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1

CHAPTER 1
MOTION
[A] Rectilinear and Angular Motion

Q. State three equations of motions in case of rectilinear motion.
Ans: The three equations of rectilinear motion are
1. V = u + at

2. S = ut +
1
2
at
2


3. V
2
= u
2
+ 2as

Where, u = Initial velocity
V = Final velocity
t = Time taken by a particle to change velocity from u to v
s = Distance covered in t second
a = Uniform acceleration

Q. State the equation of distance travelled by a particle (body) in n
th

second.
Ans: The equation of distance travelled by a body in n
th
second is

S
nth
= u +

2
(2n 1)

Where, u = Initial velocity
a = Uniform acceleration
S
nth
= Distance travelled in time n.
If the body freely falling under gravity then the equation of distance
travelled by the body in n
th
second will be


S
nth
= u +

2
(2 n 1)

2

Q. State the equations of motion for a body falling freely due to gravity
along with the meaning of each symbol.
Ans: The equations of motion when a body falling freely due to gravity is as
follows.
1. V = u + gt

2. S = ut +
1
2
gt
2


3. V
2
= u
2
+ 2gs

Where, u = Initial velocity
V = Final velocity
g = Gravitational acceleration
t = Time taken
s=Vertically downward distance covered by body.



Q. State the equations of motion when a body moves vertically upward
(against gravity)
Ans: The equations of motion when a body moves (through) vertically upward are
as follows
1. V = u gt
2. S = ut
1
2
gt
2

3. V
2
= u
2
2gs
Where, u = Initial velocity
V= Final velocity
g = Gravitational acceleration
t= Time taken
s= vertically upward distance coved by body



3


Q. Define following terms
1. Uniform velocity
2. Uniform acceleration
3. Uniform retardation

Ans: A) Uniform velocity
If a body covers equal displacement in equal interval of time, then it is said
to be in uniform velocity.
For e.g. A car moving with same speed (10 m/s) in the same direction.



B) Uniform acceleration
If the acceleration of a body is uniform in magnitude & direction with
respect to time then it is called as uniform acceleration.
For e.g. A ball falling down.



C) Uniform retardation
If the acceleration of a body is negative & uniform in magnitude &
direction with respect to time then it is called as uniform retardation.
For e.g. A ball moving up.

Q. Define following terms
1. Angular displacement
2. Angular velocity
3. Angular acceleration
Ans:
1. Angular displacement:
It is defined as the angle through which radius vector turns when the
particle in circular motion moves from one position to other.
It is denoted by . Its S.I. unit is radian (rad).
Unit: m/s or cm/s
Unit: m/s
2
or cm/s
2


4


2. Angular velocity:
The rate of change of angular displacement with respect to time is called
as angular velocity of a particle.
It is denoted by
= /t

Its S.I. Unit is red/sec.

3. Angular acceleration
The rate of change of angular velocity with respect to time is called as
angular acceleration of a particle.
It is denoted by
Its S.I. Unit is red/s
2
= /t



Q. State the relation between linear velocity & angular velocity.

Ans: The relation between linear velocity and angular velocity is given by.
V = r
Where V = Linear velocity
r = Radius
= Angular velocity


Q. Derive the relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.
Ans: Consider a particle particle performing (undergoing) uniform circular
motion. It moves from point A to point B in time T shown in figure.


5



We have,
Linear velocity =


V = s/t
Were, S = Linear displacement

= /t ( s = )

( = angular displacement)
= x /t (

= )

V =


Where, = Radius of circle
= Angular velocity

Thus, linear velocity is radius times the angular velocity.


Q. State the three equations of angular motion along with meaning of each
symbol.
Ans: The three equations of angular motion are as follows
1.
I
=
I
+ t
2. =
I
t +
1
2
t
2

3.
F
2
=
I
2
+ 2

6

Where, = Angular displacement, = angular acceleration

I
= Initial angular velocity

F
= Final angular velocity
t = Time taken by a particle to change velocity from

I
to
F

Q. State the equation of angular distance travelled by a body in n
th
second.
Ans: The equation for angular distance travelled by a particle in n
th
second is
given by,

nth
=
1
+

2
(2n 1)
Where,

nth
= Angular distance travelled by a particle body in n
th
second

1

= Initial angular velocity
= Constant angular acceleration


















7

[B] KINETICS


Q. Define following terms
1. Momentum
2. Impulse
3. Impulsive force
Ans:
1. Momentum:
Momentum of a body is the amount of motion that a body or a particle
has. OR
It is defined as the amount (quantity) of motion possessed by moving
body.
Mathematically, momentum is the product of mass & velocity. It is
represented by
Momentum = Mass x Velocity

P = mxv

Its S.I.unit is N sec or Kgm/s
It is vector quantity
2. Impulse:
It is defined as the change in momentum
Impulse = change in momentum

Impulse = mv- mu

Wher, m= Mass of a body
u= Initial velocity
v= Final velocity
Its S.I.unit is kg m/s or N sec,
It is vector quantity.

