - aanpy 1oro, u1o Hm npeH no c1onaH
eaponecknx napopoa - nx cn1yaunn 6nnxe n nonn1nee, ueH aHepnkanckan. aH nerue
npnHepn1L ee na ce6n, u1o6m npnnn1L nnn o1aeprny1L. Hepnkanum, pasyHee1cn,
41
nm1ak1cn naansmaa1L eaponeuaH (n ace nac1ounaee) nekoe anpenne npo6neHm.
aHn, Hexpy 1eH, yxe naunnak1 ncnoaepoaa1L neu1o coaceH nnoe[7].
o paaa1e anauane cnpocnH ce6n: u1o 1akoe aHepnkanckan naunn?
n1npoaannm amue aHepnkanckn npoqeccop yp1u c sakonoHepno nerkoc1Lk
Hoxe1 peknaHnpoaa1L uennoc1n rno6annsHa n nponoaepoaa1L o1kas o1 npnnunna
naunonanLnoc1n. n caH nnn ero npepkn a1o paano yxe cpenann, nepeuarnynn a1o1
nopor. epL s - , u mu
, u1o paneko ne opno n 1o xe.
H nHHnrpan1, npn6maun a caoe apeHn a , o1pnxnyn nekorpa co caonx nor
npax caoe popnnm, o1kypa 6m on nn npn6mn; o6pesan nynoanny, coepnnnauyk ero c
popoH-nneHeneH. cnn n nasmaa1L aHepnkanuea naune, 1o cnepye1 y1ounn1L: s
n , naunn naanoa, ne noHnnunx popc1aa. epapoH y aHepnkanuea
npnnn1o roaopn1L o ce6e 1onLko a nac1onueH, a nyuue - a 6ypyueH apeHenn.
pounoe - necyuec1aenno. cnn xe paccyxpa1L ne o nnuno, a o naunonanLno
(aepnee: rocypapc1aenno) nc1opnn , 1o ona, ao-nepamx, nac1onLko eue kopo1ka,
u1o ne nosaonne1 pena1L amaopm n o6o6uennn, a ao-a1opmx - coaepuenno no-pasnoHy
un1ae1cn rnasaHn, ckaxeH, nerpa, eapen nnn anrno-cakca.
(Hec1no saHe1n1L specL a cko6kax, u1o nockonLky aecoHme uac1n aHepnkanckoro
o6uec1aa nHek1 pasnnunoe cyxpenne o co6c1aennoH npounoH, nac1onueH n 6ypyueH,
onn apnp nn ropn1cn a kauec1ae akcnep1oa, ouennaakunx nac1onuee, npounoe n
6ypyuee naun, a neckonLko pas c1apue nx caHnx.)
Hepnke ace - npnuenLum, kpoHe nnpeuea, no nx-1o na ce cue1 aoo6ue nnk1o ne
cnpaunaae1. ce a opnnakoaoH nonoxennn. pesnpen1 xon ennepn a 1958 ropy 1ak
n cqopHynnpoaan: naunn nHHnrpan1oa. aHepnkancknx nerpoa, na1nnocoa, eapeea
nnn kn1auea c1onLko xe HopanLnmx npaa cun1a1L Hepnky - opnno, ckonLko y
anrno-cakcoa, neHuea, npnanpuea, ykpannuea, pyccknx n 1.p. axpm aHepnkaneu,
kako 6m naunonanLnoc1n nnn pacm on nn 6mn, nHee1 paanoe npaao, ne 1onLko c
kpnpnuecko, no n c HopanLno 1oukn spennn, peua1L cypL6y oepnnennmx 1a1oa
1ak, kak on cun1ae1 nyxnmH. 1o cnpaaepnnao. ( nerpoa 1akoe npaao, 6m1L Hoxe1,
no6onLue, ueH y ppyrnx, nockonLky nx npepkoa saaesnn ckpa npo1na nx aonn.)
o npo6neHa - ne 1onLko a a1oH. 1num opnoro nepa nepapoH cne1ak1cn a opny c1ak.
osspennn opnoro uenoaeka nerko c1anoan1cn aosspennnHn Hnnnnonoa, ecnn a1n
Hnnnnonm cnannm knaccoao nnn naunonanLno o6unoc1Lk, connpapnoc1Lk. 1orpa
cypL6a c1panm c1anoan1cn sanoxnnue nn1epecoa 1oro knacca nnn napopa, ko1opm a
pannm HoHen1 cnnLne, cnnouenne, arpeccnane.
An n - u q, 1ako xe, kaknH 6mn a caoe apeHn
npecnoay1m coae1ckn napop - noaan nc1opnueckan o6unoc1L nkpe. op
ampaxenneH aHepnkanckan naunn, ko1opoe nnorpa eue ac1peuae1cn a nn1epa1ype,
cnepye1 nonnHa1L npoc1o nenpounm, neyc1ounam konrnoHepa1 naunonanLnoc1e, a
ko1opoH, c 1ex nop, kak on cyuec1aye1, 6opk1cn pae 1enpenunn.
Hn - xnn, a nHenno 1a, u1o ampasnn yp1u: o16pocn1L naunonanLnoc1L
n o6Lepnnn1Lcn nop snaHeneH a6c1pak1noro ryHannsHa a nekoe
o6ueuenoaeunoc1n. (1panno 1onLko, u1o yp1u, amc1ynan kak apen1 nayunoro
Hnpoaosspennn npo1na Hnpoaosspennn pennrnosnoro, a pannoH cnyuae onnpae1cn na
pennrnosnm no cy1n noc1yna1 o ryHannsHe, ko1opm nnaue kak na aepy npnnn1L
neaosHoxno.) 1a 1enpenunn rocnopc1aoaana c konua 1940-x n po 1980-x rr., yp1u
nopxaa1nn ee, 1ak ckasa1L, na nsne1e. na ceropnn o1paxae1 nnuL nosnunk
neko1opo uac1n 6enmx aHepnkanuea, ue ypenLnm aec a o6uec1ae neyknonno
napae1 n ue c1pax sa 6ypyuee sac1aanne1 sapanee ncka1L cnoco6 koncepaaunn
42
Hnpnoro cocyuec1aoaannn. epL npnpoc1 y 6enmx (cun1an nHHnrpan1oa) -
Hnnycoao, cpepnn pe1opopnm aospac1 30-35 ne1, 6epeHennoc1L a a1o cansn ace
uaue nponsaopn1cn nckycc1aennmH ny1eH. aennuenne uncnennoc1n nacenennn npe1
sa cue1 nerpoa, kn1auea, na1nnocoa. a1nx ycnoannx noneaone npnHeuL pok1pnny
o1a eononLpa: e6n1a, paaa1e xn1L ppyxno! onLko sayua1 a1n cnoaa ne
c1pornH npepynpexpenneH cnnLnoro, a ynnxenno, xano6no npocL6o cna6oro.
annan konuenunn ceropnn 6onLue paccun1ana na akcnop1, caHn aHepnkanum a nee
yxe aepn1 Hano.
osnnkuan na 6ase ykasanno amue counopnnaHnkn n na6npakuan cnny n
n aepe1 k rny6okoHy pasHexeaannk ne 1onLko pac, no n naunonanLnoc1e
any1pn aHepnkanckoro o6uec1aa, k paccnoennk 1o naunonanLno asaecn, u1o
aosnnkna 6mno a xaanenoH aHepnkanckoH nnaannLnoH ko1ne. eropnn noame
nHHnrpan1m, uyac1ayn a1y xnm 1enpenunk, yxe ne c1peHn1cn kak Hoxno
ckopee oanape1L anrnncknH nsmkoH n ann1Lcn, nn1erpnpoaa1Lcn a 1.n. aHepnkanckoe
o6uec1ao, a npepnoun1ak1 cenn1Lcn koHnak1no n xn1L o1naxenno xnsnLk caonx
naunonanLnmx o6unn, roaopn na naunonanLnmx nsmkax n npnpepxnaancL
naunonanLnmx 1papnun n o6pasa xnsnn. 1penLno pepxa1cn yxe ne 1onLko
pasnoo6pasnme uae1nme napopm, no n pycckne, nonnkn, eapen, ykpannum.
ny1pennero epnnc1aa naunn, 1o ec1L aHepnkanckoro o6uec1aa kak 1akoaoro,
ecnn n ponyc1n1L, u1o ono 6mno, yxe ne1 a noHnne. (pyuenne , a c nnH - o6pasa
apara, cnnaunaakuero naunk, 1onLko yckopnno pacnap onoro o6uec1aa.)
npecnoay1oH qanLunaoH epnnc1ae ace paano pasouapoaanncL, k neHy c1peHn1cn
nnuL nonn1nkn, no ne Haccm.
naannLnm ko1en paano amka1nncn ns kpyra a6conk1nmx npenmx uennoc1e. e a
Hope HexnaunonanLnme, a yx 1eH 6onee - Hexpacoame 6pakn. pepc1aan1enn
uae1nmx napopoa o1ue1nnao c1peHn1cn ne 1onLko k ykpennennk co6c1aennoro
pacoaoro cosnannn, pacoao npen1nunoc1n, no n k nepenocy a1o npen1nunoc1n a
rocypapc1aennm qopHa1. nn uyac1ayk1: sa nnHn 6ypyuee. nn uyk1 sanax
ne6maano a nc1opnn po6mun, npepakyuak1 necnmxannm penex nacnepc1aa,
ypepxnaa1L ko1opoe y 6enmx, y anrno-cakcoa ckopo ne c1ane1 cnn. ae1nmx ne
oc1anaannaae1 nn c1pax rpaxpancko aonm, nn c1pax nepep sakonoH. x Hnoro, onn
xnay1 poeao xnsnLk n ne 6on1cn yHnpa1L. pnako 1pe6yk1 o1Henm cHep1no kasnn,
n6o nepapoH 6onee 80% saknkuennmx a aHepnkancknx 1kpLHax - nerpm. oame
rynnm xpy1 1onLko, korpa noua1ne1cn e1aep1m nH, no xpy1 ne naccnano.
H a Hepnke npe1 noacepneanan 1nxan xonopnan rpaxpanckan
aona na pacoao n naunonanLno nouae. ne ne pacckasmaak1 onnnayp n , no
ona ne npekpauae1cn nn na opnn penL. 1ckpa - aosnnknoaenne, ckaxeH,
arpeccnano 1eopnn uepnoro pacnsHa, pacnpoc1panenne yuennn o npeaocxopc1ae
uepno pacm (nerpn1kp), nonynnpnoc1L nosynra Black power! (nac1L -
uepnmH!), poc1 annnnnn n ak1nanoc1n 1aknx panxenn, kak aunn ncnaHa (uepnme
HycynLHane ao rnaae c .appaxanoH) nnn epnme eapen (nx noc1yna1 rnacn1:
nac1onun ns6pannm oroH napop - a1o o1nkpL ne npnrpesnaunecn yp1uy
rpaxpane Hnpoaoro coo6uec1aa, a nHenno n 1onLko nerpm) n 1.p.
onn1nueckoe panxenne uepnmx na6npae1 HouL c kaxpmH pecn1nne1neH. ocne 1oro,
kak a 1957 ropy npesnpen1 senxayap coaepunn pokoayk oun6ky, nanpaana pae
1mcnun napauk1nc1oa a ropopnuko n11n-ok, u1o6m saun1n1L npaao uepnmx pe1e
xopn1L a ukony aHec1e c 6enmHn, na nerpoa npoc1o ne c1ano nnkakoro ypepxy, a
6enme, npepannme caonH ryHannmH npaan1enLc1aoH, ncnxonornueckn cnoHanncL n
no1epnnn aonk n cnoco6noc1L k ak1nanoHy conpo1nanennk.
1963 ropy nerpm nauann cepnk noxopoa cao6opm. 1euenne ropa no c1pane
npoka1nnocL 2 1mcnun peHonc1paun, aenuoH ko1opmx nanncn nepam a nc1opnn
noxop na aunnr1on, a ko1opoH npnnnnn yuac1ne 250 1mc. uenoaek. cnepykueH
43
ropy ocHeneaune uepnme pounn po aoopyxennmx c1onknoaenn, yupepnnn
1eppopnc1nueckyk oprannsaunk epnme nan1epm. 1965 ropy paspasnnncL
kpoaaame co6m1nn a oc-nxenece, nkaro[8], pesynL1a1oH uero c1an sakon o npaae
na ronocoaanne. ( n1ore yxe k 1974 ropy a aHepnkancknx ropopax nacun1maanocL
108 nerpoa-Hapoa.)
r y rxck , Mk n x
nM nn nm [9].
1966 r. no npoka1nnncL 43 nerpn1nncknx aonnennn, a 1oH uncne 21 6yn1.
1967 - yxe okono 165 6yn1oa, a 1oH uncne 75 kpynnmx. Henno 1orpa ns yc1
nerpn1nnckoro nnpepa . apHakna ampaancn nosynr aeka: Black power!.
as o1c1ynna, 6enme aHepnkanum nauann 1o1anLnyk n neo6pa1nHyk kann1ynnunk. o
npepena uepnmH yc1peHnennnH onn a1nH ne noc1aannn, pacoaoro Hnpa ce6e ne
am1oproaann. eccnnLnmH ko1aH neononLpaH Hnpa nnk1o ne nopapn1.
ckanaunn pacoaoro konqnnk1a a 1980-90-e rr. o1ue1nnao nponanne1cn a 1aknx,
nanpnHep, nanennnx, kak kpoaaame 6yn1m nerpoa a aaHn, enneccn, nopnpe npn
erane (acero a nn1n ropopax), kak Hapu Hnnnnona uepnmx Hyxunn na aunnr1on
nnn nporpeHeauee na ack c1pany peno nHncona, korpa nerp, y6naun caok 6enyk
xeny, 6mn anarnyk onpaapan uepnmHn npncnxnmHn a cype.
eropnn 62,2% uepnoro nacenennn aunnr1ona n Lk-eaena sanannn a onpocax,
u1o noppepxann 6m nonn1nueckyk nap1nk uepnmx[10]. pn a1oH aHepnkanckne
nerpm-nonn1nkn aennkonenno nonnHak1 snauenne pacoaoro epnnc1aa, pacoao
connpapnoc1n, noc1onnno n uenenanpaanenno aepy1 noppepxky nerpoa K,
osaH6nka, nronm, c1poaoa enenoro mca, nH6a6ae, aHn6nn n 1.p.
o caHoe npkoe nponanenne pacoao arpeccnn aHepnkancknx nerpoa coc1on1 ne a
nonn1nuecknx Heponpnn1nnx n 6yn1ax, a a 1oH, u1o onn npoponxak1 ak1nano
nnopn1Lcn. cnn a 1960-e rr. onn coc1aannnn acero 10% nacenennn, 1o ceropnn yxe
20%. a1o necHo1pn na 1o, u1o xnay1 xyxe 6enmx n ne a pepeannx (nerpn1nnckoe
qepHepc1ao paano n ocnoaa1enLno paspyueno, nekonkypen1ocnoco6no), a a ropopax.
x anonne yc1panaae1 napasn1nueckn (6naropapn counanLnmH nporpaHHaH) o6pas
xnsnn nkHnena. epL, ckaxeH, 1onLko papn 1oro, u1o6m uepnme pe1n xopnnn a ukony,
nx popn1ennH nna1n1 neHanme noco6nn! 1uero xe ne poxa1L a 1aknx ycnoannx?
c1opnk .. aunnno a pnccep1aunn aunonanLnan accounaunn copec1ann
nporpeccy uae1noro nacenennn () n ee ponL a nerpn1nnckoH panxennn a
nocneaoennm nepnop (., 1983) npnaopn1 nn1epecnme pannme. kasmaae1cn, c
1910 ropa a c1pane pec1aye1 aunonanLnan ropopckan nnra, sann1an 1eH, u1o
noHorae1 nerpaH nepecenn1Lcn a ropop. cnn a 1o apeHn nnuL 10,4% acex
aHepnkancknx nerpoa xnnn a eaepno Hepnke, 1o yxe a 1960 r. nx c1ano 34,4%.
a 1oH xe ropy yxe nnuL 25% nerpoa Kra Hepnkn xnnn a cene. panLneueH a1a
1enpenunn pocna. cnonnn1enLnm cekpe1apL . nnknnc, amc1ynan a cena1e
a non6pe 1966 r., aepno peskHnpoaan: o, u1o Hm nasmaaeH nerpn1nncko
npo6neHo, copepxn1 a ce6e rnran1ckyk npo6neHy yp6annsaunn. aunnno 1akxe
nn1epnpe1npye1 pannm qak1 anonne opnosnauno: pnnH ns aaxneunx qak1opoa,
noc1aanaunx nerpn1nnckn aonpoc a paspnp oc1peunx any1pnnonn1nuecknx npo6neH,
nannacL Haccoaan Hnrpaunn nerpn1nnckoro nacenennn ns cenLcknx paonoa Kra
c1panm a ropopa eaepa (c. 36). [..H. 4 r
q-r x RB HEHmM 50 - 60- Qm
XX ., M 2003]
44
H nn u , .
erpn1nnckan npo6neHa - aaxneuan, no ne epnnc1aennan pnn pacoao nonn1nkn
. 6o ec1L n ppyrne napopm n pacm, npe1enpykune na caok ponk aHepnkanckoro
nnpora (american pie). eropnn, korpa yxacnm yxe ne Hoxe1 noHeua1L ero
penn1L, nac1ynae1 nn1epecnm HoHen1.
cero sa nocnepnne 150 ne1, 1o ec1L nocne rpaxpancko aonm 1861-1865 rr., a
Hepnky nepecennnocL camue 50 Hnn. uenoaek, ko1opme sa1eH npoponxann ak1nano
pasHnoxa1Lcn a o1nocn1enLno 1ennnunmx ycnoannx (Hepnka ace a1n ropm ne aoeaana
na caoe 1eppn1opnn). HHnrpaunn ponroe apeHn ckpynynesno kao1npoaanacL no
pacoaoHy n naunonanLnoHy npnsnakaH. o kao1m noc1enenno pocnn. 1949 ropy yxe
aceH c1panaH snn - 41 c1pane - 6mna ampenena kao1a no c1o uenoaek a rop (n6o
neo6xopnHo saaoeaa1L ppyx6y asna1oa a 6opL6e sa cpepxnaanne koHHynnc1nuecko
arpeccnn). ecHo1pn na a1o, po 1965 ropa cpepn nepecenenuea, ace xe, npeo6napann
eaponeum. o a a1oH pokoaoH ropy 6apLepm, sa o1Heny ko1opmx 6oponncL
onpepenennme cnnm n a caHnx 1a1ax, n ane nx, pyxnynn. 3 ok1n6pn npesnpen1
nnpon xoncon na c1ynennx c1a1yn ao6opm (!) 1opxec1aenno nopnncan noam
sakon o6 nHHnrpaunn (1.n. HHnrpaunonnm ak1).
n1ore neko1opme pnacnopnme o6pasoaannn c1ann pac1n kak na ppoxxax. opnoH
1onLko 1969 ropy a Hepnky nepeexano: 44.623 Hekcnkanuea, 59.395 aec1-nnpuea,
20.744 qnnnnnnnuea, 16.947 nHauea, 15.440 kn1auea (c aaann), 13.751
ky6nnuea, 10.670 poHnnnkancknx rpaxpan n 23.928 na1nnocoa (ecnn yuec1L, u1o c
1930 no 1965 rr. nponsouen 1pexkpa1nm poc1 nacenennn Kxno Hepnkn - c 200 po
600 Hnn. uenoaek, ypnann1Lcn ne npnxopn1cn).
oneuno, pocnn ne 1onLko uae1nme o6unnm, no n neko1opme 6enme. 1o paneko ne
acerpa uno na nonLsy naunonanLno konconnpaunn. expy npounH, ceropnn a
caHan 6onLuan eapeckan o6unna a Hnpe (6 Hnn., a 1o apeHn kak paxe a spanne -
acero 5 Hnn.). Hepnkanum (nonyuy1n) nasmaak1 spannL - qopnoc1oH , eapen
Hepnky (nonycepLesno) - kononne spannn.
aHoe nopasn1enLnoe n na nepam asrnnp neo6LncnnHoe, u1o aHepnkanckne o1um
naunn, npnsnaaan na cnoaax onacnoc1L nekon1ponnpyeHo nHHnrpaunn n
neo6xopnHoc1L 6onee c1pornx n o6ocnoaannmx kao1, na pene noc1ynann
npo1naononoxnmH HanepoH. pnccep1aunn .. onnuyka HHnrpaunonnan
nonn1nka nocne 1opo Hnpoao aonm (., 1975) npnaepenm 1akne unqpm:
necHo1pn na npnnn1m a 1952 ropy c1porn orpannun1enLnm sakon o6 nHHnrpaunn,
onrpecc c 1953 no 1965 rr. npnnnn 4273 uac1nmx 6nnnn a nonLsy nnpnanpyanLnmx
nHHnrpan1oa a o6xop ynoHnny1oro sakona. onLko npn senxayape (1953-1961)
6onee 300 1mc. uenoaek 6mnn npnsnanm a kauec1ae anekao1nmx nHHnrpan1oa.
1onLko opnn n1a npn kao1e 105 uenoaek cnc1eHa1nueckn paaan a cpepneH 4209
uenoaek a rop (c. 95-100).
H znu ? o1anLno
koppynune? oxnmHn npeonornuecknHn yc1anoakaHn? o66npoaanneH neknx 1anmx
cnn? m noroaopnH o6 a1o aaxno sarapke nnxe.
pae1 ocnoaannn cepLesnmH nonn1onoraH npornosnpoaa1L pacnap
a noaoH c1one1nn. o pannmH aHepnkancko c1a1nc1nkn, ecnn a nauane 1960-x
nacenenne na 90% coc1onno ns aHepnkanuea eaponeckoro nponcxoxpennn, 1o k
konuy aeka nx oc1anocL 1onLko 70%. Hepnkanckoe 6kpo no nepenncn nacenennn
npepckasmaae1, u1o k cepepnne XXI aeka aHepnkano-eaponeum c1any1 a1nnuecknH
HenLunnc1aoH. a1nx ycnoannx ypepxnaa1L epnnyk rocypapc1aennoc1L c1ane1
45
nekoHy. pepnonarae1cn, u1o a neckonLko a1anoa o1penn1cn n o6pe1y1 nonnm
cyaepenn1e1 nn1L uepnmx u1a1oa, paa na1nnoaHepnkancknx, paa asna1cknx n 1.p.
nkan1nan noppo6noc1L: aHepnkanckne 6enme c1oponnnkn paspenLnoro npoxnaannn
pac, a uac1noc1n kyknykcknanoaum, caHn paano nop1anknaak1 nerpn1nncknx
nonn1nkoa k 1akoHy peuennk, 1ue1no napencL o1penn1Lcn o1 uepnmx xo1n 6m
rocypapc1aenno rpannue!
Hepnkanckan naunn c nens6exnoc1Lk pasaann1cn na kyckn n kycoukn 1ouno 1ak
xe, kak pasaannnacL na naunx rnasax noaan nc1opnueckan o6unoc1L - coae1ckn
napop. 1o apeHn kak r-n xesnnckn penn1 kap1y occnn na 1pn 6onLunx uac1n,
ero coo1euec1aennnkn yxe amnyc1nnn ropaspo 6onee ppo6nyk kap1y Hepnkn.
1ak, npaa nn npoqeccop yp1u, nm1ancL naansa1L aa1ox1onnmH napopaH Hnpa (n
apone, n occnn, a uac1noc1n) cneunqnueckn aHepnkano-rno6annc1ckn nopxop k
naunonanLno npo6neHe, pa k 1oHy xe eue n nano yc1apeaun, ne ampepxaaun
cypoao npoaepkn a caHo Hepnke?
1ae1 oueanpen: ne1, ne npaa.
Hn sqn
rennanLnoro nonn1onornueckoro aqopnsHa, ueH snaHenn1an qpasa
nayseanua aona ec1L npoponxenne nonn1nkn ppyrnHn cpepc1aaHn, no ne caHa no
ce6e, a a nape c co6c1aennmH napaqpasoH - u
.
oxno aoneamH peuenneH amaepny1L nansnanky, a kopne nsHenn1L naunonanLnyk
npeonornk, no nenLsn nponsaonLno o1Henn1L sakonm npnpopm n nc1opnn.
aunonanLnme n pacoame aonm cyuec1ayk1 c1onLko, ckonLko cyuec1aye1
uenoaeuec1ao. knaccoaoH o6uec1ae k nnH po6aannncL aonm knaccoa. 1o
ec1ec1aennoe cnepc1ane penennn nkpe na pacm, a1nocm n knaccm a ycnoannx
ec1ec1aennoro o16opa n 6opL6m sa cyuec1aoaanne.
XIX-XX aekax nc1opnn noc1aanna akuen1 na naunonanLnmx n knaccoamx aonax; XXI
aek, a1o yxe oueanpno, 6ype1 nocanuen aone pac.
onn1nka - ec1L npoponxenne aonm ppyrnHn cpepc1aaHn. nu1o ne nnnkc1pnpye1
a1o1 1esnc c 1ako oueanpnoc1Lk, kak nHenno coapeHennme peHorpaqnueckne aonm,
aepyunecn sauac1yk nHenno nonn1nuecknHn cpepc1aaHn.
Qqn -
n; n n, mn n. 1o -
opna ns pasnoanpnoc1e 1ak nasmaaeHmx npperynnpnmx (nenpaannLnmx) aon,
xapak1epnmx aoo6ue pnn nauero apeHenn n nHekunx 6onLuoe 6ypyuee. na
coue1ae1 a ce6e aneHen1m nnqopHaunonnmx, akonoHnuecknx aon, a 1akxe
HexannsHm ynpaanennn Haccoao ncnxonorne. pnako, necHo1pn na c1onL
Hopepnnsnpoaannyk, nenpnamunyk qopHy, u q
, m , - um n
u . onLko ceropnn nop
1eppn1opne Hoxno noppasyHeaa1L yxe ack nnane1y eHnn, aecL Hnp. ko1opoH
nac c1anoan1cn ace HenLue, a nx - ace 6onLue, n rpe onn 6epy1 ce6e seHnk
naunx npepkoa, naue Ha1epnanLnoe n pyxoanoe nacnepc1ao, naunx xenunn, nauy
npn6aaounyk c1onHoc1L.
46
E s , ? E s m, ? E s
, ?!
aponeum saaoeamaann a1o1 Hnp orneH n HeuoH, nponnaan pekn kpoan. po6nnncL k
nauany aeka nonnoro rocnopc1aa nap orpoHnmHn 1eppn1opnnHn, 6ykaanLno - o1
eaepnoro nonkca po Kxnoro. o ceuac onn nosaonnk1 saaoeamaa1L caHnx ce6n.
pn a1oH anoaL nponnaak1cn pekn kpoan - 1onLko nespnHo.
orpa-1o eaponeum aenn aonm c ppyrnHn napopaHn, ynnu1oxan uyxnx pe1e.
nno1L po nonnoro renounpa, a o6enx Hepnkax, nanpnHep. eropnn xe onn aokk1 c
co6c1aennmHn napopaHn, ynnu1oxan co6c1aennmx pe1e. eaaxno, rpe coaepuae1cn
a1o npec1ynnenne - sa rnyxnHn c1enaHn a6op1apnn nnn sa npospaunmHn c1enkaHn
npesepaa1naa: pesynL1a1 opnn. 1o rn6enL nokonenn eaponeuea.
m npoc1o ne nHeeH aosHoxnoc1n sarnnny1L a1nH xep1aaH a rnasa, ne anpnH nx,
ampesannmx noxoH xnpypra-y6num nnn am1paanennmx xnHne. H s m -
s m .
nnnnonm 6enmx apnuea, eaponeuea, pyccknx, ko1opme Hornn 6m xn1L, 1aopn1L,
nk6n1L, cpaxa1Lcn n yHnpa1L ao nHn 1opxec1aa caoe pacm, nnkorpa ne nonan1cn na
cae1. uenme, xypoxnnkn, noa1m, nonn1nkn, aennkne nonkoaopum. m - 6enme
apnum, eaponeum, pycckne - yxe naacerpa nepocun1anncL 1mcnu ns nnx. nn
nnkorpa yxe ne ykpacn1 nc1opnk Hnpa, naue pacm, naue naunn. e ykpenn1 naue
annnnne n aec, naun uancm a xnsnn. o nHn koro nnn uero Hm no1epnnn nx, nauy
saa1paunkk roppoc1L n saun1y? o nHn koro npoponxaeH 1epn1L? o nHn yxopnunx,
o1uae1akunx nokonenn? x koHqop1a n cnokoc1ann? o a1o snaun1, u1o Hm
nonpoc1y n mn, kr yx , cn, k MMn, -
yyMy.
pyHa1ecL a unqpy counonornuecknx onpocoa: yxe acero nnuL 1onLko 4% uaepok -
npo1na a6op1oa. a a1o xe uenoe nokonenne Ha1epe-y6nu! ero o1 nnx xpa1L?
aepL npopanny1an aeunn sapae1 1on a a1oH aonpoce.
esyHnm Hnp! neH ace nepeaepnynocL c nor na ronoay! ce uennoc1n nsapauenm,
acn nepcnek1naa cHennnacL na o6pa1nyk. oaepuenno npaannLno qopHynnpye1 nana
pnHckn: apop, ko1opm aepe1 aony c co6c1aennmHn pe1LHn, ne nHee1 6ypyuero!
o ero kak 6yp1o n ne cnmun1 nnk1o.
enme npnpyHann ce6e (caoe 1pycoc1n, cna6oc1n n ce6nnk6nk) onpaapanne a anpe
1eopnn anL1yca n ero nocnepoaa1ene. eHnn-pe ne Hoxe1 ampepxa1L 6onee
onpepenennoro konnuec1aa nacenennn, cnepoaa1enLno - napo ero cokpaua1L. e napo
1akxe nnopn1L nnue1y, a u1o6m a1oro ne nponcxopnno - onn1L-1akn napo cokpaua1L
nacenenne. o1 Hm, 6enme nkpn, - caHme pasyHnme, panLnoanpnme, ryHannme n
pncunnnnnnpoaannme na nnane1e - a1o n penaeH. a1o pae1 naH eue opnn noaop
roppn1Lcn amuenpnaepennmHn kauec1aaHn.
nuero, kpoHe nnueHepnn n a nopo6nmx paccyxpennnx ne naxoxy. yuue xnao
nnun, ueH ampesannm ns upeaa Ha1epn pe6enok, - a oco6ennoc1n nHenno c 1oukn
spennn ryHannsHa (kknesnac1 npekpacno saHe1nn: naan co6aka nyuue Hep1aoro
nLaa). 1eH 6onee c 1oukn spennn nn1epecoa rocypapc1aa n naunn a uenoH. pn1oH,
ecnn yx 1m cun1aeuL, u1o na cae1e cnnukoH Hnoro napopa - paaa, cokpaua ero, no
saueH xe naunna1L c ce6n, caoe ceHLn? 1o rnyno n nopno. a n ne a 1papnunnx
uenoaeuec1aa.
aoace ne nponaranpnc1 aon. o a1o nayunm qak1: c k M
nnnnc ccM rynnM cnc cnn. oa1oHy noa1opk kak
47
aqopnsH: m , . a aone 1m y6naaeuL uyxnx, a a6op1apnn -
caonx. a aone rn6ne1 npounoe, a a6op1apnn - 6ypyuee.
on1pauenunn - 6eckpoanm a6op1. na kak 6m ryHannee. o1n n ne yaepen, u1o,
ckaxeH, na none 6on cHep1L o1 xnHnn nyuue rn6enn o1 Heua. o nyc1L paxe 1ak,
pesynL1a1-1o opnn n 1o1 xe! pyHak, u1o npaao na kon1pauenunk nyxno sacnyxn1L.
nn npoc1oro aocnponsaopc1aa naunn (ne roaopn o pacunpennoH) neo6xopnHo, u1o6m
na opny ceHLk npnxopnnocL a cpepneH 1poe pe1e pnn koHnencaunn 6es6paunoc1n n
npnpopno 6espe1noc1n, ko1opme ec1L a nk6oH o6uec1ae. pyHak, u1o nk6me
cpepc1aa kon1pauenunn posaonn1enLno npnHenn1L nnuL a ceHLnx, ocosnaaunx a1o1
ponr n amnonnnaunx a1y nopHy.
An
EM nn E c cn?
eaponecknx c1panax 6ype1 a nepanekoH 6ypyueH 1o xe, u1o ceuac nponcxopn1 a
Hepnke. nkakoro nnaannLnoro ko1na (aceo6uero pacoaoro cHeuennn, cospannn
naunn He1ncoa), nn pncnepcnoro, paccennnoro coaHec1noro npoxnaannn 1aH,
koneuno xe, ne nonyun1cn. ae1nme, npoponxan pasHnoxa1Lcn n nakonna
kpn1nueckyk Haccy a onpepenennmx pernonax (anauane - kaap1anax, a 1aH n ropopax,
n o6nac1nx, npoannunnx), aaepy1 1aH naounmH nopnpkoH cyaepenn1e1 n
rocypapc1aennoc1L. a1o Hory1 okasa1Lcn paneko ne xypune pernonm. a1ox1onnme
6enme napopm a co6c1aennmx c1panax anonne Hory1 o6napyxn1L ce6n a caoero popa
pesepaaunnx, a ecnn 1enpenunn k yHenLuennk nx ypenLnoro aeca coxpann1cn, 1o nx
apean o6n1annn 6ype1 cxnHa1Lcn rop o1 ropa, kak uarpeneaan koxa. x npoc1o
cLepn1, ne a 6ykaanLnoH cHmcne, pasyHee1cn.
oka u1o eaponeum (kak n Hm, pycckne) epn1 ce6n caHn, caHocokpauak1cn. o a1o
1ak 1onLko kaxe1cn noaepxnoc1noHy asrnnpy. pec1an1enLnoc1n ace cnoxnee. yxe
roaopnn, u1o ace 6mno 6m ne 1ak c1pauno, ecnn 6m ne6enm Hnp cokpauancn a 1ako
xe nponopunn, u1o n 6enm. orpa a a1oH Hoxno 6mno 6m yspe1L neu1o noxoxee na
caHoperynnunk uncnennoc1n npecnoay1oro Hnpoaoro coo6uec1aa, ko1opan, no
pacue1aH peHorpaqoa, nnkak ne Hoxe1 npeamua1L 12-13 Hnpp. uenoaek (6onLue
eHnn, nko6m, ne ampepxn1.) o aepL na pene a1o coaceH ne 1ak: aqpo-asna1m n
na1nnocm npoc1o am1ecnnk1 eaponeonpoa c seHnoro uapa. epy1 c nnHn
neo6Lnanennyk peHorpaqnueckyk aony. cnonLsyn cM cM cM
cm yx m a - r.
osLHeH, k npnHepy, HycynLHanckne napopm. eropnn na opny xenunny a apokko
npnxopn1cn 2,55 pe6enka, a ynnce - 2,45, npnHepno c1onLko xe a nann n
aapn1annn, a pane - 3,5, a yae1e n poxpaeHoc1L eue amue, nockonLky a1o
nooupne1cn npaan1enLc1aoH. acenenne ncnaHcknx c1pan, yxe a 1992 ropy
coc1aannauee 23% nacenennn nnane1m, npoponxae1 pac1n. oka ono a ocnoanoH
cocpepo1oueno a snn n qpnke (coo1ae1c1aenno 70% n 23%). uenoH Kxnan n
oc1ounan snn ypepxnaak1 nepaoe n a1opoe Hec1a no uncnennoc1n nacenennn a
Hnpe.
a uepnoH kon1nnen1e npoxnaak1 a ocnoanoH ne HycynLHane, no a1o ne snaun1, u1o
1aH Hano poxak1. aH paxe 6onLue, ueH a c1panax ncnaHa, pacnpoc1paneno
Hnoroxenc1ao n pe1e a ceHLe cun1ak1 nopo pecn1kaHn. ekoppcHen Hnpa no
Hnorope1noc1n ceropnn npoxnaae1 a nrepnn; eHy 87 ne1, y nero 57 xen n 178 pe1e
(HnapueHy nn1L ne1). 6naa1L pe1e y nerpoa ne npnnn1o. K, ckaxeH, cpena1L
a6op1 Hoxno 1onLko a 1pex cnyuanx: ecnn xnsnn Ha1epn yrpoxae1 onacnoc1L, ecnn
nHeno Hec1o nsnacnnoaanne nn6o kpoaocHeuenne. paapa, 1aH exeropno yHnpae1 o1
48
kpnHnnanLnmx a6op1oa okono 400 xenunn, no a1a no1epn c nnxao nepekpmaae1cn
konnuec1aoH poxpennmx pe1e. cepepnne cnepykuero c1one1nn qpnka, no
npornosaH akcnep1oa, ampe1 na a1opoe Hec1o no uncnennoc1n nacenennn, o11ecnna
oc1ounyk snk na 1pe1Le, a apony - na nn1oe Hec1o a Hnpe.
ornacno ony6nnkoaannoHy 01.09.1998 r. poknapy , epnnc1aennm kon1nnen1,
nacenenne ko1oporo 6ype1 cokpaua1Lcn a o6ospnHoH 6ypyueH - kak pas apona. cnn
a 1970 r. ponn akonoHnueckn pasan1mx c1pan coc1aannna 30% nacenennn eHnn, 1o k
cepepnne XXI aeka, no aceH npornosnmH ouenkaH, ona cokpa1n1cn po 15%. paapa,
coc1aan1enn poknapa apnp nn yunn pacoam acnek1 n poc1 Hnrpaunn. o eaponeuaH
o1 a1oro ne nerue.
H m u :
, nn q.
enme, yanekuncL a6op1aHn, kon1pauen1naaHn, nnannpoaanneH ceHLn,
cekcyanLno peaonkune n cekcyanLnmH npocaeuenneH - cnoaoH, cokpauenneH
co6c1aenno nonynnunn, aknkunnn HexannsH caHoynnu1oxennn n opnoapeHenno - a
rno6anLnoH Hacu1a6e - HexannsH an1ncenekunn. epL nx noaepenne osnauae1
nonpoc1y, u1o a pasrap rno6anLno Hexanpoao 6opL6m, a xope caHoro u1o nn na ec1L
ec1ec1aenneuero o16opa opnn ns yuac1nnkoa (npnueH, 6esycnoanm nnpep!) appyr
asnn n po6poaonLno amuen ns nrpm! o aepL a1o snaun1, u1o nn
nym. 1o npo1na npaann, yc1anoanennmx caHo pnpopo. ecnn 1m nouen
npo1na pnpopm, 1m nponrpaeuL o6nsa1enLno n 6ypeuL xec1oko nakasan.
: nn n
nonoxennn ceropnn okasanacL occnn no cpaanennk c apono n Hepnko?
1o c naHn nponcxopn1 na py6exe aekoa, c ueH npeH a noaoe 1mcnuene1ne?
po peHorpaqnueckn kpec1 occnn, nso6paxakun na rpaqnke ac1peunme poc1
cHep1noc1n n napenne poxpaeHoc1n, a pesynL1a1e uero uncnennoc1L poccnckoro
nacenennn pesko yHenLuae1cn, ace paano nacnmuanm. oknape o pasan1nn
uenoaeueckoro no1enunana a occncko epepaunn sa 2001 rop, nopro1oanennoH n
1onLko u1o ony6nnkoaannoH sann1epecoaanno c1opono - porpaHHo pasan1nn
, roaopn1cn opnosnauno: Fn nM Mrqckr n, c
k Pccn mn XXI k, nnncn k ynnMy xMy
cc n Mcm.
mHnpaeH, nonpoc1y.
ncnennoc1L nacenennn occnn onpepenne1cn ceropnn neyknonno pac1yunH
npeamuenneH cHep1noc1n nap poxpaeHoc1Lk (npouecc o6pa1nm 1oHy, u1o 6mn a
nepao 1pe1n aeka). okonenne pe1e ne aocnponsaopn1 nokonennn popn1ene. o
npoponxn1enLnoc1n xnsnn Hm na nocnepneH Hec1e a apone n na 143-H a Hnpe.
ornacno cpepneHy (1.e. ne caHoHy nnoxoHy!) aapnan1y npornosa, k 2010 ropy unqpa
napoponacenennn occnn coc1aan1 130 Hnn. uenoaek (aHec1o 144,8 Hnn. a 1989 r.), a
k 2050 ropy - cka1n1cn ax po 70 Hnn.
nnxenne a6conk1no uncnennoc1n nacenennn occnn - ouenL 1peaoxnan, no eue ne
caHan ka1ac1poqnueckan 1eHa. konue konuoa, 1a xe poccnckan 1eppn1opnn, u1o n
ceuac - n paxe 6nLuan! - a pasnoe apeHn nacennnacL n ypepxnaanacL ropaspo
HenLunH konnuec1aoH napopy. nnuero - uaenn n kpennn. pn nannunn caepxopyxnn
Hanan nno1noc1L nacenennn - a1o eue ne yrposa y1pa1m 1eppn1opn.
49
oroaopnH na ppyryk, 6onee nn1epecnyk, aaxnyk n rposnyk 1eHy.
ropm a ockae c1ann saHe1nee nerpm. anLue onn ne 6pocanncL a
rnasa, a ceuac - 6pocak1cn. x c1ano 6onLue, pasnmx aospac1oa, onn ak1nano
peHonc1pnpyk1 ce6n. oxoxe, Hnorne ns nnx a c1onnue pycckoro napopa yxe ne
1onLko yua1cn nnn cnyxa1 a noconLc1aax, no n npoc1o ocepno xnay1. c1L yxe n
Hyna1m poccnckoro nponcxoxpennn. (aHeuy, u1o n ne pacnc1 n nnuero a npnnunne
npo1na nerpoa ne nHek. a knno, nanpnHep, na6nkpan, kak nerp 6exn1 no caaanne
nnn nonse1 a pxynrnnx, n npoc1o nk6ykcL nH. aH, a npnpopno caoe o6c1anoake, on
na Hec1e n xopou. ne 1akxe o1kpoaenno nonpaannncL aecLHa npnaneka1enLnme
nerpn1nnkn a apnxe - onn a cpepneH ropaspo kpacnaee, xenc1aennee, nopopnc1ee
qpanuyxenok. o coaceH c ppyrnH uyac1aoH n ac1peuak nerpa, ponyc1nH, na
opo6Leamx ropax nnn a onoHenckoH: kakoro uep1a on 1y1 penae1? saueH on naH 1y1,
a naueH poHe? k1o ero ckpa saan?) oneuno, no cpaanennk c aepyunHn c1panaHn
aponm y nac nerpoa, Hoxno ckasa1L, n aoace ne1. o no cpaanennk c 1970-Hn ropaHn
- ec1L! po 6eso6pasnn Hnoro. oka onn eue ne c1ann a uenoH npo6neHo pnn
pyccknx ropopoa, xo1n npo nnrepnckyk napkoHaqnk snae1 kaxpm. o ecnn panLue
1ak peno nope1 - 1o ckopo c1any1[11]. 1o 1oxe aceH xopouo nsaec1no n nonn1no:
aepL c1o ne1 1oHy nasap ynnum apnxa 6mnn c1onL xe Hnoronkpnm, kak n ceuac,
1onLko uae1nmx na nnx ne 6mno aoace.
pnako n o ppyroH. erpm - nnuL kycouek aepxyukn ac6epra, nHn ko1opoHy -
nepycckan nHHnrpaunn a occnn. poc1o onn saHe1nee ppyrnx, ypo6nee pnn
o6osnauennn npo6neHm. apone npoue pacnosna1L nnopopua: pacoame pasnnunn
anpnee. nac xe ne acerpa onpepennuL, k1o nepep 1o6o - pycckn nnn ne1,
nockonLky a1n pasnnunn nopo aoo6ue o1cy1c1ayk1, pa n pycckan qnsnonoHnueckan
1nnaxnoc1L unpoko aapna1nana. (sn1L xo1L 1ex xe ueuenuea, nokonennnHn
npnaosnaunx cnaannok a caon rapeHm: nnoro n ne o1nnunuL no aneunoc1n o1
kasaka.) epoyHenno rnnpn na u1yunmx Hockoacknx nerpoa, Hm sa6maaeH, u1o y nac
ec1L na 1y xe ponL npe1enpen1m n nokpyue. o1opmx Hm, opnako, nou1n ne saHeuaeH.
kaxeH - asep6apxanum, konx a occnn ceropnn xnae1 neranLno n neneranLno 1pn
Hnnnnona. nn kn1aum, ko1opmx, no pasnmH akcnep1nmH ouenkaH, yxe ceropnn y nac
o1 payx po nn1n Hnnnnonoa, a k 2010 nponosnpye1cn unqpa 8-10 Hnn. nn knprnsm,
ko1opmx sa nocnepnne pecn1L ne1 k naH npnexano nonHnnnnona. nn aqranum,
ko1opmx npnHepno c1onLko xe, paano kak n npnesxnx 1apxnkoa. nn ueuenum,
ceHLco1 1mcnu ko1opmx pas6pocano no ropopaH n aecnH naue opnnm (ane eunn).
1.p. n 1.n.
m u1o, ne Hornn 6m 6es nnx o6o1ncL?! m saann nx a occnk? 1o naun ppysLn,
popc1aennnkn, nk6nHme, 1oaapnun no pa6o1e? nn 1ak nyxnm naH, pycckoHy napopy?
a ne1, npoc1o nac nnk1o ne cnpaunaan, npoc1o naue o1nouenne k a1oHy nnk1o
aoo6ue ne npnnnHan ao annHanne. B ,
, u u, m , s
, , s x x xn
- .
ne c1onLko a a1oH, ckonLko a 1oH, u1o ecnn 6m pycckn napop n cnpocnnn
(nanpnHep, na peqepenpyHe), on ne snan 6m, u1o ckasa1L. poHnHnnn 6m neu1o
necypasnoe, neann1noe. pycckoro napopa ne1 ue1ko nosnunn no a1oHy aonpocy,
no1oHy u1o c 1ex nop, kak on ce6n noHnn1, npouecc uen a o6pa1noH nanpaanennn.
cnxonornn pyccknx a Hacce nac1poena na 1akne naunonanLnme o1nouennn, ko1opme
o6ycnaannaanncL naue, pyccko Hnoroaekoao akcnancne n aHnrpaune aoane. 1o
ncnxonornn nHnepckoro napopa, aekaHn paspanraauero caon rpannum,
npncoepnnnauero seHnn n napopm. npeonornn, nsaec1nan a ee npnamunoH anpe nop
nasaanneH pyccko npen, - a1o 1oxe npeonornn nHnepckoro napopa. a1oH ee sno n
onacnoc1L na ceropnn.
50
1a xe caHan pypnHen1apnan nHnepckan npeonornn cmrpana yxe pypnyk uy1ky n c
qpanuysaHn, nopapnaunHn rpaxpanc1ao aceH xn1ennH kononn eue a 1789 ropy, n c
anrnnuanaHn, cpenaaunHn a1o a cepepnne nauero aeka. xe ynoHnnaauncn .
onoHapea a caoe pnccep1aunn ae1nan nHHnrpaunn n nHHnrpaunonnan nonn1nka
ennko6pn1annn a konue 40-x - nauane 60-x rr. npnHo ykasmaae1: eHanoaaxnmH
qak1opoH nHHnrpaunn aa1opm, npnnapnexaune k a1oHy nanpaanennk (nn6epanLnoHy.
- ..), cun1ak1 kononnanLnoe nacnepne ennko6pn1annn. o Hnornx pa6o1ax
copepxn1cn HmcnL o6 o1ae1c1aennoc1n pn1annn sa nmneunee coc1onnne ee kononn
n npexnnx saancnHmx 1eppn1opn, ko1opoe n npnaeno k Haccoao nHHnrpaunn
uae1nmx. oa1oHy nHHnrpaunn, no nx Hnennk, Hoxe1 6m1L onpaapana. naanmH
cpepc1aoH peuennn npo6neHm uae1nmx nHHnrpan1oa nn6epanLnme nccnepoaa1enn
cun1ak1 noc1enennyk nn1erpaunk nx a 6pn1anckoe o6uec1ao. pn1nkyn neko1opme
o1penLnme npaan1enLc1aennme Hepm, nn6epanm a uenoH npnnnHak1 nonn1nky
npaan1enLc1aa no o1nouennk k nHHnrpaunonno npo6neHe (c. 10-11).
akoaa 6mna 6espaspenLno rocnopc1aykuan a nrnnn 1ouka spennn, nepexn1ok
nHnepckoro npounoro. ueHy ona aena n aepe1, Hm yxe snaeH. aunnan c 1958 ropa,
na pn1ancknx oc1poaax nepnopnueckn acnmxnaak1 npoc1nme pacoame c1onknoaennn,
ko1opmx, npaapa, c1anoan1cn ace HenLue, nockonLky 6enme ace HenLue
conpo1nannk1cn. pornos cH. amue. eropnn ne6opnc1m, nop paanenneH
ounyauerocn anek1opa1a, npnunn a ce6n n nonnnn, u1o na1aopnnn[12]. o Henn1L
peno a npnnunne yxe nospno.
n n, , m ,
u . 6 a1oH npko
canpe1enLc1aye1 npnnn1m a 1999 ropy akon o6 o1nouennn k coo1euec1aennnkaH, no
ko1opoHy a coo1euec1aennnkn nonann ace rpaxpane 6mauero nesaancnHo o1
naunonanLnoc1n. nuero rnynee npoc1o neaosHoxno 6mno npnpyHa1L. o a1o, yam,
caepunauncn qak1. pecL ne anna, a 6epa naunx peny1a1oa, a nepayk ouepepL
pyccknx, ne nsxnaunx a ce6e akoneu o6ankpo1nauncn nHnepckn koHnnekc.
ycnoannx, korpa nHnepckn napop 1onLko u1o nepexnn n saaepunn nHnepckn
nepnop caoe nc1opnn, no eue paxe ne ocosnan a1oro, on npeno nar n
ncnxonornueckn 6essaun1en, kak noaopoxpennm Hnapeneu. yxe 1oro:
pesopnen1npoaan. norne nonn1nn o6penn appyr o6pa1nm cHmcn. aH, rpe 6mna
1aeppan nouaa - 1enepL snne1 npoaan, no napop a1oro noka ne anpn1. pnp
aneHen1apnmx aeue npnxopn1cn o6Lncnn1L 1akoHy napopy, kak Hnapenuy, kak 6m
anepame. pnHn1nano, na nanLuax, npoc1mHn cnoaaHn, pasxeamaan kaxpoe. 1o-1o,
kak na ypoke ana1oHnn, nokasmaan na ckene1e (k npnHepy, na pnHnnnax), u1o-1o - na
cocepe (anrnnuanax, qpanuysax, neHuax), u1o-1o - na ce6e.
1ak, noncnnk.
- ne pacnc1. naunonannc1. ne nn1ak npepy6expennn npo1na kako-nn6o pacm n
npepnoun1ak c1pon1L c nnHn o1nouennn nenpepasn1o, nparHa1nueckn.
1oukn spennn nenpepasn1o nparHa1nuecko peHorpaqnn ne1 nnkako pasnnum,
sacenne1cn occnn nerpaHn - nnn asep6apxanuaHn, 1yannuaHn, apHnnaHn,
ueuenuaHn, kasaxaHn. B, . axno, u1o nacenenneH c1pan
1pe1Lero Hnpa. axno, u1o nponopunn nacenennn npn a1oH Hennk1cn ne a nauy
nonLsy. 1o nau ypenLnm aec (a c nnH - annnnne) c1anoan1cn HenLue. axno, u1o
occnn pnckye1 no1epn1L c1a1yc HononaunonanLno c1panm, a Hm - c1a1yc
rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero napopa. 1o naun npe1ensnn na ponL xosnnna poHa, n 1ak
yxe nnkeH oco6o ne npnnnHaeHme ao annHanne, c1anoan1cn o1 a1oro eue aqeHepnee.
axno, u1o y1pa1a amueynoHnny1oro c1a1yca o6epne1cn neHnnyeHmH pacnapoH occnn
(no o6pasuy ) n sa1yxanneH pycckoro a1noca, pasopaannoro na akcknaam.
51
, onn1L xe, neaaxno, sa cue1 uero nponcxopn1 pannme nera1nanme nsHenennn: sa
cue1 nHHnrpaunn nnn cpanra 6ananca poxpaeHoc1n. occnn aoack pa6o1ak1 ceropnn
o6a a1n qak1opa.
6 a1oH nHee1 cHmcn noroaopn1L noppo6nee.
Ku :
c1ponnacL occnckan Hnepnn? asakaHn, conpa1aHn, kpec1LnnaHn-
kononnc1aHn? oneuno, pa.
o a nepayk ouepepL - .
anoHnnak 1eH, k1o sa6mn: nepep ennko k1n6pLcko peaonkune na kaxpyk
pycckyk 6a6y - o1 uapnum po kpec1Lnnkn - npnxopnnocL a cpepneH no ceHepo xnamx
pe1e. oxann ace, nesaancnHo o1 poc1a1ka n counanLnoro nonoxennn. cnoHnnH: y
nocnepne uapnum 6mno uec1epo pe1e. ena aennkoro nnca1enn Laa onc1oro
(paopnnka, noHeunua) popnna n ampac1nna paenapua1L pe1e. 1.p. payx Honx
npapepoa 6mno no uec1epo pe1e. Henn 1oxe nx uec1epo, no ceropnn n - 6enan
aopona, k coxanennk, a 1orpa a1o 6mno nopHo.
oneuno, pe1ckan cHep1noc1L 6mna aecLHa amcoka; no nopcue1aH nsaec1noro
peHorpaqa . 1yxn, y aennkopoccoa a konue XIX aeka amxnaano nnuL 50%
popnaunxcn HanLunkoa n 54% - peaouek. o, ao-nepamx, pycckne, kak yxe ckasano,
ncnpaano poxann, a ao-a1opmx, y okpec1nmx napopoa, nanpnHep, a pepne snn,
pe1ckan cHep1noc1L 6mna eue amue. oa1oHy aennkopoccm k a1oHy apeHenn c1ann
a1opmH no uncnennoc1n napopoH Hnpa (55,7 Hnn. uenoaek, n a1o 6es Hanopoccoa n
6enopycoa), yc1ynan 1onLko kn1auaH. onLuan uncnennoc1L aennkopoccoa
cnoxnnacL rnaanmH o6pasoH 6naropapn pnn1enLnoHy n snaun1enLnoHy
nonoxn1enLnoHy canLpo Hexpy nokasa1ennHn poxpaeHoc1n n cHep1noc1n, npnueH no
nokasa1ennH cHep1noc1n onn yc1ynann sanapnoeaponecknH naunnH, a no
poxpaeHoc1n cyuec1aenno npeaocxopnnn nx, - nnue1 nsaec1nm peHorpaq, naypea1
ocypapc1aenno npeHnn .. osnoa[13].
occnn, no cpaanennk c 1o xe pepne sne, um
q n. eropnn naH a1o cnmua1L c1panno, no 1ak 6mno.
akoe xe nonoxenne eue panLue cnoxnnocL a o1nouennn n6npn, rpe na orpoHnmx
1eppn1opnnx npoxnaano ouenL ne6onLuoe nacenenne Hec1nmx nneHen. s6m1ounoe
pycckoe nacenenne nepennaanocL uepes kpa poccncko uaun 1ypa, rpe a1o
paanenne 6mno HenLue. H u
. pncoepnnenne noamx 1eppn1opn ne necno 6onLuo
yrposm pnn uenLnoc1n n c1a1yca pyccko naunn, noka a1a peHorpaqnueckan 1enpenunn
coxpannnacL.
ne1 nonoxenne nonnoc1Lk nepeHennnocL n npeapa1nnocL a caok
npo1naononoxnoc1L. K 1990 ry PCOCP yx n cMn kn xMc
CckM C, 1,4 x, M cM c x x r
cmr cc cnn[14]. 1o xe caHoe apeHn a
HycynLHancknx pecny6nnkax na6nkpancn poc1 nacenennn a 5 pas amue cpepnero.
H n m n nu,
m x. C u
, , - -. Cn x -
52
- u, sqq -
1,12.
pouecc, o ko1opoH nncanocL amue, - cokpauenne ypenLnoro aeca ceaepnmx apnuea
a Hnpe - ak1nano npe1, yam, ne 1onLko a panLneH sapy6exLe, no n na 1eppn1opnn
6mauero , a sone xnsnennmx nn1epecoa occnn. s6eknc1ane, nanpnHep, no
pacue1aH peHorpaqoa, k 2025 ropy oxnpae1cn ypaoenne nacenennn (konkpe1no:
ys6ekoa). ockonLky eue a 1959 ropy na cene npoxnaano 80% ys6ekoa, ncno, ueH pnn
nac upeaa1 a1o1 poc1 a coue1annn c packpec1LnnnaanneH. sep6apxan a pesynL1a1e
kapa6axckoro konqnnk1a 6mn amnyxpen npnnn1L y ce6n camue Hnnnnona 6exenuea,
ne nHekunx kpmun nap ronoao. o poxpaeHoc1L npn a1oH y asep6apxanuea ne
cnnxae1cn. apxnknc1ane xe coxpanne1cn n aoace neHmcnnHo amcokan pnn 6mauero
poxpaeHoc1L (45 npoHnnne[15]). y nac, no 1eH xe pacue1aH, k 2050 ropy
Hoxe1 nponso1n cokpauenne nacenennn a paa pasa. oa1oHy oc1ae1cn 1onLko
6naropapn1L ora, u1o pacnancn, n u1o s6eknc1an 1enepL o1penen o1 nac
rpannuaHn, n no1ok ys6ekoa noka ne xnmnyn a occnk uepes kpa ys6ekcko uaun.
ak yxe xnmnyn no1ok, nanpnHep, asep6apxanuea (3 Hnn.), 1apxnkoa (500 1mc.) nnn
knprnsoa (na 600 1mc. pyccknx, nepe6paaunxcn sa nocnepnne pecn1L ne1 ns nprnsnn
a occnn na , npnxopn1cn 450 1mc. knprnsoa-nepecenenuea).
xe o1ue1nnao ncno: Hm, kak nrnnn n panunn, 1oxe ne ns6ernn o6pa1no
kononnsaunn. apopm poccncko-nHnepcko okyHenm papoc1no nacy1cn na naunx
nnaax ao ace aospac1akueH konnuec1ae. epe1acknaan k ce6e (1o ec1L - k naH) ace
noamx n noamx caonx popc1aennnkoa n ppyse. po asep6apxanuea n nncan amue,
no aepL ec1L eue n apHnne, n rpysnnm, n kasaxn, n cpepneasna1m... epapoH, kak
npnsnae1 paxe aHepnkanckn Time, 6maune coae1ckne pecny6nnkn s6eknc1an,
ypkHennc1an, apxnknc1an, nprnsnn n asaxc1an nnkorpa ne pa1oaann sa pacnap
oksa - nanpo1na, onn cnyxnnn naccnano, no npouno onopo koHHynnc1nueckoro
pexnHa (Time 20.04.92). nn 6onnncL oc1a1Lcn a saHkny1mx rpannuax co caonH
peHorpaqnuecknH aspmaoH any1pn. o spn 6onnncL: Hm ne cyHenn saHkny1L nx
peHoarpeccnanoe npoc1panc1ao. H q n,
m - u, u
n m u .
, nop 6okoH occnn, sa kaknHn-nnkaknHn rpannuaHn, a n a ne caHo
nponcxopn1 1e xe c1paunme pena. nocnepnne 10 ne1 a naue c1pane poxpae1cn
npnHepno nopoany pyccknx n nepyccknx pe1e. 1o apeHn, kak a nckonno pyccknx
o6nac1nx poxpaeHoc1L c1a6nnLno cnnxae1cn, akcnep1m oxnpak1, u1o Hexpy 2003 n
2016 rr. arec1an npn6aan1 o1 2201 1mc. uenoaek po 2472 1mc.; nryue1nn o1 468
1mc. po 512 1mc.; eunn - o1 610 1mc. po 720 1mc. n 1.p. nocneaoennme ropm a uncne
nepao paapua1kn nan6onee Hnorouncnennmx napopoa occnn nonannncL nnkorpa 1aH
ne 6maune po1one oce1nnm, ka6appnnum, paprnnum, ueuenum, aaapum...
eHorpaqm y1aepxpak1, u1o, ecnn a1a 1enpenunn coxpann1cn, 1o k 2050 ropy
ypenLnm aec pyccknx, poc1nrakun ceropnn, no pasnmH ouenkaH, o1 81,5 po 85
npouen1oa, cnnsn1cn po 50%. a1a pokoaan unqpa - ec1L 1o1 caHm kpn1nueckn
py6ex, k ko1opoHy (sa cue1 npncoepnnennn noamx seHenL n napopoa) nopouna
nakanyne pacnapa occnckan nHnepnn, a sa1eH (sa cue1 a1nopeHorpaqnuecknx
npoueccoa) 1ak xe nakanyne pacnapa nopouen oae1ckn oks. e1 nnkaknx
coHnenn, u1o, npeapa1nauncL acero nnuL a nonoanny nacenennn, pycckne ne cHory1
ypepxa1L rocypapc1aennoc1L paxe nmneune ypesanno occnn.
apapokc (na nepam, noaepxnoc1nm asrnnp) saknkuae1cn a 1oH, u1o napopm,
pakune npnpoc1 nacenennn a occnn, xnay1 a 1aknx xe nnn xypunx akonoHnuecknx
ycnoannx, u1o n pycckne. pecny6nnkax aakasa, k npnHepy, nnn a yae npnpoc1
nacenennn ne npekpauae1cn. o, kak Hm yxe snaeH, a a1oH ne1 nnuero
npo1naoec1ec1aennoro, nanpo1na, 1ak n ponxno 6m1L. 1n napopm ponLue nac,
53
pyccknx, coxpannnn arpapnm xapak1ep xosnc1aa: kaakasckne ropm nnn 1yannckan
1ara k nnoHy Hano pacnonarak1. ackpec1Lnnnaanne y nnx sapepxanocL npn
counan-qeopannsHe, no ak1nansnpoaanocL c nepexopoH k kann1annsHy.
o1 a1oro npouecca? poHkn n ann1nm o1ae1 pae1 ueuenckan aona.
aacerpa sanoHnnn 1enenn1epaLk c ueuencko 6a6o, noxaannauecn: Henn - ceHL
cmnoae. aoe cpaxak1cn c pyccknHn, pxnrn1m. cnn a1nx y6Lk1 - n eue paonx
nounk! eo1pasnHan nornka nc1opnn!
1o xe naH, pyccknH, 1enepL oc1ae1cn? 6naa1L, y6naa1L, y6naa1L?.. oka ueuenuaH
c, kM , onn 6ypy1 amnyxpenm nenpeHenno a1o pena1L. e c pyccknHn - 1ak
c rpysnnaHn, parec1anuaHn, ppyr c ppyroH. H npoc1o nekypa peaa1L ns6m1ok
nacenennn: aepL c 1944 ropa, korpa nx amcennnn, n no 1989 (rop nocnepne
nepenncn) noronoaLe ueuenuea yaennunnocL a 1pn pasa! o1oH nx aepnynn o6pa1no,
no Hec1, npnropnmx pnn xnnLn, a ropax ne npn6aannocL. posnoH, epnnc1aennoH
nac1onueH ropope eunn, onn npak1nueckn ne xnnn, sannHanncL npenHyuec1aenno
cenLcknH 1pypoH. ounannsH copepxan ueuenuea, nopkapHnnaan, a kann1annsH -
nepec1an. ackpec1Lnnnaanne c1ano nens6exnmH. e cnyuano nepaoe, u1o
npepnpnnnnn ueuenum, nonyuna cyaepenn1e1, - a1o unpokoHacu1a6nme a1nnueckne
unc1kn, sakonunaunecn 1o1anLnmH renounpoH pycckoro nacenennn: a1o 1oxe nornka
nc1opnn. unc1n1L pnn ce6n xnsnennoe npoc1panc1ao, o1nn1L n nopenn1L uyxoe
nHyuec1ao - ao1 ace, u1o onn Hornn cpena1L a noamx ycnoannx. o caepennnH
pasnnunmx oqnunanLnmx nc1ounnkoa, c 1991 no 1999 rr. na 1eppn1opnn eunn 6mno
y6n1o (ne cun1an norn6unx ao apeHn aoennmx pec1an) 6onee 21 1mc. pyccknx,
saxaaueno 6onee 100 1mc. kaap1np n poHoa, npnnapnexaunx nekopennmH xn1ennH
eunn. onee 46 1mc. uenoaek 6mno o6paueno a pa6c1ao nn6o ncnonLsoaano na
npnnypn1enLnmx pa6o1ax, o1 c6opa pnkopac1yue uepeHun po c1pon1enLc1aa poporn a
pysnk uepes 1yH-ane n as-6nun. onLko sa nepnop c 1991 no peka6pL 1994 r. (1o
ec1L qn ck) eunk amnyxpenno noknnyno 6onee 200 1mcnu
pyccknx. 1.p. m roaopnH ceropnn o npoaane eunn a cpepneaekoaLe, a anoxy
qeopannsHa - a1o rny6oko aepno. poxopn ny1eH qeopanLno peakunn na pasan1ne
kann1annc1nuecknx o1nouenn a caoe pecny6nnke, ueuenum nnuL noa1opnk1 ny1L,
ko1opm Hm npounn 80 ne1 nasap.
ekoppcHen no poxpaeHoc1n cpepn poccncknx pecny6nnk ceropnn - yaa (a 1990 r. -
17,6 npoHnnne). a 1pnpua1L ne1 c 1959 no 1989 rr. uncnennoc1L 1yannuea
yaennunnacL apaoe. specL Hm sac1aeH 6onee ueH xapak1epnyk kap1nny. yannum
coc1aannnn k konuy 1980-x a yae pae 1pe1n nacenennn, xnan npn1oH ouenL
koHnak1no: 96,26% acex poccncknx 1yannuea npoxnaae1 specL. aospac1e Honoxe
1pypocnoco6noro naxopn1cn 40,7%, a 1pypocnoco6noH - 54,6%, a c1apnkoa - acero
4,7%; 1yannum - Honopo napop. ackpec1Lnnnaanne y nnx npe1 ouenL ak1nano, sa 1e
xe 1pnpua1L ne1 ponn ropopckoro nacenennn yaennunnacL a 1pn c nonoanno pasa, a a
1euenne xnsnn opnoro nokonennn - a ceHL pas! o npn a1oH ponn sann1mx a
npoHmunennoc1n upesamuano nnska (12% a 1992 r.), a ypoaenL 6espa6o1num a
1993-94 rr. 6mn caHmH amcoknH a oc1ouno n6npn n opnnH ns caHmx amcoknx a
occnn: opna aakancnn na 120-140 6espa6o1nmx.
e1pypno npn 1akoH a1nopeHorpaqnueckoH packnape yanpe1L nepcnek1nay. ecHo1pn
na 1o, u1o 6onee 60% 1yannuea snak1 pycckn nsmk, popnmH onn nasmaak1 1yannckn
(98,5%) n Hexpy co6o roaopn1 na neH xe (95,6%). okasa1enL HexnaunonanLno
6paunoc1n - opnn ns caHmx nnsknx a occnn. yccknx onn epaa 1epnn1,
a1nocenapa1nc1ckne nac1poennn y nnx aennkn. e1oH 1990 ropa na pncko1eke a opnoH
ns nocenkoa nponsouna ppaka Hexpy pyccknHn n 1yannuaHn - pnpoao annsop. o on
cpe1onnpoaan no ace pecny6nnke. o ace 1are 1yannum c1ann cospaaa1L
aoopyxennme o1pnpm, c1ann y6naa1L, rpa6n1L pyccknx, xeuL nx poHa. apopnm
qpon1 yam aosrnaann Haccoaoe panxenne n noaen peno k o1penennk o1 occnn, k
ko1opo ona 6mna npncoepnnena nnuL a 1944 ropy. a uec1L ne1 c 1990 no 1996 rr.
54
camue 6 1mc. pyccknx yexano. npoponxak1 yesxa1L po cnx nop, no1oHy u1o
onacak1cn sa caok xnsnL n nHyuec1ao. npaannLno penak1. yaa ne c1ana noka
a1opo eune, no noc1enenno a pecny6nnke cqopHnpoaancn pexnH a1nokpa1nn n
pycoqo6nn. opo6no aHepnkancknH nerpaH, 1yannum ynopno nnopn1cn n ro1oan1cn k
peuakueHy 6pocky.
T n, , m -u -
n.
m ponxnm ncno nonnHa1L: x mx
qx n x x
x - - , u x ( m - )
, mn m. pn a1oH, koneuno, Hm cokpa1nH
noronoaLe onacnmx napopoa, cnnsnH nx peHorpaqnueckoe paanenne, kak penaeH a1o
ceropnn a eune[16]. o n caHn nc1ounHcn, ynoxnH a seHnk caonx knoue, ko1opmx
n 1ak Hano. kpoHe 1oro, okonua1enLno ncnop1nH cao nHnpx. H
um n n
, , .
cnoanan yrposa ncxopn1 a a1oH cHmcne o1 n1an - nauero rnaanoro c1pa1ernueckoro
coksnnka n nap1nepa na ack o6ospnHyk nepcnek1nay. paonax a1o c1panm,
rpannuaunx c occne, npoxnaae1 po 300 1mc. uenoaek, nonoanna ko1opmx xnae1 a
ycnoannx 6espa6o1num nnn nenonno sann1oc1n. aa1n1 nn y kn1auea Hyppoc1n
coxpann1L cyc k, coxpann1L pparouennyk nepcnek1nay coksnnuec1aa n
nap1nepc1aa, ne pasHenn1L ee na cnkHnny1noe c1peHnenne peun1L npo6neHy
(apeHennyk! n1a c1on1 na nopore necnmxannoro packpec1Lnnnaannn!) nsnnune
nno1noc1n caoero nacenennn sa nau cue1? 1o aonpoc ne 1onLko xnsnn n cHep1n pnn
nac, a1o aonpoc acero a1no- n reononn1nueckoro packnapa na rpnpyuee c1one1ne. cnn
n1a 1onkne1 nac a o6Ln1nn nenpopyHanno Hnrpaunonno nonn1nko,
Hnrpaunonno akcnancne - 1o a rpnpyue rno6anLno aone Hm cropnH 6es oc1a1ka.
1onLko ecnn Hm oc1aneHcn c n1aeH a canske na Hnpoao apene, y nac ec1L uanc
yuene1L. ako ueno - a1o ppyro aonpoc.
x, ecnn 6m nac sacennnn a1nxapn 1onLko opnn kn1aum. o 1y1 n kopeum, n
aLe1naHum, n aqranum, n nerpm. opnoH 1onLko opHockoaLe nacun1maae1cn
non1opa Hnnnnona nrn xy y c amxopuea ns snn n qpnkn. pn a1oH
ace nac eue n nonpekak1 Hano nno1noc1Lk nacenennn, nyc1ykunHn 1eppn1opnnHn n
naHekak1, u1o napo 6m no1ecnn1Lcn, nopenn1Lcn, nyc1n1L nopcenenuea.
1o xe pena1L? ak peua1L a1o1 aonpoc a npnnunne? epL npo6neHa coo1nouennn
1eppn1opnn n nacenennn - pec1an1enLnan, neampyHannan.
nn nauana a a1o cansn npepnarak1cn:
HEKmE 3HEQH YK HHHRH
1. Hu mu mx,
x . K s . H
u , n x xn n
.
2. E mu u , n u s
- , , n n. Hu
55
: m u, u. K-u
un.
3. E mu xmu u , s
, x
, um mun. B, x
mx . H u , . Hn
un -n; mu,
un nu
u . H u
n m mm. H , u
u u. K, K, nm
n nn, F
.
4. H u .
5. 3u m - un. Hx. H. H x
nx. 3 - m .
6. Ou - . T,
m, , n, , -
znn. 3 ,
un, x u, u.
1eH, onpepenennm kpyr nnu a Hnpe n a occnn yxe cpenan caoe npoqeccne
nnannpoaanne nHenno 1oro, koro n kak nyuue paccenn1L na pyccko seHne.

n apone aoace ne 6espasnnuno, kakne peHorpaqnueckne npoueccm n kak


npo1ekak1 a coapeHenno occnn. nn acerpa npnc1anLno o1cnexnaann cn1yaunk[17]
n ak1nano c1peHnnncL nanpaann1L ee pasan1ne a pae c1oponm.
B-x, a c1opony yHenLuennn nno1noc1n poccnckoro nacenennn a uenoH, papn
sanyc1ennn 1eppn1opn, ko1opme c1anoan1cn npn a1oH caoero popa pesepaoH pnn
Hnrpan1oa. 1o ne u1o nnoe, kak npnHan peHorpaqnueckan aona. e ocnoanme
nnc1pyHen1m - nponaranpa nnannpoaannn ceHLn n noppepxka coo1ae1c1aykue
nonn1nkn, cekcyanLnoe npocaeuenne a ukonax n eue pnp Hepnunncknx,
nonn1nuecknx n ncnxonornuecknx Heponpnn1n, o ko1opmx yxe neHano nncann ppyrne
aa1opm.
B-x, naun nckonnme 1eppn1opnn yxe pacnncanm na1oauaHn nop sacenenne
aceHn, koro onn caHn yxe ne cnnukoH-1o xo1n1 nycka1L a caon c1panm: nerpaHn,
asna1aHn, kapn6uaHn, nnpo-naknc1anuaHn, HycynLHanaHn acex Hac1e n 1.p. ue npn
op6aueae 6mn npnnn1 npoaokaunonnm sakon o aLespe-amespe rpaxpan, cpenaaun
coaepuenno nerknH penoH, ao-nepamx, aHnrpaunk (nepaeuee 1pe6oaanne
eapeckoro no66n, npo6nauero pannm sakon), a ao-a1opmx - nHHnrpaunk. ocne
kpyuennn n npnxopa k anac1n an1npoccnckoro pexnHa nLunna nepamH penoH
6mnn naansanm occnn Hexpynapopnme npaaoame nopHm, perynnpykune Hnrpaunk,
cornacno ko1opmH Hm yxe ne Hornn noc1aan1L na ny1n Hnrpan1oa pec1aennme
sacnonm. pnoapeHenno a noayk onc1n1yunk occnn 6mna anecena c1a1Ln,
o1pakuan npnopn1e1 HexpynapopnmH cornauennnH occnn nap ee any1pennnH
56
sakonopa1enLc1aoH. oayuka saxnonnynacL, Hm okasanncL sanoxnnkaHn naansannmx
naH npaaoamx nopH.
anap c1peHn1cn npeapa1n1L occnk a caanky o1xopoa ne 1onLko 1exnonornuecknx, no
n an1pononornuecknx, a o1c1onnk pnn nsnnukoa nacenennn nnane1m (a nepayk
ouepepL, uae1nmx). 1o nonn1no. o a 1o xe apeHn na 6ora1euyk n6npL c
aoxpenenneH nornnpmaak1 n caHn aHepnkanum (oco6enno eapeckoro
nponcxoxpennn), acnoHnnan npn a1oH npo nokynky nnckn n npnknpmaan, ckonLko
napo pyccknH npepnoxn1L sa seHnn o1 pana po oHanpopcknx oc1poaoa. peanyn k
kn1auaH. nn nnkorpa ne sa6maak1, u1o orpoHnan uac1L cyun (opna aocLHan!),
xpannuan a ce6e o1 45 po 60% nonesnmx nckonaeHmx Hnpa, npnkpm1a n saunuena
nnuL payHn npouen1aHn nacenennn eHnn. n1yaunn 6onee ueH nckycn1enLnan!
aknH o6pasoH, qn u m
3. oa1oHy pa6o1a pasnoo6pasnmx uen1poa n qonpoa,
sannHakunxcn npo6neHaHn Hnrpaunn, aepe1cn a occnn c orpoHno ak1nanoc1Lk.
17-18 K 1998 ropa aa1op no6maan na ceccnn v n
x r H n Hr v-r
H B n r. 1o a1o sa oprannsaunn?
"Hx" o nasaannoH oae1e roaopn1cn, u1o on nnncn y,
akc, kcyn ky ccnnck r...
nn ckycc Mckr ykc ccnnM nMM Mr
ccckM cc, kx k kM
Mxrcyc Mr nk nn c r.
ero nnc cx cqck n npepycHa1pnaae1 yy
akcy Mrr knc rcyc Mr
rMM nM cM c k n ccn M nk
kcyM rnM.
K s u ? coc1aa ayuno-
koncynL1a1nanoro oae1a axopn1 npepc1aan1enn (yuenme n o6uec1aennme pen1enn) 15
6maunx coae1cknx pecny6nnk. 1o - nopHanLno. o u1o kacae1cn Mxr
mr (kak xe 6es nero! aepL ace penexkn-1o o11ypa!), 1o a neH
- ceHL uenoaek nnoc1panuea, npnueH nn1epo - ns . pepn "na6nkpa1ene -
xapak1epnme eapeckne nHena: . Bm, X. 3, Q. s, B. .
pepcepa1enL . X - neeape, no on npepc1aanne1 ne6esmsaec1nm
copocoackn nc1n1y1 " " (Lk-Hopk, ). Henno a1n nkpn
pepxa1 ace nop kon1poneH, nHenno onn npnsaanm npepnncmaa1L occnn, kak e
c1pon1L caoe Hnrpaunonnoe sakonopa1enLc1ao, npnsaanm kooppnnnpoaa1L ee nonn1nky
Hnrpaunn c nn1epecaHn Hnpoaoro coo6uec1aa.
a co6nkpenneH npaa neaec1L o1kypa asnaunxcn uae1nmx 6exenuea (kakne y
nesaanmx roc1e aoo6ue Hory1 6m1L npaaa?!) a occnn annHa1enLno n c1poro cnepn1
r n Yn xr H n
x ( - ec1L n 1akan cnyx6a napsopa sa neunannnsoaanno
occne!). 1akxe cneunannsnpoaannan o6uec1aennan oprannsaunn 3
. 1kypa n saueH a occnn 6exenum ns nronm, yanpm n 1.n.? 1o nx
ckpa nanpaanne1? kako c1a1n sa occne napsnpae1 a1o caHoe ? aueH
nyxno ace a1o naH, pyccknH? aknx aonpocoa nnk1o, nackonLko n snak, ns ny6nnunmx
nonn1nkoa paxe ne sapae1. 1ecnnk1cn? kopee, 6on1cn.
O q n 3 -
. asae Hoxno cun1a1L cnyuanmH 1o1 qak1, u1o coae1nnkoH
npesnpen1a no naunonanLno nonn1nke 6mn ace ropm eape HnnL 6paHoanu H?
(Hy Hm o6nsanm, a uac1noc1n, o1Heno a nacnop1ax rpaqm naunonanLnoc1L,
akuen1oH na poccnnnc1ao kak noayk npen1nunoc1L, yc1anoako na Hnrpaunonnyk
57
o1kpm1oc1L, a 1enepL eue n sakonoH npo1naopec1ann akc1peHnc1cko
pen1enLnoc1n, nanpaanennmH ne a nocnepnkk ouepepL npo1na 1ex, k1o c1ane1
conpo1nann1Lcn sacenennk occnn nnopopuaHn.) asae Hoxno cun1a1L cnyuanmH 1o1
qak1, u1o a paan1enLc1ae ockam sa naunonanLnme o1nouennn o1aeuae1 saHnpep
oHn1e1a no o6uec1aennmH n HexpernonanLnmH cansnH eape pyapp caakoanu
K? asae Hoxno cun1a1L cnyuanmH 1o1 qak1, u1o epepanLnyk Hnrpaunonnyk
cnyx6y () nocnepoaa1enLno aosrnaannnn: eapeka r, acop K,
oce1nn Xr, no 1onLko ne pycckne nkpn? asae Hoxno cun1a1L cnyuanmH 1o1
qak1, u1o na noc1y Hnnnc1pa no penaH naunonanLnoc1e cHennnn ppyr ppyra 1o
nn1oHeu nLaoackoro nonn1exnnueckoro nnc1n1y1a, ykpannoqnn n pycoqo6 Mx,
1o eape n, 1o parec1aneu n, 1o anoaL nxanoa, nepamH penoH
pasornaaun enap1aHen1 no npo6neHaH pycckoro napopa, cospannm sa apeHn ero
kpa1koro o1cy1c1ann, 1o nonykpoaka B, npncoae1oaaaun y1nny ne ponycka1L
pernc1paunn epepanLno pyccko naunonanLno-kynL1ypno aa1onoHnn? asae Hoxno
cun1a1L cnyuanmH 1o1 qak1, u1o paspa6o1unkaHn onuenunn rocypapc1aenno
nonn1nkn occnn a o1nouennn Hnrpaunn okasanncL eapen H n M? k1o
cnpn1 a oHn1e1e no penaH naunonanLnoc1e ocpyHm? nnounme nauHenm:
Bv, Bxn, , x[18]... 1oHy xe nopkoHn1e1,
sannHakuncn, cpepn npouero, npo6neHo pycckoro napopa, aosrnaannna ypHyp1ka
, a akcnep1nm coae1 - rpek n. o1 n nsaonL1e aospoxpa1L
pycckn napop a 1aknx ycnoannx!
Bn un sx Eu u x
m, mmx m u.
pepc1aannn ynoHnny1yk Hnrpaunonnyk konuenunk na opnoH ns qopyHoa ,
napnHnp seanu ykoHenL sanann, u1o paspa6o1unkn npnnunnnanLno ns6erann
kaknx-nn6o npnopn1e1oa. ne npnunocL amc1ynn1L n ckasa1L c 1pn6ynm, u1o 6es
npnopn1e1oa nk6an konuenunn 1epne1 cHmcn, n6o npnopn1e1m 6maak1 a6conk1no
asanHoncknkuakunHn. npnHepy, nHek1 nn npaao an6anum cenn1Lcn a ocoao?
1oukn spennn eknapaunn npaa uenoaeka - 6esycnoano pa. 1oukn spennn
Krocnaann kak rocypapc1aa n cep6oa kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero napopa -
6esycnoano ne1. m anpnH, ueH konunnocL a1o sacenenne. Hek1 nn npaao
kpmHckne 1a1apm cenn1Lcn a pmHy? 1oukn spennn 1o xe eknapaunn - 6esycnoano
pa. 1oukn spennn pycckoro nacenennn pmHa, c 1oukn spennn kpannm kak
rocypapc1aa, c 1oukn spennn occnn - 6esycnoano ne1. 6o a pmHy ceropnn
ro1oan1cn a1opoe ocoao. 1ak panee. nn, ckaxeH: cn1yaunn c 1pypoamHn pecypcaHn
a n6npn n na anLneH oc1oke oc1aanne1 xena1L nyuuero. naun1 nn a1o, u1o Hm
ponxnm ncnpaann1L ee c noHouLk pa6oue cnnm ns n1an, open, npnn? oneuno,
ne1.
o1ae1 1onLko u1o nasnauennm npepcepa1enL napnHnp apaueanu anaHanoa
(a1Lnna eren1 nepeHec1nnacL a kpecno ero saHec1n1enn), sape1m a1nH
amc1ynnenneH sa xnaoe, nepano saHe1nn, u1o 1pypno 6maae1 cornacoaa1L 1pe6oaannn
any1penne nonn1nkn c HexpynapopnmH npaaoH n HnenneH Hnpoaoro coo6uec1aa.
1uero xe 1pypno? nckonLko. H u un, mu:
- . oHy cnyxnuL - 1oro nn1epecm n
6nkpeuL, 1oro npnopn1e1m n saunuaeuL. m6op HykoHene, peren1oa n
kanaHanoamx a nonLsy Hnpoaoro coo6uec1aa anonne nonn1en n xec1ko
pe1epHnnnpoaan nx nepyccknx nponcxoxpenneH.
anop anapa, pnk1ykuero naH npnnunnm Hnrpaunonno nonn1nkn, ne ocna6eaae1,
nponaranpa a1nx npnnunnoa aepe1cn noc1onnno.
H m, n?
58
n peknaHnme aren1c1aa npnnarak1 ace cnnm, u1o6m
apan1npoaa1L o6uec1aennoe cosnanne k nauec1ank nnonneHennmx, uyxpmx naH no
pace nkpe. ero c1on1 peknaHa opno 1onLko qnpHm opexpm Benetton, ko1opan
perynnpno noackpy pasHeuae1 nanopaHy pasnouae1nmx qnsnonoHn nop peansoH
oepnnennme kpackn Benetton! nn peknaHa Ho6nnLnmx 1eneqonoa Samsung c
paycHmcnenno napnncLk noaan cansL, nso6paxakuan nk6oannkoa - 6enyk
xenunny n nerpa. a ka1epnn6ypre, k npnHepy, HanLunk-nerpn1enok paxe aepe1
npornos noropm na 1eneanpennn. pepnonarae1cn, u1o a1o ponxno amsaa1L y spn1ene
uyac1ao yHnnennn.
H m n u
un n x
.
o1 nokasa1enLnm n aaxnm npnHep. 26 nknn 2000 ropa a ockae coc1onnocL
sacepanne 1ak nasmaaeHoro Hr . a neH o6cyxpanncL coapeHennme
peHorpaqnueckne npo6neHm. a1epnanm (am6opouno) 6mnn ony6nnkoaanm rase1o
peHn- o1 11.07.2000 r. on ny6nnkaunn sapae1 nn1epaLk nnnnna nLryaenn,
npepc1aan1enn 4 H n m (ec1L, okasmaae1cn, n
1ako eue a naue c1pane: ace nop kon1poneH!), ko1opm cxopy peknaHnpye1 pnn
pycckoro napopa aHepnkanckn onm1: M CLA. Y c kn nk
m MMr. Cc cnn a c Mncn. Yncn
nn nMk, . H Mx , cc, cn crn
CLA, yk y m n. HMMr c
x, c cMm c, nc. a 1o xe no1e nn1epaLk
n sakanunaae1cn: CLA cnncn cn c. y-
kn Mmcn. Tk y n cy
nxc Mk. Pc M n. Fn, n xn
n Mcq xnc ck Mn c.
ou1n cnoao a cnoao 1o xe, u1o n y npoqeccopa yp1ua. o yp1u a nauane 1990-x,
6m1L Hoxe1, ne ynoann eue noayk o6uec1aennyk 1enpenunk Hepnkn. ao1
nLryaenL (na1nnoaHepnkaneu, cypn no qaHnnnn) ne Hoxe1 a naun pnn o ne ne
sna1L. n roaopn1 saaepoHyk nenpaapy. o, 1eH ne Henee, pae1 1akne pekoHenpaunn
occnn: ay rnn y xn n c
yry rcn c n ck . B n ck
kqnk. O Mx kcycn nk Pcc, yr rcyc,
y c M cc. Kn k m nM - nmn
kc Pcc My, ycn Mxy k.
mu m - s n x x
3. kpe anapa Hoxno nonn1L: nH 1ak nyxno, onn ncxopn1 ns
caonx nn1epecoa. H nekypa 6exa1L ns co6c1aennmx c1pan, ncnopuennmx no nx
co6c1aenno anne n nepoHmcnnk, noa1oHy onn ace uaue o6pauak1 asopm k occnn.
s uLnx nn1epecoa ncxopn1 nx poccnckne nopronockn?
n
opnn acnek1 npo6neHm, o ko1opoH, nc1nnm papn, npnxopn1cn ckasa1L oco6o.
oncnk npnHepoH, o ueH npe1 peuL.
uenL c1panno n nenonn1no na nepam asrnnp, noueHy ne npoc1o nop nonn1nuecknH
paanenneH neknx annn1enLnmx aHepnkancknx nonn1nuecknx cnn, no eue n npn
acenapopnoH nnkoaannn npesnpen1 xoncon nopnncan a 1965 ropy sakon
(HHnrpaunonnm ak1), a amcue c1enenn ry6n1enLnm pnn acero 6enoro, a nepayk
59
ouepepL anrno-cakconckoro, nacenennn Hepnkn. xe un1npoaannm Hnok .
onnuyk nnue1 a caoe copepxa1enLno pnccep1aunn, u1o a1o1 sakon npnaen k 1oHy,
u1o nponsouen cyuec1aennm cpanr a naunonanLnoH coc1aae nHHnrpan1oa: no1ok
npnanpuea, pa1uan, kanapuea, neHuea, ckanpnnaaoa pesko cokpa1nncn. a1o cnnLno
aospoc npnnna nHHnrpan1oa ns c1pan snn, qpnkn, a1nncko Hepnkn, Kxno
aponm (oco6enno ns 1annn, peunn, cnannn, op1yrannn), oc1poaoa apn6ckoro
Hopn. onLko sa 1965-69 rr. nHHnrpaunn ns c1pan snn aospocna na 272% (c.132).
ak u1o xe, aHepnkanum ne aepann, u1o 1aopnnn, npo1anknaan a1o1 sakon,
pec1aykun npnHo npo1na nx xnsnennmx nn1epecoa? 1o sa c1pannoe sa1Henne
pasyHa?
onn1no, u1o 1akoe Horno nponso1n 1onLko nop annnnneH Hounoro no66n,
konoccanLno nponaranpnc1cko o6pa6o1kn, o6onaannaannn, soH6npoaannn Haccoaoro
cosnannn na acex ypoannx - o1 nnsoaoro, napopnoro, po ypoann cena1opoa,
konrpeccHenoa n caHoro npesnpen1a.
B: u CUA 1965 ,
m ?
1ae1: ace 1e, k1o 1papnunonno nponaranrpnpye1 n akcnnya1npye1 nn1epnaunonannsH,
knape1 ero kak kpaeyronLnm kaHenL a ocnoay caoe pen1enLnoc1n: ,
xn u (ko1opme, noc1pona y ce6n poHa, a spanne,
HakcnHanLno xec1koe a1nokpa1nueckoe o6uec1ao, a roc1nx nensHenno npepc1ak1 kak
npoc1nme apen1m n1epnaunonana). akoa neocnopnHm nayunm qak1[19].
1o kacae1cn koHHynnc1oa n xpnc1nan, a ouepepno pas ac1aaunx nneuoH k nneuy n
1eH pokasaaunx caoe nens6manoe popc1ao, - 1y1 ypnann1Lcn neueHy. e n ppyrne -
neaonLnnkn aecLHa xec1knx napnaunonanLnmx a1nuecknx cnc1eH. 1 xpnc1nanckoro
ryHannsHa po ryHannsHa a6c1pak1noro (nnn, u1o 1o xe, koHHynnc1nueckoro) opnn uar.
nen nopo6nmx npepasn1mx npeonornuecknx nnn pennrnosnmx yc1anoaok ko HnoroHy
o6nsmaae1, paxe ecnn paccypok n coaec1L aospaxak1.
o ao1 eue aonpoc nn1epecnm: saueH a1o 6mno nyxno eapenH? epL y nnx nnkorpa
ne 6mno nnkaknx sa1pypnenn c nHHnrpaune a [20]. pnako nHenno nx rase1m, a
1oH uncne caHme kpynnme n annn1enLnme a Hepnke, 1akne, kak aunnr1on oc1,
Lk-Hopk aHc n pp., anecnn onpepennkun aknap a no66npoaanne ynoHnny1oro
sakona. Henno nx apaoka1m n unnoannkn amc1ynann ero anonore1aHn. apak1epnm
u1pnx: 7 aaryc1a 1963 ropa, korpa sakon 6mn eue na c1apnn npoek1a, copok
annn1enLnmx aHepnkancknx oprannsaun ny6nnuno amc1ynnnn a noppepxky
nsHenenn nHHnrpaunonnoro sakonopa1enLc1aa. s a1nx copoka - pecn1L (1.e.
ue1aep1L) npepc1aannnn co6o pasnnunme anpm eapecknx o6Lepnnenn, aknkuan
snaHenn1yk cnonnc1ckyk oprannsaunk na-pn1.
aueH n noueHy onn a1o penann?
3, u m . H
, x , u.
k 1965 ropy nHencn uenneun onm1 no cospannk n akcnnya1aunn c1onL xe
orpoHno n nonna1nnuecko, kak , c1panm, rpe poHnnnpykun
rocypapc1aoo6pasykun (nHnepckn) a1noc okasancn nopaanen, nnsaepen po
nonoxennn 6ecnpaanoro ponopa: a1o . eckonLko pecn1nne1n eapen
nonLsoaanncL a a1o c1pane konoccanLno anac1Lk n HnorouncnennmHn
npenHyuec1aaHn, nonyuna nencuncnnHme Ha1epnanLnme n neHa1epnanLnme
pnanpenpm co caoero aknapa a paspyuenne occncko nHnepnn n cospanne
oae1cko anac1n na ee pynnax.
60
mn y nnx 1akxe onm1 nenocpepc1aennoro nopaanennn n nnsaepennn poHnnnpykuero
rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero a1noca a naue c1pane. HexannsH 1ako He1aHopqosm
6mn o1pa6o1an n ocHmcnen kak payepnnan sapaua. F u,
, - u u s u
, mu u x ,
- mu , s,
m . ocne uero 6epn ero ronmHn pykaHn. pyccknHn,
upesHepno coaec1nnamHn n o1smaunamHn k uyxo 6epe, acerpa ro1oamHn nopenn1Lcn
c 6nnxnnH caonH nocnepnnH nHyuec1aoH, aeuno c1papakunHn o1 caoero cnnppoHa
aceuenoaeunoc1n, a1o1 noHep ypancn nerko n 6mc1po. ouenL naponro, ax po
naunx pne[21]. yac1ao cnpaaepnnaoc1n - snocuac1nan axnnnecoaa nn1a pyccknx.
eapen a1o xopouo snak1.
o noc1aan1L a nopo6noe nonoxenne anrno-cakcoa, npnpoxpennmx saaoeaa1ene n
nokopn1ene, arpeccopoa, sakanennmx ace nenpoc1o nc1opne oaoro ae1a,
nopnnnnmx xosnea caoe c1panm, kaknHn onn 6mnn eue a nauane aeka, - sapaua
necpaanenno 6onee 1pypnan. e Hoxno amnonnn1L, 1onLko co6nkpn npepaapn1enLnme
ycnoann, ns ko1opmx nepame paa - nk6mH cnoco6oH HakcnHanLno cnnsn1L ypenLnm
aec poHnnnpykue naunn n npnan1L e koHnnekc annm nepep oc1anLnmHn. Henno
a1nH eapeckan o6unna ak1nano sannHanacL n sannHae1cn a nocnepnne c1o ne1,
ncnonLsyn ace poc1nxennn naykn, kynL1ypm n nonn1nkn. kak ycneuno!
po1anknaanne sakona 1965 ropa o6 nHHnrpaunn - opnn ns nan6onLunx ycnexoa
eapeckoro no66n na a1oH ny1n. knaccnueckn npnHep kak pnn nnx, 1ak n pnn 1ex,
koro eapen xo1n1 onyc1n1L a co6c1aenno c1pane.
epL nopo6nyk nonn1nky eapen aepy1 ne 1onLko a . coapeHenno cypL6e
aponm Hnpoaan sakynnca 1akxe npnnoxnna pyky. co6enno xopouo a1o anpno na
npnHepe konenonpeknonenno epHannn, ko1opyk sac1aannn, npnnypnnn npnnnHa1L k
ce6e ace napopm (xo1n e a1o aoace n ne nyxno) n a poaepuenne acero osapaunnn
uenLk aoccospannn eapecko o6unnm.
euac, nocne pacnapa , eapen a occnn, c1aaue HononaunonanLno pyccko
c1pano, cnoaa c1onknynncL c 1o xe npo6neHo: kak yHenLun1L ypenLnm aec
poHnnnpykue naunn, kak npnan1L e koHnnekc annm (a nyuue - eue n
nenonnouennoc1n), u1o6m nopunnn1L caonH uennH.
nrpaunonnme npoueccm ec1L aaxneun nnc1pyHen1 1ako nonn1nkn.
K
rop nocne 1oro, kak nepao nspanne nac1onue 6poukpm amuno a cae1, Hne
poaenocL nnca1L npepncnoane k knnre ampakuerocn aHepnkanckoro nc1opnka Qs
Qm E n r . o6napyxnn a ne ne 1onLko
o6uee nonnoe n 6esycnoanoe nop1aepxpenne amueykasanno ponn eapeea kak
rnaanmx 1eope1nkoa n npak1nkoa paspyuennn pacoao roHorennoc1n Hepnkn n
aponm, no n Haccy konkpe1nmx qak1oa, packpmaakunx npnunnnme cansn a1oro
npouecca. ak anpnH, ne 1onLko c1oponnne nccnepoaa1enn, a 1oH uncne poccnckne,
naunn pannyk sakonoHepnoc1L: nan6onee uec1nm n nponnua1enLnm nccnepoaa1enL
a caHo Hepnke roaopn1 o 1oH xe. ce a1o, na Ho asrnnp, nHee1 ncknkun1enLnyk,
upesamuanyk aaxnoc1L pnn pannoro nccnepoaannn. oa1oHy n ueppo npoun1npyk
c1pokn ns ynnkanLnoro nccnepoaannn kka, packpmaakune rnasa un1a1ennH na
Hnoroe ns 1oro, u1o o6muno ne nexn1 na noaepxnoc1n. kk - 6nec1nun sna1ok
aonpoca, anapekun Ha1epnanoH, kak nnk1o ppyro. , nockonLky onm1 Hepnkn ao
61
HnoroH o6ornan poccnckn, naH 6ype1 kpane nonesno c nnH osnakoHn1Lcn, u1o6m
npaannLno ocHmcnn1L caon nepcnek1nam.
asnn pnn un1npoaannn paa paspena (a cokpauennn, nepeaop ncnpaanen no
nHekueHycn y Henn opnrnnany). pnn nocanuen
u n, ko1opyk eapen - aennuaune no6opnnkn
co6c1aenno a1nokpa1nn a spanne! - neyc1anno n noaceHec1no aepy1 ao acex ppyrnx
c1panax, a 1oH uncne a Hepnke. 1opo nocanuen
x q
. nn nac, pyccknx, pnn occnn, noc1onnno npnHepnkue
na ce6n aHepnkanckn onm1, n 1a, n ppyran 1eHa paano ak1yanLnm. 1ak:
1) oac nanne1cn npnsnannmH o1uoH coapeHenno ukonm arann1apnsHa
(1eopnn naunonanLnoro paanonpaann. - A. C.) a an1pononornn. n 6mn eapecknH
nHHnrpan1oH ns epHannn c aecLHa nesnaun1enLnmH qopHanLnmH onm1oH a o6nac1n
an1pononornn <.>. ana1a pepc1aan1ene onrpecca o1He1nna cansL oaca c
44 oprannsaunnHn, opnen1npoaannmHn na koHHynnc1nueckoe panxenne. a6o1an a
anoxy poc1a naunsHa a epHannn n ycnnennn annnnnn an1pononoroa, ocosnakunx
snauenne pacoamx pasnnun a HnpoaoH nayunoH coo6uec1ae, oac nauan nanpaann1L
caoe annnnne a o6nac1n an1pononornn na cnyx6y caonx nonn1nuecknx cnHna1n. n
nauan npopanra1L mm m, u
x , u (specL n panee ampeneno Hno.
- A. C.). n cnopnn, u1o xo1n onn nHenn pasnnunn a uae1e koxn n uep1ax, rpynnm,
nasmaaeHme pacaHn, o6napann aecLHa nesnaun1enLnmHn pasnnunnHn a rene1nueckoH
o1nouennn, n kakne 6m nn 6mnn nx noaepxnoc1nme pasnnunn, ncknkun1enLno cpepa
cospana nx <.>.
n co6pan Hnornx eapecknx yuennkoa aokpyr ce6n, aknkuan ene anqnua,
sapopa ena, enannna epukoanua, 11o nan6epra n unn on1ark
(nac1onunH nHeneH on1ark 6mno spaanL pen6epr. - A.C.) <.>. oac n ace ero
yuennkn nHenn o6unpnme koHHynnc1nueckne cansn. n neopnokpa1no npoaosrnauan,
u1o 6mn a coc1onnnn can1o aonm npo1na pacnsHa <.>. oac n ero 1oaapnun
nonyunnn npeonornueckn kon1ponL nap an1pononornuecknHn qakynL1e1aHn
6onLunnc1aa ynnaepcn1e1oa ny1eH noppepxkn caonx 1oaapnue no 6opL6e sa
paanonpaane, u1o6m acerpa ncnonLsoaa1L cao nonoxenne pnn npopanxennn caonx
c1oponnnkoa npn akapeHnuecknx nasnauennnx. 1o apeHn, kak 1papnunonnme
an1pononorn ne nHenn nnuero pnn saun1m caonx asrnnpoa, oac n ero nocnepoaa1enn
nyc1nnncL a can1yk Hnccnk no nckopenennk snann o pacoamx pasnnunnx ns
akapeHnuecko cpepm. nn npeycnenn a a1oH. ak 1onLko c1oponnnkn arann1apnsHa
poc1nrann annnnnn nnn anac1n, onn noHorann caonH 1oaapnuaH nopnn1Lcn no
cnyxe6no nec1nnue na yue6nmx kaqeppax konnepxe n akapeHnuecknx qakynL1e1oa,
ko1opmHn onn pykoaopn1. nn 1akxe Hornn nonara1Lcn na caonx co6pa1Lea-eapeea,
ko1opme sannHann annn1enLnoe nonoxenne a ynnaepcn1e1e, pnn 1oro, u1o6m
copec1aoaa1L caonH co6pa1LnH no aepe, paano kak n neeapeenH, c1oponnnkaH a1o
npen, npn nonyuennn npoqeccopcknx saann n nayunmx nasnauenn n npopanxenn
no cnyx6e. nanornunm croaop nHen Hec1o a pnpax n a npaanennnx
an1pononornuecknx accounaun n xypnanoa. pnako saaepuakunH ypapoH 6mna
Haccnpoaannan noppepxka, okasannan porHe arann1apnsHa cpepc1aaHn Haccoao
nnqopHaunn, ko1opme a nopaannkueH 6onLunnc1ae 6mnn a pykax eapeea.
acoaoe paaenc1ao 6mno (n ace eue ec1L) npepc1aaneno ny6nnke kak nayunm qak1,
ko1opoHy npo1naoc1on1 1onLko qana1nkn n neaexec1aennme nkpn. a1opm,
c1oponnnkn arann1apnsHa, 1akne, kak unn on1ark n ppyrne, ypoc1onnncL aennknx
noxaan a xypnanax, rase1ax n, nospnee, na 1eneanpennn. esaancnHo o1 1oro, eape
1m nnn neeape, ncnoaepoaanne npen pacoaoro paaenc1aa c1anoannocL 6asoao
porHo pnn nk6oro, k1o xo1en npopanny1Lcn a an1pononornn nnn nk6o ppyro uac1n
akapeHnueckoro Hnpa. pnaepxennoc1L k nonn1nueckn koppek1no nnnnn
62
npnaopnna k npec1nxy n oaaunnH, penLraHn n ycnexy. orpa xe k1o-1o roaopn1
npaapy no pacoamH aonpocaH, 1o a1o npnaopn1 k nnunmH a1akaH n paxe uac1o k
akonoHnuecknH neasropaH <.>.
konuy 1990-x ropoa eapeckne aa1opm nauann 6ecc1mpno nnca1L o caoeH
poHnnnpoaannn a aHepnkancko an1pononornn. 1997 r. a nspannn Hepnkanckn
n1pononor, ko1opoe ny6nnkye1cn aHepnkancko an1pononornuecko accounaune,
eapeckn yuenm enya pank nncan, u1o sn n
n u um ,
un <.>.
1o kacae1cn 6enmx n uepnmx, 1o 1eopnn arann1apnsHa ace eue poHnnnpye1. nuapp
eaon1nn, eon aHnn n 1eqen xe onLp nannk1cn 1peHn npnsnannmHn cpepn
eapeea Hapkcnc1aHn-eapenHn n aepyunHn akapeHnuecknHn ampasn1ennHn npe
arann1apnsHa. ecHo1pn na naanny caexnx nayunmx pannmx, pokasmaakunx
xnsnenno aaxnyk ponL renoa a cospannn nnpnanpyanLnmx n rpynnoamx pasnnun,
1eopnn pacoaoro arann1apnsHa ace eue nanne1cn canuennmH nncanneH an1pononornn
n uenoaeuecko ncnxonornn, kak a1o xapak1epnsye1cn nonynnpnmHn . ncannn
eaon1nna, aHnna, oynpa, oys n ppyrnx c1oponnnkoa 1eopnn arann1apnsHa uac1o
nonannk1cn na c1pannuax 1aknx xypnanoa, kak Hn1connan, euypan nc1opn,
eua, nckaaa, aH, Lkcank n ppyrnx unpoko pacnpoc1panennmx
nspannnx. eneansnonnme nporpaHHm uac1o npepnarak1 nn1epaLk c nnHn kak
aa1opn1e1aHn no aonpocaH pac, n ouenL pepko nx onnonen1aH nosaonne1cn
ocnapnaa1L nx Hnennn <.>.
1ak xe, kak eapeckne yuenme aepy1 cxonac1nueckyk 6opL6y sa
arann1apnsaunk a nayke n counonornn, a eapeckne Harna1m cpepc1a Haccoao
nnqopHaunn ocyuec1annk1 nponaranpnc1ckn kon1ponL,
m umm u
q .
ou1n c nepaoro pnn caoero ocnoaannn a 1909 ropy aunonanLnan accounaunn
copec1ann nporpeccy uae1noro nacenennn (NAACP) 6mna nepao oprannsaune,
pa6o1akue ao nHn pacoao cHeuannoro aHepnkanckoro o6uec1aa. ecLHa nn1epecno,
u1o yupepn1enLnm coae1 pnpek1opoa nHen a caonx pnpax 1onLko opnoro
ampakuerocn uepnokoxero . . . k6ya (ko1opm 6mn aoo6ue-1o Hyna1oH).
onLuan uac1L npaanennn coc1onna ns eapecknx npeonoroa HapkcnsHa. ana1a
pepc1aan1ene onrpecca n Hnorne rocypapc1aennme opranm paccnepoaann
1ua1enLno pokyHen1npoaann 1o1 qak1, u1o ace ocnoaa1enn NAACP 6mnn ak1nanc1aHn
koHHynnc1nueckoro panxennn. k6ya paxe am6pan oHHynnc1nueckyk any a
kauec1ae Hec1a norpe6ennn.
epamH npesnpen1oH NAACP 6mn p1yp nnnrapn, n no1oH acerpa 1onLko eapen
cnyxnnn npesnpen1aHn NAACP c HoHen1a ocnoaannn pannoro panxennn anno1L po
1970-x ropoa. oanL nnnrapn cHennn na a1oH noc1y caoero 6pa1a p1ypa, a acnep sa
nnH nan annan anac1aoaan nap oprannsaune. o 6onLue uac1n eapeckoe
nnpepc1ao NAACP 6mno Hano nsaec1no unpoko ny6nnke. orpa n poc1nr
coaepuennone1nn, epnnc1aennoe nHn, ko1opoe n cnmuan a cansn c NAACP, 6mno nHn
on nnknnca, ee uepnokoxero naunonanLnoro cekpe1apn. ockonLky ero nHn 1ak
uac1o nonannnocL a npecce n nepep rnasaHn ny6nnkn, 1o, kak n 6onLunnc1ao
aHepnkanuea, n cun1an, u1o nnknnc 6mn nnpepoH NAACP. o na caHoH pene
npesnpen1oH NAACP 6mn a a1o apeHn annan <.>.
Hun n qn n x m
. O xu, 90% m
n u
u u u.
63
pak1nueckn kaxpm uar nporpecca panxennn sa rpaxpanckne npaaa npoxopnn
uepes cypm. nn o6ecneunnn nonanenne pekpe1a o npnnypn1enLno pacoao
nn1erpaunn ukon, pann aosHoxnoc1L ronocoaa1L nerpaHo1nmH uepnmH n, nakoneu,
naansann Hepnke Haccnpoaannyk pnckpnHnnaunonnyk nporpaHHy no o1nouennk k
6enmH nop nasaanneH 1aeppn1enLnoe pec1ane paennLnna. pecL 1oxe eapen
nrpann poHnnnpykuyk ponL <.>.
axe a 1ex o6nac1nx pen1enLnoc1n, rpe eapen ne 6mnn qak1nuecknHn nnpepaHn, onn
o6ecneunaann 6onLuyk uac1L sakynncnoro annnnnn. M Rm Kr-m
nonan nop annnnne 1ennn eanncona, ko1opm nanncan Hnorne ns peue nnra,
aknkuan, ckaxeH, 1akyk peuL, kak Y v, nponsnecennyk a xope
apua na aunnr1on. xon n o6ep1 ennepn npepynpexpann nnra o 1oH, u1o6m on
o1pennn ce6n o1 eanncona ns-sa koHHynnc1nueckoro npounoro nocnepnero. nnr,
opnako, nauen eanncona neouennHmH pnn nero n - o1kasancn. 1ypenueckn
kooppnnaunonnm koHn1e1 nenacnnLc1aennmx pec1an (SNCC) n onrpecc pacoaoro
paanonpaann (C) 1akxe nHenn knkueayk npnuac1noc1L eapeea k caoe
pen1enLnoc1n na nauanLnmx qopHnpykunx a1anax. 6onLuan uac1L noHnnanLno
6enmx a epe na konecax sa cao6opy, ko1opme nounn na Kr, 6mnn eapenHn.
npoko nsaec1no peno 1pex yuac1nnkoa pannoro Hapua sa cao6opy na konecax,
y6n1mx a nnapenLqnn, u1a1 nccncnnn. 1o 6mnn aepnep, ypHan n enn, - paa
eapen n opnn uepnm <.>.
1nouennn eapeea n uepnmx c1ann 6onee na1nny1mHn a nocnepnne ropm, no Hepe
1oro, kak nonn1nueckne cnHna1nn uepnmx c1ann 6onee naunonannc1nuecknHn a
o1nouennn co6c1aennmx npaa. opc1pekann nerpoa 6opo1Lcn sa caon rpaxpanckne
npaaa n Hnorne koHHynnc1m. nn anpenn a uepnmx no1enunanLnmx peaonkunonepoa.
nn aoc1pe6oaann onm1 cospannn oae1ckoro rocypapc1aa, pacun1maan na eapeckyk
6pa1ckyk 6opL6y Hexpy cnonnsHoH n koHHynnsHoH, kak a1o onncmaan epunnnL a
1920 ropy. apnkanLnme aHepnkanckne eapen npepc1aannnn ce6e uepnmx kak
aHepnkanckn npone1apna1, 1panca1nan1nueckyk aepcnk yrne1ennmx kpenoc1nmx
occnn. nn pacun1maann ncnonLsoaa1L nerpoa kak coksnnkoa, snaHenocuea noao
koHHynnc1nuecko peaonkunn. oneuno, paxe nekoHHynnc1nueckne eapen cknonnnncL
k noppepxke nepacoaoro onpepenennn 1epHnna aHepnkanckn napop, nockonLky
eapen 6onee, ueH k1o-nn6o ppyro, ocosnaaann ce6n noc1oponnnHn a o6uec1ae 6enmx.
pak1nueckn ace eapeckne kpyrn noppepxnaann peHon1ax sakonoa n 1papnun,
ko1opme cnoco6c1aoaann npouae1annk eno pacm <.>.
1oro, kak n ace 6onLue o6napan nnqopHaune o1nocn1enLno eapeckoro
poHnnnpoaannn a an1n6enmx n an1nceHenmx peaonkunnx, n ace 6onLue y6expancn,
u1o Hnorne Horyuec1aennme eapen Hory1 cHo1pe1L na 6enyk Hepnky 1ouno 1ak xe,
kak onn opnaxpm cHo1penn na uapn n 6enmx pyccknx. sann1epecoaancn,
n , u , ,
um m, um mu
nn <.>.
apeckne ak1nanc1m 6mnn ynopnm a caoe noppepxke nnkpannsHa aHepnkancko
nonn1nkn n kynL1ypm. anmuennme eapeckne o6euannn o1c1anaa1L 1ak nasmaaeHme
rpaxpanckne npaaa, nk6oaL, Hnp n 6pa1c1ao - o6epnynncL 6eso6pasnnHn. anee
Hnpnme ropopckne o6unnm uepnmx nanoHnnak1 paspyun1enLnme opypnnme sannm:
1pe1L acex Honopmx uepnokoxnx aHepnkanuea naxopn1cn a 1kpLHax, a Hnnnnonm
ckoaanm uennHn ankoronn n napkoHannn.
H n nn um A?
ueanpno, u1o Hapkcnc1m anpenn a uepnmx n ppyrnx HenLunnc1aax nonnLnmx
coksnnkoa, pa6m po6n1Lcn nonn1nueckoro ycnexa. 1euenne nocnepnnx pecn1nne1n
ronocoaanne uepnoro 6noka 6mno xnsnenno aaxnmH npexpe acero pnn
nn6epanLnmx nonn1nkoa. n A x B,
64
. B
n um . B n
m um ,
um. apen 6ypy1 acerpa npeycneaa1L a a1oH
aannone. axpm ypap, ko1opm asnaHmaae1 connpapnoc1L, cnoco6c1aye1
npopanxennk eapeea na aepunny anac1n. oneuno, pannm npouecc nHee1 Hec1o ne
1onLko a Hepnke, no n a nk6o c1pane, rpe eapen coc1aannk1 Horyuec1aennoe
HenLunnc1ao. O u n n
m , u u u
<.>.
acnsH HenLunnc1aa - panxenne sa rpaxpanckne npaaa n arann1apnsH, ko1opm
saxnec1nyn Hepnky - 6epe1 caoe nauano a a1nouen1pnsHe uyxec1panuea. au napop,
6maun korpa-1o o1ue1nnao eaponecknH no npnpope, 6mc1po ncuesae1. n ne 6mn
caapen a ko1nax aannona. o noka ne nac1ynn1 aennkne nepeHenm, on 6ype1
npoponxa1L yc1yna1L caon nosnunn.
norne aHepnkanum, ko1opme 6oponncL npo1na uepnoro panxennn sa rpaxpanckne
npaaa, cnpaaepnnao nonaran, u1o ono npnaepe1 k paspyuennk c1pyk1ypm o6uec1aa,
nnkorpa ne ocosnaaann nc1ounnka a1o cnnm. a Kre a caoe apeHn opnn annnnn ao
aceH nnkn, neko1opmx nonn1nkoa, a ppyrne - cpepc1aa Haccoao nnqopHaunn.
1onLko neHnorne nonnHann, u1o panxenne sa rpaxpanckne npaaa 6mno pesynL1a1oH
1o xe caHo cnnm, ko1opan npnaena a panxenne pycckyk peaonkunk, ko1opan
okasana annnnne na yuac1ne Hepnkn a epao Hnpoao aone, ko1opan noHorna
amsaa1L 1opyk Hnpoayk aony n ko1opan, nakoneu, cospana rocypapc1ao spannL
<.>.
epnme 6mnn npoc1o sanoxnnkaHn a ropaspo 6onee kpynno nonn1nuecko nrpe.
onLunnc1ao 6enmx neeapeckoro nponcxoxpennn, ko1opme 6mnn saaep6oaanm a
pnpm c1oponnnkoa pannoro panxennn, nnkorpa ne ocosnaaann, u1o 6opL6a npe1 no
cyuec1ay coaceH ne sa rpaxpanckne npaaa. 1n yuac1nnkn, kak caHn uepnme, 1ak n
Hnorne 6enme, - nHn yHeno Hannnynnpoaann a paHkax naHnoro 6onee kpynnoro
c1pa1ernueckoro nnana eapeea: 6opL6m sa anac1L (Qs Qm. E n
r . - M., 2001. - . 123-144).
