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Chapter 4 Section 1 Outline


Population Ecology: Population Dynamics

I. Population Characteristics
A. Population density
The number of organisms per unit area is the _Population
Density_____________

B. Spatial distribution
___Dispersion________ is the spacing pattern of a population

Can be _Uniform______, _____Clumped___ _______, or
___Random____

Pattern primarily driven by resources such as food






Uniform Random Clumped

C. Population ranges
A species range is its Distribution_________________ across the
environment.

A species might not be able to expand its population range because it
cannot survive the _Abiotic______ Conditions___________ found in the
expanded region.

II. Population-Limiting Factors
Limiting factors are ___ Biotic___ or __Abiotic_____ forces that keep
populations from increasing indefinitely.

Limiting factors are either ___density-independent_________________ or
__density-dependent________________.

A. Density-independent factors
Any factor in the environment that does not depend on the number of
members in a population per unit area is a _____density-independent
factor____________________

Usually abiotic and include:
Weather events
fire
Human alterations of the landscape
Air, land and water pollution

B. Density-dependent factors
Any factor in the environment that depend on the number of members in
a population per unit area is a ___Density-Dependent
factor_______________________

Often biotic, and include:
Predation
Disease
Competition
Parasite

C. Population growth rate
The __population growth rate (PGR) explains how fast a given population
grows.

Natality: birthrate of a population in a given year

emigration: number of individuals moving away from a population

immagration number of individuals moving into a population

Exponential growth model:

Occurs when growth rate is proportional to population size

All populations grow exponentially until they encounter a limiting
factor







lag time exponential growth

Logistic growth model:
Occurs when a populations growth _slows____________ or
__stops___________ following exponential growth

A population stops increasing when the __number of
births__________ __ ________ number of deaths, or when
______emmigration________ ____immagration______________



carrying
capacity


lag phase S-curve

Carrying capacity
___carrying____________ __capacity_______________ is the
maximum number of individuals in a species that an environment can
support