8

3. Impulsive force:
Impulsive force is defined as the force which acts over short time;
producing rapid change in the motion of a body.
Mathematically, impulsive force is the rate of change of impulse with
respect to time.
Impulsive force =


=
()

=
()


Its S.I.unit is N


Q. State Newtons First law of motion OR State law of inertia
Ans: Statement: It states that every body continues in its state of rest or of
uniform motion in a straight line, unless, it is acted upon by some external
unbalanced force
This means in the absence of unbalanced force, every object has a tendency
to resist any change in its state of rest of motion.
This tendency is inertia so this law is also known as law of inertia.
Examples: 1. A car moving with uniform velocity continues its motion until
we apply breaks
2. A book kept on table, remains at rest until we apply force

Q. State and explain Newtons second law of motion.
Ans: Statement: It states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is
directly proportional to the applied force & takes place in the direction of
force.

Thus,

F


()

F or
()

= Constant x F

ma = F [

= a & assuming proportionality constant = 1]



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Where, F = Force
mv = Final momentum
mu = Initial momentum
t = Time
m = Mass
a = Acceleration
u = Initial velocity
v = Final velocity


Q. State Newtons third law of motion (Law of action reaction).

Ans: Statement: For every action there is equal and opposite reaction.
The means that for every force there is a reaction force that is equal in size
but opposite in direction.

Ex: Action: While swimming our body push the water backwards.
Reaction: The water pushes our body forward.
Action: When we hit the ball on wall
Reaction: It bounces back


Q. Explain recoil of a gun? OR What is recoil velocity of a gun & derive
the equation of recoil of gun.
Ans: If a bullet is fired from a gun then bullet moves (shoot) out with a large
velocity & at the same time gun moves back (jerk) with the little velocity.

This backward movement (jerk) is known as recoil of the gun and the
velocity with which the gun moves backward is called the recoil velocity of a
gun
1. Before firing
Let M
g
be the mass of the gun & M
b
that of the bullet


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2. After firing
Let V
g
be the velocity of the gun & V
b
that of the bullet.
But, according to law of conservation of momentum.

Initial momentum of Final momentum of
gun & bullet gun & bullet

But, initial momentum of the gun & bullet is equal to zero because they are
initially at rest.

Therefore,
Final momentum after firing = M
b
V
b
+ M
g
(- V
g
) = 0

The negative sign indicates that the gun move in the backward direction

M
b
V
b
M
g
V
g
= 0

M
b
V
b
= M
g
V
g

V
b
=
Mg Vg
Mb


This is the equation of recoil velocity.












11

[C] WORK, POWER &ENERGY


Q. Define Work, Power & Energy. Write their S.I. Unit.
Ans: Work:Work is defined as the product of force acting on the body & the
displacement produced.

Work = Force x Displacement
The S.I. Unit of work is Newton meter
M.K.S. unit is joule
C.G.S.unit is erg.


Power: Power is defined as the rate (capacity) of doing work
Power =




The S.I. Unit of power is watt

Energy: The energy of a body is defined as its capacity to do work
S.I. unit of work is joule or erg
All forms of energy are transferable
E.g. Light energy can be converted into electrical energy.


Q. Define potential energy & kinetic energy with equation.
Ans: Potential energy:The energy possessed by a body due to its position is
called as potential energy.
Potential energy = weight x height

P. E. = mgh

S. I. unit Nm or joule



12

Kinetic energy: The energy possessed by a body virtue of its motion is
called as kinetic energy.

K.E. =
1
2
mv
2

Where, m = Mass of body
v = Velocity

S.I. unit Nm or joule


Q. State & explain work energy principle.
Ans: Statement:It states that the work done by a system of force acting on a
body between any two points is equal to the change in kinetic energy of a
body between these same two points.

Consider a body of mass m
Let, F be the force on it
V
1
be the velocity at position P
1

V
2
be the velocity at position P
2

d. be the displacement of a body


K.E. at P
1
= 1/2 mv
1
2

K.E. at P
2
= 1/2 mv
2
2


Change in kinetic energy = 1/2 mv
2
2
1/2mv
1
2

= 1/2 m (v
2
2
v
2
1
)
Work done = Force X Displacement
= [F] x d
= (m x a) x d
Using equations of motion, it can be proved that
Work done = change in kinetic energy

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Q. Define following terms.
1. Projectile motion
2. Trajectory
3. Angle of projection
4. Time of flight
5. Range of projectile
6. Maximum height of projectile
Ans:
1. Projectile motion:Projectile motion of a body thrown (projected) in air at
angle [less than 90
0
] with the horizontal.
Ex: 1. Motion of football kicked in air. 2. Motion of cricket ball a batsman
hits a six
2. Trajectory:The path along which projectile moves is called as trajectory.

