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Ieoprn Hpunnxnn, Aneuce

Aneuceennn Ipomuuoncun

Houpucuu un1omonnn n uyaonnme
puo1m


Mspaenocoo:
ISBN: 978-5-94807-032-2
Iop: 2009
Cpanuq: 192



Bnepeuue
Of eupa aeforoune, fo, rypn knakcouaru, uecnucu no ynuuar, n cen yecfeoean ee
onee yuueuuur, uenonuoueuuur u uecacfuur. Mue ecnoruuanucu nkoeuue
npuknkeuun, kofopuru rou npunfenu unu onsauu ceour rauuuar: npuknkeuun
Parupeca, kofopu, curan pynu eocuruuunuuppoeoro aeforounn pykaru e kpacueux
kperoeux nepafkax, opepan noepy uap ecfokur ceppuer Afauacuu; npuknkeuun
Foucaneca, kofopu kapu eeep eosuf ua Kyscfa-pe-nac-Reppucec uoeyk ropucfky; pa u
noxopeuun ppyrux uanpurep, Fyfueppeca, y kofoporo, korpa ou euesaef ua ceoer
rofouukne, sa cnuuo ecerpa cupuf pou kakux-uuypu yeaaerux popufene, u peeyuka
sfa napaef e kauaey ua nepeor e eupae, nofory fo Fyfueppec uukorpa ue
npepynpepaef, fo uapo pepafucn kpene. A fo rory npepnoufu n? Bynurapuu
fparea? Boukee fakcu? Fnasa y reun yenauunucu. Mue cen uno anu
8encecnao 4epnandec 4nopec. Venoeek, komopm kynun aemovouns

Aeforounu sfo ue pockouu, a cpepcfeo nepepeueuun! npoeosrnacun eenuku
koruuafop Ocfan Eeupep. a, aeforounu ue pockouu, a fouee ue fonuko pockouu.
Sfo u repuno ycnexa, u cpepcfeo caroyfeeppeuun, u ucfouuk ecnokocfea, u opyue
raccoeoro nopaeuun, u, uakoueu, npocfo cpepcfeo nepepeueuun. Ofeef ua eonpoc -fo
fakoe aeforounu? kapu uaxopuf carocfonfenuuo, e coofeefcfeuu co ceouru ekycaru
u cknouuocfnru.
Aeforounu paeuo ye cfan oupeuuur neneuuer e uaue usuu. Ceropun uukoro ue
ypueuuu uanuuer opuoro, a fo u ueckonukux aeforoune e cerue. Ckopee rouo
ypueufu ofcyfcfeuer nuuoro fpaucnopfa. K fory e aeforounu nokynakf nkpu c
pasnuuur ypoeuer poxopoe. Rpuopefeuuue fpaucnopfuue cpepcfea pasnuakfcn
repy coo nuuu rapko u cocfonuuer (uoeu, ueuu e ynofpeneuuu, npuer specu
yufueaefcn u pnufenuuocfu skcnnyafauuu aeforounn).
Ecnu c poxoparu aefoenapenuua ece e nopnpke, fo aeforounu uaeepunka ypef yxoeu,
euruf, ery pocfauefcn racno caroro eucokoro kaecfea, npuer cfporo eoepern, kak
fanefka e onuuuue. Ho eof ecnu poxop y aefoenapenuua ueeenuk, eosuukakf nponeru u
cospakfcn nereupu. Hasoeer uauonee pacnpocfpaueuuue, ufykue cpepu uepapueux
aefoenapenuuee. Bo-nepeux, eueuuu eup aeforounn ue enunef ua ero nonefuue
kaecfea. Bo-efopux, rano nu, fo kysoe paeu, safo peuok paofaef kak acu. B-
fpefuux, rouo cneuuanuuo ue rufu aeforounu, fou ue npuenekafu k uery euurauue
nofeuuuanuuux yrouukoe.
Kapan fakan nereupa couunefcn c peonko uenuk: c opuo cfopouu, xoefcn
onpaepafucn nepep okpyakuru sa rpnsuu, paeu u ueyxoeuuu aeforounu, a c
ppyro uyuo ycnokoufu cen, yepufu e for, fo paeuua ua kanofe, ernfuua ua kpune
unu coppauuan ua peepue kpacka coeepueuuo ue noenunkf ua espoeue kaecfea rauuuu.
Tak eof, yeaaeru ufafenu, ecnu eu nennefecu opuur us cocfaeufene nopouux
ckasauu, uar npupefcn eac oropufu. Hecorueuuo, onpaepafucn nepep ppysunru u
suakoruru eu croefe c npucyur ear neckor (ecnu, koueuo, ouu ear noeepnf). Ho
yeu! cocfonuue kysoea enunem ua nonefuue kaecfea aeforounn. Rpoeeper npocfyk
auanoruk. Bepu uukfo ue ypef yeepnfu, fo nepenor pyku unu uoru ue enunef ua spopoeue
enoeeka. Rpu sfor c euyfpeuuuru oprauaru ece e nopnpke, cnoraua fonuko kocfu. H fer
ue reuee enoeek cufaef cen onuuur. H npaeunuuo cufaef. Opuako sfof e enoeek
roef cfapafenuuo pokasueafu u cee u ppyrur, fo ua aeforounu sfo npaeuno ue
pacnpocfpaunefcn. Ecnu, k npurepy, nornfo kpuno, fo sfo coeepueuuo ue enunef uu ua
ckopocfu, kofopyk cnocoeu paseufu enesuu ckakyu, uu ua pacxop fonnuea. H eooe,
npuer fyf kpuno? Koneca kpyfnfcn, peurafenu puuf poeueuuko fak fo e ee
uyuo? Huue cnocouu poroeopufucn po foro, fo aeforounuuoe eneso cnyuf
ucknkufenuuo pnn ykpaueuun u npukpufun pefane rexauusroe of nefnux us-nop konec
karue.
Ho specu ecfynaef e peno npocfeuan aspopuuaruka. Hseecfuo u ueocnopuro, fo pacxop
fonnuea saeucuf of aspopuuarueckux ceocfe aeforounn. ae uanuue arauuka ua
kpuue aeforounn cyecfeeuuo yeenuueaef pacxop fonnuea (e uekofopux cnyanx po
20 %). -fo e forpa roeopufu o ueopuopopuocfu kysoea? Bepu ecnu e refanne urekfcn
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
oaru kopposuu, fo rouo yfeeppafu, fo sfof refann ue nennefcn opuopopuur, a sfo,
kak cnepcfeue, yxypuaef aspopuuarueckue ceocfea aeforounn.
Kpore foro, ueopuopopuocfu rafepuana nennefcn npuuuo pasnuuo ero ynpyrocfu u
pasnuuo npouocfu ua paspue. -acfu c pasuuru nnofuocfnru (uenoepepeuuu
refann, npopaeeeuu refann, noepepeuuu (crnfu) refann) no-ceoery pearupykf ua
peueuue (a aeforounu uryecfeo peuuroe, npuer peuuroe akfueuo u perynnpuo).
B refanne eosuukakf euyfpeuuue uanpneuun e pesynufafe oaru kopposuu (unu recfa
noepepeuu, uanpurep e pesynufafe TR) cfauoenfcn oararu paspyueuun.
Oneaneuuu xosnuu enesuoro koun e opuu paneko ue npekpacuu peuu eupuf, fo e
for recfe, rpe ee coecer uepaeuo uno kpoueuoe nnfuuuko paeuuu, opasoeanacu
orporuan pupa c ocunakurucn paeuru kpanru unu poeonuuo uesarefuan ernfuua ua
kpune eppyr uaana akfueuo paeefu. Ouuo opuoepereuuo c sfuru curnforaru
uauuakf cunafucn euyfpeuuocfu: fo uu c foro uu c cero eospacfaef pacxop fonnuea, fo
fo-fo cfyuf unu ckpunuf, fo us rnyuufenn eanuf fako pur, fo ur fonuko uucnekfopoe
FHE nyfafu A aeforounu eurnnpuf fak, cnoeuo un uapeu ua ceanke nef sfak
nnfupecnf uasap, npuer ece sfu ropu akfueuo skcnnyafupoeancn. H perouf, kofopu
oouencn u e cyue koneku, ecnu u sa uero npuunnucu cpasy, kak fonuko eosuukna
nponera (noneunacu ernfuua, ouapyuncn rukpockonuecku oar kopposuu u f. p.),
eunueaefcn e oeuu ueraneuukue peuuru uuorpa pae npoe kynufu uoeu aeforounu,
er pecfaepupoeafu cfapu.
Cnepoeafenuuo, cnepufu uyuo ue fonuko sa euyfpeuuocfnru aeforounn, uo u sa ero
eueuuocfuk. A c yefor foro, fo kysoeuue u nokpacouue paofu poeonuuo
poporocfonue, a e uekofopux cnyanx onnaueakfcn pae popoe peroufa
euyfpeuuocfe, pnn ruorux aefoenapenuuee cyecfeyef nofu epuucfeeuuu euxop
uayufucn penafu ece sfo carocfonfenuuo.
Cnepufe sa ceour aeforouner, xonufe ero u nenefe u ou ofnaropapuf eac cfopuue u
npocnyuf ear ue opuu rop.
Aefop eupaaef uckpeuukk naropapuocfu OAO Aefofoprcepeuc (r. Muuck) sa norou e
paofe uap kuuro.
unu 1
Kysonuie puo+i
+o qenas: peuouposas n iaueus?
Bonpoc Peroufupoeafu unu sareunfu? pauo unu nospuo ecfaef nepep kapur
aefoenapenuuer, npuer pae fer, uu pasy ue cfauoeuncn yacfuukor TR. Kysoe
aeforounn pefanu poporan. Ou nocfonuuo nopeepraefcn kopposuouuory eospecfeuk
okpyake cpepu u nonyaef noepepeuun pasnuuo cfeneuu fnecfu. 3pecu peu upef
ue o TR: k npurepy, pae espa no rpaeuk roef sakouufucn noepepeuuer
nakokpacouoro nokpufun, fo peeafo kopposue, pasufo qapo, fpeuuo ua nooeor
cfekne, pasnuuuru uapanuuaru u rukpoernfuuaru ua puue kysoea a sfo onnfu e
kopposun. Kak eupufe, pnn foro fou noepepufu kysoe, coeepueuuo ue onsafenuuo
nonacfu e aeapuk. Korpa aefoenapeneu enepeue cfankueaefcn nuuor k nuuy c kysoeuur
peroufor, ou nouuraef neanuuyk ucfuuy: sfo caru poporo us ecex eupoe
aeforounuuux peroufoe. Bof fyf-fo aefonkufenn nopcfeperaef fof caru eonpoc, c
kofoporo ru uaanu: noepepeuuue pefanu nyue ofperoufupoeafu unu sareuufu?
Ecfecfeeuuo, nepeu nopue sareuufu! Ee u, uoeeuukan kysoeuan pefanu, uu pasy ue
ufan, es kopposuu, fakan necfnan u kpacuean! Sfo neuu conasu, ocoeuuo npu
cpaeueuuu crnforo e pesynufafe TR kpuna, npopaeeeuero nopora c uoeuru kpununru u
noporaru, ceepkakuru ceeur refannor es epuuoro cnepa paeuuu.
Ho ueuu! Cfourocfu uekofopux kysoeuux sanacfe cnocoua eeecfu aefonkufenn e
cocfonuue cfynopa. A eepu uyuo ee npuaeufu cfourocfu paof no peroufay,
nocnepyke ycfauoeke u nokpacke (fak kak uoeue pefanu, uanpurep aeforounuuue
peepu, uukorpa ue npopakfcn ye eukpaueuuuru e fpeyeru ueef).
Yruu aefoenapeneu ecerpa nponennef xufpocfu, fou yreuuuufu cfourocfu kysoeuoro
peroufa npu sareue pefane. onycfur, uapyuan acfu peepu usLepeua kopposue fak,
fo es cnes ua uee ue esrnnueuu, safo euyfpeuunn e nonuor nopnpke. -fo , e sfor
cnyae sareunefcn fonuko uapyuan acfu, a euyfpeuunn fafenuuo npoeepnefcn ua
uanuue renkux noepepeuu u peroufupyefcn (eepu ecnu uapyuan acfu cunuuo
oLepeua kopposue, fo u ua euyfpeuue ouuo ueakf ueonuuue noepepeuun, uo of
uux rouo pocfafouo nerko usaeufucn).
RPHMEHAHHE
pyrue kysoeuue pefanu fake rouo peroufupoeafu nopouur opasor: sareunfu ue
eck pefanu, a nuuu uauonee nocfpapaeuyk ee acfu.
Hanpurep, npu sareue arnepa rouo npuopecfu fonuko ero ocuoeuyk acfu arnepa
es kpouufeuoe u uaknapok.
Bcnoruur npecnoeyfyk noespky no rpaeuk. -ae ecero e pesynufafe fako noespku
noepepaefcn aeforounuuan qapa. Ho eepu sfo eoece ue osuaaef, fo ueoxopuro
sareunfu eck nok-qapy pocfafouo sareuufu nuuu cfekno, fak kak oeuu pepko nok-
qapa pasueaefcn nonuocfuk.
RPHMEHAHHE
pyruru cnoearu, npepe er nokynafu eck pefanu, cuaana yepufecu e for, fo ee
uenusn pasopafu ua acfu u ofpenufu sepua of nneeen noepepeuuyk acfu of ueno. B
sfor cnyae sareunefcn nuuu noepepeuuan acfu. Skouorun npu nopouo sareue
pocfafouo cyecfeeuuan.
Ofeef ua eonpoc 3areunfu unu peroufupoeafu? ouuo saeucuf of cfourocfu
puxfoeouux paof. Pacef npocf: ecnu puxfoeouue paofu cfonf popoe, er sareua
noepepeuuux pefane ua uoeue (pasyreefcn, c yefor cfourocfu pefanu), fo npoe
npuopecfu uoeue (puc. 1.1).
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.1. Cfourocfu puxfoeouux paof pnn sforo aeforounn ypef oeuu eucoko

Ter ue reuee uuorpa racfepa-kysoeuku pekoreupykf npoeepeuue puxfoeouux paof
pae e for cnyae, ecnu ouu oxopnfcn popoe sareuu pefane. -ae ecero fako coeef
paefcn enapenuuar uoeux aeforoune. eno e for, fo kysoeuue sanacfu reuee cfoku
k kopposuu, er pefanu saeopcko copku, nosfory sareua saeopcko pefanu ua
npuopefeuuyk ua puuke roef npueecfu enocnepcfeuu k pononuufenuuur pacxopar no
kysoeuory peroufy (ycfpaueuue kopposuouuux nnfeu, nokpacka u f. p.). onroeeuocfu
nko popuo kysoeuo pefanu, pae ufo u ofpuxfoeauuo, ropaspo euue, er
ponroeeuocfu sanacfu.
Kysoeuo perouf suaufenuuo peueene oxopufcn e npoeuuuuu. Cfourocfu peroufa
kysoea e reranonucax ue npocfo eucoka, a oveui eucoka. Rpoeuuuun e e sfor nnaue kypa
onee nuepanuua cfourocfu paof no kysoeuory peroufy specu cyecfeeuuo uue
(uuorpa e pasu unu pae ua nopnpok).
Hy a peueene ecero, koueuo, peroufupoeafu aeforounu ceouru pykaru. Ypueufenuuo,
kak ruoro paof no kysoeuory peroufy rouo eunonuufu carocfonfenuuo, ocoeuuo ecnu
oeuu xoefcn cskouorufu.
Hfak, yeaaeru ufafenu, opuosuauoro ofeefa ua eonpoc Peroufupoeafu unu
sareunfu? ue cyecfeyef. Haxopufu sfof ofeef npuxopufcn npu kapor noepepeuuu
kysoea e saeucurocfu of cufyauuu, cfeneuu noepepeuun pefanu, cocfonuun aefo u, yeu,
cocfonuun kouenuka aefoenapenuua.
0cuop asouo6n oeuka ceneu nospeqeu
-fo e penafu, ecnu aeforounu nonyun noepepeuun? Fnaeuoe, ue uyuo cpasy e
xeafafucn sa uaop puxfoeouux uucfpyreufoe unu pasupafu. B nepeyk oepepu uyuo
onpepenufu, c er e e pauuor cnyae eu ureefe peno, kakue noepepeuun uaueceuu, fo
ureuuo npupefcn peroufupoeafu. pyruru cnoearu, nepeu uar oueuka noepepeuu.
Cnepyef noruufu, fo ernu eusyanuuu ocrofp ue noseonnef nonyufu peanuuyk
kapfuuy noepepeuu aeforounn. onycfur, eopufenu aeforounn, kofopu exan csapu,
noran eopouy u nusko nosuakoruncn nepepuur arnepor ceoero aeforounn c
sapuur arnepor eaue rauuuu. Rpu ocrofpe noepepeuun eu eupufe nuuu ueonuuyk
ernfuuy ua arnepe, a fo u npocfo ckon nakokpacouoro nokpufun ua arnepe. Sfo ee ue
osuaaef, fo ece oounocu. B saeucurocfu of ckopocfu, ua kofopo npousouno
cfonkuoeeuue, noepepeuun pecfeufenuuo roryf saknkafucn ecero nuuu e peqekfe
nakokpacouoro nokpufun (fo-fo epope fako auekpofuecko cufyauuu: Tu fo , rap,
cpenan? H eepa ua qapkon uoeyk fpnnoky noeecun, a fu ee e knoun nopean!), uo
roef ufu u nepekoc npoera arauuka u pae peqoprauun sapuux kpunuee
aeforounn. Rosfory rano okuuyfu rauuuy esrnnpor, nocne ero npepLneufu cef sa
fpnnoky ua qapkone.
nn uaana ofkpofe arauuk (pnn onucueaeroro cnyan). Ecnu eu ouapyunu kakue-fo
uenonapku, fo noepepeuun ropaspo onee eecorue, er ckon nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
Sfo suauf, fo npousouno uapyueuue reorefpuu kysoea.
anee euurafenuuo ocrofpufe ece nauenu kysoea u opafufe euurauue, ue noneunucu nu
fpeuuu nakokpacouoro nokpufun ua arnepe u arauuke, ua kpununx aeforounn u
pae ua peepuax. Ofrefur, fo e pauuor cnyae ece saeucuf of ckopocfu, npu kofopo
npousouno cfonkuoeeuue: er ou euue, fer onuue ypef noepepeuu u fer panuue of
recfa uenocpepcfeeuuoro koufakfa ouu roryf okasafucn. Ecnu ckopocfu npu cfonkuoeeuuu
una pocfafouo eucoko, fo cnepyef ocrofpefu u kpuuy aeforounn, nockonuky ypapuan
eonua roef pocfuruyfu pae cpepuux cfoek kpuuuo nauenu, a rauuua npu sfor ypef
eurnnpefu enonue npunuuo c nepeoro esrnnpa ueeosrouo u npepnonoufu, fo
noepepeuun pocfafouo cepuesuu u fpeykf poeonuuo poporocfonero peroufa.
RPHMEHAHHE_
Kpuuy aeforounn pekoreupyefcn ocrafpueafu npu nkor cfonkuoeeuuu, kakur u
uesuaufenuuur no nocnepcfeunr ouo ua nepeu esrnnp ue kasanocu.
Ocrofp kpuuu saref y eac ecero ueckonuko ruuyf, safo eu roefe ufu yeepeuu, fo
sarefunu ece ckonuko-uuypu cepuesuue (u uesarefuue npu ernor ocrofpe)
noepepeuun.
Ecnu ypap un csapu, e nepeyk oepepu cnepyef npoeepufu, kak ofkpueaefcn arauuk, a
fake ocrofpefu arauoe ofpeneuue usuyfpu (ecfu nu euyfpu cnepu noepepeuun, ckonu
kpacku, nepekocu, usnoru u ernfuuu, nerko nu peuefcn kpuuka arauuka).
Ecnu npousouno nooeoe cfonkuoeeuue (unu eu ypapunucu eo fo-fo nepepuur
arnepor), fo ocrofp cnepyef uauuafu c kpuuku kanofa no fakory e npuuuuny: nerko nu
ofkpueaefcn u sakpueaefcn kpuuka, urekfcn nu euyfpeuuue noepepeuun nakokpacouoro
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
nokpufun, noepepeuun e rofopuor ofceke, usnoru ua euyfpeuuux noeepxuocfnx nauene
kysoea, uankpaefcn nu yfeka upkocfu us papuafopa.
anee ocrofp npopeuraefcn k cepepuue aeforounn: oueuueaefcn cocfonuue noporoe,
peepeu, pusroeukoe, nonepeuux anok u nopeecku aeforounn. Onsafenuuo cnepyef
npoeepnfu, nerko nu ofkpueakfcn u sakpueakfcn peepuu rauuuu, noneunucu nu kakue-
uuypu peqekfu ua noporax, ppeesaf nu cfekna. Ofrefur, fo ppeesauun roef u ue
ufu, safo nonennefcn ceoopuu xop cfekna e ropusoufanuuo nnockocfu (fo ecfu ouo
kaaefcn).
Ecnu eu ocrofpenu aeforounu po ero cepepuuu u uukakux nponer ue ouapyunu, fo
panuue rouo ye u ue crofpefu (ypapuan eonua ue nepenpurueaef epes kakue-nuo
pefanu, u ecnu oua ue pouna po cepepuuu aeforounn, fo sfo suauf, fo oua ue pouna u
panee).
Ecnu e eu ouapyunu noepepeuun, fo cnepyef npoponufu ocrofp ecex noeepxuocfe
kysoea aeforounn u ecex npoeroe, fou onpepenufu, ue peqoprupoeauu nu ouu.
Rpakfuecku esouuouur ceupefenucfeor noepepeuun kysoea nennefcn uapyueuue
nakokpacouoro nokpufun. Rpu nkor noepepeuuu nauene (ernfuua, eunyknocfu,
raprouka u f. p.), pae oeuu ueonuuor u c nepeoro esrnnpa ue coecer sarefuor, ua
nakokpacouor nokpufuu eupuu fpeuuu, ckonu kpacku u ropuuu. Ecnu eu sarefunu
fo-nuo nopouoe, suauf, nauenu fouo noepepeuu u fpeykfcn puxfoeouue paofu.
Ha puc. 1.2 eu eupufe xapakfepuyk ernfuuy nauenu, ua puc. 1.3 raprouky us
eeauo peepu (nopouue peqekfu eoccfauoeneuuk ue nopneaf, pefanu uyuo
sareunfu).
Ecfecfeeuuo, noepepeuue nakokpacouoro nokpufun eosrouo ue fonuko e pesynufafe
TR. Ho ecnu po aeapuu c nakokpacouur nokpufuer uno ece e nopnpke, a noepepeuun
noneunucu nocne, fo sfo onpepeneuuo curuanusupyef o noepepeuuu nauene kysoea.


Puc. 1.2. Xapakfepuan ernfuua


Puc. 1.3. Xeeauan peepu

Rocne TR oeuu enafenuuo ocrofpefu u puue aeforounn, nockonuky e pesynufafe
aeapuu ouo roef npuopecfu eonuoopasuyk qopry (e cnyae ecnu ypap un pocfafouo
cuneu), eosrouu noepepeuun nopeecku, puaroe nepeknkeuun u cucferu fnr.
Ecnu eu epesanucu e cfon unu peepu rapaa npu napkoeke, fo rouo ofnoufu ocrofp
rauuuu ua nofor (ecnu, koueuo, eu ue uarepeuu ue cxopn c recfa npucfynufu k peroufy
aeforounn). Ho eof ecnu e TR yacfeyef ppyro aeforounu, eopufenu kofoporo onsau
eosrecfufu ear yep, fo uerepneuuu ocrofp u oueuka (xofn u npunusufenuuan)
noepepeuu cfauoenfcn ye ueofpeneyuru sapaaru. Bepu e npofokon,
onucueaku TR, uyuo euecfu cnucok noepepeuu aeforounn. Hreuuo ua ocuoeauuu
pauuoro pokyreufa cfpaxoean kornauun ypef eosreafu safpafu ua perouf. H ecnu eu
orpauuufecu onucauuer ueonuuoro ckona nakokpacouoro nokpufun ua arnepe, fo
enocnepcfeuu ypef npakfuecku ueeosrouo pokasafu, fo unu u ppyrue noepepeuun.
ae ecnu eu npepLneufe sfu noepepeuun, fo ye ue croefe pokasafu, fo ouu censauu
ureuuo c pauuur TR, a ue c eaue ueypauo napkoeko okono pepeea. Ropouue
cypeuue pasupafenucfea ueopuokpafuo sakauueanucu ofukpu ue e nonusy
nocfpapaeuero.
Cnepoeafenuuo, ocrofp aeforounn npu TR poneu ufu kak rouo onee fafenuuur,
c onsafenuuur onucauuer ecex ouapyeuuux u pae npepnonaraerux noepepeuu. K
npurepy, eu eupufe, fo ua kpune noneuncn ckon nakokpacouoro nokpufun, uo ue roefe
onpepenufu, ecfu nu peqoprauun refanna. B pauuor cnyae noreafe: eosroua
peqoprauun kpuna. -er noppouee ypyf onucauu noepepeuun, fer reuuue
uenpunfuux ckpnpusoe npuuecyf ear e panuueuer pasop nonefoe co cfpaxoeo
kornauue u perouf.
RPHMEHAHHE
Busyanuuu ocrofp ue noseonnef ouapyufu ofknoueuun nuueuux pasrepoe kysoeuux
npoeroe (nepekocu kysoea) u reorefpueckux naparefpoe kysoea no asoeur fokar
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ocuoeauun kysoea. Sfo onpepennefcn fonuko nyfer usrepeuu, a uuorpa fpeyefcn ue
fonuko pynefka, uo u cneuuanuuoe koufponuuoe npucnoconeuue unu cfeup.
qs nospeqeu kyiosa asouo6n
Kysoe caran poporan acfu aeforounn poneu ofeeafu cnepykur fpeoeauunr:
+ oecneeuue osopuocfu e coofeefcfeuu c pecfeykuru uoprafuearu;
+ ycfoueocfu kapkaca k ypapar u pacfneuuk cornacuo pecfeykur uoprafuear;
+ uapeuocfu kpenneuun cupeuu;
+ peqoprupyerocfu nepepue u sapue acfe npu TR ue ponua npeeuuafu uekofopoe
suaeuue, onpepeneuuoe pecfeykuru uoprafuearu;
+ pocfafouu oLer canoua, rofopuoro ofceka u arauoro ofpeneuun;
+ pusau uufepuepa poneu yufueafu fpeoeauun korqopfuocfu, esonacuocfu u
sprouoruku (puaru u npuopu ynpaeneuun ponuu uaxopufucn e npepenax pocnraerocfu
eopufenn, npuer fak, fou sfo uno ypouur pnn uero);
+ fexuonoruuocfu usrofoeneuun;
+ peroufonpuropuocfu.

Roepepeuun kysoea ueakf peyx funoe: skcnnyafauuouuue u aeapuuue.
Skcnnyafauuouuue noepepeuun kysoea eosuukakf npu skcnnyafauuu sa cef cfafueckux
uarpysok (eec eopufenn, naccaupoe, rpysa), puuarueckux uarpysok (nonennkfcn npu
peueuuu), a fake sa cef usrua u ckpyueauun e pesynufafe nepereuuux uarpysok (of
uepoeuocfe poporu). Skcnnyafauuouuue noepepeuun eusueakf fake eucokoacfofuue
eupauuu of paofakero peurafenn, kopoku nepepa u fpaucruccuu. Rpefeopeuue e
usuu peeusa nuxae-eopufene er euue ckopocfu, fer reuuue nrok ua popore,
npueopuf k paspyuakur uarpyskar ua kysoe, fak kak npu sfor eospacfakf
suakonepereuuue uarpysku.
-er onuue u ponuue skcnnyafupyefcn aeforounu, fer onuue ou nonyaef
skcnnyafauuouuux noepepeuu kysoea. K fakur noepepeuunr ofuocnfcn cnepykue:
+ peqoprauun u koponeuue noeepxuocfe ofpenuuux pefane;
+ npoeucauue peepe aeforounn;
+ uapyueuue qopru u pasrepoe okouuux u peepuux npoeroe;
+ uapyueuue uenocfuocfu nakokpacouoro u aufukopposuouuoro nokpufu;
+ creeuue nouepouoe, koponeuue kpunuee aeforounn npu neperpyskax kysoea;
+ noneneuue fpeuu e recfax coepuueuu cfoek c kysoeor (acfo eosuukakf us-sa
uepocfafouo npouocfu koucfpykuuu, uenpouoro coepuueuun pefane, a fake e
pesynufafe ypapoe u usruoe refanna);
+ ycfanocfuue paspyueuun no ycunufennr u coepuuufennr ofpenuuux nauene;
+ opueu npueapuux onfoe u raek;
+ noneneuue ckpunoe u cfykoe (us-sa ofcoepuuueuuxcn npueapeuuux unu npukneeuuux
pefane);
+ paspyueuue ofpenuuux ceapouux foek.

Carur pacnpocfpaueuuur skcnnyafauuouuur noepepeuuer nennefcn kopposun kysoea.
Hseafu skcnnyafauuouuux noepepeuu ueeosrouo, pasee fo sakoucepeupoeae
aeforounu no ecer npaeunar u xpaun ero e rapauux ycnoeunx. -fou ece
skcnnyafauuouuue noepepeuun ue ceanueanucu ua ronoey opuoepereuuo a forpa ouu
ypyf npepcfaennfu coo kpynuyk nponery, sa cocfonuuer kysoea aeforounn uyuo
euurafenuuo cnepufu u ycfpaunfu noepepeuun no repe ux ouapyeuun. K coaneuuk,
onuuuucfeo eopufene npepnoufakf koufponupoeafu nuuu xopoeyk acfu ceoero
fpaucnopfuoro cpepcfea u cknouuu saueafu, fo kysoe caran poporan acfu e
aeforoune, u ero perouf oxopufcn ofukpu ue peueeo (ocoeuuo ecnu npuxopufcn
sauurafucn rnoanuuur peroufor no npuuuuny ece u cpasy).
Eonuuan acfu skcnnyafauuouuux noepepeuu kysoea eosuukaef e pesynufafe kopposuu.
Hauonee eucoka eeponfuocfu noneneuun kopposuu e fpypuopocfynuux pnn ocrofpa u
oucfku recfax (sakpufue nonocfu uecyero kysoea, koucfpykfueuue kaprauu, nasyxu,
ofopfoeku, saqnauuoeku, ceapuue ueu u f. p.). B fakue recfa nonapakf enara u nunu, a
fake coneeue pacfeopu u kopposuouuue eeecfea c popouoro nokpufun, u coxpaunkfcn
ponroe epern, fo npueopuf k akfueuory u ecnpennfcfeeuuory paseufuk kopposuu.
Ocuoeuue qakfopu kopposuouuoro eospecfeun ua kysoe aeforounn cnepykue:
+ eeuu, necok, conu u npopykfu ueqfenepepaofku;
+ ynufpaquonefoeoe usnyeuue;
+ afrocqepuue ocapku;
+ kucnofuue u enouue ocapku.
Rop pecfeuer sfux qakfopoe ua kysoe aeforounn noepepaefcn nakokpacouoe
nokpufue u nonennefcn kopposun refannueckux pefane, k fory e nokpufue
ecnyueaefcn e pesynufafe kopposuu refanna nop uur.
RPHMEHAHHE
Cfanuuo nucf, ue saueuuu aufukopposuouuur nokpufuer, cfauoeufcn fouuue ua
0,20,3 rr epes rop npeueauun ua ofkpufor eospyxe.
Aeapuuue noepepeuun kysoea eosuukakf e pesynufafe popouo-fpaucnopfuux
npoucuecfeu. Eeropuo po 6 % aeforoune e Poccuu cfauoenfcn yacfuukaru TR.
Rofu ece fakue npoucuecfeun npueopnf k noepepeuunr kysoea, fpeykur peroufa.
Cfafucfuka ceupefenucfeyef o for, fo nepeeucfeo no konuecfey coypapeuu aeforounn
pepuf ero nepepunn acfu, panee cnepykf noepepeuun sapue onacfu u reuuue ecero
noepepeuu npuxopufcn ua okoeue acfu.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Carue kpynuue noepepeuun eosuukakf e pesynufafe nooeoro cfonkuoeeuun aeforounn
(nepepue acfuk) c npennfcfeuer, ecnu ypap npuuencn uenocpepcfeeuuo ua nepepukk
acfu kysoea unu e paou nepepuux cfoek nop yrnor, ue npeeuuakur 4045.
Rpennfcfeunru roryf ufu kak cfon, fak u peuyeecn uaecfpey fpaucnopfuoe
cpepcfeo. B cnyae cfonkuoeeuun co ecfpeuur fpaucnopfuur cpepcfeor e peno ecfynakf
ueyronurue sakouu qusuku: ckopocfu aeforoune, yacfeykux e cfonkuoeeuuu,
cyrrupykfcn, a kuuefueckan sueprun, kofopan eupennefcn npu ypape, nennefcn qyukuue
ckopocfu (E = fu
2
/2). Hreuuo sfa sueprun u nornoaefcn npu ypape kopnycor aeforounn
(pnn aeforounn racco okono fouuu konuecfeo nornoaero suepruu npu nooeor
ypape cocfaennef okono 80 100 k!). Bpern nornoeuun cocfaennef pecnfue ponu
cekyupu. Ecfecfeeuuo, kysoe paspyuaefcn, a ocoeuuo cunuuo peqoprauuu nopeepraefcn
nepepunn acfu rauuuu fa, ua kofopyk npuxopufcn ypap. Harpysku nepepakfcn fake
ecer creuur pefannr kapkaca kysoea, a epes uux nuueeur pefannr ecero kysoea.
Sueprun nornoaefcn sa cef peqoprauuu nouepouoe, pusroeukoe, noporoe u fouuenn
nona. Yreuuuakfcn sasopu e npoerax nepepuux peepe, fak kak ua peepu paenf nepepuue
cfoku. eepu, e ceok oepepu, okasueakf paeneuue ua ueufpanuuue cfoku (epes nefnu
u sarku). Repekauueakfcn ocuoeauue u kapkac kysoea, a fake creakfcn foku
kpenneuun ysnoe fpaucruccuu u peurafenn.
Rpu aeapuuor noepepeuuu kysoea eosuukaef uenuan peakuun. Oua npoponaefcn po fex
nop, noka ecn kuuefueckan sueprun, eupenueuancn npu cfonkuoeeuuu, ue ypef noraueua.
-er euue ckopocfu cfonkuyeuuxcn fpaucnopfuux cpepcfe, fer onuue noepepeuu
ypef u fer onuue kysoeuux pefane safpouef paspyueuue.
K npurepy, npu nooeor cfonkuoeeuuu nepepue acfuk kysoea e soue nepepuero kpuna,
nouepoua u qapu noepepakfcn nauenu nepepka aeforounn, kanof, kpunun,
pusroeuku, nepepuue nouepouu, para nooeoro cfekna u kpuua. Sfu noepepeuun
rouo yeupefu ueeoopyeuuur rnasor (puc. 1.4).
Kpore foro, peqoprupykfcn nepepuue, ueufpanuuue u sapuue cfoku c oeux cfopou
aeforounn, e nepepue u sapue peepnx, kofopue pacnonoeuu co cfopouu ypapa (ecnu
coypapeuue npousouno e soue npaeoro nepepuero kpuna, fo peqoprupykfcn cfoku
npaeo nepepue u npaeo sapue peepe), e sapuer kpune c fo cfopouu, rpe npousouno
coypapeuue, a fake e sapue nauenu arauuka.


Puc. 1.4. Pesynufaf nooeoro cfonkuoeeuun

Ecnu e ypap npuuencn ua nepepukk acfu kysoea nop yrnor 4045, fo noepepakfcn
nepepuue kpunun, kanof, nauenu nepepka, pusroeuku u nepepuue nouepouu. Rpu sfux
paspyueuunx peqoprupoeauuue pefanu npuxopufcn sareunfu uoeuru, uuae ueeosrouo
eoccfauoeufu asoeue foku nepepue acfu kysoea. Kpore foro, fpeyefcn nukeupupoeafu
nepekocu npoeroe nepepuux peepe, a fake nepepuux u ueufpanuuux cfoek kysoea.
Rockonuky npu nornoeuuu kuuefuecko suepruu ypapa ue npoucxopuf cafun unu
yfoneuun refanna, fo e soue ypapa opasykfcn kpynuue cknapku unu ernfuuu (refann
eufnrueaefcn).
Cfeneuu noepepeuun saeucuf of ckopocfu, yrna conpukocuoeeuun c npennfcfeuer, raccu
aeforounn, ero koucfpykuuu, eospacfa, popouux ycnoeu u f. p.
Kaerop cnouoc nospeqeu kyiosa
Aeforounu ureef onpepeneuuue qopry u pasrepu pefane. Bce sfu pasrepu ue fonuko
onpepennkf pusau, pacnonoeuue u kpenneuue arperafoe, uo u yufueakf esonacuocfu
fpaucnopfuoro cpepcfea u ero aspopuuarueckue ceocfea. Toku ua kysoee, of kofopux
saeucnf sfu kaecfea aeforounn, uasueakfcn asoeuru. Ha kysoee urekfcn ee u
koufponuuue foku.
RPHMEHAHHE
Feorefpun kysoea sfo coeokynuocfu ecex pasrepoe u qopr ero pefane. Hapyueuue
reorefpuu kysoea sfo usreueuue pasrepoe unu (u) qopru pefane (unu opuo pefanu)
kysoea, e pesynufafe kofopux npousouno creeuue asoeux u (unu) koufponuuux foek ua
kysoee.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Oyk kapfuuy noepepeuu npu uapyueuuu aeouempuu kysoea cocfaennkf ofknoueuun
of sapauuux pasrepoe ocuoeauun u kapkaca kysoea. ae npu ofcyfcfeuu eupurux
ofknoueuu cnepyef cpaeuufu pacnonoeuue asoeux u koufponuuux foek ua kysoee c
fexuuecko pokyreufauue ua aeforounu eepu ue ece sarefuo rnasor, uuorpa uyuo
eocnonusoeafucn usrepufenuuuru npuoparu, uanpurep pynefko.
Roepepeuun kysoea aeforounn pasnuakfcn no kaferopunr cnouocfu. -er euue
kaferopun, fer cnouee noepepeuue u fer onuue cun, epereuu u cpepcfe fpeyefcn ua
ero ycfpaueuue u npupauue pefanu kysoea nepeouaanuuo qopru.
Carue npocfue noepepeuun ernfuuu uapyuux kysoeuux pefane. Ouu ofuocnfcn
k nepeo kameaopuu cnouocmu.
Ecnu noepepeuun ue noenunnu ua xopoeue kaecfea aeforounn (ero rouo
skcnnyafupoeafu, fonuko scfefuku eo eueuuer eupe ranoeafo) u pacnonoeuue ero
ocuoeuux ysnoe, fo ouu nennkfcn noepepeuunru emopo kameaopuu cnouocmu. K fakur
noepepeuunr ofuocnfcn, k npurepy, uapyueuue reorefpuu peepuux npoeroe,
peqoprauun cpepuux cfoek canoua u f. p.
Ecnu npousouno creeuue ocuoeuux arperafoe aeforounn u (unu) peqoprauun uecyux
snereufoe kysoea, ua kofopux urekfcn asoeue foku (nouepouu, auku aropfusafopoe
u f. p.), fo fakue noepepeuun ofuocnfcn kmpemie kameaopuu cnouocmu.
Ecnu noepepeuun ofuocnfcn opuoepereuuo ko ecer fper nepeur kaferopunr, a
reorefpun fpex u onee okouuux u peepuux npoeroe uapyueua, fo sfo
noepepeuun vemeepmo kameaopuu cnouocmu.Boccfauaenueafu rauuuy, nonyueuyk
fakue noepepeuun, oeuu fpypuo.
Aeforounu, ureku noepepeuun nnmo kameaopuu cnouocmu, uaseafu uuae kak
refannonoror ueeosrouo. pyruru cnoearu, ou eoccfauoeneuuk ue nopneuf.
Rpakfuecku ece kysoeuue pasrepu u nponopuuu uapyueuu, peroufupoeafu uyuo nofu
ece kysoeuue pefanu, creeuu ece asoeue u koufponuuue foku u f. n. Rpu fakux
noepepeuunx racfep e ofeef ua eonpoc -fo rouo cpenafu? ouuo coeefyef cunfu
nepepuu u sapuu arnepu u ecfaeufu repy uuru uoeu aeforounu. Bof fonuko u
arnepu ckopee ecero okayfcn ufuru. Tak fo npu noepepeuunx nnfo kaferopuu
cnouocfu npuopefeuue uoeo rauuuu oxopufcn peueene, er perouf (unu, no kpaue
repe, e nuskyk cyrry).
Hfak, npepe er pafucn sa kysoeuo perouf aeforounn, uyuo oLekfueuo oueuufu
cnouocfu nonyeuuux noepepeuu u ceou eosrouocfu no ux ycfpaueuuk. Hauuaku
racfep roef cnpaeufucn paneko ue co eceru noepepeuunru: pnn uekofopux npocfo
uyeu onuf, kofopu uapaafueaefcn co epereuer. Ecnu e epereuu ua npuopefeuue
onufa y eac uef, yeepeuuocfu e ceoux cunax foe, aeforounu uyuo cpouo
eoccfauaenueafu, a noepepeuun kysoea poeonuuo cnouue, fo nyue cpasy opafufucn
ua CTO.
epekocs kyiosa cnoco6s x ycpaueu
ae uauuaku aefoenapeneu suaef, fo cyecfeykf onpepeneuuue naparefpu
npoeroe (okou, peepe, kanofa, kpuuku arauuka) u recfa pacnonoeuun asoeux foek
kpenneuun cunoeoro arperafa, nopeecok, ysnoe fpaucruccuu ua ocuoeauuu kysoea.
Hopranuuoe qyukuuouupoeauue aeforounn, ecex ero ysnoe u pefane, ynpaennerocfu u
ycfoueocfu roryf oecneueafucn fonuko npaeunuuur recfouaxopeuuer asoeux
foek e coofeefcfeuu c fpeoeauunru saeopa-usrofoeufenn. Bauo ofrefufu, fo saeop-
usrofoeufenu ue npocfo fak ycfauaenueaef fpeoeauun k asoeur fokar sfo
pecfeufenuuo oecneueaef esonacuocfu u ecnponeruocfu skcnnyafauuu aeforounn.
RPHMEHAHHE_
Repekoc kysoea sfo uapyueuue reorefpueckux naparefpoe ceepx ponycfurux
npepenoe.
Kysoe cufaefcn ofperoufupoeauuur forpa, korpa eoccfauoeneuu ero nepeouaanuuue
reorefpueckue naparefpu (reorefpun kysoea) e coofeefcfeuu c pokyreufauue ua
aeforounu.
Rpu ycfpaueuuu nepekoca kysoea koufponupykfcn cnepykue naparefpu:
+ eenuuuu sasopoe repy kysoeor u uaeecuuru pefannru;
+ pasrepu u qopru okouuux npoeroe (ocoeuuo fafenuuo uyuo koufponupoeafu
pasrepu u qopru npoeroe nooeoro u sapuero okou);
+ esauruoe pacnonoeuue ua ocuoeauuu kysoea asoeux u koufponuuux foek.

Repekocu kysoea ueakf nnfu funoe.
1. Repekoc npoera. Sfo nepekoc okoeo peepu, eefpoeoro u sapuero okou, fo ecfu fakoe
noepepeuue kysoea, npu kofopor uapyuunucu ceepx ponycfurux npepenoe naparefpu
opuoro unu ueckonukux npoeroe.
Ha puc. 1.5 eu eupufe cnepykue nepekocu npoera:
+ nepekoc npoera okoeo peepu (a);
+ nepekoc npoera eefpoeoro okua ();
+ nepekoc npoera sapuero okua (e).


Puc. 1.5. Repekoc npoera

Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
2. Hecnouu nepekoc kysoea. Hecnouur cufaefcn fakoe noepepeuue kysoea, npu
kofopor ceepx ponycfurux npepenoe usreunkfcn reorefpueckue naparefpu npoeroe
kanofa unu kpuuku arauuka (sapue peepu xefska), uo npu sfor ue uapyueua
reorefpun ocuoeauun u kapkaca kysoea, peepuux u okouuux npoeroe (roryf ufu usreueuu
sasopu peepe c nepepuuru unu sapuuru kpununru aeforounn).
Ha puc. 1.6 eu eupufe cnepykue nepekocu kysoea:
+ nepekoc npoera kanofa (a);
+ nepekoc npoera kpuuku arauuka ();
+ nepekoc npoera sapue peepu xefska (e).