2) HHnrpaunonnoro ak1a 1965 ropa onrpecc nauan nrnopnpoaa1L
xenannn 6onLunnc1aa n nonoxnn nauano nonn1nke, ko1opan pnckpnHnnnpoaana
no1enunanLnmx eaponecknx nHHnrpan1oa, no cnoco6c1aoaana Haccnpoaanno
neeaponecko nHHnrpaunn. aunnan c a1oro apeHenn, qepepanLnoe npaan1enLc1ao
peHonc1pnpoaano Hanyk sann1epecoaannoc1L a ycnnennn nHHnrpaunonnmx sakonoa n
nonn1nkn coxpannoc1n naunx rpannu. esynL1a1oH a1o nonn1nkn 6mn no1ok uae1nmx
nHHnrpan1oa, kak neranLnmx, 1ak n neneranLnmx <.>. onn1nka, ananornunan
pec1aykue a , npnaena 6onLuoe konnuec1ao neeaponeuea a anapy; nerpoa -
a ennko6pn1annk; ceaepoaHepnkanuea n asna1oa - ao panunk; 1ypkoa - a
epHannk; n nac1onuee nonyppn ns uyxeseHnmx pac a kanpnnaank, cnannk n
1annk <.>.
orpa n o1cnepnn 6opL6y, kacakuykcn nHHnrpaunonnmx sakonoa a 1euenne
nocnepnnx 100 ne1 a Hepnke, n n
x : s <.>. onLuan
uac1L ns npoun1annoro ykasmaana na pnn1enLnyk nc1opnk ycnnn oprannsoaannoro
eapec1aa no papnkanLnmH npeo6pasoaannnH a aHepnkancknx nHHnrpaunonnmx
sakonax. cansancn c pk Hn1oH, c1apmH noaoopneancknH apaoka1oH, aa1opoH
knnrn Te egac o te elting Pot (acnepne naannLnoro o1na), ko1opm
nayunn Henn HnoroHy a aonpocax nHHnrpaunonno npo6neHm <.>. n o6Lncnnn Hne
nc1opnk aHepnkancknx nHHnrpaunonnmx sakonoa <.>. n cnpocnn: LnH nn1epecaH
Horno cnyxn1L naaopnenne Hepnkn xanknH o1pe6LeH?. 6mc1po o1ae1nn na cao
65
co6c1aennm aonpoc: 1o 6mno a nn1epecax epnnc1aennoro napopa, ko1opm
ncnonLsoaan pacoayk connpapnoc1L a kauec1ae opyxnn, opyxnn, ko1opoe onn xo1enn
nHe1L 1onLko pnn ce6n. onm1kn nsHenn1L aHepnkanckne nHHnrpaunonnme sakonm n a
koneunoH n1ore nnsaeprny1L eaponeckoe 6onLunnc1ao aenncL nou1n ncknkun1enLno
eapenHn <.>. pk Hn1a 6mno Hnoro knnr no nHHnrpaunonnoHy aonpocy, aknkuan
neko1opme, nanncannme eapenHn. oponxnn nx y nero n c ypoaonLc1aneH nokonancn
a nnx.
apeckne oprannsaunn, 1akne, kak Hepnkanckn eapeckn konrpecc, aosrnaannnn
(n npoponxak1 aosrnaann1L) ycnnnn, nanpaanennme na nn6epannsaunk aHepnkancko
nHHnrpaunn, n cospaaann npenn1c1ann na ny1n npnnn1nn sakonoa, orpannunaakunx
ee. 1921-H, 1924-H n 1952-H ropax onrpecc npnnnn sakonm, ko1opme nm1anncL
noppepxnaa1L pacoam cyc k a Hepnke. ecLHa nn1epecen 1o1 qak1, u1o,
necHo1pn na 1o, u1o anrnoaHepnkanum 6mnn npeo6napakunH 6onLunnc1aoH
aHepnkanckoro nacenennn, a 1akxe n onrpecca, onn ne nm1anncL yaennun1L caok
ponk a aHepnkanckoH nacenennn, a npoc1o nm1anncL noppepxnaa1L cyc k
kaxpo rpynnm. Y x x x u

n xm A s
x . ana1e pepc1aan1ene ponLq a66a1, aHynL nkc1an n
HHanyanL annep aosrnaannnn 6opL6y sa neorpannuennyk nHHnrpaunk, a 1o apeHn
kak a ena1e ep6ep1 eHon n nospnee ko6 anu kooppnnnpoaann a1n ycnnnn <.>.
ounonor paapp . occ a caoe snakoao knnre 1apm n noam Hnp: snauenne
npouno n nac1onue nHHnrpaunn pnn aHepnkanckoro napopa (1914) npoun1npoaan
snaHenn1oro nponHHnrpan1ckoro nnpepa spannn anrannn, ko1opm ykasmaan, u1o
Hepnka nanne1cn npeanLnmH Hec1oH pnn peannsaunn eapecknx nn1epecoa. anee
occ pesko amckasmaae1cn o eapeckoH annnnnn: My M c
c MMr nk: cncM ar cy cn
kn MMry nky CLA. HcMn , ck
MMr - cr nm kx cM c m MMr, cn
n MMrr kk <.>. CcMckn kMn,
nncn r xyn, nn , ym c
ryM yck c c, cn nn x
c. Hyck r cn Hn Hn HMMr Hr
MrcnM ynknM <.>.
ocnepnnH aaxnmH sakonoH, nspannmH onrpeccoH, u1o6m saunua1L cyc k
Hepnkn, 6mn ak1 on1epa ak-epena 1952 ropa. nnosnunk onrpeccy
npepc1aannna eapeckan 1poka, coc1onuan ns ennepa, anua n eHona. T
,
mn A , A
, Aqqm , Hu x
, m x ( Kn n CUA)
<.>.
koneunoH n1ore a 1965 ropy, korpa onrpecc npnnnn HHnrpaunonnm ak1,
u u, n n
1880 . esynL1a1oH a1oro cpenancn 1o1 qak1, u1o 90% nHHnrpan1oa c1ann
neeaponeum. Hepnka nepeuna o1 nHHnrpaunonno nporpaHHm, noppasyHeaakue
nponopunonanLnoe npepc1aan1enLc1ao acex rpynn a , - k 1ako, ko1opan
. ak a cnyuae c 6onee pannnH sakonopa1enLc1aoH,
eapeckne konrpeccHenm n cena1opm, 1ak xe, kak annn1enLnme eapeckne
oprannsaunn, aospec1aykune na onrpecc, nounn a nac1ynnenne. H ono ypanocL,
nockonLky a 1euenne 41 ropa nocne 1924 ropa anac1L eapeea c1peHn1enLno
yaennunaanacL npak1nueckn ao acex cqepax aHepnkancko xnsnn.
66
1951 ropy cena1op ko6 anu nanncan c1a1Lk, ko1opan nasmaanacL aaa1e
pacnaxneH naun aopo1a, ko1opan npnsmaana k Haccoao neorpannuenno
nHHnrpaunn. anu n konrpeccHen annep cmrpann anpnyk ponL npn npnnn1nn
sakononpoek1a a 1965 ropy. a pean1L ne1 po npnnn1nn HHnrpaunonnoro ak1a
Hepnkanckn eapeckn konrpecc npepnaran ocnoanme uac1n sakononpoek1a n
aocxaannn npesnpen1a senxayepa sa ero nepaycHmcnennyk onnosnunk
naunonanLno cnc1eHe kao1. 1956 ropy a caoe nepepoanue onn npocnaannnn ero sa
cHenoc1L, nponanennyk a npopanxennn anepep Hnornx npe nn6epanLno
nHHnrpaunonno nonn1nkn, n sa 1o, u1o on sannn nosnunk, na ko1opo nepaonauanLno
nac1anaan Hepnkanckn eapeckn konrpecc n ppyrne eapeckne coo6uec1aa <.>.
B um
q n q
m m A <.>.
ockonLky eapen c1anoan1cn ace 6onee 6ecc1mpnmHn a caoeH ncnonLsoaannn anac1n,
neko1opme paxe xaac1ak1 caoe ponLk a ocna6nennn nosnun aHepnkancknx
eaponeuea-neeapeea. pn aa6, ncnonnn1enLnm pnpek1op a o1c1aake
epnHy11epckoro nnc1n1y1a saun1m eapec1aa, unen n1npnqqaHaunonno nnrn n
aa1op, noc1onnno nnuyun pnn can-qpanuncckoro Jewish Bulletin, nanncan: onLko
nocne 1opo Hnpoao aonm nHHnrpaunonnoe sakonopa1enLc1ao papnkanLno
nsHennnocL a nanpaanennn yc1panennn 1ako pnckpnHnnaunn. epaoc1enennmH
canpe1enLc1aoH nonn1nueckoro aosHyxannn nanne1cn aepyuan ponL eapeckoro
o6uec1aa a aospec1ann na a1n nepeHenm. poponxan, aa6 1opxec1aye1 no noaopy
npn6nnxakuerocn c1a1yca HenLunnc1aa pnn 6enmx a Hepnke: kpo no nepenncn
nacenennn nepaano ponoxnno o 1oH, u1o okono nonoannm aHepnkanckoro nacenennn
ackope c1any1 ne 6enmHn nnn ne eaponeuaHn. ace onn 6ypy1 aHepnkancknHn
rpaxpanaHn <.>. ak o1Heuae1 aa6, cnonnc1ckne ak1nanc1m, ko1opme
noppepxnaak1 npek eapeckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa, nopnn1maak1 Haccoayk
ne1papnunonnyk nHHnrpaunk a Hepnky n Heu1ak1 o 1oH apeHenn, korpa a1o
npeo6paxenne o1pasn1cn na peHorpaqnueckoH o6nnke anek1opa1a.
ne nk6onm1no, aoo6paxan nn anrannL, ko1opm aaen a o6pauenne 1epHnn
nnaannLnm ko1en, eapeckoe rocypapc1ao a anpe cnnaaa eapeea n apa6oa, ncnaHa
n nypansHa? pnnnHan ao annHanne a1nouen1pnsH cnonnsHa, n coHneaakcL a a1oH.
pnn aHepnkanckn cospa1enL HynL1qnnLHoa nanncan, u1o npo6neHa nnaannLnoro
ko1na coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o pno o6muno nopropae1, a nena nopnnHae1cn naaepx.
ecoHnenno, Hepnka npepc1aanne1 co6o cnnaa pasnnunmx naunonanLnoc1e aponm
a 1papnunonnoe aHepnkanckoe 6onLunnc1ao, no, necHo1pn na aceo6LeHnkuyk
nponaranpy cHeuennn pac a eapecko npecce, a6conk1no ne na6nkpae1cn
snaun1enLnoro cHeuennn 6enmx n uepnmx - n nnuL HaprnnanLnoe cHeuenne
He1ncckoro n anrno-cakconckoro koHnonen1oa. pnako 1oro, uero cnonnc1m ne cHornn
po6n1Lcn npn noHoun nponaranpm cHeuanmx 6pakoa, onn poc1nrny1 nocpepc1aoH
Haccoao nHHnrpaunn n pasnnunmx ypoane poxpaeHoc1n.
apen ak1nano amc1ynak1 sa HanenLkne ceHLn cpepn nnpepoa aHepnkanckoro
6onLunnc1aa. H u
m u u
x x x unx. x npnHoe
xenanne - a1o paspyuenne 6eno pacm na anape nk6mHn aosHoxnmHn cnoco6aHn.
poponxn1enLnan Haccoaan neeaponeckan nHHnrpaunn ypoane1aopne1 a1nH uennH.
K neo6xopnHo o1He1n1L, u1o Haccoaan uae1nan nHHnrpaunn nanne1cn
opnnH ns nan6onee aqqek1nanmx opypn oprannsoaannoro eapec1aa a nx kynL1ypno
n a1nnuecko aone npo1na aHepnkanuea-eaponeuea. m ne cHoxeH amnrpa1L a1y
6opL6y ne na xnsnL, a na cHep1L po 1ex nop, noka naun nkpn ne noHy1, u1o Hm yxe
aoaneuenm a aony, n u1o Hm 1epnnH cepLesnoe nopaxenne. E
67
s , s u m m u,
n . 3 u um, m
, n u,
u x n, m m m.
aun ronoca sarnyuak1cn cpepc1aaHn Haccoao nnqopHaunn, ko1opme naxopn1cn a
pykax naunx aparoa. nnukoH Hnorne ns nac 6esHonano na6nkpak1 ynnu1oxenne
nauero napopa. peHn yxopn1. m ponxnm ckasa1L caoe cnoao ceuac n saun1n1L
ce6n. m ponxnm 6opo1Lcn sa 1o, u1o6m aennkonennan kynL1ypa, nepepannan naH
naunHn o1uaHn, npoponxana cyuec1aoaa1L. m ponxnm npepnpnnn1L ace
neo6xopnHme pec1ann, u1o6m o6ecneun1L 6ypyuee naunH pe1nH n nocnepykunH
nokonennnH. ockonLky a1o cnpaaepnnao pnn acex xnamx cyuec1a, Hm ponxnm
6opo1Lcn sa naue npaao xn1L.
cnn Hm oc1aneHcn 6esHonanmHn a a1o1 kpn1nueckn uac a nc1opnn nauero napopa,
Hm 6ypeH nckopenenm n saHonunH naacerpa ( x, . 346-360).
, ko1opme aanp kk cpenan pnn caoero re1eporennoro, nonna1nnunoro
napopa - konrnoHepa1a 6enmx aHepnkanuea eaponeckoro nponcxoxpennn - eue
6onee aepnm pnn nac, pyccknx - roHorennoro rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero napopa
occnn, nopaepruerocn ceropnn c1onL xe paspyun1enLno a1nopeHorpaqnuecko
a1ake.
Xu u
HTAK, , x
- ,
nnn u m , u
- m z x ,
- x :
- , ,
xm ;
- ;
- u , mn n mx mx CCC.
n u n, n u. O
m x ,
, m. O n u -
, un u x.
HEHHO TAKOBm HTOFH XX BEKA QHR OCCHH, nm n
u n m
m , x nu u x
.
C
nn poccnckoe o6uec1ao caon nepcnek1nam? o1oan1cn nn npnnn1L amsoa
noaoro aeka? akne c1pa1ernn npepnarae1?
68
coxanennk, nnuero y1eun1enLnoro n ne na6nkpak a narepe pyccknx naunonan-
na1pno1nuecknx Hmcnn1ene[22]. uenoH onn ne ro1oam k konc1pyk1nano pnckyccnn.
a1o na6nkpak 1peaoxnme 1enpenunn a narepe npo1nanoH. aH nyuue anpn1 n
nonnHak1 nac1onuee nonoxenne aeue, no pekoHenpaunn pak1, cnoco6nme ne
amneun1L, a yHopn1L 6onLnoro.
epaano ne6esmsaec1nm aapnnn apn1onoanu Hn ony6nnkoaan snkoayk
c1a1Lk c nopasn1enLnmH, amsaaaunH a ero cpepe ropnuee aosHyuenne saronoakoH:
X. B , r
x , n
( 26.04.2000). ne a1o1 nonn1onor, nesaponro po 1oro
amc1ynnaun eue n co c1a1Le Br x (1akxe, pasyHee1cn,
amsaaaue a ero cpepe aosHyuenne), poaonLno unnnuno pasLncnne1 aceH n kaxpoHy
(n ne a nocnepnkk ouepepL - anapy), saueH nyxno 6epeuL pyccknx n noueHy
o6uec1ay neo6xopnHo pycckoe rocypapc1ao.
o1nam onoaa aecLHa panekn o1 sa6o1m o pyccknx papn nnx caHnx. e1, peuL npe1
coaceH o ppyroH. nakoHme onoaa nanpacno aosHyuanncL. onoa ncno anpn1
rno6anLnyk npo6neHy anapa n npepnarae1 peun1L ee sa nau cue1 - 1onLko n acero.
onoa 6on1cn n nenaanpn1 kxan (a nepayk ouepepL HycynLHan, no ne 1onLko).
aknapmaae1 nH a yc1a c1paunme cnoaa: anapnm Hnp ponxen 6m1L ynnu1oxen. ak
oun6ka nc1opnn. n koHHen1npye1 a1y yrposy: M MM n c n
cycnM ck n. H k yck
rccr Kr cknk Mnn ycck, x Pcc C
A Kk, kxycn cr nm cM r - cnk Mnn,
k yy yx cn , Ey (x cr CLA
K).
H xy, yccn - cycn c rrqck yx
yxcn cycnMy CLA K, nMk My c
y . H xy k rrck Mc Mxy Annck ykk,
kMy cn Ey cnk Mnn Mk , k kr-
ckn Anky. H n, ky C C cn ycck,
Mx c nn c a cn. Tk
cnn C n MrMnn k ycck c
n cn Kn.
B cr nm r. H yx cnc nc M
ycn.
1ak, Hm ne ponxnm o1paaa1L caok seHnnuy kn1auaH, no ponxnm npn6epeuL ee pnn
aHepnkanuea n kanapuea eaponeckoro nponcxoxpennn. ak 6yp1o onn naH 6nnxe n
nyxnee. y u1o x, noxoxe, n en1aron 1ak cun1ae1; 6paao, npoqeccop!
cno, u1o aHepnkanum npnaesy1 c co6o, ecnn, ne pa 6or, nepecenn1cn a occnk,
caok ncnxonornk n aecL npenm 6arax, ne coaHec1nHm c naunH, n nauny1
npeapaua1L occnk a Hepnky co aceHn ee npo1naopeunnHn n Hepsoc1nHn, c
peHoxpnc1nanc1aoH, kynL1oH acnuecknx HenLunnc1a, npaa uenoaeka, c sacnnLeH
eapeckoro kann1ana n npoue ppnnLk. o aceH 1eH, o1uero nH caHnH 1aH c1ano
Hepsko xn1L. aueH xe nycka1L k ce6e c1onL coHnn1enLnmx roc1e, cpenaaunx yxe
neamnocnHo xnsnL a caoe co6c1aenno c1pane? eryunx o1 co6c1aennmx nopnpkoa?
poHe 1oro, onn, cnacancL o1 arpeccnn Kra (no ampaxennk onoaa), npoc1o
npnnecy1 ee k naH na caonx nneuax. yxno naH a1o?
npoqeccop 1eH apeHeneH cyHHnpye1: c ar nkcc cn,
c rcyc ccn x u ,
69
u . B -. A -, ck
MnMr nn n cycnr c Pccn Mx
cqM ky Mn cycnM, kn, Mx, kxcn
n nkn nn u M Mkckn M, M
Mn rccr Kr. B cc cn cc kcq cM
n. My rMM xn ycck nk x,
nk c nn yr ck , ccy
kM cM. H cM ycck Pcc. Hxy r:
xn cn, ycck cy cyc kn c XXI k
ck n.
aH yxe nonn1no, u1o 1akoe anecenne aknapa o6epne1cn pnn pyccknx ne
aospoxpenneH, a okonua1enLnmHn n 6ecnoaopo1nmH noxoponaHn. H
, , mu , x,
m?
apapokcannc1 onoa ncxopn1 ns ne cnnukoH npnamunoro, xo1n, aosHoxno, rny6okoro
nonnHannn nn1epecoa anapa a occnn. o y nero ec1L konnern, ncnoaepykune 6onee
1papnunonnme nopxopm. nn amc1ynann, a uac1noc1n, na yxe ynoHnny1oH sacepannn
nkn1ckoro kny6a. pncnyuaeHcn.
mc1ynnenne nekcanppa , saaepykuero cek1opoH H
H 6pocko osarnaaneno: H x n v
. aueH? po1naopeua caH ce6e, no kak 6m ne saHeuan a1oro npo1naopeunn, on
osapaunaae1 un1a1enn: cn r Pcc c kyn cn
c, k x y M nc nxm cnnn.
C C AMk E m ay nMy yMn ynM. -,
My y cny, kn M yy Mcy. -,
akcy kn, cn nn yr c, r xMc
ck Mr Mn n, r n Mc. Hny
cn c - akc kn c M
y x. B n nn rnn akMck
x - nnn, k cn cn r cM MM. Kk x
Pcc - c c yM cnM, Mn nM
cycM Mxc akc kn?
po1naopeune kpnun1: u m , x -
n , u ?! pnako
knHoa nac1anaae1: O nn y Pcc k x, kk y yr c c
yMmMcn cnM. B M cn rnnn
akMck cn. 3c nM M Mx c Pcc
cnckr nc. 50 n cn nk Kn H cc
Mnn nk, kxr xnn y cn mc ck
cncknc Mn. Pcc a x Mn - nm r rk
k yr. B cyc Pccn Mx nx kc cr kn
rnn akMk.
oxno nopyHa1L, u1o nHenno 1akoaa rnaanan sapaua pycckoro napopa - ao u1o 6m 1o
nn c1ano cpena1L aknap a rno6annsaunk akonoHnkn! a eue o1paa pnn a1oro caon
seHnn! 1o Hoxe1 6m1L a6cyppnee 1akoro npepnoxennn?!
Ln npo6neHm, a caHoH pene, asnncn peua1L aoc1okoaep: naun, pycckne, nnn
kn1ackne, nnpnckne? oxoxe, nHenno a1opoe: H crnm Mxy Pcc
KM, M, kck kcn cMrn cnncn crnc
Mc Pcc nn n cnckr nc. Pccn
c n ar k cky c c (ao1
cnacn6o! onLko nx 1y1 ne xaa1ano! - A. C.), r kck cn y
70
kMk ry cccy c r Mxy Pcc KM,
kk a M Mc /nM ck C. Hmmu mm
A, mx q uxnx
, n mu s (ampeneno
Hno. - A. C.).
1kpoaennee ne ckaxeuL. cnn sanapnnk onoa osa6ouen peuenneH sa nau cue1
npo6neH anapa, 1o aoc1ounnk knHoa - npo6neH oc1oka. (o1n 1akxe n anapa,
yxacno 6onuerocn nannmaa nHenno 1ex, koro knHoa npepnarae1 pasHec1n1L a
occnn.) eH a1o upeaa1o pnn occnn - on nn6o ne popyHmaae1, nn6o ne
poroaapnaae1.
1pannmH 6pepoH (no ouenL nokasa1enLnmH, paxe, n ckasan 6m, paso6naun1enLnmH)
a1opn1 knHoay renepanLnm pnpek1op M x m
x nekcanpp 3x, ko1opoHy noueHy-1o 1oxe npepoc1aannn cnoao na
qopyHe peHorpaqoa: Kk crn yx, cMn ncn . O
ccn r nn cycn. r nky nr x
ky. O M M n c n. Cn
r cyn k. B c kcync k M
Mkck ck kyny (k cn cMcn M). Fn
a cm cy. Hnck Mrq Mk Tn
cc Pcc, cc, k rcyc r, n
c cn, cx k, c - cynn nr ky
..
pnueH 1y1 nspannL1nnnn onLu? oueHy Hm ponxnm ero cnyua1L? pasae 1ak
noc1ynae1 a ananornuno cn1yaunn spannL? nkak ne1: coaceH npo1naononoxnmH
o6pasoH! u1o, caexan kpoaL ns 1pe1Lero Hnpa, no pekoHenpaunn onLua n
axapoaa, npnsaana cnac1n pycckyk ceHLk? naropapnH nokopno! kakoe aoo6ue
Hoxe1 6m1L cnacenne occnn ane nonnoHacu1a6noro cnacennn pyccknx?
oxe, ns6aaL nac o1 ppyse n po6poxena1ene nopo6noro 1nna!
Hexpy 1eH, ao1 eue opnn ns nnx: napnHnp H - ne k1o-nn6ypL, a saa.
Kq svr q MY . M. .
R. ro amc1ynnenne nasmaae1cn H ,
nx. anaum - a1o, koneuno, nHHnrpan1m. papm - a1o koHnencaunn sa
cue1 nx npnespa ec1ec1aenno y6mnn nacenennn.
n y1aepxpae1: /nn cM Pcc c cc yn cnn (
cM rM, ccn y n 2050 r) M
c k, cknky yx c Mryc rcyc,
akMckM Pcc, cM cc (17 Mn. k. kM),
k Mx c ck m cnc
cnn. T c c rcyc kk kr.
oueHy? 1o ne o6Lncneno. ak nsaec1no, paec1n ne1 nasap, a 1795 ropy, nocne acex
saaoeaann e1pa epaoro n ka1epnnm 1opo, nacenenne yxe orpoHno occncko
nHnepnn (c onLue n nnnnnpne) coc1aannno acero 41.175 1mc. uenoaek. nnuero
- pepxanncL. e 1onLko nnkoHy caoe seHnn ne o1paaann, no eue n uyxyk k pykaH
npn6npann.
1o ne1 nasap nacenenne ace occncko Hnepnn, ko1opan 6mna no6onLue, ace xe,
pasHepoH, ueH , coc1aannno acero nnuL neHnornH 6onee 100 Hnn., a ceropnn a
opno 1onLko occnn - 145,5 Hnn. (pnueH aennkopoccoa 6mno 1orpa 55,7 Hnn., a
ceuac noka eue - 120 Hnn.!) o ec1L, poccnnn, ao-nepamx, c1ano sa kaknx-1o c1o
ne1 a non1opa pasa 6onLue na a non1opa pasa HenLue 1eppn1opnn! naun1,
71
nno1noc1L aospocna eue cnnLnee: a 2,25 pasa. ao-a1opmx, Hm Hnoro amnrpann nocne
pacnapa a cHmcne naunonanLno opnopopnoc1n nacenennn, npeapa1nauncL a
HononaunonanLnyk (no aceH HnpoamH c1anpap1aH) pycckyk c1pany. onkpe1no
pyccknx (ne poccnnn) c1ano ne a non1opa, a a paa c nnunnH pasa 6onLue! poHe
1oro, sa a1n xe c1o ne1 occnn npeo6pasnnacL a npepnyk pepxaay, o6napakuyk c1onL
neo6xopnHmH a panno cn1yaunn opyxneH cpepxnaannn. T
xu m
n H? ueHy roaopn1L nenpaapy, nopnnHa1L nannky? asae
a a1oH poc1onnc1ao yuenoro?
H, u
x x x, ,
x , s, ,
, - u ?
epL a1o-1o n ec1L aepneun ny1L k okonua1enLno rn6enn! 6o ecnn Hm ne
coxpannH rocypapc1aoo6pasykun a1noc, nosaonnH ero pasHm1L, pas6aan1L, asn1L nop
coHnenne ero a1nnueckyk npen1nunoc1L, 1o nn rocypapc1ao coxpann1L, nn 1eppn1opnn
saunua1L 6ype1 nekoHy n nesaueH. pkan nnnkc1paunn k ckasannoHy - cypL6a
nHcko nHnepnn.
Ou m um
n , u um x
n . oa1oHy npoqeccop onuea coaepuenno nenpaa, korpa
ykasmaae1: Mr n, k cncn c CHF
En, rcn nk 25 Mn. ycck ( k n 5 Mn. yx
n Pcc), ccnn kn 60 Mn. nk (yn c
ycckn cn, cMm cM .). o y nac a occnn c1on1 coaceH
ppyran xnsnenno aaxnan npo6neHa: un
n n, n sx x
x n . aoace ne
1aun1L a cao poH nec1pyk naunonanLnyk cHecL pycckonsmunmx.
onuea ro1oa sa1n eue panLue, ponyckan ncnonLsoaanne pasyHno Hnrpaunonno
nonn1nkn no npnaneuennk n apeHennoHy ncnonLsoaannk nnoc1panno pa6oue cnnm
(n xen1o, n 6eno, n uepno). o naH yxe nonn1no, u1o , n
u , u
xn. 6o a1a nonn1nka a npnnunne a6conk1no
6espaccypna. m yxe anpenn, k ueHy ona npnaena a ennko6pn1annn, panunn nnn
epHannn. aoace ne xo1nH cnepoaa1L nx npnHepy.
o ao1 u1o nk6onm1no. yxe un1npoaanno pnccep1aunn onoHapeaa ae1nan
nHHnrpaunn n nHHnrpaunonnan nonn1nka ennko6pn1annn copepxn1cn ouenL
snaHena1enLnoe na6nkpenne: FccyM ck crq
nnncn nn k nM. O nnncn nmcM
cc Mcc qM, cnnM c r.
Un MMrn cnnnc nnM kMM nnM -
ykM k cn nc nk cnxr
akMckr nxn ck kn (c. 10). eypnan1enLno, u1o
cnoxneuan a1nononn1nueckan npo6neHa, rpe uena oun6kn Hoxe1 okasa1Lcn
cHep1enLno pnn naunn, okasanacL a pesynL1a1e o1pana na o1kyn. nnnc1epc1ay
1pypa, peuaaueHy, ckonLko Hoxno saaes1n a nrnnk nnopopuea, nnuL ncxopn ns
cnkHnny1no no1pe6noc1n a pa6ounx pykax.
n6epanm acex c1pan acerpa ns npnnunna sakpmaak1 rnasa na a1nononn1nky,
o1aopaunaak1cn o1 nee. cnoaepyn Hexannc1nueckn, npnHonnnenm,
kaasnakonoHnueckn nopxop, a1n nko6m nparHa1nkn npoc1no na6pacmaak1cn na
apen1oa a1nononn1nueckoro nopxopa n, k coxanennk, uac1o opepxnaak1 aepx.
72
esynL1a1 a1oro naH nsaec1en. o apeHeneH aa1ox1onnme napopm, paaune nn6epanaH
ce6n yroaopn1L, cnoxaa1maak1cn, no noayuka, kypa onn caHn saunn no po6po aone,
ne nopacknnya aoapeHn HosraHn, yxe saxnonnynacL. osen yxe nyuen a oropop, n ero
nnueH ne amrna1L n ne amHann1L.
onoa, knHoa, onuea - ne nocnepnne nHena na poccnckoH nayunoH nnHne. o
poccnckn npoqeccopckn nn6epannsH nnuy1L ne nyuue 6pn1anckoro
nonn1nueckoro: 1o1 n ppyro o6opaunaak1cn unc1eunH npepa1enLc1aoH
naunonanLnmx nn1epecoa.
nrpan1opa1enn: 1ak soay n c1oponnnkoa npnsmaa pa6ounx pyk ns c1pan 1pe1Lero
Hnpa. nn ne cnpn1 cnoxa pykn, neyc1anno pa6o1ak1 a opnoH nanpaanennn,
npnyro1oannn ny1L a occnk pnn nnopopuea acex Hac1e.
73
Bu
snauenne a nnanax Hnrpan1opa1ene nHee1, koneuno, ockaa. E m
m u Hm Xm,
m H B. aunonanLno nonn1nko a ockoacko Hapnn
sannHae1cn oHn1e1 o6uec1aennmx n HexpernonanLnmx canse, rpe nepayk ckpnnky
ne nepam rop nrpae1 saHec1n1enL pykoaopn1enn, kypnpykun naunonanLnme
o1nouennn, pyapp oHan.
o nepenncn 1989 r. a ockae nacun1maancn acero opnn Hnnnnon nepyccknx xn1ene-
Hockanue. o sa ropm nepec1pokn nacenenne ockam yHenLunnocL na Hnnnnon - c
9 po 8 Hnn.; a 1o xe apeHn uncnennoc1L opno 1onLko kaakascko pnacnopm,
nanpnHep, aospocna k 2000 ropy a 10 pas n poc1nrna 1,5 Hnn. o ec1L, ee ypenLnm
aec ampoc c 1,6% po 19% o6aanLno, sa kakne-1o pecn1L ne1! ouepnenn
opHockoaLe n uenme paonm ockam, ypenennme o1 uen1pa: ynueao, yunno,
n1nno. aepL ec1L eue 1apxnkn, kopeum, nerpm n ppyrne Hnrpan1m ns c1pan snn
n qpnkn. cno, u1o poc1 HexnaunonanLno nanpnxennoc1n - nens6manoe cnepc1ane
1akoro nonoxennn aeue.
o koe-koro noueHy-1o 1peaoxn1 ne npnunna, a cnepc1ane: nHenno - poc1 kcenoqo6nn
pyccknx Hockanue, a ne napenne nx ypenLnoro aeca. e1oH 1998 ropa
H n (6maun occncko-aHepnkanckn
nnqopHaunonnm uen1p) coaHec1no c H x
1 xr v n Kr
x 1 npoaen konqepenunk na 1eHy
HexnaunonanLnmx o1nouenn a ockae. pncy1c1aoaann npepc1aan1enn pasnnunmx
naunonanLnmx o6unn (kpoHe pyccknx, pasyHee1cn, ko1opmx ne counn nyxnmH
npnrnacn1L): apHnncknx, eapecknx, 1a1apcknx, Hoppoacknx, asep6apxancknx,
parec1ancknx n 1.p.
cnoano poknap cpenana . M, co1pypnnua H sr
nr H (pnpek1op - ne6esmsaec1nm ppyr pyccknx . m),
ko1opan npepnoxnna paccHo1pe1L pen1enLnoc1L a ockae n
"a1noncnxonornueckne ycnoann npneHa nnokynL1ypnmx, nnonaunonanLnmx Hnrpan1oa
a c1onnue, ko1opme cospae1 npnnnHakuan c1opona. oknap 6mn cpenan c
Mck, x , uLn "uenoaeueckne n naunonanLnme
npaaa nonnpak1cn. a1op c ocyxpenneH un1npoaana saronoakn ny6nnkaun
Hockoacknx rase1 1997 r., nanpnHep: "esaanmx roc1e a ockae c1anoan1cn ace
6onLue, "yxo a ropope. 1o penae1 kpnHnnanLnyk noropy? ("euepnnn ockaa),
"ockaa: a1opoe npnuec1ane ueuenuea?, "nua "6anpn1cko naunonanLnoc1n
ppyxne oHnn1epna ("n), "ockae nopa sanoao o6pyce1L (") n 1.p.
accHa1pnaan Hnorouncnennme unqpoame pannme, npnaopnHme npecco, poknapunua
o6pa1nna naue annHanne na 1o, u1o - n 1 .
x x, , s
u, nm x , u
x - x . pnako cokpyuanacL ona aoace ne o6
a1oH, a nnuL o 1oH, u1o "a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao ny6nnkaun ao acex rase1ax
nokasmaak1 nepyccknx Hnrpan1oa kak "nnunnx n ouenL Heuakunx HockanuaH
nkpe, a 1o apeHn kak Haccm npnesxnx "npnnocn1 6onLuyk nonLsy ropopy n
ropoxanaH. o 1oH, u1o Hockoackan npecca "pacnpoc1panne1 apaxpe6noc1L,
kcenoqo6nk n nepoaepne no o1nouennk k npepc1aan1ennH naunonanLnmx
HenLunnc1a, npnueH ne 1onLko k Hnrpan1aH nocnepnnx ne1, no ko aceH, k1o
nanoHnnae1 nx caonH o6nnkoH, xo1n Hoxe1 6m1L HockanuoH yxe ne a nepaoH
nokonennn.
74
a aonpoc "H r", roaopn1 nn npaapy nnn nry1, y1aepxpan,
u1o npnesxne m , nm m
m , nm n 1.p., anLkoaa
o1ae1nna: "1o Hne 1pypno ckasa1L. 1pannm o1ae1 pnn yuenoro, ne npaapa nn?
e cekpe1 nn pnn koro, u1o nopo6nme c1pannoc1n a ockae nHek1 opnn nc1ounnk:
nosnunk Hapa Kpnn yxkoaa, nannkuerocn, no poc1oaepnmH caepennnH, na ue1aep1L
6auknpoH n na ue1aep1L eapeeH. ro necrn6aeHm nnunm nn1epnaunonannsH
nensHenno o6opaunaae1cn HockoacknH nonn1nuecknH kocHononn1nsHoH, a roppoc1L sa
aaepennm eHy Heranonnc - c1pon1enLc1aoH kocHononnca, oaoro aannona. e
cekpe1, u1o a ero 6nnxauee okpyxenne axopn1 Hnorouncnennme eapen, ueuenum,
asep6apxanum, n paxe npecc-cekpe1apL - ne pycckn, a kopeeu o.
aok nosnunk no naunonanLnoHy aonpocy yxkoa anonne ampasnn, nosppaannn a
nnue pesnpen1a occnckoro apeckoro onrpecca .. ycnnckoro acex eapeea-
Hockanue c eapecknH oamH opoH (ou-xa-ana). nosppaanennn roaopnnocL:
aaxaeHm napnHnp nekcanppoanu! osaonL1e Hne uepes nosppaan1L eapeea-
Hockanue c noamH 5757 ropoH n nac1ynakunHn sa nnH amcoknHn npaspnnkaHn.
ockaa - HnoronaunonanLnm Heranonnc, n opna ns ocnoanmx sapau, c1onunx nepep
ee npaan1enLc1aoH - npeapa1n1L ropop a sony, cao6opnyk o1 acex qopH pacnsHa n
uoannnsHa (Mx r N 17-18/96).
yxkoay a1opn1 ero Horyuec1aennm saHec1n1enL, eape .. ecnn, a uLnx pykax
cocpepo1oueno ace c1pon1enLc1ao rnran1ckoro ropopa: "ockaa - opnn ns caHmx
HnoronaunonanLnmx ropopoa Hnpa, n npnnunnm naunonanLno nonn1nkn a ockae
ponxnm ncknkua1L nk6me nponanennn naunonannsHa, onn nanpaanenm na pasan1ne
naunonanLnmx kynL1yp n o6pasoaannn (yx u1o-nn6ypL opno ns payx, aepL pasan1ne
naunonanLnmx kynL1yp - a1o n ec1L aaxneun sanor nponanennn naunonannsHa a
caHoH ckopoH 6ypyueH. - A.C.)... aue 1aeppoe naHepenne - npoponxa1L n
coaepuenc1aoaa1L asanHopec1ane c naunonanLnmHn oprannsaunnHn, qopHnpoaa1L
HexannsHm noppepxkn n pasan1nn nx nnnuna1na... ecHo1pn na ace 1pypnoc1n,
HnoronaunonanLnan ockaa naacerpa ponxna oc1aaa1Lcn naunH HnpnmH o6unH
poHoH, n Hockoackoe npaan1enLc1ao cpenae1 pnn a1oro ace aosHoxnoe (. .
n v n - x QK. -
Mx r N 8/96).
a cnoaaHn, na nepam asrnnp npaannLnmHn, kpoe1cn anonne pycoqo6ckan npak1nka.
o-nepamx n npexpe acero: x n x um .
peapa1n1L ropop a sony, cao6opnyk. o1 pycckoro pyxa - ao1, noxany, u1o na pene
ypanocL yxkoay. e roaopk o caonx pepax-npapepax, kopennmx Hockanuax, no n n
caH eue noHnk nHenno pycckyk, a nnkakyk ne HnoronaunonanLnyk ockay. F
u ? F x? E .
ocHononnc no nHenn ockaa 1akoamH nasmaa1Lcn ne nHee1 npaaa.
o-a1opmx, nnkakoro paanonpaann a o6pauennn c naunonanLnmHn oprannsaunnHn
ropopa ockam ne1. aunonanLnm aonpoc a HockoackoH npaan1enLc1ae ne cnyuano
o1pan na o1kyn pyappy oHany, ko1opm npn anpe Henn Hopun1cn, cnoano ykycnn
nnHon. ockae pa6o1ae1 n nonyuae1 6kpxe1noe qnnancnpoaanne (ns pycckoro, a
ocnoanoH, kapHana) camue nn1npecn1n pasnnunmx naunonanLno-kynL1ypnmx
aa1onoHn - apHnncknx, kopecknx, eapecknx, umrancknx, kaknx yropno. 1onLko ne
pyccknx. pyccknH, u1o6m sapernc1pnpoaa1L nopo6nyk aa1onoHnk, npnxopn1cn
1acka1Lcn no cypaH, o1c1anaa1L caon rpaxpanckne n uenoaeueckne npaaa. yx pener
nonyun1L - neuero n Heu1a1L.
ockaa Hnoroe pnk1ye1 c1pane, ao HnoroH sapae1 1on. coxanennk, n a
naunonanLno nonn1nke 1oxe. po6neHa pycnqnkaunn ockam - opna ns caHmx
oc1pmx n neo1noxnmx.
75
4 n: 3s
, ecnn aepny1Lcn k nauany pa6o1m, Ho npornos - ckopee neccnHnc1nueckn, ueH
on1nHnc1nueckn.
H XX m , , n, m u
u, u. nn a1oro nHek1cn kak cy6Lek1nanme (naun o1nouennn c
ppyrnHn yuac1nnkaHn nc1opnueckoro npouecca), 1ak n o6Lek1nanme (naua
aknkuennoc1L a o6ueHnpoame sakonoHepnoc1n pasan1nn) npepnocmnkn n ocnoaannn.
aa 1aknx o6Lek1nanmx HoHen1a, a nHenno, m x mmn q
unn s n n n F
3 X - nosaonnk1 c1aan1L aonpoc o 1oH, cyxpeno nn naH nepexn1L noam
aek aoo6ue.
cnoe cosnanne onacnoc1n, ee ue1kan xapak1epnc1nka nosaonnk1 c1pon1L c1pa1ernk
saun1m. un1maan, u1o co6c1aennmx cnn y nac ceuac Hano, a 6ype1, aepon1no, eue
HenLue, nHenno n , yxopa o1 onacnoc1n, o1paxennn amsoaoa XXI
aeka ponxna c1a1L pnn nac npo6neHo noHep opnn.
pexpe, ueH nepe1n k pasroaopy o c1pa1areHax, xo1en 6m ckasa1L neckonLko cnoa o
pacnpoc1panennmx a naun pnn nnnksnnx n noxnmx sapauax. nepayk ouepepL a1o
cansano c am6opoH c1pa1ernueckoro coksnnka na 6nnxaune pecn1nne1nn.
axe1cn nornunmH ncka1L ce6e coksnnka cpepn 1oaapnue no necuac1Lk -
packpec1Lnnennmx c1pan, a oco6ennoc1n popc1aennmx naH no pace. H s
.
s packpec1Lnnennmx naun Hoxno nasaa1L, noxany, 1onLko pae, ne nopaeprunxcn
noka u1o sacnnnk nnopopuea a 1ako xe c1pauno caHoy6nc1aenno Hepe, kak
paccHo1pennme amue c1panm aponm n Hepnka: Hm pa nnonum. 1o snaun1, u1o
ceropnn 1onLko Hm n onn cao6opnm noka eue o1 cnnppoHa sanoxnnka, HoxeH
nosaonn1L ce6e kakoe-1o conpo1nanenne nonsyue aneune akcnancnn. o
oc1poano, HononaunonanLno n 1pyponk6nao nonnn, pyHak, aoo6ue nnuero
oco6enno ne rposn1. e ne sacenn1 c nerkoc1Lk kn1aum, kopeum, cpepneasna1m,
1kpkn, nerpm n apa6m, ko1opmH ropaspo npoue n ypo6nee nanpaan1L cao nanop na
Hanosacenennme Ha1epnkoame seHnn. ao1 nac - sanpoc1o. a1o1 nanop, ne auepa
nauaauncn, na6npae1 cnny c kaxpmH ropoH. ro cpepxnaae1 noka 1onLko nau
cypoam knnHa1 n nnue1a naue xnsnn. cnn occnn naune1 amxopn1L ns kpnsnca,
pacuae1a1L, 1o, yun1maan ee npoc1opm n nckonaeHme 6ora1c1aa, a nee, neasnpan na
ckaepnm knnHa1, xnmny1 aqpo-asna1ckne n paxe nnpo-naknc1anckne n
na1nnoaHepnkanckne Haccm a konnuec1ae 6onLueH, ueH nx yxe xnmnyno a apony n
Hepnky. HHnrpaunn npnHe1 o6aanLnm xapak1ep, kak a 1960-x.
pn a1nx o6c1on1enLc1aax, npnsna1Lcn, po nonnn n nnonuea Hne ne1 nnkakoro pena.
nnkak ne coo1nouy ce6n c nnHn, n nx cypL6a Henn ouenL Hano aonnye1. ne
cnHna1nsnpyk nH, 1pnxpm xec1oko aoeaaaunH c pyccknHn a aeke n ykpmaunHcn
nmne nop arnpo o1 acex aosHoxnmx nenpnn1noc1e. n o kako connpapnoc1n c
nnonuaHn, xo1L n npouepunHn, kak Hm, uepes packpec1Lnnnaanne n ac1aaunHn na
ny1L penonynnunn, ne Hoxe1 6m1L n peun. osHoxno, co apeHeneH nonnn, kak n
o6Lepnnennan open, 6ype1 nyxna kak cpepc1ao cpepxnaannn n1an, no po 1oro eue
napo poxn1L. 1oHy xe nenLsn sa6maa1L, u1o nnonuea 1aH, na nx kpoxo1nmx
oc1poaax, a6nnsn nyc1ykunx seHenL pnHopLn, - 125 Hnnnnonoa uenoaek, uy1L
6onLue, ueH poccnckoro nacenennn ao ace eaponecko uac1n occnn, n a ue1mpe
76
pasa 6onLue, ueH a asna1cko, o1 pana po aHua1kn! cnn nnonuea c1ane1 HenLue a
paa, 1pn pasa - a1o 6ype1 ouenL, ouenL xopouo pnn nac.
, koneuno, ne Hory ckasa1L 1ak o cypL6e aponm, 6eno apncko pacm, k ko1opo
npnnapnexnH n Hm, pycckne. aH ne6espasnnuna a1a cypL6a, ao HnoroH o6uan pnn
nac? pnako 1o1 qak1, u1o Hm okasanncL c eaponeuaHn a opno nopke - eue
nnuero ne snaun1. kasa1Lcn a opno nopke c nkpoepoH nnn npokaxennmH -
o6c1on1enLc1ao, nnHano ne cnoco6c1aykuee connpapnoc1n n konconnpaunn.
ocHo1pnH nenpepasn1o: kak aepy1 ce6n eaponeum no o1nouennk k naH - n no
o1nouennk k 1eH napopaH, nauec1ane ko1opmx yrpoxae1 ace 6eno pace?
oka u1o 6enme apnum-eaponeum, nacHep1L nepenyrannme akcnancne ncnaHcknx
napopoa, acnueckn sanrpmaak1 nHenno c nnHn, sancknaak1 nHenno nepep nnHn n
npepnoun1ak1 np1n na coks n konconnpaunk nHenno c nnHn, a aoace ne c naHn,
6pa1LnHn no pace. pn a1oH, ne 1ancL, na1paannaak1 nx - na nac, a nac - na nnx, a
napexpe o1aec1n ypap o1 ce6n. nHenno no1oHy peHonc1pa1nano ne uenn1 ycnnnn
occnn no o6yspannk ncnaHckoro akc1peHnsHa, konHn ueronne1 npesnpen1 y1nn
nepep nnuoH aponm. n ueronne1 ycnnnnHn, a apona n a o1ae1 -
6ecnpnc1pac1noc1Lk a ocaeuennn ueuencknx co6m1n, rpe occnn npepc1ae1 a anpe
kpoaoxapnoro Honc1pa, a ueuenum - a anpe neannnmx xep1a. aHonpepa1enLc1ao
(nck n) nackaosL nnqnnL1poaanno HycynLHanaHn
aponm nens6exno o6opaunaae1cn npepa1enLc1aoH nk6oro ee rnno1e1nueckoro
coksnnka - xo1L 6m n Hepnkn, xo1L 6m n occnn. 1o 1o1 caHm cnyua, korpa
Hep1am xaa1ae1 xnaoro, u1o6m y1aun1L c co6o na 1o1 cae1.
ypoanunm no caoe nornke noc1ynok (a1o a66peana1ypo anonne
o6ocnoaanno Hoxno saHenn1L cnoaocoue1anne aHepnkanum nnkc eaponeum nnn
eapo-aHepnkanum) - nocnepoaa1enLnan noppepxka HycynLHan ao ace uepepe
krocnaacknx aon 1990-x ropoa, aknkuan aoopyxennm konqnnk1 a ocoao. opnan
1pycoc1L, 1pycnnaan nopnoc1L, nounan nepanLnoanpnoc1L - acex nopo6nmx
nenapnaHen1cknx ampaxenn ne xaa1n1, u1o6m kaannqnunpoaa1L a1o1 noc1ynok no
poc1onnc1ay. pnako on ec1L caepunauncn qak1, n a1o nonnoc1Lk ampae1 ack
ncnxonornk coapeHennoro eaponeua, nopaxennyk cnnppoHoH sanoxnnka;
ackpmaae1 npncyun nc1nnnoHy na1oauy anropn1H noaepennn. mueykasannan
noppepxka ampasn1enLno conpoaoxpae1cn pen1enLnoc1Lk Hexpynapopnoro
ncnaHckoro uen1pa a onpone (acero a nrnnn - okono 400 ncnaHcknx oprannsaun!),
aep6ykuero po6poaonLuea pnn aonm na aakase, Hnoro1mcnunmHn an1npoccncko-
npoueuencknHn Hn1nnraHn HycynLHan (coaHec1no c qpanuysaHn!) a apnxe. e1,
xn nun m E mn
n : ne nyxno nn1a1L nnnksn n nec6m1ounmx napexp.
aponeum ne xpy1 n ne xo1n1 a a1oH pene o1 nac noppepxkn, n caHn, 6esycnoano, ne
noppepxa1 nac. ( npo Hepnky, nacenennyk, no ampaxennk ennepn, naune
nHHnrpan1oa, n peun 6m1L ne Hoxe1.)
nepye1 po6aan1L k ckasannoHy, u1o na1oaum, caHn nepexnaan xec1okn
peHorpaqnueckn kpnsnc, npn a1oH eue aepy1 c naHn nespnHyk peHorpaqnueckyk
aony, ryHann1apnyk nn1epaenunk, oprannsyn y nac pen1enLnoc1L pasnnunmx
cae1cknx oprannsaun n pennrnosnmx cek1, yaopnunx nkpe o1 cospannn nopHanLno
Hnorope1no ceHLn. 1akxe naansmaan occnn amropnyk anapy Hnrpaunonnyk
nonn1nky. (H. o6 a1oH ny6nnkaunn . opnueaa, K. anpanoaa, . nuoao, .
epaepeao, . aunaueaa, akapeHnka kapeHnn o6pasoaannn . yxnno, nspannn
uen1pa nsnL n pp.) npaaepnnaoc1n papn acnoHnnH, u1o n Hm neHano narapnnn
6pa1LnH no pace, ceHLpecn1 ne1 noppepxnaan no aceHy Hnpy
an1nnHnepnannc1nueckne, an1nkononnanLnme panxennn. 1oro a naunx
asanHoo1nouennnx nakonnenm orpoHnme saaanm o6np, npe1ensn n anonne
o6ocnoaannoro nepoaepnn. nc1nnnoHy coksnnuec1ay ceropnn ne ro1oam nn Hm, nn
77
6enme eapo-aHepnkanum, ko1opme nac sa eaponeuea nnkorpa ne cun1ann, ne
cun1ak1, pa n cun1a1L ne 6ypy1. m pnn nnx - aeuno uyxne.
eropnn, nanoHnk, sa nonn1nuecko aaancueno naHe1nncn croaop 1pex rno6anLnmx
yuac1nnkoa npouecca: na1oackoro anapa, aceHnpnoro eapec1aa n 1pe1Lero Hnpa,
croaop, o6pekakun pasrpoHnennyk n cna6yk occnk a xep1ay ero yuac1nnkaH.
Hu , un n m
, , u m
x - , .
paapa, nan6onee panLnoanpnme eaponeckne n aHepnkanckne o6uec1aennme
pen1enn n Hmcnn1enn - a 1oH uncne, 1akne saHe1nme, kak aanp kk, Kpren paq n
neko1opme ppyrne - o6pauak1 ceropnn asopm k occnn kak nocnepneHy sakasnnky
6eno pacm. 1ann npnesxa1L k naH (6enan noka eue a uenoH ockaa papye1 nx asop)
a napexpe naaec1n Hoc1m, amc1pon1L enm n1epnaunonan, Hexpynapopnm
pon1 cnacennn apnc1aa. 1o xopouo, no nnkako aqopnn no a1oHy noaopy y
Henn ne1. x npnHep epnnnuen n 6eckoneuno panek o1 rocypapc1aenno nonn1nkn nx
c1pan. pepnoxenne nonn1nueckoro coksa ne o6ecneueno nHn nn oprannsaunonno, nn
qnnancoao. a nnH npocHa1pnaak1cn nepcnek1nam c1onL o1panennme, u1o 1pypno
o1nec1ncL k nnH acepLes.
a1o eue 6onLuo aonpoc, poc1ona nn aoo6ue ne6naropapnan apona 1oro, u1o6m
Hm ee a ouepepno pas cnacann. onrono-1a1apm aoace ne nHenn a anpy saaoeaanne
ycn, nx ny1L nexan a apony. o1 nyc1L 6m n unn 1ypa, na nH, eny n k1eunk.
aueH Hm, saHe1no o6ronnaune a X-XII aekax a caoeH unannnsaunonnoH pasan1nn
anapnyk apony, oc1anoannn nauec1ane Honronoa uenok Hopn caoe kpoan n
payxaekoao o1c1anoc1n? 1o Hm nonyunnn o1 aponm a o1ae1 sa a1o1 cao nopanr?
acHeukn nap a1o 6naronpno6pe1enno o1c1anoc1Lk? u1o - a o1ae1 na cokpyuenne
aceeaponeckoro pnk1a1opa anoneona? pmHckyk aony. sa pasrpoH paspaanauero
apony n1nepa? onopnyk aony, kpax .
.e1 yx, xaa1n1! aano nopa pyccknH aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m naansmaa1Lcn oc1anLnmH
napopaH a cnacn1enn, - o6saaec1ncL Hyppoc1Lk kn1acko o6esLnnm, c ropm
na6nkpakue cxaa1ky 1nrpoa a ponnne.
oneuno, nenLsn nonnoc1Lk ncknkun1L 1ako noaopo1 a nc1opnn, korpa eaponeum
appyr a caoe Hacce nponnkny1cn k naH, pyccknH, 6pa1cknH uyac1aoH, packpok1 naH -
nckpenne! - caon o6Ln1nn n npepnoxa1 - onn1L-1akn nckpenne! - asanHoamropnm n
nonnm yaaxennn c1pa1ernueckn coks, 1ak ckasa1L, ac1panLnm 6pak na rope n
papoc1L, noka cHep1L nac ne pasnyun1. ne a a1o ouenL nnoxo aepn1cn, no appyr, ace
xe. 1o x, n 6ypy a1oHy 6esyHno pap n cpasy npepnoxy konuenunk 1akoro coksa. o
nnnuna1naa, noa1opk a1o c1okpa1, ponxna na ce pas ncxopn1L c anapa, nnaue aepm
e ne1 n ne 6ype1.
, noka u1o naH cnepye1 onpepenn1Lcn co caonH , co
caoe u n co caonH , ncxopn
ns cosnannn npo6neH n amsoaoa, npenoHnennmx uepes cosnanne naunx x
. axe ecnn a1n npo6neHm n amsoam nHek1 rno6anLnm xapak1ep.
cnn Hm xo1nH coxpann1Lcn a aekax, Hm c a6conk1no nens6exnoc1Lk ponxnm
npnnn1L npeonornk n ncnxonornk ss. onn k xnsnn ne
npepnonarae1 ppyrnx peuenn. cnn xe xenannn coxpann1Lcn y nac ne1 - 1orpa o ueH
aoo6ue roaopn1L? onn k cHep1n npepnonarae1 1onLko opno: yHepe1L. n6o a cnapkoH
sa6m1Ln, nn6o a npoc1no 6n1ae. oapeHennoe o6uec1ao pae1 k 1oHy n ppyroHy
poc1a1ouno cpepc1a. o n napekcL, u1o a1o ne nau am6op.
c1anLno Hnp nyc1L xnae1, kak caH snae1.
78
79
K
yx ncka1L coksnnka, 1o ne a nncxopnunx, o6peuennmx napopax,
npnnapnexaunx npounoHy, a a aocxopnunx, nHekunx 6ypyuee. ena1enLno -
aennkoe 6ypyuee. K , K - , m
XXI n.
n1ae, kak n a occnn nakanyne k1n6pLcko peaonkunn, kpec1Lnne eue okono
1980 r. coc1aannnn 86% nacenennn. o pasan1ne kann1annsHa a pepeane, ckynka
seHnn neHnornHn pas6ora1eaunHn kpec1LnnaHn yxe ceuac npnaena k 1oHy, u1o
ropopa nauann nepenonnn1Lcn nkpLHn, ne nyxnmHn nn ropopy, nn pepeane. eropnn a
kn1acknx ropopax xnae1 yxe ne 14, a 50% nacenennn; a1a He1aHopqosa
coaepunnacL sa kakne-1o paapua1L ne1. counanLno-peHorpaqnueckoe nanpnxenne
yxe npepenLno aennko n a ropope, n a pepeane. o1-ao1 paane1.
oka u1o n1ak ypae1cn peua1L npo6neHy packpec1Lnnnaannn, yaennunaan n 6es 1oro
caHyk 6onLuyk a Hnpe apHnk, nanpaannn nkpe na rnran1ckne c1pokn
counannc1nueckoro kann1annsHa (a opnoH anxae opnoapeHenno c1pon1cn 2000
ne6ockpe6oa) n nooupnn aHnrpaunk xya-uno. o ponro nn 1ak Hoxe1 npoponxa1Lcn,
nnk1o ne snae1. opopckne xn1enn, c1ecnennme xec1knH nap1nnmH 1pe6oaanneH
Hanope1noc1n, pncunnnnnnpoaanno nopunnnk1cn eHy, no kn1ackan pepeann kak
poxana, 1ak n poxae1. oneuno, ecnn koHHynnc1nueckoHy pykoaopc1ay ypac1cn ack
aneprnk packpec1Lnnnaannn rnran1cko c1panm nanpaan1L ncknkun1enLno na Hnpnme,
cosnpa1enLnme uenn, ono sacnyxn1 ce6e ne6maanm naHn1nnk a aekax. o Hne u1o-1o
ne aepn1cn, u1o paxe 1akan aennkan n yHyppennan onm1oH 1mcnuene1n c1pana cyHee1
amaepny1Lcn ns-nop pec1ann aceHnpnmx nc1opnuecknx sakonoa.
nnpn, kak n1a c aennkonennmH cnokoc1aneH aoccoepnnne1cn c onkonroH n
akao, nop1nrnaae1 k ce6e nnranyp n caH nop1nrnaae1cn k aaank, n acnoHnnak
ny1L ppyro c1panm. epHannn: Hnpnoe aocc1anoanenne caonx npaa a encko
o6nac1n, Hnpnoe aoccoepnnenne c ype1aHn, oreHne n opaane, eHeneH,
nonk6oanm anunkc c ac1pne. o1oH 6pocok na onLuy - n Hnp cpmaae1cn a
aennuauyk aony, kakyk 1onLko snano uenoaeuec1ao.
asyHee1cn, n1a eue npn naue xnsnn aoccoepnnn1cn c aaaneH - kn1acko
ac1pne - paxe ecnn a1o amnLe1cn a neko1opoe kpoaonyckanne. o na koro on
6pocn1cn (a on nenpeHenno 6pocn1cn) no1oH? a uLnx nonnx pac1pa1n1 cao
nenoHepnm uenoaeueckn pecypc?
1o aonpoc xnsnenno aaxnm pnn nac.
nasap pae c1panm, pennaune a Hnpe a1opoe n 1pe1Le Hec1a no aennunne n
1eHnaH poc1a napoponacenennn n cnnxponno npoxopnaune uepes packpec1Lnnnaanne
- epHannn n occnn - asnnncL 1pa1n1L a1o1 rnaanm pecypc n cuennnncL a
cHep1enLno cxaa1ke. caHa cxaa1ka, n ee ncxop 6mnn m M
npeponpepenenm amuenasaannmHn couno-peHorpaqnuecknHn npoueccaHn. e
cnyuano no6epa sakonunnacL HounmH am6pocoH cnaann na sanapnme seHnn,
nonyaekoao okkynaune oc1ouno aponm. 1o 6mno opnnH ns aaxnmx peuenn
npo6neHm ns6m1ounoro nacenennn, o6ycnoanennoro packpec1LnnnaanneH. cnn 6m
no6epnna epHannn, npouecc nouen 6m a o6pa1noH reorpaqnueckoH nanpaanennn, n6o
neHum, co6c1aenno, nnuero 1ak ne xo1enn o1 nac, kak xnsnennoro npoc1panc1aa.
oa1opn1L cao nopanr na oc1oke Hm yxe ne cHoxeH. m pac1pa1nnn po kanenLkn
caok aneprnk akonoHnueckoro packpec1Lnnnaannn, ko1opan pae1cn nnuL opnaxpm.
n1a eue 1onLko naunnae1 ee 1pa1n1L. ce, u1o Hm HoxeH a cnyuae uero, a1o
npnHenn1L cnnm npepnoro cpepxnaannn. o caon a1oHnan 6oH6a ec1L n y kn1auea.
80
n 1exnnko, nn 1eH 6onee nkpLHn Hm ne HoxeH ce6e nosaonn1L aoeaa1L c n1aeH,
pasae u1o cneunanLno noc1aanH ce6e uenL norn6ny1L a Hyuennnx.
H x n qu .
yaepen, u1o Hm HoxeH coxpann1L ce6n n paxe, a ocnoanoH, caon seHnn ny1eH unc1o
pnnnoHa1nuecko nn1pnrn. peno 1y1 ne a 1oH, u1o Hm 1onLko u1o o6okpno
nop1aeppnnn rocrpannuy - a1o nnkorpa n nnkoro eue ne oc1anaannaano. peno a
o6ueH a1no- n reononn1nueckoH packnape a pepne n oc1ouno snn.
axoue1 nn n1a aoeaa1L c naHn? yxno nn eHy 1akoe o6okpnoe npepnoe
caHoy6nc1ao? e nape1cn nn y nero npo1nannka nonpoue n aHec1e c 1eH
nosaHanunae? onLko nn na nau anLnn oc1ok n n6npL Hoxe1 6m1L nanpaanen
aek1op kn1acko akcnancnn? anxy neckonLko coaepuenno ppyrnx aapnan1oa,
ocyuec1anenne ko1opmx anonne Hoxe1 saance1L o1 naue uenenanpaanenno
nonn1nkn. (Kn - c a ky - nx cyry rM
cMn, cknky n x cM ycckr .)
B-x, a1o Le1naH, c ko1opmH n1a yxe aoeaan ne 1ak paano ns-sa cnopnmx
1eppn1opn. orpa aLe1naHum, nepexnaakune cxopnme couno-peHorpaqnueckne
npoueccm c neko1opmH onepexenneH n nHekune 6ora1m onm1 aonm c , pann
n1ak cypoam o1nop. o coo1nouenne cnn c kaxpmH ropoH ace 6onLue Henne1cn - n
ne a nonLsy Le1naHa.
B-x, a1o o6Lepnnennan a nepanekoH 6ypyueH open - nakoHm kycok
nonnsoaoro pnaHypLn. 6LepnnnauncL, kopeum, ao-nepamx, nens6exno ampy1 ns-
nop aHepnkanckoro na1ponaxa, a ao-a1opmx, anoaL npeapa1n1cn a 1papnunonnm
o6Lek1 kn1acknx aoxpenenn. (c1a1n, Hepnka n ne c1ane1 aoeaa1L c n1aeH ns-sa
open.) 1aH, Hexpy npounH, 1oxe ao1-ao1 nope1 nonnmH xopoH packpec1Lnnnaanne
n cony1c1aykuan eHy ackanaunn aoennoro c1pon1enLc1aa, u1o cospac1
pononnn1enLnme npepnocmnkn pnn kopecko-kn1acko aonm.
B-ux, a1o asaxc1an. annm aek1op pnn nac - on1nHanen, nockonLky pae1
aosHoxnoc1L pas n naacerpa peun1L aonpoc o necnpaaepnnao pyccko-kasaxc1ancko
rpannue, o1pesaaue o1 occnn ee nckonnyk, na 90% sacenennyk pyccknHn nkpLHn
1eppn1opnk: Kxnm pan. (a kap1ax on ceropnn nenpaannLno nHenye1cn eaepnm
asaxc1an.) n a koeH cnyuae nenLsn cknonn1Lcn k npee aoccoepnnennn c
asaxc1anoH, kak c pec1an1enLno 6pa1cko enopyccne, - uennkoH n nonnoc1Lk! n
a koeH cnyuae nenLsn paxe sanka1Lcn o6 ykpennennn kasaxcko-kn1ackoro yuac1ka
rpannum sa nau cue1, kak a1o penae1 y1nn! 3 -
. yxr - acero oc1anLnoro asaxc1ana, nacenennoro kasaxaHn,
ko1opmx coaepuenno nn k ueHy npnnnHa1L a poccnckoe noppanc1ao, - M yx.
yc1L ero sa6epe1 n1a, ecnn saxoue1 n cyHee1. ao1 x u,
xo1n 6m papn 1ex pyccknx nkpe, kasakoa, ko1opme nonann a a1nokpa1nueckoe
pa6c1ao k xany asap6aeay n akyuak1 ace npenec1n rocypapc1aenno pycoqo6nn.
aspen asaxc1ana Hexpy naHn n n1aeH - a1nononn1nueckn nHnepa1na,
npencnonnennm, k 1oHy xe reononn1nuecko npenec1n.
nn n1an 1ako paspen (eaep asaxc1ana - naH, ace oc1anLnoe - eHy) 6ype1 c1onL
xe amropen, kak n pnn nac. ro reononn1nueckan sann1epecoaannoc1L a orpoHnmx
Hanosacenennmx nnouapnx Kxnoro n en1panLnoro asaxc1ana, na ko1opmx
pas6pocanm n nonesnme nckonaeHme, n aopnme pecypcm, n naxo1nme seHnn, n c1enn
pnn amnaca cko1a, n nnaupapHm pnn aoenno 1exnnkn, - aecLHa aennka.
a1nononn1nueckn pnck, npn rnran1ckoH nacenennn n1an n 93-npouen1noH ypenLnoH
aece opno naunn xanL, - HnnnHanen. asaxoa ne 1ak Hnoro, u1o6m saHe1no nonnsn1L
a1o1 npouen1.
81
m xe sann1epecoaanm a a1oH aapnan1e eue n no aneunenonn1nuecknH npnunnaH.
ako paspen asaxc1ana, M cnc m n c
Mn, neHepnenno n papnkanLno o6oc1pn1 o1nouennn n1an c Hepnko, nHekue
caon nn1epecm a asaxc1ane, no c1pauauecn c1onknoaenn c n1aeH na nouae
nepepena Hnpa. 1akxe - o1nouennn (n 6es 1oro nenpoc1me ns-sa nnusnno-
rypckoro paona) c HycynLHanaHn. ( nocnepnnH n o1nouy n rocypapc1aa pepne
snn, pnn ko1opmx paspen asaxc1ana no nnnuna1nae n1an 6ype1 1peaoxnmH,
noamuakunH 1onyc cnrnanoH.) eH caHmH y n1an a snn nonan1cn pononnn1enLnme
rno6anLnme nonn1nueckne npo1naoaecm, u1o naH, 6esycnoano, a amcue c1enenn na
pyky.
akoneu, paspen asaxc1ana, a o1nnune o1 paspena onLun, noc1aanauero nac nnuoH
k nnuy c n1nepoH n cnpoaounpoaaauero 1opyk Hnpoayk aony, npak1nueckn nnuero
ne nsHenn1: y nac c n1aeH n 1ak caHan npo1nxennan a Hnpe rpannua.
B-x, a1o onronnn, 1mcnuene1nnn Heu1a acex kn1acknx npaan1ene.
pepnnnan nHnepnn, o1 anapennn ko1opo, no ppeaneHy kn1ackoHy noaepLk,
saancn1 anapenne aceH HnpoH. anape1L onronne n1a nm1ancn neopnokpa1no, no
nonyuanocL a nc1opnn 1onLko nao6opo1: Honronm 6pann n1a nop caok pyky. 1nH
payH napopaH ec1L u1o npnnoHnn1L ppyr ppyry, sa u1o nokan1a1Lcn. e pyHak, u1o
n1a o1kaxe1cn o1 noao nonm1kn caec1n cue1m n pacnpoc1pann1L caok anac1L nap
HonronaHn, ecnn a1o eHy nosaonn1 uenoaeueckne n nnme, oco6enno nonn1nueckne,
pecypcm.
o6c1aenno, o6pncoaannmx amue aoennmx sapau anonne poc1a1ouno, na Ho asrnnp,
u1o6m nspacxopoaa1L aneprnk kn1ackoro packpec1Lnnnaannn. ocne uero ace
aepne1cn a caon 6epera, n kn1aum, cnyc1n opno-paa nokonennn, ypy1 ns
saaoeaannmx seHenL, kak Hm yunn ns oc1ouno aponm, pepne snn, akaakasLn n
pn6an1nkn. 6o pa6oune pykn no1pe6yk1cn yxe y nnx poHa, rpe poxpaeHoc1L
poc1nrne1 1oro ypoann, na ko1opoH ona ceropnn a apone.
pycckn Kxnm pan oc1ane1cn c pyccknHn, c naHn.
c1L eue neckonLko coo6paxenn, nnaennpykunx pnn Henn kn1ackyk yrposy,
c1aanunx ee na 1pe1Le Hec1o nocne na1oacko yrposm n ncnaHcko yrposm:
1) Hm o6Lek1nano nyxnm n ponro eue 6ypeH nyxnm n1ak, ko1opoHy neo6xopnHo
coepnnn1L caok xnayk cnny c naunHn aoenno-1exnnuecknHn noy-xay n npnpopnmHn
pecypcaHn, u1o6m pnk1oaa1L caok aonk a pernone yxe ceropnn n npo1naoc1on1L
Hepnke (n unpe - anapy) ao aceH Hnpe saa1pa;
2) Hm npnnapnexnH k pasnmH pacaH, n pnck cHeua1Lcn, pac1aopn1Lcn, y1pa1n1L
naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L y nac ropaspo nnxe npn o6uennn c kn1auaHn, ueH c
eaponeuaHn nnn paxe 1kpkaHn, kaakasuaHn. nHenno a1o1 pnck kak nnkako ppyro
nanne1cn pnn nac a6conk1no nenpneHneHmH;
3) nan6onee 6ecnouapnme cxaa1kn acerpa nocn1 any1pnanpoao, a ne Hexanpoao
xapak1ep: kn1auaH ncnxonornueckn (ecnn yropno - 6nonornueckn) npoue n Hnnee
6n1Lcn nacHep1L c HonrononpaHn - kasaxaHn, aLe1naHuaHn, kopeuaHn, HonronaHn,
nnonuaHn, nakoneu, ueH c naHn, eaponeonpaHn. c1a1n, 1ak ono a aekax acerpa n
6mno, sa ncknkuenneH anoxn nnrnc-ana. oxe1 nn anoxa nnrnca noa1opn1Lcn?
6nnxaune 20-30 ne1 - apnp nn;
4) acn nornka coapeHennoro pasan1nn npepnasnauae1 nac ppyr ppyry a c1pa1ernueckne
nap1nepm. x ecnn Hm c keH pec1an1enLno a opno nopke - 1ak a1o nHenno c
n1aeH. 6o xnsnL sac1aanne1 nac aHec1e ppyxn1L npo1na anapa, nonnn,
82
nanncnaHcko yrposm n Hnpoaoro eapec1aa - naunx o6unx (o6Lek1nano)
npo1nannkoa. ocnepnee, na Ho asrnnp, apxnaaxno;
5) nakoneu, anonne oueanpno, u1o y nac, pyccknx, - kak HnnnHyH paonan
kynL1ypnan, unannnsaunonnan npen1nunoc1L: sanapnan n aoc1ounan. onL oc1oka a
naue nc1opnn acerpa 6mna orpoHna n sauac1yk naHnoro 6onee 6naro1aopna, nexenn
ponL anapa. m HoxeH am6npa1L. ynL1ypnan npn1nra1enLnoc1L n1an pnn
nonnHakunx nkpe - ne nnxe, a ao HnoroH n ropaspo amue eaponecko.
ce ckasannoe ne o1Henne1, koneuno, neo6xopnHoc1n caHmH peun1enLnmH o6pasoH n
aceHn He1opaHn 6opo1Lcn c nonsyue Hnrpaune kn1auea na naun seHnn. nn naH
specL nn k ueHy, aonpekn Hnennk sapy6exnmx n poHopouennmx Hnrpan1opa1ene. o
a1o kacae1cn o1nkpL ne 1onLko kn1auea, a n acex npounx, n o6 a1oH - nnxe.
HTOFH H BmBOQm XX BEKA QHR OCCHH
acnek1m kpa1ko o6pncoaanno a npepmpyunx paspenax
npo6neHm ao HnoroH sapak1 ee napaHe1pm, no ne Hory1 onpepenn1L ny1n ee
paspeuennn. m ponxnm ncxopn1L ns co6c1aennmx nn1epecoa, uenenonarannn n aonn.
un1maan, pasyHee1cn, aneunne qak1opm, nnu ,
n x u, nn u
q . aunH o1uaH a 1941-1945 rr. 6mno ne nerue. o 6es onm ne1
o6epm.
H, n, xn n u
xn , , u
m H-XXI.
o1 neko1opm kackap kpa1knx 1esncoa-c1pa1areH, amc1poennmx no nncxopnue:
nc1opnocoqnn, qnnocoqnn, nonn1nueckan npeonornn, konkpe1nme a1nononn1nueckne
n nonn1akonoHnueckne Hepm. ce ckasannoe nnxe ec1L nnuL Hoe nnunoe Hnenne,
nnop nnunmx na6nkpenn n paspyHn. ne npe1enpyk na y1aepxpenne nc1nnm n
ro1oa pncky1npoaa1L no kaxpoHy nynk1y. anonne nonnHak 1akxe, u1o nn opno
npaan1enLc1ao occnn, kpoHe pycckoro naunonan-na1pno1nueckoro, ne npnHe1 k
pykoaopc1ay ace nnxenepeuncnennme nynk1m.
eH ne Henee, n ponxen nx npepnoxn1L. aepk a nx npak1nueckyk npnropnoc1L.
HH4HR
1. npepc1aanenne o knaccoao 6opL6e kak epnnc1aenno panxyue
cnne nc1opnn n, coo1ae1c1aenno, npepc1aanenne o6 nc1opnn aeka kak o 6opL6e
payx cnc1eH - counannsHa n kann1annsHa - ne coo1ae1c1ayk1 pec1an1enLnoc1n n ne
ampepxnaak1 kpn1nkn. naccoaan 6opL6a a1opnuna no o1nouennk k 6opL6e a1nocoa.
1nnueckne aonm nonannncL c nonanenneH uenoaeka n conpoaoxpak1 ack ero
nc1opnk. aHm knacc pa6oa (poponauanLnnk knaccoao 6opL6m) nonanncn 6naropapn
a1nnuecknH aonaH; n aocc1annn pa6oa 6mnn, aHec1e c 1eH, aocc1annnHn
nnonneHennmx no o1nouennk k a1nocy-pa6oanapenLuy Hacc, 1o ec1L - npoponxenneH
n pasnoanpnoc1Lk ace 1ex xe a1nnuecknx aon. asanauncL co apeHeneH a neko1opmx
(ne acex) unannnsaunonnmx cnc1eHax a opny ns rnaanmx panxyunx cnn nc1opnn,
knaccoaan 6opL6a, 1eH ne Henee, coxpanne1 caoe a1opnunoe n nopunnennoe
nonoxenne no o1nouennk k 6opL6e a1nocoa, a 1oH uncne naun n pac.
83
po1naopeunn nHenno Hexpy naunonanLnmHn o6unoc1nHn nponannncL c ne6maanmH
pasHaxoH a aeke. nepayk ouepepL a1o ampasnnocL a payx Hnpoamx n
Hnorouncnennmx pernonanLnmx aonax, a kononnanLnmx n an1nkononnanLnmx aonax
n peaonkunnx, a 1akxe a payx an1npyccknx peaonkunnx a occnn. ak1 coksa Hexpy
c1panaHn c npo1nao6opc1aykunHn o6uec1aennmHn cnc1eHaHn (nrnnn, n -
npo1na epHannn) ncno ykasmaae1 nHenno na naunonanLnm, a ne knaccoam
xapak1ep caHo rpanpnosno ns a1nx aon - 1opo Hnpoao. oneuno, cnoxnoe
nepenne1enne naunonanLnmx nn1epecoa npepc1ano a aeke 1akxe n a anpe
o6oc1pennn knaccoao 6opL6m (nanpnHep, a occnn c 1917 r.), peaonkun n
copeanoaannn payx cnc1eH. pnako c kpyuenneH n 6noka c1pan apuaackoro
poroaopa necoc1on1enLnoc1L konuenunn knaccoao 6opL6m kak panxyue cnnm
nc1opnn c1ana oueanpno. kpm1an a1nononn1nueckan npnpopa rno6anLnmx
konqnnk1oa noaceHec1no o6napyxnna ce6n.
mne yxe ncno, u1o rpnpyun aek 6ype1 aekoH ne Henee oxec1ouennmx a1nnuecknx n
pacoamx 6n1a. coo1ae1c1ann c 1enpenune, cqopHnpoaanno pnn1enLnmH
npo1naoc1onnneH payx cnc1eH, a1n 6n1am Hory1 6m1L kak ropnunHn, 1ak n
xonopnmHn, no nocnepc1ann y nnx opnnakoam. a aecax nc1opnn nexa1 ceropnn yxe
cypL6m acex 6es ncknkuennn pac, napopoa, c1pan n kon1nnen1oa.
2. anonne Hoxe1 6m1L caepeno k aapnan1y konuenunn
rno6annsHa - no a neckonLko nenpnamunoH pnn nac snauennn. 6o a
pec1an1enLnoc1n konuenunn rno6annsHa nHee1 pae Hopnqnkaunn: npeanLnyk n
peanLnyk.
epaan (nn), c ko1opo a ocnoanoH snakoH un1a1enL, nanne1cn nonpoc1y
noamH nspanneH cnekynn1nano qnnocoqnn kocHononn1nsHa (on xe HonpnannsH) n
nauenena ncknkun1enLno na cospanne nekoero epnnoro Hnpoaoro npaan1enLc1aa kak
na caepxsapauy n caHouenL. e rnaanm apen1, ne cun1an npekpacnopyunmx npno1oa,
- Hnpoaoe eapec1ao n 1e naunonanLnme pykoaopn1enn, ko1opme uak1 ce6e 1ennoro
Hec1euka a npecnoay1oH HnpoaoH npaan1enLc1ae.
1opan Hopnqnkaunn rno6annsHa (nn) npe1 o1 o6pa1noro - n aHec1e c 1eH o1
peanLno xnsnn. na nonarae1 neaosHoxnmH n nenyxnmH cospanne kakoro-nn6o
Hnpoaoro npaan1enLc1aa, n6o konc1a1npye1:
(, , n),
- ux
m . nauane aeka 1aknx rocypapc1a 6mno neHnornH 6onee 50,
ceuac - camue 200. pypno npepc1aan1L ce6e 6onee npko ampaxennyk n 6onee
caHooueanpnyk 1enpenunk. no6annsH xe, co6c1aenno, coc1on1 a pannoH cnyuae a
na6nkpennn: n c (kak neknx Honap - cy6Lek1oa Hnpoao
nc1opnn) cyc M rcc cn XX k
Mk r k n n rnn k. eHy
cnoco6c1aoaano, a nepayk ouepepL, cospanne aceHnpnmx nnqopHaunonno n
qnnancoao cnc1eH.
eropnn nk6an aona Henne1 packnap cnn na nnane1e n, sapeaan nn1epecm acex
yuac1nnkoa npouecca, c1poro roaopn, nanne1cn Hnpoao. 1o npnaeno k c1pon1enLc1ay
nonn1nuecknx 6nokoa a Hacu1a6ax acero Hnpa kak nepHanen1noHy npoueccy.
3. amue co ace oc1po1o c1aan1 pnn kaxporo napopa (n pnn pyccknx
1akxe) npo6neHy co6c1aenno npen1nunoc1n. 1o Hm? keH Hm? a koro Hm? 1o sa
nac?
yccknH aecLHa caoc1aenna aH6naanen1nan koHnnnHen1apnoc1L (o6pauennan na acex
paano po6poxena1enLnoc1L n o1smaunaoc1L), uac1o ampaxakuancn a pekoppno
amcoko accnHnnn1nanoc1n. m cnoco6nm yxn1Lcn n cxn1Lcn co aceHn. 1o ne snaun1,
84
yam, u1o ace cnoco6nm cxn1Lcn c naHn, o1uero naua nc1opnn, oco6enno Hnnyauero
c1one1nn, npencnonnena ropLknH pasouapoaanneH. nanns nokasmaae1, u1o ocnoanan
npnunna 1oHy - kpnsnc npen1nunoc1n pycckoro napopa.
c1opnn ne pae1 cepLesnmx, rny6oknx ocnoaann pyccknH npen1nqnunpoaa1L ce6n kak
eaponeuea. m cnnLno o1nnuaeHcn o1 6onLunnc1aa eaponecknx napopoa caonH
nc1opnuecknH npounmH, naunonanLnmH xapak1epoH, o1nouenneH k Hnpy n uenoaeky,
1nnoH peakun, HopenLk noaepennn, ukano uennoc1e n 1.p. npepenennan
ynnqnkaunn, nnaennpoaka a anoxy rno6annsaunn, koneuno, nens6exna, no nens6exen
n nepnqepnnm xapak1ep a1oro npouecca, ne sa1parnaakun nppa naunn. yccknH
npncyue caoc1aenno c1peHnenne npnuncnn1L ce6n k eaponeuaH, no a a1oH Hano kak
uec1n, 1ak n nc1nnm.
aponeum nonnHak1 a1y cy1L aeue ropaspo nyuue nac, o11opran pyccknx n ne
xenan o1 nnx nnuero, kpoHe kopmc1n, na aceH npo1nxennn nc1opnn. poaepennm
aekaHn qak1: ecnn paxe Hm amc1ynaeH sa apony, ona, 1eH ne Henee, nnkorpa ne
amc1ynae1 sa nac, nnkorpa ne uenn1 naunx xep1a, ne cneun1 naH na noHouL. m pnn
nee - pasHennan Hone1a a nyuueH cnyuae. ak nn neuanLno, no a1o kacae1cn paxe
cnaann - k npnHepy, nonnkoa, cnacennmx naHn o1 1a1ap n (paaxpm) o1 neHuea, no
aepyunx c naHn aonm c aeka, nnn 6onrap, sa ocao6oxpenne ko1opmx Hm nponnnn
Hopn pyccko kpoan, no ko1opme aoeaann npo1na nac n a epayk, ao 1opyk Hnpoame
aonm.
o HnoroH 1o xe Hoxno ckasa1L n a o1nouennn oc1oka n Kra naue nnane1m.
ecHo1pn na 1o, u1o aek1op pycckoro unannnsaunonnoro pasan1nn (coo1ae1c1aenno -
aoenno n kononnanLno akcnancnn) a IX-XVII 6mn o1ue1nnao nanpaanen nHenno a
kxnoH n aoc1ounoH nanpaanennnx, Hm, 1eH ne Henee, ne c1ann nkpLHn nn Kra, nn
oc1oka. o1n o1nouennn c oc1okoH y nac acerpa 6mnn 6onee napn1e1nmHn, asanHno
yaaxn1enLnmHn, ueH c anapoH, pa n ukanm uennoc1e y nac 6nnxe, paxe necHo1pn
na pennrnosnm aopopaspen.
euakunH n ne oc1aannkunH coHnenn akcnepnHen1oH a noncke co6c1aenno
npen1nunoc1n pnn nac, pyccknx, 6mnn onm1m nHnepckoro cyuec1aoaannn. aono - c
ne6onLunH nc1opnuecknH npoHexy1koH - pacnap nHnepn, a uen1pe ko1opmx c1onn
pycckn a1noc (1917 n 1991 rr.), ncno nokasan: nac npn nepao xe aosHoxnoc1n
o11oprae1 c 6onLue nnn HenLue cnno kak anap, 1ak n oc1ok, n Kr. aun
nonm1kn 1nny1Lcn c nexnoc1Lk 6eccHmcnenno k uyxoHy ne yaenuanncL ycnexoH,
6mnn o1aeprny1m c nacHeuko n neropoaanneH. 1o 6onee ueH oueanpno.
1o ponxno 6m1L ocosnano po konua.
1ckpa - ncnm nHnepa1na pnn pyccknx:
- un (q s
n - x
n; - un
nu n m, m,
m m m);
- u ( u !) mu m um
n, m m m, iz,
nu , ,
, n x
x x, , n
s - ;
85
- xnu m mm umm
, nn m n
mn ( ) nu
u n x.
4. ocosna1L, u1o cnoH naanoro akona nsnn n nonanenne a xnsnn pnpa
napopoa (a 1oH uncne pycckoro) 1akoro yc1ounaoro qak1opa, kk Myc c
cnn, - a1o co6m1ne nopnnnno peaonkunonnoe, Hennkuee xop nc1opnn,
cpaannHoe 1onLko c aennknHn ka1ac1poqaHn a npounoH eHnn. no sac1aanne1
o16pocn1L npepc1aanenne o nekoeH anropn1He, ko1opoHy cyxpeno noa1opn1Lcn a
nc1opnn occnn anoaL n anoaL no npnnunny 1ak 6mno - 1ak 6ype1. 1nmne Hexpy
pe1pocnek1nao n nepcnek1nao nonannk1cn npnnunnnanLnme necoaHec1nHoc1n yxe
ne apeHennro, a cyunoc1noro xapak1epa.
oa1oHy nyxno npepc1aan1L ce6e xop pyccko nc1opnn po 1990-x rr. n nopaec1n nop
nnH uep1y: 1ak 6mno. H nu: um - . ocne uero asn1L sa ocnoay
pnn npornosnpoaannn nnuL opny noaeuyk nc1opnk, u1o6m amc1pon1L coaepuenno
noam anropn1H pycckoro noaepennn, na nnmx, m n
x npnamunoHy npepc1aanennk npnnunnax.
nnnnonm ne1 1oHy nasap pm6m n Hopckne xnao1nme amnyxpenm 6mnn yun1Lcn
nonsa1L na nnaannkax n pmua1L aospyxoH, korpa npoao okean o1c1ynnn - n onn
oc1anncL na cyue. nnx npoc1o ne 6mno ppyroro am6opa. e1 am6opa n y nac,
pyccknx, c1onunx nepep neo6xopnHoc1Lk nepeHenn1L caok na1ypy.
5. , a caHmx o6unx uep1ax, noaan pycckan nc1opnocoqckan napapnrHa
caHocoxpanennn n pasan1nn na XXI aek.
nonn1nke nopo6no napapnrHe coo1ae1c1aye1 u . ro y
pyccknx nnkorpa ne 6mno. aH npepc1on1 ero cospa1L.
4HR4HR
6. saHeuannk noppa onnnr6poka, nc1opnn ec1L npak1nueckan
qnnocoqnn, ko1opan yun1 nac c noHouLk npnHepoa. akoe nonnHanne nosaonne1
c1aan1L nc1opnocoqnk amue qnnocoqnn, a amaopm n pekoHenpaunn nc1opnocoqoa
c1aan1L anepepn yc1anoaok qnnocoqoa. pnpaaan npn a1oH qnnocoqcknH yc1anoakaH
nnuL nopunnennoe, cnyxe6noe snauenne: npnnnHan n pasanaan 1e, u1o cosayunm
coapeHennmH nc1opnocoqcknH pekoHenpaunnH, n 6esxanoc1no o16pacmaan 1e, u1o nH
npo1naopeua1. nepye1 noHnn1L, u1o sa ncknkuenneH Hmcnn1enLnoro nnc1pyHen1apnn
(nornkn n pnanek1nkn, a nepayk ouepepL, a 1akxe neko1opmx nonn1n) qnnocoqnn sa
ace aeka ne ampa6o1ana n ne pana uenoaeuec1ay nnkaknx npnropnmx pnn npak1nkn
opnen1npoa, nnkaknx o6uenpnnn1mx nc1nn, nnkaknx ynnaepcanLnmx Hopene
noaepennn. noaoH - nnkaknx on1nHanLnmx npak1nuecknx cnc1eH xnsnn. oa1oHy 1eH
6onee cnepye1 nerko pacc1aaa1Lcn c qnnocoqcknH nacnepneH, ne ampaxakunH
coapeHenno naunonanLno aksnc1enunn n 1pe6oaann HoHen1a.
opHanLnm uenoaek xnae1 ne no npepasn1mH, keH-1o yc1anoanennmH npaannaH, a no
o6c1on1enLc1aaH, n pykoaopc1aye1cn ne xec1ko cnc1eHo, a rn6knH, nopanxnmH,
pasaopo1nnamH yHoH (ecnn on y nero ec1L). pnen1npyncL na epnnc1aennm
nenpenoxnm sakon - sakon pnpopm.
ak xe cnepye1 noc1yna1L n naunn.
86
7. c pannmH 1esncoH, ne nyxno ncka1L ynnaepcanLnmx
nonn1nuecknx nnn a1nuecknx cnc1eH, qnnocoqcknx nnn pennrnosnmx, u1o6m nonoxn1L
nx a ocnoay noao naunonanLno nonn1nkn. 6o nk6me ynnaepcanLnme cnc1eHm
ynsanHm. nn poxpak1 npepasn1me nopxopm, neonpaapanno xec1kne yc1anoakn,
noxnme nHnepa1nam. 1o o1nocn1cn kak k c1apmH (a 1oH uncne, 1ak nasmaaeHmH
aeuno noamH), yxe o6ankpo1naunHcn cnc1eHaH, 1ak n k 1eH, u1o cospak1cn ceropnn
a pacue1e na 6ypyuee. onm1ka a1ncny1L ace Hnoroo6pasne xnsnn a nekn ynnaepcyH
ne 1onLko o6peuena caHa no ce6e, no n o6pekae1 na 6eccHmcnennoe Hyuenne acex
yuac1nnkoa akcnepnHen1a.
pnHepoH ckasannoHy nanne1cn 6m1oaanne a Hnpe nsaec1noro nosynra ierte,
galite, raternite (ao6opa, aaenc1ao, pa1c1ao), aonno1nauero a ce6e aecL
koHnnekc npepc1aanenn nonynnpno a XVIII-XX aa. qnnocoqnn a6c1pak1noro
ryHannsHa. a1oH nosynre, kak 1enepL yxe aceH ncno, ampasnnacL aennuauan noxL
a nc1opnn uenoaeuec1aa. ynnn no apnxy n pasHmunnn o npnunnax pacoao
ka1ac1poqm, noc1nrue qpanuysoa, n ne opnn pas o6ouen aokpyr ena1a, nap
HnorouncnennmHn nop1anaHn ko1oporo nensHenno cnne1 sono1mHn 6ykaaHn pannm
nosynr[23]. m caHn ao aceH annoaa1m, - pyHan n, rnnpn na nero. - a1oro-1o ace n
nauanocL. nauana y aac, no1oH - a Hepnke, ppyrnx c1panax, 1aH poka1nnocL n po
occnn. s-sa a1o npeno qanLunakn, kasaauecn nekorpa a6conk1no nc1nno,
nponn1m Hopn kpoan, norn6nn pecn1kn Hnnnnonoa neannnmx nkpe, a ee np ace
npoponxae1 pec1aoaa1L, yrpoxan nory6n1L eue no HenLue Hepe non1opa
Hnnnnappa..
oxno npnaec1n n ppyrne npnHepm. s6aan 6oxe nac o1 acex ynnaepcanLnmx
qnnocoqcknx cnc1eH.
8. a amcue c1enenn o1nocn1cn n k 1ak nasmaaeHo knaccnuecko
pyccko qnnocoqnn, ko1opan nko6m ampaxana pycckyk npek. a caHoH pene a1a
qnnocoqnn aceHnpnoc1n pycckoro uenoaeka nnuL oqopHnnna npek poccnckoro
nHnepckoro c1pon1enLc1aa, nonnoc1Lk nsxnauyk ce6n n 1onLko 1opHosnuyk ceropnn
panLneuee pasan1ne naunn, npo1naopeuauyk xnsnennmH nn1epecaH pycckoro
napopa. e, k1o ceropnn nm1ae1cn npopanra1L npek pyccko aceHnpnoc1n, a 1akxe
nk6me aceHnpnme pycckne npoek1m, nannk1cn aonLnmHn nnn neaonLnmHn aren1aHn
xypue pasnoanpnoc1n rno6annsHa c ee yc1anoako na yupexpenne Hnpoaoro
npaan1enLc1aa.
yxno ncno nonnHa1L: pannan qnnocoqnn, kak 6m nn 6mnn cnHna1nunm n yHnm
o1penLnme ee nocn1enn, 1akne, kak oHnkoa, oc1oeackn nnn n. onoaLea, kak 6m
nn 6mnn onn npaam a o1penLnmx uac1nmx HoHen1ax, - 6esnapexno yc1apena a uenoH,
ne coo1ae1c1aye1 sapauaH noc1poennn pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa. e
cnoco6c1aye1 peuennk : u xu
. (exnonornn uero,
co6c1aenno, n coc1aanne1 caHyk cy1L coapeHenno pyccko npen.)
6conk1no ace, u1o koncepanpye1 y pycckoro napopa nHnepckyk ncnxonornk nnn ee
pypnHen1m - npnnerakune k nHnepckoHy cosnannk npen n npekn, neo6xopnHo 6es
acnkoro coxanennn noxoponn1L. ne akcryHnpoaa1L no kpane Hepe po 1ex nop,
noka pycckne ne aocc1anoan1 pnnaHnky poxpaeHoc1n no o6pasuy konua XIX aeka.
(ero ceropnn, koneuno, nnk1o ne xpe1.)
9. nasap, na nnke nauero peHorpaqnueckoro nopLeHa, pycckne qnnocoqm
Hornn nosaonn1L ce6e Hmcnennme, nn k ueHy nx nnuno ne o6nsmaakune, cnekynnunn
na 1eHy kak xn1L. o ace nx noc1poennn o6ankpo1nnncL a nepnop, o1kpmauncn
1917 ropoH. Crn cn r. m ne HoxeH aepny1Lcn a XIX aek, u1o6m
ace naua1L sanoao no peuen1aH 6eppneamx, nnLnnmx nnn cononeanue. mne
poc1onnc1ao qnnocoqa coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m cqopHynnpoaa1L, ne kak xn1L, a kak
87
amxn1L. pepmpyune rnaam Hoero counnennn nosaonnk1 cypn1L o 1oH, nackonLko
a1a npo6neHa nanne1cn epnnc1aenno poc1ono annHannn. ycckn Hnp nopouen k
rn6enLnoHy nopory n cn cnn aMy qky Mk nnncn c
c. paxe - no1yc1oponne.
o cy1n, sapaua qnnocoqa kak 1akoaan ceropnn aoo6ue 6onLue ne cyuec1aye1 a
npoc1panc1ae pyccko naunonanLno xnsnn. na npeo6pasoaanacL a sapauy nonn1nka
n 1pe6ye1 coaceH nnmx snann n nopxopoa - nc1opnka, ncnxonora, counonora,
nonn11exnonora n 1.p.
qnnocoqnn, pa6o1akue no 1ako Hopenn, ec1L caoe nHn: . no n
ponxno c1on1L na naueH snaHenn.
HRHHHEKR HQERHR
10. , na noaec1ke pnn c1on1 u
- a1oro nac1on1enLno 1pe6yk1, c opno c1oponm, rno6anLnme 1enpenunn pasan1nn,
6pocakune naH amsoa, a c ppyro c1oponm - xnsnennme nn1epecm pyccko naunn.
1oH, kaknH ono ponxno 6m1L n kak ero cospa1L, noppo6no pacckasmaae1 onc1n1yunn
ycckoro ocypapc1aa (1997), cospannan nro o6uec1aenno saun1m naunonanLnoro
poc1onnnn npn yuac1nn cneunannc1oa kpqaka n nc1n1y1a rocypapc1aa n npaaa
[24]. na nonnoc1Lk coxpanne1 ak1yanLnoc1L n anonne poc1ynna pnn nsyuennn,
paano kak n kap1a ycckan occnn, o6osnauakuan on1nHanLnme rpannum 1akoro
rocypapc1aa. oa1oHy specL n o6opy HonuanneH Hnorne noppo6noc1n n
cocpepo1ouycL na rnaanoH.
11. pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa ne Hoxe1 np1n a o1pmae o1
peuennn npo6neH pyccko naunn kak 1akoao.
ocnoae pyccko naunonanLno nonn1nuecko npeonornn ponxen nexa1L
kpaeyronLnm kaHenL aoo6ue konuenunn naunonannsHa: aunn nepanuna,
rocypapc1ao a1opnuno. 1o nn a koeH cnyuae ne snaun1, u1o rocypapc1ao ec1L neu1o
neaaxnoe; no Hm ponxnm 1aeppo noHnn1L, u1o a coo1ae1c1ann c pnanek1nko
cyunoc1L oqopHnena, a qopHa - cyuec1aenna. Fcyc c qM,
nnn cyc - , nm xn M
cc. epoc1a1kn n npenHyuec1aa rocypapc1aa ec1L nepoc1a1kn n
npenHyuec1aa naunn, nepeaepennme ns Hen1anLnoro, nHHanen1noro naunn, nnana, - a
nnan 1pancuepen1nm: 6m1nnm n co6m1nnm. F - s
, z .
1ckpa cnepye1 1esnc: nenLsn (a1o npoc1o 6eccHmcnenno) sa6o1n1Lcn o aneune
qopHe, ne npepycHo1pea anauane neo6xopnHmx nsHenenn any1pennero copepxannn.
a6o1a o pyccko naunn ponxna nexa1L a ocnoae nk6mx npeo6pasoaann occnn kak
rocypapc1aa, o6Lek1nanpoaaauero nHenno pannyk naunk.
u u mu
u, , nu.
12. npoekunn npepmpyuero 1esnca na npak1nueckyk nnockoc1L pae1 naH
nonnHanne ncnoro 1esnca: u1o xopouo pnn pyccknx - xopouo pnn occnn; u1o nnoxo
pnn pyccknx - nnoxo pnn occnn.
kasannoe ne osnauae1, u1o 6naro ppyrnx napopoa occnn, npexpe acero -
aa1ox1onnmx, ne nHee1 snauennn pnn npak1nkykuero pycckoro nonn1nka. c1oponnnk
rpaxpanckoro paanonpaann a uenoH (xo1n n ne c1oponnnk npepoc1aanennn
88
rpaxpanc1aa aceH xenakunH). o a1o snaun1 nnuL, u1o a cn1yaunn konqnnk1a
naunonanLnmx nn1epecoa, rpe opno c1opono nannk1cn pycckne, nn o kakoH
koncencyce ne Hoxe1 6m1L peun: nosnunn n aaunH n naunH nanne1cn saaepoHo
noxno, paspyun1enLno n pnn naunn, n pnn rocypapc1aa.
occnn - ne 1onLko pnn pyccknx, no pnn pyccknx a nepayk ouepepL.
13. o6nac1L uenoaeuecko pen1enLnoc1n, rpe npepmpyun 1esnc npnnnHae1 anp
ynL1nHa1yHa: a1o - nonn1nueckan anac1L. eropnn ona peanLno aonnouena a ue1mpex
cy6c1anunnx: 1pn konc1n1yunonnme nnkc . a1nx cy6c1anunnx ace ocnoanme
nonnoHounn 6es ncknkuennn ponxnm naxopn1Lcn 1onLko y pyccknx. a onpepenennme
ponxnoc1n pycckne Hory1 nasnaua1L nepyccknx naHec1nnkoa npn ycnoann a6conk1noro
kon1ponn.
Bn u - !
3HHRHHHEKHE EKMEHQHH
14. - o naunonanLnoH c1pon1enLc1ae.
apop - cy6Lek1 nc1opnn. cnn Hm xo1nH, u1o6m nc1opnn pycckoro napopa
npoponxanacL, aaxno, u1o6m napop ne 1onLko ne ncuesan, ne yHenLuancn n ne
pac1aopnncn a okpec1nmx napopax, no n
. akoaa nanaaxneuan, ace onpepennkuan sapaua pycckoro
rocypapc1aa. ocosnannn ee naunnae1cn ampa6o1ka nk6mx a1nononn1nuecknx
pekoHenpaun.
aennuenne nponopunn pycckoro napopa 1pe6ye1 Hep, nanpaanennmx, c opno
c1oponm, na yaennuenne ero a6conk1no uncnennoc1n, a c ppyro - na yaennuenne
ero o1nocn1enLno uncnennoc1n a Hnpe. nmHn cnoaaHn, neo6xopnHo nnkanpnpoaa1L
1o1 nepenap peHorpaqnueckoro paanennn, ko1opm cnoxnncn sa cue1 nnsko
poxpaeHoc1n y pyccknx n amcoko - y nepyccknx.
ocnepnee nens6exno osnauae1, Hexpy npounH, yHenLuenne uncnennoc1n, ao-
nepamx, okpec1nmx napopoa sa py6exoH[25], a ao-a1opmx - nepyccknx Hnrpan1oa n
aoo6ue nerpaxpan a occnn. 1ak nasmaaeHmH kopennmH napopaH occnn a1o ne
o1nocn1cn. asyHee1cn, Hm, pycckne, ne o6nsanm sa6o1n1Lcn o poc1e uncnennoc1n
nky1oa, apmroa n 1.p. - a1o nn a koeH cnyuae ne nau, a 1onLko nx nn1epec, ne naun, a
1onLko nx npo6neHm. o n npnnnHa1L Hepm k amHnpannk poccncknx nnopopuea Hm
ne nHeeH npaaa - ecnn, koneuno, onn ne cnepyk1 npnHepy ueuenuea. akoao ycnoane
rpaxpanckoro Hnpa a occnn, ycnoane, kak roaopn1cn, sine qua non (6es ko1oporo
nnu1o ne coc1on1cn).
15. H, kak na aone. osHoxno, uenoaeuec1ao 6ype1 xn1L n uaec1n, a 1o
apeHn kak pyccknx yxe ne 6ype1 n a noHnne. osHoxno, 1akan noc1anoaka pena koro-
1o n yc1pon1, n y1eun1, n paxe nopapye1. o n, uec1no roaopn, npepnouen 6m, u1o6m
6mno nao6opo1[26]. 1ckpa n yc1anoakn, ko1opme koHy-1o Hory1 nokasa1Lcn
xec1koaa1mHn.
apo nonn1L, u1o npe1 aona. poaaaan, xec1okan. npnHan n neanpnHan. ceHnpnan.
3qn. apo nonn1L a1o - n xn1L no sakonaH aoennoro apeHenn.
ypn1L no nnH. 1o - ec1ec1aenno.
89
anpo1na, Hne kaxe1cn npo1naoec1ec1aennmH, u1o6m nacnepne Honx npepkoa n Henn
caHoro poc1anocL ne HonH pe1nH n anykaH, a asep6apxanuaH, eapenH, nerpaH,
1yannuaH, ueuenuaH n pp. R s m ,
.
- ne pacnc1. naunonannc1. ne nn1ak npepy6expennn npo1na kako-nn6o pacm.
enn opnnakoao nepeaopaunaae1 npn Hmcnn o sacenennn occnn neHuaHn, nerpaHn,
6enmHn aHepnkanuaHn n kanapuaHn, asep6apxanuaHn, nnonuaHn - n aoo6ue aceHn,
kpoHe pyccknx.
oxno, koneuno, cnpe1L cnoxa pyukn n poxnpa1Lcn, noka acn snn, qpnka n
a1nnckan Hepnka a caok ouepepL npopy1 uepes packpec1Lnnnaanne n cpaannk1cn c
naHn no ypoank poxpaeHoc1n. o po a1nx cuac1nnamx pne Hm npoc1o ne poxnaeH.
cun1ak neo6xopnHmH ak1nano npo1naopec1aoaa1L a6conk1noHy sny.
16. n nenpenoxnoe npaanno: ocyuec1anenne kon1ponn nap ace
naunonanLno nonn1nko occnn ponxno naxopn1Lcn a pykax nnc1anunn, nHekue
npaao na nonnoe poaepne pycckoro napopa. nmneunero ocypapc1aa occnckoro, no
1papnunn naunonanLno-ynnaepcanLnoro n naunonanLno-nnpnqqepen1noro, ckopee
apaxpe6noro, ueH ppyxec1aennoro no o1nouennk k pyccknH, 1akoro npaaa ne1.
acnyxn1 nn ono ero - 6onLuo aonpoc. nepoaa1enLno, nyxna napannenLnan
anac1nan c1pyk1ypa, neu1o apope rocypapc1aa a rocypapc1ae, co caonHn ecnn ne
aockoH, 1o, ao acnkoH cnyuae, - qnnancaHn, nonnune, 1pn6ynanoH,
nnqopHaunonno nHnepne.
osHoxno, a1o ponxna 6m1L nap1nn (ncxopn ns poccnckoro sakonopa1enLc1aa), a
aosHoxno - neu1o ppyroe, 6onee aceoxaa1noe, xo1n n ne neqopHanLnoe, u1o-1o
nanopo6ne acepoccncko pyccko o6unnm.
17. po6naa1Lcn nn n , cpouno neo6xopnHmx pyccknH.
1o, a nepayk ouepepL:
3 m ;
3
;
3 qm.
o sakony k amcunH ponxnoc1nH occnn ne ponxnm ponycka1Lcn nepycckne n
nopopnennme c nepyccknHn nnua, npepc1aan1enn cekcyanLnmx HenLunnc1a.
eo6xopnHo 1akxe orpannun1L ns6npa1enLnoe npaao, no kpane Hepe, naccnanoe,
pnn 6espe1nmx. opo6nme orpannuennn kak neu1o coaepuenno ec1ec1aennoe
cyuec1aoaann a ppeannx peHokpa1nnx - peunn, nHe, rpe nonnonpaanmH
rpaxpannnoH 6mn 1onLko o1eu ceHec1aa: pater familias. ycckn, nHekun Henee
payx pe1e a opno ceHLe, ne ponxen nHe1L npaaa sannHa1L am6opnme ponxnoc1n: on
ne amnonnnn cao aneHen1apnm ponr nepep naune. cnn 1m ne snaeuL, u1o 1akoe
sa6o1a o caonx pe1nx n o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa ceHLk, kak 1m 6ypeuL sa6o1n1Lcn o
napope? cnn 1m ne cansmaaeuL npouae1anne caoe ceHLn c npouae1anneH napopa,
kako ns 1e6n npaan1enL? enoaek, ne nHekun aaxneuero a xnsnn uenoaeueckoro
onm1a, ne Hoxe1 n ne nHee1 HopanLnoro npaaa nn koHanpoaa1L ppyrnHn nkpLHn, nn
coae1oaa1L ppyrnH nkpnH. pnHepm anoneona, ennna n n1nepa kpacnopeunao a1o
nop1aepxpak1.
90
eo6xopnH sakon o sanpe1e a6op1oa pnn pyccknx. anoHnk: a K a6op1
ponyckae1cn, 1onLko ecnn nHee1 Hec1o kpoaocHeuenne, nsnacnnoaanne nnn yrposa
xnsnn Ha1epn. akne pnkapn! - ckaxe1 aHancnnnpoaannan 6enan xenunna.
1nkpL. ouno c 1aknH xe - cnoao a cnoao - sakononpoek1oH uen na am6opm
ceropnnunn npesnpen1 Hepnkn - xoppx yu-Hnapun. paao! Hepnka c1pon1cn
a xaoc1 K! 1o cHeno - n Hyppo. naun1, po nnx, nakoneu, pouna acn
apxnaaxnoc1L npo6neHm. cnn 6enmH npnuna nopa nopsann1L yHa y uepnmx - noueHy
6m n ne1? opouo 6m, u1o6 ne cnnukoH nospno.
k6o a6op1, cpenannm pyccko xenunne ane nasaannmx 1pex nokasann, ponxen
paccHa1pnaa1Lcn kak y6nc1ao c o1nruakunHn o6c1on1enLc1aaHn. (ak ono, ane
acnkoro coHnennn, na caHoH pene n ec1L.) o aceHn am1ekakunHn nocnepc1annHn. o
n 6m po6aann eue n ue1aep1m nokasa1enL: naunonanLnoe (1eH 6onee, pacoaoe)
cHeuenne. a1oH cnyuae Ha1L, coaepunauan oun6ky, ponxna nHe1L aosHoxnoc1L
caoeapeHenno ee ncnpaan1L: a1o ryHanno, a 1.u., n no o1nouennk k 6ypyueHy He1ncy.
ak xe sakonoH ponxna 6m1L sanpeuena pen1enLnoc1L occncko accounaunn
nnannpoaannn ceHLn (, qnnnan ananornuno Hexpynapopno oprannsaunn
) n nopo6nme e yupexpennn, uLn pen1enLnoc1L, qnnancnpyeHan ns-sa py6exa,
ne 1onLko ne nanpaanena na poc1 pycckoro nacenennn, no nanne1cn aneHen1oH
peHorpaqnuecko aonm, ko1opyk anap aepe1 npo1na nac.
eo6xopnH ecnn ne sakon o sanpe1e na cHeuannme 6pakn (1ako sakon 6ype1
aocnpnnnHa1Lcn kak sanpe1 na nk6oaL), 1o ak1nanan nonn1nka, a 1oH uncne
nponaranpnc1ckan, a a1oH nanpaanennn. apeckne aneppnk1 a pycckne ronoam
HmcnL o 1oH, u1o pyccknx kak 1akoamx ne1, u1o pycckne - a1o nec1pan a1nnueckan
cHecL, n u1o a c1pane, kak nanncann eapeckne 6anknpm nLunny a 1996 ropy -
6onee nonoannm pe1e o1 cHeuannmx 6pakoa. 1o npaapa nnuL o1uac1n. eapeea,
pec1an1enLno, 56% xenunn n 58% Hyxunn naxopn1cn a cHeuannmx 6pakax. o u1o
naH po nx npo6neH? uenoH no c1pane a1o1 npouen1 paxe a 1979 ropy 6mn acero
14,9%; ceropnn, nocne pacnapa n uepepm a1nnuecknx aon, on eue nonnsnncn.
pn a1oH napo noHnn1L opnn ns aaxnmx sakonoa peHorpaqnn: xnayune pncnepcno
Hnrpan1m ac1ynak1 a cHeuannme 6pakn a cpepneH a 1pn pasa uaue, ueH kpynnme
kopennme a1nocm. naun1, y pyccknx npouen1 cHeuannmx 6pakoa ceropnn ropaspo
HenLue. o ycnokanaa1Lcn pano - ne ace eue nonnHak1 nx onacnoc1L.
yuue, ecnn 6m cHeuannmx 6pakoa y nac ne 6mno coaceH. au napop noka eue
nac1onLko Hnorouncnen, rene1nueckn 6ora1 n pasnoo6pasen, u1o yrposa ampoxpennn
o1 nko6m popc1aennmx 6pakoa, ko1opo nac nyrak1 1e xe eapen, - cHexo1aopno Hana.
ao1 yrposa pasHmaannn, no1epn naunonanLnmx oco6ennoc1e, 1papnun, yrposa
any1pnceHenmx 1penn na nouae naunonanLnmx pasnnun, yrposa any1pennero
paspaoennn pe1e, nonapakunx a konqnnk1nyk cn1yaunk (nanpnHep, a apHnno-
asep6apxanckoH, rpysnno-a6xasckoH, oce1nno-nnryuckoH, 6auknpcko-kanHmukoH,
nky1cko-aaenkckoH, pyccko-eapeckoH, pyccko-ueuenckoH n 1.p. 6pake), peanLnm n
ouenL aennkn. eH 6onLue y nac cHeuannmx 6pakoa, 1eH cna6ee naua naunn. m
1epneH 6onLue, ueH npno6pe1aeH uepes popc1aennme cansn c ppyrnHn napopaHn.
ckasan 6m n kpenue. ockonLky nespnHan 6n1aa napopoa ne npekpauae1cn nn na
Hnr, uenoaek, ac1ynakun a cHeuannm 6pak, nopo6en 1oHy, k1o na aone o1kpmaae1
aopo1a nenpnn1enk. eropnnunnn apona nanne1 co6o cyHHapnm o6pas nHenno
1akoro uenoaeka, npepa1enn caoe pacm. po Hepnky n n ne roaopk - ona acerpa
6mna 1akoao, a 1enepL nm1ae1cn caon npo6neHm nepenoxn1L na naun nneun.
sakonopa1enLc1ao ponxna 6m1L aosapauena c1a1Ln, kapakuan sa po6poaonLnme
roHocekcyanLnme kon1ak1m.
91
poccnckn nacnop1 ponxna 6m1L aosapauena rpaqa naunonanLnoc1L. enoaek
(ne 1onLko pycckn) ponxen nHe1L aosHoxnoc1L nop1aeppn1L caok naunonanLnoc1L
kM yM, nockonLky 1akan neo6xopnHoc1L Hoxe1 aosnnkny1L y kaxporo ne
opnn pas a xnsnn. euL npe1 specL o HexannsHe peannsaunn konc1n1yunonnoro npaaa
onpepenn1L n ykasmaa1L caok naunonanLnyk npnnapnexnoc1L (c1.26 onc1n1yunn
occnn). aHm npoc1o n ypo6nm cnoco6 - nHenno sanncL a nacnop1e, ko1opyk y
nac o1o6pann ann c nLunnmH.
18. nesaancnHo o1 Hec1a xn1enLc1aa ponxnm nonyua1L poccnckoe
rpaxpanc1ao no nepaoHy 1pe6oaannk, nopkpennennoHy pokyHen1anLnmH
pokasa1enLc1aoH naunonanLno npnnapnexnoc1n. m
un .
apo nHe1L a anpy: pycckne npak1nueckn ne cnoco6nm k pnacnopanLnoHy
cyuec1aoaannk. o a1opoH-1pe1LeH nokonennn onn, okasaauncL ane occnn, kak
npaanno, accnHnnnpyk1cn. a1oH pnn nac 6onLuan onacnoc1L: Hm HoxeH no1epn1L
Hnorne Hnnnnonm caonx nkpe (n sauac1yk paneko ne xypunx), u1o coaepuenno
neponyc1nHo nepep nnuoH nsaec1nmx yrpos.
eo6xopnHo cpena1L ace, u1o6m nponsouno peanLnoe aoccoepnnenne pyccko naunn.
1euenne 1997-1999 rr. sannHan noc1 saao1penoH kpannm n pmHa, a sa1eH
saHpnpek1opa no nayke nc1n1y1a c1pan (on xe nc1n1y1 pnacnopm n
nn1erpaunn), n annHa1enLno nsyuan ace acnek1m a1o npo6neHm n coc1aann
cnepykune pekoHenpaunn.
apnexn1 pasnnua1L pycckyk pnacnopy no payH kpn1epnnH: 1) koHnak1noc1L nnn
pncnepcnoc1L paccenennn; 2) npnHmkanne k rpannuaH occnn nnn ypanenne o1 nnx.
saancnHoc1n o1 a1oro cnepye1:
- o6ecneun1L ecnn ne 1o1anLnm, 1o HakcnHanLnm amaos a occnk pyccknx,
npoxnaakunx sa py6exoH pncnepcno. nn koHnak1no - no apann o1 rpannu occnn
(nanpnHep, a nHa-1nncko o6nac1n asaxc1ana);
- o6ecneun1L npncoepnnenne k occnn seHenL, koHnak1no nacenennmx pyccknHn
a6nnsn rpannu occnn. 1o cnepye1 pena1L, nn6o paspennn c1pany npoxnaannn
pyccknx c 1pe1Le c1opono (aapnan1 paspena asaxc1ana Hexpy occne n n1aeH
onncan amue), nn6o - HnpnmH (yam, ponrnH) ny1eH n a coo1ae1c1ann c
HexpynapopnmH npaaoH, rnc n a. H sn: pycckne a anknaae
po6naak1cn naunonanLno-kynL1ypno aa1onoHnn. sn: pycckne a anknaae
po6naak1cn naunonanLno-1eppn1opnanLno aa1onoHnn a coc1aae c1panm npoxnaannn.
sn: pycckan aa1onoHnn ny1eH peqepenpyHa po6naae1cn cyaepenn1e1a.
