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By : Ar Meera . P . S
Carpentry and Joinery
• Art or act to cut, plane, frame and
place the raw timber in position,
which is to be used for structural
construction of buildings.

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• Carpentry includes those forms of
construction in wood which are subjected
to stresses on account of the loads which
they support or the pressures which they
• Permanent constructions as partitions,
lintels, floors and roofs
• Temporary construction as scaffolding,
shoring, timbering for trenches, cent­ering
for arches and form work to support rein­
forced concrete work during construction.
• carpentry is regarded as constructional art
of timber which is mostly done on the
building site.
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• 'Joinery' is used to indicate the art of
preparing and then framing places of
timber to form the internal fittings
and finishingsof houses
• joinery is used for delicate construction
and for enhancing the architectural
beauty of timber
• It includes the construction and fixing of
timber works, such as doors,
windows, stairs, floor boards, linings,
cup­boards, furniture etc.
• In India, the work 'carpentry' is only
used to indicate both kinds of work
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Technical Terms in Joinery
Sawing It is the art of cutting of wood

by means of saws.
The choice of a
particular tool
 upon
Nature of cut desired
Type of wood
Size of cut
Working space and

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Technical Terms in Joinery
• Chamfering. This is the process of
planing off the flat edges or corners
of a timber piece to form an angle,
usually 45°. If the chamfered
portion does not continue for full
length of piece ; it is called stopped
• Bevel. In the process of chamfering,
if the angle formed is other than
45°, it is known as bevel.
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Technical Terms in Joinery
 . Mitring and Scribing. 'Mitring' is the
proces of joining two boards or
pieces of timber at an angle. If
one end of moulding is cut to suit
the pro­file of another moulding, it
is known as scribing.
Housing. This indicates the
• sinking of the edge of one
piece of timber or stuff into

Rebating. This is the process of cutting
• away a rectangular portion from the
edge of timber piece for sufficient
depth to receive another piece which is
similarly cut to fit in.

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Technical Terms in Joinery

Boards showing uniformity of grain

Heart side of Timber shown alternated

Groove and Grooving. 'Groove' indicates a recess formed in board or piece

of timber. This may have shapes as hollow, V-shape, semi-circular, etc. If
these grooves are cut parallel to the grain of the wood for decorative
work, it is called 'Plough Grooving'.
But, if these grooves are cut perpendicular to the grain of the wood, it is
known as 'Trench or cross-grooving'.

Shooting. This is the process of

dressing the edges of the boards so
as to make them straight and square
with the face. Method of using shooting board
12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 8
Making of a simple lap joint

marking gauge is set to using a tenon saw

half the thickness extend the line across with trysquare
and a bench hook.

shoulder plane can If working across the grain of the

second saw then be used to
cut wood, a chisel is used to straighten /
finish the joint
12/10/09 By:Ar Meeraclean
PS up the joint 9
Technical Terms in Joinery
• Bead. This is the name given to the semi-
cir­cular object formed on edges or
surfaces of wood. A decorative
treatment applied to various elements
of wooden furniture boxes and other
• A bead is typically a rounded shape cut
into a square edge to soften the edge
and provide some protection against
splitting. Beads can be simple round
Grounds. These are rough wooden blocks which are fixed to a wall to
actshapes, or more
as a firm complex
base for patterns.
the linings , ornamental moulds, etc. The
• surfaces of the grounds are made flush with the plaster work.

Grounds are used in case of superior work.

Veneering. This indicates the operation of covering the entire or
part of exposed surface of wood­work with veneers to improve its
appearance. The inner wood work is designed to satisfy structural
requirements whereas the veneered facing is pro­vided for
decorative purposes.
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Technical Terms in Joinery
• Mortising and Tenoning. 'Mortising' is the
process of cutting a rectangular recess of
hole in one member to receive a
projection, or tenon at the end of another
member, 'Tenoning', on the other hand, is
the process of forming a projection or tor­
que at the end of a piece, so as to fit into
the mor­tise hole cut in the other piece to
form a joint. The joint so formed is known
as 'Mortise and Tenon Joint.

