Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 960

32.973.202+32.988.

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004.738.5
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ISBN 978-5-459-00342-0
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1980 ,

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, 802.12 802.16, 3G, RFID, CDN, , , -
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32.973.202+32.988.02
004.738.5

Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Sadle River, New Jersey 07458.


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ISBN 978-0132126953 .
ISBN 978-5-459-00342-0

Prentice Hall, Inc., 2011


, 2012
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, 2012


1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 947


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
1.4.1. OSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
1.4.2. TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
1.4.3. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
1.4.4. OSI TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
1.4.5. OSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
1.4.6. TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
1.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
1.5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
1.5.3. : 802.11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
1.5.4. RFID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
1.6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
1.6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
1.6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
1.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.5. CDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.3. : , ADSL, . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2. :
(G2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.3. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8.5. ADSL ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106
107
107
110
112
112
113
114
115
116
122
123
127
128
132
133
135
136
140
140
143
145
145
150
153
155
156
159
160
163
165
173
182
186
188
192
197
202
202
203
205
206
208
210
211

8
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2. . . . . . . . .
3.3.3. . . . . .
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2. n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1. SONET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2. ADSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

216
217
219
223
224
225
227
233
239
244
245
247
251
253
256
263
269
269
273
276
277

4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2. , . . .
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1. ALOHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2. . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2.
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.4. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.5. Fast Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.6. Gigabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.7. 10- Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.8. Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1. 802.11: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.2. 802.11: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.3. 802.11: .
4.4.4. 802.11: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

282
282
284
286
286
291
294
298
302
305
306
307
311
313
316
319
322
324
325
326
327
329
336
338


9
4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1. 802.16 802.11 3G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2. 802.16: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.3. 802.16: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4. 802.16: MAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.5. 802.16: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6. Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.1. Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.2. Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.3. Bluetooth: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.4. Bluetooth: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.5. Bluetooth: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6.6. Bluetooth: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7. RFID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.1. EPC Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.2. EPC Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.3. EPC Gen2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.4. , , , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

340
341
342
343
345
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
356
357
357
359
360
361
361
363
366
368
371
378
380

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.5. . . . . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

384
384
385
387
389
390
392
394
395
398
399
403
409
411
413
416
417
420
424
426
427

10
5.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.1. IP 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.2. IP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.3. IP 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.5. MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.6. OSPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.7. BGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.9. IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

428
430
434
436
437
439
443
447
451
454
457
458
459
462
464
465
469
471
475
488
498
504
507
512
518
519
521
522

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.4. : - . . . . .
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. : UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1. UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . .

527
527
529
533
535
540
541
544
550
554
559
560
563
563
568
572
574
575
577
580

11

6.5. : TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.1. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.2. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.3. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.4. TCP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.5. TCP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.6. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.7. TCP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.8. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.9. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.10. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.11. TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.1. . . . . . . .
6.6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.1. DTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.2. Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

586
586
587
590
591
595
596
597
599
603
606
617
618
618
619
623
626
629
631
636
637
639
642
643

7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
7.1. DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1. DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. (WWW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.3. - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.4. HTTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3.6. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

648
649
653
656
660
661
664
668
677
682
685
687
702
712
724
734
736
739
741
747
755
763
767

12
7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.4. ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

778
779
782
787
792
801
803

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1. DES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2. AES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1. RSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.2. X.509 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.1. IPsec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.1. , . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.3. . . . . . . .
8.7.4. Kerberos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.5. . . . . . . .
8.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8.1. PGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8.2. S/MIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

810
811
814
815
817
822
824
826
829
833
838
839
840
841
843
844
845
846
847
852
854
855
856
858
861
862
866
869
871
876
877
882
884
887
889
890
891
895


13
8.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.3. SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

896
896
897
902
906
910
910
914
917
921
922

9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

928
929
930
930
931
931
932
933
933
935

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 947

, , , , ,
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.

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(2003 .) .
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(802.12 802.16);
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RFID ;
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- (IP-);
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.
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15

: ADSL, AES, AMPS, AODV, ARP, ATM, BGP, CDMA, CDN, CGI, CIDR,
DCF, DES, DHCP, DMCA, FDM, FHSS, GPRS, GSM, HDLC, HFC, HTML, HTTP,
ICMP, IMAP, ISP, ITU, LAN, LMDS, MAC, MACA, MIME, MPEG, MPLS, MTU, NAP,
NAT, NSA, NTSC, OFDM, OSPF, PCF, PCM, PGP, PHP, PKI, POTS, PPP, PSTN,
QAM, QPSK, RED, RFC, RPC, RSA, RSVP, RTP, SSL, TCP, TDM, UDP, URL, UTP,
VLAN, VPN, VSAT, WAN, WAP, WDMA, WEP, WWW XML.
, , .


