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XLVIII

- 2009

TRANSACTIONS OF THE STATE HERMITAGE


XLVIII


XLVIII

MATERIALS AND RESEARCHES

OF THE NUMISMATICS DEPARTMENT

To Commemorate Anna Markova


(18951975)

. .
(18951975)

St Petersburg
The State Hermitage Publishers
2009

-

2009

737(06)
63.2
78

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ISBN 978-5-93572-384-2
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Dieudonne A. Les monaitaires merovingiens.


Bibliotheque Ecole des Chartes. 1942. N 53. P. 50.
5
Grierson Ph., Blackburn M. Medieval European
Coinage. The Early Middle Ages (5th10th centuries). Cambridge University Press, 1986.
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6
Lafaurie J. Liaisons des coins de quelques
monnaies merovingiennes // Bulletin de la
Societ Franaise de Numismatique. 1969.
Juillet. P. 429432 ; Sulle A. Die Munzpragung
der Franken unter merowingischen Konigen.
BerlinTrier. 1929. S. 917.
7
Prou M. Catalogue des monnais franais de la
Bibliotheque nationale // Les monnaies merovingiennes. Paris, 1892. P. XLVIII.
8
Le Blanc F. Traite historique des monoyes de
France. Amsterdam, 1692. P. 331.
9
Prou M. Op. cit. P. XLVIII-L.
10
Vies des saintes et bienheureux, par les Benedictins de Paris. Paris, 1956. N 12. P. 3148.
11
Ibid. P. 681.
12
. .
// .
.
: . ., 1973.
13
De Ponton dAmecourt G. Le monetaire Abbon // Annuaire de la Societ Franaise de
4

. 4. .
II (638656).
.

I. (. 4) , : LIEGIVS ( ). . , , .
: CHLODOVIVS REX ( ),
. 1,22 ,
12,5 , 375 (-- 63/. . 2191).
II, I, II, II , . -
: I,
, ,
II , . : I.
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, .
_______________
1


: . . . -
. ., 1968) ; Deutsche Munzen des 1012
Jahrhunderts in der Sammlung der Staalichen
Eremitage. Geldgeschichteliche Nachrichtein.
N 56, 197. Nov. S. 293297 ; Anglo-Saxon coins
to 1016. Oxford, 1999. N 8.
.: . .
// .
., 1970. 8. . 221224 ;

: . . / .-. . . , . . . ., 2002.
2
.: Slepova T. Barbarian Imitations of the
Coins of Byzantine Emperors in the Hermitage
Collection // 1st International Conference:
Numismatic History and Economy in Epirus
during Antiquity. Ioannina, 2007. P. 53.
3
Dieudonne A. Les monaitaires merovingiens.
Bibliotheque Ecole des Chartes. 1942. N 53.
P. 2051.

38

Numismatique. 18681872. III. P. 299305 ;


Idem. Les monnaires francs. Encore Abbon et
saint Eloi // Ibid. 1882. VI. P. 7183.
14
De Belfort A. Description generale des monnaies
Merovingiennes. Paris, 1892. IIV. P. 142
146.
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- .-. .
. ., 2002. . 105, 106, 110.
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. . ., 1987.
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Barbey J. Etre Roi: le Roi et son gouvernement
de France de Clovis a Louis XVI. Paris, 1992.
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19
Lafaurie J. Eligius monetarius // Revue numismatique. Paris, 1977. Vol. 19. P. 115 ; Idem. Moneta palatina. Francia. 1976. Vol. 4. P. 5987.
20
. : . ., 1995. . 1.
. 124.
21
. . . . 47, 48.
22
De Ponton dAmecourt G., More de Previala. Monnais
merovingiennes du Gevaudan // LAnnuaire de
la Societ Franaise de Numismatique. 1883.
P. 182.

,
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V
20. . -- 5003
. 19 . 3,80
. . : NOV
LVUOP
. . : O
N9Od


2005 .
: Feg 2007. P. 239
(R-n-D,14)
III IV . 765773 .
21. . -- 4992
. 19 . 3,83
. . S
45


2005 .
: Feg 2007. P. 239.
6..3 (R-n-D,15)
80

22. . -- 4988
. 20 . 3,74
. . S
45
. . :


2005 .
: 2007. . 40;
Feg 2007. P. 240. 6..3 (
)
23. . -- 5002
. 19,5 . 3,90
. . : ,

. . :



2005 .
: Feg 2007.
P. 240. 6..3 (
)
24. . -- 4995
. 19 . 3,65
. . : ~
. . :
:


2005 .
: Feg 2007. P. 240.
6..2 (R-n-D,16) ?

25. . -- 5001
. 19 . 3,98
. . :
:



2005 .
: Feg 2007. P. 241.
6..5 (S,18)
81

. .

()

26. . -- 4916
. 18,5 . 3,70
. . :


1993 .
: Feg 2007. P. 239.
6.A.1 (S,15)
27. . -- 4994
. 19 . 3,76
. . S
45.
: ()
. . :
: V



2005 .
: Feg 2007.
P. 242. 6..6 (
)

28. . -- 4920
. 19 . 3,87
. . : OI
. . :


1994 .

29. . -- 4987
. 19 . 3,91
. . : O'
. . :


2005 .
: Feg 2007. P. 242.
6..7 (R-n-D,20)

82

III IV . 773775 .
30. . -- 5000
. 19 . 3,61
. .
IV .


2005 .
: Feg 2007. P. 243.
7.A.2 (R-n-D,22) ?
31. . -- 4921
. 20 . 3,81
. . :
n ~ . :


. . :


1994 .
: Feg 2007. P. 243.
7.A.5 (S,21)
IV (775780).
778780 .
. . : LO VSSGGO CO S A IO OS. IV
VI,
. , , , . , () .
. . : LO PAP'O S A I OSPA R. III () V () IV.
, , . .

n n n n

n n n

32. . -- 5004
. 20 . 3,88
. .
.


2005 .
: Feg 2007
( VI, 783787).
P. 250. 1..2 ? (
)
83

. .

()

33. . -- 5005
. 19 . 3,87
. . .
. . ,
,
: LO :
A R.


2005 .
: Feg 2007
( VI, 783787).
P. 250. 1..2 (
)

VI (780797).
780790 .
. . (, . .): [] V I [] HR.
VI .
, , () .
, , ,
.
. . (): O S []. III, V IV
. , ().

34. . -- 5006
. 19 . 3,87
. . :


2005 .
: Feg 2006. ; Feg.
2007. P. 252. 2.6 (S,25)

_______________
. . VIII .
. -- // .
, 1990. . 218229.
2

2007 .
3
The Treasures of Nomadic Tribes in South Russia.
1991. P. 147. N 199204.

. . // . 1959. . 15. . 62, 63.


5
Semenov A. New Evidence on the Slavyansk (Anastasiyevka) Hoard of the 8th Century AD Byzantine
and Arab Coins // New Archaeological Discoveries
in Asiatic Russia and Central Asia. Saint Petersburg,
1994. P. 8385. Pl. 36. (: Semenov 1994).
6
. . 85.

84

. . // 4- , . 2226 1996 . : . ., 1996. . 31.


8
. .
// 12- , . 1924
2004 . : . ., 2004.
. 4344.
9
Feg F. Die Nomismata aus dem Fund bei Slavyansk
im Historischen Museum Krasnodar // Schweizer
Mnzbltter. 2006. Bd. 56. H. 222. S. 4358 (:
Feg 2006). . . , . . () .
10
Ibid. S. 43.
11
Feg F. Corpus of the Nomismata from Anastasius II
to John I in Constantinople. 713976. London, 2007
(: Feg 2007).
12
Ibid. P. 14, 15.
13
Ibid. P. 18, 19.
14
Ibid. P. 239.
15
Ibid. P. 111.
16
Semenov 1994. P. 83, 84. Fig. 2.
17
Mosser S. A Bibliography of Byzantine Coin Hoard //
Numismatic Notes and Monographs. N 67. New
York, 1935. P. 71.
18
Ibid. S. P. 71.
19
Ibid. S. P. 85.
20
Ibid. S. P. 47, 48.
21
Coin Hoards. London, 1976. V. 2. N 336.
22
Ibid. 1975. V. 1. N 240.
23
. . // . . 44. ., 1962. . 11
(: 1962).
24
. . VI
XII . // . 1969. . 29. . 262, 263.
25
. . . ., 1962. . 233.
26
. . 527, 528.
27
. . IVIX . .
, 2001. . 7681 ;
( . VI . .). : 2 . , 2005.
28
. .
VIIX . // .
. , 1995. . 27. . 119123 ;
. . : // . , 2001.
. 32. . 97107.
7

. . V
(741775), //
. ; , 2004. . 430441.
30
. .
. 262.
31
. // .
1993. . 54. . 152.
32
. ., . ., . .
. ., 1991.
33
. . VIII . //
11- . -. 1418 2003 . :
. ., 2003. . 45,
46.
34
. . . . . 2932 ; . .
VIII . // 13- . .
1115 2005 . : . ., 2005. . 44, 45.
35
, : . . // . 1975. [.] 40. . 5661.
36
. . VIII IX . // -
. ., 1974. . 3. . 2671.
37
1962. 212 ; . . - . , 2004. . 171. ,
V,
2001 .
.
38
. . . ., 1965. . 26. 52.
39
. ., . .
-. // . .
, 1988. . 126131 ; . . .
, 1999. . 211.
40
. . //
7- . . 1923 1999 . : . ., 1999. . 3638.
29

,
,

. () , 78 . . (697/698 .)
. 132 . . (750 .).

- . , 76 . . (695/696 .) 1
() .
, - , , ,
2. : (, , ) (
), .

( , ). ,
. - 3 , .
, ,
,
.

,

. -- -
, 1950 .4,
5.
1950 . ( -) 4
, . ,
3815 , 1309 (34,31%) 128 (3,36%) , () 6 (0,03%) 2377 (62,31%)
7. , .
, AB 29 .
I (559/560 .), 79 . .
(698/699 .), , -, , . 73 131 . . (748/749 .), -, ,
- .
43 . 1751 208 , 73,66% 8,75% .
311 107 , 13,08% 4,50%
.
750 .
, 740- .
1950 .
.
, ,
130- . . ( 740- .)8.
,
9, . . 1

79131 . . . 1 .
. 26 : (. 2,
3), (. 4), (. 5, 6, ) (. 5, 6,
) .
:
1. , ,
79100 . ., 101113 . .
114128 . . 62 131 . .,
, .
2. , ,

86

87

. .