• D o ve ta ilin g . T h is in d ica te s a m e th o d
a d o p te d to jo in tw o b o a rd s u su a lly a t
rig h t a n g le s to e a ch o th e r. In th is,
th e e n d o f o n e b o a rd is m a d e o f fa n -
sh a p e d p in so a s to fit in to th e
sim ila rly sh a p e d m o rtise cu t m a d e in
th e o th e r b o a rd .

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Role of Joints
• increasing structural stability,
improving aesthetic values,
economis­ingtimber work,
facilitating timber construction
itself but
 joints, at the same time, are consi­
dered to be the weakest parts of any

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Principals of joinery
• The joint should be cut and placed in such a fashion that it
weakens the connecting timber members to a minimum.
• Each abutting surface of a joint should be placed in such a
way that, as far as possible, the sur­face is perpendicular
to the line of pressure acting on it.
• Each abutting surface of a joint should be designed for
maximum compressive stress, likely to come upon it.
• The surfaces of a joint should be formed and fitted
accurately in order to distribute the stresses uniformly.
• The fastenings should be proportioned in such a way that
they possess equal strength in relation to the members
which they connect.
• The fastenings should be placed and designed in such a
manner as to avoid failure of joint by shear or crushing.
• The joints should be made as simple as possible to save
labour in construction. Moreover, the com­plicated joints
are not only difficult to construct but also liable to be
attacked by vermins or insects due to the presence of
numerous surfaces of angles.
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Types of joints
• The following types of joints are used in timber
construction to suit the different purposes—
• Lengthening Joints,
• Widening or Side Joints,
• Bearing Joints.
• Framing Joints.
• Angle or Corner Joints.
• Oblique Shouldered Joints.

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Lengthening Joints- increasing the
length –eg - ties, struts, members
subjected to bending

• Lapped joint
• lapping of
members one
above another
and binding
with G I Strips
and bolts

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Fish e d jo in t
Fish e d jo in ts-- In th is,
m e m b e rs a re cu t sq u a re ,
b u tte d a n d th e n jo in e d
to g e th e r b y co ve rin g w ith
fish p la te s

 Scarfed or spliced joints-- These are
formed by making projections in one
member and corresponding
depressions on the other member

. Ta b le d jo in ts--T h e se jo in ts a re fo rm e d
b y cu ttin g sp e cia l sh a p e s in b o th th e
m e m b e rs a n d th e n su ita b ly jo in in g b y
m e a n s o f fish p la te s, b o lts, stra p s a n d
ke ys
12/10/09 Ta b le d jo in t By:Ar Meera P S 16
Rebated-- This joint is formed by overlapping the cut portions. This joint provides a dust-proof surface.

Widening / Side Joints- extending the

width of boards/ planks, placed edge to
edge, e g wooden floors, doors

. Butt joint-- This is also

known as square, straight or
plain joint. In this, two
members are simply joined B u tt Jo in t
by placing them side to side.
This joint is used for B ra ss A stra g a l
ordinary works
R e b a te d -- T h is jo in t is fo rm e d
• b y o ve rla p p in g th e cu t
p o rtio n s. T h is jo in t p ro vid e s a
d u st- p ro o f su rfa ce . R e b a te d m e e tin g Jo in t

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 Rebated and filleted joint-- This joint is formed
by introducing a small wooden piece, called
'Fillet' in the rebated portion, having small
Tongued and grooved joint--This joint
is formed by fitting one member,
having tongue on one side into the
other member with a corresponding
groove on the side
R e b a te d to n g u e d a n d g ro o ve d jo in t-- In th is typ e , in
a d d itio n to to n g u e a n d g ro o ve , a re b a te is a lso p ro vid e d
o n th e sid e s o f th e m e m b e rs a n d th e n fitte d in

S p la ye d , to n g u e d a n d g ro o ve d jo in t-- T h is jo in t is
sim ila r'to to n g u e a n d g ro o ve jo in t, exce p t th a t to n g u e s
a n d g ro o ve s a re sp lice d a t a n a n g le

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Tongued and Grooved Flooring Board

Matchboarding, Matchboarding, Matchboarding,

with Bead on One with Bead at Each Tongued, Grooved and
Side. Side. Vee'd.

