Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 84

1.

2.
2.1 -

11
11

2.1.1

13

2.1.2

14

2.1.3

15

2.2

17

2.3 ,

18

3.
3.1 TN

21
21

3.1.1 TN-C

22

3.1.2 TN-S

22

3.1.3 TN-C-S

23

3.2 TT

24

3.3 IT

25

3.4

26

3.5 (Utov)

26

3.6

27

3.6.1 TN

27

3.6.2 TT

27

3.7

4.

29
31

4.1

31

4.2

31

4.3

34

4.4 ()

36

4.5

42

4.6

45

5.

47

5.1

48

5.1.1

49

5.1.2

50

5.1.2.1

52

5.1.2.2

53

5.2

6.

55

5.2.1

55

5.2.2

59

5.3

61

5.4

62

5.4.1

63

5.4.2

66

5.4.3

66

5.4.4

67

5.4.5

69

5.4.6 ,

69

6.1

72
72

1.
:
? ,
.


. 1a
. ,
,
(
), 1,2 1,4
( ).

. 1a.

. 1b 1c ,
, (),
().
.

, ,
.

. 1b, 1c:

()

,
.

,
.
:
- , ;
- ;
- .
,

().
( Imax Iimp)
( In).

,
. ,
.
,
(, ).
,

,
. .


; ?


,
.
, , ,
.

.

, ,

, ,
, ,
. ,

, ,
- ,
,
.

,
, ,
.

.

.

,
, , , ,
, ,
. ,

,
,
.


, , ,
.
,


.

.
, ,
.. .
.
, , ,
, , ,
- .
, ,
( /)
,
- .
,
,
, .
,
. ,

, ,
,
. ,

( ),
.

,
( /) - .

,
.
, - ,

, .

.
.



.

.
, ,
EN50539,
,
.


, ,
,
.
.
,
, , .
,
, ,
,
.
, , i2t
.

.
.

, ,
.

,

()
.
, , ,
. , ,
, -
, .

( ).
,

, , UL 1449
, .
,
UL1449.
, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ,
, , Canadian Standards Authority ( CSA)
Intertek Services ( ETI) .
(NRTL).
IEC .
,
IEC,
IEC .
CENELEC, , EN 61643-11,
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
IEC.
DIN 35-
, (MCB) ,
.

IEC ,
. ,
.
, IEC 62305,
, IEC 61643, ,


.
, , I,
,
, II
,
, . ,
III,
, , ,
.

,
,
, .
,

.

. Iskra Zaite

.
,
,
, IEC, Cenelec, UL IEEE.

10

2.
2.1 -

.
,
.
,
, .
, .

,

(, ..).
.
.
200 .
. 2.

. 2.

11

12

10 30 .
,
,
1,2/50 8/20
10/350 (. 3a, 3b, 3c).

. 3a, 3b, 3c.

. 3 8/20 10/350
8 10 , 20 350 .
, .

, .
.
/.
, .
.


,
:

(2-1)
,
.

, .
:

(2-2)
,
, , ,

.
.

2.1.1

.
.
.

, .

.
:
- ( );
-
, ;
-
( ), .
, ,
.
,
.

13

14

2.1.2


.

(. 4a).
, (. 4b),
,

.
.
, , ,
, .
,
(. 4c).

a)

b)

c)

. 4.


.

.
.
,
.
(. 5).

. 5. ,

, IL
.
, .
c
a b, . 5, V :

, 10x10
1 , M 4,8 ,
, di/dt = 40 /, 192 .

2.1.3
,
,
.
, ,
.
( )
( ).
RCL- ,

(. 6).

15

16

. 6.


.
,
.

, , , ,
.
. ,
,
.
.

/,
.

,
. ,
, (/,
) .

.
/ .

,
,
. ,
, .


. , ,
.

(. 7).

. 7.


,
, ,
.
.
,
.
, .

2.2
() ,
,
.
, ,
,
.
.
( )

17

18


. ,
.

.

(),

,
, .
,
, ,

.

2.3 ,

, ,
, .
, .
,

.


0,1 . 100 ,
40 (. 8).

. 8.

