Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 313

..

2.

-


,


2010

53(076.5)
22.3 73
18
:
.-. , ..
( );
. , , -. ..
( )

18

, ..

. . 2: : . /
.. . : - . . . -,
2010. 313 .
ISBN 978-5-398-00-388-8
: , ,
( , ).
,
-
.

53(076.5)
22.3 73

ISBN 978-5-398-00-388-8

, 2010
2


1. ................................................................... 4
1.1. .
...................................................................................... 4
1.2. ............................................................ 26
1.3. . ........ 47
1.4. .......................... 74
1.5. .............................................................. 100
1.6. ..................................... 117
2. .............................................................. 140
2.1. ..................................................................... 140
2.2. . ...................... 163
3. ........................................................................... 178
3.1. ........................................ 178
3.2. .............................................. 206
3.3. . ...... 226
4. .................. 249
4.1. ...................................... 249
4.2. ........................................... 270
4.3.
.................................................................................... 291
................................................................. 312

1.
1.1. .

, q1 q2 , r , :

F =k

q1q2
r2

F ,
; k ,

k=

1
= 9 109 / ,
4 0

12

8,85 10 / ( ).

, - r ,

1 q r
E=
.
4 0 r 2 r
,
, .

Edl = 0 .
L

, , , 4

, .

, , , .
( = dq / dV ) , ( = dq / dS )

( = dq / dx ) . ,
,
1 rdV
E=
r3 ,
40
, .


(, ). ,
E
E . , ,
, , (., ,
1*, . 1.2).
1.1.1. .
Q R ,
m q ?
*

.. . . 1: . : . .
: - . . . -, 2008. 248 .

,
, ,
. . 1.1
,
q (
C ). . 1.1
,
Cq X .

N x Fkx , mg + N = Fk ,
(1)
N x X , N x N ;
Fkx
Fk X , Fkx Fk = Fk / 2 . -

(1) N Fk / 2 .
N > Fk / 2 .
(1)
mg + Fk / 2 Fk Fk 2mg ,

Fk = qQ /16 0 R 2 .
Q

320 mgR 2
.
q
1.1.2. . , , , Q=

.
,
. T
d . ,
. l d .

q1 ,
q2 .
. 1.2
. 1.2 ( ). q2 ( 1) , .
( ):

Fk
Fk =

l
sin = I ,
2

(1)

q1q2
qq
1 2 2 ; I 2
4 0 r
4 0 d

. (1)
+

q1q2l
= 0.
8 0 d 2 I

T = 4d

2I
.
q1q2l

1.1.3. . , Q .
, ,
10 .
? ,
,
10 ?
,
. ,
, , .
, .

,
.

, . -
.
,
. , ,
.
, ,
. , - .
.

,

:

[ Fk ] Q 2 / R 2 .
Q ( ), R ,
. ,
10 (
10 ) 10 .
10 ( ) 100 . , , -,
, -, , ,

( !).
1.1.4. . R q
q0 . , ?
1.1.3 , , ,
.

.
, , , .
. 1.3, : T , Fk .
. 1.3, ,

q0 ,
Fk , T .

Fk

Fk + Fk
T

T + T

T + T

q0

. 1.3

T = Fk ,
(1)

(T + T ) = Fk + Fk .

(2)

Fk :
Fk =

q0 q
,
4 0 R 2

(3)

q ,

q / 2 . (1)(3)
T =

q0 q
.
8 2 0 R 2

1.1.5. . p . -

r
( ).

l , l

10

,
.
+ q q , l
. , , ..
l .

()
.
E+
E
,

E

r+
r
l : p = ql (. 1.4).
r

E +q
q
l
:

E = E+ + E ,

. 1.4

E+ E , .
:
E+ = k

q
q
r , E = k 3 r .
3 +
r+
r


E+ E .
1
.
(1)
k=
4 0

11

,
r
r
E = kq +3 3 .
(2)
r
r+

p r ,
(. . 1.4). r+ r

l
l
r+ r cos , r r + cos .
(3)
2
2
(3) (2),

r+
r

E kq

3
3

l
l

r cos r + cos
2
2



3l
kq

cos .
(4)
r r ) + ( r+ + r )
3 ( +
2r
r


1
1 x x 1 . , . 1.4
(1 + x)3 1 + 3 x,
1+ x

r+ r = l , r+ + r 2r .

(4)

kql 3kr
+ 4 ql cos .
r3
r
p = ql 3k ( pr )r
,

r5
E=

12

3k ( pr )r kp
3 .
(5)
r5
r
, E
:
E=

E = El + Er ,

El , Er
,
.
.
E .

E 2 = El 2 + Er 2 2 Er El cos =
9 p2

p2
p2
= k 2 6 cos 2 + 6 6 6 cos 2 ,
r
r
r

E=

kp
1 + 3cos 2 ,
3
r

(6)

k (1).
1.1.6. .
F q0
r , p (. 1.5).
.
q0
q
+q

r
l

,
. 1.5

. ,
( ).
13

(. 1.1.5),
= 0,
kq p
F = q0 E = 2 03 .
r

1
1
,
F = kqq0

2
2

l
l

r
r + 2
2

r .
1
1
1
l
l 2l

2 1 + 1 + = 3 .
2
2
r r
r r
l
l

r
r +
2
2

kq p
2l
F = kqq0 3 = 2 03 .
r
r
1.1.7. .
?
:
-

, E
, ?

(. 1.6), , , , ,
14

A B .
, 1.1.5:
3( pr )r
p
E=

.
(1)
5
4 0 r
4 0 r 3
E

, ..
p ,
q
Ep = 0 .

(1) p
.
3 ( pr )

A
r

+q

R
E
B

. 1.6
p2
.
r5
r3
pr

3cos 2 = 1 cos = 1/ 3 .
, .

,
-,
,

cos = 1/ 3 ,

(2)

,
.
15

.
R = r sin ,

mv 2
= QE ,
R

(3)

Q ; m ; E (6) 1.1.5
E=

p
1 + 3cos 2 .
3
4 0 r

(2)
E=

p
2,
4 0 r 3

(4)


R = r 2/3 .

(5)

(4) (5) (3)


v2 =

pQ
2
pQ
=
,
2
40 mr 3 6 30 mh 2

h , .
1.1.8. . F , l , p1 p2
(. 1.7).

+
p1 p1
l
p2
,
p2 .
. 1.7

16

, ,
F = q2 ( E+ E ) ,

(1)

q2 ; E+ E
, , ,

. E+ E E , l2 , .
E+ E

E
l2 .
l

(2)

(1) (2) , p ,
:
E
.
F=p
l
.
. E (6)
1.1.5 = 0 :
E=

2kp1
.
l3

E 6kp1
= 4 .
l
l

(1)(3),
F=

6kp1 p2
.
l4

17

(3)

,
, . , . (: f = 3kp1 p2 / l 4 )
1.1.9. . q ,

+
l
l , . 1.8.
q
A , l
r
A r l
O
O ,

+
OA . 1.8
.
, . ,
.
, , ,
r l . . 1.9
E = 2 E cos ,

l
l
q
cos =
, E = E+ = k 2 .
2
2
r
2 r + l / 4 2r
,
+q
kp kql
E = 3 = 3 .

r
r
r
l
E+

, E
q
E

(6)
. 1.9
1.1.5 = / 2 .

18

, , ,
l
. 1.1.8,
E
3kql 2
E =
l= 4 .
r
r
:
1/ r 2 , 1/ r 3 , 1/ r 4 .
1.1.10. .
l p .
, p , .

,
, , . ,
? .
, , :
p = 0 E ,
(1)
, .
,
1.1.8:
F=

6kp1 p2
.
l4

19

p1 = p , p2
(1), E , (. (6) 1.1.5
= 0 ),
2kp
E= 3 .
l

F=

12k 20 p 2
3p 2
.
=
4 2 0 l 7
l7

1.1.11. .
R
.
.
, , ,

p = 0 E , .

E
,
x
E / x (. 1.1.8).
,
F=p

1
E 2 ( x)
,
F ( x) = 0
x
2

(1)

E ( x) .
. .

20

E = dE ,

dq

dE

r
R

dE ,


(. 1.10),
dE =

1 dq
cos
4 0 r 2

dE

dE

dE

. 1.10

(2)

( dE ).
(2),
E ( x) =

q
x
40 R 2 + x 2

3/ 2

(1) , , , x :

(
(

2
2
q 2 x R 2 x
F ( x) =
.
162 0 R 2 + x 2 4

, . 1.11.
x1 = 0, 29 R,
F(x)
x2 = R / 2, x3 = 1,1R .

0 x < x2
,
x > x2 .

x = 0
( -

x3
x1

x2
. 1.11

21

x2 ), ,
. x2 = R / 2 .
1.1.12. .
, ,
- .

.
,
, , E = / 4 0 , ,

. .

S (. 1.12).
r , , S
, . , ,
E =

1 dq
1 S
=
,
2
4 0 r
4 0 r 2


E =

1 S
cos .
4 0 r 2

(S cos ) / r 2
,
S
. ,
22

E =

.
4 0

( ),

.
(1)
E =
4 0
E E
E
r

S
. 1.12

. ,
, ,
.
. ,
S , , . , ( ),
2

E=
.
2 0
23

! ,
.
, (1)
.
1.
, 1 , 2 .
,
(1), = 4 / 4 =
( 4 ).
, ,
.
, . :
2 = 1 + ( 2 1 ) .

,

1 ,
( 2 1 ) . ,

2 1 ( 1 ). , :
E=

2 1
.
4 0

24

2.
2 h . .
,
(1), ,
.

O
. 2
- . dx

R
R
dx , h
(. 1.13).

= dx . -

. 1.13
( O )

. (1) , O

E = dE =

dx
h
=
.
4 0 4 0

. ,
( . 1.13
)
S. = 2Rh = 2R( R R cos ) .

S.
R2

= 2(1 cos ) .

,

25

E=

h
(1 cos ) .
2 0

1.2.


.
,
. . .
:
1

EdS = q ,

..

, 0 .
:
div E =

.
0


.
,
.
E , .
, . ,
, ,
26


, E E ( En ) .

, .
. ?

. A
S
q ,
A (. 1.14).
q > 0 .
. 1.14
q S , , . , q , , S
E , ,
(.. q ).
q
, .
E .
.
E ,
27

, S . E ,
S E
S . ,
. .
1.2.1. . (. 1.15).
(.. ) q1 q2
.
.
c
d

E
E
E , a
b
X .
,
1
1 2

E = 0 ,

. 1.15

E
. ,
, .
,

. . , ,
28

(E ) ,

( E ) , (

- , , ). , , .

(. 1.16).

E=
.
2 0

.
1 2
E

2
= 1
.
2 0

E
+
. 1.16

1 2
+ 2
E = 1
.
2 0
, ,
,
, .
. E 29

a (. . 1.15).

E = 1 .
(1)
0
b ,

E = 2
(2)
0
( , b X ). (1) (2)

1 = 2 .
(3)
E

, c d

E = 1 , E = 2 .
0
0

1 = 2 .

(4)

, , ,
1 + 1 = q1 , 2 + 2 = q2 .

(3)(5),
1 = 2 =

q1 q2
q +q
, 1 = 2 = 1 2 .
2
2


E =

q1 q2
q + q2
, E = 1
.
2 0
2 0

30

(5)

1.2.2. .
.
?
.
.

- , , , .
, , .
,

,
. ,
.
.
, , -,

.. E r . ,
, E 4r 2 E . , , , . 1

31

.
1

E 4r 2 = 4r 2 E = .
0
0
(. 1.1.12) ,
E0 = / 2 0 .

. 1.17,
E E
+
0

, / 2 0 E0
, . 1.17
.

. , , R ,
,
F
S
r S (. 1.18).
P

r R
, . S . F ,
,
. 1.18
S
E .

S , , ,
/ 20 .
32

F = S

2
=
S .
20 20

, S , P :
P=

F 2
=
.
S 20

F , (.
. 1.18), P
S ( ,
). . ,
P . , ,
S , ,
S :
F = PS =

2
R2 r 2 .
20

,
, :
Fmax =

2 R 2
.
20

1.2.3. . , .
, ( ). ,

33

( ).
(- !). , .
, E (. 1.19). ( ). E
E E + E .
,
(
). E
.
Z
dE
E

x
R

dS
E
. 1.19

. 1.20

(. 1.20) dS = R 2 sin d d (
X ).
dE (
)
34

dEz =

1 dS
cos ,
4 0 r 2

(1)

r 2 = ( R sin cos + x ) + R 2 sin 2 sin 2 + R 2 cos 2 =


2

= R 2 + 2 Rx sin cos + x 2 ,

(2)


R cos = r cos .

(3)

(2) (3) (1) / 2 (


),
, x :
E ( x) =

R 3 / 2
sin cos d
d

2
2 0 0
0
R + 2 Rx sin cos + x 2

3/ 2


= x / R (0 1) :

E () =

/2
sin cos d
d

20 0
0 1 + 2 sin cos + 2

3/ 2

(4)


, , , .
,
L . ,
35

Edl = 0 . L
L

, ,
. 1.20. , E
. , Edl ,
, , ,

Edl ( E1 E2 ) ,
L

L ; E1 E2 . , 1 2, ,

! (4)
= x/ R = 0:
E (0) =

.
4 0

.
1.2.4. .
q , ? .
, ,
:
, ?
1.1.12, .
. q ,

36

.
,

dS
(. 1.21).
q
,
dS
dFn = En dS .

dFn

dF

dS
q

. 1.21

S
F = dFn = En dS ,
S

En , q , dS . En dS S

, E
E , q :

En dS = 4 En dS .

En dS = q / 0 ,

F=

q
.
4 0

37

1.2.5. . ? , l .

,
S = l2 ,
(5)

F = En dS ,
S
(5)

En dS
S

, .
,

.
:

= q / 0 = 6l 2 / 0 ,

1
l 2
1 = =
.
6
0
, 1 , ,
. (5)

, En dS ,
S

En dS :
(1)

S
(5)

1 = En dS + En (1) dS .
S

38


, En (1) = / 20 En (1) dS =
S

= l / 2 0 . ,
2

(5)

(1)
En dS = 1 En dS =

l 2 l 2 l 2

=
.
0 20 20

F=

2l 2
.
20

l . (: F = 3 2l 2 / 80 )
1.2.6. . , ,
.
l . , E
.
, 1.2.2. ,

. ,
:

E = E+ + E .

(1)

, E+ E , . , .

39

- , , r , .

E 4r 2 =

1
4
r
r 3 E ( r ) =
.
0 3
3 0

E=
r.
3 0
(1)
( )

E=
r+ +
r .
30
30
r+ r ,

r
r+
O

. 1.22, l .
,

E=
l .
3 0


( ,
. 1.22
), ( l ).
1.2.7. .
,
, l (. 1.23).

40

,

,
:
E=

l .
3 0

l
. 1.23

.
, , ,
( ,
).
1.2.8. . , e
R = 108 .
, (
e ), ,
? .
, . .

, ,
. ,
.
,
E ( r ) = r ,
(1)
.
r , ,

:

41

div E =

(r )
,
0

(2)

(r ) .
(2):

Ex E y Ez
+
+
= .
x
y
z 0

(3)

E ( x, y, z )
. , .
E . (3). E (r )

E = E (r )

r
,
r

x
y
z
Ex = E (r ) , E y = E (r ) , Ez = E (r ) .
r
r
r

Ex
:
x

Ex x r
= E .
x r r x

r
, x
r x
= . r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 .
x r

42

Ex dE x 2 E 2 E
=
x + .
x
dr r 2 r 3
r
E y
Ez
:

z
y

E y
y

dE y 2 E 2 E

y +
dr r 2 r 3
r

Ez dE z 2 E 2 E
=
z + .
dr r 2 r 3
r
z
,

div E =

( )

dE 2 E 1 d 2
+
= 2
r E .
dr
r
r dr

d 2
r E (r ) .
(r ) = 02

r dr
(1),
(r ) = 3 0 .

