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Windows XP

^*
-
--

2006

Windows XP


.
.
.
.
.
. , .
.

32.973-018.2
004.451
.
-72 Windows . .: , 2006. 288 : .
ISBN 5-469-01119-4

Microsoft Windows XP Professional,
Windows ,
, .
Windows XP ,
.
Windows XP
Professional ,
.

, 2006
.
.
, , , .
, ,
, .

ISBN 5-469-01119-4

, 194044, -, . ., 29.
05784 07.09.01.
005-93, 2; 95 3005 .
22.09.05. 70x100/16. . . . 23,22. 40. 369

190005, -, ., 29

1. Microsoft Windows XP

2. Windows

30

3. Windows XP
. . . . 47
4.

5.

58
93

6.
Microsoft Management Console
7.

ioe
126

8.
Windows XP

155

9. , . 175
10.

213

1 1 .

235

1.

251

2. Windows XP

281
283

10

10
10

1. Microsoft Windows XP
HAL Windows XP?

11

: FAT 32 NTFS? . 15
Hands-free- Windows XP
19
Windows XP . . . 27
Windows XP
28

2. Windows

Windows XP

30

32

Windows 9/ Windows XP

42
43

Windows XP Windows 9x

44

45
45

3. Windows XP




Windows XP

Windows XP
Windows

4. . . .

47
47
50
53
54
55
56

58

64- Windows XP

?

59
60
60

:
Windows XP

61
61

Windows XP

62

HKPf_CLASSES_ROOT
HKEY_CURRENT_USER
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE

63
63
63

HKEYJJSERS

63

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG

(Registry Edftor)



DWORD
Windows XP

64
64
64
66
67
68
68
69

69

70

71

71
72

73
73
73
74

74
75

75

Windows


76
76
77
79

80
81

82

83

84

84

91

REG-

91

5.

93

93

. 1 0 0

102

102

103

105

106

106

107

6.
Microsoft Management C o n s o l e


109

110

111

112

112

113

113

116

Windows

117

117

118

118

119

119

120

121

122

122

123

123

7.
Windows XP


CMD

124
, . 124
125

126
126
127
128
152

8.


Windows XP

155

155

Windows

158

159

160

161

162

163

165

166

168

170

9.

...

(ODBC)

172

175
175

179

180

181

192

194

IP

195

197

199

199

200

201

202

202

209

210

211

211

Microsoft

212

1 0 .

10Base2

213
213
214

iOBaseT

215
217

224
226

228
230
230
232

232

233

234

1 1 .


:


235
236
236
237
239
246
248

1.

251

2. Windows XP

281
283

Microsoft Windows XP, 2001 ,


, ,
Windows.
, Microsoft Windows XP Professional
, , , , Microsoft Windows 2003
Server. , , NT, Windows XP , ,
()
. ,
Windows XP, ,
, . .
Microsoft Windows XP Professional,
Windows , ,
. Windows XP
.
Windows XP Professional , .

10

, . , , ;
, , , , , , ; , .


, .
, Windows
, . ,
, ,
. .
, , ,
Windows , , . -
Windows XP ,
.
, -. ... ,

. - ,
. , , Windows ,
.
, .


,
comp@piter.com ( , ).
!
- :
http://www.piter.com.


Microsoft Windows XP
- , Windows XP
, -, , . ,
Windows , , , ,
- . Windows XP ,
, , .
? , -, . -, .


HAL Windows XP?
Microsoft Windows XP
. : ,
, (Setup is inspecting your computer's
hardware configuration), F5, , . 1.1.
, ,
C-Step i486,
Windows XP.
: , -

12

1. Microsoft Windows XP

Microsoft
. ,
Windows, , C-Step i486 .
, Windows, , ,
, .
- , , ,
, , Windows. ,
.
,

,
. - ,
, Windows - ,
. .

. 1.1. Windows XP

HAL Windows XP?

13

, .
, Windows NT, - , Windows
.
(HAL, Hardware Abstraction Layer)
NT- .
, Windows XP ? .
, .
() , , , .
, , , ,
, . . (HAL, Hardware Abstraction Layer) ,
, , -, . . HAL Windows
,
. , HAL
,
. ,
HAL;
-, , , Compaq, ,

.
Windows XP
HAL. , Windows XP, F5,
.
C-Step i486 , ACPI. ACPI (Advanced Configuration
and Power Interface, ) ,
Microsoft, Intel, Compaq, Toshiba Phoenix. ,
. , ACPI
, AGP PCI,

14

1. Microsoft Windows XP

. .
, -,
, -, , , .
ACPI ,
, ACPI. ,
Intel Pentium /Celeron ,
, ACPI : , ACPI
BIOS. Windows XP: ACPI .
, : , ,
(Hibernate) (Sleep mode), , (UPS). , :
,
Windows 95.
ACPI, -Step i486 .
HAL (. 1.1) ,
,
. ,
HAL, :
ACPI (ACPI Multiprocessor PC) ACPI;
ACPI (ACPI Uniprocessor PC)
ACPI,
, ;
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) PC)
, ACPI;
MPS (MPS Multiprocessor PC) ACPI;
MPS (MPS Uniprocessor PC)
ACPI, , ;

15

Compaq SystemPro 100 % (ACPI Compaq


SystemPro Multiprocessor or 100 % compatible) , ACPI
Compaq SystemPro, ;
C-Step i486 (Standard PC with C-Step i486)
C-Step i486;
(Standard PC) , ;
(Other) HAL , .


: FAT 32 NTFS?
Microsoft Windows XP : , Windows? ,
: NTFS . , NTFS
MSDOS, ; ,
, ,
, . FAT 32 ,
DOS,

.
, .
,
.
. , .
, , ,
() () . , P-CHS
65 535 16 , 136 .
() , . 512 . - , ,
(), () .

16

1. Microsoft Windows XP


:
,
/ .
, .
,
- . , NTFS, .
. 1.1.
1.1.
,

1-512

512

513-1024

1025-2048

2049-4096

4097-8192

16

8193-16 384

32

16

16 385-32 768

64

32

32 768

128

64


, ,
. -
,
.
, , , . Microsoft Windows XP
, :
FAT (FAT 16) ,
, Windows XP Windows 2000, Windows ,
MS-DOS OS/2. , , ,
2 ;
FAT 32 FAT, 32 ,
.

17

FAT 32 Windows 95 OSR2, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000 Windows XP. Windows 3.1, 3.11,
Windows NT 4.0 Windows 95 ,
FAT 32, ,
;
NTFS , Windows NT. , , . NTFS
, , Windows XP Windows 2000.
Windows XP NTFS
, .
NTFS
512 , ,
.
, , 64 . , NTFS
16777 216 ,
, ,
. , NTFS,1
, MFT (Master File Table),
. ,
NTFS / , - NTFS, , (Cache Manager),
, , . ,
/. , NTFS :
, , ,
. .
,
: -, NTFS , FAT, -, NTFS , ,
.
, NTFS
, ,
.
. , NTFS -

18

1. Microsoft Windows XP

Unicode (UTF-8),
,
.

Microsoft Windows XP NTFS 5.0, NTFS 4. -,


NTFS 5 , UNIX- .
, ,
Windows XP ,
, .
,
,
.
, , ,
:
.
Windows XP,
NTFS 5,
, . , , .
. , Windows XP , . 1.2.
1.2. ,

FAT 16

FAT 32

NTFS

EXT2FS

MS-DOS/Windows

R,W,

R*, W *

Windows 95 OSR1

R, W, B**

R*, W *

Windows 95 OSR2-2.5

R, W, B**

R, W,

R*, W*

R*
R*

Windows 98

R, W, B**

R,W,

R* W

R*

Windows 98 SE/Windows ME

R,W,

R,W,

R*, W*

Windows NT 4.0

R,W,

R, W*

R, W,

Windows 2000

R,W,

R,W,

R,W,

R*

O@tabl_body = Windows XP

R,W,

R,W,

R,W,

R*

Linux

R, W

R*

R*

R,W,

R ,
;
W , ;

Hands-free- Windows XP

19

, ;

* ~
;

** FAT 16 2 .

Hands-free- Windows XP
Microsoft Windows XP , , .
Microsoft hands-free,
. ,
Windows , , : , !
,
Windows , .
unattend.txt,
, .
, , Windows (Windows Setup manager Wizard). , Windows XP,
:
\SUPPORT\TOOLS\ -, Windows XP, deploy.cab;

- (, WinZip WinRAR), setupmgr.exe;

setupmgr.exe .

Windows (Windows Setup


manager Wizard). (Next). ,
(Create a new answer file), ,
, (Modify an existing answer file),
(Browse) .
(Next). (This answer file is for)

20

1. Microsoft Windows XP

Windows (Windows Unattended Installation)


(Next). , , ,
. :
1. Windows XP Home Edition;
2. Windows XP Professional;
3. Windows 2002 Server, Advanced Server Datacenter Server.
(Next).
Windows , :
(Provide defaults)
, Windows
, ;
(Fully automated) Windows XP
, ,
;
(Hide pages)

, ,
, ;
(Read only) , ,
Windows,
, ,
, ( ) ;
(GUI attended) , Windows, , , ,
.
Windows XP,

(Fully automated) (Next).
Windows XP -, ,
, , ,

Hands-free- Windows XP

21

Windows. ,
,
(Yes, create or modify distribution folder) (Next). ,
Windows , :
Windows XP,
- (Copy the files from CD), (, ), (
the files from t his location) (Browse)
.

(Next).
Windows XP . (I accept the terms of the License
Agreement), (Next).

Windows XP.
(Next) Windows :
, Microsoft Windows XP,
(. 1.2).

. 1.2. Windows

22

!. Microsoft Windows XP

, , (Customize the software),


(Name) (Organization)
Windows XP. (Next).
, Windows. (Colors)
, , (Screen area)
, (Refresh frequency) (screen refresh rate).
, ,
Windows (Use Windows default). ,

, (Custom):
, .
(Next), (Time Zone) , .
(Next).
Windows XP, -, . (Product Key) (Next).
, (Computer names), . Windows ,
(Computer name)
(Add).
, ,
(Import)
. ,
(Remove). , ,
(Automatically generate computer names based on organization
name). ,

Windows. (Next).
(Password)
(Confirm password). , 127 . -

Hands-free- Windows XP

23

,
, (safe mode).

,
(When the computer starts, automatically log on as Administraror),

. , 3,
Windows , .

(Encrypt administrator password in answer file).
(Next).
(Networking components).
,
(Typical settings),

Microsoft, TCP/IP DHCP. (Customize settings),
- ( (Add)), ( (Remove))
-
,
(Properties)). (Next).
,
. ,
(Workgroup) . , Windows Server (Windows Server domain) .
,
(Create a computer account in the domain),

. (Next).
, (Telephony).
/, (What country /region are
you in?) , , (What area (or city) code are you in?) ( ) (If you dial a number to access an outside line, what
is it?) , . (The phone system at this location uses)

24

1. Microsoft Windows XP

: () (Pulse); ( (Do not specify


this setting)), .
(Next).
. ,
Windows no , ,
Windows (Use the default regional settings for the Windows version you are installing). ,
(Specify regional settings in the answer file),
(Customize the default language settings)
(Custom). (Language) , (Locate)
, , , (Input locate) . , Windows
(Next).
,
Windows XP:
(Next). , Ctrl, ; - , ;
(Next) .
, (Browser
and shell settings), Microsoft Internet Explorer.
(Individually specify proxy and
default home page settings), (Proxy settings),
- (Specify proxy settings)
(Address) (Port).
- (Bypass proxy server for local addresses), . (Advanced)
- (Use the same proxy
server for all protocols),
, .
(Browser settings) Windows, (Home page) URL
-, Microsoft Internet
Explorer . (Help page) URL Microsoft Internet Explorer. (Add Favorites)
,

Hands-free- Windows XP

25

(Favorites) Microsoft Internet Explorer,


. , Windows
(Use default Internet Explorer settings).
(Next).
(Installation folder)
, : Windows (Folder named Windows),
Windows ( :); ,
(A uniquely named folder generated by Setup) ,
;
(This folder),
, Windows XP, ,
, . (Next).
, .
(Network printer name) ,
(Add). ,
.
,
(Next).
Windows XP
. (Run Once) , .
Windows,
(Next), , .
Windows,
(Finish) Windows.
: (Browse), ,
Windows XP, . Windows : unattend.txt
unattend.bat , Windows XP. , unattend.bat .
Windows XP , unattend.txt
, (Notepad). , [Unattended] :

26

1. Microsoft Windows XP

AutoActivate=No


Windows XP ( );

DisableDynamicLJpdates=Yes


Microsoft ;

WaitForReboot=No

,
.
[Shell],
Windows XP.
:

Defau1tThemesOff=Yes


Windows Windows XP;
DefaultStartPanelOff=Yes

Windows XP; (Start) Windows.
[SystemRestore], Windows XP. :

CheckpointCalendarFrequency=l

(system restore points) ;


MaximumDataStorePercentOfDisk=10

, .
Microsoft Windows 9x/
ME/NT/2000 unattend.bat
, ,
1386 - winnt32.exe /unattend :
winnt32.exe /unattend:file

file ,
. file ,
unattend.txt :.
MS-DOS, :
[ CD-ROM]:\I386\winnt / u : f i l e

Windows XP

27

[ CD-ROM] -, :\I386\winnt
/u:file ,
. , -
F:, unattend.txt :,
:
F:\I386\winnt /u:A:\unat tend.txt


Windows XP
, Microsoft Windows XP ,

Plug & Play . , .
, , , . , ,
Windows ,
". ? ,
, Plug & Play.
, ?
, Windows , :
\SUPPORT\TOOLS\ -, Windows XP, deploy.cab;

- (, WinZip WinRAR), setupmgr.exe;
setupmgr.exe .
(. )
Windows, (Fully automated). , Windows XP
Windows , (Yes, create or modify distribution folder)
(Next), - (Copy the files from
CD). Windows Windows XP . unattend.txt
Windows .

28

1. Microsoft Windows XP

, Windows Windows XP, $$, ,


, $$ $1. $$\$1\ Drivers
. , $OEM$\$l\Drivers\Video , $OEM$\$l\Drivers\Printer . .
$$\$$\ INF .INF,
.
Windows . , [Unattended] unattend.txt OemPreinstall=Yes. OemPnPDriversPath= , $1. ,
$OEM$\$l\Drivers\ Video, Printer Modem,
:
OemPnPDriversPath=Drivers\Video:Drivers\Printer;Drivers\Modem

, $$\$1\ .
, Microsoft,
[Unattended] unattend.txt :
OriverSigningPolicy=Ignore

,
1386 winnt.sif.


Windows XP
2003 Microsoft ,
Windows XP Service Packl Windows XP Service Pack 2
(SP1 SP2) Windows XP Home Professional Edition,

, , , .
, , .
,
Microsoft (http://www.microsoft.com)
Windows XP . Windows XP .
,
Microsoft Windows XP SP2, ,
Service Pack 1 Service Pack 2.

Windows XP

29

,
, . ,
,
. . Windows , , ? ? ,
, Windows XP
Service Pack .
- :
1. Microsoft Windows XP .
2. Service Pack Microsoft Corporation.
, Service Pack 2,
Service Pack 1 .
3.

WinZip WinRAR.

, .
(, :) , ,
WINXP. - Windows XP.
, SP.
Microsoft , Service
Pack 2 Microsoft Windows XP Professional
WindowsXP-KB835935-SP2-RUS.exe. -,
Service Pack , SP.
WindowsXP-KB835935-SP2-RUS,
, , 1386.
(Start), Windows
(Run) (Open) :
[:~}\1 1 3 V Wi ndowsXP-KB835935-SP2-RUS\i386\update\update.exe -integrate:
1:]\[ 2]

: ,
, 1 , , 2
, Windows XP. :
C:\SP\WindowsXP-KB835935-SP2-RUS\i386\update\update.exe -integrate:: \WINXP

, Enter , , Service Pack Windows


. SP
Windows.

Windows

, - . - Windows XP ,
Windows 98, -
,
- . , Microsoft Windows XP
, , , . , ,
.

Windows XP

,
Microsoft Windows -
, . :
, Windows XP
, , ,
. Windows (Safe Mode),
,
.
, Windows,
F8. Windows Advanced Options Menu (. 2.1).

Windows XP

31

. 2 . 1 . Windows

, Enter. :
Safe Mode . Windows , , ,
Windows, . Safe Mode,
. ,
Windows , VGA, .
,
;
Safe Mode with Networking .
,
;
Safe Mode with Command Prompt Command Prompt Only,
Windows 9x. Windows
,
MS-DOS,
DOS .

32

2. Windows
, DOS,
DOS, , ;

Enable Boot Logging Windows bootlog.txt,


;
Enable VGA Mode Windows
VGA. , ;
Last Known Good Configuration Windows , , Windows
, ,
, . Last Known Good Configuration Windows , , ;
Directory Services Restore Mode SYSVOL ( ,
) Active Directory. Active Directory ,

. Active Directory ,
. Active Directory
;
Debugging Mode Windows Remote Installation Services,
Remote Installation Services;
Start Windows normally - Windows ;
Reboot ;
Return to OS Choices Menu
Windows ,
.


, ,

33

, . , Microsoft Windows ,
, .
Microsoft Windows 9 Microsoft Windows XP, ,
. Windows XP
(Master Boot Record, MBR),
Windows.
,
,
, NT Loader (
ntldr, ). , NT Loader
Windows XP boot.ini,
, .
. boot.ini,
.

boot.ini, ,
, . .
:
[boot loader]
timeout*
default-ARC- 1
[operating systems]
ARC- 1=" " /
ARC- 2=" " /
ARC- =" "
=" "

, : , boot.ini , , .
[boot loader] . , timeout, ( ), .
,
. [operating systems] , , default.
2 lei 369

34

2. Windows

, boot.ini, ARC- (Advanced RISC


Computing), :
i
multi/scsi (x)disk(a)rd sk(b)partition(c)\<windows_directory>
multi/scsi ,
, () . SCSI- , SCSI-BIOS, scsi,
(IDE, EIDE, ESDI, SCSI-BIOS) multi. ,
ARC . disc(a) SCSI- (SCSI-ID, LUN),
; IDE- () . rdisk(b)
SCSI-, ,
SCSI- () . partition(c)
, Windows,
(primary partition)
= 1, (extended partition)
= 2 . , windowsdirectory
, Windows.
,
ARC- , ARC-
MAP ARC, .
[operating systems] boot.ini
, . ARC- , , =,

. , , ,
, , . , boot.ini, :
/fastdetect
Plug & Play. Microsoft Windows 2000/;
/basevideo Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP VGA 640x480 16 .
, ;
/baudrate = nnnn, nnnn .
. 19 200 bps - 9600 bps
.