Joint with Single Method of Secret-
Dovetail Tongue and nailing Hardwood
Groove. Flooring Boards.

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P lo u g h e d a n d to n g u e d jo in t-- In th is, b o th m e m b e rs h a vin g
sim ila r g ro o ve s o n sid e s a re fitte d w ith a w o o d e n p ie ce in
b e tw e e n .

 Dowelled joint--In this, dowels of hard wood, gun

metal, brass or bronze, etc. filled in the hole
made by joining two grooved members

M a tch e d B e a d e d a n d ve e jo in t-- T h is jo in t is
fo rm e d b y to n g u e a n d g ro o ve a rra n g e m e n t, a n d
h a s a sp e cia l m o u ld in g o n e sid e a n d ve e -sh a p e d
a p p e a ra n ce o n th e o th e r

K e ye d jo in t o r d o ve ta il jo in t-- In th is, a ke y o f
d o ve ta ilo r tra p e zo id a l sh a p e is u se d to fit in th e
d e p re ssio n s o r h o le s fo rm e d b y co n n e ctin g th e
g ro o ve d m e m b e rs

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Bearing Joints-offer strength to
members at junction
 Halved joint-two timber pieces
at right angles, such that
they are made to flush on
one or two faces by cutting

C o g g e d jo in t-T h is jo in t is fo rm e d to
m a in ta in fu ll d e p th o f th e m e m b e r o r
b e a m a n d h e n ce n o tch e s a re m a d e o n
o n e o r b o th th e e d g e s o f th e lo w e r
m e m b e r, le a vin g a n u n cu t p ro je ctio n ,
. ., co g a n d a cco rd in g ly it is n a m e d a s
sin g le - co g g e d o r d o u b le -co g g e d jo in t
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Framing Joints-
• These joints are almost similar to the bearing joints
described above as regards the types and
• But these are slightly modified to meet special
requirements because the primary consideration in
their design is not strength, as in bearing joints, but
endurance or durability.
• These joints are used to construct the frames of doors,
windows, ventilators and partitions, and hence
known as Training joints

Constructional Frame (as for Plinth or

Bearer Rails Cornice) showing application of the
Bow-fronted Door Dovetail Joint.
Dovetailed Dovetailed
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Angle or Corner Joints-
• These joints are employed for connecting the ends and
edges of members, Joints parallel or at right angles to
their grains. Angle joints are very often secured by
nailing, and glue is used in making of such joints.

C o m b in g o r C o rn e r Jo in t w ith S in g le Lo o se To n g u e
Lo ckin g Jo in t. C o rn e r M o u ld a n d D o u b le -to n g u e
Jo in t.

E xa m p le s o f To n g u e d a n d G ro o ve d C o rn e r Jo in ts
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Angle or Corner Joints-

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Oblique Shouldered Joints-
• These joints are required to connect the
members of the framework meeting
at an acute or obtuse angle, e.g., a
principal rafter and tie-beam, a king-
post and struts, etc.

B ird sm o u th Jo in t R a fte r a n d Tie B e a m Jo in t.

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Hinge Joint

B u tt h in g e
S to p -b o u n d D o o r G u a g in g

M a rkin g fo r R e ce ss. A n d S a w in g Pa rin g O u t th e H in g e R e ce ss in th e D o o r.

