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: (843) 292-91-99
E-mail: arch.pov@mail.ru
http://www.tataroved.ru
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CLXII :
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POVOLZHSKAY ARKHEOLOGIYA. 1 2012


(THE VOLGA RIVER REGION ARCHAEOLOGY)
CONTENTS
From Editors .............................................................................................................6
Armarchuk .. New findings of painted ceramics
of the Abkhazian Kingdom epoch .......................................................................8
Bocharov S.G., Maslovsky A.N. The Byzantine glazed ceramics
in the cites of the Northern Black Sea region of the Golden Horde period
(the second half of the XIIIth end of the XIVth cc.) .........................................20
Zeleneev Y.A., Zelentsova O.V. Medieval mordva
as per archaeological data ..................................................................................37
Shchapova Y.L. Organization Complexity Level is
a known idea in the basis of a new scientific approach .....................................48
Shatalov V.A. About problems and principles of bone goods
classification of the Ananino era (by way of weapons,
hunting equipment and harness example) ..........................................................58
Rudenko K.A. Occurrence of cities Volga Bulgaria and
Bulgars areas of the Gold Horde (according to archaeology) ...........................68
Kurochkina S.A. Albarello of the Lower Volga region
capitals of Dzhuchi Ulus ....................................................................................78

Publications
Chizhevsky A.A., Lyganov A.V., Morozov V.V. On the investigation of
archaeological sites in the island of Dubovaya Griva in 20092010 ................94

Notes
Stashenkov D.A. Casting form from Muransky selishche (settlement)
on the Usa river ................................................................................................116
Pigarev E.M. Rare type of panagia from Selitrenny settlement ...........................120

Towards the jubilee of Marina Dmitrievna Poluboyarinova


Zeleneev Y.A. Multi-sided talent of researcher ......................................................122
Kokorina N.A. Signs of artisans on Bulgar casting forms ....................................129
Medyntseva A.A. Cup of Vladimir Davydovich
as proof of intercultural contacts .....................................................................144
Baranov V.S., Badeev D.Y., Koval V.Y. Exploration of remains
of monumental structure in the south-west
of the Cathedral mosque in Bolgar ..................................................................158

POVOLZHSKAY ARKHEOLOGIYA. 1 2012


(THE VOLGA RIVER REGION ARCHAEOLOGY)
Kubankin D.A. Russian community of Ukek, the Golden Horde city ..................172
Volkov I.V., Gubaydullin A.M. Rare groups of ceramic
import in Bulgar ...............................................................................................190
Kuryshova N.P. Classification of beads from nomad graves
of the Golden Horde period .............................................................................204
Yavorskaya L.V. Animal bone remains from excavations CLXII
of Bolgar city: some new methods of archaeological-zoological
materials processing and appraisal ..................................................................216

Chronicle
Zeleneev Y.A. The Fifth International Conference
Dialogue of Urban and Steppe Cultures on the Eurasian area,
devoted to the memory of G.A. Fedorov-Davydov .........................................238
List of abbreviations .............................................................................................242
Rules for authors ...................................................................................................243

2012


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2010 // . 2012. 3.
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) //
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2010.
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// : . XXVII . , 2012.
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// :
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1998.

2012

NEW FINDINGS OF PAINTED GLAZED CERAMICS


OF THE ABKHAZIAN KINGDOM EPOCH

.. Armarchuk
Key words: glazed ceramics of the IXth the Xth cc., monuments of the northern
territory of the Abkhazian Kingdom and Sochi district: Sakharnaya Golovka, Veseloe
etc., functional assignment of vessels.

Painted glazed ceramics of the VIIIth Xth centuries come from Anakopia and other
monuments of northern territory of the Abkhazian Kingdom and adjoining district of
Bolshoy Sochi. New findings at the church nearby Veseloe settlement and graves on
the Sakharnaya Golovka mountain are small and medium sized single-handled narrownecked jugs which bear elements of painting as well as their composition, i.e. the whole
decoration in general. Analysis of painted glazed crockery of the Abkhazian Kingdom
epoch with consideration of the new material gives chance to limit its distribution by
territory and chronology. The area of these ceramics covers coast of the Black Sea
from the Mzymta outfall till New Athos, in general they are dated back to the IXth Xth
centuries. Availability of small painted glazed jugs in Christian graves makes us consider
that in this case they were used for chrism or other aromatic oils.

10

2012




( XIII XIV .)*

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.. . . ., 1978.
.. XIV . // XXVIII . , 2005.
.. XIIIXIV ., () // , XXVIII . , 2007.
.. // - . 2006 . . 19. , 2004.
.. (12401260) //
XXVIII . , 2005.