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comp@piter.com ( , ).
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24 1.
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C2C

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P2P

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26 1.

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1.1.

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28 1.
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1.1.

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( ) . ,
$10 (Harte ., 2000).
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30 1.
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1.2.

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PAN
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44 1.
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54 1.
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1.3.

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1.4.

57

1.4.
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58 1.

. 1.17. OSI



. ,
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, ;
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1.4.

59



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1.4.

61


, . HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol),
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, , .

1.4.2. TCP/IP
, AR
PANET, , , . ARPANET
, . ARPANET
, .
,
. ,
.
. ,
.
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, 1989). Clark, 1988.
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, ,

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,
.


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, .
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62 1.
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.


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1.4.

63


, TCP

/
IP
, , . ,
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TCP (Transmission Control Protocol ), ,
.
. TCP-
. , TCP
, .
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- , , . IP, TCP
UDP .1.19. IP
.

. 1.19. TCP/IP


TCP/IP . , .
,
. OSI :
.
.
.

64 1.
(TELNET), (FTP)
(
SMTP
). . , , .1.19. DNS (Domain
Name Service ),
, HTTP, , World Wide Web,
RTP, ,
.

1.4.3. ,
, OSI ( ),
. , TCP/IP , . ,
, .1.20.

. 1.20. ,

,
,
. ,
. IP ,
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, ,
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.
, , .
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, DNS,
.
. ,
OSI , , , , , TCP/IP
, 802.11, SONET Bluetooth.

1.4.

65

1.4.4. OSI TCP


OSI TCP .
. .
, , ,
, ,
. .

.
, .
. ,
, .
. (Piscitello Chapin,
1993) TCP/IP OSI.
OSI .
1. .
2. .
3. .
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.

66 1.
, ,
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,
, .
, .
. , OSI
, ,
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TCP/IP : ,
, . ,
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. -
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, , , : OSI , TCP/
IP . ,
, .

. OSI
,
(
). TCP/IP
( ),
, .
-.

1.4.5. OSI
(OSI TCP/IP), . .
.
OSI, TCP/IP.
, (. . .)
(1989), , OSI
. . ? ,

1.4.

67

.
OSI :
;
;
;
.

: .
, .
(David Clark) M.I.T. ,
(.1.21).

. 1.21.

, .
, . , ,
.
,
. , ,
, . ,
,
. (
), .
, OSI .

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68 1.
, ,
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/
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OSI
, ; ,
. , -
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,
OSI
, , .
, . ( ) , (
) .
OSI

. , .
.
(PaulMockapetris), Rose, 1993.
. , ?
. , , .
, OSI,
, , ,
, . , , Saltzer
. (1984) , ,
,
.


,
. , . OSI
. , .

TCP
/
IP
,
Berkley
UNIX

, , ( , ).
, .
, . .


- ,
, TCP/IP UNIX. UNIX
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1.4.

69

, , ) .
, OSI
, () .
,
,
,
, . - , IBM 1960-
,
PL
/
I
, , ,
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1.4.6. TCP/IP
TCP/IP . -,
, .

, OSI
TCP
/
IP
.
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/
IP
, .
-, TCP/IP
, TCP/IP. , , Bluetooth
TCP/IP .
-,
, .
.
, .
-, TCP/IP
. . ,
. , ,

.
. TCP/IP .
, , IP TCP , , , .
, ,
, - .
. , TELNET,
Teletype, 10 .
.
, 30 , .

70 1.

1.5.
: , .
, , .
, ,
. , . ,
, .
. . IEEE 802.11,
. ,
RFID
; , .

1.5.1.
,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
(John Naughton) 2000 . ,
,
, , . , ,
. , ,
. .,
, Maufer (1999).

ARPANET
. ,
. , .
.1.22,.
,
. , ,
.
. .
,
.
1960- RAND. , (Paul Baran),

1.5.

71

(.1.22,).

, .
, .
, AT&T (
)
. AT&T . ,
- ,
. ,
, .

. 1.22. ();
()

, . ,
, 1957 ,
, .
, . , ,
, .

, ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency,
- ). ARPA
, . ,
( ) . ARPA
,
.

72 1.
ARPA
. 1967 ,
ARPA, , ,
. ,
,
. , (Wesley Clark),
,
.

, , ACM
SIGOPS, . , , 1967 (Roberts, 1967). , .
,
(Donald Davis) (NPL) . NPL , ,
,
,
. , , ,
- ! ARPA , ARPANET.
-, IMP (Interface Message Processor), , 56 /.
IMP IMP.
, , - IMP ,
.
IMP ,
. IMP 8063, IMP , ,
1008, , , .
, , ,

.
ARPA .
. , ARPA
BBN, , , 1968
. BBN - Honeywell DDP-316 12 16- IMP.
IMP , .
56/,
. 56 / , DSL , 1968
.