. e R ,
e
E ( R ) = R =
.
40 R 2
e
=

4 0 R 3

43

3e
,
4R 3

.. (
, 1.2.6).
.
m

mr = eE (r ) ,
E (r ) :

mr +

e2
r = 0.
40 R 3

e2
1
2,5 1015 .
3
2 4m0 R


.
1.2.9. .
() R ,
E0 ? ?


div E =

.
0

44

(1)

. , (1)
,
.
,
. ,
. .
1.2.7. ,

+ . .
,
. l .
. l

.
Z
l + + +
, (. 1.24),
+
+
+
++
l cos . , +
+
+


= l cos = 0 cos , 0 = l . E0
0 ,
. 1.2.7

E0 =
l = 0 .
3 0
3 0

45

. 1.24

, E0 , = 0 cos ,
0 = 3 0 E0 .

(2)


p . .

dl
R sin
dl = Rd (. 1.25).
R
dq = 2R sin Rd =

= 0 2R 2 cos sin d .
R cos ( ).
. 1.25
: dp = 2 R cos dq =

= 0 4R 3 cos 2 sin d .
/ 2 ,
/ 2

p = 0 4R 3 cos 2 sin d =
0

0 4R 3
,
3

(2)

p = 40 R 3 E0 .
, ,

E0 , = 3 0 E0 cos ,
p = 40 R 3 E0 .

46

1.3. .


E .
, . (r ) ,
2

1 2 = Edl .
1

, . , ,

E = grad = .
q r

=

1 q
.
4 0 r

q
1
i.
4 0 i ri

, , ,
=

1 dV
r ,
4 0

47

, . .

, (
), .
,
, .

( ). . , .
() ,

.
,
.

.

( E = 0)

( ).

,
En =

.
0

48

, ( ),
, . (r )


2 =

,
0

2 = = (). -

2
2
2
+
+
. x 2 y 2 z 2

, .
(
). : ,
=

E .
,

( = 0 En ) .
.
( ) , ,
, ()
.

49

. , , . ,
,
.

q .
. 1.26, +q

.

=0
+ q
A
B
O

q , (. 1.26, ).

= 0 (+q

r
. 1.26, )
C
= 0 q .
h
A

B
r
O

h
, q

. ,
. 1.26
q -

50

AB q = q , AB .
C

q 1 1

.
40 r r

AB ,
.
AB
q = q ,
q AB . , ,
, q
, q , .. F =

1
q2
,
40 ( 2h )2

h q AB .
.
q .

.
, .
1.3.1. . N
.
,
?
, ,
, , , . , -

51

q .

1 q
E=
.
4 0 r 2
, ,

=
r

q dr
q
,
=
2
40 r
40 r

(1)

r . N , ,

Q = Nq, V = Nv ,
Q ; V ; v
.
R r :
R = rN 1/ 3 .

(1)
=

Q
Nq
=
= N 2 / 3 .
1/ 3
4 0 R 4 0 rN

1.3.2. .
,
Emax = 30 /, d = 1 ,

b = 5 ?


. ,

52


b
, ,
E+
i
. + r
E

. 1.27
r

E = E+ + E ,

E+ E , , (. 1.27).

E+ = , E =
,
r
br
,
.
bd / 2

= E (r )dr =

d /2

dr b d / 2 dr
bd /2
.
+
= 2 ln
r
d /2
d /2 b r

,
( Emax )
, .. Emax
.
d /2

2b
2b
max Emax d ln 1 Emax d ln
207 .
d
d

53

1.3.3. .
. ,
, R .
( ) h
.

r
r dr
. 1.28). (
R
, h
. 1.28
,

d =

1
40

dq
h + r2
2

dq = dS = 2rdr .
r R :
1 R 2rdr

=
=
R 2 + h2 h .
(1)

40 0 h 2 + r 2 20

h 0 ( ) =

R
. 2 0

(1) h :

h
20

1 + R 2 / h2 1

R 2
q
=
40 h 40 h

( 1 + x 1 + x / 2
x << 1 ). ,
q .
.

,
54

. dS r dr (. 1.29) O
.

2R
dr

dS = 2rdr , r = 2 R cos .

. 1.29

, dr = 2 R sin d .
O
R 0
=
sin d .
0 / 2
= u ,
sin d = d v .

sin d = cos + cos d = cos sin .



=

R
,
0

.. ,
.
1.3.4. .
. P (. 1.30)
P
=

1 q q
.
4 0 r+ r

r >> l ,

r+
r

+q
r

r+ l cos ( r
P ).

55

l
q
. 1.30

1
1 ql cos
q 1

40 r r + l / cos 40 r 2

p :
=

Er

1 pr
.
4 0 r 3

,
E .
E
r (. 1.31):
Er =

p
. 1.31

1 2 p cos
.
=
r 4 0
r3

E , ( E ) , ,

P , r , rd ,

1 p sin
.
E =
=
4 0 r 3
rd
E
E = Er 2 + E 2 =

1 p
1 + 3cos 2 .
3
4 0 r


.
:

56

W = q ( + ) .
+ + q q . ,

+ =

l,
l

/ l l , .

W = qlEl = pE .
,
( ) , p E .
, q1 / q2 = > 1 l . , . ,
, X . ( x, y ) , ,
( x, y ) =

q1
q2
1

2
2
2
2
40 x + y + z
(l x) + y 2 + z 2

57

q1
x2 + y 2 + z 2

q2

(l x) 2 + y 2 + z 2

=0.

q1 q2
2

qq l
q12l
x

+ y2 + z2 = 2 1 2 2 ,

2
2
q1 q2

q1 q2


r=

q1q2
l
l= 2
,
2
q2
1

q12


h=

q12l
l
= 2
.
2
2
q1 q2
1

,
( ).
p0
E0 , p0 E0 . ,
,
, .
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
.
58

, . ,
E0 . 1.2.9.
, E0 = 3 0 E0 cos ,

p = 40 R 3 E0 . , R
E0 . . p p0 ,
1/ 3

p0
R=

4 0 E0

1.3.5. .

E0 r .
?
,
, .
, .
, -, E0
,
E ,
. -,
( ). ,
59

, . 1.32.
En = / 0 (
).

C
,
+

+
r

+A
B
+

+
+

E0 .
D
, , . 1.32
1.2.9,

p = 40 E0 r 3 .

, E0 E : E = E0 + E . En = / 0 ,
. 1.2.9 , = 3 0 E0 cos .
,
r
,
r
r -,
. , A B (.
. 1.32) 3 ,
C D .
E = 3E0 cos

60

1.3.6. . r , -

E0 ,
, . R >> r .
,
r , E0 , p1 = 40 r 3 E0 .
, p2
p1 . ,
( ). R , ,
E0 . ,

,
. 1.1.8:
F=

3 p1 p2
,
2 0 R 4

p1 = p2 = 40 r 3 E0 .
240 r 6 E0 2
,
R4
.
F=

61

, E0
,

.
(:
6
2
120 r E0
, )
F=
R4
1.3.7. . l q .
, , .
+q

.


r
l
x
A
B q .
O
, E
E+
q l
q = q ,
E

q
l , q . . 1.33
, (. 1.33).
( E )

E+

E ( q ).
E+ = E =

1 q
.
4 0 r 2

E
E=2

1 q
cos ,
4 0 r 2

62

+q )

r = l / cos ,
E=

q
cos3 .
2 0l 2



q
() =
cos3 .
(1)
2
2l
AB q .
(1) AB .
AB x dx .
q = 2xdx .
x = l tg , dx =

ld

cos 2

/2
q cos3 d
l
q
=

sin d = q .
2l 2 cos 2
0
0
.
q
O . ,
, .
, ,
, .
/ 2

q = 2l tg

, E
r .

. q + q , , q = q .
1.3.8. .
q -

63

A B ,
l1 l2 . q1 q2 ,
,
.

(. 1.34, ). ,
A l P
1

q1

l2 B

q2

. 1.34

, . . , q P ? , ,

A B , q1 q2 :
q . P
, A B ,
. ,
, , q P . 64

, ,
(. 1.34, ). , A B !
= ( 1 + 2 ) ,
1 2 A
B . E1 E2
1 = 0 E1 , 2 = 0 E2 .

(1)

,
.
E1l1 = E2l2 .
(2)
(1) (2) E1 E2 ,
l
l
1 = 2 , 2 = 1 .
l1 + l2
l1 + l2
q1 q2 q .

: ,
A B . ,
. ,
q A B .
.
1 2 q .
2l .
A B (. 1.35, ). .
65

2
2l

1
l

2l
q (2)
1

(1)
q1

2
l

l
q(1)
2

2l
(2)

q2

. 1.35


1.3.7

. q

=

q
.
2l 2

(1)

, .
. q1(1) = q2 (1) =
= q . ,
,
, . q1(1) ( q2 (1)
). ,
66

q1(2) = q2 (2) = q , A B 3l . , ,
5l ,7l .. . ,
,
. 1.35, . : q , q1( n )
n - q ,
q2 ( n ) n - q ( ). , ( ).

A B
.
(1) . 1.35,
q
1
1
1

1 2 + 2 2 + ... .
2
2l 3
5
7

( , 132)

q
A = B = 0,145 2 .
l

A = B =

1.3.9. . R Q .
. ,
q (. 1.36)?

67

,

R
r

q
O
. Q
, q
.
. 1.36
, , ,
.

= q + Q ,

q Q , q . ,
Q ,
. , O (
). :
=

1 q Q
r > r .
+
4 0 r R

(1)


,

R .
q ,

,
.
68


Q+q

( q )
q

.
Q q= q
. ,
. 1.37

.
,
q + Q , (. 1.37). ,
q .
=

1 q+Q
4 0 R

rR.

q r R . , ?
(1) q / ( 40 r ) .
, . q ,
1 q
1 q
+
=0.
4 0 r 4 0 R

69


q = q

R
.
r


, .
1.3.10. . q
R ? l > R
(. 1.38). A
S
r
R
q
q r C
D
O ?
b
O C a
,
l

.
. 1.38
.

. ,
, . ,
. ,
.
S , .
q
l = OO . .
.
.
, ,
70


. , , q (. . 1.38)
S ,
, q
.
, . C S ,
A
r
q
= const = .
r
q

(1)

, , , OAC OAO .

r R
= .
(2)
r l
(1) (2) , q
A S . , , q q ,
S , .. q q S .
q , S ,
q . S ,
S , q .
S E q q , q S . S
= q / 0 . q / 0 .
71

, q = q . ,

q q : q
q , q q .
,
, .
. 1.38 a = CC
q C b = CO
q C
R
a = R 1 , b = l R .
l

(3)

,
1 1 1
= .
a b R
, ,
!
(1)(3)
q q :
F=

1
qq
1
q 2 Rl
=
4 0 ( a + b )2 4 0 l 2 R 2

, S
Q .
. q q () q = Q q , .
72

(: F =

1
q 2 Rl

2
4 0
l R2

qQ q 2 R

; l2
l3


q ).
= 0 En , En = E
q q . q (1) (2):
q = q

R
.
l

( D )
ED =

1
4 0

q
q
+

,
2
( x + R)2
(l + R )

x = R a = R 2 / l (. . 1.38).
D =

q
4 ( l + R )

R 1 .

( C ):
C =

q
4 ( l R )

73

R + 1 .

1.4.

, . , , .

( ),
.
,
, , .
.

. ,
0 EdS = (q + q)
S

( q ), ( q ) , E . , ,
, D ,

DdS = q ,

(1)

D = 0 E + P ;

(2)

q ( ) -

, P ( ),
74

P=

1
pi .
V

V ; pi , V . (1)

div D = ,


.
,
, .. P E
P = 0 E ,

(3)

,
( > 0 ). , P

,
PdS = q

(4)

, S .
(4)
divP = ,

(5)


.
(2) (3) E
D:
75

D = 0 E ,

= 1 + .
,
.
D , , , ( E ).
E ,
, ,
.

D ,
. , ,

( ). D

. E .
D , , D E , E (
).

.
( ,
) .
.
P

P2 n P1n = ,

76

(6)

. ,
P2 n = 0 (6)
= Pn = 0 En ,

En E
.
E D :
E1 = E2 , D2 n D1n = .

E () E ; Dn D ; .
,
D1n = D2 n .

E D
, E1n E2 n D1
D2 .

q1 q2 ,
r .
, ,
, , .

( q1 q2 ,
!). , q2 q1 , . 77

. , q1 , ,
.
D q1 . r
q1 ,
q2 .
q1
.
4r 2

q2 :
D 4r 2 = q1 D(r ) =

E (r ) =

q1
D
=
.
0 4 0 r 2

q2
F = q1 E =

q1q2
,
4 0 r 2

.. q1
q2
. ,
, , , ,
.
1.4.1. .
.
1010 .

: , .. . ,
78

,
E0 .
a .
na 3 << 1 , n
. ,
E0 .

.
, , ..
p ~ E0 . 1.3.5 .
,

p = 40 a 3 E0 .

(1)

.
,
, (1)
, n
P = n p = 40 a 3 nE0 .

(2)

P :
P = 0 E0 .

(2) (3)
= 4a 3 n .

79

(3)


= 1 + = 1 + 4a 3 n .

.
pHe = nkT ,

pHe T ;
k = 1,38 1023 / . n ,
pHe
.
kT
pHe =105 T = 273K , 1,00033
( , = 1 + 4a 3

na 3 << 1 ).
1.4.2.
. q a 1 .
2 .
,
.
, .
, q . D . D r
q
4r 2 D = q D(r ) =
.
4r 2
80

E:

D = 0 E . :
E1 (r < a ) =

D1
q
=
,
0 1 4 0 1r 2

E2 ( r > a ) =

D2
q
=
.
0 2 4 0 2 r 2

(1)

, ,

. , .



P2 n P1n = ,



:
( 2 0 E2 10 E1 ) r =a =
( 1 2 ).

E1 E2 (1)
=

1 2 q
.
1 2 4a 2

, 1 2 .
81

1.4.3. .
R

. E D
r , .
,
D
( , E ,
). r R 4
4r 2 D = r 3 .
3
D=

D
r, E =
=
r .
3
0 3 0

4
r > R 4r 2 D = R 3 ,
3
= 1 ,
D=

D
R 3

.
, E=
=
2
0 30 r 2
3r

,
( r = R )
E , D .

P
= Pn = 0 E .

E
r = R , R / 3 0 .
82

= 0

R 1 R
=
.
3 0
3


divP = .

P = 0 E
= 0 divE .

div E , .. div E = ( + ) / 0 .
= 0

+
.
0

1
=
.
1+

, ,
.
1.4.4. .
R
E0 .
.
+ (
83

+ + + + +

++

).
-

l (. 1.39).


.
V . . 1.39
V

l . , p = V l .
V , , ..
P :
P = l .

