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Unified Fracture Design

Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice


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Unified Fracture
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Bridging the Gap Between Theory and
Practice
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Michael Economides
Ronald Oligney
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Unified Fracture Design
Copyright 2002 by Orsa Press
All rights, including reproduction by photographic or
electronic process and translation into other languages are
fully reserved under the International Copyright Union, the
Universal Copyright Convention, and the Pan-Aerican
Copyright Convention! "eproduction of this boo# in $hole
or in part in any anner $ithout $ritten perission fro the
publisher is prohibited!
Orsa Press
P!O! %o& 2'()
Alvin, *+ ,,'-2
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
1conoides, 2ichael 3!
Unified fracture design 4 bridging the gap bet$een theory
and practice 5 2ichael 1conoides, "onald Oligney, Peter
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Includes bibliographical references and inde&!
I8%9 0-),-0/2,-0-' :al#! paper;
-! Oil $ells<=ydraulic fracturing! I! Oligney, "onald 1!
II! 6al#7, Peter, -)'0- III! *itle!
*9.,-!100' 2002
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ILSLJLBANeL[ PLS@DBAHMCQN JBPA_DCQ, DTLN@JV UOPOHMCO WCA`D@LHMCGL SAJ]O_ULCDV :JT!, CAISDTLS,
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WATLUHVL@JV FHAEOUASV bBSALPGT dRRLB@ATc! ?@O OWCA`AL@ IOPG\LCCOL UAPHLCDL PFHDWD PLS\DCG
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TDCDRSABA! ?@O@ IASATL@S TL]ACDBD SAWSQ\LCDV JIHO\CO[ JSLUG TO_CO BOSSLB@DSOPA@M P
JOO@PL@J@PQNeL[ UPQTLSCO[ TOULHD, IOBA ISOECOWCOL dRRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL CL FQUL@ JOPIAUA@M J
UAPHLCDLT, CAFHNULCCGT PO PSLTV TDCDRSABA! ?@O@ ISOKLJJ IOUFOSA AP@OTA@D`LJBD PBHN`AL@JV P
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fOIOHCD@LHMCGL @LOSL@D`LJBDL OJCOPG, SLWQHM@A@G PG`DJHLCD[, A @AB_L ISDTLSG UDWA[COP
UACG P BCDEL Hvdraulic Fracture Mechanics, by Peter 6al#7 and 2ichael 1conoides :b^L]ACDBA
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hOEUA EAWO_DUBOJ@CAV JTLJM @L`L@ P SAJBHDCLCCO[ @SLeDCL J PGJOBO[ JBOSOJ@MN, BAILHMBD _DUBOJ@D
J@AHBDPAN@JV J WLSCATD ISOIIAC@A, `@O ISDPOUD@ B WCA`D@LHMCOTQ SAJJLVCDN dCLSEDD :IO@LSL
UAPHLCDV;! oABDT OFSAWOT, PLHD`DCA IAULCDV UAPHLCDV P @SLeDCL FOHM\L, `LT FGHO FG ISLUJBAWACO
CA OJCOPL COTDCAHMCOEO BOC@SAJ@A ISOCDKALTOJ@L[ TL_UQ @SLeDCO[ D IHAJ@OT! p IOPLULCDD
@SLeDCG BA_QeAVJV ISOCDKALTOJ@M J@ACOPD@JV CATCOEO CD_L COTDCAHMCOEO WCA`LCDV, DWTLSLCCOEO P
QJHOPDV] OUCORAWCOEO IO@OBA! jTLL@JV OF\DSCAV HD@LSA@QSA, IOJPVeLCCAV d@DT dRRLB@AT
O@BHOCLCDVT O@ WABOCA fASJD P @SLeDCL s3in and Penny, 2000, 2! Ci#es, 2000, 2ilton-*ayler, -))0,
widley, -))0, wuppy et al!, -).2ut d@O@ POISOJ SAJJTO@SLC @AB_L P EHAPL '!
oSAB@OPBA @L`LCDV CL IO WABOCQ fASJD P QCDRDKDSOPACCOT UDWA[CL XYZ O@COJD@LHMCO
ISOJ@AV! nLOF]OUDTO QTLCM\D@M BA_QeQNJV ISOCDKALTOJ@M, DJIOHMWQV SAJJ`D@ACCG[ IOISAPO`CG[
BOdRRDKDLC@, CAISDTLS, J (0 000 Tf UO -0 000 Tf! YAWQTLL@JV, ISD d@OT QTLCM\AL@JV `DJHO
ISOIIAC@A D JOO@PL@J@PQNeD[ TABJDTAHMCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, SAJJ`D@GPALTG[ ISD IOTOeD
dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKG UHV UDWA[CA XYZ! m_DUALTAV JBOSOJ@M EAWA TO_L@ FG@M SAJJ`D@ACA DW
QTLCM\LCCOEO DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D :CLOF]OUDTO WAUA@M ULISLJJDN CA IHAJ@, A @AB_L UOH_CG
FG@M DWPLJ@CG JPO[J@PA EAWO_DUBOJ@CO[ JTLJD;! mKLCBA JBOSOJ@D EAWA, P JPON O`LSLUM, TO_L@ FG@M
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DJIOHMWOPACA UHV QHQ`\LCDV CA`AHMCO[ OKLCBD IOISAPO`COEO BOdRRDKDLC@A WA @L`LCDL CL IO WABOCQ
fASJD! ?@O@ ISOKLJJ TO_CO ULHA@M D@LSA@DPCO IO TLSL CLOF]OUDTOJ@D UHV IOHQ`LCDV DJISAPHLCCOEO
`DJHA ISOIIAC@A, DJIOHMWQLTOEO UAHM\L PO PJLT OJ@AHMCOT ISOKLJJL ISOLB@DSOPACDV!
jJIOHMWOPACDL DJISAPHLCCOEO `DJHA ISOIIAC@A ISODHHNJ@SDSOPACO P ISDTLSL 2P00 CD_L P
d@O[ EHAPL!
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ZOUOWSLPAL@JV, `@O P CLBO@OSOT BOCBSL@COT IHAJ@L RDHM@SA@ _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA FQUL@
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ISOIIAC@A UHV SAJJTA@SDPALTO[ OFSAFO@BD SAPCO
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prop
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pJIOTCDT, `@O TABJDTAHMCG[ FLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, BO@OSG[ TO_L@ FG@M
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02 ! 0
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prop
Dactual
N
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aBDC CA IOPLS]COJ@D @SLeDCG ISDPOUD@ B WCA`D@LHMCOTQ JCD_LCDN ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D! jW
QSAPCLCDV PDUCO, `@O BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A, ISDFHDWD@LHMCO P e
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FG IO@LSN ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, PGWPACCQN JBDCOT - CA IOPLS]COJ@D @SLeDCG!
'JNM '2B6JONABI KJL2RQ2 I'
p OJ@AP\L[JV `AJ@D d@O[ EHAPG TG ISODHHNJ@SDSQLT HOEDBQ ISOLB@DSOPACDV, WABHN`LCCQN P
QCDRDKDSOPACCOT UDWA[CL @SLeDCG! ^G CATLSLCCO SAJJTA@SDPALT JHQ`AD, BOEUA DTLN@JV @OHMBO
OESACD`LCCGL UACCGL!
6CX[ C*)3*(),[ Y u C( *)) C*\)(8 M!vGT
p @AFHDKL .-2 IOBAWACG DTLNeDLJV UACCGL UHV IHAJ@A bJSLUCL[c ISOCDKALTOJ@D :J
ISOCDKALTOJ@MN -!, Tf D dRRLB@DPCO[ TOeCOJ@MN ,( RQ@OP 20!2 T;! jJ]OUCGL UACCGL PBHN`AN@
SAUDQJ JBPA_DCG D SAUDQJ USLCDSOPACDV :SAJJ`D@ACCG[ DW JL@BD JBPA_DC P /0 ABSOP -(!-) EA CA
JBPA_DCQ;! ?@D PA_CGL IASATL@SG IHAJ@A UOH_CG OFVWA@LHMCO ISDJQ@J@POPA@M!
aOEHAJCO ISLUPASD@LHMCOTQ SL\LCDN O@COJD@LHMCO SAWTLSA XYZ, UOH_CO FG@M WABA`ACO )0
000 RQC@OP :/0!.2 @; ISOIIAC@A! ZSD O_DUALTOT CAISV_LCDD JTGBACDV @SLeDCG :'000 psi 0/!2,
^ZA; PGFSACCG[ ISOIIAC@ 205/0 TL\ JO JTOHVCGT IOBSG@DLT FQUL@ DTL@M ISOCDKALTOJ@M P
IHAJ@OPG] QJHOPDV] (0 000 Tf! ?@O WCA`LCDL Q_L PBHN`AL@ dRRLB@ CLBO@OSOEO USOFHLCDV ISOIIAC@A
D QTLCM\LCDL ISOCDKALTOJ@D ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD PJHLUJ@PDL CLIOHCOEO SAW_D_LCDV ELHV!
m`LPDUCO, `@O d@O OUDC DW BHN`LPG] IASATL@SOP UDWA[CA, D DC_LCLS-ISOLB@DSOPeDB UOH_LC JULHA@M
PJz POWTO_COL, `@OFG d@A OKLCBA FGHA BAB TO_CO FOHLL BOSSLB@CO[! :nLUOJ@A@O`CO ISDFSLJ@D
UOSOEQN ISOESATTQ 0 J Q_L PJ@APHLCCGTD UACCGTD UHV SAWHD`CG] ISOIIAC@OP, IOJ@APHVLTG]
ISODWPOUD@LHVTD, D bBHDBCQ@Mc CA TASBL ISOIIAC@A;!
^OUQHM IHOJBO[ ULROSTAKDD :@!L!, IO JQeLJ@PQ < TOUQHM CEA; SAPLC 2 -0
(
psi :-0 ,.)!'
^ZA;! jJIG@ACDV TL@OUOT TDCD-XYZ J @O[ _L JATO[ _DUBOJ@MN OFG`CO UAN@ BOdRRDKDLC@
IOEHOeLCDV P 0!00' RQ@5TDC
-52
:0!-'2 JT5TDC
-52
;, O_DUAL@JV @AB_L CLBO@OSAV TECOPLCCAV Q@L`BA!
:m@TL@M@L, `@O d@D UACCGL ISDPLULCG O@COJD@LHMCO ISOUQB@DPCOEO IHAJ@A! ZSDCDTAL@JV, `@O Q@L`BD
WA ISLULHATD ISOUQB@DPCOEO IHAJ@A CL@!; YLOHOED`LJBDL IASATL@SG _DUBOJ@D ISLUOJ@APHLCG
r`
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
JLSPDJCO[ BOTIACDL[, D :DW-WA OESACD`LCD[ IO UAPHLCDN P d@OT BOCBSL@COT JHQ`AL; @LTI CAECL@ACDV
SAPLC 20 FASS5TDC :0!-. T
0
5TDC;!
62lDJU2 gfF5 J7[) [) @ M!vGT
Proppant ass for :t$o $ings;, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A :UHV UPQ] BSGHMLP;, RQC@OP TAJJG
:@OCC;
)0,000 :/0!.2;
8p grav of proppant aterial :$ater -; yULHMCG[ PLJ TA@LSDAHA ISOIIAC@A :POUA -; 2!('
Porosity of proppant pac# ZOSDJ@OJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD 0!0.
Proppant pac# pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD, Tf (0,000
2a& propp diaeter, D
pmax , inch ^ABJ! UDATL@S WLSLC ISOIIAC@A, D
pmax , UN[T :TT;
0!00- :0!.);
oration pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M IHAJ@A, Tf -!,
Pereable :lea#off; thic#ness, ft ZSOCDKALTAV :IOEHOeANeAV; TOeCOJ@M, RQ@ :T; ,( :20!2;
ell radius, ft YAUDQJ JBPA_DCG, RQ@ :T; 0!2' :0!0,(2;
ell drainage radius, ft YAUDQJ USLCDSOPACDV JBPA_DCG, RQ@ :T; ,/' :22,!-;
Pre- treatent s#in factor aBDC-RAB@OS UO XYZ 0!0
racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ :T;
Plane strain odulus, E :psi; ^OUQHM IHOJBO[ ULROSTAKDD, E, psi :^ZA;
2!01 0( :-0,)0;
8lurry inection rate :t$o $ings, li prop;, bp oLTI CAECL@ACDV IQHMIG :UPA BSGHA, _DUBOJ@M
ISOIIAC@;, FASS5TDC :T
0
5TDC;
20!0 :0!-.;
"heology, K :lbf5ft
2
;

n
s

YLOHOEDV, K :RQC@-JDHA5RQ@
2
;

n
s

0!0,
"heology, n YLOHOEDV, n 0!/'
ea#off coefficient in pereable layer, ft5in
-52
hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P ISOCDKALTG[ IHAJ@,
RQ@5TDC
-52
:JT5TDC
-52
;
0!00' :0!-'2;
8purt loss coefficient, S
p
, gal5ft
2
hOdRRDKDLC@ TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD, S
p
, EAHHOC5RQ@
2

:T
0
5T
2
;
0!0-0 :0!/0,-0
|0
;
m@TL@M@L, `@O J@SOBA PGJO@G @SLeDCG P JPOUBL DJ]OUCG] UACCG] IOBA IQJ@AV :@AFHDKA .-2;!
^G WCALT, `@O OFeAV TOeCOJ@M ISOUQB@DPCOEO IHAJ@A :@!L!, SAJJ@OVCDL TL_UQ BSOPHL[ D IOUO\PO[
ISOUQB@DPCOEO DC@LSPAHA; SAPCA -00 RQ@OP :00!' T;! mUCABO, P ISLULHA] d@OEO DC@LSPAHA @OHMBO ,(
RQ@OP :20!2 T; VPHVN@JV ISOUQB@DPCGTD! ZSLUPASD@LHMCAV OKLCBA PGJO@G @SLeDCG UOH_CA FG@M
TDCDTQT -00 RQ@OP :00!' T;, CO RAB@D`LJBAV PGJO@A FQUL@ JPVWACA J CLJBOHMBDTD USQEDTD RAB@OSATD!
YAWQTCOL UOIQeLCDL, ISD O@JQ@J@PDD BABD]-HDFO CAUL_CG] UACCG] O@COJD@LHMCO BOC@SAJ@A
CAISV_LCD[, < d@O `@O BOdRRDKDLC@ ROSTG JOWUACCO[ @SLeDCG SAPLC 24-! fSQEDTD JHOPATD, TG
FQULT CA]OUD@M PGJO@Q @SLeDCG, f
h
, IQ@LT IOUEOCBD LL B IHACDSQLTO[ UHDCL, JOEHAJCO
JOO@CO\LCDN f f
x h
.
nA UACCG[ TOTLC@ TG PPOUDT CA`AHMCQN OKLCBQ h
f
-00 RQ@OP :00!' T; P CA\Q dHLB@SOCCQN
@AFHDKQ UDWA[CA, A @AB_L WAUALT UOIOHCD@LHMCGL @L]COHOED`LJBDL OESACD`LCDV BAB IOBAWACO P
@AFHDKL .-0!
6^\ gfW5 KC(),[) 7[) [) @ M!vGT
2a& possible added proppant concentration, lb5gal neat
fluid
^ABJDTAHMCAV POWTO_CAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPBD
ISOIIAC@A, RQC@-TAJJA5EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[
_DUBOJ@D
-2 :-/0.;
2ultiply opt length by factor yTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA BOdRRDKDLC@ -
2ultiply 9olte pad by factor yTCO_D@M OFgLT IOUQ\BD IO nOHM@L CA BOdRRDKDLC@ -
aOEHAJCO UACCGT JLSPDJCO[ BOTIACDD, TABJDTAHMCO UOIQJ@DTAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A
SAPCA -2 RQC@-TAJJA5EAHHOC :-/0. BE5T
0
; :RQC@OP TAJJG sBDHOESATTOPu ISOIIAC@A, UOFAPHVLTG] B -
rb
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
EAHHOCQ s- BQFOTL@SQu `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA;! qCA`LCDV USQED] UPQ] IASATL@SOP WAUACG IO
QTOH`ACDN!
pG]OU ILSPOEO ISOEOCA dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKG UDWA[CA JOJ@OD@ D] @SL] `AJ@L[! p ILSPO[ `AJ@D
IOBAWAC bJIDJOB IO_LHACD[c :@AFHDKA .-/;!
mC BOCJ@A@DSQL@, `@O `DJHO ISOIIAC@A SAPCO 0!0', D `@O ISD OI@DTAHMCOT SAWTLeLCDD
ISOIIAC@A TG JTOEHD FG UOJ@DECQ@M FLWSAWTLSCOEO DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, SAPCOEO 0!(', D JBDCA J
@ABDT FOHM\DT O@SDKA@LHMCGT WCA`LCDLT, BAB |'!,2! hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D SAPCA
/!,/ :O@COJD@LHMCO JD@QAKDD CQHLPOEO JBDCA, WARDBJDSOPACCOEO CATD P BA`LJ@PL FAWG UHV JSAPCLCDV;!
mUCABO, ISLUQISL_UANeLL JOOFeLCDL :PGJPL`DPALTOL CA dBSACL BSAJCGT, A WULJM IOBAWACCOL
_DSCGT \SDR@OT; QBAWGPAL@, `@O CA\ JIDJOB IO_LHACD[ CL TO_L@ FG@M SLAHDWOPAC!
'ubo(ti)al (lace)ent *it+ constraints satisfied ,-. /01234521-46.. 17-86.946.: -8;<4=46.4
>/?1@5.<83A614
2ass of proppant reduced ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A QTLCM\LCA
xAB@D`LJBOL SAWTLeLCDL, BO@OSOL TOEHA FG PGUA@M ISOESATTA ISOLB@DSOPACDV, CLJBOHMBO
SAWO`ASOPGPAL@, BAB IOBAWACO P @AFHDKL .-'!
62lDJU2 gfH5 6)*)(X) C(e @ M!vGT n%$ } de(3p
)Ye,((
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!0''2
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!('
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
mI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M
@SLeDCG, C
fDopt
|-!.
Optial half length, x
fopt
, ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
2)/!2 :.)!(,;
Optial propped $idth, w
opt
, inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!2 :'!0.;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!,2
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!,/
fSQEDTD JHOPATD, ISOESATTA UDWA[CA TO_L@ OFLJIL`D@M SAWTLeLCDL PJLEO '. '00 RQC@OP
:2(!'/ @; ISOIIAC@A! ZSD`DCQ d@OEO TG OFJQUDT IOWUCLL! p UACCG[ TOTLC@ TG CL TO_LT QULHD@M L[
JHD\BOT TCOEO PCDTACDV, IO@OTQ `@O CA\A PGJO@A @SLeDCG P -00 RQ@OP :00!' T; CL SLAHDJ@D`CAV!
62lDJU2 gf]5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ M!vGT n%$ } TGG de(3p
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; '.,'0- :2(!'0(;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!200)
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!',
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!2
=alf length, x
f
, ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
2)/!2 :.)!(,;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!-2 :0!0';
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!'0
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!-'
i@OFG ISDFHDWD@MJV B CA\LTQ _LHALTOTQ BOdRRDKDLC@Q ROSTG 24- :h
f
x
f
;, TG
QPLHD`DPALT PGJO@Q @SLeDCG UO 200 RQ@OP :,- T;! oLILSM SAJJ`D@ACCAV @LOSL@D`LJBAV OI@DTAHMCAV
ISOLB@CAV UHDCA JOJ@APHVL@ h
f
2-( RQ@ :('!./ T;! oSL@MV IOISAPBA UO h
f
2-- RQ@ :(/!0- T; CABOCLK
QJ@ACOPD@ _LHALTG[ BOdRRDKDLC@ ROSTG :@AFHDKA .-(;!
rg
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
62lDJU2 gf`5 6)*)(X) C(e @ M!vGT n%$ } FTT de(p
)Ye,((
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!-(./
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!'0
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
mI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M
@SLeDCG, C
fDopt
-!(
Optial half length, x
fopt
, ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
2--!- :(0!0/;
Optial propped $idth, w
opt
, inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!- :2!'/;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!0,
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 0!.'
^G PDUDT, `@O `DJHO ISOIIAC@A @LILSM WCA`D@LHMCO TLCM\L, `LT FGHO SACM\L! ZO`LTQ d@O
ISODWO\HO ZO@OTQ `@O QPLHD`LCDL PGJO@G @SLeDCG QTLCM\AL@ OFgLTCQN dRRLB@DPCOJ@M
ISOIIAC@A :@!L!, @Q `AJ@M ISOIIAC@A, BO@OSAV bSAFO@AL@ UHV CAJc;! mI@DTAHMCAV PGJO@A,
JOO@PL@J@PQNeAV d@OTQ `DJHQ ISOIIAC@A, SAPCA 2-- RQ@OP :(/!0 T;, `@O OWCA`AL@, `@O CA\A @SLeDCA,
LJHD LL TO_CO SLAHDWOPA@M, FQUL@ DTL@M BOdRRDKDLC@ ROSTG 24-! nO TO_CO HD LL SLAHDWOPA@M
aOEHAJCO BSAJCOTQ JOOFeLCDN :IOBAWACCOTQ WULJM _DSCGT \SDR@OT;, OI@DTAHMCOL
SAWTLeLCDL TO_L@ FG@M SLAHDWOPACO!
Constraints allo* o(ti)u) (lace)ent B7-86.946.C @1;213CD5 @13/9.5A 1@5.<83A614
-8;<4=46.4
^G CA\HD, `@O )0 000 RQC@OP :/0!.20 @; ISOIIAC@A TOEQ@ FG@M SAWTLeLCG P JBPA_DCL, ]O@V
CL PLJM ISOIIAC@ FQUL@ SAWTLeLC P ISOUQB@DPCG[ IHAJ@ :@AFHDKA .-,;!
oA `AJ@M ISOIIAC@A, BO@OSAV UOJ@DEAL@ ISOUQB@DPCOEO IHAJ@A, FQUL@ ISLUJ@APHV@M `DJHO
ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!-(., D JOO@PL@J@PQNeAV OI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA SAPCA 2-- RQ@OP :(/!0 T;! ?@A
OFSAFO@BA QJ@ACOPD@ FLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!'0! fSQEDTD JHOPATD, FQUL@
JOWUAC O@SDKA@LHMCG[ dBPDPAHLC@CG[ JBDC, s
f
|'!0,!
62lDJU2 gfb5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ M!vGT n%$ } FTT de(3p
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; )0,000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!-(./
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!'0
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!(
=alf length, x
f
, ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
2--!- :(0!0/;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!-2 :2!'/;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, S
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!0,
olds of increase of IP hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 0!.'
m@TL@M@L, `@O PJV HOEDBA UDWA[CA OJCOPACA CA BOCKLIKDD `DJHA ISOIIAC@A! ^G CL WAUALT
ISODWPOHMCQN UHDCQt PTLJ@O d@OEO, TG IOHQ`ALT OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ! ZSOKLJJ ISOLB@DSOPACDV
EASAC@DSQL@, `@O _LHALTAV UHDCA FQUL@ SLAHDWOPACA D `@O _LHALTG[ OFgLT ISOIIAC@A FQUL@ SAWTLeLC
SAPCOTLSCO!
rr
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
nLBO@OSGL UL@AHD ISOKLJJA XYZ IOBAWACG P @AFHDKL .-.! vOHM\LL BOHD`LJ@PO UL@AHL[ TO_CO
IOHQ`D@ IQ@LT ISOEOCA 1&cel- dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKG =2!
62lDJU2 gfg5 K)( d(X); *Y)_)@ @ M!vGT &%
$
} FTT de(p
( ""
1fficiency, e
ta
, { ?RRLB@DPCOJ@M, e
ta
, {
0/!'
Puping tie, t
e
, in pSLTV WABA`BD, t
e
, TDC
/0!/
Pad puping tie, t
e
, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, t
e
,TDC
-)!,
1&ponent of added proppant concentration, e
ps
ZOBAWA@LHM J@LILCD BSDPO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD
UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A, e
ps
0!/.,-
Unifor proppant concentration in frac at end, lb5ft
0
mUCOSOUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P
BOCKL, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
0
:BE5T
0
;
',!' :)2-!-;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
JTGBACDV @SLeDCG, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
2
:BE5T
2
;
-!0 :/!..;
2a& added proppant concentration, lb per gal clean
fluid
^ABJ! BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@ CA EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
--!. :-/-/;
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, :BZA; -02!' :)-0!(;
A3;) C*)) u C( *)) C*\)(8 M!vGF
fHV KLHL[ DHHNJ@SAKDD TG FQULT SAJJTA@SDPA@M 2P0- BAB CA\ FAWOPG[ JHQ`A[! p d@OT
SAWULHL TG SAJJTO@SDT, TO_CO HD ACAHOED`CGT OFSAWOT SAWTLJ@D@M -'0 000 RQC@OP :(.!0/ @;
ISOIIAC@A! ~JHD UA, @O CAJBOHMBO d@O QHQ`\D@ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@M JBPA_DCG
ZOUSOFCOJ@D D@LSA@DPCOEO ISOKLJJA UDWA[CA FGHD ISODHHNJ@SDSOPACG P ISLUGUQeLT
ISDTLSL, IOd@OTQ P @AFHDKL .-) IOBAWACG @OHMBO OJCOPCGL SLWQHM@A@G! p @AFHDKL .--0 ISDPLULC
@LOSL@D`LJBD[ OI@DTQT UHV 2P02!
ZLSPGT ULHOT TG UOH_CG O@TL@D@M, `@O QPLHD`LCDL OFgLTA ISOIIAC@A D JOO@PL@J@PQNeLL
LTQ F7HM\LL `DJHO ISOIIAC@A ISDPOUD@ B PLJMTA CLWCA`D@LHMCOTQ QPLHD`LCDN ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D,
UA_L LJHD PJz DUL@ BAB CAUO! ?@O UOH_CO WAJ@APD@M CAJ WAUQTA@MJV, A LJ@M HD JTGJH bJUPDEA@M
ISLULHc!
62lDJU2 gfr5 J7[) [) @ M!vGF
Proppant ass for :t$o $ings;, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A :UHV UPQ] BSGHMLP;, RQC@OP
TAJJG :@OCC;
-'0,000 :(.!00);

racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ :T; 2/. :,'!(;