( )

1. 1950 .
().
.
79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

93

96

97

98

99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131

1
1

1
1

2
1
1

2
1
8

1
5

1
1

12

1
1

1
1

95

94

92

1
1

22

21

22

22

12

13

10

5
1
3

3
2

20

24

51

13

16

15

34

29

36

36

52

87 215 201 171 202 139 69

22

22

1
10

15

18

16

14

15

21

-
-

19

1
1

1
3

11

16

-
-

14

62

1
2

1
2

2
1

2
6

2. ( Klat 2002 )
(). .
. . ( )
78

-
-

-
-
-


-
-
-

-
-
-

-
-
()
- -
-

-
-

-
-
-

-
-

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

94

95

96

97

98

99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133

93

92

91

90

?
?

. .

250

250

200

200

150

150

100

100

50

50

0
79

83

87

91

95

99

103

107

111

115

119

123

127

131

79

83

87

91

95

99

103

107

111

115

119

123

127

131

. 1. 1950 .
().

. 2. 1950 .:
.
().

( . 1 2). : 84
99 . .; 103114 . . 115131 . . , 84131 . . , 100102 . .
3. , ,
7982 . ., 90105 . . ( 90 . .,
), 119125 . . 128131 . .
4. - (, - -) 102124 . . ( 113
114 . .) 127128 . .
5. , . 4, 5.
6. 7982 . . -, 84
89 . . , 9099 . .
, 100102 . .

- -, 100 . .
, 9099 . .
,
, .
?
( ) , .
. 716 , 96 , 25 .
, .
, (

88

89

. .

100 %

70

80%

60

60 %

50

40 %

40

20 %

30

0%
79

20
83

87

91

95

99

103

107

111

115

119

123

127

131

. 3. 1950 .:
.
().

10

0
79

83

87

91

95

99

103

107

111

115

119

123

127

131

): , 82 . . , -, 80 . . , -,
81 . .12, -, 93 . .13, , 93 . .14.
. 2 721 .

78132 . .

:
(7983 . .) , , , , - -
7982 . .;
(8489 . .) ( ) , , ;
(9098 . .) , , -;

(99102 . .) , ,
; -
-;
(103126 . .)
,
- (, - -); ;
(127132 . .) , , ;
( 131 . .) -,
, .

90

91

10

11

. 4. 1950 .:
.
().

. .

40

100 %

35
80%
30
60 %
25
40 %

20

15

20 %

10
0%
79

0
79

83

87

91

95

99

103

107

111

115

119

123

127

131

. 5. 1950 .:
( )
( ) .
().

83

87

91

95

99

103

107

111

115

119

123

127

131

. 6. 1950 .:
( )
( ) .
().

78 . . , 133 . ., .
, ,
, ,
,

:
I : 78/7982/83 . .
, , 7982 . .
- -, 83 . .
- ( 35 51,
68,63% ).

II : 83/8489 . .
( ),
, . ( 42 , 100,00%
).
III : 9098/99 . . ,
, - -, 9798 . .
.
( 138 383, 36,03%).
IV : 99/100102/103 . . , , - -,
. 36 100102 . ., , 22 .
(61,11%) - (15 ., 41,67%) - (7 .,
19,44%).

92

93

. .

V : 103114 . . -, . 332 , , 235 . (70,78%) 77 .


(23,19%) -.
VI : 115126 . . ( ). 1352
1271 ., 94,00%.
VII : 127132 . .
,
. (131 . .) -. 62 131 . ., 171 , ,
(81 ., 47,37%).
. 7 IVII
.
15

. ,
19721990 .16: IX .
. ,

. , , , .
.
100102 . .,
. - . -.
( -)
- - (. 902/903 .),

( )17.

. - -
( -)18. , , 19,
, ( :
, Y , )20.

57,12%


f
e d c b a
i h g
k j
m l

16,18%

b Y om. c M d Y e Y f M om.
g
M h Y om. i Y j M om. k Y l M
m
M

14,03%
7,22%

. 7. 1950 .:
IVII

. . : - . -
75 . .
84 [] 86 , , - . . [-] [], []
-: () -
(). (-).

94

95

2,15%

1,77%

II

1,52%
III

IV

VI

VII

. .

( ) ,
. -21.

b a

al-Hd b M

, . - : -
, - -.
, .
. (84 . .),
(8485 . .)
( -- -22, ), , ( . . 23)
; 85 . . ( 24, - )25.
. - II . .

- -26.
_______________
Walker J. A Catalogue of the Arab-Byzantine
and Post-Reform Umaiyad Coins. London,
1956. P. 298.
2
. -: . . , //
. . . , 1977 ; . .
, III: (656696). ., 1998. . 274282.
3
.: Shamma S. The political Significance of
religious Slogans on Islamic Coins // Actes du
8me Congrs International de Numismatique.
Paris; Ble, 1976. P. 561, 562. ., : . . .
., 1873. . XV.
4
Muhammad Abu-l-Faraj al-Ush. The Silver Hoard
of Damascus (Sasanian, Arab-Sasanian, Khuwarizmian and Umayyad) Kept in the National
Museum of Damascus. Damascus, 1972.

Klat M. G. Catalogue of the Post-Reform Dirhams. The Umayyad Dynasty. London, 2002.
6

.VIa
. . ( . . . ., 1977. . 62. . XXIV).
, ,
750 ., . .
.VI VIII .
( . . 62). ,
. wzknwr,
.VI, ,
- .
( 712 .). .: Henning W. B. Mitteliranisch // Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden;
Kln, 1958. Bd. 4. Abt. 1. S. 57, 58; -
- - - /

96

-- . -. - ( .). : -
-, 1420/2000. . 37, 38.
7
Muhammad Abu-l-Faraj al-Ush. Op. cit. P. 1.
8
., ,
: Noonan Th. S. Early Abbsid
Mint Output // Journal of Economic and Social
History of the Orient. Vol. XXIX. P. 113175.
9
Muhammad Abu-l-Faraj al-Ush. Op. cit. P. 215
297.
10
American Numismatic Society, #1977.253.25.
11
, . 2974/226; . .
. ., 1896. . 1.
, . 13 ; . .
( ). . 1. . 61. , . 122.
12
, . 2974/227; . . . 1. , .
16 ; . . . . . 1. . 61.
, . 123.
13
, . 2974/234 2974/235; . . . . . 1. . 61 . ,
. 127r 127s.
14
URL: http://www.coinarchives.com/w/lotviewer.
php?LotID=14142&AucID=32&Lot=1606
( ;
,
2007 .,
).
15
,
. . : . .
VIIIXII ., //
. , 2000. . 3. . 225.
16
.: . ., . .

( ) // .
1975. 2. . 6870 ; . ., . ., . . : . ., 1991. . 1718.
17
- /
. . -

- -. . ( .) : -,
1416/1996. . 260277.
18
- -- - - . - - -. ( .)
: , . . . 5. . 348.
19
. : . .
- // . . 6. .,
1924. . 18. . 237251; / . . [. . ] ; . [ .] .
. . . . ; ., 1939. . 2130.
20

. 20 . ( 810), . 21 (
1718) . 21 . ( 12)
(. 260263 . . 17), .
21
, -
, . . ,

: -. -
( ) / , .
., . . . . , 1979. ,
. - . .
. -.
22
Muhammad Abu-l-Faraj al-Ush. Op. cit. P. 215.
23
.: . . .
, 1959. . 1. . 40, 46.
24
Muhammad Abu-l-Faraj al-Ush. Op. cit. P. 215.
25

- - 83 . .
(702 .) (Klat M. Op. cit. cat. N 678. P. 264).

,
83 . . ,

( 93 . .). .: Klat M. Op.
cit. P. 18.
26
. : Linder Welin U. S. Wsi,
the Mint-town // rsberttelse: Bulletin de la
Socit Royale des Lettres de Lund, 19541955.
Lund, 1955. P. 127169.

. .


.
( )
VII . . . , 224 .,
III
651/652 . 1. ,
( 758 .)2 ,
.
VIII IX .
. ,
3,
,


, .
, , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
VIII IX .
VIII
IX . 4 ,
5 .
115 . . .6 / 149 . . / 766767 .
, ,
--7,
--8 -- 9. . . 10
98

. -, , , 144 . . / 761
762 .11 , , -, .
149 . . / 766767 . , (
[] [ ]
. )12. -
:



. , , [] 13;


[] [ ] . . . -. []
14. , . ,
-:



, []
.
,
[] , 15.
,
, .
:
110 . . . / 144 . . / 761762 . ,
, , .
II , 16. 115 . . . / 149 . . / 766767 . ,
, 110 . . .,
108 . . . / 142 . . / 759760 . 109 . . ./
143 . . / 760761 .17 , , 110115 . . . ,
.
99

. .


,
18.
(110115 . . .) 19 , , . , ,
. . ,
. , . 146 . . / 763764 . ( ; ;
. 1) 147 . . / 764765 . ( ;
, . . ; . 2).
,
. . , . , ,
, -
. ,

20. , . , , , -, , -,
. - ,
, , , 21.
, , . ,
:
1. . 146 . . 148 . . , 149 . .,
.
115 . . ./149 . . , .
2. . 146 . . 147 . .,
. , ,
.
, . . .
100

1
(: Malek. Pl. 16. N 53)

, ,
II . ,
, .
.
, , . .
.
,
.
,
: ,
.
. () .

. .

( ) :
;
;

( );
;
;
.
: . :

-


:
;
CBBBBAFE
.



, .
.
, .

: , . .

. , .


:
( );
;
.

,
.

:

101

[] 146

, []
. .

. .

2
(: Curiel. Pl. 12. N 1)

, ,
II . ,
, .
.
, , . .
.
,
.
,
: ,
.
. () .

. .

( ) :
;
;

( );
;
;
.
: . :

-


:
;
CBBBBAFE
.



, . .
, .

: , . .

. , .


:
( );
;
.

,
.

:

102

. .
( ). ., 1982.
. 14, 131146.
2
760761 .
.: Annales auctore Abu Djafar Mohammed Ibn Djarir at-Tabari / Ed. M. Th. Houtsma. Leiden, 1879. P. 140.
3
Ibid. ;
1

[] 147

, []
. .

. .
/ .
.

