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H. PTARD, Princeton, New Jere!
This little known mathematical discipline has not, of recent years, received in the literature the
attention which, in our opinion, it deserves. In the present paper we present some algorithms which,
it is hoped, may be of interest to other workers in the field. Neglecting the more obviously trivial
methods, we shall confine our attention to those which involve significant applications of ideas
familiar to mathematicians and physicists.
The present time is particularly fitting for the preparation of an account of the subject, since recent
advances both in pure mathematics and in theoretical physics have made available powerful tools
whose very existence was unsuspected by earlier investigators. At the same time, some of the more
elegant classical methods acuire new significance in the light of modern discoveries. !ike many
other branches of knowledge to which mathematical techniues have been applied in recent years,
the "athematical Theory of #ig $ame %unting has a singularly happy unifying effect on the most
diverse branches of the exact sciences.
&or the sake of simplicity of statement, we shall cofine our attention to !ions 'Felis leo( whose
habitat is the )ahara *esert. The methods which we shall enumerate will easily be seen to be
applicable, with obvious formal modifications, to other carnivores and to other portions of the globe.
The paper is divided into three parts, which draw their material respectively from mathematics,
theoretical physics, and experimental physics.
The author desires to acknowledge his indebtness to the Trivial +lub of )t. ,ohn-s +ollege,
+ambridge, .ngland/ to the ".I.T. chapter of the )ociety for 0seless 1esearch, to the &. o. 2., of
2rinceton 0niversity/ and to numerous individual contributors, known and unknown, conscious and
" ". M#t$e%#tic#& %et$o'
2 T%. %I!#.1T, 31 A4I3"ATI+, ".T%3*. 5e place a locked cage at a given point of the
desert. 5e then introduce the following logical system.
3 A4I3" I. The class of lions in the Sahara Desert is non-void.
A4I3" II. If there is a lion in the Sahara Desert, there is a lion in the cage.
10!. 3& 213+.*01.. If p is a theorem, and "p implies q" is a theorem, then
q is a theorem.
T%.31." I. There is a lion in the cage.
4 T%. ".T%3* 3& IN6.1). $.3".T17. 5e place a spherical cage in the desert, enter it, and
lock it. 5e perform an inversion with respect to the cage. The lion is then in the interior of
the cage, and we are outside.
5 T%. ".T%3* 3& 213,.+TI6. $.3".T17. 5ithout loss of generality, we may regard the
)ahara *esert as a plane. 2roject the plane into a line, and then project the line into an
interior point of the cage. The lion is projected into the same point.
6 T%. #3!8AN395.I.1)T1A)) ".T%3*. #isect the desert by a line running N9). The lion is
either in the . portion or in the 5 portion/ let us suppose him to be in the 5 portion.
#isect the portion by a line running .95. The lion is either in the N portion or in the )
portion/ let us suppose him to be in the N portion. 5e continue this process indefinitely,
constructing a sufficiently strong fence about the chosen portion at each step. The
diameter of the chosen portions approaches :ero, so that the lion is ultimately surrounded
by a fence of arbitrarily small perimeter.
7 T%. ;".N$.NT%.31.TI)+%; ".T%3*. 5e observe that the desert is a separable space. It
therefore contains an enumerable dense set of points, from which can be extracted a
seuence having the lion as limit. 5e then approach the lion stealthily along this seuence,
bearing with us suitable euipment.
8 T%. 2.AN3 ".T%3*. +onstruct, by standard methods, a continuous curve passing through
every point of the desert. It has been remarked'<( that it is possible to traverse such a
curve in an arbitrarily short time. Armed with a spear, we traverse the curve in a time
shorter than in which a lion can move his own length.
9 A T323!3$I+A! ".T%3*. 5e observe that a lion has at least the connectivity of the torus.
5e transport the desert into four9space. It is then possible'=( to carry out such a
deformation that the lion can be returned to three9space in a knotted condition. %e is then
10T%. +A0+%7, 31 &0N+TI3NT%.31.TI+A!, ".T%3*. 5e consider an analytic lion9valued
function f'z(. !et
12where C is the boundary of the desert/ its value is f''>(.
13T%. 5I.N.1 TA0#.1IAN ".T%3*. 5e procure a tame lion, L, of class L'9 , L?@ then
converges to our cage. #y 5iener-s $eneral Tauberian Theorem'A(, any other lion, L 'say(,
will then converge to the same cage. Alternatively, we can approximate arbitrarily closely
to L by translating L about the desert'B(.
"(). Met$o' *ro% t$eoretic#& +$!ic
15T%. *I1A+ ".T%3*. 5e observe that wild lions are, ipso facto, not observable in the )ahara
*esert. +onseuently, if there are any lions in the )ahara, they are tame. The capture of a
tame lion may be left as an exercise for the reader.
16T%. )+%1C*IN$.1 ".T%3*. At any given moment there is a positive probability that there
is a lion in the cage. )it down and wait.
17T%. ".T%3* 3& N0+!.A1 2%7)I+). 2lace a tame lion in the cage, and apply a "ajorana
exchange operator'D( between it and a wild lion.
As a variant, let us suppose, to fix ideas, that we reuire a male lion. 5e place a tame
lioness in the cage, and apply a %eisenberg exchange operator'E( which exchanges the
18A 1.!ATI6I)TI+ ".T%3*. 5e distribute about the desert lion bait containing large portions
of the +ompanion of )irius. 5hen enough bait has been taken, we project a beam of light
across the desert.This will bend right round the lion, who will then become so di::y that
he can be approached with impunity.
",-. Met$o' *ro% e.+eri%ent#& +$!ic
20T%. T%.1"3*7NA"I+A! ".T%3*. 5e construct a semi9permeable membrane, permeable
to everything except lions, and sweep it across the desert.
21T%. AT3"9)2!ITTIN$ ".T%3*. 5e irradiate the desert with slow neutrons. The lion
becomes radioactive, and a process of disintegration sets in. 5hen the decay has
proceeded sufficiently far, he will become incapable of showing fight.
22T%. "A$N.T3932TI+A! ".T%3*. 5e plant a large lenticular bed of catnip 'Nepeta cataria(,
whose axis lies along the direction of the hori:ontal component of the earth-s magnetic field,
and place a cage at one of its foci. 5e distribute over the desert large uantities of
magneti:ed spinach 'Spinacia oleracea(, which, as is well known, has a high ferric content.
The spinach is eaten by the herbivorous deni:ens of the desert, which are in turn eaten by
lions. The lions are then oriented parallel to the earth-s magnetic field, and the resulting beam
of lions is focussed by the catnip upon the cage.
- The merican !athematical !onthl", #g$-Sept$ %&'(, pp$ ))*-))+$
'<( #y %ilbert. )ee .. 5. %obson, The Theory of &unctions of a 1eal 6ariable and the Theory of
&ourier-s )eries, <F=E, vol. <, pp. ABD9ABE.
'=( %. )eifert and 5. Threlfall, !ehrbuch der Topologie, <F>A, pp. =9>.
'>( N$,$ #y 2icard-s Theorem '5. &. 3sgood, !ehrbuch der &unktionentheorie, vol. <, <F=G, p.EAG(,
we can catch every lion with at most one exception.
'A( N. 5iener, l$ c$, p. GF.
'B( N. 5iener, The &ourier Integral and +ertain of its Applications, <F>>, pp. E>9EA.
'D( )ee, for example, %. A. #ethe and 1. &. #acher, 1eviews of "odern 2hysics, vol. G, <F>D, pp.
G=9==F/ especially pp. <@D9<@E.
'E( I-id.