H sn: cyaepennan pycckan o6nac1L ny1eH peqepenpyHa npnnnHae1
peuenne o axoxpennn a coc1aa occnn. H sn: occnn a coo1ae1c1ann c
nopHaHn caoe onc1n1yunn npnnnHae1 peuenne o6 nsHenennn rpannu. onn1no, u1o
a1o1 npouecc neaosHoxen 6es ak1nano uenenanpaanenno noppepxkn occnn;
- a oxnpannn ncnonnennn pannmx Hep npepnpnnn1L ace ycnnnn pnn coxpanennn
pyccko naunonanLno-kynL1ypno npen1nunoc1n, pycckoro caHocosnannn y naunx
epnnokpoanmx, o1pesannmx o1 Ha1epnncko naunn n c1panm;
- nsyun1L, aneppn1L n HakcnHanLno ncnonLsoaa1L a o1nouennn c1pan n
pn6an1nkn onm1 1ak nasmaaeHo ryHann1apno nn1epaenunn, onnpancL na
npnsnannme HnpoamH coo6uec1aoH npaaa uenoaeka n rpaxpannna (a pannoH cnyuae -
pycckoro uenoaeka n rpaxpannna a noaoo6pasoaannmx a1nokpa1nnx).
19. VERY DANGEROUS! enLsn nLc1n1L ce6n napexpo na aoccoepnnenne c
kpanno a uenoH. 1n Heu1m onacnm. nn na npak1nke yxe o6epnynncL naunH
92
npepa1enLc1aoH 11,5 Hnn. pyccknx, npoxnaakunx 1aH. aknkuna, no anne
koHHynnc1nuecko qpakunn yHm n nnuno nLunna, poroaop c kpanno,
y1aeppnaun nmneunne rpannum, occnn 6pocnna caonx nkpe na Hnnoc1L
caHoc1nnnkoa, ykpanncknx a1nokpa1oa. y nnx sapaua: npeapa1n1L pyccknx
kpannm - a ykpannuea, ne a nepaoH, 1ak ao a1opoH-1pe1LeH nokonennnx. ockonLky
n Laoa, n pmH (ampaxancL cnHaonnueckn) cnnukoH xopoun kaxpm no-caoeHy, 1o
kneackan anac1L nnkorpa ne peun1cn ueH-nn6o opnnH noxep1aoaa1L. nokypa Laoa
(n c nnH caHoc1nnnueckan npeonornueckan poHnnan1a) - a coc1aae kpannm, naH ne
1onLko c kpanno a uenoH, no paxe c pmHoH n oaopoccne po6poH ne
aoccoepnnn1Lcn. 1o nyxno ncno nonnHa1L n ne c1pon1L nnnksn.
c1L pasnme cuenapnn peuennn pannoro aonpoca. o na 6nnxauee apeHn a
o1nouennn pyccknx na kpanne cnepye1 pykoaopc1aoaa1Lcn nsnoxenno nynk1oH
amue c1pa1areHo.
20. rocypapc1aaHn 6nnxnero sapy6exLn, kpoHe epnnc1aenno enopyccnn,
ponxen 6m1L neHepnenno aaepen ansoao pexnH. paxpanaH acex nnmx c1pan, kM
n ycck n nycck nc, epyunH a occnk, a 1oH uncne uepes
enopyccnk, cnepye1 sanpaunaa1L poccnckyk ansy na o6unx ocnoaannnx.
21. cnyuae nenLsn peua1L aonpocm, kacakunecn napoponacenennn, ero
konnuec1aennoro n kauec1aennoro coc1aaa, kaknH-nn6o peqepenpyHoH. ec1koe
aoneaoe peuenne koHne1en1nmx nnu - ao1 ace, u1o aosHoxno a 1akoH pene. naue
peueam nparHa1nsH, xenanne cnkHnny1no amropm, nHnepckn ncnxokoHnnekc n
aceo6uan pyueanan pacxpnc1annoc1L, ace1epnnHoc1L n 1peknn1an xanoc1nnaoc1L
pycckoro uenoaeka amnecy1 eHy caHoHy okonua1enLnm npnroaop. Hep1nm,
pasyHee1cn.
Hr cmr, - pyHann aHepnkanum, npnnnHan peuennn o pacunpennn kao1
pnn uae1nmx. - m c nnHn paano xnaeH aHec1e n snaeH, kak c nnHn o6paua1Lcn.
pnn npnnn1nn pokoaoro sakona 1965 ropa npeo6napana nparHa1nueckan 1ouka
spennn: ecnn nHHnrpan1 nonesnm - nyc1L aLesxae1. o pannmH nnc1n1y1a annana
71% onpouennmx cun1an 1orpa, u1o rnaanoe npn peuennn o ponycke - a1o
cneunanLnoc1L nHHnrpan1a, a 50% nonarann c1pany ero nponcxoxpennn neaaxnmH
o6c1on1enLc1aoH.
Hr cmr, - pyHann eaponeum nauana aeka, rnnpn na . - o1 aepL y
nnx xnae1 amcokn npouen1 uae1nmx - n nnuero! cpypy nonanncL na a1y ypouky.
ycckn uenoaek, aocnn1annm a aekax Hnepne n oae1aHn a pyxe
nn1epnaunonannsHa, nonape1cn na 1y xe ypouky 1eH 6onee.
HHnrpan1a nerko anyc1n1L, no nenerko no1oH amc1aan1L. noxaa1nnncL co apeHeneH
n eaponeum, n aHepnkanum. o nospno.
Hepnka cypopoxno nm1ae1cn npnkpm1L paepL. aenn sakonm, no ko1opmH c 1988 r.
paxe eapenH orpannunnn aLesp. ypa 1aH! axopn1 nasekn n epy1. ecny6nnkanum c
o1uannnn nm1anncL a 1996 r. aaec1n nonpaaky k onc1n1yunn, u1o6m xo1n 6m pe1n
nHHnrpan1oa ne nonyuann aa1oHa1nueckn aHepnkanckoro rpaxpanc1aa. e 1y1-1o
6mno! aunn nHHnrpan1oa nx nonn1L ne noxenana: nonpaaky npnunocL cnn1L,
u1o6m ne noapepnna na am6opax, n6o nHHnrpan1m - uep1 nx pepn! - 1oxe ronocyk1.
aponeum nm1ak1cn cpena1L 1o xe - n 1oxe ne amxopn1. nn nonyunnn neo6pa1nHm
pesynL1a1 co6c1aenno rnynoc1n n nepanLnoanpnoc1n. 1977 ropy paan1enLc1ao
panunn no cornauennk c aunonanLnmH coae1oH o6Lnanno, u1o k 1985 ropy
cokpa1n1 konnuec1ao nHHnrpan1oa c 2 Hnn. (na caHoH pene nx yxe 6mno 4.196 1mc.)
po 1 Hnn. paxe npnnnno orpannunaakune Hnrpaunk sakonm. esynL1a1? xe k
93
nauany 1978 ropa konnuec1ao nHHnrpan1oa aospocno po 4.373 1mc. n 1onLko pocno a
panLneueH. nrnnuane a 1981 ropy aaenn sakon o rpaxpanc1ae, no ko1opoHy 1onLko
popnauncn a 1pe1LeH nokonennn xn1ene ennko6pn1annn pe6enok Hoxe1 ero
nonyun1L. nnsnno nn a1o nponopunk nHHnrpan1oa? nkak ne1: ona pac1e1. ak sa
cue1 npnesxnx, 1ak n sa cue1 amcoko poxpaeHoc1n uae1nmx.
ne xanko: y nnx c caHo paxpancko aonm peno cnoxnnncL 1ak, kak
cnoxnnncL - nenpaannLno, nenpaaepno, 6espaccypno. e napo 6mno nerpoa-pa6oa
cnnkoH saaosn1L, a yx konn saaesnn - ne napo 6mno Kr packpec1Lnnnaa1L, paaa1L
cao6opy uepnmH pa6aH. e napo 6mno aceH nHHnrpan1aH paepn o1kpmaa1L. 1.p.
aHn ao aceH annoaa1m[27]. o a apone-1o npe1 nonnan 1pancHy1aunn! aponeckan
nc1opnn amaopaunaae1cn nmne nansnanky, a npepkn anrnnuan, qpanuysoa n 1.p. ne
npoc1o nepeaopaunaak1cn, no apauak1cn a rpo6ax, kak 1yp6nnm!
e a1nH necuac1nmH, ampopnaunHcn eaponeonpaH nac yun1L n ykasmaa1L naH, u1o
pena1L c Hnrpaune n Hnrpan1aHn.
22. neHepnenno am1n ns acex Hexpynapopnmx cornauenn,
perynnpykunx aonpocm Hnrpaunn. nnkorpa a 1akoame 6onLue ne ac1yna1L. onpocm
Hnrpaunonno nonn1nkn nocn1 ncknkun1enLno any1pennn xapak1ep n ne Hory1
perynnpoaa1Lcn nsane. 3 m - u m , u m
, m , u .
nepye1 neHepnenno nepecHo1pe1L 1akxe npnnn1me enLunncknH pexnHoH nop
paanenneH eapeckoro no66n sakonm o rpaxpanc1ae n o aLespe-amespe. akon o6
o1nouennn k coo1euec1aennnkaH, o6Lnannkun 1akoamHn acex rpaxpan 6mauero
, ponxen 6m1L o1Henen a a1o uac1n. aH napo pyHa1L aoace ne o 1oH, kak
aepny1L a nauy c1pany ace napopm, a ne nekorpa naxopnaunecn, a nao6opo1: o 1oH,
kak ns6aan1Lcn o1 nx ockonkoa, sac1pnaunx a occnn c 1917 ropa, o1 Hnrpan1oa,
6espasnnuno a kakoH nokonennn.
nrpan1m, npn6maune a occnk nesakonno (nesakonnme Hnrpan1m) ponxnm,
coo1ae1c1aenno, 6m1L o6Lnanenm . eaaxno, uae1nme onn nnn ne1. 1o 6m
c nnHn k1o nn cpenan, nnk1o ne ponxen nec1n nnkako o1ae1c1aennoc1n sa nx xnsnL n
co6c1aennoc1L.
esakonnme Hnrpan1m ponxnm nHe1L 1onLko opno npaao: am6npa1L Hexpy
penop1aune sa cao cue1 nnn 1pypoamHn narepnHn. oueuL xn1L a occnn? pypncL
na 6naro ee xn1ene - n xnan. occ1anaannaa, k npnHepy, naun nosnunn na
paneH eaepe, pa6o1a na neconoaane, na pypnnkax n uax1ax... ako nopxop
Honnnenocno n noaceHec1no peun1 npo6neHy xnnnunoro kpnsnca n kpnsnca
1pypoyc1poc1aa. ycckne nkpn aspoxny1 cao6opno n ckaxy1 6onLuoe cnacn6o
anac1nH.
23. K oc1po neo6xopnHmH o1penn1L o1 occnn 1e ee cy6Lek1m, caHo
cyuec1aoaanne ko1opmx a coc1aae c1panm nece1 c co6o nanyk a1nononn1nueckyk
yrposy, ne koHnencnpyeHyk reononn1nuecknHn qak1opaHn. 1o eunn, nryue1nn,
yaa, c ko1opmHn Hm HoxeH pacc1a1Lcn o1nocn1enLno 6es6onesnenno[28]. mnonnna
npn a1oH pnp ycnoan, kak, nanpnHep, asanHnan pena1pnaunn pyccknx n 1n1ynLnmx
napopoa, y1ounenne rpannu, Ha1epnanLnan koHnencaunn sa pasan1ne Hec1noro
napopnoro xosnc1aa, a a cnyuae c eune - eue n sa renounp pyccknx n
Ha1epnanLnm yuep6 a xope pasansanno ueuenuaHn aonm, nonecennm occne.
Ok r m k ycckM n qyckMy
xnky H-M cM Hy. euenum ponxnm sanna1n1L sa
ace.
94
es coHnennn, nnme pecny6nnkn aakasa, a nepayk ouepepL, pmren, arec1an,
apauaeao-epkecnn, c nx amcoknH npnpoc1oH 1n1ynLnoro nacenennn, 1akxe necy1 a
ce6e a1nononn1nueckyk n a1nopeHorpaqnueckyk yrposy pnn pyccknx. o c nx
npncy1c1aneH a occnn no pasnmH npnunnaH npnxopn1cn Hnpn1Lcn.
24. a1nononn1nuecko 1eHm neo6xopnHo pa1L onpepenenne, 6es
ko1oporo paccmnak1cn ace pekoHenpaunn: n n,
u n .
ne Hory nosaonn1L ce6e nsnara1L specL nc1opnk aonpoca, a amcue c1enenn
pnckyccnonnoro. e Hory n pasaepny1L ack uenL apryHen1oa a saun1y npnaopnHo
peqnnnunn. o1cmnak un1a1ene k yxe ynoHnny1o 6poukpe ycckn npoek1, rpe
1akan pa6o1a npopenana, n6o a npoek1e akona o paspenenno pyccko naunn pano
n noppo6no pasLncneno onpepenenne pyccko naunn, ko1opoe Hne kaxe1cn
coaepuennmH. o1 ono:
Pycck cn n ckyc n, M yccky
nc.
Pycckn nc xcn knM kyM,
ycn nc. H, cn n nnncn cmnM,
kyM, ycn nc r n. H c
nnn n, nr ycckM nkM Mr M r
kyMn xr ycckr k M kn, c
nc, k cmcn ycnM qnM kM
nk.
H cn ycckM M kx n ycckr cxn,
k cM n k r kn rnc cnc
n yn n kqnk n rcyc
nk Pcc CCCP 1917-1991 rr. nM Pcc c 1991 r.
H Mry ycckM n, M r ycckr nn,
aM Mry M y ny c cny nr
cxn r n crnc kM, ycnnM nM
ar nn.
Pyccky ccnn ycck, nnncn rxM Pccck O
ycck, nnncn rxM Pccck O, cn n
M x r, kk M c rxc, k
n rxc.
oa1opk: 6onee amaepennoro n kpnpnueckn coaepuennoro onpepenennn pyccko
naunn n ne snak n npepc1aan1L ce6e ne Hory. H K, nonoxennm a ocnoay
amuenpnaepennoro onpepenennn, - qopHanLnm npnsnak. n, ane acnknx coHnenn,
nnn x, , nu, 6es ko1oporo
caHa 1eHa pasroaopa 1epne1 acnkn cHmcn. es nero neaosHoxno qynkunonnpoaanne
nn opnoro sakona, 1pak1ykuero npaaa, npnannernn n o6nsannoc1n nHenno pyccknx,
n6o M cny M ckyM nm nr n nm nr nnM
cM, coaepuenno a1oro ne sacnyxnaakunH. e nyxno aeua1L na uyxnx
nkpe caon npo6neHm, no ne nyxno n penn1Lcn c uyxnHn nkpLHn caonHn
npenHyuec1aaHn.
e, koro ne yc1panaae1 qopHanLnm kpn1epn onpepenennn, aonLnm norpysn1Lcn a
6eckoneunyk n 6ecnnopnyk pnckyccnk o kpn1epnnx neqopHanLnmx. a1nH cm1 no
ropno. nnkoHy 1akoro ne coae1yk[29].
95
HRH3KHMHHEKHE EKMEHQHH
25. pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa ne 1onLko nonn1nueckn
neo6xopnHo, no n akonoHnueckn aosHoxno. axe ecnn aecL Hnp 6ype1 npo1na a1oro.
nepye1 sna1L n noHnn1L: occnn - caHopoc1a1ounan c1pana, opna ns ouenL neHnornx.
1o uenm Hnp, a ko1opoH ec1L ace. occnn, noHnHo nkpe, ec1L ocnoanme pecypcm,
neo6xopnHme pnn amxnaannn a noaoH c1one1nn: uxn un;
, s; n ;
.
Cncknc yrn nHek1 aaxnoe c1pa1ernueckoe snauenne: a1o saun1a
naue npopoaonLc1aenno 6esonacnoc1n, sanor aneune nesaancnHoc1n. eropnn a1o1
pecypc ncnonLsye1cn neaqqek1nano, no a1o ne snaun1, u1o 1ak 6mno n 6ype1 acerpa.
H cyc, no naueHy (HoeHy n Honx epnnoHmunennnkoa) y6expennk
ponxnm 6m1L nonnoc1Lk naunonannsnpoaanm. x akcnop1 Hoxe1 ocyuec1ann1Lcn
1onLko no oc1a1ounoHy npnnunny nocne nacmuennn no1pe6noc1e any1pennero pmnka.
caHn no1pe6noc1n ponxnm qopHnpoaa1Lcn no kao1aH, ncxopn ns y1aepxpennmx na
amcueH rocypapc1aennoH ypoane npnopn1e1oa pasan1nn. ecL poxop o1 npopaxn
npnpopnmx pecypcoa na HexpynapopnoH pmnke - ocnoaa 6kpxe1a, sa cue1 ko1opo
ponxno nponcxopn1L naunonanLnoe n rocypapc1aennoe c1pon1enLc1ao.
HMy n yx - x xn Mc nn nr
rcyc? nsnL nk6o ueno - 1esnc cnopnm. cnn c1aa aoopyxennmx cnn
spannn npepnncmaae1 conpa1y 6esycnoano npepnouec1L nnen rn6enn, 1o pnn
nnonckoro oqnuepa 1akan noc1anoaka aonpoca npoc1o neaosHoxna: caHypa acerpa n
1ak xe 6esycnoano npepnou1e1 caHoy6nc1ao y1pa1e uec1n. pepnan aona -
caHoy6nc1ao, - roaopn1 naH, ponyc1nH, eapen (anapkune, Hexpy npounH,
co6c1aennmH nspannLcknH a1oHnmH aoopyxenneH), - n no1oHy neponyc1nHa nn npn
kaknx o6c1on1enLc1aax. naun1 - n npepnoe opyxne nn k ueHy. 1o nenpaapa. B-
x, a1o saancn1 o1 1oro, aokeuL nn 1m c npepno pepxaao. Hepnkanum
c6pocnnn a1oHnme 6oH6m na npocnHy n aracakn - n ne 1onLko ne nonyunnn
npepnoro aosHespnn, no eue nHek1 narnoc1L na rnasax nnonuea n acero Hnpa
amc1yna1L a ponn 6narope1ene n saun1nnkoa nonnn. B-x, yrposa
caHoy6nc1aoH - a1o eue ne caHo caHoy6nc1ao; ona pec1aye1 aecLHa
pacxonaxnaakue na npo1nannka, korpa on nonnHae1, u1o caHoy6nc1ao 6ype1
amnyxpenno o6okpnmH. B-ux, anL1epna1naa npepno ka1ac1poqe Hoxe1 6m1L
eue xyxe: nanpnHep - 6onee Hepnennan, no nosopnan n Hyun1enLnan rn6enL naunn;
okkynaunn xec1oknH, 6esxanoc1nmH npo1nannkoH, npnHenenne nH 6nonornueckoro
opyxnn Haccoaoro nopaxennn; yrposa y1pa1m xnsnenno aaxnmx pecypcoa nnn
am1ecnennn naunn a nenpnropnme pnn xnnLn Hec1a; n pp.
es npepnoro opyxnn neaosHoxno npo1naoc1on1L neko1opmH anonne peanLnmH
amsoaaH 6ypyuero, npepnonoxnH - aoopyxenno akcnancnn o6munmx apHn, no
Hnorokpa1no npeaocxopnunx no uncnennoc1n nauy, ace 6onee cokpauakuykcn. nn,
u1o, Hoxe1 6m1L, eue c1paunee (n aHec1e c 1eH peanLnee), opnoapeHennoHy nepexopy
uepes nauy rpannuy Hnnnnonoa neaoopyxennmx nkpe asna1ckoro nnn aqpnkanckoro
nponcxoxpennn, Hnrpnpykunx naanno, nopo6no neHHnnraH. nn uan1axy nopo6nmH
nepexopoH co c1oponm nepenacenennmx rocypapc1a oc1oka nnn Kra.
es npepnoro opyxnn naH a noam aek np1n nenLsn[30]. un1maan poc1 snauennn
npnpopnmx pecypcoa, cocpepo1ouennoc1L payx 1pe1e nx Hnpoamx sanacoa a occnn,
neaosHoxnoc1L saun1n1L a1o poc1onnne o6munmH cnoco6oH, aoo6ue nannune y nac
orpoHnmx n nonynyc1mx xnnmx nnouape, 1eppn1opn, ko1opme 1oxe neaosHoxno
saun1n1L o6munmH cnoco6oH, Hm ponxnm ncno a1o nonnHa1L. nonnHa1L, u1o
96
npepnoe opyxne (n aoo6ue opyxne Haccoaoro nopaxennn) ec1L qak1op ne 1onLko
nonn1nkn, no n akonoHnkn, n ne pacxopnm, a poxopnm.
Mx nnk ? oueHy n cun1ak a1o1 pecypc paxe 6onee aaxnmH,
ueH nonesnme nckonaeHme? pe1L acex nso6pe1enn, sapernc1pnpoaannmx a aeke,
cospana a n occnn nn6o sa py6exoH yuenmHn pycckoro nponcxoxpennn. cnn
Hnorne kpynnme naunn npepc1aanenm a cpepneH 3-4 no6eneacknHn naypea1aHn, 1o 21
naypea1 nHee1 pycckoe nponcxoxpenne. pepn pyccknx nso6pe1enn - 1eneansopm
(napnHnp aopmknn), npoqeccnonanLnm Harnn1oqon n anpeoHarnn1oqon
(nekcanpp onn1oa). pen nepconanLnmx koHnLk1epoa npnnapnexn1 pcennk
opoxoay. n1nHanLnan 1pacca none1a na yny 6mna paccun1ana KpneH onppa1kkoH
eue a 20-e ropm. oennme aokk1 na aep1one1ax, nso6pe1ennmx 6maunH naunH
rpaxpannnoH nkopcknH. 1.p. o nopcue1aH pok1opa 1exnnuecknx nayk .
opospnna, occnn Horna 6m nonyua1L orpoHnme pnanpenpm sa 1exnonornn, nn6o
neaoc1pe6oaannme ek, nn6o npopannme anonmxax, nn6o ykpapennme. cnn roaopn1L
1onLko o nocnepnnx, 1o c nauana aeka po 1999 ropa Hm nnunnncL ynnkanLnmx
paspa6o1ok na cyHHy camue 1 1pnnnnona 878 Hnnnnappoa ponnapoa[31]. pecL
npnaepena nnuL uena na1en1oa, ko1opmx naacerpa nnunnacL naua c1pana, no ne
ynoHnny1a 1ak nasmaaeHan ynyuennan koHHepueckan amropa.
n1ennek1yanLnm pecypc occnn - a1o ne 1onLko naua rapan1nn axoxpennn a
noc1nnpyc1pnanLnoe o6uec1ao (1o ec1L aoo6ue - a saa1paunn penL uenoaeuec1aa) n
sakpennennn a neH na poc1onoH Hec1e. 1o eue n rapan1nn npouae1annn n
nesaancnHoc1n, n6o penLrn, ko1opme npnnocn1 nso6pe1ennn a ceropnnuneH Hnpe,
anonne conoc1aanHm c poxopoH o1 neq1nnmx n rasoamx Hec1opoxpenn. Hec1no
specL ckasa1L, u1o yxe ceropnn poxop o1 1oproann na1en1aHn n nnuensnnHn a 2,3
pasa amue, ueH o1 1oproann 1oaapaHn, n a1a nponopunn pac1e1.
au nn1ennek1 - a1o nau nponyck a 6ypyuee npn acex o6c1on1enLc1aax.
26. nonn1nka naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa ponxna coo1ae1c1aoaa1L
ero caepxsapaue: a6conk1noHy n o1nocn1enLnoHy poc1y pycckoro nacenennn. akoa
rnaanm kpn1epn npnropnoc1n 1o nnn nno nporpaHHm[32].
1o snaun1, u1o ao ace akonoHnueckne nporpaHHm ponxnm saknapmaa1Lcn
coo1ae1c1aykune npnopn1e1m.
27. pokasann naun yuenme, nanpnHep, .. oxnnoa[33],
nk6oe npoHmunennoe n cenLckoxosnc1aennoe nponsaopc1ao a occnn a cnny ee
knnHa1nuecknx oco6ennoc1e nanne1cn saaepoHo naHnoro Henee pen1a6enLnmH, ueH a
apone, Hepnke, n1ae n Hn.pp. 1ckpa cnepye1 c1pa1ernueckoro snauennn amaop.
ce neo6xopnHoe, u1o Hoxno nponsaec1n ane occnn y nn
n cc, ponxno nponsaopn1Lcn ane occnn n sa1eH
nHnop1npoaa1Lcn. ak amropnee.
cknkuenne, kak anonne oueanpno, npepc1aannk1 npepHe1m nepao neo6xopnHoc1n (a
1oH uncne npopyk1m nn1annn), npopykunn n nn1ennek1yanLnm npopyk1 a uenoH.
pepc1aa pnn 1ako aneuneakonoHnuecko nonn1nkn ponxen pa1L akcnop1, ao-
nepamx, nn1ennek1yanLnoro npopyk1a, a ao-a1opmx - anepronocn1ene, no ne cmpmx,
a npouepunx a1opnunyk o6pa6o1ky.
28. K : cypL6a occnn a 6ypyueH saancn1, rnaanmH o6pasoH, o1 payx
knaccoa - nn1ennnrenunn n kpec1Lnn. Henno a1n knaccm ponxnm c1a1L rnaanmH
o6Lek1oH counanLnmx anoxenn na nepcnek1nay.
97
ccn kcnc kk kncc, kk c
cc - xm yn k cn nk,
mMy y xy x. o a1o1 npouecc ne Hoxe1 n
ne ponxen 6m1L nyuen na caHo1ek: uenoaek, aosapauakuncn a pepeank, ponxen
nHe1L onpepenennme counanLnme rapan1nn. naue aHec1o knacca noamx kpec1Lnn Hm
nonyunH knacc peknaccnpoaannmx pa6ounx, cenLcknx nkHnenoa. uncne ppyrnx Hep
neo6xopnHa nonn1nka npo1ekunonnsHa: nyxno nckycc1aenno cokpaua1L nHnop1
npopoaonLc1ann, nooupn1L caoero cenLckoro nponsaopn1enn, saunua1L ero[34] n 1.p.
es o6unpneue noHenkna1ypm nHnop1npyeHmx ceropnn npopyk1oa nn1annn, na
ko1opme pacxopyk1cn cpepc1aa, ampyuennme o1 npopaxn neaocnonnnHmx pecypcoa,
Hm anonne HoxeH aoo6ue o6o1ncL. epep nnHn ponxen 6m1L aospanrny1 ne
xenesnm, a c1anLno sanaaec. ckopoH apeHenn ace a1o 6ype1 nponsaopn1Lcn y nac:
cnpoc poxpae1 npepnoxenne.
Hec1e c 1eH, neuenecoo6pasno npopanra1L a ceno noame 1exnonornn, no ne ace
aoo6ue (1e, u1o ynyuuak1 kauec1ao npopykunn, nyxno nponaranpnpoaa1L), a 1e, u1o
amcao6oxpak1 6onLuoe konnuec1ao pa6ounx pyk. nac ceropnn nyc1ye1 cnnukoH
Hnoro seHnn, a a ropopax nakannnaae1cn cnnukoH Hnoro 6epnmx n 6espa6o1nmx.
eHnn aekaHn kopHnna uenoaeka, noueHy 6m ne acnoHnn1L o6 a1oH npoc1oH sakone
xnsnn?
29. peun1enLnan pennpyc1pnannsaunn, nepenoc uen1pa 1nxec1n
ncknkun1enLno a naykoeHkoe nponsaopc1ao, ne 1pe6ykuee aoo6ue 6onLuoro
konnuec1aa pa6o1nnkoa qnsnueckoro 1pypa. nkc HakcnHanLnm o1kas o1
nponsaopc1aa, 1pe6ykuero nekaannqnunpoaannoro qnsnueckoro 1pypa. 1o a
snaun1enLno c1enenn yxe nponsouno a pesynL1a1e nepec1pokn. enecoo6pasno ne
aocc1anaannaa1L pnp nponsaopc1a, a pec1pyk1ypnpoaa1L napopnoe xosnc1ao 1aknH
o6pasoH, u1o6m aepny1L uac1L nkpe, amcao6opnaunxcn a pesynL1a1e kpyuennn
npoHmunennoc1n, a pepeank, a ppyryk uac1L, nan6onee uennyk, - a o6nac1L
naykoeHknx nponsaopc1a, rnaanmH o6pasoH a , anek1ponnyk, xnHnueckyk n
kocHnueckyk npoHmunennoc1L, n 1.n. eo6xopnH akuen1 1akxe na o6pa6a1maakue
npoHmunennoc1n, nockonLky akcnop1npoaa1L cmpLe - npec1ynnan
6ecxosnc1aennoc1L.
enecoo6pasno 1akxe pasHec1n1L nponsaopc1aa a c1panax , oco6enno 1aH, rpe
nannuo ns6m1ounoe nacenenne, rpe coxpannnacL pepeann. ak Hm noHoxeH a1nH
c1panaH npoaec1n packpec1Lnnnaanne, c6pocn1L peHorpaqnueckoe paanenne nanHenee
onacnmH pnn nac o6pasoH, o1aepeH o1 nac yrposy nannmaa nHHnrpan1oa. aHec1e c
1eH, sapepxnH nx nepexop ns nnpyc1pnanLnoro o6uec1aa - a noc1nnpyc1pnanLnoe,
ocna6nH ce6e konkypenunk. y n, nakoneu, npno6pe1eH 1aH amropnme konueccnn.
1pauno ne 1o, u1o ceropnn sakpmaak1cn Hnorne yc1apeaune, nepen1a6enLnme,
pasopennme npepnpnn1nn, a c1pauno 1o, u1o nkpLHn, oc1aaunHncn 6es pa6o1m, ne
sannHak1cn 1ak, kak a1oro 1pe6yk1 nn1epecm rocypapc1aa.
m npounn uepes packpec1Lnnnaanne, 1enepL ponxnm npo1n uepes
pacnpone1apnaanne - npnHnkoH a noc1nnpyc1pnanLnoe o6uec1ao. 1o1 ny1L Hm
ponxnm npo1n ocosnanno, kon1ponnpyn kaxpm cao uar.
30. H (1pypoayk nHHnrpaunk) kak nanenne aoo6ue neo6xopnHo
peun1enLno ncknkun1L. anpe1n1L sakonopa1enLno. c1anoan1L caHme xec1okne
cankunn. neH ne1 nnkako peanLno neo6xopnHoc1n, n ono cospae1 6onLue
npo6neH, ueH paspeuae1.
opnn rac1ap6a1epc1aa ceropnn nexa1 a 6onLue c1enenn a ncnxonornn, ueH a
akonoHnke. o, pasyHee1cn, 1akan ncnxonornn ne aosnnkae1 na nyc1oH Hec1e, pa eue
a Haccoamx Hacu1a6ax. nn a1oro a caHo xnsnn ponxnm 6m1L cepLesnme npnunnm,
98
ko1opme cnepye1 yc1pann1L. eqnun1 1pypoamx pecypcoa paano yxe k 1akoamH ne
o1nocn1cn: a 6onLunnc1ae c1pan, nHnop1npykunx pa6ouyk cnny - 6espa6o1nua.
asanocL 6m, o kako 1pypoao nHHnrpaunn Hoxe1 np1n peuL, ecnn caon pa6oune pykn
peaa1L nekypa?
paa nn ne rnaanan npnunna pacnpoc1panennn a1o ncnxonornn a apone n Hepnke -
nspepxkn aceo6uero o6pasoaannn eaponecknx napopoa. ( occnn, c ee nyuunH a
Hnpe cpepnnH o6pasoaanneH, a1o1 qak1op nHee1 cyry6oe snauenne.) o panunn ono
aaepeno 6mno a 1789 ropy (aonpekn saae1y kappnnana nuenLe, ko1opm cpaannaan
c1pany, ace nacenenne ko1opo o6pasoaano, c oHepsn1enLnmH nopo6neH uenoaeka,
cnnouL, o1 Hakyukn po nn1ok, nokpm1oro rnasaHn, xo1n rnas, aoo6ue-1o, - nannyuuee
ykpauenne nnua). nrnnn - c nauana XIX a., a epHannn - co 2- ue1aep1n ero XIX
a.
6pasoaanne, nonyuennoe aceHn 6es pas6opa n sapapoH, kak okasanocL, - ouenL
apepn1 naunn. no nopoxpae1 y caHmx unpoknx Hacc noxnme npepc1aanennn o
npec1nxnoc1n 1oro nnn nnoro 1pypa. osnnkae1 caoeo6pasnm apnc1okpa1nsH
nne6en, nonyo6pasoaannoro, no npepnoun1akuero 1pyp nnuero nnn 6anpn1a -
1pypy Hycopunka, can1exnnka nnn pa6ouero na konaeepe.
oppme caonH 6ocnuec1aoH 6ocnkn opLkoro ne npouL ueronLny1L rpaHo1noc1Lk,
naun1annoc1Lk. 1o ne cnyuano. pnsnc nepenponsaopc1aa nn1ennnrenunn nopasnn
occnk konua XIX aeka. ak nn Hano 6mno y nac a 1o apeHn o6pasoaannmx nkpe, no
cqepa nx npnHenennn 6mna eue HenLue[35]. pec1Lnnckne pe1n, sanonnnaune
aypn1opnn ynnaepcn1e1oa n nnc1n1y1oa a pesynL1a1e peqopH 1860-x rr. (nepep
peaonkune a 1exnnuecknx aysax yunnocL okono 60% c1ypen1oa ns napopa), ne
Hornn no1oH na1n ce6e pa6o1y no cneunanLnoc1n. ase1m 1oro apeHenn nec1pn1
o6LnanennnHn 1nna: onopo Hyxunna c amcunH o6pasoaanneH ro1oa na nk6yk
pa6o1y. o aosapaua1Lcn a pepeank - k naxo1e n cko1oaopc1ay - nnk1o ne xo1en.
pepnoun1ann np1n a 6ocnkn.
nanornunyk kap1nny n sac1an ceuac ao panunn[36]. onpekn HonH
npepc1aanennnH n k HoeHy orpoHnoHy ypnanennk, 80% nnunx - a n nx neHano anpen
a apnxe - 6enme, qpanuysm. enme, a ne uae1nme, xopn1 no aaronaH nopseHkn,
cnpn1 a nepexopax n na ynnuax (uaue c1on1 na konennx c 1a6nnuko na rpypn:
Henn ne1 pa6o1m. a1e neHnoro pener, u1o6m n Hor ec1L n xn1L, a1e pener
ceropnn, u1o6m n xnn saa1pa nnn npoc1o ronopen), cnn1, a cnanLnmx Heukax nnn
ykpmauncL 1pnnLeH, na c1ynennx Harasnnoa n a ykpoHnmx nepeynkax. orpa-1o onn
nnn nx o1um ns coo6paxenn npec1nxa ne noxenann np1n, ycnoano roaopn, a
Hycopunkn; ceropnn nx Hec1a sann1m uae1nmHn nHHnrpan1aHn.
panuysm ne Hory1 ampaan1L uae1nmx ns panunn npexpe acero no1oHy, u1o n
s q x, x
x x x, x,
ko1opan sanononnna panunk. onLko Hacca nnunx n neo6pasoaannmx qpanuysoa
Horna 6m ounc1n1L panunk o1 Haccm nono6pasoaannmx n nonynnunx npnuenLuea.
o qpanuysm ne nk6n1 nnue1y, 6on1cn ee n aceHn cnoco6aHn ee ns6erak1. on1cn
onn n nnopn1L nnunx. sac1aan1L nx a1o pena1L - nekoHy. no1oHy onn o6peuenm.
apapokcanLno, no qak1: ecnn naunn nepec1ae1 caHa ampenn1L pnn uepno pa6o1m
onpepenennoe konnuec1ao caonx epnnokpoanmx, 6enmx nerpoa, e npnxopn1cn
sasmaa1L nerpoa uepnmx, nac1onunx. e pyHan o 1oH, u1o pe1n a1nx nerpoa, a
coo1ae1c1ann c sakonaHn c1panm n c npnnunnoH paaenc1aa n 6pa1c1aa, okonua1
cnauana akonL nopHanL, no1oH konnepx, no1oH, rnnpnuL, op6onny, a 1aH o1nnHy1
pa6o1y yxe ne y qpanuysckoro nnn anrnnckoro Hycopunka, a y apaua, nnxenepa,
yun1enn.
99
e pyHa1e, u1o kakne-nn6ypL 1apxnkn 6ypy1 y nac aeuno amnonnn1L rpnsnyk,
1nxenyk pa6o1y! ocHo1pn1e na coapeHennmx Hockoacknx aLe1naHuea, korpa-1o
saaesennmx kpeHneacknHn npno1aHn na 1ekc1nnLnme n Haunnoc1pon1enLnme saaopm.
noro am nx 1aH ceropnn yanpn1e? e1, onn ace na pmnkax n a ynnaepHarax,
cnekynnpyk1 peqnun1oH, amaosn1 na nc1opnueckyk popnny y1krn n uaenme
Haunnkn. nnrepnum, konx, kak nsaec1no, 1oxe a ockae xaa1ae1? nn u1o, Hok1
c1ekna aa1oHo6nne, unc1n1 ynn1asm? nkak ne1, y a1nx cao nanaxennm 6nsnec:
napko1nkn.
eyxenn nac nnueHy ne yun1 ne 1onLko uyxo, no paxe cao onm1?
31. pa6o1a neo6xopnHa nk6oHy o6uec1ay; ne1 nn opno c1panm a Hnpe (n
ne npepanpn1cn), ko1opan Horna 6m o6ecneun1L aceHy caoeHy nacenennk sann1ne
1onLko yHc1aennmH 1pypoH. c1L 1onLko opna naunn, xnayuan a paccennLe, ne
ocepakuan na seHnk, ko1opan c1peHn1cn pa1L aceH caonH npepc1aan1ennH 6enyk
pa6o1y, nockonLky uepnyk n 1ak ns aeka a aek penak1 a6opnrenm: a1o eapen. o
aa1ox1onnme napopm ne Hory1 n ne ponxnm a1o nosaonn1L ce6e. Hm, pycckne a1oro
ce6e nosaonn1L ne HoxeH. cnn Hm nepec1aneH ampenn1L ns caoero coc1aaa uac1L
nacenennn pnn uepno pa6o1m, 1o k1o 6ype1 ee pena1L a occnn, kak ne
nHHnrpan1m?
eropnn y nac cospanacL ynnkanLnan cn1yaunn, korpa a pesynL1a1e kpaxa
npoHmunennoc1n aosnnk snaun1enLnm pesepa pa6oue cnnm. asanocL 6m, ponxen
paspasn1Lcn kpnsnc 6espa6o1num. 6ecc1pac1nme unqpm a1o1 kpnsnc peHonc1pnpyk1.
o Hexpy 1eH na 6npxe 1pypa napapokcanLnmH o6pasoH qnkcnpye1cn uec1nkpa1noe
(!!) npeamuenne npepnoxennn pa6o1m nap cnpocoH. acca nkpe, oco6enno Honopmx,
npnxopn1 na 6npxy, snakoHn1cn c noHenkna1ypo npepnoxennn n, nokpy1na nocoH,
ypanne1cn. a c1enpax y saaopoa n qa6pnk ne cnnHak1cn o6Lnanennn: 1pe6yk1cn,
1pe6yk1cn. o 1ue1no. oueHy? enpec1nxno. ak u1o xe, saa1L uae1nmx? nn
kasaxoa, Honpaaan, ppyrnx 6maunx coae1cknx? ak yxe roaopnnocL amue, a1o1
ny1L ponxen 6m1L ka1eropnueckn ncknkuen.
a1o cansn npepc1aanne1cn oc1po neo6xopnHmH o6Lepnnn1L nnnc1epc1ao 1pypa c
nnnc1epc1aoH o6pasoaannn, nepepaa a aepenne o6Lepnnenno nnc1anunn 1akxe
cpepnee cneunanLnoe o6pasoaanne. Henno n 1onLko c1poro nayunme npornosm
no1pe6noc1n a 1pypoamx pecypcax ponxnm amnonnn1L ponL pasnapnpkn (c
onpepenennmH ponyckoH) npn nponsaopc1ae o6pasoaannmx kappoa, naunnan c ypoann
7 knaccoa ukonm.
32. amue napapokcanLnoe pacxoxpenne Hexpy amcoknH ypoaneH
npepnoxennn pa6o1m n nnsknH cnpocoH na nee, npn 1oH u1o 6espa6o1nua amcoka n
ace apeHn pac1e1, naxopn1cn a nenocpepc1aenno saancnHoc1n o1 coc1onnnn 6opL6m c
npec1ynnoc1Lk.
ypa npy1 nkpn, y6epnaunecn a 1oH, u1o o6uec1ao npepnarae1 nH nnuL pa6o1y,
ko1opan ne coo1ae1c1aye1 nx caHoHnennk? o 6onLue uac1n a o6nac1L neneranLnoro,
a 1oH uncne npec1ynnoro sapa6o1ka. opnn a1oro nanennn - a coae1cko cnc1eHe, npn
ko1opo a ycnoannx nopaanennn acnko uac1no nnnuna1nam cnoxnncn, 1eH ne Henee,
aceo6LeHnkun uepnm pmnok 1oaapoa n ycnyr. n coxpannncn n a noamx ycnoannx.
o oqnunanLnmH pannmH - po 40%, a a peanLnoc1n, koneuno xe, ropaspo 6onee
kann1anoa kpy1n1cn a 1enn.
1Henna cHep1nyk kasnL, nLunn coaepunn pokoayk oun6ky, caoe pyko nanpaana
co1nn 1mcnu nkpe, oco6enno Honopmx, na ckonLskyk popoxky. 1a oun6ka ponxna
6m1L ncnpaanena. enoaek c poxpennn ponxen sna1L: nnn on 6ype1 xn1L n pa6o1a1L
uec1no, nnn on ne 6ype1 xn1L aoo6ue.
100
occ1anoanenne cHep1no kasnn sa Hnorne 1nxenme npec1ynnennn aepne1 k uec1noHy
1pypy neHano nkpe, sanonnna 1e aakancnn, na ko1opme ceropnn koe-k1o npoun1 naH
nHHnrpan1oa.
33. npnunna nHHnrpaunn nexn1 a akonoHnke uac1noro 6nsneca,
o1nnun1enLnan uep1a ko1oporo - noronn sa cnkHnny1no amropo nanepekop
rocypapc1aennoHy n naunonanLnoHy nn1epecy. pannoH cnyuae peuL npe1 o
peueansne pa6ounx pyk nHHnrpan1oa n nx npaaoao nesaunuennoc1n. o n ppyroe
amropno uac1noHy npepnpnnnHa1enk. kaxeH, noppnpunky, qopHnpykueHy
c1pon1enLnme nnn cenLckoxosnc1aennme 6pnrapm pnn cesonnmx pa6o1. e cekpe1,
u1o ace opHockoaLe sac1poeno poHaHn n pauaHn, aosaepennmHn sapeueao pykaHn
ykpanncknx n 6enopyccknx (a 1enepL yxe n ys6ekcknx, n Honpaacknx, n 1apxnkcknx, n
1.p.) pa6ounx.
eun1L a1y npo6neHy, cypn no onm1y , kypa neneranLno aaosn1 1LHy nnunx n
ro1oamx na nk6me ycnoann pa6ounx, ckaxeH, ns ekcnkn, ne 1ak-1o nerko. rpae1
caok ponL koppynunn, c1pauno Heuak1 peHokpa1nueckne npaanna nrpm, npaaa
uenoaeka n 1.p. co6oe nonn1nueckoe snauenne qak1op 1pypoao nHHnrpaunn
npno6pe1ae1 a c1panax, rpe cnnLnm counannc1m n npoqcoksm. aH a1o1 qak1op
ncnonLsyk1 kak Hepy o6yspannn, cHnpennn co6c1aennoro pa6ouero knacca,
orpannuennn ero npe1ensn (a1o 1o1 caHm cnyua, korpa nekapc1ao onacnee
6onesnn).
o n nonoxn1enLnm onm1 6opL6m c nHHnrpaune a nakonnen neHanm. c1L
ueHy noyun1Lcn, 1onLko ne nenncL.
34. , napnpy c orpannuenneH poc1a uncnennoc1n nnopopuea a occnn
ponxen pec1aoaa1L koHnnekc Hep, noamuakunx poxpaeHoc1L pyccknx. 1o 1eHa pnn
o1penLno 6onLuo pa6o1m. pecL n nnuL cnerka kocnycL opnoro acnek1a, cansannoro
nHenno c 1eHo 1pypoamx pecypcoa.
pna ns caHmx c1paunmx nsa coapeHennoro o6uec1aa, nnuakuan ero
peHorpaqnuecko nepcnek1nam - a1o pe1ckne ncnn n capm. nm1nm neparor a ukone
cpasy n 6esoun6ouno o1nnun1 poHaunero pe6enka kak 6onee yHc1aenno n pyueano
pasan1oro - o1 pe1capoackoro. ao aspocno, a 1oH uncne ceHeno xnsnn onn 6ypy1
o1nnua1Lcn acerpa. e1n, npouepune uepes a1n saaepennn-nnky6a1opm, rpe nyc1L
paxe ouenL xopoune, no uyxne 1e1n, a ne popnme HaHm n 6a6yukn, sannHak1cn nx
aocnn1anneH, napnpy c pecn1kaHn 1aknx xe uyxnx pe1e aHec1o popnmx 6pa1Lea n
cec1ep, c ropaHn ampac1ak1. nn 6ec1pene1no cpak1 caonx npec1apenmx popn1ene a
nnaannpnme poHa, 1ouno 1ak xe, kak 1e cpaaann nx a capm. epL 1onuaune nn1oukn,
cansmaakune popnme pyun, 6esnapexno pasopaanm a 1e 6ecuncnennme pannne y1pa,
korpa - cae1 nn, 1LHa, cner nn, poxpL - popn1enL 1aun1 nnauyuero, ynnpakuerocn,
nepocnaauero n nepoyHeaakuero pe6enka a pe1ckn kasennm poH. ampocune a
capax pe1n ne cknonnm saaopn1L no1oHc1aa, 1eH 6onee - o6nnLnoro: k ueHy? 1o6m a
caok ouepepL cpa1L ero na pykn uyxnH 1e1nH a ncnn n capm? nnuero ppyroro aepL
onn ne snak1, ne yHek1. Y x m m -
u.
aospac1e o1 2 po 5 ne1 pe6enok (nopcun1ano cneunannc1aHn) sapae1 okono 1pex
Hnnnnonoa (!) aonpocoa. pepn nnx ne1 nnunnx, rnynmx: Hanmu amc1panaae1 caok
kap1nny Hnpa, eHy napo sna1L ace. 1o a pe1ckoH capy o1ae1n1 eHy? ocnn1a1enLnnua,
y ko1opo eue pecn1kn 1aknx xe? aepc1nnkn?
uncne caHmx rnaanmx sapau coapeHennoro o6uec1aa - aepny1L xenunny k pe1cko
kpoaa1ke n poHauneHy ouary. ena1enLno - n Ha1L, n 6a6yuky. o cnne aosHoxnoc1n
- xo1n 6m 6a6yuky. epL opna ns aaxneunx npnunn Hanope1noc1n a1o paspyuenne
aekoao 1pexnokonenno c1pyk1ypm ceHLn.
101
35. c nepyccko nHHnrpaune cyuec1aye1 nnan 6epa n onacnoc1L: pycckan
aHnrpaunn, a nepayk ouepepL - o16opno, o6pasoaanno n 1anan1nnao pyccko
Honopexn. y1 peno ne c1onLko a konnuec1ae, ckonLko a kauec1ae. 1917-1937 rr.
eapen ynnu1oxann pycckyk ann1y qnsnueckn. eropnn onn penak1 a1o 6onee
paunonanLno - amaosn ee ns c1panm. a a1oH cneunannsnpye1cn neHano uen1poa n
qonpoa, cpepn ko1opmx na nepaoH Hec1e - onp opoca (aHepnkanckoro eapen
aenrepckoro nponcxoxpennn), pacnonarakun Houno, 6ora1o n pasae1anenno
c1pyk1ypo n noc1aanaun o1kauky Hosroa ns occnn na no1ok. onLunnc1ao
onopnmx kappoa opoca - opno c nnH naunonanLnoc1n. nn npnkpmaak1 caok
pen1enLnoc1L pasroaopaHn o 6nare 1ex 1anan1nnamx knoue n peayuek, ko1opme
6naropapn nH naxopn1 caok cypL6y na ueppoH anape, uennueH, a o1nnune o1 occnn,
papoaannn.
uep6, ko1opm 1epnn1 occnn n pycckn napop o1 1ako 6naro1aopn1enLnoc1n ne
noppae1cn nnkakoHy yue1y, on 6esHepen. cnoanyk no1epk nece1 nau renoqonp - a1o
nonn1no kaxpoHy, k1o un1an xo1n 6m acnepc1aennoc1L 1anan1a . anL1ona.
opoc 1pa1n1 na a1n uenn ne 6or aec1L kakne penLrn, occnn anonne Horna 6m
ampenn1L 1akne xe na nporpaHHy 1pypoyc1poc1aa a1nx nkpe.
euenne n npepnoxnn 6m 1akoe. o-nepamx, sanpe1n1L nopo6nyk pen1enLnoc1L no
o1kauke Hosroa a occnn nop c1paxoH caHmx cnnLnmx nakasann. o-a1opmx,
naunonannsnpoaa1L onp opoca n pasaepny1L nanpaanenne ero pen1enLnoc1n, co
ace ero c1pyk1ypo n co1pypnnkaHn, na qopHnpoaanne coo1ae1c1aykuero pmnka
1pypa a occnn. -1pe1Lnx, npopyHa1L n nepepa6o1a1L naue na1en1noe
sakonopa1enLc1ao, cospa1L coo1ae1c1aykuee cneunannsnpoaannoe aren1c1ao. ycckn
yuenm ponxen nHe1L aosHoxnoc1L cnokono pa6o1a1L poHa, 6ypyun yaepen, u1o ero
npaaa napexno saunuenm, n ero nso6pe1ennn npnnecy1 poc1onme penLrn eHy n ero
opnne.
cnn a1n Hepm 6ypy1 ncnonnenm rpaHo1no n npnnecy1 aqqek1, 1o cnepye1, a-
ue1aep1mx, pasaepny1L nporpaHHy no aosapauennk naunx yuenmx a occnk.
k6o ueno neo6xopnHo oc1anoan1L y1euky Hosroa. naue Hm nnunHcn
nn1ennek1yanLnoro pecypca, a c nnH - n 6ypyuero.
36. Hno ny1n amxopa ns kpnsnca amsoay1 y ouenL Hnornx
nonn1nuecknx cnn, a 1oH uncne n a pycckoH na1pno1nueckoH narepe, aospaxennn n
paxe aosHyuenne. pepn Honx npo1nannkoa 6ypy1 n koHHynnc1m, n na1pno1m
1papnunonnoro (nHnepckoro nn6o coae1ckoro) 1onka, n neko1opme c1oponnnkn
cao6opnoro npepnpnnnHa1enLc1aa, n peHokpa1m, n nn6epanm-sanapnnkn, n
HycynLHane, n qeHnnnc1kn n 6or aec1L k1o eue. nyue acex - naun saknn1me ppysLn
- eapen, kak poccnckne, 1ak n Hexpynapopnme.
koHy xe Hne appecoaa1Lcn, na koro napen1Lcn, a koH ncka1L onopy? epL peuennn,
npepnaraeHme Hno, 1pe6yk1 nonn1nuecko aonn n anac1nmx aosHoxnoc1e.
B-x, n kpenko napekcL x -, ko1opmx caHo
apeHn o1opaano, nakoneu-1o, n o1 nHnepuea-Honapxnc1oa, n o1 coae1cknx
koHHynnc1oa n sac1aanno ncka1L noame ny1n a nonn1nke papn cnacennn naunn n
o1euec1aa.
B-x, n napekcL m u -, a 1oH
uncne n a nmneunnx anac1nmx kpyrax. onnHanne snauennn pycckoro qak1opa a
pyccko na 85% c1pane pnn nnx - xnsnennan neo6xopnHoc1L. nLunn nm1ancn
nrnopnpoaa1L a1y neo6xopnHoc1L n nnm1L nonepek am1ekakue ns nee npen - n
102
6eccnaano y1on, neHano naapepna pyccknH n oc1aana no ce6e o1apa1n1enLnyk naHn1L.
ro npnHep - ppyrnH nayka.
B-ux, n c ypoane1aopenneH cnexy sa 1eH, kak a occnn peannsye1cn ampanny1an
Hno a eue 1994-1996 ropax n - -
. anxy, kak pycckn 6nsnec ampac1ae1 po ocosnannn caonx ne 1onLko
kopnopa1nanmx, no n naunonanLnmx nn1epecoa, nanpnHyk yansmaan naunonanLnme
nn1epecm - c kopnopa1nanmHn. n y6epnncn yxe a 1oH, u1o eapeckn 6ankoackn
6nsnec, asep6apxanckn nnopooaouno, apHnnckn npopoaonLc1aennm - ace
c1pyk1ypnpyk1cn no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky 1ak, u1o pycckoHy n aoo6ue nnopopuy
1aH pena1L neuero. n anpn1, kak, ckaxeH, nyuune c1pon1enLnme noppnpm a ockae
poc1ak1cn eapenH, no1oHy u1o ao rnaae ace c1pon1enLno Hockoacko nnpaHnpm
c1on1 eape. ak rocsakasm nponnmaak1 HnHo pycckoro noca a nepycckne pykn. ak
6ankoackne kpepn1m poc1ak1cn eapenH a 6onLueH o6LeHe n na nyuunx ycnoannx.
1.p.
ycckn 6nsnec noka no npenHyuec1ay Henkn n cpepnn. n xo1en 6m c1a1L
kpynnmH, no nepeuncnennme amue o6c1on1enLc1aa Heuak1. a1o pycckne - a1o
ocnoano coc1aa 6nsnecHenoa occnn, ecnn ne npnnnHa1L ao annHanne aennunny
kann1ana.
naun naunnak1 nonnHa1L: pycckn kann1an Hoxe1 6m1L xosnnnoH 1onLko a pyccko
c1pane. 1pancnaunonanLno c1pane, rpe o1cy1c1aye1 ue1kan a1nononn1nueckan
poHnnan1a, n xosnnn nens6exno - 1pancnaunonanLnm. oa1oHy
n u .
1pannmH o6pasoH a occnn ceuac cnoxnnacL cn1yaunn, nanoHnnakuan nepayk
nonoanny XVI nnn nauano XVIII aa., korpa ne6ora1oe paopnnc1ao sarnnpmaanocL na
konoccanLnme seHnn 6onp n Honac1mpe, konnno cocnoanyk aneprnk pnn peuakuero
6pocka, pnn cocnoano 6n1am. 1o aneprne 6mna cospana aanoH IV - onpnunnna n
uen1pannsoaannan po konua ockoackan ycL, a e1poH I - occnckan Hnepnn. 1o
nac xpe1 na a1o1 pas? ypn no neko1opmH npnsnakaH (naespm na eapecknx
onnrapxoa, nopro1oaka k npnaa1nsaunn 22 1mc. npepnpnn1n) anac1L uyac1aye1
aosHoxnoc1L pa6o1m c a1nH, ampocunH sa pecn1L ne1 kon1nnren1oH.
o peno ne 1onLko a a1oH. nac1L (coc1onuan a uenoH ns kappoa 6mno nap1okpa1nn n
cneucnyx6, pyccknx no ocnoanoHy coc1aay) ceropnn n caHa a snaun1enLno c1enenn
sann1a kpynnmH 6nsnecoH nnn, ao acnkoH cnyuae, nHee1 caon Hacu1a6nme 6nsnec-
nn1epecm. a1n nn1epecm yxe pasounncL c nn1epecaHn onnrapxoa-kpokpa1oa.
1ckpa n o1LH y kpokpa1oa 6nsneca n , o1ckpa npoaan kpokpa1nuecknx nap1n
- n 6noka - na nocnepnnx pyHcknx am6opax. noaoH, 1enpenunn ncna. o
npornos pecn1nne1ne paanoc1n c6maae1cn c 1ounoc1Lk po ropa.
H- . o na 1akoH 6asnce c nens6exnoc1Lk xe Hoxe1
ampac1n 1onLko opna napc1poka: naunonan-peHokpa1nn. o ec1L, peHokpa1nn,
orpannuennan no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky.
cnn ace 6ype1 1ak, Hon 1esncm-c1pa1areHm c1any1 aoc1pe6oaanm ace po opnoro.
,
06.08.2000 (n kn),
10.08.2002 (n kn),
15.05.2004 (n kn)
103
[1] eko1opme saapy6exnme nccnepoaa1enn - kpn1nkn HapkcnsHa - paano o1Heuann
sakonoHepnoc1L, HapkcnsHoH ne npepycHo1pennyk: counannc1nueckan peaonkunn
nponsouna cnauana a npko ampaxennoH arpapnoH o6uec1ae, a sa1eH a eue 6onee
cenLckoxosnc1aennmx, nennpyc1pnanLnmx c1panax (.Sil. Political Ieas an
Ieologies: A istor o Political Tougt. - N.-.-anston-., 1970, p. 483);
ecoHnenno, opna ns aennuaunx nponn coapeHenno nc1opnn saknkuae1cn a 1oH,
u1o peaonkunn, apoxnoanennme npenHn HapkcnsHa-nennnnsHa, opepxann no6epy
nnuL a npenHyuec1aenno kpec1Lnncknx n arpapnmx c1panax (. an B.air. Soiet
Communism an Agrarian eolution. - armonswort, 1970, p. 49). pnako panLue
Hanonpopyk1nano nponnn onn ne npopannynncL a noc1nxennn a1oro nanennn,
qenoHen kpec1Lnncko qeopanLno peakunn na kann1annsH, packpec1Lnnnaanne n
6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nueckyk peaonkunk (eapanLckyk) oc1ancn kpn1nkaHn
HapkcnsHa ne packpm1. oppo6nee cH. a Hoe kn.: aunonan-kann1annsH (., 1995).
[2] 1oH, ueH rposn1 1o1anLnoe packpec1Lnnnaanne, Hoxe1 noaepa1L cypL6a peanero
nHa, ko1opm, kak nn napapokcanLno a1o nokaxe1cn, norn6, a uac1noc1n, a
pesynL1a1e a1oro npouecca. nHckyk pepeank (a c ne n ennkn opop) nory6nnn, c
opno c1ponm, 6eckoneunme Ho6nnnsaunn pnn saaoeaa1enLnmx aon n copepxannn
okkynaunonnmx kopnycoa (aneakonoHnueckoe packpec1Lnnnaanne). c ppyro
c1oponm - peueam xne6 kononnanLnmx npoannun, ko1opm o6eccHmcnnn 1pyp
ppeanepnHckoro naxapn n pasnoxnn pepeank, 6mc1po cka1nauykcn a sanyc1enne n
o6esnkpeauyk (akonoHnueckoe packpec1Lnnnaanne). 1opmH, napnpy c
packpec1LnnnaanneH, aaxneunH qak1opoH, nory6naunH nH, 6mno npepoc1aanenne
rpaxpanc1aa xn1ennH pnHcknx npoannun, kononn, npnaepuee k 1o1anLnoHy
naunonanLnoHy cHeuennk n pac1aopennk co6c1aenno pnHnnn - nHnepckoro a1noca -
a ppyrnx napopax, ne cansannmx nynoanno c ennko Hnepne. akoam paa
rnaanmx qak1opa - counanLnm n naunonanLnm - ko1opme o6pa1nnn a pynnm, nyc1L
aennuec1aennme, caHoe Hounoe n aennkonennoe rocypapc1ao, kakoe 1onLko snana
nc1opnn.
[3] oneuno, paapua1L ne1 nenpepmanoro npe6maannn y anac1n a panunn
counannc1oa - npnHmx nacnepnnkoa npeonornn cao6opm, paaenc1aa n 6pa1c1aa ne
npouno papoH; n11epan, k npnHepy, nosaonnn ce6e c nopasn1enLnmH unnnsHoH
ny6nnuno noHeu1a1L o 1oH apeHenn, korpa ace nacenenne panunn 6ype1 uae1a koqe
c HonokoH. o a 1oH-1o ace n peno, u1o nnkakoro Haccoaoro cHeuennn pac ne
nponcxopn1, nponcxopn1 am1ecnenne opno pacm - ppyrnHn. apn a snaHenn1yk
uepkoaL en-epHen nkcepya, u1o nanpo1na yapa, rpe kaxpm kaHenL cansan c
nc1opne koponeackoro paopa panunn, n 6mn uoknpoaan, o6napyxna, u1o 6onLue
nonoannm npnxoxan - ne 1o aLe1naHum, ne 1o 1aum. epeaopn asrnnp c pesnmx
ro1nuecknx an1ape XV-XVI aa. na packocme nnua npepc1onunx, n nm1ancn noc1nuL,
u1o Hexpy aceH a1nH o6uero - n ne Hor. nn aepn1 a pnc1a? o a1o aepL eue ne
noaop, u1o6m xn1L a apnxe.
[4] expy nepamH nspanneH a1o knnrn n nmneunnH - 11 cen1n6pn 2001 ropa.
o6m1nn, yam, nop1aeppnnn Ho npornos, n paxe cnnukoH 6mc1po. opaxakun
aoo6paxenne pasrpoH HycynLHanaHn anxa11enckoro uen1pa n en1arona - rposnoe
npepynpexpenne nHenno a pyxe ckasannoro. 1o nponor. ynLHnnaunn n pasanska
anepepn.
[5] ap1nnka ns xnsnn: a nepeynke sa snaHenn1o uepkoaLk ca. oxa a apnxe, na
nanep1n ko1opo anoneon korpa-1o pacc1pennn kap1euLk ponnnc1oa, na c1ene poHa
6onLuan n kpnaan, na ckopyk pyky, napnncL: nnax ak6ap! pnpoH akkypa1nenLko
n 6ecnoHouno: e napo 1ak nnca1L, napo yaaxa1L ace pennrnn. ako nn o1ae1
nanncan 6m specL onanap1?
[6] 1opan aona a pake nokasana: nocHenn. o yxe ropLko coxanek1 o6 a1oH;
nonnHanne oun6kn pac11 c kaxpmH pnH. (pnHeuanne 2004 r.)
104
[7] ekoHenpyk un1a1ennH nepaano amuepuyk upesamuano copepxa1enLnyk knnry:
. Lkkenen. Hep1L anapa (., 2003). ne aa1op - kpynnm aHepnkanckn
nonn1nueckn pen1enL, 6maun coae1nnkoH nkcona n erana, paaxpm - a 1992 n
1996 rr. - caH 6anno1npoaaauncn a npespnen1m , npnxopn1 na 6ora1oH
qak1nueckoH Ha1epnane k 1eH xe ney1eun1enLnmH amaopaH, u1o n n, a o1nouennn
coapeHenno a1nopeHorpaqnn Hepnkn n aponm. pnn1no ac1pe1n1L
epnnoHmunennnka a nnue c1onL amcokonoc1aanennoro n nnqopHnpoaannoro
aHepnkanua, u1o kasanocL neaosHoxnmH eue coaceH nepaano. mxop knnrn
Lkkenena 6onee ueH nokasa1enen. n roaopn1: nac1an uac npospennn!
[8] oppo6nee o6 a1oH cH.: . . nncnHoa. acoaan npo6neHa a n 6opL6a
peHokpa1nuecknx cnn sa ee cnpaaepnaoe peuenne. - ., pncc.kanp.nc1.nayk, 1967.
[9] . . aunnno. aunonanLnan accounaunn copec1ann nporpeccy uae1noro
nacenennn n ee ponL a nerpn1nnckoH panxennn a nocneaoennm nepnop. - .,
pncc.kanp.nc1.nayk, 1983. - . 145. ak xapak1epna a a1o cn1yaunn caHa aoennan
1epHnnonornn: 6n1aa, nnaupapH, 6opL6a!
[10] anncano a 200 r.; c 1ex nop a1o1 npouen1 1onLko poc.
[11] e ycnen nannca1L a1n c1pokn, kak npouen a esaancnHo rase1e o1
05.08.2000 r. cencaunonnyk c1a1Lk: epnm kHop. paa ycneaun o6pec1n
poccnckoe rpaxpanc1ao aqpnkaneu npe1enpye1 na noc1 Hapa aepn, rpe pacckasano
o 1oH, kak apcenL aqen, 28-ne1nn amxopeu ns aHepyna, okonunaun aepckyk
rocypapc1aennyk Hepnunnckyk akapeHnk n nonyunaun poccnckoe rpaxpanc1ao,
sanann o caoeH xenannn 6anno1npoaa1Lcn na ykasannm noc1. oHeuena qo1orpaqnn
npe1enpen1a. a yx, uepnee nekypa.
npenn Hm yxe n nokasannoro no na ack c1pany nerpa-qepHepa,
xennauerocn na pyccko pype n oceauero c onnakoamHn pe1LHn a 6epno pyccko
pepeane.
[12] pno ns cnepc1an noxno nHHnrpaunonno nonn1nkn coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o ceropnn
Hnorne eaponeckne c1panm (nrnnn, panunn, enLrnn n pp.) okasanncL 6ykaanLno a
sanoxnnkax y nHHnrpan1oa-HycynLHan. ycnoannx pasropakuecn Hnpoao
unannnsaunonno aonm a1o npnaopn1 k 1parnuecknH nocnepc1annH. pnHep -
anpenLckn (2004) npnsma nnpepoa HycynLHancko o6unnm onpona - 6y aHsm n
Hapa akpn - k aone xnamx 6oH6 npo1na nrnnn kak yuac1nnum okkynaunn
paka. ona uaxnpoa, nonn1no, pasaepne1cn ne na 6eperax epcnpckoro sannaa, a
na ynnuax 1yHannoro nL6nona: akpn npnsaan rpynny 10-ne1nnx pe1e yrna1L
caHone1 n apesa1Lcn na neH a yknnreHckn paopeu nnn a pesnpenunk npeHLepa na
aynnnr-c1pn1.
[13] ..osnoa. c1opnn 1parepnn aennkoro napopa. - ., 1996. - . 44.
[14] ycckne. - ., ayka, 1999. - . 136.
[15] o ec1L 45 noaopoxpennmx na 1000 xn1ene a rop.
[16] apapokc ueuencko aonm coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o Hm co6c1aenno kpoaLk nokynaeH
ce6e npaao xn1L a opnoH rocypapc1ae c nenaanpnunH nac cocepoH. m ao u1o 6m 1o
nn c1ano xenaeH ypepxa1L a caonx o6Ln1nnx npoan1yk sHek. 1o apeHn kak ee
cnepoaano 6m nn6o paspaan1L nacHep1L - nn6o o16pocn1L.
105
[17] H. o6 a1oH, nanpnHep: K..apaxoanu. nanns ncnaHckoro aospoxpennn na
noc1coae1ckoH npoc1panc1ae neua1Lk (1991-1996). - ., pncc.kanp.nc1.nayk,
1998.
[18] ocpyHe 2003 ropa cosmaa npouen1 nepyccknx a a1oH koHn1e1e eue ampoc.
[19] ..onnuyk. HHnrpaunonnan nonn1nka nocne 1opo Hnpoao aonm. -
., pncc.kanp.nc1.nayk, 1975. - . 85-118.
[20] a ncknkuenneH cnyuan nepep 1opo Hnpoao aono, korpa 1pancnop1 c
eapecknHn 6exenuaHn ns rn1nepoacko epHannn 6mn saaepny1 o6pa1no.
[21] H. xapak1epnyk noneHnky na a1o1 cue1 Hexpy aa1opoH n ..nponoamH
(aunonanLnan rase1a N6(34)/2000).
[22] peonornn, kak o6muno, ne nocneaae1 sa xnsnLk. knnxepm, ko1opmHn panxe1
spopoam nnc1nnk1 naunonanLnoro caHocoxpanennn, nnn anxenne npo1na
neneranLno nHHnrpaunn, akcnnya1npykuee 1o1 xe nnc1nnk1, ne nopapnnn naH noka
a o6nac1n npe nnuero, nosaonnkuero npocnaan1L a1o1 nnc1nnk1 n npnsna1L ero
a6conk1nyk npaao1y. on nonm1ka sakpm1L a1y 6peuL naxopn1 ananorn nnuL a
sanapno Hmcnn (Lkkenen, kk), a ne y nac. o a1o nopHanLno: acerpa anauane
6m1ne Hepnenno qopHnpye1 cosnanne, u1o6m sa1eH npen, cqopHnpoaaauncL,
c1peHn1enLno noHennna 6m1ne.
[23] 1o1 nosynr aoo6ue noackpy ac1peuae1cn a apnxe, paxe na qpon1one
noxapno uac1n - sono1mHn 6ykaaHn
[24] nepame nspana a aunonanLno rase1e N2/1997 r., a sa1eH, coaokynno c
sakononpoek1oH paspenennoH nonoxennn pyccko naunn - a 6poukpe ycckn
npoek1 (., 1998). 6a nc1ounnka nHk1cn a occncko ocypapc1aenno
6n6nno1eke.
[25] e1opnka cokpauennn sapy6exnmx napopoa o1pa6o1ana a n
ycneuno npnHenne1cn a coapeHenno occnn. eHorpaqnueckan aona - 1epHnn,
copepxanne ko1oporo aceH nsaec1no.
[26] npnHepy, kn1aum ceropnn, ne o6Lnannn nnkaknx aon, sacennk1 apony
(kaxpm nn1m napnxannn - kn1aeu), Hepnky, c1panm npokn1an, occnk. 1o
nnoxoro, ecnn 6m Hm noc1ynann 1ak xe?
[27] c1L n y occnn anna nepep n aceH HnpoH. o apeHn paxpancko aonm a
(1861-1865) nrnnn n panunn ro1oannn coaHec1nyk nn1epaenunk, u1o6m
noppepxa1L Kr npo1na eaepa. o poccnckn kanunep opuakoa, uenoaek
nepanekn, pykoaopc1ayncL nenparHa1nuecknHn coo6paxennnHn, nocnan pae ackappm
- c payx c1opon: uepes nxn n 1nan1nueckn okeanm - n aocnpenn1c1aoaan
nn1epaenunn, ueH po6nncn nepenoHa a aone. nac eaep n nory6nn Kr. ocnepc1ann
a1o pokoao, 1parnuecko oun6kn Hm ace 1enepL pacxne6maaeH.
[28] eko1opme kaasn-nparHa1nkn aospaxak1: nenLsn o1paaa1L eunk - 1aH neq1L,
yay - 1aH Hapraneu n 1.p. o nHe1L 1eppn1opnn n anape1L nHn - a1o paneko ne opno
n 1o xe. asae pyccknH npnnapnexn1 poccnckn ankHnnn, poccnckan neq1L? cnn
nepycckn kann1an cyHen nanoxn1L nany na naun pecypcm a opnoH cnyuae (ponyc1nH,
a pacnonpcke), on cyHee1 a1o cpena1L n a ppyroH (a eune, yae). Hmcn a 1oH,
u1o6m, ao-nepamx, c1a1L xosneaaHn a co6c1aenno c1pane nap co6c1aennmHn
pecypcaHn (uero Hm noka ne poc1nrnn), a ao-a1opmx - ocaon1L npak1nky
neokononnannsHa, nayun1Lcn anape1L pecypcaHn, ponyc1nH, a kononnn yae,
106
poHnnnone nryue1nn, npo1ek1opa1e eune, o1penennmx o1 nac, 1eH ne Henee,
nenpospaunmHn rpannuaHn.
[29] asyHee1cn, n nonnHak, u1o pnn neqopHanLno konconnpaunn pyccknx, pnn
kynL1naaunn pycckoro naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn nepoc1a1ouno opnnx qopHanLnmx
npnsnakoa naunn. oa1oHy nonnan qopHyna pycckoro naunonanLnoro epnnc1aa a Honx
rnasax amrnnpn1 1ak: poaL n c1opnn.
apop - cy6Lek1 nc1opnn. o on, koneuno, n o6Lek1 nc1opnn: nc1opnn, yxe
coaepuennan napopoH, a caok ouepepL c1anoan1cn konc1pynpykunH ero qak1opoH.
1o 1ak.
o noa1opk eue pas: npounoe ne ponxno knonnpoaa1Lcn a 6ypyueH. ornka 1ak
6mno - 1ak 6ype1 nopouna. apo nonnHa1L: nk6me nsHenennn, nponcxopnune c
naHn, pyccknHn nkpLHn, kak 6m onn nn nepeHennnn po neysnaaaeHoc1n nau
any1pennn o6nnk, ne npeapauak1 nac a nepyccknx, noka a nac 1eue1 pycckan kpoaL.
o1oHy u1o 6m1L caHnH co6o - aoace ne osnauae1 nnkorpa ne nsHenn1Lcn. e
cnoco6en k pasan1nk n nsHenennk, nnorpa po co6c1aenno npo1naononoxnoc1n,
1onLko nn6o kpe1nn o1 poxpennn, nn6o nokonnk. oroaopka kakoa a konm6enLky,
1akoa n a Hornnky 6onLue acero npnropna pnn 1ex, k1o opno noro yxe c1on1 a 1o
caHo Hornnke. , Hexpy npounH, nHenno c1opnn roaopn1 o6 a1oH ouenL ncno, ecnn
6pa1L ee a HakcnHanLno nonnoH o6LeHe anox n co6m1n, a ne orpannunaa1Lcn,
ponyc1nH, nocnepnnHn 1peHn c1one1nnHn.
ycckn uenoaek ouenL aapna1naen nHenno nc1opnueckn. ycckne nkpn
poHonronLckoro, a 1eH 6onee poxpnc1nanckoro nepnopa - a1o coaceH ne 1o, u1o
pycckne npn nekcee nxanoanue. o pasae nsmunnk n y6expennm an1nxpnc1nannn
an1ocnaa, pasrpoHnaun asapnk, ne nau, ne pycckn naunonanLnm repo? a eue
ns aennuaunx? kak noc1aan1L pnpoH pycckoro npnpaopnoro apeHen ka1epnnm II n
cn6npckoro kasaka? a u1o kasaka - pycckne c1apoo6pnpum-kepxakn 6mnn anonne
akso1nunm pnn pyccknx xe cn6npnkoa cepepnnm aeka. pasae pycckne nkpn
coae1cko qopHaunn nepec1ann 6m1L a pec1an1enLnoc1n pyccknHn, paxe nasmaan
ce6n coae1cknHn? o1L n ne ouenL-1o 6mnn noxoxn na pyccknx konua XIX, a 1eH
6onee XVIII aeka. 1.p.
1ak, ne nc1opnn occncko Hnepnn kak nekn anropn1H noaepennn pycckoro
napopa, a ceo6uan c1opnn ycckoro apopa kak cnHaon o6unoc1n acex pyccknx,
conpnuac1nmx uepes caonx nnunmx npepkoa ne 1onLko k co6m1nnH o6ue xponnkn, no
n k nekoeHy o6ueHy kopnk, o6unH npepkaH, onn1L-1akn o6ue poan, a koneunoH
cue1e.
[30] a Hec1e y1nna n neHepnenno yaonnn 6m nauanLnnka enu1a6a . aaunnna,
saHaxnyauerocn na naun npepnme cnnm, sa npoqnenpnropnoc1L. epeaen 6m ero na
ponxnoc1L koHanpykuero - kak pas no yHy.
[31] np kpnHnnana N 7, nknL 2000.
[32] onn1no, u1o nHenno no a1o npnunne ace 1.n. nn6epanLnme nporpaHHm pasan1nn
occnn ponxnm 6m1L neHepnenno o1Henenm, a nx pypnme nocnepc1ann no
aosHoxnoc1n ncnpaanenm.
[33] H. a kn.: ..oxnnoa. o6epm n 6epm occnn. - ., nropn1H, 2000. - . 7-11.
[34] oaepuenno nenonn1no, nanpnHep, noueHy nnopooaouno nHnop1 ponxnm
o6nsa1enLno kon1ponnpoaa1L asep6apxanum, kaakasum. 1o, pycckne ne cHory1 a1o
107
cpena1L 6es nnx? oaesnn qpyk1m-oaoun po rpannum - cnacn6o, panLue Hm noaeseH
nx caHn, xo1L a opnnLck, xo1L a opky1y.
[35] H.: ..acanoaa. paan1enLc1aennan nonn1nka a o6nac1n amcuero
o6pasoaannn n qopHnpoaannn nn1ennnrenunn a occnn (60-90 rr. XIX a.).
ncc.kanp.nc1.nayk. - asanL, 1981.
[36] a n a onpone - 1o xe caHoe: ocnoano coc1aa nnunx - 6enme nkpn.
B BUEEHHmX 3QHX H HBX HX EUEHHR
x
( n x "H " N 1, 1995 r.)
" r" - mv m n
cnn cpaann1L o6uec1ao c aeuec1aoH, 1o nnunoc1n npnc1ano cpaanenne c a1oHoH.
aoc1aa a1oHa, kak nsaec1no, onpepennk1 n caoc1aa aeuec1aa. naanoe caoc1ao
nk6o nnunoc1n, nesaancnHo o1 nona, pacm, aospac1a - c1peHn1Lcn k pacunpennk
caonx aosHoxnoc1e, k ynyuuennk caoero nonoxennn, k ycnnennk nepconanLnoro
annnnnn a Hnpe. 1o caoc1ao npncyue yxe aH6pnony n paxe - cnepHa1osonpy.
c1ec1aenno, u1o nponanne1cn ono no-pasnoHy, a pnanasone o1 c1peHnennn k
caHocoaepuenc1aoaannk n npeo6pasoaannk npnpopm po c1peHnennn k nokopennk
acenenno. epec1a1L nponann1L a1o caoc1ao - snaun1 nepec1a1L xn1L.
po6neHm, cansannme c nponanenneH a1oro ocnoaononarakuero caoc1aa, Hyuak1
nnunoc1L na kaxpoH uary: npenn1c1ann nopc1eperak1 o1oackpy. "enoaek poxpae1cn
cao6opnmH, a yHnpae1 a okoaax", - roaopnn ycco. onesnn, c1nxnnme cnnm
npnpopm, rne1 o6uec1aennmx noannnoc1e, 1pypnoc1n c kapLepo, pa npoc1o ronop,
xonop n nexaa1ka xnnLn - kopoue, npenon c1onLko, ckonLko ny1e pnn pacunpennn
uenoaeuecknx aosHoxnoc1e. neko1opmHn ns npo6neH nonnouennan nnunoc1L a
coc1onnnn cnpaan1Lcn caHa, a opnnouky. nn peuennn ppyrnx o6saaopn1cn ceHLe. o
ec1L n 1akne npo6neHm, papn peuennn ko1opmx nyxno o6Lepnnn1L ycnnnn Hnornx
ceHe, Hnornx n Hnornx nkpe.
ak nokasmaae1 nc1opnn, nkpn cnoco6nm o6Lepnnn1Lcn, kak npaanno,
x : nn6o na u, nn6o na counanLnoH, [1]. 1o
ec1ec1aenno: aepL uenoaek o1 poxpennn npnnapnexn1 k nekoeHy counyHy, on
nsnauanLno naxopn1cn a Hnpe, pasrpaqnennoH naunonanLnmHn napannennHn n
counanLnmHn HepnpnanaHn. ce oc1anLnme npnnunnm o6Lepnnennn nkpe, nanpnHep,
pennrnosnm, - nnuL nponsaopnme o1 nasaannmx payx[2].
Hu u
nn mu. 1o 1oxe
nonn1no: aepL a ocnoae kaxporo ns nnx nexn1 saun1a n noppepxka 1onLko caoero
counyHa: nn6o caoe naunn, nn6o caoero knacca. naccoayk 6opL6y aepL ne apkc c
nrenLcoH ampyHann, pa n 6n1ay naun n pac Hm na6nkpaeH c 1ex, no kpane Hepe,
nop, kak kpoHanLoneu nacHep1L cpaxancn c neanpep1anLueH, a 1o n c 6onee pannnx
apeHen.
Kn u cnoco6na asopaa1L naunonanLno opnopopnoe o6uec1ao.
B paspnpae1 c1panm, cyHeaune noracn1L counanLnme konqnnk1m.
108
1o6m u m, nyxno sac1aan1L ee sa6m1L o knaccoaoH an1aronnsHe.
1o6m zu , nyxno sac1aan1L ero sa6m1L o cyuec1aoaannn any1pn nero
pasnmx naun c nx pasnmHn, nopo npo1naopeunamHn, nn1epecaHn.
epaoe a aeke anonne ypanocL, nanpnHep, n1nepy, a1opoe - 1annny. po6neHm n
sapaun acex knaccoa neHeukoro o6uec1aa naunc1m napennncL paspeun1L sa cue1
ppyrnx napopoa. oae1ckoe xe o6uec1ao napennocL, nanpo1na, ocuac1nnan1L nnxnne
knaccm acero Hnpa n acex naunonanLnoc1e sa cue1 aepxnnx. kcnepnHen1 n1nepa
npoaannncn 6mc1po: o1ae1nan peakunn napopoa, sa cue1 ko1opmx co6npanncL
6naropenc1aoaa1L neHum, 6mna na pepkoc1L epnnopyuno. e1nue 1annna 6mno
oc1anoaneno a caoeH pasan1nn aepxnnHn knaccaHn acex c1pan Hnpa n 1eHn naunnHn,
ko1opme yxe ycnenn ouenn1L npenHyuec1aa kann1annsHa. o caHo no ce6e
"rocypapc1ao 1pypnunxcn" npopepxanocL 6onee 70 ne1 n pasaannnocL nop na1nckoH
ampocunx naunonanLnmx cnn n a pesynL1a1e nporpeccnpykuero knaccoaoro
paccnoennn. opL6a n am1ecnenne opnoro o6Lepnnn1enLnoro npnnunna ppyrnH a
ouepepno pas pokasann caok nens6exnoc1L.
oueuL noHeua1L naunonanLnoHy o6Lepnnennk - nopaepn kon1pHnny knaccoao
6opL6m. oueuL ne ponyc1n1L rpaxpancko, knaccoao aonm - pasorpe
naunonanLnme konqnnk1m. aunonanLnoe epnnc1ao ckpennne1cn 6opL6o c ppyrnHn
naunnHn; knaccoaoe - 6opL6o c ppyrnHn knaccaHn.
ak n kauae1cn Han1nnk uenoaeueckoro epnnennn: o1 counanLnoro k naunonanLnoHy n
o6pa1no. eH panLue kaune1cn a opny c1opony, 1eH cnnLne o1kaune1cn a ppyryk.
n vv
cnn nocHo1pe1L na coapeHennyk nc1opnk occnn uepes npnsHy amuenpnaepenno
rnno1esm, 1o Hoxno npepnonoxn1L, u1o c1pana c1on1 na nopore o6Lepnnennn acex
knaccoa n cocnoan any1pn naun, ee nacennkunx, a 1akxe na nopore noamx
konqnnk1oa a1nx konconnpnpoaannmx naun. akoaa o6Lek1nanan nornka pasan1nn, a
ace 1o, u1o Hm yxe na6nkpaeH ceropnn a occnn n 1onLko nop1aepxpae1
ckasannoe. nna naunonanLnmx aHoun (kak n knaccoamx) - nepanuna, nsnauanLna:
ona sac1aanne1 nkpe pec1aoaa1L paxe aonpekn akonoHnuecko n nonn1nuecko
uenecoo6pasnoc1n. o1, k1o pyHae1, u1o pasaopaunaakunecn npoueccm uenoaeueckan
aonn (aonn nonn1nkoa) Hoxe1 o1Henn1L nnn nepenporpaHHnpoaa1L, - ouenL
sa6nyxpae1cn. c1opnk 1aopn1 nkpn ace caoe coaokynnoc1Lk, n nnkako nonn1nk
nnuero ne cHoxe1 nopena1L, ecnn nope1 nonepek npoueccoa, oxaa1naunx
HnoroHnnnnonnme uenoaeueckne kon1nnren1m.
aHe1no, u1o npouecc naunonanLnoro cnnouennn npe1, xo1L n Hepnenno, n any1pn
rnaano naunn occnn - any1pn pyccknx; npouecc xe konconnpaunn nnmx poccncknx
naun nens6exno, yam, nanpaanen npo1na pyccko rereHonnn. a1o cansn 6ecuennoe
snauenne npno6pe1ae1 aona a eune kak, ao-nepamx, ux
m a occnn, a ao-a1opmx, - q .
pecL neo6xopnHo ckasa1L neckonLko cnoa o xapak1epe a1o aonm. saec1nm
npaaosaun1nnk epre oaanea nasmaae1 ee rpaxpancko. saec1nm npaaosaun1nnk
ape1. epep naHn - o6munan naunonanLnan aona. aunonanLnan pyccko-ueuenckan
aona, pasansannan caHnHn ueuenuaHn a 1991 ropy. 1ex nop cue1 pyccknH nkpnH,
y6n1mH, ns6n1mH, saHyuennmH, nsnacnnoaannmH, orpa6nennmH, o6esponennmH,
cxn1mH co cae1y, nsrnannmH ueuenuaHn, npe1 yxe na pecn1kn n co1nn 1mcnu. o na
a1o 1ouke pyccko-ueuenckan aona ne Hoxe1, ne nHee1 npaaa 6m1L sakonuenno.
n1epecm pyccko naunn 1pe6yk1 aosHespnn kak aceHnpnoro npepoc1epexennn: nac
109
nenLsn o6nxa1L! ypaeamH, acaeamH, apyeamH n nx 6oeankaHn Hm, pycckne,
ponxnm noc1ynn1L 1ak, kak noc1ynnnn eapen c neHeuknHn nanauaHn n nx
npncneunnkaHn: pasmcknaa1L no aceHy cae1y 6es cpokoa paanoc1n, a pasmckaa,
ny6nnuno cypn1L n kasnn1L. pecL aaxnee acero pnn nac - nHenno npnHep n
npeuepen1.
a Hec1e anac1e npepepxaunx n 6m ne c1peHnncn sakonun1L a1y aony, pokone uepes
nee ne npopy1 noc1enenno ace poccnckne aocka. sakanunaa1L ee, ne po6na po
konua pypaeauea, uero 6m a1o nH, cao6oponk6namH ueuenuaH, nn c1onno, n aoace
neponyc1nHo: 1y1 xe a sarpnaok pyccknH auenn1cn ppyrne naunonanm "cpepne n
Henko kpynnoc1n", ko1opme cnepn1 ceuac, sa1ana pmxanne, ueH konun1cn peno.
<.>
epoouenka co c1oponm onn16kpo nHeaunxcn a naunonanLnmx n
counanLnmx npo1naopeun, c1peHnenne kpeHneacknx c1apuea anpe1L okpec1 ce6n
"1nuL, rnapL n oxLk 6naropa1L" npnaenn k ka1ac1poqe c1pany, paspnpaeHyk a1nHn
any1pennnHn, sarnannmHn any1pL, npo1naopeunnHn. peHneacknx pypakoa, aknkuan
op6aueaa, amHena ns peHnn peHokpa1nueckan He1na. o 1enepL noc1anLrnn no
6mnoHy aennuec1aennoHy cnokoc1ank caepxpepxaam 1onkae1 neko1opmx noamx
nonn1nkoa na nonck aceo6uero naunonanLnoro n counanLnoro Hnpa n 6naropenc1ann.
occnn anoaL anpn1cn nH kak orpoHnm qon1an "pyx6a napopoa".
eope1nueckan neaosHoxnoc1L nopo6no 6naroc1no o6uec1aenno Hopenn o6cnoaana
amue. eunm Hnp Hexpy naunnHn nepoc1nxnH 1ak xe, kak n aeunm knaccoam Hnp.
pak1nueckan xe neponyc1nHoc1L 1akoro pasan1nn co6m1n - caHooueanpna.
Hu u . ak 6m nn nasmaancn
nopo6nm y1onnueckn npoek1 - oks napopoa occnn, oae1 naunonanLnoc1e,
onrpecc poccncknx nneHen nnn eue kak - on anpnopn Hoxe1 npnnec1n occnn
1onLko apep. nnksnn onacnm!
occnckan konkpe1nka 1akoaa, u1o naH, pyccknH, napo nn a koeH cnyuae ne
o6Lepnnn1L, a pasLepnnn1L poccnckne napopm. ak, u1o6m nnryu, parec1aneu ne
cHenn npo1nny1L pyky noHoun (pyky, necyuyk penLrn n opyxne) ueuenuy, u1o6m
6auknp ne poroaapnaancn sa naue cnnno c 1yannueH n 1a1apnnoH, u1o6m nky1 c
6ypn1oH ne sacmnann aHnccapoa a nonnk n . 6o nk6o nx coks, nk6an nx
konconnpaunn, paxe qopHanLno aknkuakuan pycckoro npepc1aan1enn, paxe
nosaonnkuan eHy - pnn o1aopa rnas - aosrnaan1L nopo6nyk c1pyk1ypy, 6ype1 na pene
coksoH, konconnpaune, nanpaanennmHn npo1na pyccko rereHonnn, npo1na nauero
napopa. pyxn1L co aceHn a1nHn napopaHn no o1penLnoc1n - noxanyc1a! c1yna1L c
nnHn, a Hepy nx cnn n neo6xopnHoc1n, a oco6me o1nouennn - papn ora. H x
!!!
n, n
6mknoaennm uenoaek, 1o, u1o panLue nasmaann "o6maa1enL", xnae1, ne pyHan o
neo6xopnHoc1n kakoro-1o o6Lepnnennn koro-1o c keH-1o saueH-1o. Hy, nao6opo1,
xoue1cn, u1o6m ero oc1aannn a nokoe: pann 6m sapa6o1a1L n ne un1ann 6m HopanL.
Hy ace paano, na koro pa6o1a1L - na caoero xe pycckoro nnn na apHnnnna, eapen,
ueuenua nnn nnonua - nnuL 6m nna1nnn xopouo. n kynn1 6ananm y "nnua
kaakascko naunonanLnoc1n" 1onLko no1oHy, u1o po pyccko 1oproakn np1n na nn1L
uaroa panLue. n - ecnn a1o a ero anac1n - sa asn1ky pac1 nponncky n Hec1o pnn
napLka npnesxeHy rpysnny. cnn on 6ype1 npopaaa1L xnnLe, on nocHo1pn1 ne na
naunonanLnoc1L nokyna1enn, a na cyHHy nponncLk. ecnn on 6nsnecHen, on saknkun1
amropnm poroaop c npepc1aan1eneH nk6o naunn, ne sapyHmaancL nn o poccncko
110
akonornn, nn o poccncknx akonoHnuecknx nn1epecax, nn o rocypapc1aenno
6esonacnoc1n n 1oHy nopo6nmx naunonanLnmx npnopn1e1ax. aoo6ue nnkakan
o6uec1aennan npen ne sac1pnne1 a ero pyue, ecnn ona ne cnoco6na ceropnn, ceuac
noHouL eHy a peuennn konkpe1nmx npo6neH.
eHokpa1m 1aeppn1 naH: o6maa1enL, "HanenLkn uenoaek", acerpa npaa; a1o ero npaao
- can1oe npaao - xn1L, kak eHy xoue1cn n sapa6maa1L na aceH, u1o eue ne
sanpeueno. eHokpa1m - 6onLune "saun1nnkn napopa".
1onLko a npaspnnuek, "noppaa" kak cnepye1, o6maa1enL kpnun1, u1o occnk
npopann; u1o ceppue popnnm - ockaa - yxe ne Ha1L pyccknx ropopoa, a oam
aannon; u1o ueuenckan Haqnn naxanLno xosnnnuae1 a aepn, u1o apHnne pyua1
1aapononLe; u1o nHnop1 coaceH sapaann poccnckyk npoHmunennoc1L; u1o narnoc1L
eapecko npeccm n 1akoamx xe 6anknpoa nec1epnnHa; n u1o pyccknx a occnn,
npeapauaeHmx a 6ecnpaanoe 6mpno, nekoHy saun1n1L.
o cnepykunH y1poH o6maa1enL, kak nn a ueH ne 6maano, o1npaanne1cn no caonH
penaH: ac1ae1 sa npnnaaok a rpysnncko naaouke, nokynae1 nHnop1nme npopyk1m n
uHo1kn, nna1n1 o1kyn ueuenckoHy Haqnoso, 6epe1 asn1ky o1 asep6apxanckoro
penLua, un1ae1 "ockoackn koHcoHoneu" n xpann1 penLrn a "oc1-6anke".
"1o xnsnL, nnuero ne nonnueuL", - roaopn1, aspmxan, o6maa1enL. n, kak o1
sauyHnennoro, o1aepne1cn o1 nk6oro nonn1nueckoro arn1a1opa, on ne nope1 nn na
kakoe nap1nnoe co6panne, on ne pac1 nn konekn na kakoe 6m 1o nn 6mno o6uee
peno n 1onLko npo6ypun1: "e Heua1e xn1L".
orpa-1o, a XIX aeke, cun1anocL, u1o nonn1nueckne nap1nn nyxnm, a nepayk ouepepL,
kak o6Lepnnennn epnnoHmunennnkoa. o a XX aeke onm1 1annn, cnannn,
epHannn, , n1an n ppyrnx c1pan nokasan, u1o n - s, ,
, u n
. 1o kauec1aenno noam, nan6onee coaepuennm cnoco6 ampaxennn 1oro
caHoro epnnc1aa nkpe, ko1opoe o6ecneunaae1 c1pa1ernueckne nn1epecm nnunoc1n, a
1oH uncne nauero "o6maa1enn". Henno nap1nn cnnHae1 c o6maa1enn 6peHn sa6o1m n
6opL6m sa naunonanLnme nn1epecm n npnopn1e1m. Henno nap1nn nosaonne1, papn
y1aepxpennn a1nx npnopn1e1oa, nponnkny1L ao ace nuekn o6uec1aa, Ho6nnnsoaa1L
kaxpyk ns nnx pnn neo6xopnHo accennsaunonno n cosnpa1enLno pa6o1m. Henno
n 1onLko nap1nn Hoxe1 orpannun1L 6esyHnm pasryn koppyHnnpoaanno 6kpokpa1nn
n koHnpapopoa, aoo6ue pasryn 1o1anLnoro aronsHa,
a, anac1L nap1nn neo6xopnHa. o ne nap1nn anac1n, o6Lepnnnkuan cnyuanmx
nkpe, aceHn npaapaHn n nenpaapaHn am6naunxcn naaepx, ne cnnouennmx amcue
npee, - ne1, 1akan "nap1nn" Hoxe1 1onLko ycyry6n1L anapxnk, nopc1erny1L
aakxanannk o6uepoccncko rpa6nnoakn. onoxn1L nauano npouae1annk occnn
cHoxe1 1onLko 1akan nap1nn, ko1opan npnpe1 k anac1n, ncnonLsyn aneprnk npen, ne
1onLko nonn1no 6onLunnc1ay nacenennn c1panm, no n nan6onee ak1yanLno,
konc1pyk1nano, o6Lepnnnkue.
1o xe a1o sa npen? axe1cn, a1o ncno.
eropnn nn koHHynnc1nueckan, nn counannc1nueckan npen ne cnno1n1 acex pyccknx -
80% nacenennn. onouenne kann1annc1oa n "6ypxyasno nn1ennnrenunn" 1onLko
o1nyrne1 a1n caHme xname, ak1nanme, rpaHo1nme naunonanLnme cnnm o1 o6uero
pena. a n napop yxe paano 1pe6ye1 nopHanLnoro xosnnna. ono acnkyk knaccoayk
6opL6y cpepn pyccknx! eropnn nac1ano apeHn pnn naunonanLno, o6Lepnnnkue
npeonornn.
111
H m n: u ;
, n m,
m; ; u
u; u
m; , n
.
ce a1o aHec1e o6Lepnnne1cn opnnH cnoaoH: naunonan-kann1annsH. op a1nH
snaHeneH no6epnH.
pnako ao1 aonpoc: ponyc1nH, 1akan nap1nn ec1L. onyc1nH, ona aosLHe1
6onLunnc1ao a yHe. u1o? a nnuero: yHa 6esanac1na. nn 1oro, u1o6m pyHckne
am6opm npnnecnn peanLnm pesynL1a1, neo6xopnHo, u1o6m npesnpen1ckoe kpecno
sannn rnaaa 1o xe "yccko nap1nn" (nasaanne ycnoano), ko1opan saaoke1 n pyHckoe
6onLunnc1ao. naue HexannsH nap1nnoro pykoaopc1aa c1pano aknkun1L ne ypac1cn.
6es a1oro HexannsHa naH occnk ne saun1n1L n ne aospopn1L.
npesnpen1 6es onopm na pyHckoe 6onLunnc1ao - u1o Hoxe1 on? ou1n nnuero, ecnn
ne onnpae1cn na nap1nk: Hm a a1oH y6epnnncL. ou1n ace, ecnn on - ne 1onLko
npesnpen1, no n pykoaopn1enL nap1nn. mneunnn onc1n1yunn nosaonne1 eHy a a1oH
cnyuae npeapa1n1L aep1nkanL apHnnnc1pa1nano, ncnonnn1enLno anac1n a aep1nkanL
anac1n nap1nno. a1o yxe coaceH ppyroe peno: ppyro cnpoc, ppyran
o1ae1c1aennoc1L, ppyran asanHnan cansL saenLea anac1n, ppyran kooppnnaunn, a u1o
aaxnee acero - ppyran npeonornn. 1ak: rnaano, ace onpepennkue uenLk "yccko
nap1nn" ponxnm 6m1L am6opm npesnpen1a. a a1oH ona ponxna cocpepo1oun1L ace
ycnnnn.
rnaanan uenL pyccknx ceropnn - na1n nnn cospa1L 1akyk nap1nk n 1akoro
npesnpen1a.
[1] aHeuy, u1o o6Lepnnnk1cn nopo ne 1onLko nnsune knaccm pasnmx
naunonanLnoc1e (nanpnHep, pa6m a apHnn nap1aka), no n amcune - nanpnHep,
qeopanm ace aponm a kpec1oamx noxopax.
[2] e cnyuano, ckaxeH, eaponeckoe xpnc1nanc1ao paspennnocL no 1euennnH, a
uen1pe ko1opmx c1on1 repHanckan (npo1ec1an1m: anrnnuane, ckanpnnaam, uaeuapum,
neHum, pa1uane, ronnanpum), poHanckan (ka1onnkn: n1anLnnum, ncnanum,
nop1yranLum, qpanuysm) n cnaannckan (npaaocnaanme: pycckne, ykpannum,
6enopycm, cep6n, 6onrapm) nsmkoame rpynnm. aspennnncL n HycynLHane: nepcm -
unn1m, apa6m, 1kpkn - npenHyuec1aenno cynnn1m. 1.p. cknkuennn nop1aepxpak1
npaanno. 1o canpe1enLc1ao rny6okoro (na ypoane 1ex cnoea cosnannn, ko1opme
qopHnpyk1cn nsmkoH) coo1ae1c1ann 1ex nnn nnmx pennrnosnmx npepnou1enn -
naunonanLnoHy Hen1ann1e1y.
KK H HHEMY R R HHHRHM
r n n , v
(n H- 09.02.2000, )
npo6neHa1nka, 6mauan npn coae1cko anac1n poc1onnneH
cneunanLnmx peqepa1nanmx c6opnnkoa n aepoHc1aennmx pokyHen1oa, npouno
112
nponncanacL a caHmx Haccoamx nspannnx, amuna na nepam nnan nonn1nuecko
xponnkn.
eropnn ace 6onLuee uncno nonn1onoroa amnyxpeno npnsnaaa1L: reononn1nka,
paccyxpennnHn o koe Hopno ueronn1L a nocnepnne ne1 nn1L, - u mu
n s qm . e 6onLue, ne HenLue.
acnap oae1ckoro oksa n ce1L aoennmx konqnnk1oa, nokpmaunx snaun1enLnyk
uac1L Hnpa n nocnunx o1ue1nnao a1nnueckn xapak1ep, nokasann a1o c aennuaue
y6epn1enLnoc1Lk.
po6yxpenne naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn na noc1coae1ckoH npoc1panc1ae nocnno ao
HnoroH c1nxnnm xapak1ep, npnaopn sa co6o nocnepc1ann ne 1onLko
paspyun1enLnme (pnn kak uenoro), no n cosnpa1enLnme (pnn pnpa 6maunx
pecny6nnk). 1Heuy, u1o pacnap uec1o uac1n cyun ne npo1naopeun1 kap1nne
o6ueHnpoaoro pasan1nn. nanek1nka nc1opnn a aeke 1akoaa, u1o noaceHec1no
ak1nano npe1 pacnap nHnepcknx c1pyk1yp na naunonanLnme rocypapc1aa. oxno
nepeuncnn1L 11oHanckyk, ac1po-enrepckyk, pn1anckyk, enLrnckyk,
op1yranLckyk, panuysckyk, nonckyk, epHanckyk, occnckyk nHnepnn, a 1akxe
pe1n ax, oae1ckn oks, Krocnaank n exocnoaaknk. a ouepepn eue pnp
nonna1nnuecknx rocypapc1a, aknkuan , ennko6pn1annk, anapy, cnannk...
ueanpno, a1o a uenoH coo1ae1c1aye1 aone napopoa. uac1noc1n, napopm ne
aocnpo1nannncL enoaexcknH cornauennnH, a Hnorne ns ero 6maunx pecny6nnk
y1aeppnnn cao cyaepenn1e1 6naropapn peqepenpyHaH.
mne na noaec1ky pnn ac1ano cospanne pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa.
cnoanmH npenn1c1aneH pnn nero oc1ae1cn noka nepoc1a1ounoe pasan1ne pycckoro
naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn n pypnHen1m cosnannn nHnepckoro. akoaa, a
uac1noc1n, nnepunn coae1ckoro Hen1ann1e1a, 1akoam nocnepc1ann koHnn1epnoackoro
aocnn1annn a 1euenne Hnornx pecn1nne1n.
pnako a1o1 Hen1ann1e1 c1peHn1enLno Henne1cn nop aospec1aneH xnsnn. 1986
ropy 78% pyccknx nasaann ce6n coae1cknHn, nnuL 15% - pyccknHn, a oc1anLnme
npoc1o ne snann, kypa n npn1kny1Lcn. ceropnn, acero nnuL uepes kaknx-1o
1pnnapua1L ne1, yxe 43% nacenennn occnn, no onpocaH , opo6pn1enLno
o1nocn1cn k nosynry occnn - pnn pyccknx. nnaHnka - 6onee ueH ampasn1enLnan!
- nannuo. e anpn1 ee 1onLko cneno, ne yun1maae1 - 1onLko rnyneu. oc1 pycckoro
naunonannsHa, 6es acnkoro coHnennn, ec1L aocxopnuan 1enpenunn nauero
o6uec1aennoro pasan1nn, e npnnapnexn1 6ypyuee.
naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao - ocosnannan neo6xopnHoc1L naunx pne.
naun1, saa1pa ono c1ane1 peanLnoc1Lk. aknH 6ype1 a1o rocypapc1ao? ype1 nn a1o
anoaL 1o1ann1apnm pexnH, pnk1a1ypa kpanero naunonannsHa, nnn aoc1opxec1aye1
naunonannsH c uenoaeuecknH nnuoH - ouenL ao HnoroH saancn1 o1 1oro, kakan
1papnunn aoso6napae1 a pyxoanoH none nn1ennnrenunn: n (a
nepaoH cnyuae) nnn un.
ecm kone6nk1cn. aunonannsH 1ak ponro nopaannncn, npecnepoaancn, 6mn nop
sanpe1oH, u1o ero oueanpnan npaapa c nenpnamukn Hoxe1 uoknpoaa1L. o n ne Hoxe1
ne npn1nrnaa1L, kak ace nonysanpe1noe. enpnamunoe noc1enenno c1anoan1cn
npnamunmH. 1aH n ec1ec1aennmH. eo6xopnHmH.
ceHy eue. epycckan uac1L nn1ennnrenunn ak1nano aHnrpnpoaana. ycckan xe -
npeno npocmnae1cn: poc1 nonnHannn, poc1 na1pno1nsHa nannuo. o na1pno1nsH -
nnuL nepaan c1apnn naunonannsHa (na1pno1 - a1o kak 6m neponaunonannc1, eue ne
nonnaun, u1o aonpocm rocypapc1aennoro c1pon1enLc1aa nenLsn c1aan1L anepepn
aonpocoa c1pon1enLc1aa naunonanLnoro). aun onnonen1m nac1onLko "sacae1nnncL,
ckoHnpoHe1npoaann ce6n, amsaann 1akoe aosHyuenne n o1apauenne, u1o npo1na
113
caoe (noxany, n naue) aonn cnpoaounpoaann pasHexeaanne n konconnpaunk no
naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky cpepn nn1ennnrenunn n paxe ann1m. 6 a1oH cnpaaepnnao
nncan nekcanpp nnko a eue napy ne1 nasap.
1oH, kaknHn ec1ec1aennmHn o6c1on1enLc1aaHn pe1epHnnnpye1cn npo6yxpenne
naunonanLnoro cosnannn, n xouy pacckasa1L na co6c1aennoH npnHepe. mpocun a
nyuunx 1papnunnx pycckoro nn1ennnren1ckoro nn1epnaunonannsHa, ceropnn n -
poc1a1ouno nsaec1nm a occnn n sa py6exoH npeonor pycckoro naunonannsHa,
pepak1op aunonanLno rase1m, unen en1panLnoro coae1a o6uec1aennoro
panxennn nac. eopnokpa1no a esaancnHo rase1e ny6nnkoaanncL Hon
Hannqec1m (aunonan-kann1annsH n aunonan-kann1annsH-2, oxno nn
aepny1L occnk?, aunonannsH c uenoaeuecknH nnuoH, eo1pasnHoc1L
a1nononn1nkn n 1.p.), a 1akxe peuensnn na Hon knnrn aunonan-kann1annsH n
aunonan-peHokpa1nn. oxany, Hoxno ckasa1L, u1o na c1pannuax 1akan
aaxneuan coc1aannkuan coapeHennoro o6uec1aennoro cosnannn occnn, kak
pycckn naunonannsH, npepc1aanena ncknkun1enLno a HoeH nnue.
ne kaxe1cn, u1o aaonkunn Hon xapak1epna n nokasa1enLna n u1o snakoHc1ao c ne a
anpy amuenpnaepennmx o6c1on1enLc1a 6ype1 pnn un1a1ene nn1epecnmH n
nonesnmH.
XH3HB EB H. Q Hm Q EMEHH
a ockae a ceHLe no1oHc1aennmx pyccknx nn1ennnren1oa (Ho npanpapep
6mn cenLcknH yun1eneH na ycckoH eaepe, npapep pocnyxnncn npn nkonae 1opoH
po renepana, pep 6mn n oqnuepoH, n yun1eneH, o1eu - npoqeccopoH). ak n a
a6conk1noH 6onLunnc1ae pyccknx nn1ennnren1nmx ceHe, o6cyxpa1L naunonanLnm
aonpoc, akuen1npoaa1L annHanne na uLeH-nn6o naunonanLnoH nponcxoxpennn 6mno y
nac no 1papnunn ne npnnn1o. paxe nenpnnnuno, nenn1ennnren1no. pacue1
6panncL nnuL uenoaeueckne kauec1aa 6eso1nocn1enLno k naunonanLnoc1n. caHoHy
qak1y naue npnpopno pycckoc1n nana n HaHa o1nocnnncL kak k ec1ec1aenno
pannoc1n 6es nonm1ok a1y pannoc1L ne 1onLko ocHmcnn1L, no paxe o6cypn1L.
aneun naHek na nponanenne pycckoro naunonannsHa 6mn 6m aocnpnnn1 nHn c
nopospenneH n neopo6penneH. ( nkpe nx nokonennn accounaunn c nk6mH
naunonannsHoH 6mna 1onLko opna: qaunsH; a cHep1enLnyk cxaa1ky c nnH o1eu
ue1mpe ropa aen nnuno.) n o kako naunonanLno roppoc1n aennkopoccoa ne
Horno 6m1L n peun. oo1ae1c1aennmH 6mno n Hoe aocnn1anne. ne un1ann pycckne
ckaskn, no napnpy c nnHn - ckaskn ppyrnx napopoa Hnpa: kn1ackne, 6pa1Lea pnHH,
npepcena, anLpa, nnnnnra n 1.p.
orpa Hne ncnonnnnocL nn1L ne1, Hm nepeexann a annnnnrpap, kypa 6mn nepeaepen
ocpm6a1ys, rpe pa6o1an o1eu. nn nero, 6paauero u1ypHoH ennrc6epr, aouepuero
a nero anepame kak no6epn1enL a anpene 1945 ropa, a1o 6mno a kako-1o Hepe
ec1ec1aenno. (eropnn ero nHeneH 1aH nasaana ynnua.) nn nac c HaHo - ne1.
naponro o1opaancn o1 Hockoackoro popc1aennoro okpyxennn, o1 Hockoacko
kynL1ypno cpepm.
opop n o6nac1L, naacerpa c1aaune Hoe Hano popnno, cneuno qopHnpoaanncL n
sacennnncL 1orpa kononnc1aHn nec1poro naunonanLnoro coc1aaa. co6enno
cHeuannmH naunonanLnmH nop6opoH o1nnuanacL nHenno nn1ennnrenunn Honoporo
ropopa, co6pannan co acero oae1ckoro oksa. pyxeckoe okpyxenne ceHLn 6mno
anonne nn1epnaunonanLnmH: pycckne, kapanH, ykpannka, 1a1apka, apHnnka, poaonLno
Hnoro eapeea. o o 1oH, kako naunonanLnoc1n 1o1 nnn nno ppyr naue ceHLn, n
ysnaaan Hnoro nosxe (nopo c nsyHnenneH), a poHe o6 a1oH ne roaopnnocL. ano
nepycckne qaHnnnn ne ocHmcnnnncL kak nnopopnme. ecHe1noe konnuec1ao
114
apHnncknx n eapecknx anekpo1oa, ycnmuannmx, ckaxeH, o1 npoqeccopa nu1ena, n
c ypoaonLc1aneH nepeckasmaan opnoknaccnnkaH: ouenL cHeunme. o eapen n apHnne
ns anekpo1oa coaepuenno ne accounnpoaanncL c peanLnmHn nnuaHn a ukone n poHa,
npepc1aaann kak neu1o a6c1pak1noe. pnnc1aennan ceHan1nueckan onnosnunn a cqepe
naunonanLnmx o1nouenn pacnonaranacL nnuL no nnnnn pycckne - neHum (nac
ackpy okpyxann cnepm xec1ouaue aonm, naun o1um-qpon1oankn 6mnn nspanenm,
pyccko-neHeukn an1aronnsH 6mn rnaano 1eHo pe1cknx nrp n anekpo1oa), no n a1n
1epHnnm 6mnn 1onLko aecLHa ycnoano nopc1anoako a 1papnunonnyk onnosnunk
naun - ne naun.
annnnnrpape apeHen Hoe knoc1n (n noknnyn ero a 1972 ropy) ne 6mno nn opnoro
pec1aykuero xpaHa kako-nn6o konqeccnn; a1o 6mn caHm cae1ckn pernon .
paaocnaanoe nauano a okpyxakueH Henn n Hok ceHLk Hnpe nonnoc1Lk
o1cy1c1aoaano. nopa eHnanpckoro nonyoc1poaa saHe1no o1nnuae1cn o1
cpepnepycckoro nesaxa, a apxn1ek1ypnm nanpuaq1 oc1ouno pyccnn aoo6ue
nanne1cn sanoaepnmH, pesko kon1pac1npykunH no c1nnk n nac1poennk ne 1onLko c
occne, no n c npn6an1ncknHn pecny6nnkaHn. axe nexaauan a pynnax, paxe
nepec1panaaeHan, annnnnrpapckan o6nac1L oc1aaanacL ynnkanLnmH yronkoH
oae1ckoro oksa no caonH npnpopnmH n an1ponorennmH xapak1epnc1nkaH, caoero
popa 1nan1npo, coaepuenno nepyccko no nsnauanLnoHy o6nnky n pyxy, ckaosnue
ns 1nena paspyuenn n nmnn noaoc1poek.
esycnoano, pycckn nsmk, nn1epa1ypa (n no nepaoHy o6pasoaannk qnnonor-pycnc1)
noHorann Hne ypepxa1Lcn a pyccko kynL1ypno op6n1e. eH ne Henee, aepnyauncL c
HaHo a ceppue occnn - ockay, n 6onee pecn1n ne1 c 1pypoH apan1npoaancn a
popnoH ropope n paneko ne cpasy ero nonk6nn.
papnunn nepasnnuennn naunonanLnmx nauan, a ko1opo n 6mn aocnn1an aceHn
coaokynnmHn o6c1on1enLc1aaHn pe1c1aa n knoc1n, npoponxana pec1aoaa1L n nocne
aosapauennn a ockay. epamH 6pakoH (k cuac1Lk, 6espe1nmH n aoo6ue neypaunmH)
n xennncn na eapeke. aunonanLnm coc1aa Honx ppyse okasancn c1onL xe
nec1pmH, kak n a annnnrpape. ne npnpaaan aceHy a1oHy nnkakoro snauennn.
nnoc1ypnn nHenn opLkoro, rpe n npopa6o1an nn1L ne1, nepepn yun1Lcn na saounoe
o1penenne qnnqaka , npoaena Henn uepes snakoHc1ao n ppyx6y c co1nnHn nkpe
pasnmx naunonanLnoc1e, n no6maan ao Hnornx coae1cknx pecny6nnkax, c xnamH
nn1epecoH n cnHna1ne nk6yncL napopaHn orpoHno c1panm. 1o apeHn nx
naunonannsH nocnn ouenL yHepennm xapak1ep, aocnpnnnHancn kak naunonanLnan
akso1nka, sa6aannn, a ne nyran, n ne amsmaan ac1peunoro naunonanLnoro panxennn a
pyccko pyue.
snauenne pnn nokonenn coae1cknx nkpe nHena o6uan
nn1epnaunonannc1nueckan nanpaanennoc1L aocnn1annn a ukone, a ayse.
n1epnaunonannsH 6mn poHnnan1o acero nauero coae1ckoro 6m1a.
nuL a 90-e ropm c1ano nsaec1nmH pnpek1nanoe amckasmaanne acecnnLnoro ueqa
Kpnn npponoaa o 1oH, u1o rnaanan onacnoc1L 1an1cn ne a pnccnpen1ax, c
nnHn-pe Hm ynpaanHcn sa opny nouL, a a pyccknx naunonannc1ax. 1970-e ropm a
narepnx yxe cnpenn pycckne naunonannc1m - xep1am re6nc1cknx pacnpaa: . aanoa,
. cnnoa n ppyrne, no Hm o6 a1oH nnuero ne snann, na cnyxy 6mnn coaceH ppyrne
nHena. aun1maancL caHonspa1oacknH onxennumnmH, anaHoamH, Hm paxe
npepc1aanennn ne nHenn o neHnornx Hyuennkax sa pycckyk naunonanLnyk npek,
cyuec1aoaaaunx pnpoH c naHn, no kak 6m a napannenLnoH Hnpe. ak no croaopy,
na pasroaop o6 nx cypL6e n npenx 6mno nanoxeno paonoe 1a6y: re6nc1ckoe n
pnccnpen1ckoe. ycckne naunonannc1m 6mnn, 1ak ckasa1L, pnccnpen1aHn cpepn
pnccnpen1oa (ue nac1po 6mn o6uepeHokpa1nuecknH, a ne pyccko-
naunonannc1nuecknH, n cpepn ko1opmx 6onLunnc1ao 6mno npepc1aaneno nepyccknHn
yuac1nnkaHn, a naunonannsH npnae1c1aoaancn nk6o - ykpannckn,
115
kpmHcko1a1apckn, nn1oackn, eapeckn - nnuL 6m ne pycckn, a nyuue
an1npycckn, n nnuL 6m on 6mn nanpaanen na paspyuenne ).
ep1ao 1o1anLnoro nn1epnaunonannsHa uy1L 6mno ne c1an n n, korpa cpaaan
rocypapc1aennm aksaHen no nayunoHy koHHynnsHy. ne poc1ancn aonpoc:
oae1ckn napop - noaan nc1opnueckan o6unoc1L nkpe. 1ae1na no yue6nnky, n
ne cHor o1ae1n1L na pononnn1enLnm aonpoc, n kopennnk aksaHena1opcko
1pokn (xopouo noHnk a1oro cnop1nanoro n caHoyaepennoro qnnocoqa), ne cyHea
po6n1Lcn o1 Henn nyxnoro o1ae1a, nac1ounao y6expan konner noc1aan1L Hne neyp.
nckpenne ne nonnHan, uero o1 Henn 1pe6yk1. kasanocL, n ponxen 6mn ckasa1L, u1o
a coae1ckoH napope ncuesak1, 1epnk1 acnkoe snauenne naunonanLnme npnsnakn. o y
Henn, paxe ecnn 6m n snan a1o1 npaannLnm o1ae1, apnp nn noaepnyncn 6m nsmk
ero nponsnec1n. yxe cnnukoH noanpan xnsnL k a1oHy apeHenn. 1o kak xe:
coae1ckne rpysnnm, apHnne, ka6appnnum, ac1onum n 1.p. - onn u1o, no1epnnn caok
naunonanLnoc1L?! a-xa! acckaxn1e koHy-nn6ypL ppyroHy! enn aosHy1nna a1a
nanan nenenoc1L.
nonyunn, 6naropapn Hnnoceppnk payx npnc1nxnmx paH, ypoane1aopn1enLno, no
Hne ne 6mno c1mpno. oxany, a a1o1 ne1nn penL 1977 ropa n anepame, no aone
cnyuan, po6ko sapyHancn nap cyunoc1Lk naunonanLno npo6neHm. aspyHLn nap ne
anocnepc1ann pocnn. o y 6onLunnc1aa Honx caepc1nnkoa, ne nonyunaunx nopo6noro
apasyHnnkuero 1onuka, a1o1 npouecc paxe ne naunnancn, onn oc1aaanncL
coae1cknHn nkpLHn.
mn nn n a 1o apeHn coae1cknH uenoaekoH? a, k c1mpy caoeHy, no-anpnHoHy, 6mn.
eropnn n aocnpnnnHak a1o coc1onnne kak nekn pop rnnno1nueckoro cna, a ko1opm
n 6mn norpyxen co ukonLno ckaHLn n o1 ko1oporo 6mc1po n papoc1no ns6aanncn,
korpa npo6nn uac. acn npenec1L a 1oH, u1o, naxopncL a rnnno1nueckoH cne, n ace xe
6mn n oc1aaancn pyccknH, n o6pe1enne ce6n, korpa rnnno1nsep ckonuancn n sakpmn
caoe c1paunoe acenponnkakuee oko, 6mno nerko n npnnocnno nacnaxpenne, ko1opoe
ncnm1maaeuL, korpa acnoHnnuL u1o-1o ouenL aaxnoe, no Hyun1enLno ne
acnoHnnaaueecn!