(1)

(. 1.2.7) , , + ,
E=

l
.
30

(2)

, , 1, 2. (1) (2) ,
E1 ( )
P
E1 =

P
.
30

84

E1 :
E0 P
,
30

+++

E1

Ci

iD

P = 0 E1

E1 .
3
:
E1 = E0

E1 =

E0

Ai

E1 (. 1.40):
E1 = E0 + E1 = E0

E 2

E0

E0

3
E0 .
+2

E 2

E0

. 1.40

(3)

P = 0 E1 = 30

1
E0 ,
+2

(4)


p = V P = 40 R 3

1
E0 .
+2

(5)

(4), :
= Pn = 30

1
E0 n ,
+2

E0 n E0 ,
E0 n = E0 cos ,

E0 .
85

= 30

1
E0 cos .
+2

E2
: E0
E2 (. . 1.40):
E2 = E0 + E2 .

(6)

1.1.5 p :
E =

1 3 ( pr ) r p
3.

40 r 5
r

,
p =V P =

4 3
R P .
3

,

E2 =

( )

R 3 3 Pr r P
3 .
30 r 5
r

, ( r = R ),
E2 =

( )

1
3 Pn n P ,

3 0

n
.
86


(.. A
B ).
2
E2 =
P,
3 0
(4)
1
E0 .
+2
(6),
:
E2 = 2

E2 =

3
E0 .
+2

(7)

(7) (3)
E2 / E1 = , . , (7) , . 3 .
1.3.5 , ( ). ,
E D : D1n = D2 n , E1 = E2 .
. D : D = 0 E + P .
,
, .
. , E0 ( x)
(. 1.1.8):

87

F=p

(5)

E0
,
x

1 E0 2

.
+ 2 x 2
.
1.4.5. . E , .
F = 40 R 3

E .
, E
E1 ,
E1 =

P
,
30

P . E , ..
E

P
=E.
30

E = E +

P
,
30

P = 0 E :
E =

+2
E.
3
88

1.4.6. .
,

0 E0
(. 1.41). .
,

0
E0
.


,
E

E .
E :

. 1.41

E = E0 ,
E E0 . . 1.41
E = E0 sin 0 .
(1)

D :
Dn = D0 n ,

Dn D0 n D
.
En E0 n :
0 En = 0 E0 n .


En =

E0 n E0 cos 0
=
.

89

(2)

(1) (2)
:
E = E 2 + En 2 = E0 sin 2 0 +

cos 2 0
< E0 .
2

,
E
E
= tg = tg 0 .
En

, E
, .. ,
, . 1.41.
1.4.7. . q h , . .
.

(. 1.42).
. ,
q

h

. :
( ) . 1.42
?
90

, . q h .
,
.

q q
(. 1.43):
E1 =

q
q
r+
r .
3
4 0 r
4 0 r 3

(1)

r q
, r q .
r = r + (h + h)n , n
.
, (1),
A
, q (q")
, n r
h E1
. ,
O

q ,
h E2

r
q ( . 1.43
q
):
A
q
. 1.43
E2 =
r.
(2)
4 0 r 3
, q q
.
91

, (1) (2) , ..
:
E
D .
q sin + q sin = q sin ,

(3)

q cos q cos = q cos .

(4)

,
(.. h = h ), (3) (4)
q q . = ,
1
,
+1

(5)

2
.
+1

(6)

q = q
q = q

, (3) , q q q ( ,
). , ,
q q
. (5) (6)
:
E1 =

q
q
r
r ,
3
4 0 r
4 0 r 3

E2 =

q
r.
2 0 (1 + )r 3

92

(7)


.
.
r q .
= Pn = 0 En
=

q ( 1)h
.
2(1 + )r 3

(8)

(8)
q q . q . D :
D2 n = D1n E1n = E2 n ,

q

q

cos +
=
cos
2
2
20 40 r
20
4 0 r

(9)

2 0

,
. (9) (8). , cos = h / r .
(8)
, q .
(5) .
93

q . ,
q ,
q 2h . (5)
qq
q 2 ( 1)
.
F=
=
40 4h 2 ( + 1)16 0 h 2
q

( h = 0) ,

. , r = r , (7)

q
E1 =
r = E2 ,
2 0 (1 + )r 3
.. E
( !). ,
(
)
q .
, ,
, h q . ?
, . . .
q = q , q . 94

! ,
.
,
q q ,
2h . , , q q ,

E=2

q
h
qh
=
,
2
4 0 r r 2 0 r 3


= Pn = 0 E =

( 1)qh
.
2r 3

1.4.8. . R q 1 2 . (. 1.44).

, S
1
.
r
R
,
O
S1
2
E , D

: Er = E , Dr = D . . 1.44
,
( ,

E
). , , , .
95


.
.

E1 = E2 . , E1 = E2 , .. .
.
D1 D2
=
.
(1)
1 2
D , S r (. . 1.44):
D1 2r 2 + D2 2r 2 = q .

(2)

(1) (2)
D1 =

q1
q 2
, D2 =
.
2
2r ( 1 + 2 )
2r ( 1 + 2 )
2

,
( )
E=

D1
D
q
= 2 =
.
10 2 0 2r 2 ( 1 + 2 ) 0

(3)

, , .
, , ,
,
. 96

D , S1 , ,
1 (. . 1.44).
,
1 = D1 =

q1
.
2R ( 1 + 2 )
2

(4)


:
q 2
2 = D2 =
.
(5)
2
2R ( 1 + 2 )
, .
E , S1 . ,
( ) , ( )
,
E=

( 1 + 1 )
0

,
E=

D1

= 1 .
1 0 1 0


1 =

( 1 1) q .
1 1
1 =
1
2R 2 ( 1 + 2 )
97

(6)


2 =

( 2 1) q .
2 1
2 =
2
2R 2 ( 1 + 2 )

(7)


1 . (4) (6)
1 = 1 + 1 =

q
.
2R ( 1 + 2 )
2

(5) (7)
2 = 2 + 2 =

q
.
2R ( 1 + 2 )
2

,
.
,
.
, (4)(7), . ,
, 1 > 2 , 1 > 2 1 > 2 ,
..
. ,
.
,
. , , , . ,
.
. 98

S .
S
S . , ,
S . 1 2 ,

( 1 2 ) S E , .

1.2.2

( 1 2 ) S E ,

S = R . :
2

E ? , ? ,
. , E , (3), , . , - , , , E
. , , E / 2 . , F
F = ( 1 2 ) R 2

E
.
2

1 2 (4), (5)
E (3) r = R ,
F=

q 2 ( 1 2 )

8R 2 0 ( 1 + 2 )

99

1.5.


C=

q
U

(1)

.
- q .

U . , U . ,
.
, - , ,
, , . -
, ,
, , ,
.

.

a b , . 1.45.
, .
.
. a b ( U = ,
100

a
C
C
+q1 1 q 1 A +q 2 2 q2
b ). , +q3
, a
b
C3
q3
q C
+q5C5 q5
. - q +q4 4 q4
B
C1 C4

+
q q ( 1

).

. 1.45

C2 C5 . q ,

q = q2 + q5 = q1 + q4 .

(2)

q3 , C3 , . , , , , . 1.45. q3 ,
, q3 . .

q1 + q2 + q3 = 0 ,

(3)

q3 q4 + q5 = 0 .

(4)

,
. , (2)
(3) (4), .. . , 101

. Edl = 0 . ,
, ,
. .
Edl , ( , ). (1)
U = q / C .
, aC1C3C4 a ,
q1 q3 q4
+

=0.
C1 C3 C4

(5)

bC5C3C2b :
q2 q5 q3

=0.
C2 C5 C3

(6)

, aC4C5b . Edl
(
: , ).

q4 q5
+
= 0.
C4 C5

(7)

(3)(7) . ,
, q1 q4 , q2
102

q5 .

C=

q + q5
q1 + q4
( 2
).

, C ,
.
, ,
.
1.5.1. .
R , l >> R .
.
,
. . , q .
C=

q
,
U

U .
l ,
( ). l >> R ,

+ q q , .


103

E=

q
q
,
+
2
4 0 r
4 0 (l r ) 2

r
.
l R

U = E (r )dr =
R

q2 1
1
q lR
,

40 R l R 20 lR

C 2 0 R 1 + .
l

l , C = 2 0 R , .. . ,
( )?
2 0 R , , 4 0 R . ? ,
C = q / .

q , . q , , , q / 4 0 R .
q = q / 4 0 R . ,
, 4 0 R .
1.5.2. .
a l .
d , 104

. ,
b
R >> d .

a
,

( A A
. 1.46).
R

. 1.46
,

r = r0 +

(d + b)
, 0 < 2 ,
2

r0 = 0 .
,
. , ,


r =R+

(d + b)
, 0<.
2

(1)

,
l . d

l
.
R

105

(2)


, . . ,
. , d ,
.
,
r >> d
(. 1.47). r
, ,
,

a
d
. 1.47
r
E=

,
2 0 r

(3)

( ). q = a . (3) r ,
r +d

U = Edr =
r

d
ln 1 +
20
r


C1 =

2a0
q
=
.
U ln (1 + d / r )

106

(4)


d r , d << r (d / r << 1) .

(4) r . x << 1 : ln(1 + x) x .
C1

20 ar
.
d

, d . ,

dC = C1

d 0 ar
d .
=
2
d

,
C=

0
d r ()d ,
0

r () (1). (2)

C=

0 a
0 al l (d + b)
(d + b)
1+
.

R+
d =
d 0
d
2
4R 2

,
.
1.5.3. . , ? d (. 1.48).
107

1 2 + q q . A
B
2
1
, , , +
.
. 1.48
,
( ). , .
A ,
B .
1 2,
.
, 1 2
. 1 2 ( , ).

1 2 .
,
. , X , ,
(. 1.49).
1 2
, U
A E E E B
2
0
X

( ,
). , . 1.49
E
108

2 , E : E = 2 E .
,
1 2 ,
:
= 2 ,

+ =

q
.
S
=

2q
2 q
E=
,
3S
3 0 S

S . 1 2
U = Ed =

2 qd
.
3 0 S

1 2
C12 =

q 3 0 S 3
=
= C,
U 2 d
2

C .
,
.
1 2
. 1.49, (. 1.50, ).
C , . 1.50, . .
, , (. 1.51).
109

1A

B2
1

1 1 2 2

1 2

d
d
d
2

. 1.50

. 1.51

. . 1.50.
4
(: C12 = C )
3
1.5.4. . , 1 2
(. 1.52). O . , , 1 ,

( 1 + 2 = 4 ) .

R1 R2 .
1.4.8
( ).
,
: Er = E , Dr = D . ,
1, 1
E1r = E2 r . ,
S
E1 = E2 (
O
2, 2
),

. 1.52
110

D1 D2
=
.
1 2

(1)

D , S r O :
D11r 2 + D2 2 r 2 = q .

(2)

1r 2 ,
; 2 r 2 ; q . (1) (2)
D1 =

q1
q 2
, D2 = 2
.
r ( 11 + 2 2 )
r ( 11 + 2 2 )
2



E=

D1
D
q
= 2 = 2
.
10 2 0 r ( 11 + 2 2 ) 0

U :
U=

R2

E (r )dr = + R R .
( 1 1 2 2) 0 1 2
R1


C=

RR
q
= ( 11 + 2 2 ) 0 1 2 .
U
R2 R1

1 = 2 = , ,
, .
111

1.5.5. . , , C (. 1.53).
1 8, .
, C
5
, 8
C
3
6
C . ,
C
C

C
4
7
(.
C
1
2
C
), . 1.53
. , . ?

18 120. ,
, , .
, , .. 2, 3
4 ( ,
). ,
. 2, 3 4
, , 12,
13 14, .
5, 6 7. ,
. ,
. 1.54. , ,
C18 = 6C / 5 .

112

567

234

. 1.54

12 17.
. . 1.54
, , ,
, .
(: C12 = 12C / 7, C17 = 4C / 3 )
, . 1.55. , C ,
,
. ,
C
C
C
C
C
C

. 1.55

. 1.56

. , , , . , (. 1.56).
113

?

C
C
,
,
C .
. 1.57
, , . , C

C (. 1.57).

1
1
1
= +
,
C C C + C
C

C :
C 2 + CC C 2 = 0 .


5 1
C
2
.
, . 1.58,
A B .
.
, , C
C
C
A C
B C
.
C
C
, C
C
C
.
C
C
A
B ( . 1.58
, C =

114

) , . A
.

, , . , .

, ..
.
A .
dt A
dq . A B .
B , .. A B dq / 4 . B . ,
B , B ,
dq / 4 ( dq ).
,
A B , dq / 2 (
).

. , A B .
, A
115

B C . A B 2C .
1.5.6. . K (. 1.59) 1
2 , ?

C1
K
.
,

C2

.
1
, 2
. 1.59
,
.
,
, ,
.
C1 C2 ,
, q1 q2 :
q1 = q2 =

C1C2
.
C1 + C2

q1 q2
q2
= ,
C2

q1 q2
+
= .
C1 C2


(.
).
116

q1 = 0, q2 = C2 .

C1 2. , q2 , 2,
:
q2 = q1 q1 =

C1C2
.
C1 + C2

, , 1 2,
:
q1 + q2 = q2 q2 .

q1 = q2 q2 q2 = C2 .

1.6.

, . -,
,
. -,
( ),
.
W q

W = q ,

q .
, A
q 1 2
A = q ( 1 2 ) .
117


W
W=

1
qi i ,
2

(1)

qi i - ; i ,
i -
. , (1)
1
(2)
dV ,
2
,
W=

dV . ( ) ( ) .
, (1) (2)
. (1)
, (2)
, . , .
W =

0 E 2
ED
dV =
dV .
2
2

w = 0 E 2 / 2 = ED / 2
; E ; D .
(1) , .
( 118

). , . . q l
. , ?

. ,
- ( q ) ,
l . ,
, 2l .
q 2 / ( 4 0 2l ) . q

1 2
q2
mv
=0.
2
80l
:

v=

q2
.
4 0 ml

(3)


(
).
q q

A = F ( x)dx =
l

q2
q2
dx
=

160l
40 (2 x) 2

( ). 119

, mv 2 / 2 ,
, (3)

v=

q2
.
80 ml

2 :

(4)

(4).
, , , . q
,
. , . ,
,
. W = q , q ,
( q , !). q ,
, , .
1.6.1. . q m , l .
. v
,
? .

v , -

120


, . ,

, .. ,
vC .

1
vC = v .
3

(1)

1
1
W1 + mv 2 = W2 + 3mvC 2 .
2
2

(2)

W1 ,
; W2 , . ,
,
1
W = qi i
2
,
. ,
. ,
W = W12 + W13 + W23 ,

Wij =

1 qi q j
, rij qi q j .
40 rij

,
W1 =

5q
3q
, W2 =
.
8 0l
4 0l

121

(3)

(1)(3),
v=

3q
.
8 0 ml

1.6.2. .
R
. x = R ,

0 < <1?

, :
? , , . , .
( ),
.
1.3.10 (
). , q ,
, ,
- q , . , q q
: q
q , q q . ,
, . -

122

,
.
1.3.10,
:
F=

1
q 2 Rl
4 0 l 2 R 2

(1)

q , ,
l (. 1.60). q , , q
q R
(2)
= .
q l

A
- S
r
R
r

,
q
q

q = e
(
O
a
b
O x C
). (2) l

el
. 1.60
q= .
R
x . . 1.60
x l :

R2
x
( OC A OOA ).
(2)
l=

F ( x) =

1
e 2 x3
4 0 R R 2 x 2

123

,
, , x
.

, F
. F :
A = F ( x)dx =

e 2 R x3 dx

40 R 0 R 2 x 2

(3)

u = x 2
= R 2 u , (3)

R2
R2 d
e2
.
A=

80 R R2 12
2

:
A=

e 2 2
+ ln 1 2 .