3. Angle of projection:It is defined as it is the angle made by the velocity of
projection with the horizontal at the original point O
Angle of projection
= tan
-1
(

)

Where = Angle of projection with horizontal at the origin
H = Maximum height of a projectile
R = Horizontal range of projectile

4. Time of flight: The time taken by the projectile to reach the ground from
the time it was projected is known as time of flight.
It is given by
T =


Where,T = Time of flight
u = Initial velocity
= Angle of projection, g = Acceleration due to gravity.

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5. Range of projectile:The total horizontal distance covered by a projectile
is called as a range (R).

R = (V
2
sin2) / g (If = 45
0
C sin2 = 1)
R = Range of a projectile
V = Velocity of projectile
= Angle of projection


6. Maximum Height of projectile: The maximum vertical distance covered
by a projectile from the ground level is called height of a projectile

R = (V
2
sin2) /2 g
R = Range of a projectile
V = Velocity of projectile
= Angle of projection
g = gravitational acceleration


















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[D] CIRCULAR MOTION & PROECTILE MOTION

Q. Define
1. Circular motion
2. Uniform circular motion
3. Centripetal (radial) acceleration
Ans:
1. Circular motion:Circular motion is defined as the motion of a particle
along the circumference of circle.
Ex: a) Moon revolving around the earth
b) Electron revolving around the nucleus of an atom.

2. Uniform circular motion:It is defined as a motion of particle along the
circumference of circle with constant speed.
Ex: a) Moon revolving around the earth
b) Electron revolving around the nucleus of an atom.

3. Centripetal (radial) acceleration:The acceleration in uniform circular
motion which is directed along the radius & towards the centered of a circle
is called as centripetal acceleration.

Q. Define Centripetal force.Give two examples
Ans: Centripetal force: It is defined as the force acting along the radius
towards the centre of the circular path which keeps the particle in uniform
circular motion.
Ex: Electron revolving around the nucleus - In this case the
electrostatic force of attraction between electron & proton plays the
role of centripetal force.

Moon revolving around the earth - The gravitational force of
attraction between earth and moon plays the important role

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Q. Define Centrifugal force. Give two examples. Write applications of
centrifugal force (circular motion)
Ans: Centrifugal force: It is defined as the force acting on a particle performing
uniform circular motion which is directed away from the centre and along
the radius of a circular path.
Ex: 1. Person sitting in merry go round or giant wheel, experiences outward
pull.
2. Motor cyclist driving in a artificial death well in a circus experiences
outward pull because of his high speed

Applications of Centrifugal Force:
1. Centrifugal force used in banking of roads to avoids skidding of speedy
vehicle along a curved road.
2. Centrifuged pump is used to transfer liquid; centrifugal force is used in
this process.
3. A cream separator is used in the dairy works on the principle of centri-
fugal force.
4. Centrifugal blower is used to blow air.
5. Centrifugal force can be used to generate artificial gravity for rotating
space stations
6. Centrifuges are used in science & industry to separate substances.

Q. Differentiate between Centripetal force & Centrifugal force.
Ans:
Centripetal force Centrifugal force
1 It is the force acting on a particle
in uniform circular motion which is
along the radius & towards the
centre of circular path
It is the force acting on particle
performing uniform circular motion
which is along the radius & away from
the circular path
2 This is a real force (has physical
existence)
This is an imaginary (pseuelo) force.
3 This force is acting towards the
centre
This force acting away from the centre


17


CHAPTER 2
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF MATERIALS

Q. Define ultrasonic waves & states its frequency range.
Ans: Definition:
The ultrasonics are the sound waves having frequency more than 20 kHz.
The frequency range of UV- waves is more than 20 kHz.

Q. State the range for infransonic, sonic & ultrasonic waves
Ans: Type of wave Range of frequency
1. Infrasonic Less than 20HZ
2. Sonic Between 20 HZ to 20 kHz
3. Ultrasonic More than 20 kHz

Q. State the properties of Ultrasonic waves. (Any Four)
Ans: Properties of Ultrasonic Waves:
1. Frequency of these sound waves is more than 20khz
2. Ultrasonic waves has shorten wavelength
3. Ultrasonic sound waves carry high amount of sound energy
4. The speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves increases with increase in
frequency
5. Ultrasonic waves show negligible diffraction
6. Ultrasonic waves travel over long distance without considerable loss
7. Ultrasonic waves undergo reflection and refraction at the separation of
two media
8. If ultrasonic waves are passed through a fluid, then temperature of the
fluid increases
9. Ultrasonic waves travel with constant speed through a homogeneous
material
10. Ultrasonic waves possess certain vibrations which are used as good
massage action in case of muscular pain

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Q. State engineering, scientific and medical applications of ultrasonic
waves.
Ans: Applications of ultrasonic waves:
a) Engineering Applications:
1. Ultrasonic waves are used for cleaning or washing of delicate parts of
machine like watches, electronic components etc.
2. Ultrasonic waves are used in Non Destructive Testing to detect flaw in
material without damaging.
3. Ultrasonic waves are used in drilling holes in the metal.
4. Ultrasonic waves are used in cutting metal parts in industry.