62lDJU2 gfTG5 6)*)(X) C(e @ M!vGF
)Ye,((
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!20.,
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!'.
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
mI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M
@SLeDCG, C
fDopt
-!,
Optial half length, x
fopt
, ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
2/.!0 :,'!(;
TGG
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
Optial propped $idth, w
opt
, inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!- :2!'/;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!'/
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!20
~eL FOHM\L IDeD UHV SAWTG\HLCD[ UAL@ JOOFeLCDL4
'ubo(ti)al (lace)ent *it+ constraints satisfied ,-. /01234521-46.. 17-86.946.: -8;<4=46.4
>/?1@5.<83A614
2ass of proppant reduced ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A QTLCM\LCA
A @AB_L O`LSLUCO[ SLWQHM@A@, ISDPLULCCG[ P @AFHDKL .---
62lDJU2 gfTT5 K)( d(X); *Y)_)@ ^*^( @ M!vGF
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; -0(,)(' :(2!-2(;
Proppant nuber, Nprop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!2-.0
iensionless PI, JDael
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!',
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!'
=alf length, x
f
, ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
2/.!0 :,'!(;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!-0 :0!0;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!/)
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!-2
( ""
1fficiency, eta, {
?RRLB@DPCOJ@M, e
ta
, {
0(!-
Puping tie, t
e
, in pSLTV WABA`BD, t
e
, TDC
'.!0
Pad puping tie, t
e
, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, t
e
,TDC
2,!2
1&ponent of added proppant concentration, e
ps
ZOBAWA@LHM J@LILCD BSDPO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD
UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A, e
ps
0!/()/
Unifor proppant concentration in frac at end, lb5ft
0
mUCOSOUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P
BOCKL, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
0
:BE5T
0
;
'.!2 :)20!0;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
WABSG@DV, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
2
:BE5T
2
;
-!- :'!0,;
2a& added proppant concentration, lb per gal clean
fluid
^ABJ! BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@ CA EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
-2!0 :-/0.;
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, :BZA; -22!) :./,!/;
hAB TG PDUDT, ISOESATTA ISOLB@DSOPACDV FGHA PGCQ_ULCA QTLCM\D@M BOHD`LJ@PO
ISOIIAC@A, SAWTLeALTOEO P IHAJ@! ZSD @ABOT QTLCM\LCDD RAB@D`LJBAV BSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA
ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D IO`@D CL PG\L @O[, BO@OSQN TG TOEHD UOJ@DECQ@M J )0 000 RQC@ATD :/0!.20 @;
ISOIIAC@A! m`LPDUCO, `@O P UACCOT JHQ`AL bJUPDEA@M ISLULHc < d@O IOIQJ@Q @SA@D@M JDHG D ULCMED!
nO UL[J@PD@LHMCO HD d@O J@OHM O`LPDUCO nLBO@OSGL JLSPDJCGL BOTIACDD TOEQ@ IOJ@APD@M
:WA JOO@PL@J@PQNeLL POWCAESA_ULCDL; HQ`\LL OFOSQUOPACDL, BO@OSOL JIOJOFCO WABA`DPA@M
BOCKLC@SAKDD ISOIIAC@A, UOJ@DEANeDL -( RQC@5EAHHOC :-)-, BE5T
0
;!
j@AB, UAPA[@L DWTLCDT @L]COHOED`LJBDL OESACD`LCDV D JULHALT LeL OUDC ISOEOC UDWA[CA
2a& added proppant concentration, lb per gal clean
fluid
^ABJ! BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@ CA EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
-( :-)-,;
aOOFeLCDL @LILSM OFCAUL_DPANeLL :@AFHDKA .--2;
TGT
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
Constraints allo* o(ti)u) (lace)ent B7-86.946.C 01@/>E8D5 1@5.<83A614 -8;<4=46.4
62lDJU2 gfTF5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ M!vGF n5 3YZ@ \)(*\@8 T` de(~;p
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; -'0,000 :(.!00);
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!20.,
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!'.
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!,
=alf length, x
f
, ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
2/.!0 :,'!(;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!-/ :0!'(;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!'/
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!20
( ""
1fficiency, e
ta
, { ?RRLB@DPCOJ@M, e
ta
, {
(/!0
Puping tie, t
e
, in pSLTV WABA`BD, t
e
, TDC
02!,
Pad puping tie, t
e
, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, t
e
,TDC
,!2
1&ponent of added proppant concentration, e
ps
ZOBAWA@LHM J@LILCD BSDPO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD
UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A, e
ps
0!2-)-
Unifor proppant concentration in frac at end, lb5ft
0
mUCOSOUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P
BOCKL, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
0
:BE5T
0
;
(0!, :-020;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
JTGBACDV, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
2
:BE5T
2
;
-!2 :'!.(;
2a& added proppant concentration, Ib per gal clean
fluid
^ABJ! BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@ CA EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
-0!) :-''/;
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; -22!) :./,!/;
yPLHD`LCDL TABJDTAHMCO UOIQJ@DTO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD ISOIIAC@A JSAFO@AHO! oLILSM J@AHO
POWTO_CGT SAWTLJ@D@M @SLFQLTOL BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A :@!L!, FOHLL PGJOBDL BOCKLC@SAKDD
ISOIIAC@A IOWPOHVN@ CAT SAWTLJ@D@M FOHM\L ISOIIAC@A P @Q _L \DSDCQ;! xAB@D`LJBD, UHV d@OEO
UA_L CL IO@SLFOPAHDJM PJL POWTO_COJ@D OFOSQUOPACDVt UOJ@A@O`CO FGHO FG DTL@M TABJDTAHMCQN
BOCKLC@SAKDN ISOIIAC@A -/ RQC@5EAHHOC :-(,. BE5T
0
;!
xAB@D`LJBD[ UDWA[C @LILSM JOO@PL@J@PQL@ @LOSL@D`LJBOTQ OI@DTQTQ, ISDPLULCCOTQ P @AFHDKL
.--0! mUCABO POISOJ, OISAPUAC HD FOHM\D[ OFgLT OFSAFO@BD, IO-ISL_CLTQ OJ@AL@JV O@BSG@GT!
oSLFQN@JV @eA@LHMCGL dBOCOTD`LJBDL SAJ`L@G UHV OFOJCOPACDV XYZ FOHM\LEO OFgLTA, BO@OSG[
J@ODH FG ISDTLSCO CA '0 ISOKLC@OP FOHM\L D UAH FG JBDC IOJHL XYZ |'!'/ PTLJ@O |'!'0,
SAJJ`D@ACCOEO UHV FAWOPOEO JHQ`AV! ZOJBOHMBQ SAWCDKA VPCO CA ESACDKL IOESL\COJ@D, @O @SQUCO
IOPLSD@M, `@O BABO[-HDFO TLCLU_LS SL\DHJV FG CA @ABO[ FOHLL UOSOEO[ :D FOHLL SDJBOPACCG[; XYZ
F7HM\LEO OFgLTA!
+33) C*CC(8 M!vGW
a`D@AL@JV OFeLISDCV@GT, `@O P FOHLL SG]HG] IOSOUA] WCA`D@LHMCAV `AJ@M ISOIIAC@A TO_L@
FG@M bIO@LSVCAc DW-WA @OEO, `@O OCA FQUL@ PUAPHLCA P J@LCBQ @SLeDCG! ZO CLBO@OSGT OKLCBAT,
QTLCM\LCDL \DSDCG @SLeDCG DW-WA d@OEO PUAPHDPACDV TO_L@ UOJ@DEA@M 00 ISOKLC@OP sacy, -))/u!
ZSDTLT, `@O HAFOSA@OSDV TL]ACDBD EOSCG] IOSOU CATLSVHA 00!0 ISOKLC@A PUAPHDPACDV UHV
IOSOUG UACCOEO IHAJ@A ISD CAISV_LCDD JTGBACDV @SLeDCG! hAB TG TO_LT PBHN`D@M d@O WCA`LCDL P
CA\ UDWA[C
aATG[ ISOJ@O[ IQ@M < d@O JBAWA@M, `@O ISOCDKALTOJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD :JL[`AJ
ISDCV@AV P (0 000 Tf; QTLCM\D@JV UO BA_QeL[JV PLHD`DCG P /0 000 Tf! ~JHD DWTLCD@M PJLEO OUCQ
TGF
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
J@SOBQ PO P]OUCG] UACCG] CA\LEO UDWA[CA UHV OBOC`A@LHMCOEO JHQ`AV :h
f


2-- RQ@ (/!0 T;,
IOHQ`DT SLWQHM@A@G, IOBAWACCGL P @AFHDKL .--0!
Proppant pac# pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD, Tf /0,000
62lDJU2 gfTW5 6)*)(X) C(e @ M!vGW
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
pnp
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!-2.0
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!'0
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
mI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG,
C
fDopt
-!(
Optial half length, x
opt
, ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
-.'!2 :'(!/';
Optial propped $idth, w
opt
, inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!2 :'!0.;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!20
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 0!(0
oLILSM TABJDTAHMCO POWTO_CG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D J@AH TLCM\L, PJLEO 0!'0, CO UA_L OC
CL TO_L@ FG@M SLAHDWOPAC, BAB QBAWGPAL@ JOOFeLCDL OF O\DFBL :JT! @AFHDKQ .--/;!
'ubo(ti)al (lace)ent *it+ constraints satisfied
,-. /01234521-46.. 17-86.946.: -8;<4=46.4
>/?1@5.<83A614
2ass of proppant reduced
^AJJA ISOIIAC@A QTLCM\LCA
xAB@D`LJBD, TO_CO SAWTLJD@M PJLEO (0 '00 RQC@OP :2.!.00 @; ISOIIAC@A, @AB BAB \DSDCA
@SLeDCG ISD UHDCL -.' RQ@OP :'(!/ T; @LILSM TLCM\L `LT FGHA ISD 2-- RQ@A] :(/!0 T;, A @AB_L
IO@OTQ, `@O CAT CQ_CA F7HM\AV \DSDCA UHV BOTILCJAKDD IO@LSD ISOPOUDTOJ@D :PGWPACCO[
PUAPHDPACDLT;!
i@OFG JULHA@M UDWA[C POWTO_CGT, TG O@]OUDT O@ OI@DTQTA, IOTCO_AV @LOSL@D`LJBQN
OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA CLBO@OSG[ BOdRRDKDLC@! aBA_LT, CAISDTLS, `@O TG _LHALT WAUA@M IHACOPQN
UHDCQ @SLeDCG 2'0 RQ@OP :,(!2 T;! ZO-ISL_CLTQ DJIOHMWQV BOdRRDKDLC@ ROSTG 24- BAB CADFOHLL
PLSOV@CG[, TG TLCVLT PGJO@Q @SLeDCG CA 2'0 RQ@OP, A WA@LT CA]OUDT BOdRRDKDLC@, BO@OSG[ UAL@
IHACOPQN UHDCQ P 2'0 RQ@OP :,(!2 T;! ?@A PLHD`DCA SAPCA -!'. :JT! @AFHDKG .--' D .--(;!
62lDJU2 g5TH V(X)) *Y)_)) @ M!vGW
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; (',2.' :2)!(-0;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!0)2)
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!/(
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!2
=alf length, x
fopt
, ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
-.'!2 :'(!/';
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!-- :2!,);
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!0(
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 0!0-!
?@O JOOFeLCDL IOBAWGPAL@, `@O TO_CO SLAHDWOPA@M JQFOI@DTAHMCOL SAWTLeLCDL J
ISDCQUD@LHMCO[ TOUDRDBAKDL[ :@AFHDKA .--,;!
'ubo(ti)al (lace)ent *it+ constraints satisfied ,-. /01234521-46.. 17-86.946.: -8;<4=46.4
>/?1@5.<83A614
TGW
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
ength odified fHDCA DWTLCLCA
62lDJU2 gfT]5 Q3@ 7@ 3[( ;*X)@ @ M!vGW
racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ :T; 2'0 :,(!2;

2a& possible added proppant concentration, lb5gal
neat fluid
^ABJDTAHMCAV POWTO_CAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPBD
ISOIIAC@A, RQC@-TAJJA5EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[
_DUBOJ@D
-2 :-/0.;
2ultiply opt length by factor yTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA BOdRRDKDLC@ -!'.
2ultiply! 9olte pad by factor yTCO_D@M OFgLT IOUQ\BD IO nOHM@L CA
BOdRRDKDLC@
-
62lDJU2 gfT`5 )Ye,(( @ M!vGW n%$ } de(3p
%
B0C>DED @ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!0)/,
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!/(
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
mI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M
@SLeDCG, C
fDopt
-!(
Optial half length, x
fopt
, ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
-'.!) :/.!/0;
Optial propped $idth, w
opt , inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!- :2!'/;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!0.
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 0!0/
ZSD @ABOT JKLCASDD TG TO_LT SAWTLJ@D@M PJL )0 000 RQC@OP :/0!.20 @; ISOIIAC@A, CO
bQJIL\COJ@Mc JOTCD@LHMCA! YAWTLJ@DP PLJM ISOIIAC@, TG PJz LeL JOWUAUDT dBPDPAHLC@CG[ JBDC
PJLEO |/!).t SAWTLeLCDL _L (' 000 RQC@OP :2.!.00 @; FLW ISDCQUD@LHMCOEO OESACD`LCDV UHDCG UAL@
FOHLL ISDPHLBA@LHMCOL WCA`LCDL JBDCA P |'!0(!
p JHQ`AL WCA`D@LHMCG] dRRLB@OP O@BHOCLCDV O@ WABOCA fASJD `DJHO ISOIIAC@A N
prop
0!0)'
CQ_CO FQUL@ QTLCM\D@M UO N
prop
0!0' DHD, P DJBHN`D@LHMCG] JHQ`AV], UO N
prop
0!0-! ~JHD TG
]O@DT JBOTILCJDSOPA@M IO@LSN ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, CAT ISDUL@JV BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A,
SAWTLeALTOEO P IHAJ@L, CA @O@ _L BOdRRDKDLC@!
62lDJU2 gfTb5 KC(),[) 3[7[) [) @ M!vGW n%$ } F]G de(3p
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; )0,000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!0)/,
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!//
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
0!,
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
2'-!0 :,(!'0;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!0. :2!00;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|/!).
olds of! increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 0!-)
pO@ @LILSM `D@A@LHM, PDUDTO, JTOE ISO`QPJ@POPA@M, IO`LTQ TG CAWGPALT CA\ IOU]OU
V IPH! aDJ@LTA@D`LJBOL DJIOHMWOPACDL `DJHA ISOIIAC@A D BSD@LSDV
OI@DTAHMCOJ@D ULHAL@ BOTISOTDJJG P UDWA[CL UOJ@A@O`CO ISOJ@GTD D ISOWSA`CGTD!
TGH
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
KY ;**Y*[3 @ 3[C*\); C(8 w!vGT
p PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@A] BSD@LSD[ OI@DTAHMCOJ@D FQUL@ UAPA@M P SLWQHM@A@L BOSO@BQN D
\DSOBQN @SLeDCQ! i@OFG DTL@M FAWQ UHV JSAPCLCDV, TG FQULT DJIOHMWOPA@M ISL_CD[ CAFOS UACCG],
WA DJBHN`LCDLT JHLUQNeD] ILSLTLCCG]4 ISOCDKALTOJ@M, TOUQHM IHOJBO[ ULROSTAKDD, BOdRRDKDLC@
TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD D BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD! jJ]OUCGL UACCGL JPLULCG P @AFHDKQ .--.!
62lDJU2 gfTg5 J7[) [) @ w!vGT
Proppant ass for :t$o $ings;, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A :UHV UPQ] BSGHMLP;, RQC@OP
TAJJG :@OCC;
)0,000 :/0!.20;
8p grav of proppant aterial :$ater -; yULHMCG[ PLJ TA@LSDAHA ISOIIAC@A :POUA -; 2!('
Porosity of proppant pac# ZOSDJ@OJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD 0!0.
Proppant pac# pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD, Tf (0,000
2a& propp diaeter, Dpmax , inch
^ABJ! UDATL@S WLSLC ISOIIAC@A, D
pmax , UN[T
:TT;
0!00- :0!,);
oration pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M IHAJ@A, Tf '0
Pereable :lea#off; thic#ness, ft ZSOCDKALTAV :IOEHOeANeAV; TOeCOJ@M, RQ@ :T; ,( :02!2;
ell radius, ft YAUDQJ JBPA_DCG, RQ@ :T; 0!2' :0!0,(2;
ell drainage radius, ft YAUDQJ USLCDSOPACDV JBPA_DCG, RQ@ :T; ,/' :22,!-;
Pre-treatent s#in factor aBDC-RAB@OS UO OFSAFO@BD 0!0
racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ :T;
Plane strain odulus, E' :psi; ^OUQHM IHOJBO[ ULROSTAKDD, E, psi :^ZA;
,!'1 0' :'-,-!-;
8lurry inection rate :t$o $ings, li prop;, bp oLTI CAECL@ACDV IQHMIG :UPA BSGHA, _DUBOJ@M
ISOIIAC@;, FASS5TDC :T
0
5TDC;
20!0 :-!-.;
"heology, K :lbf5ft
2
;

n
s

YLOHOEDV, K :RQC@-JDHA5RQ@
2
;

n
s

0!0,
"heology, n' YLOHOEDV, n
0!/'
ea#off coefficient in pereable layer, ft5in
-52
hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P ISOCDKALTG[ IHAJ@,
RQ@5TDC
-52
:JT5TDC
-52
;
0!0- :0!00/.;
8purt loss coefficient, S
p
, gal5ft
2
hOdRRDKDLC@ TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD, S
p
,
EAHHOC5RQ@
2
:H5T
2
;
0!02 :.!-';
a@SOBA UHV PPOUA PGJO@G @SLeDCG IOBA OJ@APHLCA IQJ@O[! ^G WCALT, `@O OFeAV TOeCOJ@M
ISOUQB@DPCOEO DC@LSPAHA SAPCA 00 RQ@AT :00!' T;! YAWQTCGT UOIQeLCDLT UHV PGJOBOISOCDKALTOEO
XYZ, ISD O@JQ@J@PDD BABD]-HDFO CAUL_CG] UACCG] O BOC@SAJ@L CAISV_LCD[, VPHVL@JV UOIQeLCDL, `@O
DC@LCJDPCOEO SOJ@A PGJO@G @SLeDCG CL FQUL@, LJHD IHACOPAV UHDCA @SLeDCG TLCM\L IOHOPDCG
PGJO@G @SLeDCG! nA d@O@ TOTLC@ TG PJ@APHVLT P CA\Q dHLB@SOCCQN @AFHDKQ CA`AHMCQN OKLCBQ h
f

-00 RQ@OP :00!' T;, A @AB_L WAUALT @L]COHOED`LJBDL OESACD`LCDV D IASATL@SG, IOBAWACCGL P @AFHDKL
.--)! YLWQHM@A@G ISDPLULCG P @AFHDKL .-20!
62lDJU2 gfTr5 KC(),[) 7[) [) @ w!vGT
2a& possible added proppant concentration,
lb5gallon fluid
^ABJDTAHMCAV POWTO_CAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPBD
ISOIIAC@A, RQC@-TAJJA5EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[
_DUBOJ@D
-( :-)-,;
2ultiply opt length by factor yTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA BOdRRDKDLC@ -
2ultiply pad by factor yTCO_D@M OFgLT IOUQ\BD CA BOdRRDKDLC@ -
62lDJU2 gfFG5 6)*)(X) C(e @ w!vGT
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, Nprop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!0-2-
iensionless PI, JDOPI
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!0-
TG]
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
Optial diensionless fracture cond, CfDopl mI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M
@SLeDCG, C
fDopt
-!(
Optial half length, xfopt, ft
mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
'(!, :-,!2.;
Optial propped $idth, wopt, inch
mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!) :22!);
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, sf
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|/!0'
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 2!2,
ZLSPAV IOIG@BA UDWA[CA UAL@ `DJHO ISOIIAC@A, SAPCOL 0!0-2! ?@O @DID`CAV JD@QAKDV UHV
PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@OPt UA_L ISD WCA`D@LHMCOT BOHD`LJ@PL ISOIIAC@A D ]OSO\O JULS_DPALTO[
PGJO@L @SLeDCG `DJHA ISOIIAC@A CL FQUQ@ O`LCM PGJOBDTD :@AFHDKA .-2-;! aOOFeLCDL EOPOSD@
JHLUQNeLL4
'ubo(ti)ai (lace)ent *it+ constraints satisfied ,-. /01234521-46.. 17-86.946.: -8;<4=46.4
>/?1@5.<83A614
2ass of proppant reduced ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A QTLCM\LCA
xAB@D`LJBD, LJHD IHACOPAV UHDCA @SLeDCG SAPCA '(!, RQ@A :-,!2. T;, P IHAJ@L TO_CO
SAWTLJ@D@M PJLEO -0 ,00 RQC@OP :/!.'0 @; ISOIIAC@A! oABO[ XYZ DTLH FG `SLWPG`A[CO CDWBOL `DJHO
ISOIIAC@A D dBPDPAHLC@CG[ JBDC, SAPCG[ |2!'! p FOHM\DCJ@PL JHQ`ALP d@O FGH FG CL O`LCM
QUOPHL@POSD@LHMCG[ SLWQHM@A@, OJOFLCCO IO @O[ ISD`DCL, `@O USQEDL RAB@OSG TOEQ@ UAHLL JCDWD@M
dRRLB@ J@DTQHVKDD!
62lDJU2 gfFT5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ w!vGT
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@
:@;
-0,,02 :/!.'/;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!00-/
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!2-
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
0!2
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
'(!, :-,!2.;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!-- :2!2);
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|2!'0
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D -!'0
fA_L ]O@V d@O@ IHAJ@ JHO_LC O@COJD@LHMCO SG]HGTD IOSOUATD, \DSDCA, JOWUACCAV PO PSLTV
COSTAHMCOEO SAJISOJ@SACLCDV @SLeDCG :DHD CLUOJ@A@O`COJ@M d@O[ \DSDCG;, O`LCM JDHMCO
OESACD`DPAL@ OFgLT ISOIIAC@A, BO@OSG[ TO_CO SAWTLJ@D@M P IHAJ@L! m@TL@M@L, `@O PG _L
DJIOHMWOPAHD TABJDTAHMCQN BOCKLC@SAKDN ISOIIAC@A P -( RQC@5EAHHOC :-)-, BE5T
0
;, CO d@OEO
CLUOJ@A@O`CO!
YL\LCDL ISOFHLTG JOJ@OD@ P @OT, `@OFG JISOLB@DSOPA@M XYZ IO @L]COHOEDD BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV :*8O;! qCAV, `@O d@O@ IHAJ@ SG]HG[ D O@COJD@LHMCO CLBOCJOHDUDSOPACCG[, TG TO_LT
CATLSLCCO OJ@ACOPD@M SAJISOJ@SACLCDL @SLeDCG CA IHACOPO[ UHDCL :'(!, RQ@ -,!2. T; D IOJHL
d@OEO SAWUQPA@M d@Q @SLeDCQ!
fHV @L]COHOEDD *8O TG JCOPA DJIOHMWQLT @L _L DJ]OUCGL UACCGL, CO J LUDCJ@PLCCGT
UOIOHCD@LHMCGT IASATL@SOT4
*8O criterion dry5$et hSD@LSD[ BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV dry5$et
:O@CO\LCDL JQ]OEO PLJA B TOBSOTQ;
0!,
?@O@ BSD@LSD[ BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDVS]Q\BD ISLUIOHAEAL@, `@O TG O_DUALT, `@O @SLeDCA
ISLBSA@D@ SAJISOJ@SACV@MJV, BOEUA bTOBSAV \DSDCAc DW-WA Q@L`BD _DUBOJ@D :DCGTD JHOPATD,
OFLWPO_DPACDV; J@ACOPD@JV UOJ@A@O`CO FHDWBA B bJQ]O[ \DSDCLc! aQ]AV \DSDCA OISLULHVL@JV BAB
TG`
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
\DSDCA @SLeDCG IOJHL @OEO, BAB PJV _DUBOJ@M Q@L`L@, A TOBSAV \DSDCA < d@O \DSDCA PO PSLTV
ISOPLULCDV OFSAFO@BD, BOEUA `AJ@M _DUBOJ@D, CLJQeL[ ISOIIAC@, PJz LeL CL IOEHOeLCA P IHAJ@! hAB
ISAPDHO, P BA`LJ@PL BSD@D`LJBOEO O@CO\LCDV TG DJIOHMWQLT WCA`LCDL 0!,, CO P WAPDJDTOJ@D O@
RAB@D`LJBO[ ROSTG @SLeDCG D @DIA ISOIIAC@A d@O WCA`LCDL TO_L@ O@HD`A@MJV O@ QBAWACCOEO WULJM
:@AFHDKA .-22;!
62lDJU2 gfFF5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ w!vGT nC ()7; \)3; c**3@p
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; )0,000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!0-2-
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!0-2,
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!(/
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
'(!, :-,!2.;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!)2.2 :20!'.;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|/!0'
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D 2!2,
nOPGL PG]OUCGL UACCGL EOPOSV@, `@O TG TOEHD FG SAWTLJ@D@M PLJM ISOIIAC@ P @SLeDCL ',
RQ@OP :-,!/ T;, DJIOHMWQV @L]COHOEDN BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV! ?@O UOJ@DEAL@JV :@L]COHOED`LJBD;
IQ@LT @ABO[ BOSSLB@DSOPBD ESARDBA WABA`BD ISOIIAC@A, `@OFG BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL
UOJ@DEAHA JPOLEO BSD@D`LJBOEO WCA`LCDV P @O _L JATOL PSLTV, BOEUA :CLOESACD`LCCOL; HA@LSAHMCOL
SAJISOJ@SACLCDL UOJ@DEAL@ WAIHACDSOPACCO[ UHDCG :@AFHDKA .-20;!
xAB@D`LJBD, -- 000 RQC@OP :' @OCC; ISOIIAC@A SAWTLeAN@JV P @SLeDCL TLCLL `LT WA . TDCQ@!
ZOJHL d@OEO UHDCA @SLeDCG OJ@AL@JV IOJ@OVCCO[, A QPLHD`DPAL@JV @OHMBO LL \DSDCA :SDJ! .-0;!
p BOCKL OFSAFO@BD dRRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL UOJ@A@O`CO PLHDBO, IO`@D '00 psi :0/'0 BZA;! oABAV
PGJOBAV LEO PLHD`DCA O_DUAL@JV IO@OTQ, `@O UHV OI@DTAHMCOEO SAWTLeLCDV @SLFQL@JV SAJBHDCLCCAV
\DSDCA IO`@D P - UN[T :2'!/ TT;!
62lDJU2 gfFW5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ w!vGT nC ()7; \)3; c**3@p
( ""
Pad puping tie, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, TDC 0!/-
*8O tie, in pSLTV BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, TDC ,!)
*otal puping tie, in mFeLL PSLTV WABA`BD, TDC 2/!.
2ass of proppant in frac at *8O, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, RQC@OP TAJJG :@;
--,0(' :'!0-);
Added proppant concentration at *8O, c
a
, lb5gal li
hOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A P TOTLC@
BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, c
a
, RQC@5EAHHOC
_DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0
_DUBOJ@D;
2!0 :20)!,;
=alf length at *8O, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, x
f ,
RQ@ :T;
'(!, :-,!2.;
Average $idth at *8O, inch aSLUCVV \DSDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, UN[T :TT;
-!2 :00!';
9et pressure at *8O, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, psi :BZA;
.-!- :'')!2;
TGb
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
2a& added proppant concentration at end, lb5gal-li ^ABJDTAHMCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO
ISOIIAC@A P BOCKL, RQC@5EAHHOC _DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0