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Types of Hinges
• Reversible or Double-folding Screen
• Half the thickness of this hinge is let into
each wing of the draught screen,
allowing the screen to be folded either
S traway.
p H
in use iThe
n g e hinge is costly, but effective
It is a n e lo n g a te d va rie ty o f th e b u tt
h in g e , kn o w n in th e tra d e a s " stra p
h in g e ," " d e sk h in g e ," o r " b a g a te lle
h in g e ." A s its n a m e in d ica te s, it is u se d
o n fo ld in g b a g a te lle ta b le s, sm a llw ritin g
d e sks, a n d o th e r typ e s o f w o rk th a t h a ve
b u t a n a rro w m a rg in o n w h ich to fix th e
h in g e s. T h e lo n g , n a rro w p la te s a re su n k
flu sh in to th e w o o d , th e kn u ckle o r
ro u n d e d p o rtio n p ro je ctin g
12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S
Types of Hinges
Pivo t h in g e
It is u se d to fix a t th e to p a n d b o tto m o f
a scre e n

N o n - re ve rsib le S cre e n H in g e .
It is th e n o n -re ve rsib le scre e n h in g e a n d ,
a s its n a m e im p lie s, w illo n ly fo ld in o n e
d ire ctio n .
b a ck fla p h in g e
w ith a sp e cia lly w id e w in g , u se d fo r th e
fa ll-d o w n le a f o f sm a llta b le s a n d sim ila r
a rticle s.
12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 28
Types of Hinges
• Card table hinge.
• This is let into the edges of the table, so that
all is flush or level both above and below
the surface.
•C e n te r o r Pivo t H in g e
u se d o n th e to p a n d b o tto m o f w a rd ro b e
d o o rs, m o re p a rticu la rly th e in te rio r d o o r o f
a th re e - w in g e d w a rd ro b e w h e re th e
m e th o d o f fixin g is co n fin e d to th e co rn ice
a n d p lin th . T h e fla n g e ca rryin g th e p in s o r
p ivo t is le t in to th e to p a n d b o tto m o f th e
d o o r, th e re m a in in g fla n g e b e in g le t in to
th e co rn ice a n d p lin th re sp e ctive ly.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 29

Types of Hinges

• Rising Butt Hinges

• used on dining and drawing-room doors, so
that when the door is opened the door
rises sufficiently to clear the thickness of
the carpet. This hinge has also an
advantage over the ordinary butt hinge in
that it is self-closing, i.e., the weight of the
door plus the bevel on the hinge joint
causes the door to close. Band and hook
hinges and other ordinary varieties are too
well known to require illustrating.

• B a rre lh in g e : This comes in two

p a rts. T h e th re a d e d p a rt o f th e
h in g e is scre w e d in to a p re -d rille d
h o le . T h e y a re e a sy to fit a n d th e
h in g e ca n b e d ism a n tle d .
12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 30
Typ e s o f
• Tee hinges
H in g e s
• They are generally used on timber sheds etc
where the long arm is fitted to the door and the
narrow part to the door jamb.
• They offer little security as the fixing screws are
B u tt h in g e s
T h e y a re p ro b a b ly th e m o st co m m o n typ e o f h in g e
fo u n d a ro u n d th e h o u se to h in g e tw o w o o d e n p a rts.
T h e y a re u se d o n w o o d e n in te rn a l a n d exte rn a l
d o o rs, a lso o n ca se m e n t w in d o w s, va rio u s
cu p b o a rd s a n d o th e r p ie ce s o f fu rn itu re .

C o n ce a le d h in g e
U se d to h in g e cu p b o a rd d o o rs so th a t th e y a re n o t
exte rn a lly visib le .
M o st typ e s re q u ire a la rg e h o le ( typ ica lly 3 5 m m d ia ) in
th e d o o r fo r th e b o d y to fit in to .

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In sid e H in g e in g : Method of Letting S h o w in g To p a n d B o tto m o f
B u tt H in g e in to D o o r Fra m e a n d C a rca se C u t B a ck to a llo w D o o r
C a rca se . to C lo se .
Finger Joint Hinge - is
a finger joint—a movable
interlocking joint used
to support the leaf of a
Pembroke table. The small
portion is screwed to the
table rail and the shaped
bracket swings out to
support the drop leaf.