HHEKE HBYXQEHHE
kypce n acepLes yanekcn nc1opne n 1eopne pyccko nn1ennnrenunn.
1a 1eHa nou1n na paapua1L ne1 c1ana pnn Henn rnaano, nerna a ocnoay Hnornx Honx
ny6nnkaun n knnr, a 1akxe (xo1L n a npeapauennoH anpe) kanpnpa1cko
pnccep1aunn. napo ckasa1L, u1o a1a nc1opnko-counonornueckan npo6neHa okasanacL
a ropm nepec1pokn knkueao, o1kpma pnn Henn any1pennn cHmcn co6m1n, u1o
noHorno Hne nerko nepe1n o1 aHnnya ka6nne1noro yuenoro k aHnnya nonn1nueckoro
ny6nnunc1a, nonn1onora, a sa1eH n nonn1nka. nn1epecoaancn nonn1nko c pe1c1aa,
no 6mn panek o1 nee npn coae1cko anac1n, acerpa o1nocncL 6pesrnnao k
koHcoHonLcko n nap1nno kapLepe n cy6nnHnpyn cao nn1epec a nc1opnocoqnk.
a1o a noamx ycnoannx n okasancn o6napa1eneH ynnkanLno c1ap1oao nosnunn: Ho
nayunm am6op npeponpepennn Ho panLneun ny1L a nonn1nky.
onauany pycckan nn1ennnrenunn nn1epecoaana Henn a nepayk ouepepL kak
counanLnm qenoHen. nsyuan nanenne nn1ennnrenunn kak popoaoe nonn1ne, ne
npnpaaan 6onLuoro snauennn ee naunonanLnoc1n kak ka1eropnn anpa. a a1oH ny1n
Henn nopxnpann neko1opme 1nnoame oun6kn, xapak1epnme pnn pyccknx counonoroa n
nc1opnkoa coae1cko ukonm. uac1noc1n, n Heu1an o aceHnpnoH 6pa1c1ae
nn1ennek1yanoa, 6asnpykueHcn na o6ueuenoaeuecknx uennoc1nx naykn n kynL1ypm n
na unannnsaunonnoH acenpnn1nn kak caoc1ae c1anpap1no nn1ennnren1cko pyun.
1aepran koHHynnc1nueckne npeanm, n uann npnuec1ann 1exnokpa1nueckoro o6uec1aa
116
n aosaeuan peaonkunk akcnep1oa, ko1opan ponxna npnp1n na cHeny peaonkunn
Henepxepoa a rno6anLnoH Hacu1a6e. onn1no, u1o npn 1akoH asrnnpe na aeun
naunonanLnme npo6neHm occnn n pycckoro napopa 6mnn o1 Henn aecLHa panekn.
pyuenne coae1cko anac1n n nepec1poky n nonnn n npnnnn kak coaepuenno
nens6exnyk 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nueckyk peaonkunk, rnaano panxyue cnno
ko1opo na ce pas 6mna nHenno poccnckan nn1ennnrenunn. oneHnsnpyn c
ycoqo6ne akapeHnka ropn aqapeanua, n nncan a o1kpm1oH nncLHe eHy, u1o
nn1ennnrenunn nHee1 caon knaccoame nn1epecm n nanne1cn ec1ec1aennmH
nokoHo1naoH nepeHen ao ace apeHena, n u1o Hanm napop ec1L npenHyuec1aenno
counanLnoe, a ne naunonanLnoe nanenne, npepuec1aykuee nk6o peaonkunonno
cn1yaunn. un1ak n ceuac, u1o 1ak ono n ec1L.
ace nera1nanme nocnepc1ann 1ak nasmaaeHmx peqopH n kpyuennn
6mc1po sac1aannn Henn cpena1L nens6exnm amaop o nponrpanno naHn pe1Le
Hnpoao aone, ko1opan, 6ypyun xonopno, npnaena k aecLHa ropnunH
nocnepc1annH. parnueckne co6m1nn konua 80-x - nauana 90-x ouenL ckopo o6naxnnn
caok sm . ne 1onLko o1ue1nnao yanpen, no n aceH
ceppueH nouyac1aoaan, aepn Hnorone1nkk 6n1ay sa 1poqenme kynL1ypnme
uennoc1n, u1o anap (aecL 6es ncknkuennn), o6Ln1nnH ko1oporo Hm c aocxn1n1enLnmH
npno1nsHoH poaepnnncL, no-npexneHy ne cun1ae1 pyccknx sa nkpe, o1nocn1cn k naH
c nosnun unannnsaunonnoro an1aronnsHa a nonnoH coo1ae1c1ann c konuenune
an1nnr1ona. Hexpy 1eH onneyxn, ko1opme pyccknH kak naunn c1ann paspaaa1L
6pa1ckne napopm n c1panm-yuac1nnum apuaackoro poroaopa, opny xneue
ppyro, nokasann Hne co ace oueanpnoc1Lk, u1o apaxpe6noe naunonanLnoe
o1nouenne k HoeHy napopy caoc1aenno ne 1onLko unannnsaunonno paneknH o1 nac
cnnLnmH napopaH Hnpa cero, no n napopaH, nopo6no uakanaH, nopoanunH kycny1L
npn6oneauero nLaa, a 1oH uncne aecLHa unannnsaunonno 6nnsknH, 1aknH kak
6onrapm, Honpaaane n ykpannum.
ano 1oro, n, kak n ouenL Hnorne Hon coo1euec1aennnkn, appyr pasrnnpen, u1o
naunonanLnm coc1aa occnn caH no ce6e 1oxe upeaa1 konqnnk1aHn, ko1opme ae1xne
c1apum ns onn16kpo ynopno o1kasmaanncL saHeua1L, xenan anpe1L aokpyr ce6n
epnnm coae1ckn napop n counanLno opnopopnoe o6uec1ao. nesanno
o6napyxnnocL, u1o 1a1apm, 6auknpm, nky1m, apmrn, ne roaopn yx o ueuenuax n
nnryuax, nspaana 1annn na pne pyun paneko ne popc1aennme uyac1aa k c1apueHy
6pa1y, n 1enepL, korpa a1o1 6pa1 oc1ancn 6es cnn, 6es rocypapc1aenno onopm,
npepannm aceHn aoane n any1pn c1panm, o6onrannm, o6o6pannm, ouapauennm
1o1anLnmH npepa1enLc1aoH, ne cnoco6nm paxe ce6n kak cnepye1 nakopHn1L, o6yun1L,
1pypoyc1pon1L n saun1n1L, onn ne noc1ecnnnncL onme uyac1aa o6naxn1L.
poxnaan a connoH uapc1ae (), Hm na kakoe-1o apeHn n anpnHL aoo6pasnnn, u1o
ace napopm - 6pa1Ln; u1o kasax, aanax, rpysnn, ykpanneu, npn6an1 - 6pa1 naH,
pyccknH. o ace nasaannme n Hnorne nenasaannme napopm ouenL 6mc1po, poxopunao
n y6epn1enLno o6Lncnnnn naH, u1o a1o - aoace ne 1ak. pasy6epn1L nH nac 6ype1
1enepL yxe neaosHoxno.
eaosHoxno, ecnn 6m1L uec1nmH, ne ckasa1L n o snoaeueH qak1ope eapecko-
pycckoro npo1naoc1onnnn, npko nponanaueHcn a xope rpa6n1enLcko npnaa1nsaunn, a
npouecce peqopH n y1aepxpennn noaoro pexnHa aoo6ue, a cqepe npeonornuecko
6opL6m, a , oco6enno na 1eneanpennn. 1kpoaenno an1aronnc1nueckoe
pacxoxpenne ao asrnnpax na npounoe, nac1onuee n 6ypyuee occnn n pyccknx,
xapak1epnoe pnn pycckoro n eapeckoro Hen1ann1e1oa, o1nkpL ne cHyuano eapeea: nn
1ex, u1o aepxoaopnnn peqopHaHn n oqopHnnnn coo1ae1c1aykuyk npeonornk, nn 1ex,
u1o onpaapmaann, nponaranpnpoaann n noppepxnaann a1n peqopHm a , nn 1ex,
u1o yuac1aoaann a paspene coae1cko napopno co6c1aennoc1n, nn 1ex, u1o nm1anncL
nepepena1L caHm pyx a1o c1panm.
117
co6me pasHmunennn amsaano 1akoe saHe1noe nanenne, kak eape-nonykpoaka a
nonn1nke. annnckn, npnnoackn, yuko, 6pa1Ln y6acm, apap, npnenko,
eHuoa, akaHapa, oaopaopckan (n nasmaak 1onLko caHmx saHe1nmx, acex ne
nepeuncnnuL) - npnnapnexnoc1L nx, no 6onLuoHy cue1y, k opnoHy an1npycckoHy
nonn1nueckoHy narepk sac1aanne1 sapyHa1Lcn. oxany, ceropnn nHenno 1akne, kak
onn, sac1aannk1 co ace oc1po1o c1aan1L aonpoc o qenoHene o1uenenc1aa a nc1opnn
nn1ennnrenunn occnn. paapm papn ckaxy, u1o ac1peuak1cn npnHepm nnoro o6pasa
Hmcnn (renepan oxnnn), no onn pepkn kak ncknkuennn[1].
ns 6ecnpnc1pac1noro na6nkpennn noamx pnn nac n neoxnpannmx peann
xnsnn npnxopnnocL pena1L nocnepoaa1enLnme, xo1n n neuanLnme. 1ano nonn1no:
uyxoHy arpeccnanoHy an1npycckoHy naunonannsHy neneno npo1naonoc1aann1L npaao
(nanpnHep, onc1n1yunk), o6mua, HopanL n paxe aocko, aoopyxennoe a1o
a6c1pak1no peHokpa1nuecko ppe6epenLk. 1o ns a1oro ampe1 - nokasana
ueuenckan aona 1994-1996 ropoa.
ue nenenee - pena1L a a1nx ycnoannx c1aaky na npeonornk nn1epnaunonannsHa. 1o
yx npoc1o osnauae1 kann1ynnunk no aceH c1a1LnH.
1o xe pena1L? onLko opno. eo6xopnHo npo1naonoc1aan1L cao co6c1aennm c1onL
xe ak1nanm naunonannsH.
ce a1o Hano no Hany c1anoannocL npepHe1oH acenapopnoro o6cyxpennn, y nkpe
nauann o1kpmaa1Lcn rnasa na nsaeunme nc1nnm a1nononn1nkn. o nsHenn1L u1o-1o na
1oH a1ane rno6anLnoro naunonanLnoro konqnnk1a pycckne yxe (eue) ne Hornn,
nnnuna1naa n ocnoanme cpepc1aa coapeHenno aonm - penLrn n - okasanncL ne
a nx pykax. pen pycckoro naunonannsHa eue ne oanapena HaccaHn.
o peno npe1 k 1oHy.
nn a npnnunne a naue apeHn sapaua aosapauennn k naunonanLno
opnen1npoaanno Haccoao ncnxonornn? nm1 c1pan (oco6enno asaxc1ana,
kpannm) n pn6an1nkn pae1 nonoxn1enLnm o1ae1. 1o - npak1nka.
o n 1eopnn roaopn1 o 1oH xe. aa npnnunna o6Lepnnennn (n 1onLko paa!) ns aeka a
aek caoc1aennm nkpnH: na counanLno, knaccoao - nn6o na naunonanLno
nna1qopHe. (pannpoakn Hory1 6m1L npn a1oH caHmHn pasnmHn - o1 pennrnosnmx po
kynL1ypno-nsmkoamx.) 1n nna1qopHm Hexpy co6o ne coaHec1nHm: 6opL6a knaccoa
paspyuae1 naunk, 6opL6a naun sac1aanne1 sa6m1L, o16pocn1L knaccoame
npo1naopeunn. nao6opo1.
pnnunn knaccoao nn1epnaunonanLno connpapnoc1n rocnopc1aoaan y nac ceHLpecn1
ne1. n pyxnyn, nsxnn ce6n nc1opnueckn, npak1nueckn n npeno.
ac1ano apeHn pnn 1opxec1aa npnnunna connpapnoc1n naunonanLno.
6munm na1pno1nsH rocypapc1aennnueckoro 1onka 1akxe ncuepnan, nsxnn ce6n. n
yc1panaae1 ceropnn 1onLko 1ex, k1o nn6o ne nHee1 ue1ko pyccko naunonanLno
npen1nunoc1n, nn6o eue ne nonnn npoc1yk nc1nny: Hn ,
- .
118
BHHE HEQERRE 3HHHE
, H asrnnp, ns nac, pyccknx, koHHynnc1aH ao HnoroH-1akn ypanocL
cpena1L coae1cknx nkpe. noHnk, kak n ypnannncn n nac1opaxnaancn,
c1anknaancL a panne knoc1n c o1ue1nnao ampaxenno naunonanLno "caHoc1Lk
(eue ne naunonannsHoH!) - eapecko, 1a1apcko, ka6appnncko, apHnncko,
ac1oncko. yxe uyac1aoaan ce6n neHnoxko "aceuenoaekoH, a 1y1 appyr 1akne
"pennk1m... ak c1panno! akne onn uypne! y napo xe - 1a1apka! no anpy ne
ckaxeuL: rony6ornasan, cae1noaonocan. aHnnnn 1onLko ne coaceH pycckan -
anaxoaa. ak cnapko 6mno c ne uenoaa1Lcn! 1o-1o 6mno a a1oH akso1nueckoe,
1annc1aennoe, o1 nkpe ckpm1oe; ace apeHn noHnnnocL: a1o n c 1a1apko uenykcL, a
nnk1o n ne porapmaae1cn!
onLko 1enepL n nonnHak, u1o "aceuenoaeuec1ao a HoeH aocnpnn1nn snaunno:
"acepycckoc1L. 1o ne n nepec1an 6m1L pyccknH (6ypyun nH neocHmcnenno,
neocosnanno, ), a npoc1o ace kpyroH 6mnn caonHn, "pyccknHn - a kak xe
nnaue! mnn, koneuno, o1ue1nnao uyxne nkpn - umrane, kaakasum, asna1m... acoame
o1nnunn 6pocanncL a rnasa. y, k nnH n o1nouenne 6mno ppyroe - kak k nnoc1panuaH,
paneko ne "aceuenoaeueckoe.
1o xe nponsouno ceropnn? orpa Hm amnyxpenm npnc1anLno, nac1opoxenno, c
nopospenneH cHo1pe1L a nnuo nesnakoHoHy co6ecepnnky, c1apancL yrapa1L a neH
uep1m "nenauero napopa? ako xec1okn, no cnpaaepnnam ypok Hm nonyunnn!
K qu n ""! ak amkasana caok rnynoc1L,
o1aneuennoc1L n caHonapennnoc1L!
ako ncno, npospauno c1ana npoc1an nc1nna: uu -
x x n; uu - u,
! e nyxno 6epeuL, nec1oaa1L, c1pon1L, a 1ounee - aosaopn1L,
a ecnn neo6xopnHo - pec1aapnpoaa1L.
uyxo naunonanLnoc1Lk - cun1a1Lcn, yun1maa1L ee ckpynynesno. (pexpe acero,
ncxopn ns naunx xe nn1epecoa.)
caoe xe - noHnn1L acerpa, nocn1L ee npn ce6e, kak pe1ek1na nocn1 nyny, cHo1pe1L
ckaosL a1y nnnsy na ace, poc1onoe annHannn...
EKE XH3HEHH mB
(: x)
nn1ennnren1oH, ecnn 6m ne nm1ancn panLue n rny6xe ppyrnx ocHmcnn1L
nponcxopnuee. 1nononn1nka yxe k 1991 ropy amuna na nepam nnan Honx
nc1opnocoqcknx pasHmunenn n anac1no nopunnnna nx ce6e, o1opannya ne 1onLko
Hopnme, xo1n n coHnn1enLnme reononn1nueckne 1eopnn, no paxe kypa 6onee
y6epn1enLnyk 1eopnk unannnsaunonnoro konqnnk1a. (Henno 1orpa 6mna nanncana
Hon nepaan pa6o1a na 1eHy coapeHenno nc1opnn ycckne n kann1annsH.) ropaHn
xop co6m1n 1onLko ykpennnn a1o1 asrnnp na aeun.
oc1enennan cHena coc1aaa Hoero 6nnxauero okpyxennn 1ak xe annnna na Hon
aosspennn, kak n nepeHenm a c1pane. 1977 ropy n am6pan a xenm pycckyk peayuky;
ona popnna Hne sa a1n ropm uec1epmx pyccknx pe1e. nauana nepec1pokn
6onLunnc1ao Honx nepyccknx ppyse nn6o aHnrpnpoaano, nn6o okasanocL a 1oH
119
nonn1nueckoH narepe, c ko1opoH n ne xo1en nHe1L nnuero o6uero. epnoc1L c1apo
ppyx6e (noaepx y6expenn) coxpannnn epnnnum. 1pa1a ppyse 6mna Hne ropLknH
ypokoH. na nponsouna anonne ec1ec1aennmH o6pasoH, u1o nopkpennno Hon
y6expennn. nonnn, u1o naunonanLnan npnnapnexnoc1L - a1o nespnHm npnpopnm
aopopaspen Hexpy nkpLHn, ko1opm po nopm po apeHenn Hoxno ne saHeua1L, no a
opnn npekpacnm penL on ac1ane1 nenpoxopnHo c1eno n 6ype1 onpepenn1L
noaepenne uenoaeka, ero am6op. naun peaonkunonnme ropm HnornH npnxopnnocL
am6npa1L, na uLe c1opone 6m1L, n nkpn sauac1yk unn na paspma Hnorone1nnx
o1nouenn. coxanennk, a1o kocnynocL n Henn.
nnpn a rnasa peanLnoc1n, Hne npnunocL cpena1L amaop o 1oH, u1o Ho popno
pycckn napop, uLnH cmnoH n anesanno nouyac1aoaan ce6n ouenL oc1po, c1on1 na
pokoao uep1e, u1o eHy rposn1 nonnan ka1ac1poqa anno1L po ncuesnoaennn uepes paa-
1pn nokonennn c nnua seHnn. 6 a1oH roaopn1 Hnoroe, a nepayk ouepepL pnnaHnka
a1nopeHorpaqnuecknx nsHenenn sa nocnepnne pecn1nne1nn. , kak cnepc1ane a1nx
nsHenenn, - cnnxenne o6uero xnsnennoro 1onyca naunn, nponannkueecn a 1mcnue
o6c1on1enLc1a. e 6ypy yrny6nn1Lcn a a1o1 aonpoc, poc1a1ouno oueanpnm pnn
Hmcnnuero un1a1enn. o ponxen ckasa1L, u1o nyc1L c onospanneH - k copoka ropaH, n
ocosnan ce6n a nonnoH cHmcne saenoH a uenn pyccknx nokonenn, o1ae1c1aennmH
nepep npepkaHn n no1oHkaHn sa cypL6y caoero napopa. 1nmne Ho panLneun ny1L
6mn onpepenen.
sac1aanno Henn no-noaoHy asrnnny1L na npo6neHy pyccko
nn1ennnrenunn. eoxnpanno pnn Henn caHoro anpoaoe (naunonanLnoe) copepxanne
a1oro nonn1nn amuno na nepam nnan n sacnonnno popoaoe (counanLnoe). 1o
snaun1 6m1L nHenno pyccknH nn1ennnren1oH? ak ponxen aec1n ce6n ceropnn nHenno
pycckn nn1ennnren1? ue nepaano, a 1988 ropy, n nncan (n pyHan!) 1ak: ne
ropaspo 6nnxe kasaxckn, anrnnckn nnn eapeckn nn1ennnren1, c ko1opmHn n
roaopk na opnoH nsmke, ueH pycckn 6kpokpa1 nnn pycckn pa6oun, c ko1opmHn n
roaopk na pasnmx nsmkax. o 1enepL npnxopnnocL ncka1L n naxopn1L ppyrne,
nenpnamunme o1ae1m na a1n aonpocm.
pna sa ppyro y Henn c1ann nonann1Lcn pa6o1m, rpe n nm1ancn asrnnny1L na 1ekyune
co6m1nn uepes npnsHy ne 1onLko nc1opnn n counonornn, no n pyccknx naunonanLnmx
npo6neH, pyccko cneunqnkn.
axnmH n1oroH a1o aaonkunn nannacL c1a1Ln n1ennnrenunn n naunn (peka6pL
1994). n ceuac cun1ak ee xopounH acce na pannyk 1eHy. ockonLky ona 6mna
ony6nnkoaana 1onLko a Hano1npaxnoH c6opnnke H-n,
nonarak nyxnmH npoun1npoaa1L rnaanm qparHen1 ns nee:
Ec cn M c c M , cyy kr
kx ycck M nx m cc c cM
yxnM c cnM n cy cc - my Mmk
M Knmk. B c - Pccn. M, ycck n, nc c
Mn c k cM cc cM MkM.
E , kk-y r , n x yMncn aM,
n c ky n cM, x rn nyr: Hnnrn c
c - cncn! Bk nnrck n.
Ok mm m rn cn r cn Mr
kcymr nM. H, kk nmc M cck,
yncn: M rcc knc cn c
kynn CCCP, cyn y qy. Pccn x m knc
nx x. H cn Mn nMk nM c aM qkM knc
M x yx. Xck yk!
120
Cy n nnr cr M cn c cy c,
. Cy ryck nnr - c Fy, acck - c Bc.
Cy ycck nnr - c cy Pcc.
Hn nnr m cck cynk n M m
M, Mn M, kk yx ccn k c c, cMy y.
Ok c CCCP cn, Mx, nnrn, nc
n r cck nc kk cnM, k
nM m, a - M ycckn nnrn. E c
a , c Mc c n kncc
n nc Pcc.
HnM qk x nn c. KxMy yx yM n c
Mc c. C nk nck c a cn
Mx. Hnc cM M. O c.
kqnk (rckM) Mxy MnnM nnM n
My cy Mnn, kk c n. HMy n - Mnn.
kqnk c n My cy n c, n , kkM nM
cn. HMy n - n.
kqnk n cy cy ycck, kk cn cn
cn n. HMy n - ycck.
Ok n yy c ycck nnr M knccM ycck
kcn, cnyc y c n cnn . HMy n -
Mc n nnr.
c.
H Er, k, y M , k My, nk c
. B y , n c .
H Er y yry cy c
nck: a y , n k x , nk c M
kM.
Crn Pccn x cncn M kqnk : ycckM c
nxn x. B qk. m, n c Mc k[2].
okcL, u1o ckasano ncuepnmaakue n po6aan1L k He1opnke xnsnennoro am6opa 1y1
neuero.
HREKM HHEHHHRH3ME
H HHERRHEHKM KMHRHH3ME
orpoHnoro snauennn, sa1pypnnkunH pnn pyccko nn1ennnrenunn
nepexop k naunonannsHy, nannk1cn ee asanHoo1nouennn c napopoH - a cHmcne
coaokynnoc1n nkpe qnsnueckoro 1pypa. 1y npo6neHy n naHe1nn a 1o xe c1a1Le
1ak:
n1ennnrenunn n napop - pae uac1n naunn. aunn ne Hoxe1 o6o1ncL nn 6es opno
ns nnx. apop ne Hoxe1 npocyuec1aoaa1L 6es nn1ennnrenunn, a nn1ennnrenunn - 6es
121
napopa. o a1n uac1n aecLHa o1nnuak1cn ppyr o1 ppyra, n o1nouennn Hexpy nnHn
ouenL cnoxnme, pnanek1nueckne.
ueH cy1L o1nnun? caHoH o6ueH, qnnocoqckoH cHmcne ona -
q . asnnunm
xapak1ep 1pypa 1pe6ye1 n pasnnuno nopro1oakn. npouecce o6yuennn, 1o ec1L
oanapennn q u, uenoaek yHc1aennoro 1pypa
okonua1enLno pacxopn1cn c uenoaekoH 1pypa qnsnueckoro: onn o6pe1ak1 pasnm
nsmk, pasnme npeanm, pasnm knaccoam onm1, pasnyk Hnqonornk. asnme knnrn
un1ak1, pasnme necnn nok1, no-pasnoHy aocnpnnnHak1 nckycc1ao n pennrnk. o-
pasnoHy npen1nqnunpyk1 ce6n, o6pe1ak1 pasnme nc1opnueckne n counanLnme kopnn:
napop Heu1ae1 o aceHnpnoH 6pa1c1ae nkpe 1pypa, nn1ennnrenunn - o aceHnpno
yueno pecny6nnke.
o a6conk1nsaunn pasnnun Hexpy nn1ennnrenune n napopoH, o1nocn1enLno
6esapepnan na nnunoH ypoane, upeaa1a 6onLuo 6epo na ypoane naunn. K
s - umn un u. m noHnnH, kak a pesynL1a1e
napopno peaonkunn nop nosynroH npone1apckoro nn1epnaunonannsHa 6mna
ynnu1oxena, nopaanena n xec1oko akcnnya1npoaana pycckan naunonanLnan ann1a, a
uac1noc1n nn1ennnrenunn. e poaepnn e, coae1ckan anac1L amnyxpena 6mna
akc1penno cospaaa1L noayk, caok, pa6oue-kpec1Lnnckyk nn1ennnrenunk,
npepnonaran, u1o ona 6ype1 paneka o1 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecknx npeanoa. o
neoxnpanno okasanocL, u1o a1a noaan nn1ennnrenunn noaena ce6n aecLHa no-
c1apoHy, cnoano sa6ma, o1kypa ona asnnacL. ceropnn, a pnn caoero peaanua (1o
ec1L 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecko peaonkunn), nn1ennnrenunn, 6okcL, 1oxe ro1oaa
anac1L a kpanoc1L: nop nosynroH nn1ennnren1ckoro kocHononn1nsHa npnHnpn1Lcn
c ynnu1oxenneH, nopaanenneH n xec1oko akcnnya1aune napopa.
anee n c1aann nesaHmcnoaa1m, opnako a amcue c1enenn ak1yanLnm aonpoc, na
ko1opm, kak n ne pas y6expancn, y 6onLunnc1aa Honx konner ncnoro o1ae1a ne1: m
snaeH, saueH napopy nn1ennnren1. ao1 saueH nn1ennnren1y napop? (eno, kak
nonnHae1 un1a1enL, ne a 1oH, k1o koro kopHn1 n opeaae1: 6es n seneno
peaonkunn ace 6m ceropnn xopnnn ronopnme n narne.).
kauec1ae o1ae1a n npnaopnn a 1o apeHn 1pn coo6paxennn:
1. H x - n
, x . ak o6c1on1 peno ao aceH Hnpe. o aepL
pa6oun nnc1pyHen1 nonoxeno 6epeuL, oxpann1L, sa6o1n1Lcn o neH. 1o, a nepayk
ouepepL, o1nocn1cn k co6c1aennoHy napopy kak uac1n co6c1aenno naunn. oaonLno
rnyno 6mno 6m pycckoHy nn1ennnren1y pa6o1a1L a pacue1e na npe1aopenne ero 1eopn
a xnsnL, ckaxeH, kn1acknH, 6pasnnLcknH nnn aHepnkancknH napopoH, o1aopaunaancL
npn a1oH o1 pannoro npnpopo, nc1opne n cypL6o popnoro pycckoro napopa;
2. n1ennnrenunn ne Hoxe1 n ne ponxna pekpy1npoaa1Lcn 1onLko ns ce6n caHo: a1o
npo1na npaann earennkn. H - s n
. on oc1ane1cn 1akoamH a o6ospnHoH 6ypyueH;
3. .H - -n n .
u . Hec1e c 1eH, ampennncL ns
napopno cpepm n o1pennncL o1 nee, nn1ennnren1 nepaoro nokonennn, ec1ec1aenno,
c1peHn1cn coxpann1L 1o xopouee, u1o npnxopnnocL anpe1L eHy a popnmx n 6nnsknx n
1.p. pesynL1a1e, aecLHa Hnorne ero caoc1aa n kauec1aa okasmaak1cn o1paxenneH
(npnHmH n o6pa1nmH) caoc1a n kauec1a nopopnauero ero napopa. 1ckpa 1esnc:
, n. H , u
, - . na y1epne1
122
nenoa1opnHoe naunonanLnoe nnuo. na y1pa1n1 n xnsnennyk onopy, n xnsnennyk
nepcnek1nay.
1ckpa cnepoaann amaopm n pekoHenpaunn pnn pyccko nn1ennnrenunn, ns ko1opmx
rnaanm amrnnpen 1ak: O u, xm u
u , n n u,
un u mu x , n n
nmn.
aa a1n o1ae1m, npexpe acero, caHoHy ce6e, n ec1ec1aennmH o6pasoH nepeuen o1
npeanoa apnc1okpa1nn, ko1opme ncnoaepoaan ack xnsnL, k npeanaH peHokpa1nn.
(aunonan-peHokpa1nn, pasyHee1cn. o ec1L, peHokpa1nn, orpannuenno no
naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky.)
kasannoe ne osnauae1, u1o n nsxnn any1pennn apnc1okpa1nsH, neHano Heuakun
Hne a xnsnn. anpo1na. npnuen k amaopy, u1o naunonannsH a npnnunne
apnc1okpa1nuen. nn1a nk6o naunn - acerpa ec1ec1aenno naunonannc1nuna, n6o ona,
nk6n n uenn ce6n, ne Hoxe1 ne ncnm1maa1L nk6an n 6naropapnoc1n k nopopnaueHy
ee a1nocy, k nno1n n kpoan caoero napopa. e Hoxe1 ne uyac1aoaa1L sa nero
o1ae1c1aenoc1L.
konLko n Hor saHe1n1L, npepc1aan1enL anrnncko ann1m - acerpa anrnnckn
naunonannc1; npepc1aan1enL neHeuko ann1m - neHeukn naunonannc1,
npepc1aan1enL eapecko ann1m - eapeckn naunonannc1, n 1.p. ak ono n ponxno
6m1L.
pepc1aan1enL pyccko ann1m - ponxen 6m1L pyccknH naunonannc1oH. kak xe
nnaue? o6c1aenno, naunonannsH - a1o kaannqnkaunonnm 1ec1 na ann1apnoc1L.
aunonannc1nuen - snaun1, npnnapnexnuL k ann1e. aunonanLno-nnpnqqepen1en,
kocHononn1nuen - snaun1, 6mpno, kakoe 6m amcokoe nonoxenne 1m nn sannHan.
Hec1e c 1eH, kak saHe1nn un1a1enL, ao acex npnaepennmx amue apryHen1ax cnnukoH
Hnoro paccypounoro, ronoanoro, cnnukoH Hano 1ennoro, ceHenoro uyac1aa (a aepL
naunn - a1o nonpoc1y 6onLuan ceHLn!). yac1ao npnuno co apeHeneH, no Hepe
norpyxennn a 1eHy. onxnm 6mnn npo1n eue nn1L ne1 nanpnxennmx paspyHn,
npexpe ueH n ne 1onLko yHoH, no n ceppueH noc1nr npoc1yk nc1nny: on nc1nnnan
opnna, 6naropapn ko1opo n nannkcL co6o, 6es ko1opo n ne n, - a1o ne
1eppn1opnn, ne nanpuaq1 n 1eH 6onee ne c1po nnn rocypapc1ao, a Hon ycckan
aunn!.
1o noc1nxenne cansano c eue opno aaxno c1pannue Hoe xnsnn.
HHHRBHB H KYRBY
, u1o nn1epec k nckycc1ay, nso6pasn1enLnoHy n npnknapnoHy,
conpoaoxpan Henn ack xnsnL. e 1onLko nn1epa1ypo-, no n nckycc1aoaepennk n
nocan1nn pecn1nne1nn. kcnep1 ysen knnrn n unen npaanennn ccounaunn
6n6nno1ek, Hyseea n apxnaoa, n necue1noe konnuec1ao pas koncynL1npoaan
6yknnnc1oa, an1nkaapoa n konnekunonepoa, Hysen, ranepen n 6n6nno1ekn. pna ns
Honx knnr, ko1opo n ropxycL, - 6onLuo anL6oH epeapm eaponecko
nnnkc1paunn (., eppa, 1997). naanan Hon c1pac1L nsnauanLno -
sanapnoeaponeckan neua1nan rpaqnka n nnnkc1pnpoaannan knnra. o sa1eH n
yanekcn 1akxe npnknapnmH nckycc1aoH anLnero, nnxnero n pepnero oc1oka,
123
nayunncn pas6npa1Lcn a pnpe o6nac1e cnoxnoro n y1onuennoro Hnpa aoc1ouno
ac1e1nkn.
o nepaanero apeHenn pycckoe nckycc1ao ne nn1epecoaano Henn coaepuenno. cnn
npenec1L n caHo6m1noc1L pyccko nn1epa1ypm pnn Henn acerpa 6mnn oueanpnm
(pnpoH c ne n Hory noc1aan1L 1onLko qpanuysckyk), 1o a pycckoH nckycc1ae Henn
yppyuann n o11anknaann oueanpnoe necoaepuenc1ao 1exnnueckoro Hac1epc1aa n nanan
a1opnunoc1L, noppaxa1enLnoc1L no o1nouennk k sanapnmH n aoc1ounmH o6pasuaH.
kona, kak n npnknapnoe nckycc1ao peane ycn, kasanacL Hne npnHn1nano, a
xnaonncL, rpaqnka n npnknapnoe nckycc1ao 18-19 aekoa - nenoaknH cnenkoH c
sanapnmx npnHepoa.
onapo6nnocL paa c nnunnH pecn1ka ne1 n neHanm onm1 npak1nueckoro uenn1enn n
sna1oka, u1o6m auyac1aoaa1Lcn a rny6okoe caoeo6pasne n npenec1L nc1nnno pyccko
caHo6m1no ac1e1nkn, ouy1n1L n ocosna1L ee npnnunnnanLnoe o1nnune o1 ac1e1nkn
anapa n oc1oka. ce nosnae1cn a cpaanennn. Henno n 1onLko nocne 1oro, kak n
nponnkcn cy1Lk nckycc1aa naunx cocepe, n nayunncn o1nnua1L, ampenn1L n uenn1L
co6c1aenno pycckoe. oneuno, n 1enepL Henn aocxnuae1 a pycckoH nckycc1ae ne ace
noppnp, a 1onLko nyuuee (npexpe acero, pasyHee1cn, pycckn XVII aek, korpa Hm
okonua1enLno nsxnnn ansan1nckyk opnen1aunk n eue ne nponnknncL
sanapnoeaponecko, n pycckn napopnm pyx ampaancn napyxy HounmH qon1anoH
npaspnnuno, npnnnuno kynL1ypm!), sa1o n snak, a kaknx nHenno cqepax
npekpacnoro cocpepo1ounncn pycckn renn n u1o cospan on a nnx 1akoro, uero ne
cmueuL nn a apone, nn a n1ae nnn npnn, nn a Hnpe ncnaHa.
osnanne npepHe1a acerpa aneue1 sa co6o nk6oaL - a1o ec1ec1aenno. eH rny6xe n
acec1oponnee snaeuL u1o-1o, 1eH 1ennee, c 6onLunH nonnHanneH, nk6oanee k a1oHy
o1nocnuLcn. kona, nnn cepe6pnnan uapka, nnn aHaneam napeu, nnn koaanm cynpyk
appyr naunnak1 roaopn1L 1e6e c1onLko, u1o kaxe1cn - npocmnae1cn rennan naHn1L.
6uan kpoaL, o6uan nc1opnn, o6un pyx - kak a1o okasmaae1cn a nac xnao!
eaosHoxno nepepa1L cnoaaHn, po kaknx c1enene a 1akne Hnny1m aosnocn1cn
naunonanLnoe uyac1ao!
ne n panLue 6mno caoc1aenno nonnHanne n xnaoe ouyuenne 1oro, u1o n - nnuL
saeno a uenn pyccknx nokonenn, saeno Hexpy HonHn npepkaHn n no1oHkaHn. o
nHenno nponnknoaennoe o6uenne c pyccko c1apnno, c pyccknH nckycc1aoH papn1
Hne ceropnn c oco6o cnno uyac1ao conpnuac1noc1n aceHy caoeHy napopy, uyac1ao
6onLuoro popc1aa c 6onLuo ceHLe - Hoe naune.
ne c1ano nonn1no n ppyroe. ouno 1ak xe, kak nnkoHy ne nyxen n ne nn1epecen
nekn a6c1pak1nm o6ueuenoaek, a nyxnm n nn1epecnm konkpe1nme,
nenoa1opnHme a caoe nnpnanpyanLnoc1n nkpn, - 1o xe caHoe nponcxopn1 n a
o6nac1n nckycc1aa. nkakoro nckycc1aa aoo6ue - ne1. onm1ka cnn1esnpoaa1L
Hnpoao nsmk, Hnpoaoe nckycc1ao - acerpa c nens6exnoc1Lk npoaannaanacL,
nopo6nme kynL1ypnme 6ac1appm okasmaanncL nensHepnHo 6epnee naunonanLnmx
nsmkoa, naunonanLnmx nckycc1a.
ckycc1ao nn1epecno n uenno 1onLko 1orpa, korpa ono rny6oko naunonanLno, nece1 a
ce6e nenoa1opnHm naunonanLnm konopn1 - o1neua1ok pyun napopa.
onLue 1oro. axpm uenoaek, a nckycc1aoaep-uenn1enL a oco6ennoc1n, cnoco6en
nponnkny1Lcn npenec1Lk nckycc1aa 1o nnn nno c1panm, npnnn1L ero a caok pyuy,
nonk6n1L n, Hoxe1 6m1L, paxe noc1nuL ero nyuue, ueH a6opnren. ak, nanpnHep, a
caoe apeHn 6pa1Ln onkypm o1kpmnn rnasa coapeHenno apone na nckycc1ao
nnoncko rpaakpm. yuun a Hnpe cneunannc1 no nckycc1ay 1o nnn nno c1panm -
aoace ne o6nsa1enLno ee ypoxeneu. eropnn, 6naropapn ny1euec1annH, knno,
1eneanpennk n uae1no amcokokauec1aenno nonnrpaqnn nepep kaxpmH o1kpm1 aecL
124
Hnp kynL1ypm ao acex ero naunonanLnmx nponanennnx. osnnkae1 nnnksnn, u1o a1o1
Hnp epnn n nepennH, kak pyua uenoaeka. 1o n a nckycc1ae, kak, nko6m, a
nonn1nke, ec1L o6ueuenoaeueckne uennoc1n.
pec1an1enLnoc1n a1o ne 1ak. ennoc1n nckycc1aa acerpa naunonanLnm. a1o nerko
pokasmaae1cn nc1opne noppenok n nHn1aun. opnnnnme ypaun 1y1 ne npoc1o pepkn
- epnnnunm. ak nn c1apanncL a XVI-XVIII aa. penLq1ckne Hac1epa, ank6nennme a
kn1ackn n nnonckn qapqop, noppaxa1L caonH nk6nHuaH, - pasnnunn ouenL
saHe1nm. 1ak acerpa n ao aceH.
a, pyua ac1e1a 6espasHepna, n noronn sa ac1e1nuecknH nacnaxpenneH cpopnn
aceHnpnoHy caqapn. o acn aceHnpnoc1L Hrnoaenno o6pmaae1cn, korpa peno
poxopn1 po 1aopuec1aa. o1 1y1-1o Hm n nonnHaeH, u1o qpanuys Hoxe1 rny6oko
noc1nra1L n uenn1L nnonckoe nckycc1ao, ao1 1onLko. cospa1L ero on ne Hoxe1!
oppena1L, cmHn1npoaa1L - eue kypa nn uno. o cospa1L u1o-1o noaoe a nc1nnno
nnonckoH pyxe - ne1! nn a1oro napo popn1Lcn nnonueH, 6m1L no npaay kpoan n
nc1opnn conpnuac1nmH nnonckoHy napopy. ne no1oHy, u1o panunn paneka o1
nonnn, u1o 1aH ppyro knnHa1 nnn nnan paca. n1a - 6nnsko, no kn1ackoe n
nnonckoe nckycc1ao 6asnpyk1cn npn1oH na coaepuenno npo1naononoxnmx npnnunnax!
aunonanLnme nckycc1aa cyuec1ayk1 nnuL 6naropapn naunonanLnmH xypoxnnkaH, a
1e - nnuL 6naropapn 1oHy, u1o cyuec1aye1 naunonanLnm pyx, naunonanLnm renn,
naunonanLnm onm1. aunonanLnan poaL n naunonanLnan c1opnn.
yccko kynL1ypm ane occnn ne1. na Hoxe1 rynn1L no aceHy Hnpy kak o6Lek1
no1pe6nennn, no xnamH oprannsHoH ona Hoxe1 6m1L 1onLko specL: cospa1L ee Hoxe1
1onLko pyx pyccko naunn n nnkako ppyro.
eskHnpyk a1y rnaaky napaqpasoH: u u ,
mu n,
.
1o acepLes.
HQRXEHHE REQYE
pasa xaa1n1. eHa pycckoro naunonannsHa, yam, eue
aocnpnnnHae1cn a naueH o6pasoaannoH o6uec1ae kak akso1nka, n n npoc1o-nanpoc1o
6okcL nepekopHn1L un1a1enn. Henn poc1a1ouno, ecnn on yanpn1 ceropnn noaoe
pnn ce6n nanenne, nap ko1opmH c1on1 sapyHa1Lcn.
Hec1e c 1eH ckasano paneko ne ace, a neko1opmx acnek1oa 1eHm n paxe ne kocnyncn.
yaepen, u1o un1a1enk 6ype1 nn1epecno o6cypn1L nx, a nopore noaoro c1one1nn,
ko1opoe npope1 nop snakoH 1opxec1aa naunonanLno npen, ne1 nnuero 6onee
ak1yanLnoro.
anocnepok ckaxy 1onLko opno. pna ns Honx nk6nHmx noroaopok: enakuero
cypL6a aepe1, a nexenakuero 1aun1. eneno n onacno c1aan1L sacnonkn n
nno1nnm na ny1n na6npakuero cnny o6uec1aennoro panxennn: ono cHe1e1 npenonm n
o6pyun1cn na nesapaunnamx c1pon1ene-sanpe1n1ene. oa1oHy c1onL 1peaoxno
ceropnn Hne kaxe1cn cn1yaunn, ko1opyk cospann neko1opme nepanLnoanpnme
nonn1nkn n pen1enn aokpyr ns6npa1enLnoro o6Lepnnennn nac. ospann
1onLko no1oHy, u1o yspenn a qepepanLnoH cnncke o6Lepnnennn qaHnnnk neHnnoro
nH apkaueaa, ko1opm paxe ne nanne1cn unenoH panxennn.
125
o6maaa a cypax, nonyunaunx npnkas nk6o ueno nperpapn1L nacy popory na
am6opm, n y6epnncn, u1o koe-k1o nac1onLko 6on1cn pyccknx naunonannc1oa n
nac1onLko yaepen a nx ycnexe, u1o ro1oa paxe npene6peuL ocnoaaHn
konc1n1yunonnoro c1pon n peHokpa1nuecko sakonnoc1n, ko1opme, co6c1aenno,
coc1aannk1 epnnc1aennm nonoxn1enLnm n1or npouepuero enLunnckoro
pecn1nne1nn. peno ne 1onLko a 1oH, u1o cypLnH c nsnacnnoaanno coaec1Lk
npnunocL ue1mpe pnn aec1n npouecc no1ynnauncL, ne cHen asrnnny1L a rnasa
cnpnunH a sane (n6o ao apeHn cyporoaopennn napyuanncL Hnorouncnennme nopHm
n ). yxe acero na a1o1 pas ne npaac1aennm, a nonn1nueckn acnek1 cn1yaunn.
6o on Hoxe1 kocny1Lcn acex. e xenan amnyc1n1L pycckn naunonannsH na none
neranLno nonn1nuecko pen1enLnoc1n, saronnn ero a nopnonLe, anac1n npepepxaune
aepy1 onacnyk pnn o6uec1aa nonn1nueckyk nrpy, pa6o1ak1 na konqpon1aunk, na
o6oc1penne n 6es 1oro upeaa1o konqnnk1aHn o6c1anoakn.
acnH a napexpe na noame ac1peun - po canpannn.
[1] annm a6sau, kak n npepmpyun, 6mn nsLn1 pepakune ns 1ekc1a ny6nnkaunn a
esaancnHo rase1e.
[2] anpy 1oro, u1o un1npyeHme c1pokn Hon saknn1me ppysLn nopo npnaopn1 kak
pokasa1enLc1ao Hoe an1nnapopnoc1n, noa1opk specL caon cnoaa, nanncannme a
noneHnke c . nyukoao: opuepkny, u1o Ho noc1yna1 nocn1 ycnoanm xapak1ep: n
cpenak 1o-1o n 1o-1o, ecnn cnyun1cn 1o-1o. pak1oaka Hoe qpasm ampae1 ack
rny6nny pasnnun a Hoe n rnyukoacko ouenke nc1opnueckoro HoHen1a. a1Lnna
nyukoaa cun1ae1 a npnnunne aosHoxnmH (n kaxe1cn, paxe xenannmH) 1ako
noaopo1 co6m1n, sa ko1opmH a pycckoH c1ane acnmxne1 knaccoaan aona. a1o1
noaopo1 ceropnn a npnnunne ncknkuak naunc1o. apexpm nyukoao na 1o, u1o
pycckne pa6oune n kpec1Lnne uenoxny1cn - 1ue1nm. m kaxpo kne1ouko Hosra
ycnenn y6epn1Lcn a a1oH sa nc1ekuee pecn1nne1ne. yc1L nyukoaa ne napee1cn:
counanLno aonm y nac ne 6ype1. oHy ec1L aeckne counanLno-nc1opnueckne
npnunnm. a, n snak, rpe npope1 Ho qpon1 a cnyuae 1ako aonm, no a6conk1no
yaepen, u1o aoeaa1L c pyccknHn pa6ounHn n kpec1LnnaHn Hne a xnsnn ne npnpe1cn.
npo1nanoH cnyuae n ne 6mn 6m c1onL o1kpoaenen. ona naun n pac n npn1oH
xec1ouauan! - yxe npe1, ona a pasrape. c1ok a a1oH okone nneuoH k nneuy co
aceHn pyccknHn knaccaHn n cocnoannHn, a 1oH uncne c pyccknHn pa6ounHn n
kpec1LnnaHn.
HE HE MXE HYHH
23 HERR 2002 r. M s n
n H r n r
x - vm . H.B.
X. v n .. , m
. B nrm m v, r
x . x n n, v
nn x r . s
n HQH .H. n
(n x), , ,
nv m.
oun1L a cop1npe on rposnncn
ex, k1o nece1 a occnk sno.
126
o ane cop1npa o6Hounncn,
orpa o1 cnoa po pen pouno.
ocnoanme nanpaanennn any1penne n aneune nonn1nkn y1nna,
nackonLko onn coo1ae1c1ayk1 nn1epecaH pycckoro napopa, nackonLko coanapak1 c
nanpaanennnHn pycckoro panxennn ceropnn.
HYEHHRR HRHHK
1. m anpnH: 6enan apona npocmnae1cn. ocne 50 ne1 kocHononn1nuecko
pnk1a1ypm a apone nopnnnncL nkpn, npen n nac1poennn, ko1opme n nasoay kopo1ko:
naun. pocmnak1cn o1 ponroro noHpauennn eaponeckne napopm. ac1pnn - 1annn
- cnannn - enLrnn - annn - aeuapnn. ocnepnn npnHep - panunn. osynr
e ena panunn - pnn qpanuysoa! ycnmuan n aoc1pe6oaan HnnnnonaHn.
occnn 1akxe nponcxopn1 Hounm 1ek1onnueckn cpanr o6uec1aennmx oxnpann.
H BHO, n - n x! 1998 .
43% n, 2000 - 49%, 2002 , u n, -
58%! pnueH, u1o ouenL aaxno, ecnn a 1998 r. a1o1 nosynr xapak1epnsoaann
HakcnHanLno o1pnua1enLno 30%, 1o ceropnn - nnuL 20%, 1.e. npnHepno c1onLko,
ckonLko a occnn aoo6ue nepyccknx. a1o snaun1, u1o pnn acex pyccknx on ecnn n ne
anonne npneHneH (npneHnk1 nonnoc1Lk yxe 72,5% pyccknx), 1o ace xe npneHneH c
oroaopkaHn.
kako Hepe yun1maae1 ace a1o npesnpen1? a nn a kako. o1oan1 naH ppakonoackn
sakon o 6opL6e c akc1peHnsHoH.
nyno? a, rnyno. o1oHy u1o ecnn na ny1n aecennero no1oka aospanrny1L
nckycc1aennyk nperpapy, aopa cHe1e1 n nperpapy, n ee c1pon1ene. cnn anac1L
saronn1 pycckn npo1ec1 a nopnonLe, ona nonyun1 pycckn o1ae1, ko1oporo ne
oxnpae1.
2. aaa1e acnoHnnH ns6npa1enLnyk kaHnannk. e rnaanm, xo1n n neo6Lnanennm,
nosynr 6mn: cnpaaepnnaoe aosHespne. cnoHnnH, kakne ropm koHnpoHa1a
aospanranncL c o6enx ocnoanmx npo1nao6opc1aykunx c1opon. cnoHnnH, kak nLunny
rposnnn yuac1Lk ayuecky. nanornunme yrposm sayuann n no appecy narepn
yxkoaa.
1n yrposm ac1peuann ropnuyk noppepxky y ns6npa1enn. 6e c1oponm aoack
akcnnya1npoaann xaxpy cnpaaepnnaoc1n acero nacenennn. axpy osHespnn.
ao1 yxe paa ropa npaan1 noam npesnpen1. 1onena nn a1a xaxpa xo1L a Hano
Hepe? nuy1L. 1o ns 1ex, koro kneHnnn c akpana a 1999 ropy, nonec sacnyxennoe
nakasanne? nLunn, narpaxpennm amcunH oppenoH occnn? pyrne
amcokonoc1aanennme nnua? cnoHnnH ykas N1 n.o. npesnpen1a napnHnpa
y1nna o1 31 peka6pn 1999 ropa rapan1nnx npesnpen1y poccncko qepepaunn,
npekpa1naueHy ncnonnenne caonx nonnoHoun, n unenaH ero ceHLn.
yuue nnnkc1paune k ckasannoHy nanne1cn cypL6a na1onnn y6aca na qone
amHepsannn c1panm snHo 2000/2001 rr. nepre1nueckn kpnsnc ec1L npnHoe
cnepc1ane ne 1onLko pykoaopc1aa co c1oponm a1oro ampakuerocn
Henepxepa, no - a nepayk ouepepL - npoaepenno no ero ykaske npnaa1nsaunn
a. x ecnn koro n kapa1L sa necnmxannoe nspeaa1enLc1ao nap nkpLHn - 1o nHenno
y6aca. pnako c ponxnoc1n cne1en ne acepoccnckn annepren, a ero rnaanme
aparn - asppa1enko, aapnn n paHoa. 1o, anpoueH, yxe ne aonpoc akonoHnkn, n
paxe ne aonpoc Hopann - a1o aonpoc nonn1nkn. kpann 1y1 - npesnpen1 y1nn.
127
oueHy y6ac nonLsye1cn 6esnakasannoc1Lk? o1oHy u1o y1nn ne cHee1 caH peua1L
pannm aonpoc. y6ac - unen Hnpoaoro npaan1enLc1aa, epnnc1aennm poccnckn
unen nnLpep6eprckoro kny6a (unenckn 6nne1 N63). n - cHo1pnun no occnn o1
Hnpoaoro npaan1enLc1aa. y1nna pykn kopo1kn npo1na ..
3. qeapane 2000 ropa a neckonLknx naunonan-na1pno1nuecknx rase1ax 6mn
ony6nnkoaan caopnm cnncok 1pe6oaann pnpa pyccknx oprannsaun:
HAKA3 HE3HQEHTY OCCHH. HTO HEOBXOQHO CQEHATB B HEBYK
OHEEQB.
3A /ECHTB n nck ck Pccn , rn
yx, akMck n. H a cn
yMmn, kMy ny kM r ycckr yr k
Pcc <.>.
m TEBYE:
1. Hc ckM cyM c , k a cynn,
M: F, En r cM, Eckr, yc, F,
M, Kk, Hm, K, Yc, AM, CMnckr,
Fk, L, Fycckr, HM, Hc yr cyck M.
c ccc kqck, yk y y rcycy.
2. Hnc y rcycr CMH ycck
c n.
3. Hc n ky k ,
ck n c ymM k. cy. Hn
, cyc (knn aq), -Mmn kMnkc,
n-arck kMnkc cc Mn.
4. Kqck c Myc qc Mq, ykm kck kn y
rx. 3 c a cc y rxM c kn nc. Hc
ckM cyM c k Unr Ek Mq,
cccm kckMy qcMy rn .
5. Ocn nrn, nc UkM c c
yn, cn n y Mnc aMcc. H yn,
cn y, qcn nrn ckyn c cn n
McnMy qnn. HM c kMcc ycck ,
kn cn, ky mn x k aM yn, k
n. - cy. c Myc, a y
yn, - kqck ny rcyc. /nnc Uk c
cM xck kn nc FcyM.
6. Oc ny cMc Pcc M kky Mq
r (MO, E, MEPP ..). Hny kny a Mxy qc,
y c, cy.
7. Tn cn c nrM Pcc MxyM qcM qcM
(MO, E ..). Hc n ccn: k kk cn a
cnr Pcc. c ckM cyM. /nr
. Hn ck c Hn CLA r
Mxrcyc qc rn Pcc c
ny kny, y rcyc r Pcc.
128
8. 3 cy xy Mn. n n Mn - nk
rxM Pcc, MM r rxc.
9. cc c rqy nc .
10. cc yrn k n rMckcynM.
11. cc ck kck nM M cy
cMy k c nxk cynn, M cn k
rn c kk.
12. 3 Pcc mccky ry rc .
13. m nk cnx c KM, H, ckM
cnMckM MM.
14. Yxc m nky m k Hn CLA n
nr nMck m <.>.
16. n n, kr , c knc
nn k kM kn c c
nc (n r kn), cn qMn ckcyn
<.>.
20. 3 knMy ry k cr <.>.
23. H yccky n c M cc.
24. Hk y Pcc ycckM MMrM. c Mxy
crnm Mr. / Mr, ncn Pcc
k c.
25. Hn k k ycq.
ocne ony6nnkoaannn amuenpnaepennmx 1pe6oaann npouno paa c nnunnH ropa.
n1a1enL caH anpn1, u1o ns a1oro cnncka nnuero ne c6mnocL.
a a1o apeHn y1nn pasouapoaan paxe 1ex, k1o nckpenne npnae1c1aoaan Hnorne
naunnannn npesnpen1a. pesnpen1 ne cyHen poaec1n po konua caon aonm - c
ueuenuaHn, c onnrapxaHn, c ry6epna1opaHn n cenapa1nsHoH (apHnnnc1pa1nanan
peqopHa), aespe nouen na nonn1nyk. opL6a y1nna c pasnmHn npo1nannkaHn
kaxpm pas oc1aanne1 aneua1nenne cnop1nanoro coc1nsannn, korpa aecL san yaepen,
u1o 6opum ypy1 c koapa poHo uenmHn-neapepnHmHn. epo6n1mHn - c 1oukn
spennn 6oua, aonna. ero nonn1nka n aoennoe peno, a o1nnune o1 cnop1a, ne 1epnn1.
1o kacae1cn n ueuenuea, n onnrapxoa, n cenapa1nc1oa (cp. noayk konc1n1yunk
a1apc1ana).
y1nn - ne aonn, ne 6oeu. n - cnop1cHen c coo1ae1c1aykue ncnxonorne n yHenneH
aqqek1no pa6o1a1L na ny6nnky. a6o1a1L sa 6annm n annopncHen1m. o ne papn
nc1nnnoro pena.
4. pue acero a1o anpno na npnHepe eunn. co6enno ceropnn, na qone pasrpoHa
1ann6oa a qrannc1ane. ponopunn naunx no1epL neconoc1aanHm c 1eH, u1o Hm
anpnH a qrannc1ane y aHepnkanuea. eune aona npe1 yxe aoceHL ne1, c 1994
ropa! onua aone ne anpno[1].
129
o xyxe acero 1o, u1o y y1nna ne1 npoek1a rpaHo1noro nonn1nueckoro peuennn
ueuencko npo6neHm. op nporpaHHy no aocc1anoanennk akonoHnkn n counanLno
cqepm eunn ampenenm orpoHnme, uypoanunme penLrn - 14 Hnpp. py6ne a rop[2]!
1n penLrn amny1m a ocnoanoH ns pycckoro kapHana (n6o pycckne coc1aannk1 85%
nanoronna1enLunkoa c1panm) n onn ncuesny1, kak n ace npepmpyune, pasopy1cn no
nepyccknH, a 6m1L Hoxe1, paxe n neueuencknH cue1aH. x nepononyua1 naun,
pycckne, pe1n, yun1enn, apaun, oqnuepm n conpa1m, nencnonepm.
a u1o xe Hm, pycckne, nna1nH (ne 1onLko penLraHn, no n kpoaLk)? a 1o, u1o6m a
coc1aae naue c1panm oc1ancn Hnnnnon n c ? a 1o, u1o6m
coxpann1L seHnn, ko1opme ceuac nyc1yk1 (kasakn n aoo6ue pycckne 1ypa apnp nn
aepny1cn), no 6ypy1-1akn sacenenm noamHn nokonennnHn n c ?
a 1o, u1o6m ns pasopenno eunn pac1ekanncL no occnn, paccennnncL npoHex nac
noame no1okn n c (ceropnn nx npoxnaae1 a naue c1pane sa
npepenaHn eunn yxe 6onee 700 1mc. uenoaek!)? 1nononn1nueckan yrposa
oc1aanennn a coc1aae occnn, na Ho asrnnp, ropaspo onacnee
reononn1nuecko yrposm y1pa1m H .
y1nn ne nHee1 o1ae1a na a1n aonpocm.
5. ueH 6mna akonoHnueckan cy1L an1nnapopnoro pexnHa nLunna? o-nepamx, a
orpa6nennn nacenennn nop amaecko npnaa1nsaunn, a nepepaue necHe1nmx 6ora1c1a,
panee pacnpepennaunxcn cpepn acero napopa uepes roc6kpxe1, ne6onLuoHy
konnuec1ay uac1nmx nnu. o-a1opmx, a necnmxannoH no Hacu1a6aH ponycke
nnoc1panuea k 6ora1c1aaH occnn. akoro sakona cornauennnx o paspene
npopykunn, kak y nac, nosaonnkuero pasrpa6nn1L rocypapc1ao, ne1 nn a opno
pasanaakuecn c1pane Hnpa - nn a qpnke, nn a a1nncko Hepnke - nnrpe.
3 sn u u, n n m ,
xu u H.
nnLnee, ueH no ppyrnH napopaH, a1o orpa6nenne ypapnno nHenno no pycckoHy
napopy, ko1opm 6mn n oc1ae1cn ocnoanmH pa6o1nnkoH 6kpxe1no cqepm. pnHoe
nocnepc1ane a1oro ypapa npko nponannocL a peHorpaqnuecko kap1nne: nocnepnne
ne1 nn1L-uec1L a occnn poxpae1cn nopoany pyccknx n nepyccknx pe1e, npn 1oH, u1o
pycckne coc1aannk1 85%, a ace oc1anLnme napopm - acero 15% nacenennn.
amHnpae1 a ocnoanoH pycckoe nacenenne. 1ckpa - ocnoanoe pycckoe 1pe6oaanne a
o6nac1n akonoHnkn, o6ycnoanennoe nepaoc1enenno xnsnenno neo6xopnHoc1Lk:
naunonannsaunn npnpopnmx pecypcoa n c1pa1ernuecknx nponsaopc1a, aosapauenne nx
a pykn rocypapc1aa. 1o 1pe6oaanne pnk1ye1cn naH, pyccknH, nnc1nnk1oH amxnaannn.
1o - ycnoane, 6es ko1oporo nnkakne nporpaHHm aospoxpennn occnn neamnonnnHm.
osnunn y1nna a a1oH aonpoce nsaec1na. ak n a aonpoce o eHenLnoH kopekce n
xnnnuno-koHHynanLno peqopHe. na rapan1npye1: x
n.
6. ocnepnnn kannn a o6nac1n akonoHnkn, ko1opan Hoxe1 nepenonnn1L uauy pycckoro
1epnennn - a1o nepexop k npopaxe seHnn. ak nsaec1no, a spanne seHnk nenLsn
npopaaa1L, a Hoxno nnuL 6pa1L a apenpy. 6o kaxpan nnpL seHnn spannn canuenna
pnn eapeea. o pasae pnn pyccknx seHnn an1o ycn Henee can1a, ueH pnn eapeea -
seHnn peu cpaanL?
ce ckasannoe nop1aepxpae1: y1nn - a1o nLunn ceropnn. onLko eue 6onee
anac1onk6nam, nocnepoaa1enLnm n ynep1m (a Hm, nananme, pyHann, u1o a1o
neaosHoxno), m s x.
yx on-1o po6poaonLno a o1c1aaky ne ype1. paxe a pnn1enLnm sano, k
coxanennk, ne knne1cn.
130
7. eHorpaqnueckan npo6neHa. a cnoaax y1nn nonnHae1 ace ee nepaoc1enennoe
snauenne. o 1onLko na cnoaax.
Fn sqn sn n , x
- s ( x , x) u m,
u u x , x u
n . Bn, u , n -
x ,
. o cy1n, a1n sapaun payepnnm, n o1 nx peuennn saancn1 a npnHoH
cHmcne cnoaa 6nonornueckoe amxnaanne pycckoro napopa a nc1opnuecko
nepcnek1nae. pyxoano cqepe nH coo1ae1c1aye1 pec1aapaunn pycckoro
naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn, npeoponenne kpnsnca pyccko naunonanLno
npen1nunoc1n.
oka u1o nonn1nka n npeonornn oqnunanLno ny1nncko occnn pesko npo1naopeun1
a1nH sapauaH. onnkunH npnHepoH nannk1cn nepaanne amckasmaannn npeHLepa
nxanna acLnnoaa n Hnnnc1pa 1pypa nekcanppa ounnka no aonpocaH peHorpaqnn
n 1pypoao Hnrpaunn. ycnoannx 6espa6o1num cpepn poccncknx 1pypnunxcn onn
npepnarak1 unpokoHacu1a6nyk 1pypoayk nHHnrpaunk. npesnpen1 y1nn yxe
noppepxan nx na pene, o1kasaauncL o1 aaepennn ansoaoro pexnHa c sep6apxanoH
(a occnn npoxnaak1 2-3 Hnn. asep6apxanuea, exeropno amaosn ne Henee 2 Hnpp.
ponn., ne o6naraeHmx nanoraHn).
ounauee a 6ose nnnc1epc1ao no penaH qepepaunn, naunonanLno n Hnrpaunonno
nonn1nke ycneno pacnpoc1pann1L a kauec1ae oqnunanLnoro pokyHen1a onuenunk
Hnrpaunonno nonn1nkn occnn, nopro1oanennyk HnneH 6paHoanueH annmH n
napnHnpoH seanueH ykoHeneH, a coo1ae1c1ann c ko1opo sacenenne occnn
uae1nmHn n aoo6ue nnopopuaHn 6ype1 npoponxa1Lcn yckopennmHn 1eHnaHn, a
rnaano sapaue amc1aanne1cn npn a1oH npnan1ne kopennoHy nacenennk uyac1aa
1epnnHoc1n. 1peHncL npeapa1n1L occnk a o6ueuenoaeueckn oH epnnHoc1n,
aa1opm konuenunn n pa6o1nnkn npoqnnLnoro Hnnnc1epc1aa (a ocnoanoH, nnopopum),
pasyHee1cn, onnpanncL na yc1anoakn peHnn.
e k1o-nn6ypL, a renpnpek1op nnqopHaunonnoro anann1nueckoro aren1c1aa npn
npaanennn penaHn npespen1a nekcanpp rna1oa ykasmaae1 naH c1pa1ernueckyk
sapauy a o6nac1n peHorpaqnuecko nonn1nkn: Cc ccM ack
ccMnn qM n Mxn k rMM cnn
ack ry (1pa1ernn rno6annsaunonnoro nnpepc1aa pnn occnn. -
esaancnHan rase1a 07.09.00). akxe on noc1ynnpye1: cnoanmHn nc1ounnkaHn
1pypoamx pecypcoa pnn occnn Hoxno cun1a1L npnk n opek. o ec1L, rna1oa o1
nnua oqnunanLno n aecLHa o1ae1c1aenno c1pyk1ypm npepnarae1 nopxopm, ne 1onLko
npnHo npo1naononoxnme on1nHanLnmH, no n apaxpe6nme, ry6n1enLnme pnn pyccko
naunn. op c1a1Le kpeHneackoro unnoannka amcokoro panra ne1 nopnncn y1nna,
opnako, kak roaopn1cn, nonoxenne o6nsmaae1.
y1nn ne o1Hennn o1apa1n1enLnoe nacnepne enLunncko anoxn - poccnckn nacnop1
noaoro o6pasua, a ko1opoH o1cy1c1aye1 rpaqa naunonanLnoc1L. pn a1oH yxe panm
nekne oco6me aknapmun a nacnop1a 6auknpaH n 1a1apaH, ko1opme rpoHue, ueH
ppyrne napopm, ampaxann caoe aosHyuenne 1eH, u1o y nnx o1nnnn naunonanLnoc1L.
ycckne aosHyuenm a1nH o1nkpL ne HenLue, opnako naH npesnpen1 nnkaknx
aknapmue paxe ne o6euae1.
8. akoneu, caHoe, Hoxe1 6m1L, ckaepnoe - a1o peHonc1pa1nanoe nrnopnpoaanne
npo6neH pycckoro napopa, ero npaa n nn1epecoa. co6oro annHannn sacnyxnaae1
a1nounp - 6eckpoanm pyxoanm renounp - pycckoro napopa nocpepc1aoH
nnsaepennn, npoqanaunn n am1paanennn pyccko kynL1ypm. annuo nonn1nka
rocypapc1aenno pycoqo6nn. pnaepy paa npnHepa.
131
2001 r. yHy 6mn npepc1aanen sakononpoek1 pycckoH napope. - yuac1nnk
pa6oue rpynnm oHn1e1a no penaH naunonanLnoc1e, a neppax ko1oporo ro1oanncn
a1o1, xo1n n koHnpoHnccnm, nannna1nanm, nonoannua1m, no ace xe nyxnm
pyccknH sakononpoek1. eropnn a1o1 npoek1 nonoxen nop cykno no nac1on1enLno
pekoHenpaunn pHnnnc1paunn npesnpen1a. 1smam na nero oqnunanLnmx nnc1anun
- o1pnua1enLnme, apnp nn eHy cyxpeno yanpe1L cae1.
o poxopn1 n po o1kpm1o pnckpnHnnaunn nauero napopa. ak nan6onee npkn
npnHep npnaepy sanpe1 pnn pyccknx, a o1nnune o1 acex ppyrnx napopoa occnn,
pernc1pnpoaa1L caok epepanLnyk pycckyk naunonanLno-kynL1ypnyk aa1onoHnk,
necHo1pn na amnrpannoe naHn a cypax o6enx nnc1anun peno. nac1L nouna na
npnHoe napyuenne onc1n1yunn, npepnoxna sakon, qak1nueckn sanpeuakun
pyccknH cospaaa1L caon [3]. o1oHy u1o a npo1nanoH cnyuae npnpe1cn nosaonn1L
pyccknH caHnH onpepenn1L nanpaanennn n He1opm coxpanennn n pasan1nn pyccko
kynL1ypm, a a1oro pexnH ne Hoxe1 n ne xoue1 ponyc1n1L. anpe1 na pernc1paunk
ncxopn1 c caHoro aepxa: c1onL o1kpm1an pycoqo6nn ncnonnn1enLno anac1n -
uennkoH na coaec1n npesnpen1a.
Cm , 4u u-
u - u . O
mnx .
ce, u1o kacae1cn pycckoro napopa, - cnnukoH aaxno pnn occnn a uenoH n ne Hoxe1
npoxopn1L HnHo annHannn npesnpen1a. nk6oH cnyuaeH nHenno on nece1 ack
o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa ace, u1o rocypapc1aoH penae1cn a panno cqepe.
ue pas nopuepkny: aenea sacyny1L nop cykno sakononpoek1 pycckoH napope n
sanpe1na pernc1pnpoaa1L epepanLnyk pycckyk naunonanLno-kynL1ypnyk
aa1onoHnk, m qm. akoa ceropnn
kpaeyronLnm kaHenL naunonanLno nonn1nkn peHnn.
HEUHRR HRHHK
1. ckycc1aenno 1opHosn1cn npouecc o6Lepnnennn c enopyccne. aano yxe ponxen
6mn 6m1L ns6pan n naua1L pa6o1y coksnm napnaHen1. o a1oro - ne1. pnunna a 1oH,
u1o y1nn nm1ae1cn sac1aan1L ykauenko npnnn1L n npoaec1n a enopyccnn 1e xe
rn6enLnme nsHenennn, ko1opme yxe npoaepenm a occnn. ykauenko ynnpae1cn (on
nk6n1 cao napop), peno c1on1.
2. exnH nopno cpan pyccknx a pnpnec1poaLe, kak po a1oro - na kpanne, kak
aoo6ue nanneaan na pycckne npaaa n nn1epecm sa py6exoH. ne6 aanoackn
unnnuno ampasnncn npn nopro1oake k Lespy coo1euec1aennnkoa: aH rnaanoe
o1nnapn1L npesnpen1a, a 1aH xo1L 1paaa ne pac1n. pesnpen1a o1nnapnnn - 1paaa
ne pac1e1. o noaopy co6m1n a pnpnec1poaLe naua nap1nn pacnpoc1pannna
sananenne, ko1opoe ony6nnkoaano a ycckoH pon1e.
3. y1nny - amxopuy ns nan6onee aec1epnnsnpoaannoro ropopa occnn, npoaepueHy
nyuune ropm caoe xnsnn a epHannn - occnn, aosHoxno, npepc1aanne1cn apono.
1o neaepno kak a nayunoH, 1ak n a nonn1nueckoH o1nouennn. 1eH 6onee - a
o1nouennn npaac1aennoH. posanapnm kypc npesnpen1a - pokoaan oun6ka. a
anape ceropnn ne oc1anocL uennoc1e, ko1opme c1onno 6m saunua1L. 1o pac1nennan
unannnsaunn, rpe npepanm ace 1mcnuene1nne 1papnunn, rpe nsapauenm ace
ec1ec1aennme uenoaeueckne o1nouennn: Hexpy nokonennnHn, Hexpy nonaHn, Hexpy
naunonanLnoc1nHn n pacaHn; rpe uapn1 pasnyspannm uoannnsH HenLunnc1a, co
aceHn nspepxkaHn peHokpa1nn 6es rpannu, rpe rocnopc1aye1 npeonornn
132
naunonanLnoro n pacoaoro nepasnnuennn n cHeuennn, qeHnnnsH n cekcyanLnan
peaonkunn, aneunenonn1nueckan akcnancnn n arpeccnn, c1peHnenne pnk1oaa1L Hnpy
caok aonk n nonn1nka paonoro c1anpap1a. a, ceropnn eaponeum naunnak1
npospeaa1L koe-u1o, naunnak1 nopnnHa1L ronoay, no noka u1o po naunonanLnoro
amspopoanennn 1aH, kak po ne6ec.
1o xe Hm anpnH a cqepe aneune nonn1nkn o1 y1nna? oHnHo neoc1opoxnmx n
necknapnmx nporoaopok, ampakunx ero nc1nnnoe yHonac1poenne, apope npepnoxennn
cpena1L occnk unenoH , a1o:
1) a1nqnkaunn -2 n nocnepykuan cpaua acex Hexpynapopnmx nosnun occnn a
aoenno cqepe;
2) 1nrnaanne occnn ao a1opyk aqranckyk aony;
3) ponrpmu occne akaakasLn (anauane sep6apxana, sa1eH pysnn, a 1enepL,
kak anpno, yxe n pHennn) n pepne snn, a 1aH n asaxc1ana a nonLsy anapa, a
uac1noc1n . pn6an1nky Hm nponrpann yxe paano, ceuac nponrpmaaeH
onpaank; sa kpanny npak1nueckn ne 6opeHcn;
4) aycHmcnennan, a no cy1n, npepa1enLckan nonn1nka a o1nouennn n1an;
5) eyknonnan n nocnepoaa1enLnan nopua o1nouenn c HnpoH ncnaHa.
noaoH, nannuo pa6onennan nonm1ka noc1enn1L occnk nop norn 1opxec1aykue
sanapno unannnsaunn, sa qacapoH ko1opo c1on1 konconnpnpoaannm eapeckn
kann1an. eropnn y1nn anoaL yro1oaan naH ponL nocnyunmx xononoa (nok),
pepxaunx a rno6anLnoH npo1naoc1onnnn un1 Hexpy cnonnsnpoaannmH anapoH, c
opno c1oponm, kn1acknH oc1okoH n HycynLHancknH Kro-oc1okoH - c ppyro. a
Ho asrnnp, a1o npec1ynnenne nepep occne n aceHn ee kopennmHn napopaHn. 1o
npnHo ny1L k 6eccnaano konunne nauero napopa. yHep 6epnm pa6 y nor
neno6epnHoro anapmkn, - no qopHyne yuknna.
4. ann1accenune aneune nonn1nkn y1nna nanne1cn nponspannLckan nosnunn,
sann1an occne na nnxneH oc1oke. o1opan nens6exno c1anknaae1 nac co aceH
HycynLHancknH HnpoH. o nHn uero Hm ponxnm, nrnopnpyn, Hexpy npounH, nosnunk
1pesaekue aponm, o1aepny1Lcn o1 HycynLHan n npo1nny1L pyky eapenH? eH
Ho1nanpye1 a1y nosnunk y1nn? eH, u1o a spanne, anpn1e nn, npoxnaae1 Hnnnnon
naunx 6maunx coo1euec1aennnkoa. nmHn cnoaaHn, Hm ponxnm noppepxa1L Hnnnnon
nkpe, ko1opme ace a caoe apeHn nanneaann na nauy occnk, o1pnxnynn co caonx nor
ee npax n yka1nnn a caok spannoaky. a 1o xe apeHn Hm ponxnm o1aepny1Lcn o1
Hnornx Hnnnnonoa HycynLHan, nacennkunx nauy c nnHn o6uyk opnny, paano yxe
xnayunx c pyccknHn a Hnpe, - o1 1a1ap, 6auknp, kasaxoa, ka6appnnuea, parec1anuea,
6ankapuea... ak roaapnaan a nopo6nmx cnyuanx anepan, a1o xyxe ueH
npec1ynnenne - a1o oun6ka.
nn 1oro, u1o6m onpaapa1L caok 6nnxneaoc1ounyk nonn1nky n sa1kny1L po1
kpn1nkaH, pexnH amnyxpen acnueckn noporpeaa1L, paspyaa1L npo1naoc1onnne Hexpy
pyccknHn n HycynLHanaHn. n pnn koro ne cekpe1, k npnHepy, u1o 1.n. apnumnckn
norpoH 6mn sakasan pHnnnc1paune npesnpen1a. e cnyuano 1nee1 n ueuenckan
aona. oxno nepeuncnn1L eue Hnoxec1ao qak1oa n qak1nkoa, canpe1enLc1aykunx o
1oH, u1o pyccko-HycynLHanckne o1nouennn nckycc1aenno ppaHa1nsnpyk1cn anac1Lk.
onn1no, saueH a1o nyxno pexnHy y1nna: u x
u, . o nyxno nn a1o naH, pyccknH?
eun1enLno: ne1.
133
* * *
1ak, konc1a1npyeH: npesnpen1 y1nn no aceH asnHy1aH any1penne n aneune
nonn1nkn sannn ue1kne nosnunn, pnaHe1panLno npo1naononoxnme nn1epecaH n
uannnnH pycckoro napopa.
m ne anpnH 1y1 po6pocoaec1nmx sa6nyxpenn nnn nepononnHannn co c1oponm
npesnpen1a. m anpnH a amcue c1enenn pacue1nnayk n rn6enLnyk pnn naue
c1panm nonn1nky, nonnoc1Lk npoponxakuyk kypc op6aueaa n nLunna. m ne
co6npaeHcn Hnpn1Lcn c a1o nonn1nko.
H-Qx n r n
r, v n , vr
x n x n H.
M r , .
M m !
Hun N4-5(54-55), 2002 .
[1] eropnn, nocne y6nc1aa npesnpen1a eunn xHapa apmpoaa, a1o oco6enno
oueanpno.
[2] epaano . peq no1pe6oaan yaennun1L a nn1L (!) pas accnrnoaannn na
aocc1anoanenne eunn.
[3] eropnn a1o1 sakon npnnn1 n pec1aye1, npepoc1aannn npaao na 1onLko pnn
1ex napopoa, ko1opme okasanncL a cn1yaunn naunonanLnoro HenLunnc1aa, 1.e. ne
pnn pyccknx.
RHHHR 4H
(n H r N3-4, 2001)
ERH XHM HBEQHB
- snaun1 6m1L aonnoH, - roaopnn nerenpapnm y1ysoa. konLko
pas Hm penoH pokasmaann a1y npek! u1o 6mna 6m pycckan nc1opnn, ecnn amknkun1L
ns nee ace naun nerenpapnme no6epm? m yHenn no6expa1L, Hm npnamknn
no6expa1L.
oueHy xe ceropnn Hm no6expenm? o1oHy u1o nsHennnncL npaanna aonm,
nnc1pyHen1m coapeHenno aonm yxe coaceH ne 1e, u1o npexpe, n 1pe6oaannn k
conpa1y ona npepLnanne1 1oxe coaceH ppyrne. nsnueckne cnnm, noakoc1L, o1aara,
amnocnnaoc1L, naamkn 6on n ppyrne aocne1me a aekax kauec1aa pycckoro conpa1a,
c1onLko pas 6nec1nue nponanennme a noneamx ycnoannx, ceropnn Hory1 peun1L ncxop
nnuL cpaxennn, no ne kaHnannn. a n caHn kaHnannn npo1ekak1 1enepL o1nkpL ne na
nonnx cpaxenn.
134
npoxopn1 nnnnn nespnHoro qpon1a, paspennkuan pycckn napop o1 ero
aparoa? ankn n 6npxn, c1pannum rase1 n akpanm 1eneansopoa, ka6nne1m nonn1nkoa
n kynyapm napnaHen1oa, sanm cypoa - o1 npoc1oro paonnoro po onc1n1yunonnoro.
o1oaa nn pycckan apHnn k 6ok na a1nx nonnx n amco1ax? okcL, u1o ne1.
naun1 - napo yun1Lcn aoeaa1L sanoao, nepenocn ace nyuune 6ouoackne kauec1aa
pycckoro uenoaeka na noam o6paseu napopnoro conpa1a. m ponxnm cospa1L noayk
pycckyk apHnk - pyccknx 6anknpoa n xypnannc1oa, nonn1nkoa n kpnc1oa,
anapekunx nn1ennek1yanLnmHn 1exnonornnHn caHoo6ponm 6es opyxnn n ro1oamx
cpaxa1Lcn sa cao napop.
cnn xo1nH no6epn1L.

YKHE 3KHE
a ocypapc1aenno yHe paccHa1pnaae1cn pnp sakononpoek1oa, o1 ko1opmx
saancn1 cypL6a pycckoro napopa. e1mpe ns nnx ,
x r n,
r n
- npnHo sa1parnaak1 aaxneune ocnoam
pyccko xnsnepen1enLnoc1n.
ycckan o6uec1aennoc1L o6 a1oH npak1nueckn ne nnqopHnpoaana, na cn1yaunk ona ne
annne1 nnkak. opnn npekpacnm penL Hm HoxeH npocny1Lcn n o6napyxn1L, u1o
naua xnsnL yxe sarnana a xec1kne paHkn, npnueH coaceH ne 1e, kakne 6m xo1enocL.
ueH npnunna 1akoro annHannn amcuero sakonopa1enLnoro oprana c1panm k
naunonanLnmH (pyccknH, a uac1noc1n) npo6neHaH? o-nepamx, po anac1e nakoneu
pouno, u1o un n (no1pe6noc1L a ko1opo orpoHna npn 1oH npenoH
aakyyHe, u1o o6pasoaancn c kpyuenneH koHHynnsHa) - u
u. ao-a1opmx, a c1pane, na 85% nacenenno opnnH napopoH
(pyccknHn) nenLsn ns a1oro napopa 6eckoneuno pena1L qnrypy yHonuannn. ceropnn,
korpa pycckne, nakoneu-1o, nepec1ann aosnara1L ace napexpm na rocypapc1ao, nauann
ncka1L peanLnme ny1n k caHooprannsaunn, nauann ocosnaaa1L co6c1aennme
naunonanLnme nn1epecm n ace ncnee n ue1ue qopHynnpoaa1L caon 1pe6oaannn, nepep
anac1nHn oc1po ac1ana sapaua cmrpa1L na onepexenne n u
m n.
eH onpepenne1cn konqnnk1 npe aokpyr ykasannmx sakononpoek1oa? 1onknoaenneH
nn1epecoa: c opno c1oponm - pycckoro napopa, c ppyro - 1ex 15% nacenennn,
ko1opme ne axopn1 a coc1aa pyccknx. ko1opme xo1enn 6m noc1aan1L pycckn napop a
ypo6noe pnn nnx nonoxenne, Hano cun1ancL c ero xnsnennmHn no1pe6noc1nHn.
a uLe c1opone ceropnn nepeaec? a c1opone ocnoanoro napopa c1panm nnn 1ex
15%? uLnx pykax naxopn1cn peuenne naunx, pyccknx, xnsnenno aaxnmx npo6neH?
1o pnk1ye1 c1pane caok aonk?
a a1n caHme 15% npnxopn1cn 175 (no nocnepne c1a1nc1nke) naunonanLnoc1e!
asanocL 6m, nec1pm, neopnopopnm coc1aa, y kaxporo napopa caon npo6neHm, caon
npo1naopeunn. pnako a pannoH aonpoce onn ace amc1ynak1 saopno npo1na pyccknx
nn1epecoa. eue nac1ounao 1pe6yk1: u u
135
n - C u,
. pyccknx - opnn. y kaxporo nepycckoro - no opnoHy. 1oro:
175 npo1na opnoro a nk6oH aaxnoH aonpoce, papoH u1o a1o1 opnn npepc1aanne1 85%
nacenennn c1panm. poo6pasoH 1akoro oae1a c1ana ccaH6nen napopoa occnn,
cospannan 6maunH Hnnnc1poH naunonanLnoc1e, nsaec1nmH ppyroH pycckoro
napopa aHasanoH 6pyna1nnoamH. a1o ccaH6nee (c 1aknH ko HnoroHy
o6nsmaakunH nasaanneH!) pycckn napop, nonn1noe peno, ne nHee1 oqnunanLnmx n
nonnoHounmx npepc1aan1ene aoo6ue.
KKHE KQm EUK E?
K yxe ceropnn nepycckne napopm occnn cao pnk1a1 a
naunonanLnoH aonpoce? nepayk ouepepL - nocpepc1aoH pacc1anoakn kappoa.
aua1L c 1oro, u1o ace ropm npaanennn nLunna ero coae1nnkoH no naunonanLnmH
npo6neHaH 6mn 3 v H.
cnoanme npo6neHm naunonanLno xnsnn peuanncL a epepanLno Hnrpaunonno
cnyx6e (), nnnc1epc1ae no penaH naunonanLnoc1e n oHn1e1e no penaH
naunonanLnoc1e ocpyHm. ak 1aH o6c1on1 peno c kappaHn?
aosrnaannnn nocnepoaa1enLno: eapeka r, accnpneu K, oce1nn
Xr. porpaHHy rocypapc1aenno Hnrpaunonno nonn1nkn paspa6a1maann
ynoHnny1m HnnL ann n pnpek1op en1pa a1nononn1nuecknx n pernonanLnmx
nccnepoaann Hv M.
popn1ecL no kopnpopaH nnnaua: y aac sapn6n1 a rnasax o1 nepyccknx qaHnnn.
pepn Hnnnc1poa a1oro aepoHc1aa sa nocnepnne ropm no6maann n aaapeu
n, n eape n, a yx ecnn c1aannn pyccknx, 1o 1aknx, u1o opnn
(Mx) nepamH penoH pasornan enap1aHen1 no npo6neHaH pycckoro napopa, a
a1opo (Bx) pasornan paxe oc1aauncn nocne 1oro kpoxo1nm 1pen pycckoro
napopa caoero Hnnnc1epc1aa n apo6aaok anec a npaan1enLc1ao caepxpycoqo6ckne
nonpaakn k sakony naunonanLno-kynL1ypno aa1onoHnn (o nnx - nnxe).
1o npepc1aannn a1n nonpaakn a oHn1e1e no penaH naunonanLnoc1e ocpyHm?
aHHnnnc1pa R X (1a1apka) n saH. nauanLnnka
penap1aHen1a, nenocpepc1aenno nonpaakn ro1oanauero, 3 K
(6ypn1ka). 1o noppepxan nx na a1oH naHn1noH sacepannn?
pepc1aan1enL eapecko qepepanLno n, npepc1aan1enL
ykpanncko qepepanLno -Q.
u1o co6o npepc1aanne1 caH oHn1e1 no penaH naunonanLnoc1e ? o1 ero
coc1aa: npepcepa1enL H (, ykpanneu), saHnpep K-
Bv (1yanneu), saHnpep (ypHyp1ka), unenm r
Bxn (6ypn1), B (pycckn), r (6auknp),
H (, pycckn, no ppyrnH pannmH - kacnHoackn 1a1apnn),
K (, pycckn), x (ueueneu). ak
anpnH, ns pean1n unenoa - 1onLko paoe 6esycnoano pyccknx, pa n 1e
nn1epnaunonannc1m no nap1nno npnnapnexnoc1n. a o6cyxpennn sakonoa,
kacakunxcn pycckoro napopa, n ne anpen n ne cnmuan nx nn pasy. npnHo, y nnx ec1L
pena noaaxnee.
<.>
136
ne Hory n ne xouy ckasa1L nnuero nnoxoro o penoamx n uenoaeuecknx kauec1aax
acex nasaannmx nkpe. 1onLko xouy nopuepkny1L, u1o nHenno a1n nkpn pepxa1
ceropnn a caonx pykax cypL6y 150-Hnnnnonnoro pycckoro napopa a occnn n sa ee
npepenaHn.
1o cnpaaepnnao?
m poaepneuL nH caok cypL6y, Ho pycckn un1a1enL?
137
Q3QER
nynk1oa, no ko1opmH, kak nokasmaae1 npak1nka pe6a1oa, pycckne
pacxopn1cn c nepyccknHn na pnaHe1panLno npo1naononoxnme nosnunn.
B-x, a1o npnsnanne pycckoro napopa - ne 1onLko kopennmH n 1n1ynLnmH, no n
m . osnunn
nepyccknx nekone6nHa: ace 1e napopm occnn nannk1cn rocypapc1aoo6pasykunHn,
ko1opme pa6o1ak1 na ykpennenne, a ne na paspyuenne c1panm. o cpepn nnx aepL
Hory1 okasa1Lcn n knprnsm, n 1apxnkn, n asep6apxanum, n nerpm, n ronnanpum.
ace onn 6ypy1 rocypapc1aoo6pasykune?
6cypp! pnako c 6onLunH cHmcnoH. ycck cM
rcycyM M k c nn cr x c
c rcyc m k ycckM. snaun1, c npnannernpoaannmH pe-
qak1o nonoxenneH nepyccknx a occnn 6ype1 nokonueno. o1 a ueH cy1L
npo1naoc1onnnn no a1oHy aonpocy.
B-x, a1o npnsnanne occnn u, a ne HnoronaunonanLno
c1pano. osnunn nepyccknx: a onc1n1yunn sakpenneno, xo1L n ne pasLncneno,
nonn1ne HnoronaunonanLnm napop, snaun1 - n c1pana 1oxe HnoronaunonanLnan.
o1nam nx nenpnn1nn cH. amue. ornkn - nn na rpou, no nosnunn 1aeppan.
B-ux, 6eckoneuno aaxnee noppepxnaa1L ne a6conk1nyk uncnennoc1L pycckoro
napopa (naH npnxopnnocL pepxa1L ropaspo 6onLuyk 1eppn1opnk ropaspo HenLunH
uncnoH xn1ene), a ero u . 1o epnnc1aennan
rapan1nn uenoc1noc1n n npouae1annn occnn n nauero, pycckoro naunonanLnoro
ponrone1nn. o ycck nm cr ncn M c ynr c ycck
(acnoHnnH nc1epnky aHneaa, axnHoaa n yueaa a o1ae1 na aoccoepnnenne c
enopyccne: npnunna nHenno a a1oH). pn a1oH onn n , ccn,
6yp1o poc1 ypenLnoro aeca pyccknx c1ane1 poc1nra1Lcn ne sa cue1 npnpoc1a pycckoro
nacenennn, a sa cue1 y6m1nn nepycckoro. 6cypp?! o nHenno 1ak, k npnHepy,
apryHen1npoaan arn6 nHaea na sacepannn koHnccnn oHnaua caok 1ouky spennn na
sakononpoek1 pycckoH napope.
B-x, 6onesnennyk peakunk nepyccknx amsmaae1 y1aepxpenne
, mn ,
. axe HnpnmH ny1eH. /cnn k k - c
M x: c yn c ycck c, a a1oro nnkak ponyc1n1L nenLsn.
o npepnoroH amc1aanne1cn aosHoxnoc1L pnnnoHa1nuecknx ocnoxnenn c kpanno,
asaxc1anoH, c1onne.
B-nx, nepycckne paxe n cnmua1L ne xo1n1 ,
XX x n .
asmrpmaak1cn uenme cnek1aknn c penannmH aosHyuenneH no noaopy napyHanno
npo6neHm renounpa pyccknx. aH npepnarak1 ace sa6m1L n cnnca1L, a 1o, Hon,
n naH Hory1 npepLnan1L cue1a sa renounp n 1. n. uenapnc1 n pexnccep a1nx
cnek1akne nsaec1en - a1o 1o1, na koH nexn1 ocnoanan o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa caHm
c1paunm renounp pycckoro napopa - apeHen peaonkunn, rpapxancko aonm n
nocnepykunx pecn1nne1n. 1o1 xe pexnccep, onacancL konkypenunn, ne xoue1,
u1o6m Hm nopnnHann aonpoc o naueH renounpe co c1oponm neHuea a 1941-1945 rr.,
n6o c 1oukn spennn a1oro pexnccepa, onokoc1 Hoxe1 6m1L 1onLko opnn (n 1onLko
opnn nonyua1enL pnanpenpoa c oa-6nsneca).
ouno 1ak xe nepycckne aospaxak1 npo1na n
x , nHekunx npaao na pea6nnn1aunk co aceHn
138
am1ekakunHn ns a1oro nonn1nuecknHn n akonoHnuecknHn nocnepc1annHn. pecL nHn
pykoaopn1 o6munan xapnoc1L, 6onsnL, u1o nonan1cn eue opnn yuac1nnk paspena
6kpxe1noro nnpora.
B-mx, qm x u n
(ceropnn ona paccHa1pnaae1cn a nopnpke c1. 282
kak npec1ynnenne cpepne 1nxec1n, n sa nee eue nnkoro ne ocypnnn - npnHep
c pycoqo6c1aykunH , 6esnakasanno cpaannaunH pyccknx co cannLnHn, y acex
nepep rnasaHn). o nepycckne paxe n cnmua1L ne xo1n1 o 1ako noc1anoake aonpoca.
akoam ocnoanme npnnunnnanLnme nosnunn, no ko1opmH pyccknH ne ypae1cn poc1nuL
asanHononnHannn n cornacnn c nepyccknHn a occnn.
KK KQm EUK
YQBBY YKHX RKQEH
, aepneHcn k sakonaH, ro1oanunHcn yHo.
1. akononpoek1 6ype1 amnecen na napnaHen1ckne cnyuannn
25 Han cero ropa. poek1 yxe nopro1oanen oHn1e1oH no penaH naunonanLnoc1e
(on pasHeuen uennkoH na c. 10-11 aHec1e c anL1epna1nanmH npoek1oH). npnnnHan
yuac1ne a ero paspa6o1ke, c1peHncL sa6noknpoaa1L nenyxnme n apepnme nonoxennn.
uenoH npoek1 nenLsn nasaa1L nnoxnH, no nenLsn nasaa1L n xopounH. n, na Ho
asrnnp, ne apepen pnn nac, no n, m .
akononpoek1 ne nop1aepxpae1 nn nau c1a1yc kak epnnc1aennoro
rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero napopa (a nonnoH coo1ae1c1ann c nc1opne n
pec1an1enLnoc1Lk), nn c1a1yc occnn kak HononaunonanLno c1panm, nn
neo6xopnHoc1L noppepxnaa1L ypenLnm aec pycckoro napopa a coc1aae poccnckoro
nacenennn, nn qak1 renounpa pycckoro napopa n neo6xopnHoc1L npeoponennn ero
nocnepc1an, nn oco6yk onacnoc1L pycoqo6nn, c1pauno paspyun1enLno pnn acero
rocypapc1aa a uenoH.
noaoH, ns uec1n amuenpnaepennmx nonoxenn, nannkunxcn pnn pycckoro napopa
nan6onee xnsnenno aaxnmHn, no ka1eropnueckn o1aepraeHmx poccncknHn
nnopopuaHn, a npoek1 aouno 1onLko opno: o paspenennoH nonoxennn epnno pyccko
naunn n ee npaae na aoccoepnnenne. ce oc1anLnoe - o1aeprny1o.
pnako Hoxno ne coHneaa1Lcn, u1o paxe a 1akoH ypesanoH anpe sakononpoek1
amsoae1 6euenoe conpo1nanenne a yHe, coc1onue, no neko1opmH pannmH, na pae
1pe1n ns nepyccknx nkpe. oxno aoo6pasn1L, kako o1nop 6ype1 pan eHy co c1oponm
eapecknx qpakun - R n H, pa n co c1oponm pycoqo6c1aykunx
peny1a1oa ns ppyrnx qpakun, 1aknx, kak B n
4 (pnnc1ao) nnn neko1opme koHHynnc1m-nn1epnaunonannc1m.
2. akononpoek1 r 1akxe Hoxno
oxapak1epnsoaa1L kak a uenoH ne apepnm (xo1n neaosHoxno cHnpn1Lcn c 1eH
akuen1oH, ko1opm cpenan a neH na konc1n1yunonnoH npaae a pecny6nnkax
aaopn1L nnme rocypapc1aennme nsmkn kpoHe pycckoro; no a1o qynpaHen1anLnm
nepoc1a1ok cnoanoro, a ne pannoro, sakona). pnako n a neH ec1L aaxneuee
ynyuenne. ero cy1n roaopn1 pnanor, nposayuaaun na sacepannn pa6oue rpynnm
no nopro1oake sakononpoek1a nop pykoaopc1aoH aapmp-oona nuenpen:
139
Cun: 3 cn cn n M k n cnnM r,
kk nk yn n n cynk
cnyxn M nn rn kcyr ycck n
M nxc cynk. M kxcn, kk
nx yk: 3 ycckr nk nnncn MM cM
ycnM nn cycnn rxM kcyr M
nM y nc.
B: /cM - , crnc. HMM - . Y c Ty c
Mr cn n Mc r nc, k
ycckr nyk, kc ycn ck.
pnako npn 1akoH nopxope napyuae1cn konc1n1yunonnoe npaao rpaxpan -
o6paua1Lcn nnuno, a 1akxe nanpaann1L nnpnanpyanLnme n konnek1nanme
o6pauennn a rocypapc1aennme opranm n opranm Hec1noro caHoynpaanennn (c1. 33
onc1n1yunn ). pepc1aaL1e: am a yae o6pauae1ecL k pykoaopc1ay c sananenneH
na pycckoH nsmke (ne snan 1yannckoro), a pykoaopn1enL apHnnnc1paunn ne Hoxe1 ero
npouec1L!
3. akononpoek1y x r n yxe
6mn nocanuen npepmpyun noHep aunonankn, rpe pasHec1nnocL uennkoH Hoe
amc1ynnenne c 1pn6ynm . euac oHn1e1 no penaH naunonanLnoc1e yxe o6o6unn
ace saHeuannn k pannoHy sakononpoek1y, n Hm nocan1nH nH o1penLnm Ha1epnan a
6nnxaueH noHepe. pecL 1onLko nanoHnk, u1o sakononpoek1 nm1ae1cn sakpenn1L a
poccnckoH npaae:
- c1a1yc occnn kak naunonanLno c1panm (apepnan noxL);
- c1a1yc x napopoa occnn kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykunx (apepnan noxL);
- c1a1yc naunonannsHa kak npeonornn, nonn1nkn n pec1an, ocnoaannmx na
nppaunonanLnoH npepc1aanennn o npenHyuec1ae caoero napopa nepep ppyrnHn
(apepnan snonaHepennan noxL);
- c1a1yc akonoHnuecko, counanLno, nonn1nuecko n npaaoao saunuennoc1n
naunonanLnmx HenLunnc1a kak ocnoanoro nanpaanennn rocypapc1aenno
naunonanLno nonn1nkn (a6conk1no nekonc1n1yunonnoe nonoxenne,
pnckpnHnnnpykuee oc1anLnme napopm);
- c1a1yc pasxnrannn naunonanLno posnn kak 1nxkoro npec1ynnennn (ne
coo1ae1c1aye1 );
- c1a1yc pycckoro napopa kak necyuero o1ae1c1aennoc1L sa
pasan1ne occnckoro rocypapc1aa mx
!
sakononpoek1e ec1L n Hnorne ppyrne nepoc1a1kn, o ko1opmx n yxe nncan.
a napnaHen1cknx cnyuannnx no pannoHy sakony san 6mn nepenonnen, no ny6nnka na
pean1L pecn1mx 6mna nepyccko. 6 a1o o1kpoaenno ckasann c 1pn6ynm ueuenckn
peny1a1 x (onLko nocHo1pe1L na aypn1opnk - n Hoxno ckasa1L, k1o
6onLue acero sann1epecoaan a 1oH, u1o6m a1o1 sakon 6mn npnnn1) n
npepc1aan1enLnnua en1pa no saun1e npaa penpeccnpoaannmx napopoa
(c1a1n, k1o specL amc1ynae1 o1 nHenn pycckoro napopa? pepc1aan1enn 1onLko
nepyccknx a1nocoa. n1epecm pycckoro a1noca o1cy1c1ayk1). n1a1m panm no
c1enorpaHHe.
140
npaunaae1cn nocne a1oro, nHee1 nn snauenne kappoam coc1aa oHn1e1a no penaH
naunonanLnoc1e , ro1oanauero a1n cnyuannn, npnrnauaauero yuac1nnkoa?
4. epeuncnennme sakononpoek1m nanncanm nano ne c nosnun saun1nnkoa pyccknx
nn1epecoa. sakononpoek1 6 ocnoaax. npnHo-1akn o1pae1 pycoqo6ne. o
q u O
O u-u ,
nopro1oanennm nop pykoaopc1aoH 6ypn1kn mpenoao n no66npyeHm saHec1n1eneH
Hnnnc1pa no penaH naunonanLnoc1e 1a1apko a6pneao.
epaan xe nonpaaka, npepnarae1 a c1a1Le 1 sakona, rnacnue, u1o aunonanLno-
kynL1ypnan aa1onoHnn a occncko epepaunn. - a1o qopHa naunonanLno-
kynL1ypnoro caHoonpepenennn, npepc1aannkuan co6o o6uec1aennoe o6Lepnnenne
rpaxpan occncko epepaunn, o1nocnunx ce6n k onpepenennmH a1nnuecknH
o6unoc1nH, saHenn1L cnoaa s n cnoaaHn:
s , xnn
u um m .
nmHn cnoaaHn, nepaan xe nonpaaka k sakony o1pesae1 pyccknH aosHoxnoc1L
cospannn caonx naunonanLno-kynL1ypnmx aa1onoHn.
oppo6nm ananns cn1yaunn, cnoxnauecn aokpyr pyccknx , un1a1enL nape1 a
c1a1Le nxanna ysneuoaa (pok1opa kpnpnuecknx nayk, npoqeccopa kapeHnn
occnyx6m npn npesnpen1e occnn) nckpnHnnaunn, nepeneua1anno ns
esaancnHo rase1m.
pecL xe 1onLko ckaxy, u1o n n qn
n, s u m
u u
n m .
R EHEHH
, 1e cnnm, u1o nespnHo c1on1 sa coapeHenno pycoqo6cko (a
koneunoH cue1e, an1npoccncko) sakonopa1enLno nonn1nko, npekpacno nonnHak1,
u1o peakunn pycckoro napopa na npnnn1ne nopo6nmx sakonoa Hoxe1 6m1L pesko n
nenpepckasyeHo. oa1oHy onn, ao-nepamx, okpyxnnn nopro1oaky nx nno1no saaeco
Honuannn, a ao-a1opmx, yxe ceuac ro1oan1 sakonm, nosaonnkune sa1kny1L pyccknH
po1 n cansa1L pykn na cnyua o1kpm1oro ampaxennn nepoaonLc1aa.
nHenno: a ocpyHy anecenm sakononpoek1m " n nv
s" n " n ".
mpepxkn ns nnx 6mnn ony6nnkoaanm a npepmpyueH noHepe. poek1 pekoHenpaun
napnaHen1cknx cnyuann no a1nH sakononpoek1aH, nopro1oanennm oHn1e1oH no
sakonopa1enLc1ay (npepcepa1enL H Km, ), ampan 1anme
c1paxn n yc1anoakn nnnuna1opoa:
En c M, c Mcn cn, xn cr Mn
x nn nr nnn c nk. Ok a
c Mx cn, r. BM. k ycnn
Mc ycnn n r, cn c
nnM ccM ccckM c qmM,
cck cMnk x q nn s (a
a1y qopHyny nerko a1ncny1L ace, u1o yropno aa1opaH! - .).
141
An nn nckr akcMM Pcc cncy c
nm r rc cnn c r cyc... Ok
M s s nn n
u , xr
cn, n nr x, c kn
c c M c k,
x n x (a a1oro, okasmaae1cn, nnkoHy, kpoHe nnx, nenLsn!! -
.) r rcyc nc....
e napo 6m1L rapanko, u1o6m nonn1L, u1o eapeckne qpakunn, uLn yun 1opua1 ns-sa
pannmx sakononpoek1oa, o6ecnokoenm 6onLue acero n a nepayk ouepepL ne
ueuencknH 1eppopnsHoH n ne pen1enLnoc1Lk 6e1apoauea nnn aoopyxennmx
oxpannnkoa ns onpa 6esonacnoc1n eapecknx o6unn ockam (o ko1opoH Hm nncann a
N5 sa 2000 r.), a nHenno poc1oH pycckoro naunonannsHa. u1o sakononpoek1m
nanpaanenm nHenno npo1na nero.
ero c1on1, nanpnHep, nonm1ka sakonopa1enLno y1aeppn1L sanpe1 na nn1epa1ypy, a
1akxe aypno-, qo1o-, knno-, anpeonpopykunk, m npak1nky
coaepuennn aoennmx n nnmx npec1ynnenn naunsHa, ocyxpennmx kpn6eprcknH
HexpynapopnmH aoennmH 1pn6ynanoH, a paano copepxaune npnsmam k renounpy
a1nnuecknx rpynn nn6o ux m ux x
. ocne npnnn1nn 1akoro sakona c1ane1 aoo6ue neaosHoxno,
nanpnHep, aec1n cao6opnyk nayunyk pnckycnk no noaopy 1ak nasmaaeHoro onokoc1a
- nnn pa1L noueunny noponky nepycckoro nponcxoxpennn (1e6n 6ypy1 cypn1L ne sa
ockop6nenne pec1aneH, a kak akc1peHnc1a - no noamH, kypa 6onee xec1knH
npaannaH).
o cuac1Lk, coc1aannnn a1n nopnme sakononpoek1m, anpnHo, ne kpnc1m, a
cneunannc1m 1nna nsaec1noro Hac1epa nxnamx ponocoa arennn poueuknna n ero
ppyxkoa ns ockoackoro an1nqaunc1ckoro uen1pa. oa1oHy pannme 1ekc1m
naqapunpoaanm qak1nuecknHn, nornuecknHn n kpnpnuecknHn nenennuaHn.
asrpoHnm (!!) o1sma na nnx pan koncynL1an1 1pena no o6ecneuennk pen1enLnoc1n
nonnoHounoro npepc1aan1enn npesnpen1a a ocypapc1aenno yHe nk1op
oaanea, saun1naun pok1opckyk pnccep1aunk kak pas no ananornuno 1eHa1nke.
C n u mxn
x s x x, mx
u m u
, ?
nnuno a a1oH ne yaepen. po1nannk 1ouno am6pan HoHen1: koHHynnc1m,
neopnokpa1no 6noknpoaaaaune npoxoxpenne nopo6nmx sakonoa uepes yHy, ceropnn
ne a cnnax sa6noknpoaa1L nnuero, n npepckasa1L peakunk pyHckoro 6onLunnc1aa
nmne cnoxno. epexop 1euec1aa a pnnc1ao amsmaae1 a a1oH nnane
o6ocnoaannme onacennn.
e cnyuano nonm1ka npopaan1L sakononpoek1m o 6opL6e c akc1peHnsHoH n
naunc1cko nn1epa1ypo conpoaoxpae1cn pnknH ansroH peHnpeccm no noaopy
nko6m norpoHoa a ceneao. akoame norpoHm - nn6o o6munm na ycn amnneck
6yno aneprnn Honopexn nanopo6ne no1eunmx kynaunmx 6oea, nn6o - nenLsn
ncknkun1L! - pacue1nnaan npoaokaunn 1ex, koHy 1akne ckxe1m, npepenLno paspy1me
, ouenL na pyky. 1o6m nyra1L o6maa1enn n anac1L poc1oH akc1peHnsHa n
roaopn1L o neo6xopnHoc1n ero cpounoro n xec1koro o6yspannn. asyHee1cn, c
noHouLk ace 1ex xe 6esrpaHo1nmx sakonoa.
142
a nopxope, kc1a1n, n noam sakon , a ko1opoH 6ypy1 yxec1ouenm nopHm
kon1ponn sa cao6opo cnoaa n ycnnenm kapa1enLnme qynkunn no cpaanennk c
neann1no c1. 4 nmne pec1aykuero sakona.
noaoH, kak roaopn1 nocnoanua, 6Lk1 n nnaka1L ne pak1.
* * *
nac1ynnennn an1npyccko anac1n c noHouLk noamx sakonoa na npaaa n
nn1epecm pycckoro napopa naH nyxno:
-x, nponnkny1Lcn cosnanneH onacnoc1n n cy1Lk npo6neHm;
-x, npnnara1L ace aosHoxnme ycnnnn pnn pasan1nn pycckoro naunonanLnoro
caHocosnannn n pacnpoc1panennn npe pycckoro naunonannsHa, aec1n unpokyk
pasLncnn1enLnyk pa6o1y no pannoHy aonpocy;
-ux, sa6poca1L npesnpen1a y1nna n npepcepa1enn ocpyHm enesneaa
nncLHaHn npo1ec1a, nyuue konnek1nanmHn, no noaopy amueonncanno
sakonopa1enLno a1akn na pycckn napop (noHnn1e, n q n -
u!);
-x n a-rnaanmx, qopcnpoaa1L npoueccm o6Lepnnennn pyccknx cnn (ecnn
napo - 1o n uepes ronoam 6nnsopyknx n aH6nunosnmx pykoaopn1ene pyccknx
oprannsaun) a epnnyk pycckyk nap1nk.
1o saun1n1 nac, kpoHe nac caHnx?
YKR HQER, EK XXI
(H QERB H HE HE QERB)
6uec1ao, opnen1npoaannoe na aepnoc1L 1papnunnH, caoeHy npounoHy,
o6peueno na ncuesnoaenne.
6uec1ao, opnen1npoaannoe na caoe nac1onuee,
o6peueno na sac1o.
1onLko o6uec1ao, opnen1npoaannoe na 6ypyuee,
cnoco6no pasanaa1Lcn.
pnonLp on6n
HRHHHEKR HMM
YK HHHRBH-BQHERBH
QHXEHHR (HQ)
nneHenn ec1L opna o6uan sapaua, ane amnonnennn ko1opo 6eccHmcnen
nk6o pasroaop o aneune n any1penne nonn1nke n o kakoH-nn6o 6ypyueH aoo6ue.
1a sapaua: u u n
xn mx .
1o m ponxno 6m1L nopunneno kaxpoe naunnanne
pyccknx kak na aneune- 1ak n na any1pnnonn1nuecko apene. k6o npean n nosynr
ponxen ouennaa1Lcn c nosnunn ocyuec1anennn a1o sapaun. s nee cnepye1
143
ncxopn1L n npn coc1aanennn nonn1nuecko nporpaHHm pycckoro napopa. paaa n
nn1epecm pycckoro napopa, npnsaannme o6ecneun1L ero amxnaanne, - a1o
a6conk1nm npnopn1e1, ane ko1oporo pyccko nonn1nkn ne Hoxe1 6m1L.
Txn mn - s u n n XXI
. H n u .
I. HEUHRR HRHHK
nonn1nueckan nporpaHHa pycckoro panxennn pnk1ye1cn payHn
pannoc1nHn: nonoxenneH nauero napopa na Hnpoao apene n nonoxenneH ero any1pn
occnn. oo1ae1c1aenno amc1panaak1cn naun aneune- n any1pnnonn1nueckne
napapnrHm.
expynapopnm acnek1 ceropnn, a ycnoannx oxec1ouenno 6opL6m payx Hnpoamx
1enpenun - rno6annsaunn n an1nrno6annsaunn - nanne1cn onpepennkunH pnn cype6
napopoa Hnpa, pycckoro a 1oH uncne. 1o aepyun, nopunnnkun acnek1 no
o1nouennk k any1pnnonn1nueckoHy - aepoHoHy, nopunnennoHy. 6o cnnm,
pec1aykune na Hexpynapopno apene a Hacu1a6ax ace nnane1m, ao Hnoro pas
snaun1enLnee paxe caHmx cnnLnmx any1pnpoccncknx rpynn n nap1n. a6nkpan
poccnckyk nonn1nky nocnepnnx nn1napua1n ne1, Hm a a1oH neopnokpa1no
y6expanncL, nonnHan, u1o rnacnm nnn nernacnm pnk1a1 aneunnx cnn nonnoc1Lk
onpepenne1 6espaccypnme (na nepam asrnnp) n apeponocnme pnn occnn noc1ynkn
anac1n.
aknH o6pasoH, npexpe acero cnepye1 ocosna1L naun, pycckne nn1epecm,
aosHoxnoc1n, uenn n sapaun na aneuneH, rno6anLnoH ypoane. 1o Hm, pycckne, no
6onLuoHy cue1y: rno6annc1m nnn an1nrno6annc1m?
ue nepaano, a 1920-1980-x rr., a ycnoannx 1opxec1aa counannsHa n no6epnoro
uec1ann npe HapkcnsHa-nennnnsHa no aceHy Hnpy, Hm ec1ec1aennmH o6pasoH 6mnn
caHmHn nac1onunHn rno6annc1aHn. 6o no6epa nauero c1pon ao aceHnpnoH
Hacu1a6e, k ueHy nac npnsmaana oae1ckan anac1L n ao u1o coae1ckn napop aepnn, -
a1o n 6mna anonne knaccnueckan rno6annc1ckan HopenL, kaknx yxe neHano noanpano
uenoaeuec1ao (nHnepnn nekcanppa akeponckoro, nHckan nHnepnn, nHnepnn apna
ennkoro, pn1anckan nHnepnn, pe1n ex n Hn. pp.). oae1ckn oks c1peHnncn
nHenno k aceHnpno rereHonnn, onpaapmaan a1o c pok1pnnanLnmx npeno-
nonn1nuecknx nosnun; nepapoH a rep6e ero 6mn seHno uap - 1akoa 6mn nc1nnnm
Hacu1a6 coae1ckoro npoek1a. oc1a1ouno acnoHnn1L qan1ac1nueckne noaec1n o
6ypyueH enoaeuec1aa, ko1opmHn saun1maanncL nokonennn coae1cknx nkpe: a nnx
rpnpyun Hnp npepc1aaan nensHenno kak neu1o epnnoe, c epnnmH xe (pasyHee1cn,
koHHynnc1nuecknH) HnpoamH npaan1enLc1aoH - HyppmH, ryHannmH, n 1.p.
eropnn, korpa naua npexnnn HopenL aceHnpnoro yc1poc1aa okasanacL na caanke
nc1opnn, a ppyro y nac ne1, korpa naua ponL Hnpoamx nnpepoa n no6epn1ene ne
aoc1pe6oaana, a Hnpy naansmaae1cn noam rno6anLnm npoek1, sa ko1opmH c1on1
nn1epecm sanapnoro, rnaanmH o6pasoH, eapeckoro n cansannoro c nnH kann1ana,
o1kpoaenno apaxpe6nme pnn naue rnaano sapaun, - pnn nac c1onL xe ec1ec1aennmH
c1anoan1cn asrnnp na Hnp kak na ne opnononnpnyk, a Hnorononnpnyk konc1pykunk.
ko1opo o1aepennan naH ponL npncnyxnnka n 1enoxpann1enn noaoro Hnpoaoro nnpepa
(cnonnsnpoaanno Hepnkn) - Hanonpnc1ona, ockop6n1enLna pnn pycckoro
naunonanLnoro poc1onnc1aa, pa n nonpoc1y onacna. ockonLky no onpepenennk
1enoxpann1enL rn6ne1 a nepayk ouepepL.
