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Andkhui

Andhkui was a Khanate in present north Afghanistan.
List of Khans of Andkhui Khanate
Ali Mardan Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1730/31 until 1736.
Sulaiman Khan (from 1750 Mukhless Khan) was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1736 until 1790.
Rahmatullah Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1790 until 1812.
Yulduz Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1812 until 1830.
Abd'al Aziz Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1830 until 1835.
Shah Wali Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1835 until 1844.
Ghazanfar Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1844 until 1845, from 1845 until 1847 and from 1847 until 1869.
Sufi Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate in 1845 and in 1847.
Daulat Beg Khan was a Khan of Andkhui Khanate from 1869 until 1880.

Badakhshan
Badakhshan was a state in present Afghanistan. Badakhshan (Pashto/Persian: , Chinese: 巴達克山, meaning "Badakh Mountains") is a historic region
comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan. The name is retained in Badakhshan Province which is one of the thirty-
fourprovinces of Afghanistan, in the far northeast of Afghanistan, and contains the Wakhan Corridor. Much of historic Badakhshan lies within
Tajikistan's Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province located in the in south-eastern part of the country. The music of Badakhshan is an important part of the
region's cultural heritage.
List of rulers of Badakhshan
Shansabanids Dynasty
Fakhr al- Din Masud was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1145 until 1163.
Shams al -Din Muhammad was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1163 until 1192.
Baha al- Din Sam was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1192 until 1206.
Jalal al -Din Ali was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1206 until 1215.
The first Local dynasty
Ali Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan around 1291.
Dawlat Shah ibn Ali Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1291 until 1292.
Sultan Bakhtin was a ruler of Badakhshan in 1303.
Arghun Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1307 until 1311.
Ali Shah II was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1311 until 1318.
The second Local dynasty
Baha al- Din Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1344 until 1358.
Muhammad Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1358 until 1369.
Shaykh Ali was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1368 until 1369.
Bahramshah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1358 until 1374 or 1375.
Timurid Dynasty
Sultan Muhammad Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1450 until 1467. He was the last of a series of kings who traced their descent
to Alexander the Great. He was killed by Abu Sa'id Mirza the ruler of Timurid Empire and took possession of Badakhshan, which after his
death fell to his son, Sultan Mahmud.


Abu Bakr ibn Abi Said Mirza was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1460 until 1480.
Abu Said ibn Sultan Mahmud was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1480 until 1495. He had three sons, Baysinghar Mirza, Ali Mirza and Khan Mirza.
When Mahmud died, Amir Khusroe Khan, one of his nobles, blinded Baysinghar Mirza, killed the second prince, and ruled as usurper. He submitted to
Mughal Emperor Babur in 1504.
Mahmud ibn Mas'ud was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1495 until 1497.
Baysunkur Mirza ibn Mahmud was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1497 until 1499. When Mahmud died, Amir Khusroe Khan, one of his nobles, blinded
Baysinghar Mirza, killed the second prince, and ruled as usurper.
Sultan Mahmud ibn Ali was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1499 until 1500.
Mubarek Muzaffar Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1505 until 1507.
Nasir Mirza Miran Shah was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1507 until 1520.
Uways Mirza Sultan ibn Sultan Mahmud was a ruler of Badakhshan 1507 until 1520.
Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Hindal Babur was a ruler of Badakhshan in 1529 and from 1546 until 1547 (also ruler in Kunduz from 1545 until 1550).
Mirzah Shah Sulayman ibn Sultan Uways (died 1589) was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1529 until 1546 and from 1547 until 1575. After the death of
Khan Mirza, Badakhshan was governed for Babur by Prince Humayun, Sultan Wais Khan (Mirza Sulaiman's father-in-law), Prince Hindal, and lastly, by Mirza
Sulaiman, who held Badakhshan till October 8, 1541, when he had to surrender himself and his son, Mirza Ibrahim, to Prince Kamran Mirza. They were
released by Emperor Humayun in 1545, and took again possession of Badakhshan. When Humayun had taken Kabul, he made war upon and defeated Mirza
Sulaiman who once in possession of his country, had refused to submit; but when the return of Prince Kamran Mirza from Sindh obliged Emperor Humayun to
go to Kabul, he reinstated Mirza Sulaiman, who held Badakhshan till 1575. Bent on making conquests, he invaded Balkh in 1560, but had to return. His son,
Mirza Ibrahim, was killed in battle. When Akbar became Mughal Emperor, his stepbrother Mirza Muhammad Hakim's mother had been killed by Shah Abul
Ma'ali. Mirza Sulaiman went to Kabul, and had Abul Ma'ali hanged; he then had his own daughter married to Mirza Muhammad Hakim, and appointed Umed
Ali, a Badakhshan noble, as Mirza Muhammad Hakim's agent in 1563. But Mirza Muhammad Hakim did not go on well with Mirza Sulaiman, who returned
next year to Kabul with hostile intentions; but Mirza Muhammad Hakim fled and asked Akbar for assistance, so that Mirza Sulaiman, though he had
taken Jalalabad, had to return to Badakhshan. He returned to Kabul in 1566, when Akbar's troops had left that country, but retreated on being promised tribute.
Mirza Sulaiman's wife was Khurram Begum, of the Kipchak tribe. She was clever and had her husband so much in her power, that he did nothing without her
advice. Her enemy was Muhtarim Khanum, the widow of Prince Kamran Mirza. Mirza Sulaiman wanted to marry her; but Khurram Begum got her married,
against her will, to Mirza Ibrahim, by whom she had a son, Mirza Shahrukh. When Mirza Ibrahim fell in the war with Balkh, Khurram Begum wanted to send
the Khanum to her father, Shah Muhammad of Kashgar; but she refused to go. As soon as Shahrukh had grown up, his mother and some Badakhshi nobles
excited him to rebel against his grandfather Mirza Sulaiman. This he did, alternately rebelling and again making peace. Khurram Begum then died. Shahrukh
took away those parts of Badakhshan which his father had held, and found so many adherents, that Mirza Sulaiman, pretending to go on a pilgrimage to Makkah,
left Badakhshan for Kabul, and crossing the Indus went to India in 1575 CE. Khan Jahan, governor of the Punjab, received orders from Emperor Akbar to
invade Badakhshan, but was suddenly ordered to go to Bengalinstead, as Mun'im Khan had died and Mirza Sulaiman did not care for the governorship of
Bengal, which Akbar had offered him. Mirza Sulaiman then went to Ismail II of Safavid Iran. When the death of that monarch deprived him of the assistance
which he had just received, he went to Muzaffar Husain Mirza at Kandahar, and then to Mirza Muhammad Hakim at Kabul. Not succeeding in raising
disturbances in Kabul, he made for the frontier of Badakhshan, and luckily finding some adherents, he managed to get from his grandson the territory between
Taiqan and the Hindu Kush. Soon after Muhtarim Khanum died. Being again pressed by Shahrukh, Mirza Sulaiman applied for help to Abdullah Khan Uzbek,
king of Turan, who had long wished to annex Badakhshan. He invaded and took the country in 1584; Shahrukh fled to the Mughal Empire, and Mirza Sulaiman
to Kabul. As he could not recover Badakhshan for himself, and rendered destitute by the death of Mirza Muhammad Hakim, he followed the example of his
grandson, and repaired to the court of Akbar who made him a Commander of six thousand. He lived out his life at Akbar's court in Lahore where he died in
1589.
Shah Rukh ibn Ibrahim was a ruler of Badakhshan from 1575 until 1584.
List of Rulers (Mirs) of Badakhshan
Yarid Dynasty
Mir Yari Beg Sahibzada was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1657 until 1708. Mir Yar Beg Sahibzada was a Central Asian ruler who, in 1651 became
chief of the Tajik tribes in Yaftal, as they had invited him to come to them from Samarkand. However two years later his dissatisfied subjects rebelled against him,
built a fort at Lai Aba, and raised the Tajik Shah Imad as their chief. Mir Yar Beg then retired to the court of Aurungzeb in India via Chitral. He was later invited
to return to Yaftal, and did so, waging war against Shah Imad and defeating him. Mir Yar Beg was then appointed chief of Badakhshan bySabhan Kuli
Khan of Kunduz. Mir Yar Beg later failed to pay the required tribute to Sabhan Kuli Khan, who then sent Mahmud Bi Atalik, chief of Balkh and Bokhara,
against Mir Beg. Mir Beg, buckling under pressure, agreed to pay tribute for two years. In 1695, the Sahibzadas (religious group) were conveying Islamic relics to
India. They were set upon by Mir Yar Beg's forces, and the relics carried away to Faizabad, where a shrine was erected. Mir Yar Beg died leaving behind ten sons
and dividing the province of Badakhshan among his nine sons. The eldest son Qazi Arab was settled in Chitral.
Sulaiman Shah was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1708 until 1713.
Yusuf Ali was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1713 until 1718.
Diya' ad-Din was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1718 until 1736.
Sulaiman Beg was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1736 until ?
Mirza Kalan I was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from ? until 1748.
Sultan Beg was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1748 until 1765. In 1750, Mir Sultan Shah ruler of Badakhshan rebelled against Khizri Beg, Governor
of Balkh. After consulting Ahmad Shah Durrani, Khizri Beg marched against Sultan Shah and the Wazir Shah Wali aided the invading column. The pickets of
Badakhshan, Chief of Talakan, fled from their postal approach of enemy and men of Badakhshan disgusted with their Chief because of his partiality
to Kalmakand Kashghar foreigners waited on Wazir Shah Wali and hailed him as deliverer. Sultan Shah finding resistance hopeless fled to Ailu Basit in hills
between Chiab and Pasakoh. The Wazir Shah Wali returned with force to Kabul leaving his country in charge of Afghan Governor. Sultan Shah returned slew
the Governor and regained his country He was attacked by another rival Turrah Baz Khan who supported by Khizri Beg advanced on Faizabad and besieged it.
Sultan Shah was taken prisoner. Kunduz Chief was unwilling to lose opportunity seized Turrah Baz Khan and sent both captives to Kunduz and annexed
Badakhshan. In 1751 Sultan Shah was restored to liberty and his country. He punished marauders of Saki tribe who had desolated Chiab, Takhta
Band, Khalpan in Badakhshan. He slew a large portion and 700 horses were taken Place was marked by 200 heads of raiders on Kotalof Khoja Jarghatu and Saki
gave no more trouble during Sultan Shah's lifetime This Chief built a fortress at Mashad in which he settled 600 families He made a rest house for travelers
at Daryun. In 1756 he made the Chinese recognize Akskal of Badakhshan at Alti inXinjiang and levied taxes from Badakhshan families in city. In 1759 another
enemy appeared led by Kabad Khan the Kataghans attacked Fayzabad, Badakhshan took and put to death Sultan Shah and Turrah Baz Khan.
Burhan ad-Din was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1765 until ?
Mirza Kalan II was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan in the second half 18th century.
Ahmad Shah Khan was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan in the second half 18th century.
Mirza Kalan III was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan in the second half 18th century.
Zaman ad-Din was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from ? until 1792.
Mir Mohammed Shah was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1792 until 1822.
Mirza Kalan IV was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1822 until 1828.
Mirza Abd al-Ghaful was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1828 until 1829.
Murad Beg was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1829 until 1832.
Mirza Sulaiman was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1832 until 1838
Sultan Shah was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1838 until 1847 (jointly with Mir Shah Nizam ad-Din from 1844 until 1847).
Mir Shah Nizam ad-Din (died 1862) was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1944 until his death in 1862 (jointly with Sultan Shah from 1844 until 1847).
Ghahandar Shah was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan from 1862 until 1869. Jahandar Shah came to power through his close relations with Muhammad Afzal
Khan, who was Governor of Afghan Turkestan from 1852 until 1864. At one point Jahandar Shah raised forced in Badakhshan and briefly took control
of Kunduz in 1866-67. He was ousted from power in 1869 by Sardar FaizMuhammad Khan, an ally of Sher Ali Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan. Faiz Muhammad
Khan appointed Jahandar Shah's nephew, Mizrab Shah, in power.
Mir Mizrab Shah was a ruler (Mir) of Badakhshan in 1869. He was installed in power by Faiz Muhammad Khan, but his reign lasted less than a year. He was
the nephew of Jahandar Shah.
Shighnan
Shighnan was the region that occasionally was politically independent and at other times was subservient to Badakhshan, the Khanate of Kokand,
and Afghanistan. The seat of power of the Mir of Shighnan was at Qaleh Barpanjeh (هع ل ق هجن پر ). In 1883 the last Mir of Shighnan, Yusuf Ali Khan, was
ousted from power by the Afghan government and Shighnan became the Shighnan District in the Afghan Province of Badakhshan. In the 1890s Afghanistan
transferred control of half of Shighnan to Russia. This area became the Shughnon District and today is a district in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous
Province in Tajikistan.
List of mirs of Shighnan
Shah Mir was a ruler (Mir) of Shighnan in 18th century.
Shah Wanji was a ruler (Mir) of Shighnan in late 18th century. He was son of Shah Mir. The name Wanji is derived from the fact that his mother was
from Vanj. Ney Elias reported seeing a marker stone dating from 1786 commemorating a canal built by Shah Wanji.
[1]

Kuliad Khan was a ruler (Mir) of Shighnan in the first half 19th century. He was son of Wanji.
Abdur Rahim was a ruler (Mir) of Shighnan in the first half 19th century, He was grandson of Shah Wanji.
Yusuf Ali Khan was a ruler (Mir) of Shighnan in the second half 19th century. He was on of Abdur Rahim. He was dethroned by the Afghan military in 1883
and imprisoned in Kabul.

Ghurian Khanate
Ghurian was a Khanate in present Afghanistan.
List of Khans of Ghurian Khanate
Yusef Ali Khan Qaraei-Torbati was a Khan of Ghurian Khanate from 1803 until 1813.
Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati (c.1790 - 1850) was a Khan of Ghurian Khanate fro 1813 until 1816.

Konduz (Qonduz)
Konduz (Qonduz) was a state in presenet Afghanistan.
List of Rulers of Konduz (Qonduz)
Beg Murad was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1647 until 1657.
Mahmud Bî was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1657 until 1714.
Sohrab Biy was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1740 until ?
Yusuf Biy was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from ? until 1740.
Hazara Biy was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1740 until 1753.
Mizrab Biy was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1753 until 1780.
Kokan Biy was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1800 until 1815.
Murad Beg was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1815 until 1846.
Sultan Murad was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1846 until 1860.
Sultan Ali Murad Beg was a ruler of Konduz (Qonduz) from 1869 until 1888.

Khulm (Kholm)
Khulm (Kholm) was a state in present Afghanistan.
List of Rulers of Khulm (Kholm)
Qilij Ali Beg Khan was a ruler of Khulm (Kholm) from 1800 until 1817.
Muhammad Amin Beg was a ruler of Khulm (Kholm) from 1817 until 1849.

Maymana Khanate
Maymana was the independent Uzbek khanate in northern Afghanistan. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Maymana was the centre of an independent
Uzbek khanate and an important centre for commerce, as well as being the gateway to Turkistan from Herat and Persia. In 1876 the city fell to the Afghans and
was put in ruins, and only ten percent of the population was left.
List of Governors of Maymana Khanate
Haji Khan was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from 1747 until ?
Ghan was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from ? until 1790.
Ahmad was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from 1790 until 1810.
Allah Yar was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from 1810 until 1826.
Mizrab was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from 1826 until 1845.
Hikmat was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from 1845 until 1853.
Husain Kahn was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from 1853 until 1876 and from 1883 until ?
Dilwar Khan was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from 1879 until 1883.
Kemal Khan was the Governor of Maymana Khanate from ? until around 1900.

Sar-i-Pol (Sar-i-Pul)
Sar- i - Pol, also spelled Sari Pul (Persian: پر ), was the small state in Afghanistan, located in the north of the country.
List of Rulers (title Beglarbegis) of Sar-i-Pol (Sar-i-Pul)
Zu'l-Faqar Sher Khan was a ruler of Sar-i-Pol (Sar-i-Pul) from 1800 until 1840.
Mahmud Khan was a ruler of Sar-i-Pol (Sar-i-Pul) from 1840 until 1851.
Qilij Khan was a ruler of Sar-i-Pol (Sar-i-Pul) from 1851 until 1862.
Muhammad Khan was a ruler of Sar-i-Pol (Sar-i-Pul) from 1862 until 1864 and from 1866 until 1875.


Sheberghān (Shaburghān)
Sheberghān or Shaburghān (Pastho, Persian: ر ), also spelled Shebirghan and Shibarghan was the small state in northern Afghanistan.
List of Rulers (Hakims) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān)
Izbasar was a ruler (Hakim) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1747 until 1757.
Daulat Khan was a ruler (Hakim) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1757 until 1800.
Erich Khan was a ruler (Hakim) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1800 until 1820.
Manwar Khan was a ruler (Hakim) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1820 until 1829.
Rustam Khan (from 1846 Husain Khan) was a ruler (Hakim) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1829 until 1851 and from 1859 until 1875.
Hakim Khan was a ruler (Hakim) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1851 until 1855.
Nizam al Daula was a ruler (Hakim) of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1851 until 1855.
Sardar Wali Muhammad Khan Barakzai was the Afghan military governor of Sheberghān (Shaburghān) from 1855 until 1859.

Kabul
List of Chief Ministers (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom
Haji Jamal Khan Barakzai was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1747 until ?
Shah Wali Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from before 1757 until 1772.
Payinda Khan Mohammadzai was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from ? until 1793.
Wafadar Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1793 until 1900.
Shir Mohammad Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1803 until 1808.
Nawab Mohammad Usman Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1808 until 1809.
Fateh Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1809 until 1818.
Mohammad Azim Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1818 until 1823.
Habibullah Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom in 1823.
Yar Mohammad Khan Alikozay was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1823 until 1824.
Sultan Muhammad Khan Telai was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1824 until 1826.
Mirza Sami Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1826 until 1839.
Mulla Shakur Ishakzai was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1839 until 1840.
Mohammad Usman Khan Sadozai was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1840 until 1841.
Aminullah Khan Logari was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom in rebellion with Mohammad Zaman Khan from 1841 until May 1842.
Mohammad Akbar Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from June 1842 until September 1842.
Gholam Mohammad Khan Bamizai was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom jointly with Khan Shirin Khan Jawansher from October
until December 1842.
Khan Shirin Khan Jawansher was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom jointly with Mohammad Akbar Khan from October until
December 1842.
Mohammad Akbar Khan (died around 1848) was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1842 until his death around 1848.
Gholam Haydar Khan (died 1858) was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from around 1848 until 1855.
Mohammad Rafiq Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from 1863 until ?
Sayyid Nur Muhammad Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from around 1869 until March 1878.
Mirza Mohammad Hasan Khan was the Chief Minister (Wazir-i-azam) of Kabul Kingdom from around 1878 until 1880.

Herat
Herat was a city – state situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan.
In 1717, the city was captured by the Hotaki dynasty until they were defeated by the Afsharids in 1736. From 1725 to 1736 Herat was controlled by
the Hotaki Pashtuns until King Nader Shah's of Persia retook the city and destroyed the Hotakis for good. After Nader Shah's death in 1747, Ahmad Shah
Durrani took possession of the city and became part of the Durrani Empire. Ahmad Shah Durrani's father, Zaman Khan, was the governor of Herat province
before the Ghilzai's conquer of the region. Zaman Khan and several of his family members were killed while his son Ahmad Khan (Durrani) and Zulfiqar Khan
were taken as prisoners to Kandahar in the south. In 1816 the Persians captured the city but abandoned it shortly after. Two years later a second Persian
campaign against the city was defeated at the Battle of Kafir Qala. In 1824, Herat became independent for several years when the Afghan empire was split
between the Durranis and the Barakzais. Qajarsof Persia tried to take city from the Durranis in 1838 and again in 1856; both times the British helped to repel the
Persians, the second time through the Anglo-Persian War. The city fell to Dost Mohammad Khan of the Barakzai dynasty in 1863. Most of the Musallah
complex in Herat was cleared in 1885 by the British army to get a good line of sight for their artillery against Russian invaders who never came. This was but one
small sidetrack in the Great Game, a century-long conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empirein 19th century.
List of Rulers of Herat
Kamran Shah was the King of Herat from 1826 until March 1842 and King of Kandahar (Qandahar)from 1804 until 1805.
Yar Mohammad Khan Alikozay was Chief Minister (Wazir) of Herat from 1828/1829 until 1842 and Minister – Regent of Herat from March 1842 until
June 1, 1851.
Sayyed Mohammad Khan Alikozay was the Minister – Regent of Herat from June 1, 1851 until September 15, 1855.
Mohammad Yusuf Khan Mohammadzay was the Regent of Herat from September 15, 1855 until June 1856.
Isa Khan Bardorani was the Minister – Regent of Herat from June until October 1856.
Soltan Ahmad Khan (died May 26 1863) Sultan Jan, also known as Sultan Ahmed Khan was the Emir of Herat Emirate from July 27, 1857 until his death
on May 26, 1863. He was installed by the Persians, as they evacuated Herat on March 4, 1857 in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. Sultan Jan
captured Farah soon after, but it was recaptured by Dost Mohammad Khan, who then went on to lay siege to Herat. During the 10-month siege Sultan Jan died,
and at the conclusion of the siege Herat returned to Afghan control.
List of Chief Ministers (Wazirs) of Herat
Fateh Khan Barakzai was Chief Minister (Wazir) of Herat from 1801 until 1808.
Ata Mohammad Khan was Chief Minister (Wazir) of Herat from 1818 until 1828/1829.

Kandahar (Qandahar)
Kandahar or Qandahar (Pashto: راهدنک Kandahār, Persian: رهن ق Qandahār, known in older literature as Candahar was the city – state in Afghanistan. Ahmad
Shah Durrani, chief of the Durrani tribe, gained control of Kandahar and made it the capital of his new Afghan Empire in October 1747. Previously, Ahmad
Shah served as a military commander of Nader Shah Afshar. His empire included present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, theKhorasan and Kohistan provinces of
Iran, along with Punjab in India. In October 1772, Ahmad Shah retired and died from a natural cause. A new city was laid out by Ahmad Shah and is dominated
by his mausoleum, which is adjacent to the Mosque of the Cloak in the center of the city. By 1776, his eldest son Timur Shah had transferred Afghanistan's main
capital from Kandahar to Kabul, where the Durranilegacy continued. In September 1826, Syed Ahmad Shaheed's followers arrived to Kandahar in search of
volunteers to help them wage jihad against the Sikh invaders to what is now Pakistan. Led by Ranjit Singh, the Sikhs had captured several of Afghanistan's
territories in the east, including what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Kashmir. More than 400 local Kandahar warriors assembled themselves for the jihad.
Sayed Din Mohammad Kandharai was appointed as their leader. British-led Indian forces from neighboring British India invaded the city in 1839, during
the First Anglo-Afghan War, but withdrew in 1842. The British and Indian forces returned in 1878 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. They emerged from
the city in July 1880 to confront the forces of Ayub Khan, but were defeated at the Battle of Maiwand. They were again forced to withdraw a few years later,
despite winning the Battle of Kandahar.
List of Kings/Regents of Kandahar (Qandahar)
Solayman Shah was the King of Kandahar (Qandahar) in 1772.
Homayun Shah was the King of Kandahar (Qandahar) from May 18 until June 19, 1793.
Shirdil Khan Mohammadzay was regent of Kandahar (Qandahar) from 1819 until 1826.
Purdil Khan Mohammadzay was regent of Kandahar (Qandahar) from 1826 until 1839.
Shoja` al-Molk Shah was the King of Kandahar (Qandahar) from April 1839 until April 5, 1842.
Safdar Jang Khan Saddozay was regent of Kandahar (Qandahar) in 1842.
Kohandil Khan Mohammadzay (died 1855) was regent of Kandahar (Qandahar) from 1842 until his death in August 1855.
Mohammad Sadeq Khan Mohammadzay was regent of Kandahar (Qandahar) from August until November 1855.
Gholam Haydar Khan Mohammaday (died July 1858) was regent of Kandahar (Qandahar) from November 1855 until his death in July 1858.
List of Emirs of Kandahar (Qandahar)
Mohammad Amin Khan (died 1865) was the Emir of Kandahar (Qandahar) from 1863 until his death in 1865.
Mohammad Afzal Khan was the Emir of Kandahar (Qandahar) from January until October 7, 1867.
Mohammad A`zam Khan was the Emir of Kandahar (Qandahar) from October 7, 1867 until April 1868.
Shir `Ali Khan Barakzay was the Minister – Regent of Kandahar (Qandahar) from 1880 until April 21, 1881.

Quba
The Quba Khanate was a quasi-independent khanate on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan from 1747-1806. The Quba Khanate was founded in the mid-
1680s by Hoseyn Khan. He was the sole survivor of the massacre around 1665, when the Majales branch of the ruling Usmi family of the Qaytaq killed the Yeki-
kend branch. Hoseyn Khan was a small boy who was smuggled to Iran by a few family retainers. He stayed at Shah Soleyman's court and returned to his
homeland in the mid-1680s and settled in Quba where he built Ft. Khudadad. In the year 1689, he came to Bashli and took back the hereditary governorship
from ‗Ali Soltan Usmi of the Yeki-kand branch. He was evicted by his relatives, but his son Ahmad took Bashli in 1706 where he ruled until 1710, when the rival
Majales branch of the family killed him. Under Nader Shah (1736-47) Hoseyn Khan son of Ahmad became governor of Qubeh and Saliyan. Hoseyn Khan was
well respected, and although under his son, Fath Ali Khan, his daughter married the Usmi (the chief of the rival family branch) the relationship remained hostile.
The Khanate achieved quasi-independence after the assassination of Nader Shah in 1747 and achieved its greatest prominence under Fath Ali Khan (Feteli
Khan) (1758-1789). As a result of conquests and successful alliances, Fath Ali Khan seized the important port of Baku, Darband, the Shamakha Khanate and the
Salyan Khanate and organized expeditions as far south as Ardabil in his fight against the Zand dynasty. The Quba Khanate received military assistance from
Russia in 1775, when Russia decided to take action against the Usmi of the Qaytaq, who had kidnapped Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, a German scientist in Russian
service and who had died in captivity. After Fath Ali Khan's death, the Khanate's influence declined. As a result of Mohammad Khan Qajar's conquests and the
devastation its brought, the Alliance of Northern khanates disintegrated. The Khanate was conquered by Russia in 1806, and was fully incorporated into newly
created Shamakha Governorate by 1816.
List of Saytaq Khans of Quba Khanate
Husayn (I) Khan was a Khan of Quba Khanate from 1680 until September 1721. The Quba Khanate was founded in the mid-1680s by Hoseyn Khan. He
was the sole survivor of the massacre around 1665, when the Majales branch of the ruling Usmi family of the Qaytaq killed the Yeki-kend branch. Hoseyn Khan
was a small boy who was smuggled to Iran by a few family retainers. He stayed at Shah Soleyman's court and returned to his homeland in the mid-1680s and
settled in Quba where he built Ft. Khudadad. In the year 1689, he came to Bashli and took back the hereditary governorship from ‗Ali Soltan Usmi of the Yeki-
kand branch. He was evicted by his relatives, but his son Ahmad took Bashli in 1706 where he ruled until 1710, when the rival Majales branch of the family
killed him.
Ahmad Khan was a Khan of Quba Khanate in 1721.
Chulaq Surkhay was a Khan of Quba Khanate from 1721 until 1722. He was also ruler of Qazi Qumuq in Daghestan.
Husayn `Ali Khan ibn Ahmad Khan was a Khan of Quba Khanate from 1722 until 1758.
Fath `Ali Khan (1736 - 1789) was a Khan of Quba Khanate from 1758 until his death in March 1789.Hoseyn Khan son of Ahmad became governor of
Qubeh and Saliyan. Hoseyn Khan was well respected, and although under his son, Fath Ali Khan, his daughter married the Usmi (the chief of the rival family
branch) the relationship remained hostile. The Khanate achieved quasi-independence after the assassination of Nader Shah in 1747 and achieved its greatest
prominence under Fath Ali Khan (Feteli Khan) (1758-1789). As a result of conquests and successful alliances, Fath Ali Khan seized the important port of Baku,
Darband, the Shamakha Khanate and the Salyan Khanate and organized expeditions as far south as Ardabil in his fight against the Zand dynasty. The Quba
Khanate received military assistance from Russia in 1775, when Russia decided to take action against the Usmi of the Qaytaq, who had kidnapped Samuel
Gottlieb Gmelin, a German scientist in Russian service and who had died in captivity. After Fath Ali Khan's death, the Khanate's influence declined.
Ahmad Khan was a Khan of Quba Khanate from 1789 until 1791.
Shaykh `Ali Agha was a Khan of Quba Khanate from 1791 until 1806.
Husayn (II) Khan was a Khan of Quba Khanate from 1806 until 1816.

Ghazni
Ghazni (Pashto/Persian: ی َسغ - Ġaznī; historically known as ٍی َسغ / Ġaznīn and ّ َسغ / Ġazna) was Emirate in Afghanistan
Emir of Ghazni
Musa Jan Khan was the Emir of Ghazni from December 24, 1879 until April 21, 1880.

Salyan Khanate
Salyan (Azerbaijani: Salyan, Russian: Сальяны) was the Khanate in present Salyan Rayon of Azerbaijan. The city has been a continuous settlement of sal tribe,
after whom the city named and occupied by Kura river. Salyan was part ofQuba Khanate during 1680 to 1782 and ruled by various khans.
List of Khans of Salyan Khanate
Hasanbay Khan was a Khan of Salyan Khanate from 1729 until 1748.
Ibrahim' Khan was a Khan of Salyan Khanate from 1748 until 1757.
Kalb `Ali Khan was a Khan of Salyan Khanate from 1757 until 1768.
Qubad Khan was a Khan of Salyan Khanate from 1768 until 1782.

Kashgaria
Kashgaria was a khanate in western China, located near the border with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The Khojas of Eastern Turkistan claimed to be Sayyids and
it is to that fraternity people of Eastern Turkistan still regard them as belonging. Although Ahmad Kasani himself, known as Makhdūm-i-Azam or "Great Master"
to his followers, never visited East Turkestan (today's Xinjiang), many of his descendants, known as Makhdūmzādas, and bearing the title of Khoja (properly
written and pronounced as Khwaja) played important parts in the region's politics during 17th through 19th century. At the death of Makhdūm-i 'Azam (as
Aḥmad Kāsānī was sometimes known) a division took place among the Khojas which resulted in one party becoming followers of the Makhdum's elder son
called Khoja Muhammad Amin better known as Ishan-i-Kalan and another attaching themselves to his younger son Khoja Muhammad Ishaq Wali. The party
of Ishan-i-Kalan seem to have acquired the name of Aq Taghliqs or White mountaineers and that of Ishaq Qara Taghliqs or Black mountaineers but these
names had no reference to the localities where their adherents lived. All were inhabitants of the lowlands and cities of Eastern Turkistan but each section made
allies among the Kyrgyz of the neighboring mountains and apparently subsidized them to fight their party battles. The Kyrgyz tribes of the Western Tien
Shan ranges lying to the north of Kashghar were known as the White mountaineers and Kyrgyz tribes of the Pamir,Karakoram and Kunlun as the Black
mountaineers with Yarkand as their main city of influence, so that the Khojas came to assume the designations of their Kyrgyz allies.
List of Khans of Kashgaria
Abakh Khoja (died 1693/94) (Uyghur: ق پ ئ جو ), born Hidayat al-Lah, a.k.a. Apaq Xoja, or more properly Āfāq Khwāja (Persian: ق فآ هجاو) was a
religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in modern-day southern Xinjiang). He was also known as Khwāja Hidāyat Allāh. In Chinese,
Afaq Khoja's name is usually written as 阿帕克霍加 (Āpàkè Huòjiā) or 阿帕克和卓 (Āpàkè Hézhuō ), occasionally just 阿帕霍加(Āpà Huòjiā); khoja may also
appear as 和卓 (hézhuō). Afaq Khoja was a great-grandson of the famous Naqshbandi Sufi teacher, Ahmad Kasani (1461–1542) (also known as Makhdūm-
i`Azam, "the Great Master"), and was revered as a Sufi teacher in his own right. He was born in 1626 year in Kumul, where his father Muhammad Yusuf Khoja
was preaching, his mother was Zuleiha Begum, the daughter of a rich Bek from the village of Beshkerim in Kashgar vilayet, who settled in Kumul after fleeing
from Kashgar several years before. In 1638, at the age of 12, he came with his father to Kashgar and settled there. Among some Uyghur Muslims, he was
considered a sayid, who is a relative of the prophet Muhammad. As a highly respected religious figure, he was in a clash with ruling elite of Chagatai dynasty and
this conflict does have both religious and secular nature, for the religious part he was an advocator of implementing Islamic law against Mongol Yassa law which
was legal law at that time, for secular part he heavily criticized the luxurious lifestyle which the ruling elites enjoying. This clash was very serious due to the fact
that Chagatai Khan (c. 1185–1241 or 1242) had been appointed by Genghis Khan to see if the Yassa was observed so it eventually resulted expelling of Afaq
Khoja by Ismail Han,the later ruler of Chagatai Khanate. Since Ishaki khojas is another offshoot ofNaqshbandi Sufi, Ismail Han purposefully approached
to Ishaki khojas ( known also as Kara Taghliks, i.e. "Black Mountaineers") for balancing Afaq Khoja influences at aim of preventing dangerous propaganda against
him by followers of Afaq Khoja . This way a clash between religious sects had successfully created at Ismail Han's benefit .However exiled Afaq Khoja had
accomplished a diplomatic mission that had led collapse of Chagatay dynasty in 1678. In this diplomatic mission Tibet Muslims played a crucial role by
convincing桑结嘉错 write a letter of introduction to Dzungar. Using this recommendation letter Afaq Khoja allied with Dzungar and formed a strong coalition
forces which included some Chagatay (Moghul) royal family members like Abdirishit Han,Muhammad Imin Han, Muhammad Momin Akbash who were against
Ismail Han, Moreover there were significant numbers of followers of Afaq Khoja inside the Khanate,the profile of the Afaq Khoja had raised considerably. He
made himself a powerful ruler, controlling several cities around the Tarim Basin, including Khotan, Yarkand, Korla, Kucha and Aksu as well as Kashgar.
According to sources from Ishaki khojas Afaq Khoja paid 100,000 tangas (silver coins) to Dzungar for his military assistants and accepted the mandate of
Dzungars, led by Galdan Boshughtu Khan(1670–1697). Afak Khoja died in 1694 and was succeeded in Kashger by his son Yahya Khoja (r. 1694-1695). After
Yahya Khoja death (he was killed by Apak Khoja's wife Khanam Padshah) the Yarkand Khan Muhammad Imin (Akbash Khan, r. 1695-1706) restored Chagatay
dynasty of Yarkand, attempting to get rid of the Dzungar mandate, but finally he was killed by Kyrgyz leader Arzu Muhammad. Kashgaria was soon reconquered
by Dzungar Khan Tsewang Rabtan. Afaq Khoja's influence spread far outside of Xinjiang. From 1671-72, he was preaching in Gansu (which then included parts
of modernQinghai province), where his father Muhammad Yusuf had preached before. On that tour, he visited Xining (today's Qinghai province),Lintao, and
Hezhou (now Linxia), and was said to convert some Hui and many Salars there to Naqshbandi Sufism. According to the Chinese (Hui) followers of
the Qadiriyya Sufi school, when Afāq Khoja was in Xining in 1672, he gave his blessing to 16-year-old Qi Jingyi (later also known as Hilal al-Din, or Qi Daozu
(1656–1719)), who was then to introduce Qadiriyya into China proper. His two other spiritual descendants, Ma Laichi and Ma Mingxin, went to study in Central
Asia and Arabia, and upon return to China founded two other Naqshbandi menhuans (brotherhoods) there: the Khufiyya and the Jahriyya, respectively. Khoja
Afaq's descendants, known as the Āfāqi khojas, or the Aq Taghliqs, i.e. 'White Mountaineers', played an important part in the local politics south of the Tian
Shan range for almost two centuries after Afāq's death.
Yahya Khoja (died 1694) was a Khan of Kashgaria from 1693 until his death in 1694. Afak Khoja died in 1694 and was succeeded in Kashger by his son
Yahya Khoja. After Yahya Khoja death (he was killed by Apak Khoja's wife Khanam Padshah) the Yarkand Khan Muhammad Imin (Akbash Khan, r. 1695-
1706) restored Chagatay dynasty of Yarkand, attempting to get rid of the Dzungar mandate, but finally he was killed by Kyrgyz leader Arzu Muhammad.
Ahmed Khan (died after 1720) was a Khan of Kashgaria from around 1695 until 1720.
Daniyal Khwaja was a Khan of Kashgaria briefly around 1693/1694 and from 1720 until 1754. The Zunghar Khanate under Tsewang Arabtan had in 1720
appointed Khoja Daniyal as administrator of Altishahr (or the Six Cities) but with Oirat overseers, thus making the Qara Taghliq as overall masters.
Yusuf ibn Daniyal was a Khan of Kashgaria from 1754 until 1757. He would unite his brothers and the cities after an attempt was made on his life and his
brother Khoja Chagan was kidnapped and imprisoned by the Oirats and chiefs of the cities who were against the authority of the Khojas. Yusuf was successful
and in 1754–55 C.E. he freed the territory of Zunghar Khanate's hold.
`Abd Allah Badshah Khwaja ibn Yusuf was a Khan of Kashgaria in 1757.
Burhan ad-Din ibn Ahmad (died 1760) was a Khan of Kashgaria from 1757 until 1759. He along with his brother Khan Khoja rebelled against their Oirat
and subsequently Qing Dynasty Chinese overlords. But were eventually driven out of the region to Badakhshan where the ruler Sultan Shah killed them both.
Kashghar was annexed as an integral part of the Chinese Empire under the Provincial Governor of Ili (region around Ili River). In this war four of the sons of the
Aq Taghliq family were killed in fight and two were taken prisoners to Beijing for execution there. Only one son of Khoja Burhan-ud-din escaped; His name was
Khoja Sa'adat Ali commonly called Sarimsak. He had escaped to Khanate of Kokand. He had three sons there; Yusuf Khoja who lived at Bukhara then there
was Bahauddin and lastly Jahangir Khoja who would raise a rebellion against the Chinese in 1825 C.E.
Jahanghir Khoja, Jāhangīr Khwāja, or Jihangir Khoja (Uyghur: ری گ نهج جو , Chinese: 張格爾; pinyin: Zhānggé'ěr) (1783 - 1828) was a Khan of Kashgaria
from 1820 until his death in 1820 (in rebellion). He was a member of the influential East Turkestan Āfāqī khoja clan, who managed to wrest Kashgaria from
the Qing Empire's power for a few years in the 1820s. Burhan ad-Din, a Khoja of the White Mountain faction, was the grandfather of Jahangir. Before
a rebellion had broken out in May, 1826, Jahangir Khoja managed to flee toKashgar from Kokand (where he had been held in prison in accordance with a secret
agreement, concluded between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing dynasty China, concerning descendants of Appak khoja), taking the opportunity offered by an
earthquake that destroyed most towns in the Ferghana Valley. Among Jahangir's followers were Kirghiz, Tajiks, and White Mountain fighters. After appearing in
Kashgar with only several hundreds of his followers he then quickly increased his force by volunteers, and within several months he collected under his banner
about 200,000 troops, with which he had overthrown Qing power in Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, and Yangihissar, having Qing garrisons annihilated in these
cities. This led to an increase in Slavery in China due to Jahangir enslaving captives. Jahangir's forces captured several hundred Chinese Muslims (tungan or hui)
who were taken to Kokand. Tajiks bought two Chinese slaves from Shaanxi, they enslaved for a year before being returned by the Tajik Beg Ku-bu-te to China.
All Chinese captured, both merchants and the 300 soldiers Janhangir captured in Kashgar had their queues cut off when brought to Kokand and Central Asia as
prisoners. It was reported that many of the Chinese Muslim merchant captives became slaves, accounts of Chinese Muslim slaves in Central Asia increased. The
queues were removed from Chinese Muslim prisoners and then sold or given to various owners, one of them, Nian, ended up as a slave to Prince Batur Khan of
Bukhara, Omar Khan ended up possessing Liu Qifeng and Wu Erqi, the others, Zhu, Tian Li, and Ma Tianxi ended up in various owners but plotted an escape.
The Russians record an incident where they rescued these Chinese muslimmerchants who escaped, after they were sold by Jahangir's Army in Central Asia, and
sent them back to China. Nevertheless, Qing China managed to mobilize "all forces of Empire, that were put into motion" and by September, 1827, collected
in Aksu an army of 70,000, under command of military governor of Ili Chang Ling, that in January, 1828, moved against Jahangir Khoja. Other sources say that
the Chinese Governor lead 80,000 Chinese Muslim troops against Jahangir. His forces were defeated within one month, decisive battle occurred on the shore
of Tuman river north of Kashgar where Jahangir was defeated. Jahangir troops on this battle were more numerous than Qing troops, but the latter was much
better organized being a regular state Army, while Jahangir didn't create a regular Army and disbanded his voluntary Army after gaining control of power in
Western Kashgaria and taking Gulbagh Qing Fortress in Kashgar in the beginning of 1827 and slaughtering of all its defenders (about 12,000 Manchu and
Chinese troops and members of their families). After receiving messages of approaching of Qing Army to Kashgar he again collected voluntary troops, but they
didn't have any artillery units, even 6 big cannons standing on Gulbagh fortress, previously captured from Qings, were not brought and used in the battle, contrary
Qing troops applied well-organized intense cannon fire across Tuman River on positions of Jahangir troops, bringing them into confusion. Mercenaries from
Badakhshan, Kokand, Kunduz fled first, then Kashgarians lost ground, Qing troops rushed to Kashgar and upon entering the city performed the whole-scale
massacre of local population, about 20,000 civilians had been slaughtered. Jahangir himself managed to escape and hide in mountainous Alai valley among
Kyrgyz, it happened on January 29, 1828. Qing Emperor was dissatisfied with such outcome and wrote to Chang Ling: I sent Army to eliminate the Evil, you
were at the lair of the beast, but let him to escape, now all previous victories have no any values, because he is still alive, the germ of the future rebellions.
Jahangir's capture was affair of the former Hakim of Kashgar Ishak Khoja, who sent false Letter to Jahangir, notifying him of departure of main body of Qing
troops and inviting him to Kashgar to regain power. When Jahangir heard this good message, he hurried back to Kashgar, but was attacked by Qing troops from
ambush, captured and delivered to Beijing. There he was exposed to the attention of China's capital's population, being carried for several weeks in a mobile iron
cage through the main streets of Beijing. Finally he was brought to the Daoguang Emperor for interrogation, but, having gone mad due to bad treatment, he
couldn't answer any questions. Immediately after the interrogation was completed he was executed. Jahangir Khoja's body was cut into numerous pieces and his
bones were thrown to dogs. His portrait was buried in the hill near Beijing. He was forty years old at the time of his death.
Muhammad Yusuf Khoja was a Khan of Kashgaria from September until December 1830 (in rebellion). Muhammad Ali Khan, the Khan of Kokand had
recently annexed Kyrgyz territories and now decided in 1829 to attack the Chinese. For this purpose he invited Yusuf Khoja the elder brother of Jahangir Khoja
from Bukhara and set him on the throne of his ancestors. Yusuf took the field in September 1830 with a force of 20,000 men mostly Andijan and Tashkent
troops with some Karatigin levies and Kashghar refugees all under the command of Mingbashi Haq Quli Beg, a brother in law of Muhammad Ali Khan. The
Chinese with 3,000 men advanced to oppose them but were defeated at Mingyol and the invaders pushing on seized Kashghar where Yusuf was at once set on
the throne. Yangihissar, Yarkand, Khotan and Aksu up to the Muzart Pass quickly fell into his possession and the Chinese as before were everywhere massacred
while the arrival of their troops from Ghulja was delayed for want of carriage. This advance of the Kokand army roused the hostility of Emirate of Bukhara
against Andijan and Muhammad Ali Khan to avert the attack threatened by Nasr-Allah Khan bin Haydar Tora at once recalled his General Haq Quli Beg and
Yusuf unable to hold his position unsupported amongst the fickle Muslims of Kashghar returned with him in November or December after a rule of only ninety
days.
Zuhur-ud-din was a Khan of Kashgaria from 1832 until 1846.
Eshan Khan Khoja was a Khan of Kashgaria briefly in 1846. He and his kinsmen began to pillage the houses of the government officials appointed by the
Chinese and seizing their wives and daughters to stock their harems at once abandoned themselves to a course of unbridled licentiousness and debauchery their
troops the while besieging the Chinese garrison shut up in the Mangshin. But within 75 days the Chinese arrived and defeated the Khojas at the Battle of Kok
Rabat.
Ahmed Wang was a Khan of Kashgaria from 1846 until 1857.
Wali Khan (sometimes spelled Vālī-khan) was a Khan of Kashgaria from May until August 1857 (in rebellion). He was a member of the Ak Taghliq clan
of East Turkestan Khojas, who invaded Kashgaria from Kokand on several occasions in the 1850s, and succeeded in ruling Kashgar for a short while. Although
Ak Taghliks had been expelled from Kashgaria by the Qing in the 1760s, they had not abandoned their hopes of reconquering the region, and regularly invaded
it from their base in Khanate of Kokand. Wali Khan followed in the footsteps of his father, Jahangir Khoja, his uncle Yusuf, and cousin Katti Torah, who had all
invaded Kashgaria with various success through the first half of the 19th century. He invaded Kashgaria in 1852 (with Divan Quli), 1855 (with Husayn Ishan
Khoja), and most famously in 1857. In the West Wali Khan is mostly known for his execution of the German explorer Adolf Schlagintweit in 1857, but his
cruelty found many other reflections in the local legends. It is said that he killed so many innocent Muslims that four or six minarets were built from the skulls of
the victims ( kala minara ); or that once, when an artisan made a sabre for him, he instantly tested the weapon with the words, "Well, I'll try it now," by cutting off
the artisan's son head, who had come with his father and was standing nearby. Then, with the words, "Yes, it's a really good sabre," he presented artisan with a gift.
This treatment did not make Kashgarians miss the khoja too much when he was defeated by the Chinese troops after ruling the city for four months. In 1865,
after Kokand Khanate had been successfully invaded by the Russian and its ruler Alimqul killed, Wali Khan joined a large group of Kokandian officials who
decided to try their luck in Kashgaria. They appeared in Kashgar in September 1865, but had to submit to the fellow Kokandian Yaqub Beg, who had already
firmly established himself as the ruler of the city. Wali Khan's followers attempts to bring him to power again very easily foiled by Yaqub Beg, who had Wali
Khan arrested and sent to Yangihissar under armed guard, where he was later poisoned.
Qutlugh Beg was a Khan of Kashgaria from 1864 until February 1865.
Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan was a Khan of Kashgaria from February 1865 until 1866 and from 1866 until 1867.
Muhammad Amin ibn Jahangir Khan was a Khan of Kashgaria in 1866.
Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir Muhammad Mirza (c.1820 – May 29, 1877) was a Khan of Kashgaria from 1867 until his death on May 29,
1877.
Quli Beg ibn Muhammad Ya`qub Beg (1821 – December 28, 1877) was a Khan of Kashgaria from May 29 until his death on December 28, 1877.


Jurchens (Jurcheds)
The Jurchens or Jurcheds (Jurchen language: jušen) were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria (present-day Northeast China) until
the 17th century, when they adopted the name Manchu. They established the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)(Ancun gurun in ancient Jurchen and Aisin
gurun in Standard Manchu) between 1115 and 1122, which lasted until 1234 with the arrival of the Mongols. In 1127 the Jurchens during the Jin–Song
wars conquered the Northern Song and gained control of most of northern China, where they migrated and adopted the practices of the local Confucian culture.
The form Jurchen dates back to at least the beginning of the tenth century AD, when the Balhae kingdom was destroyed by the Khitans. However, cognate
ethnonyms like Sushenor Jichen (稷真) have been recorded in pre-Christian Era geographical works like the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei. It comes from the
Jurchen word jušen, the original meaning of which is unclear. The standard English version of the name, "Jurchen," is an Anglicized transliteration of
the Mongolian equivalent of the Jurchen term jušen (Mongolian: Jürchin, plural is Jürchid), and may have arrived in the West via Mongolian texts. A less
common English transliteration is "Jurched". It is thought by a number of Russian linguists and historians that the Ducher people encountered by Russian
explorers on the middle Amur and lower Sungari in the early 1650s (who were evacuated by the Qing authorities further south a few years later) were the
descendants of the Amur Jurchens, and that the word "Ducher" itself is simply a variation ofjušen.
[7]
Mongolian Jürchin and Jurchen/Manchu Jušen are also similar
to Joseon (朝鮮), one of the several names of Korea.

List of Jurchen Chieftains

"Wild" Jurchens or Sheng Jurchen (生女眞)

Hanpu (函普), later Wanyan Hanpu, was a Jurchen leader from 941 until 960. According to the ancestral story of the Wanyan clan, Hanpu came
from Goryeo when he was sixty-years old, reformed Jurchen customary law, and then married a sixty-year-old local woman who bore him three children. His
descendants eventually united Jurchen tribes into a federation and established the Jin Dynasty in 1115. In 1136 or 1137, Hanpu was retrospectively given
the temple name Jin Shizu (金始祖), or "first ancestor of Jin." Historians usually call the story of Hanpu's founding of the Wanyan clan a legend, but agree that it
indicates the existence of contacts between some Jurchen clans and the states of Goryeo and Balhae in the tenth century. Because Hanpu was supposedly the
sixth-generation ancestor of Wanyan Wugunai (1021–1074), historians postulate that Hanpu lived in the early tenth century, when theJurchens still consisted of
independent tribes. Because the Jurchens had no written records at the time, the story of Hanpu was first transmitted orally.
[2]
According to the History of
Jin (compiled in the 1340s), Hanpu arrived from Goryeo at the age of sixty and settled among the Wanyan clan. To resolve an endless cycle of vendettas between
two families, he managed to make both parties accept a new rule: from then on, the family of a killer would compensate the victim's relatives with a gift of horses,
cattle, and money. HistorianHerbert Franke has compared this law to the old Germanic practice of Wergeld. In recompense for putting an end to the feud,
Hanpu was married to a sixty-year-old woman who then bore him one daughter and two sons. Hanpu and his descendants were then formally received into the
Wanyan clan. The same story recounts that when Hanpu left Goryeo, his two brothers remained behind, one in Goryeo and one in the Balhae area. Herbert
Franke explains that this Jurchen "ancestral legend" probably indicates that the Wanyan clan absorbed immigrants from Goryeo and Balhae sometime in the
tenth century. Frederick W. Mote, who calls this account of the founding of the Wanyan clan a "tribal legend", claims that Hanpu's two brothers (one who stayed
in Goryeo and one in Balhae) might have represented "the tribe's memory of their ancestral links to these two peoples." The Wanyan clan rose to prominence
among the Jurchens after 1000 CE. It was Hanpu's sixth-generation descendant Wanyan Wugunai (1021–1074) who started to consolidate the dispersed Jurchen
tribes into a federation. Wugunai's grand-son Aguda (1068–1123) defeated the Jurchens' Khitan overlords of the Liao dynasty and founded the Jin dynastyin
1115. In 1136 or 1137, soon after Emperor Xizong of Jin (r. 1135–1150) had been crowned, Hanpu was given the posthumous name "Jingyuan Emperor"
(景元皇帝) and thetemple name "Shizu" (始祖), or "first ancestor." In 1144 or 1145, Hanpu's burial site was named "Guangling" (光陵). In December 1145 or
January 1146, his posthumous title was augmented to that of "Yihui Jingyuan Emperor" (懿憲景元皇帝). Hanpu's wife posthumously received the title of
Empress Mingyi 明懿皇后 in 1136. The History of Jin, an official history that was compiled by Mongol scholar Toqto'a in the 1340s, lists Hanpu's family
members as follows. He had three children: Wulu 烏魯 (eldest son and successor), Wolu 斡魯 (second son) and Zhusiban 注思板 (daughter).

Wanyan Wulu (or Wanyan Oro) was a Jurchen leader from 960 until 962. He was the eldest son of Wanyan Hanpo. When Emperor Xizong of Jin was
crowned on 1135, Wanyan Wulu was given posthumous name "Emperor De" (德皇帝). On 1144, Wanyan Wulu's buried site was named as "Xiling" (熙陵). He
had wife Empress Si and two children Wanyan Bahai and Wanyan Beilu.

Wanyan Bahai was a Jurchen Chieftain from 962 until 983. He was son of Jurchen leader Wanyan Wulu, When Emperor Xizong of Jin was crowned at
1135, Wanyan Bahai was given the posthumous name of "Emperor An" (安皇帝). In 1144, Wanyan Bahai's burial site was named "Jianling" (建陵). He had wife
Empress Jie and five children: Wanyan Suike, Wanyan Xinde, Wanyan Xiekude, Wanyan Xieyibao and Wanyan Xielihu.

Wanyan Suike was a Jurchen Chieftain from 983 until 1005. In 1003, under his leadership the Wanyan tribe united five tribes in a federation called the "Five
Nations" (wuguobu 五國部: Punuli (蒲努里/蒲奴里/蒲聶), Tieli 鐵驪, Yuelidu (越裡篤國), Aolimi (奧里米國), and Puali 剖阿里國). He was son
of Jurchen leader Wanyan Bahai. Wanyan Suike was a prominent officer (孛堇, Bojin) in the Wanyan Tribe. When Emperor Xizong of Jin was crowned at
1135, Wanyan Suike was given posthumous name "Emperor Dingzhao" (定昭皇帝) and temple name "Xianzu" (獻祖). At 1144, Wanyan Suike's buried site was
named as "Huiling" (輝陵). He had wife Empress Gongjing and had seven children: Wanyan Shilu, Wanyan Pudu, Wanyan Abaohan, Wanyan Diku, Wanyan
Digunai, Wanyan Salinian and Wanyan Sagezhou.

Wanyan Shilu(Chinese: 完颜石鲁; pinyin: Wányán Shǐlǔ) was the chieftain of the Wanyan (完颜) tribe of the Jurchen people in today's Northeast China and
Russian Maritime Province from 1005 until 1021. He was eldest son of Wanyan Suike. Wanyan Shilu was the Khitan Liao Empire appointed chieftain (太師,
Taishi) of the Wanyan Tribe. When Emperor Xizong of Jin was crowned at 1135, Wanyan Shilu was given posthumous name "Emperor Chengxiang"
(成襄皇帝) and temple name "Zhaozu" (昭祖). At 1144, Wanyan Shilu's buried site was named as "Anling" (安陵). With wife Empress Weishun (with surname
Tudan) he had two children: Wanyan Wugunai and Wanyan Wuguchu, with Concubine Dahumo (from Wusaza Tribe) he had three children: Wanyan Bahei,
Wanyan Pulihei and Wanyan Wolian. With anonymous concubine (from Goryeo) he had one children Wanyan Hushida

Wanyan Wugunai (Chinese: 完颜乌骨迺 or 完颜乌古迺) (died 1074) was the chieftain of the Wanyan (完颜) tribe of the Jurchen people in
today's Northeast China and Russian Maritime Province from 1021 until his death in 1074. Wugunai was the eldest son of Wanyan Shilu. Like his father,
Wanyan Wugunai was the Khitan Liao Empire appointed chieftain (太師, Taishi) of the Wanyan Tribe. Moreover, Wugunai became Liao Empire's "Jiedushi", a
powerful military governor in the region of Wanyan Tribe. Later on, Wugunai's successors - his son Wanyan Helibo and grandsonWanyan Aguda - held that title
as well. Eventually, in the 12th century Aguda overthrew the Liao Empire and established the Jurchen Jin Empire in northern China. Historical sources describe
Wugunai as a brave warrior, great eater and hard drinker, and a lover of women. When Emperor Xizong of Jin was crowned at 1135, Wanyan Wugunai was
given posthumous name "Emperor Huihuan" (惠桓皇帝) and temple name "Jingzu" (景祖). At 1144, Wanyan Wugunai's buried site was named as "Dingling"
(定陵). With wife Empress Zhaosu (with surname Tangkuo) he had five children: Wanyan Hezhe (father of Wanyan Sagai and grandfather of Wanyan
Nianhan), Wanyan Helibo (father of Wanyan Aguda, the founder of the Jin Dynasty), Wanyan Hesun, Wanyan Polashu and Wanyan Yingge. With Concubine
Zhusihui (from Khitan) he had one children Wanyan Hezhenbao and with Concubine Diben (with surname Wendihen) he had three children: Wanyan Mapo,
Wanyan Alihemen and Wanyan Manduhe.

Wanyan Helibo (Chinese: 完颜劾里钵; pinyin: Wanyan Hélǐbō; Wade–Giles: Wan-yen Ho-li-po
[1]
) (1039—1092) was the chieftain of the Wanyan (完颜)
tribe of the Jurchen people from 1074 until his death in 1092. was the second son of Wanyan Wugunai. Like his grandfather, Wanyan Helibo was
the Khitan Liao Empire appointed chieftain (太師, Taishi) of the Wanyan tribe. Like his father, Helibo was a powerful military leader in the region around the
Wanyan tribe. In the 12th century, three of Helibo's sons - Wuyashu, Aguda, and Wanyan Wuqimai - were to rule the Jurchen in succession. When Emperor
Xizong of Jin was crowned in 1135, Wanyan Helibo was given the posthumous name "Emperor Shengsu" (聖肅皇帝) and temple name "Shizu" (世祖). In 1144,
Wanyan Helibo's burial site was named "Yongling" (永陵).With wife Empress Yijian (with surname Nalan) he had five children: Wanyan Wuyashu, Wanyan
Aguda, Wanyan Wodai, Wanyan Wuqimai and Wanyan Xieye. With Concubine (with surname Tudan) he had two children Wanyan Wosai and Wanyan
Wozhe, with Concubine (with surname Pusan) he had one children Wanyan Wugunai, with Concubine (with surname Zhuhu) he had one children Wanyan
Dumu, with Concubine (also with surname Zhuhu) he had on children Wanyan Chala and with Concubine (with surname Wugulun) he had one children
Wanyan Wudubu.

Wanyan Pochishu, 完顏頗剌淑 (金肅宗) was the chieftain of the Wanyan (完颜) tribe of the Jurchen people from 1092 until 1094.

Wanyan Yingge (完颜盈歌) Muzong (金穆宗) (1094–1103) was the chieftain of the Wanyan (完颜) tribe of the Jurchen people from 1094 until 1103.

Wanyan Wuyashu (完顏烏雅束; 1061 – 1113) was the chief of the Jurchen Wanyan tribe from 1103 until his death in 1113. He was the elder brother of
Taizu (Wanyan Aguda), founder of the Jin Dynasty. He was given the temple name Kangzong (康宗). Wuyashu was born to Shizu (Wanyan Helibo) in 1061 and
inherited from his uncle Muzong (Wanyan Yingge) in 1104. Muzong died in the middle of the conquest of Helandian (曷懶甸, Hamgyŏngdo, North Korea)
after pacifying the Tumen River basin. Wuyashu resumed the project in the next year. Under his order, Shi Shihuan (石適歡) led Jurchen army of the Tumen
River basin, subdued Jurchen in Helandian and advanced southward to chase about 1,800 remnants who defected to Goryeo. Goryeo did not hand them over
but sent Im Gan (林幹) to intercept the Wanyan army. However, Shi Shihuan defeated Im Gan north of the Chŏngp'ŏyng wall and invaded northeastern frontier
of Goryeo. Goryeo dispatched Yun Gwan (尹瓘) but lost a battle again. As a result, Wuyashu subjugated the Jurchen in Helandian. In 1107, Goryeo sent
delegate Heihuanfangshi (黑歡方石) to celebrate Wanyan Wuyashu's inheritance of the chieftainship of the Wanyan Tribe, and promised to return those
Helandian Jurchens who escaped to Goryeo. However, when Wanyan's delegate Wanyan Aguo(完顏部阿聒) and Wulida Shenkun(烏林答部勝昆) arrived in
Goryeo, they were killed and Goryeo dispatched five large armies led by Yun Gwan to Helandian. The Goryeo army destroyed a hundred Jurchen villages and
built nine fortresses there. Wanyan Wuyashu thought about giving up Helandian, but Wanyan Aguda convinced Wanyan Wuyashu to dispatch Wanyan
Wosai(斡賽) to fight Goryeo. Wosai also built nine fortresses facing the Goryeo's nine fortresses. After one-year battle, the Wanyan army won two fortresses and
eliminated Goryeo reinforcements. Goryeo and the Jurchen achieved settlement and, as a result, Goryeo withdrew from the occupied areas. He also pacified
the Suifen River basin. When he died in 1113, his younger brother Aguda succeeded.

List of Jianzhou Jurchens Chieftains

The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese: 建州女真) were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were the southernmost
group of the Jurchen people (the others being the Wild Jurchens (Chinese: 野人女真) and Haixi Jurchens (Chinese: 海西女真) in the fourteenth century,
inhabiting modern Jilin (Chinese: 吉林) province in China.

Odoli Clan (1405–1616) (俄朵里 or 斡都里 or 斡朵里 or 吾都里 or 斡朵怜)

Bukūri Yongšon (布库里雍顺) was the chieftain of Jianzhou Jurchen of the Odoli Clan people in early 15th century.

Möngke Temür (Hanzi : 猛哥帖木耳/猛哥帖木儿) or Dudu Mentemu (ᡩᡠ ᡩ ᡠ ᠮᡝ ᠨ ᡨ ᡝ ᠮ ᡠ ; Hanzi: 孟特穆) (1370 – 1433) was the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain of
the Odoli tribe, one of the three tribes of the lower Sunggari river valley in Manchuria from 1405 until his death on November 30, 1433. In the 1380s the tribe
migrated southward towards the lower valley of the Tumen River and settled in Womuho (present day Hoeryong). In 1388, the Hongwu Emperor established
contact with three tribes of the Jianzhou Jurchens, the Odoli, Huligai and Tuowen and attempted to enlist them as allies against the Mongols. There was a general
migration south of the various Jurchen groups around the start of the 15th century and the three tribes established themselves around the Tumen River (near the
modern border of China, Russia and North Korea). Not long afterwards, the various Jurchens began accepting Ming titles from the Yongle Emperor as the
Military Commanders of the three Wei, namely Jianzhou Wei (建州衛), Jianzhou Left Wei (建州左衛) and Jianzhou Right Wei (建州右衛). The Wei (衛) was
military unit composed of 5 Suo (所), and each Suo was staffed with 1100 soldiers. As Military Commanders of Wei, they were required to go to Beijing every
year to pay tribute to the Emperor. In 1395, he visited the Korean court to present tribute to the Korean king. As a result in 1404, he was awarded an honorary
military position by the Koreans. During this time, the Ming court frequently sent envoys to local chieftains to presuade local chieftains to recognize the
suzerainity of the Ming emperor, however Möngke Temür did not respond. This was to the delight of the Korean court and in 1405, he was nominated to be a
myriarch under the Korean king. In April 1405, a Ming envoy of Jurchen origin Wang Jiaohuati, was sent to Korea to persuade the Korean king along with
Möngke Temür to enter into tributary relations with the Ming. Ahacu (阿哈出, later also known as Li Sicheng 李思誠), chief of the Huligai, became commander
of the Jianzhou Wei (建州衛) in 1403, named after a Yuan Dynasty political unit in the area. Möngke Temür of the Odoli became leader of the Jianzhou Left
Wei (建州左衛) and accepted the Chinese surname of Tóng (童) not long afterward. The Korean king ordered Möngke Temürnot to comply with the request of
Ming, he first complied with this order only to capitulate, visiting Nanjing in September 1405, leaving with an appointment as regional commissioner. In the
following years, the Jurchen tribes along with Möngke Temür's Odoli tribe fought skirmishes and battles with the Koreans. With the constant insecurity in the
presence of the Koreans, Meng and his followers migrated westward, settling in May 1411 in Fengzhou, in the valley of the Hoifa river, an affluent of the Sunggari
river, where the Jianzhou guard under Šigiyanu (Li Xianzhong) was located. Here the Ming government would establish the Jianzhou Left Guard from the
existing Jianzhou guard with Möngke Temür as the regional commander of the new guard. During this time, the Yongle Emperor began frequently sending
expeditionary forces towards the Mongols, Möngke Temür and his followers would take part in one such expedition in 1422. With the threat of retaliatory
invasions of the Mongols and the growing dominance of Li Manzhu, Möngke Temür and his followers, who numbered more than six thousand were forced to
leave Fengzhou and head back to Womuho in 1423. After his return, Möngke Temür decided that the best policy of self-preservation would be to serve both
Ming and Korean interests. In 1426, he visited Beijing and awarded a promotion as assistant commissioner in chief. His half brother Fanca visited Beijing in
1432, presented tribute, and was promoted to assistant commissioner. In 1432, Möngke Temür visited Beijing again and was promoted to commissioner in chief
while Fanca was made a regional commissioner. Starting in 1427, Möngke Temür had began sending his eldest son Agu to visit the Korean court with the hopes
that Agu would become a royal bodyguard in Korea. On November 30, 1433, Möngke Temür and his son Agu were killed in a riot led by Yang Mutawuta, a
Jurchen battalion commander from a different tribe in the area of Kaiyuan. Yang Mutawuta had followed Mongke Temur and his son. Temple name : Zhàozǔ
(Hanzi : 肇祖).

Cungšan (Hanzi: 充善, 1419 - 1467) was a chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens of Odoli clan from 1433 until his death in 1467. Temple name: (Hanzi: 纯帝) In
1442, a succession dispute between Cungšan and his half brother Fanca led to a division in the Jianzhou Left Guard. Cungšan inherited his father's position as
head of the Jianzhou Left Guard while his brother Fanca was made head of a new separate Jianzhou Right Guard by the Ming Dynasty. After the death of his
half-brother Fanca, Cungšan brought the Right Guard under his control.

Fanca (died 1458) was a chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens of the Odoli clan (head of a new separate Jianzhou Right Guard by the Ming Dynasty) from 1442
until his death in 1458. In 1442, a succession dispute between Cungšan and his half brother Fanca led to a division in the Jianzhou Left Guard. Cungšan
inherited his father's position as head of the Jianzhou Left Guard while his brother Fanca was made head of a new separate Jianzhou Right Guard by the Ming
Dynasty. After the death of his half-brother Fanca, Cungšan brought the Right Guard under his control.

Tolo (妥罗) (died 1481) was the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli tribe from 1467 until his death in 1481. His Temple name was Xīngdì (兴帝).

Sibeoci Fiyanggū (锡宝齐篇古) (died 1522) was the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli tribe from 1481 until his death in 1522. His Temple name was
Zhèngdì (正帝).

Fuman (福满) (died 1542) was the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli tribe from 1522 until his death in 1542. His Temple name was Xingzu (兴祖).
Giocangga (Manchu: ; Chinese: 覺昌安; pinyin: Juéchāng'ān) (died 1582) was the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli tribe from 1542 until 1571. He
was the grandfather of Nurhaci, the man who was to unify the Jurchen peoples and begin building what later became the Manchu state. Both he and his
son Taksi went to the aid of Nurhaci's uncle Atai (阿台 Ātái) whose city was being besieged by a rival Jurchen chieftain Nikan Wailan (ᠨᡳ ᡴ ᠠ ᠨ ᠸᠠ ᡳᠯ ᠠ ᠨ;
尼堪外蘭 Níkān Wàilán), who promised the governance of the city to whoever would kill Atai. One of Atai's underlings rebelled and murdered him. Both
Giocangga and Taksi were originally under the command of the Ming general Li Chengliang who was siding with Nikan Wailan. In the mist of battle Li thought
they had mutinied as they were left in the battlefield. They were killed in the aftermath by Nikan Wailan. His temple name was Jǐngzǔ (景祖). In 2005, a study
led by a researcher at the British Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute suggested that Giocangga might be the ancestor of over 1.5 million people, mostly in
northeastern China and Mongolia. This was attributed to Giocangga's and his descendants' many wives and concubines. It was estimated that the average man in
the time of Giocangga would have only 20 offspring as of 2005. He had five brothers: Soocangga (索長阿 Suǒcháng'ā), Boosi (寶實 Bǎoshí), Desikū
(德世庫 Déshìkù), Leodan (劉闡 Liúchǎn) and Boolungga (包朗阿 Bāolǎng'ā). He had also five sons: Lidun Baturu (禮敦巴圖魯 Lǐdūn Bātúlǔ), Argun
(額爾袞 Éěrgǔn), Jaikan (界堪 Jièkān), Taksi and Taca Fiyanggū (塔察篇古 Tǎchá Piāngǔ).
Taksi (Manchu: ; Chinese: 塔克世; pinyin: Tǎkèshì, died 1583) was a Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli Tribe from 1571 until his death in 1583 and
father of Nurhaci, founder of the Qing Dynasty, and the fourth son of Giocangga. A member of the Gioro clan, he was killed in an attack on Gure (古哷 Gǔlè)
by a rival Jurchen chieftain Nikan Wailan in 1582. His temple name was Xiǎnzǔ (顯祖). His posthumous name was the Xuān Emperor (宣皇帝 Xuān
Huángdì). He had five sons: Nurhaci, Murhaci (穆爾哈齊 Mùěrhāqí) (1561–1620), Šurhaci, Yarhaci (雅爾哈齊 Yǎěrhāqí) (1565–1589) and Bayara
(巴雅喇 Bāyǎlā) (1582–1624). He had also four daughters.

Huligai Clan (胡里改) (1403–?)

Ahacu (阿哈出) (Li Sicheng) (李思誠) (died 1409 or 1410) was a Jurchen chieftain of the Huligai Tribe in early 15th century.

Šigiyanu (釋加奴) (Li-Hsien-chung/Li Xianzhong) (李顯忠) was a Jurchen chieftain of the Huligai Tribe in the first half 15th century.

Li-Man-chu (Li Manzhu (李滿住) (1407 – 1467) was a Jurchen chieftain of the Huligai Tribe in early 15th century.

Suksuhu River / Suksuhu bira (蘇克素護 or 苏克苏护 毕拉) Clan: Aisin Gioro

Wang Gao (王杲) (died 1575) was a Jurchen chieftain of the Aisin Gioro Tribe in the second half 16th century.

Atai (阿台) (died 1583) was a Jurchen chieftain of the Aisin Gioro Tribe from 1575 until his death in 1583.

Nikan Wailan (尼堪外兰) (died 1586) was a Jurchen chieftain of the Aisin Gioro Tribe from 1583 until his death in 1586.

List of Haixi Jurchens Chieftains

The Haixi Jurchens (Chinese: 海西女真) were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were inhabiting an area that
consists of parts of modern day Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia in China.

Hulun confederation (扈伦)

Hūlun (Chinese: 扈倫) was a powerful alliance of Jurchen tribes in the late 16th century, based primarily in what is today Jilin province of China. The Hūlun
alliance was formed by Wan (d. 1582), the leader of the Hada tribal federation, which had drawn its importance from the control of commerce between the late-
MingLiaodong and Jurchen tribes to the east via Guangshun Pass (east of Kaiyuan, which is located near the northern tip of today's Liaoning Province). Besides
the Hada themselves, the Hūlun included three other tribal federations, known as Ula, Yehe, and Hoifa. While the Hūlun people were mostly of Jurchen origin,
they had been heavily influenced by the Mongol language and culture, and intermarried with the neighboring Khorchin andKharchin Mongols. Therefore, were
viewed by their southern neighbors – Jianzhou Jurchens, which were in the late 16th century led by Nurhaci – as Monggo ("Mongols"). The Hūlun's khan Wan
aspired to paramount leadership in the region, establishing a network of political and business relations with Jurchen and Mongol leaders, as well as with
theMing governor of Liaodong, Li Chengliang. Nurhaci, the chief of Jianzhou Jurchens, was Wan's son-in-law, and, in Pamela Crossley's view, viewed Wan and
his Hūlun as role models for himself and his (Late) Jin Empire. Many years later, long after Nurhaci had renamed Jurchens to Manchus, and both Wan and
Nurhaci were dead, Qing historians referred to Wan as one of the first great leaders of the "Manchu nations". In the closing years of the 16th century, Hūlun
tribes started recognizing Nurhaci's supremacy although, in some cases, the Nurhaci-appointed chief of a tribe would then try to assert his independence, and a
new war would result, as it was the case with Bujantai, the leader of the Ula. Eventually, all four tribes were fully incorporated into Nurhaci's empire (Hada 1601,
Hoifa 1607, Ula 1613, Yehe 1619).

Kesina (克什纳) was a leader Hūlun Confederation (Chinese: 扈倫) powerful alliance of Jurchen tribes in late 16th century.

Yehe or Yehe Nara (葉赫 / 叶赫) Clan

Singgen Darhan (星垦达尔汉/星根達爾漢) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Yehe or Yehe Nara Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in late 16th
century.

Širugeminggedo (席尔克明噶图/席爾克明噶圖) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Yehe or Yehe Nara Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in late 16th
century.

Cirugani (齐尔噶尼/齊爾噶尼) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Yehe or Yehe Nara Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in late 16th century.

Jukungge ( 祝孔格/褚孔格) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Yehe or Yehe Nara Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in late 16th century.

Taicu (太杵) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Yehe or Yehe Nara Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in late 16th century.

Yangginu (楊吉砮) & Cinggiyanu (淸佳砮) (died 1584) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Yehe or Yehe Nara Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in late
16th century.

Narimbulu (纳林布录) (died 1613) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Yehe or Yehe Nara Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) from 1584 until his death in
1613.
Gintaisi (Manchu: ; Chinese: 金台石, 錦台什, alternatively Jintaiji Chinese: 金台吉) (died September 29, 1619), was a Haixi Jurchen beile (chieftain) of the
Yehe tribal confederation (within Hulun Confederation) from 1613 until his death on September 29, 1619. He was the younger brother of Narimbulu, and
became one of the two beile of the Yehe tribe after the death of his brother which took place sometime before 1613. In 1613, Bujantaithe beile of the Ula tribe
had fled to the Yehe after the defeat of his forces at the hands of Nurhaci. Gintaisi gave him protection and when attacked by Nurhaci, he appealed to theMing
Chinese for help. In 1615, he attempted to appease the Mongols on the west by marrying his cousin (who had eighteen years before been promised to Nurhaci)
to the Khalkabeile. The alliance with the Chinese in the end proved to be a futile arrangement, for in 1619 Nurhaci defeated a large Chinese army, together with
its Yehe auxiliaries at the Battle of Sarhu and then proceeded to besiege Gintaisi in his own stronghold. Despite attempts at a settlement by Nurhaci's son, Hong
Taiji the future emperor who was also Gintaisi's nephew, the fighting continued until both Gintaisi and his cousin Buyanggu (布揚古) had been captured. Gintaisi
was either executed by hanging by he committed suicide, but not before he allegedly cursed Nurhaci that as long as one of his descendants lived, even a female
one, he or she would remember the clan's vendetta and bring down the Aisin Gioro. With his death, the independent existence of the Yehe tribe came to an end
and the last of the Jurchen tribes under the Hūlun (alliance) were brought under the control of Nurhaci, but many of its members, including his descendants,
became prominent in the service of Nurhaci and of the succeeding Manchu emperors. Even the Empress Dowager Cixi traced her descent back to the Yehe
division of the Nara clan, and recognized Yangginu, the father of Gintaisi, as her great ancestor.

Hata/Hada Clan (哈達 / 哈达) (1543–1601)

Wangji Wailan (旺济外兰(王忠)) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Hata/Hada Tribe in the first half 16th century.

Wang Tai (萬汗/王台, died 1582) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Hata/Hada Tribe from 1548 until his death in 1582. The Hūlun alliance was formed
by Wang Tai, the leader of the Hada tribal federation, which had drawn its importance from the control of commerce between the late-MingLiaodong and
Jurchen tribes to the east via Guangshun Pass (east of Kaiyuan, which is located near the northern tip of today's Liaoning Province). Besides the Hada themselves,
the Hūlun included three other tribal federations, known as Ula, Yehe, and Hoifa.

Fan Shang (反商) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Hata/Hada Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) from 1582 until 1594.

Hurhan (扈尔罕) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Hata/Hada Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) from 1594 until 1596.

Menggebulu (孟格布录) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Hata/Hada Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) from1596 until 1599.

Urgudai (武尔古岱) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Hata/Hada Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) from 1599 until 1601.

Ula (烏拉/乌拉) Clan (1405–1616)

Buyan (布顔) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Ula Tribe.

Buyangan (布顔干) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Ula Tribe.

Mantai (满泰) (?–1596) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Ula Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in the late 16th century. He was the father of Lady
Abahai (阿巴亥).
Bujantai (Manchu: ; Chinese: 布占泰) (died 1618) was a Jurchen beile (chieftain) of the Ula tribal confederation (within Hulun Confederation) from 1596
until his death in 1618. Bujantai was descended from Nacibulu (納奇卜祿), the ancestor of the Nara lineages of Ula and Hada. Tradition spoke of Nacibulu as
having attracted the attention of some Mongols who desired to make him subservient to them. When the Mongola attempted to capture him, however, he
successfully subdued them, and when they shouted to inquire his name he responded with a defiant challenge, "Nara". In this manner the important Nara clan is
supposed to have received its name. Nacibulu settled near modern Jilin on theSungari river, which was often called simply the Ula, or "the river". There he
became a successful hunter and trapper who attracted many followers. Several generations later, two brothers among his descendants, Kesina (克什納) and
Gudui Juyan (古對珠延), became the ancestors of the Hada and Ula branches of the Nara clan. Buyan (布延), grandson of Gudui juyan, fortified the settlement
on the Sungari and named himself beile of the Ula tribe. Two of his grandsons were Mantai (滿泰) and Bujantai, both of whom would succeed to the position of
beile of the Ula. The Yehe tribe under the beile Bujai (布齋,布戒) and Narimbulu assembled the various groups in the Hūlun alliance, along with
some Khorchin Mongols, to oppose the rising power of Nurhaci. Bujantai led the Ula contingent, but was taken prisoner by Nurhaci when the confederation was
defeated at Mt. Gure in October 1593. Nurhaci refrained from killing Bujantai and after holding him for three years as a retainer sent him back under escort to
the Ula. The Ula beile Mantai, and his son having recently been executed by their tribesmen, Bujantai was released by Nurhaci, established as beile in his
brother's place and as tributary to the lord of the Jianzhou, Nurhaci. In order to cement ties with Nurhaci, he sent a sister as wife to Nurhaci's brother, Šurhaci,
and in 1597 joined the Yehe and other tribes in a formal truce with Nurhaci. Two years Bujantai would received a daughter of Šurhaci as a wife, and in 1601 he
arranged the marriage of his niece, the future Empress Xiao Lie Wu to Nurhaci. Two years later after unsuccessful attempts to secure a daughter of the Mongol,
Minggan 明安, chief of the Borjigit tribe, he requested another wife from Nurhaci and was given a second daughter of Šurhaci. Even though these matrimonial
ties existed between the Ula and Nurhaci, a war broke out in 1607 between Nurhaci and the Ula in which the latter were defeated with the loss of some towns.
Bujantai then promised Nurhaci that if he was given another wife then a truce would be called for. Nurhaci then sent one of his own daughters to him and this
would secured a peace between the two for four years. In 1612 Bujantai tried to bribe the Yehe beile, Bujai, into giving him for a wife a daughter who had been
promised to Nurhaci. He also subjected Nurhaci's daughter whom he had married to indignity by "shooting whistling arrows at her". Enraged by these acts,
Nurhaci took personal command of an expedition which completely defeated the Ula tribe in 1613. Bujantai fled to the Yehe under the beile Gintaisi who gave
him refuge. He died before the Yehe tribe also fell into Nurhaci's hands.

Hoifa Clan (輝發 / 辉发) (?–1607)

Wangginu ( 汪加奴(王机砮) was a Haixi Jurchen chieftain of the Hoifa Tribe (within Hulun Confederation) in late 16th century.
Baindari (Manchu: ; Chinese: 拜音達里) (?-1607) was a Jurchen beile (chieftain) of the Hoifa tribal confederation (within Hulun Confederation) in early
17th century. He was a member of the Nara clan although his ancestors were originally members of the Ikderi clan and belonged originally to the Nimaca tribe
on the banks of the Amur river. Migrating southward, they put themselves under the protection of some Nara clansmen. Then, after slaying seven oxen in a
sacrifice to Heaven, they exchanged their own name for that of their protectors. Six generations later, his grandfather Wangginu, consolidated his position by
establishing a settlement at Mount Hūrki on the Huifa river, where the natural advantages of his location enabled him to withstand repeated attacks from the
Mongols. On the death of his grandfather Wangginu, who was beile of the Hoifa, Baindari murdered seven uncles who might have stood in his way and
proclaimed himself beile of the Hoifa. In 1593, he joined the Hoifa with the tribes of Yehe, Hada, Ula, Khorchin, Sibe, Guwalca, Jušeri, and Neyen
against Nurhaci. This alliance led by Narimbulu of the Yehe would prove unsuccessful as Nurhaci defeated the allied tribes at the Battle of Gure. In 1595,
Nurhaci retaliated by killing two of Baindari's generals and taking the town of Dobi. In 1597 theHūlun tribes agreed on a truce with Nurhaci and thereafter
Baindari, whose territory was situated between the Yehe towns and Nurhaci's center of operations, wavered in allegiance from one to the other, finally deciding to
trust in the impregnability of his city to defend him against both. In 1607, however, Nurhaci invaded the region, killed Baindari and his son, and thus conquered
the Hoifa tribe.


Zhongshan

Zhongshan (Chinese: 中山; pinyin: Zhōngshān, c. 6th century BC – c. 296 BC) was a Di state created by the nomadic Xianyu tribe
[1]
in China during the
later Zhou Dynasty. It was located on the plain east of the Shanxi plateau near the modern city of Baoding inHebei. Its name means "Central Mountains", as
opposed to the Western Mountains of Shanxi or the Eastern Mountains of Shandong. In Chinese sources, it is called a state of the Baidi.
[2]
The state was founded
in the sixth century BC (or in 414 BC
[3]
) by descendants of the Baidi (lit. "White Di") who had been driven from Shaanxi into Hebei, where they founded their
first city with assistance from the State of Wei.
[4]
By around 400 BC, it had adopted much of Chinese culture, but it was not considered fully Chinese. Around 300
BC, Zhongshan's capital was at either Pingshan or Lingshou, both about 75 miles southwest of Baoding and 25 miles northwest of Shijiazhuang. It was
surrounded by the State of Zhao to the west and the State of Yan to the east. It had fortified cities and 1,000 war chariots in its army. Archeology shows a material
culture similar to the rest of China at that time. In 408 BC, Zhongshan was attacked by Marquis Wen of Wei who first had to get permission to cross the territory
of the State of Zhao. It was conquered by Wei in 406 but regained its independence in 377 BC. It reached the peak of its power during the reign of King Cuo of
Zhongshan (323-309) who had proclaimed himself king in 323 BC. Zhongshan forces, together with the State of Qi, invaded the State of Yan and captured
dozens of its cities. Later, King Cuo invaded the State of Zhao and broke it into two parts. In 307 BC Zhao annexed parts of Zhongshan. After King Cuo died,
his descendants proved less capable, leading to the overthrow of Zhongshan by Zhao in (probably
[5]
) 296 BC. The area of today's Ding County was part of
the Zhongshan Commandery during the Han Dynasty. The commandery capital, Zhongshan, was an economic center from the Eastern Han Dynasty until
the Tang Dynasty. It was the capital of Later Yan during the reign of its first emperor, Murong Chui. In the 1970s, the tomb of King Cuo was excavated.

List of rulers of Zhongshan

Wengong of Zhongshan (died 415 BC) was a ruler of the state of Zhongshan from ? until his death in 415 BC.

Shanwu Gong of Zhongshan (died 406 BC) was a ruler of the state of Zhongshan from 414 BC until his death in 407 BC.

Huangong of Zhongshan was a ruler of the state of Zhongshan from 380 BC until 350 BC.

Cheng of Zhongshan was a ruler of the state of Zhongshan from 349 BC until 328 BC.

Cuo of Zhongshan was a ruler of the state of Zhongshan during the Warring States period in ancient China from 327 BC until 310 BC. As the son of Duke
Cheng of Zhongshan, he inherited the state from his father and expanded it to its peak size. He attacked Yan to the north and Zhao to the south and expanded
his territory to nearly double what he inherited. His new gains from Zhao broke the state of Zhao into North and South pieces, laying the future cause for the
state of Zhao to destroy the country. The Tomb of King Cuo of Zhongshan is an archaeological site located in Sanji, Pingshan, Hebei, China. The tomb was built
near the ancient city of Lingshou (靈壽) on the Hutuo River. The tomb contained the burial of King Cuo. Initially, farmers discovered a large river rock
inscribed in archaic (large seal) characters during the 1940s or 1950s and stored it for several decades. In the early 1970s, local artifact administrators received
news of this rock and examined it. A copy was sent to Li Xueqin, a renowned expert on ancient Chinese writing. He immediately recognized its importance. The
inscription was about two men, Gongsheng De and Jiujiang Man, who were servants and fishers during the king's life and later guarded his tomb after his death.
Later, the king was known to be King Cuo from inscriptions on bronze ware. The plans for the tomb complex was engraved on a bronze diagram found inside
the tomb (this is the earliest architectural drawing known from ancient China). The original plan was designed to house five tomb complexes (xiangtang 饗堂) in a
row, with the tomb of the king in the center, flanked by tombs of two queens, then flanked by outer tombs of two consorts; the tomb complex was never
completed as designed. The site was excavated in the 1970s. Although the central burial chamber had already been looted in antiquity, archaeologists were still
able to uncover hundreds of bronze, jade, lacquer and pottery artifacts. Six others were buried alongside the king. Two horse and chariot pits were included in
King Cuo's burial complex. Three boats were uncovered, and an underground canal linked the tomb to the Hutuo River. The style and usage of bronze artifacts
underwent a drastic change during the fourteenth year of King Cuo's reign. Among the changes was a de-emphasis on ritual bronze vessels and a new focus on
luxury bronze objects. A bronze vessel from the tomb recorded a previously unrecorded invasion of Yan during that year that may have contributed to the change
in style; some archaeologists believe that the new techniques may have been introduced by Yan artisans or copied from looted Yan bronzes.
[1]
The new technique
included the use of inlaid silver and gold onto bronze objects, often portraying mythical beasts.

Wang of Zhongshan was a ruler of the state of Zhongshan from 309 BC until 299 BC.

Wang Shang of Zhongshan was a ruler of the state of Zhongshan from 298 BC until 296 BC.



Kumul Khanate

The Kumul Khanate was a semi-autonomous feudal khanate within the Qing dynasty and then the Republic of China until it was abolished by Xinjiang
governor Jin Shuren in 1930. The khans of Kumul were direct descendants of the khans of the Chagatai Khanate. It came under Qing rule in 1757 after theTen
Great Campaigns and remained a Khanate as a part of the Qing empire. The Ming dynasty established a tributary relationship with the Kumul Khanate, which
was heavily involved in the Ming–Turpan conflict. The Khanate paid tribute to the Ming. The Kumul Khanate under Sa'id Baba supported Chinese
Muslim Ming loyalists during the 1646 Milayin rebellion against the Qing dynasty. After the defeat of the Ming loyalists, during which the Kumul Prince
Turumtay was killed at the hands of Qing forces, Kumul submitted to the Qing. Beiginning in 1647, the rulers of Hami submitted to the Qing dynasty and sent
tribute. The title "Jasak Darhan", was granted to Abdullah Beg, ruler of Hami. The khanate had fought against the Zunghars for the Qing. Kumul continued as a
vassal khanate when Xinjiang was changed into a province in 1884 after the Dungan revolt. The khans also were given the title of Qinwang (Prince of the First
Rank Chinese: 親王; pinyin: qīn wáng), by the Qing empire. The khans were allowed enormous power by the Qing court, with the exception of administering
execution, which had to be allowed by a Chinese official posted in Kumul. The khans were officially vassals to the Emperor of China, and every six years were
required to visit Beijing to be a servant to the Emperor during a period of 40 days. It was also known as the principality of Kumul, and the Chinese called it
Hami. The khans were friendly to Chinese rule and authorities. The Khan Muhammad and his son and successor Khan Maqsud Shah heavily taxed his subjects
and extorted forced labor, which resulted in two rebellions against his rule in 1907 and 1912. The Kumul Khanate was the only part of Xinjiang which was not
opened to settlement by Han Chinese. All other parts were subject to settlement encouraged by the government. The khan was assisted by a
chancellor/vizer/chief minister in his court. The last khan, Maqsud Shah, had Yulbars Khan, the tiger Prince of Hami as his chancellor. The khan paid tribute to
the Xinjiang government in Ürümqi. The Han Chinese Governor of Xinjiang, Yang Zengxin was a monarchist, and tolerated the khanate, and was friendly
toward the khan Maqsud Shah. Around the 1920s Japanese secret agents began exploring the Kumul area. It was the fact that the khanate existed which
prevented the Uyghurs from rebelling, since the khanate represented a government where a man of their ethnicity and religion was reigning. The abolition of the
khanate led to a bloody rebellion. Upon Maqsud Shah's death in 1930 Jin Shuren replaced the khanate with three normal provincial administrative districits
Hami, Yihe, Yiwu. This set off the Kumul Rebellion, in which Yulbars Khan attempted to restore the heir Nasir to the throne.

List of Khans (with the title Qinwang) of Kumul Khanate

Muhammmad Shah was the Uyghur Jasagh Prince (Qinwang) of the Kumul Khanate from ? until 1908.

Maqsud Shah (1864 - 1930) (Shah Mexsut, Chinese: 沙木胡索特) (Uyghur: وصق م ه ) was the Uyghur Jasagh Prince (Qinwang) of the Kumul Khanate
from 1908 until his death in March 1930. He succeeded his father Muhammmad Shah in 1908 as Khan of Kumul. The Khans were officially vassals to the Qing
DynastyEmperor of China, and every six years were required to visit Beijing to be a servant to the Emperor during a period of 40 days. In 1912, Qing Dynasty
was replaced by Republic of China, and Yang Zengxin became Governor in Xinjiang. Yang was a monarchist and supported the Khanate The Kumul maintained
its status as a vassal Khanate of the Republic of China. In 1912 a rebellion also broke out against his oppressive rule. Maqsud spoke fluent Chinese. He had
Chinese and Uyghur troops at his disposal. He sent melons as tribute to the Emperor. The Kumul Khanate was the only part of Xinjiang which was not opened
to settlement by Han Chinese. All other parts were subject to settlement encouraged by the government. Maqsud's family was descended from Chaghatai Khan,
and they ruled since the Ming Dynasty. Maqsud Shah was 47 years old in 1911. All the other Khans in Turkestan had gone, the Kumul Khanate was the only one
left. Maqsud spoke Turki in Chinese accent and had Chinese clothing. Maqsud also drank enormous amounts of alcohol, and did not allow anyone to take
pictures of him. Maqsud Shah had Yulbars Khan, the Tiger Prince of Hami as his chancellor at court. Twenty one Begs administered Kumul under the Khan,
and he received 1,200 taels in silver from the Xinjiang government after he sent tribute. He was also called King of the Gobi. His son Nasir was designated as his
heir. When Yang Zengxin was assassinated in 1928, he was replaced by the intolerant Jin Shuren. Upon Maqsud Shah's death in 1930 Governor Jin
Shuren replaced the Khanate with three normal provincial administrative districts Hami, Yihe, Yiwu. Nasir was not allowed to succeeded him to the throne. This
set off the Kumul Rebellion.

Chancellor of Kumul Khanate

Yulbars Khan (Uyghur: شراث نۇ ي ٌا 'Tiger'; Chinese: 堯樂博斯; pinyin: Yáoyuèbósī), courtesy name Jingfu (景福) was the
Chancellor of Kumul Khanate from 1922 until March 1930. He was a Uighur warlord born in Yangi Hissar in 1888. He entered the
service in the Kumul Khanate of Muhammad Khan of Kumul and later his sonMaksud Shah. He served as an advisor at the court,
until when Maksud died in March 1930, governor Jin Shuren abolished the khanate. Yulbars then conspired with Khoja
Niyaz and Ma Zhongying to overthrow Jin in the Kumul Rebellion. According to some people, Ma restrained Yulbars from traveling
to Nanking to ask the Kuomintang for help, Ma earlier had an agreement with the Kuomintang that if he seized Xinjiang, he would
be recognized by the Kuomintang as its leader. Jin was eventually ousted by Sheng Shicai on April 12, 1933, who seized control of
the province during 1934-1937. In May 1933 Khoja Niyaz concluded Peace Agreement with Sheng Shicai under mediation of newly
appointed Soviet Consul-General in Urumchi Garegin Apressof, close associate of Joseph Stalin, and agreed to turn his Uyghur
forces against Ma Chung-ying in exchange for granting of control over the Southern Xinjiang ( Kashgaria or Tarim Basin ), which
already was lost by Chinese and where bloody struggle for power between different rebel forces was being developed, also
over Turpan Basin and Kumul Region, which currently were occupied by Ma Chung-ying forces. All territory south of Tengritagh
Mountains was granted the " autonomous status " inside of Xinjiang Province, Chinese promised in Agreement not to cross
Tengritagh. Yulbars Khan not followed Khoja Niyaz in this decision and remained to be ally of Ma Chung-ying, who appointed him
to be the Chief of Procurement Department of Kuomintang (KMT) 36th Division. In summer 1934, after retreating of Ma to the Southern Xinjiang and his
following interning on Soviet territory on July 7, 1934, Yulbars Khan managed to conclude peace agreement with Sheng Shicai and was left as commander of
Uyghur regiment in Kumul and also given high post of Commissioner for Reconstruction Affairs in Xinjiang Provincial Government. In May 1937, after 6th
Uyghur Division and 36th Tungan Division mutinied against Xinjiang Provincial Government in Southern Xinjiang, rebels in Kashgaria appealed to Yulbars
Khan to cut off communications between Xinjiang and China from his base in Kumul. During suppression of rebellion by Sheng Shicai with Soviet military
support ( that included 5,000 Soviet intervention troops) in summer 1937 he fled to Nanjing and returned to Kumul in 1946. He led Chinese Muslim cavalry and
White Russians against People's Liberation Army (PLA) forces taking over Xinjiang in 1949. He fought at the Battle of Yiwu. In 1951, after most of his troops
deserted, he fled to Calcutta in India via Tibet, where his men were attacked by the Dalai Lama's forces. He then took a steamer to Taiwan. The KMT
government then appointed him Governor of Xinjiang, which he held until he died in 1971 in Taiwan. His memoirs were published in 1969. Yulbars Khan was
declared a traitor by Uyghur figures in the East Turkestan Independence Movement like Muhammad Amin Bughraand Isa Yusuf Alptekin for siding with Chiang
Kai-shek and the Kuomintang, who continued to claim Xinjiang as a part of the Republic of China.


Cheng

Cheng was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, established by Chen Kai (styled Ping Xun wang) and Li Wenmao each of leaders of the Taiping
Rebellion (1850–1864). On September 27, 1855 Great Cheng Realm inaugurated and on August 21, 1861 extinguished by Qing empire.

List of Kings of Cheng Kingdom

Chen Kai (styled Ping Xun wang) (1822 – August 21, 1861) was a King of Cheng Kingdom from September 27, 1855 until his death on August 21, 1861.

Li Wenmao (died 1858) was a King of Cheng Kingdom from 1855 until his death in 1858.


Pingnan Guo

Pingnan Guo (Ping-nan Kuo; Chinese: 平南国; literally "Pacified Southern State") was the major Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province, also called
the Panthay rebellion, their leader Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman, known as Du Wenxiu [originally Yang Xiu]) (died 1873) was styled Qa´id Jami al-
Muslimin ('Leader of the Community of Muslims'), but is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan) and ruled 1856 - 26 December 1872. Governorships of
the sultanate were also created in a few important cities, such as Momein (Tengyue), which were a few stages from the Burmese border town of Bhamo. The
sultanate reached the high-water mark of their power and glory in 1860. The eight years from 1860 to 1868 were the heyday of the Sultanate. The Yunnanese
Muslim rebels had either taken or destroyed forty towns and one hundred villages.
[23]
Various rebel forces besieged the city of Kunming repeatedly: in 1857, 1861,
1863, and 1868. Ma Rulong, a Hui rebel leader from southern Yunnan, besieged the city in 1862, but he defected to the central government's forces after being
offered a military post. His decision to quit the siege was not accepted by his followers, who took the opportunity of his absence to kill the Governor-General
(Pan Duo) and to wrest control of the city from the Qing in 1863, with the intention of handing the city over to Du Wenxiu. However, before Du's forces could
arrive, Ma Rulong — with the assistance of a rising Qing military officier, Cen Yuying — raced back to Kunming and regained control of the provincial capital. The
Sultanate's power declined after 1868. The Chinese Imperial Government had succeeded in reinvigorating itself. By 1871, it was directing a campaign for the
annihilation of the obdurate Hui Muslims of Yunnan. By degrees the Imperial Government had tightened the cordon around the Sultanate. The Sultanate
proved unstable as soon as the Imperial Government made a regular and determined attack on it. Town after town fell under well-organized attacks made by the
imperial troops. Dali itself was besieged by the imperial Chinese. Sultan Sulayman found himself caged in by the walls of his capital. He now desperately looked
for outside help. He turned to the British for military assistance. He realized that only British military intervention could have saved his Sultanate.

Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslim,usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan) of Pingnan Guo

Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman (Du Wenxiu [orig. Yang Xiu) (simplified Chinese: 杜文秀; traditional Chinese: 杜文秀; pinyin: Dù Wénxiù; Wade–
Giles:) (1823 – December 26, 1872) was the Chinese Muslim leader of the Panthay Rebellion and Leader of the Community of Muslim (Sultan) of Pingnan Guo
from 1856 until his death on December 26, 1872. He was Muslim separatist movement in China during the Qing Dynasty. Born in Yongchang (nowBaoshan,
Yunnan), Yunnan Du Wenxiu was the son of a Han Chinese who converted to Islam. His original surname was Yang Xiu before he changed it to Du Wenxiu.
He styled himself as the Sultan of Dali and reigned for 16 years. He was beheaded by Qing troops after his death. His body is entombed in Xiadui.


Shengping

Shengping was an oppositional state in China from October 9, 1854 when is inaugurated Shengping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Ascending Peace) until July 24,
1858 when is state extinguished by Qing empire.

List of Kings of Shengping

Hu Youlu (died 1855) was a King of Shengping Kingdom from October 9, 1954 until his death in 1855.

Zhu Hongying (died 1874) was a King of Shengping Kingdom from October 9, 1854 until 1858.


Manchukuo

Manchukuo (simplified Chinese: 满洲国; traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó; literally "State of Manchuria", Japanese 滿洲國 Manshū koku,
literally "Manchu State"}}) was a puppet state in northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The area,
collectively known as Manchuria, was designated by China's erstwhile Qing Dynasty as the "homeland" of the ruling family's ethnic group, the Manchus. In 1931,
Japan seized the region following the Mukden Incident and installed a pro-Japanese government one year later with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal
regent and emperor. Manchukuo's government was abolished in 1945 after the defeat ofImperial Japan at the end of World War II. The territories formally
claimed by the puppet state were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945, and then formally transferred to Chinese administration in the
following year. Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo, whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. The population of Koreansincreased during the
Manchukuo period, and there were also Japanese, Mongols, White Russians and other minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under
a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there. The southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula was ruled by Japan as
the Kwantung Leased Territory.

List of Premiers of Manchukuo

Zheng Xiaoxu (Cheng Hsiao-hsu; simplified Chinese: 郑孝胥; traditional Chinese: 鄭孝胥; pinyin: Zhèng Xiàoxū; Wade–Giles:
Cheng Hsiao-hsu; Hepburn: Tei Kōsho) (April 2, 1860 - March 28, 1938) was the Premier of Manchukuo from March 9, 1932
untilMay 21, 1935. He was Chinese statesman, diplomat and calligrapher. Although Zheng traced his ancestral roots to Minhou, a
small town near Fuzhou, he was born in Suzhou, Jiangsu. In 1882, he obtained the intermediate degree in the imperial examinations,
and three years later he joined the secretariat of the prominent statesman Li Hongzhang. In 1891, he was appointed secretary to the
Chinese legation in Tokyo, and in the following years he performed consular duties at the Chinese consulates in Tsukiji,
Osaka and Kobe respectively. During his tenure in Kobe, he worked closely with the Chinese community and played an
instrumental part in establishing the Chinese guild (Zhōnghuá huìguǎn 中華會館) there. In Japan, Zheng also interacted with a
number of influential politicians and scholars, such as Itō Hirobumi, Mutsu Munemitsu and Naitō Torajirō. Following the outbreak
of the First Sino-Japanese war in 1894, Zheng was forced to leave Japan. Having returned to China, Zheng joined the secretariat of
the reformist statesman Zhang Zhidong in Nanjing and followed him to Beijing, where Zheng obtained a position in the Qing foreign
office, the Zongli Yamen. Following the abortive Hundred Days' Reform in 1898, Zheng left his post in Beijing and took up a number of important government
positions in central and southern China. After the collapse of the imperial system in 1911, Zheng remained loyal to the Qing dynasty and refused to serve under
China's Republican government. Instead he withdrew from public life entirely and retired comfortably in Shanghai, where he devoted his time to
calligraphy,poetry and art, while also writing extensive articles critical of the Kuomingtang leadership, whom he characterized as ―thieves‖. In 1923, the former
Qing emperor Puyi summoned Zheng to Beijing in order to reorganize the imperial household. Zheng became a close adviser of Puyi and helped arrange for his
flight to the foreign concession at Tianjin after his expulsion from the Forbidden City. Zheng remained loyal to the throne and secretly met with Japanese officials
and groups such as the Black Dragon Society to discuss a restoration of the Qing dynasty in Manchuria. Following the Mukden Incident and the occupation of
Manchuria by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1931, Zheng played an important role in the establishment of Manchukuo, becoming its first prime minister the
following year. Zheng also composed the lyrics of theNational Anthem of Manchukuo. Zheng had hoped that Manchukuo would become a springboard for the
restoration of Qing rule in the whole of China, but he soon found out that the real rulers of Manchukuo, the Japanese Kwantung Army, did not share his
ambitions. As Prime Minister of Manchukuo, Zheng frequently disagreed with the Japanese Army leadership. In May 1935, he resigned from his office and three
years later he died suddenly under unclear circumstances. He was accorded a state funeral in April 1938. Although Zheng Xiaoxu is mostly remembered today
for his collaboration with the Japanese, he is still recognized as an accomplished poet and calligrapher. Zheng was one of the most respected and influential
calligraphers of the 20th. Century. His calligraphy brought high prices during his lifetime and he supported himself in later life with the proceeds from its sale.
His calligraphy continues to be influential in China and his style has been incorporated into the logos of current Chinese corporations. Zheng kept an extensive
diary, which is still valued by historians as important source material.

Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui; simplified Chinese: 张景惠; traditional Chinese: 張景惠; pinyin: Zhāng Jǐnghuì; Wade–Giles:
Chang Ching-hui; Hepburn: Chō Keikei); 1871 – November 1, 1959) was the Premier of Manchukuo from May 21, 1935 until
August 1945 and Foreign Minister of Manchukuo from May until July 1937. He was also Defence Minister of Manchukuo from
March 1932 until May 1935, Chinese general and politician during the Warlord era. He is noted for his role in the Japanese puppet
regime of Manchukuo in which he served as its second and final Prime Minister. Zhang Jinghui was born in Tai'an, southwest
of Mukden, Liaoning Province. The area was a battlefield in the First Sino-Japanese War, and Zhang joined the Honghuzi irregular
cavalry forces of the Manchurian warlord Zhang Zuolin at an early age. These forces were recruited as mercenaries by the Japanese
during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1904. In the final years of the Qing dynasty, Zhang Zuolin was appointed Viceroy of Three
Northeast Provinces with his base at Fengtian, and with the Xinhai Revolution, managed to obtain recognition of his forces as part
of the new Republic of China military. At that time, Zhang Jinghui was appointed commander of the Beiyang Army‘s 27th Infantry
Brigade. However, with the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916, the Beiyang Army split into several mutually hostile factions. Zhang
Jinghui deserted Zhang Zuolin to join with Wu Peifu's Zhili clique. He later rejoined Zhang Zuolin and served as his Minister of
War in the Beiyang Government from May 1926 to June 1927. He then served as Minister of Enterprises in the Beiyang
Government from June 1927 to June 1928. Within the year he was appointed governor of the Harbin and China Eastern Railway Special District in
northern Manchuria. However, following the death of Zhang Zuolin in the Huanggutun Incident on June 4, 1928 Zhang Jinghui‘s relations with his
successor, Zhang Xueliang and Zhang Jinghui participated in a national unity conference called by Kuomingtangleader Chiang Kai-shek in January 1929
in Nanjing. However, the political balance was changed after the Mukden Incident and the successful invasion of Manchuria by the JapaneseKwantung Army in
1931, Zhang called a conference in his office on 27 September 1931 to organize an "Emergency Committee of the Special District", with the goal of achieving
the secession of Manchuria from China. Following the expulsion of pro-Kuomintang GeneralMa Zhanshan from Qiqihar, Zhang proclaimed his territory to be
self-governing, and was inaugurated as governor on 7 January 1932.
[1]
Uncertain of the intentions of the Soviet Union to the north, and unable to withstand
the Japanese military presence to the south, Zhang reached an agreement with Japanese, and accepted an appointment as governor of Heilongjiang Province in
the new Japanese-run state of Manchukuo. However, his refusal to leave his stronghold in Harbin to take up residence in Qiqihar created friction with the
Kwangtung Army leadership. However, when Ma Zhanshan agreed to terms with the Japanese on February 14, 1932 in exchange for the post of Governor of
Heilongjiang Province, Zhang was set aside. Ma later revolted in April 1932 and Zhang took his place as Minister of Defense of the Empire of Manchukuo. On
May 21, 1935, Zhang succeeded Zheng Xiaoxu as Prime Minister of Manchukuo at the instigation of the Kwantung Army over the objections of Emperor Puyi.
As Prime Minister of Manchukuo, Zhang preferred to take a passive figurehead role, allowing the Japanese advisors seconded from the Kwantung Army to
handle all aspects of day-to-day administration, while he spent his days copying Buddhist sutras. Reviled by modern Chinese historians for his pro-Japanese
stance, and nicknamed ―the Tofu Prime Minister‖ even in his lifetime, Zhang was recorded to have only once spoken out against the Japanese administration – to
criticize the forced sale of lands to Japanese colonists. In 1943, he was the official delegate from Manchukuo to the Greater East Asia Conference held in Tokyo.
Also in 1943, a false report was published in Time Magazine stated that Zhang had poisoned his family and killed his Japanese advisor and other members of the
Manchukuo government before committing suicide. Zhang held the position of Prime Minister until the collapse of Manchukuo following the Soviet Red
Army's invasion of Manchuria in August 1945. Following World War II Zhang was held in custody by the Soviet Union in Siberia and was extradited to
the People's Republic of China in 1950, where he was imprisoned at theFushun War Criminals Management Centre. He died of heart failure nine years later in
1959.


Two Regents of the Shunzi Emperor
Dorgon (Manchu: ; literally "badger" in Manchu;
[1]
November 17, 1612 – December 31, 1650) was
a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing Dynasty from 1643 until his death on December 31, 1650. Dorgon was
born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as the 14th son of Nurhaci, khan of the Later Jin Dynasty (later renamed
to Qing Dynasty by Nurhaci's successor Hong Taiji). His mother was Nurhaci's primary consort Lady
Abahai. Ajige and Dodo were his full brothers, and Hong Taiji was his half-brother. Dorgon was one of the most
influential of Nurhaci's sons, and his role was instrumental to the occupation of Ming Dynasty's capital Beijing by
Qing forces in 1644. During Hong Taiji's reign, Dorgon participated in many military campaigns, including the
conquests of Mongolia and Korea. After Hong Taiji died in 1643, Dorgon became involved in a power struggle with
Hong Taiji's eldest son Hooge over the succession to the throne. The conflict was resolved with a compromise - both
backed out, and Hong Taiji's ninth son Fulin ascended the throne as theShunzhi Emperor. Since the Shunzhi
Emperor was only six years old at that time, Dorgon was appointed regent and became the de facto ruler. Dorgon was
conferred the title of "Emperor's Uncle and Prince Regent" (皇叔父攝政王), which was later changed to "Emperor's Father and Prince Regent" (皇父攝政王). It
was rumoured that Dorgon had a romantic affair with the Shunzhi Emperor's mother Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang and even secretly married her, but this
claim has been disputed. On February 17, 1644, Jirgalang, who was a capable military leader but looked uninterested in managing state affairs, willingly yielded
control of all official matters to Dorgon. After an alleged plot by Hooge to undermine the regency was exposed on May 6 of that year, Hooge was stripped of his
title of Imperial Prince and his co-conspirators were executed. Dorgon soon replaced Hooge's supporters (mostly from the Yellow Banners) with his own, thus
gaining closer control of two more Banners. By early June 1644, he was in firm control of the Qing government and its military. In early 1644, just as Dorgon
and his advisors were pondering how to attack the Ming, peasant rebellions were dangerously approaching Beijing. On April 24 of that year, rebel leader Li
Zicheng breached the walls of the Ming capital, pushing the Chongzhen Emperor to hang himself on a hill behind the Forbidden City. Hearing the news,
Dorgon's Chinese advisors Hong Chengchou and Fan Wencheng (范文程; 1597–1666) urged the Manchu prince to seize this opportunity to present themselves
as avengers of the fallen Ming and to claim the Mandate of Heaven for the Qing. The last obstacle between Dorgon and Beijing was Ming general Wu Sangui,
who was garrisoned at Shanhai Pass at the eastern end of the Great Wall. Himself caught between the Manchus and Li Zicheng's forces, Wu requested Dorgon's
help in ousting the bandits and restoring the Ming. When Dorgon asked Wu to work for the Qing instead, Wu had little choice but to accept. Aided by Wu
Sangui's elite soldiers, who fought the rebel army for hours before Dorgon finally chose to intervene with his cavalry, the Qing won a decisive victory against Li
Zicheng at the Battle of Shanhai Pass on May 27, 1644. Li's defeated troops looted Beijing for several days until Li left the capital on June 4 with all the wealth he
could carry. After six weeks of mistreatment at the hands of rebel troops, the Beijing population sent a party of elders and officials to greet their liberators on June
5, 1644. They were startled when, instead of meeting Wu Sangui and the Ming heir apparent, they saw Dorgon, a horseriding Manchu with his shaved forehead,
present himself as the Prince Regent. In the midst of this upheaval, Dorgon installed himself in the Wuying Palace (武英殿), the only building that remained
more or less intact after Li Zicheng had set fire to the palace complex on June 3, 1644 . Banner troops were ordered not to loot; their discipline made the
transition to Qing rule "remarkably smooth." Yet at the same time as he claimed to have come to avenge the Ming, Dorgon ordered that all claimants to the Ming
throne (including descendants of the last Ming emperor) should be executed along with their supporters. On June 7, 1644 just two days after entering the city,
Dorgon issued special proclamations to officials around the capital, assuring them that if the local population accepted to shave their forehead, wear a queue, and
surrender, the officials would be allowed to stay at their post. He had to repeal this command three weeks later after several peasant rebellions erupted around
Beijing, threatening Qing control over the capital region. Dorgon greeted Shunzhi at the gates of Beijing on October 19, 1644. On October 30, 1644 the six-
year-old monarch performed sacrifices to Heaven and Earth at the Altar of Heaven. A formal ritual of enthronement for Fulin was held on November 8, 1644
during which the young emperor compared Dorgon's achievements to those of the Duke of Zhou, a revered regent from antiquity. During the ceremony,
Dorgon's official title was raised from "Prince Regent" to "Uncle Prince Regent" (Shufu shezheng wang 叔父攝政王), in which the Manchu term for "Uncle"
(ecike) represented a rank higher than that of imperial prince. Three days later Dorgon's co-regent Jirgalang was demoted from "Prince Regent" to "Assistant
Uncle Prince Regent" (Fu zheng shuwang 輔政叔王). In June 1645, Dorgon eventually decreed that all official documents should refer to him as "Imperial Uncle
Prince Regent" (Huang shufu shezheng wang 皇叔父攝政王), which left him one step short of claiming the throne for himself. One of Dorgon's first orders in
the new Qing capital was to vacate the entire northern part of Beijing to give it to Bannermen. The Yellow Banners were given the place of honor north of the
palace, followed by the White Banners east, the Red Banners west, and the Blue Banners south. This distribution accorded with the order established in the
Manchu homeland before the conquest and under which "each of the banners was given a fixed geographical location according to the points of the compass."
Despite tax remissions and large-scale building programs designed to facilitate the transition, in 1648 many Chinese civilians still lived among the newly arrived
Banner population and there was still animosity between the two groups. Agricultural land outside the capital was also marked off (quan 圈) and given to Qing
troops. Former landowners now became tenants who had to pay rent to their absentee Bannermen landlords. This transition in land use caused "several decades
of disruption and hardship." In 1646, Dorgon also ordered that the civil examinations for selecting government officials be reestablished. From then on they were
held regularly every three years as under the Ming. In the very first palace examination held under Qing rule in 1646, candidates, most of whom were northern
Chinese, were asked how the Manchus and Han Chinese could be made to work together for a common purpose. The 1649 examination inquired about "how
Manchus and Han Chinese could be unified so that their hearts were the same and they worked together without division." Under the Shunzhi reign the average
number of graduates per session of the metropolitan examination was the highest of the Qing dynasty ("to win more Chinese support"), until 1660 when lower
quotas were established. Under the reign of Dorgon––whom historians have variously called "the mastermind of the Qing conquest" and "the principal architect of
the great Manchu enterprise"––the Qing subdued almost all of China and pushed loyalist "Southern Ming" resistance into the far southwestern reaches of China.
After repressing anti-Qing revolts in Hebei and Shandong in the Summer and Fall of 1644, Dorgon sent armies to root out Li Zicheng from the important city
of Xi'an (Shaanxi province), where Li had reestablished his headquarters after fleeing Beijing in early June 1644. Under the pressure of Qing armies, Li was
forced to leave Xi'an in February 1645, and he was killed––either by his own hand or by a peasant group that had organized for self-defense in this time of
rampant banditry––in September 1645 after fleeing though several provinces. From newly captured Xi'an, in early April 1645 the Qing mounted a campaign
against the rich commercial and agricultural region ofJiangnan south of the lower Yangtze River, where in June 1644 a Ming imperial prince had established a
regime loyal to the Ming. Factional bickering and numerous defections prevented the Southern Ming from mounting an efficient resistance. Several Qing armies
swept south, taking the key city of Xuzhou north of the Huai River in early May 1645 and soon converging on Yangzhou, the main city on the Southern Ming's
northern line of defense. Bravely defended by Shi Kefa, who refused to surrender, Yangzhou fell to Manchu artillery on May 20, 1645 after a one-week
siege. Dorgon's brother Prince Dodo then ordered the slaughter of Yangzhou's entire population. As intended, this massacre terrorized other Jiangnan cities into
surrendering to the Qing. Indeed Nanjing surrendered without a fight on 16 June after its last defenders had made Dodo promise he would not hurt the
population. The Qing soon captured the Ming emperor (who died in Beijing the following year) and seized Jiangnan's main cities,
including Suzhou and Hangzhou; by early July 1645, the frontier between the Qing and the Southern Ming had been pushed south to the Qiantang River. On
July 21, 1645, after Jiangnan had been superficially pacified, Dorgon issued a most inopportune edict ordering all Chinese men to shave their forehead and to
braid the rest of their hair into a queue identical to those of the Manchus. The punishment for non-compliance was death. This policy of symbolic submission
helped the Manchus in telling friend from foe. For Han officials and literati, however, the new hairstyle was shameful and demeaning (because it breached a
common Confucian directive to preserve one's body intact), whereas for common folk cutting their hair was the same as losing their virility. Because it united
Chinese of all social backgrounds into resistance against Qing rule, the hair cutting command greatly hindered the Qing conquest. The defiant population
of Jiading andSongjiang was massacred by former Ming general Li Chengdong (李成東; d. 1649), respectively on August 24 and September 22. Jiangyin also
held out against about 10,000 Qing troops for 83 days. When the city wall was finally breached on October 9, 1645, the Qing army led by Ming defector Liu
Liangzuo (劉良佐; d. 1667) massacred the entire population, killing between 74,000 and 100,000 people. These massacres ended armed resistance against the
Qing in the Lower Yangtze. A few committed loyalists becamehermits, hoping that for lack of military success, their withdrawal from the world would at least
symbolize their continued defiance against foreign rule. After the fall of Nanjing, two more members of the Ming imperial household created new Southern
Ming regimes: one centered in coastalFujian around the "Longwu Emperor" Zhu Yujian, Prince of Tang––a ninth-generation descendant of Ming founder Zhu
Yuanzhang––and one in Zhejiang around "Regent" Zhu Yihai, Prince of Lu. But the two loyalist groups failed to cooperate, making their chances of success even
lower than they already were. In July 1646, a new Southern Campaign led by Prince Bolo sent Prince Lu's Zhejiang court into disarray and proceeded to attack
the Longwu regime in Fujian. Zhu Yujian was caught and summarily executed in Tingzhou(western Fujian) on October 6. His adoptive son Koxinga fled to the
island of Taiwan with his fleet. Finally in November, the remaining centers of Ming resistance in Jiangxi province fell to the Qing. In late 1646 two more
Southern Ming monarchs emerged in the southern province ofGuangzhou, reigning under the era names of Shaowu (紹武) and Yongli. Short of official
costumes, the Shaowu court had to purchase robes from local theater troops. The two Ming regimes fought each other until January 20, 1647, when a small Qing
force led by Li Chengdong captured Guangzhou, killed the Shaowu Emperor, and sent the Yongli court fleeing to Nanning in Guangxi. In May 1648, however,
Li mutinied against the Qing, and the concurrent rebellion of another former Ming general in Jiangxi helped Yongli to retake most of south China. This
resurgence of loyalist hopes was short-lived. New Qing armies managed to reconquer the central provinces of Huguang (present-day Hubei and Hunan), Jiangxi,
and Guangdong in 1649 and 1650. The Yongli emperor had to flee again. Finally on November 24, 1650, Qing forces led by Shang Kexi captured Guangzhou
and massacred the city's population, killing as many as 70,000 people. Meanwhile in October 1646, Qing armies led by Hooge (the son of Hong Taiji who had
lost the succession struggle of 1643) reached Sichuan, where their mission was to destroy the kingdom of bandit leader Zhang Xianzhong. Zhang was killed in a
battle against Qing forces near Xichong in central Sichuan on February 1, 1647. Also late in 1646 but further north, forces assembled by a Muslim leader known
in Chinese sources as Milayin (米喇印) revolted against Qing rule in Ganzhou (Gansu). He was soon joined by another Muslim named Ding Guodong
(丁國棟). Proclaiming that they wanted to restore the Ming, they occupied a number of towns in Gansu, including the provincial capital Lanzhou. These rebels'
willingness to collaborate with non-Muslim Chinese suggests that they were not only driven by religion. Both Milayin and Ding Guodong were captured and killed
by Meng Qiaofang (孟喬芳; 1595–1654) in 1648, and by 1650 the Muslim rebels had been crushed in campaigns that inflicted heavy casualties. Dorgon died in
1650 during a hunting trip in Kharahotun (present-day Chengde, Hebei). He was posthumously granted the title of Emperor Yi (Chinese: 義皇帝) and
the temple name"Chengzong" (成宗), even though he was never emperor throughout his life. The Shunzhi Emperor even bowed thrice in front of Dorgon's
coffin during the funeral. In 1651 Dorgon's rivals, led by former co-regent Jirgalang, submitted to the Shunzhi Emperor a long memorial listing a series of crimes
committed by Dorgon, which included: possession of yellow robes, which were strictly for use only by the emperor; plotting to seize the throne from the Shunzhi
Emperor by calling himself "Emperor's Father"; killingHooge and taking Hooge's concubines for himself. The Shunzhi Emperor posthumously stripped Dorgon
of his titles and even had Dorgon's corpse exhumed and flogged in public. It is believed that the Shunzhi Emperor hated Dorgon and saw him as a threat to the
throne. Dorgon was posthumously rehabilitated during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor. In 1778 the Qianlong Emperor granted Dorgon a posthumous
name zhong (忠; "loyal"), so Dorgon's full posthumous title became "Prince Ruizhong of the First Rank" (和碩睿忠親王). Dorgon was survived by only a
daughter. However he had adopted his nephew Dorbo (fifth son of Dorgon's brother Dodo), so Dorbo inherited Dorgon's princely title. He had following rimary
spouses: Lady Borjigit (博爾濟吉特氏), a Khorchin Mongol, daughter of Jisang'a'erzhai (吉桑阿爾寨) and sister of Bumbutai known as Xiao Yu Er. When she
died Dorgon posthumously granted her the title of "Grand Consort Jingxiaozhonggong" (敬孝忠恭元妃). After Dorgon died and was posthumously granted the
title of an emperor, she received the posthumous title of Empress Chengzongyi (成宗義皇后), Lady Tunggiya (佟佳氏), from the Jurchen tribe of Jianzhou
(建州), daughter of Imperial Secretary (尚書) Menggetu (蒙格圖), Lady Borjigit (博爾濟吉特氏), from the Zha'ermang (扎爾莽) Mongol tribe, daughter of
Gendu'ertaiji (根杜爾台吉), Lady Borjigit (博爾濟吉特氏), a Khorchin Mongol, daughter of Labuxixitaiji (拉布希西台吉), Lady Borjigit (博爾濟吉特氏), a
Khorchin Mongol, daughter of Suonuobutaiji (索諾布台吉) and a relative of Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang. Originally Hooge's wife, she married Dorgon after
her husband lost to Dorgon in a power struggle and died and Yi Ae-suk (李愛淑), a princess of the Korean Joseon Dynasty, daughter of Yi Gae-eum (李愷胤).
Secondary spouses: Lady Gongqite (公齊特氏), from the Chaha'er (察哈爾) tribe. The identity of her father is unknown, Lady Borjigit (博爾濟吉特氏), from an
unknown Mongol tribe. The identity of her father is unknown, Lady Ji'ermote (濟爾莫特氏), origins unknown and Lady Yi (李氏), a Korean, daughter of Yi Si-
seo (李世緒). He had two children: Donggo (東莪), Dorgon's daughter, born to Yi Ae-suk and Dorbo (多爾博), fifth son of Dorgon's brother Dodo, adopted by
Dorgon. He inherited Dorgon's princely title.
Jirgalang or Jirhalang (Manchu: 1599 - June 11, 1655) was a Manchu noble, regent of the early Qing Dynasty from 1643 until 1647, and political and
military leader of the early Qing Dynasty. Born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, he was the sixth son of Šurhaci, a younger brother of the Qing Dynasty's
founderNurhaci. From 1638 to 1643, he took part in many military campaigns that helped bring down the fall of the Ming Dynasty. After the death of Hong
Taiji (Nurhaci's successor) in September 1643, Jirgalang became one of the young Shunzhi Emperor's two co-regents, but he soon yielded most political power to
co-regent Dorgon in October 1644. Dorgon eventually purged him of his regent title in 1647. After Dorgon died in 1650, Jirgalang led an effort to clean the
government of Dorgon's supporters. Jirgalang was one of ten "Princes of the First Rank" (和碩親王) whose descendants were made "Iron-cap Princes"
(鐵帽子王), who had the right to transmit their princely titles to their direct male descendants perpetually. In 1627, Jirgalang took part in the first Manchu
campaign against Korea under the command of his older brother Amin.
[1]
In 1630, when Amin was stripped of his titles for having failed to fight an army of
the Ming Dynasty, Hong Taiji gave Jirgalang control of the Bordered Blue Banner, which had been under Amin's command. As one of "four senior beile" (the
other three were Daišan, Manggūltai, and Hung Taiji himself), Jirgalang participated in many military campaigns against the Ming Dynasty and the Chahar
Mongols. In 1636 he was granted the title of "Prince Zheng of the First Rank" (和碩鄭親王), with rights of perpetual inheritance. In 1642, Jirgalang led the siege
of Jinzhou, an important Ming city inLiaodong that surrendered to Qing forces in April of that year after more than one year of resistance. While Dorgon was
staying in Mukden, in November or December 1643 Jirgalang was sent to attack Shanhai Pass, a fortified Ming position that guarded access to the plain
around Beijing. In January or February 1644, Jirgalang requested that his name be placed after Dorgon's in all official communications. On February 17, 1644,
Jirgalang, who was a capable military leader but looked uninterested in managing state affairs, willingly yielded control of all official matters to Dorgon. He was
not present when Qing forces entered Beijing in early June 1644. In 1647 he was removed from his post of regent and replaced by Dorgon's
brother Dodo. Despite his removal, Jirgalang continued to serve as a military leader. In March 1648, Dorgon ordered the arrest of Jirgalang on various charges
and had Jirgalang degraded from a Prince of the First Rank (親王) to a Prince of the Second Rank (郡王). Later in the same year, however, Jirgalang was sent to
southern China to fight troops loyal to the Southern Ming Dynasty. In early 1649, after one of his military victories, he ordered a six-day massacre of the
inhabitants of the city ofXiangtan in present-day Hunan. He returned victorious to Beijing in 1650 after having defeated the forces of the Yongli Emperor, the last
ruler of the Southern Ming regime. The group led by Jirgalang that historian Robert Oxnam has called the "Jirgalang faction" was composed of Manchu princes
and nobles who had opposed Dorgon and who returned to power after the latter died on December 31, 1650. Concerned that Dorgon's brother Ajige may try to
succeed Dorgon, Jirgalang and his group arrested Ajige in early 1651. Jirgalang remained a powerful figure at the Qing imperial court until his death in
1655. The four future regents of the Kangxi Emperor - Oboi, Ebilun, Sonin, and Suksaha - were among his supporters. Soon after Jirgalang died of illness on
June 11, 1655, his second son Jidu (simplified Chinese: 济度; traditional Chinese: 濟度; pinyin: Jìdù; 1633–1660) inherited his princely title, but the name of the
princehood was changed from "Zheng" (鄭) to "Jian" (簡). The title "Prince Zheng" was re-established in 1778 when the Qianlong Emperor praised Jirgalang for
his role in the Qing defeat of Ming and granted Jirgalang a place in the Imperial Ancestral Temple. Jirgalang's second son Jidu and Jidu's second son Labu
(Chinese: 喇布; pinyin: Lăbù; d. 1681) participated in military campaigns in the second half of the Shunzhi Emperor's reign and the early reign of the Kangxi
Emperor, notably against Koxinga and Wu Sangui. Jirgalang's 13th generation descendants Duanhua (Prince Zheng) and Sushun (Duanhua's younger brother)
were politically active during the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor (r. 1851-1861). They were appointed as two of eight regents for the infant Tongzhi Emperor (r.
1862-1874), but were quickly overthrown in 1861 in the Xinyou Coup that brought Empress Dowager Cixi and the young emperor's uncle Prince Gong to power.

Four Regents of the Kangxi Emperor

The Four Regents of the Kangxi Emperor were nominated by the Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government of the Qing Dynasty during the early reign of the
Kangxi Emperor, before Kangxi came to of age. The four were Sonin, Ebilun, Suksaha, and Oboi.
Sonin (1601–1667) also known as Soni, and rarely Sony (Manchu: ; Chinese: 索尼; pinyin: Suǒní), was a senior regent of the Four Regents during
Chinese Kangxi Emperor's minority in the Qing Dynasty from 1661 until his death in 1667. Sonin was from the Hešeri clan, belonged to the Plain Yellow
Banner. Sonin was already a leading official during the reign of Kangxi's grandfather, Huang Taiji. His father, Shuose(Chinese:硕色)and uncle Xifu
(Chinese:希福) were both fluent in Mandarin, Mongolian and Manchu, and therefore were awarded the Grand Councillors. Before theShunzhi Emperor died,
Sonin was appointed as one of the four regents to support the young Kangxi Emperor, along with Suksaha,Ebilun and Oboi. Sonin was the top of these four
regents and ably helped the young emperor defend against Oboi (Oboi wanted to increase his own power over the Emperor). During the first years of Kangxi's
reign, a power struggle ensued among the regents. Sonin was too old to exert his leadership. His son, Songgotu helped the young emperor to get rid of Oboi.
Sonin died in 1667.
Ebilun (Manchu: ; Chinese: 遏必隆; pinyin: Èbìlóng, died 1673) was a minor Manchu noble who worked as one of the Four Regents and an assistant
minister for the young Kangxi (r. 1661–1722) from 1661 until 1667, during the Qing Dynasty. Ebilun was from the Niohuru clan, which lived north of the
Korean border belonged to the Bordered Yellow Banner. He was the sixteenth and last son of Eidu (1562–1621), who had been a close associate of Nurhaci
(1559–1626). Ebilun's mother was a sister of Qing founder Nurhaci. In 1634, the second Qing emperor Hong Taiji gave Eidu a posthumous rank of viscount,
which Ebilun immediately inherited but lost in 1637 after he tried to interfere in a trial involving his niece. In 1643 he followed Abatai in forays inside North
China and was credited with the capture of several towns. In 1645 and 1646, Ebilun served under Lekedehun in campaigns to dislodge Ming loyalist He
Tengjiao 何騰蛟 (1592–1649) from Hubei and was rewarded with a minor hereditary rank. Yet his position was not solid because, as a member of the Yellow
Banners, he was treated with suspicion by Dorgon (1612–1650)––the Prince Regent of the Shunzhi Emperor (r. 1643–1661)––whose power base was in the
White Banners. In 1648 during the persecution of Hooge, Ebilun's nephew accused Ebilun of having opposed Dorgon during the 1643 succession. Ebilun was
sentenced to death, but his penalty was commuted. Nonetheless, half of Ebilun's property was confiscated and his minor title was revoked. Ebilun worked
with Oboi to defeat Suksaha.
Suksaha (Manchu: ; Chinese: 蘇克薩哈; pinyin: Sūkèsàhā, died 1667) was a one of the Four Regents during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor in
the Qing Dynasty from 1661 until his death in 1667. Like his father Suna, he was from the Nara clan, but the family fought under the White Banner of the
Manchu Eight Banners instead. During the Manchurian conquest of China, he was rewarded for his military successes and was made a Grand Councillor
(議政大臣). During that time, Suksaha was loyal to the Prince Regent Dorgon. After the death of the Shunzhi Emperor, Suksaha was made one of the four
regents supporting the young Kangxi Emperor, alongsideSonin, Ebilun and Oboi, ranking second in the chain of command. He became entangled in political
and personal disputes with Oboi during the Emperor's minority, and he split decisively with Oboi. Oboi was looking to consolidate power in his own hands
through discrediting the other three regents; Sonin was old and frail, and Ebilun was seen as weak. Suksaha thus became Oboi's only serious political rival.
Ultimately, Oboi and his ally Banbursan produced a list of 24 crimes allegedly committed by Suksaha and ordered for him to be put to death by hanging in 1667.

Gūwalgiya Oboi (Manchu: ᡤᡡᠸᠠ ᠯ ᡤ ᠶᠠ ᠣᠪ ᡳ ; simplified Chinese: 瓜尔佳 鰲拜; traditional Chinese: 瓜爾佳 鼇拜; pinyin: Guāěrjiā
Áobài) (c. 1610
[
–1669) was one of four regents nominated by the Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government during the Kangxi
Emperor's minority from 1661 until his death in 1669. He was a highly decorated Manchu military commander and courtier who
served in various military and administrative posts under three successive emperors of the early Qing Dynasty. Eventually deposed and
imprisoned by the new emperor for having amassed too much power, he was posthumously rehabilitated. Oboi was born to a
distinguished military family of the Manchu Guwalgiya clan. Under the Manchu Banner organization created byNurhachi, Oboi's
branch of the family was registered under the Bordered Yellow division which came under the command of Nurhachi's son Hong
Taiji. Oboi's father Uici (衛齊) (d. 1634) was a senior military officer who was once garrison commander of the Manchu capital
city Mukden while his paternal uncle Fiongdon (费英東) was one of Nurhachi's most trusted generals. Oboi's childhood and early
years are relatively obscure. Being his father's third son, he was not destined to inherit the family's hereditary seat in the Banner
hierarchy. Oboi was first mentioned in official Qing history in the Chronicles of Hong Taiji (清太宗实录) in 1632, documenting his
triumphant return from a minor raid into Ming territories in which he was allowed to keep his spoils as reward. Oboi officially started his military career in 1634
during the reign of Hong Taiji as a junior officer in the Banner's cavalry guard unit
[2]
in which capacity he distinguished himself many times in battle
against Ming forces and was renowned for his personal bravery. For this, he was granted an hereditary commission as captain of a company (niru i janggin). In
1637 during the Manchus' second campaign against Korea, Oboi volunteered and succeeded in capturing a small but strategically important Pi Island
[3]
(皮岛)
south of the Yalu River after a difficult amphibious landing followed by desperate hand-to-hand battle ending in the complete annihilation of the Ming garrison.
For this achievement he was promoted to the rank of a hereditary colonel third-class and bestowed the rare honorific title of "Baturu" (巴图鲁), which means
"(brave) warrior" in Manchu. In 1641 Oboi again distinguished himself in battle scoring five victories in as many encounters against Ming forces in the campaign
for Songshan (松山). He was promoted to full Colonel and given command of the Bayarai guards of the Bordered Yellow Banner. Oboi's raise in the Banner
hierarchy continued apace with the Manchus' war with the Ming Dynasty, in 1645 he was promoted to the rank of General. It was recorded in official Qing
history that in 1646 during the campaign to pacify Sichuan, Oboi was personally responsible for slaying the rebel chief Zhang Xianzhong in battle. As a member
of the Bordered Yellow Banner, Oboi's loyalty to his Banner master was crucial to his rapid advancement during the years when Hong Taiji commanded the
Banner. However after Hong Taiji's death, Oboi's loyalty to his new Banner master Hooge became a political liability. When Dorgon who commanded the
White and Bordered White Banners became regent to the young Shunzhi Emperor, he sought to weaken the influence of the other Banners at court by purging
the ranks of their senior commanders. Just as Hooge was arrested and eventually died in prison, in 1648 Oboi was stripped of his rank and titles under a charge
of claiming false victories in battle. Later he was found guilty of a more serious crime of conspiracy to elect Hooge as emperor during the succession dispute after
Hong Taiji's death. This later charge carried with it the death penalty, however the sentence was commuted while he continued to command troops
against Ming loyalists. The charges against Oboi were most likely politically motivated and were rehabilitated in 1651 after Dorgon's death. Oboi for his
unswerving loyalty to his Banner and services to the Qing government was appointed a cabinet minister by Shunzhi Emperor, who also bestowed on him the title
of Marquis of the First Rank. The extent of the Shunzhi Emperor's trust in Oboi's loyalty can be gauged by the honours the emperor showered on him. In 1652
after Shunzhi successfully purged the court of the more powerful elements in Dorgon's faction, Oboi was elevated to a hereditary Duke of the Second Rank and
more importantly appointed the commander of the imperial bodyguard (领侍卫内大臣), a job which doubled as the de facto police chief in the capital. In this
capacity Oboi acted as Shunzhi's much feared enforcer against Dorgon's old cohorts and helped to consolidate power to the throne and the Emperor's own
"Upper Three Banners". During the period of Shunzhi's personal rule, Oboi was responsible for the arrest and execution of a number of noblemen found guilty
of one crime or another. Although there is no doubt that these executions were carried out with the approval of Shunzhi, it is not surprising that after the
emperor's death, Oboi, given his ruthless character and position in court, when left uncontrolled by a higher authority should eventually come to dominate court
politics creating unto himself a "state within a state". The Shunzhi Emperor died from smallpox on February 5, 1661, at the age of 24. On his deathbed he
appointed four "Executive Ministers" (辅政大臣) commonly referred to as regents
[6]
to "assist" his eight-year-old son Xuanye to govern the country until the young
emperor reached the age of maturity at 16. The four ministers in their order of seniority
[7]
were Sonin of the Yellow Banner, who apart from being chief minister
of the Imperial Household Department (內務府大臣) was also nominated by Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang to head the regency. The second minister on the
list was Suksaha of the White Banner. Originally a trusted deputy of Dorgon, Suksaha was politically astute enough to switch sides immediately after the former
regent's death when the court was still dominated by Dorgon's associates. By the time of the Shunzhi Emperor's death he was one of the emperor's most trusted
courtiers. Then came Ebilun and Oboi, both members of the Bordered Yellow Banner. The Shunzhi Emperor's succession plan set a precedence for the Qing
Dynastyof nominating courtiers who owed their loyalty to the crown to "assist" a young emperor during the years of minority in running the state. This reflected
the lesson learned from Dorgon's regency, when the regent grew almost too powerful for the emperor to control. Unfortunately, this system of appointing
ministers to oversee the government during an emperor's minority proved not to be a very stable political device after all. Three of the four
ministers, Sonin, Ebilun and Oboi were members of the "Two Yellow Banners" (i.e. Yellow Banner and Bordered Yellow Banner) previously under the
command of the Shunzhi Emperor's elder brother Hooge. Because of the personal and political rivalries between Hooge and Dorgon, all three men were
persecuted at one time or another during Dorgon's regency for their Banner affiliation. However their loyalty thus proven was also key to their rapid
advancement after Dorgon's death. It was a major factor in Shunzhi's choice of personnel to oversee his son's regency. However Shunzhi's arrangement
heightened the already sensitive relationship between the three members of the Yellow Banners and Suksaha who belonged to the White Banner. Suksaha was a
much despised figure at this point not only because he was a member of the White Banner in an imperial court dominated by the two Yellow Banners, but also
because he gained the Shunzhi Emperor's trust by denouncing his former master Dorgon, an action seen by his colleagues including members of the White
Banner as disloyal. In the first years of the regency, the tension between the Yellow Banners faction and Suksaha was kept in check by the even
handed Sonin and thus the four ministers maintained a relatively peaceful and efficient working relationship. But the dynamics of the regency began to change as
Sonin's health deteriorated due to old age. As Sonin gradually took more time off on sabbatical, Oboi monopolized decision making by dominating the
indecisive Ebilun and worked to sideline Suksaha during policy discussions especially on issues concerning welfare of the Manchu Eight Banners. By 1667 when
Sonin realized he did not have long to live, he tried a last-ditch effort to restore balance to the regency and neutralize Oboi's rapidly expanding power clique by
petitioning the then 14-year-old Kangxi Emperor to assume personal rule ahead of schedule. Thus Kangxi formerly took over the reins of power in an ascension
ceremony on August 25 1667, a month after Sonin's death. This was followed by an official decree technically downgrading the three remaining ministers to the
status of "advisers" (佐政大臣) while still remaining at their posts. However even with the formal authority of office, the young Kangxi Emperor found it difficult
to curb the growing power of Oboi. Oboi forced the young Kangxi Emperor to execute Suksaha and his family. He controlled Ebilun completely and then finally
established a system of near absolute rule under himself. The Kangxi Emperor took power earlier than expected at the age of 14 in 1669. The emperor suddenly
had Oboi arrested on 30 charges. Oboi was sentenced to death but it was reduced to imprisonment in consideration of his achievements. Some sources say that
he displayed the many wounds on his body that had been received in the defense of Kangxi's great-grandfather Nurhaci, this act had apparently moved the
Kangxi Emperor to pardon Oboi. Oboi was posthumously rehabilitated. The Kangxi Emperor issued a pardon in 1713, while his successor, the Yongzheng
Emperor, granted Oboi the rank of a First Class Duke and the posthumous title Chaowu (超武 "exceedingly martial") but Yongzheng's successor, the Qianlong
Emperor, demoted Oboi to a First Class Baron after reviewing his merits and demerits. The Deer and the Cauldron (鹿鼎記), a wuxia novel by Louis Cha. In
the story, Oboi was a cruel and power-hungry aristocrat who plotted to usurp the Kangxi Emperor's throne. He was removed from power by the protagonist Wei
Xiaobao and the young Kangxi Emperor and was imprisoned. He is later killed by Wei Xiaobao.

Regents of the Tonzhi and Guangxu Emperors

Sushun (Manchu: ᡠᡴ ᠨ ᡧᡠ ᡧᡠ ᠨ Uksun Šušun; simplified Chinese: 肃顺; traditional Chinese: 肅順; pinyin: Sùshùn); Styled: Yuting (Chinese: 雨亭; pinyin: Yǔtíng)
(November 26, 1816– 1861) was one of the eight regents appointed by the Xianfeng Emperorto assist his successor, the Tongzhi Emperor in 1861. He was born
in the Manchu Aisin-Gioro Clan as the sixth son of Ulgungga (烏爾恭阿), thePrince Zheng. Although Sushun was born into nobility, the size of his family meant
that he received little attention during childhood, and little expectation from the family. He was neither well versed in literature nor exceptionally able in martial
arts. Sushun became a General during the late years of the Daoguang Emperor's reign. Following the death of Wenqing, one of the Xianfeng emperor's closest
aides, Sushun was increasingly consulted by the emperor on many important policy matters. His first position in the court was as a member of the Imperial
Guard and he subsequently served in a number of senior positions in the Qing government, including a term as the president of the Lifan Yuan. During
the Second Opium War, he was one of the chief architects of Qing foreign policy and he repudiated many of the treaties that were concluded in the late 1850s, in
particular the territorial concessions in the Sino-Russian Treaty of Aigun. Following the death of the Xianfeng Emperor in 1861, Sushun, his elder
brother Duanhua, and Zaiyuan, along with five other prominent people in the Qing Court, were appointedRegents to oversee administrative affairs during the
young Tongzhi Emperor's minority. However, without obtaining the seals of the two Empresses Dowager, the Regency could not carry out any important policy
decisions, which led to increased political friction in the imperial court. In November 1861, a triumvirate consisting of the half-brother of the deceased
emperor, Prince Gong and the two empresses dowager, Ci'an and Cixi, staged a coup d'état, establishing themselves as the only rightful regents of the boy
emperor. All the members of the eight-man council were arrested and Sushun was beheaded in public in 1861 on charges of treason.

Zaiyuan (1816–1861) was a Manchu prince of the Qing Dynasty. He was one of the eight regents appointed by the Xianfeng Emperorto assist his successor,
the Tongzhi Emperor in 1861. His title was Prince Yi of the First Rank (怡親王). Zaiyuan was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as a fifth generation
descendant of Yunxiang, the 13th son of the Kangxi Emperor. He inherited his ancestors' title of "Prince Yi of the First Rank" in 1852. Zaiyuan took up important
positions during the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor, including being a minister in the Imperial Clan Court and imperial guard commander. In 1860 during
the Second Opium War, as the British and French armies closed in on Beijing, Zaiyuan fled together with the Xianfeng Emperor to Rehe Province. Before the
Xianfeng Emperor died in 1861, he appointed Zaiyuan, Sushun, Duanhua and five others as regents to assist his son and successor, the Tongzhi Emperor. Later
that year, Empress Dowager Cixi and Prince Gong initiated the Xinyou Coup and seized power from the eight regents. Zaiyuan was arrested in Beijing and
imprisoned. He was given a piece of white silk cloth to commit suicide by hanging himself with the cloth. After Zaiyuan's death, his princely title was inherited
by Zaidun (載敦), a distant cousin.
Duanhua (Manchu: Duwanhūwa; 1807 - 1861) was a Manchu prince and regent of the Qing Dynasty. Duanhua was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan
as the third son of Ulgungga (烏爾恭阿), a descendant of Jirgalang (a nephew of theQing Dynasty's founder Nurhaci). He was from one of the Qing
Dynasty's "Iron-cap" princely lines and in 1846 he inherited the title of "Prince Zheng of the First Rank" (鄭親王) from his ancestors. He was under the Bordered
Blue Banner of the Eight Banners. Duanhua rose to prominence during the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor. Because of a scandal involving Grand
Councilor Mujangga, Duanhua gained Xianfeng's trust as a loyal confidant, and became one of the emperor's closest advisors. Duanhua also recommended his
brother Sushun to serve in the Qing imperial court. During the Second Opium War, Duanhua accompanied the ailing Xianfeng Emperor to Rehe to escape
from the foreign invaders. In 1861, before the Xianfeng Emperor died, he appointed eight regents to assist his successor, the young Tongzhi Emperor, in
administrating state affairs. Duanhua and Sushun were among the eight. Later that year, Duanhua and the other seven regents were ousted from power in the
Xinyou Coup (辛酉政變) orchestrated by Prince Gong and Empress Dowager Cixi. Duanhua was arrested, imprisoned, and eventually forced to commit suicide.

Dowager Ci'an (Wade-Giles: Empress Dowager Tzu-an; Chinese: 慈安皇太后, Manchu: Hiyoošungga Jekdun Iletu Hūwanghu;
August 20, 1837 – April 8, 1881), popularly known in China as the East Empress Dowager (simplified Chinese: 东太后; traditional
Chinese: 東太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiao Zhen Xian (Wade-Giles: Empress Hsiao Chen
Hsien; simplified Chinese: 孝贞显皇后; traditional Chinese: 孝貞顯皇后), was the second Empress Consort of the Xianfeng
Emperor (1831 – 1861) of the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China, and then Empress Dowager after 1861. She is known for being co-
de facto ruler of China with Empress Dowager Cixi for 20 years from November 11, 1861 until his death on April 8, 1881. Empress
Dowager Ci'an, née Niuhuru (鈕祜祿), was a Manchu. Her family belonged to the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Corps. They
were descendants of Prince Eidu of the Niuhuru clan through his third son Celge (車爾格) (? – 1647), who had once directed the
Board of Revenue. Lady Niuhuru was born in the seventeenth year of the Daoguang Emperor's reign. On February 15, 1850
the Daoguang Emperor died and his fourth son, Prince Yizhu, succeeded him as the Xianfeng Emperor. Xianfeng's principal wife,
Lady Sakda, had died the previous month and been given the posthumous title of Empress Xiaodexian (Chinese: 孝德顯皇后).
The selection of a new principal wife and concubines was delayed by two years due to the mourning period for the late Daoguang
Emperor. The elections took place in 1852 and Lady Niuhuru was one of those chosen to stay by Dowager Consort Kangci. Some
sources claim that Lady Niuhuru entered theImperial Palace in the late 1840s and became a concubine of Prince Yizhu. Lady Niuhuru's status within the palace
rose rapidly. In late March or early April 1852 she was made an Imperial Concubine (嬪) and given the name Zhen (貞 – meaning "upright", "chaste", "virtuous",
or "faithful to the memory of one's husband", i.e., by remaining chaste after his death and not remarrying). In late June or early July 1852, she was promoted to
the rank of Noble Consort Zhen (貞貴妃). On July 24, 1852, she was officially created Empress Consort (皇后). As Empress Consort, she was put in charge of
the women's quarters. Some sources claim that Lady Niohuru was already made primary wife after the death of Lady Sakda. Customs required that the emperor
had to spend one day a month with the empress. Lady Niuhuru stayed childless and it was the Imperial Concubine Yi (懿嬪) (the laterEmpress Dowager Cixi)
who bore the Xianfeng Emperor a son, the later Tongzhi Emperor, on 27 April 1856. Some biographers state that Lady Niuhuru gave birth to the Xianfeng
Emperor's only daughter, State Princess Rong'an, who was actually the daughter of the Xianfeng Emperor's concubine Consort Li. However, as Empress Consort,
she was considered to be the legal mother of all of the Emperor's children, regardless of whether or not she was their birth mother. Cixi had little to say in her
sons' upbringing. It was Lady Niuhuru who raised the Emperor's children and decided their punishment when they did not obey. Cixi once said: "I had...quite a
lot of trouble with (Empress Niuhuru) and found it very difficult to keep on good terms with her". On August 22, 1861, in the wake of the Second Opium War,
the Xianfeng Emperor died at the Rehe Traveling Palace (Chinese: 熱河行宮), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of Beijing, where the imperial court had fled. His
heir, the son of the Noble Consort Yi and the eventualTongzhi Emperor, was only five years old. As a consequence, the imperial family was shaken by a struggle
over who would assume the regency. Lady Niuhuru first agreed to cooperate with the corrupt Manchu official Sushun, but changed her mind after Noble Consort
Yi had chosen confrontation. Eventually, in November 1861, the Noble Consort Yi, with the help of Yixin, Prince Gong, staged a palace coup known as
the Xinyou Coup, had the opposing princes commit suicide and their leader Sushun beheaded, and succeeded in securing the regency for her and the Empress
Consort. Palace Daily Records do not explain why there was a difference of 24 hours in the naming of Lady Niuhuru and Noble Consort Yi to the position of
Empress Dowager. According to Tony Teng there was a sharp argument between Sushun and Noble Consort Yi about the granting of honors following
Xianfeng's death. It is likely that Lady Niuhuru chimed in on Noble Consort Yi's behalf and that Sushun capitulated in the face of the two women.
Eventually Noble Consort Yi was officially created "Holy Mother Empress Dowager" (聖母皇太后), a great privilege considering that she had never been an
Empress Consort while the Xianfeng Emperor was alive; she was only able to become empress dowager because she was the biological mother of the new
Emperor. She was also given the honorific name of Cixi (慈禧 – meaning "motherly and auspicious"). Lady Niuhuru, as former Empress Consort and the new
Emperor's legal mother, was created "Empress Mother Empress Dowager" (母后皇太后), a title which gave her precedence over Empress Dowager Cixi, and
given the honorific name of Ci'an (慈安 – meaning "motherly and calming"). Because she lived in the eastern part of the Forbidden City, Empress Dowager Ci'an
became popularly known as the East Empress Dowager (東太后). Empress Dowager Ci'an spent most of her life in the Palace of Gathering Essence. On several
occasions after 1861, Empress Dowager Ci'an was given additional honorific names (two Chinese characters at a time), as was customary for emperors and
empresses, until by the end of her life her name was a long even string of characters beginning with Ci'an. Empress Dowager Ci'an and Empress Dowager Cixi
were appointed joint de facto regents for the minor Tongzhi Emperor. Because women were not allowed to be seen during audiences they sat behind a curtain.
Although in theory she had precedence over Empress Dowager Cixi, Empress Dowager Ci'an was in fact a self-effacing person and seldom intervened in politics,
unlike Empress Dowager Cixi, who was the actual master of China. As de facto ruler, Empress Dowager Ci'an had to learn about politics, so she and Cixi studied
history. In November 1861, in keeping with the imperial practice, they began to consult the records of their Manchu predecessors. In June 1863, they had the
contents of tōng jiàn ji lǎn (通鑑輯覽) explained to them. About a year earlier, an earlier compilation by the Hanlin scholars of the imperial libraries, entitled "A
valuable mirror for excellent government" (chih-p'ing pao-chien) became the text for a series of lectures by scholars and officials that Empress Dowager Ci'an and
Empress Dowager Cixi attended for over two years, the last lecture given in November 1866. It is thought by many biographers that Empress Dowager Cixi was
the actual power behind the throne. Despite this, for the first 20 years of her regency she was not allowed to make decisions on her own. Any decree needed the
approval of both regents. Both Ci'an and the Tongzhi Emperor were given a seal, but because Tongzhi was underage the seal was given to his mother, Empress
Dowager Cixi. Ci'an's seal was engraved with "Yushang" (Imperial Award) and Cixi's with "Tongdaotang" (Hall of Accord with the Way). The years after Emperor
Xianfeng's death were called the Tongzhi Restoration. It was a period of peace; the Taiping Rebellion and the war with United Kingdom ceased. The treasury
began growing again after decades of depletion. Ci'an was little mentioned during this period and her only notable intervention in politics was in 1869. The most
feared grand eunuch of the imperial court An Dehai(Chinese: 安德海), close confidant of Empress Dowager Cixi, was on a trip south to buy some dragon robes
for Empress Dowager Cixi. While traveling in Shandong province, he used his power as an envoy of Empress Dowager Cixi to extort money from people, which
caused great trouble. The matter was reported to the court by the governor of Shandong, and Empress Dowager Ci'an who heard about it made up a
decree which read: Ding Baozhen (丁寶楨) (1820–1886) reports that a eunuch has been creating disturbance on the province of Shandong. According to the
department of magistrate of Dezhou, a eunuch named An and his followers passed through that place by the way of the imperial canal, in two dragon barges, with
much display of pomp and pageantry. He announced that he had come on an imperial mission to procure dragon robes. His barges flew a black banner, bearing
in its center the triple imperial emblems of the sun, and there were also dragon and phoenix flags flying on both side, of his vessels. A goodly company of both
sexes were in the attendance on this person; there were female musicians, skilled in the use of string and wind instruments. The banks of the canal were lined
with crowds of spectators, who witnessed with amazement and admiration his progress. The twenty-first day of the last month happened to be this eunuch's
birthday, so he arrayed himself in dragon robes and stood on the foredeck of his barge, to receive the homage of his suite. The local magistrate was just about to
order his arrest when the barges set sail and proceeded southwards. The governor adds that he has already given orders for his immediate arrest. We are
dumbfounded at his report. How can we hope ever to purify the standard of morals in the palace and frighten evil-doers unless we make an example of this
insolent eunuch, who was dared to leave Beijing without permission and to commit these lawless deeds? The governors of these three provinces of Shandong,
Honan and Jiangsu are ordered to seek out and arrest the eunuch An whom we had formerly honored with the rank of the sixth grade and the decoration of the
crow's feather. Upon his being duly identified by his companions, let him be forth with beheaded, without further formalities, no attention is to be paid to any
crafty explanations which he may attempt to make. The governors concerned will be held responsible in the event of failure to affect his arrest . An was beheaded
on September 12, 1869. This was quite an unusual reaction for Empress Dowager Ci'an, and the execution of An Dehai is said to have greatly displeased
Empress Dowager Cixi. Some sources say that Prince Gong forced Ci'an to take an independent decision for a change. A several days after the arrest an edict was
issued by Ci'an: "Ding Baozhen now reports that the eunuch was arrested in the T'ai An prefecture and has been summarily beheaded. Our dynasty's house law is
most strict in regard to the proper discipline of eunuchs, and provides severe punishment for any offences to which they may commit. They have always been
sternly forbidden to make expeditions to the provinces, or to create trouble. Nevertheless, An Dehai actually had brazen effiontery to violate this law, and for his
crimes his execution is only a fitting reward. In future, let all eunuchs take warning by his example; should we have further cause of complaint, the chief eunuchs
of the several departments of the household will be punished as well as the actual offender. Any eunuch who may hereafter pretend that he has been sent on
imperial business to the provinces shall be cast into chains at once, and sent to Beijing for punishment". In 1872 both Ci'an and Cixi agreed it was time for
the Tongzhi Emperor to marry. As the highest-ranking woman in the Forbidden City, Empress Dowager Ci'an was put in charge of selecting the Tongzhi
Emperor's new empress and concubines. It was decided that a girl from the Mongolian Alute clan (阿魯特氏) (the later Empress Xiaozheyi) would become the
new empress. Lady Alute's mother was Empress Dowager Ci'an's cousin from her father's side. After the wedding, both Empress Dowagers Ci'an and Cixi
resigned as co-regents, but they resumed the regency in December 1874 during the Tongzhi Emperor's illness. In January 1875 the Tongzhi Emperor died and
Empress Dowager Cixi's nephew, Prince Zaitian, was appointed as successor with the regnal name of Guangxu. As the new Emperor was also a minor, Empress
Dowager Ci'an and Empress Dowager Cixi were appointed as de facto rulers for the second time. During the late 1870s, Empress Dowager Cixi became ill from
liver complaints, so Empress Dowager Ci'an had to rule on her own. During this time, she had to deal with the war with Russia over Ili. In 1871, Muslims
rebelled in Xinjiang. The Chinese soon lost power and Russia occupied the Ili basin region. China regained power over Xinjiang in 1877. In 1879, Russia
suggested that it maintain a strong presence in the region but China did not agree. The conflict ended with the signing of the Treaty of Saint Petersburg in
February 1881. Although Ci'an rarely left the Forbidden City, she did visit the Imperial tombs to pay respect to her husband and ancestors. In 1880, while at the
Eastern Qing tombs, Ci'an, probably prompted by Prince Gong to assert herself and her rights, took precedence in all the ceremonies. While at Xianfeng's tomb
a friction started between Ci'an and Cixi. Ci'an as Empress Consort of the deceased Emperor took centre spot. She told Cixi to stand to the right and reminded
her that she was only a concubine while her husband was alive. The vacant spot on the left was reserved for Xianfeng's first consort, Lady Sakda. No further
friction occurred that day. It is not recorded how Cixi felt about this. On April 8, 1881, during an audience at court, Empress Dowager Ci'an became ill and was
accompanied to her private apartments, where she died within a few hours. Her sudden death was a shock to many people. Although her health was good, Ci'an
had been seriously ill twice according to Weng Tonghe, tutor of the Guangxu Emperor, once in March 1863 for 24 days, and another time in January 1870. The
official cause of her death between 9PM and 11 PM was a sudden stroke. Thirty years after her death rumors would be spread that she had been poisoned by
Empress Dowager Cixi. However, such claims have never been substantiated and new evidence has not appeared in the many years since. Furthermore, Cixi
herself was ill to the point of being unable to serve her functions at court, making her involvement in Ci'an's death highly unlikely. One of the most believed
rumors is that Ci'an was given a secret edict by the Xianfeng Emperor just before his death. The edict was related to Cixi. If Cixi caused any problems she would
be executed. After many years Ci'an revealed the edict to Cixi. The naïve Ci'an burned the edict which was the only thing that stood in Cixi's way for full power.
Later that evening Ci'an died. The posthumous name given to Empress Dowager Ci'an, which combines the honorific names which she gained during her
lifetime with new names added just after her death, was: (Chinese: 孝貞慈安裕慶和敬誠靖儀天祚聖顯皇后) which reads: "Empress Xiao ² -zhen ³ Ci'an Yuqing
Hejing Chengjing Yitian Zuosheng
4
Xian
5
". This long name is still the one that can be seen on Ci'an's tomb today. The short form of her posthumous name is:
"Empress Xiao Zhen Xian" (Chinese: 孝貞顯皇后). After her death a valedictory degree was written for Ci'an which reads as followed: "In spite of the ardious
duties of the State, which have fully occupied my time, I was naturally of robust constitution and had therefore fully expected to attain to a good old age and to
enjoy the Emperor's dutiful ministrations. Yesterday, however, I was suddenly stricken with a slight illness and his Majesty thereupon commanded his physician
to attend me; later his Majesty came in person to enquire as to my health. And now, most unexpectedly, I have had a most dangerous relapse. At 7PM this
evening I became completely confused in mind and now all hope of my recovery appears to be vain. I am forty-five years of age and for close on twenty years
have held the high position of a regent of the empire. Many honorific titles and ceremonies of congratulation have been bestowed upon me: what cause have I
therefore to regret?" Empress Dowager Ci'an was interred amidst the Eastern Qing Tombs (Chinese: 清東陵), 125 kilometers/75 miles east of Beijing. She was
denied burial next to her husband in the Dingling mausoleum.
[31]
Instead she was interred in the Dingdongling (Chinese: 定東陵) tomb complex (literally: the
"Tombs east of the Dingling tomb"), along with Empress Dowager Cixi. More precisely, Empress Dowager Ci'an lies in the Puxiangyu Dingdonling
(Chinese: 普祥峪定東陵) (literally: the "Tomb east of the Dingling tomb in the Vale of wide good omen"), while Cixi built herself the much larger Putuoyu
Dingdongling (Chinese: 菩陀峪定東陵) (literally: the "Tomb east of the Dingling tomb in the Vale of Putuo"). The Dingling tomb (literally: the "Tomb of
quietude") is the tomb of the Xianfeng Emperor, the emperor of Empress Dowager Ci'an and Empress Dowager Cixi, which is located indeed west of the
Dingdongling. The Vale of Putuo owes its name to Mt Putuo (literally: the "Mountain of the Dharani of the Site of the Buddha's Enlightenment"), at the foot of
which the Dingdongling is located. A popular view of Empress Dowager Ci'an is that she was a highly respectable person, always quiet, never hot-tempered, and
that she treated everybody very well and was highly respected by the Xianfeng Emperor. Both Tongzhi and Guangxu preferred Ci'an above Cixi. Her good-
hearted personality was no match for Empress Dowager Cixi, who managed to sideline the naive and candid Empress Dowager Ci'an. This is still the popular
view in China, the image of a quiet Empress Dowager Ci'an perhaps stemming from the meaning of her honorific name. However, some historians have painted
a very different reality, mainly that of a self-indulgent and idle Empress Dowager Ci'an, who did not care as much for government and hard work as she cared for
the pleasures and sweet life inside the Forbidden City. Empress Dowager Cixi, on the other hand, was a shrewd and intelligent woman who was ready to make
sacrifices and work hard in order to obtain the supreme power, and who faced the complex problems that were besetting China at the time. As often, the reality
may lie in between these two extremes and some even claim that Ci'an is said to have exhibited temper and willpower. The popular view of Ci'an being a nice
simple girl was exaggerated by the reformer Kang Yu-wei and biographers Bland and Backhouse, to build up the contrast between her and Cixi. There are no
documented meetings between any foreigner and Ci'an, unlike Cixi, who met many foreigners after 1900. Katherine A. Carl, who spent 9 months with empress
dowager Cixi in 1903 described Ci'an, even though she never met her, as follows: Ci'an was known as the "Literary Empress". While Cixi handled all state affairs,
Ci'an gave herself up to literary pursuits and led the life of a student. She was a woman of such fine literary ability that she herself sometimes examined the essays
of the aspirants for the highest literary honors at the University of Beijing. She was also a writer of distinction. Ci'an and Cixi lived amicably together, appreciated
each other's qualities, and are said to have had a sincere affection for each other, which never weakened during the whole of their long association. Their
amicable relation ended with the death of Ci'an in 1881. Another view of Ci'an was written by Lim Boon Keng. The beautiful Yehenara, like the Jewess Hagar,
was the handmaid who was to bear a son for her master. Ci'an appears to have been like Sarah, who in her anxiety to make up for her own sterility, encouraged
her husband to show his favor to his maid. Perhaps Xianfeng didn't need encouragement, but Ci'an took great interest in the concubine as the prospective mother
of the emperor's son and heir. Cixi was quick-tempered and probably jealous of the empress. Just before the birth of Tongzhi, Cixi was nearly demoted in rank
for her bad temper and insolence. Ci'an intervened on her behalf. In contrast to Hager, Cixi did not openly despise her mistress. She was as tame as a lamb, and
for many years they lived on terms of friendship.

Dowager Cixi

(Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi; Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade–Giles: Tz'u
2
-hsi
3
T'ai
4
-
hou
4
;Mandarin pronunciation: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâ x ]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), of
the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu
Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death on November 15, 1908. Selected as an imperial concubine for
the Xianfeng Emperor in her adolescence, she gave birth to his son, in 1856, who became theTongzhi Emperor upon
Xianfeng's death in 1861. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency over her young
son with the Empress Dowager Ci'an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi
Emperor, contrary to the rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. Although she refused
to adopt Western models of government, she nonetheless supported the technological and military Self-Strengthening
Movement. Cixi rejected the Hundred Days' Reforms of 1898 as impractical and detrimental to dynastic power and placed the Guangxu Emperor under house
arrest for supporting reformers. After the Boxer Rebellion and the invasion of Allied armies, external and internal pressures led Cixi to effect institutional
changes of just the sort she had resisted and appoint reform-minded officials. The dynasty collapsed in 1911, three years after her death (with the new Republican
Era commencing January 1, 1912). Historians both in China and abroad have generally portrayed her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the
Dynasty, while others have suggested that her opponents among the reformers succeeded in making her a scapegoat for problems beyond her control, that she
stepped in to prevent disorder, that she was no more ruthless than other rulers, and that she was even an effective if reluctant reformer in the last years of her life.
Cixi was born in the winter of 1835. According to the information listed on a red sheet (File No. 1247) within "Miscellaneous Pieces of the Palace" (a Qing
Dynasty documentation package retrieved from the First Historical Archives of China), Cixi was the daughter of Huizheng, an ordinary official from
the Manchu Yehenara clan. Palace archives also show that Huizheng was a member of the Bordered Blue Banner of the Eight Banners, and was working in
Beijing during the year of Cixi's birth, indicating that Cixi was born in Beijing. Also, the file recorded the location of Cixi's childhood home, which was Firewood
Alley of West Sipailou, Beijing (Chinese: 西四牌楼劈柴胡同). In 1851, Cixi participated in the selection for consorts to the new Xianfeng Emperor alongside
sixty other candidates. Cixi was one of the few candidates chosen to stay. She was placed in the 6th rank of consorts, and styled "Noble Lady Lan" (Chinese:
蘭贵人). Among the other chosen candidates were Noble Lady Li of Tatala clan (later Consort Li), Concubine Yun of Wugiya clan, and Concubine Zhen of
Niuhuru clan (later Xianfeng's empress consort). In 1854, Cixi was elevated to the 5th rank of consorts and given a title, styled "Imperial Concubine Yi" (Chinese:
懿嫔). In 1855, Cixi became pregnant. On 27 April 1856, she gave birth to Zaichun, the Xianfeng Emperor's only surviving son. Soon afterward, she was elevated
to the 4th rank of consorts, styled "Consort Yi" (Chinese: 懿妃). In 1857, when her son reached his first birthday, Cixi was elevated to the 3rd rank consorts, and
styled "Noble Consort Yi" (Chinese: 懿贵妃). This rank placed her second only to the Empresswithin Xianfeng's harem. Unlike many other women in the
imperial harem, Cixi was known for her ability to read and write Chinese. This granted her ample opportunities to help the ailing emperor in daily state
governing. On various occasions, the Xianfeng Emperor had Cixi read palace memorials for him, and leave instructions on the memorials according to his will.
As a result, Cixi became well-informed about state affairs, and learned the art of state governing from the ailing emperor. In September 1860, British and French
troops attacked Beijing during the closing stages of the Second Opium War, and by the following month had burned the Emperor's exquisite Old Summer
Palace to the ground. The attack, under the command of Lord Elgin, was mounted in retaliation for the arrest on 18 September of British diplomatic
envoy Harry Parkes and the torture and execution of a number of western hostages. The Xianfeng Emperor and his entourage, including Cixi, fled Beijing for the
safety of Rehe in Manchuria. On hearing the news of the destruction of the Old Summer Palace, the Xianfeng Emperor (who was already showing signs of
dementia) fell into a depression, turned heavily to alcohol and drugs, and became seriously ill. On August 22, 1861 the Xianfeng Emperor died at Rehe Palace in
the city of Rehe (now Chengde, Hebei). Before his death, he summoned eight of his most prestigious ministers, headed by Sushun, Zaiyuan, and Duanhua, and
named them the "Eight Regent Ministers" to direct and support the future Emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future Empress Dowager Cixi), was
only five years old. On his deathbed, the Xianfeng Emperor summoned his Empress and Noble Consort Yi, and gave each of them a stamp. He hoped that
when his son ascended the throne, his Empress and Noble Consort Yi would cooperate in harmony and, together, help the young emperor to grow and mature.
It was also meant as a check on the power of the eight regents. Upon the death of the Xianfeng Emperor, his Empress Consort, aged 25, was elevated to the
title Empress Dowager Ci'an (popularly known as the East Empress Dowager because she lived in the Eastern Zhong-Cui Palace), and Noble Consort Yi, aged
27, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Cixi (popularly known as the West Empress Dowager because she lived inside the Western Chuxiu Palace). By the
time of the Xianfeng Emperor's death, Empress Dowager Cixi had become a shrewd strategist. In Jehol, while waiting for an astrologically favorable time to
transport the coffin back to Beijing, Cixi liaised with powerful court officials and imperial relatives to seize power. Cixi's position as the lower-ranked Empress
Dowager had no political power attached. In addition, her son the young emperor was not a political force himself. As a result, it became necessary for her to ally
herself with other powerful figures. Taking advantage of the naïveté and good nature of the late emperor's principal wife, the Empress Dowager Ci'an, Cixi
suggested that they become co-reigning Empress Dowagers, with powers exceeding the Eight Regent Ministers. Tensions grew among the Eight Regent Ministers,
headed by Sushun, and the two Empresses Dowager. The ministers did not appreciate Cixi's interference in political affairs, and the frequent confrontations left
the Empress Dowager Ci'an frustrated. Ci'an often refused to come to court audiences, leaving Empress Dowager Cixi to deal with the ministers alone. Secretly,
Empress Dowager Cixi began gathering the support of talented ministers, soldiers, and others who were ostracized by the Eight Regent Ministers for personal or
political reasons. Among them was Prince Gong, who had great ambitions and was at that time excluded from the power circle, and thePrince Chun, the sixth
and seventh sons of the Daoguang Emperor, respectively. While she aligned herself with these Princes, amemorial came from Shandong asking for Cixi to "listen
to politics behind the curtains", i.e., asking Cixi to become the ruler. The same petition also asked Prince Gong to enter the political arena as a principal "aide to
the Emperor." When the Emperor's funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her alliances with Princes Gong and Chun. She and the boy
Emperor returned to the capital before the rest of the party, along with Zaiyuan and Duanhua, two of the principal regents, while Sushun was left to accompany
the deceased Emperor's procession. Cixi's early return to Beijing meant that she had more time to plan with Prince Gong, and ensure that the power base of the
Eight Regent Ministers was divided between Sushun and his allies, Zaiyuan andDuanhua. History was re-written and the Regents were dismissed for having
carried out incompetent negotiations with the "barbarians" which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Jehol "greatly against his will," among other charges. To
display her high moral standards, Cixi executed only three of the eight regent ministers. Prince Gong had suggested that Sushun and others be executed by the
most painful method, known as slow slicing, but Dowager Cixi declined the suggestion and ordered that Sushun be beheaded, while the other two also marked
for execution, Zaiyuan and Duanhua, were given white silks to allow them to commit suicide. In addition, Cixi refused outright the idea of executing the family
members of the ministers, as would be done in accordance with Imperial tradition of an alleged usurper. Ironically, Qing Imperial tradition also dictated that
women and princes were never to engage in politics. In breaking with tradition, Cixi became the only Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from "behind the curtains"
(垂簾聽政). This palace coup is known as the "Xinyou Palace Coup" (Chinese: 辛酉政變) in China after the name of the year 1861 in the Sexagenary cycle. In
November 1861, a few days following the coup, Cixi was quick to reward Yixin, the Prince Gong, for his help. He was made head of the General Affairs Office
and the Internal Affairs Office, and his daughter was made a Gurun Princess, a title usually bestowed only on the Empress's first-born daughter. Yixin's allowance
also increased twofold. However, Cixi avoided giving Yixin the absolute political power that princes such as Dorgon exercised during the Shunzhi Emperor's
reign. As one of the first acts from behind the curtains, Cixi (nominally along with Ci'an) issued two important Imperial Edicts on behalf of the Emperor. The first
stated that the two Empresses Dowager were to be the sole decision makers "without interference," and the second changed the boy Emperor's era
name from Qixiang(祺祥; "Auspicious") to Tongzhi (同治; "collective stable"). However, despite being the sole decision makers, both Ci'an and Cixi were forced
to rely on the Grand Council and a complex series of procedures in order to deal with affairs of state. When state documents came in, they were to be first
forwarded to the dowager empresses, and then referred back to the prince adviser and the Grand Council. Having discussed the matters, the prince and his
colleagues would seek the instruction of the dowager empresses at audiences and imperial orders would be drawn up accordingly, with drafts having to be
approved by the dowagers before edicts were issued. It also seems that their most important role during the regency was merely to apply their seals to edicts, a
merely mechanical role in a complex bureaucracy.
[9]
Cixi's entrance as the absolute power figure in China came at a time of internal chaos and foreign challenges.
The effects of the Second Opium War were still hovering over the country, as the Taiping Rebellion continued its seemingly unstoppable advance through
China's south, eating up the Qing Empire bit by bit. Internally, both the national bureaucracy and regional authorities were infested with rampant corruption.
1861 happened to be the year of official examinations, whereby officials of all levels presented their political reports from the previous three years. Cixi decided
that the time was ripe for a bureaucratic overhaul, where she personally sought audience with all officials above the level of provincial governor, who had to report
to her personally. Cixi took on part of the role usually given to the Bureaucratic Affairs Department (吏部). Cixi also executed two prominent officials to serve as
examples as a more immediate solution: Qingying, a military shilang who had tried to bribe his way out of demotion, and He Guiqing, then Viceroy of Liangjiang,
who fledChangzhou in the wake of an incoming Taiping army as opposed to trying to defend the city. Another significant challenge Cixi faced was the
increasingly decrepit state of the country's Manchu elite. Since the beginning of the dynasty most major positions at court had been held by Manchus, and
Emperors had generally shown contempt for powerful Han Chinese. Cixi, again in a reversal of Imperial tradition, entrusted the country's most powerful military
unit against the Taiping army into the hands of a Han Chinese, Zeng Guofan. Additionally, in the next three years, Cixi appointed Han Chinese officials to
become governors of all southern Chinese provinces, raising alarm bells in an administration traditionally fond of Manchu dominance. Under the command of
Gen. Zeng Guofan, the victorious Xiang Army defeated the Taiping Army in a hard-fought battle at Tianjing (present-day Nanjing) in July 1864. Zeng Guofan
was rewarded with the title of "Marquess Yiyong, First Class," and his brother Zeng Guoquan, along with Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, all Han Chinese
generals from the war, were rewarded respectively with their decorations and titles. With the Taiping threat receding, Cixi was focused on new internal threats to
her power. Of special concern was the position of Yixin, the Prince Gong, and the Chief Policy Advisor (议政王) at Court. Yixin, whose loyalties stretched at
least half of the country, also had effectively gathered under his command the support of all outstanding Han Chinese armies. In addition, Yixin controlled daily
court affairs as the first-in-charge at the Grand Council as well as the Zongli Yamen, the de facto ministry of foreign affairs. With his increasing stature, Yixin was
considered a serious threat to Cixi and her power. Although the Prince was rewarded for his conduct and recommendation of Zeng Guofan before the Taiping
defeat, Cixi was quick to move after Cai Shaoqi, a little-known official who was the recorder at court, who filed a memorial asking for Yixin's resignation. Having
built up a powerful base and a network of allies at court, Yixin considered the memorial insignificant. Cixi, however, took the memorial as a stepping stone to
Yixin's removal. In April 1865, under the pretext that Yixin had "improper court conduct before the two Empresses," among a series of other charges, Yixin was
dismissed from all his positions, but was allowed to keep his title. The dismissal, however, surprised the nobility and court officials, and brought about numerous
petitions for his return. Yicong, Prince Tun, as well as Yixuan, the Prince Chun, both sought their brother's reinstatement. Yixin himself, in an audience with the
two Empresses, burst into tears . Bowing to popular pressure, Cixi allowed Yixin to return to his position as the head of the foreign ministry, but rid Yixin of his
title of Chief Policy Advisor. Yixin would never return to political prominence again, and neither would the liberal and pro-reform policies of his time. Yixin's
demotion showed Cixi's iron grip on Qing politics, and her lack of willingness to give up absolute power to anyone, including her most important ally in the
Xinyou Coup, Prince Gong. China's loss in the Second Opium War was undoubtedly a wake-up call for its imperial rulers. Cixi presided over a country whose
military strategies, both on land and sea, and in terms of weaponry, were vastly outdated. Sensing an immediate threat from foreigners and realizing that China's
agricultural-based economy could not hope to compete with the industrial prowess of the West, Cixi made a decision that for the first time in Imperial Chinese
history, China would learn from Western powers and import their knowledge and technology. At the time, three prominent Han Chinese officials, Zeng
Guofan, Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, had all begun industrial programs in the country's southern regions. In supporting these programs, Cixi also decreed
the opening of Tongwen Guan in 1862, a university-like institution in Beijing that hired foreigners as teachers and specialized in new-age topics such as astronomy
and mathematics, as well as the English, French, and Russian languages. Groups of young boys were also sent abroad to the United States. China's "learn from
foreigners" program quickly met with impediments. China's military institutions were in desperate need of reform, and Cixi's solution, under the advice of officials
at court, was to purchase seven British warships. When the warships arrived in China, however, they carried with them boatloads of British sailors, all under
British command. The Chinese were enraged at this "international joke," negotiations broke down between the two parties, and China returned the warships to
Britain, where they were to be auctioned off. Scholars sometimes attribute the failure of China's foreign programs to Cixi's conservative attitude and old methods
of thinking, and contend that Cixi would learn only so much from the foreigners, provided it did not infringe upon her own power. Under the pretext that a
railway was too loud and would "disturb the Emperor's tombs," Cixi forbade its construction. When construction went ahead anyway in 1877 under Li
Hongzhang's recommendation, Cixi asked that they be pulled by horse-drawn carts.
[12]
Cixi was especially alarmed at the liberal thinking of people who had
studied abroad, and saw that it posed a new threat to her power. In 1881, Cixi put a halt to sending children abroad to study, and withdrew her formerly open
attitude towards foreigners. In 1872, the Emperor turned 17. Under the guidance of the Empress Dowager Ci'an, Tongzhi was married to Empress Jiashun.
Empress Jiashun's grandfather, Prince Zheng, was one of the eight ministers selected by Xianfeng to guide Tongzhi. He had been Cixi's enemy during the Xinyou
Coup, and was ordered to commit suicide after Cixi's victory. As a consequence, tension existed in the relationship between Cixi and Empress Jiashun ever since
the beginning, and it was often a source of irritation for Cixi. Moreover, the Empress's zodiac symbol of tiger was perceived as life-threatening by the superstitious
Cixi, whose own zodiac symbol was a goat. According to Cixi's belief, it was a warning from God that she would eventually fall prey to the Empress. As the
principal consort of the Emperor, Empress Jiashun was well received by both Tongzhi and Empress Dowager Ci'an. Her personal consultants once warned her
to be more agreeable and docile to Cixi, as Cixi was the figure who truly held the power. She replied: "I am a principal consort, having been carried through the
front gate with pomp and circumstance, as mandated by our ancestors. Empress Dowager Cixi was a concubine, and entered our household through a side gate."
Since the very beginning of his marriage, the Emperor proceeded to spend most of his time with his empress at the expense of his four concubines, including the
Lady Fuca, Noble Consort Hui, who was the empress intended by Cixi. As hostility grew between Cixi and Empress Jiashun, Cixi suggested the couple spend
more time on studies, and spied on Tongzhi using eunuchs. After her warning was ignored, Cixi ordered the couple to separate, and Tongzhi purportedly spent
several months following Cixi's order in isolation at Qianqing Palace. The young emperor, who could no longer cope with his grief and loneliness, grew more and
more ill-tempered. He began to treat his servants with cruelty, and punished them physically for minor offenses. Under the joined influence of court eunuchs and
Zaicheng, eldest son of Prince Gong and Tongzhi's contemporary and best friend, Tongzhi managed to escape the palace in search of pleasure in the unrestricted
parts of Beijing. For several evenings the Emperor disguised himself as a commoner and secretly spent the nights in the brothels of Beijing. The Emperor's sexual
habits became common talk among court officials and commoners, and there are many records of Tongzhi's escapades. Tongzhi received a rigorous education
from four famous teachers of Cixi's own choosing, in addition to making Mianyu his supervisor. Namely, Li Hongzao, Qi Junzao, Weng Xincun (later his
son Weng Tonghe, and Woren) were all imperial teachers who instructed the Emperor in the classics and various old texts for which the Emperor displayed little
or no interest. The pressure and stress put upon the young Emperor made him despise learning for the majority of his life. According to Weng Tonghe's diary,
the Emperor could not read a memorandum in full sentences by age sixteen. Worried about her son's inability, Cixi only pressured Tongzhi more. When he was
given personal rule at age 18, in November 1873 (four years behind the usual custom), Tongzhi proved to be an incompetent Emperor. Tongzhi made two
important policy decisions during his short stint of rule, lasting from 1873 to 1875. First, he decreed that the Imperial Summer Palace, destroyed by the English
and French in the Second Opium War, would be completely rebuilt under the pretext that it was a gift to Cixi and Ci'an. Historians also suggest that it was an
attempt to drive Cixi from the Forbidden City so he could rule without interference in policy or his private affairs. The imperial treasury was almost depleted at
the time from internal strife and foreign wars, and as a result Tongzhi asked the Board of Finance to forage for the necessary funds, as well as members of the
nobility and high officials to donate their share. Once construction began, Tongzhi checked its progress on a monthly basis, and would often spend days away
from court, indulging himself in pleasures outside of the Forbidden City. Uneasy about the Emperor's neglect of national affairs, Princes Yixin and Yixuan
(Prince Chun), along with the Court's top officials, submitted a joint memorandum asking the Emperor to cease the construction of the Summer Palace, among
other recommendations. Tongzhi, unwilling to submit to criticism, issued an Imperial Edict in August 1874 to rid Yixin of his Prince title and be demoted to
become a commoner. Two days later, Yicong, Yixuan, Yihui, Jingshou, Yikuang, Wenxiang, Baoju, and Grand Councilors Shen Guifen and Li Hongzao were all
to be stripped of their respective titles and jobs. Seeing the mayhem unfold from behind the scenes, Cixi and Ci'an made an unprecedented appearance at court
directly criticizing the Emperor for his wrongful actions, and asked him to withdraw the Edict; Cixi said that "without Prince Gong, the situation today would not
exist for you and me." Feeling a grand sense of loss at court and unable to assert his authority, the Emperor returned to his former habits. It was rumored that the
Emperor caught syphilis and became visibly ill. The doctors spread a rumor that the Emperor had caught smallpox, and proceeded to give medical treatment
accordingly. Within a few weeks, on January 13, 1875, the Emperor died. The Jiashun Empress followed suit in March. Judging from a modern medical
perspective the onset of syphilis comes in stages, thus the Emperor's quick death does not seem to reflect its symptoms. Therefore most historians maintain that
Tongzhi did, in fact, die from smallpox. Regardless, by 1875, Cixi was back onto the helm of imperial power. Tongzhi died without a male heir, a circumstance
that created an unprecedented succession crisis in the dynastic line. Members of the generation above were considered unfit, as they could not, by definition, be
the successor of their nephew. Therefore, the new Emperor had to be from a generation below or the same generation as Tongzhi. After considerable
disagreement between the two Dowagers, Zaitian, the first-born of the Prince Chun Yixuan and Cixi's sister, then aged four, was to become the new Emperor.
1875 was declared the era of Guangxu, or the reign of Glorious Succession. Young Zaitian was taken from his home and for the remainder of his life would be
cut completely off from his family. While addressing Ci'an conventionally as Huang O'niang (Empress Mother), Zaitian was forced to address Cixi as Qin
Baba (親爷爷; lit. "Biological Dad"), in order to enforce an image that she was the fatherly power figure in the house. The Guangxu Emperor began his education
when he was aged five, taught by Imperial Tutor Weng Tonghe, with whom he would develop a lasting bond. Shortly after the accession of the Emperor
Guangxu, Cixi fell severely ill, leaving Ci'an to attend to most of the affairs of state. Cixi was largely inaccessible to her young nephew, as well. The sudden death
of Ci'an in April 1881 brought Cixi a new challenge. Ci'an took little interest in running state business, but was the decision maker in most family affairs and as the
Emperor Xianfeng's empress, took seniority over Cixi, despite being two years Cixi's junior. Some have argued that there had been a possible conflict between
Cixi and Ci'an over the execution of An Dehai or a possible will from the late Xianfeng Emperor issued exclusively to Ci'an and that rumours began circulating at
court that Cixi had poisoned Ci'an. Because of a lack of evidence, however, historians are reluctant to believe that Ci'an was poisoned by Cixi, but instead choose
to believe that the cause of death was a sudden stroke, as validated by traditional Chinese medicine. In the years between 1881 and 1883, Cixi resorted to
communicating with her ministers in writing. Furthermore, the young Emperor Guangxu reportedly had been forced to conduct some audiences alone, without
Cixi. The once fierce and determined Prince Gong, frustrated by Cixi's iron grip on power, did little to question Cixi on state affairs, and supported Manchu
involvement in the Sino-French War. Cixi used China's loss in the war as a pretext for getting rid of Prince Gong and other important decision makers in the
Grand Council in 1885. She downgraded him to "advisor," and promoted the more easily influenced Yixuan, Prince Chun. After being appointed President of
the Navy, Prince Chun, in a sign of unswerving loyalty to Cixi, but in reality a move to protect his son, the new Emperor, moved funds from the military to
reconstruct the Imperial Summer Palace outside of Beijing city as a place for Cixi's retirement. Prince Chun did not want Cixi to interfere with his son Guangxu's
affairs once he came of age. Cixi showed no opposition to the construction of the palace. Guangxu technically gained the right to rule at the age of 16 in 1887
after Cixi issued an edict for Guangxu to have his accession to rule ceremony. Because of her prestige and power, however, court officials voiced their opposition
to Guangxu's personal rule, citing the Emperor's youth as the main reason. Shiduo, Yixuan, and Weng Tonghe, each with a different motive, asked Guangxu's
accession to be postponed until a later date. Cixi, with her reputed reluctance, accepted the "advice" and legitimized her continued rule through a new legal
document that allowed her to "aid" the Guangxu Emperor in his rule indefinitely. However, despite her prolonged regency, the Emperor Guangxu began to
slowly take on more responsibilities. In 1886, the emperor attended his first field plowing ceremony and also began commenting on imperial state documents
and by 1887, he began to rule under Cixi's supervision. Emperor Guangxu would eventually marry and take up the reigns of power in 1889. By then the Guangxu
Emperor was already 18, older than the conventional marital age for Emperors. Prior to the wedding, a large fire engulfed the Gate of Supreme Harmony at
the Forbidden City, following a trend of natural disasters in recent years, which according to Chinese political theory meant that the current rulers were losing the
"Mandate of Heaven". As his empress, Empress Dowager Cixi chose her niece & Guangxu's cousin, Jingfen, who would become the Empress Longyu. Cixi also
selected two concubines for him who were sisters, Consorts Jin and Zhen. Guangxu eventually would prefer to spend more time with Zhen, neglecting his
Empress, much to Cixi's dismay. In 1894, Cixi, citing intervention in political affairs as the main reason, degraded Zhen, and according to some reports, had her
flogged. Jin had also been implicated in Zhen's reported influence peddling, also apparently suffered a similar punishment and a cousin of theirs, an official
named Zhi Rui, was banished from the capital to a military outpost. On March 5, 1889, the dowager empress retired her second regency. However, despite no
longer being regent, she still was, effectively, head of the imperial family. Many officials, furthermore, owing in part to her seniority, along with her personalized
approach to court favorites, which had included giving them gifts of her artwork and inviting them to join her at the theater for opera and acrobatics, felt and
showed more loyalty to the dowager empress than they did to the emperor. Even after Guangxu began formal rule at age 19, Cixi continued to influence his
decisions and actions, despite residing for a period of time at the Imperial Summer Palace which she had ordered Guangxu's father to construct, with the official
intention not to intervene in politics. Guangxu paid visits to her, along with the entourage of court officials, every second or third day, where major political
decisions would be made. Weng Tonghe observed that while Guangxu dealt with day to day administration, in more complex cases, the Grand Councillors gave
their advice, and in the most complex cases, they sought the advice of Cixi. In 1894, the First Sino-Japanese War broke out between China and Korea. During
this period, Cixi was continuously called upon to arbitrate in policy decisions, with the emperor even being bypassed in the decision-making process. Cixi
eventually was given copies of the secret palace memorials, as well, and this practice was carried on until 1898 when it was rendered unnecessary. Cixi, in
November 1895, celebrated her sixtieth birthday. Borrowing from the plans for used for celebrations of the seventieth and eightieth birthdays of the mother of
the Qianlong Emperor, plans included a triumphal progress along the decorated road between the Forbidden City and the Summer Palace, decorations of the
Beijing city gates and monumental archways, free theatrical performances, remission of punishments and the restoration of degraded officials. However, the war
between China and Japan forced the dowager empress to cancel the lavish celebration and a much smaller celebration was held in the Forbidden City. After
taking power, the Guangxu Emperor was more reform-minded than the conservative-leaning Empress Dowager Cixi. After a humiliating defeat in the First Sino-
Japanese War of 1894, during which China's Beiyang Navy was crushed by the Japanese forces, the Qing government faced numerous unprecedented challenges
internally and abroad, with its very existence at stake. Under the influence of reformers Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, Guangxu believed that by learning from
constitutional monarchies like Japan and Germany, China would become more powerful politically and economically. In June 1898, the Guangxu Emperor
began the Hundred Days' Reform(戊戌变法), aimed at a series of sweeping changes politically, legally, and socially. For a brief time, after the supposed
retirement of the Empress Dowager Cixi, the Guangxu Emperor issued edicts for a massive number of far-reaching modernizing reforms. The reforms, however,
were too sudden for a China still under significant neo-Confucian influence, and displeased Cixi as it served as a serious check on her power. Some government
and military officials warned Cixi that the ming-shih (reformation bureau) had been geared toward conspiracy. Allegations of treason against the Emperor, as well
as suspected Japanese influence within the reform movement, including a suspicious visit from the Japanese Prime Minister, led Empress Dowager Cixi to
resume the role of regent and once again take control of the country. In another coup d'etat carried out by General Ronglu's personnel on September 21, 1898,
the Guangxu Emperor was taken to Ocean Terrace, a small palace on an island in the middle of Zhongnanhai linked to the rest of the Forbidden City with only a
controlled causeway. Empress Dowager Cixi would follow with an edict dictating the Guangxu Emperor's total disgrace and "not being fit to be Emperor". The
Guangxu Emperor's reign had effectively come to an end. A crisis followed in the Qing court on the issue of abdication. However, bowing to increasing western
pressure and general civil discontent over the issue, Cixi did not forcibly remove Guangxu from the throne, although she attempted crowning Punji, a boy of
fourteen who was from a close branch of the Imperial family, as the crown prince. The Guangxu era nominally continued until 1908, but the Emperor lost all
honours, respect, power, and privileges, including his freedom of movement. Most of his supporters, including his former tutor Weng Tonghe, and the man he
had recommended, Kang Youwei, were exiled, while six prominent reformers led by Tan Sitong were executed in public by Empress Dowager Cixi. Kang
continued to work for a more progressive Qing Empire while in exile, remaining loyal to the Guangxu Emperor and hoping eventually to restore him to power.
His efforts would prove to be in vain. In 1900, the Boxer Uprising broke out in northern China. Perhaps fearing further foreign intervention, Cixi threw in her
support to these anti-foreign bands, making an official announcement of her support for the movement and a formal declaration of war on the European powers.
The Manchu General Ronglu deliberately sabotaged the performance of the Imperial army during the rebellion. Dong Fuxiang's Muslim troops were able and
eager to destroy the foreign military forces in the legations, but Ronglu stopped them from doing so. The Manchu prince Zaiyi was xenophobic and was friends
with Dong Fuxiang. Zaiyi wanted artillery for Dong Fuxiang's troops to destroy the legations. Ronglu blocked the transfer of artillery to Zaiyi and Dong,
preventing them from destroying the legations. When artillery was finally supplied to the Imperial Army and Boxers, it was only done so in limited amounts;
Ronglu deliberately held back the rest of them. The Chinese forces defeated the small 2,000 person Western relief force at the Battle of Langfang but lost several
decisive battles, including Battle of Beicang and the entire royal court was forced to retreat as the allied forces invaded Beijing. Due to the fact that moderates at
the Qing court tried to appease the foreigners by moving the Muslim Kansu Braves out of their way, the Allied army was able to march into Beijing and seize the
capital. During the war, Cixi displayed concern about China's situation and foreign aggression, saying, "Perhaps their magic is not to be relied upon; but can we
not rely on the hearts and minds of the people? Today China is extremely weak. We have only the people's hearts and minds to depend upon. If we cast them
aside and lose the people's hearts, what can we use to sustain the country?" The Chinese people were almost unanimous in their support for the Boxers due to
the Western Allied invasion. When Cixi received an ultimatum demanding that China surrender total control over all its military and financial affairs to
foreigners, she defiantly stated before the entire Grand Council, "Now they [the Powers] have started the aggression, and the extinction of our nation is imminent.
If we just fold our arms and yield to them, I would have no face to see our ancestors after death. If we must perish, why not fight to the death?" It was at this
point that Cixi began to blockade the legations with the Peking Field Force armies, which began the siege. Cixi stated that "I have always been of the opinion, that
the allied armies had been permitted to escape too easily in 1860. Only a united effort was then necessary to have given China the victory. Today, at last, the
opportunity for revenge has come", and said that millions of Chinese would join the cause of fighting the foreigners since the Manchus had provided "great
benefits" on China. During the Battle of Peking, the entire Chinese Imperial Court, including the Empress Dowager and Emperor Guangxu, fled Beijing and
evacuated to Xi'an in Shaanxi province as the allied forced invaded the city. After the fall of Beijing, the allied forces negotiated a treaty with the Qing dynasty,
sending messengers to the Dowager Empress in Xi'an. Included in the terms of the agreement was a guarantee that the China would not have to give up any
further territories to foreign powers. Many of the Dowager Empress's advisers in the Imperial Court insisted that the war against the foreigners be continued.
They recommended that Dong Fuxiang be given responsibility to continue the war effort. The Dowager was practical, however, and decided that the terms were
generous enough for her to acquiesce and stop the war, at least after she was assured of her continued reign when the war was concluded. The Western powers
needed a government strong enough to suppress further anti-foreign movements, but too weak to act on its own; they supported the continuation of the Qing,
rather than allowing it to be overthrown. Cixi turned once more to Li Hongzhang to negotiate. Li agreed to sign the Boxer Protocol, which stipulated the
presence of an international military force in Beijing and the payment of £67 million (almost $333 million) in war reparations. The United States used its share of
the war indemnity to fund the creation of China's prestigious Tsinghua University. The Emperor and the Empress Dowager did not return to the capital from
Xi'an until roughly eighteen months after their flight . In January 1902, the Empress Dowager, Emperor, Empress and the rest of the court made a ceremonious
return to Beijing. At the railhead at at Chengtingfu, Cixi and the court boarded a twenty-one car train to convey them the rest of the way to the capital. In Beijing,
many of the legation women turned out to watch the procession from Beijing's railroad station to the Forbidden City, and for the first time, ordinary Chinese
were permitted to watch, as well. Once back in the palace, Cixi implemented sweeping political reforms. High officials were dispatched to Japan and Europe to
gather facts and draw up plans for sweeping administrative reforms in law, education, government structure, and social policy, many of which were modeled on
the reforms of theMeiji Restoration. The abolition of the examination system in 1905 was only the most visible of these sweeping reforms. Ironically, Cixi
sponsored the implementation of a reform program more radical than the one proposed by the reformers she had beheaded in 1898. She also, in an attempt to
woo the foreigners, invited the wives of the diplomatic corps to a tea in the Forbidden City soon after her return, and in time, would hold summer garden parties
for the foreign community at the Summer Palace. In 1903, she acquiesced to the request of Sarah Conger, wife ofEdwin Conger, the American minister to China,
to have her portrait painted by American artist Katharine Carl for the St. Louis World's Fair. Between 1903 and 1905 Cixi had a western educated lady-in-waiting
by the name of Der Ling, along with her sister and mother, serve at her court. Der Ling, fluent in English and French, as well as Chinese, often served as
translator at meetings with the wives of the diplomatic corps. In 1903, Cixi allowed a young aristocratic photographer named Xunling, a brother of Der Ling, to
take elaborately staged shots of her and her court, designed to convey imperial authority, aesthetic refinement, and religious piety. As the only photographic series
taken of Cixi—the supreme leader of China for more than forty-five years—it represents a unique convergence of Qing court pictorial traditions, modern
photographic techniques, and Western standards of artistic portraiture. The rare glass plates have been blown up into full-size images, included in the
exhibition "The Empress Dowager" at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Empress Dowager Cixi died in the Hall of
Graceful Bird at the Middle Sea (Chinese: 中海儀鸞殿) ofZhongnanhai on November 15, 1908, after having installed Puyi as the new Emperor of the Qing
Dynasty on November 14, 1908. Her death came only a day after the death of the Guangxu Emperor. On November 4, 2008, forensic tests concluded that the
death of the Emperor was caused by acute arsenic poisoning. China Daily quoted a historian, Dai Yi, who speculated that Cixi may have known of her imminent
death and may have worried that Guangxu would continue his reforms after her death. CNN has recently reported that the level of arsenic in his remains was
2,000 times higher than that of ordinary people. Empress Dowager Cixi was interred amidst the Eastern Qing Tombs (Chinese: 清東陵), 125 km (78 mi) east of
Beijing, in the Dong Dingling (Chinese: 東定陵), along with Empress Dowager Ci'an. More precisely, Empress Dowager Ci'an lies in the Pu Xiang Yu Ding
Dong Ling (Chinese: 普祥峪定東陵) (literally: the "Tomb East of the Ding Ling Tomb in the Broad Valley of Good Omen"), while Empress Dowager Cixi built
herself the much larger Pu Tuo Yu Ding Dong Ling (Chinese: 菩陀峪定東陵) (literally: the "Tomb East of the Ding Ling Tomb in the Potala Valley"). The
Dingling tomb (literally: the "Tomb of quietude") is the tomb of the Xianfeng Emperor, the spouse of Empress Dowager Ci'an and Empress Dowager Cixi, which
is located indeed west of the Ding Dong Ling. The Putuo Valley owes its name to Mount Putuo, one of the Four Sacred Buddhist Mountains of China. Empress
Dowager Cixi, unsatisfied with her tomb, ordered its destruction and reconstruction in 1895. The new tomb was a lavish grandiose complex of temples, gates, and
pavilions, covered with gold leaf, and with gold and gilded-bronze ornaments hanging from the beams and the eaves. In July 1928, Empress Dowager Cixi's
tomb was occupied by warlord and Kuomintang general Sun Dianying and his army who methodically stripped the complex of its precious ornaments, then
dynamited the entrance to the burial chamber, opened Empress Dowager Cixi's coffin, threw her corpse (said to have been found intact) on the floor, and stole
all the jewels contained in the coffin, as well as the massive pearl that had been placed in Empress Dowager Cixi's mouth to protect her corpse from decomposing
(in accordance with Chinese tradition). Urban legend states that the large pearl on Empress Dowager Cixi's crown was offered by Sun Dianying to Kuomintang
leader Chiang Kai-shekand ended up as an ornament on the gala shoes of Chiang's wife, Soong May-ling, but this is unconfirmed. After 1949, the complex of
Empress Dowager Cixi's tomb was restored by the People's Republic of China, and it is still today one of the most impressive imperial tombs of China. The name
by which she is most frequently known and the name used in most modern texts is simply "Cixi", which is neither her birth name nor family name. It is an
"honorific name" given to her in 1861 after her son ascended the throne. Empress Dowager Cixi's name at birth is not known, although a recent book published
by one of Cixi's brother's descendants seems to suggest that it was Xingzhen(Chinese: 杏貞; Wade-Giles: Hsingchen). The first occurrence of her name is at the
time she entered the Forbidden City in September 1851, where she was recorded as "the Lady Yehenara, daughter of Huizheng" (Chinese: 惠徵). Thus, she was
called by her clan's name, the Yehe-Nara clan, as was customary for Manchu girls. On entering the Forbidden City, she was a preparative concubine
(Chinese: 秀女). After her sexual union with the Xianfeng Emperor, she was made a concubine of the fifth rank Noble Person, a.k.a. "Worthy Lady"
(Chinese: 貴人), and was given the name Yi (懿,meaning "good", "exemplary", "virtuous"). Her name was thus "Noble Person of Yi", orWorthy Lady
Yi (Chinese: 懿貴人). At the end of December 1854 or the beginning of January 1855, she was promoted to concubine of the fourth rank, Imperial
Concubine (Chinese: 嬪), so that her new name was Imperial Concubine Yi (Chinese: 懿嬪). On April 27, 1856, Yehenara gave birth to a son, the only son
of Xianfeng, and was immediately made Noble Consort Yi" (Chinese: 懿妃). Finally, in February 1857 she was again elevated and made "Noble Imperial Consort
Yi" (Chinese: 懿貴妃). In the end of August 1861, following the death of the Xianfeng Emperor, her five-year-old son became the new Emperor, known as
theTongzhi Emperor. Empress Dowager Cixi, as biological mother of the new emperor, was officially made Divine Mother Empress
Dowager(Chinese: 聖母皇太后). She was also given the honorific name Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧), meaning "Motherly and Auspicious". As for the Empress Consort,
she was made "Mother Empress Dowager" (Chinese: 母后皇太后), a title giving her precedence over Empress Dowager Cixi, and she was given the honorific
name Empress Dowager Ci'an (Chinese: 慈安), meaning "Motherly and Calm". On 7 occasions after 1861, Empress Dowager Cixi was given additional
honorific names (two Chinese characters at a time), as was customary for Emperors and Empresses, until by the end of her reign her name was a long string of 16
characters starting with Cixi (as Empress Dowager she had the right to nine additions, giving a total of 20 characters, had she lived long enough for it). At the end
of her life, her official name was: (Chinese: 大清國當今慈禧端佑康頤昭豫莊誠壽恭欽獻崇熙聖母皇太后) which reads: "The Current Divine Mother
Empress Dowager Ci-Xi Duan-You Kang-Yi Zhao-Yu Zhuang-Cheng Shou-Gong Qin-Xian Chong-Xi of the Great Qing Empire". The short form was The
Current Divine Mother Empress Dowager of the Great Qing Empire (Chinese: 大清國當今聖母皇太后). At the time, Empress Dowager Cixi was addressed
as "Venerable Buddha" (Chinese: 老佛爺),literally "Master Old Buddha", a term used for all the Emperors of the Qing Dynasty. At official and ceremonial
occasions, the phrase Long Live the Empress Dowager for ten thousand years (Chinese: 大清國當今聖母皇太后萬歲萬歲萬萬歲), which is by convention,
only used by Emperors. The convention for Empress Dowagers of imperial China was usually Long live for one thousand years. At her death in 1908, Empress
Dowager Cixi was given a posthumous name which combines the honorific names that she gained during her lifetime with new names added just after her death.
This is the name that is usually used on official documents to refer to an Empress. This long form of the posthumous name is:
(Chinese: 孝欽慈禧端佑康頤昭豫莊誠壽恭欽獻崇熙配天興聖顯皇太后), which reads: Empress Xiao-Qin Ci-Xi Duan-You Kang-Yi Zhao-Yu Zhuang-Cheng
Shou-Gong Qin-Xian Chong-Xi Pei-Tian Xing-Sheng Xian. This long name is still the one that can be seen on Cixi's tomb today. The short form of her
posthumous name is: Empress Xiao Qin Xian (孝欽顯皇后). The traditional view of the Empress Dowager Cixi was that of a devious despot who contributed in
no small part to China's slide into corruption, anarchy, and revolution. During Cixi's time, she used her power to accumulate vast quantities of money, bullion,
antiques and jewelry, using the revenues of the state as her own. By the end of her reign she had amassed a huge personal fortune, stashing away some eight and a
half million pounds sterling in London banks. The lavish palaces, gardens and lakes built by Cixi were hugely extravagant at a time when China was verging on
bankruptcy. The recent discovery that her nephew died of acute arsenic poisoning casts a sinister shadow on the events of her reign, as do the many examples of
her ruthless elimination of enemies throughout her life, from Sushun and his entourage to the martyrs of the 100 Days' Reform to Empress Alute and the
Consort Zhen, whether or not the details were embellished by critics. Katharine Carl spent some ten months with the Empress Dowager Cixi in 1903 to paint her
portrait for the St. Louis Exposition. Two years later she published a book about her experience, titled With the Empress Dowager. In the book's introduction,
Carl says she wrote the book because "After I returned to America, I was constantly seeing in the newspapers (and hearing of) statements ascribed to me which I
never made." In her book, Katharine Carl describes the Empress Dowager Cixi as a kind and considerate woman for her station. Empress Dowager Cixi, though
shrewd, had great presence, charm, and graceful movements resulting in "an unusually attractive personality". Carl wrote of the Dowager's love of dogs and of
flowers, as well as boating, Chinese opera and her Chinese water pipes and European cigarettes. Carl also made note of Empress Dowager Cixi's loyalty,
describing the case of "a Chinese woman who nursed Her Majesty through a long illness, about twenty-five years since, and saved her life by giving her mother's
milk to drink. Her Majesty, who never forgets a favor, has always kept this woman in the Palace. Being a Chinese, she had bound feet. Her Majesty, who cannot
bear to see them even, had her feet unbound and carefully treated, until now she can walk comfortably. Her Majesty has educated the son, who was an infant at
the time of her illness, and whose natural nourishment she partook of. This young man is already a Secretary in a good yamen (government office)." Luke Kwong,
in his analysis of the Hundred Days of Reform, has argued that many of the allegations of being power-hungry and immoral cannot be verified. He also portrays
her as a relatively insecure woman, concerned about her legitimacy and haunted by her relatively humble origins in the palace. Yet, despite her concerns about
her legitimacy, she was not necessarily power-hungry tyrant who manipulated the court, but was rather content to remain as merely part of a coalition government
between the herself and the Grand Council, as well as a dynastic figurehead, so long as her sense of legitimacy was respected and unchallenged. He also argues
that her return to power in 1898 was driven less by Cixi's desire to gain power and opposition to reform, as she had been privy to dispatches from the Grand
Council and consulted by the emperor, but that her detachment from court politics and tendency to rely on second-hand accounts had made her subject to
manipulation by her informants to the point that she felt it urgent to resume her "tutelage" of the emperor. Seagrave, argues that most of the more sensational
stories of Empress Dowager Cixi's life can be traced to the boasting, self-important "Wild Fox" Kang Youwei and his cronies who, never having met the Empress
Dowager, concocted stories of plots and poisonings and passed them on to the Western press. Many other "details" of her life are based on accounts by J. O. P.
Bland and known forger Edmund Backhouse. As life in the Forbidden City remained a mystery for most Westerners, these stories created by Kang and
Backhouse (some up to 30 years after the supposed events) were used by many 20th-century historians to paint a misleading picture of the Empress Dowager. In
contrast, Seagrave portrays Empress Dowager Cixi as a woman stuck between the xenophobic Ironhats faction, made up of Manchu nobility wanting to maintain
Manchu dominance and remove Western influences from China at all cost, and more moderate influences trying to cope with China's problems on a more
realistic footing, such as Prince Gong in Cixi's earlier days. The Empress Dowager, Seagrave argues, did not crave power but simply acted to balance these
influences and protect the Dynasty as best she could. According to research by Professor Lei Chia-sheng (雷家聖), during the Hundred Days'
Reform (戊戌变法), former prime minister of Japan Itō Hirobumi (伊藤博文) arrived in China on September 11, 1898. Almost at the same time, British
missionary Timothy Richard was invited to Beijing by Kang Youwei. Richard suggested that China should hand over some political power to Itō in order to help
push the reforms further. On September 18, 1898 Richard convinced Kang Youwei to adopt a plan by which China would join a federation composed of China,
Japan, the United States, and England. This suggestion did not reflect the policies of the countries concerned. It was Timothy Richard‘s (and perhaps Itō
Hirobumi's) trick to convince China to hand over national rights. Kang Youwei nonetheless asked fellow reformers Yang Shenxiu (楊深秀) and Song Bolu
(宋伯魯) to report this plan to the Guangxu Emperor. On September 20, 1898 Yang sent a memorial to this effect to the Emperor. In another memorial written
the next day, Song Bolu also advocated the formation of a federation and the sharing of the diplomatic, fiscal, and military powers of the four countries under a
hundred-man committee. Still according to Lei Chia-sheng's findings, on October 13, 1898 British ambassador Sir C. MacDonald reported to his government
about the Chinese situation, saying that Chinese reforms had been damaged by Kang Youwei and his friends‘ actions. British diplomat Baurne claimed in his own
report that Kang was a dreamer who had been seduced by Timothy Richard‘s sweet words. Baurne thought Richard was a plotter. The British and American
governments were unaware of the "federation" plot, which seems to have been Timothy Richard‘s personal idea. Because Richard's partner Itō Hirobumi had
been Prime Minister of Japan, the Japanese government might have known about Richard's plan, but there is no evidence to this effect. Der Ling, whose
Christian name was Elisabeth Antoinette, was born in Beijing in June 1885 and died in Berkeley, California in November 1944. She was the eldest daughter of
Yu Keng, an official of the Chinese-Martial (Han Jun) Plain White Banner, and his wife, Louisa Pierson, daughter of an American merchant in Shanghai and his
Chinese consort. When Der Ling's father was recalled from Paris, where he had been a Chinese minister, in 1903, Der Ling, her sister Rong Ling (later the wife
of General Dan Paochao) and their mother were summoned by Cixi to become court ladies – something between ladies-in-waiting and translators/hostesses for
when the Empress Dowager had foreign female guests from Beijing's Legation Quarter. Der Ling served at court from March 1903 till October 1905, and
married an American, Thaddeus Cohu White, in 1907. After Cixi's death in 1908, Der Ling professed to be so angered by what she saw as false portraits of Cixi
appearing in books and periodicals that she wrote her own account of serving "Old Buddha", which she called "Two Years in the Forbidden City". This book
appeared in 1911, just before the fall of the Qing Dynasty, and was a popular success. In this book, Cixi is not the monster of depravity depicted in the popular
press and in the second and third hand accounts left by foreigners who had lived in Beijing, but an aging woman who loved beautiful things, had many regrets
about the past and the way she had dealt with the many crises of her long reign, and apparently trusted Der Ling enough to share many memories and opinions
with her. It was clearly Cixi's favouritism toward Der Ling, including permitting her to wear a "princess button" on her hat, that prompted Der Ling in later years,
when seeking an English equivalent to her office at court, to add "Princess" to her name, a move that undermined her credibility in China even as it drove up her
stock when she went before the American public in the 1920s to give lectures about life at court with the semi-legendary Cixi. Der Ling ultimately wrote a full-
length biography of Cixi titled 'Old Buddha.' Der Ling would go on to write seven more books about this relatively brief period in her youth when she had been
close to the centre of failing imperial Chinese power, and sharing this personal history and her habit of promoting herself and her writings caused most of her
family to turn against her. All of this has made it difficult to assess Der Ling's contribution to late Qing historiography. But the fact remains that she was the first
woman of Cixi's own ethnic background to live with and observe her and then write about what it was like; if many of Der Ling's recollections smack of the every
day minutiae of a court that thrived on details and form, her writings are no less valuable for focusing on them, particularly as life within the Forbidden City and
the Summer Palace was a closed book for most people in China, let alone in the rest of the world. It was misunderstanding of much of what emanated from the
throne that created so many of the problems Cixi has been wholly blamed for. Starting with Sterling Seagrave's biography of Cixi, 'Dragon Lady: The Life and
Legend of the Last Empress of China', Der Ling and her reminiscence of the imperial court have been rehabilitated in recent years, in tandem with reassessments
of the Empress Dowager herself. In January 2008, Hong Kong University Press published the first biography of Der Ling, 'Imperial Masquerade: The Legend of
Princess Der Ling'. Cixi appears frequently in ceremonies described in the diaries of Sir Ernest Satow for 1900–06 when Satow was British envoy in Peking.
Another well known but now widely questioned biography is "China Under The Empress Dowager" by J. O. P. Bland and Edmund Backhouse. Backhouse was
later found to have forged some of his source materials when he wrote this work. This is a book that gave rise to much of the negative perspective of the dowager
empress. Pearl S. Buck's novel Imperial Woman chronicles the life of the Empress Dowager from the time of her selection as a concubine until near to her
death. The novels Empress Orchid (2004) and The Last Empress (2007), by Anchee Min portray the life of Empress Dowager Cixi from a first-person
perspective. The Noble Concubine Yi is featured in George McDonald Fraser's novel, Flashman and the Dragon (1985). The 1968 novel Wij Tz'e Hsi Keizerin
Van China (We, Tz'e Hsi, Empress of China) by Dutch author Johan Fabricius is a fictional diary of the Empress. Cixi is portrayed by British actresses Flora
Robson in the 1963 film 55 Days At Peking. In the 1970s, she was portrayed by Lisa Lu in two Hong Kong made films, The Empress Dowager (set during the
Sino-Japanese War) and its sequel, The Last Tempest (set during the "Hundred Days of Reform"). Lu reprised her role as Cixi in the 1987 film The Last
Emperor, depicting the dowager on her deathbed. In the 1980s, she was portrayed by Liu Xiaoqing, in Burning of Imperial Palace (depicting her rise to power in
the 1850s & the burning of the Old Summer Palace by French & British troops in 1860), Reign Behind a Curtain (depicting the Xinyou Coup of 1861) and The
Empress Dowager (set during the later part of the reign of Tongzhi) and Li Lianying, the Imperial Eunuch. Lover of the Last Empress acted by Chingmy Yau.
The China Central Television production Towards the Republic portrayed Empress Dowager Cixi as a capable ruler, albeit not entirely positive, for the first time
in the history of Mainland Chinese television, although it also clearly demonstrated her political views as very conservative. Cixi is also found in the book History's
Monsters, written in 2008 by Simon Sebag Montefiore, which portrays the empress in a very negative light