,

.
35 , ,
18 , .

- .

19

20

3.
IEC 60364
, TN, TT IT.

( ).
T : ;
I : (), ,
, .


.
T : ;
N : ,
.

3.1 TN
TN

.
.
,
, ,
(PE). ,
, ,
(N).
TN:

21

22

TN-C:

PEN
PE N;

TN-S:

PE N ,
;

TN-C-S:

PEN,
PE N.
PEN
, .

3.1.1 TN-C
TN-C PE N (PEN)
-.
TN-C . 9.

. 9. TN-C (ER , CI )


.

, N PE.

3.1.2 TN-S
TN-S (PE)
(N) -.
PE
(. 10).
.

. 10. TN-S

PE,
.
PE N
.

3.1.3 TN-C-S

TN-C TN-S. TN-C-S N PE,
PEN (. 11). PEN

. N PE.
TN-S, N PE

.

. 11. TN-C-S ( - )

TN-C-S
.

23

24

3.2 TT
TT

.
TT
,
.
TT
, , , .
, TT .
, TT,
,
, - .
, , TT
-
(
TN).
, TT
,
.

. 12. TT

3.3 IT
IT ,
.

.

. 13. IT

25

26

3.4

,
, .
1.


(
)

TT, IT

12000 + Uref
( 200 )


(
)

TT, IT

1200
( 200 )


(

)

TT, TN

1,73 x Uref


(

)

IT

1,73 x Uref


(

)

TT, IT TN

1,45 x Uref
5

1. ,
( IEC 61643-11, . 1)

3.5 (Utov)
:
- ;
- ( );
- ( , );
- .

3.6
( )
Utov ( ).

3.6.1 TN
, ,

Utov 335 .
.
335 (
Utov),
,
.

. 14.

F ()
, ,
Ik .

3.6.2 TT

. 15.

L ( ) PE (
),
( ). ,
,
50 ( 230 ).

27

28

. 16.

(
) .

. 17.

,

.
,
.
TT : 3+1
4+0.
3+1 .
4+0 ,
.

. 18. TT 3+1

. 19. TT 4+0 .

N PE

. 20. N PE


, Ik ( )
().
, ,
.

3.7
(IEC 60364-5-53, 3.1, 2002.06)

. 21. TN-C (3+0)

. 22. TN-S (4+0)

. 23. TT (3+1)

. 24. TT (4+0)

29

30

. 25. IT (3+0); : Uc= 3 Uref

:
1. IEC 61643-1 ,

.
2. IEC 61643-12 ,

.
3. CEI IEC 60364-5-53 5-53:
,
.
4. IEC PAS 60099-7 7:
IEC 60099-4, 60099-4, 60099-6, 61643-1, 61643-12, 61643-21, 61643-311,
61643-321, 61643-331 61643-341.
5. IEC 61000-4-5: () 4-5:
.
6. IEC 62305-1 1: .
7. IEC 62305-2 2: .
8. IEC 62305-3 3:
.
9. IEC 62305-4 4:
.
10. IEC 61312-1
() 1: .
11. IEC 61312-2
() 2: ,
.
12. IEC 61312-3
() 3:
.
13. IEC 61312-4
() 4: .

4.
4.1
,
, , .

,
.
IEC 62305 - 1: 2010 1: .
IEC 62305 - 2: 2010 2: .
IEC 62305 - 3: 2010 3:
.
IEC 62305 - 4: 2010 4:
.

4.2
, ,
.
:
- ;
- ;
- .

.

31

32


.
.
R .
, ,
:
R1: ;
R2: ;
R3: ;
R4: ,
(IEC
62305-1; 2010).
, R,
( , ).
IEC 62305-2; 2010.
, R, .
.
2
.

S1

S2


S3

S4

1) , ,
.
2) , .
2. (IEC 62305-2; 2010)


. ,
.

. 26.

.
:
S1: ;
S2: ;
S3: ;
S4: ;

, .
:
D1: ;
D2: ;
D3: .
,
, , IEC 62305-1; 2010.
:
- ;
- R
( R1 R4);
- R R1 R4;

33

34

- R1,R2 R3
RT (IEC 62305-2;2010);
-
.