Puc. 1.6. Hecnouu nepekoc kysoea

3. Repekoc kysoea cpepue cnouocfu. Rpu fakor nepekoce opuoepereuuo uapyuakfcn
reorefpueckue naparefpu npoera kanofa u kpuuku arauuka (sapue peepu xefska)
unu kysoe noepepaefcn c uapyueuuer ceepx ponycfurux npepenoe reorefpueckux
naparefpoe nepepuux unu sapuux nouepouoe (uo es uapyueuun reorefpuu kapkaca
kysoea).
Ha puc. 1.7 eu eupufe cnepykue nepekocu kysoea cpepue cnouocfu: nepekoc npoera
kanofa u kpuuku arauuka (a); nepekoc nepepuux u sapuux nouepouoe ().


Puc. 1.7. Repekoc kysoea cpepue cnouocfu
4. Cnouu nepekoc kysoea. Rpu pauuor nepekoce opuoepereuuo uapyuakfcn ceepx
ponycfurux npepenoe reorefpueckue naparefpu nepepuux u sapuux nouepouoe (a); unu
kysoe noepepeu c uapyueuuer u reorefpueckux naparefpoe nepepuux unu sapuux
nouepouoe, u kapkaca kysoea (); unu uapyueuu reorefpueckue naparefpu fonuko
nepepuux nouepouoe (ecnu y aeforounn koucfpykfueuo uef nonepeuuu nepepue
nopeecku) (e) (puc. 1.8).


Puc. 1.8. Cnouu nepekoc kysoea

5. Repekoc kysoea ocoo cnouocfu. Rpu sfor nepekoce npoucxopuf noepepeuue kysoea
c uapyueuuer ceepx ponycfurux npepenoe reorefpueckux naparefpoe nepepuux u
sapuux nouepouoe u kapkaca kysoea; ecnu koucfpykfueuo ofcyfcfeyef nonepeuua
nepepue nopeecku, fo uapyuakfcn reorefpueckue naparefpu fonuko nepepuux
nouepouoe u kapkaca kysoea aeforounn (puc. 1.9).
Hanuue nepekoca kysoea onpepennefcn no usreueuuk eenuuuu sasopoe conpnraerux
uaeecuux u npueapuux nauene kysoea. Ecnu sasopu ofnuakfcn of uoprafueuux, a
peepu, kanof u kpuuka arauuka ofkpueakfcn unu sakpueakfcn c fpypor, fo e sfux
recfax nepekoueu kapkac kysoea.


Puc. 1.9. Repekoc kysoea ocoo cnouocfu

-fou onpepenufu, ureefcn nu nepekoc ocuoeauun kysoea, saacfyk npuxopufcn
peroufupoeafu oueky, kofopan sakpueaef recfa eosrouo peqoprauuu refanna e
onacfu fouuenn nona unu konecuux apok.
B pesynufafe aeapuu roryf npousofu pasuoopasuue peqoprauuu, kofopue cyecfeeuuo
(u, koueuo e, uerafueuo) noenunkf ua panuueuyk skcnnyafauuk aeforounn. Rpu
peqoprauunx opasykfcn cknapku nona u ppyrux snereufoe ocuoeauun kysoea unu paru.
Kak npaeuno, cknapku opasykfcn e soue ypapa, a e ofpaneuuux of souu ypapa recfax e
pnuuuorepuux pefannx kysoea (er pnuuuee pefanu, fer onuue oua nopeepeua
peqoprauuu) u e nporeyfkax repy fokaru ceapku (ecnu nporeyfku onuuue,
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
refannueckue nucfu roryf cpeuuyfucn ofuocufenuuo ppyr ppyra, e pesynufafe ero
opasykfcn cknapku).
-fou ouapyufu oeeupuue peqoprauuu (k npurepy, crnfu kanof unu crnfyk kpuuky
arauuka, noepepeuuue peepu, raprouky, kofopan ee uepaeuo una kpunor
aeforounn), pocfafouo euurafenuuo ocrofpefu aeforounu cuapyu. Ropouuru
peqoprauunru peno roef ue sakouufucn, nosfory, ecnu e npouecce peroufa, rpe-fo ua
cepepuue puxfoeouux paof, eu ue xofufe ueoupauuo ouapyufu peqoprauuk,
fpeykyk eufnrueauun kysoea aeforounn, ero ueoxopuro ocrafpueafu ua
nopLeruuke. B sfor cnyae eu croefe oueuufu cocfonuue ocuoeauun kysoea u paru.
Ocrofp npoeopufcn eusyanuuo, a pnn onuue rapaufuu, fou uaeepunka ouapyufu ece
cknapku, pekoreupyefcn fake oynueafu pyko pefanu rauuuu. Kak useecfuo, napouu u
nanuuu nennkfcn poeonuuo yecfeufenuuur koufponuuur uucfpyreufor, nosfory npu
oynueauuu rouo ouapyufu cknapku, ue sarefuue rnasar.
eqoprauuu kysoea roryf uapyuufu npaeunuuocfu pacnonoeuun konec (e pesynufafe
aeforounu cfauoeufcn ueycfoue ua popore, a uuuu ucfpo usuauueakfcn), a fake
usreuufu recfopacnonoeuue koufponuuux foek (fo ecfu uapyuufu puarouanu). Ecnu
ouapyeua peqoprauun kysoea, ueoxopuro npoeepufu pasean-cxopeuue, fo ecfu
npokoufponupoeafu reorefpuk rocfoe. Rpu sfor koufponupyefcn u cpaeuueaefcn
nonoeuue konec ua pasuux cfopouax aeforounn.
-fou npoeepufu, ue creeuu nu koufponuuue u asoeue foku, ueoxopuro
eocnonusoeafucn refopor puarouanuuux sarepoe unu c npureueuuer parouux
npucnoconeuu npokoufponupoeafu recfouaxopeuue asoeux foek ocuoeauun kysoea.
Huorpa sarepu npuxopufcn penafu ua cneuuanuuux cfeupax (cfanennx), npu sfor
ueoxopuro nonuocfuk pasopafu kysoe.
Mefop puarouanuuux sarepoe saknkaefcn e koufpone paccfonuu repy currefpuuo
pacnonoeuuuru fokaru ocuoeauun kysoea e puarouanuuor u npoponuuor uanpaeneuunx.
nuuu puarouane ponu ue urpakf, npoeepnefcn nuuu currefpuuocfu pacnonoeuun
koufponuuux foek. Ecnu puarouanu okasueakfcn pasuo pnuuu (fo ecfu
uecurrefpuuuru), fo nepekoc kysoea opuosuauo npousouen. Ha puc. 1.10 npepcfaeneua
cxera sarepoe pnn onpepeneuun nepekoca ocuoeauun kysoea.
Ho pae ecnu sarepu nokasueakf, fo foku currefpuuu ppyr ppyry, sfo ee ue
osuaaef, fo nepekoca ocuoeauun kysoea uef. Pesynufafu sarepoe ueoxopuro cpaeuufu
c pauuuru pokyreufauuu ua aeforounu. Ecnu urekfcn ofknoueuun of ycfauoeneuuoro
uoprafuea, fo ypoeeuu sfux ofknoueuu ykasueaef ua cfeneuu nepekoca ocuoeauun u
kapkaca kysoea.
Ycfpaueuue nepekoca kysoea. Repep ycfpaueuuer nepekocoe kysoea ece ysnu u pefanu
aeforounn, kofopue roryf noreuafu puxfoeke, ceapke u nokpacke, uyuo cunfu. Mauuuy
ueoxopuro ycfauoeufu ua cfanenu (puc. 1.11).


Puc. 1.10. Cxera sarepoe pnn onpepeneuun nepekoca ocuoeauun kysoea (sarepu
npouseopnfcn kak e puarouanuuor, fak u e npoponuuor uanpaeneuunx)


Puc. 1.11. Aeforounu ua cfanene, rofoeu k npaeke nepekocoe kysoea

B nepeyk oepepu eoccfauaenueakfcn reorefpun u qopru ocuoeauun u kapkaca kysoea, u
fonuko nofor eunonunkfcn npaeka u puxfoeka nuueeux nauene. Rpaeka u puxfoeouue
paofu roryf npouseopufucn kak npu cunfux, fak u npu npucoepuueuuux nuueeux nauennx.
Ecnu ecfu pefanu, kofopur e npuuuune ueeosrouo eepuyfu qopry unu ycfauoeufu ux ua
recfo ponuur opasor, fo ux uyuo ofcoepuuufu po uaana paof no ycfpaueuuk
nepekoca kysoea.
Rocnepoeafenuuocfu npaeku fakoea: cuaana npaenfcn onee ecfkue pefanu, a safer
reuee ecfkue.
Repeo eoccfauaenueaefcn ueufpanuuan acfu kysoea (canou). Bunpaeneuuue yacfku
qukcupykfcn ecfkuru pacfnkaru (ux nonoeuue ponuo ufu ueusreuuur npu
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
nocnepyke npaeke conpneuuux c uuru yacfkoe kysoea). Rocne foro kak
eoccfauoeneua ueufpanuuan acfu, npouseopufcn npaeka arauoro ofpeneuun u
rofopuoro ofceka. H fonuko safer eoccfauaenueakfcn pesuoeue u kpeneuue pefanu
kysoea (ux rouo npocfo sareuufu uoeuru).
Hsrepufenuuue parouue npucnoconeuun cnepyef ycfauaenueafu ua peroufupyeru
kysoe moniko pnn npoeepku ero naparefpoe. Pkue peroufuue paofu (npaeka, eufnka,
puxfoeka u np.) c ycfauoeneuuuru usrepufenuuuru parouuru npucnoconeuunru
eunonunfu ue cnepyef. Feorefpun parouux npucnoconeuu npoeepnefcn ua ucnpaeuor
kysoee.
nn npoeepku npoeroe peepe, kanofa, kpuuku arauuka u okou rouo ucnonusoeafu
uaeecuue pefanu u fexuonorueckue cfekna.
Repekocu npoera kysoea ycfpaunkfcn c norouk rexauueckux unu ruppaenueckux
pacfnek. B kornnekfu fakux pacfnek exopnf pasnuuue ynopu, saxeafu, ypnuuufenu u
ckou. Sfu ycfpocfea npepuasuaeuu pnn foro, fou npouseopufu pacfnrueakue u
curakue ycunun e npoerax kysoea (po 35 fouuo-cun) (puc. 1.12).
Onopuue acfu pacfnek uyuo pacnonarafu ua ecfkux snereufax kysoea. Ecnu sfo
ueeosrouo unu fpeyefcn uuoe pacnonoeuue pacfnek, cnepyef nopnoufu pepeenuuue
pycun, fou paeuorepuo paccpepofoufu uarpysky ua kysoe (e npofueuor cnyae
eosroua peqoprauun kysoea nop onopo pacfnku).


Puc. 1.12. Ycfauoeka ynopoe, saxeafoe, cko, ypnuuufene npu npaeke npoeroe

Aeforounu ycfauaenueaefcn ua eufnuo cfeup. Rpu uecnouux nepekocax kysoea
ouuo ucnonusykfcn ynpoeuuue yuueepcanuuue cfeupu (puc. 1.13) pnn eufnku
noepepeuuux snereufoe, npu sfor kysoe ecfko sakpennnefcn ua cfeupe, a cuapyu
kysoea pacnonarakfcn cunoeue ycfpocfea (puc. 1.14).
Rpouecc eufnku koufponupyefcn c norouk cfaupapfuux usrepufenuuux uucfpyreufoe,
parouux npucnoconeuu unu puarouanuuux sarepoe. Rpu paofe ua fakux cfeupax
uarpyska roef npunarafucn nop nkur yrnor k npoponuuo ocu kysoea, a cunoeue
ycfpocfea noseonnkf usreunfu uanpaeneuue ycunun of ropusoufanuuoro po
eepfukanuuoro.
Ecnu e nepekoc kysoea cnouu, fo ueoxopur eucokonpouseopufenuuu yuueepcanuuu
cfeup, rpe ycunue pacfnku roef pocfurafu 10 fouuo-cun u pae onee. Takue cfeupu
ocuaeuu usrepufenuuuru cucferaru, c norouk kofopux koufponupykfcn naparefpu
eunpaennero acfu kysoea e npouecce eufnku.


Puc. 1.13. Yuueepcanuuu cfeup pnn npaeku kysoeoe nerkoeux aeforoune

nn ycfpaueuun uecnouoro nepekoca aeforounu uyuo ycfauoeufu ua paou nocf u
onpepenufu foky, k kofopo cnepyef npunarafu ycunun, u recfo onopu cunoeo pacfnku
ua kysoee. 3afer cnepyef nopopafu ocuacfky k cunoeur ycfpocfear (ypnuuufenu, ynopu,
ckou u saxeafu). Cunoean pacfnka c ocuacfko ycfauaenueaefcn e npoere kysoea e
uanpaeneuuu ueoxopuro eufnku. Ha puc. 1.15 u 1.16 eu eupufe eapuaufu ycfpaueuun
nepekocoe kysoea (cfpenkaru nokasauu uanpaeneuun npunoeuun ycunu).
-fou paccpepofoufu uarpysky e recfe onopu cunoeoro ycfpocfea ua kysoe, rouo
ucnonusoeafu e kaecfee onopu pepeenuuue pycun (us ppeeecuuu feeppux nopop).
Ycunue, ueoxopuroe pnn npaeku nepekoca npoera, cospaefcn c norouk ruppaenuecko
unu rexauuecko cunoeo pacfnku.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.14. Cunoeoe ycfpocfeo pnn uecnouo npaeku kysoea

Ecnu noepepeuue kako-nuo pefanu ue noseonnef ycfpauufu nepekoc npoera,
npuxopufcn fake eunpaennfu peqoprauuk refanna puxfoeouur uucfpyreufor.
Hanpurep, ecnu npu aeapuu aeforounu nepeeepuyncn u ner ua kpuuy u, kpore nepekoca
npoera, peqoprupoeauu cfoku, fo ux npuxopufcn eunpaennfu puxfoeouur
uucfpyreufor e npouecce npaeku nepekoca npoera. B npofueuor cnyae nocne
ueoxopuro eufnku unu cafun npoera ouu roryf peqoprupoeafucn fak, fo npaeka
ypef unu oeuu cnouo, unu eooe okaefcn ueeosrouo.


Puc. 1.15. Ycfauoeka euufoeux u ruppaenueckux pacfnek pnn ycfpaueuun nepekocoe
peepuux u okouuux npoeroe
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.16. Ycfauoeka cunoeux ycfpocfe pnn ycfpaueuun nepekoca npoera kanofa unu
kpuuku arauuka (sapue peepu xefska)

Rocne npunoeuun ycunun pacfneuun unu cafun npoeepnefcn reorefpun npoera.
Rpaeka noefopnefcn po fex nop, noka reorefpun npoera ue pocfuruef uopru.
Ecnu ecfu ueoxopurocfu, e npouecce npaeku rouo usreunfu uanpaeneuue npunoeuun
uarpysku, koppekfupyn recfa ycfauoeku cunoeux pacfnek u fpeyeroe pnn npaeku ycunue
npu koufpone reorefpuu npoera. Bu roefe ucnonusoeafu opuoepereuuo ueckonuko
cunoeux pacfnek.
Rpaeka cnouux nepekocoe npoeroe kysoea npouseopufcn no fory e npuuuuny, fo u
npaeka uecnouux nepekocoe.
nn npaeku cnouux nepekocoe npoeroe aeforounu ycfauaenueaefcn ua yuueepcanuuu
npaeouu cfeup. B uanpaeneuuu ycunun npaeku kysoea ycfauaenueaefcn u sakpennnefcn
cunoean ycfauoeka, nopupakfcn ueoxopurue cfponu u saxeafu pnn foro, fou
sakpenufu ux sa noepepeuuyk pefanu. Ofrefur, fo ycunue uyuo npunarafu ureuuo k
noepepeuuo pefanu, a ue pnpor.
Rocne foro kak onpepeneuu foku kpenneuun, saxeafu npukpennnkfcn k ecfkur
snereufar noepepeuuo acfu kysoea. 3axeaf coepuunefcn c puaror cunoeoro
ycfpocfea uennru.
RPHMEHAHHE
Rpu sfor ruppouunuupp cunoeoro ycfpocfea uaxopufcn e uaane paoero xopa, uenu
npepeapufenuuo uafnuyfa, a yron uaknoua uenu euupaefcn e saeucurocfu of
ueoxopuroro uanpaeneuun npunoeuun ycunun.
Ycunue eufnku cospaefcn ruppaenueckur uunuuppor. Takur opasor npouseopufcn
eufnka noepepeuuo pefanu.
B cnyae ueoxopurocfu npu eufnke noepepeuuo pefanu, fak e kak u npu npaeke
uecnouux nepekocoe, npouseopufcn eunpaeneuue peqoprauu, npennfcfeykux
ycfpaueuuk nepekoca (fo ecfu puxfoeka eunonunefcn opuoepereuuo c eospecfeuer
cunoeux ycfpocfe).
B npouecce eufnku ueoxopuro koufponupoeafu reorefpuk asoeux foek
eunpaennero acfu. nn sforo eufnka npouseopufcn nosfanuo, u sarepu eunonunkfcn
nocne kaporo sfana, noka ue ypef pocfuruyf ypoenefeopufenuuu pesynufaf.
Pesynufafu sarepoe fake nokasueakf, cnepyef nu usreunfu uanpaeneuun eufnku u
recfa npunoeuun cunoeoro ycunun.
Rpu ueoxopurocfu rouo ucnonusoeafu pea cunoeux ycfpocfea u (unu) pononuufenuuue
cunoeue pacfnku (puc. 1.17).
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.17. Ycfauoeka cunoeux ycfpocfe u pacfnek npu ycfpaueuuu nepekoca kysoea
cpepue cnouocfu

Ecnu nepekoc kysoea ocoo cnouocfu u npuxopufcn ucnonusoeafu opuoepereuuo
ueckonuko cunoeux ycfpocfe, fo cunoeue ycunun nyue ecero uanpaennfu e
npofueononouue of ueufpa kysoea cfopouu. B kaecfee anufepuafueu rouo sakpenufu
kysoe ua cfeupe c norouk pononuufenuuo nonepeuo cunoeo anku.
Ecnu cunoeue snereufu ocuoeauun kysoea (nouepouu u nonepeuuu) ue eufnrueakfcn
unu ecfu eeponfuocfu ux ueopafuro peqoprauuu e pesynufafe npunoeuun cunoeux
ycunu, fo e npouecce npaeku uyuo ofcoepuuufu censykue snereufu (ycunufenu u
coepuuufenu) eunpaenneroro cunoeoro snereufa (nouepoua u nonepeuuu). Censykue
snereufu ofcoepuunkfcn no fokar ceapku u ycfauaenueakfcn ua recfo no okouauuu
eufnku.
Rocne foro kak eufnka saeepueua, yupakfcn ece ecnororafenuuue snereufu (cunoeue
cfoku, pacfnku, saxeafu u uenu). 3afer eunonunefcn npaeka u puxfoeka uapyuux
noeepxuocfe pefane kysoea. Rocne npaeku u puxfoeku cunfue uaeecuue kysoeuue
pefanu ycfauaenueakfcn ua ceou recfa (npueapuue pefanu sakpennnkfcn no fokar
ceapku).
Ecnu ua noeepxuocfu kysoea urekfcn oaru kopposuu, fo npu noprofoeke kysoea k nokpacke
ux ueoxopuro ycfpauufu.
06opyqosaue qn kyiosuoro peuoua
Kysoeuo perouf ueeosroeu fonuko c ucnonusoeauuer ronofka u ofeepfku. nn uero
fpeyefcn cneuuanuuoe oopypoeauue.
-fou npueapueafu sareunerue kysoeuue pefanu, ueoxopur annapam yanekucnomuo
ceapku, unu aemoaeu (puc. 1.18). Hekofopue racfepa nonusykfcn aeforeuor kak
yuueepcanuuur oopypoeauuer pnn ceapku, pesku u uarpeea (npu ycapke refanna).
nn ucnpaeneuun nepekocoe kysoea npureunkfcn aupaenuveckue oukpami-
pacmnku. Pyue ecero pacnonarafu ue opuur ruppaenueckur porkpafor-pacfnko, a
peyrn: cnyaefcn, fo ueoxopuro ucnpaennfu (eupaenueafu) nepekoc kysoea
opuoepereuuo e pasuux uanpaeneuunx.


Puc. 1.18. Annapaf yrnekucnofuo ceapku

Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Bunonunerue onepauuu koufponupykfcn meneckonuveckuuu nuuekauu uuepumeniuiuu
cucmeuauu.
nn eoccfauoeneuun reorefpuu noepepeuuux kysoeoe npepuasuaaefcn cneuuanuuu
cfeup cmaneni (puc. 1.19), ua kofopor eoccfauaenueakfcn, e ocuoeuor, uecyue
snereufu kysoea (cfoku u nouepouu). Cfanenu ueakf c nopLeruukor u es uero, c
paruur ocuoeauuer, a fake c ocuoeauuer e eupe nnafqopru.


Puc. 1.19. Yuueepcanuuu cfanenu pnn cnouoro kysoeuoro peroufa
h3l07080EhhE 8b7Ph0l0 YC7P0hC78A (C7A0E0P)
nn uaana cnepyef npuopecfu 11,7 r ueennepa N 14 pnn usrofoeneuun ueufpanuuo
paru u 9 r ueennepa N 10 pnn usrofoeneuun cunoeux nonepeuu. K fory e nouaponfcn
porkpaf ruppaenuecku nopxopnero pasrepa (pnn rpysoeux aeforoune ou enonue
nopxopuf), fpu peouux saura, opuu opuuapuu saur u cfanuuue uenu co ceapuuru
seeuunru (puc. 1.20-1.26).


Puc. 1.20. Xeneso pnn usrofoeneuun eufnuoro ycfpocfea (cfanenn)


Puc. 1.21. Cfanenu e npouecce usrofoeneuun, ua nepepuer nnaue peouue sauru


Puc. 1.22. Rpurepka ruppaenueckoro porkpafa

Paofa no usrofoeneuuk fakoro cfanenn sauuraef rakcuryr fpu pun. Ou nerko
noreaefcn e ouuor rapae pnn nerkoeoro aeforounn. Cfourocfu ero e 34 pasa
uue, er cfourocfu auanoruuoro ycfpocfea, npuopefeuuoro e cneuuanusupoeauuo
qupre (poccuckoro npouseopcfea, urnopfuue cfonf ua nopnpok popoe).
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.23. Fofoeoe eufnuoe ycfpocfeo (cfanenu)


Puc. 1.24. Cunoeo ysen eufnuoro ycfpocfea (cfanenn) ua ase ruppaenueckoro
porkpafa

nn coepuueuun pefane koufakfuo ceapko, ycapku refanna rpaqufoeur snekfpopor,
npueapku ua, ununek, npoeonoku, c norouk kofopux npoucxopuf eufnrueauue ernfuu,
ucnonusyefcn ruoroqyukuuouanuuoe oopypoeauue cnommep.



Puc. 1.25. 4ukcauun cfanenn k kysoey aeforounn


Puc. 1.26. Cfanenu e npouecce eufnku kysoea


VEM M0h0 3AMEhh7b C7A0E0b
B npuuuune, rouo eunonuufu kysoeuo perouf, npepnonaraku eoccfauoeneuue
reorefpuu kysoea, u ue uren cfanenn unu repufenuuo cucferu. Ho fak ypef onuue
epereuu. Sfo pekoreupyefcn nuuu e for cnyae, ecnu fako perouf nnauupyefcn
eunonunfu opuu pas. enafu e nopouoe nocfonuuo suauf ofpaeafu cnuukor ruoro
cun u epereuu.
Pouepouu rouo eufnrueafu c norouk mpoca u epeea cnepykur opasor:
peqoprupoeauuu nouepou npuensueaefcn k pepeey (cfony) rnrkur fpocor (pnuua
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
fpoca cocfaennef 57 r) u eufnrueaefcn peskur yckopeuuer (rouo ckasafu,
eupeprueaefcn). Rpaepa, fakur cnocoor pocfuu eucoko fouocfu npakfuecku
ueeosrouo.
-fou koufponupoeafu npouecc eufnku, aeforounu rouo npuensafu keyu epeeinu
(cmonau). Opua cfopoua npuensueaefcn rnrkur fpocor, a ppyran neepko (oua
npuensueaefcn k eufnrueaerory yacfky). auuu cnoco nennefcn poeonuuo
sqqekfueuur u npu nocfonuuor koufpone paef uennoxyk fouocfu.
Ecnu nnauupykfcn ueopuokpafuue kysoeuue peroufu, pnn kofopux ueoxopura pacfnka,
fo rouo carocfonfenuuo usrofoeufu cfeup, kofopu cnocoeu sareuufu cfanenu.
nn usrofoeneuun nepepuux cfoek ua rnyuuy ue reuuue 1 r ecfaennkfcn pee
foncfocfeuuue fpyu (puarefpor 100150 rr) u sanueakfcn efouor. Mouo
ucnonusoeafu yronku, ceapeuuue repy coo fakur opasor, fou nonyufu keappafuoe
ceeuue. Ronka ponua ufu ue reuee 100 rr, fak kak koucfpykuun ponua eupepueafu
ueckonuko fouu uarpysku. Cfoku us yronkoe nyue, er cfoku us fpy, nockonuky k
nocnepuur npueapueafu nonoku ua pasuo eucofe ypouee u uapeuee.
Paccfonuue repy peyrn nepepuuru cfokaru okono 2 r. Bucofa cfoek uap nonor ue
reuee 1,5 r (e npofueuor cnyae okaefcn ueeosrouur npuknapueafu ycunue nop
pasnuuuru yrnaru).
Rocne foro kak nepepuue cfoku saefouupoeauu, k uur ua pasuo eucofe npueapueakfcn
yronku (nonoku) c uaror 1520 cr (fako uar noseonnef nonyufu onuuu cnekfp yrnoe
eufnku).
-fou usrofoeufu neperuky, kofopan ypef cnyufu foko onopu npu eufnke, nyue
ecero ucnonusoeafu yronku. Reperuka usrofaenueaefcn c keappafuur ceeuuer; yronku
euupakfcn fakue, fou eupepueafu uarpysky e ueckonuko fouu (uarpyska ua neperuky
ee onuuan, er ua cfoku). Reperuka noufcn ua nonoku. Oua ponua urefu fakyk
pnuuy, fou euxopufu sa cfoku ua 15 cr c kapo cfopouu. B neperuke u cfokax e fex
recfax, rpe npueapueakfcn yronku, npoceepnueakfcn ofeepcfun pnn qukcauuu neperuku
ufupnru.
RPHMEHAHHE
Reperuka ue ponua ufu cnuukor fneno pnn racfepa ee npuxopufcn acfo
nepecfaennfu!
nn usrofoeneuun sapue acfu cfeupa ucnonusykfcn fakue e fpyu unu ceapeuuue e
keappafuoe ceeuue yronku, kak u npu usrofoeneuuu nepepue acfu, opuako roufupykfcn
ouu uuae.
3apuue cfoku ycfauaenueakfcn ua paccfonuuu of 6 po 8 r of nepepuux, fou repy
cfokaru ror norecfufucn aeforounu npakfuecku nkux pasrepoe u ee ocfanocu
recfo pnn eufnku. Ha rnyuuy okono 0,8 r sanopnuuo c nonor efouupykfcn fpyu unu
yronku onuuero ceeuun, er caru cfoku, a e uux ecfaennkfcn cfoku (ceeuue sapuux
cfoek fakoe e, kak nepepuux). Paccfonuue repy cfokaru okono 1,5 r, a eucofa uap
nonor 0,8 r.
RPHMEHAHHE
Onsafenuuo ponua conkpafucn currefpun ofuocufenuuo cepepuuu cfeupa!
nn paofu c fakur cfeupor ear nouapoufcn ycfpocfeo pnn
eufnrueauun:mani unu cmnka, paseueakue ycunue ruuuryr 1,52 f, a fake
pasnuuue saxeami u uenu pnn kpenneuun aeforounn.
Y fakoro caropenuuoro cfeupa ecfu npeuryecfeo: korpa e cfeupe uef uypu, fo
pocfafouo ypafu sapuue cfoku u recfo okasueaefcn ceoopuur. Rpoqeccuouanuuu
cfeup fpeyef cfauuouapuoro recfa u enoeuun peuer kypa onuuux, ueenu ua
usrofoeneuue fako caropenku. Rpaepa, npoqeccuouanuuu cfeup ureef ueocnopuroe
npeuryecfeo: fouocfu pacfnku ua uer ropaspo euue. -fou conkcfu fouocfu
pacfnku ua caropenuuor cfeupe, uyuo ufu oeuu euurafenuuur, ofuocufucn k
npoueccy co ece eosrouo fafenuuocfuk u urefu onuf paof. Ecnu sfu ycnoeun
conkpakfcn, fo ua caropenuuor cfeupe rouo poufucn nofu fako e fouocfu
pacfnku, kak u ua npoqeccuouanuuor.
hhC7PYMEh7b 0P PhX7080VhbX PA507
nn puxfoeouux paof npureunkfcn cneuuanuuue uucfpyreufu. Macfepa kysoeuoro
peroufa pacnonarakf uenuru uaoparu pasnuuux ronofkoe, puaroe, uakoeaneuok u np.
(puc. 1.27-1.32).


Puc. 1.27. Fuppaenuecku porkpaf pnn pacfnek
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.28. 4acouuan noppepka


Puc. 1.29. Puxfoeouue ronofku


Puc. 1.30. Puxfoeouu ronofok pnn opaofku noepepeuu onuuo nnoapu


Puc. 1.31. Rpoqeccuouanuuu unuqoeanuuu uucfpyreuf c uaopor uapouek
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.32. Puaru

Tpeoeauun k uucfpyreufar pnn puxfoeku npocfu: ypapuue uucfpyreufu ue ponuu
npueopufu k eufnke refanna. Rosfory nyue ecero npureunfu pepeenuuue kunuku u
ronofku c pesuuoeuru unu nnacfraccoeuru okaru c onuuo onopuo noeepxuocfuk.
Takue ronofku npakfuecku ue ocfaennkf cnepoe ua peroufupyero noeepxuocfu pefanu.
Paoue noeepxuocfu ronofkoe u uakoeaneuok ponuu ufu rnapkuru, e npofueuor
cnyae ouu ypyf ocfaennfu fpypuoycfpauurue cnepu ua noeepxuocfu peroufupyero
pefanu. Hyuo yufueafu, fo puxfoeka sfo saknkufenuuan onepauun no
eoccfauoeneuuk peqoprupoeauuo noeepxuocfu pefanu, e pesynufafe kofopo pefanu no
ceoery kaecfey ponua rakcuranuuo npunusufucn k uoeo. Roppepka (uakoeaneuka)
ponua urefu onuuyk raccy: er onuue racca, fer nyue nornoaefcn sueprun ypapa
u, cnepoeafenuuo, fer reuuue cnep of ypapuoro uucfpyreufa. 4opra noppepku ponua
ufu rakcuranuuo npunueua k qopre uenoepepeuuo pefanu e soue puxfoeku.
oqrooska asouo6n k peuouusu pa6oau
o uaana peroufuux paof ueoxopuro ofcoepuuufu akkyrynnfopuyk afapek u
eucokoeonufuue npoeopa.
Aeforounu uyuo fafenuuo eurufu (puc. 1.33). Booe, peroufuue paofu cnepyef
npoeopufu npu rakcuranuuo ucfofe kysoea aeforounn, fak kak ua rpnsuo noeepxuocfu
nnoxo eupuu noepepeuun, u ecnu kysoe ue ypef ucf, fo uesareeuuue noepepeuun fak
u ocfauyfcn ueofperoufupoeauuuru. Kpore foro, npu peroufe nop pecfeuer necka, nunu
u rpnsu cqoprupykfcn pononuufenuuue oaru kopposuu.


Puc. 1.33. Moka aeforounn po uaana peroufuux paof

Ocoo fafenuuo uyuo rufu puue, nockonuky far ckannueaefcn onuue ecero
popouo rpnsu u ocfafkoe npopykfoe ueqfenepepaofku, e pesynufafe ero ocrofp
safpypueu. Pyue ero ecero, ecnu puue roefcn ueckonuko pas (ruuuryr pea).
Yacfku, fpeykue peroufa, cnepyef rufu c ocoo fafenuuocfuk, uuae ypef
safpypuufenuuo oueuueafu cfeneuu peqoprauuu kysoea (u pae eooe uanuue
peqoprauuu), a fake oLer peroufuux paof.
K fory e rufue kysoea po peroufa noseonnef ycfpauufu eosrouue noepepeuun
usrepufenuuux u koufponuuux npuopoe, a fake noeucufu fouocfu usrepeuu.
Rpu rufue kysoea ocooe euurauue uyuo ypenufu euyfpeuuur nonocfnr kpunuee konec,
konecuur apkar u uauonee eucfynakur recfar puua kysoea, nockonuky ureuuo far
ouuo ckannueaefcn rpnsu. Cnepyef ofrefufu, fo eo euyfpeuuux nonocfnx kpunuee konec
rpnsu roef ykeanuuo okareuefu, u ee npuxopufcn ponro pasraueafu, npepe er oua
uauef crueafucn.
-fou onerufu roky kysoea, aeforounu nyue rufu cunuuo cfpye eopu. Cuaana
rpnsu pasrokaef u pasrnraefcn, a safer crueaefcn eopo.
Repep npoeepeuuer kysoeuoro peroufa cnepyef cuurafu seykousonnuuouuue nokpufun.
Ouu uauocnfcn ua euyfpeuuue noeepxuocfu uekofopux pefane (uanpurep, ua kpunun) npu
usrofoeneuuu aeforounn. Sfu nokpufun ropku, nerko eocnnareuuru u roryf saropefucn
ue fonuko npu ceapke, uo pae npu paofe c unuqoeanuuo rauuuko. Sfo oLncunefcn
fer, fo of conpukocuoeeuun unuqoeanuuoro kpyra c refannor cunnkfcn uckpu, u nkan
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
us uux, nonae ua seykousonnuuouuoe nokpufue, roef cfafu npuuuo noapa. K fory e
seykousonnuuouuue nokpufun safpypunkf eupaeuueauue noeepxuocfu npu puxfoeke, u,
ecnu ux ue ypanufu, puxfoeka ypef uekaecfeeuuo, cnepoeafenuuo, poeuo noeepxuocfu
eu ue pouefecu. eno e for, fo npu puxfoeke opaafueaeran noeepxuocfu ouuo
uarpeeaefcn, a seykousonnuuouuue nokpufun nop pecfeuer fenna cfauoenfcn onee
rnrkuru u opasykf nnacfuuu cno. Hreuuo sfof nnacfuuu cno u npennfcfeyef
kaecfeeuuo puxfoeke noeepxuocfu.
3eykousonnuuouuue nokpufun ypannfu ue npocfo, fak kak ouu onapakf oeuu cunuuur
cuenneuuer c refannor, nosfory npuxopufcn ucnonusoeafu uaepu. nn sfo uenu
nyue ecero nopxopnf kouueeue uaepu. Hx rouo usrofoeufu us nnockux usuoueuuux
uanunuuukoe safoufu koueu unuqoeanuuur kpyror (sfo oecneueaef yron pesauun
okono 45).
Lapeuue paofa opuoopasuan u sa cef sforo oeuu yforufenuuan. Rpu ee
eunonueuuu cnepyef ufu npepenuuo euurafenuuur: ecnu ofeneucn, xeocfoeuk
uanunuuuka roef cockoufu u nopauufu pyky.
Ha CTO seykousonnuuouuue nokpufun cuurakf nerko u ucfpo, ucnonusyn ropnu eospyx
fernepafypo 500800 C.
nn oecneeuun eucokoro kaecfea puxfoeku cnepyef ypanufu nakokpacouoe nokpufue,
ece racfuku, a fake saucfufu oaru kopposuu po necfnero refanna.
Heoxopuro fake cunfu uaeecuue snereufu kysoea, kofopue roryf noreuafu peroufy
(nnoxo pocfyn k peroufupyerory yacfky, fo ue noseonnef ucnonusoeafu uucfpyreuf)
unu ufu noepepeuu e npouecce peroufa. Ouuo cuurakfcn aropfusafopu, kpuuka
arauuka, kanof, peepu u f. p.
Snekfponpuopu ee opua ronoeuan onu racfepa kysoeuoro peroufa. ae ecnu
snekfponpuopu ue uaxopnfcn e uenocpepcfeeuuo nusocfu k peroufuo soue, ouu ece
paeuo roryf ufu noepepeuu npu npoeepeuuu peroufuux paof, uanpurep e pesynufafe
eupauuu npu cunuuux ypapax ronofka. Hauonee acfo noepepakfcn qapu, pene u
curuanuuue npuopu. -fou nocne kysoeuoro peroufa ue npuunocu sareunfu ee u
snekfponpuopu, ux nyue sapauee cunfu.
Booe, ueeosrouo cocfaeufu fouu cnucok pefane u npuopoe, kofopue ueoxopuro
onsafenuuo peroufupoeafu c aeforounn. Bce saeucuf of koukpefuux noepepeuu u
koucfpykuuu ero. Mouo pafu nuuu oue pekoreupauuu, kofopue cnepyef npureunfu k
kapory koukpefuory cnyak, oueuue cfeneuu noepepeuun u onpepenue ueoxopurue
peroufuue paofu.
Cyecfeykf fake snereufu, npepcfaennkue onacuocfu npu npoeepeuuu peroufuux
paof, e acfuocfu npu ceapke. Hanpurep, fonnueuu ak u fonnueonpoeopu okayfcn
onacuuru e for cnyae, ecnu soua eosrouoro uarpeea ropenko unu soua nonapauun
ofnefakux uckp uaxopufcn e uenocpepcfeeuuo of uux nusocfu. Roapoonacuuru
nennkfcn fake rafepuanu, ocfaeuuecn ua refanne kysoea nocne foro, kak cunfu
seykousonnuuouuue nokpufun us eonoka.
Aeforounuuue cfekna, uaxopnuecn enusu souu peroufa, onsafenuuo uyuo cunfu,
nockonuky ouu roryf pasufucn e pesynufafe ypapoe unu us-sa eupauuu kysoea npu
puxfoeouux paofax (puc. 1.34).


Puc. 1.34. Hpeanuuu eapuauf pnn kysoeuoro peroufa nonuocfuk ronu kysoe (eup
usuyfpu)
Yqaneue nakokpacouuoro nokps oucka kyiosa o koppoi
3aacfyk puxfoeouur paofar reuaef nakokpacouoe nokpufue, ocoeuuo e fex
cnyanx, korpa nop uur ckpueakfcn oaru kopposuu. B sfux recfax nokpufue espyfo, a nop
uur uaxopufcn oar ckeosuo kopposuu. Ecnu nakokpacouoe nokpufue acfuuo
noepepeuo, eosrouo opasoeauue oaroe kopposuu. -fou perouf un kaecfeeuuur,
nakokpacouoe nokpufue ueoxopuro ypanufu, oaru kopposuu oucfufu, a safer
ofperoufupoeafu noepepeuuue recfa. Ecfecfeeuuo, nocne ypaneuun nokpufun, eooe
no okouauuu peroufuux paof, npupefcn npouseecfu okpacky kysoea.
Pakokpacouoe nokpufue rouo ypanufu ueckonukuru cnocoaru. B porauue-rapauux
ycnoeunx peroufa nakokpacouoe nokpufue ae ecero ypannefcn rexauueckur
cnocoor c npureueuuer rexauusupoeauuoro pyuoro uucfpyreufa (puc. 1.35 u 1.36).
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.35. Rpoqeccuouanuuan nueerafueckan unuqoeanuuan rauuuka npekpacuo
ypannef nakokpacouoe nokpufue

Rpu peroufe ua CTO oucfka of nakokpacouoro nokpufun ae ecero eunonunefcn
neckocfpyuuru annapafaru, sapneuuuru refannuecko ppouk c pasrepor sepeu
okono 0,20,3 rr (ppoecfpyuue annapafu), c nocnepyke pooucfko c norouk
rexauusupoeauuoro pyuoro uucfpyreufa. B nocnepuue ropu ueonuuue annapafu pnn
neckocfpyuo oucfku u kornpeccopu noneunucu e ceoopuo npopae, u porauuue
racfepa uaanu ece ae npureunfu ux npu oucfke kysoea aeforounn of nakokpacouoro
nokpufun. Ocuoeuoe ofnuue porauuux annapafoe of arperafoe neckocfpyuo
opaofku ua CTO saknkaefcn e for, fo ouu sapnakfcn ue ppouk, a cyxur ucfur
neckor.


Puc. 1.36. Ypaneuue nakokpacouoro nokpufun c norouk nueerafuecko unuqoeanuuo
rauuuku

Pee e porauue-rapauux ycnoeunx npureunefcn xurueckan opaofka
cneuuanuuuru cruekaru u enouuru pacfeoparu. Takan opaofka fpeyef
cneuopepu, fafenuuoro conkpeuun rep esonacuocfu, e for ucne noapuo.
Mexauuecku cnoco oucfku xopou fer, fo opuoepereuuo c nakokpacouur nokpufuer
ypannefcn paeuua u okanuua.
Ecnu e pacnopneuuu racfepa urekfcn neckocfpyuu annapaf u kornpeccop, fo
ocuoeuan oucfka kysoea of nakokpacouoro nokpufun npouseopufcn c ux norouk, a
pooucfka eunonunefcn yrnounuqoeanuuo rauuuko, ua kofopyk ycfauoeneu
eynkauufoeu kpyr. Takur opasor ouakfcn yrnyneuun u kaeepuu c rnyoko
kopposue. Ecnu e neckocfpyuoro annapafa uef, npuxopufcn oxopufucn opuo
yrnounuqoeanuuo rauuuko (puc. 1.37).
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.37. Yrnounuqoeanuuan rauuuka (onrapka)

Cnepyef sarefufu, fo ypaneuue nakokpacouoro nokpufun c norouk unuqoeanuuux
rauuuok npouecc pnufenuuu, ranonpouseopufenuuu u poeonuuo fnenu. -fou
ynpocfufu u yckopufu oucfky kysoea aeforounn, npureunkfcn pasnuuue crueku
(xuruecku cnoco oucfku). Crueku uauocnfcn ua noeepxuocfu kysoea kucfuk unu nyfer
pacnuneuun. Korpa nokpufue ecnyueaefcn (ouuo peakuun sauuraef ueckonuko acoe
epern saeucuf of npureunero crueku u kaecfea nakokpacouoro nokpufun), crueky
ypannkf c norouk unuqoeanuuo rauuuku, a noeepxuocfu kysoea fafenuuo
nporueakf eopo.
Pai6opka c6opka asouo6n
05hh 00PP0k PA350Pkh h C50Pkh A870M05h0P
Heonuuue ernfuuu u nepekocu ycfpaunkfcn poeonuuo npocfo. Rosfory ecnu
noepepeuun kysoea ueonuuue, fo perouf rouo npoeopufu es pasopku u copku
aeforounn. Opuako npu ruorux noepepeuunx kysoea rauuuu npuxopufcn pasupafu
ykeanuuo po ronoro enesa. Cnyaefcn, fo aeforounu pasupaefcn kak koucfpykfop,
fou rouo uno eunonuufu peroufuue paofu uap kysoeor. Huorpa pasopky
npuxopufcn npouseopufu pnn foro, fou ue noepepufu uenue pefanu, unu e for cnyae,
ecnu es pasopku peroufupyeran noeepxuocfu okasueaefcn uepocfynuo.
Ha CTO pasopka u copka aeforounn cfporo pernareufupoeauu. Kpynuue CTO
npepnarakf cneuuanuuue nporparru-kafanoru, e kofopux noppouo pacnucueakfcn ece
ueoxopurue pnn pasopku u copku aeforounn pecfeun, ux nocnepoeafenuuocfu, a
fake npueopufcn nepeeuu pefane aeforounn (uorep no kafanory, eueuuu eup
pefanu, pekoreupauuu no peroufuur paofar u uoprafueu epereuu ua kapu eup
peroufuux paof). Cyecfeykf oue asu pauuux, copepaue ceepeuun no pasnuuur
rapkar aeforoune, a fake asu, kofopue eknkakf e cen pauuue fonuko no opuo
rapke aeforounn. Ecnu cfauuun kpynuan, fo ua ue ecfu paoue-pasopuku, kofopue
sauurakfcn fonuko pasopko u copko aeforoune.
Korpa peu upef o peroufe aeforounn ceouru pykaru, fo enapeneu cfauoeufcn u
pasopukor, u copukor, u ceapukor, u puxfoeukor, u cnecaper e oer,
oceaueaef ece cneuuanuuocfu, sapecfeoeauuue ua CTO. Ofrefur, fo cneuuanuuocfu
uyuo ureuuo oceaueafu, u pae pasopka u copka aeforounn fpeykf onufa u
akkypafuocfu.
K npurepy, e coepereuuux aefo ruorue pefanu urekf ueeupurue unu ckpufue snereufu
kpenneuun (pekopafueuue uaknapku u onuuoeku). Heonufuu racfep, enan cunfu
pekopafueuyk uaknapky u ue npepnonaran uanuun ckpuforo snereufa kpenneuun,
nonpocfy nofnuef ee uso ecex cun unu nonufaefcn oforuyfu ofeepfko (ecnu refop
npocforo ofpueauun ue pacf pesynufafa). Ecfecfeeuuo, uaknapka, nopeepruyeuancn
nopouo eueucekuuu, ypef esuapeuo ucnopeua. Tof e ronpuur ue cfouf xeafafu sa
kpa u fnuyfu, fou cunfu, uuae ou noruefcn fak, fo o nocnepyke copke rouo
ypef ye ue ecnokoufucn. Ero uyuo cuurafu nocfeneuuo: cuaana ofcferueaefcn opua
saenka, nofor nepexeafueaefcn nue k ppyro, npuer kak rouo epeuee u
ocfopouee, eepu onuuuucfeo ronpuuroe usrofoeneuu us nnacfraccu, nosfory cnorafu
unu coruyfu fakyk uaknapky peno peyx cekyup.
Ecnu pefanu ureef eupurue kpeneu, fo sfo eoece ue suauf, fo ua ue ofcyfcfeykf
pononuufenuuue, ckpufue kpenneuun. Ecnu ece kpeneu, kofopue eu yeupenu, cunfu, a
pefanu ece paeuo npukpenneua k aeforounk, ue foponufecu ee ofpueafu. nn uaana
npoeepufe, ue nponyeu nu kako-uuypu kpene unu e urekfcn ckpufue kpeneu.
Rpoeeper auanoruk. Aeforounu ureef ruoro pasnuuux pefane, nofory ero rouo
cpaeuufu c acaru. Korpa peeuok pasupaef acu, a nofor nufaefcn ux copafu,
saacfyk y uero ocfakfcn nuuuue pefanu unu ouapyueaefcn ux uexeafka. B cnyae c
aeforouner nuuuur unu uepocfakur ouuo okasueaefcn kpene. -fou npu
pasopke u copke aeforounn sforo ue cnyunocu, uyuo ecerpa cnepoeafu npocfory
npaeuny:ece emanu kpenea uyuo packnaieami no pasuiu kopokau unu aukau u
nonucieami kayk kpeneuyk mapy. Hanpurep, npu cunfuu sapuero arnepa pefanu
kpenea uyuo cnoufu e kopoky u nopnucafu ee: Kpene sapuero arnepa. Korpa cunf
nepepuu arnep, cfonu e ckpynynesuo cnepyef cnoufu pefanu kpenea e ppyryk
kopoky u nopnucafu: Kpene nepepuero arnepa.
H ue cfouf ccunafucn ua fo, fo pefanu kpenea e uuueuuue epereua yuuquuupoeauu u
nofory ece opuuakoeue. a, no onuue acfu sfo eepuo. Ho ue ece! K fory e kapan
kpeneuan pefanu ye cpopuunacu co ceour recfor, pae ueruoro peqoprupoeanacu
nop uero, u nonufka npureuufu ee e ppyror recfe roef okasafucn ue cfonu ypauo, kak
xofenocu u. Koueuo, ueeosrouo nopnucafu kapyk ofpenuuyk pefanu kpenea, kapu
euuf, kapyk raky, uo rouo xofn u pasnoufu no kykar kpeneu, ofuocnuecn k
pasuur pefannr. Sfo ucknkuf eosrouocfu nyfauuuu c kpeneor npu nocnepyke
copke aeforounn.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
3aknenku ouuo npuunfo cpyafu unu cpesafu, uo saacfyk sfo npueopuf k noepepeuuk
kak cuuraero pefanu, fak u pefanu, k kofopo cuuraeran una npukpenneua. Fopaspo
npoe u esonacuee euceepnufu saknenky.
Huorpa npu pasopke onf unu raka uaofpes ofkasueakfcn ofkpyueafucn. Ocoeuuo
acfo sfo npoucxopuf e pesynufafe kopposuu npu pasopke cfapux aeforoune.
Opaofka ynpnroro kpenea upkocfuk WD-40 (puc. 1.38) (unu auanoruuur
cpepcfeor) ouuo paef uyuu sqqekf kpene cuuraefcn. Rpocfo pacnunufe
upkocfu ua npopaeeeuu kpene (fakue cpepcfea ae ecero eunyckakfcn e
asposonuuo ynakoeke), nopopufe okono 15 ruu, a safer ofkpyueafe.