144
ac yaepnk1, u1o anL1epna1nam rno6annsaunn ne1, u1o nopunnenne occnn a1oHy
npoueccy qa1anLno npeponpepeneno. o 1ak nn a1o? nonne oueanpno, u1o a Hnpe
ec1L konoccanLnme pernonm n uenoaeueckne Haccm, ko1opme, yHeno nonLsyncL
rno6anLnmHn qnnancoamHn n nnqopHaunonnmHn cnc1eHaHn, npn a1oH o1nkpL ne
nannk1cn qparHen1aHn rno6anLno nonn1nuecko cnc1eHm, coxpannn ne 1onLko
caHoc1on1enLnoc1L, no n co6c1aennm nnpepckn no1enunan, nanpaanennm npo1na
coapeHennoro rno6anLnoro nnpepa. nmHn cnoaaHn - ec1L anL1epna1nanme uen1pm
cnnm, pasanaakunecn no aocxopnue. 1o, a nepayk ouepepL, apa6ckn Hnp (kak
nppo 6onee o6unpnoro Hnpa ncnaHa) n, a oco6ennoc1n, n1a.
1ak, ceropnn, nocne amxopa , a 1eH 6onee - occnn, ns onLuo rpm, rnaanme
nrpokn na Hnpoao apene - a1o: 1) cnonnsnpoaannm cek1op anapa, 2) n1a n 3)
ncnaHckn Hnp. ( sanacnmx nrpokax - neyknonno na6npakune aec npnn n 1akne
c1panm a1nncko Hepnkn, kak ekcnka, pasnnnn n pren1nna.)
Cu nm - -
x x mxn
: a nepayk ouepepL, HycynLHan n kn1auea. aH 1epHnn
rno6annsaunn - nnuL naykoo6pasnoe npnkpm1ne pnn nsaeuno aonn napopoa k
HnpoaoHy rocnopc1ay, cy6Lek1 kakoao Henne1cn o1 anoxn k anoxe (annnnm, pnHnnne,
qpankn, anrnnuane, neHum, pycckne n 1.p), a ceropnn aonnouen a eapeckoH a1noce.
nmHn cnoaaHn, kpa1ko: n u n nop
kpmue .
pnako ne1 nnkaknx coHnenn, u1o n aHepnkanckn rno6anLnm npoek1 (Pa
Americana) pyxne1 pano nnn nospno 1ouno 1ak xe, kak pyxnynn ace npepmpyune.
cnn cHo1pe1L a Hacu1a6ax pecn1nne1n n paxe c1one1nn, ycnexn Hepnkn a
saaoeaannn Hnpoao rereHonnn kaxy1cn aneua1nnkunHn. o nc1opnn ne snae1
aeunmx no6epn1ene. po1naoc1onnne c HnpoH ncnaHa (a 1eH 6onee pac1yuee
npo1naoc1onnne c n1aeH) ne Hoxe1 konun1Lcn no6epo - o6 a1oH roaopn1 onm1
1mcnuene1n, peHonc1pnpykun ue1kn anropn1H asne1oa n napenn rno6anLnmx
npoek1oa a nc1opnn uenoaeuec1aa. a kaxpm nH, ycnoano roaopn, acerpa naxopn1cn
cao rynn 11nna.
nn nac, nenocpepc1aenno, a o1nnune o1 , cocepc1aykunx c n1aeH n
HycynLHanaHn, a1a nepcnek1naa ne nece1 nnuero, kpoHe okonua1enLno n
6ecnoaopo1no rn6enn, a cnyuae, ecnn Hm oc1aeHcn na c1opone Hepnkn.
poHe 1oro, nyxno ncno nonnHa1L: m ,
knn (a1o oco6enno aaxno nopuepkny1L!) m cc, n
n . 6o nece1 eHy kak 6nonornuecko nonynnunn, npouepue
qasy napnoHa (. yHnnea), - spnHyk, o1ue1nnayk onacnoc1L accnHnnnunn,
pac1aopennn a rno6anLnoH uenoaennke (. nnoaLea) n nporpeccnpykue
penonynnunn. 1o yxe ampaxae1cn, ao-nepamx, a yckopennoH n uenenanpaanennoH
sacenennn 1eppn1opnn npoxnaannn nauero napopa nepyccknHn napopaHn acero Hnpa
n kak cnepc1ane - a napennn ypenLnoro aeca pyccknx a occnn, a ao-a1opmx - a
paccenaannn ann1no uac1n pycckoro napopa (oco6enno Honopo) cpepn c1pan n
napopoa, ue xnsnennm ypoaenL amue nauero. eropnn Hm, pycckne, a1opo pas a
1euenne c1a ne1 1epneH caok ann1y, no yxe ne sa cue1 rpaxpancko 6onn, a sa cue1
Hnpno Hnrpaunn nan6onee kaannqnunpoaannmx n opapennmx kappoa a Hec1a
nanamcuero aosnarpaxpennn sa 1pyp. epneH, k coxanennk, naacerpa. ak nsaec1no,
onm1 pnacnopanLnoro cyuec1aoaannn pycckoro napopa - cyry6o o1pnua1enLnm: ao
a1opoH-1pe1LeH nokonennn pycckne nepec1ak1 cyuec1aoaa1L kak pycckne, nonnoc1Lk
cnnaancL c a6opnrenaHn. eH rposn1 naunn 1ako npouecc n kak ero ouennaa1L c
1oukn spennn ocnoaononarakue sapaun, o6Lncnn1L ne nyxno.
145
Hec1no nanoHnn1L, u1o nHenno paa nocnepnnx pyccknx rno6anLnmx npoek1a -
ockaa - pe1n nH n - no1pe6oaann 1akoro neuenoaeueckoro nanpnxennn
acex xnsnennmx cnn pycckoro napopa, u1o coaepuenno nopopaann a1n cnnm n
noc1aannn napop na kpa nonno rn6enn. muepeuennan accnHnnnunn n penonynnunn
pyccknx - ao HnoroH pacnna1a sa pnn1enLnoe nHnepckoe cyuec1aoaanne, sa nHenno
rno6anLnme saHaukn Hnnyaunx nokonenn. o1L Hm n npopeHonc1pnpoaann Hnpy
aennkonennme poc1nxennn sa cue1 neaepon1nmx ycnnn, opnako a pesynL1a1e nHeeH
ceropnn peanLnm uanc naacerpa co1n c Hnpoao cuenm, oc1aana ace a1n caHme
poc1nxennn a nacnepc1ao ppyrnH napopaH. eneneun, rnyneun xpe6n,
nepoc1onm napopa-1pyxennka, napopa-repon, napopa-1aopua. ena sa asne1
nHnepcko kynL1ypm okasanacL nenoHepno aennka. aocnoHnnannn o 6mnoH aennunn
- 1y1 cnnukoH cna6oe n nnkueHnoe y1euenne. cnn ncnonLsoaa1L 1epHnnonornk Laa
yHnneaa, nmnue Hm, pycckne, oc1aannn nosapn nepnop caoe naccnonapnoc1n,
ec1ec1aenno conpoaoxpakun nepnop c1peHn1enLnoro peHorpaqnueckoro poc1a
napopoa, n ac1ynnnn a nepnop ana6nosa, xapak1epnsykuncn peHorpaqnuecknH
cnapoH. apo ncno nonnHa1L, u1o a a1nx o6c1on1enLc1aax npepnara1L pyccknH
ouepepno rno6anLnm (nnn, u1o 1o xe, nHnepckn) npoek1 - a1o ace paano, u1o
nopnaunaa1L c1apnka, u1o6m on xennncn na Honopyxe. pnn1no, cnapko? ue 6m! o
pacnna1a - nens6exnan ckopan n nosopnan cHep1L.
nn 1oro, u1o6m Hoxno 6mno a 6ypyueH c1aan1L aonpoc o noao aceHnpno ponn
pycckoro napopa, neo6xopnHo kak HnnnHyH po6n1Lcn pnn nero c1a6nnLnoro n
snaun1enLnoro npeamuennn poxpaeHoc1n nap cHep1noc1Lk. naue a1o 6ype1 acero
nnuL 6eso1ae1c1aennoe n apepnoe, npoaokaunonnoe npoxek1epc1ao.
H xu x nx Bx . o1n 6m pnn 1oro,
u1o6m na6pa1Lcn noamx cnn k 1oHy HoHen1y, korpa nopo6nme Hnccnn caHn co6o
nonan1cn cnnok aeue.
kasannoe ne osnauae1, u1o naH ne1 Hec1a a npoueccax, nponcxopnunx a rno6anLnmx
Hacu1a6ax. m HoxeH, 6esycnoano, okasa1L konoccanLnyk ycnyry uenoaeuec1ay, asna
na ce6n u x ,
B Hq. a1oH, no-anpnHoHy, naue nc1nnnoe aceHnpnoe
nc1opnueckoe npepnasnauenne na ceropnn. o o6 a1oH - a ppyroH Hec1e.
T , n m
- HE RBRH3HH.
onnHan a1o, naH neo6xopnHo onpepenn1Lcn no payH ycnoanmH ocnH reo- n
a1nononn1nuecknx kooppnna1: eaep - Kr n anap - oc1ok. nepayk ouepepL
a1o cansano c am6opoH c1pa1ernueckoro coksnnka na 6nnxaune pecn1nne1nn.
axe1cn na nepam asrnnp nornunmH ncka1L ce6e coksnnka cpepn popc1aennmx naH
no pace napopoa, yun1maan, u1o rno6anLnm konqnnk1 nocn1 o1ue1nnao pacoam
xapak1ep: npo1na 6enmx xpnc1nancknx apncknx napopoa ceropnn amc1ynak1
HycynLHane cHeuannoro (a 1oH uncne 1kpkn, ceHn1m-apa6m, Honrononpm n nerpm)
pacoaoro coc1aaa, a saa1pa nens6exno amc1ynn1 Honrononpm. o 1ako noaepxnoc1no
nornke pec1aye1 ceropnn npesnpen1 y1nn - amxopeu ns nan6onee
aec1epnnsnpoaannoro pernona occnn, nyuune ropm caoe xnsnn npoaepun a
epHannn. opo6no 6epnoHy popc1aennnky npnHo-1akn na6naancL a 6pa1Ln n
coksnnkn Hepnke (yxn1pnauncL nponan1L paxe 6nLuyk nonnLnoc1L k , ueH
Hnorne unenm eaepoa1nan1nueckoro anLnnca), o1kpoaenno nanpaunaancL a ,
y1nn 6epe1 na ce6n nenoHepnyk nc1opnueckyk o1ae1c1aennoc1L. ak, k npnHepy,
o1pearnpye1 n1a, y6epnauncL, u1o aponL caHo npo1nxenno ero rpannum c1on1
aocka ne aekoaoro Hnpnoro cocepa - pyccknx, a aekoaoro apara - anapa (a nnue
pyccknx pe6n1, ope1mx a na1oackyk qopHy)? y1 neuero n rapa1L. eH a1o upeaa1o pnn
nac, nHekunx nno1noc1L nacenennn aponL rpannum c n1aeH 2 uenoaeka na ka. kH., a
146
1o apeHn kak a n1ae a1a nno1noc1L paana 150? oxe rapa1L ne nyxno. o y1nny,
ny6nnuno (n rny6oko oun6ouno) npen1nqnunpykueHy occnk c anapoH, po a1oro,
anpno, pena ne1.
o1 qak1, u1o Hm nko6m okasanncL c eaponeuaHn a opno nopke - eue nnuero ne
snaun1. kasa1Lcn a opno nopke c nkpoepoH nnn npokaxennmH - o6c1on1enLc1ao,
nnHano ne cnoco6c1aykuee connpapnoc1n n konconnpaunn[1].
oka u1o 6enme apnum-eaponeum, nacHep1L nepenyrannme akcnancne (a nepayk
ouepepL - peHorpaqnuecko) ncnaHcknx napopoa, acnueckn sanrpmaak1 nHenno c
nnHn, sancknaak1 nHenno nepep nnHn n npepnoun1ak1 np1n na coks n konconnpaunk
nHenno c nnHn, a aoace ne c naHn, 6pa1LnHn no pace. pn a1oH, ne 1ancL,
na1paannaak1 nx - na nac, a nac - na nnx, a napexpe o1aec1n ypap o1 ce6n. nHenno
no1oHy ne uenn1 ycnnnn occnn no o6yspannk ncnaHckoro akc1peHnsHa, konHn
ueronne1 npesnpen1 y1nn nepep nnuoH aponm. n ueronne1 ycnnnnHn, a apona
n a o1ae1 - 6ecnpnc1pac1noc1Lk a ocaeuennn ueuencknx co6m1n, rpe occnn
npepc1ae1 a anpe kpoaoxapnoro Honc1pa, a ueuenum - a anpe neannnmx xep1a.
aHonpepa1enLc1ao (nck n) nackaosL nnqnnL1poaanno
HycynLHanaHn aponm nens6exno o6opaunaae1cn npepa1enLc1aoH nk6oro ee
rnno1e1nueckoro coksnnka - xo1L 6m n Hepnkn, xo1L 6m n occnn. 1o 1o1 caHm
cnyua, korpa Hep1am xaa1ae1 xnaoro, u1o6m y1aun1L c co6o na 1o1 cae1.
ypoanunm no caoe nornke noc1ynok (a1o a66peana1ypo anonne
o6ocnoaanno Hoxno saHenn1L cnoaocoue1anne aHepnkanum nnkc eaponeum nnn
eapo-aHepnkanum) - nocnepoaa1enLnan noppepxka HycynLHan ao ace uepepe
krocnaacknx aon 1990-x ropoa, aknkuan aoopyxennm konqnnk1 a ocoao. pnako
a1o ec1L caepunauncn qak1, n on nonnoc1Lk ampae1 ack ncnxonornk coapeHennoro
eaponeua, nopaxennyk cnnppoHoH sanoxnnka; ackpmaae1 npncyun nc1nnnoHy
na1oauy anropn1H noaepennn. mueykasannan noppepxka ampasn1enLno
conpoaoxpae1cn pen1enLnoc1Lk Hexpynapopnoro ncnaHckoro uen1pa a onpone (acero
a nrnnn - okono 400 ncnaHcknx oprannsaun!), Hnoro1mcnunmHn an1npoccncko-
npoueuencknHn Hn1nnraHn a apnxe. e1, naH ne npnxopn1cn napen1Lcn na coks c
apono a cospaaueHcn npo1naoc1onnnn napopoa n pac: ne nyxno nn1a1L nnnksn n
nec6m1ounmx napexp. aponeum ne xpy1 n ne xo1n1 a a1oH pene o1 nac noppepxkn, n
caHn, 6esycnoano, ne noppepxa1 nac. ( npo Hepnky, nacenennyk, no ampaxennk
ennepn, naune nHHnrpan1oa, n peun 6m1L ne Hoxe1.)
nepye1 po6aan1L k ckasannoHy, u1o na1oaum, caHn nepexnaan xec1okn
peHorpaqnueckn kpnsnc, npn a1oH eue aepy1 c naHn nespnHyk peHorpaqnueckyk
aony, ryHann1apnyk nn1epaenunk, oprannsyn y nac pen1enLnoc1L pasnnunmx
cae1cknx oprannsaun n pennrnosnmx cek1, yaopnunx nkpe o1 cospannn nopHanLno
Hnorope1no ceHLn. 1akxe naansmaan occnn amropnyk anapy Hnrpaunonnyk
nonn1nky. npaaepnnaoc1n papn acnoHnnH, u1o n Hm neHano narapnnn 6pa1LnH no
pace, ceHLpecn1 ne1 noppepxnaan no aceHy Hnpy an1nnHnepnannc1nueckne,
an1nkononnanLnme panxennn. 1oro a naunx asanHoo1nouennnx nakonnenm
orpoHnme saaanm o6np, npe1ensn n anonne o6ocnoaannoro nepoaepnn. nc1nnnoHy
coksnnuec1ay ceropnn ne ro1oam nn Hm, nn 6enme eapo-aHepnkanum, ko1opme nac sa
eaponeuea nnkorpa ne cun1ann, ne cun1ak1, pa n cun1a1L ne 6ypy1. m pnn nnx -
aeuno uyxne.
a1o eue 6onLuo aonpoc, poc1ona nn aoo6ue ne6naropapnan apona 1oro, u1o6m
Hm ee a ouepepno pas cnacann. onrono-1a1apm aoace ne nHenn a anpy saaoeaanne
ycn, nx ny1L nexan a apony. o1 nyc1L 6m n unn 1ypa. aueH Hm, saHe1no
o6ronnaune a X-XII aekax a caoeH unannnsaunonnoH pasan1nn anapnyk apony,
oc1anoannn nauec1ane Honronoa uenok Hopn caoe kpoan n payxaekoao o1c1anoc1n?
1o Hm nonyunnn o1 aponm a o1ae1 sa a1o1 cao nopanr? acHeukn nap
6naronpno6pe1enno o1c1anoc1Lk? u1o - a o1ae1 na cokpyuenne aceeaponeckoro
147
pnk1a1opa anoneona? pmHckyk aony. sa pasrpoH paspaanauero apony n1nepa?
onopnyk aony, kpax .
eo6xopnHo 1akxe anpe1L, u1o ceropnn sa nonn1nuecko aaancueno naHe1nncn
croaop 1pex rno6anLnmx yuac1nnkoa npouecca: na1oackoro anapa, aceHnpnoro
eapec1aa n 1pe1Lero Hnpa, croaop, o6pekakun pasrpoHnennyk n cna6yk occnk
a xep1ay yuac1nnkaH. H Mxy M, cnyn n Mxy cM
mM kM, M MxM nx, ck c xr ck
c - k, .
yx ncka1L coksnnka, 1o ne a nncxopnunx, o6peuennmx napopax,
npnnapnexaunx npounoHy, a a aocxopnunx, nHekunx 6ypyuee. ena1enLno -
aennkoe 6ypyuee. npnHepy, a n1ae - necoHnenno, rnaanoH pec1aykueH nnue XXI
c1one1nn.
cno n nonn1no, u1o cocepc1ao c n1aeH, uLn sanaka na rno6anLnoe nnpepc1ao
necoHnenna, 1an1 a ce6e onpepenennyk onacnoc1L. eH 6onee u1o ace, u1o Hm HoxeH
a cnyuae uero, a1o npnHenn1L cnnm npepnoro cpepxnaannn. o caon a1oHnan 6oH6a
ec1L n y kn1auea. n 1exnnko, nn 1eH 6onee nkpLHn Hm ne HoxeH ce6e nosaonn1L
aoeaa1L c n1aeH, pasae u1o cneunanLno noc1aanH ce6e uenL norn6ny1L a Hyuennnx.
pnako 1ako ncxop ne nanne1cn qa1anLno npeponpepenennmH. m HoxeH coxpann1L
ce6n n paxe, a ocnoanoH, caon seHnn ny1eH unc1o pnnnoHa1nuecko nn1pnrn. peno
1y1 ne a 1oH, u1o Hm nepaano o6okpno nop1aeppnnn rocrpannuy - a1o nnkorpa n
nnkoro eue ne oc1anaannaano. peno a o6ueH a1no- n reononn1nueckoH packnape a
pepne n oc1ouno snn, a 1akxe a nc1opnuecknx 1enpenunnx, 1mcnuene1nnHn
cknapmaaaunHncn a panLneaoc1ounoH pernone.
c1L eue neckonLko coo6paxenn, nnaennpykunx kn1ackyk yrposy, c1aanunx ee
na 1pe1Le Hec1o nocne na1oacko yrposm n ncnaHcko yrposm.
B-x, Hm o6Lek1nano nyxnm n ponro eue 6ypeH nyxnm n1ak, ko1opoHy
neo6xopnHo coepnnn1L caok xnayk cnny c naunHn aoenno-1exnnuecknHn noy-xay n
npnpopnmHn pecypcaHn, u1o6m pnk1oaa1L caok aonk a pernone yxe ceropnn n
npo1naoc1on1L Hepnke (n unpe - anapy) ao aceH Hnpe saa1pa.
B-x, Hm npnnapnexnH k pasnmH pacaH, n pnck cHeua1Lcn, pac1aopn1Lcn,
y1pa1n1L naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L y nac ropaspo nnxe npn o6uennn c kn1auaHn,
ueH c eaponeuaHn nnn paxe 1kpkaHn, kaakasuaHn. nHenno a1o1 pnck kak nnkako
ppyro nanne1cn pnn nac a6conk1no nenpneHneHmH.
B-ux, nan6onee 6ecnouapnme cxaa1kn acerpa nocn1 any1pnanpoao, a ne
Hexanpoao xapak1ep: kn1auaH ncnxonornueckn (ecnn yropno - 6nonornueckn)
npoue n Hnnee 6n1Lcn nacHep1L c HonrononpaHn - kasaxaHn, aLe1naHuaHn,
kopeuaHn, HonronaHn, nnonuaHn, nakoneu, ueH c naHn, eaponeonpaHn. c1a1n, 1ak
ono a aekax acerpa n 6mno, sa ncknkuenneH anoxn nnrnc-ana. oxe1 nn anoxa
nnrnca noa1opn1Lcn? 6nnxaune 20-30 ne1 - apnp nn.
B-x, acn nornka coapeHennoro pasan1nn npepnasnauae1 nac ppyr ppyry a
c1pa1ernueckne nap1nepm. x ecnn Hm c keH pec1an1enLno a opno nopke - 1ak a1o
nHenno c n1aeH. 6o xnsnL sac1aanne1 nac aHec1e ppyxn1L npo1na anapa,
nonnn, nanncnaHcko yrposm n Hnpoaoro eapec1aa - naunx o6unx (o6Lek1nano)
npo1nannkoa.
akoneu, -nx, anonne oueanpno, u1o y nac, pyccknx, - kak HnnnHyH paonan
kynL1ypnan, unannnsaunonnan npen1nunoc1L: sanapnan n aoc1ounan. onL oc1oka a
148
naue nc1opnn acerpa 6mna orpoHna n sauac1yk naHnoro 6onee 6naro1aopna, nexenn
ponL anapa. m HoxeH am6npa1L. ynL1ypnan npn1nra1enLnoc1L n1an pnn
nonnHakunx nkpe - ne nnxe, a ao HnoroH n ropaspo amue eaponecko.
ce ckasannoe ne o1Henne1, koneuno, neo6xopnHoc1n caHmH peun1enLnmH o6pasoH n
aceHn He1opaHn 6opo1Lcn c nonsyue Hnrpaune kn1auea na naun seHnn. nn naH
specL nn k ueHy, aonpekn Hnennk sapy6exnmx n poHopouennmx Hnrpan1opa1ene. o
a1o kacae1cn o1nkpL ne 1onLko kn1auea, a n acex npounx, n o6 a1oH - nnxe.
, na aneunenonn1nuecko apene nporpaHHnme sapaun pycckoro panxennn npnHo
npo1naononoxnm 1eH, u1o ceropnn c1aan1 poccnckoe npaan1enLc1ao:
1. occnn ne cnepye1 npnnnHa1L qanLuname npaanna nrpm, cornacno ko1opmH (n
c1onuee sa a1o amaecko Hnpoaoe eapec1ao) nannk1cn rno6anLnmH nnpepoH o1nmne
n naacerpa. oo6ue ne cnepye1 a6conk1nsnpoaa1L rno6annsaunk, npnnnHa1L ee sa
nekn qa1anLnm noc1yna1enLnm npouecc, n6o na pene npouecc a1o1 pnckpe1en n
pasanaae1cn ne no npnHo, a no cnnyconpe, co asne1aHn, npoaanaHn n paspmaaHn.
2. occnn ne cnepye1 cornaua1Lcn c nckycc1aenno npen1nqnkaune ee kak
qparHen1a sanapno unannnsaunn. 1o nayuno oun6ouno n nonn1nueckn apepno. m,
pycckne, cnnLno o1nnuaeHcn o1 6onLunnc1aa eaponecknx napopoa caonH o1nouenneH
k Hnpy n uenoaeky, 1nnoH peakun, HopenLk noaepennn, ukano uennoc1e n 1.p.
onee 1oro: a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao pyccknx (no onpocaH) ne aocnpnnnHae1
sanapnyk nn6epanLno-peHokpa1nueckyk unannnsaunk kak npeanLnyk.
occnn, sannHakue ynnkanLnoe reononn1nueckoe nonoxenne: 1) na eaepe Hnpa n
2) Hexpy anapoH n oc1okoH, cnepye1 sann1Lcn nonckoH co6c1aenno npen1nunoc1n,
ne yanekancL unannnsaunonnmHn HopennHn nn anapa, nn oc1oka. aH, pyccknH,
nyxno oc1aaa1Lcn caHnHn co6o. occospaaa1L (n cospaaa1L sanoao!) n co6nkpa1L
caok naunonanLnyk cpepy o6n1annn, caok unannnsaunk, cao pycckn Hnp, ne
noppaaancL nnkaknH co6nasnaH aceuenoaeuec1aa, eapasnc1aa,
o6ueeaponeckoro poHa, acecnaannckoro 6pa1c1aa n npounx 1oHy nopo6nmx
xnHep, c opno c1oponm. o n nnkoro noc1oponnero ne ponyckan a a1o1 Hnp - c
ppyro.
Hec1e c 1eH, neo6xopnHo a kaxpoH ns amueykasannmx He1apernonoa (anap n
oc1ok) aec1n rn6kyk nonn1nky, naxopn, c opno c1oponm, c1pa1ernuecknx nap1nepoa
na ponryk nepcnek1nay (na anape 1aknH nap1nepoH Horna 6m c1a1L npn
onpepenennmx ycnoannx epHannn, na oc1oke a1o - 6esycnoano n1a), a c ppyro
c1oponm - cnoco6c1ayn cospannk 1aH cnc1eHm cpepxek n npo1naoaecoa c yue1oH
6ora1oro na6opa npo1naopeun any1pn kaxporo He1apernona.
3. occnn cnepye1 1aeppo npnpepxnaa1Lcn konuenunn Hnorononnpnoc1n Hnpa,
noppepxnaan 1akne aospac1akune Hnpoame uen1pm cnnm, kak ncnaHckn Hnp n
n1a, ao aceH, u1o nenocpepc1aenno ne npo1naopeun1 ee nn1epecaH. uac1noc1n,
neo6xopnHo ue1ko n opnosnauno onpepenn1Lcn a 1ako knkueao pnn coapeHenno
nc1opnn 1ouke, kak nnxnn oc1ok: peun1enLno o1aepny1Lcn o1 spannn n
noaepny1Lcn nnuoH k apa6cknH napopaH. ( pannoH cnyuae, kak nn napapokcanLno,
Hm napeH nonnHanne aponm, ns6npakue ceropnn nHenno 1akyk nosnunk.
pnoapeHenno, aocc1anoana po6pme o1nouennn c apa6cknH HnpoH, sapakunH 1on
aceHy ncnaHckoHy coo6uec1ay, Hm nonyunH kap1-6nanu na peuenne Hnornx
any1pnnonn1nuecknx npo6neH, cansannmx c naxoxpenneH HycynLHan a coc1aae
poccnckoro nacenennn.)
4. occnn cnepye1 6esycnoano n HakcnHanLno pnc1anunpoaa1Lcn o1 noao Hnpoao
aonm Hexpy anapoH (1ounee, cnonnsnpoaannmH anrno-aHepnkancknH anLnncoH) n
ncnaHcknH HnpoH. onL an1nncnaHckoro (ceropnn) n an1nkn1ackoro (saa1pa) un1a,
149
npnkpmaakuero nmneunero rno6anLnoro nnpepa o1 rno6anLnmx xe yrpos, - naH
. anpo1na, naH cnepye1 npnHenn1L Hyppyk kn1ackyk c1pa1areHy
cnpn na rope, na6nkpa1L cxaa1ky 1nrpoa a ponnne. eropnn na anape ne oc1anocL
nnkaknx uennoc1e, kM Mn, papn ko1opmx cnepoaano 6m pnckoaa1L
pyccknHn nkpLHn, papn ko1opmx pyccknH nkpnH c1onno 6m yHnpa1L. ac1ynnennn a
ne Hoxe1 6m1L n peun. nanpenpm, ko1opme occnn Hoxe1 nonyun1L,
noppepxnaan ne snakune 6naropapnoc1n a nx qynkunn aceHnpnoro cypLn,
xanpapHa n nanaua, 6onee ueH coHnn1enLnm. Hm yxe a a1oH y6epnnncL. ao1
nspepxkn - coaepuenno necoHnennm.
oo6ue, occnn ponxna nepec1a1L cnepoaa1L a qapaa1epe nonn1nkn , anapa n
spannn: nx aek na ncxope. aua ocnoanan aneunenonn1nueckan opnen1aunn - na
aocxopnune pernonm: n1a, opek (eaepnyk nn6o o6Lepnnennyk), npnk, pan,
apa6ckn Hnp, Kxnyk n en1panLnyk Hepnky. Tu x
u u , (u ),
nm n, n .
5. co6oe annHanne ponxno 6m1L ypeneno naunH o1nouennnH co c1panaHn -
6maunHn pecny6nnkaHn . nn pyccknx nc1nnnm cHmcn nx nannunn a coc1aae
nHnepnn coc1onn a 1oH, u1o Hexrocypapc1aennme rpannum (coo1ae1c1aenno, aoennan
onacnoc1L) o1opanranncL npn a1oH o1 pycckoro naunonanLnoro nppa. ( popnmx naH
no kpoan kpanne n enopyccnn - pasroaop oco6m.) o sa a1o Hm pacnnaunaanncL
nenocnnLnmH ponopc1aoH, nc1ouaaunH naun pecypcm. a cHeny 1ako Hopenn
o1nouenn ponxna npnp1n cyry6o nparHa1nunan, neonHnepnannc1nueckan nonn1nka.
e1 nnkakoro pesona noppepxnaa1L cyuec1aoaanne 1ako nceaponHnepcko
c1pyk1ypm, kak : ona ponxna 6m1L saHenena aceo6LeHnkue cnc1eHo
payc1oponnnx poroaopoa. pnueH yxe cyuec1aykune poroaopm Hexpy occncko
epepaune n c1panaHn 6nnxnero sapy6exLn ponxnm nopaeprny1Lcn kopennoHy
nepecHo1py a nonLsy occnn (a nepayk ouepepL, oroaop o ppyx6e, co1pypnnuec1ae n
nap1nepc1ae c kpanno n 1akoao xe c onpaane). pnopn1e1nmH nanpaanenneH
nonn1nkn ponxna c1a1L akonoHnueckan n nonn1nueckan noppepxka pycckoro
nacenennn a c1panax 6nnxnero sapy6exLn. a c1panm, ko1opme nopaeprak1 pyccknx
pnckpnHnnaunn, ponxno okasmaa1Lcn aceHn poc1ynnmHn HepaHn aqqek1nanoe
paanenne. eo6xopnHo 1akxe nn6o npnsna1L pnpnec1poackyk pecny6nnky, 6xasnk
n Kxnyk ce1nk kak nesaancnHme rocypapc1aa, nn6o npnnn1L nx a coc1aa
occncko epepaunn na npaaax pecny6nnk a coc1aae . occnn n enopyccnn
ponxnm nesaHepnn1enLno o6Lepnnn1Lcn a epnnoe rocypapc1ao.
po6neHa aoccoepnnennn (HnpnmH ny1eH n a coo1ae1c1ann c HexpynapopnmH npaaoH)
epnno pyccko naunn, okasaauecn a paspenennoH nonoxennn, ponxna neuL ao
rnaay yrna naue nonn1nkn a 6nnxneH sapy6exLe.
6. ak 6m nn cknapmaanncL naun payc1oponnne o1nouennn c 1eHn nnn nnmHn
c1panaHn, occnn ne cnepye1 axopn1L a kakne-nn6o 6nokn, nn1erpnpoaa1Lcn a
napnaunonanLnme c1pyk1ypm. expynapopnoe npaao n Hexpynapopnme poroaopm,
pa1nqnunpoaannme occne, ne ponxnm nHe1L npnopn1e1a nap any1pennnH
sakonopa1enLc1aoH; a occnn ponxen pec1aoaa1L npnopn1e1 naunonanLno-
rocypapc1aennmx nn1epecoa. akoneu, occnn ne ponxna pa1nqnunpoaa1L poroaopm,
orpannunaakune aoennme aosHoxnoc1n occnn; yxe saknkuennme poroaopm 1akoro
popa ponxnm 6m1L nepecHo1penm.
II. HYEHHRR HRHHK
H nonn1nke nonoxenne pyccknx onpepenne1cn payHn rnaanmHn
yrposaHn. B-x, a1o npouecc penonynnunn, saxaa1naun ace 6enme apnckne
150
xpnc1nanckne napopm ao aceH Hnpe n npnnnaun y pyccknx (na qone kpyuennn
rocypapc1aennmx, nc1opnuecknx n npeno-nonn1nuecknx yc1oea) aspmaoo6pasno-
o6aanLnm xapak1ep. B-x, a1o ypanennoc1L pyccko naunonanLno ann1m o1
pmuaroa nonn1nuecko n akonoHnuecko anac1n, a a pesynL1a1e a1oro -
ne6naronpnn1noe pasan1ne xnsnennmx npoueccoa nauero napopa no aceH
nonn1nuecknH n akonoHnuecknH aek1opaH. 6e a1n npo6neHm nHek1 u a
1oH, u1o npak1nueckn ace c1panm xpnc1nancko okyHenm nopaxenm opno 6onesnLk:
napasn1npykunH na nnx cnonnc1cknH kann1anoH, pasnarakunH n o6eckpoannaakunH
napopm, o16npakunH y nnx xnsnennyk nepcnek1nay. oa1oHy aqqek1nanoe peuenne
nepao npo6neHm neaosHoxno 6es peuennn a1opo.
apaua c1aan1cn 1ak: o1nn1L pyccknH anac1L y eapeckoro kann1ana a occnn n
npeapa1n1L occnk ns aHopqnoro rocypapc1aa nceaponHnepckoro 1nna a pycckoe
naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao papn 1oro, u1o6m pasaepny1L acnn1L npouecc penonynnunn
n ampoxpennn caoero napopa. c1ec1aennme rpannum 1akoro rocypapc1aa ponxnm
onpepenn1Lcn rpannuaHn koHnak1noro paccenennn pycckoro a1noca.
sn1ne anac1n a coapeHennmx ycnoannx, kak y1aepxpae1 nonn1onornn, - aeuL
nenpoc1an. O n u m,
.. x u . kopee acero,
peaonkunn xonopno, o1nocn1enLno ponro n Hnpno, yun1maan coapeHennme
o6c1on1enLc1aa n 1enpenunn o6uec1aennoro pasan1nn. Henno 1ak 1eope1nueckn
ponxna c1aan1Lcn o6uan uenL na 6nnxauyk nepcnek1nay.
orpa naH roaopn1, u1o occnn-pe ncuepnana nnHn1 na peaonkunn, a1o ne
coo1ae1c1aye1 pec1an1enLnoc1n. onLko u1o na naunx rnasax no c1pane npoka1nnacL
nHenno xonopnan 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nueckan peaonkunn (npn aecLHa, npaapa,
ropnunx nocnepc1annx). a ouepepn, kak acerpa nocne 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecko
peaonkunn, - peaonkunn naunonanLnan. akoaa noaceHec1nan nornka nc1opnn.
1enenL 6nnsoc1n naunonanLno peaonkunn o6muno onpepenne1cn payHn qak1opaHn:
c1enenLk ro1oanoc1n napopa na xep1am n c1enenLk npeno-nonn1nuecko spenoc1n
ann1m.
1o Hoxno konc1a1npoaa1L no a1oHy noaopy? apop na xep1am a caoeH 6onLunnc1ae
ne ro1oa. n a Hacce yaneuen npncnoco6nenneH k noao pec1an1enLnoc1n,
amxnaanneH. xo1n y6naa1L ceropnn xenann 6m yxe ouenL Hnorne pycckne nkpn, no
yHnpa1L noka eue ne aceH ncno, sa u1o. a1oH ace peno.
peno-nonn1nueckan spenoc1L ann1 noka 1akxe oc1aanne1 xena1L nyuuero. o 1akoe
cospeaanne, pe1epHnnnpoaannoe o6unH npoueccoH c1peHn1enLnoro pasan1nn pycckoro
naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn, o1HeuaeHoro aceHn onpocaHn, npe1 neypepxnHo.
ceoxaa1maakuan qopHynnpoaka pyccknx npaa n nn1epecoa npak1nueckn saaepuena.
na a 6onLue uac1n npnaopn1cn a nac1onue 6poukpe. onpoc nnuL a 1oH, u1o6m
cpena1L ee poc1onnneH Hacc n ann1m. 1orpa, ocosnaa a nonno Hepe caon npaaa,
nn1epecm n am1ekakune ns nnx sapaun, pycckn napop coaepun1 neo6xopnHme
npeo6pasoaannn. pa1L neponro.
Fn sqn sn n , x,
mn x nu u, - s
u m, u u x ,
m u n .
Bn, u , n - x
, .
o cy1n, a1n sapaun payepnnm, n o1 nx peuennn saancn1 a npnHoH cHmcne cnoaa
6nonornueckoe amxnaanne pycckoro napopa a nc1opnuecko nepcnek1nae. pyxoano
151
cqepe nH coo1ae1c1aye1 pec1aapaunn pycckoro naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn,
npeoponenne kpnsnca pyccko naunonanLno npen1nunoc1n.
oka u1o nonn1nka n npeonornn (npnkpm1me peHarornuecknH qnepoH) oqnunanLno
ny1nncko occnn pesko npo1naopeun1 a1nH sapauaH. 1nH o6ycnoanena
qun u n mm
m .
expy 1eH, Hepm, ko1opme 1pe6yk1cn pnn peuennn nasaannmx sapau, kacak1cn, c
opno c1oponm, pycckoro napopa, a c ppyro c1oponm - nepyccknx napopoa,
npoxnaakunx a occnn no pasnmH npnunnaH n ocnoaannnH. aknH o6pasoH,
neo6xopnHo onpepenn1L ocnoanme nanpaanennn nonn1nkn, kacakunecn,
coo1ae1c1aenno, kak pyccknx, 1ak n nepyccknx napopoa occnn. 1n ocnoam ponxnm
6m1L npoaepenm a xnsnL ny1eH nsHenenn a poccnckoH sakonopa1enLc1ae.
152
1ak:
I. MEm HUEHHH YK HQ
- eo6xopnH nepecHo1p pec1aykue onc1n1yunn occnn, nrnopnpykue npaaa n
nn1epecm pycckoro napopa, n anecenne a nee coo1ae1c1aykunx nsHenenn nnn
npnnn1ne noao a coo1ae1c1ann c sakonoH. poek1 1ako onc1n1yunn occnn
(ycckoro ocypapc1aa) paspa6o1an a 1997 r. nro saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn
coaHec1no c yuenmHn kpqaka n nc1n1y1a rocypapc1aa n npaaa ; on 6mn
ony6nnkoaan a rase1noH aapnan1e (aunonanLnan rase1a N2 sa 1997 r.) n
o1penLnmH nspanneH (ycckn npoek1. - ., 1998);
- neo6xopnHo npnnn1ne konc1n1yunonnoro sakona pycckoH napope a pepakunn
pyccknx o6uec1aennmx oprannsaun o1 25 Hap1a 2001 r. (cH. aunonanLnan rase1a
N4-5 sa 2001 r.);
- aHec1o nnkanpnpoaannoro nnnc1epc1aa no penaH qepepaunn, naunonanLno n
Hnrpaunonno nonn1nke napo cospa1L nnnc1epc1ao no penaH pycckoro napopa, a a
coc1aae nocnepnero - penap1aHen1 no npo6neHaH kopennmx napopoa occnn n
naunonanLnmx HenLunnc1a;
- neo6xopnHo npnsna1L, a coo1ae1c1ann c HexpynapopnmHn c1anpap1aHn, occnk -
HononaunonanLno c1pano pycckoro napopa, coc1aannkuero a6conk1noe
6onLunnc1ao ee nacenennn;
- neo6xopnHo npnsna1L n sakonopa1enLno y1aeppn1L nc1opnueckyk ponL n
qak1nueckoe snauenne pycckoro napopa kak epnnc1aenno rocypapc1aoo6pasykue
naunn occnn. ycckne - ne 1onLko cospa1enn occnn, no n epnnc1aennan naunn, 6es
ko1opo occnn ne Horna 6m cyuec1aoaa1L a anpe epnnoro rocypapc1aa a ee
nac1onunx rpannuax. ycckn napop y1aepxpae1cn a oqnunanLnoH c1a1yce kopenno,
1n1ynLno n epnnc1aenno rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn occnn;
- neo6xopnHo npnsna1L npaao pycckoro napopa na naunonanLno-nponopunonanLnoe
npepc1aan1enLc1ao ao acex opranax rocypapc1aenno anac1n n Hec1noro
caHoynpaanennn occnn. pn a1oH k amcunH rocypapc1aennmH ponxnoc1nH ne ponxnm
ponycka1Lcn nepycckne n nopopnennme c nepyccknHn nnua. ocypapc1aenm annapa1,
npaan1enLc1ao n ponxnm 6m1L nonnoc1Lk ounuenm o1 an1npycckn nac1poennmx
nkpe;
- neo6xopnHo npnsna1L epnnc1ao pycckoro napopa ane saancnHoc1n o1 rpannu n c1pan
npoxnaannn; npnsna1L npaao na aoccoepnnenne epnno pyccko naunn, okasaauecn
a paspenennoH nonoxennn. eo6xopnHo c1peHn1Lcn k cospannk HnpnmH ny1eH
npouae1akuero ycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa - occnn - a rpannuax
koHnak1noro npoxnaannn pycckoro a1noca;
- neo6xopnHo sakonopa1enLnoe sanpeuenne pycoqo6nn ao acex ee nponanennnx,
saun1a uenoaeuecknx n rpaxpancknx npaa pyccknx nkpe a nk6o 1ouke seHnoro
uapa. nckpnHnnaunn rpaxpan pyccko naunonanLnoc1n, npoxnaakunx sa py6exoH,
ponxna c1a1L ocnoaanneH pnn nepecHo1pa nonn1nkn occnn a o1nouennn
nnoc1pannoro rocypapc1aa, a ko1opoH 1akan pnckpnHnnaunn nHee1 Hec1o. a1nx
cnyuanx paan1enLc1ao occnn o6nsano (no npepc1aanennk 6uec1aenno-
rocypapc1aennoro oHn1e1a no npo6neHaH pycckoro napopa, aepyuero nenpepmanm
153
Honn1opnnr npo6neHm n exekaap1anLno nspakuero coo1ae1c1aykune o1ue1m)
npnnn1L ace neo6xopnHme Hepm, nanpaanennme na saun1y npaa pycckoro nacenennn;
- neo6xopnHo okasa1L cpounyk noHouL pyccknH 6exenuaH n amnyxpennmH
nepecenenuaH ns 6maunx pecny6nnk n ropnunx 1ouek occnn, o6ecneun1L nx
pa6o1o n xnnLeH; npnnn1L nporpaHHy nepecenennn a occnk n o6yc1poc1aa
pyccknx, npoxnaakunx paccennno apann o1 rpannu occnn;
- neo6xopnHa nonn1nka coxpanennn n ykpennennn a1nnueckoro epnnc1aa pycckoro
napopa n acex nc1opnuecknx n kynL1ypno-nsmkoamx qak1opoa, cnoco6c1aykunx
a1oHy;
- neo6xopnHo yc1pann1L nHekuyk Hec1o qak1nueckyk pnckpnHnnaunk pyccknx a
occnn, oco6enno a pecny6nnkax a coc1aae ;
- neo6xopnHo npnsna1L qak1 a1nopeHorpaqnuecko ka1ac1poqm pycckoro napopa n
sakonopa1enLno y1aeppn1L Hepm, nanpaanennme npo1na penonynnunn ero kak
rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn. occnn a nnue acex ae1ae kak uen1panLno anac1n,
1ak n anac1n a cy6Lek1ax occncko epepaunn ponxna npnnnHa1L ace Hepm k
yaennuennk poxpaeHoc1n pyccknx kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn, HakcnHanLno
ncnonLsyn caon qnnancoame, oprannsaunonnme n nponaranpnc1ckne aosHoxnoc1n.
occnn o6Lnanne1cn pesamuanoe peHorpaqnueckoe nonoxenne; aocc1anaannaae1cn
oHn1e1 no penaH ceHLn, pe1e n peHorpaqnn npn paan1enLc1ae; cospae1cn
pesamuanan apeHennan peHorpaqnueckan koHnccnn pnn paspa6o1kn nporpaHHm no
npeoponennk peHorpaqnueckoro kpnsnca. cnoanan sapaua - o6ecneun1L poc1
a6conk1no n o1nocn1enLno uncnennoc1n pycckoro napopa;
- seHnn n ppyrne npnpopnme pecypcm ace occnn ponxnm naxopn1Lcn a
co6c1aennoc1n rocypapc1aa (sa ncknkuenneH npnycape6nmx yuac1koa n seHnn, na
ko1opo pacnonoxenm uac1nme c1poennn). nn ponxnm ncnonLsoaa1Lcn n oxpann1Lcn
kak ocnoaa xnsnn n pen1enLnoc1n rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero pycckoro napopa;
- neo6xopnHo npnsna1L qak1 renounpa no o1nouennk k pycckoHy napopy.
paan1enLc1ay occnn 6ype1 npepnncano cospa1L npn 6uec1aenno-rocypapc1aennoH
oHn1e1e no npo6neHaH pycckoro napopa npn npesnpen1e occnn pesamuanyk
rocypapc1aennyk koHnccnk () no paccnepoaannk qak1oa renounpa pycckoro
napopa n npeoponennk ero nocnepc1an. ponxnm, napnpy c oqnunanLnmHn
npepc1aan1ennHn Hnnnc1epc1a n aepoHc1a, ao1n am6opnme npepc1aan1enn pyccknx
o6uec1aennmx oprannsaun;
- opranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn (po ee
npeo6pasoaannn a ynn1apnoe rocypapc1ao) ponxnm ocyuec1ann1L noppepxky pyccko
kynL1ypm kak 6asoaoro qak1opa coxpanennn n pasan1nn naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn
pycckoro napopa, nrpakuero ocnoanyk nn1erpnpykuyk ponL a coxpanennn epnnoro
unannnsaunonnoro npoc1panc1aa a nonna1nnueckoH, no HononaunonanLnoH
occnckoH rocypapc1ae. kasannme opranm noppepxnaak1 pycckne napopnme
xypoxec1aennme npoHmcnm - ynnkanLnoe nanenne Hnpoaoro kynL1ypnoro nacnepnn,
okasmaak1 copec1ane pyccknH naunonanLno-kynL1ypnmH aa1onoHnnH acex ypoane.
pranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn ponxnm
ocyuec1ann1L Hepm no cospannk n pasan1nk pe1cknx poukonLnmx yupexpenn,
cpepnnx yue6nmx saaepenn c yrny6nennmH nsyuenneH pycckoro nsmka, nn1epa1ypm,
nc1opnn n kynL1ypm - cnc1eHm pycckoro naunonanLnoro aocnn1annn n o6pasoaannn;
- neo6xopnHo npoaopn1L uenenanpaanennyk nonn1nky o16opa naunonanLno ann1m ns
acex cocnoan pycckoro napopa;
154
- ponxnm 6m1L npnnn1m nepaoouepepnme noame qepepanLnme sakonm,
sa1parnaakune nn1epecm pycckoro napopa: rpaxpanc1ae, npaaax kopennmx
napopoa occnn, pycoqo6nn, paspenennoH nonoxennn epnno pyccko naunn
n ee npaae na aoccoepnnenne (a pepakunn nrn saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn),
ceHLe, seHne. onxnm 6m1L paspa6o1anm n aaepenm nporpaHHm: ycckan
ukona, pycckn yue6nnk, ycckn ays, ycckan ceHLn, pycckne pe1n, ycckne
cnpo1m, ycckn pmnok n pp.
II. MEm HUEHHH QYHX HQ HH
- opennmH napopoH occnn npnsnae1cn napop, npoxnaakun na ee 1eppn1opnn ne
Henee 1mcnun ne1 n ne nHekun sa npepenaHn occnn caoe cy6Lek1noc1n n
rocypapc1aennoc1n; sa kopennmHn napopaHn occnn nesaancnHo o1 naunonanLnoc1n
coxpannk1cn ace o6uerpaxpanckne npaaa. paao na paonoe rpaxpanc1ao a occnn
nHek1 1onLko npepc1aan1enn kopennmx napopoa, okasaaunxcn a paspenennoH
nonoxennn (pycckne, oce1nnm, nesrnnm n 1.n.);
- c uenLk npepo1apauennn poc1a 6espa6o1num, xnnnunoro kpnsnca, cann1apnmx
npo6neH, napkoHannn n npec1ynnoc1n a occnn neo6xopnHo aaec1n xec1kn ansoam
pexnH pnn rpaxpan panLnero n 6nnxnero sapy6exLn, kpoHe nnu pyccko
naunonanLnoc1n n rpaxpan enopyccnn (kak xn1ene coksnoro rocypapc1aa). m1n
ns acex Hexpynapopnmx cornauenn no npo6neHaH Hnrpaunn. enop1npoaa1L a
nepenLnm cpok acex nesakonno npoxnaakunx a occnn Hnrpan1oa sa nx cue1. ex, y
koro ne1 cpepc1a na onna1y penop1aunn, npnaneuL k npnnypn1enLnoHy 1pypy, noka
1akne cpepc1aa ne nonan1cn. kpmaakunecn o1 penop1aunn nesakonnme Hnrpan1m
ponxnm 6m1L o6Lnanenm ane sakona, sa nx xnsnL, spopoaLe n nHyuec1ao nnk1o ne
ponxen nec1n o1ae1c1aennoc1L;
- 1pypoaan nHHnrpaunn, kpoHe nnu pyccko naunonanLnoc1n, ponxna 6m1L
sanpeuena;
- neo6xopnHo paspa6o1a1L n npnnn1L rocypapc1aennyk nporpaHHy sakonno n
nenacnnLc1aenno pena1pnaunn ns occnn a coo1ae1c1aykune rocypapc1aa -
npepc1aan1ene nauHenLunnc1a, uLn pen1enLnoc1L ne coaHec1nHa c rocypapc1aenno
nonLso occnn;
- neo6xopnHo npnsna1L ane sakona nypansH n cnonnsH kak yuennn,
nponaranpnpykune naunonanLnyk ncknkun1enLnoc1L, naunonanLnoe npeaocxopc1ao
eapeea n nenonnouennoc1L ppyrnx nkpe no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky;
- neo6xopnHo aaec1n a sakonopa1enLc1ao o6nsa1enLnoe 1pe6oaanne k kanpnpa1aH na
am6opax a opranm anac1n peknapnpoaa1L caoe naunonanLnoe nponcxoxpenne (anno1L
po 1pe1Lero konena no o6enH nnnnnH) n cekcyanLnyk opnen1aunk;
- neo6xopnH ecnn ne sakon o sanpe1e na cHeuannme 6pakn (1ako sakon 6ype1
o6nnua1Lcn npo1nannkaHn kak sanpe1 na nk6oaL), 1o HakcnHanLno ak1nanan
nonn1nka, a 1oH uncne nponaranpnc1ckan, a a1oH nanpaanennn. a1oH
sann1epecoaanm ne 1onLko pycckn napop, no n ace napopm, ne xenakune ncuesny1L
ny1eH accnHnnnunn;
- rpaqa naunonanLnoc1L a nacnop1e ponxna 6m1L aocc1anoanena, paano kak
npouepypa ee sanonnennn;
155
- neo6xopnHo peun1L npo6neHy eunn n ueuenuea kak napopa, nekonnnHen1apnoro no
o1nouennk k rocypapc1aoo6pasykueHy: 1) aepny1L eunk a e nc1opnueckne
rpannum, aosapa1na ap1epeunm, aypckn, enkoacko paonm a coc1aa
1aapononLckoro kpan; 2) npoaec1n acepoccnckn peqepenpyH o6 o1penennn eunn a
e nc1opnuecknx rpannuax o1 occncko epepaunn, amnecn na ronocoaanne aonpoc:
o1n1e nn m npoxnaa1L c ueuenuaHn a opnoH rocypapc1ae?; 3) no pesynL1a1aH
peqepenpyHa nponsaec1n asanHnyk pena1pnaunk pyccknx n ueuenuea na nx
nc1opnueckne popnnm; 4) o6opypoaa1L nonnouennyk rpannuy, o1pennkuyk eunk o1
occnn;
- neo6xopnHo ypaann1L a npaaax o6nac1n n kpan c pecny6nnkaHn a coc1aae
occncko epepaunn. ce cy6Lek1m epepaunn ponxnm nHe1L paanme npaaa; onn
ne Hory1 pykoaopn1Lcn ak1aHn, npo1naopeuaunHn qepepanLnoHy sakonopa1enLc1ay.
nocnepc1ann qepepa1nanoe yc1poc1ao occnn Hoxe1 6m1L nonnoc1Lk nnn uac1nuno
nepecHo1peno He1opoH peqepenpyHa nnn anecennn nsHenenn a onc1n1yunk, a
nanHenoaanne occnckan epepaunn o1Heneno.
ocnoanme nonn1nueckne nporpaHHnme 1pe6oaannn pycckoro panxennn,
amkpnc1annnsoaaaunecn ns o6Lek1nanoro anannsa coapeHenno pec1an1enLnoc1n n
ns npak1nkn pycckoro panxennn. oHy-1o onn Hory1 nokasa1Lcn nsnnune
a1noarouen1pnunmHn n npyunHn apaspes c 1papnunonno pyccko qnnocoqne, c 1ak
nasmaaeHo pyccko npee, qopHnpoaaauecn po cepepnnm aeka na 6ase
nHnepcko npak1nkn occnn. pnako, kak roaopnnocL amue, nc1opnueckne 1enpenunn
naunx pne npnHo npo1naononoxnm 1eH, u1o uaenn 100-150 ne1 1oHy nasap. ecnn
Hm xo1nH coxpann1Lcn a aekax, Hm c a6conk1no nens6exnoc1Lk ponxnm npnnn1L
npeonornk n ncnxonornk ss. onn k xnsnn ne npepnonarae1 ceropnn
ppyrnx peuenn n nopxopoa. anoHnnH, u1o mnn n n - u
xn n x, um, um. ce, u1o cnoco6c1aye1
a1oHy, ponxno 6m1L npnnn1o, ace, u1o Heuae1, - o16poueno. napo npnHo ckasa1L:
sapaua qnnocoqa kak 1akoaan ceropnn aoo6ue 6onLue ne cyuec1aye1 a npoc1panc1ae
pyccko naunonanLno xnsnn n pyccko npen. na npeo6pasoaanacL a sapauy
nonn1nka n 1pe6ye1 coaceH nnmx snann n nopxopoa - nc1opnka, ncnxonora,
counonora, nonn11exnonora n 1.p. qnnocoqnn, pa6o1akue no 1ako Hopenn, ec1L
caoe nHn: . no n ponxno c1on1L na naueH snaHenn.
nopuepkny1L, u1o ace nepeuncnennme Hepm ao aneune n any1penne
nonn1nke a kauec1ae nepaoro ycnoann caoero ocyuec1anennn npepnonarak1 cospanne
pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa. akoro rocypapc1aa y pyccknx ne 6mno nnkorpa,
ero 1onLko npepc1on1 eue cospa1L. oa1oHy nyxno npepc1aan1L ce6e xop pyccko
nc1opnn po 1990-x rr. n nopaec1n nop nnH uep1y: 1ak 6mno. H nu: um -
. ocne uero asn1L sa ocnoay pnn npornosnpoaannn nnuL opny noaeuyk
nc1opnk, u1o6m amc1pon1L coaepuenno noam anropn1H pycckoro noaepennn, na
nnmx, sauac1yk npnHo npo1naononoxnmx npnamunoHy npepc1aanennk npnnunnax.
1ckpa, a uac1noc1n, cnepye1 nenpenoxnm amaop: a6conk1no ace, u1o koncepanpye1
y pycckoro napopa nHnepckyk ncnxonornk nnn ee pypnHen1m - npnnerakune k
nHnepckoHy cosnannk npen n npekn, neo6xopnHo 6es acnkoro coxanennn
noxoponn1L. ne akcryHnpoaa1L no kpane Hepe po 1ex nop, noka pycckne ne
aocc1anoan1 pnnaHnky poxpaeHoc1n no o6pasuy konua XIX - nauana aa. (uero
ceropnn nnk1o ne xpe1). apo ncno nonnHa1L: u m
- u u .
1oH, kaknH ponxno 6m1L pycckoe naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao, saunuakuee npaaa n
nn1epecm pyccknx nkpe, n kak ero cospa1L, noppo6no pacckasmaae1 onc1n1yunn
ycckoro ocypapc1aa (1997), cospannan nro o6uec1aenno saun1m naunonanLnoro
poc1onnnn () npn yuac1nn cneunannc1oa kpqaka n nc1n1y1a rocypapc1aa n
npaaa . na nonnoc1Lk coxpanne1 ak1yanLnoc1L n anonne poc1ynna pnn nsyuennn,
156
paano kak n nopro1oanennan kap1a ycckan occnn, o6osnauakuan
on1nHanLnme rpannum 1akoro rocypapc1aa. oa1oHy specL o6opeH HonuanneH Hnorne
noppo6noc1n n naHe1nH, ncxopn ns naue caepxsapaun, neko1opme ocnoanme npen,
npnnunnm n rnaanme nanpaanennn nonn1nkn naunonanLnoro c1pon1enLc1aa 6ypyuero
ycckoro ocypapc1aa.
1. nauane, pasyHee1cn, neo6xopnHo pa1L onpepenenne, 6es ko1oporo neaosHoxen
panLneun pasroaop, 6es ko1oporo paccmnak1cn ace naHepennn: n
n, u n . e c1on1 nsnara1L specL
nc1opnk aonpoca, a amcue c1enenn pnckyccnonnoro, n pasaopaunaa1L ack uenL
apryHen1oa a saun1y npnaopnHoro onpepenennn. 1o yxe cpenano a ynoHnny1o amue
knnre ycckn npoek1. oam aapnan1 onc1n1yunn occnn (., 1998). apnH caHo
onpepenenne, cnerka o1koppek1npoaannoe sa npouepuee nocne nepao ny6nnkaunn
apeHn:
Pycck cn n ckyc n, M yccky
nc.
Pycckn nc xcn knM kyM,
ycn nc. H, cn n nnncn cmnM,
kyM, ycn nc r n. H c
nnn n, nr ycckM nkM Mr M r
kyMn xr ycckr k M kn, c
nc, k cmcn ycnM qnM kM
nk.
H cn ycckM M kx n ycckr cxn,
k cM n k r kn rnc cnc
n yn n kqnk n rcyc
nk Pcc CCCP 1917-1991 rr. nM Pcc c 1991 r.
H Mry ycckM n, M r ycckr nn,
aM Mry M y ny c cny nr
cxn r n crnc kM, ycnnM nM
ar nn.
Pyccky ccnn ycck, nnncn rxM Pccck O
ycck, nnncn rxM Pccck O, cn n
M x r, kk M c rxc, k
n rxc.
onee amaepennoro n kpnpnueckn coaepuennoro onpepenennn pyccko naunn ceropnn
ne1. pnnunn poan, nonoxennm a ocnoay amuenpnaepennoro onpepenennn, -
qopHanLnm npnsnak. n, ane acnknx coHnenn, nanne1cn neo6xopnHmH, 6asoamH,
nu, 6es ko1oporo caHa 1eHa pasroaopa 1epne1 acnkn
cHmcn. es nero neaosHoxno qynkunonnpoaanne nn opnoro sakona, 1pak1ykuero
npaaa, npnannernn n o6nsannoc1n nHenno pyccknx, n6o M cny M
ckyM nm nr n nm nr nnM cM, coaepuenno
a1oro ne sacnyxnaakunH. e nyxno aeua1L na uyxnx nkpe caon npo6neHm, no ne
nyxno n penn1Lcn c uyxnHn nkpLHn caonHn npenHyuec1aaHn.
e, koro ne yc1panaae1 qopHanLnm kpn1epn onpepenennn, aonLnm norpysn1Lcn a
6eckoneunyk n 6ecnnopnyk pnckyccnk o kpn1epnnx neqopHanLnmx.
2. ospanne pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa ne Hoxe1 np1n a o1pmae o1
peuennn npo6neH pyccko naunn kak 1akoao.
157
ocnoae pyccko naunonanLno nonn1nuecko npeonornn ponxen nexa1L
kpaeyronLnm kaHenL aoo6ue konuenunn naunonannsHa. nHenno - 1esnc: Hn
, . 1o nn a koeH cnyuae ne snaun1, u1o
rocypapc1ao ec1L neu1o neaaxnoe; no Hm ponxnm 1aeppo noHnn1L, u1o a coo1ae1c1ann
c pnanek1nko cyunoc1L oqopHnena, a qopHa - cyuec1aenna. F u
q, mu nmn u - m, mu mn
. epoc1a1kn n npenHyuec1aa rocypapc1aa ec1L
nepoc1a1kn n npenHyuec1aa naunn, nepeaepennme ns Hen1anLnoro, nHHanen1noro
naunn, nnana - a nnan 1pancuepen1nm: 6m1nnm n co6m1nnm.
F - s m ,
z .
1ckpa cnepye1 eue opnn 1esnc: nenLsn (a1o npoc1o 6eccHmcnenno) sa6o1n1Lcn o
aneune qopHe, ne npepycHo1pea anauane neo6xopnHmx nsHenenn any1pennero
copepxannn. a6o1a o pyccko naunn ponxna nexa1L a ocnoae nk6mx npeo6pasoaann
occnn kak rocypapc1aa, o6Lek1nanpoaaauero nHenno pannyk naunk.
u u mu
u, , nu.
3. poc1an npoekunn a1oporo 1esnca na npak1nueckyk nnockoc1L pae1 naH nonnHanne
1pe1Lero 1esnca: xm n x - xm n ; x
n x - x n .
kasannoe ne osnauae1, u1o 6naro ppyrnx napopoa occnn, npexpe acero -
aa1ox1onnmx, kopennmx, ne nHee1 snauennn pnn npak1nkykuero pycckoro nonn1nka.
m no6opnnkn rpaxpanckoro paanonpaann a uenoH (xo1n n ne c1oponnnkn
npepoc1aanennn rpaxpanc1aa aceH xenakunH). o a1o snaun1 nnuL, u1o a cn1yaunn
konqnnk1a naunonanLnmx nn1epecoa, rpe opno c1opono nannk1cn pycckne, nn o
kakoH koncencyce ne Hoxe1 6m1L peun: nosnunn n aaunH n naunH nanne1cn
saaepoHo noxno, paspyun1enLno n pnn naunn, n pnn rocypapc1aa.
occnn - ne 1onLko pnn pyccknx, no pnn pyccknx a nepayk ouepepL.
4. c1L o6nac1L uenoaeuecko pen1enLnoc1n, rpe npepmpyun 1esnc npnnnHae1 anp
ynL1nHa1yHa: a1o - nonn1nueckan anac1L. eropnn ona peanLno aonnouena a ue1mpex
cy6c1anunnx: 1pn konc1n1yunonnme nnkc . a1nx cy6c1anunnx ace ocnoanme
nonnoHounn 6es ncknkuennn ponxnm naxopn1Lcn 1onLko y pyccknx. a onpepenennme
ponxnoc1n pycckne Hory1 nasnaua1L nepyccknx naHec1nnkoa nnuL npn ycnoann
a6conk1noro kon1ponn.
Bn u - !
5. eo6xopnHo cpena1L ace, u1o6m nponsouno peanLnoe aoccoepnnenne pyccko
naunn. ayunoe nccnepoaanne a1o npo6neHm pae1 amaepennme pekoHenpaunn.
nepye1 pasnnua1L pycckyk pnacnopy no payH kpn1epnnH: 1) koHnak1noc1L nnn
pncnepcnoc1L paccenennn; 2) npnHmkanne k rpannuaH occnn nnn ypanenne o1 nnx.
saancnHoc1n o1 a1oro cnepye1:
- o6ecneun1L ecnn ne 1o1anLnm, 1o HakcnHanLnm amaos a occnk pyccknx,
npoxnaakunx sa py6exoH pncnepcno (paccennno). nn koHnak1no (kak a nHa-
1nncko o6nac1n), no - apann o1 rpannu occnn;
- o6ecneun1L npncoepnnenne k occnn rpannuaunx c nek seHenL, koHnak1no
nacenennmx pyccknHn. 1o cnepye1 pena1L, nn6o paspennn c1pany npoxnaannn
pyccknx c 1pe1Le c1opono (aapnan1m: paspen asaxc1ana Hexpy occne n n1aeH,
158
ampenenne anapno kpannm a caHoc1on1enLnoe rocypapc1ao), nn6o - HnpnmH (yam,
ponrnH) ny1eH n a coo1ae1c1ann c HexpynapopnmH npaaoH, rnc n a.
H sn: pycckne a anknaae po6naak1cn naunonanLno-kynL1ypno aa1onoHnn.
sn: pycckne a anknaae po6naak1cn naunonanLno-1eppn1opnanLno
aa1onoHnn a coc1aae c1panm npoxnaannn. sn: pycckan aa1onoHnn ny1eH
peqepenpyHa po6naae1cn cyaepenn1e1a. H sn: cyaepennan pycckan
o6nac1L ny1eH peqepenpyHa npnnnHae1 peuenne o axoxpennn a coc1aa occnn.
H sn: occnn a coo1ae1c1ann c nopHaHn caoe onc1n1yunn npnnnHae1
peuenne o6 nsHenennn rpannu. onn1no, u1o a1o1 npouecc neaosHoxen 6es ak1nano
uenenanpaanenno noppepxkn occnn;
- a oxnpannn ncnonnennn pannmx Hep npepnpnnn1L ace ycnnnn pnn coxpanennn
pyccko naunonanLno-kynL1ypno npen1nunoc1n, pycckoro caHocosnannn y naunx
epnnokpoanmx co6pa1n, o1pesannmx o1 Ha1epnncko naunn n c1panm.
6. enLsn nLc1n1L ce6n napexpo na aoccoepnnenne c kpanno a uenoH. 1n Heu1m
nyc1m n ouenL onacnm. nn na npak1nke yxe o6epnynncL npepa1enLc1aoH poccncko
anac1Lk 11 Hnn. pyccknx, npoxnaakunx 1aH. aknkuna, no anne koHHynnc1nuecko
qpakunn yHm n nnuno nLunna n enesneaa, poroaop c kpanno, y1aeppnaun
nmneunne rpannum, occnn 6pocnna caonx nkpe na Hnnoc1L caHoc1nnnkoa,
ykpanncknx a1nokpa1oa. y nnx sapaua: npeapa1n1L pyccknx kpannm - a ykpannuea,
ne a nepaoH, 1ak ao a1opoH-1pe1LeH nokonennnx. 1o1 npouecc nnmuapnsaunn n
Hankyp1nsaunn pyccko Honopexn nporpeccnpye1 rnran1cknHn 1eHnaHn npn nonnoH
nonyc1n1enLc1ae occnn. ockonLky n Laoa, n pmH (ampaxancL cnHaonnueckn)
cnnukoH xopoun kaxpm no-caoeHy, 1o kneackan anac1L nnkorpa ne peun1cn ueH-
nn6o opnnH noxep1aoaa1L. nokypa Laoa (n c nnH caHoc1nnnueckan
npeonornueckan poHnnan1a) - a coc1aae kpannm, naH ne 1onLko c kpanno a uenoH,
no paxe c pmHoH n oaopoccne po6poH ne aoccoepnnn1Lcn. 1o nyxno ncno
nonnHa1L n ne c1pon1L nnnksn.
c1L pasnme cuenapnn peuennn pannoro aonpoca. o na 6nnxauee apeHn a
o1nouennn pyccknx na kpanne cnepye1 pykoaopc1aoaa1Lcn nsnoxenno a
npepmpyueH nynk1e c1pa1areHo.
7. n a koeH cnyuae nenLsn peua1L aonpocm, kacakunecn napoponacenennn, ero
konnuec1aennoro n kauec1aennoro coc1aaa, kaknH-nn6o peqepenpyHoH. ec1koe
aoneaoe peuenne koHne1en1nmx nnu, oqopHnennoe sakonopa1enLno, - ao1 ace, u1o
aosHoxno a 1akoH pene. naue peueam nparHa1nsH, xenanne cnkHnny1no amropm,
nensxn1m nHnepckn ncnxokoHnnekc n aceo6uan pyueanan pacxpnc1annoc1L,
ace1epnnHoc1L n 1peknn1an xanoc1nnaoc1L pycckoro uenoaeka amnecy1 eHy caHoHy
okonua1enLnm npnroaop. Hep1nm, pasyHee1cn.
nuero c1paunoro, - pyHann aHepnkanum, npnnnHan peuennn o pacunpennn kao1
pnn uae1nmx. - m c nnHn paano xnaeH aHec1e n snaeH, kak c nnHn o6paua1Lcn.
pnn npnnn1nn pokoaoro sakona 1965 ropa o6 nHHnrpaunn npeo6napana
nparHa1nueckan 1ouka spennn: ecnn nHHnrpan1 nonesnm - nyc1L aLesxae1. o
pannmH nnc1n1y1a annana 71% onpouennmx cun1an 1orpa, u1o rnaanoe npn peuennn
o ponycke - a1o cneunanLnoc1L nHHnrpan1a, a 50% nonarann c1pany ero
nponcxoxpennn neaaxnmH o6c1on1enLc1aoH. 1o o6uec1aennoe sa6nyxpenne
(sa6nyxpenne a6conk1noro 6onLunnc1aa!) ouenL poporo o6ounocL aHepnkanuaH
eaponeckoro nponcxoxpennn.
nuero c1paunoro, - pyHann eaponeum, rnnpn na . - o1 aepL y nnx xnae1
amcokn npouen1 uae1nmx - n nnuero! 1oxe nonanncL na a1y ypouky.
ycckn uenoaek, aocnn1annm a aekax Hnepne n oae1aHn a pyxe
nn1epnaunonannsHa, nonape1cn na 1y xe ypouky 1eH 6onee.
159
HHnrpan1a nerko anyc1n1L, no nenerko no1oH amc1aan1L. noxaa1nnncL co apeHeneH
n eaponeum, n aHepnkanum. o nospno.
8. apnpy c nepyccko nHHnrpaune cyuec1aye1 nnan 6epa n onacnoc1L: pycckan
aHnrpaunn, a nepayk ouepepL - o16opno, o6pasoaanno n 1anan1nnao pyccko
Honopexn, a 1akxe kpacnamx peayuek-cnaannok. y1 peno ne c1onLko a konnuec1ae,
ckonLko a kauec1ae. 1917-1937 rr. eapen ynnu1oxann pycckyk ann1y qnsnueckn.
eropnn onn penak1 a1o 6onee paunonanLno - naxnaancL na ee amaose ns c1panm.
uep6, ko1opm 1epnn1 occnn n pycckn napop o1 a1oro, ne noppae1cn nnkakoHy
yue1y, on 6esHepen. (6epn1enLnm npnHep: yxe ceropnn poxop o1 1oproann
na1en1aHn n nnuensnnHn a 2,3 pasa amue, ueH o1 1oproann 1oaapaHn, n a1a
nponopunn pac1e1.) k6o ueno neo6xopnHo oc1anoan1L y1euky Hosroa. naue Hm
nnunHcn nn1ennek1yanLnoro n uennoro 6nonornueckoro pecypca, a c nnH - n
6ypyuero.
euenne specL Hoxe1 6m1L 1akoe. B-x, sanpe1n1L pen1enLnoc1L no o1kauke
Hosroa ns occnn nop c1paxoH caHmx cnnLnmx nakasann. amesxakunx ns occnn
na noc1onnnoe Hec1o xn1enLc1aa cneunannc1oa cnepye1 asnHa1L HakcnHanLnyk
nounnny kak sa amaos oco6o uennoro 1oaapa c1pa1ernueckoro snauennn nnkc onna1y
nonno c1onHoc1n nonyuennoro o6pasoaannn. B-x, naunonannsnpoaa1L onp
opoca n pasaepny1L nanpaanenne ero pen1enLnoc1n, co ace ero c1pyk1ypo n
co1pypnnkaHn, na qopHnpoaanne pmnka nesaancnHoro nn1ennek1yanLnoro 1pypa a
occnn. B-ux, cnepye1 sanoao npopyHa1L n nepepa6o1a1L naue na1en1noe
sakonopa1enLc1ao, cospa1L coo1ae1c1aykuee cneunannsnpoaannoe aren1c1ao. ycckn
yuenm ponxen nHe1L aosHoxnoc1L cnokono pa6o1a1L poHa, 6ypyun yaepen, u1o ero
npaaa napexno saunuenm, n ero nso6pe1ennn npnnecy1 poc1onme penLrn eHy n ero
opnne. B-x, nnkanpnpoaa1L nk6me nLro1m n kao1m, eue cyuec1aykune
pnn nk6mx nepyccknx napopoa npn noc1ynnennn a aysm occnn.
cnn a1n Hepm 6ypy1 ncnonnenm rpaHo1no n npnnecy1 aqqek1, 1o cnepye1, a-nn1mx,
pasaepny1L nporpaHHy no aosapauennk naunx yuenmx a occnk.
6nopecypce (renoqonpe) - cH. nnxe.
9. c1po neo6xopnHo o1penn1L o1 occnn 1e ee cy6Lek1m, caHo cyuec1aoaanne
ko1opmx a coc1aae c1panm nece1 c co6o nanyk a1nopeHorpaqnueckyk (a snaun1 -
a1nononn1nueckyk) yrposy, ne koHnencnpyeHyk reononn1nuecknHn qak1opaHn. 1o
eunn, nryue1nn, yaa, c ko1opmHn Hm HoxeH pacc1a1Lcn o1nocn1enLno
6es6onesnenno. mnonnna npn a1oH pnp ycnoan, kak, nanpnHep: 1) asanHnan
1o1anLnan pena1pnaunn pyccknx n 1n1ynLnmx napopoa, 2) y1ounenne rpannu, 3)
Ha1epnanLnan koHnencaunn a nonLsy occnn sa pasan1ne Hec1noro napopnoro
xosnc1aa, a a cnyuae c eune - eue n sa renounp pyccknx n sa Ha1epnanLnm
yuep6, nonecennm occne a xope pasansanno ueuenuaHn aonm n 1.p.
es coHnennn, nnme pecny6nnkn aakasa, a nepayk ouepepL, pmren, arec1an (rpe
sa 10 ne1 npouen1 pyccknx cnnsnncn c 9 po 2), apauaeao-epkecnn, c nx amcoknH
npnpoc1oH 1n1ynLnoro nacenennn, 1akxe necy1 a ce6e a1nononn1nueckyk n
a1nopeHorpaqnueckyk yrposy pnn pyccknx. o c nx npncy1c1aneH a occnn no pasnmH
npnunnaH npnxopn1cn Hnpn1Lcn.
eko1opme kaasn-nparHa1nkn aospaxak1: nenLsn o1paaa1L eunk - 1aH neq1L, yay -
1aH Hapraneu n 1.p. o nHe1L 1eppn1opnn n anape1L nHn - a1o paneko ne opno n 1o xe.
asae pyccknH npnnapnexn1 poccnckn ankHnnn, poccnckan neq1L, poccnckn
nnkenL? cnn nepycckn kann1an cyHen nanoxn1L nany na naun pecypcm a opnoH
cnyuae (ponyc1nH, a pacnonpcke, a kHenn), on cyHee1 a1o cpena1L n a ppyroH (a
eune, yae). Hmcn a 1oH, u1o6m, ao-nepamx, c1a1L xosneaaHn a co6c1aenno c1pane
nap co6c1aennmHn pecypcaHn (uero Hm noka ne poc1nrnn), a ao-a1opmx - ocaon1L
160
npak1nky neokononnannsHa, nayun1Lcn anape1L pecypcaHn, ponyc1nH, a kononnn yae,
poHnnnone nryue1nn, npo1ek1opa1e eune, o1penennmx o1 nac, 1eH ne Henee,
coaepuenno nenpospaunmHn rpannuaHn.
10. apnpy c orpannuenneH poc1a uncnennoc1n nnopopuea a occnn ponxen
pec1aoaa1L koHnnekc Hep, noamuakunx poxpaeHoc1L n kauec1ao noaopoxpennmx
pyccknx. uncne caHmx rnaanmx sapau coapeHennoro o6uec1aa (ne 1onLko a occnn,
no aespe, rpe paspasnncn peHorpaqnueckn kpnsnc) - aepny1L xenunny k pe1cko
kpoaa1ke n poHauneHy ouary. ena1enLno - n Ha1L, n 6a6yuky. o cnne aosHoxnoc1n
- xo1n 6m 6a6yuky. epL opna ns aaxneunx npnunn Hanope1noc1n a1o paspyuenne
nsaeuno 1pexnokonenno c1pyk1ypm ceHLn. eo6xopnHo npoaec1n pnp nenonynnpnmx
Hep, nanpaanennmx na ykpennenne ceHLn n noamuenne poxpaeHoc1n. 1oH uncne,
aepny1L nanor na 6espe1noc1L a nonLsy Hnorope1nmx ceHe, aaec1n annHen1m c
xenunn, oc1aannkunx noaopoxpennmx a poppoHax, orpannuennn na cao6opy pasaopa
n a6op1a. eo6xopnHo sanpe1n1L nopnorpaqnk, xec1ko orpannun1L pacnpoc1panenne
apo1nuecko npopykunn; sanpe1n1L 1pypoayk Hnrpaunk poccncknx xenunn a c1panm
panLnero n 6nnxnero sapy6exLn; sanpe1n1L ace kon1opm n qnpHm, aep6ykune
poccncknx xenunn na pa6o1y sa py6exoH a cqepe cekca, qo1o- n knno6nsneca,
6paunmx n HopenLnmx aren1c1a, pa6o1akunx na akcnop1; sanpe1n1L 1ak
nasmaaeHoe cekcyanLnoe o6yuenne n npocaeuenne a ukonax. eo6xopnHo cospanne
ukon Ha1epnnc1aa, ycnnenne kypcoa poHoaopc1aa a ukonax n ppyrnx yue6nmx
saaepennnx. eo6xopnHa unpokoHacu1a6nan nponaranpa uennoc1e ceHLn n
pe1opoxpennn. a pyccknHn HyxunnaHn cnepye1 sakpenn1L npaao na cospanne
napannenLno ceHLn na onpepenennmx HopanLnmx n Ha1epnanLnmx ycnoannx.
11. konoHnueckan nonn1nka naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa ponxna coo1ae1c1aoaa1L ero
caepxsapaue: a6conk1noHy n o1nocn1enLnoHy poc1y pycckoro nacenennn. akoa
rnaanm kpn1epn npnropnoc1n 1o nnn nno nporpaHHm. 1o snaun1, u1o ao ace
akonoHnueckne nporpaHHm ponxnm saknapmaa1Lcn coo1ae1c1aykune npnopn1e1m.
onn1no, u1o nHenno no a1o npnunne ace 1.n. nn6epanLnme nporpaHHm pasan1nn
occnn ponxnm 6m1L neHepnenno o1Henenm, a nx pypnme nocnepc1ann no
aosHoxnoc1n ncnpaanenm. Hn n
( m u, n
n m m). Hm u
s - n! -
u n m.
ocnoanme nanpaanennn naunonanLnoro c1pon1enLc1aa a ycckoH
ocypapc1ae, cospanne n noc1poenne ko1oporo nanne1cn nepaoouepepno sapaue
pycckoro panxennn.
ue pas nopuepkneH, u1o kak aneunnn, 1ak n any1pennnn nonn1nka ny1nnckoro
pexnHa nonnoc1Lk n no aceH nanpaanennnH npo1naopeun1 uennH n sapauaH pycckoro
panxennn. oa1oHy nHenno n 1onLko pycckoe panxenne ceropnn ro1oao sann1L
aakan1nyk nnuy 6eckoHnpoHnccno n anecnc1eHno onnosnunn.
B m nu , n s
. Y u nm
n x
, u-u
n.
161
HMM
YQEHH HERB
YK HHHRBH-BQHERBH
QHXEHHR
"occnn - rocypapc1ao pycckoro napopa
oann, Hn1pononn1
ank1-e1ep6yprckn n apoxckn
rocypapc1aennoe yc1poc1ao occnn nn 1eope1nueckn, nn npak1nueckn
ne coo1ae1c1aye1 npaaaH n nn1epecaH pycckoro napopa.
pnunna 1akoro necoo1ae1c1ann, ecnn cHo1pe1L c 1oukn spennn unannnc1nkn (paspen
kpncnpypenunn, 1pak1ykun aonpocm rocypapc1aennoro c1pon1enLc1aa), nexn1 a
pec1aykue onc1n1yunn occnn, nanncanno 6es Haneuero yue1a no1pe6noc1e
pycckoro napopa kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero napopa occnn. ycckn napop,
cospaaun occnk n nannkuncn ee ocnoano ckpeno, a onc1n1yunn paxe ne
ynoHnnae1cn.
onc1n1yunn 6mna npnnn1a nop necnmxannmH paanenneH enLunnckoro pexnHa npn
nsaec1nmx o6c1on1enLc1aax a peka6pe 1993 r. oueHy nporonocoaana sa nee
pacc1pennnnan, nopHn1an nop ce6n opno ns nonn1nuecknx rpynnnpoaok occnn?
oHy-1o Hmcnn ckoamaan c1pax, koHy-1o - npnamunoe nepoHmcnne n
nekoHne1en1noc1L, koHy-1o - napexpa na o6uec1aennoe npnHnpenne, na ycnex
peqopH a ycnoannx xec1koro aa1okpa1nueckoro pexnHa. o1n aceH c caHoro nauana
6mno anpno: onc1n1yunn 1ua1enLno npopyHana 1onLko a o1nouennn npesnpen1cko
anac1n, ao aceH xe oc1anLnoH - aHopqna, noppaxa1enLna, nanoHnnae1 neyknkxyk
opexpy ns Harasnna ro1oaoro nna1Ln, a ne napno cun1m no qnrype koc1kH. nmHn
cnoaaHn, cnoano akon occnn cpenan ne pnn ee napopa, a pnn opnoro uenoaeka
(npesnpen1a) n pnn 1ex, k1o c1on1 a ero 1enn.
epecHo1p nmne pec1aykue onc1n1yunn ec1ec1aennmH o6pasoH c1an na noaec1ky
pnn. eropnn o anecennn nonpaaok n nonpaaouek a ce pokyHen1 roaopn1 co acex
c1opon: "cnpaaa n "cneaa, "caepxy n "cnnsy. apn peannsaunn a1nx nonpaaok a
ocpyHe ceropnn ro1oan1cn uenmx paa npoek1a sakona onc1n1yunonnoH
co6pannn. pnako ace uac1nunme nsHenennn, npepnaraeHme nonn1nkaHn ns pasnmx
narepe, - cy1L nnuL nyM, ne cansannme o6unH konuen1yanLnmH anpenneH
npepHe1a. ak o6c1on1 peno no1oHy, u1o H
n x x ,
x x , , x .
onn1no, noueHy nopo6no konuenunn ne1 y ppyrnx. nn 1oro, u1o6m ona 6mna,
nyxna, ao-nepamx, nekan epnnan "npnsHa nn1epecoa um,
ckaosL ko1opyk cnepye1 paccHa1pnaa1L kaxpyk c1a1Lk. ao-a1opmx, nyxno cHo1pe1L
na pec1an1enLnoc1L nesauopennmHn rnasaHn.
epnan pnn caoero apeHenn "npnsHa" knaccoaoro nopxopa 6mna korpa-1o y
6onLueankoa, c1pon1ene pa6oue-kpec1Lnnckoro rocypapc1aa. o ona yn
c cny a pesynL1a1e nsHenennn counanLnmx nponopun nauero o6uec1aa,
yn y -kcnck Mcc nxn n r cMr
Mr nmc. 1akxe a pesynL1a1e pasan1nn n poc1a counanLnmx n
162
naunonanLnmx npo1naopeun, ampannyaunx na nepam nnan coaceH nnme
npnopn1e1m.
onm1kn nekorpa aceanac1no ckonc1pynpoaa1L, nrnopnpyn cocnoano-knaccoame
n naunonanLnme npo1naopeunn, noayk 1akyk "npnsHy" a 1970-1980-e rr. - npnsHy
nn1epecoa Hnqnueckoro r cckr , Hnqnueckoro c
cn c - okonunnncL aneua1nnkunH n ouenL noyun1enLnmH
kpaxoH. 6o nn epnnoro coae1ckoro napopa, nn o6uec1aa counanLno opnopopnoc1n a
peanLnoc1n nnkorpa ne 6mno.
eropnn na cHeny npnunn ananornunme nonm1kn ckonc1pynpoaa1L npnsHy nn1epecoa
nekoe ccck . a1o npee rpoHornacno amc1ynan neyHnm nLunn, a
nepaano npo6nm uap ka1nyn caH npesnpen1 y1nn ao apeHn ansn1a a e6okcapm
snHo 2004 r. o a1n nonm1kn 1akxe 6ecnnopnm n nenenm no onpepenennk: aepL
nnkako "poccncko naunn a npnpope ne1 n ne npepanpn1cn. pnsHa kako 6m 1o nn
6mno "o6uenapopnoc1n - nnnksopna, qanLunaa, n6o nacenenne occnn -
nokasa1enLno neopnopopno no aceH counanLnmH n naunonanLnmH kpn1epnnH. 1n
nonm1kn 1ak nnuero n ne nonnaunx noHenkna1ypunkoa coae1cko amyukn 1oxe
nnuero, kpoHe ouepepnoro kpaxa, npnnec1n naue c1pane ne Hory1.
Hec1e c 1eH ace, xenakune anpe1L, - anpn1, u1o pacnap oae1ckoro oksa
o6ecneunn occnn noam c1a1yc n noaoe snaunHoe 6onLunnc1ao nacenennn. 1o
u n um .
occnn - c1pana pycckoro napopa. 1o nonoxenne coo1ae1c1aye1 nc1opnueckoHy
qak1y. o ono coo1ae1c1aye1 1akxe n coapeHennoHy qak1nueckoHy nonoxennk aeue.
pounoe n nac1onuee, 1aknH o6pasoH, cxopn1cn a a1oH nynk1e.
Henno 1akoaa nmn n uu, ns ko1opo ne Hoxe1 ne
ncxopn1L nk6o sppaaoHmcnnun nonn1onor, konc1pynpykun naue 6ypyuee. cnn
cun1a1Lcn c a1o peanLnoc1Lk, a ne 1onLko c aosamuennmHn Heu1aHn, 1o
epnnc1aenno coapeHenno n ak1yanLno npnsHo o6uec1aennmx nn1epecoa, rnnpn
ckaosL ko1opyk, Hoxno nannca1L onc1n1yunk, opnen1npoaannyk na yc1ounaoe
pasan1ne occnn, - cnepye1 npnsna1L npnsHy nn1epecoa um.
Henno 1akan nonm1ka aonnouena a npepc1aanneHoH nnxe poek1e onc1n1yunn
occnckoro ocypapc1aa, paspa6o1annoH nro saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn
npn copec1ann yuenmx-kpnc1oa kpqaka n nc1n1y1a rocypapc1aa n npaaa .
poek1 na ceropnn nanne1cn epnnc1aenno n on1nHanLno nonm1ko sapa1L npaaoame
napaHe1pm 6ypyue occnn kak naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa pyccknx, a nonnoH
coo1ae1c1ann c amuenpnaepenno apryHen1aune. n, ne yueHnnn sakonnmx npaa n
nn1epecoa acex kopennmx napopoa occnn, c1aan1 ao rnaay yrna npo6neHy npaaoaoro
yc1poc1aa pycckoro napopa kak napopa rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero. poek1
onc1n1yunn occnn pononnne1cn npoek1oH akona nx
1ex xe paspa6o1unkoa, a 1akxe npoek1oH akona
, a paspa6o1ke ko1oporo npnnnn yuac1ne pnp pyccknx o6uec1aennmx (a 1oH
uncne npaaosaun1nmx) oprannsaun n cpepc1a Haccoao nnqopHaunn. coaokynnoc1n
a1n 1pn pokyHen1a npepc1aannk1 co6o npaaoayk 6asy n aHec1e c 1eH nonn1nueckyk
nporpaHHy rocypapc1aennoro yc1poc1aa, npneHneHyk pnn pycckoro panxennn.
oueHy 1ak aaxno npepnoxn1L o6uec1ay ne 1eope1nueckne paccyxpennn, a
konkpe1nme kpnpnueckne pokyHen1m pnn o6cyxpennn n npnnn1nn? o1oHy u1o nHenno
a kpnpnueckne qopHynm na 6esynpeuno 1ounoH n HkoH nsmke npaaa o1nnaak1cn ace
naun 1eope1nueckne npepc1aanennn a o6nac1n rocypapc1aennoro c1pon1enLc1aa.
n1a1enL, paxe ne 6ypyun kpnc1oH, neHepnenno npnHepne1 1y nnn nnyk nopHy
sakononpoek1a k ce6e nnn k o6uec1ay. aknH o6pasoH, ace npenHyuec1aa nnn
peqek1m 1o nnn nno 1eopnn cpasy c1anoan1cn anpnm. eopn, peknapaun n
nporpaHH Hoxe1 6m1L aennkoe Hnoxec1ao, no xn1L-1o naH npepc1on1 ne no 1eopnnH,
163
peknapaunnH n nap1nnmH nporpaHHaH, a no sakonaH. nepayk ouepepL - no
ocnoanoHy sakony: onc1n1yunn occnn.
kona kpnpnueckoro Hmunennn a ycnoannx yc1anoanauerocn 6ypxyasno-
peHokpa1nueckoro c1pon oc1po neo6xopnHa aceHy pycckoHy napopy, ne 1onLko pyccknH
peny1a1aH, no n pyccknH ns6npa1ennH. es nee naH ne amxn1L n ne no6epn1L.
oa1oHy npak1nka o6cyxpennn sakononpoek1oa ponxna c1a1L pnn nac noaceHec1no n
noc1onnno.
1ak, packpoeH nonynnpno ocnoanme oco6ennoc1n rocypapc1aennoro yc1poc1aa, kak
onn npepc1ak1 ns nasaannoro npoek1a onc1n1yunn occnn.
YKHM - HHHE, YEEHHE H YQEHHB
HK onc1n1yunn (panee: ) ne ampaxae1 nn1epecoa pycckoro napopa n
ne coo1ae1c1aye1 nH. onee 1oro, ona rpy6o nonnpae1 ero ec1ec1aennme npaaa. 1o
anonne oueanpno.
B-x, pycckn napop, a o1nnune o1 Hnornx nnmx napopoa occnn (1a1ap,
6auknp, nky1oa n pp.), nnuen caoe rocypapc1aennoc1n n cyaepennoc1n. nuen npaaa
na caHoonpepenenne pe-qak1o.
B-x, a o1nnune o1 Hanmx, kopennmx, penpeccnpoaannmx n 1.n. napopoa,
pycckn napop paxe ne ynoHnnae1cn a , 1o ec1L aoo6ue ne nanne1cn ee cy6Lek1oH.
B-ux, pycckne nkpn ne paanonpaanm a uenoH pnpe cy6Lek1oa occncko
epepaunn. paaa "1n1ynLnmx napopoa a a1nx cy6Lek1ax yueHnnk1
o6uerpaxpanckne npaaa pyccknx a caoe c1pane occnn, a uac1noc1n, npaao 6m1L
ns6pannmH a opranm anac1n (npnHepm ueHy Hm anpenn a anHmknn, apn-n n
npou.)
B-x, aoo6ue nnkak ne yun1maae1 pyccknx nkpe, okasaaunxcn sa
npepenaHn nmneunnx rpannu occnn, ne konc1a1npye1 qak1 paspenennoc1n pycckoro
napopa, a snaun1 ne c1aan1 n sapaun ero aoccoepnnennn.
B-nx, npoaosrnacna a6cyppnyk n an1nnayunyk qopHyny Mrn
Pcc, c1aan1 na opny pocky rocypapc1aoo6pasykuyk pycckyk naunk -
roaopn c1poro nayuno, epnnc1aenno sacnyxnaakuyk nasaannn "naunn - n co1nk
a1nocoa, Hanmx napopoa n naunonanLnmx HenLunnc1a, cnopo6naunxcn a1oro nasaannn
no nanoHy nepopasyHennk.
B-mx, ne ampaxae1 nn1epecoa nnkaknx kopennmx napopoa occnn aoo6ue n
pyccknx a uac1noc1n, nockonLky ne pae1 nH nnkaknx npenHyuec1a nepep napopaHn,
nHekunHn caok rocypapc1aennoc1L ane occnn n okasaaunHncn y nac a cnny pasnmx
o6c1on1enLc1a (kak aLe1naHum, kyppm, aqranum, nnrepnum n Hn. pp.).
B-ux, pnckpnHnnnpye1 pyccknx a opranax amcue anac1n, a uac1noc1n, a
oae1e epepaunn, rpe pycckne - 82% nacenennn - npepc1aanenm
nenponopunonanLno HanmH konnuec1aoH "cena1opoa.
akoam ocnoanme, xo1n n ne ncuepnmaakune, coo6paxennn, no ko1opmH, c 1oukn
spennn pycckoro uenoaeka, onc1n1yunk cnepye1 Henn1L.
1o xe npepnarae1 poek1 noao onc1n1yunn (panee: ), kakne nsHenennn
cyuec1aykuero c1pon?
164

HEBOE. peaH6yna "m - ycckn apop... cospaeH caoe nesaancnHoe
naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao occnn n npnnnHaeH ero onc1n1yunk, aosapauae1
pyccknH kak cyaepennoc1L, 1ak n cy6Lek1noc1L, ec1ec1aenno coo1ae1c1aykune
pec1an1enLnoHy nonoxennk aeue a naue, no aceH HnpoamH c1anpap1aH[2],
HononaunonanLno c1pane. na xe yc1anaannaae1 n sakpennne1 pe-kpe
cycyy -qk ponL pyccknx kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn.
1n nonoxennn sakpennenm 1akxe a rnaae 1- "cnoam konc1n1yunonnoro c1pon
ycckoro ocypapc1aa a cnepykunx c1a1Lnx:
- 1: "occnn (ycckoe ocypapc1ao) nanne1cn naunonanLno,
peHokpa1nuecko, counanLno, npaaoao pecny6nnko...;
- 2 n. 1: "occnn - naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao. cnoano sapaue ycckoro
rocypapc1aa nanne1cn saun1a 6esonacnoc1n n copec1ane acec1oponneHy pasan1nk
yccko aunn n kaxporo rpaxpannna occnn.
BTOOE. ne ponyckae1 aosHoxnoc1n napyuennn o6uerpaxpancknx npaa pyccknx
nkpe a o6nac1nx, rpe onn npepc1aannk1 HenLunnc1ao. akoe nonoxenne sakpenneno
a rnaae 2- "paaa n cao6opm uenoaeka n rpaxpannna, yc1anaannaakue nonnoe
paaenc1ao acex rpaxpan ocnn a o1nouennn npaa n cao6op, a 1akxe a rnaae 3-
"pHnnnc1pa1nano-1eppn1opnanLnoe yc1poc1ao, cornacno c1a1LnH 79, 82, 87, 88
ko1opo a aa1onoHnnx noHnHo am6opnoro naam n a1onoHnoro oae1a cyuec1aye1
1akxe aHec1nnk, nasnauaeHm pesnpen1oH occnn, npepc1aannkun pesnpen1a a
aa1onoHnn n nHekun caoe sapaue saun1y n npepc1aan1enLc1ao nn1epecoa
"pycckoro nacenennn n naunonanLnmx HenLunnc1a, pnn uero aHec1nnk o6napae1
pnpoH cyuec1aennmx nonnoHoun.
TETBE. ce kopennme napopm occnn (a 1oH uncne n a nepayk ouepepL pycckn
napop) nonyuak1 npenHyuec1aa nepep nnoc1panuaHn n nnuaHn 6es rpaxpanc1aa. 1o
o1ue1nnao ampaxeno a rnaae 2-, rpe napnpy c o6ueuenoaeuecknHn npaaaHn,
sakpennennmHn o1 poxpennn sa nk6mH uenoaekoH (u1o rpaHHa1nueckn ampaxae1cn a
coo1ae1c1aykunx c1a1Lnx npoc1mH nopnexaunH "kaxpm), sakpennnk1cn 1akxe
npaaa, o1nocnunecn ncknkun1enLno k rpaxpanaH (u1o ampaxae1cn cnoxnmH
nopnexaunH "kaxpm rpaxpannn occnn). np 1aknx ncknkun1enLnmx npaa
copepxn1cn n a , no cyuec1aenno pacunpne1 a1o1 cnncok. 1o o1nocn1cn k 1aknH
npaaaH: onpepenn1L n ykasmaa1L caok naunonanLnyk npnnapnexnoc1L; cao6opno
nepepanra1Lcn, am6npa1L Hec1o npe6maannn n xn1enLc1aa; na yuac1ne a
o6Lepnnennn, aknkuan npaao cospaaa1L coksm, a 1oH uncne npoqeccnonanLnme, pnn
saun1m caonx nn1epecoa; na 1pyp n aosnarpaxpenne sa nero ne nnxe yc1anoanennoro
sakonoH HnnnHanLnoro pasHepa onna1m 1pypa, a 1akxe npaao na saun1y o1
6espa6o1num; na o1pmx; na counanLnoe o6ecneuenne; na xnnnue; na o6pasoaanne, a
1oH uncne 6ecnna1noe amcuee.
pn a1oH ace nnme npaaa n cao6opm, yc1anoanennme 1onLko pnn rpaxpan occnn,
nnkak ne orpannunaak1cn, sa cnepykunHn ncknkuennnHn:
- npaao na paanm poc1yn k rocypapc1aenno cnyx6e (c1. 32 n. 4) o1neceno
aa1opaHn poek1a k koHne1enunn 6ypyuero sakona o rpaxpanc1ae, a anpy
neo6xopnHoc1n orpannun1L poc1yn k pnpy ponxnoc1e nnuaH c paonmH rpaxpanc1aoH
a saancnHoc1n o1 c1panm a1oporo noppanc1aa;
- npaao na saHeny aoenno cnyx6m na anL1epna1nanyk rpaxpanckyk, ecnn nepaan
npo1naopeun1 y6expennnH nnn aeponcnoaepannk rpaxpannna (c1. 62 n. 3),
165
o1neceno aa1opaHn poek1a k koHne1enunn coo1ae1c1aykuero sakona a anpy
nepasLncnennoc1n ampaxennn "npo1naopeun1 y6expennnH;
- aaepeno nonoxenne (c1. 62 n. 3), cornacno ko1opoHy rpaxpannn occnn Hoxe1
6m1L nnuen caoero rpaxpanc1aa epxoanmH ypoH (nHen a anpy npopanxenne occnn
k o1Hene cHep1no kasnn n neo6xopnHoc1L apekaa1no saun1m rpaxpan o1
nencnpaanHo an1no6uec1aennmx aneHen1oa).
HETBETOE. cansn c 1eH, u1o rpaxpanne occnn napennk1cn cneunanLnmHn
npaaaHn no cpaanennk c nerpaxpanaHn, oco6ennyk aaxnoc1L npno6pe1ae1 aonpoc:
k1o Hoxe1 cun1a1Lcn rpaxpannnoH occnn? 1ae1 opnosnauen. paxpanaHn occnn
anpnopn "npnsnak1cn ace nnua, npnnapnexaune k pyccko naunonanLnoc1n n ppyrnH
kopennmH napopaH occnn, nesaancnHo o1 Hec1a npoxnaannn (rn.1, c1.11 ).
opo6nm npnnunn rpaxpanc1aa "no kpoan nHee1 ananornn a konc1n1yunonnoH
yc1poc1ae pnpa c1pan, a uac1noc1n, epHannn n spannn, no oco6enno ak1yanen on a
ceropnnune occnn, a Hrnoaenne oka no1epnaue 25 Hnn. caonx corpaxpan n npn1oH
ak1nano sacennkuecn nepyccknHn. oa1oHy, xo1n a uenoH "rpaxpanc1ao occnn
npno6pe1ae1cn n npekpauae1cn a coo1ae1c1ann c... konc1n1yunonnmH sakonoH (1aH
xe), no a1o1 npnnunn ampenen cneunanLno n konc1n1yunonno sakpennen.
1a1Ln 16 pasanaae1 a1y 1eHy 1ak: "1. occnn c1peHn1cn k aoccoepnnennk
paspenenno yccko aunn. 2. occnn c1peHn1cn k cao6opnoHy o6Lepnnennk co
caonHn nc1opnuecknHn 1eppn1opnnHn, nacenennmHn npenHyuec1aenno pyccknHn
nkpLHn n npepc1aan1ennHn kopennmx napopoa occnn, nesakonno o11oprny1mHn o1
nee nn1epnaunonanLno 1o1ann1apno anac1Lk. 3. ycckoe rocypapc1ao c1peHn1cn k
po6poaonLnoHy rocypapc1aennoHy coksy napopoa o6uepycckoro kopnn: pyccknx,
ykpannuea n 6enopycoa. c1ec1aenno, u1o poek1oH "sanpeuae1cn nonn1nueckan n
o6uec1aennan pen1enLnoc1L, nanpaanennan npo1na nesaancnHoc1n n epnnc1aa
yccko aunn, counanLno connpapnoc1n, npaa n cao6op rpaxpan occnn (c1. 9).
akoneu, napo ynoHnny1L, u1o pena1pnan1aH, napnpy c Hnorope1nmHn n
Hanoo6ecneuennmHn, poek1 o6ecneunaae1 npaao na xnnLe 6ecnna1noe nnn sa
poc1ynnyk nna1y (c1. 41 n. 3).
Henno c amuenpnaepennmHn o6c1on1enLc1aaHn cansan n aonpoc o npaae na paonoe
rpaxpanc1ao. o-nepamx, 1akoe npaao ponxno 6m1L npepoc1aaneno pyccknH xn1ennH
kpannm, asaxc1ana n 1.p., n occnn ponxna okasmaa1L paanenne na nopo6nme
c1panm a uennx aaepennn 1aH nnc1n1y1a paonoro rpaxpanc1aa papn npepc1aan1ene
pycckoro napopa n ppyrnx kopennmx napopoa occnn, okasaaunxcn o1pesannmHn o1
Ha1epnncko naunn n Ha1epnncko c1panm (1.e. a paspenennoH nonoxennn). o-
a1opmx, nonn1no, u1o k npepc1aan1ennH nekopennmx napopoa occnn a1o npaao ne
o1nocn1cn.
onn1no 1akxe, u1o npaao na poccnckoe rpaxpanc1ao - cyuec1aennan npnannernn,
naknapmaakuan n onpepenennyk o1ae1c1aennoc1L na rpaxpan. Henno noa1oHy
aaopn1 n 1akyk orpannun1enLnyk Hepy, kak nnuenne rpaxpanc1aa peuenneH
epxoanoro ypa.
poaopn onpepenennoe pasnnune a npaaoaoH o1nouennn Hexpy rpaxpanaHn n
nerpaxpanaHn, npepnonarae1 cospanne noaoro, o1aeuakuero pyccknH nn1epecaH n
no1pe6noc1nH "akona o rpaxpanc1ae, paspa6o1ko ko1oporo a nac1onun HoHen1
sann1a nra saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn.
HRTOE. npaspnenne nmneunero naunonanLno-1eppn1opnanLnoro penennn occnn n
saHena oae1a epepaunn kak aepxne nana1m amcuero sakonopa1enLnoro oprana na
npesnpen1ckn oae1 ry6epna1opoa, rnaa aa1onoHn n naHec1nnkoa (c
coaeua1enLnmHn qynkunnHn), - ace a1o ncknkuae1 necnpaaepnnayk a o1nouennn
166
pyccknx n neamropnyk pnn nnx pncnponopunk naunonanLnoro npepc1aan1enLc1aa a
amcueH npepc1aan1enLnoH oprane anac1n.
1ak, poek1, a1o oueanpno, ncnpaanne1 1e nepoc1a1kn, sakpennennme n
ycyry6nennme , ko1opme, c pyccko 1oukn spennn, copepxa1cn a ceropnnune
poccncko o6uec1aenno xnsnn.
HR - H HmX 3MXHEH
ack uene1nnLnoc1L naunonanLno 1eHm paxe a HononaunonanLno c1pane,
rpe napnpy c rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naune npncy1c1ayk1, ace xe, n
Hanouncnennme napopm, n naunonanLnme HenLunnc1aa, aa1opm npoek1a yunn a1o
o6c1on1enLc1ao n konc1n1yunonno sakpennnn aceo6uee rpaxpanckoe paaenc1ao n
saun1y npaa a1nx napopoa n HenLunnc1a. n1npyk :
" 2: cnoano sapaue ycckoro ocypapc1aa nanne1cn saun1a 6esonacnoc1n n
copec1ane acec1oponneHy pasan1nk yccko aunn kxr rx Pcc
(specL n panee ampeneno Hno. - ..)...
3: occnn npnsnae1 npaao na naunonanLnoe caHoonpepenenne sa kpynnmHn
kopennmHn napopaHn occnn, coc1aannkunHn yc1ounaoe 6onLunnc1ao a Hec1ax
caoero nc1opnueckoro npoxnaannn, a qopHe aa1onoHnn nn6o o1penennn na
ocnoaannn... konc1n1yunonnoro sakona.
occnn rapan1npye1 npaaa Hanouncnennmx kopennmx napopoa a Hec1ax nx
nc1opnueckoro npoxnaannn a coo1ae1c1ann c... sakonoH.
ycckoe ocypapc1ao npnsnae1 nonnyk cao6opy naunonanLno xnsnn n kynL1ypnyk
aa1onoHnk acex a1nnuecknx o6unn n rpynn, npoxnaakunx na ero 1eppn1opnn.
4: occnn - peHokpa1nueckan pecny6nnka. ce rpaxpane occnn cM
nc, aeponcnoaepannn, nona, pacm, counanLnoro nonoxennn n
nonn1nuecknx y6expenn nannk1cn a coaokynnoc1n epnnc1aennmH nc1ounnkoH
cyaepenn1e1a occnn...
27 n. 1: axpm rpaxpannn occnn anpaae onpepenn1L n ykasmaa1L caok
naunonanLnyk npnnapnexnoc1L. nk1o ne Hoxe1 6m1L npnnyxpen k onpepenennk n
ykasannk caoe naunonanLno npnnapnexnoc1n...
30 n. 2: e ponyckae1cn nponaranpa nnn arn1aunn, aos6yxpakuan
counanLnyk, pacoayk, naunonanLnyk nnn pennrnosnyk nenaanc1L n apaxpy...
139 n. 4: yponponsaopc1ao no aonpocaH ceHenoro n yronoanoro npaaa a
o1nouennn npepc1aan1ene 1n1ynLno naunonanLnoc1n aa1onoHn c asanHnoro
cornacnn c1opon Hoxe1 6m1L ocyuec1aneno c npnHenenneH yronoanoro n ceHenoro
sakonopa1enLc1aa naunonanLnmx o6nac1e. a1oH cnyuae npnopn1e1 nonyuae1
sakonopa1enLc1ao naunonanLno o6nac1n.
1ak, necHo1pn na ynn1apnm xapak1ep 6ypyue occnn, ao acex nmneunnx
pecny6nnkax , rpe 1n1ynLnm napop npepc1aanne1 co6o yc1ounaoe 6onLunnc1ao
(ec1ec1aennoe, nonn1noe n cnpaaepnnaoe o6nsa1enLnoe ycnoane), npepnonarae1cn
coxpanenne aa1onoHnn. a pannoH nc1opnueckoH a1ane 1aknx aa1onoHn
npepnonarae1 pean1L: arec1anckan, nryuckan, a6appnno-ankapckan, anHmukan,
ce1nnckan, a1apckan, yannckan, euenckan, yaauckan. aepennk aa1onoHnn
("naunonanLno o6nac1n) o1nocn1cn (c1. 81 ): "...a) yc1anoanenne, napnpy c
rocypapc1aennmH, nnoro oqnunanLnoro nsmka aa1onoHnn; 6) noppepxka n copec1ane
167
pasan1nk a1nnuecko kynL1ypm 1n1ynLno naunonanLnoc1n; a) cnc1eHa
naunonanLnoro o6pasoaannn aa1onoHnn; r) aa1onoHnoe yronoanoe n ceHenoe
sakonopa1enLc1ao, npnHenneHoe... cypaHn k Hec1nmH xn1ennH - npepc1aan1ennH
1n1ynLno naunonanLnoc1n npn nx po6poaonLnoH cornacnn; p) 6kpxe1 aa1onoHnn; e)
yc1anoanenne aa1onoHnmx nanoroa n c6opoa; x) co6c1aennoc1L aa1onoHnn; s)
ynpaanenne counanLno nnqpac1pyk1ypo aa1onoHnn, counanLnan nonn1nka
aa1onoHnn; n) npnpopnme napkn, akonornn aa1onoHno o6nac1n. pranaHn
rocypapc1aenno anac1n a aa1onoHnnx nannk1cn (c1. 79 ): a1onoHnm oae1,
am6opnm naaa aa1onoHnn n aHec1nnk, u1o anonne o6ecneunaae1
caHoc1on1enLnoc1L aa1onoHn a npepenax ouepuenno amue koHne1enunn. pn a1oH,
kak yxe roaopnnocL amue, nasnauennm pesnpen1oH aHec1nnk cnepn1, u1o6m a
aa1onoHnn ne napyuanncL npaaa n cao6opm naunonanLnmx HenLunnc1a n pyccknx
nkpe.
aknH o6pasoH, aocc1anoanenne cyaepenn1e1a pycckoro napopa na 1eppn1opnn ace
occnn (rpe on noaceHec1no nanne1cn, Hexpy npounH, ne 1onLko kopennmH, no n
1n1ynLnmH) ne yueHnne1 ec1ec1aennmx npaa ppyrnx napopoa. Hec1e c 1eH, ne
nosaonne1 1n1ynLnmH napopaH a 1ex nmneunnx cy6Lek1ax qepepaunn, rpe onn
yc1ounamH 6onLunnc1aoH ne nannk1cn, naansmaa1L caok aonk nkpnH ppyro
naunonanLnoc1n, n6o nopo6noe ne ponyc1nHo a npnnunne. pernonax xe, rpe
1n1ynLnme napopm npepc1aanenm a 6onLunnc1ae, rapan1npye1 co6nkpenne
o6uerpaxpancknx npaa aceH nnmH napopaH. 1nH o6ecneunaae1cn 6ananc nn1epecoa
pnn acex.
enLsn ncknkun1L aapnan1, npn ko1opoH kopennme 1n1ynLnme napopm, coc1aannkune
a pnpe aa1onoHn yc1ounaoe 6onLunnc1ao, ampasn1 xenanne np1n a 6ypyuee caonH
ny1eH, o1penLno o1 occnn, n npnHy1 coo1ae1c1aykuee peuenne na peqepenpyHe a
caonx pecny6nnkax. apaua noao onc1n1yunn a 1oH, u1o6m, npepoc1aannn nH pannoe
npaao, ne yueHn1L npn a1oH npaa n nn1epecoa nnmx napopoa n napopnoc1e,
npoxnaakunx na panno 1eppn1opnn, a 1oH uncne n a nepayk ouepepL - pyccknx. nn
a1oro yc1anaannaae1cn nn1nne1nn nepexopnm nepnop pnn y1ounennn asanHnmx
saponxennoc1e, asanHopacue1oa, pennHn1aunn n peHapkaunn rpannu (u1o Hoxe1
6m1L aecLHa cyuec1aenno a pnpe cnyuaea), o6okpno (!) 1o1anLno pena1pnaunn
nacenennn coo1ae1c1aykunx naunonanLnoc1e n onpepenennn nopnpka panLneunx
asanHoo1nouenn.
HK x m

. Henno 1ako nopxop n 1akan nornka nosaonnk1, c opno c1oponm,
c1aan1L aonpoc o aoccoepnnennn pyccko naunn n o npaae pyccknx, koHnak1no
npoxnaakunx na 1eppn1opnnx conpepenLnmx rocypapc1a, na caHoonpepenenne. c
ppyro c1oponm, ncknkuae1 nacnnLc1aennoe ypepxanne a coc1aae occnn 1eppn1opn,
kopennoe 1n1ynLnoe nacenenne a ko1opmx coc1aanne1 yc1ounaoe 6onLunnc1ao.
QH HHR - QH H
amue npnopn1e1m n sapaun, apoxnoannaune aa1opoa , o6ycnoannn
npepnaraeHyk HopenL apHnnnc1pa1nano-1eppn1opnanLnoro yc1poc1aa occnn.
a1opm ncxopnnn ns 1oro, u1o qepepannsaunn occnn, nc1opnueckn e
necaoc1aennan, - ec1L aennuauee npec1ynnenne anac1n 1o1ann1apnoro
nn1epnaunonannsHa, yc1anoanauecn a 1917 r.
epepa1nanoe yc1poc1ao c1panm ec1L neo6xopnHoe ycnoane n 6esycnoanoe 6naro,
korpa peuL npe1 o6 o6Lepnnennn Hnornx seHenL a epnnoe rocypapc1ao. ak a1o, k
npnHepy, 6mno a nnn epHannn. o occnk ne nyxno 6mno o6Lepnnn1L nn a
1917, nn a 1991 rr.: ona n 1ak a 1euenne Hnornx aekoa 6mna epnna. 1oH xe cnyuae,
qn u u n , -
168
, , n sakpennn1L a1o sno nocpepc1aoH onc1n1yunn (a
nHenno 1ak noc1ynae1 ) - a1o 6esyHne n rocypapc1aennoe npec1ynnenne. pn a1oH
rpy6o nonnpae1cn npaao pyccknx na caHoonpepenenne na ace 1eppn1opnn
koHnak1noro npoxnaannn (a 1ako 1eppn1opne nanne1cn npak1nueckn acn occnn),
napyuae1cn naunonanLnoe epnnc1ao pyccko naunn n cospae1cn yrposa ee paspenennn
(npnHep ueHy Hm yxe anpenn npn pacnape ), nakoneu, napyuae1cn n
nsapauae1cn nc1opnueckan 1papnunn pycckoro napopa, cospaauero epnnyk Horyuyk
pepxaay a coo1ae1c1ann co caonHn any1pennnHn no6yxpennnHn, aosHoxnoc1nHn n
no1pe6noc1nHn.
un m
.
c1L n ppyrne coo6paxennn, 1pe6ykune o1Henm qepepanLnoro n aaepennn ynn1apnoro
rocypapc1aennoro yc1poc1aa. kaxeH o nnx.
1. o6ue cnoxnoc1n uncno nnu 1n1ynLnmx naunonanLnoc1e, noc1onnno
npoxnaakunx, no pannmH nocnepne nepenncn, a coo1ae1c1aykunx pecny6nnkax -
cy6Lek1ax qepepaunn (6es yue1a eunn) - paano 8,89 Hnn uenoaek, u1o coc1aanne1
npnHepno 6% a coc1aae nacenennn occnn (148,8 Hnn uenoaek). nmHn cnoaaHn, 6%
nacenennn nHek1 caok rocypapc1aennoc1L, caon pecny6nnkn a coc1aae occnn, caon
konc1n1yunn, caonx npesnpen1oa n 1.p., a 1o apeHn kak oc1anLnme 94% nacenennn
nnueno acero a1oro. e a6cyppno nn, ne npo1naoec1ec1aenno nn 1akoe nonoxenne?!
e ec1L nn a1o rpy6euee, peHonc1pa1nanoe napyuenne npaa a6conk1noro
6onLunnc1aa? e 1pe6ye1 nn 1akoe nonoxenne pen neHepnennoro ncnpaanennn?
2. anee, a1n xe 6%, pacnonarakunecn a 20 (!) pecny6nnkax, nHek1, coo1ae1c1aenno,
40 (!) npepc1aan1ene a oae1e epepaunn, a 1o apeHn, kak na 94% oc1anLnoro
nacenennn npnxopn1cn acero 138 "cena1opoa, 1o ec1L a ue1mpe c nonoanno pasa
HenLue, ueH npepnonarae1 cnpaaepnnaan nponopunn! onyc1nHo nn 1akoe a
peHokpa1nuecko pecny6nnke?! e ec1L nn a1o rpy6oe nonpanne rpaxpanckoro
paanonpaann?