11

2012

.. - . 19971999 . // Vita
Antiqua. 1999. 3.
.. ( XIII XIV .).
, 1986.
.. // . ., 1996.
.. // -
. 2005 . . 22. , 2006.
.. . //
- . 2004 .
. 21. , 2006.
.. XIII
XIV . //
. 8. , 2010.
.. .
. , 2003.
.. ( ) // X
XVIII . , 2005.
- .. . ., 2003.
.. // . 1981. 1.
Franois V. Elaborate incised ware: un tmoin du rayonnement de la culture byzantine a lpoque palologue // XXVIII . , 2005.
Megaw A. Zeuxippos Ware // The Annual of the British Shool of Archaeology at
Athens. Vol. 63. L., 1968.
Waksman S.Y., Erhan N., Eskalen S. Les ateliers de ceramiques de Srkec (stanbul):
resultats de la campagne 2008 // Anatolia Antiqua. Vol. XVII. Istanbul, 2009.
THE BYZANTINE GLAZED CERAMICS IN THE CITIES
OF THE NORTHERN BLACK SEA REGION
OF THE GOLDEN HORDE PERIOD

(the second half of the XIII the end of the XIVth cc.)
S.G. Bocharov, A.N. Maslovsky
Key words: cities of the Northern Black Sea Region, ceramic import of the PostByzantine Period, chronological stages, production methods and technology,
classification methods.

Glazed ceramics of the Byzantine origin which came from the Northern Black Sea
region in the period of the Golden Horde cities (the second half of the XIIIth the end of
the XIVth cc.) is characterized in the article. Method principles of ceramics classification
formation are described. 6 main groups are represented. Morphology, ornamentation
techniques are described for every group, chronological frames of inflow into the region
are specified. Conclusion is made about the place and importance of the Byzantine glazed
ceramics in the Northern Black Sea cities.

12

2012

2012 . .. , ..
, . -;
, .
: VIIIXVIII ., , , , .

. VIII
. ,
.

.. // . . . ., 1877. . 1.
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( XXIV . 2005 .) // .
.; -, 2006.
.. XIIIXV . ( -
) // . . 2. .
. - , . .. . , 2011 .
.. //
. 10. ., 1893.
MEDIEVAL MORDVA AS PER ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA

Y.A. Zeleneev, O.V. Zelentsova


Key words: main development stages of the VIIIth XVIIIth cc., ethnic and social
processes, Moksha and Erzya subethnoses, early state formations, inter-ethnic
relations.

Mordva ethnos started its formation in the beginning of the Common Era and was
formed by way of merger of small related ethnic groups. By the VIIIth century these
groups united into two subethnoses Moksha and Erzya, which are preserved till the
present time. Four major stages are distinguished in medieval history of Mordva which is
primarily studied on archeological materials: 1) final stage of tribal formation (the VIIIth
the Xth cc.); 2) formation of the early Mordva states in the XIth the XIIIth cc.; 3) Mordva as part of the Golden Horde in the second half of the XIIIth XVth cc.; 4) Mordva as
part of the Russian state in the XVIth the XVIIIth cc.

13

2012

2012 . ..
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; ..
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. . . ,
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( , 1985, . 643) (type, typos).
, ,
,
.

.. // . 2001.
. 71.
. . . ., 2008.
.., .., ..
// . , 1972.
.. . , 1927.
.. // . ., 1988.
.. // .
, 2006. . 31.
.. // . / . . .
.. . ., 2006.

14

2012

.. . .
., 2006.
: / . .. .. . ., 1983.
.. . .; ., 1957. (. 54).
.. // . ., 1970. (. 166).
. . I. ., 1985.
.. . ., 1967.
.. . .,
2011.

15

2012



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(shatalov.vasily@mail.ru)
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: (I ..). ,
2006.

16

2012

.. // . 1951. 22.
.. ( -) // . 1997. 2.
.. I . .. . ., 2009.
.. , , //
. ., 1969.
.. - VIIX . // . 1961.
3.
.., .., .. . , 1989.
.., . // . , 1994.
..
// . , 1991.
.. // . 1952.
30.
.. -
. ., 1984.
.., .., .. .
., 1975.
.. //
. , 1977.
.. . ., 1978.
.. // . .,
1979.
.. // . 1980.
3.
.. //
.. . . 1. , 1987.
.. . ., 1991.
.. //
. . 1970. 156.
.. - (
). ., 1983.
.. // . 1964. 1-4.
..
. ., 1995.
.. . , 1986.
.. // . 1961. 101.
- ..
// - . ., 1981.