Ibn Isfandiyrs history of abaristn / Abridged


translation by E. G. Browne. Gibb Memorial
Series. Leyden ; London, 1905. V. 2; Sehireddins Geschichte von Tabaristan, Rujan und
Masanderan / Persischer text, herausgegeben
von Dr. Bernhard Dorn. St. Petersburg, 1850;

.
.
./ .

(. sphbed)
. -
(. kstag):
, , .
VI .

-
, .
, .
-.
III
,
, ,
.
,
.
5
- (. ). (. ).
4


- (. dd-brzmihr).
.
- 144 . . / 761762 .
(Sehir-eddins Geschichte von Tabaristan
S. 273, 319), - 142 . . / 759
760 . (Annales P. 140),
(Ibn Isfandiyrs
history of abaristn P. 122;

.( . ...
6

11 652 . (
III).
7
. .: Gaube H. Arabosasanidische
Numismatik. Braunschweig, 1973. S. 125, 126.
--. (Ibn Isfandiyrs history
of abaristn P. 122), (Sehireddins Geschichte von Tabaristan S. 325).
8
- ,
(Sehir-eddins Geschichte von Tabaristan
S. 274, 325; . );
(Ibn Isfandiyrs
history of abaristn P. 123).
9
- .
(Sehir-eddins Geschichte von
Tabaristan S. 274, 325).
10

apa. .: Ibn Isfandiyrs history of abaristn P. 124; . .
11
Ibn Isfandiyrs history of abaristn P. 124.
12
Sehir-eddins Geschichte von Tabaristan S. 274.
13
Ibid. S. 159.
14
Ibid. S. 274.
15
Ibn Isfandiyrs history of abaristn P. 129.
16
Walker J. A Catalogue of the Arab-Sassanian
Coins. London, 1941. P. 131, 132 ; Malek H. M.
The Dbyid ispahbads of abaristn // American Journal of Numismatics. New York, 1993.
N 56. P. 121, 150.
17
Ibid. P. 121, 149, 150.
18
. . . .,
1909. . 111135.
19

, 102 . . /

103

. .

720721 . (Lavoix M. H. Catalogue des


Monnaies Musulmanes de la Bibliothque
Nationale. Khalifes Orientaux. Paris, 1887.
P. 112 ; Walker J. A Catalogue of the ArabByzantine and Post-Reform Umaiyad Coins.
London, 1956. P. 167) 103 . . / 721722 .
(

; .: Klat M. G. Catalogue of the
Post-Reform Dirhams. The Umayyad Dynasty.
London, 2002. P. 190, N 497). ,
-

, ,


.
20

146 . ./ 763764 . (Malek H. M. Op.
cit. P. 153 ; Walker J. A Catalogue of the ArabSassanian Coins P. 75, note 2)
,
147 . . / 764765 . (Lane-Poole S. Catalogue
of Oriental Coins in the British Museum.
London ; Paris, 1889. V. 9. P. 43 ; Malek H. M.
Op. cit. P. 153) 148 . . / 765766 .
(Malek H. M. Op. cit. P. 153).
21
Curiel R. Sur quelques monnaies de gouverneurs abbsides du abaristn // PAD NM
I YAZDN. Etudes depigraphie, de numismatique et dhistoire de lIran Ancien. Paris, 1979.
Cahier 9. P. 152.

. . *, . . **


,

.
,

. 1258 . , ,
,
. , 1.
. -, , ,
: 17
; 237 , ,
. , 2.

.
. , 3.
-
. 1260 .
(-)
. , - ,
.

.
_______________
* ..., .
** , -.

105

. . , . .

,
.
. . , , .
, .
1261 . 500 (1 15 ) , 15 000 ( 540 )
.
, ,
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30 .
. ,
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. , 1291 . 213 148 5. ,
. , , , ,
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107

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_______________
1
Rossabi M. Khubilai Khan. His Life and Times.
University of California Press, 1988. P. 3638.
2
Ibid. P. 42.
3
Ibid. P. 143.
4
Ibid. P. 146.
5
:= ( : [] ).
, 1976. . 16.
6
. . 38.
7
. . 35.
8
(13681644),
.
9
. .
., 1980. . 23.
10
. . XIXIII .:
. . : , 1979. . 155.
11
. . 161.
12
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(
) //
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). 1986. 1. . 4344.
13
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15
. . . . 43.
16
. 34.
17
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. , 50 kV,
700 mA, 1 .
0,1%, : 0,20,5%. 10%.
18
Cowell M., Cribb J., Sheridan B., Shashoua Y. The Chinese Cash: Composition and Production //
Metallurgical Analysis of Chinese Coins at the
British Museum. London, 2005. P. 65.
19
. 11.

Zhou Weirong. A New Transliterational Study of


Toushi (Tutty,9m) // Papers on Numismatics
and the History of Metallurgy. Beijing, 2002.
P. 413.
21
Ibid. P. 415.
22
Zhou Weirong. The Emergence and Development
of Brass-Smelting Techniques in China // Papers on Numismatics and the History of Metallurgy. Beijing, 2002. P. 429.
23

12711279 .

, 1279 .
. 1291 ., , , ,
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XIIIXIV . // -
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25
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26
. 43.
27
,
,
, .
.: . . . . . 325.
28
. . . . 47, 48.
29
Schlsser R. Mnzen der Beiden Epochen Zhi
Yan // Artibus Asiae. Leipzig, 1935. V. 5. S. 44.
20

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Nubaum H. Frstenportrte auf italienischen


Mnzen des Quattrocento. Zts.f. Num. XXXV.
Bd. 1925. S. 35.
7
Papadopoli N. Nicolo Tron e le sue monete //
Riv. Ital. di Num. 1901. 14. S. 387.
8
Babelon J. La mdaille et les mdailleurs. Paris,
1927.
9
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Saulcy F., de. Recherches sur les monnaies des
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, - 22.
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Geiger H.-U. Der Beginn der Gold-und Silbermnzprgung in Bern. Bern, 1968. S. 163.
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Egg E. Die Mnzen Kaiser Maximilians I. Innsbruck, 1971. S. 18.
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.
15

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1

Musei Imperialis Petropolitani. Typis Academiae


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.
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19

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- / / / / - / 5 ,
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( ).
: 309. : N
25. : 50.
. , 6

. .


XIX . 1920- .
.
1745 .
, .
116 117 : Tab. XLVI 1-36 Parnassus Gallicus complectus
triginta sex nummos ex aere fusos imagines illustrum poetarum Gallicorum exibentes (ex
dono autoris Dni Titon du Tillet) 36 () , , (
)1.
-. 6 1758 .
: , , ,
,
, , : , , 2.
. . . , - .
, , [] ,
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37 3.
6 1759 . . . . . , . . , . . . . .
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,
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,
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. - 1 1759 .
, .
, ,
. ,
, , , .
16
.
, 1758 ., ,
1760 ., .
La Parnasse franois, dedi au Roi, par M. Titon du Tillet, comissaire Provincial des Guerres
ci-devant Capitaine de Dragons & Matre dHtel de seul Madame de Dauphine mre du Roi.
A Paris de limprimerie de Jean Baptist Coignard Fils, imprimeur du Roi MDCCXXXII. avec
approbation et privilge du Roi.
, 1743 1755 .
1732 . , (), . 32 33
, 32 . XV
, :
1.
2.
3.
4.
188

. 2. . . . . .
. 1716.
2,5

5. ,

6. en general
7.
8.
9. ,
10. , dans les avenues du Parnasse ou dans les
campagnes pas loignes.
189

. .

99- 786- 287


, , , 1241 ., 1743 . ( ).
789816
[] , .
, , ,
. 331,
, , ,
. ,
. , ,
1743 1755 . Second Supplement du Parnasse franois ou suite de lordre
chronologique des potes et des musiciens, que la mort a enlevs le commencement de lanne
1743 jusquen anne 1755. ineri gloria datur stat sua cuique merces. Chacun y tient son rang
selon ses talents et son mrite (
). ,
,
II . 1755 .
,
XIV .
(16771762) XVIII . ,
, ,
15 , . 1697 1712 .
,
. 1719 . .

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(16181673), (16381694) (16071701).
.
, . .


.
.
, ,
, , .
1732 ., , ,
. .
. , 10.
XVIII . .
XIV Acadmie des Inscriptions, . , ,
, . (16811734)
, 32 . , ,
aton, .

190

191

. .

.
, , 11.
, , XVIII ., ,
. .
: S. CUR. F. (. ).
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, 52 57 .
;
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1732 1760 . ,
32 . , (
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, .
XIV , , (14921549)
(14961544)
(16571757) - (16711741).
, . , . 1732 . ,
19
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19.
1965 .
.
,

20. , 1970 . ,
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, , , ,
c 21.
(
) -
,
: , . :
1716. , 1708 ., , 1716-.
, , .
. , , .
: , , , .

192

193

Ton Parnasse Franoise, sur garant de la gloire,


Ton place pour jamais au Temple de Mmoire;
Ton nom sera chri de la posterit
Voil le vrai chemin de limmortalit14.

. .

.
( ).
,
,
.
.
. , .-. :
. , ,
, . ,
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.

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, , ,
CATON. F.22.
- XIV XV.
, 1718, , 1728, 1729

1730 ., . , : , . (16571757),
. (16561728), . . (16571726),
. . . , (16571757).
, , , .
, ,
. ,
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XIV. .
, , , .
-,
,
. ,
.

XIV. (1834) , , : ,
XVII .. , ,
, , , ,
. .
. , , ,
, .

, , 23.
, , , ,
, , , , ,
XVIXVII . , . ,
24. ,
XIV
, . . ,

194

195

. .

,
25.
, , ,
, Galerie Metallique, ( ). , . .
1838 . 1862 . . .
. . .
,
. , . ( ,
. ),
,

XVIII .

2. . . . 1718
, , . . 52 . . 1143
. . N[icol]as. BOILEAU DESPRAUX ( ). 3/4

. . IOUVRE LES ROUTES DU PARN.[as]se ( ).
, . :
MDCCXVIII
(16361711). . .
1677 . .

1. . . . 1716
, , . . 52 . . 1128
. . Evrar TITON DU TILLET AUTER DU P[ar]nasse FR. EN BRONZE (
, ). , . : SI. CUR. F.[ecit] ( :
)
. . , : PARNASSE FRANOIS
MDCCXVI ( 1716)

3. . . . 1718
, , . . 54 . . 1141
. . MARGUERITE REINE DE NAVARRE. (, ). , , ,
: CUR F[ecit]
. . ELLE BRILLE AU MILIEU DES LIS ET DES LAURIERS ( ). , . :
MDCCXVIII
(14921549), , , .