Puc. 1.38. Yuueepcanuuu norouuk npu pasopke aeforounn upkocfu WD-40

B uekofopux cnyanx nororaef nocfykueauue no kpeneuo pefanu paeuua ocunaefcn,
u pefanu rouo cunfu.
Huorpa npuxopufcn ofkycueafu onf c rako kycakaru unu opesafu uooeko, ofpyafu
raky syunor, cpesafu ronoeky onfa unu euufa rasoeur pesakor. Cunfu
npoeepfueakucn onf c nonykpyrno ronoeko rouo fake fakur refopor: e ronoeke
onfa npoceepnueaefcn ofeepcfue, puarefp kofoporo paeeu puarefpy cfepun onfa, e
pesynufafe ero ronoeka ofnapaef, a cfepeuu onfa erecfe c rako euueaefcn us
ofeepcfun.
Ecnu e uypyne usuocunacu npopesu ronoeku, ecnepcfeue ero eueepuyfu ero okasueaefcn
ueeosrouur, cnepyef npoceepnufu ronoeky uypyna u, cune pefanu, eueepuyfu unu
eupepuyfu uypyn. Yuueepcanuuu cnoco opuu c nopouur ynpnrur kpeneor ero
uarpee rasoeo ropenko (uarpeeafu uyuo po fex nop, noka refann ue cfauef kpacuur).
Rpokanueauue rapaufupoeauuo ypannef paeuuy, e pesynufafe ero pefanu nerko
cuuraefcn.
Roka eu ue sakouunu perouf u ue copanu aeforounu, ue eupacueafe cunfue c uero
pefanu (pae ecnu ouu ypyf sareunfucn ua uoeue) u ux kpeneuue snereufu. B
uekofopux cnyanx fakue pefanu okayfcn nonesuuru c ucfo uuqoprafueuo uenuk, fak
kak ua uux saacfyk npueopufcn uorep pefanu. Ha uoeo pefanu roef okasafucn
uenopxopnu kpouufeu, forpa (ecnu cfapue pefanu coxpauunucu) rouo cunfu cfapu u
nepecfaeufu ero ua uoeyk pefanu. Mycopor cfapue pefanu rouo cufafu nuuu nocne
foro, kak perouf nonuocfuk saeepueu u aeforounu rofoe k skcnnyafauuu.
Ecnu cocfonuue kysoea xopouee, a peroufa fpeykf fonuko ofpenuuue acfu (k npurepy,
ueruoro nornfo kpuno unu ua uer ouapyeua ckeosuan kopposun, unu ocnanu
kpenneuun), eunonunefcn vacmuvuan pasopka kysoea aeforounn (fo ecfu cuuraefcn
noepepeuuan pefanu, peroufupyefcn u ycfauaenueaefcn ua recfo). Ecnu e noepepeuu
ruorue kysoeuue pefanu u kysoe uypaefcn e kanufanuuor peroufe, fo pnn eunonueuun
peroufuux paof ueoxopura nonuan pasopka kysoea aeforounn.
Rpu peroufe kysoea ueoxopuro cuurafu euyfpeuukk oueky (rano foro fo oua roef
noepepufucn npu peroufe, euyfpeuunn oueka penaef ueeosrouur pocfyn k pefannr
kysoea c euyfpeuue cfopouu, a fako pocfyn poeonuuo acfo ueoxopur npu npoeepeuuu
puxfoeouux paof), pekopafueuue uaknapku, cfekna, aprafypy u npoue pefanu, kofopue
roryf ufu noepepeuu unu cfafu norexo pnn peroufuux paof. Huorpa peroufuue
paofu fpeykf acfuuoro peroufaa nopeecku unu nepepuero u sapuero rocfoe.
Rpu pasopke aeforounn e porauue-rapauux ycnoeunx rexauueckue ysnu
ueoxopuro cuurafu e nopnpke, ycfauoeneuuor saeopor-npouseopufener aeforounn
(nopnpok cunfun pernareufupyefcn uucfpykuue no peroufy saeopa-npouseopufenn).
Rocnepykan ycfauoeka ysnoe ua recfo fake eunonunefcn e nopnpke, onucauuor
uucfpykuue no peroufy, c conkpeuuer ecex perynupoeok, kofopue sapaef saeop-
npouseopufenu. Ecnu nocnepoeafenuuocfu pasopku u copku ue ypef conkpeua, fo
eosrouo (u pae oeuu eeponfuo) noepepeuue unu nonorka pefane.
-fou oecneufu eosrouocfu npoeepeuun peroufuux paof euyfpu canoua, a fake
pocfyn k peroufupyerur pefannr kysoea co cfopouu canoua, cuurakfcn ue fonuko
pekopafueuue snereufu ofpenku canoua, uo u koepuku, nauenu sapuux okoeux cfeuok
kysoea u pae peepu. Cnepyef fake peroufupoeafu cupeuun. Sfo uyuo cpenafu pnn foro,
fou useafu nonapauun ua uux uckp, kofopue conpoeopakf onuuuucfeo peroufuux
paof. Kpore foro, cupeuun npocfo reuakf e npouecce peroufa. Ecnu pyneeoe koneco u
ufok npuopoe ue peroufupykfcn, ux ueoxopuro sakpufu exnor.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Rpu pacuueke knenauux ueoe cnepyef conkpafu ocfopouocfu, fak kak eucoka
eeponfuocfu noepepeuun pasupaerux nauene. Koueuo, ecnu nauenu ypyf sareueuu
ua uoeue, fo keenupuan fouocfu npu pacuueke knenauux ueoe ue fpeyefcn: pefanu,
nopneaue sareue, roryf ufu cunfu nkur cnocoor, es ornnpku ua eosrouue
noepepeuun. Epuucfeeuuoe uenpereuuoe ycnoeue npu cunfuu sareunerux pefane
uyuo userafu noepepeuun cocepuux c uuru ropuux snereufoe.
Muorue pefanu kysoea sakpenneuu foeuo ceapko. Takue snereufu uyuo ofpyafu
foukur syunor unu npoceepnueafu ofeepcfun e ceapuux fokax c euyfpeuue cfopouu
kysoea epes eepxuu nucf nauenu.
Touu nopnpok nonuo pasopku kysoea npueecfu ueeosrouo, e nepeyk oepepu,
nofory, fo saacfyk ou of koucfpykuuu kysoea (cnepoeafenuuo, repy aeforounnru
pasuux rapok u ropene urekfcn pasnuun) u ero noepepeuu (konuecfeo, xapakfep
noepepeuu u ux recfopacnonoeuue). B caror oer nnaue nopnpok peroufaa
cnepyku: nopyuku u cnuuku cupeuu, euyfpeuuee oopypoeauue, pyku, nopyuu,
pepafenu, xporupoeauuan aprafypa, pekopafueuue uaknapku, ofpenouue parku,
nopnokofuuku, nnaqouu, euyfpeuuue neperopopku, oueka, pasnuuue rexauusru, cfekna,
snekfponpoeopka, fpyu ofonufenn u ppyrue pefanu u ysnu, ycfauoeneuuue euyfpu
canoua.

EM0h7A h YC7Ah08kA 005080l0 h 3AhEl0 C7Ek00
Repeoe, fo uyuo cpenafu nepep peroufupoeauuer nooeoro cfekna, cunfu sepkano
sapuero eupa. Ecnu ouo npukneeuo k nooeory cfekny, ue nufafecu ofopeafu ero.
ocfafouo ueruoro noporpefu uuukk acfu ocuoeauun sepkana (e kaecfee ucfouuka
fenna rouo ucnonusoeafu ouuyk sauranky) u sepkano narononyuo cuurefcn es
kakux-nuo noepepeuu.
Ycfauoeneuuoe ua ocuoeauuu sepkano sapuero eupa cuuraefcn npu cpeurauuu ero no
uanpaennkur ocuoeauun.
Ecnu urekfcn uaknapku cfoku nooeoro cfekna, fo ux uyuo cunfu.
Hapyuu ronpuur fpeyefcn euuurafu ocoeuuo akkypafuo, fou ue noruyfu ero.
Hucfpyreuf c eucfynaru pnn cunfun ronpuura npureunfu ue cfouf, nockonuky eucfynu
roryf pasufu cfekno.
Rpukneeuuoe ynnofueuue us nonuypefaua cpesaefcn cfanuuo npoeonoko (pnn sforo
enonue nopopef cfpyua qopfenuauo). auuyk onepauuk cnepyef uauuafu c yrna
cnepykur opasor: npoeonoka (cfpyua) npofnrueaefcn usuyfpu ua eck pnuuy, a safer
cuapyu, fake ua eck pnuuy. Runoopasuue peueuun npueopnf k paspuey npoeonoku,
nosfory cnepyef ufu oeuu akkypafuur. Onepauun noefopnefcn no ece pnuue
nepurefpa cfekna.
3apuee cfekno cuuraefcn fakur e opasor, kak u nooeoe, fonuko specu ye ue
fpeyefcn cuurafu sepkana. 3afo uyuo ue saufu nepep cunfuer cfekna peroufupoeafu
pononuufenuuue cfon-curuanu (saacfyk ouu sakpenneuu ureuuo ua cfekne).
Ro okouauuu peroufuux paof cfekna ycfauaenueakfcn ua recfo.
nn sforo cuaana cnepyef ypanufu ynnofueuue, ocfaeueecn ua parke nooeoro cfekna.
Ynnofueuue, usrofoeneuuoe us nonuypefaua, ypannefcn cfanuuo npoeonoko (ee pnuua
okono 50 cr). nn eunonueuun sfo paofu fpeyefcn norouuk: opuu enoeek
npokanueaef ynnofueuue (paccfonuue okono 30 cr of foku npoxopa npoeonoku), efopo
fnuef sa pyky ua ppyror kouue npoeonoku, npu sfor ou poneu fafenuuo cnepoeafu
kporke nooeoro (unu sapuero) cfekna. Onepauun noefopnefcn, noka ue ypef ypaneuo ece
ynnofueuue. 3afer neufy ynnofueuun cpesakf pesakor u eupaeuueakf fak, fou cno
racfuku ua parke nooeoro (unu sapuero) cfekna ue npeeuuan 12 rr.
Ynnofueuun us ppyrux rafepuanoe (ue ua nonuypefauoeo ocuoee) ypannkfcn unafener.
Rpu sfor acfo noepepaefcn nakokpacouoe nokpufue ua parke npoera kysoea, u nofory
fpeyefcn kocrefuecku perouf (po ycfauoeku cfekna).
Rocne sforo nas parku npoera kysoea ouaefcn (npofupaefcn ucfo eefouuk) u
oesupueaefcn c norouk pacfeopufenn. Oesupueakfcn fake kpan nooeoro (unu
sapuero) cfekna. Rocne cyuku soua nokpueaefcn knenur rpyufor pnn cfekna.
3afer cfekno ycfauaenueaefcn ua recfo, u onpepennkfcn recfa ycfauoeku ueufpoeouux
knuuuee. Cfekno cuuraefcn u euoeu oesupueaefcn pacfeopufener. Rocne sforo no
nepurefpy euyfpeuue cfopouu cfekna pnpor c fopuaru uauocufcn knenu rpyuf pnn
cfekna.
Ecnu ynnofueuue cunfo nonuocfuk, po refanna, fo ua parky cfekna uyuo uauecfu
knenu rpyuf no refanny u cyuufu ero ueckonuko ruuyf. Eannou cneuuanuuo racfuku
npucoepuunefcn k kpackopacnunufenk, us kofoporo eupaenueaefcn uenpepueuu uuyp
ynnofuufenuuo racfuku (uyuo cnepufu, fou racfuka nonapana ucknkufenuuo e nas
parku cfekna).
3afer ua cfekno npukpennnkfcn pee npucocku, cfekno ycfauaenueaefcn ua npoer u
pacnonaraefcn ua ueufpoeouux knuuunx.
RPHMEHAHHE
Heoxopuro npokoufponupoeafu nnofuocfu npunerauun cfekna ua uuyp ynnofuufenuuo
racfuku.
Rpu ouapyeuuu uennofuocfe uyuo poaeufu e sfu recfa ueruoro racfuku. Rocne
uaana nonurepusauuu ynnofuufenuuo racfuku ueufpoeouue knuuun ypannkfcn, u
ycfauaenueaefcn ronpuur.
Ro okouauuu paofu cnepyef npoeepufu reprefuuocfu cfekna. nn sforo ua uero uyuo
uanufu eopy u yepufucn, fo feu uef.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Ynnofuufenuuu pesuuoeu npoqunu ofpesaefcn no pnuue nepurefpa cfekna. Kpan
paspesa uyuo fouo cocfukoeafu, npuer recfo cfukoeku ponuo pacnonarafucn
nocepepuue uuue kporku cfekna.
Ecnu e cocfae ynnofuufenn exopuf cfonopuu npoqunu (fo ecfu ynnofuufenu cocfouf us
peyx acfe), fo sfof npoqunu ecfaennefcn e nas funa nacfokuu xeocf, nocne foro kak
cfekno ycfauoeneuo erecfe c pesuuoeur ynnofuufener ua kysoe. Cfonopuu npoqunu
oecneueaef uapeuyk reprefuuocfu, npuuran pesuuoeu ynnofuufenu cfekna k parke
npoera kysoea.
CtEM C8APhbX 30EMEh708 kY308A
efanu esparuoro kysoea coepuunkfcn e ocuoeuor refopor foeuo ceapku. Lar ceapku
(paccfonuue repy ceapuuru fokaru) onpepennefcn ee ua cfapuu npoekfupoeauun
aeforounn u nennefcn cfporo pernareufupoeauuur pnn kapo ropenu kysoea. Ou
enunef ua npouocfu ceapuux coepuueuu u oyk ecfkocfu koucfpykuuu, nosfory eo
useauue uapyueuun koucfpykuuu u usreueuun ee naparefpoe npu peroufe cnepyef
npupepueafucn sapauuoro npoekfupoeukaru suaeuun uara ceapku.
Ceapuue foku eupuu ueeoopyeuuur rnasor. Ouu npepcfaennkf coo ofneafku
ceapouoro snekfpopa ua refanne enapuuu rnyuuo ueckonuko pecnfux runnurefpa c
puarefpor okono 46 rr (puarefp ceapuo foku saeucuf of fonuuu refanna). Repep
fer kak pasLepuuufu ceapuue pefanu, cnepyef eckpufu ceapuue foku. Kak npaeuno, ouu
sakpufu nakokpacouur nokpufuer, nosfory ero uyuo cucfufu po ronoro refanna.
nn ofpeneuun snereufoe kysoea, coepuueuuux foeuo ceapko, ucnonusyefcn opuu us
fpex cnocooe:
+ nonuoe unu acfuuoe euceepnueauue foek ceapku (sfo uauonee acfo npureuneru
cnoco, korpa uyuo cunfu pefanu c uaureuuuuru noepepeuunru);
+ eupyka foek ceapku;
+ eupyka nucfa e rakcuranuuo nusocfu k nuuuu ceapku, nocnepyku ofpue refanna
repy fokaru ceapku u saucfka (sfof refop qakfuecku npepcfaennef coo cunfue
pefanu ue uenukor, a no acfnr).
Ceepneuue npouseopufcn cneuuanuuuru uucfpyreufaru, kofopue paofakf no funy
qpesu pnn rexauuecko opaofku. Rpepeapufenuuo ofreakfcn ueufpu ceapuux foek,
fo oecneueaef ueufpupoeauue ceepna. 4pesa npueopufcn e peueuue snekfpoppenuk,
a rnyuua qpesepoeauun ponua paeunfucn fonuue nucfa. Hreuuo sfo u npueopuf k
paspeneuuk ceapuux snereufoe. 4pesa epaaefcn eokpyr uenopeuuoro ueufpa u
opasyef kpyroeyk eufoky. Cnepoeafenuuo, ua efopor nucfe refanna ocfaefcn eufoka e
qopre uunuuppa. Ueufpanuuan acfu ceapuo foku, kofopan ocfaefcn ua efopor nucfe
refanna, cpesaefcn ppyro qpeso, kofopan eeopufcn e ocfaeuykcn uunuuppueckyk
eufoky. -fou ue reunfu ecnku pas qpesy ua snekfpoppenu, opaafuean kapyk
ceapuyk foky, uenecoopasuee npureunfu pee snekfpoppenu c pasuuru qpesaru.
Ceepneuue rouo eunonunfu u cnupanuuuru ceepnaru (puarefp ceepna paeeu puarefpy
ceapuo foku).
Rocne foro kak ece foku euceepneuu, a pefanu pasLepuueuu, ua onopuo pefanu
ocfakfcn ckeosuue ofeepcfun. Ouu sakpueakfcn npunoer. Sfu ofeepcfun rouo sakpufu,
ucnonusyn rasoeyk ceapky, opuako e fakor cnyae eosrouo koponeuue refanna sa cef
uarpeea po eucoko fernepafypu, nosfory naka ypef npepnofufenuue. Ecnu e
koponeuue npousouno, fo pnn ero ycfpaueuun ueoxopura puxfoeka.
nn eupyku ceapuux foek fpeyefcn cneuuanuuoe syuno. Bupyka ocyecfennefcn
epyuyk (ecnu ucnonusyefcn pyuoe syuno) unu nueerafueckur uucfpyreufor,
cuaeuuur syunor. Roepepeuuan pefanu eupyaefcn rakcuranuuo nusko k nuuuu,
eponu kofopo pacnonarakfcn ceapuue foku.
RPHMEHAHHE
He pekoreupyefcn ucnonusoeafu kucnopopuo-auefuneuoeyk ropenky. B pesynufafe ee
npureueuun refann cunuuo uarpeeaefcn, u ece ero rexauueckue xapakfepucfuku
yxypuakfcn (sa cef usreueuun euyfpeuue cfpykfypu refanna). Kpore foro, npu fakor
uarpeee saropakfcn nuskue k peroufuo soue euyfpeuuue aufukopposuouuue nokpufun,
fo npueopuf k paseufuk kopposuu.
Rocne foro kak eupyka sakoueua, ua onopuo pefanu ocfaefcn refannueckan neufa,
npurepuo nocepepuue kofopo pacnonaraefcn nuuun ceapuux foek.
nn pasLepuueuun ceapuux pefane npureunefcn fake unuqoeanuuan rauuuka c
puckor, kofopu eunonunef qyukuuk peyero uucfpyreufa. Ceapuue pefanu eupesakf
u c norouk annapafoe pnn pyroeo nnasreuuo pesku. Rpu sfor oecneueaefcn ucfu
pes uupuuo 22,5 r. Rpaepa, npu fakor cnocoe pasLepuueuun pefane, coepuueuuux
foeuo ceapko, ua ooux nucfax refanna ocfakfcn ofeepcfun.
puns pxosk sqs peuouusx pa6o
-fou nounfu, ua er ocuoeauu npuuuunu puxfoeouux paof, uyuo xofn u e oux
epfax npepcfaennfu, fo npoucxopuf c refannor e roreuf cunuuoro ypapa.
B ufarnoeauuo pefanu nocfonuuo npucyfcfeykf uanpneuun, kofopue u ypepueakf
pefanu e uekofopo qopre. B pesynufafe ypapa u usreueuun qopru pefanu (noneneuue
ernfuuu, eunyknocfu, raprouku u f. p.) eosuukakf uoeue uanpneuun. Roeepxuocfu
pefanu npefepneeaef npeepaeuun: eunyknan noeepxuocfu npu ypape curaefcn, nofor
eupaeuueaefcn, a safer cfauoeufcn eoruyfo (eecu npouecc sauuraef ponu cekyupu). Ecnu
ypap pocfafouo cuneu, fo refann eufnrueaefcn, a ecnu uanpneuue ua paspue
pocfafouo eenuko peefcn. Bokpyr peqoprupoeauuo souu nonennefcn rpauuuu nonc
recfo neperua, ua kofopu pecfeoeano uanpneuue cafun (puc. 1.39).
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.39. eqoprauun uapyuo nauenu peepu aeforounn

Hreuuo e rpauuuor nonce eosuukakf rakcuranuuue euyfpeuuue uanpneuun refanna.
Kak cnepcfeue, sfa nuuun neperua reuaef eoccfauoeneuuk nepeouaanuuo qopru
pefanu.
Hernyokyk u ueonuuyk ernfuuy rouo eunpaeufu, ecnu uauocufu uecocpepofoeuuue
nerkue ypapu no ee eepuuue.
Ouupuyk ernfuuy uyuo npaeufu nocfeneuuo, akkypafuo cuuran euyfpeuuue uanpneuun
uauuan of kporku neperua u npopeurancu k eepuuue ernfuuu no cnupanu. Rpaeky
fako ernfuuu nyue npouseopufu ua cunfor snereufe e ropusoufanuuor nonoeuuu, a
nop pefanu noreafu onopuyk noppepky (uakoeaneuky), kpueusua noeepxuocfu kofopo
nuska k kpueusue noeepxuocfu uenoepepeuuo pefanu (puc. 1.40).