Regents for the Puyi Emperor

Xiaodingjing (Chinese: 孝定景皇后), better known as the Empress Dowager Longyu (Chinese: 隆裕皇后), (given name:
Jingfen 靜芬, January 28, 1868 – February 22, 1913). She also had the nickname Xizi (喜子). Empress Xiaodingjing was the Qing
Dynasty Empress Consortof the Guangxu Emperor who ruled China from 1875 to 1908 and Regent of the Qing Dynasty from
December 2, 1908 until February 12, 1912. She is best remembered for signing the abdication on behalf of the child
Emperor Puyi, in 1912, ending imperial rule in China. Empress Xiaodingjing née Yehenara (叶赫那拉氏) was the second
daughter of Vice General Guixiang (桂祥) by his wife of Mongolianorigin. Lady Yehenara was born in the seventh year
of Emperor Tongzhi's reign and lived from 1868 until February 22, 1913. In 1889, it was decided that the Guangxu Emperor had
to marry before ruling the country in his own right. Among many girls, Lady Yehenara was chosen as the Empress Consort
because her aunt, the Empress Dowager Cixi, wanted to strengthen the power of her own family. She married the Guangxu
Emperor, her cousin, on 26 February 1889, and became his Empress directly after the wedding ceremony. The wedding
ceremony of Guangxu and Longyu, an extremely extravagant and spectacular occasion, took place on February 26, 1889.
However, prior to the wedding, on 16 January 1889, the Forbidden City caught fire, and the Gate of Supreme Harmony was
burnt down. According to the traditions of the Qing Dynasty imperial court, the route of the Emperor's wedding procession had
to pass through the Gate of Supreme Harmony, which was completely destroyed. As a result, many people took this incident as a bad omen. Due to the fact that
the reconstruction of the gate would be extremely time-consuming, and the wedding date of the Emperor could not be postponed once decided, Empress
Dowager Cixi ordered a tent resembling the gate to be constructed. The artisans used paper and wood to build the tent, and after it was done, the tent had exactly
the same height and the same width as the original gate, with ornamentation extremely similar to the original. As a result, even people who walked through the
inner palace on a regular basis could not tell the difference between the original gate and the temporary tent at first. However, after their marriage, Yehenara was
detested and ignored by the Guangxu Emperor, who favoured Consort Zhen of the Tatara clan (Chinese: 他他拉氏珍妃). At first, Empress Dowager Cixi
regarded Consort Zhen favourably, but, after finding out she had overspent her allowance, she demoted her. Cixi eventually grew more hostile to the Imperial
Consort, and sent her to a "cold palace", a place reserved for an emperor's disfavoured consorts. Due to her opposition to the Guangxu Emperor's Hundred Days'
Reform of 1898, Empress Dowager Cixi had him imprisoned inside the former Imperial Residence. Lady Yehenara would frequently spy on the Emperor and
report his every action to Empress Dowager Cixi. In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, Lady Yehenara fled with the Empress Dowager and Emperor Guangxu
to Xi'an when Beijing was occupied by foreign armies. Upon their return, Consort Zhen drowned in a well within the Forbidden City. Both Princess Der
Ling and Katherine Carl, who spent time in Dowager Empress Cixi's court recalled Empress Longyu to be a gracious and pleasant figure. Both the Guangxu
Emperor and Cixi died within one day of each other in 1908, after which Empress Yehenara was made Empress Dowager, with the honorable titles Longyu,
meaning "Auspicious and Prosperous". Immediately after Emperor Guangxu's death, Empress Dowager Cixi appointed Puyi, a nephew of Guangxu, as the new
emperor. Longyu had no children of her own, and thus as Empress Dowager adopted Puyi. The Empress Dowager Cixi had decreed before her death that
the Qing Dynasty would never again allow the regency of women, but that Longyu was to remain the leading figure and was to be consulted on all major
decisions. When Longyu assumed the title of Empress Dowager, she was, theoretically, in a position to make all important decisions. However, because of her
inexperience in politics, in the first few years the Imperial Court was dominated by the young regent Zaifeng, Prince Chun, the father of the new emperor and
Longyu's brother-in-law, and then by Yuan Shikai; Longyu was dependent on both. On Yuan's advice in the fall of 1911, Empress Dowager Longyu agreed to sign
an abdication on behalf of the six-year-old Xuantong Emperor. She agreed only if the Imperial family were allowed to keep its titles. Other agreements were
these: The Imperial family could keep its possessions. They could stay in the Forbidden City temporarily, then would eventually move to the summer palace.
They would receive an annual stipend of 4,000,000 silver yuan. The Imperial graves would be protected and looked after. The new government would pay for
the funeral and tomb of the late Guangxu emperor. In 1912, the Qing Dynasty was abolished, making way for the new Republic of China. Within a few months
after the fall of the Qing Dynasty, on 22 February 1913, Longyu died in Beijing after an illness. She was 45 years old, and was the only Empress of China whose
coffin was transported from the Forbidden City to her tomb by train. At her funeral, the Vice President of the Republic of China, Li Yuanhong (黎元洪), praised
Empress Dowager Longyu as the "most excellent among women".

Zaifeng (February 12, 1883 – February 3, 1951), titled Prince Chun (Prince Ch'un in Wade–Giles) or more formally Prince
Chun of the First Rank (醇親王), was the last member of the Qing Dynasty (aka Manchu Dynasty) who effectively ruled
China, as Prince-Regent for his son the emperor Puyi from December 2, 1908 until December 6, 1911. Zaifeng was a
younger half-brother of Puyi's predecessor, the Guangxu Emperor. Zaifeng was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan as the
fifth son of Yixuan, Prince Chun. He was the second of Yixuan's sons who managed to survive into adulthood. Zaifeng's
mother was Lady Lingiya, who was a maid in the Prince Chun residence before becoming one of Yixuan's secondary spouses.
A Han Chinese by birth, her family name was Liu (劉) but was later changed to the Manchu clan name Lingiya (劉佳) after
she married Yixuan. In 1875 after the Tongzhi Emperor's death, Zaifeng's older half brother Zaitian was selected by Empress
Dowager Cixi and Empress Dowager Ci'an as the successor to the throne. Zaitian then became known as the Guangxu
Emperor. Zaifeng's father Yixuan, as father of the reigning emperor, received the highest honour and status in the Qing
imperial court. Besides, Yixuan also had a close relationship with Empress Dowager Cixi. In January 1891, upon the death of
Yixuan, a barely eight years old Zaifeng immediately inherited his father's title of "Prince Chun of the First Rank" (醇親王). In
1900 during the Boxer Rebellion, when the armies of the Eight-Nation Alliance occupied the capital Beijing, Zaifeng's fiancée
reportedly committed suicide to prevent herself from being raped and dishonoured by the foreign invaders. Around late
February or early March 1901, Zaifeng was appointed as an Army Inspector by the Qing imperial court, which had moved toXi'an after evacuating Beijing as
the Eight-Nation Alliance's armies closed in on the capital. In June that year, at the insistence of the foreign powers, the 18-year-old Zaifeng was appointed by the
Qing court as a Special Ambassador to offer regrets on behalf of the Qing government to Germany for the murder of German diplomat Baron von Ketteler in
1900. In July, Zaifeng left for Germany by sea and metKaiser Wilhelm II in Berlin in September. He also toured Europe before returning to China, becoming
one of the first members of the Qing imperial clan ever to travel abroad. Empress Dowager Cixi was pleased with the way Zaifeng executed his diplomatic
mission in Germany. He allegedly refused to kneel in front of the Kaiser even when the Germans insisted. In China, however, it was mandatory for foreign
ambassadors to kneel in front of the Chinese emperor. For his success, Zaifeng was subsequently given several key appointments over the following years. At the
same time, Cixi grew wary of Zaifeng because the latter was favoured by the foreign powers. One of the reasons why Zaifeng took up so many important positions
in the Qing court after 1901 was that he was a protégé of the foreign powers, which Cixi was careful not to displease. However, she was as intent as ever on
thwarting any challenge to her power, and so Zaifeng clearly posed a problem for her. Cixi saw an opportunity in 1902 on Zaifeng's return from Germany – she
ordered Zaifeng to marry Youlan, the daughter of Ronglu, who was a conservative politician in the Qing court and a staunch supporter of Cixi. Ronglu played a
leading role in putting an end to theHundred Days' Reform in 1898, and in the subsequent internment of the Guangxu Emperor, so Zaifeng greatly disliked him,
and agreed to marry his daughter only because he felt it was unwise to oppose Cixi. The marriage between Zaifeng and Youlan was an unhappy one. With
Zaifeng now firmly tied to her, Cixi no longer viewed him as a threat, and when Zaifeng and Youlan's first son Puyi was born in 1906, Puyi became a likely heir to
the throne. Zaifeng and Youlan had another son, Pujie, and three daughters – Yunying, Yunhe and Yunying. The Guangxu Emperor died on November 14,
1908, and on the same day, Empress Dowager Cixi issued an imperial edict proclaiming Zaifeng's eldest son Puyi as the successor. Zaifeng was appointed Prince-
Regent to assist his son. Cixi died the following day, ending her 47-year long control over China, while Zaifeng ruled as regent for the next three years. Zaifeng's
first concern was to punish the Beiyang Army's leader Yuan Shikai, who betrayed the Guangxu Emperor and supported Ronglu in putting an end to the Hundred
Days' Reform in 1898. Zaifeng was prevented from executing his plan of having Yuan Shikai assassinated, but Yuan was dismissed from office and ordered to
return to his hometown in Henan on an excuse of "curing his foot disease". Over the next three years from 1909 to 1911, Zaifeng carried out the economic and
political reforms that were initiated after theBoxer Rebellion ended in 1901, but he was torn between the conservative (mainly Manchu officials) and reformist
(mostly Han Chinese officials) factions in the Qing imperial court. The inexperienced Zaifeng concentrated more power in the hands of a small ruling court that
angered bureaucrats on lower levels. He promised a constitution by 1916 with preparatory stages in between. Beginning on February 5, 1909, China held its first
provincial assembly and local council elections (a council election was held inTianjin as early as 1907). 21 provincial assemblies took their seats on October 14,
1909. The vast majority elected were constitutional monarchists with a few crypto-revolutionaries and they turned the assemblies into hotbeds of dissent.
Alarmed, the national assembly, which convened in Beijing on October 3, 1910, had half of its 200 members appointed to balance the other half elected by the
provincial assemblies. The provinces sent 98 members to the capital since Xinjiang, the 22nd province, had yet to hold elections to form an assembly due to its
extreme underdevelopment. Zaifeng only appointed 96 members. Nevertheless, it was the elected members that dominated the floor and wooed the appointed
ones to their side. The national assembly urged Zaifeng to speed up the constitutional process and create a true parliament so Zaifeng responded by pushing
forth the expected deadline to 1913. The Grand Council was replaced by an Imperial Cabinet led by Prime Minister Yikuang on May 8, 1911. It dismayed
constitutionalists as the cabinet was not responsible to the national assembly and contained seven Manchu imperial kinsmen with only four Han Chinese among
its 13 members, breaking a long standing policy of appointing equal numbers of both ethnicity. More power was concentrated in the hands of the Manchu
minority than at any time since the dynasty's early years. The following day, the government announced that it will nationalise major railroads. The nationalisation
infuriated many businessmen who invested heavily in rail, and they were told that they would be compensated with only a portion of the amount they invested.
This alienated many bourgeoisie and gentry and turned them towards revolution. They started the Railway Protection Movement to oppose nationalisation. The
period saw the revolutionaries attempting several insurrections to overthrow the Qing Dynasty, and there was even one attempt by Wang Jingwei to assassinate
Zaifeng in February 1910. Zaifeng did not have the maneuvering talent nor the lust for power of the late Empress Dowager Cixi, and he proved often indecisive
and probably unfit for this troubled period. In 1910 Zaifeng ousted from Tibet the 13th Dalai Lama, who would not return from India until 1913, whereupon the
Dalai Lama declared Tibet independent. On October 10, 1911, the Wuchang Uprising marked the start of the Xinhai Revolution, which aimed to topple the
Qing Dynasty and end imperial rule in China. The Qing court was forced to recall back Yuan Shikai, despite Zaifeng's deep aversion for him, as Yuan was the
only one capable of suppressing the revolution. Yuan became prime minister on 16 November. Zaifeng, now deprived of any real power, stepped down on 6
December 1911, and was replaced by his sister-in-law Empress Dowager Longyu as regent. When he returned home that day, he told his family: "Now I'm back
in the family, and I can finally care for my children". The three years of regency were certainly the most painful years in Zaifeng's life; he never relished power the
way Empress Dowager Cixi or Yuan Shikai did, and witnesses say he was relieved when he left office. Even after returning to private life, Zaifeng remained a
respected figure, among both the Nationalist and later the Communist parties, who appreciated his peaceful stepping down from power and acceptance of China
becoming a republic. Sun Yat-sen even paid him a visit in Beijing in September 1912, during which he congratulated Zaifeng, and the latter formally declared his
support for the Republic of China. After the death of Empress Dowager Longyu in 1913, Zaifeng was put in charge of the small imperial court that remained
around his son Puyi (no longer a ruling emperor), and he managed all the court's affairs until 1924 when Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City. In 1917,
when Puyi was briefly restored on the throne by the warlord Zhang Xun, Zaifeng played no significant role, as Zhang Xun's slogan for the restoration was "Do not
allow the relatives of the emperor to participate in the government" (不准親貴參政). Zaifeng lived in the Northern Residence (北府) in Beijing until 1928. He
spent most of his time in the library reading books on history and newly published magazines. Sometime after 1911, he married another wife, Lady Dengiya, with
whom he had several children. His primary spouse, Youlan, committed suicide in 1921 by swallowing opium after being publicly scolded by Dowager Consort
Duankang (the highest-ranked woman in the imperial court after Empress Dowager Longyu's death in 1913) for the misconduct of her sonPuyi. In 1928 Zaifeng
moved to Tianjin, where he lived in the British and Japanese concessions. In August 1939 he relocated back to the Northern Residence in Beijing when Tianjin
was flooded. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Zaifeng was not in favour of establishing the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, and warned his
son Puyi not to be involved. However Puyi ignored his advice and was installed by the Japanese as the figurehead ruler of Manchukuo. Zaifeng visited his son
thrice in Manchukuo but ostensibly refused to participate in state affairs. Puyi wanted his father to live in Manchukuo but Zaifeng refused and returned to Beijing
on an excuse that he was ill. At the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, when the National Revolutionary Army recovered Beijing from the Japanese, a letter
of sympathy was sent to Zaifeng by the Beijing Municipality in recognition of his attitude during the Japanese occupation. After the end of the Chinese Civil
War in 1949 and the Communist Party established the People's Republic of China, Zaifeng was held in high regard by the party's members. He sold the
Northern Residence to the government out of financial difficulties. He also donated his library and art collection to Peking University, and provided relief aid to
the victims of the Huai River flooding in 1950. Zaifeng died on February 3, 1951 in Beijing. Many of his descendants reside in Beijing, including Jin Youzhi, Jin
Yuzhang and Jin Yulan. Many have changed their Manchu clan name Aisin Gioro to a Chinese family name Jin (金), which means "gold" ("Aisin" also means
"gold" in Manchu). Historians' opinions on Zaifeng and his regency vary. While some describe him as a conservative who tried to reassert Manchu grasp on
power in times of rapid changes, others insist that the reforms he implemented during his regency might have turned China into a liberal constitutional monarchy
if the 1911 Xinhai Revolution did not occur. He had two spouses: Youlan, from the Guwalgiya clan, daughter of Ronglu. Zaifeng married her on 2 February
1902. They had two sons and three daughters and Lady Denggiya (鄧佳氏), Zaifeng's second spouse. They had two sons and four daughters. Zaifeng had a total
of 11 children with his two wives. Zaifeng's first five children were born to his first spouse Youlan.



Qing Dynasty
Grand Council or Junjichu
The Grand Council or Junjichu (simplified Chinese: 军机处; traditional Chinese: 軍機處; pinyin: Jūnjīchù; Manchu: coohai nashūn i ba; literally,
"Office of Military Secrets") was an important policy-making body in the Qing Dynasty. It was established in 1733 by the Yongzheng Emperor. The Council was
originally in charge of military affairs, but gradually attained a more important role and eventually attained the role of a privy council, eclipsing the Grand
Secretariatin function and importance, which is why it has become known as the "Grand Council" in English. Despite its important role in the government, the
Grand Council remained an informal policy making body in the inner court and its members held other concurrent posts in the Qing civil service. Originally,
most of the officials serving in the Grand Council were Manchus, but gradually Han Chinese officials were admitted into the ranks of the council. One of the
earliest Han Chinese officials to serve in the Council was Zhang Tingyu. The chancellery was housed in an insignificant building just west of the gate to Palace of
Heavenly Purity in the Forbidden City.
List of Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty
Wang Xi (1628 - 1703) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from June 1682 until November 1701.
Hoang Ji (1611 - 1686) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1682 until March 1683.
Wu Zhengzhi (1618 - 1691) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1682 until February 1687.
Song Deyi (1626 - 1687) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1684 until his death in 1687.
Yu Guozho was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from April 1687 until February 1688.
Li Zhifang (1622 - 1694) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1687 until February 1688.
Liang Qingbao (1620 - 1691) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1688 until his death in 1691.
Yiswang'a (1638 – January 1703) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1688 until his death in January 1703,
Alantai (died 1699) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China fromJuly 1689 until his death in 1699.
Xu Yuanwen (1634 - 1691) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 1689 until 1690.
Zhang Yushu (1642 – July 1711) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1692 until 1699 and from
December 1701 until his death in July 1711.
Li Tianfu (1635 - 1699) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1692 until his death in 1699.
Wu Dian (died 1705) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1698 until his death in 1705.
Xiong Cilü (1635 - 1709) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1699 until June 1703.
Folun (died 1701) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1699 until May 1700.
Maqi (1651/52 - 1739) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1699 until June 1709 and from June 1716
until November 1735.
Zhang Ying (1638 - 1708) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1699 until 1701.
Sihana (Xihan) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1702 until February 1708.
Cheng Tingjing (1639 - 1712) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from June 1703 until his death in 1712.
Li Guangdi (1642 - 1718) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1705 until his death in 1718.
Wenda (died 1716) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 1708 until his death in 1716.
Xiao Yongzao (1644 - 1729) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 1711 until January 1723,
Songzhu (1657 - 1735) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from May 1712 until February 1723/
Wang Shan (1645 - 1728) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from May 1712 until February 1723.
Wang Xuling (1642 - 1725) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1718 until his death in 1725.
Bai Huang (1660 - 1737) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 1723 until August 1725.
Funing'an (died 1728) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 1723 until his death in 1728.
Zhang Pengge (1649 - 1725) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from March 1723 until his death in 1725.
Zhang Tingyu (October 29, 1672 – April 20, 1755) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from March 1725 until
December 1749. He was a Han Chinese politician and historian during the Qing Dynasty. Zhang Tingyu was born in Tongcheng in Anhui province. In 1700, he
was awarded the highest degree (jinshi) in the imperial examinations and shortly afterwards he was appointed to the Hanlin Academy. He subsequently rose
through the ranks in the Qing civil service and served under the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors. Zhang Tingyu was especially trusted by the
Yongzheng emperor, who made him one of the first members of the Grand Council, an informal state organ which would, in due course, develop into the
emperor's own privy council. His colleagues included renowned figures like Ma Qi. Zhang was an upstanding civil service officer and highly praised for both his
upright character and principled background. Having considerable skill in literature, he compiled theHistory of Ming in 1739. There is some confusion as to
whether he or another trusted officer Longkodo was the principal announcer of the will of Kangxi. Zhang was the only official to survive the battles of succession
from Kangxi to Yongzheng to Qianlong, and was trusted by all three emperors.
Gao Qiwei (1646 - 1727) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from August 1725 until his death in January 1727.
Zhu Shi (1665 - 1736) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from October 1725 until his death in 1736.
Jiang Tingxi (1669 - 1732) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from May 1728 until February 1731.
Ma'ersai (died September 1733) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from October 1728 until his death in September
1733.
Chen Yuanlong (1652 - 1736) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1729 until September 1733.
Yintai (1651 - 1738/39) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1729 until 1738.
O-er-tai (1680 - 1745) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1732 until his death in 1745.
Ji Zengyun (1671 - 1739) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from June 1733 until his death in 1739.
Jalangga (Chalang'a) (after 1680 - April 1747) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1735 until his death in
April 1747.
Maizhu (1670 – January 1738) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1735 until his death in January 1738.
Xu Ben (1683 - 1747) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1736 until August 1744.
Fumin (1673 - 1756) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1738 until February 1746.
Zhao Guolin was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1739 until 1741.
Chen Shiguan (1680 – June 1758) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1741 until February 1749 and
from February 1751 until his death in June 1758.
Shi Yizhi was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1744 until July 1755.
Noqin was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 1745 until 1748.
(Dong) Qinfu (died 1749) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1746 until February 1747.
Gao Bin (1683 - 1755) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from May 1747 until his death in 1755.
Laibao was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1748 until 1764.
Fuheng (Chinese: 傅恒; pinyin: Fùhéng, Manchu: ᡶ ᡠ ᡥ ᠨ Fuhen, Burmese: ဖဖဖဖဖဖ; died July 1770), style name Chunhe (春和),
was a Qing Dynasty official from the Manchu Fuca (富察) clan and the Bordered Yellow Banner of the Eight Banners, and was a
brother of theEmpress Xiaoxianchun. He was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from November
1748 until his death in July 1770. He served as a senior minister at the court of his brother-in-law, the Qianlong Emperor from the
1750s to his death in 1770. He is best known for leading the Qing troops in the fourth and last invasion of Burma in the Sino-Burmese
War (1765–1769). Prior to his appointment as the commander-in-chief of the Burma campaign, Fuheng was chief grand councilor to
the emperor, and one of the emperor's most trusted advisers. Fuheng was one of the few senior officials that fully backed the Qianlong
Emperor's decision to eliminate the Dzungars in the 1750s when most at the court thought war was too risky. His nephew Mingrui was a
son-in-law of the emperor, and led the Burma campaign of 1767–1768. His son Fuk'anggan was a senior general in the Qing military.
Fuheng was unsuccessful in the Burma campaign. In December 1769, he signed a truce with the Burmese, which the emperor did not accept. He died
of malaria which he contracted during his three-month invasion of Burma, when he got back to Beijing.
Zhang Yunsui was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1750 until May 1751.
Huang Tinggui (1691 - 1759) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 1755 until his death in 1759.
Jiang Bo (1708 - 1761) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from February 1759 until his death in 1761.
Liu Tongxun (1700 - 1773) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 1761 until his death in 1773.
Liang Shizheng (1697 - December 1763) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from August until December 1763.
Yang Tingzhang (1688 - 1772) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from December 1763 until 1764.
Yinjishan (1696 - 1771) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from 1764 until his death in 1771.
Yang Yinju (died 1767) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1764 until his death in 1767.
Chen Hongmou (1696 – April 1771) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from May 1767 until his death in April 1771.
A'ertai (died 1773) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from November 1770 until January 1772.
Liu Lun (1711 - 1773) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from April 1771 until his death in 1773.
Gao Jin was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 1771 until February 1779.
Winfu (died 1773) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January/February 1772 until his death in June/August 1773.
Shuhede (1711 - 1777) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from August 1773 until his death in 1777.
Yu Minzhong (1714 - 1780) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from October 1772 until his death in 1780.
Li Siyao (died 1788) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 1774 until 1777.
Agui (1717 - 1797) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 1777 until his death in 1797.
Sanbao (died 1784) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from 1779 until his death in 1784.
Chen Jingyi (died 1786) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January until October 1780.
Yinglian (1707 - 1783) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from Jun 1780 until his death in 1783.
Ji Huang (died 1794) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1780 until his death in 1794.
Cai Xin (1707 - 1800) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1783 until June 1785.
Wumitai (died 1786) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China September 1784 until his death in 1786.
Liang Guozhi (1723 - 1787) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 1785 until his death in 1787.




Niohuru Heshen (Niohuru Hesen; Manchu: ᠨᡳ ᠣ ᡥ ᡵ ᡠ ; Chinese: 鈕祜祿· 和珅; pinyin: Niǔhùlù Héshēn; Wade–
Giles: Niu
3
-hu
4
-lu
4
Ho
2
-shen
1
, 1746 – February 22, 1799), commonly known mononymously as Heshen or Hesen, was from
the Manchu Niohuru clan and an official of the Qing Dynasty who was favoured by the Qianlong Emperor. He was the Grand
Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from July 4, 1786 until March 10, 1792. He was Minister of
Personnel of the Qing Dynasty from September 4, 1784 until September 16, 1786 and Minister of Revenue of the Qing Dynasty
from April 26, 1780 until September 4, 1784. Born Shanbao (Shan-pao; 善保), his given name was later changed to Heshen.
His courtesy name (字) was Zhizhai (Chih-chai; 致齋). He was a member of the Plain Red Banner, as well as one of the most
corrupt officials in Chinese history. Heshen was born as the son of a Manchu military officer and was selected to go to the most
privileged school for Manchu aristocratic boys. He lost his mother when he was young and it was said he and his younger
brother had a hard life under his stepmother. However, it was reported that Heshen was an excellent student, knowing several
languages besides Mandarin and Manchu. In 1772, he began work in the Imperial Palace, assigned as an imperial bodyguard
and was stationed at the gates to the Forbidden City. At the age of 25, Heshen was noticed by the Qianlong Emperor. Heshen
was reportedly very attractive in appearance, with very fair skin and luscious, red lips. This invoked rumours of the reasons
behind the emperor's fascination with this man. It was said that when the Qianlong Emperor was still a young prince, he
accidentally ran into the room of an imperial concubine, just as she was putting on her make-up. As a young prince with a
childish nature, Qianlong decided to play a prank on the imperial concubine, tiptoeing from behind her and scaring her. The concubine jumped at the sudden
shock and whilst turning around, hit Qianlong (some say with her comb, some say with her fist). This was a direct breach of imperial protocol, and the action was
witnessed by another court lady who was passing by. The imperial concubine was then demoted, and in face of sudden humiliation, committed suicide by
hanging. It was said that Qianlong, in his guilt, bit his finger and left a bloody mark on her neck so he would recognize her even in her next life. This incident had
a profound impression on Qianlong, and it was said that he found Heshen to be very similar in appearance to the imperial concubine. It had been hypothesised
that Qianlong thought Heshen was the reincarnation of the imperial concubine, since he was born in the year of her death and carried a red birth mark on his
neck, and thus he attempted to overcome his guilt through indulging Heshen with gifts and promotions. Within a year, Heshen was promoted to vice-president of
the Ministry of Revenue, and two months later was made a Grand Councillor. Within three months, he was promoted even further to a minister of the Imperial
Household Department, a post usually filled with the most meritorious officials. In 1777, at the age of 27, Heshen was given the privilege of riding a horse within
the Forbidden City, a prestigious privilege given only to high-ranking officials of elderly age. It was not long before Heshen was given control of both the Ministry
of Revenue and the Civil Council, allowing him to control the revenue of the entire empire, and appoint his own henchmen to important posts within the
officials. Heshen's hold on the Qianlong Emperor was further strengthened when in 1790, his son was married to the emperor's tenth and favourite daughter.
Once secure of the Qianlong Emperor's favour and approbation, Heshen enjoyed almost complete freedom of his actions. He became openly corrupt and
practiced extortion on a grand scale. His supporters within the imperial system followed his lead, and his military associates prolonged campaigns in order to
continue the benefits of additional funds. He abrogated powers and official posts, including that of Grand Councillor, and regularly stole public funds and taxes.
Taxes were raised again and again, and this led to the suffering of the people. Unfortunately, their suffering was compounded by severe floods of the Yellow
River - an indirect result of the corruption where dishonest officials pocketed funds that were meant for the upkeep of canals and dams. Rising prices of rice led
to many that simply starved to death. This widespread corruption and nepotism was the start of a century that led to the downfall of the Qing Dynasty. In 1793,
Heshen was responsible for hosting the Macartney Embassy to the imperial court. The shame of Heshen's corruption came to play when the Qianlong Emperor
abdicated in February 1796, the full damage of the corruption was now in wide view. However, Qianlong continued to rule China behind the scenes under the
grand title of Taishang Huang (Retired Emperor). It was not until Qianlong's death on February 7, 1799 that his successor, theJiaqing Emperor, was able to
prosecute Heshen. On February 12, Heshen was arrested along with military officer Fuchang'an (福長安). Declared guilty by an imperial edict, he was
condemned to slow slicing. The Jiaqing Emperor spared Heshen this horrible death, and instead ordered him to commit suicide (by hanging himself with a rope
of golden silk) in his home on February 22, sparing his family. From the 24 years that Heshen caught the Qianlong Emperor's attention and favour, he had
amassed an incredible fortune. In the Jiaqing Emperor's confiscation of Heshen's property, his wealth estate included: 3,000 rooms in his estates and mansions,
8,000 acres (32 km²) of land, 42 bank branches, 75 pawnbroker branches, 60,000 taels of copper alloyed gold, 100 large ingots of pure gold, (1,000 taels each),
56,600 medium silver ingots, (100 taels each), 9,000,000 small silver ingots, (10 taels each), 58,000 livres/pounds of foreign currency, 1,500,000 copper coins, 600
lb of top-quality Jilin ginseng, 1,200 jade charms, 230 pearl bracelets (each pearl comparable in size to large cherries or longans), 10 large pearls (each the size of
apricots), 10 large ruby crystals, 40 large sapphire crystals, 40 tablefuls of solid-silver eating utensils, (serves 10 per table), 40 tablefuls of solid-gold eating utensils,
(serves 10 per table), 11 coral rocks (each over a metre in height), 14,300 bolts of fine silk, 20,000 sheets of fine sheep-fur wool, 550 fox hides, 850 raccoon dog
hides, 56,000 sheep and cattle hides of varying thickness, 7,000 sets of fine clothing (for all four seasons), 361,000 bronze and tin vases and vessels, 100,000
porcelain vessels made by famous masters, 24 highly decorative solid-gold beds (each with eight different types of inlaid gemstones), 460 top-quality European
clocks, 606 servants, 600 women in his harem. His total property was ultimately estimated at around 1,100 million taels of silver, reputedly estimated to be an
amount equivalent to the imperial revenue of the Qing government for 15 years. In his chief butler Liu Quan's quarters, a large quantity of treasures including
240,000 silver taels were also discovered. The Jiaqing Emperor charged Heshen with 20 crimes, of which "defiance of imperial supremacy" and "power
transcendence" accounted for half. The influence of Heshen however did not end with his death, as corruption continued to spread through different levels in
and out of the capital, among both civil and military personnel. Bannermen developed habits that made them useless as a military force. The Chinese Green
Standard Army was beset with irregular practice and had lost much of its fighting spirit shown in the early Qing Dynasty. The habits of luxury and big spending
led to moral degradation and the general decline of the dynasty. The Qianlong Emperor's Ten Great Campaigns were completed at the cost of 120 million taels,
against an annual revenue of some 40 million taels. The result of these massive spendings and increasing trend towards luxury set the path towards financial
instability within the later part of the Qing Dynasty. For hundreds of years, and right through to the present, Heshen has been the stock villain role in theatrical,
film and television productions. Chinese actors Wang Gang and Chen Rui are among the best known persons who have portrayed Heshen on screen: the former
gave the character of Heshen a comical touch with his plump figure; the latter, who played Heshen in the 2004 television series Qianlong Dynasty, was said to
resemble the historical Heshen more closely as compared to Wang Gang. The widespread view of Heshen as a corrupt official most likely originated from Qing
Dynasty historical records, and only the Qing emperor had the authority to determine what content was to be kept in the documents, presenting a possible case
of bias against Heshen. The alternative argument states that whatever the emperor dictates becomes the content of the records. The many official positions held
by Heshen could have posed a threat to the authority of the Jiaqing Emperor, and produced a sense of jealousy to his power and influence over the imperial
court, as well as the more legitimate threat to the emperor. Whether Heshen was an honest official that worked for the empire did not matter to the emperor,
because Heshen still held a prominent position. It is uncertain whether Heshen yielded significant respect from the other officials during the Qianlong Emperor's
reign or the administrations simply feared his power. The Jiaqing Emperor, whether acting from the threat of Heshen's overarching influence over the court or
from jealousy, with the influence of other officials who disliked Heshen, could have brought charges against Heshen through legal pretexts that would condemn
him to a death sentence. It is argued that the majority of Heshen's wealth were originally from gifts of the Qianlong Emperor, not from money siphoned by
corrupt actions. Several decades after Heshen's death, his former residence was later given to Prince Gong as the latter's official residence. The estate, known as
the Prince Gong Mansion, is now preserved as a museum and a tourist attraction. It is located at 17 Qianhai Road West in Beijing. He had wife Feng Jiwen
(馮霽雯), granddaughter of Feng Yinglian (馮英廉); mother of Fengshen Yinde, Heshen's second son, and Heshen's three daughters. He had concubine Lady
Chang (長氏). He had two sons Fengshen Yinde (丰紳殷德) (18 February 1775 - May 1810), married Kurun Princess Hexiao and second son (1794-?). He had
also three daughters
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Aisin Gioro Yixin (Aisin Gioro I-hsin; Chinese: 愛新覺羅奕訢), commonly known mononymously as Yixin (I-
hsin; Manchu: ᡳ ᡥ ᠨ I Hin; Chinese: 奕訢; January 11, 1833 - May 19, 1898), and better known as Prince Gong (Prince Kung; or,
formally, Prince Gong of the First Rank; 恭親王), was a prince and statesman of the Qing Dynasty. He was the Grand Secretary
(Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from 1853 until 1855 and from 1861 until 1884. He was the sixth son of
the Daoguang Emperor and a half brother of Daoguang's successor, the Xianfeng Emperor. He served as regent during the reign
of Xianfeng's son and successor, theTongzhi Emperor. Having established the Zongli Yamen (a government body in charge of
foreign affairs) in 1861, Yixin is best remembered as a proponent of maintenance of friendly relations between the Qing
government and the foreign powers, as well as for his attempts to modernise China in the late 19th century. Commonly referred to
as the "Sixth Prince" (六王爺) in his time, Yixin was nicknamed "Devil Number Six" (鬼子六) by conservatives in the Qing
imperial court, in reference to his frequent contacts with westerners (gweilo; literally "foreign devils", a colloquialism for
westerners). Yixin was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing Dynasty, as the sixth son of
the Daoguang Emperor. His mother was Consort Jing (posthumously known as Empress Xiaojingcheng) of the Mongol
Borjigit clan. Yixin was mentored by Zhuo Bingtian (卓秉恬) and Jia Zhen (賈楨), and was known to be a bright and diligent
student. When the Daoguang Emperor was selecting an heir from among his sons, he was unable to decide between Yixin and his fourth son Yizhu (the
future Xianfeng Emperor), but eventually wrote a secret edict in 1846 announcing that he had designated the latter as his successor. Three years later the
Daoguang Emperor had a tomb built in the consorts' cemetery for Yixin's mother, Noble Consort Jing, and ordered that she must be buried there after death.
Daoguang's action hinted that he would never appoint Yixin as his successor (If Yixin did become emperor later, his mother would be posthumously honoured
as an empress. Empresses of the Qing Dynasty who died before their emperors were buried together with their husbands, while those who died after their
husbands had individual tombs for themselves. Since Daoguang already had a tomb built for Yixin's mother before she died and ordered that she be buried there
after death, this meant that he only regarded her as a secondary spouse, so her son would never become emperor). In February 1850, before his death, the
Daoguang Emperor revealed the secret edict he wrote in 1846,
[1]
which decreed that Yizhu would be instated as Crown Prince (皇太子), while Yixin would
become a Prince of the First Rank (親王). Yixin married the daughter of Guiliang (桂良), an important court official of the Manchu Gūwalgiya clan. The
marriage is often seen as a sign that the Daoguang Emperor favoured Yixin, but in fact the marriage was arranged after Daoguang had appointed Yining as his
heir, so this marriage may only be viewed as an act of "compensation" for Yixin. Besides, Yixin's wife was not a favourite daughter of Guiliang, and was born to
Guiliang's secondary spouse. During the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor, Yixin and his mother (who held the title of Dowager Consort) falsified an imperial edict
in Xianfeng's name that granted Yixin's mother the title of Empress Dowager. Xianfeng was greatly displeased, but did not rescind the edict in order to save
himself from public embarrassment. Yixin's mother died after being Empress Dowager for eight days, and was posthumously known as Empress Xiaojingcheng.
Yixin did not play an important roles in politics, and only served as a military minister from 1853 to 1855. In 1860 during the Second Opium War, Yixin was
appointed as an Imperial Envoy with Full Authority (全權欽差大臣) and ordered to remain in the capital Beijing to negotiate with the British, French and
Russians on behalf of the Qing government. The Xianfeng Emperor himself fled from Beijing and moved his imperial court to the Chengde Summer
Palace in Hebei. Yixin was successful in the negotiations and concluded the Convention of Beijing with the western powers. The Xianfeng Emperor died in the
summer of 1861 in the Chengde Summer Palace and was succeeded by the young Tongzhi Emperor. Before his death, Xianfeng
appointed Zaiyuan, Duanhua, Sushun and five other senior court officials to serve as regents for the Tongzhi Emperor. In November 1861, Yixin plotted with
the empress dowagers Cixi and Ci'an to launch the Xinyou Coup (辛酉政變) to seize power from the eight regents. The regents were escorting the Xianfeng
Emperor's coffin back to the Forbidden City when they were intercepted upon arrival and placed under arrest. Zaiyuan and Duanhua were forced to commit
suicide,Sushun was executed, and the five other regents were stripped of power. After the Xinyou Coup, the empress dowagers Cixi and Ci'an became co-regents
of the Qing government while Yixin was appointed as Prince-Regent (議政王) and placed in charge of important state affairs, including control over the Grand
Council. Yixin remained in power as regent from 1861 to 1884 throughout the reigns of the Tongzhi and Guangxuemperors. In 1861 Yixin established
the Zongli Yamen, which functioned as the Qing government's de facto ministry of foreign affairs. As the longstanding leader of the organisation, Yixin was
responsible for spearheading various reforms during the early part of the Self-Strengthening Movement, a series of measures taken by the Qing government to
modernise China. He also founded the Tongwen Guan in 1862 for Chinese scholars to read foreign languages and study technology. In 1865 Yixin was accused
by Cai Shouqi (蔡壽祺) for "monopolising state power, accepting bribes, practising favouritism, behaving arrogantly, and showing disrespect towards the
emperor." Empress Dowager Cixi became suspicious of Yixin and stripped him off his position of Prince-Regent. Despite so, Yixin continued to remain as a
central figure of power in the Qing imperial court. In 1869, An Dehai (安德海), a eunuch and close aide of Empress Dowager Cixi, was executed by Ding
Baozhen for travelling to Shandong, because eunuchs were forbidden to travel out of the Forbidden Palace without permission. Ding Baozhen was believed to
have been instigated by Yixin, and Cixi was very unhappy with Yixin. In 1873 Yixin strongly opposed the construction of the New Summer Palace and further
incurred the anger of Cixi. In 1884 the Sino–French War broke out and Yixin was in charge of directing the military department (軍機處), which was
disorganised and indecisive on whether to fight or make peace. This resulted in a Chinese defeat in the war and Yixin lost considerable prestige. Later that year,
Empress Dowager Cixi dismissed Yixin from office and ordered him to remain at home to "recuperate from illness". Yixin was replaced by his younger half
brother Yixuan. Some officials such as Baoyun (寶鋆), Li Hongzao (李鴻藻), Jinglian (景廉) andWeng Tonghe, who previously served under Yixin's
administration were removed from office. This incident was known as the "Cabinet Change of Jiashen" (甲申易樞) or "Political Change of Jiashen"
(甲申朝局之變) because it took place in the Jiashen Year according to the Chinese sexagenary cycle. After his dismissal, Yixin remained in Jietai Temple in
western Beijing most of the time. In 1894 on the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War, Yixin, who was already in his old age, was recalled back to the imperial
court to deal with the situation. Yixin served in the military department and Zongli Yamen until he became critically ill in 1898 and eventually died in that year. In
the 20th century, Yixin was vilified by the Chinese for a long time as the man responsible for "selling" the country to the western powers through his various
reforms and talks with the foreigners. In recent times, perceptions of him have changed and he is recognised as an exemplary statesman of equal calibre as Li
Hongzhang. Some historians claim that Yixin took a more active role in the Xinyou Coup in 1861. Sterling Seagrave claimed in Dragon Lady: The Life and
Legend of the Last Empress of Chinathat Chinese historical records showed that the Xianfeng Emperor had appointed the two empress dowagers (Empress
Dowager Cixi and Empress Dowager Ci'an) as the Tongzhi Emperor's regents in accordance with imperial tradition. The eight regents led by Sushun had
appointed themselves as co-regents for the emperor and handed only one imperial seal to Ci'an and kept the other for themselves. Yixin was aware that the
xenophobic attitudes of the eight regents would lead to China's doom by adversely affecting China's relations with the western powers. Thus, he enlisted the
assistance of the two empress dowagers to remove the eight regents from power. He had spouse: Lady Guwalgiya (瓜爾佳氏). He had following children: Kurun
Princess Rongshou (榮壽固倫公为), Yixin's eldest daughter, Zaicheng (載澂; 1858–1885), Yixin's eldest son, granted the title of beile, Zaiying (載瀅; 1861–
1909), Yixin's second son, granted the title of a beile. He was adopted by Yihe (奕詥), Prince Zhong of the Second Rank, Zaijun (載濬), Yixin's third son, granted
the title of Duke Who Assists the Nation (輔國公), died early and Zaihuang (載潢), Yixin's fourth son, died early.
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Runglu (Ronglu) (1836 - 1903) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from June 15, 1898 until his death in 1903.
Wang Wenshao (1830 - 1908) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 6, 1900 until June 21, 1907.
Sun Jianai (1827 - 1909) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 31, 1902 until his death in 1909.
Jingxin (died 1908) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from October 1903 until October 16, 1904.
Chongli (died 1908) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from October 15, 1903 until June 29, 1905.
Yüde (died October 28, 1906) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from November 9, 1905 until his death in October 28,
1906.
Shi Xu (1852 - 1921) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 10, 1905 until October 30, 1911.
Natong (1856 - 1925) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from January 10, 1905 until 1911.
Zhang Zhidong (1837 - 1909) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from August 10, 1907 until his death in 1909.
Lu Zhuanlin (died 1910) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from November 6, 1909 until his death in 1910.
Lu Runyang (died 1913) was the Grand Secretary (Da Qing Da Xueshi) of Qing Dynasty of China from September 1910 until October 30, 1911.



Inner Mongolia (Mengjiang)
Minangkabau was the state in present Indonesia. The Minangkabau ethnic group, also known as Minang (Urang Minang in Minangkabau language), is indigenous
to theMinangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. Their culture is matrilineal, with property and land passing down from mother to daughter, while
religious and political affairs are the responsibility of men (although some women also play important roles in these areas). Today 4 million Minangs live in West
Sumatra, while about 3 million more are scattered throughout many Indonesian and Malay peninsular cities and towns. The Minangkabau are strongly Islamic,
but also follow their ethnic traditions, or adat. The Minangkabau adat was derived from animistbeliefs before the arrival of Islam, and remnants of animist beliefs
still exist even among some practicing Muslims. The present relationship between Islam and adat is described in the saying "tradition [adat] founded upon Islamic
law, Islamic law founded upon the Qur'an" (adat basandi syara', syara' basandi Kitabullah). Their West Sumatran homelands were the location of the Padri
War from 1821 to 1837.
Mengjiang (Mengkiang; Chinese: 蒙疆; pinyin: Měngjiāng; Wade–Giles: Meng
3
-chiang
1
; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land, was
an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing as a puppet state of theJapan under nominal Chinese sovereignty. Formed in 1939, it consisted of the then-
Chinese provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, corresponding to the central part of modern Inner Mongolia. It is occasionally called Mengguguo (or Mengkukuo
; Chinese: 蒙古國) (in analogy to Manchukuo, another Japanese puppet state in Manchuria). The capital was Kalgan, and the ruler wasDemchugdongrub. The
territory returned to Chinese control after the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945.
List of Chairmans of the Mongolian Military Government and Chairmen of the Mongol United Autonomous Government of Inner Mongolia
(Mengjiang)
Yun Wang (Yondonwangchug) (1871 - July 1938) was the Chairman of the Mongolian Military Government of Inner Mongolia
from May 12, 1936 until October 28, 1937 and Chairmen of the Mongol United Autonomous Government of Inner Mongolia from
October 28, 1937 until his death in July 1938. He was an Inner Mongolian nobleman of Ulanqab League and politician under
the Qing Dynasty, Republic of China and Mengjiang governments. His name Yondonwangchug, also spelled Yondan Wangchuk or
Yunden Wangchuk, is of Tibetan origin; it is transcribed into Chinese asChinese: 雲端旺楚克; pinyin: Yúnduān Wàngchukè. For
short, he is referred to as Prince Yun, a translation of Chinese: 雲王; pinyin: Yún Wáng. Yondonwangchug was born in 1870 in what
is today Darhan Muminggan United Banner. In his early years, he studied the Tibetan andChinese languages. He became deputy
head of Ulanqab League in 1896. In 1924, he established the banner's first school. In 1934, he took up the chairmanship of
the Mongol Local Autonomy Political Affairs Committee under the Nanjing government. However, he was frustrated by its limited
authority and clashes with Suiyuan Province authorities under Fu Zuoyi. Angered by Shirabdorji's uncooperative attitude towards the
Committee, in October 1935 Yondonwangchug attempted to strip Shirabdorji of his titles, and sent troops to Shirabdorji's residence;
Shirabdorji responded that the council had no power to order his dismissal or appoint new officials to his positions, which were, after all, hereditary. There,
Yondonwangchug's forces clashed with Fu's; the Nanjing government did little to intervene. After he incident he went into virtual retirement, and formally
resigned in March 1936. Yondonwangchug was named chairman of the pro-Japanese Mongol Military Government when it was established in April 1936. In
July 1936, a newspaper account states that he was arrested on a visit to Bailingmiao and held in the military headquarters there, and charged with high treason. In
October 1937 he was announced as the chairman of the newMongol United Autonomous Government. He died in July 1938, reportedly by poisoning.
Demchugdongrub, commonly known as Prince De or De Wang, (February 8, 1902 – May 23, 1966) was the leader of a
Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. He was the chairman of Mengjiang, a Japanese puppet state in World War II
as Chairman of the Mongolian Military Government from July 1938 until September 1, 1939, Chairman of the Inner Mongolia
Autonomous Government from September 1, 1939 until December 29, 1949 (Chinese prisoner from October 1945 until August
1949), Vice Chairman of the Executive Council of Inner Mongolia from January 8, 1936 until October 28, 1937 and Vice
President of the Mongol United Autonomous Government from October 28, 1937 until July 1938. Demchugdongrub was a Mongol
nationalist and he was promoting Pan-Mongolism. Others view him as a traitor and as the pawn of the Japanese during World War
II. A Chahar born of the Plain White Banner in Chahar Province, Demchugdongrub was the sole son of Namjil Wangchuk, the
Duoluo Duling Junwang (多罗杜棱郡王 Duōluō Dùléng Jùnwáng) of Sönid Right Banner and Chief of the Shilingol Alliance. His
name consists of the Tibetan words which means "Chakrasamvara (bde mchog)" and "Siddhartha (don grub)" respectively. After
Namjil Wangchuk died in 1908, the six-year-old Demchugdongrub, with the approval of the Qing Empire, inherited one of his
father's titles – the Duoluo Duling Junwang. In his youth Demchugdongrub studied the Mongolian, Chinese, and Manchu languages.
After the fall of the Qing Empire, Yuan Shikai promoted Demchugdongrub to the title of Zhasake Heshuo
Duling Qinwang (扎萨克和硕杜棱亲王 Zhāsàkè Héshuò Dùléng Qīnwáng) in 1912. Demchugdongrub married a daughter of a Taiji (Qing aristocratic title)
nobleman from his own Sönid Right Banner, and the next year had their first child, Dolgorsuren (都古爾蘇隆 Dōugǔ'ěrsūlóng). Several years later,
Demchugdongrub had four more sons and one daughter with his second wife, Fujin (福晉 Fújìn), a daughter of another Taiji nobleman from the Abaga Banner.
Demchugdongrub was appointed as a member of the Chahar Provincial Committee in 1929. In 1931 he succeeded to the post of the Chief of Shilingol League,
after Yang Cang (楊桑 Yáng Sāng) and Sodnom Rabdan (索特那木拉布坦 Suǒtènàmù Lābùtǎn). During September 1933, the Mongolian princes
of Chahar and Suiyuan Provinces traveled to the temple at Bat Khaalga (Bailingmiao), north of Guihua, and gathered in a council chamber with
Demchugdongrub, who for months had been trying to found a Pan-Mongolian self-rule movement. In mid-October, despite their traditional suspicions of one
another, they and Demchugdongrub agreed to draw up confederation documents for the Inner Mongolian banners. They sent word to Nanjing that they
intended to rule Inner Mongolia themselves. They indicated that if they were obstructed by the Chinese government that they would not hesitate to seek
assistance from Japan. Nanjing in response sent Huang Shaoxiong as an envoy, who in the end authorised the creation of the Mongol Local Autonomy Political
Affairs Committee. In 1935, Demchugdongrub, now the leader of the Mongols of Inner Mongolia, made serious efforts to set up an autonomous Mongolian
Government in Chahar and Suiyuan. The Japanese General Jirō Minami, commander of the Kwangtung Army, and Colonel Seishirō Itagaki gave support to the
new Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government, which they felt would weaken China and be subject to the influence of Japan. In April 1935 Minami sent
Major Ryukichi Tanaka and another officer to interview Demchugdongrub with the goal of formalizing Japanese support, but Demchugdongrub did not agree to
terms set by the Japanese at that time. After establishing a ceremonial Mengjiang-Manchukuo alliance in May 1935, Henry Puyi honoured Demchugdongrub with
the title of Prince De the Martial (武德親王 Wǔdé Qīnwáng). In June 1935 the North Chahar Incident and the resulting Chin-Doihara Agreement substantially
affected events in the Inner Mongolian province of Chahar. The most important provisions of the Chin-Doihara Agreement forced all units of the Chinese 29th
Army to be withdrawn from the eastern districts of Chahar province and north of Changpei, including the 132nd Division in Changpei. The withdrawal of the
132nd Division effectively ceded control of nearly all of Chahar province in Mengjiang. Peace and order in Chahar was to be entrusted to the Peace Preservation
Corps, an organization that was little more than a police force with light arms only. Also, no Chinese were to be permitted to migrate to or settle in the northern
part of Chahar province, which was largely populated by nomadic Mongols. No activities of the Koumintang were to be permitted in Chahar province. All anti-
Japanese institutions and official acts in Chahar province were to be banned.
[4][5]
When General Minami met with Prince Demchugdongrub in August 1935, the
Prince promised close cooperation with Japan, and Minami promised financial assistance to the Prince. On December 24, 1935, General Minami sent two
battalions of irregular Manchurian cavalry under Li Shouxin, a squadron of Japanese planes, and a few tanks to assist the Prince in taking over the northern part
of Chahar province. The six districts of northern Chahar were defended by only a few thousand lightly armed Chinese Peace Preservation Corps. With Li's
assistance the Prince's forces were soon able to overrun the area. The Japanese Kwangtung Army, in February 1936, decided to establish the Mongol Military
Government (蒙古軍政府 Ménggǔ Jūnzhèngfǔ). with Demchugdongrub as the commander and Toyonori Yamauchi (山内豊紀
?
) as the advisor. The Japanese
proclaimed that Demchugdongrub on a mission to "inherit the great spirit of Genghis Khan and retake the territories that belong to Mongolia, completing the
grand task of reviving the prosperity of the nationality". In March 1936, Manchurian troops occupying Chahar invaded northeastern Suiyuan, which was
controlled by the Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan. These Japanese-aligned troops seized the city of Bailingmiao in northern Suiyuan, where the pro-Japanese Inner
Mongolian Autonomous Political Council maintained its headquarters. Three months later Demchugdongrub, as the head of the Political Council, declared that
he was the ruler of an independent Mongolia, and organized and army with the aid of Japanese equipment and training. On April 21 - 26, 1936
Demchugdongrub and Li Shouxin met with the Japanese Special Service Chief Captain Takayoshi Tanaka at West Wuchumuhsin. Representatives from places
in Inner Mongolia, Tsinghai, and Outer Mongolia also attended the meeting, which was called the "State-Founding Conference". A plan was drawn up to create a
Mongolian State which would include all of Mongolia and Tsinghai. It was to be a monarchy, but would initially be run by an interim committee. A Mongolian
Congress was planned and most importantly there was a plan to organize a Mongolian military government and an army. The Mongol Military Government was
formed on 12 May 1936. A mutual assistance agreement with Manchukuo was also concluded in July 1936, with Japan providing military and economic aid.
After the conclusion of the treaty, Demchugdongrub set out to enlarge and equip his army for the expansion of his new state into Suiyuan. The Prince increased
his army from three cavalry divisions to nine with the aid of Takayoshi Tanaka and his Japanese advisors. The Japanese provided arms captured from the
Northeastern Army, but Tanaka ignored the advice of the Mongolian leaders and recruited poorly armed levies and ex bandits from various regions. Because it
had no ideological unity, poor training, and only enough rifles for half of the soldiers, this force had poor morale and cohesion. This force totaled about 10,000
men. A puppet Chinese army, the Grand Han Righteous Army underWang Ying, was attached to Demchugdongrub's Inner Mongolian Army. In August 1936
Demchugdongrub's army attempted to invade eastern Suiyuan, but it was defeated by Yan Xishan's forces under the command of Fu Zuoyi. Following this defeat,
Demchugdongrub rebuilt his armed forces and planned another invasion. Japanese agents carefully sketched and photographed Suiyuan's defenses while
Demchugdongrub was rebuilding his armed forces. In November 1936 Demchugdongrub presented Fu Zuoyi with an ultimatum to surrender. When Fu
responded that Demchugdongrub was merely a puppet of "certain quarters" and requested that he submit to the authority of the Chiang Kai-shek's central
government, Prince Teh's Mongolian and Manchurian armies launched another, more ambitious attack. This time Demchugdongrub's 15,000 soldiers were
armed with Japanese weapons, supported by Japanese aircraft, and often led by Japanese officers. (Japanese soldiers fighting for Mengguguo were often executed
by Chinese forces after their capture as illegal combatants, since Mengjiang and was not recognized as being part of Japan). In anticipation of this attempt to take
control of Suiyuan, Japanese spies destroyed a large supply depot in Datong and carried out other acts of sabotage. Yan Xishan placed his best troops and most
able generals, including Zhao Chengshou and Yan's son-in-law, Wang Jingguo, under the command of Fu Zuoyi. During the month of fighting that ensued, the
army or Mengguguo suffered severe casualties. Fu's forces succeeded in occupying Bailingmiao on November 24, 1936, and was considering
invading Chahar before he was warned by the Kuangtung Army that doing so would provoke an attack by the Japanese Army. Demchugdongrub's forces
repeatedly attempted to retake Bailingmiao, but this only provoked Fu into sending troops north, where he successfully seized the last of Demchugdongrub's
bases in Suiyuan and virtually annihilated his army. After Japanese were found to be fighting in Demchugdongrub's army, Yan publicly accused Japan of aiding
the invaders. Yan's victories in Suiyuan over Japanese-backed forces were praised by Chinese newspapers and magazines, other warlords and political leaders,
and many students and other members of the Chinese public. Demchugdongrub withdrew to Chahar and again reconstructed his army with Japanese help. By
the time that the Second Sino-Japanese War began, in July 1937, his army consisted of 20,000 men in eight Cavalry Divisions. The forces under his command
participated in Operation Chahar and the Battle of Taiyuan, when the Japanese and Mongol forces finally captured most of Suiyuan province. The Mengjiang
United Autonomous Government (蒙疆連合自治政府 Méngjiāng Liánhé Zìzhìzhèngfǔ) was set up in 1939 with Demchugdongrub first being the vice-chairman,
then the chairman. In 1941 he became chairman of the Mongolian Autonomous Federation. After World War II, and the collapse of the Federation,
Demchugdongrub lived in Beijing for four years under the supervision of the Kuomintang government. Just before the founding of the People's Republic of
China in August 1949 he managed to establish an "Autonomous Government" in the westernmost region of Inner Mongolia. In December, threatened by the
Communist army, Demchugdongrub fled to Mongolia and was at first welcomed there, but was later arrested by the People's Republic of Mongolia in the
following February and deported to China in September, where he was charged with treason by the People's Republic of China. Under supervision, he wrote nine
memoirs and was pardoned 13 years later in April. After his release from jail Demchugdongrub worked in an Inner Mongolian history museum in Hohhot until
his death at the age of 64.


Minangkabau
Minangkabau was the state in present Indonesia. The Minangkabau ethnic group, also known as Minang (Urang Minang in Minangkabau language), is indigenous
to theMinangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. Their culture is matrilineal, with property and land passing down from mother to daughter, while
religious and political affairs are the responsibility of men (although some women also play important roles in these areas). Today 4 million Minangs live in West
Sumatra, while about 3 million more are scattered throughout many Indonesian and Malay peninsular cities and towns. The Minangkabau are strongly Islamic,
but also follow their ethnic traditions, or adat. The Minangkabau adat was derived from animistbeliefs before the arrival of Islam, and remnants of animist beliefs
still exist even among some practicing Muslims. The present relationship between Islam and adat is described in the saying "tradition [adat] founded upon Islamic
law, Islamic law founded upon the Qur'an" (adat basandi syara', syara' basandi Kitabullah). Their West Sumatran homelands were the location of the Padri
War from 1821 to 1837.
List of Rulers (title Raja Alam Yang di Pertuan Sakti) of Minangkabau
Tuanku Sultan Alif Kalipatullah Raja Alam XXV was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1641 until 1680.
Tuanku Perkasa Alam Pemangku Raja Alam XXVI was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1680 until 1695.
Tuanku Sultan Raja Bagewang II Pemangku Raja Alam XXVII was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1695 until 1719.
Tuanku Sultan Arif Badaeunsyah Raja Alam XXVIII was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1719 until 1739.
Tuanku Raja Alam Muningsyah I Raja Alam XXIX was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1739 until 1780.
Tuanku Raja Basusu Ampek Tuanku Raja Alam Muningsyah II Raja Alam XXX (1745 - 1825) was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1780
until 1798.
Tuanku Rajo Bawang Tuanku Raja Alam Muningsyah III Raja Alam XXXI was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1798 until 1803.
Raja Garang Tuanku Sambahyang III Sumpur Kudus Pemangku Raja Alam XXXII was a ruler of Minangkabau from 1803 until 1804.
Tuanku Raja Hitam Tuanku Raja Alam Bagagarsyah Johan Berdaulam Raja Alam XXXIII (died 1849) was a ruler of Minangkabau
from 1804 until his death in 1849.




Suroasso
Suroasso was the state in present Indonesia. In 1821 Suroasso was extinguished by Netherlands colonial government.
Ruler (title Daulat Yang Dipertuan Raja Alam) of Suroasso
Sultan Kerayahan Alam was a ruler of Suroasso from ? until 1821.


Pagar Ujong
Pagar Ujong was the state in present Indonesia. In 1834 Pagar Ujong was extinguished by Netherlands colonial government.
List of Rulers (title Daulat Yang Dipertuan Raja Alam) of Pagar Ujong
Sultan Alam Bagager was a ruler of Pagar Ujong from ? until 1821.
Raja Yahsir Alam was a ruler of Pagar Ujong from 1821 until 1834.

Awak Sungai
Awak Sungai was the state in present Indonesia. In 1816 Awak Sungai was extinguished by Netherlands colonial government.
Sultan of Awak Sungai
Khalifatullah Inayat Syah was a ruler of Awak Sungai from 1789 until 1816.

Bila
Bila was the state in present Indonesia
List of Rajas of Bila
Sultan Rakhmat Syah was a ruler of Bila from 1785 until 1800.
Sultan Bidar Alam II was a ruler of Bila from 1800 until 1835.
Sultan Bidar Alam III was a ruler of Bila from 1835 until 1865.
Sultan Bidar Alam IV was a ruler of Bila from 1865 until 1903.
Sultan Bidar Alam V was a ruler of Bila from 1903 until ?

Sungai Taras
Sungai Taras was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rajas of Sungai Taras
Marhum Asal was a ruler of Sungai Taras from 1775 until 1810.
Marhum Mangkat di-Rantau Baru was a ruler of Sungai Taras from 1810 until 1835.
Sultan Muda I was a ruler of Sungai Taras from 1835 until 1871.
Sultan Muda II was a ruler of Sungai Taras from 1775 until 1810.




Tasik (Kota Pinang)
Tasik (Kota Pinang) was the state in present Indonesia
List of Rajas of Tasik (Kota Pinang)
Sultan Bongsa II was a ruler of Tasik (Kota Pinang) from 1795 until 1815.
Sultan Mustafa was a ruler of Tasil (Kota Pinang) from 1815 until 1871.
Yang Dipertuan Sati was a ruler of Tasil (Kota Pinang) from 1871 until 1905.
Sulung Mustafa Yang Dupertuan Mamur Perkasa Alam Syah was a ruler of Tasil (Kota Pinang) from 1905 until ?

Bubasan
Bubasan was the state in present Indonesia
List of Rulers (title Kejuruan) of Bubasan
Bedul Raja Ucak Aman Daud was a ruler of Bubasan from ? until 1934.
Raja Ujam was a ruler of Bubasan from 1934 until ?

Buket
Buket was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Kejuruan) of Buket
Maun was a ruler od Buket from ? until 1925.
Muhammad Zainuddin was a aruler of Buket from 1925 until ?

Indragiri
Indragiri was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Sutan) of Indragri
Raja Kecik Besar was a ruler of Indragiri.
Ibrahim was a ruler of Indragiri.
Alan was a ruler of Indragiri.
Said was a ruler of Indragiri from ? until 1876.
Husain was a ruler of Indragiri from 1876 until 1883.
Aisya, Sutana was a ruler of Indragiri from 1885 until 1902.
Mahmud was a ruler of Indragiri from 1902 until ?

Jambi
Jambi was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers of Jambi
Masud Badruddin bin Ahmad Sultan Ratu Seri Ingalaga was a ruler of Jambi from 1790 until 1812.
Mahmud Muhieddin bin Ahmad Sultan Agung Seri Ingalaga was a ruler of Jambi from 1812 until 1833.
Muhammad Fakhruddin bin Mahmud Sultan Keramat was a ruler of Jambi from 1833 until 1841.
Abdul Rahman Nazaruddin bin Mahmud was a ruler of Jambi from 1841 until 1855.
Taha Safiuddin bin Muhammad (died 1904) was a ruler of Jambi from 1855 until November 5, 1858 and from 1900 until his death in 1904.
Ahmad Nazaruddin bin Mahmud was a ruler of Jambi from 1858 until 1881.
Muhammad Muhieddin bin Abdul Rahman was a ruler of Jambi from 1881 until 1885.
Ahmad Zainul Abidin bin Muhammad was a ruler of Jambi from 1885 until 1899.
Winto was a ruler of Jambi from 1904 until 1906.
Abdurrahman Taha Syaifuddin Syah is the ceremonial ruler of Jambi since March 18, 2012.

Kluet
Kluet was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Kejuruan) of Kluet
Datuk Ambon was a ruler of Kluet around 1828.
Aman Syah was a ruler of Kluet from ? until 1911.
Raja Momin was a ruler of Kluet from 1911 until 1924.
Marah Adam was a ruler of Kluet from 1924 until ?

Kualu
Kualu was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers of Kualu
Namalullah bin Muhammad Ishak (died March 20, 1882) was a ruler of Kualu from 1868 until his death on March 20, 1882.
Tunku Biong Muhammad Syah bih Namalullah (1867 - 1946) was a ruler of Kualu from 1882 until his death in 1946.

Langkat
Langkat is the tradicional Sultanate in present Indonesia. The Sultanate of Langkat was a Muslim state located in modern Langkat Regency, North Sumatra.
Although dating back to the pre-Islamic age, recorded history is available only from the 17th century.
List of Rajas of Langkat
Panglima Dewa Shahdan was a ruler of Langkat from 1568 until 1580.
Panglima Dewa Sakdi (Indra Sakti) was a ruler of Langkat from 1580 until 1612.
Raja Kahar ibni al-Marhum Panglima Dewa Sakdi was a ruler of Langkat from 1612 until his death in 1673.
Sutan Bendahara Raja Badi uz-Zaman (died 1750) was a ruler of Langkat from 1673 until his death in 1750.
Raja Hitam ibni al-Marhum Sutan Bendahara Raja Badi uz-Zaman (died 1822) was a ruler of Langkat from 1750 until 1818.
Raja Ahmad ibni al-Marhum Raja Indra Bongsu (c.1807 - 1840) was a ruler of Langkat from 1818 until his death in 1840.
List of Sultans of Langkat
Sri Paduka Tuanku Sultan Haji Musa al-Khalidy al-Mahadiah Mu'azzam Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ahmad (1807 - 1897) was a
ruler of Langkat from 1840 until 1893 (Sultan of Langkat from 1887).
Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah (1875 – July 1, 1927) was a ruler of Langkat Sultanate from 1893 until his death on July 1, 1927.



Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah (1893 – April 23, 1948) was a ruler of Langkat Sultanate from 1927 until his death on April 23,
1948.



Tengku Atha‘ar ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud ‗Abdu‘l Jalil Rahmad Syah (1929 – June 14, 1990) was a ceremonial ruler of Langkat
Sultanate from 1948 until his death on June 14, 1990.
Tengku Mustafa Kamal Pasha ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud 'Abdu'l Jalil Rahmad Syah (1935-1999) was a ceremonial ruler of
Langkat Sultanate from 1990 until his death in 1999.
Tengku Herman Syah bin Tengku Kamil was a ceremonial ruler of Langkat Sultanate from 1999 until 2001.
Iskandar Hilali Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah (September 29, 1952 – May 21, 2003) was a ceremonial ruler of Langkat Sultanate from
October 27, 2002 until his death on May 21, 2003.


Azwar Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah (born 1951) is a ceremonial ruler of Langkat since May 21, 2003.











Linggu
Linggu was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Kejuruan) of Linggu
Aman Cahjamani was a ruler of Linggu from ? until 1919.
Sasa Aman Talib was a ruler of Linggu from 1919 until ?

Moko-Moko Sultanate
Moko–Moko was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Sultans of Moko-Moko Sultanate
Tuanku Paduko Sarie Maharaja Sultan Gadam Sah was a ruler of Moko-Moko Sultanate from 1681 until 1761.
Tuanku Sultan Sarie Maharaja Pasissir Barat Sah was a ruler of Moko-Moko Sultanate from 1761 until 1806.
Tuanku Sarie Maharaja Sultan Chalipattullah Indijat Sah was a ruler of Moko-Moko Sultanate from 1806 until 1833.
Tuanku Sarie Maharaja Sultan Hidaijat Tula Sah was a ruler of Moko-Moko Sultanate from 1833 until 1836.
Tuanku Sarie Maharaja Sultan Takadir Chalipattullah Sah was a ruler of Moko-Moko Sultanate from April 22, 1836 until around 1859.
Palalawan
Palalawan was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rajas of Palalawan
Abdul Rahman bin Uthman was a ruler of Palalawan from 1811 until 1822.
Hasyim I bin Abdul Rahman (died 1828) was a ruler of Palalawan from 1822 until his death in 1828.
Ismail bin Abdul Rahman (died 1844) was a ruler of Palalawan from 1828 until his death in 1844.
Hamid bin Abdul Rahman (died June 9, 1866) was a ruler of Palalawan from 1844 until his death on June 9, 1866.
Jafar bin Abdul Rahman (died 1874) was a ruler of Palalawan from 1866 until his death in 1874.
Abubakar bin Abdul Rahman (died 1886) was a ruler of Palalawan from 1874 until his death in 1886.
Sontol Said Ali Shahab (died 1892) was a ruler of Palalawan from 1886 until his dath in 1892.
Tunku Besar Said Hasyim II bin Abubakar bin Syahabuddin (did August 1, 1930) was a ruler of Palalawan from 1892 until his death on August
1, 1930.
Harun Abdul Rahman Fakhruddin (died January 12, 1959) was a ruler of Palalawan from August 4, 1930 until his death on January 12, 1959.
Sharif Usman was regent of Palalawan from 1930 until 1940.

Palembang
Palembang is the tradiconal state in present Indonesia. Destruction of Majapahit in Java indirectly influenced Sumatra. Several key figures behind the collapse of
Majapahit were Raden Patah,Ario Dillah (Ario Damar), and Pati Unus, figures closely associated with Palembang. The Sultanate of Demak subsequently
replaced Majapahit in Java. Sultanate of Palembang was establishedin early 17th century by Ki gede ing Suro, a Javanese nobles fleeing the Demak court intrique
after the death of Trenggana Sultan of Demak. Palembang was made the center of a sultanate with Darussalam Mukmiminin Khalifatul susuhunan Sayyidu
Abddurrahaman Faith as its first king. This kingdom formed from the merger of two cultures. The maritime heritage of the Sriwijaya and Majapahit combined to
create the greatest agricultural and trade center of the Malay world at the time. One of the most famous king during this period was Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin
II, who won three battles against both Dutch and English forces.
Palembang Kingdom
List of Kings of Palembang Kingdom
Ario Abdillah (Ario Dilla was well known before as Ario Damar) was the first ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1455 until 1486. The history of the
Sultanate of Palembang to begin in mid-15th century in his lifetime a character named Ario Dillah or Ario Damar. He is a son of the last king of Majapahit,
which represents the title of Duke of Majapahit kingdom Ario Damar in power between the years 1455-1486 in Palembang Lamo, who now is located in an area
of ilir. On arrival Ario Damar to Palembang, Palembang residents and had a lot of people who converted to Islam and the Duke Ario Damar was probably later
converts to Islam, said his name changed to Ario Ario Abdillah or Dillah (In the Java language = dillah = amber lights). Ario Dillah got a gift from the King of
Majapahit Last King UB V Kertabumi a Chinese wife (sometimes also called Princess Champa) who have embraced Islam and made a palace for the Princess. At
this princess brought to Palembang she was pregnant, then her child was born, Raden Fatah. According to the story said in Palembang, Raden Fatah was born in
a palace in the region of Palembang Ario Dillah long (1 ilir), the place was formerly called the Temple at Barrel. Raden Fatah maintained and educated by Ario
Dillah according to Islam and became a Muslim cleric. While the results Ario Dillah marriage with the Chinese princess, born Raden Raden Fatah frames the
sister of another father. After the Majapahit empire broke up because of the insistence of Islamic kingdoms, Sunan Ngampel, as vice Walisongo, lifting Raden
Fatah became the ruler of Java, succeeding his father. Central Javanese kingdom was moved to Demak. For the assistance of other areas that have been separated
from the Majapahit as Jepara, Tuban, Gresik, Raden Fatah founded the Muslim kingdom in Demak as its center (circa 1481). Raden Fatah holds Senapati
Jimbun Ngabdu'r-Rahman Panembahan Sayidin Panata'Gama Palembang.
Pangeran Sedo Ing Lautan was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1547 until 1552.
Kiai Gede Ing Suro Tuo was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1552 unil 1573. He was Javanese nobles who fleeing the Demak court intrique after the
death of Trenggana Sultan of Demak. In the chaos that occurs upon attack by Pajang Demak, the descendants of Prince Switch Trenggono 24 people (or
descendants of Raden Fatah) from the kingdom of Demak to Palembang, led by Kiai Gede Ing Suro Tuo at sea that comes through to Palembang Surabaya and
create new power to establish the kingdom of Palembang, which then lowers the kings, or the sultans of Palembang. His first palace in Kuto Hurdles, at this site
right in the complex PT. Pusri, Palembang. From the form of Javanese palace on the banks of the Musi river, the Malay rulers to adapt to the surrounding
environment. Acculturation and assimilation ensued an Javanese and Malay culture, known as the culture of Palembang.
Kiai Gede Ing Suro Mudo was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1573 until 1590.
Kiai Mas Adipati was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1590 until 1595.
Pangeran Madi Ing Angsoko was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1595 until 1629.
Pangeran Madi Alit was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1629 until 1630.
Pangeran Sedo Ing Puro was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1630 until 1639.
Pangeran Sedo Ing Kenayan was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1639 until 1650.
Pangeran Sedo ing Pesarean was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1651 until 1652.
Pangeran Sedo Ing Rajek was a ruler of Palembang Kingdom from 1651 until 1652.
Palembang Darussalem Sultanate
List of Emperors (Susuhunan) or Sultans of Palembang
Ratu Abdurrahman Khalifatui Mukminin Sayidul Imam was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1659 until 1706.
Muhammad Mansyur Jayo Ing Lago was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1706 until 1714,
Agung Komaruddin Sri Teruno was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1714 until 1724.
Mahmud Badaruddin Jayo Wikramo was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1724 until 1758.
Ahmad Najamuddin Adi Kesumo was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1758 until 1776.
Muhammad Bahaudin was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1776 until 1804.
Mahmud Badruddin II bin Muhammad was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1796 until 1812, in 1813 and from 1818 until 1821.
After the fall of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam, Palembang became a subordinate kingdom within the Dutch East Indies. The main victory of Dutch
forces under de Kock occurred in 1821. Some of the sultans of surrendered states succeeding Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II tried to rebel against the Dutch. All
attempts failed and resulted in the burning of imperial buildings. After that Palembang was divided into two major prefectures, and settlements in Palembang
were divided into regions and Ulu Ilir.
Ahmad Najmuddin II bin Muhammad was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1812 until 1813 and from 1813 until 1818.
Ahmad Najmuddin III bin Ahmad was a ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate from 1821 until August 18, 1825.
Iskandar Mahmud Badruddin III is a ceremonial ruler of Palembang Darussalem Sultanate since March 4, 2003.

Panei
Panei was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Sutan Gagar Alam) of Panei
Raja Marhum Mangkat Salih was a ruler of Panei from around 1775 until around 1790.
Raja Mahmud Sati was a ruler of Panei from around 1790 until 1813.
Raja Badiri Sutan Mengedar Alam was a ruler of Panei from 1813 until 1856.
Sutan Gagar Alam I was a ruler of Panei from around 1856 until 1880.
Sutan Mengedar Alam Syah was a ruler of Panei from around 1880 until 1905.
Tengku Sulung Syahmara was a ruler of Panei from around 1905 until 1907.
Sutan Gagar Alam II Rahmatullah was a ruler of Panei from around 1907 until 1938.
Sutan Mahmud Aman was a ruler of Panei from around 1938 until 1946.

Serdang
Abu Nawar Sharifullah Alam Shah (1932 - January 28, 2001) was a ceremonial ruler of Serdang from January 5, 1995 until his death on January 28,
2001.
Lukman Sinar Bashar Shah II (1933 – January 13, 2011) was a ceremonial ruler of Serdang from 2001 until his death on January 13, 2011.
Achmad Tala Shariful Alam Shah (born around 1946) is a ceremonial ruler of Serdang since April 12, 2011.
Siah Utama
Siah Utama was a state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Kejuruan) of Siah Utama
Aman Jelekah Siah Utama was a ruler of Siah Utama from ? until 1912.
Bital Pasi was regent of Siah Utama from 1912 until 1919.
Banta Cut was a ruler of Siah Utama from 1919 until ?

Siak Seri Indrapura
Muhammad Shah is the ceremonial ruler of Siak Seri Indrapura since December 1, 2012.

Tarumon
Tarumon was the state in present Indonesia
List Rulers (title Raja) of Tarumon
Si Ruyung was a ruler of Tarumon around 1770.
Lebei Dapha Tunku Singkil was a ruler of Tarumon from around 1770 until 1817.
Bujang II was a ruler of Tarumon from 1817 until 1833.
Seri Muda Paduka Alam Sultan Mansur Muda bin Bujang (1822 - 1884) was a ruler of Tarumon from 1833 until his death in 1884.
Sultan Iskandar Muda bin Sultan Mansur Muda (died 1893) was a ruler of Tarumon from 1884 until his death in 1893.
Jaafar Rayeu (died 1903) was a ruler of Tarumon from 1893 until his death in 1903.
Bijeh Lada Muda Nasiruddin (1889 - 1910) was a ruler of Tarumon from 1904 until his death in 1910.
Leh was a ruler of Tarumon from 1910 until 1927.
Husain was a ruler of Tarumon from 1927 until 1942 and from 1945 until 1946.
Daud was a ruler of Tarumon from 1942 until 1945.