_DUBOJ@D;
-(!0 :-)-,;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5fl
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
JTGBACDV, RQC@5BP!RQ@ :BE5T
2
;
-!0 :(!0';
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; /.2 :0020!0;
JA5 gfW5 ZSOECOWCG[ SARDB WABA`BD _DUBOJ@D D ISOIIAC@A, ESARDB dRRLB@DPCOEO UAPHLCDV UHV XYZ IO @L]COHOEDD
BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV!
^ 3[@ C*\)(,8 w!vGF
p LJ@LJ@PLCCO @SLeDCOPA@G] IHAJ@A] CL VPHVL@JV SLUBOJ@MN ISOCDKALTOJ@M P CLJBOHMBO JO@
TDHHDUASJD! i@OFG DJJHLUOPA@M d@Q OFHAJ@M, TG IOP@OSDT ISLUGUQeD[ UDWA[C, DWTLCDP PJLEO OUCQ
IOWDKDN P DJ]OUCG] UACCG] :@AFHDKA .-2/;!
oration pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M IHA@A, Tf '00
62lDJU2 gfFH5 6)*)(X) C(e @ w!vGF
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!00-2
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!20
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fDopt

-!(
Optial half length, x
fopt
, ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
-,!)
TGg
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
Optial propped $idth, w
opt
, inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA , w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
2!)
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|2!)0
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D -!(,
hAB TG PDUDT, IHACDSQLTAV UHDCA @LILSM JOJ@APHVL@ -. RQ@OP :'!' T;! }O@V BOTIMN@LSCAV
ISOESATTA TO_L@ ELCLSDSOPA@M UDWA[C UHV @L]COHOEDD BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV UHV d@O[
`SLWPG`A[CO BOSO@BO[ @SLeDCG, d@O UAHO FG P SLWQHM@A@L CLISDLTHLTO PGJOBOL dRRLB@DPCOL
UAPHLCDL :JT! IOJHLUCNN J@SOBQ P @AFHDKL .-2';!
p SLWQHM@A@L ILSPO[ IOIG@BD CLJBOHMBO IASATL@SOP DTLN@ RAB@D`LJBD CLSLAHMCGL WCA`LCDV!
oABAV `SLWPG`A[CO BOSO@BA @SLeDCA, UA_L LJHD FG LL TO_CO FGHO SLAHDWOPA@M, CL OFVWA@LHMCO FGHA
FG IOHLWCAt CA @ABD] SAJJ@OVCDV] ISDJ@POHMCOL IOPSL_ULCDL IHAJ@A TO_L@ PJz LeL DTL@M
ISLOFHAUANeLL PHDVCDL! YAWQTCG[ UDWA[C ISLUQJTA@SDPAH FG FOHLL UHDCCQN @SLeDCQ! a
@L]COHOED`LJBO[ @O`BD WSLCDV CADFOHLL PA_CGT OESACD`LCDLT P PGJOBOISOCDKALTOT XYZ VPHVN@JV
OESACD`LCDV IO dRRLB@DPCOTQ UAPHLCDN! i@OFG EASAC@DSOPA@M FLWOIAJCOJ@M SAFO@, UOH_CO FG@M
WAUACO TABJDTAHMCO UOIQJ@DTOL dRRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL! oDID`CGT WCA`LCDLT FGHO FG -000 :(!)
^ZA;! fAPA[@L TOUDRDKDSQLT CA\ UDWA[C, `@OFG QUOPHL@POSD@M d@OTQ OESACD`LCDN!
62lDJU2 gfF]5 ')*3@ CC[( @ w!vGF
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; )0 000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!00-2
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!22))
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!(/
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
-,!) :'!/(;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
2!)0'- :,/!'';
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
-2!)0
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D -!(,
( ""
Pad puping tie, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, TDC 0!0(
*8O tie, in pSLTV WABQIOSBD PLS]Q\BD, TDC -!2
*otal puping tie, in mFeLL PSLTV WABA`BD, TDC -.!(
2ass of proppant in frac at *8O, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, RQC@OP TAJJG :@;
2,0'0 :-!0(,;
Added proppant concentration at *8O, c
a
, lb5gal li
hOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A P TOTLC@
BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, c
a
, RQC@5EAHHOC
_DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0
_DUBOJ@D;
0!0 :0')!';
=alf length at *8O, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, x
f ,
RQ@ :T;
-,!) :'!/(;
Average $idth at *8O, inch aSLUCVV \DSDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, UN[T :TT;
'!/ :-0,!-(;
9et pressure at *8O, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, psi :BZA;
'/!' :0,'!,(;
2a& added proppant concentration at end, lb5gal-li ^ABJDTAHMCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO
ISOIIAC@A P BOCKL, RQC@5EAHHOC _DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0

_DUBOJ@D;
-(!0 :-)-,!2;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
WABSG@DV @SLeDCG, RQC@5BP!RQ@ :BE5T
2
;
0!) :/!0);
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; 2-/2 :-/ ,();
TGr
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
^G DTLLT CLJBOHMBO PASDAC@OP! mUCA POWTO_COJ@M < d@O O@O[@D O@ OI@DTAHMCO[ UHDCG,
IOTCO_DP LL CA CLBO@OSG[ BOdRRDKDLC@! YLAHDJ@D`LJBD[ UDWA[C IOIG@AHJV FG IOUULS_A@M
BOdRRDKDLC@ ROSTG -4-t IOd@OTQ TG PGFDSALT4
2ultiply opt length by factor yTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA
BOdRRDKDLC@
0
p SLWQHM@A@L TG IOHQ`DHD FG RAB@D`LJBOL SAWTLeLCDL, ISDPLULCCOL P @AFHDKL .-2(! oABOL
SAWTLeLCDL Q_L QUOPHL@POSVL@ OESACD`LCDN IO dRRLB@DPCOTQ UAPHLCDN!
62lDJU2 gfF`5 w!vGF d\*3
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@OP
TAJJG :@;
)0,000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!00-2
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!20'.
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
0!-.
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
'0!. :-(!-';
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!),./ :2/!.';
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|2!0)
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D -!/)
( ""
Pad puping tie, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, TDC 0!0.
*8O tie, in pSLTV WABQIOSBD PLS]Q\BD, TDC ,!2
*otal puping tie, in mFeLL PSLTV WABA`BD, TDC 2/!2
2ass of proppant in frac at *8O, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, RQC@OP TAJJG :@;
-0 00. :/!(,(;
Added proppant concentration at *8O, c
a
, lb5gal li
hOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A P TOTLC@
BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, c
a
, RQC@5EAHHOC
_DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0
_DUBOJ@D;
2!- :2'2;
=alf length at *8O, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, x
f ,
RQ@ :T;
'0!. :-(!/0;
Average $idth at *8O, inch aSLUCVV \DSDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, UN[T :TT;
-!0 :00!0
9et pressure at *8O, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, psi :BZA;
,)!, :'/)!'-;
2a& added proppant concentration at end, lb5gal-li ^ABJDTAHMCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO
ISOIIAC@A P BOCKL, RQC@5EAHHOC _DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0

_DUBOJ@D;
-(!0 :-)-,!2;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
WABSG@DV @SLeDCG, RQC@5BP!RQ@ :BE5T
2
;
-!0 :(!0';
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; '2- :0')2;
YAJJ`D@ACCG[ UDWA[C ISLUQJTA@SDPAL@ CA`AHO UOFAPBD ISOIIAC@A IO`@D J JATOEO CA`AHA
OFSAFO@BD! h JO_AHLCDN, UDWA[C O`LCM JDHMCO WAPDJD@ O@ PGFSACCOEO BSD@LSDV BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV D O@ @O`COJ@D OIDJACDV Q@L`BD SAFO`L[ _DUBOJ@D! nA JATOT ULHL, PLJMTA @SQUCO
ISLUJBAWA@M TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV J @ABO[ @O`COJ@MN! ?@O DJBQJJ@PO < ISLUCATLSLCCO
OJ@ACOPD@M SAJISOJ@SACLCDL @SLeDCG, P @O _L PSLTV DWFL_AP WABQIOSBD @SLeDCG PFHDWD JBPA_DCG
:d@O ISDPLHO FG B ISL_ULPSLTLCCOTQ OBOC`ACDN OFSAFO@BD;! fHV d@OEO WA`AJ@QN @SLFQN@JV
DC@QDKDV D OIG@ DC_LCLSA IO XYZ! p CA\LT BOCBSL@COT JHQ`AL DTLL@JV USQEAV POWTO_COJ@M, BO@OSAV
TDCDTDWDSOPAHA FG SDJBD, JPVWACCGL J OFSAFO@BO[4 OUCOPSLTLCCO QTLCM\D@M BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A
D IOTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA CLBO@OSG[ BOdRRDKDLC@ :@AFHDKG .-2, D .-2.;!
TTG
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
62lDJU2 gfFb5 C*^3) (Xs_);@ ^* 37[7 [7 @ w!vGF
Proppant ass for :t$o $ings;, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; /',000 :20!/-2;

2ultiply opt length by factor ZOTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA BOdRRDKDLC@ /


^G TAHO `@O @LSVLT, QTLCM\AV `DJHO ISOIIAC@A J 0!00-2 UO 0!000(! ZO JQ@D ULHA, P d@OT
UDAIAWOCL `DJLH ISOIIAC@A DCULBJ FLWSAWTLSCO[ ISOPOUDTOJ@D O@COJD@LHMCO TAHO `QPJ@PD@LHLC B
OFgLTAT ISOIIAC@A DHD B O@BHOCLCDN O@ OI@DTAHMCO[ UHDCG! ZSD @ABD] CDWBD] `DJHA] ISOIIAC@A
TO_L@ FG@M SLAHDWOPAC @OHMBO QTLSLCCO O@SDKA@LHMCG[ dBPDPAHLC@CG[ JBDC-RAB@OS! ?@O D
OFgVJCVL@ \DSOBO SAJISOJ@SACLCCOL P OJOFO PGJOBOISOCDKALTOT XYZ TCLCDL, `@O JATOL PA_COL <
d@O bPG[@D WA WOCQ IOPSL_ULCCOEO IHAJ@Ac D JOWUA@M bEAHOc, DHD bOSLOHc :ISOIIAC@CQN CAFDPBQ;
POBSQE RDHM@SA! xAB@D`LJBAV UHDCA @SLeDCG DTLL@ TLCM\LL WCA`LCDL! pO TCOED]
PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] XYZ DJIOHMWQL@JV PJLEO '0 000 RQ@OP :22!, @; ISOIIAC@A DHD TLCM\L!
62lDJU2 gfFg5 w!vGF ),4 X)(3 C*CC( d\*3
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!000(
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; /',000 :20!/-2;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!000(
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!-./,
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
0!-0
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
'0!, :-'!/';
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!'-.) :-0!-.;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|-!./
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D -!0/
( ""
Pad puping tie, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, TDC 0!0/
*8O tie, in pSLTV WABQIOSBD PLS]Q\BD, TDC (!'
*otal puping tie, in mFeLL PSLTV WABA`BD, TDC -/!0
2ass of proppant in frac at *8O, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, RQC@OP TAJJG :@;
) '20 :/!020;
Added proppant concentration at *8O, c
a , lb5gal li
hOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A P TOTLC@
BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, c
a
, RQC@5EAHHOC
_DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0
_DUBOJ@D;
2!- :2'-!(;
=alf length at *8O, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV, x
f ,
RQ@ :T;
'0!, :-'!/';
Average $idth at *8O, inch aSLUCVV \DSDCA P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, UN[T :TT;
0!( :-'!2/;
9et pressure at *8O, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P TOTLC@ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, psi :BZA;
,.!-
2a& added proppant concentration at end, lb5gal-li ^ABJDTAHMCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO
ISOIIAC@A P BOCKL, RQC@5EAHHOC _DUBOJ@D :BE5T
0

_DUBOJ@D;
-(!0 :-)-,!2;
Areal proppant concentration after closure! lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
JTGBACDV, RQC@5BP!RQ@ :BE5T
2
;
-!2 :'!.(;
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; 20) :-(/.;
QJLB'QJU2NMR I'8 ?!vGT
TTT
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
i@OFG JO]SACD@M HOED`LJBQN IOJHLUOPA@LHMCOJ@M J CA\DTD ISLUGUQeDTD ISDTLSATD,
SAJJTO@SDT CDWBOISOCDKALTG[ IHAJ@, Q BO@OSOEO FOHM\DCJ@PO DJ]OUCG] IASATL@SOP ACAHOED`CO
CA\LTQ FAWOPOTQ JHQ`AN, BAB IOBAWACO P @AFHDKL .-2)!
62lDJU2 gfFr5 J7[) [) @ ?!vGT
Proppant ass for :t$o $ings;, lb ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A :UHV UPQ] BSGHMLP;, RQC@OP TAJJG
:@OCC;
)0,000 :/0!.20;
8p grav of proppant aterial :$ater -; yULHMCG[ PLJ TA@LSDAHA ISOIIAC@A :POUA -; 2!('
Porosity of proppant pac# ZOSDJ@OJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD 0!0.
Proppant pac# pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD, Tf (0,000
2a& propp diaeter, D
pmax , inch ^ABJ! UDATL@S WLSLC ISOIIAC@A, D
pmax , UN[T :TT;
0!00- :0!,);
oration pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M IHAJ@A, Tf 0!'
Pereable :lea#off; thic#ness, ft ZSOCDKALTAV :IOEHOeANeAV; TOeCOJ@M, RQ@ :T; ,( :02!2;
ell radius, ft YAUDQJ JBPA_DCG, RQ@ :T; 0!2' :0!0,(2;
ell drainage radius, ft YAUDQJ USLCDSOPACDV JBPA_DCG, RQ@ :T; ,/' :22,!-;
Pre-treatent s#in factor aBDC-RAB@OS UO OFSAFO@BD 0!0
racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ :T;
Plane strain odulus,
E
:psi;!
^OUQHM IHOJBO[ ULROSTAKDD, E, psi :^ZA;
2!001 0(
:-0,.)!';
8lurry inection rate :t$o $ings, li prop;, bp oLTI CAECL@ACDV IQHMIG :UPA BSGHA, _DUBOJ@M
ISOIIAC@;, FASS5TDC :T
0
5TDC;
20!0 :-!-.;
"heology,
K
:lbf5ft
2
;
n
s

YLOHOEDV, K :RQC@-JDHA5RQ@
2
;

n
s
0!0,00
"heology,
n
YLOHOEDV, n
0!/'
ea#off coefficient in pereable layer, ft5in
0!'
hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P ISOCDKALTG[ IHAJ@,
RQ@5TDC
-52
:JT5TDC
-52
;
0!00200 :0!0(-;
8purt loss coefficient, Sp , gal5ft
2
hOdRRDKDLC@ TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD, S
p
, EAHHOC5RQ@
2

:H5T
2
;
0!00-00
:0!00/-;
2a& possible added proppant concentration, lb5gal
neat fluid
^ABJDTAHMCAV POWTO_CAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPBD
ISOIIAC@A, RQC@-TAJJA5EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[
_DUBOJ@D
-2 :-/0.;
2ultipy opt length by factor yTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA BOdRRDKDLC@ -
2ultiply 9olte pad factor by yTCO_D@M BOdRRDKDLC@ IOUQ\BD IO nOHM@L CA
BOdRRDKDLC@
-
^G JCOPA CA`DCALT ISOLB@DSOPACDL, WAUAPAV PGJO@Q @SLeDCG P -00 RQ@OP :00!/. T; :@AFHDKA .-00;!
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A FOHM\OL DW-WA PGJOBOEO BOC@SAJ@A ISOCDKALTOJ@L[! ZSD @ABOT FOHM\OT
`DJHL ISOIIAC@A QBAWACCAV IOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG IO`@D J@OHM _L PLHDBA, BAB UHDCA J@OSOCG IHOeAUD
USLCDSOPACDV < d@O OFgVJCVL@, IO`LTQ OI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG
WCA`D@LHMCO FOHM\L -!(!
62lDJU2 gfWG5 6)*)(X) C(e @ ?!vGT &%$ } TGG de(3 } WG5Hg p
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
-!20,,
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
-!0(
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
mI@DTAHMCAV FLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG,
C
fDopt
2!)
Optial half length, x
fopt , ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
/20!0 :-2.!);
Optial propped $idth, w
opt , inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!- :2!'/;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
-(!00
TTF
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D ,!((
~JHD FG TO_CO FGHO SLAHDWOPA@M @ABQN @SLeDCQ, FGH FG QJ@ACOPHLC `SLWPG`A[CO FOHM\O[
FLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D! h JO_AHLCDN, DTLL@JV O`LCM TAHG[ \ACJ, `@O TO_CO FGHO FG
JOWUA@M @SLeDCQ J BOdRRDKDLC@OT ROSTG :O@CO\LCDLT UHDCG B PGJO@L; .4- FLW QPLHD`LCDV PGJO@G!
nA ISAB@DBL WCA`D@LHMCO FOHLL PLSOV@CO JOWUA@M @SLeDCQ J BOdRRDKDLC@OT ROSTG IOSVUBA 24-!
ZOd@OTQ TG OJCOPGPALT CA\ UDWA[C CA UOIQeLCDD, `@O BOdRRDKDLC@ ROSTG SAP 24-! hOEUA
TG DWTLCVLT PGJO@Q @SLeDCG CA 000 RQ@OP :)-!// T;, @LOSL@D`LJBDL OI@DTAHMCGL WCA`LCDV
J@ACOPV@JV FOHLL SLAHDJ@D`CGTt QTLCM\LCDL OFgLTCO[ dRRLB@DPCOJ@D ISOIIAC@A ISDPOUD@ B
JCD_LCDN `DJHA ISOIIAC@A :@AFHDKG .-0- D .-02;!
62lDJU2 gfWT5 6)*)(X) C(e @ ?!vGT n%$ } WGG de( } rT5HH p
@ 4 " $#
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!/02(
iensionless PI, J
Dopt
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dopt
0!(.
Optial diensionless fracture cond, C
fDopt
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fDopt
-!.
Optial half length, x
fopt
, ft mI@DTAHMCAV IOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG, x
fopt
, RQ@ :T;
00)!/ :)/!0-;
Optial propped $idth, w
opt , inch mI@DTAHMCAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA , w
opt
, UN[T
:TT;
0!- :2!'/;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!,.
olds of increase if PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!)2
62lDJU2 gfWF5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ ?!vGT n%$ } WGG de( } rT5HH p
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; )0,000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!/02(
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!(.
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!.
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
00)!/ :)/!0-;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!0( :-!'2;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!,.
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!)2
( ""
1fficiency, e
ta , { ?RRLB@DPCOJ@M, e
ta , {
(,!-
Puping tie, t
e , in pSLTV WABA`BD, t
e
, TDC
'2!,
Pad puping tie, t
e
, in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, t
e
, TDC
-0!/
1&ponent of added proppant concentration, e
ps
ZOBAWA@LHM J@LILCD BSDPO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD
UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A, e
ps
0!-)((
Unifor proppant concentration in frac at end, lb5ft
0
mUCOSOUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P
BOCKL, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
0
:BE5T
0
;
22!( :0(2!0;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
JTGBACDV, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
2
:BE5T
2
;
0!' :2!//;
2a& added proppant concentration, lb per gal clean
fluid
^ABJ! BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@ CA EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
0!' :/-)!/;
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; --0!, :,.0!);
?@O@ UDWA[C J@AH FOHLL SLAHDJ@D`CGT, CO P @O _L PSLTV OUCA ILSLTLCCAV WAJHQ_DPAL@ OJOFOEO
PCDTACDV4 dRRLB@DPCOJ@M :BOdRRDKDLC@ DJIOHMWOPACDV; _DUBOJ@D, BO@OSAV QPLHD`DHAJM UO (,
ISOKLC@OP! ZO`LTQ d@O ISODWO\HO aOEHAJCO CA\LTQ OISLULHLCDN, Q@L`BA ISODJ]OUD@ @OHMBO P
TTW
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
ISOUQB@DPCOT IHAJ@L :J dRRLB@DPCO[ TOeCOJ@MN ,( RQ@OP 20!/ T;! l IOJBOHMBQ TG ISDCVHD
RAB@D`LJBQN PGJO@Q @SLeDCG SAPCQN 000 RQ@AT :)-!/ T;, @O PJLEO `L@PLS@AV `AJ@M OFeL[
IOPLS]COJ@D PCOJD@ PBHAU P Q@L`BQ, D dRRLB@DPCOJ@M _DUBOJ@D O`LCM PGJOBA! p UL[J@PD@LHMCOJ@D d@O
TAHOPLSOV@CO, IOJBOHMBQ ISOUQB@DPCG[ DC@LSPAH OESACD`LC CLISLSGPCO D DULAHMCO
CLISOCDKALTGTD IHAJ@ATD! oABDT OFSAWOT, SAW TG PPLHD WCA`D@LHMCOL DWTLCLCDL P PGJO@Q @SLeDCG,
LJ@M JTGJH ILSLJTO@SL@M IASATL@SG Q@L`BD :D TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD;,
ZOP@OSVLT ISOLB@DSOPACDL J O@BOSSLB@DSOPACCGTD BOdRRDKDLC@ATD Q@L`BD D TECOPLCCO[
Q@L`BD,
ea#off coefficient in pereable layer, ft5in
0'
0!00'0 hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P ISOCDKALTG[ IHAJ@, RQ@5TDC
0!'
:JT5TDC
0!'
; 0!00'0 :-!'2/;
8purt loss coefficient, S
p , gal5ft
2
0!002'0 hOdRRDKDLC@ TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD, S
p , EAHHOC5RQ@
2
:H5T
2
;
0!002'0 :-!02;
TG IOHQ`ALT SLWQHM@A@G P @AFHDKL .-00!
62lDJU2 gfWW5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ ?!vGT n%$ } WGG de( } rT5HH / (**)(*3@ e()Xp
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; )0,000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!/02(
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!(.
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
-!.
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f
, RQ@ :T;
00)!/ :)/!0-;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!0( :-!'2;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, s
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!,.
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!)2
( ""
1fficiency, e
ta , { hOdRRDKDLC@ DJIOHMWOPACDV, e
ta , {
0.!2
Puping tie, t
e , in pSLTV WABA`BD, t
e
, TDC
)2!.
Pad puping tie, t
e , in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, t
e
, TDC
/-!'
1&ponent of added proppant concentration, e
ps
ZOBAWA@LHM J@LILCD BSDPO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD
UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A, e
ps
0!//,'
Unifor proppant concentration in frac at end, lb5ft
0
mUCOSOUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P
BOCKL, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
0
:BE5T
0
;
22!( :0(2!0;
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
JTGBACDV, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
2
:BE5T
2
;
0!' :2!//;
2a& added proppant concentration, lb per gal clean
fluid
^ABJ! BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@ CA EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
0!' :/-)!/;
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; --0!, :,.0!);
oLILSM dRRLB@DPCOJ@M _DUBOJ@D FOHLL SLAHDJ@D`CA, CO OBOC`A@LHMCAV UHDCA @SLeDCG D
SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA @O`CO @ABDL _L, BAB FGHD SACLL! hAB d@O TO_L@ FG@M, `@OFG J@OHM FOHM\OL
DWTLCLCDL IASATL@SOP Q@L`BD CL IOPHDVHO CA BOCL`CG[ SLWQHM@A@ m@PL@ CA d@O@ POISOJ BAB SAW
PGVPHVL@ SAWHD`DL TL_UQ D :;! p CA\L[ ISOKLUQSL
ISOLB@DSOPACDV _LHALTAV UHDCA D _LHALTAV SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA PGPOUV@JV DW IASATL@SOP IHAJ@A D
ISOIIAC@A! l IASATL@SG Q@L`BD :D USQEDL ILSLTLCCGL; OISLULHVN@, BAB TG UOJ@DEALT CA\Q
BOCL`CQN KLHM, @OEUA BAB KLHM OJ@AL@JV CLDWTLCCO[, CLWAPDJDTO O@ @OEO, DTLL@JV DC@LCJDPCAV Q@L`BA
DHD CL@! jWTLCLCDL IASATL@SOP Q@L`BD ISOVPHVL@JV P RAB@D`LJBOT IHACL-ESARDBL WABA`BD ISOIIAC@A!
oLILSM CAT ISD]OUD@JV PLJ@D WABA`BQ P @L`LCDL WCA`D@LHMCO FOHM\LEO PSLTLCD!
mIG@CG[ DC_LCLS IO XYZ, PLSOV@CO, PJz LeL CL ISDCVH FG @ABO[ UDWA[C! yBAWACCAV
BOTIMN@LSCO[ ISOESATTO[ SAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA @SLeDCG SAPCA PJLEO 0!00( UN[TA :0!-' TT; :@!L!,
TTH
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
TLCM\L @SL] UDATL@SOP WLSCA ISOIIAC@A 205/0 TL\;! }OSO\D[ UDWA[C EASAC@DSQL@ OISLULHLCCQN
TDCDTAHMCQN \DSDCQ :DHD OISLULHLCCQN TDCDTAHMCQN IHOeAUCQN BOCKLC@SAKDN ISOIIAC@A;!
nA d@OT d@AIL TG UOH_CG HDFO QPLHD`D@M BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A, HDFO O@O[@D O@ QBAWACCO[
OI@DTAHMCO[ UHDCG, CA JL[ SAW QTCO_DP LEO CA BOdRRDKDLC@ TLCM\L LUDCDKG! ZSLDTQeLJ@PO
JOWUACDV FOHLL BOSO@BO[ @SLeDCG @AB_L O`LPDUCO ISD SAJJTO@SLCDD OFgLTCO[ dRRLB@DPCOJ@D
ISOIIAC@At DCGTD JHOPATD, LJHD QTLCM\D@M BOdRRDKDLC@ ROSTG UO PLHD`DCG TLCM\L 24-, @O
TLCM\LL BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A Q[UL@ WA ISLULHG ISOUQB@DPCOEO IHAJ@A! aOO@PL@J@PQNeDL J@SOBD
DJ]OUCG] UACCG] D SLWQHM@A@OP IOBAWACG P @AFHDKA] .-0/ D .-0'!
62lDJU2 gfWH5 J7[) [) @ ?!vGT nX(),[ Yp
Proppant ass for :t$o $ings;, lb YAWTLeLCCAV TAJJA ISOIIAC@A :2 BSGHA;, RQC@ :@; )0,000 :/0!.20;

racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ :T; 200!0 :(0!)(;

ea#off coefficient in pereable layer, ft5in


0!'
hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P ISOCDKALTG[ IHAJ@,
RQ@5TDC
-52
:JT5TDC
-52
;
0!00'0 :-!'2/;
8purt loss coefficient, S
p , gal5ft
2
hOdRRDKDLC@ TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD, S
p
,
EAHHOC5RQ@
2
:H5T
2
;
0!002' :0!-02;