35

/debug. Microsoft Windows


NT/2000/XP;
/bootlog - ntbtlog.txt, Windows XP. Windows ;
/crashdebug
. Windows XP
Windows
, , . Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP;
/debug . Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP
, , Windows
, . , - - .
COM2 ( ), 1;
/debugport = comx, . . /debug;
/hal = filename, filename , HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) Windows NT/2000/XP,
.
hal.dll, System32 Windows.
HAL;
/kernel = filename, filename - ,
. Microsoft Windows NT/
2000/ ,
;
/maxmem = nn, nn .
, Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP, nn
12 ( );
/nodebug Windows NT/
2000/;
/noguiboot Windows XP. , , Windows

36

2. Windows

(refresh rate) 60 . ,
BSOD;
/noseriaimice [comx | comx.y.z], , , z - .
. ,
,
,
(UPS)
TV-. ,
PS/2, . Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP;
/sos , Windows NT/2000/XP,
. , ;
/win95 Windows
NT/2000/XP bootsec.dos;

/win95dos Windows
NT/2000/XP boor.sec.w40.

boot.ini . , : (master) IDE


. (primary partition, :) Windows 98,
(extended partition, D:)
Windows XP Professional, D:\Windows.
(slave), SCSI,
: (primary partition,
:) Windows XP
Home edition, E:\Windows, (extended partition, F:) Windows 2000,
F:\Winl\IT. , , , , ,
Windows XP Professional. , :
CMDCONS , .
MAP:
MAP ARC

, MAP
ARC-:

0:
:
F:
A:
G:

37

:FAT32 32002 multi(O)disk(0)rdisk(0)parti tion( l )


FAT32 14504 multi (0)di sk(0)rdi sk(0)partition(2)
NTFS 9057 s c s i ( l ) d i s k ( 0 ) r d i s k ( 0 ) p a r t i t i o n ( l )
NTFS 5073 scsi(l)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)
\Device\FloppyO
\Device\CdRomO

, boot.ini :
[boot loader]
timeout=60
default= multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WIND0WS
[operating systems]
:\="Microsoft Windows 98"
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WIND0WS="Microsoft Windows XP Professional EN"
/fast detect
scsi a)disk(0)rdisk ( 0 ) p a r t i t i o n ( l ) \ WINDOWS=" Microsoft Windows XP Home RU" /fastdetect
scsi(l)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000"
C:\CMDCONS\BOOTSECT. DAT="Recovery Console" /cmdcons

,
Windows 9x/ME boot.ini ARC-,
DOS, .

. 2.2.

:
Microsoft Windows 98
Microsoft WINDOWS XP Professional EN
Winiluw* XP Monis RU
Microsoft Windows 2000
Windows <|> tic- )>

> <> . <>


.
:

IS.

. 2.2.

38

2. Windows


- ,
,
:
Windows could not start because the following file is missing or corrupt: <windows
root>\system32\hal.dll. Please re-install a copy of the above file. (He Windows - <windows
root>\system32\hal.dll. .)
HAL (Hardware
Abstraction Layer) HAL,
. , -,
Compaq, , ,
HAL . :
D Windows 9x/ME Windows XP,
boot.ini , Windows 9x, , ARC- DOS, , ,
:\="Microsoft Windows 98" multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINDOWS=
"Microsoft Windows 98";
Windows XP/2000/ NT (
, ,
(systemroot) ), , Windows (
, Windows
Windows XP systemroot),
'
/ha!, : multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINNT=
"Microsoft Windows XP" /hal=hal.dll, hal.dll HAL,
System32 Windows;
, HAL
,
.
Windows could not start because the following file is missing or corrupt: <windows
root>\system32\ntoskrnl.exe. Please re-install a copy of the above file. (He
Windows - <windows
root>\system32\ntoskrnl.exe. .)

39

, Windows XP,
Windows / . :
Q boot.ini ,
[operating systems] . MAP BOOTCFG .
/kernel, : multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)\WINNT=
"Microsoft Windows XP" /kernel= ntkrn1mp.exe.
Windows XP could not start because of a computer disk hardware configuration problem: Could not read from the selected boot disk. Check boot path and disk hardware.
Please check the windows documentation about hardware disk configuration and your
hardware reference manuals for additional information. (
Windows XP : . , .)
, boot.ini
Windows. MAP BOOTCFG . , - : ,
,
.
Windows 9x Windows XP
Microsoft Windows 9/ Windows XP, Windows XP
Windows 9x ( ). boot.ini . , Windows 9x
Windows XP ,
.
NT Windows
NT , Windows
NT 4.0, Windows 2000 Windows XP, Windows
XP - Windows ( ). boot.ini . Windows NT/2000 ,
, boot.ini.
Windows 9x Windows XP
, Windows XP Windows,

40

2. Windows

Windows 98 Windows Millennium Edition. ,


, Windows 9x
.
Windows 9x Windows XP,
, My Boot Manager
, http://www.fly.to/bum.
Windows 9x , , My Boot Manager ( DOCS ),
Windows 9. Windows XP ( ).
,
Windows 9 Windows XP. ,
.
Windows XP Linux
Microsoft Windows XP ,
Linux. , ,
, Linux
Windows XP.
,
. Linux
, a LILO (Linux LOader) , Linux, Linux,
SUPERBLOCK, LILO MBR
. , dd Linux ,
Linux .
bootsect.lnx boot.lnx, ,
.
Windows XP Linux. boot.ini [Operating Systems]
:
:\bootsect.1nx="Linux"

Linux,
LILO, .

41

, Linux boot.ini.
BootPart Gilles Vollant Software. - , http://
www.winimage.com/bootpart.htm.
Windows XP MS-DOS, Windows 95
Microsoft,
Windows 2000 Windows Millennium Edition, MS-DOS, ,
. MS-DOS
Microsoft Windows XP.
, MS-DOS,
,
FTN-. DOS
Windows 95, OSR1 OSR2.5.
Windows XP, Windows 95
MS-DOS Windows 95, Windows XP. Microsoft
Windows, Windows 95. F8, Windows 95, Boot to Previous Operating System Command Prompt Only,
MS-DOS.
MS-DOS Windows XP,
DOS Windows XP .
Windows XP MS-DOS/
Windows 95 bootsect.dos, . ,
Previous Operating System on :, . , MS-DOS 5-6.22 Windows 95/MS-DOS 7.0 , .
Windows 95 ,
OSR 2.5.
Boot to Previous Operating System. :
DOS, msdos.sys [options] :
BootMulti=l
, , MS-DOS Windows XP, Windows 95 Windows XP
. ,
MS-DOS, Windows 9/ Windows XP. , , , - , MS-DOS
ii Windows 9x
, .

42

2. Windows

MS-DOS (, DOS 6.22).



: , Norton Disk Editor Norton
Utilities DOS. bootsec.w40.
DOS Windows 9x,
bootsect.dos. Windows XP, [operating systems]
boot.ini :
c:\bootsec. dos="Windows 95" /WIN95
c:\bootsec.w40="MS-D0S 6.22" /WIN95D0S


, Microsoft Windows XP,
, boot.ini, [boot loader] default Windows XP ARC-,
timeout, ,
[operating systems]. , Windows XP C:\Windows, : IDE, boot.ini
:
[boot loader]
t1meout.=0
default=fflu1t1tO)disc(0)rdisk CO i p e r t i t i o n t l ) WINDOWS

Windows 9x/ME
Windows XP
Windows XP Microsoft Windows, Windows 9/, Windows XP. ,
Windows 9x/ME
Windows XP, , ,
ntldr boot.ini.
Windows 9/ Windows XP, , .
, Windows 9x Windows
Millennium, msbatch.inf (
, 4 )
:
[Setup]
CleanBoot=0

MS-DOS Windows 98/ME


, Windows 9x

Windows 9x/ME Windows

43

. boot.ini,
Windows 9x/ME .

Windows 9x/ME Windows


. Windows
, Windows , .

Windows 9x/ME -,
. , Microsoft (ISO), -
Windows
. Windows 9x/ME -, msbatch.inf ,
, MS-DOS
Windows :
:\__By\setup.exe :\_ 4mst>atch.inf

, DOS , msbatch.inf
:, Windows 9x/ME - :, :
:\>:\SETUP.EXE C:\MSBATCH.INF


Windows 9x/ME MS-DOS Windows , ,
Windows 9x,
. , DOS sys :.
,
, Windows , , , . ,
Windows
.
. , , Windows .
- .
Windows ,
: . boot. ini,
Windows 9x Windows .

44

2. Windows


Windows Windows 9x
, ,
, , , , .
Microsoft Windows, ,
.
, Windows
? , . , ,
, . Microsoft Corporation,

.
, , .

, , Windows 9x
NT. , , Windows 9x/ME,
NT.

Windows 9x . Windows
,
Windows, .
Windows XP
, Windows 9x. Windows XP . , ,

, , , .

, , , , ,
FAT. ,
(, Microsoft Office, Corel Draw ,
), .

,
,

45

. , - , ,

/
. , : , , . . ,
,
. .



Microsoft Windows XP
: , Windows ?
Windows, ,
, .

Safe Mode.
Windows , (User)
Administrator. , , .


Windows NT Windows
.
. :
(Start Control
Panel User Accounts Change the way users log on or off).
(Use the
Welcome screen) (Use Fast
User Switching),
(Apply Options). Windows
Windows NT (. 2.3).

46

2. Windows

. 2.3. Windows XP

Windows : , , , . ;
.

, (Fast User Switching).


Windows XP.

, Windows .
.

Windows - . , , (Safe Mode), .


Windows

, ,
Windows , , ,
, .
,
, ,
,
. ,
Windows , , , NT- ,
: . ,
Windows , . ,
: ? ,
. , ,
. ,
.
, Windows . .



, Microsoft Windows Windows: Windows
,

48

3. Windows XP

. , ,
. Windows
,

.
, , , . ?
-, , Windows XP .
Windows XP, Windows XP.
,
(Properties). : (Display Properties), (Themes)
(. 3.1).

. 3.1. :
, , , . ,
(Windows Classic).
,
Windows 9X/ME/2000.

49

,
, .
,
. :
Windows (Properties);
(Desktop) : (Display Properties).
: ,
Windows XP ;
(Background),
.
, (None).
, (Color).
,
20 . - , (Other), (Color).
(Basic Colors),
48 . , , : , ; . /
(Color/Solid): , ,
. (
RGB, ,
, ), , ,
:
(Hue) 0 239.
,
, ;
(Sat)
0 240. ,
;
(Lum) 0 ()
240 ();
(Red)
RGB 0 255;

50

3. Windows XP

(Green)
RGB 0 255;
(Blue)
RGB 0 255.
,
,
(Add to custom colors). (Color)
(Custom
colors), . (Desktop)
: (Desktop Properties), .


. ,
,
, . .
,
Windows,
(Properties). (System properties)
(Advanced)
(Settings) (Performance). (Performance settings),
. 3.2.
;
, (Visual effects).
,
Windows,
. :
(Let Windows choose what's best for my
computer) ;
(Adjust for best appearance)
, Windows XP;
(Adjust for best performance)
;
(Custom) , .

,


.

51

. 3.2.

, , :
(Animate windows when
minimizing and maximizing)
/ .

.
(Smooth-scroll list boxes) , Windows ,
.
Windows.
(Fade out menu items after clicking)
, Windows
,
. .
(Use visual styles on
windows and buttons) Windows XP, ;
Windows .
(Use common tasks in folders)
, Windows

52

3. Windows XP
(File and folder tasks),

.

(Use drop shadows for icon lables


on the desktop) ,
.
- .
(Show window contents while
dragging) ,
Drag-and-Drop
, , .
- .
, (Show shadows under menus),
, Windows .
.
(Use a background
image for each folder type) ,
, , , , , . .
Windows.
(Show translucent selection
rectangle) ,
.
.
(Show shadows under mouse pointer)

.
(Smooth edges of screen fonts)
, , , , ,
, . ,
15 - Windows
, .
(Slide taskbar buttons)
Windows. .
(Slide open combo boxes)
.

Windows XP

53

(Fade or slide menus into


view)
.
(Fade or slide ToolTips into view) ,
Windows.
,
(Apply).
, .


Windows XP
, .
Microsoft Windows XP:
, , , -
,
. , , , .
,
Windows,
(Properties). (System properties)
(Advanced)
(Settings) (Performance). (. . 3.2).
(Advanced).
(Processor sheduling)
,
:
(programs), , (background services).
.
(Memory usage) (programs)
(system cache).
, , Windows XP.
, ( ,
)

54

3. Windows XP

- ,
.
, ,
(Change) (Virtual memory). .
, ,
.
. Windows XP ,

:
,
Windows .
( ), .
. , (Page file size for selected drive),
. ,

:
(No paging file)
;
(System managed size) Windows XP , ;

(Custom size)
.
() (Initial size), (Maximum size).

, (Set). , .
.

, Windows .

,

Windows XP

55

.
,
.
, Windows .
, , , Windows. :
Windows XP. , , : Windows XP , .
(Run),
(Start Run), (Open) msconfig
. (System Configuration Utility).
(Startup).
,
Windows XP. , .
, ,
, (Command). , , , ,
.
, (Apply) () .
- , ,
, , .


Windows XP
Microsoft Windows 9X/ME, Windows XP ,
. ,
Windows (Add/remove
programs) ,
- .
, ,
Microsoft -

56

3. Windows XP

Windows XP SP1 ,
- Windows XP . ? , .
Windows XP ,
(, C:\Windows), INF,
sysoc.inf . ,
, , ,
:
[Version]
Signature="$Windows NT$"
Dr1verVer-07/01/2001.5.1.2600.0

[Components]
NtComponents=ntoc. dl1 . NtOsSetupProc..4
WBEM=ocgen.dll .OcEntry.wbemoc.inf .hide. 7

Display=desk.cpl ,DisplayOsSetupProc. ,7
. .
,
hide, . ,
WBEM=ocgen.dll.OcEntry.webemoc i n f . h i d e . 7 . . .

:
WBEM=ocgen.dll.OcEntry.webemoc i n f . , 7 . . .
sysoc.inf , - .

Windows XP,
. , Windows .
, - Windows

Windows, - . ,
Windows, .

Windows

Windows XP
J ,5 , Windows , .
Windows XP, ? , , .

Windows

57

Windows XP, , , Windows XP (, C:\Windows), Driver Cache,


1386, , Windows, . 100 . Windows XP ,
-.
(Help and Support Center),
HELP Windows, bnts.dll, sniffpol.dll, sstub.dll tshoot.dll (
60 ).
Windows XP ,
. DLLCASH,
SYSTEM32 Windows XP, 400 . , .
, (Start
Run),
sfc /cachesize=X
X , 0 400. 50 .
Windows XP, SYSTEM32\DLLCASHE
.

sfc /cachesize=O Windows XP . Windows.


Windows XP (Windows registry)
, ,
Windows .
Windows .
Windows : ,
, ,
. ,
,
, Windows.
.
,
. Windows ;
, - , .
, : , Windows ,
, , .
, Windows.
- , . Windows :

64- Windows XP

59

Windows XP,
.
NT- , Windows NT 4,
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Microsoft Corporation, , ,
. ,
Windows XP.
, Windows XP :
,
, ;
,
;
Windows, ;
;
;
Windows ,

.
Windows XP, , , Windows 3.x Windows 95, ,
, , . , Windows XP
,
Windows
. ,
, Windows XP
, Windows . Windows XP ,
.

64- Windows XP
64- Microsoft Windows XP 32- Windows XP Home Professional Edition. Windows XP 64-bit Edition :
, 32- , , 64- ,
. Windows XP 64-bit Edition

60

4.

: , ,
64- Windows XP, 32- .
, 64- Windows XP, 32- , 64- ,
, .
Windows (Run)
#systemroot#\syswow64\regedit, %systemroot%
, , Windows
( C:\Windows C:\WinNT).
,
- .


?
Windows XP, ,
. Windows 9/
: system.dat, ; user.dat, , policy,pol, ,
%systemroot%
Windows XP . ,
Windows XP , . Windows XP , ,
. ,
,

. (volatile); ,
, Windows . , HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\
HARDWARE, : (IRQ), (DMA) - (I/O Range). ,
Windows,
, .

61

, , ,
% system root%\System32\Config. , Windows XP, %systemroot%\Profiles. ,
, , ,
%Drive%\Documents and Settings\%UserName%, %Drive% " , Windows XP, a %UserName% ,
. Windows
%Drive%\Documents and Settings\LocalService, %Drive%\
Documents and Settings\NetworkService.
, Windows XP
, , HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\hivelist.
Windows :
, , . .

:
Windows XP
Microsoft Windows XP ,
. ,
(Hive Keys), HKEY_,
.
Windows XP : HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, HKEY_CURRENT_
USER, HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, HKEY_USERS HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG.
.

, (Keys). Windows XP -
,
, .
HKEY_.
, - ,
. ,
. : ,

62

4.

Windows XP, , - .

(Subkeys). - , . , , ,
Windows, .

(Values) , , .
.
,
,
, , , , , { ) { ).
, Windows.

Windows XP
Microsoft Windows XP , , ,
.
, . 11, . 4.1.
4 . 1 . Windows XP

REG_NONE
REG_SZ
REG_EXPAND_SZ
REGBINARY
REG_DWORD
REG_DWORD_BIN_ENDIAN
REG LINK
REG_MULTI_SZ
REGRESOURCE LIST
REG_FULL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTOR
REGRESOURCEREQUIREMENTSLIST

63

, ,
, ,
. ,
DWORD, BINARY,
STRING MULTISTRING. Windows XP .

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT,
HKCR, ,

-, . ,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software: .

HKEY_CURRENT_USER
HKEY_CURRENT_USER, HKCU,
,
, . , , , , , (
Windows XP ,
). Security ID
(SID) HKEYJJSERS . ,
, ,
Windows .

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM) , , , , , , Windows.
Windows XP
. ,
.

HKEY_USERS
HKEYJJSERS (HKU)
.

64

4.

HKEY_CURRENT_USER ( Security ID (SID) ). , HKEY_USERS\DEFAULT, , .

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG ()
, .
(, - , ). HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet.



Windows XP , .
, ,
Windows (Registry Editor), .
Windows XP ,
, Windows,
(Microsoft Management
Console, ). Windows XP . ,
, Windows XP (Control Panel).
, ,
, ,
(System Policy Editor, SPE). Windows
cmd. ,
, cmd, . ,
,
.
.

(Registry Editor)
( Windows XP Registry Editor) , Windows

65

. , Windows
(Start), (Run), (Open) regedit .
: ,
(Start All Programs
Accessories Command Prompt), regedit.

64- Windows XP , 64- , .


, 64- . %systemroot%\Syswow64 ( %systemroot% Windows),
32- .