2
80 R 1

mv 2 / 2 . ,
, x ,
v=

e2
+ ln 1 2 ,

2
40 mR 1

= x / R . x R

(.. 1 ), 124

( ,
).
.
1.6.3. .
q l . .
,
W=

1
dS .
2

(1)


q
1.3.7,
() =

q
cos3 ,
2l 2

q (. . 1.33).
,
x
.
cos = l / x 2 + l 2 ,

( x) =

ql

2 l + x 2
2

3/ 2

(1) . , -

125

.
q = q , l
q . , , , ,
q :
=

40 l + x 2
2

1/ 2

dS
x dx : dS = 2xdx .

W=

1
ql

2 0 2 l 2 + x 2

3/ 2

40 l 2 + x 2

1/ 2

2xdx .

W=

q2
.
160l

1.6.4. . , ,
(. 1.61). A
. A
, ?

. . 1.61

126

.

. . , , , 2 .
? qi
W=

1
qi i .
2 i

, . i qi ,
.

i =

j i

q j

40 ri rj

ri rj qi q j .

W=

q j
1
.
qi
2 i
j i 4 0 ri r j

, . -

127


2 , ,

2 . ,

2 . W1 ,
W2 = 2W1 .
, ..

W2 W1 = A A = W1

2 1 .

(1)

W3 = 2W2 ,

A = W3 W2 =

2 1 W2 = 2

2 1 W1 .

(1)
A = 2 A .
.
(. 1.62)
. , . 1.62
A
. ,
? (:
A = 6 A )
1.6.5. . q , ,
l .
,

1
W = 0 E 2 dV .
2

128

dh
h
dV . a
r
, -,
q
, -, -
. 1.63
.
, dV r = a + h dh
(. 1.63). ,
dV = 2h ( a + h ) dh .
2


q
2h ( a + h ) dh .
W = 0
2
0 2 4 0 ( a + h )

W=

q2
.
320 a

1.6.6. . q ,
a b (. 1.64). a
b
?
q
1.6.2.
. 1.64

129

, ,
. . , q
,

a b . ,

. ,

q

A = 0 E 2 dV .
2
E = q / 40 r 2 dV = 4r 2 dr ,
r a b :

A=

q2 a b
<0.
80 ab

A . q

.
q ,

, .
1.6.7. .
,
, , -

130


(. 1.65). l
R1

v0

R2 .
2R 2
2R 1
v0 .
. 1.65
.
m .
.
. ,
.
.

. , ,
, , . ,
,
,
.
.

.
, .

. , . W

131

mv02 mv 2

= W ,
2
2

(1)

0 E 2
dV .
2
, , ,

W =

E=

.
2 0 r

dV = 2rldr . , 2
( - - )
R ,

W=

0 R l 2 2rdr
l 2
R
ln .
=

2 2 2
2 4 0 r
40

R2 R1

W = W2 W1 =

R
l2
ln 1 .
40 R2

(1)
v = v0 1

R
l2
ln 1 .
2
R2
20 mv0

1.6.8. . K 1 2 , . 1.66?
K ( C

132

C C0 ).
1
2
C
C
C
0
.
K
, 1
2
,

.

. 1.66
,
. ,
(
). ,
,

q1 =

C ( C + C0 )
CC0
C2
, q0 =
, q2 =
.
2C + C0
2C + C0
2C + C0

q1 =

C ( C + C0 )
2C + C0

, q0 =

CC0
C2
, q2 =
2C + C0
2C + C0

,
CC0
q1 =
= q2 .
2C + C0
,
q = CC0 / ( 2C + C0 ) , , q .
Q = 2

CC0
.
2C + C0

,
,

133

W = q / 2C .
1.6.9. .
S d
, . ,
? : 1) , U ,
, ;
2) .
?
,
, . . W
2

q2
.
(1)
2C

( C = 0 S / d ), W=

(1) : W = W .

W (1) =

q 2
q2
q2

= ( 1)
.
2C0 2C0
2C0

q U ,

W (1) =

( 1)C0U 2
>0,
2
134

C0 = 0 S / d
.
, , . ,
? .
,
(.. ). , , . ,
( ),
(.. ).
:

( 1)C0U 2
.
2
.
:
A(1) = W (1) =

CU 2
2
( ). ,
.

W=

W (2) =

C0U 2 C0U 2
( 1)C0U 2

=
< 0.
2
2
2

135

,
. ,

. . , .. .
, .
, .
q ,

W =

qU
.
2

q
A = qU .
A = 2W .

A A :
A + A = W .


A = W A = W ,

( 1)C0U 2
.
2
, .
,
A(2) =

136

, .
1.6.10. . ,

(. 1.67).
, . X
h
d1

U ,
d2

h

d1 , d 2 , .
. 1.67
,

. , .
, ,

:
A = dW q .
(1)
q ,
.
Fx .

137

A = Fx dx . (1),

Fx =

W
.
x q

(2)

,
, , . ,

. dW
q = const , .

W=

q2
.
2C

(3)


, ,

q = const , .. (2). (3),
Fx =

W
x

=
q

q 2 C / x U 2 C
.
=
2 C2
2 x

(4)

, , .
, :
2a 0
C=
,
ln d1 / d 2

138

a .
x .
2 0
( x + a x ) .
ln d1 / d 2

C=

(4) , :

Fx =

U 2 20 ( 1)
.
2 ln d1 / d 2

, Fx mg :
mg =

d12 d 2 2 hg
4

h=

(d

2
1

4U 2 0 ( 1)

d 2 2 g ln ( d1 / d 2 )

, . , , 2 - . 1
(. ).
,
.

139

2.
2.1.

G
j
G
E

G
G 1 G
j = E = E ,
(1)

, = 1/
.

G
G G
j = 0 v jdS = 0 .
(1)
.

I=

U
.
R

(2)

I , ; U ( ); R . (2)
, - (, , )
, , .
(1) (2) , l
S

R=

l
.
S

(3)

,
, , 140

(1)(3).

.
, ,
IR = 1 2 + ,
1 2 = , ().
,
.
: I k = 0 ,
, .
.

: I k Rk = k
,
.
,
.
2.1.1. .

. r , l
R ,
. , ,
, q ,
.
r = 25 , l = 500 , = 300 /,

141

R = 21 q = 10 ( e m ).
, G
, a
G
a .

l ,
G
G
E = ma / e .
G
2 G G
2
ma G
mal
1 2 = Edl =
dl =
.

e
1
1 e

I = ( 1 2 ) / R . dt
d v

dq = Idt =

mal
ml
dt =
dv ,
eR
eR

ml
m l v0
,
dv =
e R
v0 eR

q = dq =

v0 = r .
e l r
.
=
m qR
e / m =

= 1,8 1011 /, . , () , . -

142

,
()
, .
2.1.2. .
1. , (. 2.1), 17. R .

6
7
,
3
. , 2

5
8
.
1
4

. 2.1
, , . 1 7
2,4,5
3,6,8
,
1
7

, . 2.2
2, 4 5 .
2, 4, 5 ,

. ,
. 3, 6, 8.
(. 2.2)

R17 =

R R R 5
+ + = R.
3 6 3 6


14 13.

143

. ,
, . (:
R14 = 7 R /12, R13 = 3R / 4 )
2. . 2.3
R1 R 1 R 1
,
A
R2
R2
R2
R1 R2 . B
A B .
. 2.3
, , .. . ,
( )
, R . ,

R1
R1 , R2
A
R
R2
R
(. 2.4), RAB = R . B
R :
AB

. 2.4

RAB = R1 +

RR2
R + R2 .

RAB R , R :
RR2
R = R1 +
.
R + R2

R
R
R = 1 1 + 1 + 4 2 .

R1
2

144

3. ,
(. 2.5). A B ,
A
B
R0 .
,
,
, . 2.5

. , . A B U .
I = U / R , R .
. , AB
I / 3 . B A . .
, B , I / 3 . , ,
A B , 2 I / 3 .

U = IR

U=

2
IR0 .
3


R=

2
R0 .
3

4. , . 2.6, .
.
145

R1 . A B .
C
. A
B
ABC .
B ABC ,
A
C
.. . 2.6
. , , 2 . ABC
A B R0 . , , , 2
ABC ( ABC
2 ABC ).
R
A
B ABC
R
R
R (. 2.7). ,
C
R = 3R0 / 2 . , RAB = R0
. 2.8 . 2.7

, RAB = 2 R0 , R = 3R0 / 2 ,
R1 .
.
C , C C ,
. , . 2.8, (. 2.9).

146

. 2.9, ,

RAC

R1 R / 6

+ R1 / 2 R1 / 2

R /2 + R/3

= 1
.
R1 R / 6
+ R1
R1 / 2 + R / 3

R1 /2

C
R1 /2
A

R1 /2

B
R1 /2 R C R R1 /2
A

R1 /2 C R1 /2

R 1 /2

R /2
R

R1 /2

. 2.8

. 2.9

, RAB = 2 R0 = 2 RAC R = 3R0 / 2 , R0

3R0 2 + R1 R0 R12 / 2 = 0 .
R0 = R1

7 1 / 6 . -

RAB = 2 R0 =

R1
3

7 1 .

2.1.3. . D h
d (. 2.10). ,
<< d .

147

, d
,
, h .
D
,
,
.

. 2.10
. . ,
. ,
, . ,
R = 2 R + R ,

R ; R
. R R = l / S

R =

h
.
D

.
, << d
,
.
r dr .

148

R =

D/2

dr

,

d / 2 2 r


R=

h
D
+ ln .
D
d

2.1.4. . ,
.
, , - C .
, ,
R = l / S ,
, . .
U .
+ q q .
, . ,
.
.
,
. , , ,
. , ,
.

149

(, + q ) S , . : v Dn dS = q ,
S

Dn = 0 En -

; En . q = CU ,
0 v En dS = CU .

(1)

G G
j = E / .
S :

G G

v jdS = v En dS .
S

G G

v jdS
S

I ,
U / R , R .

1
U
En dS = .
v

S
R

(2)

(1) (2),

R=

0
.
C

, . , ,

150

l , , , S , . R C

R =

S
l
, C = 0 .
S
l

R = 0

1
.
C

(3)


, R 1/ C . , ,
(3), .
2.1.5. .
,
1 2 1
2 , C1 C2 .
,
U ?
, (
)
R1 =

1 0 1

, R2 = 2 0 2 .
C1
C2

,
, , :

I=

UC1C2
U
=
.
R1 + R2 0 ( 11C2 + 2 2 C1 )

151

U1 =

UC211
UC12 2
, U2 =
.
11C2 + 2 2C1
11C2 + 22 C1

2.1.6. . 1 2 d1 d 2
1 2
1 2 . -

U , 1
2. .
. G G
v jdS = 0 , G G
j = E / .

1 G G
v EdS = 0 .

(1)

= const , .
const .
, , .
(1)
E1 E2
=
.
(2)
1 2

152

G
D ,
D2 n D1n = = 0 2 E2 0 1 E1 .

(3)

. ,

U = Edl = E1d1 + E2 d 2 .

(4)

(2)(4)
=

22 11
0U .
1d1 + 2 d 2

2.1.7. .

v (. 2.11).
, .
: , , d b
( ).
,
?
d v
,
. 2.11

.
,
.

I=

dq
.
dt

153

dq , dt .

dC : dq = dC . dt
dx = vdt ,
vdt b
dC = 0
( 1) .
d
,

I=

0 vdt b
( 1) vb
( 1) = 0
.
d dt
d

2.1.8. . . 2.12
. R ,
,
U,
, 80
U 0 = 85 .
70
1
U 0
2
60
R 3
U
50
0

10 I, A

. I , R : U = U 0 IR .
. 2.12

- , ,
1 ( R , ).
- .
,
( 2), R , - ( 3). -

154

: I = 3 , U = 70 . , R 15 ,
5 .
2.1.9. . , . 2.13, U 0 t = 0 . .
K
R


, , C
C
.
,

. 2.13
,
.
l c .
= l / c , , ,
. , ,
.
, , q0 . U 0 : q0 = CU 0 . , q1 q2 ,
q1 + q2 = q0 .
(1)
1
( ) 2 (
):

155

IR = 1 2 .

I (
); 1 2 . ( ),

1 =

q1
q
, 2 = 2 .
C
C

IR =

q1 q2
.
C C

(2)


: I , q1 q2 , (1). I (t ) ( q1 , q2 ).

I=

dq
.
dt

(3)

dq , dt . (
) , ..
dq = dq1 = dq2 .

(4)

(2): ( q1 q2 ),
. ,
. (2):

156

dI 1 dq1 dq2
=

dt C dt
dt

(3) (4)
dI
2
R = I,
dt
C

dI
2
+
I = 0.
dt RC
,
,
I (t ) = I 0 e

2
t
RC

I 0 .

U
I0 = 0 .
R

2

U 0 RC t
e
.
R
= RC
( , ).
2.1.10. .
R .
R ,
. , ?
,
? , I (t ) =

157

,
R
.
,
V
,
. 2.14 ( ).
. 2.14

r .
(
). , , , ,
.
R U . :

U=

RV
,
R + r + RV

(1)

RV . R
2U =

RV
.
R / 3 + r + RV

(2)

RV
,
r + RV

(3)

R = 0
U =

.

: U , , RV , R, r .
,

158

. , (1)(3) , : = 4 , .. 4 .
2.1.11. . 1
r1
2 r2
R ,
1
. 2.15 ( , I1
).
I2
R - 1
2
+
?
2
I
.
R
,
. 2.15
, ,
, ,
. :
) N ,
N 1 ;
)
,
, .
, - , .
, ,
. -

159

(, ,
1 2 , , 2 R ). ,
. , I1 , I 2 I
. ( ) I1 , I 2 I (. . 2.15). , - ,
( I 2
). , ,
. 2

I1 + I 2 I = 0 .

(1)

. (,
. 2.15).
,
IR ,
. ,
. , ,
. .

I1r1 + I 2 r2 = 1 2 ,

(2)

I 2 r2 + IR = 2 .

(3)

160

r1 r2
.
(1)(3) I 2 ,
( 2 ) R 2 r1 .
I2 = 1
r1 ( r2 + R ) + r2 R
,
R>

2 r1
,
1 2

,
R<

2 r1
,
1 2

( , ).
R=

2 r1
1 2

.
2.1.12. .
A B C , . 2.16.
R3 3
.

BA
- I 3 2
R1
,
R2
1
. - I 2
2
I1
1, 2, 3 . ,
1

A B = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) . (1)
161

. 2.16


( 1 2 ) ( 2 3 ) . , ,
(. . 2.16). 1 2
1 2 = I1 R1 ,

(2)

2 3 + 2 = 0 .

(3)

23

(1)(3)
A B = I1 R1 2 .

(4)

, A B
I1 . , ,
.
R3 , R2 , 2 :
I 3 R3 I 2 R2 = 2

(5)

R1 , R2 , 1 :
I1 R1 + I 2 R2 = 1 .

(6)

( , )
2 :
I1 = I 2 + I 3 .
(7)
(5)(7)
I1

162

I1 =

1 ( R2 + R3 ) + 2 R2

R1 R2 + R1 R3 + R2 R3

A B =

1 R1 ( R2 + R3 ) 2 R3 ( R1 + R2 )
R1 R2 + R1 R3 + R2 R3

2.2. .
P -

P = ( 1 2 ) I + I .

( 1 2 ) I

, I , ,
.
, , ,
()
. ,
. Q (, )
:

Q = I 2 R .
t

Q = I 2 Rt ,

Q = I 2 Rdt .