Lingga-Riau
Linga – Riau was the Sultanate in present Indonesia. The Lingga Islands or Lingga Archipelago (Indonesian: Kepulauan Lingga) are a group of islands
in Indonesia, located south ofSingapore, along both sides of the equator, off the eastern coast of Riau Province on Sumatra island. They are south of the
populated Riau Archipelago, known for the industrial island of Batam and the tourist-frequented island of Bintan, although the Lingga Islands themselves are
rarely visited due to the infrequent local transportation. The equator goes through the northern tip of Lingga, the name of the main island in the archipelago.
List of Sultans of Lingga – Riau
Sultan Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah I ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud Riayat Syah (1780 – August 9, 1832) was a Sultan of Lingga –
Riau from 1819 until his death on August 9, 1832.
Sultan Muhammad Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah (1803 – July 20, 1841) was a Sultan of Lingga – Riau from
1932 until 1935 (continues as regent for the following his death on July 20, 1841) .
Sultan Mahmud Mudzafar Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Muhammad Syah (1823 – 1864) was a Sultan of Lingga – Riau from 1935 until
October 7, 1857.
Sultan Sulaiman Badarul Alam Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah (died September 17, 1883) was a Sultan of
Lingga – Riau from October 7, 1857 until his death on September 17, 1883.
Tengku Fatimah Embang was regent of Lingga – Riau from October 13, 1883 until February 18, 1885.
Sultan Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah II bin Muhammad Yusuf (1851 - 1930) was a Sultan of Lingga – Riau from 1885 until 1911.

Cirebon
Kraton Kasepuhan
List of Sultans of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan
Radja Sulaeman Sultan Sepuh IX (March 12, 1853) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in
the Indonesian city of Cirebon from 1843 until his death on March 12, 1853.
Pangeran Raja Adiwijaya (died 1871) was regent of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in the Indonesian city of Cirebon from
1853 until his death in 1871.
Pangeran Raja Dipati Satria Sultan Sepuh (died May 31, 1875) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in
the Indonesian city of Cirebon from February 28, 1872 until his death on May 31, 1875.
Sultan Pangeran Raja Jayawikarta (died June 1880) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in
the Indonesian city of Cirebon from 1875 until his death in June 1880.
Radja Atmadja Sultan Sepuh X (died October 22, 1885) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in
the Indonesian city of Cirebon from August 16, 1880 until his death on October 22, 1885.
Sultana Raden Ayu was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in the Indonesian city of Cirebon from 1885 until 1899.
Radja Aluda Tajul Arifin Sultan Sepuh XI (c.1876 - 1942) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in
the Indonesian city of Cirebon from 1899 until his death in 1942.
Radja Radjaningrat Sultan Sepuh XII (1920 - 1969) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace) in
the Indonesian city of Cirebon from 1942 until his death in 1969.
Radja Maulana Pakuningrat Sultan Sepuh XIII (1937 – April 30, 2010) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's
palace) in the Indonesian city of Cirebon from 1969 until his death on April 30, 2010.
Radja Adipati Arief Natadiningrat Sultan Sepuh XIV (born 1965) is the Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kasepuhan (oldest kraton, sultan's palace)
in the Indonesian city of Cirebon since April 30, 2010.
Kraton Kanoman
List of Sultans of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman
Sultan Anom VII Muhammad Kamaruddin I(died 1872) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon)
from 1858 until 1871.
Sultan Anom VIII Muhammad Kamaruddin II was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) from
1873 until 1934.
Sultan Anom IX Muhammad Dulkarnaen was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) from 1934 until
1935.
Sultan Anom X Muhammad Nurbuat was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) from 1935 until 1979.
Sultan Anom XI Haji Muhammad Djalaluddin (died 2002) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman (palace in the Indonesian city
of Cirebon) from 1979 until his death in 2002.
Sultan Anom XII Elang Saladin Muhammad is a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) since March 6,
2003 (disputed from Sultan Anom (XII) Muhammad Emiruddin).
Sultan Anom (XII) Muhammad Emiruddin is a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kanoman (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) since 2003.
Kraton Kaprabonan
List of Rulers (title Panembahan) of Kraton Kaprabonan
Raja Tumenggong Secadipura was a Sultan of Cirebon from Panembahan line from 1714 until 1725 and from 1731 until 1752.
Muhammad Akbaruddin (died 1773) was a Sultan of Cirebon from Panembahan line in 1773.
Kraton Kacirebonan
List of Sultans of Kraton Kacirebonan
Pangeran Natadiningrat I was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kacirebonan (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) during 1960s.
Pangeran Mulyono Amir Natadiningrat II was a Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton Kacirebonan (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) from 1968
until 1997.
Mahmud Perkasa Alam Syah Pangeran Sultan Abdul Gani Natadiningrat III Dekarangga is the Sultan of Cirebon from Kraton
Kacirebonan (palace in the Indonesian city of Cirebon) since May 28, 1997.


Mataram
Amangku Rat V was a ruler of Mataram from June 30 until December 24, 1742.
Paku Buwono III (1732 – September 26, 1788) was a ruler of Mataram from December 11, 1749 until his death on September 26, 1788.
Paku Buwono IV (1768 – October 20, 1820) was a ruler of Mataram from 1788 until his death on October 1, 1820.
Paku Buwono V (1784 – September 5, 1823) was a ruler of Mataram from 1820 until his death on September 5, 1823.
Paku Buwono VI (1807 - 1849) was a ruler of Mataram from 1823 until June 14, 1830.
Paku Buwono VII (1796 – May 10, 1858) was a ruler of Mataram from 1830 until his death on May 10, 1858.
Paku Buwono VIII (1789 – December 28, 1861) was a ruler of Mataram from 1858 until his death on December 28, 1861.
Paku Buwono IX (1830 – March 17, 1893) was a ruler of Mataram from December 30, 1861 until his death on March 17, 1893.
Paku Buwono X (1866 – February 20, 1939) was a ruler of Mataram from 1893 until his death on February 20, 1939.
Paku Buwono XI (1886 – June 1, 1945) was a ruler of Mataram from 1939 until his death on June 1, 1945.
Paku Buwono XII (1925 – June 11, 2004) was a ruler of Mataram from 1945 until his death on June 11, 2004.
Paku Buwono XIII (born 1948) was a ruler of Mataram since September 10, 2004.
Paku Buwono XIII (born 1954) was a ruler of Mataram since 2004 (in opposition).

Mangkam Negaran
Mangkam Negaran is a tradicional state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers of Mangkam Negaran
Mangkam Negara I (1726 – December 28, 1795) was a ruler of Mangkam Negaran from February 24, 1757 until his death on December 28, 1795.
Mangkam Negara II (1768 – January 26, 1835) was a ruler of Mangkam Negaran from 1795 until his death on January 26, 1835.
Mangkam Negara III (1803 – January 6, 1853) was a ruler of Mangkam Negaran from 1835 until his death on January 6, 1853.
Mangkam Negara IV (1811 – September 2, 1881) was a ruler of Mangkam Negaran from 1853 until his death on September 2, 1881.
Mangkam Negara V (1855 – October 2, 1896) was a ruler of Mangkam Negaran from 1881 until his death on October 2, 1896.
Mangkam Negara VI (1857 - 1928) was a ruler of Mangkam Negaran from 1896 unti January 11, 1916.
Mangkam Negara VII (1885 – July 19, 1944) was a ruler of Mangkam Negaran from 1916 until his death on July 19, 1944.
Mangkam Negara VIII (1920 – September 3, 1987) was a ceremonial ruler of Mangkam Negaran from 1944 until his death on September 3, 1987.
Mangkam Negara IX (born 1951) is the ceremonial ruler of Mangkam Negaran since 1987.

Bandung
Bandung was a tradicional state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Bandung
Adipati Wiranatakusuma II was a ruler of Bandung from 1794 until 1829.
Adipati Wiranatakusuma III was a ruler of Bandung from 1829 until 1846.
Adipati Wiranatakusuma IV was a ruler of Bandung from 1846 until 1874.
Adipati Kusumadilaga was a ruler of Bandung from 1874 until 1893.
Adipati Aria Martanagara was a ruler of Bandung from 1893 until 1920.
Adipati Aria Wiranatakusuma V was a ruler of Bandung from 1920 until 1931 and from 1935 until 1945.
T. Hasan Sumadipradja was a ruler of Bandung from 1931 until 1935.
TE Suriaputra was a ruler of Bandung from 1945 until 1947.
Tumenggung Muharram Wiranatakusuma VI was a ruler of Bandung from 1948 until 1956.
Apandi Wiradiputra was a ruler of Bandung from 1956 until 1957.

Cianjur
Cianjur was a state in present Indonesia. Cianjur was founded in 1677, with the first head of the city being R.A Wiratanudatar I, entitled Dalem Cikundul, as the
descendant from the old Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran.
List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Cianjur
Aria Wiratanu I was a ruler of Cianjur from around 1640 until 1686.
Aria Wiratanu II was a ruler of Cianjur from 1686 until 1707.
Aria Wiratanu III was a ruler of Cianjur from 1707 until 1727.
Adipati Wiratanudatar IV was a ruler of Cianjur from 1727 until 1761.
Adipati Wiratanudatar V was a ruler of Cianjur from 1761 until 1776.
Adipati Wiratanudatar VI was a ruler of Cianjur from 1776 until 1813.
Adipati Prawiradiredja I was a ruler of Cianjur from 1813 until 1833.
Tumenggung Wiranagara was a ruler of Cianjur from 1833 until 1834.
Aria Adipati Kusumahningrat was a ruler of Cianjur from 1834 until 1862.
Aria Adipati Prawiradiredja II was a ruler of Cianjur from 1862 until March 27, 1910.
Demang Natakusumah was regent of Cianjur from 1910 until 1912.
Aria Adipati Wiranatakusumah was a ruler of Cianjur from 1912 until 1920.
Suriadiningrat was a ruler of Cianjur from 1920 until 1932.
Sunaryo was regent of Cianjur from 1932 until 1934.
Surianataatmadja was a ruler of Cianjur from 1934 until 1943.
Adiwikarta was a ruler of Cianjur from 1943 until 1945.

Limbangan
Limbangan was a state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Limbangan
Nayavangsa was a ruler of Limbangan from around 1660 until 1678.
Kyai Mas Martasinga was a ruler of Limbangan from 1678 until 1726.
Wangsadita was a ruler of Limbangan from 1726 until 1740.
Rangga Limbangan was a ruler of Limbangan from 1740 until 1744.
Surapraja was a ruler of Limbangan from 1744 until 1752.
Wangsadiraja I Surapriya was a ruler of Limbangan from 1752 until 1763.
Wangsadiraja II was a ruler of Limbangan from 1763 until 1799 and from 1799 until 1805.
Wangsakusuma was a ruler of Limbangan in 1799.
Wangsadiraja III was a ruler of Limbangan from 1805 until 1813.
Adiwijaya was a ruler of Limbangan from 1813 until ?
Kusumadinata was a ruler of Limbangan from ? until 1836.
Jayaningrat was a ruler of Limbangan from 1836 until 1871.
Aria Wiratanudatar was a ruler of Limbangan from 1871 until 1915.
Rangga Suriakartelegawa was a ruler of Limbangan from 1915 until 1925.

Semarang
Semarang was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Semarang
Adimenggala Sura IV was a ruler of Semarang from 1777 until 1791.
Sura Adimenggala V was a ruler of Semarang from 1791 until 1809.

Sukapura
Sukapura was a state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Sukapura
Jayamenggala was a ruler of Sukapura from 1765 until 1807.
Demang Anggadipa was a ruler of Sukapura from 1807 until 1813.
Surialaga was a ruler of Sukapura from 1813 until 1814.
Wiradedaha VI was a ruler of Sukapura from 1814 until 1828.
Wiratanubaya I was a ruler of Sukapura from 1828 until 1835.
Wiratanubaya II was a ruler of Sukapura from 1835 until 1854.
Adipati Wiradedaha VII was a ruler of Sukapura from 1854 until 1874.
Wirahadiningrat was a ruler of Sukapura from 1874 until 1906.
Aria Prawiradiningrat was a ruler of Sukapura from 1906 until 1908.
Wiratanudiningrat was a ruler of Sukapura from 1908 until 1925.

Sumedang
Sumedang was a state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Sumedang
Pangeran Rangga Gempol III was a ruler of Sumedang from 1656 until 1706.
Tanumaja was a ruler of Sumedang from 1706 until 1709.
Kusumadinata VII was a ruler of Sumedang from 1709 until 1744.
Istria Rajaningrat was a ruler of Sumedang from 1744 until 1759.
Kusumadinata VIII was a ruler of Sumedang from 1759 until 1761.
Adipati Surianagara I was a ruler of Sumedang from 1761 until 1765.
Adipati Surianagara II was a ruler of Sumedang from 1765 until 1773.
Adipati Tanubaja was a ruler of Sumedang from 1773 until 1775.
Adipati Patrakusumah was a ruler of Sumedang from 1775 until1789.
Satjapati was a ruler of Sumedang from 1789 until 1791.
Kusumadinata IX was a ruler of Sumedang from 1791 until 1828.
Adipati Kusumayuda was a ruler of Sumedang from 1828 until 1833.
Adipati Kusumadinata X was a ruler of Sumedang from 1833 until 1834.
Surialaga was a ruler of Sumedang from 1834 until 1836.
Suria Kusumadinata XI was a ruler of Sumedang from 1836 until 1882.
Aria Suria atmaja was a ruler of Sumedang from 1882 until 1919.
Kusumadilaga was a ruler of Sumedang from 1919 until 1937.
Aria Kusuma Sura Adinata was a ruler of Sumedang from 1937 until 1946.
Hasan Suria Sacakusumah was a ruler of Sumedang from 1946 until 1947 and from 1949 until 1950.
Muhamad Singer was a ruler of Sumedang from 1947 until 1949.

Bangalan
Bangalan is the tradicional state in present Indonesia.
List of Rulers of Bangalan
Cakra Adiningrat was a ruler of Bangalan from ? until 1648.
Cakra Adiningrat II was a ruler of Bangalan from 1648 until 1707.
Cakra Adiningrat III was a ruler of Bangalan from 1707 until 1718.
Cakra Adiningrat IV was a ruler of Bangalan from 1718 until 1745.
List of Rulers (title Panembahan) of Bangalan
Cakra Adiningrat V (died 1770) was a ruler of Bangalan from 1745 until his death in 1770.
Adiningrat Cakra VI was a ruler of Bangalan from 1770 until 1780.
List of Sultans of Bangalan
Cakra Adiningrat VII (died 1815) was a ruler of Bangalan from 1780 until his death in 1815 (Sultan of Bangalan from 1808 until his death in 1815.
Cakra Adiningrat VIII (died January 27, 1847) was a Sultan of Bangalan from 1815 until his death on January 27, 1847.
List of Rulers (title Panembahan) of Bangalan
Cakra Adiningrat IX was a ruler of Bangalan from 1847 until 1863.
Cakra Adiningrat X (died 1882) was a ruler of Bangalan from 1863 until his death in 1882.
List of Regents of Bangalan
Pangeran Suryonegoro (Cakra Adiningrat XI) was regent of Bangalan from 1885 until 1905.
R.A.A. Suryonegoro was regent of Bangalan from 1905 until 1918.
Raden Ario Suryowinoto was regent of Bangalan from 1918 until 1945.
R.A. Mohamed zis Cakraningrat was regent of Bangalan from 1945 until 1956.
R.A. Mohamed Roeslan Wongsokusumo was regent of Bangalan from 1956 until 1957.
R.A. Abdul Karim Brodjokusumo was regent of Bangalan from 1957 until 1959.
R.P. Mohamed Noer was regent of Bangalan from 1959 until 1965.
Abdul Manan Priyonoto was regent of Bangalan from 1965 until 1969.
R.P. Machmud Suroadiputro was regent of Bangalan from 1969 until 1917.
Jacky Sudjaki was regent of Bangalan from 1971 until 1982.
Sumarwoto was regent of Bangalan from 1982 until 1988.
Abdul Qadir was regent of Bangalan from 1988 until 1991.
Ernomo was regent of Bangalan from 1991 until 1993.
M. Djakfar Syafei is regent of Bangalan since 1993.

Klungkung
Dewa Agung Gede Agung Cokorde was a ceremonial ruler of Klungkung since 1998.

Pamecutan
Gede Ngurah Manik Ida Parisara Cokorde Pemecutan XI was a ceremonial ruler of Pamecutan since 1986.

Kesiman
Anak Agung Ngurah Kusuma Wardhana is a tradicional ruler of Kesiman since 1989.

Buleleng
Ngurah Brawida (born 1958) is ceremonial ruler of Buleleng since 2004.

Gianyar
Anak Agung Gde Agung is ceremonial ruler of Gianyar since 1999.

Karangasem
Jelantik Gusti Gede (died 1916) was regent of Jembrana kingdom from 1893 until December 28, 1908.
Agung Ngurah Ketut Karang Asem (1916 - 1991) was a ceremonial ruler of Jembrana kingdom from 1950 until his death in 1991.
Agung Gede Agung Putra is a ceremonial ruler of Jembrana since April 9, 2009.

Tabanan
Anglurah Tabanan is a ceremonial ruler of Tabanan since March 20, 2008.

Mataram
Mataram at Lombok was the Kingdom in present Indonesia.
List of Rajas (title Anak Agung) of Mataram at Lombok
Anglurah Ketut Karang Asem I was a ruler of Mataram Kingdom at Lombok in late 18th century and early 19th century.
Anglurah Ketut Karang Asem II was a ruler of Mataram Kingdom at Lombok from ? until 1830.
Anak Agung Ngurah Ketut Karang Asem I was a ruler of Mataram Kingdom at Lombok from 1830 until 1838.
Gusti Ngurah Ketut Karang Asem II (died 1870) was a ruler of Mataram Kingdom at Lombok from 1838 until his death in 1870.
Gede Ngurah Karang Asem (c.1818 - 1895) was a ruler of Mataram Kingdom at Lombok from 1870 until November 20, 1894.

Karang Asem Singhasari
Karang Asem Singhasari was the Kingdom in present Indonesia.
List of Rajas of Karang Asem Singhasari Kingdom
Agung Dahuran was a ruler of Karang Asem Singhasari Kingdom.
Cokorda was a ruler of Karang Asem Singhasari Kingdom from ? until 1838.
Gusti Gede Jelantik Sasak, Gusti Gede Ngurah Agung Paguyangan was a ruler of Karang Asem Singhasari Kingdom from ? until 1827.
Gusti Ngurah Made Karang Asem (died 1849) was a ruler of Karang Asem Singhasari Kingdom from 1827 until 1835 and from 1838 until 1839.
Gusti Ngurah Bagus Pañji Karang Asem (died 1839) was a ruler of Karang Asem Singhasari Kingdom from 1835 until 1838.

Kadiri
Kadiri was the state in present Indonesia.
List of Rajas of Kadiri
Anak Agung Ketut Rai was a ruler of Kadiri in early 18th century.
Anak Agung Gede Karang Asem was a ruler of Kadiri in the first half 18th century.
Anak Agung Wayan Karang Asem I was a ruler of Kadiri in the first half 18th century.
Anak Agung Wayan Karang Asem II was a ruler of Kadiri in the second half 18th century.
Anak Agung Nyoman Rai was a ruler of Kadiri from second half 18th century until 1805.


Pagasangan
Pagasangan was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas (title Anak Agung) of Pagasangan

Gede Karangasem was a ruler of Pagasangan in the second half 17th century.

Putu Lebah was a ruler of Pagasangan in the first half 18th century.

Gusti Nengah Tegeh was a ruler of Pagasangan from ? until around 1740.

Gusti Wayahan Tegeh (Gusti Lanang Putu) was a ruler of Pagasangan from around 1740 until 1775.

Gusti Made Karang Asem was a ruler of Pagasangan in 1775.

Gusti Ketut Karang was a ruler of Pagasangan from 1775 until around 1784.

Lanang Nengah Karang Asem was a ruler of Pagasangan from around 1785 until ?

Nengah Tegeh was a ruler of Pagasangan from ? until 1836.


Pangutan

Pangutan was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Pangutan

Anak Agung Wayan Sidemen was a ruler of Pangutan in the second half 18th century.

Anak Agung Nengah Sidemen was a ruler of Pangutan in the second half 18th century.

Anak Agung Nengah Sidemen was a ruler of Pangutan in Early 19th century.

Anak Agung Ketut Karang was a ruler of Pangutan from ? until 1840.


Sengkongo

Sengkongo was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Sengkongo

Anak Agung Ketut Sidemen was a ruler of Sengkongo in the second half 18th century.

Anak Agung Wayan Prasi was a ruler of Sengkongo in the second half 18th century.

Anak Agung Nengah Prasi was a ruler of Sengkongo from ? until 1803.


Lombok

Lombok was the state in present Indonesia. Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Barat or NTB) province, Indonesia. It forms part of
the chain of theLesser Sunda Islands, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali to the west and the Alas Strait between it and Sumbawa to the east.

List of Rajas of Lombok

Gusti Ngurah Ketut Karang Asem was a ruler of Lombok from 1839 until 1870.

Gusti Ngurah Gede Karang Asem, Agung Gede Agung Ngurah, Anak Agung Ketut was a ruler of Lombok from 1870 until 1894.

Anak Agung Karang Nangah was a ruler of Lombok from 1894 until 1895.
Sumbawa

Sumbawa is the tradicional state in present Indonesia. Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain,
with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. It is in the province of West Nusa Tenggara.

List of Rulers (later usually referred to nor Sultan) of Sumbawa

Dewa Mas Bantan was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1675 until 1701.

Dewa Mas Madina was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1701 until 1725.

Dewa Mas Jalaluddin Muhammad was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1725 until 1731.

Dewa Mas Muhammad Mapasusung I Kahharuddin was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1731 until 1759.

Sugi Karaeng Banton was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1759 until 1761.

Hasanuddin Datu Jereweh was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1761 until 1763.

Dewa Mas Jalaluddin Muhammad II was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1763 until 1766.

Mappacongga Mustapha was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1766 until 1780.

Mahmoud Datu Jereweh was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1780 until 1791.

Safiatuddin Daeng Masiki was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1791 until 1795.

Muhammad Kahharuddin II was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1796 until 1816.

Lulo Murso was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1837 until 1843.

Amarullah was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1843 until 1883.

Jalaluddin Muhammad was a ruler of Sumbawa from 1883 until 1908.

Kahharuddin Muhammad III (died 1975) was ceremonial ruler of Sumbawa from 1931 until 1958.

Muhammad Kahharuddin IV (born 1941) is ceremonial ruler of Sumbawa since April 5, 2011.



Bima

Siti Maryam Sultana Ina Kau Rahmat Salahuddin was regent of Bima from June 17, 2011 until July 6, 2013.

Zulkarnain Abdul Kahir II (born 1964) is titular ruler of Bima since July 6, 2013.



Dompu

Dompu was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Sultans of Dompu Sultanate

Abdul Rasul I Bumisorowo was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1686 until 1701.

Sultan Usman Manuru Goa was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1701 until 1702.

Ahmad Syah II was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1702 until 1717.

Manambung Daeng Abdul Qadir (died 1727) was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1717 until his death in 1727.

Mawa Sultan Samsuddin Sampela Yusuf Abdul was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1727 until 1737.

Kamaluddin was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate in 1737.

Daeng Abdul Kahar Mamu was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1737 until 1746.

Abdurrahman Manuru Kempo was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1746 until 1748.

Abdul Wahab (died 1793) was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1749 until his death in 1793.

Mawa Abdullah Sainu was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1793 until 1798.

Jacob Mpuri was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1798 until 1799.

Mawa Abdullah was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1799 until 1801.

Muhammad Zainal Abidin (died 1805) was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1801 until his death in 1805.

Muhammad Tajularifin was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1805 until December 25, 1809.

Sultan Abdul Daeng Hau Manuru Bata Rasul II (1787 - 1857) was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1809 until his death in 1857.

Sultan Salahuddin Muhammad (died August 28, 1870) was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1857 until his death on August 28, 1870.

Abdullah II was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1870 until 1882.

Sirajuddin Muhammad I (died 1939) was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from 1882 until 1934.

Tajularifin Sirajuddin Muhammad II (1916 - 1964) was a Sultan of Dompu Sultanate from September 12, 1947 until 1958.



Sanggar

Sanggar was a state in present Indonesia

List of Rajas of Sanggar

Kalongkong Hasanuddin was a ruler of Sanggar from around 1700 until 1704.

Daeng Pamalie was a ruler of Sanggar from 1704 until around 1764.

Muhammad Syah Johan was a ruler of Sanggar from 1765 until ?

Adam Safiallah was a ruler of Sanggar from ? until 1790.

Muhammad Sulaiman was a ruler of Sanggar from 1790 until around 1805.

Ismail Ali was a ruler of Sanggar from 1805 until ?

La Lisa Daeng Jaie was a ruler of Sanggar from ? until around 1836.

Daeng Malabba was a ruler of Sanggar from 1836 until 1845.

Manga Daeng Manasse was a ruler of Sanggar from 1845 until his death in 1869.

La Kamena Anjong Daeng (1820 – December 22, 1900) was a ruler of Sanggar from 1869 until his death on December 22, 1900.

Manggala Abdullah Siamsuddin Daeng (died 1928) was a ruler of Sanggar from 1901 until 1926.






Papekat

Papekat was a sultanate in present Indonesia. On April 10, 1815 eruption of Tambora totally destroys the state.

Sultan of Papekat

Abdul Muhammad (died April 10, 1815) was a Sultan of Papekat from 1794 until his death on April 10, 1815.


Tambora

Tambora was a sultanate in present Indonesia. On April 10, 1815 eruption of Tambora totally destroys the state.

List of Sultans of Tambora

Tajul Arifin Abdul Rasyid was a ruler of Tambora from 1794 until 1800.

Muhammad Tajul Masahur was a ruler of Tambora from 1800 until 1801.

Mataram Daeng Abdul Jafar (died April 10, 1815) was a ruler of Tambora from 1901 until his death on April 10, 1815.



Anakalang

Anakalang was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Anakalang

Umbu Dongu Ubini Mesa (died 1913) was a ruler of Anakalang from ? until his death in 1913.

Umbu Dodi Ngailu was a ruler of Anakalang from 1913 until 1927.

Sapi Umbu Pateduku was a ruler of Anakalang from 1927 until 1953.

Samapati Remu Umbu was a ruler of Anakalang from 1953 until 1962.


Kanatang

Kanatang was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Kanatang

Umbu Keep Nggaba Hambangu was a ruler of Kanatang from 1848 until 1891.

Umbu Maramba Kambaru Windie Maru Mata was a ruler of Kanatang from 1892 until 1897.

Umbu Gaa Lili was a ruler of Kanatang from 1898 until April 27, 1913.

Umbu Nai Haru (also Raja of Kapunduk) was a ruler of Kanatang from 1919 until September 9, 1946.

Umbu Janggatera was a ruler of Kanatang from September 16, 1946 until 1959.

Umbu Kadambungu Nggedinga was a ruler of Kanatang from 1959 until 1962.



Kapunduk

Kapunduk was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Kapunduk

Umbu Panda Huki Landun Jama (1834 - 1901) was a ruler of Kapunduk from around 1869 until his death in 1901.

Umbu Tunggu Namu Praing was a ruler of Kapunduk from 1901 until 1904.

Umbu Deu Jara Belun was a ruler of Kapunduk from 1906 until 1914.

Taku Nai Umbu was a ruler of Kapunduk from 1914 until 1926.

Umbu Nai Haru was a ruler of Kapunduk from 1926 until September 9, 1946.



Code

Code was a state in present Indonesia.

Code – Bengedo

List of Rulers (title Rato) of Code – Bengedo

Hemba (died 1912) was a ruler of Code – Bengedo from 1902 until his death in 1912.

Pote Rya (died 1919) was a ruler of Code – Bengedo from 1915 until his death in 1919.

Rangga Bodo was regent of Code – Bengedo from 1919 until his death in 1929.

Lengga sings was a ruler of Code – Bengedo from 1929 until his death in 1931.

David Boelan was regent of Code – Bengedo from 1929 until his death in 1931.

Code – Bokol

List of Rulers (title Rato) of Code – Bokol

Loge Candu (died 1911) was a ruler of Code – Bokol from 1905 until his death in 1911.

Code (re -united)

List of Rulers (title Rato) of Code (re -united)

Door Wulan (died 1943) was a ruler of Code – Bokol from 1912 until 1931 and ruler of Code from 1931 until 1943.

Hermanus Rangga Horo (1903 - 1985) was a ruler of Code from 1943 until 1962.



Lambo

Lambo was the state in present Lambo.

List of Rajas of Lambo

Mat Koja was a ruler of Lambo from 1892 until 1906.

Jawa Kalaga was a ruler of Lambo from 1906 until 1908.

Moto Kedu was a ruler of Lambo from 1908 until 1924.

Edna Snow was a ruler of Lambo from 1924 until 1951.

Songa Lero (died 1996) was a ruler of Lambo from 1951 until 1962.



Larende

Larende was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Larende

Umbu Hina Marumata was a ruler of Larende from 1893 until 1918.

Umbu Lily Khan Paraing was a ruler of Larende from 1918 until 1932.

Umbu Hapu Ndina Hamba (died December 1960) was a ruler of Larende from 1932 until his death in December 1960.

Umbu Wanggi Keimawleu (Umbu Kubu) (died 1992) was a ruler of Larende from 1960 until his death in 1992.

Umbu Joenggoe Mbili was regent of Larende from 1960 until 1962.


Lewa

Lewa was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Lewa

Pura was a ruler of Lewa from around 1750 until 1756.

Hina Umbu Wali Hanggu was a ruler of Lewa from 1756 until ?

Lili Nggala Umbu Khan Paraingu was a ruler of Lewa from in the 19h century.

Umbu Pira Ndawa The Kama Diki was a ruler of Lewa from ? until 1874.

Umbu Tunggu Maramba Namu Paraingu was a ruler of Lewa from 1874 until 1891.

Jawa Umbu Karai Manjawa (Bidi Umbu Tau) was a ruler of Lewa from 1892 until 1917.

Umbu Tunggu Paraing Namu was regent of Lewa from 1902 until 1913.

Umbu Nggaha Hau Mara (died 1924) was a ruler of Lewa from 1917 until his death in 1924.

Umbu Diki Kama Pira Ndawa II, Umbu Rarameha (died 1940) was a ruler of Lewa from 1924 until his death in 1940.

Umbu Nggaba Hunga (died 1930) was regent of Lewa from 1924 until his death in 1930.

Umbu Nggaba Hungu Rijhi Eti (1901 - 1978) was a ceremonial ruler of Lewa from 1940 until 1965.

Umbu Ndjaka is ceremonial ruler of Lewa since 2002.



Loura

Loura was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Rato) of Loura

Umbu Kandi Lele was a ruler of Loura from 1862 until 1901.

Course Nggolo Ghole I (died 1909) was a ruler of Loura from 1901 until his death in 1909.

Mbulu Danggargara was a ruler of Loura from 1911 until February 6, 1928.

Meet Timoteus Geli was a ruler of Loura from 1928 until 1932.

Roy Kaka was regent of Loura from 1932 until 1947.

Course Nggolo Ghole II, Lede Kalumbang (c1915 - 1961) was a ruler of Loura from 1932 until his death in 1961.



Massu – Karer

Massu – Karer was a state in present Indonesia.

Karer

List of Rajas of Karer

Umbu Mutu Damunamu was a ruler of Karer from 1892 until 1897.

Umbu Haru Halomatu was a ruler of Karer from 1897 until around 1912.

Massu

Raja of Massu

Umbu Ndawa Hawula (Umbu Nai Laki) was a ruler of Massu from 1909 until around 1912.

Massu – Karer

List of Rajas of Massu – Karer

Umbu Ndawa Hawula was a ruler of Massu - Karer from around 1912 until 1932.

Umbu Nengi Landumeha (Umbu Nai amba) was a ruler of Massu - Karer from around 1932 until 1954.

Umbu Hina Pekambani (Umbu Maramba) was a ruler of Massu - Karer from around 1954 until 1962.



Melolo

Melolo was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Melolo

Umbu Siwa Tanangunju was a ruler of Melolo from ? until 1750.

Gallang was a ruler of Melolo from 1750 until around 1776.

Hamatake Hin Umbu was a ruler of Melolo from around 1776 until ?

Lily Nggala Umbu was a ruler of Melolo from ? until 1862.

Haumara Nggaba Umbu was a ruler of Melolo from 1862 until around 1866.

Umbu Rami Tanggu was a ruler of Melolo from 1866 until around 1890.

Ama Luji Dimu was a ruler of Melolo from around 1890 until around 1892.

Tae Tunggurawe was a ruler of Melolo from 1892 until around 1893.

Umbu Hia Hamatake II was a ruler of Melolo from 1893 until July 17, 1932.

Umbu Hina Janggakudi (died September 11, 1946) was a ruler of Melolo from 1932 until his death on September 11, 1946.

Umbu Nggaba Haumara II (1891 - 1961) was a ruler of Melolo from 1946 until 1959.

Umbu Windie Nggunju Tana (c1927 - 1980) was a ruler of Melolo from 1959 until 1962.



Manyili

Manyili was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Manyili

Mandi was a ruler of Manyili from around 1699 until around 1725.

Tajuka was a ruler of Manyili from around 1725 until around 1750.

Tanga Umbu Ndemalulu was a ruler of Manyili from 1750 until ?

Umbu Mangku was a ruler of Manyili from 1860 until ?

Umbu Dena Lukamara was a ruler of Manyili from ? until around 1899.

Umbu Hina Hunggawali was a ruler of Manyili from 1901 until around 1911.

Umbu Tungu Eta (died 1916) was a ruler of Manyili from 1911 until his death in 1916.


Memboro (Mamboru)

Memboro (Mamboru) was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Memboro (Mamboru)

Umbu Nombu was a ruler Memboro (Mamboru) from around 1845 until around 1863.

Umbu Ndala Sombangu was a ruler of Memboro (Mamboru) from around 1863 until 1869.

Umbu Laki Mbali was a ruler of Memboro (Mamboru) from 1870 until 1897.

Umbu Pombu Saramani I was a ruler of Memboro (Mamboru) from 1898 until January 2, 1915.

Umbu Karai was a ruler of Memboro (Mamboru) from 1915 until 1929.

Umbu Mahama was a ruler of Memboro (Mamboru) from 1929 until 1932.

Umbu Dondu was a ruler of Memboro (Mamboru) from 1932 until 1933.

Umbu Tunggu Mbili was a ruler of Memboro (Mamboru) from 1934 until 1962.









Napu

Napu was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Napu

Umbu Kambara Windi was a ruler of Napu from around 1860 until 1870.

Umbu Dai Kudu was a ruler of Napu from 1870 until ?

Umbu Renggi Taai was a ruler of Napu from ? until 1890.

Umbu Timbu Nduka Laki Mora was a ruler of Napu from 1890 until February 12, 1910.

Umbu Rawa was a ruler of Napu from 1910 until August 27, 1914.

Umbu Landu Kura was a ruler of Napu from 1914 until 1927.

Umbu Rada was a ruler of Napu from 1927 until 1928.


Tapundung

Tapundung was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Tapundung

Umbu Kaputing was a ruler of Tapundung in early 19th century.

Umbu Hunga was a ruler of Tapundung in first half 19th century.

Umbu Nggaba (died around 1870) was a ruler of Tapundung from ? until his death around 1870.

Umbu Manja Mehang was a ruler of Tapundung from around 1870 until 1900.

Umbu Tunggu Namu Praing was a ruler of Tapundung from 1900 until 1917.

Umbu Dai Litiata was a ruler of Tapundung from 1917 until 1931.

Umbu Hunga Wohangara was a ruler of Tapundung from 1931 until 1956.

Umbu Manja Mehangu was a ruler of Tapundung from 1956 until 1962.



Umbu Ratu Nggai

Umbu Ratu Nggai was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Maramba) of Umbu Ratu Nggai

Umbu Bili was a ruler of Umbu Ratu Nggai from around 1880 until 1913.

Umbu Siwa Sambawali I was a ruler of Umbu Ratu Nggai from 1913 until 1932.

Umbu Mbili Nggemunasu was a ruler of Umbu Ratu Nggai from 1932 until 1935.

Umbu Sakala Maramba Jawa was a ruler of Umbu Ratu Nggai from 1935 until 1949.

Umbu Siwa Sambawali II was a ruler of Umbu Ratu Nggai from 1949 until 1962.



Waijelu

Waijelu was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Waijelu

Umbu Nggaba Kalai was a ruler of Waijelu from 1892 until 1898.

Umbu Tanga Teulu Ata Kawau was a ruler of Waijelu from 1899 until 1927.

Umbu Tanga Teulu Jawa Pangu was a ruler of Waijelu from 1927 until 1932.

Umu Yiwa Ngganja was a ruler of Waijelu from 1932 until 1942.

Umbu Kambaru Windi was a ruler of Waijelu from 1948 until 1962.



Wanokaka

Wanokaka was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Wanokaka

Mawa Madoli was a ruler of Wanokaka in the second half 19th century.

Luju Meramba Dungu was a ruler of Wanokaka from ? until 1912.

Kiring Semara was a ruler of Wanokaka from 1912 until 1914.

Baju Padedangu was a ruler of Wanokaka from 1914 until 1926.

Guling Manyoba was a ruler of Wanokaka from 1928 until 1956.

Lau Mau was a ruler of Wanokaka from 1956 until 1962.



Wewewa

Wewewa was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Wewewa

Luku Lewa was a ruler of Wewewa from 1879 until 1912.

Malo Umbu Fati was a ruler of Wewewa from 1912 until 1934.

Bulu Engge was a ruler of Wewewa from 1935 until 1962.



Banjarmasin

Banjarmasin was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Sultans of Banjarmasin

Tahmidullah II bin Muhammad Aminullah was the Sultan of Banjarmasin from 1786 until 1808.

Saidullah Sulaiman bin Tahmidullah was the Sultan of Banjarmasin from 1808 until 1825.

Adam bin Sulaiman Saidullah al - Wathik Billah was the Sultan of Banjarmasin from 1825 until 1857.

Tamjidullah II bin Abdul Rahman was the Sultan of Banjarmasin from 1857 until 1859.

Hidayatullah III was the Sultan of Banjarmasin from 1859 until 1860.

Tamjidullah III bin Abdul Rahman Raja Muda was the Sultan of Banjarmasin from 1860 until 1905.

Khairul Saleh al - Mutashim Billah (born 1964) is a Sultan of Banjarmasin since December 10, 2010.


Sultanate of Bulungan

The Sultanate of Bulungan was a princely state of Indonesia located in the existing Bulungan Regency in the North Kalimantan province of Indonesia in the east
of the island of Borneo. With its territory spanning throughout the eastern shores of North Kalimantan and Tawau, Malaysia. The Sultanate was founded by
a Kayan group, the Uma Apan, who originated from the interior region of Apo Kayan (Kayan Highland Plateau), before settling near the coast in the seventeenth
century. Around 1650, a princess of the group married a man from Brunei. This marriage founded a Hindu lineage who settled in the region of today's Tanjung
Selor. Around 1750, this dynasty converted to Islam. Its rulers took the title of Sultan and were recognized as vassals of the sultan of Berau, the latter
acknowledging himself a vassal of the kingdom of Kutai. In 1850, the Dutch, who had conquered Berau in 1834 and imposed their sovereignty upon Kutai in
1848, signed with the Sultan of Bulungan a Politiek Contract. The Dutch intervened in the region in order to combat piracy and the trafficking in slaves. Until
1860, Bulungan was a subject of the Tausug of the Sultanate of Sulu. During this period, vessels began travelling to Sulu,Tarakan, and thence into the interior of
Bulungan, to trade directly with Tidung. This influence ended in 1878 with the signing of a treaty between the English and Spanish partitioning Sulu. In 1881,
the North Borneo Chartered Company was created, thereby placing northern Borneo under British jurisdiction, despite initial Dutch objections. The Sultanate
was finally incorporated into the colonial empire of the Dutch East Indies in the 1880s. The Dutch installed a government post in 1893 in Tanjung Selor. In the
1900s, like many other princely states of the archipelago, the Sultan was forced to sign a Korte verklaring; a "short statement" in which he sold most of its powers
over land upstream. The Dutch eventually recognized the border between the two jurisdictions in 1915. The Sultanate was granted Zelfbestuur ("self-
administration") status in 1928, again like many princely states of the Netherlands Indies. The discovery of oil by the BPM (Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij) in
the islands of Bunyu and Tarakan gave great importance to Bulungan for the Dutch, who made Tarakan the chief town of the region. After the recognition of
Indonesian independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the territory received the status of Bulungan Wilayah swapraja, or "autonomous territory", in
1950, before receiving the status of Wilayah istimewa, or "special territory", in 1955. The last Sultan, Jalaluddin, died in 1958. The Sultanate was abolished in
1959 and the territory becomes a simple kabupaten, or "department".

List of rulers of Bulungan

Digendung was a ruler of Bulungan from 1695 until 1731.

Zainul Aji Muhammad bin Muhammad Abidin (Amir) (died 1817) was a ruler of Bulungan from 1731 until his death in 1817.

Muhhamad Alimuddin Amirul Muminin Kahharuddin I bin Muhammad Zainul Abidin was a ruler of Bulungan from 1817 until 1848
until 1866 until 1873.

Muhammad Jalaluddin bin Muhammad Kahharuddin (died 1868) was a ruler of Bulungan from 1848 until 1866.

Muhammad Khalifatul Adil was a ruler of Bulungan from 1873 until 1874.

Muhammad Kahharuddin II bin Maharaja Lela was a ruler of Bulungan from 1874 until 1899.

Muhammad Azimuddin was a ruler of Bulungan from 1889 until 1899.

Pangean Kesuma was regent of Bulungan from 1899 until 1901.

Muhammad Kasimuddin was a ruler of Bulungan from 1901 until 1924.

Datu Mansyur was regent of Bulungan from 1924 until 1929.

Maulana Ahmad Sulaimanuddin (1909 – March 27, 1930) was a ruler of Bulungan from 1929 until his death on March 27, 1930.

Maulana Muhammad Jalaluddin (1882 – December 21, 1958) was a ruler of Bulungan from 1930 until his death on December 21, 1958.

Maulana bin Al Mamun Maualana Muhammad Jalaluddin was a ceremonial ruler of Bulungan from 1958 until ?

Maulana Muhammad Al Mamun (born 1940) is ceremonial ruler of Bulungan since October 23, 2002.




Bunut

Bunut was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Bunut

Adi was a ruler of Bunut in the first half 19th century.

Mangku Negara I was a ruler of Bunut from 1855 until 1858.

Mangku Negara II was a ruler of Bunut from 1858 until 1876.

Mangku Negara III was a ruler of Bunut from 1876 until 1884.

Ratu Adi Paku Negara was a ruler of Bunut from 1884 until January 1, 1910.



Gunung Tabur

Gunung Tabur was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Gunung Tabur

Aji Pangeran Tua was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1673 until 1700.

Aji Pangeran Dipati was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1700 until 1731.

Muhammad Hasanuddin was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1737 until 1767.

Amiril Mukminn was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1767 until 1779.

Muhammad Zainal Abidin was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1779 until 1800.

Muhammad Badaruddin was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1800 until around 1820.

Zainul Abidin II bin Badruddin II was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from around 1820 until 1834.

Ayi Kuning II bin Zainul Abidin was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1834 until 1850.

Amiruddin Maharaja Dendah I was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1850 until 1876.

Hasanuddin II Maharaja Dendah II Amiruddin bin was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1876 until 1882.

Aji Kuning was regent of Gunung Tabur from 1882 until 1884.

Muhammad Syariffuddin was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1884 until 1892.

Muhammad Siranuddin was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1892 until 1921.

Maulana Ahmad was regent of Gunung Tabur in 1921.

Muhammad Jalaluddin Khalifatullah was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1921 until 1952.

Aji Raden Muhammad Ayub (died around 1964) was a ruler of Gunung Tabur from 1952 until 1959.

Aji Bakhrul Hadi is a ceremonial ruler of Gunung Tabur since September 14, 2012.



Jongkong

Jongkong was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Abang) of Jongkong

Jambu Kiai Dipati Uda was a ruler of Jongkong around 1823.

Nata Abang Abdullah (died 1840) was a ruler of Jongkong from ? until his death in 1840.

Paneran Muda Noto Negoro Abang Abdul El - Arab (died December 1, 1864) was a ruler of Jongkong from 1840 until his death on December 1,
1864.

Pangeran Sulaiman Surio Negara Abgang Unang (around 1856 - 1886) was a ruler of Jongkong from 1864 until his death in 1886.

Pangeran Muda Gusti Alam Abang Alam (1880 - 1949) was a ruler of Jongkong from 1886 until 1925.

Suma Abang Ali was regent of Jongkong from 1886 until 1895.

Abang Kyung was regent of Jongkong from 1895 until 1899.



Kota Waringin

Kota Waringin is the tradicional state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Kota Waringin

Dipati Anta Kasuma bin Sultan Mustambillah was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1637 until 1650.

Mas Adipati was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1650 until 1700.

Kota Waringin was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1700 until 1720.

Derut was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1720 until 1750.

Adipati Muda was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1750 until 1770.

Panghulu was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1770 until 1785.

Ratu Bagawan was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1785 until 1792.

Ratu Anom Kusuma Yuda was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1792 until 1817.

Ratu Anom Imamuddin was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1817 until 1855.

Ratu Anom Herman Syah was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1855 until 1865.

Ratu Anom Alam Syah I was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1865 until 1904.

Ratu Sikma Negara was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1904 until 1913.

Ratu Sikma Alam Syah was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1913 until 1939.

Ratu Kasuma Anom Alam Syah II (died 1975) was a ruler of Kota Waringin from 1939 until 1945.

Ratu Alidin Sukuma Alam Syah is a ceremonial ruler of Kota Waringin since July 2010.



Kubu

Kubu was the state in present Indonesia. The term Kubu is a Malay exonym ascribed to mobile, animist peoples (Orang Batin Sembilan and Orang Rimba) who
live throughout the lowland forests of Southeast Sumatra. In the Malay language, the word Kubu can mean defensive fortification, entrenchment, or a place of
refuge. It is metaphor for how the majority and dominant Islamic Melayu villagers believe them to use the interior forests as a means for resisting inclusion in the
larger Malay social and Islamic religious world. As is the case with other forest peoples in the region, the term Kubu is associated with very negative connotations.
Following Malay classifications, early Europeans divided the Kubu into two categories: 'tame' or 'civilized' Kubu, who were predominantly swidden farmers, and
'wild' Kubu, who lived deep in the forests, and made much stronger efforts to avoid close relations with the outside world. While closely related Malay speaking
peoples, these peoples represent two separate cultural groups, which have different economic and socio-religious systems.

List of Rulers (title Tuan) of Kubu

Saiyid `Aydarus Al `Aydarus (died 1795) was a rulet of Kubu from 1772 until his dath in 1795.

Saiyid Muhammad bin `Aydarus Al `Aydarus (died June 7, 1829) was a ruler of Kubu from 1795 until his death on June 7, 1829.

Saiyid Abdul Rahman bin Muhammad Al ` Aydarus (died February 2. 1841) was a ruler of Kubu from 1829 until his death on February 2, 1841.

Saiyid Ismail bin Abdul Rahman Al ` Aydarus (died September 19, 1864) was a ruler of Kubu from 1841 until his death on September 19, 1864.

Saiyid Hasan bin Abdul Rahman Al ` Aydarus (died November 4, 1900) was a ruler of Kubu from 1864 until his death on November 4, 1900.

Syarif `Abbas Al Aydarus was a ruler of Kubu from 1900 until 1911.

Syarif Zainul Idris ibni al – Marhum Syarif Ismail was a ruler of Kubu from Septemebr 26, 1911 until April 11, 1921.

Syarif Salih bin Syarif Idris Al ` Aydarus (1881 - 1944) was a ruler of Kubu from June 16, 1921 until June 23, 1943.

Syarif Hasan bin Zain was a ruler of Kubu from 1943 until 1958 (Head of the Governing Committee until 1946 and Said Chairman of the Council of
Regency until August 16. 1949).



Kurt Kutai Negara

Kurt Kutai Negara is a tradicional state in present Indonesia

List of Rulers of Kurt Kutai Negara

Aji Ragi (around 1679 - 1705) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1686 until his death in 1705.

Tua ing Martapura (1665 - 1730) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1705 until 1711.

Anom Panji Mendapa ing Martapura (died 1732) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1711 until his death in 1732.

Muhammad Idris bin Anom Panji was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1732 until 1739.

Muhammad Muslehuddin bin Muhammad Idris (died 1780) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1739 until his death in 1780.

Muhammad Salehuddin bin Aliuddin (died July 23, 1845) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1780 until 1816 and from 1816 until his death on
July 23, 1845.

Aliuddin bin Muhammad Muslehuddin (died 1816) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara in 1816.

Muhammad Sulaiman Adil Khalifatul Muminin bin Muhammad Salehuddin (1838 - December 2, 1899) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara
from July 1845 until his death on December 2, 1899.

Muhammad Azimuddin Adil Khalifatul Muminin (died April 28, 1910) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1899 until his death on April 28,
1910.

Adji Muhammad Parikesit (1895 - 1981) was a ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara from 1910 until January 21, 1960.

Adji Muhammad Salehuddin II (born 1924) is the ceremonial ruler of Kurt Kutai Negara since September 22, 2001.



Landak

Landak was the state in present Indonesia

List of Rulers of Landak

Kusuma Adiningrat I was a ruler of Landak in 1844.

Mahmoud Akamaddin was a ruler of Landak from 1844 until 1847.

Rau Adi Kusuma was a ruler of Landak from 1849 until 1874.

Mangku Bumi was a ruler of Landak from 1874 until 1881.

Kusuma Adiningrat II was a ruler of Landak from 1881 until 1882.

Abdul Ajit Khan was a ruler of Landak from 1882 until 1900.

Gusti Abdul Hamid was a ruler of Landak from 1900 until 1946.

Gusti Affandi was regent of Landak in 1946.



Mampawa

Mampawa was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Mampawa

Anom Kusuma Negara, from 1808 Nata Kusuma was a ruler of Mampawa from 1795 until 1822.

Muhammad Zainul Abidin Nata Kusuma was a ruler of Mampawa from 1822 until 1826.

Umar Kamaruddin Nata Kerama was a ruler of Mampawa from 1828 until 1853.

Mukmin Jaya Kusuma bin Unar Kamaruddin Nata Kerama was a ruler of Mampawa from 1853 until 1854.

Mahmud Akamaddin bin Umar Kamaruddin Nata Kerama was a ruler of Mampawa from 1854 until 1860.

Usman Shafiuddin Nata Jaya Kusuma bin Mukmin Jaya Kusuma was a ruler of Mampawa from 1860 until 1863.

Ibrahim Muhammad Shafiuddin bin Mahmud Akamaddin was a ruler of Mampawa from 1863 until 1892.

Anum Kusuma Yuda was a ruler of Mampawa was regent of Mampawa from 1892 until 1902.

Muhammad Taufik Akamaddin (died 1944) was a ruler of Mampawa from 1902 until his death in 1944.

Jimmy Mochamad Ibrahim bin Taufik Akamaddin (1932 - 2005) was a ceremonial ruler of Mampawa from ? until August 12, 2002.

Mardan Adijaya Kesuma Ibrahim is ceremonial ruler of Mampawa since 2002.



Matan

Matan was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Panembahan) of Matan

Anom Kusuma Negara was a ruler of Matan from 1837 until 1845.

Muhammad Cabaran was a ruler of Matan from 1845 until 1905.

Laksamana Uti Muhksin was a ruler of Matan from 1905 until 1924.

Gusti Muhammad Saunan (died 1944) was a ruler of Matan from 1924 until 1943.

Uti Halil (died 1960) was regent of Matan from 1945 until 1946.

Uit Aplah was regent of Matan from 1946 until 1948.

Gusti Kencana was regent of Matan from 1946 until 1948.

Gusti Kamboja is regent of Matan since 2009.

Gusti Fadin is regent of Matan since 2009.

Uti Iwan Kusnadi is regent of Matan since 2009.



Meliau

Meliau was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Meliau

Suria Adiningrat was a ruler of Meliau from 1782 until 1800.

Mangku was a ruler of Meliau from 1800 until 1823.

Ratu Mangku Negara was a ruler of Meliau from 1823 until 1869.

Ratu Anom Paku Negara was a ruler of Meliau from 1869 until 1885.

Ratu Muda Paku Negara Abdul Rauf was a ruler of Meliau from 1825 until 1889.

Paku Negara Suria Kusuma was a ruler of Meliau from 1889 until ?



Pulau Laut

Pulau Laut was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Pulau Laut

Pangeran Jaya Sumitra bin Pangeran Muhammad Nafis dari Kerajaan Kusan was a ruler of Pulau Laut from 1850 until 1861.

Pangeran Abdul Kadir was a ruler of Pulau Laut from 1861 until 1873.

Pangeran Berangta Kasuma was a ruler of Pulau Laut from 1873 until 1881.

Pangeran Amir Husan Kasuma was a ruler of Pulau Laut from 1881 until 1900.

Pangeran Abdurrahman Kasuma was a ruler of Pulau Laut from January 10, 1900 until January 7, 1903.

Pangeran Muhammad Aminullah Kasuma was a ruler of Pulau Laut from January 7 until April 1903.



Pasir

Pasir was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Pasir

Adam I was a ruler of Pasir from 1680 until 1703.

Sultan Adjie Muhammad Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir from 1703 until 1726.

Madukelleng was regent of Pasir from 1726 until 1736.

Sepuh I Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir from 1736 until 1766.

Alam Syah Ibrahim I (died 1815) was a ruler of Pasir from 1766 until 1786 and from 1811 until his death in 1815.

Ratu Agung was a ruler of Pasir from 1786 until 1788.

Dipati Anom Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir from 1788 until 1799.

Sulaiman II Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir from 1799 until 1811.

Muhammad Han Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir from 1815 until 1843.

Adam II Adjie Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir from 1843 until 1853.

Sepuh II Adil Khalifatul Muminin was a ruler of Pasir from 1853 until 1875.

Adjie Inggu was regent of Pasir from 1875 until 1876.

Abdul Rahman Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir (in east) from 1876 until 1896.

Muhammad Ali Adil Khalifatul Muminin was a ruler of Pasir (in west) from 1876 until 1896 and united Pasir from 1896 until 1898.

Ibrahim Khaliluddin was a ruler of Pasir from 1899 until 1908.

Sukma Negara was a ruler of Pasir from 1908 until 1913

Sukma Alam Syah was a ruler of Pasir from 1913 until ?



Pegatan and Kusan

Pegatan and Kusan was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Raja) of Pegatan and Kusan

Puwana Deke was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan around middle 18th century.

Hasan Pangewa was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1755 until 1800.

Palebi was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1800 until 1838.

Arung Palewan Abdul Rahim was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1838 until 1855.

Arung Abdul Karim was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1855 until 1863.

Arung Makarau was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1863 until 1871

Abdul Jabbar was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1871 until 1875.

Arung Daeng Makau was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1875 until 1883.

Tangkung Petta was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1883 until 1893.

Arung Abdul Rahim was a ruler of Pegatan and Kusan from 1893 until 1908.

"Kerapatan" was regent of Pegatan and Kusan from 1908 until 1912.



Piasa

Piasa was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Abang, from 1859 Raja) of Piasa

Suwara Kiai Dipati Martapura (died 1859) was a ruler of Piasa from around 1823 until his death in 1859.

Nuh Pangeran Osman Diraja Kesuma Negara (died 1895) was a ruler of Piasa from 1859 until his death in 1895.

Santuk Raden Patih Kesuma Negara (around 1877 - 1949) was a ruler of Piasa from May 1895 until May 24, 1916.



Pontianak

Syarif Abubakar al - Kadri (born 1944) is ceremonial ruler of Pontiak Sultanate since January 15, 2004.



Sambaliung

Sambaliung is tradicional state in present Indonesia.

List of Sultans of Sambaliung

Raja Alam was a Sultan of Sambaliung from 1830 until 1836.

Bungkoh was a Sultan of Sambaliung in late 1830s.

Muhammad Jalaluddin bin Alam was a Sultan of Sambaliung from ? until 1849.

Muhammad Hasyik Syarifuddin bin Alam was a Sultan of Sambaliung from 1849 until 1869.

Muhammad Adil Jalaluddin Bin Muhammad Jalaluddin was a Sultan of Sambaliung from 1869 until 1881.

Abdullah Muhammad Khalifatullah Bayanuddin bin Muhammad Jalaluddin was a Sultan of Sambaliung from 1881 until 1902.

Datuk Ranik, Muhammad Aminuddin was regent of Sambaliung from 1902 until 1906 and Sultan of Sambaliung from 1920 until 1951.

Aji Bagian was a Sultan of Sambaliung from 1902 until 1920.

Kepala Daerah (died 1961) was a Sultan of Sambaliung from 1951 until 1959.

Datu Fakhruddin bin Sultan Muhammad Alimuddin (born 1943) is ceremonial Sultan of Sambaliung since October 19, 2009.



Sambas

Sambas is traditional Malay state in Indonesia in modern Borneo. At first governed by governors, Sambas became kingdom in 1609 with the descendant of
Sepudak. She married one of her daughters to a descendant of the Sultan of Brunei. The child of this union, Muhammad Saif ud-din I became the first Muslim
Sultan. Sambas remained independent until the reign of the Dutch East India Company, when the capital was bombarded in 1812. The Dutch took their interest
since 1819, leading finally into frequent minglings into succession and even the deposition and exiling to Java of Abu Bakar Taj ud-din II. The state was stable,
having strong, long-ruling leaders, up until the Japanese conquest of 1942, when Sultan Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din II was executed at Mandor in 1944.
The Sultanate was thereafter suspended and replaced by a Japanese council, but restored with the return of the Dutch in 1946. They installed another Sultan,
who died in 1956. Another monarch did not assume the throne. From 1984, the head of the Royal House was Winata Kusuma of Sambas, who was recognised
as Sultan in 2000 and installed in July 2001. He died in 2008. The title of the Sultan is "His Highness" and his royal name consists of Sri Paduka al-Sultan
Tuanku, then followed by his personal reign name, ibni al-Marhum and concludes with his father's reigning titles and his name. The wife of the Sultan is titled Sri
Paduka Ratu. The Sultanate follows male primogeniture, with the sons of royal wives having precedence over those of common wives.

List of Panembahan Ratu (King) of Sambas

Timbang Paseban was a Panembahan Ratu (King) of Sambas from 1600 until 1609.

Sepudak was a Panembahan Ratu (King) of Sambas from 1609 until 1632.

Anom Kesumayuda was a Panembahan Ratu (King) of Sambas from 1632 until 1670.

List of Sultans of Sambas

Muhammad Tajuddin bin Muhammad Saifuddin (died May 22, 1708) was a Sultan of Sambas from May 26, 1670 until his death on May 22, 1708.

Umar Akamaddin I Bin Muhammad Tajuddin (died August 24, 1732) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1708 until his death on August 24, 1732.

Abu Bakar Kamaluddin I bin Muhammad Jalaluddin (1698 – February 3, 1762) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1732 until his death on February 3,
1762.

Umar Akamaddin II bin Abu Bakar Kamaluddin (1731 - 1790) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1762 until his death in 1790.

Abu Bakar Kamaluddin II bin Umar Kamaluddin (1756 – September 14, 1814) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1790 until his death on September
14, 1814.

Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin II bin Abu Kamaluddin Bakar (1767 – July 16, 1828) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1814 until his death on July 16,
1828.

Usman Kamaluddin III bin Abu Bakar Kamaluddin (1771 – February 9, 1832) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1828 until his death February 9,
1832.

Umar Akamaddin III bin Abu Bakar Kamaluddin (1793 – February 23, 1846) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1832 until his death on February 23,
1846.

Abu Bakar Tajuddin II bin Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin (1822 - 1879) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1846 until January 23, 1854.


Umar Kamaluddin IV bin Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin (died August 8, 1866) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1854 until his death
on August 8, 1866.








Muhammad Syafiuddin III bin Abu Bakar Tajuddin (1841 – September 12, 1924) was a regent of Sambas from April 5, 1861 until August 8, 1866
and Sultan of Sambas from August 8, 1866 until his death on September 12, 1924.

Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin IV bin Muhammad Ali Syafiuddin (1875 – October 9, 1926) was regent of Sambas from December 4, 1922 until
December 12, 1924 and Sultan of Sambas from September 12, 1924 until his death on October 9, 1926.

Muhammad Ibrahim Syafiuddin V bin Muhammad Syafiuddin (1901 – June 28, 1944) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1926 until his death on
June 28, 1944

Muhammad Tayeb was a Chief of Dewan Majelis Kesultanan of Sambas from 1926 until 1931.

Muhammad Taufik ibni al - Marhum Muhammad Ibrahim Syafiuddin (1931 - 1984) was a Sultan of Sambas from 1944 until 1960.

Muchsin Panji Anom was a Chief of Dewan Majelis Kesultanan of Sambas from 1946 until 1950.

Pangeran Ratu Winata Kusuma (1965 – February 1, 2008) was a ceremonial Sultan of Sambas from July 15, 2001 until his death on February 1, 2008.

Muhammad Tarhan is ceremonial Sultan of Sambas since 2008.



Sanggau

Sanggau was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Sanggau

Usman Paku Negara was a ruler of Sanggau from 1798 until 1814.

Muhammad Ali was a ruler of Sanggau from 1814 until 1825.

Aiyub Mangku Negara was a ruler of Sanggau from 1815 until 1830.

Muhammad Kusuma Negara was a ruler of Sanggau from 1830 until 1875.

Muhammad Tahir II Kusuma Negara was a ruler of Sanggau from 1875 until 1876.

Sulaiman Paku Negara was a ruler of Sanggau from 1876 until ?

Muhammad Ali Suria Negara was a ruler of Sanggau from ? until 1915.

Muhammad Said Paku Negara was a ruler of Sanggau from 1915 until 1920.

Gusti Muhammad Tahir III Suria Negara (c.1883 - 1941) was a ruler of Sanggau from 1920 until his death in 1941.

Ade Muhammad Arif was regent of Sanggau from 1941 until 1944.

Gusti Ali was regent of Sanggau in 1945.

Gusti Muhammad Tawfik was a ruler of Sanggau from 1945 until 1960.



Sekadau

Sekadau was a state in present Indonesia

List of Rulers of Sekadau

Suto was a ruler of Sekadau from 1780 until ?

Kusuma Negara was a ruler of Sekadau from ? until 1830.

Muhammad Kamaruddin was a ruler of Sekadau from 1830 until 1861.

Mansur Kusuma Negara was a ruler of Sekadau from 1861 until 1867.

Muhammad Kusuma Negara (died July 31, 1902) was a ruler of Sekadau from 1867 until July 31, 1902.

Ahmad Seri Negara was a ruler of Sekadau from 1902 until 1910 and in 1919.

Gusti Ahmad Pangeran Nata Negara was regent of Sekadau from 1920 until 1931.

Adi Abul Murad was regent of Sekadau from 1920 until 1923.

Gusti Muhammad (died 1944) was a ruler of Sekadau from 1931 until his death in 1944.

Gusti Kelip was a ruler of Sekadau from 1944 until 1946.

Abang Kolin was a ruler of Sekadau from 1946 until around 1952.

Gusti Adenan was a ruler of Sekadau from ? until 1963.



Selimbau

Selimbau was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Pangeran from c.1650, Panembahan from 1820's) of Selimbau

Suta Muhammad Jalaluddin was a ruler of Selimbau from around 1680 until ?

Abgang Cundin Pangeran Dipa Ahmed Badruddin was a ruler of Selimbau in 18th century.

Abang Tella III Pangeran Sumo Ali Joyo Mangku Negara was a ruler of Selimbau from ? until 1820s (also ruler of Bunut c.1814 - c.1830).

Muhammad Abbas Suria Negara was a ruler of Selimbau from 1820s until 1878.

Muda Agong Muhammad Salih Paku Negara was a ruler of Selimbau from around 1878 until 1903.

Gusti Muhammad Osman (died 1923) was a ruler of Selimbau from 1903 until his death in 1923.



Silat

Silat was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Panembahan, Pangeran Ratu 1855-1916) of Silat

Titik Kesuma Negara was a ruler of Silat.

Agung Kesuma Negara was a ruler of Silat.

Achmad Kesuma Negara was a ruler of Silat in 19th century.

Anom Suria Negara was a ruler of Silat from ? until around 1847.

Negara Achman (died December 1871) was a ruler of Silat from around 1847 until his death in December 1871.

Prabu (died 1877) was a ruler of Silat from 1871 until his death in 1877.

R. Jaja was regent of Silat from 1879 until 1889.

Ratu Muda Paku Negara (Abang Mas Jaman) (c.1872 - 1923) was a ruler of Silat from 1889 until his death in 1923.



Simpang

Simpang was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Simpang

Gusti Asma Sultan Muhammad Jamaluddin I Kusumaningrat I was a ruler of Simpang from 1762 until 1819.

Gusti Mahmud Panembahan Surianingrat I was a ruler of Simpang from 1818 until 1845.

Gusti Muhammad Roem Panembahan Kusumaningrat II was a ruler of Simpang from 1845 until 1872.

Gusti Panji Panembahan Surianingrat II was a ruler of Simpang from 1872 until 1911.

Gusti Roem Panembahan Anom Kusumaningrat III was a ruler of Simpang from 1911 until 1942.

Gusti Mesir Panembahan Gusti Mesir (died 1944) was a ruler of Simpang from 1942 until 1943.

Gusti Mahmud bin Gusti Mansur was a ruler of Simpang from 1945 until 1952.

Muhammad Jamaluddin II bin Gusti Mesir (born 1936) is ceremonial ruler of Simpang since May 31, 2008.



Sintang

Sintang was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Sintang

Abang Samat Semah was a Prince of Sintang.

Abang Ismail Zubair Mail Jubairi Irawan II was a Prince of Sintang.

Abang Suruh was a Prince of Sintang.

Abang Tembilang Ari was a Prince of Sintang.

Abang Pencin Pontin, Pangeran Agung Pandeling, Pangeran of Sintang was a Prince of Sintang from around 1600 until 1643

Pangeran Tunggal was a Prince of Sintang from around 1643 until 1672.

Muhammad Shamsuddin Saidul Khairi Waddien (died October 1738) was a ruler of Sintang from May 10, 1672 until his death in April 1738.

Abdul Rahman Muhammad Jalaluddin (died October 1786) was a ruler of Sintang from 1738 until his death in October 1786.

Abdul Rashid Muhammad Jamaluddin (died July 1796) was a ruler of Sintang from 1786 until his death in July 1796.

Muhammad Qamaruddin (died 1851) was a ruler of Sintang from 1796 until his death in 1851.

Muhammad Jamaluddin (died after 1855) was regent of Sintang from 1823 until 1855.

Abdul Said (before 1842 - September 1889) was a ruler of Sintang from August 21, 1855 until his death in September 1889.

Ismail (died December 22, 1905) was a ruler of Sintang from September 1889 until his death on December 22, 1905.

Gusti Adi Abdul Majid was a ruler of Sintang from 1905 until January 16, 1913 (suspended from 1912). He was the Panembahan (in full Sri Paduka
Tuanku Gusti Adi 'Abd al-Majid Panembahan) of the Sintang traditional state 1905 - 1913. He was born as Ade Usman, the son of his predecessor Sri Paduka
Tuanku Ismail, Panembahan Kusuma Negara II Panembahan of Sintang. His mother was his father's first wife Dayang Zainab, Ratu Permaisuri. His father soon
appointed him as heir apparent (full original title Gusti Adi 'Abd al-Majid, Pangeran Ratu Adipati Kusuma Negara). Assuming the throne following the death of
his father on 22 December 1905, Usman was suspended from ruling in 1912 by the Netherlands East Indies authorities and was deposed by them on 16 January
1913 for "bad behaivour" and exiled to Bongor in Java. He died on Java after that date.

Adi Muhammad Jun Abdul Kadir (1883 – August 25, 1934) was a ruler of Sintang from January 16, 1913 until his death on August 25, 1934 (regent
until August 1913).

Muhammad Jamaluddin (1904 – June 28, 1944) was a ruler of Sintang from 1934 until his death on June 28, 1944 (temporary until November 30, 1937)

Muhammad Shamsuddin (1914 – February 12, 1947) was a ruler of Sintang from June 1944 until his death on February 12, 1947.

Ismail Shafiuddin (1914 – before 2003) was a ruler of Sintang from 1947 until 1959.

Ade Muhammad Johan was regent of Sintang from 1949 until 1959.

Muhammad Ikhsani Shafiuddin (born 1942) is ceremonial ruler of Sintang since September 17, 2003.









Suhaid

Suhaid was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Suhaid

Kiai Dipati Mangku was a ruler of Suhaid from ? until 1809.

Suma di-Loga Mangku Negara was a ruler of Suhaid from 1809 until 1879.

Kusuma Anom Suria Negara was a ruler of Suhaid from 1879 until ?


Sukadana

Sukadana was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Sukadana

Muhammad Jamluddin bin Ahmad Kamaluddin Indralaya was a ruler of Sukadana from 1790 until 1828.

Abdul Jalil Syah bin Musa was a ruler of Sukadana from 1828 until 1843.

Tunku Besar Anom bin Abdul Jalil Syah was a ruler of Sukadana from 1843 until 1878.

Tunku Putera bin Anom was a ruler of Sukadana from 1878 until 1910.

Tunku Andut was a ruler of Sukadana from 1910 until ?



Tayan

Tayan is the tradicional state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Tayan

Panembahan Nata Kusuma was a ruler of Tayan in the second half 18th century.

Ratu Suria Negara was a ruler of Tayan from ? until 1828.

Marta Suria Kusum was a ruler of Tayan from 1828 until 1854.

Anom Paku Negara Suria Kusuma was a ruler of Tayan from 1854 until 1873.

Kusuma Negara was a ruler of Tayan from 1873 until 1880.

Paku Negara Suria Kusuma was a ruler of Tayan from 1880 until 1905.

Anom Paku Negara I was a ruler of Tayan from 1905 until 1929.

Anom Adi Negara was a ruler of Tayan from 1929 until 1944.

Gusti Japar was a ruler of Tayan from 1929 until ?

Paku Negara (1923 - 1967) was a ruler of Tayan from 1945 until 1960.

Anom Paku Negara II is ceremonial ruler of Tayan since May 25, 2012.



Allah

Allah was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru/Aroa) of Allah

Manang was a ruler of Allah around 1800.

Mappa was a ruler of Allah in the first half 19th century.

Patta Mataelo was a ruler of Allah in the first half 19th century.

Mangke was a ruler of Allah in the second half 19th century.

La Taha was a ruler of Allah from around 1880 until 1900.

Kabe was a ruler of Allah from 1900 until 1909.

Lorong I (died 1913) was a ruler of Allah from 1909 until his death in 1913.

La Welio I Jina Bantl was a ruler of Allah from 1913 until 1934.

Pasanrangi was a ruler of Allah from 1934 until 1950.



Balangnipa

Balangnipa was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Balangnipa

Kabong di Tomatindo di Lekopadia was a ruler of Balangnipa from ? until 1850.

Passaleppa Ammana I Bali was a ruler of Balangnipa from 1850 until 1862.

Tomelloli Manawari was a ruler of Balangnipa from 1870 until 1871, from 1873 until 1880 and from 1885 until 1906.

Kape Tokape was a ruler of Balangnipa from 1871 until 1872.

Maradia Kape was a ruler of Balangnipa from 1872 until 1873.

Sanggariya Tonaung Anjoro was a ruler of Balangnipa from 1880 until 1885.

Laju Kakanna I Doro Tomatindo di Judda (died 1927) was a ruler of Balangnipa from 1908 until his death in 1927.

Maradia Andi Baso was a ruler of Balangnipa from 1927 until 1947 (regent until 1929).

Andi Depu (died 1987) was regent of Balangnipa from 1950 until 1957.



Banggai

Banggai is the tradicional state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Tomundo) of Banggai

Benteng Paudagar was a ruler of Banggai from 1648 until 1689.

Balantik Mbulang was a ruler of Banggai from 1689 until 1705.

Kota Abdul Gani was a ruler of Banggai from 1705 until 1728.

Bacan Abu Kasim was a ruler of Banggai from 1728 until 1753.

Mondonu Kabudo was a ruler of Banggai from 1753 until 1768.

Padongko Ansyara was a ruler of Banggai from 1768 until 1773.

Dinadat Mandaria was a ruler of Banggai from 1773 until 1809.

Galila Atondeng was a ruler of Banggai from 1809 until 1821.

Sau Tadja was a ruler of Banggai from 1821 until 1827.

Tenebak Laota was a ruler of Banggai from 1827 until 1847.

Bugis Agama was a ruler of Banggai from 1847 until 1852.

Jere Tatu Tonga was a ruler of Banggai from 1852 until 1858.

Banggai Soak was a ruler of Banggai from 1858 until 1870.

Raja Haji Labusana Nurdin was a ruler of Banggai from 1870 until 1882.

Raja Haji Abdul Aziz was a ruler of Banggai from 1882 until 1900.

Raja Haji Abdul Rahman was a ruler of Banggai from 1900 until 1922.

Raja Haji Awaluddin was a ruler of Banggai from 1925 until 1940.

Raja Nurdin Daud was a ruler of Banggai from 1940 until 1941.

Raja Haji Sjoekoeran Aminuddin Amir (1902 - 1960) was a ruler of Banggai from 1941 until 1959.

Iskandar Zaman Awaluddin (1960 – January 27, 2010) was a ceremonial ruler of Banggai from August 14, 2005 until his death on January 27, 2010.

Raja Muda Irawan Zaman Awaluddin was a ceremonial regent of Banggai since January 27, 2010.

Muhammad Fikran Ramadhan Iskandar Zaman (1993 – January 28, 2010) is ceremonial ruler of Banggai from January 27, until his death on
January 28, 2010.



Barru

Barru was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru/Aroa) of Barru

We Limpo Daeng Manurung was a ruler of Barru from 1676 until 1701.

La Mallewai was a ruler of Barru from 1701 until 1726.

Rakiyah I was a ruler of Barru from 1726 until 1751.

La Tuppa was a ruler of Barru from 1751 until 1776.

To Apasewa was a ruler of Barru from 1776 until 1815.

To Patarai was a ruler of Barru from 1815 until 1836.

Tenripadang (1833 - 1887) was a ruler of Barru from 1836 until her death in 1887.

Batari Tojo was a ruler of Barru from 1888 until 1908.

Jonjo Karaeng Lewbangparang I (c.1880 - 1955) was a ruler of Barru from 1908 until his death in 1955.


Batulapa

Batulapa was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru/Aroa) of Batulapa

Puang Baso I was a ruler of Batulapa from around 1750 until ?

We Langrungi Buttukanan was a ruler of Batulapa in the second half 18th century.

Puang Mali Conra was a ruler of Batulapa in the first half 19th century.

Semagga was a ruler of Batulapa around middle 19th century.

Puang Pondi Luwu was a ruler of Batulapa from around 1862 until 1880.

Puang Mosang Andi Baso II was a ruler of Batulapa from around 1880 until 1886.

Coma I (died 1941) was a ruler of Batulapa from 1886 until her death in 1941.

Tanri was a ruler of Batulapa from 1941 until 1950.

Puang Tarokko Padinring was a ruler of Batulapa from 1950 until 1957.




Binuang

Binuang was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Binuang

Majalekka Daeng Patompo was a ruler of Binuang from ? until 1917.

La Pa Enronge was a ruler of Binuang from 1917 until 1930.

La Matulada was a ruler of Binuang from 1930 until ?




Bone

Bone (also Boni, or Bone Saoraja) was a sultanate in the south-west peninsula of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), now part of modern-dayIndonesia. Covering an
area of 2600 km², Bone's chief town Boni, lay 130 km northeast of the city of Makassar home to the Bugispeople. Once the most powerful state of Sulawesi,
Boni came under Dutch influence in 1666 as they sought to protect themselves from neighbouring belligerent states. Boni remained under Dutch control until
1814 when the British temporarily gained power of the region, but returned to Dutch rule in 1816 by whit of the European treaties concluded on the downfall of
Napoleon. Dutch influence was increasingly resisted by the Boni however and numerous Dutch expeditions to Boni were repelled during the nineteenth century.
Boni became part of Indonesia upon the country's independence. As in other native states in Sulawesi, succession to the throne in the female line had
precedence over the male line.

List of Rajas (also styled Arumponi) of Bone

La Patau Paduka Sri Sultan Idris Azim ud-din, MatinroE-ri Nagawuleng (1672 – September 16, 1714) was a ruler of Bone from April 6, 1696 until
his death on September 16, 1714.

Bata-ri Toja Daeng Talaga Arung Timurung Datu-ri Chitta Sultana Zainab Zakiyat, MatinroE-ri Tipuluna (1687 – November 2, 1749) was
a ruler of Bone from September 16, 1714 until August 5, 1715, in January 20, 1720, from June 28, 1724 until May 10, 1738 and from December 31, 1741 until
her death on November 2, 1749.

La Padang Sajati To Apawara Paduka Sri Sultan Sulaiman ibni al-Marhum Sultan Idris Azim ud-din, MatinroE-ri Beula (1691 - 1728)
was a ruler of Bone from August 5, 1715 until January 20, 1720.

La Parappa To' Aparapu Sappewali Daeng Bonto Madanrang Karaeng Anamonjang Paduka Sri Sultan Shahab ud-din Ismail
ibni al-Marhum Sultan Idris Azim ud-din, Tumamenanga-ri Sompaopu (b. 1690 - d. 1724) was a ruler of Bone from January 20, 1720 until December
16, 1721.

Mappaurangi Karaeng Kanjilo Paduka Sri Sultan Siraj ud-din ibni al-Marhum Sultan Abdul Kadir, Tuammenang-ri-Pasi =
Tomamaliang-ri Gaukana was a ruler of Bone from December 16, 1721 until January 8, 1724.

La Panaongi To' Pawawoi Arung Mampua Karaeng Bisei Paduka Sri Sultan Abdullah Mansur ibni al-Marhum Sultan Idris
Azim ud-din, Tuammenang-ri Bisei (1693 - 1734) was a ruler of Bone from January 8, 1724 until June 28, 1724.

I-Danraja Siti Nafisah Karaeng Langelo binti al-Marhum (1729 – December 30, 1741) was a ruler of Bone from May 10, 1738 until her death in
1741.

La Mappasossong To Appaware Petta Paduka Sri Sultan Abdul Razzaq Jalal ud-din ibni al-Marhum Sultan Idris Azim ud-din,
MatinroE ri-Malimungang (died 1775) was a ruler of Bone from November 2, 1749 until his death in 1775.

La Tan-ri-tuppu Ahmad Syamsuddin, MatinroE-ri-Rompegadieng (1757 - July 22, 1812) was a ruler of Bone from June 17, 1775 until his death on July
22, 1812.

Toapatunru Arung Palakka Muhammad Ismail Mukhtasuddin, MatinroE-ri-Lalang-bata (d. 1825) was a ruler of Bone from July 22, 1812 until
his death in 1825.

I Maneeng Arun Data, MatinroE-ri-Kassi (died 1835) was a ruler of Bone from 1832 until her death in 1835.

Mapaseleeng Aru Panjielie, MatinroE-ri-Salassana (died 1845) was a ruler of Bone from 1835 until his death in 1845.

La Parereengie Arum Pungie Ahmad Salih, MatinroE-ri-Aja-benteng (died February 16, 1858) was a ruler of Bone from 1945 until his death on
February 16, 1858.

La Pamadanuka Paduka Sri Sultan, Sultan Abul-Hadi (died January 20, 1860) was a ruler of Bone from February 16, 1858 until his death on January
20, 1860.

Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseempa (died January 20, 1860) was a ruler of Bone from February 16, 1858 until his death on
January 20, 1860.

Ahmad Singkarru Rukka Arung Palakka, MatinroE-ri Lalambata (1818 - 1871) was a ruler of Bone from 1860 until his death in 1871.

I Banrie Aru Timurung, MatinroE-ri Bola Mappare'na (died 1895) was a ruler of Bone from 1871 until her death on February 17, 1895.

La Pawowoni Karaeng Segeri, MatinroE-ri Bandung (1835 - 1911) was a ruler of Bone from 1895 until November 14, 1905.

La Mapanjukki, MatinroE-ri Gowa (1884 - 1967) was a ruler of Bone from March 17, 1931 until February 1946 and from 1950 until May 21, 1960.

Andi Pabenteng, MatinroE-ri Matuju (1904 - 1968) was a ruler of Bone from June 1946 until 1950.




Bontobatu

Bontobatu was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru) of Bontobatu

La Butu was a ruler of Bontobatu from ? until 1923.

Bangon was a ruler of Bontobatu from 1923 until ?



Bungku

Bungku was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas (titled Pea Pua) of Bungku

Kacili Lamboja was a ruler of Bungku from around 1672 until ?

Sangian Kinambuga was a ruler of Bungku in the first half 18th century.

Kacili Surabi (died 1747) was a ruler of Bungku from ? until his death in 1747.

Foajianto was a ruler of Bungku from 1747 until ?

Kacili Lamboja was a ruler of Bungku in the second half 18th century.

Kacili Papa was a ruler of Bungku from ? until 1825 and from 1840 until 1848.

Ratu Boki Penesi was a ruler of Bungku in 1825.

Kacili Dongke Kombi was a ruler of Bungku from 1825 until 1840.

Kacili Sadek was a ruler of Bungku from 1848 until 1851.

Kacili Laman was a ruler of Bungku from 1851 until 1873.

Kacili Moloku was a ruler of Bungku from 1873 until 1879.

Kacili Laopeke was a ruler of Bungku from 1884 until 1907.

Putera Abdul Wahab (died 1925) was a ruler of Bungku from 1907 until 1922.

Ahmad Hadi (1884 - 1965) was a ruler of Bungku from 1925 until 1931.

Abdul Razak was a ruler of Bungku from 1931 until 1937.

Abdul Rabbi (1904 - 1974) was a ruler of Bungku from 1938 until 1950.



Cenrana

Cenrana was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Cenrana

I Noto Mangamang was a ruler of Cenrana from 1850 until 1865.

I Sabu was a ruler of Cenrana from 1865 until 1866.

Anranata was a ruler of Cenrana from 1866 until 1883.

Tandiwali was a ruler of Cenrana from 1885 until 1889.

I Merette (died May 3, 1896) was a ruler of Cenrana from 1892 until her death on May 3, 1896.

Galigu (died 1901) was a ruler of Cenrana from 1896 until his death in 1901.

I Rukalumu (died 1907) was a ruler of Cenrana from 1901 until his death in 1907.

Ma Pagiling was a ruler of Cenrana from 1907 until 1917.

Pawela E (c.1891 - 1949) was a ruler of Cenrana from 1917 until his death in 1949.



Enrekang

Enrekeng is the tradicional state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Enrekang

Pancai Tana Bunga Walie was a ruler of Enrekang from ? until 1917.

Patta Ahmad was a ruler of Enrekang from 1917 until ?

Iqbal Mustafa is cremonial ruler of Enrekang since 1998.



Gowa

List of Sultans of Gowa

Tumanurunga was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia around 1300.

Tumassalangga Baraya was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia in the first half 14th
century.

Puang Loe Lembang was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia in the first half 14th century

I Tuniatabanri was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia in the second half 14th century.

Karampang ri Gowa was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia in the second half 14th
century.

Tunatangka Lopi was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia around 1400.

Batara Gowa Tuminanga ri Paralakkenna was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia in
the second half 15th century.

Pakere Tau Tunijallo ri Passukki was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in present Indonesia in the first
half 15h century.

Daeng Matanre Karaeng Tumapa'risi' Kallonna (died 1546) was a ruler of Gowa sultanate state in the Makassar region of southwestern Sulawesi in
present Indonesia. He was reign from 1510 or 1511 until his death in 1546.

I Mappadulung Daeng Mattimung Karaeng Sanrabone Sultan Fakhruddin Abdul Jalil, Tumenanga-ri-Lakiung (1652 – September 17,
1709) was a ruler of Gowa from September 16, 1677 until his death on September 17, 1709.

La Parappa To' Aparapu Sappewali Madanrang Daeng Bonto Karaeng Anamonjang Paduka Sri Sultan Shahabuddin Ismail,
Tumenanga-ri-Sompaopu (1690 - 1724) was a ruler of Gowa from September 18, 1709 until August 30, 1712.

I Mappaurangi Karaeng Kanjilo Paduka Sri Sultan Sirajuddin, Tuammenang-ri-Pasa (1687 – January 22, 1739) was a ruler of Gowa from August
31, 1712 until his death on January 22, 1739.

I Malawangau Sultan Abdul Khair al-Mansur Shah, Tumenanga-ri-Gowa (1727 – July 28, 1742) was a ruler of Gowa from January 1739 until his
death on July 28, 1742.

I Mappaba'basa Sultan Abdul Kudus, Tumenanga-ri-Kala'birana (1733 – December 21, 1753) was a ruler of Gowa from July 28, 1742 until his death
on December 21, 1753.

Karaeng Batara Gowa II Amas Madina Patti Mathari Sultan Usman Fakhruddin, Tumenanga-ri-Silung (1749 - 1795) was a ruler of Gowa
from December 1753 until April 14, 1767.

I Malisujawa Daeng Riboko Arung Mampu Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin, Tumenanga-ri-Tompo'balang (died February 15, 1769) was a
ruler of Gowa from 1767 until his death on February 15, 1769.

I Makaraeng Karaeng Tamasangang Karaeng Katangka Sultan Zainuddin, Tumenanga-ri-Matawangang (1722 - 1778) was a ruler of Gowa
from 1769 until June 15, 1777.

Sankilang (died 1785) was a ruler of Gowa from 1777 until 1881.

I Mannawarri Karaeng Bontolangkasa (later Karaeng Mangasa Sultan Abdul Hadi) (1746 – May 7, 1810) was a ruler of Gowa from October 16, 1781
until his death on May 7, 1810.
Karaeng Pangkajene Abdul Khalik was a ruler of Gowa from 1810 until 1814.

I Mappatunru (later I Manginyarang Karaeng Lembangparang, Tumenanga-ri-Katangka (1749 - 1825) was a ruler of Gowa from 1814 until his death in 1825.

La Oddanriu Karaeng Katangka, Tumenanga-ri-Suangga (died 1845) was a ruler of Gowa in 1825.

I Kumala Karaeng Lembangparang Sultan Abdul Kadir Muhammad Aidid, Tumenanga-ri-Kakoa-sangna (1817 – January 30, 1893) was a
ruler of Gowa from September 1, 1825 until his death on January 1893.

Karaeng Berowangang Mahmud was regent of Gowa from September 1, 1825 until October 22, 1845.

I Mallingkaang Daeng Nyonri Karaeng Katangka Sultan Idris, Tumananga-ri-Kalabbiranna (died May 18, 1895) was a ruler of Gowa from
January 30, 1893 until his death on May 18, 1895.

I Makkulau Daeng Serang Karaeng Lembangparang Sultan Husain, Tumenanga-ri-Bunduna (died April 13, 1906) was a ruler of Gowa from
1895 until his death on April 13, 1906.

I Mangimangi Daeng Mattutu Karaeng Bontonompo Sultan Muhammad Tahir Muhibuddin, Tumenanga-ri-Sungguminasa (died April
20, 1946) was a ruler of Gowa from November 30, 1936 until his death on April 20, 1946.

Andi Ijo Daeng Mattawang Karaeng Lalolang Sultan Muhammad Abdul Kadir Aidid (1903 – July 1, 1978) was a ruler of Gowa from
1946 until July 1, 1960.

Andi Kumala Karaeng Sila Aiduddin (born 1959) is ceremonial ruler of Gowa since 1978.

Andi Maddusila (born around 1957) is ceremonial ruler of Gowa since January 18, 2011 (in opposition).



Kasa

Kasa was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru/Aroa) of Kasa

Samang (died March 25, 1897) was a ruler of Kasa from 1880 until his death on March 25, 1897.

I Buabara was a ruler of Kasa from 1897 until October 9, 1940.

Andi Coppo (died March 1, 1952) was regent of Kasa from October 24, 1936 until October 9, 1940 and ruler of Kasa from October 9, 1940 until his death
on March 1, 1952.

Dirman Toro Puang Larung was a ruler of Kasa from 1952 until 1960.



Luwu

The Kingdom of Luwu (also Luwuq or Wareq) is the oldest kingdom in South Sulawesi in present Indonesia. In 1889, the Dutch Governor of Makassarplaced
Luwu‘s heyday between the tenth and fourteenth centuries AD, but offered no evidence. The La Galigo, an epic poem in an archaic form of the Bugis language,
is the likely source of Braam Morris‘ dating. The La Galigo depicts a vaguely defined world of coastal and riverine kingdoms whose economies are based on
trade. The important centers of this world are Luwu and the kingdom of Cina (pronounced Cheena but identical in Indonesian pronunciation to China), which
lay in the western Cenrana valley, with its palace centre near the hamlet of Sarapao in Pamanna district. The incompatibility of the La Galigo‘s society and
political economy with the reality of the Bugis agricultural kingdoms led Bugis historians to propose an intervening period of chaos to separate the two
chronologically.
[1]
Archaeological and textual research carried out since the 1980s has undermined this chronology. Extensive surveys and excavations in Luwu
have revealed that it is no older than the earliest agricultural kingdoms of the southwest peninsula. The new understanding is that Bugis speaking settlers from the
western Cénrana valley began to settle along the coastal margins around the year AD 1300. The Gulf of Bone is not a Bugis-speaking area: it is a thinly populated
region of great ethnic diversity. Speakers of Pamona, Padoe, Toala,Wotu and Lemolang languages live on the coastal lowlands and foothills, while the highland
valleys are home to groups speaking various other Central and South Sulawesi languages. The Bugis are found almost solely along the coast, to which they have
evidently migrated in order to trade with Luwu‘s indigenous peoples. It is clear both from archaeological and textual sources that Luwu was a Bugis-led coalition
of various ethnic groups, united by trading relationships.

List of Rulers (title Pajong, also styled Datu) of Luwu

Dewaraja was a ruler of Luwu from 1495 until 1520. The first ruler for which we have any real information was Dewaraja. Stories current today in South
Sulawesi tell of his aggressive attacks on the neighboring kingdoms of Wajo and Sidenreng. Luwu‘s power was eclipsed in the sixteenth century by the rising
power of the southern agrarian kingdoms, and its military defeats are set out in the Chronicle of Bone.

La Patiwareq, Daeng Pareqbung was a ruler of Luwu from in the first half 17th century. On February 4 or 5, 1605, Luwu‘s ruler, La Patiwareq, Daeng
Pareqbung, became the first South Sulawesi ruler to embrace Islam, taking as his title Sultan Muhammad Wali Mu‘z‘hir (or Muzahir) al–din. He is buried at
Malangke and is referred to in the chronicles as Matinroe ri Wareq, ‗He who sleeps at Wareq‘, the former palace–centre of Luwuq. His religious teacher, Dato
Sulaiman, is buried nearby.

La Tan-ri-Leleang Maesa Mahatuddin, MatinroE-ri-Soreang was a ruler of Luwu from ? until 1809.

La Tan-ri-Pappang Abdullah, MatinroE-ri-Sabamparu was a ruler of Luwu in 1809.

We Tan-ri-Awaru, MatinroE-ri-Palopo was a ruler of Luwu from 1810 until 1826.

La Oddanriu Ande Baru was a ruler of Luwu from 1826 until 1860.

Abdul Karin To Barue, MatinroE-ri-Limpomajang was a ruler of Luwu from 1860 until 1880.

Opu Anrong Guru, MatinroE-ri-Tamalulu was a ruler of Luwu from 1880 until 1883.

Iskandar Aru Larompong was a ruler of Luwu from 1883 until 1898.

We Kambo Daeng Risompa was a ruler of Luwu from 1898 until 1935.

Andi Jemma Baru (died 1965) was a ruler of Luwu from 1936 until 1946 and from 1949 until 1957.

Andi Jelling was a ruler of Luwu from 1946 until 1949.

Andi Iwan Alamsyah Bau Djemma Baru is ceremonial ruler of Luwu since 2006.



Maiwa

Maiwa is the tradicional state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru; from 2012, Arung) of Maiwa

La Calo was a ruler of Maiwa from around 1864 until 1890.

La Pakanteng Muhammad Ali was a ruler of Maiwa from 1890 until 1905 and from July 17, 1907 until 1909.

La Sapewali was a ruler of Luwu from 1905 until July 16, 1907.

La Poli Andi Suwa was regent of Luwu from January 1909 until March 17, 1910.

La Coke was a ruler of Luwu from 1910 until 1913.

La Sini (died August 18, 1918) was a ruler of Luwu from December 3, 1913 until his death on August 18, 1920.

La Naki was a ruler of Luwu from 1918 until 1920.

La Cori was a ruler of Luwu from 1920 until October 30, 1925.

La Oga was a ruler of Luwu from 1925 until 1926.

La Ori was regent of Luwu in 1926.

La Sassu was a ruler of Luwu from 1927 until 1950 (regent until 1928).

Andi Amang is ceremonial ruler of Luwu since December 20, 2012.



Majene

Majene was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Maradia) of Majene

I Nimbang was a ruler of Majene from around 1830 until around 1840.

I Nyarring was a ruler of Majene from around 1840 until ?

La Tenribali Tomate Puabang was a ruler of Majene from ? until 1867.

Sanggaria was a ruler of Majene from 1867 until 1874.

Sangkilang (died 1889) was a ruler of Majene from December 1874 until his death in 1889.

I Juara was a ruler of Majene from 1892 until July 1907.

Rammang Pata Lolo was a ruler of Majene from 1907 until 1950.

Andi Tonra was a ruler of Majene from 1950 until 1960.

Bupati was a ruler of Majene from 1960 until 1962.



Malua (Maluwa)

Malua (Maluwa) was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru/Aroa) of Malua (Maluwa)

Patta Duri was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) from around 1750 until ?

Patta Salassa was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) in the second half 18th century.

Tandil was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) in the late 18th century and early 19th century.

Sira was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) in the first half 19th century.

Silassa was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) in the first half 19th century.

Patta Siratang was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) around middle 19th century.

Assang (Talundu) was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) from ? until 1890.

La Gali (died January 22, 1917) was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) from 1890 until his death on January 22, 1917.

La Parrang was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) from August 29, 1917 until November 12, 1934.

Tambone was a ruler of Malua (Maluwa) from November 22, 1934 until around 1950 (temporary until May 29, 1936)/


Malusetasi (Nepo)

Malusetasi (Nepo) was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Aru) of Malusetasi (Nepo)

I Samatana (died 1917) was a ruler of Malusetasi (Nepo) from 1906 until her death in 1917.

I Makung (died 1932) was a ruler of Malusetasi (Nepo) from 1917 until his death in 1932.

Andi Calo was a ruler of Malusetasi (Nepo) from 1932 until 1950.



Mamuju

Mamuju was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Maradia) of Mamuju

Ammana Komba was a ruler of Mamuju from around 1820 until 1840.

Tomappelei Kasu Ditana was a ruler of Mamuju from around 1840 until 1860.

Panre was a ruler of Mamuju from around 1860 until 1870.

Nai Latang was a ruler of Mamuju from around 1870 until 1890.

Na E Sukur (died 1895) was a ruler of Mamuju from around 1890 until his death in 1895.

Karanene was a ruler of Mamuju from 1895 until 1908.

Jalala Amana Inda (1875 - 1950) was a ruler of Mamuju from 1908 until his death in 1950.


Mori

Mori was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Makole) of Mori

Anamba Marundoh V was a ruler of Mori from 1670 until 1730.

Marundoh VI (Sungkawawo II) was a ruler of Mori from 1730 until ?

Mohi Marunduh VII was a ruler of Mori in the second half 18th century.

Ngarindi Marunduh VIII was a ruler of Mori in early 19th century.

Lawolio Marunduh IX was a ruler of Mori from ? until 1840.

Makole Tosaleko Marunduh X was a ruler of Mori from 1840 until 1870.

Makole Datu ri Tana Marunduh XI (died August 17, 1907) was a ruler of Mori from 1870 until his death on August 17, 1907.

Kamasi Ede Marunduh XII was a ruler of Mori from 1907 until 1928.

Owolu Marunduh XIII (1875 - 1950) was a ruler of Mori from 1928 until 1942 and from 1945 until 1949.