. 4.1.

. 4 . 1 .

, : ( ) , , Windows XP, (
) , .
.

66

4.

(Windows Explorer).
, , , , : .
- ,
.
, . ,
HKEY_CURRENT_USER AppEvents,
EventLables , , Close, : KOMnbtoTep\HKEY_CURRENT_USER\AppEvents\
EventLables\Close. , .
(Status bar)
(View).

, . , :
(File) -
,
, ;
(Edit) , ,
, , ;
(View)
;
(Favorites)
;
(Help) .


, , , .
,
. , . , ,
.

67

, , ( REG_SZ), (REG_
BINARY). . , .
.
I


REG_SZ, REG_EXPAND_SZ, REGLINK, REG_
RESOURCE_LIST, REG_FULL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTOR REG_RESOURCE_
REQUIREMENTS_L I ST. . 4.2.

. 4.2.

(Value name) , (Value data)


, . .
, , .


, Windows ,
.



(Edit multi-string) , - REG_MULTI_SZ.
, , , , , ,
.
.

68

4.


, , REG_BINARY.
, , . , , ; , ,
,
. , , ().
.

DWORD
DWORD, REG_
DWORD REG_DWORD_BIN_ENDIAN. , .
(Value name) .
(Base) (Hexadecimal) (Decimal), ,
,
(Value data).
.
, ,
, Windows XP .

, (Edit Modify binary data).
,
. ,
, abc, 0000, : 61 00 62 00 63 00 00 00.
, 78 00
79 00 7 00 00 00, xyz.

.
(View
Display binary data).

Windows XP

69

(Binary data), .
(Format), , : , ( 1 (Byte), 2
(Word) 4 (Dword) ).
.

, Windows , , ,
(Help topics) (Help).
Windows, , , , :
(Contents) ,
, ;
(Index) , , ;
(Search)
.
. ,
,
.

Windows XP
Windows XP .



.
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT (HKCR):
1. +, HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT ;
2. +
, ., .

70

4.

3. ( .
PersistentHandler), .
4. , .
,
+, ; , ,
-, . , +,
(Expand).
, -,

(Collapse).
, .


Windows XP , . ,
(Edit Find)
(Edit Find next). , Ctrl+F F3 (. 4.3).

. 4.3.

- Windows XP, :
1. (Find what) ,
, .

Windows XP

71

2. (Look at) , . (keys),


(values) (data).
3. , (Match
whole string only). ,
, .
4. (Find next).


,
,

, (Favorites) Windows Microsoft Internet Explorer.
:
1. , , (Favorites Add to Favorites).
2. (Add to Favorites) .
3. (Favorites) .
4. (Favorites), (Favorites Remove
Favorite),
(Remove Favorite) .


-
Windows XP ,
Windows,
.
, , (last known good configuration) , ,
, .
Windows (Windows Restore) .
, , .

72

4.

, , , , 11.

, , :
1. ,
, ,
.
2. (Edit New
Key), .
3. ,
(\).
, :
1. ,
, ,
.
2. (Edit New)
: (String value), (Binary
value), DWORD (DWORD value), (Multistring value) (Expandable string value).
3. , (Rename) .
4. ,

.


, . :
1. ,
, , . ,
.
2. , (Rename) .
3. , (\).

Windows XP

73



,
, ,
, .

, .
:
1. , , .
2. (Edit Delete)
Del. ,
. .
,
, . , , .

(Undo), .
!


-
,
, - , Windows XP. , :
,
(Copy key name). , , , . - .




. :
1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.

74

4.

2. SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control.
3. RegistrySizeLimit.
4. (Edit) (Modify).
DWord.
5. , . 4.2. .
.

RegistrySizeLimit , ,
. , , , , Microsoft Management Console (MMC).
4.2. RegistrySizeLimit

4-0xFFFFFFFE
OxFFFFFFFF

25 %

80 %


Windows XP , . ,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE SAM. .
, .


Windows XP,
,
- . , ,
.
, Windows XP, :
1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.
2. SOFTWARE.
3. , - .
Word XP Microsoft.
4. ,
. Word XP Office.
5. , .
Word XP 10.0.

Windows XP

75

6. ( ), ,
. , Word XP (Common, Excel . .) Word. .
7. .
(
).
. .


Windows XP ,
(, DOC Word ).
:
1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.
2. SOFTWARE\
Classes. , .
3. : ( ) COM GUID, ( , ,
. .). ,
,
.


, , Windows XP,
. Windows XP,
( ),
:
1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.
2. HARDWARE. HARDWARE :
G Description .
. , (IRQ)
. ;

76

4.

Devicemap ,
REG_SZ ;
Resourcemap (IRQ) ,
.
.

Windows
Windows XP , . , .
:
1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.
2. SYSTEM. SYSTEM
:
ControlSetOOl Windows XP.
,
;
Q ControlSet002 Windows XP. ,
ControlSetOOl;
CurrentControlSet Windows XP. ;
CurrentControlSet\Control , ;
Q CurrentControlSet\Control\ServiceGroupOrder . ,
' , ;
CurrentControlSet\Control\ServiceGroupOrder , .


Windows XP, Microsoft Windows,
, , , , Windows (%systemroot%), (%temp%) . .
Windows XP, :
1. HKEYJ_OCAL_MACyiNE.

Windows XP

77

2. SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment. .
( ) .



, . , , , - , . Microsoft Windows XP

. :
1. , .
2. (Edit Permissions). (. 4.4).

. 4.4. Windows XP

3. (Group or user names)


, . ,
(Remove).

78

4.

4.
, (Add).
: (Select users or groups).
,
(Object types) : (Built-in security principals), (Groups)
(Users). ,
,
(Locations). .
(Enter the object names to
select). :
, ;
G , ;
, ,
;
_@_ ;
_\_ .
5.
, .
(Full control), (Read)
(Special permissions) (. ). , , ,
, .

Windows XP , , . Windows XP ,
, .
Windows XP
, . Windows .
, ,
Windows,
. , ,
HKLM,
. , , .

Windows XP

79

Microsoft Windows XP Professional , . ,


Windows,
, .
, ,
, , , - .

Windows .
, Windows XP,
, ,
, , .
, , . ,
, , , :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
.
- , .
- .


- , :
1. .
2. , ,
.
3. (Edit Permissions). .

80

4.

4. (Advanced). (Advanced security settings).


5. (Permissions) (Permission entries) ,
. ,
(Add).
6. , ,
, (Inherit from parent the permission entries that apply to child
objects. Include these with entries explicitly defined here).
7.
, (Edit). (Permissions) , .
, , .
, , 6.
,
(Advanced security settings)
,
(Replace permission entries on all child objects with entries shown here
that apply to child objects).
(Apply).

,
,
.


,
, ,
, . .
-
, :
1. .
2. , , .
3. (Edit Permissions). .

Windows XP

81

4. (Group or user names) ,


.
5. (Permissions for name), , (Allow) (Full control).
, , - ,
.


, Windows XP ,
.
. , .
, :
1. .
2. , ,
.
3. (Edit Permissions).
.
4. (Advanced). (Advaced security settings).
5. (Auditing).
6. (Auditing entries)
. , :
1) (Add). : (Select users or groups);
2) , (Object types) :
(Built-in security principals),
(Groups) (Users);
3) , , (Locations);
4) '
L (Enter the object name
to select). :

82

4.

, ;
, ;
, ,
;
Q _@_ ;
_\_ .
7. (Auditing entries) ,
(Successful) (Failed) (Access) , . 4.3.
4.3. Windows XP

DAC


Windows XP.


, , ,
,
. - , :
1. .
2. , ,
.

Windows XP

83

3. (Edit Permissions). .
4. (Advanced). (Advanced security settings).
5. (Owner).
6. (Change owner to)
.
7. , , (Replace owner to subcontainers and
objects).
8. .


Windows XP , , .
,
:
1. .
2. (File Connect network
registry).
3. : (Select computer)
(Locations), ,
.
4. (Enter the object name to select) .
:
, , ;
, , ;
Q , ,
;
D _@_ , ;
Q _\__ , .
5. .

,
, .
.

84

4.


, Windows, , .
Windows XP.


Windows XP, Windows (Start All Programs Accessories Command Prompt),
Windows
cmd.exe, - ,
. Windows XP REG,
.
REG :
REG <> [ ]
, REG: QUERY, ADD, DELETE, COPY, SAVE, LOAD, UNLOAD, RESTORE, COMPARE, EXPORT, IMPORT.
, , .
.
REG :
. 0, ,
, ,
1.
REG , REG /?,
- , REG <> I I .
REG QUERY
REG QUERY Windows , , ,
. :
REG QUERY [\\] [/v | /ve] [/s]
:
, . ,
, ;

85

\\,
(HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU
), \ , ;
/v ;

;
/ve ;
/s .
;
REG QUERY HKCC\Softvare\Microsoft\windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings /v
ProxyEnable
ProxyEnable \
Softvare\Microsoft\windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings;
REG QUERY HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Office /s

HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Office.

REG ADD
. :
REG ADD <> [\\<>\]<> [/v <> | /ve] [ / t <>]
[/s <>] [/d <>] [ / f ]
:

[\\<>\]<>, <> , .
, .
\\,
(HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU
), \ , .
HKLM HKU;

/v <> , ;
/ve ( ) ;

/t <>
. : REG SZ,
REGMULTISZ, REGDWORDBIG_ENDIAN, REGDWORD, REGBINARY, REG_DWORD_LITT LEJND IAN,
REG NONE REG_EXPAND_SZ. ,
REG_SZ;

86

4.

/s <> , REG_MULTI_SZ. "\0";


/d <> , ;
/f .
:
REG ADD \\NetComp\HKLM\Software\NewSubkey

NewSubkey HKLM\Software
NetComp;
REG ADD HKLM\Software\NewSubkey h Vaiuel /t REG_SZ /d ac23456ffed

HKLM\Software\NewSubkey
Valuel REG_SZ ac23456ffed;
REG ADD HKLM\Software\NewSubkey /v Path IX REG_EXPAND_SZ /d n systemroot U\System32

HKLM\Software\NewSubkey
Path REG_EXPAND_SZ
%systemroot%\System32.

REG Windows %
(%% % %)

REG DELETE
, . :
REG DELETE [\\] [/v | /ve | /va] [ / f ]
:
, .
, . HKLM HKU;
\\,
(HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU
), \ , ;
/v <> . ,
;
/ve , ;
/va ;
/f .

87

:
REG DELETE \HKLM\Software\NewSubkey

NewSubkey HKLM\Software;
REG DELETE \HKLM\Software\Prog /v PARAM /f

PARAM
HKLM\Software\Prog.

REG COPY
REG COPY ,
,
. :
REG COPY <1> <2> [/s] [/f]
:
<1> , , [\\<>\]<>, <> ,
. , , . \\
, (HKLM, HKCU,
HKCR, HKU ), \
, . HKLM HKU;
<2> , . , ;
/s , ;
/f .
, , .
:
REG COPY HKLM\Software\Program HKLM\Software\Restore /s

HKLM\Software\Program
HKLM\Software\Restore;
REG COPY \\SERVER\HKLM\Software\Microsoft HKLM\Software\Server
< HKLM\Software\Microsoft Server HKLM\Software\Server .

REG SAVE
REG SAVE
.hiv,
. :
REG SAVE <> < >

88

4.

:
<> ,
, (HKLM,
HKCU, HKCR, HKU ) .
;
< > , , . ,
.
:
REG SAVE HKCC\System\CurrentControlSet Control Set. hi v

HKCC\System\CurrentControlSet
ControlSet.hiv, .
REG RESTORE
, .hiv, REG SAVE.

.
:
REG RESTORE <> < >

:
<> ,
,
(HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU ) . ;
< > , .
:
REG RESTORE HKLM\Software\Microsoft MSBackup. hi v

HKLM\Software\Microsoft MSBackup.hiv,
.

REG LOAD
REG LOAD REG RESTORE,
,
.hiv ,
,
HKLM HKU. . . :
REG LOAD <> < >

:
<> ,
; -

89

HKLM HKU.
,
.
;
< > , .
:
REG LOAD HKLM\Software\NewKey MSBackup.hiv
MSBackup.hiv HKLM\Software\
NewKey.
REG UNLOAD
REG UNLOAD
,
HKLM HKU. :
REG UNLOAD <>
<> , .
HKLM HKU,
.
.
:
REG UNLOAD HKLMXSoftware
HKLM\Software.
REG COMPARE
.
:
REG COMPARE <1> <2> [/v <> | /ve] <>] [/s]
:
<1>
[\\<>\]<>, <> ,
. , , . \\, (HKLM, HKCU,
HKCR, HKU ), \ -
, . HKLM HKU;
<2> , .
, ;
/v <> ;
/ve , ;
/s
;

90

4.

<> (
, /od).
:
D / , ;
G /od ;
G /OS ;
/on .
REG, REG COMPARE ,
: 0 , ; 1 ; 2 , .
:
REG COMPARE HKLM\Software\ProgApp HKLM\Software\Prog

HKLM\Software\ProgApp HKLM\
Software\Prog;
REG COMPARE HKLM\Software\ProgApp HKLM\Software\Prog /v Valuel

Valuel,
HKLM\Software\ProgApp, HKLM\Software\Prog ;
REG COMPARE \\SERVER\HKLM\Software\Microsoft \\. /s

HKLM\Software\Microsoft, SERVER, .
REG EXPORT
REG EXPORT .reg,
. :
REG EXPORT <> < >

:
<> ,
,
(HKLM, HKCU, HKCR, HKU ) .
;
< > , ,
. , .
:
REG EXPORT HKLM\Software\Adobe Adobe.reg

HKLM\Software\Adobe Adobe.reg, .

91

REG IMPORT
REG IMPORT REG- Windows.
. :
REG IMPORT < >
< > REG- .
:
REG IMPORT C:\system.reg
system.reg, :.


REG , CMD, .bat
.
, - Windows XP . REG, , ,
, .
ASCII,
, .
. ,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software NewSubkey, Valuel, ac23456ffed,
test.hiv D:
.
,
REG:
REG ADD HKLM\Software\NewSubkey /v Valuel /t REG_SZ /d ac23456ffed
REG SAVE HKLM\Software\NewSubkey d : \ t e s t . h i v
REG QUERY HKLM\Software\NewSubkey /s
test.bat .
,
. , ,
.

REG-
Windows XP, .reg,
, . REG-
,

92

4.

, , ,
.
, REG- REG EXPORT, , ,
. REG- .
REG- . . Windows XP
:
Windows Registry Editor Version.5.00
. ,
, , ,
, - .
, . . .
. , REG- :
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
[ ( ), ]
" "=:
" "=""
[ ( ), ]
" "-:
Windows XP
, (default volume).
, REG- :
^-'' "

REG-:
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00
tHKEYJ_OCAL_MACHI NE\ SOFTWARE\ NewSubkey ]
"Valuel"="ac23456ffed"
"Value2"=dword:0
ValueHex= hex:ca,cc, Id,00.00.40.3e.64
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\SubkeyAPP]
@="0aDEF123"
11

Value"r" 1234567890"

REG- , , ,
.


Windows XP, NT,
, , , Windows, . Windows NT/2000/XP . , ,
Windows XP, ,
. , Windows XP, , .
,
Windows XP (Start), (Run), msconfig
. , , .
Windows XP , ,
, . , .


, Windows XP , ,
, .

94

5.


. :
1. (System Configuration Utility).
2. (Services).
3. , . ,
(Disable all),
(Enable all).
4. (Hide all
Microsoft services), Windows XP , Windows .
5. , , .
, Windows XP , ,
. 5.1.
5 . 1 . Windows XP



.
, ,
,
.
,

, ,

Windows Audio


Windows. ,


.
,


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. , , ,


+. ,
+
. ,

:
,
Windows;
,
,
,

.

DHCP-

IP- DNS-

,
. ,

, , .
,

DNS-

DNS-
IP- . ,
ActiveDirectory .
,


Windows XP


, Windows.

(SENS), +.
, SENS /. ,

95

96

5.

5.1.


(Microsoft
Help and Support Services). ,
Windows


-
IMAPI

- Image Mastering Applications Programming


Interface (IMAPI). ,
- . ,

, . , .
,

.
,
. ,

NetBT (NetBIOS

NetBIOS TCP/IP TCP/IP) NetBIOS IP-

. .
, ,
,
.
,

Net Meeting Remote


Desktop Sharing



Windows Microsoft
NetMeeting


-,
, , .
, . ,

Windows Installer

, Microsoft Installer (MSI).


//

DDE


(Dynamic Data
Exchange, DDE) , . , DDE .
,

, DDE.



Windows,


NLA


NT LM

, Remote
Procedures Call (RPC) ,

Plug & Play

Plug & Play


,

IPSEC

IP

, , ,

,
DNS NetBIOS-

(Remote Assistance).

Windows XP . ,

DDE

4 3at3

97

98

5.

5.1.


(RPC)

(Remote Procedures Call, RPC)

QoS RSVP


QoS-


-,


( ). ,

(, Windows, , . .) +

(1)/

(ICS)


Windows XP (Internet Connection
Firewall, ICF),
(Internet Connection
Sharing, ICS)

Windows shell


(Windows Restore),
.
, ,
,


SSDP

, Universal Plug & Play (UPnP)

(WIA)

MS Software Shadow
Copy Provider

,
.

,
, .

, Telephony API (TAPI) , ,


IP- , ,


,
. (Remote Desktop),
(Remote Assistance), .

Telnet

: Telnet.
,
,


Windows XP

,
NTFS


.
,


Universal Plug & Play

(UPS)


( ) , /.
,

/

99

UPS

^ ^

100

5.

5.1.


Windows

Windows
,

Windows


, , , .
Windows

media-

(
) media-,

WMI (Windows
Management
Instrumentation)

WMI

WMI High
Performance

, Windows
Microsoft

Radio Ethernet 802.11



Windows

(Services), .

(Start All programs Administrative tools Services). . 5.1.
Windows
,
: (Name), (Description), (Startup
type) ( ), (Status) (Log on
as). , -

101

, , .

. 5 . 1 .

:
, ;

, , (Action
Pause) ;

, , (Action
Resume) ;

, , (Action Stop)

;

, ,
(Action Restart)
.

102

5.

,
Windows XP ,
.
Windows, :
1. (Services).
2.
.
3. (Properties).
4. (Dependencies). (This
service depends on the following system components)
, , (The following system components depends on
this service) , , .



Windows XP, , .
, :
1. (Services).
2.
.
3. (Properties).
4.
(Recovery) (. 5.2).
5. (First failure), (Second failure)
(Subsequent failures)
: (Take no
action), (Restart service), (Run a program)
(Restart computer).
6. (Run a program),
(Program) (Run program)
( (Browse)), (Command line parameters) , , , ,
(Append fail count to end of command line).
1.

