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KHANZ
Compiled by | ABRAR ALI KHAN

H.M.S. LAB VIVA VOCE



1.Define pump and turbine.
PUMP: A machine or device for raising, compressing, or transferring fluids.
TURBINE: Any of various machines in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted
to mechanical power by the impulse or reaction of the fluid with a series of buckets,
paddles, or blades arrayed about the circumference of a wheel or cylinder.

2. Classify pumps.
Pumps can be classified by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps,
impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps and valve less pumps.

3. Why reciprocating pump is known as positive displacement pump?
A Hydraulic Reciprocating Pump, is also called a positive displacement pump, as it discharge
a definite quantity of liquid during the displacement of its piston.

4. Give parts of reciprocating pump.
Main parts of the reciprocating pump are:
Cylinder
Piston
Suction Valve
Delivery Valve
Suction and delivery pipes

5. Give applications of reciprocating pump.
The applications of reciprocating pumps can be easily seen in day-to-day life
Example: Cycle pumps, football pumps, kerosene pumps and hydraulic jackets.

6. State function of air vessel.
Air vessel is used to obtain a continuous supply of water at uniform rate, to save a
considerable amount of work and to run the pump at a high speed without separation.

7. Why centrifugal pump is known as roto-dynamic pump?
Roto-dynamic pumps include adding kinetic energy to a fluid such as by using a centrifugal
pump to increase fluid velocity or pressure.

8. Give parts of centrifugal pump.
Impeller (Closed, Semi-open & open impeller)
Casing (Volute, vortex and casing with guide blades)
Suction pipe
Delivery pipe



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KHANZ
Compiled by | ABRAR ALI KHAN

9. Give types of casing in centrifugal pumps.
Volute casing
Vortex casing
Casing with Guide blades

10. What is priming?
Priming is the operation of filling the suction pipe, casing of the pump and the promotion of
delivery pipe completely from outside source with the liquid to be raised before starting the
pump, to remove any air, gas or vapor from these parts of the pump.

11. Give difference between centrifugal and reciprocating pumps.
While centrifugal pumps make use of fast rotating impellers, reciprocating pumps use
cylinders that have back and forth moving plungers inside.
Centrifugal pumps are better suited for liquids having high viscosity whereas reciprocating
pumps are ideal for liquids having low viscosity
Reciprocating pumps operate at low speeds of 1150 rpm, whereas centrifugal pumps
operate at high rpm of 1750-3540.
There is a problem of priming whenever there is a leakage in centrifugal pumps whereas
there is no such problem in reciprocating pumps.
Reciprocating pumps have a constant flow and head whereas centrifugal pumps have
variable flow and head.

12. Give applications of centrifugal pump.
Generally, centrifugal pumps are high discharge, low pressure generating pumps. to
increase the pressure generated it is setup in stages wherein pressure increases from one
stage to another. Mostly seen in daily life applications such as pumps for water tankers,
emergency fire fighter vehicles use these types of pumps. These are called dynamic or non-
positive displacement pumps.

13. What is foot valve in centrifugal pump?
Foot valves are used to maintain hydraulic pressure to keep the water flow in accordance
with the given settings or configurations.

14. What are unit quantities?
Unit quantities are the quantities which are obtained when the head on the turbine is unity.

15. Define specific speed of centrifugal pump.
The speed in rpm of a geometrically similar pump of such a size that under corresponding
conditions it would deliver 1 liter of liquid per second against a head of 1 meter.

16. Define impulse and reaction turbine.
IMPULSE TURBINE: Requires high head speed and small quantity of flow of water and at
inlet of turbine the energy is kinetic energy.
REACTION TURBINE: Requires low head and high rate of flow and inlet of turbine, kinetic
energy as well as pressure energies are available.


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KHANZ
Compiled by | ABRAR ALI KHAN

17. Give classification of turbines.
According to quantity of water and energy available at the inlet of turbine
Impulse turbine
Reaction turbine
According to direction of flow
Tangential flow turbine (Pelton wheel)
Radial flow turbine (Fourneyron turbine)
Axial flow turbine (Kaplan turbine)
Mixed flow turbine (Francis turbine)
According to specific speed
Low specific speed turbine (Pelton wheel)
Medium specific speed turbine (Francis turbine)
High specific speed turbine (Kaplan turbine)
According to head at inlet of turbine
High head Turbine (Impulse turbine)
Medium head Turbine (Francis turbine)
Low head Turbine (Kaplan turbine)

18. Give examples for Impulse and reaction turbine.
Impulse turbine: Pelton wheel
Reaction turbine: Francis and Kaplan turbine

19. Give difference between Kaplan and propeller turbine.
PROPELLER TURBINE: When the vanes are fixed to the hub and are not adjustable, such
type of turbine is known as propeller turbine.
KAPLAN TURBINE: If vanes are adjustable on the hub, then the turbine is known as Kaplan
turbine.

20. What is meant by characteristic curves of turbines?
The curves which give the performance of the turbine under different working conditions
are called as characteristic curves for the turbine.

21. What is meant by main or constant head characteristic curve of turbines?
N, H and Q are the independent parameters. Out of independent parameters(N, H, Q), one
of the parameter is kept constant (Say H) and variation of P, o, , gate opening and Q are
studied with variation of speed N, such curve are known as main characteristic curves.

22. Define specific speed of turbine and give its significance.
Specific speed is defined as the speed of turbine that will develop unit horse power when
working under unit head. It is denoted by Ns.
Significance:
It plays an important role in the selection of turbines. The specific speed is inversely
proportional to the head across the machine. Low specific speed corresponds to high head
across it and vice versa.



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KHANZ
Compiled by | ABRAR ALI KHAN

23. What is meant by operating or constant speed characteristics curve of turbine?
For operating characteristic curve, N and H are constant and hence the variation of power
and overall efficiency with respect to discharge Q are plotting. The power curves for turbine
doesnt pass through the origin due to certain amount of discharge needed to avoid the
initial friction.













24. Define cavitation and give its preventive measure.
The cavitation is defined as the phenomenon of formation of vapor bubbles of liquid in the
region where the pressure of the liquid falls below the vapor pressure.
Preventive measures:
The pressure of the fluid flowing inside the pump in any zone should not permit to
fall below its vapor pressure.
The surfaces blades and pipes should be coated with aluminum bronze and stainless
steel. These materials have cavitation resistance.

25. Mention main parts of pelton wheel, Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine.
Pelton wheel
Nozzle
Runner with buckets
Casing
Hydraulic Brake
Francis turbine
Spiral casing
Guide or stay vanes
Runner blades
Draft tube
Kaplan turbine
Scroll casing
Guide vane mechanism
Hub with vanes (or) runner
Draft tube




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KHANZ
Compiled by | ABRAR ALI KHAN

26. What are the functions of draft tubes?
Functions of draft tube are
To recover as much as possible of the velocity energy of the water leaving the
runner, thus increasing the dynamic draft head
To utilize the vertical distance between the turbine exit and the tailwater level,
called the static draft head.

27. Why impulse turbine doesnt have draft tube?
Draft tubes are not required for impulse turbine since the runner must be located above the
maximum tailwater to permit operation at atmospheric pressure.

28. Give classifications of draft tubes.
Straight conical draft tubes
Elbow type draft tubes
Bell mounted draft tubes
Elbow draft tubes with circular inlet and rectangular outlet




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