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2001

: .. , . .-. , .,
.. , . .-. , .

.., .., ..
: . .
: - , 2001. 102 .
17
, : , ,
, .
,
, . ( )
.

c

, 2001 .


, ,
,
, ,
.
. . . ,
.
17 . , , , - , .
, ,
.
. , , .


1

1. z
(1)

z = x + iy ,

, i
,
x R y R
i2 = 1.
(1) .
x y
z :
x = Re z, y = Im z .
z = x iy
z = x + iy.
C.
P (x, y) (x, y)
z = x + iy
. 1

Oxy (. 1).

2. OP , O(0, 0) , P (x, y) z = x + iy,


z |z|. ,

OP Ox,
z Arg z.

2k , k Z,
arg z (, ] ,
Arg z = arg z + 2k, k Z.
1.
z x = Re z
y = Im z
p
= |z| = x2 + y 2 ,
(2)
4


arctg (y/x),

arctg (y/x) + ,

arctg (y/x) ,
= arg z =
/2,

/2,

x > 0,
x < 0,
x < 0,
x = 0,
x = 0,
x = 0,

y
y
y
y
y

> 0,
< 0,
> 0,
< 0,
= 0.

(3)


P (x, y).


x = cos ,
y = sin .
:
3.
z = (cos + i sin ) .

(4)

, i2 =
1.
4. z1 = x1 + iy1 z2 = x2 + iy2,

z1 + z2 = (x1 + x2) + i(y1 + y2 );
(5)
z1 z2 = (x1 x2 y1 y2 ) + i(x1 y2 + x2 y1 ).

(6)

, (z1 + z2 ) C, z1 C z2 C,
z1 z2 C, z1 C z2 C.
,
, z 6= 0 zz =
(x + iy)(x iy) = x2 (iy)2 = x2 + y 2 = |z|2 .
.
2.
z1
,
C , z1 C , z2 C , z2 6= 0 .
z2
,
z1
z1 z 2
x1x2 + y1 y2
x2y1 x1y2
=
=
+
i
.
z2
z2 z 2
x22 + y22
x22 + y22



,
, -
(. 2).
. 2
.
z1 = 1 (cos 1 + i sin 1 ) , z2 = 2(cos 2 + i sin 2 ).
z1 z2 = 12 [(cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 )+
+ i(cos 1 sin 2 + sin 1 cos 2 )] =
= 12 [cos(1 + 2 ) + i sin(1 + 2 )] .
, ,
.
:
z n = ( (cos + i sin ))n = n (cos n + i sin n) .

(7)

(12) ,

z = (cos + i sin ) = ei ,

(8)

= |z|, = Argz = arg z + 2k.



n- .

w = n z. z z = ei(+2k),
= arg z .
p

2k
w = n z = n |z| ei( n + n )

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1 n n-
.
p
n
n-,
|z|
.
1.
(1 + i)x + (2 + 5i)y = 4 + 17i.
. .
(x 2y) + i(x + 5y) = 4 + 17i.
6

(z1 = z2 )

Re z1 = Re z2 ,
, Im z1 = Im z2

x 2y = 4,
x + 5y = 17,

, x =

10
7,

y=

19
7.

2. ,


z = 2 3 + 2i.
q
2
. |z| =
2 3 + 22 = 4. , Re z < 0,
Im z > 0, = arg z = + arctg 223 = 6 = 5
6.

5
, z = 4 cos 5
+ i sin 5
= 4ei 6 .
6
6
p

3
3.
3 i.
. |z| = 3 + 1 = 2; arg z = arctg( 13 ) = 6 .
p

2k
3
, z = 2ei( 6 +2k), , w = 3 + i = 3 2ei( 18 + 3 ) ,
:

= 3 2 cos 18
i sin 18
;
k = 0 : w0 = 3 2 ei 18

2
11
k = 1 : w1 = 3 2 ei( 18 + 3 ) = 3 2 cos 11
+
i
sin
18
18  ;

23
k = 2 : w2 = 3 2 ei( 18 + 3 ) = 3 2 cos 23
18 + i sin 18 .

4.


z z0 6 R, z0 = x0 + iy0
,
0 ?

R >p


. z z0 = (x x0)2 + (y y0 )2, (x x0)2 + (y y0 )2 6 R2, R
z0 .
5. Im z 2 > 2 ?
. z = x + iy,
z 2 = (x iy)2 = (x2 y 2 ) 2ixy .
, Im z 2 = 2xy, 2xy > 2
xy < 1, , xy = 1.

1. :
a) (z1 z2 ) = z 1 z 2 ;
 
z1
z1
c)
= ;
z2
z2

b) (z1 z2 ) = z 1 z 2;
d) (z 1 z 2 ) = z1 z2 .

2. :
a) |z| = |z|;
b) | Re z| 6 |z|;
c) | Im z| 6 |z|;
2
d) |zz|
f) |z n | = |z|n ;
= |z| ; e) |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |;
z1 |z1 |


g) =
; h) |z1 + z2 | 6 |z1 | + |z2 |; i) |z1 | |z2 | 6 |z1 z2 |.
z2
|z2 |
3. :

a) (3x i)(2 + i) + (x iy)(1 + 2i) = 5 + 6i;


b) 12 ((2x + i)(1 + i) + (x + y)(3 2i)) = 17 + 6i;

1
2+i
c)
+
= 2, z = x + iy.
zi
1+i

4. :
a)

(1 + i)(2 3i)
(1 + i)(2 + 3i)
(5 i)(2 + i)
; b)
; c)
.
(2 + 4i)(2 + 3i)
(2 + 4i)(2 3i)
(1 + i)(3 2i)

5. :

a) x2 + 2x + 5 = 0; b) x2 + 4x + 13 = 0; c) x2 3x + 7 = 0.
6. , , :

a) z = 4 +
3i;
b)
z
=
2
+
2
3 i;
c) z = 7 i;

d) z = 2 + i 2; e) z = cos 5 + i sin 5 ; f) z = 1 i 3.
7. :
!40

8

6
1+i 3
1i
7
a)
; b) (2 2i) ; c)
3 3i ; d)
.
1i
1+i

8. sin cos
:
a) sin 3; b) cos 3; c) sin 4; d) cos 4; e) sin 5; f) cos 5.
9. :

3
4
4
a) 4 1 ; b) i ; c)
i
;
d)
i
;
e)
1;
q
p


g) 2 2 3 i ; h) 5 2 cos 6 + i sin 6 .
8

f)

1 + i ;

10. , :
2
Im z = 2 ;

z i + z + i = 4 ;



z 2 1 2z = 0 ;
Im z < 2 ;
z1
6 1;
i)
z+1

2
Im
(z z) = 2 Im z ;
3 z Re z = 12
;

Re (1 + z) = z ;
z + 2 + i > 1 ;
 
1
1
j) Im
< .
z
2

a)
c)
e)
g)

b)
d)
f)
h)

2

D ( , ) w = f (z), z D w ( ,
).
w = f (z) :
w = f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y),
x = Re z, y = Im z, u = Re w, v = Im w.
:
1. -
an z n + an1z n1 + . . . + a1 z + a0
w=
,
bm z m + bm1z m1 + . . . + b1z + b0
an z n + an1 z n1 + . . . + a1 z + a0

2. ,
z2
zn
w = e = 1 +z + +...+
+ ... ,
2!
n!
z

(9)

.
:
) ez1 +z2 = ez1 ez2 , z1 C, z2 C;

) ez+2ki = ez k Z 2i;
) z = 0 (. 9).
9

3.
w = sin z = z

z 2n+1
z3
+ . . . + (1)n
+ ... ,
3!
(2n + 1)!

(10)

2n
z2
n z
w = cos z = 1 + . . . + (1)
+ ... ,
(11)
2!
(2n)!
.

:

eiz = cos z + i sin z;


eiz = cos z i sin z;
eiz + eiz
cos z =
;
2
eiz eiz
sin z =
.
2i

(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

sin z
cos z
, ctg z =
.
cos z
sin z
,
(. 10).
tg z =

4. :
ez + ez
;
) ch z =
2
ez ez
) sh z =
.
2

:
sh(iz) = i sin z; ch(iz) = cos z;
sin(iz) = i sh z; cos(iz) = ch z.
, sh z
ch z
th z =
, cth z =
.
ch z
sh z
5. . z = ew 2i
, z = 0, , z 6= 0.
Lnz = ln |z| + iArgz = ln |z| + i(arg z + 2k), k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
10

k = 0,
ln z = ln |z| + i arg z.
:
 
z1
= Lnz1 Lnz2 .
Lnz = ln z + 2ki; Ln(z1z2 ) = Lnz1 + Lnz2 ; Ln
z2
6.

w = Arcsinz, w = Arccosz, w = Arctgz, w = Arcctgz,



z = sin w, z = cos w, z = tg w, z = ctg w.

:


p
2
Arcsinz = i Ln iz + 1 z ;
(16)


p
(17)
Arccosz = i Ln z + z 2 1 ;
i
1 + iz
Arctgz = Ln
;
2
1 iz
i
z+i
Arcctgz = Ln
.
2
zi

(18)
(19)

7. z a = eaLnz , ,
z a = ea ln z , a = + i
.
8. az = ezLna , , ez ln a , a = + i 6= 0 .
6.
w = z 2 + z.
. w = (x + iy)2 + (x iy) = (x2 y 2 + x) + i(2xy y).
,

u = Re w = x2 y 2 + x,
v = Im w = 2xy y.

11

7.
w = cos(z + 1).
.
w = cos(z + 1) = cos((x + 1) + iy) =
= cos(x + 1) cos(iy) sin(x + 1) sin(iy) =
= cos(x + 1) ch y + i sin(x + 1) sh y.
,


u = Re w = cos(x + 1) ch y,
v = Im w = sin(x + 1) sh y.

8.
w = ez
2

+z
2

. w = e(x+iy) +(x+iy) = e(x


,
2

w = ex

y 2 +x

y 2 +x)+i(2xy+y)

= ex

y 2 +x i(2xy+y)


cos(2xy + y) + i sin(2xy + y) .

,

2
2
u = Re w = ex y +x cos(2xy + y),
2
2
v = Im w = ex y +x sin(2xy + y).

9. w = ez (z C).
.
w = ez = ex+iy = ex eiy = ex (cos y + i sin y).
(20)
q
z
|w| = e = ex cos2 y + sin2 y = ex > 0.
, , x, |ez |
, |w| = 0.
ez (20) , Arg w = y.
y , w
.
, w = ez
, w = 0.
10. sin z = 2.

12

. z = Arcsin 2. .


p
2
Arcsin 2 = i Ln 2i + 1 2
=



p

= i Ln 2i + 3
= iLn 2 3 i.

2 > 3 ,


p 
p 


2 3 i = 2 3 , arg 2 3 i = ,
2



 

+ 2k
=
z = Arcsin 2 = i ln 2 3 + i
2



=
+ 2k i ln 2 3 , k Z.
2
11. ez = 3.
.

z = Ln (3) = ln | 3| + i(arg(3) + 2k) = ln 3 + i( + 2k); k Z.



11. :
a) w = 2z 1; b) w = z + z 2 ; c) w = z 1 ;
2
d) w = ez ;
e) w = ez ;
f) w = ch(z i);
2
z
g) w = 2 ;
h) w = sh z;
i) w = tg z.
12. :
a) 2; b) i; c) (1 i); d) 3 2i; e) ii.
13. :
!1+i


2i

1+i
3 +i

a) ii ; b) (1) 2 ; c)
; d)
; e) e 4 i ;
2
2
f) ln(1 i);

g) cos i;

h) Arcsin i;

i
i) Arctg ;
3

j) sh

14. :
a) ez + 1 = 0;
c)
sin z = i;

b)
4 cos z + 5 = 0;
d) e2z + 2ez 3 = 0.
13

i
.
2

3

-
w = f (z) D C.
z = x + iy. , z D z + z D,
w = f (z + z) f (z).
5. w = f (z) z D,
w = f (z) =

dw
w
(z) = lim
.
z0 z
dz

f (z) z.
3. z = x + iy,
w = f (z) = u(x, y)+iv(x, y) ,
u
v
=
,
x
y
u
v
=
.
y
x

(21)
(22)

, u(x, y)
v(x, y) , (21
22),
w = f (x + iy) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y)
z = x + iy.
(2122) -.
6. w = f (z) z D C,
z, .
w = f (z) D, .
7. (x, y), D R2
2
2
+
= 0,
x2
y 2

.
(23) .
14

(23)

4.
,
.
- (21-22) , ,
. , .



z + z0 z z0
f (z) = 2u
,
C0 ,
(24)
2
2i


z + z0 z z0
f (z) = 2iv
,
+ C0 ,
(25)
2
2i
C0 = f (z0) (. 13 14).

12. , f (z) = sin(z + i) z C.