Fin g e r Jo in t H in g e .
O u tsid e h in g e in g a n d se ctio n
12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 32
• A nail is a pin-shaped, sharp object of hard metal, typically steel, used to fasten
things together (usually wood).
• Early buildings were assembled with pegs
• Pegs were gradually replaced by square (hand cut) nails.
• With the invention of nail making machines, wire nails became available.
• Modern wooden buildings are assembled using nails, threaded
fasteners, and glues/adhesives.

• Basic considerations of selecting
nails Nails are divided
Nail Size into 5 common
•Nails are sold by weight or length. 1.Common
•Wood nails are measured, or sized, 2.Box
according to length. 3.Duplex
•Nails generally are 1" to 6" in length, 4.Roofing
usually getting thicker as they get
5.Deformed shank
•Nails larger than 6" are sometimes
called spikes.
12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 33
considerations of selecting nails


• Nail points vary, but the four-sided diamond point is the standard point found
on most nails.

• Nail heads also vary. Smaller heads can be driven in and painted over. Large
framing nails have corrugated heads to reduce the danger of a hammer slipping
and causing injury or damage.

• Regular wood nails are often referred to as wire nails.


• Most nails are made from steel or stainless steel.

• Some nails are galvanized. This means they've been coated with zinc for rust
resistance. Galvanized nails are recommended for outdoor applications. Coating
can be applied by hot dipping or electroplating. Electroplated nails are shiny,
dipped nails have a dull finish.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 34
considerations of selecting nails

Coatings and Deformations

• The holding abilities of nails are strengthened by coating or by adding


• An adhesive coating creates a stronger bond. The adhesive heats up as the
nail is driven. As it cools, the bond solidifies.

• Deformations such as rings, spirals or barbs drive into wood fibers to hold

• When using coated or ringed nails, remember that these are more difficult to
remove and will damage the wood if they're taken out.

• Nails with no coating are referred to as bright.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 35
N a ils a re d ivid e d ØNails are sized according to Penny number, 2d to
in to 5
co m m o n 40d.
typ e s: ØPenny originally referred to the number of that size
v C om m on
of nail that could be bought for a penny.
v B ox ØToday it is the reference to diameter and length.
v D u p lex ØThe larger the number the larger the nail.
v R o o fin g
v D e fo rm e d sh a n k

1.Common Nails are one of the oldest

forms of fasteners.
2.Common nails of the same size will have
a larger diameter shank than box nails.
3.Common nails are used for most building

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 36

üB ox n a ils w e re d e ve lo p e d to re d u ce th e
sp littin g o f th e w o o d w h e n n a ilin g
sm a lle r p ie ce s o f w o o d to fro m
b oxe s a n d cra te s.
üB ox n a ils a re a b o u t th e sa m e le n g th a s
co m m o n n a ils fo r th e sa m e size .
üB ox n a ils a re sm a lle r in d ia m e te r fo r th e
sa m e size a s co m m o n n a ils,
w h ich re d u ce s th e p o te n tia l fo r sp littin g . B ox n a ils
üFo r th e sa m e d ia m e te r, b ox n a ils w ill
h a ve a sm a lle r h e a d
üDuplex Nails are heavy-duty framing
üThey are used in temporary applications.
üTheir second head prevents them from
being hammered flush with the surface.
ü When the job is done, simply remove
the nail by prying it out by the
upper head.
ü One common use is concrete forms.
ü Protruding head can be a safety
Duplex Nails •

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 37

üRoofing nails are designed to attach
softer materials, such as tar
paper and asphalt shingles to
üThey have wider head, for the
diameter of the shank, spreads the
force over a greater area.

Roofing nails

C o m m o n , b ox , ro o fin g , flo o rin g a n d m a n y o th e r typ e s o f n a ils a re a va ila b le w ith

d e fo rm e d sh a n ks

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 38

Bradsare small wire type nails used for
doing trim work and fastening other thin
They come in a variety of diameters,
lengths and head shapes.
Pre-drilling is recommended in hard woods
because they bend quite easily.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 39


For fastening, screws are stronger than nails. They

can be removed with less damage to the material
(especially wood) than nails. Screws have several
features to consider:

Slot Type
Common types of screws
•Slotted — the conventional single-groove screw
head, applied with a flathead screwdriver.