1.5.

73

: . -IMP
IMP, IMP-IMP IMP- IMP-,
. ARPANET
.1.23.

. 1.23. ARPANET

,
IMP , .
,
BBN
, IMP IMP .
, 1969 ,
(
Snowbird
), . , - , . ,
, . , .
1969 , , (UCLA), - (UCSB), (SRI, Stanford Research Institute)
. ,
ARPA, ,
- ( ).
UCLA
( ) SRI.
IMP. .
.1.24 , ARPANET .

ARPANET
,
ARPA

. ,

74 1.
, SRI,
ARPANET
University College . ,
, .

. 1.24. ARPANET: 1969(); 1970(); 1971(); 1972();


1972 ()

,
ARPANET .
,
TCP/IP (Cerf Kahn, 1974). TCP/IP
,
ARPANET.
, ARPA TCP/IP ,
IBM, DEC HP, UNIX .
TCP/IP , , 4.2BSD UNIX . , , ,
.
.
VAX , ,
. UNIX4.2BSD, TCP/IP, ,

1.5.

75

. , TCP/IP
ARPANET, .
80- ARPANET ,
.
. DNS (Domain Name System
), IP-. DNS
, .
7.

NSFNET
70- (NSF,
National
Science

Foun
dation
) , ARPANET

,
.
ARPANET ,
. NSF 1981
Computer Science Network (CSNET).
- ARPANET . 1980- NSF
ARPANET,
.
- ,
, , , , , . LSI-11,
(fuzzball). - 56/
,
ARPANET. - TCP/IP, , ,
TCP/IP.
(
20) , ,
, ,
. ,
, NSFNET. ARPANET
IMP - (Carnegie-Mellon University). NSFNET
.1.25.
NSFNET

, . NSFNET

MERIT.
MCI (Microwave Communications, Inc. ,

76 1.

WorldCom
) - 448/. IBMPC-RT (RT-PC RISC Technology Personal Computer
).
, 1,5/.

. 1.25. NSFNET 1988

, , . , ,
,
.
MERIT, MCI IBM ANS

(
Advanced

Networks

and

Services,Inc.) . 1990 ANS


NSFNET 1,5/ 45/,
ANSNET. , America Online. ,

IP
-. , .
,
, (NAP, Network Access Point).
PacBell (-), Ameritech (), MFS () Sprint (-,
NAP -).
,
NSF, NAP.
, , , , NAP . -
,

1.5.

77

, , . .
, , ,

,
.
90- ,
NSFNET. , EuropaNET IP-
, EBONE - .
. 2/, 34/. , , , .
.
1990- World Wide Web (WWW). Internet
Systems Consortium 600 . ,
, WWW 1994 CERN.
, . , , ,
.
, Web ,
Napster. , (, Facebook) (, Twitter).
, ,
. , , , , , ,
.


.
, .
(telcos),
-, - ,
. , . ,
, -
, . , , , ,
. , , ,
.
.1.26. ,
( ). , - (Internet Service Provider, ISP),
.

78 1.
. ,
, . ,
, .

. 1.26.

, ,
. DSL ( Digital Subscriber Line) , . , DSL,
,
. , ,
DSLAM ( , Digital Subscriber
Line Access Multiplexer), .

.1.26. DSL ,
. .
, ,
.
.
DSL, , . , CMTS (Cable
Modem Termination System ).

1.5.

79

DSL
, . , , 56 /
- , .
, , . ,
, - .
, , .
,
10100 /. FTTH ( ).

. ,
T3 45 /.
. ,
,
. 1/
.
.
, , POP
(Point of Presence, ). ,
. .
, .
, ,
,
. ISP.
, ISP, . ISP.
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eXchange Points, -). ,
, . .1.26, .
IXP , ,
. , , .
- . Amsterdam

Internet

Exchange
, , .
,
-, .
. ,
-, ;
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, , . ,

80 1.
,
, .
- , , ,
(Metz, 2001).
, ,
. , , , .
,
, . 1.26
. .
, AT&T
Sprint, ,
. .
, , , ,
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, , Google Yahoo!,
, .
, , ,
. , ,
, , ,
. -
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.
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, ,
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, : , , . , , . , , : (1) TCP/IP; (2) IP-; (3)
IP- .
IP-, , , IP-
. . , ,
, . ,
, ,
.

1.5.

81

: , , ,
. , ,
, .

1.5.2.

,
, .
60% -
(ITU, 2009). 40 ,
.
() ,
. AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System),
1982 , .
, ,
. GSM ( )
1991
, 2- .
, 3G-, 2001 .
, .
3G- . ITU (
) , 3G
2/
384/ . UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System), WCDMA (Wideband Code Division
Multiple Access), 3G-,
. 14/ 6/
. 3G- , .
3G ( 2G- 1G-
) . ,
, .
,
,
. 2000 , ,
3G $40.
, .1.27, .