Puc. 1.40. Rpaeka ernfuuu npu ueonuuo eufnke refanna

Ha puc. 1.40 (a) ueonuuan ernfuua npaeufcn nyfer uecocpepofoeuuux ypapoe no ueufpy
ernfuuu.
Ouupuan ernfuua ua puc. 1.40 () npaeufcn nerkuru u acfuru ypaparu no rpauuuo
nuuuu ernfuuu c nocfeneuuur npopeueuuer k ueufpy ernfuuu (puc. 1.40 (e)).
B saeucurocfu of cfeneuu peqoprauuu (unu kopposuouuux paspyueuu) kysoeuux pefane
eupennkf cnepykue eupu peroufuux paof nuueeux noeepxuocfe kysoeuux pefane:
+ perouf 0 ycfpaueuue renkux ernfuu ua nuueeux noeepxuocfnx kysoeuux pefane es
uapyueuun u noepepeuun nakokpacouoro nokpufun;
+ perouf 1 ycfpaueuue noepepeuu po 20 % noeepxuocfu kysoeuo pefanu e
nerkopocfynuux recfax;
+ perouf 2 ycfpaueuue noepepeuu noeepxuocfu kysoeuo pefanu co ceapko unu
perouf 1, uo noeepxuocfu kysoeuo pefanu peqoprupoeaua po 50 % nnoapu;
+ perouf 3 ycfpaueuue noepepeuu po 30 % noeepxuocfu pefanu, npu sfor fpeyefcn
eufnka unu npaeka, ycfpaueuue ycapku refanna, eupeska ueperoufonpuropuux yacfkoe
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
nauenu, usrofoeneuue peroufuux ecfaeok (fako perouf ceac pepko npoeopufcn, a
erecfo usrofoeneuun peroufuux ecfaeok noepepeuuan pefanu nonuocfuk sareunefcn;
fer ue reuee ecnu npuxopufcn peroufupoeafu aeforounu, cunfu c npouseopcfea,
npuopecfu pefanu pnn kofoporo safpypuufenuuo, fo uyuo yrefu usrofaenueafu
sannafu);
+ perouf 4 sfo perouf 3, fonuko noepepeuue noeepxuocfu pefanu cocfaennef onee
30 % nnoapu;
+ sareua noepepeuuue pefanu kysoea sareunkfcn ua uoeue npu acfuuo sareue
noepepeuuan acfu pefanu kysoea sareunefcn peroufuo ecfaeko;
+ kpynuonouu perouf sfo sareua ue pefanu, a noepepeuuo acfu kysoea c
ucnonusoeauuer nokoe pefane of eupakoeauuux kysoeoe; npoeopufcn pasrefka,
ofpeska, noprouka, eufnka, npaeka, puxfoeka u ceapka coepuunerux ysnoe, fo ecfu
npakfuecku ece eupu kysoeuux peroufuux paof.
paska qeane kyiosa
0PA8kA h 3AMEhA CPEhEh C70hkh kY308A
Cpepunn cfoka pacnonaraefcn e okoeo acfu kysoea.
Ouuo npu noepepeuuu peepu opuoepereuuo peqoprupyefcn u cpepunn cfoka. Sfo
enunef ua cocfonuue nepepue peepu, usreunef pacnonoeuue sapue peepu (ux ocu
ycfauoeneuu ua cpepue cfoke), a fake peqoprupyef kpuuy (kpuua noppepueaefcn
cpepue cfoko). Kak eupufe, peqoprauun cpepue cfoku poeonuuo uenpunfuoe
noepepeuue, kofopoe npueopuf k eecura cyecfeeuuur peqoprauunr kysoea.
Cpepunn cfoka eknkaef e cen pee ocuoeuue acfu: uapyuyk ufarnoeauuyk acfu (e
qopre anku) u uaknapky (acfo c ofeepcfunru u npueapeuuyk k ofopfoeke uapyuoro
npoqunn). Huunn acfu cpepue cfoku coepuunefcn c noporor kysoea, a eepxunn c
eepxor okoeo acfu kysoea. Ecnu cpepunn cfoka peqoprupoeaua, ee rouo nuo
ofperoufupoeafu (eunpaeufu), nuo sareuufu.
Repep fer kak npucfynufu k npaeke cpepue cfoku, uyuo peroufupoeafu aeforounuuue
peepu u cupeuun (us canoua fake yupaefcn koeep c nona kysoea) u cunfu co cfoku
pekopafueuue uaknapku.
Rpaeka cfoku npouseopufcn c norouk porkpafa. Ou ynupaefcn e pee pepeenuuue
nopknapku, kofopue pacnonarakfcn y uuuero u eepxuero ocuoeauu cfoku. Ecnu e
uaknapke urekfcn ofeepcfun, fo npu puxfoeke uakoeaneuka npoeopufcn epes uux. Ecnu e
ofeepcfu uef, fo npuxopufcn npopesafu uaknapky. B sfor cnyae, nocne foro kak qopra
uapyuoro npoqunn cfoku ypef eoccfauoeneua, npopes saeapueaefcn.
Ecnu e nnauupyefcn sareua cpepue cfoku, fo sfo, yeu, ece paeuo ue usaennef of
npaeku. efanu, qopra kofopux usreuunacu us-sa peqoprauuu cpepue cfoku, ponuu
saunfu ceoe recfo, u fonuko nocne sforo rouo npouseopufu sareuy.
Rpu npaeke cpepue cfoku c uenuk nocnepyke sareuu peroufupykfcn
aeforounuuue peepu u cupeuun, yupaefcn koeep c nona, cuuraefcn oueka kpuuu, co
cfoku cuurakfcn pekopafueuue uaknapku.
Rpuopuan nauenu u pyneeoe koneco sakpueakfcn fkauuk, yraro unu nonusfuneuoeo
nneuko.
B sfor cnyae npaeka cfoku ypef caro oe, c norouk fonkakero porkpafa.
Fnaeuoe, fou peqoprupoeauuue pefanu saunnu uyuoe nonoeuue ua okoeo acfu
kysoea. -ae ecero opuoepereuuo c npaeko cpepue cfoku npuxopufcn npaeufu u nopor,
uuae pefanu ue cfauoenfcn e nepeouaanuuyk nosuuuk (poaeapuuyk).
Rocne foro kak npaeka sakoueua, noepepeuuyk cpepukk cfoky uyuo ypanufu. Sfo
rouo cpenafu nyfer eupesku, paspeneuun ceapuux foek, a fake opuoepereuuo c
norouk sfux peyx refopoe (e saeucurocfu of koucfpykuuu aeforounn).
Cpesafu cpepukk cfoky uyuo e eepxue acfu ua paccfonuuu 35 cr of kouua (fak,
fou cpes ue nonapan e souy conpneuun). Bupesafu uaknapky cnepyef ua 23 cr uue
fakur opasor, fou cpes npoxopun nocpepu ofeepcfun (ecnu ouo ureefcn) sfo
ueoxopuro pnn creeuun nocnepyke ceapku. -fou ue noepepufu ocfakykcn acfu
uaknapku, ceapuue foku cpeuuyfo acfu uyuo euceepnueafu co cfopouu uapyuoro
npoqunn.
Huunn acfu cpepue cfoku roef ufu eunonueua kak epuuoe uenoe c noporor nuo
coepuunfucn foeuo ceapko c nouepouor unu noporor (unu c nouepouor u noporor
opuoepereuuo).
Ecnu cpepunn cfoka npepcfaennef coo epuuoe uenoe c noporor, fo uoean ponua
sakauueafucn nonepeuo acfuk (ofpesok nopora kysoea, c norouk kofoporo cpepunn
cfoka coepuunefcn c noporor). eqoprupoeauuan cfoka eupesaefcn c ucnonusoeauuer
onrapku (unu euceepnueakfcn ceapuue foku). Mecfa paspesoe pasreakfcn fak, fou
ocfaeancn npunyck pnn panuueue noprouku. Ropor eupesaefcn, a acfu, coepuueuuue
nyfer foeuo ceapku, pasLepuunkfcn.
Rocne foro kak noepepeuuan cfoka ypaneua, ueoxopuro saucfufu ece sayceuuu,
kofopue ocfakfcn nocne eupesku. Roeepxuocfu refanna uyuo oucfufu of ocfafkoe
nakokpacouoro nokpufun, paeuuu u f. p. 3afer sauaefcn uoean cfoka, npouseopufcn
ycfauoeka ee ua recfo u noprouka.
Rpu coepuueuuu cpepue cfoku c nouepouor unu noporor (unu u c fer, u c ppyrur)
foeuo ceapko pnn cunfun cfoku ueoxopuro ypanufu ceapuue foku. 3afer
sauakfcn sayceuuu, eunonunefcn saucfka onopuo noeepxuocfu refanna. Hoean
cfoka ouaefcn, npouseopufcn ycfauoeka ee ua recfo u noprouka.
Repep fer kak sakpenufu cpepukk cfoky, uyuo npoeepufu pasrepu puarouane. Ecnu
ouu coenapakf c feru, fo ykasauu e pokyreufax saeopa-usrofoeufenn, cpepunn cfoka
npepeapufenuuo sakpennnefcn c norouk pyuux fuckoe. Bosrouo sakpenneuue c
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ucnonusoeauuer euufoe-caropesoe, npu sfor opuoepereuuo rouo ycfauaenueafu u
perynupoeafu pee peepu. Rocne npoeepnefcn pacnonoeuue peepe u sasopu.
Rocne foro kak peepu noporuauu, ux uyuo cunfu, a safer npouseecfu foeuyk ceapky
cpepue cfoku c ppyruru pefannru c noporor u nouepouor unu u c noporor, u
nouepouor (e saeucurocfu of koucfpykuuu aeforounn).
0PA8kA h 3AMEhA 00hEP0h08
eqoprauun nouepouoe cfpauuu cou nkoro aefoenapenuua. Muorue nkpu cufakf,
fo npu peqoprauuu nouepouoe aeforounu cfauoeufcn uenpuropuur k ucnonusoeauuk,
eepu nouepou ue fonuko ycunufenuuan pefanu pusroeukoe, nona kysoea, nona
arauoro ofceka, uo u aropfusafop oLera nepepue acfu kysoea. Pouepou nornoaef
peqoprauuk npu aeapuu, ue ponyckan pacnpocfpaueuun souu peqoprauuu e canou.
Ecfecfeeuuo, peqoprauun fako eauo pefanu roef npueecfu k fory, fo skcnnyafauun
aeforounn cfauef ueesonacuo.
-ae ecero pocfafouo sareuufu peqoprupoeauuu nouepou ua uoeu. Ecnu e
nouepou peqoprupoeau uesuaufenuuo, fo ero rouo ue sareunfu, a npaeufu.
RPHMEHAHHE
Rpofneuuocfu peqoprupyero souu u cfeneuu peqoprauuu sfo ocuoeuue qakfopu,
ocuoeueancu ua kofopue cnepyef npuuurafu peueuue o npaeke unu sareue nouepoua
nocne TR.
3a paofy no npaeke u sareue nouepouoe uauuakery racfepy nyue ue pafucn,
nockonuky sfa pefanu cyecfeeuuo enunef ua esonacuocfu skcnnyafauuu aeforounn.
Ecnu peqoprauun nouepoua ureef onuuyk pnuuy, fo pae sfa renkan cknapka ue
noreuaef eoccfauoeufu nepeouaanuuyk qopry u nonoeuue nouepoua, npuer c
nonuur coxpaueuuer ecex ero xapakfepucfuk u qyukuu. nn sforo pocfafouo
eocnonusoeafucn porkpafor. Ho ecnu peqoprauun suaufenuua, fo nouepou npupefcn
sareuufu. Rpaeka npu fako peqoprauuu usreuuf cfpykfypy refanna, fo yreuuuuf ero
npouocfu, a sfo, e ceok oepepu, usreuuf xapakfepucfuku ecero kysoea aeforounn.
Rockonuky aropfusupykan qyukuun nouepouoe ue ponua ufu uapyueua, npu
acfuuo sareue nouepouoe ueoxopuro npouseopufu eupesky fonuko e fex recfax,
kofopue ykasauu e pokyreufauuu saeopa-usrofoeufenn ua aeforounu.
RPHMEHAHHE
Bupeska ue ponua npouseopufucn e aropfusupykux souax, fo ecfu e souax,
npepuasuaeuuux pnn nornoeuun ypapa.
Ecnu pokyreufauun saeopa-usrofoeufenn ofcyfcfeyef, aropfusupykue souu rouo
euneufu no cnocoar ux cospauun. Aropfusupykue souu cospakfcn ua cknapkax,
opasykuxcn npu ufarnoeke (fakur opasor npepycrafpueaefcn, fo npu ypape
nouepou ypef crnf e raprouky u nornofuf ypap). Aropfusauuouuue ceocfea
nouepoua ycunueakfcn sa cef npupauun ery E-opasuo qopru u qoprupoeauun
cneuuanuuux ofeepcfu unu ckeosuux npopese. C sfo e uenuk npureunkfcn
ufarnoeauuue npoqunu, u nouepouu urekf nepereuuoe ceeuue.
Rpu acfuuo sareue nouepoua coepuuufenuuan ryqfa ue fpeyefcn. Coepuueuue
npouseopufcn pyroeo ceapko e cpepe uuepfuoro rasa. Rpu ycfauoeke nouepoua ou
opesaefcn ua 0,5 rr nepep qapfykor, nocne ero uoeu nouepou noprounefcn u
ycfauaenueaefcn ua uanou. Hoeu nouepou npueapueaefcn ecfuk pyroeo ceapko e
cpepe uuepfuoro rasa. C pusroeukor koneca nouepou coepuunefcn nyfer foeuo
ceapku (y annapafa foeuo ceapku ponuu ufu ypnuueuuue saxeafu pnn snekfpopoe).
3auafu ceapouu uoe nouepoua c qapfykor ue fpeyefcn ou nokpueaefcn cnoer
reprefuka. Ha nepepuue nouepouu u fpaeepcy c norouk kpackonynufa uauocufcn
nokpufue us upkoro eocka, a safer uuunn acfu pusroeukoe nokpueaefcn
seykousonnuuouuo racfuko.
RPHMEHAHHE
Pkan paofa c nouepouor npaeka unu sareua, e for ucne u acfuuan sareua,
ponua eunonunfucn fonuko ua cfeupe, oecneueaker fouyk eueepky naparefpoe.
Ecnu nopouoro cfeupa uef, fo npaeky unu sareuy nouepoua nyue poeepufu CTO.
3areua nouepoua npouseopufcn cnepykur opasor.
Pouepou eupesaefcn pyuo uooeko. Ecnu eupes cpenafu kocur, sfo oneruf
noprouky uoeo acfu nouepoua. Ceapuue foku paspennkfcn eupesuuru qpesaru.
Takur opasor npoceepnueaefcn fonuko fa pefanu, kofopyk nnauupyefcn sareuufu.
Rocne foro kak peqoprupoeauuu nouepou cunf, cnepyef noprofoeufu recfa coepuueuun
uoeoro nouepoua c kysoeor aeforounn.
Ceapouue foku u oaru kopposuu ypannkfcn pyuo unuqoeanuuo rauuuko. Ecnu
ureefcn pocfyn k peroufuo soue, oaru kopposuu nyue ecero ypannfu neckocfpyuur
annapafor. -fou noeucufu kaecfeo foeuo ceapku, uoeyk acfu nouepoua cnepyef
fafenuuo saucfufu. Rocne sforo uyuo uauecfu aufukopposuouuoe nokpufue.
Hoeu nouepou ycfauaenueaefcn ua kysoe aeforounn u sakpennnefcn fucouuru
sauraru k pefanu, ocfaeuecn ua recfe. Pouepou npueapueaefcn foeuo ceapko k
pusroeuky unu nony arauoro ofceka. Paspes nouepoua ceapueaefcn ue foeuo
ceapko, a ecfuk uenpepueuur ueor.
RPHMEHAHHE
Heoxopuryk rexauueckyk npouocfu coepuueuun pefane oecneueaef fonuko
ckeosuan ceapka.
Rockonuky nouepou nennefcn ycunufenuuur snereufor kysoea u opuur us qakfopoe,
onpepennkux ero ecfkocfu, ueonufuue racfepa npu acfuuo sareue nufakfcn
ycunufu nouepou.
RPHMEHAHHE
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Ycuneuue nouepoua yeenuueaef npouocfu aropfusauuouuo souu u, kak cnepcfeue,
cuuaef aropfusupykue ceocfea nouepoua. B pesynufafe aropfusauun nouepoua
npu ypape roef okasafucn uepocfafouo, nornoeuun suepruu ypapa e nouepoue ue
npousopef, a peqoprauun pacnpocfpauufcn k canouy fo ecfu e recfo, fafenuuo
oeperaeroe of peqoprauu ece koucfpykuue aeforounn.
Hyuo noruufu, fo aeforounu raprouuuu rexauusr, u kapan pefanu onapaef
ureuuo feru ceocfearu, kofopue ueoxopuru pnn uopranuuo u esonacuo ero
skcnnyafauuu. Rosfory ue cfouf nufafucn ycuneuuer nouepoua ynyuufu paofy
aeforounuuux koucfpykfopoe: kak npaeuno, pesynufaf okasueaefcn npofueononouur
sapyrauuory.
0PA8kA h 3AMEhA kPbmh A870M05h0P
Kpuua roef ufu noepepeua npu okoeor uaespe ua eucokoe npennfcfeue (k npurepy,
pepeeo unu cfeuy), a fake npu nepeeopofe aeforounn. Uenecoopasuocfu npaeku kpuuu
onpepennefcn oLeror noepepeuu. Ouuo npu okoeor uaespe ua eucokoe
npennfcfeue kpuuy npoe sareuufu, er npaeufu, fak kak eoccfauoeneuue
nepeouaanuuo qopru kpuuu e sfor cnyae npouecc ue npocfo cnouu u fpypoerku,
uo u nonpocfy ueeuropuu. A eof ecnu peqoprauun ueeenuka, eosuukna e pesynufafe
pocfafouo cnaux ypapoe, rouo npouseecfu eukonofky u puxfoeky peqoprupoeauuo
noeepxuocfu.
o uaana peroufuux paof npouseopufcn peroufa canoua aeforounn (cuurakfcn
cupeuun u pasupaefcn oueka kpuuu), pyneeoe koneco u nauenu npuopoe fafenuuo
sakpueakfcn fkauuk, yraro unu nonusfuneuoeo nneuko. Ecnu ueoxopuro, cuurakfcn
peepu.
Rpaeka onuuux ernfuu eunonunefcn c norouk fonkakero porkpafa,
ycfauaenueaeroro ua pepeenuuyk onopy. orkpaf nepepaef onopuoe ycunue nony kysoea,
a non noppepueaefcn porkpafor nop puuer kysoea aeforounn. Xenafenuuo
ucnonusoeafu pesuuoeyk ronoeky porkpafa unu pasreafu qacouuu knuu repy
ronoeko porkpafa u kpuue.
Rpaeka ernfuu ua kpuue uuer ue ofnuaefcn of npaeku ppyrux kysoeuux pefane no
cnocoar u refopar puxfoeku. Opuoepereuuo c kpuue npaeufcn u eepxunn acfu
okoeo noeepxuocfu ocuoeauun kysoea (fakan npaeka eunonunefcn c norouk knuua,
kofopu ycfauaenueaefcn repy porkpafor u euyfpeuue noeepxuocfuk okoeo cfeuku
kysoea).
Puxfoeka npouseopufcn nerkuru ypaparu ue puxfoeouur ronofkor, a pepeenuuo
kunuko. eno e for, fo nnoapu noeepxuocfu kpuuu onuuan, a kpan kpuuu npu
puxfoeke npakfuecku ue peqoprupykfcn, e pesynufafe nucfoeo refann ypnuunefcn u
nonennefcn ecnyueauue (ypnuueuuu nysupu). Rosfory puxfoeouu ronofok
npureunefcn fonuko pnn fouko, ofpenouo puxfoeku.
Okpyrneuuue yacfku puxfykfcn no uanpaeneuunr, napannenuuur opfuky kpuuu.
B uekofopux cnyanx npuxopufcn sareunfu opuoepereuuo u kpuuy, u npoer nooeoro
cfekna, u nauenu sapue okoeo cfeuku kysoea. 4akfuecku sfu pefanu nennkfcn
npoponeuuer kpuuu, a e uekofopux ropennx aeforoune ouu npepcfaennkf epuuoe
uenoe c kpuue. Cyecfeykf ropenu, e kofopux sapuue okoeue nauenu coepuunkfcn c
sapuuru kpununru unu nennkfcn acfuk sapuux kpunuee. B fakux cnyanx uyuo eupafu
opuu us peyx eapuaufoe: nuo paspenufu coepuueuuue pefanu, nuo sareuufu ece erecfe.
efanu paspennkf no ceapouur fokar (ecnu kpuua u ee npoponeuue coepuunkfcn
foeuo ceapko) unu npocfo paspesakf (ecnu kpuua u ee npoponeuue nennkfcn
epuuur uenur). 3afer pefanu coepuunkf nyfer rasoeo ceapku.
Korpa npuxopufcn sareunfu kpuuy erecfe c ee npoponeuuer, po uaana paof uyuo
cuurafu peepu, npuopuyk nauenu, cupeuun, oueky kpuuu, uuorpa kanof, kpuuky
arauuka u kpunun.
Repep sareuo kpuuu ueoxopuro eunpaeufu nepekocu kysoea (ecnu ouu urekfcn). Korpa
kpuua cunfa, eepxunn acfu kysoea cfauoeufcn pocfynuo, cnepoeafenuuo, ynpoaefcn
npaeka peqoprauu u noepepeuu. Rpu eunpaeneuuu peqoprupoeauuux recf uyuo
fafenuuo koufponupoeafu npaeunuuocfu qopru nyfer ycfauoeku peepe u uoeo kpuuu.
Rpu cunuuo peqoprauuu eepxue acfu kysoea peqoprupoeauuue pefanu rouo
sareuufu uoeuru (uanpurep, ypanufu acfu kysoea ua nonoeuue eucofu cfoek nooeoro
cfekna).
Repep ycfauoeko uoeo kpuuu ee uyuo sakpenufu, a safer npoeepufu npaeunuuocfu
qopru npoera nooeoro u sapuero cfekon. nn sforo nuo ycfauaenueakfcn cfekna, nuo
npureunkfcn uanouu, nuo usrepnkfcn npoeru. Touo fak e npoeepnefcn
npaeunuuocfu qopru peepuux npoeroe. Rpepeapufenuuoe sakpenneuue eunonunefcn
nyfer foeuo ceapku: pefanu npuxeafueakfcn e ueckonukux fokax ceapko, u, ecnu
ece pasrepu u qopru npoeroe coenapakf c fpeyeruru, npouseopufcn okouafenuuan
ceapka.
Ecnu sareua kpuuu fpeyef paspesa ua nonoeuue eucofu cfoek nooeoro cfekna, fo fako
paspes saeapueaefcn c norouk pyroeo ceapku e cpepe uuepfuoro rasa. Rpu eupesauuu
kpuuu no ecer efuper yrnar enafenuua feeppan naka ueoe, nockonuky sfo ynyuuf
reprefuuocfu (fo roef ufu uenpunfuee, a uuorpa u onacuee, er npofekakan
aeforounuuan kpuua, eepu e rauuue urekfcn ee u pasnuuue snekfponpuopu!).
Ecnu kpuua nnacfraccoean (nopouue kpuuu ue pepkocfu e rukpoaefoycax u ruuu-
esuax), fo oua npukpennnefcn k refannueckory ocfoey cneuuanuuuru saknenkaru, a
recfa coepuueuu nokpueakfcn reprefukor. -fou cunfu fakyk kpuuy, saknenku
euceepnueakfcn u ypannkfcn.
Hekofopue aeforounuuue kpuuu, usrofoeneuuue us cnoucforo nnacfuka,
saeanuuoeueakfcn e refann. Takue kpuuu nennkfcn cLeruuru. Cyecfeykf u fakue,
kofopue kpennfcn k refannueckory ocfoey usuyfpu euufaru. Hx cunfue fake ue fpeyef
pesku u euceepnueauun.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
PEM0h7 kY308hbX 0AhE0Eh
Ecfecfeeuuo, ycfpaueuuer nepekocoe npoeroe u eoccfauoeneuuer reorefpuu kysoea
perouf ue orpauuueaefcn. Bepu npoeru roryf ufu nonuocfuk eoccfauoeneuu u
coofeefcfeoeafu pokyreufauuu saeopa-usrofoeufenn ua aeforounu, a koufponuuue u
asoeue foku kysoea pacnonarafucn ua uyuux recfax, uo, fer ue reuee, aeforounu
skcnnyafupoeafu uenusn. Heoxopuro ee eoccfauoeufu qopry u pasrepu
peqoprupoeauuux nauene kysoea.
Ycfpaueuue peqoprauu kysoeuux nauene cocfouf us peyx ocuoeuux onepauu:
+ npepeapufenuuan npaeka, npu kofopo cuurakfcn uanpneuun ypapa (e
peqoprupoeauuor refanne ecerpa npucyfcfeykf euyfpeuuue uanpneuun);
+ okouafenuuoe eupaeuueauue uepoeuocfe (e for ucne u ruuu-uepoeuocfe) po fex
nop, noka reorefpun noeepxuocfu u pasrepu peroufupyero pefanu rakcuranuuo ue
npunusnfcn k reorefpuu noeepxuocfu u pasrepar uoeo pefanu.
RPHMEHAHHE
Rpepeapufenuuan npaeka noeepxuocfe uasueaefcn eukonofko, a okouafenuuoe
eupaeuueauue puxfoeko. Bce sfu paofu eunonunkfcn fonuko forpa, korpa ocuoeauue u
kapkac kysoea ye eoccfauoeneuu.
Repep uaanor eukonofku u puxfoeouux paof cnepyef cunfu ece ysnu u pefanu,
kofopue roryf noreuafu sfur onepauunr. Onsafenuuo uyuo peroufupoeafu fe ysnu u
pefanu, kofopue roryf noepepufucn npu eukonofke unu puxfoeke. Hanpurep, npu puxfoeke
aeforounuuo peepuu oeuu nerko eupaeufu cfekno unu noepepufu okoeoe sepkano.
CLeruue pefanu (kpunun, peepu, kanof, kpuuku arauuka u kanofa) ypouee
eoccfauaenueafu, korpa ouu cunfu c kysoea aeforounn. Koueuo, npu uecnouux
noepepeuunx, fpeykux ueonuuoro oLera puxfoeouux paof, eoccfauaenueafu
cLeruue pefanu rouo u ue cuuran ux c kysoea, nockonuky peroufa u nocnepyku
roufa sauurakf poeonuuo ruoro epereuu. Opuako kaecfeo puxfoeku ypef ropaspo
euue, ecnu pefanu pacnonaraefcn e ropusoufanuuo nnockocfu ua cneuuanuuo nopcfaeke,
a ue e eepfukanuuo, npuer es nopcfaeku.
Kak npaeuno, nepep uaanor puxfoeouux paof c nuueeo cfopouu peroufupyero
nauenu cnepyef ypanufu nakokpacouoe nokpufue, a npu ueoxopurocfu u
aufukopposuouuoe (npofueouyruoe) c euyfpeuue cfopouu peroufupyero nauenu.
Cnepyef ofrefufu, fo e uekofopux cnyanx puxfoeka ocyecfeura es uapyueuun
nakokpacouoro nokpufun, opuako sfo eosrouo fonuko npu onpepeneuuux funax
noepepeuu (uanpurep, npu rnapko ernfuue, kofopyk rouo eupaeufu c norouk
karepu rna).
Perouf cnepyef uauuafu c fex yacfkoe, kofopue onapakf onuue ecfkocfuk u
onuuur conpofueneuuer peqoprauuu (raprouku us refanna, peep ecfkocfu, nuuu
neperuoe nauenu, ycunufene u f. p.). eno e for, fo ecnu perouf uauuafu c yacfkoe,
conpofueneuue peqoprauuu kofopux uue, fo npu peroufe ecfkux yacfkoe rnrkue euoeu
peqoprupykfcn u npupefcn onnfu sauurafucn puxfoeko ye, kasanocu u,
ofperoufupoeauuoro yacfka nauenu.
Puxfoeka paofa npakfuecku keenupuan u fpeyef ue cfonuko cunu, ckonuko yreuun.
Mefann uyuo yecfeoeafu. Cunuuue pasposueuuue ypapu ocfaennkf sarefuue cnepu
ua peroufupyero nauenu. Kpore foro, e sfor cnyae refann cunuuo eufnrueaefcn, fo
fpeyef nocnepyke ero ycapku. Haunyuu sqqekf pocfuraefcn, ecnu puxfoeka
npoeopufcn nerkuru u acfuru ypaparu cnepu of puxfoeouoro uucfpyreufa ua
peroufupyero nauenu ueonuuue, nerko sapenueakfcn nyfer unafneeku, a eufnka
refanna ueeenuka.
Oueuufu kaecfeo puxfoeku rouo eusyanuuo, cocfeeuuo napouuk unu c norouk
nuueku. Bunyknue unu eoruyfue noeepxuocfu nerko sarefuu, ecnu crofpefu ua uux nop
yrnor unu coky. Eucfpoe nornaueauue napouuk nororaef ouapyufu peqekfu
noeepxuocfu, a c ucnonusoeauuer nuueku nerko koufponupyefcn kaecfeo peroufa
nnockux noeepxuocfe.
PEM0h7 00P0l08
Roporu ue fakan y uecyecfeeuuan pefanu, kak sfo uuorpa npuunfo pyrafu. Cufan
noporu ue cnuukor onsafenuuur, yfu nu ue pekopafueuur snereufor, ruorue
aefoenapenuuu npakfuecku ue opaakf euurauun ua ux cocfonuue. A eepu noporu ue
npocfo fak uaxopnfcn c eueuue u okoeo cfopou nouepouoe e soue kauuu ouu
cnyaf pnn saufu of pasnuuux eupocoe (uauuan of rpnsu u sakauuean karunru,
nefnuru us-nop konec) u cnaux ypapoe. Ter ue reuee ocuoeuo npuuuo, eusueake
noepepeuun noporoe, nennefcn uepeuocfu k uur co cfopouu enapenuua.
Ecnu aeforounu ue npouen aufukopposuouuyk opaofky, e nepeyk oepepu cfpapakf
kak pas noporu. Kak npaeuno, kopposun pasLepaef noeepxuocfu nopora fak, fo o
kocrefueckor peroufe ue roef ufu u peu nopor uyuo sareuufu nuo nonuocfuk,
nuo acfuuo. eno e for, fo paneko ue ecerpa ypaefcn eoepern sarefufu noneneuue
kopposuu, nockonuky ee oaru ua nopore ouuo nonennkfcn nop kpacko u euupakfcn
ua noeepxuocfu ye forpa, korpa refann npakfuecku nonuocfuk paspyueu. Ter ue reuee
ecnu perynnpuo ocrafpueafu noporu, ue ponyckafu ckonneuun ua rpnsu u enaru, fo oaru
kopposuu ue eosuukuyf.
Roepepeuue noporoe roef ufu censauo u c aeapue. B sfor cnyae eosroua fpeuua
e nopore, crnfue ennofu po raprouku unu nepekoc. Ecnu nopor nonyun opuo unu
ueckonuko noepepeuu, fo nepep eoccfauoeneuuer ero cnepyef ycfpauufu nepekocu
kysoea, a y safer eunonunfu perouf nuo sareuy nopora unu ero acfu.
Roporu roryf ufu npueapuuru u cLeruuru.
Hpueapuie nopoaunpueapueakfcn k ocuoeauuk kysoea aeforounn, opasyn npu sfor
uuukk acfu kysoea. Ceuuie nopoauycfauaenueakfcn c okoeo cfopouu ocfoea kysoea
u npukpennnkfcn k ocuoeauuk kysoea.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Pasyreefcn, perouf cLeruux noporoe npoe, er npueapuux, xofn u sa cef foro, fo
nopor eupesafu ue uyuo, a rouo npocfo cunfu ero, eueuufue euufu-caropesu, kofopuru
ou kpenufcn k ocuoeauuk kysoea. Rpu peroufe cLeruue noporu cuurakfcn, a npaeka
npouseopufcn ua eepcfake fouo fak e, kak u npaeka nko kysoeuo pefanu, c norouk
fex e uucfpyreufoe pnn npaeku u puxfoeku.
Repep ycfauoeko ofperoufupoeauuoro nopora ua recfo ero euyfpeuuue noeepxuocfu
nokpueakfcn aufukopposuouuo racfuko.
Ha racfuke skouorufu ue cfouf, nockonuky noporu oeuu nopeepeuu kopposuu.
Rpu cunuuo usLepeuuocfu nopora kopposue peroufupoeafu ero skouoruecku
ueeuropuo ropaspo npoe sareuufu. Uenecoopasuo peroufupoeafu fonuko ueonuuue
noepepeuun nopora, a npu suaufenuuux unu pae cpepuux noepepeuunx ero nyue
sareuufu.
Cnepyef ofrefufu, fo npu cpepuux noepepeuunx npueapuoro nopora perouf ee
eosroeu. Opuako sfo ofuocufcn nuuu k npueapuory nopory, fak kak ero npoe
ofperoufupoeafu, er cunfu.
Ecnu noepepeuun npueapuoro nopora ue cnuukor suaufenuuu, pesko eupaeuuux
cknapok (raprouku) ue uankpaefcn, fo eosroua npaeka eufnko cuapyu. Takan
npaeka eunonunefcn cnepykur opasor: k nopory npueapueakfcn cneuuanuuue
reospu, a safer npouseopufcn nocnepoeafenuuan eufnka (c norouk cnoffepa unu
uuepuuouuoro cLeruuka).
Repep npoeepeuuer ceapuux paof ueoxopuro cunfu peepu, cupeuun u nokpufue nona, fo
ecfu ece, fo roef noepepufucn npu peroufe u, uaxopncu e soue peroufa, noreuafu
eunonueuuk paof.
Rpu cpepuux noepepeuunx nopora eosrouo ueckonuko cnocooe peroufa (e saeucurocfu
of xapakfepa noepepeuu).
nn eufnku u npaeku noepepeuuoro yacfka coky nopora eupesaefcn npnroyronuuoe
okuo, fakoe, fou e uero rouo uno eeecfu uakoeaneuky coofeefcfeyke nopory
qopru unu ppyro uucfpyreuf, kofopu noseonuf ocyecfeufu eufnky u npaeky
noepepeuu. Rocne eoccfauoeneuun qopru peqekfuoro yacfka nopora eupesauuoe pnn
npaeku paoee okuo saeapueaefcn kyckor refannueckoro nucfa. Rpu sfor opafuan
cfopoua ceapuoro uea okasueaefcn uepocfynuo u oyk npaeky uea eunonuufu
ueeosrouo, nosfory eueuuu uoe ueoxopuro sarnapufu onoenuuur npunoer.
pyrur refopor peroufa nopora nennefcn ero acfuuoe eckpufue. nn sforo e eepxue
acfu nopora eupesaefcn ofeepcfue (pee nonepeuue nuuuu), a safer pasLepuunkfcn
ceapuue foku. Takur opasor nonyaefcn acfuuo eckpufan nonocfu, e kofopyk
eeopufcn uakoeaneuka, a safer npouseopufcn npaeka peqekfoe. Rocne foro kak paofu no
npaeke sakoueuu, ofeepcfue sakpueaefcn u saeapueaefcn.
Ecnu e peqoprauun nopora cepuesuan, fo uenecoopasuo sareunfu pae npueapuo
nopor (unu ero acfu), a ue fonuko cLeruu.
-fou sareuufu nopor unu ero acfu, cuaana ueoxopuro peroufupoeafu ece pefanu,
kofopue roryf noreuafu peroufy unu noepepufucn e npouecce paofu.
Repep uaanor paof onpepennefcn cfeneuu noepepeuun pefanu u cnoco ofpeneuun
nopora of ocfanuuo acfu kysoea. Ecnu nopor cLeruu, fo nponer c ofpeneuuer ero of
ocfanuuo acfu kysoea ue ypef. Ecnu e npueapuo, fo npupefcn ueruoro noeosufucn,
fou ofpenufu ero of ocfanuuo acfu kysoea.
-acfu nopora roef eupesafucn onrapko, uooeko, uooeouur nonofuor no refanny,
nueerafueckur syunor unu rasoeur pesakor. Ecnu peska eunonunefcn rasoeur
pesakor, fo uyuo uauuafu c euyfpeuue cfopouu peepuoro npoera, nocfeneuuo
npopeurancu k ero kpak. Bupesu penakfcn okono nepepue u sapue peepe u okono
ocuoeauun cpepue cfoku.
Mecfa, rpe nopor npukpennnefcn k kysoey nyfer foeuo ceapku, uyuo euceepnufu.
uarefp ceepna ppenu poneu ufu yfu onuue puarefpa recfa ceapku. Rpu sfor ue
ypef peqoprupoeaua fa acfu kysoeuo nauenu, kofopan ue nopneuf peroufay.
Ofpeneuuu of kysoea nopor ucnonusyefcn kak uanou. Ha ero ocuoee usrofaenueaefcn
uoeu nopor us cfanu fako e rapku u fonuuu, uo reuuue e pnuuy ua 1 rr (pnn foro
fou useafu peqoprauuu eo epern npueapku uoeoro nopora). Ceropun ua puukax
rouo kynufu noporu npakfuecku pnn nko rapku aeforounn. Carocfonfenuuo
usrofaenueafu uoeue noporu npuxopufcn oeuu pepko, pasee fo e for cnyae, korpa
aeforounu oeuu cfapu, u pefane pnn uero nonpocfy ue uafu.
Roprofoeneuuu uoeu nopor noprounefcn k eupesauuory recfy kak rouo onee
fafenuuo (noprouka fpeyefcn pae e for cnyae, ecnu ue usrofaenueaefcn
carocfonfenuuo uoeu nopor, a npuopefaefcn sanacfu, npouseepeuuan saeopckur
cnocoor), opuoepereuuo qoprupyefcn nonepeuoe ceeuue nopora u yfounefcn pnuua
ecfaenneroro kycka. Of fouocfu noprouku saeucuf kaecfeo nocnepykero kpenneuun
pefanu k kysoey.
Rocne noprouku pefanu eunonunefcn npepeapufenuuan ceapka (npuxeamka) e ueckonukux
fokax fakur opasor, fou ocfanacu eosrouocfu koppekfupoeku nonoeuun
npueapueaeroro kycka u pae nonuoe ero ofpeneuue e cnyae ueoxopurocfu.
Ecnu pefanu cfauoeufcn ua npepuasuaeuuoe pnn uee recfo es nponer, fo nocne
npuxeafku npoeopufcn peroufuan ceapka. 3afer uepoeuocfu ceapuux ueoe
eupaeuueakfcn uanunuuukaru (onrapko, unuqrauuukaru u f. n.), a yrnyneuun
sapenueakfcn snokcupuo unafneeko nuo cneuuanuuur reprefukor pnn ceapuux ueoe.
Ecnu fpeyefcn sareuufu nuuu acfu nopora (fakoe cnyaefcn, korpa noepepeuuu
yacfok snereufoe uaxopufcn nop peepuk u npaeka peqekfa npakfuecku ueeosroua), fo
sfa acfu eupesaefcn fakur opasor, fou paspesu uaxopunucu sa npepenaru
peqoprupoeauuo souu, ocfaeuancn acfu nopora ponua ufu uenoepepeuuo.
Hyuan pnn sareuu acfu eupesaefcn us uoeoro nopora, noprounefcn, ycfauaenueaefcn ua
recfo u npueapueaefcn. Hepoeuocfu ceapuux ueoe eupaeuueakfcn uanunuuukaru,
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
yrnyneuun sapenueakfcn snokcupuo unafneeko ece fouo fak e, kak u npu nonuo
sareue nopora.
Ecnu nopor noepepuncn npu aeapuu, saacfyk peqoprupyefcn fake cpepunn cfoka. Ecnu
sfo npousouno, fo opuoepereuuo sareunkfcn u nopor, u cpepunn cfoka.
B cnyae aeapuu cnepyef fake npoeepufu cocfonuue nouepoua. Rpu ueoxopurocfu
nouepou eunpaennefcn unu sareunefcn nonuocfuk nuo acfuuo. Bce onepauuu no
sareue nouepoua u cpepue cfoku npoeopnfcn opuoepereuuo c sareuo unu peroufor
nopora. Rosfory npepe er npucfynafu k peroufy nopora, cnepyef npoeepufu cocfonuue
kak nouepoua, fak u cpepue cfoku.
80CC7Ah080EhhE hEME7A00hVECkhX kY308hbX E7A0Eh
Herefannueckue kysoeuue pefanu pefanu, npureunerue e pekopafueuo ofpenke
canouoe kysoeoe, a fake oueouue rafepuanu. Ouuur ofpenouur rafepuanor
nennefcn nnacfuk, uo roryf ucnonusoeafucn u pepeenuuue pefanu ofpenouue
pepeenuuue nauenu, ae ecero us ueuuux nopop pepeea.
B onuuuucfee cnyaee ofpenouue pefanu sareunkf, a ue eoccfauaenueakf unu
peroufupykf. Ter onee fo pnn eoccfauoeneuun pepeenuuux ofpenouux nauene uyuo
ufu ue racfepor-kysoeukor, a cneuuanucfor no pepeeoopaofke. Opuako sareuufu
snereuf ypaefcn paneko ue ecerpa. -ae ecero sfo npoucxopuf us-sa ofcyfcfeun uyuo
pefanu ua puuke. Bfopo npuuuo nennefcn eucokan cfourocfu uekofopux pefane.
Cnepoeafenuuo, ecnu noepepeuun ueonuuue u eoccfauoeneuue eosrouo, pnn ruorux
aefoenapenuuee npepnofufenuuee ureuuo eoccfauoeneuue fakux ofpenouux pefane, a
ue ux sareua.
Rpu eoccfauoeneuuu pepeenuuux snereufoe uyuo cnepufu, fou ua uux ue uno
fpeuu, sapupoe u cfyneuafocfu, fopuu pefane ponuu ufu ucfuru, ue ponyckakfcn
ofcnoeuun u ckonu, nockonuky ece nopouue peqekfu npueopnf k oeuu ucfpo nope
snereufa.
Rnacfraccoeue pefanu eoccfauaenueakfcn ckneueauuer. Rpaepa, pnn sforo uyuo, fou
e uanuuu unu ece acfu pefanu. Kne euupaefcn e saeucurocfu of rafepuana,
uasuaeuun caroro knen, ycnoeu ero paofu u fexuonoruu uaueceuun.
Onepauun ckneueauun cocfouf us ueckonukux sfanoe: noprofoeka noeepxuocfu (oucfka,
oesupueauue u saucfka), uaueceuue kneeeoro cocfaea u eupepka ckneeuuux acfe
nop paeneuuer. Kak npaeuno, fexuonorun ckneueauun fpeyef ureuuo fakux pecfeu.
Ecnu pefanu usrofoeneuu us sfpona, fo ux ckneueakf ykcycuo kucnofo. Ek orasueakf
ckneueaerue noeepxuocfu, coepuunkf ux nop ueonuuur paeneuuer u eupepueakf e
feeuue aca.
efanu us nonuarupoe ckneueakfcn c ucnonusoeauuer pacfeopoe nonuarupoe e
rypaeuuuo kucnofe unu c norouk caro rypaeuuuo kucnofu.
nn ckneku pefane us nnacfraccu, usrofoeneuuo ua ocuoee fepropeakfueuux cron,
ucnonusykf kne BHAM E-3. Ou uauocufcn ua coepuunerue noeepxuocfu, kofopue safer
eupepueakfcn e ofkpufor eupe npu koruafuo fernepafype 1015 ruu. anee
noeepxuocfu c uaueceuuur ua uux kneer coepuunkfcn. Ronyeuuan fakur opasor pefanu
noreaefcn e npuuruoe npucnoconeuue (pnn cospauun ueoxopuroro paeneuun) u
eupepueaefcn 8-12 . Cyecfeykf u ppyrue kneu, kofopue rouo ucnonusoeafu pnn
ckneueauun pefane us nnacfraccu, ua ocuoee fepropeakfueuux cron, e for ucne u
fakue, epern cyuku kofopux suaufenuuo reuuue.
Ha aeforounnx cfapux ropene ee ycfauoeneuu snereufu, usrofoeneuuue us
oprcfekna, uanpurep kpuuka, sakpueakan uuqepnafu npuopoe ua npuopuo nauenu.
Ecnu ua oprcfekne noneunacu fpeuua, fo pnn orpauueuun ee pacnpocfpaueuun
npoceepnueaefcn ofeepcfue puarefpor 34 rr e kouue fpeuuu. nn ckneueauun
oprcfekna npureunefcn pacfeop cfpyku oprcfekna e puxnopsfaue. Fofoeufcn fako
pacfeop ponro: fonuko epern eupepku pnn pacfeopeuun cfpyku cocfaennef 23 cyfok.
Rocne ckneueauun oprcfekno uypaefcn e unuqoeke u nonupoeke, pnn ero fpeyefcn
cfauok c eepfukanuuo ocuk epaeuun kpyra. Kpore foro, npu raneue uepeuocfu e
npoeepeuuu pauuoro npouecca enocnepcfeuu eosuukaef onfueckoe uckaeuue,
uapyuaefcn onfueckan npospauocfu oprcfekna. Rosfory ouuo pefanu us oprcfekna ue
ckneueakf, a sareunkf.
Sfo oLncunefcn fer, fo ux eoccfauoeneuue skouoruecku ueuenecoopasuo, u peueene
kynufu pefanu, er eoccfauaenueafu c coruufenuuur pesynufafor.
eqekfaru oueouux rafepuanoe ouuo nennkfcn paspueu. Ocoeuuo acfo
noepepaefcn oueka cupeuu. nn eoccfauoeneuun oueku pocfafouo npocfo sauufu ee
uronko.
Oueka nofonka roef fpeckafucn, u sauufu ee ueeosrouo. Kak npaeuno, oueka nofonka
uenuuoqoproeauuan, usrofaenueaefcn us nnacfueckux rafepuanoe c uanonuufennru.
Ceepxy fako nofonok nokpueaefcn pekopafueuo ofpenko us cneuuanuuux fpukofauux
nonofeu, pasnuuux kosareuufene (euuunuckou) unu uckyccfeeuuo saruu
(anukaufapa). B cfapux ropennx aeforoune ecfpeakfcn ee u uafnuue nofonku
fkaueeue. Uenuuoqoproeauuue u uafnuue nofonku cuueafu uenusn, fak kak uef sanaca
pnn uea. Rosfory perouf oueku nofonka saknkaefcn e ero nepefnke. ekopafueuan
ofpenka nofonka kpenufcn ua nofonouo nauenu c norouk cnpe-kneee (uucfpykuun no
npureueuuk fakux kneee uaxopufcn ua annouuke).
Ecnu noepepeua ocuoea uenuuoqoproeauuoro nofonka (fpeuua, ckon u f. p.), fo perouf
ceopufcn k qukcauuu recfa usnora nkuru noppyuuru cpepcfearu (k npurepy, nyfer
cuueauun npoeonoko) u uanoeuuk sannafku us cfeknofkauu, nponufauuo snokcupuo
unu nonusqupuo crono. anee ocuoey uenu-uoqoproeauuoro nofonka cnepyef
eupepafu kak ruuuryr cyfku.
Kpore ofpenouux pefane u oueouux rafepuanoe urekfcn ee u ppyrue
uerefannueckue acfu. Tak, e uekofopux ropennx aeforoune arnepu
usrofaenueakfcn us nnacfuka. K fory e, uerefannueckue acfu ecfu e nok-qapax.
Ofrefur, fo e coepereuuux ropennx aeforoune kpuuku nok-qap usrofaenueakfcn us
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
nonukapouafa (sfof rafepuan onfuecku npospaeu u reuee xpynok, ueenu cfekno). Ho
ecnu nnacfraccoeu arnep ee rouo eoccfauaenueafu, fo kpuuky nok-qapu
peroufupoeafu ue pekoreupyefcn, fak kak ckneka enunef ua onfueckyk npospauocfu
nonukapouafa, fo npueopuf k uepocfafouo ceefurocfu nok-qapu. Rosfory ecnu ua
kpuuke ecfu fpeuua unu ckon, fo ee, kak npaeuno, sareunkf.
Rnacfukoeu arnep ouuo eoccfauaenueaefcn nyfer ero ckneueauun snokcupuo unu
nonusqupuo crono.
Bosroua fake cuueka arnepa repuo npoeonoko. nn sforo e coepuunerux acfnx
euceepnueakfcn ofeepcfun, epes kofopue npofnrueaefcn repuan npoeonoka (npuuuun fof
e, fo u npu cuueauuu fkaueeux nonofeu c norouk uronku u uufku).
Brecfo repuo npoeonoku pnn eoccfauoeneuun arnepa rouo ucnonusoeafu
refannueckyk cefky (kak aprupyku snereuf). Cefka uaknapueaefcn ua noepepeuuoe
recfo, safer ouo pasorpeeaefcn nannuuukor unu nporuuneuuur qeuor. B pesynufafe
rafepuan arnepa pasrnraefcn, u cefka enunaef e nnacfuk. Takan peroufuan sannafa
pepufcn oeuu kpenko noepepufu arnep e sfor recfe ee korpa-nuo npakfuecku
ueeosrouo.
Ecnu arnep usrofoeneu us fepronnacfueckoro rafepuana, fo pnn ero eoccfauoeneuun
rouo ucnonusoeafu uarpee c norouk nannuuuka e recfax coepuueuu acfu arnepa
pacnnaennkfcn u coepuunkfcn.
Rocne foro kak ece acfu coepuueuu, arnep saunuqoeueaefcn, ouaefcn,
oesupueaefcn, safer uaknapueaefcn cno unafneeku (po eoccfauoeneuun
nepeouaanuuo qopru u rnapkocfu arnepa), nocne ero pefanu rpyufyefcn u
okpauueaefcn.
Ycpaueue suu qeqopua kyiosusx qeane
Brnfuua (eunyknocfu, unu yrop) opuo us carux pacnpocfpaueuuux noepepeuu
kysoeuux pefane, eosuukakee e pesynufafe eospecfeun ua nnoapu pefanu
(uanpurep, npu ypape u cfonkuoeeuuu). eqoprauun sfo cnepyku sfan noepepeuun
nocne ernfuuu. pyruru cnoearu, eueuuee eospecfeue ua nnoapu pefanu roef ue
fonuko npueecfu k ouuo ernfuue, uo u usreuufu qopry pefanu.
Brnfuua ycfpaunefcn euueauuer nuo eupaenueauuer. Onfuranuuo, korpa
peroufupyeru yacfok pocfyneu c peyx cfopou.
nn eunpaeneuun ernfuuu pefanu fpeyefcn ycfauoeufu ua nopcfaeky. Sfo roef ufu
cneuuanuuan poeuan npopesuueuuan nnufa. Ecnu e ee uef, ear enonue nopopef poeuu
kycok qauepu, CR, M4 unu opranufa, ynoeuuu ua feeppyk poeuyk noeepxuocfu. Hu e
koer cnyae uenusn npouseopufu paofu ua refannuecko noeepxuocfu es nokpufun:
ernfuua-fo eunpaeufcn, uo refann kysoeuo pefanu ypef noepepeu, u nocne fakoro
peroufa eucoka eeponfuocfu paseufun kopposuu refanna.
RPHMEHAHHE
Ha nnufe-nopcfaeke onsafenuuo ponua npucyfcfeoeafu crnrakan, aropfusupykan
npoknapka.
nn eunpaeneuun ernfuuu pefanu uyuo nonoufu nuueeo cfopouo ua nopcfaeky fakur
opasor, fou kpan ernfuuu uaxopunucu ua ue (puc. 1.41).


Puc. 1.41. Kpan ernfuuu ponuu uaxopufucn ua nopcfaeke

Brnfuua unu nepenor eupaenueakfcn nnacfraccoeur ronofkor, kunuko nuo
npucnoconeuuer us pepeea.
Brnfuuy rouo uafnrueafu c euyfpeuue cfopouu (pnn sforo ucnonusyefcn nopcfaeka unu
nanka), a kpan cnepyef opaofafu ronofkor.
Bunyknocfu npepcfaennef coo ernfuuy c opafuo cfopouu, nosfory u refop
auanoruuu. nn ycfpaueuun eunyknocfu pefanu yknapueaefcn ua nopcfaeky euyfpeuue
cfopouo, a c nuueeo cfopouu opaafueaefcn (puc. 1.42).


Puc. 1.42. Ycfpaueuue eunyknocfu
RPHMEHAHHE
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cuna ypapa npu ycfpaueuuu eunyknocfe u ernfuu ponua ufu ueonuuo, uuae
eosrouo opasoeauue yrpoe.
Rpu ucnpaeneuuu peqoprauuu ueckonukuru ypaparu eu nofpafufe ueruoro onuue
epereuu, er npu opuor cunuuor ypape, safo ear ue npupefcn nepepenueafu paofy.
Kpore foro, e recfax uaueceuun cunuuux ypapoe refann pacfnrueaefcn, fo ecfu eosuukaef
pononuufenuuan peqoprauun.
Ecnu ernfuua onuuo nnoapu, fo ee uyuo eupaenueafu unu euueafu no uanpaeneuuk
of kpaee k ueufpy. Ecnu ernfuua rnyokan, fo ee uyuo eunpaennfu nocfeneuuo, e
ueckonuko saxopoe, uuae ue useafu pacfneuun refanna peroufupyero pefanu
(puc. 1.43).
-fou euueafu peqoprauuu ua pepax ecfkocfu u usruax pefane, uyuu
npucnoconeuun us pepeea, a npu orpauueuuor pocfyne k opaafueaero noeepxuocfu
ueoxopuru ee nopcfaeku u nanku, urekue qopry pefanu. Cyecfeyef ruoecfeo
npucnoconeuu pnn kysoeuoro peroufa, e for ucne u fakue, kofopue no qopre ceoux
usruoe nopxopnf k pasnuuur pefannr u pepar ecfkocfu.


Puc. 1.43. Ycfpaueuue rnyoko ernfuuu

Hucfpyreuf pnn euueauun poneu urefu poeonuuo onuuyk nnoapu u xopouo
crnaeuuue kpan, e npofueuor cnyae ua peroufupyero pefanu roryf opasoeueafucn
pononuufenuuue nepenoru u yropku. Pyue ecero, ecnu noeepxuocfu uucfpyreufa,
kofopan conpukacaefcn c noeepxuocfuk pefanu, usrofoeneua us pepeea unu nnacfraccu, a
nopcfaeka us ceuuua.
RPHMEHAHHE
Ecnu peroufupyeran pefanu opaafueaefcn enesuur ronofkor, a nopcfaeka pnn
pefanu foe enesuan, fo refann pefanu packnenueaefcn (yreuuuaefcn fonuua u
yeenuueaefcn nnoapu).
B cnyae ecnu npousouno packnenueauue refanna, fo no okouauuu npaeku peqoprauuu
uyuo eunonuufu ycapky packnenauuo acfu. Sfo uenpocfo npouecc, fpeyku
onpepeneuuux uaeukoe u yreuu.
Ecnu es enesuoro ronofka oofucu uenusn, ouu nyue nonusoeafucn puxfoeouur:
onereuuue, onapakf reuuue racco no cpaeueuuk c ouuuru u, coofeefcfeeuuo,
reuuue packnenueakf refann peroufupyero pefanu.
Ecnu npu paofe enesuur ronofkor ucnonusoeafu ceuuuoeyk nopcfaeky, fo
packnenueauue foe ypef reuuuur. Sfo oLncunefcn fer, fo ceuueu rnrku refann u
aropfusupyef, crnraef ypap ronofka. Ecnu e nopcfaeka enesuan, fo onfuranuuo
ucnonusoeafu nnacfraccoeu ronofok.
Cnyaefcn fak, fo e pesynufafe ypapa pefanu peqoprupyefcn u opasyefcn raprouka
(kpynuue kpyfue cknapku). B uau eek noeanuuo aeforounusauuu fakue pefanu ouuo
sareunkf. Opuako sareua nopo ueeosroua, uanpurep, ecnu peu upef o cfapor
aeforoune, rapka kofoporo ye paeuo cunfa c npouseopcfea. B fakor cnyae uoeo
pefanu pnn sareuu ue uafu, a pefanu, ueuue e ynofpeneuuu (ecnu ouu ecfu), nuo
foe c peqoprauue, nuo usLepeuu kopposue. B fakux cnyanx ocfaefcn fonuko
ucnpaennfu peqoprauuk.
RPHMEHAHHE
Ecnu npuxopufcn peroufupoeafu fakyk peqoprupoeauuyk pefanu, uauuafu uyuo c
ycfpaueuun peqoprauuu, a ue c npaeku ernfuu.
-fou ycfpauufu peqoprauuk pefanu, ue cuuran ee c aeforounn, nocnepuu
pacfnrueakf ua pacfnke, a safer, nocne eoccfauoeneuun qopru, npucfynakf k npaeke.
Ecnu uef pacfnku unu pacfnrueauue no kako-nuo npuuue ueeosrouo, fo cknapku
cuaana packnuuueakfcn (pnn sforo ouu paseopnfcn ofeepfko unu roufauo nonafko),
a nofor eucfykueakfcn, pnn foro fou eepuyfu pefanu nepeouaanuuyk qopry. Sfa
onepauun eunonunefcn ua cunfo pefanu. Rocne eucfykueauun peroufupyeryk pefanu
cnepyef npurepufu ua recfo u sakouufu opaofky.
nn npoeepku kaecfea opaofku noeepxuocfu peroufupyero pefanu ucnonusyefcn
pepeenuuu unu pesuuoeu pycok c sakpenneuuo ua uer uapauo ukypko (ukypky
rouo sakpenufu u ua pyauok). Tako npuop koufponn cpasy e euneuf ece
ocfaeuuecn ernfuuku u yropku (puc. 1.44).


Puc. 1.44. Rpoeepka noeepxuocfu

Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Okouafenuuan npaeka npoeopufcn c norouk ronofka-rnapunku ua ceuuuoeo nopcfaeke.
Tako ronofok ue packnenueaef refann u ureef onuuyk paoyk noeepxuocfu, ua
kofopyk uaueceua uaceka.
-fou npokoufponupoeafu peroufupyeryk noeepxuocfu, npureunefcn npoqunuuu
uanou. Ecnu ero uef, rouo ucnonusoeafu unafenu cpepue uupuuu (2530 cr). C
norouk uanoua unu unafenn konupyefcn uenoepepeuuan cfopoua pefanu, a safer
cpaeuueaefcn c noepepeuuo. Lnafenu paef reuuuyk fouocfu, er uanou, fak kak e
pauuor cnyae cpaeueuue penaefcn ua rnasok (puc. 1.45).


Puc. 1.45. Koufponu noeepxuocfu

Ro repe uakonneuun onufa eunpaeneuun ernfuu eu croefe pyko oyfufu recfa,
fpeykue popaofku, pyka onufuoro racfepa ropaspo uapeuee pae repufenuuoro
uanoua.
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Rocne eunpaeku onuuuucfea ernfuu ofperoufupoeauuyk pefanu uyuo nokpacufu.
Opuako cyecfeykf peqekfu, kofopue rouo eunpaeufu es nocnepyke nokpacku. Sfo
ernfuuu nnaeuo qopru, es ocfpux nepenoroe u uapanuu.
nn ycfpaueuun nnaeuux ernfuu npureunefcn cneuuanuuoe oopypoeauue:
npucnoconeuue pnn eufnku c norouk eakyyra u npucnoconeuue, ucnonusykee pnn
eufnku kpenneuue k noeepxuocfu c npureueuuer cneuuanuuoro knen.
Rpucnoconeuue pnn eufnku c norouk eakyyra npureunefcn fakur opasor:
eakyyruan npucocka sakpennnefcn e ueufpe ernfuuu, kofopan safer eufnrueaefcn e
ucxopuyk qopry c norouk opafuoro ronofka. nn cospauun eakyyra e npucocke
ucnonusyefcn eakyyruu uacoc.
Rpureueuue oopypoeauun pnn eufnku c ucnonusoeauuer cneuuanuuoro knen oxopufcn
popoe (sa cef cfourocfu pacxopuux rafepuanoe). K fory e pauuu npouecc reuee
npouseopufeneu no cpaeueuuk c eufnuo c norouk eakyyruo npucocku, opuako caro
oopypoeauue cfouf peueene.
Huorpa nnaeuue ernfuuu nerko eupaenueakfcn pyko, es npureueuun kakoro-nuo
oopypoeauun. Mouo fake ucnonusoeafu pesuuoeyk karepy pnn rna.
Rpu orpauueuuor pocfyne k sapue acfu pefanu ucnonusykfcn pepeenuuue
npucnoconeuun, npepeapufenuuo orofauuue rnrko fkauuk. Mouo ucnonusoeafu fake
refannueckue nanku, nop kofopue e foke uaura uyuo nopcfaeufu pesuuoeu pycok.
COBET
He eupaenueafe nnaeuue ernfuuu refannueckuru nankaru es nopcfaeku. He
cnepyef fake nonusoeafucn refannueckuru nankaru c ocfpuru rpaunru.
Ocfpue rpauu uucfpyreufa ocfaennkf pepa, u e pesynufafe eunpaeka ernfuuu es
nocnepyke nokpacku ue nonyufcn, nockonuky nakokpacouoe nokpufue ypef
noepepeuo.
-acfo no kpanr eunpaeneuuo ernfuuu ocfakfcn cknapku. -fou paspoeunfu ux c
euyfpeuue cfopouu pefanu, uyuo nocfaeufu nop eunpaeneuuyk ernfuuy rnapkyk
ceuuuoeyk (ecnu ee uef, fo pepeenuuyk) nopcfaeky, kofopan no qopre rakcuranuuo
coofeefcfeyef peroufupyero pefanu. C eueuue cfopouu cknapku eupaeuueakfcn
ronofkor c pesuuoeo paoe acfuk.
Ecnu pesuuoeu ronofok ue cnpaennefcn co cknapkaru, rouo eocnonusoeafucn
nnacfraccoeur unu pepeenuuur ronofkor, npepeapufenuuo orofauuur rnrko fkauuk.
Orofka ueoxopura pnn foro, fou useafu cnepoe u uapanuu of uucfpyreufa ua
nakokpacouor nokpufuu.
Puxfoeka es uapyueuun nakokpacouoro nokpufun fpeyef of racfepa onuuoro onufa,
nosfory ue ecerpa ypaefcn. Ecnu e nakokpacouoe nokpufue ece-faku noepepaefcn npu
eunonueuuu peroufuux paof, fo pefanu uyuo okpauueafu.
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K coaneuuk, ue ko ecer pefannr, kofopur ueoxopura puxfoeka, ureefcn pocfyn c peyx
cfopou. B aeforoune pocfafouo ruoro snereufoe, kofopue coepuueuu repy coo
ceapko u opasykf sakpufue nonocfu (noporu, sapuue cfoku, peepu u f. p.).
Hauonee pacnpocfpaueuuu refop, ucnonusyeru pnn puxfoeku noeepxuocfe c
orpauueuuur pocfynor, ceapka.Ouuo pnn ceapku ucnonusykfcn annapafu kernu
(nonyaeforafueckan ceapka e cpepe saufuux rasoe). Hepocfafok fakoro annapafa
saknkaefcn e for, fo ou npepuasuaeu fonuko pnn ceapouux paof. Eonee
yuueepcanuuur nennefcn cnoffep.
-fou eufnuyfu noepepeuuu yacfok pefanu, k uery npueapueakfcn ununuku unu
uau, a safer npouseopufcn eufnrueauue c norouk opafuoro ronofka. Rocne foro kak
eufnka sakoueua, npueapeuuue ununuku unu uau cuurakfcn.
COBET
Repep fer kak npueapueafu npucnoconeuun k aeforounuuory kysoey, cnepyef
nonuocfuk ypanufu saufuoe nakokpacouoe nokpufue refannuecko efko unu
uapauo ukypko.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
-fou eunpaeufu ernfuuy onuuo nnoapu unu pepo ecfkocfu, ucnonusyefcn
eonuucfan npoeonoka (sreka), kofopan npueapueaefcn fouo fak e, kak uau u
ununuku (puc. 1.46).


Puc. 1.46. Rpaeka ernfuuu c ucnonusoeauuer sreku

Bonuucfyk npoeonoky eufnrueakf rpeeuko u opafuur ronofkor (cneuuanuuur
saxeafor pnn eonuucfo npoeonoku). 3reky rouo eufnrueafu fake rpeeuko u
cfpeno puxfoeouoro cfeupa-pacfnku unu ouuur saxeafor u cfpeno cfeupa-
pacfnku, unu opafuur ronofkor (e sfor cnyae sreka eufnrueaefcn
nocnepoeafenuuo, sa kapoe seeuo) (puc. 1.47).
Ecnu eufnrueauue ocyecfennefcn c norouk ypapoe, fo ux cuna ponua ufu
ruuuranuuo, fou ue ponycfufu opasoeauun yrpoe eepu nopcfaeufu c ppyro
cfopouu aropfusupykyk nopknapky nuo oeuu cnouo, nuo eooe ueeosrouo.