103

. 5.2.

7. (Restart computer), (Restart computer options),


, , , .
8. (Restart service), (Restart service after)
,
.
9. , (Reset fail count after)
, .
10. ,
.




Windows , , ,
. :

104

5.

1. (Services).
2. .
3. (Properties).
4. cncTeMy(Log on)
(. 5.3).

. 5.3.

5. , Windows , (Log
on) (Local system account).
(This account)
, (Password) (Confirm password)
.
(Browse).
6. ,
(Enable) (Disable).
7. (Allow
service to interact with desktop), ,

105

, .
8. ,
.



, Windows XP 80 ,
.
Windows, .
:
, Radio Ethernet;
,
Windows ;
media-
: ;
Windows ,
,
,
Windows XP ;
, , NTFS;
(WIA) ,
, - ;
SSDP ,

UPnP ( Windows XP
build 2600 );
,
;

106

5.



Windows, ;
,
;
, , .


, , , :
,
/ ;
Windows,
;
. , ;
,
Windows NT. ,
.


, :
;
Net Meeting Remote Desktop Sharing;
;
NLA.



:
;
DHCP-;
DNS-;
;
NetBIOS TCP/IP;
;
NLA;

IPSEC;
;
;
(1)/ (ICS);
.

107

Microsoft
Management Console
, Microsoft Management Console (MMC),
Windows XP,
,
Windows. , Windows :
, ,
, .
:
,
, .
;
,
, .
;
, ;
, , , , . .
, , , .
Windows (Start), (Run),

109

(Open) mmc . :
, (Start
All Programs Accessories Command Prompt),
mmc.

64- Microsoft Windows XP mmc /64.


, Windows XP. , ,
, , . Windows XP, , ,
.
: (
)
( Windows
- ).
Microsoft Windows XP . 6.1.
,
.
,
, ,
.
. , ,
. , ,
,
, .
, , , -, .
, , .
, , , . Windows XP , Windows

110

6. Microsoft Management Console

( , ).


. 6 . 1 . Windows XP

.
(Administrative tools) Windows XP : (ODBC) (Data Sources (ODBC)), (Local
Security Policy), (Performance), (Event Viewer),
(Services), (Component Services) (Computer Management). .


. , ,
, ,
.

111

,

.
;
, .
,
, ,
, ,
. Active Directory.
:
( ),
-
, ( ),
. -
, ,
, , , , .


, . , , - .
, , . ,
:
, , .
:
.
, . , ( ), + -.
,
. , ,
, , -.
,
.

112

6. Microsoft Management Console


Windows XP . . , , ,
, ,
Windows. :

(Author);
/.


,
.
:
,
, ;

,
, , , ;

,
, .
.
;
.
, (Do not save
changes to this console) (File Options).


, (Favorites) Windows
Microsoft Internet Explorer.

,
:

113

1. , , (Favorites Add to Favorites).


2. (Add to Favorites) .
3. .
, (Favorites Delete from Favorites), .


Windows XP ,
(Help topics) (Help). , ,
, :
(Contents) ,
, ;
(Index) , , ;
(Search) .
. ,
, .



, ,
, , . ,
. , .

2.0, Microsoft Windows XP, . .

114

6. Microsoft Management Console


(Group Policy),
:
1. : Windows
(Start), (Run),
(Open) gpedit.msc
.
: ,

(Start All Programs Accessories Command Prompt), gpedit.msc.
2. :
1) (Run) Windows ;
2) (File)
(Add/Remove Snap-in);
3) (Standalone)
(Add);
4) (Add standalone snapin) (Group policy)
(Add);
5) 111 (Group Policy object)
(Browse);
6) ;
7) (Finish), (Close),
.
.

,

, (Group Policy object)
. (Allow the focus of the
Group Policy Snap-in to be changed when launching from the command line. This only applies if
you save the console).

3. :
1) ;
2) (Remote Desktop
connection). Windows
(Start), (Run),
(Open) mstsc.exe -

115

. : ,

(Start All Programs Accessories Command Prompt),
mstsc.exe;
3) Windows XP ,
Windows XP, Active Directory (Active Directory users and computers);
4) (Properties)
(Group Policy);
5) , (New) ,
(Edit).
: , , , , , . .
, Windows XP/.NET
, Windows XP , .

, , , Active
Directory .
. , , Windows XP/.NET
Microsoft Corporation (http://www.microsoft.com).
, , :
Windows XP . , Windows,
HKEY_CURRENT_USER (HKCU)
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM);
,
Windows, . .;

116

, Microsoft Management Console

;
.
, Windows XP Professional,
,
%systemroot%\System32\GroupPolicy. (Group Policy).

(Local computer policy), , , : (Computer configuration) (User configuration).
(Software settings),
Windows (Windows settings) (Administrative templates),
; .
.


(User configuration),
(Group Policy), ,
.
HKCU HKLM. , (Computer configuration Software settings)
(User configuration Software settings), ,
,
, , ,
,
. , (Software
setup), .
.
, Microsoft Word,
.

Word ,
.doc
, Word.

:
,
.

117

Windows
Windows (Windows settings) (Computer configuration), (User configuration), (Group Policy),
, , , Windows
, .
Windows :
(Scripts) (Security settings).
Windows XP 32- , ,
Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript; .vbs),
JavaScript ( .js)
-, , . (/) (Scripts (logon/logoff)), (Group Policy)
Windows (Computer configuration Windows settings), ,
Windows . ,
.
(/) (Scripts (logon/logoff)),
Windows (User configuration Windows
settings), , .
.
(Security settings)
,
, ,
, IP
.
,
.


D Windows XP .adm,
, (Administrative
Templates) (Group Policy).
.
, ,
, Windows XP
:

118

6. Microsoft Management Console

HKEY_CURRENT_USER (HKCU);
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM);
\Software\
Policies;

Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies.

\Software\

, , , :
Windows XP, ;
;
;
, ;
Windows, .
Registry.pol,
Windows XP
, (Group Policy).
: , , HKEY_
LOCAL_MACHINE, GPT\Machine, , HKEY_CURRENT_USER, GPT\User.


Windows XP, , , ,
, ,
. .



, - .

. :
1. .
2. (File) (Add/
Remove Snap-in).
3. / (Add/Remove Snap-in) (Add).

119

4. .
, -
,
.
,
, , . , , , ActiveDirectory .
,
, ,
.


- , :
1. , .
2. (Add) (Add/
Remove Snap-in).
3. / (Add/Remove Snap-in) (Snap-in) (Remove).
4. .


,
.
, :
1. , .
2. (File) (Add/
Remove Snap-in).
3. / (Add/Remove Snap-in) (Extensions).
4. (Available extensions) ,
. , ,
(Add all extensions).

120

6. Microsoft Management Console


Windows XP .
, :
1. .
2. , .
3. (Action)
(New taskpad view).
(New taskpad view wizard). (Next).
4. .
(Style for the details pane) ,
, (List size) , . ,
(Hide standard tab).
, (Style for task descriptions)
(Text) ( ) (InfoTip) ( ). (Next).
5. . (Apply this taskpad view to)
(Selected tree item),
, , (All tree items that are the same type as the selected tree item),
,
. ,
. (Next).
6. ( ), ( ). (Next).
7.
,
(Start new task wizard) (Finish).
, (Action Edit
taskpad view). . (Name) (Description)

121

( ) ( ).
(Style for the
details pane) ,
(List size) .
(Style for task descriptions),
, (Hide standard tab). ( , , ), (Options).


, , , . :
1. .
2. ,
.
3. (Action) (Edit taskpad view).
4. (Tasks) (New).
(New task wizard).
(Next).
5. ,
:
G (Menu command) ;
(Shell command) Windows;
(Navigation)
,
(Favorites) .
6. (Navigation), (Next) , (Favorites).
7. (Shell command),
(Next) ,
Windows:
(Command)
;
(Parameters)
;
(Start in) , ,
(Browse);

122

6. Microsoft Management Console

(Run)
CMD, .
8. (Menu command),
(Command source) ( (List in details pane) , ;
(Tree item task) ). (Console tree),
, , (Available commands) .
(Next).
9. . (Next).
10. ,
. 126 , (Custom icon) (Browse).
11. (Finish). ,
(Run this wizard again).


, . :
1. .
2. ,
.
3. (Action) (Edit taskpad view).
4. (Tasks).
5. ,
(Remove).
6. , (Modify task),
(Modify).


, ,
, . , :
1. .
2. (File Options).

123

3. (Console)
(Options) , . , (Change icon). ,
,
%systemroot%\System32\Shell32.dll.
4. (Console mode) (. ).
(Do not save changes to this console) (
)
(Allow the users to customize views) ( , , ).

. , (Disk
cleanup) (Options)
(Delete files).

, , . ,
.


, ,
, . :
, , . :
1. .
2. , .
3. (Action
Rename).
4. .


, , , , , .
(Action New window from here).

124

6. Microsoft Management Console

,
.


, ,
. , ,
,
(View). : (Small icons), (Large icons), (List)
(Detail). (Detail)
, , .
,
(View Add/Remove columns).
(Add/Remove columns),
: (Displayed columns)
, ,
(Available columns) ,
. , (Displayed
columns) (Remove). , (Available columns) (Add). , (Displayed
columns)
(Move up) (Move down).
(Restore defaults) . .
(Customize view), (View Customize). , / ,
.



.txt .csv, Windows Unicode. (Action Export list) .

Windows XP.

125



.mmc
. , _
\ments and 5\_\ \\, (Administrative tools) Windows (
), (Administrative tools)
Windows XP.
(File Save) (File Save as).
.mmc

Windows XP.

,
, DOS
Norton Commander, : Norton :
!. , , MS-DOS
. , :
,
? ,
, . Windows XP
.


Windows XP
, Windows XP
MS-DOS, , Windows,
MS-DOS, . (Start All Programs Accessories Command Prompt)
(. 7.1).
MS-DOS , DOS.
,
.

Windows XP

127

. 7 . 1 .


- ,
(Properties) ,
.
: (Command Prompt Properties).
:
(Cursor Size) (Options) : (Small) , (Medium) (Large) .
(Display Options) MS-DOS: (Window) (Full Screen) .
(Edit Options) , : (Quick Edit Mode) , ,
, (Insert
Mode) , , , .
(Command History)
, ,
.
(Font) : (Command
Prompt Properties) , .
(Size) MS-DOS,

128

7.

(Font) .
(Preview); (Selected font).
, (Layout). (Screen buffer
size) ,
:
, . (Windows size) , (Window
position) .
,
, (Let
system position window).
, (Colors) , . ,
. .
:
(Screen text) ;
(Screen background) ;
(Popup text) , , - Windows MS-DOS;
(Popup background) .
, RGB (Red),
(Green) (Blue) (Selected color values). :
.


,
, MS-DOS,
Windows XP. .
.

DIR
dir [disk:] [] [ ] [/[[:]]] [/] [/] [/D] [/L] [/P] [/N] [/Q]
[/S] [/W] [/X] [/4] [ [[:]]] [/0[:] ]]

129

. ,
. :
/ :
D ;
Q ;
S ;
R , ;
- .
(-) .
, dir /A:D ,
dir /A:-S , .
/ ( );
/
;
/D ;
/L ;
/N ;

/0 :
N ( );
S ( );
( );
D ( );
G .

() . , dir /0-S
.
/
;
/Q ;
/S ;
/ :
;
W ;
Q ;
/W ;
/X ,
DOS. /N,
s .

130

7.

. ,
;
/4 .
CD, CHDIR

[/D] [:] [:]


cd[..]
chdir [/D] [:] [:]
chdir [..]
,
.
..,
( : cd..).
, .
/D .
CHDIR
, . ,
cd :\ :\Trnp, . CHDIR , , , . , cd \winnt\profiles\
username\programs\start menu , cd
"\winnt\profiles\username\programs\start menu".

- ,
. , :
:.

COPY

COPY [/D] [/V] [/N] [/Y | /-Y] [/Z] [/A | /] [] [/ | /] [+ [/ |


/B] [+ . . . ] ] [ [ ] [/ | /]]
( ) . :
[] . , ;
[ ] ,
, , ;
/ , ASCII;
/ , ;
/D ;
/V ;
/N ;

131

/Y ,
;
/-Y ,
;
II .
,
,
1+2++
:
c:\programs\filel.exe /V d:\files\file2.com filel.exe, programs :, files D:
f2. com.

MKDIR, MD
MKDIR [:]
[:]
. MKDIR
,
. , / , mkdir \a\b\c\d ,
mkdir \a
chdir \a
mkdir b
chdir b
mkdi r
chdir
mkdir d

MOVE
MOVE [/Y | /-Y] [:][]_ [ , . . . ]
MOVE [/Y | /-Y] [:][]_

. :
[:][]_ . , ;
, .
, , ;
_ , ;
__ , ,
;

132

7.

/Y ,
;
/-Y , .
RD, RMDIR
RMDIR[/S] [/Q] [:]
RD[/S] [/Q] [:]
. :
[:] ( ) .
, ,
;
/S ,
;
/Q ,
.

REPLACE

REPLACE [1:][1]_ [2:][2] [/] [/] [/R] [/W]


REPLACE [1:][1]_ [2:][2] [/] [/R] [/S] [/W] [/U]

. :
[1:][1]_ , ;
[2:][2] , ;
/ ( /S /U);
/
;
/R ;
/W
;
/S ,
;
/U ,
.
RENAME, REN
RENAME [:][]_1 _2
REN [:][]_1 _2


( _1 _2).

133

, .

DEL, ERASE
DEL [/] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/[[:]]]
ERASE [/P] [/F] [/S] [/Q] [/[[:]]]
.
,
.
, . :
/ ;
/F ,
;
/S , ,
;
/Q ;
/ :
;
S ;
R , ;
.
(-)
. , ERASE d:\folder\*.dll /A: -S D: FOLDER .DLL, .

/S ,
, , .

REM
REM []
CONFIG.SYS.

ASSOC
ASSOC [.[=[ ]]]

. :
. , ;
, .
,
. ,

7.

134

.
, .

AT
AT [\\_] [ [] [/DELETE] | /DELETE [/YES]]
AT [\\_] [/INTERACTIVE] [ /EVERY:[,...] | /:
""

]]

. AT ,
. :
\\_ , , . , ;
;
/delete . ,
, ;
/yes ;
::;
/interactive , ;
/:[,...] . , ;

/next:[,...] (, ). , ;

"" Windows XP .

ATTRIB
ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+ | - ] [+S | -S] [+H | -] [:] [] [_] [/S] [/D]]
:
+ ;

R ;
;
S ;
;
[:] [] [_] ,
;
/S ,
;
/D , .

135

BREAK

BREAK

DOS Ctrl+C. Windows XP
MS-DOS, Windows. Windows XP BREAK Windows.

CACLS

CACLS _ [/] [/] [/] [/G :] [/R [ . . . ] ] [/ : [ . . . ] ]


[) [...]]

(ACL), . ,
NTFS. :

;
/ , ;
/ () ;
/ ;
/G : ,
. , , :

R - ;
W- ;
( W);
F ;

/R ,
. /;
/ : ,
, ,
:
N ;
R - ;
G W ;
( W);
F ;

136

7.

/D , .

, . .

:
CI (Container Inherit) .
;

01 (Object Inherit) . ;

(Inherit Only) .
/.
: CACLS private.txt /G user:F
USER private.txt.

CALL
CALL [:][]_ []
.
, . CALL ,
() . :
CALL :

, , .
: , , CALL,
. GOTO:EOF .


[N ]

.
.

CHKDSK
CHKDSK [:[[]_]] [/F] [/V] [/R] [/X] [/I] [/] [/L[:]]
Check Disk,
. :

137

,
(, :);
, . FAT/FAT 32;
/F ;
/V
. , NTFS,
;
/R . /F;
/X . . /F;
/L:
( ). ,
. NTFS;
/I . NTFS;
/ . NTFS.

/ Check Disk,
.

CHKNTFS
CHKNTFS : [ . . . ]
CHKNTFS /D
CHKNTFS /T[:]
CHKNTFS /X : [ . . . ]
CHKNTFS /: [ . . . ]

Check NTFS
. :
,
(, :);
/D :
, CHKDSK;
/[:] AUTOCHK ( ),
(
). ,
AUTOCHK;

138

7.

/X .
;
/
. CHKDSK.
-
.

CLS
- .
.

CMD
Windows XP (.
CMD ).

COLOR
COLOR []

. , ,
. :
0 ;
1 ;
2 ;
3 ;
4 ;
5 - ;
;
7 ;
8 ;
9 -;
-;
-;
-;
D - ;
-;
F -.
, COLOR OB
, - . -
, DefaultCoior Windows XP.

139

COLOR ERRORLEVEL 1 ,
.

[_1] [_2] [/D] [/A] [/L] [/N=4HOIO] [/]


,
, _1 _2 . :
_1, _2 ;
/D
;
/ ASCII;
/L , ;
/N=4HOIO , ;
/ case-:
ASCII;
/OFF[LINE]
.

COMPACT
COMPACT [/ /U] [/S[:nanKa]] [/A] [/I] [/F] [/Q] [_ [ . . . ] ]
, ,
NTFS. :
/ _ .
,
;
/U _ . ,
;
/S .
;
/ . ;
/I .
;
/F ,
.
;
/Q
.

140

7.

COMPACT - , .

.

CONVERT
CONVERT : /FS:NTFS [/V] [/1:_] [/NoSecurity] [/X]
FAT NTFS.
. :
: , F:;
/FS:NTFS (NTFS);
/V ;
/CvtAreaiWMfl NTFS;
/NoSecurity
;
/X . .

DATE
DATE [ ] []

. Enter. / .
DISKCOMP
DISKCOMP [1: [2:]]
.

DISKCOPY
DISKCOPY [1: [2:]] [/V]

. ,
, :.
/V .

ECHO
ECHO ON OFF
ECHO []

,
,

141

.
.

EXIT
- .
.
FC

FC [/] [/] [/L] [/LBn] [/N] [/OFF[LINE]] [ ] [/U] [/W]


[/nnnn][1:][1]_1 [2:][2]_2
FC / [1:][1]_1 [2:][2]_2
(
- ) . :
[1:][1]_1, [2:][2]_ 2
( ), ;
/ ;
/ ;
/ ;
/L ASCII;
/LBn ,
;
/N
ASCII;

/OFF[LINE] ;


;
/U Unicode;
/W ;
/nnnn ,
.

FIND
FIND [/V] [/] L7N] [/I] [/OFFCLINE]] "" [[:][]_[ . . . ] ]
. :
[1:][1]_ ,
;
, ;
/V , ;
/ , ;

142

7.