2a& possible added proppant concentration, lb5gal


neat fluid
^ABJDTAHMCAV POWTO_CAV BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPBD
ISOIIAC@A, RQC@-TAJJA5EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[
_DUBOJ@D
-2 :-/0.;
2ultiply opt length by factor ZOTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN UHDCQ CA BOdRRDKDLC@ 0!''
2ultiply 9olte pad by factor ZOTCO_D@M IOUQ\BQ IO nOHM@L CA BOdRRDKDLC@ -
m@TL@DT, `@O PGFOS P BA`LJ@PL KLHD CL J@OHM FOHM\O[ @SLeDCG IOWPOHDH CAT QTLCM\D@M
@AB_L D SAJ`L@CQN PGJO@Q! ZOd@OTQ @ABO[ UDWA[C TO_L@ FOHLL dRRLB@DPCO DJIOHMWOPA@M )0 000
RQC@OP :/0!.20 @; ISOIIAC@A! vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D IOJHL OFSAFO@BD D
dBPDPAHLC@CG[ JBDC-RAB@OS P OJCOPCOT @ABDL _L, BAB D P ISLUGUQeLT JHQ`AL! ?@O@ OBOC`A@LHMCG[
UDWA[C FOHLL KLHLJOOFSAWCG[, D LEO HLE`L OJQeLJ@PD@M!
62lDJU2 gfW]5 V(X)) *Y)_)) @ ?!vGT nX(),[ Yp
A# 4
Proppant ass placed :2 $ing; ^AJJA ISOIIAC@A :UHV UPQ] BSGHMLP;, RQC@OP
TAJJG :@OCC;
)0,000 :/0!.20;
Proppant nuber, N
prop
iDJHO ISOIIAC@A, N
prop
0!(00)
iensionless PI, J
Dact
vLWSAWTLSCG[ DCULBJ ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D, J
Dact
0!(,
iensionless fracture cond, C
fD
vLWSAWTLSCAV ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG, C
fD
(!,
=alf length, x
f , ft ZOHQUHDCA, x
f , RQ@ :T;
-).!0 :(0!//2;
Propped $idth, w, inch YAJBHDCLCCAV \DSDCA, w, UN[T :TT;
0!-0 :0!00;
Post treatent pseudo-s#in factor, S
f
ZJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OS IOJHL OFSAFO@BD, s
f
|'!,(
olds of increase of PI hSA@COJ@M QPLHD`LCDV DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D /!.'
( ""
1fficiency, e
ta , { ?RRLB@DPCOJ@M _DUBOJ@D, e
ta , {
0.!0
Puping tie, t
e , in pSLTV WABA`BD, t
e , TDC
0.!'
Pad puping tie, t
e , in pSLTV WABA`BD IOUQ\BD, t
e , TDC
-,!2
1&ponent of added proppant concentration, e
ps
ZOBAWA@LHM J@LILCD BSDPO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD
UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A, e
ps
0!//',
Unifor proppant concentration in frac at end, lb5ft
0
mUCOSOUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A P @SLeDCL P
BOCKL, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
0
:BE5T
0
;
'/!0 :.('!0;
TT]
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 g '*)(*3) I' 3(*)Xs_)@ Z(
Areal proppant concentration after closure, lb5ft
2
ZHOeAUCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A IOJHL
JTGBACDV, RQC@-TAJJA5RQ@
2
:BE5T
2
;
-!- :'!0,;
2a&! added proppant concentration, lb per gal clean
fluid
^ABJ! BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@ CA EAHHOC :BE5T
0
; `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
-0!. :-2)/!-;
9et pressure at end of puping, psi ?RRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL P BOCKL WABA`BD, psi :BZA; -((!/ :--/,!0;
NLqN
p d@O[ EHAPL TG IOBAWAHD TCOEO ISDTLSOP ISAB@D`LJBOEO UDWA[CA @SLeDCG XYZ! hOCKLIKDV
`DJHA ISOIIAC@A D FLWSAWTLSCOEO DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D IOTOEHA CAT ISDCV@M PA_CGL SL\LCDV, CL
P]OUV P CLCQ_CGL IOUSOFCOJ@D! ZSDHAEALTGL dHLB@SOCCGL @AFHDKG \DSOBO DJIOHMWOPAHDJM UHV
SAJJTO@SLCDV JKLCASDLP @DIA bA `@O LJHDc D UHV DJJHLUOPACDV PASDAC@OP!
p UDWA[CL XYZ, EUL CAUL_COJ@M D CAHD`DL DJ]OUCG] UACCG] PJLEUA OESACD`LCCG, A ISOKLJJ
JAT IO JLFL DWCA`AHMCO J@O]AJ@D`LJBD[, `SLWPG`A[CO PA_CO ISOUPDEA@MJV dPOHNKDOCCGT OFSAWOT,
IOJ@OVCCO QHQ`\AV UDWA[C! ZSOJ@AV dHLB@SOCCAV @AFHDKA CL IOUTLCVL@ JOFO[ JHO_CG] @SL]TLSCG]
TOULHDSQNeD] ISOESATT, CO OCA OISLULHLCCO ISLUJ@APHVL@ JOFO[ EDFBD[ DCJ@SQTLC@, IOWPOHVNeD[
ISDCV@M OJCOPCGL SL\LCDV UO ISOSAFO@BD OBOC`A@LHMCOEO UDWA[CA!
TT`
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 r B(*, X)(3 3[C)) *^(
)
8+)9 1"6-*+!" !#()-- "5+
hOC@SOHM BA`LJ@PA VPHVL@JV CLISLTLCCO[ JOJ@APHVNeL[ ISORLJJDOCAHMCOEO VWGBA SAFO@ IO
EDUSOSAWSGPQ IHAJ@A P @L`LCDL ULJV@DHL@D[! ZOFQUD@LHMCGT TO@DPOT UHV BOC@SOHV BA`LJ@PA FGHO
WA`AJ@QN IHO]OL PGIOHCLCDL SAFO@!
p CAJ@OVeLL PSLTV JLSPDJCGL BOTIACDD ROSTAHDWOPAHD D SAJ\DSDHD KLHG[ AJJOS@DTLC@
J]LT BOC@SOHV BA`LJ@PA, ISLUCAWCA`LCCG] UHV PCQ@SLCCLEO CAUWOSA! aAT @LSTDC, ,
ISDOFSLH UOPOHMCO OFeLL WCA`LCDL, D DT OFOWCA`AN@ `@O QEOUCO, O@ BOC@SOHMCOEO ILSL`CV,
WAIOHCVLTOEO P IOHL, UO @OCBD] ]OUOP P TASBL@DCEL, ISLUCAWCA`LCCG] UHV ISDPHL`LCDV BHDLC@OP CA
CA`AHMCG] d@AIA] ILSLEOPOSOP, JOEHAJCO APACEASUCO[ IJD]OHOEDD FDWCLJA!
~JHD FHD_L B ULHQ, @O BOC@SOHM BA`LJ@PA OWCA`AL@, `@O EDUSOSAWSGP IHAJ@A UOH_LC D r
FG@M PGIOHCLC @AB, BAB OC FGH WAISOLB@DSOPAC! ?@O OWCA`AL@ @eA@LHMCOL IHACDSOPACDL UO
ISOPLULCDV SAFO@t JOULS_AeLLJV P DJISAPCOJ@D D SAFO@OJIOJOFCOL OFOSQUOPACDLt OFQ`LCCG[,
UOFSOJOPLJ@CG[ D ]OSO\O DCROSTDSOPACCG[ ILSJOCAHt QJLSUCOL O@JHL_DPACDL PJL] TA@LSDAHOP,
ISDTLCVLTG] P XYZ, D BSD@D`LJBD] IASATL@SOP OFSAFO@BDt A @AB_L OKLCBA SLWQHM@A@OP XYZ!
j SLWQHM@A@G EOPOSV@ JATD WA JLFV4 ISODWPOUJ@PLCCGL IOBAWA@LHD JLSPDJCG] BOTIACD[,
WACDTANeD]JV EDUSOSAWSGPOT IHAJ@A, IQJ@M D CL DULAHMCGL, CO ISAB@D`LJBD PJLEUA ]OSO\DL!
l:K+2QJN KDS I'
}O@V d@O@ RAB@OS `AJ@O CLUOOKLCDPAN@, OFOSQUOPACDL UHV XYZ VPHVL@JV DJ]OUCO[ @O`BO[ UHV
QJIL\COEO BOC@SOHV BA`LJ@PA D PGIOHCLCDV SAFO@!
mFOSQUOPACDL UHV J@DTQHVKDD JBPA_DC ISL@LSILHO OESOTCGL DWTLCLCDV JO PSLTLC ILSPG]
BOTTLS`LJBD] EDUSOSAWSGPOP, PGIOHCLCCG] P -)/) E! oOEUA d@A OILSAKDV PBHN`AHA SQ`COL
WATL\DPACDL IV@D TL\BOP ILJBA 20 TL\ P 20 FASSLHV] :0!2 T
0
; _DUBOJ@D :BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A 0!(
RQC@5EAHHOC ,2 BE5T
0
;! ?@Q JTLJM WABA`DPAHD P JBPA_DCQ ISD IOTOeD @SDIHLBJCOEO CAJOJA
TOeCOJ@MN 000 HO\AUDCG] JDH, DJIOHMWQLTOEO UHV KLTLC@A_CG] SAFO@ D JOHVCOBDJHO@CO[
OFSAFO@BD!
}O@V SAFO@G IO XYZ PGSOJHD IO JPOL[ PLHD`DCL D JHO_COJ@D < P JOPSLTLCCOT TAJJOPOT
XYZ TO_L@ FG@M WAUL[J@POPACO -0 000 TL\BOP ILJBA, A BOCKLC@SAKDD ISOIIAC@A TOEQ@ UOJ@DEA@M -0
RQC@5EAHHOC :-200 BE5T
0
; D PG\L :SDJ! )--; < JO PSLTLC @OEO ILSPOEO XYZ OJCOPCAV BOCRDEQSAKDV CL
DWTLCDHAJM! ZSOIIAC@ D _DUBOJ@M SAWSGPA IOUAN@JV P FHLCULS, EUL OCD JTL\DPAN@JV D
ILSLBA`DPAN@JV CA CAJOJG PGJOBOEO UAPHLCDV! qA@LT _DUBOJ@M SAWSGPA, CAESQ_LCCAV ISOIIAC@OT,
WABA`DPAL@JV P JBPA_DCQ `LSLW TACDROHMU PGJOBOEO UAPHLCDV!
mFOSQUOPACDL, @SLFQLTOL UHV PGIOHCLCDV J@DTQHDSQNeL[ OFSAFO@BD, PBHN`AL@
JTLJD@LHMCOL OFOSQUOPACDL, OFOSQUOPACDL UHV IOUA`D ISOIIAC@A, A @AB_L CAJOJCOL D BOC@SOHMCO-
DWTLSD@LHMCOL OFOSQUOPACDL!
aTLJD@LHMCOL OFOSQUOPACDL DJIOHMWQL@JV UHV IOUEO@OPBD _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA, BOTFDCDSOPACDV
P WAUACCO[ ISOIOSKDD _DUBD] D JQ]D] ]DTD`LJBD] UOFAPOB B _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA! DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA
HDFO JTL\DPAN@JV IOSKDOCCO UO ISOPLULCDV OFSAFO@BD :D ]SACV@JV P LTBOJ@V] XYZ, IOBA OCD CL
TTb
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 r B(*, X)(3 3[C)) *^(
IO@SLFQN@JV;, HDFO JTL\DPAN@JV CLISLSGPCO P ISOKLJJL OFSAFO@BD! fHV CLISLSGPCOEO JTL\DPACDV
FAWOPAV _DUBOJ@M IOUEO@APHDPAL@JV P ISLUPASD@LHMCOT JTLJD@LHL, BO@OSG[ JOLUDCVL@ _DUBD[
BOCKLC@SA@ ELHV J POUO[ WA@POSLCDV D OFLJIL`DPAL@ UOJ@A@O`COL PSLTV EDUSA@AKDD, `@OFG FAWOPG[
ELHM TOE CAFSA@M @SLFQLTQN PVWBOJ@M! XDUSA@DSOPACCG[ ELHM WA@LT ILSLBA`DPAL@JV DW
EDUSA@AKDOCCO[ LTBOJ@D P FHLCULS, EUL P SAFO`QN _DUBOJ@M PPOUV@JV CLOF]OUDTGL UOFAPBD D
ISOIIAC@!
JA5 rfT5 aOPSLTLCCAV OILSAKDV IO TAJJOPOTQ EDUSOSAWSGPQ IHAJ@A!
hA`LJ@PO ISOKLJJA JTL\DPACDV @LILSM IO`@D PJLEUA BOC@SOHDSQL@JV BOTIMN@LSOT! p
BOTIMN@LS PPOUV@JV WAUACCGL BOC@SOHMCGL @O`BD UHV BOCKLC@SAKDD JTLJD, D BOCKLC@SAKDV
IOUULS_DPAL@JV AP@OTA@D`LJBD, CLWAPDJDTO O@ SAJ]OUA _DUBOJ@D! oL]COHOED`LJBDL IASATL@SG
FHLCULSA, @ABDL BAB QSOPLCM _DUBOJ@D P FABL, JBOSOJ@M ILSLTL\DPACDV D UAPHLCDV, @AB_L CA]OUV@JV
IOU AP@OTA@D`LJBDT QISAPHLCDLT, `@O JPOUD@ B TDCDTQTQ POWTO_CGL O\DFBD OILSA@OSA!
ZSOIIAC@G ]SACV@JV CA TLJ@L SAFO@, ILSLTLeAN@JV D IOUAN@JV P JTLJD@LHM J DJIOHMWOPACDLT
CLJBOHMBD] TL@OUOP! ZSOIIAC@, SAJRAJOPACCG[ P TL\BD, TO_CO ILSLESQ_A@M PSQ`CQN DHD IOUAPA@M
ISD IOTOeD JATOJPAHOP 5 FOS@OPG] AP@OTOFDHL[ D ICLPTA@D`LJBD] JDJ@LT! pJLPOWSAJ@ANeDL
BOHD`LJ@PA ISOIIAC@A ISDPLHD B CLOF]OUDTOJ@D DJIOHMWOPA@M IOHLPGL FQCBLSG-]SACDHDeA! p BOCKL
BOCKOP, BOEUA OFgLT ISOIIAC@A J@ACOPD@JV FOHM\L LTBOJ@D IOHLPOEO FQCBLSA-]SACDHDeA, @O POBSQE
JBPA_DCG SAWTLeAN@ CLJBOHMBO FQCBLSOP, JPVWACCG] JOFDSANeDT @SACJIOS@LSOT, BO@OSG[ IOUAL@
ISOIIAC@ P FHLCULS! y`D@GPAV SAJJ@OVCDV, CA BO@OSGL ISD]OUD@JV IOUAPA@M ISOIIAC@ O@ JATOEO
UAHMCLEO FQCBLSA UO JTLJD@LHV, ISD\HOJM B FQCBLSAT-]SACDHDeAT D UOJ@APHVNeDT @SACJIOS@LSAT
UOFAPHV@M AP@OTA@D`LJBQN JDJ@LTQ QISAPHLCDV, `@OFG OFLJIL`D@M FLJILSLFO[CQN IOUA`Q ISOIIAC@A!
nA JTLCQ CAJOJQ COTDCAHMCO[ TOeCOJ@MN 000 HO\AUDCG] JDH, BO@OSG[ DJIOHMWOPAHJV P -)/)
E!, JLEOUCV ISD\HD CAJOJG TOeCOJ@MN 2000 HO\AUDCG] JDH D FOHLL, O@FDSALTO[ J OUCOEO PAHA!
oSLFOPACDV IO UAPHLCDVT @AB_L PGSOJHD J 2000 psi :-/0!( A@T; UO UAPHLCD[ FOHLL 20 000 psi :-/0(
A@T; :P CLBO@OSG] dBJ@SAOSUDCASCG] JHQ`AV];! ZLSLUA`D @LILSM TO_CO ILSLBHN`A@M CA IOHCOT ]OUQ!
hOTIMN@LS JDC]SOCDWDSQL@ OFOSO@G UPDEA@LHV J ILSLBHN`LCDLT ILSLUA`, @AB `@O IOUA`A CAJOJA UO D
IOJHL ILSLBHN`LCDV ILSLUA` OJ@AL@JV IOJ@OVCCO[! nAJOJCOL OFOSQUOPACDL J BOTIMN@LSCGT
QISAPHLCDLT @AB_L IOWPOHVL@ AP@OTA@D`LJBD BOC@SOHDSOPA@M UAPHLCDL D5DHD @LTI WABA`BD!
^OCD@OSDCE J@DTQHDSQNeD] OFSAFO@OB @AB_L ISL@LSILH WCA`D@LHMCG[ ISOESLJJ < O@
TACOTL@SOP, JLBQCUOTLSOP D FQTA_CG] JATOIDJKLP ULJV@DHL@DV CAWAU B IOHCOTQ BOTIMN@LSCOTQ
BOC@SOHN D QISAPHLCDN! aLEOUCV PO PSLTV ISOPLULCDV XYZ TO_CO BOC@SOHDSOPA@M D SLEDJ@SDSOPA@M
TTg
:d\*3[ Y I' I5 r B(*, X)(3 3[C)) *^(
FOHLL @GJV`D O@ULHMCG] IASATL@SOP! hOC@SOHM IASATL@SOP _DUBOJ@L[ OFSAFO@BD VPHVL@JV CADFOHLL
JQeLJ@PLCCGT dHLTLC@OT BOC@SOHV BA`LJ@PA! ZASATL@SG, BOC@SOHDSQLTGL D SLEDJ@SDSQLTGL PO
PSLTV ISOPLULCDV XYZ, PBHN`AN@, CO CL OESACD`DPAN@JV UAPHLCDVTD, @LTILSA@QSATD, SAJ]OUATD
_DUBOJ@D D BOCKLC@SAKDVTD UOFAPOB, p= D PVWBOJ@MN! kNFGL DHD PJL d@D IASATL@SG TOEQ@ FG@M
PDWQAHDWDSOPACG PO PSLTV ISOPLULCDV SAFO@, ISD`LT PO TCOED] JHQ`AV] D] WCA`LCDV TOEQ@ P
SLAHMCOT PSLTLCD ILSLJ`D@GPA@MJV CA JBPA_DCCGL QJHOPDV! pO PSLTV ISOPLULCDV OFSAFO@BD @AB_L
BOC@SOHDSQN@JV D SLEDJ@SDSQN@JV TCOEDL IASATL@SG OFOSQUOPACDV < PSLTV SAFO@G, UAPHLCDV,
PDFSAKDV D @AB UAHLL! ?@A DCROSTAKDV DJIOHMWQL@JV UHV UDAECOJ@DBD D ISORDHAB@DBD ISOFHLT J
OFOSQUOPACDLT, OCA IOTOEAL@ ISOPOUD@M @L]CD`LJBOL OFJHQ_DPACDL D SLTOC@ OFOSQUOPACDV, A @AB_L
JOPLS\LCJ@POPA@M SAJJ@ACOPBQ OFOSQUOPACDV D UDWA[C XYZ ISD ISOPLULCDD IOJHLUQNeD] SAFO@!
'NNONQP l:K+2QJS
fHV QJIL]A HNFO[ SAFO@G IO XYZ _DWCLCCO PA_CO JOFSA@M CAUHL_AeQN BOTFDCAKDN
OFOSQUOPACDV < CAJOJOP, JTLJD@LHL[, ESQWOPG] AP@OTOFDHL[, BOC@SOHMCO-QISAPHVNeLEO D
dHLB@SOCCOEO OFOSQUOPACDV! nD_L UAC OJCOPCO[ JIDJOB OFOSQUOPACDV, ISDPLULCCG[ P @ABOT IOSVUBL4
O@ DJ@O`CDBA POUOJCAF_LCDV B QJ@MN JBPA_DCG!
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ZD@ANeD[ TACDROHMU OFLJIL`DPAL@ PJAJGPACDL DW POUVCOEO SLWLSPQASA :LJHD OC
DJIOHMWQL@JV;, A @AB_L OFG`CG[ PJAJGPANeD[ BOHHLB@OS J CL TLCLL `LT POJLTMN /-UN[TOPGTD
PJAJGPANeDTD IA@SQFBATD! mC DJIOHMWQL@JV, @OHMBO BOEUA POUA CA JTLJD@LHM IOJ@QIAL@ CAISVTQN DW
POUVCOEO SLWLSPQASA :JS! SDJ! )-.;, DHD BOEUA DJIOHMWQL@JV ILSLBA`DPANeD[ POUVCO[ CAJOJ, `@OFG
IOUULS_DPA@M LTBOJ@D XYZ P CAIOHCLCCOT JOJ@OVCDD!
'
nAJOJG CDWBOEO UAPHLCDV J FOHM\O[ IOUA`L[ DJIOHMWQN@JV UHV ILSLBA`BD POUG DW POUVCOEO
SLWLSPQASA :DHD USQEOEO DJ@O`CDBA POUG; P LTBOJ@D XYZ D5DHD B JTLJD@LHN! ZLSLBA`DPANeDL CAJOJG
TOEQ@ @SLFOPA@MJV DHD CL @SLFOPA@MJV, P WAPDJDTOJ@D O@ SAJJ@OVCDV TL_UQ DJ@O`CDBOT
POUOJCAF_LCDV D FHLCULSOT, A @AB_L O@ D] PWADTCOEO SAJIOHO_LCDV IO PGJO@L! p WAPDJDTOJ@D O@
OFgLTA XYZ D SAJJ@OVCDV O@ DJ@O`CDBA POUOJCAF_LCDV, FQUL@ DJIOHMWOPA@MJV OUDC DHD FOHM\L
CAJOJOP UHV ILSLBA`BD POUG IO J@ACUAS@COTQ (-UN[TOPOTQ OSOJD@LHMCOTQ Zp} @SQFOISOPOUQ!
( )*
fHV ]SACLCDV _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA CA TLJ@L ISOPLULCDV SAFO@ DJIOHMWQN@JV AP@OCOTCGL
LTBOJ@D CA '00 FASSLHL[ :.0 T
0
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OFPVWBD d@D] LTBOJ@L[, OFLJIL`DPANeL[ OFeD[ DJ@O`CDB POUG! oSLFQLTOL BOHD`LJ@PO LTBOJ@L[ XYZ
WAPDJD@ O@ SAWTLSA OFSAFO@BD! ~JHD DJIOHMWQL@JV BOTFDCAKDV POUVCOEO SLWLSPQASA D LTBOJ@L[, @O
OFG`CO @SLFQN@JV `L@GSL LTBOJ@D XYZ!
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DTLL@JV WAUPD_BA J EDUSAPHD`LJBDT QISAPHLCDLT! hA_UG[ CABOID@LHM DTLL@ BAB TDCDTQT UPA
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D TABJDTAHMCO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD ISOIIAC@A, DCOEUA @SLFQL@JV FOHM\L OUCOEO FQCBLSAt P d@OT JHQ`AL
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0' 000 - (0 000 RQC@OP :-'!) - 2,!2 @; PTLJ@O 2'0 000-'00 000 RQC@OP :--0!/ - 22(!. @;! p JHQ`AL O`LCM
BSQICOOFgLTCG] XYZ TOFDHMCAV JDJ@LTA IOUA`D TO_L@ DJIOHMWOPA@MJV UHV IOUID@BD FOHLL BSQICG]
J@AKDOCASCG] JDJ@LT, @ABD] BAB @AB CAWGPALTG[ ountain over :bILSLUPDEANeD[ EOSGc;!
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JOJ@APA _DUBOJ@L[, `@O CSAPD@JV TCOEDT OILSA@OSAT, CO d@O TL@OU DTLL@ D CLUOJ@A@BD! ~JHD
ISODJ]OUV@ BABDL-HDFO WAULS_BD P WABA`BL, WAEQeLCCGL _DUBOJ@D TOEQ@ FGJ@SO IOS@D@MJV, OJOFLCCO
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OISLULHLCDV QJHOPD[ SAWSGPA IHAJ@A D BOHHLB@OSJBD]
JPO[J@P!
%arree, "! ! :-).0;! A Practical 9uerical 8iulator for
*hree iensional racture Propagation in =eterogeneous
ZSAB@D`LJBAV `DJHOPAV TOULHM UHV @SL]TLSCOEO
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
2edia, paper 8P1 -22,0! SAJISOJ@SACLCDV @SLeDCG P CLOUCOSOUCG] JSLUA]!
%arree, "! ! and Con$ay, 2! ! :-))';! 1&periental
and 9uerical 2odeling of Convective Proppant
*ransport, JPT :2arch; 2-(!
xDWD`LJBOL D TA@LTA@D`LJBOL TOULHDSOPACDL
BOCPLB@DPCOEO @SACJIOS@A ISOIIAC@A!
%arree, "! ! and 2u#heree, =! :-))';! 1ngineering
Criteria for lo$bac# Procedures, paper 8P1 2)(00!
jC_LCLSCGL BSD@LSDD UHV ISOKLUQS O@@OBA SAFO`L[
_DUBOJ@D!
%outeca, 2! 3! :-)..;! =ydraulic racturing 2odel %ased
on a *hree-iensional Closed or4 *ests and Analysis
of racture weoetry and Containent, SPEPE
:9oveber; //'-/'/, Trans. AIME 2.'!
^OULHM EDUSOSAWSGPA IHAJ@A, OJCOPACCAV CA
@SL]TLSCOT ACAHD@D`LJBOT SL\LCDD4 DJIG@ACDV D
ACAHDW ELOTL@SDD @SLeDCG D JULS_DPACDV SOJ@A
@SLeDCG!
%ritt, ! ! :-).';! Optiied Oil$ell racturing of
2oderate Pereability "eservoirs, paper 8P1 -/0,-!
mI@DTDWDSOPACCG[ EDUSOSAWSGP IHAJ@OP JSLUCL[
ISOCDKALTOJ@D!
%ro$n, 3! 1! and 1conoides, 2! 3! :-))2;! An Analysis
of =ydraulically ractured =oriontal ells, paper 8P1
2/022!
lCAHDW EOSDWOC@AHMCG] JBPA_DC J EDUSOSAWSGPOT!
%ro$n, 3! 1!, ing! ! "!, 9elson, 1! %! and Ali, 8! A!
:-))(;! Use of a 6iscoelastic Carrier luid in rac-Pac#
Applications, paper 8P1 0---/!
jJIOHMWOPACDL PVWBOQISQED] _DUBOJ@L[-COJD@LHL[ P
EDUSOSAWSGPL TL@OUOT RSAB-IAB!
Castillo, 3! ! :-).,;! 2odified Pressure ecline Analysis
Including Pressure-ependent ea#-off, paper 8P1
-(/-,!
^OUDRDKDSOPACCG[ ACAHDW BSDPG] JIAUA UAPHLCDV,
PBHN`ANeD[ WAPDJDTOL O@ UAPHLCDV IOEHOeLCDL P
IHAJ@!
Chabers, ! 3! :-))/;! oas for ell 8tiulation in
oas4 undaentals and Applications in the Petroleu
Industry, ACS Advances in Chem. Ser. 2/2t 0''-/0/!
ZLCG UHV J@DTQHDSOPACDV JBPA_DC! p4 bZLCG4
@LOSL@D`LJBDL OJCOPG D ISDTLCLCDL P CLR@VCO[
ISOTG\HLCCOJ@Dc
Chapan, %! 3!, 6itthal, 8! and =ill, ! 2! :-))(;! Pre-
fracturing Pup-in *esting for =igh Pereability
orations, paper 8P1 0--'0!
jJIG@ACDL TL@OUOT ISOFCG] WABA`LB ILSLU
EDUSOSAWSGPOT UHV PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IOSOU!
Chudnovs#y, A!, an, 3!, 8hul#in, !, udley, 3! ,
8hlyapobers#y, 3! and 8chraufnagel, "! :-))(;! A 9e$
=ydraulic racture *ip 2echanis in a 8tatistically
=oogeneous 2ediu, paper 8P1 0(//2!
nOPG[ TL]ACDWT PLS]Q\BD EDUSAPHD`LJBO[ @SLeDCG P
J@A@DJ@D`LJBD OUCOSOUCO[ JSLUL!
Ci#es, 2! :2000;! ong-*er =ydraulic racture
Conductivities Under 1&tree Conditions, :8P1 (('/);
SPEPF :9oveber;!
fOHEOPSLTLCCGL ISOPOUDTOJ@D EDUSAPHD`LJBD]
@SLeDC ISD dBJ@SLTAHMCG] QJHOPDV]!
Cinco, =! !, et al! :-).-;! *ransient Pressure Analysis
for ractured ells, JPT :8epteber; -,/)--,((!
lCAHDW CLQJ@ACOPDP\D]JV UAPHLCD[ UHV @SLeDC J
EDUSOSAWSGPOT!
Cinco-ey, =!, 8aaniego, !, oingue, ! :-),.;!
*ransient Pressure %ehavior for a ell $ith inite-
Conductivity 6ertical racture, SPEJ, 2'0-2(/!
ZOPLULCDL CLQJ@ACOPDP\D]JV UAPHLCD[ UHV
PLS@DBAHMCO[ @SLeDCG BOCL`CO[ ISOPOUDTOJ@D!
Cinco-ey, =! and 8aaniego, ! :-).-;! *ransient
Pressure Analysis for ractured ells, JPT, -,/)--,((!
lCAHDW CLQJ@ACOPDP\D]JV UAPHLCD[ UHV JBPA_DC J
EDUSOSAWSGPOT!
Cinco-ey, =! and 8aaniego-6!, ! :-).-;! *ransient
Pressure Analysis4 inite Conductivity racture Case