163



Q = j 2 ,

Q (, );
; j .
, , , .
,

1
Q = E 2 ,

E .

, , ( ) , , .
R1 , R2 , R3 ,
, , I .
Q

Q = I12 R1 + I 2 2 R2 + I 32 R3 .

(1)

I1 , I 2 , I 3 , (1)

164

I1 + I 2 + I 3 = I .

(2)

. . ,
(1) (2) :
k =3

k =3

k =1

k =1

2 I k Rk dI k = 0, dI k = 0 .


k =3

( 2 I k Rk + )dI k = 0 ,

k =1

, I k . , dI1
. dI k , I 2 , I 3
.

2 I1 R1 + = 0,
2 I 2 R2 + = 0,

(3)

2 I 3 R3 + = 0.

(2),
I1 , I 2 , I 3 ,
(
).

165

I1 = I

R2 R3
,
R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2

I2 = I

R1 R3
,
R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2

I3 = I

R2 R1
.
R2 R3 + R1 R3 + R1 R2

,
, , .
,
.
2.2.1. . (. 2.17) R = R1 ,
P1 .
,
,r
R = R2
?

R
, , . 2.17
( ) .
r . , R ,

P = I 2R ,
I ,

I=
.
R+r

166

P( R) =

2R

( R + r )2

(1)

P1 = P ( R1 ) = P( R2 ) r . (1) R = R1 R = R2

2 R1

2 R2

( R1 + r )2 ( R2 + r )2

r = R1 R2 .

(2)

(1) (, R = R1 )

P1

R1 + R2 .

(1).
. 2.18. , ,
Pmax ,
P

R1 P
max

R2 ( P
1
I ). R1
R2 (2).
, R1 = r ,

R1

R2
. 2.18

R2 = r . ,
Pmax . ,
-

167

r , r .

2
.
4r
, (1) . ,
() . ,

Pmax =

I 2R
R
=
,
I
R+r

50 % (
).
2.2.2. . 1 2 r1
=

r2 R (. 2.19).
R
? ?
1 , r 1
. I1
R

2 , r2 I
2

P = I 2R ,
I

R
. 2.19

(1)

I ,
R ,
1 , 2 , r1 r2 . ,

168

.
I ,
(1).

(. . 2.1)
I1 + I 2 I = 0,
I1r1 + IR = 1 ,
I 2 r2 + IR = 2 .


I=

r1 2 + r2 1
.
r1r2 + Rr1 + Rr2

(1)
2

r +r
P= 1 2 2 1 R.
r1r2 + Rr1 + Rr2

(2)

dP / dR
. .
. ,

P( R) =

2R

( R + r )2

(3)

R = r . (2) (3),
, (2)
R=

r1r2
,
r1 + r2

(4)

.. R

169

. (4) (2),

( r + r ) ( r1 + r2 ) .
= 1 2 2 1
2

Pmax

4r1r2

2.2.3. . ,
R = 2,0 , = 15 r = 3,0 . ,
, . 2.20?
. 2.21.
, .. ( ). P = I 2 R
, . P = IU ,

I, A

IR

, r

Ir

4 6 8 U, B

. 2.20

. 2.21

- (. . 2.20). ,

( ).

170


1 2, ()
. () 2 1 = U .
, . ,
U . I , 1 2,
, .
, - U , I .
,
I (U ) I (U ) . ,
U I (U ) I (U ) . (, )
U , I (U ) = I (U ) .
I (U )
, ,
, .
IR R = U ,
Ir r = U ,
I r I R I = 0.


I=

1 1
U + ,
r
r R


U
I = 5 1
6

171

(
. 2.20) . : I 1 ,
U 5 . , ,
P = I U 5 .
2.2.4. .
U = 12 .

I = 2 ,
I 0 = 3 ? ?
, , , :
? , . ( ),
(
).
, , ,
.
, , UI . P ,

, I 2 R , R , .
UI = P + I 2 R .

(1)

(.. )

172

UI 0 = I 0 2 R .

(2)

, :

I
P = UI 1 = 8 ,
I0
:
P
I
= 1 = 1/ 3 .
UI
I0
, (1) (2) , I
I 0 :
=

I0 =

P
+I >I .
IR

2.2.5. .
C ?
R
,
.
2

C
1
, . R
K
(. 2.22). . 2.22
K t = 0
, .
, ,
.. I .

Q = RI 2 dt .

173


I (t ) . ,
. 1R 2 :
IR = 1 2 + .

, I = dq / dt 1 2 = q / C ,

dq q / C
=
.
dt
R

( q = 0 t = 0 )
t

q = qm 1 e RC

qm = C
t .

dq
t
I=
= I 0 exp
,
dt
RC
I 0 = / R .
,

2t
RC dt

Q = RI 2 (t )dt = I 0 2 R e

174

Q=

I 0 2 R 2C C 2
=
.
2
2

,
, . ,
.
2.2.6. . a b ,
a < b . . t = 0
q0 . , .

,
. Q

Q = Q dVdt .
Q (, ).
,

:

1
Q = E 2 ,

E q :

175

E=

q
.
40 r 2


dV = 4r 2 dr ,

Q=

1 b q 2 (t )4r 2 dr
.
dt
0 a 4 r 2 2

Q=

ba 2
q (t )dt .
4 2 0 2 ab 0

(1)

,
. R , C .

IR =

q
,
C

(2)

I .
, :
dq
I =
.
(3)
dt
(2) (3)

dq
1
+
q=0.
(4)
dt RC
2.1.4 ,
, 176

, RC = 0 . (4)
dq
q
+
=0.
dt 0

, ,

t
q (t ) = q0 exp
.
0
(1)

Q=

q0 2 (b a )
.
80 ab

,
W :

W=

q0 2
.
2C

177

3.
3.1.
G
Idl
GG
G 0 I dlr
dB =
,
4 r 3
G
I ; dl ,
dl , -

; 0 = 4 107 / .
G
j

GG
G 0 jr dV
dB =
,
4 r 3
G
dV . jdV G
. B

:
GG
GG
G 0 I dlr
G 0 jr dV
B=
, B=

r3 .
4 L r 3
4 V
q , G
v ,
GG
G 0 q [ vr ]
,
B=
4 r 3

, -

178

( , r / c G
v ).
, , G
G G
: v BdS = 0 B S . , G
B (.. , ).
, ,
G
B .
, , G
G G
B : v Bdl = 0 I k G
B L 0 ,
.


G
G
G
div B = 0, rot B = 0 j ,
()
G
G
G
B = 0, B = 0 j .
3.1.1. ( ).
.
. . G
pm .
G
G
pm = ISn ,

179

G
I ; S , ; n ,

(. 3.1). ,
.

pm

n
4

r4
r1

3r

I
. 3.1

r2
a

. 3.2

,
, , .
, (
) a << r
(. 3.2). P ,
G
G
B , r
G
G
n r .
G
B P
G i =4 G
: B = Bi ,
i =1

G
Bi = 0
4

GG
I dli ri

180

ri 3

i - ( 1, 2, 3 4 . 3.2). P ,

GG
G 0 I [ ai ri ]
Bi =
.
4 ri 3
G
ai , i -
G
, a ; ri -,
i - P (.
. 3.2).
G
G
B1 B3 :
GG
GG
[ a1r1 ] [ a3 r3 ]
3 + 3 .
r3
r1
G
G
, a3 = a1 r1 = r3 r .
G G I
B1 + B3 = 0
4

G G G
G G 0 I a1 ( r1 r3 )
B1 + B3 =
.
4
r3
G G G
GG
, . 3.2 , r1 r3 = a2 [ a1a2 ] =
G
= a 2 n . ,
G G Ia 2 nG pG
B1 + B3 = 0 3 = 0 m3
4r
4r
G
G
( , Ia 2 n pm ).
G
G
B2 B4 :

G
G I
B2 + B4 = 0
4

G G
G G
[ a2 r2 ] [ a4 r4 ]
3 +
.
r43
r2

181

(1)

r >> a

a
a
r4 r + sin , r2 r sin .
2
2

G G
G G

G
G
a2 r2 ]
a4 r4 ]
[
[
0 I

.
B2 + B4 =
+
3
3
3
4r
a
a


1 + 2r sin
1 2r sin


G
G
G G G

a4 = a2 , r4 r2 = a1
G G
G
r4 + r2 2r
G
G
I G G
3 Ia
G G
B2 + B4 = 0 3 [ a4 a1 ] 0 4 sin [ a4 r ]
(2)
4r
4r
( (1 + x)3
1
G G
1 x x  1 ). [ a4 a1 ]
1+ x
2G
a n , (2)

G
3
0 pm / 4r .

G
P
,
n
r O
r
G
G
pm r .


(. 3.3). I
. 3.3
(2)
G G
3 0 Ia 2 r
G 3 0 [ pm r ] G
sin =
.
4r 4
r4
1 + 3 x,

182

G G
G
G
3 0 [ pm r ] G
0 G
B2 + B4 =
pm +
.
4r 3
4r 4

(3)

, (1) (3),

G G
G G
G
30 [ pm r ] G
0 G
(4)
,
B = Bn + B =
pm +
2r 3
4r 4
G
G
Bn B . 3.4.
G
B . ,
G
E
? G
G
.
Bn
B
G

pm

(4) G
G
G
pm r . r B


I
G G G
G 3 0 ( pm r ) r 0 pG m
.
(5)
B=

4r 5
4r 3
. 3.4

G
E ( (5) 1.1.5).
G
B . (4) (5),

B=

0 pm
1 + 3cos 2 ,
4r 3

183

(6)


G
E . ( ).
3.1.2. . ,
.
. G
, dB
G
Idl
G
, dB dB :

B=

0 I dl sin
r2 ,
4

P (. 3.5). ,
dl sin = rd . B
B=

dl
r
d
P

. 3.5

0 I d
,

4 r ()

(1)


,
.
(1).
1. .
r () = R ,
R .

184

B=

0 I
4

0
R = 2R .
0

2. , a b . ,
r () =

p
,
1 + e cos

p = b 2 / a ; e = a 2 b 2 / a > 1 .

B=

0 I
4

(1 + e cos ) d

0 I 0 aI
.
=
2p
2b 2

3. b
(. 3.6). r ( ) r ( ) = b / cos .
B=

0 I
4

cos d 0 I
.
=
b
2b
/ 2
/ 2

0
r

b
I

I
. 3.7

. 3.6

4. n -,
R (. 3.7). , B1 n -
185

.
0 = 2 / n , b = R cos 0 / 2 . ,

0 I 0 / 2
I
I
cos d = 0 tg 0 = 0 tg .

4b 0
2R
2 2R n

B1 = 2

B = nB1 =

0 In
tg .
2R n

, n ( lim n (n tg / n) = ).
5. .
N ,
I . I

a
b (. 3.8). B
. 3.8
.

r ( ) = a +

ba
,
2N

0 2N .

B=

0 I
4

0 IN
d
b
ln .
=
b
a

0 a+
2 (b a ) a
2N

2 N

1
dS = r 2 d ,
2

2

pm =

I 2
I 2 N
ba
NI 2
d =
r d = a +
a + ab + b 2 .

2
2 0
2N
3

186

3.1.3. . R
,
.
(. 3.9).
I .
. N .
R
, , n
.
n -
n , . 3.9
: n = n / 2 N .
,

rn = R sin n :
Bn =

0 I
I
dl sin n = 0 sin 2 n .
2
2R
4R

N
B = Bn =

0 I
2R

sin 2

n =1

n
.
2N

:
N

sin 2 nx =

n =1

N cos ( N + 1) x sin Nx
.

2
2sin x

x = / 2 N .

B=

0 I ( N + 1)

4R

187

3.1.4. .
,
l , I , .
.
, . -,
, -, , , . .
, O , ,
.

. A B
I / 3 (. 3.10, ). C
2I / 3 .

I /3

I /3
C

B
A

A
I /3

2I/3

2/I3

C
I/3

. 3.10

( ) CC . ,

188

CC . A
2 I / 3 (. 3.10, ). B C
I / 3 .
AA , . ,
. A I , C (
). B
, .. . ,
AA CC , , . , O ( !).
3.1.5. , .
,
, -
,
. G
i . ,
, ,
, (
). , G
i ,
B& = 0 i / 4 . ,
(
. 1.1.12).
-

189

S = a b (. 3.11). r , ,
S , .
S
G G
GG
G 0 b a i , r 0 S ir
B =
=
.
4r 3
4r 3

B
B&
r

b
a

X
. 3.11


, X , Z S (.
. 3.11).
G
Y B
Y (


G
i)
GG
0 S ir
y
.
By =
3
4r

GG
, ir = i z = ir cos .
y

By =

0i S cos
.

4
r2

S cos / r 2
, S . ,

By =

0i
.
4

190


,
i
B& = 0 .
(1)
4

(
). ,
(1) .
1.
, G
i .
G
B G
i . (1) G
B :
1
B = 0i ,
2
= 2 .
2. ,
G
i . ?
,
(1).
, , i

B
(. 3.12).
,
. 3.12

191

, , 4 ,
B = 0i ,

, , ( !).
3. , a , j . .
(1),
dx , ,
G (. 3.13). A
B ,
, j : di = jdx .
dx
, j
h
A , = 4 / 6 . (1)
a
dB = 0 jdx / 6 . ,
. 3.13
,

B=

0
j a 3 0 ja
.
jh = 0
=
6
6 2
4 3

3.1.6. . R
I .
h << R , . B
r >> R .
(..
h << R )
,

192

(
).
G
B :
G
B G
B1 ,
G G
G
B = B + B1 .
G
G
B . B1 r
.

G G

0
v B1dl = 0 I B1 = 2r ,

h
h
I
, 2R h
2R
h .
G
B
,
G
B. = 0 ,
I = I

B. =

0 I
I
0 .
2 ( r + R ) 2r

r .
,

B = B. + B1

193

0 I h

,
2r 2R


B = B. B1

0 I
h
1

2r 2R

G
G
( , B B1 , I I
).
3.1.7. .

, H
l .
G
j .
G
, B
.
, .

G G
G
B = B0 B ,
G
B0 , G
( ); B
, , , . ,
r .
G
, B
G
. B ,

2rB = 0 r 2 j B =
194

0 jr
.
2

B
r

r
l O

. 3.14

(. 3.14, )

G 1
GG
B = 0 jr
2
( ).

G 1
GG 1
GG
B = 0 jr 0 jr =
2
2
G G G
1
= 0 j ,(r r ) ,
2

G
G
r r . 3.14, .
G G G
r r = l ,
G 1
GG
B = 0 jl .
2
!
3.1.8. .
a h , .
I .

195

B r
.
G
i
:
G G G
i = i + i& ,
G
G
i i& . 3.15, .
. 3.15, :
2

i = i cos = i 1 sin 2 =

I
.
2a

2a

i& = i sin =

I
h
1
,
h
2a

2a

h
i&

. 3.15

, i (. 3.16, ). G
, B G
, B .
, l (. . 3.16, ).

196

l
i

l
i&

. 3.16


, , , , .
, (. 3.16, ).

B l = 0li .

I
h
= 0i = 0 1
,
h
2R
2

(1)

.. .
, i&
(. 3.16, ).
G
, B
i& . , , i& ,

0i& R

0 I
(2)
r
2r
( ).
, (1) (2)
, I.
B =

197

, I
,
, G
B , (1), ,
, (2).
,
, h 0 I 0 ,
I / h = i = const .
B = 0i
. B = 0 nI , n (
).
3.1.9. . R n
. I . x ,
.