Besau Marunduh XIV was a ruler of Mori from 1942 until 1945.

Pirau Marunduh was acting ruler of Mori from 1949 until 1950.

Mainda Rumampuo Marunduh XV was a ruler of Mori from 1950 until 1957.



Palu

Palu was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Magau) of Palu

Pue Nggari (Siralangi) was a ruler of Palu from 1796 until 1805.

I Datu Labungulili was a ruler of Palu from 1805 until 1815.

Malasigi Bulupalo was a ruler of Palu from 1815 until 1826.

Daelangi was a ruler of Palu from 1826 until 1835.

Yololembah was a ruler of Palu from 1835 until 1850.

Muhammad Lamakaraka was a ruler of Palu from 1850 until 1868.

Maili (Mangge Risa) was a ruler of Palu from 1868 until 1888.

Jodjokodi was a ruler of Palu from 1888 until 1906.

Parampasi Tomesiema was a ruler of Palu from 1906 until 1921.

Janggola (died 1946) was a ruler of Palu from 1921 until his death in 1946.

Tjatjo Idjazah was a ruler of Palu from 1949 until 1960.









Pambauang

Pambaung was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Pambaung

Madusila was a ruler of Pambaung from around 1845 until 1850 and from 1860 until 1866.

Jalangkara Cenrana was a ruler of Pambaung from 1850 until 1855.

I Latta was a ruler of Pambaung from 1888 until 1907.

Simanangi Pakarama (died 1920) was a ruler of Pambaung from 1907 until his death in 1920.

Andi Batari was a ruler of Pambaung from 1920 until 1934.

Tonri Lipu was a ruler of Pambaung from 1934 until 1952.



Rapang

Rapang was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Arung) of Rapang

La Tenri Tatta was a ruler of Rapang from 1681 until around 1700.

La Toware was a ruler of Rapang from 1700 until 1770.

We Tenri Paonang was a ruler of Rapang from around 1770 until around 1800.

La Pabittei was a ruler of Rapang from around 1800 until around 1830.

We Madditana was a ruler of Rapang from around 1830 until around 1860.

We Bangki was a ruler of Rapang from around 1860 until around 1870.

La Panguriseng was a ruler of Rapang from around 1870 until 1889.

La Sadapotto was a ruler of Rapang from 1889 until 1906.

We Tenri Fatimah (died 1951) was a ruler of Rapang from 1906 until around 1942.

Pampawa Ade was a ruler of Rapang from 1942 until around 1951.



Sanrabone (Sanrobone)

Sanrabone (Sanrobone) was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Karaeng) of Sanrabone (Sanrobone)

I Mappadulung Daeng Mattimung Karaeng Abdul Jalil (died September 17, 1709) was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from July 6, 1667 until
his death on September 17, 1709. He was also Sultan of Gowa from 1677 until 1709.

I Yatatojeng Karaeng Bontomajannang was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from September 18, 1709 until 1710.

Lau Pakanna Karaeng Pangkajene was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from 1710 until Januart 23, 1725.

Garassi was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from January 23, 1725 until ?

Tumenanga III ri Masigi'na was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) during 1730s.

Tumenanga IV Mamampang ri Sanrabne (1662 - 1742) was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from ? until his death in 1742.

Tumenanga V I Pammusurang was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from 1742 until around 1763.

Tumenanga VI ri La Guruda was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) in the second half 18th century.

La Patau was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) in the second half 18th century.

I Memang Karaeng Bulu-Bulu was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) in the first half 19th century.

I Bantang Daeng Ngilau Tumenanga VII ri Kabara'na was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) in the first half 19th century.

I Guntutu Datu Lulu was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from ? until 1838.

I Pamusurang Daeng Pabeta was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from 1838 until 1860.

I Yusuf Daeng Ropu was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) in 1860.

I Baso Daeng Nyengka Patombong Karaenga Campagaya (died 1916) was a ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) from 1860 until 1867 (regent from
1865).

Andi Ali Malongbasang is ceremonial ruler of Sanrabone (Sanrobone) since July 25, 2008.



Sawito

Sawito was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Adatuwang) of Sawito

La Patau was a ruler of Sawito from around 1730 until 1770.

La Kuning Ahmad was a ruler of Sawito from around 1770 until 1820.

Fatimah Daeng Matene was a ruler of Sawito from 1820 until 1824.

La Cebu was a ruler of Sawito from around 1825 until 1870.

Pasule Daeng Bulaeng was a ruler of Sawito from 1870 until 1886.

Palagau Aru Patojo (died 1902) was a ruler of Sawito from 1886 until his death in 1902.

Andi Tama was a ruler of Sawito from 1902 until 1922.

I Ba Eda (La Beda) was a ruler of Sawito from 1922 until 1940.

Andi Tenri Fatimah was a ruler of Sawito from 1940 until 1951.

Andi Calo was regent of Sawito from 1942 until 1950.

Bau Rukiah was a ruler of Sawito from 1951 until 1957.


Alita

Alita was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Adatuwang) of Alita

Patta Lacalabai was a ruler of Alita in the first half 19th century.

Aru Anipong was a ruler of Alita from ? until 1861.

We Tan-ri-Padarang was a ruler of Alita from 1861 until 1902.

La Pangorisang was a ruler of Alita from 1902 until 1905.

La Bonde Jaraeng-ri Jampu E was a ruler of Alita from 1905 until 1908.



Selayar

Selayar was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Pangeran) of Selayar

Nata Diraja I was a Selayar from around 1694 until November 4, 1710.

Intan Ali was a Selayar from 1710 until 1720.

Nata Diraja II was a Selayar from 1720 until 1762.

Nata Diraja III was a Selayar from 1762 until 1765.

Nata Diraja IV was a Selayar from 1765 until 1831.

Nata Diraja V was a Selayar from 1831 until 1864.



Sidenreng

Sidenreng was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Adatuwang) of Sidenreng

La Tenri Tatta was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1681 until around 1700.

La Mallewai was a ruler of Sidenreng from around 1700 until ?

Bau Rukiyah was a ruler of Sidenreng in the first half 18th century.

Taranatie was a ruler of Sidenreng from ? until 1760.

Towappo Abdullah was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1760 until 1824.

Lapawowoi Ali Albenu Abdul Hakim was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1824 until 1837.

Muhammad Ait LKa Pangorisang was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1837 until 1889.

Sumanga Rukka was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1889 until 1904.

La Sadapotto was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1904 until 1906.

La Cibo was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1906 until 1942 and from 1945 until 1849.

La Sikandare Petta Karaeng Pajujungi Arung ri Amparita (died 1961) was a ruler of Sidenreng from 1950 until March 13, 1957.

Andi Patiroi Pawicanggi is ceremonial ruler of Sidenreng since December 20, 2012.




Soppeng

Soppeng was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas (also styled Datuk/Datin) of Soppeng

La Tenrisenge Towesa was a ruler of Soppeng from 1676 until 1691 and from 1705 until 1707.

We Adda was a ruler of Soppeng from 1691 until 1705.

La Patau (1672 - 1714) was a ruler of Soppeng from 1707 until his death in 1714.

La Padang Sajati was a ruler of Soppeng from 1714 until 1720 and from 1724 until 1727.

La Parappa was a ruler of Soppeng from 1720 until 1724.

Batari Toja was a ruler of Soppeng from 1728 until 1738.

La Mappasossong was a ruler of Soppeng from 1738 until 1749.

Ark Panjili was a ruler of Soppeng from 1749 until 1758.

La Mappajanci was a ruler of Soppeng from 1758 until 1782.

La Onrong Noah Datuk Patiro, MatinroE-ri-Amalawa (1757 - 1820) was a ruler of Soppeng from 1782 until his death in 1820.

Wa Tan-ri-a-Wani Aru Lapajung, MatinroE-ri-Barugana was a ruler of Soppeng from 1820 until 1828.

Datuk Patiro was a ruler of Soppeng from 1828 until 1838.

La Onrong Datuk Lampula was a ruler of Soppeng from 1838 until 1848.

Aru Senkang Nenena I Calla To Lampeeng was a ruler of Soppeng from 1848 until 1865.

Abdul Gani Baso Batu Pute was a ruler of Soppeng from 1865 until 1895.

Siettie Saenaba Aru Lapanjung was a ruler of Soppeng from 1897 until December 21, 1940.

Andi Wana (died 1959) was a ruler of Soppeng from December 21, 1940 until his death in 1959.



Soppengriaja

Soppengriaja was the state in present Indonesia

List of Rulers (title Datuk) of Soppengriaja

Basso Patta Bau Lampoko was a ruler of Soppengriaja in Balusu from ? until 1906.

La Tobo Patta Lenrang (died August 19, 1920) was a ruler of Soppengiraja in Kiru from ? until 1906 and ruler of Soppengriaja from 1906 until his death
on August 19, 1920.

La Maddiawe was a ruler of Soppengriaja from 1920 until February 18, 1932.

Yusuf was a ruler of Soppengriaja from 1932 until 1950.



Supa (Ajataparang)

Supa (Ajataparang) was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Datuk) of Supa (Ajataparang)

La Toware was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1681 until around 1700.

La Pamessangi was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) in the first half 18th century.

La Sangka was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) in the second half 18th century.

La Kuning Ahmad (died 1820) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from ? until his death in 1820.

La Tenri (La Bampe) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1820 until 1830.

I Towakka Arung Kalibong was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1830 until 1855.

La Cebu was regent of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1855 until 1860.

Bassee Kajuwara Hadie Abel Hadie Pelai-eengi Paseempa (around 1805 - 1881) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1860 until his death in
1861.

I Madellung (died 1900) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1881 until his death in 1900.

Andi Mappanjuki (1884 - 1967) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1902 until 1905.

La Parerengi Karaeng Tinggimae (died 1926) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1905 until his death in 1926.

Andi La Makassau (c.1883 - 1947) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1926 until 1938.

Andi Abdullah Bau Maseppe (c.1915 -1947) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1938 until his death in 1947.

Andi Cinta (died 1950) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1947 until his death in 1950.

I Suji Karaeng Kajene (died 1992) was a ruler of Supa (Ajataparang) from 1950 until 1959.









Tallo

Tallo was a Sultanate in present Indonesia.

List of Sultans of Tallo

Abdul Kadir I, Tumenanga-ri-Passiringanna (1666 – January 8, 1709) was a ruler of Tallo from June 16, 1673 until his death on January 8, 1709.

Sirajuddin, Tomamaliang-ri-Gaukana (1687 - 1739) was a ruler of Tallo from 1709 until November 18, 1714 and from 1729 until November 5, 1735.

Nazimuddin, Tumenanga-ri-Jawaiya was a ruler of Tallo from November 18, 1714 until 1729.

Safiuddin, I-Makkasuma (1709 - 1760) was a ruler of Tallo from November 5, 1735 until his death in 1760.

Karaeng Sapanang Tu-Timoka was a ruler of Tallo from 1760 until 1761.

Abdul Kadir II, Tumenanga-ri-Buttana (1707 – April 6, 1767) was a ruler of Tallo from 1761 until his death on April 6, 1767.

Sittie Saleh I (1726 - 1778) was a ruler of Tallo from 1767 until June 1, 1777.

Sittie Saleh II, Tumenanga-ri-Kanatojenna (died May 1824) was a ruler of Tallo from August 2, 1780 until his death in May 1824.

Abdul Rauf, Tumenanga-ri-Katangka (1749 - 1825) was a ruler of Tallo from 1824 until his death in 1825.

Abdul Kadir Muhammad Aidid, Tumenanga-ri-Kakoa-sangna (1817 - 1893) was a ruler of Tallo in 1825.

Abdul Rahman, Tumenanga-ri-Suangga (died 1845) was a ruler of Tallo from 1825 until his death in 1845.

Sittie Aisya, Tumenanga-ri-Bontomanai (died 1850) was a ruler of Tallo from 1845 until his death in 1850.

La Makka Daeng Parani was a ruler of Tallo from 1850 until April 16, 1856.




Tanette

Tanette was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Datuk) of Tannete

Puange was a ruler of Tannete from 1547 until ?

Datu Gollaya Lamarumpia was a ruler of Tannete in second half 16th century.

Topalannyari was a ruler of Tannete in early 17th century.

Lamamula Daeng Limba was a ruler of Tannete in the first half 17th century.

Daeng Ibrahim was a ruler of Tannete in the second half 17th century.

Mapatjantji Daeng Matayan was a ruler of Tannete from around 1677 until 1716.

We Pattekketana was a ruler of Tannete from 1716 until 1735.

La Odanriu Yusuf Fakhruddin was a ruler of Tannete from 1735 until 1747.

We Tenrileleang, MatinroE-ri-Soreang was a ruler of Tannete from 1747 until 1776.

Abdul Kadir Muhieddin, MatinroE-ri-Dusang was a ruler of Tannete from 1776 until 1807.

Abdullah Saipu Aru Pancana La Patua (died 1844) was a ruler of Tannete from 1807 until 1824, from 1824 until 1825 and from 1827 until 1840.

Daturincita was regent of Tannete from 1807 until 1814.

Daeng Tanisang was a ruler of Tannete in 1824 and from 1825 until 1827.

Datuk Mario Larumpang Lacombong, MatinroE-ri-Mutiara was a ruler of Tannete from 1840 until 1855.

We Tan-ri-Olle was a ruler of Tannete from 1855 until 1910.

I Pancaitana Aru Pancana (1859 – June 16, 1926) was a ruler of Tannete from 1910 until her death on June 16, 1926.

I Pateka Tana was regent of Tannete from 1926 until 1927.

Andi Baso was regent of Tannete from 1927 until 1950.

Andi Iskandar was a ruler of Tannete from 1950 until 1960.



Tapalang

Tapalang was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Maradia) of Tapalang

Gunung was a ruler of Tapalang from around 1830 until 1850.

Tomappelei Asuginna was a ruler of Tapalang from 1850 until 1860.

Puwa Caco Tomanggang Gagallang Patta-ri Malunda was a ruler of Tapalang from 1860 until 1867.

Na E Sukur was a ruler of Tapalang from 1867 until 1889.

Pabanari Daeng Natonga was a ruler of Tapalang from 1889 until 1892.

Andi Musa Paduwa Limba (died 1920) was a ruler of Tapalang from 1892 until 1908.

Bustari Patani Lantang was a ruler of Tapalang from 1908 until 1934.

Pattana Pantang Abdal Havid was a ruler of Tapalang from 1934 until 1936.



Tolitoli (Toli Toli)

Tolitoli (Toli Toli) was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (titla Raja) of Tolitoli (Toli Toli)

Daeng Bone (Apone) was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1737 until 1752.

Mulana Muhammad Nurdin was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1752 until ?

Tumente (Mente) was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) around 1772.

Jamalul Alam Bantilan was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from around 1800 until around 1812.

Yusuf Malatuang Syaful Mulk was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from around 1812 until 1856.

Bantilan Syaifuddin was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from July 5, 1858 until 1867.

Abdul Hamid Bantilan (died 1905) was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1867 until his vdeath in 1905.

Ismail was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1905 until 1918.

Ali was regent of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1918 until 1919.

I Busuna was regent of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1918 until 1919.

Muhammad Sirajuddin was regent of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1918 until 1919.

Jali Muhammad Salih was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1919 until 1926.

Muhammad Yahya Bantilan (died after 1960) was a ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1926 until 1929 and from 1944 until 1946 and from January 12,
1957 until his death in 1960.

Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz (died 1946) was reent of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1926 until 1929.

Matata Daeng Masese (died 1942) was regent of Tolitoli (Toli Toli) from 1929 until 1942.

Muhammad Anwar Bantilan (born 1934) is ceremonial ruler of Tolitoli (Toli Toli)since 2000.




Wajo

Wajo was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Batara Wajo) of Wajo

La Pariwusi was a ruler of Wajo from 1679 until 1699.

La Tenriessu was a ruler of Wajo from 1699 until 1701.

La Matone To Sakke was a ruler of Wajo from 1701 until 1702.

La Galigo To Suni was a ruler of Wajo from 1702 until 1711.

La Tenriwerrung was a ruler of Wajo from 1711 until 1713.

La Salewangeng To Tenrirua was a ruler of Wajo from 1713 until 1736.

La Madukellang Arung Singkang Arung Peneki (died 1756) was a ruler of Wajo from 1736 until 1754.

La Madanaca Arung Waetuo was a ruler of Wajo from 1754 until 1755.

La Passaung Puanna La Omo' was a ruler of Wajo from 1758 until 1761.

La Mappajung Ranreng was a ruler of Wajo from 1764 until 1767.

La Malliwungeng to Allewoang was a ruler of Wajo from 1767 until 1770.

La Mallaleleng was a ruler of Wajo from 1795 until 1817.

La Mamang Towapamadeng Puangna Raden Gallo was a ruler of Wajo from 1821 until 1825.

La Paddangeng Puangna Padaguna was a ruler of Wajo from 1839 until 1845.

La Pawellangi PajungperoE Datu-ri-Akkajeng was a ruler of Wajo from 1854 until 1859.

La Cincing, MatinroE-ri-Cappagalung was a ruler of Wajo from 1859 until 1885.

La Koro Arung Padali was a ruler of Wajo from 1887 until 1891.

La Passamula' Datuk Lampulle was a ruler of Wajo from 1892 until 1897.

Ishak Manggabarani Karaeng Mangeppe was a ruler of Wajo from February 11, 1900 until December 19, 1916.

La Oddang Datuk Larompong was a ruler of Wajo from December 22, 1926 until January 14, 1933.

Andi Mangkona Datuk Maro Riwawo was a ruler of Wajo from April 23, 1933 until November 21, 1949.




Butung (Buton)

Butung (Buton) was a state in present Indonesia. Buton (also Butung or Boeton), is an island in Indonesia located off the southeast peninsula of Sulawesi. In the
precolonial era, the island, then usually known as Butung, was within the sphere of influence of Ternate. Especially in the sixteenth century it served as an
important secondary regional center within the Ternaten empire, controlling regional trade and collecting tribute to be sent to Ternate. Sultan Murhum, the first
Islamic monarch on the island, is remembered in the name of the island's major harbor, Murhum Harbor, in Baubau.

List of Sultans of Butung (Buton)

La Dini Sultan Syaifuddin was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1695 until 1702.

La Rabaenga Sultan Syaiful Rijali was a ruler of Butung (Buton) in 1702.

La Sadaha Sultan Syamsuddin was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1702 until 1709.

La Ubi Sultan Nasiruddin was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1709 until 1711.

La Tumparasi Sultan Muzhirudddin Abdul Rasyid was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1711 until 1712.

Langkairiri Sultan Sakiyuddin Darul Alam was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1712 until 1750.

La Karambau Sultan Himayatuddin Muhammad Saidi was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1750 until 1752 and from 1760 until 1763.

La Hamim Sultan Sakiyuddin (died 1759) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1752 until his death in 1759.

La Maani Sultan Rafiuddin (died 1760) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1759 until his death in 1760.

La Jampi Sultan Kaimuddin IV was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1763 until 1788.

La Masalomu Sultan Alimuddin was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1788 until 1791.

La Kopuru Sultan Muhyuddin Abdul Gafur was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1791 until 1799.

La Badaru Sultan Dayanu Azaruddin was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1799 until 1822.

La Dani Sultan Muhammad Anharuddin was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1822 until 1823.

La Ode Muhammad Aidrus Sultan Muhammad Aidrus Kaimuddin V was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1824 until 1851.

La Ode Muhammad Isa Sultan Muhammad Isa Kaimuddin VI (died June 24, 1871) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1851 until his death on
June 24, 1871.

La Ode Muhammad Salih Sultan Muhammad Salih Kaimuddin VII (died June 16, 1886) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1871 until his
death on June 16, 1886.

La Ode Muhammad Umar Sultan Muhammad Umar Kaimuddin VIII was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1886 until September 1904.

Muhammad Asikin (died 1911) was regent of Butung (Buton) from September 1904 until 1906.

La Ode Muhammad Muhammad Asikin Sultan Muhammad Adil Rahim was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1906 until July 16, 1911

La Ode Muhammad Husaini Sultan Dayanu Ihsana Kaimuddin IX (died December 4, 1913) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1912 until
his death on December 4, 1913.

Sapati Abdul Latif was regent of Butung (Buton) from 1913 until October 27, 1915.

La Ode Muhammad Ali Sultan Muhammad Ali Kaimuddin X (died March 4, 1921) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1915 until his death on
March 4, 1921.

La Ode Muhammad Syafiul Sultan Muhammad Syafiul Anaami Kaimuddin XI was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1922 until 1924.

La Ode Falihi Kaimuddin XIII (died 1960) was regent of Butung (Buton) in 1924 and ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1937 until 1959.

La Ode Hamidi Sultan Muhammad Hamidi Kaimuddin XII (died 1937) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1924 until his death in 1937.

La Ode Manarfa Khalifatul Kaimuddin XIV (1919 - 2006) was a ruler of Butung (Buton) from 1959 until 1960.

La Ode Muhammad Izat Manarfa (born 1946) is ceremonial regent of Butung (Buton) from November 2006 until May 25, 2012 and ceremonial ruler
of Butung (Buton) since August 23, 2013.

La Ode Muhammad Djafar Hibli (born 1960) was a ceremonial ruler of Butung (Buton) from May 25, 2012 until 2013.



Muna

Muna was the state in Indonesia.

List of Rajas (from 1915, Swapraja) of Muna

La Ode Abdul Rahman Tughu Raja Sugi Sangia Latugho was a ruler of Muna from 1671 until 1716.

La Ode Huseini Raja Omputo Sangia was a ruler of Muna from 1716 until 1757.

La Ode Muhammad Ali was regent of Muna in 1757.

La Ode Kentu Koda Raja Omputo Kantolalo was a ruler of Muna from 1757 until 1764.

La Ode Umara Harisi Raja Omputo Nigege was a ruler of Muna from 1764 until ?

La Ode Murusali Raja Sangia Gola was a ruler of Muna in the second half 18th century.

La Ode Tumawu was a ruler of Muna in the second half 18th century.

La Ode Ngkumabusi was a ruler of Muna in the second half 18th century.

La Ode Sumali Raja Omputo Nisombo was a ruler of Muna from ? until 1799.

La Ode Wita was a ruler of Muna from 1799 until 1830.

La Ode Saete Raja Sorano Masigi was a ruler of Muna from 1816 until 1830.

La Ode Malai was a ruler of Muna in 1830.

La Ode Bulae Raja Sangia Laghada was a ruler of Muna from 1830 until 1861.

La Aka was regent of Muna from 1861 until 1864.

La Ode Muhammad Ali was a ruler of Muna from 1861 until 1883.

La Ode Ngkali (died 1909) was a ruler of Muna from 1883 until 1900.

La Ode Achmad Maktubu was a ruler of Muna from 1900 until 1905 and from 1906 until 1914.

La Ode Umara was regent of Muna from 1905 until 1906.

La Ode Afiuddin (died 1924) was a ruler of Muna from 1915 until 1922.

La Ode Rere was a ruler of Muna from 1926 until 1928.

La Ode Dika was a ruler of Muna from 1930 until 1938.

La Ode Pandu (died 1956) was a ruler of Muna from 1947 until his death in 1956.



Ternate

Ternate was the state in Indonesia. Ternate and neighbouring Tidore were the world's major producer of cloves upon which their rulers became among the
wealthiest and most powerful sultans in the Indonesian region. Much of their wealth, however, was wasted fighting each other. Up until the Dutchcompleted the
colonization of Maluku in the 19th century, the sultans of Ternate ruled empires that claimed at least nominal influence as far as Ambon, Sulawesi and Papua.
The peak of Ternate's power came near the end of the sixteenth century, under Sultan Baabullah, when it had influence over most of the eastern part of
Sulawesi, the Ambon and Seram area, and parts of Papua. It engaged in fierce competition for control of its periphery with the nearby sultanate of Tidore.
According to historian Leonard Andaya, Ternate's "dualistic" rivalry with Tidore is a dominant theme in the early history of the Maluku Islands. In part as a result
of its trade-dependent culture, Ternate was one of the earliest places in the region to which Islam spread, probably coming from Java in the late 15th century.
Initially, the faith was restricted to Ternate's small ruling family, and spread only slowly to the rest of the population.

List of Sultans (also styled Kolano Maloko) of Ternate

Said Fathullah (1657 – December 8, 1714) was a ruler of Ternate from April 27, 1689 until his death on December 8, 1714.

Amir Iskandar Zulkarnain Saifuddin (1680 – December 8, 1751) was a ruler of Ternate from 1714 until his death on December 8, 1751.

Binayatullah al-Malik ul-Manab Amir Iskandar Alauddin Mansur Shah III (1691 – August 24, 1754) was a ruler of Ternate from 1751 until
his death on August 24, 1754.

Amir Iskandar Muda Shah (1692 - 1763) was a ruler of Ternate from 1754 until his death in 1763.

Shahid ul-Muh Taj ul-Rahman Jalaluddin Shah (1720 – July 28, 1774) was a ruler of Ternate from 1763 until his death on July 28, 1774.

Ikhtias ul-Rahman Wahuwa Said Duna Amir Iskandar Zulkarnain Azimuddin Shah (died 1781) was a ruler of Ternate from July 28, 1774
until his death in 1781.

Amir Iskandar II Malik ul-Mulk ul-Munnawir us-Sadik ul-Mukarram Shah was a ruler of Ternate from 1781 until April 27, 1796.

Haj ul-Arifin Wahuwa Said Duna Siraj ul-Buldan Infiluddin Muharram Amir Iskandar Shah Muhiuddin Shah (died May 13, 1801)
was a ruler of Ternate from 1796 until his death on May 13, 1801.

Sirajul Bilat Shah Taj ul-Aulia al-Mukarram Amir Iskandar Jihad Azimuddin (died March 10, 1807) was a ruler of Ternate from 1801 until
his death on March 10, 1807.

Said ul-Biladi Siraj ul-Kulut ul-Mulki Amiri Iskandar Zain ul-Bahrain Wahuwa Khair us-Salikhin Shah (died December 24, 1824)
was a ruler of Ternate from 1807 until his death on December 24, 1821 (regent for successor until November 25, 1824).

Saifuddin Iskandar III Nasiruddin Shah (died October 11, 1823) was a ruler of Ternate from 1821 until his death on October 11, 1823.

Taj ul-Mulki Amiruddin Iskandar Kaulaini Shah (1769 – November 20, 1859) was a ruler of Ternate from 1823 until his death on November 20,
1859.

Binayat Illahi Mamran Siraj ul-Mulki Amiruddin Iskandar Wahuwa Mina Salikhin Shah (died October 25, 1876) was a ruler of Ternate
from 1859 until his death on October 25, 1876.

Tajul Mahsil Binayatullah al-Hannan Siraj ul-Mulk Amiruddin Iskandar IV Munawar ul-Sadik Wahuwa Mina al-Adilin Shah
(1839 – July 1900) was a ruler of Ternate from October 4, 1879 until his death in July 1900.

Ilham (Kolano Ara Rimoi) (died February 20, 1902) was a ruler of Ternate from July 1900 until his death on February 20. 1902.

Tajul Mahsil Binayatullah al-Hannan Siraj ul-Mulk Amiruddin Iskandar V Munawar ul-Sadik Wahuwa Mina al-Adilin Shah
(died 1941) was a ruler of Ternate from 1902 until September 23, 1915.

Iskandar Muhammad Jabir Shah (1902 – July 4, 1975) was a ceremonial ruler of Ternate from September 2, 1929 until his death on July 4, 1975.

Muzaffar Shah II (born 1934) is ceremonial ruler of Ternate since November 29, 1986.



Jailolo

Jailolo was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers of Jailolo

Doa was a ruler of Jailolo from 1605 until 1613.

Saiuddin was a ruler of Jailolo from 1613 until 1656.

Alam was a ruler of Jailolo from 1656 until 1684.

Muhammad Arif Bila was a ruler of Jailolo from 1784 until 1805.

Muhammad Asgar (died 1839) was a ruler of Jailolo from 1808 until 1832.

Saifuddin Jehad Muhammad Hajuddin Syah (died 1846) was a ruler of Jailolo in 1832.

Danu Hasan (1832 – after 1878) was a ruler of Jailolo from 1875 until 1876.

Abdullah Syah (born 1926) was a ceremonial ruler of Jailolo from January 2002 until November 21, 2010.



Tidore

Tidore was the state in present Indonesia. Tidore was a spice-funded sultanate that was founded in 1109, and spent much of its history in the shadow of Ternate,
another sultanate. The sultans of Tidore ruled most of southern Halmahera, and, at times, controlled Buru, Ambon and many of the islands off the coast of New
Guinea. Tidore established an alliance with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Spain had several forts on the island. There was mutual distrust between the
Tidorese and the Spaniards but for the Tidorese the Spanish presence was helpful in resisting the incursions of the Ternateans and their ally, the Dutch, who had
a fort on Ternate. For the Spanish, backing the Tidore state helped check the expansion of Dutch power that threatened their nearby Asia-Pacific interests,
provided a useful base right next to the centre of Dutch power in the region and was a source of spices for trade. Before the Spanish withdrawal from Tidore and
Ternate in 1663, the Tidore sultanate, although nominally part of the Spanish East Indies, established itself as one of the strongest and most independent states in
the region. After the Spanish withdrawal it continued to resist direct control by the Dutch East India Company (the VOC). Particularly under Sultan Saifuddin (r.
1657–1689), the Tidore court was skilled at using Dutch payment for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore's traditional peripheral territories.
As a result he was widely respected by many local populations, and had little need to call on foreign military help for governing the kingdom, unlike Ternate
which frequently relied upon Dutch military assistance. Tidore long remained an independent state, albeit with growing Dutch interference, until the late
eighteenth century. Like Ternate, Tidore allowed the Dutch spice eradication program (extirpatie) to proceed in its territories. This program, intended to
strengthen the Dutch spice monopoly by limiting production to a few places, impoverished Tidore and weakened its control over its periphery. In 1781 Prince
Nuku left Tidore and declared himself Sultan of the Papuan Islands. This was the beginning of a guerilla war which lasted for many years. The Papuans sided
with the rebellious Prince Nuku. The British had sponsored Nuku as part of their campaign against the Dutch in the Moluccas. Captain Thomas Forrest was
intimately connected with Nuku and represented the British as ambassador. The sultanate was abolished in the Sukarno era and re-established in 1999 with the
36th sultan. Tidore was largely spared from the sectarian conflict of 1999 across the Maluku Islands.

List of Sultans (also styled Kiema Kolano) of Tidore

Sultan Saifuddin was a ruler of Tidore from 1657 until 1689. Particularly under Sultan Saifuddin, the Tidore court was skilled at using Dutch payment
for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore's traditional peripheral territories.

Sultan Saidul Jihad Muhammad Nabus Amiruddin Syah, "Jou Barakti" was a ruler of Tidore from 1797 until November 14, 1805.

Sultan Jamal Abidin was a ruler of Tidore from 1805 until ?

Sultan Muhammad Tahir, "Sultan Mossel" was a ruler of Tidore from ? until 1821.

Sultan al-Mansur II was a ruler of Tidore from 1822 until 1856.

Sultan Ahmad Safiuddin Syah, "Sultan Arnold Alting" was a ruler of Tidore from 1856 until 1865.

Sultan Said Ahmad Fathuddin Syah was a ruler of Tidore from 1867 until 1893.

Sultan Iskandar Shajuddin Nur Amal was a ruler of Tidore from 1893 until 1904.

H. Djafar Danoyunus is ceremonial ruler of Tidore since 1999.



Bacan

Bacan was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Sultans (also styled Kolano Madehe) of Bacan

Sultan Alauddin II was a ruler of Bacan from 1660 until 1706.

Sultan Musa Malikuddin was a ruler of Bacan from 1706 until January 2, 1715.

Sultan Kie Nasiruddin was a ruler of Bacan from 1715 until February 17, 1732.

Sultan Hamza Tarafan Nur was a ruler of Bacan from 1732 until 1741.

Sultan Muhammad Sahadin was a ruler of Bacan from 1741 until 1780.

Sultan Skander Alam was a ruler of Bacan from 1780 until 1788.

Sultan Muhammad Badaruddin was a ruler of Bacan from 1788 until 1797.

Sultan Kamarullah was a ruler of Bacan from 1797 until 1826.

Sultan Muhammad Hayatuddin Kornabei Syah Putera (1795 – July 19, 1861) was a ruler of Bacan from 1826 until his death on July 19, 1861.

Sultan Muhammad Sadik Syah (died February 27, 1889) was a ruler of Bacan from May 14, 1862 until his death on February 27, 1889.

Sultan Muhammad Usman Syah (died April 24, 1899) was a ruler of Bacan from August 28, 1899 until his death on April 24, 1935.

Sultan Muhammad Muhsin Syah (died 1983) was a ruler of Bacan from 1935 until 1956.

Sultan Gahral Aydan Syah (1943 – September 21, 2009) was a ceremonial ruler of Bacan from 1983 until his death on September 21, 2009.

Sultan Al-Abd-Al-Rahim Gary ibn Gahral (Gary Ridwan Syah) (born 1969) is ceremonial ruler of Bacan since 2009.



Laha

Laha was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (styled Raja) of Laha

Hading Mewar was a ruler of Laha from ? until 1812.

Rabul Mewar was a ruler of Laha from 1812 until 1875.

Hamzah Mewar was a ruler of Laha from 1875 until 1917.

Abdullah Mewar was a ruler of Laha from 1925 until 1936.

Husein Mewar was a ruler of Laha from 1936 until 1946.

Habib Ali bin Tahir was a ruler of Laha from 1946 until 1953.

Muhammad Mewar was a ceremonial ruler of Laha from 1963 until 1982.

Husein Henaulu (born 1934) was a ceremonial ruler of Laha from 1983 until 1987.

Ahmad Partola was a ceremonial ruler of Laha from 1987 until 1998.

Junaid Mewar was a ceremonial ruler of Laha in 1994.

Franky Mewar was a ceremonial ruler of Laha from 1998 until 2002.

Habib Al-Fachri bin Tahir (born 1970) is ceremonial ruler of Laha since 2002.


Negeri Amahusu

Negeri Amahusu was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (styled Raja) of Negeri Amahusu

Paulus Silooy (Paul Pedro da Costa) was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1679 until 1704.

Andreas Silooy was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1704 until 1706.

Simon Silooy was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1706 until 1716.

Adam Silooy was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1716 until 1739.

Jacob Silooy was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1739 until 1763.

Frederik da Costa was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1789 until 1809.

Abraham da Costa was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1811 until 1833.

Daniel Silooy was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1844 until 1874.

Arnold Silooy was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1874 until 1876.

Frederik Efraim da Costa was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1883 until 1913.

Abraham Silooy I was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1913 until 1925.

Karel Leimena was regent of Negeri Amahusu from 1925 until 1932.

Alberth da Costa was a ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1932 until 1953.

Elias Alexander Silooy was a ceremonial ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1953 until 1980.

Johanis Silooy was a ceremonial ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1980 until 1981.

Josephus Alberthus Silooy was a ceremonial ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1981 until 1993.

Abraham Silooy II was a ceremonial ruler of Negeri Amahusu from 1993 until 2002.

Eduard Alexander Silooy is acting ceremonial ruler of Negeri Amahusu since 2002.



Amanuban

Amanuban was a traditional princedom in West Timor, Indonesia. It lay in the regency (kabupaten) Timor Tengah Selatan. In the late colonial period, according
to an estimate in 1930, Amanuban covered 2,075 square kilometers. The centre of the princedom since the nineteenth century was Niki-Niki. The population
belongs to the Atoni group. Today they are predominantly Protestants, with a significant Catholic minority and some Muslims.

List of Rajas of Amanuban

Olak Mali was a ruler of Amanuban.

Olo Banu I was a ruler of Amanuban.

Bil Banu was a ruler of Amanuban.

Olo Banu II was a ruler of Amanuban.

Seo Bil Tamespat was a ruler of Amanuban.

Taha Mamat was a ruler of Amanuban.

Pinis Bil was a ruler of Amanuban.

Tu Bani was a ruler of Amanuban from ? until around 1747.

Don Miguel Fernando de Consencao (died 1751) was a ruler of Amanuban from around 1747 until his death in 1751.

Don Luis I (died 1770) was a ruler of Amanuban from 1751 until his death in 1770.

Don Jacobus Albertus Kobis was a ruler of Amanuban from 1770 until around 1807.

Don Luis II was a ruler of Amanuban from around 1807 until 1830.

Sanu Nope (Baki Nubang) was a ruler of Amanuban from around 1830 until 1882.

Bil Nope (Suafa Leu) (1846 – August 1910) was a ruler of Amanuban from 1883 until his death in August 1910.

Noni Nope (died December 7, 1920) was a ruler of Amanuban from 1911 until his death on December 7, 1920.

Pae Nope (1892 - 1959) was a ruler of Amanuban from 1921 until 1946.

Jan Paulus Nope (1910 - 1949) was a ruler of Amanuban from 1946 until his death in 1949.

Kusa Nope (1922 - 1980) was a ruler of Amanuban from 1949 until 1962.



Beboki

Beboki was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Beboki

Usi Taum Kenad was a ruler of Beboki.

Nesi Bokko I was a ruler of Beboki.

Tabesi Bokko was a ruler of Beboki in the first half 19th century.

Nesi Tahoni was a ruler of Beboki from around 1840 until around 1860.

Nesi Bokko II (1825 - 1916) was a ruler of Beboki from around 1860 until 1900.

Tabesi Usi Ana Pah was a ruler of Beboki from 1900 until 1904.

Nesi Tahut Paha Kornel (died 1915) was a ruler of Beboki from 1905 until his death in 1915.

Kau Mauk (died 1942) was a ruler of Beboki from 1915 until 1940.

Leonardus Taek Kau was a ruler of Beboki from 1942 until 1962.



Korbafo

Korbafo was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Manek) of Korbafo

Pikkatih was a ruler of Korbafo from around 1691 until ?

Ola Fuliha was a ruler of Korbafo in 18th century.

Christian Leuanan was a ruler of Korbafo.

Kolanian Bibikate was a ruler of Korbafo from ? until 1852.

Manafe Manubulu was a ruler of Korbafo from 1852 until 1859.

Jessak Izak Manubulu was a ruler of Korbafo from 1859 until 1873.

Soleman Izak Manubulu (1854 - 1921) was a ruler of Korbafo from 1873 until his death in 1921.

Cornelis Izak Manubulu (1891 - 1961) was a ruler of Korbafo from 1921 until 1926.

Chrishian Paulus Manubulu (1899 - 1989) was a ruler of Korbafo from 1926 until 1962.






Kupang

Kupang was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Kupang

Daud Hanoch Tanof (died May 20, 1918) was a ruler of Kupang from 1917 until his death on May 20, 1918.

Ote Nicolaas Isu Nisnoni (1880 - 1952) was a ruler of Kupang from June 1918 until 1945.

Obe Alfonsus Nisnoni (1907 - 1992) was a ruler of Kupang from 1945 until 1955.

Leopold Nicolaas Isu Nisnoni (born 1936) is ceremonial ruler of Kupang since 2004.




TaEbenu

TaEbenu was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Fettor) of TaEbenu

Lasi Lelo TaEbenu was a ruler of TaEbenu from 1688 until around 1701.

Tanof Lasi was a ruler of TaEbenu fro around 1701 until around 1729.

Eki Tanof was a ruler of TaEbenu from around 1729 until around 1756.

Kobe Tanof (1737- 1797) was a ruler of TaEbenu from around 1756 until his death around 1797.

Enus Kobe was a ruler of TaEbenu from 1797 until ?

Salolo Kobe was a ruler of TaEbenu in the first half 19th century.

Kobe Tus was a ruler of TaEbenu from ? until 1850.

Hanoch Tanof I (Nobe Salolo) was a ruler of TaEbenu from 1850 until 1873.

Hanoch Tanof II was a ruler of TaEbenu from 1874 until 1895.

Jacob Tanof was a ruler of TaEbenu from 1896 until 1901.

Daud Hanof Tanof (died 1918) was a ruler of TaEbenu from 1901 until 1917.



Ati-Ati

Ati–Ati was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title from c.1851, Raja) of Ati-Ati

Ulan Tui was a ruler of Ati-Ati.

Lamarora was a ruler of Ati-Ati.

Menau Bauw was a ruler of Ati-Ati.

Kakabusan Bauw was a ruler of Ati-Ati from ? until around 1851.

Wainesin Kakabusan Bauw was a ruler of Ati-Ati around 1851.

Mampati Bauw (died around 1860) was a ruler of Ati-Ati from around 1851 until his death around 1860.

Sangil Bauw was regent of Ati-Ati from around 1860 until ?

Ongga Bauw was regent of Ati-Ati from ? until 1871.

Yusuf Kerewainja Bauw (around 1850 - 1907) was a ruler of Ati-Ati from around 1860 until around 1897.

Haji Haruna (died February 26, 1932) was a ruler of Ati-Ati from April 1899 until his death on February 26, 1932.

Nurma (Njora Latin) was a ruler of Ati-Ati from 1932 until August 1, 1935.

Mafa (1872 - 1942) was a ruler of Ati-Ati from 1835 until his death in 1942.

Muhammad Bai was a ruler of Ati-Ati from 1942 until 1953.

Wakil-Raja J.A. Bai was a ruler of Ati-Ati from 1953 until 1963.

Nataniel Talla (died around 1999) was a ceremonial ruler of Ati-Ati from ? until his death around 1999.

Onim Bai (born 1962) is ceremonial ruler of Ati-Ati since 1999.




Fatagar

Fatagar was the state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Kapitan; from 1899 Raja) of Fatagar

Kanumbas (died around 1880) was a ruler of Fatagar from ? until around 1880.

Kurkur (died 1899) was a ruler of Fatagar from 1880 until his death in 1899.

Mafa (1872 - 1942) was a ruler of Fatagar from 1899 until his death in 1942.

Kamarudin (died 1943) was a ruler of Fatagar from 1942 until his death in 1943.

Said Arobi Uswanas was a ceremonial ruler of Fatagar from 1956 until December 26, 2009.

Taufiq Heru Uswanas is ceremonial ruler of Fatagar since December 31, 2009.



Kaimana

Kaimana was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Rat, from c.1898 Raja) of Kaimana

Umis I Imaga was a ruler of Kaimana.

Umis II Basir Onin was a ruler of Kaimana.

Umis III Woran was a ruler of Kaimana.

Umis IV Nduvin was a ruler of Kaimana from ? until 1898.

Umis V Naro'E was a ruler of Kaimana from 1898 until 1923.

Umis VI Achmad Aituarauw was a ruler of Kaimana from 1923 until 1966.

Umis VII Muhammad Achmad Rais Aituarauw (died 1980) was a ceremonial ruler of Kaimana from 1966 until his death in 1980.

Umis VIII Abdul Hakim Achmad Aituarauw is ceremonial ruler of Kaimana since 1980.



Namatota

Namatota was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Namatota

Kasim Buseru was a ceremonial ruler of Namatota from 1946 until 2005.

Hayum Ombaier is ceremonial ruler of Namatota since 2006.




Patipi

Patipi was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Patipi

Usman Iba was a ceremonial ruler of Patipi from ? until early 21th century.

Achmad Iba (born 1939) is ceremonial ruler of Patipi since 2003.



Rumbati

Rumbati was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rulers (title Jupiat; from 1872, Raja) of Rumbati

Bauw Berani (Tela Bauw) was a ruler of Rumbati.

Manimomoa Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati.

Gefasami Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati.

Mauda Na-Tiasa Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati.

Ritupun Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati.

Ana-Koda Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati.

Patmaguri Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati.

Mampati Bauw (died c. 1860) was a ruler of Rumbati from ? until around 1851.

Nawarisa Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati from 1851 until around 1875.

Tajam Bauw (died c.1880) was a ruler of Rumbati from around 1875 until his death around 1880.

Ismail Bauw I was a ruler of Rumbati from around 1880 until ?

Abduljalil (died 1902) was a ruler of Rumbati from ? until his death in 1902.

Samsli Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati from 1902 until 1903.

Muhammad Sidik Bauw was a ruler of Rumbati from 1903 until 1913.

Abubakar Bauw (1897 - 1945) was a ruler of Rumbati from 1913 until his death in 1945.

Ibrahim Bauw (1917 - 1993) was a ceremonial ruler of Rumbati from 1946 until his death in 1993.

Ismail Bauw II was a ceremonial ruler of Rumbati from 1994 until November 2009.

Abdbakar Saleh Bauw is ceremonial ruler of Rumbati since January 1, 2010.



Wetuar

Wetuar was a state in present Indonesia.

List of Rajas of Wetuar

Heremba was a ruler of Wetuar from ? until 1850.

Semempes was a ruler of Wetuar from 1850 until 1870.

Waraburi was a ruler of Wetuar from 1870 until 1886.

Lakatey Heremba was a ruler of Wetuar from 1886 until 1913.

Paris Heremba was a ruler of Wetuar from 1913 until 1952.

Nazar Heremba (died 1988) was a ceremonial ruler of Wetuar from 1952 until his death in 1988.

Musa Heremba (born 1955) is ceremonial ruler of Wetuar since 1988.



Hormuz

Hormuz was a state in present Iran. The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th to 17th
century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz. The Kingdom was established by Arab princes in the 10th century
who in 1262 came under the suzerainty of Persia, before becoming aclient state of the Portuguese Empire. The kingdom received its name from the fortified port
city which served as its capital. It was one of the most important ports in the Middle East at the time as it controlled seaway trading routes through the Persian
Gulf to India and East Africa. This port was probably located on Hormuz Island, which is located near the modern city of Bandar-e Abbas. The name of the
port, the island, and the kingdom is Iranian and ultimately derives from that of the Zoroastrian deity, Ahura Mazda, which becomes Ohrmazd in
Pahlavi, Hirmiz inManichaean Middle Persian, and Hormoz in New-Persian. The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: قی ضم زمره - Madīq Hurmuz, Persian: هگ ن ت زمره -
Tangeh-ye Hormoz,) is a narrow, strategically important waterway between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. On the
north coast is Iran and on the south coast is the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman.

List of Shahs of Hormuz

Salghur Shah I was a Shah of Hormuz from 1475 until 1505.

Turan Shah III was a Shah of Hormuz from 1505 until 1507.

Seyf al Din Abu Nasr was a Shah of Hormuz from 1507 until 1513.

Turan Shah IV (died 1521) was a Shah of Hormuz from 1513 until his death in 1521.

Soltan Mohammad Shah II was a Shah of Hormuz from 1521 until 1534.

Mozaffar ad-Din Salghur Shah II was a Shah of Hormuz from 1534 until 1543.

Fakhr ad-Din Turan Shah V was a Shah of Hormuz from 1543 until 1564.

Soltan Mohammad Shah III was a Shah of Hormuz in 1565.

Farrokh Shah I was a Shah of Hormuz from 1565 until 1597.

Turan Shah VI was a Shah of Hormuz in 1597.

Farrokh Shah II was a Shah of Hormuz from 1597 until 1602.

Firuz Shah was a Shah of Hormuz from 1602 until 1609.

Mohammad Shah IV was a Shah of Hormuz from 1609 until 1621.



Arabistan (al-Ahwaz)

Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) was state in present west Iran. Ahwaz emerged to be the first emirate to liberate itself form the Mongol rule and establish its autonomous
territory under the rule of Mohammad Ibn Flah Mushashai who not only extend his rule on Arabistan and East bank of Arabian Gulf but also went as far as near
Isfahan and Shiraz making Persians followers of his Shia‘at doctrine. He officially ruled east and west bank of the gulf from today province of sharqia in Saudi
Arabica to city of Bushaher on the other side of the gulf where Arabs are inhabiting.The capital of this emirate was Howaiza where bureaucratic governance
system and currency were created. Their rule lasted from 1516-1690 when Al-bo-Naser takes the power and establish Kaabi emirate. Al-bo-Naser stayed in power
for a century and half. Their rule again was overtaken by Al-bo-Kaseb 1832 who will be predominantly the ruler for Arabistan until the time of occupation of
Persia to Arabistan in the 1925 when the last Emir Shikh Khazal Al-Jaber was deposed by the Persian General Reza Khan who later became the King of a new
country called Iran. Although Arabistan was an immediate target of Persian‘s and the Ottoman‘s expansionism from the time of Moshashai, Ahwazies
successfully kept their independence by intriguing between Persia rule and the Ottoman Empire. And, yet until 1925 this expansionism seized to submit Ahwaz
to any perpetually rule which entails them to be taxed. However, what will submit Ahwaz to Persia, not a surprise; happen to be the arrival of the colonizing
powers and their desire in dividing the Middle East region according to the interests. More specifically occupation, which later titled annexation, of Ahwaz was
attributed to the following reasons. First, factor the treaty of Erzurum 1847 between British, Russia and Gajar of Persia where Ahwazi authority was ignored and a
treaty took place against the will of Ahwazi people. The purpose of the treat was as noted: since1847, British and Russian interest in the Shatt al- Arab had
changed dramatically; British oil discovery in Arabistan resulted in increased shipping on the Shatt al-Arab. Britain, in particular, was anxious to expand Persian
sovereignty in the Shatt al-Arab, at least to the extent required by its own interest. This led to the second factors again another treaty in 1914 between Britain,
Ottoman Empire, Russia and the Gajar‘s. This time Britain was fearful from the Bolshevik revolution and their expansion which might reach the free sea through
the Gulf region and U.S.S.R domination on the oil wells of the gulf region. The third factor was internal. The conflict between various tribes in Arabistan made
the last Emir busy in his internal affair and diverted his attention from what was happening to the faith of his nations which later to come as result of these treaties.
And, although the British considered Arabistan the protectorate or United Kingdoms, the last Emir shik Khzaal did not grasp the danger of this presence, which
would later hunt him and his nation by occupation of Riza khan.

List of Emirs of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz)

Sayyed Farajallah was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1686 until 1700.

Sayyed Ali III was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1700 until 1707 and from 1715 until 1720.

Sayyed Abdallah was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1707 until 1715.

Sayyed Mohammed III was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1720 until 1737.

Sayyed Farajallah was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) at Dawraq from 1737 until 1747.

Sayyed Muttalib was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) at Huwayza from 1747 until 1762.

Sayyed Mawla Judallah was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) in the second half 18th century.

Sayyed Mawla Ismail was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) in the second half 18th century.

Sayyed Mawla Muhsin was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) around 1779.

Sayyed Mawla Mohammed I was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) in late 18th century.

Sayyed Mawla Muttalib I was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) in late 18th century and early 19th century.

Sayyed Mawla Abd al-Ali I was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) in the first half 19th century.

Sayyed Mawla Farajallah was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1841 until 1872.

Sayyed Mawla Mohammed II was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1872 until 1882.

Sayyed Mawla Muttalib II (died 1895) was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1881 until 1888.

Sayyed Mawla Nasrallah was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) at Huwayza around 1888.

Sayyed Mawla Abd al-Ali was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from ? until 1910 and from 1924 until April 20, 1925.

Shaykh Khazal was a ruler of Arabistan (al-Ahwaz) from 1910 until 1924.



Ardebil

Ardebil was a state in present Iran.

List of Khans of Ardebil

Badir Khan was a Khan of Ardebil jointly with Nasir Khan from 1747 until 1763.

Nasir Khan was a Khan of Ardebil from 1747 until 1808 (jointly with Badir Khan from 1747 until 1763 and with Nazarali Khan from 1763 until 1792).

Nazarali Khan (died 1792) was a Khan of Ardebil jointly with Nasir Khan from from 1763 until his death in 1792.


Khoy

Khoy was a Khanate in present Iran. After the death of Nadir Shah Afshar in 1747, Khoy broke away from central government of Iran like several other states,
includingAfghanistan and some of northern Caucasian Khanates, and become the Khanate of Khoy (1747–1813) which was loyal to central government only
when it was powerful (like Karim Khan) and autonomous when the central role was weak . The returning of Khoy to central government of Iran was during the
beginning of Qajar period. Khoy was attacked by Russia in 1827. Until 1828 Khoy had a large number of Armenian inhabitants. In the mid-1800s some of them
immigrated to eastern Armenia in the Russian Empire.

List of Khans of Khoy

Sahbaz Khan II ibn Murtuzaqulu was a ruler of Khoy from 1744 until 1763.

Ahmad Khan Donboli (1745 - 1786) was a ruler of Khoy from 1763 until his death in 1786.

Jafar Qoli Khan Donboli (died 1814) was a ruler of Khoy from 1786 until 1797.

Hossein Qoil Khan Donboli was a ruler of Khoy from 1797 until 1813.


Linga

Linga was the state in present Iran.

List of Rulers (Hakim) of Linga

Qadib ibn Rashid al-Qasimi was a ruler of Linga from 1805 until 1829.

Said ibn Qadhib al-Qasimi was a ruler of Linga from 1829 until 1854.

Khalifa ibn Said al-Qasimi (died 1874) was a ruler of Linga from 1854 until his death in 1874.

Ali ibn Khalifa al-Qasimi (died 1878) was a ruler of Linga from 1874 until his death in 1878.

Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Qasimi was a ruler of Linga from 1878 until 1885.

Qadib ibn Rashid al-Qasimi was a ruler of Linga from 1885 until 1887.



Maku

Maku was a Khanate in present Iran. Khanate of Maku was khanate based in Maku. It came into existence after the death of Nader Shah which lead to the
breakup of the Safavid Empire, and gain semi-independence. It rejoined the Persian Empire in 1829,
[4]
however was not abolished for another century after the
death of Murtada Kuli Khan Ikhal al-Saltana (1863–1923).

List of Khans of Maku

Ahmad Soltan Kangarli was a ruler of Maku from 1747 until 1778.

Hasan Khan Kangarli was a ruler of Maku jointly with Hossein Khan Kangarli from 1778 until 1822.

Hossein Khan Kangarli was a ruler of Maku jointly with Hasan Khan Kangarli from 1778 until 1822.

Ali Khan Kangarli was a ruler of Maku from 1822 until 1866.

Haji Ismail Khan was a ruler of Maku from 1866 until 1899.

Teymur Pasha Khan was a ruler of Maku from 1899 until 1922.

Murtuzqulu Khan Bayat (1863 - 1923) was a ruler of Maku in 1922.



Mohammerah

Mohammerah was a state in present Iran.

List of Sheikhs of Mohammerah

'Ali Mardan al-Muhaisin was a ruler of Mohammerah in late 18th century.

Haji Yusuf bin Mardo (died 1819) was a ruler of Mohammerah from late 18th century until his death in 1819.

Haji Jabir Khan bin Mardo (around 1800 – November 2, 1881) was a ruler of Mohammerah from 1819 until his death on November 2, 1881. He was the
leader of the Bani Kaab Arab tribe and the Sheikh of Khorramshahr ("Mohammerah") during the 19th century. He had two sons, Maz'al Jabir al-kaabi, who
succeeded him as tribal leader, and Khaz'al ibn Jabir al-kaabi. A strong and outspoken leader, Jabir was close with Nassereddin Shah Qajar and was a vital force
in successfully defending Khuzestan from invading British and Ottoman forces.

Miza'al Khan ibn Haji Jabir Khan styled Muaz us-Sultana (before 1839 – June 2, 1897) was a ruler of Mohammerah from 1881 until his death on June
2, 1897. He was the son of Jabir al-Kaabi and succeeded him as tribal leader of the Bani Kaab and Sheikh of Mohammerah upon his father's death. This was
confirmed by an Imperial Qajar farman (executive order). Some accounts state that he was assassinated by his younger brother, Khaz'al Khan, while others state
that this was done by a palace guard under orders from Khaz'al.

Khaz'al bin Jabir bin Merdaw al-Ka'bi (Arabic: خی لا عز ر ج وارم ي ع ك لا ) (18 August 1863 – 24 May
1936), GCIE, KCSI, Muaz us-Sultana, and Sardar-e-Aqdas (Most Sacred Officer of the Imperial Order of the Aqdas),
[1]
was the ruler of the
semi-autonomousSheikhdom of "Mohammerah" ( located in Khuzestan) from 1897 until 1924. In early 1920s, Khuzestan, with its large Arab
population, was a virtual sheikhdom under the rule of Sheikh Khaz'al. An ambitious local Arab leader, Khaz'al was nominally under the
jurisdiction of the Qajar king. In reality, he was protected and controlled by the British, whose 10,000-man army, the South Persia Rifles,
operated with immunity in southern Iran. The British, without notifying Iran, were also providing Khaz'al with meager shares of the Anglo-
Persian Oil Company. They even considered Khazal as a possible king for Iraq or for an independent principality in southern Persia . Khaz'al
was also the darling of many Sunnite Iraqi nationalists, who sought to foment dissent among Iran‘s Arab population by referring to Khuzestan
as Arabestān and glorifying Khaz'al as its independent ―Sultan‖. The tribal leaders of the Bani Kaab, an Arab tribe which had originally come
from the area of what is now Kuwait in the 16th century, had often been the Imperial-appointed tax farmers for the entire province for many
years after the fall of the Msha'sha'iya. The Bani Kaab were the largest and most powerful tribe in the province. In the early 19th century the Bani Kaab had
dissolved into a number of rival clans that often clashed and feuded with each other. Of these factions, the Muhaisin clan, led by Jabir al-Kaabi, became the
strongest and under his leadership the Bani Kaab were reunified under a single authority, the capital of the tribe being moved from the village of Fallahiyah to the
flourishing port city ofMohammerah. Unlike previous leaders of the Bani Kaab, Jabir maintained law and order, and established Mohammerah as a free
portand sheikhdom, of which he was Sheikh. Jabir also became the Imperial-appointed governor-general of the province. After Jabir's death in 1881, his elder
son, Maz'al, took over as tribal leader and Sheikh of Mohammerah, as well as the provincial governor-general, which was confirmed by an
Imperial firman (executive order). However, in June 1897 Maz'al was killed. Some accounts state that he was assassinated by his younger brother, Khaz'al, while
others state that this was done by a palace guard under orders from Khaz'al.Thereafter Khaz'al assumed his position as Sheikh of Mohammerah, proclaiming
himself not only the leader of the Bani Kaab, but also the ruler of the entire province. He then appointed his sons to the governorships of the various cities,
towns and villages within his control, including Naseriyeh. Khaz'al also established and maintained close relations with the Qajar court, who had accepted Khaz'al
as the neighbour government. The rest of the province (the eastern and northern regions) remained under the domination of Bakhtiari Khans, Lur tribal leaders,
and Persian groups. Several of the Bakhtiari Khans, in particular, had entered into alliances with Khaz'al. The Qajar Shah made him an Officer of the Nishan-e-
Aqdas (Imperial Order of the Aqdas) in 1920. Following the discovery of oil in Mohammerah-controlled territory, the British moved quickly to establish control
over the vast oil resources in the province, which culminated in the foundation of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in 1909. The British established a treaty with
Khaz'al, whereby in exchange for their guaranteed support and protection against any external attack, he would also guarantee to maintain internal security and
not interfere with the process of oil extraction. As part of the treaty they were given a monopoly of drilling in the province in return for an annual payment to
both Khaz'al and the Shah, though the profits of the company vastly exceeded the annual payments. British influence in southern Persia mainly derived from the
relationships which had been established between the British government and various tribal leaderships, including especially Khaz'al and the Bakhtiari khans, and
also, though less importantly, the Qawāmis of Shiraz and many of the minor khans of the Persian Gulf littoral. Khaz'al as an important tribal leader was a
member of South Persia Rifles. and when he asked for British support against central government of Iran, the answer was "... you remain faithful to the Shah and
act in accordance with our advice".In 1921, realizing the threat posed by Reza Khan Mirpanj (Reza Shah), who had just staged a coup d'etat with Seyyed Zia'eddin
Tabatabaee, Khaz'al proceeded to take steps in order to protect himself. He attempted to form an alliance with all the Bakhtiari, Lur, and Khamseh tribes, in
order to prevent Reza Khan from gaining too much power. His ultimate aim was that through this tribal alliance the Zagros Mountains would become a nearly
impenetrable barrier against the forces of the central government. However, the various tribal groups often clashed with each other and were unable to come to
agreements, and his proposal failed. He then turned to Ahmad Shah Qajar and the Imperial Court of Tehran, presenting himself as a fiercely loyal defender and
advocate of the Qajar dynasty, and calling upon the Court to take action against the ambitions of Reza Khan. This eventually came to nothing as well. Khaz'al
then sought to ally himself with the Majles (Iranian Parliament) opposition to Reza Khan, writing a number of letters to the opposition leader, Ayatollah Seyyed
Hassan Modarres. In these letters Khaz'al presented himself as a staunch constitutionalist from the very beginning of the movement, emphatic as an
Iranian nationalist, and a liberal democrat who found Reza Khan's authoritarianismto be personally offensive. The opposition accepted Khaz'al's proposal
cautiously and not without much deliberation, as they did not trust him. However, the parliamentary opposition to Reza Khan failed. Khaz'al then turned to the
British for help, and this time presented himself as a defender of Islam and Shari'a (Islamic law) against Reza Khan's Iranian secularism. He claimed that his
people had only recently immigrated to the province and that they had no ties to the people of Iran. He proposed that because of this background, it would not
be difficult to separate the Arabs of Khuzestan from Iran. Forced to choose between Khaz'al and Reza Khan, the British completely withdrew their support and
protection for Khaz'al's rule, claiming that the only reason they had supported him to begin with was due to the central government's inability to properly enforce
its rule in Khuzestan. The Qajar dynasty subsequently collapsed, and Ahmad Shah was deposed. Indifference from the Qajar court and betrayal at the hands of
the British ultimately led Khaz'al to go to the League of Nations in 1924 in an effort to gain international recognition of his sheikhdom and to gather support for
the separation of his territory from Iran. This effort, however, ended in failure. Prior to the rise of Reza Khan, Khaz'al had never attempted to separate his
sheikhdom from Qajar Persia, to which he had maintained staunch loyalty. In January 1925 Reza Khan sent his military commanders to the province to assert the
authority of the provisional government in Tehran. An Imperial farman (executive order) was issued restoring the old name of the province,Khuzestan instead of
Arabistan, and Khaz'al lost his authority over the various tribes under his command. Later that spring Reza Khan made two attempts to convince Khaz'al to meet
him in Tehran to discuss his position in the new government. However, Khaz'al was suspicious of Reza Khan's motives and refused to go there himself, instead
stating that he would send an emissary. A few weeks later in April, Reza Khan ordered one of his commanders, who had a friendly relationship with Khaz'al, to
meet Khaz'al, ostensibly to convince him to journey to Tehran. The commander, General Fazlollah Zahedi, accompanied by several government officials, met
with Khaz'al and spent an evening with him onboard his yacht, anchored in the Shatt al-Arab river by his palace in the village of Fallahiyah near the city of
Mohammerah. Later that evening a gunboat, sent by Reza Khan, stealthily made its way next to the yacht, which was then immediately boarded by fifty Persian
troops. The soldiers arrested Khaz'al and took him by motorboat down the river to Mohammerah, where a car was waiting to take him to the military base in
Ahwaz. From there he was taken to Dezful, accompanied by his son, and then to the city of Khorramabad in Lorestan, and then eventually to Tehran. Upon his
arrival, Khaz'al was warmly greeted and well received by Reza Khan, who assured him that his problems would be quickly settled, and that in the meantime, he
would be treated very well. However, many of his personal assets in Iran were quickly liquidated and his properties eventually came under the domain of the
Imperial government after Reza Khan was crowned the new Shah. The sheikhdom was abolished and the provincial authority took full control of regional affairs.
Khaz'al spent the rest of his life under virtual house arrest, unable to travel beyond Tehran's city limits. He was able to retain ownership of his properties in
Kuwait and Iraq, where he was exempted from taxation. He died in May 1936 while alone in his house, as earlier in the day his servants had been taken to court
by the police. It is said that he did not die of natural causes, but that he was murdered by one of the guards stationed outside his house under direct orders from
Reza Shah. He had following honours: Order of the August Portrait (Nishan-i-Aqdas) of Persia, Order of the Lion and Sun 1st Class of Persia, Wolff Medal-
1899, Knight 1st Class of the Order of St. Stanislaus of Russia-1904, Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI)-1914, Knight Grand
Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE)-1916 (KCIE-1910) and Permanent 7-gun salute from the British with a personal 13-gun salute-1922 (11-
gun personal salute-1909).


Qaraei

Qaraei was a Khanate in present Iran. The Qaraei, Kerey, or Kara Tatar (Qarai, Qaray, Karai,Garai, Gharaei, Ghara Tatar, Qara Tatar, Kazakh: Керей, Tatar:
къарай, Mongolian: Кэрэйд, Hebrew: ירכ , Chinese: 克烈.Arabic: ئر ق , Persian: ی یار ق , Persian: ی ئار ق , Persian: ار ق ر ت ت , Turkish: كككككك, Turkish: Kara
Tatar, Turkish: Küyin Tatar) are an ethnic group who live between the Altay Mountains and the Carpathian Mountains, in Central Asia, the Middle
East, Transcaucasia and Eastern Europe. They are the greatest tribe in the Middle Juz of the Kazakh nation. They are known as Qaraei,Gharaei,Gharaee,Garai
in USA, Iran, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, as Qara Tatar in Turkey, Iran and former USSR and also as Garayeli and Garayelu in Iran.

List of Khans of Qaraei

Eshaq Khan Qaraei-Torbati (Persian: رار قح ا ی یار ق یت ر ت , 1743 – July 8, 1816) was a ruler of Qaraei from 1801 until his death on July 8,
1816. He was one of the wealthiest and most powerful chieftains in Khorasan during the reigns of Agha Mohammad Khan and Fath Ali Shah. He was fluent
in Persian and Arabic. Eshaq overcame extraordinary odds to establish himself as a leader of the Qaraei. The son of a Tajik servant by the name of Mohammad
Khoo to the supreme chief Najaf Qoli Khan Qara Tatar, the chief of the Qaraei tribe. Eshaq inherited a social position that was inferior to even the lowest
member of a military tribe. His father gained the attention of the leader of the Qaraei tribe and was appointed yuzbashi or centurion. Consequently, Eshaq was
granted the position of Yessawul (mace bearer) to the chief and used this position to convince the chief of a need for a caravansarai in the then small village
of Zaveh. While undertaking this project the ambitions of Eshaq began to manifest themselves. As Eshaq's project grew, he slowly converted the caravansarai into
a fort while simultaneously fomenting quarrels and divisions within the tribe through various intrigues. His plan culminated in Najaf Qoli's being murdered by his
own officers with the chief's sons fleeing Khorasan. Soon afterward, he married the daughter of Najaf Qoli and entered into an alliance with Ahmad Shah
Durrani. These maneuvers gained him the leadership of the tribe. As the chief of the tribe, he managed to transform Zaveh into a prosperous and safe district,
while also making a fortune through farming, leasing camels to merchants, and developing an export/import trade. Eshaq Khan‘s allegiance to Tehran (and also
to Herat) remained nominal, and his display of submission to Agha Mohammad Khan andFath Ali Shah at the time of their marches on Mashhad in 1796 and
1802, respectively, was anything but genuine. Fath Ali Shah‘s appointment in 1803 of his young son, Mohammad Vali Mirza Qajar, as governor of Khorasan was
probably perceived by Eshaq Khan as a move designed to exact his allegiance and thus did not please the ambitious chief). However, he used this opportunity
and joined his service and assumed the positions of Sardar (commander of the armies) and Vazir (prime minister). The influence of Eshaq completely
overshadowed that of Mohammad Vali, a state of affairs that aroused Eshaq's ambitions. He initiated a conspiracy with the chiefs of Khabushan, Radkan,
Chenaran, Qayen, and Tabas to unseat the governor and assume the reins himself. The plan was successful and Mohammad Vali was placed under house arrest.
After plundering Mashhad, Eshaq's co- conspirators began quarreling over the spoils and challenging Eshaq's right to accession. Eshaq assembled those still loyal
to him and restored Mohammad Vali to office. In an attempt to make amends he gave the governor one of his daughters in marriage. The result of this marriage
was a boy Jafar Qoli Mirza Qajar. Eshaq undertook a visit to the court in Tehran where he convinced the Shah that Mohammad Vali was incompetent. Fath Ali
accordingly issued a farman (royal order) declaring Eshaq as the Hakim of Mashhad, thus relegating the shahzadeh to the position of ornament. In his turn,
Mohammad Vali sneaked off to Tehran. There, he represented Eshaq to be an ambitious and dangerous man whose progress needed to be checked. The Shah
became convinced and ordered Mohammad Vali to execute Eshaq. Finally in July 8, 1816 he and his eldest son, Hasan Ali Khan Qaraei-Torbati, were strangled
by the order and in the presence of Mohammad Vali Mirza Qajar. The executions, however, only exacerbated the situation, forcing Fath Ali Shah (who also
feared an Afghan attack) to remove his son from the post of governor of Khorasan and replace him with his other brother Hasan Ali Mirza Qajar.

Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati (Persian: رار محم ی یار ق یت ر ت , 1790 – around 1850) was a ruler of Qaraei from 1816 until June
14, 1833. Sardar Mohammad Khan Qaraei-Torbati was one of the wealthiest and most powerful chieftains in Khorasan during the reigns of Fath Ali Shah. He
was admired by his friends and cursed by his foes. The Qajar central government attempted to conciliate the new ruler of Turbat by recalling Muhammad Wali
Mirza to Tehran, dishonoring him while there, and sending Hasan Ali Mirza Qajar Shoja os Saltaneh in his place. Hasan Ali ventured to Zaveh to attempt to
placate Mohammad Khan for the treacherous murder of his father. The essence of the lies exchanged at their meeting was that Tehran denied any implication in
the murder of Eshaq while Mohammad professed allegiance to the Qajars. The deal was sealed with Mohammad granting his sister to Hasan Ali Mirza for
marriage. The result of this marriage was Qahreman Mirza Qajar ancestor of famous Qahreman, Qahremani and Shojania families of Khorasan. After Hasan
Ali's departure Mohammad aligned himself with Bunyad Beg Hazara and began a career of depredation and slave dealing. This latter practice gained him covert
alliances with the Khan of Khiva and the Emir of Bukhara, a situation that did little to enhance his reputation in Tehran. In 1832 the crown prince, Abbas Mirza,
after subduing the Salor of Sarakhs, turned his attention to Mohammad Khan and his renegade tribe. Under the guise of using Zaveh as a staging ground for his
army's invasion of Herat, Abbas moved the royal forces into the Qaraei district where he deceived Mohammad into a meeting that resulted in his capture. The
independence of the Qaraei tribe and the district of Zaveh ended with Mohammad Khan. The governors of the district were thereafter no longer of the Qaraei
tribe but of the Qajar tribe. The chief of the Qarais traditionally served alternate terms of naib and vazir to the Qajar governor for the rest of the 19th century.
Mohammad Khan died comfortably, a prisoner in his own house in Tabriz.

Qashqaei

Qashqaei was a Khanate in present Iran.

List of Khans of Qashqaei

Ismaeel Khan Soulat-od-Dowleh Qashqaei (died 1933) was a ruler of Qashqaei from 1904 until his death in 1933.

Nasser Khan Qashqaei was a ruler of Qashqaei from 1933 until ?



Sarab Khanate

Sarab was the Khanate in present Iran. The Sarab Khanate with the capital at Sarab existed from 1747 to 1828. It was bordering the Ardabil Khanate to the east
and the Tabriz Khanate to its west, and divided into threemahals: Sarab, Hashtari and Garmali. The khanate was founded by the leader of the Shaqaqi tribe, Ali
Khan. During the Russo-Persian Wars the Persian influence on the khanate rose. After the treaty of Gulistan it remained in the Persian sphere of influence, and
was abolished by the Qajar dynasty in 1828.

List of Khans of Sarab

'Ali Khan Shaqaqi was a ruler of Sarab Khanate from 1747 until 1786.

Sadiq Khan Shaqaqi (died 1800) was a ruler of Sarab Khanate from 1786 until 1796.



Avar Khanate

The Avar Khanate was a long-lived Muslim state which controlled Western Dagestan from the early 13th century to the 19th century. Following the fall of the
Christian kingdom of Sarir in the early 12th century, the Caucasian Avars underwent a process ofIslamization. Military tensions escalated in 1222, when the
region was invaded by the pagan Mongols underSubutai. Although the Avars pledged their support to Muhammad II of Khwarezm in his struggle against the
Mongols, there is no documentation for the Mongol invasion of the Avar lands. As historical clues are so scarce, it is probably fruitless to speculate whether the
Avars were the agents of the Mongol influence in the Caucasus and whether they were entrusted with the task of levying tribute for the khan, as modern historian
Murad Magomedov suggests. The rise of Shamkhalate of Kazi-Kumukh following the disintegration of the Golden Horde was at once a symptom and a cause of
the khans' diminished influence during the 15th and 16th centuries. At that time, the khanate was a loosely structured state, sometimes forced to seek the Tsar's
protection against its powerful enemies, while many mountainous communities (djamaats) obtained a considerable degree of autonomy from the khan. In the
18th century, the steady weakening of shamkhals fostered the ambitions of the Avar khans, whose greatest coup was the defeat of the 100,000-strong army
of Nadir Shah in September 1741. In the wake of this success, Avar sovereigns managed to expand their territory at the expense of free communities in Dagestan
and Chechnya. The reign of Umma-Khan in 1775–1801 marked the zenith of the Avar ascendancy in the Caucasus. Among the potentates who paid tribute to
Umma-Khan were the rulers of Shaki, Quba, Shirvan. Within two years after Umma-Khan's death, the khanate voluntarily submitted to Russian authority. Yet
the Russian administration disappointed and embittered freedom-loving highlanders. The institution of heavy taxation, coupled with the expropriation of estates
and the construction of fortresses, electrified the Avar population into rising under the aegis of the Muslim Imamate, led by Ghazi Mohammed (1828–
32), Gamzat-bek (1832–34) and Shamil (1834–59). This Caucasian War raged until 1864, when the Avar Khanate was abolished and the Avar District was
instituted instead.

List of Khans of Avar Khanate

Umma Khan I was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1606 until 1634.

Moldar Mirza was a Khan of Avar Khanate around 1650.

Muhammad Khan I was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1650 until 1668.

Muhammad Khan II was a Khan of Avar Khanate around 1713.

Umma Khan II was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1720 until 1730 and from 1735 until 1740.

Nutsal-Khan II was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1740 until 1744.

Muhammad-Nutsal IV was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1753 until 1765.

Muhammad Mirza was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1753 until ?

Nutsal-Beg was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1765 until 1774.

Umma Khan III was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1774 until 1802.

Gebek Janku ibn Muhammad was a Khan of Avar Khanate in 1802.

Muhammad ibn Umma was a Khan of Avar Khanate in 1802.

Sultan Ahmed Khan Mehtulinski was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1802 until 1822.

Bahu (o Huh) Bike was regent of Avar Khanate from 1822 until 1823.

Surhai Khan was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1823 until 1827.

Aslan Khan de Kazi Kumuk was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1827 until 1828.

Abu Sultan was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1828 until 1834.

Ghazi Muhammad was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1830 until 1831.

Hamza Beg was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1831 until 1834.

Hadji Murat was regent of Avar Khanate from 1834 until 1836.

Mohammed Mirza Khan was a Khan of part of Avar Khanate from 1834 until 1837.

Ibrahim Khan was a Khan of Avar Khanate from 1859 until 1863.



Tabriz Khanate

Tabriz was the Khanate in present Iran.

List of Khans of Tabriz

Najafqoli Khan I was a ruler of Tabriz Khanate from 1731 until 1784.

Najafqoli Khan II was a ruler of Tabriz Khanate from 1784 until 1786.

Donboli was a ruler of Tabriz Khanate from 1786 until 1797.

Jafar Qoli Khan Donboli was a ruler of Tabriz Khanate from 1797 until 1802.


Pāratas Dynasty

The Pāratas were a dynasty of Indo-Scythian kings who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan, from the 1st century to the 3rd century CE. The dynasty of
the Pāratas is thought to be identical with the Pārthava of Iranian literature, the Parthians of Greek literature, and thePāradas of Indian literature.
[1]
The Pāratas,
an Iranian people and ruling dynasty from an area in present-day western Pakistan, are known essentially through their coinage, which typically exhibit the bust of
a particular monarch on the obverse ( having long hair within a headband), and a swastika within a circular legend on the reverse inKharoshthi (usually copper
coins) and sometimes in Brahmi (usually silver coins). Coins depicting Pārata monarchs have been found in and around the district of Loralai,Balochistan,
western Pakistan. This was the seat of their capital. The Pārata dynasty is thought to have started out as a satrapy of the northern Apraca Dynastical. Therefore
both the Apraca and the Pārata dynasties appear to have been related. However, over time, a split occurs owing to the founding by Aprācan vassals, of the Pārata
dynasty. Whether this split was attributed to feudal governance or to ideological differences [the Apracas eventually embraced Buddhism while the Pāratas
retained Zoroastrianism albeit a form which seems to have been predicated on Mithra] is not fully known, though not beyond the realm of possibility.
Herodotus in c. 440 BCE describes the Paraitakenoi as a tribe ruled by Deiokes, a Iranic monarch who ruled on eastern-most region of the Iranian plateau.
(History I.101). Arrian describes how Alexander the Great encountered the Pareitakai in Bactria and Sogdiana, and had them conquered by Craterus (Anabasis
Alexandrou IV). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE) describes the territory of the Paradon beyond the Ommanitic region, on the coast
of Balochistan.

List of Indo-Scythian kings of Baluchistan

Bagareva was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan in late 1th century and early 2th century.

Yolamira was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 125 until AD 150. He was son of Bagareva.

Bagamira was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 150. He was son of Yolamira.

Ajuna was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 150 until AD 160. He was the second son of Yolamira.

Hvaramira was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 160 until AD 175. He was the third son of
Yolamira.

Mirahvara was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 175 until AD 185. He was son of Hvaramira.

Miratakhma was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 185 until AD 200. He was son of Hvaramira.

Kozan was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 200 until AD 220. He was son of Bagavharna (and
perhaps grandson of Bagamira).

Bhimajuna was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 220 until AD 235. He was son of Yolatakhma
(and perhaps grandson of Ajuna).

Koziya was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 235 until AD 265. He was son of Kozana

Datarvharna was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 265 until AD 280. He was son of Datayola I
(and perhaps grandson of Bhimarjuna).

Datayola II was the Indo-Scythian king who ruled out of Baluchistan province of Pakistan from around AD 280 until AD 300. He was son of Datarvharna.



West Baluchistan

West Baluchistan was a state in present Iran.

List of Rulers of West Baluchistan

Nasir Khan Brahui (died June 1795) was a ruler of West Baluchistan from 1758 until his death in June 1795.

Mahmud Khan Brahui was a ruler of West Baluchistan from 1795 until ?

Mehrab Khan Narui was a ruler of West Baluchistan around 1810.

Mohammed Ali Khan was a ruler of West Baluchistan around 1839.



Persian Socialist Soviet Republic

The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (widely known as the Soviet Republic of Gilan) was a short-lived Soviet republic in the Iranian province of Gilan that lasted
from June 1920 until September 1921. It was established by Mirza Koochak Khan, a leader of the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan, and his Jangali (Foresters
Movement) partisans, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army.

List of Rulers of Persian Socialist Soviet Republic

Mohammed Amin Resulzadeh (1884 - 1955) was a briefly leader of Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (Soviet Republic of Gilan) from May 20 until June
5, 1920.

Mīrzā Kūchik Khān (Gilaki: ازری م یچو ک ) (Persian: ازری م کچو ك ) (common alternative spellings Kouchek,
Koochek, Kuchak,Kuchek, Kouchak, Koochak, kuchak, Kuçek) (1880 - December 2, 1921) was a leader of Persian Socialist Soviet
Republic (Soviet Republic of Gilan) from June 5, 1920 until his death on December 2, 1921. He was an early twentieth century
revolutionary and is considered a national hero in modern Iranian history. He was the founder of a revolutionary movement based in
the forests of Gilan in northern Iran that became known as the Nehzat-e Jangal (Forest movement). This uprising started in 1914 and
remained active against internal and foreign enemies until 1921 when the movement was completely abandoned after the demise of
the hero. Kuchak Khan was born Younes, son of Mirza "Bozorg" (the Persian equivalent of "Sr"), and was thus nicknamed Mirza
"Kuchak" (thePersian equivalent of "Jr"), in the city of Rasht in northern Iran in 1880. He studied theology (as the only available
formal education at the time) to become a cleric at Jame Rasht in Rasht and later at Mahmudiyeh schools in Tehran. On the eve of
the Iranian constitutional revolution as all the intelligentsia and ordinary people became more involved in politics, Mirza quit his
studies to join the movement. Finally in an Imperial decree the Shah of Iran Muzaffar al-Din Shah agreed to a constitutional
monarchy in August 1906. However, the ruling feudalistic society was not ready to give up on its privileges and respect the newly
elected Parliament (Majlis). In June 1908 the parliament was shut down during a coup d'état ordered by the new monarch, Mohammad Ali Shah. The Russian
Cossack Brigade under the command of Colonel Liakhov serving the Shah bombarded the parliament and arrested pro-democracy leaders, activists, journalists,
and members of Parliament. Uprisings all over the country followed in particular in Tabriz, Ardabil andRasht. During the Tabriz uprising Kuchak Khan tried to
join Sattar Khan & Haj Baba Khan-e- Ardabili's forces, but was unable to actively participate due to an illness. He was injured in the Constitutionalist war, and
had to travel to Baku and Tbilisi for medical attention. After going through a period of renewed and bloody dictatorship nicknamed the Short
Dictatorship (or Lesser Autocracy), in July 1909 the national revolutionary forces from Gilanand central Iran (Bakhtiari tribes) were united to attack and conquer
the capital Tehran. Mirza Kuchak Khan was one of the lower rank commanders of the force that invaded the capital from North (under the command
of Sepahdar Aazam Mohammad Vali Khan Tonekaboni). Unfortunately, given the shortcomings of the advanced social thinkers and activists of the time on one
hand and the stronger establishment of the old autocracy on the other hand, again the same privileged class and their political representatives took control of the
new regime. The freedom fighters were not satisfied and in fact were disarmed, in some cases using force. Meanwhile the direct and indirect manipulation of the
country's internal politics by Tsarist Russians and the British added to the sufferings of the people and resulted in social unrest. It was during such tumultuous
period that Mirza Kuchak Khan, in collaboration with the Society of Islamic Union, started his uprising in the northern forests (Southern Caspian). Mirza
Kuchak Khan's return to Rasht was not easy since he had been expelled from Gilan by the Russian consulate for five years. His cause seems to have been a
mixture of that of the newly emerging national bourgeoisie and downtrodden peasants and therefore gained momentum soon after it started. The Jangal forces
(locally referred to as 'Jangalis' i.e., 'People of the Jungle' in Persian) defeated the local governmental and Russian troops which added to their reputation as
potential saviors of the ideas of the constitutional revolution. On June 12, 1918 Manjil was the site of a battle between the Jangali troops and the
joint British and White Russian forces. The latter force (led by General Dunsterville and Kernel Bicherakhov) although formally just trying to organize the return
of Russian soldiers back home, in reality was planning to pass through Manjil as the only passage to the Caspian in order to reach Baku and fight against the
newly formed Baku commune (led by Stepan Shahumian). General Dunsterville's private diaries and notes, including those kept during his command of the
Dunsterforce Mission to North Persia and Baku, are transcribed from the original by General Dunsterville's great granddaughter, and are co-located on the Great
War Primary Documents Archive.
[1]
Mirza Koochek Khan's troops were defeated in this war because of the use of artillery, armored car and airplanes by the joint
forces. Mirza's field commander was a German officer (Major Von Pashen) who had joined the Jangal movement after being released by them from the British
prison in Rasht. The Jangal movement was further boosted and gained gravity after the victory of the Bolsheviks in Russia. In May 1920 the Soviet Navy led
by Fyodor Raskolnikov and accompanied by Grigoriy Ordzhonikidze entered the Caspian port of Anzali. This mission was declared to be only in pursue of the
Russian vessels and ammunition taken to Anzali by the White Russian counter-revolutionary general Denikin, who had been given asylum by British forces in
Anzali. Mirza Koochak Khan agreed to cooperate with the Soviet revolutionaries on some conditions including the announcement of the Socialist Republic of
Gilan (also known as The Red Republic of the Jungle) under his leadership and lack of any direct intervention by the Sovietsin the internal affairs of the republic.
However, soon disagreements arose between Mirza and his group of advisors on one side and the Soviets and the Iranian Communist Party (evolved from the
Baku based Edalat Party). Mirza's efforts to resolve the bloody disputes by sending a petition through a delegate of two of his men to Lenin did not result in a
resolution. By 1921 and particularly after the agreement achieved between the Soviet Union and Britain the Soviets decided not to further support the Socialist
Republic of Gilan and as a result the government forces led by colonel Reza Khan (the future Reza Shah) overrun the dispersed forces of the Jungle Republic.
There is however, a different point of view that believes Mirza Kuchak Khan and his inner circles were not at the advantage to deal with and to accomplish major
radical social changes such as abandoning feudalism in Gilan which would have served the republic tremendously paving the way for its final victory. Saadollah
Darvish is appointed as the Chair of the Revolutionary Council (Commissar) of the forces missioned to Mazandaran Province, to promote the Red Iranian
Revolution in that province. The letter is signed by Mirza Koochak Khan (his usual signature Koochek-e Jangalii.e., Koochek of the Jungle) and other members
of the Revolutionary Council of The Republic of Iran, 1920. The tone and the terminology used in the letter shows the revolutionary fervor of the time and,
contrary to the suggestion of conservatism on Mirza's side by some historians, his devotion to the ideas of socialism. Mirza and his companion named Gaouk, a
Russian-German revolutionary adventurer, left alone in Talesh mountains around "Masal", both died of frostbite. His body was decapitated by a local landlord
and his head was displayed in Rasht to establish the government's new hegemony over revolution and revolutionary ideas. They buried his body
in Soleymandarab in Rasht and sent his severed head to Reza Khan [King of Iran] in Tehran. During the second world war and after the departure of Reza
Shah for exile, friends of Mirza Kuchak brought his head back from Tehran and buried it in his tomb. The tomb of Mirza kuchak in Rasht was reconstructed
after the Islamic revolution. Historians have tried to analyze the factors that contributed to the demise of the Jangal Movement. Some of the main studies
including those by Gregor Yeghikian and Ebrahim Fakhrayi (minister of Culture in Mirza's Cabinet of the Red Republic) suggest a role for both extremist actions
taken by the Communist (Edalat) Party that provoked opposing religious sentiment among the public, and Mirza Koochak Khan's religious and at times
somewhat conservative views on collaboration with the Communist Party as possible factors. It has been suggested also that the change of policy on the Soviet
side regarding pursuing global revolution (as advocated by Trotsky) versus establishing and protecting the Soviet Union was the main reason for them to withdraw
support from the Gilan republic. The second option got more support and therefore Soviets signed a treaty with British in London (1921) which necessitated
withdrawing from Northern Iran. Correspondence betweenTheodore Rothstein the Soviet ambassador in Tehran and Mirza Koochak Khan supports this view
(Ebrahim Fakhrayi). As part of his peace making efforts, Rothstein had also sent a message to the Soviet officers among Ehsanollah Khan's one thousand strong
force that had made its way towards Qazvin, not to obey his orders and as a result that campaign was defeated however, this view has been challenged by other
historians emphasizing Kuchak Khan's limited view of revolution given his socio-economic and ideological position.

Ihsan Allah Khan Doustdar (1883 - 1938) was a President of Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (Soviet Republic of Gilan) from July 1920 until October
23, 1921.



Khorasan (Khurasan)

Khorasan (Khurasan) was a state in present north eastern Iran.

List of Shahs of Khorasan (Khurasan)

Mahmoud Kiyani (Mahmoud Sistani) (died 1726) was a ruler of Khorasan (Khurasan) from 1724 until his death in 1726.

Esmail Rokh (1734 – May 14, 1796) was a ruler of Khorasan (Khurasan) from May 9, 1755 until his death on May 14, 1796.

Nadir Mirza (died 1803) was a ruler of Khorasan (Khurasan) from May 15, 1796 until his death in 1803.

Governor-general of Khorasan (Khurasan)

Hasan Khan Salar was a Governor-general of Khorasan (Khurasan) (in rebellion) from 1845 until 1851.

Governor (President of the National Committee of Khorasan)

Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessyan (1888 – October 6, 1921) was a Governor (President of the National Committee of Khorasan) from April 2 until
October 6, 1921.



Yeonguijeong of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea

Yeonguijeong (Korean pronunciation: [jʌŋ ɰi tɕʌŋ]) was a title created in 1400, during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (1392-1910) and given to the Chief
State Councillor as the highest government position of "Uijeongbu" (State Council). Existing for over 500 years, its function can be compared to that of a present
day "Prime Minister of South Korea". Only one official at a time was appointed to the position and though was generally called Yeongsang, was also referred to
as Sangsang, Sugyu or Wonbo. Although, the title of Yeonguijeong was defined as the highest post in charge of every state affairs by law, its practical functions
changed drastically depending on the particular King and whether that King's power was strong or weak.

List of Yeonguijeong (Korean pronunciation: [jʌŋ ɰi tɕʌŋ]) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea

Jung Do-jun (Korean:정도전, hanja:鄭道傳, 1342 – 1398), also known by the pen name Sambong(삼봉) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the
Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1392 until his death in 1398. He was the most powerful medieval Korean aristocrat and politician in the early Joseon dynasty. He
was the closest supporter and advisor to King Taejo, who founded the Joseon dynasty. After Taejo became the first king of Joseon, he left all state affairs to Jeong
Dojeon, making him the most powerful and influential man who shaped 500-year-long Joseon dynasty by laying down its ideological, institutional, and legal
foundations. It is even said by some historians that Jeong Dojeon founded Joseon through Taejo, rather than the other way around. Jeong Dojeon was born from
a noble family in Yeongju in present-day South Korea. His family had emerged from commoner status some four generations before, and slowly climbed up the
ladder of government service. His father was the first in the family to obtain a high post. Despite all his difficulties, he became a student of Yi Jaehyeon and with
other leading thinkers of the time such as Jeong Mong-ju, his penetrating intelligence started to affect Korean politics. Jeong's ties with Yi Seonggye and the
foundation of Joseon were extremely close. He is said to have compared his relationship to Yi to that between Zhang Liang and Emperor Gaozu of Han. Jeong's
political ideas had a lasting impact on Joseon Dynasty politics and laws. The two first became acquainted in 1383, when Jeong visited Yi at his quarters
inHamgyong province. After Taejo founded Joseon in 1392, he appointed Jeong to the highest civilian and military office simultaneously, entrusting him with all
necessary power to establish the new dynasty. Deciding all policies from military affairs, diplomacy, and down to education, he laid down Joseon's political system
and tax laws, replaced Buddhism with Confucianism as national religion, moved the capital from Gaeseong to Hanyang (present-day Seoul), changed the
kingdom's political system from fedualism to highly centralized bureaucracy, and wrote a code of laws that eventually became Joseon's constitution. He even
decided the names of each palace, eight provinces, and districts in the capital. He also worked to free many slaves and reformed land policy. After Joseon was
established in 1392, he soon collided with Yi Bang-won over the question of choosing the crown prince, the future successor to Taejo. Of all princes, Yi Bang-
won contributed most to his father's rise to power and expected to be appointed as the crown prince even though he was Taejo's fifth son. However, Jeong
Dojeon persuaded Taejo to appoint his young eighth son Yi Bang-seok (Yi Bang-won's half-brother) as the crown prince. Their conflict arose because Jeong saw
Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers while the king was to be largely symbolic figure whereas Yi Bang-won wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled
directly by the king. Both sides were well aware of each other's great animosity and were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok in
1398, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bang-won struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Do-jeon and his supporters as
well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in a coup that came to be known as the First Strife of Princes. Taejo, who helplessly watched his
favorite sons and ministers being killed by Yi Bang-won's forces, abdicated in disgust and remained angry with Yi Bang-won well after Yi Bang-won became the
third king of Joseon, Taejong.

For much of Joseon history, Jeong Dojeon was vilified or ignored despite his contribution to its founding. He was finally
rehabilitated in 1865 in recognition of his role in designingGyeongbokgung (main palace). Earlier Jeongjo published a collection of Jeong Dojeon's writings in
1791. Jeong Dojeon's once-close friend and rival Jeong Mong-ju, who was assassinated by Yi Bang-won for remaining loyal to Goryeo Dynasty, was honored by Yi
Bang-won posthumously and was remembered as symbol of loyalty throughout the Joseon dynasty despite being its most determined foe. He wrote following
books: Sambongjip (삼봉집, 三峯集), JoseonGyunggukjeon (조선경국전, 朝鮮經國典), Daemyungryuljoseonyuhhae (대명률조선어해, 大明律朝鮮語解),
Gyungjemungam (경제문감, 經濟文鑑), Bulsijapbyeon (불씨잡변, 佛氏雜辨), Simmunchundab (심문천답, 心問天答), Simgiri (심기리, 心氣理),
Hakjajinamdo (학자지남도, 學者指南圖), Jinmakdokyeol (진맥도결, 診脈圖結), Koreaguksa (고려국사, 高麗國史) and Jinbub (진법, 陣法). Jeong Dojeon
was a major opponent of Buddhism at the end of the Goryeo period. He was a student of Zhu Xi's thought. Using Cheng-Zhu Neo-Confucian philosophy as the
basis of his anti-Buddhist polemic, he criticized Buddhism in a number of treatises as being corrupt in its practices, and nihilistic and antinomian in its doctrines.
The most famous of these treatises was the Bulssi Japbyeon ("Array of Critiques Against Buddhism" ). He was a founding member of the Sungkyunkwan, the
royal Confucian academy, and one of its early faculty members. Jeong was among the first Korean scholars to refer to his thought as silhak, or "practical learning."
However, he is not usually numbered among the members of the Silhak tradition, which arose much later in the Joseon period. Jeong argued that the
government, including the king himself, exists for the sake of the people. Its legitimacy could only come from benevolent public service. It was largely on this
basis that he legitimized the overthrow of the Goryeo dynasty, arguing that the Goryeo rulers had given up their right to rule. Jeong divided society into three
classes: a large lower class of agricultural laborers and craftsmen, a middle class of literati, and a small upper class ofbureaucrats. Anyone outside this system,
including Buddhist monks, shamans, and entertainers, he considered a "vicious" threat to the social fabric.

Yi Seo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from July 13, 1401 until April 10, 1402 and from December 12, 1406 until
July 4, 1407.

Seong Seokrin was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from July 13, 1401 until April 10, 1402, from March 7, 1405
until December 12, 1406, from August 21, 1412 until April 17, 1414 and from October 28, 1415 until May 25, 1416.

Jo Jun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from July 16, 1403 until March 7, 1405.

Uian Daegun (Yi Wa) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from July 7, 1407 until January 3, 1408.

Ha Ryun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 27, 1408 until August 10, 1409, from October 11, 1408 until
August 21, 1412 and from April 17, 1414 until October 28, 1415.

Nam Jae was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 25, 1416 until November 2, 1416.

Yu Jeonghyeon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from November 2, 1416 until June 5, 1418 and from
December 7, 1418 until September 7, 1424.

Han Sanggyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from June 5 until September 3, 1418.