R4 (IEC 62305-2; 2010).

4.3
IEC 62305-1; 2010
( I IV).
.
IEC 62305-1; 2010
.



/

/
*



/

/




/
/

*) , .
3. (IEC 62305-1; 2010)

Iimp .
50 % 50 %
, :
- , I (
) ;
- .
200 ( )
100 , , 100 ,
( ),
.
Iimp, :
- TT, TNS, IT ( ):
100 /4 = 25 /;
- TNC, IT ( ):
100 /3 = 35 /;
- TT, TNC: 100 /2 = 50 /.
3 100 .
, , ,
12,5 . 27.

:
50% -
50% -
100 / 2 = 100 / 2 = 12,5
n
4
n =
Iimp / = 12,5

. 27.

35

36

4.4 ()

.

4. () (IEC 62305-3; 2010)

(IEC 62305-3;2010):
) , :
- (. 3 4 IEC 62305-1; 2010);
- , (. 5.2.2);
- (. 5.3.3);
- (. 6.3);
- (. 5.4.2).
) , :
- (. 6.2);
-
(. 5.2.5);
- (. 5.5.1);
- ,
, (. 5.6);
- (. 6.2.2).
B
IEC 62305-2; 2010.

(IEC 62305-2; 2010).
, ,
, (
)
. IEC 62305-3 ,

,
:
- ;
- ;
- .
. 5
,
.


R
W
()
()

. . 29

5. ,
(IEC 62305 - 3, 2010)

. 28 ,
,
, ..

. 28.

,
, (
), . 29.

37

38

1: , ..
.
2: h .
3: h 2 .
. 29. (IEC 62305-3, 2010)

. 30 .

. 30.

.
(31-34)

. ().
, ,
.
,

. ,
2 ( ), 1.

. 31. I

. 32 ,
( )

.

. 32. II

39

40

60 ,
, .
,
, , ,
, .

.
( , 20 %
)
.

.
, 120
, ( 120 ).

. 33. (IEC 62305 3; 2010)


().

. 34. (IEC 62305-1; 2010)

. 34 ,
, , ,
. :
S1 ( )
S2
S3 - ,
S4 - ,
R ,
. , (, ,
, ..), 0A. ,
,
. S3
,
( 0A/1). S2 ;
( 0A/1).
, ,
,
0B. S1 ,
( 0B);

41

42

( 0B/1).
.
S2
, 0B/1. , S2

.
1,
,
. , 2
, :
, ,
. 1/2
.
1 2 ds
(. 34) (,

ds).

, , ,
S (, , )

.

4.5
,
, :
- :
o ;
o ;
- :
o , , ..

;
o ( , ..);
- :
o ( ,
..), ( ..);

- :
o
,
(
,
).

. 35.

,
,
,
, .
,
,

.

43

44

. 36. (Blitzshutz, Montage-handbuch, VDB)

. 37.

4.6
,
, ,
,
, ..

.
.
( )

.

.
, ,
. ,

10
(IEC 62305-3; 2010). . 38
.

,
(, ).

. 38.

: cca 1 /, 10000 ,
10 .

45

46

U = L di/dt + Up + iRe = 4 x 10000 /8 + 1,2 + 10000 x 10 =


5000 + 1200 + 100000 = 6200 + 100000 = 106200
1 ,
10620 .

.
5 .

. 39.

F
J
R
Y
T
C
P
M
L
B
S
X

D
G
A
R

N

. 39. (Blitzshutz, Montage-handbuch, VBD)

, , , ,
, , ,

, .
.

. .
.

5.

()

,
, .
,
.
, .

.
,
.
,
, ,
, .
,
.

,
.
, , ;
, ,
. ,
, , , ,
, .


.
, ,
.

47

48

5.1
, ,
. ,
.

(. 40),

(. 41).

. 40.

. 41.


.



( ).
,
.


.


,
.

, .

5.1.1
,
:
- ;
- .


( ),
.
. ,
() PNPN (, ,
).
. 42.

. 42.

. 43.


.
.
,
() . 43.

49

50

5.1.2
,
,
.
.