17

2012

.. - IXXII . , 2001.
.. - (VIIIVI . ..).
., 1977.
..
// . , 1998.
.. //
. , 1994.
.., .., .. .
., 2002.
.. : . . . : 07.00.06. , 2006.
.. ( ) // -
. ., 1970.
.. ( ) // -
. ., 1987.
.. . ., 1994.
ABOUT PROBLEMS AND PRINCIPLES OF BONE GOODS
CLASSIFICATION OF THE ANANINO ERA (BY WAY OF WEAPONS,
HUNTING EQUIPMENT AND HARNESS EXAMPLE)

V.A. Shatalov
Key words: the Ananino cultural-historical area, archaeological bone, classification,
weapons, hunting equipment, harness.

In the article actual problems of bone goods classification of Ananino cultural-historical area are considered. On the basis of the analysis of a bone material for weapons,
hunting equipment and harness the new classification scheme, allowing to carry out wide
interregional and intercultural comparisons is offered.

18

2012



( )

2012 . ..

, .
: , , , ,
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, , ,
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. II . , 1999.
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- . -, 1999.
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.. (
XI .) // , -, , . . .
. . ., 2000.
.. // .
. II. , 2007.
.. - . ., 1988.
.. :
XIXIII . .: , 2003.
.., .., .. // : XV . ,
2007.
.. : - . .:
,1967.

19

2012

.. XI XIII .: . : , 2007.
.. XIXIII .:
// - : (
). , 2009.
.. ( ) // . 2011. 12 (2021).
.. : // . ,
2011.
..
XIIIXIV . ( ) // . . 2. , 2011.
.. - VIIIXIV .: //
: II .
. , 2012.
.. // - . , 1985.
..
// : , , . , 1993.
.. (VIII XIII .). , 2006.
- ..
// . 1997. 1.
.. ( ). , 2008.
OCCURRENCE OF CITIES VOLGA BULGARIA
AND BULGARS AREAS OF THE GOLDEN HORDE
(ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOLOGY)

K.A. Rudenko
Key words: Volga Bulgaria, Golden Horde, archaeology, sites of ancient settlement,
settlements, medieval city.

Becoming of cities and city culture in Bulgaria at stages of historical development of


region was a miscellaneous. In IXX century passed natural process of a urbanization
accompanied numerical growth of the population and the increased needs of a society for
products of craft manufacture. It was stimulated with two phenomena bulgar trading
expansion and formation of system of relations of settled population Bulgar and its
neighbours nomads. The international communications were very important in city
bulgar construction in second half till the Mongolian period.
The period XIIIXIV century in history Volga Bulgar is rather original. That that before invasion was the partial phenomenon, as for example, the state basis and construction of cities, in Golden Horde became practically a rule. At the same time, there was
also a hierarchy of relations of the center and periphery bulgars cities promptly became
provincial and in new conditions became almost agrarian.

20

2012

2012 . ..
, . -
(kurochkina-sveta@bk.ru)
: , ,
.

. ,
,
(, ..) (, 2010, . 262).

.., .., .. XIIIXV . -:


, 1987. 256 .
.. ( ). : , 1990. 207 .
.. : .
.: , 1978. 278 .
.. // . ., 1969. . 3240.
.. // . .: , 1976. . 73107.
.. XIVXVIII . ( ): .
. . . , 1992. 24 .
.. // - . 2002 . , 2004. . 21. . 291335.
.., .. - ( 19942000 .). , 2009. 264 .
.. . . .: . , 1947. 144 .
. -: - , 1991. 211 .
.. . IXXVII . .: , 2010. 269 .
.. ( XIII XIV .). :
, 1986. 128 .
.. . , 1923.
.. XVXVIII . . . .,
1976.

21

2012

.. . //
- . 2004 . ,
2006. . 21. . 308473.
.. . .:
, 2000. 224 .
XXVIII .: . . . .: , 2005. . I. . 190194.
.. // . 1972.
2. . 164187.
.. // - . , 1988. . 112121.
.. VIIIXII .
, 1963. 208 .
., ., . . , 2008. 264 .
.., .. //
- .. . .: - , 1994.
228 .
.. (XIIXIV .) // . 1950. 17.
256 .
.. (-) // . (-) . . I. .: - , 1959. . 229280.
(, 67).
Fyodorov-Davydov G.A. The Culture of the Golden Horde Cities / Transl. from the
Russian by H. Bartlett Wells. British Archaeological Reports. International Series 198.
Oxf., 1984. 278 p.
ALBARELLO OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION
CAPITALS OF DZHUCHI ULUS

S.A. Kurochkina
Key words: ceramic complex, glazed red clay ceramics, albarello.