,
. ,
dx

d
r
dx (. 3.17)
X
R
x . ,
x i
0 x
, . 3.17

x :
dB =

0idx2R
sin .
4r 2

198

. 3.17, i . .
.
.
dx sin = rd r = R / sin

B=

0i
i
sin d = 0 ( cos 1 cos 2 ) .
2
2

1 2 , x .

cos 1 = 1, cos 2 =

x + R2
2

(1)

In ,

B=

0 In
1
2

.
x2 + R2
x

,
x < 0 . , B& = 0 i / 4 , 3.1.5

[ ,
x
= 2(1 cos 2 ) , cos 2 B0
(1)].
G
B , . 3.18.
. 3.18
: 199

G
, B
(. ).
. 3.18 .
, Bn
. ,
Bn + Bn = B0 , B0
. B = Bn =
= B0 / 2 = 0 In / 2 .

3.1.10. .
I , , (. 3.19). ,

I
A , O
O
r .

-
rA

G
B S
. . 3.19
G
B r sin , A .
B 2r sin = 0 I .

(1)

I I ,
O . , ,
I = I / 2 , , I .
:

200

S
= 2 (1 cos ) .
r2

(1)

B=

0 I 2 (1 cos )
2r sin 2

0 I
tg / 2 .
2r

3.1.11. .
R . ,
.
, - ,
, , .
( ) - , . .
,
. , ,
Z
, .
dS
r
, R
A
+ d

d
(. 3.20). Z
O
G
( . 3.20
O ). ,
dq

201

dI = dq / 2 ,

dq = dS = 2R 2 sin d . dI
dI = R 2 sin d .

Rd
i = R sin = i0 sin ,
i0 = R.
, , .
1.2.9 ,
. , , , .
, ,
, . ,
, .
.
,
:

dpm = dI ( R sin ) = R 2 sin d R 2 sin 2 =


2

= R 4 sin 3 d .

202

G
G
4R 4
pm =
.
3
3.1.1
G
(5) B ,
GG G G
G R 4 0 3 ( r ) r

B=
3,
(1)

5
3 r
r
G
G
r . B

B=

R 4 0
1 + 3cos 2
3r 3

G
( ).
.
, .
G
B
Z ( Z
). , A
Z dS (. . 3.20),
dB =

0idS R sin
.
4r 3

i
dS = 2R 2 sin d ,
Z ; r A , z . r
. 3.20, :

r = R 2 + z 2 2 Rz cos

1/ 2

. , i = i0 sin ,

dB

203

dB =

0 i0 R 3
sin 3 d
2
R 2 + z 2 2 Rz cos

3/ 2


= z / R ( 0 1) .
Z
B () =

0i0
2

sin 3 d

(1 +

2 cos

3/ 2

u = cos , 4/3. , B Z

B=

2 0i0
.
3

i0 = R

G 2
G
B = 0 R .
3

(2)


G
B , ,
( ) (2).
,
(
).
.
-

204

( G
B ). (1)

Bn

r =R

2
= 0 R cos
3

G
( , n
G
r ).
(2)

Bn
Bn

r =R

2
= 0 R cos .
3

. G
B
, , , ,
( . 3.20 ).
, G
B
r=R

Bn

r =R

r =R

r =R

= 0i

(3)

(
). (1) (2)
B

r =R

0 R
sin , B
3

r =R

2 0 R
sin .
3

, i = R sin , (3)
. , , , , .

205

3.2.


G G
G
(1)
dF = I dl , B ,
G
dl , .
G
j ,

G
G G
dF = j , B dV .

(2)

(1) (2) ( ), , . , , ,
G G
G
(3)
F = I v dl , B ,
I . (3)

G
G
B
F = pm
,
n
G
pm ; B / n G
G
B n .
G
G
B , pm
.
X ,
B
Fx = pm x .
n

206

G
M

G
G G
M = pm B .

,
A = Id ,

A ; d
.
,

A = I ( 2 1 ) ,
1 2
G G
= BdS .
S

3.2.1. .

R ,
.
. R ?

. , ,
.
? , , ,
(. 3.21).
, -

207

.
,
R
F

I


F . F

. 3.21
( ) .
, .
,
,
F = E ,

+ I +

E ,
.

E=
,
20l
l .

F =

2
.
20l

,
,
F = IB ,
B ,
I (. 3.1.2)

B=

0 I
.
2l

208

F =

0 I 2
.
2l

F 0 0 I 2
=
,
F
2

F 0 0 U
= 2 ,
F
R
2

U .
1.3.2,

U=

ln .
0

F 0 ln 2
=
.
F 0 2 R 2
R0 ,
, F / F = 1 .
R0 =

0 ln
.
0

R < R0 , , R > R0
. ,
, ,
.

209

3.2.2. . m q
G
B . ,
G
B .
, .
, .
G
B
.
G
G

pm
d
G
,
G dL
L
, . . 3.22.
I
. 3.22
I = q / 2 .
G
G G
M = pm B , G
G
pm B .
G
G
M pm
G
L G
B
.
.

210



G
dL G
=M .
(1)
dt
G
G G
dt L dL = Mdt ,
dL = L sin d , d = dt G
L dt . ,

dL L sin dt
=
= L sin .
dt
dt

(2)

(1) dL / dt G
G G
M = pm B .
M = pm B sin .

(3)

(2) (3),
L sin = pm B sin .

pm B
.
L
pm L .
R,
=

qR 2
2
( , >> , G
G
G
L pm ).
,
L = mR 2 ,

pm = I R 2 =

qB
.
2m

211


. ,
,
G
G
G
B ( pm ).
.
3.2.3. .
() r I .
G
pm . , ,
.
,
,
G
G
B
F = pm
.
n
G
G
B / n B G
n G
pm . ,

. G
r
G
G
G
G
r pm . B1 B2 -

G G
G
G
B = B2 B1 . B / n B / r , , ,
G
B .
G
, pm (. 3.23, ). -

212

G
r .

G G
G G
G
, B1 = B2 B = B2 B1 = 0 .

B / r , , , , ,
, .

G
B2
I

G
B1

.I

G
B1
r

.I

F =0

G
B2

G B
B2 G
B1
r

. 3.23

G
pm -G
G
G
r . r r (. 3.23, ,
G
G
pm r -

). , B (r ) = 0 I / 2r .

G
G
I
dB
B = B2 B1
r = 0 2 r ,
dr
2r
G
G
G
B ( F ) B
.
G
B
B 0 Ipm
F = pm
.
= pm
=
n
r
2r 2
G
pm G
G
G
B pm B . -

213

G
G
r pm , ..
G
G
B (. 3.23, , pm G
r ). r r .
G
G
G
r
B = B2 B1 B = B .
r
G
B G
B , ( B
G
B ). G
B / n
G
B B B

= .
n r r
, ,
G
B Ip
B
F = pm
= pm = 0 2m ,
r
n
2r
G
B , .. .
3.2.4. . ,
(. 3.24). l
.
N ,
l
S . ,
I1 I 2 ?
I2
I1


. 3.24

214

( ).
pm1 = I1SN ,

pm 2 = I 2 SN .

(1)

, , , X . , , ,
, .

F = pm 2

B
.
x

(2)

B / x ,

. 3.1.1 x :
B ( x) =

0 pm1
.
2x 3

B / x
x = l (2). (1)

F=

3 0 I1 I 2 ( NS )
2l 4

, , , , .
3.2.5. .
I ,
. d , R .

215


?
, , .
. . 3.25 ,
.
.

dF

F
T

T
d

B
I
R
F
. 3.25

. 3.26


dl . T (. 3.26)
dF . dl
dF = Td ,
(1)
d , . . 3.26

dF = Idl B = IRBd .
(1) (2)

(2)

Td = IRBd T = IRB .

, m

216

T m

d 2
= T / d 2 / 4 m .
4

B d 2 m / 4 RI .
3.2.6. . , n , I .
, .

, .
dS ,
dF .
P=

dF
.
dS

, dF ,
,
dF = idS B = IndS B .

i (,
); B
,
, .
. 3.27,
1
dS (
B
).
1 2

. 3.27

217

dS , 2 .
B 1 2 ,
(
G
B ).
dS B
B
dS
(. 3.28, B
). B
, . 3.27, , ,
. 3.28
. , 1 , 2
0i = 0 In (. 3.1.8).

B B = 0,
B + B = 0i.
B = 0 i / 2 = 0 In / 2 .

( In )
dF
P=
= InB = 0
.
2
dS
2

3.2.7. - . I n - ,
. , , , ,
1 2 .
dz (. 3.29). dl

218

dF = i dzdl B ,

i . : dFr dFz .

dFr , , .
dF dFr
,
B
F = dFz , dFz =
dFz
= i dzdl B cos .
dzdl B cos
I
Z
d

dS = dzdl ,
dFz = id .

. 3.29


( ),
F = i ,


.
G G
v BdS = 0

= 1 2 .
,

F = i 1 2 = In 1 2 .

(1)

, , . R .

219

I
(. 3.30). F
I
- ,
.

. 3.30
, , (1).
1 ,
. , , ,
( 2 = 0 ) .

3.1.9 : B = 0i / 2 .
1 = 0 iR 2 / 2 = 0 nI R 2 / 2 .

F = i1 =

0 n 2 I 2 R 2
.
2

3.2.8. . a b .
l . I , .
, .
,

. .

220

.
, , . .
,
.
, . , . , .
.
. 3.1.7 , , , ,

G 1
GG
B = 0 jl .
2
G
G
j ; l (. 3.31).
G
B

1
B = 0 jl .
2
, ,
() I . ,
, ,

1
F = 0 jl I .
2
221

G
j

. 3.31

G
B

, j = I / a 2 b 2 ,

F=

0 I 2l

2 a 2 b 2

3.2.9. .
(. 3.32), ,
,
. U , B . L ,
b , .
h ( ) .
N

S

F
h
A
. Gj

B
m g
L
S b (. 3.32).
. 3.32
j (, ).

FA = j S b B .

m g ( m
)
N . ,
,

222

tg =

FA
.
m g

m g
mg = S b g , FA
j . E U

j = E =

U
.
b


tg =

U S bB UB
=
.
b S bg
bg

h

h = L tg =

UBL
.
bg

3.2.10. .

a
B (. 3.33).
G
B
B j
dS
b
I . a
I
P
, L
.

. 3.33
, -

223


dS b
dFA = jdS b B . ( j = I / aL ) , , , , ,

FA = dFA = jaLbB = IbB .


P=

FA IbB
=
.
ab
a

3.2.11. .
R I . P(r ) , .
-
.
,
dS
j
r I r
dr (. 3.34).
dF
B

dS
dr
dr . ,
, dS ,
. 3.34
.

.
B

224

dS . G
B

B 2r = 0 j r 2 ,

(1)

j = I / R 2 . (1)

B (r ) =

0 jr
.
2

, dS :

dF = jB dS dr =

0 j 2 r
dSdr ,
2

dP =

dF 0 j 2
r dr .
=
dS
2

(2)

dr .
, , r < r < R , (2):

P=

0 j 2 R
j2 2
r dr = 0
R r2 .

2 r
4

( j = I / R )
2

0 I 2
R2 r 2 .
2 4
4 R

P=

I
Pm = 0
.
2R
225

3.3. .


, .
. : , , .
G
B :
G G
(1)
v Bdl = 0 ( I + I ) .

,
G
B ( I ) ,

( I ) .

,
G
, B .
,
G
G B G
H=
J ,
(2)
0
G
J ( )
G
1
J=
V

pm .
V

V .
G
J ,

226

, :
G G
(3)
v Jdl = I .
G
(3) , J . ,
.
(1)(3)
:
G G
v Hdl = I ,
, .
, G
B .
,

G
G
J H , :
G
G
J = H ,
(4)
, . , , , .
, .. .
. , J ( H )
( ). , (4), (2)

227

G
G
B = 0 H ,

(5)

= 1 + . , (5)
,
, .
G
H , ,
, ( G
B ). G
B ,
.
G
H , , , ,
G
. H G
. B
.
, ,
G
G
G
B H , B
(
).

. G
G G
B : v BdS = 0
G
G G
H : v Hdl = I .
. ( ).
,

228

, ..
G
G
B = 0, j = 0 .
.
, ( ).
G G
G
3.3.1. J B , H . ,
()
(). , , I ,
G
B .
I , , ( ) . ,
.
J
,
G
J
l
.
i
. 3.35. G
. 3.35
J .
-

229


, . , .
i . , . i J .
G
J , . 3.35 ( ):
G G
v Jdl = I Jl = il i = J
G
G
(, i J ).
,

i = J .

= 0.
B
= 0i = 0 J , B

H = B / 0 J

H = 0,

H = 0 ( J = 0 ).

,
G
J

(. 3.36). ,
i
i
J
,
i
(
).
. 3.36
, -

230

B = 0i / 2 ,
G
B
G
( J ), ..
G
G

B
= 0 J ,
, ..
= 0 .
B

H = H = 0 .
G
J
(. 3.37). I

, ,
:

=0.
B
= B

G
G
H = J , H = 0 .

J i

. 3.37

. 3.38


G
R J
(. 3.38). , -

231

i ,

. i G
J ,
G
J ( ):
G G
v Jdl = I Jl sin = il i = J sin .
, i . , ,
. , 3.1.10,

i = i0 sin , i0 = J . 3.1.10
G
2 G

= 0 J ,
B
(1)
3

G
G
B G
1G
H =
J = J .
0
3
. 3.1.10 ,
, . ,
G 4
G
G
pm = V J = R 3 J .
3
( 3.1.1)

232

G G G
G
0 3 ( pm r ) r G
pm ,
B=

4r 3 r 2

:
G G G
G
0 R 3 3 J r r G
=
J ,
B

3r 3 r 2

G
3 J rG rG G

J.
r2

G
J G
B G
B0 (

). .
G
. B0
.
G
G
B0 B :
G
G

B
R3
H =
= 3
0
3r

G G
G G
G
B = B0 + B = B0 + 0 J ,
G
G
G
J = H = B / 0 :
G
G G B
B = B0 +
.

G
G
B = B0 ,
.. .

233


J=

B 1
=
B0 .
0
0

.
, , ,
G
G
B = B0

( ),
J=

1
B0 .
0

,
G G
B = B0

( ),
J=

1
B0 .
0

G
, B0 ,
B = B0 sin 2 + 2 cos 2 .

G
. B (
) (1):
G 2 G
B = 0 J .
3
:

234

G G
G G 2 G
B = B0 + B = B0 + 0 J ,
3
G
G
G
J = H = B / 0 :
G G 2 G
B = B0 +
B.
3

G
3 G
B =
B0
+2

G 3( 1) G
J=
B0 .
( + 2) 0



. , , . , .
, , ,
. . , .
,
, , .
3.3.2. . , ,
I . R . B
H .

235



.
I
I
I
I
( > 0, > 1) .
G
. 3.39
B .

I
, (. 3.39).
,
I I ,
I I . , I = I .
G G
v Jdl = I

, . G
, J = 0 , , ..
I + I = 0 . , I I .
, I
G
G
. J = H
G G
I = v Hdl .
I ,
I = I .

. I
I = I , I , G
, B -

236

. I I .
B H . H .
G
H r

2rH = I H (r ) =

I
.
2r

,
.

B (r < R) = 0 H =

0 I
I
, B(r > R) = 0 H = 0 .
2r
2r

B
H (. 3.40).

i
H
B

I
. 3.41

. 3.40

(. 3.41).
B

I

H . G
G
, B H
, ,
I . -

237

I
i . , I = I = ( 1) I . H
G
H r :

2rH = I H =

I
= H0 .
2r

H H 0
.