/N , ;
/I ;
/OFF[LINE] .
-
, , , FIND .

FINDSTR
FINDSTR [/] [/] [.] [/R] [/S] [/I] [/X] [/V] [/N] [/] [/0] [/] [/:]
[/:] [/:] [/D.-] [/:] [/OFF[LINE]]
[[:][]_]
, . :
[:][]_ (
), ;
, ;
/ ;
/ ;
/L ;
/R ;
/S
;
/I ;
/X ,
;
/V , ;
/N , ;
/ , ;
/0 ;
/ , ;
/OFF[LINE] -

/: , (. COLOR);
/:
;
/: ;
/ ;

143

/D: ( ).
FINDSTR
,
:

. ;

$
[-] :
;

\<xyz ;

xyz\> .

FORMAT

FORMAT : [/FS:cncTeMa] [/V:] [/Q] [/:] [/] [/X]


FORMAT : [/:] [/Q] [/]
FORMAT : [/\/:] [/Q] [/: /N:ceKTopn]
FORMAT : [/:] [/Q]
FORMAT [/Q]
. :
: , F:;

^ (FAT,
FAT 32 NTFS);

/V: , ;

/Q ;

/
( NTFS);

/X .
;
/F: (1,44);
/: ;
/N: ;
/: , . , NTFS 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192 , 16, 32,
64 . FAT (FAT 16) 512, 1024,
2048, 4096, 8192 , 16, 32, 64 , 128 256
512 . FAT 32
512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192 , 16, 32, 64 ,
128 256 512 . ,

144

7.

FAT 16 FAT 32 : FAT


65 526, FAT 32
65 526 4 177 918 . FORMAT
, .

NTFS , NTFS , 4096 .

,
.
FTYPE
FTYPE [_[=[_]]]

- , .
:
, ;
_ , .
FTYPE - Windows
.
-
, . , FTYPE
.
GRAFTABL
GRAFTABL [nnn]
GRAFTABL /STATUS

. nnn , , /STATUS
.

HELP
- .
Windows XP.

145

LABEL
LABEL [:][]
LABEL [/MP] [] []
, . :
: , F:;
, ();
/ ;
, F:, . , /
.

MORE
MORE [/ [/] [/] [/S] [/] [+]] < [:][]_ _
MORE [/ [/] [/] [/S] [/] [+]]
MORE / [/] [/] [/S] [/] [+] []
. :
[:][]_ ( ) , . , ;
_ , ;
/ MORE;
/ ;
/ ;
/S
;
/ ( = 8).
MORE +, . ,
, .

MORE /, - More - :
;
S n ;
F ;

Q ;
= ;
? - ;
;
Enter - .

146

7.

PATH

PATH [[:][:...][;* *]
PATH ;

. PATH .
. , .

PUSHD
PUSHD [ ]

- , , .
, PUSHD , . , , .
, Z:, , .

POPD
- .
, PUSHD. , POPD
, PUSHD,
.

PRINT
PRINT [/D:] [[:][]_]

, [:][]_. /: (, ), .

PROMPT
PROMPT


MS-DOS, :\>,

:\>
PROMPT .
:
$ & ();
| ( );

147

$ ( ( );
$D ;
$ - ESC ( ASCII 27);
$F ) ( );
$G > ( );

$ - Backspace ( );

$L < ( );
$N ;
$ ;
$Q = ( );
$S ;
$ ;
$V Windows XP;
$_ ;
$$ $ ( ).
PROMPT .
,
PROMPT welcome: $a r o o t $S$C$D$F$$

:
welcome:& root (17.04.2002)$
PROMPT : $_ :
:

RECOVER

RECOVER [:][]_

RECOVER . [:][]_ , . , ,
file.txt ,
RECOVER A:\file.txt.
START
START [""] [)] [ / I ] [/MIN] [/MAX] [/SEPARATE /SHARED] [/LOW
/NORMAL /HIGH /REALTIME /ABOVENORMAL /BELOWNORMAL] [/WAIT] [ / ]
[/] []

. :
- , ;

148

7.

/Dnyrb , ;
II , , CMD;
/ Ctrl+C. Ctrl+C, Qrl+Break;
/MIN , ;
/ , ;
/SEPARATE 16- Windows ;
/SHARED 16- Windows ;
/LOW (IDLE);
/NORMAL
(NORMAL);

/HIGH (HIGH);
/REALTIME (REALTIME);
/ABOVENORMAL
(ABOVENORMAL);
/BELOWNORMAL
(BELOWNORMAL);
/WAIT ;
/ . START CMD
, CMD /, , .
- , Windows XP;
, , CMD .



. , document.doc, Microsoft Word, Windows Word
.

32-
.

149

, .
,
,
. .COM;, .EXE;, .BAT;, .CMD.
PATH, .

,
. , START , .

SUBST
SUBST [: [2:]]
SUBST : /D

.
. :

- , ;

2: ,
/D , .
TIME
[] [ ]

.
Enter. /
.

TITLE
TITLE []
. .

TREE
TREE [:][] [/F] [/]

. :

[:][] ,
;

150

7.

/ ASCII
, ;
/F .
CMD .

TYPE
[:][]_
.

VER
- .
Windows XP.

VERIFY
VERIFY [ON OFF]


. .

VOL
VOL[:]

. .

XCOPY
XCOPY [] [/ | /] [>[:]] [/] [/S [/]] [/V] [/W] [/] [ / I ]
C/Q] [/F] [/L] [/G] [/H] [/R] [ ] [/U] [/] [/0] [/X] [/Y] [/-Y] [/N] [/Z]
[/EXCLUDE:1[+2][+]]

. , XCOPY :
- , , ;
/
;
/ ( ) ; ;
/ ;
;
)[:] , .
, ,
, ;
/
;

151

/EXCLUDE:1[+2][+] ,
.
, . ,
\\ .,
. ;
/S , ;
/ , ;
/V ;
/W
;
/ ;
/I ,
;
/Q ;
/F
;
/L ;
/G , ( NTFS);
/ ;

/R
;

, ,
;
/U ,
;
/
(
);
/N DOS;
/0 ACL;
/X ( /0);
/Y ,
;
AY ,
;
/Z , .

152

7.

Windows XP
II : _ I I ,
/?.

CMD
CMD (cmd.exe) Windows XP,
i iiisiKiinnii Windows re nis cottand-coi
MS-DOS. CMD , Windows .
CMD . - , :
CM.D [/ | /U] [/Q] [/D] [/E:ON /E:OFF] [/F:ON /F:OFF] [/V:ON /V:OFF] [ [ / S ]
[/ /] ],

:
/ , , CMD;
/ , , CMD;
/S CMD ;
/Q (ECHO OFF);
/D AutoRun (. );
/ ANSI;
/U Unicode;
/: CMD (.
COLOR);
/:ON ;
/E:OFF ;
/F:ON ;
/F:OFF ;
/V:ON ;
/V:OFF .
CMD / /,
, ,
, . , && .
, CMD /X ,

153

/E:ON, /Y , /E :OFF, a /R , /. :
:
G /S;
;
&, <, >, (, ), @, |;
Q ;
, , CMD
.
,
, , , .
CMD
/D, REG_SZ REG_EXPAND_SZ
Windows: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\
Microsoft\Command ProcessorAAutoRun HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command
Processor\AutoRun. , CMD .
.
CMD . ,
, /E:OFF.

, 0x1 0x0 REG_DWORD : HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command
ProcessorNEnabieExtensions HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command ProcessorN
EnableExtensions.

.
,
, /V:ON /V:OFF .
, 0x1 0x0 REG DWORD : HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command
ProcessorNDelayedExpansion HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command ProcessorN
DelayedExpansion. , ! ( ).
.

CMD.EXE,

154

7.

, /F:ON /F:OFF .

, REGDWORD :
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Command ProcessorA CompletionChar,
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\CommandProcessor\PathCompletionChar,
/ HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Command ProcessorNCompletionChar,
HKEYJ3URRENTJJSER\Software\Microsoft\Command Processor\PathCompletionChar.

REGDWORD , , 0x4
Ctrl+D 0x6 Ctrl+F. ,
/F:ON,
Ctrl+D Ctrl+F .
Windows,
(0x20).
,
, , .
.
, , . Shift
. , ,
. .
,
, ,
.
(CD, MD RD)
.

, ,
, . ,
, : &, (, ), [, ], {, },

, = , :, I. ' , + , ' , , * -.


Windows XP
, , Microsoft Windows XP.

, ,

.


, Microsoft Windows,
, , .
Windows XP
, - .
Windows : - -
- Java. , Process ID, PID,
.
,
,
. : ,
- .
, Microsoft Word,

156

8. Windows XP

, , , .
,
Word.
, Windows XP .
Microsoft Windows XP
, (Windows Task
Manager),
Ctrl+Alt+Del (. 8.1).

. 8 . 1 . Windows

Windows .
(Applications)
: (Task) ,
(Status) . (Running). , (Not responding).
, (Task) (End Task). - ,
,
(Switch To).
, (New Task)
(Browse).
(Processes) .

157

(Image Name), (User Name), ( C P U )


(Memory Usage).
(,
PID, -, . .), (Select Columns)
(View). ,
(End Process).
, ,
, (Show processes from all users). ,
, (Set Priority)
:
(Realtime) (
);
(High) ;
(AboveNormal) ;
(Normal) ;
(BelowNormal) ;
(Low) .
,
.
.
, ,
Windows ,

, .

, - .
(Performance) Windows
,
(. 8.2). , (CPU Usage) (CPU Usage History) , ( P F
Usage) ( P F Usage History) , (Physical Memory) .
(Networking)
. , , (Users).

158

8. Windows XP

. 8.2. Window

,
, Windows (Disconnect).
(Send Message).
Windows, (Logoff).

Windows
,

Windows. Microsoft Windows XP , , ,
Windows,
( Windows ),
,

.
, ,
, ,
.
Microsoft Windows XP
,
: (Computer Administrator)

Windows

159

(Limited User). Windows XP, , :


;
;
, ;
, ;
;
.
(Limited User),
,
. ,
.


Windows
; > (Start Control Panel User Accounts).
(User Accounts) (Create
a New Account) (. 8.3).

. 8.3. Windows XP

160

8. Windows XP

(Type a name for the new account)


(Next).
-
(Computer Administrator) (Limited User).
(Create
Account), Windows.


Windows
: (Start Control
Panel User Accounts). (User
Accounts) (Change an Account).

, .
,
.

,
(Change the name) (Type a new name for user) .

( ), (Create a password),
(Type a new password) . (Type a new password
again to confirm), , (Type a word or phrase to use as a password hint) ,
, .

(Change the account
type), (Computer Administrator) (Limited User)
(Change account type).

(Change the Picture). , Windows XP . (Change Picture) (. 8.4).
(, ),

Windows

161

(Browse for more pictures)


.

. 8.4.


(Remove the password)
(Remove Password).

(Delete the
account) (Delete Account).


Windows XP
(Change the way
users log on or off).

(Use the Welcome screen),
Windows Windows . ,
Windows NT: .

162

8. Windows XP

(Use the Welcome screen) ,


Windows XP . , Microsoft Word, ;

Windows XP. ,
, .
,
(Use Fast User Switching).
, (Apply
Options).

(Use the Welcome screen) ,


Windows XP
. (Log Off) .


Windows XP -
,
, .
Windows XP.
, :
(My Computer) , , ;
(Properties)
(Tools) : (Disk Properties);
(Check Now)
(Check Disk) (Automatically fix the system errors);
, Check Disk
,
(Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors);
(Start).
Check Disk ,
Windows XP.
, . (Yes),
(. 8.5).

163

Checking f i l e system on :
The type of the f i l e system is FAT32
One of your disks needs to be checked f o r consistency. You may
cansel the disk checking, but it is s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t
you continue.
Windows w i l l now check the d i s k .
Volume s e r i a l number i s : 1227-OCEA
Windows is v e r i f y i n g f i l e s and f o l d e r s .
35 precent comleted

. 8.5. Check Disk



.
,
. ,
,
. - ,
.

, ,
, , , . ,
, , , .

164

8. Windows XP

, , ,
. .
, , , , .
Windows XP (Disk Defragmenter),
(Start All Programs Accessories System Tools Disk
Defragmenter). . 8.6.

. 8.6.

. (Disk Defragmenter) , , (Analyze). ?


, .
,
(Defragment). (Pause), , (Stop).
8 40 .
, .

165


95 % Windows XP ,
.
,
. (Disk Cleanup),
(Start All Programs Accessories System Tools Disk Cleanup).
(Drives) ,
, .
,
.
:
Downloaded Program Files Active X
Java, - ;
Temporary Internet Files -,
;
Chkdisk (Old Chkdisk Files) , Check Disk .
, .
Windows
;
(Recycle Bin) Windows XP;
(Temporary Files) ,
Windows XP, .tmp. , ;
WebCltent/Puisher (WebClient/Publisher Temporary
Files) WebClient Publisher , . ;
(Catalog Files for the Content
Indexer) Windows XP. (Search Companion) Indexing Service, .
.
(More Options) Disk Cleanup,
, :'

166

8. Windows XP

Windows (Windows Components) Windows;


(Installed Programs) -
;
(System Restore) ,
(System Restore).
, .


(Scheduled Tasks) ,
, -
, . (Add Scheduled Tasks) Scheduled Tasks,
(Start All Programs Accessories
System Tools Scheduled Tasks). (Scheduled Tasks Wizard).
,
, . , (Browse), . (Next).
(Type the name for this task)
.
, :
(Daily);

(Weekly);

(Monthly);

(One time only);


(When my computer starts);
Windows (When I log on).
(Next). , (Next).
(User Name) Windows, ,
(Enter the password)
(Confirm Password).
(Next).
,

167

(Open Advanced Properties for this task when I click


Finish) (Finish),
.
(Open Advanced Properties for
this task when I click Finish), , (Properties)
, . (Task)
, .
,
, ,
(Set Password). ,
, (Enabled).
. (Schedule)
(Show multiple schedules).
(New) , ,
, (Schedule Task) , (Start Time) , , .
,
,
(Advanced) . (Settings) :
,
, ,
(Delete the task if it is not scheduled to run again);

, , (Stop the task if it runs for) ;

, , ,
(Only start the task if computer has
been idle for at least) . ,
(Stop the task if the computer ceases to be idle) , ,
, ** (If the computer has not be idle that long, retry for up to
** minutes);

168

8. Windows XP

, , ,
(Don't start the task if the computer is running
on batteries) (Stop
the task if battery mode begins).



(System Configuration Utility)
Windows XP, , ,
Windows . * (Run), (Start Run), (Open)
msconfig . . 8.7.

. 8.7.

.
(General)
(Startup Selection),
:
(Normal
startup load all device drivers and services);

(Diagnostic startup load basic devices and services only);
(Selective startup).

169

, , : SYSTEM.INI (Process SYSTEM.INI file) -


, Windows ,
system.ini; WIN.INI (Process WIN.INI
file) , Windows , win.ini; (Load
system services) ,
Windows;
(Load startup items) , Windows ,
(Startup) . boot.ini, :
BOOT.INI (Use
original BOOT.INI), , boot.ini, ;
BOOT.INI (Use modified
BOOT.INI), boot.ini, . (Launch System Restore) .
win.ini system.ini, (Expand file)
, ,
( , ), , .
SYSTEM.INI WIN.INI ,
system.ini win.ini . , .
,
, (Move
up) (Move down). , (New); , (Edit).
(Find) ,
- , .
BOOT.INI, , Windows XP ( boot.ini
2). boot.ini
,
(Move up)
(Move down). - ( ,
),
(Set as default).

170

8. Windows XP

(Check all boot paths), . - (Timeout), , , . ,



, Windows .
(Services),
, Windows,
.
, (Startup) ,
. Windows XP, ,
, Windows. , .
(Disable all) , (Enable all)
.
,
(Apply) () . - , , , , .


(Remote Assistance)
Windows XP ,
Windows XP , , . , -
Windows . .

,
(Help and support center),
(Start Help and support), (Invite
a friend to connect to your computer with Remote Assistance).

171

(Invite someone to help you).


Windows Messenger (
)
.
. ,
,
(Type an e-mail address) ,
,
(Invite this person). (Message) , , (From) .
(Continue). (Set the invitation to expire) , . (Require the recipient to use
a password), (Type password)
(Confirm password)
,
,
. (Send invitation).
, . (Help and
support center), (Start Help and
support),
(Invite a friend to connect to your computer with Remote
Assistance). (Invite someone to help you), (Save invitation as a file).
(From) ,
(Set the invitation to expire) ,
. (Continue).

(Require the recipient to use a password), (Type password) (Confirm
password) (Save invitation).

, ;
, .

, ,
, .

172

8. Windows XP

,
, . (Yes).
,
, ,
.

,
. (System) Windows XP,
(Remote),
(Advanced) (Remote assistance)
(Allow this
computer to be controlled remotely).


Microsoft Windows XP
(System information),

, ,
. . ,
(Start All Programs Accessories System tools System information). . 8.8.

. 8.8.

173


. ,
:
(Hardware resources)
, (DMA), (IRQ), . .;
(Components) - , , - , , , .;
(Software environment) , , Windows . .;
(Internet settings) Microsoft Internet Explorer.
+, ; , , -, . , +.
, -.
. ,
(File Print),
.NFO (File Save) (File Export).
, . -
(Find what), (Search selected category only)
(Search category names only),
(Find).
, , . (View
Remote computer),
(Remote computer on the Network) (Network Machine Name) ,
. , .

: ,

174

8. Windows XP

, .

(View): (System history), ;
(Current system information) .
, (Tools), . :
(Net diagnostics) Windows, , ;
(System restore)
(System Restore);
(File signature verification utility)
;
(Dr. Watson)
(Dr. Watson) ;
DirectX (DirectX diagnostic tool) DirectX,
DirectX .

Windows XP
,
.
(Microsoft Management Console). ,
(Administrative Tools) (
, (Performance and Maintenance Administrative Tools)). (Administrative
Tools), Windows XP: (ODBC) (Data Sources (ODBC)), (Local Security Policy), (Performance), (Event Viewer), (Services),
(Component Services) (Computer Management). (Services) 5,
. .

(ODBC)
(ODBC) (Data Sources (ODBC))
. ODBC , () ,
SQL.
: SQL, ,
Visual FoxPro.
. (ODBC).

176

9.

ODBC (ODBC Data


Sources Administrator),
(ODBC) (Control Panel Administrative Tools
Data Sources (ODBC)). . 9.1.

. 9 . 1 . ODBC

. ,
DSN (User DSN), , . .
(Add) ,
. ,
.
,
(Finish). .
(Remove), (User Data Sources).
(Configure) .
,
, , ,
.
DSN (System DSN) ODBC
(ODBC Data Sources Administrator) .