Analysis of albarello as one form of glazed red clay ceramics which was produced
in the cities of the Golden Horde, is given in the article. These units were discovered in
dwelling and household structures dated back to 1330/1340 1360 as per coin materials.
Albarello units were intended for medicaments and aromatic substances, but could also
be used as ink-pots.

22

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20092010 .

2012 . .. , .. , ..
. . , .
(hijevski@mail.ru; ligaant@rambler.ru);
- ,
. (vikromolot@mail.ru)
: , , , , , .

,
.
. , . , 1964 .
,
(, 1964).

.. :
. . . : 07.00.06. , 1984.
.. //
. 1985. . 119.
.. I . // .
1951. 23.
.. // . .:
, 1987. ( ).
.. . ., 2001.
.., P.C. , // -
. , 1982.
.. -. : - , 2008.
.., .. VII // . .19. .
-, 1994.

23

2012

.., .. // - // . 1978.
. 2.
.. // . 1978. .
153.
.. VIII . .. , 2003.
.. // . 1948. . XXIII.
.. // . 1952.
30.
..
// . 1957. 2.
..
// . 1960. 80.
.. - // . 1972. . 1.
.. //
- (. . 2). , 1978.
.. // . 1979. 1.
.. // . . ,
2000.
.. ( -). , 2010.
..
(- ) // . .: ,
1987. ( ).
.. ( ) // . .: , 1987. ( ).
.. . : , 2008.
.., .. : // - ( 150-
). , 2009. (. . 8).
.. . ., 1978.
.. ( ) // . 2007. . 4.
.. , - // . .: , 1987. ( ).
.., ..
( ). :
- -, 1995.
.. .
, 1998.
.. - // -
. .: , 1987. ( ).

24

2012

.. - IXXIV . // - . .: , 1987. (
).
.. . .: , 1967.
.. , 1964 . // . 1965.
..
. , 1949.
.., ..
// . , 1981.
.. i ii. i: ,
1973.
.. . :
, 1991.
.., .., .., - .., - .,
- ... . II: : , , . -
: . ., 2002.
.. : // XVII . . . ;
, 2007.
.. -
: // . 2008. . 5.
.. . .: , 1969.
.. // . 1980. . 1-24.
ON THE INVESTIGATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
IN THE ISLAND OF DUBOVAYA GRIVA IN 20092010

A.A. Chizhevsky, A.V. Lyganov, V.V. Morozov


Key wrds: Neolithic, Eneolithic, hoard, the Late Bronze Age, dwelling, the Early
Iron Age.

The article represents the results of the reconnaissance and excavations held in 20092010. Unknown before the site of Dubovaya Griva VI was discovered as a result of this
investigation. The artifacts of different archaeological periods since the Neolithic Age
up to the Middle Ages have been found here as well as the Dubovaya Griva hoard of
flint weapon. This hoard has been consisted of four flint daggers of the Eneolithic Age.
The area of 148 square meters excavated on the site of Dubovaya Griva II revealed
the remains of dwelling of the XVI-XV centuries BC related to the people bearing a
pottery of Zaosinovo type. Besides a pottery of Srubnaya cultural-historical community,
as well as the Lugovskaya culture and the Ananyino corded wear culture ones have been
found. The pottery fragments of the Neolithic age (the Kamskaya culture) as well as the
Maklasheevka culture have been picked up from the eroded bank.

25

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2012 . ..
-
. .. , .
, . . .

.. // . 1954. 42. (. . . . . I).


.., .. XI XIII . ., 2011.
.. .
XIXXX . // . . XII. , 2005.
.. . . ,
1893.
.. . ., 1896.
.. // :
, , . , 1996.
.. (XXV .). ., 1981.

26

2012

2012 . ..
- -,
. .
2011 . 750
( -) . 1261
.

.. ( ).
., 1993.
.., .. // . . III. , 2005.
.. // . V . ., . .. -. ; ,
2011.
.., .. 2009
2010 . , 2011.
.. . ., 2000.
.. //
. IV
. ., . .. -. , 2009.
..
I // - . . 4. , 1994.
.. . ., 1978.
.., .. , // . . II. ,
2010.
.. .
XXX . ., 2003.
.., .. . . ,
1899.

27

2012

2012 . ..
4 1932 ...
.
, . ,
, , ,
, .

.., .., .., ..,


.., .. // 1983 . ., 1985.
.., .., .., .., .., .. // 1986 . ., 1988.
.., .., .., .., .. // 1977 . ., 1978.
.., .., .., ..
// 1976 . ., 1977.
.., .. .., .., .. // 1980 . ., 1981.
.., .., .., .. // 1982 . ., 1984.
.., ..
19671971 . // . ., 1974.
.., ..
1963 . // . -1. -1. 2702-2702.
.., .. // . 1967. . 110.
.. // .
- . , 1959.
.. // . 1971. . 125.
.. 1961 . // . -1.
-1. 2632-2632.
.. -
1973 . // . 1975. . 144.