b) Scientific Applications:
1. Ultrasonic waves are used to determine the depth of sea.
2. Ultrasonic waves are used in sound navigation and ranging (SONAR.)
Because of high directionality, the ultrasonic waves are used to locate
obstacle and to determine their distance in sea.
3. Ultrasonic waves are used to produce some alloys like lead aluminum
which cannot be produced by conventional techniques.

c) Medical Applications:
Ultrasonic waves are used by doctors to monitor the development of
unborn babies, diagnosis of heart disease and other disorders in patient

Q. Explain the production of ultrasonic waves using piezoelectric method.
Ans: Principle: When the electric field is applied across the crystal its dimension
changes and when alternating PD is applied across crystal then the crystal
sets into elastic vibrations

Piezoelectric effect:
When mechanical pressure is applied; the opposite charges are developed on
the parallel faces of certain crystals like quartz, tourmaline, barium titanate
and Rochelle salt etc.

19

It results in generation of potential difference across their opposite faces.
This phenomenon is called as piezoelectric effect



Method:
1. A chip of piezoelectric crystal like quartz is placed between two plates as
shown in fig.

2. A suitable Hartely oscillator is connected across it.

3. The electric oscillations along the electric axis produce mechanical
vibrations along the mechanical axis.

4. Then the frequency of oscillator is increased.

5. At a particular frequency of oscillator the oscillator frequency becomes
equal to natural frequency of vibration of crystal. Then the crystal thrown
into resonance vibrations & ultrasound is given out (produced)

Q. What is meant by non destructive testing (NDT)?
Ans: Non destructive testing is the method of examining the materials for
internal as well as surface discontinuities without the destruction of
material.

20

Q. State the advantage of non destructive testing (NDT) methods.
Ans: Advantage of NDT:
1. Material can be used for its intended purpose after testing.
2. It is used for quality control tool, because material can be tested for all
possible parameters.
3. It is used for quality assurance tool; because after testing material one can
check its suitability at a particular place.
4. The testing of material is possible before its manufacturing.
5. The testing is possible after manufacturing.
6. The testing of material is possible during servicing of components
7. Hundred percent examination of material is possible.


Q. State the limitations (Disadvantages) of Non- destructive testing. (NDT)
Ans: Limitations of NDT:
1. Minimum two methods for complete examination of the material are
required. With only one method, testing for all parameters of materials is
not possible.
2. Trained and certified persons are authorised to conduct the test (level I,
II, and III) as per American Society for Non-destructive Testing (ASNT).
3. Cost of equipments is high and thus testing charges are more as
compared to destructive testing.
4. Qualitative testing is possible; however, quantitative testing is difficult.
5. NDT interpretations are relative. One should know the standard results
first.

Q. Name the popular NDT methods used in mechanical industry.
Ans:
1. Visual testing (optical testing) (VT)
2. Liquid penetrate testing (LPT)
3. Eddy current testing (ET)
4. Radiography testing(RT)

21

a. X-ray radiography
b. Fluoroscopy
c. Gamma ray radiography
5. Ultrasonic scanning and flaw detector method(UT)
6. Magnetic particle testing (MPT) 7. Thermography method

Q. Explain the criteria for selection of NDT method OR State any four
factors on which NDT method can be selected OR On which factors
selection of NDT method depends.
Ans: Following parameters are considered while selecting NDT methods
1. Codes or standard requirements
2. Specifications of the material to be tested, for example, nature of
material, its size & shape.
3. Types of disorders to be detected also depends on nature of disorders
4. Testing also depends on manufacturing process of material to be tested
5. It is also depending on the instruments available for testing
6. Total cost required to test the material


Q. Describe Liquid penetrate testing (LPT) with its
1. Principle
2. Experimental procedure.

Ans: Principle:It works on the principle of capillarity

Experimental procedure:
Following steps are involved in liquid penetrant test or inspection.
1. Surface penetration: Initially the surface of specimen is cleaned.
Because the presence of flakes, dirt, grease etc on the surface of work
pieace prevents penetrant to slip into the cracks. This give wrong
information


22

2. Application of dye penetrant: Suitable fluorescent dye is mixed in
penetrant so that its viscosity remains low. This dye penetrant is applied
evenly on specimen. Due to capillary action the penetrant goes into the
surface open discontinuities. It takes some time. In general case this
dwell time is 20-30 minutes.


3. Removal of excess penetrant: After dwell time is over, the excess
penetrant is removed from the surface carefully.

4. Application of developer: A thin layer of developer is applied over the
surface. The role of developer is to pull the trapped penetrant out of the
crack this provides good visibility of crack.

5. Inspection and evaluation of defect: Surface of the specimen is seen
under white light or ultraviolet or laser light. The crack can be visualized
under light.