B0 = 0 H 0 =

0 I
I
, B = B0 = 0 .
2r
2r

i ,
, i . l , .

Jl = il i = J
J = H = ( 1) H

i =

( 1) I
2r

I
(. 3.42).
G
, B
:
B = B0

238

(1)

G G
v BdS = 0 ). -

I
- I
, , I

. H H 0

. 3.42
. . (1).
G
H r
rH + rH 0 = I .

(2)

H = H 0 .

(3)

(1)

(2), (3) :

H=

I
I
, H0 =
,
(1 + ) r
(1 + ) r

B = B0 = 0 H =

0 I
.
(1 + ) r

H ,

, ( ).
3.3.3. .
d = 50 N = 1000 . b = 1

239

(. 3.43).
I = 0,85 .
, b ,
d
:
)
B = 0,9 ;
) . 3.43
.

B = 0 H .

(1)

B H . G
H ,
d :

( d b ) H + bH 0 = NI ,

(2)

G
H H 0 H
,
(1):
H=

B
B
, H0 = 0 .
0
0

(3)

,
,
B = B0 .
(4)
(2)(4)

( d b ) B
0 NI bB

d B
= 8, 43 103 .
0 NI bB
240

, B ( H ) .
(2) , B H

B
d H + b
= NI
(5)
0
( , b << d B = B0 ).
(5)

B=

NI 0 d 0

H 1,07 1,97 H (/).


b
b

(6)

, B H , . 3.44. B H , , (6) ( ) B ( H ) . B = 0,9 ,


H = 0,08 /.
B
=
8,9 103 .
0 H
,
1,25
1,0
0,75
0,5
0,25

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

. 3.44

241

0,6

0,7

, /

3.3.4. . , , , (. 3.45).
, . ,
I ? n .

B

h

, dx
. , ,
S
, .

, . 3.45
S
( ).
dx

dF = dpm

dB
,
dx

dpm ; dB / dx
. ,
, ?
G
? B G
: B0 , G
, B , -

242

.
G
: B0
G
B . , G
B
. G
. , B
B0 = 0 H , H
.
S ,
dpm
dpm = JdV = H ( x) Sdx = ( 1) SH ( x)dx ,

J ; . dF

dB
= ( 1) 0 SHdH .
dx


dF = ( 1) HSdx

H0

( 1) 0 SH 0 2

F = ( 1) 0 S HdH =

H 0 : H 0 = nI (
,
).

F=

( 1) 0 Sn2 I 2
2

243

(1)

,
h
( )

mg = Shg .

(2)

(1) (2),
h=

0 ( 1) n 2 I 2
2g

3.3.5. .


h .
I . , .
, . ,
.
, .
.
-
. . ,
.

244

. G
, E
.
G
E
.
G
? , B
.
G
B . ,
S1
S1 ,
S2
, S 2 B=0
G
(. 3.46). B = 0
. 3.46
,
G G
v BdS = 0 , Bn S1
G
, .. B .
,
,
, . ,

I I
I
, I .

(. 3.47).
,
I .

245

I
B+

h
r
.

. 3.47


i
. G
B G
B . .
3.46 ( ). G G
v Bdl = 0 I ,
i =

B
,
0

(1)

.. i
B , :
G G
G
B = B+ + B .
G
G
B+ I , B I .
I
B+ = B = 0 , r = x 2 + h 2 .
2r
G
G
B+ B ,
B=2

0 I h 0 Ih
=
.
2r r r 2

(1)

i =

Ih

x + h2
2

F =

0 I 2
.
h

246

3.3.6. .
h
m
?
G
,
pm
,
B
(- A
I
).
h
,
h

I
B
- A

G
pm
-


G
p m
(. 3.48). . . 3.48
, .

F = mg ,

(1)

F . ,

( ). ,
, .. G
pm . , ,
, A A
(. . 3.48). -

247

, . B B ,
, .
, .

G
pm , ,
F = pm

B
,
x

(2)

G
B / x pm .
, ( (6) 3.1.1 = 0 ):
B ( x) =

0 pm
2.
4x3

(2),

F = pm

3 0 pm
2x 4

=
x=2h

3 0 pm 2
.
32h 4

(1)
1/ 4

1 3 p 2
h= 0 m
2 2mg

248

4.

4.1.
, , .
, .
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, , , .
,

. . ,
,
, .
i

i =

d
.
dt

(1)


: ,
, . (1) , , , 249


. ,
, GG
vB .
. .
G
E
G G

v E dl = t ,

G
G
B
rot E =
.
t

, ,
.
,
, , ,

s = L

dI
,
dt

(2)

L .
250


.
(3)
I
(2) , s
L=

, . (3) ,
,
,
. . , ,
(. ).
.
,

I=

i + s
R

1 d
.
R dt

R = 0 ,
d / dt = 0 . , , , . , ,
, .
, ,
B a L .
G
B . I ,
. ,
I L I ,

251

a 2 B . LI = a 2 B , I = a 2 B / L . ,
.
1
2
dI
dI
i 2 = L21 1 , i1 = L12 2 ,
dt
dt
L12 L21 .


2 = L21 I1 , 1 = L12 I 2 .

L12 = L21 .

I L
,

W=

1 2
LI .
2

(4)

(4), ,
B H
GG
B2
BH
(5)
W =
dV =
dV .
2 0
2

-
.

252

(4) (5)

L=

1 B2
dV .

I 2 0

(6)

L ,
(3). (6)
,
, . ,

.
,
(3) (6) ,
. a
b .

.
dV r dr .

L =

1 b B2
2rdr .
I 2 0 0

(7)

G
B ,

Br < a =

0 I
I
r , Ba < r <b = 0 , Br >b = 0.
2
2r
2a

(7)

253

0 1
b
(8)
+ ln .
2 4
a
(3),
L =

1
1b
b
L = B (r )dr = 0 + ln .
I0
2 2
a

, (8).
,
.
4.1.1. . R1
R2 B , (. 4.1).
C1 ,
C2

C2 . G
B
R 2 ,
R1

C1
.
. 4.1
-
( )
.
,
. dt
1
d = dt dS = R 2 d .
2
1
d = BdS = BR 2 dt . 2
dt :

254

= 1 BR 2 .

2
,
, ,
1 2 , , 1 + 2 ,
1
1
BR12 , 2 = BR2 2 .
2
2
.
, :
1 =

U1 =

B R12 R22 C2
2 ( C1 + C2 )

, U2 =

B R12 R22 C1
2 ( C1 + C2 )


, .
4.1.2. .
, r , l m (. 4.2).
B , ,r
. g
v
, G
, B
.
. 4.2
mg
FA .
,
Ir = i + .
(1)

255

i = d / dt ,
(
). , ,
i = Bl v .
(2)
(1) (2)
I=

+ Bl v
.
r

dv
+ Bl v
lB .
= mg FA = mg
dt
r

(3)


. , (3) d v / dt = 0 .
,
mgr lB
.
v=
B 2l 2
, mg > lB / r , , .
.
L
(. 4.3). t = 0
l
B
L
v0
X v0 . ,
x(t ) .
. 4.3

256

, . i ,
, .
. , , ,
, .
. s , , . .
, I lB ,
mv = IlB .

(4)

,
. ,
: i + s = 0 , s = LdI / dt , i = Bl v . :
LI Bl v = 0 .

(5)

, (4), (5), x(t ) ,


I (t ) .
(4):
 .
m
v = IlB
I
(5) v :

257

m
v=

l 2 B2
v,
L

m

v + 2 v = 0 ,

(6)

lB
mL

(7)

(6) , , ,

v(t) = v0 cos t .

,
x(t ) =

v0
sin t ,

(7).
,
( !). ,
(4),
I (t ) =

mv
m
= v0
sin t
lB
L

( ).
,
I 0 = v0

m
L


mv0 2 LI 0 2
=
.
2
2

258

,
.
4.1.3. . n
I0 A / c .
. h , a b . .
, . -

S = b 2 a 2 , .
. ,
, .

,
.
j r E :
1
j = E .

E
:
G G
G G
(1)
v E dl = t BdS .
, ,

E .
(1)

259

E 2r =

B
r 2
t

(2)

( , ). (2)
E =

B r
.
t 2

, B = 0 nI 0 ( I 0
). E
E =

0 nI0
r.
2

,
r
j=

0 nI0
r.
2

I = jdS = jhdr =

0 nI0 h b 2 a 2
4

).

4.1.4. . m , q ,
. t = 0
,
. B (t ) . B .

.

260

E . , .

d
,
(1)
M =I
dt
M ; I I = mr 2 ( r ). .

M = E qr .
E
E =

B
r.
2

(1)
B
.
rqr = mr 2
2

,


G
G
Bq
=
2m

( , G
G
B ).
4.1.5. . a b l
I 0 (. 4.4). I 0 ,
R ?

261

, I0
?
b
I 0 ,
l
a
.

. 4.4

I (t ) .
i (t ) .
, .. , I .
,
. ,
.
i (t ) ,
I (t ) . F (t ) .
p = F (t )dt ,
. ,
, , ,
.
,

i (t ) = i ,
R
i , ,

i =

d
.
dt

262


( B = 0 I / 2r ) ,
(t ) = b

a +l

Bdr =
l

b 0 I (t ) a + l
ln
.
2
l

i (t ) =

0 b a + l dI
.
ln
2R
l
dt


.

F=

0bI i 1
1

.
2 l l + a

i (t ) ,
2

a
a+l 1 d 2
b
F (t ) = 0
ln
I (t ) .

l 2 dt
2 Rl ( l + a )
,

dI 1 dI 2
=
.
dt 2 dt

a
a+l
bI
p = F (t )dt = 0 0
ln
.
l
2 2 Rl ( l + a )
4.1.6. . L1 L2 ,
. , .

263

, ,
. ,
, . ,
.
.
,

1/ 2 L1 I12 + 1/ 2 L2 I 2 2 , I1 I 2 , L1 L2 .
1/ 2 LI 2 , I , L , L1 L2 . ,

1 2 1
1
LI = L1 I12 + L2 I 2 2 ,
2
2
2

(1)

.
.
, , :
I1 = I 2 = I .

(2)

(1) ,
L = L1 + L2 .

. , L :
I = I1 + I 2 .

(3)

, (1) (3)

LI = L1 I1 = L2 I 2 .

264

(4)

(3)
LI L1 I1 L2 I 2
=
+
.
L
L1
L2

(4)
1 1
1
= +
.
L L1 L2

,
, . ,
,
L .
4.1.7. . ( ) ,
.
L . .
. I
. L21 .
, ,
.
,
. 1 , , I1 :
L=

1
.
I1

265


L21 =

2
,
I1

2 .

, . ,
. 2

.
G G
v BdS = 0 1 . ,
2 = 1 / 3 . ,

L
.
3
4.1.8. . L21 = L12 .
L21 =

1. a I .
, r , r >> a .
, (. 3.1.1).
. r >> a .
I ,
a , L12 I = L21 I .
, 1 , a r ,
2 , r
a .
r >> a ,

266

0 I 2
a .
2r

, a , 1
r

1 B (r )2r dr .
0

, B (r )

I

2
0
B(r )2r dr = 2r a .
0

r ,

B (r )2r =

0 I 2
a
2r 2

( ).
B(r ) =

0 Ia 2
.
4r 3

2. I
O
a .
I
P (. 4.5), a
P
OO b . b
a
P
.
O
I
. 4.5
,
,
.
267

. ,
P , , I .
B = 0 I / 2r .
a +b
I
Ia a + b
.
= 0 adr = 0 ln
2
b
b 2 r
.
4.1.9. .
, L (. 4.6) K
t = 0.
I I
I1 K
I1 I 2 .
I2

L
R


R RL :
R
I 2 R + I1 R = ,
. 4.6

S = L

I2 R = S ,

dI
. ,
dt
I + I 2 = I1 .


I1 I 2 , I

dI R

L + I= .
dt 2
2

.

268

dI R
+ I =0.
dt 2

,
R
I = C exp t ,
2L

C .
, ,
I = / R .
R
I = C exp t + .
2L R

t = 0 , , ,
C = / R . ,

I=

R
1 exp t .

R
2L

4.1.10. . S ,
l m . B .
, ?
,
B .
? . .
.
.

269

. A
W ,

A =W =

B2
Sl .
2 0

, ..

B2
mv 2
Sl =
.
2 0
2

v= B

Sl
.
0 m

4.2.
, ,
( , , ).
,
: l << cT ,
l ; c ( ); T . (
, ),

( ).

270

,
.
, L
C .

, ,
.
R 0 ,

.

(. 4.7), .
R

( 1
L
), , - C
. 2
(2)
q > 0 . dt

. 4.7
dq > 0 :

dq = Idt ,

(1)

I (
(1)
I ).
1RL 2 (
!)

IR = 1 2 + s + ,

(2)

s = LdI / dt ; 1 2 = q / C
. (1) (2)

271

Lq + Rq +

q
= .
C

(3)

. . q(t ) ,

U C = q / C , .

0 2 =

1
R
, =
,
LC
2L

(3)
(t )
q + 2q + 0 2 q =
,
(4)
L
0 ,
.
= 0
, R = 0 .
, (4)
. , , (4)
.
.
4.2.1. .
L
. C , R . , .
, I ,
,

272


(. 4.8). q, L, + q :

dI
+U = 0 ,
dt

(1)

U ,

q = CU .

(2)

, U
I :
U = RI .

(3)

I I :

dq
= I I .
dt
- : , C, R
.
, ,
U .

(1)(4) q, I I ,

U + 2U + 2U = 0 ,
0

(4)
I

+q
I
q

. 4.8

(5)

0 2 =

1
1
, =
.
LC
2 RC
273

(6)

, (5)
< 0

U (t ) = U 0 exp(t )cos ( t + ) ,
,
= 0 2 2 =

1
1
2 2 .
LC 4 R C


C
:

1 R

.
LC 2 L
,

R (. 4.9).
4.2.2. . , C ,
.
,
.
, .
,
? , ,
. , , ,
(. 4.10).
. 4.9

274

2
C

+
L

+C
L

L C
+
O L

+
L

. 4.10

, . 4.10, , , .. .
,
. .
, . 4.10, ,
2
2.
C
C

L
.
L
O
,
- 1
3
C
. 4.11
(. 4.11). C = 3C / 2 , L = 2 L ( 4.1.6). ,

1
1
=
.
LC
3LC

4.2.3. .
C L1 (. 4.12).
, L2

275

I1

+q
C

L1

L2
L12


. L12 . .
,

= 1/ LC , L L1 . .
, .
L1 L2 .
, ?
CL1 . :
. 4.12

q
+ s1 + i1 = 0 .
C

(1)

s1 = L1dI1 / dt ,
I1 ; i1 = L12 dI 2 / dt , , L2 . I1 = dq / dt . ,
(1)

q
L1q L12 I2 = 0 .
C

(2)


q(t ) I 2 (t ) . ,
. , L2 :

276

s2 + i 2 = 0 ,

s 2 = L2 dI 2 / dt

(3)

i2 =

= L12 dI1 / dt . ,
(3)

L2 I2 L12 q = 0

(4)

( , I1 = q ). (2) (4) I 2 , q(t ) :

L 2 q
q L1 12 + = 0 .
L2 C

,
L1 L12 2 / L2 ,

(L L

1 2

L2

L12 2 C

4.2.4. . L ,
0 . C
. .
t = 0 .

.
.
,

.