82 1.
,
. , .

,
. ,
, ,
.
. 3G-
, .
,
, ,
.

. 1.27.

.
,
UMTS (.1.28). ,
(, ) .

. UMTS (CDMA, Code Division Multiple Access), ,
2.
. .
RNC (Radio Network Controller, )
. ( B).
. (core network). UMTS GSM,

1.5.

83

2G- . UMTS
.

. 1.28. 3G UMTS


( ) ,
( , ).
-.
. ,
,
, , ,
, .
. , , .
,
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.

84 1.

, , ,
. , ,
.
, . , ,
.
, .1.28, ,
. ,
, .
,
. UMTS MSC
(Mobile Switching Center), GMSC (Gateway Mobile Switching Center) MGW (Media
Gateway), , PSTN (Public
Switched Telephone Network).
,
, GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
GSM. , .
.
64 /, 34 .
, UMTS - . SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node)
GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node)
,
.
, . ,
, IP-. IP
. , ,
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. , -
. 5.
.
, .
.1.29.
, . ,
CDMA-, ,
. -

1.5.

85

, .

. ,
,
, .

. 1.29. : a ,

.
HSS (Home Subscriber Server) ,
, ,
. ,
HSS.
, , . , .
. ,
. 1G 3G
.
2G ,
,
. SIM

- ( Subscriber Identity Module). SIM-


, . GSM
, ,
,
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, SIM-
, ,
. UMTS
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.
, , ,
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,
1G-, , -
.

86 1.
,
.
, .
,
. 4G-, ,
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. , ,
802.16 WiMAX. LTE WiMAX , .

1.5.3. : 802.11
,
, , - . ,
.
. ,
, , , .
,
. ,
. , , , ,
. 1990- .
IEEE,
.
: .
802.1, 802.2, 802.3 802.10, ,
802.11.
WiFi.
,
802.11.
. ,
, .
, . , 802.11
ISM- ( ,
), , 902928 , 2.42.5 , 5.7255.825.
, , .
, , 802.11-
, , ,
.

1.5.

87

802.11- , AP-
(AP, access point ), .
.
, .
, ,
.
(ad hoc network). , .
.1.30.

. 1.30. (a); ()

802.11 ,
. , 802.11, , , ,
. ,
.
.
.1.31.
,
, . , , , ,
- . , , . ,
.
802.11 . (1997) 1 2/,
. , , .
1999 , 802.11b 11/.
802.11a (1999) 802.11g (2003) -

88 1.
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
).
,
. , 2,
802.11a/g 54/. ,
, ` .
802.11n (2009)
, 450/.

. 1.31.

,
802.11-
, ,
. , 802.11 CSMA (Carrier Sense
Multiple Access), Ethernet,
ALOHA, .

, - . ,
. , .
, .1.32. , A
B, ,
C. B,
, , , ,
. C .
.
, .
. , ,
. 802.11- ,

1.5.

89

, . Ethernet,
. ,
.
.

. 1.32.

802.11 ,
. , 802.11 ,
, ,
. .
802.11 , ,
.
(, 802.21).
, .
, , . ,
802.11 WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy).
.
, , , (Borisov .,
2001). ,
802.11i, WiFi Protected Access (WPA).
WPA2.
802.11 , . , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
4.

90 1.

1.5.4. RFID
, ,
. (RFID)
.
,
( ), .
, , .
,
. RFID, , , , , ,
.1.33. ,
, .

. 1.33. RFID

RFID , , ,
RFID , RFID , .
RFID . RFID,
( ) RFID,
.
RFID RFID ( RFID) .
902928 . , ,
. .
RFID RFID ( RFID)
13,56 , , , ,
. RFID
, ,
. RFID,
, LF RFID ( RFID),
RFID . RFID, ,
. RFID , , . ,
, ,
. , 802.11:

1.5.

91

,
.
. RFID , , , ,
. ,
RFID-, . , (
). , -
? .
RFID , . , , , , .
Rieback . (2006) , ,
,
. , RFID-.
.
.
, , . -,
, ,
.
, , ..
. , ,
.
,
. .1.34.
.

. 1.34.

92 1.
RFID , ,
. , RFID- ,
. (Sample ., 2008).

1.6.
,
. ,
.
. , ,
,
, , , , .
,
. ,
. , ,
, . .
, :
, .
, . , 802.11
, ,
, . , .
, ,
. 802.11 ,
802.11
WiFi Alliance.
,
, .
. , ,
TCP IP ,
. , TCP/
IP. TCP IP .
, ,
, ( )
.
: defacto dejure. defacto , - . HTTP ,
, -. -

1.6.

93

WWW-, - (Tim Berners-Lee) CERN.