3. enLsn ynyc1n1L ns annHannn n 1akoe o6c1on1enLc1ao. ornacno c1.9 n.1 , "seHnn
n ppyrne npnpopnme pecypcm ncnonLsyk1cn n oxpannk1cn kak ocnoaa xnsnn n
pen1enLnoc1n , x ccy . akan
noc1anoaka aonpoca, c 1oukn spennn pycckoro uenoaeka, coaepuenno nenpneHneHa.
6o 1eH caHmH nrnopnpye1cn cyaepennoc1L pycckoro napopa, epnnoro na ace
1eppn1opnn occnn, a cnepoaa1enLno, napyuak1cn ero npaaa na npnpopnme pecypcm
c1panm ero npoxnaannn, 1o ec1L occnn a uenoH. pn a1oH napyuak1cn n
ananornunme npaaa ppyrnx kopennmx napopoa, ne o6nsa1enLno koHnak1no
npoxnaakunx na 1eppn1opnn caoe nc1opnuecko popnnm. ak, 36% 6auknp xnae1
ane auknpnn, 49% Hapnuea - ane apn-n, 70% Hoppam - ane oppoann: noueHy
xe nx napo nnua1L nx ponn o1 6auknpcknx, Hapncknx, Hoppoacknx nepp?
e nopnexn1 coHnennk: xo1n seHnn Hoxe1, na onpepenennmx ycnoannx, 6m1L n a
uac1no (a Hacu1a6e npnycape6noro yuac1ka no ananornn c npnaa1nsnpoaanno
kaap1npo), n a HynnunnanLno co6c1aennoc1n, no neppa, npnpopnme pecypcm - a1o
o6uee poc1onnne, nc1ounnk o6uerocypapc1aennoro 6kpxe1a. nn ne ponxnm 6m1L nn
a uac1no, nn a o6nac1no nnn pecny6nnkancko (kak 1o npepnncmaae1 ), nn a
"nno co6c1aennoc1n. naue akonoHnueckoe nepaaenc1ao pernonoa cospac1
reorpaqnueckne sonm 6epnoc1n n 6ora1c1aa, nopopn1 nepepacnpepenenne Hacc
nacenennn, o6esnkpenne n saxnpenne opnnx pernonoa n nepenacenennoc1L ppyrnx,
aoo6ue napyun1 npnnunn cnpaaepnnaoc1n.
4. c1ak1 n ppyrne aonpocm, nenocpepc1aenno sa1parnaakune cypL6y pycckoro
napopa. anpnHep, kak noppepxa1L nc1opnueckne pycckne seHnn o1 sanapnmx rpannu
169
po pana? nn coaceH ne 6ora1m nckonaeHmHn, sa1o 6ora1m nkpLHn, 1papnunnHn,
nc1opne. 1o, co6c1aenno, n ec1L "nc1opnueckan popnna pyccknx. 1o n na kaknx
ycnoannx 6ype1 cna6xa1L ee npnpopnmHn pecypcaHn, ecnn onn nepepy1 uennkoH a
aepenne aa1ox1onoa? aepL a1o n ec1L 1a caHan "occnn, Horyuec1ao ko1opo
ponxno 6mno "npnpac1a1L n6npLk, a ne nao6opo1. 1n seHnn po cnx nop nno1nee
acero sacenenm (a 1o apeHn, kak o1 pana po nxoro okeana npoxnaae1 acero 30 Hnn.
uenoaek - nnuL opna nn1an nacenennn occnn!), nan6onee nnpyc1pnanLno pasan1m,
noc1aannk1 ocnoanyk uac1L amcokokaannqnunpoaannoro kon1nnren1a. epepaua nepp
a co6c1aennoc1L "cy6Lek1oa qepepaunn pae1 akonoHnueckne npenHyuec1aa a1nocaH,
npoxnaakunH na 1eppn1opnn a1nx cy6Lek1oa, no nnuero ne pae1 ocnoano Hacce
pycckoro napopa, u1o ne cornacye1cn c naunH rnaanmH npnnunnoH. H x
x, nx x, x-x x: u
. C - s x . 3
n s nn u
. akoe-nn6o orpannuenne npaa nk6oro pycckoro uenoaeka
na neppa nk6oro yronka occnn nnkak ne cornacye1cn c 1eHn nc1opnuecknHn
sapauaHn, ko1opme c1aannn ce6e n ocyuec1annnn pycckne a npouecce kononnsaunn
n6npn, oaonxLn, anLnero oc1oka n 1.p. asae pnn 1oro 1onLko nokopnnn n
o6yc1panaann Hm a1n seHnn, u1o6m nopnn1L k unannnsaunn ns nc1opnueckoro ne6m1nn
Hec1nme napopm?
, ace nepeuncnennme amue npo1naopeunn, naunnan c o1cy1c1ann pyccko
rocypapc1aennoc1n n cyaepennoc1n n konuan nsLn1neH y 6onLue uac1n pyccknx npaa
na npnpopnme pecypcm c1panm nx npoxnaannn, 1pe6yk1 npeoponennn. noco6 1akoro
npeoponennn ec1L 1onLko opnn: npeo6pasoaanne occnn a ynn1apnoe rocypapc1ao (u1o
n peknapnpye1 c1. 1 ), a coue1annn c rocypapc1aenno Honononne na aqnp, neppa
n ppyrne npnpopnme pecypcm (c1. 13 ).
pnnunn ynn1apnoc1n anonne coue1ae1cn c npaaoH napopoa na caHoonpepenenne,
cao6opy naunonanLno xnsnn n kynL1ypnyk aa1onoHnk. naaa 3 noppo6no
nsnarae1 npnnunnm 1akoro coue1annn, nan6onee aaxnme ns ko1opmx yxe
paccHa1pnaanncL amue.
aspen, nocanuennm Hec1noHy caHoynpaanennk, nonnoc1Lk coxpanen a pepakunn
, nockonLky, c 1oukn spennn aa1opoa , coc1aanen xopouo n ne nyxpae1cn a
nepecHo1pe.
BQHmH HEREK HMEE H. HQ XE
rnaaa 2 "paaa n cao6opm uenoaeka n rpaxpannna neHnornH o1nnuae1cn
o1 coo1ae1c1aykue rnaam , ko1opan nanncana poc1a1ouno noppo6no n coapeHenno.
eko1opme o1nnunn, orpannunaakune npaaa nerpaxpan no cpaanennk c rpaxpanaHn
occnn, nepeuncnenm amue.
Hec1e c 1eH, aa1opm peun1enLno ne cornacnm c nonoxenneH, npn ko1opoH
peaonkunonno-poHan1nueckn 1esnc "uenoaek, ero npaaa n cao6opm nannk1cn amcue
uennoc1Lk (c1. 2 ), sananennm nn6epan-peqopHa1opaHn co ace ka1eropnunoc1Lk
kak nekn npaaoao noc1yna1, m
, , . onyuae1cn, u1o ncknkun1enLno 1onLko
"npnsnanne, co6nkpenne n saun1a npaa n cao6op uenoaeka n rpaxpannna -
o6nsannoc1L rocypapc1aa (1aH xe). o pasae o6uec1ao, napop, naunn - Henee
amcokan uennoc1L? asae onn ne nyxpak1cn a rocypapc1aenno saun1e, pasae saun1a
nx - Henee poc1onan sapaua? asae y nnx ne1 caonx npaa, npopnk1oaannmx
nnc1nnk1oH caHocoxpanennn? asae Hoxno ao1 1ak, 6esornnpno npeaosnec1n nnunoc1L,
c ee nopuac onacnmH, paspyun1enLnmH no1enunanoH aronsHa, - nap o6uec1aoH?
asae npaao o6uec1aa ne cknapmaae1cn ns coaokynnmx npaa coc1aannkunx ero
170
nnunoc1e n ne ponxno yxe a cnny a1oro o6napa1L xo1n 6m paano npnopn1e1noc1Lk c
npaaoH o1penLno nnunoc1n?
e1, nyxen koHnpoHncc, saunuakun kak nnunoc1L o1 o6uec1aa, 1ak n o6uec1ao o1
nnunoc1n!
a1opm nonarak1, u1o saun1n1L 6onLunnc1ao, o6uec1ao kak 1akoaoe - a1o snaun1,
6es acnknx cknpok, saun1n1L caHoe uenoaeuec1ao. Hacu1a6ax xe occnn a1o snaun1
- saun1n1L ne 1onLko ace rpaxpanckoe coo6uec1ao c1panm, ne 1onLko nacenenne
aoo6ue, no n pycckn napop a uac1noc1n.
a1o cansn:
) ns ncknkuena ynoHnny1an c1a1Ln 2 kak qnnocoqckn n nonn1nueckn noxnan,
peHarornueckn-nonynnc1ckan n apepnan pnn o6uec1aa;
) a anpy aceo6uero panxennn unannnsoaannoro Hnpa k o1Hene cHep1no kasnn a
ycnoannx coxpannkunxcn sapau saun1m n canaunn o6uec1aa, aaopn1cn 1akan
konc1n1yunonnan nopHa, kak nnuenne rpaxpanc1aa no peuennk epxoanoro ypa (c1.
62 ).
a a1oH nan6onee cyuec1aennme pasnnunn rnaam 2 n rnaam 2 sakanunaak1cn.
3QEREHHE QH EQHH
cnc1eHa paspenennn n koHne1enunn anac1e, npepycHo1pennan ,
ycnena nokasa1L ce6n ao aceH "6necke. pae1cn, u1o npesnpen1 caHy qopHyny
"paspenenne anac1e nonnHae1 kak "paspenn n anac1ay, noc1onnno c1anknaan
npaam n neam qnanrn o6uec1aa papn 1oro, u1o6m ykpennn1L caon nnunme anac1nme
nosnunn sa cue1 a1oro npo1naoc1onnnn. saec1no, u1o acnkn cnM ampac1ae1
(kak no1pe6noc1L nekoero 6anancnpa) nHenno ns paanoaennkoc1n
npo1nao6opc1aykunx cnn, nn opna ns ko1opmx ne Hoxe1 opone1L ppyryk. occnn Hm
xopouo anpnH, kak pec1aye1 a1a cxeHa, anpnH 1akxe n nocnepc1ann a1oro. nueH ne
orpannuennan anac1L nauero npesnpen1a, - aecoHeuan, ecnn ne rnaanan, npnunna
acex 6ep occnn, xaoca pyccko xnsnn n o6uec1aenno-nonn1nuecko nec1a6nnLnoc1n.
1oponnnkn npesnpen1cko pecny6nnkn cun1ak1, u1o ona xopouo nopxopn1 occnn,
nockonLky c1pana npnamkna-pe k uapnsHy n aoxpnsHy. o uapnsH n aoxpnsH - a1o ne
npoc1o epnnonnunan neorpannuennan anac1L nekoero nnua. a uapeH - noHasannnkoH
ora - c1on1 aa1opn1e1 pennrnn. a aoxpeH - oprannsykuan o6uec1ao cnna nap1nn,
nk6oaL n poaepne Hacc. a poccncknH npesnpen1oH ne1 nn 1oro, nn ppyroro.
ano 1oro: cae1ckn xapak1ep coapeHennoro rocypapc1aa occnn coaepuenno
ncknkuae1 aocc1anoanenne Honapxnn. epL paxe a nauane aeka 6oxec1aennoro
aa1opn1e1a yxe ne xaa1ano, u1o6m cpena1L occnk ynpaanneHo, nopunnenno
Honapxy. "oueHy n ponxen cnyua1Lcn pypauknx ykasann uenoaeka, poxpennoro
xenunno, 1akoro xe, kak n, nnuL aone cnyuan aosnecennoro na npec1on? asae ne
anpno, u1o o1 ero nnua pacnopnxae1cn nekoHne1en1nan n caoekopmc1nan kaHapnnLn?
- 1ak (ao HnoroH cnpaaepnnao) c1ann pasHmunn1L c1a1ckne n aoennme
apHnnnc1pa1opm, pasouapoaannme HnornHn peuennnHn Honapxa n cnpoaounpoaannme
ero noaceHec1no ny6nnuno kpn1nko. pnsnc aqqek1nanoro ynpaanennn c1pano
pasanaancn c1peHn1enLno; on sakonoHepno npnaen k napennk poHa oHanoamx n k
saHene m - sqq
n, kakyk 1onLko snano uenoaeuec1ao: .
171
npnsna1L n ckasa1L o1kpm1o: nap1okpa1nn ec1L on1nHanLnan nonn1nueckan
cnc1eHa pnn 1aknx orpoHnmx HononaunonanLnmx c1pan, kak occnn n n1a. onLko
nap1okpa1nueckan cnc1eHa nosaonne1 o6ecneunaa1L neaepon1nyk konuen1paunk acero
rocypapc1aennoro no1enunana a nyxnoe apeHn a nyxnoH Hec1e: nc1opnn n n1an
a1o 6nec1nue pokasana ne opnn pas. pnHep ycnexoa nocnepnero, coxpannauero
nap1okpa1nueckyk cnc1eHy n ycneuno c1ponuero rocypapc1aennm kn1ackn
naunonan-kann1annsH nop pykoaopc1aoH koHnap1nn - noc1onnnm ykop naue c1pane,
ne cyHeaue cpena1L nn 1oro, nn ppyroro n cka1nauecn k kononnanLnoHy,
koHnpapopckoHy kann1annsHy, k pa6cko saancnHoc1n o1 anapa. onn1no, u1o
occnn, u1o6m amkapa6ka1Lcn ns 6espnm, neo6xopnHo aocc1anoan1L
nap1okpa1nueckyk cnc1eHy. Hec1e c 1eH napo npnsna1L 6esoroaopouno, u1o aosapa1 k
aceanac1nk nap1nn koHHynnc1nueckoro 1onka ceropnn nnuL aospopn1 c1apme
counanLnme n naunonanLnme npo6neHm, npnaepune k kpaxy . oHHynnc1nueckan
npeonornn yxe opnaxpm nonnoc1Lk o6ankpo1nnacL, ace nponrpana n ceropnn ne nHee1
nepcnek1nam. H n - u
, s n u.
coxanennk, npnnunn nap1okpa1nn okasancn na kakoe-1o apeHn cepLesno
ckoHnpoHe1npoaan koHHynnc1aHn. np nc1opnuecknx o6c1on1enLc1a (a 1oH uncne
nHenno nensxn1me pypnHen1m HonapxnsHa) npnaenn c opno c1oponm - k
nn1ennek1yanLnoHy n npaac1aennoHy ampoxpennk onn16kpo , a c ppyro -
k nsnnune konuen1paunn anac1n a pykax koHHynnc1nuecknx 6ons. 1o, a caok
ouepepL, sakonoHepno npnaeno k kpaxy ace c1panm, korpa na caHo aepxyuke
nonn1nuecko nnpaHnpm okasancn op6auea: neyHnm, Hanoo6pasoaannm,
nepanLnoanpnm, 1uecnaanm, cknonnm k npepa1enLc1ay, no npn1oH o6neuennm
konoccanLno neorpannuenno anac1Lk. 1o1 o1pnua1enLnm onm1 ponxen 6m1L
HakcnHanLno yu1en npn c1pon1enLc1ae pycckoro nap1okpa1nueckoro rocypapc1aa
noaoro 1nna.
ak nnn nnaue, qak1 nannuo: saHena Honapxa na nap1nnoro aoxpn okasanacL a
nepao nonoanne aeka cynepaqqek1nano Hepo pnn ynpaanennn occne.
aHena aoxpn na npesnpen1a ao a1opo nonoanne aeka npko peHonc1pnpye1 caok
nonnyk n cyry6yk neaqqek1nanoc1L. 1o kapnka1ypa paxe ne na Honapxnk, kako
ona 6mna a occnn a XVIII-XIX aa., a na nnc1n1y1 am6opnmx nHnepa1opoa anoxn
ynapka nHa. o acnkoH cnyuae, ananornn Hexpy nLunnmH n eponoH, cnannaunH
o1euec1ao, nnn annryno, aaepunH konn a cena1, npocHa1pnaanncL anonne
o1ue1nnao. e HnornH nyuue n y1nn, coaepuenno o1opaaauncn o1 nopopnauero ero
napopa, aepyun nonn1nky, ne coo1ae1c1aykuyk pyccknH nn1epecaH, ne cnoco6nm
peun1L nn npo6neHy eunn, nn akonoHnueckne npo6neHm occnn. pnHep payx
npesnpen1oa noppnp (!), nHekunx rnran1ckne nonnoHounn, no pec1aykunx ao apep
naH, ponxen xe nac xo1L ueHy-1o nayun1L! 1o aepL ne cnyuanoc1L, a nanan
sakonoHepnoc1L. aH nyxnm rapan1nn o1 neropnmx npesnpen1oa, n pa1L nx Hoxe1
1onLko napnaHen1. oueHy a1o 1ak?
pesnpen1ckan cynepanac1L ne a coc1onnnn peun1L nn opno npo6neHm, ne a
coc1onnnn nopopn1L a occnn nnuero, kpoHe aakxanannn apeHenunuec1aa, koppynunn,
aopoac1aa n nou1n nonno neynpaanneHoc1n. ekpe1 a1oro npoc1: nnkako Honapx nnn
npesnpen1, ne onnpakuncn na nap1nk (nanoHnk, u1o npesnpen1m 1aknx c1pan, kak
, epHannn, panunn n pp. - c1aanennnkn caonx nap1n), ne a coc1onnnn
ynpaann1L 1ako orpoHno c1pano c ee orpoHnmHn npo6neHaHn. O
no payH, no kpane Hepe, npnunnaH.
B-x, on nnuero ne Hoxe1 z, n6o nn a ueH 1onkoH ne pas6npae1cn
(kpoHe 1oro, a nyuueH cnyuae, ueHy ero yunnn a ayse). n nens6exno nonapae1 a
saancnHoc1L o1 okpyxennn, o1 akcnep1oa, o1 1ex, k1o yHee1 6m1L caHmH
kpacnopeunamH n aneune y6epn1enLnmH, nockonLky ouenn1L any1pennkk
172
y6epn1enLnoc1L npesnpen1, ne 6ypyun nn cneunannc1oH unpokoro npoqnnn, nn
ampakunHcn nonn1onoroH, ne a coc1onnnn no onpepenennk. e cansannm
amaepenno n cornacoaanno nap1nno nporpaHHo, on o6peuen nop anpoH nko6m
o6ocnoaannmx pec1an 1aopn1L caHm o6munm nponsaon. ak saHe1nn o Honapxe
yuknn: O nk, M ncy Mr, Mn, xn cc.
o6aanH eue: n nnunmx o1nouenn, a 1oH uncne c sapy6exnmHn "ppysLnHn
(nnn1onoH n oneH npn nLunne, pepepoH n yueH - npn y1nne). onanenne a
okpyxennn npesnpen1a nLunna 1aknx onopnmx qnryp, kak apap, y6ac, Lnuenko,
aHepnkanckne coae1nnkn, a a okpyxennn y1nna - peqa nnn ne6anoaa - a1o ne
cnyuanoc1L, a c1onpouen1nan nens6exnoc1L. "pnpaopnan kaHapnnLn - ec1L
qenoHen, nenpeHenno cony1c1aykun aa1okpa1opy. qqek1 - nannuo.
B-x, on nnuero ne Hoxe1 z, n6o npesnpen1ckn nponsaon
o6nsa1enLno o6opaunaae1cn caoe pnanek1nuecko npo1naononoxnoc1Lk: y1pa1o
aosHoxnoc1n ynpaann1L. pesnpen1 ne nHee1 peanLnmx pmuaroa anac1n a pernonax,
kpoHe ukypnoro nn1epeca n apHnnnc1pa1nanoro c1paxa ry6epna1opoa. n opnn Hano-
HanLckn yaaxakun ce6n pykoaopn1enL cy6Lek1a qepepaunn ne c1ane1 ncnonnn1L ero
pacnopnxennn, ecnn nocun1ae1 nx a6cyppnmHn. o caepennnH nokonoro e6epn, k
ocenn 1996 r. nakonnnocL, k npnHepy, ax 447 ykasoa npesnpen1a nLunna, ko1opme
nnk1o ne amnonnnn n ne co6npancn amnonnn1L. e6epL, npaapa, pyHan, kak pyHae1 n
y1nn, u1o yx ero-1o ykasm nenpeHenno 6ypy1 amnonnn1Lcn. akoe sa6nyxpenne! ne
c1poro nap1nno o1ae1c1aennoc1n, ane c1paxa no1epn1L nap16nne1, a c nnH -
acnkyk nepcnek1nay kapLepm (a 1o n cao6opm, a 1o n xnsnn!), nn o kako
apHnnnc1pa1nano ynpaanneHoc1n occne roaopn1L ne npnxopn1cn.
nanornunmH o6pasoH o6c1on1 peno n a cy6Lek1ax qepepaunn, rpe nHek1cn caon
"acenapopno ns6pannme npaan1enn, u1o cospae1 onacnoc1L ne 1onLko nponsaona na
ypoane pernonoa, no n nponsaona na ypoane acepoccnckoH, noc1onnno upeaa1oro
neynpaanneHoc1Lk epnnoro rocypapc1aa n poc1oH cenapa1nsHa.
e noHenna npnnunnnanLno konc1n1yunonnme ocnoam nmneune cnc1eHm anac1noro
yc1poc1aa a occnn, neuero n pyHa1L o aosapauennn c1panm k ckonLko-nn6ypL
pasyHno oprannsoaanno xnsnn. nepaoe, u1o cnepye1 cpena1L, - a1o nokonun1L na
acex ypoannx c nopHeno, 6naropapn ko1opo ncnonnn1enLnan anac1L pasnmx ypoane
npeapa1nnacL ao anac1L "pacnopnpn1enLnyk. eo6xopnHo aepny1L c1pany k
nopnnnno peHokpa1nn, ncknkuakue kak nponsaon, 1ak n neynpaanneHoc1L. e
cnyuano aceHn nc1opnkaHn acerpa o1HeuanocL, u1o caonH aosamuenneH n aennuneH
ppeann nH 6mn o6nsan pecny6nnkanckoHy o6pasy npaanennn, a ynapkoH -
nHnepa1opckoHy. nn ypok ne anpok?
cnn rnnpe1L a kopenL, 1o peuenne a1o sapaun npepnonarae1 cnepykuee.
-nx, o1Heny acenapopnmx am6opoa pesnpen1a. npepnarae1 ns6npa1L ero
na sacepannn ocypapc1aenno yHm ns uncna kanpnpa1oa, ampanny1mx qpakunnHn n
peny1a1cknHn rpynnaHn.
-x, o1ae1c1aennoc1L ncnonnn1enLno anac1n. ornacno , pesnpen1
aosrnaanne1 paan1enLc1ao n pykoaopn1, a kauec1ae pepcepa1enn, ero
pen1enLnoc1Lk. n xe n qopHnpye1 paan1enLc1ao, npepc1aannn npn a1oH na
y1aepxpenne yHm Hnnnc1poa: o6oponm, any1pennnx pen, rocypapc1aenno
6esonacnoc1n n nnoc1pannmx pen. akxe na y1aepxpenne yHm pesnpen1oH
npepc1aannk1cn aneunenonn1nueckan n aoennan pok1pnnm. pesnpen1 nece1
o1ae1c1aennoc1L nepep yHo sa pen1enLnoc1L paan1enLc1aa. pesnpen1 ne Hoxe1
pacnyc1n1L yHy, no yHa, a cnyuae neponxnoro ncnonnennn nH caonx o6nsannoc1e,
Hoxe1 o1peun1L pesnpen1a o1 ponxnoc1n kaannqnunpoaannmH 6onLunnc1aoH a
coo1ae1c1ann co cneunanLno npouepypo.
173
-x, aaopn1cn noc1 nue-npesnpen1a, 1akxe ns6npaeHoro n o1peuaeHoro o1
ponxnoc1n yHo. nue-npesnpen1 nanne1cn nepamH saHec1n1eneH pepcepa1enn
paan1enLc1aa n rnaanmH noHounnkoH pesnpen1a.
-vx, am6opnoc1L ry6epna1opoa o1Henne1cn. y6epna1opm nasnauak1cn
pesnpen1oH ns uncna kanpnpa1yp, npepnoxennmx 6nac1no yHo, n Hory1 6m1L
cHeuenm pesnpen1oH nn6o caHoc1on1enLno, nn6o a cnyuae ampaxennn y6epna1opy
nepoaepnn kaannqnunpoaannmH 6onLunnc1aoH 6nac1no yHm. aa1onoHnnx
pesnpen1oH nasnauak1cn aHec1nnkn noHnHo am6opnmx naa aa1onoHn.
T , n u u
u , n n u
nn , n nu
, n .
oueHy o1pae1 npnopn1e1 sakonopa1enLno anac1n? oHnHo acero, u1o yxe 6mno
ckasano, po6aank:
1) yHa kak npepc1aan1enLnm opran ampaxae1 aonk snaunHoro 6onLunnc1aa;
2) kak Hm ne pas y6expanncL, a o1nnune o1 npesnpen1cknx ykasoa, sakonm,
npnnnHaeHme yHo, nHek1, kak npaanno, 6onee connpnoe akcnep1noe o6ecneuenne.
aspa6a1maan n npnnnHan a1n sakonm, yHa, 1eH caHmH, naHeuae1 n nan6onee
amaepennoe c1pa1ernueckoe nanpaanenne pasan1nn c1panm. 1o xe, kak ne ona,
ponxen kon1ponnpoaa1L xop a1oro pasan1nn, xop ncnonnennn sakonoa?
3) a npaaoaoH rocypapc1ae, c1a1L ko1opmH c1peHn1cn occnn, nepekoc a nonLsy
ncnonnn1enLno anac1n npn pacnpepenennn nonnoHoun oco6enno onacen n
neponyc1nH, nockonLky o1kpmaae1 ny1L k nponsaony. akonopa1enLnan xe anac1L no
caHo caoe npnpope ne coaHec1nHa c nponsaonoH, noa1oHy n ne Hoxe1 cnyxn1L
nc1ounnkoH o6uec1aenno onacnoc1n n nec1a6nnLnoc1n.
1o xe co6o npepc1aanne1 ocypapc1aennan yHa cornacno ? ockonLky
payxnana1nm napnaHen1 - a1o o1nnun1enLnm npnsnak rocypapc1a qepepa1nanmx,
neo6xopnHoc1L a neH npn ynn1apnoH yc1poc1ae noao occnn o1napae1. 1o6m
coxpann1L npepc1aan1enLc1ao pernonanLnmx anac1e, npepc1a1enLc1aykunx sa caon
pernonm nepep amcunHn anac1nmHn nnc1anunnHn occnn, aHec1o oae1a epepaunn
cospae1cn oae1 ry6epna1opoa, rnaa aa1onoHn n naHec1nnkoa npn pesnpen1e occnn
(c coaeua1enLnmHn nonnoHounnHn). aknH o6pasoH, ocpyHa c1anoan1cn
opnonana1nmH napnaHen1oH, coc1onunH ns 500 uenoaek, nonoanna ns ko1opmx
ns6npae1cn no nap1nnmH cnnckaH no nponopunonanLno cnc1eHe, a nonoanna - no
Haxopn1apno cnc1eHe o1 opnoHanpnmx okpyroa.
oxpanenne nepaoro ns a1nx npnnunnoa - no nap1nnmH cnnckaH - pnk1ye1cn, ao-
nepamx, peanLnmH o6uec1aennmH aecoH nap1n, nx ponLk a nonn1nuecko
oprannsaunn napopa. o-a1opmx, onacenneH aosnnknoaennn, a cnyuae ero o1Henm,
qak1nueckoro nHyuec1aennoro uensa, neponyc1nHoro a peHokpa1nuecko c1pane. -
1pe1Lnx, onacenneH noaceHec1noro npopmaa k anac1n 6anpokpa1nn n cnonokpa1nn,
peanLnyk aosHoxnoc1L uero naH yxe npopeHonc1pnpoaann o1penLnme pernonm.
anoHnnH, u1o a 1ako ne npoc1o HononaunonanLno, no a1nokpa1nuecko c1pane, kak
spannL, Haxopn1apnm npnnunn ns6pannn napnaHen1apnea aoo6ue o1cy1c1aye1:
knecce1 ns6npae1cn 1onLko no nap1nnmH cnnckaH. 1o nosaonne1 eapenH
o6ecneunaa1L a6conk1noe a1nnueckoe 6onLunnc1ao a coc1aae napnaHen1a npn ace
nonn1nuecko n naunonanLno neopnopopnoc1n nspannLckoro o6uec1aa (sa ace ropm
cyuec1aoaannn spannn a knecce1e ns 120 uenoaek nnkorpa ne 6mno 6onee 6 apa6oa,
xo1n eapeea a c1pane nnuL 80%). e cnyuano 1e xe eapen, nnkanpnpoaaa y ce6n a
c1pane Haxopn1apnm npnnunn, nanpo1na, nac1anaak1 y nac a occnn na nnkanpaunn
174
nap1nnoro npnnunna n na am6opax ncknkun1enLno no opnoHanpa1nmH okpyraH.
pnako naH, pyccknH, cnepye1 yun1maa1L aoace ne eapeckne pekoHenpaunn pnn roea,
a nHenno eapeckn onm1 cospannn naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa.
oxpanenne na pannoH a1ane a1oporo (Haxopn1apnoro) npnnunna pnk1ye1cn
o1cy1c1aneH noka cnnLno pyccko nap1nn n pacue1oH na npoxoxpenne a
sakonopa1enLnyk anac1L o1penLnmx pyccknx naunonan-na1pno1oa, na noppepxke
ko1opmx Hoxno cocpepo1oun1L a 1oH nnn nnoH pernone ycnnnn na1pno1nuecko
o6uec1aennoc1n.
yHa ns6npae1 n o1peuae1 o1 ponxnoc1n pesnpen1a n nue-npesnpen1a, nasnauae1
na ponxnoc1L cype onc1n1yunonnoro ypa, epxoanoro ypa n mcuero
p6n1paxnoro ypa occnn, nasnauae1 na ponxnoc1L n ocao6oxpae1 o1 ponxnoc1n
pepcepa1enn ue1no nana1m, ero saHec1n1enn n coc1aa aypn1opoa, Hnnnc1poa
any1pennnx pen, rocypapc1aenno 6esonacnoc1n, o6oponm n nnoc1pannmx pen,
pepcepa1enn en1panLnoro 6anka occnn, nonnoHouennoro no npaaaH uenoaeka,
y1aepxpae1 ykasm pesnpen1a o aaepennn upesamuanoro n aoennoro nonoxenn,
y1aepxpae1 aneunenonn1nueckyk n aoennyk pok1pnny, y1aepxpae1 nsHenennn rpannu
Hexpy apHnnnc1pa1nano-1eppn1opnanLnmHn epnnnuaHn occnn, nasnauae1
acenapopnm peqepenpyH, pa1nqnunpye1 Hexpynapopnme poroaopm a coo1ae1c1ann c
sakonoH, o6Lnanne1 aHnnc1nk, npnnnHae1 noc1anoanennn n sakonm. Henno 1aknH
npepc1aanne1cn nan6onee nonnoe n apekaa1noe aonnouenne npnnunna
napopoanac1nn.
paan1enLc1ao occnn a nnue pepcepa1enn (on xe pesnpen1 occnn), cornacno ,
o1ae1c1aenno nepep yHo, nannncL a nonnoH cHmcne cnoaa cnn anac1Lk.
ro qynkunn, ocnoaa1enLno nponncannme a , oc1aanenm a nou1n 6es nsHenenn.
s noaaun Hoxno o1He1n1L o1ae1c1aennoc1L nepep pesnpen1oH acex Hnnnc1poa,
kpoHe 1ak nasmaaeHmx "cnnoankoa n Hnnnc1pa nnoc1pannmx pen, o1ae1c1aennmx
nepep yHo.
naaa, nocanuennan cype6no anac1n, a npak1nueckn ananornuna
coo1ae1c1aykue rnaae a . sHenennn, anecennme a nee, am1ekak1 1onLko ns
noaaun npepmpyunx rnaa.
aknH o6pasoH, a o1nnune o1 ceropnnune peanLnoc1n, 6ypyuee rocypapc1aennoe
yc1poc1ao occnn, co6nkpan npnnunn paspenennn anac1e, c1aan1 ero na cnyx6y
epnnc1ay occnn.
caHm rnaanm aonpoc: u m q
, o neo6xopnHoc1n ko1opo roaopnnocL
amue? ak ns6exa1L npeapauennn ocpyHm a coo6uec1ao no66nc1oa?
a a1o Hoxe1 6m1L 1onLko opnn o1ae1: kaxpm napop poc1onn caoe cypL6m n caonx
npaan1ene. cnn pycckn napop ne cnoco6en cospa1L pnn ampaxennn n saun1m caonx
npaa n nn1epecoa epnnyk pycckyk naunonanLnyk nap1nk, ko1opan nonyun1 a ocpyHe
a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao n aosLHe1 nop cao kon1ponL ne 1onLko aecL napnaHen1, no
n ack c1pany, 1o rpou eHy uena, ero Hec1o - na caanke nc1opnn. n 6ype1
okonua1enLno nory6nen ppyrnHn, 6onee cnnLnmHn napopaHn, a ero nacnepne - a 1oH
uncne n caHy occnk - paspenn1 Hexpy co6o ueHnnonm 6opL6m sa Hnpoaoe
rocnopc1ao. o ecnn pycckn napop eue poc1a1ouno xnsnecnoco6en, on aonno1n1 a
xnsnL 1o1 npoek1, ko1opm nsnoxen amue, n aepne1 ce6e nonnm kon1ponL nap
seHne caonx npepkoa.
epn1L naH, pyccknH, yxe a o6ueH-1o neuero. mxnpa1L n 1epne1L 1oxe 6onLue
neuero n nesaueH. eun1L caok cypL6y Hm HoxeH 1onLko peun1enLnmH 6pockoH,
co6paa a kynak ack caok aonk n nn1ennek1. a kap1y ceropnn 1ak nnn nnaue
175
noc1aanena acn naua panLneuan cypL6a. yknonn1Lcn o1 peun1enLnoro 6on
6ecnonesno, nac a a1oH cnyuae ace paano po6Lk1 okonua1enLno.
Qu - u! - nau peans.
YQBBY HH EUH RR HQ
aaopa noao onc1n1yunn a xnsnL npoc1 n a6conk1no nern1nHen.
H. poek1 amnocn1cn na paccHo1penne 6uenaunonanLnoro Lespa ycckoro
apopa. pnnn1m LespoH (o6panneH) 6esycnoano nnn c nonpaakaHn, poek1
onc1n1yunn c1anoan1cn pokyHen1oH, okonua1enLnyk cypL6y ko1oporo onpepenn1
peqepenpyH.
. coo1ae1c1ann c npouepypo, onpepenenno qepepanLnmH
sakonopa1enLc1aoH , cosmaae1cn onc1n1yunonnoe o6panne. cnyuae ero o1kasa
nop1aeppn1L nensHennoc1L onc1n1yunn , o6panne amnocn1 na peqepenpyH
poek1 onc1n1yunn.
. poek1 c1anoan1cn noao onc1n1yune occnn, ecnn sa nero nporonocye1
6onee nonoannm ns6npa1ene, npnnnaunx yuac1ne a ronocoaannn, npn ycnoann, u1o a
neH npnnnno yuac1ne 6onee nonoannm ns6npa1ene - rpaxpan . a1oH cnyuae
occnckan epepaunn kak cyaepennoe rocypapc1ao n cy6Lek1 Hexpynapopnoro npaaa
nnkanpnpye1cn, a aHec1o nee aosnnkae1 noaoe cyaepennoe rocypapc1ao occnn
(ycckoe ocypapc1ao), yc1poennoe a coo1ae1c1ann c noao onc1n1yune.
H. o anoaL o6pasoaannmx o6nac1nx n naunonanLnmx o6nac1nx npoxopn1
am6opm a ocypapc1aennyk yHy, ko1opan ns6npae1 pesnpen1a n a 1euenne 1pex
Hecnuea npnnnHae1 pnp aaxneunx sakonoa, a 1oH uncne sakonm o rpaxpanc1ae n o6
o1penennn, pa6o1a nap ko1opmHn aepe1cn a nac1onuee apeHn.
H. cnn a kako-nn6o ns pecny6nnk ao apeHn peqepenpyHa npoek1 noao
onc1n1yunn 6ype1 o1knonen, a a1o pecny6nnke a 1euenne 1pex Hecnuea npoaopn1cn
pononnn1enLnm peqepenpyH no aonpocy o caHoonpepenennn ee napopa. cnn
6onLunnc1ao nacenennn amckaxe1cn sa aa1onoHnk a coc1aae occnn, 1o pannan
pecny6nnka npeapauae1cn a aa1onoHnk (naunonanLnyk o6nac1L). npo1nanoH cnyuae
ona nHee1 npaao na o1penenne a coo1ae1c1ann c sakonoH.
, rnaanan nonn1nueckan sapaua pycckoro panxennn a o6nac1n rocypapc1aennoro
c1pon1enLc1aa coc1on1 a cospannn pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa. uenoH
pycckoe rocypapc1ao Hoxe1 6m1L oxapak1epnsoaano kak naunonanLno-
peHokpa1nueckoe rocypapc1ao c pecny6nnkancknH o6pasoH npaanennn napnaHen1ckoro
1nna. (oncnnH: naunonanLnan peHokpa1nn - ec1L peHokpa1nn, orpannuennan no
naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky. oppo6noc1n cH. amue.) aHm xnao1peneuyun aonpoc:
x x mun u ,
ne npnaepe1 nn ero cospanne k nonanennk ysko nonockn pyccko 1eppn1opnn
(nopo6nm npoek1 nop 1n1ynoH yccko pecny6nnkn 6mn ampanny1 a caoe apeHn
rpynno a1nnuecknx peHokpa1oa npn noppepxke neko1opmx nepaneknx pyccknx
o6uec1aennmx pen1ene). a a1o o1aeuaeH: rpannum pycckoro rocypapc1aa ponxnm
6m1L a ocnoanoH pacunpenm no cpaanennk c ceropnnune occne, nockonLky a nero
ponxnm ao1n koHnak1no nacenennme pyccknHn nkpLHn Kxnm pan (eaepnm
asaxc1an), eao6epexLe nenpa, pmH n oaopoccnn po pnpnec1poaLn
(aknkun1enLno), ceaepo-aoc1ounm paon c1onnn. pnako pnp o6nac1e,
nacenennmx a ocnoanoH nepyccknHn, 6mc1po pasHnoxakunHncn n pesko
neppyxec1aennmHn no o1nouennk k pyccknH napopaHn (konkpe1no: eunn,
nryue1nn, yaa), Hory1 na onpepenennmx ycnoannx n uepes npouepypy napopnoro
aonensLnanennn 6m1L ncknkuenm ns coc1aaa occnn. uenoH rpannum occnn
176
xena1enLno npnaec1n a coo1ae1c1ane c rpannuaHn apeana koHnak1noro npoxnaannn
pycckoro a1noca (cH. kap1y ycckan occnn).
akoaa sn x , neo6xopnHmx pnn
c1pon1enLc1aa pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa? cno, u1o 1ako ocnoao na
pannoH a1ane Hoxe1 6m1L, rnaanmH o6pasoH, poxop o1 akcnnya1aunn npnpopnmx
pecypcoa occnn. nkakoro ppyroro nopo6noro no Houn pecypca y nac a 6nnxauee
ne npepanpn1cn (a nepcnek1nae 1aknH pecypcoH c1ane1 nn1ennek1yanLnm npopyk1 -
na1en1m, nnuensnn n 1.n.). 1o snaun1, u1o, a saancnHoc1n o1 c1enenn n qopH
conpo1nanennn uac1noro kann1ana, ponxna nponso1n nn6o 1o1anLnan
naunonannsaunn nepp, kopenno nepecHo1p pone yuac1nn rocypapc1aa n uac1noro
6nsneca a po6maakunx n c1pa1ernuecknx o1pacnnx, o1Hena sakona ornauennnx o
paspene npopykunn n 1.p., nn6o papnkanLnoe nsHenenne npnpopno pen1m n He1opoa
ee asnHannn, nn6o koH6nnaunn 1oro n ppyroro.
nn 6onee noppo6noro osnakoHnennn c npoek1oH pycckoro rocypapc1aennoro
c1pon1enLc1aa neo6xopnHo npouec1L nasaannme a nauane rnaam nc1ounnkn.
177
EHR
YK HHHRBH-BQHERBH
QHXEHHR
K naunonanLno-ocao6opn1enLnoe panxenne acerpa snxpn1Lcn na payx c1oponax
npouecca: neranLno - n neneranLno, nopnonLno. akoam qak1m. annm 1ekc1
nocanuen neranLno c1opone pycckoro panxennn.
ERH H 3QHH HQ
H HYH HX QHXEHHR
uenL - npnxop k anac1n Haccm naunonanLno opnen1npoaannmx
kappoa, cnoco6nmx nokonun1L c ynnsn1enLno saancnHoc1Lk occnn o1 aneunnx cnn
(okkynaune), c sacnnneH nnopopuea a amcunx cqepax ncnonnn1enLno n
sakonopa1enLno anac1n, c npopaxno n koHnpapopcko aepxyuko poccncknx
anac1nmx n npepnpnnnHa1enLcknx kpyroa. appoa, cnoco6nmx pasaepny1L acnn1L
ry6n1enLnm pnn c1panm kypc peqopH, amaec1n c1pany ns akonoHnuecko nponac1n,
aepny1L nacenennk occnn yaepennoc1L a saa1pauneH pne n po6n1Lcn yc1ounaoro
peHorpaqnueckoro poc1a pycckoro napopa a a6conk1nmx n o1nocn1enLnmx
nokasa1ennx. noco6nmx konconnpnpoaa1L n c1pyk1ypnpoaa1L pycckyk naunk,
cHopennpoaa1L n noc1pon1L occnk kak pycckoe naunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao a
rpannuax koHnak1noro npoxnaannn pycckoro a1noca n a uenoH ocyuec1an1L
npnaepennme amue nporpaHHm. noco6nmx ospopoan1L npaac1aennyk a1Hocqepy
o6uec1aa, cospa1L y Honopexn nonoxn1enLnme xnsnennme yc1anoakn, aepny1L a
noacepneanyk xnsnL spopoame HopanLnme n nonn1nueckne npeanm.
cyuec1anenne amueykasanno uenn 1pe6ye1 peuennn ue1mpex nepaoouepepnmx
sapau.
1. EQHHEHHE HR
H n rnaano sapaue nanne1cn epnnenne pyccknx naunonan-
na1pno1nuecknx cnn. ycnoannx 1opxec1aa cnnouennoro n xopouo cosnakuero caok
o6unoc1L koHnpapopckoro pexnHa, nonLsykuerocn orpoHno nonn1nuecko n
akonoHnuecko noppepxko Hexpynapopnmx cnn, pasppo6nennoe pycckoe panxenne
yxe neopnokpa1no peHonc1pnpoaano caoe 6eccnnne n neoprannsoaannoc1L, a o1nnune
o1 npo1nannka. nm1 acero npepmpyuero pecn1nne1nn nokasan:
mx - -x, , m m
- , -x, u
. 6e a1n npnunnm ceropnn ycneuno npeoponeaak1cn a paHkax
cospannn epnno pyccko nap1nn - aunonanLno-epxaano nap1nn occnn (),
ace pokyHen1m ko1opo nauenenm na nsxnaanne aoxpnsHa n na qopHnpoaanne o6ue
cnc1eHm npnnunnoa pycckoro naunonan-na1pno1nsHa ao acex ocnoanmx cqepax
o6uec1aenno xnsnn. n opna ppyran nap1nn, panxenne n coks ne cnoco6nm a
paano c1enenn peun1L a1n sapaun, nockonLky , ao-nepamx, nHee1 a caonx pnpax
kaannqnunpoaannmx, nayuno coc1on1enLnmx paspa6o1unkoa pyccko npen, ne
cansannmx porHa1nuecknHn HmcnecxeHaHn, a ao-a1opmx, a1a nap1nn c1pon1cn ne
aokpyr o1penLnmx nnpepoa, noa1opnn 1eH caHmH ocnoanyk oun6ky npounoro n
packanmaan , a nocn1 o1kpm1m xapak1ep. k6oHy pycckoHy nnpepy, sa ko1opmH
178
ec1L nekn snaun1enLnm pecypc (nkpcko, qnnancoam, nnqopHaunonnm), o1kpm1
poc1yn a pykoaopc1ao anno1L po conpepcepa1enLc1aa.
nnaape 2004 no nnnuna1nae a nc1opnn nponsouno co6m1ne, Horyuee
nHe1L snaun1enLnme nocnepc1ann: coc1onnacL yupepn1enLnan konqepenunn ycckoro
naunonanLnoro panxennn. a konqepenunn 6mn npnnn1 cnepykun pokyHen1:
HMM-MKHMYM
YK HHHRBH QHXEHHR
H r r r, mvmr
m m ( -r
), x , nxm .
HMM-MHHHMYM
YK HHHRBH QHXEHHR
pycckoro napopa ec1L cneunqnueckne a1nononn1nueckne npo6neHm. cxopn ns nnx,
Hm qopHynnpyeH uenn, ko1opmx naHepenm po6n1Lcn:
1) npnsnanne, a coo1ae1c1ann c HexpynapopnmHn c1anpap1aHn, occnn -
HononaunonanLno c1pano pycckoro napopa, coc1aannkuero a6conk1noe
6onLunnc1ao ee nacenennn;
2) npnsnanne n sakonopa1enLnoe y1aepxpenne nc1opnuecko ponn n qak1nueckoro
snauennn pycckoro napopa ne 1onLko a kauec1ae kopennoro n 1n1ynLnoro (ack occnk
nasaann no naueHy nHenn), no n kak epnnc1aenno rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn
occnn. 6o pycckne - ne 1onLko cospa1enn occnn, no n epnnc1aennan (!) naunn, 6es
ko1opo occnn ne Horna 6m cyuec1aoaa1L a anpe epnnoro rocypapc1aa a ee
nac1onunx rpannuax.
o6nauncL ocyuec1anennn nepamx payx nynk1oa, Hm cHoxeH o6ocnoaa1L n noc1aan1L
aonpoc o nepaoouepepno saun1e acex npaa n nn1epecoa pycckoro napopa;
3) npnsnanne npaaa pycckoro napopa na naunonanLno-nponopunonanLnoe
npepc1aan1enLc1ao ao acex opranax rocypapc1aenno anac1n n Hec1noro
caHoynpaanennn occnn;
4) npnsnanne npaaa na aoccoepnnenne epnno pyccko naunn, okasaauecn a
paspenennoH nonoxennn;
5) npnsnanne qak1a a1nopeHorpaqnuecko ka1ac1poqm pycckoro napopa n
sakonopa1enLnoe y1aepxpenne Hep, a 1oH uncne upesamuanmx, nanpaanennmx npo1na
penonynnunn ero kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn, npo1na cnnxennn ero ypenLnoro
aeca a coc1aae nacenennn occnn;
6) coxpanenne n ykpennenne a1nnueckoro epnnc1aa pycckoro napopa n acex
nc1opnuecknx n kynL1ypno-nsmkoamx qak1opoa, cnoco6c1aykunx a1oHy;
7) sanpeuenne pycoqo6nn ao acex ee nponanennnx, saun1a uenoaeuecknx n
rpaxpancknx npaa pyccknx nkpe a nk6o 1ouke seHnoro uapa;
179
8) npnsnanne qak1a renounpa pycckoro napopa n npeoponenne ero nocnepc1an.
peHn nokaxe1, xaa1n1 nn y yuac1nnkoa yHa n aonn, u1o6m pasaepny1L 6opL6y sa
aonnouenne a1nx npnnunnoa 1aknH o6pasoH, u1o6m ne o11onkny1L, a npnaneuL k ce6e
peuakuyk Haccy napopa, o6Lepnnn1L ee na a1o ocnoae n no6epn1L. oka u1o
pasoame coaHec1nme Heponpnn1nn npoxopn1 ycneuno.
2. HEmE HHYMEH
H sapaue nanne1cn cospanne ue1mpex ocnoanmx nnc1pyHen1oa, neo6xopnHmx
pnn poc1nxennn anac1n : q, q, m
. accHo1pnH nx noppo6nee.
2.1. 4
Hec1e ne cnyuano c1on1 qnnancoam nnc1pyHen1, nockonLky po 1ex nop,
noka kaxpan nueka pycckoro panxennn ne 6ype1 nHe1L cao o1penLnm, nyc1L
ne6onLuo, nc1ounnk cpepc1a, a a uenoH ne 6ype1 nHe1L epnnoro 6onLuoro
1akoro nc1ounnka, - panxenne o6peueno na saHepnennoe n nenpaannLnoe pasan1ne.
O u EQHHCTBA, m
x. akoaa o6uan sakonoHepnoc1L nk6oro
naunonanLnoro panxennn, 6eso1nocn1enLno k konkpe1no naunonanLnoc1n. nn
npnHepa: noka ne aosnnk qnnancoam uen1p ao rnaae c anpnmHn eapecknHn
6anknpaHn n npepnpnnnHa1ennHn, poccnckoe eapec1ao cyuec1aoaano a 1akoH xe
pasppo6nennoH (camue 500 oprannsaun no occnn) n nekonconnpnpoaannoH anpe,
paspnpaeHoe 6opL6o nnpepcknx aH6nun n npo1naopeunamHn nn1epecaHn; n 1onLko
korpa 6anknpm o6Lepnnnnn caon uenn n cpepc1aa, aokpyr a1oro nppa aosnnk
occnckn eapeckn konrpecc, 6mc1po npeapa1nauncn a peanLnyk nonn1nueckyk
cnny, cnoco6nyk aec1n cornacoaannme, ckooppnnnpoaannme kaHnannn, annn1L na
co6m1nn a c1pane.
aano na6nkpan pycckoe panxenne a occnn, n pn6an1nke nsane - kak anann1nk
n nsny1pn - kak nonn1nueckn pen1enL, n npnuen k 1aeppoHy amaopy: po 1ex nop,
noka ne nonan1cn ananornunm pycckn qnnancoam uen1p, pec1aykun sakynncno
n o6ecneunaakun pec1aennoc1L 1pex ppyrnx nnc1pyHen1oa, pycckoe panxenne
6ype1 xao1nunmH, pasppo6nennmH n neynpaanneHmH. no ne cHoxe1 onpepenn1L
cn1yaunk. no 6ype1 o6peueno na neypauy. 1o nenpenoxnm qak1 kak HnnnHyH no
1peH npnunnaH.
BO-HEBmX, a naun pnn ne cyuec1aye1 nnmx cnoco6oa
n nkpcknHn HaccaHn, kpoHe c1paxa n Ha1epnanLnoro
c1nHynnpoaannn. m o1nnuno anpenn a1o na HakpoakonoHnuecko Hopenn . pn
1annne pa6o1nnkn 6onnncL aopoaa1L, onaspmaa1L, nporynnaa1L, nenn1Lcn,
6pakopenLnnua1L n 1.p. - sa ace a1o caxann a 1kpLHy. o kak 1onLko ns
nocnec1annncko coae1cko o6uec1aenno xnsnn c1an ncuesa1L qak1op c1paxa,
ynpaannaun c1pano c 1917 no 1953 rr., acn cnc1eHa napopnoro xosnc1aa nauana
noneHnory pasaannaa1Lcn n pac1acknaa1Lcn. nnkakoe nanpnxenne npeonornn ne a
cnnax 6mno a1oHy noHeua1L. 1o sac1aanno yxe a 1960-e rr. cpena1L ynop na
Ha1epnanLnoH c1nHynnpoaannn - 1ak nasmaaeHan peqopHa ocmrnna. a1o, a
caok, ouepepL, nens6exno npnaeno k qa1anLnoHy npo1naopeunk c
ocnoaononarakunHn npeno-nonn1nuecknHn n xosnc1aennmHn npnnunnaHn
counannsHa (npn a1oH counannc1nueckan npeonornn no1epnena cokpyun1enLnoe
nopaxenne), a a panLneueH n k pacnapy ace cnc1eHm. eropnn Hm xnaeH a coaceH
180
ppyro c1pane, rpe snauenne Ha1epnanLnoro qak1opa ne 1onLko nonnoc1Lk
aocc1anoaneno, no n c1ano npeo6napakunH. o6pa1nan He1aHopqosa - aosapa1 k
ynpaanennk c1paxoH a noamx ycnoannx n co a kopne nsHennaunHcn napopoH - na Ho
asrnnp, neaosHoxna.
pnako pycckoe panxenne ne Hoxe1 aeuno 6m1L xao1nunmH, neynpaanneHmH. eropnn
ono, k coxanennk, nHenno 1akoao, n Hm cm1m a1nH no ropno. ynpaann1Lcn c1paxoH
ono na pannoH a1ane 1oxe, kak ckasano, ne Hoxe1. nepoaa1enLno, ns payx pmuaroa
ynpaanennn naH oc1ae1cn 1onLko opnn: pmuar c1nHynnpoaannn. paan1cn naH a1o nnn
ne1, npnsnaeH: un n, u x
, u n HOQ m ,
u x n, x un x
qn.
c1pane ponxen 6m1L xosnnn, npn1oH 1onLko opnn xosnnn, n npn1oH xe a1nH
xosnnnoH ne ponxen c1a1L nnk1o, kpoHe epnnoro . o aepL u1o snaun1 6m1L
xosnnnoH? 1o, a snaun1enLno c1enenn, osnauae1 anac1L narpaxpa1L n nakasmaa1L.
1aknH o6pasoH po6naa1Lcn noannoaennn. o1, k1o ne a cnnax a1oro pena1L, ne a cnnax
narpapn1L n nakasa1L, - ne xosnnn, kakne 6m nnanm on nn c1ponn n kak 6m nn
1onopunn caon uae1nme nepmukn.
annyk nosnunk ynpekny1 a 1oH, u1o ona nepoouennaae1 qak1op npeonornn. 1o ne
1ak. nopy ne1, opnn penLrn 6es npe c1on1 ne 1ak yx Hnoro. o cnnLnme npen, paxe
pennrnosnme, a nauy anoxy yxe ne cnoco6nm aec1n ampoxpakueecn n 6onLnoe
(6nonornueckn n npaac1aenno) o6uec1ao na rpaxpanckyk aony, napopnoe aocc1anne
nnn na pnn1enLnyk, nsnypn1enLnyk nocnepoaa1enLno-uenenanpaanennyk 6opL6y.
enoaeueckn pecypc pnn a1oro ncuepnan, konnuec1ao an1ysnac1oa a o6uec1ae
kpn1nueckn Hano, nx an1ysnasH noaepxnoc1en n ckopo1euen. Cn
, u x . e cun1a1Lcn c a1nH nenLsn, kak 6m
Hm nn npnsnaaann n nn aosaennunaann qak1op aosamuennmx naunonan-
na1pno1nuecknx npe.
pnnx 1onLko npe pnn o6Lepnnennn n aqqek1nano pen1enLnoc1n
nepoc1a1ouno, Hm ace canpe1enLc1ayeH a1o yxe pecn1L ne1. m anpenn caonHn
rnasaHn: paxe caHmx kpynnmx pyccknx oprannsaun, penaaunx c1aaky na ronme
npen, okasancn neponyc1nHo nnsok, nnu1oxen. onauany Haccm nckpenne, 6es c1paxa
n ynpeka, 6eckopmc1no n paxe a yuep6 caoeHy kapHany no1nnynncL k pyccko
naunonanLno npee uepes a1n oprannsaunn. o napnpy c nosn1nanmH pesynL1a1oH
(Haccoam poc1 naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn) Hm a n1ore nHeeH n aecLHa
nera1nanm: pasouapoaanne a 6eccnnnn aosamuennmx npe, pacxop anyc1yk aneprnn
n cpepc1a, nnaueanan 1ekyuec1L kappoa n, u1o caHoe c1paunoe, - o1xop Haccm pyccknx
nkpe o1 ak1nano nonn1nkn. m ne nHeeH npaaa kynL1nanpoaa1L nopo6nm
pesynL1a1.
eH 6onee ne cpa6a1maae1 unc1an npeonornn, korpa napo opnen1npoaa1L nkpe ne na
opnopasoaoe HoHen1anLnoe Heponpnn1ne, a
, o16npakuee ace cnnm n apeHn yuac1nnka .
ycnoannx, korpa neueH noppepxnaa1L cyuec1aoaanne ceHLn, 1ako yuac1nnk, npn
aceH an1ysnasHe, ckopo cxopn1 c pnc1anunn; Hm a 1oH 1mcnun pas y6expanncL. expy
1eH, eue n eue pas nopuepkny: sapaua ceropnn ne a 1oH, u1o6m nopnn1L napop
na nocnepnn n peun1enLnm 6o (nnkaknx 6appnkap n napopnmx aocc1ann ne
6ype1, a1o nyxno ncno cosnaaa1L), a a 1oH, u1o6m cospa1L peecnoco6nme c1pyk1ypm,
nnc1pyHen1m, ko1opme rop sa ropoH, m m u n
, m, mn
um mm.
181
apo xopouo nonnHa1L xapak1ep naunonanLno-ocao6opn1enLno 6opL6m na pannoH
a1ane: kaaanepncko a1ako specL yxe nnuero ne peunuL, nyxno
. nyxnm coo1ae1c1aykune c1pa1ernn, ponrocpounme nnanm,
1pe6ykune napexnoro pecypcnoro o6ecneuennn, a ne Hrnoaennoro pyueanoro nopmaa.
BO-BTOmX, xnsnL cnnLno nsHennnacL c 1917 ropa. nnuen1p o6uec1aenno 6opL6m
ceropnn naxopn1cn ne a napopnmx Haccax, kak c1o ne1 nasap, a a c1onL amcoknx
cqepax xnsnn (qnnancoam, apHnnnc1pa1nanm n nnqopHaunonnm nc1a6nnuHen1),
u1o sann1L 1aH rocnopc1aykuee nonoxenne (a 6es a1oro naun Heu1m oc1any1cn nnuL
Heu1aHn) Hoxno, 1onLko onnpancL na npoqeccnonanoa amcue npo6m. nonne
nonn1no, u1o ne cyuec1aye1 n ne Hoxe1 cyuec1aoaa1L 6es nkpe, uLn
pen1enLnoc1L Ho1nanpoaana coaec1Lk, connpapnoc1Lk, o1ae1c1aennoc1Lk n
npepannoc1Lk ennko yccko pee. onLko 1akne nkpn, kc1a1n, ponxnm 6m1L a
pykoaopc1ae , pa n a HaccoaoH saene 1oxe. o neuero n pyHa1L o 1oH, u1o6m a
ckonLko-nn6ypL snaunHmx Hacu1a6ax nopHenn1L an1ysnac1aHn-pnne1an1aHn knaccnmx
cneunannc1oa (qnnancnc1oa, xypnannc1oa, kpnc1oa, apHnnnc1pa1opoa, cnnoankoa).
1aaka na npoqn - aenenne apeHenn. o knaccnme cneunannc1m ne pa6o1ak1 papoH
nnn sa ckpoHnyk sapnna1y. H napo nna1n1L, n nna1n1L Hnoro. 1o akcnoHa.
akonoHna penLrn na npoqeccnonanax, Hm naacerpa no1epneH uanc sann1L 1e
o6uec1aenno-nonn1nueckne amco1m, k ko1opmH c1peHnHcn: Hm nnkorpa ne cHoxeH
asn1L anac1L n ocyuec1an1L naunonanLno-na1pno1nueckne peqopHm.
B-TETBHX, neo6xopnHo noHnn1L execekynpno: Hm, pycckne, xnaeH ne a
co6c1aennoH HnpnoH rocypapc1ae, kak, ckaxeH, nn1oaum nnn apHnne, a
, m
n zn , n .
ano 1oro: pycckn napop ceropnn ne konconnpnpoaan, on pasppo6nen n
penaunonannsnpoaan, kak nn opnn ppyro napop 6mauero . o cy1n, on xnae1
aa1onoHno o1 rocypapc1aa n 1onLko eue naunnae1 cospaaa1L nekne uen1pm
konconnpaunn, uepes ko1opme co apeHeneH on cHoxe1 am1n ns coc1onnnn
aHopqnoc1n. aunonanLno Hmcnnune pycckne nkpn ceropnn npepc1aannk1 co6o
neu1o apope pnacnopm a caoeH co6c1aennoH rocypapc1ae n a caoeH co6c1aennoH
napope.
akoaa peanLnoc1L, n ona pnk1ye1 caon npaanna noaepennn. ne napo cun1a1Lcn. m
ne npopanneHcn k ocyuec1anennk naunx uene n sapau, ecnn ne oanapeeH 1eHn
npneHaHn n He1opaHn, ko1opme ncnonLsyk1 a nopo6nmx cnyuanx napopm Hnpa
ncnokon aeky.
uac1noc1n, neo6xopnHo ncnonLsoaa1L ocnoano npneH, ko1opmH nonLsyk1cn a
uyxepopnmx n paxe apaxpe6no nac1poennmx k nnH rocypapc1aax pasnnunme
pnacnopm (k npnHepy, a occnn - eapeckan, asep6apxanckan, ueuenckan, apHnnckan
n pp.). nn m u - u, u
u um u, - x, x .
nn ncnonLsyk1 ce6e na 6naro 1ako acenponnkakun nopok, kak 1o1anLnan
koppynunn anac1n, a 1oH uncne ue1aep1o. axe naxopncL a coc1onnnn nac1onue
aonm c occne, oanapn pyroa yHyppnncn nokyna1L rnaanme poccnckne n
o6ecneunaa1L peuenne aaxneunx nponaranpnc1cknx sapau! (a n ceuac Hm nHeeH
nonnoc1Lk npoueuenckyk oayk rase1y.) nacnopm nokynak1 unnoannkoa n
cnnoankoa acex ypoane, peuan ace caon npo6neHm, n, napaunaan sa cue1 a1oro caon
kann1anm, nopnnHak1cn no nec1nnue nopkyna ace amue n npnHo annnk1 na nonn1nky
rocypapc1aa. H ne nyxnm nnkakne naunonanLnme peaonkunn, onn n 1ak po6naak1cn
caoero. e roaopk yx o eapenx, no ceropnn, nanpnHep, asep6apxanckan
1pexHnnnnonnan pnacnopa uepes caonx nonn1nuecknx npepc1aan1ene yxe
oqnunanLno c1aan1 aonpoc o napenennn asep6apxanuea - nerpaxpan occnn! -
M M. nokynan pnn caonx npepc1aan1ene
182
ponxnoc1n a n nnmx ka6nne1ax anac1n, pacc1aannn - sa penLrn! - caonx nkpe
na knkueame noc1m, a 1oH uncne yxe n na amcueH rocypapc1aennoH ypoane, -
pnacnopm nerko po6naak1cn 1oro, k ueHy Hm, pycckne nonn1nkn (a caoe co6c1aenno
c1pane!) 1ue1no nm1aeHcn npnp1n, u1ypHyn anac1L a no6.
akoneu, aqqek1nanoe ocyuec1anenne npnnunna penLrn - ao anac1L, anac1L - a
penLrn papn 6onLue anac1n nponcxopn1 n ao apeHn am6opoa. specL naun
aosHoxnoc1n noka neconoc1aanHm c aosHoxnoc1nHn npo1nannka. o1n, koneuno, y nac
ec1L n neHa1epnanLnm pecypc - napopnan noppepxka - no ponL pener a 1akoH pene
nnk1o ne ocnopn1. o nnunm onm1 (n 6ann1npoaancn a 2003 ropy na noc1
ry6epna1opa oaropopcko o6nac1n n sannn 1pe1Le Hec1o, yc1ynna 0,05%
npepcepa1enk oksa npoHmunennnkoa n npepnpnnnHa1ene .-e1ep6ypra) - npkoe
canpe1enLc1ao 1oHy, u1o npen 6es pener c1on1 poano c1onLko xe, ckonLko penLrn 6es
npe.
1ak, pycckoHy naunonanLno-ocao6opn1enLnoHy panxennk nyxnm cpepc1aa,
u , un n nu - anac1L, annnnne, o6uec1aennoe
Hnenne.
1pn rnaanme npnunnm, no ko1opmH npnopn1e1 cnepye1 o1pa1L cospannk
pycckoro qnnancoaoro uen1pa kak nnc1pyHen1a .
oueHy on ponxen pec1aoaa1L sakynncno? uenL npoc1o: penLrn a nyxnoH o6LeHe
co6pa1L ouenL 1pypno. napopa pener ne1, na unenckne asnocm nonnouenno
nonn1nko sannHa1Lcn ne ampe1, o6paua1Lcn sa penLraHn k nnopopuaH -
neponyc1nHo no onpepenennk, npoaopn1L akcnponpnaunn no npnHepy 6onLueankoa ne
kaxpm Hoxe1 ce6e nosaonn1L. a cospanne co6c1aennmx koHHepuecknx c1pyk1yp
pycckoro panxennn ype1 cnnukoH Hnoro apeHenn, nanonnennoro 1pypnmHn npo6aHn
n oun6kaHn. m snaeH no co6c1aennoHy ponroHy onm1y: poc1a1ounme cpepc1aa na
ceropnn Hory1 npepoc1aan1L 1onLko pycckne naunonanLno opnen1npoaannme
npepnpnnnHa1enn, nnaec1opm. akoa qak1. Hm ne pas yxe na6nkpann, kak pyccknH
npepnpnnnHa1ennH, aspyHaaunH sannHa1Lcn ny6nnuno nonn1nko nnn o1kpm1o
nopnn1maa1L pycckoe panxenne, 1y1 xe naunnann nepekpmaa1L kncnopop,
o6pesan kananm qnnancnpoaannn, poc1yn k nc1ounnkaH cmpLn n pmnkaH c6m1a. 1o n
aoo6ue o1nnHan npepnpnn1nn nop pasnmHn npepnoraHn, kak noc1ynnnn c anapenLueH
1aHoxennoro 1epHnnana nekcanppoH onoamH, paaaaunH 6onLune penLrn na
naunonan-na1pno1nueckoe panxenne, y ko1oporo o1o6pann ero 1epHnnan, npeapa1na
npouae1akuero 6nsnecHena a npoqeccnonanLnoro, no 6esycneunoro xopoka no
6eckoneunmH cype6nmH nnc1anunnH. nac1L npekpacno ocosnae1 yrposy, ncxopnuyk
o1 pyccknx naunonan-kann1annc1oa, n 6pn1enLno o1cnexnaae1 cn1yaunk. m ne
ponxnm o1kpmaa1L nc1ounnkn naunx cpepc1a.
1ak, eue pas: qn HOQ - u u
u.
c1ec1aenno, a1o1 uen1p ne ponxen c1on1L ane n nap nnH, ne ponxen amnonnn1L
qynkunn c1pa1ernueckoro nnannpoaannn. nnancoam uen1p - aaxneun opran
, no on - nnuL uac1L o6uero HexannsHa, nnuL opnn ns ero nnc1pyHen1oa,
6eccHmcnennm caH no ce6e, no kpane neo6xopnHm a koHnnekce. nc1eHy
Heponpnn1n n cHe1y nx o6ecneuennn ponxnm paspa6a1maa1L pykoaopn1enn ,
ko1opmH napnexn1 y6expa1L nnaec1opoa a uenecoo6pasnoc1n nHenno 1aknx pacxopoa.
onn1nka - a1o npoqeccnn, ne Henee nk6o ppyro. ona ne 1epnn1 pnne1an1oa.
B - u, qu
- n . paHo1noe n ue1koe paspenenne 1pypa ec1L sanor ycnexa
acero pena.
183
c1ec1aenno 1akxe, u1o noka qnnancoam nnc1pyHen1 ne cospan, ne c1on1 cnpe1L
cnoxa pykn. o napo ocosna1L 1akyk sapauy, ocHmcnn1L 1akyk yc1anoaky n nanpnuL
ace ycnnnn pnn ero cospannn. m, pycckne, xnsnec1okn n yHnm napop, y nac
o6nsa1enLno nonyun1cn.
184
2.2. Hq
Hec1e c1on1 nnqopHaunonnm nnc1pyHen1.
ro ponL aennka n nesaHennHa, korpa peuL npe1 o nopro1oake o6uec1aennoro Hnennn
k kaknH-nn6o cepLesnmH nepeHenaH, korpa nyxno o6ecneun1L Haccoayk noppepxky
a1nx nepeHen. k6o peaonkunn, a 1oH uncne naunonanLno-ocao6opn1enLno,
coaepuakuecn a qnsnueckoH Hnpe, acerpa npepuec1aye1 peaonkunn a Hnpe
npeanLnoH - a ronoaax n pyuax nkpe. 1o eue opna akcnoHa.
o6napana ace nonno1o anac1n n Horyuec1aa, aceHn penLraHn, aceHn
apHnnnc1pa1nanmHn n Ha1epnanLnmHn pecypcaHn, rnran1cko apHne n caHmHn
cnnLnmHn a Hnpe cneucnyx6aHn. o e nnu1o ne noHorno, n ee anac1L pyxnyna a
opnouacLe, no1oHy u1o nepep a1nH pyxnyna anac1L npe, na ko1opme ona onnpanacL, a
c nnHn - ee aa1opn1e1. kpn nepec1ann noppepxnaa1L pnckpepn1npoaannyk anac1L,
nepec1ann amnonnn1L ee npnkasm. ouno 1ak xe a 6mnyk anoxy pyxnyna anac1L
caHopepxaann, nocne 1oro, kak pennnn uapckoro npaan1enLc1aa nopaeprnncL
Hnorone1ne acec1oponne ny6nnuno kpn1nke, a caHa npen oHasannnka oxnn
npeapa1nnacL a nyc1me cnoaa.
1ouno 1ak xe pyxne1 anac1L an1nnapopnoro pexnHa a occnn, korpa a 6onLunnc1ae
yHoa nponsope1 okonua1enLnoe paso6nauenne ero snoaeue npnpopm, ero cna6mx
c1opon n acex ero aren1oa. orpa na cHeny npeonornn nencn aouapn1cn npeonornn
pycckoro naunonannsHa c ero oueanpno, no noka eue ne pnn acex npnamuno
npaapo. yHckne am6opm 2003 ropa nokasann yxe, u1o paenapua1nne1nnn
nnqopHaunonnan aona Hexpy na1pno1aHn n peHokpa1aHn papnkanLno nsHennna
coc1onnne o6uec1aennoro Hnennn ne a nonLsy nocnepnnx: onn c 1peckoH nponrpann.
pn a1oH cnn amnrpmu na1pno1oa-ny1nnuea canpe1enLc1aye1 o6
onpepenennoH cnn anek1opa1a, xaxpyuero npnnnHa1L xenaeHoe sa
pec1an1enLnoe. o ec1L, coc1onnne yHoa a ceropnnune occnn noka eue pa6o1ae1 a
6onLue c1enenn ne na nac, pyccknx naunonan-na1pno1oa, a na naunx konkypen1oa,
kasennmx na1pno1oa.
eH ne Henee, ncen amaop o snauennn nnqopHaunonno aonm na coapeHennoH a1ane.
oxno cnpaaepnnao ckasa1L, u1o ona paxe 6onee aaxna, ueH akonoHnueckan n
peHorpaqnueckan aonm, ycneuno aepyunecn npo1na pycckoro napopa.
Hu n , u
- n .
Hmcn n qynkunn nnqopHaunonnoro nnc1pyHen1a - ne 1onLko arn1aunn n nponaranpa,
no 1akxe n npoaepenne ckooppnnnpoaannmx nnqopHaunonnmx kaHnann. co6enno
6onLuoe snauenne npno6pe1ak1 1akne kaHnannn a nepnopm am6opoa, peqepenpyHoa,
a pnn o6cyxpennn aaxnmx sakonoa n aoo6ue a kpn1nueckne HoHen1m nc1opnn. orpa
pecn1kn n co1nn , anek1ponnmx n neua1nmx, naunnak1 pec1aoaa1L, kak 6onLuo
cnaxennm opkec1p, a ko1opoH kaxpm snae1 caok nap1nk. po6naak1cn nepenoHa a
o6uec1aennoH Hnennn n nac1poennn.
H n s ?
BO-HEBmX, nyxen uen1p nnannpoaannn 1aknx kaHnann, coue1akun a ce6e
nn1ennek1yanLnme, qnnancoame, nnqopHaunonnme n Ha1epnanLno-1exnnueckne
pecypcm. 1o6m co6npa1L, anannsnpoaa1L, npenapnpoaa1L n onepa1nano noc1aann1L
185
nnqopHaunk, a 1oH uncne akcknksnanyk. pnueH a6poc 1onko n 1ouno
npenapnpoaanno nnqopHaunn (a 1oH uncne pesnnqopHaunn) ponxen nponsaopn1Lcn
ne 1onLko uepes naunonan-na1pno1nueckne , no n uepes ace neua1nme n
anek1ponnme aoo6ue. aepxsapaua - nocapn1L aosHoxno 6onLuee konnuec1ao
a occnn na nauy co6c1aennyk nnqopHaunonnyk nrny, npnyun1L nonyua1L
nnqopHaunk ns naunx pyk.
BO-BTOmX, nyxen Hounm nnqopHaunonnm xonpnnr, coc1onun ns acex
anpoa n sapakun 1on ace naunonan-na1pno1nuecko npecce. nn a1oro Hoxno
ncnonLsoaa1L yxe nHekunecn aa1opn1e1nme (nanpnHep, rase1m a pycckoe
peno, aunonanLnyk rase1y, ycckn aec1nnk n neko1opme ppyrne,
papnoc1anunk apopnoe papno, -nepepauy ycckn oH n 1.p.), no
uenecoo6pasno n cospaaa1L noame. 6paseu 1akoro xonpnnra - konuepn yren6epra,
pec1aoaaaun a 1920-30-e rr. a epHannn (o neH - cH. a npnnoxennnx).
ue pas neo6xopnHo nopuepkny1L, u1o n uen1p nnannpoaannn, n nnqopHaunonnm
xonpnnr ponxnm 6m1L ykoHnnek1oaanm npoqeccnonanaHn amcokoro knacca -
npeonoraHn, anann1nkaHn, xypnannc1aHn, nporpaHHnc1aHn n Hac1epaHn
o6cnyxnaannn cnoxno anek1ponno annapa1ypm - o1 koHnLk1epoa po
1enepapnoc1anun. appm peuak1 ace - a1o ckasano nepapoH.
eropnn neo6xopnHoc1L amuensnoxennoro anonne ocosnana naunonan-na1pno1aHn.
saec1nm nonm1kn cospannn nnqopHaunonnmx cnc1eH naunonan-na1pno1nueckoro
1onka: cecnaannckn (1enepL ampennauncn ns nero naannckn) coks xypnannc1oa
(npepcepa1enL . nponoa), ycckoe o6uec1ao noc1aaunkoa nnqopHaunn na 6ase
nnqopHaren1c1a naannckn Hnp, enm Hnp (npepcepa1enL . oHanoa),
nnqopHaren1c1ao ecnnua (pnpek1op . ennaanoa), aeepnan paccmnka
aunonanLno rase1m (pepak1op . eaac1Lnnoa). pnako nx aosHoxnoc1n noka
o1nocn1enLno neaennkn. 1o cansano kak c o1cy1c1aneH cepLesnoro qnnancnpoaannn,
1ak n c onpepenennmHn npeonornuecknHn orpannuennnHn. pnpa1L aceH a1nH
nnnuna1naaH ponxnm pasHax aosHoxno 1onLko no Hepe noc1ynnennn snaun1enLnmx
cpepc1a.
co6oe Hec1o no caoeHy snauennk a nnane nnqopHaunonno aonm sannHae1
paspa6o1ka npeonornn pycckoro naunonannsHa. Henno nn1erpanLnm naunonannsH,
o6nnHakun ace cqepm o6uec1aenno xnsnn, npopac1an a pen1enLnoc1n
konkpe1nmx n nokopnn yHm n ceppua Hnnnnonoa pyccknx nkpe, ponxen
npnaec1n k npenoHy kpyuennk pexnHa n k no6epe . 1o nonc1nne - rnaanm
nepanm ysen panxennn, o1 ko1oporo saancn1 ace ero koneunme pesynL1a1m. o o6
a1oH - a o1penLnoH paspene.
2.3. Kv
Hec1e c1on1 kpnpnueckn nnc1pyHen1 . ak xe, kak n qnnancoam,
on npnsaan o6ecneun1L coapeHennm ypoaenL peuennn acex ero npo6neH. k6an
cepLesnan nnnuna1naa, nk6oe cornauenne (penoaoe nnn nonn1nueckoe) ponxnm
naunna1Lcn c amcokokauec1aenno kpnpnuecko akcnep1nsm, a sa1eH ponxnm nHe1L
kpnpnueckn rpaHo1no oqopHnennoe pasan1ne n saaepuenne.
co6oe snauenne nHee1 kpnpnueckn nnc1pyHen1 a nnane saun1m n nanapennn. ce,
k1o ckonLko-nn6ypL cepLesno, ak1nano sannHancn pyccko nonn1nko a nocnepnee
pecn1nne1ne, ncnm1ann na ce6e, u1o 1akoe cyp n npokypa1ypa, u1o 1akoe
rocypapc1aennan pycoqo6nn, nponannkuancn a pen1enLnoc1n Hnnnc1epc1a n
aepoHc1a. aepL ec1L n npoc1o npoqeccnonanLnme aparn , npn6erakune k
ycnyraH amcokoknaccnmx kpnc1oa, noHorakunx ypyuennk pycckoro panxennn. ak
186
npnHep Hoxno npnaec1n nppen ocnqoanua ypa1oaa, eapen n 6mauero cypLk
ocropcypa, ynpn1aauero sa peue1ky naunonan-na1pno1a . Hnpnoaa-c1auannn,
y6n1oro sa1eH a 1kpLHe. mne ypa1oa c1an apaoka1oH n nensHenno saunuae1 a
cypax nn1epecm ockoackoro oHcoHonLua, ockoackoro an1nqaunc1ckoro uen1pa
n 1oHy nopo6nmx an1npyccknx c1pyk1yp. ro onm1 cypLn n apaoka1a, snakoHc1aa ao
acex cqepax kc1nunn nosaonnk1 eHy pec1aoaa1L aqqek1nano. onn1no, u1o
npo1naopec1aoaa1L 1akoHy pen1enk Hoxe1 1onLko npoqeccnonan nopo6no xe
kaannqnkaunn.
o naH, noa1opnH, neo6xopnHo ne 1onLko saunua1Lcn (1ak Hm 6ypeH aeuno o1c1aaa1L
na uar o1 naunx aparoa), no n nanapa1L. specL - nenoua1m kpa pa6o1m pnn
pyccknx kpnc1oa, naunnan o1 amc1aanennn Ha1epnanLnmx npe1ensn aceHnpnmH
eapecknH oprannsaunnH sa peaonkunk 1917 r. n nepec1poky n o1 cypa nap
nypansHoH n cnonnsHoH kak uenoaekonenaanc1nnuecknHn npeonornnHn,
nponaranpnpykunHn uenoaeueckoe nepaanonpaane n npeaocxopc1ao eapeea nap
ppyrnHn napopaHn, - n konuan npecnepoaannnHn naunx aparoa cype6nmHn nckaHn sa
kneae1y, noxnme ponocm, yHanenne naunx uec1n, poc1onnc1aa n penoao peny1aunn,
sa pasxnranne naunonanLno, pacoao n pennrnosno posnn. opnnaun Heu (aepL
ne Hm pasansann a1y aony a nnc1anunnx) ponxen norn6ny1L o1 Heua.
es kpnc1a ceropnn, a ycnoannx no6epnaue 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecko
peaonkunn, ne penae1cn nn opno cepLesnoe peno. pycckne kpnc1m, nHeaune
amcokn aa1opn1e1 eue po peaonkunn, cyHek1 ero ykpenn1L. akne kpnc1m ceropnn
ec1L, n Hm Hnornx ns nnx snaeH. o. n specL qak1op onna1m 1pypa - paneko ne
nocnepnn. aun1nnk pyccknx napopnmx nn1epecoa ne ponxen pmcka1L a nonckax
nponn1annn, ero ceHLn ne ponxna nyxpa1Lcn n nepe6naa1Lcn cnyuanmHn
sapa6o1kaHn. n ponxen 6m1L xopouo o6ecneuen n pecnek1a6enen, unpoko
o6pasoaan, annn1enen, axox a amcune kpyrn o6uec1aa.
yxnm naH n kpnc1m-Hexpynapopnnkn ns uncna pyccknx naunonannc1oa, a apaone
nyxnmHn onn c1any1 nocne 1oro, kak npnpe1 k anac1n n npnc1ynn1 k kappoaoHy
nepeqopHnpoaannk a.
akoneu, neo6xopnHm pycckne kpnc1m-unannnc1m, cnoco6nme k sakono1aopuecko
pen1enLnoc1n, k npoaepennk kpnpnuecknx akcnep1ns sakononpoek1oa.
kakoH anpe 6ype1 cyuec1aoaa1L kpnpnueckn nnc1pyHen1 ? ype1 nn a1o
oco6an pycckan apaoka1ckan konnernn, 6ype1 nn a1o nekn Hosroao uen1p, coc1onun
ns nesaancnHmx kpnc1oa, co6npakunxcn aHec1e no konkpe1nmH noaopaH pnn
Hosroao a1akn n pacnpepenennn pone - noka npepckasa1L 1pypno. Hee1cn
nonoxn1enLnm n pasnoo6pasnm onm1. ak, nra saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn,
coc1onuan ns Honopmx 1anan1nnamx kpnc1oa-unannnc1oa, po6nnacL npnnn1nn sakona
kynL1ypnmx uennoc1nx, nepeHeuennmx a coks a pesynL1a1e a1opo Hnpoao
aonm n naxopnunxcn na 1eppn1opnn occncko epepaunn (npoue roaopn, o16nna
naun 1poqen y nanoxnaunx na nnx nany nLunna n onn), nopro1oanna npoek1
yccko onc1n1yunn n sakononpoek1 paspenennoH nonoxennn pyccko naunn n ee
npaae na aoccoepnnenne. e npepc1aan1enn neopnokpa1no npnnnHann yuac1ne a
cype6nmx npoueccax npo1na pexnHa (a pene naca), npo1na ockoackoro
oHcoHonLua (a pene o annnuLnx 1yuax n pyuax), npo1na ockoackoro
an1nqaunc1ckoro uen1pa, npo1na nnnc1epc1aa kc1nunn n pp. Kpnc1m ns oksa
o6uec1aennmx o6Lepnnenn no saun1e uec1n n poc1onnc1aa pycckoro napopa n
yccko cekunn expynapopnoro o6uec1aa npaa uenoaeka npoaopnnn akcnep1nsm
sakononpoek1oa, nanpaannnn nncLHa a saun1y pyccknx nkpe a npokypa1ypy n nnme
nnc1anunn, amc1ynann c a1o uenLk a cypax. 1.p.
pepc1on1 o6o6un1L a1o1 onm1 n nopo1n k ero ncnonLsoaannk uen1pannsoaanno n
koHnnekcno.
187
onoccanLnoe snauenne nHee1 nponaranpa kpnpnuecknx poc1nxenn . epL a1o,
ao-nepamx, xponnka naunx, nyc1L ne6onLunx, no no6ep. ao-a1opmx, a1o
kpnpnueckn nnk6es pycckoro napopa, a ko1opoH on nyxpae1cn po nocnepne
kpanoc1n.
2.4. r
, neo6xopnH oprannsaunonnm nnc1pyHen1 . op a1nH noppasyHeaae1cn
epnnan pycckan nap1nn, cnoco6nan nrpa1L a o6uec1ae ne npoc1o saHe1nyk, no n
aepyuyk ponL, coo1ae1c1aykuyk nonoxennk pyccknx a coc1aae nacenennn occnn.
a a1oH nnc1pyHen1e nexn1 oco6an o1ae1c1aennoc1L kak na ny6nnunoH nonn1nueckoH
npepc1aan1ene pycckoro napopa, ero npaa n nn1epecoa.
aueH nyxna epnnan nap1nn, ueH ona c1ane1 sannHa1Lcn, u1o pena1L? pexpe acero -
ocaanaa1L coapeHennme HexannsHm nonn1nuecko 6opL6m, 6es oanapennn ko1opmHn
neuero Heu1a1L o pyccko anac1n na naue seHne.
2.4.1. m snaeH, nonnHaeH n 1aeppnH, u1o pnn 1oro, u1o6m ocyuec1an1L naun
nonn1nueckne n akonoHnueckne 1pe6oaannn, neo6xopnHo asn1L anac1L. o ouenL Hano
noka pnn a1oro penaeH. nnLnan, neranLnan acepoccnckan o6uepycckan nap1nn - a1o,
npexpe acero, n mx m
um um u u ,
, . eaonkunonnmH ny1eH a1o
cpena1L neaosHoxno. c1ae1cn nnuL ny1L nnanoHepno n nac1ounao nap1nno
6opL6m.
3un u pnn nac upesamuano, xnsnenno aaxna. Henno a
sakonopa1enLnmx co6pannnx pasnnunmx ypoane ampa6a1maak1cn n npnnnHak1cn 1e
yc1anoanennn, no ko1opmH - xo1nH Hm 1oro nnn ne1 - nac no1oH sac1aannk1 xn1L.
pono66npoaa1L nyxnm n 1opnepnpoaa1L apepnm pnn pyccknx sakon - a1o ouenL,
ouenL aaxno.
e Henee aaxno aoapeHn o1cnepn1L an1npycckyk sakonopa1enLnyk nnnuna1nay,
aoapeHn n rpaHo1no npoanannsnpoaa1L ee, npepa1L unpoko rnacnoc1n, pa1L e 6o
na c1pannuax neua1n. pnako n a 1aknx penax nyxna ne 1onLko caHoo1aepxennan
6n1aa opnnouek, no n oprannsoaannoe nac1ynnenne npoqeccnonanLno nopro1oanennmx
nnu. 6o aona npo1na nac aepe1cn nnanoHepno n uen1pannsoaanno, naun aparn
aepy1 ee, sapec1ayn cepLesnmx cneunannc1oa n pecypcm . npo1naoc1on1L nH
nyxno kak HnnnHyH 1eHn xe cpepc1aaHn. pepn a1nx cpepc1a pyHckan 1pn6yna -
o1nkpL ne nocnepnee.
akoneu, kaxpm nau peny1a1 - a1o knapesL unc1o oprannsaunonnmx, 1exnnuecknx
aosHoxnoc1e, ko1opme Hm Hornn 6m rpaHo1no ncnonLsoaa1L: a1o aren1 annnnnn a
coo1ae1c1aykueH koHn1e1e, a1o ponxnoc1n n c1a1yc Hnorouncnennmx noHounnkoa
peny1a1a pnn unenoa nap1nn, a1o 1pancnop1 n cansL, a 1.u. Hexpynapopnan, a1o
aosHoxnoc1L nc1pe6oaa1L nyxnyk nnqopHaunk ny1eH peny1a1cknx sanpocoa, n 1.p. n
1.n. osHoxnoc1n peny1a1a, nonLsykuerocn nenpnkocnoaennoc1Lk, pacnonarakuero
neHano Ha1epnanLno 6aso, nHekuero npnHo amxop na ace caHme amcokne
anac1nme nnc1anunn, aknkuan cypm n npokypa1ypy, n npenHyuec1aa a o1nouennnx co
, - ouenL aennkn. econsHepnHm c aosHoxnoc1nHn pnpoaoro ns6npa1enn. axpm
peny1a1 coo1ae1c1aenno yaennunaae1 aosHoxnoc1n nap1nn. caon (nap1nnan)
qpakunn yHnoxae1 nx Hnorokpa1no.
e Henee, a 1o n 6onee aaxnm pnn nac am6opm n a um u.
y6epna1opckn noc1 (paxe a ne caHoH 6ora1oH pernone) - a1o aosHoxnoc1L
188
nanpaann1L Hnnnnon ponnapoa a rop na pycckoe peno. oc1 Hapa ropopa cpepne
kpynnoc1n nosaonne1 pena1L a1o a Hacu1a6e co1en, npeqek1a - pecn1koa 1mcnu
ponnapoa. nac ec1L neHanme uenoaeueckne (a 1oH uncne, nn1ennek1yanLnme)
pecypcm, no onn sapec1aoaanm na nnu1oxnyk uac1L caoero no1enunana no opno
npnunne: ne1 pener.
expy 1eH, papnkanLno peun1L penexnyk n oprannsaunonnyk npo6neHy, ne
ncnonLsyn unc1o anac1nme pecypcm noHnHo koHHepuecknx, Hm apnp nn cHoxeH. apen
(n ne 1onLko onn) paano noc1nrnn a1o1 nexn1pm HexannsH: penLrn konaep1npyk1cn
ao anac1L, anac1L - a eue 6nLune penLrn, 1e - a eue 6nLuyk anac1L n 1ak panee
po caHoro aepxa. e nopa nn n naH ocaon1L a1y Hexannky?
enLrn - rnaanoe, no ne epnnc1aennoe npenHyuec1ao ns6pannmx pykoaopn1ene.
axnm n nx aosHoxnoc1n noppepxa1L naunonanLnoro nponsaopn1enn (oco6enno -
nopnn1maakuero pycckoe panxenne) n naunonan-na1pno1nueckne , nanpaan1L
pen1enLnoc1L npaaooxpann1enLnmx opranoa a saun1y pyccknx nn1epecoa n Hnoroe
ppyroe.
c1L y nnx n unc1o nonn1nueckne pecypcm, aosHoxnoc1L annnnnn na 1e cqepm, rpe
ampa6a1maak1cn n npnnnHak1cn nonn1nueckne peuennn.
aH nyxnm caon npepc1aan1enn a ncnonnn1enLno anac1n, no ne pacnonaran 1aknH
nnc1pyHen1oH, kak cnnLnan acepoccnckan nap1nn, Hm ne cHoxeH nx sanonyun1L.
2.4.2. nnLnan, neranLnan acepoccnckan o6uepycckan nap1nn - s
mx m mx . aunnan o1 6anpn1ckoro naespa n konuan
cype6nmHn npecnepoaannnHn. cepLesno nap1nno c1pyk1ypo, pacnonarakue
xopounHn oxpannmHn aosHoxnoc1nHn, 6anpn1m npepnoun1ak1 ne cansmaa1Lcn.
nanpo1na, c ne oxo1no npy1 na kon1ak1 amcokonpoqeccnonanLnme apaoka1m,
npnamkune pa6o1a1L c pecnek1a6enLnmHn knnen1aHn.
2.4.3. nnLnan, neranLnan acepoccnckan o6uepycckan nap1nn - s
n . pynnme
o6uepoccnckne , oco6enno anek1ponnme, nnkorpa ne cnnsopy1 po nap1nno
Henoun, pasae u1o amnonnnn cneusapanne no pnckpepn1aunn pycckoro panxennn, kak
a1o ceropnn penak1 c .
axpan ns6npa1enLnan kaHnannn npepoc1aanne1 nap1nnH saHeua1enLnme nnapoackne
aosHoxnoc1n. uac1aoaa1L ao acex am6opnmx kaHnannnx nyxno xo1n 6m papn opnoro
a1oro. o cna6an, Hanan nap1nn ne ponro ypepxn1cn a peec1pe nnkc1a. na 6ype1
6esxanoc1no amuepkny1a ns neranLno nonn1nkn nocne nepaoro xe neycnexa na
am6opax. ace ycnnnn n cpepc1aa, anoxennme a ee packpy1ky, nopy1 npaxoH.
onLko epnnan pycckan nap1nn c konnek1nanmH pykoaopc1aoH, o6Lepnnnkuan
aa1opn1e1nmx pyccknx o6uec1aennmx pen1ene acex pernonoa, cnoco6na c1a1L
nac1onunH pynopoH pyccko npen.
2.4.4. nnLnan, neranLnan acepoccnckan o6uepycckan nap1nn - s
n u. ne nHee1 ycnexa ne no1oHy, u1o ona -
neranLnan nonn1nueckan nap1nn, a no1oHy, u1o ncuepnana ce6n ee
nn1epnaunonannc1nueckan npeonornn, npornnna n npopanacL pexnHy ee ronoaka, a
eue no1oHy, u1o ona ne onnpae1cn na nopaopnyk uac1L panxennn conpo1nanennn.
poHe 1oro, qak1nueckn, npnueH ny6nnuno, o1kasanacL o1 anac1n a 1996 r. n
1eH nsHennna caoe npnpope nonn1nuecko nap1nn, npeapa1nauncL a rpoHoo1aop
napopnoro rneaa, a caH kranoa npeapa1nncn a cHo1pnuero sa neamH qnanroH.
189
opnnnnan nonn1nueckan nap1nn, xo1nuan n Horyuan asn1L anac1L a caon pykn,
cnoco6na annn1L na cn1yaunk paxe 1onLko caHnH qak1oH caoero cyuec1aoaannn. yx
ecnn ona naunnae1 pec1aoaa1L.
2.4.5. nnLnan, neranLnan acepoccnckan o6uepycckan nap1nn - s m
. pepnonoxnH, asnno anac1L. a noaec1ke pnn - cospanne pycckoro
naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa. 1o n kak 6ype1 sannHa1Lcn rocypapc1aennmH
c1pon1enLc1aoH? pe 6pa1L kappm? keH Hm npnpeH a enm oH, a npaan1enLc1aa
cy6Lek1oa qepepaunn? eH sanonnnH u1a1m Hnnnc1epc1a, aepoHc1a?
eneaoe npaan1enLc1ao nyxno cospaaa1L napannenLno c 6opL6o sa anac1L. o
cepLesnme nkpn, cneunannc1m amcue kaannqnkaunn o1ua1ny1cn o1 neneranoa, onn
ne nopy1 na cnyx6y k HaprnnanaH, k Hanonsaec1nmH, ne amsmaakunH poaepnn
nnunoc1nH, onn ne c1any1 cansmaa1L caok cypL6y n peny1aunk c napnnHn
nonn1nueckoro Hnpa. nn o1knnkny1cn 1onLko na npnsma connpno, anyuakue
yaaxenne acepoccncko oprannsaunn, nHekue cepLesnyk nporpaHHy, nHekue
caoe poc1onoe n npnaneka1enLnoe nnuo. 6o a1o - nnuo pycckoro napopa, pycckoro
panxennn.
aua nap1nnan nponaranpa n kappoaan pa6o1a ponxna npecnepoaa1L pae uenn: ao-
nepamx, Hm ponxnm noc1aan1L yaneka1enLnme uenn n sapaun nepep pyccknHn
na1pno1aHn ns apHnnnc1pa1nanoro, aoennoro n nayunoro cek1opa nn1ennnrenunn.
pnnH 1onLko an1ncnonnsHoH nx ne npnaneueuL: nyxnm konc1pyk1nanme,
cosnpa1enLnme npen. o-a1opmx, Hm ponxnm ak1nano pa6o1a1L co c1ypen1aHn
coo1ae1c1aykunx npoqnne, c HonopexLk, cospaaa1L ce6e kappoam pesepa ns
1anan1nnamx pyccknx pe6n1. 1o - naunonanLnan ann1a saa1paunero pnn. m ponxnm
noHann1L nx nepcnek1nao aospoxpennn naunn, Hm ponxnm nokasa1L nH ropnson1m
npnHenennn nx cnn, Hm ponxnm npepnoxn1L nH 1akoe 6ypyuee, kakoro nnkorpa ne
npepnoxn1 nH sarnnaakuan n cnonnsnpoaannan noc1enLunnckan occnn.
2.4.6. nnLnan, neranLnan acepoccnckan o6uepycckan nap1nn - s u
x nx B Hq, n
,
n. Hnpe ponxnm 6m1L 6en napenm, n
Hnorne napopm nH Hmcnenno annopnpyk1, no npn 1oH ne capn1cn c nnHn sa c1on
oqnunanLnmx neperoaopoa n ne npy1 na ny6nnunme kon1ak1m, paxe ecnn ro1oam nx
sakynncno noppepxa1L. pycckoro panxennn ne Hoxe1 n ne ponxno 6m1L ropLko
cypL6m nsron.
2.4.7. akoneu, nonn1nueckan npak1nka nokasana, u1o cospanne acex nepeuncnennmx
amue nnc1pyHen1oa - qnnancoaoro, nnqopHaunonnoro n kpnpnueckoro -
ypo6nee acero pena1L npn nocpepc1ae nHenno nap1nn, ampaunaa1L ns nee. epL ace
a1n nnc1n1y1m c nens6exnoc1Lk cyuec1ayk1 yxe a anpe sapopmue any1pn nap1nn a
kauec1ae coo1ae1c1aykunx o1penoa - xosnc1aennoro, nnqopHaunonnoro,
kpnpnueckoro. s a1nx nap1nnmx o1penoa Hory1 n ponxnm co apeHeneH ampac1n
nasaannme c1pyk1ypm acero . ap1nn npnpae1 aceH a1nH nnc1pyHen1aH
npeonornueckyk onpepenennoc1L, ona o6neruae1 nonck kappoa n pa6o1y c nnHn,
o6ecneunaae1 HnnnHanLnyk pncunnnnny n o1ae1c1aennoc1L, asanHonponnknoaenne n
cornacoaannoc1L pec1an. a kako c1apnn a1nH o1penaH cyxpeno o1opaa1Lcn o1
Ha1epnnckoro nap1nnoro nona n c1a1L na ypoaenL o6uepoccnckoro saancn1
o1 1oro, a nepayk ouepepL, nackonLko caHa nap1nn ocosnae1 ce6n kak nnc1pyHen1
, nackonLko 1ouno ona coo1ae1c1aye1 sapauaH n nn1epecaH pec1an1enLno
acepoccnckoro ycckoro naunonanLno-ocao6opn1enLnoro panxennn.
pnnH cnoaoH, cnnLnan, neranLnan acepoccnckan o6uepycckan nap1nn - a1o napexpa
acero pycckoro panxennn, a1o ero aaxneun pa6oun nnc1pyHen1, ero oprannsykuan
n nanpaannkuan cnna.
190
191
3. HQERHR HHHRH3M
no ouepepn, no ne no snauennk sapaua - cospanne c1pono 1eopnn
pycckoro naunonannsHa.
oaoe anno ne nannaak1 a c1apme Hexn. a nc1ekuee c1one1ne a Hnpe n a occnn
nponsounn konoccanLnme nepeHenm, ko1opme 1pe6yk1 noamx npenmx nopxopoa n
He1opoa a peuennn pyccknx naunonanLnmx sapau, 1pe6yk1 noao pyccko npeonornn.
Bmn m - un , ,
m: u --u,
u , u n
. opny peky ne axopn1 paaxpm - nesm6neHm sakon pnanek1nkn. 1o1 xe
erenL nepapoH ampannyn 1esnc o neoponnHoc1n noaoro. oaoro, a ne c1aporo! ce
npexnne npeno-nonn1nueckne napapnrHm, aecLHa Hnoro snaunaune kaxpan na caoeH
nc1opnueckoH a1ane, ceropnn, ao-nepamx, ne cnoco6nm npepnoxn1L konc1pyk1nanoe
peuenne naunx npo6neH, a ao-a1opmx, ne cnoco6nm o6Lepnnn1L nop caonHn
snaHenaHn snaunHyk uac1L o6uec1aa.
ce na6nkpa1enn npnsnak1, u1o nocne kpyuennn coae1cko anac1n n 1o1anLno
caHopnckpepn1aunn noc1coae1ckoro pexnHa a o6nac1n npeonornn na kakoe-1o apeHn
o6pasoaancn aakyyH. o ceropnn ero yaepenno n nac1yna1enLno sanonnne1 npeonornn
(kc1a1n, ne 1onLko pycckoro), a ko1opo Haccm nuy1 o1ae1 na
Hyuakune nx aonpocm n saun1y o1 pasnoo6pasnmx yrpos. H
m n (peskoe
nac1ynnenne aren1oa rno6annsHa), m m
(ynnsn1enLnan saancnHoc1L c1panm o1 aneunnx cnn n o1 aceanac1nn nnopopuea n
koHnpapopoa, a 1akxe poc1 cenapa1nc1cknx n naunonannc1nuecknx nac1poenn a
naunonanLnmx pernonax occnn). occnn eue o1c1ae1 a cHmcne spenoc1n 1n1ynLnoro
naunonannsHa o1 6onLunnc1aa 6maunx pecny6nnk (kpoHe enopyccnn), no
c1peHn1enLno nx poronne1.
nqpm, ornauennme na ack c1pany nan6onee aa1opn1e1no counonornuecko cnyx6o
, 1akoam: n n x! 1998 . 43%,
2002 - 58%! pnueH, u1o ouenL aaxno, ecnn a 1998 r. a1o1 nosynr
xapak1epnsoaann HakcnHanLno o1pnua1enLno 30%, 1o ceropnn - nnuL 20%, 1.e.
npnHepno c1onLko, ckonLko a occnn aoo6ue nepyccknx. a1o snaun1, u1o pnn acex
pyccknx on ecnn n ne anonne npneHneH (npneHnk1 nonnoc1Lk yxe 72,5% pyccknx), 1o
ace xe npneHneH c oroaopkaHn. 80% cun1ak1, u1o occnn nepenonnena
nexena1enLnmHn uyxakaHn n 25% cun1ak1, u1o a 6opL6e sa nn1epecm pycckoro
napopa ace cpepc1aa xopoun.
ue aaxnee ppyrne unqpm. oaceH nepaano, a 1986 r., no onpocaH counonoroa, nnuL
15% pyccknx ocosnaaann ce6n kak pycckne n eue 7% - ne snann, kak
onpepenn1Lcn, Hexpy 1eH kak 78% cun1ann ce6n coae1cknHn. o ceropnn yxe 45%
pyccknx cun1ak1 ce6n pyccknHn (sa nn1napua1L ne1 a1o1 npouen1 ampoc na 30
nynk1oa!), 1onLko 28% - poccnnnaHn n nnuL 16% - coae1cknHn nkpLHn
(napenne na 62 nynk1a!).
1ak, a occnn nponcxopn1 Hounm 1ek1onnueckn cpanr o6uec1aennmx oxnpann.
asan1ne pycckoro caHocosnannn npe1 no rnnep6one. 1o ec1ec1aennm, rny6oko
pe1epHnnnpoaannm npouecc. onLko cneno a1oro ne anpn1, 1onLko pypak - ne
yun1maae1, 1onLko nopneu nm1ae1cn onopoun1L.
ycckn naunonannsH, noka eue ao HnoroH nnc1nnk1nanm n nppaunonanLnm, yxe
c1on1 y nac na nopore nou1n ao aecL poc1. Hy neo6xopnHo pa1L coaepuennyk,
o11ouennyk cnoaecnyk, paunonanLnyk, npeonornueckyk qopHy. 1a npeonornn - a
192
ueH Hoxno 6m1L coaepuenno yaepennmH - n ec1L pnn occnn 1o , ueHy cyxpeno
nponan1L rereneackyk neoponnHoc1L n cpena1Lcn XXI
.
apo 1akxe npnsna1L: counanLno-nonn1nueckne nepeHenm, nponsouepune a Hnpe n a
occnn sa aek, nac1onLko aennkn n snaun1enLnm, u1o penak1 neaosHoxnmH
npoc1oe konnpoaanne naunonannc1nuecknx pok1pnn nnmx apeHen n napopoa,
nanpnHep - n1anLnnckoro nnn pycckoro qaunsHa, neHeukoro naunonan-counannsHa
nnn naunonanLno-peHokpa1nuecknx pexnHoa pnpa c1pan pasanaakuerocn Hnpa.
ecHo1pn na 1o, u1o Hnoro aaxnmx paspa6o1ok Hoxno n nyxno sanHc1aoaa1L y acex
nHeaunx ycnex nonn1nuecknx panxenn, ace xe na noaoH a1ane nc1opnueckoro
pasan1nn neo6xopnHo onnpa1Lcn npexpe acero na ananns konkpe1no o6c1anoakn,
konkpe1nmx o6uec1aennmx 1enpenun n cnn.
npeonornn pycckoro naunonannsHa ak1nano paspa6a1maae1cn pnpoH
nonn1onoroa n npeonoroa, Hexpy ko1opmHn kooppnnaunn cyuec1aye1, yam, nnuL a
nesnaun1enLno c1enenn na ypoane nnunmx kon1ak1oa. 1aknH nmne sppaac1aykunH
npeonoraH, ue ronoc xopouo pasnnunH a o6ueH xope, Hoxno a nepayk ouepepL
o1nec1n (a anqaan1noH nopnpke) .. apeeaa, .. poanna, .. aanoaa, ..
c1apxoaa, .. asnnueaa, .. osnoaa, .. nponoaa, .. nno, ..
apounnukyk, .. aanoaa, .. eaac1Lnnoaa, .. ponukoro, .. oHnkoaa, ..
aqapeanua. neko1opmx ns nnx, nan6onee nonynnpnmx (apeea, c1apxoa,
nponoa, eaac1Lnnoa, aqapeanu), cnoxnncn cao kpyr, nsHepneHm HnornHn
1mcnuaHn c1oponnnkoa - ak1nanc1oa pycckoro panxennn.
epnopnueckn aosnnkann n aosnnkak1 nonm1kn cospannn caoero popa pnckyccnonnmx
pyccknx kny6oa. pasnoe apeHn 1akoamHn 6mnn ceHnnap H r
(npn oHn1e1e no reononn1nke ocpyHm, aepyun .. pxnnoa), ceHnnap
H (npn occnckoH o6uec1aenno-nonn1nueckoH
uen1pe, aepyun .. aaenLea) nnn nmne pec1aykun ycckn nn1ennek1yanLnm
kny6 (npn ockoackoH ryHann1apnoH ynnaepcn1e1e, npepcepa1enL .. nnoaLea).
ec1aye1, xo1n n ne naxopn1 nn unpokoro kpyra noun1a1ene, nn npak1nueckoro
npnnoxennn a nonn1nke a cnny caoe cyry6o pennrnosno-qnnocoqcko
koncepaa1nanoc1n, ccounaunn no koHnnekcnoHy nsyuennk pycckoro napopa (..
ponukn), perynnpno amnyckakuan c6opnnkn nayunmx n nayuno-ny6nnunc1nuecknx
c1a1e.
aspena no1pe6noc1L na ocnoae yuac1nn amuenepeuncnennmx (no ne 1onLko) nnu
cospa1L noc1onnno pec1aykun opran, kak 6m on nn nasmaancn - pycckn
apeonar, coae1 c1apeunn, akcnep1nm npeonornueckn coae1 n 1.n. 1o6m a
pnckyccnnx ampa6a1maa1L ne 1onLko ue1kne nosnunn no cnopnmH aonpocaH pycckoro
panxennn, no n pncnosnunn ero pasan1nn. 1oroamHn pokyHen1aHn pa6o1m a1oro
oprana ponxnm 6mnn 6m c1a1L pokyHen1m: Q r ,
n n r , Kx r
(nasaannn ycnoanm)[3] n Hnoroo6pasnme nonynnpnme nspannn,
nponaranpnpykune 6asoame nonn1nn n uennoc1n pycckoro naunonannsHa, anno1L po
nnc1oaok.
oka u1o nopo6nmx konnek1nanmx 1pypoa Hm ne anpenn. noxnoc1L sapaun a 1oH, u1o
cpepn nasaannmx pyxoanmx nnpepoa panxennn ne1 epnnoHmcnnn no aecLHa HnornH
kappnnanLnmH acnek1aH pycckoro aonpoca. peonornueckne n pennrnosnme
yc1anoakn, kak o6muno, npenn1c1ayk1 saaepuennk epnno Hnpoaosspenuecko
nna1qopHm. poponxae1cn oxec1ouennan 6opL6a c1apmx n noamx npe, ocnoxnennan
nepopasaenuannoc1Lk Hnornx npeppaccypkoa.
193
Hec1e c 1eH, sa nocnepnne pecn1L ne1 nanpaanenne, ko1opoe Hoxno c oroaopkaHn
oxapak1epnsoaa1L kak s , ne 1onLko ue1ko
o6osnaunnocL anepame c popeaonkunonno nopm (ero npep1eua n rennanLnm npopok
- .. enLunkoa), no n x u
n . no paano nepeuarnyno sa nopor yuenmx ka6nne1oa
n npeapauae1cn na naunx rnasax a aepyuyk nonn1nueckyk pok1pnny, npe1enpykuyk
na Haccoaoc1L. cnn pnn nHnepckoro nepnopa pasan1nn occnn, korpa na nneun
pycckoro napopa nerna Hnccnn nHnepckoro a1noca, xapak1epno 6mna npen1nqnkaunn
pyccknx no aepe, nsmky n kynL1ype, 1o ceropnn, a ycnoannx nonn1noro nc1opnueckoro
panxennn, a1n npnsnakn ec1ec1aennmH o6pasoH yc1ynak1 Hec1o npen1nqnkaunn no
o6unoc1n nponcxoxpennn, no kpoan. oxno cHeno npepckasa1L, u1o nHenno
a1nnueckn pycckn naunonannsH, poaepennm po coc1onnnn sakonuenno konuenunn,
6ype1 npenmH nppoH unpokoro pycckoro naunonan-na1pno1nueckoro panxennn. a
nnH n 1onLko sa nnH - 6ypyuee.
kauec1ae ocnoanmx pokyHen1oa pycckoro naunonannsHa a1oro (nnn 6nnskoro k neHy)
1onka Hoxno, noHnHo nac1onuero nspannn n 1pypoa enLunkoaa, npepnoxn1L
cnepykune: " : v XX " (c1a1Ln
co1pypnnkoa nc1qaka , nc1n1y1a occncko nc1opnn , nc1n1y1a
naunonanLnmx npo6neH o6pasoaannn nnnc1epc1aa o6pasoaannn n pp. n. pep. -
akap. K.. ykyuknn. - , 1993); (nop pep. . .
apeeaa n . . aaenLeaa. - ., 1999 n nocnepykune nspannn); n.
K : (coaokynno c sakononpoek1oH
nx n noncnn1enLnmHn sannckaHn k o6onH
1ekc1aH; paspa6o1ka nrn saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn. - ., 1998); kap1a
koHnak1noro paccenennn pycckoro a1noca (coaHec1nm npoek1
nrn saun1m naunonanLnoro poc1onnnn n aunonanLno rase1m; na o6opo1e -
H H BTEQHHRE. 1 nq r r
x m n H-
Qx n . - ., 2001); c6opnnkn c1a1e
, r r (coc1. . . eaac1Lnnoa. - ., 2001) n -
, - . H H r.
1995-2002 (coc1. . . eaac1Lnnoa. - ., 2002). ocnepnn cHeno Hoxno
pekoHenpoaa1L k nsyuennk a kauec1ae nepaoro yue6nnka pycckoro naunonannsHa.
4. KQR HRHHK
caHme 6narne noHmcnm n naunnannn ne c6ypy1cn, ecnn ne ypac1cn
cospa1L napexnyk kappoayk ocnoay pnn nx peannsaunn. coxanennk,
uenenanpaanennan nonn1nka y a o1nouennn nop6opa n aocnn1annn kappoa
npak1nueckn o1cy1c1aye1, a 1a, u1o ec1L, aepe1cn xao1nuno, cnon1anno n
neypoane1aopn1enLno. pak1nueckn ane sonm pec1ann oc1ak1cn pecypcm
amcunx auenonoa nn1ennnrenunn, apHnnnc1pa1nanmx n npepnpnnnHa1enLcknx
kpyroa. eponyc1nHo Hano sapec1aoaano c1ypenuec1ao (rnaanm pesepa n ocnoanan
napexpa naunonan-na1pno1nueckoro panxennn a nk6o c1pane). yuec1aye1
saHe1nm kpen a c1opony aoenno-cnop1nano-na1pno1nueckoro aocnn1annn Honopexn,
kak 6yp1o e o1aopn1cn a 6ypyueH ponL ne xosnea occnn, a saun1nnkoa n
1enoxpann1ene npn neknx nnmx xosneaax. poponxan panra1Lcn no 1akoHy ny1n,
naunonan-na1pno1m pnckyk1 oc1a1Lcn 6es 6ypyuero.
ue a 1994 r. a nauyHeaue c1a1Le aunonan-kann1annsH, sa ko1opyk eapen
rposnnn Hne noamH kpn6eproH, n nncan o neao rpynne nonn1nkoa, ko1opme, na
cnoaax o1kpeunaancL o1 "peHokpa1nn", aosnarak1, opnako, napexpm na am6op napopa
n ero nonn1nueckyk ak1nanoc1L. ce onn penak1 c1aaky nHenno na qnsnueckyk
ak1nanoc1L napopnmx Hacc, na aennkne counanLnme no1pncennn, anno1L po noao
194
counannc1nuecko peaonkunn. ne anpn1, u1o nx apeHn 6esaosapa1no yuno. apop
6onee ne 1aopeu nc1opnn - a1a qynkunn nepeuna k nn1ennnrenunn n 6ypxya.
napopnmx Hacc ne1 nn 6mno cnnm, nn caHoo1aepxennoc1n, nn cnnouennoc1n, nn
coapeHenno rpaHo1noc1n - nnuero, kpoHe xenannn cnokono xn1L a o1nocn1enLnoH
poc1a1ke. nsnL nop1aeppnna npaao1y a1nx cnoa. a aoceHL ne1, npouepune 6es
peaonkunonnmx no1pncenn, necHo1pn na nopo neamnocnHme ycnoann xnsnn, Hm a
a1oH y6epnnncL.
eropnn Hnoroe nsHennnocL no cpaanennk c anoxo eaponecknx peaonkun aeka.
cnoano onopo nanne1cn yxe ne pa6oun knacc n 1eH 6onee ne 1pypoaoe
kpec1Lnnc1ao, n ne ace yrne1ennme n akcnnya1npyeHme, a 1ak nasmaaeHan
n n. o ec1L nn1ennnrenunn, npenHyuec1aenno
cansannan nponcxoxpenneH c npoc1mH napopoH (nkpLHn qnsnueckoro 1pypa) n
o6cnyxnaakuan aceo6une xn1eckne no1pe6noc1n acero nacenennn a uenoH:
yun1enn, nnxenepm (unpe: 1exnnueckne pa6o1nnkn, 1exnonorn), apaun,
apHnnnc1pa1opm nnsuero (pexe - cpepnero) saena, oqnuepm, nayunme kappm
neryHann1apnoro, a ocnoanoH, npoqnnn.
pnako a1nx nsHenenn, nyc1L n sakonoHepnmx, Hano pnn ycnexa. ockonLky
n n, o6cnyxnaakuan npenHyuec1aenno
cneunqnueckne pyxoanme no1pe6noc1n caHo nn1ennnrenunn, aoaneuena a pycckoe
panxenne m . 1nH ao HnoroH o6Lncnne1cn nensxn1an
HaprnnanLnoc1L 6onLunnc1aa rpynn , ero kpane nnskan nonn1nueckan
pec1aennoc1L, a 1akxe Haccoaoe yaneuenne ak1nanc1oa ynpouennmHn
naunonan-counannc1nuecknHn nopxopaHn a peuennn nonn1nuecknx n akonoHnuecknx
sapau. 1nH o6Lncnnk1cn n cna6me nosnunn a o6uec1aennoH Hnennn, cna6an
packpyuennoc1L a naunonan-na1pno1nueckoro 6penpa. ecHo1pn na Haccoam
c1peHn1enLnm poc1 pycckoro naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn, o1HeuaeHm a onpocax,
Hm anpnH noka eue 6onsnL annn1enLnmx nonn1nuecknx cnn noppepxa1L a1o
nepecnek1a6enLnoe, nenern1nHnoe nanpaanenne. asyc npnnoackoro - uy1a n
nepeaep1mua, neuapno akcnnya1npykuero pycckyk npek a nnunmx nn1epecax - 1ak n
oc1ae1cn kasycoH; oxo1nnkoa cnepoaa1L ero npnHepy cpepn nsaec1nmx n aHenneHmx
nonn1nkoa Hm ne anpnH. oneuno, paanenne cnnsy noc1enenno Henne1 cn1yaunk. (
noa1oHy ac1peaoxennan anac1L npnnnHae1 ppakonoackne sakonm n penae1 ace, u1o6m
ne ponyc1n1L caHooprannsaunn pyccknx.) o Hoxno y1aepxpa1L, u1o noka counanLnan
6asa ne nsHenn1cn ocnoaa1enLno, npo1nannkaH panxennn 6ype1 ne1pypno
ypepxa1L ero na nepnqepnn o6uec1aenno xnsnn occnn.