(ODBC)

177

, Windows XP, .
(Add), (Remove) (Configure), , .
DSN (File DSN) ODBC
(ODBC Data Sources Administrator)
, ,
.
ODBC, DSN (File DSN), (Look in), Windows XP .

, . , ,
,
, . , .
(Set Directory), ,
Windows .
(Add) . , (Next)
,
(Browse). (Next), ,
(Finish).
(Remove), . (Configure)
, .
(Drivers)
, .
: (Name) ,
(Version) , (Company) , (File) , ,
(Data) . - ,
.
(Tracing) ODBC
ODBC . - .

178

9.

(Start tracing now), ODBC .


(Stop tracing now).
,
ODBC.
Visual Studio, Visual Studio
, . ,
Visual Studio (Start Visual Studio Analyzer).
Visual Studio (Stop
Visual Studio Analyzer), ODBC.
(Log file path)
ODBC, .
, (Browse). sql.log.
(DLL) (Custom trace DLL)
( odbctrac.dll)
, DLL
(Select DLL).
(Connection pooling) ODBC
,
.
, ODBC.
, .
- , ODBC (ODBC Drivers), (Pool connections to this driver)
.
(Don't pool connections to this driver).

ODBC.

ODBC
PrefMon (Enable) (Disable).

179

(Retry wait time) , ODBC .


.
, (About) ODBC, , , ODBC. - ,
.
, (Apply)
ODBC. ODBC, (Cancel) ODBC . ,
(Help)
ODBC.


(Local Security Policy) Windows XP
.
(Local security settings),
(Control Panel Administrative Tools > Local Security Policy). . 9.2.

. 9.2.

180

9.

, :
(File) :
(Options) , , . (Delete files);
(Exit) ;
(Action) - , ;
(View)
,
;
(Help) .

, . -
, .
+ ,
.
.
- ,

. ,
.


(Account Policies)

Windows XP. : (Password policy)
(Account lockout policy).
(Password policy)
Windows XP. , , :
, (Maximum password age) , Windows XP.
;
. (Minimum password length)
;

181

. (Minimum password age) ,


;
(Password must complexity
requirements) (Enabled),
, , 000, 123 . .
;
(Enforce password history)
,
. , ,
, . ;
,
(Store password using reversible encryption for all users in the domain)
(Enabled),
NT. .
(Account lockout policy)
, , , . ,
, :
(Account lockout duration) ,
;
(Account lockout threshold)

,
;
(Reset account lockout counter after) , .


(Local policies)

: (Audit policy) ; (User rights assignment)
Windows XP;
(Security options) .

182

9.


(Audit policy) , . . ,

, ,
:
(Seccess) (Failure).
:
(Audit logon events);
(Audit object access);
(Audit directory service access);
(Audit policy change);
(Audit privelege use);
(Audit process tracking);
(Audit system events);
(Audit account logon events);
(Audit account management).

(User rights assignment) Windows XP.
, , Windows XP.
,

. , .
- ,
(Remove).
,
(Add User or group)
. (Object types)
, , : (Built-in security
principals) ,
( Windows, , ,
. .); (Groups) Windows XP
(Users) Windows,
. (Locations)
1 :
. (Advanced),
,
.

183


(Security options)
:

(Audit: Audit the access of global


system objects) (Enabled),
, ,
. . ;

(Audit: Audit use of Backup and Restore


privilege) -
(Enabled),
;
, (Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits)
(Enabled),
. ,

.
Windows STOP: C0000244 { }
, ;
: SID (Network access: Allow
anonymous SID/name translation) (Enabled), , ,
(SID);
: (Shutdown:
Clear virtual memory pagefile)
(Enabled),
.
, , , ,
. ;
:
(Shutdown: Allow system to be shut down without having to log on)
, Windows
. , (Turn off computer), , , Windows. ;

184

9.

: - (Interactive logon: Smart card removal behavior) - .


:
(No action), (Lock workstation)
(Force logoff);
:
(Interactive logon: Message title for users attempting to log on)
, ;
: ( ) (Interactive logon: Number of previous logons to cache (in case domain controller is not available))
, ,
, , . , Windows, ;
:
(Interactive logon: Prompt user to change password
before expiration) ,
;
: CTRL+ALT+DEL (Interactive
logon: Do not require CTRL+ ALT+DEL) ,
CTRL+ALT+DEL ;
:
(Interactive logon: Message text for users attempting to log on) ,
. Microsoft Windows XP , , 512 ,
. , Windows 2000,
. , Windows XP, , Windows 2000,
,
Windows 2000. Windows 2000 , Windows XP Professional,
. ;
: (Interactive logon: Require domain controller authentication to
unlock)

185

.
,
, , ,
;
Microsoft: () (Microsoft network
client: Digitally sign communications (always)) SMB (Server Message Block), Windows 2000 Windows XP Professional, , SMB
, ,
. . , SMB
, . , (
)
. SMB
,
, SMB .
SMB;
Microsoft: ( )
(Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (if server agrees))
,
SMB , ;
Microsoft: SMB-
(Microsoft network client: Send unencrypted password to connect to third-party
SMB servers) ,
SMB ,
;
: (Recovery console: Allow automatic administrative logon) ,
Windows XP. , ;
:
(Recovery console: Allow floppy copy and access to all drives and all
folders) , ,
, ;
:
(Domain controller: Refuse machine account password changes) , , ;

186

9.

:
(Domain controller: Allow server operators to schedule tasks (domain
controllers only)) , at;
: LDAP- (Domain controller: LDAP server signing requirements) , Active Directory LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
;
Microsoft: (Microsoft
network server: Amount of idle time required before suspending a session)
, SMB . ,
,
SMB, ;
Microsoft: () (Microsoft network
server: Digitally sign communications (always)) , SMB;
Microsoft: ( )
(Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (if client agrees))
, SMB ;
Microsoft:
(Microsoft network server: Disconnect clients when logon time expires)
, SMB
, ;
:
NTLM SSP ( RPC) (Network security: Minimum session security for NTLM SSP based (including RPC) clients)
.
Microsoft Windows XP
/ : LAN Manager (LM),

, NTLM, .
, Windows 2000, ;
:
NTLM SSP ( RPC) (Network security: Minimum session security
for NTLM SSP based (including RPC) servers) ;
: - LAN Manager (Network security: Do not store Lan Manager level hash values on

187

next password change) , LAN Manager


- ;
:
(Network security: Force logoff when logon hours expire) , , . SMB
(Server Message Block). ,
SMB , ;
: LDAP- (Network
security: LDAP client signing require me nts) , Active Directory LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) ;
: LAN Manager (Network security: LAN Manager Authentication Level) , /
. , ,
. ,
Windows: , Windows NT 4
SP4 NTLMv2, Windows 95 Windows 98 NTLM. :
LM- NTLM- (Send LM & NTLM responses)
LM NTLM NTLM ; LM, NTLM
NTLMv2;
LM NTLM (Send LM & NTLM - use NTLMv2 session security if
negotiated) NTLMv2, , LM
NTLM ; LM, NTLM NTLMv2;
Q NTLM- (Send NTLM response only) NTLM NTLMv2
, ; LM, NTLM NTLMv2;
G NTLMv2-OTBeT (Send NTLMv2 response only)
NTLMv2 , ;

LM, NTLM NTLMv2;

188

9.

Q NTLMv2-OTBeT, LM (Send NTLMv2 response only\


refuse LM) NTLMv2
, ; NTLM NTLMv2, LM;
NTLMvZ-, LM NTLM (Send NTLMv2 response only\refuse LM & NTLM) NTLMv2
, ; NTLMv2, LM NTLM;
: (Network access: Sharing and security model for local accounts) .
(Classic), . .
(Guest only),
. .
,
Telnet . , , .

. ;
: SAM
(Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and shares) Microsoft Windows XP ,
(SAM) . , ;
: SAM
(Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM
accounts) ,
;
: .NET (Do not allow storage
of credentials or .NET Passports fore network authentication) , .NET ;

189

: (Network
access: Named pipes that can be accessed anonymously) , () , ;
: (Network access:
Shares that can be accessed anonymously) , ;
: (Network
access: Remote accessible registry paths) , ;
: (Network access: Let Everyone permissions apply to anonymous users)
,
;
: FIPS-
(System cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing,
and signing) , TLS/SSL;
: ,
(System objects: Default owner for objects created by members
of the administrators group) , , ;
:
(, ) (System objects: Strengthen default
permissions of global system objects (e.g., Symbolic links)) Active Directory ,

.
DACL,
; , , . ,
DACL : , , , , ;
: , Windows (System objects: Require case insensitivity for non-Windows subsystems) , , Windows,
;
: (Devices:
Prevent users from installing printer drivers) Windows
. ,
. ,

190

9.

. ,
;
: (Devices: Unassigned driver installation behavior) , Microsoft. :
(Silently succeed);
, (Warn but allow installation);
He (Do not allow installation);
: (Devices: Allow undock
without having to logon) ,
, .
, ,
;
: (Devices:
Allowed to format and eject removable media) ,
NTFS ;
: - (Devices: Restrict CD-ROM access to locally logged-on user only)
, ;
: (Devices: Restrict floppy access to locally logged-on user only) , FDD ;
: (Accounts: Limit local account use of blank passwords to console logon
only) , , ,
Telnet FTP, . , ;
: (Accounts: Rename
administrator account) Microsoft Windows XP,
. ,
. ;
: (Accounts: Rename guest
account)
Microsoft Windows XP. , -

191


. ;
: (Accounts: Administrator account status) , . Windows XP
;
: (Accounts: Guest account status) , . , :
,
Microsoft ;
:
(Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel
data (always)) ,
,
. ,
, ;
:
(Domain member: Maximum age for machine account password)
;
: (Domain
member: Disable machine account password changes) ,
. , ;
: (Windows 2000 ) (Domain
member: Require strong (Windows 2000 or later) session key) ,
,
128- . , , , 64- . .
, , , -

128- ;
: ,
(Domain member: Digitally encrypt secure channel data (when possible))
, , , .
,

192

9.

, , API- ,
;
: , (Domain
member: Digitally sign secure channel data (when possible))
,
, , .
,
,
,
API- , .


, , .


1. , .
2. , .
3.
(Trusted Root Certification Authorities).
4. (Action) (All tasks), (Import). .

.


1. , .
2. , .
3.
(Trusted Root Certification Authorities).
4. , .
5. (Action Delete).
6. (Yes).

193



1. , .
2. , .
3. (Automatic Certificate Request Settings).
4. (Action)
(New Automatic Certificate Request).
. , , .


1. , .
2. , .
3. (Automatic Certificate Request Settings).
4. , .
5. (Action Delete).
6. (Yes).

1. , .
2. , .
3. (Enterprise Trust).
4. (Action) (New Certificate Trust List).
. , , .


1. , .
2. , .
3. (Enterprise Trust).
7

194

9.

4. ,
.
5. (Action) (All tasks
Edit). . , ,
.

1. , .
2. , .
3.

(Enterprise Trust).

4. , .
5. (Action Delete).
6. (Yes).


(Software restriction policies)

Windows XP,
,
, . . ,
(Action Create new policies).
: (Security levels) (Additional Rules). :
(Designated file types)
, . , ;

(Enforcement)
, ;

(Trusted publishers) ,
, .
(Security levels) , : (Disallowed)

195

(Unrestricted). ,

(Set as default).
(Additional Rules)
, (Action) :
(Action New certificate rule)
, . , . (Browse), ,
: (Disallowed)
(Unrestricted);
(Action New hash rule)
.
(Browse), ,
: (Disallowed)
(Unrestricted);
(Action New Internet zone rale)
, , , -. , Java,
ActiveX, Flash. (Internet zone) , : (Internet), (Local computer), (Local
intranet), (Trusted sites) (Restricted sites),
:
(Disallowed) (Unrestricted);
(Action New path rule)
. , ,
, , () .
(Browse), , : (Disallowed) (Unrestricted).

IP
IP (IP security policies)
IP. :
( ) (Client (Respond Only))
;

196

9.

( ) (Server (Request security))


;
( ) (Secure server (Require security))

.
:
. (Rules) ;
, .
, (Add) . ,
(Remove). ,
(Edit), .
(General) .
,
. (Advanced),
.
| IP

IP- ,
. IP (Manage IP filter lists and filter actions),
IP (IP security policies) * .
: , IP (Manage IP filter lists),
IP.
. ,
. ,
(Add) IP. , (Remove). , (Edit), ,
, . .
(Manage filter actions) IP. ; - ,

197

. ,
(Add) . , (Remove). , (Edit), ,
.
IP
IP, I P- (IP security policy wizard). , IP (IP security policy wizard)
n ? .
IP-
(Next). (Name) , (Description) .
(Next). , ,
. , (Activate the default response rule)
(Next). . (Edit properties)
(Finish).
.

(Performance)
.
, (Control Panel
Administrative Tools Performance).
. 9.3.
, (System monitor).
.
, : , , .
,
. 9.1.

198

9.

. 9.3.
9 . 1 .


L J

'"

199


, , (Add)

(Add counters).
. , , (Use local computer counters),
,
(Select counters from
computer) . (Performance object) , , (Processor),
(Memory), (Paging file) . .
(Select counters from list),
,
, (Add). - ,
, (Explain) - ,
.
, (All instances); ,
(Select instances from list), . ,
(Close).


, : (System monitor properties).
. (General)
.
(View) :
(Graph), (Histogram) (Report). (Display elements),
, :
(Legend) , ,
(Value bar) ,
, (Toolbar) , . ,
(Report and histogram data), : (Default), (Current), (Minimum), (Maximum) (Average).
(Appearance) : (3D)

200

9.

(Flat), (Border) . (Sample


automatically every),
, . (Allow duplicate counter instances), , , , .
(Sources)
, : (Current activity)
(Log files) ,
, , (Add).
(Data)
. (Add)
(Add counters). (Color) ,
(Width) , (Style) , ,
(Scale) .
(Graph) . (Title) ,
(Vertical axis) .
(Show),
,
. (Maximum)
(Minimum) (Vertical
scale) .
, .(Appearance) .
(Change) (Color)
; , . (Change)
(Font) .
, , : .



(Performance logs and alerts), ,
: (Counter logs), (Trace logs) (Alerts).
-

201

. ,
.


(Event Viewer), ,
(Control Panel
Administrative Tools Event Viewer), : (Application), Windows XP, (Security), , Windows, (System), .
, 9.4.

. 9.4.


, :
() : , ,
. .;
(Date) ;
(Time) ;
(Source) , , ;
(Category) ;

(Event) (ID) ;

202

9.

(User) , ;
(Computer) , .
. , .


(Computer Management), , (Control Panel Administrative Tools Computer
Management), .
. 9.5.

. 9.5.

, .


(System tools) :

(Event Viewer)
Windows XP;

203

(Shared folders) :
D (Shares) ,
;
(Sessions) ;
(Open files) ;
(Local users and groups) ;
(Performance logs and alerts) (Performance);
(Device manager)
Windows XP,
Windows.


,

.
:
, ;
;
, ,
;

- ;

, ;


- .

,
, -,
. ,
,
.

,
. ,

: Windows

204

9.

,
- .

, (View)
:
(Devices by type). . , , : DVD/CD-ROM (DVD/CDROM Drives), (Ports), , - (Sound,
Video and Game controllers) . .
, .
, + ;
(Devices by connection). ,
. ,
, USB,
;
(Resources by type). , ,
-, ;
(Resources by connection). .
. , , Plug & Play.
, (Show hidden
devices) (View) .
.

(Customize View), (Customize) (View).
(Microsoft Manager Console) ,
. (Customize View):
(Console Tree) ;
( ) (Standard Menus (Action and View)) .

205

, (File),
(Action), (View) (Help), (File)
(Help);
(Standard toolbar)
, ;
(Status bar)
;
(Description bar)
;
(Taskpad navigation tabs)
.
(Customize View)
(Snap-in),
:
(Menus)
(), ;

(Toolbars) (), .

, , .
, , , , .
- , , - , , , . :
.

:
, (Interrupt Request, IRQ),
(Direct Memory Access channels, DMA),
- (I/O port addresses) .
:
(Windows );
, (, , COM2, , );

206

9.

, BIOS (, USB , BIOS USB).


,
(Properties)
(Action) ,
.
, ,
. (General),
, (Troubleshoot), (Device Troubleshooter) (Microsoft Help and Support Center).
, (Drivers), , (Resources),
.

, ,
(Action Properties), (Resourses).
, , (Resourse Settings), , . : (IRQ), - (I/O Range I/O Port
Address), (Direct Memory Access channels, DMA)
. - , . ,
(Conflicting device list), . , (Use automatic settings),
(Change Settings). .
(Value) ,
(Conflict Information)
, .
, .

, , , .

,
Windows -

207

,
(
- - ).
, , , ,
(Action Properties), (Driver).
: (Driver Provider), (Driver Date), (Driver
Version) (Driver Signer).
(Driver Details),
, .
(Uninstall) ,
.
, - , (Roll Back
Driver).

(Update Driver).
(Hardware Update Wizard).
:
(Install the software automatically),
- ,
(Install from a list or specific location) Windows
: , - .
CD-ROM Microsoft
Windows XP (Next).
Windows
, ,
CD-ROM .
, , ,
.
,
(Next) Windows ,
( (Search for the best driver in these locations)),
Windows ( . (Don't search. I will choose the driver to install)).

208

9.

, Windows , (Browse).
(Next)
.
.
(Show compatible hardware), , .
(Manufacturers) , (Models) .
- ,
(Have Disk) ,
.
(Next),
.

6 Microsoft Windows XP Professional Edition


. , Windows - .


(Local users and groups)
, . ,
(Local users and groups Users).
, , , . , .
.
(General) , : (Full name) , (Description)
. ,
:
(User must change
password at next logon);
(User cannot change password);
(Password never expires);
(Account is disabled);
(Account is locked out).

209

,
Windows.
(Member of) , . , (Add). .
(Object types) , . (Locations)
: . (Advanced), .
(Profile)
, , .

, (Local
path) (Connect)
. ,
, ,
.
, (Local users and groups
Groups). .
, .
,
(Add). . (Object types) , .
(Locations) : .


(Storage)
, . , (Storage Removable
storage). .
(Disk defragmenter)
, 8.
(Disk management),
. 9.6, .

210

9.

,
.

. 9.6.


(Services and applications)
. (Services) (Services), 5, .
WMI (WMI Control)
Windows (Windows Management Instrumentation, W M I ) . WMI Microsoft WBEM (Web-Based Enterprise
Management -) .
(Indexing service) ,
(Indexing Service)
Windows XP. Indexing Service .
Indexing Service ,
,
. Windows, . , , , Windows XP
, .