28

2012

.. (1961 .) // . 1963.
. 96.
.. 1965 . // . ., 1972.
.. // .
1965. 1.
.. // . 1972.
. 129..
.. // . 1972.
3.
.. . ., 1978.
.. XXV . ., 1993.
.. - 1972 .
// . 1974. . 139.
.. // . 1963. 4.
.. // .
1963. 117.
.. 16 . // .
2006. 4.
.. .
., 1993.
.., .., .., .. // 1979 . ., 1980.
.. .
. // : . .,
1987.
MULTI-SIDED TALENT OF RESEARCHER

Y.A. Zeleneev
Main stages of life and scientific activity of M.D. Poluboyarinova who made major contribution into archeology of the Old Rus cities (Veliky Novgorod, Turov, Serensk
etc.) and the Golden Horde cities (Vodyanskoe ancient city settlement, Bolgar) are characterized in the article. Such monographs of M.D. Poluboyarinova as Russian People in
the Golden Horde (M., 1978), Rus and Volga Bulgaria in the Xth the XVth cc. (M.,
1993), Decorations made of Colour Stones of Bolgar and the Golden Horde (M., 1993)
became reference books for archeologists and were highly appraised by specialists.

29

2012

2012 . ..
, .
: , , -,
, - .

, .. , : . ,
(, 1980), ,
, ,
. , , , .
,
, , .
* * *

, . , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , ,
, . (, 2009).

.. // .
. ., 1988.
-. - / . . . .
.. . .; ., 1939.
.., .. 19451952 .
, 1954.
.. // . , 1983.
.. //
. , 1994.
.. // ( . . 15).
, 2001.

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.. XI
XV . ( - ).
, 2002.
.. // :
(
). II . . . , 2005.
.. . ., 2009 ( ).
.. // . , 1983.
.. //
. XXIII . ., 1985.
.., ..
// . . 2. . , 2005.
.., .. .
. .; ., 1959.
.. //
. ., 1980.
.. // .
, , . , 1996.
.. - // . 1958. 61.
.., .. . IIIVII . ., 1987.
.. X
XIII . . . . . // . -2. 1918. ., 1963
.. // . , 1991.
Novgorodova Eleonora. Alte Kunst der Mongolei. Leipzig, 1980.
Tallgren A.M. Collection Zaussalov au Muse National de Finlande a Helsingfors.
II. Monographie de la section de lge du fer et lepoque dite de Bolgary. Helsingfors,
1918.
SIGNS OF ARTISANS ON BULGAR CASTING FORMS

N.A. Kokorina
Key words: casting forms, signs and their semantics, protection and magic, funeral
signs, analogy of the Old Turk-Mongol nations.

In the article marks (lines, crosses, etc.) on Bulgar casting moulds are discussed.
Such marks are well known in sign system of Volga Bulgaria and the Golden Horde.
Ideograms of tamga-type signs were marked on casting moulds, probably, with the
purpose of protective magic. Casting moulds with marks of protective magic and funeral
symbology appeared sacrifice items and were used, probably, in praying actions. Its more
than likely that this explains concealed from others graphics and semantic symbology
of signs.

31

2012

2012 . ..
, .
: (11391151), , , , .

..
. , , (, 1978).
.
,
, ,
, ,
, . ,
, , , , (,
.. ).
, . ,
,
.

.. //
.., .. . ( 19531954 .). ., 1958.
.., .. . .,
1963.
.. . ., 1984.
.. XII .,
// , - . . III. .,
1851.
.. // XXIII .
., 1975.

32

2012

.. //
. ., 1984.
..
. ., 1892.
1076 . ., 1965.
. ( 1151 .)? //
Russian linguistics. International Journal for the Study of the Russian Language. 1977.
Vol. 3. 3/4.
.. XXVII . ., 1976.
.. . ., 1966.
.. . ., 1969.
.. . ., 1979.
.. . ., 1991.
.. . ., 2000.
.. . ., 1976.
. //
. ., 1925.
.. XIXV . .; ., 1936.
.. XIXV . ., 1952.
.. . ., 1978.
.. . ., 1940.
. . I. . ., 1962.
. . XXV .; ., 1949.
.. // . . . 5.
., 1929.
.. XIXV . // . 1964. .
1-44.
.. // . . ., 1972.
.. . ., 1895.
. II.
.. . . III. .,
1903.
.. . . IIIIV. .; ., 1964.
..
XIV // XIV .
. ., 2009.
.. , . .,
1972.
.. . .,
1941.
.. . . 1967.
.. XXV . . I. ., 1970.