. f (z).
f (z) = sin(x + iy + i) = sin x cos i(y + 1) + cos x sin i(y + 1) =
= sin x ch(y + 1) + i cos x sh(y + 1).
,
u(x, y) = sin x ch(y + 1), v(x, y) = Im f (z) = cos x sh(y + 1).
-.
u
v
= cos x ch(y + 1) =
,
x
y

u
v
= sin x sh(y + 1) =
.
y
x

, f (z) = sin(z + i) .
13.
Re w = u(x, y) = x2 y 2 y, :
f (0) = 0.
. , (23).
2u
2u
+
= 2 2 = 0.
x2
y 2
15

- (21)
Z
Z
u
v(x, y) =
dy = 2x dy = 2xy + (x),
dx

(x) . - (22). 2y+ (x) = 2y+1 , (x) = 1,


(x) = x + C, C
. ,
f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) = x2 y 2 y + i(2xy + x + C) =
= (x2 + 2ixy y 2 ) + i(x + iy) + iC = z 2 + iz + iC.

C . f (0) = 0, , C = 0 f (z) = z 2 + iz.


14.
v(x, y) = e2x sin 2y, : f (0) = 1.
. , (23).
2u
2u
+
= 4e2x sin 2y 4e2x sin 2y = 0.
2
2
x
y
(25). z0 = z 0 = 0, C0 = C 0 = 1.




2(z+0)
z + z0 z z0
2(z 0)
f (z) = 2iv
,
+ C 0 = 2ie 2 sin
+1 =
2
2i
2i
z
z
= 2ie sin
+ 1 = 2iez sin(iz) + 1 = 2i(i)ez sh z + 1 =
i
z
z
e e
= 2ez
+ 1 = e2z 1 + 1 = e2z .
2

15. , :
a) w = 2z 1; b) w = z + z 2; c) w = z 1 ;
2
d) w = e z Re z; e) w = ez ;
f) w = sin(z + i);
g) w = z + z; h) w = ch z;
i) w = tg z.

16. , :
a) u = x2 + 2x y 2 ; b) u = 2ex cos y;
c) u = 3x2 + y;
x
y
1
d) u =
;
e)
u
=

;
f)
u
=
;
x2 + y 2
x2 + y 2
x2 + y 2
g) u = arctg

y
;
x


h) u = ln x2 + y 2 ; i) u = x ln y.
16

17. z0
f (z) u(x, y) = Re f (z) v(x, y) = Im f (z)
f (z0):
a) u =
b) v =
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

u
v
u
v
v
v

=
=
=
=
=
=

x
1
,
f
()
=
;
x2 + y 2

y
arctg (x > 0) , f (1) = 0;
x
2
x y 2 + 2x , f (i) = 2i 1;
2(ch x sin y xy) , f (0) = 0;
2 sin x ch y x , f (0) = 0;
2(2 sh x sin y + xy) , f (0) = 3;
2 sin 2x sh 2y + y , f (0) = 2;
2 cos x ch y x2 + y 2 , f (0) = 2.

4


w = f (z) D C, C - ,
D,
.
8. w = f (z)
z C
:
Z
Z
f (z) dz =
[u(x, y) + i v(x, y)] (dx + i dy) =
C

u dx v dy + i

v dx + u dy .

(26)

1. ,
2- .
2. C ,

I
f (z) dz.
C

17

9. C , .
10. D C ,
C .
5 ( ). f (z)
D C,
C, ,

I

(27)

f (z) dz = 0.

3. - ( ), 5
.
6 ( -). f (z)
D

C,

F (z)
, . . F (z) = f (z) , C

z1 z2 ,

z 2
Zz2
Z


(28)
f (z) dz = f (z) dz = F (z) = F (z2 ) F (z1 ),

z1

z1

. . , z1 z2 ,
.

7 ( ). f (z)
D C, C C1 , C2,. . . , Cn ,
C,
I
I
I
I
f (z) dz = f (z) dz + f (z) dz + + f (z) dz.
(29)
C

C1

C2

Cn

8 ( ). f (z)
G C , C -

18

, G
D,
I
f (z) dz
1
,
(30)
f (z0) =
2i
z z0
C

. 3
z0 D.
, D (. 3).
9 ( ).
8 n N
I
n!
f (z) dz
(n)
f (z0) =
.
(31)
2i
(z z0 )n+1
C

15.

(1+z)dz, C

y = x x1 = 0 x2 = 1.
. f (z) = 1+z ,
(26)
Z

(1 + z)dz =

C
Z

(1 + x iy) (dx + i dy) =

(1 + x) dx + y dy + i

y dx + (1 + x) dy =

C


2
y = x

x
=
0
1
=
=
dy = 2x dx x2 = 1
Z1
Z1
=
(1 + x + 2x3) dx + i (x2 + 2x + 2x2) dx =


 1
 3
 1
2
4
x
x
x
4

= x+
+
+ x2 = 2 + i .
+i

2
2
3
3
0

Z1+i
16.
z sin z dz.
0

19

. z sin z , - (28).
:

Z1+i
u = z
du = dz
z sin z dz =
dv = sin z dz v = cos z
0

1+i Z1+i


= z cos z + cos z dz =

0

= (1 + i) cos(1 + i) + sin(1 + i) =
= (1 + i)(cos 1 cos i sin 1 sin i) +
+ (sin 1 cos i + cos 1 sin i) =
= (1 + i)(cos 1 ch 1 i sin 1 sh 1) +
+ sin 1 ch 1 + i cos 1 sh 1 =
= sin 1 ch 1 cos 1 ch 1 sin 1 sh 1 +
+ i (sin 1 sh 1 cos 1 ch 1 + cos 1 sh 1).
.
ch z sh z =

ez + ez ez ez

= ez ,
2
2




Z1+i
sin 1
cos 1
z sin z dz =
cos 1 ch 1 + i sin 1 sh 1
.
e
e
0

17.

|z|=2

e2z
dz.
z1

.
2 z = 0. z0 = 1 . f (z) = e2z .
(30)

I

e2z
dz = 2i e2z = 2e2 i .
z1
z=1
|z|=2

18.

|z|=3

20

e2z
dz.
z 2 3z + 2

. . z 2 3z + 2 = (z 1)(z
2),

:
e2z
e2z
e2z
=

.
z 2 3z + 2
z2 z1
3
z = 0. z1 = 1 z2 = 2 .
f (z) = e2z . (30)
I
I
I

e2z
e2z
e2z
4
2
dz
=
dz

dz
=
2
e

e
i.
z 2 3z + 2
z2
z1
|z|=3

|z|=3

|z|=3

. . z = 1 z = 2 C1 C1 ,
|z| = 3 (, C1 : |z 1| = 1/3,
C2 : |z 2| = 1/3). 7.
I
I
I
e2z
e2z
e2z
dz =
dz +
dz.
z 2 3z + 2
(z 1)(z 2)
(z 1)(z 2)
C1

|z|=3

C1

(30),
z0 = 1, f (z) =

e2z
z0 = 2, f (z) =
.
z1

|z|=3

e2z
,
z2

 2z
e2z
e
dz
=
2i
z 2 3z + 2
(z 2)



e2z
4
2
+
=
2
e

e
i.

(z

1)
z=1
z=2


18.
Z :

a) z Im z 2 dz, C : z = 1 ( 6 arg z 6 0);
b)

C
Z

e|z| Re z dz, C

, z1 = 0, z2 = 1 + i;

21

c)
d)

C
Z


z Re z dz, C : z = 1, ;

zz dz, C : z = 1, .

19. , :
a)

d)

1i
Z

1+i

Zi+1
b)
z 3 dz;

Zi

Zi

(2z + 1) dz;

c)

z cos z dz;

e)

Z2i

(z 3 z)e(z

/2)

dz;

1+i

Z1+i
f)
sin z cos z dz.

(z i)ez dz;

20.
( ):
Z
Z
Z
eiz
sin iz
dz
a)
dz; b)
dz; c)
;
2
2
2
z +1
z 4z + 3
(z + 9)(z + 9)
|z1|=1

d)

|z|=2

cos z
dz;
z3

|z|=1

e)

|z|=2

|z|=4

z sh z
dz;
(z 2 1)2

f)

|z3|=6

z dz
.
(z 2)3(z + 4)

5


z1 + z2 + . . . + zn . . . =

zn ,

(32)

n=1

zn = xn + iyn .

10. (32) ,

Re zn =

n=1

X
n=1

xn = x1 + x2 + . . . + xn . . . ,

(33)

yn = y1 + y2 + . . . + yn . . . .

(34)

n=1

Im zn =

X
n=1

22

11

X
n=1

).

(35)

|zn | = |z1 | + |z2 | + . . . + |zn | + . . .

(32), .
4. (33), (34), (35) ,
.
11.

X
cn (z z0 )n = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + . . . + cn (z z0 )n . . . ,

(36)

n=0

z0 , c0, c1 , . . . , cn, . . . , z
, .

12. (36)
|z z0 | < R, R .
cn 6= 0 n N,
|cn |
n |cn+1 |

R = lim

1
R = lim p
,
n n |c |
n
.

(37)
(38)

5. , , cn = 0 n,
.
13. f (z),
z0 ,

X
f (z) =
cn (z z0 )n ,
(39)
n=0

cn
I
f (z) dz
f (n) (z0 )
1
cn =
=
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
2i
(z z0 )n+1
n!

(40)

z0 , f (z).
23

6. ,
(40),
(9), (10), (11), R =
n
z2
n1 z
+ ... =
ln(1 + z) = z + . . . + (1)
2
n

n
X
n1 z
=
(1)
, R = 1,
n
n=1

(1 + z)

p(p 1)z 2
+...+
= 1 + pz +
2!
p(p 1) . . . (p n + 1)z n
+ ... =
+
n!

X
p(p 1) . . . (p n + 1)z n
= 1+
, R = 1.
n!
n=1

(41)

(42)

14. f (z),
r < |z z0 | < R ( r = 0 R = ),

f (z) =
=

n=

X
n=1

cn (z z0 )

1
X

n=

cn (z z0 ) +

cn
+
cn (z z0 )n ,
n
(z z0 )
n=0

X
n=0

cn (z z0 )n =

cn
I
1
f (z) dz
cn =
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
2i
(z z0 )n+1

(43)

(44)

z0 ,
.
7. (43)
, , , ( ).
8. cn (44), . , ,
(.
22 23).
24

19.

X
z n
.
ln
in
n=1

. cn =

1
, (38)
(ln in)n

1
R = lim p
= lim | ln in| .
n n |c |
n
n
ln in = ln |in| + i arg in = ln n + i

| ln in| =

ln n +

 2
2

,
2

q
4 ln2 n + 2
2

R = lim | ln in| = .
n

20. z0 = 0

z
f (z) = 2
.
z 2z 3
. f (z)
z
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
=

z 2 2z 3
4 z+1
4 z3
4 1+z
4

1
z
1
3

(42) (1 + z)1,


2

1
1
z
z
f (z) =
1 z + z2 z3 + . . .
1+ +
+... =
4
4
3
9


1
4
8 2
28 3
z
2
7
=
z+ z
z + . . . = + 2 z2 3 z3 + . . .
4
3
9
27
3
3
3
R = 1. ,
(|q| < 1) .
q1 = z, q2 = z/3. |z| < 1 |z| < 3, R = min{1, 3} = 1.
21. z 3
f (z) =

1
.
3 2z
25

. f (z) :
1
1
1
1
=
=
=
3 2z
3 2(z 3 + 3)
3 2(z 3)
3

.
2
1 + (z 3)
3
(42) (1 + z)1 , z

2
(z 3) ,
3


1
2
22
23
2
3
f (z) = 1 (z 3) + 2 (z 3) 3 (z 3) + . . . =
3
3
3
3
1
2
22
23
= + 2 (z 3) 3 (z 3)2 + 4 (z 3)3 . . .
3
3
3
3


23 z 3 < 1 , , 3
, R = .
2
22.
1
f (z) = z 2 cos .
z
. f (z) (11), z 1
.
z


1
1
1
1
z 2 cos
= z2 1
+

+... =
z
2! z 2
4! z 4
6! z 6
1
1
1
= z2
+

+ ...
2!
4! z 2
6! z 4
z 6= 0. r = 0 < |z| < R = ,
z = 0.
23. z0 = 0,
2z + 1
f (z) = 2
.
z +z2
.
2z + 1
1
2
f (z) = 2
=
+
,
z +z2
z+2
z1
, f (z) : z1 = 2 z2 = 1.
z0 = 0, .
.
26


1
,
1q

1 + q + q2 + q3 + . . . =

q , |q| < 1.

1. |z| < 1.
. ,
f (z) =

1
2
1
+
=

z+2
z1
2


1
z
=
1 +
2
2
1
z
z2
=
+
2
4
8
3
1
= z
2
4

1
1+

z
2

1
=
1z


z2
z3

+ . . . 1 + z + z2 + z3 + . . . =
4
8
3

z

+ . . . 1 + z + z2 + z3 + . . . =
16

X
7 2
15 3
2n+1 1 n
z
z ... =
z .
n+1
8
16
2
n=0

2. 1 < |z| < 2.