211

, ,
, . :
Microsoft Office 95 ;
HTML;
;
.
(Directories) ,
, .
(Properties) . , (Query the catalog)

.ix .


(Component Services) DCOM, +
, . + DCOM .
+ DCOM
(Action Properties).
() (Event Viewer (Local)) () (Services (Local)) (Services) (Event Viewer),
.


Windows XP, , , , , , ,
Windows, . .
.
, (My Computer),
(Properties), (System
properties) (Advanced)
(Environment variables). (Environment variables) : (, Windows),
.

212

9.

, (New)
. ,
(Edit); (Delete)
.


Microsoft

Microsoft
. , (My Computer),
(Properties), (System
Properties) (Advanced)
(Error reporting). (Disable error
reporting).
(Enable error reporting), ,
.
Windows (Windows
operating system) (Programs). (Choose
programs), , :
(All programs),
Windows,

(All programs in this list),
, .

10


Windows XP ,
, , .
Microsoft Windows, Windows XP
, ,
. , .


,
, .
,
, ,
. , ,
- ZIP, ,
,
. , , 1, , .
,
, ,
. ,

214

10.

,
,
.

10Base2
,
, ,
10Base2 (. 10.1).

. 10.1. 10Base2

10Base2 . -, .
: .
, ,
,
. 10Base2
, , , NE2000 , - 5-10 , LAN
Planet 10 25 . -,
, : , , . ,
- , , -

215

.
,
. .
10Base2 , :
. , , , , 180 .
10 /, , , .
10Base2 : , . - -
, . , .
.

lOBaseT
,
Ethernet lOBaseT. 10Base2 lOBaseT
, , , (. 10.2).

. 10.2. lOBaseT

216

10.

! .
, . , 10 /; ,
. , , ,
.
100 . , ,
, , ,
, . . , ,

, .
, .
.
lOBaseT
( ), :
, , , , .
,
, . . -, lOBaseT
: ,
10Base2, .
-, : ,
.
:
, , , .
, . ,
-:
, 10Base2, ,
lOBaseT. ,

.

217

, , .
, Microsoft Windows: TCP/IP
, NetBEUI
, IPX/SPX, , Novell.
|

IP

IP (Internet Protocol)
, , . IP ArpaNet,
,
.
IP , , , .
. ?
, , , . , ,

. . ,
Intel Pentium III
1300 Mhz, , -
114, , . , .
195.85.102.14,
.
IP
. IP-.
, I P- , , , . , .
, . , . .
IP-.
,
.
, . -

218

10.

