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CC2404 Applied Physics and Instrumentation in Health Care

Unit 12

Problems

1. An x-ray tube has a tube voltage of 50 kV. Calculate the maximum frequency of the
x-ray photons (in Hz) from this x-ray tube.
E = eV = 50000 ⋅1.6 ⋅10 −19 J = 8 ⋅10 −15 J

E 8.5 ×10 −15


f = = −34
= 1.28 ×10 19 Hz
h 6.63 ×10

2. An x-ray tube has a tube voltage of 45 kV and the tube current is 40mA. The
efficiency of the x-ray tube is 1%.
a. Calculate the power of x-ray tube.
P = IV = 45 kV × 40 mA = 1800 W
b. Calculate the power of x-ray beam.
P = 1800 W × 0.01 = 18W

3. Explain why the mechanism of photoelectric effect is useful in the production of an x-


ray imaging while Compton scatter is not useful for this purpose?

 The attenuation coefficient is Z 3


dependent, so medium of different Z number
will results in very different attenuation of x-ray.
 A good contrast can be created between tissues of different Z-numbers.
Example of bone and soft tissue
 For Compton scatter, the attenuation coefficient is independent of Z number,
bone and soft tissue attenuated equally x-rays, so this mechanism does not
contribute to the contrast between bone and soft tissue.

4. Explain why Compton scatter is a preferable mechanism for x-ray therapy while not
the photoelectric effect?
 In Compton scattering, attenuation is independent of the Z-number of the
absorbing medium, so bone and soft tissue attenuate equally the x-ray.
 No preferable attenuation by bone
 In photoelectric effect, bone has higher Z-number and will absorb more energy
than surrounding tissue, so more damage is made to bone instead of cancerous
cells.