Sim On (1375 – January 18, 1419) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from September 3, until December 7, 1418.
He was father of a Queen and father-in-law to King Sejong. He is known for his treason charges, which eventually led to his death and further strengthening of the
royal power. Born of the Cheongsong Sim clan (靑松 沈氏), during the late Goryeo Dynasty, he passed the examinations and entered the government at age
eleven. At that time, general Yi Seong-gye had full control of the government and had eliminated most of his rivals throughout Goryeo. Sim On, fully realizing
that the Goryeo dynasty was at its end, joined Yi‘s fraction and worked hard in bringing about a new dynasty. Finally, when General Yi rose to the throne in 1392,
Sim On was one of those who gained a new post and influence in assisting Yi found the Joseon Dynasty. In 1411, under King Taejong‘s rule, Sim On was
appointed to the post of administrating the province of Hamgyong-do. He dismissed corrupt sheriffs and judges, and toiled in improving the governmental power
in the region. As Sim On was a very capable civil administrator, he was promoted several times, and also worked in the roles of the Minister of Industry, Civil
Affairs and Agriculture. When the court began selecting the candidates for the princess consort of Chungnyeong (later King Sejong), he included his daughter in
the candidacy, resulting in her selection. When Chungnyeong became king in the year 1418, Sim‘s daughter "Lady Sim" (심씨; 沈氏, women were referred by
only their family names; ssi means family) became Queen Sohunhwanghu, and Sim On rose to the office of "Prime Minister" the highest non-royal role in the
country. When Sim On was appointed to the office of Prime Minister, the office of the "Western Minister" was occupied Park Eun (박은; 朴訔), of the bon-nam
park ssi. Park clan. The relationship between these two ministers was atrocious, and there were frequent disputes between them. At the time, King Taejong had
resigned from his post of monarch and occupied the post of Retired King (태상왕; 太上王). However, most of the nation‘s internal and external affairs were run
by Taejong, and the current King Sejong remained as a figurehead. As he was a general during the late Koryo days, Taejong was a firm, conservative,
totalitarian despot. He frequently worried about the fact that. in the future. the dynasty would be ruled mostly by ministers, rather than by the Crown, like the
Goryeo Dynasty. Therefore he took extensive measures to strengthen the authority of the royal court. Due to this fact in the government, Sim-On‘s younger
brother Sim Jeong, complained that the King‘s power was totally limited by the looming presence of Taejong. When this statement reached the ears of the
Retired King, he condemned the whole Sim family. As Sim-On was one of the most influential men of the country. As the prime minister and father of the
Queen, his presence could not be ignored. Furthermore, "Western Minister" Park Eun framed Sim-On by revealing that On‘s influence was overflowing. At this
time, Sim-On had fulfilled his duty of Prime Minister by visiting the Ming Empire as an emissary of Joseon at Saeunsa (사은사; 謝恩使). He was just returning
from his trip when he was arrested at the Korean territory of Uiju (의주; 義州) and transported under custody to the capital Hanyang, then to the city
of Suwon (수원; 水原). At Suwon he was tortured to admit his crimes. The director of the torture was Park Eun, who had framed the crime on Sim in the first
place. Finally, after days of torture, Sim succumbed to the accusations and confessed. Just before he was executed, he muttered the famous phrase, ―My
descendants… Do not marry a Park. It will bring shame and misfortune to the family.‖ After Sim On was executed for his fabricated crimes, Park Eun was
promoted to Prime Minister. Many of the Sim family were condemned, and even the Queen Soheon was threatened to be stripped of her title as queen.
However, King Sejong tried to protect her, and succeeded. King Taejong also supported Queen Soheon, telling the minister not to mention the matter of
stripping Queen Soheon's title. However, Sim-On‘s name became a taboo during the remainder of Taejong‘s presence. Even Sejong could not regain the dignity
of the minister‘s name. However, when Sejong and Queen Soheon‘s son King Munjong rose to the throne, Sim-On was absolved of his crimes, and
posthumously reinstated to the office of Prime Minister. He was also made a lord, and is also known as Lord of Anhyo (안효공; 安孝公). The Sim family
continued to prosper, with Sim-On‘s second son Sim Hwe becoming Prime Minister during King Sejo‘s reign. 700 years after the incident, the Sim and Park
families have still not reconciled about the incident, with the Sim family blaming Park Eun for the framing about treason. However, historians generally agree that
Park was merely a tool in Taejong‘s master plan of royal totalitarianism. As Taejong was a conservative king, he did not want a queen‘s family gaining power and
influence over the Joseon Dynasty. As his mindset was educated in the Goryeo Dynasty, he came to believe in the danger of handing over the power to another
non-royal family, which could have led to another dynasty.

Yi Jig was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from September 7, 1424 until September 7, 1431.

Hwang Hui (korean:황희, Hanja: 黃喜, March 8, 1363 – February 28, 1452) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the
Joseon Dynasty of Korea from September 7, 1431 until October 5, 1449. Hwang Hui was an official of Goryeo Dynasty. He became an
official in the Joseon Dynasty in 1394. Hwang Hui once banished from Seoul because he advocated Yangnyeong, the eldest prince
of King Taejong, despite his bad behavior in 1418. After King Sejong the Great's enthronement, Hwang Hui got reappointed and held
many ministerial posts. Hwang Hui was appointed as a prime minister in 1431. He retired from the government after 18 years. He
served as the Yeonguijeong, the highest ranking of 3 appointed royal prime ministers (the others being Uuijeong and Jwaguijeong) for a
total of 18 years with a total of 24 years service to the monarchy. He was noted for his political philosophy that stated, ―That which is just
takes priority and must be enacted.‖ Priorities during his administration included agricultural improvement, mitigating laws that increased
social class gaps, and providing opportunities for candidates born out of wedlock or from concubines to take the civil service
examination.

Ha Yeon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from October 5, 1449 until October 27, 1451.

Hwangbo In was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from October 27, 1451 until October 11, 1453.

Jeong Inji was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from June 11, 1455 until December 7, 1458.

Jeong Changson was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from December 7, 1458 until November 5, 1459, from April
29, until May 20, 1461 and from July 1, 1475 until March 28, 1485.

Gang Maenggyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from November 5, 1459 until April 29, 1461.

Sin Sukju was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 20, 1461 until April 18, 1466 and from October 23, 1471
until July 1, 1475.

Gu Chigwan was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 18 until October 19, 1466.

Han Myeonghoe was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from October 19, 1466 until April 6, 1467 and from January
23 until August 22, 1468.

Hwang Susin was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 6 until May 20, 1467.

Sim Hoe was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 20 until December 12, 1467.

Jo Seokmun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from December 12, 1467 until July 17, 1468.

Guseonggun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from July 17 until December 20, 1468.

Bak Wonhyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from December 20, 1468 until January 23, 1469.

Hong Yunseong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from August 22, 1468 until April 6, 1470.

Yun Jaun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 6, 1470 until October 23, 1471.

Yun Pilsang was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from March 28, 1485 until November 6, 1493.

Yi Geugbae was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from November 6, 1493 until March 20, 1495.

No Sasin was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from March 20 until April 10, 1495.

Sin Seungseon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from October 4, 1495 until April 11, 1500.

Han Chihyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 11, 1500 until January 4, 1503.

Seong Jun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from January 4, 1503 until April 4, 1504.

Yu Sun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 4, 1504 until September 27, 1509 and from October 1, 1514
until April 9, 1516.

Bak Wonjong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from September 27, 1509 until March 6, 1510.

Kim Sudong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from March 6, 1510 until October 7, 1512.

Yu Sunjeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from October 7, 1512 until April 2, 1513.

Seong Huian was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 2 until October 27, 1513,

Song Il was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from October 27, 1513 until October 1, 1514.

Jeong Gwangpil was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 9, 1516 until February 14, 1520 and from
October 21, 1527 until ?.

Kim Jeon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from February 14, 1520 until April 18, 1523.

Nam Gon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 18, 1523 until October 21, 1527 and from ? until May 28,
1533.

Jang Sunson was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 28, 1533 until November 20, 1534.

Han Hyowon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from November 20, 1534 until March 26, 1535.

Kim Geunsa was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from March 26, 1535 until November 2, 1537.

Yun Eunbo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from February 2, 1537 until January 1545.

Hong Eonpil was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in January 1545 and from May 17, 1548 until May 21, 1549.

Yun Ingyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from January 1545 until May 17, 1548.

Yi Gi was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 21, 1549 until August 28, 1551.

Sim Yeonwon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from August 23, 1551 until May 29, 1558.

San Gjin was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 29, 1558 until January 17, 1563,

Yun Wonhyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from January 17, 1563 until August 15, 1565,

Yi Jungyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from August 15, 1565 until March 22, 1573.

Gwon Cheol was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from March 22, 1573 until April 11, 1574 and from August 18,
1576 until May 25, 1580.

Hong Seom was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from April 11, 1574 until August 18, 1576.

Bak Sun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 25, 1580 until May 11, 1588.

No Sunsin was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from May 11, 1588 until ?

Choe Heungwon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in late 16th century.

Yi Wonik was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in late 16th century, in 1608 and in 1623.

Yu Seong-ryong (1542–1607) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in late 16th century. Yu Seong-ryong, also often
spelled Ryu Seong-ryong, was a scholar-official of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He held many responsibilities including the Chief State Councilior position in
1592. He was a member of the "Eastern faction", and a follower ofYi Hwang. Yu was born in Uiseong, in Gyeongsang province, to a yangban family of the
Pungsan Ryu clan. Yu is said to have been so precocious that he absorbed the teachings of Confucius and Mencius at the age of 8. In 1564 the 19th year
of Myeongjong, he passed the Samasi examination, and in 1566 he passed the Mun-gwa at a special examination, and then took the post of Gwonji
bujeongja (권지부정사, 權知副正字). He held various other positions and in 1569 he joined the imperial birthday mission to Ming as a Seojanggwan (서장관,
書狀官), returning to Korea the following year. Thereafter he held posts including Inspector of Classics (경연검토관, 經筵檢討官) and devoted himself to
editing, being granted a royal sabbatical (사가독서, 賜暇讀書).
[1]
Subsequently he held posts including Gyori (교리, fifth jeong rank) and Eunggyo (응교, 應敎,
fourthjeong rank). He was appointed Jikjehak (직제학, 直提學) in 1575 and Bujehak (부제학, 副提學) in 1576.
[1]
Continually he held posts
including Doseongji (都承旨), Daesaheon (대사헌, 大司憲) and Daejehak (대제학, 大提學).
[1]
In 1590, he was appointed Uuijeong (Third State Councillor)
and Pungwon Buwongun (풍원부원군, 豊原府院君).
[1]
In 1591, he was promoted to Jwauijeong (Second State Councillor) and Ijo Panseo (이조판서, Minister
of Personnel, the first ranked of the six Ministries). However, the Easterners faction split into the Southerners and the Northerners. Yu Seong-ryong was a
Southerner (claiming exile, instead of death, for Jeong Cheol, the leader of the Westerners rival faction). He was in the rank of
provincial Dochechalsa (도체찰사, 都體察使) when the Imjin War broke out in 1592 also he was appointedYeonguijeong, the Chief State Councillor.
[1]
Yu
Seongryong accompanied the royal family at Hanseong to Uiju.
[1]
In this capacity, he oversaw all military units and called leaders like Yi Sun-sin and Gwon Yul to
battle. He also fought on the Korean-Chinese allied forces side in the Siege of Pyongyang.
[1]
He suggested of establishment the Hunnyeon Dogam (훈련도감,
訓鍊都監, Training capital garrison). In 1598, he was ousted by the Northerners faction. King Seonjo rehabilitated him. However, he refused to take office as a
minister in 1600. In 1602, Joseon government bestowed honors upon him, as the second rank of Hoseong Gongsin (호성공신, 扈聖功臣), and
appointed Pungwon Buwongun again. After which he spent his time on political writing before died in 1607. Yu's major writings are preserved in
the Seoaejip (The anthology of Seoae, 서애집, 西厓集), Jingborok (The book of Correction, 징비록, 懲毖錄), and minor writings as Hwanghwajip(황화집,
皇華集), Jeongchungrok (정충록, 精忠錄). Yu Seong-ryong was enshrined in the Byeongsan Seowon and Hogye Seowon in Andong, North Gyeongsang.

Yun Dusu was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in late 16th century.

Yi Sanhae was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Yi Hangbok was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Yun Seunghun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Yu Yeonggyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Yi Deokhyeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Gi Jaheon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Jeong Inhong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Bak Seungjong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in early 17th century.

Sin Heum was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Oh Yungyeom was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Yun Bang was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Sim Ryu was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Yi Hongju was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Choe Myeonggil was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Yi Seonggu was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Hong Seobong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Sim Yeol was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the first half 17th century.

Kim Jajeom was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea around middle 17th century.

Yi Gyeongseok was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Kim Yuk was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Yi Sibaek was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Sim Jiwon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Jeong Taehwa was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Hong Myeongha was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Kim Suheung was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Heo Jeok was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Kim Seokju was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Kim Suhang was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Gwon Daeun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Nam Guman was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in the second half 17th century.

Yu Sang Un was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1696 until 1699.

Seo Mun Jung was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1700 until 1701 and in 1702.

Choe Seok Jeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1701, 1702 until 1703 and from 1705 until 1710.

Sin Wan was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1703 until 1705.

Yi Yeo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1710.

Seo Jong Tae was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1711 until 1712 and from 1714 until 1716.

Yi Yu was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1712 until 1713.

Kim Chang Jip was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1717 until 1721.

Jo Tae Gu was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1721 until 1723.

Choe Gyu Seo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1723 until 1724.

Yi Gwang Jwa was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1724 until 1729 and from 1737 until 1740.

Hong Chi Jung was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1729 until 1732.

Sim Su Yeon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1732 until 1735.

Yi Ui Hyeon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1735 until 1737.

Kim Jae Ro was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1740 until 1754.

Yi Cheon Bo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1754 until 1758 and in 1759.

Yu Cheok Gi was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1758 until 1759.

Kim Sang Ro was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1759 until 1760.

Hong Bong Han was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1761 until 1762, from 1763 until 1763 and from 1768
until 1770.

Sin Man was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1762 until 1763.

Yun Dong Do was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1766.

Seo Ji Su was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1766 until 1767 and in 1768.
Kim Chi In was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1767 until 1768, in 1768, from 1770 until 1772 and from 1786
until 1789.

Kim Sang Bok was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1772.

Sin Hoe was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1772, from 1772 until 1773 and from 1774 until 1775.

Han Ik Mo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1772, in 1773, in 1774 and in 1775.

Kim Sang Cheol was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1775 until 1776

Kim Yang Taek was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1776 until 1779 and from 1780 until 1781.

Seo Myeong Sun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1779 until 1780, from 1781 until 1783 and from 1784
until 1785.

Jeong Jon Gyeom was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1783 until 1784 and from 1785 until 1786.

Kim Ik was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1789 and in 1790.

Kim Jae Hyeop was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1789 until 1790.

Choe Hyo Won was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1790 until 1793.

Chae Je Gong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1793.







Hong Nak Seong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1793 until 1798.

Yi Byeong Mo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1799 until 1800, from 1803 until 1805 and in 1806.

Sim Hwan Ji was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1800 until 1802.

Yi Si Su was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1802 until 1803.

Seo Mae Su was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1805 until 1806.

Kim Jae Chan was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1812 until 1816 and from 1821 until 1823.

Seo Yong Bo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1819 until 1821.

Han Yong Gwi was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1821.

Nam Gong Cheo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1823 until 1833.

Yi Sang Hwang was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1833 until 1834 and from 1837 until 1838.

Sim Sang Gyu was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1834 until 1835.

Jo In Yeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1841 until 1844 and in 1850.

Kwon Don In was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1845 until 1848 and from 1851 until 1852.

Jeong Won Yong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1848 until 1850 , from 1862 until 1863 and in 1868.

Kim Heung Geun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1853.

Kim Jwa Geun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1853 until 1859, from 1861 until 1862 and from 1863
until 1864.

Jeong Won Yong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1859 until 1861 and in 1868

Jo Du Sun was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1864 until 1866.

Yi Kyeong Jae was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1866 until 1867.

Kim Byeong Hak was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1867 until 1868 and from 1868 until 1872.

Hong Sun Mok was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1872 until 1873 and from 1882 until 1884.

Yi Yu Won was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1873 until 1875.

Yi Choe Eung (1815 – 1882) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1875 until 1882.

Seo Dang Bo was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1882.

Kim Byeong Guk (1825 – 1905) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1884.

Sim Sun Taek was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1884 until 1894, in 1898, in 1901 and in 1902.

Kim Byeong Si (1832 – 1898) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1894, in 1896 and in 1898.

Kim Hong Jip (died February 11, 1896) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1894 until 1895 and from 1895
until his death on February 11. 1896.

Bak Jeong Yang (1841 – 1895) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1895.

Yun Yong Seon was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1896 until 1898, from 1899 until 1901, from 1901 until
1902, from 1902 until 1903 and again in 1903.

Jo Byeong Se was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1898 until 1899.

Yi Geun Myeong was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1903 and acting from 1903 until 1905.

Bak Je Sun was acting Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1905.

Yi Wan Yong (1858 - 1926) was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1905 until 1906 and from 1907 until 1910.

Min Yeong Gyu was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea in 1906.

Jo Byeong Ho was a Yeonguijeong (Chief State Councillor) of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1906 until 1907.

Chairman of the Provisional Council of the Provisional Council of Korea

Yeo Unhyeong (Yo Un-hyong) was the Chairman of the Provisional Council of Korea fromAugust 15 until Seprember 6, 1945.

Premier of the Korean People's Republic (not recognized)

Heo Heon (Ho Hon) (1885 - 1951) was the Premier of the Korean People's Republic from September 6 until September 15, 1945.

Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Exile

Chairman of the Provisional Legislative Assembly

Lee Dong Nyong (Yi Dongnyeong) (1869 - 1940) was the Chairman of the Provisional Legislative Assembly of Provisional Government of the Republic of
Korea in Exile from April 10until September 6, 1919.

President of the Republic of Korea in Exile

Park Eun Sik (Park Eun-sik) (1859 – November 1, 1925) was the President of the Republic of Korea in Exile from March 23 until November 1, 1925 and
Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea in Exile from December 1924 until March 1925.



List of Chairmens of the Republic of Korea in Exile

Lee Dong Nyong was the Chairmen of the Republic of Korea in Exile from August 1927 until March 1933, from October until November 1935 and from
November 1936 until October 1940. He was also Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea in Exile from April 13 until September 15, 1919, from January 24
until May 16, 1921 and from April until December 1924.

Song Pyung Jo was the Chairmen of the Republic of Korea in Exile from March 1933 until January 1934.

Yang Ki Suk was the Chairmen of the Republic of Korea in Exile from January 1934 until October 1935.

Lee Si Yong was the Chairmen of the Republic of Korea in Exile from November 1935 until November 1936.

Kim Gu (Kim Ku) (1876 - 1949) was the Chairmen of the Republic of Korea in Exile from October 1940 until August 1945 and Prime Minister of the
Republic of Korea in Exile from December 24, 1926 until April 1927.

List of Prime Ministers of the Republic of Korea in Exile

Lee Tong Hui (Yi Donghwhi) (1873 - 1935) was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea in Exile

Shin Kyu Sik (Sin Gyu-sik) (1879 – September 25, 1922) was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea in Exile from May 16, 1921 until his death on
September 25, 1922.

Lho Bak Rin was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea in Exile from September 1922 until April 1924 and from March until July 1925.

Lee Sang Yong (Yi Sang-ryong) (1858 - 1932) was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea in Exile from July 1925 until 1926.

Hong Jin (Hong Myeon-hui) (1877 - 1946) was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea in Exile from July until December 1926.





Dian Kingdom

The Dian Kingdom (Chinese: 滇國 or 滇王國) was established by the Dian people, who lived around Lake Dian in northern Yunnan,China from the late Spring
and Autumn Period until the Eastern Han Dynasty. The Dian buried their dead in vertical pit graves. The Dian language was likely related to Tibeto-Burman
languages. The Dian was annexed by the Han Dynasty as the empire expanded southwards. In 109 BC, Emperor Wu of Han sent a military expedition to defeat
Dian and established the Yizhou commandery. The Dian were first mentioned historically in Sima Qian's Shiji; according to Chinese sources, the
Chinese Chu general Zhuang Qiao was the founder of the Dian Kingdom. Zhuang was engaged in a war to conquer the "barbarian" peoples of the area, but he
and his army were prevented from going back to Chu by enemy armies, so he settled down and became king of the new Dian Kingdom. The Chinese soldiers
who accompanied him married the natives. The kingdom was located around Kunming, it was surrounded, on its east, by theYelang tribes, to the west, by
Kunming tribes, and to the north in Chengdu, by the Chinese, and had relations with all of them. It is said that during King Qingxiang's (Ching-hsiang) rule over
Chu (298-236 BC), a military force was sent on a mission to the area which makes up the present day provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan which
respsectively were the lands of the Ba and Shu, Chinzong, and the Tien. Native women married the Chu soldiers, who stayed in the area. The Dian were
subjugated by the Han Dynasty under the reign of Emperor Wu of Han in 109 BC. The Dian King willingly received the Chinese invasion, in the hopes of
assistance against rival tribes. It was at this time he received his seal from the Chinese, and became a tributary.
[10]
The Han Dynasty incorporated the territory of
the Dian Kingdom into the Yizhou Commandery, but left the King of Dian as the local ruler, until a rebellion during Han Chao-ti's rule. The Chinese proceeded
with colonization, and conquered the Kunming tribes in 86 and 82 B.C., reaching Burma.

List of known Kings of Dian Kingdom

Zhuang Qiao was a founder and King of Dian Kingdom in 4 BC century. The Dian were first mentioned historically in Sima Qian's Shiji; according to
Chinese sources, the Chinese Chu general Zhuang Qiao was the founder of the Dian Kingdom. Zhuang was engaged in a war to conquer the "barbarian" peoples
of the area, but he and his army were prevented from going back to Chu by enemy armies, so he settled down and became king of the new Dian Kingdom.









List of Kings of Dammenguo Kingdom

Xinuluo (細奴邏) was a founder and King of Dammenguo Kingdom from 649 until 674. In 649 the chieftain of the Mengshe tribe, Xinuluo (細奴邏),
founded a kingdom (Damengguo 大蒙國) in the area of Lake Erhai.

Luoshengyan was a King of Dammenguo Kingdom from 674 until 712.

Chengluopi was a King of Dammenguo Kingdom from 712 until 728.




Kingdom of Nanzhao

Nanzhao, alternate spellings Nanchao and Nan Chao (Traditional Chinese: 南詔; Simplified Chinese: 南诏; pinyin: Nánzhào;Standard Tibetan: Jang
[1]
) was
a polity that flourished in what is now southern China and Southeast Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries. It was centered around present-day Yunnan in China.
Originally, there were several tribes that settled on the fertile land around the alpine fault lake Erhai. These tribes were called Mengshe (蒙舍), Mengsui (蒙嶲),
Langqiong (浪穹), Dengtan (邆賧), Shilang (施浪), and Yuexi (越析). Each tribe had its own kingdom, known as a zhao. In 649 AD the chieftain of the Mengshe
tribe, Xinuluo (細奴邏), founded a kingdom (Damengguo 大蒙國) in the area of Lake Erhai. In the year 737 AD, with the support of the Tang Dynasty of
China, Piluoge (皮羅閣) united the six zhaos in succession, establishing a new kingdom called Nanzhao (Mandarin, "Southern Zhao"). Nanzhao was made up of
many ethnic and linguistic groups. Though there were some disagreements, the majority of the population, as well as the royal family par se, were of so-called "Bai
Man(白蛮)", which have became the Bai people. There were abundant evidences to support this argument, including the cultural and linguistic proofs. There
were of course another important ethnic group called "Wu Man (乌蛮)" that played key roles in the daily business of Nanzhao. The capital was established in
738 at Taihe (modern day Taihe village, a few miles south of Dali). Located in the heart of the Erhai valley, the site was ideal: it could be easily defended against
attack, and it was in the midst of rich farmland. Nanzhao came under Tibetan threat from 680 AD. The Tibetans recognised its suzerainty after 703 and then
took the northern part of Nanzhao (where today's Jianchuan and Heqing are) under their control again from 750-794, when Nanzhao turned on their Tibetan
overlords and helped China defeat their armies.
[3]
Nanzhao had a strong connection with Tantric Buddhism, which has survived to this day at Jianchuan and
neighboring areas. The worship of Bodhisattvas Guanyin and Mahākāla is very different from other forms of Chinese Buddhism. In 750, Nanzhao rebelled
against the Tang Dynasty. In retaliation, the Tang sent an army of 80,000 soldiers, led by General Xianyu Zhongtong (鲜于仲通) against Nanzhao in 751, but this
army was soundly defeated by Nanzhao Army, led by General Duan Jianwei (段俭魏) at Xiaguan. (It was in the same year that the Tang suffered another serious
defeat at the hands of the Arabs at the Battle of Talas in Central Asia; these defeats weakened the dynasty both internally and externally.) Today the General's
Cave (two kilometres west of Xiaguan), and the Tomb of Ten Thousand Soldiers (in Tianbao Park) bear witness to this great massacre. In 754, another Tang
army with the size of 100,000 soldiers, led by General Li Mi (李宓) was sent, this time from the north, but it too was defeated (and Tang was unable to send
another expedition due to the outbreak of Anshi Rebellion in the following year). Bolstered by these successes, Nanzhao expanded rapidly, first into Burma, then
into the rest of Yunnan, down into northern Laos and Thailand, and finally, north into Sichuan. In 829, Chengdu was taken; it was a great prize, as it allowed
Nanzhao to have captured roughly 20,000 technicians from China, whose talents were fully employed in the building of the Kingdom. By 873, Nanzhao had
been expelled from Sichuan, and retreated back to Yunnan. Taking Chengdu marked the high point of the Nanzhao kingdom, and it was a watershed: from then
on, the Nanzhao Kingdom slowly declined. In 902, the Nanzhao dynasty was overthrown. The end was bloody, for in that year the chief minister murdered all of
the key members of the royal family, including the heir apparent. This was followed by three other dynasties in quick succession: Da Changhe, Da Tianxing and
Da Yining. Duan Siping seized power in 937 to establish the Kingdom of Dali.

List of Kings of Nanzhao Kingdom

Khun Borom Rachathirath, Piluoge (皮羅閣) is the legendary progenitor of the Tai-speaking peoples, considered by the Lao and others to be the father
of their race and the first King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 728 until 748. In the framework of Chinese historiography Khun Borom is identified
as Piluoge (皮羅閣) who unified the kingdom of Nanzhao's six parts and ruled it in 728—748. He had military assistance and titles from Emperor Xuanzong of
Tang, and in 740 established his capital at Daiho near modern Dali. According to the myth of Khun Borom, commonly related among Tai-speaking
peoples, people in ancient times were wicked and crude. A great deity destroyed them with a flood, leaving only three worthy chiefs who were preserved
in heaven to be the founders and guides for a new race of people. The deity sent the three chiefs back to the earth with a buffalo to help them till the land. The
chiefs and the buffalo arrived in the land of Muang Then (believed to be present-day Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam). Once the land had been prepared
for rice cultivation, the buffalo died and a gourd vine grew from his nostril. From the gourds on the vine, the new human race emerged—relatively dark-skinned
aboriginal peoples emerging from gourds cut open with a hot poker, and the lighter skinned Lao emerging from cuts made with a chisel. The gods then taught the
Tai peoples how to build houses and cultivate rice. They were instructed in proper rituals and behaviour, and grew prosperous. As their population grew, they
needed aid in governing their relations and resolving disputes. Indra, the king of gods, sent his son, Khun Borom, to be the ruler of the Tai people. Khun Borom
ruled the Tai people for 25 years, teaching them to use new tools and other arts. After this quarter-century span, Khun Borom divided the Tai kingdom among
his seven sons, giving each one of them a portion of the kingdom to rule. The eldest son, Khun Lo, was given the Dian Kingdom- modern-day Kunming. Other
sons were assigned to conquer the Jiuli tribes. Some interpreters of the story of Khun Borom believe that it describes Tai-speaking peoples arriving in Southeast
Asia from China (mythically identified with heaven, from which the Tai chiefs emerge after the flood). The system of dividing and expanding a kingdom in order
to provide for the sons of a ruler agrees in general with the apparent organization and succession practices of ancient Tai village groups was called mueang. Khun
Bourom Maharasa dynasty - The great King of the Nan Chao (Ai Lao) Empire. Khun Borom had nine sons, and seven of them became kings in different
kingdoms in "Lamthong": "Khun Lor" ruled Moung Sawa (Sua), (Luang Phrabang, Laos), "Khun Palanh" ruled Sipsong Panna, (Yunnan, China), "Khun Chusong"
ruled Tung Kea, (Muang Huao-Phanh to Tonkin, Vietnam), "Khun Saiphong" ruled Lanna, (Chiang Mai, Thailand), "Khun Ngua In" ruled Ayuthaya, (Thailand),
"Khun Lok-Khom" ruled Moung Hongsa (Inthaputh), (Shan state, Burma) and "Khun Chet-Cheang" ruled Moung Phuan, (Xieng Khouang, Laos). There were 19
kings after Khun Lor who ruled Muang Sawa (Sua). The last one was Khun Vaang. After his death, his son who was named "Lang", took the throne and was then
named "King Langthirath". After King Langthirath died, his son (Thao Khamphong) was crowned as "King Souvanna Khamphong." After King Souvanna
Khamphong died, his son "Chao Fifah" or "Khamhiao" took the throne. Chao Fifah (Khamhiao) had six sons and one of them was "Chao Fa-Ngum". King Fa
Ngum was the creator of the Lan Xang Kingdom during his reign in the 13th century. Both King Mangrai of Chiang Mai and Uthong of Ayutthaya are said to
have been descendants of Khum Borom's younger sons. Scholar David K. Wyatt believes that the Khun Borom myth may provide insight into the early history
of the Tai people in Southeast Asia. Versions of the Khun Borom myth occur as early as 698 CE in Siang Khwang, and identify Tai-speaking kingdoms that
would be formally established years later. This may indicate the early geographical spread of Tai-speaking peoples, and provides a mythological explanation for
why modern Tai-speaking peoples are found in such widespread pockets. Linguistic analysis indicates that the division of the early Tai speakers into the language
groups that gave rise to modern Thai, Lao and other languages occurred sometime between the 7th and 11th centuries CE. This split proceeded along
geographic lines very similar to the division given in the Khun Borom legend.

Shun-wu Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 748 until 778.

Hsiao Heng Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 778 until 808.

Hsiao Wen Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 808 until 809.

Yu Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 809 until 819.

Ching Wang was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 819 until 824.

Chao Ch'eng Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 824 until 859.

Ching Chuang Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 859 until 877.

Hsuan Wu Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 877 until 897.

Hsiao Ai Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 897 until 901.

Te Heng Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 901 until 910.

Su Wen Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 910 until 927.

Kung Hui Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 927 until 928.

Tao K'ang Ti was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom in 928.

T'ai Tsu was the King of Nanzhao Kingdom from 928 until 937.



Kingdom of Muang Sua

Muang Sua (some sources Muang Sawa) was an ancient name for today's Lao city of Luang Prabang, and the kingdom of the same name in the heart of Southeast
Asia. City and country in the late 7th century or the 8th Ages founded by Prince Khun Lo, one of the sons polulegendarnog Thai king Khun Borom. Since it has
given rise next 15 kings and similar claims today Lao royal house. Dynasty was stopped before the end of the 9th century when the area was occupied Khmer
Empire under Indravarman I. Muang Sua was the name of Luang Phrabang following its conquest in 698 by a Tai prince, Khun Lo, who seized his opportunity
when the king of Nanzhao was engaged elsewhere. Khun Lo had been awarded the town by his father, Khun Borom, who is associated with the Lao legend of the
creation of the world, which the Lao share with the Shanand other peoples of the region. Khun Lo established a dynasty whose fifteen rulers reigned over an
independent Muang Sua for the better part of a century.

List of known Kings of Muang Sua

Khun Lo (died 780) was legendary founder of the city of Luang Prabang and King of Muang Sua Kingdom in the second half 8th century until his death in
780. He was the eldest of the seven sons of the Khun Borom, and is credited as being the first of the prehistoric Lao monarchs. The royal families of Laos trace
their lineage to him. Khun Lo died in 780 and was succeeded by Khun Sung.

Khun Sung was the King of Muang Sua Kingdom in late 8th century.

Chanthaphanit was the King of Muang Sua Kingdom in the second half 11th century. He was the local ruler of Xayfong, moved north to Muang Sua and was
accepted peacefully as ruler after the departure of the Nanzhao administrators. Chanthaphanit and his son had long reigns, during which the town became known
by the Thai name Xieng Dong Xieng Thong. The dynasty eventually became involved in the squabbles of a number of principalities.

Khun Chuang was the King of Muang Sua Kingdom from 1128 until 1169. He was a warlike ruler who may have been a Kammu (alternate spellings include
Khamu and Khmu) tribesman, extended his territory as a result of the warring of these principalities and probably ruled from 1128 until 1169. Under Khun
Chuang, a single family ruled over a far-flung territory and reinstituted the Siamese administrative system of the seventh century.

Sipsong Panna was the King of Muang Sua Kingdom in late 12th century. By 1180 the Sipsong Panna had regained their independence from the Khmers,
however, and in 1238 an internal uprising in the Khmer outpost of Sukhothai expelled the Khmer overlords.

Panya Lang was the King of Muang Sua Kingdom from 1271 until 1286. In 1271 Panya Lang, founder of a new dynasty headed by rulers bearing the title
panya (lord), began his rule over a fully sovereign Muang Sua. In 1286 Panya Lang's son, Panya Khamphong, was involved in a coup d'état that was probably
instigated by the Mongols and that exiled his father. Upon his father's death in 1316, Panya Khamphong assumed his throne.

Panya Khamphong was the King of Muang Sua Kingdom from 1286 until his death in 1316. In 1271 Panya Lang his father founder of a new dynasty
headed by rulers bearing the title panya (lord), began his rule over a fully sovereign Muang Sua. In 1286 Panya Khamphong, was involved in a coup d'état that
was probably instigated by the Mongols and that exiled his father. Upon his father's death in 1316, Panya Khamphong assumed his throne. Ram Khamhaeng, an
early ruler of the new Thai dynasty in Sukhothai, made himself the agent of Mongol interests, and in 1282-84 eliminated the vestiges of Khmer and Cham power
in central Laos. Ramkhamhaeng obtained the allegiance of Muang Sua and the mountainous country to the northeast. Between 1286 and 1297, Panya
Khamphong's lieutenants, acting for Ramkhamhaeng and the Mongols, pacified vast territories. From 1297 to 1301, Lao troops under Mongol command invaded
Dai Viet but were repulsed by the Vietnamese. Troops from Muang Sua conquered Muang Phuan in 1292-97. In 1308 Panya Khamphong seized the ruler of
Muang Phuan, and by 1312 this principality was a vassal state of Muang Sua. Mongol overlordship was unpopular in Muang Sua. Internal conflicts among
members of the new dynasty over Mongol intervention in their affairs resulted in continuing family upheavals.

Fa Ngieo was the King of Muang Sua Kingdom from 1316 until 1335. Panya Khamphong his grandfather exiled his son Fa Phi Fa and most likely intended to
leave the throne to his younger grandson, Fa Ngieo. Fa Ngieo, involved in various coups and coup attempts, in 1330 sent his two sons to a Buddhist monastery
outside the Mongol realm for safety. The brothers were kidnapped in 1335 and taken to Angkor, where they were entrusted to King Jayavarman Paramesvara,
whose kingdom had acknowledged Mongol suzerainty since 1285. The younger brother, Fa Ngum, married one of the king's daughters and in 1349 set out
from Angkor at the head of a 10,000-man army. His conquest of the territories to the north of Angkor over the next six years reopened Mongol communications
with that place, which had been cut off. Fa Ngum organized the conquered principalities into provinces, and reclaimed Muang Sua from his father and elder
brother. Fa Ngum was crowned king of Lan Xang at Vientiane, the site of one of his victories, in June 1354. Lan Xang extended from the border of China to
Sambor below the Mekong rapids at Khong Island and from the Vietnamese border to the western escarpment of the Khorat Plateau.



Lan Xang

The Lao kingdom of Lan Xang Hom Khao (Lao: lâansâang - "million" + "elephant"+ "Under the White Parasol"; Pali:

,
Sisattanakhanahut; Thai: ล้ านช้ าง, RTGS: Lan Chang; Vietnamese: Vạn Tượng) existed as a unified kingdom from 1354-1707. For three and a half centuries Lan
Xang was one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The "million elephants under the white parasol," of the kingdom's name alludes to the power of the
kingship and formidable war machine of the early kingdom.
[1]
The kingdom is the precursor for the country of Laos, and the basis for the national historic and
cultural identity.

List of Kings of Lan Xang Kingdom

Fa Ngum (died 1393) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1353 until 1372.

Sam Sen Thai (died 1417) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1372 until his death in 1417.

Lan Kham Deng (1375 - 1428)

was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1417 until his death in 1428.

Maha Devi (died 1440) was a Queen of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1428 until his death in 1440. The title of a powerful queen consort whose name is disputed
(pehaps a queen of Sam Sen Thai) but served as regent/power broker through a succession of kings.

Phommathat (died 1429) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1428 until his death in 1429.

Kham Teun was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom in 1429

Yukorn (Meun Sai) (died 1430) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1429 until his death in 1430.

Khon Kham (died 1432) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1431 until his death in 1432.

Kham Tem Sa was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom in 1433.

Lu Sai was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom in 1434.

Khai Bua Ban (died 1438)

was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1435 until his death in 1438.

Khong Keut (died 1438) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1436 until his death in 1438.

Chakkaphat (died 1479) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1438 until his death in 1479.

Suvanna Banlang (Theng Kham) (died 1485)

was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1479 until his death in 1485.

La Sen Thai (died 1495) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1485 until his death in 1495.

Som Phou (Samphou) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1495 until 1500.

Vixun (Visoun, Visunarat) (died 1520) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1500 until his death in 1520.

Photisarath (died 1548) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1520 until his death in 1548.

Setthathirath (died 1572) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1548 until his death in 1572.

Sen Soulintha (Saen Surin) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1572 until 1575 and from 1579 until 1582. From 1571 until 1572 he was minister and
general to Setthathirath not of royal descent, regency.

Tha Heua was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1575 until 1579. He was son of Photisarath and Burmese vassal.

Nakhon Noi was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1582 until 1583. He was son of Sen Soulintha, not of royal descent.

Nokeo-Koumane (died 1596) was a King of Lan Xang in 1575 and from 1591 until his death in 1596.

Vorouvong Sa II (1585 - 1622) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1596 until 1621.

Ouphagnauvarath I (1597 - 1622) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1621 until his death in 1622.

Phothisarath II (1552 - 1627) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1623 until his death in 1627.

Mom Keo (died 1633) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1627 until his death in 1633.

Ton Khan (Ouphagnauvarath II) (died 1637) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1633 until his death in 1637.

Vickhsai (died 1638) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1637 until his death in 1638.

Sulingvongsa (1618 - 1690) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1638 until his death in 1690.

Tian Thala (died 1696) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1690 until 1695.

Nan Tharat (died 1698) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1695 until his death in 1698.




Luang Prabang

Luang Prabang was city state in present Laos. With the division of Lan Xang, the city of Luang Prabang recovered its prestige as a royal city, since the capital had
moved to Vientiane with Setthariarath in1560. The city was a growing center for religion and trade, but remained politically weak and would be sacked by the
Burmese in 1764. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries the Kingdom endured as a vassal to China, Siam, Burma, and Vietnam. In 1828 following Chao
Anu‘s Rebellion the kingdom was annexed by Siam. Despite their vassal status the Kings of Luang Prabang exercised a degree of autonomy, but lacked the
security apparatus to effectively defend the kingdom (which may have been used in rebellion, as had been done in the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak).
As a result, throughout the mid-19th century Haw pirates from China were able to invade.

List of Luang Prabang Kingdom

Kingkitsarath (died 1713) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1707 until his death in 1713.

Ong Kham was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1713 until 1723. He was cousin of Kingkitsarat and Inthasom, co-ruled with Inthasom who then
deposed him in 1723. Ong Kham was later crowned King of Lan Na from 1727 until 1759.

Inthasom (died 1749) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1723 until his death in 1749. He was brother of Kingkitsarat and grandson of Souligna
Vongsa).

Inthaphom (died 1776) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom in 1749. He was son of Inthasom, reigned 8 months then abdicated to his brother Sotika
Koumane).

Sotika Koumane (before 1734 – 1771) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1749 until 1771. He was son of Inthasom, vassal to Burma, abdicated in
1771.

Suriyawong (1751 – 1791) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1771 until 1788. He was brother of Sotika Koumane and son of Inthasom, rebelled
against Burma. In 1779, following the sack of Vientiane, Suriyawong becomes a vassal of Siam.

Anourouth (died 1819) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1792 until his death in 1819. He was son of Inthasom.

Mantha Tourath (1772 - 1837) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1819 until his death in 1837. He was son of Anourouth, sought vassalage with
Vietnam against Siam). He was regent for Anurutha from 1817 until December 31, 1819; lives as a monk in Bangkok 1825-26, leaving Luang Phra Bang to be
administered by Thai officials.

Sukha-Söm (1797 – September 23, 1850) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1837 until his death on September 23, 1850.

Unkeo (died 1850) was regent of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1837 until 1838.






Chantha-Kuman (1799 – October 1, 1868) was a King of Luang Prabang Kingdom from 1850 until his death on October 1, 1868.








Oun Kham (1811 or 1816 - December 15, 1895) was King of Luang Prabang from 1872 until 1887 and a second time from 1889 until
December 15, 1895. On June 7, 1887 the Lao royal capital was seized and sacked; the elderly ruler barely escaped with his life. Between
his two ruling period he was exiled in Bangkok where he gave assistance to Auguste Pavie. The last two years of his reign ended with the
establishment of a French protectorate over Laos.





Zakarine, also known as Sakkarin, Sakharine, Sackarine, Zackarine, and Zacharine (originally Kham Souk) (full name Samdach Brhat
Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Luang Prabang Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Sakarindra) (July 16,
1840 – March 25, 1904) was the King of Luang Prabang from 1895 until his death on March 25, 1904 (regent for Unkham from April
1888 until December 15, 1895). He was brought up in Luang Phrabang and he was educated privately which only wealthy Lao people did.
Later on he married 7 wives, included Queen Thongsy, and had 10 sons and 4 daughters. Thongsy was childless, so he adopted Queen
Khamphane, wife of KingSisavang Vong, He commanded the Royal Forces against the Haw invasion, (Chinese rebels of the Taiping
rebellion) in 1874.He fled toBangkok after the sack of Luang Prabang in 1887. In 1888, the King of Siam appointed him regent for his
father. Zakarine officially succeeded his father, December 15, 1895 and was crowned at Luang Prabang, 14 July 1896.During his reign he
was forced to accept a French protectorate over the kingdom on the October 3, 1893 after his father agreed to having French protection.
He died from cerebral hemorrhage on March 25, 1904. He was succeeded by his son, King Sisavang Vong.

Prime minister of Luang Prabang Kingdom

Phetsarath Rattanavongga (1890 - 1959) was a Prime Minister of Luang Prabang Kingdom from August 21, 1941 until October 10, 1945.



Wiang Chhan (Viang Chan)

Kings

Setthathirath II (1685 - 1730) was a King of Lan Xang Kingdom from 1700 until 1707 and King of Vientiane from 1707 until his death in 1730.

Ong Long (died 1767) was a King of Vientiane from 1730 until his death in 1767.

Ong Bun (1730 - November 1781) was a King of Vientiane from 1730 until 1767 and from 1780 until hs death in November 1781.

Nanthasen (died January 1795) was a King of Vientiane from 1781 until his death in January 1795.

Intharavong Setthathirath III (died February 7, 1805) was a King of Vientiane from 1795 until his death on February 7, 1805.

Anuvong (1767 - 1829) was a King of Vientiane from 1805 until November 12, 1828.


Champasak (Nakhon Champasak)

The Kingdom of Champasak (Lao:

[càmpàːsák]) or Bassac, (1713–1946) was in 1713 proclaimed a Lao kingdom under Nokasad, a grandson of
King Sourigna Vongsa, the last king of Lan Xang; and son-in-law of the Cambodian King Chey Chettha IV. Bassac and the neighboring principalities
of Attapeu and Stung Treng, emerged as power centers under what was later to be described as the Mandala Southeast Asian political model. The kingdom was
sited on the eastern or Left Bank of the Mekong, south of the Right Bank principality ofKhong Chiam where the Mun River joins; and east of where the Mekong
makes a sharp bend to the west to return abruptly and flow southeasterly down to what is now Cambodia. Bassac, the capital city, was on the right bank, near
where the Bassac River joins the Mekong, connecting to Phnom Penh. Due to scarcity of information from the periods known as the Dark ages of Cambodia,
the Khorat Plateau seems to have been largely depopulated, and Left Bank principalities began to repopulate the Right. In 1718, a Lao emigration in the
company of an official in the service of King Nokasad founded Muang Suwannaphum as the first recorded population of Lao in the Chi Rivervalley—indeed
anywhere in the interior of the plateau. At the beginning the 18th century, and ignoring the world-wide agricultural disaster accompanying the Bassac was said to
be on a prosperous trade route as the outlet for cardamon, rubber, wax, resin, skins, horns, and slaves from the east bank to Ubon, Khorat, and Bangkok. The
region then fell victim to Siamese and French struggles to extend suzerainty. After the Laotian Rebellion of 1826-1829, Suwannaphum lost its status and
Champasak was reduced to vassalage; the Siamese-Cambodian War of 1831-1834reduced the entire region to vassalage, a situation soon further complicated by
the French striving in the same region to establish what was to become French Indochina. Following the Franco-Siamese War of 1893, the Left Bank fell under
French rule as an administrative block, with its royalty stripped of many privileges; French colonial administration of Lao kingdoms impoverished the region. The
1893 treaty called for a twenty-five-kilometer-wide demilitarized zone along the Right Bank, which made Siamese control impossible. It soon became a haven for
lawless characters from both banks of the river. Lack of clear chains of authority resulted in turmoil in the whole region, and in what was known to the Siamese
side as the "Holy Man's Rebellion". Ong Keo and Ong Kommandam of the Bolaven Plateau Alak people, led initial resistance against French control, which
subsumed into the First Indochina War. The parallel right-bank Holy Man's Rebellion of 1901-1902 was a short-lived cause. Following legal actions against
captured local leaders of the movement, the Thai government considered the case of the rebellion closed. The right-bank dependencies were absorbed into the
Siamese North-East Monthon Isan (มณฑลอีสาน) and the House of Na Champassak ceased to rule. In 1946, the kingdom, established under the grandson of the last
king of Lan Xang, was reduced to the status of a province in the first-ever united Kingdom of Laos; which on 2 December 1975, became the Lao People's
Democratic Republic.

List of Kings of Champasak

Nan Rath was the King of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1700 until 1713.

Nokasad (full name Somdetch Brhat Chao Jaya Sri Samudra Buddhangkura; alternate names Soi Si Samout Phouthong Koun; King of Champa Nagapurisiri
or Nakhon Champa Nakhaburisi, 1693 - 1738) was the King of Champasak from 1713 until his death in 1738. He was reckoned posthumously to have been
born in 1693 as Prince (Chao) Nakasatra Sungaya or Nokasat Song) was a grandson of the last king of Lan Xang, KingSourigna Vongsa; and a son-in-law of
the Cambodian King Chey Chettha IV. He was made king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1713 to 1737. In 1718, the firstLao muang in
the Chi valley — and indeed anywhere in the interior of the Khorat Plateau — was founded at Suwannaphum District in present-day Roi Et Province by an official
in the service of this king. In 1725, he turned his executive powers over to his eldest son; he died at Khorat in 1738.

Sayakumane (1710 - 1791) was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1737 until his death in 1791 (regent for Nokasad 1725-38).

Xiang Keo was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak in 1791.

Fay Na (died 1811) was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1791 until his death in 1811. He was promoted by King Rama I of Siam for
the noble title "Phra Wichaiyaratkhattiyawongsa" (th: ).

No Muong (died 1811) was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak in 1811.

Cha Nou (died 1813) was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1811 until his death in 1813.

Ma Noi (died 1821) was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1813 until his death in 1821. He was fled to Thailand in 1820.

Hui (1780 - 1840) was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1827 until his death in 1840.

Nak (1774 - 1850) was king of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1840 until his death in 1850 (regent of Kingdom of Champasak for Hui from
1827 until 1840.

Süa (died 1852) was regent of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1851 until his death in 1852.

Suriya (died 1855) was regent of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1853 until his death in 1855.

Kham Nhai (1830 - 1858) was the King of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1856 until his death in 1858.

Chu was the King of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1858 until 1860.

Kham Suk (1838 - 1900) was the King of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1862 until his death in 1900 (governor of Laotian Kingdom of
Champasak until 1863).

Bua Laphan (1874 - 1945) was the King of the southern Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1900 until 1904 and Prince of Laotian Kingdom of
Champasak from 1904 his death in 1945.

Boun Oum (1911 - 1980) was the Prince of Laotian Kingdom of Champasak from 1945 until August 26, 1946.



Xiang Khouang

The Muang of Xiang Khouang was a semi-autonomous region in Laos in what is now Xiang Khouang province. The Phuan (Pu‘on) monarchy claims descent
from Khun Borom and were part of the Lan Xang mandala. Geographic isolation and frequent warfare produced periods where the Phuan kings tried to assert
more authority, but the region remained only a key vassalage for surrounding kingdoms. The region features prominently in the 18th and 19th century as
valuable coalition piece for the rival kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak. Xiang Khouang was a trade frontier, and also frequent point of invasion, and so has
more cultural influences from China and Vietnam.

List of Kings (rath, chao xiwit) of Xiang Khouang

Chao Kham Lan (died 1688) was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1687 until his death in 1688.

Chao Kham Phuttha (died 1690) was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1688 until his death in 1690.

Chao Kham Sattha (died 1694) was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1690 until his death in 1694.

Chao Bun Lang Thai (died 1694) was the King of Xiang Khouang in 1694.

Chao Bun Lot (died 1698) was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1694 until his death in 1698.

Chao Kham Bun Khong was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1698 until 1712.

Phraña Kham Thewo (Phraña Thammatewo) (died 1714) was regent of Xiang Khouang from 1712until his death in 1714.

Chao Bun Chan was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1714 until his death in 1740.

Chao Kham Un Müang was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1740 until 1751.

Chao Ong Lo was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1751 until 1753 and from 1753 until 1759.

Chao Ong Bun was the King of Xiang Khouang in 1753.

Chao Ong Si Phom was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1779 until 1781.

Chao No Müang was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1781 until 1782.

Chao Som Phu was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1782 until 1802.

Chao Xiang was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1802 until 1803.

Chao Suthakasuvannakuman (Chao Noi) was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1803 until 1831.

Chao San was regent of Xiang Khouang from 1831 until 1835.

Phra Chao Issarasettha (Chao Po) was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1848 until 1865.

Chao Üng was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1865 until 1874.

Chao Khanti was the King of Xiang Khouang from 1876 until 1887.

Thao Xiang Phet was regent of Xiang Khouang from 1887 until 1888.




Emirate of Chouf

The Banu Ma'an tribe (also Ma'n, ALA-LC: Ma‗nī, adjective:Ma'anid, Ma'nid), were a tribe & dynasty of Qahtani Arab some of which later became Druze and
rulers of the Lebanon Mountains during a period of the Ottoman Empire, and one of the most successful ruling dynasties in Druze history which founding
Emirate of Chouf. They originated from coastal Hadramaut in southern Yemen.They moved into the Levante via Al Ahsa and formed a tribal alliance with the
larger Al Azd tribe during the journey. Their authority began to rise with Fakhr ad Din I, who was permitted by Ottoman authorities to organize his own army,
and reached its peak with Fakhr ad Din II (1572–1635). Fakhr ad Din II's rule extended "from Antioch in the north to Tsfat (Safed) in the south." Although
Fakhr ad Din II's aspirations toward complete independence for Lebanon ended in his execution by Ottoman authorities, he greatly enhanced Lebanon's military
and economic development. Noted for religious tolerance and suspected of being a Christian, Fakhr ad Din attempted to merge the country's different religious
groups into one Lebanese community.The dynasty's rule as Druze leaders in the Lebanon Mountains lasted from 1517 to 1697.

List of Emirs (title al-Amir al-Hakim - ruling emir) of the Emirate of Chouf

Fakhr al-Din I (died 1544) was a Druze prince from 1516 until his death in 1544. He was permitted by Ottoman authorities to organize his own army.

Korkmaz ibn Fakhr al-Din was a Druze prince from 1544 until 1585.

Fakhr-al-Din II ibn Maan (1572–April 13, 1635) (Arabic: ری ملا ر ف ی لا عم ), also transliterated Fakhreddine, was a Druze prince and the first
leader of the Emirate of Chouf, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries. Son of Prince Qorqmaz ibn Maan
(Arabic: ری ملا زم قر ق عم ) and Sit Nasab (Arabic: ت لا ب ن ) of the Tanukhi family, he was given the title "Emir" or Prince in Arabic because the Maan
dynasty reigned over Lebanon. His period was characterized by economic and cultural prosperity, and he had fought other Lebanese families to unite the people
of Lebanon and seek independence from the Ottoman Empire. He is therefore considered by many to be the first "Man of Lebanon" to seek the sovereignty of
modern-day Lebanon. However, the Ottomans had discovered his plot and executed him with three of his children on April 13, 1635. Born in Baakline to
a Druze family, he was raised by Sheikh Ibrahim Abou Sakr, a prominent Maronitefrom the Khazen family, in the Lebanese village of Ballouneh. In 1608 Fakhr-
al-Din forged an alliance with the Italian Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The alliance contained both a public economic section and a secret military one. Fakhr-al-
Din's popularity alarmed the Ottomans who authorized Hafiz Ahmed Pasha, Muhafiz ofDamascus, to mount an attack on Lebanon in 1612 in order to reduce
Fakhr-al-Din's growing power. Faced with Hafiz's army of 50,000 men, Fakhr-al-Din chose exile in Tuscany, leaving affairs in the hands of his brother Emir Yunis
and his son Emir Ali Beg. Fakhr-al-Din's exile did not prompt the Lebanese army to surrender to Hafiz Ahmed Pasha's army. They maintained their positions
while the military operations raged until Emir Yunus managed through negotiations and persuasion to bring an end to the killings, securing the retreat of the
Ottoman army. Hosted in Tuscany by the Medici Family, Fakhr-al-Din was welcomed by the grand duke Cosimo II, who housed him throughout his stay. Fakhr-
al-Din had wished to enlist Tuscan assistance in the liberation of Lebanon, but was met with a refusal as Tuscany was unable to afford such an expedition. The
prince soon gave up the idea, eventually realizing that such cooperation would only subject Lebanon to a new occupation. His stay nevertheless allowed him to
witness Europe's cultural revival in the 17th century. By 1617, political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many of Fakhr-al-Din's
enemies from power, allowing Fahkr-al-Din's return to Lebanon, whereupon he was able quickly to reunite all the lands of Lebanon beyond the boundaries of its
mountains; and having revenge from Emir Yusuf Pasha ibn Siyfa, attacking his stronghold in Akkar, destroying his palaces and taking control of his lands, and
regaining the territories he had to give up in 1613 in Sidon, Tripoli, Bekaa among others. Under his rule, printing presses were introduced and Jesuit priests and
Catholic nuns encouraged to open schools throughout the land. In 1623, the prince was betrayed by the Harfouch family who made arrangements with Mustafa
Pasha, Mirmiran of Damascus, to launch an attack against him, resulting in the battle at Majdel Anjar where Fakhr-al-Din's forces although outnumbered
managed to capture Pacha and secure the Lebanese prince and his allies a much needed military victory,and he took over Syria and Palestine from the Turks.
However, as time passed, the Ottomans seemed uncomfortable with the prince's increasing powers and extended relations withEurope. The promise they had
made to the Medici family, regarding the Prince of Lebanon, was ignored. In 1632, Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha was named Muhafiz of Damascus, being a rival of
Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of Sultan Murad IV, who ordered Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha and the sultanate's navy to attack Lebanon and depose Fakhr-al-Din. This
time, the prince had decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Emir Ali Beik in Wadi el-Taym was the beginning of his
defeat. He later took refuge in Jezzine's grotto, closely followed by Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha who caught eventually with him and his family. Fakhr-al-Din was taken
to Constantinople and appeared before the sultan. After a trial, Fakhr-al-Din, and three of his sons, were convicted of treason and executed there on April 13,
1635. After his death, the Maan family continued to rule in Lebanon under the name of State of Lebanon until 1842 when the first Lebanese Civil War started
between the Druze and Christians and as a result the Turks divided it into two separate provinces. Rumors have it that Fakhr-al-Din had secretly adopted the
Christian faith. Those rumours, later proven to be baseless, were encouraged by the Christian regents that followed the Maans to try to appease the powerful
Druze clans.

Ali ibn Fakhr al-Din was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf in 1635.

Mulhim Ma'an (died 1658) was a Druze prince and the second leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1635 until 1658. He was succeeded in 1635 his nephew
Fakhr ad Din founder of the Emirate of Chouf. (Fakhr ad Din's only surviving son, Husayn, lived the rest of his life as a court official in Constantinople.) Emir
Mulhim exercised Iltizam taxation rights in the Shuf, Gharb, Jurd, Matn, and Kisrawan districts of Lebanon. Mulhim's forces battled and defeated those of
Mustafa Pasha, Beylerbey of Damascus, in 1642, but he is reported by historians to have been otherwise loyal to Ottoman rule.

Korkmaz Ma'an (died 1662) was a Druze prince and leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1658 until 1662 together with his brother Ahmad Ma'an. Following
Mulhim's death in 1658, his sons Ahmad and Korkmaz (or Qurqmaz) entered into a power struggle with other Ottoman-backed Druze leaders. In 1660, the
Ottoman empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks (districts) of Sidon-Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon, a move seen by
local Druze as an attempt to assert control. An Ottoman expedition was dispatched to the area ollowing the creation of the new administrative units, initially
against the Shihabs and the Shia Hamades. The reformer - grand wazir Köprülü Mehmed Pasha came in person with the expedition. The Shihabs fled to the
Hamades in the high Kisrawan, while the Ottoman troops pillaged Wadi al-Taym.Claiming that the Shihabs allied with the Ma'anis, the Ottomans demanded
Ahmad and Korkmuz Ma'an to hand over the Shihabs and provide money for the Ottoman army, but the Ma'anis refused and fled to the Kisrawan as well. The
Ma'anis lost control and the Druze of the Galilee lost their protection. Ottoman troops pillaged the area, seeking for the lords of Shihabs, Hamades and Ma'anis,
causing "misery" to the peasants. As a result, the pro-Ottoman Druze overran much of the Galilee, most notably destroying the cities ofSafed and Tiberias.
Alternative pro-Ottoman sheikhs - Sirhal Imad and Ali Alam al-Din were briefly installed to rule the Druze country. Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi
reports that Korkmaz was killed in act of treachery by the Beylerbey of Damascus in 1662. His brother Ahmad Ma'an apparently escaped the plotting.

Ahmad Ma'an (died 1697) was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1658 until 1662 together with his brother Korkmaz Ma'an and
alone until 1697 occupied by the Ottomans as a local ruler. Following Mulhim's death in 1658, his sons Ahmad and Korkmaz (or Qurqmaz) entered into a
power struggle with other Ottoman-backed Druze leaders. In 1660, the Ottoman empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks (districts) of Sidon-
Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon, a move seen by local Druze as an attempt to assert control. An Ottoman expedition was dispatched to the
area ollowing the creation of the new administrative units, initially against the Shihabs and the Shia Hamades. The reformer - grand wazir Köprülü Mehmed
Pasha came in person with the expedition. The Shihabs fled to the Hamades in the high Kisrawan, while the Ottoman troops pillaged Wadi al-Taym.Claiming
that the Shihabs allied with the Ma'anis, the Ottomans demanded Ahmad and Korkmuz Ma'an to hand over the Shihabs and provide money for the Ottoman
army, but the Ma'anis refused and fled to the Kisrawan as well. The Ma'anis lost control and the Druze of the Galilee lost their protection. Ottoman troops
pillaged the area, seeking for the lords of Shihabs, Hamades and Ma'anis, causing "misery" to the peasants. As a result, the pro-Ottoman Druze overran much of
the Galilee, most notably destroying the cities ofSafed and Tiberias. Alternative pro-Ottoman sheikhs - Sirhal Imad and Ali Alam al-Din were briefly installed to
rule the Druze country. Contemporary historian Istifan al-Duwayhi reports that Korkmaz was killed in act of treachery by the Beylerbey of Damascus in
1662. His brother Ahmad Ma'an apparently escaped the plotting. In 1666, according to al-Safa, local Shia repulsed the governor of Sidon and a Ma'an force near
Nabatya. In 1667, Ahmad Ma'an and his supporters defeated the pro-Ottoman Alam al-Din, al-Sawaf and others, and termed Yamanis near Beirut. Ahmad
Ma'an emerged victorious in the power struggle among the Druze in 1667, but the Maʿnīs lost control of Safad and retreated to controlling the iltizam of the Shuf
mountains and Kisrawan, answerable to the Ottoman governor of Sidon. According to Abu-Husayn, after 1667 Ahmad Ma'an resumed correspondence with the
Tuscans. Ahmad continued as local ruler through his death from natural causes, without heir, in 1697. During the Ottoman-Hapsburg war of 1683 to 1699,
Ahmad Ma'n collaborated in a rebellion against the Ottomans which extended beyond his death. Iltizam rights in Shuf and Kisrawan passed to the rising Shihab
family through female-line inheritance. Despite conflicts in the 1660s, the Maan family "played the leading role in the management of the internal affairs of this
eyalet until the closing years of the 17th century, perhaps because it was not possible to manage the province-certainly not in the sanjak of Sidon-Beirut-without
them."

Bashir ibn al-Husayn was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1698 until 1706.

Haydar ibn Musa (died 1781) was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1706 until 1732.

Malham ibn Haydar was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1732 until 1758.

al-Mansur ibn Haydar (died 1774) was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1758 until 1770.

Ahmad ibn Haydar was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1758 until 1763.

al-Qasim ibn `Umar was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf in 1760 (in rebellion) .

Yusuf ibn Malham was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1770 until 1778, from 1780 until 1789 and in 1790.

Ahmad ibn Malham was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1778 until 1780.

Afandi ibn Malham was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1778 until 1780.

Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar (1767 - 1850) was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1789 until 1790, in 1790, from 1793
until 1795, from 1795 until 1799, from 1800 until 1801, from 1801 until 1821, from 1821 until 1822 and from 1822 until 1840.

Haydar ibn Malham was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1790 until 1793.

Qa`dan ibn Muhammad was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1790 until 1793 and in 1801.

al-Husayn ibn Yusuf was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1790 until 1793, in 1795 and from 1799 until 1800.

Salim ibn Yusuf was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1790 until 1793, in 1795 and from 1799 until 1800.

Sa`d ad-Din ibn Yusuf was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf from 1790 until 1793, in 1795 and from 1799 until 1800.

al-`Abbas ibn Asad was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf in 1801 and in 1822.

Salman ibn Ahmad was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf in 1801, in 1821 and in 1822.

al-Hasan ibn `Ali was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate in 1821 and in 1822.

Bashir ibn al-Qasim (died 1851) was a Druze prince and the leader of the Emirate of Chouf 1840 until January 16, 1842.


Taungoo

List of Kings of Taungoo

Sanay, Thiri Maha Thihathura Thudhammayaza (1673 – September 12, 1714) was the King of Taungoo Dynasty of Burma from May 4, 1698 until his death
on September 12, 1714.

Taninganway, Thiri Pawara Mahadhammaraja Dibati Hsengphyusheng (1689 – November 23, 1733) was the King of Taungoo Dynasty of Burma from
1714 until his death on November 23, 1733.

Mahadammayaza Dipati, Mahadhammaraja Dibati (1714 - 1754) was the King of Taungoo Dynasty of Burma from 1733 until April 15, 1752.



Shan States
The Shan States were the princely states that ruled large areas of today's Burma (Myanmar), Yunnan Province in China, Laosand Thailand from the late 13th
century until mid-20th century. The term "Shan States" was first used during the British colonialperiod as a geopolitical designation for certain areas of Burma
(officially, the Federated Shan States, consisted of today'sShan State and Kayah State). In some cases, the Siamese Shan States was used to refer to Lan
Na (northern Thailand) andChinese Shan States to the Shan regions in southern Yunnan such as Xishuangbanna.
Kengtung (Kyaingtong)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Khemadhipati Rajadhiraja) of Kengtung (Kyaingtong)
Mang Kun was a founder of Shan state of Kengtung in present Burma who reigned from 1243 until 1247.
Mang Kyin was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1247 until 1253.
Sao Nam Nam was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from1264 until 1317.
Sao Hsam Mun was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1317 until 1324.
Sao Lak was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1324 until 1342.
Sao Hsai Nan was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1342 until 1360.
Sao Yu was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1360 until 1370.
Sao Sit Pan Tu was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1379 until 1387.
Sao Ai Awn was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1387 until 1390.
Ai Wu Has was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1390 until 1403.
Yi Hkam Hka was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1403 until 1460.
Sao Hsam was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1416 until 1441.
Sao Hsam si-li was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1441 until 1456.
Ai Lao Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1456 until 1474.
Ai Lao was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung from in present Burma from 1474 until 1501.
Sao Naw Kiao was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the first half 16th century.
Hsai Hkaw was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the first half 16th century.
Hsai Hpom was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the first half 16th century.
Sao Hsam was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the first half 16th century.
Sao Kham Mu was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the first half 16th century.
Hpaya Kiao was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1523 until 1560.
Sao Möng Hka was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1560 until 1598.
Sao Hkam Tao was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1598 until 1620.
Sao Möng Hkak was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1620 until 1637.
Sao On was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma around 1640.
Sao In Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the second half 17th century.
Sao Awk was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the second half 17th century.
Sao Möng Saik was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Sao Hsam Hpi was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Sao Möng Lek (1646 - 1730) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from ? until his death in 1730.
Sao Maung Hkawn was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1730 until around 1735 and from 1739 until 1742.
Sao Mong Sin was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma around 1750.
Sao Mong Hsam (died 1786) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Sao Kawng Tai I (1769 - 1813) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1787 until 1802.
Sao Maha Hkanan (1781 - 1857) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1813 until his death in 1857.
Sao Maha Hpom (1814 - 1876) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1857 until his death in 1876.
Sao Hkam Hseng (1818 - 1881) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1876 until his death in 1881.
Sao Kawng Tai II (1829 - 1885) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1881 until his death in 1885.
Sao Kawng Hkam Hpu (1874 - 1895) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1886 untilhis death in 1895.
Sao Kawng Kiao Intaleng (1874 – July 21, 1935) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1895 until his death on July 21, 1935
(Administrator until February 9, 1897).
Sao Kawng Tai (1899 – 1937) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1935 until his death in 1937.
Sao Sai Long (1927 – 1997) was the ruler of Shan state of Kentung in present Burma from 1937 until 1959.
Hsahtung (Thaton)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Hsahtung (Thaton)
Hkun Samu was the ruler of Shan state of Hsahtung in present Burma in 1781 until around 1838.
Hkun Kyaw Le was the ruler of Shan state of Hsahtung in present Burma from 1839 until around 1896.
Hkun Law was the ruler of Shan state of Hsahtung in present Burma from around 1896 until 1905.
Sao Hkun Sing was the ruler of Shan state of Hsahtung in present Burma from 1905 until 1930.
Sao Hkun Kyi (died 1946) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsahtung in present Burma from 1930 until his death in 1946.
Sao Aung Myint was the ruler of Shan state of Hsahtung in present Burma from 1946 until1959.
Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)
List of Rulers (title Myoza; from November 6, 1848-1899? Ngwegunhmu) of Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)
Maung Pon was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma from 1759 until around 1807.
Maung Shwe Pon was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma from 1807 until 1825.
Maung Shwe E was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma first time from 1825 until 1834 and second time from 1842 until 1847.
Maung Me was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma first time from 1834 until 1842 and second time from 1847 until 1848.
Maung Shwe Min (died 1886) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma first time from 1848 until 1867 and second time from1885
until his death in 1886.
Maung Lin was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma first time in 1867 and second time from 1876 until 18..
Maung Tha U was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma from 1867 until around 1874.
Maung Kyi was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma from around 1875 until 1876.
Maung Su Ka was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma from 18.. until 1885.
Maung Hpo was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma from 1886 until his death in 1946.
Sao Htun E was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma around 1947.
Sao Htun Aye aka Aungban Sawbwa was the ruler of Shan state of Hsamönghkam in present Burma from ? until 1959.
Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)
Founded before 1858 under a Saopha, it ceased to exist in 1893.
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)
Sao Pon was the ruler of Shan state of Hsawnghsup in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Sao Ti Kyaing was the ruler of Shan state of Hsawnghsup in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Sao Haw Nga was the ruler of Shan state of Hsawnghsup in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Sao Leik Kan was the ruler of Shan state of Hsawnghsup in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Sao Aung Ba was the ruler of Shan state of Hsawnghsup in present Burma around 1850.
Sao Shwe Maung (died October 22, 1880) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsawnghsup in present Burma from 1858 until his death on October 22, 1880.
Sao Kan Mun (died 1893) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsawnghsup in present Burma from 1880 until his death in 1893.


Hsenwi (Theinni)
Hsenwi sets its legendary foundation before 650. It was ruled by a Saopha and ceased to exist in March 1888, when it was split into North Hsenwi and South
Hsenwi.
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Hsenwi (Theinni)
Hso Hung Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1686 until 1721.
Se U III was regent of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma in 1721.
Han Hpa Hko Hkam Hung was regent of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1721 until 1724.
Hpawng Mong Long Hsung Wat was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1724 until 1730.
Mong Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma in 1730.
Hkam Hong was regent of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from in 1730, in 1746, in 1750 and from 1751 until 1752.
Sao Hkam Hsawng Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1730 until 1746.
Sao Hkun Hseng Hong was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1746 until around 1747.
Mahadevi Wing Hsup Pang was regent of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from around 1747 until 1750.
Sao Mang Te was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1750 until 1751.
Hkun Hseng Awng Tun was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1761 until 1767.
Myauk Win Hmu was regent of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1767 until 1770.
Sayawadi Wun was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1770 until 1772.
Sety-taw Wun was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1772 until 1773.
U Teng Pong Nya was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1773 until 1775.
Sao Hswe Cheng (Kon) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1778 until 1800.
Sao Hsö Kaw was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1800 until 1815.
Mogaung Wun was the regent of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1815 until 1819
Sao Naw Möng was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1819 until 1821
Hkun Hkam Hkawt was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1821 until 1824.
Sao Hkam Pak was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1824 until 1827.
Sao Hkam Nan was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1827 until 1831.
Sao Hkun Maung Lek was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1831 until 1838.
Sao Hkam Leng (Hsö Hkan Hpa, died 1847) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from1838 until 1845.
Sao Hseng Naw Hpa (died 1864) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma first time from 1845 until 1848 and second time from 1853 until
1855.
Sao Hpa Mawng Hpa (died 1879) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma first time from 1858 until 1860 , second time from 1863 until
1864, third time from 1867 until 1869, fourth time from 1874 until 1875, fifth time 1876 until his death in 1879.
Shwe Pyi Bo was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1864 until 1866.
U Ma Nga was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1866 until 1867.
Win Hmu was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1873 until 1874.
Natsu Letya was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1875 until 1876.

North Hsenwi
North Hsenwi was created in March 1888 from Hsenwi state. the main state was split into two, North and South Hsenwi.
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of North Hsenwi
Hkun Hsang Ton Hong (1856 – 1915) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsenwi in present Burma from 1879 until 1888 and ruler of Shan state of North
Hsenwi in present Burma from March 1888 until his death in 1915.
Sao Hom Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of North Hsenwi in present Burma from 1927 until 1952.
South Hsenwi
South Hsenwi was created in March 1888 by the splitting of the Hsenwi state. The state is also known as Mong Yai.
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of South Hsenwi
Sao Naw Möng (1855 – 1913) was the ruler of Shan state of South Hsenwi in present Burma from March 1888 until his death in 1913
Sao Song (died 1946) was the ruler of Shan state of South Hsenwi in present Burma from 1913 until his death in 1946.
Sao Hso Hom was the ruler of Shan state of South Hsenwi in present Burma from 1946 until 1959.
Hsihkip (Thigyit)
Founded before 600, it ceased to exist in 1886, when it was incorporated into Yawnghwe. It was ruled by a Myosa and the rulers were:
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Hsihkip (Thigyit)
Hkun Kaw Tha was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Hkun Hla Baw was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma around 1782.
Hkun Chok was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma around 1800.
Hkun Hpe was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma in first half 19 century.
Hkun Daw was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma in first half 19 century.
Maung Paw was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma in first half 19 century.
Maung Paik was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma in first half 19 century.
Hkun Hmom was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma in first half 19 century.
Hkam Lin was the regent of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma in first half 19 century.
Hkun Nyun was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma around 1840.
Twet Kye was the regent of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma from 1845 until 1848.
Hkun Ywe was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma from 1848 until 1851.
Hkun Ton was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma from 1851 until 1862.
Son Hkun Hpon was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma from 1863 until 1870.
Maung Hnya was the ruler of Shan state of Hsihkip in present Burma from 1870 until 1886.
Hsipaw (Thibaw)
Founded, according to legend, in 58 BC, it was ruled by a Saopha. Its formal name was Dutawadi.
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Hsipaw (Thibaw)
Hso Wai Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1675 until 1702.
Sao Okka Wara was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1702 until 1714.
Sao Okka Seya was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1714 until 1718.
Sao Sam Myo was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1718 until 1722.
Sao Hkun Neng was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1722 until 1752.
Sao Sawra Tawta was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1752 until 1767.
Sao Myat San Te was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1767 until 1788.
Sao Hswe Kya was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1788 until 1809.
Sao Hkun Hkwi was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1809 until 1843.
Sao Hkun Paw was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1843 until 1853.
Sao Kya Htun (died 1866) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1853 until 1858.
Hkun Myat Tade was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1858 until 1866.
Sao Kya Hkeng (died May 5, 1902) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1866 until his death on May 5, 1902.
Sao Hkun Hseng was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1886 until 1902.
Sao Hke (1872 – 1928) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1902 until his death in 1928.
I Sao Ohn Kya (died 1938) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1928 until his death in 1938.
Sao Kya Seng (1925 – 1962) was the ruler of Shan state of Hsipaw in present Burma from 1947 until 1959.
Hsumhsai (Hsum Hsai)
List of Rulers (title Hseng, from 1886 title Myoza) of Hsumhsai (Hsum Hsai)
Maung Pwe was the ruler of Shan state of Hsumhsai (Hsum Hsai) in present Burma from ? until 1886.
Soi Kong Kyawk Teng was the ruler of Shan state of Hsumhsai (Hsum Hai) in present Burma from 1886 until 1887.
Khun Meik was the ruler of Shan state of Hsumhsai (Hsum Hai) in present Burma from 1887 until 1894.
Kun Hmon was the ruler of Shan state of Hsumhsai (Hsum Hai) in present Burma from January 1897 until ?
Kehsi Mangam (Kyithi Bansan)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Kehsi Mangam (Kyithi Bansan)
Hkun Yawt was the ruler of Shan state of Kehsi Mangam in present Burma from 1860 until 1881.
Hkun Yawt Seng was the ruler of Shan state of Kehsi Mangam in present Burma from 1881 until ?
Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu; by c.1880 Myoza) of Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)
Hpaya Möng Hkon was the ruler of Shan state of Kengcheng in present Burma around 1813.
Sao Kawng Tai (died 1885) was the ruler of Shan state of Kengcheng from ? until 1881.
Sao Hsiri was the ruler of Shan state of Kengcheng from 1881 until 1882.
Hkun Hsang was the ruler of Shan state of Kengcheng from 1882 until 1892.
Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)
Bodaw Sao Hkam Yi was the ruler of Shan state of Kenghkam in present Burma from 1811 until 1854.
Sao Hkun Mwe was the ruler of Shan state of Kenghkam in present Burma from 1855 until 1864.
Naw Hkam Leng was the ruler of Shan state of Kenghkam in present Burma from 1864 until 1870.
Sao Hkun Long was the ruler of Shan state of Kenghkam in present Burma from 1874 until 1878.
Sao Naw Süng was the ruler of Shan state of Kenghkam in present Burma from 1882 until 1889.
Hkun Un was the ruler of Shan state of Kenghkam in present Burma from 1889 until early years 20th century.
Kenglön (Kyainglon)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Kenglön (Kyainglon)
Maung Pwin (died 1873) was the ruler of Shan state of Kenglön in present Burma from 1857 until his death in 1873.
Naw Hkam U was the ruler of Shan state of Kenglön in present Burma from 1873 until 1874.
Hkun Tawn was the ruler of Shan state of Kenglön in present Burma from 1874 until 1888.
Hkun Mawng was the ruler of Shan state of Kenglön in present Burma from 1888 until early years 20th century.
Kokang
Ruled and founded by the Yang dynasty, Kokang was founded in 1739 by Yang Shien Tsai, Chief of Shin Da Hu. Later his successor Yang Wei Shin expanded
his territory and renamed it Kho Kan Shan. Yang Yon Gen then finally renamed it to Kokang. The first 2 reigned as chiefs, the 3rd assumed the title of Heng
which was to be held until Yang Chun Yon assumed the Myosa title. Colonel Sao Yang Wen Pin assumed the title of Saopha, after the British recognised Kokang
in 1947 as a state for services in the Second World War; it lasted until the state ceased to exist in 1959.
List of Rulers of Kokang
Yang Shien Tsai, Chief of Shin Da Hu (1685 – 1759) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma from 1739 until his death in 1758.
Yang Wei Shin, Chief of Kho Kan Shan (died 1795) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma from 1758 until his death in 1795.
Yang Yon Gen, Heng of Kokang (1770 – 1840) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma from 1795 until his death in 1840.
Yang Guo Hwa, Heng of Kokang (1814 - 1874) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma from 1840 until his death in 1874.
Yang Guo Zhen, Hkun Lu Kwan, Heng of Kokang (1840 – 1919) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma from 1874 until 1916.
Yang Chun Yon, Yang Shwin Yong Tzu Ye, Heng and Myosa of Kokang (1878 – January 17, 1927) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma
from 1916 until his death on January 17, 1927.
Sao Yang Wen Pin, Saopha of Kokang (1898 – 1949) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma from 1927 until 1943 and from October
1945 until August 25, 1947. He was deposed by the Chinese nationalists in 1943; in exile from 1944 until October 1945.
Sao Edward Yang Kyein Tsai, Saopha of Kokang (1918 –1971) was the ruler of Shan state of Kokang in present Burma from 1949 until May 17, 1959.
Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)
Nga San Bon was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma in 18th century.
Nga San Mya was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma in 18th century.
Nga San Ma was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from ? until 1783.
Nga Kaw Tha was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1783 until 1820.
Nga Thi Ri was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1820 until 1821.
Nga Chit Win was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1821 until 1843.
Nga Shwe Maung I was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma first time from 1844 until 1852, and second time from 1856 until
1863.
Nga Shwe Yit was the regent of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1852 until 1856.
Nga Yan Kon was the regent of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1863 until 1865.
Nga San was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1865 until 1873.
Nga Shwe Maung II was the regent of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1873 until 1874.
Nga Tha U was the regent of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1874 until 1876.
Nga Tun was the regent of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1876 until 1877.
Nga Pai Su, Nga Pyan was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1877 until 1881.
Nga Thaing (1873 – 1922) was the ruler of Shan state of Kyawkku Hsiwan in present Burma from 1881 until his death in 1922.
Kyong (Kyon)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Kyong (Kyon)
Maung Po was the ruler Shan state of Kyong (Kyon) in present Burma from 1867 until ?
Laihka (Lègya)
List of Rulers (title Myoza, from 1850s title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunths Thiri Thudamaraza) of Laihka
(Lègya)
Khyn Lek was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1734 until 1794.
Law Na was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1794 until 1803.
La Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1803 until 1807.
Hkun Lek was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1807 until 18xx and from 18xx until 1854
Shwe Ok Hka (Shwe Taung Kyaw) was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1854 until 1856.
Hkun Long was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1856 until 1860.
Sao Hkam Mawng was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma first time from 1860 until 1862 and second time from 1868 until 1879.
Hkun Hkawt was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1862 until 1866.
Sao Hkam Mawng was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma around 1870.
Hkun Lai (1858 – 1928) was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1882 until his death in 1928.
Sao Num was the ruler of Shan state of Laihka in present Burma from 1928 until 1952
Lawksawk (Yatsauk)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Maha Thiriwuntha Thudama) of Lawksawk (Yatsauk)
Pai Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1680 until 1707.
Shwe Gyaw was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1707 until 1729.
Hkun Shwe Tha was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1729 until 1753.
Tha Pun Minaung was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1753 until July 1760.
Maung Gyi was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1760 until 1763.
Shwe Yi was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1763 until July 1790.
Maung Kywet (died 1792) was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1791 until his death in 1792.
Hkun Sam Lik was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1791 until 1811.
On Gaing (died 1834) was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1812 until 1813.
Hkun Shwe Ek (died 1850) was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1813 until his death in 1850.
Lai Hka (died 1856) was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1854 until his death in 1856.

Sao Waing (1846 – 1896) was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma first time from December 1854 until 1881 and second time from 1886
until January 1887.
Bo Saing was the regent of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from January until Octobar 1887.
Hkun Nu was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from October 9, 1887 until 1900.
Sao Hkun Hsok (1863 - 1946) was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1900 until his death in 1946.
Sao Hkun Hsa (d.o.b 1895) was the ruler of Shan state of Lawksawk in present Burma from 1946 until 1952.
Loi-ai (Lwe-e)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Loi-ai (Lwe-e)
Maung Baung was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma in late 18th century.
Maung Maing was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma in early 19th century.
Paw Kyi was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma around 1814.
Maung Shwe was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1814 until 1834.
Kaw Thaw was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1834 until 1864.
Maung Kaing (died 1870) was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1864 until 1868.
Nga Meik was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1868 until 1869.
Nga Hpo was the regent of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1869 until 1870.
Hkun Shwe Kya was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma around 1870.
Loilong (Lwelong)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu, from 1880 title Myoza) of Loilong (Lwelong)
Laten was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from around 1779 until around 1883.
Latu was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from around 1783 until around 1812.
Lanaw was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from around 1812 until ?
Ba Tin was the three times regent of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Shwe Ni was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Shwe Aung was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Nga Po was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Hkun Na (died 1854) was the ruler of Shan state of Loilong in present Burma from ? until his death in 1854.
Hkun San Da (died 1856) was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1854 until hs death in 1856.
Hkun Pu (La Mu) (died 1882) was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1856 until his death in 1882.
Hkun Hkam Chok was the ruler of Shan state of Loi-ai in present Burma from 1882 until around 1952.
Loimaw (Lwemaw)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Loimaw (Lwemaw)
Muang Hpo Saw (died 1844) was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma in early 19th century and from 1834 until his death in 1844.
Maung Hpo Gok (died 1837) was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from ? until 1834.
Maung Lok (died 1847) was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from 1844 until his death in 1847.
Maung Shwe Daung was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma in 1847.
Maung Shwe Pyi (1830 – 1902) was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma first time from 1847 until 1874 and second time from 1886 until his
death in 1902.
Maung Tok Gyi (died 1853) was the regent of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from 1847 until his death in 1853.
Twet Min (died 1855) was the regent of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from 1853 until his death in 1855.
Maung Kya was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from 1876 until 1877.
Maung Meik was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from February 12, 1878 until 1880.
Maung Chit was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from 1880 until 1886.
Maung At (died 1897) was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma in 1886.
Hkun Kyaw was the ruler of Shan state of Loimaw in present Burma from 1902 until around 1952.
Manglön (Manglun)
Hsö Hkam, Ta Awng (died 1822) was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1814 until his death in 1822.
Sao Hkun Sang, Khun Sing (died 1852) was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1822 until his death in 1852
Uyaraza, Upayaza (died 1853) was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1852 until his death in 1853.
Naw Hpa, Nawpha (died 1860) was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1853 until his death in1860.
Tön Hsang, Tun Sang (1825 – 1881) was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1860 until 1870 and ruler in East Manglön from 1870
until his death in 1881.
Hsan Kyaw was the ruler Shan state of West Manglön in present Burma from 1870 until 1877.
Sao Maha was the ruler of Shan state of West Manglön in present Burma from 1877 until 1892.
Tön Hsang Hang was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1892 until 1919.
Saw Hka Nan (1892 - 1946) was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1919 until1 his death in 1946.
Sao Man Laik (born 1922) was the ruler of Shan state of Manglön in present Burma from 1946 until 1952.
MongLin
Ruler of MongLin
Sao Hman Lek (died 1998) was the ruler of Shan state of MongLin in present Burma from 1946 until 1959.
MongLeam
Ruler of MongLeam
Sao Khun Gee (died 1969) was the ruler of Shan state of MongLeam in present Burma from 1926 until 1952.
Mawkmai (Maukme)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawuntha Thiriraza) of Mawkmai (Maukme)
Hsai Khaio was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1767 until around 1800.
Hsai Kyaw was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1800 until 1818.
Awk Hkun was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1818 until 1824.
Let To was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1824 until 1831.
Hkam U was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1831 until 1844.
Ko Lan was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma first time from 1844 until 1867 and second time from 1868 until 1887.
Hkum Hmôm I was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1867 until 1868.
Hkun Hmôm II was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burmafirst time from 1887 until 1888 and second time 1888 until ?
Hkun Noi Kyu was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma in March 1888.
Hkun Htun Peng was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1899 until ?
Hkun Hkaing was the ruler of Shan state of Mawkmai in present Burma from 1915 until 1952.
Mawnang (Bawnin)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Mawnang (Bawnin)
Hkam Hon was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma.
Nam Hkam Lin was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma.
Maung Ne Dun was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma.
Maung Kut was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma.
Maung Kye was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma.
Maung La was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma.
Sao Ta was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma.
Maung Saung was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma from ? until 1736.
Ye Tut was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma from 1736 until 1752.
Tha Son was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma from 1752 until 1766.
Maung Myat was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma from 1766 until around 1767 and from 1774 until ?
Naw Hkam Lin was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Maung Kaung was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Maung Pot was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Maung Maung was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma from probably 1860 until 1883.
Hkun Shwe Hkam was the regent of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma1883 until 1886.
Sao Hkim was the ruler of Shan state of Mawnang in present Burma from 1886 until ?
Mawsön (Bawzaing)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Mawsön (Bawzaing)
Maung Nwe was the ruler of Shan state of Mawsön in present Burma.
Maung Pwe was the ruler of Shan state of Mawsön in present Burma from 1784 until ?
Maung Kyaw was the ruler of Shan state of Mawsön in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Maung Waing was the ruler of Shan state of Mawsön in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Maung Nyun was the ruler of Shan state of Mawsön in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Maung Kya Ywet was the ruler of Shan state of Mawsön in present Burma from 1878 until ?
Mönghsu (Maingshu) and Möngsang (Maingsin)
Ruler (title Myoza) of Mönghsu (Maingshu) and Möngsang (Maingsin)
Hkun Kyaw was the ruler of Shan state of Mönghsu (Maingshu) and Möngsang (Maingsin) from 1876 until ?
Möngkawng (Mogaung)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Möngkawng (Mogaung)
Sui Yaw was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma 1663 until 1673.
Sui Kyek was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma 1673 until 1729.
Hum was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma 1729 until 1739.
Haw Seing (died 1777) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma 1739 until 1748 and from 1765 until 1768.
Haw Kam was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma 1748 until 1765.
Maung Kiaw was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma1768 until 1771.
Maung Piu (died 1775) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma 1771 until his death in 1775.
Yaw Pan Kyung was the ruler of Shan state of Möngkawng in present Burma1785 until 1796.
Mongkung
List of Rulers (title Myoza 1835-54, 1863-73; Saohpa 1854-63, from 1873) of Mongkung
Hkun Long was the ruler of Shan state of Mongkung in present Burma from 1835 until 1860.
Hkun Long II was the ruler of Shan state of Mongkung in present Burma from 1860 until 1863.
Gu Na (died 1873) was the ruler of Shan state of Mongkung in present Burma from 1863 until his death in 1873.
Hkun San Kwan was the ruler of Shan state of Mongkung in present Burma from 1873 until 1879.
Hkun Mong was the ruler of Shan state of Mongkung in present Burma from 1879 until ?
Möngleng (Mohlaing)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Möngleng (Mohlaing)
Kya U was the ruler of Shan state of Möngleng in present Burma from 1840 until 1881.
Hkam Leng was the ruler of Shan state of Möngleng in present Burma from 1881 until 1887.
Mönglong
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Mönglong
Hsö Han Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from 1813? until 1842.
Hsö San Hpa (Hkun Hsa) was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from 1842 until 1854.
Hsö Kawn Kyawng was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from 1854 until 1866.
Hkun Nyon was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from 1866 until ?
Hkun Yawt was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from ? until 1880.
Heng Nga Maung was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from 1880 until ?
Hkun Saing (Hsawng) was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from ? until 1888.
Hkun Hsa was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from 1888 until 1894.
Sao Hke was the ruler of Shan state of Mönglong in present Burma from 1894 until ?
Möngmit (Momeik)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Gantalarahta Maha Thiriwuntha Raza) of Möngmit (Momeik)
Maung Hmaing was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1830 probably until 1850.
Maung E Pu was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma first time 1837 until ? and second time from 1850 until 1851.
Hkun Te was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1851 until 1858
Haw Kyin was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1858 until 1861.
Kaw San was the regent of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1861 until 1862.
Maung Yo was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1862 until 1867.
Hkam Mo was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1867 until 1874
Kan Ho was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1874 until 1883.
Hkam Leng was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1886 until 1887.
Sao Kin Maung (1883 – 1936) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from 1887 until his death in 1936.
Sao Hkun Hkio (1912 - 1990) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngmit in present Burma from February 1936 until 1952.
Mong Nai (Monè)
List of Rulers of Mong Nai (Monè)
Maung Shwe Paw was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from around 1802 until 1848.
Maung Yit was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from 1848 until 1850.
U Po Ka was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from 1850 until 1851.
U Shwe Kyu was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma in 1852.
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Rahta Mahawunthiri Pawara Thudamaraza) of Mong Nai (Monè)
Hkun Nu Nom was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from 1852 until 1875.
Hkun Kyi (died 1914) was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from 1875 until his death in 1914.
Hkun Kyaw Sam was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from 1914 until 1928.
Hkun Kyaw Ho (died 1949) was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from 1928 until his death in 1949.
Sao Pye was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Nai in present Burma from 1949 until 1958.
Mongnawng
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Mongnawng
Heng Awn was the ruler of Shan state of Mongnawng in present Burma from 1851 until 1866.
Hkun Hkang was the ruler of Shan state of Mongnawng in present Burma from 1866 until 1868.
Hkun Tun was the ruler of Shan state of Mongnawng in present Burma from 1868 until early years 20th century.
Möngpai (Mobye)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Mahawuntha Thiridamaraza) of Möngpai (Mobye)
Hkun Pya was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpai in present Burma from 1763 until around 1800 and from 1803 until 1805.
Hkam Maung was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpai in present Burma from 1805 until 1808
Hkam Hlaing was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpai in present Burma first time from 1808 until 1820 and second time from 1823 until July 1836.
Nga Kyi was the regent of Shan state of Möngpai in present Burma from 1820 until 1823
Hkun Yon was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpai in present Burma from 1836 until February 1891.
Hkun Hsvriya was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpai in present Burma from 1891 until 1908
Sao Pin Nya was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpai in present Burma from 1908 until 1952.
Möngpan (Maingpan)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Möngpan (Maingpan)
Tawk La was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma from 1637 until ?
Twak Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma in the second half 17th century.
Twak Twe was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma in the second half 17th century.
Op La was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma in early 18th century.
Hkun Som was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Shwe Tong was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Sai U was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Sai Nyo was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Naw Hkam (died 1809) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma from ? until his death in 1809.
Mana Ne Myo (died 1823) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma from 1809 until his death in 1823.
Maung Shwe Hkam (died 1858) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma from 1823 until his death in 1858.
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsa Mahawuntha Thirdamaraza) of Möngpan (Maingpan)
Hkun Tun U (died 1886) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma first time from 1858 until 1867 and second time from 1867 until his
death in 1886.
Hkun Leng (1869 – 1918) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma from 1886 until his death in 1918.
Hkun On was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpan in present Burma from 1918 until 1952.
Möngpawn (Maing Pun)
List of Rulers (title Myoza, from 1880 title Saopha) of Möngpawn (Maing Pun)
Hkun Lek was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpawn in present Burma from 1816 until 1860.
Hkun Ti was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpawn in present Burma first time from 1860 until 1880 and second time from 1880 until 1928.
Sao Sam Htun (died July 19, 1947) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpawn in present Burma 1928 until his death on July 19, 1947.
Ba Choe (born 1936) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngpawn in present Burma from July 20, 1947 until 1952.
Möngping (Maingpyin)
List of Rulers of Möngping (Maingpyin)
Hkam Hlaing was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Pawng in present Burma from 1835 until 1842.
Hkam Kaw was the ruler of Shan state of Mong Pawng in present Burma from 1842 until ?
Möngsit (Maingseik)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Möngsit (Maingseik)
Sao Haw Pik was the ruler of Shan state of Möngsit in present Burma from ? until 1857.
Hkun Kyaw San was the ruler of Shan state of Möngsit in present Burma from 1857 until ?
Hkun Lu was the ruler of Shan state of Möngsit in present Burma from ? until 1873.
Hkam Pwin was the ruler of Shan state of Möngsit in present Burma from 1883 until ?

Möngtung (Maington)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Möngtung (Maington)
Hkun Sang Kang was the ruler of Shan state of Möngtung in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Kyaw Htam was the ruler of Shan state of Möngtung in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Hsa was the ruler of Shan state of Möngtung in present Burma from ? until 1886.
Hkun Lun was the ruler of Shan state of Möngtung in present Burma from 1888 until 1896.
Haw Yawt was the ruler of Shan state of Möngtung in present Burma from 1896 until early years 20th century.
Möngyang (Mohnyin)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Möngyang (Mohnyin)
Tao Luk was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Tao Ngam was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Sunabnta was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Sulang Ka Wutti was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Inta Wasai was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Hsai Ya Kuman I was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Hsen Sulin (Surin Pumintha) was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Hsai Ya Kuman II was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Sao Yawt was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in first half 19th century.
Maha Hkanan was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma from 1814 until 1815.
Buddha Wong was the ruler of Shan state of Möngyang in present Burma in 1815.
Namhkai (Nanke)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Namhkai (Nanke)
Nga Dammaa was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkai in present Burma from 1808 until his death in 1852.
Hkun Pe (died 1867) was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkai in present Burma from 1852 until his death in 1867.
Hkun Pan (died 1891) was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkai in present Burma first time from 1867 until 1874 and second time from 1888 until his death in
1891.
Nga Meik was the Administrator of Shan state of Namhkai in present Burma from 1874 until 1875.
Nga Po was the Administrator of Shan state of Namhkai in present Burma in 1876.
Hkun Hwaing was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkai in present Burma from 1876 until 1888.
Hkun Kye was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkai in present Burma from 1891 until early 20th century.
Namhkok (Nankok)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Namhkok (Nankok)
Hkun Myat I was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma from 1744 until ?
Hkun Kaw was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Hkun Hkam I was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma in early 19th century.