B nu n n HOQ? H , x
nx:
1. opno c1oponm, nn mn s, u
m s n, naunnan o1 cnoco6nmx
ukonLnnkoa n c1ypenuec1aa nyuunx aysoa n konuan nsaec1nmHn, an1pnnnmHn
pyccknHn npepc1aan1ennHn akonoHnueckoro n nonn1nueckoro nc1a6nnuHen1a,
ryHann1apno nn1ennnrenunn, pen1ennHn naykn n kynL1ypm.
2. ppyro c1oponm, u m s
ne 1onLko ae1epanoa n nnpepoa pycckoro panxennn, no n - npexpe acero! - m
u, npouepuyk xo1n 6m nauanLnyk naunonan-na1pno1nueckyk nopro1oaky.
nepye1 o6Lncnn1L , xs n 1.p., u1o on ponxen,
ne 1epnn uyac1aa co6c1aenno npaao1m n naunonanLno caHopoc1a1ounoc1n, cpena1L
ace, u1o6m a 6ypyueH sann1L koHanpnme amco1m a nan6onee aaxnmx, knkueamx
o6nac1nx pen1enLnoc1n (a qnnancoao, nnqopHaunonno, kpnpnuecko cqepax, a
ncnonnn1enLno n sakonopa1enLno anac1n, a nayke n kynL1ype, cnnoamx c1pyk1ypax
n 1.p.) - n 1eH caHmH n n un xn
195
. akcnHanLnyk noHouL a a1oH ponxna rapan1npoaa1L aunonanLno-
epxaanan nap1nn occnn.
1a sapaua cnoxna n o1uac1n npo1naopeunaa, nockonLky npeanm nonnpnmx
counanLnmx cnn, o ko1opmx kak pas n npe1 peuL, sauac1yk npo1naopeua1 ppyr ppyry.
pnako nc1nnnan cy1L naunonannsHa n coc1on1 kak pas a 1oH, u1o6m cnenn1L ns
pasnmx, a 1oH uncne an1aronnc1nuecknx, knaccoa - epnnyk naunk, cnannnyk o6unH
nn1epecoH.
aunn - a1o ne 1onLko nn1ennnrenunn n npepnpnnnHa1enn, no a1o n ne 1onLko
pa6oune, kpec1Lnne n o1c1aanme oqnuepm. Hn - s .
m ponxnm nayun1Lcn conpnra1L nn1epecm pyccknx nkpe, paxe ecnn onn o1nocn1cn k
pasnnunmH o6uec1aennmH nonkcaH. nc1opnn sanapnmx c1pan 1oHy ec1L aceH
nsaec1nme 6nec1nune npnHepm. ceropnn pnn peannsaunn a1o c1pa1ernn a occnn
cospen nc1opnueckn HoHen1: yHpn, no cpena.
kappoao c1pa1ernn neo6xopnHo, npexpe acero, xopouo
nonnHa1L, u1o co6o npepc1aanne1 counanLnm knacc nn1ennnrenunn, uero on xoue1, a
uero onacae1cn, na kakoH nsmke c nnH pasroaapnaa1L, kakne He1opm pa6o1m c nnH
aqqek1nanm, a kakne neponyc1nHm. uac1noc1n, cnepye1 cosnaaa1L cnepykuee.
a ropm, npouepune co apeHenn ennko k1n6pLcko peaonkunn, c nn1ennnrenune
a occnn nponsounn rpanpnosnme n neo6pa1nHme nsHenennn. s counanLno
pnacnopm, coc1aannkue nakanyne epao Hnpoao aonm acero nnuL 2,7%
nacenennn, ona npeapa1nnacL a orpoHnm knacc, coc1aannaun a 30% n
npoponxakun pac1n.
knacc , , u, u
, mn.
knacc, m , ,
m n, u
n.
nauenne noaoro knacca a o6uec1aenno xnsnn - . ayunme konuenunn a
1exnnke, 1exnonornn, cenLckoH xosnc1ae, nonn1nke nannk1cn ceropnn rnaanmH
nnc1pyHen1oH nsHenennn Hnpa. 1o1 nnc1pyHen1 - a pykax nn1ennnrenunn.
6uec1aennoe Hnenne, ak1nano qopHnpykuee xnsnL - 1oxe a pykax nn1ennnrenunn.
oc1a1ouno ckasa1L, u1o 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nueckan peaonkunn, npoaannauancn a
occnn a nauane aeka n coc1onauancn na naunx rnasax nop anpoH "nepec1pokn" n
nocnepykunx co6m1n, - ec1L a onpepennkue c1enenn peno pyk nn1ennnrenunn,
pesynL1a1 peannsaunn ee knaccoamx napexp, nnc1nnk1oa n c1peHnenn. 1o 6mna a
npnHoH cHmcne cnoaa nepaan a Hnpe nn1ennnren1ckan peaonkunn, peaanu
nn1ennnrenunn sa nopaxenne a peaonkunn n rpaxpancko aone 1917-1921 rr. akoe
c1ano aosHoxnmH 1onLko a naun pnn, c amueonncannmH papnkanLnmH nsHenenneH
counanLnoro coc1aaa o6uec1aa. 1991-1993 rr. n
u , nu,
, n , . 1o ne6maanoe,
necnmxannoe a Hnpe co6m1ne: nn1ennnren1ckan peaonkunn, ampaaauan c1pany ns
ppnxnekuero rocnap1qeopannsHa n nepe6pocnauan ee a kann1annsH. occnn anoaL
pana Hnpy ypnan1enLnm npnHep noaoro cnoco6a peuennn rno6anLnmx sapau,
nokasana, m m n.
ne 6mno nn knacca 6ypxyasnn, kpoano sann1epecoaannoro a kpyuennn
qeopannsHa (a naueH cnyuae - counan-qeopannsHa), nn 1ak nasmaaeHoro
1pe1Lero cocnoann, 1papnunonnoro nnpepa 6ypxyasno-peHokpa1nuecknx
196
npeo6pasoaann. onL nocnepnero asnna na ce6n nHenno nn1ennnrenunn, anepame a
nc1opnn ouy1nauan ce6n ne 1onLko HosroH n ne npoc1o nnc1pyHen1oH peaonkunn, a
opnoapeHenno 1eH n ppyrnH. opasn1enLno, no aceanac1nan n acenponnkakuan ,
pacnonaraauan ace nonno1o orpoHno Houn acex coae1cknx pener, apHnn, n
, okasanacL 6eccnnLna nepep o6uec1aennmH HnenneH n cnno noamx npe. (o n
ppyroe - pe1nue nHenno nn1ennnrenunn.)
H nepeuenL npo6neH, ko1opme eue nepaano o6peHennnn coae1ckyk
nn1ennnrenunk, ao HnoroH o6Lncnne1, noueHy ona c 1ako nenpnHnpnHoc1Lk
na6pocnnacL na koHHynnc1oa, noueHy npnnnna 1akoe ak1nanoe yuac1ne a cHene c1pon
n anac1n. , coae1ckoe npaan1enLc1ao (c mxkoamH ao rnaae) naunc1o ynyc1nnn
ns anpy nponsouepune a o6uec1ae nepeHenm, ne cyHenn pa1L nH aepnyk ouenky,
cnpornosnpoaa1L nx nocnepc1ann. nn ne yHenn n ne xo1enn nonnHa1L
nn1ennnrenunk, a1o aecLHa nenpoc1oe counanLno-nc1opnueckoe nanenne, onn ne
cpenann aoapeHn na a1o1 knacc ack c1aaky. H ne xo1enocL anpe1L aokpyr nnkaknx
counanLnmx konqnnk1oa, nnkaknx knaccoamx npo1naopeun, nnkaknx naunonanLnmx
npo1naopeun. a a1y cneno1y onn n nonna1nnncL, npenopaa ypok coapeHennmH
nonn1nkaH.
anoHnk, u1o u XX . e
nocn1enL n cospa1enL - nn1ennnrenunn. o ee co6c1aennnkoH a 6mno
rocypapc1ao (un1a: ), onnpaaueecn na c1po, ko1opm nyuue acero
oxapak1epnsoaa1L kak counan-qeopannsH. n1ennnrenunn npn a1oH c1poe ne anapena
nponsaepennmH ek npopyk1oH. ro sa6npana nap1nn aecL 6es oc1a1ka, ack
npn6aaounyk c1onHoc1L aoo6ue, a no1oH nna1nna nn1ennnren1aH sapnna1y napaane
c aopn1ennHn rpysoankoa n aa1o6ycoa, a 1o n HenLuyk. cno, u1o nn1ennnrenunn
(1pe1L nacenennn c1panm - nan6onee o6pasoaannan n ak1nanan!) a uenoH 6mna
nac1poena npo1na anac1n nap1nn, npo1na rocypapc1aa pa6ounx n kpec1Lnn, a
ko1opoH ona 1pe1npoaanacL kak nekan neapasyHn1enLnan npocnoka, kak neu1o
counanLno 1pe1Lecop1noe.
mnn, pasyHee1cn, n nnme Ho1nam npo1naoc1onnnn nn1ennnrenunn c koHHynnc1aHn,
pyxoanoro nopnpka.
eropnn, coc1aannn a occnn ne Henee ue1aep1n sann1oro nacenennn, nn1ennnrenunn
nanne1cn rnaanmH rapan1oH neo6pa1nHoc1n nepeHen. okasa1enLno, u1o no nopcue1aH
counonoroa a 1996 ropy sa kranoaa, 1o ec1L sa ckpoHnme, no c1a6nnLnme
counanLnme rapan1nn, nporonocoaana nnuL opna 1pe1L nn1ennnrenunn, a pae 1pe1n -
sa nLunna n annnckoro, 1o ec1L sa kann1annsH n npo1na aosapa1a k counan-
qeopannsHy, papykueHy amueykasannme rapan1nn.
oueHy? 1o, nn1ennnrenunn 6mn 1ak yx Hnn nap1nnm nc1ykan - nLunn? nn
eapeckan kaHapnnLn, 1onnnuancn aokpyr nero? e1, peno 1y1 a ppyroH.
-peHokpa1nueckan peaonkunn 1991-1993 rr. ao HnoroH onpaapana
napexpm caoe rnaano panxyue cnnm - nn1ennnrenunn.
Henno nn1ennnrenunn ocyuec1anna neHmcnnHm, neaosHoxnm eue nepaano asne1 k
amco1aH rocypapc1aennoro ynpaanennn. cnn yuec1L, u1o npn op6aueae na
cypL6onocno XIX konqepenunn npepc1aan1enn naykn, npocaeuennn n
kynL1ypm coc1aannn Henee 9%, ecnn na Lespe napopnmx peny1a1oa nx c1ano acero
nnuL 27,4%, 1o ceropnn a ocypapc1aenno yHe npepc1aan1ene pa6ounx n kpec1Lnn
npak1nueckn ne1 aoo6ue, a ace peny1a1m - nHenno npepc1aan1enn nn1ennnrenunn.
onoccanLno ampocna ponL akcnep1oa npn acex ae1anx anac1n. es nnx ne
npnnnHae1cn nn opno peuenne.
197
Henno nn1ennnrenunn, nonyuna aosHoxnoc1L neranLno sann1Lcn uac1nmH apaue6nmH,
neparornuecknH, nayunmH, nspa1enLcknH, kpnpnuecknH n ppyrnH 6nsnecoH,
noc1aanne1 ceropnn kappm 6ypxyasnn, oco6enno kpynno n cpepne, cansana c nek
1mcnuLk nn1e popc1aennmx, ppyxecknx, penoamx, nonn1nuecknx o1nouenn.
Henno nn1ennnrenunn po6nnacL peHokpa1nuecknx cao6op - cnoaa, neua1n, co6pann,
coaec1n, coksoa, nap1nno pen1enLnoc1n n 1.p., a 1akxe cao6opm o6pasoaannn (ne
c1ano pasnapnpok pnn a6n1ypnen1oa aysoa, korpa snaun1enLnme kao1m ampennnncL
pa6ounH, kpec1LnnaH, peH6nnnH n nnopopuaH). 1oukn spennn nkpe qnsnueckoro
1pypa nnn 6nnsknx k nnH no knaccoaoHy Hmunennk, ace a1n cao6opm ne c1on1 nnuero
nnn c1on1 ouenL Hano no cpaanennk c 6onee nacyunmHn 1pe6oaannnHn: c1anpap1oH
xnsneo6ecneuennn, npo6neHaHn 1pypoyc1poc1aa n 1.n. oa1oHy nn1ennnren1 -
1papnunonnm o6Lek1 kpn1nkn 6ecuncnennmx napopnmx sac1ynnnkoa,
npoqeccnonanLno na1paannaakunx opny uac1L pycckoro napopa na ppyryk.
nekcanpp apkauoa, nanpnHep, 1ak npnHo n nncan a s6yke pycckoro
naunonannc1a: nn1ennnrenunn - apar. ne on opnn. pnako cnepye1 sna1L n
nonnHa1L, u1o nasaannme cao6opm - ne npnxo1L amcokono6oro 6enopyukn,
6ecnuerocn c xnpy, a nacyunan, xnsnennan no1pe6noc1L nn1ennnren1a, rnaanoe
ycnoane ero nonnouennoro pa n npoc1o nopHanLnoro cyuec1aoaannn. es nnx on, kak
pm6a 6es aopm. 1cy1c1ane nasaannmx cao6op aa1oHa1nueckn npeapauae1
nn1ennnren1a a onnosnunk pexnHy, a nx nannune sac1aanne1 Hnpn1Lcn c pexnHoH,
paxe cosnaaan ace ero nepoc1a1kn. 1o Hm n anpnH a coapeHenno poccncko
pec1an1enLnoc1n (nLunn snan n yun1maan a1y oco6ennoc1L). e nyxno a1oHy
ypnann1Lcn, ne napo a1nH aosHyua1Lcn, no napo a1o noc1nuL kak qenoHen n yuec1L na
6ypyuee.
Henno nn1ennnrenunn, pecn1nne1nnHn a6npaauan a ce6n nyuune cnnm napopa,
nanne1cn ceropnn rnaanmH uenoaeuecknH pecypcoH - nan6onee 1aopuecknH,
aneprnunmH, o6pasoaannmH, nepepoamH, npopyk1nanmH, pnnaHnuno pasanaakunHcn -
pnn amxopa c1panm ns kpnsnca.
, ecnn nn1ennnrenunn acero po6nnacL, ecnn e 1ak xopouo npn nmneuneH
pexnHe, ecnn y nee c1onL papyxnme nepcnek1nam, 1o kak xe ona Hoxe1 6m1L
o6Lek1oH naunonan-na1pno1nuecko nponaranpm, arn1aunn n aep6oakn? epL
pycckn-1o naunonan-na1pno1nsH ceropnn no onpepenennk onnosnunonen?
o peno a 1oH, u1o, -x, nn1ennnrenunn no onpepenennk nyuue ppyrnx anpn1
necoaepuenc1aa n npo1naopeunn pec1an1enLnoc1n. uac1noc1n, 1enepL, nocne acex
amuenasaannmx saHeua1enLnmx caepuenn, na nepepnn nnan amuen
: mu . eH 6onee, u1o a xope
nepec1pokn okasanncL nonnoc1Lk nnn uac1nuno paspyuenm n no1epnnn nepcnek1nay
uenme o6nac1n 1papnunonnoro npnnoxennn cnn nHenno nn1ennnrenunn - nayuno,
nnxenepno-1exnnuecko, aoenno n pp. aepL nHenno a1a nn1ennnrenunn paano n ao
HnoroH sacnyxenno cun1anacL neqopHanLno ann1o c1panm. oa1oHy ceropnn ona -
ec1ec1aennm pesepa onnosnunn; Hapun yuenmx na ockay - npkoe 1oHy
nop1aepxpenne. op aospec1aneH nasaannoro qak1opa co6c1aennme npo6neHm
nn1ennnrenunn naunnak1 coepnnn1Lcn a ee cosnannn c o6uenapopnmHn,
o6uepoccncknHn. ccnepyn npnunnm paspyun1enLnmx npeo6pasoaann,
nn1ennnrenunn, ao acnkoH cnyuae, pycckan, naunnae1 nponnka1Lcn cnpaaepnnaoc1Lk
Hnornx noc1yna1oa naunonan-na1pno1nsHa. yac1ao naunonanLno roppoc1n,
na1pno1nsH, o1opanny1me na kakoe-1o apeHn a c1opony ns-sa knaccoao-aronc1nuecknx
no6yxpenn, anoaL amxopn1 na nepam nnan. na1pno1nsH, kak Hm snaeH, ec1L nnuL
nepexopnan qasa k naunonannsHy.
B-x, aHec1e co aceHn ppyrnHn cnonHn nacenennn, nn1ennnrenunn nepaoro
nopnpka a uenoH npnpaanena ceuac o6unHn 1pypnoc1nHn, nopoxpennmHn kpnsncoH
rocypapc1aennoc1n n sacnnneH nnopopuea a nonn1nke n akonoHnke. uac1noc1n,
198
paspyuenneH roccek1opa akonoHnkn (a1o 6onLno ypapnno no nn1ennnrenunn,
naxopnuecn na 6kpxe1e, a 1oH uncne no HnorouncnennmH nn1ennnren1aH-
nencnonepaH) n - kak cnepc1ane - nanoroamH 6peHeneH (a1o kocnynocL
nn1ennnrenunn, cansanno c uac1nmH cek1opoH). ocypapc1ao ne Hoxe1
copepxa1L nn1ennnrenunk, a uac1nm kann1an ne Hoxe1 pena1L a1oro a
Hacu1a6ax, conoc1aanHmx c coae1cknH nepnopoH. akoe nonoxenne nac1panaae1
snaun1enLnyk uac1L nn1ennnrenunn onnosnunonno: e npnxopn1cn o16pocn1L
yskococnoanm asrnnp n nopnn1Lcn po naunonanLnoro asrnnpa na aeun, nponnkny1Lcn
o1ae1c1aennoc1Lk sa cypL6y c1panm n napopa.
B-ux (n a-rnaanmx), nepec1poka n enLunnckn pexnH nopopnn o1kpm1oe
npo1naoc1onnne ann1 no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky (o6 a1oH eue a 2000 r. o1kpoaenno
nncan 1ako anpnm peHokpa1nueckn o6uec1aoaep n ny6nnunc1, kak nekcanpp
nnko). apeckoe sacnnLe a nayke, kynL1ype, , akonoHnke n nonn1nke sa
nocnepnne pecn1L ne1 nponannocL nac1onLko oueanpno n a 1aknx o1apa1n1enLno
uoannnc1nuecknx qopHax (aenuoH uero 6mno npaspnoaanne xanykn a canuennmx pnn
kaxporo pycckoro c1enax peHnn, pasrpa6nenne npnpopnmx pecypcoa n
counannc1nuecko co6c1aennoc1n occnn, a 1akxe pen1enLnoc1L eapecknx
1enekananoa), u1o a pyccknx nn1ennnren1ax aone-neaone npo6ypnnncL nnc1nnk1m n
npen, aecLHa panekne o1 xpnc1nanckoro nnn coae1ckoro nn1epnaunonannsHa. pecL
nponannacL cnoxnan, no sakonoHepnan pnanek1nka counanLnoro n naunonanLnoro.
ounanLnan connpapnoc1L (nn1ennnren1ckn nn1epnaunonan) neyknonno
am1ecnne1cn connpapnoc1Lk naunonanLno, npn ko1opo, kak roaopnn knaccnk
neHeukoro napopa, kaxpm neHeu ponxen. aocnpnnnHa1L kak neu1o caHo co6o
pasyHekueecn, u1o kako-nn6ypL coaceH knm nopHac1epLe n pacnocnepnn noHoao
nsaosunk, ecnn onn npnnapnexa1 k ero naunn, 6nnxe eHy, ueH caHm snaHenn1m
anrnnckn nopp.
aepen, u1o pycckan nn1ennnren1ckan nnaa paano yxe ro1oaa k 1oHy, u1o6m ee
nn1ennnren1no (!) sacennn ceHenaHn naunonan-na1pno1nsHa. 1paua 6ype1 npoc1o
no1pncakue. apo ckasa1L npnHo: 1e nonn1nkn, ko1opme cyHek1 ouenn1L snauenne
nn1ennnrenunn, cyHek1 npepnoxn1L npneHneHyk pnn nn1ennnrenunn nporpaHHy,
cyHek1 npnaneuL, pacnponaranpnpoaa1L ee, - 1e 6ypy1 na kone. 1e, u1o ne cyHek1, -
6ypy1 na pne. ak 6ype1 o1nmne n naacerpa.
Hn - u , -. H
un , m u , un.
epaoc1enennan sapaua kappoao nonn1nkn - oanape1L no1enunanoH ace
pyccko nn1ennnrenunn n nanpaan1L ero aneprnk na nsHenenne pexnHa n
c1pon1enLc1ao pycckoro naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa.
, y un1a1enn ne ponxno cospa1Lcn aneua1nenne, 6yp1o nnn ero
6asoame c1pyk1ypm n nap1nn ponxnm coc1on1L nnuL ns c1ypen1oa n nn1ennnren1oa, a
npoune uac1n pycckoro napopa - pa6ounx, kpec1Lnn n 1.p., aknkuan paxe (noueHy 6m
n ne1!) peknaccnpoaannm aneHen1 - napo nrnopnpoaa1L kak neu1o necyuec1aennoe.
oneuno, a1o ne 1ak. ounan nayuno-counonornueckan ouenka coapeHenno cn1yaunn
(cH. amue) nnckonLko ne npo1naopeun1 noncky onopm ao acex cnonx nacenennn, ao-
nepamx. ao-a1opmx, nosynr naunonannc1oa - , -
o6pauen ko aceH. n o6euae1 noppepxky aceH n kaxpoHy pycckoHy uenoaeky, kako
6m knacc on nn npepc1aannn, no n 1pe6ye1 o1 kaxporo pycckoro - nonnouenno
o1paun.
caoe apeHn . onanp, nsaec1nm nc1opnk epHannn aeka, nncan, u1o neHeukoe
naunonanLnoe panxenne 1920-x rr. nMn c cn rk
nkn cM n - nnkyn, yn y, nM,
qk, nc, n c, cn
199
ck. r mn rn n n, cn
yxk, nk, y cy, cn
cnk..
yHae1cn, u1o pnn nk6o nap1nn, o1c1anaakue nn1epecm 1o nnn nno naunn,
nopo6nan HopenL noaepennn - 6mna 6m nan6onee aepno, a nopo6nan ouenka -
nan6onee xenanno.
200
B HUEHHH YK
HHHRBH-BQHERBH QHXEHHR
K HHRM H QHXEHHRM HH
nonn1nuecknx nap1n n panxenn a noc1nepec1poeuno occnn poc1a1ouno
o6unpen, xo1n noc1enenno cyxae1cn 6naropapn noaoHy akony nonn1nuecknx
nap1nnx. a nocnepnne 10 ne1 onpepennnncL ace ocnoanme nna1qopHm, na ko1opmx
aosaopn1cn nap1nnme napc1pokn, a nonn1nueckn ak1nanoe HenLunnc1ao, paano kak
n aecL anek1opa1, a ocnoanoH yxe nopenenm Hexpy ocnoanmHn nonn1nuecknHn u1a6-
kaap1npaHn. pnako nepepen a a1oH o1nouennn ne 1onLko acerpa aosHoxen, no n
noc1onnno nponcxopn1.
uac1noc1n, anac1L ycnnenno qopHnpye1 nonn1nueckoe npoc1panc1ao a ypo6noH pnn
nee anpe: n s u um (neame - npaame
- uen1p) m n um (ynoHnny1m
sakon paxe npnHo sanpeuae1 nap1nnoe c1pon1enLc1ao no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky -
c1.9.) Hmcn a1oro nonn1en: pacc1aana nec1paunmx yxe, ynpaanneHmx conepnnkoa -
cnc1eHnyk onnosnunk - no qnanraH, anac1L xoue1 a6conk1nsnpoaa1Lcn, coxpanna
kon1ponL nap uen1pnc1cknH 6onLunnc1aoH, napee1cn 6eckoneuno nrpa1L na 6anance
cnn n nn1epecoa.
o a pec1an1enLnoc1n ncknkun1L naunonanLnyk, a 1akxe pacoayk, pennrnosnyk n
npoqeccnonanLnyk coc1aannkuyk ns neranLno nonn1nuecko 6opL6m neaosHoxno.
coapeHennmx poccncknx nonn1nuecknx 1euennnx npncy1c1ayk1, napnpy c
counanLnmH, 1akxe n pennrnosnm, n naunonanLnm qak1opm. ano nnn nospno,
ckonuen1pnpoaaauncL a npeapauennoH anpe a 1ex nnn nnmx nap1nnx, a1n qak1opm
cqopHnpyk1 anecnc1eHnyk onnosnunk n asopay1 ack nonn1nueckyk cn1yaunk,
onpoknnya pacue1m peHnn. 1aknH nap1nnH, na Ho asrnnp, o1nocn1cn
aunonanLno-epxaanan nap1nn occnn (), nan6onee nonno ampaxakuan uenn
n sapaun .
cnko anoaL cospakuecn nap1nn cnepye1 a nepayk ouepepL onpepenn1Lcn no
o1nouennk k yxe cyuec1aykunH, u1o6m nonn1L caHo n o6Lncnn1L okpyxakunH, ueH
ona o1nnuae1cn o1 npounx n noueHy nkpnH cnepye1 a nee ac1yna1L n sa nee
ronocoaa1L. ocne uero yxe Hoxno ac1yna1L a 6opL6y sa ynoHnny1m amue nepepen
anek1opa1a.
eropnn Hm anpnH neckonLko kpynnmx nonn1nuecknx nap1n, c ko1opmHn npepc1on1
amc1pon1L 1ouno amaepennme o1nouennn. pepn nnx ampennk1cn, npexpe acero,
konnern - nap1nn na1pno1nueckoro n naunonan-na1pno1nueckoro 1onka, sa1eH
koHHynnc1m, sa1eH o6opo1nn - nap1nn nceapo-naunonannc1nueckoro 1onka, sa1eH -
an1nnaunonanLnme n an1nrocypapc1aennme nap1nn n, nakoneu, nap1nn anac1n.
KRREH
o1nocn1cn poaonLno Hnorouncnennme 6onee nnn Henee nsaec1nme (n paxe
aoace nensaec1nme) o6Lepnnennn, kak pec1aykune, 1ak n cnnune,
sakoncepanpoaannme: o6uepoccnckoe o6uec1aenno-nonn1nueckoe panxenne
201
"apopno-na1pno1nueckn coks Honopexn", o6uepoccnckan nonn1nueckan
o6uec1aennan oprannsaunn "ycckan counannc1nueckan nap1nn", o6uepoccnckoe
nonn1nueckoe o6uec1aennoe panxenne "mnm occnn", aunonan-6onLueanc1ckan
nap1nn, ap1nn ao6opm, aunonanLno-1pypoaan nap1nn, ap1nn ycckoro co6opa,
ycckan nap1nn naunonanLnoro aospoxpennn, poccnckan nap1nn "ycckn c1nnL" n
pnp ppyrnx. nn ne penak1 noropy na nonn1nueckoH ropnson1e n apnp nn npopy1
korpa-nn6o uepes rocypapc1aennyk pernc1paunk.
eo6xopnHo nanoHnn1L 1akxe, u1o neko1opme aecLHa saHe1nme pycckne o6Lepnnennn,
1akne kak aHn1L (Q. , n), ycckn co6op (.
r), onrpecc pyccknx o6unn (Q. r), ycckoe naunonanLnoe epnnc1ao
(. Bm), y1pa1nnn 6mnoe annnnne, 6mnme aosHoxnoc1n nnn nepec1ann
cyuec1aoaa1L no 1eH nnn nnmH npnunnaH. oa1oHy Hm ncknkunnn nx ns o6sopa.
xopouo ocaepoHnena o nponcxopnaunx c a1nHn o6LepnnennnHn nepeHenax n aepe1
ak1nanyk 6opL6y (ne 6es ycnexa) sa npnaneuenne a caon pnpm coc1onaunx a nnx
spopoamx cnn. akoa npnnunn n ocnoanan oco6ennoc1L naue nap1nn: Hm pepxnH
unpoko o1kpm1ok paepL a pnn acex ak1nanc1oa pycckoro panxennn, k1o ocosnan
neo6xopnHoc1L epnnennn, n rapan1npyeH kaxpoHy poc1onoe ero cnoco6noc1e n
aosHoxnoc1e Hec1o a o6ueH c1pok.
1ak, oc1anoanH caoe annHanne na nan6onee kpynnmx n ak1nanmx pec1aykunx na
naunonanLno-na1pno1nueckoH none nap1nnx, nesaancnHo o1 nx nepcnek1nam na
pernc1paunk. 1akoamH ceropnn o1nocn1cn: ap1nn naunonanLnoro aospoxpennn
apopnan aonn (npepcepa1enL .. a6ypnn), ycckan nap1nn (npepcepa1enL ..
nnoceppoa) n o6paHnnkuan ee pe-kpe (n py6nnpykuan pe-qak1o) apopno-
na1pno1nueckan nap1nn occnn (npepcepa1enL .. opnonoa), ycckn
o6uenaunonanLnm coks (, npepcepa1enL .. p1eHoa). pn nepame
npepc1aannk1 co6o o6noanennme aapnan1m yueneaunx nocne am6opoa 1999 r.
c1pyk1yp, ue1aep1an - nonm1ky noaoro nap1c1pon1enLc1aa.
eope1nueckn ace a1n nap1nn Hornn 6m c1a1L coksnnkaHn, n nepep aceHn nnHn c1on1
nepcnek1naa o6Lepnnennn. pnako ceropnn o1nouennn Hexpy nnHn ckopee
nanoHnnak1 oc1opoxnoe (a 1o n ne ouenL) conepnnuec1ao, ueH coksnnuec1ao. cansn
c 1eH, u1o naunonan-na1pno1nueckn ak1na occnn n coo1ae1c1aykun anek1opa1 ne
cnnukoH aennk, 6onesnL aoxpnsHa sauna a naueH panxennn nac1onLko paneko, u1o
cknonnoc1L k o6Lepnnennk, kak npaanno, amkasmaak1 nnuL 1e nnpepm, ko1opme no
kaknH-1o npnunnaH okonua1enLno no1epnnn napexpy na epnnonnunoe npaanenne a
nonnouenno nap1nn. po 1ex nop, noka nopo6nan napexpa xnaa, onn pec1ayk1
cornacno nepaoHy sakony ann1: nyuue 6m1L nepamH a npoannunn, ueH a1opmH a
nHe. oa1oHy, necHo1pn na 1o, u1o nHenno aoxpnsH nory6nn pycckoe panxenne 1990-
x ropoa, onn npepnoun1ak1 6m1L nonnoanac1nmHn nnpepaHn a HanenLko nap1nn,
nexenn conpepcepa1ennHn - a 6onLuo (ueH npoponxak1 c ycnexoH ry6n1L pycckn
naunonan-na1pno1nsH). pnnc1aennoe ncknkuenne - aunonanLno-epxaanan nap1nn
occnn (, conpepcepa1enn .. eaac1Lnnoa n .. epexoa, na nauanLnoH a1ane
eue n .. nponoa, anocnepc1ann y1pa1naun poaepne 6onLunnc1aa), nnpepm
ko1opo cosna1enLno o1kasanncL o1 npe1ensn na epnnoanac1ne papn npeyHnoxennn
aosHoxnoc1e nap1nn n pycckoro panxennn a uenoH, n cnncok pykoaopn1ene ko1opo
o1kpm1.
apexpa na koneunoe o6Lepnnenne ecnn ne acex, 1o 6onLue uac1n nasaannmx
nap1n a opny cansana c akonoH nonn1nuecknx nap1nnx, noc1aanaunH amcokne
nnankn pnn pernc1paunn nap1nn, n c panLneue pen1enLnoc1Lk anac1n no
saunc1ke nonn1nueckoro nonn.
xapak1epnsyeH nasaannme amue c1pyk1ypm c 1oukn spennn nx nepcnek1na.
202
1) m (H).
ospan a 1993 ropy; a non6pe 2001 npeo6pasoaan a nap1nk. Hek1cn neua1nme
nspannn a pernonax. pepcepa1enL oae1a - kanpnpa1 nc1opnuecknx nayk,
okonunaun ynnaepcn1e1 a uxa6ape, 40-ne1nn Hr v .
ueH cy1L npeonornn a? akyk nporpaHHy pec1an npnpe1cn npnnn1L 1oHy, k1o
nope1 nop snaHena a1o npopanny1o oprannsaunn?
cnoanan npen a - aospoxpenne occncko nHnepnn a none npaaocnaanoro
xpnc1nanc1aa. nporpaHHnmx nonoxennnx a1o sayun1 kak pyxoanoe n nonn1nueckoe
o6Lepnnenne pycckoro n coksnmx c nnH napopoa; pyxoanoe, kynL1ypnoe n
xosnc1aennoe aospoxpenne nc1opnuecko occnn; aocc1anoanenne Horyuec1aa
oc1ouno-npaaocnaano unannnsaunn; ocnoao aospoxpennn 1euec1aa nanne1cn
aouepkoanenne pycckoro napopa n aospoxpenne yccko seHnn. opo6nm asrnnp,
norpyxennm a npounoe kak a nekn npean, 1papnunonen aoo6ue pnn nc1opnka, k
1oHy xe ampocuero a HycynLHanckoH okpyxennn, no ne cnnukoH npopyk1naen pnn
pycckoro nonn1nka, konc1pynpykuero 6ypyuee caoe naunn. apak1epno
nponc1ekakuee ns npen npaaocnaano nHnepnn n
u (ycL -
npaaocnaanan unannnsaunn, opnn ns aepyunx Hnpoamx a1nokynL1ypnmx uen1poa;
occnn - pycckoe HnoronaunonanLnoe rocypapc1ao).
cnoanoe poc1nxenne a sa pecn1L ne1 - nakonnenne onm1a am6opno 6opL6m;
ero c1pyk1ypm yuac1aoaann a ns6npa1enLnmx kaHnannnx pasnmx ypoane a
neckonLknx npoannunanLnmx o6nac1nx. o pasae a1oro poc1a1ouno pnn 1oro, u1o6m
cyuec1aoaa1L a pexnHe aa1onoHnoro nnaaannn? pnp nn.
nnkc1 o1kasancn sapernc1pnpoaa1L ns-sa cnoaa pycckn a nasaannn (cH.
c1.9 sakona nonn1nuecknx nap1nnx; ceuac nm1ae1cn ocnopn1L a1y c1a1Lk a
onc1n1yunonnoH cype, ueHy Hm ace ropnuo couyac1ayeH). a am6opax 2003 ropa
6mn amnyxpen cpena1L c1aaky na opnoHanpa1nnkoa, no nonec cyuec1aennme
no1epn, ne cyHea ypepxa1L peny1a1ckne Hanpa1m, ko1opme nHen a sakco6pannnx pnpa
o6nac1nmx ropopoa.
ocne neypaun c pernc1paune, amc1ynnn c npnsmaoH k o6Lepnnennk pyccknx
cnn, a a nnaape 2004 ropa npnnnn, a nnue caoero npepcepa1enn, yuac1ne a
yupepn1enLno konqepenunn ycckoro naunonanLnoro panxennn. oxno napen1Lcn,
u1o a1o1 xec1 po6po aonn ne 6mn nn cnyuanmH, nn nokasnmH, n nac xpe1
nepcnek1naa nnopo1aopnoro co1pypnnuec1aa, a a npeane - n o6Lepnnennn.
2) H Hr x H .
1y nap1nk coc1aannn, a ocnoanoH, occnckn o6uenapopnm coks (.H. B)
n oks peannc1oa (H.B. X). Henno onn pann ocnoanoe nanonnenne nap1nn
konkpe1nmHn nkpLHn n Ha1epnanLnmHn pecypcaHn. nasaannmH payH oprannsaunnH
npnHknynn oc1a1kn naca (.H. Q) n ycckoe ospoxpenne (ockonok
Hockoackoro , rpe nepayk ckpnnky nrpak1 K.. n M.H. B). ae
nocnepnne oprannsaunn, anpoueH, 6onLunHn peanLnmHn aosHoxnoc1nHn ceropnn ne
o6napak1 (ycckoe ospoxpenne cHorno o6ecneun1L yuac1ne nnuL opnoro pernona
a nap1nc1pon1enLc1ae) n nop1nnynncL k konrnoHepa1y, kak xenesnme onnnkn k
Harnn1y. eua1nm opran - rase1a peHn.
203
oaopoxpennan nap1nn, na Ho asrnnp, cpasy xe coaepunna pae kann1anLnme
nonn1nueckne oun6kn:
1) n, ue1ko accounnpykuerocn c napopoaonLuaHn, na uLe coaec1n -
kpoaL ampakunxcn pyccknx pen1ene n nesaHonnHm rpex uapey6nc1aa, c 1o caHo
nap1ne apopno aonn, u1o nenocpepc1aenno nopopnna ns caoe cpepm eapeckn
peaonkunonnm 1eppop (c1aa npn1oH ero nnc1pyHen1oH), a anocnepc1ann -
6onLueansH. nnukoH naHn1no aceH, u1o uapn, ocao6opnauero pyccknx kpec1Lnn o1
kpenoc1noro pa6c1aa, y6nnn nHenno napopoaonLum n u1o a1o1 saroaop coc1aannn
nenocpepc1aenno onLpen6epr, ynpeneanu, o6mnnnckn, an1koackn n nxanoa
(paa eapen, paa nonnka n opnn pycckn npepa1enL). nc1opnn nopro1oakn a1oro
kpoaaaoro npec1ynnennn nec1pn1 nHenaHn 1aknx 1eppopnc1oa, kak a1ancon, eu,
onapanLckn, snk, ponunk, n1ekHan, eaenL, o1nnckn, yx, ono1keanu,
enLqHan, kc1nr, pnpencon, ykepHan, y6knn, ap1Han n np.;
2) - r Hv B, a yHe,
nopnpounoc1n n ppyrnx npekpacnmx uenoaeuecknx kauec1aax ko1oporo nnk1o po
nepaanero apeHenn ne coHneaancn. o, -x, a cosnannn Hacc on -
o1mrpannan kap1a, o ueH npko canpe1enLc1aye1 nens6panne ero a yHy no popnoHy
HckoHy okpyry, nenpnrnauenne ero a oprkoHn1e1 n 1.n. e1mpe ropa npo6ma
anue-cnnkepoH - 6onLuan anac1L, orpoHnme aosHoxnoc1n! - on ne cpenan nnuero,
poc1onoro a1o anac1n, a1nx aosHoxnoc1e. rpa1L caHoc1on1enLnyk ponL a
poccncko nonn1nke, no Hnennk 6onLunnc1aa na6nkpa1ene n akcnep1oa, a1oHy
nonn1nueckoHy ponroxn1enk yxe nnkorpa ne ypac1cn. B-x, kak n nncan
neopnokpa1no, napop yxe paano 1ounn1 o1 xponnuecko 6onesnn aoxpnsHa,
nopasnaue pycckoe panxenne. apyuna nepaonauanLnme poroaopennoc1n,
npepycHa1pnaaaune nnc1n1y1 conpepcepa1enLc1aa, a6ypnn cpenan pokoao uar,
c1ynna a nopounm kpyr, n ynyc1nn saHeua1enLnm uanc ns a1oro kpyra am1n. 1o
xyxe, ueH npec1ynnenne, a1o - oun6ka, kak roaopnn a 1aknx cnyuanx anepan. B-
ux, a nocnepnee apeHn peny1aunn a6ypnna c1ana Henn1Lcn.
enLsn ne npnsna1L, u1o a6ypnn - nsaec1nan, packpyuennan qnrypa, ne
amsmaakuan nn an1nna1nn, nn 1peaorn nn a pycckoH panxennn, nn a peHne.
pyxeckne o1nouennn c epHanoH peqoH, nekorpa nonyunaunH o1 a6ypnna
nanpaanenne a acnnpan1ypy n ne sa6maunH po6pa, nHek1 specL nepaoc1enennoe
snauenne. naropapn amcokoHy nokpoan1enk ypanocL ne 1onLko 6es npo6neH
sapernc1pnpoaa1L nap1nk (pnn cpaanennn: a pernonanLnmx ynpaanennnx kc1nunn
apopno aone 6mno amneceno acero paa o1kasa a pernc1paunn, a 1o apeHn kak
- 1pnpua1L nn1L!). ocnepykuee y1aepxpenne a6ypnna na noc1y pek1opa
anoaL cospannoro oproao-akonoHnueckoro ynnaepcn1e1a - 1akxe pesynL1a1
npo1ekunn peqa. ak n axoxpenne a 6nok opnna, npnnecuee peny1a1ckne
Hanpa1m a6ypnny n neko1opmH ero cnopanxnnkaH.
nonne nonn1no, u1o m x x nnn
mn nuu Km, o1kas o1 Haneue onnosnunonnoc1n,
nonneuan nokopnoc1L n nocnyunoc1L, n aoo6ue 1mcnuenpouen1nan
nonn1koppek1noc1L (1.e. paynnune), oco6enno a naunonanLnoH aonpoce.
onn1no 1akxe, u1o a cnny nasaannmx npnunn npepc1aan1enLc1ao a ocpyHe panocL
apopno aone ne 6es no1epL. onn1nueckne ckanpanm caHoro pypnoro 1ona opnn
sa ppyrnH conpoaoxpak1 aecL ee ny1L.
eno a 1oH, u1o na nauanLnoH a1ane nap1c1pon1enLc1aa 6mna o1Heuena nonm1ka
npnpa1L nap1nn naunonannc1nueckn okpac, nop1nny1L k ne neko1opm cek1op .
nHnkpnn nop naunonan-na1pno1a - xnsnennan neo6xopnHoc1L pnn coapeHennoro
nonn1nka, n a6ypnn a1o caoeapeHenno nonnn. ak a coc1aae oprannsa1opoa
204
nonannncL aanpenko n acnn c ypnakoamH. o apeHeneH c saypnpno-
na1pno1nuecknx na o1ue1nnao naunonannc1nueckne nosnunn nepeuna .. ykoaa.
epes aanpenko k nap1nn no1nnynncL n neko1opme ppyrne naunonannc1m, no c1onL
caoeo6pasno, u1o o6 a1oH c1on1 ckasa1L oco6o. ak, no pernonanLnmH o1penennnH
apopno aunonanLno nap1nn (o6 a1o nap1nn - nnxe) a nkne 2002 r. 6mno
pacnpoc1paneno nncLHo sa nopnncLk rnaam . . aanoaa-yxapeackoro, rpe, a
uac1noc1n, roaopnnocL:
HHH M kc k cyky cr c c n
yMM ycckM ncM, k ccn r Hn
Hnr xn Hn nn (n - HH H), cnM
k nnncn Ey. B n yx n kyM rc
Mc PO. HH H nnncn crM cMcn ar cn. HH H
- a c krnM, ccn n, , , cM
Ey - cr cn-Mk. H c kk yny r
cy a nMk kn HH H, k cnn
ck xn CHAC (cn /k nM H, n. (095)
959-30-66), k n cn c F/ 1999 ry, kk knn
n qmcckr nk.
/k . H. HH H nnncn rnM nrM c y c M
r c nM knM HH H. HHH yn qMnr xn
a c M r c Mn cc,
nyM HH H rc ny kM Mck
r, ycn Mcm n r PycM, m ck ny
y, k r c m ck HH H, k n
yy ncn FnMy KM H Hn H.
H kk Fn H c k nM HHH c cM MM. M kk
rn cny xn HH H cMcn MkyM M c c
y cyky, cMnk, r H - Pycck, nr PycM
y HHH. nx M, a x x HH
H, c k cy, m nc HH H n, M
qMnc. m - n Mc r HH H ykn
c c y yxk. aM M yM Mr M /k
. H. U.
npek1naa 6mna npnnn1a k ncnonnennk, u1o npnaeno k nanonnennk pnpoa apopno
aonn n npnpannk e poc1a1ouno papnkanLnoro naunonannc1nueckoro nHnpxa.
pnako a1o1 nHnpx (1ounee, ycnoano npnnn1an a6ypnnmH Hacka) pas6nncn a Henkne
ockonkn npn nepaoH xe cepLesnoH c1onknoaennn c pec1an1enLnoc1Lk. 1oH, u1o
nponsouno, pacckasmaae1 ananenne na nHn npesnpen1a .. y1nna,
nanpaanennoe aanpenko, acnnmH n ypnakoamH:
cm C nr nk P, ryn m c H
Hnr xn Hn nn, y
n nk P, c yr nky , kx
m kq nr nk P (-ck
c), k c cknn qnr cck n
k, x c n kr mn. cc,
qnr cck n ckn k y, nx
cM Hn nn: /k nM H, Eynk Mn
H, Enk /M cn, c K Ankc, Uky An
H, Cyk An F, Hnc Tn H, H
[Cyck] Ankc KyM .
205
qepepanLnm cnncok ne aknkunnn paxe .. ykoay, 6es ko1opo, c ee oksoH
peannc1oa n qnnancoamHn aosHoxnoc1nHn, nnkako nap1nn a6ypnny cospa1L 6m
nnkorpa n nn sa u1o ne ypanocL. aknH o6pasoH, nnk1o ns nnu, nHkunx peny1aunk
naunonannc1a, a ocpyHy ne nonan, sa epnnc1aennmH ncknkuenneH .. aanoaa, a
1euenne Hnornx ne1 caHoo1aepxenno pa6o1aauero na a6ypnna.
nnan nonm1ka a6ypnna aosHy1n1Lcn ne ckpmna, koneuno xe, aceH anpnHoro qak1a
ero npepaapn1enLnoro cornauennn c orosnnmH n nonno cpaun caonx. akan
6naropapnoc1L nnpepa, ero nnanoaoe npepa1enLc1ao no o1nouennk k co6c1aennoHy
naunonannc1nueckoHy kpmny, amsaana ec1ec1aennoe aosHyuenne kak y 1oaapnue no
nap1nn, 1ak n a unpoko cpepe . s nap1nn nkpn no6exann.
opaspo xypun ckanpan aosnnk a ckopoH apeHenn a cansn c npesnpen1cko
kaHnanne, korpa caok kanpnpa1ypy amc1aann nasLea. epaonauanLno a6ypnn
opnosnauno noppepxan nnpepa 6noka opnna, opnako eHy Hrnoaenno nanoHnnnn,
u1o ne nasLea, a y1nn pan eHy pek1opckoe kpecno n pyHckn Hanpa1. onnHan, u1o
ne6naropapnoc1L no o1nouennk k peHnk, a o1nnune o1 ne6naropapnoc1n no
o1nouennk k 1oaapnuaH, Hoxe1 npnaec1n k nnaueanmH nnunmH pesynL1a1aH, a6ypnn
Hrnoaenno n 6es saspennn coaec1n pasaepnyncn na 180 - noc1mpnm annsop a
6norpaqnn nonn1nka, ko1opm apnp nn 6ype1 sa6m1.
aknH o6pasoH, apeHennm ycnex (ue1mpe ropa a peny1a1cknx kpecnax) o6epnyncn, na
Ho asrnnp, rny6oknH c1pa1ernuecknH npoaanoH pnn apopno aonn. e pyHak, u1o
nap1nn n nonn1nkn, npepc1aannkune peanLnm cek1op o6uec1aenno xnsnn, nopy1 a
panLneueH c ne a coks. kanpanLnan peny1aunn, npouno sakpennauancn sa
nap1ne, c1aan1 nop 6onLuoe coHnenne 6ypyunoc1L apopno aonn a , xo1n
sa 6ypyunoc1L nnuno a6ypnna Hoxno, no-anpnHoHy, ne 6ecnokon1Lcn. o sa nee
nnk1o n ne 6ecnokon1cn.
cn a1a neuanLnan nc1opnn ponxna nocnyxn1L xopounH npepoc1epexenneH o6enH
c1oponaH nonn1nueckoro npouecca a occnn.
aunonan-na1pno1m ponxnm ncno nonnHa1L, u1o koHnpoHnccm, a 1eH 6onee - anLnncm
c peHneH upeaa1m nonno no1epe nnua, aceuenoaeuecknH konqysoH n yxopoH a
nonn1nueckoe ne6m1ne.
anac1nH nopa nonn1L, u1o nnkaknHn ycnnnnHn ns peHnn nenLsn nn cospa1L
peanLnyk naunonan-na1pno1nueckyk oprannsaunk, nn nasnaun1L naunonanLnoro
nnpepa. 6o 1akan oprannsaunn n 1ako nnpep nenpeHenno 6mc1po n xnpko
o6ankpo1n1cn, no1epnk1 poaepne n aa1opn1e1. xnpko o6ankpo1nauncn na nkpnx
nap1nep ne nHee1 peanLnoro o6uec1aennoro aeca n ne ropn1cn peHnk nn a kauec1ae
onopm, nn a kauec1ae onnonen1a.
oue1cn nnn ne1, no peHnk npnpe1cn pano nnn nospno ac1yna1L a pnanor c 1eHn
nap1nnHn n 1eHn nnpepaHn, ko1opmx ampanrak1 ne naanoackne c cypkoamHn, a
peanLnan xnsnL.
3. n (H-Hv n ).
ycckan nap1nn cospana a Hae 1991 ropa . H. Kvr. a1a pernc1paunn
yc1aaa 13 aaryc1a 1998 ropa. eua1nm opran - ycckan rase1a. ykoaopnun opran
- en1panLnm coae1, npepcepa1enL - Hv M, ns
kpec1Lnn. konunn apLkoackoe aoennoe yunnnue n oenno-nnxenepnyk akapeHnk
206
nH. . . sepxnnckoro. 1955-1992 rr. cnyxnn a oopyxennmx nnax, nonkoannk
sanaca.
enn nap1nn, cypn no oqnunanLnmH nc1ounnkaH, poc1a1ouno pacnnmaua1m n 1yHannm.
na, nc nk cn Oc, y m qncq
rcn, cy yx cc nn cnn xn
Cn Pyc, nn nxn yr, m nc r
r cnnn. yc1aanmx uennx nap1nn - c1onL xe o6nsa1enLnm, ckonL n
6eccopepxa1enLnm na6op o6unx ampaxenn: n ck
rcycr c Pcc, nck kyc, n
n kc nn c, yc r n,
cc nk Mxnr crncn n,
c r akMckr, cnr kynyr n
c nc Pccck O c yM cck n
ycckr kk rcycy ; cc cn
Mrykn akMk, c cr cn-akMckr
nxn rx, nrny nnc, yc
ckM c Mnx; Mc c rcycM
cM rnM cM c rM nnnM,
nrM ccck c, cc m yn rxck
cnc kc ycckr , x r yc
n kyny, cmc akMck, nnkyn,
-cycr n Pcc, rxck,
nck, akMck, cn kyny c rx
Pcc, cc c rcyc cc.
eope1nuecknx sacnyr nepep pyccknH panxenneH ycckan nap1nn ne nHee1; kak
caHoc1on1enLnm npeonor ee nnpep nnoceppoa (pok1op 1exnnu ecknx nayk) ne
o1Heuen. 1 ann1nmx o6Lncnenn no 1eope1nuecknH aonpocaH on nHee1 o6mknoaenne
yknonn1Lcn, onacancL amc1yna1L nepep nesaancnHo pyccko npecco. pnako eHy
nenLsn o1kasa1L a nonn1nueckoH uy1Le. nocnepnee apeHn, nop annnnneH
pasanaakuecn pyccko naunonannc1nuecko Hmcnn, npnuna k npee
naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa pyccknx a rpannuax - u1o oco6enno aaxno nopuepkny1L! -
koHnak1noro npoxnaannn pycckoro napopa. ako peannsH nenLsn ne npnae1c1aoaa1L.
pn a1oH npaao na uac1nyk co6c1aennoc1L a occnn ponxnm nHe1L 1onLko
npepc1aan1enn kopennmx napopoa occnn. counanLno cqepe rnaanan npen nap1nn
- npepoc1aan1L kpec1LnnaH cao6opy am6opa qopH xosnc1aoaannn na seHne.
epepa1L seHnk a uac1noe anapenne 1onLko 1eH, k1o xenae1 ee o6pa6a1maa1L 6es
kynnn n npopaxn. ak roaopn1cn, ace a1o xopouo, no Hano.
cnoanan n npn1oH peanLnan cnna yccko nap1nn a 1oH, u1o a ne okasancn pnp
nsaec1nmx a pernonax nkpe. eknaHnpyn caon poc1nxennn a a1oH o1nouennn,
nopo ampae1 xenaeHoe sa pec1an1enLnoe. ak, necoHnennmH nonn1nuecknH
npocue1oH 6mno sananenne o 1oH, u1o nnpepoH nap1nn c1ane1 6maun ry6epna1op
pacnopapckoro kpan .. onppa1enko, nsaec1nm caoe xec1ko an1ncnonnc1cko
nosnune, aa1opn1e1nm a naunonan-na1pno1nuecknx kpyrax. pnako 23 qeapann
2002 r. onppa1enko paxe ne nanncn na upepn1enLnm cLesp apopno-
na1pno1nuecko nap1nn occnn, ko1opan nanne1cn pnn py6nnpykue c1pyk1ypo
(nockonLky nasaanne ycckan nap1nn ne npope1 uepes nnkc1). na ponL
noHnnanLnoro pykoaopn1enn nap1nn npnunocL noc1aan1L renepana .. opnonoaa
(6mauero Hnnnc1pa o6oponm), yaaxaeHoro aoennoro n npekpacnoro uenoaeka, no
neonm1noro nonn1nka. nrypa nnoceppoaa npn a1oH kak 6m o1ouna na a1opo nnan,
xo1n a pec1an1enLnoc1n on coxpanne1 ynpaanenne nap1ne.
pecL nopa ckasa1L n o rnaano cna6oc1n yccko nap1nn. koHnnek1oaannan, a
ocnoanoH, neHnorouncnennmHn kappaHn npepnpnnnHa1ene n nn1ennnrenunn, ona
q. ap1nn a 1euenne ace
207
caoe nonn1nuecko xnsnn anno1L po 1999 ropa nn pasy ne nopnnnacL po
caHoc1on1enLnoro snauennn n amc1ynana a kauec1ae caoeo6pasnoro npnpa1ka ,
naxopnnacL na 6anance y kranoaa. mropa 6mna o6okpno: nap1nn nHena
ne6onLuoe, no rapan1npoaannoe copepxanne, nosaonnauee amnycka1L rase1y,
onnaunaa1L annapa1 n aoo6ue pepxa1Lcn na nnaay, a kranoa n ? nHenn
pparouennyk aosHoxnoc1L peHonc1pnpoaa1L na caoe an1pnne connpapnoc1L
pycckoro napopa. eHL ponrnx ne1 npe6maannn a ponn kapHanno nap1nn
ennapnn nppeeanua, nanoxnnn na ycckyk nap1nk npeonornueckn n
noaepenueckn o1neua1ok. yHee1 nn (nnn, u1o 1o xe, - ) am1n ns
koHHynnc1nuecko 1enn, npeopone1L co6c1aennyk 6ecuae1noc1L, npnaneuL k ce6e
Haccm sa cue1 npko, ak1yanLno, aaanrappno npeonornn? nakoHc1ao c npenmH
6araxoH nap1nn ne pae1 nnuero, kpoHe coHnenn no a1oHy noaopy.
a am6opax noHnnanLnm nnpep nap1nn renepan opnonoa okasancn a cnnckax 6noka
opnnm (opnn, 6es caoe nap1nn!) n c1an peny1a1oH. oueHy a 6nok ne aouna
nap1nn uennkoH? 1o kpane c1panno pnn c1onL yHepenno nap1nn na1pno1oa, cnoano
cneunanLno cospanno pnn nopo6noro kasennoro 6noka. 1o e noHeuano? npepckne
aH6nunn? nn nepoc1a1ouno neam akuen1 6noka? nn npoc1o ne nyc1nnn c1apune
pnpenLkn? rpe 1enepL okaxe1cn? eHnrnna? nn eue a kakoH-1o neaoH
yrny?
axoue1 nn nnoceppoa, po cnx nop acnueckn yknonnauncn o1 nk6mx
o6Lepnnn1enLnmx nnnuna1na, o1knnkny1Lcn na npnsma k o6Lepnnennk? 1ae1 noka
opnn: coHnn1enLno. e1oH 2003 ropa, korpa aokpyr renepana aauoaa 1ycoaancn pnp
neao-na1pno1nuecknx n naunonannc1nuecknx oprannsaun ( a 1oH uncne),
nnoceppoa opnnH ns nepamx c1an ppeqoaa1L a c1opony, kak 1onLko nonnn, u1o
cepLesnmx cpepc1a y 6noka ne1. 1o nyxno pnn ycnexa peaonkunn? - un1npoaan on
Hne poukoro. - pn aeun: penLrn, penLrn n eue pas penLrn! m xe, nonaran, u1o
nyxnm, ao-nepamx, npen, ao-a1opmx, nkpn n 1onLko a-1pe1Lnx - penLrn, ne c1ann ero
ypepxnaa1L. anLneuee nsaec1no. ce ckasannoe ne nosaonne1 npepnonara1L
aosHoxnoc1L 6noka n () a 6nnxaue nepcnek1nae.
B , un u x KH4
m n.
u,
n x x m.
oroaopnH o6 a1oH noppo6nee.
KMMYHHm H KH4
oHHynnc1m pacnonarak1 ne npoc1o nekoe nonn1nuecko nap1ne, a caHo 6onLuo
n cnnLno ns acex nap1n occnn. pnako a1o o6c1on1enLc1ao ne pae1 nnkaknx
ocnoaann pnn on1nHnsHa. ao1 noueHy.
nonne nonn1no, u1o qopHanLnoe o6Lepnnenne (6nok, coks n 1.p.) koHHynnc1oa c
naunonannc1aHn cnoco6no nnuL cospa1L c1pyk1ypy, a ko1opo kon1ponLnm nake1 n
ponL a6conk1noro nnpepa 6ype1 npnnapnexa1L a cnny ee Hnorouncnennoc1n,
oprannsoaannoc1n n pecypcno o6ecneuennoc1n. opo6no 1oHy, kak co6aka aep1n1
xaoc1oH, a ne xaoc1 co6ako, koHnap1nn a 1akoH o6Lepnnennn c1ane1 onpepenn1L
nonn1nky naunonan-na1pno1oa, npnHep ueHy Hm yxe anpenn a o6pase . ecnn
appyr nocun1ae1 naunonan-na1pno1oa sa o6peHenn1enLnm 6annac1, o16pocn1 ero, ne
paspyHmaan, kak a1o yxe 6mno c 1eH xe nnn yccko nap1ne.
208
1n 1ak1nueckne coo6paxennn ne ponxnm 6mnn 6m ypepxnaa1L naunonan-na1pno1oa
o1 anLnnca, ecnn 6m onn Hornn poaepn1Lcn c1pa1ernn n ee nnpepaH. cnn 6m
koHHynnc1nueckn nokoHo1na aes naunonan-na1pno1oa k xenannmH uennH,
aH6nunnHn Hoxno 6mno 6m noc1ynn1Lcn. O -
nu KH4 u nu n? H
. ecn1L ne1 na6nkpenn sa poccncko nonn1nko npnaenn k amaopaH,
nenec1nmH pnn koHHynnc1oa. e roaopn yxe o 1oH, u1o y pycckoro napopa ec1L
neHanm cue1 k npepuec1aennnkaH nmneune - , (6), (6), ,
ko1opm a1a npaaonpeeHnnua ne 1oponn1cn onna1n1L (u1o anpno xo1n 6m na npnHepe
o1nouennn k ennny - aennuaueHy pycoqo6y acex apeHen).
H , -
u KH4 u , -
.
B-x, a npenoH 6araxe koHHynnc1oa po cnx nop Hep1amH rpysoH nexn1
noc1yna1 nn1epnaunonannsHa. 1o apeHn kak pnn nk6oro y6expennoro naunonannc1a
rnaanmH aparoH nanne1cn ne naunonannsH ppyro, paxe apaxpe6no, naunn, a
nHenno nn1epnaunonan.
B-x, snoaeunH n, yam, necHmaaeHmH popnHmH nn1noH na koHHynnc1nuecko
nap1nn nexn1 eapeckoe nponcxoxpenne ee npeonornn n ee ocnoaa1ene. apeckn
pyx nponn1maae1 nackaosL ace koHHynnc1nueckoe yuenne.
B-ux, renounp n a1nounp pycckoro napopa, npoaepennm nop eapecko-
6onLueanc1cknH pykoaopc1aoH a 1917-1937 rr., ec1L qak1 nc1opnn, o1 ko1oporo
nnkypa ne pe1Lcn. oka ne npnnecna nokannnn sa pena, 1aopnaunecn nop
pykoaopc1aoH ennna, poukoro n ?, pycckoHy uenoaeky 1pypno o1nec1n1L k ne c
poaepneH.
B-x, noppepxka a uenoH no c1pane kone6anacL, no pannmH
2002 r., na ypoane 35-40%. a nepam asrnnp, a1o ouenL Hnoro. ncnennoc1L pnpoa -
rnaanm kosmpL koHHynnc1oa. o pesynL1a1 a1o aennko uncnennoc1n, ee
koaqqnunen1 nonesno pen1enLnoc1n - neconsHepnHo nnu1oxen. 6o a nonn1nke, kak
a nk6oH nckycc1ae, pnanek1nka erenn ne pa6o1ae1: konnuec1ao ne nepexopn1 a
kauec1ao. nsnL a1o ue1ko nokasana. O u-q
um s . m a a1oH
Hnorokpa1no y6epnnncL. oa1oHy 1e, k1o penae1 rnaanyk c1aaky na , a
npeHyppoH n 6esoun6ounoH pacue1e na ee Hnorouncnennoc1L n
oprannsoaannoc1L, pas sa pasoH npone1ak1 HnHo uenn. 1o amrnnpn1, kak napapokc,
no na caHoH pene coaepuenno sakonoHepno.
m rop sa ropoH anpnH n nonnHaeH: uyHoame aqqek1m na Hn1nnrax - aeunm ypen
koHHynnc1nuecko Haccoakn acex aospac1oa "annsy; cornaua1enLc1ao - aeunm ypen
koHHynnc1nuecko xnpoao npocnokn "naaepxy. ne 6onee 1oro. A
mu - s n u .
noa1oHy cHeno Hoxno y1aepxpa1L, u1o nnua onnosnunn ceropnn nyc1a.
B-nx, pecn1nne1nn "an1ncenekunn, npoaopnHo , amaenn na caHm aepx
o6uec1aa 1ak nasmaaeHyk nap1noHenkna1ypy: orpoHnm cno 6espapnmx,
Hanoo6pasoaannmx, anunmx n nopno-1pycnnamx nkpe, xonyea, o16npaaunxcn no
npnnunny nnuno npepannoc1n 6occy, ropnmx 1onLko k oppenckoHy nocnyuannk,
cnoco6nmx npeapa1n1L a Hycop ace, k ueHy nn npnkocny1cn nx pykn. eypnan1enLno,
u1o 1ak nasmaaeHan "koHHynnc1nueckan onnosnunn - a1o a snaun1enLnoH uncne
paonnkn enLunnnc1oa-ny1nnnc1oa, ne nHekune sa pyuo nn nopnnnnmx npeanoa, nn
aepno, pec1an1enLno coapeHenno npeonornn. epapoH, no pannmH ,
u 17% mx m n
209
u. Cu m n u.
oc1a1ouno unpoko, paxe a nonn1nueckn ak1nano cpepe, pacnpoc1paneno
y6expenne, u1o - nap1nn c1apnkoa, ko1opan aa1oHa1nueckn ype1 a npounoe a
cnny ec1ec1aenno y6mnn nacenennn n cHenm nokonenn.
B-mx, nap1nn ,
s c nens6exnoc1Lk okasmaae1cn npeonornueckn nHno1en1no.
oHHynnc1nueckan npen - pe1porpapna, ona npnnapnexn1 npounoHy, a1o auepaunn
penL. 1o apeHn kak naunonannc1nueckan npen - aaanrappna n ann1apna, a1o penL
saa1paunn. onn1no, u1o n ,
m. Hm ne HoxeH nosaonn1L ce6e noc1ynn1L
nao6opo1.
osaonk ce6e a a1o cansn npoun1npoaa1L aecLHa He1kyk xapak1epnc1nky ,
pannyk Mx sr-nrv :
-,.. n x cnk cn c, cknk
c yck, y MnM ckyny ry.
-, c nnc, cc rcck, KHPO cn
yyr, mnr. O r: " yx n
r 21 k, nc Mx ar cn, M a cnM", - r:
"nc yx, M n M, M nc".
Oc, Mx c ryM nc y -y
akMk - c y, y cn-akMckr ycc
XXI k, My kcn yn nn , k r cn
nc, kMMyc r, M Mx cn.
-, cy ccnn n c cckM MMM. B
cc, cknky KHPO mn n, k "cn c" xM
cnM xMy y x. nnn k aMy, kk k n ckMy
y x, cycmMy CCCP, c c PO, - kM
cn. Ok cck MM - a MM
nn, cnn, a MM rx nrnyr c,
k c M cM cmM, cM nxM
c, cn x yxMcn cmc - c,
c cx.
HyxyMy cy cn n c kcM MMM.
H c - nM cnM, c, n ky
ar cn, x c "cnknM", c
"knM". Oc - cn ncn k. Oc cnn
nr k M cMnM cckr , k M, cn n
ync , k n MnM Mn nk cMy, n
nymM cny - y 1812 r, c XXI cn.
-, n arck q. /c
ar nc ym cn n, nrM n k
n cqM cn cn kk. Bn KHPO
rck cn c c cck an. Ok cM nrMM a
an n MMn mk. rn , k nn
nym, , k Mm mncn. aM x kM cn KHPO,
MMy c mk cny mk nc kk
nck, k -an . H n nm
c yck MM mk nnncn ycnn nr
210
nckr cc cnc. H k k, r
M, nn ckM.
Ecn r , k Mm mcn, ncky
y r , k cn ck, k Mx k, kk E
n H: "M, M - y".
O nkn x y, yMn ky, r ,
n ckyccM cynn.
-n, yn a, n yr , M ycn cqM
aqqky nr. yn M n rcycr M
kn a qk. O nn M k yx
yx , cMynn ykn c a r kc. H
M n Mx nr, k x, kk n yc
Mx yk. HM - a n k P, cM c
ncn, M n P, yx cn, n nym.
Oc - k n, ycMnc yy.
y ky M, nr knccM, kM
cxM, kMMyc n nn a yc, yc
cn n Mcn, rn y nn r, Mx
n kk yxy M Hy, cnn c rM n
yknn rcyc, n nc, a nx
rcyc - cM n n M "Ec".
.3Mn ccM, ckn yyr cy n,
nnncn cnnM kcr MM ycMn.
Brn yyr arn mnr yx yr yr, ynn, n
kMMycM n nc kk kMMycM, kk kcM.
B, cn nc, - c x KHPO.
kasano 6ecnouapno, no a6conk1no 1ouno.
B-ux, a cnny acero nsnoxennoro koHHynnc1m ampopnnncL a ne npoc1o
nepeecnoco6nyk, no a cornaua1enLckyk, cnc1eHnyk onnosnunk -
m. nac1L pyun1 koHHynnc1oa a nexno-c1anLnmx o6Ln1nnx. y1nn
o1aopn1 kpacnmH c1poro ouepuennoe (anauane ne6oH aanoacknH, a 1enepL
napncnaaoH ypkoamH) nonn1nueckoe npoc1panc1ao. n uary sa kpa a1oro uep1exa!
nc1eHnan onnosnunn ponxna sna1L caoe Hec1o. ona ero snae1.
6epexno-6epexno xpannna ce6n ace a1n ropm, naunnan c kpoaaaoro 1993-ro.
apn uero xpannna ce6n nap1nn? ko6m papn nyue 6opL6m c an1nnapopnmH
pexnHoH. Hnorne aepnnn a a1o. Hnorne ronocoaann sa . aouna a 1995 r.
a yHy n paccenacL 1aH a caHoH 6onLuoH konnuec1ae kpecen.
u1o? nnuero.
axe nHnnuHen1 nLunny ne cyHenn npoaec1n. apouno npo1nnynn apeHn n ynyc1nnn
HoHen1, korpa acn yHa 6mna aosHyuena o1c1aako pnHakoaa.
a6paauncL opnaxpm cHenoc1n, koHHynnc1m npoaannnn epnoHmppnna - cnacn6o. o
yx sa1eH cHnpenno y1aepxpann acex, koro npepnaran nLunn - pnHakoaa,
1enaunna, y1nna. ak po 1oro y1aeppnnn npnenko. , no1oH, nocne o1c1aakn, onn
pyrann npnenko n 1enaunna! ak anocnepc1ann n pnHakoaa, c konH 6mnn ne
211
pasne aopa, noka 1o1 npaann. nann aceH nH ueny acerpa - no y1aepxpann a
ponxnoc1n, nporn6ancL nepep "npesnpaeHmH n nenaanpnHmH npesnpen1oH. nn uero?
1o6m yuene1L, amxn1L! aueH? nn 6opL6m c pexnHoH!.. kaska npo 6enoro 6muka.
anana: occnn ncuepnana nnHn1 na peaonkunn, kranoa noxoponnn kak
nonn1nueckyk cnny. 1kas o1 nenern1nHnmx qopH 6opL6m npnaen caHyk Haccoayk
nap1nk occnn k nonno nHno1enunn. oxno 6mno 6m nonn1L, ecnn 6m nap1nn, na
cnoaax ncnoaepyn nern1nHnsH n o1kpeunaancL o1 akc1peHnsHa, na pene nooupnna 6m
nnpnanpyanLnm 1eppop nnn nnme qopHm cnnoaoro paanennn na anac1L. orpa ona
Horna 6m npe1enpoaa1L na peanLnm aa1opn1e1 n nonn1nueckoe annnnne. 1ak? cnn
1m nnkoHy ne c1pauen, snaun1 1m nnkoHy ne nyxen - 6ecnpekocnoanoe npaanno nrpm.
o kakoam pesynL1a1m npe6maannn koHHynnc1oa a ocpyHe? m1L Hoxe1, nrpa a
nern1nHnoc1L c1onna caeu?
oHHynnc1m nosaonnnn "6noky npo1aun1L nosopnm sakon ornauennnx o
paspene npopykunn, npono66npoaannm anapoH n yxe noanekun sa co6o
nencuncnnHme no1epn pnn occnn. ecnn 6m 1onLko opnn a1o1 sakon! uero c1on1
npepc1aanennm koHHynnc1oH . nkn1nnmH sakon " anecennn nsHenenn n
pononnenn a n , ko1opm, 6ypL on npnnn1, ne 1onLko nosaonnn 6m
sa1kny1L po1 nk6oHy uec1noHy pycckoHy naunonannc1y, no eue n pasansan 6m
nopnnnnyk oxo1y na nnx c yuac1neH acero apHnnnc1pa1nanoro kopnyca c1panm!
2000 r. y npaan1enLc1aa nonannacL aosHoxnoc1L npnnnHa1L 6kpxe1 6es yue1a Hnennn
koHHynnc1oa, no n po 1oro ace ropm npe6maannn a yHe koHHynnc1m, 6ypyun caHo
kpynno qpakune, o1 ko1opo saanceno npak1nueckn nk6oe peuenne, kx
Mn yr xMy, y cy rn x.
1enepL npaan1enLc1ay y1nna ypanocL npoaec1n uepes yHy n eHenLnm opekc, n
pypoao kopekc. nn koHHynnc1oa ace a1o osnauae1 ne u1o nnoe kak nepepoxpenne n
nonn1nueckyk cHep1L.
O - u s . oHHynnc1m paano ac1ponnncL a
cnc1eHy, cnyxa1 e caHnH qak1oH caoero cyuec1aoaannn. 1996 ropy kranoa Hor n
o6nsan 6mn, no ne saxo1en, c1pycnn asn1L anac1L a caon pykn ( M
cMnr ck, n n 54%), a 1enepL yx - nospno, y
yxe ne1 nonn1nueckoro 6ypyuero, ec1L nnuL nepcnek1naa nonn1nueckoro nposn6annn.
m6opm a ocpyHy 2003 ropa okonua1enLno npeapa1nnn a pekopa1nanm
aneHen1 pexnHa.
-cM, o11anknaae1 a6conk1no 6nnsopykan nonn1nka a o1nouennn ,
x ryn M a nn ycck Mck kMnkc,
cMn k ccn CCCP, krck MnM nn
nc. ypyun sanoxnnkaHn nasaannmx koHnnekcoa, koHHynnc1m na aceH
npoc1panc1ae 6mauero oae1ckoro oksa npepak1 nn1epecm pyccknx, u1o oco6enno
saHe1no na kpanne, a pnpnec1poaLe n onpaann, a asaxc1ane.
6epn1enLno canpe1enLc1aye1 o6 a1oH onm1 ns6npa1enLnmx kaHnann c1pan 1996-
1998 rr. oHHynnc1m asnnn aepx a napnaHen1ax occnn, enopyccnn, onpaann,
kpannm, pmHa. o nnuero xopouero ne pano pyccknH nkpnH uncnennoe
npeaocxopc1ao koHHynnc1oa a napnaHen1ax a1nx c1pan.
enopyccnn packonoaunecn na pae koHnap1nn koHHynnc1m ace apeHn nn1pnroaann n
ceuac nn1pnryk1 npo1na epnnc1aennoro na ceropnn poc1onoro pyccko-cnaannckoro
nnpepa - nekcanppa ykauenko.
onpaann, na kpanne, a pmHy onn nn na uar ne cpannynn nonn1nky caonx c1pan a
c1opony occnn, nn na o1y ne yHenLunnn a1nounp pyccknx. ex caHmx pyccknx,
212
ko1opme nonapennncL na koHHynnc1oa-nn1epnaunonannc1oa n caonHn ronocaHn
o1kpmnn nH ny1L k amcue sakonopa1enLno anac1n. eropnn, korpa npesnpen1oH
onpaann c1an koHHynnc1, paanenne na pycckoe (n acerpa opnen1npoaaaueecn na
occnk) pnpnec1poaLe, ne 1onLko ne ocna6no, no n nenHoaepno ycnnnnocL.
uero c1on1 nsHennnueckn pa1nqnunpoaannm koHHynnc1aHn oroaop o ppyx6e,
co1pypnnuec1ae n nap1nepc1ae occnn n kpannm, ne 1onLko nopapnaun kpanne
oaopoccnk, pmH n eaac1ononL aHec1e c nacenenneH, no n cpaaun aoo6ue ace
pycckoe nacenenne kpannm ao anac1L ykpanncknx naunonannc1oa, npaanunx 6an a
c1pane?! a sa opno a1o npounme n 6ypyune npaan1enn occnn ponxnm 6m
pacc1penn1L ack qpakunk ao rnaae c cnnkepoH enesneamH, nnuno rapan1npoaaaunH
ykpanncknH konneraH-koHHynnc1aH pa1nqnkaunk oroaopa! aepL kak c1onann aecL
pycckn pmH, acn oaopoccnn, kak npocnnn ne pena1L a1oro, kakne nncLHa cnann!
(nanornunan cn1yaunn aosnnkna a cansn c pa1nqnkaune occncko-onpaackoro
onLuoro oroaopa, pasnnua 1onLko a 1oH, u1o npnpnec1poaum, a o1nnune o1
pyccknx na kpanne, Hory1 sa ce6n noc1on1L.)
o u1o pnn koHHynnc1oa pycckne cnesm, korpa na ropnson1e 6pesxn1 npnspak 6mno
anac1n! MM c nc mM CCCP - cM y m, M,
ycck n, x, - nacnmuanncL yx Hm o1 nnx nopo6nmx peue. ueH
a1n peun okanunaak1cn, yanpenn a pmHy.
pmHy koHHynnc1m, saxaa1na ack nonno1y anac1n, 1y1 xe npnnnnn, npecHmkancL
nepep neaoH, noayk onc1n1yunk, ko1opan, ao-nepamx, nonnoc1Lk nopunnnna pmH
kpanne, nnsaopn aa1onoHnk po ypoann nnxe saypnpno ykpanncko o6nac1n, a ao-
a1opmx, nonnoc1Lk nepepana any1pennkk anac1L a caHoH pmHy (na 1o1 HoHen1) a
pykn koHHynnc1nueckoro epxoanoro oae1a n nnuno ero npepcepa1enn, rnaam
kpmHckoro peckoHa - eonnpa paua. opuepkny, u1o pannm 6ananc
nn1epecoa 6mn poc1nrny1 c noHouLk pnpa yc1ynok n pasHenoa, rnaanmH ns ko1opmx
c1an c1a1yc pycckoro nsmka, ne nonyunaun na a1o pyccko no ocnoanoHy coc1aay
nacenennn n nonnoc1Lk pycckonsmuno seHne c1a1yca a1oporo rocypapc1aennoro, na
u1o 1ak napenncn aecL pmH. e 1onLko pycckne, no n 6onLunnc1ao pycckonsmunmx
rny6oko pasouapoaanm. ce nx napexpm, amkpnc1annnsoaaaunecn a nonn1nuecko
na6opa1opnn pmHa nocnepnnx ne1, okasanncL noxepenm! oa1oHy ne1
pyccko nnn poccncko o6uec1aenno oprannsaunn, ko1opan noppepxana 6m
rpaueackyk onc1n1yunk; 6onLunnc1ao ns nnx amc1ynnno na pasnmx ypoannx c
nncLHaHn npo1ec1a, pesknHn sananennnHn.
pmHckn npnHep aonnkue kpacnopeuna. Ecn xx MkcMyM
n nc, k xy Mn r
cncn n, x cM k c r ycckr cnn,
- M cn cMn cy nk kMMyc. ypL 1o pmH nnn occnn. a
a1oH npnHepe pycckn ns6npa1enL nnunn pas nonnn, u1o koHHynnc1m, u1o 6m onn nn
o6euann, - nenapexnm nonn1nueckn nap1nep.
kpanna a uenoH? eny1a1m-koHHynnc1m, nHeaune pnn a1oro ace aosHoxnoc1n a
epxoano ape, 1ak n ne npnnnnn nn opnoro sakona, c1aanuero sacnon a1nounpy
pyccknx. ycckne kpannm pocene oc1ak1cn rpaxpanaHn a1oporo cop1a, nnuennmHn
nsmka, ukon, aysoa, anek1ponnmx , nonnokpoano cansn c Ha1epLk-opnno. n
opnoro sakona, nanpaanennoro na c6nnxenne c occne, 1akxe ne npnnn1o.
roaopn, koHHynnc1m, na aceH npoc1panc1ae 6mauero aoo6ue, a a
occnn a pannoH coc1aae nap1nnoro pykoaopc1aa - a oco6ennoc1n, nanpouL amunn y
pyccknx naunonan-na1pno1oa ns acnkoro poaepnn. n nx nxnamH, nanmuennmH n
rnynmH peuaH n nosynraH neaosHoxno aepn1L, nn a unc1o1y nx naHepenn, nn ao
anesanno (ne1 nn1L 1oHy nasap) npocnyauykcn nk6oaL k pycckoHy napopy. nueH,
kpoHe cnoa, ne nop1aepxpennyk.
213
enepL, nocne am6opoa 1999 n 2003 rr., c1ano ncno, u1o oHnap1nn n ee anek1opa1 -
a1o nHenno n 1onLko oHnap1nn n ee anek1opa1 n nn opnnH uenoaekoH 6onLue, a
aoace ne nnpep unpokoro napopnoro qpon1a. o1n 1akne npe1ensnn ace apeHn ne
cxopn1 c yc1 koHHynnc1nuecknx nnpepoa. pec1an1enLnoc1n nonnoc1Lk
oronena. "osoame counannc1m o1ounn o1 nee. aunonan-na1pno1oa ona uac1Lk caHa
o1 ce6n o1ornana, a ppyran uac1L - o1ua1nynacL o1 nceapocoksnnka, c ko1opmH ponro
una pyka o6 pyky, kak 1. epexoa (oks oqnuepoa) n . nnoceppoa (ycckan
nap1nn).
KH4 : , u, x,
, mu, .
1o 6ype1 c a panLneueH? na noka oc1ae1cn kpynneue nonn1nuecko
nap1ne, no cao no1enunan amuepnana po pna n o1nmne 6ype1 1onLko 1epn1L cnny n
annnnne, yc1ynan nx, c opno c1oponm, npaan1enLc1ay, asnaueHy nokasno
rocypapc1aennnueckn kpen, a c ppyro - naunonan-na1pno1aH, nHekunH ncnyk,
aaanrappnyk n papnkanLnyk nonn1nky. nap1nnan noHenkna1ypa amcuero auenona
nnaano 6ype1 nepe1eka1L a ppyryk nap1nk - a nap1nk anac1n (uero, co6c1aenno, nH
acerpa n xo1enocL). e ace, koneuno, a 1onLko 1e, koro 1ypa aosLHy1. o1n 6m a
ry6epna1opm. e cnyuano o no6epe 1.n. kpacnmx na ry6epna1opcknx am6opax c
opnnakoamH an1ysnasHoH panop1yk1 n , n pnnc1ao.
cansn c a1nH aosnnkak1 aonpocm k naunonanLno-na1pno1nuecko onnosnunn.
konLko Hoxno xpann1L cnenyk npepannoc1L o1xnaunH npeanaH, no1epneaue
nc1opnueckoe nopaxenne nap1nn n ee necnoco6nmH na no6epy - paxe npn caHmx
nan6naronpnn1neunx ycnoannx - aoxpnH?! konLko Hoxno ne saHeua1L 1oro, u1o
koHHynnc1nueckan npeonornn paano o6ankpo1nnacL, npeapa1nnacL a pennk1oam,
a1aanc1nueckn npnsnak Hen1ann1e1a counanLno-peqek1nanmx, ncuepnaaunx cao
nc1opnueckn pecypc, nn na u1o a peanLno nonn1nke ne ropnmx Hacc?
Om um u :
, -.
, nopm1oxnH. s Hnornx koHHynnc1oa nonyuanncL, nonyuak1cn n 6ypy1
nonyua1Lcn npekpacnme pycckne naunonannc1m, a1o qak1. oa1oHy c koHHynnc1aHn,
ncnoaepykunHn pycckn naunonannsH, naH, 6esycnoano, no ny1n. o ecnn roaopn1L
6onee 1ouno, a M - y c ncM! ao1 c a ee nmneuneH
cornaua1enLckoH aapnan1e - peun1enLno ne1.
coxanennk, pnpoao coc1aa koHnap1nn coaepuenno neaosHoxno a Hacce o1penn1L
o1 ee aepxyukn - kranoaa, ynuoaa n pp. oa1oHy o kakoH 6noke c ne Hoxe1 np1n
peuL? nk6oH qopHanLnoH (n paxe neqopHanLnoH) o6Lepnnennn c
kon1ponLnm nake1 6ype1 nHenno n 1onLko y nee, a kypa nac Hoxe1 noaec1n 1ako
nnpep? Tnk y, r cM cn.
K u, KH4 un m
m m m (n
m )? u un
u u , q
KH4 ,
x?
kopee, Hoxno 6m1L yaepennmH a o6pa1noH.
oa1oHy pa6o1a1L c koHHynnc1aHn 6esycnoano napo, no, koneuno, ne a nanpaanennn
6noka, a ko1opoH naunonan-na1pno1aH nnkorpa ne anpa1L rereHonnn, n ne a
nanpaanennn axoxpennn a c uenLk nepepopn1L ee nsny1pn, a ncknkun1enLno a
214
nanpaanennn nepe1nrnaannn koHHynnc1oa na nauy c1pony, a , a nanpaanennn
qopHnpoaannn any1pn kopnyca aren1oa annnnnn pycckoro naunonanLno-
ocao6opn1enLnoro panxennn n 1oHy nopo6noe. o ec1L, nyxna nopHanLnan
aep6oaounan npak1nka. e c1on1, koneuno, napen1Lcn, u1o nop annnnneH naunonan-
na1pno1nuecko nponaranpm nap1nnme Haccm no6pocak1 caon kpacnme knnxeukn n
no6ery1 nop naun snaHena. 1oro ne cnyun1cn, xo1n 6m no1oHy, u1o onme Haccm ace
eue nn1ak1 6onLune nnnksnn o1nocn1enLno cnnm n pec1aennoc1n . o
o1penLnme uennme kappm Hory1 6m1L n 6esycnoano 6ypy1 naunHn.
asyHee1cn, neponyc1nHo ny6nnuno 6n1L koHHynnc1oa papn kpacnoro cnoaua no
nenpnnunnnanLnmH noaopaH, a 1akxe x u
n , u q, s
x. cerpa npn a1oH coxpannn caoe nnuo.
BHH
6opo1nn - nap1nn nceapo-naunonannc1nueckoro 1onka, yaopnune pycckn anek1opa1,
pycckyk onnosnunk a noxnoH nanpaanennn o1 peanLno 6opL6m sa naunonanLnme
npaaa n nn1epecm.
6pasuoH o6opo1nn Hoxno cun1a1L RQH. a1o nap1ne paano yxe ace ncno aceH,
no ace-1akn o6osnaunH neko1opme konc1an1m.
pouen1 o1pannmx sa nee ronocoa neyknonno napan o1 am6opoa k am6opaH: 23 (1993)
- 11 (1995) - 5 (1996, npesnpen1ckne) - . (1999). m noc1aannn 1poe1oune,
nockonLky na am6opax 1999 r., no caepennnH ns nnqopHnpoaannoro nc1ounnka,
na6pana uy1L 6onee 3%, no nLunn ueppo po6aann e sa cue1 1ex 15%, u1o
nporonocoaann npo1na acex n uLn ronoca paspennnn Hexpy pnnc1aoH, n .
ueH 6mnn npnunnm napennn nonynnpnoc1n , korpa-1o no1pncue ack occnk
necnmxannmH asne1oH? cnoanmx npnunn 1pn.
B-x, unpoko paspeknaHnpoaannoe eapeckoe nponcxoxpenne npnnoackoro,
ue nana, kak amncnnnocL, yexan ne a apuaay, a a spannL, rpe ak1nano cospaaan
eapeckoe rocypapc1ao. o1n a occnn no-npexneHy xaa1ae1 npno1oa, nonarakunx
neaaxnmH, kako naunonanLnoc1n nnpep, nnuL 6m on saunuan napop, no a6conk1noe
6onLunnc1ao naunonan-na1pno1nueckoro anek1opa1a yxe nayunnocL 1ec1npoaa1L
nopo6nmx caHosaannmx saun1nnkoa n anonne cnpaaepnnao ne poaepne1 nnopopuaH
n nonykpoakaH.
B-x, sa pean1L ne1 nonnoc1Lk o6naxnnacL ponL npnnoackoro n kak
kpeHneacko Hapnone1kn, aepno n napexno onopm pexnHa. ak onm1nm uynep,
nponrpmaakun no HanenLko, no acerpa cpmaakun kpynnm kyu, npnnoackn
nanokas 6ysn1 n qponpnpye1, korpa peuL npe1 o a1opoc1enennmx penax, no acerpa
6ecnpekocnoano noxn1cn nop npesnpen1a (6ypL 1o nLunn nnn y1nn) a aonpocax
cepLesnmx. o paso6nauennan Hapnone1ka ne nyxna paxe caHoHy kyknoaopy: ona
caoe o1mrpana.
B-ux, 6nec1nun nonynnc1, 1anan1nnam opa1op, uy1ko ynaannaakun
nac1poennn 1onnm n yHeno na nnx nrpakun, npnnoackn nan xep1ao
co6c1aennoro nonynnsHa. n nnkorpa panLue ne snan uyac1aa Hepm n caH ce6n
nepenrpan, cnnukoH uac1o amc1ynan a ponn knoyna, uy1a. co6enno pasppaxae1,
korpa npnnoackn 6epe1 na ce6n ponL epnnc1aennoro saun1nnka pyccknx nn1epecoa
n osayunaae1, a 1oH uncne, naun saae1nme npen. m anpnH, kak onounnk1cn,
215
npoqannpyk1cn aepnme, nyxnme Hmcnn, no nnuero ne HoxeH nopena1L, nockonLky
npnnoackn - epnnc1aennm naunonan-na1pno1, ko1oporo ponyckak1 k
anek1ponnmH a neorpannuennoH konnuec1ae. onn1no, nHenno c uenLk onounn1L
n npoqannpoaa1L pycckyk npek.
pnako am6opm 2003 ropa nopasnnn na6nkpa1ene noamH asne1oH .
onyuna camue 10% ronocoa, npnnoackn pokasan caok coc1on1enLnoc1L ao acex
cHmcnax cnoaa. -, kak qnnancoam renn: ropa paa on ne cxopnn co acex
akpanoa, xo1n no HonH caepennnH, a penexno noppepxke peHnn eHy 6mno o1kasano.
-, kak nHnpxHekep: nepep naHn npepc1an ypaanoaeuennm, yHyppennm
xnsnLk Hyx coae1a, a ko1opoH yxe nnuero ne1 o1 6mnoro uy1oackoro ana1axa.
npnnoackn xopouo nsanekae1 ypokn ns caonx oun6ok! -, kak
nonn1nueckn c1pa1er. pepanpn noam ec1ec1aennm nopLeH naunonannsHa, on
ycnnnn nponaranpy a a1oH nanpaanennn, u1o6m sann1L 6onee papnkanLnme, no
cpaanennk c kpeHneacknH 6nokoH opnna, nosnunn. a pesynL1a1e sacnyxenno
paspennn c opnno ycnex, npoakcnnya1npoaaa peanLnme nac1poennn anek1opa1a.
(epL anek1opa1 nnuero ne nonnHae1, xo1L n ace uyac1aye1: ero nerko o6Hany1L, n6o
on caH pap o6Hanmaa1Lcn.)
mn HoHen1, korpa a cen1n6pe 2002 ropa aunonanLno-epxaanan nap1nn occnn
nonyunna pernc1paunk: ace 1pypm n pacxopm npnnoackoro Hornn no1n npaxoH, a
on caH sanannkoaan n sa6nncn a ny6nnuno nc1epnke. cnn 6m anac1L ne cnnna nac c
pnc1anunn, ns6npa1enL npnnoackoro nporonocoaan 6m sa nac. o u1o ceuac o6 a1oH
roaopn1L.
maop cnepye1 1ako: nockonLky npnnoackn pokasan caok cnoco6noc1L
caHoc1on1enLno ypepxnaa1Lcn a nonn1nke, ero ponL - ponL raHenLnckoro kpmconoaa -
o6naxnnacL po konua. ero onacnoc1L pnn Hnorokpa1no yaennunnacL. 1o eue
6onee nopuepknaae1cn aospocunH o6uec1aennmH cnpocoH na naunonan-na1pno1nsH,
ko1opm npopeHonc1pnpoaann am6opm n ycnex n opnnm.
c1ae1cn napen1Lcn, u1o npnnoackn ne poxnae1 po cnepykunx am6opoa n ne
yaepe1 a 1pncnny sa caoe pypouko poaepunamx pyccknx nkpe.
onpepenennme coHnennn, ne nopa nn na npnnoackoH n c1aan1L kpec1,
anac1L nonm1anacL a 2002 r. amaec1n eHy na cHeny ppyroro o6opo1nn:
n - (.. xn). ak o6napopoaan aecLHa
ocaepoHnennm 1pnnrep, ns-sa cnnnm pxnnoaa 1opuann yun saHrnaam
pHnnnc1paunn npesnpen1a - .K. , a ns-sa ero cnnnm, a caok ouepepL, -
yun M. 4 (nLqa-rpynna n occnckn eapeckn konrpecc). pxnnoa,
Hnoro ne1 pa6o1aaun na npnnoackoro no nnnnn nnapa, c1onaun y nc1okoa , a
2000 r. 6mn xec1oko ns6n1 npnHo a spannn yHm oxpannnkaHn co6c1aennoro ueqa
(cnoHann paa pe6pa, nopaann koc1kH), nocne uero yaonnncn n aouen a nnnuna1nanyk
rpynny no cospannk . pnako ouenL 6mc1po okasanocL, u1o specL on ne ko
paopy, kak n neko1opme ppyrne nnua, anocnepc1ann noknnyaune nau prkoHn1e1.
ocne uero Hm anpenn ero a pasnmx koH6nnaunnx - 1o c uoyHenoH ponuknH
(aykoH), 1o c Hn1pneH eHyuknnmH (1akxe saancnHm o1 cneucnyx6 pen1enL, a
caoe apeHn noknnyaun prkoHn1e1 ), 1o c koHHepuecknH pepak1opoH
esaancnHo rase1m . apsnkynoamH. o 1y1 yHec1no npoun1npoaa1L pmnoaa:
am ppysLn, kak nn capn1ecL, ace a Hysmkan1m ne ropn1ecL. onn1nka - a1o cypL6a n
npnsaanne, specL nenLsn pyHa1L uyxo ronoao, a nyxno nHe1L co6c1aennme
6onLune, snaunHme pnn Hnoxec1aa nkpe npen. u1o eue aaxnee, nyxno nHe1L
poaepne Hacc. n 1oro, nn ppyroro y nopc1aanoro nrpoka - o6opo1nn - ne Hoxe1 6m1L
no onpepenennk. ackonLko nsaec1no, nopaeprnyauncL paso6nauennk, ypkoa
no1epnn nn1epec k ycckoHy npoek1y n cnnn ero c po1aunn.
216
npoH c nasaannmHn kpeHneacknHn kpea1ypaHn nepepko ac1peuanncL n ac1peuak1cn
o6opo1nn noneaone, 1o ec1L pycckne oprannsaunn, a ko1opmx a6conk1no spopoame,
naunonanLno-na1pno1nueckn Hmcnnune nkpn cpepnero n nnsoaoro nap1nnoro saena
amnyxpenm cnepoaa1L sa aoxakoH 6es uapn a ronoae. nyuunHn naHepennnHn n
noHmcnaHn, co ace caoe unc1o1o n nckpennoc1Lk onn poaepunao npy1 sa nnpepoH.
n ace apeHn ne 1ypa, kypa napo. a pesynL1a1e neaonLno nrpak1 a pycckoH
naunonanLno-ocao6opn1enLnoH panxennn nHenno 1y ponL nopcapno y1kn, ko1opyk
pexnH xo1en 6m, no ne Hoxe1 naansa1L oprannsaunnH, aosrnaanneHmH 6onee yHnmHn
n npnnunnnanLnmHn nnpepaHn.
aknx o6opo1ne noneaone Hoxno 6mno 6m nacun1a1L neHano sa nocnepnne 10-15
ne1, no ns 1ex, u1o oco6enno saHe1nm ceropnn, Hm nasoaeH 1onLko apopno-
naunonanLnyk nap1nk .. aanoaa-yxapeackoro. yxapeackn perynnpno nm1ae1cn
ac1yna1L a pasnnunme anLnncm c ppyrnHn oprannsaunnHn, no a1o kaxpm pas
sakanunaae1cn opnnakoao nnaueano. ak 1onLko on nonnHae1, u1o epnnonnunoro
npaanennn eHy yc1yna1L ne co6npak1cn, on co ckanpanoH paspyuae1 ouepepno
anLnnc (pa6m ne nosaonn1L pyxoanmH kapnnkaH akcnnya1npoaa1L cae1nm renn
aoxpn noaoro 1nna) n npnsmaae1 opnonap1nuea k cnnouennk pnpoa n k aepnoc1n
pycnsHy. ocaxennm anac1Lk na neckonLko Hecnuea a 1kpLHy, yxapeackn 6mn
amnyuen ns nee na onpepenennmx ycnoannx. osHoxno, anropn1H ero noaepennn no
o1nouennk k konneraH o6Lncnne1cn nHenno a1nH. 1oH, u1o co6o npepc1aanne1
yuenne yxapeackoro, pae1 nonnoe npepc1aanenne 6poukpa cnoam pycnsHa,
6Lkuan ace pekoppm peueao peHarornn n npeno 6ec1onkoaunnm. ueH nerko
Hoxe1 y6epn1Lcn kaxpm, nockonLky ona cao6opno npopae1cn na pasaanax.
cnoano apep, nanocnHm yxapeacknH n ero nspannnHn aceHy pycckoHy panxennk,
coc1on1 a packone, ko1opm onn anocn1, npo1naonoc1aannn HonopexL - pyccknH
nkpnH c1apuero nokonennn. ouaa, na ko1opo yxapeackn kynL1nanpye1 a1o1
packon, - o1nouenne k n1nepy n ennko 1euec1aenno aone. ypyun cmnoH
xenunnm, po6poaonLno saaep6oaaauecn a epHannk n ace ropm aonm kpennaue a
neHeukoH 1mny no6epy rn1nepoauea (k cuac1Lk, ne coc1onauykcn), yxapeackn papn
npaac1aenno pea6nnn1aunn Ha1epnnckoro nosopa ro1oa na nk6oe npenoe
uynepc1ao, aosaennunaakuee rn1nepoackyk epHannk n npnnnxakuee,
onopounaakuee occnk n nauy no6epy a pokoao aone. rpan na knouecknx
yaneuennnx qaunc1cko, acacoacko a1pn6y1nko, ana1axeH, on aceHn cnnaHn
a6naae1 knnnLn Hexpy nokonennnHn pyccknx nkpe, aHec1o 1oro, u1o6m npnnoxn1L
ace ycnnnn k nx cnnouennk... e roaopn yxe o 1oH, u1o ny6nnunan (n 6m ckasan,
npoaokaunonnan) peHonc1paunn naunc1cknx a1pn6y1oa pae1 apaxpe6nmH pnn nac
Haccy xenannmx noaopoa pnn amnnxnaannn a HaprnnanLnoe nonoxenne. ypyun
ny6nnuno o6annen a naunsHe opno ns eapecknx rase1, on nopan na nee a cyp, no
yHyppnncn nponrpa1L, 1ak u1o 1enepL, 6naropapn ero cae1noHy rennk, na
ancn1 Hanonou1ennm npnmk. nyno.
HnoroH npoueH yHonuy sa nepoc1a1koH Hec1a.
ak cnepye1 o1nocn1Lcn k o6opo1nnH? yuue acero - npoc1o pepxa1Lcn nopanLue.
pa1n1L cnnm na nx nsnnu1oxenne nepaunonanLno, pa n ne sacnyxnaak1 a1oro
Hnorne nopnpounme pycckne nkpn, sapepxaaunecn, k coxanennk, no pasnmH
npnunnaH a ykasannmx nap1nnx. o ac1yna1L c nnHn a coksnnueckne o1nouennn, paxe
a cnyuae npnnunnnanLnoro cornacnn no uac1nmH aonpocaH, - kon1pnpopyk1nano n
onacno. onLsm ace paano 6ype1 Hano, a ncnauka1Lcn Hoxno. nao npnHep -
nonm1ka co1pypnnuec1aa n , o ueH nn1epecykunecn snak1 ns npeccm. e1
nnkaknx coHnenn, u1o a1n nceaponaunonannc1nueckne, nceapona1pno1nueckne
oprannsaunn nHek1 aosHoxnoc1L pesan1Lcn 1onLko po 1ex nop, noka na nonn1nueckoH
none ne nonannacL nac1onuan naunonan-na1pno1nueckan oprannsaunn. yaepen, u1o
co apeHeneH ace, u1o ec1L spopoaoro a , , n pp., ec1ec1aennmH o6pasoH
nepepe1 a aunonanLno-epxaanyk nap1nk.
217
HHHHHRBHmE H HHYQEHHmE HHH
an1nnaunonanLnoH n an1nrocypapc1aennoH cek1ope poaonLno 1ecno o1 pasnnunmx
oprannsaun. onLunnc1ao ns nnx cyuec1aye1 na cpepc1aa sapy6exnmx qonpoa, konx
6mno yupexpeno neHano eue a ropm xonopno aonm. caHoro nauana cpepn a1nx
oprannsaun nnpnpoaann eHokpa1nueckn am6op occnn (), nmne y1epnaun
6mnoe annnnne, n 6noko, 1akxe saHe1no cpaauee nosnunn. eropnn na nepam
nnan ampannyncn oks npaamx cnn (), kypa ne cnyuano aouen n . ue opna
o1nnun1enLnan uep1a a1nx oprannsaun - ykoHnnek1oaannoc1L pykoaopc1aa eapenHn n
nonykpoakaHn (apap, y6ac, annnckn, eHuoa, npnenko, akaHapa n pp.).
1nnun1enLnan uep1a 6noka a 1oH, u1o ono no66npoaano nn1epecm sanapnoro
(eapeckoro) kann1ana, sa u1o qnnancnpoaanocL a1nH kann1anoH kak nanpnHyk,
uepes cansn caHoro annnckoro, 1ak n uepes nocpepc1ao onnrapxa ycnnckoro
(occnckn n ceHnpnm eapeckne konrpeccm). cnoanoe poc1nxenne 6noka na
any1penne apene - ycneunoe no66npoaanne akona ornauennnx o paspene
npopykunn, 6naropapn ko1opoHy occnk pasrpa6nnk1 1ak, kak ne nosaonne1 a1oro nn
opna ppyran c1pana a Hnpe, aknkuan c1panm qpnkn n a1nncko Hepnkn. pnako
ceropnn nap1nn annnckoro nepexnaae1 1nxenme apeHena. aH annnckn,
c1papakun 1o xe 6onesnLk aoxpnsHa a 1nxeno qopHe, ko1opo nopaepxenm n
neko1opme naunonan-na1pno1m, ne cnyuae1 ronoc apeHenn n o1kasmaae1cn np1n na
o6Lepnnenne c ppyrnHn nap1nnHn caoero narepn, o1kasmaae1cn ao1n a . e nHen
anepepn nnkaknx papyxnmx nepcnek1na (nnaueanan yuac1L ycnnckoro o16nna y
Hnornx oxo1y aec1n ero k aepunnaH anac1n), annnckn, 1eH ne Henee, 6ype1
ncnpaano nonyua1L ns-sa py6exa onpepenennoe copepxanne, nosaonnkuee coxpann1L
nap1nk. no1oHy 6ype1 ynopno nexa1L na caoeH anek1opa1e, kak co6aka na cene.
yxe cyHen o1rpms1L o1 6noka neHanme kyckn, nap1nn nepexnna opnn 6onLuo
packon n Hnoro Hanmx. eropnn, nocne npoaana na am6opax 2003 ropa, 6noko 1nxo
pornne1 na sapaopkax 6onLuo nonn1nkn.
ao1 ampaxae1 nn1epecm ne c1onLko sapy6exnoro, ckonLko o1euec1aennoro
eapeckoro kann1ana. a nouae uero paxe onnonnpye1 nopo peHnk, y ko1oporo
cao, o1nnunm o1 , na6op eapecknx cnoncopoa. pnako na am6opax
amc1ynnn ne nyuue 6noka.
pnp nn o6e nasaannme nap1nn cyHek1 anoaL nopnn1Lcn. nn na6npakuero
noc1enenno nnepunk aocxoxpennn panxennn noamx npaamx npnHenLkaaunecn nnua
nporopeaunx, o6ankpo1naunxcn nnpepoa - nnoxan peknaHa. osnnn - eapeckn
kann1an - ampac1 nH, aosHoxno, amxopnoe noco6ne, no apnp nn oc1aan1 na an1pnne
caoe qnpHm.
akoao o1nouenne y k nasaannmH nap1nnH? m aoace ne cun1aeH nx sa
neo6xopnHm pnn nonn1nueckoro paanoaecnn o6uec1aennm npo1naoaec. eH 6onee
Hm ne cun1aeH nx sa ampasn1ene nn1epecoa nekoe uenno pnn naunn n c1panm
o6uec1aenno rpynnm, c ko1opo neo6xopnHo cun1a1Lcn papn o6uero 6nara. nn nac
onn - o1kpm1m apar, npnHnpenne c ko1opmH neaosHoxno; no o1nouennk k pnpy
pen1ene a1oro kpmna Hnorne unenm naue nap1nn nn1ak1 uyac1aa kpoannkoa. cnn
naH cyxpeno npnp1n k anac1n, 1o ace pykoaopc1ao nasaannmx nap1n 6es ncknkuennn
6ype1 npepano cypy (cpepn pnpoamx unenoa, kak o6muno 6maae1, Hnoro nkpe
nananmx, Hano ocaepoHnennmx n ne paso6paaunxcn a cn1yaunn; nH cyp ne rposn1).
ecnn k 1oHy apeHenn Hopa1opn na cHep1nyk kasnL eue ne 6ype1 o1Henen, 1o
nyuuero noaopa pnn ero o1Henm n ncka1L 6ype1 ne nyxno.
1o ne npoc1o xapak1epnc1nka nauero o1nouennn k neknH nap1nnH: a1o konkpe1nan
sapaua. - nap1nn cnpaaepnnaoro aosHespnn. a1o npaannLno n xopouo.
218
EQH - HHR RH
ap1nn anac1n Hennk1cn, a an1nnapopnm pexnH, yam, oc1ae1cn. eropnn on
Ho6nnnsoaan sann1epecoaannmx nnu a nap1nn nop nasaanneH pnnc1ao, ko1opyk,
nocne nornouennn ek nyxkoackoro 1euec1aa, napop nposaan pno1oH. ak
nk6an nap1nn anac1n, pno1 o6Lepnnne1 pae ka1eropnn nkpe. o-nepamx, 1ex, k1o
npnuen no caoe aone - uec1onk6uea, kapLepnc1oa, c1peHnunxcn saun1n1L naxn1oe
ckopocnenmx nyaopnue, no 1akxe n o6Hany1mx, poaepunamx nkpe, npnamkunx
xpa1L o1 rocypapc1aa (c ko1opmH onn - oun6ouno! - onnue1aopnk1 anac1L)
noppepxkn n cnpaaepnnaoc1n. ao-a1opmx, 1ex, koro npn1nnynn a nap1nk nn6o no
ponry cnyx6m, nn6o uan1axoH n paanenneH, rpannuaunH c o6munmH pake1oH (a1o
o1nocn1cn k 6nsnecHenaH, ko1opmx neuapno o6pnpak1 sa nx po6poaonLno-
npnnypn1enLnoe unenc1ao a pno1e, kak po 1oro o6pnpann a , 1euec1ae n
pp.), nn6o a cnny aaccanLnmx o1nouenn c 6onee amcokonoc1aanennmHn nap1nuaHn
n 1.n. ak aespe, ec1L eue n ponn nkpe nananmx, o6Hany1mx n 1.p., no ne onn
penak1 noropy.
akon o nap1nnx, oc1aannkun naunonanLnme o1nouennn sa paHkaHn neranLno
nonn1nkn, sakpennn npnHn1nanyk, no ypo6nyk pnn anac1n 1pexunennyk
nonn1nueckyk c1pyk1ypy poccnckoro o6uec1aa: neame ( co 1oaapnun), npaame
( co 1oaapnun) n uen1p (pno1 - nap1nn anac1n 6es 1oaapnue). un1maan
oueanpnyk cna6oc1L o6onx qnanroa n nx necnoco6noc1L asn1L anac1L, nopo6nm
1pexunen nonpoc1y yc1anaannaae1 nonnoanac1ne nmneune nap1nn anac1n na ace
o6ospnHoe 6ypyuee.
Hmcn nonnoanac1nn pno1a - a yc1anoanennn a6conk1no anac1n npesnpen1a,
ko1opm qopHanLno ne coc1on1 a nap1nn, opnako nanpaanne1 kaxpm ee uar. cnn
nap1nn uen1pa nanne1cn caoero popa 6anancnpoH, ypaanoaeunaakunH npaao-neame
kpanoc1n, 1o o1ansannm o1 nap1nno nporpaHHm, o1 nap1nno pncunnnnnm n
o1ae1c1aennoc1n npesnpen1 - ac1ae1 nap aceHn ocnoanmHn nonn1nuecknHn nrpokaHn
aoo6ue, c1anoan1cn 6anancnpoH 6anancnpoa, aepxoanmH ap6n1poH. o ec1L -
a6conk1oH.
y1nn, c opno c1oponm, nnkoHy ne o1un1maae1cn, nnkoHy ne nopunnne1cn, nn sa u1o
ne o1aeuae1. ockonLky - ne unen nap1nn. ppyro c1oponm, on coxpanne1 nonnm
kon1ponL nap 1aknH aaxneunH nonn1nuecknH nnc1pyHen1oH, kak nap1nn anac1n.
snaun1, on pepxn1 a caonx pykax ne 1onLko ncnonnn1enLnyk, no n sakonopa1enLnyk
anac1L, nockonLky nHenno o6Lepnnennan qpakunn pno1 coaHec1no c
npnHmkakunHn k ne nopc1aanmHn qpakunnHn apopnm peny1a1 n ernonm
occnn cnoco6na npoaec1n a ocpyHe nk6o npopnk1oaannm peHneH sakon, nk6yk
aoo6ue nnnuna1nay peHnn. konL ckopo epepanLnoe o6panne npnnnno sakon o6
anpnopno aHnnc1nn npesnpen1a, uero 6m on nn na1aopnn sa o1nyuennm eHy cpok,
1o anac1L npesnpen1a a a1nx ycnoannx nepepac1ae1 paHkn aa1okpa1nn enLunnckoro
1nna n npeapauae1cn a a6conk1nyk anac1L.
Primo: esrpannunyk. Secundo: eckon1ponLnyk. Tertio: eso1ae1c1aennyk.
1ak, y1nn pepxn1 a pykax ack anac1L a occnn. k1o pepxn1 a pykax caHoro
y1nna? eropnn na a1o1 aonpoc Hoxno pa1L ue1kn n ncuepnmaakun o1ae1: y1nna,
npeeHnnka nLunna ao acex cHmcnax cnoaa, ace eue pepxa1, ao-nepamx, spannL, ao-
a1opmx - cnonnsnpoaannme , a a-1pe1Lnx - 1o1 cnH6nos ns 6maue
nap1noHenkna1ypm n cneucnyx6, ko1opm npnuen na cHeny cnonnsnpoaanno
ceHLe, noc1aanaue ero y anac1n. mxop ns-nop kon1ponn ceHLn ne Henne1,
ckonL Hoxno cypn1L no nonn1nuecknH nocnepc1annH, cy1n pena. nnpancL na
219
ynoHnny1m cnH6nos, y1nn, a caok ouepepL, pae1 eHy onopy - n kap1-6nanu na
panLneuee pasrpa6nenne occnn n saka6anenne ee nacenennn.
1ckpa - naue o1nouenne k nap1nn anac1n, k pnnc1ay. akne 6m saHeua1enLnme
nnunoc1n a ne nn coc1onnn, amnyxpenno nn, po6poaonLno nn, cosna1enLno nn nnn no
nepopasyHennk, a1a nap1nn a uenoH - nnc1pyHen1 kononnsaunn occnn n renounpa
pycckoro napopa. 1o Hm xopouo nonnHaeH.
co6yk onacnoc1L nap1nn anac1n nece1 a ce6e no1oHy, u1o npe1enpye1 na
na1pno1nueckn anek1opa1, onepnpyn pepxaannuecko nekcnko n nepnopnueckn
(acnep sa caHnH y1nnmH) npnnnHan nosm rocypapc1aennnka n na1pno1a. 1o
coaepuenno ne coo1ae1c1aye1 cyunoc1n npoaopnHo npesnpen1oH nonn1nkn, ko1opan
no aceH nanpaanennnH any1pn n ane occnn pesko npo1naopeun1 pyccknH nn1epecaH n
uannnnH.
pn a1oH nenLsn ckasa1L, u1o pnnc1ao - nk6nHan nap1nn y1nna, xo1n 6m no1oHy,
u1o po6pan 1pe1L nkpe a ne - o1 epesoackoro (nocne nepaoro npnsmaa), a eue
1pe1L - o1 yxkoaa (nocne a1oporo npnsmaa, 1ounee cnnnnnn). m na6nkpann
neyknkxne nonm1kn cospa1L e anL1epna1nay 1akoamx 1o co c1oponm akoaa
(apopnan nap1nn), 1o co c1oponm . nponoaa (ap1nn xnsnn). o a1o
okasanocL ne 1ak-1o npoc1o; nonm1kn konunnncL npoaanoH.
e 6onLno-o1 noako a1o nonyunnocL n y caHoro y1nna, ckono1nauero na ckopyk pyky
6nok opnna, qnnancnpoaanne ko1oporo uno ns npesnpen1ckoro qonpa, no ko1opm
co ckanpanoH pasaannncn, epaa nepepn nopor ocpyHm.
euac a cpepe nonn1onoroa ynopno noroaapnaak1, u1o npoaan n 6noka na
am6opax npnnec peHnk 6onLuyk ronoanyk 6onL, n6o: 1) noc1aann y1nna a kpane
nenoakoe nonoxenne kpane npaaoro, 2) paspyunn c1onL ypo6nyk 1pexunennyk
nonn1nueckyk c1pyk1ypy o6uec1aa. u1o a a1o cansn 1enepL o6uec1ao 6ypy1
nepec1panaa1L, nepenporpaHHnpyn ero na payxnap1nnyk cnc1eHy, kak a Hepnke.
pn a1oH opno nap1ne (npaao-na1pno1nuecko) cyxpeno c1a1L nHenno
pnnc1ay, a ppyro (neao-na1pno1nuecko) - Hopnqnunpoaanno opnne. apo
pyHa1L, pae nap1nn ponxnm 6ypy1, na pene, amnonnn1L ponL npaao n neao pyk
opnoro npesnpen1a.
exnnueckn a1o cpena1L, a npnnunne, necnoxno. apo 1onLko po6n1L, pasppo6na,
, ko1opan n 1ak 6anancnpye1 na rpann pasaana (cnacn6o kranoay), a 1akxe
nopnn1L nopor npoxopnHoc1n na am6opax a ocpyHy po 10-12%.
paapa, ec1L onacnoc1L, u1o a a1oH cnyuae Hm npnpeH ne k paynap1nno, a k
opnonap1nno cnc1eHe. oueHy?
-, ne qak1, u1o sa orosnnmH (ko1oporo, no cnyxaH, naHeuae1cn ykpenn1L
anykoH Kpnn npponoaa - peny1a1oH-xnpnnoaueH nekceeH n1poqanoamH)
noc1pon1cn 6onLuoe konnuec1ao napopy. o6e a1n nnunoc1n amsmaak1
nepoaepne, ecnn ne o1apauenne. y1pa1y nasLeaa, ko1opoHy noaepnna 6ecxosnan
uac1L npo1ec1noro anek1opa1a, n1poqanoamH ne aosHec1n1L. oo6ue, kak yxe
roaopnnocL amue, noc1aan1L pac1yueHy n kpennyueHy naunonan-na1pno1nueckoHy
panxennk nnpepa ns peHnn - sapaua, na Ho asrnnp, ne nHekuan peuennn a
npnnunne.
-, cospaaune pnnc1ao nkpn ne pnn 1oro ee cospaaann, u1o6m penn1L
anac1L c keH-nn6o eue. pnp nn annn1enLnme n penexnme 1ysm nauny1 nepe6era1L
o11ypa - ckpa. k1o x 1orpa nope1 a nerkoaecnyk, noHnnanLnyk, cyuec1aykuyk
220
Hnnoc1Lk npesnpen1a n 1o na 6yHare nap1nk? 1o aosLHe1 ee na copepxanne?
ypyuee 1ako nap1nn pnn Henn 1yHanno n paxe neaosHoxno. o a nk6oH cnyuae naH
c ne apnp nn no ny1n.
HHRXEHHE N1:
KKR HHR HM HYXH
( n n)
, epnnan pycckan nap1nn: kako ona ponxna 6m1L ceropnn? epep naHn pae
anL1epna1nam: 1) nap1nn c epnnc1aennmH nnpepoH (qkpepckoro 1nna) - nn6o c
amcunH konnek1nanmH opranoH ao rnaae; 2) nap1nn c xec1ko n opnosnauno
npeno pok1pnno - nn6o c o6ue o6Lepnnn1enLno nna1qopHo, a ocnoanoH
yc1panaakue acex n oc1aannkue sa cko6kaHn paso6uakune HoHen1m.