.
, .
,
,
, .
.

, . ,
,
.
.
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.

(. 44).

6.

. 44.

. 45. .

51

52

1 /
10 400 .
, ,
100 .
35 ( Uo 24 )
(. 45). ,
1,5 x Uo.
5.1.2.1

,
.
.
.
,
( )
.
,
.

.


, ( ) . 46.
.
,
. ,
.

.

. 46. 1 /
, ( 1
600-700 )

. 42.

(
).
.

. 47.

5.1.2.2


. ,
(. 50).
, , .
, ,
(, ) .
(. 48)
. , ,
.
, 109 .

.
.
. ,
. ,
,
.
.
.
( ).
.
/.

.

53

54

. 48.

. 49.

. 50. () 8/20

(TVS)

(. 51)
,
, .
,
, , .

.

,
,
.

. 51. () 8/20

5.2

,

.
.
,
,
, .

5.2.1
:


:
, ,

.

, .


IEC
(. 52):

55

56

. 52. IEC

I:


,
.
10/350 (. 53).

II:



I.
II 8/20 (. 54).

III: III
,
.

.
III
I II.

1,2/50 (. 55) 8/20 .

. 53. 10/350

. 54. 8/20

57

58

. 55. 1,2/50

. 56. 8/20 10/350

. 57. Q Imax (8/20) Iimp (10/350)

, ;

(, ,
, );
( , ,

,

).

5.2.2
UC

UC
,
.
UTOV

UTOV
, .
,
. UTOV
2.2.
In ( I II)

, , ,
8/20 .
II,
I II (. 54).
Iimp I

I
(Ipeak) (Q)
.
(10/350 ), . 53.
10/350 8/20 . 56 57.
Imax II


II.
, ,
. Imax II.

59

60

III

, (Uoc)
, (Icw)
(. 55).
Up


.
:
- ,
( ),
,
, In / Iimp
II / I;
- Uoc,
III.

.
; Up
.


, ,
.
,
,
. :
.
,
(. 58).

. 58a, b.

1. (
).
2. (
).

5.3

8/20
()

10/350
()

10/350
()

7.

61

62


.

/ ,
.
,
.

5.4

( , ,
, ..)
, ,
. ,
. IEC
61643
. ,
, IEC
.
. 59.

. 59.

5.4.1
,
, .

.
.
, (10/350 8/20 )
1,2/50 .
, .

.
I. I
10/350 .
, ,
.
,
:
- , (
, , ,
..) (. 60). 1

.
- ( ),
(. 61).
, .
- (
).
.

63

64

. 60.

. 61. ( )


Iimp/ (
). TT
IN-PE = 4 Iimp/, TT IN-PE =
2 Iimp/. 8.

()
( 10/350)

Iimp/ (L-N N-PE)

25

(12,5 /
IEC 60364-5-53: 2012-03)

(. . 60)

TT Iimp/ (N-PE)

100

(50 25

IEC 60364-5-53: 2012-03)

L-N = 25 /
(. . 60)

Iin/ (L-N N-PE)

(5 /
IEC 60364-5-53: 2012-03)

TT Iimp/ (N-PE)

20

(20 10

IEC 60364-5-53: 2012-03)

L-N = 5 /

8.

65

66

5.4.2
,
, 9.

.
.


(TN-C, TN-S, TN-C-S, TT IT)

TN-S

(230/400)

230/400
(
)
50

441 (.)

L - N, . 1



( :
I, II, III IV), . . 52

< 4,0

(
:
), . . 58

( .
, )

: -40 +70C
9.

5.4.3


.
. 10

.

.

.
.

11.

()

10:


Ui (), . . 52

2,5
II

11: Ui

5.4.4

,
.
.

( ),

. Uprot,
, :
Uprot Ui
UPROT Up
, ,
:
Uprot = Up+Uind= Up+Ldi/dt Ui
() :
Up = Uprot - Uind = Uprot - Ldi/dt

1 /, 1 /
1 . ,
.

67

68

I, ,
,
III IV ( 12).

Up (), . . 52

1,5
II

12. Up


, I
Uind
(. 62). I
,
.
UPROT=Up+Uind Ui/2
, .