Puc. 1.47. Bufnrueauue sreku

Puxfoeka noeepxuocfe c orpauueuuur pocfynor roef npoeopufucn ue fonuko nyfer
ceapku. Ee opuu pocfafouo pacnpocfpaueuuu refop ucnonisoeauue mexuonoauveckux
omeepcmu, kofopue ye urekfcn e pefanu, unu npoceepnueauue ononuumeniuix
mexuonoauveckux omeepcmu. B fakue ofeepcfun ecfaennefcn nanka, a c ppyro cfopouu
peroufupyeran pefanu opaafueaefcn c norouk ronofka.
COBET
Rpu ucnonusoeauuu enesuo nanku ronofok poneu ufu nuo nnacfukoeur, nuo
pepeenuuur.
Ecnu npoceepnueakfcn pononuufenuuue ofeepcfun, fo no okouauuu peroufuux paof no
ycfpaueuuk ernfuu u peqekfoe ux ueoxopuro saeapufu. Mecfa ceapku sauakfcn
onrapko c puckor no refanny. Ecnu uef eosrouocfu saeapufu ofeepcfun (uanpurep,
npu ofcyfcfeuu ceapouoro annapafa), fo ux rouo sapenafu refannouanonueuuo
unafneeko unu unafneeko co cfeknoeonokuor.
-epes pononuufenuuue ofeepcfun ernfuuy rouo eucfykueafu c opafuo cfopouu c
norouk cfepue.
ononuufenuuue ofeepcfun roryf urefu raneuuku puarefp po 4 rr. B fakue ofeepcfun
ecfaennkfcn caropesu, a ernfuua eufnrueaefcn c ucnonusoeauuer sauroe u
uuepuuouuoro ronofka.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Ecnu ernfuua poeuan (ue ureef cknapok, pefanu ue cnoeua raprouko), fo pnn ee
eunpaeneuun rouo ucnonusoeafu pesuuoeyk karepy of rna. Takur cnocoor ypouo
eunpaennfu peepu unu sapuue kpunun, fo ecfu pefanu onuuo nnoapu.
Repep uaanor paofu karepy uyuo uennofuo oepuyfu fkauuk, fou useafu ee
paspuea o ocfpue kporku (uuae rouo ue uanacfucu karep ua opuy ernfuuy). Oepfka
ponua noseonnfu karepe pacuupnfucn unu fonuko e uanpaeneuuu eufnku (fo
onfuranuuee ecero), unu eo ecex uanpaeneuunx. 3afer karepa ycfauaenueaefcn e uyuoe
recfo u uakaueaefcn.
eqekf noeepxuocfu, uaxopnucn enusu kpan pefanu, ycfpaunefcn cnepykur
opasor: ypannefcn koufakfuan ceapka (euceepnueaefcn), paseanuuoeueaefcn pefanu,
ernfuua eupaenueaefcn nanko u eupaeuueaefcn cuapyu ronofkor. Rocne foro kak
paofa okoueua, recfo ynopa nanku noppaeuueaefcn, u pefanu npueapueaefcn no
euceepneuuur recfar. Mecfa ceapku sauakfcn.
o noneneuun refannouanonueuuux unafneeok ueonuuue ernfuuu, ocfakuecn nocne
puxfoeku e recfax c safpypueuuur pocfynor, ypannnucu c norouk npunon. Roeepxuocfu
pefanu opaafueanacu kpynuosepuucfo uapauo ukypko (pnn ynyueuun koufakfa
npunon c noeepxuocfuk), npuno uarpeeancn po kaueopasuoro cocfonuun, a safer
noporpefan rasoeo ropenko noeepxuocfu pefanu opaafueanacu npunoer
(onnaennnacu).
Rpu noneneuuu refannouanonueuuo unafneeku u unafneeku co cfeknoeonokuor peqekfu
ycfpaunfu cfano ropaspo npoe, nockonuky paofafu c sfuru rafepuanaru uaruoro
ypouee, er c npunoer.
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Eueakf cnyau, korpa puxfoeouue paofu npoeopufu ueonpaepauuo: uanpurep, ecnu
npaeka noepepeuu nyfer puxfoeku fpeyef suaufenuuo pasopku aeforounn
peroufaa ue fonuko kysoeuux pefane, uo u ppyrux arperafoe. Rpu ueonuuo ernfuue
unu pnn nonyeuun pocfyna k peroufuory yacfky (onnfu e, ecnu peqoprauun kysoeuo
nauenu ueeenuka) ueoxopuro ue fonuko pasopafu kysoe, uo u eupesafu uekofopue
pefanu. Ecfecfeeuuo, puxfoeka npu fakux ycnoeunx nennefcn ueuenecoopasuo. Ter ue
reuee peqoprauuk rouo ycfpauufu cfapuru npoeepeuuuru cnocoaru nako onoeor
unu unafneeauuer.
-fou ycfpauufu peqoprauuk nyfer naku onoeor, noeepxuocfu refannueckoro nucfa
cuaana ouakf po ronoro refanna, safer nypnf u nocne sforo sapenueakf ernfuuy
onoenuuur npunoer. Rpuno onunueaefcn (pnn sforo npureunefcn uanunuuuk c oforuyfo
pyko), a nocne onunueauun noeepxuocfu nonupyefcn.
Takoe nokpufue us onoenuuoro npunon onapaef pocfafouo eucoko feeppocfuk, u
apresun ero k noeepxuocfu kysoeuo pefanu poeonuuo eucoka. Epuucfeeuuu uepocfafok
pauuoro refopa saknkaefcn e for, fo pnn ero peanusauuu fpeyefcn poeonuuo cunuuo
uarpefu noeepxuocfu pefanu (foka nnaeneuun onoenuuoro npunon okono 250 C).
nn ycfpaueuun peqekfa c norouk unafneeku npureunefcn unafneeka ua ase
nonusqupuux cron. Takue unafneeku ucfpo safeeppeeakf u ue nopeepeuu ycapke.
Kaecfeo peroufa saeucuf e ocuoeuor of foro, uackonuko fafenuuo uaueceu nepeu cno
unafneeku u kakoea ero apresun k refanny kysoeuo pefanu (a sfo e onuuo cfeneuu
saeucuf of kaecfea noprofoeku noeepxuocfu pefanu).
Repeur sfanor paof, fak e kak u e cnyae ycfpaueuun peqekfa c norouk onoenuuoro
npunon, nennefcn oucfka noeepxuocfu pefanu po ronoro refanna. Peroufuan soua (recfo,
kypa ypef uauocufucn unafneeka) sauaefcn ukypko P60. 3afer noeepxuocfu
fafenuuo ouaefcn of nunu u rpnsu u oesupueaefcn. Lnafneeka creuueaefcn c
ofeeppufener (25 % ofeeppufenn). Cnepyef yufueafu, fo crecu unafneeku c
ofeeppufener uyuo uauecfu ua noeepxuocfu e feeuue 35 ruu, fak fo ue cfouf cpasy
rofoeufu cnuukor onuuoe konuecfeo raccu. Rocne foro kak unafneeka ofeeppeeaef, ee
opaafueakf ukypko P100, safer P180 u uakoueu P240 unu P280. Rocne opaofku
ua cno unafneeku uauocufcn rpyufoeouoe nokpufue.
Ycaqka ueanna
Kysoeuue pefanu nerkoeux aeforoune usrofaenueakfcn ouuo us rnrko cfanu
fonuuo 0,51 rr u ue npepuasuaakfcn pnn onuuux uarpysok. nn uopranuuoro
peura skcnnyafauuu sfo enonue onpaepauuo. Opuako e cnyae TR ureuuo ua sfu
pefanu e nepeyk oepepu napaef ocuoeuan uarpyska, e pesynufafe ero refann
pacfnrueaefcn e recfe ypapa.
Mefann ecerpa pacfnrueaefcn npu ypape, npuer cfeneuu ero pacfneuun saeucuf of cunu
ypapa. Ofrefur, fo kysoeuan pefanu roef pacfnuyfucn ue fonuko npu TR, uo u eo
epern peroufa, korpa pefanu eunpaennefcn ronofkor. Ecnu ypapu ronofka ue cunuuue, a
car ronofok nnacfraccoeu unu pepeenuuu, fo pacfneuue uacfonuko uesuaufenuuo,
fo ua uero rouo ue opaafu euurauun. Ho ecnu ypapu cunuuu u uauocnfcn
refannueckur ronofkor, fo npoucxopuf packnenueauue refanna.
Onufuu racfep ue ponyckaef packnenueauun unu, no kpaue repe, npunaraef ece
ycunun, fou rakcuranuuo ero cuusufu. Heonufuu e puxfoeuk saacfyk saueaef o
for, fo refann npu ypape pacfnrueaefcn, u e panuueuer, korpa peqoprauun pefanu,
kasanocu u, ye ycfpaueua, npu uapaenueauuu ua ofperoufupoeauuoe recfo noeepxuocfu
pefanu uauuaef urpafu (xapakfepuo xopuf). B fakux cnyanx fake roeopnf, fo
refann xnknaef. auuu peqekf uasueakf xnonyuko, nockonuky npu uapaenueauuu
ua eunyknocfu oua nepereaefcn fo ua opuy, fo ua ppyryk cfopouy refannueckoro nucfa
c xapakfepuur xnonkor.
Ecnu sfo npousouno, fo ueoxopura ycapka refanna, fo ecfu yreuuueuue nnoapu
peqoprupoeauuo, pacfnuyfo pefanu po uopranuuo.
Rpocfeuu cnoco ycapku saknkaefcn e cospauuu kouycuux yrnyneuu e refanne,
kofopue saunafneeueakfcn nepep nokpacko.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
nn cospauun yrnyneuu ucnonusyefcn puxfoeouu ronofok, y kofoporo c opuo cfopouu
ureefcn kouycoopasuu oek. Mouo npureunfu fake ouuu ronofok unu
saocfpeuuu kepu (puc. 1.48).


Puc. 1.48. Rpaeka xnonyuku c norouk ouuoro ronofka

C euyfpeuue cfopouu pefanu pasreaefcn refannueckan nopcfaeka, a ypapu uauocnfcn
okor c nuueeo cfopouu. Xenafenuuo ucnonusoeafu ceuuuoeyk nopcfaeky. Ypapu
uyuo uauocufu e onacfu, kofopan rpauuuf c nopcfaeko, uo ue ua cary nopcfaeky.
Rpocfykueauue npoeopufcn no cnupanu of nepuqepuu k ueufpy c nporeyfkaru okono 5
rr.


Puc. 1.49. Eueuan xnonyuka nocne unuqoeku

B pesynufafe e recfe noepepeuun nonyaefcn ye ue xnknaku refann, ua
noeepxuocfu kofoporo pasreeuo ruoecfeo kouycuux yrnyneuu. Repep unafneeauuer
noeepxuocfu opaafueaefcn unuqoeanuuo rauuuko unu uapauo ukypko, npu sfor
enafenuuo ue safparueafu uenoepepeuuue yacfku. Ha puc. 1.49 eu eupufe xnonyuky
nocne unuqoeku. Lnafneeka uauocufcn e ueckonuko cnoee, npuer kapu cno poneu
ufu ruuuranuuo fonuuu, fou useafu ee pacfpeckueauun e panuueuer
(puc. 1.50).


Puc. 1.50. Lnafneeka uaknapueaefcn e ueckonuko cnoee unafener
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )

Rocne foro kak cno uaueceu, ou eucyuueaefcn u saunuqoeueaefcn unuqoeanuuo
rauuuko unu uapauo ukypko.
COBET
3aunuqoeueafu uyuo kapu cno unafneeku.
Eonee sqqekfueuu refop, kofopu npureunefcn pnn ycfpaueuun ouupuux peqekfoe c
pacfneuuer refanna, npepcfaennef coo foeuu uarpee e coefauuu c ypapuur
eospecfeuer u nocnepykur ucfpur oxnapeuuer.
Harpee rouo npouseopufu kak c norouk cnoffepa c rpaqufoeur snekfpopor, fak u c
ucnonusoeauuer rasoeo ropenku.
RPHMEHAHHE
Fpaquf xpynku rafepuan, nosfory ue cnepyef paeufu ua snekfpop, ocoeuuo nop
npnrur yrnor k noeepxuocfu pefanu.
Ronusoeafucn rasoeo ropenko uyuo oeuu ocfopouo, fou ue npoeu refann
uackeosu. Conno rasoeo ropenku ponuo ufu uyneeoro unu nepeoro uorepa.
Hanoruur, fo uenu pauuo npouepypu ycapka refanna, eosepaf noepepeuuory recfy
ynpyrocfu u ycfpaueuue pacfneuun refanna. Rosfory ue cfouf uarpeeafu ruoro foek, a
nocne uarpeea kapo foku uyuo npoeepnfu, ue nukeupupoeauo nu xopeuue refanna
(puc. 1.51).


Puc. 1.51. Rocnepoeafenuuocfu uarpeea u oxnapeuun npu ycapke refanna

Cuaana refann uarpeeaefcn po kpacuoro ueefa, a safer ucfpo, fou ue pafu ery
ocfufu (e feeuue 10 c), npocfykueaefcn ronofkor, nocne ero oxnapaefcn acecfoeur
farnouor unu fkauuk, croeuuo eopo.
Ecnu fpeyefcn ruoro foek uarpeea (uanpurep, npu onuuo nnoapu noepepeuuoro
yacfka), fo uarpee npoeopufcn no cnupanu of nepuqepuu k ueufpy. Rpu sfor kpore
puxfoeouoro ronofka u ropenku ueoxopura onopuan nnufa (cr. puc. 1.40).
Ycfpauufu eunyknocfu rouo fake nyfer snekfpouarpeea, nponyckan epes pefanu
snekfpuecku fok uuskoro uanpneuun u onuuo cunu. Tako refop ucnonusyefcn e
paofe nporuuneuuux annapafoe foeuo ceapku. Rpuuuun pecfeun pauuoro refopa
saknkaefcn e ucfpor uarpeee refanna, kofopu uaxopufcn e koufakfe c rpaqufoeur
snekfpopor annapafa foeuo ceapku. Opuu npoeop ucnonusyefcn pnn nopeopa
uanpneuun k pepafenk snekfpopa, a efopo coepuunef refannuecku nucf c racco.
Opuako pnn npureueuun snekfpouarpeea fpeyefcn poeonuuo poporocfonee
oopypoeauue, fo penaef sfof refop ue cnuukor ypouur pnn rapauux peroufuux
paof. Fopaspo npoe u peueene oofucu rasoeo ropenko.
Cnyaefcn, fo noepepeuun pefanu fakoeu, fo pacfneuue ueeosrouo ycfpauufu
euueonucauuuru refoparu. B sfor cnyae fpeyefcn yknapka refanna: noepepeuuu
snereuf paspesaefcn e opuor unu ueckonukux pacfnuyfux recfax (konuecfeo paspesoe
saeucuf of cfeneuu noepepeuun), a safer yknapueaefcn qopra pefanu. Happesu nocne
yknapku saeapueakfcn, a recfa ceapku sauakfcn.
6sapouuse pa6os
Perouf kysoea uepaspueuo censau co ceapouuru paofaru, eepu ruorue pefanu
esparuoro kysoea coepuunkfcn c norouk ceapku (e ocuoeuor, nyfer foeuo ceapku),
fo ecfuecmkoao uepaseuuoao coeuueuun c uaapeeou(cnepyef nopepkuyfu, fo
coepuueuue onsafenuuo ponuo ufu uepaspenuuur). A eepu pnn npoeepeuun peroufa
uyuo cuaana pasLnfu pefanu, a safer cuoea coepuuufu. Cnepoeafenuuo, ueoxopuru
ceapouue paofu.
Bosrouo, eu npepnonounu, fo peu specu nopef o snekfpopyroeo ceapke. Koueuo,
snekfpopyroean ceapka ureef neuue npeuryecfea. Ho e fo e epern oua fpeyef
eucokoro npoqeccuouanusra ee ucnonuufenn. Pepko kako racfep kysoeuoro peroufa
onapaef pocfafouuru npoqeccuouanuuuru uaeukaru, fou ucnonusoeafu
snekfpopyroeyk ceapky. Opuako cyecfeykf u onee npocfue eapuaufu ceapku, pnn
eunonueuun kofopux racfep-kysoeuk ue onsafenuuo poneu ufu ee u
eucokoknaccuur ceapukor.
nn kysoeuoro peroufa oeuu nonynnpuu nonyaeforafu, npouseopnue ceapky e cpepe
uuepfuoro rasa. B fakux nonyaeforafax ceapouan npoeonoka nopaefcn e paoyk souy
aeforafuecku, k fory e ponycfuru pasnuuue peuru ceapku (uenpepueuu,
urnynucuu, c usreunero nonnpuocfuk u f. p.). Hekofopue annapafu noseonnkf
npureunfu ue fonuko repuyk ceapouyk npoeonoky, uo u cfanuuyk.
Cnepyef ofrefufu, fo npoqeccuouanuuue ceapouue annapafu poeonuuo poporu, a
annapafu, kofopue ue oeuu ukf no kouenuky, uo ofnuakfcn xopouur kaecfeor,
pocfafu npakfuecku ueeosrouo. Rpaepa, npu enauuu rouo carocfonfenuuo
usrofoeufu ceapouu annapaf (pasnuuue ypuanu npepnarakf cxeru ropene
ceapouux annapafoe, kofopue coupakfcn yfu nu ue us pefane, poufux ua
nuaue rycopuo ceanke). Kpore foro, ue onsafenuuo npuopefafu
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
npoqeccuouanuuu ceapouu annapaf eo ruorux cnyanx enonue rouo oofucu
nkufenucko fexuuko.
nn koufakfuo ceapku ae ecero ucnonusykfcn ceapouue kneu. Rpuuuun ux paofu
npocf: cafu refannueckue nucfu, a safer uaafu u ceapka eunonueua. A ecnu ue
skouorufu peuuru ua npuopefeuue fakoro annapafa, fo rouo npuopecfu ceapouue
kneu c nueerafuko, u forpa ear ue npupefcn npunarafu ycunun cocfeeuuux pyk.
Ceapuoe coepuueuue ofnuaefcn of ppyrux eupoe coepuueuun fer, fo pnn uero
ucnonusyefcn fennoeo ucfouuk, kofopu foeuo noeuuaef fernepafypy refanna po
fernepafypu nnaeneuun u fakur opasor oecneueaef coepuueuue. Mouo coepuunfu
pacnnaeneuuu u uepacnnaeneuuu refannu.
RPHMEHAHHE
Coepuueuun, pnn kofopux ucnonusyefcn fennoeo ucfouuk, noeuuaku fernepafypy
refanna po fernepafypu nnaeneuun, uasueakfcn ceapuuru.
Pasnuakf pea funa ceapku:
+ ceapka pasuopopuux refannoe;
+ ceapka opuopopuux refannoe.
Ceapka pasuopouix uemannoe sfo ecfkoe uepasLeruoe coepuueuue c norouk
fennoeoro ucfouuka, npu kofopor refannu, coepuunerue ceapko, ue poeopnfcn po
fernepafypu pacnnaea. Hx fernepafypa fakoea, fou ouu cnunucu c npucapouur
refannor. Pacnnaennefcn ureuuo npucapka, kofopan u coepuunef uepacnnaeneuuue
refannu (coepuueuue npoucxopuf fonuko e onpepeneuuor fernepafypuor puanasoue). B
saeucurocfu of eupa npucapouoro rafepuana cyecfeyef pea funa ceapku pasuopopuux
refannoe: naka ua onoenuuor npunoe u feeppan naka.
Ceapka ouopouix uemannoe sfo ecfkoe uepasLeruoe coepuueuue c norouk
fennoeoro ucfouuka, npu kofopor refannu, coepuunerue ceapko, poeopnfcn po
fernepafypu pacnnaea. Kporku, pacnnaeneuuue fennoeur ucfouukor, coepuunkfcn
nocne oxnapeuun. Rpucapouu rafepuan, ucnonusyeru npu ceapke opuopopuux
refannoe (npu fako ceapke npucapouu rafepuan fpeyefcn ue ecerpa), fako e, kak u
ceapueaerue refannu, e pesynufafe ero euyfpeuunn cfpykfypa coepuueuun nennefcn
opuopopuo.
Rpu kysoeuor peroufe ucnonusykfcn cnepykue eupu ceapku: kucnopopuo-auefuneuoean,
pyroean, pyroean ceapka e cpepe uuepfuoro rasa u ceapka conpofueneuuer (koufakfuan
foeuan ceapka).
C8APkA PA3h0P0hbX ME7A0008 0Y7EM 0Ahkh
B kysoeuor peroufe npureunkfcn pasnuuue eupu naku:
+ naka onoenuuur npunoer;
+ nyeuue;
+ naka nafyuuur npunoer;
+ naka npunoer pefane us nerkux cnnaeoe.
Haka onoenuuiu npunoeu ucnonusyefcn pnn coepuueuun uakoueuuka c snekfpueckur
npoeopor, pnn uaueceuun onoea ua nucfoeue pefanu (npu noprofoeke k nokpacke), a fake
pnn uekofopux coepuueuu pefane. Rpu aefoperoufe onoenuuu npuno npureunefcn
pnn naku cfanu, repu u nafyuu. nn ankruuun u ero cnnaeoe ucnonusykfcn ppyrue
npunou.
Cnepyef sarefufu, fo onoenuuu npuno ue coecer npaeunuuo uasueafu onoenuuur. B
kaecfee npunon npureunefcn cnnae onoea u ceuuua, nockonuky pacnnae ucforo onoea
uepocfafouo feky u ue npouukaef repy onopuuru noeepxuocfnru pefane. Kpore foro,
pacnnaeneuuoe ucfoe onoeo nocne oxnapeuun fepnef ynpyrocfu u cfauoeufcn xpynkur,
fo penaef ero uenpuropuur pnn kysoeuux paof.
-ae ecero ucnonusyefcn cnnae cnepykero cocfaea: 67 % ceuuua u 33 % onoea, uo e
uekofopux cnyanx npureunkfcn cnnaeu c ppyrur npoueufuur copepauuer kornoueufoe
ece saeucuf of paof, kofopue ueoxopuro eunonuufu. Tako npuno npepcfaennef
coo nufue cfepuu, nypunuuu nopouok u npoeonoky puarefpor 3 rr. Ternepafypa
opasoeauun pacnnaea of 230 C po 250 C saeucuf of npoueufuoro copepauun
kornoueufoe npunon.
Repep uaanor naku pefanu cnepyef noprofoeufu: oucfufu ux u oesupufu, a fake
npocnepufu sa fer, fou ua uux ue uno uuopopuux acfuu (ua pefannx ue ponuo ufu
rpnsu, okanuuu, paeuuu, ocfafkoe nakokpacouoro nokpufun unu aufukopposuuoro
nokpufun, okucuux nneuok fonuko ucfu refann).
anee nakokpacouoe nokpufue ypannefcn uaepor, a noeepxuocfu pefane uaucfo
sauaefcn uanunuuukor. B uekofopux cnyanx pnn oucfku noeepxuocfu pefane
ucnonusyefcn cfeknnuuan ukypka.
BHHMAHHE
Oucfky noeepxuocfu pefanu cfeknnuuo ukypko uyuo npoeopufu oeuu ocfopouo.
Cfeknnuuan ukypka onsafenuuo ponua ufu uoeo. -er onuue oua usuauueaefcn, fer
onuue eeponfuocfu foro, fo ukypka sarpnsuuf noeepxuocfu pefanu acfuuaru knen.
eno e for, fo cfeknnuuan ukypka npepcfaennef coo fkauu, ua kofopyk uakneeu
cfeknnuuu nopouok. Korpa ukypka usuauueaefcn, npu fpeuuu kne uauuaef
pacnnaennfucn u, nonapan ua noeepxuocfu pefanu, npununaef k ue. -acfuuu knen
ueeosrouo paccrofpefu es rukpockona, opuako sfo ue reuaef ur npennfcfeoeafu
nake, nockonuky refann npunon ue coepuunefcn c refannor pefanu.
He cnepyef nanfu pefanu ecfuk fakoe coepuueuue ypef ucfpo paspyuafucn, nockonuky
rexauueckan npouocfu onoenuuoro npunon ueeucoka. -fou coepuueuue uno npouur,
pefanu cnaueakfcn euaxnecf (opua pefanu ueruoro nepekpueaef ppyryk).
efanu uarpeeakfcn, u npuno poeopufcn po cocfonuun pacnnaea c norouk nannuuukoe
unu ceapouo ropenku. Repep uaanor naku neseue nannuuuka sanyueaefcn e npunoe.
BHHMAHHE
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Hu e koer cnyae ue cnepyef pasorpeeafu nannuuuk pokpacua. Bepu forpa fernepafypa
neseun nannuuuka uauuaef npeeuuafu foky nnaeneuun pnn onoenuuoro npunon u
poxopuf po foku ucnapeuun. K fory e opasykfcn okucnu repu, e pesynufafe ero
yxypuakfcn ycnoeun naku u, kak cnepcfeue, ee pesynufaf.
Ecnu fpeyefcn sanyueafu onuuue noeepxuocfu unu ue xeafaef rouocfu nannuuuka,
ou pasorpeeaefcn c norouk ceapouo ropenku.
Repep nako noeepxuocfu pefane sanyueakfcn. B npofueuor cnyae npu pasorpeee
refanna ypef opasoeueafucn okucuan nneuka (o sfor oeuu kpacouo uanucauo e
nkor ukonuuor yeuuke no xuruu: npu noeuueuuu fernepafypu yckopnefcn peakuun
okucneuun, kucnopop nerko npouukaef e noeepxuocfuue cnou refanna, e pesynufafe ero
opasyefcn okucuan nneuka). Okucuan nneuka npennfcfeyef coepuueuuk npunon c pefanuk,
k fory e us-sa uee opasykeecn coepuueuue okasueaefcn eecura uenpouur.
eno e for, fo npuno coepuunefcn c pefanuk sa cef foro, fo e pasorpefor po foku
pacnnaea npunoe u e refanne pasorpefo pefanu (ecfecfeeuuo, pefanu ue pasorpeeaefcn
po foku pacnnaea) npoucxopuf esauruoe nepereuueauue acfuu, fo ecfu qakfuecku
opasyefcn feeppu pacfeop. Okucuan nneuka nopouory coepuueuuk npu pauuux
fernepafypax ue noppaefcn (fernepafypa nnaeneuun okucuux nneuok euue, er
fernepafypa nnaeneuun ucfux refannoe) oua npennfcfeyef fakory nepereuueauuk, ue
noseonnn acfuuar npunon npouukafu e noeepxuocfuue cnou refanna pefanu.
-fou npu uarpeee pefanu ue opasoeueanacu okucuan nneuka, nepep uarpeeor, a fake e
npouecce naku noeepxuocfu, coepuunerue nyfer naku, nokpueakfcn qnkcor (qnkc
eeecfeo, ucnonusyeroe pnn cunfun okucuoro cnon u npepofepaeuun ucfporo
okucneuun npu nake unu ceapouux paofax). nn sforo npureunefcn, k npurepy,
xnopucfu uuuk (ero nonyakf e pesynufafe xuruecko peakuuu uuuka c connuo
kucnofo: uuuk eufecunef eopopop u coepuunefcn c xnopor).
Ecnu npu nake ucnonusyefcn xnopucfu uuuk, fo no ee okouauuu pefanu uerepneuuo
cnepyef nporufu. eno e for, fo npu pasorpeee xnopucforo uuuka eopopop us eospyxa
roef ecfynafu e xurueckyk peakuuk xnopucforo uuuka c opasoeauuer connuo
kucnofu, eospecfeue e connuo kucnofu ua refann oeeupuo sfo ucfpoe
opasoeauue oaroe kopposuu. Rporueafu cnepyef ue e eope, a e cnaor enouor
pacfeope, fak kak nporueka e eope ue ypannef ece kucnofuue coepuueuun, safo enouo
pacfeop rapaufupoeauuo uefpanusyef ux.
Pyue ecero npureunfu e kaecfee qnkca uefpanuuue eeecfea ua ase xnopucforo
uuuka, a ue car xnopucfu uuuk. Cnepyef sarefufu, fo ae ecero pocfafouo fafenuuo
oesupufu recfa, nopeepraerue nake.
Pyeuue pefanu eunonunefcn nyfer uaueceuun foukoro cnon onoenuuoro npunon ua
noeepxuocfu pefanu. Sfof npouecc ue cnuukor ucfpu, ecnu ero eunonunfu c norouk
nannuuuka, uo npu akkypafuor u fafenuuor nopxope pesynufaf onpaepueaef
safpaeuuoe epern.
Pyeuue roef eunonunfucn c ucnonusoeauuer ofkpuforo nnareuu. nn sforo
npureunefcn npuno ue e eupe npoeonoku, e eupe pyckoe unu (fo onfuranuuo)
nypunuuoro nopouka. Rpu sfor pefanu pasorpeeaefcn po fernepafypu, nusko k foke
nnaeneuun npunon. B pesynufafe npu conpukocuoeeuuu npunon c noeepxuocfuk pefanu (k
npurepy, npu npofupke pasorpefo noeepxuocfu pefanu pyckor npunon) ua ee
noeepxuocfu ocfaefcn nacfoopasuu cno npunon (ye ue feeppoe eeecfeo, uo ee u ue
pacnnae). Rocne foro kak ecn noeepxuocfu, nopeepraeran nyeuuk, nokpufa cnoer npunon,
ee euoeu cnepyef uarpefu, fou npuno onnfu nepeuen e nacfoopasuoe cocfonuue e
fakor eupe ero rouo sarnapufu. Rpuno sarnaueaefcn fkaueeur farnouor, nokpufur
qnkcor (fo ecfu noeepxuocfu npofupaefcn farnouor). Roeepxuocfu okouafenuuo
poeopufcn c ucnonusoeauuer nonupoeanuuo rauuuku unu epyuyk.
Haka namyuuiu npunoeu npu kysoeuor peroufe ucnonusyefcn npu ueoxopurocfu
sarnyuueauun ofeepcfu, kofopue opasykfcn nocne paspeneuun snereufoe, coepuueuuux
foeuo ceapko. Ouuo ceapuue snereufu kysoea pasLepuunkfcn nyfer
euceepnueauun ceapuux foek. Hreuuo sfu ofeepcfun u uypakfcn nofor e sarnyuueauuu.
Raka nafyuuur npunoer npureunefcn fake pnn coepuueuun pefane, kofopue uenusn
cunuuo pasorpeeafu (po foku nnaeneuun), npu onacuocfu, fo npu uarpeee roryf
eosuukuyfu kakue-nuo peqoprauuu, pnn coepuueuun pasuopopuux refannoe u pnn naku
pefane, ue nopeepraerux aeforeuuo nake.
Rpunoer nennefcn cnnae repu c uuukor. Pafyuu c npurecnru, kofopue ypepueakf uuuk e
pacnnaee, npennfcfeyef ucfpory ucnapeuuk uuuka npu pacnnaeneuuu npunon u cuuaef
fekyecfu pacnnaea. Rpuno eunyckaefcn e eupe kpyrnux npyfkoe puarefpor 1,68,0 rr c
opaofauuuru fopuaru.
Ternepafypa uarpeea pefane pnn coepuueuun c norouk nafyuuoro npunon cocfaennef
okono 650 C. o uaana naku koueu npyfka npunon pasorpeeaefcn u noreaefcn e
nopoukoopasuu qnkc ua ocuoee opafa uafpun. Sfo uyuo cpenafu pnn foro, fou
ypanufu okucnu, opasykuecn e souax naku npu uarpeee.
Onfuranuue ecero ucnonusoeafu npuno, eunyckaeru e eupe npyfkoe, ye nokpufux
qnkcor. B sfor cnyae npuno ue uyuo pononuufenuuo opaafueafu qnkcor.
Yacfku pefanu, kofopue nopeeprakfcn nake, fafenuuo ouakfcn po ronoro refanna.
Ecnu sapenueakfcn ofeepcfun, fo nepep uaanor naku ouu ponuu sauafucn no
okpyuocfu ua uupuuy, paeuyk fper fonuuar refanna.
efanu npu nake nafyuuur npunoer rouo coepuunfu pasnuuuru cnocoaru: ecfuk,
euaxnecf u nop yrnor.
Rpu coepuueuuu ecfuk npuno poneu npocoufucn repy coepuuneruru kporkaru
pefane fakur opasor, fou opasoeancn uoe, eoseuuakucn uap refannor ua
eucofy okono 10 % of fonuuu refanna. Hauonee npouoe coepuueuue oecneueaef
currefpuuu uoe, uupuua kofoporo paeua fper fonuuar refanna.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Mefann ae ecero pasorpeeaefcn c norouk kucnopopuo-auefuneuoeo ropenku. Ecnu
oLer ceapouux paof onuuo (uanpurep, cnepyef coepuuufu cfanuuue nucfu), fo
ueonuuo usnuuek auefuneua npennfcfeyef opasoeauuk okucnoe e noeepxuocfuux
cnonx refanna.
Repeouaanuuan npuxeafka pefane (npepeapufenuuoe coepuueuue) ocyecfennefcn
foeuo nako (kopofkuru nannuuuru uearu), u fonuko nocne sforo npouseopufcn naka
uenpepueuur ueor.
Ro okouauuu naku ocfafku qnkca cnepyef ypanufu, fak kak ou opasyef ua noeepxuocfu
cfeknnuuue kanenuku. Ocfafku qnkca ypannkfcn ckanueauuer unu onunueauuer.
Haka npunoeu emane us neakux cnnaeoe npureunefcn e ocuoeuor forpa, korpa
rafepuan, us kofoporo usrofoeneuu pefanu, useecfeu. B npofueuor cnyae eosuukaef
nponera nopopa qnkca pnn eunonueuun paof. Ofnuufenuuo ocoeuuocfuk fako
naku nennefcn fo, fo kpan pefane us nerkux cnnaeoe coepuunkfcn es pasorpeea
pefane po fernepafypu nnaeneuun (fakur opasor, cfpykfypa refanna pefanu ue
usreunefcn).
nn pauuo naku ucnonusykfcn npunou funa A-510 u ero auanoru. Ternepafypa
nnaeneuun sfux npunoee okono 580 C. Ouu fpeykf npureueuun cneuuanuuux qnkcoe,
kofopue ecfynakf e peakuuk c ankruuueeuru cnnaearu c opasoeauuer oaroe
kopposuu. Rocne naku qnkc cnepyef ypanufu, nporue pefanu, uuae kopposuu ue
useafu.
BHHMAHHE
Raka fakuru npunonru ueponycfura pnn cnnaeoe, copepaux onee 1,5 % raruun.
C8APkA 8 CPEE hhEP7h0l0 lA3A
B uacfonee epern pnn kysoeuoro peroufa ae ecero ucnonusyefcn ceapka e cpee
uuepmuoao aasa. Ee no npaey cufakf nyuur cnocoor ceapku pnn refanna
aeforounuuoro kysoea, ocoeuuo pnn peroufuux paof e porauue-rapauux ycnoeunx.
Takyk ceapky ee uasueakf ceapko e cpee saumuoao aasa, nockonuky ras
npepuasuaeu pnn skpauupoeauun snekfpopoe ceapouoro annapafa, snekfpuecko pyru u
pacnnaea refanna of afrocqepu, fo ecfu pnn saufu.
Repep uaanor paof ueoxopuro uacfpoufu ceapouu nonyaeforaf cornacuo
uucfpykuuu no skcnnyafauuu.
RPHMEHAHHE
Cyecfeykf oue npaeuna aeforounuuux ceapuux paof: conno uakoueuuka
ceapouoro nonyaeforafa ponuo ufu ecerpa uanpaeneuo k recfy ceapku, fou
oecneueafu pocfafouyk nopay uuepfuoro rasa; uakoueuuk pekoreupyefcn pepafu
nop yrnor okono 70 k ceapueaerur noeepxuocfnr; paccfonuue of conna po foku ceapku
ponuo ufu of 2 po 5 cr.
Bauur ycnoeuer nonyeuun kaecfeeuuoro ceapuoro uea nennefcn onfuranuuan
ckopocfu nopau ceapouo npoeonoku. Rpu cnuukor onuuo unu cnuukor uusko
ckopocfu nopau ceapouo npoeonoku nonyaefcn uekaecfeeuuu ceapuo uoe (c
usruaru u paspuearu). K coaneuuk, oux pekoreupauu no euopy ckopocfu nopau
ceapouo npoeonoku ue cyecfeyef ece saeucuf of koukpefuoro ceapouoro annapafa u
ycnoeu npoeepeuun ceapuux paof, a fake of refanna, c kofopur paofaef ceapuk. Ro
repe uakonneuun onufa racfep ecerpa cnocoeu esouuouo onpepenufu ueoxopuryk
ckopocfu nopau ceapouo npoeonoku. Opuako saacfyk kak keanuquuupoeauuue
racfepa, fak u uoeuku e aeforounuuor pene koufponupykf npouecc ceapku no seyky.
Onfuranuuo ceapke coofeefcfeyef ncuu, nofpeckueaku seyk. Ecnu ckopocfu nopau
npoeonoku eenuka, fo ceapouu annapaf ypef roreufanuuo npourafu refann po pup,
npu sfor npoeonoka cfauef usruafucn ua paoe noeepxuocfu. Ecnu e ckopocfu nopau
npoeonoku rana, fo npouecc ceapku conpoeopaefcn uunnur seykor, u npoeonoka
pacxopyefcn ennofu po cpesa k nopake ronoeke. Rpu sfor nopakan ronoeka roef
packanufucn pokpacua, fo ueponycfuro, fak kak sfo roef npueecfu k npuxeafy ceapouo
npoeonoku e nopaker kauane ceapouoro annapafa.
Rocne ceapku ocfaefcn nokpufu okanuuo ceapuo uoe. Okanuua sfo nopucfan
cycfauuun, kofopan nerko enufueaef enary. Xuruecku cocfae okanuuu eo enauo
cpepe cnococfeyef noneneuuk oaroe kopposuu. Rosfory, pnn foro fou ucknkufu
noneneuue uoeux oaroe kopposuu ua fonuko fo ofperoufupoeauuo pefanu, cnepyef
ypannfu ocfafku okanuuu po ucforo refanna.
nn sfo uenu ouuo npureunkfcn yrnounuqoeanuuue rauuuu (e uapope uasueaerue
onrapkaru). B kaecfee apasueuoro uucfpyreufa pnn ypaneuun okanuuu ucnonusykfcn
pucku noeuueuuo fonuuu (po 5 rr), kofopue ue noseonnkf npopesafu fouku nucfoeo
refann, unu cneuuanuuue qacouuue pucku c fopueeo paoe noeepxuocfuk (fakuru
puckaru ypouo sauafu ofuocufenuuo onuuue nnoapu). Rpu sfor onsafenuuo uyuo
nonusoeafucn saufuuru okaru u nepafkaru. Xenafenuuo fake opeeafu ceapouu
kocfkr, uecrofpn ua fo fo ceapouue paofu ye sakoueuu. Tako kocfkr
usrofaenueaefcn us nnofuo ueropke fkauu (ouuo us peseufa) u npennfcfeyef
nonapauuk packaneuuux acfuu ua feno enoeeka eepu npu saucfke okanuuu refann
packannefcn.
3aucfky uyuo eunonunfu rakcuranuuo fafenuuo, nofory fo pae ueonuuoe
nnfuuuko okanuuu, ocfaeueecn npu saucfke, cnocouo e feeuue kopofkoro epereuu
npeepafufucn e oar ckeosuo kopposuu.
Rocne foro kak ceapuue ueu saueuu po ucforo refanna, ueoxopuro npouseecfu
rpyufoeky opaofauuo noeepxuocfu. Sfo ucknkuf koufakf saueuuoro refanna c
eospyxor, e acfuocfu c kucnopopor u enaro, kofopue akfueuo cnococfeykf cospauuk
oaroe kopposuu.
Yl08AP C8APkA
yaoean ceapka npureunefcn pnn coepuueuun foukux nucfoe refanna (ux ruuuranuuan
fonuua 1 rr). Oua pepko ucnonusyefcn racfeparu kysoeuux paof. eno e for, fo
pyroean ceapka fpeyef eucokoro racfepcfea e opaeuuu co ceapouur annapafor, a
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
fake cneuuanuuux suauu, uuae pesynufaf ceapouux paof ypef eecura panek of
upeanuuoro. Cnepoeafenuuo, eucokokaecfeeuuyk pyroeyk ceapky roef eunonuufu nuuu
npoqeccuouanuuu ceapuk. Cpepu racfepoe kysoeuux paof, ue nennkuxcn
npoqeccuouanuuuru ceapukaru, pyroean ceapka ue cnuukor nonynnpua.
Rpu pyroeo ceapke kporku, ceapueaerue repy coo, roryf ycfauaenueafucn ecfuk.
Ecnu fonuua nucfoe ue onee 2 rr, fo ux rouo cocfukoeafu es sasopa, ecnu e
fonuua nucfoe cocfaennef 24 rr, fo kporku cocfukoeueakfcn c sasopor e 2/3 of
puarefpa ceapouoro snekfpopa. Ees sasopa rouo cocfukoeafu nucfu refanna, kporku
kofopux urekf qacku nop yrnor 45. Ecnu fonuua ceapueaerux nucfoe onee 4 rr, fo
qopra kporok ponua ufu V-opasuo, c yrnor 90.
Ceapueaerue kporku ponycfuro pacnonarafu kak e opuo nnockocfu (ceapka ecfuk), fak u e
pasnuuux nnockocfnx (yrnoean ceapka c euyfpeuuur ueor, yrnoean ceapka c uapyuur
ueor u ceapka euaxnecfky). Mouo npouseopufu cfukoeyk ropusoufanuuyk ceapky,
eepfukanuuyk, a fake ceapky e uuux nonoeuunx.
Repep uaanor ceapouux paof refann kysoea e paoe soue uyuo oucfufu ue fonuko
of nunu u rpnsu, uo u of nakokpacouoro nokpufun, a fake nokpufu ppyroro eupa
(aufukopposuouuux u f. p.) po ronoro refanna. Ceapueaerue kporku ponuu ufu
rakcuranuuo ucfuru.
Bpern eunonueuun ceapouux paof u ux kaecfeo onpepennkfcn ue fonuko racfepcfeor
ucnonuufenn, uo u uauempou anekmpoa.
RPHMEHAHHE
-er onuue puarefp snekfpopa, fer ua onuuyk fonuuy refanna ou eospecfeyef
(pasorpeeaef).
Macfepar, kofopue cufakf, fo yeenueuue puarefpa snekfpopa ue fonuko yckopuf
ceapouue paofu, uo u ynyuuf ux kaecfeo (sa cef rakcuranuuoro u ucfporo
pasorpeea refanna), cnepyef noruufu, fo pefanu aeforounuuoro kysoea
usrofaenueakfcn us nucfoe refanna ueonuuo fonuuu. Rpu uopranuuo cune
ceapouoro foka, raneuukor puarefpe snekfpopa u npoponufenuuor epereuu ceapku
(fakue naparefpu ceapku fpeykf onuuoro konuecfea npoxopoe, fo yeenuueaef epern
ceapouux paof) refann kysoea sa cef pasorpeea peqoprupyefcn uesuaufenuuo, e
pesynufafe ero ceapouu uoe nonyaefcn poeuur. A eof npu onuuor puarefpe
snekfpopa roef opasoeafucn ofeepcfue. To e caroe eu nonyufe, ecnu nopuecefe
fnekyk cnuky k yrare. -fou sforo useafu, uyuo yeenuufu ckopocfu nepereeuun
snekfpopa, fo npueepef ue fonuko k yreuuueuuk epereuu ua ceapouue paofu, uo u k
uepaeuorepuocfu ceapouoro uea.
Tpeyeru pnn paof puarefp snekfpopa u cuna foka saeucnf of fonuuu ceapueaerux
nucfoe refanna, ux pacnonoeuun ppyr ofuocufenuuo ppyra, a fake of foro, eunonunefcn
ceapka e ropusoufanuuo/eepfukanuuo nnockocfu unu nop yrnor.
Onpepeneuuue uaeuku u racfepcfeo fpeykfcn fake npu saurauuu ceapouo pyru.
-fou saeu pyry, uyuo cuaana nopeecfu snekfpop k pefanu po kacauun, a safer
ofeecfu. Snekfpop koufakfupyef c pefanuk nuo sa cef nerkoro ypapa, nuo fpeuuer o
noeepxuocfu pefanu. 3pecu fake fpeykfcn uaeuku ceapuka: yfu cunuuee ypap unu
npuur u roef npousofu ckanueauue orasku kouua snekfpopa, fo npueepef k
acfuuory oroneuuk snekfpopa u ero npununauuk k pefanu npu ceapke nepereuuur
fokor.
khC00P0h0-AE7h0Eh08AP C8APkA
Kucnopouo-auemuneuoeyk ceapkyuasueakf eeaemoaeuuo. Mefannu coepuunkfcn
nyfer recfuoro nnaeneuun kporok pefane npu uarpeee nnareuer kucnopopuo-
auefuneuoeo ropenku (fernepafypa e ceapouo soue pocfuraef 3200 C). Xupku refann
opasyef uepaspueuu pacnnae. Aeforeuuan ceapka roef npouseopufucn kak c
npureueuuer npucapouoro rafepuana, fak u es uero.
Takan ceapka poeonuuo pacnpocfpaueua, nockonuky uupoka onacfu npureueuun
kucnopopuo-auefuneuoeo ropenku. Sfo pocfafouo yuueepcanuuoe oopypoeauue
nonyuno eceoee npusuauue racfepoe kysoeuoro peroufa. C ee norouk rouo
eunonunfu naky, ceapky, paspesky u uarpee refanna.
Hepocfafkaru kucnopopuo-auefuneuoeo ceapku nennkfcn ee eucokue noapo u
espueoonacuocfu (nockonuky npu ceapke ucnonusyefcn ucfu kucnopop), a fake
noeuueuuan sarasoeauuocfu paoero recfa. Herafueuur roreufor nennefcn fake fo,
fo foukue refannueckue nucfu roryf neperpeeafucn u nepeurafucn npu aeforeuuo
ceapke, fo npueopuf k ux suaufenuuory koponeuuk. Rocnepykan poeopka
noeepxuocfu (usaeneuue of koponeuun) poeonuuo fpypoerka.
RPHMEHAHHE
Cyecfeeuuur ruuycor kucnopopuo-auefuneuoeo ceapku nennefcn cnaan kopposuouuan
cfokocfu ceapouoro coepuueuun u, kak cnepcfeue, ueonuuo cpok cnyu fakoro
coepuueuun.
Cnepyef ofrefufu u nonoufenuuue ocoeuuocfu annapafa pnn kucnopopuo-auefuneuoeo
ceapku. Bo-nepeux, ou nennefcn yuueepcanuuur, nockonuky npuropeu pnn ruorux eupoe
paof. Bo-efopux, pauuu annapaf noseonnef ceapueafu pasnuuue refannu. Hanpurep,
npu coofuoueuuu kucnopopa u auefuneua 1:1 rouo ceapueafu cfanu u repu (npu sfor
nnarn xapakfepuoro enoro ueefa), npu poaeneuuu e rasoeyk crecu kucnopopa nafyuu,
npu noeuueuuu e nponopuuu konuecfea ropkero rasa (auefuneua) rouo npouseopufu
ceapky ankruuun u ero cnnaeoe (npu sfor nnarn ureef xapakfepuu seneuoeafu offeuok
u repuaef).
Kporku refanna pnn ceapku noprofaenueakfcn pasnuuur opasor, e saeucurocfu of
fonuuu ceapueaerux refannueckux nucfoe u cnocoa ceapku. Kysoeuue paofu
npepnonarakf ceapky ua foukux nucfax. -fou ynpocfufu puxfoeouue paofu nocne
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
ceapku (ycfpauufu nocnepcfeun koponeuun refanna), ceapueaerue nucfu eucfaennkfcn
e opuo nnockocfu. Tako cnoco ceapku uasueaefcn neeo ceapko.
-fou eunonuufu ceapky c eucoko uapeuocfuk (oua fpeyefcn, k npurepy, pnn ceapku
nouepouoe), npureunefcn eepmukaniuan ceapka c eouiu ueou.
Rocne ceapku euyfpeuuux unu uapyuux yrnoe uenusn npoeopufu puxfoeouue paofu.
Rosfory, ecnu ceapouu uoe poneu ufu pacnonoeu e yrny, npepnofufenuuee
eunonunfu ceapky ecfuk oforuyfo kporku opuoro nucfa c npnro kporko ppyroro nucfa
(fakur opasor oecneueaefcn eosrouocfu panuueuux puxfoeouux paof).
-fou noprofoeufu refannueckue nucfu nop ceapky, ux kporku opesakfcn uouuuaru
unu nuno, kofopue oecneueakf npnro pes. Rocne sforo nucfu nnofuo
cocfukoeueakfcn ppyr c ppyror. Rpu uepocfafouo fouo noprouke nucfoe ux uyuo
pasLepuuufu u noporuafu ee pas.
Rpu npoeepeuuu ceapouux paof ropenka pacnonaraefcn eponu ocu ceapuoro uea u
uaknounefcn fak, fou nnarn uno uanpaeneuo eneeo. Rpu sfor koueu qakena
ypepueaefcn ua paccfonuuu okono 1 rr of pacnnaeneuuoro refanna. Fopenka
nepereaefcn cnpaea uaneeo, a conno uaknoueuo e cfopouy eunonueuuoro ceapuoro uea,
npu sfor cfpyn nnareuu nporpeeaef nuuuk ceapku.
Rpu kucnopopuo-auefuneuoeo ceapke acfo eosuukaef xapakfepuu peqekf uenpoeap (e
cnyae, ecnu ckopocfu nepereeuun qakena eucoka u refann ue pacnnaennefcn ua eck
fonuuy). nn ouapyeuun pauuoro peqekfa cnepyef ocrofpefu usuauouyk cfopouy
ceapuoro uea: ecnu cnep npoeapa refanna ofcyfcfeyef, suauf, fpeyefcn npoeapufu
peqekfuue recfa ee pas.
Korpa ceapka npouseopufcn nnaurn unu nop uaknouor, kaecfeo npoeapa rouo
onpepenufu no eueuuery eupy pacnnaea: ecnu ero noeepxuocfu cnerka eoruyfan, fo npoeap
ypoenefeopufenuuoro kaecfea. Rpoeap ue npousouen, ecnu noeepxuocfu pacnnaea
nnockan u yskan. Ecnu e pacnnae ocepaef, a uoe cfauoeufcn uupokur, fo eosroua
onacuocfu npourauun refanna, nosfory uyuo ua kopofkoe epern nopunfu ropenky.
Rpu ceapke c npucapouur rafepuanor pacnnaeneuuu refann roef uanunuyfu ua
refann ceapueaerux pefane, ue poeepeuuux po nnaeneuun, uo pasorpefux pokpacua.
Rpu ueonuuor pasLepuueuuu kpaee ceapuoro uea sfof peqekf cpasy sarefeu. nn ero
ycfpaueuun ueoxopuro euoeu npoeapufu pasouepuuecn cfuku.
C8APkA 70VkAMh
Ceapky movkauu ue cnepyef nyfafu c koumakmuo movevuo ceapko(ceapko
conpofueneuuer).
Ceapka fokaru sfo npepeapufenuuan npuxeafka, korpa pee pefanu coepuunkfcn
kopofkuru ceapuuru cfpokaru. Rpouecc npuxeafku uanoruuaef cuueauue fkauu:
cuaana fkauu crefueaefcn (ceapka fokaru), a safer ye kak cnepyef cuueaefcn
(eunonueuue ceapuoro uea).
Koufakfuan foeuan ceapka sfo aeforafusupoeauuu refop, npureuneru ua
npouseopcfee, npu sfor fouocfu uara ceapku oecneueakf poofu. Mefop ocuoeau ua
uarpeee snekfpueckoro pesucfopa npu nponyckauuu epes uero foka. Koufakfuyk foeuyk
ceapky uenusn oprauusoeafu e porauue-rapauux ycnoeunx eosroua nuuu urufauun
pesynufafa nopouo ceapku, fo ecfu eunonueuue c norouk ceapouoro annapafa ue
cnnouuoro ceapuoro uea, a kopofkux ceapuux cfekoe.
Bepuercn k paccrofpeuuk ceapku fokaru.
Ceapuue foku npepuasuaeuu pnn ypepauun kporok refanna e ueoxopuror nonoeuuu
eo epern ceapouux paof. Rockonuky refann npu uarpeee pacuupnefcn, ceapuue foku
ponuu ufu pocfafouo npouuru, fou coepuueuue ue pasopeanocu e npouecce
ceapku. 3pecu ecfu uekofopoe npofueopeue: c opuo cfopouu of ceapuux foek fpeyefcn
npouocfu, a c ppyro ouu ponuu nerko paspyuafucn, ecnu nofpeyefcn noprouka
pefane. Sfo oLncunefcn fer, fo ouuo ceapka fokaru ucnonusyefcn pnn npurepku
pefanu ua recfo, u ecnu pefanu ue cfauoeufcn uyuur opasor, fo ee ofcoepuunkf pnn
panuueue noprouku. -fou npu ueoxopurocfu rouo uno nerko ofcoepuuufu pefanu,
npuxeaeuuyk ceapuuru fokaru, ceapuue cfeku penakfcn kopofkuru.
K ceapuur fokar npepLnennefcn ee opuo fpeoeauue: ouu ue ponuu cunuuo
npeeuuafu fonuuy ceapueaero pefanu, uuae cfauyf norexo npu eunonueuuu
okouafenuuoro ceapuoro uea.
Repean foka eunonunefcn nocepepuue nuuuu ceapku. Ecnu ceapuo uoe poneu
qoprupoeafu yron, fo nepean ceapuan foka npouseopufcn e eepuuue yrna. Ecnu e
ceapka fpeyefcn pnn peroufa usnora, fo nepean ceapuan foka eunonunefcn e uaane
usnora ua nucfe refanna. anee ceapuue foku npu npuxeafke pacnonarakfcn c
uufepeanor e 30 fonuu ceapueaeroro nucfa refanna. Rpu eunonueuuu camo
movevuo ceapku ceapuue foku pacnonarakfcn onee acfo (puc. 1.52).
Ecnu coepuuufu ceapuuru fokaru pea kouua ceapuoro uea, a safer eunonuufu
nporeyfouue foku, fo eosuukuef pacuupeuue e npofueononouux uanpaeneuunx u, kak
cnepcfeue, npousopef peqoprauun kporok nuo ux nepekpeueauue, nuo usreueuue
ypoeun pacnonoeuun, fo ueponycfuro.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 1.52. Ceapka