Bluetooth Ericsson, .
dejure, , . :
.
, ITU, ISO, IETF IEEE,
.
. ,
. HTTP, IETF.
, .
,
.
3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project),
,
3G UMTS.

1.6.1.
. , 2000 ( ) . 1984
AT&T, ,
. 80% ,
1996 , .
,
, , , ,
, . . ,
, PTT (Postal Telegraph and Telephoneadministration
- ). .
, - .
, ,
. , ( )
. , . 1865
, ,
-

94 1.
(ITU, International Telecommunications Union).
.
, , ,
, - ,
. ITU
. 1947
.
ITU 200 , . PTT, - . .
, ITU , .
ITU 700
, (, AT&T, Vodafone, Sprint),
(, Cisco, Nokia, Nortel), (, Microsoft,
Agilent, Toshiba), (, Intel, Motorola, TI)
(, Boeing, CBS, VerySign).
ITU . ITU-T,
,
. 1993 CCITT, , Comit Consultatif International Tlgraphique
et Tlphonique. ITU-R, , .
ITU-D, . - ,

.
ITU-T , .
, ITU-T
,
. ( , , - .
.)
, , . ,
,
.
, ITU-T (Study
Groups), 400.
10 , ,
. SG15, , DSL, . - ,

1.6.

95

(Working Parties), , , (Expert Teams),


. .
, ITU-T . 3000,
. , H.264 ( , MPEG-4 AVC)
, X.509
- .
80- ,
,
. ITU . Irner, 1994.

1.6.2.


(International Organization for Standardization, ISO),
, 1946.
89. ANSI(), BSI(),
AFNOR(), DIN() 153 .
ISO , ,
() (
- (ISO 2451), (ISO 1530), (ISO
4416) ,
ISO
). ISO ITU-T (ISO ITU-T),

.
17000,
OSI. ISO 200 (Technical Committee, TC),
, ,
. , , TC1 ( ). JTC1 , , . (
) , 1987
TC97 IEC, .
(subcommittee, SC), , , (working group, WG).
, 100000 .
, . ,

96 1.
.
.

ISO , ,
. ,

.
, (Committee Draft, CD).
.
. ,
(DIS, Draft International Standard);
, . , , (IS, International Standard).
, CD DIS,
,
. .
(NIST, National Institute
of Standards and Technology)
(U.S. Dept. of Commerce).
(National Bureau of Standards). , ,
, ,
.
(IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers) .
, IEEE
. , IEEE802
, . , ,
, .1.4.
802 . 802. . ( 802.3 802.11)
.
1.4. 802.
(*). , (), .
()

802.1

802.2

802.3 *

Ethernet

802.4

( )

1.6.

802.5

( IBM )

802.6

( )

802.7

802.8

802.9

( )

802.10

802.11 *

802.12

( AnyLAN Hewlett-Packard)

802.13

. -

802.14

( :
)

802.15 *

(Bluetooth)

802.16 *

802.17

802.18

802.19

802.20

( 802.16e)

802.21

, (
)

802.22

97

1.6.3.
, ITU-T ISO. , ,
ITU ISO , (, , -
).
ITU

-
T
ISO

, .
, , .
, , ,
- , -
, - . -
. (David Clark) - ,
, , .
ARPANET, . 1983 -

98 1.
(Internet Activities Board, IAB).
,
, ARPANET , -
, .
IAB (Internet Architecture
Board).
IAB
. NSF,
. - (,
), ,
, .
, RFC (
Requests for Comments). RFC (www.ietf.org/
frc). .
5000 .
.
1989 ,
. TCP/IP
, .
1989 IAB .
(Internet Research Task Force, IRTF), IAB,
(Internet Engineering Task Force, IETF). IAB , ,
. ,
, .
(Internet Society), , . , - - (ACM, Association for Computing
Machinery) IEEE. ,
IAB.
, IRTF , IETF .
IETF , .
.
, , , OSI-, , ,
. , ( 70), ,
.
,
, ISO. ,

1.7.

99

RFC ,
. , ,
,
4-. IAB ,
, RFC
. (MIL-STD),
.
World Wide Web (W3C)
-, .
-, 1994 , Web
. W3C 300
100 W3C, , , HTML -.

1.7.

.
. , , .1.5.
, , 1,
(, ..).
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, 100 1010- .
, , .
1.5.

103

0,001

103

1000

10

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109

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. /, /, / / 103, 106 , 109 1012 .

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, ,
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, ,
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101

5 , .
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, , , , .
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,
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102 1.
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. IP-
SONET (Malis Simpson, 1999). ,
.


, , ,
. , , . , ,
, . ,
, ,
. , , , ,
.
,
.
,
.
, , - ,
.
,
1, ( +1 1), 0
. 1,
+1 1 , . -

150 2.
. AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion,
,
), , 1 0 . .2.17,.
, . ,
4B/5B ( ). 8B/10B. 8 10 , ,
80 % , , 4B/5B. 8
5, 6, 3,
4. 6- 4- .