6ersus aage racture Case, paper 8P1 -0-,)!
lCAHDW CLQJ@ACOPDP\D]JV UAPHLCD[4 JSAPCLCDL
JHQ`AV @SLeDCG J BOCL`CO[ ISOPOUDTOJ@MN D JHQ`AV
IOPSL_ULCCO[ @SLeDCG!
Cleary, 2! P! and onseca, A!, 3r! :-))2;! Proppant
Convection and 1ncapsulation in =ydraulic racturing4
Practical Iplications of Coputer and aboratory
8iulations, paper 8P1 2/.2'!
hOCPLBKDV D DCBAIJQHDSOPACDL ISOIIAC@A P
EDUSOSAWSGPL IHAJ@A4 ISAB@D`LJBDL ISLUIOJGHBD
BOTIMN@LSCOEO D HAFOSA@OSCOEO TOULHDSOPACDV!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
Clifton, "! 3! and Abou-8ayed, A! 8! :-),);! On the
Coputation of the *hree-iensional weoetry of
=ydraulic ractures, paper 8P1 ,)/0!
m SAJ`L@L @SL]TLSCO[ ELOTL@SDD EDUSAPHD`LJBD]
@SLeDC!
Con$ay, 2! , 2cwo$en, 3! 2!, wunderson, ! ! and
ing, ! :-).';! Prediction of oration "esponse fro
racture Pressure %ehavior, paper 8P1 -/2(0!
ZSOECOWDSOPACDL O@BHDBA IHAJ@A IO IOPLULCDN
UAPHLCDV EDUSOSAWSGPA!
aneshy, A! A! :-),.;4 9uerical 8olution of 8and
*ransport in =ydraulic racturing,4 JPT :9oveber; -02-
-/0!
iDJHLCCOL SL\LCDL WAUA`D @SACJIOS@A ILJBA ISD
EDUSOSAWSGPL IHAJ@A!
de Pater, C! 3!, eiers, !, 8avic, 2!, olf, -=! A! A!,
van den =oe#, P! 3! and %arr, ! *! :-))0;! 1&periental
8tudy of 9onlinear 1ffects in =ydraulic racture
Propagation, paper 8P1 2'.)0!
?BJILSDTLC@AHMCOL DJJHLUOPACDL CLHDCL[CG]
dRRLB@OP P SAJISOJ@SACLCDD EDUSAPHD`LJBD] @SLeDC!
e%onis, 6! 2!, "udolph, ! A! and ennedy, "! !
:-))/;! 1&periences wained in the Use of rac-Pac#s in
Ultra-o$ %=P ells, U!8! wulf of 2e&ico, paper 8P1
2,0,)!
mIG@, IOHQ`LCCG[ ISD DJIOHMWOPACDD EDUSOSAWSGPA
IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB P JBPA_DCA] JO JPLS]CDWBDTD
WAFO[CGTD UAPHLCDVTD!
etournay, 1! and Cheng, A! =-! :-)..;! Poroelastic
"esponse of a %orehole in a 9on-hydrostatic 8tress ield,
Int. J. Rock Mech., Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abstr.
2':0;-,---.2!
ZOSOQISQED[ O@BHDB JBPA_DCG P CLEDUSOJ@A@D`LJBOT
IOHL CAISV_LCD[!
usterhoft, "!, 6itthal, 8!, 2c2echan, ! and alters, =!
:-))';! Iproved 2inifrac Analysis *echniue in =igh-
Pereability orations, paper 8P1 00-00!
yJOPLS\LCJ@POPACCG[ TL@OU ACAHDWA
TDCDEDUSOSAWSGPA P PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@A]!
1binger, C! ! :-))(;! 9e$ rac-Pac# Procedures
"educe Copletion Costs, World Oil :April;!
nOPGL ISOKLUQSG EDUSOSAWSGPA IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-
IAB QTLCM\AN@ SAJ]OUG CA OJPOLCDL JBPA_DC!
1conoides, 2! and 9olte, ! :1ds!; :-).);! Reservoir
Stimulation :2nd ed!;, Prentice =all, 1ngle$ood Cliffs, 93!
C :2-L DWUACDL;
1hlig-1conoides, C! A!, an ! and 1conoides, 2! 3!
:-))/;! Interpretation 2odel for racture Calibration
*ests in 9aturally ractured "eservoirs, paper 8P1
2.()0!
jC@LSISL@AKDOCCAV TOULHM UHV @LJ@OP BAHDFSOPBD
@SLeDCG P BOHHLB@OSA] J LJ@LJ@PLCCO[
@SLeDCOPA@OJ@MN!
1lbel, 3! !, et al! :-).,;! Use of Cuulative-Production
*ype Curves in racture esign, SPEPE :August; -)--
-).!
jJIOHMWOPACDL @LOSL@D`LJBD] BSDPG] CABOIHLCCO[
UOFG`D P ISOLB@DSOPACDD EDUSOSAWSGPA IHAJ@A!
1lbel, 3! !, 9avarrete, "! C! and Poe, %! !, 3r! :-))';!
Production 1ffects of luid oss in racturing =igh-
Pereability orations, paper 8P1 000).!
pHDVCDL IOEHOeLCDV _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA CA UOFG`Q
ISD EDUSOSAWSGPL PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@OP!
1ly, 3! ! :-))/;! Stimulation Engineering Handbook,
Penn$ell, =ouston!
C r r.
an, ! and 1conoides, 2! 3! :-))';! racturing luid
ea#off and 9et Pressure Pressure %ehavior in racPac#
8tiulation, paper 8P1 2))..!
ZOEHOeLCDL SAFO`L[ _DUBOJ@D D IOPLULCDL
dRRLB@DPCOEO UAPHLCDV P EDUSOSAWSGPL IO @L]COHOEDD
RSAB-IAB!
irooabadi, A! and at, ! ! :-),);! An Analysis of
=igh-6elocity was lo$ *hrough Porous 2edia, JPT
:ebruary; 2---2-(!
lCAHDW PGJOBOJBOSOJ@COEO @L`LCDV EAWA `LSLW
IOSDJ@GL JSLUG!
isher, ! :200-;! racture iagnostics Case =istories,
GasTIPS 7 :0; )--/!
jHHNJ@SDSQNeDL ISDTLSG UDAECOJ@DBD XYZ!
rederic# ! C!, 3r!, et al! :-))/;! 9e$ Correlations to nOPGL BOSSLHVKDOCCGL WAPDJDTOJ@D UHV
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
Predict 9on-arcy lo$ Coefficients at Iobile and
2obile ater 8aturation, paper 8P1 2./'-!
ISOECOWDSOPACDV BOdRRDKDLC@OP CLCMN@OCOPJBOEO
@L`LCDV ISD IOUPD_CG] D CLIOUPD_CG]
POUOCAJGeLCCOJ@V]!
weertsa, 3! and de ler#, ! :-)();! A "apid 2ethod of
Predicting idth and 1&tent of =ydraulically Induced
ractures, JPT :eceber; -',---'.-!
?BJISLJJ-TL@OU ISOECOWDSOPACDV \DSDCG D
ISO@V_LCCOJ@D @SLeDC EDUSOSAWSGPA!
widley, 3! !, =olditch, 8! A!, 9ierode, ! 1! and 6eatch,
"!!, 3r! :1ds!; :-).);! Recent Advances in Hvdraulic
Fracturing, 2onograph -2, 8P1, "ichardson, *+!
H r e .
widley, 3! ! :-))0;! A 2ethod for Correcting
iensionless racture Conductivity for 9on-arcy lo$
1ffects, paper 8P1 20,-0!
^L@OU PCLJLCDV IOISAPOB P FLWSAWTLSCQN
ISOPOUDTOJ@M @SLeDCG WA dRRLB@G O@BHOCLCDV
@L`LCDV O@ WABOCA fASJD!
wringarten, A! C! and "aey, A! 3!, 3r! :-),/;! Unsteady
8tate Pressure istributions Created by a ell $ith a
8ingle-Infinite Conductivity 6ertical racture, SPEJ
:August; 0/,-0(0!
YAJISLULHLCDL CLQJ@ACOPDP\D]JV UAPHLCD[,
JOWUAPALTG] JBPA_DCO[ J OUCO[ @SLeDCO[
FLJBOCL`CO[ ISOPOUDTOJ@D!
wrubert, ! 2! :-))0;! 1volution of a =ybrid rac-wravel
Pac# Copletion4 2onopod Platfor, *rading %ay ield,
Coo# Inlet, Alas#a, paper 8P1 -)/0-!
?POHNKDV EDFSDUCOEO WABAC`DPACDV JBPA_DCG <
EDUSOSAWSGP 5 ESAPD[CG[ RDHM@S4 IHA@ROSTA
b^OCOIOUc, TLJ@OSO_ULCDL oSL[UDCE vd[, WAHDP hQBA,
lHVJBA!
wuppy, ! =, Cinco-ey, =!, "aey, =! 3!, 3r! and
8aaniego-6!, ! :-).2;! 9on-arcy lo$ in ells ith
inite-Conductivity 6ertical ractures, SPEJ :April; (.--
()., Trans. AIME 2,0!
oL`LCDL, CL IOU`DCVNeLLJV WABOCQ fASJD, P
JBPA_DCA] J PLS@DBAHMCGTD @SLeDCATD BOCL`CO[
ISOPOUDTOJ@D!
=aison, %! C! and airhurst, C! :-)(,;! Initiation and
1&tension of =ydraulic ractures in "oc#s, SPEJ
:8epteber; 0-0-0-.!
jCDKDDSOPACDL D SAJISOJ@SACLCDL EDUSAPHD`LJBD]
@SLeDC P EOSCG] IOSOUA]!
=annah, "! "!, Par#, 1! I!, alsh,,"! 1!, Porter, ! A!,
%lac#, 3! ! and aters, ! :-))0;! A ield 8tudy of a
Cobination racturing5wravel Pac#ing Copletion
*echniue on the Aberac#, 2ississippi Canyon -0)
ield, paper 8P1 2('(2!
nA@QSCGL DJJHLUOPACDV TL@OUA OJPOLCDV <
BOTFDCAKDV EDUSOSAWSGPA D ESAPD[COEO RDHM@SA < CA
TLJ@OSO_ULCDD ?TFLSU_LB, BACMOC ^DJJDJDID -0)!
=olditch, 8! A! and 2orse, "! A! :-),(;! *he 1ffects of
9on-arcy lo$ on the %ehavior of =ydraulically
ractured was ells, JPT :October; --()---,.!
?RRLB@G @L`LCDV, CL IOU`DCVNeLEOJV WABOCQ fASJD, P
IOPLULCDD EAWOPG] JBPA_DC J EDUSOSAWSGPOT!
=olditch, 8! A! and 2orse, "! A! :-),(;! *he 1ffects of
9on arcy lo$ on the %ehavior of =ydraulically
ractured was ells, JPT :October; --')---,.!
?RRLB@G @L`LCDV, CL IOU`DCVNeLEOJV WABOCQ fASJD, P
IOPLULCDD EAWOPG] JBPA_DC J EDUSOSAWSGPOT!
=o$ard, w! C! and ast, C! "! :-)',;4 Optiu luid
Characteristics for racture 1&tension, API Drilling and
Production Prac. API, 2(--2,0!
mI@DTAHMCGL ]ASAB@LSDJ@DBD _DUBOJ@D UHV
QUHDCLCDV @SLeDCG EDUSOSAWSGPA!
=ubbert, 2! ! and illis, ! w! :-)',;! 2echanics of
=ydraulic racturing, Trans. AIME 21&I -'0--((!
^L]ACDBA EDUSOSAWSGPA IHAJ@A!
=unt, 3! ! and 8olian, 2! ! :-))/;! "eservoir
1ngineering Aspects of racturing =igh-Pereability
orations, paper 8P1 2..00!
lJILB@G, JPVWACCGL J SAWSAFO@BO[ WAHL_D, P
EDUSOSAWSGPL PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@OP!
=unt, 3! !, Chen, C!-C! and 8olian, 2! ! :-))/;!
Perforance of =ydraulic ractures in =igh-Pereability
orations, paper 8P1 2.'00!
?RRLB@DPCOJ@M SAFO@G EDUSAPHD`LJBD] @SLeDC P
PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@A]!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
3in, ! and Penny, w! 8! :2000;! A 8tudy of *$o-Phase,
9on-arcy was lo$ *hrough Proppant Pacs, :8P1
(('//; SPEPF :9oveber;!
jJJHLUOPACDL EAWA, CL IOU`DCVNeLEOJV WABOCQ fASJD
UPQ]RAWCOEO @L`LCDV `LSLW ISOIIAC@CGL CAFDPBD!
ec#, "! w!, =ainey, %! ! and Clausen, "! A! :-))0;! An
Integrated aboratory and ield 8tudy to Optiie the
=ydraulic racturing luid 8yste in =igh-Pereability,
paper 8P1 2'/(,!
hOTIHLBJCGL HAFOSA@OSCGL D CA@QSCGL DJJHLUOPACDV
UHV OI@DTDWAKDD JDJ@LTG _DUBOJ@D EDUSOSAWSGPA P
PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@A]!
hristianovitch, 8! A! and heltov, ! P! :-)'';!
oration of 6ertical ractures by 2eans of =ighly
6iscous luids, Proc., World Pet. Cong., Rome 2I ',)-
'.(!
mFSAWOPACDL PLS@DBAHMCG] @SLeDC ISD IOTOeD
PGJOBOPVWBD] _DUBOJ@L[!
irby, "! !, Cleent, C! C!, Asbill, 8! , 8hirley, "! 2!
and 1ly, 3! ! :-))';! 8creenless rac Pac# Copletions
Utiliing "esin Coated 8and in the wulf of 2e&ico, paper
8P1 00/(,!
vLJRDHM@SOPGL BOCJ@SQBKDD WAFOV J EDUSOSAWSGPOT
IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB J ISDTLCLCDLT ILJBA JO
JTOHVCGT IOBSG@DLT P ^LBJDBACJBOT WAHDPL!
acy, ! !, "ic#ards, A! "! and A=, 8! A! :-)),;!
1bedent and racture Conductivity in 8oft
orations Associated $ith =1C, %orate and ater-%ased
racture esigns, paper 8P1 0.')0!
pUAPHDPACDL ISOIIAC@A P IHAJ@ D ISOPOUDTOJ@M
@SLeDCG P SG]HG] IOSOUA]
edlo$, ! %!, 3ohnson, 2! =!, "ichard, %! 2! and =uval,
*! 3! :-))0;! =igh-Pressure Pac#ing $ith ater4 An
Alternative Approach to Conventional wravel Pac#ing,
paper 8P1 2('/0!
nAFDPBA CA POUL IOU PGJOBDT UAPHLCDLT4
AHM@LSCA@DPCG[ IOU]OU B @SAUDKDOCCOTQ CATGPQ
ESAPD[CG] RDHM@SOP!
2artins, 3! P!, Collins, P! 3! and "ylance, 2! :-))2;! 8all
=ighly Conductive ractures 9ear "eservoir luid
Contacts4 Application to Prudhoe %ay, paper 8P1 2/.'(!
^AHOSAWTLSCGL @SLeDCG J PGJOBO[ ISOPOUDTOJ@MN
PFHDWD BOC@AB@OP RHNDUOP4 ISDTLCLCDL P WAHDPL
ZSAU]O-vd[!
2artins, 3! P!, eung, ! =!, 3ac#son, 2! "!, 8te$art, ! "!
and Carr, A! =! :-).);! *ip 8creenout racturing Applied
to the "avenspurn 8outh was ield evelopent, paper
8P1 -),((!
ZSDTLCLCDL EDUSOSAWSGPA J BOCKLPGT
dBSACDSOPACDLT ISD SAWSAFO@BL TLJ@OSO_ULCDV
YL[PLCJILSC-aAQ@!
2athur, A!!, 9ing, +!, 2arcine$, "!%!, 1hlig-
1conoides, C!A! and 1conoides, 2!3! :-))';
=ydraulic racture 8iulation of =igh-Pereability
orations4 *he 1ffect of Critical racture Paraeters on
Oil$ell Production and Pressure, paper 8P1 00('2!
^OULHDSOPACDL EDUSOSAWSGPA PGJOBOISOCDKALTG]
IHAJ@OP4 pHDVCDL BSD@D`LJBD] IASATL@SOP XYZ CA
ISOUQB@DPCOJ@M CLR@VCO[ JBPA_DCG D UAPHLCDL!
2ayerhofer, 2! 3!, 1conoides, 2! 3! and 1hlig-
1conoides, C! A! :-))';! Pressure-*ransient Analysis of
racture-Calibration *ests, JPT :2arch; --(!
lCAHDW CLQJ@ACOPDP\D]JV UAPHLCD[ P BAHDFSOPBL
XYZ!
2ayerhofer, 2! 3!, 1conoides, 2! 3! and 9olte, ! w!
:-))-;4 An 1&periental and undaental Interpretation
of racturing ilter-Ca#e luid oss, paper 8P1 22.,0!
?BJILSDTLC@AHMCAV D @LOSL@D`LJBAV DC@LSISL@AKDV
IOEHOeLCDV P IHAJ@ `LSLW RDHM@SAKDOCCQN BOSBQ ISD
EDUSOSAWSGPL IHAJ@A!
2cwo$en, 3! 2! and 6itthal 8! :-))';! racturing luid
ea#off Under ynaic Conditions Part -4 evelopent
of a "ealistic aboratory *esting Procedure, paper 8P1
0(/)2!
ZOEHOeLCDL _DUBOJ@D EDUSOSAWSGPA ISD
UDCATD`LJBD] QJHOPDV]! iAJ@M -4 YAWSAFO@BA
SLAHDJ@D`LJBO[ ISOKLUQSG HAFOSA@OSCG] DJIG@ACD[!
2cwo$en, 3! 2!, 6itthal, 8!, Par#er, 2! A!, "ahii, A! and
2artch, ! 1!, 3r! :-))0;! luid 8election for racturing
=igh-Pereability orations, paper 8P1 2('')!
pGFOS _DUBOJ@D UHV EDUSOSAWSGPA
PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@OP!
2cwuire, ! 3! and 8i#ora, 6! 3! :-)(0;! *he 1ffect of
6ertical ractures on ell Productivity, JPT :October;
,2!
pHDVCDL PLS@DBAHMCG] @SLeDC CA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@M
JBPA_DCG!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
2carty, 3! 2! and e%onis, 6! :-))';! wulf Coast
8ection 8P1 Production Operations 8tudy wroup<
*echnical =ighlights fro a 8eries of rac Pac#
*reatents, paper 8P1 00/,-!
XSQIIA DJJHLUOPACDV OILSAKD[ IO CLR@LUOFG`L
aLBKDD mFeLJ@PA ELOHOEOP-CLR@VCDBOP IO
^LBJDBACJBOTQ WAHDPQ < CADFOHLL PA_CGL
@L]CD`LJBDL AJILB@G JLSDD EDUSOSAWSGPOP IO
@L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB!
2ears, "! %!, 8luss, 3! 3!, 3r!, agan, 3! 1! and 2enon, "!
! :-))0;! *he Use of aser oppler 6elocietry :6;
for the 2easureent of racturing luid lo$ in the C
8iulator, paper 8P1 2((-)!
jJIOHMWOPACDL HAWLSCO[ UOIHLSOPJBO[
JBOSOJ@LTL@SDD UHV DWTLSLCDV @L`LCDV _DUBOJ@D
EDUSOSAWSGPA CA DJIG@A@LHMCOT J@LCUL C!
2edlin, ! ! and itch, 3! ! :-)..;! Abnoral *reating
Pressures in 2assive =ydraulic racturing *reatents,
JPT (00-(/2!
lCOTAHMCGL UAPHLCDV OFSAFO@BD ISD TAJJDSOPACCG]
EDUSOSAWSGPA]!
2eng, =! ! :-).,;! Coupling of Production orecasting,
racture weoetry "euireents and *reatent
8cheduling in the Optiu racture esign, paper
8P15O1 -(/0'!
hOTIHLBJDSOPACDL ISOECOWDSOPACDV UOFG`D,
@SLFOPACD[ B ELOTL@SDD @SLeDCG D @L]COHOED`LJBOEO
IHACDSOPACDV PGIOHCLCDV XYZ P OI@DTAHMCOT
UDWA[CL EDUSOSAWSGPA IHAJ@A!
2eyer, %! " and =agel, 2! ! :-).);! 8iulated 2ini-
racs Analysis, JCPT 2% :'; (0-,0!
lCAHDW TDCD-EDUSOSAWSGPA ISD IOTOeD
DTD@AKDOCCOEO TOULHDSOPACDV!
2ilton-*ayler, ! :-))0;! 9on-arcy was lo$4 ro
aboratory ata to ield Prediction, paper 8P1 2(-/(!
oL`LCDL EAWA, CL IOU`DCVNeLLJV WABOCQ fASJD4 O@
HAFOSA@OSCG] UACCG] B ISOECOWQ SLWQHM@A@OP IOHLPG]
SAFO@!
2ontagna, 3! 9!, 8aucier, "! 3! and elly, P! :-))';! An
Innovative *echniue for aage %y-pass in wravel
Pac#ed Copletions Using *ip 8creenout racture
Prepac#s, paper 8P1 00-02!
nOPG[ TL@OU UHV OF]OUA WOCG IOPSL_ULCCOEO
BOHHLB@OSA P WABAC`DPACDV] J ESAPD[CGTD RDHM@SATD
J DJIOHMWOPACDLT XYZ J WASACLL JROSTDSOPACCGT
BOCKLPGT dBSACDSOPACDLT!
2ontgoery, ! *!, et al! :-))0;! 1ffects of racture
luid Invasion on Cleanup %ehavior and Pressure %uildup
Analysis, paper 8P1 20(/0!
?RRLB@G ISOCDBCOPLCDV _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA ISD
ACAHDWL IOPLULCDV JBPA_DCG ISD O`DJ@BL D ISD
ACAHDWL hpf!
2onus, ! !, %roussard, ! , Ayoub, 3! A! and 9oran,
! ! :-))2;! racturing Unconsolidated 8and
orations Offshore wulf 2e&ico, paper 8P1 22.//!
XDUSOSAWSGP P CLBOCJOHDUDSOPACCG] ILJBA] CA
TOSJBD] TLJ@OSO_ULCDV] ^LBJDBACJBOEO WAHDPA!
2orales, "! =! and 2arcine$, "! P! :-))0;4 racturing of
=igh-Pereability orations4 2echanical Properties
Correlations, paper 8P1 2('(-!
XDUSOSAWSGP PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@OP4
BOSSLHVKDOCCGL WAPDJDTOJ@D UHV TL]ACD`LJBD]
JPO[J@P!
2orse, "! A! and 6on wonten, ! ! :-),-;! Productivity
of 6ertically ractured ells Prior to 8tabilied lo$,
paper 8P1 0(0-!
ZSOUQB@DPCOJ@M JBPA_DC J PLS@DBAHMCO[ @SLeDCO[ UO
J@AFDHDWAKDD @L`LCDV!
2ullen, 2! 1!, 9oran, ! ! and wranger, 3! C! :-))/;!
Productivity Coparison of 8and Control *echniues
Used for Copletions in the 6erillion 00- ield, paper
8P1 2,0(-!
aSAPCLCDL ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D TL@OUOP FOSMFG J PGCOJOT
ILJBA, DJIOHMWQLTG] ISD OJPOLCDD JBPA_DC CA
TLJ@OSO_ULCDV] pLSTDHHDOC 00-!
2ullen, 2! 1!, 9oran, ! !, ine, 3! ! and 8te$art, %!
"! :-))(;! Investigation of =eight wro$th in rac Pac#
Copletions, paper 8P1 0(/'.!
jJJHLUOPACDL SOJ@A @SLeDC P PGJO@Q ISD
EDUSOSAWSGPL IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB!
2ullen, 2! 1!, 8te$art, %! "! and 9oran, ! ! :-))/;!
1valuation of %ottohole Pressures in /0 8oft "oc#
rac-Pac# Copletions in the wulf of 2e&ico, paper 8P1
2.'02!
mKLCBA WAFO[CG] UAPHLCD[ P JOSOBA JBPA_DCA] J
EDUSOSAWSGPOT IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB P SG]HG]
IOSOUA] P ^LBJDBACJBOT WAHDPL!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
9ierode, ! 1! and ru#, ! ! :-),0;! An 1valuation of
Acid luid oss Additives "etarded Acids, and Acidied
racture Conductivity, paper 8P1 /'/)!
mKLCBA TLUHLCCOUL[J@PQNeD] BDJHO@ J IOCDWD@LHVTD
RDHM@SAKDD BDJHO@G, A @AB_L ISOCDKALTOJ@D
@SLeDCG BDJHO@COEO EDUSOSAWSGPA!
9ing, +!, 2arcine$, "! P! and Olsen, *! 9! :-))';! *he
Ipact of racturing luid Cleanup and racture-ace
aage on was Production, paper CI2 )'-/0!
pHDVCDL O`DJ@BD O@ _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA D IOPSL_ULCDV
IOPLS]COJ@D @SLeDCG CA UOFG`Q EAWA!
9olte, ! w! :-).(;! eterination of Proppant and luid
8chedules fro racturing Pressure ecline, :8P1 .0/-;
SPEPE :3uly; 2''-2('!
mISLULHLCDL ESARDBA WABA`BD ISOIIAC@A D _DUBOJ@D
IO BSDPGT IAULCDV UAPHLCDV!
9olte, ! w! and 8ith, 2! %! :-).-;! Interpretation of
racturing Pressures, JPT :8epteber; -,(,--,,'!
jC@LSISL@AKDV UAPHLCD[ XYZ!
9olte, ! w!, 2ac#, 2! w! and ie ! ! :-))0;! A
8ysteatic 2ethod for Applying racturing Pressure
ecline4 Part -, paper 8P1 2'./'!
aDJ@LTA@D`LJBD[ TL@OU UHV ISDTLCLCDV BSDPO[ JIAUA
UAPHLCDV EDUSOSAWSGPA!
9ordgren, "! P! :-),2;! Propagation of a 6ertical
=ydraulic racture, SPEJ :August; 00(-0-/, Trans.
AIME 2'0!
YAJISOJ@SACLCDL PLS@DBAHMCO[ EDUSAPHD`LJBO[
@SLeDCG!