II.
. III ,
:
UPROT( II)=Up( II)+Uind Ui/2

. 62.

5.4.5

.
. ,
, .
, ,
TT.
9 10
, .
II ,
In 5 8/20 ,
TT 10 8/20 , 20
8/20 . In
II.

5.4.6 ,

3.7. I
. II
,
.
III.

.
. . 63
.

. 63a, b. .

b,
. ,
, 16 2 I
6 2 II III.

69

70

71

72

6.
6.1


, (
) 11 x 11 ,
, I.
,
, .
.
,
, ,
. /
,
. I
20 (. 31).

(. 31) (5 x 5 )
.

( ).
, 0B,
0A. 0A 0B.
, .
,
,

.
10 ,

IEC 62305 - 4. 200 ,


50-50 % (. 60); 100 , 100
.
I (3) Iimp = 25 (100 /4
TNS),
. ( )
II (4).
2.

(5) .
,
III (7) xDSL
( 3). ,
,
III (9). ,
, (8),
(8). , ,
, III (6).
C2 In = 5
EN 61643-21.

, .. 0A,
I (2) , (3).
,
, (1),
.
- ,
, , ..

73

74

T2, II

T1, I

T2, II

64:

75

5 x 5

T3, III/C2

T3, III

CCP-F

T3, III/C2

76


. 1a:

. 1b, 1c:

. 2:

11

. 3a, 3b, 3c:

12

. 4:

14

. 5:

15

. 6:

16

. 7:

17

. 8:

18

. 9:

TN-C (ER , CI )

22

. 10:

TN-S

23

. 11:

TN-C-S ( - )

23

. 12:

TT

24

. 13:

IT

25

. 14:

27

. 15:

27

. 16:

28

. 17:

28

. 18:

TT 3+1

28

. 19:

TT 4+0

28

. 20:

N PE

29

. 21:

TN-C (3+0)

29

. 22:

TN-S (4+0)

29

. 23:

TT (3+1)

29

. 24:

TT (4+0)

29

. 25:

IT (3+0); : Uc= 3 Uref

30

. 26:

33

. 27:

35

. 28:

37

. 29:

(IEC 62305-3, 2010)

38

. 30:

38

. 31:

39

. 32:

II

39

. 33:

(IEC 62305 3; 2010)

40

. 34:

(IEC 62305-1; 2010)

41

. 35:

43

. 36:

(Blitzshutz, Montage-handbuch, VDB)

44

. 37:

44

. 38:

45

. 39:


(Blitzshutz, Montage-handbuch, VBD)

46

. 40:

48

. 41:

48

. 42:

49

. 43:

49

. 44:

51

. 45:

51

. 46:

1 /
,
( 1 600-700 )

52

. 47:

53

. 48:

54

. 49:

54

. 50:

() 8/20

54

. 51:

() 8/20

55

. 52:

IEC

56

. 53:

10/350

57

. 54:

8/20

57

. 55:

1,2/50

58

. 56:

8/20 10/350

58

. 57:

Q Imax (8/20) Iimp (10/350)

58

. 58a, b:

61

. 59:

62

. 60:

64

. 61:

( )

64

. 62:

68

. 63a, b:

69

77

78


1:

,
( IEC 61643-11, . 1)

26

2:

(IEC 62305-2; 2010)

32

3:

(IEC 62305-1; 2010)

34

4:

() (IEC 62305-3; 2010)

36

5:

,
(IEC 62305 - 3, 2010)

37

6:

50

7:

61

8:

65

9:

66

10:

67

11:

Ui

67

12:

Up

68

79

80

ISKRA ZAITE?

- (EU)

-
- 20%

20
100%
ISO 9001 ISO 14000

ISKRA ZAITE d.o.o., Surge Voltage Protection Systems, Engineering and Cooperation
Stegne 23a, 1521 Ljubljana, Slovenia, EU
: 00386(1)5003 100; : 00386(1)5003 236
E: sales@iskrazascite.si

: ISKRA ZAITE, d.o.o. / 2013 / 1.0 /


:

Оценить