, . , 001
1001. ,
. . 1
0. , 000 1011
0100. ,
.
, .
, , .
8B/10B 2. ,
.
, .

2.5.2.

, . ,
. , .
,
.
,
.
, , , .
. ,
, 0 B, , S S+B,
, , ,
-. ,
, .
,
, .

2.5.

151

, .
. ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying, ), 0 1, .
.2.18,.
. , FSK
(Frequency Shift Keying, )
. .2.18, . PSK (Phase Shift Keying, )
0 180 . , BPSK (Binary Phase Shift
Keying, ). ,
, 2. .2.18,.
, , ,
, 45, 135, 225 315
. QPSK
(Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, ).

. 2.18. : ; ; ;

,
.

152 2.
, , ,
. .
.2.19 .
. .2.19, ,
45, 135, 225 315 , (
. , , , . .
QPSK.
. .2.19,
, , 16 .
4 .
, QAM-16 (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).
.2.23, . 64 6. QAM-64. QAM .
, ,
, .
, .

. 2.19. : QPSK; QAM-16; QAM-64

, , ,
. , . ,
. , ,
QAM16, 0111 1000,
, .
, , .
. 2.20 QAM-16,
. , ,
, .

2.5.

153

Q
0000

1100

0100

1000
B

0001

0101

1101

1001
C

0011

0111

1111

0010

0110

1110

I
1011

A
B
C
D
E

1101
1100
1001
1111
0101

0
1
1
1
1

1010

. 2.20. QAM-16

2.5.3.
, ,
.
.
( ,
).
.
FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing,
, ) ,
. , ,
. AM- FDM. 1, 500 1500 . (), ,
, , .
.2.21 ,
.
3100
. , 4000. .
. ,
. ,
. ,
, , . ,
. ,
.

154 2.

. 2.21. : ; ,
;

, .
FDM , ,
.
, . OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,
)
, (,
).
. ,
. , .2.22, , .
.
, ,
, . , .
OFDM ,
, OFDM
( , ). OFDM
802.11, .
.

2.5.

155

, . ,
;
,
.
f

f1

f2

f3

f5

f4

. 2.22. (OFDM)

2.5.4.

FDM TDM (Time Division Multiplexing,
, ). (
),
. , TDM,
.2.23.
.
. .
, ,
, .
1
2

3
. 2.23. (TDM)

TDM . , ,
STDM ( ).
, , . STDM
.

156 2.

2.5.5. CDM
, , FDM
TDM, CDM ( , ). ,
.
,
.

, CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access,
).
CDMA
. . ,
. .
. ,
. ,
: , ,
, . CDMA
, ,
.
, . ,
CDMA
. CDMA.
CDMA m , , (chip).
64 128 . , 8 ,
. m- ,
. 1 +1.
.
, . 0,
(
, ). . , m = 8 A (1 1 1 +1 +1 1 +1 +1), 1,
, 0, (+1 +1 +1 1 1 +1 1 1).
,
.
, ( b/, mb ),
m . ,
CDMA m ,

2.5.

157

CDMA (,
). 1,
100 ,
10 10/ (, 1/).
CDMA (1),
10/ .
.2.24,a
, .
. S m S, S S. .
,
S T ( S T) 0. ,
, . , :
ST !

1 m
" S T = 0.
m i =1 i i

(2.3)

, , . . : S T = 0,
ST 0.
1:
SS =

1 m 2
1 m
1 m
S
S
=
S
=
!
!
! (1)2 = 1.
m i =1 i i m i =1 i
m i =1

, m 1,
m. , S S = 1.

. 2.24. :
; ;
; C

158 2.
1,
, 0,
, . ,
,
.
,
. ,
+1, 1, +2. :
+1, 1. +2.
.2.24, , .
, .
B C ,
, :
(11+11+1+1+11)+(1+11+1+1+111)=
=(02 0 0 0 +2 +2 0 2).
, ,
.
( ) ,
. S , C,
S C.
, , , AC.
, B .
, : S = A + B + C, :
S C = (A + B + C) C = A C + B C + C C = 0 + 0 + 1 =1.
, , ,
. (2.3). ,
.
, .2.24,.
.2.24,. , , C,
S1S6.
(S) C
(..2.24,), 8 ( m=8 ).
, . , !

2.6.

159

CDMA , , , ,
,
. 2n 2n 2n. ,
, . ,
( CDMA 1990-).
, CDMA
CDMA.
CDMA .
. , CDMA, Viterbi
(1995) Lee and Miller (1998). , ,
.

2.6.

, , ,
.
. , , ,
- ,
. ,

.
.
,
(PSTN, Public Switched Telephone Network),
- .
.
, ,
, ,
1/ . ADSL,
, 1/.
.

