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Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 1

Harolds Calculus 3
Multi-Cordinate System
Cheat Sheet
4 May 2014



Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Point
2-D
() =
(, )
(, )

3-D
(, ) =
(, , )

4-D
(, , ) =
(, , , )



(, ) or
=
=
=

2
=
2
+
2

=
2
+
2


=


=
1



( , , )

=
= sin
=

2
=
2
+
2

2
=
2
+
2
+
2


=



= cos
1

2
+
2
+
2

= cos
1


Point (a,b) in Rectangular :
() =
() =
= 3

,
< , >
=
0
,
0
,
0

[] [] = []

Line
Slope-Intercept Form:
= +

Point-Slope Form:

0
= (
0
)

General Form:
+ + = 0
0

() =

() +(0)
where = ()

3-D:

0

=

0

=

0







< , > = <
0
,
0
> + < , >
< , > = <
0
+,
0
+ >
where
< , > = <
2

1
,
2

1
>

() =
0
+
() =
0
+

=

=

2

1

2

1
=

+
=
0
,
0
,
0

+ , ,


[ ]

= []




Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 2

Plane
(
0
) + (
0
)
+ (
0
) = 0

+ + =
=
0
+
0
+
0


(, ) = + +




( , , )


(0 < )

=
0
+ +

where:
s and t range over all real
numbers
v and w are given vectors
defining the plane

is the vector representing the


position of an arbitrary (but
fixed) point on the plane
(
0
) = 0
Circle

2
+
2
=
2

( )
2
+( )
2
=
2


General Form:

2
+ +
2
+ + +
= 0
= = 0

Focus and Center:
(, )
r = a (constant)
= [0, 2] [0, 360]






(, )





=
= [0, 2]
= = 0
() = () +
() = () +
[

] = [0, 2)

(, ) =




Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 3

Sphere

2
+
2
+
2
=
2

( )
2
+( )
2
+( )
2
=
2


:
(, , )

General Form:

2
+
2
+
2

+ + +
+ + + + = 0
= = > 0

Cylindrical to Rectangular:
= ()
= ()
=

Spherical to Rectangular:
=
=
=
Rectangular to Cylindrical:
=
2
+
2


Spherical to Cylindrical:
= ()
=
= ()
=
= [0, 2]
= [0, 2]

Rectangular to Spherical:
=
2
+
2
+
2

=



Cylindrical to Spherical:
=
2
+
2

=


=

Rectangular:



Cylindrical:

()
()



Spherical:








Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 4

Ellipse
( )
2

2
+
( )
2

2
= 1

General Form:

2
+ +
2
+ +
+ = 0
where
2
4 < 0 > 0

Center:
(, )

Focus length, c, from center:
=
2

2


Eccentricity:
=

2

2



If B 0, then rotate coordinate
system:
2 =


=
= +

New = (x, y), Old = (x, y)
rotates through angle from x-
axis
=

1 cos


=

1 sin


: 0 < < 1

() =

( )
2
+( )
2


relative to center



() = () +
() = () +
[

] = [0, 2]

(, ) =

----------------------------------------------------
Rotated Ellipse:
() = +
() = + +

= the angle between the x-axis and the
major axis of the ellipse



Ellipsoid
( )
2

2
+
( )
2

2
+
( )
2

2
= 1

2
+

2
+

2
= 1

2

2

2
+

2

2

2
+

2
= 1
(, ) = () () +
(, ) = () () +
(, ) = () +

[

] =

2
,

2

[

] = [, ]

(, , ) =


Centered at vector v


Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 5

Hyperbola
( )
2

2

( )
2

2
= 1

General Form:

2
+ +
2
+ + +
= 0
where
2
4 > 0 < 0

If + = 0, square hyperbola

Center:
(, )