196

197

. .

4. . . . 1718
, , . . 52 . . 1144
. . CLEMENT MAROT. ( ). , : SI. CUR F[ecit]
. . : LA MORT N'Y MORD (C
), : MDCCXVIII
(14961544). , , , ,
, , .

6. . . -. 1718
, , . . 52,5 . . 1151
. . SCVOLA SAMMAPTHANUS ( -). . : CUR F [ecit]
. . DAT FLORES ET FRUCTUS ( )
. : MDCCXVIII
- ( ) (15361623), , , , , , , III IV.

5. C. . . 1718
, , . . 52 . . 1132
. . : FR MALHERBE (. ).
. . IE LEUR APPRENS LE LANGAGE DES DIEUX MDCCXVIII ( 1718). ,
, . : CURE [Fecit], : MDCCXVIII
(15551628), , ,
( , 1596), ,
.

198

7. . . . 1718
, , . . 52 . . 1129
. . FRANOIS MAYNARD ( ). , , : S CUR F [ecit]
. . LAS DU MONDE APOLLON REMPLIT TOUS MES DESIRS ( ,
). ,
: MDCCXVIII
(15821642), , , , .

199

. .

8. . . . 1718
, , . . 52 . . 1148
. . VINCENT VOITURE ( ).
, : CURE
. . IE LES FAIS A MON BADINAGE ( ).
, : MDCCXVIII
(15971648), , , , .

9. . . - . 1718
, , . . 53 . . 1140
. . IEAN BAT LAFONTAINE (- ). 3/4
. . IE LES AI FAIT PARLER POur INSTRUIRE ET POur PLAIRE ( , ).
, , . :
MDCCXVIII
- (16211695), , .

200

10. . . - . 1718
, . . 57 . 1142
. . IEAN BATISTE LULLY (- ). 3/4

. . IL CHARME TOUT PAR SES DIUINS ACCORDS ( ). , , : MDCCXVIII


- (16321687), XIV. . 1672 .
15 .
. . .

11. . . . 1718
, , . . 59 . . 1138
. . PHILIPPE QVINAVLT ( ). ,

. . MES VERS ONT MERIT LES CHANTS LES PLUS PARFAITES ( ).
, . : MDCCXVIII
(16351688), , , . .

201

. .

12. . . . 1718
, , . . 59 . . 1139
. . PHILIPPE QVINAVLT ( ). ,

. . PHNIX DE LA POESI CHANTANTE ( ).
, : MDCCXVIII.
: CURE

14. . . - . 1718
, , . . 57 . . 1146
. . IEAN BAT. MOLIERE. (- ). 3/4

. . SUR MENA'DRE ET SUR PLAUTE IL RAMPORTE LE PRIX ( , ).
; : MDCCXVIII
(- ) (16221673), - (, ,
), , .

13. . . 1718
, , . . 56,5 . . 1315
. . PIERRE CORNEILLE ( ). , 3/4
. : CATON [Fecit] ( : )
. . ROME NEST PLUS DANS ROME ELLE EST
TOUTE (Q)UIE SUIS ( , ). : MDCXVIII
(16061684), , 1647 .,
. , , ,
.

15. . . 1718
, , . . 56 . . 1147
. . IEAN RACINE. ( ). , 3/4 , CATON F. MDCCXVIII
. . DE LAMOUR IL DEPEINT LES TRAGI UES DOULEURS. (
). ,
, , .
(16391699), . , ,
.

202

203

. .

16. . . . 1718
, , . . 51 . . 1149
. . PAUL SCARON ( ). , ,
: S. CURE.
. c. IAY VAINCU LA DOULEVR PAR LES RIS ET LES IEUX (
). . MDCCXVIII : CURE F.
(16101660), .
, .

18. . . . 1718
, , . . 51,5 . . 1131
. . ISAAC BENSERADE ( ) ,
: CUR
. . AVEC LE MIEL NOUS PORTONS LEGUILLON ( ).
, : MDCCXVIII
(16121691) , .

17. . . . 1718
, , . . 51 . . 1130
. . I N FRANOIS SARRASIN ( ).
, : S. CURE
. . IE IOINS AUX FLEURS LE MIRTE ET LE LAURIER (
). , ,
: CURE, : MDCXVIII
(16041655), XIV.

19. . . . 1718
, , . . 52,5 . . 1135
. . IOANNES COMMIRIUS ( ). ,
, : SI CUR F
. . CANDORQUE CANORQUE ( () ).
. : MDCCXVIII
(16251702), , ,
Recueil de posie latine. .

204

205

. .

20. . . . 1718
, , . . 52,5 . . 1137
. . IOANNES SANTOLIUS VICTORINUS ( ).
, : SI. CUR F
. . DIVOS HEROASQ[ue] HORTOS ET FLUMINA CANTAT ( ). : MDCCXVIII
(16301697). XIV, . , ,
.

22. . . . 1718
, , . . 53 . . 1152
. . CAROLUS RUUS ( ). , , : SI CUR F
. . CONCORS ASPIRAT UTERQUE ( ).
, . , : MDCCXVIII
(16431725), , , - -. 1667 . , XIV.

21. . . . 1718
, , . . 52 . 1150
. . RENATUS RAPINUS ( ). , , , : S CUR F
O. . FCUNDAT ET ORNAT ( ).
, e: MDCCXVIII
(16211687), .
, (1672).

23. . . . 1718
, , . . 53 . . 1134
. . A XANDRE LAINEZ ( ). O
, : CURE
. . IE LES MERITE TOUTES TROIS ( ) ,
: MDCXVIII
(16501710) ,
, , .

206

207

. .

24. . . ( ). 1718
, , . . 55 . . 1154
. . M.el RI DELALANDE SURint DE L MUSique D ROY (
). ,
. : S CURE F [ecit]
. . SES CHANTS DIVINS PENETRENT IUSQUAUX CIEUX (
).
,
. , : MDCCXVIII
: S. CURE
(16571726), , . 1683 .
, 1704 . . C . .

26. . . . 1729
, , . . 54 . . 1156
. . ELISABETH CLAUDE IAQUET DE LA GUERRE ( ).
, : S CUR
. . AUX GRANDS MUSICIENS IAY DISPUT LE PRIX ( ). , , :
MDCCXXIX
- (?1729), .
: ,
(L Parnasse franois 1732. P. 635. CCXLIX).

25. . . . 1728
, , . . 54 . . 1155
. . Marin MARAIS ORD D[e] L[a] MUS DU ROY ( , ). . : CUR F
. . ELLE RECOIT DE LUY SON PLUS GRANDE LUSTRE ( ()
). .
: MDCCXXVIII
(16561728), , -.
, . .

27. . . - . 1730
, , . . 52 . . 1157
. . In.BAPTISTE ROUSSEAU (- ) ,
, : CURE. F.
. . TOUT BRILLE EN SES HEUREUSES MAINS ( ). , : MDCCXXX
- (16741741), . 1705 . .
, . ,
.

208

209

. .

28. . . . 1730
, , . . 54 . . 1158
. . IACOBUS VANIERIUS ( ). , ,
. : S CUR F
. . DELICI[t]AS ET RURIS OPES ( ). , , : MDCCXXX
(16641739), , . , .
, 1740 .
.

30. . . . 1730
, , . . 54 . . 1160
. . ANdr CAMPRA Mtre DE LA MUSIQUE DU ROY ( ,
). , , : S CUR F
. . DES SAINTS ET DES HEROS ILS SCAIT CHANTER LA GLOIRE ( ).
. : MDCCXXX
(16601744) , . 1730 . , , .

29. . . . 1730
, , . . 56 . . 1159
. . BER[na]rd DE FONTENELLE D.en DE LACAD FR (
). , .
: S CUR F
. . LES GRACES APOLLON MINERVE LONT FORM ( ). , , . : MDCCXXX SI CUR F
(16571757), , , ,
. .

31. . . . 1731
, , . . 54 . . 1161
. . ANT OUDART DE LA MOTTE DE LAC F ( ,
) , ,
: S CUR F
. . LA MORT ASSURE MON TRIOMPHE ( ).
,
, . : MDCCXXXI
(16721731), , , .

210

211

. .

13
14

Colton J. Op. cit. P. 109.


Ibid. P. 40, 41.


,
,
,
.

Ibid. P. 44.
Colton J. Op. cit. P. 26, 38.
17
Ibid. P. 168.
18
Gaetani P. A. Museum Mazzuchelianum. Venetiis, 1763. T. 2. Tab. CIII. N 1; Tab. CIX.
N 2, 6; Tab. CXIII, N 1, 4; Tab. CXXIV,
N 1; Tab CXXXVII, N 3, 4; Tab. CXXXIX,
N 16; Tab. CLXII, N 1; Tab. CLXIX, N 5, 7;
Tab. CXCIV, N 4; Tab. CCII. N 4).
19
Wrzbach-Tannenberg W. Katalog meiner Sammlung von Medaillen, Plaketten und Jetons zugleich
15
16

32. . . . 1731
, , . . 54 . . 1162
. . ANdr DES TOUCHES SURant D L MUSIQUE D ROY ( , ). , , : CUR F
. . APOLLON ET LAMOUR ANIMENT TOUS MES CHANTS ( ). , , .
: MDCCXXXI
(16721749), , . 17281730 .
, 1718 1749 .
.

_______________
Musei Imperialis Petropolitani. Petropoli, 1745.
V. 2. Part. 3.
. .
2
: .
.-. ., 1985. . 130.
3
Bachmeister H. L. Ch. Russische Bibliothek. Zur
Kentniss des gegenwartigen Zustand der Literatur in Russland. SPb. ; Riga ; Leipzig, 1774.
Bd. 2. S. 73. 32 ( 33,
) ,
.
32
.
4

. 129.
5
Description du Parnasse franois execut en
bronze a la gloire de la France et de Louis le
Grand et la mmoire perptuelle des illustres
1

pots et de fameux musiciens franois dedi au


Roi par M. Titon du Tillet, Matre dHtel de
seue madame la dauphine Mre de sa Maijest.
Cette descripton est suivi de diverses pices en
prose & et en vers, au sujet de ce Monument.
Paris, 1760. P. 1.
6
Nouvelle biographie generale. Paris, 1866. . 45.
7
Rosenfeld V. N. Largillierre. Portraitiste du dixhuitime sicle. Montrale, 1983. P. 37, 38.
8
Colton J. The Parnasse Franois of Titon du
Tillet and the origins of the monument to
genius. New Haven ; London. 1979.
9
Ibid. P. 55.
10
La Parnasse franois 1732. P. 26.
11
Forrer L. Biographical Dictionary of Medallists, Coin-, Gem-, and Seal-Engravers
London,1904. P. 483. V. l ; Rondot N. Les mdailleurs et les graveurs de monnaies, jetons et
mdailles en France. Paris, 1904. P. 204.
12
Colton J. Op. cit. P. 39.