1
2
1
+
=

z+2
z1
2

z
1+
2

=
1
1
z



2
3
1
z
z
z
1
1
1
=
1 +

+ ... +
1+ + 2 +... =
2
2
4
8
z
z
z
2
3
1
1
1
1
z
z
z
= ...+ 3 + 2 + + +

+... =
z
z
z
2
4
8
16

X
1
1 X (1)n n
=
+
z .
n
n
z
2
2
n=1
n=0

f (z) =

3. |z| 6 2
2 < |z| < .
f (z)
f (z) =

1
2
1
+
=

z+2
z1
z

z ,

=
1
1
z


1
2
4
8
1
1
1
1 + 3 3 + ...+ + 2 + 3 + ... =
=
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
2
1+
z

27



1
1
5
7
2 + 2 3 + ... =
=
z
z
z
z
2
1
5
7
=
2 + 3 4 + ...
z
z
z
z

21.

X
cos in
a)
n ;
2
n=1

X
ei/n
;
e)
n
n=1

X
n sin in
b)
;
n
3
n=1

X
sh i n
f)
;
sin
in
n=1

c)

X
cos in2
n=1

5n

X
ln n
g)
;
sh
in
n=1

X
ei2n
;
d)
n
n
n=1

X
ch(i/n)
h)
.
ln n
n
n=1

22. :

a)

in n

e z ;

n=1

i
b)
ch z n ;
n
n=1

i
c)
cos z n ;
n
n=1
n

d)

X
n=1

cos in z n .

23. ,
, :
a) sin(2z + 1) z + 1;
b) ez 2z 1;
z+1
1
c)
z + 2;
d) 2
z;
3z + 1
z + 4z 5
iz
e) cos2
z;
f) ln(2 z) z.
2
24. :

n

X
X
X
2 +i 2
1
(z + 1 i)n
a)
; b)
; c)
;
nz n
n
(1

i)
z
n
+
i
n=1
n=1
n=1
d)


X
1
n=1

f)

+ in (z + 1 + i) ;

X
n=1

e)

 n
X
2
n=1

 
X
z n
n=0

1
+
(1 + in)(z 2 + i)n.
n
n
n (z 2 + i)
n=0

25. z0 = 0:
a)

sin z
;
z2

b) z 4 cos

1
;
z

c)

28

1 cos z
;
z2

d)

1 + cos z
.
z4

26. :
a)
b)
c)
d)

1
, a1) 2 < |z| < 3, a2 ) 3 < |z| < ;
(z 2)(z 3)
1
, b1) 0 < |z| < 1, b2 ) 1 < |z| < ;
z2 + z
2z + 3
, 1 < |z| < 2;
z 2 + 3z + 2
z2 z + 3
, d1 ) |z| < 1, d2 ) 1 < |z| < 2, d3 ) 2 < |z| < .
z 3 3z + 2
6

12. f (z)
z0 . z0 n,
f (z0) = 0, f (z0 ) = 0, . . . , f (n1) (z0) = 0, f (n) (z0 ) 6= 0 .
n = 1 .
15. z0 n f (z)
, z0
f (z) f (z) = (z z0 )n (z), (z)
z0 , (z0) 6= 0.
13. z0 f (z), f (z)
z0 , z = z0 .
14. z0 :
1) , lim f (z);
zz0

2) n (n > 1),
lim f (z), lim f (z)(z z0 ), . . . , lim f (z)(z z0 )n1,

zz0

zz0

zz0


lim f (z)(z z0 )n.

zz0

3) , ,
.
9. .
29

16. z = z0
n (n > 1) ,
1
n (z) =
.
f (z)
17.
:
1)
, ;
2) n (n > 1)
, cn 6= 0

X
cn
c1
+
.
.
.
+
+
ck (z z0 )k .
f (z) =
(z z0 )n
(z z0 )
k=0

3) .

27. :
a) f (z) = z 4 + 4z 2;

b) f (z) =

sh2 z
c) f (z) =
;
z
e) f (z) = 1 + ch z;
g) f (z) = (z + i) sh z;

sin z
;
z

d) f (z) = z 2 sin z;
(1 sh z)2
f) f (z) =
;
z


h) f (z) = z 2 + 2 1 + ez .

28. z0 = 0 :
sin z

a) f (z) = e

tg z

z3
c) f (z) =
;
1 + z ez

z6
b) f (z) =  2 
;
z
z 2
sin
2
2
d) f (z) = 2(ch z 1) z 2 .

29. z0 =
0:
a) f (z) =

1
;
z sin z

b) f (z) =

1
;
ez + z 1

c) f (z) =

sin z
;
ez + z 1

d) f (z) =

z
.
z sh z

30

30.
:
a) f (z) =

1
;
1 sin z

b) f (z) =

1 cos z
;
z2

c) f (z) =

z
;
z 5 + 2z 4 + z 3

d) f (z) =

1
1
+
;
ez 1
z2

e) f (z) = e(1/z ) ;

f) f (z) = ch

1
.
z

31. :
a)

1 + cos z
, z0 = ;
z

b)

z 2 3z + 2
, z0 = 1;
z 2 2z + 1

c)

z2 1
, z0 = 0, z1 = 1;
z 6 + 2z 5 + z 4

d)

z sh

1
, z0 = 0.
z

7

15. f (z)
z0 ( res f (z0))
I
1
res f (z0) =
f (z) dz ,
(45)
2i

, z0
f (z).
10. , :
Res f (z0),

Res [f (z), (z0)],

Res f (z),
z=z0

res [f (z), z0],

res f (z) .

z=z0

18 ( ). f (z)
z0
f (z)
z = z0 ( res f (z0) = c1 );
, z0 , :
1) ;
31

2) (n = 1)
res f (z0) = lim [f (z) (z z0 )] ;
zz0

(46)

3) n (n > 1)


n
1
d n1
lim
f (z) z z0
;
res f (z0) =
(n 1)! zz0 dz n1

(47)

4) f (z) z = z0 (z)
f (z) =
, (z) (z) , ,
(z)
(z0 ) 6= 0, (z0 ) = 0, (z0 ) 6= 0 (z0 ),
res f (z0) =

(z0 )
;
(z0)

(48)

5)
f (z) z0 , ( res f (z0) = c1 ).
19 ( ). f (z)
C D
, z1 , z1 , . . . ,zn ,
Z
n
X
f (z) dz = 2i
res f (zk ) .
(49)
k=1

( ). Pm (x)
f (x) =
, Pm (x) Qn (x)
Qn (x)
m n ,
Qn (x) n > m + 2 . , Pm (z)
f (x) f (z) =
,
Qn (z)

20

f (x) dx = 2i

res f (zk ) ,

(50)

Im zk >0

, .
24.
f (z) =

ez
(z + 1)3(z 2)
32

.
. z1 = 1

z2 = 2 . z1
(47)
 z 
d2
(z 2 6z + 10)ez
e
1
17
1
lim
=
lim
=

.
res f (1) =
2! z1 dz 2 z 2
2 z1
(z 2)3
54e
z2 (46)
res f (2) = lim

z2

ez
e3
=
.
(z + 1)3
27

25.
f (z) =

z4

.
. f (z)
z 4 + 1 = 0.

1
+ 1)

3
3

i
i
i
i
4 , z4 = e 4 .
z1 = e 4 , z2 = e 4 , z3 = e

, (48),
res f (z1) =
res f (z2) =
res f (z3) =
res f (z4) =


1
4z 3 z=z1

1
4z 3 z=z2

1
4z 3 z=z3

1
4z 3 z=z4

3
1 i
4 ,
= e
4
9
1 i
4 ,
= e
4
9
1 i
= e 4 ,
4
3
1 i
= e 4 .
4

26.

f (z) = z 2 sin
.

33

1
z

. z = 0 . z = 0


1
1
1
1
1

.
.
.
=
z

+
...
f (z) = z 2
z
3! z 3
5! z 5
3! z
5! z 3
, res f (0) = c1 =

1
.
6

27.

ez dz
.
(z 1)3(z + 2)

|z|=4

. z1 = 1 ( ) z2 = 2
( ) |z| = 4.
 z 
1
d2
e
1
(z 2 + 2z + 2)ez
5e
= lim
=
.
res f (1) = lim 2
2! z1 dz
z+2
2 z1
(z + 2)3
54


ez
1

res f (2) =
=
.

3
(z 1) z=2
27e2



I
ez dz
5e
1
= 2i ( res f (1) + res f (2)) = 2i

.
(z 1)3(z + 2)
54
27e2

|z|=4

28.

(z 2 + z + 1) sin

|z|=3

2
dz.
z1

. z0 = 1 |z| = 3. z 1


3


2
2
f (z) = (z 1)2 + 3(z 1) + 3

+ ... .
z1
3!(z 1)3
res f (1) = c1, ,
(z 1)1 ,
res f (1) = c1 = 2 3
,
I
(z 2 + z + 1) sin
|z|=3

8
14
=
.
6
3

2
28i
dz = 2i res f (1) =
.
z1
3
34

29. I =

x2 dx
(x2 + a2 )2

(a > 0).

. ,
Z
1
x2 dx
.
I=
2
(x2 + a2 )2

z2
f (z) =

(z 2 + a2 )2
z = ai.



d
z2
2aiz
1
=
=
,
res f (ai) = lim

zai dz
(z + ai)2
(z + ai)3 z=ai
4ai

(50)
1
I=
2

x2 dx
1
1

2i

=
.
(x2 + a2 )2
2
4ai
4a


32. :
a) f (z) =

4 tg z
;
4z 2 z

1 cos z
c) f (z) = 3
;
z (z 3)

b) f (z) =

z
;
(z + 1)3(z 2)2

eiz
d) f (z) =
.
(z 2 1)(z + 3)

33. :
I
I
2
ez dz
ez 1
a)
; b)
dz;
z 3 (z + 1)
z 3 iz 2
|z|=2
|zi|=3
I
cos(z/2)
x2
y2
d)
dz,
C:
+
= 1;
z2 4
9
4
C

c)

|z|=

e)

sin z
dz;
z2 z
(z + 1) e1/z dz.

|z|=1/3

34. :
Z 2
Z
x +1
x dx
a)
dx;
b)
;
x4 + 1
(x2 + 4x + 13)2
0

c)

dx
;
(x2 + a2 )2(x2 + b2)2

d)

Z
0

35

x2 + 1
dx.
x6 + 1

35. (
20 ):
I
I
eiz
sin iz
a)
dz;
b)
dz;
2
2
z +1
z 4z + 3
|z1|=1
|z|=2
I
I
dz
cos z
;
d)
dz;
c)
(z 2 + 9)(z + 9)
z3
|z|=1
|z|=4
I
I
z sh z
z dz
e)
dz;
f)
.
2
2
(z 1)
(z 2)3(z + 4)
|z|=2

|z3|=6

36

f (t) = f1(t)+if2 (t) t, (f1(t), f2(t) R). f2 (t) 0, f (t) . t


.
16. f (t), :
1) f (t) = 0 t < 0;
2) f (t) , Zb
[a, b], 0 6 a < b,
f (t) dt;
a

3) f (t) ,
M > 0 s0 > 0, t > 0


f (t) 6 Mes0 t ;

(t) 6= 0 t < 0,
(t), :

1, t > 0 ,
(t) =
(51)
0, x < 0 ,

f (t) = (t) (t) =

(t), t > 0
0, t < 0,

16.
(t) () t < 0. ,
, .
17. f (t) F (p) p = s+i,

Z
F (p) = f (t)ept dt.
(52)
0

37

(52) 17 .
21. F (p) f (t)
p, , Re p > s0 , Re p = s

p = s + i, s0 f (t) ,
f (t) 6 Mes0 t , 16 .
-
f (t)
F (p) ,
-

F (p)
f (t) .
11. 21 (
), F (p) 0 Re p .
, F (p) .
30. ,
2

f (t) = cos t (t) ,

f (t) = et (t) .

. 1) 2) 16, , .

.


0t
cos t 6 1 = e
t [0, ) , f (t) = cos t
.
s0
2
t , t > s0 , et > es0 t 2
t s0 , , f (t) = et
.
31. ,
F (p) = ep ,

F (p) = p sin p .

. , , : F (p) 0 Re p .
32. ,
1 = (t)

eat = (t)eat

38

1
;
p

(53)

1
.
pa

(54)

. ,
Z
1
1 = (t)
ept dt = ept
p
0

e = (t)e

at

at

at pt

e e

dt =

(ap)t



= 1 .

p
0



1
1
(ap)t
e
=
.
dt =

ap
pa
0

12. ,
. , .
.
22 (). f1(t)
F1(p) f2(t)
F2(p),
f1 (t)+f2(t)

F1 (p)+F2(p) , .
1 p
23 (). f (t)
F (p), f (t)
F

6= 0.

24 ( ). F (p)
f (t), :
f (t)
pF (p) f (0);

f (t)
p2F (p) pf (0) f (0).


f (n) (t)
pn F (p) pn1f (0) pn2f (0) . . . pf (n2)(0) f (n1)(0).
25 ( ).
f (t) F (p), (t)f (t)

F (p).
(t)nf (t)
F (n) (p).
Zt
0

26 ( ). f (t) F (p) ,

f () d

F (p)
.
p

).
Z
f (t)
F (p) f (t),

F (s) ds .
t

27

39

28 (). F (p) f (t), eat f (t)


F (p a).
29 (). F (p) f (t),
(t ) f (t )
ep F (p) ,
> 0 , (t )
(51).