Ecnu fpeyefcn coepuuufu ceapuuru fokaru sarkuyfu uoe npnroyronuuo qopru, fo
cuaana eunonunkfcn ceapuue foku ua peyx uauonee nnockux cfopouax, pacnonoeuuux
ppyr uanpofue ppyra, a safer ua peyx ppyrux, onee eunyknux cfopouax. Sfo
oLncunefcn fer, fo e pesynufafe ueuseuoro saerneuun peqoprauun, euseauuan
ypnuueuuer, ypef epereuuo kouueufpupoeafucn e ueufpe.
Ecnu npu ceapke fokaru uapyuaefcn ypoeeuu pacnonoeuun kporku (kporok), fo fe us
uux, kofopue ue coepuueuu ceapuuru fokaru, uanesakf ppyr ua ppyra. Cnepoeafenuuo,
fpeyefcn puxfoeka nocnepue foku. Ecnu e kporku, ue coepuueuuue ceapuuru
fokaru, cnuukor uupoku, fo uyuo nonuocfuk oxnapufu nocnepukk foky, fo npueepef
k rakcuranuuo ycapke refanna. Cnyaefcn, fo sforo uepocfafouo. B fakor cnyae
fpeyefcn npouseecfu ceapky onee nusko pacnonoeuuuru fokaru.
Ceapouue paofu cyecfeeuuo ynpoakfcn, ecnu fafenuuo eunonueuu noprouka
kporok u ceapka fokaru. Opuako ceapka fokaru ue nennefcn onsafenuuo npouepypo,
u onufuue racfepa npu ceapke kysoeuux pefane ycneuuo oxopnfcn es uee. Opuu us
ceapueaerux nucfoe refanna ycfauaenueaefcn uenopeuuo, a ppyro cpasy
npueapueaefcn (ropenka pepufcn e opuo pyke, a efopo pyko npueapueaeru nucf
refanna uanpaennefcn fak, fou kporka nucfa fouo ycfauoeunacu pnn ceapku). nn
rapaufuu kaecfea ceapouux paof ece e nyue npureunfu npuxeafky ceapouuru
fokaru, nockonuky npu ueeepuo noprouke pefane ceapky fokaru rouo nerko
pasLepuuufu, fo ueeosrouo npu nonuoueuuor ceapuor uee.
7EXhhkA 5E300ACh0C7h 0Ph C8AP0VhbX PA507AX
Rpu nkor eupe ceapouux paof eupennefcn orporuoe konuecfeo fennofu, npouecc
ceapku conpneu c ocnennnke npkur ceefor u ucnapeuuer ceapueaeroro refanna u
okpyakux ero saufuo-pekopafueuux nokpufu (ecnu ouu uaxopnfcn uenopaneky of
peroufuo souu). Oeeupuo, fo ece sfu qakfopu npepcfaennkf onacuocfu pnn spopoeun
enoeeka.
Hauuakue racfepa kysoeuoro peroufa, enepeue cfankueancu co ceapouuru paofaru,
oeuu ucfpo npuxopnf k eueopy, fo cneuuanuuan saufuan racka unu saufuu kosupek
oeuu ueypouu (ocoeuuo es npueuku), u es sfux cpepcfe enonue rouo oofucu,
eepu ouu fonuko reuakf e paofe.
BHHMAHHE
Cnepyef noruufu, fo ceapouue paofu es saufuoro kosupuka unu cneuuanuuo racku
npueopnf k noepepeuuk ue fonuko cefafku rnas, uo pae rnasuux uepeoe.
Ropouue noepepeuun cpasy sarefuu: nonennefcn xapakfepuan kpacuofa enkoe rnas, a
npu sakpufux rnasax renkan kpacuan pnu. Rocfpapaeuu oyaef, ypfo e rnasa
uacunau necok. Pkpu, enakue coxpauufu ceou rnasa spopoeuru, ponuu crupufucn c
ueypocfearu, kofopue pocfaennkf saufuu kosupek unu racka.
Rpu ucnonusoeauuu saufuoro kosupuka fpeyefcn fake uapeeafu npospauue oku ouu
saufnf rnasa of cnyauux uckp.
Texuuka esonacuocfu npu ceapouux paofax npepycrafpueaef ee opuo onsafenuuoe
fpeoeauue: uyuo uapeeafu ceapouu kocfkr c nnofuo sacferueakurucn pykaru u
ropnoeuuo, a fake saufuue pykaeuuu.
COBET
Rpoeopufu ceapouue paofu e cfapor cnopfueuor kocfkre us cuufefueckux
rafepuanoe kpaue ue pekoreupyefcn, uecrofpn ua oeeupuocfu fako qopru opepu
peueeo u eupocufu ue anko. Tako kocfkr ue sauaef koy of uckp npu ceapouux
paofax. Booe, cuufefuka ucfpo nnaeufcn, a sfof pacnnae cknoueu npununafu k koe,
fo eusueaef ee noepepeuun. C fer e ycnexor ceapouue paofu rouo eunonunfu
ronuuor noepepeuu kou ypef pae reuuue.
Cneuuanuuu ceapouu kocfkr usrofaenueaefcn us cnaoropkux rafepuanoe, fo
ueranoeauo npu ceapouux paofax, eo epern kofopux ecerpa pasnefakfcn uckpu.
BHHMAHHE
Onsafenuuoe fpeoeauue npu npoeepeuuu ceapouux paof cfporoe conkpeuue rep
snekfpoesonacuocfu (ceapouu annapaf poneu ufu uapeuo saserneu).
Mepu snekfpoesonacuocfu npepnonarakf npaeunuuyk oyeu ceapuka enafenuuu
npouue ofuuku ua foncfo pesuuoeo nopouee.
Repep uaanor ceapouux paof cnepyef cunfu akkyrynnfopuyk afapek. Rpu ceapouux
paofax eosrouo eckunauue snekfponufa (fo ue cnuukor xopouo ckasueaefcn ua
nocnepyke paofe akkyrynnfopuo afapeu), a ecnu afapek ue ofcoepuuufu, fo
eckunauue roef npueecfu k noepepeuuk ecex aeforounuuux nofpeufene
snekfpuecfea.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
+o qonuo nonyusc s peiynsae peuoua kyiosa
Ecnu eu pyraefe, fo kysoeuue paofu npoeopnfcn c uenuk nonyeuun rnapko, poeuo
noeepxuocfu kysoea, nonuocfuk noprofoeneuuo k nokpacke, fo rnyoko sanypaefecu.
Fnapkocfu u poeuocfu noeepxuocfu, koueuo, ueoxopuru, uo ocuoeuoe ece e ue e sfor.
RPHMEHAHHE
Kaecfeo kysoeuoro peroufa onpepennefcn nuuu kaecfeor eoccfauoeneuun
nepeouaanuuux pasrepoe u qopru kysoea. Ecnu eoccfauoeneuu nepeouaanuuue
pasrepu u qopra, suauf, kysoe ofperoufupoeau esynpeuo.
Paccrofpur oue fpeoeauun k ofperoufupoeauuory kysoey.
+ Pasrepu ecex npoeroe kysoea (peepe, kanofa, kpuuku arauuka u sapue peepu
xefska) ponuu nonuocfuk coofeefcfeoeafu uaeecuo pefanu, kofopan ycfauaenueaefcn
e sfof npoer. Cnepyef yufueafu u ueoxopurue sasopu, a fake coenapeuun nuuu
nopufarnoeok u kporok ua conpnraerux pefannx.
+ Rpoeru kysoea pnn okou ponuu nonuocfuk coofeefcfeoeafu naparefpar, ykasauuur e
pokyreufauuu ua aeforounu.
+ Easoeue foku kpenneuun cunoeoro arperafa, nopeecok u ysnoe fpaucruccuu, kofopue
pacnonarakfcn ua ocuoeauuu kysoea, ponuu ufu fakuru, fou rouo uno uopranuuo
ycfauoeufu sfu ysnu ua kysoee, a fake perynupoeafu ynpaennerue koneca. Ecnu pnn
ycfauoeku kako-nuo pefanu unu ysna ueoxopura kyeanpa, fo asoeue foku
pacnonoeuu ueeepuo.
+ efanu ocuoeauun u kapkaca kysoea ponuu ufu eoccfauoeneuu.
+ Roeepxuocfu pefane ocuoeauun u kapkaca kysoea ponuu ufu ofpuxfoeauu u
noprofoeneuu k okpacke u k aufukopposuuo opaofke.
+ Kpeneuue snereufu ysnoe u pefane ua kapkace u ocuoeauuu kysoea ponuu ufu
eoccfauoeneuu unu sareueuu ua uoeue.
+ Kpeneuue snereufu ysnoe u pefane ua kapkace u ocuoeauuu kysoea ponuu
oecneueafu ueoxopuroe recfononoeuue ycfauaenueaerux ysnoe u pefane ua
kapkace u ocuoeauuu kysoea.
+ Ha noeepxuocfu kysoea ue ponuo ufu oaroe kopposuu u kopposuuux nnfeu.
+ Pasuocfu suaeuu npu sarepax puarouanuuux u npoponuuux paccfonuu po
currefpuuux foek nepepue u sapue nopeecok ue ponua npeeuuafu 0,4 % of
onuue us eenuuu.
Ecnu ece sfu fpeoeauun conkpeuu, kysoe cufaefcn ofperoufupoeauuur, u rouo
npucfynafu k nokpacke.
unu 2
Hopucu un+omoun
0npeqeneu, ueu nokpameu asouo6ns
Rpu nokpacke peseuauo eaua coerecfurocfu kornoueufoe. K npurepy, ecnu sranu
fpeyefcn nokpufu nakor, fo roef okasafucn, fo pacfeopufenu, ucnonusyeru e
kaecfee ocuoeu pnn naka, cnuukor cuneu pnn kpacku. B pesynufafe okpaueuuan
noeepxuocfu ypef uepoeuo, ua ue ucfpo nonenfcn fpeuuu, u oua ue croef
eunonunfu uu pekopafueuue, uu fo onee eauo saufuue qyukuuu.
BHHMAHHE
Kapu kornoueuf e oe cucfere okpauueauun poneu ufu coerecfur c fer, ua
kofopor ou npureunefcn.
Rosfory npepe er npuopefafu kornoueufu pnn nokpacku, cnepyef onpepenufu, er
nokpaueu aeforounu.
Hekofopue npouseopufenu ykasueakf ocoeuuocfu okpacouux saeopckux paof
aeforounn (kopu nokpacku uaxopnfcn e cnucke ua rapkupoeouo sfukefke).
Ecnu aeforounu npouseepeu unu skcnnyafupoeancn e CLA unu Kauape, fouu fun
kpacku rouo onpepenufu no VIN-kopy (VIN (Vehicle Identification Number)
upeufuqukauuouuu uorep aeforounn). VIN-kop cocfouf us 17 cureonoe nafuuckux
yke u uuqp. B koruuauunx kopa uukorpa ue ecfpeakfcn cureonu I, O u Q. Kapu
cureon VIN-kopa xapakfepusyef onpepeneuuue pauuue o aeforoune: ero
npouseopufenn, rop eunycka u cfpauy eunycka. Rpu cocfaeneuuu uorepa ece arepukauckue
aefonpouseopufenu, a fake aeforounuuue kornauuu, skcnopfupykue ceou rauuuu e
CLA, npupepueakfcn npaeun cocfaeneuun koufponuuoro ucna. B ceok oepepu,
koufponuuoe ucno poeonuuo pecfeeuuo sauaef aeforounu of nepeueku uorepoe. K
coaneuuk, eeponeckue kornauuu ue ecerpa cnepykf cfaupapfy ISO 3779,
onucueakery qopraf uorepoe VIN.
Ocuoeuue recfa pacnonoeuun VIN-kopa e coepereuuux aeforounnx cnepykue:
+ e neeo eepxue acfu npuopuo nauenu, npnro nop nooeur cfeknor; npu fakor recfe
pacnonoeuun yeupefu VIN-kop rouo fonuko cuapyu aeforounn (puc. 2.1);
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 2.1. VIN-kop, pacnonoeuuu nop nooeur cfeknor aeforounn

+ euusy apku eopufenucko peepu; npu fakor recfe pacnonoeuun yeupefu VIN-kop rouo
fonuko npu ofkpufo eopufenucko peepu (puc. 2.2);


Puc. 2.2. VIN-kop, pacnonoeuuu euusy apku eopufenucko peepu

+ nop kanofor;
+ e canoue aeforounn uepaneko of eopufenuckoro cupeuun;
+ e ceupefenucfee o perucfpauuu aeforounn unu RTC.
Ofef cucferu CARFAX (uuqoprauuk o aeforoune ua ocuoeauuu VIN-kopa) rouo
nonyufu e Hufepuefe ua cneuuanusupoeauuux cafax.
Ecnu uef eosrouocfu onpepenufu fun kpacku c norouk rapkupoeouo sfukefku, VIN-
kopa, no rapkupoeke ua ynakoeke us-nop kpacku (ecnu aeforounu nepekpauueancn
kpacko ppyroro funa, ofnuuo of saeopcko) unu us ppyrux ucfouukoe (uanpurep, ysuafu
y racfepa no nokpacke, kofopu nepekpauuean aeforounu), fo euncuufu sfo uyuo
carocfonfenuuo.
Onpepenufu, er nokpaueu aeforounu, rouo cnepykur opasor:
+ eupafu ranosarefuoe recfo ua kysoee (unu ua fo acfu noeepxuocfu, kofopyk
ueoxopuro okpacufu);
+ croufu e pacfeopufene ucfyk enyk fkauu u npunoufu ee k eupauuory recfy;
+ cnerka npofepefu sfo recfo fkauuk.
Ecnu ueef kpacku cpasy nonepuen, a nnfuo uaano cropueafucn, fo recfo ua kysoee
nokpufo sranuk. Ecnu kpacka cfana nepuefu fonuko nocne cunuuo npofupku, fo pauuu
yacfok kysoea nokpuf nakor. Ecnu e u nocne suepruuo npofupku kpacka ue usreunef
ueef, fo aeforounu okpaueu kpacko ypefauoeoro funa.
-fou onpepenufu, urekfcn nu noeepx ocuoeuoro ueefuoro cnon kpacku npospauue cnou,
ranosarefuoe recfo ua kysoee aeforounn (unu fo acfu noeepxuocfu, kofopyk
ueoxopuro okpacufu) cnepyef npofepefu fouko uapauo yraro. Ecnu e pesynufafe
fako opaofku nocunancn enu nopouok, fo sfo osuaaef, fo noeepx ueefuo ocuoeu
uanoeuu npospauue cnou.
Ecnu e eu ue yeepeuu, fo eepuo ycfauoeunu fun kpacku, fo opafufecu sa koucynufauue
k npoqeccuouanar, kofopue euncunf sfo u onpepennf coerecfurocfu kornoueufoe pnn
nokpacku.
haueceue naka
Cneuuanucfu no nokpacke, paofakue ua CTO, ouuo uauocnf nak refopor
pacnuneuun nepekpecmuiu xoou. pyruru cnoearu, kpacka pacnunnefcn cuaana fonuko
e ropusoufanuuor, a safer fonuko e eepfukanuuor uanpaeneuuu. Cnepyef yufueafu, fo
npu ueonuuux nnoapnx pnn nokpufun nakor nepekpecfuu xop ucnonusoeafu ue cfouf,
fak kak eosuukakf nakoeue nofeku.
nn nakupoeauun ueonuuux nnoape (fakoe ueoxopuro, ecnu npoeopufcn acfuuan
nokpacka aeforounn unu nokpacka kako-nuo opuo nauenu kysoea)
npureunefcn uouquuupoeauui nepekpecmui xo. auuu refop uaueceuun naka
npocf: uauocufcn nonoca naka, safer pacnunufenu onyckaefcn, u fak nonoca sa nonoco,
cuaana e ropusoufanuuor, a safer e eepfukanuuor uanpaeneuuu. Rpu sfor kouuu nonoc
ue censauu repy coo, kak npu nepekpecfuor xope.
Hekofopue racfepa ucnonusykf cxery uaueceuun, kofopan uasueaefcnvepenvuan
nemnn. Rpu sfor refope k uaueceuuk naka npucfynakf c cepepuuu nakupykecn
noeepxuocfu, a safer pucykf pacxopnykcn cnupanu, uauuan of ueufpanuuo foku.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Ckopocfu epaeuun of ueufpa k kpanr ponua cuuafucn, fou nonyanocu paeuorepuoe
nokpufue.
Henk peuou nakokpacouuoro nokps
ae npu caror fafenuuor yxope nakokpacouoe nokpufue uypaefcn e nepuopueckor
peroufe.
RPHMEHAHHE
Perouf renkux noepepeuu nakokpacouoro nokpufun cnepyef npoeopufu ue pee opuoro
pasa e rop.
eno e for, fo sa rop renkue noepepeuun ouuo cfauoenfcn kpynuuru. Ckonu,
uapanuuu, recfa foeuo kopposuu, kofopue cuaana npakfuecku unu ue eupuu u ue
npuuuranucu enapenuuer aeforounn eo euurauue, sa rop yeenuueakfcn e 50-100 pas.
Cornacufecu, fo ua nnfuuuko paeuuu puarefpor 2 rr rouo uekofopoe epern ue
opaafu euurauun, uo ecnu fakoe nnfuuuko cfauoeufcn puarefpor 20 cr sfo ye
nponera (puc. 2.3).
Peroufuan nopkpacka renkux peqekfoe paofa uecnouan. Fnaeuoe, uyuo fafenuuo u
kaecfeeuuo npoeecfu ece onepauuu, ocoeuuo fe, kofopue censauu c noprofoeko
noeepxuocfu k opaofke.
B caror uaane peroufa cnepyef saunuqoeafu peqekfuu yacfok nakokpacouoro
nokpufun. 3aunuqoeka eunonunefcn renkosepuucfo unuqoeanuuo ukypko. Ecnu
nakokpacouoe nokpufue noepepeuo po refanna, fo fpeyefcn cunfu ue fonuko cno
sranu, uo u rpyufoeouoe nokpufue. Ecnu e noepepeuu fonuko eepxuue cnou, fo
rpyufoeouoe nokpufue rouo ue cuurafu.


Puc. 2.3. Heonuuoe nnfuuuko paeuuu unu ckon co epereuer paspacfakfcn

Kporku nakokpacouoro nokpufun no nepurefpy peqekfuoro yacfka uyuo saunuqoeafu
po rnapkocfu fak, fou ua oynu ueeosrouo uno onpepenufu rpauuuy repy
noepepeuuur u uenoepepeuuur yacfkaru. Rocne unuqoeku peqekfuu yacfok
cnepyef nporufu u npofepefu rnrko eefouuk, croeuuo oesupueakur cocfaeor,
fou ypanufu nunu, rpnsu u upoeue nnfua.
Hsrofoeneuuu us kapfoua unu yraru fpaqapef c ofeepcfuer, urekur qopry
saunuqoeauuoro yacfka, sakpennnefcn ua noeepxuocfu kysoea nunko neufo fakur
opasor, fou e panuueuer uenoepepeuuur acfnr nakokpacouoro nokpufun
oecneueanacu uapeuan saufa of nonapauun rpyufa, sranu u ppyrux rafepuanoe,
ucnonusyerux npu peroufe.
RPHMEHAHHE
Tpaqapef no pasrepy poneu ueruoro npeeuuafu saunuqoeauuu yacfok
nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
B cnyae ecnu peqekfuu yacfok saunuqoeau po refanna, fo nepep uaanor
panuueuux peroufuux paof ero cnepyef sarpyufoeafu (puc. 2.4).


Puc. 2.4. eqekfuu yacfok, saueuuu po ronoro refanna, sarpyufoeueaefcn

Repep ucnonusoeauuer fo unu uuo rpyufoeku cnepyef npoufafu uucfpykuuk ua
ynakoeke. Ternepafypa u epern cyuku rpyufoeouoro nokpufun saeucnf of eupauuoro
funa rpyufoeku. Bpern cyuku eapuupyefcn of 15 ruu po cyfok. Ouuan fernepafypa
cyuku 1822 C. Rosfory peroufuue paofu ue cfouf npoeopufu e xonopuoe epern ropa
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
eue noreeuun. ae ecnu eu ucnonusyefe rpyufoeky e asposonuuo ynakoeke co cpepuur
epereuer cyuku 1520 ruu, paofu cnepyef npoeopufu e ofannueaeror rapae.
Heoxopurocfu e unafneeauuu onpepennefcn ua rnas pnn kaporo ofpenuuoro cnyan.
Opuako npu eosrouocfu unafneeko nyue ue nonusoeafucn.
Ecnu unafneeauue ece e ueoxopuro, fo cno unafneeku poneu ufu ruuuranuuo
fonuuu. -er fone cno unafneeku, fer onuue eeponfuocfu ero pacfpeckueauun e
panuueuer, fo, e ceok oepepu, peeafo cospauuer oaroe kopposuu e recfax fpeuu.
Rocne uaueceuun unafneeku cnepyef popafucn ee eucuxauun. Cno unafneeku roef
coxuyfu of 1520 ruu po 34 . nn rapaufupoeauuo nonuoro eucuxauun nyue nopopafu
noponuue, ocoeuuo ecnu peroufuue paofu npoeopnfcn ua ynuue unu e ueofannueaeror
rapae npu eucoko enauocfu eospyxa.
Xopouo eucoxuu cno unafneeku unuqyefcn renko unuqoeanuuo ukypko, nocne
ero nporueaefcn eopo pnn cunfun nunu (fou useafu noneneuun peqekfoe ypyero
nakokpacouoro nokpufun) u cuoea fafenuuo npocyuueaefcn. Ecnu pepeenuuu pycok
oepuyfu unuqoeanuuo ukypko, fo fakoe npucnoconeuue pnn unuqoeku ypef
uasueafucn unuqkor.
Rocne foro kak cno unafneeku eucoxuef, uyuo npoeepufu, uef nu ua uer peqekfoe u
uepoeuocfe noeepxuocfu. Ecnu eu ux sarefufe, fo unafneeauue uyuo npoponafu po
fex nop, noka noeepxuocfu ue cfauef poeuo.
Roeepxuocfu, kofopue ue uyuo okpauueafu, cnepyef fafenuuo sakpufu. Cfapue rasefu
sakpueakf kysoeuue nauenu of kpacku ue xye qupreuuo rackupyke nneuku. Fasefu
npukpennnkfcn k kysoey nunko neufo (puc. 2.5).


Puc. 2.5. Hesakpufo ocfaefcn fonuko fa acfu kysoea, kofopan ypef okpauueafucn

Tenepu rouo npucfynafu k nokpacke. nn uaana uyuo sapnpufu kpackonynuf (puc. 2.6).


Kpacky cnepyef pacnunnfu fafenuuo, npu sfor qaken pacnuna poneu ufu ueuupokur.
Rpu nokpacke saxeafueaefcn fake noeepxuocfu, ykpufan of kpacku, fou useafu
uesakpaueuuux nonoc (puc. 2.7).


Puc. 2.7. Haueceuue kpacku ua noeepxuocfu kysoea

Xenafenuuo, fou norouuk npukpuean kako-nuo sacnouko koneco u konecuyk apky,
fou ua uux ue nonana kpacka.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Rocne nepeoro sfana nokpacku rackupykee nokpufue (rasefu) rouo cunfu. Ha efopor
sfane ypyf okpauueafucn ppyrue pefanu, nosfory nepep ero npoeepeuuer
ceeeokpaueuuue pefanu cnepyef sakpufu, fou ua uux ue nonana nuuunn kpacka.
3aeepuue nokpacky, rouo cunfu rackupykee nokpufue. Punkyk neufy cnepyef ypannfu
fak, fou oua ue npununna k ceeeokpaueuuo noeepxuocfu.
nn ucnpaeneuun renkux peqekfoe nakokpacouoro nokpufun nyue ecero nonusoeafucn
kpackaru e asposonuuo ynakoeke (c kpackopacnunufener). Rpu uaueceuuu kpacku
kucfoko ua noeepxuocfu ocfakfcn uepoeuocfu, cnepu of eonoca, a uuorpa npununakf
caru acfuuu eonoca kucfu. Ropouue peqekfu nakokpacouoro nokpufun ue fonuko
urekf uenpeseufaenuuu (uefoeapuu) eup, uo u roryf enocnepcfeuu cfafu oararu
kopposuu (ocoeuuo npununuu eonoc of kucfu, kofopu uapyuaef uenocfuocfu
nakokpacouoro nokpufun).
Kpacky us kpackopacnunufenn cnepyef uauocufu foukuru cnonru c nporeyfouo cyuko
kaporo cnon. Bpern u fernepafypa cyuku ykasueakfcn ua annouuke c kpacko. Ouuo
cno kpacku cyuufcn 1520 ruu npu koruafuo fernepafype.
COBET
Hyuo uauecfu ue reuee fpex cnoee kpacku, fou nakokpacouoe nokpufue cnyuno
uapeuo saufo of kopposuu.
Kapu cno kpacku poneu ufu foukur uacfonuko, fou ue paeafu nofekoe u uannueoe.
Ycfpaueuue uannueoe nofu keenupuan onepauun, nosfory ropaspo npoe uauocufu
kpacky foukuru cnonru ueckonuko pas, er nofor ycfpaunfu peqekfu.
RPHMEHAHHE
Toncfu cno kpacku, uaueceuuu e opuu npuer, onapaef feupeuuue k pacfpeckueauuk,
fo suaufenuuo cuuaef saufuue ceocfea nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
Hannueu u nofeku kpacku ypannkfcn renkosepuucfo unuqoeanuuo ukypko nocne
nonuoro eucuxauun kpacku. Rocne saunuqoeku peqekfa noeepxuocfu cnepyef eurufu,
fafenuuo eucyuufu u okpacufu.
Rocne foro kak kpacka eucoxuef, noeepxuocfu unuqyefcn nuo unuqoeanuuo nacfo,
nuo unuqoeanuuo ukypko (sepuucfocfu M63, M50, M40), a safer nonupyefcn c
norouk nonupoeouo nacfu. Ofnonupoeauuan noeepxuocfu nporueaefcn eopo, a
safer npofupaefcn farnouor, croeuuur eockoeur nonupykur cocfaeor.
Ecnu nakokpacouoe nokpufue pacfpeckanocu e recfax c rnyokuru peqekfaru refanna
kysoea, fo uauuafu perouf cnepyef co eckpufun sfux peqekfoe rpyo uapauo
ukypko. 3afer c peroufupyeroro recfa ypannefcn nunu, a car yacfok noeepxuocfu
kysoea npofupaefcn oesupueakur cocfaeor. eqekfu refanna ucnpaennkfcn nyfer
uaueceuun cnon snokcupuo rpyuf-unafneeku. Rocne eucuxauun unafneeku yacfok
eupaeuueaefcn unuqoeanuuo ukypko. Ecnu ocfakfcn renkue uepoeuocfu noeepxuocfu,
fo ouu eupaeuueakfcn nyfer unafneeku, eucyuueakfcn, a safer saunuqoeueakfcn
fouko ukypko. Bunpaeneuuan noeepxuocfu kysoea okpauueaefcn.
B npouecce skcnnyafauuu aeforounn ua noeepxuocfu kysoea opasykfcn renkue fpeuuu
(nayfuuuan cefka). Tako peqekf rouo ycfpauufu nyfer opaofku noeepxuocfu
nonupykuru cocfaearu.
Ecnu uef eosrouocfu ucfpo ycfpauufu renkue, uo rnyokue (po refanna kysoea)
uapanuuu nakokpacouoro nokpufun, ckonu unu foeuue oaru paeuuu ua eueuue
uenor nokpufuu, sfu recfa cnepyef sakoucepeupoeafu, fou kopposun ue
pacnpocfpaunnacu panuue. Koucepeauun npoeopufcn cnepykur opasor: peqekfuoe
recfo fafenuuo nporueaefcn, eucyuueaefcn u nokpueaefcn Moeuner unu nko
nnacfuuo crasko. Takue repu, koueuo, ue ycfpaunf peqekf, uo u ue noseonnf ery
paseueafucn panuue. Cnepyef sarefufu, fo uaponro koucepeupoeafu peqekfu ue cfouf,
npu nepeo e eosrouocfu uyuo ux ycfpauufu.

okpacka kyiosa asouo6n ueoqou 6qena cau
Huorpa renku perouf nakokpacouoro nokpufun okasueaefcn uepocfafouur. Sfo
oLncunefcn fer, fo co epereuer nokpufue cfapeef, nepecfaef eunonunfu saufuue
qyukuuu, a fo u eoece fepnef foeapuu eup (nonennefcn nayfuuka renkux fpeuu ua
nokpufuu, noryfueuue u f. p.). B fakux cnyanx ueoxopura nonuan nokpacka kysoea
aeforounn. Ecnu fpeyefcn pasupafu canou u npoeopufu euyfpeuukk okpacky, fo
carocfonfenuuo kpacufu rauuuy e porauue-rapauux ycnoeunx eecura cnouo.
Opuako c eueuue nokpacko kysoea enonue rouo cnpaeufucn.
B aeforacfepckux npu nokpacke aeforounn kysoe fafenuuo u ueopuokpafuo roefcn
eopo, a safer cyuufcn e cneuuanuuo karepe npu fernepafype 90 C. Ecnu nokpacka
npoeopufcn carocfonfenuuo, fo erecfo karepu rouo ucnonusoeafu nporuuneuuu qeu.
Ouuu ufoeo qeu ue oecneuf uyuyk pnn nonuoro eucuxauun rokporo kysoea
aeforounn fernepafypy, ypef orpauueu nnoapuk eospecfeun, k fory e cara cyuka
pacfnuefcn uaponro.
Ecnu eu kpacufe kysoe ceoe rauuuu carocfonfenuuo, fo ear cnepyef noruufu, fo 90 %
paofu npuxopufcn ua noprofoeky k nokpacke u fonuko 10 % uenocpepcfeeuuo ua
nokpacky u cyuky aeforounn.
RPHMEHAHHE
Kaecfeo nokpacouux paof saeucuf of kaecfea eunonueuun noprofoeufenuuux. Ecnu
kysoe aeforounn uepeuo noprofoeneu k nokpacke, ueuseuo eosuukuyf pasnuuue
peqekfu, fo saacfyk fpeyef noefopuoro npoeepeuun nokpacouux paof.
nn cyxo noprofoeku u nokpacku kysoea fpeykfcn cnepykue eeecfea u rafepuanu:
+ Caponuu;
+ pacfeopufenu;
+ yaf-cnupuf;
+ unuqoeanuuan ukypka (rpyan u renkan);
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
+ peyxkornoueufuan unafneeka;
+ rpyufoeka;
+ okpacouu nucfonef;
+ pepanka pnn uapauo ukypku;
+ xnonafoyrauan eefouu;
+ nonafka pnn nepereuueauun nokpacouo crecu;
+ refannueckue (unu cfeknnuuue) auku c nnofuo sakpueakurucn kpuukaru.
B nepeyk oepepu aeforounu cnepyef eurufu u eucyuufu. Kysoe enafenuuo acfuuo
pasopafu: cunfu pekopafueuue pefanu c ranueauueckur nokpufuer, pesuuoeue
npoknapku u f. p. Pekoreupyefcn okpauueafu u cyuufu kysoe no acfnr, pnn ero cnepyef
cunfu kanof, kpuuky arauuka u peepu (puc. 2.8).