D, .
127 , , IP-,
, , . ,
IP-,
. . 10.2.
10.1. IP-

~~~

1-126

126

16 777 214

128-191

16 382

65 534

192-223

2 097 150

254

224239
240247

2-28
2-27

10.2. IP-

IP-

0.0.0.0

.0.0.0

IP-

...

IP-

1.1.1.1

IP-

. 1.1.1

IP-

() IP-
. , , . ? . , ,
. IP- 195.85.102.14. ,
195- , , , . , 195-
902 , 85-. 250 , 102-. , , 102- 40 . ,
, 14. , IP- , , , .

219

IP-
SRI International,
-, , .
IP- , . :
SRI International, Room EJ210, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California
94025, USA, 1-800-235-3155
, http://www.sri.com.
, -
, IP- , IP-.
, IP- ,
. IP- .
, , .
IP-,
197.112... ,
, .
, IP,
IP- . ,

Ethernet, ,
, IP-. , - , , Ethernet, .
, -, IP-, -,
: ,
. , , IP- , ,

. , . IP- , , .

IP-, . , IP-, : ,
IP-, , , -

220

10.

, . IP 255.255.255.0:
256 , 254 . : ,
, 256, 255.255.255.195.
1024 ,
60.
, IP,
IP- . , 192.112.85.7 localhost. IP-
hosts,
. , Microsoft Windows XP
flMCK:\Windows\system32\drivers\etc\. IP-
: , IP- , ,
IP- .
,
#. hosts :
192.112.85.7
192.112.85.1
192.112.85.2
192.112.85.5

localhost
#
server
#
director
#
admin #

, hosts . IP-,
, , . IP-,
, IP IP-, .
. IP- networks, ,
hosts. :
< > < > [...]

[#<>]

, , IP-
( ,
, ), ,
( , - ), , .
networks :

221

loopback 127
marketing 192.112.85 #
buhgalteria 192.112.81 #
workshop 192.112.80 #
workgroup 192.112.10 localnetwork #

, , 127, IP, 192.112.10


, .
hosts networks IP , .

IPX
IPX (Internet Packet Exchange) , , Nowell Netware.
,
. Nowell TCP/IP , .
IP, IPX 576 , 30 . IPX , , ,
, , . , IPX, .
IPX , ,
. , IPX , .
IPX , :
, (2 );
(2 );
(1 );
(4 );
(6 );
(2 );

222

10.

- (4 );
- (6 );
- (2 );
(0546 ).
.
TCP
IP .
, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), IP. ?

, ,
. ,
, ? : . . TCP.
, , , IP-.
,
. TCP
IP , : TCP/IP. TCP/IP- , , 1 1500 ,
.
, , ,
, , . . , TCP.
- , TCP ,
.
, , , - . TCP
.
, , . - , .
, TCP .
,
TCP - .

223

-
-, .
. ,
. , TCP , .
TCP .
, , .
, TCP
TCP/IP,
, .
SPX
, TCP IP-, ,
IPX,
SPX. SPX
:
;
( );
;
;
.
SPX IPX , IPX/SPX.
Nowell Netware, Microsoft
Windows 9x/Me/NT/2000/XP, Unix/Linux OS/2.
NetBIOS/NetBEUI
IBM NetBIOS (Network
Basic Input/Output System) ,
Nowell Netware
OS/2, Microsoft Windows,
Unix- . ,
,
: IPX/SPX,
, .
, NetBIOS , , .

224

10.

NetBIOS 16 ,
(permanent name),
. , NetBIOS
; , ,
. ,
, ,
.

NetBIOS ;
, .
, NetBIOS, IBM ,
NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface).
,
150-200 .
, :
. , .
, ,
' .


,
, .
(My Computer), Windows, (Properties)
(Computer Name) : (System Properties).
(Change),
.
(Computer Name) (Computer Name Changes) .
, ,
(Member of) (Domain) ;
, (Workgroup)
.

225

, ,
DNS- .
DNS, (More) DNS- (Primary DNS suffix of this
computer) DNS- .
, DNS- ,
DNS- (Change primary DNS
suffix when domain membership changes). OK, (Computer Name Changes).
.
(Computer Name) : (System
Properties) (Network ID). (Network Identification Wizard).
(Next). :
, ,
(This computer is
a part of business network, and I use it to connect to other computers at work).
, (This computer is for home use and is not part of business network).
(Next). ,
(Finish), .
: ,
(My company uses network with a domain),
, (My company uses network without a domain),
, ,
(Finish).
, , :
;
;
;
;
.

. (Next).
(User), (Password)
(Domain) .
8 . 369

226

10.

(Next)
( (Computer Name))
, , .
(Next). . (Finish), .
,
.

(My Network Places)


(Network Tasks)
(Set up a home or small office network). (Network Setup Wizard).

(Next). , . (Next). ,
,
(Other) (Next). .
,
, , (This computer belongs to a network that does not have an Internet connection). (Next).
.
(Computer Description), Computer of Marketing Department, Piter-Press Network
Computer .
(My Network Places) .
. (Computer Name) (Next).
, .
, , .
(Workgroup name) (Next).

. - ,

227

(Back), . , (Next).
Windows XP
.
, , (. 10.3).
,
Microsoft Windows XP, -
Windows XP , . , ,
(Create a Network Setup Disk)
(Next). , (Use the Network Setup
Disk I already have). Windows XP, - Windows XP (Use
my Windows XP CD).
, , ;
(Just finish the wizard; I don't need
to run the wizard on other computers).

. 10.3.


, Windows XP.
,
, Netsetup , . .

228

10.

Netsetup ,
Windows 98, Windows 98 SE, Windows Millennium Edition Windows 2000.
, Windows 95 Windows 3.x, .

. (Finish), .
, .


(Network Setup Wizard)
,
. , (My Network Places),
,
. :

, ;

IP- , TCP/IP;
DNS WINS;
IP- , .
(My Network Places) (Network Connections) (Network Tasks). (Network Connections)
(. 10.4).
,
.
- ,
(Properties).
.
,
(Configure),
Windows XP ,

(Show icon in notification area when connected).
NetBEUI IPX/
SPX, .
(Install),
(Protocol) NWLink IPX/
SPX/NetBIOS- (NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS
Compatible Transport Protocol) (. 10.5).

229

. 10.4.

. 10.5. IPX/SPX/NetBIOS

TCP/IP, . (TCP/IP) (Internet Protocol


(TCP/IP)) : (Local Area Connection Properties) (Properties).
TCP/IP.

230

10.

IP- IP-
(IP Address), (Subnet mask) . , IP-
(Default gateway). ,
DNS-, IP- DNS- DNS- (Preferred DNS server) DNS-cep (Alternate DNS server).
, , IP (IP Settings)
TCP/IP (Advanced TCP/IP Settings). (Advanced). DNS
DNS- DNS (DNS suffix for this
connection), DNS-. ,
WINS
TCP/IP. WINS TCP/IP .
, ,
. , .



,
, , , , .


, ,
, , , . ,
, , - .
, :
(My Computer);
, ,
(Properties);
: (Local Disk Properties) (Sharing)

231

, (If you understand the risk but


still want to share the root of the drive, click here);
(Net work share and security) (Share this folder on the network) (Share
name)
(My Network Places)
(. 10.6);

. 10.6.

,
, , , (Allow network users to change my
files). , ;
, . , , (My Computer) .

, Microsoft Windows. - , .

232

10.



, ,
, .
, , , . , , ,
, - .
- , :
, ;
(Properties);
(Folder Properties)
(Sharing);
(Network share and security)
(Share this folder on the network) (Share
name) . , :, D:, : F:, , Netfolder. ,
, . , : D:.
;
,

(Allow network users to change my files). ,
;
, . ,
, Windows Explorer .


, ,
. :
(Printers and Faxes),
(Start Control Panel Printers and Other Hardware Printers
and Faxes);

233

(Properties);
(Sharing) :
(Printer Properties),
(Share this printer) (Sharing
name) ;
, . ,
,
(Printers and Faxes) .


, ,
. :
(Printers and Faxes),
(Start Control Panel Printers and Other Hardware Printers and Faxes);
(Add a printer) (Printer Tasks);
(Add Printer Wizard) (Next);

, (A network printer, or a printer,
attached to another computer) (Next);

. 10.7.

234

10.


(Browse for printer) (Next);
, ,
(Next) (. 10.7);

,
(Yes) (Next);
. (Finish), . , Windows, .


MS Windows, (,
1), , .
(My Computer)
, , .
, :
Windows (My Computer)
(Map Network Drive).
(Map Network Drive);
(Drive) , , (Browse);
(Browse for Folder) ;
,
,

(Reconnect at logon).
(Finish).
(My Computer) ,
. , on Veronika (:)
: Veronika,
:.
, (My Computer)
(Disconnect).

11

Windows XP -
,

.
Windows
, . ,
, ,
:

Missing operating system ( );
Invalid partition table ( );
Invalid system disk ( );
Disk boot failure ( );
Q A disk read error occurred ( );
Insert (replace) system disk and press any key (
);
J Hard disk failed/absent ( );
Q Hard disk error / I/O error ( /- );
BIOS ;
;
Verifying DMI Pool data.

, Windows ,
NTFS,

236

11.

DOS.
Windows XP,
DOS-,
FDISK. ,
Recovery Console (RC), .


, ( , NTFS),
, , . ,
, Windows
.

,
Windows. , .

, ,
.
:
.
.


Windows , CD-ROM Microsoft Windows ,
: (Start Run). (Run Program) :
[DRIVE]:\i386\winnt23.exe /cmdcons

[DRIVE] CD-ROM. , CD-ROM Windows :,


:
E:\i386\winnt23.exe /cmdcons

Windows ,

7 . (Yes).
Windows

237

. , .
Windows,
, (Recovery Console). ,
Enter.

:


- Windows XP, ,
Windows . , ,
: (Start
All Programs Accessories System Tools Backup).
(Advanced Mode),
(. 11.1).

. 1 1 . 1 .

(Automated System Recovery Wizard). (Next),


(Backup media or file name)
, , ,

238

11.

D:\backup.bkf.
, Windows , , ZIP
-. (Finish).

, .
.
, . , .
*
Windows Microsoft - Windows XP
( -). Windows,
, R, . .
Windows (fast repair) (manual repair).
: , ,
, . , , , .
.
Windows XP:
- Windows , .
. , F3.


. !
. , , .

, .

239


, Windows,
. FDISK MS-DOS, ,
RC .
NTDTECT
, , LOGON, Windows (. 11.2).
Microsoft Windows
() M l t i t i u f i 5 - 2001

EXIT
1: ti'.WIHDOWS
2: D: WINDOWS
Windows ? ( ENTER:): 1
: * * *

: WINDOWS _

. 11.2. Windows

Windows ?
Windows . ,
Windows :
1, 1.
Windows, Windows, , .
.

, . |, , , ,
. ([ ]) , .

240

11.

ATTRIB -R | +R | -S | +S | - | + | - | + _

.
:
+ ;
- ;
R ;
S - ;
;
.
BATCH _ []

, . :
,
;

_ - , . , .

BOOTCFG /

. :
/SCAN Windows XP ;
/ADD Windows ;
/REBUILD Windows , ;
/DEFAULT ;
/LIST , ;
/DISABLEREDIRECT ;
/REDIRECT [PORT BAUDRATE] | [useBiosSettings] - boot loader , :
BOOTCFG /REDIRECT C0M1 115200
BOOTCFG /REDIRECT useBiosSettings
CD [] 1... :]
CHDIR [] | [ . J | [:]
.
[..] , (, CHDIR D:) -

241

; , -
, .
,
, , , :
CD "C:\WINDOWS\PROGRAM FILES"
CHDIR "C:\WINDOWS\PROGRAM FILES"
CD CHDIR Windows, , .
CHKDSK [:] [/] [/R]
, , . :
/ , , ;
/R ( / ) .
CHKDSK AUTOCHK.EXE, .
, CHKDSK Windows XP.
- , CHKDSK AUTOCHK.EXE.
CLS
.
COPY : __ [:] [] [__]
. , Windows, , .
Windows, , , .
,
. COPY
, -, ? *.
, , COPY
. ,
- Windows XP, .
DEL [:] [:] _
DELETE [:] [:]
.
Windows, , -

242

11.

, ,
.
DISABLE _

Windows . start-type, SERVICEDISABLED.


start-type ,
. start-type
:

SERVICEDISABLED - ;

SERVI E_BOOT_START ;
SERV ICE_SYSTEM_START ;
SERVICEAUTOSTART ;
SERVICEDEMANDSTART .
DISKPART [/ADD | /DELETE] [ | _ | _] []
.
:
/ADD ;
/DELETE ;
, .
MAP,
\Device\HardDiskO
_ , () , , \Device\HardDiskO\
Partitionl. MAP.
DISKPART ,
.
ENABLE _ [start-type]
Windows .
starttype. start-type :
SERVICEDISABLED ;
SERV ICE_BOOT START ;
SERVICESYSTEM START - ;
SERV ICE_AUTO_ST ART ;
SERVICEDEMANDSTART .
EXIT
.

243

EXPAND [/:_] [] [/Y]


EXPAND [/:_] [/D]
.
:
, .
(-);
,
. ;
/Y ;
/:_ ,
. ,
. (-);
/D , .
Windows, ,
.
, . ATTRIB.
/Y , EXPAND .
FIXBOOT [:]
. , .
FIXMBR [:]
. FIXMBR ,
, .
FIXMBR Windows- , .
FORMAT [:] [/Q] [/:_]
.
FORMAT :
/Q ;
/:_ . /FS : FAT ( FAT 16), FAT 32, NTFS.
HELP
. - :

11.

244

/?
, FORMAT /?
LISTSVC

.
LOGON

Windows XP .
MAP [ARC]

, :

:
D:
:
:

FAT32
FAT32
NTFS

40002
14504
9057

\Device\HardDiskO\Partitionl
\Device\HardDiskONPartition2
\Devi ce\HardDi skl\Partiti
\Device\FloppyO

F:

\Device\CdRomO

ARC ARC, :

:
D:
:
:

FAT32
FAT32
NTFS

40002
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(l)
14504
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)
9057 scsi (l)disk(0)rdisk(0)parti tion(l)
\Devtce\FloppyO

F:

\De\nce\CdRomO

W [:]
MKDIR [:]
. Windows, ,
.
MORE [_]
TYPE [_ ]

.
NET USE [\\_\_ | USER: _ \_ [] |
:/D]
. :
_ (), ;

245

_ , ;
, ;

, ;
/D , .
,
ic , NET USE
, , () .
RD [:]
RMDIR [:]
. Windows, , .
REN [ : ] [ ] _1 2
RENAME [ : ] [ ] _1 _2

.
Windows, ,
.

SYSTEMROOT
, systemroot.
:
Windows, , , .

, Windows XP
.
(Control Panel),
(Performance and Maintenance) (Administrative Tools).
(Local Security Policy),
(Local policy Security Options). (Local Security Policy) :
(Recovery Console: Allow floppy copy and access to all drives and folders)
(Enable). , ,
SETAllPaths-true

246

11.

; .


Microsoft Windows XP
(System Restore), . Windows
, - .
, , Windows , (restore
point), (System Restore).
System Restore Windows Windows , . -

Windows XP, , Windows , . , (, , , ),
Windows.
(System Restore), : (Start All Programs Accessories System Tools
System Restore). . 1 1.3.
. (Create a restore point) (Next). (Restore point description)
(Create). Windows
.
(Close), .

(Restore my computer to an earlier time) (Next).
,
(. 11.4).

. 11.3. System Restore

. 11.4. Windows XP

247

248

11.

. , , .
.
,
. , (Next). .
(Next), .
, .
Windows .
,
, , , , .
, , : Windows XP .

Windows XP.


Microsoft Windows XP, , .
- (, , -,
, ZIP, DVD, ), (Start All Programs Accessories System Tools Backup). (Backup and Restore Wizard).
(Next).
,
(Back up files and settings), (Restore files and settings). (Next).
,
. :

249

(My Documents and settings) (My Documents) (Favorites) , cookies;



(Everyone's Documents and settings)
(My Documents) (Favorites),
cookies Windows XP;
( information on this computer) , , ,
Windows ;
(Let me choose want
to backup) , .
(Let
me choose want to backup) ,

(. 11.5).

. 11.5. ,

, (,
), . , , (Next).
,
.

250

11.


, (Browse)
, . ( ? name for this backup) (Next).
(Finish)
, . , , .

(Restore files and settings) (Next).

. ,
, .
(Next), (Finish). .


IK Xmodem Xmodem, 1 (1024 ).
100BaseT Ethernet,
100 /.
10Base2 . 10Base2 .
lOBaseT . 10Base2,
lOBaseT , , .
Active Desktop Windows XP, -.
Active Directory Windows XP,
- , ,
.
ARC- , . :
Multi/scsi(x)disk(a)rdisk(b)partition(c)\<windows_directory>,

multi/scsi ,
, () . SCSI- , SCSI-BIOS, scsi,
(IDE, EIDE, ESDI, SCSI-BIOS) multi. ,
ARC . disc(a) SCSI- (SCSI-ID, LUN),
; IDE- () .
rdisk(b) SCSI ,

252

!.

, SCSI- () . partition(c)
, Windows, (primary
partition) = 1, (extended partition)
= 2, . . , windows _directory ,
Windows.
BIOS, Basic Input-Output System ( -) - () ,
,
.
Boot Logging Windows XP. Windows
bootlog.txt, .
Boot Record ( ) , - . (
Partition Table (. ).
,
(Root Directory), ( Windows 9x, MS-DOS io.sys msdos.sys),
. Boot Record :
( , , , Boot
Record FAT (. FAT, File Allocation Table)),
, FAT,
FAT, ,
Root Directory, 11 .
.
BPS, bit per secund , .
Briefcase () Windows XP,
. Windows ,
.
Calculator () - , , .
CMD Windows XP.

253

Coax at a home , .
Command Prompt MS-DOS.
Compatibility Mode ( ) - ,
, Windows, , Windows XP.
Confirmation ID ,
Microsoft ,
(. Microsoft Product Activation (MPA)).
Control Panel . Windows XP.
Controlled Network Access , .
Cookies ,
. , , cookie, , .
,
,
. .
CSLIP , SLIP, IP-.
CSS, Cascade Style Sheets ( ) , -.
Debugging Mode Windows XP
.
Desktop . .
Device Manager ( ) - ,
.
Dial-up Access
.
Disk Cleanup Windows XP.
DMA, Direct Memory Access ( )
- .

, ,
.

254

1.

DNS, Domain Name System ( ) (. ).


DNS- ,
IP- URL.
Driver Rollback ( ) ,
(. ). , - .
DSL
.
Dynamic Setup ( ) Windows XP, , .
E-mail, Electronic Mail ( ) .
Extended DOS Partition FAT,
(. ).
Fast User Switching ( ) , Windows
(. ).
FAT, File Allocation Table ( ) (. ), . FAT ( , . .), (FAT16,
FAT32) .
: , , ().
: , . (Root Directory) , ,

. FAT ,
,
, FAT .
Fdisk MS-DOS (. MS-DOS), .
File . .
File extension . .

255

Flat-rate - . ,
.
Flash, Macromedia Flash , Macromedia
1996 . ,
, .
Folder . .
FTP, File Transfer Protocol ,
.
FTP- ,
FTP (. FTP).
GIF, Graphic Interchange Format , (LZW), .
HAL, Hardware Abstraction Layer ( ) Windows XP,
.
HTML, Hyper Text Markup Language ( ) ,
.
HTML- , HTML.
HTTP, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol , .
Hub . .
Hyper Terminal Windows XP, - , Telnet Windows.
ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol ,

.
Image Viewer , Windows XP.
.
Indexing Service Search Companion,
(. ).
Installation ID ,
Windows. .

256

1.

Internet Connection Firewall


. ,
, .
ICS, Internet Connection Sharing ( ) ,
,
.
IP, Internet Protocol ( IP) ,
, .
IP- , , , , .
IRQ ( ) . .
ISO-8859-5 (. ), (ISO, International Standards Organization).
Java ,
. Java
, .class,
-. , .
HTML- i
, ,
.
JavaScript ,
HTML, , . , JavaScript, HTML HTML- .
JPEG, Joint Photographic Experts Group - ,
, .
Kermit , Ymodem (. Ymodem),
, Zmodem, . , .
KOI8 ( ) (.
), 19 768-74.
Language Bar ,
(. ).
LAB - , (), .

257

LAN ( ) , , .
Linux UNIX.
Log File . .
LZW , . 1978 . (J a c b Ziv)
(Abraham Lempel),
(Terry Welch).
Macintosh CP (MAC) (. ),
Apple Macintosh,
MacOS.
MBR, Master Boot Record , ( 0, 0, 1),
. (Partition Table), , ,
. , MBR,
.
Media Library Windows Media Player.
- ,
, .
MFT, Master File Table FAT (. FAT,
File Allocation Table) NTFS (. NTFS).
Microsoft/IBM code page 866 ,
MS-DOS OS/2 ,
, DOS, Microsoft, . , ,
,
, MS-DOS.
Microsoft Code name Whistler - Microsoft Windows .
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 -,
Windows (. -).
Microsoft Magnifier ( )
Windows . , .
Microsoft Narrator Windows . , , , - (
).
9 . 369

258

1.

Microsoft Notepad () , Microsoft Windows,


.txt.
Microsoft Outlook Express 6.0 Windows XP.
, Microsoft Product Activation , Microsoft.
Microsoft WordPad Windows XP,
, , .
Microsoft.NET , Windows XP.
.
Microsoft Plus! Microsoft Windows XP.
MS-DOS, Microsoft Disk Operation System , , .
MSN Explorer -, Windows XP
(. -).
NetCrawler , , ,
My Network Places , 48 .
NAT, Network Address Translator , .
NNTP .
Notification Area ( ) ,
.
NT Loader , Windows XP. , NT Loader Windows XP boot.ini, ,
.
.
NTFS , , , , Windows NT.

259

P-CHS . 65 535 16 , 136 .


Paint Microsoft
Windows XP.
Partition Table . .
PIF- , DOS.
, .
Playlists . .
Plug In . .
P n P , Plug & Play .
- Plug & Play, Microsoft Windows.
PNG, Portable Network Graphics , 90- ,
(Thomas Bowtell), .
, .
PID, Process ID , Windows XP , .
,
SLIP (. SLIP; ).
Product Key ,
, ,
. (. , Microsoft
Product Activation).
Primary DOS Partition FAT, .
Print Manager ( ) ,
Windows XP, .
Quick Launch . .
Recovery Console ( ) Windows XP, .
Recycle Bin () ,
.
Remote Assistance ( ) Windows XP,
, .

260

1.

Remote Desktop , Windows XP Professional


Edition, , , ,
Microsoft Windows, , .
Restore Point . .
RGB ,
, .
Root Directory .
. Root Directory
() FAT. Root Directory
32- , , , , (,
, ), , , . .
, , , Root Directory.
RSACi , -
.
Safe Mode ( ) Windows XP,
.
Windows
. ,
Windows , VGA, .
Safe Mode with Networking ( )
Windows XP,

,
.
Safe Mode with Command Prompt
Windows XP. Windows
, MS-DOS, DOS
. ,
DOS, DOS, , - .
Screen refresh rate ( )
, ,

261

. , , , .
Screen saver . .
Search Companion ( )
Windows XP, .
Shell () , .
Site () , , ,
. , , , , .
Skins ( ) , .
SLIP , .
TCP/IP (. ).
SSH, Secure Shell
Telnet, .
SMTP , .
Software Restriction Policies , .

.
System Tray . Notification Area.
Taskbar . .
TCP, TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol , , IP.
Telnet , .
Themes () ,
, .
Thumbnails ( )
(. Windows Explorer),
, .
Toolbars ( )
, (Start).

262

1.

UDP, User Datagram Protocol ,


(. ).
UNIX .
UFT-8, Unicode , Microsoft Windows XP (. ).
, Unicode
, ,
65 536 256.
, , , ,
, .
Universal Plug & Play , Windows , , ,
, .
URL, Uniform Resource Locator
.
VPN, Virtual Private Network ( ) ,
, .
Web , , .
WebDAV, Web Digital Authoring&Versioning ,
HTTP, Windows XP
, .
Webview , Windows -.
Windows 1251 , Microsoft
Microsoft Windows.
Windows Explorer () Windows XP
(. ).
Windows Media Player Windows XP, -.
Windows Messenger Windows XP, .
Windows Movie Maker Windows XP, .
Windows Restore , .

263

WinZIP Microsoft Windows XP - (. ).


WWW World Wide Web, .
XML, Extensible Markup Language , , HTML,
.
Xmodem . 128 .
, . . -
, .
Ymodem . ,
, Xmodem,
. ,
, .
Ymodem-G Ymodem .
Zmodem ,
512 , . , ,
, .
, .
Zmodem with crush recovery Zmodem,
.
, , , ,
, ,
.
.
, - SNMP. -
. , -.
Windows XP,
, , Encrypted File System (EFS).

264

1.

, .
, . Microsoft Windows XP Professional Edition
, , ,

. Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
, - ,
. Windows XP , .
Windows XP,

, Outlook Express.
. , Microsoft Product Activation.
,
, () . Windows .
, ,
. , , ,
ZIP, RAR, ARJ, LH.
Windows XP - , . , , .doc, Microsoft Word
. ,
Windows XP winword.exe.
(. ), .
Microsoft Windows XP :
( );

265

(
; , );
( Windows
, , ).
.
, 8 . , , . .
( ) , .dll,
, . , -
.
, ,
: 1 0 (true) (false) . 8 1 .
, ,
.

.
, , .
. Internet Connection Firewall.
- , , . , Windows XP
, , ,
.
- , - .
- Microsoft Internet Explorer,
, (, -, , ),
, ,
- .
- , ,
- . - ,
,

266

1.

Microsoft Windows XP. - ,


Microsoft FrontPage, , WebDAV.
, .
, - , .
, Windows Media .
,
.
, . ,
2 , 256 ,
.
Windows
,
. - ,
( Windows XP), , .
, , .
, 1024 ,
1 .
HTML, -
-
.
, (Start) Windows. .
, .
Windows XP ,
.
,
, .

267

.
(. ).
, , .
, : :,
D:, : ..
( )
DOS (Extended DOS Partition),
, D: :. ,
40 , 20
, 20 ; 10 .
: : 20 ( ), D:
10 , , : 10 (
).
(. ) , MS-DOS (. MSDOS), .
Windows -, .
, , , , . .
,
, .
1 86 Pentium.
, Windows .
,
, .
,
,
.
-
.
, Windows XP
.

268

!.

Windows - , - ,
.
, -
. ,
, Windows, ;
. ,
, Microsoft Windows - ,
, , .
,
.
- , , ,
, .
, .
(. ) Windows XP. 20 ; , "* + , / : ; < = > ! [ ] |.
(.
), . Microsoft Windows XP ,
.
, . , 255 .
: \ / : * ? " < | > [ ] { } .
, , , , , , , , , ! @ # $ % & ~.
Windows ,
. (
, ,
).
, Windows .

.
, - . . -

269


.
,
(. ).
.
,
, ,
, .
, , . Wi ndows XP cmd.exe.
: .
- : , (. Skins).
, , , ,
.
, , , , .
, , Windows XP ,
, .
,
.
(. )
,
. ,
, . ,
.
-, - , , , . ,
, , ,
, .
, - ,
Windows Movie Maker.
,
- .

270

!.

, , .
- : ,
- -
.
,
.
,
HTML- , .
, , - .
, Microsoft Windows.
- .
- , ,
.
, lOBaseT.
, . , 1280x1024 ,

. 125 %, 25 %
, ,
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, -; , , .
-
(. -, ).
, . ,
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, -: , , . .
,
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271

,
.
Windows,
- . ,
, ,
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- : ; :
.
, - ,
. , :
.
,
-
. , .
,
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.
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.
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272

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273

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274

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275


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276

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277

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Ctrl+C

Ctrl+X

Ctrl+V

Ctrl+Z

Shift+Delete

Ctrl+A

A!t+Enter

Alt+F4

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Ctrl+F4

, -

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Alt+Esc

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Windows+D

282

2. Windows XP


Shift

Alt
Shift + Print
Screen

Shift


Num
Lock

, CapsLock,
NumLock ScrollLock


ACPI, , 13
ARC-, 34
ArpaNet, 217
CMD, , 152
Direct Memory Access channels, 205
Dynamic Data Exchange, 97

HAL, 13
hands-free- Windows XP, 19
Hive Keys, 61

I/O port addresses, 205


IMAPI, 96
Internet Connection Firewall, 98
Internet Connection Sharing, 98
Internet Packet Exchange, 221
Internet Protocol, 217
Interrupt Request, 205
IP-, 217
, 218
, 219

Process ID, 155


Recovery Console, 236
Registry Editor, 64
REG-, 91
Remote Assistance, 99
Remote Desktop, 99
Remote Procedures Call, 97-98
S
SENS, 95
Subkeys, 62
System information, 172
System Policy Editor, 64
System Restore, 246

T
TCP/IP, 222
Telephony API, 99
Transmission Control Protocol, 222

Universal Plug & Play, 98


UPS, 99

Values, 62

Keys, 61

Web-Based Enterprise Management 21


Windows Restore, 98

MFT, 17
Microsoft Installer, 96
Microsoft Management Console, 108
MMC, 108
MS Software Shadow Copy Provider, 99
MS-DOS, 126

NetBEUI, 224
NetBT, 96
Network Basic Input/Output System, 223

ODBC, 175


, 235, 246
, 100
, 117
16

Windows XP, 30
,
, 248

, 81
, 79

284

, 61, 63
, 48
, 223
, 78
, 248
, 237

, 239

, 45
, 45
, 221
, 178
, 113
, 116
, 111
, 164
, , 165
, , 203
, 206
, 207
, 205
, 206
, 204
, 207

, 175

, 177
, 176
, 177

, 79

, 200
Windows 9x/ME
Windows XP, 42
Windows XP
, 30
, 33
, 42
Linux, 40
MS-DOS, 41
, 168
, 108, 155
, 209
, 62


, 161
, 62
, 210
, 27
, 29
CMD, 152

, 18
, 217
, 16, 163
, 15
, 163
, 61
, 62
, 61
, 84
, 126

, 153

ASSOC, 133
AT, 134
ATTRIB, 134
BREAK, 135
CACLS, 135
CALL, 136
CD, CHDIR, 130
CHCP, 136
CHKDSK, 136
CHKNTFS, 137
CLS, 138
CMD, 138
COLOR, 138
CO MB, 139
COMPACT, 139
CONVERT, 140
COPY, 130
DATE, 140
DEL, ERASE, 133
DIR, 129
DISKCOMP, 140
DISKCOPY, 140
ECHO, 141
EXIT, 141
FC, 141
FIND, 141
FINDSTR, 142
FORMAT, 143
FTYPE, 144
GRAFTABL, 144
HELP, 144
LABEL, 145

{)
MKDIR, MD, 131
MORE, 145
MOVE, 131
PATH, 146
POPD, 146
PRINT, 146
PROMPT, 146
PUSHD, 146
RD, RMDIR, 132
RECOVER, 147
REM, 133
RENAME, REN, 132
REPLACE, 132
START, 147
SUBST, 149
TIME, 149
TITLE, 149
TREE, 149
TYPE, 150
VER, 150
VERIFY, 150
VOL, 150
XCOPY, 150
, 127
, 153
,239
, 64, 108
, 113

, 121

, 119
, 118
, 108
, 108
, 122
, 124
, 120
, 122
, 108
, 123
, 108

, 112
, 112
, 123
, 125
, 119

, 124
, 108
, 236
, 245
, 236

285

,111
, 205
, 215
, 111


, 155
, 181
, 182
, 183
, 182
, 213
10Base2, 214
lOBascT, 215
, 226
, 224
, 116

, 241
, 219

, 68
, 67
DWORD, 68
, 67
, 207
, 108
, 210
, 30
, 33

, , 166

, 114
, 228
, 33
, 79
, 228

, 79
, , 226
, , 168

, 208
, 155

, 217
, 108,
, 111
, 111

286

, 78
, 79
, 54

ODBC, 177
, 165

, 28
, 62
, 63, 211

, 234
, 233
, 62
, 219
, 219

IP, 195
, 197

, 194
, 192
, 80
, 50
, 71
, 78
, 162
, 155

, 61
, 79
, 167
, 108
, 77
, 169
, 64

, 71
, 66
, 71
, 70
, 73

, 72
, 69
, 69
, 73
, 64
Windows XP, 58
64- , 59

, 64
, 82

, 59
, 61
, 61
, 62
, 62
, 61

, 84
, 77
, 83
Windows, 31
, 248
, 54
, 58
, , 172
, 102
, 15

, 117
, 93


10Base2, 214
Ethernet lOBaseT, 215
, 234

, 230.
, 232
, 232
, 217
IP, 217
IPX, 221
, 228
, 93, 210
DHCP-, 95
DNS-, 95
MS Software Shadow
Copy Provider, 99
Net Meeting Remote Desktop
Sharing, 96
Plug & Play, 97
QoS RSVP, 98
Telnet, 99
Windows Audio, 94
Windows Installer, 96
, 100
WMI, 100

, 95
, 100
, 98

, 96
-, 100
, 98

()


, 97
, 95
, 99
, 98

, 97
DDE, 97

, 97

, 98
, 95

, 99

, 104
, 97

Windows, 100

, 99

, 99

, 96

, 98
NetBIOS
TCP/IP, 96
-, 98

, 102
, 94
, 94

, 98
, 94
, 105
, 98
, 94

NT LM, 97
, 96
WMI, 100
, 96
, 95
media, 100
, 97
, 97
+, 95
+, 95

287

()

-
IMAPI, 96
, 98
Windows, 100
, 98
, 94
SSDP, 98
, 95
DDE, 97
NLA, 97
, 96
, 94
IPSEC, 97
, 95
, 99
-, 98
, 96
, 97
, 99
, 99
, 99

, 98
, 98
, 97
-, 99
, 94

, 94
, 201
, 166
, 166

,167
, 166

, 170
, 170

, 199
, 93
, 202
, 44
, 221
ODBC, 179

IPX/SPX, 223
TCP/IP, 223
, 15
Windows XP, 61
, 175

, 199

288

-, 223
, 99
-, 214
, 246
, 246

NetBIOS, 223
SPX, 223
TCP, 222



, 53
, 48
, 54

, 55
, , 172
, , 170
, 170
, 177
, 13


, 180
, 160
, 160
, 160
, 160
, 160
, 161
, 161

()
, 158
, 159
, 53
, 54
, 16
FAT 16, 16
FAT 32, 15-16
NTFS, 15, 17
NTFS 5.0, 18
IP
, 196
, 196
X
, 215
, 218

, 111
,111
, 15
,111
, 108, 202
MS-DOS, 126
, 60
, 13