, -

18. f (t) g(t)


, (f g)(t) :
Zt
(f g)(t) = f ()g(t )d.
0

30 ( ). f (t) F (p)
g(t)
G(p),
(f g)(t) =

Zt
0

f ()g(t )d
F (p)G(p).


36. , ,
:
a)
c)
e)
g)

f (t) = bt (t), b > 0, b 6= 1 ;


1
f (t) = t3
(t) ;
f (t) = tg t (t) ;
f (t) = 1t (t) ;

b)
d)
f)
h)

f (t) = e(2+4i)t (t) ;


f (t) = t2 (t) ;
2
f (t) = et (t) ;
f (t) = tt (t) .

37. ( 11
. 38), , :
a) F (p) = tg p;

b) F (p) = p2 ;

c) F (p) = cos p .

38. , :
a) f (t) = t2 ;
b) f (t) = e6t ;
c) f (t) = cos 2t .

40

9

33. (12)

p
cos t
2
.
(55)
p + 2
.


eit + eit
1
1
1

+
=
cos t =
2
2 p i p + i
p + i + p i
p
=
.
=
2 (p2 + 2 )
p2 + 2
(54).
13. sin t, sh t, ch t .
.
. 93.
34. sin2 t.
. sin2 t = (1/2) (1 cos 2t).
(53) (55),


1 1
p
2
2
sin t

=
2
.
2 p
p +4
p(p2 + 4)

35. sin2 t,
.
. f (t)

F (p), f (t)

pF (p) f (0).
2
f (0) = 0, f (t) = 2 sin t cos t = sin 2t

2
. ,
p +4
2
= pF (p),
p2 + 4
F (p) =

sin2 t .
2
p(p + 4)

36. f (t) = t2 et .
1
. et

. p

1


1
1

tet ,

tet .
2
p1
(p 1)



1
2
t

t
te

t2 et .
2
3
(p 1)
(p 1)
41

37.

Zt

e d.

1
. et

.
p1
Zt
0

e d

1
1
1

=
.
p p1
p (p 1)

sh t
38. f (t) =
.
t
1
. , sh t
2
. p 1

sh t

Z
p

r

1
1
s 1
p+1
= ln
ds = ln
, ( Re p > 1) .

2
s 1
2
s+1 p
p1

. f (t) F (p)
Z
f (t)

dt .
t
0

f (t)
dt =
t

F (p) dp .

39.

sin t
dt.
t

1
.
. sin t
2
p +1
Z
0

sin t
dt =
t

Z
0



1
= .
dp
=
arctg
p

p2 + 1
2
0

40. f (t) = et cos 2t.


p
. cos 2t
2
. (a = 1)
p +4

p+1
et cos 2t

.
(p + 1)2 + 4
42

41. f (t1) = (t1)2 (t1).


2
. f (t) = t2 (t) f (t)

3 .
p
( = 1)
2ep
f (t 1) = (t 1) (t 1)

.
p3

-
. , , ,
f (t) = t2 ,
= 1, t2 t = 1, f (t 1) (t 1), f (t) (t 1).
, f (t) .
2

42. , .

. f (t)
.
1 (t) = t,
t = 1 . f1(t) = t t (t 1).
(t 1). ,
t = (t 1) + 1 , f1(t) = t [(t 1) + 1] (t 1) .
f2 (t) = (t 1) (t 2), 2(t) = 1
t = 1 t = 2 .
, t = 2 3 (t) = t + 3,
t = 3 .
f3(t) = (t + 3) (t 2) (t + 3) (t 3) =
= [(t 2) 1] (t 2) + (t 3) (t 3).

f (t) = f1(t) + f2(t) + f3(t) = t [(t 1) + 1] (t 1) +


+ (t 1) (t 2) [(t 2) 1] (t 2) + (t 3) (t 3) =
= t (t 1) (t 1) (t 2) (t 2) + (t 3) (t 3).
1
t
2 ,
p

1
f (t)
2 1 ep e2p + e3p .
p
43


39. , :
a)
c)
e)
g)
i)

f (t) = 1 + 2t + 5t2 ;
f (t) = 4 cos 2t sin 5t ;
f (t) = 8 cos4 t ;
f (t) = sin t sin 3t ;
f (t) = sh t ch 2t ;

b)
d)
f)
h)
j)

f (t) = 6 cos2 3t ;
f (t) = sin3 5t ;
f (t) = t3 + 12 e4t ;
f (t) = cos 2t cos 4t ;
f (t) = 12 ch2 t .

40. , :
a) f (t) = et sin t ;
b) f (t) = e4t cos 3t ;
c) f (t) = t2 e5t ;
d) f (t) = sh t sin 4t ;
2
3t
t
e) f (t) = te + e sin 3t ; f) f (t) = et cos 6t 2tet .
41. ,
:
a) f (t) = t sin t ;
d) f (t) = t2 cos t ;

b) f (t) = t2 sh 3t ;
e) f (t) = t sin t cos 4t ;

c) f (t) = (t + 1) sin t ;
f) f (t) = t3 e5t .

42. , :
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

x + x = et ,
x + 2x = sin t,
x + x = cos t,
x + x = 0,
x x = tet ,
x(4) x = 1,
x + x = tet + 4 sin t,

x(0) = 1 ;
x(0) = 0 ;
x(0) = 1, x (0) = 1 ;
x(0) = 0, x (0) = 1, x(0) = 2 ;
x(0) = x (0) = 0 ;
x(0) = x (0) = x(0) = x(0) = 0 ;
x(0) = x (0) = 0 .

43. , :
a) f (t) =

Zt

sin d ;

d) f (t) =

b) f (t) =

Zt

2 e3 d ;

c) f (t) =

Zt

( + 2) cos2 d ;

sin2 d ;

e) f (t) =

Zt
0

44

Zt

ch2 d

44. ,
:
sin t
;
a) f (t) =
t

b) f (t) =

Zt

sin t
dt ;
t

sin2 t
c) f (t) =
;
t

1 cos t
d) f (t) =
;
t

et 1 t
e) f (t) =
;
t

f) f (t) =

Zt

et et
dt .
t

45. ,
:
Z at
e ebt
a)
dt, (a > 0, b > 0) ;
t
0

c)

cos at cos bt
dt, (a > 0, b > 0) ;
t

sin at sin bt
dt, (a > 0, b > 0) .
t

d)

46. ,
:
a)
c)
e)
g)
i)
k)

f (t) = sin2(t 3) (t 3) ;
f (t) = t2 (t 2) ;
f (t) = e2t+14 (t + 7) ;
f (t) = sin t (t ) ;
f (t) = (t 1)2 (t 2) ;
f (t) = (t 2 ) cos2 t + (t + )et.

b)
d)
f)
h)
j)

f (t) = t2 (t) ;
f (t) = t2 (t + 2) ;
f (t) = sin(t 4 ) (t) ;
f (t) = (t2 + 2t 1) (t) ;
f (t) = (t 1)2 (t) ;

47. , ,
:
a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)
45

g)

h)

48. , :
a)

Zt

et sin d ;

b)

d)

Zt

Zt
0

e3(t) 2 d ;

e)

Zt
0

e sin(t ) d ;
3 ch 7(t ) d ;

c)

Zt
0

f)

Zt
0

(t )2 sh d ;
cos 2(t ) d .

10

f (t) F (p) (. , . 93).
. .
31
( ). F (p)
R < p <

X
c1
c2
cn
cn
F (p) =
+ 2 +...+ n +... =
,
n
p
p
p
p
n=1

F (p) f (t),
f (t) =

X
n=1

cn
c
c
c
tn1 = c1 + 2 t + 3 t2 + . . . + n tn1 + . . .
(n 1)!
2!
3!
n!

32 ( ). F (p) - , p1, p2, . . . , pn



,
f (t) =

n
X

res [F (p)ept, pk ].

k=1

, , ep , .
46

1
.
p(p 1)(p2 + 4)
. F (p) :
1
A
B
Cp + D
=
+
+ 2
.
2
p(p 1)(p + 4)
p
p1
p +4
A, B, C, D,
1 1
1
1
1
p
1
1
+
2
2
.
F (p) = +
4 p
5 p1
20 p + 4
5 p +4
. . :
1
1
1 t
1
1

+
e
+
cos
2t

sin 2t.
p(p 1)(p2 + 4)
4
5
20
10
1
44. F (p) = 2
.
(p + 1)2
. F (p) . 1

sin t,
. 2
p +1
1
1
1
F (p) =
=

(p2 + 1)2
p2 + 1 p2 + 1
Zt
Zt
1

sin(t ) sin d =
[cos t cos(2 t)] d =
2
0
0
=t

1
1
1
1
=
t cos t sin(2 t)
=
t cos t sin t .
2
4
2
2
=0
43. , F (p) =

ep
.
p+1
. ep,
1
= 1.

et,
p+1
:
ep

e(t1) (t 1).
p+1

45. F (p) =

49. :
pep
e3p
a) F (p) = 2
;
b) F (p) =
;
p + 4p + 5
p+3
c)

e2p
F (p) = 2
;
p + 4p + 3
47

d)

ep
F (p) = 2 .
p

50. :
a) F (p) =
c) F (p) =
e) F (p) =
g) F (p) =
i) F (p) =

1
;
p3 + 2p2 + p
1
;
p2 (p2 + 1)
p
;
(p2 + 1)2
1
;
(p 1)2(p + 2)
ep/2
;
p(p + 1)(p2 + 4)

b) F (p) =
d) F (p) =
f) F (p) =
h) F (p) =
j) F (p) =

2p + 3
;
p3 + 4p2 + 5p
ep
pe2p
+
;
p2 2p + 5 p2 + 9

1
2p
3p
4p
e
+
2e
+
3e
;
p2 + 1
ep
pe2p
+
;
p2 1 p2 4
ep 2e2p 6e3p
+ 3 + 4 .
p2
p
p

11



dn1x
dx
dn x
+ an x = f (t) ,
L[x] = a0 n + a1 n1 + . . . + an1
dt
dt
dt
x = x(t)


x(0) = x0, x(0) = x1, . . . , x(n1)(0) = xn1 ,

.
, , ,
L[x] = f (t)
A(p)X(p) = F (p),
A(p)
L, X(p)

x(t), F (p) f (t),


X(p) =

F (p)
.
A(p)

, x(t)
X(p).
46.
x + x = 2 cos t; x(0) = 0, x(0) 1.
48

. :
x(t)

X(p);

x (t)

pX(p) x(0) = pX(p);


x(t)

p2 X(p) px(0) x (0) = p2X(p) + 1;


p
.
cos t

2
p +1

p2 X(p) + 1 + X(p) =

2p
,
p2 + 1

2p
1
2
.
2
+ 1)
p +1
2p
2
(p + 1)2
( 44) :


2p
1
=

t sin t.
(p2 + 1)2
p2 + 1 p
X(p) =

(p2

x(t) = (t 1) sin t.
,
, - .
47. tx 2x = 0.
.
x(t)

X(p),
x (t)

pX(p) x(0),
x (t)

p2X(p) px(0) x(0).




d  2
p X(p) px(0) x (0) =
dp
dX(p)
= p2
2pX(p) + x(0).
dp

tx(t)

49


p2

dX(p)
2pX(p) + x(0) 2pX(p) + 2x(0) = 0
dp

dX(p)
4
3x(0)
+ X(p) =
.
dp
p
p2

X(p),

C1
x(0)
+ 4,
p
p

X(p) =

t3
.
3!
48.
x(t) = x(0) + C1

y(t) = cos t +

Zt
0

(t ) y() d .

. , .
Y (p) =

p
1
+
Y (p),
p2 + 1
p2

Y (p) y(t),
p3
Y (p) = 2
.
(p + 1)(p2 1)

cos t + ch t
.
2
49 ( ).
.
, y(t) =

:
p F (p) G(p) = f (0) G(p) + [ p F (p) f (0)] G(p)

f (0) g(t) + (f g)(t) .


(f g) , :
pF (p) G(p)

f (0) g(t) +
50

Zt
0

f () g(t ) d =

= f (0) g(t) +

Zt
0

f (t ) g() d .

(f g) .

p F (p) G(p) = g(0) F (p) + [ p G(p) g(0)] F (p) ,
:
pF (p) G(p)

g(0) f (t) +

Zt

g () f (t ) d =

= g(0) f (t) +

Zt

g (t ) f () d .

, :
;
.
L[x] = f (t)
L[x1] = 1 .

L[x] = f (t)

A(p)X(p) = F (p) ;
1
L[x1] = 1

A(p)X1(p) = .
p
, X(p) = p F (p) X1 (p).
,
x(t) = f (0) x1(t) + (f x1 )(t) = x1(0) f (t) + (f x1)(t) =
Zt
= f (0) x1(t) + f () x1(t ) d =
(56)
0

= f (0) x1(t) +

Zt
0

f (t ) x1() d =
51

(57)

= x1 (0) f (t) +

Zt

f () x1(t ) d =

(58)

= x1 (0) f (t) +

Zt

f (t ) x1() d .