212

ein Handbuch fr Sammler. Zrich ; Leipzig ;


Wien, 1943. N 662, 1499, 4840, 4869, 5916,
8016, 8175, 8775, 8987, 9178.
20
Le Parnasse franaise, une rsurrection aprs
deux sicles // Le Club franaise de la mdaille.
1965. N 8, troisime trimestre. P. 33.
21
La Mdaille au temps de Louis XIV. Paris, 1970.
N 2729, 38, 41, 45.
22
Rondot N. Op. cit. P. 344.
23
. . . . . ., 1958. . 7.
. 310, 311.
24
Eisler W. The Dassiers of Geneva 18. Century
European medalists. Lausanne, 2002. V. 1. P. 92.

, .
25
Colton J. Op. cit. P. 204.

. 1810

I I .
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215

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. .

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. , .
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216

217

. . . . . 1838.
, .
. . .
: . 1912.

. 1810

. .

. . . . .
1830. .
: . .


. ., 1863

. . . . .
1820. , .

. . . . .
1850-.
, .

218

. . .
. . . 1809.

. . . . .
18091811. ,
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, ,
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18111819 . ,
. 12 1814 .
. . 24, 10 1816 . 25, 17 1818 .
( ) 26 . . 31 1819 .
219

. .

. 1810

. , 1819 . , ,
(the Knights of Honour), the Knights of Honour and
Devotion, 27.
III (29 187528)
II (10 1891) (7 1896),
(28 1881)29.

31 . . ,

:
, ,
,
32.

(
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1830 . -
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1809 .
, , 1811 . ,
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, , , , ( ), ( ). , , -. 1842 .
I, , ,
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, . 1834 . 35.
1837 .
, , 36.
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, .

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, , . ,
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, .


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. . .
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, 30.

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220

221

. 1810

. .

. . . .
: . .

. , 1894

. . . .
: . .

. , 1894

8 1865 .
37, 15 1874 .
38; 10 1875 .
39; 31 1876 . 40, 16 1881 .
41, 10 1885 . 42.
43,
44, . . 45 .
XVIII XIX . ,
, 1834 .
. , .

. 1856 . . . , -, :
, , 46.
1829 . 47, . . ,
222

. . . .
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, - .
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. (
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: . .
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. , 1894


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, 26
1810 ., ( ), ( , ). , , .
.
_______________
, ,
, , ,
.
2
. : . .
.
:
. . . ., 2006.
1

223

Wetzor O., Toumanoff . The Order of Malta and


the Russian Empire. Rome, 1969. P. 114.
,
, . .

20 1810 .: 31
(18 -, 13
).

. .

. . . 45. . 9.
. . XXXI. 24.134.
6
1810 . // . . . 45. . 436.
7
. . XXXI. 24.882.
1822 .
27 1810 ., ,
, . . 1822 .
128 056 3 (.
. . 45. . 566567).
8
( )
1800 . -
. 1803 .
.
.
9
Wetzor O., Toumanoff . Op. cit. P. 106.
10

1805 . ,
VII.
11
Wetzor O., Toumanoff . Op. cit. P. 106.
12
Ibid. P. 107.
13
Wetzor O., Toumanoff . Op. cit. P. 107.
14
Ibid. P. 118.
15
. . XXXIV. 26.626:
. .
,
-
,
, .
. -
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4
5


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17
1899. . 1. . 178.
18

1810 ., 1 1807 . . .
.
19
. 1899. . 1. . 406407.
20
1810 . .
. . . 632.
21

.
.
, .
22

1802 . .-.
,

224

. 1810


(. . 496. . 3. . 2008. . 598 .).
23
. 1899. . 1. . 549550.
24
. . 472. . 33 (969). . 4. 1835.
25
Wetzor O., Toumanoff . Op. cit. P. 115.
26
. ., . . . ., 2007. . 179.
27
Wetzor O., Toumanoff . Op. cit. P. 115.
28

12 1876 . (
: . . ., 2002. . 559).
29
Wetzor O., Toumanoff . Op. cit. P. 119, 120.
30
,


. , 12 1799 .

(. . 496. . 3.
. 1777. . 63 . 64 . ; .
I. ., 1912. . 189).
31
1830 . :
. ,
, ,

(. . 496. . 3. . 2011.
. 5253).
32
. . 9. . 10.
33
. . 5051 .
34
. . 2012. . 1, 1 . ,
.

. .
. ., 2006. . 375.
36
. . 496. . 3. . 2011. . 9193.
37
. .
. , 1894. . 478.
. . .
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246

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, . . ,
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. . .


, . ,

, .
_______________
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250

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1487. . ( . .). . . . II. 44
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, 18581915, I. , .
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1828, I)
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. ( . .). 1915
_______________
* . . , .

251

. .

. .

1496. . . . . . . ( . .).
1916. 64 . ( , 18561929,
)
1497. . . . . . . ( . .) 1916. 70 .
( , , 19041918, II)
1497. . . . ( . .). 1915. 36 33
1498. . . . - . 51
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). ( . .)
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1502. . . .
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1502. , 37
1503. . . . . 60
1504. . . . . . 50- . 18671917. ( . .). 47 35
15051505. . . . (
) . 1913. 28
1506. (62 ) (64 ) . . .
III . ( . .). 1891
1506. . . , III. 64
1507. . . . 64
1507. . . . 1914. ( . .) 64
1508. . . (63 ), . . (66 ) . (
, , 18901958)
1509. . . (69 ), . . (70 ) II
-
1510. . . , ,
III. 90
1511. . . . . . 70
1512. . . (63 ), . . (70 ) 1914 . - . ( . .?)
1513. (62 ) (68 ) . . - 300-
. ( . .). 1913
1514. . . :
II, . ( . .?). 64 . (
, ---- , 1872
1918, II; , ---
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1515. . . I. 70
1516. . . II. 92

1517.
1518.
1519.
1520.
1521.

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. . II . 37
. . . 35
. 54
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-- -, , 17281762,
II)
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1523. . . ( ?) (
I). 28 28
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1526. , . 29 29 . (
)
1527. . . (?) (
I). 27 27 . ( , , 17891849)
1528. , . . . 24 . ( , , 17831848)
1529. . 42
1530. . . I . 51 . ( ---, -,
17791826)
1531. . . . . . . ( . .). 1809. 64 . (
, 17651813, )
1532. . . . 1810. 51
1533. . . . 1810. ( ).
51
1533. . . . 1810. ( ).
51
1534. . . 1814 . 1814. 51
1535. . . . 1810. 51
1536. . . . 1811. 51
1537. . . . 1811. 51
1538. . . . 1811. 51
1539. . . 1813 . 1813. 51
1540. . . . 38
1541. . . . 1802. 51
1542. . . . 1810. 51
1543. (
I). 51
1544. . . . 1819. 51
1545. . . . 1810. 51
1546. ( I). 88
1547. (
I). 88
1548. - ( I). 62 62
1549. ( I). 88

252

253

. .

. .

1550. . - (
I). 88
1551. (
I). 88
1552. . . , . .
. 1839. 64
1553. . . , . 61
1554. . . I . 25 .
( )
1555. . . . 36
1556. . . ,
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1557. . . , . 49
1558. . . . 60 60
1559. . . , . .
. 1858. 67
1560. . . . 67 . (
, , 18191876)
1561. I. ( . .). 1842. 81
1562. . . I (1830- .). 51
1563. . . . ( . .). 58 . ( ,
17981860, --- , I)
1564. . . . 58
1565. . . . (). 33
1566. . . . ( . .,
. .). 50
1567. . . -. ( . ., . .). 56 . (-, 16881741,
17181720 ., XII)
1568. . . . ( . ., . .). 43
1569. . . . ( . .). 40
1570. . . . . . . ( . .). 37 . (
(), 16911771, ; 17351737 .)
1571. . . (?). XVIII . ( . ., . .).
60
1572. . . . ( . .).
60 . (-, 16261689)
1573. . . XII. (). 60 . ( XII,
16971718 .).
1574. . . I
-. 24
1575. . . . . . ( . .). 1896. 25 . (
, 18471936, )
1576. . . I. 22
1577. . . -. 1903. ( . .). 54 38

1578. (26 47 ), . . (29 39 )


1579. . 27 42
1580. . 20
1581. . . 100- . 1893. 29
1582. . . I. 28
1583. , . 25
1584. . . . 1896. ( . .).
25 . ( , )
1585. . . . ( . .). 25 .
( , 18461911, )
1586. . . . 1902. ( . .).
25 . ( , )
1587. . . II.
.... 25
1588. . . . 1898. ( . .).
25 . ( , . 1847 ?, )
1589. . . . 1898. ( . .).
25 . ( , 18451916, )
1590. . . . 250-
. 1898. ( . ). 25
1591. . . I . 23 .
1592. . . I. 24
1593. . . I. 38
1594. . . . . . ( , 18401893,
). ( . ). 25
1595. . . . . . 22 17 .
( , 17691844, )
1596. . . 100- . . . 1869. 25
1597. . . . . . 25
1597. . . 100- . . . 25 . (
, 17991837, )
1598. , . . 19 25
1599. . . 2- . 50
1600. . . . 27
1601. . . (38 44 ), . . (25 39 ), . . (42 )
1602. . . . 62
1603. . . . - . 1914. 64
1604. . . . . 44
1605. . . . . . . . 40 . ( , , 18251884)
1606. . . . . . 28 . ( , 1801
1892, , )
1607. (35 35 ) (40 40 ) . .
-
1608. (?) . 39

254

255

. .

. .