1. o nepaoHy noaopy Hoxno amckasa1Lcn opnosnauno. pena1L ceropnn c1aaky na
nap1nk qkpepckoro 1nna - snaun1 ace nponrpa1L. B-x,
, ko1oporo ro1oao npnsna1L 6onLunnc1ao yuac1nnkoa pycckoro panxennn. o
acnkoH cnyuae, o 1akoH am6ope napopa noka nnuero nnkoHy ne nsaec1no, xo1n
caHosaanuea xaa1ae1. osHoxno, npnpe1 apeHn n napop ykaxe1 naH na aoxpn (kak a1o
nponsouno a 6pa1cko enopyccnn). o noka Hm nHeeH nnuL 1o, u1o nHeeH. B-
x, npnsna1L opnoro nnpepa - snaun1 aa1oHa1nueckn o11onkny1L acex
oc1anLnmx: 1akoaa peanLnoc1L! pasyHnmx n cnpaaepnnamx ocnoaann pnn a1oro ne1.
(a ncknkuenneH 1ex cnyuaea, korpa pecypc pannoro pen1enn yxe amuepnan nnn korpa
pycckn nceapoqkpep caonHn xe pykaHn aeuae1 na ce6n npnmk packonLnnka n
cek1an1a - 1aknH ne1 nn npouennn, nn xopa a npnnnunyk koHnannk.) ak nn ceropnn
Hm 6ora1m nkpLHn, u1o6m pas6pacmaa1Lcn sakanennmHn a 6opL6e kappaHn? epL sa
Hnnyaune pecn1L ne1 yxe nponsouen o16op n o1cea: Hm snaeH ueny aceH, k1o oc1ancn
na nrpoaoH none. noamx papoaann u1o-1o ne anpa1L. u ,
u. oa1oHy npnxopn1cn sakpmaa1L rnasa na
neko1opme naun caoc1aa, u1o6m akkyHynnpoaa1L 1o nyuuee, u1o ec1L sa kaxpmH ns
nac.
axno nonn1L: o1cy1c1ane epnnoro aoxpn ne osnauae1 o1cy1c1ann xec1ko aep1nkann
ynpaanennn nap1ne. 6 a1oH pae1 ncnoe npepc1aanenne c1aa .
2. apo c1onL xe opnosnauno amckasa1Lcn n no a1opoHy noaopy. o1oan
Ozum q, neruyk a ocnoay cospannn , aa1opm
o6ka1ann ee, o6cyxpan a pasnmx aypn1opnnx, naHepenno am6pacmaan ns nee ace
n6nokn paspopa, ace kaHnn npe1knoaennn n oc1aannn nnuL 1o, u1o pec1an1enLno
nanne1cn o6unH pnn a6conk1noro 6onLunnc1aa naunonan-na1pno1oa.
kasanocL, u1o u qu 116 ,
un x, n ,
, - ,
, u . 1o
uec1napua1L nosnun! asae a1oro Hano pnn cospannn epnno pyccko nap1nn? asae
a1o nepoc1a1ounan nna1qopHa pnn epnnc1aa?
naanan oco6ennoc1L na1qopHm - a ne HnnnHyH npeonornn n HakcnHyH konkpe1nmx
nynk1oa, kacakunxcn saun1m pyccknx npaa n nn1epecoa. na konc1pyk1nana n
nnc1pyHen1anLna. ako nopxop c1poro nayuno o6ocnoaan. 6o, kak nokasmaae1
nc1opnn, m (a nonn1nueckn ak1na pycckoro napopa, kak yxe
roaopnnocL, npepc1aanen nHenno a1nH knaccoH)
zu . oncnk.
221
a1epnanLnan, counanLnan, kynL1ypnan neopnopopnoc1L n paso6uennoc1L
nn1ennnrenunn, nsnauanLno caoc1aennm e nnpnanpyannsH aepy1 k 1oHy, u1o
nopnnnnoro epnnc1aa uac1o ne1 paxe Hexpy epnnoHmunennnkaHn. ak 1onLko
nn1ennnrenunn nm1ae1cn o6Lepnnn1Lcn aokpyr neknx npe, npeanoa (nopuepkneH:
aokpyr neHa1epnanLnmx nn1epecoa), neHepnenno n kaxpm pas aoccospae1cn
cn1yaunn: "e6epL, ak n yka". H kx M cM cM yMM a
n -cMy.
a npnHepaHn ne napo xopn1L paneko. nc1opnn occnn 6mno neckonLko nonm1ok
nn1ennnrenunn o6Lepnnn1Lcn. pocnH asrnnp na nnx.
, nasmaaeHoe peka6pnsHoH, sapopnnocL a 1816 r. a koHnannn uec1epmx
oqnuepoa, cospaaunx "oks cnacennn" nnn "6uec1ao nc1nnnmx n aepnmx cmnoa
1euec1aa". xe a 1820 r. a "okse 6naropenc1ann", ampocueH na a1o ocnoae,
nacun1maanocL okono 200 unenoa, npknx npepc1aan1ene paopnncko nn1ennnrenunn.
mpannyncn pnp nnpepoa, pasropenacL any1pennnn npenan 6opL6a. 1o npnaeno k
caHopocnycky a 1821 r. paspnpaeHoro npo1naopeunnHn "oksa 6naropenc1ann" n
cospannk, nocne pnpa npoHexy1ounmx qopH, Kxnoro n eaepnoro o6uec1a. e
1onLko a1n o6uec1aa c1onnn na pasnmx nna1qopHax, no n any1pn nnx ne 6mno
epnnc1aa, ampennnncL papnkanLnme n yHepennme 1euennn. 6un nsmk nH 6mno
na1n nenerko. neponroH apeHenn "pas6pop n ua1anne" poc1nrnn 1aknx c1enene,
u1o pnp nan6onee 1pesao Hmcnnunx peka6pnc1oa, 1aknx kak . yprenea, . ynnn, .
aapaea, . pn6oepoa, . a1ennn n ppyrne, pasouapoaaauncL, o1xopn1 o1 panxennn.
esaponro po snocuac1noro aocc1annn caH aaen ec1enL, yuac1nnk eue "oksa
cnacennn", rnaaa Kxnoro o6uec1aa, aa1op yccko paapm n aoo6ue uen1panLnan
qnrypa peka6pnsHa, o1uanauncL a o6ueH pene, co6pancn np1n c noannno k
nHnepa1opy nekcanppy. nnpep eaepnoro o6uec1aa . py6euko a caHm penL
aocc1annn 14 peka6pn 1825 r. ne npnuen k aocc1aaunH, npoaanna ace peno, koneuno,
ne ns 1pycoc1n, a no any1penneHy necornacnk c papnkanaHn, aosrnaanneHmHn
mneeamH. noaL "o6Lepnnn1L" peka6pnc1oa cHorna nnuL ka1opra n ccmnka. 1o ne
acex.
ue opna saHe1nan nonm1ka pyccko nn1ennnrenunn o6Lepnnn1Lcn nponsouna a 1880
r. a ockae na yuknncknx 1opxec1aax. a1oHy HoHen1y ona 6mna aecLHa
ocnoaa1enLno paspenena na pasnnunme rpynnm, anonne nenpnHnpnHo ppyr k ppyry
o1nocnunecn. o na kakoe-1o apeHn nokasanocL, u1o caepunnocL uypo: c1apme pacnpn
6mnn sa6m1m, npenme aparn appyr o6nnnncL nop cenLk nyuknnckoro rennn, na opnn
penL ace nouyac1aoaann asanHnyk nk6oaL n nonnHanne. a6pesxnn npnspak 6uero
ena. ouno paxe po 1oro, u1o Hnnnc1p npocaeuennn . a6ypoa ny6nnuno
pacuenoaancn c onanLnmH nnca1eneH aanoH ypreneamH, sa u1o anocnepc1ann 6mn
nnuen nop1qenn. pnako yxe nasaa1pa nauancn nerkn o6Hen konkoc1nHn, ko1opm
nouen kpeuenpo, n roc1n pasLexanncL c npaspnnka eue 6onLunHn aparaHn.
c1opnn upepn1enLnoro co6pannn, 1akxe opnopneanan, Horna 6m nocnyxn1L
nocnepnnH n y6epn1enLnmH npnHepoH a nonLsy 1esnca o neaosHoxnoc1n o6Lepnnennn
nn1ennnrenunn, ecnn 6m ne eue opnn Hanonsaec1nm, no ouenL ampasn1enLnm
annsop. Hee1cn a anpy nonm1ka cospa1L a 1918 r. C nnrck y,
napnpy c oae1aHn pa6ounx n kpec1Lnncknx peny1a1oa. mn cosaan yupepn1enLnm
cLesp, na ko1opm npn6mnn, a ocnoanoH, yun1enn n apaun; no cLesp pasLexancn, 1ak n
ne ampa6o1aa a xope pe6a1oa nn nporpaHHm, nn nna1qopHm, nnuero...
C , u x x x x
x, x . 3u
x u, s.
, nayuno ocosnannan n ue1kan yc1anoaka na pannoH a1ane nap1nnoro
c1pon1enLc1aa ponxna 6m1L nHenno 1akoaa, kakoaa ona ec1L:
222
x , x
. nkako pok1pnnanLnm nopxop a a1oH pene
npnnunnnanLno neponyc1nH. 1o amnyxpennan nosnunn,
u m m. k6me npen, 1eH 6onee - xec1ko nponncannme,
cHory1 o6Lepnnn1L, ao-nepamx, 1onLko uac1L yuac1nnkoa pycckoro panxennn n npn1oH
ne caHyk 6onLuyk, a ao-a1opmx - nnuL na apeHn. 6o npouecc ppo6nennn npeonorn
n pennrn c ampenenneH ns nnx ace noamx 1euenn n cek1 - 6eckoneuen. aknapmaa1L
ero a ocnoay epnno pyccko nonn1nuecko nap1nn - rnynoc1L n npec1ynnenne.
yxno ykasa1L na opny oco6ennyk onacnoc1L, nopc1eperakuyk pycckoe naunonan-
na1pno1nueckoe panxenne. ak anpno yxe ns caHoro nasaannn, a a1oH panxennn
npncy1c1ayk1 (n conepnnuak1!) pae npenme poHnnan1m: naunonannc1nueckan n
na1pno1nueckan. unc1oH anpe onn ne cnnukoH coaHec1nHm: acnkn naunonannc1 -
na1pno1, no paneko ne acnkn na1pno1 - naunonannc1. 1euenne c1one1n nn1epecm
pyccko naunn 1o ocyuec1annnncL, 1o nopaannnncL rocypapc1aoH. pnamunmH c1ano
nonoxenne, korpa sapaun rocypapc1aennoro c1pon1enLc1aa sacnonnnn co6o, yam,
sapaun c1pon1enLc1aa naunonanLnoro. ypnHen1 1akoro nopxopa coxpannncn a knnue
na1pno1oa naaa occnn!, na ko1opm nocnepoaa1enLnm naunonannc1 o1ae1n1:
nyxy pycckoHy napopy!. aunonannc1 xe cun1ae1 sanoaepLk noHep opnn: aunn
nepanuna - rocypapc1ao a1opnuno; na1pno1y nopo6nm nopxop uyxp. aknH o6pasoH,
konqnnk1nm no1enunan caHoro 1epHnna naunonan-na1pno1nsH anonne oueanpen.
pn nonm1ke nn6o naunonannc1oa, nn6o na1pno1oa (pepxaannkoa,
rocypapc1aennnkoa, nHnepuea) npnpa1L panxennk kpen a caok c1opony, packon
c1anoan1cn npak1nueckn nens6exen. 1oro nnkak nenLsn ponyc1n1L. eo6xopnHo
aceHn cnnaHn (aonpekn aceH apaxecknH nonm1kaH packono1L nac) coxpann1L 6ananc
Hexpy naunonannc1nuecknH n na1pno1nuecknH kpmnaHn pycckoro panxennn, a
uac1noc1n, a .
Cn u m m, a1o sapaua
cnepykuero, a1oporo a1ana. onLko 1orpa, korpa nap1nn cnoxn1cn n saHe1 npounoe
Hec1o a nonn1nueckoH packnape c1panm, korpa Hm peunH ocnoanme neo1noxnme
npak1nueckne sapaun nauero panxennn (a uac1noc1n, cHennH an1nnapopnm pexnH na
pycckyk anac1L), Hm cHoxeH nosaonn1L ce6e pockouL pnckyccn, pockouL pasan1nn n
unnqoakn nap1nno npeonornn. Cn m
- n u. n 6onLue nn HenLue.
H , ! - ao1 nau peans na
pannoH a1ane nap1c1pon1enLc1aa.
A Cun,
Hun N10-11(48-49) 2001 .
HHRXEHHE N2:
HHHRBHmH KHHR H HRHHK
K s
yren6epra Hano nsaec1no pyccknH un1a1ennH. Hexpy 1eH, c 1916
ropa n po caHoro saka1a pe1Lero exa on 6mn 1eH caHmH uenoaekoH, ko1opm a
onpepennkue c1enenn annnn na o6uec1aennoe cosnanne epHannn. ou1n 30 ne1 (!)
ero konuepn - nnqopHaunonnan nHnepnn - naxopnn, cospaaan, noc1aannn,
nn1epnpe1npoaan qak1m xnsnn peanLno n npeapauan nx a qak1m yHc1aenno xnsnn
ace naunn. 1928 r. coae1ckn "ypnannc1" nncan o neH: CM M r
k FM - Fyrr... c cn r n
223
FM... kxycn c c ryrrckM kM xnkM rMnM.
HM Fyrr "kM knM rMck ".
epeouenn1L ponL a1oro "koponn" a qopHnpoaannn neHeukoro pyxa - a snaun1,
neHeuko nc1opnn - n anpnHL neaosHoxno. opanLnan pea6nnn1aunn neHuea nocne
aoennoro nopaxennn n epcanLckoro poroaopa, konconnpaunn naunn n noam nopLeH
ee caHocosnannn, npaac1aennm paspma c noc1mpno aksnc1enune eHapcko
pecny6nnkn n ee koneunoe nopaxenne, noam asne1 epHannn n ee ouenoHnnkune
ycnexn ao acex cqepax xnsnn a 1932-1939 rr. - a1o a orpoHno c1enenn sacnyra
yren6epra, ue konuepn npeonornueckn, pyxoano nopro1oann ace a1n nepeHenm. (
1oH, u1o n1nep, c1aaun k 1oHy apeHenn 6eckon1ponLnmH neynpaanneHmH
pnk1a1opoH, yHyppnncn ackope noxepn1L ace a1n 6nec1nune pesynL1a1m, Hne yxe
npnxopnnocL nnca1L panee.)
asyHee1cn, yren6epr n ero peno 6mnn nenaanc1nm neHeuknH peHokpa1aH n
kpacnmH, uero onn n ne ckpmaann, no Hacu1a6 n snauenne ero ponn npnsnaaann
paxe aparn. (ak, nnpep neaoro kpmna ap1nn uen1pa, 1erepaanLp, cun1an, co caonx
nosnun, nan6onee onacnmH nHenno ryren6eproackn konuepn, ko1opm
Honononnsnpye1 n o1paanne1 o6uec1aennoe Hnenne c1panm a an1npecny6nnkanckoH
pyxe.)
1o xe a1o sa qenoHen: konuepn yren6epra? 1kypa on asnncn? k1o 1ako caH
yren6epr, nnkorpa ne nesun a kpecno npaan1enn c1panm, a nnpepm naunn, necHo1pn
na ace k 1oHy 6nnc1a1enLnme aosHoxnoc1n?
an6onee noppo6no (xo1n, no nonn1nmH npnunnaH, nan6onee npnc1pac1no) pacckasano
o6 a1oH a knnre spannn koaneanua ncka pecca eHapcko epHannn
(aanoao, 1995). ouneHcn na nee.
FnM ynM cMynM nnc Anq Fyrr nnnncn, -
nnue1 nck, - nM, cny nn c r x
n cn c nck nk Hycc... n n nnn
n Kn kMcc, n nckM nM ycckM
Mcc qc. Hky rcycy cnyxy, Fyrr n
Mmn 3 cn c kM r qkqyck k, c
1909 r. 10 n rnnnn n k Ky Bcc. r
Mk ck qM, n Mnc kMMyc, n
rM cc r, ck ,
y yren6epr okasancn nopxopnue kanpnpa1ypo nn Mnc Py,
kr mn c rcck k ckn nn r
yknn. C 1 nn 1919 r. Fyrr n kM k
k Ky cqy nck c Ky r knnr
nc nncn rM nM, cn k kMy n
r. 1919 r. cn yM cr Mk
nc, rn , rMck kn, rm cnk
cyc c Mck cynk, 1928 r. - cnM a rn
ycckr kc. 1931 r. Fyrr Mc c FnM rn
cny Fyrck q, 1933 r. cn McM nc M
nc Fn.
epexna n n1nepa, n pe1n ex, yren6epr a
1951 r., a co6c1aennoH pockounoH noHec1Le a .
mn nn yren6epr rennanLnmH epnnonnunmH cospa1eneH caoero konuepna, ero
nonnoanac1nmH xosnnnoH, kak a1o Hoxe1 nokasa1Lcn nenocanuennoHy? nkak ne1.
oneuno, yren6epr 6mn Ho1opoH acero npepnpnn1nn, yHnmH, aneprnunmH, aoneamH,
ueneyc1peHnennmH. pnako - n k rnnnn cn, ckmncn
224
ck "Xnc ", Mmn 85% rnc r
k ccnmn 12 nk... B 12 nk n kM
knnrn, n ykc Fyrry. H nnnnc
nM nM ar k. O n M nM,
nckM ynnM Mryc qcc, k cr
cnc Mc. H nk ... ry Fyrr n
n ycn. H xn F nnu
"4 Uu (specL n panee ampeneno Hno. - ..).
nna kann1ana, c1onauero sa cnnno yren6epra 6mna konoccanLna: 1onLko
nenocpepc1aenno a npepnpnn1nn konuepna 6mno anoxeno 70 Hnn. Hapok a
c1a6nnnsnpoaanno aank1e. pyr yren6epra canuennnk . pay6 nocne a1opo
Hnpoao aonm nncan: Ky x cyMM n My
ncM kyrM kk xMy ynnMy.
cno, u1o aknapmaan penLrn a cpepc1aa Haccoao nnqopHaunn, uac1L ko1opmx 6mna
saaepoHo y6m1ouno, a cypL6a ppyrnx - neonpepenenno, nokpoan1enn yren6epra,
oc1aaaaunecn sa kynncaHn, unn na 6onLuo qnnancoam pnck. pnako - n a a1oH
6nec1nue nponannncL cnoco6noc1n neHeuknx kann1annc1oa k c1pa1ernueckoHy
Hmunennk - c k cc n
m u. Hc k kn
nnnnc k MM nM ccnM, kr nc
nn r nmr yknn, m mn
nn .
1o ckasa1L a saaepuenne? snoxennm Ha1epnan nac1onLko kpacnopeuna, u1o
po6aan1L oc1ae1cn 1onLko opno: TAK 3TO QEHAETCR.
A.C., Hun N 1(5) 1997 .
HHRXEHHE N3:
K q (n)
YKM HQE
H konc1n1yunonnm qepepanLnm sakon o6ecneunaae1 peuenne
a1nnuecknx npo6neH pycckoro napopa, k kakoamH ceropnn o1nocn1cn, a nepayk
ouepepL, cnepykune:
- , , -
u , nm m
um n;
- u
q n
m . - u
, n n, n
u nx x;
- u-u
u x x
n ;
225
- , mn
;
- q sq q
u , x n
m ;
- x s x
x u-nx q, mx s;
- q x nnx, x
x x m m m;
- .
1. q r 3
akon nop1aepxpae1 n sakpennne1 nc1opnueckyk ponL n qak1nueckoe snauenne
pycckoro napopa kak epnnc1aenno rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn occnn. akon
perynnpye1 na pannoH ocnoaannn o1nouenne opranoa rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn
n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn k pycckoHy napopy.
2. n, n 3
nac1onueH akone ncnonLsyk1cn cnepykune ocnoanme nonn1nn: naunn; pycckan
naunn (pycckne); pycckan pnacnopa sa py6exoH; rocypapc1aoo6pasykuan naunn;
HononaunonanLnan c1pana; 6uec1aenno-rocypapc1aennm oHn1e1 no npo6neHaH
pycckoro napopa; pycckan o6uec1aennan oprannsaunn; paonan naunonanLnan
npen1nunoc1L.
H - qasa pasan1nn a1noca, a ko1opo on o6pe1ae1 cyaepennoc1L n
rocypapc1aennoc1L.
().
yccko naune npnsnae1cn epnnan coaokynnoc1L nkpe, nHekunx pycckyk
a1nnueckyk npnnapnexnoc1L.
ycckan a1nnueckan npnnapnexnoc1L nop1aepxpae1cn ee sakpennenneH a pokyHen1ax,
ypoc1oaepnkunx nnunoc1L. n6o, ecnn nnuo nanne1cn necoaepuennone1nnH, a
pokyHen1ax, ypoc1oaepnkunx nnunoc1L opnoro ns popn1ene. n6o na ocnoaannn
sananennn nnua, anapekuero pyccknH nsmkoH n nHekuero ne Henee opnoro
pokyHen1anLno nop1aepxpennoro pycckoro npepka ao a1opoH konene, o caoe
naunonanLnoc1n, ko1opoe coaepuae1cn a yc1anoanennoH qepepanLnmH sakonoH
nopnpke.
paao na npnsnanne ce6n pyccknHn nHek1 1akxe nnua pycckoro nponcxoxpennn,
ko1opme caHn nnn nx npepkn po 1pe1Lero konena nopaeprnncL nacnnLc1aenno
penaunonannsaunn a pesynL1a1e naunonanLnmx konqnnk1oa nnn rocypapc1aenno
nonn1nkn n ero npepuec1aennnkoa a 1917-1991 rr. n sa npepenaHn occnn c
1991 r.
226
e Hory1 6m1L npnsnanm pyccknHn nnua, nHekune opnoro pycckoro popn1enn, no npn
a1oH ne Horyune nHe1L paonyk naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L a cnny naunonanLnoro
nponcxoxpennn a1oporo ns popn1ene cornacno sakonaH, yc1anoanennnH n 1papnunnH
naunn a1oro popn1enn.
ycckyk naunk coc1aannk1 pycckne, nannkunecn rpaxpanaHn occnn n pycckne, ne
nannkunecn rpaxpanaHn occnn, noc1onnno nnn apeHenno npoxnaakune sa
rpannue, kak nHekune nnoc1pannoe rpaxpanc1ao, 1ak n nnua 6es rpaxpanc1aa.
onn1nn pycckan naunn n pycckn napop paanosnaunm.
n x - npepc1aan1enn pyccko naunn (rpaxpane occnn,
nnoc1pannmx rocypapc1a n nnua 6es rpaxpanc1aa), npoxnaakune noc1onnno sa
npepenaHn occnn.
m - naunn, coo1ae1c1aykuan opnoapeHenno aceH
nnxeykasannmH kpn1epnnH: 1) nc1opnueckn cospaauan 1o nnn nnoe rocypapc1ao, 2)
coc1aannkuan a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao ero nacenennn, 3) nannkuancn ero
a1nononn1nuecko ocnoao n ckpeno, 4) nsmk ko1opo nanne1cn rocypapc1aennmH
nsmkoH pannoro rocypapc1aa.
M - , m m
( 67%) nx .
4 nv
.
-r K n n r (r
q 1x 4) cospae1cn npn pesnpen1e occnn
a 1euenne Hecnua co pnn ac1ynnennn a cnny nac1onuero sakona. aannqnunpoaannoe
6onLunnc1ao oHn1e1a ponxno coc1on1L ns npepc1aan1ene pyccknx o6uec1aennmx
oprannsaun.
r - o6uec1aennan oprannsaunn, coc1onuan ns
nnu pyccko naunonanLnoc1n n nHekuan yc1aanme uenn n sapaun, nanpaanennme na
peuenne kynL1ypnmx, counanLnmx n nonn1nuecknx npo6neH pyccko naunn.
Q v - npnnapnexnoc1L nnunoc1n k payH nnn
6onee a1nnuecknH o6unoc1nH a cnny pasnonaunonanLnoro nponcxoxpennn ee
popn1ene, cospakuan pnn panno nnunoc1n aosHoxnoc1L am6opa co6c1aenno
naunonanLnoc1n. cnyuae, ecnn sakonm, yc1anoanennn n 1papnunn a1noca opnoro ns
popn1ene opnosnauno yc1anaannaak1 naunonanLnyk npeeHc1aennoc1L no nnnnn
pannoro popn1enn, aosHoxnoc1L am6opa orpannunaae1cn n nnunoc1L o6Lek1nano
nnuae1cn paono npen1nunoc1n.
3. Hx
yccknHn npnsnak1cn rpaxpane occnn, rpaxpane nnoc1pannoro rocypapc1aa, a 1akxe
nnua 6es rpaxpanc1aa, coo1ae1c1aykune onpepenennk, npnaepennoHy a c1.2.
4.
227
ycckan naunn npnsnae1cn kopenno, 1n1ynLno n epnnc1aenno
rocypapc1aoo6pasykue na ace 1eppn1opnn occnn.
o1pe6noc1n n nn1epecm pycckoro napopa nopnexa1 o1paxennk a qepepanLnmx
ueneamx n pernonanLnmx nporpaHHax, ponxnm noc1onnno yun1maa1Lcn a
nonn1nuecko, akonoHnuecko n kynL1ypno xnsnn pecny6nnk n aa1onoHnmx
o6pasoaann occnn.
eHnn n ppyrne npnpopnme pecypcm ace occnn ncnonLsyk1cn n oxpannk1cn kak
ocnoaa xnsnn n pen1enLnoc1n rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero pycckoro napopa.
5. -
ycckne coc1aannk1 a6conk1noe 6onLunnc1ao nacenennn occnn. oa1oHy occnn
nanne1cn HononaunonanLno c1pano a coo1ae1c1ann c o6uenpnnn1mHn nopHaHn n
npnnunnaHn Hexpynapopnoro npaaa.
6. nx
ac1onunH sakonoH npnsnae1cn, u1o epnnan pycckan naunn okasanacL a pesynL1a1e
ne6naronpnn1nmx nc1opnuecknx o6c1on1enLc1a a paspenennoH nonoxennn. na nHee1
npaao na aoccoepnnenne HnpnmH ny1eH n a coo1ae1c1ann c nopHaHn Hexpynapopnoro
npaaa. paaoame o6c1on1enLc1aa, am1ekakune ns pannoro npnsnannn, perynnpyk1cn
qepepanLnmH sakonoH paspenennoH nonoxennn pyccko naunn.
pnsnae1cn npaao pyccknx no nponcxoxpennk nkpe na rpaxpanc1ao occnn ane
saancnHoc1n o1 Hec1a noc1onnnoro xn1enLc1aa; npouepypa nonyuennn poccnckoro
rpaxpanc1aa pyccknHn no nponcxoxpennk nkpLHn ponxna nHe1L sanan1enLnm, a ne
paspeun1enLnm xapak1ep.
7. n m n
x
ycckne, npoxnaakune sa npepenaHn occnn, nHek1 neo1LeHneHoe npaao na
noppepxky rocypapc1aoH nx c1peHnennn coxpann1L a1nnueckyk caHo6m1noc1L nnn
aepny1Lcn na nc1opnueckyk opnny.
pranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn o6nsanm
noppepxnaa1L pen1enLnoc1L pyccknx naunonanLno-kynL1ypnmx aa1onoHn,
o6uec1aennmx o6Lepnnenn, kpnpnuecknx n qnsnuecknx nnu, cnoco6c1aykuyk
o6yc1poc1ay pyccknx, aosapauakunxcn ns Hec1 noc1onnnoro npoxnaannn sa py6exoH
a occnk.
nckpnHnnaunn rpaxpan pyccko naunonanLnoc1n, npoxnaakunx sa py6exoH,
ponxna c1a1L ocnoaanneH pnn nepecHo1pa nonn1nkn occnn a o1nouennn
nnoc1pannoro rocypapc1aa, a ko1opoH 1akan pnckpnHnnaunn nHee1 Hec1o. a1nx
cnyuanx paan1enLc1ao occnn o6nsano (no npepc1aanennk 6uec1aenno-
rocypapc1aennoro oHn1e1a no npo6neH pycckoro napopa, aepyuero nenpepmanm
Honn1opnnr npo6neHm n exekaap1anLno nspakuero coo1ae1c1aykune o1ue1m)
npnnn1L ace neo6xopnHme Hepm, nanpaanennme na saun1y npaa pycckoro nacenennn.
228
8. nx r srqvr

occnn a nnue acex ae1ae kak uen1panLno anac1n, 1ak n anac1n a cy6Lek1ax
occncko epepaunn npnnnHae1 ace Hepm k yaennuennk poxpaeHoc1n pyccknx kak
rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn, HakcnHanLno ncnonLsyn caon qnnancoame,
oprannsaunonnme n nponaranpnc1ckne aosHoxnoc1n. 6uec1aennm oHn1e1 no
npo6neHaH pycckoro napopa nanne1cn o1ae1c1aennmH sa ncnonnenne panno c1a1Ln
akona n nonLsye1cn npnopn1e1no noppepxko acex ae1ae anac1n. cnoanan sapaua
oHn1e1a - o6ecneun1L poc1 a6conk1no n o1nocn1enLno uncnennoc1n pycckoro
napopa.
9.
pranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn
ocyuec1annk1 noppepxky pyccko kynL1ypm kak 6asoaoro qak1opa coxpanennn n
pasan1nn naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn pycckoro napopa, nrpakuero ocnoanyk
nn1erpnpykuyk ponL a coxpanennn epnnoro unannnsaunonnoro npoc1panc1aa a
nonna1nnueckoH, no HononaunonanLnoH occnckoH rocypapc1ae. kasannme opranm
noppepxnaak1 pycckne napopnme xypoxec1aennme npoHmcnm - ynnkanLnoe nanenne
Hnpoaoro kynL1ypnoro nacnepnn, okasmaak1 copec1ane pyccknH naunonanLno-
kynL1ypnmH aa1onoHnnH acex ypoane.
10.
pranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn
ocyuec1annk1 Hepm no aocc1anoanennk, coxpanennk n pasan1nk pycckoro nsmka -
rocypapc1aennoro nsmka occnn, aaxneuero cpepc1aa HexnaunonanLnoro o6uennn.
opranax rocypapc1aenno anac1n, opranax Hec1noro caHoynpaanennn,
rocypapc1aennmx yupexpennnx acex ypoane yno1pe6nenne pycckoro nsmka
o6nsa1enLno.
nanne pycckoro nsmka nanne1cn neo6xopnHmH n poc1a1ounmH ycnoaneH pnn
ocyuec1anennn ns6npa1enLnoro npaaa rpaxpan na am6opax a opranm anac1n acex
ypoane.
pranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn
npnnnHak1 ace Hepm pnn noppepxkn pycckoro nsmka a c1panax n pn6an1nkn n
copec1ayk1 ero npnsnannk a a1nx c1panax a kauec1ae pononnn1enLnoro
rocypapc1aennoro nsmka.
11. n
pranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n occnn n cy6Lek1oa occncko epepaunn
ocyuec1annk1 Hepm no cospannk n pasan1nk pe1cknx poukonLnmx yupexpenn,
cpepnnx yue6nmx saaepenn c yrny6nennmH nsyuenneH pycckoro nsmka, nn1epa1ypm,
nc1opnn n kynL1ypm - cnc1eHm naunonanLnoro aocnn1annn n o6pasoaannn.
229
ocypapc1ao rapan1npye1 n o6ecneunaae1 pyccknH pe1nH npaao na o6pasoaanne na
pycckoH nsmke na acex ypoannx n na ace 1eppn1opnn occnn.
12. q
ycoqo6nn ec1L ny6nnunoe ampaxenne nenpnnsnn n neyaaxennn k pyccknH. na
kaannqnunpye1cn kak aos6yxpenne naunonanLno apaxpm, nanne1cn npec1ynnenneH
npo1na rocypapc1aa n npecnepye1cn a yronoanoH nopnpke.
13. r r n r n
ac1onunH sakonoH npnsnae1cn qak1 renounpa no o1nouennk k pycckoHy napopy.
paan1enLc1ay occnn npepnncmaae1cn a Hecnunm cpok co pnn ac1ynnennn a cnny
nac1onuero sakona cospa1L npn 6uec1aenno-rocypapc1aennoH oHn1e1e no
npo6neHaH pycckoro napopa pesamuanyk rocypapc1aennyk koHnccnk () no
paccnepoaannk qak1oa renounpa pycckoro napopa n npeoponennk ero nocnepc1an.
ponxnm, napnpy c oqnunanLnmHn npepc1aan1ennHn Hnnnc1epc1a n aepoHc1a,
ao1n am6opnme npepc1aan1enn pyccknx o6uec1aennmx oprannsaun.
14. -nn n r
1x 4
ycckn napop kak rocypapc1aoo6pasykun ponxen nHe1L ao acex opranax
rocypapc1aenno anac1n n opranax Hec1noro caHoynpaanennn occncko epepaunn
kao1m, coo1ae1c1aykune ero ypenLnoHy aecy a coc1aae nacenennn coo1ae1c1aykue
apHnnnc1pa1nano-1eppn1opnanLno epnnnum.
15. 3mv nx
ac1onun epepanLnm akon ac1ynae1 a cnny co pnn ero oqnunanLnoro
ony6nnkoaannn.
3AKOHOHOEKT


n 25 2001 .
x x .
Hun NN 4-5(42-43) 2001 .
mYHREHHE .H. EBRH
YQEHHH QYME 25 MR 2001 r.
H HRMEHKHX RYUHHRX H 3KHHEKY
YKM HQE
230
caoero amc1ynnennn n xouy cocna1Lcn na ampasn1enLnm npnHep. epep
naHn onc1n1yunn kpannm. 1o rnacn1 ocnoano sakon a1o c1panm no noaopy
ykpannckoro napopa (nnn naunn, u1o a pannoH cnyuae 1oxe npaannLno)?
ao1 u1o:
Cun 11. F m
, n, u, m
s, u, n x
x ux um Y.
npn1e, nannuo ue1koe paspenenne: ec1L -
rocypapc1aoo6pasykun napop c ero nc1opnuecknH cosnanneH, 1papnunnHn n
kynL1ypo, a ec1L napnpy c nnH 1akxe n kpannm, n
m. a1o a cocepneH, caHoH 6nnskoH rocypapc1ae, c
ko1opmH Hm aekaHn xnnn aHec1e, xnnn opnnHn npeanaHn n 1papnunnHn, opno
aepo, o6ue nc1opne. oueHy xe y nnx - 1ak, a y nac nnaue, noueHy y nac ne1
1ako noc1anoakn aonpoca? epL kpanna ne Henee nonna1nnueckan c1pana, ueH
occnn, a ne xnae1 6onee c1a napopoa, napopnoc1e n nneHen. o nn y koro ne
noaopaunaae1cn nsmk (pa nnk1o n ne ocHennaae1cn, n6o a1o npoc1o nesakonno,
npo1naopeun1 onc1n1yunn kpannm) nasaa1L ee HnoronaunonanLno!
anee:
Cun 12. Y nn u-
ux nx , mx
.
o6pauak aaue annHanne, rocnopa: 1akoaa nopHa ocnoanoro sakona 6pa1ckoro
napopa ykpannuea! akoao nx o1nouenne k caoeHy napopy, nesaancnHo o1 Hec1a ero
npoxnaannn. u1o y nac aHec1o a1oro? konLko Hnnnnonoa pyccknx 6poueno naHn na
nponsaon cypL6m? o HenLue Hepe 20 Hnn. a 6nnxneH sapy6exLe n 10 - a panLneH.
o nac1onuero apeHenn nx npaaa n nn1epecm nano nepoc1a1ouno yun1maak1cn
poccncko rocypapc1aenno nonn1nko, necHo1pn na sakon rocypapc1aenno
nonn1nke occncko epepaunn a o1nouennn coo1euec1aennnkoa sa py6exoH.
1oHy xe coo1euec1aennnkn - nonn1ne nonn1nueckn pasHm1oe, nekoppek1noe. o
cHmcny ynoHnny1oro sakona a coo1euec1aennnkax okasanncL ace, k1o popnncn a
6maueH ; a1o - aonnkun a6cypp.
anee:
Cun 13. 3n, , q x,
, xnn x Y,
u muq, mu
() s nnmn z
Y . O Y
nm
n x, x n K.
K uun z
.
m nonnnn? axpm, k1o xopn1 no ykpanncko seHne, xopn1 no seHne,
npnnapnexaue ykpannckoHy napopy. axpm, k1o pmun1 aospyxoH na kpanne,
pmun1 aospyxoH, npnnapnexaunH ykpannckoHy napopy. ace ponxnm o6 a1oH sna1L
n noHnn1L, xo1n nonLsoaa1Lcn a1nHn npnpopnmHn papaHn Hoxe1 kaxpm rpaxpannn!
231
aepL ao1 u1o aaxno: nnk1o a Hnpe ne nonpekae1 kpanny ee onc1n1yune, ne
roaopn1, u1o a ne npe1 peuL o napyuennn npaa uenoaeka. kpanna - yaaxaeHm unen
Hnpoaoro coo6uec1aa, c ne ppyxn1 aunnr1on, ona sannHae1 1pe1Le Hec1o a Hnpe no
o6LeHy aHepnkancko qnnancoao noHoun nocne spannn n rnn1a, ee xpy1 c
pacnpoc1ep1mHn o6Ln1nnHn n a n a . naun1, c 1oukn spennn Hexpynapopnmx
o6uenpnsnannmx nopH n npaann y nee c a1o onc1n1yune ace a nopnpke.
npnaen pannm npnHep, u1o6m ace anpenn, ,
, m n, x x, nx
x, n x nx x, . apop, y
ko1oporo ec1L ueHy noyun1Lcn. apop, ko1opm cnoco6en n ppyrnx sac1aan1L yaaxa1L
caon npaaa n nn1epecm.
asae 1ak o6c1on1 peno y nac, y nauero pycckoro napopa? aepL Hm naHnoro 6onee
Hnorouncnennm, nexenn ykpannckn napop. a coc1aae nacenennn caoe c1panm Hm
sannHaeH ne okono 60%, kak ykpannum, a 83-85%. m Hornn 6m 1pe6oaa1L ne Henee
yaaxn1enLnoro o1nouennn k ce6e. u1o na caHoH pene?
orpa-1o apnuea ckasan: pec1Lnnnn a sakone Hep1a. eropnn Hm ckaxeH
ycckn uenoaek a sakone Hep1a. ak Hm snaeH, a onc1n1yunn occnn cnoao
pycckn ynoHnny1o nnuL opnn pas, n 1o - ne a cansn c napopoH, a a cansn c
nsmkoH. nkako sakon a occnn ne yun1maae1 n ne saunuae1 npaaa n nn1epecm
pycckoro uenoaeka nHenno kak pycckoro, kak npepc1aan1enn ocnoanoro,
rocypapc1aoo6pasykuero pnn occnn napopa. asanocL 6m, nepaoc1enennoe annHanne
acero rocypapc1aa n nacennkunx ero napopoa ponxno 6mno 6m 6m1L o6paueno
nHenno k pyccknH - epnnc1aennoHy napopy, 6es ko1oporo ne cHorna 6m cyuec1aoaa1L
occnn a ee nmneunnx rpannuax. 1 6ypyuero pycckoro napopa saancn1 6ypyuee ace
c1panm, 6ypyuee acex nacennkunx ee napopoa. 1o nonnn paxe 1ako peHokpa1, kak
aapnnn onoa.
o - ne1! naue c1pane ne1 paxe 1ako nnc1anunn, kypa pycckn Hor 6m npnp1n co
caonHn 6onnHn n sa6o1aHn nHenno kak pycckn, rpe ero amcnyuann 6m, nonnnn n
noHornn. nnnc1epc1ao no penaH naunonanLnoc1e, ykoHnnek1oaannoe cnnouL
nepyccknHn, sa6o1nueecn o koH yropno, 1onLko ne o pyccknx, nocnepoaa1enLno
sakpmno cnauano enap1aHen1 no npo6neHaH pycckoro napopa, no1oH 1pen pycckoro
napopa, a ceuac anecno a npaan1enLc1ao sakononpoek1 n
- , nepaan xe
nonpaaka a ko1opoH nm1ae1cn sanpe1n1L pyccknH cospaaa1L caok . c1mpy
paan1enLc1aa, ono yxe anecno a1o1 sakononpoek1 a ocpyHy. anueHy c1mpy ocpHm
- a nepayk ouepepL, k c1mpy npoqnnLnoro oHn1e1a no penaH naunonanLnoc1e, a1a
pycoqo6ckan pnckpnHnnaunonnan nonpaaka k sakony HK ne 6mna o1He1ena c
nopora, n sakon aHec1e c ne 6ype1 amnecen na nepaoe u1enne 27 nknn c.r.
xouy cpasy npepynpepn1L sapanee: n n
qn n, s u
m u u
n m . Ou
n n s x, nm
.
roaopk o6o aceH a1oH no1oHy, u1o sakon, ko1opm noHor 6m naH, pyccknH, xo1L kak-
1o peun1L neko1opme naun npo6neHm, koneuno xe, neo6xopnH.
o1n, kak nonnHak1 ace npncy1c1aykune, naunna1L cnepoaano 6m ne c sakona, a c
nsLn1nn ns onc1n1yunn occnn nenenoro, nxnaoro n an1nnayunoro ampaxennn Hm,
HnoronaunonanLnm napop occnn, ampyHannoro nonn1nkaHn enLunnckoro sakana, n
c anecennn a onc1n1yunk occnn qopHynnpoakn Hm, pycckn napop n ace kopennme
232
napopm occnn, nonnHan nop kopennmHn - napopm, ne nHekune ane occnn caoe
rocypapc1aennoc1n, caoero cyaepenn1e1a. 1o 6mno 6m n nayuno, n nonn1nueckn
koppek1no.
o kpane Hepe neo6xopnHo a onc1n1yunk, a cnncok konc1n1yunonnmx sakonoa,
anec1n sakon rm
no ananornn c ro1oanunHcn nmne sakonoH
r. pyHak, u1o a1o 1pe6oaanne k nsHenennk onc1n1yunn 6onee
ueH o6ocnoaanno, n naunna1L cnepye1 nHenno c ero peannsaunn.
o ceropnn Hm o6cyxpaeH yxe ro1oam sakononpoek1 .
axopnn a pa6ouyk rpynny no ero nopro1oake, snak nc1opnk ero Hyun1enLnoro
nonanennn na cae1. n c caHoro nauana 6mn o6peuen c1a1L koHnpoHnccnmH,
nonoannua1mH, npnHnpnunH pec1an1enLnme nn1epecm pycckoro napopa c nn1epecaHn
1ex, k1o xo1en 6m npncnoco6n1L pycckn napop nnuL k HakcnHanLno ypo6noHy
ncnonLsoaannk. o6onLue 1pe6yn o1 pyccknx n noHenLue nH paaan. pnHep -
nepaano npouepun uepes cnyuannn sakon x r
n, rpe na nac, pyccknx, aosnarae1cn acn o1ae1c1aennoc1L
sa rocypapc1ao occnckoe, no ne pae1cn naH npn a1oH nn Haneunx oco6mx npaa.
1ak, o6cyxpaeHm sakononpoek1 ne peuae1 nou1n nn opno ns ocnoanmx npo6neH
pycckoro napopa. nx nepeuncnk:
- npnsnanne, a coo1ae1c1ann c HexpynapopnmHn c1anpap1aHn, occnn -
HononaunonanLno c1pano pycckoro napopa, coc1aannkuero a6conk1noe
6onLunnc1ao ee nacenennn;
- npnsnanne n sakonopa1enLnoe y1aepxpenne nc1opnuecko ponn n qak1nueckoro
snauennn pycckoro napopa kak epnnc1aenno rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn occnn.
ycckne - ne 1onLko cospa1enn occnn, no n epnnc1aennan naunn, 6es ko1opo occnn
ne Horna 6m cyuec1aoaa1L a anpe epnnoro rocypapc1aa a ee nac1onunx rpannuax;
- npnsnanne npaaa pycckoro napopa na naunonanLno-nponopunonanLnoe
npepc1aan1enLc1ao ao acex opranax rocypapc1aenno anac1n n Hec1noro
caHoynpaanennn occnn;
- npnsnanne npaaa na aoccoepnnenne epnno pyccko naunn, okasaauecn a
paspenennoH nonoxennn;
- npnsnanne qak1a a1nopeHorpaqnuecko ka1ac1poqm pycckoro napopa n
sakonopa1enLnoe y1aepxpenne Hep, nanpaanennmx npo1na penonynnunn ero kak
rocypapc1aoo6pasykue naunn;
- coxpanenne n ykpennenne a1nnueckoro epnnc1aa pycckoro napopa n acex
nc1opnuecknx n kynL1ypno-nsmkoamx qak1opoa, cnoco6c1aykunx a1oHy;
- sanpeuenne pycoqo6nn ao acex ee nponanennnx, saun1a uenoaeuecknx n
rpaxpancknx npaa pyccknx nkpe a nk6o 1ouke seHnoro uapa;
- npnsnanne qak1a renounpa pycckoro napopa n npeoponenne ero nocnepc1an.
ce nasaannme npo6neHm pnn nac, pyccknx, - xnsnenno aaxnme, nHekune orpoHnoe
snauenne ace aHec1e n kaxpan a o1penLnoc1n. o u1o ns a1oro nepeunn aouno a
sakononpoek1? onLko 1eHa paspenennoro nonoxennn pyccko naunn. pna 1onLko
1eHa. onLue - nnuero.
233
Henno no npnunne koHnpoHnccnoc1n, nannna1nanoc1n pannoro sakononpoek1a, ero
nauenenoc1n na 1o, u1o6m 1onLko sanan1L pycckyk 1eHy, a aoace ne npepnoxn1L ee
konc1pyk1nanoe n peanLnoe peuenne, rpynna pyccknx o6uec1aennmx oprannsaun n
npn yuac1nn npepc1aan1ene expynapopnoro o6uec1aa npaa uenoaeka
nopro1oanna anL1epna1nanm npoek1 sakona . n ony6nnkoaan
a pospanno yuac1nnkaH H r, neua1nm aapnan1 n nepepaH a
cekpe1apna1.
npepnarak npncy1c1aykunH specL peny1a1aH na6pa1Lcn Hyxec1aa n nonn1nuecko
panLnoanpnoc1n n oqnunanLno anec1n pannm sakononpoek1 a ocpyHy kak
anL1epna1nanm. eno 1y1 ne a aa1opc1ae - cou1eHcn cnaaok. a 1oH, u1o6m
peanLno cpanny1L c Hep1ao 1oukn npo6neHy sakonopa1enLnoro o6ecneuennn
nn1epecoa pycckoro napopa.
npo1nanoH cnyuae, ecnn c1onL Hyppmx n Hyxec1aennmx peny1a1oa a yHe ne
nape1cn, naH npnpe1cn npnnn1L Hepm k 1oHy, u1o6m o6a npoek1a 6mnn amnecenm na
acenapopnm peqepenpyH.
1o, a caHoH pene, u1o xe nonyuae1cn? occnn pyccknx - 120 Hnnnnonoa, pa eue 30
Hnnnnonoa sa py6exoH, n1oro - 150 Hnnnnonoa. ao1 cypL6y a1oro rnran1a peuae1
kyuka ns 450 peny1a1oa ocpyHm. ro1oan1 a1y cypL6y n aoace Hnsepnoe
noppaspenenne - acero 9 uenoaek oHn1e1a no penaH naunonanLnoc1e, ns ko1opmx, k
1oHy xe ceHepo - ne pycckne. s npepc1aan1ene pyccknx o6uec1aennmx oprannsaun
k yuac1nk a pa6o1e nap sakononpoek1oH ne npnrnacnnn nnkoro! n 6m a a1o
pa6oue rpynne ne nonanncn, ecnn 6m ne nponann nnnuna1nay n nanop. asae a1o
cnpaaepnnao? asae Hoxno sa cnnno y orpoHnoro napopa peua1L ero cypL6y 1aknH
coc1aaoH? peponpepenn1L ero 6ypyuee, ne cnpocna y nero caHoro? a1oH nn coc1on1
1a peHokpa1nn n 1o npaaoaoe rocypapc1ao, ko1opme npenopnocn1cn naH kak uena
nencuncnnHmx xep1a n no1epL npouepuero pecn1nne1nn?
napekcL, u1o napop am6epe1 nau aapnan1 sakona kak nHekun 6onee
nenocpepc1aennoe o1nouenne k peuennk peanLnmx pyccknx npo6neH. o n ponyckak,
u1o na peqepenpyHe Hoxe1 no6epn1L n sakononpoek1, amnecennm ceropnn na
cnyuannn. 1o x, apepa a a1oH ne 6ype1, on ne copepxn1 apepnmx nnn onacnmx pnn
nac nonoxenn. 1oHy xe a nero Hoxno 6ype1 anocn1L nsHenennn n pononnennn,
nonpaakn.
pnako on1nHanLnmH n cun1ak 1ako xop co6m1n, npn ko1opoH ocpyHa caHa ns6epe1
nau npoek1 kak 6onee 6nnskn k xnsnn n 6onee pec1aennm.
saaepuenne neckonLko saHeuann k sakononpoek1y oHn1e1a:
1. c1a1Le 3 npepnarae1cn 1akan qopHynnpoaka: ycckn napop - kopenno,
1n1ynLnm n epnnc1aennm rocypapc1aoo6pasykun na ace 1eppn1opnn occnn.
pecL xe coaepuenno neyHec1no amrnnpn1 cnoaa ppyrnx paanonpaanmx napopoa
occnn. aanonpaane napopoa yc1anoaneno c1.19 onc1n1yunn n ne nyxpae1cn a
nopo6noH nop1aepxpennn. nkakne napopm, kpoHe pycckoro, ne nannk1cn npepHe1oH
pannoro sakona n ne 1pe6yk1 ynoHnnannn. a6o1a o pycckoH napope ne nyxpae1cn a
onpaapannnx.
2. c1a1Le 5 qopHyny: pranm rocypapc1aenno anac1n cy6Lek1oa occncko
epepaunn n Hec1noro caHoynpaanennn ocyuec1annk1 noppepxky pyccko kynL1ypm
kak aaxneuero qak1opa coxpanennn n pasan1nn naunonanLnoro caHocosnannn
pycckoro napopa, ero pasnnunmx a1norpaqnuecknx rpynn, ykpennennn epnnc1aa n
ppyx6m acex napopoa occncko epepaunn pononnn1L cnoaaHn: onn copec1ayk1
234
cospannk n pen1enLnoc1n pyccknx naunonanLno-kynL1ypnmx aa1onoHn acex
ypoane.
pecL xe npepc1aanne1cn coaepuenno nayuno n nonn1nueckn neponyc1nHmH
ncnonLsoaanne 1epHnna HnoronaunonanLnoe npnHenn1enLno k occnckoHy
rocypapc1ay. nepye1 ckasa1L: nonna1nnueckoe (1ak no-nayunoHy) nnn
Hnoronapopnoe.
3. 1a1Lk 6 pononnn1L cnoaaHn: nanne pycckoro nsmka nanne1cn neo6xopnHmH n
poc1a1ounmH ycnoaneH pnn ocyuec1anennn naccnanoro ns6npa1enLnoro npaaa rpaxpan
na am6opax acex ypoane. 1o am1ekae1 ns c1.33 onc1n1yunn occnn.
4. c1a1Le 7 qpasy cpepnnx yue6nmx saaepenn c pyccknH a1nokynL1ypnmH
koHnonen1oH saHenn1L na qpasy cpepnnx yue6nmx saaepenn c yrny6nennmH
nsyuenneH pycckoro nsmka, nn1epa1ypm, kynL1ypm, nc1opnn. 6o ampaxenne
a1nokynL1ypnm koHnonen1 sayun1 neneno, nop nnH Hoxno nonn1L n npoc1o pyccknx
pe1e.
a a1oH y Henn ace.
HHRXEHHE N4
(n)
" 3QEREHHM HRXEHHH YKH HHH"
cxopn ns rocypapc1aoo6pasykue ponn pyccko naunn a occncko epepaunn,
o6ecneunaue aosnnknoaenne n pasan1ne nc1opnuecko occnn kak aennkoro,
nesaancnHoro n caHo6m1noro rocypapc1aa,
npnsnaaan o6uenpnsnannme nopHm n npnnunnm Hexpynapopnoro npaaa,
rapan1npykune paanonpaane n caHoonpepenenne napopoa n naun n
1eppn1opnanLnyk uenoc1noc1L rocypapc1a,
c1peHncL o6ecneun1L co6nkpenne nesm6neHmx npaa n cao6op uenoaeka n poc1nuL
epnnc1aa pyccko naunn,
nac1onun sakon nHee1 uenLk cnoco6c1aoaa1L yperynnpoaannk aonpocoa, cansannmx
c paspenennmH nonoxenneH pyccko naunn, amsaannmH npekpauenneH
cyuec1aoaannn oksa .
1.
yccko naune npnsnae1cn epnnan coaokynnoc1L nkpe, nHekunx pycckyk
naunonanLnoc1L.
ycckan naunonanLnoc1L, nop1aepxpae1cn ee sakpennenneH a pokyHen1ax,
ypoc1oaepnkunx nnunoc1L. n6o, ecnn nnuo nanne1cn necoaepuennone1nnH, a
pokyHen1ax, ypoc1oaepnkunx nnunoc1L opnoro ns popn1ene. n6o na ocnoaannn
235
sananennn nnua, anapekuero pyccknH nsmkoH n nHekuero ne Henee opnoro
pokyHen1anLno nop1aepxpennoro pycckoro npepka ao a1opoH konene, o caoe
naunonanLnoc1n, ko1opoe coaepuae1cn a yc1anoanennoH qepepanLnmH sakonoH
nopnpke.
paao na npnsnanne ce6n pyccknHn nHek1 1akxe nnua pycckoro nponcxoxpennn,
ko1opme caHn nnn nx npepkn po 1pe1Lero konena nopaeprnncL nacnnLc1aenno
penaunonannsaunn a pesynL1a1e naunonanLnmx konqnnk1oa nnn rocypapc1aenno
nonn1nkn occnn n a 1917-1991 rr. n sa npepenaHn occnn c 1991 r.
e Hory1 6m1L npnsnanm pyccknHn nnua, nHekune opnoro pycckoro popn1enn, no npn
a1oH ne Horyune nHe1L paonyk naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L a cnny naunonanLnoro
nponcxoxpennn a1oporo ns popn1ene cornacno sakonaH, yc1anoanennnH n 1papnunnH
naunn a1oro popn1enn.
ycckyk naunk coc1aannk1 pycckne, nannkunecn rpaxpanaHn occncko epepaunn
n pycckne, ne nannkunecn rpaxpanaHn occncko epepaunn, noc1onnno nnn
apeHenno npoxnaakune sa rpannue, kak nHekune nnoc1pannoe rpaxpanc1ao, 1ak n
nnua 6es rpaxpanc1aa.
2. nx
ac1onunH sakonoH konc1a1npye1cn paspenennoe nonoxenne pyccko naunn,
cnoxnaueecn a pesynL1a1e npekpauennn cyuec1aoaannn oksa aonpekn aone
nacennkunx ero napopoa n naun, ampaxenno na peqepenpyHe 1991 r.
aspenennoe nonoxenne pyccko naunn ampaxeno a nannunn a6nnsn rpannu occnn
son nc1opnueckoro koHnak1noro npoxnaannn pyccknx.
aspenennan pycckan naunn nHee1 npaao na aoccoepnnenne.
3. n n nvm

occnn ocyuec1anne1 nonn1nky, nanpaanennyk na poc1nxenne epnnc1aa pyccko


naunn HnpnmHn cpepc1aaHn na ocnoaannn o6uenpnsnannmx nopH n npnnunnoa
Hexpynapopnoro npaaa.
ocypapc1aennan nonn1nka no poc1nxennk epnnc1aa pyccko naunn ocnoamaae1cn na
npnsnannn n amnonnennn cnepykunx npnnunnoa:
1) naunonanLnoro cyaepenn1e1a n npaaocy6Lek1noc1n pyccko naunn - koHnnekca
neo1LeHneHmx npaa, ko1opme o6ecneunaak1 cyuec1aoaanne pyccko naunn n
coxpanenne ee caHo6m1noc1n, cospak1 6naronpnn1nme ycnoann pnn ee nporpeccnanoro
pasan1nn;
2) c1peHnennn k poc1nxennk epnnc1aa pyccko naunn a paHkax opnoro rocypapc1aa -
occnn;
3) npnsnannn npaaa na cao6opnoe caHoonpepenenne sa pyccknHn a Hec1ax nx
koHnak1noro nc1opnueckoro npoxnaannn na 1eppn1opnn nnoc1pannmx rocypapc1a;
236
4) rocypapc1aenno noppepxkn panxenn sa 1akoe caHoonpepenenne;
5) npnopn1e1noc1n saun1m npaa n sakonnmx nn1epecoa pyccko naunn, neponyuennn
kako-nn6o pnckpnHnnaunn pyccknx no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky;
6) rocypapc1aenno noppepxkn naunonanLno-kynL1ypno caHo6m1noc1n pyccko
naunn, cnoco6c1aoaannn o6pasoaannk pyccknx naunonanLno-kynL1ypnmx aa1onoHn,
seHnnuec1a n accounaun pyccknx coo1euec1aennnkoa sa py6exoH;
7) cospannn neo6xopnHmx ycnoan pnn po6poaonLno pena1pnaunn a occnk ns Hec1
paccennnoro npoxnaannn pyccknx, unenoa nx ceHe n 6nnxaunx popc1aennnkoa n
o6ecneuennn nx nn1erpaunn a poccnckoe o6uec1ao.
4. n
yccko pnacnopo npnsnak1cn ace pycckne, npoxnaakune sa npepenaHn occncko
epepaunn na noc1onnno ocnoae.
ycckan pnacnopa nHee1 npaao na npepc1aan1enLc1ao a ocypapc1aenno yHe
epepanLnoro o6pannn occncko epepaunn. cnoann n nopnpok 1akoro
npepc1aan1enLc1aa onpepennk1cn na ocnoaannn qepepanLnoro sakona.
5. x x, n nxmx x
ycckne, noc1onnno npoxnaakune sa py6exoH, npnsnak1cn rpaxpanaHn occncko
epepaunn a nopnpke pernc1paunn a coo1ae1c1aykunx koncynLcknx n
pnnnoHa1nuecknx yupexpennnx occncko epepaunn, sa ncknkuenneH nnu,
po6poaonLno o1kasaaunxcn o1 rpaxpanc1aa n occncko epepaunn.
occnckan epepaunn ao asanHoo1nouennnx c nnoc1pannmHn rocypapc1aaHn, na
1eppn1opnn ko1opmx naxopn1cn pycckan pnacnopa, c1peHn1cn k saknkuennk
Hexpynapopnmx poroaopoa o aosHoxnoc1n npepoc1aanennn unenaH pyccko pnacnopm
paonoro rpaxpanc1aa.
6. 4-sv nv n x
m
uennx cospannn neo6xopnHmx ycnoan pnn po6poaonLno pena1pnaunn a occnk ns
Hec1 paccennnoro npoxnaannn pyccknx, unenoa nx ceHe n 6nnxaunx popc1aennnkoa
ampenn1L a qepepanLnoH 6kpxe1e o1penLno c1poko pacxopoa cpepc1aa na
ocyuec1anenne pena1pnaunonno nonn1nkn, neo6xopnHmx pnn o6yc1poc1aa pyccknx,
aosapauakunxcn na caok nc1opnueckyk popnny. nn a1oro aaec1n c 1 nnaapn 1999
ropa qepepanLnm nanor connpapnoc1n co acex peecnoco6nmx rpaxpan occncko
epepaunn a pasHepe 1% o1 nx ropoaoro poxopa.
7. Hm n x, n nxmx x
237
cnyuae cosna1enLnoro, Haccoaoro n neopnokpa1noro napyuennn npaa pyccknx,
naxopnunxcn sa py6exoH, nannkuerocn cnepc1aneH rocypapc1aenno nonn1nkn
nnoc1pannmx rocypapc1a, paan1enLc1ao occncko epepaunn o6nsano no
npepc1aanennk nonnoHouennoro no npaaaH uenoaeka occncko epepaunn
npnnn1L ace neo6xopnHme Hepm, nanpaanennme na neponyuenne napyuennn npaa
pyccko naunn.
nonnoHouennm no npaaaH uenoaeka occncko epepaunn o6nsan noc1onnno
kon1ponnpoaa1L nonoxenne pen n axopn1L c coo1ae1c1aykunHn npepc1aanennnHn a
paan1enLc1ao occncko epepaunn a osnauennmx amue cnyuanx.
8. 3mv nx
ac1onun sakon ac1ynae1 a cnny c HoHen1a ero oqnunanLnoro ony6nnkoaannn.
pesnpen1 n paan1enLc1ao occncko epepaunn a 1pexHecnunm cpok nocne
ac1ynnennn nac1onuero sakona a cnny npnaopn1 a coo1ae1c1ane c nnH nspannme
ncnonnn1enLno anac1Lk nopHa1nanme npaaoame ak1m.
paan1enLc1ao occncko epepaunn a uec1nHecnunm cpok npnnnHae1
nopHa1nanme npaaoame ak1m, o6ecneunaakune peannsaunk nac1onuero sakona.
epepanLnoe o6panne occncko epepaunn a uec1nHecnunm cpok ro1oan1 n
npnnnHae1 coo1ae1c1aykune sakonm, o6ecneunaakune peannsaunk nac1onuero
sakona.
3AKOHOHOEKT
H u nn.
O .:
. Kn : . - ., 1998,
Hu NN 8-9 (46-47) 2001 .
Hnun
(n)
3QEREHHH YKH HHH H EE HE H EQHHEHHE
nnrpaqoH n xo1en 6m asn1L HmcnL ncHapka o 1oH, u1o pycckn napop nopo6en
p1y1n. cnn pasppo6n1L ero na 1mcnuy kycoukoa, a1n kycoukn 6ypy1 c1peHn1Lcn ppyr k
ppyry po 1ex nop, noka anoaL ne conLk1cn a epnnoe uenoe.
nepame sa caok nc1opnk nau napop okasancn a paspenennoH nonoxennn, ko1opoe
saqnkcnpoaano ne c noHouLk okkynaunonnmx aock, a Hexpynapopno npnsnannmHn
na ceropnnunn penL rpannuaHn. 1o cnyunnocL ne a pesynL1a1e Hnrpaunn (kak
c1aan1 aonpoc, k npnHepy, uac1L qpanuyscko naunn a kanapcko npoannunn ae6ek)
n ne a pesynL1a1e saaoeaannn, kak a1o nponsouno c kyppaHn, asep6apxanuaHn nnn
nesrnnaHn. 1o nponsouno a pesynL1a1e 1oro, u1o naunonanLnme ann1m coae1cknx
pecny6nnk pasopaann na uac1n oae1ckn oks aonpekn aone 6onLue uac1n ero
238
nacenennn, ncno ampaxenno na peqepenpyHe 1991 ropa. aunonanLnmH ann1aH a1o
okasanocL aosHoxno cpena1L, n6o a1nopeHorpaqnueckan cn1yaunn a c1pane a uenoH n
a naunonanLnmx pecny6nnkax a uac1noc1n o6Lek1nano cospena pnn a1oro. eropnn no
aceHy nepnHe1py rpannu occnn cospanm ne npoc1o naunonanLnme - a1nokpa1nueckne!
- rocypapc1aa (sa ncknkuenneH enopyccnn), a ko1opmx pycckne okasanncL
rpaxpanaHn a1oporo cop1a. c1opnueckan 1enpenunn, nc1opnueckn amsoa - nannuo.
nepye1, opnako, nopuepkny1L, u1o kak caH aonpoc o paspenennoH nonoxennn pyccko
naunn n ee npaae na aoccoepnnenne, 1ak n sakon " paspenennoH nonoxennn pyccko
naunn - a1o ne npo6neHa pycckoro naunonanLnoro HenLunnc1aa, okasaauerocn
ceropnn sa npepenaHn rpannu occnn. (Henno 1akyk noc1anoaky npo6neHm nm1ak1cn
naH naansa1L panLnoanpnme a1nokpa1m a 6maunx pecny6nnkax no aceHy
nepnHe1py occnn.) e1. epeaopn1L pasroaop o paspenenno pyccko naunn a
nnockoc1L saun1m npaa naunonanLnmx HenLunnc1a - neak1yanLno. o1oHy u1o a1o a
nepayk ouepepL nHenno naua npo6neHa - npo6neHa nmr napopa, npo6neHa
"Ha1epnkoamx pyccknx. 1o o1 nac o1pesann snaun1enLnyk uac1L nauero
He1aqnsnueckoro 1ena. 1o nac cokpa1nnn, yHenLunnn, ocna6nnn. 1o naH
neo6xopnHo "npnun1L o6pa1no o1pesannyk uac1L. Hmcn n snauenne
npepc1aanneHoro sakononpoek1a nHenno a 1oH, u1o on cocpepo1ouen na npo6neHe
paspenenno pyccko naunn kak epnnoro uenoro n yc1peHnen na nepcnek1nay ee
aoccoepnnennn.
6pasoaanne naunonanLnmx pecny6nnk na Hec1e 6mauero oae1ckoro oksa - a1o
ec1ec1aennm n nopHanLnm npouecc. 6o ecnn naunn cnoco6na cospa1L caoe
rocypapc1ao, 1o nnuero nnoxoro n npo1nanoro npnpope a a1oH ne1. ao6opo1, nHenno
1akne naunonanLnme rocypapc1aa nc1opnn npepc1aanne1 naH kak nan6onee
npeanLnme, yc1ouname, xnsnecnoco6nme. ecnn ncxopn1L 1onLko ns nn1epecoa
1n1ynLnmx naun, ckaxeH, s6eknc1ana, ypkHennc1ana n 1.p., 1o 1ako npouecc
Hoxno 6mno 6m npnae1c1aoaa1L. pnako Hm anpnH, u1o npn a1oH caHmH yxacnmH
o6pasoH noc1papann nn1epecm n okasanncL napyuenm npaaa nauero pycckoro napopa,
ko1opm okasancn a paspenennoH nonoxennn. Hnorne Hnnnnonm pyccknx okasanncL
ane caoero naunonanLnoro rocypapc1aa "occnn.
ac1onun sakon npnsaan ncnpaan1L a1o nonoxenne. cnoanan sapaua sakona -
o6ecneun1L pyccknH npaao n aosHoxnoc1L aoccoepnnennn HnpnmH ny1eH, ne napyuan
Hexpynapopnoro npaaa. c1L pnp cyuec1aennmx o6Lek1nanmx 1pypnoc1e,
1eope1nuecknx n npak1nuecknx, aosnnkakunx npn cospannn n npnnn1nn 1akoro
sakona.
Hn u coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o ananornunmx sakonoa a Hnpe naunH
akcnep1aH na1n ne ypanocL. o1n a1o ne nepam cnyua, korpa 1a nnn nnan naunn
naxopnnacL n naxopn1cn a paspenennoH nonoxennn. oc1a1ouno acnoHnn1L caexn
npnHep neHeuko naunn, na naunx rnasax ocyuec1anaue canuennoe npaao na
aoccoepnnenne n npeapa1nauecn ns paspenenno - a epnnyk naunk. nn kn1ackyk
naunk, ko1opan 1onLko u1o nponsaena aoccoepnnenne c nacenennmH kn1auaHn
onkonroH n akao n xpe1 aoccoepnnennn c nnranypoH n aaaneH. ace a1o 6es
acnko oco6o npaaoao 6asm, 6es 6asoaoro sakona, nou1n naounmH nopnpkoH, nnuL
nopkpennennmH HexpynapopnmHn payc1oponnnHn nnn Hnoroc1oponnnHn
cornauennnHn. asoaoro xe sakona, ropnoro a kauec1ae npeuepen1a, - ne1. o1n
aoccoepnnennn ceropnn xpy1, noHnHo pyccknx, k npnHepy, - kopeum, oce1nnm,
nesrnnm n pnp ppyrnx napopoa Hnpa.
apo o1He1n1L, u1o a HexpynapopnoH npaae aoo6ue, k coxanennk, o1cy1c1ayk1 kakne
6m 1o nn 6mno nopHa1nam n HexannsHm caHoonpepenennn 6onLunx napopoa. 1o
kacae1cn ne 1onLko pycckoro napopa. o HanmH napopaH - ckonLko yropno
Hexpynapopnmx pokyHen1oa. c1L nak1m, ec1L peknapaunn, ec1L pekoHenpaunn n
239
1ak panee. 1o kacae1cn 6onLunx napopoa, 1aknx, kak pycckn, - ec1L 1onLko o6une
qopHynnpoakn o 1oH, u1o kaxpm napop nHee1 npaao na aoccoepnnenne.
(kasannoe ne snaun1, u1o a HexpynapopnoH npaae, kak nnorpa y1aepxpak1, ne
nnc1n1ynpoaano caHoe nonn1ne "napop. 1akoH cnyuae, k npnHepy, ne 6mno 6m
prannsaunn 6Lepnnennmx aun [nite Nations], a 6mna 6m, ckaxeH, prannsaunn
6Lepnnennmx ocypapc1a [nite States]. pnako ns6pannoe a1o kpynneue
Hexpynapopno oprannsaune caHonasaanne ncknkuae1 paycHmcnennoc1L 1onkoaannn
n ne nosaonne1 cun1a1L, 6yp1o cnoao "napop o1cy1c1aye1 a HexpynapopnoH
kpnpnueckoH nekcnkone, n6o u1o xe 1orpa, cnpaunaae1cn, "o6LepnnnnocL?).
1ak, nyxno ncno nonnHa1L, u1o pa6o1a no cospannk nopo6noro sakononpoek1a
cpenana npak1nueckn anepame. epep naHn, 1aknH o6pasoH, - ocnoaanne pnn
sapec1aoaannn HexannsHa r Mxyr . ak u1o nnkoro ne
ponxno cHyua1L, u1o o1penLnme c1a1Ln sakona ne nHek1 kaknx-1o ocanuennmx
apeHeneH ananoroa, a caH sakon 6ecnpeuepen1en. aH nopa caHnH noc1on1L sa ce6n,
ne poxnpancL, noka a1o cpenae1 sa nac kako-1o po6pm Hexpynapopnm pnpn.
pnHeH pannm sakon - n cospapnH npeuepen1, ko1opm ne pas eue npnropn1cn
ppyrnH napopaH Hnpa.
Bn u coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6m aaec1n a npaaoaoe none occnn nonn1nn
"pycckn napop n "pycckan naunn, kakoame nonn1nn a a1oH none ceropnn
o1cy1c1ayk1. coapeHenno poccncko onc1n1yunn ne ynoHnnae1cn "pycckn
napop. c1L "HnoronaunonanLnm napop occnn (a6conk1nm noncenc c 1oukn
spennn a1nonornn n npaaa), ec1L penpeccnpoaannme napopm, ec1L Hanouncnennme
napopm, ec1L kopennme napopm. ycckoro napopa a onc1n1yunn ne1. nepoaa1enLno,
n specL naH neo6xopnH npeuepen1.
Tun n u coc1on1 a 1oH, u1o6 sakon 6mn sakonoH, a ne
peknapaune n ne ny6nnunc1nuecknH pokyHen1oH. 1o snaun1, u1o sakon, nockonLky
on kacae1cn naunonanLnoro aonpoca, ponxen coo1ae1c1aoaa1L nopHaH ne 1onLko
kpnpnuecko naykn. pannoH cnyuae ec1L neo6xopnHoc1L o6pa1n1Lcn 1akxe k
nayunmH a1nonornuecknH nopHaH n nonn1nnH, 6es ko1opmx kpnpnueckne nonn1nn
6ypy1 Hep1am. expy 1eH, a o6uec1aennoH Hnennn ceropnn a1n nonn1nn n nopHm ne
npnxnnncL eue, ne yc1onnncL. yHax uapn1 nonnan nepas6epnxa. pnaepeH 1onLko
paa npnHepa.
H. Hee1cn npoek1 opnoro qepepanLnoro sakona, nonyuennm ns pyHckoro
nc1ounnka. a1oH sakononpoek1e ec1L 1akan c1a1Ln: "pnnapnexnoc1L k pycckoHy
napopy. nanncano pocnoano: "pnnapnexnoc1L k pycckoHy napopy yc1anaannaae1cn
na ocnoaannn po6poaonLnoro npnsnannn uenoaekoH a kauec1ae co6c1aennmx 1papnun
pycckoro napopa, ero nsmka n kynL1ypm. o ec1L (amnyxpenm nepeaopn1L), ecnn
uenoaek npnsnae1 po6poaonLno pycckn nsmk, kynL1ypy n 1papnunn caonHn, 1o on,
cornacno a1oHy sakononpoek1y, o6Lnanne1cn "pyccknH. c1aanH sa cko6kaHn pycckn
nsmk caHoro coc1aan1enn, no, pyHak, 6onLunnc1ay un1a1ene cpasy c1ano ncno, u1o
a1o1 1esnc, npn aceH ero aennkopyunn n npekpacnopyunn, coaepuenno ne ropn1cn a
kauec1ae kpnpnueckoro nopHa1naa. 1o n kak 6ype1 onpepenn1L n yc1anaannaa1L
1akyk npnnapnexnoc1L? ksaHenaunonnan koHnccnn, oco6m koHn1e1, nacnop1nc1ka a
Hnnnunn nnn nekoe poaepennoe nnuo? ak 6ype1 pokasmaa1Lcn n ueH 6ype1
nop1aepxpa1Lcn a1a npnnapnexnoc1L - nncLHennmH sananenneH? 11ec1a1oH?
npaako ns ? ak o1ae1n1L a 1oH cnyuae, ecnn Hm npnHeH c1onL neqopHanLnm
kpn1epn, na caHme npoc1me aonpocm: ckonLko pyccknx a c1pane? rpe rpannum
o6n1annn pyccknx? kak o1penn1L pycckoro - o1 pycckonsmunoro, pycckoro - o1
pycckokynL1ypnoro nnopopua? poqeccop .osnoa, a1nonor, pok1op nayk n naypea1
ocypapc1aenno npeHnn nepapoH nocan1nn a1o 1eHe cneunanLnyk c1a1Lk, ko1opan
1ak n nasmaae1cn: "ycckne, pycckonsmunme, poccnnne ("aunonanLnan rase1a N 6-
240
7/98). 1o 1pn pasnmx nonn1nn, a6conk1no pasnmx. expy nnHn ouenL cyuec1aennan
rpannua.
anee. ak a cnyuae 1akoro nopxopa o6Lncnn1L pycckokynL1ypnoHy 1a1apnny,
pycckokynL1ypnoHy ueuenuy, eapek, ykpannuy, u1o onn - "pycckne, a ne 1a1apm,
ueuenum, eapen n 1.p.? epL a1o npoc1o neaosHoxno. nn n pasroaapnaa1L c naHn ne
c1any1.
1ak, ec1L nacyunan nM kn. na ne noaa. opo6nme npo6neHm
noc1onnno aosnnkak1 y counonoroa n peHorpaqoa. 1a npo6neHa c1on1 1ak: kakoro
1nna kpn1epn cnepye1 ncnonLsoaa1L, qMn n qMn?
ounonoraHn a1a npo6neHa 6mna pockonanLno nsyuena na o6unpnoH Ha1epnane.
amaop 1akoa. neqopHanLnoH o6uennn 6onLue noxopn1 neqopHanLnme xe kpn1epnn.
o ec1L: a ppyxeckoH kpyry, a pa6oueH konnek1nae, a c1pok, ao apeHn nnpyukn
Hoxno pykoaopc1aoaa1Lcn nk6mHn kpn1epnnHn pycckoro. o1 roaopn1 nHnpek no-
pycckn, cun1ae1 caoe pycckyk kynL1ypy - napno, nyc1L 6ype1 "pyccknH. o a nayke
neqopHanLnme kpn1epnn ka1eropnueckn nenpneHneHm, a npnnunne neponyc1nHm.
npo1nanoH cnyuae 1epnk1cn rpannum nccnepyeHo rpynnm. epne1cn kak
kauec1aennan, 1ak n konnuec1aennan rpannua - a snaun1, 1epne1cn caH npepHe1
nccnepoaannn. eH 6onee neponyc1nHm neqopHanLnme kpn1epnn a nayke
kpncnpypenunn. 6o sakon acerpa onpepenne1 npaaa n o1ae1c1aennoc1L nekoe
rpynnm nnu. ecnn a a1y rpynny nauny1 sauncnn1L no neqopHanLnmH npnsnakaH,
pykoaopc1ayncL co6c1aennmH, nponsaonLnmH nonnHanneH npepHe1a (ckaxeH,
"peaonkunonnmH npaaocosnanneH a ycnoannx, nanpnHep, naunonanLno peaonkunn),
1o a1o npnaepe1 k 6essakonnk a Haccoamx Hacu1a6ax. auny1cn 1nx6m o 1oH, k1o
6onLue pycckn, k1o HenLue pycckn n 1.p... axno ocosna1L pas n naacerpa: nnkaknx
neqopHanLnmx kpn1epnea a 1akoH pene 6m1L ne Hoxe1. y nac a sakononpoek1e nx
ne1, ncnonLsyk1cn ncknkun1enLno qopHanLnme kpn1epnn.
ue pas nopuepkny, npo6neHa kpn1epnn - a1o 1nnoaan npo6neHa. na paano peuena a
He1oponornn, a nayke: cnepye1 ncnonLsoaa1L 1onLko qopHanLnm, 1onLko
o6Lek1nanm kpn1epn.
nacyuneun npnHep - a1o 1epHnn "naunn. annm aonpoc pnn ouenL Hnornx
nanne1cn ne po konua ocosnannmH n ne po konua nayuno npopa6o1annmH. m paaann
pannm sakononpoek1 na o1sma pasnmH yuenmH n nonn1nkaH. uenme o1osaanncL
xopouo. ao1 opnn o6uec1aennm pen1enL asnn n nanncan: "Heuenne nonn1n.
yccko naunn ne1. c1L pycckn napop. c1L poccnckan naunn. 1o pasnme aeun.
pec1an1enLnoc1n, c 1oukn spennn coapeHenno naykn, peno o6c1on1 kak pas
nao6opo1. ycckn napop ec1L. ec1L pycckan naunn kak amcuan qasa pasan1nn
pycckoro napopa. asa, a ko1opo pycckn napop npno6pe1ae1
rocypapc1aoo6pasykuee snauenne. m a a1o qase yxe paano naxopnHcn n paano
sacnyxnaaeH nasaannn naunn. ao1 "poccncko naunn kak pas-1akn ne1.
1o1 aonpoc neo6xopnHo pockonanLno nponcnn1L.
Hnpe yxe 6onee payxco1 ne1 nsaec1nm (npnnn1m n pec1ayk1) pae napannenLnme
konuenunn naunn[4]. c1L 1ak nasmaaeHan qyckn konuenunn, ko1opan
paccHa1pnaae1 naunk kk rxcky c panno c1panm. "aunn kak
rpaxpanckan o6unoc1L; a cyunoc1n - nacenenne. kaxeH, xnayune n
na1ypannsoaannme ao panunn qpankonsmunme apa6m n nerpm cornacno a1o
konuenunn nannk1cn qpanuysaHn, u1o c naue 1oukn spennn, koneuno, oueanpnm
noncenc. ec1L 1ak nasmaaeHan Mkn konuenunn, aocxopnuan k eppepy n
neHeuknH poHan1nkaH. o1opan, onnpancL na npnnunnm "napopnoro pyxa, kynL1ypy n
c cxn, paccHa1pnaae1 naunk kk cmy qy n ac.
241
aH, rpe a1n konuenunn yxe paano na cnyxy, ace snak1, a ueH coc1on1 Hexpy nnHn
pasnnua, ace paano nayunnncL nHn nonLsoaa1Lcn, npnHenn1L. aH a1o ace ne
amsmaae1 ny1annum. pnn nac, k coxanennk, naunonanLnan 1eHa1nka poc1a1ouno
anoae. kpn cnmua1 saon, a rpe on - ne snak1 n uac1o ny1ak1 a1n pae konuenunn,
cHeunaak1 nopxopm n nonn1nn.
apo ncno nonnHa1L, u1o 1a nnn nnan konuenunn npnHennHm 1onLko k pasnmH c1panaH
c pasnmH yknapoH, c pasnmHn 1papnunnHn. panuysckan konuenunn naunn kak
"rpaxpanckoro coo6uec1aa 1opxec1aye1, kpoHe panunn, nanpnHep, a , no a
occnn ona - neaosHoxna. npnnunne, ka1eropnueckn neaosHoxna. Hkk
ccck y. o 1peH ocnoanmH npnunnaH. epeuncnnH nx.
B-x, qpanuysckan konuenunn naunn kak rpaxpanckoro coo6uec1aa -
cMcM c n-nM nM c. x u1o-nn6ypL
opno ns payx. n6o - nn6o. n6o epnnan "poccnckan naunn - no 1orpa, nsannn1e,
nnkaknx 1a1apc1anoa, nky1n, nnryue1n, parec1anoa etc., etc. n6o naunonanLno-
1eppn1opnanLnoe penenne c1panm a 1oH anpe, a kakoH Hm ero nHeeH, qepepa1nanoe
yc1poc1ao - no 1orpa ne "poccnckan, a "pycckan naunn nnkc kopennme napopm n
naunonanLnme HenLunnc1aa. (Henno nopo6noe penenne sakpenneno, k npnHepy, a
onc1n1yunn kpannm.) occnn ceropnn qopHanLno - 21 naunonanLno-
1eppn1opnanLnan epnnnua: paa pecn1ka npesnpen1oa, paa pecn1ka konc1n1yun...
akan yx 1y1 "poccnckan naunn?!
B-x, ec1L qenoHen y . nayunan 1papnunn a occnn roaopn1:
naunn ec1L qasa pasan1nn a1noca. a a1o 1ouke spennn c1on1 Hnorne pok1opa nayk -
1akne, kak, ckaxeH, npoqeccop nc1opnk ..poann (ero pok1opckan pnccep1aunn
1ak n nasmaae1cn - "occnckan naunn. kaamukax. n paccHa1pnaae1 a1o1 1epHnn
kak qenoHen o6uec1aennoro cosnannn, kak npnHep a6eppaunn, n roaopn1 o
poc1a1ouno ero a6cyppnoc1n a naue cn1yaunn). c1L pok1op nayk K.opopa, ec1L
pok1op nayk .osnoa, ec1L n ppyrne... nmHn cnoaaHn - ec1L cnoxnauancn,
npnsnannan a occnn 1papnunn, ko1opan o1aeprae1 konuenunk "poccncko naunn
kak rpaxpanckoro coo6uec1aa.
ornacno 1o konuenunn, ko1opan y1aeppnnacL a occnn n ko1opyk paspennk1 aa1opm
sakona, npe1 noa1annoe pasan1ne a1noca: nneHn, napopnoc1L, napop, naunn. e
acnkn napop n ne a nk6o HoHen1 cnoco6en ocyuec1an1L nocnepnn nepexop.
pnaepy a npnHep anrnnuan n uo1nanpuea. nrnnckn napop cnoxnncn ao apeHena
aonm no n eno pos. mnn po 1oro kenL1m, 6mnn cakcm, 6mnn 6pn11m, 6mnn
nopHanm - ns konx npnHepno a XIV aeke cospae1cn epnnm anrnnckn napop. o1oH
aosnnkae1 anrnnckan naunn, ko1opan cospae1 rocypapc1ao na 1eppn1opnn ace
nrnnn (kypa axopn1 n uo1nanpum, n aannnum n 1.p.), a sa1eH n pn1anckyk
nHnepnk. o1nanpum xe - onn aekaHn aepy1 aony, 6opL6y sa caoe naunonanLnoe
caHoc1onnne. o ycnexoH a1a 6opL6a ne yaenuanacL. aoero rocypapc1aa uo1nanpum
ne cospann. snaun1 - ns qasm napopa, a o1nnune o1 anrnnuan, 1ak n ne amunn,
naune ne c1ann. ( anrnnckoH nsmke a1o paspenenne sakpenneno cnoaax people n
nation.)
occnn - rocypapc1ao pyccknx, kak yxe roaopnnocL, rocypapc1aenno-nonn1nueckan
nnoc1acL pycckoro napopa. Henno pycckne, pacunpnncL na ace ue1mpe c1oponm
cae1a, cospann occnk n nannk1cn ceropnn ee rnaano ckpeno n onopo. noa1oHy -
ec1L pycckan naunn, a poccncko naunn ne1.
B-ux, ec1L, nakoneu, n n. eorpaqnueckn Hm ace "poccnnne - n
nky1, n pycckn, n 1a1apnn, n nnryu. o naunonanLno Hm - ne "poccnnne. axpm
snae1 caoe nac1onuee naunonanLnoe nponcxoxpenne.
242
aH roaopn1, u1o sa rpannue, Hon, ace Hm - "pycckne. Hnorne nnopopum
npnesxak1 n naunnak1 npepc1aann1Lcn 1aH, roaopn-pe: "m pycckne. mpyHmaak1
ce6e cnoxnme, qan1ac1nunme naunonanLnme nanHenoaannn: "pycckn 1a1apnn,
"pycckn eape... oe-koHy ns pyccknx a1o paxe kaxe1cn nec1nmH: kak xe, xo1L n
nnopopum, a ace-1akn npnsnak1 pycckyk unannnsaunonnyk npen1nunoc1L. o a
pec1an1enLnoc1n nnuero xopouero a a1oH ne1, n naH a1oro coaepuenno ne nyxno. o-
nepamx, no1oHy, u1o 1akoe naunonanLnoe caHosaanc1ao ec1L nnu1o nnoe kak
nokyuenne na nauy naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L. o-a1opmx, no1oHy u1o no1oH
roaopn1, k npnHepy, o "pyccko Haqnn, a a1a Haqnn popoH c opecckoro pnaosa nnn
aoo6ue c pa1on-nu. oaopn1 o "pyccknx y6nuax, o "pyccknx rpa6n1ennx. na
noaepky amxopn1 - rpysnnm, ueuenum. (pepc1aaL1e, u1o k1o-1o nasaancn 6m 1aH, rpe
aac a nnuo ne snak1, aaunH nHeneH, a aaH npnunocL 6m nocne o1Hmaa1L caok
peny1aunk n onnaunaa1L cue1a caHosaanua!) pkn npnHep: a exnn nepaano 6mn
npouecc, korpa cmna opnoro ouenL amcokonoc1aanennoro unnoannka ns a6appnno-
ankapnn, ka6appnnua, cypnnn sa qnnancoaoe Houennnuec1ao. on na cype kanncn n
roaopnn: n-pe ao1 1ak nnoxo noc1ynnn, no1oHy u1o n pycckan cannLn. o aepL ecnn na
1o nouno, kan1Lcn ponxna 6mna ne "pycckan, a "ka6appnnckan cannLn!.. ak u1o
oc1aanH nHn pycckoe nnuL 1eH, k1o anpaae ero nocn1L. akononpoek1 a1o npaao ue1ko
onpepenne1 n orpannunaae1.
* * *
npepnaraeHoH sakononpoek1e ec1L konkpe1nme c1a1Ln, ko1opme, kak nerko Hoxno
npepanpe1L, amsoay1 aonpocm n aospaxennn. aspa6o1unkn anonne o1paaann ce6e a
a1oH o1ue1. oa1oHy ec1L cHmcn sapanee noncnn1L neko1opme nenpoc1me pnn
nonnHannn nosnunn.
nepayk ouepepL a1o kacae1cn c1a1Ln 1 "ycckan naunn. mue yxe roaopnnocL o
neo6xopnHoc1n ncnonLsoaa1L ncknkun1enLno qopHanLnm kpn1epn npn onpepenennn
n nop1aepxpennn pyccko naunonanLnoc1n. 1ekc1e npoek1a a1a HmcnL ampaxena a
qopHyne "pycckan naunonanLnoc1L nop1aepxpae1cn ee sakpennenneH a pokyHen1ax,
ypoc1oaepnkunx nnunoc1L.
nepykun sa a1o qopHyno 1ekc1 yc1anaannaae1 neo6xopnHoc1L n poc1a1ounoc1L
npnsnannn qak1a npnnapnexnoc1n k pyccko naunn opnoro ns popn1ene nnua,
npe1enpykuero na npnsnanne ce6n pyccknH. ako nopxop nens6exno amsoae1
napekannn c payx npo1naononoxnmx nosnun: kak o1 c1oponnnkoa yc1anoanennn
pycckoc1n no o6enH - o1uoacko n Ha1epnncko - nnnnnH, 1ak n o1 1ex, k1o nonarae1,
u1o npnsnanne nnua pyccknH (kak n nk6o ppyro naunonanLnoc1n) 1pe6ye1 nnuL ero
cy6Lek1nano neqopHanLno caHonpen1nqnkaunn. 1ae1nH specL 1eH n ppyrnH.
1. 1o kacae1cn a1oporo aospaxennn, 1o ace, u1o roaopnnocL o neo6xopnHoc1n
qopHanLnoro nopxopa, 6mno ckasano nHenno no a1oHy noaopy. o6aan1L cnepye1
1onLko opno. nmne pec1aykue onc1n1yunn nHee1cn c1a1Ln 26, ko1opan npnsnae1
sa nk6mH uenoaekoH npaao onpepenn1L n ykasmaa1L caok naunonanLnoc1L. pnako
1e, k1o nonarae1, 6yp1o, aaopn o6nsa1enLnoc1L pokyHen1anLnoro nop1aepxpennn
naunonanLnoc1n, paspa6o1unkn sakona napyuak1 konc1n1yunonnoe 1pe6oaanne, -
oun6ak1cn. nn ny1ak1 cy6Lek1nanoe c o6Lek1nanmH. y6Lek1nano nk6o uenoaek
nHee1 npaao nasaa1L ce6n keH yropno n ykasa1L kakyk yropno naunonanLnoc1L a
kauec1ae caoe. ak am, un1a1enL, anpaae a nk6o HoHen1 n a nk6o nnc1anunn
sanan1L, ckaxeH, u1o am - aqnon nnn kn1aeu (6ypyun npko ampaxennmH
eaponeonpoH), n Hm - okpyxakune - 6ypeH amnyxpenm npnnn1L a1o sananenne 6es
o6Lncnenn. ne 1pe6oaa1L nnkaknx 1oHy pokasa1enLc1a po 1ex nop, noka... am caHn
ne no1pe6ye1e kaknx-nn6o akcknksnanmx npaa, am1ekakunx ns 1akoro
caHoonpepenennn. (anoHnk, u1o nau sakononpoek1 nHenno 1akne npaaa n
243
yc1anaannaae1.) nn noka na aac ne 6ypy1 aosnoxenm nekne akcknksnanme
o6nsannoc1n. oo6ue - po 1oro HoHen1a, noka ne no1pe6ye1cn k
aaue cy6Lek1nanoe Hnenne. yx a a1oH cnyuae nn a pec1aykue onc1n1yunn, nn a
npoek1e, nopro1oanennoH , ne1 nnrpe nn cnoaa o 1oH, u1o oqnunanLnme
nnc1anunn o6nsanm npnnnHa1L na aepy aaun peknapaunn. acnop1nc1ke a Hnnnunn,
apHnnnc1pa1opy 6naro1aopn1enLnoro o6uec1aa, pykoaopc1ay pyccko o6unnm nnn
nno rocypapc1aenno nnn o6uec1aenno oprannsaunn - cnoaoH, nk6oHy, k1o no
ponry cnyx6m onpepenne1 o1nouenne 1o nnn nno nnunoc1n k 1o nnn nno rpynne,
ne sanpeueno (a snaun1 - paspeueno!) coHneaa1Lcn a npnnapnexnoc1n panno
nnunoc1n k panno rpynne n 1pe6oaa1L 1oHy nop1aepxpennn. e npnnyxpa1L k a1oHy -
a1o n anpnHL an1nkonc1n1yunonno! - no n ne npnnnHa1L na aepy sananenne o aaueH
npnpopnoH aqnonc1ae. e xo1n1e - ne pokasmaa1e. o n ne 1pe6y1e a 1akoH cnyuae
nnuero, npnun1akuerocn aqnonaH. eno, 1aknH o6pasoH, 1onLko a 1oH, u1o6m
npepoc1aan1L nnunoc1n k pokasa1L a cnyuae neo6xopnHoc1n caok
npnnapnexnoc1L k pyccko naunn cnoco6oH, kn yxM.
c1L eue opnn acnek1 sa1pony1o npo6neHm. ypyun, ponyc1nH, 6enokoxnH
rony6ornasmH 6nonpnnoH n npn a1oH peHonc1pa1nano nasmaancL aqnonoH, am
nanocn1e a1nH HopanLnm ypon nac1onunH, ypoxpennmH aqnonaH, n6o kocaennmH
o6pasoH c1aan1e nop coHnenne nx co6c1aennyk naunonanLnyk n pacoayk
npen1nunoc1L: ecnn aqnonm - 1akne, kak am, 1o k1o xe 1orpa onn? aHosaanum? ak
Houennnk, sa1ecaauncL a o6uec1ao nopnpounmx nkpe, a no1oH "sacmnaauncL na
rpnsnoH pene, nanocn1 a1oHy o6uec1ay HopanLnm ypon, c1aan nop coHnenne
nopnpounoc1L oc1anLnmx, nosaonnn npepnonara1L, u1o ace onn - opnoro nonn nropa.
akon ne Hoxe1 n ne ponxen aHeunaa1Lcn ao any1pennkk yHc1aennyk n pyueanyk
xnsnL uenoaeka, no ero npnHoe nasnauenLe - orpaxpa1L o6uec1ao o1 yHc1aennmx n
pyueanmx a6eppaun o1penLnmx nnunoc1e.
aknH o6pasoH, npepc1aanne1cn pokasannmH, u1o pokyHen1anLnoe nop1aepxpenne
npe1ensn uenoaeka na 1y nnn nnyk naunonanLnoc1L ec1L ycnoane sine qua non.
2. eo6xopnHo o6ocnoaa1L poc1a1ounoc1L yc1anoanennn pycckoc1n no opno
popn1enLcko nnnnn. pecL ec1L neckonLko coo6paxenn.
B-x, coHnennn a a1o poc1a1ounoc1n amsaanm, kak npaanno, c1paxoH
pasHmaannn naunx naunonanLnmx rpannu, c1paxoH y1pa1m naunonanLnoro nppa n, kak
cnepc1ane, - pyccko naunonanLno npen1nunoc1n. oa1oHy napo 1aeppo sanan1L: a1n
c1paxn a nac ycnnenno noppepxnaak1cn n pasanaak1cn nepo6pocoaec1nmHn
nponaranpnc1cknHn yc1anoakaHn pnpa cpepc1a Haccoao nnqopHaunn. 1o ne noHnn1,
nanpnHep, o1kpm1oe nncLHo nLunny eapecknx 6anknpoa a 1996 ropy, rpe aa1opm
yaepnnn nac, u1o-pe nonoanna pe1e a c1pane nponcxopn1 o1 cHeuannmx 6pakoa! 1n
yaepennn - ne u1o nnoe, kak 6eccoaec1noe apanLe, nponaranpnc1ckn 1pkk. a caHoH
pene, kak a1o nokasann nccnepoaannn akapeHnka .. nekceeaa (poncxoxpenne
napopoa oc1ouno aponm. - ., 1969), pycckne - a1o roHorennan, 1o ec1L a amcoko
c1enenn naunonanLno opnopopnan naunn. pasroaopm o 1oH, u1o-pe "unc1mx pyccknx
ne1, u1o Hm - "cHeuannan naunn (uy1L nn ne no o6pasuy "aHepnkancko naunn) -
a1o npoc1o noknen, nepo6pocoaec1nm n snoapepnm Hnq, ne nHekun nop co6o
nayunmx ocnoaann.
1kypa xe asnnacL a1a kaasn-npo6neHa? 1ae1 pae1 c1a1nc1nka. eno a 1oH, u1o a
cpepe eapeckoro a1noca a occnn pec1an1enLno ouenL amcok npouen1 cHeuannmx
6pakoa (56-58%). Y - n anpnHL nonoanna pe1e poxpae1cn nonykpoakaHn. nac
xe a1o1 npouen1 ne npeamuae1 14-16%, pa n 1o ckpa aknkuenm pyccko-ykpannckne n
pyccko-6enopycckne 6pakn, u1o c naue 1oukn spennn nayuno nekoppek1no, nockonLky
peuL npe1 a nopo6nmx cnyuanx o cHeuennn ne pasnmx a1nocoa, a pasnmx cy6a1nocoa
oporo a1noca. o ec1L, HnnnHyH a 85 cnyuanx ns 100 pe6enok, nHekun opnoro
244
pycckoro popn1enn, nHee1 n a1oporo 1o xe naunonanLnoc1n. ak u1o ne cnepye1 naH
nepeaopn1L eapeckne koHnnekcm n onacennn na ce6n. Hec1no 1y1 acnoHnn1L qpasy
onc1oro o oc1oeackoH: "n pyHae1, u1o ecnn caH 6onen, 1ak n aecL Hnp 6onen...
B-x, nockonLky a aeke a naue c1pane pec1an1enLno aosnnkna
o1nocn1enLno unpokan npocnoka nkpe cHeuanno kpoan (paxe 15% - a1o neHano),
1eope1nueckn napenennmx o1 poxpennn paono nnn paxe 6onee, ueH paono,
naunonanLno npen1nunoc1Lk, neo6xopnHo cpena1L nonn1nueckne amaopm ns a1oro
qak1a. apo, c opno c1oponm, ncxopn1L ns 1pe6oaann HoHen1a, a c ppyro -
paccun1maa1L anepep na c1one1nn.
m, pycckne, ne sann1epecoaanm a 1oH, u1o6m snaun1enLnan uac1L napopa occnn ne
Horna o1nec1n ce6n k naue naunn. anpo1na, nau nn1epec a 1oH, u1o6m naua
roHorennoc1L coxpannnacL n ycnnnaanacL sa cue1 pyccko caHonpen1nqnkaunn nkpe,
paxe ne c1onpouen1no pyccknx, 1ak, u1o6m HakcnHanLnan uac1L nacenennn occnn
c1ana pyccko a 6nnsko nepcnek1nae. oa1oHy ceropnn ne cnepye1 6m1L cnnukoH
c1pornH a o16ope npe1enpen1oa na pycckoc1L, ne cnepye1 o1ceka1L o1 ce6n 1ex, k1o,
nHen nnuL opnoro pycckoro popn1enn, xenae1 onpepenn1L ce6n kak pycckoro. xe a
cnepykueH nokonennn Hm, 1aknH o6pasoH, cyuec1aenno cokpa1nH konnuec1ao
nopo6nmx "npo6neHnmx pyccknx, a uepes nokonenne, aosHoxno, cnnHeH n caHy
npo6neHy, u1o nosaonn1 anoaL noc1aan1L aonpoc o 6onee c1poroH kpn1epnanLnoH
nopxope. o nockonLky nHenno ceuac nepep pyccko naune oc1po c1on1, na nau
asrnnp, sapaua accnHnnnpoaa1L a occnn acex, koro aosHoxno, Hm ponxnm oc1aan1L
He1ncaH sakonnoe npaao na am6op n o6pe1enne nonnouenno pyccko npen1nunoc1n.
oueuL 6m1L pyccknH - 6ypL nH! e sa6maan npn a1oH, u1o pycckan kpoaL n nno1L -
a1o neo6xopnHan ocnoaa pnn ne Henee neo6xopnHoro pyxoanoro, kynL1ypnoro,
unannnsaunonnoro nanonnennn. o a1o yxe - 1eHa ppyroro pasroaopa. apaun,
cansannme c pyxoanmHn npoueccaHn, amxopn1 sa paHkn paccHa1pnaaeHoro
sakononpoek1a n specL ne o6cyxpak1cn.
3. e1 npaann 6es ncknkuenn. naueH sakononpoek1e 1aknH ncknkuenneH c1ann
nkpn, naunonanLnoc1L opnoro ns popn1ene ko1opmx ncknkuae1 pnn pe6enka paonyk
npen1nunoc1L. anpnHep, nkpn, nHekune Ha1L eapecko naunonanLnoc1n. ce,
ckasannoe a npepmpyueH nynk1e, ne nHee1 k nnH o1nouennn.
oueHy? oueHy pe6enok, nHekun pycckyk Ha1L n o1ua-eapen, Hoxe1 6m1L
kpnpnueckn npnsnan pyccknH, a nHekun pycckoro o1ua n Ha1L-eapeky - ne1? e
npncy1c1aye1 nn specL pnckpnHnnaunn rpaxpan occnn no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky?
eun1enLno: ne1. 6Lncnk, noueHy.
B-x, nockonLky 6m1L pyccknH - ne npnannernn, a ckopee nenerkan
noannnoc1L, noc1onLky ne Hoxe1 np1n peun n o pnckpnHnnaunn. m nnuero nn y koro
ne o1nnHaeH "cnapkoro.
B-x, nHenno 1o1 qak1, u1o sakononpoek1 a npnnunne nosaonne1 npnsna1L
pyccknH pe6enka, y ko1oporo opnn ns popn1ene - eape, yxe ykasmaae1 na 1o, u1o a
neH ncknkuena pnckpnHnnaunn no naunonanLnoHy npnsnaky.
B-ux, a o1nnune o1 nk6mx ppyrnx He1ncoa, pe1n, poxpennme eapeko o1
Hyxunnm nk6o naunonanLnoc1n, ne nHek1 paono naunonanLno npen1nunoc1n,
onn ne nannk1cn "nonykpoakaHn n, coo1ae1c1aenno, nnuenm aosHoxnoc1n am6npa1L
caok naunk. 6o y nnx o1 poxpennn yxe ec1L opna anonne onpepenennan
npen1nunoc1L: eapeckan. Tk k, ycnn ar -
nk r. cnn poxpennme eapeko pe1n sa6ypy1 o6 a1oH, 1o nx conneHennnkn nH
pano nnn nospno nanoHnn1.
245
e Hm npnpyHann 1akne npaanna nrpm. apen caHn noxenann amknkun1L, amunenn1L,
ampenn1L ce6n nopo6nmH o6pasoH ns oc1anLnoro uenoaeuec1aa. akoaa yx a1a
caoeo6pasnan naunn, ko1opan roaopn1 o ce6e cnoaaHn caoe canuenno opm: "o1
napop, ko1opm xnae1 o1penLno n cpepn napopoa ne uncnn1cn. axe popc1aennme nH
ceHn1m-apa6m aepy1 cao pop no o1uy; no 1onLko eapen - no Ha1epn. oxpennm
eapeko n Horyun a1o nop1aeppn1L - anpnopn nanne1cn rpaxpannnoH spannn
(c1on1 1onLko noxena1L oqopHn1L rpaxpanc1ao), on Hoxe1 6m1L noxoponen na
eapeckoH knap6nue, ac1ynn1L a eapeckn 6pak n 1.p., a 1o apeHn kak na eapeea no
o1uy a1n npnannernn ne pacnpoc1pannk1cn. a pannm cue1 cyuec1aye1 o6unpnan
nn1epa1ypa.
oa1oHy, aaopn a sakononpoek1 nonoxenne: "e Hory1 6m1L npnsnanm pyccknHn nnua,
nHekune opnoro pycckoro popn1enn, no npn a1oH ne Horyune nHe1L paonyk
naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L a cnny naunonanLnoro nponcxoxpennn a1oporo ns
popn1ene cornacno sakonaH, yc1anoanennnH n 1papnunnH naunn a1oro popn1enn, -
Hm nnuL nokasmaaeH a1nH, u1o snaeH sakonm, yc1anoanennn n 1papnunn, nanpnHep,
eapeckoro napopa n ro1oam nx yaaxa1L n c nnHn cun1a1Lcn. nk1o ne ponxen
o6annn1L nac a 1oH, u1o Hm cnoco6nm sannca1L a pycckne - npnpopnoro
nonnonpaanoro npepc1aan1enn eapecko naunn. aH ne nyxnm ynpekn a
nacnnLc1aenno pycnqnkaunn eapeea. 1akne ynpekn nens6exno nocmnn1cn na nac,
ecnn Hm npnHeH pannm sakon, ne aknkuna a nero un1npoaannoe amue orpannuenne.
Q. 1a1Ln 4 sakononpoek1a nasmaae1cn "ycckan pnacnopa. neko1opmx
amsmaae1 nepoyHenne 1epHnn "pnacnopa, npnHenneHm k pyccknH, okasaaunHcn sa
npepenaHn coapeHennmx rpannu occnn. oueHy-1o pnp pecnonpen1oa aoo6pasnn, u1o
a1o cnoao kak 6m sakpenneno nnuL sa eapecko pnacnopo n 1onLko c ne
accounnpye1cn. e c1onno 6m roaopn1L o6 a1oH nanoH sa6nyxpennn, ecnn 6m ono ne
6mno poaonLno pacnpoc1panennmH.
"noaapL nnoc1pannmx cnoa (., ycckn nsmk, 1980) 1pak1ye1 a1o1 1epHnn anonne
opnosnauno: "nacnopa (rp.: paccennne) - npe6maanne snaun1enLno uac1n napopa
(a1nnuecko o6unoc1n) ane c1panm ero nponcxoxpennn. opo1ko n ncno.
nn1epa1ype npnnn1o yno1pe6nn1L a1o cnoao a o1nouennn caHmx pasnmx
naunonanLnoc1e: roaopn1 o6 apHnncko pnacnope, o umrancko pnacnope, o
kn1acko pnacnope n 1.p. nncok napopoa, pnacnopa ko1opmx ceropnn o6cyxpae1cn,
ace pac1e1. epaano na kpanne npnnn1a rocypapc1aennan nporpaHHa a o1nouennn
ykpannuea, npoxnaakunx no aceHy cae1y, nop oqnunanLnmH nasaanneH "kpannckan
pnacnopa po 2000 ropa.
nkaknx ocnoaann pnn 1oro, u1o6m ncknkun1L pyccknx ns uncna napopoa, nHekunx
npaao na npnsnanne co6c1aenno pnacnopm n sa6o1y o ne, ne cyuec1aye1.
H. 1a1Ln 6 sakononpoek1a npepnarae1 aaepenne "nanora connpapnoc1n co
acex peecnoco6nmx rpaxpan occnn a nonLsy pyccknx pena1pnan1oa. mckasmaak1cn
coHnennn a 1oH, u1o a1a npen 6ype1 noppepxana HanmHn napopaHn n naunonanLnmHn
HenLunnc1aaHn, nacennkunHn, napnpy c pyccknHn, occnk.
nepye1 o1He1n1L, ao-nepamx, u1o pycckne, caHn 6ypyun penpeccnpoaannmH napopoH,
onnaunaann n npoponxak1 onnaunaa1L, 1eH ne Henee, aosapauenne n pec1n1yunk
co6c1aennoc1n 1aknx napopoa, kak ueuenum n nnryun, 6ankapum n kpmHckne 1a1apm,
non1nckne rpekn, 6onrapm n apHnne n 1.p. (xo1n Hm kak naunn nn a ueH nepep nnHn
ne annoaa1m), a 1akxe npnnnnn na ce6n pacxopm no o6yc1poc1ay Hecxe1nncknx
1ypok, cnacunxcn a occnn o1 renounpa n 1.p. o-a1opmx, nenLsn sa6maa1L o 1oH, u1o
snaun1enLnan uac1L naunonanLnmx pernonoa aoo6ue xnae1 sa cue1 po1aun ns
poccnckoro 6kpxe1a, a nan6onLue c1enenn nanonnneHoro 1pypoH pyccknx. (ak,
246
nanpnHep, 6kpxe1 pecny6nnkn arec1an po1aunonen 6onee ueH na 90 %.) pnnnuno
nn nH o6 a1oH sa6maa1L n nna1n1L naH ne6naropapnoc1Lk?
sna ace ckasannoe a coo6paxenne, pyHak, u1o pycckne peny1a1m ocypapc1aenno
yHm n unenm oae1a epepaunn c nerko pyuo n unc1o coaec1Lk Hory1 ronocoaa1L
sa nau sakononpoek1, paxe ecnn k1o-1o ns nx nepyccknx konner okaxe1cn npo1na.
* * *
saknkuenne - neckonLko cnoa o caHo aaxno npo6neHe.
eropnn n cpepn napopa, n cpepn npepc1aan1ene anac1nmx c1pyk1yp eue ouenL Hnoro
1aknx nkpe, ko1opmH ouenL xoue1cn aocc1anoan1L nx y1pauennyk popnny -
oae1ckn oks. ecHo1pn nn na u1o. H kaxe1cn, u1o pacnap Horyue c1panm - ec1L
pesynL1a1 apaxecknx nponckoa n npepa1enLc1aa "nn1o kononnm. nn ne xo1n1
ncka1L, ne xo1n1 anpe1L nnkaknx o6Lek1nanmx npnunn pacnapa. H 6onLno 6mno 6m
sannHa1Lcn nonckoH 1aknx npnunn. o1oHy u1o pesynL1a1 npepa1enLc1aa Hoxno
ncnpaan1L aepnmH cnyxenneH eue npn caoe xnsnn, a pesynL1a1m
Hakponc1opnuecknx npoueccoa - Hennk1cn pecn1nne1nnHn n aekaHn.
nn 1aknx nkpe na nepaoH Hec1e c1on1 aonpocm aocc1anoanennn epnno
rocypapc1aennoc1n n epnno 1eppn1opnn. nn ne xo1n1 sna1L npoc1o nc1nnm: naunn
nepanuna, rocypapc1ao n 1eppn1opnn - a1opnunm. cnn ec1L spopoaan, nonnokpoanan
naunn - 6ype1 n cnnLnoe rocypapc1ao. e1 1akoao naunn - rocypapc1aa nnueH ne
cnac1n. cnn rocypapc1aennoc1L ne coo1ae1c1aye1 naunonanLno cn1yaunn, ona
o6peuena.
pnHenn1enLno k naue xnsnn a1o osnauae1: ecnn Hm xo1nH anpe1L occnk epnno,
aennko n Horyue - naua rnaanan sa6o1a ponxna 6m1L o epnnc1ae, aennunn (a 1oH
uncne o6nsa1enLno - konnuec1aennoH!) n Horyuec1ae pyccko naunn. a1oH - ocnoaa
ocnoa. pecL neponyc1nHm nn ny1annua nonn1n, nn o1c1ynnenne o1 npnnunnoa, nn
nopHena npnopn1e1oa.
eH xe, k1o aocnn1an a nonn1nnx "coae1ckoro napopa, k1o nm1ae1cn
1pancqopHnpoaa1L a1n nonn1nn a "poccnckyk naunk, napo npeoponeaa1L apxansH n
nenocnepoaa1enLnoc1L caoero Hmunennn.
occnn - ne . ycckne - ne "poccnnne.
1o - naacerpa.
H H u nn
.
(n)
" 3QEREHHM HRXEHHH YKH HHH"
247
cxopn ns rocypapc1aoo6pasykue ponn pyccko naunn a occncko epepaunn,
o6ecneunaue aosnnknoaenne n pasan1ne nc1opnuecko occnn kak aennkoro,
nesaancnHoro n caHo6m1noro rocypapc1aa,
npnsnaaan o6uenpnsnannme nopHm n npnnunnm Hexpynapopnoro npaaa,
rapan1npykune paanonpaane n caHoonpepenenne napopoa n naun n
1eppn1opnanLnyk uenoc1noc1L rocypapc1a,
c1peHncL o6ecneun1L co6nkpenne nesm6neHmx npaa n cao6op uenoaeka n poc1nuL
epnnc1aa pyccko naunn,
nac1onun sakon nHee1 uenLk cnoco6c1aoaa1L yperynnpoaannk aonpocoa, cansannmx
c paspenennmH nonoxenneH pyccko naunn, amsaannmH npekpauenneH
cyuec1aoaannn oksa .
1.
yccko naune npnsnae1cn epnnan coaokynnoc1L nkpe, nHekunx pycckyk
naunonanLnoc1L.
ycckan naunonanLnoc1L, nop1aepxpae1cn ee sakpennenneH a pokyHen1ax,
ypoc1oaepnkunx nnunoc1L. n6o, ecnn nnuo nanne1cn necoaepuennone1nnH, a
pokyHen1ax, ypoc1oaepnkunx nnunoc1L opnoro ns popn1ene. n6o na ocnoaannn
sananennn nnua, anapekuero pyccknH nsmkoH n nHekuero ne Henee opnoro
pokyHen1anLno nop1aepxpennoro pycckoro npepka ao a1opoH konene, o caoe
naunonanLnoc1n, ko1opoe coaepuae1cn a yc1anoanennoH qepepanLnmH sakonoH
nopnpke.
paao na npnsnanne ce6n pyccknHn nHek1 1akxe nnua pycckoro nponcxoxpennn,
ko1opme caHn nnn nx npepkn po 1pe1Lero konena nopaeprnncL nacnnLc1aenno
penaunonannsaunn a pesynL1a1e naunonanLnmx konqnnk1oa nnn rocypapc1aenno
nonn1nkn occnn n a 1917-1991 rr. n sa npepenaHn occnn c 1991 r.
e Hory1 6m1L npnsnanm pyccknHn nnua, nHekune opnoro pycckoro popn1enn, no npn
a1oH ne Horyune nHe1L paonyk naunonanLnyk npen1nunoc1L a cnny naunonanLnoro
nponcxoxpennn a1oporo ns popn1ene cornacno sakonaH, yc1anoanennnH n 1papnunnH
naunn a1oro popn1enn.
ycckyk naunk coc1aannk1 pycckne, nannkunecn rpaxpanaHn occncko epepaunn
n pycckne, ne nannkunecn rpaxpanaHn occncko epepaunn, noc1onnno nnn
apeHenno npoxnaakune sa rpannue, kak nHekune nnoc1pannoe rpaxpanc1ao, 1ak n
nnua 6es rpaxpanc1aa.
2. nx
ac1onunH sakonoH konc1a1npye1cn paspenennoe nonoxenne pyccko naunn,
cnoxnaueecn a pesynL1a1e npekpauennn cyuec1aoaannn oksa aonpekn aone
nacennkunx ero napopoa n naun, ampaxenno na peqepenpyHe 1991 r.
aspenennoe nonoxenne pyccko naunn ampaxeno a nannunn a6nnsn rpannu occnn
son nc1opnueckoro koHnak1noro npoxnaannn pyccknx.
248
aspenennan pycckan naunn nHee1 npaao na aoccoepnnenne.
3. n n nvm

occnn ocyuec1anne1 nonn1nky, nanpaanennyk na poc1nxenne epnnc1aa pyccko


naunn HnpnmHn cpepc1aaHn na ocnoaannn o6uenpnsnannmx nopH n npnnunnoa
Hexpynapopnoro npaaa.
ocypapc1aennan nonn1nka no poc1nxennk epnnc1aa pyccko naunn ocnoamaae1cn na
npnsnannn n amnonnennn cnepykunx npnnunnoa:
1) naunonanLnoro cyaepenn1e1a n npaaocy6Lek1noc1n pyccko naunn - koHnnekca
neo1LeHneHmx npaa, ko1opme o6ecneunaak1 cyuec1aoaanne pyccko naunn n
coxpanenne ee caHo6m1noc1n, cospak1 6naronpnn1nme ycnoann pnn ee nporpeccnanoro
pasan1nn;
2) c1peHnennn k poc1nxennk epnnc1aa pyccko naunn a paHkax opnoro rocypapc1aa -
occnn;
3) npnsnannn npaaa na cao6opnoe caHoonpepenenne sa pyccknHn a Hec1ax nx
koHnak1noro nc1opnueckoro npoxnaannn na 1eppn1opnn nnoc1pannmx