(59)


(5659).
50. :
1
, x(0) = x(0) = 0.
t
1+e

x(t) x(t) =

. :
x1 (t) x1(t) = 1, x1(0) = x1(0) = 0.
1
, X1 (p) =
,
p(p2 1)

Zt
x1(t) = sh d = ch t 1.
0

(58),
x(t) =

Zt
0


1
1 t
1 + et
t
sh(t ) d =
e te 1 + sh t ln
.
1 + e
2
2


51. (. 42):
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

x + x = et ,
x + 2x = sin t,
x + x = cos t,
x + x = 0,
x x = tet ,
x(4) x = 1,
x + x = tet + 4 sin t,

x(0) = 1 ;
x(0) = 0 ;
x(0) = 1, x (0) = 1 ;
x(0) = 0, x (0) = 1, x(0) = 2 ;
x(0) = x (0) = 0 ;
x(0) = x (0) = x(0) = x(0) = 0 ;
x(0) = x (0) = 0 .

52. :
52

a) x + 9x = f (t), x(0) = 0, x (0) = 1,

b) x + x = f (t), x(0) = x (0) = 0,

c) x + x = f (t), x(0) = x(0) = 0,

d) x x = f (t), x(0) = x(0) = 0,


53. ,
:
a) tx + (2t 1)x + (t 1)x = 0 ;
b) x + (t + 1)x + tx = 0, x(0) = 1, x(0) = 1 .

54. , :
1
a) x x = t
,
x(0) = x(0) = 0 ;
e +3
e2t
b) x x =
,
(1 + et )2

x(0) = x(0) = 0 ;

c) x x =

1
,
1 + et

x(0) = x(0) = 0 ;

d) x + x =

1
,
2 + cos t

x(0) = x(0) = 0 ;

e) x + x = et ,

x(0) = x(0) = 0 .

55. f (t)
1
x + 2nx + k 2 x = f (t), k > n.
m

x(0) = x (0) = 0. x(t).


53

56. , L, R C, , t = 0
E = const. I0 = 0, Q0 = 0.
I t
L

dI
Q
dQ
+ RI + = E, I =
.
dt
C
dt

57.
,
,
mx + x + cx = 0 ,
: x(0) = x0, x (0) = x0. x(t).
58. :
Zt
a) y(t) = at + sin(t ) y() d ;
0

t2
b) y(t) = +
2

Zt

et y() d .

59. - :
Zt
a)
et sin(t ) x() d = x x + et (1 cos t), x(0) = x(0) = 1 ;
0

b)

Zt
0

sh(t ) x() d = x x +

1
t sh t, x(0) = 1, x (0) = 0.
2

60. :

x + y = 0,
x(0) = 1,
a)

x + y = 0,
y(0) = 1;

3x + 2x + y = 1,
x(0) = 0,
b)

x + 4y + 3y = 0,
y(0) = 0;

x x 2y = t,
x(0) = 2,
c)

2x + y e = t,
y(0) = 4;

2x + x y = 3 sin t, x(0) = 0, x (0) = 1,
d)
x + y = sin t,
y(0) = 0;
54

e)

f)

g)

x y = 0,
x y = 2 sin t,


x =
y =

z =

x + y
y + z

z x

x(0) = 1, x (0) = 1,
y(0) = 1, y (0) = 1;

x y + z,
x + y z,
2z y,

x(0) = 9,
y(0) = 5,
z(0) = 7;
x(0) = 0, x (0) = 1,
y(0) = 0, y (0) = 1,
z(0) = 0, z (0) = 1.

= 2 sin t,
= 2 cos t,
= 0,

61.

x
y

z


= 2x y + 2z,
= x + 2z,
= 2x + y z.

55


12

19. L , k k : L R,
, , :




1) x > 0 (x L) , x = 0 x = 0;


2) x = || x
( R, x L)

;


3) x + y 6 x + y (x L, y L)
.
20. M
, : M M R, M
M, :
1) (x, y) > 0 (x, y M), (x, y) = 0 x = y
,
, ,
, ;
2) (x, y) = (y, x) (x, y M)

( x y y
x);
3) (x, z) 6 (x, y) + (y, z) (x, y, z M)
.

33. L , , :


(x, y) = x y (x, y L) .
(60)

14. , , .
,
q
a = a = a2 + a2 + a2 , a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k = {a1 , a2, a3 } .
1
2
3
56

15. (60)
,

, a =OA= {a1 , a2, a3 }, b =OB= {b1, b2, b3}, , ,



p
AB = b a = (b1 a1 )2 + (b2 a2 )2 + (b3 a3 )2 .

51.

Rn = {x = (x1, x2, . . . , xn) : x1 R, x2 R, . . . , xn R}



q
kxk = x21 + x22 + . . . + x2n


p
(x, y) = ky xk = (y1 x1 )2 + (y2 x2 )2 + . . . + (yn xn )2 .

F = {f : I R} ,
I R.
:
(f + g)(t) = f (t) + g(t); f, g F ; t I;
( f )(t) = f (t); f F ; R; t I.

(61)
(62)

52. C[a,b]



[a, b] , f C :




f = max f (t)
f

C
.
(63)
[a,b]
C
[a,b]

16. ,
.

53.

, C[a,b]
f L1 :

f =
L1

Zb
a



f (t) dt;

57


f C[a,b] .

(64)

54. L2[a, b] ( , ) [a, b] , f (t),


Zb

f 2(t) dt < + .


L2 [a, b] f L2
v
u b
uZ

f = u
t f 2(t) dt
(f L2[a, b]) .
(65)
L2
a

21. {xn}nN M
x0 M M, lim (xn, x0) = 0.
n

17. L2[a, b] f L2
.
22. E ,
, ( , ) : E E R , :

1) (x, y) = (y, x)
;

(x, y E)

2) (x1 + x2, y) = (x1, y) + (x2, y)


;
3) (x, y) = (x, y)
;


(x1 , x2, y E)

(x, y E , R)

4) (x, x) > 0, (x, x) = 0 x = 0


.

18.
:
(a, b ) = a b = | a | | b | cos (a, b ) .

58

55. Rn
:
(x, y) = x1 y1 + x2y2 + . . . + xn yn =

n
X

xk yk ,

k=1

x = (x1, x2, . . . , xn) Rn , y = (y1, y2, . . . , yn ) Rn .


34. E ,
p
f = (f, f )
(f E ) ,
.

56. L2[a, b]
(f, g) =

Zb
a

f (t) g(t) dt


f, g L2[a, b] .

(66)

, ,
(f, g) =

Zb
a


f, g L2[a, b] ,

f (t) g(t) p(t) dt

p(t) > 0 t [a, b]


.

(67)

, ,

23. {k }kN F , :
1) {k }, k = 1, 2, . . . , n ;
2) {k }kN F ,
f F {ak }kN : lim f,
n

n
X
k=1

ak k

= 0,

f F ,
F .

59

19. , 23 2- ,
.
24. {k }kN F ,

k 6= 0 k N (i, j ) = 0 i 6= j. , , k = 1
k N, .
57.


2t
2t
, sin n
1 , cos n
ba
b a nN

(68)

L2 [a, b]
.
,


nt
nt
1 , cos
, sin
L2[l, l]
l
l
nN

{1 , cos nt , sin nt}nN L2 [, ]


58.
(
n  )
n 2
d
x

1
1
L0(x) = 1 , Ln (x) = n
2 n!
dxn

(69)
(70)

(71)
nN

L2[1, 1].

L0(x) = 1;
L2(x) =

L1(x) = x;

1
3 2
x ;
2
2

L3(x) =

5 3
3
x x;
2
2

35 4
15 2 3
x
x + .
8
4
8
59.
p


n
n
2 2n1
p
d
1

x
( 2) n!
Tn (x) =
1 x2
(2n)!
dxn
L4(x) =

(72)

1
p(x) = p
1 x2
L2[1, 1].
60


T0(x) = 1,
T3(x) = 4x3 3x,

T1(x) = x,
T2(x) = 2x2 1,
T4(x) = 8x4 8x2 + 1.


62. , :
a) C[a,b] = {f : [a, b] R, f };
b) Pn [a, b] = {f : [a, b] R, f 6 n};
Rb 2
c) L2[a, b] = {f : [a, b] R, f (t) dt < +}.
a

63. , L2[a, b] (66) , (65) ,


v
u b
uZ


2
u
(f, g) = f g L2 = t f (t) g(t) dt
a

L2[a, b].

64. , .
65.
(68), (69), (70). .
66. , T -
(
)
eikt
2
p
, =
T
T kZ


L2 T2 , T2

(73)

67. , (71)
q

2
L [1, 1] , L =
.
2

n L2

2n+1

68. , (72) 1
p(x) = p

1 x2
L2[1, 1].
13

61


25.

f (t) L2 [a, b] {gk (t)}, k N


c1 g1(t) + c2 g2 (t) + . . . + cn gn (t) + . . . =

ck =

(f, gk )
,
kgk k2

X
k=1

ck gk (t) ,

k = 1, 2, . . . , n, . . . .

(74)

(75)

(74) f (t),
f (t)

X
k=1

ck gk (t) .

(74) f (t).
f (t), gk (t) L2 [a, b],
v
u b
uZ


u
(f (t), Sn(t)) = f (t) Sn (t) L2 = t [f (t) Sn2 (t)]2 dt.
a

26. 2n ,

2
2n = f (t) Sn (t) =

Zb
a


2
f (t) Sn2 (t) dt,

Sn (t) (74).

2
n

1
=
ba

Zb
a


2
f (t) Sn2 (t) dt.

35 ().
2n

n
X

2


= f (t) Sn (t) , Sn (t) =
ck gk (t)
k=1

. 2n , , ck
(75).
62

(. 69)


2
n
n
X



2 X

2
2
f (t)
= f (t)
,
a
g
(t)
c

g
(t)
(76)
k
k
k
k


k=1

k=1

1) 2n
n
2

2 X

2


(77)
n = f (t)
c2k gk (t) ;
k=1

2)

n

2 X

2
f (t) >
c2k gk (t) .

(78)

k=1

ck (75),


2

2 X
f (t) =
(79)
c2k gk (t) ,
k=1

20.
{gk (t)}

X


f (t) 2 =
c2k ,
k=1

21. {gk (t)}.

, (76) n
,


n
X


=0
lim
f
(t)

g
(t)
(80)
k
k

n
k=1

lim

n
X



2
f (t) 2
c2k gk (t)
k=1

= 0,

(80)
{gk (t)}, k N.
63

27.
E=

Zb
a


2
f 2(t) dt = f (t) L2

(79)
E=

X
k=1


2
c2k gk (t) .

28.

E
1
=
ba
ba

Zb

f 2(t) dt

[a, b] f (t).

69. 35.
n
X

2
2

. n = f (t)
ak gk (t) . k=1

{gk (t)}, , , 2n ak = ck .
70.
[1, 1] 2x3 3x2 + 4x 5.
71.
[1, 1] x3 2x2 + 3x 4.
14



(6870),
() .
64

(70)

a0 X
+
an cos nt + bn sin nt,
f (t)
2
n=1

an bn
a0 =

f (t) dt, an =

1
bn =

f (t) cos nt dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,

(81)

f (t) sin nt dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,

(82)

f (t) (, ].
(69)

nt
nt
a0 X
f (t)
+
an cos
+ bn sin
,
2
l
l
n=1
an bn
a0 =

1
l

Zl

f (t) dt, an =

1
l

Zl

f (t) cos

nt
dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
l

(83)

bn =

1
l

Zl

f (t) sin

nt
dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
l

(84)

f (t) (l, l].


22. f (t) T -
2
T = 2l, =
, ,
T
T -
ZT

f (t) dt =

c+T
Z
c

f (t) dt c R ,

a0 X
f (t)
+
an cos nt + bn sin nt,
2
n=1
65

(85)

2
a0 =
T

c+T
Z

2
f (t) dt, an =
T

c+T
Z

f (t) cos nt dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,

(86)

2
bn =
T

c+T
Z

(87)

f (t) sin nt dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,

f (t) (85)
() :

a0 X
f (t)
+
an cos nt + bn sin nt =
2
n=1

a0 X
=
+
An cos (nt n ) =
2
n=1

(88)

a0 X
=
+
An sin (nt + n ) ,
2
n=1
An =

a2n + b2n

, n

(89)

, n = arctg

bn
,
an

an
.
bn
66 (73).
, T = 2l, T - f (t) :
n = arctg

f (t)

n=

cn eint,

1
cn =
2l

Zl

f (t)eint dt,

n Z.

(90)

23. T - () f (t)
: - ()
{An}nN -
() {n}nN . .

66

T - f L2 [l, l], , . .
lim

Zl

[f (t) Sn (t)]2 dt = 0,

Sn (t) (. 21 . 63).

.
, , , , , . ,
,
. (),
, .
.
36 (). T - f (t) T :
1) f (t) ,
;
2) f (t) ,
,
:
1) t;
2) f (t)
;
3)
S(t0) =

1
[f (t0 + 0) + f (t0 0)] ,
2

t0
, S(t0)
,
f (t0 +0) f (t0 0)
f (t) t0 .
.
37. f (t), [l, l], , ,
67

, f (l) = f (l), .
24. ()
[a, b] , n

P
f (tk )f (tk1) 6 A <
A > 0,
k=1

[a, b]

a = t0 < t1 < t2 < . . . < tk < . . . < tn = b

, n. , ,
.