23

6. Post cleaning: After inspection the surface of the specimen is cleaned &
the specimen can be used for its intended purpose.

Q. Write advantages and disadvantages of LPT.
Ans: Advantages of LPT:
1. Cheaper method
2. No power required
3. All types of material can be examined
4. It is independent on size and shape
5. Method is suitable for wide and varied application.

Disadvantages of LPT:
1. It is used only for porous materials
2. It is used only for detecting surface defects
3. Its running cost is more
4. It is slow process

Q. State applications of LPT in industry.
Ans: Applications of L.P.T.:
1. Rotor discs and blades are checked by LPT
2. Aluminum casting and forgings, Pistons and cylinder heads in
automotive industry are checked by LPT.
3. Moulded plastic parts can be checked.
4. Bogie frames of railway locomotives can be checked.
5. Electrical ceramic parts can be checked.





24

Q. State the principle, procedure of ultrasonic testing.
Ans: Principle: When ultrasonics waves are introduced into a material, it gets
reflected, transmitted, scattered from surface or flaw
Procedure:
1. At first, the ultrasonic equipment is calibrated before testing the specimen
by using the standard blocks as per recommendation.
2. Then the ultrasonic signals are generated from the transducer.
3. These generated ultrasonic signals can pass through specimen
4. Then the reflected signals from the crack flow are received and amplified
5. Then the amplified signal is applied to the cathode ray tube ( CRT )
6. CRT displays the details of specimen (material) i.e. the material is OK or
defective

Q. Name different types of ultrasonic testing methods
Ans: Types of ultrasonic testing
1. Transmission ultrasonic testing method
2. Pulse echo UT method

Q. State advantages of ultrasonic testing.

Ans: 1. It has high sensitivity and reliability
2. It can be used for testing all types of material
3. The equipment is portable and harmless
4. The result are instantaneous




25

Q. State the application of ultrasonic testing.(Any four)
Ans: Application of UT:
1. This method is used to detect flaws in all metals, rubber, tyres, concrete,
wood, composite, plastic.
2. It is used to test casting, forging, welding, rolling, and heat treatment.
3. It is used to detect crack (flaws) in Air craft.
4. It is used in tunnel inspection.
5. It is used in bridge inspection
6. It is used to detect surface discontinuities.
7. It is used in monitoring of thermal and atomic power plant
8. It is used to determine thickness.
Q. If the crack is on the surface of job or near the surface which of the
following method is used. Why? UT, LPT, NDT
Ans: If the crack is on the surface of job or near the surface, then LPT method is
useful because.
1. It is cheaper method
2. No power required;
3. By using this method all types of material can be examined

Q. What is role of developer in LP testing?
Ans: The role of developer is to pull the trapped penetrant out of the crack; this
provides good visibility of crack







26

CHAPTER 3
THERMOCOUPLE


Q. Define E.M.F. (electromotive force). State its S. I. Unit.
Ans: EMF: EMF of a cell is defined as the energy required to circulate a
charge of 1 cm through a circuit.

EMF =


=



E =

Where, W = Work done


S.I.Unit of EMF is volts

Q. Define thermoelectricity.
Ans: The electricity obtained by conversion of heat energy into electrical energy
is called as thermoelectricity & the phenomenon is called thermoelectric
effect & the emf developed is called as thermo e.m.f.

Q. What is thermocouple?
Ans: Thermocouple:
Two different metal wires from thermoelectric series are joined together so
that two junctions are formed such an arrangement is called as
thermocouple.

Q. State Seebecks effect.
Ans: Statement: When two dissimilar metals are joined together, so that two
junctions are formed & if one junction is heated & other is cooled them
electric current flows through it. I.e. emf is generated.
This effect is known as Seebeck effect.

Heat (thermal) energy

> electrical energy



27

Q. State Peltier effect.
Ans: Statement:
When electric current flows through a junction of two different metals from
thermoelectric series, heat is generated or absorbed at the junction
depending on the direction of current.
This is known as Peltier effect



Q. State & explain joules law. Give its equation.
Ans: Statement:
It states that the amount of heat generated (H) due to the flow of electric
current through a resistance is directly proportional to
1. Squae of the current (I
2
)
2. The resistance (R)
3. The time for which current flows(t)

Hence, H I
2
Rt
H = Constant x I
2
Rt
H = (

) I
2
Rt
Where, J = Joules constant
(Mechanical equivalent of heat)
= 4200J/Kcal
= 4.2 J/cal
Also, J =



J = I
2
Rt/H Put IR = V By ohms law

J = VIt/H Put I = V/R

J = V
2
t/RH



28

Q. Define Neutral temperature & Inversion temperature.
Ans: Neutral temperature: In thermocouple, The temperature at which the emf
is maximum is called as neutral temperature.

Inversion temperature: In thermocouple The temperature at which the
emf becomes zero & changes its sign (become negative) is called as
inversion temperature.