9ovotny, 1! 3! :-),,;! Proppant *ransport, paper 8P1
(.-0!
oSACJIOS@ ISOIIAC@A!
Paler, I! ! and 6eatch, "! !, 3r! :-))0;! Abnorally
=igh racturing Pressures in 8tep-"ate *ests, SPEPE
:August; 0-'-020, Trans. AIME 2.)!
lCOTAHMCO PGJOBDL UAPHLCDV EDUSOSAWSGPA ISD
DJIG@ACDV] TL@OUOT J@QILC`A@OEO IOPG\LCDV @LTIA
WABA`BD!
Par#er, 2! A!, 6itthai, 8!, "ahii, A!, 2cwo$en, 3! 2!,
and 2artch, ! 1!, 3r! :-))/;! =ydraulic racturing of
=igh-Pereability orations to Overcoe aage,
paper 8P1 2,0,.!
XDUSOSAWSGP PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@OP UHV
ISLOUOHLCDV WOCG IOPSL_ULCCOEO BOHHLB@OSA!
Parlar, 2!, 9elson, 1! %!, alton, I! C, Par#, 1! and
e%onis, 6! :-))';! An 1&periental 8tudy on luid-
oss %ehavior of racturing luids and oration
aage in =igh-Pereability Porous 2edia, paper 8P1
00/'.!
?BJILSDTLC@AHMCOL DJJHLUOPACDL IOPLULCDV
_DUBOJ@L[ SAWSGPA P `AJ@D IOEHOeLCDV D
IOPSL_ULCDV IHAJ@A P PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IOSDJ@G]
JSLUA]!
Patel, ! !, *roncoso, 3! C!, 8aucier, "! 3! and Credeur, !
3! :-))/;! =igh-"ate Pre-Pac#ing Using 9on-6iscous
Carrier luid "esults in =igher Production "ates in 8outh
Pass %loc# (- ield, paper 8P1 2.'0-!
ZSLUPASD@LHMCAV CAFDPBA ISOIIAC@OT CA PGJOBD]
SAJ]OUA] CLPVWBO[ _DUBOJ@D UAL@ P SLWQHM@A@L FOHLL
PGJOBDL ULFD@G CA TLJ@OSO_ULCDD aAQ@-ZA@, FHOB (-!
Penny, w! 8!, et al! :-).,;! An 1valuation of the 1ffects
of 1nvironental Conditions and racturing luids Upon
the ong *er Conductivity of Proppants, paper 8P1
-()00!
mKLCBA PHDVCDV QJHOPD[ OBSQ_ANeL[ JSLUG D
_DUBOJ@L[ SAWSGPA CA UOHEOPSLTLCCQN ISOPOUDTOJ@M
ISOIIAC@OP!
Penny, w! 8!, et al! :-))(;! *he Use of Inertial orce and
o$ 8hear 6iscosity to Predict Cleanup of racturing
luids $ithin Proppant Pac#s, paper 8P1 0-0)(!
jJIOHMWOPACDL JDH DCLSKDD D PVWBOJ@D ISD CDWBD]
JBOSOJ@V] JUPDEA UHV ISOECOWDSOPACDV O`DJ@BD O@
_DUBOJ@L[ SAWSGPA P ISLULHA] ISOIIAC@CG] CAFDPOB!
Per#ins, *! ! and ern, ! "! :-)(-;! idth of =ydraulic
ractures, JPT :8epteber; )0,-)/), Trans. AIME 222!
rDSDCA EDUSAPHD`LJBD] @SLeDC!
Prats, 2! :-)(-;! 1ffect of 6ertical ractures on "eservoir
%ehavior<Incopressible luid Case, SPEJ :3une; -0'-
--., Trans. AIME 222.
pHDVCDL PLS@DBAHMCG] @SLeDC CA IOPLULCDL IHAJ@A <
JHQ`A[ CLJ_DTALTO[ _DUBOJ@D!
"ahi, ! and =olditch, 8! A! :-))0;! Using a *hree-
iensional Concept in a *$o-iensional 2odel to
Predict Accurate =ydraulic racture iensions, paper
jJIOHMWOPACDL @SL]TLSCO[ BOCKLIKDD P UPQTLSCO[
TOULHD UHV ISOECOWDSOPACDV @O`CG] SAWTLSOP
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
8P1 2()2(! @SLeDCG EDUSOSAWSGPA!
"eidenbach, 6! w!, =arris, P! C!, ee, ! 9! and ord, ! !
:-).(;! "heological 8tudy of oa racturing luids
Using 9itrogen and Carbon io&ide, SPEPE :3anuary;
0)-/-!
jJJHLUOPACDL SLOHOEDD ILCCG] _DUBOJ@L[ SAWSGPA J
DJIOHMWOPACDLT AWO@A D QEHLBDJHOEO EAWA!
"eiers, ! "! and Clausen, "! A! :-))-;! =igh-
Pereability racturing at Prudhoe %ay, Alas#a, paper
8P1 22.0'!
pGJOBOISOCDKALTG[ EDUSOSAWSGP P WAHDPL ZSAU]O-
vd[, lHVJBA!
"obinson, %! 2!, et al! :-)..;! 2iniiing aage to a
Propped racture by Controlled lo$bac# Procedures,
JPT :3une; ,'0-,')!
^DCDTDWAKDV IOPSL_ULCDV SAJBHDCLCCO[ @SLeDCG
IOJSLUJ@POT ISOKLUQSG BOC@SOHDSQLTOEO O@@OBA!
"oodhart, ! P! :-).';! Proppant 8ettling in 9on-
9e$tonian racturing luids, paper 8P1 -0)0'!
mJA_ULCDL ISOIIAC@A P CLCMN@OCOPJBD] _DUBOJ@V]
EDUSOSAWSGPA!
"oodhart, ! P!, o##er, P! A!, avies, ! "!,
8hlyapobers#y, 3! and ong, w! ! :-))0;! rac and Pac#
8tiulation4 Application, esign, and ield 1&perience
fro the wulf of 2e&ico to %orneo, paper 8P1 2('(/!
a@DTQHVKDV IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB4 ISDTLCLCDL,
UDWA[C D OIG@ ISDTLCLCDV < O@ ^LBJDBACJBOEO
WAHDPA UO vOSCLO!
"oodhart, ! P! :-).';! racturing luids4 luid-oss
2easureents Under ynaic Conditions, SPEJ
:October; (2)-(0(!
DUBOJ@D EDUSOSAWSGPA4 DWTLSLCDL Q@L`BD ISD
UDCATD`LJBD] QJHOPDV]!
8aucier, "! 3! :-),/;! Considerations in wravel Pac#
esign, JPT :ebruary; 20'-2-2!
aOOFSA_LCDV P UDWA[CL ESAPD[COEO RDHM@SA!
8ettari, A! :-).';! A 9e$ weneral 2odel of luid oss in
=ydraulic racturing, SPEJ, /)--'0-!
nOPAV OFeAV TOULHM Q@L`BD _DUBOJ@D ISD
EDUSOSAWSGPL IHAJ@A!
8ettari, A! and Cleary, 2! P! :-).(;! evelopent and
*esting of a Pseudo-*hree-iensional 2odel of
=ydraulic racture weoetry, SPEPE :9oveber; //)-
/((, Trans. AIME 2.0!
YAWSAFO@BA D @LJ@DSOPACDL IJLPUO@SL]TLSCO[ TOULHD
ELOTL@SDD @SLeDCG EDUSOSAWSGPA!
8hah, 8! 9! :-).2;! Proppant 8ettling Correlations for
9on-9e$tonian luids Under 8tatic and ynaic
Conditions, SPEJ, -(/--,0!
hOSSLHVKDOCCGL WAPDJDTOJ@D OJA_ULCDV ISOIIAC@A
UHV CLCMN@OCOPJBD] _DUBOJ@L[ ISD J@A@D`LJBD] D
UDCATD`LJBD] QJHOPDV]!
8hlyapobers#y 3!, alhaug, ! , 8heffield! "! 1! and
=uc#abee, P! *! :-)..;! ield eterination of racturing
Paraeters for Overpressure Calibrated esign of
=ydraulic racturing, paper 8P1 -.-)'!
mISLULHLCDL IASATL@SOP EDUSOSAWSGPA P IOHL UHV
UDWA[CA XYZ J BAHDFSOPBO[ IO @LJ@OPGT CAECL@ACDVT
:TDCDRSAB;!
8hlyapobers#y, 3!, ong, w! ! and alhaugh,
:-)..;! Overpressure-Calibrated esign of =ydraulic
racture 8iulations, paper 8P1 -.-)/!
fDWA[C XYZ J BAHDFSOPBO[ IO @LJ@OPGT CAECL@ACDVT
:TDCDRSAB;!
8ionson, 1! "!, Abou-8ayed, A! 8! and Clifton, "! 3!
:-),.;! Containent of 2assive =ydraulic ractures,
SPEJ, 2,-02!
mESACD`LCDL SAWTLSOP @SLeDCG ISD TAJJOPG]
EDUSOSAWSGPA]!
8ingh, P! ! and Agar$al, "! w! :-)..;! *$o-8tep "ate
*est4 A 9e$ Procedure for eterining oration Parting
Pressure, paper 8P1 -.-/-!
jJIG@ACDV IQ@LT JBA`BOOFSAWCOEO DWTLCLCDV @LTIOP
CAECL@ACDV P UPL J@QILCD4 COPAV ISOKLUQSA UHV
OISLULHLCDV UAPHLCDV SAWSGPA IHAJ@A!
8ith, 2! %! and =annah, "! "! :-))/;! =igh-
Pereability racturing4 *he 1volution of a *echnology,
paper 8P1 2,)./!
pGJOBOISOCDKALTG[ XYZ4 dPOHNKDV @L]COHOEDD!
8ith, 2! %!, 2iller, ! !, II and =aga, 3! :-).,;! *ip
8creenout racturing4 A *echniue for 8oft, Unstable
XDUSOSAWSGP J BOCKLPGT dBSACDSOPACDLT4 COPAV
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
oration, SPEPE :2ay; )'--00 @L]COHOEDV UHV SG]HG], CLQJ@O[`DPG] IOSOU!
8neddon, I! 9! :-),0;! Integral *ransfor 2ethods,
chapter in Mechanics of Fracture IMethods of Analvsis
and Solutions of Crack Problems, w! C 8ih :1d!;, 9orhoff
International, eyden!
^L@OUG DC@LESAHMCOEO ISLOFSAWOPACDV < EHAPA P
BCDEL bMx I M
, x c!
8olian, 2! :-).(;! *echniue for Considering luid
Copressibility *eperature Changes in 2ini-rac
Analysis, paper 8P1 -'0,0!
^L@OU Q`L@A DWTLCLCDV J_DTALTOJ@D _DUBOJ@D J
@LTILSA@QSO[ ISD ACAHDWL TDCDRSABA!
8olian, 2! !, et al! :-).';! 1ffect of racturing luid
and Its Cleanup on ell Perforance, paper 8P1 -/'-/!
pHDVCDL _DUBOJ@D EDUSOSAWSGPA D O`DJ@BD O@ CLL CA
ULFD@ JBPA_DCG
8oilian, 2!! and aneshy, A!A! :-))-;! eterination
of racture 6olue and Closure Pressure fro Pup-
In5lo$bac# *ests, paper 8P1 2-/00!
mISLULHLCDL OFgLTA @SLeDCG D UAPHLCDV WABSG@DV DW
DJIG@ACD[ TL@OUOT CAECL@ACDV D O@@OBA!
8te$art, %! "!, 2ullen, 2! 1!, 1llis, "! C!, 9oran, ! !
and 2iller, ! ! :-))';! 1conoic 3ustification for
racturing 2oderate to =igh-Pereability orations in
8and Control 1nvironents, paper 8P1 00/,0!
?BOCOTD`LJBOL OFOJCOPACDL EDUSOSAWSGPA P JSLUCL- D
PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@A] P QJHOPDV]
CLOF]OUDTOJ@D FOSMFG J PGCOJOT ILJBA!
8te$art, %! "!, 2ullen, 2! 1!, =o$ard, ! 3! and 9oran,
! ! :-))';! Use of a 8olids-ree 6iscous Carrying
luid in racturing Applications4 An 1conoic and
Productivity Coparison in 8hallo$ Copletions, paper
8P1 00--/!
jJIOHMWOPACDL PVWBD] _DUBOJ@L[-COJD@LHL[ FLW
@PLSUO[ RAWG ISD EDUSOSAWSGPL IHAJ@A4 JSAPCLCDL
dBOCOTD`LJBD] IOBAWA@LHL[ D ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D P
TAHOEHQFDCCG] JBPA_DCA]!
*hiercelin, 2! 3, %en-9aceur, ! and eancy#, ! "!
:-).';! 8iulation of *hree-iensional Propagation of
a 6ertical =ydraulic racture, paper 8P1 -0.(-!
^OULHDSOPACDL @SL]TLSCOEO SAJISOJ@SACLCDV
PLS@DBAHMCO[ @SLeDCG EDUSOSAWSGPA!
*iner, "! !, 1ly, 3! ! and 8chraufnagel, "! :-))(;! rac
Pac#s<8tate of the Art, paper 8P1 0(/'(!
XYZ IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB < JOJ@OVCDL POISOJA!
*in#er, 8! 3!, %aycroft, P! !, 1lis, "! C! and ithugh, 1!
:-)),;! 2ini-rac *ests and %ottohole *reating
Pressure Analysis Iprove esign and 1&ecution of
racture 8tiulatons, paper 8P1 0,/0-!
jJIG@ACDV TL@OUOT TDCD-EDUSOSAWSGPA D ACAHDW
WAFO[CG] UAPHLCD[ OFSAFO@BD QHQ`\AN@ UDWA[C D
ISOPLULCDL XYZ!
6al#7, P! and 1conoides, 2! 3! :-))';! Hvdraulic
Fracture Mechanics, iley, Chichester!
^L]ACDBA EDUSOSAWSGPA IHAJ@A!
6al#7, P!, Oligney, "! 1! and 8chraufnagel, "! A! :-))(;!
8lopes Analysis of rac Pac# %ottohole *reating
Pressures, paper 8P1 0---(!
lCAHDW QEHOPG] BOdRRDKDLC@OP BSDPO[ WAFO[COEO
UAPHLCDV ISD ISOPLULCDD XYZ IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-
IAB!
6al#7, P! and 1conoides, 2! 3! :-))(;! Perforance of
ractured =oriontal ells in =igh-Pereability
"eservoirs, paper 8P1 0--/)!
oL]COHOED`LJBDL IASATL@SG EOSDWOC@AHMCG] JBPA_DC
J EDUSOSAWSGPOT P PGJOBOISOCDKALTG] IHAJ@A]!
van Poollen, =! !, *insley, 3! 2! and 8aunders, C! !
:-)'.;! =ydraulic racturing<racture lo$ Capacity
vs! ell Productivity, Trans. AIME 2-0, )-!
XDUSOSAWSGP IHAJ@A < WAPDJDTOJ@M ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D
JBPA_DCG O@ ISOIQJBCO[ JIOJOFCOJ@D @SLeDCG!
6inegar, =! 3!, illis, P! %!, e2artini, ! C!,
8hlyapobers#y, 3!, eeg, ! ! 3!, Adair, "! w!, oerpel, 3!
C!, i&, 3! 1! and 8orrells, w! w! :-))2;! Active and
Passive 8eisic Iaging of a =ydraulic racture in
iatoite, JPT :3anuary; 2.-0/, ..-)0!
lB@DPCOL D IAJJDPCOL BAS@DSOPACDL @SLeDCG
EDUSOSAWSGPA P UDA@OTD@L!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 A l^;*d@
6itthal 8! and 2cwo$en 3! 2! :-))';! racturing luid
ea#off Under ynaic Conditions Part 24 1ffect of 8hear
"ate, Pereability and Pressure, paper 8P1 0(/)0!
y@L`BA _DUBOJ@D SAWSGPA ISD UDCATD`LJBD]
QJHOPDV]! iAJ@M 24 PHDVCDL JBOSOJ@D JUPDEA,
ISOCDKALTOJ@D D UAPHLCDV!
arenbourg, P! A!, et al! :-).';! racture 8tiulation
esign and 1valuation, paper 8P1 -/0,)!
fDWA[C D OKLCBA EDUSOSAWSGPA IHAJ@A!
illias, %! %! :-),0;! luid oss ro =ydraulically
Induced ractures, JPT, ..2-..., Trans. AIME 2/)!
y@L`BA _DUBOJ@D DW @SLeDC EDUSOSAWSGPA!
in#ler, !, 6al#7, P! and 1conoides, 2! 3! :-))/;!
ainar and rag-"educed Polyeric oa lo$, J. of
Rheologv 0.,-----2,!
kATDCASCOL @L`LCDL D @L`LCDL J IOCD_LCCGT
EDUSOUDCATD`LJBDT JOISO@DPHLCDLT Q IOHDTLSCG]
ILC!
ong, w! !, ors, "! "!, Casassa, 3! 8!, =ite, "! =! and
8hlyapobers#y, 3! :-))0;! esign, 1&ecution and
1valuation of rac and Pac# :P; *reatents in
Unconsolidated 8and orations in the wulf of 2e&ico,
paper 8P1 2('(/!
ZSOLB@DSOPACDL, PGIOHCLCDL D OKLCBA EDUSOSAWSGPA
IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB P CLBOCJOHDUDSOPACCG]
ILJ`ACG] IHAJ@A] P ^LBJDBACJBOT WAHDPL!
ong, 8! ! :-),0;! 1ffect of iuid 8aturation on
*urbulence actors for was-iuid 8ystes, J. of
Canadian Pet. Tech. :October-eceber; 2,/!
pHDVCDL CAJGeLCDV _DUBO[ RAWO[ CA BOdRRDKDLC@G
@QSFQHLC@COJ@D UHV JDJ@LT EAW-_DUBOJ@M!
adavalli, 8! ! and 3ones, 3! "! :-))(;! Interpretation of
Pressure *ransient ata fro =ydraulically ractured was
Condensate ells, paper 8P1 0(''(!
jC@LSISL@AKDV UACCG] IO CLQJ@ACOPDP\DTJV
UAPHLCDVT P EAWOBOCULCJA@CG] JBPA_DCA] J
EDUSOSAWSGPOT!
i, *! and Peden, 3!2! :-))/;! A Coprehensive 2odel
of luid oss in =ydraulic racturing, SPEPF
:9oveber; 2(,-2,2!
pJLOFgLTHNeAV TOULHM Q@L`BD _DUBOJ@D P
EDUSOSAWSGPL IHAJ@A!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 y )(*@ (^\ @ C*)(*3@ I'
D
L)-1+"4 +"5)" %)4 (-1+!"4 3@?
?HLB@SOCCAV @AFHDKA 1&cel =2 ISLUJ@APHVL@ JOFO[ ISOESATTCG[ IABL@ UHV FGJ@SOEO
UDWA[CA @SLeDCG < @SAUDKDOCCOEO :UHV IHAJ@OP JSLUCL[ ISOCDKALTOJ@D D JHO_LCCG] @PLSUGTD
IOSOUATD; D XYZ IO @L]COHOEDD RSAB-IAB :UHV IHAJ@OP FOHLL PGJOBO[ ISOCDKALTOJ@D D JHO_LCCG]
SG]HGTD IOSOUATD;!
mCA JOULS_D@ JHLUQNeDL SAFO`DL HDJ@G4
oSAUDKDOCCG[ UDWA[C J TOULHMN P9 :ZLSBDCJA-hLSCA-nOSUESLCA;
fDWA[C BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV J TOULHMN P9
fDWA[C C2 :TL]ACDBD SAWSQ\LCDV JIHO\CO[ JSLUG; J TOULHMN P9
yCDBAHMCOJ@M d@OEO IABL@A ISODJ]OUD@ DW HOEDBD UDWA[CA, CA BO@OSO[ OC FAWDSQL@JV! fDWA[C
CA`DCAL@JV J DTLNeL[JV TAJJG ISOIIAC@At WA@LT OISLULHVN@JV OI@DTAHMCGL SAWTLSG @SLeDCGt P
WABHN`LCDL, SAJJ`D@GPAL@JV ESARDB OFSAFO@BD, CLOF]OUDTG[ UHV IOHQ`LCDV OI@DTAHMCOEO
SAWTLeLCDL ISOIIAC@A! ~JHD OI@DTAHMCOL SAWTLeLCDL CLPOWTO_CO DW-WA RDWD`LJBD] OESACD`LCD[,
SLBOTLCUQL@JV CLBO@OSOL JQFOI@DTAHMCOL :BPAWDOI@DTAHMCOL; SAWTLeLCDL!
qULJM CL IOP@OSVL@JV DCROSTAKDV, O@COJVeAVJV B dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKL UDWA[CA, PBHN`LCCAV P
USQED] TLJ@A] @LBJ@A, CAISDTLS, UOIQeLCDV O @LOSL@D`LJBD] SAFO`D] IASATL@SA] @SLeDCG :EHAPA 0;,
ISLUHAEALTAV ISOKLUQSA ISOLB@DSOPACDV OJCOPACA CA OI@DTAHMCO[ SAFO@L JBPA_DCG P
IJLPUOJ@AKDOCASCOT SL_DTL :EHAPA ,; D ISDTLSA] ISOEOCOP :EHAPA .;! ZOJHL ISO`@LCDV d@OEO
ISDHO_LCDV, ISLUHAEALT `D@A@LHN ISOSAFO@A@M \AE WA \AEOT ISDTLSG, ISDPLULCCGL P EHAPL ., `@OFG
IO`QPJ@POPA@M, BAB d@A dHLB@SOCCAV @AFHDKA SAFO@AL@!
ZO JQ@D ULHA, d@O ISDHO_LCDL OESACD`DPAL@JV JILKDRD`LJBDT OIDJACDLT DJ]OUCG] UACCG],
@SLFQNeD]JV UHV SAFO@G dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKG, A @AB_L SLWQHM@A@OP SAJ`L@OP! YLWQHM@A@G PBHN`AN@
@SLFOPACDV B _DUBOJ@D D ISOIIAC@Q, @LTIG CAECL@ACDV, BOCKLC@SAKDD UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A :@!L!,
ESARDB UOFAPBD ISOIIAC@A;, A @AB_L UOIOHCD@LHMCQN DCROSTAKDN OF dPOHNKDD SAWTLSOP @SLeDCG!
6Nl+2QJS B K2QQM
nD_LJHLUQNeAV @AFHDKA JOULS_D@ OIDJACDL @SLFQLTG] DJ]OUCG] IASATL@SOP!
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
Proppant ass for :t$o $ings;,
lb
^AJJA ISOIIAC@A :UHV UPQ]
BSGHMLP;, RQC@OP TAJJG
mFgLT :TAJJA; ISOIIAC@A VPHVL@JV LUDCJ@PLCCO[
CADFOHLL PA_CO[ DJBOTO[ ILSLTLCCO[ P ISOKLUQSL
ISOLB@DSOPACDV!
8p grav of proppant aterial
:$ater -;
yULHMCG[ PLJ TA@LSDAHA
ISOIIAC@A :POUA -;
nAISDTLS, 2!(' UHV ILJBA!
Porosity of proppant pac# ZOSDJ@OJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[
CAFDPBD
ZOSDJ@OJ@M CAFDPBD TO_L@ DWTLCV@MJV P WAPDJDTOJ@D O@
CAISV_LCDV JTGBACDV @SLeDCGt @DID`COL WCA`LCDL
SAPCO 0!0!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 y )(*@ (^\ @ C*)(*3@ I'
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
Proppant pac# pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[
CAFDPBD, Tf
mJ@ANeAVJV ISOCDKALTOJ@M, PBHN`AV PHDVCDL OJ@A@BA
SAFO`L[ _DUBOJ@D D CAISV_LCDV JTGBACDV @SLeDCG,
TO_L@ FG@M QTLCM\LCA CA TCO_D@LHM, PLHD`DCA
BO@OSOEO TO_L@ UOJ@DEA@M -0 P JHQ`AL @L`LCDV P
@SLeDCL CL IO WABOCQ fASJD! YLAHDJ@D`CAV
ISOCDKALTOJ@M ISOIIAC@CO[ CAFDPBD P IHAJ@OPG]
QJHOPDV] HL_D@ P UDAIAWOCL O@ -0 000 UO -00 000 Tf! h
WCA`LCDVT ISOCDKALTOJ@D, JOOFeALTGT
ISODWPOUD@LHVTD, @ABDT BAB '00 000 Tf UHV
bPGJOBOISO`COEOc ISOIIAC@A, JHLUQL@ IOU]OUD@M J
OJ@OSO_COJ@MN!
2a& propp diaeter,
a& p
D
,
inch
^ABJDTAHMCG[ UDATL@S WLSCA
ISOIIAC@A,
a& p
D
, UN[T
jJ]OUV DW SAWTLSA JD@A :TL\;t UHV ILJBA 205/0 TL\ OC
SAPLC 0!00' UN[TA :0!.) TT;!
oration pereability, d ZSOCDKALTOJ@M IHAJ@A, Tf ?RRLB@DPCAV ISOCDKALTOJ@M IHAJ@A!
Pereable :lea#off; thic#ness, ft ZSOCDKALTAV :IOEHOeANeAV,
DHD Q`AJ@PQNeAV P Q@L`BL;
TOeCOJ@M, RQ@
?@O@ IASATL@S DJIOHMWQL@JV P SAJ`L@L DCULBJA
ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D :BAB dRRLB@DPCAV TOeCOJ@M; D
BA_QeLEOJV BOdRRDKDLC@A Q@L`BD < ISDCDTAV
O@JQ@J@PDL Q@L`BD :DHD TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BD;WA
ISLULHATD ISOCDKALTO[ TOeCOJ@D!
ell radius, ft YAUDQJ JBPA_DCG, RQ@ nQ_LC UHV SAJ`L@A IJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OSA!
ell drainage radius, ft YAUDQJ USLCDSOPACDV
JBPA_DCG, RQ@
nQ_LC UHV OI@DTAHMCOEO UDWA[CA! :nL JHLUQL@
CLUOOKLCDPA@M PA_COJ@M d@OEO IASATL@SA;
Pre-treatent s#in factor aBDC-RAB@OS UO OFSAFO@BD ^O_CO WAUA@M CQHM, IOJBOHMBQ OC CL PHDVL@ CA UDWA[C!
mC DJIOHMWQL@JV @OHMBO P BA`LJ@PL FAWG JSAPCLCDV UHV
SAJ`L@A bBSA@COJ@D QPLHD`LCDVc ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D!
racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ mFG`CO FOHM\L ISOCDKALTO[ PGJO@G! mUDC DW
CADFOHLL BSD@D`LJBD] IASATL@SOP UDWA[CA! pGPOUD@JV
DW DCROSTAKDD O HD@OHOEDD, DHD _L TO_L@ D@LSA@DPCO
BOSSLB@DSOPA@MJV IOHMWOPA@LHLT, `@OFG OCA ISDTLSCO
JOO@PL@J@POPAHA UHDCL @SLeDCG!
Plane strain odulus, E :psi; ^OUQHM IHOJBO[ ULROSTAKDD,
E :psi;
ZO OISLULHLCDN SAPLC TOUQHN CEA, IOULHLCCOTQ CA
LUDCDKQ TDCQJ BPAUSA@ BOdRRDKDLC@A ZQAJJOCA,
( )
2
- n E E ! mC IO`@D SAPLC TOUQHN CEA D
ISDTLSCO PUPOL FOHM\L TOUQHV JUPDEA :PHDVCDL
BOdRRDKDLC@A ZQAJJOCA CLPLHDBO;! fHV @PLSUO[ IOSOUG
OC TO_L@ FG@M SAPLC -0
(
psi :(.)' ^ZA;, UHV SG]HO[ -0
'