Puc. 2.8. Roprofoeneuuu k nokpacke aeforounu co cunfur kanofor, peuefko
papuafopa u kpunor

Ecnu e okpacka npoeopufcn es peroufaa, fo pnn saufu ueokpauueaerux
noeepxuocfe of nonapauun ua uux nakokpacouoro rafepuana ux cnepyef sakpufu
fpaqapefaru us kapfoua unu yraru, npukneue nunko neufo.
3aufuuru nokpufunru pnn fakux pefane roryf cnyufu fake easenuu u cneuuanuuan
nacfa. Racfa u easenuu uauocnfcn eonocnuo kucfuk. Bosrouo npureueuue saufuo
nacfu fakoro cocfaea (e npoueufuor coofuoueuuu no racce)[1]:
+ rnuuepuu 30 %;
+ pekcfpuu 20 %;
+ ren 40 %;
+ eopa 10 %.
Takan nacfa nerko crueaefcn c sauaero noeepxuocfu eopo.
RPHMEHAHHE
Ecnu nacfa unu easenuu nonapakf ua noeepxuocfu, nopneaue okpacke, fo ux
ueoxopuro cunfu eefouuk, a safer sfo recfo fafenuuo oesupufu. B ueoueuuux of
saufuo crecu recfax kpacka ue ypef pepafucn.
3aufuue nokpufun (fpaqapefu, nacfu u easenuu) cuurakfcn fonuko no okouauuu
nokpacouux paof, korpa nocnepuu cno kpacku eucyueu.
Rocne foro kak ueokpauueaerue noeepxuocfu saueuu, ueoxopuro eckpufu ece oaru
kopposuu (o for, kak sfo cpenafu, ru roeopunu e pasp. Menku perouf nakokpacouoro
nokpufun), nonuocfuk ypanufu paeuuy po ucforo enesa u nokpufu ux foukur cnoer
rpyufoeku. 3afer rouo npoeopufu nepeuuoe ypaneuue nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
Pakokpacouoe nokpufue rouo cuurafu rexauueckur u xurueckur refoparu.
Rpu uexauuvecko ovucmke npureunkfcn pasnuuue pyuue u rexauusupoeauuue
uucfpyreufu: refannueckue efku, ckpeku, cfarecku, uapauue unu kapopyupoeue
karuu, ukypku u f. p. Mexauuecku refop uauonee npocf, opuako ou oeuu fpypoerku. K
fory e ueypoeu npu oucfke fpypuopocfynuux recf u pefane cnouo kouqurypauuu. B
fakux cnyanx rouo nonusoeafucn pasnuuuru crueakuru cocfaearu. Hx ypouo
npureunfu pnn pasrnreuun npouo pepaerocn nokpufun nepep ero rexauueckur
ypaneuuer.
Caru npocfo crueaku cocfae npu xuuuvecko ovucmke rouo npurofoeufu
carocfonfenuuo[2]. nn sforo ueoxopuro renko uacfpyrauuu napaquu (10 acfe no
racce) pacfeopufu npu 7080 C e 45 acfnx kcunona. Korpa napaquu pacfeopufcn u racca
cfauef npospauo, oxnapufu ee po 4550 C u npu noreuueauuu poaeufu 45 acfe
auefoua, a safer oxnapufu po koruafuo fernepafypu.
BHHMAHHE
Rpouecc npurofoeneuun crueku nennefcn noapoonacuur. Pacfeopufenu uenusn
uarpeeafu ua ofkpufor orue fonuko ua eopnuo aue, fo ecfu e cocype c ropne eopo.
-fou ypanufu cfapoe nakokpacouoe nokpufue, ua uyuue recfa noeepxuocfu kysoea
cnepyef uauecfu kucfuk unu unafener crueky paeuorepuur cnoer fonuuo 13 rr u
ocfaeufu ua 1030 ruu. Cfeneuu pasrnreuun nakokpacouoro nokpufun rouo
nepuopuecku npoeepnfu refannueckur unafener. Uapanuuu ua nokpufuu, uauocurue
ocfpuer unafenn, cnococfeykf npouukuoeeuuk crueouoro rafepuana nop
nakokpacouoe nokpufue u, kak cnepcfeue, ero uayxauuk u ofcnaueauuk.
Rocne foro kak nakokpacouoe nokpufue nonuocfuk pasrnrunocu u uaano ofcnaueafucn,
ero cnepyef cunfu unafener, a oueuuyk noeepxuocfu npofepefu eefouuk. Ocfafku
cfaporo nokpufun u npopykfu kopposuu refanna (ecnu ouu urekfcn) ypannkfcn c
noeepxuocfu kysoea rexauueckur unuqoeauuer kpynuosepuucfo ukypko.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Onepauuk rouo noefopnfu ueckonuko pas, noka cfapoe nakokpacouoe nokpufue
nonuocfuk ue ypanufcn. nn noefopuoro ero cunfun e kaecfee crueku rouo
ucnonusoeafu nepeu cunfu pasyxuu cno nokpufun (noka ue ucnapuncn
pacfeopufenu).
Rocne ypaneuun cfaporo nakokpacouoro nokpufun cnepyef oucfufu kysoe of paeuuu.
Kak u nakokpacouoe nokpufue, paeuuy rouo ypannfu kak rexauueckur, fak u
xurueckur refopor. nn sforo ouuo nonusykfcn nuo pasnuuuru
rexauusupoeauuuru uucfpyreufaru, nuo ouakf refann kysoea epyuyk cfanuuuru
efkaru, uapauo ukypko unu ppyruru apasueuuru rafepuanaru.
nn ypaneuun ueonuuoro nnfua paeuuu noeepxuocfu e recfe kopposuu
opaafueaefcn epyuyk rpyo (kpynuosepuucfo) unuqoeanuuo ukypko. -fou
yreuuuufu nuneopasoeauue u onerufu paofy, rouo npoeopufu rokpyk oucfky.
nn sforo noeepxuocfu e recfe kopposuu craueaefcn yaf-cnupufor unu kepocuuor u
unuqyefcn.
COBET
Ceeeoueuuan noeepxuocfu refanna nerko paeeef, nosfory ue pekoreupyefcn
ocfaennfu aeforounu nocne oucfku ua pnufenuuoe epern es uaueceuun nokpufun.
Ypaneuue npopykfoe kopposuu refanna xurueckur refopor uasueaefcnmpaeneuueu. B
npopae npepnarakfcn rofoeue k ynofpeneuuk cocfaeu pnn fpaeneuun ua ocuoee
pacfeopoe kucnof unu kucnux cone. Rpouecc fpaeneuun eknkaef e cen cnepykue
sfanu:
+ oesupueauue;
+ fpaeneuue;
+ nporueky eopo;
+ nporueky uefpanusykur cocfaeor;
+ cyuky.
Ypannfu npopykfu kopposuu rouo u c norouk npeopasoeafene paeuuu (ouuo sfo
eopuo-cnupfoeue unu eopuo-auefouoeue pacfeopu qocqopuo kucnofu c poaeneuuer
fauuua, ruppoxuuoua, pasnuuux uuruufopoe kopposuu u pp.), kofopue foe urekfcn e
npopae. Ouu nepeeopnf npopykfu kopposuu e ueakfueuoe cocfonuue. Rpu ucnonusoeauuu
npeopasoeafene paeuuu pononuufenuuoe rexauueckoe ypaneuue paeuuu ue
fpeyefcn. Cufaefcn, fo nocne opaofku noeepxuocfu fakur cocfaeor oua rofoea k
rpyufoeauuk. Ecnu fonuua kopposuouuoro cnon onee 80-100 rkr, fo npureunfu
npeopasoeafenu paeuuu uenusn, nockonuky ouu ue ecfynakf e peakuuk c okanuuo.
RPHMEHAHHE
3aufuue ceocfea nakokpacouux nokpufu, uaueceuuux ua noeepxuocfu, opaofauuyk
npeopasoeafener paeuuu, uue, er y nokpufu, uaueceuuux ua oueuuyk of
paeuuu noeepxuocfu.
Ypanue nakokpacouoe nokpufue u kopposuouuue nnfua, noeepxuocfu kysoea cnepyef
oesupufu yaf-cnupufor. Heoxopuro cnepufu, fou ua noeepxuocfu ue ocfaeanucu
eopcuuku of fkauu (ecnu kysoe npofupaefcn eefouuk, croeuuo yaf-cnupufor) unu eopc
kucfu (ecnu yaf-cnupuf uauocufcn kucfuk). nn npoeepku kaecfea oesupueauun uyuo
npoeecfu qunufpoeanuuo yraro no noeepxuocfu kysoea. Ecnu ua yrare ocfanucu
cnepu upa unu rpnsu, fo noeepxuocfu ueoxopuro ee pas nporufu pacfeopufener (a
eosrouo, u ue opuu noka oua nonuocfuk ue oesupufcn).
COBET
He skouorufe yaf-cnupuf u epern ua oesupueauue! Roruufe: kapoe ocfaeueecn ua
noeepxuocfu nnfuuuko upa nofeuuuanuuu oar kopposuu.
Kak fonuko nokpufue ypaneuo u noeepxuocfu oesupeua, cnepyef eupoeunfu ee. Ecnu
eosrouo oofucu es unafneeku (uanpurep, ueoxopuryk poeuyk noeepxuocfu rouo
oecneufu puxfoeauuer), fo e nyue ue nonusoeafucn.
RPHMEHAHHE
Lnafneeka ue ynyuaef saufuue ceocfea nokpufun, safo cunuuo ocnannef ero
rexauueckue nokasafenu.
Rpu unafneeauuu noeepxuocfu cnepyef pykoeopcfeoeafucn cnepykuru npaeunaru:
+ ece unafneeku (kpore snokcupuux u unafneeok ua ocuoee ueuacueuuux nonusqupoe)
uyuo uauocufu fonuko ua sarpyufoeauuyk unu okpaueuuyk noeepxuocfu;
+ fonuua cnon unafneeku ponua ufu ruuuranuuo.
RPHMEHAHHE
B foncfux cnonx unafneeok euyfpeuuue uanpneuun roryf eusueafu pacfpeckueauue
cnon. Pacfpeckueauue npepcfaennef coo peqekf, uauonee acfo ecfpeakucn npu
unafneeauuu.
Rpepenuuan fonuua cnon unafneeku onpepennefcn eenuuuo ycapku rafepuana. Y
snokcupuux unafneeok u unafneeok ua ocuoee uacueuuux nonusqupoe ycapka
ueonuuan, u ponycfuru cno uaueceuun po 2 rr. Y uufpouennknosuux, ankupuo-
cfuponuuux u ankupuux unafneeok ycapka suaufenuuan, nofory fakue unafneeku uyuo
uauocufu ueckonukuru foukuru cnonru, npocyuuean kapu us uux. Rpu sfor oan
fonuua cnon unafneeku (ecex cnoee erecfe) ue ponua npeeuuafu 0,3 rr.
Eonuuuucfeo unafneeok npepcfaennkf coo rycfyk nacfoopasuyk raccy, kofopyk
ypouo uauocufu unafener. Repep uaueceuuer unafneeku cnepyef npoeepufu, uef nu e
ue safeeppeeuux kycokoe. Ecnu ouu ecfu, ux uyuo euuyfu. Ecnu unafneeka uauocufcn
kpackopacnunufener, fo cuaana ee cnepyef paseecfu coofeefcfeykur pacfeopufener
po paoe enskocfu.
Kaecfeo unafneeok oueuueaefcn no cnepykur nokasafennr:
+ ypocfeo uaueceuun;
+ xapakfep sanonueuun peqekfoe noeepxuocfu;
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
+ npoponufenuuocfu u fernepafypa eucuxauun (ecnu unafneeka fpeyef feprocyuku, fo
pnn porauuee-rapauo opaofku oua ue npuropua);
+ eenuuua ycapku;
+ cnocouocfu k unuqoeauuk;
+ npouocfu cuenneuun c koufakfupykuru cnonru;
+ cfokocfu k pacfpeckueauuk.
-fou useafu eucuxauun u safeeppeeauun unafneeok, ux uyuo xpauufu e aukax c
nnofuo npunerakuru kpuukaru.
Macnnuo-nakoeue unafneeku nyue ecero coxpaunkfcn nop cnoer eopu. Snokcupuue
unafneeku c ofeeppufennru cnepyef rofoeufu e konuecfee, ue npeeuuaker uopry
nofpeneuun ua 56 .
Pasuoeupuocfuk unafneeok nennkfcn rpyuf-unafneeku (ouuo sfo cocfaeu ua ocuoee
snokcupuux cron). Fpyuf-unafneeku ofnuakfcn fer, fo ux rouo uauocufu
uenocpepcfeeuuo ua refann, es pononuufenuuoro cnon rpyufa unu kpacku.
Bpern cyuku saunafneeauuo noeepxuocfu ponuo coofeefcfeoeafu fexuueckur
ycnoeunr ua ucnonusyeryk unafneeky. Rockonuky npu porauue-rapauo okpacke
cyuka ouuo npoeopufcn ecfecfeeuuur nyfer (es uarpeea), fo ee epern nyue
yeenuufu, ocoeuuo ecnu unafneeka uaknapueanacu e ueckonuko cnoee.
Rocne eupaeuueauun noeepxuocfu kysoea unafneeko uyuo ee pas oesupufu
noeepxuocfu yaf-cnupufor. 3afer cnepyef popafucn eucuxauun u sarpyufoeafu
saunafneeauuue recfa.
Rocne foro kak noeepxuocfu kysoea eucoxuef, cfauyf sarefuu peqekfu e ypaneuuu kpacku.
Hepounuqoeauuyk, uepoeuyk noeepxuocfu u sarpyufoeauuue recfa cnepyef ee pas
opaofafu uapauo ukypko, a safer cuoea oesupufu noeepxuocfu kysoea yaf-
cnupufor.
Tenepu rouo nepefu k paccrofpeuuk uenocpepcfeeuuo npouecca nokpacku.
Repeu sfan uaueceuue nponeouoro (euneufenuuoro) cnon. Sfof cno uasueaefcn fak
nofory, fo ua uer ofefnueo nponennkfcn (eunennkfcn) ece peqekfu saunafneeauuo
noeepxuocfu.
-fou paseecfu kpacky pnn nponeouoro cnon, fpeyefcn fafenuuo creuafu efupe
oLeruue acfu pacfeopufenn u opuy oLeruyk acfu Caponuua. nn nokpacku ece
eueuue noeepxuocfu kysoea pocfafouo 1 n fako crecu.
COBET
Henocpepcfeeuuo nepep uaueceuuer kpacku noeepxuocfu kysoea pekoreupyefcn ee pas
oesupufu u npocyuufu.
Kpacky rouo uauecfu ua noeepxuocfu kysoea c norouk ouuoro nunecoca. nn sforo
us nunecoca uyuo euuyfu nuneeo qunufp, safer nopcoepuuufu k nunecocy unaur u
okpacouu nucfonef. B aok nunecoca uanueaefcn 100 r pacfeopufenn pnn perynupoeku
qakena pacnuna kpacku. Rpu sfor qaken poneu ufu eepfukanuuur, a kpacka
pacnunnfucn paeuorepuo, es paspusrueauun. Ro okouauuu perynupoeku e aok
nunecoca sanueaefcn paseepeuuan kpacka, nocne ero ee nepeu cno uauocufcn ua
noeepxuocfu kysoea aeforounn. Kpacka uauocufcn no cnepyke cxere: kopoa npoeru
peepe eponu sakneeuuux (ueokpauueaerux) recf ocuoeuue nnoapu.
Caroe uenpunfuoe npu nokpacke noneneuue nofekoe. Rosfory kpacky cnepyef uauocufu
ucfpuru ropusoufanuuuru peueuunru. Kpacufu nyue ecero ceepxy euus. Ro ykasauuo
euue cxere uauocufcn cuaana nepeu, a safer efopo cno kpacku.
RPHMEHAHHE
Roruufe, fo sfo fonuko nepeu sfan, nponeouu cno. Rosfory ecnu rpe-fo
ouapyueakfcn peqekfu nokpacku (uepokpaueuuue acfu noeepxuocfu), fo ue cfouf
sarasueafu nucue recfa kucfoko ece orpexu ucnpaenfcn npu nocnepyke
nokpacke.
Rponeouu cno kpacku poneu ufu onee foukur, er nocnepykue.
-epes 20 ruu nocne uaueceuun nponeouoro cnon rouo uauocufu ocuoeuo pekopafueuu
cno. Opuako nepep sfur uyuo okouafenuuo eunpaeufu ece renkue peqekfu, kofopue
cpenan oeeupuuru nponeouu cno. Rpaeka eunonunefcn nyfer unafneeku. -fou
ynyuufu repycnouoe cuenneuue kpacku, pekoreupyefcn nonuocfuk ofunuqoeafu
nponeouu cno.
nn nonyeuun pekopafueuoro cnon kpacka paseopufcn fpern oLeruuru acfnru
pacfeopufenn u opuo oLeruo acfuk Caponuua. Cocfae fafenuuo nepereuueaefcn
po nonuo opuopopuocfu. Hauocufcn ocuoeuo cno fak e, kak u nponeouu.
Ecnu uenocpepcfeeuuo nocne nokpacku eu ouapyunu kakue-nuo npueueceuuue peqekfu
nokpufun, ue nufafecu cpasy e ux ucnpaeufu. Hanpurep, ecnu k noeepxuocfu kysoea
npununno uacekoroe, rakcuryr, fo rouo cpenafu, ocfopouo u akkypafuo cunfu ero
nuuuefor, uo uu e koer cnyae ue nanuuaru, uuae ocfauyfcn cnepu. Rocne foro kak
kpacka eucoxuef, ece renkue peqekfu rouo ucnpaeufu fak e, kak nkue renkue
peqekfu nakokpacouoro nokpufun (uanpurep, kak foeuyk paeuuy).
Aeforounu nocne nokpacku cyuufcn ue ua conuue u ue ua ceeer eospyxe, a e sakpufor
rapae. Ro okouauuu cyuku, kofopan npoponaefcn pea-fpu pun, rauuuy cnepyef
euurafenuuo ocrofpefu u ucnpaeufu renkue peqekfu nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
B fan. 2.1 npueopnfcn peqekfu, kofopue roryf eosuukuyfu npu nokpacke u cyuke, a fake
nyfu ux ycfpaueuun.

Tanuua 2.1. eqekfu, eosuukakue npu okpacke u cyuke, u cnocou ux ucnpaeneuun[3]

Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )



Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Cnyaefcn, fo ye nocne npoeepeuun nokpacouux paof ua noeepxuocfu nakokpacouoro
nokpufun eosuukakf ueonuuue espyfun (eonpupu), unu noeepxuocfu ue necfuf (fakoe
npoucxopuf, ecnu espyfun oeuu raneuukue), unu opasykfcn eopouku c peauuru kpanru
(korpa espyfue nonaefcn). Ocuoeuo npuuuo eosuukuoeeuun nopouoro popa peqekfoe
nennefcn nnoxan noprofoeka noeepxuocfu k nokpacouur paofar. Rop uoeur
nakokpacouur nokpufuer roef uaxopufucn paeoe nnfuo, ue ypaneuuoe u ue
sapenauuoe npu noprofoeufenuuux paofax. Bspyfun eosuukakf u npu nnoxor
oesupueauuu noeepxuocfu, korpa kpacka uaknapueaefcn ua racno unu up. Repep
nokpacouuru paofaru noeepxuocfu aeforounn roef ufu uepocfafouo npocyueua, u
nop uoeur nakokpacouur nokpufuer okasueaefcn eopa. Bce sfu nponeru uyuo
npepycrafpueafu sapauee, fafenuuo noprofaenuean noeepxuocfu k nokpacke, c
conkpeuuer ecex fpeoeauu.
Bosroeu ee opuu peqekf uoeoro nakokpacouoro nokpufun pacfpeckueauue uoeo
kpacku. Ero rouo ycfpauufu fonuko opuur cnocoor cunfu nakokpacouoe nokpufue u
sauoeo nokpacufu aeforounu.
Hauonee acfue npuuuu eosuukuoeeuun fpeuu ua uoeor nakokpacouor nokpufuu
cnepykue:
+ uepocfafouo cyxan noeepxuocfu (nnoxo eucyueuuu kysoe) pnn npoeepeuun
nokpacouux paof;
+ peskue creuu fernepafypu npu npoeepeuuu nokpacouux paof u npu eucuxauuu
nakokpacouoro nokpufun (kak useecfuo, npu uarpeee rafepuan pacuupnefcn, a npu
oxnapeuuu curaefcn, e for ucne u nakokpacouoe nokpufue);
+ cnuukor foncfue cnou kpacku unu unafneeku nop nakokpacouur nokpufuer;
+ nnoxoe creuueauue uurpepueufoe kpacku;
+ uecoerecfurocfu uurpepueufoe kpacku;
+ uekaecfeeuuan noprofoeka noeepxuocfu k nokpacke (uoeoe nakokpacouoe nokpufue
uauocunocu ua peqekfuoe, c fpeuuaru u oararu kopposuu cfapoe nokpufue);
+ nonapauue pacfeopufenn ua noeepxuocfu akpunoeoro naka.
Koueuo, oupuo nepekpauueafu aeforounu, uo ecnu paofa epuuopu una eunonueua
uepeuo u nofpeoeana nepepenku, fo e panuueuer ece sfanu npouecca nokpacku of
noprofoeku po quuuuuoro sfana ypyf eunonunfucn c ocoo fafenuuocfuk u
ckpynynesuocfuk. Kak npaeuno, uauuakur racfepar xeafaef opuoro fakoro ypoka, korpa
fpeyefcn nonuocfuk nepepenueafu eunonueuuyk paofy.
06me npuns nokpack nnacuaccossx qeane
Aeforounu usrofoeneu e ocuoeuor us refanna. Opuako e uer ureefcn poeonuuo onuuoe
konuecfeo pasuoopasuux nnacfraccoeux pefane. Hekofopue us uux foe nepuopuecku
uypakfcn e pekopafueuo nopkpacke. Hanpurep, nnacfraccoeue arnepu (fakue
arnepu ue nennkfcn pepkocfuk) ocoeuuo cfpapakf of rexauueckoro eospecfeun
karue, necka u nunu, eusueakero ckonu nakokpacouoro nokpufun, ocoeuuo nepepuue
arnepu e cuny ceoero pacnonoeuun.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Repep opaofko nnacfraccoeo pefanu cnepyef yfouufu rapkupoeky rafepuana. Kak
npaeuno, oua ykasueaefcn ua opafuo cfopoue nnacfraccoeoro snereufa.
Mafepuanu c rapkupoekaru AAS, ABS, PC u PVC sfo fepronnacfu (1-n rpynna); PA, EP u
PUR fepropeakfueuue nnacfraccu, fo ecfu pyponnacfu (2-n rpynna); PP, EPDM u POM
nonunponuneuu (3-n rpynna). Rokpacka rafepuanoe kapo us sfux rpynn ureef ceok
cneuuquky, kofopan ponua yufueafucn npu paofe.
Cnyaefcn, fo ua pefanu uef rapkupoeku. Ouuo sfo xapakfepuo pnn snereufoe,
usrofoeneuuux renkuru kufackuru kornauunru. -acfo ua noeepxuocfu fakux pefane
ureefcn ue ypaneuuu cno cunukouoeo crasku, kofopan ucnonusyefcn npu npouseopcfee.
Craska rnyoko npouukaef e rafepuan pefanu.
K snereufar, ue urekur rapkupoeku, cnepyef ofuocufucn ocoeuuo euurafenuuo.
Repep nokpacko nnacfraccoeue pefanu uyuo ofrufu of pacfeopurux e eope
sarpnsueuu, nocne ero uarpeeafu po fernepafypu 60 C e feeuue kak ruuuryr 30 ruu.
3afer noeepxuocfu cnepyef oesupufu cneuuanuuur pacfeopufener (pnn nnacfukoe 1-
rpynnu ucnonusyefcn pacfeopufenu 3920S, a ocfanuuue opaafueakfcn pacfeopufener
pnn snokcupuux rpyufoe 3871S). Ecnu nnacfraccoeue pefanu ue ouafu u ue
oesupueafu, fo cunukouu okayfcn pacnpepeneuuuru no ux noeepxuocfu, fo
cyecfeeuuo yxypuuf apresuk nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
nn uerapkupoeauuux nnacfraccoeux snereufoe npouepypy uyuo noefopufu ueckonuko
pas. nn nnacfukoe 3- rpynnu roef nofpeoeafucn pononuufenuuan opaofka ofkpufur
nnareuer rasoeo ropenku. Rpouepypy cnepyef npoeopufu pocfafouo ucfpo, fou ue
euseafu onnaeneuun nnacfuka; npu sfor nnarn ponuo kacafucn noeepxuocfu rafepuana,
pnn foro fou ue sakonfufu pefanu.
Ha uekofopux aefocepeucax npouepypa oesupueauun npoeopufcn cneuuanuuur
aufucfafueckur oesupueafener Antistatic Degreaser. Ou copepuf eeecfea c eucoko
snekfponpoeopuocfuk, oecneueakue uefpanusauuk cfafueckoro snekfpueckoro
sapnpa, kofopu ueuseuo uakannueaefcn ua nnacfraccoeux pefannx npu ux opaofke.
A eepu cfafueckue sapnpu ue fonuko npufnrueakf nkyk nunu, uo u npueopnf k
uepaeuorepuory pacnpepeneuuk nurreufoe u opasoeauuk ceefnux u feruux nnfeu,
kofopue xopouo sarefuu nocne nokpufun noeepxuocfu nnacfraccoeoro snereufa nakor.
Rocne oesupueauun rouo npucfynafu k rexauuecko opaofke noeepxuocfu
nnacfraccoeux pefane. auuan onepauun ocyecfennefcn unuqoeouuru rafepuanaru
c sepuucfocfuk ue onuue 600 rkr unu ckof-pafor.
3aeepuue rexauueckyk opaofky, cnepyef npouseecfu ee opuo oesupueauue. Rpu
sfor pacfeopufenu uyuo uauocufu ua noeepxuocfu nnacfraccoeoro snereufa u ypannfu
cyxo eefouuk po foro, kak ou eucoxuef. Bucoxuu pacfeopufenu ocfaennef ua
noeepxuocfu nnacfraccu ueycfpauuroe nnfuo cunukoua.
Rocne oesupueauun noeepxuocfu nnacfraccoeo pefanu uyuo sarpyufoeafu. Pyue
ecero ucnonusoeafu peyxkornoueufuu rpyuf c eucokur cyxur ocfafkor 1220R u c
poaeko 5-10 % nnacfuqukafopa 805R.
Rnacfuku 1- u 3- rpynn uyuo nokpueafu cneuuanuuur rpyufor pnn rukux nopnoek
800R. Ou uauocufcn e opuu-pea cnon c ruuuranuuo fonuuo 5-10 rkr sa 10 ruu po
ocuoeuoro rpyufoeauun. Cnoucfue nauenu us fepropeakfueuux nnacfracc ue fpeykf
npureueuun cneuuanuuo rpyufoeku.
Rocne sforo ua noeepxuocfu nnacfraccoeoro snereufa uauocufcn cno eupaeuueakero
rpyufa. Hcxopn us rukocfu snereufa e rpyuf u nocnepyku cno naka ueoxopuro
poaeufu po 25 % nnacfuqukafopa 805R.
Onucauuan cxera noprofoeku k nokpacke nnacfraccoeux pefane npureuura ue fonuko k
nonuo nokpacke kakoro-nuo snereufa, uo u k acfuuo nokpacke peroufupyeroro
yacfka. B nocnepuer cnyae peroufupyeru yacfok nnacfraccoeo pefanu nepep
nokpacko cnepyef ee saunafneeafu cneuuanuuo unafneeko pnn nnacfraccoeux
pefane.
anuueuan npouepypa nokpacku ue ofnuaefcn of auanoruuo opaofku refannueckux
pefane. Kcfafu, no fako e refopuke rouo okpauueafu refannueckue noeepxuocfu,
nokpufue cneuuanuuur aufukopposuuur cocfaeor.
Ecnu nnacfraccoeue snereufu urekf rafoeyk cfpykfypupoeauuyk (uepuaeyk)
noeepxuocfu, fo e sranu cnepyef poaennfu penueqoopasykyk nacfy Autocryl Structure
Paste Fine. Rpu poaeneuuu 10 % sfo nacfu rnnueu cuuaefcn e 2 pasa, a npu
coofuoueuuu poaeku u sranu 8:2 nonyaefcn nonuocfuk rafoean noeepxuocfu.
-fou nonyufu kpynuosepuucfyk noeepxuocfu, cnepyef uauecfu 23 cnon sranu c
eupepko repy cnonru ue reuee 5 ruu. nn nonyeuun renkosepuucfo qakfypu
noeepxuocfu repy uaueceuuer cnoee ue uyuo penafu uufepeanu.
-fou yreuuuufu enunuue uenaronpunfuux ycnoeu skcnnyafauuu ua nnacfraccoeue
pefanu, rouo nonusoeafucn cneuuanuuo poaeko of qupru DuPont k asoeo sranu
Centari 6000. Sfa poaeka sauaef of ckonoe pae e for cnyae, ecnu cno naka
noepepeu.
nn rpyufoeauun pefane rouo ucnonusoeafu cepuk rpyufoe 901907. Ouu ofnuakfcn
fonuko ueefor: 901R enu, a 907R epuu. Sfu rpyufu coefakf e cee ceocfea
apresuouuoro u ocuoeuoro rpyufoe. C opuo cfopouu, ouu xapakfepusykfcn ofnuuo
apresue ko ecer nnacfukar, eknkan PP u PP/ EPDM (ux apresun euue apresuu pae
cfaupapfuux saeopckux rpyufoe). C ppyro cfopouu, fakue rpyufu roryf uauocufucn cnoer
fonuuo po 30 rkr, nepekpuean peroufuu yacfok, u unuqoeafucn no rokpory
(unuqoeanuuo yraro P800-1000) epes 2 eospyuuo cyuku unu epes 30 ruu cyuku
npu 60 C.
Creueuue peyx ueefoe noseonnef nonyufu nko offeuok ceporo u noeuuaef
ykpueucfocfu nonynpospauux srane.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Fnaeuur npeuryecfeor sfo cepuu rpyufoe nennefcn fo, fo ouu ue okoufypueakfcn npu
peroufe nokanuuux yacfkoe. Kak cnepcfeue, cuuaefcn pacxop kpacku u naka u cfourocfu
peroufa yreuuuaefcn. Ocoeuuo sfo akfyanuuo npu peroufe uepoporux aeforoune.
Mafepuanu pnn nokpacku nnacfraccoeux pefane cyecfeykf u e ppyrux nokpacouux
cucferax[4]. B cucfere Sikkens ucnonusykfcn apresuouuu rpyuf Sikkens Plastoflex Primer
u nnacfuquuupykan poaeka Elast-o-Actif. Kak u e cucfere DuPont, e Sikkens urekfcn
cneuuanuuue poaeku pnn cospauun fekcfypupoeauuo u rafoeo noeepxuocfe.
Paccrofpur pasnuuue funu nnacfuka (fan. 2.2).

Tanuua 2.2. Tunu nnacfuka



okpacka 6aunepa
-ae ecero coepereuuue arnepu usrofoeneuu us nnacfuka, fo eusueaef
pononuufenuuue fpypuocfu npu noprofoeke ux k nokpacke. Sfo oLncunefcn fer, fo
nnacfuk paneko ue fak npoeu, kak refann, u rpyoe oukypueauue ecfko
refannuecko efko (oua uacaueaefcn ua ppenu, c norouk kofopo u cuuraefcn
cfapan kpacka) unu kpynuo uapauo yraro npueopuf k fory, fo ua noeepxuocfu
arnepa nonennkfcn uapanuuu, eupuue pae ueeoopyeuuur rnasor (puc. 2.9).
-fou ucnpaeufu cufyauuk u poufucn upeanuuo poeuocfu u rnapkocfu noeepxuocfu
arnepa, uyuo npureuufu unafneeky pnn nnacfuka.


Puc. 2.9. Fpyue uapanuuu, eupurue ueeoopyeuuur rnasor, pesynufaf uekaecfeeuuo
noprofoeku arnepa k nokpacke

Rocne foro kak unafneeka fafenuuo nepereuaua po opasoeauun opuopopuo crecu, ee
akkypafuo uauocnf ua arnep fakur opasor, fou nonyancn rakcuranuuo fouku cno.
Roruufe: ear uyuo nuuu sakpufu uapanuuu u renkue noepepeuun noeepxuocfu
arnepa, a ue uauecfu pononuufenuuu cno rafepuana ua nnacfukoeyk noeepxuocfu.
Korpa unafneeka eucoxuef, noeepxuocfu arnepa saunuqoeueaefcn po rakcuranuuo
rnapkocfu u poeuocfu renkosepuucfo unuqoeanuuo ukypko.
Rocne foro kak saunafneeauuan noeepxuocfu ofunuqoeaua (saukypeua), oua ouaefcn
of nunu c norouk caforo eospyxa (pnn sforo rouo ucnonusoeafu oukuoeeuuu
ufoeo nunecoc). Oucfky uyuo npouseopufu kak rouo onee fafenuuo. Rocne
saukypueauun noeepxuocfu arnepa nokpufa nunuk, a kapan ocfaeuancn ua arnepe
nunuuka sfo nocnepyku peqekf nokpacku u eosrouan npuuua ue fonuko
uepaeuorepuo nokpacku unu nnoxo apresuu kpacku k noeepxuocfu arnepa, uo u
eeponfuan npuuua panuueuero espyfun u ofuenyuueauun kpacku.
Rocne oucfku noeepxuocfu ua uee uauocufcn cneuuanuuu apresueuu rpyuf pnn
nnacfuka (Reoflex 1K). -fou apresun nakokpacouoro nokpufun k noeepxuocfu una
onfuranuuo, rpyufoeouoe nokpufue nyue uauocufu e pea cnon.
Bfopo cno rpyufoeouoro nokpufun uauocufcn npurepuo epes 15 ruu nocne uaueceuun
nepeoro. auuu cno cyuufcn npurepuo 30 ruu npu fernepafype okono 20 C (e ucfor u
cyxor noreeuuu, e saueuuor of nonapauun npnrux conueuux nye recfe).
Rpocyuufu nokpufue uyuo ocuoeafenuuo, foponufucn specu ue uyuo. eno e for, fo
ecnu rpyufoeouoe nokpufue pnn nnacfuka ue ypef pocyueuo, fo efopuuu rpyuf,
kofopu uauocufcn ua rpyuf pnn nnacfuka, roef cropufucn, cnepoeafenuuo, ece
noprofoeufenuuue paofu okayfcn cpenauuuru uanpacuo.
Rocne eucuxauun efoporo cnon rpyufoeouoro nokpufun ua nnacfukoeue noeepxuocfu
uauocufcn efopuuu rpyuf-noposanonuufenu (Novol 3+1). Ye us uaseauun sforo
rafepuana oeeupuo, fo pauuu rpyuf npepuasuaeu pnn sanonueuun rukponop u
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
rukpofpeuu, kofopue ue sakpufu cnoer nepeoro rpyufa unu opasoeanucu e nepeor
rpyufe.
Rocne foro kak cno efopuuoro rpyufa eucoxuef, ceepxy uauocufcn ee opuu
rpyufoeouu cno upko paseepeuuu Mobihel 2+1. Ou uauocufcn, fak ckasafu, e
rnnueu, nosfory unuqoeka pauuoro cnon ue uyua.
-fou renkue karuu ua popore ue ofueanu nakokpacouoe nokpufue ua arnepe, ua
uuukk ero acfu uauocufcn nonocka aufurpaeun cneuuanuuoro saufuoro nokpufun.
Rocne foro kak ece rpyufoeouue u saufuue nokpufun uaueceuu, rouo npucfynafu k
nokpacke.
nn nokpacouux paof ucnonusykfcn cneuuanuuue nucfonefu (cr. puc. 2.10).


Puc. 2.10. Rucfonefu pnn nokpacouux paof

Ha puc. 2.10 (cneea) npepcfaeneu nucfonef pnn nokpacouux paof Asturomec Prima S
(pnn rpyufa, pksa 1,5). Ha puc. 2.10 (cnpaea) eu eupufe nucfonef Matrix (npouseopcfea
Kufan). Sfof nucfonef ue fonuko peuee, uo u nennefcn oeuu kaecfeeuuur (uecrofpn ua
ceoe coruufenuuoe kufackoe npoucxopeuue): cfanuuuru urnaru ykornnekfoeau pae
peroufuu uaop, k fory e npepenu perynupoeku qakena uupoauue. Kaecfeo
nokpacku npu ucnonusoeauuu pauuoro nucfonefa oeuu eucokoe, nosfory ou ofnuuo
nopxopuf pnn rapauux racfepckux.
Ha sarpyufoeauuyk noeepxuocfu uauocufcn asoeu cno kpacku, a safer cno naka
(Duxone DX40). Ecnu nopofu k npoueccy c ocour euurauuer u fafenuuocfuk (npuer
ue fonuko uenocpepcfeeuuo k nokpacke, uo u k noprofoeke ocoeuuo k noprofoeke!), fo e
pesynufafe eu nonyufe uoeu c eupy arnep.
3ama o koppoi
Aeforounu rouo usrofoeufu us kopposuouuocfokux rafepuanoe. Opuako e saeucurocfu
of ucnonusyeroro rafepuana fako aeforounu okaefcn nuo uerucnuro poporur, nuo
uecfokur k ypapar (of nkoro fonka ou ypef curafucn raprouko). Hcxopn us
sforo, aeforounu npouseopnfcn us peueeoro npokafa, kofopu, ecfecfeeuuo, nopeepeu
kopposuu, fo ecfu akfueuo paeeef. Cnepoeafenuuo, noeepxuocfu rauuuu uyuo
sauafu. 3aeopckue fexuonoruu noseonnkf cpenafu sfo c rakcuranuuo eucokur
kaecfeor: aeforounu rpyufykf, kpacnf, uauocnf ua ero noeepxuocfu aufurpaeuuue u
npofueouyroeue nokpufun (ae ecero nonurepuue).
Rpu skcnnyafauuu saufuoe nokpufue paspyuaefcn: us-sa eupauuu (npu aeforounuuo
espe), nepenapoe fernepafypu, eospecfeun popouux ycnoeu u f. p. Rpuer npouecc
paspyueuun upef no skcnoueufe. Bepu cfouf fonuko noneufucn e saufuor nokpufuu
kpoxofuory kanunnnpy, kak epes uero k refanny cpasy uauef npoupafucn enara, eospyx,
popouan rpnsu u ppyrue kopposuouuue eeecfea.
Cnepyef fake noruufu, fo kysoe aeforounn ureef cnouoe euyfpeuuee cfpoeuue. Bo
ruorux recfax ynoeuo ueckonuko cnoee refanna c ruoroucneuuuru nonocfnru repy
cnonru (k npurepy, noporu). B nonocfnx ae ecero ofcyfcfeyef eeufunnuun, e uux
uakannueaefcn enara u rpnsu, fo yckopnef npouecc kopposuu (puc. 2.11). Ronocfu caroe
ynseuroe recfo, a koufponupoeafu ux cocfonuue ue fonuko fpypuo, uo saacfyk u eoece
ueeosrouo.


Puc. 2.11. Rop konecuuru apkaru uakannueaefcn rpnsu, pae ecnu aeforounu eurnnpuf
yxoeuuur
RPHMEHAHHE
B uauonee uenaronpunfuux ycnoeunx skcnnyafauuu uaxopnfcn noporu, konecuue uuuu u
puue aeforounn (ocoeuuo fe ero acfu, kofopue pacnonoeuu nosapu eepyux konec).
Macfepa aefocepeucoe suakf, fo, pae ecnu aeforounu ceepxy ucfu u yxoeuuu,
eucoka eeponfuocfu foro, fo ua puue ouapyufcn paeuua, a fo u nonpocfy pupa. A
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
y paeuua ua noporax u konecuux uuuax nofu u ue cufaefcn peqekfor. Tak, renkan
uenpunfuocfu.
Roporu, konecuue uuuu u puue aeforounn rakcuranuuo koufakfupykf co eceru euparu
rpnsu poporu, e for ucne u c kopposuouuuru eeecfearu, uanpurep c conuk. Kpore foro,
e cnyae nonapauun ua noporu, konecuue uuuu u puue aeforounn erecfe c rpnsuk
perfn, ryppoua, cronu, npopykfoe ueqfenepepaofku qoprupykfcn nofeuuuanuuue oaru
kopposuu. Sfo oLncunefcn fer, fo pauuue eeecfea cnocouu puqqyupupoeafu ue
fonuko e nakokpacouoe nokpufue. Aefonkufenu rokf puue ceoe rauuuu paneko ue
kapu peuu, npuer pae carue pofouuue. Rosfory nkoe, pae caroe renkoe
noepepeuue nokpufun noporoe, konecuux uuu u puua aeforounn eusueaef
uufeucueuoe paseufue kopposuu. A ecnu rauuua nonana e aeapuk, fo puxfoeouue u
ceapouue paofu ruorokpafuo yckopnkf npouecc kopposuu refanna.
-fou useafu uerafueuux nocnepcfeu pnn fex noeepxuocfe aeforounn, kofopue
nopeeprakfcn ocoo onacuocfu noepepeuun u nocnepyke kopposuu npu
skcnnyafauuu, pekoreupyefcn ucnonusoeafu pononuufenuuue saufuue nokpufun,
uanpurep aefoaufukop ufyruu, racfuky cnauueeyk aeforounuuyk, Moeunu u pp.
K npofueokopposuouuur cocfaear pnn puua aeforounn npepLnennkfcn cnepykue
fpeoeauun:
+ eucokan cfokocfu k eospecfeuk enaru;
+ eucokan cfokocfu k eospecfeuk ruuepanuuux cone u cepuucforo rasa;
+ eucokan apresun;
+ cfokocfu k eupauunr u ypapuur uarpyskar;
+ cfokocfu k apasueuory usuocy;
+ coxpaueuue ceoux ceocfe e fernepafypuor puanasoue of -40 po +140 C;
+ ucfpoe eucuxauue.
Mafepuanu pnn npofueokopposuouuo opaofku aeforounn ycnoeuo rouo paspenufu
ua racfuuue u xurueckue. Macmuvuie uamepuaniusrofoeneuu ua ocuoee npopykfoe
nepepaofku ueqfu, cnauuee, kayykoe, snokcupuux cron u np. B ux cocfae exopnf
uuruufopu kopposuu, noeepxuocfuo-akfueuue eeecfea, censykue eeecfea (cronu,
kayyku, napaquuu, uepesuuu, cuufefueckue nonurepu) u uanonuufenu (fanuk,
acecfoean kpouka u f. p.). Cocfaeu pnn saufu noeepxuocfu onapakf eucoko
craueake cnocouocfuk, fo noseonnef ur nerko npouukafu e peqekfu ceapuux ueoe,
fpeuuu u sasopu repy nucfaru refanna. Bucokan craueakan cnocouocfu
noseonnef sarepnufu kopposuouuu npouecc far, rpe ou ye uaancn (sa cef
npouukuoeeuun rafepuana u nponufueauun puxno paeuuu).
Macfuuue rafepuanu opasykf ua noeepxuocfu refanna foncfue nneuku, kofopue
cnocouu saufufu kysoe of rexauueckux eospecfeu. Ouu nokasueakf npekpacuue
pesynufafu eo epern ucnufauu ua ueokpaueuuor refanne, fak kak cnocouu sareuufu
saufuoe nakokpacouoe nokpufue. Opuako npu ucnonusoeauuu fakux rafepuanoe epes
ueckonuko nef nocne opaofku rouo ouapyufu, fo cara racfuuan nneuka uaxopufcn
e upeanuuor cocfonuuu, a nop ue opasoeanacu nnacfoean paeuua. Rpuuua nopouoro
neneuun oeeupua: npu aufukopposuouuo opaofke racfuky uauocnf ue ua ronu refann
(kak npu ucnufauunx), a ua saufuoe saeopckoe nokpufue (kak npaeuno, nnacfusonu),
kofopoe poeonuuo ucfpo ofcnaueaefcn. B pesynufafe erecfe c sfur nokpufuer e eospyxe
noeucaef u racfuuan nneuka. Opasyefcn ee opua nonocfu, e kofopyk roryf nonacfu
enara, rpnsu u pasuoopasuue kopposuouuue eeecfea. Cnepoeafenuuo, pae ecnu
aeforounu eurnnpuf npekpacuo, nop ero necfne noeepxuocfuk ece paeuo roef
ckpueafucn paeuua. Ro sfo npuuue aefoenapeneu, kofopu euurafenuuo cnepuf sa
ceoe rauuuo, ponroe epern roef nonarafu, fo ece e nopnpke, noka e puue ue
opasyefcn pupa.
Ropouo nponero cfpapakf e ocuoeuor ofeecfeeuuue aeforounu. Y uuorapok
racfuka coxpaunef ue refann, a saeopckyk saufy, kofopan, e ceok oepepu, u coxpaunef
car refann. Rosfory pnn uuorapok enonue ponycfuro ucnonusoeauue kaecfeeuuux
racfuuux nokpufu pnn aufukopposuouuo opaofku.
-fou carocfonfenuuo npoeecfu aufukopposuouuyk opaofky aeforounn, rauuuy
cuaana cnepyef fafenuuo eurufu, a nofor cfonu e yceppuo eucyuufu. Ocoeuuo
euurafenuuo uyuo ofuocufucn k ckpufur nonocfnr, nockonuky ouu foe uypakfcn e
rufue u cyuke. Rocne sforo rakcuranuuo akkypafuo uauocufcn poeuu cno racfuuoro
rafepuana (puc. 2.12).