, .
29. f (t) [a, b],
Zl

Zl

f (t) dt



f (t) dt.

38. f (t) [l, l], ,


t1 , t2 , l 6 t1 < t2 6 l,
Zt2
t1

f (t) dt =

Zt2

t1


Zt2 
X
a0
nt
nt
an cos
dt +
+ bn sin
dt.
2
l
l
n=1
t1

25. ,
- ,
f (t).
f (t).
39. f (t) [l, l], f (l) = f (l) , , ,
, f (t). f (t) [l, l]. f (t)
f (t) .
68

26. ,
f (t), , ,
f (t). f (t) , -
.
40. T - f (t) (m 1)- ,
m- ,
1
|an | , |bn| m+1 , . . C > 0, ,
n
C
C
|bn | 6 m+1 ,
n N.
|an | 6 m+1 ,
n
n
m , 1
|an | , |bn | m+1 , . .
n




1
1
an = O
,
bn = O
.
nm+1
nm+1
T - (88), (76)
n
X



2
f (t) 2
c2k gk (t) =
k=1

ZT
0

n
T X 2
a20
T
Ak .
f (t) dt
4
2
2

k=1

2n
:
2
n

1
=
T

ZT
0

n
a20
1 X 2
f (t) dt

Ak .
4
2
2

(91)

k=1

(79)
ZT
0

a20
T X 2
f (t) dt
T =
Ak .
4
2
2

(92)

k=1

41.

T X 2
E=
Ak .
2
k=1

69

, Ak cos(kt k ) T
Ek =

ZT
0

A2k cos2(kt k ) dt =

A2k
=
2

ZT
0

[1 + cos(2kt k )] dt = A2k

T
.
2

(92)
E=

ZT
0

a20
f (t) dt
T.
4
2

k-
A2k T2
A2k
Ek
= T

.
(93)
Ek =
T
Z
Z
E
2
a20
a20
2
2
f (t) dt
T
f (t) dt
4
T
2
0

60.
T = 2

t, 0 < t 6 1,
f (t) =
1, 1 < t 6 2.
27. . . 90.
.

1. f (t), (83),
(84).
a0 =

Z0

dt +

Z1
0

0

t2

t dt = t +
2
1
70

1

= 3;

2
0

ak =

Z0

cos kt dt +

(1)k 1
=
t cos kt dt =
(k)2

0,

k = 2n,

2
, k = 2n 1;
(k)2
Z0
Z1
1
=
sin kt dt + t sin kt dt =
.
k
=

bk

Z1

3 X (1)k 1
1
cos
kt

sin kt.
f (t) +
4
(k)2
k
k=1

2. 36 f (t)

0 < t 6 1,
t
S(t) =
1
1 < t < 2,

0,5
t = 0, t = 2.
S(t)

3.
q . Ak = a2k + b2k . . 1.

ak
bk
Ak

0,2026
0,3183
0,3773

2
0,0
0,1592
0,1592

3
0,0226
0,1061
0,1085

4
0,0
0,0796
0,0796

5
0,0081
0,0636
0,0642

6
0,0
0,0531
0,0531

7
0,0041
0,0455
0,0457

4. , 90 % .
(93). , T = 2.
E1

A21 100 %

(0,3773)2 100 %
=
1

Z
Z2
ZT
2
2
3
1
2
a
t2 dt + dt

f 2 (t) dt 0
2 2
T
2
0

71

(0,3773)2
100 % 68,36 %.

0,2083
,
E2 12,16 %;
E5 1,98 %;

E3 5,65 %;
E6 1,35 %;

E4 3,04 %;
E7 1,00 %.

91,19 % , ( 89,21 % ).
5. , .
. 2.
2


t
S5 (t)
[f (t) S5 (t)]2
t
S5 (t)
[f (t) S5 (t)]2
t
S5 (t)
[f (t) S5 (t)]2

0,0
0,5167
0,2670
0,7
0,7255
0,0006
1,4
1,0249
0,0006

0,1
0,1269
0,0007
0,8
0,8090
0,0001
1,5
1,0258
0,0007

0,2
0,1150
0,0072
0,9
0,8775
0,0005
1,6
0,9558
0,0019

0,3
0,3211
0,0004
1,0
0,9833
0,0003
1,7
0,9837
0,0003

0,4
0,4393
0,0015
1,1
1,0345
0,0012
1,8
1,0874
0,0076

0,5
0,4742
0,0007
1,2
0,9886
0,0001
1,9
0,9611
0,0015

0,6
0,5799
0,0004
1,3
0,9697
0,0010
2,0
0,5167
0,2335

. 4 f (t), S5 (t),
[f (t) S5(t)]2 .
. 2.

. 4
6. n = 5
72

(91)
2
5

1
=
T

ZT
0

5
a20
1 X 2
f (t) dt

Ak 0,0092.
4
2
2

k=1


, .
61.
,
, f (t) = t , t [1, 1] T = 2.
:



1
4
1
1
t
cos t + cos 3t + . . . +
cos(2n 1)t + . . . .
2
2
9
(n 1)2

(93),
E1 98,55 %, E2 1,27 %, E3 0,16 %.
: E1 + E2 + E3 99,98 %.

 , , -, 2
ak = O 1 / k , -,

,
f (t).
S3(t). S3(t)
f (t)
. 5

. . 5, t = 0 t = 1.
62.
T = 2,

1, 0 < t 6 ,
f (t) =
1, < t 6 2 .
:


4
sin 3t sin 5t
sin(2n 1)t
f (t)
sin t +
+
+...+
+ ... .

3
5
2n 1
73

f (t) , [0, 2] bk = O ( 1 / k ). (93), E1


81,06 %, E2 9,01 %, E3 3,24 %.
: E1 + E2 + E3 93 %.
61 62, ,
61 , 62.

. 6, f (t)

. 6
[0, ].



4
sin 3t sin 5t
sin(2n 1)t
Sn (t) =
sin t +
+
+ ...+
.

3
5
2n 1
.
4
[cos t + cos 3t + cos 5t + . . . + cos(2n 1)t] .





S = cos a + cos a + d + cos a + 2d + . . . + cos a + (n 1)d =


sin nd
(n 1) d
2

= cos a +
.
2
sin d2
Sn (t) =

a = t, d = 2t,
Sn (t) =

4 cos nt sin nt
2 sin 2nt

=
,

sin t

sin t

,
2
Sn (t) =

Zt
0

sin 2n
d .
sin

Sn (t) sin 2nx = 0,


[0, /2] n
tk =

k
,
2n

k = 1, 2, . . . , n .

74

.
2
Sn (t1 ) =

/2n
Z
0

sin 2n
2
d =
sin

sin y
dy ,
2n sin(y/2n)

y = 2n .
n . sin(y/2n) y/2n

Z
Z
2
sin y
2
sin y
2
Sn (t1) =
dy
dy = si 1,179 .

2n sin(y/2n)

,
1.
. . , n 1- Sn (t)
f (t)
. 7
.
18 %.
n = 1 n, , , . ,
. 7,
n = 1, 3, 7, 15,
.

72. (8184) .
. (75) .
73. (90) cn . ,
cn + cn = an , cn cn = bn i, cn =

an + bn i
an bn i
, cn =
, n N,
2
2

an , bn (83), (84) .
. (12), (13).
75

74. :
a) f (t) = sin

1
, t (, ];
t

b) f (t) =

75. , f (t) (t (l, l])


1
,
1t

t (2, 2] ?

, bn = 0,

X
a0
nt
+
an cos
.
f (t)
2
l
n=1

an
2
a0 =
l

Zl

2
f (t) dt, an =
l

Zl

f (t) cos

nt
dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .
l

f (t) , an = 0 (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .) ,

X
nt
f (t)
bn sin
,
l
n=1

bn
bn =

2
l

Zl

f (t) sin

nt
dt, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .
l

76. ,
, an , bn .
a)

b)

c)

76

d)

15


. ,
, ,
, , .
f (x) , . ,
, ,
,
Z


f (x) dx < +.
(94)

(l, l]

a0 X
k
k
f (x) =
+
ak cos
x + bk sin
x.
2
l
l
k=1

ak , bk , (83), (84), ,
1
f (x) =
2l

Zl

f (t) dt +

Zl
Zl

X
1
kx
kt
1
kx
kt
+
f (t) cos
cos
dt +
f (t) sin
sin
dt
l
l
l
l
l
l
k=1

f (x) =

1
2l

Zl

f (t) dt +
l



Z
1 X
kx
kt
kx
kt
+
f (t) cos
cos
+ sin
sin
dt =
l
l
l
l
l
k=1 l

1
=
2l

Zl

1 X
k
f (t) dt +
f (t) cos (t x) dt .

l
l
k=1

l . (94)
. , [0, )
77

k =
= . ,
l
l

Z Z
1
d
f (t) cos (t x) dt .
(95)
f (x) =

.
cos (t x) = cos t cos x + sin t sin x

Z
1
a() =
f (t) cos t dt ,

b() =

f (t) sin t dt ,

,
f (x) =

[a() cos x + b() sin x] d .

(96)

63.
f (x) = ea|x| ,

a > 0.

. f (x) , b() = 0, a()



2
a() =

eat cos t dt =

,
ea|x| =

Z
0

2a
.
(a2 + 2)

2a cos x
d .
(a2 + 2)

28. ,

:
Z
cos x
ea|x|
d
=
(a > 0) .
a2 + 2
2a
0

78

.
(95) .
Z
Z
1
d
f (t) cos (t x) dt .
(97)
f (x) =
2

,
1
2

f (t) sin (t x) dt = 0 ,

(98)

(94)
Z
f (t) sin (t x) dt,

.
(97) (98), i,
cos z i sin z = eiz
Z
Z
1
f (x) =
d
f (t)ei(tx) dt .
(99)
2

30 ( ).
(99) .
Z
g() =
f (t)eit dt .
(100)

1
f (x) =
2

g()eix d .

(101)

f (x) g(), (100) f . , (101)


, .

Z
Z
1
1
g() =
f (t)eit dt , f (x) =
g()eix d .
2
2

79

29. Z
, L[f (t)] = f (t)ept dt (. 0

17 . 37) . ,
, ,
. ,
.
64.
f (x) = ea|x| ,

a > 0.

.
.
g() =

ea|x| eix dx =

= 2

eax cos x dx =

ea|x| (cos x i sin x) dx =

2a
.
a2 + 2

f (x)

f (x) = ea|x|

1
=
2

2aeix
a
d
=
a2 + 2

eix
d .
a2 + 2


77. , :

1 |x| 6 a ,
a) f (x) =
0 |x| > a ;

1 x [0, a] ,
b) f (x) =
0 x 6 [0, a] ;

sin x2
x [0, ] ,
c) f (x) =
0 x 6 [0, ] ;
1
d) f (x) =
;
x2 + a2
80

e) f (x) = eax , a > 0 ;


 ax
e
x > 0 ,
f) f (x) =
a > 0.
0 x < 0 ,
16


. ,
.
:
1)
;
2)

T = const,
;
3) , l , ;
4) .
(x, u) , [0, l] Ox; u
; ,
u(x, t)
x t
,
u(0, t) = u(l, t)
. 8
t (. 8).

ds. dx,


2
dx = ds cos ds 1
ds ,
2

Ox. , , ,
2 .

u
sin tg ,
= tg .
x x
81

, ,



 
u
2u
u
T sin( + d) T sin = T

=
T
dx.
x x+dx
x x
x2

u2
.
ds = dx,
t2 x
, (ma = F ),

u2
2u
dx = T
dx,
t2 x
x2

2
2u
2 u
=a
,
t2
x2

(102)

T
.

(102) ,
:
a2 =

u(0, t) = u(l, t) = 0 t [0, )

(103)

( ),
u(x, 0)
= (x),
(104)
t
, (x)
u(x, 0) = (x),

(x)
.

(102104) .
, (102)
u(x, t) = X(x) T (t),
, x t .
(102) X(x) T (t) = a2 T (t) X (x),
T (t)
X (x)
=
.
a2 T (t)
X(x)

(105)

(105) x,
t, , , .
2 ( ,
). (105)
T (t)
X (x)
=
= 2,
2
a T (t)
X(x)
82



T + a2 2 T = 0,
(106)
X + 2X = 0,


T = C1 cos at + C2 sin at,
X = D1 cos x + D2 sin x.

(106)
X(0) = X(l) = 0, (103).
X(0) = 0 , D1 = 0.
, X(x) = D2 sin x.
X(l) = D2 sin l = 0,
sin l = 0,

l = n n N. , :

2
n
1 = , 2 =
, . . . , n =
, ...
(107)
l
l
l
= n , , C1 D2 =
An C2 D2 = Bn .
(102)
un(x, t) = (An cos an t + Bn sin an t) sin n x, n N.

(102) , ,

u(x, t) =

un(x, t) =

n=1

(An cos an t + Bn sin an t) sin n x.

