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Scientific Revolution Part

2
August 25th, 2014
Sir Isaac Newton
considered the greatest genius of
the Scientific Revolution!
attended Cambridge University
became a professor of Mathematics
there
Major work was Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosophy,
known as Principia
Principia: Newton defined the 3
laws of motion that govern the
planetary bodies, as well as objects
on Earth.
Universal Law of
Gravitation
Universal Law of Gravitation
explains why the planetary
bodies continue their
elliptical orbits about the sun,
because every object in the
universe is attracted to every
other object by a force called
gravity.
universe now seen as a
huge, regulated, uniform
machine that work according
to natural laws.
Breakthroughs in
Medicine & Chemistry
Galen- relied on animal rather
than human dissection to
picture human anatomy.
Andreas Vesalius- accurately
described the organs and
structure of the human body,
by actually dissecting the
human body.
William Harvey- showed that
the heart, not the liver was the
beginning point for circulation.
Other Discoveries
Blaise Pascal: Experimented with how liquids
behave under pressure. (led to development of
syringe and the hydraulic press.)
Robert Boyle: Boyles Law states that the volume of
a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
Antonie Lavoisier: Invented system for naming
Chemical Elements Still used today!
Womens Contribution!
Margaret Cavendish:
Made great contributions to
philosophy (with no formal
education in the sciences)
wrote several works on
scientific matters, including
observations upon
experimental philosophy
criticized the idea that
humans are masters of
nature.
Maria Winkelmann
worked as an astronomer
discovered a comet!
published many papers
about her observations of
the skies!
refused a teaching position
at Berlin Academy
because she was a
woman!
Rene Descartes &
Rationalism
emphasized the importance of his own mind, accepting only
those things that his reason said were true.
I think, therefore I am
led to the second principle: the mind cannot be doubted but the
body and material world can, the two must be radically
different.
mind & matter were completely different
Father of Modern Rationalism- belief that reason is the chief
source of knowledge.
Bacon & The Scientific
Method
Scientific Method: A systematic
procedure for collecting and analyzing
evidence.
crucial to the evolution of science and
the modern world
Francis Bacon: believed that scientists
should not rely on ideas of ancient
authorities.
should learn using inductive
reasoning- meaning knowledge of the
natural world should be achieved
through observation and experiment.