Q. Define thermoemf (thermoelectric current). State the factors on which
thermo emf are dependent.
Ans: When one junction of thermocouple is heated & other is cooled i.e.
temperature difference between two junctions is created; then the emf is
developed in the circuit called as thermoemf.
The thermoemf depends upon
1. The temperature difference between the two junctions
2. Pairs of metals used in thermocouple

Q. How will you use thermocouple to measure high temperature OR
What is thermo couple? Explain how it is used to measure thermoemf.
Ans: Thermocouple: Two different metal wires from thermoelectric series are
joined together so that two junctions are formed. Such an arrangement is
called thermocouple.
1. Thermocouples are used as a thermometer to measure the temperature
from 0
0
C to neutral temperature.
2. Thermo emf produced is measured using potentiometer.
3. Connections are made as shown in circuit diagram.

Part 1: In 1
st
part only battery cell of known emf E is taken in circuit and
balancing length L is determined
Potential gradient P.G. = E/L
Then potential gradient (P.G.) is recorded.

29



Part 2: Now thermocouple is taken in the circuit. For different temperatures
t
1
, t
2
, t
3
(of hot junction), different balancing length L
1
, L
2
, L
3
are recorded.
Then using formulae, E
1
= P.G. x L
1
E
2
= P.G. x L
2

E
3
= P.G. x L
3

Different emfs at different temperatures are recorded and the graph is
plotted.



30

Q. Give the Seebeck thermoelectric series. What is the relation between
pairs of metals & thermoemf OR How can you increase thermoemf
using different metals? Give one example.
Ans: Seebeck performed number of experiments with couples consisting of
various metals and arranged them in a series such that when any pair of
metals is used, the current always flows from the higher member(i.e. near to
antimony end) to the lower member (i.e. near bismuth end) of the series,
through the cold junction of the thermocouple.
Seebeck also observed that if the metals are more apart in thermocouple
series, then the emf is maximum and if the metals are closer in series, then
the emf is minimum. The following is the thermoelectric series.

If the metals used in thermocouple are more apart in the thermocouple series,
then the thermo emf (thermoelectric current) obtained is more.

E.g. if Sb - Bi thermocouple is used, then it gives maximum emf for given
temperature difference.

If metals used are closer in series, then the emf is less and current is also less
for given temperature difference.



31

Q. Differentiate between Seebeck effect, Peltier effete & Joules effect.
Ans:
Seebeck effect Peltier effect
(Thermoelectric effect)
Joules effect
(Heating effect)
1 When two dissimilar
metals are joined
together so that two
junctions are formed
(thermocouple) and if
one junction is heated
and other is cooled
then electric current
flows through it.
When electric current
flows through a junction
of two metals of
thermocouple, then heat
is generated at one end
and heat is absorbed at
the other end.
When electric
current flows
through conductor,
then it gets heated
2 Emf is developed
across the two
junctions
One junction gets heated
and other gets cooled.
(only) heat is
produced
throughout the
conductor
3 Emf generated is small
in mV.
Heat generated or
absorbed is small
Heat generated is
large
4 This effect is
reversible.
This effect is reversible. This effect is
irreversible.
5 Amount of emf
generated depends
upon pair of metals and
temperature difference.
Amount of heat generated
depends on pair of metals
and current through it.
Amount of heat
generated depends
upon value of
resistance, current,
time.
6 E.g. thermocouple E.g. thermocouple E.g. electric
heater, electric
iron.






32

CHAPTER 4
MODERN PHYSICS
[A] PHOTO-ELECTRICITY

Q. Define Photoelectric effect.
Ans: When light of suitable frequency is incident on metal surface, electrons are
emitted from it. This effect is called as photoelectric effect.

Q. State Plancks hypothesis.
Ans: According to Plancks hypothesis, Emission and absorption of energy can
occur only in discrete amounts of bundles. Planck called this discrete
amount or bundle of energy as quanta or photon. The energy of each photon
is E=hv. So for emitted or absorbed energy,
E = nhv
Where, h is Plancks constant, has a value of 6.626 x 10
-34
J s
v is the frequency,
n is an integer = 1, 2, 3, ----

Q. What is photon? State the properties of photon
Ans: Photon: It is small pocket or bundle of energy.
The properties of Photon are as follows
1. It is a mass less particle
2. It is electrically neutral
3. It moves with speed of light

33

Q. Define a) Stopping Potential b) Photoelectric Work Function c)
Threshold frequency d) Threshold Wavelength.
Ans: a) Stopping Potential: It is reverse or negative potential which reduces
the photoelectric current to zero. It is denoted by V
s
.

b) Photoelectric Work Function: It is the energy required to detach the
electron from the metal.
It is given by w
0
= hv
0

c) Threshold frequency: It is the minimum frequency of incident light at
which emission just begins.
It is given by v
0
= c/ v
0

d) Threshold wavelength: It is the maximum wavelength of incident light
at which emission just begins
It is given by
0
=