(108)

n=1

,
(102). (103) , n. , (108)
t. :

X
u(x, t)
=
(An an sin an t + Bn an cos an t) sin n x.
t
n=1

(109)

t = 0 (108) (109).
(104),

X
n=1

An sin n x = (x),

X
n=1

83

Bn an sin nx = (x).

, (x) (x),
[l, 0) ,
,

An =

2
l

Zl

(x) sin n x dx,

Bn =

2
an l

Zl

(x) sin nx dx.

(110)

, (107) n ,
.
42. (x) , (x) , (x), (x) [0, l],


X
ant
ant
nx
u(x, t) =
An cos
+ Bn sin
sin
,
l
l
l
n=1
An Bn
2
An =
l

Zl

nx
(x) sin
dx,
l

2
Bn =
an

Zl

(x) sin

nx
dx
l

(102) (103) (104).


30. 42 (x) (x).
65.
, .

. (x) = 0, Bn = 0
u(x, t) =

An cos

n=1

84

ant
nx
sin
.
l
l

, :

hx

0 6 x < b ,

b
h
b 6 x < l b ,
u(x, 0) = (x) =

h(l x)
l b 6 x 6 l.
b
,
l
x = , An :
2
An =

2
l

Zl

(x) sin

nx
4
dx =
l
l

Zb
0

Zl/2
hx
nx
4
nx
sin
dx +
h sin
dx.
b
l
l
l
b




4h
l
bn
n
An =
sin
cos
,
n bn
l
2




4h X 1
l
bn
n
ant
nx
u(x, t) =
sin
cos
cos
sin
.
n=1 n bn
l
2
l
l
17

l, x = 0 x = l Ox.
, .
. t = 0 u(x, 0) = f (x) (0 6 x 6 l) .
u(x, t) x
t
2
u
2 u
=a
,
(111)
t
x2
a2 = k/(c)
: k , c , .
(111) . .

85

66. ,
, , (
u = u1 T0). , (111)

u(x, 0) = f (x),

f (0) = f (l) = 0,

06x6l


u(0, t) = u(l, t) = 0,

0 6 t < .

. .
, u(x, t) = X(x) T (t), (111)
T
X
XT = a2 X T
=
.
a2 T
X
x, t,
, , 2 (
).
:
T + a2 2T = 0, T = Cea

2 2

X + 2 X = 0, X = A cos x + B sin x .

X(0) = X(l) = 0,
A = 0, l = n, n N

1 =

2
n
, 2 =
, . . . , n =
, ...
l
l
l

Bn = BC,
2 2
un(x, t) = Bn ea n t sin n x, n N.

u(x, t) =

un(x, t) =

n=1

Bn ea

2 2
n t

sin n x .

n=1

Bn :
u(x, 0) =

Bn sin

n=1

86

nx
= f (x) .
l

f (x) , , (l, l],


Zl
nx
2
f (x) sin
dx .
Bn =
l
l
0

67. , ,
(111)
u(x, 0) = f (x),

06x6l


u(0, t)
u(l, t)
=
= 0, 0 6 t < .
x
x
. , , . 66 . :
X(x) = A cos x + B sin x X (0) = X (l) = 0 .

X (x) = A sin x + B cos x,

B = 0 sin l = 0, , = 0 l = n, n N.
,

2
n
0 = 0, 1 = , 2 =
, . . . , n =
, ...
l
l
l

A0
2 2
u0 (x, t) =
un (x, t) = An ea n t cos n x, n N.
2

X
A0 X
2 2
u(x, t) =
un (x, t) =
+
Anea n t cos nx .
2
n=0
n=1
An :

nx
A0 X
+
An cos
= f (x) .
u(x, 0) =
2
l
n=1

f (x) , , (l, l],


2
A0 =
l

Zl

2
f (x) dx , An =
l

Zl
0

87

f (x) cos

nx
dx .
l

68 ( ).
. (111)

u(x, 0) = f (x),

< x < .

, , .
.
2 2
u(x, t) = (a cos x + b sin x) ea t .
> 0 ,
( ).
a = a(), b = b()

u(x, t) =

[a() cos x + b() sin x] ea

2 2

d .

(112)

a() b() ,
u(x, 0) =

[a() cos x + b() sin x] d = f (x) .

, f (x) ,
a() b() :
1
a() =

1
b() =

f (z) cos z dz ,

f (z) sin z dz .

(112), :
1
u(x, t) =

ea

2 2

f (z) cos (z x) dz .

f (z) (, ), z .
1
u(x, t) =

f (z) dz

Z
0

88

ea

2 2

cos (z x) d .

:
Z
0

ea

2 2

cos (z x) d =

1
2a

(z x)2

4a2 t .
e
t

, :
u(x, t) =

2a t

(z x)2

4a2 t dz .
f (z)e

(113)

31. , . , , (113)
t.

89

.

1. f (x), x [1, 1] .
2. 2- f (t)
.
3.
f (t) .
2, 3.
1. f (t)
, f (t).
2. .
3. . : )
; ) .
4. .
5. , 90 % .
6. f (t) t,
f (t).
7.
t, f (t),
, . 5.
8. ,
f (t) t,
f (t).
9. .
90

1, 1 < x < 0 ;
1, 0 6 x < 1 .

f (t) = t2 ,
t [0, 1] ; ()

f (x) = 2x3 3x2 + 4x 5 .

f (t) = t(2 t) ,
t [0, 2] ; (.)

f (x) = |x| .

f (t) = sin 3t ,
t [0, 3] ; ()

f (x) = x2 + x 1 .

f (t) = et ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

f (x) =

2, 1 < x < 0 ;
2, 0 6 x < 1 .

f (t) = cos 2t ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

f (x) = 3x3 + 2x2 x + 1 .

f (t) = e2t ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

f (x) = |2x| .

f (t) = t2 ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

f (x) = 2x2 3x + 4 .

f (t) = t(3 t) ,
t [0, 3] ; (.)

10

f (x) =

f (x) =

13

12 , 1 < x < 0 ;
1
, 0 6 x < 1.
2

f (t) = sin 2t ,
t [0, ] ; ()
f (t) = et/2 ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

f (x) = x3 3x2 + x 3 .

f (t) = cos 3t ,
t [0, 3] ; ()

x

f (x) = .
2

11

12

f (t) = et/3 ,
t [0, 3] ; ()

f (x) = x2 2x + 3 .

f (x) =

f (t) = t2 ,
t [0, 3] ; (.)

3, 1 < x < 0 ;
3, 0 6 x < 1 .

91

14

f (x) = x3 2x2 + 3x + 4 .

f (t) = t( t) ,
t [0, ] ; (.)

15

f (x) = |3x| .

f (t) = sin 3t ,
t [0, 1] ; ()

16

f (x) = 3x2 + 2x 1 .

f (t) = et ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

17

18

f (x) =

21

31 , 1 < x < 0 ;
1
, 0 6 x < 1.
3

f (t) = cos 2t ,
t [0, ] ; ()

f (x) = 3x3 x2 + x 4 .

f (t) = e2t ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

x

f (x) = .
3

f (t) = t2 ,
t [0, 4] ; ()

f (x) = 4x2 3x + 3 .

f (t) = t(t 2) ,
t [0, 2] ; (.)

19

20

f (x) =

4, 1 < x < 0 ;
4, 0 6 x < 1 .

f (t) = sin 2t ,
t [0, 1] ; (.)

22

f (x) = x3 + 4x2 + x + 2 .

f (t) = et/2 ,
t [0, 2] ; ()

23

f (x) = |4x| .

f (t) = ch 3t ,
t [0, 1] ; ()

24

f (x) = 4x2 3x + 5 .

f (t) = et/3 ,
t [0, 3] ; ()

25

f (x) =

f (t) = 1 t2 ,
t [0, 1] ; ()

5, 1 < x < 0 ;
5, 0 6 x < 1 .

92

.
/

1
p

12

et cos t

p
(p )2 + 2

1
p2

13

et sh t

(p )2 2

t2

2
p3

14

et ch t

p
(p )2 2

tn

,nN

15

t sin t

et

1
p

16

t cos t

tn et

n!
(p )n+1

17

t sh t

sin t

p2 + 2

18

t ch t

p2 + 2
(p2 2 )2

cos t

p
2
p + 2

19

tn sin t

Im (p + i)n+1
n!
(p2 + 2 )n+1

sh t

p2 2

20

tn cos t

Re (p + i)n+1
n!
(p2 + 2 )n+1

10

ch t

p
2

21

tet sin t

2(p )
[(p )2 + 2 ]2

11

et sin t

22

tet cos t

(p )2 2
[(p )2 + 2 ]2

n!
pn+1

p2

(p )2 + 2

93

(p2

2p
+ 2 )2

p2 2
(p2 + 2 )2

(p2

2p
2 )2


20
36
, y=
; c) .
17
17
3
31
27
29
2
41
4. a)
+
i; b)
+
i; c)
+
i.
130
130
130
130
13
13
5. a) x1 =
1 + 2i, x2 = 1
2i; b) x1 = 2 + 3i, x2 = 2 3i;
3
19
3
19
c) x1 =
+
i, x2 =

i.
2
2
2
2

2
3
1
6. a) = 5, = arctg ; b) = 4, = ; c) = 5 2 , = arctg ;
4
3
7
3
4
2
d) = 2, = ; e) = 1, = ; f) = 2, = .
4 
5
3
7. a) 219 1 + 3 ; b) 210 (1 + i); c) 1728; d) 1.

1i
1+i
1 
9. a) ; b) ; c)
3 + i , i;
2
2
2




3
3
d) cos i sin
, cos
+ i sin
; e) 1, i;
8
8
8
8

3






4 (1 + i)

6
6
,
+ i sin
,
i cos
; g) 3 i ;
f)
2 cos
12 sin
12
12
2
12
12
h) 10 2 (cos 6 + i sin 6 ), 10 2 (cos 78 + i sin 78 ), 10 2 (cos 150 + i sin 150 ),

10
2 (cos 222 + i sin 222 ), 10 2 (cos 294 + i sin 294).
x2
y2
10. a) xy = 1; b) xy = 1; c)
+
= 1;
3
4

2
3
x
y2
2
d)  2 + 2 = 1; e) x2 + y 2 = 1; f) y 2 =
9
3 2
2
2x + 1;
g) y < 2; h) ,
1 (2, 1), ; i) ,
Oy; j) x2 + (y 1)2 = 1.
11. a) u = 2x 1, v = 2y; b) u = x2 y 2 + x, v = (2x + 1) y;
y
x
2
2
2
2
, v= 2
; d) u = ex y cos 2xy, v = ex y sin 2xy;
c) u = 2
2
2
x +y
x +y
e) u = ex cos y, v = ex sin y; f) u = ch x cos(y 1), v = sh x sin(y 1);

2
2
u = e(x y ) ln 24kxy cos[2k(x2 y 2) + 2xy ln 2],
g)
k Z;
2
2
v = e(x y ) ln 24kxy sin[2k(x2 y 2) + 2xy ln 2],
3. a) x =

sin x cos x
sh y ch y
h) u = ch x cos y, v = cos x sin y; i) u = 2
, v= 2
.
2
2
ch

 y sin x
ch y sin
 x

1
3
12. a) ln 2 + i(1 + 2k); b) i
+ 2k ; c) ln 2 + i 2k
;
2
4





2
1
d) ln 13 + i 2k arctg
; e)
+ 2k + 2mi. k Z, m Z.
3
2


1

+ 2k




2
13.a) e
;
b)
cos
2
(2k
+
1)

+
i
sin
2
(2k
+
1)

;



1
1
!

+ 4k

+ 2k
3
1
1
1
2
6
c) e
; d) e

+i
; e) + i ;
2
2
2
2
94



3
1
ln 2 i; g) ch ; h) 2k i ln 2 1 , (2k + 1) i ln 2 + 1 ;
4

2

 


1
1
i) 2k +
i ln
2 + 1 , 2k
i ln
2 1 ; j) i. k Z.
2
2


2
+1 ,
14. a) zk = (2k + 1)i; b) zk = (2k + 1)i i ln 2; c) z2k = 2k i ln


z2k+1 = (2k + 1) i ln 2 + 1 + ; d) z2k = 2ki, z2k+1 = (2k + 1)i + ln 3.
k Z.
15. a) ; b) ; c) ; d) ; e) ; f) ; g) ; h) ; i) .
16. a) ; b) ; c) ; d) ; e) ; f) ; g) ; h) ; i) .
1
17. a) f (z) = ; b) f (z) = ln z; c) f (z) = z 2 + 2z; d) f (z) = 2 sh z z 2 ;
z
e) f (z) = 2 sin z z; f) f (z) = 4 ch z + z 2 1; g) f (z) = 2 cos 2z + z;
h) f (z) = 2i(cos z 1) iz 2 + 2.

1 2

18. a) ; b)
e 1 (1 + i); c) 0; d) 0.
2
4
19. a) 2(1 + i); b) 1; c) 7e2 + (3 2i)ei ; d) e1 1; e) 1 cos 1 + i(sin 1 1);
1
f)
[1 cos(2 + 2i)].
4

i; d) i; e) 0; f)
i.
20. a) e1 ; b) sh 1; c)
45
27
21. a) ; b) ; c) ; d) ; e) ;
f) ; g) ; h) .
22. a) R = 1; b) R = 1; c) R = 1; d) R = e1 .
22
23
23. a) sin 1 + 2 (z + 1) cos 1 +
(z + 1)2 sin 1
(z + 1)3 cos 1 . . . , R = ;
2!
3!