33

2012


CUP OF VLADIMIR DAVYDOVICH
AS PROOF OF INTERCULTURAL CONTACTS

A.A. Medyntseva
Key words: Chernigov Knyaz Vladimir Davydovich (11391151), crude and
embossing inscription on the cup, paleography, language dialectisms, artistic value.

A new research of a well-known inscription on a silver cup of Chernigov knyaz


Vladimir Davydovich made it possible to conclude that this cup was produced in 1139,
and later traces of the inscriptions palaeography can be connected to its secular nature.
The cup could have been brought to Novy Saray (Tsarevskoe site of ancient town) by
the widow of Vladimir Davydovich who married the Polovets khan Bashkord. There is
an assumption made that inscription on this cup could serve as an example for ladle of
Dmitry Kruzhdovich made in the Horde in the XIVth century.

34

2012

2012 . .. , .. , ..
-
-, . ;
, .
: , , , /
, .

, 100150 -
,
(. ) .. 1989 . . , ( ). 1989 .
CIV (104) 108 . . CV 48 . , ..
. , 156 . .
, ..
1,2 1 , , ,
. , ,
XVIIIXIX . ,
.

.., .. //
. ; , 2008.
.. // :
. , 2005.
.., .., .. (19891993 .) // . , 1994.
.. 1989 . ( XCIV, XCVI, CIV) // -.

35

2012

.. XIV . // .
2006. 4.
.. // . . ., 1988.
- .., .., .. 1985 // . -1. 10766. ., 1985.
EXPLORATION OF REMAINS OF MONUMENTAL STRUCTURE
IN THE SOUTH-WEST OF THE CATHEDRAL MOSQUE IN BOLGAR

V.S. Baranov, D.Y. Badeev, V.Y. Koval


Key words: construction and architectural features of the structure, merchant tools,
coins, functional assignment trading house / city market, possible reconstruction.

The article presents some results of continuation of archeological excavations of


remains of monumental structure in the centre of the Old Bolgar, which were initiated
due to research of M.D. Poluboyarinova in 19891990, and continued in the course of
site of ancient town improvement held nowadays. There were ruins of 32 x 32 m sized
building found which was built in 13401350 and destroyed in the second half of 1360s
or 1370s. The building could have served as the trade yard (special market place).

36

2012

2012 . ..
, .
: , , , , , .

, ,
.
. , , ..
(1978). , (, 2000; , 2011; 2011),
.. .
* : 12-31-01246.

.., .. 1996 // . 1996.


.., .. // . ( ).
, 2002.
.. //
. . ., . 100- .. . , 1997.
.. // . . 1910. . II.
.. : . ., 2004.
.. . ., 1981.
// . . 19. ., 2000.
.. XIII
XIV . ., 2009.
.. XIIIXIV . // . 1999. 12.

37

2012

.. .. -
// . . 12. , 2005.
.. //
: , (. . .
7). , 2006.
.. //
- . . 4. , 2006.
.. //
. . 8. , 2008.
.. // : V . ., . .. -. , 2011.
.., 2011. // III (XIX) . . II. .; .;
, 2011.
.. 2010
2011 . ( ) //
. . 10. , 2012.
..
// . . 5. , 2002.
.. . ., 2000
.. //
(. . . 135). ., 2002.
.. XIXV . // .
1983. . E 1-60.
. . , 2003.
.. . ., 1978.
.. //
. . ., 1975.
. . , 1997.
.. ( XIIIXV .) // - . . 4. , 2007.
.. // .
1914. . 53.
.. , .
. I. ., 1884.
- .. . ., 1973.
. . , 1999. ( . ).
Nedashkovsky L.F. Ukek: The Golden Horde city and his periphery. Oxford, 2004.

38

2012

RUSSIAN COMMUNITY OF UKEK, THE GOLDEN HORDE CITY

D.A. Kubankin
Key words: Ukek is a city of the Golden Horde, Russian quarter, ruins of the Orthodox
church, units of household and Christian cult, social composition, occupations of the
Orthodox population.

On the monument of the Golden Horde period (the middle of the XIII XIVth cc.)
Ukek site of ancient town in Saratov region ruins of the Christian church were found as
a result of archeological research. Units of the Christian cult and household things of the
Old Russian people are localized in this district. Besides this area there is a big collection
of alike objects and artifacts on the monument, which mark stay of the Russian noble men
in Ukek. Rich treasures were found in the places of residence of the Old Russian people.
These facts prove presence of major Russian Christian community at this monument of
the Golden Horde. Status of its citizens was different: from aristocracy representatives
and rich townsmen till poor and dependant people.