Q. State the properties (Characteristics) of Photoelectric effect.
Ans: Following are the characteristics of photoelectric effect
1. A metal emits electrons only when the incident (light) radiation has
frequency greater than critical frequency (v
0
)
2. A photoelectric current is directly proportional to the intensity of light
and independent of frequency

34

3. The velocity of photoelectron is directly proportional to the frequency of
light and independent of intensify.
4. For a given metal surface, stopping potential is directly proportional to
the frequency
5. This process is instantaneous. i.e. the emission of photoelectrons starts at
the moment light is incident on the metal surface.
Q. Derive Einsteins photoelectric equation.
Ans: 1. According to Plancks Hypothesis, Energy is radiated and also travels in
the form of bundles or quanta known as photons
2. Each photon carries an energy h v
3. When a photon of incident light radiation interacts with an electron inside
an atom, the whole amount of energy is absorbed by the electron.
4. The electron uses part of the incident energy, to make the electron free
from the metal (work function) and the rest part of the energy is converted
into kinetic energy
Thus, hv =
0
+
1
2
mv
2
max

hv = hv
0
+
1
2
mv
2
max


1
2
mv
2
max
= hv hv
0


1
2
mv
2
max
= h (v v
0
)
Where,
1
2
mv
2
max
is the maximum kinetic energy of electrons,
h is Plancks constant,
v is the frequency of incident light,
v
0
is the threshold frequency

35

Q. State the Einsteins Photoelectric Equation and explains the significance
of each term involved in it.
Ans: The Einsteins Photoelectric Equation is given by

1
2
mv
2
max
= h (v v
0
)
Where,
1
2
mv
2
max
is the maximum kinetic energy of electrons,
h is Plancks constant,
v is the frequency of incident light,
v
0
is the threshold frequency

Q. Why electrons are not emitted from the surface of metal plate, if
frequency of incident radiation is less than threshold frequency (v
0
)
Ans: 1. According to Einsteins Photoelectric Equation

1
2
m v
2

max
= h(v-v
0
)
2. If v < v
0
, then,
1
2
mv
2
max
becomes negative
3. But for the emission of photoelectrons the kinetic energy must be positive
4. Thus, due to negative value of kinetic energy the photoelectrons are not
emitted from the surface of metal plate

Q. Define Photoelectric cell.
Ans: A Photocell is an electronic device in which light energy gets converted
into an electrical energy. It is used to produce a current or voltage when
exposed to light or other electromagnetic radiation.

36

Q. Explain the construction and working of photoelectric cell.
Ans: Principle:The working principle of photoelectric cell is photoelectric
effect. It is an electronic device which converts light energy into an
electrical energy.


Construction:
1. A photocell is an evacuated tube consisting of two electrodes i.e. cathode
and anode
2. Cathode is concave in shape called an emitter, made from a material that
emits electrons easily. Whereas, anode is in the form of thin rod as shown
in the fig
3. Cathode is connected to negative terminal of battery. An ammeter is
connected in the circuit to measure the current flowing through the
photoelectric cell

Working:
1. When light is allowed to fall on cathode it emits photoelectrons.
2. The photoelectrons are attaracted by anode

37

3. The photoelectric current starts flowing through the circuit and the
milliammeter shows the deflection.

Q. Draw the diagram of Photoelectric cell.



Q. State the applications of photoelectric cell.(Any four)
Ans: The applications of photoelectric cell are
1. It is used in Burglar alarm
2. It is used in fire alarm
3. It is used in Lux meter to determine the intensity of light
4. It is used in Exposure mete
5. It is used in automatic control of traffic signal
6. It is used in automatic counting objects
7. It is used in automatic shutting and opening doors
8. It is used in reproducing sound in motion pictures
9. It is used in detecting flaws in metals
10. It is used in television sets

38

Q. State the principle of light dependent resistor (LDR) or photo resistor.
Ans: Principle: The electrical resistance of LDR decreases as the intensity of
incident light increases.
When light is allowed to fall on this LDR (semiconductor), a photon is
absorbed by the material and electrons from valence banded get excited and
jump into the conduction band and hence conductivity of the material
increases or resistivity of the material decreases.

Q. State the applications of LDR.
Ans: Application of LDR:
1. It is used for detecting ships and air crafts by the radiations given out.
2. It is used as flame, smoke and burglar detectors.
3. It is used as a automatic lighting controls for street light.
4. It is used in Camera for exposure control.
5. It is used in Xerox machine- to controls the density of toner.
Q. Draw the symbol of LDR.
Ans:




39

[B] X-RAYS

Q. What are X-rays?
Ans: X ray is electromagnetic radiations of short wavelength ranging from 0.01
A
0
to 100A
0
.
1 A.U.= 1 Angstron unit = 10
-10
metre.