1609. . ., . . .
1893 . ( ). 30
1610. . . (?) . 33
1611. . . . . . ( . .). (
, 18421902, -)
1612. . . 50- . .
. 36 ( , 18181899,
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1614. . . . 65
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1615. . .
. (1896). ( . .). 25
1616. . . II . 35
1617. . . 1000- . 1862. 28
1618. . . II. (1860- .). 41
1619. . . . . . 55 . ( ,
17981883, )
1620. . . II . 41
1621. . . II .
(). 64
1622. . . II. (). 68
1623. . . II. 73
1624. . . III, II, I. 90
1625. . . . . . . 65 . (-
, 17451813, )
1626. . . , . 70
1627. . . . 46 . (
, 17981849, I)
1628. . . .... 39
1629. . . . . . 1894. ( . .). 25 .
( , 18291894, , )
1630. . . . 35 24
1631. . . III II. 25
1632. . . III, . 23
1633. . . ... 29
1633. . . III
. 51
1634. . . III
. 76
1635. . . . 46
1636. . 49
1637. . . ,
, . 55 38
1638. . . , - . 53
1639. . . , II. 64 . ( . .?)

1640.
1641.
1642.
1643.

. . () . 1837. 31 26
, -. 32 25
, . 32 22
. . - .
29
1644. . . II, . 41 ,
64 , 70 . ( . .?)
1645. . . . . . 28 . (- , 17291800, )
1645. . . III II.
28
1646. . . 200- 45- . 28
1647. ( 21 ) (23 ) . . II
1648. . . . 24 .
( , 18771943, )
1649. (22 ) (23 ) . . . (
, 16501706, )
1650. (?) ... 35 35
1651. . . ,
, . 40
1652. . . . 46
1653. . . (29 37 ) (42 44 )
. ( )
1654. . . .
. 14 1896 . 57
1655. . . 100- . 23
1656. . . .
31
1657. . .
. 39
1658. . .
. 18 , 26 , 28
1659. . . . 26
1660. . . . 50
1660. . . . 1871. ( . .). 39
1661. . . . ( XX ). 25 ,
29 , 33 , 52
1662. 1832 .
1902. 24
1663. . . . 60
1664. . . I . 31
1665. . . , IX ., . 41 32
1666. . 32
1667. . . . 22
1668. . . (16 , 25 , 64 ) . . (27 ), . . (16 , 27 ) . .
(27 ) . (
, 18461909, II)

256

257

. .

1669. . 45
1670. . . ,
. 54
1671. . . (28 ) . . (49 ), . . (51 ) . . (39 )
:
1672. . . .
56
1673. . . (?) .
29
1674. . . . . ( , ). 21
1675. . . .
( . ., . .). 51 27 . : 16
1916
1676. . 1917. 53 41
1676. . . , 1000- . 1862. 51
1676. . .

1676.1 . . . . . ( . .?). 70 . (
, 17141787, )
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.
., 2004. . 6. . 206215.
9
Ntzel H. Eine Portrtmedaille des Chalifen elMutadir billah // Zeitschrift fr Numismatik.
Berlin, 1890. Bd. 20. S. 259265. .

: .
. . . , ., : Bowen H.
The Life and Times of Al Ibn s the Good
Visier. Cambridge, 1928. . ; . .
- 921922 . , 1956.
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11

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,
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12
Bergmann E. Eine abbasidische Bildmnze //
Numismatische Zeitschrift. Wien, 1870. Bd. 1
(Jahrgang 1869). S. 445456.
13
Daftar Nahidh A. R. The Medallion of Caliph alMutawakkil // Numismatic Chronicle (Seventh
Series). Vol. XVII (137). London, 1977.
14
: Arnold Th. W.
Painting in Islam. 2nd ed. New York, 1965;
Creswell K. A. C. Early Muslim Architecture.
Vol. I: Umayyads (A. D. 622750). Oxford,
1932; Sourdel-Thomine J., Spuler B., Brisch K. Die
Kunst des Islam. Berlin, 1973.
10


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SUMMARIES

SUMMARIES

. Lepekhina
THE DEPARTMENT OF NUMISMATICS OF THE STATE HERMITAGE
IN THE FIRST POST-WAR DECADE
(INVENTORY AND CONSERVATION OF COLLECTION ITEMS)

N. Beketova
NNA RKOVA. BIOGRAPHICAL OUTLINE

Anna Markova was born in Saint Petersburg on November 6 (October 24) 1895. Asya, as her
family used to call her, graduated from the grammar school and continued her education at the
Courses of Foreign Languages, where she studied English and German.
The first years following the revolution brought about many losses and hardships. In 1927
she managed to get the job of a room attendant at the Hermitage. Some time later, however,
Markova, as she notes in her autobiography, was offered the position of a research officer. She
owed it partly to the scholarly reputation of her father A. Markov (18581920) and to the good
memory he left in the museum.
From the very first days of the Great Patriotic War Anna Markova took an active part in
preparing the museum collection for evacuation: she worked on registering and conserving
the items that were to be left in Leningrad. Apart from museum work Markova, as many
other citizens, participated in air-defense, organizing bomb-shelters and digging trenches on
the outskirts of the city. In October 1942 she was transported to Sverdlovsk in dystrophic
condition. For the heroic labour during the war she was awarded the medal For the Defence
of Leningrad.
After the war Markova continued to work on the Hermitage catalogue of West European
coins. She wrote twenty four volumes of the catalogue. For this work Markova was awarded
several Hermitage diplomas.
Anna Markova died in Leningrad in January 1975, at the age of seventy nine.

The basics of the existing system of inventory and conservation at the Department of
Numismatics were established in the first half of the 20th century: every new item was recorded
by a special act and subsequently entered into a register and inventory catalogues. In the first postwar years (late forties through early fifties) the collection was returned from Sverdlovsk, where
it had been kept during the war, and its restoration required a great amount of work. To cope
with this task and to meet the new and more strict requirements of the Ministry of Finance and
the Ministry of Culture concerning the conservation of precious metals the system had to be
changed: inventory catalogues containing detailed descriptions were replaced by inventory books
with short one-line entries; special inventory registers were introduced to enter items containing
precious metals or stones. At the same period the Numismatics Department moved from the
New Hermitage, where it had stayed since the mid-19th century, to the rooms on the second floor
of the Winter Palace.

T. Slepova
THE MEROVINGIAN COINS OF ELIGIUS THE MINTER
IN THE HERMITAGE COLLECTION

The article considers the role of masters of the mint in the organization of coin minting
under the Merovingian dynasty. The author attempts to establish the official functions performed
by Eligius at the court of the Merovingian Kings Clotaire II (586629), Dagobert I (623639),
Sigebert II (638656) and Clovis II (639651). Published for the first time are the golden tremisses
from the Hermitage collection minted in the time of Eligius office and bearing his name. The
author analyzes the metal standards of coins to characterize the economic life of the Merovingian
period. Using comparative analysis of the narrative sources and numismatic data the author studies
the iconography of the kings portraits on coins, which vividly reflect Eligius epoch.

E. Shchukina
ENTRANCE OF MEDALS FROM GRAND DUKE NIKOLAI MIKHAILOVICHS
COLLECTION TO THE NUMISMATIC DEPARTMENT

The publication of the recollections of A. G. Belova, the daughter of L. N. Belova and


G. D. Belov, the renowned experts on the archaeology of Classical Antiquity and numismatics
of the Northern Black Sea area. Belova met Anna Markova during WWII in Sverdlovsk (now
Yekaterinburg), where the Hermitage had been evacuated. They continued to see each other
in Leningrad, but much less regularly after A. Belova had moved to Moscow.

In 1929 ten objects from the collection of Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich were transferred
from the drawing section of the Department of West European Art to the Department of
Numismatics. This member of the Romanov family made an important contribution to the
publication and study of monuments of Russian culture of the 18th and 19th centuries. His work
Russian Portraits of the 18th and 19th Centuries is a real encyclopedia of Russian personalia.
Medallions and medals from the Grand Duke collection also belong to the portrait genre; most
of them are quite rare. Their choice reflects the predilections of their owner at the end of the
18th and the first half of the 19th centuries.
Among the rarities is the ivory medallion with a portrait of Alexander I by the Swiss carver
B. Bodenmller. The cast-iron medallions of 1816 with portraits of A. L. Naryshkin and

286

287

A. Belova
THE MEMORIES ABOUT ANNA MARKOVA

SUMMARIES

SUMMARIES

A. P. Ozharovsky by L. Posh are distinguished for their highartistic quality. Particularly impressive is
the technically exquisite plaque of 1832 with a portrait of A. P. Ermolov.
The acquisition of 1929 enriched the fund of Russian and European medals with new precious
items, while one more Romanov was added to the list of persons whose collections entered the
Department of Numismatics.

V. Guruleva

A. Tereshchenko
THE WEIGHT-BASED MONETARY SYSTEM OF PANTICAPAEUM

The author traces the origin and development of the weight-based monetary system which
existed in Panticapaeum from the 6th to the beginning of the 4th centuries B.C. The study of
the published early Panticapaeum coins suggests the conclusion that the monetary system of
Panticapaeum had unique features not to be found in other regions of the Greek world.
It is noted, in particular, that the heaviest (6.70 gr.) drachma coin from the first Panticapaeum
series may have been used as a standard. Its weight, apparently, was to demonstrate the orientation
of Panticapaeum minting on the Aegina weight system. On the other hand, however, the coin
doesnt correlate with the weights of the coins of smaller denominations. These conclusions
are based on the data obtained by using the frequency table. This method shows that all the
denominations of Bosporan coins from diobol downwards were minted independently of the
standards of such well-known and widely spread weight systems as those of Aegina, Athens and
Persia.
This provides sufficient grounds for a supposition that the smaller coins of Panticapaean
minting, such as tetartemorions, hemiobols and, probably, obols, functioned, independently of
their actual weight, as mere counting units whose rate with respect to the main denomination was
firmly fixed. The system may have resulted from the adaptation of that of Greek colonies (and
Panticapaeum in particular) to local circumstances.