39

2012

2012 . .. , ..
-
. .. , . ;
. . , .
: , , , , .

( )
. , , , .

, . ,
, , ,
. ,
, .

.. XIVXVIII . ( ): . . ... . . . ., 1992. 24 .


.. // . . 1. , 1993. . 143157.
.. . //
- 2004 .
: , 2006. . 21. . 308473.
.. XIXV .: : . . ... . . . ., 2012. 29 .
.. XIXV .: : . ... . . . ., 2012. 495 ., .
.. // : , ,
. .: , 2008. . 27107.
.. 1946-1952 . // . .: , 1954. 42. C. 424-484.
( . .1).

40

2012

.. 1953-1954 . // . .: , 1958. 61. C. 392-414.


( . .2).
Blakely J.A. Ceramics and Commerce: Amphorae from Caesarea Maritima // Bulletin
of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 271 (Aug., 1988), pp. 3150.
Gerstel Sh.E.J., Munn M., Grossman H.E., Barnes E., Rohn A.H, Kiel M. A Late
Medieval Settlement at Panakton // Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of
Classical Studies at Athens. Vol. 72, No. 2 (Apr. Jun., 2003). . 147234.
Hayes J.W. Excavations at Sarahane in Istanbul. Princeton, 1992. Vol. 2.
Hayes J.W. Hellenistic and Roman Pottery Deposits from the Saranda Kolones
Castle Site at Paphos // The Annual of the British School at Athens. Vol. 98 (2003),
pp. 447516.
Johnson B.L. Syro-Palestinian bag-shaped amphoras in the Athenian Agora and
Corinth collections // Recherches sur les amphores greques: Actes du Colloque International organispar le Ctntre National de la recherche scientifique lUniversit de Rennes
II et lcole Franaise dAthens (Athens, 1012 septembre 1984) / d. par J.-Y. Empereur et Y.Garlan. Athens; Paris: cole Franaise dAthens, 1986. P. 589597.
(Bull. De correspondence hellnique / cole Franaise dAthens; Suppl. XIII).
Landgraf J. Chapitre V: La Cramique Byzantine // Briend J., Humbert J.-B. Tell
Keisan (19711976), une cit phnicienne en Galile. Fribourg, Suisse, 1980. 400 p.,
143 pl.
Mayerson Ph. The Gaza Wine Jar (Gazition) and the Lost Ashkelon Jar (Askalnion) // Israel Exploration Journal: Israel Exploration Society, 1992. Vol. 42. 1/2.
pp. 7680.
Rosser J. Excavations at Saranda Kolones, Pathos, Cyprus, 19811983 // DOP, 1985.
39. P. 8197.
Walmsley A. Economic Developments and the Nature of Settlement in the Towns and
Countryside of Syria-Palestine, ca. 565800 // Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 2007. Vol. 61.
P. 319352.
Wightman G.J. The Damascus Gate, Jerusalem: Excavations by C.-M. Bennett and
J.B. Hennessy at the Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, 196466. Oxford: BAR, 1989. 4,
366 p., ill. (BAR IS. Vol. 519).
RARE GROUPS OF CERAMIC IMPORT IN BULGAR

I.V. Volkov, A.M. Gubaydullin


Key words: imported unglazed ceramics, amphora, forms and parameters,
technological features, problems of origin.

A group of imported ceramics amphora, some remains of which were discovered


in layers of Bolgar of the XIIIth the XIVth cc., is considered in the article. Part of them
was graphically reconstructed. Technological manufacture features are described, but it
is problematic to determine centers of their production. The authors consider that most
likely amphoras were used for transportation of wine.

41

2012

2012 . ..

, .
: , , ,
. , , .


, , .
XIII XIV . . ,
.
- ,
. ,
, ,
, .
1014 .
. 620 , (,
, .).

.. . // . . 1.
, 1948.
.. XIV . . // . . 1. , 1959.
.. // . 1963. 109.
.. . ., 1930.
.. . ., 1974.
.. (XIIIXIV .) // . ., 1976.
.. // . 1984.
2.
.., .. // .
, 1983.