•Phillips — cross-slotted screwheads withU or
•V-Shaped slots of uniform width. Driven with a
Phillips screwdriver, they're used in woodworking
and drywall installation. Two types of screw head slots

•Other head types such as Torx™ or Robertson require special drivers and
are commonly used in electronics, metal or automotive applications.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 40

Head Type

•Oval — the lower portion is countersunk and the

top is rounded. They're easier to remove and
better looking than flathead screws.

•Round — are used where the fastened piece is T h re e co m m o n scre w

too thin to permit countersinking. They are also heads
used on parts that may require a washer.

•Flat — used in applications where the head
needs to be flush with the surface. Slotted and
Phillips type are available.
•Screws are usually 1/4" to 6" long.
•Gauge is the diameter of the screw shaft (not including threads), rated by numbers
2-24. A larger gauge number indicates a larger screw.
•The longer a screw is, the harder it is to turn with a screwdriver. Consider a lag
screw when you need something over 4" in length. Lag screws are turned with a
12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 41
Material and Finish

•Screws are chrome or brass plated, and

•can be made from several materials,
•including brass or stainless steel.

•Bluing is a finishing (actually black in color) that prevents rust.

•Some screws are galvanized (plated with zinc for rust-resistance).
Galvanized screws are recommended where wood will be attached to metal.

•Exterior screws such as deck screws can react to certain types of wood.
Specially treated screws are available for specific applications such as pine,
cedar, birch or oak.

•Stainless steel can also react to the tannins in certain woods (oak for
example). Find an alternate material such as brass or use a treated screw in
these cases.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 42

The flat head and oval require three separate operations for
1.Drill pilot hole to the depth of the threads.
2.Drill clearance hole through the first board.
3.Counter sink the surface.

types of drivers used for


12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 43

üLag screws are used to install wood or metal
members to wood.
üPrimarily used when the strength of a bolt is
needed, but a nut can not be used.
üLag Screws are installed by drilling a clearance
hole through the first member and pilot
hole into the second board the depth of
the threads.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 44

N u t a n d B o lts

A sta n d a rd b o lt h a s a h ex h e a d a n d a sm o o th
sh o u ld e r a re a b e yo n d th e sta n d a rd a m o u n t o f
th re a d in g . S h o rte r le n g th s a re fu lly th re a d e d .

Ta p b o lts a re fu lly th re a d e d h ex h e a d b o lts.

A Machine bolt is a heavy-duty fastener.

When used correctly, will support and/or sustain the largest sheer or tension load.
Several small bolts will support a load better than one large bolt.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 45

Carriage Bolts
üCarriage Bolts are easily recognizable because of their round
head and short section of square neck.
üThe round head is set flush with the surface of the wood.
üThe square neck prevents bolt from rotating when nut is
üUsually difficult to remove because the wood shrinks away
from the square neck and then there is no way to prevent the
bolt from turning.

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§A bolt is generally inserted through a pre-drilled in the parts that are to be assembled.
§Tightening and loosening of the bolt is done with a nut.[fastening structural members]
§Washers should be used when attaching wood to prevent bolt from pulling through the
§T h re a d p itch is sta n d a rd ize d a s N C o r NF.
§Metric sizes are available

Lock washers are designed to prevent the nut from loosening itself by applying back
Common types:
Internal tooth
External tooth

Flat Washers are used to spread the

clamping force of a bolt over a larger
surface area.

12/10/09 By:Ar Meera P S 47

M a rkin g a n d m o rtise
guage Te n o n
sa w

C a rp e n te rs Fra m in g Trisq u a re
b e ve l sq u a re
W ood
p o rin g
ch ise l

B lo ck
p la n e

H a rd Lo ckin g p lie rs
sa w
Plie rs
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C h ise la n d
ham m er

C u ttin g to o ls

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