psi < :(.)!' ^ZA; DHD TLCM\L!
8lurry inection rate :t$o $ings,
li prop;, bp
oLTI CAECL@ACDV IQHMIG :P UPA
BSGHA, _DUBOJ@M ISOIIAC@;,
FASS5TDC!
oLTI CAECL@ACDV SAJJTA@SDPAL@JV BAB IOJ@OVCCG[! mC
PBHN`AL@ BAB SAFO`QN _DUBOJ@M XYZ, @AB D ISOIIAC@!
fOIOHCD@LHMCG[ ISOIIAC@ ISOJ@O QTLCM\AL@
SAJ`L@CG[ @LTI CAECL@ACDV _DUBOJ@D! oDID`COL
WCA`LCDL SAPCO 00 FASS5TDC :/!, T
0
5TDC;!
"heology, K' :lbf5ft
2
;s
n
YLOHOEDV :SLOHOED`LJBD[
IASATL@S;, K' :RQC@-
JDHA5RQ@
2
;s
n
hOCJDJ@LCKDV SAFO`L[ _DUBOJ@D XYZ :RAB@D`LJBD,
IQHMIG;, IOU`DCVNeL[JV J@LILCCOTQ WABOCQ!
"heology, n' YLOHOEDV :SLOHOED`LJBD[
IASATL@S;, n'
ZOBAWA@LHM @LBQ`LJ@D UHV _DUBOJ@D, IOU`DCVNeL[JV
J@LILCCOTQ WABOCQ!
ea#off coefficient in pereable
layer, ft5in
-52
hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P
ISOCDKALTOT JHOL, RQ@5TDC
-52
y@L`BA WA ISLULHATD ISOCDKALTOEO IHAJ@A J`D@AL@JV
SAPCO[ CQHN, @AB `@O BOEUA O@CO\LCDL PGJO@G @SLeDCG
B TOeCOJ@D ISOCDKALTOEO JHOV PLHDBO, @O BA_QeD[JV
BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD, SAJJ`D@ACCG[ IO d@O[ DJ]OUCO[
PLHD`DCL, CATCOEO CD_L JATO[ DJ]OUCO[ PLHD`DCG!
~JHD IOUOWSLPAL@JV Q@L`BA WA ISLULHATD dRRLB@DPCO[
TOeCOJ@D ISOUQB@DPCOEO IHAJ@A, d@O@ IASATL@S TO_L@
FG@M O@BOSSLB@DSOPAC PTLJ@L J PGJO@O[ @SLeDCG!
8purt loss coefficient, Sp , gal5ft
2
hOdRRDKDLC@ TECOPLCCO[
Q@L`BD, Sp , EAHHOC5RQ@
2
y`D@GPAL@ TECOPLCCQN Q@L`BQ P ISOCDKALTOT JHOL! qA
ISLULHATD ISOCDKALTOEO JHOV TECOPLCCAV Q@L`BA
J`D@AL@JV CQHLPO[ :JT! ISLUGUQeLL ISDTL`ACDL;!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 y )(*@ (^\ @ C*)(*3@ I'
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
2a& possible added proppant
concentration, lb5gallon neat
fluid
^ABJDTAHMCAV BOCKLC@SAKDV
UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A,
RQC@-TAJJA5EAHHOC `DJ@O[
_DUBOJ@D
nADFOHLL PA_COL OESACD`LCDL OFOSQUOPACDV! nLBO@OSGL
JOPSLTLCCGL JTLJD@LHD TOEQ@ OFLJIL`DPA@M
BOCKLC@SAKDD PG\L -' RQC@5EAHHOC `DJ@O[ _DUBOJ@D
:-.00 BE5T
0
;!
2ultiply opt length by factor ZOTCO_D@M OI@DTAHMCQN
UHDCQ CA BOdRRDKDLC@
?@O@ IASATL@S UDWA[CA TO_L@ FG@M DJIOHMWOPAC UHV
ISDCQUD@LHMCOEO JQFOI@DTAHMCOEO :BPAWDOI@DTAHMCOEO;
ISOLB@DSOPACDV! ~JHD PG CA]OUD@L, `@O OI@DTAHMCAV
UHDCA JHD\BOT TAHA :\DSDCA @SLeDCG JHD\BOT
PLHDBA;, @O DJIOHMWQL@JV WCA`LCDL FOHM\L LUDCDKG!
~JHD OI@DTAHMCAV UHDCA JHD\BOT PLHDBA :\DSDCA
@SLeDCG JHD\BOT TAHA;, TO_CO DJIOHMWOPA@M WCA`LCDL
TLCM\L LUDCDKG! ?@A POWTO_COJ@M PTL\A@LHMJ@PA
IOHMWOPA@LHV O`LCM QUOFCA UHV DJJHLUOPACDV PJL] WA D
ISO@DP O@]OUA O@ @L]CD`LJBOEO OI@DTQTA! qCA`LCDL IO
QTOH`ACDN SAPCO -! aT! UOIOHCD@LHMCQN DCROSTAKDN
IO d@OTQ POISOJQ P @LBJ@L EHAPG .!
2ultiply 9olte pad by factor ZOTCO_D@M IOUQ\BQ IO
nOHM@L CA BOdRRDKDLC@
aOEHAJCO ISLUIOHO_LCDN nOHM@L, IOBAWA@LHM J@LILCD P
ESARDBL BOCKLC@SAKDD ISOIIAC@A D UOHV IOUQ\BD
:O@COJD@LHMCO OFeLEO CAECL@LCCOEO OFgLTA; DWCA`AHMCO
ISDCDTAN@JV SAPCGTD :@O LJ@M ISLUJ@APHLCG
WCA`LCDVTD IO QTOH`ACDN, SAPCGTD -;! pPOU WCA`LCDV,
O@HD`COEO O@ -, ISDPOUD@ JOO@PL@J@PLCCO B QPLHD`LCDN
DHD QTLCM\LCDN UOHD IOUQ\BD! ZSOESATTA
BOSSLB@DSQL@ ESARDB UOFAPBD ISOIIAC@A, `@OFG
EASAC@DSOPA@M, `@O FQUL@ CAECL@LCO @SLFQLTOL
BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A!
fOIOHCD@LHMCGL PPOUDTGL IASATL@SG, @SLFQNeDLJV P JILKDAHMCG] JHQ`AV] UDWA[CA IO
@L]COHOEDD BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV DHD SAJ`L@OP IO WABOCAT TL]ACDBD SAWSQ\LCDV JIHO\CO[
JSLUG!
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
*8O criterion dry5$et hSD@LSD[ BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV, dry5$et
:PLJ JQ]O[ 5 PLJ TOBSG[;
qAUAL@ O@CO\LCDL JQ]OEO PLJA :BOEUA P @SLeDCL OJ@AL@JV
@OHMBO OFLWPO_LCCG[ ISOIIAC@; B TOBSOTQ PLJQ
:UDCATD`LJBD UOJ@DEALTOTQ PO PSLTV WABA`BD;, OC
CQ_LC @OHMBO UHV UDWA[CA XYZ IO @L]COHOEDD BOCKLPOEO
dBSACDSOPACDV :*8O;! aOEHAJCO CA\LTQ UOIQeLCDN,
BOCKLPOL dBSACDSOPACDL ISODJ]OUD@, BOEUA O@CO\LCDL
JQ]OEO PLJA B TOBSOTQ UOJ@DEAL@ PLHD`DCG, WAUACCO[
IOHMWOPA@LHLT! ^G ISLUHAEALT JCA`AHA DJIOHMWOPA@M
`DJHO TL_UQ 0!' D 0!,', CO WA@LT d@O `DJHO JHLUQL@
Q@O`CD@M DJ]OUV DW TLJ@CG] QJHOPD[, OJCOPGPAVJM CA
QJIL\CG] XYZ IO @L]COHOEDD BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV!
Closure pressure, psi fAPHLCDL JTGBACDV, psi fAPHLCDL JTGBACDV @SLeDCG UOH_CO WAUAPA@MJV UHV
UDWA[CA P9-C2, @OEUA BAB @SAUDKDOCCG[ UDWA[C
P9 D UDWA[C P9-*8O OJCOPACG CA dRRLB@DPCG]
UAPHLCDV]! nAISDTLS, CA TOULHM JBOSOJ@D
SAJISOJ@SACLCDV @SLeDCG IO Continuu aage
2echanics :^L]ACDBL YAWSQ\LCDV aIHO\CO[ aSLUG;
PHDVL@ AFJOHN@COL WCA`LCDL CADTLCM\LEO EHAPCOEO
CAISV_LCDV!
C2 Cl
2
, ft
2
5:psi-sec; C2 Cl
2
,
RQ@
2
5:psi-JLB;
?@O@ BOTFDCDSOPACCG[ IASATL@S TL]ACDBD SAWSQ\LCDV
JIHO\CO[ JSLUG :PTLJ@L J UAPHLCDLT JTGBACDV
@SLeDCG; PHDVL@ CA JBOSOJ@M SAJISOJ@SACLCDV
@SLeDCG! ~JHD d@A PLHD`DCA FOHM\AV :CAISDTLS,
IOSVUBA -;, SAJISOJ@SACLCDL @SLeDCG CL WATLUHVL@JVt
IO JQ@D ULHA, TOULHM PLUL@ JLFV BAB @SAUDKDOCCAV
TOULHM P9! hOEUA d@O WCA`LCDL O@COJD@LHMCO TAHO,
@ABOL BAB 0!0- RQ@
2
5:psi-JLB;, SAJISOJ@SACLCDL @SLeDCG
WATLUHLCO! oSLFQL@JV FOHM\L PSLTLCD, `@OFG OCA
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 y )(*@ (^\ @ C*)(*3@ I'
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
UOJ@DEHA WAUACCO[ UHDCG, A LL \DSDCA D dRRLB@DPCOL
UAPHLCDL FOHM\L, `LT SAJJ`D@ACCOL IO @SAUDKDOCCO[
TOULHD P9! ?@O@ IASATL@S UDWA[CA TO_L@ FG@M OKLCLC
IQ@LT IOUEOCBD dRRLB@DPCOEO UAPHLCDV, ISOVPDP\LEOJV
ISD ISOPLULCDD TDCD-XYZ!
2AAOJ62QQMN NL:DP626M
YLWQHM@A@G PBHN`AN@ D UL@AHD e SAWTLeLCDV! ^O_CO
DTL@M DHD CL DTL@M POWTO_COJ@D UOJ@D`M @L]CD`LJBD OI@DTAHMCG] SAWTLSOP @SLeDCG, P
WAPDJDTOJ@D O@ OISLULHLCCG] OESACD`LCD[ :CAISDTLS, TABJDTAHMCO[ BOCKLC@SAKDD ISOIIAC@A;! p
dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKL IOVPHVL@JV JOOFeLCDL BSAJCGT _DSCGT \SDR@OT, QBAWGPANeLL, BOEUA
OI@DTAHMCGL SAWTLSG @SLeDCG CL TOEQ@ FG@M UOJ@DECQ@G!
mJCOPCGL ]ASAB@LSDJ@DBD @SLeDCG, @ABDL BAB IOHQUHDCA, JSLUCVV \DSDCA D IHOeAUCAV
BOCKLC@SAKDV ISOIIAC@A, OISLULHVN@ SAFO`DL ]ASAB@LSDJ@DBD JBPA_DCG, OFSAFO@ACCO[
EDUSOSAWSGPOT! ZOBAWA@LHD SAFO@G @SLeDCG UAN@JV P PDUL FLWSAWTLSCOEO DCULBJA ISOUQB@DPCOJ@D D
IJLPUOJBDC-RAB@OSA IOJHL OFSAFO@BD IHAJ@A!
aOOFeAN@JV BQTQHV@DPCGL OFgLTG _DUBOJ@D D ISOIIAC@A! oLTIG CAECL@ACDV SAFO`L[
_DUBOJ@D D BOCKLC@SAKDV UOFAPHVLTOEO ISOIIAC@A ISLUJ@APHVN@JV P RQCBKDD PSLTLCD!
YLWQHM@A@G PBHN`AN@ JHLUQNeLL4
+[3[ C*)(* '*)X)
t, in :TDC; pSLTV, ISO\LU\LL J CA`AHA WABA`BD
ili, bp :FASS5TDC; oLTI CAECL@ACDV _DUBOJ@D :UHV UPQ] BSGHMLP;
cu li, gal :EAHHOC; nABOIHLCCG[ OFgLT _DUBOJ@D, CAECL@LCCO[ UO TOTLC@A PSLTLCD t
cadd, lb5gal :RQC@ TAJJG5EAHHOC; ZSOIIAC@, UOFAPHVLTG[ B OUCOTQ EAHHOCQ _DUBOJ@D, DCGTD JHOPATD < RQC@
UOFAPBD CA EAHHOC
cu prop, lb :RQC@ TAJJG; nABOIHLCCOL BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A, CAECL@LCCOL UO TOTLC@A PSLTLCD t
xf , ft :RQ@; ZOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG P TOTLC@ PSLTLCD t
wave , in! :UN[T; aSLUCVV \DSDCA @SLeDCG P TOTLC@ PSLTLCD t
wave 5 Dpmx m@CO\LCDL JSLUCL[ \DSDCG @SLeDCG B TABJDTAHMCOTQ UDATL@SQ WLSLC
ISOIIAC@A, UOH_CO FG@M CL TLCM\L 0
wdrv 5 wwet m@CO\LCDL JQ]O[ \DSDCG B TOBSO[ \DSDCL @SLeDCG! pO PSLTV CAECL@ACDV
TOBSAV \DSDCA P 2|-0 SAW FOHM\L JQ]O[ \DSDCG, BO@OSAV FGHA FG CLOF]OUDTA,
`@OFG JOULS_A@M @O _L JATOL BOHD`LJ@PO ISOIIAC@A :FLW BABO[-HDFO _DUBOJ@D D
IHO@CO QIABOPACCOEO;! i@OFG DWFL_A@M WABQIOSBD @SLeDCG PO PSLTV SAFO@G,
d@O@ IASATL@S UOH_LC DTL@M O@COJD@LHMCO CDWBOL WCA`LCDL :CAIS!, 0!2;!
hOCKLPOL dBSACDSOPACDL P PLSJDD dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKG UHV @L]COHOEDD *8O
:BOCKLPOEO dBSACDSOPACDV; ROSTQHDSQL@JV P @LSTDCA] d@O[ ILSLTLCCO[!
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 N )(*@ (^\ @ ;**Y*[3
1
L)-1+"4 +"5)" %)4 .'%"&#!"
1&cel - dHLB@SOCCAV @AFHDKA 2 ISLUJ@APHVL@ JOFO[ IABL@ UHV OKLCBD TDCDEDUSOSAWSGPA
:TDCDRSABA; :BAHDFSOPO`COEO DJIG@ACDV;! ~L OJCOPCOL CAWCA`LCDL < DWPHL`M BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD DW
UACCG] JIAUA UAPHLCDV!
mCA JOULS_D@ JHLUQNeDL SAFO`DL HDJ@G4
lCAHDW IO TOULHD P9, TL@OU nOHM@L-rHVIOFLSJBOEO!
lCAHDW IO TOULHD w, TL@OU nOHM@L-rHVIOFLSJBOEO!
lCAHDW IO SAUDAHMCO[ TOULHD, TL@OU nOHM@L-rHVIOFLSJBOEO!
lCAHDW IO TOULHD P9-C2, PBHN`ANeD[ OKLCBQ WATLUHLCDV SAJISOJ@SACLCDV @SLeDCG
:P ROSTL IASATL@SA SAWSQ\LCDV JIHO\CO[ JSLUG, Cl
2
;!
mIKDV P9-C2 DJIOHMWQL@ bACOTAHMCO PGJOBOL IHAJ@OPOL UAPHLCDL < lpZfc,
CAFHNUALTOL PO PSLTV TDCD-XYZ, UHV OKLCBD O@BHOCLCDV SAWTLSOP @SLeDCG O@ @SAUDKDOCCO[
TOULHD P9! fHV TOULHD w D SAUDAHMCO[ TOULHD OIKDD C2 :TL]ACDBD SAWSQ\LCDV JIHO\CO[
JSLUG; CL@!
mJCOPCGT SLWQHM@A@OT d@OEO ACAHDWA VPHVL@JV r o ! hA_QeD[JV
BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD OIDJGPAL@ Q@L`BQ O@COJD@LHMCO PJL[ IOPLS]COJ@D JOWUACCO[ @SLeDCG! qA@LT DW
d@OEO re BOdRRDKDLC@A Q@L`BD SAJJ`D@GPAL@JV bDJ@DCCG[c BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD < LEO
WCA`LCDV UL[J@PD@LHMCG @OHMBO UHV ISOCDKALTOEO JHOV, D ULHAL@JV UOIQeLCDL OF O@JQ@J@PDD Q@L`BD
WA ISLULHATD ISOCDKALTOEO JHOV!
p JHQ`AL ACAHDWA C2 OISLULHVL@JV UOIOHCD@LHMCG[ IASATL@S DW blpZfc :@!L!,
UOIOHCD@LHMCOEO dRRLB@DPCOEO UAPHLCDV, POWCDBANeLEO PO PSLTV TDCD-XYZ, BO@OSOL CL TO_L@ FG@M
OFgVJCLCO ISD IOTOeD @SAUDKDOCCO[ TOULHD P9;! ?@O@ UOIOHCD@LHMCG[ IASATL@S ISLUJ@APHVL@
JOFO[ IASATL@S TL]ACDBD SAWSQ\LCDV JIHO\CO[ JSLUG4 Cl
2
, DWTLSVLTG[ P RQ@5:psi-JLB;! ZOHQ`LCCOL
WCA`LCDL TO_L@ FG@M DJIOHMWOPACO P BA`LJ@PL P]OUCOEO IASATL@SA P PLSJDD P 1&cel- dHLB@SOCCO[
@AFHDKG UHV UDWA[CA XYZ!
oLOSDV ACAHDWA TDCD-XYZ < FOHLL BOCBSL@CO, ACAHDW BSDPO[ JIAUA UAPHLCDV < PBHN`LCA P
EHAPQ ,, D WULJM TG CL IOP@OSVLT LL! oO`CLL, d@O ISDHO_LCDL OESACD`DPAL@JV JILKDRD`LJBDT
OIDJACDLT UACCG], @SLFQLTG] UHV 1&cel- dHLB@SOCCO[ @AFHDKG 2, A @AB_L SAJJ`D@GPALTG] LN
SLWQHM@A@OP! fAL@JV @AB_L ISDTLS ISOEOCA ISOESATTG!
6Nl+2QJS B K2QQM
nD_LJHLUQNeAV @AFHDKA JOULS_D@ OIDJACDL OJCOPCG] PPOUDTG] IASATL@SOP!
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
Pereable :lea#off;
thic#ness, ft
ZSOCDKALTAV
:IOEHOeANeAV;
TOeCOJ@M, RQ@
fLHAL@JV UOIQeLCDL, `@O WA ISLULHATD d@O[ IOEHOeANeL[ TOeCOJ@D
Q@L`BA O@JQ@J@PQL@!
racture height, ft pGJO@A @SLeDCG, RQ@ nQ_CA UHV @SAUDKDOCCOEO ACAHDWA IO TOULHVT P9 D w, A @AB_L
UHV ACAHDWA IO TOULHD P9-C2! mCA CL CQ_CA UHV ACAHDWA IO
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 N )(*@ (^\ @ ;**Y*[3
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
SAUDAHMCO[ TOULHD!
Plane strain odulus, E
:psi;
^OUQHM IHOJBO[
ULROSTAKDD, E :psi;
mISLULHVL@JV BAB TOUQHM CEA, IOULHLCCG[ CA LUDCDKQ TDCQJ
BPAUSA@ BOdRRDKDLC@A ZQAJJOCA! ~EO PLHD`DCA FHDWBA B PLHD`DCL
TOUQHV CEA D ISDTLSCO PUPOL PG\L, `LT TOUQHM JUPDEA!
Closure pressure, psi fAPHLCDL JTGBACDV
:@SLeDCG;, psi
pHDVL@ CA BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P JHQ`AL TOULHD w D SAUDAHMCO[
TOULHD, CO CL P JHQ`AL TOULHD P9! pHDVL@ @AB_L CA IASATL@S C2!
"heology, K :lbf5ft
2
;s
n
> YLOHOEDV :SLOHOED`LJBD[
IASATL@S;, K :RQC@-
TAJJA5RQ@
2
;s
n
>
jCULBJ BOCJDJ@LCKDD UHV _DUBOJ@D, IOU`DCVNeL[JV J@LILCCOTQ
WABOCQ! nL_LC @OHMBO UHV ACAHDWA IO TOULHD C2!
"heology, n YLOHOEDV :SLOHOED`LJBD[
IASATL@S;, n
ZOBAWA@LHM @LBQ`LJ@D UHV _DUBOJ@D, IOU`DCVNeL[JV J@LILCCOTQ
WABOCQ! nL_LC @OHMBO UHV ACAHDWA IO TOULHD C2!
nQ_CG JHLUQNeDL PPOUDTGL UACCGL P @AFHD`COT PDUL4
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
t, in t, TDC pSLTV, ISO\LU\LL J CA`AHA WABA`BD!
ili, bp ili, FASS5TDC oLTI CAECL@ACDV _DUBOJ@D :UHV UPQ] BSGHMLP, UL[J@PD@LHLC CA WAFOL
JBPA_DCG P UACCG[ TOTLC@ PSLTLCD;!
%ottohole pressure, psi qAFO[COL UAPHLCDL, psi oSLFQL@JV @OHMBO UHV ILSDOUA WABSG@DV JBPA_DCG CA QJ@ML, CO TO_L@
@AB_L WAUAPA@MJV D UHV ILSDOUA CAECL@ACDV! ZOJHLUCLL WCA`LCDL P
@L`LCDL ILSDOUA CAECL@ACDV DJIOHMWQL@JV UHV BAHDFSOPBD IASATL@SA
C2 IO blpZfc !
Include into in vol pBHN`D@M P OFgLT
CAECL@ACDV
jCUDBA@OS RHAEA, BO@OSG[ UOH_LC FG@M QJ@ACOPHLC CA b-c UHV PJL]
@O`LB UACCG] :PO PSLTV ILSDOUA CAECL@ACDV;, `@OFG OCD FGHD
PBHN`LCG P OFgLT CAECL@ACDV! ?@O@ RHAE QJ@ACAPHDPAL@JV CA b0c P
@L`LCDL ILSDOUA WABSG@DV JBPA_DCG!
Include into g-func fit pBHN`D@M P
AIISOBJDTAKDN g-
RQCBKDD
jCUDBA@OS RHAEA, BO@OSG[ UOH_LC FG@M QJ@ACOPHLC CA b-c UHV PJL]
@O`LB UACCG], BO@OSGL UOH_CG FG@M PBHN`LCG P AIISOBJDTAKDN
ISVTO[ HDCDL[ :KLHLPAV RQCBKDV, IOHQ`ALTAV TL@OUOT CADTLCM\D]
BPAUSA@OP; UACCG] JIAUA UAPHLCDV P WABSG@O[ JBPA_DCL!
ZSDTL`ACDL4 oO`BD UACCG], WASLEDJ@SDSOPACCGL IOJHL JTGBACDV
@SLeDCG, CL PBHN`AN@JV AP@OTA@D`LJBD P AIISOBJDTAKDN, UA_L
LJHD RHAE QJ@ACOPHLC CA b-c!
NL:DP626M
nADFOHLL PA_CGT SLWQHM@A@OT VPHVL@JV BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD! ZSOESATTA CA]OUD@ r
BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD, CL SAWHD`AV ISOCDKALTGL D CLISOCDKALTGL IHAJ@G! bjJ@DCCG[c BOdRRDKDLC@
Q@L`BD IOHQ`AN@ IQ@LT O@CLJLCDV PJL[ Q@L`BD @OHMBO B ISOCDKALTOTQ IHAJ@Q!
p BA`LJ@PL IOFO`COEO ISOUQB@A, TG IOHQ`ALT SAWTLSG JOWUACCO[ @SLeDCG4 x
f
:DHD R
f
; D w
:@!L!, ISOUOHMCG[ SAWTLS D JSLUCNN \DSDCQ @SLeDCG;! ZOHQ`ALT @AB_L dRRLB@DPCOJ@M
:BOdRRDKDLC@ DJIOHMWOPACDV; _DUBOJ@D :ISDCVP, `@O TECOPLCCO[ Q@L`BO[ TO_CO ISLCLFSL`M;!
YLWQHM@A@G PBHN`AN@4
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
Apparent lea#off
coefficient :for total area;,
ft5in
0
!
'
hA_QeD[JV BOdRRDKDLC@
Q@L`BD :UHV PJL[
IHOeAUD;, RQ@5TDC
0!'
!
^O_L@ SAJJTA@SDPA@MJV BAB JSLUCLPWPL\LCCAV PLHD`DCA
IOHO_D@LHMCOEO BOdRRDKDLC@A Q@L`BD ISOCDKALTOEO JHOV D
CQHLPOEO BOdRRDKDLC@A r!
ea#off coefficient in
pereable layer, ft5in
0
!
'
hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P
ISOCDKALTOT JHOL,
RQ@5TDC
0!'
!
ZOHO_D@LHMCAV PLHD`DCA! hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD WA ISLULHATD
ISOCDKALTOEO JHOV J`D@AL@JV CQHLPGT!
=alf length, ft ZOHQUHDCA, RQ@ ZOHQUHDCA @SLeDCG, UHV TOULHL[ P9 D w!
"adius, ft YAUDQJ, RQ@ YAUDQJ @SLeDCG, UHV SAUDAHMCO[ TOULHD!
1fficiency :fraction; ?RRLB@DPCOJ@M :UHD
LUDCDKG;
?RRLB@DPCOJ@M :BOdRRDKDLC@ DJIOHMWOPACDV; SAFO`L[ _DUBOJ@D
XYZ, UHV PJL] TOULHL[!
C2 Cl
2
, C2 Cl
2
, hOTFDCDSOPACCG[ IASATL@S C2 :TL]ACDBD SAWSQ\LCDV JIHO\CO[
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 N )(*@ (^\ @ ;**Y*[3
+3[ C*)(*
'*)X)
+ c)(* (^\) ')*)3
ft
2
5:psi-sec; RQ@
2
5:psi-JLB; JSLUG;! pTLJ@L J UAPHLCDLT JTGBACDV OC PHDVL@ CA JBOSOJ@M
SAJISOJ@SACLCDV @SLeDCG! ~JHD WCA`LCDL PLHDBO :CAISDTLS, IOSVUBA
-;, SAJISOJ@SACLCDL @SLeDCG CL WATLUHLCOt IO JQ@D ULHA, TOULHM
PLUL@ JLFV BAB @SAUDKDOCCAV TOULHM P9! hOEUA WCA`LCDL
O@COJD@LHMCO TAHO, @ABOL BAB 0!0- RQ@
2
5:psi-JLB;, SAJISOJ@SACLCDL
@SLeDCG WATLUHLCO! ~[ @SLFQL@JV FOHM\L PSLTLCD UHV UOJ@D_LCDV
WAUACCO[ UHDCG, A \DSDCA D dRRLB@DPCOL UAPHLCDL FOHM\L, `LT
SAJJ`D@ACCGL IO @SAUDKDOCCO[ TOULHD P9! ?@O@ IASATL@S
PGPOUD@JV DW TABJDTAHMCOEO UAPHLCDV, DTLP\LEO TLJ@O PO PSLTV
TDCD-XYZ!
'JN 'IQ2
nD_L JHLUQL@ ISDTLS @SAUDKDOCCOEO ACAHDWA TDCD-XYZ IO SAUDAHMCO[ TOULHD, `@OFG UA@M
`D@A@LHN JHLEBA IO`QPJ@POPA@M, BAB SAFO@AL@ 1&cel- dHLB@SOCCAV @AFHDKA 2!
+3
Pereable :lea#off; thic#ness, ft ZSOCDKALTAV :IOEHOeANeAV; TOeCOJ@M, RQ@ :T; /2 :-2!.;
Plane strain odulus, E :psi; ^OUQHM IHOJBO[ ULROSTAKDD, E, psi :^ZA; 2!0010( :-0 ,.)!';
Closure Pressure, psi fAPHLCDL JTGBACDV, psi :^ZA; '.'0 :/0!00;
6^X[ 33
! #, /"
$, "/
/" , 0F> !G# "H
$
!G#
G IJ
%
0!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
-!0 )!) 0!0 l 0
2!0 )!) 0!0 l 0
0!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
/!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
'!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
(!0 )!) 0!0 l 0
,!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
.!0 )!) 0!0 l 0
)!0 )!) 0,0 - 0
-0!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
-2!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
-/!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
-(!0 )!) 0!0 l 0
-.!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
20!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
2-!0 )!) 0!0 - 0
2-!' )!) 0!0 - 0
2-!. )!) 0!0 - 0
2-!)' 0!0 ,''0!(2 0 0
22!-' 0!0 ,000!') 0 0
22!0' 0!0 ,-22!0( 0 0
22!'' 0!0 ()(0!2- 0 -
22!,' 0!0 (.00!0) 0 -
22!)' 0!0 (,--!20 0 -
20!-' 0!0 (')'!02 0 -
20!0' 0!0 (/)0t/, 0 -
20!'' 0!0 (/--!.' 0 -
20!,' 0!0 (0/,!-2 0 -
:d\*3[ Y I' '*5 N )(*@ (^\ @ ;**Y*[3
6^X[ 33
20!)' 0!0 (2)-!'- 0 -
2/!-' 0!0 (20.!/0 0 -
2/!0' 0!0 (-.'!.' 0 -
2/!'' 0!0 (-0'!(- 0 -
2/!,' 0!0 (0)0!(- 0 -
2/!)' 0!0 (0'2!0( 0 -
2'!-' 0!0 (0-.!(- 0 -
2'!0' 0!0 ').,!/' 0 -
2'!'' 0!0 ')'(!/2 0 -
2'!,' 0!0 ')2'!/' 0 -
2'!)' 0!0 '.)(!,, 0 -
2(!-' 0!0 '.,0!'/ 0 -
2(!0' 0!0 '.',!.' 0 0
2(!'' 0!0 './)!2) 0 0
2(!,' 0!0 './/!.- 0 0
2(!)' 0!0 '.0)!), 0 0
2,!-' 0!0 '.00!). 0 0
2,!0' 0!0 '.-(!0 0 0
2,!'' 0!0 ',),!0- 0 0
2,!,' 0!0 ',,'!(, 0 0
+[3
8lope, psi yEHOPO[ BOdRRDKDLC@, psi :^ZA; |//-, :|00!/'/;
Intercept, psi m@JLBALTG[ O@SLWOB CA OJD, psi -0-'- :)0!(,0;
Inected volue, gallon nAECL@LCCG[ OFgLT, EAHHOC )0// :0/!2/;
rac radius, ft YAUDQJ @SLeDCG, RQ@ 0)!(0 :-2!0,;
Average $idth, inch aSLUCVV \DSDCA, UN[T :TT; 0!/)20' :-2!/).;
luid efficiency ?RRLB@DPCOJ@M _DUBOJ@D 0!-(,0.
Apparent lea#off coefficient :for total area;,
ft5in
0!'
hA_QeD[JV BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD :UHV PJL[
IHOeAUD;, RQ@5TDC
0!'
:JT5TDC
0!'
;
0!0-')2 :0!/.'2/;
ea#off coefficient in pereable layer, ft5in
0!'
hOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD P ISOCDKALTOT IHAJ@L,
RQ@5TDC
0!'
:JT5TDC
0!'
;
0!02/,) :0!,,'(0;
m@TL@M@L, `@O BOdRRDKDLC@ Q@L`BD O@COJD@LHMCO ISOCDKALTOEO IHAJ@A FOHM\L BA_QeLEOJV
WCA`LCDV, @AB BAB `AJ@M SAUDQJA @SLeDCG, SAPCOEO 0)!( RQ@OP :-2!- T; PG]OUD@ WA ISLULHG
ISOCDKALTOEO IHAJ@A!