42

2012

.. - VIIX . // .
1961. 3.
.. // .
50 . ., 1982.
.., .. . ., 1987.
.. - // . ., 1965.
.. // .
1959. 75.
.. VIIIXII . .,
1961.
.. VIIIXII . ., 1981.
.. . // . 1955. 49.
.. // . . ., 1988.
.. .
., 1991.
- .. . ., 1966.
.. // .
. . 33. .,1959.
.. // . 1956. 55.
.. . ., 1972.
CLASSIFICATION OF BEADS FROM NOMAD GRAVES
OF THE GOLDEN HORDE PERIOD

N.P. Kuryshova
Key words: glass beads, beads made of semi-precious stones, metal, faience and
other metals, classification methods, chronology and territorial distribution.

Beads from graves of nomads of the XIIIXIVth century are of massive finding
category. Systematization of beads was based on such identifiers as material, manufacturing
technology, shape, size and colour. The size of beads, as well as their proportions,
peculiarities of technological process of manufacturing were taken into consideration.
Most of 1014 pieces of beads are one-coloured and have simple shape are spherical,
zonal, ring-shaped. As per ornament glass beads are divided into spotty, oculated and
striped. Specific group is comprised of beads made from rock crystal, amber, carnelian,
jade, coral, mother-of-pearl and pearl. Diversity of finery made from different materials
proves strong trade relations of Volga region with countries of East and West before
Mongol period as well as during the Golden Horde historic period.

43

2012


CLXII :

*

2012 . ..
, .
: , , , , ,
, .

, ( )
-. 1950- .. , , 1970- ,
.. , 1990-
.. .
.. . 1984 . , (, 1984).
1988 . , . , ,
40 , (, 1988).
* ( 11-06-00190-).

.. : , //
. ., 2004.
.. // . . III. ., 2004.
..
. ., 1984.
.. // .
. ., 1988.
.. // . . . LXXXII (1). ., 1967.

44

2012

.. // . , 2007.
Grant A. The use of Tooth Wear as Guide to the Age of Domestic Ungulates // Ageing
and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites / BAR (British Series). 109.
Oxford, 1982.
Levine M.A. The use of crown height measurements and eruption-wear sequences to
age horse teeth // Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites / BAR
(British Series). 109. Oxford, 1982.
ANIMAL BONE REMAINS FROM EXCAVATIONS CLXII OF BOLGAR CITY:
SOME NEW METHODS OF ARCHEOLOGICAL-ZOOLOGICAL
MATERIALS PROCESSING AND APPRAISAL

L.V. Yavorskaya
Key words: city of Bolgar, paleozoology material, collection extent, division
index, taxonomic composition and age of animals, chronological groups, meat
consumption.

Results of research of animal bone remains from excavations CLXII of the Bolgar
city as per modern archeological-zoological method are considered in the article. Total
number of bone remains is 21 295, of fragments determined by type is 17 277 (81.1% of
total). Taxonomic identification detected remains of 8 types of domestic animals: bovine
cattle (Bos Taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Carpa hircus), horses (Equus caballus),
pigs (Sus scrofa f. Domestica), camel (Camelus camelus), dogs (Canis familiars), cats
(Felis catus) and 7 types of wild animals: moose deer (Alces alces), roe deer (Capreolus
capreolus), bear (Ursus arctos), fox (Vulpes vulpes), wild boar (Sus Scrofa f. Ferus),
hare (Lepus sp.), beaver (Castor fiver). Almost all types of wild animals were used for
obtaining fur and skin, and their meat was used as food.
Remains of small cattle are mostly fixed in osteologic spectrum. Townsmen used to
eat mostly beef, they ate mutton and horsemeat more rarely. Analysis of age of animals
killed for meat detected specialized supplies of meat into the city. Little pathologies found
in the bones show that animals were kept well, animals with traumas and development
pathologies were cast out. Bovine cattle was used for heavy works.
Animal bone remains distribution on this excavation area was analyzed as per
chronological life periods of the city. A higher intensity of bones accumulation in the
IVth late layer of the Golden Horde period (middle of the XIVth beginning of the XV
centuries) rather than in the IVth early layer (middle of the XIIIth middle of the XIVth
centuries) was revealed. Share of bone remains of other types of wild and domestic
animals is equally distributed as per periods.

45

2012



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47

2012




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2012 . ..
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(1, 2, 3).
:
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.. : (, 1964, . 2325, . 5: 1; 6: 3; . XII, 16; , 2007, . 93, 590).

: ,
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, , . :

.. // . 2000. 3.
.. . ., 1954.
..
// .
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. , 2007.
.. . .: , 1964.
.. XIII . //
. 1962. 111.
.. . 1977 . //
. 1977. -1. 6695.
.. - ( ): . . . . . , 2012.
Chalikova E.A., Chalikov A.H. Altungarn an der Kama und im Ural: Das Grberfeld
von Bolschie Tigani. Budapest, 1981.
,
.
.

49