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#################################################################################8.
2 - A Local Ecosystem: 1. The distribution, diversity and numbers of plants and
animals found in ecosystems are determined by biotic and abiotic factors:
Distinguish between the abiotic and biotic factors in the environment: Biotic
Factor: The living factors, eg, trees, birds, predators, etcAbiotic Factor: The
non-living factors, eg, temperature, oxygen levels, etcEnvironment: the
surroundings of an organism including abiotic and biotic factorsHabitat: The place
where an organism livesCommunity: The organisms found living together in an area
Ecology: The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
Compare the abiotic characteristics of aquatic and terrestrial environments:
Characteristics#Aquatic#Terrestrial##Viscosity: A measure of a mediums resistance
to an object moving through it#HIGH VISCOSITY: Difficult for organisms to move
through#LOW VISCOSITY: Easy for organisms to move through##Buoyancy: The amount of
support experienced by an object#HIGH: Gives support to plants and animals. May
help to maintain shape#LOW: Plants and animals need to be able to support
themselves##Temperature: Depends on intensity of suns radiation, which depends on
latitude and longitude.#Heats up and cools down more slowly than air. Heat loss and
gain is not usually a problem#Temperatures vary more than in water. Daily and
seasonal variations may be great##Availability of: a) Gases b) Waterc) Ions#a)
Depends on temperature, diffusion is slower. More gases available at lower
temperatures. Oxygen concentration decreases with depthb) Not a problem. Osmotic
differences of fresh and salt water are importantc) Saltwater - 35% of it is
dissolved ions (salts). Freshwater - low in ions Organisms must cope with osmotic
differences. #a) Gases freely available; diffusion is rapidb) Varies, can be a
problem for land organisms. Preventing dehydration can be a major problemc) Ions in
soil are vital in plant growth##Light penetration: #Decreases with depth. Affects
availability of plants in water#Plenty of light available. Dense plant growth can
affect light. Very important for plant growth##Pressure variation: #Pressure varies
with depth. Increased depth has increased pressure, Few organisms live at great
depths#Decreases with height above sea level. Little effect on most
organisms.##Availability and type of Substrates: Different types of rocks, soils
and sands and other materials from rocks. Vary in their mineral and nutrient
levels#Bottom dwellers are affected. Free swimming and surface level organisms are
less affected. Turbidity or water affects abundance#Amount and type of soil is
important for plants. Soil is also important in providing habitats for ground
dwellers and animals that live underground. The slope and rockiness of the land is
important##Strength of Natural Forces: #Tide, currents, waves may vary #Winds and
rain vary in depth##Availability of Shelter and Space: #Not required for all
organisms. Substrate, rocks, vegetation and coral reefs provide shelter. Space is
important for animal requiring territory#Most animals require shelter. Some plants
require shelter. Space is important for organisms requiring territory, shelter or
nesting sites.##Identify factors determining the distribution and abundance of a
species in each environment: DISTRIBUTIONWhere an organism is found in an
environmentIt is usually uneven throughout the ecosystemOrganisms are found where
abiotic and biotic factors favour themOrganisms are distributed where: Survival rate
is highPredation is lowRequirements for survival are metABUNDANCE: How many
organisms in an ecosystemNot the same throughout environmentChanges over time:
Increases due to births and immigrationDecreases due to deaths and emigration
Abiotic Factors Affecting Distribution and Abundance: LightStrength of windRainfall
Temperature variationsTopographyTides, currents and wavesWater (amount, salinity,
pH)SubstrateSpace and shelter OxygenBiotic Factors Affecting Distribution and
Abundance: Availability of foodNumber of competitorsNumber of mates availableNumber
of predatorsNumber and variety of disease causing organismsDescribe the roles of

photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystems: Energy needed to sustain ecosystems is