Q. State the properties of X-rays.(Any four)
Ans: Properties of X-rays:
1. X ray are the electromagnetic radiations of very short wavelength
2. X rays travels with speed of light
3. X rays are electrically neutral
4. X rays can ionises gas
5. X rays can damage or kill living cells
6. X rays are invisible
7. X rays can affect photographic plate
8. X rays are not deflected by electric or magnetic field

Q. State the formula for minimum wavelength of X-rays also state the
meaning of symbols used in it

= /. Where, = minimum wavelength of x rays
h= planks constant, V= applied voltage
C = velocity of light, e =charge of electron


40

Q. Explain the production of X-rays using Coolidge (Modern) X-ray tube.
Ans: X ray is produced whenever fast moving electrons strike a high atomic
weight solid (tungsten) in vacuum.
1. The Coolidge X-ray tube is shown in figure
2. It consists of a highly evacuated hard glass tube containing cathode (K)
and the target (T) attached to anode (A).


Working: 1.When the cathode is heated by electric current it produces
electrons due to thermionic emission.
2. The beam of electron is then focussed on the anode (Target).
3. The electrons from cathode are then accelerated by applying high voltage
between cathode and anode using step up transformer.
4. When these fast moving electrons are suddenely stopped by tungesten
anode, they loses their kinetic energy and X rays are produced from the
target.
5. Some amount of kinetic energy is converted to large amount of heat.


41

Q. State the applications of X-rays.

Ans: Applications of X-rays:
A) Industrial [Engineering] applications
1. X rays are used to detect defects within metals, machine parts, and
castings etc.
2. X rays are used to detect manufacturing defect in rubber tyres or tennis
ball in quality control.
3. X rays are used to detect cracks in the wall
4. X rays are used to detect the cracks in the body of aeroplane or motor car
5. X rays are use to distinguish real diamond from duplicate one
6. X rays are used to detect smuggling gold at airport and ship yard

B) Scientific Research applications:
1. X rays are used to investigate the structure of the atom.
2. X rays are used for analyzing the structure of complex organic molecules.
3. X rays are used in determining the atomic number and identification of
various chemical elements.

C) Medical Applications:
1. X rays are used in detecting fractures in bones
2. X rays are used to cure skin diseases and destroy tumors.
3. X rays are used to detect bullet position inside the body.
4. X rays are used to cure diseases like cancer

42

[C] LASER
Q. State the full form of LASER.
Ans: The full form of Laser is Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation.
Q. State the four properties of LASER.
Ans: The properties of LASER are-
1. Laser source is tremendously Intense source of light.
2. Laser source is a Monochromatic source of light.
3. Laser source is a Coherent source of light.
4. Laser source is a highly Directional source of light.

Q. Differentiate between Stimulated and Spontaneous Emission of light.
Ans:
Stimulated emission Spontaneous emission
1 This process can be controlled from
outside
This process cannot be controlled from
outside
2 Multiplication of photons takes
place
Multiplication of photons does not take
place
3 All the emitted photons move in
same direction
All the emitted photons move randomly
4 It results in monochromatic light It results in non monochromatic light
5 The intensity of emitted light does
not decrease with distance from the
source
The intensity of emitted light decreases
with distance from the source
6 It results in highly intense light It results in low intense light


43

Q. What is Population inversion of light ?
Ans: The process of increasing the number of atoms in higher energy level, more
than that of ground state is called as population inversion of light

Q. What is optical pumping? Explain Optical pumping.
Ans: Optical pumping: The process of raising the atoms from lower energy state
to higher excited state using light medium is called as optical pumping.

Let E
1
, E
2
and E
3
are energy levels and N
1
, N
2
and N
3
are respective
concentrations of atoms. The atoms in level E
1
are excited to E
3
by optical
pumping. The concentration N
1
decreases. The time for which the atoms can
stay in level E
3
is very short. They lose some energy and return to energy
level E
2
. The transition from E
3
to E
2
is rapid and spontaneous. Since level
E
2
is metastable state, hence atoms relax here for longer time. The no. of
atoms in E
2
increases and when it is greater than level E
1
population
inversion takes places. i.e. N
2
>> N
1






44

Q. State any four applications of Lasers.
Ans: The applications of Lasers are as follows:
A) Industrial or Engineering use:

1. He Ne gas laser is commonalty used to read barcode.
2. High power lasers are used in cutting, drilling, welding
3. Lasers are used to find defect in material
4. It is used for marking, engraving of number plates .Ex. number plate,
name plate
5. Lasers are used in holography
6. Lasers are used in computer printers
7. Lasers are used for 3D,Laser scanners
8. Lasers are used in controlled heat treatment

B) Medical uses:

1. It is used to repair the detached retina of human eye.
2. They are used for surgery in medical field.
3. Dentists use LASER for painless drilling in tooth.
4. They are used for destroying cancer cells in human body.

C) Communication purpose uses:

1. It is used in fiber optical communication.
2. It can be used for communication between earth and moon due to
unidirectionality and brightness.
3. It is used to measure the distance between the earth and the satellite.