Yu. Diukov
CITY GODDESSES ON ANCIENT GREEK COINS

In the society organized into poleis, where every city was an independent political unit, the
figure of a local goddess patronizing the city acquired particular importance. Such goddess, apart
from being the symbol of the city, protected it and provided for its prosperity. As a result, the
Greeks started to show patron-goddesses on their coins.
More than two hundred and thirty cities, at different times, are known to have put the images
of city goddesses on local coins. These images, more numerous than those of any other divinity,
present, however, little variety.
A typical image of a city goddess is the head of a goddess on the coin from Heliopolis of
Galatia. It shows a stately dame wearing a crown in the shape of a city wall. The wall was the symbol
of the city, and it is this wall that the goddess was believed to protect. The head of the goddess is
veiled. In Ancient Greece the veil, apart from being, in some cases, symbolic of grief (Demeter
in search for her abducted daughter was always shown as veiled), bore witness to the high stature
of a woman who was wearing it, as well as of her advanced age. Shown behind the head of the
goddess are here typical attributes: a palm branch, the symbol of victory, and a cornucopia, the
symbol of wealth, that were also what the goddess was supposed to grant to her worshippers.

288

BYZANTINE COINS FROM THE SLAVYANSK (ANASTASIYEVKA) HOARD


IN THE STATE HERMITAGE COLLECTION

The article publishes thirty four Byzantine gold coins (and mentions two Arabian dinars)
from the Slavyansk hoard in the Hermitage collection. These coins constitute about the seventh
part of the complex of eighth century coins, several of which are kept in private collections
and 207 belong to the museum of Krasnodar. The article relates the discovery of the hoard, the
history of its study (I. Anfimov, A. Semenov, F. Fueg) and the circumstances of the purchase by
the Hermitage Museun thanks to A. Semenov and I. Parusimov of 34 copies from private
persons. The hoard is characterized as the greatest and richest complex of coins dating from
the early iconoclastic period and as an important source for the study of graffiti and imitations
of Byzantine coins. The author writes of the importance of the further study and the complete
publication of the Slavyansk hoard.

V. Kuleshov
MINTING PERIODIZATION OF KFIC DIRHAMS
IN THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE
(NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE)

On the evidence brought by the study of the hoard of Damascus (1950) and the correlation
of types of Umayyad dirhams the author suggests that the minting of Kfic dirhams in the
Umayyad Caliphate falls into seven distinct periods:
I: 78/7982/83 A.H.
II: 83/8489 A.H.
III: 9098/99 A.H.
IV: 99/100102/103 A.H.
V: 103114 A.H.
VI: 115126 A.H.
VII: 127132 A.H.
The author believes that this scheme provides a convenient framework for the analysis of any
complexes of Umayyad silver coins.

K. Kravtsov
AN ATTEMPT AT DATING THE RULE OF AN OBSCURE ABBASID
GOVERNER OF ABARISTN RAWH. B. H. TIM
(ON NARRATIVE AND NUMISMATIC SOURCES)

The earliest of the extant hemidrachmae of the Abbasid governors of abaristn are
the few extant coins minted in the name of Rawh. b. H.tim in 146 A.H./763764 A.D. and
147A.H./764765 A.D. These coins are epigraphically unique, being the earliest abaristn
hemidrahmae where the name of the governor, as well as the date and the place of minting,

289

SUMMARIES

SUMMARIES

are indicated on the reverse in Kfic rather than Pahlavi writing. Besides, the coins, unlike
all the other Arab-Sasanian hemidrachmae of this province, are dated according to Hidjra,
and not the abaristn era. The time of the rule of the Abbasid governor in abaristn
Rawh. b. H.tim has so far remained uncertain. Analyzing available narrative and numismatic
sources, the author defines the chronology of this rule with more accuracy, which throws
a new light upon one of the most obscure periods in the history of abaristn of the 8th
and the 9th centuries the time between the death of the last sphbed Khurshd, the son of
Ddhmihr, and the beginning of the rule of the last Abbasid governor Khlid b. Barmak in
149 A. H./766767 A.D.

The author supplements this group with a seal from the Hermitage collection ( 3315/630,
. 773) which remained unattributed for hundred years.
The author also confirms the attribution of a seal of the Annunciation monastery in
Novgorod, dating it by the 15th century (., 3315/625, . 765).

V. Beliayev, A. Sidorovich
MONEY FROM BUDDHAS BELLY CHINESE TEMPLE COINS
FROM THE YAN PERIOD

Under the Yan dynasty Buddhism was widely spread and supported by the State. Buddhist
temples paid reduced taxes, were donated vast land estates and received ample financial aid from
the State.
The income of religious institutions consisted to a large extent of the believers donations,
including natural products, silver bullions, and money (both paper currency and bronze
coins). The temples also turned out the so-called temple, or donation, coins that were sold to
worshippers.
Official coins were normally introduced into circulation to support the paper currency after
money reforms. In their design, metrological parameters and alloy composition, the coins strictly
followed the standard, independent of the place of their production. Unlike the short-termed
official emissions, temple coins continued to be turned out throughout the whole of the Yan
period. The large number of potential emitters and the fact that emitted coins do not obey any
obvious standard indicate that temple minting was not centrally regulated. The analysis of the
alloys shows that temple copper foundries did not regulate the composition of the alloy, nor the
technology of its refinement.
The article concludes that in spite of the support accorded to the temples by the State Yan
temple coins cannot be counted among the official coin emissions.

. Sotnikova

K. Chernyshov, . Chizhevskaya
THE FIRST THALER AND THE ART OF MEDAL IN EUROPE

The iconography of images struck on the first European thalers, which were to become the
main currency of the Modern Age, was considerably influenced by European medals. By 1484,
when the first thalers were minted, there had allready been a long tradition of cast and engraved
medals production in Europe, whose iconographic details were sometimes repeated on gold and
large silver coins. Later, in the 16th century, the regular minting of a new thaler coin was often
preceded by the creation of a prototype medal. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries the line
between the first thalers and medals was not easy to draw. The emitters used the already existing
models, so that new coins of larger denominations could circulate as a kind of mass medals
and serve, apart from their utilitarian function, to comnemorate the Prince and the State that
minted them.

V. Kalinin
MEDALS COMMEMORATING THE GREAT EMBASSY OF 16971698

The first foreign travel of Peter the Great in 16971698 was commemorated by a number of
medals produced by Dutch and German masters. Among them are the medal commemorating
the meeting of Peter I and William III of Orange in Utrecht in 1697 made by Jan Smeltzing
and Nikolas Chevalier, the medal commemorating the taking of Azov by the Russian troops
in 1696 by Jan Boskam, and the medal in honour of Fedor Golovin by an unknown artist.
The circumstances under which the medals contemporary to the visit of the Great Embassy to
Holland were struck remain uncertain. The author carefully studies the documents related to the
Great Embassy (account-books) and specifies the attribution of the medal commemorating the
taking of Azov and Tavan by the Russian troops: produced in Holland in 1898, it had long been
considered to be a medal For the Suppression of the Streletsky Mutiny. Referring to a number
of documents, the author also suggests that the dies for the medal in honour of Fedor Golovin
might be attributed to the medal-maker from Amsterdam R. Arondeaux.

OLD RUSSIAN OFFICIAL SEALS BEARING THE ANNUNCIATION IMAGE:


PROBLEMS OF ATTRIBUTION

. Marshak

The article discusses V. Yanins attribution of a large but compact group of Old Russian
official hanging seals showing the Annunciation on one side and St. Theodorus or St. John the
Baptist on the other (, 1970, 133139).
Yanin thought that these seals (of the extant hundred and twenty seals twenty five are now
in the Hermitage collection) belonged to Novgorod Princes Vsevolod-Gavriil MstislavovichFeodorovich (11171136) and Ivor-Ioann Vsevolodovich-Gavriilovich (11251127).
Sotnikova supports Yanins attribution by comparing the iconography and paleography
of Russian bulls, as well as their artistic style, with the specimens of Byzantine sphragistics.

Russian State assignats differ from their European and American analogues as regards both
their role in money circulation and their financial guarantees. This can be explained by the
history of the Russian financial system rather than by decisions taken by the Emperor and the
administration.

290

291

INTRODUCTION OF PAPER CURRENCY IN RUSSIA:


ORIGIN AND ANTECEDENTS

SUMMARIES

SUMMARIES

The first half of the 18th century is the period of important reforms in the governmental
system, taxation policy and money circulation. It was also the time when Russia got well
acquainted with the Western experience of the State management. The article aims to single
out the innovations which led to the introduction of paper currency in 1769. The most
important of them was the mass minting of heavy copper coins. Beginning with Peters
reign no discussion of changes in current copper coins went without proposals to introduce
paper currency or put promissory notes into circulation. The European experience, familiar
to the Russian government, was regarded mostly as negative. In the 18th and even in the first
half of the 19th century the development of credit and the foundation of banks in Russia
were still considered to be the task of the State. According to the law passed in 1729, State
institutions that could use fiscal money took on a number of banking functions. Particularly
typical for such activities were financial operations of the so-called salt offices. The promissory
notes and bills of salt offices considered in this article are the obvious antecedents of paper
banknotes. Due to these documents the State could get relatively cheap credits; besides, they
facilitated the transfer of money inside the country. The experience gained in the production
of stamped paper helped to organize the production of paper money and to take measures
against counterfeiting.

Apart from the history of the series the article includes a catalogue containing a description
of all the thirty two medals. As for the other five medals from the box sent to the Academy with
he Description of the French Parnassus, their authors and subjects remain unidentified.

M. Asvarishch
THE KNIGHTS OF THE ORDER
OF ST JOHN OF JERUSALEM AFTER 1810

After Paul Is death, the problem of the status of the Russian priories arose. In spite of several
attempts of liquidation, branches of the Order continued to be active in Russia. In 18011810,
about 250 Russian citizens were professed into the Order. In 1810, the Government practically
closed the priorities in connection with the economic situation resulting from financial crisis.
The Cornet Lazarev Case (1817) deprived the Russian nobility, de jure, of the right to claim the
Maltese Cross by right of blood. Nonetheless, white crosses of eight points continued to be in use
during the entire 19th century. After 26 February 1810, Maltese crosses given to Russian citizens
were either the badges of foreign orders (absolutely legitimate) or those of non-existent priories,
which had no legal basis, except the Tsars approval. All other badges with Maltese emblems in
Russia were not connected directly with the historical Order of St John of Jerusalem.