1
1
1
2
3
(2z 1) +
(2z 1) + . . . , R = ;
b) e 1 + (2z 1) +
2
2! 22
3! 23


1
3
32
33
5
2
3
c)
1 + (z + 2) + 2 (z + 2) + 3 (z + 2) + . . . , R = ;
5
5
5
5
3
 2
4
1
9
41 2
1 z
z
d)
z
z . . . , R = 1; e) 1 +
+
+ . . . , R = ;
5
25
125
2 2!
4!


1 z
z2
z3
+
+
+ . . . , R = 2.
f) ln 2
2 2
24
38
1
24. a) |z| > ; b) |z| > 2; c) |z + 1 i| > 1; d) |z + 1 + i| < 1; e) 2 < |z| < 4;
2
f) 0 < |z 2 + i| < 1.
1
z
z3
z5
z2
1
1
25. a)

+ . . .; b) z 4
+

+ . . .;
z
3!
5!
7!
2!
4!
6! z 2
1
z2
z4
z6
2
1
1
z2
c)

+ . . .; d) 4
+

+ . . ..
2!
4!
6!
8!
z
2! z 2 4!
6!

X 2n1
X 3n1 2n1
1 X zn
1 X
26. a1 )

; a2 )
; b1 )

(1)n z n ;
n
n
n
z
3
3
z
z
n=1
n=0
n=1
n=0


n
n1
n
n
X
X
X
X
(1)
(1)
(1) n
(1)
; c)
+
z ; d1 )
n
z n1 ;
b2 )
n+2
n
n+1
n
z
z
2
2
n=0
n=1
n=0
n=1

n
n
X
X
X
n
(1) n
1
n + (2)
d2 )
+
z ; d3 )
+
.
n+1
n+1
z
2
z
z n+1
n=1
n=0
n=1
27. a) z1 = 0 , z2,3 = 2i ;
b) zn = n, n Z \ {0} ;
c) z = 0 , zn = ni, n Z \ {0} ;
d) z = 0 , zn = n, n Z \ {0} ;
f)

95

e) zn = (2n + 1)i, n Z ;

f) zn = (4n + 1) i, n Z ;
2
g) z = i , zn = ni, n Z \ {1} ;
h) z = i , zn = (2n + 1)i, n Z \ {0, 1} .
28. a) ; b) ; c) ; d)
.
29. a) ; b) ; c) ;
d) .

30. a) zn = (4n + 1) , n Z ;
2
b) z = 0 ;
c) z1 = 0 , z2 = 1 ;
d) z0 = 0 , zn = 2ni, n Z \ {0} ;
e) z = 0 ; f) z = 0 .
31. a) ; b) ; c) z = 0
, z = 1 ; d) .



4
8
32. a) res f (0) = 0, res f
= , res f
+ n = 2
, n N;
4

2
(2n + 1)(4n +
1) 
1
1
1
2
3
b) res f (1) =
, res f (2) =
; c) res f (0) = , res f (3) =
sin2
;
27
27
6
27
2
1
ei
ei
, res f (1) =
.
d) res f (3) = e3i , res f (1) =
8
4
8
1
1
33. a) (1 2e )i; b) 2(1 e )i; c) 0; d) 0; e) 3i. 

5b2 a2 b2 5a2
2

; c)
+
; d)
.
34. a) ; b)
2
2
3
3
3
27
2(b a )
b
a
3
2
35. 20.
2
e6
p
38. a) 3 ; b)
; c) 2
.
p
p+1
p +4
1 2 10
3p2 + 3p 108
20(p2 + 21)
48
39. a) + 2 + 3 ; b)
;
c)
;
d)
;
p p
p
p(p2 + 36)
(p2 + 49)(p2 + 9)
(p2 + 4)(p2 + 36)
3
5p3 + 68p
p4 12p 48
6p
p3 + 20p
;
f)
;
g)
;
h)
;
e) + 2
p (p + 4)(p2 + 16)
2p4 (p + 4)
(p2 + 16)(p2 + 4)
(p2 + 36)(p2 + 4)
p2 + 3
12p2 24
;
j)
.
i) 2
(p 9)(p2 1)
p(p2 4)
1
p+4
2
8p
40. a) 2
; b) 2
; c)
; d) 4
;
3
p 2p + 2
p + 8p + 25
(p + 5)
p + 30p2 + 289
1
35
p3 p2 + 3p 75
e)
+
;
f)
.
(p 3)2 2(p 1)(p2 2p + 37)
(p2 2p + 37)(p + 1)2
2p
18p2 + 54
(p + 1)2
2p3 6p
2p5 60p3 1470
41. a) 2
;
b)
;
c)
;
d)
;
e)
;
(p + 1)2
(p2 9)3
(p2 + 1)2
(p2 + 1)3
(p2 + 25)2 (p2 + 9)2
6
f)
.
(p + 5)4
p+2
1
p2 + p + 1
42. a) X(p) =
; b) X(p) = 2
; c) X(p) =
;
((p + 1)2
(p + 1)(p + 2)
p(p + 1)(p2 + 1)
2p
1
1
d) X(p) = 3
; e) X(p) =
; f) X(p) = 3
;
2
p +1
p(p + 1)(p 1)
p (p 1)
p2 + 4p + 15
g) X(p) =
.
(p 1)(p2 + 1)(p2 + 16)
2
2
p2 6p + 36
2p3 + p2 + 8p 4 1 + 2p
43. a) 2
;
b)
;
c)
;
d)
+
;
(p + 1)2
p(p + 3)3
2p2 (p2 + 36)
2p(p2 + 4)2
2p3
96

e)

1
p2 + 64
+ 3.
2
2
2p(p 64)
2p

p
p
p2 + 4
ln p2 + 1
arcctg p
1
p
1
44. a) arcctg p; b)
; c) ln
; d)
; e) ln
;
p
2
p
p
p+1
p
p+1
f) ln
.
p1


b
1 a + b
b
45. a) ln ; b) ln ; c) ln
.
a
a
2
ab
2
2
2 + 4p + 4p2 2p
2
1
3p
2p
46. a)

e
;
b)
;
c)

e
;
d)

e
;
e)
e7p ;
2 + 4)
3
3
3
p(p
p
p
p
p

1
2 + 2p p2
2 + 2p + p2 2p
2 2p + p2
2 1p
f)
2
; g) 2
ep ; h)
;
i)

e
;
j)
;
2
p +1
p +1
p3
p3
p3
2
e(p+1)
p/2
k)

e
+
.
p (p2 + 4)
p+1


1
1 eap
1
47. a) 2 1 2ep + e2p ; b) 2 ep 2e2p + e3p ; c)
;
p
p
p

 1
1
1
d) 2
pep/2 ep ; e) 2 e2p e3p e2p ;
p +1
p
p



1
1 2p
1
1
p/4
3p/4
2p
4p
pe
+e
; g) 2 e
e
; h)
e
e4p +
e4p .
f) 2
p +1
p
p
p+1
1
1
2
2
48. a)
; b)
; c) 3 2
; d) 3
;
(p 1) (p2 + 1)
(p 1) (p2 + 1)
p (p 1)
p (p 3)
6
1
e) 3 2
; f)
.
p (p 49)
p (p2 + 4)
49. a) e2(t1) (cos(t 1) 2 sin(t 1)) (t 1); b) e3(t3) (t 3);
c) sh(t 2) e2(t2)
 (t 2); d) (t 1) (t 1).
1
3
1
; b)
(3 cos t 4 sin t) e2t ; c) t sin t;
50. a) 1 et 1 +
t
5
5
1
1
sin 2(t 1) et1 (t 1) + cos 3(t 2) (t 2); e) t sin t;
d)
2
2

1 2t
f) sin(t2) (t2) + 2 sin(t3) (t3) + 3 sin(t4) (t4); g)
e et + 3tet ;
9
h) sh(t 1) (t 1) + ch 2(t 2) (t 2);

 

1
1 (t1/2)
1
1
1
1
1
i)
e

cos 2 t

sin 2 t
t
;
4
5
20
2
10
2
2
j) (t 1) (t 1) + (t 2)2 (t 2) + (t 3)3 (t 3).

1 2t
e cos t + 2 sin t ;
51. a) x(t) = (t + 1)et ; b) x(t) =
5

!
1
3
1
3
c) x(t) = t sin t cos t + sin t; d) x(t) = et et/2 cos
t sin
t ;
2
2
2
3


1 2
1
t
e) x(t) = e 1 t t 1; f) x(t) = ch t t2 1;
2
2

1
t
g) x(t) =
(t 1)e + cos t + 2(sin t t cos t).
2
52.


1
1
1
a) x(t) =
sin 3t +
(t 1) sin 3(t 1) (t 1)
3
9
3


2
1

(t 2) sin 3(t 2) (t 2) +
9
3
97



1
1
(t 3) sin 3(t 3) (t 3);
9
3

1
1
b) x(t) = 1 et (1 et+4 ) (t 2); c) x(t) = t sin t + (t ) sin(t ) (t );
2
2
1
d) x(t) = ch t 1 (ch(t 1) 1) (t 1).
e
53. a) x(t) = (c1 + c2 t2 ) et ; b) x(t) = et .
 1

1 t
1
et + 3
1 t
1 + et
54. a) x(t) =
e 1 tet + et ln
; b) x(t) =
e 1 ln
;
3
9 
9
4
2
2


c) x(t) = et 1 (t + ln 2) et + 1 + et + 1 ln et + 1 ;
4
tg (t/2)
d) x(t) = sin t t arctg
+ cos t ln(2 + cos t) ln 3 cos t;
3
3
Zt
2
e) x(t) = e(t) sin d ( ).
0

1
55. x(t) =
k1 m

Zt

en(t) sin k1 (t ) f () d, k1 =

k 2 n2 .

E t
E
E t
e sin nt, n2 > 0; I = tet , n = 0; I =
e sh kt,
56. I =
nL
L
kL
R
1
R2
, n2 =

, k 2 = n2 .
n2 < 0, =
2L
LC 4L2

x0 + nx0
nt
57. x(t) = e
x0 cos k1 t +
sin k1 t , k > n;
k1

x(t) = ent (x
0 + (x0 + nx0 )t), n =k;
x + x0 n
x(t) = ent x0 ch n1 t + 0
sh n1 t , k < n,
n1
c

k 2 = ; 2n =
; k12 = k 2 n2 = n21 .
m
m




1 3
1
1
1
2
t t
+ e2t .
58. a) y(t) = a t + t ; b) y(t) =
6
4
2
8
59. a) et ; b) ch t.
60. a) x(t) = et , y(t) = et ;
1
3 6t/11
1
et
e
,
b) x(t) =
2
5
10

1 t
y(t) =
e e6t/11 ;
5
28 3t
1
1
c) x(t) =
e et t ,
9
3
9
28 3t
1
1
y(t) =
e + et t ;
9
3
9
d) x(t) = t cos t, y(t) = t sin t;
e) x(t) = sin t cos t, y(t) = sin t + cos t;
f) x(t) = (C1 + C2 t)et + C3 e2t ,
y(t) = (C1 2C2 + C3 t)et ,
z(t) = (C1 C2 + C2 t)et + C3 e2t , C1 = 9; C2 = 2; C3 = 0;
g) x(t) = sin t, y(t) = cos t, z(t) = sin t.
61.

x(t) = C2 cos t + (C2 + 2C3 ) sin t,


98

y(t) = 2C1 et + C2 cos t + (C2 + 2C3 ) sin t,


z(t) = C1 et + C3 cos t (C2 + C3 ) sin t.
26
4
L1 (x) 2L2 (x) + L3 (3).
5
5
1
15
71. 5T0 (x) +
T1 (x) T2 (x) + T3 (3).
4
4
74. a) ; b) .
Z
2
sin a cos x
77. a) f (x) =
d ;

70. 6L0 (x)

b) f (x) =

c) f (x) =

sin a cos x + (1 cos a) sin x


d ;

(2 sin 1) cos x + 2 cos sin x


d ;
42 1

d) 28 . 78;
Z
1
2
e) f (x) = p
e /4a cos x d;
a
0
Z
1
a cos x + sin x
f) f (x) =
d .

a2 + 2
0

99


1. .., .., .. . . .
.: , 1968.
2. .., .., ..
. . : .
, 2- ., . ., .: , 1981.
3. ..
1973. . I, II.

.: ,

4. ..
. .: , 1978. . II.
5. . . 2. / . .. .. . 2- . .: , 1986.
6. . . 3. / . .. . 2- . .: , 1986.

100


1. . . . . .
2.
3. . - .
4. . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . .
6. . . . . . . . .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
8.
9. .
10. .
11.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4
4
9
14
17
22
29
31

37
. . . . 37
. . . . 41
. . . . 46
. . . .

48

3
56
12. . . . . . 56
13. . . . . . . . . . 62
14. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
16. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
17. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

90
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
. . . . . . . . . . 93

94

100

101

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