277

RI =

d
dI
L .
dt
dt

 + LI = 0 .
R = 0 , ,
, 0 = LI 0 , I 0 .
q
dI
0= L ,
(1)
C
dt

I (t ) = I m cos ( 0t + ) .
I m

0 = 1/ LC . I m

dI
I (0) = I 0 ,
=0
dt t =0
( (1), t = 0
).
= 0 I m = I 0 . ,

I (t ) = I 0 cos 0 t =

0
t
cos
.
L
LC

4.2.5. .
K , . 4.13.
q, , + q
: q / C + LdI / dt = 0 .

278

q
=.
C

,
,
Lq +

L
+q
C
q
K

q = q0 sin ( 0t + ) + C ,

. 4.13

0 = 1/ LC , q0 q (0) = 0

dq
= I (0) = 0 ( dt t =0

). , q0

q0 sin + C = 0,
q0 0 cos = 0.

= / 2, q0 = C . ,

q (t ) = C (1 cos 0 t ) .

I (t ) = q = C 0 sin 0t ,

U=

q
= (1 cos 0t ) .
C


I max = C 0 =

279

C
,
L


U max = 2 .

4.2.6. . L R t = 0 U = U m cos t
(. 4.14). .

L
U=Um cost

RI =
R
= U LdI / dt ,
U
dI R
+ I = m cos t . (1)
. 4.14
dt L
L
.
dI1 R
+ I1 = 0 .
dt L
, ,
R
I1 = A exp t ,
L

A ,
I (0) = 0 . . , ,
, (
):

I 2 = B cos ( t ) ,
B ; .
(2) (1). ,

280

U
R
cos ( t ) = m cos t . (3)
L
L
. , A cos ( t + ) B cos ( t + / 2 ) + B

A , B

X .
U /L
m
X
BR/L

.
. 4.15
(3)
, . 4.15.
B=

Um
R + ( L )
2

L
.
(4)
R
, (1)
tg =

Um
R
cos ( t ) .
I (t ) = A exp t +
2
L
R 2 + ( L )
A .
I (0) = 0
Um
cos .
A=
2
2
R + ( L )

Um
I (t ) =
2
R 2 + ( L )

R
cos ( t ) exp L t cos ,

(4).

281

(5)

. 4.16

. 4.16.

R / L .
(5) , I (t ) cos ( t ) .

4.2.7. . . 4.17
.
U = U 0 (1 + cos t ) . U (t ) .
1UR 2

RI = U
R
2
U=U0(1+ cost)
. 4.17

C 1

q
,
C

(1)

q .
q / C .
I = dq / dt
(1):

q + RCq = CU 0 (1 + cos t ) .

(2)

, . ,
. (2).

282

q = CU 0 1 + A cos ( t ) ,

(3)

ACU 0 ( A );
.
(3) , . (3)
(2),

A cos ( t ) RCA sin ( t ) = cos t .


. 4.18 ,
sin ( t ) cos ( t + / 2 ) .
1
A=
,
2
1 + ( RC )

RCA

tg = RC.
,

U =

A
. 4.18

q
1
= U 0 1 +
cos ( t ) .
2

C
1 + ( RC )

, RC
.
4.2.8. . , ,
, -

283

,
.
. ,
()
.
, ,
, .
, , ,
. ,
. , , x x = A cos ( t + ) . , exp ( i ) = cos + i sin

( i = 1 ), x

Re Ae (

i t + )

= A cos ( t + ) = x .

Re

)
x = Ae (
.
. , x
,
. A , t + .
-
(. 4.19).


i t +

284

v El dl = dt .

q
dI
(1)
I k Rk + k k = Lk k .
Ck
dt
k
k

k
,
. .

k exp ( it ) . I k

~ ~

L1
C1

I1

R1

I k exp i ( t + ) .

L2

I2
I3

C2
R2
~

R3

C3

L3
3

. 4.19


dI k
i
= iI k , qk = I k dt = I k
dt

(1)

I k Rk + iLk
k

i
= k .
Ck k

(2)

(2)

Zk Ik = k ,

(3)

Z k ().
Z = R ; Z = iL ;
Z = i / C . (3)

285


.
,
,
.
, Z k Z
1
1
=
.
Z
Zk

(4)

. ,
.

= 0 cos t ,
(. 4.20).

I + I 2 = I1 .


LC

L
I

I1
I2
C

I
iL I1

. 4.20

i
I2 = 0 ,
C

(6)

L
= iL I1 .

(5)

(7)

(5)(7) I , -

286

LC , I1
I 2 . ,

I=

2

1

,
iL 0 2

(8)

0 = 1/ LC . (8).

exp ( it )
2 0
2
I = Re 0
1 2 =
1 2 sin t .
iL

0 L 0

= 0 I , ,
I1 = I 2 . , , ..
.
, = 0 (.. L = 1/ C )
Z .
(4).
! ,
I1 = I 2 , ? ,
, ,
. ,
.
, .
,
.

287


, . ,

() .
4.2.9. .

, ( ).
, . , , (
).
, I , q
.

,
(. 4.21).

I(x) + + + I(x+x)
A
B
U(x)

U(x+x)
D
x
. 4.21

C
x+x

. 4.22

288

. 4.22.

C0 L0 . I
, , X .
U ( x) ABCD
(. . 4.22) v El dl = d / dt .
U ( x + x) U ( x) (, ). d / dt
L0 x dI / dt . ,

I
.
t

U ( x + x) U ( x) L0 x

U ( x)

U ( x + x)

U
x
x
U
I
= L0 .
x
t

(1)

I ( x) I ( x + x) , x
q = C0 xU . dq / dt =
= C0 x dU / dt

I ( x) I ( x + x) dI / dx x . ,
I
U
= C0
.
x
t

(2)

(1) (2) , , x t .
.

289

, ,

2 I
1 2 I
,
=
t 2 C0 L0 x 2
1 2U
2U
.
=
t 2 C0 L0 x 2

(3)

(3) , ..

1
.
L0C0

v=

,
. ,
.

1
1
L0 I 2 = C0U 2 ,
2
2

U=

L0
I.
C0

,
, U , .. , .
, .
Z0 =

L0
C0

290

L0 =

v=

0 b
20
ln , C0 =
.
2 a
ln b / a
1
1
=
=c.
L0 C0
00

,
. ( ,
),
.
4.3.

q m G
G
G
F , Fk = qE
G
GG
Fm = q v B :
G
G
GG
F = qE + q v B .
,

G
G
d
mv
=F.
dt 1 ( v / c )2
,
,
. -

291


. (
),
, .
, , , , .
,

. ,
G
G
E B .
. K -
K- v0 << c ,
G
G
G
G
E B E B :
G
G
G G
G G
G G
E = E + v0 B , B = B v0 E / c 2 .
(1)
.
K- t q
G
G
G
G G
v0 . F = qE + q v0 B .
K -,
G
K- v0 ,
G
G
F = qE .
G
G
v0 << c F = F ,

(1). , G G
, B = B .

. t = 0 -

292

q / m Y
.
G
G
E
E B
X
B
(. 4.23). Z
q, m
.
, . 4.23

XY . ,
G
G
GG
dv
m
= qE + q v B .
dt
,
K - ,
. (1) ,
G
, v0 , G
G G
E = v0 B . , G
, v0
X . , ,
G
v0 = E / B X , E , v0 << c , .

G
B , .. R ,

mv02
= q v0 B .
R
, v0 K -,
293

X
v0 = E / B . E v0 =
B (. 1,
R
. 3.1)
t
q


X
R , v0t

= v0 / R = qB / m (. 4.24, . 4.24
). q t

x(t ) = v0t R sin t = a ( t sin t ) ,


y (t ) = R R cos t = a (1 cos t ) .

(2)

a = mE / qB 2 , = qB / m . (2)
GG
G
, v0 = EB / B 2
.
4.3.1. . ,
v1 , 1

Y
1

v2

v
. 4.25

2 .


,
?
X
(. 4.25). - ,

294

, , .. X
. v x ,
v y .
:
2

mv12 mv1
mv22 mv2
+
e1 =
+
e2 ,
2
2
2
2
, 1,
, 2 . v1 y = v2 y ,

mv12
mv22
e1 =
e2 .
(1)
2
2
. 4.25 , tg = v2 y / v2 x . v2 x (1):

v2 x = v1x 1 +

2e ( 2 1 )
mv12

v2 y

tg =

v1 1 +

2e ( 2 1 )

mv12

v2 y / v1x = tg , v1x = v cos ,


2e ( 2 1 )
tg = tg 1 +

mv 2 cos 2

1/ 2

4.3.2. . , U , , d (. 4.26). ,
U 0 sin t ?

295

U0sin t

Y
l
d/2

v0

,
v
X
, ..
T=

. 4.26

2
l
>>
,

v0

v0 ,

mv02
2eU
.
= eU v0 =
2
m

(1)


.

vy vy
tg =
=
.
(2)
v x v0
Y

mv y = eE0 sin t ,

(3)

E0 = U 0 / d
. (3) ,

. ,
U = U 0 sin t , .

296

mv y = eE0 cos t


l
l

. 2 v0
2 v0

.
,
vy =

2eE0
l
sin
.
m
2 v0

(1) (2)
2e U 0
l
= arctg
sin
mU d 2

m
2eU

4.3.3. .
d W (. 4.27). x -
, , , Y
i ?
EY
, ,
dx
Ex
X
. Y
(
. 4.27
):

my = eE ,

(1)

E .
-

297

dx
. G G
v EdS = q / 0 :
2 Edx =

dq
.
0

dq ,
. dq = idt =
= idx / v , v .

E=

i
.
2v

(2)

(2) (1), y = y ( x) :
d2y
ei
=
2
dx
2mv3

(3)
d2y d2y 2
=
v ).
dt 2 dx 2

(

y (0) = d / 2 ,

(3)

d
ei 2
x .

2 4m v 3
x .
y ( x) =

x=

2mv3 d
,
ei

v v = 2W / m .
4.3.4. . , -

298

U , A . l
A
B1 B2 . q / m
.
, , R ,
T L .
,
:

m v 2
m v
= q v B R =
,
R
qB
v , G
B ( ).
:
L = v&T v

2R 2mv
.
=
qB
v

G
v& , B

( v& v ). , ,
G
B ,
.
. B = B1 , n , .. l = n L( B1 ) .
l=n

2mv
.
qB1

299

(1)

B = B2 ,
,
, ..
l = ( n + 1)

2mv
.
qB2

(2)

(1) (2) n ,
l ( B2 B1 ) =

2mv
.
q

v = 2qU / m

q
82U
= 2
.
m l ( B2 B1 )2
4.3.5. .
a ,
I ,
v0 , . ,
?
,
X

. 4.28. , v0
B
XZ
Z
G
I
GG
dv
m
= q v B .
(1)
dt
. 4.28

300


:
B=

0 I
I

= x = 0
2x
2

(1) X Z :

d vx

= qvz ,
dt
x
dv

m z = qvx .
dt
x
m

(2)


, x(t ) z (t ) , x( z ) .
. x = xmax v z = v0 (
!).
(2),

dx
.
x

md v z = q

x a xmax v z v0 :

mv0 = q ln

xmax
.
a


2mv0
xmax = a exp
.
0 qI

4.3.6. .
-

301

B , . , , E .
, U . U
,
h ? ( E << cB, c ).
E << cB ,
. , ,
.
R = mv / qB ( v

Y
).
A

. X (. 4.29) ,
0
B


G
G
B
E
. ,
A . 4.29
, B . , r , .
, , .

302

.
:
G
G
GG
dv
m
= qE + q v B .
dt
X Y
:
dv
m x = ev y B ,
dt
(1)
d vy
m
= ev x B eE.
dt
, ,

v x = b + a cos t , v y = a sin t ,

(2)

a, b (2) (1) v x (0) = v0 ( v0 ). ,

qB
,
m

(3)

E
E
, b= .
B
B
,
E
E
v x = + v0 cos t ,
B
B
E

v y = v0 sin t.
B

a = v0


x(0) = 0, y (0) = 0 :

303

E
1
E
t + v0 sin t ,

B
B
E
1
y (t ) = v0 (1 cos t ) ,

x(t ) =

(3).
, ,
, v = E / B . ( ).
. .
v0 = E / B , , ..
. .
(. . 4.29),
,
1
E h
v0 .

B 4

, .
- , v0
E / B , E / B . ,

E hBe
hBe E

v0
+ ,
B 4m
4m B
, . U

304

m E hBe
m E hBe

U +
.
2e B 4m
2e B 4m
4.3.7. .
, a b ,
, .
U . , , , .


b
, . a
v
, B

B ,
. 4.30

(. 4.30). , ,
G
dp G
.
= F , dt

G
dL G

= M . ,
dt

, G
Z , B ,

dLz
= Mz .
dt

305

(1)

G GG
Lz L = [ rp ] ; M z G
GG
M = rF . G
G
GG
F = qE + q vB ,
GG
GG
G GG
M z = rF = q rE + q r vB .

z
z
z

, , , G
G
r E . ,
:
G GG
G GG
G GG
q r vB = q v rB B ( r v ) =

z
z
G
G G dr
1 d 2
= q B r
r .
= qB
2 dt
dt z

(( )

, (1)

dLz
1 d 2
= qB
r .
dt
2 dt
, , Lz = 0 ,
(.. r = b ) Lz = bmv .

Be 2
b a2
2
( , q = e ).
bmv =

2eU
, m
,
:
v=

b
b a2
2

306

8mU
.
e

4.3.8. . ,
R .
, U .

, .
,

R
(. 4.31),
.
4.3.4
B
r , , T (
. 4.31
):
r=

mv
2m
, T=
.
qB
qB

(1)

T 2qU , t R
t =T

W
,
2qU

(2)

W = mv 2 / 2 ,
R . (2) R
T (1),

R 2 B
.
(3)
2U
B ,
= 1/T ,
(1) B
t=

307

B=

2m
.
q

(4)

, :

t=

2 mR 2
.
qU

S , rn,
:
S = 2rn .

n = 1 n = N
. N ,
t :

R 2 B
.
2U
rn :
N=

rn =

m vn
.
qB


2qU ,
n -
vn = 2

qU
n.
m

S=

2m qU N
2
n.
qB
m n =1

N , n

308

2 3/ 2 2 R 2 B
N =

3
3 2U
(4)

3/ 2

n ndn =

43 m 2 R 3
.
3qU

4.3.9. .
. ,
.
,

(. 4.32). ,
. 4.32
, . . (
)
400
. , B0

B , ..

B0 = B / 2 . .
B0 ,

309

, .
B
. . r0 . v B0 . ,
:

mv 2
= evB0 .
r0
, p = mv = er0 B0 .
dp / dt r0 = const :

dB
dp
= er0 0 .
dt
dt

(1)


,
(
E ):

dp
= eE .
dt

(2)

v El dl = dt ,
. = r0 2 B .

E 2r0 = r0 2
310

d
B .
dt

E (2)

r d
dp
=e 0
B ,
dt
2 dt

(3)

(2) (3)

d
1 d
B0 =
B .
dt
2 dt
, ,

B0 =

1
B .
2


.
.

311

1. .. : . :
5 . . 3: . .: , 1983. 688 .
2. .. : .
. .: , 2001. 432 .
3. : . / ..
[ .]; . .. . .: , 1988. 416 .
4. : . : 3 . . 2: . / . .. . .: - , 2000.
368 .
5. .. . 5- . .:
. , 2006. 320 .

312





2.

..

24.03.10. 6090/16.
. . . 19,625. 100 . 59/2010.

.
: 614990, . , ., 29, . 113.
. (342) 219-80-33.

313