, , .
,
, .
, .

160 2.
, , , ,
, .
, . . (Bellamy, 2000).

2.6.1.
, (Alexander Graham Bell) 1876
( , (
Elisha

Gray
)) , . ,
.
. n , n .

, .
,
(.2.25,).

. 2.25. (); ();


()

, Bell Telephone
Company
, 1878 -, . .
, ,
, ,
, .
.2.25,.
Bell System , , , Bell System
. :
,
(.2.29,).
. ,
.

2.6.

161

1890 , , (
, ,
), ,
. . (Hawley,
1991).
,
Bell System 100.
; .

( ). 1 10, ,
.
22000
.
(
).
, 1000.
80% AT&T
. , AT&T
. , . -
AT&T, -
, .
, , , , .
.
, .
, - (, ,
). .

.
(
, ),
. .2.25, ,
( ), ( ) ().
,
. .
1984, AT&T, ,

162 2.
, .

, . 2.26 , .

. 2.26.

. , 5,
3,
. , .
, . ,

,
. , ,
.
: 0 1. ,
. .
, .
1. ( , ).
2. ( ).
3. (
).
, .
, ,
. , .
. ,
,
. . ,
, .

2.6.

163

2.6.2.
, 1984,
Bell

System
,
. 1970- ,
, AT&T.
, 1 1984 AT&T
AT&T Long Lines, 23 BOC (Bell
Operating Company) . 23 BOC
7 RBOC .
( ) .
MFJ. (Modified
Final

Judgment
. : , , .)
, ,
, . , :

.
.
,
,
. , , 164 , LATA (Local
Access and Transport Area ).
LATA ,
. LATA LEC (Local Exchange
Carrier ),
LATA.
LEC BOC, LATA

LEC
, 1500.
, LATA

: IXC (IntereXchange Carrier).


AT&T Long Lines
, WorldCom

Sprint

. AT

&
T
, ,
.
.2.27. LATA
. LATA 2 3
(
LATA ).
, POP (Point of Presence ), LATA

164 2.
, . ,
LEC
, LATA

1 3 (. .2.27), , LATA2. , , ,
,
. , , LATA1
, , LATA3.

. 2.27. LATA, LEC IXC. LEC.


IXC,

MFJ ,
.
, , , ..
1984 .
,
. , ,
. , , ,
.
1995
,
, , ,
. ,
,
, . , . 1996 -

2.6.

165

, BOC IXC, ,
, , ,
, LEC.
1996 :
.
, , .
(
) 2003 .
,
.
. . :
, , , .
, - .

2.6.3. : , ADSL,

.
,
. , ,
.
, .
100 , ,
(- ).

, .
,
. - ,
,
ADSL, ,
, . ADSL :
,
, .
. .
. . ,
.

, , . , ADSL, .

166 2.

, ,
.
, . .
,
, ,
, (
-). : , DSL, , .. (
) ( DSL ). , () ()
, .2.28.

. 2.28.
.

() , .
, 3100, , . ,
, Ethernet 802.11 (WiFi).
,
Ethernet 802.11.
, . ,
3000 (
) , 6000.
2400 , 2400,
,
( ).
2400 0 1 , .
4 , QPSK,
4800 /.

2.6.

167

.
.
.
, . ,
TCM (Trellis-Coded Modulation). (Ungerboeck, 1987.)
, , V.32 32 4
2400, 9600/ .
9600/ 14400/. V.32bis
6 2400.
.
V.34bis 14/
2400, 33600 /.
? 33600 / ,
35/
. .
.
( ).
, , ,
35/. .
, /,
.
56/. ,
,
. ( ), 70/.
, , 33,6/.
, 56/ (
70/), .
.
4000 (
). , ,
, 8000. , , 8, 1 ,
56000/. 8 ,
, , 64000/,
56000 /.
V.90 V.92.

168 2.
33,6/ 48/, 56/.
,
. ,
,
56 /.


56/,
, . , 10/ .
,
( ,
LEC
) , .
, .
, xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line ), x
. , , ,
, .
ADSL (Asymmetric DSL DSL).
DSL xDSL .
, , , , ,
. .
, ( ), , 300
3400. 3, 4000,
3100. ,
.
, xDSL, , , .
, .
,
3100.
,
, .
.
.2.29. , ( , ..).

. , , .

2.6.

169

, ,
, : , 100
, , .
? , . , , ,
.
, .

. 2.29. DSL UTP 3

xDSL . -,
,
3. -,
. -,
56/. , -,
, , .
, 1,1 256 4312,5 . .2.30. ADSL AT&T
,
1,1, .
OFDM, , , , ADSL,
, DMT (Discrete MultiTone). 0
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service ). 1 5
,
. 250
, ,
.

170 2.