Focus length, c, from center:
=
2
+
2


Eccentricity:
=

2
+
2

= sec

3-D
( )
2

2
+
( )
2

2

( )
2

2
= 1


( )
2

2

( )
2

2
+
( )
2

2
= 1

If B 0, then rotate coordinate
system:
2 =


=
= +

New = (x, y), Old = (x, y)
rotates through angle from x-
axis
=

1 cos


=

1 sin


: > 1


=
(
2
1)
1 +

< <
1






Left-Right Opening Hyperbola:
() = () +
() = () +
[

] = [, ]
(h, k) = vertex of hyperbola

Alternate Form:
() = () +
() = () +


Up-Down Opening Hyperbola:
() = () +
() = () +

Alternate Form:
() = () +
() = () +


General Form:
() =
2
+ +
() =
2
+ +
where A and D have different signs



Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 6

Parabola
Vertical Axis of Symmetry:

2
= 4
( )
2
= 4( )
Focus: (, +)
Directrix: =

Horizontal Axis of Symmetry:

2
= 4
( )
2
= 4( )
Focus: ( +, )
Directrix: =

General Form:

2
+ +
2
+ + +
= 0
where
2
4 = 0
or = 0

If B 0, then rotate coordinate
system:
2 =


=
= +

New = (x, y), Old = (x, y)
rotates through angle from x-
axis
=

1 cos


=

1 sin


: = 1
Where d=2p




Vertical axis of symmetry:
() = 2 +
() =
2
+ (opens upwards) or
() = (
2
+) (opens downwards)
[

] = [, ]
(h, k) = vertex of parabola

Horizontal axis of symmetry:
() =
2
+
() = 2 + (opens right) or
() = (2 + ) (opens left)
[

] = [, ]

Projectile Motion:
() =
0
+


() =
0
+

16
2
feet
() =
0
+

4.9
2
meters

= cos()

= sin()

General Form:
=
2
+ +
=
2
+ +
where A and L have the same sign

Nose Cone
( )
2

2
+
( )
2

2
=
( )
2

2

Limit
lim

() =



1
st

Derivative

() = lim
0
( +) ()

()
=




Hint: Use Product Rule for
=
=

() =

Unit tangent vector

()
=
()
()

()
0





Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 7

2
nd

Derivative

() =

2
=

2
=

2
=


Unit normal vector

()
=

()

()

()
0



Integral () = ()





Riemann Sum:
= (

)(


1
)

1


Left Sum:
=
1


() + +
1

+
+
2

++(
1

)


Middle Sum:
=
1

+
1
2
+ +
3
2
+
+(
1
2
)

Right Sum:
=
1

+
1

+ +
2

+
+()
() = ()

, ()

, ()


Double
Integral
(, )
()
()


,
(, ) ( cos , sin)

Triple
Integral
(, , )
(,)
(,)
()
()


,
(, , ) ( cos , sin, )
,
(, , ) ( cos sin,
sin sin, cos )
NA NA NA
Inverse
Functions
() = ,
1
() =

Inverse Function Theorem:

1
() =
1

()

where =

()
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
1

then =
1

=
1


=
1

=
1

=
1

= arcsin
= arccos
=

=
=
=
NA NA NA


Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 8

Arc Length
= 1 +[

()]
2



Proof :
= (
0
)
2
+ (
0
)
2

= ()
2
+ ()
2

=
2
+
2

=
2
+
2

2

=

2
+

2

=
2
1 +

2

=

1 +

2

=
Polar:
=

2
+

2


Where = ()

Circle:
= =

Proof:
= ( )
()

=

2
(2) =


C = d = 2r


Rectangular 2D:
=

2
+



Rectangular 3D:
=

2
+

2
+



Cylindrical:
=

2
+
2

2
+

2
1


Spherical:
=

2
+
2

2
+
2

2

2
1

= ()



s(t) = ()

0

NA
Curvature
=
|

|
(1 +
2
)
3
2



() =
|
2
+2
2

|
(
2
+
2
)
3
2



for r()
NA
=

)
2
+
(

)
2
+
(

)
2

(
2
+
2
+
2
)
3
2



where f(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t))
=

()
()


=

() ()
()
3

(See Wikipedia : Curvature)
Perimeter
Square: P = 4s
Rectangle: P = 2l + 2w
Triangle : P = a + b + c
Circle: C = d = 2r
Ellipse: ( +)

