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6 CAPTIVE MEASUREMENTS

Before making the decision to measure hydrodynamic derivatives, a preliminary search of


the literature may turn up useful estimates. For example, test results for many hull-forms
have already been published, and the basic lifting surface models are not dicult. The
available computational approaches should be considered as well; these are very good for
predicting addedmass inparticular. Finally,modernsensors andcomputercontrolsystems
make possible theestimation ofcertain coecients based onopen-water tests ofamodelor
afull-scale design.
U
In model tests, the Froude number Fr =

gL
, which scales the inuence of surface waves,
must be maintained between model and full-scale surface vessels. Reynolds number Re =
UL
, which scales the eect of viscosity, need not be matched as long as the scale model

attains turbulent ow (supercritical Re). One can use turbulence stimulators near the bow
ifnecessary. Since thecontrolsurface(s) andpropeller(s) aectthe coecients, they should
bothbe implemented in model testing.
6.1 Towtank
In a towtank, tow the vehicle at dierent angles of attack, measuring sway force and yaw
moment. The slope of the curve at zero angle determines Y
v
and N
v
respectively; higher-
order terms can be generated if the points deviate from a straight line. Rudder derivatives
can be computed also by towing with various rudder angles.
6.2 Rotating Arm Device
On a rotating arm device, the vessel is xed on an arm of length R, rotating at constant
rater: the vessel forwardspeed is U =rR. The ideais tomeasure the crossbody force and
yawmomentasafunctionofr,givingthecoecientsY
r
andN
r
. Notethatthelateralforce
also contains the component (mY
v
)r
2
R. The coecients Y
v
and N
v
can also beobtained
byrunningwithaxedangleofattack. Finally,themeasurementismadeoveronerotation
only, so thatthe vessel does not re-enter its own wake.
6.3 Planar-Motion Mechanism
With a planar motion mechanism, the vessel is towed at constant forward speed U, but
is held by two posts, one forward and one aft, which can each impose independent sway
motions, therefore producing variable yaw. The model moves in pure sway if y
a
(t)=y
b
(t),
inapureyawmotionaboutthemid-lengthpointify
a
(t)=y
b
(t),orinacombinationsway
and yaw motion. The connection points are a distance l forward and aft from the vessel
origin.
Usually asinusoidal motion is imposed:
y
a
(t) = acost (95)
y
b
(t) = bcos(t+),

6.3 Planar-Motion Mechanism 31


and the transverse forces onthe posts are measured and approximated as
Y
a
(t) = F
a
cos(t+
a
) (96)
Y
b
(t) = F
b
cos(t+
b
).
If linearity holds, then
(mY
v
) vY
v
v+(mU Y
r
)r+(mx
G
Y
r
) r = Y
a
+Y
b
(97)
(I
zz
N
r
) r+(mx
G
U N
r
)r+(mx
G
N
v
) vN
v
v = (Y
b
Y
a
)l.
We have v=( y
a
+ y
a
)/2and r=( y
b
y
a
)/2l. When a=b, these become
a
v = (sint(1+cos)+costsin) (98)
2
a
2
v = (cost(1+cos)sintsin)
2
a
r = (sint(cos1)+costsin)
2l
a
2
r = (cost(cos1)sintsin).
2l
Equating the sine terms andthen the cosine terms, we obtain fourindependent equations:
a
2

(mY
v
) (1+cos) (99)
2
Y

2
sin+

a
(mU Y
r
)
2l
sin+
a
2

(mx
G
Y
r
) (cos1) = F
a
cos
a
+F
b
cos
b

2l
a
2

(mY
v
) (sin) (100)
2
Y

v
(1+cos)+
2

a
(mU Y
r
) (cos1)+
2l
a
2

(mx
G
Y
r
) (sin) = F
a
sin
a
F
b
sin
b

2l
a
2

(I
zz
N
r
) (cos1)+ (101)
2l

32 6 CAPTIVE MEASUREMENTS

a
(mx
G
U N
r
)
2l
sin+
a
2

(mx
G
N
v
) (1+cos)
2
N

v
sin = l(F
b
cos
b
F
a
cos
a
)
2
a
2

(I
zz
N
r
) (sin)+ (102)
2l

a

(mx
G
U N
r
) (cos1)+
2l
a
2

(mx
G
N
v
) (sin)
2
N

v
(1+cos) = l(F
b
sin
b
+F
a
sin
a
)
2
Inthissetoffourequations,weknowfromtheimposedmotionthevalues[U,,a,]. From
theexperiment,weobtain[F
a
,F
b
,
a
,
b
],andfromtherigid-bodymodelwehave[m,I
zz
,x
G
].
It turns out that the two cases of = 0 (pure sway motion) and = 180
o
(pure yaw
motion) yield a total of eight independent equations, exactly what is required to nd the
eightcoecients[Y
v
,Y
v
,Y
r
,Y
r
,N
v
,N
v
,N
r
,N
r
]. Remarkably,wecanwritetheeightsolutions
directly: For=0,
a
2

(mY
v
) (2) = F
a
cos
a
+F
b
cos
b
(103)
2

Y
v
(2) = F
a
sin
a
F
b
sin
b

2
a
2

(mx
G
N
v
) (2) = l(F
b
cos
b
F
a
cos
a
)
2

N
v
(2) = l(F
b
sin
b
+F
a
sin
a
),
2
tobe solved respectively for[Y
v
,Y
v
,N
v
,N
v
]. For=180
o
, we have
a
2

(mx
G
Y
r
) (2) = F
a
cos
a
+F
b
cos
b
(104)
2l

(mU Y
r
) (2) = F
a
sin
a
F
b
sin
b

2l
a
2

(I
zz
N
r
) (2) = l(F
b
cos
b
F
a
cos
a
)
2l

(mx
G
U N
r
) (2) = l(F
b
sin
b
+F
a
sin
a
),
2l
33
tobesolvedfor[Y
r
, Y
r
, N
r
, N
r
]. Thus,theeightlinearcoecientsforasurfacevesselmaneu-
vering, for a given speed, can be deduced from two tests with a planar motion mechanism.
We note that the nonlinear terms will play a signicant role if the motions are too large,
andthatsomecurvettingwillbeneededinanyevent. ThePMMcanbedrivenwithmore
complex trajectories which will targetspecic nonlinear terms.