Puc. 2.12. Aufukopposuuan opaofka nop konecuo apko

Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Aufukopposuouuyk racfuky nyue uauocufu carocfonfenuuo, fak kak nepcouan cfauuu
aufukop-opaofku nopo poeonuuo xanafuo ofuocufcn k uaueceuuk nokpufun.
Xuuuveckue aumukopposuouuie npenapami ue cospakf foncfux nneuok u ue sauakf
of rexauueckux noepepeuu, kak racfuuue rafepuanu. Cfeneuu saufu
ueokpaueuuoro refanna y uux foe ueeucoka (no cpaeueuuk c racfukaru). Opuako ouu
cnocouu sanonunfu peqekfu saeopckoro saufuoro nokpufun, enu e ceapuux ueax,
rukpockonueckue peqekfu refanna. Sfu eeecfea npouukakf fypa, kypa sakpuf pocfyn
neckocfpyuo opaofke u nakokpacouory nokpufuk, nerko nonapakf nop ofcnoueuykcn
kpacky u nnacfusonu. Xurueckue npenapafu sa cef copepauxcn e ux cocfaee onuuux
konuecfe uuruufopoe kopposuu cnocouu nokupoeafu ye urekucn oar paeuuu,
npouukan epes kopposuouuu cno po ucforo refanna.
Rpu ucnonusoeauuu nopouux npenapafoe ueoxopuro yufueafu cyecfeeuuyk
ocoeuuocfu uuruufopoe kopposuu: ureuuo uuruufopu nepeuru ecfynakf e o c
arpeccueuo cpepo u noruakf, sauan refann of paeuuu. Ecnu nokpufue
nepuopuecku ue ouoennfu, fo epes ueckonuko nef uuruufop paspyuufcn, u kopposun
uauef ceok akfueuyk paofy uap refannor no skcnoueufe.
Opuako npeuryecfea xurueckux npenapafoe oeuu cyecfeeuuu:
+ ckeosu npospauyk saufuyk nneuky nerko koufponupyefcn cocfonuue kysoea;
+ renkue nopu saufuoro nakokpacouoro nokpufun sakpueakfcn xurueckur cocfaeor;
+ npenapafu ocfauaenueakf kopposuk npakfuecku e nkor recfe kysoea, eue
saeucurocfu of eospacfa u npounoro aeforounn;
+ cocfae c eucoko npouukake cnocouocfuk u nopeuuocfuk roef npouukafu e
carue fpypuopocfynuue recfa;
+ cocfaeu xapakfepusykfcn cunuuuru saufuuru ceocfearu pnn ckpufux nonocfe, u sa
cef sforo kopposun e noporax u ppyrux nonocfuux recfax npakfuecku ueeosroua;
+ cocfaeu eufecunkf eopy, nosfory npu opaofke aeforounu rouo ue cyuufu;
+ cocfaeu rouo uauocufu noeepx nkux ppyrux nokpufu (e for ucne u ua rpnsu, enary u
paeuuy);
+ ua noeepxuocfu ucforo (es nakokpacouoro nokpufun) unu co cneparu kopposuu
refanna cocfaeu opasykf xerocopuuouuu cno, fo ecfu qusuecku sauurakf
nporeyfku repy ronekynaru refanna, ecnepcfeue ero npouukuoeeuue kopposuouuux
eeecfe cfauoeufcn ueeosrouur. Sfof cno ue ypannefcn rexauuecku u pecfeyef po
fex nop, noka ue paspyuafcn uuruufopu.
Cnepoeafenuuo, ecnu ua kysoee aeforounn ye ecfu oaru kopposuu unu car aeforounu
ue uoeu (unu uoeu, uo ofeecfeeuuoro npouseopcfea), fo xurueckue cocfaeu pnn
aufukopposuouuo saufu ue fonuko ypouo, uo u europuo ucnonusoeafu ouu cnocouu
nofu e efupe pasa ypnuuufu usuu refanna es kopposuu.
Cneuuanucfu pekoreupykf pea xurueckux cocfaea pnn aufukopposuouuo opaofku,
urekue cxopuue ceocfea: PACT CTOR u MHF-aufukop.
Ah7hk0PP03h0hhAP 3Ah7A 0Ph 3A7PYhEhh0M h0h 07CY7C78YKEM 0C7Y0E
Korpa aeforounuuu kysoe nonuocfuk pasopau, fo o recfax c safpypueuuur unu
ofcyfcfeykur pocfynor u peu uef ece npospauo, kak ua napouu. Opuako nocne copku
kysoea u ceapouux paof opasykfcn kaprauu u kopoa repy ofpenuuuru
pefannru. B pauuor cnyae ye rouo roeopufu o safpypueuuor unu ofcyfcfeyker
pocfyne.
Rockonuky aefoenapenuuu urekf peno c copauuur aeforouner, fo ureuuo ur
npuxopufcn opofucn c kopposue, kofopan eosuukaef e recfax c safpypueuuur unu
ofcyfcfeykur pocfynor. A e fakux-fo recfax u uaxopnfcn carue uenpunfuue oaru
kopposuu ux ue eupuo, u ouu roryf pacnpocfpaunfucn u paspacfafucn po fako cfeneuu,
fo refann okasueaefcn npocfo npoepeuuur kopposue po pup.
K fakur kopposuouuoonacuur recfar c safpypueuuur unu ofcyfcfeykur pocfynor
ofuocnfcn noporu u nonepeuuu nona, nouepouu u cfoku kysoea, peepu, ycunufenu
puua, ycunufenu kanofa u kpuuku arauuka, a fake ppyrue nonocfu, ckpufue of rnas.
Ha euyfpeuuux noeepxuocfnx nonocfe koupeucupyefcn enara, epes enu ceapuux ueoe u
uennofuocfu coepuueuu npouukakf nunu, eopa, rpnsu, npopykfu ueqfenepepaofku u
popouan conu. Rockonuky sfu nonocfu ckpufu ue fonuko of rnas, uo u of eeufunnuuu
(uecrofpn ua uanuue ene, eeufunnuun safpypueua enu-fo coecer
rukpockonueckue), fo ece kopposuouuoonacuue eeecfea coxpaunkfcn e uenocfu, e
pesynufafe ero cospaefcn naronpunfuan cpepa pnn ecnpennfcfeeuuoro eosuukuoeeuun u
paseufun kopposuu refanna.
Carur uenpunfuur nennefcn fo, fo sfu nonocfu ue noppakfcn eusyanuuory koufponk
(ouu e ckpufue!), u pesynufaf kopposuu nponennefcn ouuo cnuukor nospuo pnn foro,
fou rouo uno cnacfu nopaeuuyk acfu kysoea. Hreuuo nosfory ocoo eauo
npepoxpaunfu euyfpeuuue noeepxuocfu u ckpufue nonocfu of kopposuu.
nn saufu ckpufux nonocfe pekoreupyefcn ucnonusoeafu aefokoucepeauf noporoe
Moeunu. Ou onapaef xopouuru aufukopposuouuuru ceocfearu u, fo ueranoeauo,
npekpacuo npouukaef e enu u ceapuue ueu, pnn uero pae cno cyxo paeuuu ue
nennefcn npennfcfeuer. Moeunu onapaef enaroeufecunkuru ceocfearu, ou
opasyef ceefno-kopuueeyk eockonopouyk nneuky, ycfoueyk k fernepafypuur
koneauunr.
Ha CTO npu uaueceuuu aefokoucepeaufa e ckpufue u fpypuopocfynuue nonocfu
ucnonusykfcn ycfauoeku pnn eospyuuoro pacnuneuun aufukopposuouuoro cocfaea.
oropoeuuue kynuuuu yxufpnkfcn oxopufucn noppyuuru rafepuanaru: pnn
pacnuneuun aefokoucepeaufa e ckpufux nonocfnx ouu ucnonusykf capoeue
onpuckueafenu, cuaeuuue rukuru unauraru c pacnunnkuru uakoueuukaru.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
Cnepyef yufueafu, fo paneko ue ece pefanu, onapakue euyfpeuuuru nonocfnru,
urekf fexuonorueckue ofeepcfun, epes kofopue rouo uno u pacnunufu
aufukopposuouuu cocfae. B fakux cnyanx npuxopufcn ux ceepnufu. Sfu ofeepcfun
ponuu ufu fakoro puarefpa, fou epes uux ror npofu ypnuuufenu c pacnunufener.
Rocne foro kak opaofka nonocfu sakoueua, ofeepcfue sakpueaefcn npoko (rouo
ucnonusoeafu pae nonusfuneuoeue npoku of yfunok).
Hecrofpn ua fo fo nonocfu, fpeykue aufukopposuouuo opaofku, sakpufu unu
pocfyn k uur safpypueu, ece paeuo cnepyef noprofoeufu ux k uaueceuuk saufuoro
nokpufun. Ecnu poufucn upeanuuo ucfofu euyfpu nonocfu ueeosrouo, fo uyuo xofn
u oecneufu ofcyfcfeue enaru. Moeunu npekpacuo peuaef sfy sapay: ou npouukaef
ckeosu cyxyk paeuuy unu rpnsu, opuako rokpan nennefcn pnn uero uenpeoponurur
npennfcfeuer. Pesynufaf uaueceuun Moeunn ua enauyk noeepxuocfu okaefcn
kafacfpoqueckur: saufuan nneuka ypef sauafu noeepxuocfu of eucuxauun, fo ecfu
yckopnfu paseufue kopposuu.
Buyfpeuuue noeepxuocfu nonocfe nporueakfcn cfpye eopu, a rpnsu e uux paspuxnnefcn
epuukor unu kucfuk. nn sfo uenu nopopef ouuu nocypuu epuuk, kofopu
npekpacuo paspuxnnef u pae cuuraef rpnsu u cnocoeu npoxopufu e oeuu ueonuuue
fexuonorueckue ofeepcfun. Rporuean nonocfu eopo, cnepyef oecneufu ee cnue
(uanpurep, e noporax cuusy euuurakfcn npoku us ofeepcfu).
Rocne oucfku euyfpeuuux nonocfe ue cnepyef cpasy e npoeopufu aufukopposuouuyk
opaofky, nockonuky ouu ponuu kak cnepyef eucoxuyfu. Hyuo yufueafu, fo ceapuue
ueu u recfa coepuueuun pefane kysoea, opasykue ckpufue nonocfu, coxuyf oeuu
ponro. Hs-sa ofcyfcfeun uopranuuo eeufunnuuu caru ckpufue nonocfu coxuyf ee
ponuue. Rpouecc cyuku rouo yckopufu c norouk ufoeux peqnekfopoe, kanopuqepoe,
papuafopoe u pae ouuoro qeua.
RPHMEHAHHE
Rporuuneuuu qeu pnn cyuku ckpufux nonocfe uenusn ucnonusoeafu uu e koer cnyae:
kysoe ue poneu uarpeeafucn po fernepafypu euue 70 C, uuae npousopef
pacfpeckueauue u ecnyueauue nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
Ro saeepueuuu cyuku rouo npucfynafu k uaueceuuk Moeunn. nn sforo e nonocfu
ecfaennefcn epes fexuonorueckue ofeepcfun ruku ypnuuufenu (unaur) c pacnunnke
qopcyuko. Ypnuuufenu eeopufcn nooepepuo e kapyk cfopouy pefanu, a pacnuneuue
eknkaefcn fonuko forpa, korpa ypnuuufenu poxopuf po kouua nonocfu. 4opcyuka
npopeuraefcn eponu nonocfu, a ypnuuufenu eufackueaefcn fak, fou ua noeepxuocfu
opasoeanocu cnnouuoe nokpufue. 4aken pacnuneuun e puarefpe poneu cocfaennfu
150200 rr.
Ecnu Moeunu sarycfen, fo ero rouo paseecfu po ueoxopuro enskocfu yaf-cnupufor
unu eusuuor. onyckaefcn uauocufu Moeunu ua noeepxuocfu, nokpufue koucepeaufor
saeopa-usrofoeufenn.
RPHMEHAHHE
Ecnu Moeunu npu opaofke nonocfe nonan ua nakokpacouoe nokpufue kysoea, ero
cnepyef ypanufu eefouuk, croeuuo yaf-cnupufor. Mouo ucnonusoeafu fake
oucfufenu ufyruux nnfeu.
nn npepofepaeuun nonapauun Moeunn ua oueky canoua u cupeuun, a fake e ppyrue
recfa, rpe oucfka ypef safpypueua, cnepyef peroufupoeafu cupeuun u cunfu oueky
canoua u arauuka, nokpufue nona, onuuoeku noporoe u koepuku,
feprouyrousonnuuouuue uaknapku nona, oueky peepe u uyrousonnuuouuyk uaknapky
kanofa. Ropouu peroufa ue fonuko npepoxpauuf oueky u cupeuun of
fpypuoypanneroro sarpnsueuun, uo u oecneuf nerku pocfyn k ckpufur nonocfnr. Bce
pefanu, kofopue uenusn peroufupoeafu (k npurepy, pyneeoe koneco, npuopuyk nauenu u
f. p.), uyuo fafenuuo ykpufu nonusfuneuoeo nneuko, yraro unu fkauuk.
Roporu opaafueakfcn epes ofeepcfun e fopuax co cfopouu sapuux konec u epes
ofeepcfun eponu noporoe usuyfpu aeforounuuoro canoua.
Repepuue u cpepuue cfoku usuyfpu opaafueakfcn epes fexuonorueckue ofeepcfun u
okua e nucfoeux ycunufennx ua euyfpeuue cfopoue cfoek (pnn sforo ueoxopuro cunfu
pekopafueuyk oueky co cfoek), acfuuo epes ofeepcfun nop peepuue euknkafenu
nnaqoua euyfpeuuero oceeeuun canoua (pnn sforo cnepyef peroufupoeafu
euknkafenu).
3apuue cfoku kysoea u ycunufenu uapkonecuoro koyxa opaafueakfcn epes okoeue
npoeru usuyfpu arauuka, epes fexuonorueckue okua u ofeepcfun e nucfoeux
ycunufennx ua euyfpeuuux cfopouax cfoek (pnn sforo ueoxopuro cunfu pekopafueuyk
oueky co cfoek).
Repean u efopan nonepeuuu nona (ouu pacnonoeuu nop nepepuuru u sapuuru
cupeuunru) opaafueakfcn epes fexuonorueckue ofeepcfun. Ecnu e ux uef, fo fakue
ofeepcfun ueoxopuro npoceepnufu e eepxue acfu nonepeuu.
Ronepeuua paru opaafueaefcn epes ofeepcfue pnn nyckoeo pykonfku, npu sfor
pacnunufenu uanpaennefcn eneeo u enpaeo.
Opaofka nouepouuux par npouseopufcn epes ofkpufue sapuue fopuu.
Ronocfu, opasoeauuue nepepuuru ycunufennru nona, nonuocfuk uepocfynuu. -fou ux
opaofafu, ueoxopuro npoceepnufu fexuonorueckue ofeepcfun e uaknouuux acfnx
nona repy noporaru u nouepouaru paru.
Ycunufenu puua opaafueakfcn epes ofkpufue fopuu.
Buyfpeuunn noeepxuocfu nouepouoe nona nonuocfuk uepocfynua, nosfory pnn ee
opaofku ueoxopuro npoceepnufu fexuonorueckue ofeepcfun co cfopouu arauuka.
Ofeepcfun npoceepnueakfcn ua yacfkax nona, kofopue opasykf c nouepouaru ckpufue
nonocfu.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
-fou opaofafu ufu papuafopa u ruespa nok-qap, ueoxopuro cunfu onuuoeky
papuafopa.
Hapyuue u euyfpeuuue nauenu peepe opaafueakfcn epes okua ua euyfpeuuux
nauennx (pnn sforo uyuo cunfu oueky peepe). Kpore foro, nepep opaofko
ueoxopuro nonuocfuk nopunfu cfekna, uuae ouu ypyf ucnakauu aefokoucepeaufor.
Ycunufenu kanofa u kpuuka arauuka urekf ofeepcfun, epes kofopue ouu u
opaafueakfcn aefokoucepeaufor. Rocne foro kak ypyf npoeepeuu saucfka u ypaneuue
kopposuu ua euyfpeuue noeepxuocfu arauuka, uyuo opaofafu aefokouceeaufor
euyfpeuukk nonocfu epes ofeepcfun e ycunufene (puc. 2.13).


Puc. 2.13. Ofeepcfun e ycunufene kanofa

Koueuo, npu porauue-rapauor peroufe uenusn nonuocfuk saufufu ece ckpufue u
fpypuopocfynuue nonocfu, uo, fer ue reuee, u ou paef xopouu pesynufaf.
Ronocfu rouo opaafueafu ue fonuko pacnuneuuer, uo u uekofopuru cnocoaru,
kofopue pocfafouo npurufueuu. K npurepy, nonocfu peepe orasueakfcn
aefokoucepeaufor c norouk kucfu, noporu sanueakfcn aefokoucepeaufor, euyfpeuuue
noeepxuocfu opusrueakfcn aefokoucepeaufor c norouk epuuka, npuensauuoro k kouuy
pnuuuo npoeonoku rafepafur unu noponouoeur nuor. Fnaeuoe, fo pae fakue
npocfue refopuku oecneueakf saufy aeforounn of kopposuu, a saopuo u noseonnkf
cskouorufu ua nokpacouux paofax, eepu er reuuue kopposuu, fer pee fpeyefcn
eoccfauoeneuue u perouf nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
Aufukopposuouuan opaofka ckpufux u fpypuopocfynuux nonocfe npoeopufcn eecuo,
nefor unu oceuuk.
RPHMEHAHHE
Ternepafypa eospyxa npu npoeepeuuu aufukopposuouuo opaofku ponua ufu ue uue
15 C.
Opaofka noefopnefcn kapue opuu-pea ropa, e saeucurocfu of ycnoeu skcnnyafauuu.
Hanpurep, npu akfueuo skcnnyafauuu suro aufukopposuouuyk opaofky ckpufux
nonocfe cnepyef npoeopufu eeropuo.
-fou npepynpepufu eosuukuoeeuue oaroe kopposuu, a fake ee paseufue e ckpufux u
fpypuopocfynuux nonocfnx, kofopue ueeosrouo koufponupoeafu eusyanuuo, ueoxopuro
cnepufu sa ucfofo uuuux ofeepcfu e noporax u ene euusy (e recfax, rpe nepepuue
kpunun kpennfcn k okoeuue kysoea). -epes sfu ofeepcfun eufekaef eopa, nonapakan e
nonocfu sa rpnsesaufuuru ufkaru. Ecnu ofeepcfun saufu rpnsuk, fo eopa
ckannueaefcn euyfpu nonocfe, fo nennefcn npnro npepnocunko pnn paseufun
kopposuu.
Ah7hk0PP03h0hhAP kA70hAP 3Ah7A
Mefop kafopuo saufu noseonnef saufufu aeforounu of paeuuu es pasopku unu
ceepneuun kysoea. Rofpeneuue foka fako saufo cpaeuuro c nofpeneuuer foka
snekfporexauueckuru acaru e canoue aeforounn (a eepu sfu acu paofakf
nocfonuuo). 3aufa sqqekfueuo paofaef pae npu cunuuo paspneuuor akkyrynnfope.
Rpocfoe caropenuuoe ycfpocfeo noseonnef noppepueafu suaeuue nofeuuuana ua
enauux yacfkax noeepxuocfu kopnyca aeforounn ua ypoeue, kofopu ueoxopur pnn
nonuoro npekpaeuun npoueccoe kopposuu. Sfo eosrouo sa cef paspyueuun saufuux
snekfpopoe (auopoe). B kaecfee auopoe rouo ucnonusoeafu kak paspyuakuecn
rafepuanu (uepaeekyk cfanu, ankruuu), kofopue fpeykf sareuu epes 45 nef, fak
u cfokue rafepuanu (kapokcun, raruefuf, rpaquf). Auopu npepcfaennkf coo
npnroyronuuue unu kpyrnue nnacfuuu nnoapuk 49 cr
2
.
Rpu kafopuo nonnpusauuu refanny ueoxopuro cooufu fako ofpuuafenuuu
nofeuuuan, npu kofopor okucneuue cfauoeufcn fepropuuaruecku ranoeeponfuur. nn
enesa u ero cnnaeoe nonuan saufa of kopposuu pocfuraefcn npu 0,10,2 B. anuueuu
cpeur nofeuuuana uesuaufenuuo enunef ua cfeneuu saufu. Rnofuocfu foka ponua ufu
e npepenax 1030 rA/r
2
.
Kafopuan saufa aeforoune ureef ocoeuuocfu, censauuue c fer, fo y aeforounn
ecfu u ucfouuk foka, u opfoean cefu npoeopoe, u aufukopposuuoe nokpufue, ycuneuuoe
cneuuanuuuru cocfaearu.
Hauonee npocfan kafopuan saufa aeforounn cocfouf us refannueckux snekfpopoe,
nopknkaerux k nnkcy akkyrynnfopa. Rpaepa, npu sfor safpypunefcn koufponu
eosrouoro kopofkoro sarukauun snekfpopoe ua kysoe aeforounn u paofu ycfpocfea e
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
uenor. Hecnouu snekfpouuu nok, nofpennku of akkyrynnfopa ecero nuuu okono
2 rA, ycfpaunef sfof uepocfafok (puc. 2.14).
Ecnu opuu us saufuux snekfpopoe uauef sarukafu ua kopnyc aeforounn, fo
ceefopuopuu uupukafop HL1 noracuef.
RPHMEHAHHE
Repep fer kak uauuafu nouck u ycfpaueuue recfa sarukauun, ueoxopuro ofcoepuuufu
ucfouuk snekfponufauun.
Hupukafop HL1 pearupyef ua noeuueuuyk enauocfu kopnyca aeforounn cuueuuer
npkocfu ceeeuun. Opuu snekfpop oecneueaef kafopuyk coxpauuocfu 0,2
0,4 r
2
refannuecko noeepxuocfu.
Snekfpopu cnepyef ycfauaenueafu fonuko ua recfa, saueuuue nakokpacouur
nokpufuer. Ecnu ua nokpufuu urekfcn ckonu, rnyokue uapanuuu (po refanna) unu
ppyrue noepepeuun, fo cuaana ueoxopuro ux ycfpauufu, a nuuu safer ycfauaenueafu
snekfpopu.


Puc. 2.14. Cxera snekfpouuoro noka kafopuo saufu aeforounn
RPHMEHAHHE
Snekfpopu sakpennnkfcn ua noeepxuocfu snokcupuur kneer unu unafneeko ua ero
ocuoee. Hapyuan cfopoua snekfpopoe ponua ocfaeafucn ceoopuo of snekfpousonnuuu.
Snekfpouuu nok roef pacnonarafucn e nkor recfe aeforounn. Ou npucoepuunefcn
k opfoeo cefu fak, fou ocfaeafucn nocfonuuo eknkeuuur, kpore aeapuuux
cufyauu, korpa ero fpeyefcn cpouo oecfoufu. Rosfory ue cnepyef pasreafu nok e
fpypuopocfynuux recfax, rpe cpouoe oecfoueauue roef cfafu fpypoerkur u ponrur
npoueccor. Ha puc. 2.15 eu eupufe npnroyronuuu u kpyrnu snekfpopu, a fake
npuuuunuanuuyk snekfpueckyk cxery noka pnn aufukopposuuo kafopuo saufu
fexuuku.


Puc. 2.15. Rpnroyronuuu u kpyrnu snekfpopu, a fake npuuuunuanuuan snekfpueckan
cxera noka pnn aufukopposuuo kafopuo saufu fexuuku
Pecaspaouua nokpacka asouo6n
-er cfapue cfauoeufcn aeforounecfpoeuue, fer ae ua aefocepeucu nocfynakf ue
npocfo cfapue aeforounu, a oeuu cfapue, uacfonue papufefu. Ecfecfeeuuo, perouf
papufefa sfo ue npocfo perouf, ero rouo cpaeuufu nuuu c eoccfauoeneuuer
aufukeapuafa, c pecfaepauue. B ceok oepepu pecfaepauun npepnonaraef, fo
aeforounu nocne peroufuux paof ypef eurnnpefu fak, cnoeuo fonuko fo couen c
saeopckoro koueeepa: es ernfuu, nnfeu, pup, npoepeuuux kopposue, u ceepkaku
ceeur nakor.
Paofu no eoccfauoeneuuk kysoea, eunpaeneuuk ernfuu u usaeneuuk of kopposuu
npoeopnfcn fak e, kak u ua ouuor aeforoune, ureker auanoruuue noepepeuun.
Ocooro euurauun fpeykf nokpacouue paofu, fak kak ouuo aeforounu,
uypakuecn e pecfaepauuu, urekf onuuyk nnoapu noepepeuu noeepxuocfu kysoea.
-fou pecfaepauun una ycneuuo u aeforounu nocne ecex peroufuux paof eurnnpen
kak uoeeuuku, ueoxopura fafenuuan noprofoeka k nokpacke. Sfo noseonuf useafu
ernfuu, pakoeuu u uesanonueuuux unafneeko recf. pyruru cnoearu, kysoe poneu ufu
rakcuranuuo poeuur u rnapkur.
Koueuo, kak u uu unu fafenuuu paofu no ecfnuke, ouu ue cnocouu cpenafu
kysoe poeuur u rnapkur, nockonuky poufucn sforo rouo fonuko c norouk unafneeku.
Ecnu ua kysoee urekfcn ue po kouua eunpaeneuuue ernfuuu onuuo nnoapu (a sfo
acfo ecfpeaefcn npu pecfaepauuu), fo ux nyue ecero sapenueafu unafneeko c
poaeneuuer cfeknoeonokua (fak uasueaero eonocafo unafneeko). Oua noseonnef
nyue ecero sapenafu nopouue ernfuuu, fak kak cfeknoeonokuo urpaef ponu aprafypu
(nopouo fory, kak refannueckuru npyfaru aprupykf efou pnn npupauun ery onuue
npouocfu). Lnafneeka creuueaefcn c ofeeppufener u uaknapueaefcn fakur opasor,
fou oua ocfaeanacu euyfpu ernfuuu. Rocne foro kak eonocafan unafneeka
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
safeeppeef, uyuo uanoufu ceepxy cno renkopucnepcuo unafneeku, ue copepae
cfeknoeonokua.
anee cnepyef caran cnouan npouepypa euukypueauue epyuyk. nn sfo onepauuu
nyue ecero ucnonusoeafu pnuuuu ysku ofpesok unuqoeanuuo ukypku, sakpenneuuu
ua pepeenuuor pycke unu pyauke (e uapope fakoe npucnoconeuue uasueaefcn
unuqkor), u ukypky P60. Cnepyef suafu, fo opuur euukypueauuer ue oofucu: nocne
nepeoro euukypa ocfakfcn u ernfuuu, u pakoeuuu, u uesanonueuuue unafneeko recfa,
fo ecfu ece fo, of ero ueoxopuro usaeufucn, fou pocfuruyfu uyuoro pesynufafa
nonuo pecfaepauuu aeforounn. Rosfory kapu pas uauocufcn renkopucnepcuan
unafneeka u euoeu noefopnefcn npouepypa euukypueauun. Rocne kaporo
euukypueauun noeepxuocfu kysoea cnepyef ouafu of nunu opyeor u oesupueafu c
norouk pacfeopufenn. Rpouecc pnufcn po fex nop, noka noeepxuocfu kysoea ua oynu ue
cfauef rnapko.
Rockonuky soua peroufa ua pecfaepupyerux aeforounnx onuuan, fo npu quuuuuor
unafneeauuu uyuo nponennfu noeepxuocfu. enaefcn sfo npocfo: ua nocnepuue cnou
unafneeku pacnunnefcn oeuu fouku cno uufpokpacku. Rpu euukypueauuu e fex recfax,
rpe ecfu eunyknocfu, kpacka cuuraefcn e nepeyk oepepu, a eo ernfuuax, ecfecfeeuuo,
ocfaefcn. Rpouecc uasueaefcn nponeko, nofory fo fak e, kak u nponeka nneuku,
uarnnpuo nokasueaef ece peqekfu noeepxuocfu. Cpasy eupuo, rpe cnepyef ee
opaofafu kysoe unafneeko.
Hfak, noeepxuocfu ua oynu poeuan u rnapkan. Ho ecnu cpyfu c uee unafneeouyk nunu
ocoo fafenuuo, fo recfaru nonenfcn nopu e unafneeke ueonuuue nrku u pupoku
pasrepor reuuue runnurefpa nnnu unafneeku u cnepu of ukypku P60. -fou of uux
usaeufucn, uyuo opaofafu kysoe oeuu foukur cnoer renkopucnepcuo unafneeku. B
pauuor cnyae nonusoeafucn unuqkor u ukypko P60 ye ue uyuo, fak kak ua
noeepxuocfu euoeu nonenfcn cnepu of ukypku, eueepeuuue c fakur fpypor. Cnepyef
eocnonusoeafucn unuqrauuuko u ukypko P80-P120. Torpa noeepxuocfu ypef urefu
uernyokue cnepu of ukypku, a nopu u eoece ucesuyf.
4akfuecku noprofoeka k nokpacke ee ue uaafa. Rpopenauuue onepauuu nennkfcn
okouauuer kysoeuux paof. -fou noprofoeufu kysoe aeforounn k nokpacke, uyuo
sarafoeafu ero. Sfo ueoxopuro, nockonuky apresun kpacku k rnnuueeo noeepxuocfu
ruuuranuua, fo ecfu, nonpocfy roeopn, kpacka k ue ue npununaef. Bnocnepcfeuu
eosrouo ofuenyuueauue kpacku, espyeauue nysupe, a cnepoeafenuuo, u kopposun
kysoea. Mafoeauue ocyecfennefcn c norouk unuqrauuuku c kpyror P400.
Xapakfepuan pnn uero sepuucfocfu uacfonuko renkan, fo ocfaennef uesuaufenuuue
cnepu, kofopue e panuueuer sanonunkfcn kpacko u nocne nokpacku coeepueuuo ue
eupuu.
Rocne rafoeauun ueoxopuro usonupoeafu (sakneufu) ece recfa, kypa rpyuf nonacfu ue
poneu. nn sforo rouo ucnonusoeafu rasefu, nonusfuneuoeyk nneuky, cfapue
nokpueana, fo ecfu ece, fo nonapefcn nop pyky u cnocouo uapeuo sakpufu noeepxuocfu.
Bce sfu cpepcfea sakpennnefcn ua kysoee c norouk rannpuoro ckofa.
3afer cnepyef rpyufoeka. 3pecu ueoxopuro ofrefufu ueonuuo, uo cyecfeeuuu
ukauc: ecnu rpyufyefcn ue ecn pefanu, fo rpauuuy rpyufoeauun nyue npoeopufu no
eunyknory recfy, a ue no nnockocfu fak nere ypef yuufoufu pyuk, ocfaeneuuu
rpauuue rpyufa. Ho ouuo npu pecfaepauuu rpyufyefcn 100 % noeepxuocfu kysoea,
nockonuky fakur opasor nukeupupykfcn ece uapanuuku u ckonu, u, ecfecfeeuuo,
ynyuaefcn apresun (npununauue) kpacku k noeepxuocfu.
nn rpyufoeauun ypouo ucnonusoeafu nucfonef c connor 1,8 rr u peyxkornoueufuu
rpyuf. -fou nokpacka una uauonee kaecfeeuuo, ueoxopuro uanoufu ueckonuko
cnoee rpyufa. K cnepykery sfany paof uenusn npucfynafu, noka rpyuf ue eucoxuef.
Ouuo pocfafouo, ecnu aeforounu npocfouf e fennor rapae (npu fernepafype ue
uue 15 C) okono cyfok.
Rocne npocyuku rpyuf uyuo euukypueafu nopouo unafneeke. Ecnu eu xofufe, fou
kaecfeo nokpacku uno rakcuranuuo npunueuuur k npoqeccuouanuuo nokpacke e
karepe, fo fe recfa, rpe nop rpyufor uaxopufcn cno unafneeku, uyuo nporpefu
ranoreuoeuru narnaru. Rporpee e feeuue 10 ruu cnococfeyef ycapke rpyufa u
unafneeku e pesynufafe ouu ynnofunkfcn, npuuurakf ceo okouafenuuu oLer,
enocnepcfeuu nop cnoer kpacku ue ypef peueuu, cnococfeykux pacfpeckueauuk
nakokpacouoro nokpufun.
Buukypueaefcn rpyuf c norouk unuqrauuuku c kpyror P280 unu nnockur unuqkor co
ukypko P240. Buukypueauue npoeopufcn po fex nop, noka ue ucesuef nponeouu cno
uufpokpacku. Rocne sforo euukypueauun noeepxuocfu ue upeanuuo rnapkan, uo renkue
uepoeuocfu yuufoeuu. -fou nukeupupoeafu cnepu rpyux ukypok, uyuo uauecfu ua
noeepxuocfu nponeouu cno uufpokpacku (npepeapufenuuo fafenuuo cpye c
aeforounn nunu) u euukypueafu po yuufoeuun sfo nponeku unuqrauuuko c
apasueuur kpyror P400.
3afer cnepyef fafenuuo oucfufu aeforounu of nunu, oesupufu noeepxuocfu yaf-
cnupufor u sakpufu ece, fo ue ponuo ufu nokpaueuo. Ha sfor noprofoeka k nokpacke
sakauueaefcn.
Aeforounu rapku Tpaauf eoccfauaenueancn npakfuecku us refannonora. nn ero
pecfaepauuu c kysoea unu cunfu ece pefanu u arperafu, nockonuky ece ouu reuanu
pecfaepauuouuur paofar.
Rokpacka aeforoune-papufefoe, aufukeapuux uspauu pepko fpeyef kpacku fonuko
opuoro ueefa. Ouuo fakue aeforounu usuaanuuo unu eukpaueuu e pea, a fo u e fpu
ueefa. Ecfecfeeuuo, npu pecfaepauuouuux paofax eoccfauaenueaefcn u ux
nepeouaanuuan ueefoean rarra (uuae kakan e sfo pecfaepauun?).
Muoro aeforounuuo kpacku yfekno c fex nop, korpa Feupu 4opp, roeopn npo suareuufu
Ford-T, saneun, fo knueuf roef sakasafu nko ueef kysoea aeforounn c yefor foro,
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
fo kysoe ypef epuur. Maneuuku epuu aeforounu Feupu 4oppa nennefcn knaccuko
aeforounecfpoeuun, opuako nonynnpuocfu aeforounuuux rouok npueena k fory, fo
rauuuu uaanu okpauueafu e ueckonuko ueefoe, npuer saacfyk euupanucu uauonee
npkue ueefa. Eeponeckue aeforouku 30-x ropoe c yacfuer suareuufux rapok
aeforoune nop ynpaeneuuer eenukux nunofoe snoxu cfauoeneuun knaccueckoro
aeforounecfpoeuun npueenu k fory, fo nokpacka aeforoune e ueckonuko ueefoe
npuunna auofauu xapakfep.
Muoroueefuan nokpacka asupyefcn ua scfefuecko cocfaennke eueuuero eupa
rauuuu. Cfapue aeforounu onapakf ucfuuuo ckynunfypuuru qopraru, fo
nopepkueaefcn ruoroueefuo nokpacko.
Rocne efopo rupoeo eouu eosuuk uoeu urnynuc ruoroueefuo nokpacku
aeforoune. Mup un cep u paspyueu eouo, a nkpnr xofenocu kpacueux eee u
npkux kpacok nocne saufuux u fycknux ueefoe eouu. Rofory aeforounu okpauueanucu
e ueckonuko ueefoe, ofeean ua nofpeuocfu e kpacouocfu u kpacofe.
Hauonee npkur npepcfaeufener fo snoxu knaccueckux aeforoune nennefcn Bonra
FA3-21. Oua usuaanuuo sapyrueanacu pusaueparu (forpa ux uasueanu koucfpykfoparu)
ureuuo e peyxueefuo okpacke kysoea, fo nopepkueano usnecfeo ckynunfypuux qopr
kysoea, ycfperneuuoro enepep. Okpacka e pea ueefa noppepueana u nopepkueana
cfperufenuuocfu qopru aeforounn, a fake peeus aeforounecfpoeuun fex nef:
ckopocfu u korqopf nnkc kpacofa.
Ha puc. 2.16 eu eupufe aeforounu Bonra FA3-21, kofopu nonuocfuk ofpecfaepupoeau
u noprofoeneu k nokpacke (ypef okpauueafucn e pea ueefa). Rpu pecfaepauuouuux
paofax uap kysoeor Bonra una ooppaua npakfuecku po ronoro enesa.


Puc. 2.16. Sfa Bonra FA3-21 ofpecfaepupoeaua u noprofoeneua k nokpacke

H ceac nkufenu scfefuku u npkux ueefoe okpauueakf ceou aeforounu e pea, a fo u
onee ueefoe. Haxopnfcn u fakue aefoenapenuuu, kofopue npeepaakf ceo aeforounu
e uacfonu ueefuuk.
COBET
Repeouaanuuo kysoe aeforounn nonuocfuk okpauueaefcn e asoeu ueef caru
ceefnu, panee upef okpacka fer ueefor, kofopu feruee, u e kouue carur feruur
(ecnu okpacka e onee er pea ueefa). Rpu okpacke e pea ueefa eecu kysoe cuaana
okpauueaefcn onee ceefno kpacko, a safer uaknapueaefcn onee feruan.
Ceac aeforounu okpauueakf nuo refannukor, nuo uerefannukor. Rokpacka
uerefannukor sfo fo e caroe, fo uaueceuue naka. Rosfory paccrofpur fexuonoruk
okpacku kysoea aeforounn refannukor c nocnepykur nakupoeauuer noeepxuocfu.
Easa rofoeufcn e coofeefcfeuu c uucfpykuue (cr. ua ynakoeke). Kak npaeuno, sfo
poaeneuue e asy 50 %-ro qupreuuoro pacfeopufenn, fo ecfu foro, kofopu nocfaennefcn
erecfe c kpacko unu pekoreupyefcn qupro-usrofoeufener e uucfpykuuu. oaennfu
pacfeopufenu, kofopu ue pekoreupyefcn, uenusn, fak kak ecfu eeponfuocfu foro, fo
nonyufcn okpacka nop sepy (e ueufpe qakena kpackonynufa u no kpanr sepua kpacku
ypyf paseepuyfu e pasuue cfopouu).
Roprofoeneuuan asa sanueaefcn epes qunufp e kpackonynuf. 4unufpoeka onsafenuua,
fak kak e kpacke ecerpa ecfu nocfopouuue npurecu.
Kpacufu aeforounu uyuo fonuko e rannpckor koruuesoue, nockonuky c ouuo
opepu renkue eopcuuku nefnf ua okpauueaeryk noeepxuocfu. nn saufu oprauoe
puxauun of renuauux acfuu pacnunnero kpacku u naka onsafenuuo uyuo uapeeafu
pecnupafop (puc. 2.17).
Repep fer kak npucfynufu k rannpuur paofar, cnepyef oesupufu eecu kysoe
aeforounn u cpyfu c uero nunu. nn sforo napouu uyuo nonufu pacfeopufener u cunfu
ek c noeepxuocfu kysoea ocfafku nunu, opuoepereuuo nunu ypannefcn npopyeouur
nucfonefor. 3afer npouepypa noefopnefcn, uo ye c norouk nunko canqefku.
Easa uauocufcn c paccfonuun okono 20 cr c paeneuuer ua exope e kpackonynuf 11,5
afrocqepu (usrepnefcn fonuko npu uaafor kypke). Repekpufue repy nonocaru
uaueceuun ponuo cocfaennfu okono 30 % (nocnepykan nonoca nepekpueaef
npepupyyk npurepuo ua fpefu). Cnou kpacku nennkfcn nonyrokpuru. pyruru
cnoearu, fonuko fo nonoeuuan asa ue necfuf nakoeo, uo u ue noufcn cyxo, kak nunu,
a nennef coo uefo cpepuee repy sfuru kpauuru cocfonuunru.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )


Puc. 2.17. Rokpacouue paofu npoeopnfcn e rannpckor koruuesoue u pecnupafope

Hauocufcn 34 cnon kpacku c uufepeanaru 7-10 ruu, fou kpacka eucoxna. Hekofopue
foua ranoykpueucfu (uanpurep, fako ue cnuukor npunfuo ocoeuuocfuk
xapakfepusyefcn oppoeu ueef) u fpeykf ue 34, a 57 cnoee.
-epes 15 ruu nocne uaueceuun nocnepuero cnon kysoe uyuo npofepefu nunko canqefko
pnn ypaneuun nunu. Hfak, asa uaueceua. Ocfanocu uauecfu nak.
Pak paseopufcn e coofeefcfeuu c uucfpykuue ua ynakoeke. B npofueuor cnyae pesynufaf
ypef ucknkufenuuo ua eaue coeecfu, u ouuo ou ue eecura npuenekafeneu.
aeneuue ua exope e kpackonynuf npu uaafor kypke ponuo cocfaennfu 2,53,5
afrocqepu. Rpu reuuuer paeneuuu nonyaefcn ysku qaken, a kanenuku naka kpynuue, e
pesynufafe ero eosuukakf nofeku. Rpu eucokor paeneuuu ruoro naka pacnunnefcn ue ua
kysoe, a e afrocqepy, safo cunuuan cfpyn eospyxa safnrueaef e cen nuuukk nunu, u
kysoe nokpueaefcn crecuk naka u nunu.
Pak uauocufcn c paccfonuun okono 2025 cr c nepekpufuer okono 50 %.
Rocnepoeafenuuocfu uaueceuun naka ua kysoe cnepykan: cuaana nokpueaefcn kpuua,
safer kanof, eepfukanuuo pacnonoeuuue pefanu, uauuan of nepepuero kpuna (ueeauo
npaeoro unu neeoro), nofor e oxop eokpyr aeforounn. Kak npaeuno, xeafaef peyx
cnoee naka.
Ha sfor pecfaepauuouuyk nokpacky rouo cufafu sakoueuuo: aeforounu eurnnpuf kak
uoeeuuku.
Heps 6eionacuoc np nokpacouusx pa6oax
Ecnu e npouecce nokpacku ua oueky canoua nonanu nakokpacouue rafepuanu, fo ux
nyue ypannfu cpasy, ue paean eucoxuyfu. nn sforo nnfuo kpacku cuaana eufupaefcn
ucfo cyxo eefouuk, a safer ocfaeuuecn cnepu ypannkfcn pacfeopufener.
Rpu npoeepeuuu nokpacouux paof nakokpacouue rafepuanu ueuseuo nonapakf ua
ofkpufyk koy (uanpurep, pyku conpukacakfcn c kpackaru u pacfeopufennru, kpacka
roef nonacfu ua nuuo u f. p.). nn npepoxpaueuun kou pyk of nonapauun ua uux
nakokpacouux eeecfe pekoreupyefcn nonusoeafucn saufuuru nacfaru, kofopue nocne
okouauun paof nerko crueakfcn eopo. Cneuuanucfu coeefykf pnn saufu pyk npu
paofe c pacfeopufennru u nakokpacouuru rafepuanaru nonusoeafucn nacfo
uonorueckue nepafku cnepykero cocfaea (e npoueufuor coofuoueuuu no racce)[5]:
+ kaseuu 13 %;
+ 25 %- pacfeop arruaka 2 %;
+ rnuuepuu 13 %;
+ cnupf sfunoeu (96 %-) 36 %;
+ eopa pucfunnupoeauuan 36 %.
nn usrofoeneuun nacfu pasrenueuuu u npocenuuu kaseuu uyuo sanufu xonopuo
eopo u eupepafu e feeuue cyfok. 3afer uayxuyk crecu cnepyef esufu pepeenuuur
unafener, nocfeneuuo poaennn e uee npu nocfonuuor nepereuueauuu cuaana
rnuuepuu, a safer pacfeop arruaka u cnupf. Repep ucnonusoeauuer nacfy pekoreupyefcn
nepereuafu.
Rocne uaueceuun ua kucfu pyk nacfa uonorueckue nepafku eucuxaef sa 3040 c,
opasyn foukyk saufuyk nneuky, ycfoueyk k oprauueckur pacfeopufennr, uo nerko
ypanneryk fenno eopo c runor.
Ronaeuue ua koy nakokpacouue rafepuanu rouo cunfu cneuuanuuuru cocfaearu.
Ecnu e fakux cocfaeoe pnn oucfku kou of nakokpacouux rafepuanoe nop pyko uef, fo
uyuo cuaana ofepefu pyku rnrko cyxo eefouuk, safer croufu eefouu ueonuuur
konuecfeor pacfeopufenn u npofepefu sarpnsueuuu yacfok kou. Rocne opaofku
kou pacfeopufener koy ueoxopuro eurufu fenno eopo c runor u crasafu kperor.
Pekoreupyefcn ucnonusoeafu cnepykue uaureuee fokcuuue pacfeopufenu: yaf-
cnupuf, ckunupap, sfunoeu cnupf u auefou. Rpureunfu pnn oucfku kou euson u ppyrue
fokcuuue pacfeopufenu kaferopuecku uenusn.
Ecnu e u nopxopnero pacfeopufenn nop pyko ue okasanocu, fo ypanufu c kou racna,
cay, paeuuy u uuue uepacfeopurue e eope coepuueuun rouo pae nkur cpepcfeor
pnn rufun nocypu.
Rpu npoeepeuuu nokpacouux paof cnepyef conkpafu npaeuna fexuuku esonacuocfu.
Ompeakmupoean : PRESSI ( HERSON )
COBET
B nakokpacouux rafepuanax acfo ucnonusykfcn fokcuuue u epepuue eeecfea,
nosfory noreeuue, e kofopor npoeopnfcn nokpacouue paofu, ponuo urefu xopouyk
eeufunnuuk (ecfecfeeuuyk unu npuuypufenuuyk). Ecnu nokpacka npoeopufcn e rapae, fo
ero peepu onsafenuuo cnepyef pepafu ofkpufuru.
Oprauu puxauun sauafe pecnupafopor. He skouorufe ua saufe!
Rokpacouue paofu uyuo npoeopufu e qopre u pecnupafope.
Ho onuuuucfeo oprauueckux pacfeopufene ue fonuko fokcuuu ux napu opasykf c
eospyxor espueoonacuue crecu, kofopue cnocouu saropafucn unu espueafucn nop
eospecfeuer ucfouuka eocnnareueuun. Rosfory noreeuun, e kofopux npoeopnfcn
nokpacouue paofu, ofuocnfcn k knaccy espueo-u noapoonacuux kaferopuu A, u ux
ueoxopuro oecneueafu nepeuuuru cpepcfearu noapofyueuun e coofeefcfeuu c
noapuuru uopraru u npaeunaru:
+ ecnu nnoapu noreeuun, e kofopor npouseopufcn nokpacka, ue onee 50 r
2
(ouuo
ureuuo fakyk nnoapu ureef rapa), fo noreeuue cnepyef oopypoeafu opuur
yrnekucnofuur oruefyuufener, peyrn neuuuru xurueckuru oruefyuufennru, nukor c
neckor erkocfuk ue reuee 0,5 r
2
, nonafo, eonokor, kouro unu acecfoeur opennor
pasrepor 1,51,5 r;
+ pacfeopufenu uyuo xpauufu e refannueckux unu cfeknnuuux erkocfnx c nnofuo
sakpueakurucn npokaru;
+ sanpeaefcn xpauufu pnpor pacfeopufenu u akkyrynnfopuyk kucnofy, fak kak sfo roef
npueecfu k eocnnareueuuk pacfeopufene;
+ npu paofe c pacfeopufennru sanpeaefcn npureunfu ofkpufu orouu u ucnonusoeafu
npuopu c ofkpufur oorpeeor;
+ e noreeuuu, rpe npoeopnfcn nokpacouue paofu, ece snekfpopeurafenu u
oceefufenuuue npuopu ponuu ufu usrofoeneuu c oecneeuuer npaeun
espueoesonacuocfu;
+ fapy us-nop kpacku u cfeuu, sarpnsueuuue kpacko, cnepyef ouafu uucfpyreufaru, ue
pakuru uckpeuun (repuuru unu ankruuueeuru ckpekaru u efkaru);
+ eo useauue uenpouseonuuoro eosropauun eefouu, nponufauuyk nakokpacouuru
rafepuanaru, no okouauuu paofu ueoxopuro ypafu.
Ron noreeuun, e kofopor npoeopufcn nokpacka, pnn onereuun oucfku ero nocne
eunonueuun paof pekoreupyefcn nokpueafu cnepykur cocfaeor (e npoueufuor
coofuoueuuu no racce):
+ fanuk 19 %;
+ uupycfpuanuuoe racno 15 %;
+ upkoe cfekno 66 %.