E. Shchukina
THE FRENCH PARNASSUS AND A SERIES OF MEDALS BY SIMON CUR

The Numismatics Department of the State Hermitage possesses thirty two medals by the
French sculptor Simon Cur (16811734) transferred from the Mnzkabinet of the Kunstkammer,
the first museum in Russia. These medals were a part of a large-scale project designed by Evrar
Titon du Tillet (16771762), a talented erudite of the Enlightenment epoch, who suggested to
erect a monument to the King Louis XIV, the Royal patron of French culture. The monument,
twenty meters high, was to show Mount Parnassus topped by the figure of Roi Soleil as Apollo in
the company of famous writers and musicians personifying Muses and Graces. The monument
was to be decorated by medallions with portraits of composers and men of letters woven into
a pattern of ivy, palm leaves and laurels. The author proposed to erect the monument in the
centre of Paris, on the place now occupied by the Triumphal Arch.
The ambitious project has never been carried out; the model of the monument by the sculptor
Garnier, one meter high, is now on display in the museum of Versailles. The French sculptor
Cur cast thirty two medals after sketches by Garnier showing portraits of French men of letters
and composers on the obverse and allegorical compositions on the reverse.
In 1758 Titon du Tillet presented to the Russian Academy of Sciences his book The French
Parnassus the edition of 1732 with additions made in 1743 and 1745. This voluminous work
is an encyclopedia of French culture from the 13th century until 1753, containing biographies and
characteristics of more than three hundred men of letters, actors and musicians. Along with the
book, now to be seen in the library of the Academy, Garnier presented a box containing thirty
seven medals, thirty two of which made up the French Parnassus series.
In return for this gift the Academy sent to Titon du Tillet several albums with engravings
printed in the typography of the Academy of Sciences.
Few collections possess more than a single medallion from the series by Cur; the Kunstkammer
complete series demonstrates the quality of the Hermitage collection of medals and shows how
close cultural relations between Russia and France were in the 18th century.

292

L. Dobrovolskaya
NUMISMATIC MEMORIALS OF BREEDING TROTTING HORSES
(ON THE BASE OF THE COLLECTION
OF THE NUMISMATICS DEPARTMENT OF THE HERMITAGE)

The numismatic collection of the State Hermitage includes a large number of medals and
jettons related to horse-breeding. The present article studies a group of such items connected
with the history of the Moscow and Saint Petersburg Societies for the encouragement of breeding
trotting horses. Medals and jettons commemorate the anniversaries of the societies or served as
prizes for race winners. Many of them are made of precious metals and are of a high artistic
quality. Particularly remarkable are personal jettons which belonged to the Crown Prince Nikolai
Aleksandrovich (the future Emperor Nicholas II) and the stud owner N(ikolai?) Telegin. Using
the archives and literary sources, the author traces the circumstances under which some of the
pieces were created and details of the history of races where the jettons from the Hermitage
collection were given as prizes.

N. Vvedensky
JUBILEE MEDALS OF THE LIFE-GUARDS KEXHOLMSKY REGIMENT
FROM THE STATE HERMITAGE COLLECTION

The article is devoted to the Life-Guard Kexholmsky Regiment medals from the State
Hermitage numismatic collection. They are characteristic specimens of regiment memorial
medals. The tradition of striking this type of medals can be traced from the mid 19th century,

293

SUMMARIES

SUMMARIES

it rapidly evolved up to the beginning of World War I. The end of the 19th and beginning of
the 20th century was the time of bicentennial jubilees of guards and army regiments created by
Peter the Great. These medals evidence the history of interdynastic and international relations
with West European countries, the birth or development of which also started in the period of
his great reforms.
The archive materials published in the paper give important data about the material and
production amount of these medals.

I. Dobrovolsky

M. Smirnov
FROM THE HISTORY
OF THE SAINT PETERSBURG MINT CATALOGUE
OF DIES CREATED BY VICTOR SMIRNOV

The mining engineer Victor Smirnov is known in the history of Russian numismatics as the
author of the dies catalogue, which is still to be found at the Saint Petersburg Mint. This edition
has served as a fundamental reference book for generations of historians of Russian medal
minting and faleristics.
Unfortunately, the catalogue and its supplements do not include dies produced after the
beginning of 1915, such as more than 200 dies used at the Mint in the last pre-revolutionary
years, as well as some earlier dies and matrices for commemorative and decoration medals.
Due to his official position the author of the present article was able to supplement the
Description of Russian Medals with 214 items not included into this book and never
published before.

M. Dobrovolskaya
N. SHCHEKATIKHINS HERITAGE AT THE HERMITAGE

On March 27, 1940 the Hermitage received a parcel from the Bashkir town of Belebey sent
by N. Shchekatikhin. Nikolai Shchekatikhin (18961940), an eminent art scholar who was among
the first to study the art and culture of Byelorussia, was arrested on false accusation in 1930
and exiled to Bashkiria. Repeated arrests, the hardships of exile and the severe climate lead to
his premature death. Unable to engage in active scholarly activities, he continued to work on
the materials he had collected. In 1937 he sent to the Hermitage his Topography of Hoards
with Lithuanian Coins on the Territory of the Old Lithuanian State, acknowledged by his
colleagues as an important contribution to the Lithuanian archaeology. At the approach of his
death Shchekatikhin sent to the museum his collection of official stamps, stamp impressions
and official book-plates, as well as the manuscript entitled Lithuanian Coins before the Lublin
Union of 1569, which made the first part of his Survey of the History of Lithuanian Coins in
the 16th and 17th Centuries.
The archive of the State Hermitage and the Numismatics Department possess the
correspondence and official documents related to the acquisition of Shchekatikhins collection.
The publication of these documents in the present article adds important details to the collectors
biography.

294

A UNIQUE DNR OF CALIPH AL-MUQTADIR


IN THE HERMITAGE COLLECTION

The article is devoted to a unique golden dnr of Caliph al-Muqtadir bi-llh, struck in
Madnat as-Salm (Baghdad) in the 304 A.H. (916/917 A.D.), preserved in the Department of
Numismatics of the State Hermitage Museum. The obverse has a depiction of an eagle and
the name of the Caliph and the place and year of minting around the edge. On the reverse is
a depiction of a saddled double-humped (Bactrian) camel, with a branch at left, a sword-like
decoration above, and quotation from the Qurn around the edge. The diameter of the coin is
25.5 mm; weight 8.47 g. This dnr is a memorial coin, although the occasion cannot be identified
on the basis of written sources. The analogs of the Hermitage dnr are the portrait medal of
al-Muqtadir bi-llh from the collection of Berlin Museum and the medallion of al-Mutawakkil
al-llh with a depiction of a camel from the collection of Vienna Museum.

P. Druzhinin (Moscow)
THE CONFESSIONS OF A COLLECTOR
(TO THE BIOGRAPHY OF F. VASILIEV)

The article offers the first publication of the memoirs, now in a private collection, of a wellknown numismatist from the city of Kazan F. Vasiliev. A merchant and old-believer, Vasiliev
was a thoughtful and devout antiquary who not only accumulated the artifacts but did his best to
open them to the academic study: he published the collected manuscripts, studied icon-painting
on the materials from his collection, maintained vast scholarly correspondence etc.
Particularly famous among the contemporaries was his numismatic collection. Vasiliev himself
wrote several articles related to its best pieces.
Vasiliev was in the foreground of the cultural life of pre-revolutionary Kazan: he developed
a long-standing friendship with many of University professors, took part in the activities of
scientific societies, donated generously to the University.
The memoirs published in the article, apart from portraying Vasiliev himself, vividly render
the very atmosphere in the Russian collectors community in the first half of the 19th the
beginning of the 20th century. The remarkably earnest character of the memoirs makes them
an interesting psychological self-study of a collector from the milieu of old-believers revealing
his personality, his passions and feelings, his attempts to reconcile his religious views with his
enthusiasm of an antiquary.

. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS

N. Beketova
nna rkova. Biographical Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

A. Belova
The Memories about Anna Markova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

. .

(
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

. Lepekhina
The Department of Numismatics of the State Hermitage
in the First Post-War Decade (Inventory and Conservation
of Collection Items) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

. .
- . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

T. Slepova
The Merovingian Coins of Eligius the Minter in the Hermitage Collection . . . . . . . . . .

32

. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

E. Shchukina
Entrance of Medals from Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovichs Collection
to the Numismatic Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

A. Tereshchenko
The Weight-Based Monetary System of Panticapaeum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

Yu. Diukov
City Goddesses on Ancient Greek Coins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

68

V. Guruleva
Byzantine Coins from the Slavyansk (Anastasiyevka) Hoard
in the State Hermitage Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

86

V. Kuleshov
Minting Periodization of Kfic Dirhams in the Umayyad Caliphate
(Numismatic Evidence) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

98

K. Kravtsov
An Attempt at Dating the Rule of an Obscure Abbasid Governer
of abaristn Rawh. b. H. tim (on Narrative and Numismatic Sources) . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .
()
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

. ( ) . . . .

. . , . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

V. Beliayev, A. Sidorovich
Money from Buddhas Belly Chinese Temple Coins
from the Yan Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

. .
. . . . . . 117

. Sotnikova
Old Russian Official Seals Bearing the Annunciation Image: Problems of Attribution . . . . 117

. . , . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

K. Chernyshov, . Chizhevskaya
The First Thaler and the Art of Medal in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

296

297

CONTENTS

. .
16971698 . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

V. Kalinin
Medals Commemorating the Great Embassy of 16971698 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

. Marshak
Introduction of Paper Currency in Russia: Origin and Antecedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

. .
. . . . . . 186

E. Shchukina
The French Parnassus and a Series of Medals by Simon Cur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

. .
. 1810 . . . . . . . . 214

M. Asvarishch
The Knights of the Order of St John of Jerusalem after 1810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

. .

( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

L. Dobrovolskaya
Numismatic Memorials of Breeding Trotting Horses (on the Base
of the Collection of the Numismatics Department of the Hermitage) . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

. .
-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

N. Vvedensky
Jubilee Medals of the Life-Guards Kexholmsky Regiment
from the State Hermitage Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

. .
. .
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

M. Smirnov
From the History of the Saint Petersburg Mint Catalogue
of Dies Created by Victor Smirnov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

M. Dobrovolskaya
N. Shchekatikhins Heritage at the Hermitage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

. .
-

. . . . . . . . . . . . 267

I. Dobrovolsky
A Unique Dnr of Caliph al-Muqtadir in the Hermitage Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

. .
( . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

P. Druzhinin (Moscow)
The Confessions of a Collector (To the Biography of F. Vasiliev) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286


XLVIII

. .
(18951975)

. .

. .
.
. .

. . , . .

. .
27.11.2009. 70100 1/16.
.-. . 18,75. . 600. . 112

190000, -, ., 34

190000, -, ., 34