Ellipse: = 4
1

2
0

Circle: C = 2r NA NA NA


Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 9

Area
Square: A = s
Rectangle: A = lw
Rhombus: A = ab
Parallelogram: A = bh
Trapezoid: =
(1+2
)
2

Kite: =
1 2
2


Triangle: A = bh
Triangle: A = ab sin(C)

Triangle:
= ( )( )( ),
=
++
2

Equilateral Triangle: = 3
2


Frustum: =
1
3

1+2
2

Circle: A = r
Circular Sector: A = r
Ellipse: A = ab
=
1
2
[()]
2


where = ()

Proof:
Area of a sector:
= = =
1
2

2

where arc length =


NA
= ()

()


where () = and () =
or
x(t) = f(t) and y(t) = g(t)

Simplified :
= ()
()



Proof:
()


y = f(x) = g(t)

=
()

= ()
=


NA
Lateral
Surface
Area
Cylinder: S = 2rh
Cone: S = rl

= 2 () 1 +[

()]
2


For rotation about the x-axis:
= 2

For rotation about the y-axis:
= 2

=

2
+

2

= (),
Sphere: S = 4r
For rotation about the x-axis:
= 2

For rotation about the y-axis:
= 2

=

2
+

2

= (), = (),

Total
Surface
Area
Cube: S = 6s
Rectangle: S = 2l + 2w + 2h
Regular Tetrahedron: S = 2bh
Cylinder: S = 2r (r + h)
Cone: S = r + rl = r (r + l)
Sphere: S = 4r
Ellipsoid: S
4

3

1


Where p 1.6075, || 1.061%
(Knud Thomsens Formula)
Ellipsoid: S =

where
Surface of
Revolution
For revolution about the x-axis:
= 2 ()

1 +

2


For revolution about the y-axis:
= 2

1 +

2

For revolution about the x-axis:
= 2

2
+

2


For revolution about the y-axis:
= 2

2
+

2

Sphere: S = 4r
For revolution about the x-axis:

= 2 ()

2
+

2


For revolution about the y-axis:

= 2 ()

2
+

2

NA NA


Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 10

Volume
Cube: V = s
Rectangular Prism: V = lwh
Cylinder: V = rh
Triangular Prism: V= Bh
Tetrahedron: V= bh
Pyramid: V = Bh
Sphere: =
4
3

3

Ellipsoid: V =
4
3
abc
Cone: V = bh = rh

(, , )

( , , )



,
sin ,



2


Ellipsoid:
=
4
3
(
1
)
Volume of
Revolution
Disc Method - Rotation about the
x-axis:
= [()]
2



Washer Method - Rotation about
the x-axis:
= {

[()]
2
[()]
2
}

Cylinder Method - Rotation about
the y-axis:
= 2 ()


= () ()


Disc Method:


Cylindrical Shell Method:




Moments
of Inertia
=

=1


NA NA

= () ()
2
()


(see Wikipedia)
Center of
Mass
=
1

=1

where =

=1


1-D for Discrete:

=

1

1
+
2

1
+
2

2-D for Discrete:

=1

=1

=

, =


3-D for Discrete:

= =
1

=1

= =
1

=1

= =
1

=1

3-D for Continuous:
=
1

0

=
1

0

=
1

0

where =

0

and =

=
1



=
1

()


Where is distance
from the axis of
rotation, not origin.



Rectangular Polar/Cylindrical Spherical Parametric Vector Matrix
Copyright 2011-2014 by Harold Toomey, WyzAnt Tutor 11

Gradient =


(, , z) =

+
1

z

(r, , ) =

r

r
+
1

+

sin





(x) =

()


=

j

where = (

)

Line
Integral

= ()|

()|

NA NA



()

= ()

()



Surface
Integral

=

(, )

t


where
(, ) =
(, ), (, ), (, )
and

t
=


(, )
(, )
,
(, )
(, )
,
(, )
(, )


NA NA

=

( )

=

(, )

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