Hkun Mawng was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Hkun Pok was the twice times ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Hkun Awng Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Hkam II was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Hseng was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma from around 1897 until 1900.
Hkun Myat II was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkok in present Burma from 1900 until around 1952.
Namhkom (Nankon)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Namhkom (Nankon)
Maung Su Daung (died 1783) was the ruler of Shan state of Namkhom in present Burma from ? until his death in 1783.
Maung San was the ruler of Shan state of Namkhom in present Burma from 1783 until ?
Maung Shwe Tok was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkom in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Maung Tun was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkom in present Burma from ? until 1857.
Maung Pyan was the ruler of Shan state of Namhkom from 1857 until ?
Namtok (Nantok)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Namtok (Nantok)
Maung Shwe Tha was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma in early years 19th century.
Tha Zan (died 1816) was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma from early years 19th century until 1816.
Maung Yi was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma from 1816 until ?
Maung Yi was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Hkun Taw was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Hkun Pwe was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Pwang was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Hmam was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Hkun Pu (died 1892) was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma from ? until 9 Oct 1892.
Hkun Maung was the ruler of Shan state of Namtok in present Burma from 1892 until ?
Nawngwawn (Naungwun or Naungmon)
Ruler (title Myoza) of Nawngwawn (Naungwun or Naungmon)
Sao Htun Ok was the ruler of Shan state of Nawngwawn from 1894 until ?
Pangmi (Pinhmi)
List of Rulers (title Ngegunhmu) of Pangmi (Pinhmi)
Maung Hke was the ruler of Shan State of Pangmi in the first half 19th century.
Maung San Myat was the ruler of Shan State of Pangmi in the first half 19th century.
Maung U was the ruler of Shan State of Pangmi in the second half 19th century.
Hkun Yeik was the ruler of Shan State of Pangmi from ? until 1870.
Hkun Shwe Daung was the ruler of Shan State of Pangmi from 1870 until 1901.
Maung Nyun was the ruler of Shan State of Pangmi from 1901 until around 1952.
Pangtara (Pindara)
List of Rulers (title Ngwegunhmu) of Pangtara (Pindara)
Maung Ne Htun was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Maung Aung Kyu was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Maung Myit was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Maung Pyi San was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from ? until 1783.
Maung Shwe Bwiri was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1783 until 1796.
Maung Than was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1796 until 1802.
Maung Pe I was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1802 until 1809.
Maung Khan U was the ruler Shan state Pangtara in present Burma from 1809 until 1819.
Maung Shwe Min was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1819 until 1843.
Mi Thit was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1843 until 1840th.
Mi Sit was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma around 1840th.
Maung Hpo Eik was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1840th until 1850.
Maung Shwe Thi was the regent of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1850 until 1851.
Maung Myat Hpu was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1851 until 1857.
Maung Pe II was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1857 until 1859.
Maung Lun Ya (died 1882) was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma first time from 1859 until 1860, second time from 1868 until 1869, third
time from 1877 until 1878 and fourth time from 1880 until his death in 1882.
Maung Hpo was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1860 until 1861.
Maung Than was the regent of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma first time from 1862 until 1868 and second time from 1869 until 1871.
Maung Hpo Hkin (died 1897) was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1888 until his death in 1897.
Maung Sun Nyo was the ruler of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1897 until around 1952.
O Un was the regent of Shan state of Pangtara in present Burma from 1897 until 1911.
Poila (Pwehla)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Poila (Pwehla)
Baiknaya Bo was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma from 1751 until ?
Maung Ywe was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Maung U was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Maung Wun was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma in the first half 19th century.
Maung Kaung was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma from ? until 1839.
Maung Kyok was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma from 1839 until 1855.
Maung Law Ma was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma from 1855 until 1863.
Maung Po Thein was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma from 1863 until 1875.
Maung Ywe was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma from 1875 until 1886.
Maung Sao Nyun was the ruler of Shan state of Poila in present Burma from 1876 until ?
Sakoi (Sagwe)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Sakoi (Sagwe)
Hkun was the ruler of Shan state of Sakoi in present Burma from ? until 1877.
Hkun Htun was the ruler of Shan state of Sakoi in present Burma from 1877 until ?
Samka (Saga)
List of Rulers (title Myoza, from 1897 title Saopha) of Samka (Saga)
Kun Lu was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma from 1636 until ?
Kun Saing was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma in the second half 17th century.
Naw Maing was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma in the first half 18th century.
Ne Dun was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma in the second half 18th century.
Kun Pyu was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma around 1774.
Hkun Ye (died 1838) was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma from ? until his death in 1838.
Hkun Sun was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma first time1838 until 1858 and second time from 1860 until 1872.
Hkun Noi was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma first time from 1858 until 1860 and second time from 1876 until 1883.
Sao Sein Bu (1856 – 1915) was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma first time from 1873 until 1876 and second time from December 1885
until his death in 1915.
Hkun Pwin was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma from 1883 until 1885.
Hkun Kyi was the ruler of Shan state of Samka in present Burma from 1915 until 1946.
Singaling Hkamti (Zingalein Kamti)
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Singaling Hkamti (Zingalein Kamti)
Sao Nyi Kaung was the ruler of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1820 until 1844.
Sao Ai was the ruler of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1844 until 1853.
Sao Hi was the ruler of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1853 until 1882.
Sao Ni Taung (1861 - 1892) was the ruler of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1887 until his death in 1892.
Sao E (died 1927) was the regent of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1892 until 1893, from 1894 until 1898 and ruler of Singaling
Hkamti from 1898 until his death in 1927.
Sao Hon, Po Hlaung (1887 - 1894) was the ruler of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1892 until his death in 1894.
Ma Pu (died 1898) was the ruler of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1894 until her death in 1898.
Maung Ba Thein was the ruler of Shan state of Singaling Hkamti in present Burma from 1927 until 1952.
Tawngpeng
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Tawngpeng
Ta Dwe Ba (1681 - 1760) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1753 until 1759.
Ba Hkun Mya (1690 - 1764) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1760 until his death in 1764.
Ba Hkun Saing (1700 - 1775) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1764 until his death in 1775.
Ba Dwe Taw (1701 - 1781) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1775 until his death in 1781.
Ba Loi Lio (1745 - 1810) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma in 1781 until his death in 1810.
Ba Hkun Kein Möng (died 1819) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1810 until his death in 1819.
Ba Hkun Hso (1748 - 1837) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1819 until his death in 1837.
Ba Hkun Tan Möng (1770 - 1846) was the ruler of Shan state Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1837 until his death in 1846.
Shwe Ok Hka (Shwe Taung Kyaw) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1847 until 1856.
Hkun Hsa (Ba Hkam Hkun Shinya, 1774 - 1865) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1856 until his death in 1865.
Hkun Hkan Hkun (Ba Hon Möng, 1815 - 1879)) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1865 until his death in 1879.
Hkun Hkam Möng was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1879 until 1887.
Hkam Tan Möng (Hkun Kyan, died 1897) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1888 until his death in 1897.
Hkun Hsan Gawn (1871 - 1926) was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from 1897 until his death in 1926.
Hkun Pan Sing was the ruler of Shan state of Tawngpeng in present Burma from August 1926 until 1952.
Wanmaw (Bhamo)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Wanmaw (Bhamo)
Sao Pi Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1685 until 1706.
Sao Tun Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1706 until 1719.
Hpo U was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1719 until 1720.
Sao Mong Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1720 until 1727.
Sao Tung Ngai I (died 1734) was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1727 until his death in 1734.
KitHaw was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1735 until 1742.
Sao Tung Ngai II was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1742 until 1770.
Sao Myut Aung (1690 - 1772) was the ruler of Shan state of Wanmaw in present Burma from 1770 until his death in 1772.
Wanyin (Banyin)
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Wanyin (Banyin)
Hkun Saw (died 1893) was the ruler of Shan state of Wanyin in present Burma from 1865 until 1893.
Hkun Long (died July 1897) was the ruler of Shan state of Wanyin in present Burma from 1893 until July 1897
Hkun Han was the ruler of Shan state of Wanyin in present Burma from 1897 until ?
Hkun Yon was the regent of Shan state of Wanyin in present Burma 1897 until 1905.
Wuntho
List of Rulers (title Saohpa) of Wuntho
Maung Sun was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1698 until 1703.
Kyaung Pyn was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1703 until 1714.
Myat Kaung was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1714 until 1736.
Talaings was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1751 until 1756.
Aung Nyo was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1756 until 1778.
Maung Tin (died 1796) was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1778 until his death in 1796.
Maung Taw Zan (died 1798) was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1796 until his death in 1798.
Maung Tha Ywe was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1798 until 1827 (administrator of Wuntho until 1802).
Maung Shwe was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1827 until 1830.
Maung Pe Nge was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1830 until 1833.
Shwe Thi was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1833 until 1849.
San Tit was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1849 until 1851
Mama Shwe Tha, Mahawuntho Thohonbwa (died after 1891) was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1852 until 1878.
Maung Aung Myat (1857 – after 1909) was the ruler of Shan state of Wuntho in present Burma from 1878 until 1891.
Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe)
The formal and the ritual name of the state was Kambosarattha, in short term Kanbawza .
List of Rulers (title Saohpa; ritual style Kambawsarahta Thiri Pawaramahawuntha Thudamaraza) of Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe)
Hkam Leng was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1695 until 1733.
Htawk Sha Sa was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1733 until 1737.
Hsi Ton Sa was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1737 until 1746.
Hke Hsa Wa was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1746 until 1758.
Naw Mong was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma in 1758.
Yawt Hkam was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1758 until 1761.
Hpong Hpa Ka-sa was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1761 until 1762.
Sao Yun was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1762 until 1815.
Sao U was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1815 until 1852.
Sao Se Hom was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1852 until 1858.
Sao Naw Hpa was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1858 until 1864.
Sao Maung was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma first time from October 23, 1864 until 1886 and second time from 1897 until
December 1926.
Sao Ohn was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1886 until 1897.
Sao Shwe Thaike (1896 – 1962) was the ruler of Shan state of Yawnghwe in present Burma from 1927 until 1952.
Yengan (Ywangan)
Ruler (title Ngwegunhmu) of Yengan
Maung Thu Daw was the ruler of Shan State of Yengan from 1886 until ?.

Karenni (Kayah) states
The Karenni States is the name formerly given to the three states of Kantarawadi (3,161 square miles or 8,190 square kilometres, pop (1931)
30,677), Kyebogyi (790 square miles or 2,000 square kilometres, pop (1931) 14,282) and Bawlake (568 square miles or 1,470 square kilometres, pop (1931)
13,802), located south of the Federated Shan Statesand east of British Burma. The British government recognized and guaranteed the independence of the
Karenni States in an 1875 treaty with Burmese King Mindon Min, by which both parties recognized the area as belonging neither to Burma nor to Great Britain.
Consequently, the Karenni States were never fully incorporated into British Burma. The Karenni States were recognized as tributary to British Burma in 1892,
when their rulers agreed to accept a stipend from the British government. In the 1930s, the Mawchi Mine in Bawlake was the most important source
of tungsten in the world. The Constitution of the Union of Burma in 1947 proclaimed that the three Karenni States be amalgamated into a single constituent state
of the union, called Karenni State. It also provided for the possibility of secession from the Union after 10 years. In 1952, the former Shan state of Mong Pai was
added, and the whole renamed Kayah State, possibly with the intent of driving a wedge between the Karenni (in Kayah State) and the rest of the Karen
people (in Karen State), both fighting for independence.
Bawlake
List of Rulers of Bawlake
Po Bya was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Bawlake around 1810.
La Kye was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Bawlake around 1850.
List of Rulers (title Myoza) of Bawlake
Paban (1857 - 1916) was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Bawlake from 1872 until his death in 1916.
Hkun Nge was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Bawlake from 1916 until 1948.
Kantarawadi
List of Rulers of Kantarawadi
Maung Pon (Pe Baw) was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Kantarawadi around 1837.
Papaw Kyi was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Kantarawadi around 1845.
Sao Lasa was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Kantarawadi around 1850.
Sao Pyatin was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Kantarawadi from ? until 1866.
List of Rulers (title Myoza, from 1930 title Sawbwa) of Kantarawadi
Sao Law Paw (died 1891) was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Kantarawadi from 1866 until 1889.
Sao Lawi (1852 - 1930) was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Kantarawadi from 1889 until his death in 1930.
Kyebogyi
Ruler (title Myoza) of Kyebogyi
Hkun U (1857 - 1933) was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Kyebogyi from 1890 until his death in 1933.
Nammekon
Ruler (title Myoza) of Nammekon
Hkun Baw was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Nammekon from 1899 until ?
Naungpale
Ruler (title Myoza) of Naungpale
Hkun Che was the ruler of Karenni (Kayah) State of Naungpale from 1897 until ?

Mustang (Kingdom of Lo)
Mustang (from the Tibetan mun tan (Wylie: smon-thang), Nepali: , meaning "fertile plain") is the former Kingdom of Lo whereTibetan is still widely
spoken and the traditional culture of Tibet remains. This is synonymous with "Upper Mustang", comprising the northern two-thirds of Mustang
District of Dhaulagiri Zone. The southern third of the district is called Thak and is the homeland ofThakali people who have their own language and whose
culture combines Tibetan and Nepalese elements. Life in Mustang revolves around tourism, animal husbandry and trade. Mustang's status as a kingdom ended in
2008 when its suzerain Kingdom of Nepal became a republic. The influence of the outside world, especially China, is growing and contributing to rapid change in
the lives of Mustang's people. Mustang was once an independent kingdom, although closely tied by language and culture to Tibet. From the 15th century to the
17th century, its strategic location granted Mustang control over the trade between the Himalayas and India. At the end of the 18th century the kingdom was
annexed by Nepal. Though still recognized by many Mustang residents, the monarchy ceased to exist on October 7, 2008, by order of the Government of
Nepal. The last official and current unofficial king (raja or gyelpo) is Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista (born c.1933), who traces his lineage directly back to Ame Pal, the
warrior who founded this Buddhist kingdom in 1380. Ame Pal oversaw the founding and building of much of the Lo and Mustang capital of Lo Manthang, a
walled city surprisingly little changed in appearance from that time period. In 2007, a shepherd in Mustang discovered a collection of 55 cave paintings depicting
the life of the Buddha.

List of Kings (title Glo rgyal-po) of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo)
Ame Pal (Tibetan: A-ma-dpal) was according to legend, a warrior and founder of the Kingdom of Mustang. He founded in 1380 the kingdom which is called in
the local language, a Tibetan dialect, Lo (south). Ame Pal oversaw the founding and building of much of the Lo and Mustang capital of Lo Manthang, a walled
city surprisingly little changed in appearance from that time period.
Sa-dbang (c.1639 - 17..) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1656 until 1710.
Tshe-dbang, Je Ang (died before 1725) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1711 until 1723.
bKra-shis-rnam-rgyal, Krathis Namgyal (died around 1728) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1723 until his death around 1728.
bsTan-'dzin-dbang-rgyal , Tenzing Anjia (c.1717 - c.1750) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from around 1728 until his death around 1750.
Nor-dzin bde-legs dbang-mo (died after 1735) was the regent of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from around 1728 until 1734.
dBang-rgyal-rdo-rje (Anjia Dorje) (c.1738 - 1797) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from around 1750 until his death in 1797.
bKra-shis-sñin-po, Krathis Ningpo was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1797 until his death in 1815.
'Jam-dpal-dgra-'ldus, Jampel Traldus (died 1837) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1815 until his death in 1837.
Kun-dga'-nor-bu, Kunga Norbu (died 1857) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1837 until his death in 1857.
'Jam-dbyangs-dban-'dus, Jamian Angdu (died 1863) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1857 until his death in 1863.
rGyal-mo bKra-shis bu-khrid was the regent of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1857 until 1863.
dNgos-grub-dpal-'bar (died 1893) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1863 until his death in 1893.
rGyal-mo Tshe-mchog sGrol-ma (died 1871) was the regent of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1863 until 1868
'Jam-dbyangs-dpal-'bar, Jambian Pelbar (died 1935) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1893 until his death in 1935.
A-mgon-bsTan-'dzin-dgra-'dul, Angun Tenzing Trandul (1923 - 1964) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1935 until 1955 and from 1958
until his death in 1964.
A-ngdu-sñin-po, Angdu Nyingpo (died 1958) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo) from 1955 until his death in 1958.
'Jigs-med-rdo-rje-dgra-'dul, 'Jigs-med-dpal-'bar Bista, Jigme Pelbar Bista (born 1930) was the King of Mustang (Kingdom
of Lo) from 1964 until October 7, 2008. The last official and current unofficial king (raja or gyelpo) of Mustang (Kingdom of Lo)
is Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista who traces his lineage directly back to Ame Pal, the warrior who founded this Buddhist kingdom in
1380.



Jumla
Jumla kingdom was one of the many kingdoms that dotted Nepal before its unification by King Prithivi Narayan Shah and later by his son Bahadur Shah. Jumla
kingdom was one of the powerful kingdoms in west Nepal, Jumla kingdom defended itself in the first attack by King Prithivi Narayan Shah, and legend even has
it that he got injured in the battle. Later, with the help of surrounding kingdoms of Jumla, Bahadur Shah son of King Prithivi Narayan Shah attacked and won
Jumla for the Gorkha kings. The Jumla kings were Thakuris (like the Gorkha kings) and had the last name (Shah) as the Gorkha kings. Jumla kingdom was one
of the most powerful of the kingdoms in Nepal, in its height extending from Mustang in the east to present day Uttarakhand, India. The Jumla kings belonged to
the Kallayla dynasty linked to the Sisodia clan of Rajasthan, India. There have also been marriages between the Jumla royal family and the present day royal
family of Nepal even till present day. The current direct decedents of the erstwhile Jumla royal family include Lt. Gen (Retd) Vivek Kumar Shah, Nepali Film
legend Nir Shah, Former Director General of Nepal Electricity Authority Harish Chandra Shah, DIGP (Retd) Sher Bahadur Shah and current DIGP of Nepal
Police Surendra Bahadur Shah.
List of Maharajas of Jumla
Bhanashahi (died 1588/89) was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1528 until his death in 1588/89.
Salimashahi (died 1599) was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1588/89 until his death in 1599.
Visekaraj was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1599 until 1600.
Vasantaraj was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1600 until 1602.
Vikramshahi was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1602 until 1621.
Surtishahi was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1621 until 1635.
Bahadurashahi (died 1665) was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1635 until his death in 1665.
Birabhadrashai was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1665 until his 1676.
Salimashahi II was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1676 until 1678.
Narasinghashahi was the Maharaja of Jumla in late 17th century.
Lachhimanashahi was the Maharaja of Jumla in late 17th century.
Prithvipatishahi was the Maharaja of Jumla from late 17th century until 1719.
Surathashahi (died 1740) was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1720 until his death in 1740.
Sudarasanashahi (died 1758) was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1740 until his death in 1758.
Suryabhanshahi (died 1790) was the Maharaja of Jumla from 1758 until 1787.
Devichandashahi was the Maharaja of Jumla in 1782 (in rebellion).

Gorkha
Gorkhā (Devanagari: ) is a former kingdom in the confederation of 24 states known as Chaubisi rajya located in present-day western Nepal. The Kingdom
of Gorkha extended from the Marshyangdi River in the west to the Trishuli River in the east, which separated it from the kingdoms of Lamjung and Nepal
respectively. The inhabitants of Gorkha were known as Gorkhali. From the 16th century, Gorkha was ruled by the Shah dynasty. The Shahs installed themselves
as rulers of Gorkha taking advantage of the confusion of an annual race held at a place called Liglig. It was the tradition of the local Ghale people to choose as
their king for the year the fastest runner in the competition. In 1559, Dravya Shah attacked and captured Liglig when the inhabitants were engrossed in the race.
He displaced the Magar king and became king of Gorkha. From 1736, the Gorkhalis engaged in a campaign of expansion started by king Nara Bhupal Shah.
Over the years, they conquered huge tracts of land to the east and west of Gorkha. Among their conquests, the most important and valuable acquisition was the
wealthy Newar confederacy of Nepal Mandala centered in the Kathmandu Valley. Starting in 1745, the Gorkhalis mounted a blockade in a bid to starve the
population into submission, but the inhabitants held out. The Newars appealed to the British East India Company for help, and in 1767, it sent an expedition
under Captain Kinloch which ended in failure. The three Newar capitals of Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur fell to the Gorkhalis between 1768 to 1769. The
Gorkhali king subsequently moved his capital to Kathmandu. In 1788, the Gorkhalis turned their attention north and invaded Tibet. They seized the border
towns of Kyirong and Kuti, and forced the Tibetans to pay an annual tribute. When the Tibetans stopped paying it, the Gorkhalis invaded Tibet again in 1791
and plundered theTashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse. This time the Chinese army came to Tibet's defence and advanced close to Kathmandu. The alarmed
Gorkhalis appealed to the British East India Company for help, but they got none.
[9]
Eventually, the Gorkhalis were forced to sign a peace treaty under which they
had to pay tribute to Beijing every five years. The Gorkha dominion reached its height at the beginning of the 19th century, extending all along
the Himalayan foothills from Kumaonand Garhwal in the west to Sikkim in the east. They were made to return much of the occupied territories after their defeat
in the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–1816).
List of Rajas of Gorkha
Dravya Shah (died 1570) was the ruler of the Gorkha or Gurkha state in the second half 16th century. He was a Sisodia Rajput from Chittor in
modern Rajasthan. His ancestors, however, had settled in the Gorkha region. Hence, his clan's name became Gurkha. Dravya Shah was not a physically robust
man but he tricked his way to the win with the backing of the Bhattarai, Aryal, Adhikari, Pant and the Acharya clans of Brahmin. By 1570, when Dravya Shah
died, the running race tradition was but a memory among the people. Dravya Shah used the Magar army to invade neighbouring states and his successors
continued this aggression to increase the kingdom's territory.
Prithvipati Shah (died 1716) was the ruler of the Gorkha or Gurkha state from 1699 until his death in 1716.
Nara Bhupal Shah (1697–1743) was the ruler of the Gorkha or Gurkha state in Nepal from 1716 until his dath in 1743. He was the father of Prithvi
Narayan Shah. Nara Bhupal Shah was the son of Bir Bhadra Shah and the grandson of Prithivipathi Shah. He was the king of the Gorkha or Gurkha state
in Nepal. He was a brave and courageous man. He tried to extend his kingdom by capturing Nuwakot but he failed. After his death his eldest son Prithvi Narayan
Shah completed the annexation of Nuwakot and even the Kathmandu Valley, in his dreams of unified Nepal. Nara Bhupal Shah is a familiar figure in Nepal
history.

Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur was a princely state, stretching along the southern bank of the Sutlej and Indus Rivers, with its capital city atBahawalpur. The state was counted
amongst the Punjab states. In 1941, it had a population of 1,341,209, living in an area of 45,911 km² (17,494 sq mi). The state was founded in 1802
by Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi after the breakup of the Durrani Empire. His successor Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi III signed the
state's first subsidiary alliance with the British on February 22, 1833, guaranteeing the internal rule of the Nawab under British suzerainty. The alliance meant
British control of Bahawalpur's external relations, but the state was never a British possession and until the Independence ofPakistan in 1947 was ruled by its
own Nawabs. After one century of such relations, they were dissolved by the departure of the British, when the state opted to accede to the new dominion of
Pakistan, with effect from October 7, 1947, becoming a princely state of Pakistan. It was merged into the province of West Pakistan on October 14, 1955.
List of Emirs (full title from January 5, 1740, Nawwab Amir) of Bahawalpur
Bahadur Khan II (died 1702) was the Emir of Bahawalpur from 1690 until his death in 1702.
Mobarak Khan I (died 1726) was the Emir of Bahawalpur from 1702 until 1723.
Sadeq Mohammad Khan I (died April 11, 1746) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1723 until his death on April 11, 1746.
Mohammad Bahawal Khan I (died June 12, 1750) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1746 until his death on June 12, 1750.
Mobarak Khan II (died June 4, 1772) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1750 until his death on June 4, 1772.
Mohammad Bahawal Khan II (1753 – August 13, 1809) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1772 until his death on August 13, 1809.
Sadeq Mohammad Khan II (1781 – April 17, 1826) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1809 until his death on April 17, 1826.
Mohammad Bahawal Khan III (died October 19, 1852) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1826 until his death on October 19, 1852.
Sadeq Mohammad Khan III (died February 20, 1861) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1852 until his death on February 20, 1853.
Fath Mohammad Khan (died October 3, 1858) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1853 until his death on October 3, 1858.
Mohammad Bahawal Khan IV (died March 25, 1866) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1858 until his death on March 25, 1866.
Sadeq Mohammad Khan IV (1862 – February 14, 1899) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from March 25, 1866 until his death on February 14, 1899.
Begum Sahiba (died February 12, 1879) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1866 until her death on February 12, 1879.
Mahabat Khan was the regent of Bahawalpur from February 14 until November 28, 1879 and from February 14, 1899 until November 12, 1903.
Mohammad Bahawal Khan V (1883 – February 15, 1907) was the Nawab of Bahawalpur from 1899 until his death on February 15, 1907. He died of
illness on a ship near the coast of Aden and was succeeded by his baby son Sadiq V.
Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V (Urdu: یسابع ناخ دمحم قداص باون لرنج ), GCSI, GCIE, KCVO, LLD (September 29, 1904,
in Derawar – May 24, 1966, in London) was the Nawab, and later Amir, of Bahawalpur State from 1907 until October 14, 1855. He
became the Nawab on the death of his father, when he was only three years old. A Council of Regency, with Sir Rahim Bakhsh as its
President, ruled on his behalf until 1924. The Nawab served as an officer with the Indian Army, fighting in the Third Afghan War
(1919) and commanding forces in the Middle East during the Second World War. In August 1947, the Nawab received the title of Amir
of Bahawalpur, acceding his State to the Dominion of Pakistan a month later. In 1955, the Amir was promoted to General in
the Pakistan Army and merged his state into West Pakistan. He died in 1966, aged 61. Under his rule Bahawalpur State comprised an
area larger than Denmark or Belgium, By 1947, Bahawalpur State‘s institutions, largely set up by successive British advisors with support
from the rulers, consisted of departments run by trained civil servants; there was a Ministerial Cabinet headed by a Prime Minister;
theState Bank was the Bank of Bahawalpur with branches outside the State also, including Karachi; there was a high court and lower
courts; a trained police force and an army commanded by officers trained at the Royal Indian Military Academy at Dehra Doon. Nawab
had a keen interest in education, which was free till A level and the State‘s Government provided scholarships of merit for higher education. In 1951, the Nawab
donated 500 acres in Bahawalpur for the construction of Sadiq Public School. Nawab was known for his relationship with the Quaid-i-Azam, Founder
of Pakistan. Sir Sadeq Muhammad Khan Abbasi was born at Derawar on 29 September 1904, the only son and heir of Haji Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan
Abbasi V, Nawab of the state of Bahawalpur. When only two and a half, his father fell ill and died while at sea off theAden coast, on February 15, 1907, leaving
Sadeq as ruler of Bahawalpur. He was educated at Aitchison College, Lahore. At the age of 15, Sadeq fought in the Third Afghan War in 1919, was knighted in
1922 when he reached his majority and was invested with the throne two years later by Lord Reading. In 1929 he visited Egypt and was a guest of the King. Very
fond of cars, he bought a Rolls Royce Phantom car, 45WR, body by Thrupp & Maberly, one of the two Cars on display at the Cairo Show. [Here he contracted a
marriage with an Ottoman princess, divorcing one of his previous wives. He signed the Muslim marriage certificate (Niqahon) on October 6, 1929. After signing
the marriage certificate a way was sought to bring them to Bahawalpur. Sadeq valued education and cultural sophistication in women, but HIH Princess Hamide
Nermin Nezahat Sultan (January 27, 1923? – November 7, 1998), lacked these. She had received no formal education but was skilled in needlework and liked
playing card games. She could read and write, but only in Turkish and French. HIH Princess Hamide Nermin Nezahat Sultan was considered gentle, virtuous,
and docile, qualities that made her a suitable candidate for Sadeq. Hamide Nermin Nezahat Sultan was described as tall and slim, "of middling beauty, and of
very assured and resolute countenance". She was dark haired, with a rather swarthy complexion, appeared solemn by Pakistani standards, and looked old for her
age. (Her father HIH Prince Şehzade Mahmud Sevket Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, July 20, 1903 – February 1, 1973) was son of Sultan Abdul Aziz
I,and was excluded from the Imperial House in 1931, married firstly in Skutari/Istanbul on May 4, 1922 and divorced in 1928 his cousin HH Princess Adile
Hanımsultan Hanım Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, November 12, 1900 – February 1979), and had one daughter. She is shown born 1923 and marriage date here
would make her six years old at the time of marriage to Nawab of Bahawalpur.Sadiq. After the first meeting, Sadiq was extremely disappointed with his new
bride. He found HIH Princess Hamide Nermin Nezahat Sultan humorless and boring. After two years, the marriage ended in divorce.] The Bahawalpur
State under his rule was considered to be an important sovereign state inPunjab. The Bahawalpur State had a special privilege as it was larger than some states of
the present time like Lebanon, Kuwait, Israel and Denmark in respect of area. Its population was two times more than the total population of United Arab
Emirates. Its rulers also enjoyed special protocol and titles conferred by the British since 1866 as they were accorded 17 canons salute and had special access to
the Viceroy of British India Bahawalpur state also had a separate mint to cast coins for its public and the facility remained intact until 1940. The British
Government established a Regency Council under the supervision of 39 Maulvi Sir Rahim Bakhsh until the minor Nawab grew up as a young man. This Council
was responsible for state administration. Special attention was paid to the education and upbringing of Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan. He started his education
at a college in Lahore and completed it in England. He had an aptitude for military affairs and achieved several military titles, conferred on him by the British
Empire. The Viceroy of India, Lord Reading awarded total authority of the state administration to Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan (V) on March 8, 1924. Sir
Sadeq continued his military career in the British Indian Army, which he had begun as a Lieutenant in 1921; by 1932 he was a Major, by 1941 a Lieutenant-
Colonel, commanding troops in the Middle East during the Second World War. Since 1933, he had also been a Member of the Chamber of Princes, and since
1940, a member of the Indian Defence Council. Promoted to Major-General in 1946, the following year, on August 15, 1947, Sir Sadeq was promoted to the title
of Amir of Bahawalpur. He acceded to the Dominion of Pakistan a month later. After Partition of India Nawab proved to be very helpful and generous to the
government of Pakistan. He gave seventy million rupees to the government and the salaries of all the government departments for one month were also drawn
from the treasury of Bahawalpur state. He gave his private property to the University of the Punjab, King Edward Medical College and the Mosque of Aitchison
College, Lahore. At the time of partition all the princely states of the subcontinent were given a choice to join either Pakistan or India. To try to convince the
Nawab to join India, Pandit Nehru went to him while he was in London and offered various incentives in this regard but he didn‘t accept them. On 5 October
1947 he signed an agreement with the government of Pakistan according to which Bahawalpur State acceded to Pakistan. Thus the State of Bahawalpur was the
first state that joined Pakistan. The main factor was of course the Islamic sentiments of the Muslims who were in the majority in Bahawalpur. Moreover, the
Nawab and Quaid-i-Azam were close friends and they had great respect for each other, even before the creation of Pakistan. The Ameer of Bahawalpur Refugee
Relief and Rehabilitation Fund was instituted in 1947 for providing a central organization for the relief of refugees fleeing from the new India, and the Quaid
acknowledged the valuable contribution of the Bahawalpur State for the rehabilitation of the refugees. In 1953, Sir Sadeq represented Pakistan at the installation
of Faisal II of Iraq and also at the coronation of Elizabeth II, who was also the new Queen of Pakistan. In 1955 an accord was signed between Sadeq Mohammad
and Governor-General Malik Ghulam Muhammad, according to which the State of Bahawalpur would become part of the province of West Pakistan and the
Nawab was to receive a yearly stipend, or privy purse, of 32 lakhs of rupees and was to keep the title of Nawab and its precedence both inside and
outsidePakistan. In May 1966 Nawab Sadeq died in London, which ended his long 59 years as Nawab and Ameer of Bahawalpur; his body was brought back to
Bahawalpur and was buried in his family's ancestral graveyard at Derawer Fort. His eldest son Haji Muhammad Abbas Khan Abbasi Bahadur succeeded to his
father's title of Nawab of Bahawalpur, but with no administrative power. His grandson Nawab Salah-ud-din Ahmed Abbasi currently holds the title of Nawab.
[3][4][5]
He had following honours: Delhi Durbar gold medal-1911, 1914–15 Star -1918, Victory Medal-1918, Indian Frontier Medal-1921, Prince of Wales's Visit
Medal-1922, Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO)-1922, Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE)-1931,
King George V Silver Jubilee Medal-1935, King George VI Coronation Medal-1937, Grand Cordon of the Order of the Two Rivers of the Kingdom of Iraq-
1941, Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI)-1941 (KCSI)-1929, 1939–1945 Star-1945, Africa Star-1945, Burma Star-1945, Italy
Star-1945, Defence Medal-1945, War Medal 1939–1945-1945, Pakistan Independence Medal-1947, Grand Cordon of the Order of the Cedars of Lebanon-
1947, King Faisal II Installation medal of the Kingdom of Iraq-1953, Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal-1953 and Order of the Supreme Leader (Nishan-i-
Qaid-i-Azam) 1st class of Pakistan-1959.
Muhammad Khan (1884 - 1955) was the regent of Bahawalpur from 1907 until 1916 and from 1916 until March 8, 1924.
Rahim Bakhsh Maulvi (died 1936) was the regent of Bahawalpur in 1916.
Malik Khuda Bashsh Khan (died 1930) was the regent of Bahawalpur in 1916.
List of Prime Ministers of Bahawalpur
Richard Marsh Crofton (1891 - 1955) was the Prime Minister of Bahawalpur from 1942 until 1947.
Mian Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani (1905 - 1981) was the Prime Minister of Bahawalpur from 1947 until 1949..
Arthur John Dring (1902 - 1991) was the Prime Minister of Bahawalpur from 1949 until 1952.
Makhdumzada Hasan Mahmud was the Prime Minister of Bahawalpur from 1952 until 1953.
A.R. Khan was the Prime Minister of Bahawalpur from 1953 until 1955.

Sind (Sindh)
Sind (Sindh) was the princely state in present Pakistan.
List of Khans (often ruling jointly) of Sind (Sindh)
Mir Fath `Ali ibn Sobhdar was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1783 until 1801.
Gholam `Ali ibn Sobhdar was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1801 until 1811.
Karim `Ali ibn Sobhdar was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1801 until 1828.
Morad `Ali ibn Sobhdar was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1801 until 1833.
Nur Mohammad ibn Morad `Ali was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1833 until 1840.
Nasir Mohammad ibn Morad `Ali (1805 - 1845) was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1833 until 1843.
Sobhdar was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1833 until 1843.
Mohammad was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1833 until 1843.
Shahdad ibn Nur Mohammad was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1840 until 1843.
Hosayn `Ali ibn Nur Mohammad was a ruler of princely state of Sind (Sindh) from 1840 until 1843.

Khairpur (Khayrpur)
The State of Khairpur was a princely state on the Indus River in what is now Pakistan, with its capital city at Khairpur. The state was counted amongst
the Sindh states rather than the neighbouring Rajputana states (now Rajasthan) to the east. It was a Princely state of Pakistan from 1947 until its end in 1955. The
history of the state of Khairpur is bound up with the history of the Talpur clan and its rule over Sind. The origins of the state date back to the disputes over the
succession to the leadership of the clan, following the murder of its chief, Mir Bahram Khan in 1775. The clan then revolted against the Kalhoras of Sind, taking
control of various parts of the kingdom and eventually replacing them as rulers.
List of Rulers (title Nawab) of Khairpur (Khayrpur)
Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur (died 1832) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1783 until 1811. Mir Sohrab Khan
Talpur established his control over Upper Sind by 1783, established his capital at Burahan, which he renamed Khairpur in 1786. He
extended his territories over a vast area, eventually helping his kinsmen from Hyderabad, in expelling the Afghans from the province by 1823.
As early as 1811, he had divided his territories into three emirates, each ruled by one of his sons, but with his eldest invested as principal
Amir. To them he left the day to day affairs of administration and retired to the Fort of Ahmadabad, in Diji. There, he took a new wife and
raised a family, to whom he intended to bequeath a portion of his realm. This incurred the jealousy of his adult grandsons, especially those of
his second son, Mubarak 'Ali.
Mir Rustam `Ali Khan Talpur (1758 - 1843) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1811 until December 20,
1842. The death of Sohrab in 1830, left his eldest son Mir Rustam 'Ali Khan, in full though precarious control over Upper Sind. His
position had been little more than that of a regent during his father's lifetime, and this was to remain unchanged until his youngest half
brother, 'Ali Murad, came of age. Unwilling to surrender power to him, Rustam sought to strengthen his position by entering into treaty
relations with the British in 1832. He secured their recognition as independent ruler, but surrendered control over external relations to
them in April 1838, followed by full British protection later that year. Nevertheless, this did not save him from internal family disputes,
with which the British initially refused to treat or take sides. However, the contest between 'Ali Murad, the youngest brother and the sons
of Mir Mubarak 'Ali culminated in victory for the latter. Peace was finally established in 1842 through a negotiated settlement, resulting in
Rustam abdicating in favour of his youngest brother.
Mubarak `Ali Khan Talpur was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1829 until 1839 (in rebellion).
Naser Khan Talpur was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1839 until ? (in rebellion).
Mir`Ali Murad Khan Talpur (1815 – April 2, 1894) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1842 until his death
on April 2, 1894. Mir 'Ali Murad was a forceful personality, who mistrusted the British for siding with his eldest half-brother in 1832.
Nevertheless, he imbued himself with a sense of realism and attempted to co-operate whenever his interests or inclinations did not
supervene. He honoured the alliance by assisting the HEIC during the Turki Campaign in 1847, but blotted his copybook by intriguing
against them in 1851-1852. Accused of deception and fraud, he was stripped of most of his territories in Upper Sind in 1852, being left with
little more than his original emirate including Khairpur and surrounding lands. Despite this setback, he co-operated faithfully with the
British during the 1857 Mutiny five years later. He ensured them to suppress any upsurge within his jurisdiction takes place. At his death in
1894, after a long reign of fifty-two years, he was an honoured and respected ruler of the empire.
Fa´iz Muhammad Khan I Talpur (1837 – March 5, 1909) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1894 until his
death on March 5, 1909.



Emam Bakhsh Khan Talpur (1860 – February 8, 1921) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1909 until his death
on February 8, 1921.


`Ali Nawaz Khan Talpur (1884 – December 25, 1935) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1921 until his death
on December 25, 1935 (deprived of administration from June 1931).


Mir Fa´iz Mohammad Khan II Talpur (1913 - 1954) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1935 until July 19,
1947. Mir Fa´iz Muhammad Khan II had suffered from an unstable and nervous affliction for many years. So much so that he could not be
trusted with the management of state affairs. The government instituted a council of regency under local ministers and ordered the Mir to live
outside the state. After a period of twelve-years, and shortly before the transfer of power, he abdicated in favour of his minor son in July 1947.

George `Ali Morad Khan Talpur (born 1934) was a ruler of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1947 until October 14,
1955. His father abdicated in favour of his minor son in July 1947. The state acceded to the Dominion of Pakistan in October that year,
and merged into West Pakistan in 1955. He was reached his majority and received full ruling powers, just four years earlier. The state had
been the first place on the sub-continent to introduce full adult suffrage. His subjects enjoyed free education up to matriculation standard
and free healthcare, there were no customs duties, property, income or wealth taxes, the crime rate negligible, and light industries
flourished. Mir 'Ali Murad Khan II remains one of the few surviving first class rulers of the old Indian Empire, still holding a public Majlis
every Muharram at his sprawling palace, Faiz Mahal. He has long taken a keen interest in animal welfare and conservation, having
established one of the largest private wildlife sanctuaries on the sub-continent. His younger son, Prince Mehdi Raza Khan, continues his
father's passion and oversees his conservation interests since retirement. The form of government was traditional monarchy. However, in
1950 the Mir Ali Murad II introduced democracy with universal adult franchise. The rulers of Khairpur were styled as Amir - thus the correct title of the state
was the Emirate of Khairpur. The royal privileges of the Amir were abolished in 1972 in violation of the merger agreement, along with those of most of the other
sovereign princes that had acceded to Pakistan.
Mir Ghulam Hussain Talpur was the President of regency council and Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1947 until
September 16, 1951.
List of Dewans (Prime Ministers) of Khairpur (Khayrpur)
Nawab Wali Muhammad Leghari was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) around 1833.
Mir Fakhruddin Alavi was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) around 1834.
Fath Mohamed Khan Ghori was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1839 until 1842.
Syed Fateh Ali Shah was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) before 1892.
Utlam Chand was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from ? until 1892.
Kadirdad Khan was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1892 until 1903.
Sardar Mohammad Yakub Khan (1858 – January 24, 1907) was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1903 until
his death on January 24, 1907.
Shaikh Sadiq Ali was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1907 until 1912.
Maulvi Mahomed Ibrahim Khan Shaikh Ismail was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1912 until 1920.
Shaikh Mohamed Kadir was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1920 until 1925.
Muhammad Yakub Khan was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1925 until 1926.
I.H. Taunton was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from May 1931 until May 1932.
Joseph Maurice Sladen (1896 - 1956) was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from 1932 until 1937.
Syed Ijaz (Aijaz) Ali was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) around 1937 until around 1942.
Mumtaz Hasan Kizilbash was the Dewan (Prime Minister) of princely state of Khairpur (Khayrpur) from September 16, 1951 until October 14, 1955.

Mirpur
Mirpur was a princely state in what is now Pakistan. By the end of 18th century, Gakhar power in Pothohar had declined. Mirpur had become part
of Chibb ruled state of Khari Khariyali with capital at Mangla Fort. With the rise of Sikh power in Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established his supremacy and
set his eyes on the Chibh states of Bhimber and Khari Khariyali. In 1810, a force was sent against Raja Sultan Khan of Bhimber and was met with fierce
resistance. However, in 1812 another Sikh army under prince Kharak Singh defeated Sultan Khan and the Bhimber state was annexed as Jagir of Kharak Singh.
Around the same time, Ranjit Singh acquired Gujrat and invaded Khari Khariyali ruled by Raja Umar Khan. Raja Umar Khan made peace with Ranjit Singh. But
before a settlement could be made, he died and the state and Mirpur became part of Ranjit Singh's territories. In 1816, Ranjit Singh annexed Jammu state and in
1820 awarded Jammu to his commander Gulab Singh who hailed from Jammu and was under the service of Ranjit Singh for the past eight years. Between 1831–
39 Ranjit Singh bestowed on Gulab Singh the royalty of the salt mines in northern Punjab, and the northern Punjab towns including Bhera, Jhelum,Rohtas,
Mirpur and Gujrat. Gulab Singh kept on expanding his kingdom and in 1840 Baltistan was made subject to Jammu and Gilgit fell to a Sikh force from Kashmir
in 1842. The state of Kashmir was annexed by Ranjit Singh in 1819. However the rebellion in Hazara in the beginning of 1846, compelled the country to be
transferred to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu as well. As an aftermath of the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Treaty of Lahore, The Treaty of Amritsar was signed
between the British Government and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu on March 16, 1846. This treaty transferred him all the hill states between Ravi and Indus. The
transfer included Kashmir, Hazara and the southern hill states (including former Khari Khariyali). Thus sealing the fate of Mirpur with the new state of Jammu
and Kashmir.
List of Rulers (title Mir) of Mirpur
Tharo Khan ibn Morad `Ali was a ruler of princely state of Mirpur from 1801 until 1829.
Shir Mohammad ibn Tharo was a ruler of princely state of Mirpur from 1829 until 1843.

Kalat
Kalat was a princely state in what is now Pakistan.
List of Rulers (titles Wali, [and from 1730 Begler Begi] Khan) of Kalat
Mehrab Khan I was a ruler Khan of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan in 1695.
Samander Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1695 until 1714.
Abdullah Khan (died 1738) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1714 until 1734.
Muhabat Khan (died 1749) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1734 until his death in 1749.
Hosayn Nasur Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1749 until 1817.
Mahmud Khan I (1781 – November 13, 1839) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1817 until
his death on November 13, 1839.
Mehrab Khan II (1795 - 1846) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1839 until 1840.
Hosayn Nasir Khan II (1836 - 1857) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1840 until his death
in 1857.
Khodadad Khan (1844 – August 15, 1893) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from 1857 until
March 1863 and from May 1864 until his death on August 15, 1893.
Shirdil Khan (died May 1864) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from March 1863 until his death in
May 1864.
Mahmud Khan II (1875 - 1935) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan from November 10, 1893 until
November 3, 1931.
Mohammad A`zam Jan Khan (1876 – September 10, 1933) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan
from 1931 until his death on September 10, 1933.
Ahmad Yar Khan (1904 - 1979) was a ruler of the princely state of Kalat in what is now the Balochistan province of Pakistan 1933 until October 14, 1955
and in 1958 in dissidence.


Las Bela
Las Bela was a princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India (later a princely state of Pakistan) which existed until 1955. The state occupied an area of
18,254 km
2
(7,048 sq mi) in the extreme southeast of the Balochistan region, with an extensive coastline on the Arabian Sea to the south. Las Bela was bordered
by the princely states of Kalat and Makran to the north and west. To the east lay the province of Sind and to the southeast lay the Federal Capital
Territory around the city ofKarachi. The State of Las Bela was founded in 1742 by Ali Khan I. His descendants ruled Las Bela until 1955 when the state became
part of West Pakistan. For a period of three years between 3 October 1952 and 14 October 1955, Las Bela was part of theBaluchistan States Union but retained
internal autonomy. In 1955, Las Bela was incorporated into the new province of West Pakistan and became part of Kalat division. In 1962, the area of Las Bela
was detached from Kalat division and merged with the former Federal Capital Territory to form the division of Karachi-Bela. When the provincial system was
changed in 1970, Las Bela became part of the new province of Balochistan.
List of Rulers (title Jam Saheb) of Las Bela
Izzat Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from ? until 1742.
Bibi Chaguli was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela in 1742.
`Ali Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1742 until 1765.
Gholam Shah was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1765 until 1776.
Mir Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1776 until 1818.
`Ali Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1818 until 1930.
Mir Khan II (died 1888) was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1830 until 1969 and from 1886 until his death in 1888.
`Ali Khan III (1849 - 1896) was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1869 until 1886 and from 1888 until his death in 1896.
Kamal Khan (1874 - 1921) was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1896 until his death in 1921.
Gholam Mohammad Khan (1895 - 1937) was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1921 until his death in 1937.
Gholam Qader Khan (1920 - 1988) was a ruler of the princely state of Las Bela from 1937 until October 14, 1955.

Makran
Makran was an autonomous princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India until 1947, then from 1948 a princely state of Pakistan. It ceased to exist in
1955. It was located in the extreme southwest of present-day Pakistan, an area now occupied by the districts of Gwadar, Kech and Panjgur. The state did not
include the enclave of Gwadar, which was under Omani rule until 1958. The state of Makran was established in the eighteenth century, ruled by the Sardars of
the Gichki family of Makran, who remained sovereign until 1948. On March 17, 1948, Makran acceded to Pakistan, and on October 3, 1952 it joined
Kalat, Kharanand Las Bela to form the Baluchistan States Union. The state was dissolved on October 14, 1955, when most regions of the western wing of
Pakistan were merged to form the province of West Pakistan. When that province was dissolved in 1970, the territory of the former state of Makran was
organised as Makran District and later Makran Division of the province of Baluchistan(later changed to Balochistan).
List of Rulers (title Nazem, from 1922 title Nawwab) of Makran
Harun Makrani Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1725 until 1730.
Muhabat Khan (died 1751) was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from from 1730 until 1731 and from 1750 until his death in 1751.
Muhammad Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1731 until 1739.
Isa Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1739 until 1740.
Nasir Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1740 until 1750.
Mahmud Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1751 until 1816.
Mehrab Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1816 until 1839.
Mihran Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1839 until ?
Hajjaz Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Makran in the second half 19th century.
Muhammad Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from ? until 1905.
Mehr Allahm Mahmud Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1905 until 1917.
A`zam Jan was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1922 until 1948.
Bai Khan Baloch Gikchi (1890 - 19..) was a ruler of the princely state of Makran from 1948 until October 14, 1955.

Kharan
The State of Kharan was an autonomous princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India, until the departure of the British from the subcontinent in
August 1947. For several months it was fully independent, until March 1948, when its ruler signed an Instrument of Accession to Pakistan, retaining the state's
internal self-government. In 1955 Kharan was incorporated into Pakistan. The territory once covered by Kharan is today part of the province of Balochistan, in
the southwest of Pakistan. The state of Kharan was established in about 1697 as a vassal state of Kalat, a status which remained until 1940. On 17 March 1948,
Kharan acceded to Pakistan and on October 3, 1952 it joined the Baluchistan States Union. The state was dissolved on 14 October 1955 when most regions of
the western wing of Pakistan were merged to form the province of West Pakistan. When that province was dissolved in 1970, the territory of the former state of
Kharan was organised as Kharan District of the province of Baluchistan (later Balochistan).
List of Rulers (title Mir; from 1921, Sardar Bahadur Nawab) of Kharan
Dosten Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan in late 17th century.
Shahdad Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan in late 17th century.
Rahmat Khan (died 1711) was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan in late 17th century.
Purdil Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1711 until 1759.
Shahdad Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1759 until 1764.
`Abbas Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan 1764 until 1796.
Jahangir Khan (died 1806) was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1796 until 1804.
`Abbas Khan III (died 1835) was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1804 until his death in 1835.
Azad Khan (1793 - 1885) was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1835 until his death in 1885.
Nowruz Khan (1855 - June 1909) was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1885 until June 1909.
Mohammad Ya`qub Khan (1873 – April 19, 1911) was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1909 until his death on April 19, 1911.
Amir Khan was a ruler (usurper) of the princely state of Kharan in 1911.
Habibullah Khan (1897 - 1958) was a ruler of the princely state of Kharan from 1911 until October 14, 1955.

Baltistan
Baltistan was known as Little Tibet in olden Days and in course of time this name was extended to include the area of ladakh as well. Later on, in order to
differentiate it from ladakh ,Baltistan was called little Tibet Where as Ladakh was known as Great Tibet .But locally Ladakh and Baltistan were Known
as Maryul (red country) and Baltistan were known as Balti Yul. It was believed that the Balti people came under the Sphere of influence from the kingdom
of Zhang Zhung.Baltistan came under the control of the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century. Under Tibetan cultural influence, the Bon and
Animist Baltis began to adopt Tibetan Buddhism from Indian Buddhism. Religious artifacts such as the Gompas and Chortens were erected, and Lamas played
an important role in the lives of the Baltis. It was in the 14th century that religious Muslim scholars from Iran and Kashmir penetrated Baltistan‘s mountainous
terrain to spread Islam amongst a people who were originally Buddhist. The Kharmang came under the control of the Namgyal royal family, and fostered a close
relationship with Ladakh in the east when the Raja of Laddakh, Jamyang Mangyal, attacked the principalities in the district of Purik annihilating the Skardu
garrison at Kharbu and putting to sword a number of petty Muslim rulers in the Muslim principalities in Purik (Kargil), Ali Sher Khan Anchan, Sher Ghazi, Raja
of Khaplu and Raja of Shigar left with a strong army by way of Marol and by passing the Laddakhi army occupied Leh, the capital of Laddakh. The Raja of
Laddakh was ultimately taken prisoner. Legends show that the Balti army obsessed with success advanced as far as Purang, in the valley of Mansarovar Lake, and
won the admiration of their enemies and friends. The Raja of Laddakh sued for peace and since Ali Sher Khan‘s intention was not to annex Laddakh, he agreed
subject to the condition that the village of Ganokh and Gagra Nullah should be ceded to Skardu and he (the Laddakhi Raja) should pay annual tribute. This
tribute was paid through the Gonpa (monastery) of Lama Yuru till the Dogra conquest of Laddakh. Hashmatullah records that the Head Lama of the said Gonpa
had admitted before him the payment of yearly tribute to Skardu Darbar till the Dogra conquest of Laddakh. Ali Sher Khan Anchan also
included Gilgit and Chitral into his kingdom of baltistan. It is related that Baltistan was a flourishing country during the reign of Ali Sher Khan Anchan. They
valley from Khepchne to Kachura was flat and fertile and fruit trees abounded in it. The sandy desert now extending from Sundus village to the Skardu
Airport was a prosperous town. skardu had hardly recovered from the shock of the death of the Anchan when it was visited by a great flood converting it into a
sandy desert. In 1845, the area came under the despotic rule of the Dogras. At the time of the independence of India from the British, the people of the area saw
an opportunity to get rid of the oppressive rule of the Dogras, and the people of Baltistan along with the people of Gilgit revolted. Despite being outgunned and
outnumbered, they achieved independence and joined Pakistan in 1948. The Maqpon Dynasty of Skardu was found by Ibrahim shah (1190-1220)came
from Kashmir This royal family ruled over baltistan about 700 years. The kings of maqpon dynasty also extanded the frontiers of baltistan to Gilgit
Agency, chitral, and ladakh in the west during their flourishing time.
List of Rulers of Baltistan
Ibrahim Shah was the founder of Maqpon dynasty and ruler of Baltistan in late 12th and early 13th century.
Shakar Rygyayul-Fu (died 1437) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from ? until his death in 1437.
Ghota Cho-Senge (died 1490) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1437 until his death in 1490.
Bugha (died 1515) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1490 until his death in 1515.
Ghazi Mir (died 1590) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1565 until his death in 1590
Ali Sher Khan Anchan (died 1625) (balti: یه ع ری ش ٌا ٍچ َا) was a famous balti king of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1590 until his death in 1625.
He was a Maqpon dynasty king who unified Baltistan and expanded its frontiers to Ladakh and western Tibet in the east, and in the west to the borders
of Ghizar and Chitral. Anchan came into contact with the Mughal court. According to the balti version, Ali Sher Khan Anchan lost his royal father as a child. His
maternal uncle, the Raja of Shigar, took him to Shigar with his mother. The intention was probably to put him to death and annex the Skardu Kingdom, the boy's
inheritance, to his Kingdom of Shigar. At the age of 18, with twelve faithful followers of his father, Ali Sher Khan fled to Delhi. He was noticed by the
Emperor Akbar when he showed his physical prowess by killing a lion while hunting in Delhi. The Emperor gave him the command of a Moghul army to
reclaim his lost kingdom. While at Delhi, he married a Moghul princess named Gul Khatoon. In 1586 A.D., when Akbar the Great conquered Kashmir, Ali
Sher Khan Anchan was with him (referred to as Ali Rai by Mughal historians). It is related that Ladakhi kingdom extended up to Sermik in the West. During the
reign of Ghazi Mir, the Laddakhis were driven out not only from the Kharmang valley but the entire district of Purik (Kargil) was occupied by Ali Sher Khan, the
heir apparent. He is said to have garrisoned the fort at Kharbu with soldiers and appointed a ‗Kharpon‘ or governor to administer the border area.
A few years had not passed when the Raja of Laddakh, Jamyang Mangyal, attacked the principalities in the district of Purik (Kargil) annihilating
the Skardu garrison at Kharbu and putting to sword a number of petty Muslim rulers in the Muslim principalities in Purik (Kargil), Ali Sher Khan Anchan, Sher
Ghazi, Raja of Khaplu and Raja of Shigar left with a strong army by way of Marol and by[passing the Laddakhi army occupied Leh, the capital of Laddakh.It
appears that the Balti conquest of Laddakh took place in about 1594. The Raja of Laddakh was ultimately taken prisoner. Legends show that the Balti army
obsessed with success advanced as far as Purang, in the valley of Mansarwar Lake, and won the admiration of their enemies and friends. The Raja of Laddakh
sued for peace and since Ali Sher Khan‘s intention was not to annex Laddakh, he agreed subject to the condition that the village of Ganokh and Gagra Nullah
should be ceded to Skardu and he (the Laddakhi Raja) should pay annual tribute. This tribute was paid through the Gonpa (monastery) of LamaYuru till
the Dogra conquest of Laddakh. Hashmatullah records that the Head Lama of the said Gonpa had admitted before him the payment of yearly tribute to Skardu
Darbar till the Dogra conquest of Laddakh. The king of Laddakh offered his daughter in marriage to Ali Sher Khan. The incessant attacks on and plunder of
villages in Roundu Baltistan, Dras, Gultari and Shingo Shigar by people from Gilgit, Chilas and Astore while he was preoccupied in the campaigns in Laddakh,
forced Ali Sher Khan Anchan to march on Gilgit with an Army worthy of his glorious name. He conquered Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar and Chilas. From Gilgit
he advanced to and conquered Chitral and Kafiristan. To commemorate his victory he planted a Chinar Tree (Plane Tree) at Chitral near the village of Bronshel.
In Balti folk songs and stories Chitral is known by the name of Brushal and this Chinar tree is referred to as Brosho Shingial or the Chinal of Broshal-corrupted
form of Bronshal. In the folk lore named after this Chinar of Brushal-Brosho Shingial, the exploits of Ali Sher Khan are enumerated and tribute is paid to the
Anchan for his remarkable conquest and the boundary of his kingdom from Purang in the east to Brushal or Chitral in the West and in doing so, the Balti
people have also been allowed to share the tribute. In one line the western and eastern boundaries of the Maqpon Empire have been defined ‗Leh Purang na
Brushal Shingel‘ meaning ‗from Leh‘s Purang to Brushal‘s Chinar Tree‘. Ali Sher Khan Anchan conquered most of the principalities of Kargil and introduced
Balti culture in the Kargil District. Anchan also took a lot interest in constructions, water channel (stream) was constructed from Hargisa Nullah near Koshmara
to the Kachura lake. It was dug on the pattern of those found in Srinagar. Shikaras (small boats) ferried between Kushmara and Kachura. This stream had the
twin purpose of providing irrigational facilities to the people as well as recreation to the royal princesses. Ruins of the stream are still to be found in Giayul village.
Ali Sher Khan is also credited with the construction of a dam on the Satpara Lake which irrigates Skardu. During the winter months the doors of the barrage
were closed and in spring time opened according to irrigational needs. This practice is followed even to this day. The construction of the Kharfocho Fort has
been attributed by Hashmatullah to Maqpon Bukha or more correctly, Bugha, one of his ancestors. Cunningham and Moghal historians are of the view that the
fort was constructed by Ali Sher Khan. Fosco Maraini says that everything of note in Skardu was put down to the credit of Ali Sher Khan.
Ali Mir (died 1635) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1625 until his death in 1635.
Adam Khan (died 1660) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1635 until his death in 1660.
Shah Murad (died 1680) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1660 until his death in 1680.
Shir Khan (died 1710) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1680 until his death in 1710.
Muhammad Rafi (died 1745) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1710 until his death in 1745.
Sultan Murad II (died 1780) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1745 until his death in 1780.
Azam Khan (died 1785) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1780 until his death in 1785.
Muhammad Zafar Khan (died 1787) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1785 until his death in 1787.
Ali Sher Shah (died 1800) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1787 until his death in 1800.
Ahmed Shah (died1841) was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1800 until his death in 1841 and Kashmir in 1840. Ahmad
Shah was defeated and lost independence against the Dogra general Zorawar Singh in 1840.
Mahmud Shah was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty from 1841 until ?
Ali Shah was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty in second half 19th century.
Shah Abbas was the ruler of Baltistan from Maqpon dynasty in second half 19th century.

Amb
Amb was a princely state of the former British Indian Empire. In 1947 by the Indian Independence Act 1947, the British abandoned their supremacy, and
following the Partition of India Amb's Nawab decided to give up his state's independence by acceding to the new country of Pakistan. However, Amb continued
as a distinct state within Pakistan until 1969, when it was incorporated into the North West Frontier Province (now Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa). In 1972, the royal
status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan.
List of Rulers (title Mir; from 1919, Nawwab) of Amb
Mir Haibat Khan (died 1803) was ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1800 until his death in 1803. Mir Haibat Khan was the eldest son of Mir Gul
Muhammad Khan and declared to be the chief of Tanawal.
Mir Hashim Ali Khan (died 1809) was ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1803 until his death in 1809. He was son of Mir Haibat Khan and brother to
Mir Nawab Khan, following)
Mir Nawab Khan (died 1818) was ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1809 until his death in 1818
Mir Painda Khan (died 1844) was a powerful Tanoli chief and ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1818 until his death in 1844. He was the son of Mir
Nawab Khan, famed for his rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh's governors of Hazara. Painda Khan "played a considerable part in vigorously opposing the
Sikhs." Starting in circa-1813, Mir Painda Khan began a rebellion against the Sikhs that would continue throughout his lifetime. To combat Khan, Hari Singh
Nalwa, the Sikh Governor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh to Hazara, created forts at strategic locations during his governorship. Painda Khan's rebellion against the
Sikh empire cost him a major portion of his kingdom, leaving only the tract around Amb,
[2]
with his twin capitals Amb and Darband. This increased his resistance
against the Sikh government. In 1828 Mir Painda Khan gifted the territory of Phulra as an independent Khanate to his brother Madad Khan. This territory was
later recognized by the British as a semi-independent Princely State. Painda Khan was the Nawab of Amb who took over the valley of Agror in 1834.
The Swatis appealed to Sardar Hari Singh, who was unable to help them but in 1841, Hari Singh's successor restored Agror to Ata Muhammad, a descendant of
Sad-ud-din. General Dhaurikal Singh, commanding officer of the Sikh troops in Hazara, had Painda Khan poisoned to death in September 1844.
Mir Jehandad Khan (died 1868) was a tribal chief of the Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan abd ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1844 until his
death in 1868. It was said, "Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful [was] said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli."

His territories laid on both banks
of the Indus, and, as the son of Painda Khan, Jehandad Khan was particularly well respected among his peoples.
[1]
Respecting Jehandad Khan's authority over his
territory was a necessity for the British; in the words of Major J. Abbott, 'His (Jehandad's) territory interposes between Hazara and the strongest and most
troublesome of the independent tribes. He can send 50 or 60 matchlocks to retaliate a fray which might cost us an army of 8000 men. Jehandad Khan is naturally
of a gentle and sincere temperament, and has fewer vicious propensities than most Asiatics.' When Sikh power was on the decline in 1845 Jehandad Khan
blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal; and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen
Empire. "The act, however, stood him afterwards in good stead; for, when Hazara was assigned to Maharaja Golab Singh, that politic ruler rewarded Jehandad
Khan's humanity with the jagir of Koolge and Badnuck in Lower Tannowul." As far as Jehandad Khan's hereditary domain of Upper Tanawal, with the capital at
Amb is concerned, the term 'jagir' has never been applicable to it. The British Government considered Upper Tannowul as a chiefship held under the British
Government, but in which, as a rule, they did not possess internal jurisdiction. The Chief managed his own people in his own way without regard to British laws,
rules or system. This tenure resembled that on which the Chiefs of Patiala, Jhind, Nabha, Kapurthala and others held their lands. He was the son of Mir Painda
Khan. When he died, he left a nine year old boy Muhammad Akram Khan.
Muhammad Akram Khan (died 1907) was the chief of the Tanolis and ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1868 until his death in 1907. He was son
of Mir Jahandad Khan was Nawab Sir Akram Khan (K.C.S.I)(1868–1907). He was a popular chief and it was during his tenure that the fort at Shergarh was
constructed, along with Dogah and Shahkot Forts. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal with no major conflicts.
Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan, K.C.I.E (or correctly, Nawab Khan-i-zaman Khan, died February 26, 1936) was the chief of the
Tanolis and ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1907 until his death on February 26, 1936. He was son of Nawab Muhammad Akram
Khan. He was helped the British in carrying out several of the later Black Mountain (Kala Dhaka/Tor Ghar) expeditions.



Muhammad Farid Khan, K.B.E (1893 - 1969) was the chief of the Tanolis and ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1936 until 1947. He was succeeded
his father Nawab Khanizaman Khan. He had had a very good relationship with The Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnahand Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan.
His contributions to the Pakistan movement have been acknowledged by letters from The Quaid e Azam. In 1947 the Nawab ofAmb, Muhammad Farid Khan,
acceded to Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession of his State, in favour of Pakistan. In 1969, the State was incorporated into the North-West Frontier
Province. He died in 1969, and in 1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan. Nawab Muhammad Farid Khan sent an
army of 1500 Amb State soldiers under the leadership of Subedar Major Shah Zaman Khan to take part in the Kashmir Liberation Movement from 1947 to
1948 (Kashmir Conflict). The Amb State force carried its own artillery to the battle. They fought bravely alongside other frontier tribesmen and came under fire
by the Indian airforce just three kilometers from Baramulla sector. Around 200 Amb State soldiers lost their lives in the battle.
Saeed Khan (1934 - 1973) was the chief of the Tanolis and titular ruler of the princely state of Amb from 1971 until his death in 1973.
Salahuddin Khan was the chief of the Tanolis and titular ruler of the princely state of Amb in 1973. He is a Pakistani politician and the
present titular Chief of the Tanolis of the former princely state of Amb or Tanawal. He has been elected five times to the National Assembly of
Pakistan and has belonged to several political parties, including Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf. In Pakistan's General Elections of 2013 he stood in and is
a candidate for Constituency NA-21. Khan is the son of Nawab Muhammad Saeed Khan. He holds the record as the youngest parliamentarian
ever to be elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan. After that, he went on to be elected to the National Assembly five times, between 1985
and 1997, a feat only achieved by seven other Pakistani parliamentarians, including the former Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Khan has
held portfolios in the federal government, including his service as Parliamentary Secretary for Production (1991-1993). He later chaired the
National Assembly's Standing Committee on Sports, Tourism, Culture and Youth Affairs (1997-1999) and has been a member of several other
parliamentary Standing Committees. Khan also served as interim Provincial Minister in the Kyber Pakhtunkhwa Government, from 1990 to 1991.
He has twice led a delegation of Pakistan to the United Nations General Assembly and also at several other international forums, such as the Commonwealth
election observer in Kenya, SAARC and the Cancun Summit on Natural Habitat.
Chitral
Chitral (or Chitrāl) (Urdu:لارر چ) was a princely state in alliance with British India until 1947, then a princely state of Pakistanuntil 1969. The ruler, or Mehtar, of
Chitral was given the title of His Highness by the British and enjoyed a hereditary salute of 11 guns.
[1]
The area of the state now forms the Chitral
District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The former princely capital, Chitral Town, is situated on the west bank of the Chitral (or Kunar River) at the foot of Tirich
Mirwhich at 7,708 m (25,289 ft) is the highest peak of the Hindu Kush. The borders of the state were seldom stable and fluctuated with the fortunes of Chitral‘s
rulers, the Mehtars. The official language of the state was Persian but the general population was mainly of the Khow tribe, who spoke the Khowar language (or
Chitrali), which is also spoken in parts of Yasin,Gilgit and Swat. The Khowar language belongs to the Proto Indo-European group of languages. The entire region
that now forms the Chitral District was a fully independent monarchy until 1895, when the British negotiated asubsidiary alliance with its hereditary ruler, the
Mehtar, under which Chitral became a princely state, still sovereign but subject to the suzerainty of the Indian Empire. Chitral retained a similar status even after
its accession to Pakistan in 1947, not becoming an administrative district of Pakistan until 1969.
List of Rulers (title Mehtar) of Chitral
Sangeen Ali I was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral around 1560. The ruling family of Chitral traces its descent from the son of a Khorasan prince, Baba
Ayub Mirza who was also a disciple of the saint Kamal Shah Shams ud-din Tabrizi. Ayub Mirza was the grandson of Shah Abu'l Ghazi Sultan Mirza Husayn
Bayqarah, the great grandson of Emperor Timurlane. Baba Ayub Mirza arrived in Chitral and married the daughter of the ruler Shah Raees, a supposed
descendant of Alexander the Great. The grandson of this marriage founded the present Katoor dynasty. Accordingly, the family actually owes its fortunes to
Sangan Ali, sometime Minister to Shah Rais, ruler of Chitral during the sixteenth century. His sons seized power following his death in 1540, establishing a new
ruling dynasty over the state. The present ruling dynasty descends from the second of these two sons. The period between Sangan 'Ali's accession to power and
modern times is clouded by fratricidal warfare. So much so that it is nearly impossible to date the reigns or lives of many of the rulers. Only during the middle of
the nineteenth century, European travelers, administrators and scholars began to enter the area and take an interest in its history, and gradually the history of the
country, its people, languages and culture, began to emerge from the mists of time. However, this task is far from complete and it will be many years before
Chitral yields up all its mysteries and secrets.
Muhtarram Shah Kator I was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral around 1585.
Sangeen Ali II was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral around 1655
Ghulam Mohammad was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from ? until 1700.
Shah Alam was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1700 until ?
Mohammad Shafi was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral in the first half 18th century.
Faramurz Shah (died 1790) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1755 until 1770.
Shah Afzal I was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1770 until 1775.
Shah Fazil was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1775 until 1778.
Mohammad Mohtaram Shah II (died 1841) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1778 until 1788 and from 1833 until 1837
Shah Nawaz Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1788 until 1798 and from 1817 until 1833.
Shah Khairullah Kushqte (died c.1818) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1798 until 1817.
Shah Mohammad Afzal II (died 1853) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1837 until his death in 1853. Shah Afzal II who ruled during the
first half of the nineteenth century, fought against the Afghans in support of his allies, the rulers ofBadakhshan. He also fought against the Dogras and against his
Kushwaqte kinsmen, but later switched sides and concluded treaty relations with the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, thereafter becoming an ally of Kashmir in
return for an annual subsidy to pay for troops and the supervision of the Afghan border.
Mohammad Mohtaram Shah III (died 1858) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1853 until his death in 1858.
Shah Mohammad Aman al-Mulk II (1820 - 1892) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1858 until his death in 1892.
Aman ul-Mulk, Afzal's younger son, succeeded his brother in 1857. After a brief dispute with Kashmir, in which he laid siege to the garrison
at Gilgit and briefly held the Puniyal valley, he accepted a new treaty with the Maharaja in 1877. Aman ul-Mulk was such a strong ruler that
no serious attempt to challenge his authority was made during his reign. Describing Aman ul-Mulk in 1899 Algernon Durand wrote, "His
bearing was royal, his courtesy simple and perfect, he had naturally the courtly Spanish grace of a great heredity noble". Lord
Curzon, Viceroy of India from (1897-1902) visited Chitral in 1890 while he was a member of the British Parliament. He witnessed the
proceedings of the Mahraka (Royal Court) presided over by Aman ul-Mulk and recorded in his diary, ‖Chitral, in fact, had its parliament and
democratic constitution. For just as the British House of Commons is an assembly, so in Chitral, the Mehtar, seated on a platform and
hedged about with a certain dignity, dispensed justice or law in sight of some hundreds of his subjects, who heard the arguments, watched the process of debate,
and by their attitude in the main decided the issue. Such ‗durbars‘ were held on most days of the week in Chitral, very often twice in the day, in the morning and
again at night. Justice compels me to add that the speeches in the Mahraka were less long and the general demeanour more decorous than in some western
assemblies‖ (Curzon 1923:133). For forty years his was the chief personality on the frontier. After a relatively long reign, he died peacefully in 1892.
Mohammad Afzal al-Mulk (1875 – December 1, 1892) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from August 30 until December 1,
1892. He was the fifth son of Shah Muhammad Aman ul-Mulk II, Mehtar of Chitral and Yasin, Master of Ghizr, Ishkoman and Suzerain
of Kafiristan, by his first wife. He was appointed by his father as Heir Presumptive with the title of Tsik Mehtar. He was Governor of Matuj
until 1892. He was seized Chitral following the death of his father, in August 30, 1892. He was proclaimed ruler in the absence of his elder
brother, Sardar Muhammad Nizam ul-Mulk, the legitimate Heir Apparent. Opposed by several factions within the family and the state,
prompting his uncle to return from Afghanistan and seize the throne. m. a daughter of the Mir of Shighnan, a refugee from Badakhshan
following the Russian advance into Central Asia. He was k. (s.p.m.) by his paternal uncle Sher Afzal, at Chitral Fort, 1st December 1892
(bur. at the Mehtari Qabiristan, Jangbazar, Chitral), having had issue, three daughters.
Shir Afzal Khan (1873 - 1895) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from December 1 until December 12, 1892. He was younger son of Shah
Muhammad Afzal II, Mehtar of Chitral. Fled to Afghanistan in 1858, where he cultivated the friendship of the Amir 'Abdu'l Rahman. Returned to Chitral with
troops and funds, killed his nephew, Mehtar Azfal ul-Mulk, and seized the throne, on December 1, 1892. He was briefly held Chitral Fort until his flight on
December 12, 1892. Fled into Afghanistan early in 1893, returned in 1894 and attempted to seize power again, but was captured and exiled to Madras in
September 1895. He died there, before 1923 (bur. at the Mehtari Qabiristan, Jangbazar, Chitral), having had issue, two daughters.
Mohammad Nizam al-Mulk (1874 – January 1, 1895) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from December 12, 1892 until
his death in 1895. He was the third son of Shah Muhammad Aman ul-Mulk II, Mehtar of Chitral and Yasin, Master of Ghizr, Ishkoman
and Suzerain of Kafiristan, by his first wife, the Sayyida Khonza, educ. privately. He was appointed by his father as Heir Apparent with
the title of Sardar. He was negotiated the treaty with Kashmir, on behalf of his father, in 1877. Governor of Yasin 1882-1892. He was fled
to Gilgit when his younger brother seized power, on August 30, 1892. He was succeeded as the rightful heir on his death, 1st December
1892. Returned to Mastuj, where he collected troops and funds, then entered Chitral and drove out his uncle, Sher Afzal. He was
installed at Chitral Fort, on December 12, 1892. He was came under British protection by virtue of the Durand Agreement in 1894,
losing Kafiristan and the Kunar Valley when they were recognised as Afghan territory. He was married daughter of Rahmatu'llah Khan,
Khan of Dir. He was murdered while out hawking at Broz, on January 1, 1895 and buried at the Mehtari Qabiristan, Jangbazar, Chitral.
Mohammad Amin al-Mulk (1878 – December 18, 1923) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from January 1 until May 1,
1895. He was the eighth son of Shah Muhammad Aman ul-Mulk II, Mehtar of Chitral, by his wife, a sister of the Khan of Asmar, in
Afghanistan, educ. privately. He seized control of Chitral Fort and usurped the throne after arranging for the murder of his elder half-
brother, 1st January 1895. However, his assumption of power was declared invalid by the British authorities 3rd March 1895. He fled to
Jandol when Chitral was invaded by a joint British and Kashmiri military force, and formally deposed in favour of his younger brother,
Shuja ul-Mulk, on May 1, 1895. Captured and exiled to Madras with his principal conspiritor, his uncle Sher Afzal, September 1895. m.
at Madras, Kulsum Mahal Khonza, Amma Ji (d. at Mazhar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, 194x), an Indian Parsee lady and former nurse from
Madras. He died at Ootacamund, Madras Presidency, ca December 18, 1923 (buried at the Mehtari Qabiristan, Jangbazar, Chitral, in
1925), having had issue, a son and three daughters.
Mohammad Shoja` al-Mulk, also known as Ala Hazrat (1882 – October 13, 1936) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral
from May 1, 1895 until his death on October 13, 1936. He belonged to the royal Katur dynasty which ruled the state from 1571 to
1969, when the princely state of Chitral was merged into Pakistan to form the district of Chitral. He was made Companion of the
Indian Empire (C.I.E) by the British in 1903, and Knighted (K.C.I.E) in 1919. He was granted a personal gun salute of 11 guns and
the title of His Highness. Mehtar Shuja ul-Mulk was born into the ruling family of Chitral in 1881. He was the second youngest son
of Aman ul-Mulk, the ‗Great‘ Mehtar of Chitral who ruled the state from 1857 to 1892, during which the state reached its territorial
peak. Shuja ul-Mulk‘s mother was an Afghan princess, the daughter of the Khan of Asmar. When the Mehtar Aman ul-Mulk died in
1892, a long war of succession ensued between Aman ul-Mulk's sons as there was no clear any law of succession. His elder brother
Afzal ul-Mulk proclaimed himself ruler and proceeded to eliminate several potential contenders to his throne. This initiated a war of
succession, which lasted three years. By virtue of the rank of his mother, Shuja ul-Mulk was one of the two sons who were regarded
as having the strongest claim to ‗Mehtarship‘. At about that time, Chitral came under the British sphere of influence following
the Durand Agreement. The approach of the Chitral Expedition, a strong military force composed of British and Kashmiri troops,
and the ensuing ‗Siege of Chitral‘ settled the issue of succession and Shuja ul-Mulk was recognized as successor to his father. The siege and gallant relief of Chitral
is considered to be one of the most dramatic events in the history of the North-West Frontier of India. Shuja ul-Mulk was installed as Mehtar at a darbar held at
the Chitral Fort on 2 September 1895. Mehtar Shuja ul-Mulk reigned under a Council of Regency until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers.
He ruled for forty-one years, during which Chitral enjoyed an unprecedented period of internal peace. He visited various parts of India and met a number of
fellow rulers, as well as making the Hajj to Arabia and meeting Ibn Saud, theMonarch of Saudi Arabia. In the winter of 1899-1900, Mehtar Shuja-ul-Mulk in
company of the chief of the Gilgit Agency visited the Viceroy of India at Calcutta. In May 1902, the Mehtar was present at the Vice-Regal Durbar
at Peshawar. He was invited to the Delhi Durbar and attended the Coronation Durbar at Delhi in 1903 where he was made Companion of the Indian Empire
(C.I.E). He attended the Coronation Darbar at Delhi again in 1911. He was granted a personal salute of 11-guns and the title of His Highness in 1919. The salute
and title were made permanent and hereditary to his successors in 1932. Describing him in 1937, B. E. M. Gurdon wrote, "Shuja-ul-Mulk was a devout Sunni,
and made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 1924, but bigotry and fanaticism found little place in his character.‖ Shuja ul-Mulk sent his sons abroad to acquire a modern
education. The princes traveled to far-off places such as Aligarh and Dehradunaccompanied by the sons of notables who were schooled at state expense. The
Mehtar's Bodyguard was raised by H.H. Mehtar Shuja-ul-Mulk in the early 1900s and consisted of a professional standing army which had been raised by his
father Mehtar Aman-ul-Mulk in the 1880s. He supported the British during the Third Afghan War in 1919, during which four of his sons and the Chitral State
Forces served in several actions guarding the border against invasion. In 1911 Mehtar Shuja-ul-Mulk ordered Mirza Muhammad Gufran to write a book
documenting the history of Chitral for which he received considerable tracts of land in different parts of the state. Tarikh-i-Chitrar was written in Persian,
compiled and finalized in 1921. It is a landmark work for the history of Chitral and the HinduKush region. A love of sport, characteristic of the peoples of
the Hindu Kush, was shared by the Mehtar. Shooting, falconry, polo, chess, and listening to singing accompanied on the sitar, all came within the ambit of his
relaxations. Falconry was his favorite sport, and he was very proud of the unrivaled skill of his falconers. Mehtar Shuja ul-Mulk‘s sister was married to Miangul
Abdul Khaliq, the grandfather of the Wali of Swat. She acted as de facto ruler of Swat for many years after the death of her husband. Another one of his sisters
was married to the Nawab of Dir. His daughter was married to Naqibzada Pir Sayyid Jamal ud-din Al-Gilani, a direct descendent of Abdul Qadir Gilani,
patronym of the Qadiriyya order. His granddaughter was married to Nawab Muhammad Said Khan, the Nawab of Amb. He had following titles and honours:
His Highness (Ala Hazrat), Knight Commander of the Indian Empire (K.C.I.E), Companion of the Indian Empire (C.I.E), 11 gun salute, Hon. Cdt. The Chitral
Scouts, Col. Cdt. Chitral State Scouts, Elected Member of the Himalayan Club, Delhi Durbar Gold Medal (1903), Delhi Darbar Gold Medal (1911) and Delhi
Darbar Silver Jubilee Medal (1935). Shuja ul-Mulk died on October 13, 1936. He was buried in his ancestral graveyard adjacent to the Royal Fort in Chitral. He
was succeeded by his eldest son Mehtar Nasir-ul-Mulk.
Mohammad Naser al-Mulk (1897 – June 29, 1943) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1936 until his death on June
29, 1943. Naser al-Mulk succeeded his father in 1936. He received a modern education, becoming a noted poet and scholar in his own
right. He took a deep interest in military, political and diplomatic affairs, and spent much of his time on improving the administration.
Dying without a surviving male heir in 1943, his successor was his younger brother, Muzaffar-ul-Mulk. He had issue, two sons and two
daughters: son born and died at Chitral in1932, Shahzada Muhammad Aman ul-Mulk born at Chitral on April 1, 1937. He died three
weeks later, Shahzadi Razia Sultan, H.H. the Khonza of Chitral, born at Chitral, on February 23, 1934 and Shahzadi Ayesha Sultana
Begum born at Chitral, on March 24, 1935.
Mohammad Muzaffar al-Mulk (1901 – January 7, 1949) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1943 until his death on January
7, 1949. He was man with a military disposition, his reign witnessed the tumultuous events surrounding the transfer of power in 1947. His
prompt action in sending in his own Body Guard to Gilgit was instrumental in securing the territory for Pakistan. The unexpected early death
of Mozaffar-al-Mulk saw the succession pass to his relatively inexperienced eldest son, Saif-ur-Rahman, in 1949.

Sayf ar-Rahman (1926 – October 14, 1954) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1949 until his death on October 14, 1954. The
unexpected early death of Muzaffar-ul-Mulk saw the succession pass to his relatively inexperienced eldest son, Saif-ur-Rahman, in 1948. Due to
certain tensions he was exiled from Chitral by the Government of Pakistan for six years. They appointed a board of administration composed of
Chitrali and Pakistani officials to govern the state in his absence. He died in a plane crash while returning to resume charge of Chitral in 1954.

Mohammad Naser Sayf al-Mulk (1950 - 2011) was a ruler of the princely state of Chitral from 1954 until July 28, 1969. Saif ul-
Mulk succeeded his father at the age of four. He reigned under a Council of Regency for the next twelve years, during which Pakistani
authority gradually increased over the state. Although installed as a constitutional ruler when he came of age in 1966, he did not enjoy his
new status very long. Chitral was absorbed and fully integrated into the Republic of Pakistan by Yahya Khan in 1969. In order to reduce
the popular Mehtar's influence, he, like so many other princes in neighbouring India, was "invited" to represent his country abroad. He
served in various diplomatic posts and retired from the service as Consul-General in Hong Kong in 1989. He was deprived of official
recognition of his rank, titles and honours by the Government of Pakistan, on January 1,1972 (subsequently relaxed for social use together
with continued official recognition as head of his house and family). Joined the Pakistan Foreign Service 1973, and served as First Secretary
at the Pakistan Embassy in Ankara, Turkey 1974-1979, Deputy Chief of Protocol in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Peshawar and
Islamabad 1979-1985, and Assist Consul-Gen in Hong Kong 1985-1989. Patron Chitral Polo Assoc 1957-2011, and Anjuman-e-Tariqe
Khowar 1960-2011, Patron and Guardian of The Ayubia Union, etc. Rcvd: Queen Elizabeth II Coron Medal (June 2, 1953). He was married H.H. Ismat
Khonza (born 1956), daughter of Nawab Muhammad Said Khan, Nawab of Amb, by his wife, Ayesha Sultana Begum, younger daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel
H.H. Nasir ul-Mulk, Mehtar Sir Muhammad Ahmad, Mehtar of Chitral, KCIE, by his first wife, the daughter of the Mir Hakim of the Raza Khel tribe of Laspur.
He d. suddenly from heart failure, at Islamabad, 18th October 2011 (bur. at the Mehtari Qabiristan, Jangbazar, Chitral), having had issue, two sons and two
daughters: Shahzada Fateh ul-Mulk ‗Ali Nasir, Mehtarbak, Wali-Akht Sahib, who succeeded as H.H. Mehtar Fateh ul-Mulk ‗Ali Nasir (born November 27,
1983) Mehtar of Chitral, Shahzada Hammad ul-Mulk Nasir (born September 20, 1990), Shahzadi Zainab Begum (August 10, 1978) educ. MBA. married at
Islamabad, September 15, 2005, Yasir Raza, son of K.M. Raza, a Saddozai businessman from Kashmir and Shahzadi Nadia Nasirm (born January 3, 1980).
Shahzada Asad ar-Rahman (1928 - 2005) was regent of the princely state of Chitral from 1954 until May 1966.


Dir (Dhir)
Dir (Dhir) was a small princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India until August 1947 when the British left the subcontinent. For some months it was
unaligned, until February 1948, when its accession to the new Dominion of Pakistanwas accepted. Dir ceased to exist as a state in 1969, when it was incorporated
into Pakistan. The territory it once covered, some 5,282 km
2
(2,039 sq mi), is today within the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, forming two districts
called Upper Dir and Lower Dir. Most of the state lay in the valley of the Panjkora river, which originates in the Hindu Kush mountains and joins the Swat
Rivernear Chakdara. Apart from small areas in the south-west, Dir is a rugged, mountainous zone with peaks rising to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) in the north-east
and to 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) along the watersheds, with Swat to the east and Afghanistan andChitral to the west and north. Dir took its name from its main
settlement, also called Dir, location of the ruler's palace. The princely state was established by Akhund Baba, the leader of a Pakhtun clan, and ruled afterwards
by his descendants.
List of Rulers (title Khan; from Jun 1897, Nawwab Khan Bahador) of Dir (Dhir)
Akhund Baba (Mulla Illas Khan) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1826 until ?
Gholam Khan Baba was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) in the first half 19th century.
Zafar Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) in the first half 19th century.
Qasem Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from ? until 1863.
Ghazzan Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1863 until 1874.
Rahmat Allah Khan (died 1925) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1875 until 1886.
Mohammad Sharif Khan (1848 - December 1904) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1886 until 1890 and from 1895 until his death in
December 1904. In 1895, however, while the forces of Umara Khan were besieging a British force near Malakand, Muhammad Sharif Khan decided to make his
soldiers join the British relief force coming in aid, the Chitral Expedition. During that expedition Sharif Khan made an agreement with the British Government to
keep the road to Chitral open in return for a subsidy. The British eventually won the war and exiled Umara Khan. As a reward for his help, Sharif Khan was
given the whole Dir and also the lower Swat (the latter territory would be lost in 1917 to the Wali of Swat). Moreover, some years later he received the title of
Nawab.
Mohammad `Omara Khan (1850 - 1903) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1890 until 1895.
Awrangzeb Badshah Khan (died 1925) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1904 until 1913 and from 1914 until his death in 1925. The
Nawab title was inherited by Sharif's oldest son, Awrangzeb Badshah Khan, who ruled between 1904 and 1925. In 1906 his younger brother, Miangul Jan, tried
in vain to conquer the power with the assistance of the Khan of Marwa, Saiyid Ahmad Khan, a former ally of Mohammad Sharif. A second attempt in 1913 was
crowned by success, but for a very short time, as in 1914 Awrangzeb regained the rule over Dir. Also the other son of Mohammad Sharif, Mohammad Isa Khan,
attempted around 1915 to seize the Dir throne by allying with the Khan of Barwa, but Awrangzeb managed to conserve the rule.

At Awrangzeb's death, in 1925,
the title passed to his eldest son, Mohammad Shah Jahan Khan, who was supported by the British Government against the small rival faction that favored his
brother Alamzeb Khan.
Miangul Jan Khan (died 1914) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1913 until his death in 1914.
Alamzeb Khan was a ruler (usurper) of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) in 1925. At Awrangzeb's death, in 1925, the title passed to his eldest son, Mohammad
Shah Jahan Khan, who was supported by the British Government against the small rival faction that favored his brother Alamzeb Khan. Alamzeb was exiled in
1928 because of his attempts to take the power.
Mohammad Shah Jahan Khan (1890? – November 9, 1960) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1925 until his death on November 9,
1960. At Awrangzeb's death, in 1925, the title passed to his eldest son, Mohammad Shah Jahan Khan, who was supported by the British Government against the
small rival faction that favored his brother Alamzeb Khan. Alamzeb was exiled in 1928 because of his attempts to take the power. Jahan Khan was loyal to the
British, who nominated him KBE in 1933. In 1947, Jahan Khan sent his troops to support Pakistan during the First Kashmir War, and in 1948 united his
princely state with the new Dominion of Pakistan. He also nominated his sons (Muhammad Shah Khan Khusro, Shahabuddin Khan and Mohammad Shah)
governors of different provinces. The politics of Nawabs are described as reactionary and harsh. The Italian anthropologist Fosco Maraini, who visited the state
in 1959 during an expedition towards Hindu-Kush, reports the opinion of the people as the Nawab Jahan Khan (who was about 85 years old at that time) being a
tyrannical leader, denying his subjects any freedom of speech and instruction, governing the land with a number of henchmen and seizing for his harem any girl
or woman he wanted. Maraini also noticed the lack of schools, sewers and paved roads, and the presence of just a rudimentary newly-built hospital. The Nawab
was negatively compared to the Wali of Swat, whose liberal politics allowed his state to enter into the modern era. As a consequence of the oppressive political
climate, uprisings began eventually to explode. A repressed revolt in 1959 is reported in Maraini's account. Another insurrection in 1960 led to the death of 200
soldiers and put the Nawab in bad light in the view of the press. General Yahya decided to exile Jahan Khan, who would die in 1968. His throne passed in
October 1961 to his eldest son, Mohammad Shah Khosru Khan, educated in India and a serving Major General of Pakistan Army.
Mohammad Shah Khosru Khan (born 1936) was a ruler of the princely state of Dir (Dhir) from 1960 until July 28, 1969. Mohammad Shah Khosru
Khan, educated in India and a serving Major General of Pakistan Army. However, the effective rule of Dir was taken by the Political Agent. A few years later, on
July 28, 1969, the Dir state was incorporated into Pakistan, ceasing its existence.


Hunza
Hunza (Urdu: ہزنہ ), also known as Kanjut, was a princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1892 to August 1947, for three months was
unaligned, and then from November 1947 until 1974 was a princely state of Pakistan. Hunza covered territory now forming the northernmost part of
the Northern Areas of Pakistan.The state bordered the Gilgit Agency to the south, the former princely state of Nagar to the east, China, to the north
and Afghanistan to the northwest. The state capital was Baltit (also known as Karimabad). The area of Hunza now forms the Aliabad tehsil of Hunza–Nagar
District. Hunza was an independent principality for centuries. It was ruled by the Mirs of Hunza, who took the title of Thum. The Hunzas were tributaries and
allies to China, acknowledging China as suzerain since 1761. When the Hunzas raided theKyrgyzstan, they sold Kirghiz slaves to Chinese. From 1847 the Mir of
Hunza gave nominal allegiance to China. This resulted from assistance given by Mir Ghazanfur Khan to China in suppressing a rebellion in Yarkand, following
which China granted Hunza a jagir (Land grant) in Yarkand and paid the Mir a subsidy. In the late 19th century Hunza became embroiled in the Great Game,
the rivalry between Britain and Russia for control of the northern approaches to India. The British suspected Russian involvement "with the Rulers of the petty
States on the northern boundary of Kashmir"; In 1888 the Russian Captain Bronislav Grombchevsky visited Hunza, and the following year the British
Captain Francis Younghusband visited Hunza to express British displeasure at Kanjuti raids in the Raskam. Younghusband formed a low opinion of the ruler,
Safdar Ali, describing him as "a cur at heart and unworthy of ruling so fine a race as the people of Hunza". In 1891 the British mounted the Hunza-Nagar
Campaign and gained control of Hunza and the neighbouring valley of Nagar. Hunza rulers claimed descent from Alexander the Great, and viewed themselves
and the Emperor of China as being the most important leaders in the world. The last fully independent ruler, Mir Safdar Khan, who ruled from 1886, escaped to
China. His younger brother Mir Mohammad Nazim Khanwas installed by the British as Mir in September 1892, and Hunza became a princely state in
a subsidiary alliance with British India, a status it retained until 1947. The Kuomintang Republic of China government engaged in secret negotiations with the Mir
of Hunza over restoring the state's previous relations with China, amidst the partitioning of British India, with the Hunza state independent from India and
Pakistan. The Kuomintang also plotted to expand its influence into Kashmir, taking advantage of the weakness of the newly independent India. However, due to
the war of 1947 that erupted between Pakistan and India over their dispute in Kashmir, the Mir of Hunza changed his mind and acceded to Pakistan, after a
coup against India in Gilgit.
List of Rulers (title Mir; 1909-1947 Raja) of Hunza
Salim Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza in the second half 17th century. According to Kanjuti traditions, as related by McMahon, the Mir‘s
eighth ancestor, Shah Salim Khan, pursued nomadic Khirghiz thieves to Tashkurghan and defeated them. ―To celebrate this victory, Shah Salim Khan erected a
stone cairn at Dafdar and sent a trophy of a Khirghiz head to the Chinese with a message that Hunza territory extended as far as Dafdar‖. The Kanjutis were
already in effective possession of the Raskam and no question had been raised about it. The Mir‘s claims went a good deal beyond a mere right of cultivation. He
―asserts that forts were built by the Hunza people without any objection or interference from the Chinese at Dafdar, Qurghan, Ujadhbhai, Azar on the Yarkand
Riverand at three or four other places in Raskam.‖
Shah Sultan Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza in the second half 17th century.
Hari Thum Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from late 17th century until 1710.
Shahbaz Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1710 until 1740.
Shah Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1740 until ?.
Ghulam Nasir Khan was a ruler of the princely atate of Hunza during 1740s.
Shahbeg Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from ? until 1750.
Shah Khisro Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1750 until 1780.
Mirza Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1780 until 1790.
Salim Khan II (died 1825) was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1790 until his death in 1825.
Ghazanfar `Ali Khan (died 1864) was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1825 until his death in 1864.
Mohammad Ghazan Khan I (died 1886) was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1864 until his death in 1886.
Safdar `Ali Khan (1865 – September 15, 1930) was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1886 until September 15, 1892. In the late 19th century
Hunza became embroiled in the Great Game, the rivalry between Britain and Russia for control of the northern approaches to India. The British suspected
Russian involvement "with the Rulers of the petty States on the northern boundary of Kashmir"; In 1888 the Russian Captain Bronislav Grombchevsky visited
Hunza, and the following year the British Captain Francis Younghusband visited Hunza to express British displeasure at Kanjuti raids in the Raskam.
Younghusband formed a low opinion of the ruler, Safdar Ali, describing him as "a cur at heart and unworthy of ruling so fine a race as the people of Hunza". In
1891 the British mounted the Hunza-Nagar Campaign and gained control of Hunza and the neighbouring valley of Nagar. Hunza rulers claimed descent
from Alexander the Great, and viewed themselves and the Emperor of China as being the most important leaders in the world. The last fully independent
ruler, Mir Safdar Khan, who ruled from 1886, escaped to China.
Mohammad Nazim Khan (1867 – July 22, 1938) was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from September 15, 1892 until his death on July 22, 1938. Mir
Mohammad Nazim Khan was installed by the British as Mir in September 1892 and Hunza became a princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India, a
status it retained until 1947.
Mohammad Ghazan Khan II (1895 - 1946) was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1938 until his death in 1946.
Mohammad Jamal Khan (1912 - 1976) was a ruler of the princely state of Hunza from 1946 until September 25, 1974.


Jandol
Jandol was a princely state in present Pakistan.
List of Rulers (title Khan) of Jandol
Faiz Talab Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Jandol in the second half 19th century.
Aman Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Jandol from ? until 1879.
Mohammad `Omara Khan (1850 - 1903) was a ruler of the princely state of Jandol from 1881 until 1895.
Abdul Latif Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Jandol from 1895 until around 1917.


Nagar
Nagar (Urdu: رگن تسایر , riasat nagar) was a princely state in the northernmost part of Gilgit–Baltistan. Until August 1947 it was in a subsidiary alliance with British
India and bordered the states of the Gilgit Agency to the south and west and the princely state of Hunza to the north and east. From November 1947 to 1974,
like Hunza, it was a princely state of Pakistan. The state capital was the town of Nagar. Nagar covered territory which is now in the far north of Pakistan. The area
of Nagar now forms three tehsils of the Hunza–Nagar District. Nagar was an autonomous principality in close association with neighbouring Hunza.
The British gained control of both statesbetween 1889 and 1892. Both thereafter had the status of princely states until 1947, but both were considered as vassals
ofJammu and Kashmir, although never ruled directly by it. The rulers of Nagar sent annual tributes to the Jammu and Kashmir Durbaruntil 1947, and along with
the ruler of Hunza, were considered amongst the most loyal vassals of the Maharajas of Jammu and Kashmir. In November 1947, the state acceded to Pakistan,
which became responsible for its external affairs and defence, but it continued to be internally self-governing. In 1968 Syed Yahya Shah, the first educated
politician of the valley, demanded civil rights from the Mir of Nagar. In 1974, when Ayub Khan's dictatorship ended in Pakistan and the Pakistan People's Party
under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came into power through elections, the government forced the Mirs of Hunza and Nagar to abdicate. The areas were then merged into
the Northern Areas.
List of Rulers (title Tham; from 1905 Mir) of Nagar
Fadl Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar.
Da`ud Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar.
`Ali Dad Khan was the twice times ruler of the princely state of Nagar.
Hari Tham Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar.
Kamal Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar in the first half 19th century.
Rahim Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar from 1828 until 1837.
Asgar Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar in 1837.
Eskandar Khan I (died 1840) was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar from 1837 until his death in 1840.
Rahim Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar from 1840 until 1845.
Ja`far Zahed Khan (died 1904) was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar from 1845 until 1891 and from 1892 until his death in 1904.
Gauri Khan (died 1891) was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar in 1891.
Raja Ozor Khan (died 1922) was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar fro 1891 until 1892.
Shah Eskandar Khan Bahadur II (1871 – March 17, 1940) was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar from 1905 until his death on March 17, 1940.
Showkat `Ali Khan (1909 - 2003) was a ruler of the princely state of Nagar from 1940 until September 25, 1974.