obtained from the sunThis energy is captured by plants during photosynthesis
Photosynthesis uses CO2 and water to make food - all organisms rely on this
Respiration is the process by which cells obtain energyOrganic molecules are broken
down and energy is producedThe organic molecules needed for respiration come from
photosynthesisIt all relies on the sunEnergy is never recycled - it requires
constant inputPhotosynthesis powers ecosystems.Identify uses of energy by
organisms: Synthesis of complex molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, etc)
Growth of cells (includes differentiation, division, elongation, etc)Repair and
maintenance of old or damaged cellsActive transport of materials across cell
membranesFunctioning of special cells that need extra energy (nerves, muscles,
kidney, etc)Transport or materials within ecosystems (eg, phloem, circulatory
systems, etc)Identify the general equation for aerobic cellular respiration and
outline this as a summary of a chain of biochemical reactions: All living things
need energy to remain aliveRespiration is the breakdown of glucose with oxygen to
release energyCarbon dioxide and water are produced as waste productsGlucose +
Oxygen # EMBED Equation.3 ### Carbon Dioxide + Water + EnergyAerobic means
requiring oxygenThe energy is held in the glucose bonds; when they are broken,
energy is released.Respiration involves around 50 different reactions, each
catalysed by a different enzymeATP: Adenosine triphosphate (one adenosine attached
to three phosphate groups)This is the energy carrier is all cellsThe energy
produced by respiration is kept in these moleculesThe energy is stored in the
phosphate bondsADP (adenosine diphosphate) + P (phosphate) # EMBED Equation.3 ###
ATPFor every glucose molecule, 38 ATP molecules are producedADP + P + Glucose +
Oxygen # EMBED Equation.3 ### Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP38ADP + 38P + C6H12O6 +
6O2 # EMBED Equation.3 ### 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATPThere are 2 stages in Respiration:
Glycolysis: Occurs in cytoplasmSplits the 6-carbon glucose into two 3-carbon
molecules (pyruvate - C3) 2 ATP molecules are gainedDoes NOT require oxygenKrebs
Cycle: Occurs in the mitochondriaPyruvate is broken down into water and CO236 ATP
molecules are gainedOxygen is requiredProcess and analyse information obtained from
a variety of sampling studies to justify the use of different sampling techniques
to make population estimates when total counts cannot be performed: A population is
a group of similar organisms living in a given area as a timePopulations can never
be 100% accurately counted; this is because of the difficulty of describing in
detail large areas. Also it would be too time-consuming and damaging to the
environmentPopulations are estimated using sampling techniques. These make an
estimate, which is roughly accurate of the population.Measuring Distribution: A
transect is usedThis a narrow strip that is placed across the area being studied
from one end to anotherThe organism on the strip, from one end to another, are
recorded and this represents the distribution of organisms for that areaMeasuring
Abundance: Plants: The quadrat method is usedMethod: quadrats (squares of a fixed
area) are placed randomly in an area.The abundance of the organism in that area is
measuredUsing the formula below, the abundance can be estimated: #AnimalsQuadrat
method cant be used, as animals move aroundCapture recapture method is used
instead: #2. Each local aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem is unique: Examine trends in
population estimates for some plant and animals species within and ecosystem: Area
Studied: Grey Mangrove forest at Homebush Bay: As the water level rose, the amount
of mangrove seedlings decreased, but the amount of semaphore crabs increasedAs the
water level reduced, the amount of mangrove seedlings increased, but the amount of
semaphore crabs decreasedThis pointed out that mangrove seedlings do not prefer to
be covered in water, while crabs doOutline factors that affect numbers in predator
and prey population in the areas studied: The amount of food availableThe salinity
of the waterThe amount of water availableEtcetera, etcetera, etceteraIdentify
examples of allelopathy, parasitism, mutualism and commensalism in an ecosystem and
the role of organisms in each type of relationship: Allelopathy: This is the
production by a plant of specific chemicals (allelo-chemicals) which inhibit the
growth of other plants around itThe example studied was the Casuarina. Its leaves
contain allelo-chemicals, so as they dropped to the floor, they released the
chemicals, preventing the growth of other plants in the areaParasitism: This is a

relationship between two organisms where one benefits at the expense of the other
organismThe example studied was the pimple wasp. It lays its eggs on the leaves of
the mangrove. The larvae eat through the leave when they hatch and the leaf is
damagedMutualism: A relationship between two organisms where both of them
benefitThe example studied was lichen. This consists of a fungus and an alga
joined together. The fungi provides structure and the alga provides food
Commensalism: A relationship between 2 organisms where only one benefits, and the
other get no harm and no benefitThe example studied is the golden orb-weaving
spider and the dewdrop spider. The weaving spider makes a web, and catches its prey
with it. It leaves scraps behind. The dewdrop spider eats the leftovers.Describe
the role of decomposers in ecosystems: Decomposers are the rubbish cleaners of the
ecosystemsThey feed on the left overs of other organisms, dead organisms and
decaying organisms and their wastes.They enable the materials of decomposition
available to plantsThey keep the biomass in circulation.Explain trophic
interactions between organisms in an ecosystem using food chains, food webs and
pyramids of biomass and energy: Trophic interactions are feeding relationships
between organismsA FOOD CHAIN represents the flow of energy from one living thing
to the nextFood chains start with producers (plants), which are eaten by
herbivores, which are eaten by carnivores.The first consumer is the organism that
eats the first other organism. It is usually a herbivoreFOOD WEBS are a complex set
of interacting food chains within an ecosystemEcosystems are composed of food webs,
not just food chains. At every step of a food chain, energy is lostIt is lost as
heat, and wastesThis is represented in an energy pyramid, as the lowest level is
the biggest, and the levels shrink as they go upAt every step of the food chain,
biomass (mass of organisms) is lostBiomass is lost as undigested material and
wastesThis is also shown in a biomass pyramidBiomass pyramids and energy pyramids
are usually similar in ecosystemsDefine the term adaptation and discuss the
problems associated with inferring characteristics of organisms as adaptations for
living in a particular habitat: An adaptation is a feature of a organism that makes
it well suited to its environment and its lifestyleAdaptations can be: Structural: A
physical characteristic relating to the structure of an organismPhysiological:
Relating to the way an organism functionsBehavioural: How an organism relates to it
environmentAdaptations are always genetic; they are the result of natural selection
Problems associated with inferring characteristics of organisms include:
If you
do not know the environment an organism lives in, then saying a characteristic is
an adaptation is just guessworkSometimes, organisms gain features that are
advantageous to its survival, but are a result of the organisms live experience.
This is not an adaptation, as adaptations are always genetically basedIdentify some
adaptations of living things to factors in their environment: Some frogs burrow into
soils to prevent drying outMarsupial hopping mice have deep burrow to keep cool
Kangaroos have internal respiratory organsEtcetera, etcetera, etceteraDescribe and
explain the short-term and long-term consequences on the ecosystem of species
competing for resources: Competition in ecosystems is the struggle between organisms
for the same resourceCompetition can be between members of the same species or
between members of different species.In the short-term, competition reduces the
chance of survival and restricts the abundance of all competitorsIn the long-term,
one of the competitors will eventually be more successful and drive out or
significantly reduce the numbers of other competitorsIdentify the impact of humans
in the area studied: In Homebush Bay, significant industrialisation and urbanisation
has drastically changed the natural environmentThe bay has been almost destroyed,
and the wetlands have been almost totally removed from the baySedimentation of the
river has also been doneDredging the bay for land reclamation has also been done by
humans.####Preliminary - Stage 6
2 Unit Biology
Copyright 2005;
Ahmad Shah Idil
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