C5B-(4+#- .-+%1 .# 1+)4


1"6-*+!"
'D2QJ+2QJN/ +M'DQNQJN 2l6 J 6ON6QA6P 'ADN '+NKNQJS 2l6
oSAUDKDOCCAV OILSAKDV IO OFSAFO@BL IHAJ@A TL@OUOT EDUSOSAWSGPA ISO]OUD@ JHLUQNeDL \AED4
jC_LCLS IO OILSAKDVT5UOFG`L P CLR@LEAWOUOFGPANeL[ BOTIACDD CATL`AL@ JBPA_DCQ-BACUDUA@
:BACUDUA@G; UHV J@DTQHVKDD CA OJCOPL OFeD] UOIQeLCD[ O @DIL D SAWTLSL OFSAFO@BD D
SLWQHM@A@A] UOFG`D, BO@OSGL TO_CO O_DUA@M! :DC_LCLSG JLSPDJCG] BOTIACD[ PJz FOHM\L D
FOHM\L ILSL]PA@GPAN@ DCDKDA@DPQ P DULC@DRDBAKDD JBPA_DC-BACUDUA@OP CA J@DTQHVKDNt
ISD`LT, ILSPG[ _L D] \AE < d@O ISLUJ@APHLCDL SLBOTLCUAKD[ CLR@LEAWOUOFGPANeL[ BOTIACDD!;
ZSLUJ@APD@LHM CLR@LEAWOUOFGPANeL[ BOTIACDD PJ@SL`AL@JV J DC_LCLSOT IO
J@DTQHVKDD5ISOUA_AT P JLSPDJCO[ BOTIACDD, JOOFeAV KLHD OFSAFO@BD D OFJQ_UAV JILKDRDBQ
OFSAFO@BD! p d@O _L PSLTV OFJQ_UAL@JV @AB_L TDCD-RSAB :TDCD-XYZ;, DHD UA@A-RSAB
:CAWGPALTG[ @AB, IO@OTQ `@O OC ISOLB@DSQL@JV UHV JFOSA UACCG], DJIOHMWQLTG] P OI@DTDWAKDD
OJCOPCOEO XYZ;!
ZSLUJ@APD@LHM JLSPDJCO[ BOTIACDD ISOLB@DSQL@ D PGUAL@ SLBOTLCUAKDD IO PGIOHCLCDN TDCD-
RSABA D OJCOPCOEO XYZ! pJHLU WA UOIOHCD@LHMCGTD UDJBQJJDVTD D, POWTO_CO, CLBO@OSGTD
TOUDRDBAKDVTD, IOUEO@APHDPAN@JV ESARDB WABA`BD D SAJKLCBD!
jC_LCLS IO OILSAKDVT IOUEO@APHDPAL@ ISOESATTQ :ESARDB; hYa, BO@OSO[ UOH_LC JHLUOPA@M
IOHLPO[ ILSJOCAH BOTIACDD P IOUEO@OPBL JBPA_DCG B OFSAFO@BL! oABAV ISOKLUQSA TO_L@,
CAISDTLS, PBHN`A@M QBAWACDV bWAEHQ\D@Mc D O`DJ@D@M JBPA_DCQ, QUAHD@M CAJOJCO-BOTISLJJOSCQN
BOHOCCQ D WATLCD@M ROC@ACCQN ASTA@QSQ CA BHAIAC XYZ DHD CA QJ@SO[J@PO WAeD@G PCQ@SLCCL[
IOHOJ@D ROC@ACCO[ ASTA@QSG O@ PGJOBD] UAPHLCD[ D AESLJJDPCG] _DUBOJ@L[! ZSDTLS ISOESATTG
ISLUJ@APHLC BAB ZSDHO_LCDL w!
ZSLUJ@APD@LHM JLSPDJCO[ BOTIACDD ISDLW_AL@ CA JBPA_DCQ, `@OFG OISLULHD@M HQ`\D[ JIOJOF
BAB bSAWTLJ@D@Mc OFOSQUOPACDL! ZLSPGTD PJLEUA SAWTLeAN@ LTBOJ@D XYZ! nL @OHMBO IO@OTQ, `@O
OCD RDWD`LJBD WACDTAN@ TLJ@O, CO UHV CD] CQ_CO PSLTV IOUEO@OPBD, P @OT JTGJHL, `@O D]
CLOF]OUDTO WAIOHCD@M POUO[! p d@O _L PSLTV IOUEO@APHDPAL@JV dJBDWCAV J]LTA TLJ@A ISOPLULCDV
SAFO@!
ZOHLPO[ TLCLU_LS JLSPDJCO[ BOTIACDD \AE WA \AEOT ACAHDWDSQL@ IHAC-ESARDB OFSAFO@BD D
WABA`BD, SAJIDJGPAV ILSL`LCM OFOSQUOPACDV, TA@LSDAHOP D ILSJOCAHA, BO@OSGL IO@SLFQN@JV UHV
PGIOHCLCDV SAFO@! :ZSDTLS BOC@SOHMCOEO ILSL`CV ISDPLULC P BOCKL d@OEO ISDHO_LCDV!;
m@JHL_DPAN@, EUL PWV@M CQ_CGL TA@LSDAHG < JO JBHAUA BOTIACDD DHD DW USQED] TLJ@! qA@LT
JOJ@APHVN@ ESARDB SAFO@G @SLFQLTOEO ILSJOCAHA, Q`D@GPAV TABJDTAHMCOL BOHD`LJ@PO `AJOP,
BO@OSGL TO_L@ SAFO@A@M UACCG[ POUD@LHM DHD OILSA@OS :DJ]OUV DW SAWHD`CG] OESACD`LCD[,
QJ@ACOPHLCCG] WABOCOUA@LHMJ@POT DHD PCQ@SLCCDTD ISAPDHATD;! ZSDCDTAL@JV PO PCDTACDL @O@
RAB@, `@O SAFO@G TOEQ@ ISOUHD@MJV UOHM\L, `LT WAIHACDSOPACO! fA@A-RSAB :TDCD-XYZ UHV JFOSA
UACCG]; UOH_LC FG@M WABA`AC CLIOJSLUJ@PLCCO ILSLU OJCOPCGT XYZ DHD WA ULCM UO CLEO, P
WAPDJDTOJ@D O@ SAWTLSA :ISOUOH_D@LHMCOJ@D WABA`BD; OJCOPCOEO XYZ!
V8 028 06C .3. ?13AT4 01 @-124046.C -8?15K ~TBOJ@D XYZ ISDPOWV@ CA TLJ@O ISOPLULCDV SAFO@,
SAJJ@ACAPHDPAN@ D WAIOHCVN@ POUO[ :d@O OSEACDWQL@ HDFO JLSPDJCAV, HDFO UOFGPANeAV
BOTIACDV;! pOUA @LJ@DSQL@JV5ACAHDWDSQL@JV, `@OFG QFLUD@MJV, `@O OCA O@PL`AL@ @SLFOPACDVT
COSTA@DPOP!
V8 046A 01 @-124046.C -8?15K qA@POSVL@JV CLFOHM\O[ OFSAWLK ISLUIDJACCOEO ELHV < _LHA@LHMCO
CA POUL DW LTBOJ@L[ XYZ < D DJIG@GPAL@JV! mFSAWKG UOFGPALTG] JBPA_DCCG] RHNDUOP
DJIG@GPAN@JV CA JOPTLJ@DTOJ@M J SAFO`DTD _DUBOJ@VTD XYZ D PJLTD UOFAPBATD, BO@OSGL FQUQ@
DJIOHMWOPA@MJV ISD OFSAFO@BL! ZSD CLOF]OUDTOJ@D PCOJV@JV DWTLCLCDV P JILKDRDBAKDN
_DUBOJ@L[!
ZOHLPO[ TLCLU_LS JLSPDJCO[ BOTIACDD JOFDSAL@ O@SVU XYZt OC ULHAL@ OFWOS ISOKLUQSG SAFO@ IO
XYZ, SAJJ@ACOPBQ ILSJOCAHA CA TOC@A_L OFOSQUOPACDV D CA OJCOPCOT XYZ, UAL@ QBAWACDV
O@COJD@LHMCO TLJ@A ISOPLULCDV SAFO@ D @SLFOPACD[ @L]CDBD FLWOIAJCOJ@D!
V8 046A 01 @-124046.C -8?15 W 2 046A @-124046.C -8?15K nA`AHMCDB O@SVUA XYZ SQBOPOUD@
SAJJ@ACOPBO[ D TOC@A_OT OFOSQUOPACDV CA TLJ@L ISOPLULCDV SAFO@! mC QFL_UAL@JV, `@O PJL
JOLUDCLCDV JULHACG ISAPDHMCO, `@O WAIOSCGL BHAIACG QJ@ACOPHLCG BAB CAUO :ISAPO[ J@OSOCO[
PPLS], J@SLHBA QBAWGPAL@ P J@OSOCQ JBPA_DCG;, D `@O PJz BOC@SOHMCO-DWTLSD@LHMCOL OFOSQUOPACDL
QJ@ACOPHLCO D RQCBKDOCDSQL@ UOH_CGT OFSAWOT! fHV ISODWPOUJ@PA BSQICOOFgLTCG] XYZ
OFOSQUOPACDL TOC@DSQL@JV P ISLUGUQeD[ ULCM ILSLU JATO[ SAFO@O[, `@OFG JFLSL`M JPL@OPO[ ULCM
:P ULCM JOFJ@PLCCO ISOPLULCDV SAFO@; UHV SAFO@ J PGJOBDT UAPHLCDLT!
046A 2J@13646.C -8?15K nA`AHMCDB O@SVUA JPLSVL@ BOC@SOHMCGL POISOJCDBD ILSLU
ISOPLULCDLT SAFO@, IOU@PLS_UAL@ OFgLT ]DTSLAELC@OP D ISOIIAC@A CA TLJ@L SAFO@, A @AB_L
OFTLSVL@ PJL LTBOJ@D! ZSODWPOUD@JV JD@OPG[ ACAHDW ISOIIAC@A, SLWQHM@A@G RDBJDSQN@JV P
JOO@PL@J@PQNeLT FHACBL! ~JHD UOH_CA ISDTLCV@MJV BDJHO@A, WAIOHCVL@JV BOC@SOHMCG[ FHACB
BA`LJ@PA BDJHO@G, BQUA WACOJV@JV SAJ`L@G IO SAWFAPHLCDN! aQILSPA[WOS @LILSM IO`@D EO@OP
CA`A@M SAFO@G!
nA`AHMCDB O@SVUA XYZ CA]OUD@ O@PL@J@PLCCOEO ISLUJ@APD@LHV O@ CLR@LEAWOUOFGPANeL[
BOTIACDD!
}DTDB IO BOC@SOHN D OFLJIL`LCDN BA`LJ@PA ULHAL@ OBOC`A@LHMCGL ACAHDWG OFSAWKOP POUG D
ELHV, D WAIOHCVL@ ROSTQ WA@POSLCDV SAFO`L[ _DUBOJ@D XYZ D BOC@SOHV BA`LJ@PA! ZSOPOUV@JV
DJIG@ACDV ULJ@SQB@OSA, SLWQHM@A@G RDBJDSQN@JV P JOO@PL@J@PQNeLT FHACBL! fHV WABAW`DBA
JO]SACVN@ CLFOHM\DL OFSAWKG!
V8E3D9.543A614 >124=86.4 @1 54S6.E4 ?4;1@8>61>5. @4-40 @-124046.4< -8?15K nA`AHMCDB
O@SVUA JOFDSAL@ PLJM ILSJOCAH, ISDJQ@J@PQNeD[ CA JBPA_DCL :PBHN`AV JPO[ O@SVU, ILSJOCAH
UOFGPANeL[ BOTIACDD D USQED]; D ULHAL@ SAWFOSBQ ISODWPOUJ@PA SAFO@4
YAJISLULHVL@ OFVWACCOJ@D, OFJQ_UAV HNFGL CLJ@ACUAS@CGL ]ASAB@LSDJ@DBD D ISOKLUQSG SAFO@
D TABJDTAHMCGL UAPHLCDV WABA`BD!
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