Phulra
Phulra was a minor princely state in the days of British India, located in the region of the North West Frontier to the east of the nearby princely state of Amb.
There is some uncertainty as to whether Phulra ranked as a full princely state of India before 1919, and until then it may have had the status of a landed estate
or jagir, but in 1919 it was given imperial recognition. In 1947, soon after the British had departed from the subcontinent, the ruler of Phulra signed
an Instrument of Accession to the newDominion of Pakistan, and Phulra was a princely state of Pakistan from then until 1950, when it was incorporated into
the North West Frontier Province following the death of its last Nawab. The territory covered by the state remains part of the present-day Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa,
as a Union Council of the tehsil of Mansehra.
List of Rulers (title Khan Sahib) of Phulra
Madat Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Phulra from 1828 until 1878.
Abdulla Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Phulra from 1878 until 1888.
Abdurrahman Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Phulra from 1888 until 1897
Muhammad Khan (1879 - 1935) was a ruler of the princely state of Phulra from 1897 until his death in 1935.
Abdul Latif Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Phulra from 1935 until 1973.


Swat
The Princely State of Swat (Urdu: تس ا یر تاوس ) was a province of the Durrani Empire ruled by local rulers known as theAkhunds, then until 1947 a princely
state of the British Indian Empire, which was dissolved in 1947, when the Akhwandacceded to Pakistan. The state lay to the north of the modern Khyber-
Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan and continued within its 1947 borders until 1969, when it was dissolved. The area it covered is now divided between the
present-day districts of Swat,Buner and Shangla. The modern area of Swat was ruled sporadically by religious leaders, who variously took the title of Akhoond,
also spelt Akhund or Akond. The Akhund of Swat who died in 1878 was particularly famous as the subject of a well known humorist poem byEdward Lear, The
Akond of Swat. The nonsensical poem suggests a far away place and a mystical person, at least through the eyes of a Victorian poet and painter. The Islamic State
of Swat was established in 1849 under Sayyid Akbar Shah with Sharia law remaining in force, but the state was in abeyance from 1878 to 1915. Thereafter Said
Abdul-Jabbar Khan, a prominent Gujar, was made ruler by a local Jirga and had trouble exercising power. In 1917 another Jirga appointed Miangul Golshahzada
Abdul-Wadud, also a Gujar, founder of the 'Wali' dynasty of Swat. The British recognised this ruler and the state as a princely state in 1926. Following
the Partition of India in 1947, the ruler acceded the state to Pakistan, while retaining considerable autonomy. The ruler of Swat was accorded a 15-gun hereditary
salute in 1966, but this was followed by the abolition of the state in 1969 by Government of Pakistan.
List of Rulers (title Amir-e Shariyat; from Nov 1918, Badshah; from May 3, 1926, Wali) of Swat
Sayyed Akbar Shah (1793 – May 11, 1857) was a ruler of the princely state of Swat from 1849 until his death on May 11, 1857. The Islamic State of Swat
was established in 1849 under Sayyid Akbar Shah with Sharia law remaining in force.
Sayyed Mubarak Shah Sahib was a ruler of the princely state of Swat from 1857 until 1863.
Akhund Abdul Ghaffur commonly known as Saidu Baba (1793 – 1878) was a ruler of the princely state of Swat from 1863 untilhis death in 1878. He was
a Pashtun of the Safi (Gandhari) tribe, and a prominent Sufisage, from Bar Swat. Akhund Ghaffur was a supporter of the Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Khan,
and opposed the Sikh and British forces. Akhund Ghaffur was an influential pir (Sufi master) and his residence in Swat was the destination for numerous
pilgrimages by his disciples to consult him. Akhund Ghaffur was succeeded by a notable line of Sufi pirs. In 1831, when the Muslim activist Syed Ahmad
Barelvi was killed by the Sikhs along with hundreds of Barelvi's mujahideen in the battle of Balakot, many of his mujahideen stayed in Buner under the
protection of Akhund Ghaffur. They started a new uprising against the British Empire under Akhund Ghaffur's leadership in 1862. In 1834, Akhund Ghaffur
cooperated with the Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Khan in the battle against the Sikh Empire and brought a number of Ghazis and Talib al-'Ilm to thebattle of
Peshawar. In return, the Afghan Emir awarded Akhund Ghaffur with lands in Swat, Lundkhwar and Mardan among the Yusufzai. Eventually, when Akhund
Ghaffur was about 43 years old, he permanently settled in Saidu Sharif and gradually turned it into a thriving city. In 1863, Akhund Ghaffur lead the Yusufzai in a
successful battle at the Ambela pass and repelled the British forces' Ambela Campaign. Akhund Ghaffur conferred a scheme for a united throne of Swat. In
1849, he nominated Sayyid Akbar Shah, a descendant of Pir Baba, as the emir of the Islamic state of Swat. After Akbar Shah's death in 1857, Akhund Ghaffur
assumed control of the state himself till his own death in 1878. Akhund Ghaffur's greatest conflict was with Sayyid Maruf Bey Kotah Mullah, a supporter of the
British-sponsored Emir Shah Shujah who had opposed Emir Dost Mohammad Khan in the battle against the Sikhs. Akhund Ghaffur referred to Kotah Mullah
as a disciple of Pir Roshan and practitioner of heretical rituals, and managed to convince the Yusufzai of Buner to push Kotah Mullah out of the village where he
was being hosted.
Sayyed `Abd al-Jabbar Khan (c.1878 - 1925) was a ruler of the princely state of Swat from April 28, 1914 until September 1917.
Miyangol Golshahzada `Abd al-Wadud (1882 – October 1, 1971) was a ruler of the princely state of Swat from
September 1917 until December 12, 1949. He was the Wali of Swat (princely state) and a descendant of the Akhund of
Swat.He was elected as Badshah Sahib (King) of Swat by a Loya Jirga held at Kabal, on November 1918 and recognized by the
British authorities as ruler, and formally installed as Wali of Swat, at Saidu Sharif, on May 3, 1926. He ruled Swat from 1918 to
1949 and abdicated in favour of his eldest son, Miangul Jahan Zeb
[1]
whom he carefully educated to run the State effectively.
H.H. Miangul Gulshahzada Sir Abdul Wadud was born at Saidu Sharif, in 1881.He was the elder son of Miangul Abdul
Khaliq Khan and grandson of Shah Muhammad Aman ul-Mulk II, Mehtar of Chitral. He was educated privately. In
1915,when the tribes of Upper Swat elected Sayed Abdul Jabbar Shah as their king ,he opposed the election and went into
exile at Dalbar 1915-1916. Abdul Jabbar could not defend the territory in a counter attack of Nawab of DIR in 1916. Chaotic
anarchy then ensued. Miangul Abdul Wadud returned and took up arms against him in 1916.As a result the Jirga of Swat,
decided to oust Abdul Jabbar Shah as king and appointed Miangul Abdul Wadud, one of the grandsons of the Akhund of
Swat, as king in1917. He established his rule in Swat and annexed Buner and Chakisar to his dominion. Thus he controlled most of the Swat area by 1923.
Miangul Abdul Wadud was proclaimed the Wali of Swat in1926 with an annual allowance of Rs10,000 from the Government of India. He had three wives and a
father of eight daughters and four sons. It is noteworthy that though Miangul Abdul Wadud was elected ‗king‘ and locally known as ‗Bacha‘ or ‗Badshah,‘(King)
the authorities only granted him the title of ‗Wali,‘ which meant a religious ruler. This was obviously with reference to his descent from the Akhund of Swat.
Miangul Abdul Wadud wanted to retain the title of ‗Badshah‘ or ‗Bacha‘ but was denied by the political authorities on the basis that no ruler in India was a ‗king,‘
and that only the King-Emperor in Britain had the right to be styled in such a manner. Miangul Abdul wadud acceded to Pakistan in late 1947. Miangul Abdul
Wadud abdicated in favour of his eldest son, Mianagul Jahanzeb on 12 December 1949 who ruled Swat(princely state) wisely till its merger in Pakistan 1969.He
had following honours and awards: Silver Jubilee (1935), Coron. (1937) and Pakistan Independence (1948) medal. He died at the Royal Palace, Aqba(Now Iqra
Academy), on1st October 1971 and buried there at the Badshah Sahib Mausoleum.
Miyangol `Abd al-Haqq Jahanzib (June 5, 1908 – September 14, 1987) was a ruler of the princely state of Swat from 1949
until July 28, 1969. He served as the Wāli of Swat between 1949 and 1969, taking over from his father, Miangul Abdul Wadud
(Badshah Sahib). He is remembered for the hard work he put into building schools, hospitals and roads for his people, but also for
his absolute rule over the region, which ended when Pakistan took control after local unrest. Jahan Zeb was also a conscienscious
protector of the landmarks of previous cultures. Major-General H.H. Miangul Abdul Haq Jehanzeb, Ghazi-i-Millat, Wali of Swat,
born at Saidu-Sharif, on June 5, 1908, was the eldest son of H.H. Miangul Gulshazada Sir Abdul Wadud, Wali of Swat. He was
educated in Islamia Collegiate school and Islamia College, Univ. of Peshawar. 1923. He has four sons and one daughter.H.H. Miangul
Aurangzeb, WaliAhad of Swat,(Former Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,& Balochistan), Miangul Shahzada Alamzeb.(father
of Miangul Akbarzeb, Pakistani High Comminissioner to Canada), Miangul Shahzada Amirzeb.Member of the National Assembly of
Pakistan 1977 AND Miangul Shahzada Ahmedzeb. H.H Miangul Jahanzeb was appointed as successor (Wali Ahad)" in 1933. His
father, Miangul Abdul Wadud(Wali of Swat) abdicated in favour of his eldest son(Miangul Jahanzeb), whom he had carefully
educated. He was enthroned as Wali of Swat on June 12,1949 and granted the title of Ghazi-e-Millat (1951) and a hereditary salute. The Wali headed each
department of his administration. His role was that of king and religious leader, chief minister and commander-in-chief, chief exchequer and head qazi. He
ensured that his government provided: 1) good administration and productive revenue collection; 2) a judicial system that provided quick and free justice to all. 3)
A qala(forts) system that provided security and protection to the people; 4) Grassroots developments, centered on jobs, welfare, education and health services to
all; Finally 5) instant communication through roads, bridges, and telegraph and penal codes provided complete rule of law; and telephones and informers that
kept the Wali informed of the latest developments. This was a unique system of administration. He surpassed the other contemporary rulers in the field of
education. Before Jahanzeb‘s era, Swat did not have a modern education system. Bacha laid the foundations of the modern education system in Swat, which was
rapidly developed by his son later on. The Wali founded a girls‘ high school in Saidu Sharif which is the first female educational institution in swat. Jahanzeb
College for Men has the importance of Alligarh College in the entire Malakand division. He also established a missionary school at Sangota for girls. For his
unending love for knowledge he was given the title of Sultanul Uloom (master of knowledge) by the people of Swat. Jahan Zeb was also a conscienscious
protector of the landmarks of previous cultures. In the era of the last Wali of Swat State Miangul Abdul Haq Jahanzeb, the ruins were protected and preserved.
The ruler had also signed an agreement with the Italian government for exploring ruins. The Swat Museum was also built under his rule in 1959. The museum
contains some of the finest collections of Gandhara art, including magnificent pieces of Buddhist sculpture. The Wali knew the importance of culture and
heritage and during his time, cultural dance shows and festivals on Eid were conducted under the government‘s patronage.The architectural style unique to Swat
was maintained and the buildings were provided with all basic facilities.
[8]
Foreign Heads of State and VIPs became regular visitors to the valley, and the Wali
became a frequent player on the national stage. In 1961 the Queen of England- Elizabeth II, as a guest of the Wali, had loved Swat and called it ―The Switzerland
of the East‖. The first prime Minister of Pakistan Liaqat Ali Khan also visited Swat to attend the coronation ceremony of the Wali. He had following honours
and awards: Hon, Major Geneneral, Pakistan Army, 1955, Hon. LL.D. (Univ. of Peshawar) 1965, Pakistan Independence (1948) medals, The Orders of
Pakistan 2nd class (Hilal-i-Pakistan) (1961), Great Leader (Hilal-i-Quaid-i-Azam) (1959), Hilal-i -Humayun 1st class of Iran, GO of the Order of Merit of the
Republic of Italy, Silver Jubilee (1935) AND 15 Guns solute(1958) He died on September14, 1987 at Saidu Sharif. His funeral was attended by the then Prime
Minister of Pakistan,Muhammad Khan Junejo, Governor, NWFP and other high officials.He was buried in his ancestral graveyard at Saidu Sharif.







Yasin
Yasin was the princely state in present Pakistan. Yasin was originally ruled by the Khushwakhte Dynasty, a collateral line of the Katur Dynasty of Chitral. The
Rajas of Yasin were great warriors and fought against the Sikhs and the Dogras of Kashmir, but this house eventually lost power and the ownership of Yasin
changed hands several times between the Mehtar of Chitral, and the Maharaja of Kashmir. Although sparsely populated, Yasin was of strategic importance
because it leads to a high mountain pass, to Yarkhun in Chitral, and then to Broghol Pass, the Wakhan Corridor ofAfghanistan, and into Tajikistan. Thus, Yasin
could have formed an invasion route from Czarist Russia into British India. The primary language of Yasin Valley is the Burushaski language. The Khowar
language is also spoken. The majority of the people in Yasin are Ismailis who lead their lives according to the Islamic principles more concerned with the imam
of the time. Currently Aga Khan IV is the imam and spiritual leader of the Ismailis. However, other sects of Islam such as Sunni and Shia also live in Yasin.
Ethnically, the people of Yasin are of Burusho origin; however, there are the migrants from different parts of the country, mainly from Chitral and even from
outside the country, such as Central Asia. The people of Yasin are known for their honesty, hard work, and bravery.
List of Rulers (title Mehtar; from 1960, Raja) of Yasin
Shah Khuswaqte I was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from around 1640 until 1700.
Malik Aman Shah I was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1817 until 1833.
Gohar Aman Shah Khuswaqte (died 1860) was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1833 until 1855.
Karim Khan I was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1856 until 1860.
Malik Alam Shah II was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1860 until 1862 and in 1870.
Ghulam Muhiuddin Khuswaqte was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1862 until 1870 and from 1872 until 1880.
Afzal al-Mulk II was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1895 until 1906.
Jao Abdul Rahman Khan (1877 - 1948) was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1906 until 1911 and from 1922 until his death in 1948.
Shahid al-Alam Khan was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1911 until 1812.
Sifat Bahadur Khan (died 1922) was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1912 until his death in 1922.
Karim Khan II was a ruler of the princely state of Yasin from 1848 until 1972.


Punial
Punial State was formerly a princely state (under the British it was a "Special Political District" of the Gilgit Agency and not a Princely State) in the northwest part
of the Northern Areas which existed until 1974. The state bordered the Gilgit Agency to the south, the former princely state of Yasin to the west, Ishkoman to
the north and Afghanistan (Wakhan Corridor) to the northwest. The state capital was the town of Sher Qila. The area of Punial now forms the above
named tehsil of Ghizer District. Punial was an independent principality for several centuries. The British gained control of the area and the neighbouring valleys
by mid 19th century followed by a military engagement of severe intensity. The first Rah of Punial was Isa Bagdur, succeeded by his son Akbar Khan, who in
1913 was deposed by the British and replaced by his son, Anwar Khan, succeeded in turn by his son Jan Alam. This area and other neighbouring states were
never ruled directly by Kashmir.
List of Rulers of Punial
Isa Bagdur was the first ruler of Punial in the first half 19th century.
Akbar Khan was the second ruler of Punial from the second half 19th century until 1913 when he was deposed by the British and replaced by his son, Anwar
Khan,
Anwar Khan was the second ruler of Punial in the first half 20th century.
Jan Alam was the second ruler of Punial in the first half 20th century.


Gilgit
Gilgit was formerly state in present Pakistan. Gilgit was ruled for centuries by the local Trakhàn Dynasty or Tarkan Dynasty, which ended about 1810 with the
death of Raja Abas, the last Trakhàn Raja. The rulers of Hunza and Nager also claim origin with the Trakhàn dynasty. They claim descent from a heroic
Kayani Prince of Persia,Azur Jamshid (also known as Shamsher), who secretly married the daughter of the king Shri Badat. She conspired with him to overthrow
her cannibal father. Sri Badat's faith is theorised as Hindu by some and Buddhist by others. However, considering the region's Buddhist heritage, with the most
recent influence being Islam, the most likely preceding influence of the region is Buddhism. Though the titular Sri and the name Badat denotes a Hindu origin of
this ruler. Prince Azur Jamshid succeeded in overthrowing King Badat who was known as Adam Khor (literally man-eater), often demanding a child a day from
his subjects, his demise is still celebrated to this very day by locals in traditional annual celebrations. In the beginning of the new year, where a Juniper procession
walks along the river, in memory of chasing the cannibal king Sri Badat away. Azur Jamshid abdicated after 16 years of rule in favour of his wife Nur Bakht
Khatùn until their son and heir Garg, grew of age and assumed the title of Raja and ruled, for 55 years. The dynasty flourished under the name of the Kayani
dynasty until 1421 when Raja Torra Khan assumed rulership. He ruled as a memorable king until 1475. He distinguished his family line from his step
brother Shah Rais Khan (who fled to the king of Badakshan and with who's help he gained Chitral from Raja Torra Khan), as the now-known dynastic name
of Trakhàn. The descendants of Shah Rais Khan were known as the Ra'issiya Dynasty.
List of Rulers of Gilgit
Badat, Adam Khor (literally man-eater) was a ruler of Gilgit. He was known as Adam Khor (literally man-eater), often demanding a child a day from his
subjects, his demise is still celebrated to this very day by locals in traditional annual celebrations. In the beginning of the new year, where a Juniper procession
walks along the river, in memory of chasing the cannibal king Sri Badat away.
Azur Jamshid was a ruler of Gilgit. Prince Azur Jamshid succeeded in overthrowing King Badat who was known as Adam Khor (literally man-eater), often
demanding a child a day from his subjects, his demise is still celebrated to this very day by locals in traditional annual celebrations. In the beginning of the new
year, where a Juniper procession walks along the river, in memory of chasing the cannibal king Sri Badat away. Azur Jamshid abdicated after 16 years of rule in
favour of his wife Nur Bakht Khatùn until their son and heir Garg, grew of age and assumed the title of Raja and ruled, for 55 years.
Nur Bakht Khatùn was a ruler of Gilgit. Azur Jamshid abdicated after 16 years of rule in favour of his wife Nur Bakht Khatùn until their son and heir Garg,
grew of age and assumed the title of Raja and ruled, for 55 years.
Garg was a ruler of Gilgit. Azur Jamshid abdicated after 16 years of rule in favour of his wife Nur Bakht Khatùn until their son and heir Garg, grew of age and
assumed the title of Raja and ruled, for 55 years.
Torra Khan was a ruler of Gilgit from 1421 until 1475. He ruled as a memorable king until 1475. He distinguished his family line from his step brother Shah
Rais Khan (who fled to the king of Badakshan and with who's help he gained Chitral from Raja Torra Khan), as the now-known dynastic name of Trakhàn. The
descendants of Shah Rais Khan were known as the Ra'issiya Dynasty.
Malika Jawar Khatun was a ruler of Gilgit from 1689 until 1705.
Shah Goritham was a ruler of Gilgit from 1705 until ?
Sulaiman Shah (died 1826) was a ruler of Gilgit from 1800 until 1802 and from 1825 until his death in 1826.
Muhammad Khan I (died c.1826) was a ruler of Gilgit from 1802 until 1822.
Abbas Khan, Asghar Khan (died c.1826) was a ruler of Gilgit from 1822 until 1825.
Malika Sahibnuma was a ruler of Gilgit from 1826 until 1828.
Tahir Shah of Nagar was regent of Gilgit from 1827 until 1828 and ruler of Gilgit from 1836 until 1837.
Azar Khan was a ruler of Gilgit from 1828 until 1836.
Shah Sikandar was a ruler of Gilgit from 1837 until 1840.
Gohar Aman was a ruler of Gilgit from 1840 until 1842.
Karim Khan was a ruler of Gilgit from 1842 until 1844.
Muhammad Khan II (died 1847) was a ruler of Gilgit from 1844 until his death in 1847.
Malik Aman was a ruler of Gilgit from 1847 until 1848.
Shah Rais Khan was the President of Gilgit from November 1 until November 16, 1947.

Manfuha
Manfuha (Arabic: ةحوف ن م ) was an ancient village in the Nejd region of central Saudi Arabia. Established on the edge of the narrow, fertile valley known as Wadi
Hanifa, Manfuha was until the mid-20th century considered a twin village to the current Saudi capital of Riyadh. According to Yaqut's 13th century geographical
encyclopedia Mu'jam Al-Buldan, Manfuha was built a few centuries before Islam at the same time as Hajr (now Riyadh) by members of the Banu Hanifa tribe
and their cousins from the tribe of Bakr. Manfuha was home to the famous Arab poet Al-A'sha, who died at around the same time as the Muslim prophet
Muhammad, but little is heard of Manfuha after that time. At the turn of the 20th century, its population was made up largely of members of Banu
Hanifa and Bakr (who by now had come to identify themselves with the related tribe of 'Anizzah), as well as members of Tamim and Subay'. Like all Nejdi towns,
its population also included a large percentage of non-tribally-affiliated tradesmen (sonnaa'), as well as many slaves and freedmen working as agricultural laborers.
Like Riyadh, the town was surrounded by gardens and palm groves.In the late 18th century, Manfuha fell under the rule of the energetic ruler of Riyadh, Deham
ibn Dawwas, who at the time was vigorously resisting the expansion of the newWahhabist state established by the Al Saud clan of neighboring Diriyah (see First
Saudi State). Both towns eventually succumbed to the Saudis, however, who ruled over Manfuha until their state was destroyed by an Ottoman-Egyptian invasion
in 1818. From then on, the town's fortunes largely followed those of its neighbor, Riyadh, returning to Saudi rule under Turki ibn Abdallah in 1824, then falling
under the rule of the Al Rashid clan of Ha'il in the 1890s, before reverting to Saudi rule less than ten years later under the founder ofSaudi Arabia, Abdul Aziz
Ibn Saud. As the neighboring Saudi capital expanded exponentially in the 20th century, fueled by the country's oil wealth, the walls of both Manfuha and Riyadh
were torn down, and Manfuha was quickly swallowed in whole by the growing metropolis. Today, Manfuha is among the poorer districts of Riyadh. Most of its
original inhabitants have left to newer districts of the capital, and the area is now mostly inhabited by low-income guest-workers from Egypt and South Asia, as
well as the families of former African slaves. Some of the town's old mud-brick buildings remain, as well as an ancient observation tower. A wide avenue cuts
through the center of Manfuha, named Al-A'sha Street, after its most famous son.
List of Sheikhs of Manfuha
Dawwas ibn `Abd Allah ibn Sha`lan (died 1726) was a ruler of Manfuha from 1682 until his death in 1726.
Muhammad I (died 1727) was a ruler of Manfuha from 1726 until his death in 1727.
`Abd Allah I ibn Faris was a ruler of Manfuha from 1727 until ?
`Ali ibn Mazru` was a ruler of Manfuha from around 1746 until ?
Muhammad II ibn `Abd Allah ibn Faris was a ruler of Manfuha from 1755 until ?
`Abd Allah II ibn Mazru` was a ruler of Manfuha from around 1809 until ?
Ibrahim ibn Mazru` was a ruler of Manfuha from ? until 1825.
Mishari ibn `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Mishari ibn Sa`ud was a ruler of Manfuha from 1825 until 1834.

Ar-Bir
Ar-Bir was sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia
List of Sheikhs of Ar – Bir
Muhammad ibn al-`Aqir was a ruler of Ar – Bir in the second half 17th century.
`Abd Allah ibn al-`Aqir was a ruler of Ar – Bir in the first half 18th century.
Hamad ibn Muhammad was a ruler of Ar – Bir in the second half 18th century.


Raudha
Raudha was sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia
List of Sheikhs of Raudha
Madhi ibn Ghazir was a ruler of Raudh from around 1697 until the first half 18th century.
Muhammad (died 1745) was a ruler of Raudh from ? until his death in 1745.
Fauzan ibn Ghazir ibn Madhi was a ruler of Raudh from 1745 until 1757.
`Umayr ibn Ghazir was a ruler of Raudh from 1757 until ?.
`Aun ibn Mani' al-Madhi was a ruler of Raudh from ? until 1782.
`Aqil ibn Man'i al-Madhi was a ruler of Raudh from 1782 until ?.

Khardj
Khardj was the Emirat in present Saudi Arabia
List of Emirs of Khardj
Zamil ibn `Uthman Mishari was a ruler of Khardj from around 1688 until ?.
Zayid (died 1783) was a ruler of Khardj from around 1740 until 1776 and from 1776 until his death in 1783.
Sulayman ibn `Ufaysan was a ruler of Khardj in 1776 and from 1785 until 1793.
Barrak (died 1784) was a ruler of Khardj from 1783 until his death in 1784.
Turki was a ruler of Khardj from 1784 until 1785.
Ibrahim ibn `Ufaysan was a ruler of Khardj from 1793 until 1804.
Zaqm ibn Zamil was a ruler of Khardj from 1823 until 1825.
`Umar ibn Muhammad ibn `Ufaysan (died 1839) was a ruler of Khardj from 1825 until 1828/1830.
Fahd ibn `Abd Allah ibn`Ufaysan was a ruler of Khardj from 1830 until 1840s.
Sa`ud ibn Faysal of Nejd was a ruler of Khardj from 1847 until 1865.


`Unayzah (`Anayza)
`Unayzah (`Anayza) was the Emirate in present Saudi Arabia. The city has been ruled by the Al Sulaim family since 1818. They came to power when Prince
Yehya Al-Sulaim in 1822 killed the governor appointed by the Ottoman emperor, Abdullah Al-Jamei. This dynasty still rules the city according to a written treaty
between them and the Saudi royal family.
List of Emirs of `Unayzah (`Anayza)
`Abd Allah ibn Hamad ibn Zamil (died 1768) was a ruler of`Unayzah (`Anayza) in 1768.
Yahya ibn `Ali was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from 1768 until 1788.
`Abd Allah II ibn Yahya was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from 1788 until ?.
`Abd Allah III ibn Rashid al-`Alaiyan (died 1819) was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from ? until his death in 1819.
`Abd Allah IV al-Djama'i was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from 1819 until 1822.
Sulayman ibn Rashid al-`Alaiyan was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) during 1820s.
Yahya II was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from 1830s until 1841.
`Abd Allah V was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from 1841 until 1845.
Ibrahim was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from 1845 until 1848.
Nasir as-Suhaym (died 1858) was a ruler of `Unayzah (`Anayza) from 1848 until 1849.


Burayda
Burayda was the Emirate in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Emirs of Burayda
Hamud al-Duraybi was a ruler of Burayda in 1768.
Rashid al-Duraybi was a ruler of Burayda from 1768 until 1769 and from 1770 until 1775.
al-`Alaiyan was a ruler of Burayda from 1769 until 1770.
`Abd Allah ibn Hasan al-`Alaiyan (died 1776) was a ruler of Burayda from 1775 until his death in 1776.
Muhammad al-`Ali ash-Shayr was a ruler of Burayda from 1823 until 1826/28.
`Abd al-`Aziz al-Muhammad ibn Hasan (died 1861) was a ruler of Burayda from 1826/28 until 1850, from 1851 until 1859 and from 1859 until his
death in 1861.
`Abd al-Muhsin al-Muhammad ibn Turki was a ruler of Burayda from 1850 until 1851.
`Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-`Aziz ibn `Adwan al-`Alaiyan (died 1859) was a ruler of Burayda in 1859.
Muhammad ibn Ghanim (died 1859) was a ruler of Burayda in 1859.
`Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ibrahim of Manfuha was a ruler of Burayda from 1861 until 1863.
Muhammad ibn Ahmad as-Sudayri was a ruler of Burayda in 1863.
Sulayman ar-Rashid al-`Alaiyan was a ruler of Burayda in 1863.
Zamil as-Sulaym (1831 – 1891) was a ruler of Burayda from 1867 until his death in 1891.


`Auda
`Auda was the Shekdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of `Auda
`Abd Allah ibn Sultan (died 1757) was a ruler of `Auda from ? until his death in 1757.
`Uthman ibn Sa`dun (died 1767) was a ruler of `Auda from 1757 until his death in 1767.
Mansur ibn Abd Allah ibn Hamad was a ruler of `Auda from 1767 until ?.


Djaladjil
Djaladjil was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
Sheikh of Djaladjil
Suwayhid I was a ruler of Djaladjil from around 1762 until 1770s.

Harma
Harma was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of Harma
`Uthman ibn `Abd Allah was a ruler of Harma from ? until 1777.
Nasir ibn Ibrahim was a ruler of Harma from 1777 until 1779.

Madjm`a
Madjm`a was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of Madjm`a
Hamad ibn `Uthman was a ruler of Madjm`a from around 1658 until 1778.
`Abd Allah ibn Djaladjil was a ruler of Madjm`a from 1779 until early 19th century.
Mazyad was a ruler of Madjm`a from early 19th century until 1823.
Muhammad ibn Saqr was a ruler of Madjm`a from 1823 until ?.
Ibn `Abdan was a ruler of Madjm`a from 1823 until 1827.
Ahmad ibn Nasir as-Sani (died 1861) was a ruler of Madjm`a from 1827 until 1839.
Muhammad ibn Ahmad as-Sudayri was a ruler of Madjm`a from 1839 until 1841 and from 1840s until 1853.
`Abd Allah ibn Husayn was a ruler of Madjm`a in 1841 and from 1853 until ?
`Abd al-`Aziz ibn Mishari ibn `Aiyaf was a ruler of Madjm`a during 1840s.

Shaqr
Shaqr was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of Shaqr
`Abd Allah ibn Hamad ibn Ghayhab was a ruler of Shaqr from around 1803 until ?
Hamad ibn Yahya ibn Ghayhab was a ruler of Shaqr from around 1818 until 1834.

Tarmada
Tarmada was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
Sheikh of Tarmada
Ibrahim ibn Sulayman was a ruler of Tarmada from around 1853 until ?.


Mutayr
Mutayr was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia. Mutayr (Arabic: ریي ; also spelled Mutair and Mtayr) is one of the largest Sunni tribes of the Arabian
Peninsula. The traditional leaders (or "shaykhs") of Mutayr are the Doshan clan (singular "Dewish"). The main branches of Mutayr today are Banu Abdullah, Al-
'Olwa, and Braih. Mutayr's original homelands were the highlands of northern Hejaz near Medina and Najd. At some point in the 17th century, however, the
tribe began a large-scale migration eastwards into northern Nejd, displacing many other bedouin tribes in the area, such as Harb and 'Anizzah who were forced to
move northwards after. By the 20th century, Mutayr's tribal lands extended from the highlands east of Medina, through the region of Al-Qasim, to the borders
of Kuwait. A rivalry developed between Mutayr and Harb, who inhabited roughly the same areas as Mutayr, as well as with 'Utaybah, who had just moved into
Nejd from the southern Hejaz. Nowadays Mutayr are considered to be the largest tribe in the area of Najd. According to the British delegate in Kuwait Mr.Dixon
Mutayr were the strongest tribe in Najd and Ibn sa'uod relied on it in forcing other tribes. Because Mutayr were the dominant nomadic tribe of Al-Qasim, which
was the main bone of contention between the clans of Al Saud and Al Rashid vying for control of Nejd in the early 20th century, Mutayr came to play an
important role in the history of Arabia during that era. Mutayr, then, was led by Faisal Al-Dewish, who frequently changed sides in the conflict between the two
Nejdi leaders. In 1912, the ruler of Riyadh, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud undertook to settle the nomads of his realm in newly created villages (hijras), where the
bedouins were to be indoctrinated into a puritanical form of Islam and become warriors for Ibn Saud's cause. These new forces were known as the
Ikhwan ("Brotherhood"), and Faisal Al-Dewish had led the Ikhwan movement enthusiastically, providing Ibn Saud with crucial military support. The most
important Mutayri settlement was al-Artawiyya, at the northern edge of the Dahna desert.
List of Sheikhs of Mutayr
Faysal ibn Wathban ad-Duwish (died 1832) was a ruler of Mutayr from around 1796 until his death in 1832.
Muhammad al-Makni was a ruler of Mutayr from 1832 until 1840s.
Humaydi (died 1856/57) was a ruler of Mutayr from around 1847 until his death in 1856/57.
`Ammash ad-Duwish was a ruler of Mutayr during 1860s.
Faysal II ad-Duwish was a ruler of Mutayr from around 1907 until 1908.



`Asir
`Asir was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of `Asir
Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khayrat was a ruler of `Asir from 1728/1729 until 1762/1763.
Muhammad (died 1809) was a ruler of `Asir from 1762/1763 until his death in 1809.
Sharif Hamud ibn Muhammad Abu Mismar was a ruler of `Asir from 1762/1763 until his death in 1809.
`Abd al-Wahhab Muhammad ibn Abu Nuqta ar-Rufayda (died 1809) was a ruler of `Asir (in `Asir as-Sarat) from 1801 until his death in 1809.
Tami ibn Shu`ayb (died 1815) was a ruler of `Asir (in `Asir as-Sarat) from 1809 until his death in 1815.
al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Haydar (died 1851) was a ruler of `Asir from 1840 until 1848 (in rebellion in Abu Arish).
Haydar was a ruler of `Asir from 1848 until 1855 (in rebellion in Abu Arish).
al-Hasan ibn Muhammad was a ruler of `Asir from 1850s until 1863 (in rebellion in Abu Arish).


Upper `Asir
Upper `Asir was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of Upper `Asir
Sa`id ibn Muslat al-Mughaydi was a ruler of Upper `Asir from 1823/1824 until ?.
`Ali ibn Mudjattil al-Mughaydi was a ruler of Upper `Asir from ? until 1833/1834.
`Al'ud ibn Mar`i ibn Musa al-Mughaydi (died 1856/57) was a ruler of Upper `Asir from 1833/1834 until his death in 1856/1857.
Muhammad (died 1872) was a ruler of Upper `Asir from 1856/1857 until his death in 1872.
al-Hasan ibn `Ayad was a ruler of Upper `Asir in Abha from 1914 until 1916.


Lower `Asir
Lower `Asir was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Imams and Sheikhs of Lower `Asir
Sayyid Ahmad al-Idrisi al-Hasani (1760 – 1837) was a ruler of Lower `Asir from 1830 until his death in 1837.
Sayyid Muhammad (I) ibn Ahmad al-Idrisi al - Hasani (died 1889) was a ruler of Lower `Asir from 1838 until his death in 1889.
Sayyid Ali (I) ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Idrisi al-Hasani (died 1904) was a ruler of Lower `Asir from 1889 until his death in 1904.
Sayyid Muhammad (II) ibn Ali al-Idrisi al-Hasani (1876/7 – March 20, 1923) was a ruler of Lower `Asir from 1909 until his death on March 20,
1923.
Sayyid Ali (II) ibn Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Hasani (born 1905) was a ruler of Lower `Asir from March 20, 1923 until February 1926.
Sayyid al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Idrisi al-Hasani was a ruler of Lower `Asir from February 1926 until November 20, 1930.


Najran
Najran was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Rulers (Da'ias) of Najran
Muhammad ibn Isma'il was a ruler of Najran from 1677 until 1717.
Hibbat-Allah was a ruler of Najran from 1717 until 1747.
Isma'il I was a ruler of Najran from 1747 until 1760.
Hasan I `Ali was a ruler of Najran from 1760 until 1774.
`Abd al-`Ali ibn Hasan was a ruler of Najran from 1774 until 1780.
`Abd Allah I ibn `Ali was a ruler of Najran from 1780 until 1810.
Yusuf was a ruler of Najran from 1810 until 1819.
Husayn ibn Hasan ibn `Ali was a ruler of Najran from 1819 until 1826.
Isma'il II ibn Muhammad was a ruler of Najran from 1826 until 1841.
Hasan II was a ruler of Najran from 1841 until 1846.
Hasan III ibn Isma'il was a ruler of Najran from 1846 until 1872.
Ahmad was a ruler of Najran from 1872 until 1889.
`Abd Allah II ibn `Ali ibn Husayn ibn `Ali was a ruler of Najran from 1889 until 1905.
`Ali I ibn Hibbat Allah was a ruler of Najran from 1905 until 1912.
`Ali II ibn Muhsin ibn Husayn (died 1936) was a ruler of Najran from 1912 until 1934.

`Ayayna
`Ayayna was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of `Ayayna
`Abd Allah III ibn Muhammad was a ruler of `Ayayna from 1685 until 1725.
Muhammad II ibn Hamad Harfash was a ruler of `Ayayna from 1725 until 1740.
`Uthman ibn Hamad (died 1750) was a ruler of `Ayayna from 1740 until his death in 1750.
Mishari ibn Ibrahim ibn Mu`ammar was a ruler of `Ayayna from 1750 until 1759.
Sultan ibn Muhsin al-Mu`ammari was a ruler of `Ayayna from 1759 until 1760.
Nasir II ibn`Uthman (died 1768) was a ruler of `Ayayna from 1760 until his death in 1768.
Durma
Durma was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of Durma
Muhammad I was a ruler of Durma from ? until 1684.
Ibrahim (died 1751) was a ruler of Durma from ? until his death in 1751.
`Abd Allah ibn `Abd ar-Rahman al-Muraydi was a ruler of Durma from 1751 until 1752/1753.
Muhammad II was a ruler of Durma from 1753 until 1757.

Ghatghat
Ghatghat was the Sultanate in present Saudi Arabia.
Sultan of Ghatghat
ibn Bikhad was a ruler og Ghatghat around 1924.


al-Hasa`
al-Hasa` sometimes Al-Ahsa, El Hasa, or Hadjar (Arabic: اطا al-Aḥsāʾ, locally al-Ḥasāʾ; Turkish: Lahsa) was the Sheikdom in present Saudi Arabia.
List of Sheikhs of al-Hasa`
Barrak I bin Ghurair was a ruler of al-Hasa` from 1670 until 1682.
Muhammad I (died 1691) was a ruler of al-Hasa` from 1682 until his death in 1691.
`Ali (died 1736) was a ruler of al-Hasa` from 1723 until his death in 1736.
Sulayman (died 1752) was a ruler of al-Hasa` from 1736 until his death in 1752.
`Uray'ir ibn Dudjayn ibn Sa`dun (died 1774) was a ruler of al-Hasa` from 1752 until his death in 1774.
Butaiyin (died 1774) was a ruler of al-Hasa` from in 1774.
Dudjayn (died 1774) was a ruler of al-Hasa`in 1774.
Sa`dun II was a ruler of al-Hasa` jointly with Muhammad II from 1774 until 1789.
Muhammad II was a ruler of al-Hasa` was a ruler of al-Hasa`jointly with Sa`dun II from 1774 until 1789.
`Abd al-Muhsin bin `Abd Allah (died 1791) was a ruler of al-Hasa` (in the North from 1789 until his death in 1791. He was also regent of al-Hasa`
from 1787 until 1789.
Zayid was a ruler of al-Hasa`(in South) from 1789 until 1793 and from 1793 until 1794.
Barrak II was a ruler of al-Hasa` (in North) from 1791 until 1793 and from 1794 until 1795.
Madjid was a ruler of al-Hasa`jointly with Muhammad III in 1818 and from 1823 until 1830.
Muhammad III was a ruler of al-Hasa`jointly with Madjid in 1818 and from 1823 until 1830.
`Umar ibn Muhammad was a ruler of al-Hasa`from 1830 until 1838 and in 1842.
`Abd Allah ibn Ghanim was a ruler of al-Hasa`in Qatif from 1830 until 1839.
Mehmed Efendi I (died 1839) was a ruler of al-Hasa`in Hutuf in 1839.
Mehmed Efendi II was a ruler of al-Hasa`in Hufuf from 1839 until 1840.
Hamad ibn Mubarak was a ruler of al-Hasa`from 1840 until 1841.
Musa al-Hamli was a ruler of al-Hasa` in 1841
Fahd ibn `Abd Allah was a acting ruler of al-Hasa`in 1842.
Bilal ibn Salim al-Harq was a ruler of al-Hasa`in 1842.
`Abd Allah ibn Battal al-Mutayri was a ruler of al-Hasa`in 1843.
Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sudayri was a ruler of al-Hasa` from 1844 until 1853 and from 1857 until 1861.
Muhammad ibn Ahmad was a ruler of al-Hasa`from 1853 until 1857 and from 1861 until 1870.
Nasir ibn Djabir al-Khalidi was a ruler of al-Hasa`from 1870 until 1871.
Fariq Pasha was a ruler of al-Hasa`from 1871 until 1872.

Jebel Shammar (Hãil)
The Emirate of Jabal Shammar, also known as the Emirate of Ha'il was a state in the Nejd region of Arabia, existing from the mid-nineteenth century to
1921. Jabal Shammar (Arabic: مث ج رًش ) in English is translated as the "Mountain of theShammar". Jabal Shammar's capital was Ha'il.
[2]
It was led by
a monarchy of the House of Rashid. It includes parts of modern day Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Jordan.
List of Emirs of Jebel Shammar (Hãil)
Abdullah I bin Ali al Rashid was a founder and ruler ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from 1835 until 1847. Abdullah came to power
after leading a revolt (together with his brother prince ʿUbayd Al Rashīd) against the ruler of Ha'il, Muhammad bin Ali, who was a fellow
member of the Jaafar al-Shammari lineage. As a leader, Abdullah was praised for bringing peace and stability both to Ha'il and to the
surrounding region. Abdullah demanded from his brother prince ʿUbayd an ahd (covenant), according to which succession to the office of amir
would remain in Abdullah's line.


Talāl ibn Abdullah al Rashid (died 1867) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from 1847 until his death in 1867. The son of Abdullah, Talal is
remembered for his relative liberalism and interest in building projects. During his rule, the Barzan Palace in Ha'il was completed. He established regular trade
connections with Iraq and expanded the Rashidi sphere of influence: "The inhabitants of Kaseem, weary of Wahhabee tyranny, turned their eyes towards Telal,
who had already given a generous and inviolable asylum to the numerous political exiles of that district. Secret negotiations took place, and at a favourable
moment the entire uplands of that province—after a fashion not indeed peculiar to Arabia—annexed themselves to the kingdom of Shommer by universal and
unanimous suffrage." (William Gifford Palgrave, 1865: 129.). Talal was considered relatively tolerant towards foreigners, including traders in Ha'il: "Many of these
traders belonged to the Shia sect, hated by some Sunni, doubly hated by the Wahabees. But Telal [sic] affected not to perceive their religious discrepansies, and
silenced all murmurs by marks of special favour towards these very dissenters, and also by the advantages which their presence was not long in procuring for the
town". (William Gifford Palgrave 1865: 130.) In the 1860s, internal disputes in the House of Saud allowed a Rashidi/Ottoman alliance to oust them. The Rashidi
occupied the Saudi capital of Riyadh in 1865 and forced the leaders of the House of Saud into exile. Talal later died in a shooting incident which has been
termed "mysterious". Charles Doughty, in his book Travels in Arabia Deserta, writes that Talal committed suicide. Talal left seven sons, but the oldest, Bandar,
was only 18 or 20 when his father died.
Mutʿib II bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al Rashid (died 1869) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from 1867 until his death in 1869. A younger brother of Talal,
he was supported by senior members of the Rashid family and the sheikhs of the Shammar sections. After only a year, he was shot and killed in the Barzan
Palace by his nephew and next amir, Bandar. Doughty's version of the events is that Bandar and Badr, the second-oldest son, cast a silver bullet to kill their uncle
because they knew he wore an amulet that protected him against lead.
Bandar bin Talāl al Rashid (died 1872) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from 1869 until his death in 1872. He was ruled for only a short time before
he was killed by his uncle, Muhammed, the brother of Mutʿib. Bandar reportedly married his uncle's widow and had a son by her.
Muhammad I bin Abdullah al Rashid was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from 1872 until 1897. A confrontation outside Ha'il with his nephew, the
young Amir Bandar, ended with Muhammed killing Bandar. Muhammed then continued his journey to Ha'il and announced himself as the new amir. In order
to prevent the possibility of revenge, Muhammed gave orders for the execution of all of Bandar's brothers (the sons of Talal), Bandar's cousins (the children of
Talal's sister), and their slaves and servants. Only one of Talal's sons, Naif, survived. In spite of the inauspicious beginning, his rule turned out to be the longest in
the history of the Rashidi dynasty. His rule became "a period of stability, expansion and prosperity" (ref.: p. 61, Al Rasheed). His expansion reached al-
Jawf and Palmyra to the north and Tayma and Khaybar to the west. In 1891, after a rebellion, ʿAbd al-Rahman bin Faysal bin Turki Al Saud left Riyadh.
The Saudfamily, including the ten year old Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, went into exile in Kuwait.
Abdul Aziz bin Mutʿib al Rashid (1870 – April 13, 1906) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from 1897 until his death on April 13,
1906. He was son of Mutʿib, the third amir, he was adopted by his uncle Muhammed, the fifth amir, and brought up to be his heir. After
Muhammed died of natural causes, Abd al-ʿAziz succeeded him unopposed. However Rashidi rule was insecure as their Ottoman allies were
unpopular and weakening. In 1904, the young Ibn Saud, the future founder of Saudi Arabia, returned from exile with a small force and retook
Riyadh. Abd al-ʿAziz died in the battle ofRawdat Muhanna with Ibn Saud in 1906.

Mutʿib II bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al Rashid (1888 – January 1907) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from April 1906 until his death in January 1907. He
was succeeded his father as amir. However, he was not able to win support of the whole family and, within a year, he was killed by Sultan bin Hammud.
Sultan bin Hammud al Rashid (1870 - January 1908) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from January 1907 until his death in January 1908. He was
grandson of Ubayd (the brother of the first amir), he was criticized because he ignored the ahd (covenant) between his grandfather and the first amir. He was
unsuccessful in fighting Ibn Saud, and was killed by his own brothers.
Sa`ud I bin Hammud al Rashid (1875 - September 1909) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from January until his death in September 1908. He was
grandson of Ubayd. Saʿud was killed by the maternal relatives of Saʿud bin ʿAbd al-ʿAziz, the tenth amir.
Sa`ud II bin Abdul Aziz al Rashid (1885 - 1920) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from 1908 until his death in 1920. He was boy of 10 when he was
made amir, his maternal relatives of the Al Sabhan family ruled as regents on his behalf until he came of age, based on the constitution of Emara. In 1920, he was
assassinated by his cousin, Abdullah bin Talal (a brother of the 12th amir). Two of his widows remarried: Norah bint Hammud Al Sabhan became Ibn Saud's
eight wife, and Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim of the Abde section of the Shammar tribe became Ibn Saud's ninth wife and the mother of King Abdullah of Saudi
Arabia.
ʿAbdullah II bin Mutʿib al Rashid (1906 - 1947) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) from May 1920 until 1921. He was son of the 7th
amir, he surrendered to Ibn Saud in 1921, after having come to the throne the year before, at the age of thirteen.


Muhammad II bin Talāl al Rashid (died 1954) was a ruler of Jebel Shammar (Hãil) in 1921. He was grandson of Naif, the only surviving son of Talal,
the 2nd Amir. Muhammad bin Talal's wife Nura bint Sibban married King Abdulaziz after he was imprisoned by him.
[3]
Surrendered to Ibn Saud. One of the
daughters of Muhammad bin Talal, Watfa, married Prince Musa'id bin Abdul Aziz, the fifteenth son of Ibn Saud. Prince Musa'id and Watfa became the parents
of Prince Faisal bin Musa'id, the assassin of King Faisal.


Mae Hong Son
Mae Hong Son was the former state in present Thailand.
List of Lords (title Partasakti) of Mae Hong Son
Phaya Singhanat Racha (Chankale) (died 1884) was the Lord of Mae Hong Son from 1874 until his death in 1884.
Chao Nang Mia (died 1891) was the Lord of Mae Hong Son from 1884 until his death in 1891.
Phaya Phithak Sayam Khet (Pu Khun Tho) (died 1905) was the Lord of Mae Hong Son from 1891 until his death in 1905.
Phaya Phisan Hong Son Buri (Khun Lu) was the Lord of Mae Hong Son from 1905 until 1941.

Nan
Nan was the former state in present Thailand. Little-known Nan goes back to the depths of the history of Thailand. For centuries it was a separate,
autonomous kingdom with few relationships with the outside world. There is much evidence of prehistoric habitation, but it wasn't until several
small mueang united to form Nanthaburi on the Nan riverin the mid-14th century - contemporary with the creation of Luang Prabang and the Lan Xang (Million
Elephants) kingdom in Laos - that the city became a power to be taken into account. Associated with the mighty Sukhothai kingdom, the mueang took the title
Wara Nakhon and played a significant part in the development of early Thai nationalism. By the end of the -14th century Nan was one of the nine northern
Thai-Lao principalities that comprised Lan Na Thai (now Lanna) and the city state flourished throughout the 15th century under the name Chiang Klang (Middle
City), a reference to its position roughly midway between Chiang Mai (New City) and Chiang Thong (Golden City, which is today'sLuang Prabang).
The Burmese took control of the kingdom in 1558 and deported many of the inhabitants to Burma as slaves; the city was completely deserted until western
Thailand was retaken from the Burmese in 1786. The local dynasty then regained local sovereignty and it remained semi-autonomous until 1931 when Nan
finally accepted fullBangkok dominion, part of its territory had been annexed to Laos by the French in the late 19th century. Parts of the old city wall and several
early wats dating from the Lannaperiod can be seen in contemporary Nan. The city's wats are distinctive; some temple structures show Lanna influence, while
others belong to the Thai Lue legacy brought from Xishuangbanna in China, where the Thai Lue people came from.
List of Princes (title Chao) of Nan
Attawalapanyo was the Prince of Nan from 1786 until 1810.
Sumanathewalat was a Prince of Nan from 1810 until 1825.
Mahayot was a Prince of Nan from 1825 until 1836.
Acittawaong was a Prince of Nan from 1836 until 1838.
Mahawong was a Prince of Nan from 1838 until 1851.
Anantayot was a Prince of Nan from 1851 until 1891.
Suliyaphong Phallitidet was a Prince of Nan from 1891 until 1918.
Mahaphrom Sulathada (died 1931) was a Prince of Nan from 1818 until his death in 1831.


Pattani Sultanate
Pattani (Patani) or the Sultanate of Pattani was a Malay sultanate that covered approximately the area of the modern Thaiprovinces of Pattani, Yala,
Narathiwat and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia. The 6–7th century Hindu state of Pan Pan may or may not be related. Langkasuka was a Hindu-
Buddhist kingdom, founded in the region as early as the 2nd century CE, which appeared in many accounts by Chinese travelers, the most famous of whom was
the Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching. The kingdom drew trade from Chinese, Indian, and local traders as a stopping place for ships bound for, or just arrived from,
the Gulf of Thailand. Langkasuka reached its greatest economic success in the 6th and 7th centuries and afterward declined as a major trade center. Political
circumstances suggest that by the 11th century Chola invasion, Langkasuka was no longer a major port visited by merchants. However, much of the decline may
be due to the silting up of its harbor, shown most poignantly today because the most substantial Langkasukan ruins lie approximately 15 kilometers from the sea.
Pattani became part of the Hindu-Buddhist Empire of Srivijaya, a maritime confederation based in Palembang. Srivijaya dominated trade in theSouth China
Sea and exacted tolls on all traffic through the Straits of Malacca. Malay culture had substantial influence on the Khmer Empire, and the ancient city of Nakhon
Pathom. The founding of the Islamic kingdom of Patani is thought to have been around the mid-13th century CE, with folklore suggesting it was named after an
exclamation made by Sultan Ismail Shah, ―Pantai Ini!‖ ("This beach" in the local Malay language). However, some think it was the same country known to the
Chinese as Pan Pan. Despite claims that the origins of the name Pattani means "this beach", it may be the same country known to the Chinese as Pan Pan.
List of rulers of Pattani Sultanate
Inland Dynasty (Sri Wangsa)
Sultan Ismail Shah (died 1530) was the founder and ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1516 until his death in 1530, according to one account, and the first
ruler to convert to Islam. In fact, other rulers must have preceded him. It is also likely that during his reign the Portuguese first visited the port to trade, arriving in
1516. He was called King Phaya Tu Nakpa before his conversion. A sheikh named Sa'id or Shafi'uddin from Kampong Pasai (presumably a small community of
traders from Pasai who lived on the outskirts of Patani), reportedly healed the king of a rare skin disease and after much negotiation (and recurrence of the
disease), the king agreed to convert to Islam, adopting the name Sultan Ismail Shah. All of the sultan's officials also agreed to convert. However, there is
fragmentary evidence that some local people had begun to convert to Islam prior to this.
Sultan Mudhaffar Shah (died 1564) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from around 1530 until his death in 1564. He was son of Sultan Ismail Shah, who
died during an attack on Ayudhya (Siam).
Sultan Manzur Shah (died 1572) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1564 until his death in 1572. He was brother of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah.
Sultan Patik Siam (died 1573) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1572 until his death in 1573. He was son of Sultan Mudhaffar Shah, who was
murdered by his half-brother, Raja Bambang.
Sultan Bahdur (died 1584) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1573 until his death in 1584. He was son of Sultan Manzur Shah, who was considered
a tyrant in most accounts.
Ratu Hijau (the Green Queen) (died 1616) was a Malay sovereign Queen of the Pattani Sultanate from 1584 until her death in 1616. Her name means "the
Green Queen" in English. She was the eldest daughter of Sultan Mansur Shah. According to the Portuguese chronicler Mendez Pinto, she came to the throne in
1584 as a sister of the murdered Patani king after twenty years of unstable rule. She was already in power when the first Dutch and English Company agents
visited this region of what is now southern Thailand. She was also known as the 'great queen of Patani'. According to Jacob van Neck's writing in 1604, he
reported a relatively prosperous state under Ratu Hijau, who was "one well-disposed to merchants". The Malay monarchy under her rule absorbed diversity of
foreign traders into a polyglot elite united by the royal person, a Malay lingua franca, and a pattern of rules and sacred regalia passed down from courts such
as Melaka and Pasai. The majority of the merchants were said to be Chinese merchants, of which the most important of them, such as the leading commercial
official Datu Sirinara, had converted to Islam and adopted Malay court etiquette. She was succeeded by her younger sister Ratu Biru.
Ratu Biru (the Blue Queen) (died 1624) was a Malay sovereign Queen of the Pattani Sultanate from 1616 until her death in 1624. She was succeeding her
sister Ratu Hijau. She was the second of three daughters of Sultan Manzur Shahwho ruled the country. She was succeeded by her sister Ratu Ungu. In Malay, her
name means "Blue" or "Blue Queen."
Ratu Ungu (the Purple Queen) (died 1635) was a Malay sovereign Queen of the Pattani Sultanate from 1624 until her death in 1635. She was succeeding her
sister Ratu Biru. She was the third successive and last daughter of Sultan Mansur Shah to rule the country and was succeeded by her daughter Ratu Kuning.
Following the usurpation of the throne of Ayudhya by King Prasartthong in 1629, she refused to send the bunga mas(golden flowers) which were typically sent as
a sign of Patani's tributary status to Siam. Therefore, Ayudhya sent an army south in 1632 to quell her rebellion, but the attack was repulsed. A subsequent attack
by Siam in 1634 was supposed to be joined by the Dutch but the latter's ships arrived too late and again the attack failed. Finally in 1636, just following the death
of Ratu Ungu, a peace settlement was reached to restore relations between the two countries. In Malay, her name means "purple" or "purple queen."
Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen) (died 1649/88) was a Malay sovereign Queen of the Pattani Sultanate from 1635 until her death between 1649/1688. She
was daughter of Ratu Ungu and last queen of the Inland Dynasty. Controversy surrounds the exact date of the end of her reign.
First Kelantanese Dynasty
Raja Bakal was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1688 untl 1690 or from 1651 until 1670 after a brief invasion of Patani by his father in 1649, Raja Sakti I
of Kelantan, he was given the throne in Patani.
Raja Emas Kelantan was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1690 until 1704 or from 1670 until 1698, thought by Teeuw & Wyatt to be a king, but
claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen.
Raja Emas Chayam was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1704 until 1707 or 1698 until 1702 and from 1716 until 1718. She was daughter of the two
preceding rulers, according to al-Fatani.
Raja Dewi was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1707 until 1716.
Raja Bendang Badan was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1716 unril 1720 or from ? until 1715. He was afterwards raja of Kelantan, 1715–1733.
Raja Laksamana Dajang was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1720 until 1721.
Raja Alung Yunus was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1728 until 1729 or from 1718 until 1729.
Raja Yunus (died 1749) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1729 until his death in 1749.
Raja Long Nuh (died 1771) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1749 until his death in 1771.
Sultan Muhammad (died 1785) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1771 until his death in 1785.
Tengku Lamidin (died 1791) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1785 until his death in 1791.
Datuk Pengkalan (died 1808) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1791 until his death in 1808.
Nai Khwan Sai was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1808 until 1815.
Nai Pai was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1815 until 1816.
Second Kelantanese Dynasty
Tuan Sulung was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1816 until 1832.
Nik Yusof was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1832 until 1837.
Along Yenal was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1837 until 1839.
Tuan Besar was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1839 until 1842.
Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad Ibni Raja Muda Kelantan, Raja Kampong Laut Tuan Besar Long Ismail Ibni Raja Long Yunus (died 1856) was
the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1842 until his death in 1856.
Tuan Long Puteh Bin Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad (Phraya Pattani II) (died 1881) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1856 until his
death in 1881.
Tuan Besar Bin Tuan Long Puteh (Phraya Pattani III) (died 1890) was the ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1881 until his death in 1890.
Tuan Long Bongsu Bin Sultan Phraya Long Muhammad (Sultan Sulaiman Sharafuddin Syah, Phraya Pattani IV) (died 1898) was the ruler of the
Pattani Sultanate from 1890 until his death in 1898.
Sultan Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin Syah (Phraya Pattani V) was the last ruler of the Pattani Sultanate from 1898 until his death in 1902.

Sultanate of Singora
The Sultanate of Singora was a port city located on and around the foothills of Khao Daeng mountain, now in Singha Nakhon, Songkhla Province, Thailand.
The city was the precursor of the present-day town of Songkhla and flourished briefly before it was destroyed by Siamese troops in 1680. Singora was known to
British and Dutch traders as Sangor and Sangora; contemporary French writers referred to it as Singor, Cingor and Soncourat;; Indian, Persian and Arab
merchants called it Sing La. A notable artifact from Singora is the cannon displayed next to the flagpole in the grounds of the Royal Hospital Chelsea,London.
The Siamese took the cannon when Singora was destroyed and sent it back to the capital, Ayuthaya. It remained there until it was captured during the Burmese–
Siamese war of 1765–1767 and transported to Burma. It was then seized by the British in the third Anglo-Burmese War (1885–1887) and shipped to England. In
1887 it was presented to the Royal Hospital Chelsea. An Arabic inscription on the cannon refers to Sulaiman Shah, the Persian sultan who ruled Singora from
1619 until 1668.
List of Sultans of Singora Sultanate
Dato Mogol (died 1619) was the founder and ruler of Singora Sultanate from 1605 until his death in 1619. Singora was founded in 1605 by Dato Mogol, a
Persian nobleman who had fled Java to escape colonial oppression. The city was initially a vassal state of Siam and paid tribute to Ayuthaya. From its inception, it
was designated a duty-free port and vied with the neighboring Sultanate of Pattani for trade. Early references to Singora appear in British and Dutch sources.
A Cottonian manuscript at the British Library, for example, contrasts the taxes levied at Singora with those at Pattani (spelled Patania): "itt were not amiss to build
astrong howse in Sangora which lyeth 24 Leagues northwarde of Patania, under the goverment of Datoe Mogoll, vassall to the King of Siam. (...) this howse
willbee found to bee verie Necessarie, for the charges willbee too highe in Patania besides inconveniences there; which charges you shall spare at Sangora: there
you pay no Custome, onlie a small gift to Datoe Mogoll cann effect all here" —British East India Company, A letter of instructions from the East Indian Company
to its agent in East India, 1614. The head of the Dutch East India Company factory in Ayuthaya described Singora as one of Siam's principal cities and an
important trading center for pepper. In 1622 the Dutch exported more than 500 tons of pepper from Singora. Further benefits accrued from Singora's location:
the city had an ideal, natural harbor, and was part of a network of overland and riverine routes that expedited trans-peninsular trade with Kedah. Dato Mogol
died in 1619 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Sulaiman.
Sulaiman (died 1668) was a ruler of Singora Sultanate from 1619 until his death in 1668. He was succeeded in 1619 his father Dato Mogol founder of Singora
Sultanate. In 1642, in an act that triggered decades of conflict, Sulaiman proclaimed political independence from Ayuthaya and appointed himself Sultan
Sulaiman Shah. He eradicated piracy and transformed Singora into a prosperous, cosmopolitan entrepôt that not only attracted merchants from Europe but also
became the preferred destination in Siam for traders from India, Persia and Arabia. In attempts to reclaim Singora, Ayuthaya launched at least four maritime
attacks during Sulaiman's reign, some of which were accompanied by Dutch vessels. Each campaign failed; one ended in ignominy when the Siamese admiral
"ran away". To help fend off overland assaults, Sulaiman assigned his brother, Pharisees, to develop the nearby town of Chai Buri inPhatthalung Province. Sultan
Sulaiman died in 1668 and was succeeded by Sultan Mustapha. Exploring the ruins of Singora is an adventure for history and archaeology enthusiasts. The
remains of fourteen forts can be visited: six of these (forts 4,5,6,7, 8 and 10) are located on Khao Daeng mountain; the others are scattered around the
foothills. One of the best preserved is fort 9: it is situated on a small hill and visible from the main road that leads from Singha Nakhon to Ko Yo Island. Fort 8 is
also well preserved. It is accessible via a stairway near the Sultan Sulaiman Shah mosque and offers panoramic views of Rat Island and Songkhla. Better views,
however, can be had from fort 6 at the top of Khao Daeng. The fort can be reached by ascending a flight of 670 steps that starts near the small archaeological
museum. The climb to the summit passes forts 4 and 5. Fort 1 is of interest insofar as it adjoins the only remaining section of the original city walls. The tomb of
Sultan Sulaiman Shah enjoys an atmospheric setting in a Muslim graveyard about 1 km north of Khao Daeng. It is housed in a small, Thai-style pavilion
surrounded by large trees. The cemetery is mentioned in the Sejarah Kerajaan Melayu Patani (History of the Malay Kingdom of Patani), a Javi account drawn
mostly from the Hikayat Patani. The text describes Sultan Sulaiman as a soldier who died in battle and the cemetery as "full of nothing but jungle". The tomb is
an object of pilgrimage in the deep south of Thailand, where Sultan Sulaiman is revered by both Muslims and Buddhists alike.
Mustapha was a ruler of Singora Sultanate from 1668 until 1680. Singora's military confidence at this time is evidenced by a war it fought with Pattani. Despite
being outnumbered four to one, Singora rejected attempts at mediation by the Sultan of Kedah and trusted in its "stout and experienced soldiers" who after years
of battle had become skilled marksmen and cannoneers. It was also during the reign of Sultan Mustapha that Greek adventurer, Constance Phaulkon, came to
Siam. After arriving in Ayuthaya in the late 1670s, he embarked on a mission to smuggle arms to Singora. His escapade ended in disaster, however, when he was
shipwrecked off the coast of Ligor (present-day Nakhon Si Thammarat). In 1679, Siamese King Narai's armada began a final offensive to quash the Singora
rebellion. Some of the events were recorded by Samuel Potts, a British East India Company trader based in Singora at the time. In one of his letters he reported
on the city's preparations for war: "This King has fortified his City, gunned his Forts upon the hills, making all the provision he can for his defence, not knowing
how soon the King of Siam will oppose him" —Samuel Potts, Samuel Potts at Sangora to Richard Burnaby at Siam, January 22, 1679. In a letter from August of
the same year, Potts wrote that the Siamese fleet had arrived and added "I cannot remain secure where I am". The battles that followed were decisive: Singora was
devastated beyond recovery and abandoned. The aftermath was documented by representatives of the French embassies to Siam in 1685 and 1687. One report
told how Singora's "trés bonne citadelle" had been razed after a war of more than thirty years; Diplomat Simon de la Loubere wrote that the war had lasted twenty
years and ended when the sultan was captured by a French cannoneer working for the Siamese army.


Songkhla
Songkhla was the former state in present southern Thailand. The name Songkhla is actually the Thai corruption of Singgora (Jawi: ارٕڬ ڠ ی ض ); its original name
means 'the city of lions' in Malay. This refers to a lion-shaped mountain near the city of Songkhla. Songkhla was the seat of an old Malay Kingdom with
heavy Srivijayan influence. In ancient times (200 AD - 1400 AD), Songkhla formed the northern extremity of the Malay Kingdom of Langkasuka. The city-state
then became a tributary of Nakhon Si Thammarat, suffering damage during several attempts to gain independence. Archaeological excavations on the isthmus
between Lake Songkhla and the sea reveal that in the 10th through the 14th century this was a major urbanized area, and a center of international maritime trade,
in particular with Quanzhou in China. The long Sanskrit name of the state that existed there has been lost; its short Sanskrit name was Singhapura ("Lion City").
The short vernacular name was Satingpra, coming from the Mon-Khmer sting/steng/stang (meaning "river") and the Sanskrit pura ("city").
[1]
Since the 18th century,
Songkla has been firmly under Thai suzerainty. In 1909, Songkhla was formally annexed by Siam as part of Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, negotiated with
the British Empire. In the 18th century many Chinese immigrants, especially from Guangdong and Fujian, came to the province. Quickly rising to economic
wealth, one of them won the bidding for the major tax farm of the province in 1769, establishing the Na Songkhla (from Songkhla) family as the most wealthy and
influential. In 1777 the family also gained political power, when the old governor was dismissed and Luang Inthakhiri (Yiang, Chinese name Wu Rang (呉譲))
became the new governor. In 1786 the old governor started an uprising, which was put down after four months. The position was thereafter inherited in the
family and was held by 8 of his descendants until 1901, when Phraya Wichiankhiri (Chom) was honorably retired as part of the administrative reforms of
Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. The family's former home was converted into the Songkhla National Museum in 1953. Songkhla was the scene of heavy fighting
when the Imperial Japanese Army invaded Thailand on 8 December 1941 and parts of the city were destroyed. Songkhla was not initially affected by the recent
outbreak of Pattani Separatism, which began in 2004. However, bombs planted in 2005 and 2007 created fear the insurgence might spread into Songkhla
province. The districts Chana and Thepha bordering Pattani have been under martial law since 2005.
List of Princes of Songkhla
Luang Inthakhiri (Wu Rang, Hao Yiang) was a Prince of Songkhla from 1777 until 1784. In the 18th century many Chinese immigrants, especially
from Guangdong and Fujian, came to the province. Quickly rising to economic wealth, one of them won the bidding for the major tax farm of the province in
1769, establishing the Na Songkhla (from Songkhla) family as the most wealthy and influential. In 1777 the family also gained political power, when the old
governor was dismissed and Luang Inthakhiri (Yiang, Chinese name Wu Rang (呉譲)) became the new governor.
Hao Bun Hui (Inthakiri Bun Hui) was a Prince of Songkhla from 1784 until 1812.
Phraya Wisetphakdi was a Prince of Songkhla from 1812 until 1817.
Phra Sunthararunak (Wichiankiri Thianseng) was a Prince of Songkhla from 1817 until 1847.
Phra Wichiankiri Bunsang was a Prince of Songkhla from 1847 until 1865.
Phra Wichiankiri Men was a Prince of Songkhla from 1865 until 1884.
Phra Wichiankiri Chum was a Prince of Songkhla from 1884 until 1888.
Phra Wichiankiri Chom was a Prince of Songkhla from 1888 until 1901 when he was honorably retired as part of the administrative reforms of
Prince Damrong Rajanubhab.

Ryukyu Kingdom
The Ryukyu Kingdom (Japanese: 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Ryukyuan: 琉球國 Ruuchuu-kuku; traditional Chinese: 琉球國;simplified Chinese: 琉球国;
pinyin: Liúqiú Guó; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu) was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th century to
the 19th century. The Kings of Ryukyu unified Okinawa Islandand extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture, and
the Sakishima Islands nearTaiwan. Despite its small size, the kingdom played a central role in the maritime trade networks of medieval East and Southeast Asia.
List of Ryukyuan kings
Shunten Dynasty
Shunten (舜天
?
, 1166-1237), also known as Shunten-Ō (舜天王
?
) was a king of the Ryūkyū Islands from 1187 until his death in 1237. Shunten is the earliest
king inOkinawa for whom a name is known. He is said to have taken power after defeating a usurper to the throne by the name of Riyū who had overthrown the
25th king of the Tenson Dynasty. The Chūzan Seikan (1650), the first official history of the Ryūkyūan Kingdom, and Chūzan Seifu (1701) state that Shunten was
the son of Minamoto no Tametomo (1139 – 1170). Tametomo was exiled to a penal colony on Izu Ōshima following his defeat in the Hōgen Rebellion of 1156.
According to this theory, Tametomo then became lost at sea some time later, arrived on Okinawa, and settled down with the younger sister of the anji, or local
ruler, of Ōzato. Ōzato is located at the south of Okinawa Island in the present-day city ofNanjō. Shunten, according to the two histories, was the son of
Tametomo and the sister of the Ōzato anji. Shunten was known as Sonton (尊敦) prior to becoming king. He became the became anji of Urasoe in 1180 at the
age of 15 after gathering a base of popular support in the area. In 1187, he overthrew Riyū and established his royal seat of power at Urasoe castle, marking the
beginning of a new dynasty of rulers. Shunten's reign was long; by legend he is said to have ruled for 51 years. Shunten died in 1237 at the age of 71 and was
succeeded by his son Shunbajunki (1237 – 1248). He is buried at Urasoe yōdore, and enshrined at Naminoue Shrine along with three other Ryukyuan kings.
Shunten's dynasty ended in the third generation when his grandson Gihon abdicated, went into exile, and was succeeded by Eiso, who began a new royal lineage.
Shunbajunki (舜馬順熙
?
, 1185 -1248) was a king of the Ryūkyū Islands from 1237 until his death in 1248.Shunbajunki was the second of the Shunten Line.
He succeeded his father Shunten in 1237. Shunbajunki's reign is noted for the construction of Shuri Castle, and the introduction of the Japanese kana writing
system. TheChinese language and writing system was not to be introduced until roughly a century later; even after that time, government documents continued to
be written in kana, as did much poetry. Shunbajunki died in 1248, and was succeeded by his son Gihon.
Gihon (義本
?
) (c. 1206 - c. 1260), also known as Yoshimoto or as Yiben in Chinese,
[1]
was a king of the Ryūkyū Islands from 1248 until his death around 1260.
Gihon was the third and last of the Shunten Lineage. He succeeded his father Shunbajunki at the age of 44, in 1248. Gihon's reign was marked by terrible
disasters, including famine, epidemics, and devastating typhoons. Around 1254, he appointed a young lord by the name of Eiso to be Regent (Sessei), and to aid
in managing these disasters. When Gihon abdicated in 1259 or 1260, he "withdrew into the forest alone." Eiso succeeded him as "king" and began a new royal
lineage. The precise location, date, and circumstances of Gihon's death are unknown, though it is safe to assume he died shortly after his abdication. Local
legends allege that he was last seen at Hedo-misaki, the northernmost point on Okinawa Island.
Eiso Dynasty
Eiso (英祖
?
, Chinese pronunciation "Yingzu") (1229–1299), was a king of the Ryūkyū Islands from 1260 until his death in 1299. Eiso was a member of the
Tenson family; and he is also known as the first of the Eiso Lineage of Ryukyuan monarchs. He served as Regent from 1235 to 1260, and afterwards as king,
succeeding Gihon and reigning until his death in 1299. Eiso's reign is generally seen as one of great growth for the fledgling Okinawan principality. Eiso instituted
a variety of tax and land reforms, and the nation recovered from famines and other problems which plagued the previous reigns. Several outlying islands,
including Kumejima, Kurama, and Iheya, came into the sphere of Okinawan control, and began sending tribute in 1264. An envoy was sent to Amami Ōshima in
1266, though it was not until much later that Okinawa's sphere of control would be expanded to include the Amami Islands. In short, Eiso's reign saw the
establishment of many governmental institutions, and helped to set the foundation for the structure of the government of the following centuries. Eiso's reign also
saw contact with the Mongol Empire, which was at the time planning to invade Japan. Envoys from the court of Kublai Khan arrived in Okinawa twice, in 1272
and 1276, asking that the fledgling kingdom submit to the Mongols' authority and contribute to the effort to invade Japan. The envoys were rebuffed both times,
and forcibly repelled the second time, though they made off with 130 Okinawan captives. Eiso died at the age of 71, and was succeeded by his son Taisei.
Taisei (大成
?
, died 1309) was a king
[1]
of the Ryūkyū Islands from 1299 until his death in 1309. He was the second ruler in the Eisō lineage of monarchs; that is,
his father was King Eisō and his son was King Eiji. The years of Taisei's reign at Shuri were uneventful Taisei was the grandfather of Tamagusuku, who would
become the first monarch of the kingdom of Chūzan in central Okinawa.
The First Shō Dynasty
Shō Hashi (尚巴志) (1371–1439) was the last king of Chūzan and the first king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom (today Okinawa Prefecture, Japan) from 1422 until his
death in 1439, uniting the three kingdoms of Chūzan, Hokuzan, and Nanzan by conquest. His name as rendered in Japanese is "Shō Hashi"; in Chinese, he is
known as Shang Bazhi. As lord (aji) of Soshiki Mairi, he was seen as an able, well-liked administrator within his own lands, who rose in prominence at the
opening of the 15th century. He led a small rebellion against the lord of Azato district in 1402. Hashi then went on to overthrow King Bunei of Chūzan in
1404
[1]
and placed his father Shō Shishō on the throne. Even with his father as King, however, Hashi held true political power, and organized envoys to Nanking,
to assure China, to which the Ryūkyū kingdoms were tributaries, of his kingdom's continued cooperation and friendship. He also reorganized much of the
administrative organs of the kingdom to better fit Chinese models. The people of Chūzan also quickly adopted many elements of Chinese culture, and came to
be recognized as "civilized", at least somewhat more so than earlier, by the Chinese. Hashi also oversaw the expansion and embellishment of Shuri Castle, and the
placement of distance markers throughout the land, marking the distance to Shuri. Meanwhile, though Hokuzan, the neighboring kingdom to the north, held no
advantages over Chūzan economically or in terms of political influence, Hashi viewed their capital city castle of Nakijin gusuku as a threat militarily. When that
opportunity presented itself in 1419, after three Hokuzan aji (local lords) turned to his side, Hashi led his father's army, and conquered Nakijin in a swift series of
attacks. The king of Hokuzan, along with his closest retainers, committed suicide after a fierce resistance. A year after his father's death in 1421, Hashi requested
official recognition and investiture from the Chinese imperial court, and received it in due course. It may be interesting to note that, despite the nominal
independence of Ryūkyū into the 19th century, this practice would continue. The court bestowed upon him the family name Shang (Shō in Japanese), registered
a new title in their annals: Liuqiu Wang (琉球王, Jap: Ryūkyū-Ō, King of Ryūkyū), and sent Hashi's emissary back with a ceremonial dragon robe, and
a lacquer tablet with the word Chūzan inscribed upon it. This Chūzan tablet was then placed on display outside Shuri Castle, where it remained until the 20th
century. Thus, succeeding his father as king of Chūzan in 1422, and appointing his younger brother Warden of Hokuzan, he seized Ōzato gusuku, capital of
Nanzan, in 1429, from LordTaromai. Thus uniting the island of Okinawa, he founded the Ryūkyū Kingdom and the Shō Dynasty. Up to this point, the three
kingdoms had operated on a very simple feudal model. Peasants were subsistence farmers who paid taxes to their local aji and performed various other labors
and services to him; the aji in turn owed taxes and services to the head of their kingdom (hypothetically a king, but called a prince in many English-language texts
on the subject). Shō Hashi did not effect drastic dramatic changes upon this system, but reinforced it as part of his unification efforts; aji were made to owe their
allegiance to his royal government at Shuri, rather than becoming lordless rebels or the like upon the defeat and absorption of their kingdom. Hashi also oversaw
a significant expansion of trade, particularly with China, and organized envoys to other Asian countries as well. Documents survive today chronicling a number of
missions to Ayutthaya, the capital of Siam at the time, to resolve trade issues. Recognizing the importance of trade to Ryūkyū's continued prosperity, Shō Hashi
promoted it strongly, and even ordered a bell cast and installed at Shuri Castle, upon which was inscribed "Ships are means of communication with all nations;
the country is full of rare products and precious treasures." Through this trade, friendly diplomatic relations, and the overall organization and unity created by
Shō Hashi, Ryūkyū absorbed much of the foreign influences that would come to define its culture. Some examples include the Chinese ceremonial robes worn
by kings and high officials when meeting with Chinese officials, the Japanese-inspired custom of aristocratic members of society wearing two swords, and the
fusion of native, Japanese, Chinese, and Southeast Asian elements of music and dance. Shō Hashi died in 1439, at the age of sixty-eight, having united Ryūkyū
and established its place as a small, but recognized, power in the region. Upon his death, the court appointed his second son, Shō Chū, his successor, and sent
emissaries to the Chinese court to ask for investiture, to the Japanese Shogun in Kyoto and to the courts of a number of other kingdoms, as diplomatic missions.
Shō Chū (尚 忠 Shō Chū
?
, 1391–1444) was a king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom, the 3rd of the line of the First Shō Dynasty from 1439 until his death in 1444. Shō
Chū was the second son of his father, King Shō Hashi. After Hokuzan Kingdom's annexation, Shō Chū was appointed "Warden of Hokuzan" (北山監守
Hokuzan Kanshu
?
) in 1422. Shō Chū was installed as the king after his father's death. During his reign, Ryukyu began to trade with Java.
Shō Shitatsu (尚 思達
?
, 1408–1449) was king of Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1444 until his death in 1449. Shō Shitatsu was the eldest son of kingShō Chū. He died
in 1449 without an heir, his uncle Shō Kinpuku was installed as the king.
Shō Kinpuku (尚 金福 Shō Kinpuku
?
, 1398–1453) was a king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1449 until his death in 1453, the 5th of the line of the First Shō
Dynasty. Shō Kinpuku succeeded his nephew, Shō Shitatsu, in 1449. A one-kilometer-long dam, which known as Chōkō Dam (長虹堤Chōkōtei
?
), was built
by Kaiki (懐機, a somewhat mysterious figure from Ming China) in 1451. The dam was built from Naha harbor toTomari harbor, connecting plenty of tiny isles.
King Shō Kinpuku died in 1453, a succession dispute erupted between the king's son Shiro (志魯
?
) and his younger brother Furi (布里
?
). Shuri Castle was burned
down in the conflict, and both of them died in the incident. After the incident, the king's another younger brother, Shō Taikyū, came to the throne.
Shō Taikyū (尚 泰久
?
, c. 1415–1460) was a king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1454 until his death in 1460. His reign saw the construction of many Buddhist
temples, and the casting of the "Bridge of Nations" Bell (万国津梁の鐘Bankoku shinryō no kane
?
). Shō Taikyū was the seventh son of Shō Hashi, founder of the
Ryūkyū Kingdom and of the Shō Dynasty. In 1453, he was named Prince of Goeku, and given Goeku magiri (today part of Okinawa City) as his domain. When
King Shō Kinpuku died in 1453, a succession dispute erupted between the king's son Shiro (志魯
?
) and his younger brother Furi (布里
?
). Shuri Castle was burned
down in the conflict, which ended in the death of both Shiro and Furi, and the succession of Shō Taikyū to the throne. Having studied under Kaiin, a Zen monk
from Kyoto, Shō Taikyū had a number of Buddhist temples founded, including the Kōgen-ji, Fumon-ji, Manju-ji, and Tenryū-ji., and the so-called "Bridge of
Nations" Bell cast. The bell, with an inscription describing the kingdom's prosperity in maritime trade and diplomacy, hung in Shuri Castle for centuries and
became a famous symbol of the castle and of the kingdom. Shō Taikyū's reign was, indeed, a period of prosperity in maritime trade. Historian George H.
Kerr writes that Okinawan merchants sometimes earned as much as a thousand-percent return on luxury goods, that Naha grew more fully into a prosperous-
looking port town, and the estates of the local lords (anji) grew as well. However, Kerr also writes that Shō Taikyū's patronage of Buddhism and temple-building
efforts far exceeded that which would have been demanded or supported by the populace, and that these activities impoverished the royal treasury. The reign of
Shō Taikyū also saw one of the more famous episodes of political intrigues among the Aji in the history & legends of the kingdom. Informed by Amawari, lord
ofKatsuren gusuku and son-in-law of the king, that Gosamaru, lord of Nakagusuku and father-in-law to Shō Taikyū, was plotting to overthrow the kingdom, Shō
Taikyū allowed Amawari to lead a royal contingent to subjugate Nakagusuku. Following Gosamaru's defeat and subsequent death, the king discovered that it was
in fact Amawari who had been plotting against him from the beginning, and whose schemes led to the destruction of a loyal retainer. Katsuren was then
subsequently attacked by the Ryukyuan army led by Uni-Ufugusuku, and Amawari captured and executed. Upon his death in 1460, Shō Taikyū was succeeded
by his son, Shō Toku.
Shō Toku (尚 徳 Shō Toku
?
, 1441–1469) was the son of Shō Taikyū and last king of his dynasty from 1461 until his death in 1469. He came to power as a
young man in a kingdom whose treasury had been depleted. He engaged in efforts to conquer islands and took Hachiman as his banner to emphasize his martial
spirit. His conquest of Kikai did not help financial matters. He either died young or was possibly killed by forces within the kingdom as details are somewhat
unclear. As is common for rulers who preside over the end of a dynasty moralists portrayed him as cruel, violent, and lacking in virtue.
The Second Shō Dynasty
Shō En (尚圓
?
)(1415–1476) was a king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1469 until his death in 1476, the founder of the Second
Shō Dynasty. Prior to becoming king, he was known as Kanamaru (金丸
?
). Kanamaru was born into a family of peasant farmers
on Izena Island, a tiny island which lies off the northwestern coast of Okinawa Island. It is said that he lost his parents when he
was around twenty and undertook to provide for his aunt and uncle, brother and sister, and his wife, whom he married at a very
young age. In one year in which the island had suffered from a particularly severe drought, the rice patties of Kanamaru's family
were found to be full of water; accused of having stolen the water, Kanamaru was forced to flee his home, and ended up in
Ginama, in the northern region (Kunigami) of Okinawa Island. After several years living in Ginama, there too some type of
dispute or disagreement between Kanamaru and his neighbors emerged. Leaving Ginama, he traveled to Shuri, the capital of the
Ryūkyū Kingdom, in 1441, and became a servant or retainer to the prince, Shō Taikyū. After Shō Taikyū became king in 1454,
Kanamaru was made royal treasurer, and was in 1459 granted the post ofOmonogusuku osasu no soba (御物城御鎖側
?
), a
position involving responsibility for matters regarding foreign relations and trade. He was also granted territory, and made Lord of Uchima (内間御殿 Uchima-
udun
?
). There emerged a difference of opinion between Kanamaru, and Shō Toku, who succeeded Shō Taikyū as king in 1461, possibly over the king's costly
military efforts on the island of Kikaigashima, leading Kanamaru to leave Shuri and retire to Uchima. Shō Toku died shortly afterwards, however, and it is said
that in the ensuing discussions among the elder bureaucrats to choose a successor, Kanamaru was selected by popular demand, and thus came to the throne,
taking the royal name Shō En. HistorianGeorge H. Kerr, however, points out that official histories produced in the following centuries were written with the
patronage of Shō En's successors; also that the circumstances surrounding Shō Toku's death remain something of a mystery, and the traditional account may
simply indicate that there was a shift in allegiances among the aristocrats and bureaucrats towards Kanamaru, or that those parties in support of Kanamaru simply
outnumbered those on the side of the late king. Shō En thus established the Second Shō Dynasty, taking on the honorary surname granted the kings of Ryūkyū
by Ming Dynasty (and later, Qing Dynasty) China. He also banned members of the former Shō lineage from high government office, and from marrying into the
lineage of the new dynasty, and took steps to elevate the prestige of his own family. His father came to be honored as King of Izena, and a formal tomb was
constructed for Shō En's parents on Izena Island. Shō En also named his sister high priestess, or "noro", of Izena; the lineage of high priestesses descended from
her continued until the 20th century. His reign marked the beginning of an institutional shift in the royal government, away from rule by a charismatic or
otherwise gifted individual leader, i.e. the king, and towards a more bureaucratic system, with the king at its center. Shō En's childhood wife is believed to have
died, or otherwise separated from Kanamaru, before he rose to prominence at Shuri. He had his first son with his second wife, Yosoidon. Shō En died in 1476,
after ruling for only a few years, and was succeeded by his brother Shō Sen'i, to Yosoidon's chagrin. Presently, the high priestess, daughter of the late king and
Yosoidon, received a divine message indicating that Shō Sen'i should abdicate in favor of his nephew, son of Shō En, who then took the throne as Shō Shin.
Shō Sen'i (尚 宣威 Shō Sen'i
?
, 1430–1477) was a king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom, the second of the line of the Second Shō Dynasty in 1477. He ruled for only six
months after his elder brother Shō En died, and was forced to abdicate to his nephew, Shō Shin. Shō Sen'i was named Prince of Goeku (越来王子) after his
abdication, and given Goeku magiri (today part of Okinawa City) as his domain. But died in the same year, somebody thought he was murdered by the empress
dowager Ukiyaka (宇喜也嘉).
Shō Shin (尚眞
?
, 1465–1526) was a king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1477 until his death in 1526, the third of the line of the
Second Shō Dynasty. Shō Shin's long reign has been described as "the Great Days of Chūzan", a period of great peace and relative
prosperity. He was the son ofShō En, the founder of the dynasty, by Yosoidon, Shō En's second wife, often referred to as the queen
mother. He succeeded his uncle, Shō Sen'i, who was forced to abdicate in his favor. Much of the foundational organization of the
kingdom's administration and economy is traced back to developments which occurred during Shō Shin's reign. As government became
more institutionalized and organized, the aji (按司, local lords) gradually lost power and independence, becoming more closely tied to
the central government at Shuri. In order to strengthen central control over the kingdom, and to prevent insurrection on the part of the aji, Shō Shin gathered
weapons from all the aji to be put to use for the defense of the kingdom, and ordered aji to make their residences in Shuri; lords separated from their lands and
from their people were far less able to act independently or to organize rebellion, and, over time, their emotional connections to Shuri grew, those with their
territory weakening. The residences at Shuri of the aji were divided into three districts – one each for those coming from the northern, central, and southern areas
of Okinawa Island which had formerly been the independent kingdoms of Hokuzan, Chūzan, and Nanzanrespectively. These regions were now
renamed Kunigami, Nakagami, and Shimajiri, respectively, place names which remain in use today. Through intermarriage, residence in Shuri, and other factors,
the aji came to be more integrated as a class, more closely associated with life and customs and politics at Shuri, and less attached to their ancestral territorial
identities. The aji left deputies, called aji okite (按司掟), to administer their lands on their behalf, and some years later a system of jito dai (地頭代), agents sent
by the central government to oversee the outlying territories, was established. Some aji of the northern regions were allowed to remain there, not moving to Shuri,
as they were too powerful for the king to force their obedience in this matter; the king's third son was made Warden of the North, however, and granted authority
to maintain peace and order in the region. The Shuri dialect of the Okinawan language used by administrators and bureaucrats became standardized at this time,
and a golden age of poetry and literature blossomed. The first volumes of the Omoro Sōshi, a collection of poems, songs, and chants reflecting centuries-old oral
tradition as well as contemporary events, were completed in 1532. Along with later volumes, the Omoro Sōshiwould become one of the chief primary sources for
modern-day historians studying the kingdom's history. The process of moving the aji to Shuri also brought about major changes to the city, including the
construction of a great many grand gates, pavilions, lakes, bridges, monuments, and gardens. There came to be a great demand for masons, carpenters, and
others, as well as for a wide variety of goods and materials, imported by each aji from his own territories. Okinawa Island quickly became more economically
integrated, with goods and labor traveling to and from Shuri and the neighboring port city of Naha.
[3]
Economic integration allowed territories to become more
specialized, and the production of luxury goods expanded significantly. Various kinds of hairpins and other ornaments became standard elements of the fashions
of courtiers and bureaucrats, new techniques in producing and weaving silk were imported, and the use of gold, silver, lacquer, and silk became more common
among townspeople. Urbanizationled to increased prosperity for merchants, traders, courtiers, townsmen and others, though historian George H. Kerr points out
that farmers and fishermen, who made up the vast majority of the Okinawan population, remained quite poor. Many monuments, temples, and other structures
were also erected during the prosperous reign of Shō Shin. A new palace building was constructed, in Chinese style, and court rituals and ceremonies were
dramatically altered and expanded, in emulation of Chinese modes. A pair of tall stone "Dragon Pillars" were placed at the entrance to the palace, patterned not
after Chinese, Korean or Japanese models, but after those of Thailand and Cambodia, reflecting, as Kerr points out, the reach and extent of Okinawan trade and
the cosmopolitan nature of the capital at this time. The Buddhist temple Enkaku-ji was built in 1492, Sōgen-ji was expanded in 1496, and in 1501, Tamaudun,
the royal mausoleum complex, was completed. Shō Shin successfully petitioned the Korean royal court, several times, to send volumes of Buddhist texts; the first
metal movable type printing presses in the world had been invented in Korea in the 13th century. In the thirtieth year of his reign, a stele was erected in the
grounds of Shuri Castle, listing Eleven Distinctions of the Age enumerated by court officials. A reproduction of this stele, destroyed in the 1945 Battle of
Okinawa along with the castle, stands in the castle grounds today. The reign of Shō Shin also saw the expansion of the kingdom's control over several of the
outlying Ryukyu Islands. Okinawan ships began in the late 15th century to frequentMiyakojima and the Yaeyama Islands; following a series of disputes among the
local lords in the Yaeyama Islands which broke out in 1486, Shō Shin in 1500 sent military forces to quell the disputes and establish control over the
islands. Kumejima was brought under firm control of Shuri, and liaison offices were established in Miyako and Yaeyama, in 1500 and 1524 respectively. Shō
Shin also effected significant changes to the organization of the native noro (ノロ, high priestesses) cult and its relationship to the government. He owed his
uncle's abdication, and his own succession to his sister, the noro of the royal family, a special position known as the kikoe-ōgimi. He established a new residence
for the kikoe-ōgimi (聞得大君) just outside the gates to the castle, and erected high walls in 1519 around the Sonohyan Utaki, the sacred space and
accompanying sacred hearth which she tended. A system by which the king and kikoe-ōgimi appointed local noro across the kingdom was established, tying this
element of the native Ryukyuan religion into formal systems of authority under the government. After a fifty year reign, Shō Shin died in 1526, and was
succeeded by his son Shō Sei. It is said that after such a long reign, officials encountered difficulties in determining the proper way to conduct the royal funeral,
succession rituals, and other important related ceremonies. Historian George Kerr writes that "Okinawa was never again to know the halcyon days of Sho Shin's
reign."
Shō Sei (尚清) (1497–1555) was king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1526 until his death in 1555. He was the fifth son of King Shō Shin, who he succeeded.
Shō Sei suppressed a rebellion on Amami Ōshima in 1537, and took steps to improve defenses against wakō that same year. Shō Sei died in 1555, and was
succeeded by his second son Shō Gen.
Shō Gen (尚元) (1528–1572) was king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1556 until his death in 1572. He was called "Gen,
the mute," the king required considerable support from the Sanshikan (Council of Three), the chief council of royal advisors. His reign
marked the beginning of the Council's demonstration of significantly greater effectiveness and efficiency than previously. Shō Gen
received his official investiture from the Ming Court in 1562, and received emissaries from the Shimazu clan of the Japaneseprovince of
Satsuma in 1570 and 1572. The Shimazu wished to establish some control over the Ryukyus, making them either a tributary or a vassal
state. The kingdom resisted the Shimazu overtures, and a small punitive mission launched by the Shimazu created a small skirmish on
the island of Amami Ōshima in 1571. He was the second son of King Shō Sei, who he succeeded, and was succeeded in turn by his
second son, Shō Ei.
Shō Ei (尚 永
?
, 1559–1588) was king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom from 1573 until his death in 1588. Shō Ei was the son of Shō Gen and his wife, and was the
second son of king Shō Gen. He died in 1588 without an heir. His son-in-law Shō Nei was installed as the king.
Shō Nei (尚寧
?
, 1564–1620) was king of the Ryūkyū Kingdom (modern-day Okinawa Prefecture, Japan) from 1587 until his death
in 1620. He reigned during the 1609 invasion of Ryūkyū and was the first king of Ryūkyū to be a vassal to the Shimazu
clan of Satsuma, a Japanese feudal domain. Shō Nei was the great-grandson of Shō Shin (尚真, r. 1477–1526) and the adopted son-
in-law of Shō Ei (尚永, r. 1573–1586). Early in Shō Nei's reign, Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi planned an invasion of
Korea. Through messengers from Satsuma, he ordered that the kingdom contribute warriors to the invasion efforts, and was
refused; he also commanded that Ryukyu temporarily suspend its official missions to China. The mission traveled to Beijing anyway,
on business relating to Shō Nei's formal investiture, and related Hideyoshi's plans to Chinese Court officials there. A short while
later, Shō Nei sent a missive to Hideyoshi, as was customary upon the installation of a new ruler. He formally congratulated
Hideyoshi on having taken over Japan, and on bringing peace and prosperity to the realm, and sent along with the missive a gift
of Ming Chinese lacquerware. The letter referred to Ryukyu as a "small and humble island kingdom [which], because of its great distance and because of lack of
funds, has not rendered due reverence to you." Shimazu Yoshihisa, lord of Satsuma, then suggested that Ryukyu be allowed to supply food and other supplies
instead of manpower. Hideyoshi accepted this proposal, but Shō Nei ignored it, and sent no supplies. Following Hideyoshi's death in 1598, and Tokugawa
Ieyasu's subsequent rise to power, Shō Nei was asked by Satsuma to formally submit to the new shogunate, a request which was also ignored. Satsuma invaded
Ryukyu in the beginning of 1609, and Shō Nei surrendered on the fifth day of the fourth lunar month. Shō Nei was taken, along with a number of his officials,
to Sunpu to meet with the retired Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu, then to Edo for a formal audience with Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada, and then to Kagoshima, where
he was forced to formally surrender and to declare a number of oaths to the Shimazu clan. At Edo, the shogun stated that Shō Nei should be allowed to remain
in power due to the long history of his line's rule over the islands. This marked the first time the ruler of a foreign country had come to Japan, and Shimazu
Tadatsune, the lord of Satsuma, made sure to take advantage of the political value of the occasion for himself. His successors would continue to make use of their
status as the only daimyō to have a foreign king as a vassal to secure for themselves greater political privileges, stipends, and court ranking. In 1611, two years after
the invasion, the king returned to his castle at Shuri once Tadatsune and his advisors were satisfied that he would uphold the oaths he had sworn. Though
Satsuma initially exercised a strong hand in declaring policy in Ryukyu, and purging the royal government of those perceived as disloyal to Satsuma, by 1616 this
approach came to an end. "Japanization" measures were reversed, at the request of Satsuma, and Shō Nei was once more formally granted primacy over his
kingdom. For the remainder of his reign, Shō Nei would continue to bear all the trappings of royal authority, and exercised great power over his domain within
the frameworks set by Satsuma. Upon his death, Shō Nei was buried not in the royal mausoleum at Shuri, but rather at Urasoe Castle. Popular belief says this is
because he felt that by succumbing to Satsuma's invasion, he had deeply dishonored himself before his ancestors, and was unfit to be buried with them. However,
Shō Nei was originally from Urasoe, so a more mundane explanation may be the truer one. Shō Nei was forced to swear a number of oaths during his time in
Kagoshima, as he and his kingdom were formally made vassals to the Shimazu clan. The so-called Fifteen Injunctions (掟十五ヶ条, Okite jūgo-ka-jō) were
among the most major, and primarily involved political and diplomatic matters. These stated, among other stipulations, that Ryūkyū would not engage in trade or
diplomatic relations with foreign states without the consent of Satsuma. These policies, along with maritime restrictions and other stipulations, would govern
Ryūkyū's domestic situation and foreign relations for over 250 years. Shō Nei and the members of his Council of Three were also required to swear that the
kingdom had long been a dependency of Satsuma (a falsehood), and that they acknowledged that their failure in recent years to live up to their obligations to
Satsuma had brought this invasion, a punitive measure, upon themselves. The oath went on to acknowledge the benevolence of Satsuma in allowing the king and
his councillors to return to their kingdom, and to continue to rule. Shō Nei swore to pass on these oaths to his descendants, further ensuring the relative
permanence of the vassal-lord relat