. 2.30. ADSL

, , - , . ,
, .
50/50, 8090%
,
, . 32
, .

, ,
.
1999 ADSL, G.dmt.
8/ 1/. 2002 ,
ADSL2, , 12/
1/ . ADSL2+,
( ) 24/,
, 2,2 .
, ,
( 12) . ,
. , 1/
256/ ( ), 4/ 1/
( ) 8/ 2/ (-).
QAM
4000/. ,
, .2.19.
, 15 ,
/, 2, 1 0 ,
/ .
ADSL- .2.31. ,

2.6.

171

, NID (Network Interface Device).


. (
) ,
,
POTS
(04000) . , POTS

, , ADSL-,
OFDM. ADSL ,
.
Ethernet, USB- 802.11.

. 2.31. ADSL

, ,
.
. ,
, 26, , DSL, DSLAM (Digital
Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer), ADSL- , .
, .
ADSL. DSLAM ADSL .
(, ISDN)

172 2.
.
.2.31
NID .
, , ,
.
, G.lite, . .2.31 ,
. . ,
,
,
ADSL- .
, 3400.
ADSL-, , , ,
0 26. ,
G.lite 1,5/ ( 8/
). ADSL Starr (2003).


ADSL .
, , . FTTH (Fiber To The Home ). FTTH
, 2005
, DSL
, . 4%
FTTH 100/.
FTTX ( X ,
). , , . ( )
. ,
, , . ,
. FTTH.
, .
,
- .
. , ,
.
,
100 . ,
. ,
. -

2.6.

173

,
.
PON (Passive Optical Network ), .2.32.
.
, PON
20.
. . GPON ( PON)
, ITU.
EPON (Ethernet PON) ,
IEEE. , , . , GPON
2,4/ 1,2 2,4/ .

. 2.32.


.
. ,
, . , , ,
. ,
, . , ,
. , , , ,
, .
, . .
(Grobe Elbers, 2008).

2.6.4.
, ,
.
, ; , .

174 2.

. , .
,
( ) .
.
,
. , , ,
TDM, (SONET).
FDM, ,
.



. FDM 4000 (3100 )
. , 12 60 108
, ( 60 ) .. FDM
. FDM
, . TDM, , , ,
. TDM ,
,
, ,
.
,
( -). -
8000 (125 /), ,
, 4.
;
. 8-
.
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation, - ). . ,
, 125.
, , 8 125, 64/.

, .

2.6.

175

, ,
, . - , .
,
. ,
.
: - (-law),
, A- (A-law), . ITU G.711. ,
(
) , () , , .
(companding).
, , ,
64/. ,
, IP-.


, - , , ,
125.
, ITU (CCITT) - .
.
, , T1,
.2.33. ( , DS1,
T1, , .) T1 24
, . 24 , ,
8 .

. 2.33. T1 (1,544/)

176 2.
248=192 , 193 125.
1,544/. 193- . 193- 24
. , 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-,
20- 24- , 001011 . . . , , .
, ,
. 6 ,
, ,
. ,
, .
12 , .
T1 .
, , , . ,
,
. 8- .
. ,
. .
, , . ,
, . T1, 7 8 ,
56/, 24 .
T1 , , . , ,
T1, .
, .
,
. 24 .
T1 2048/ E1.
32 8- , 125
.
. 64
, , (
, ),
.
T1
. 2.34 ,
. T1,
2. 2 , , 24
T1. T1 1,544/ 6,176/,

2.6.

177

2 , 6,312/.
.
T1 T3 , T2 T4
, .

. 2.34. T1

2 3.
3 4.
.

, ,
. 4, 7 6 , , , ITU
. ,
ITU. ITU
32, 128, 512, 2048 8192 , 2,048,
8,848, 34,304, 139,264 565,148/.

SONET/SDH
,
.
1984 AT

&
T

TDM
. . 1985 Bellcore
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network ).
ITU

, 1989 SONET, ITU (G.707, G708 G709).


ITU, SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
), SONET
.
SONET .
. (Bellamy, 2000; Goralsky, 2000; Shepard, 2001).
SONET . -,
SONET ,

178 2.
. ,
, , .
-, , , 64/ - ,
( ) .
-, SONET
. SONET
T3 44,736/. 4
, , 4 .
SONET ,
.
SONET.
-, SONET , (OAM, Operation, Administration, Maintenance).
.
SONET
,
,
, . SONET .
109.
, .
SONET 810,
125. SONET , - , .
8000
PCM, .
SONET 810 9
90. , 8 810 = 6480 8000 ,
51,84 /. SONET, STS-1 (Synchronous Transport Signal ).
SONET STS-1.

, . 2.35. ,
. ,
.
SONET 810 , (
). .
, ? ,
,
.
, ,

2.6.

179

.
, , ,
,
.

. 2.35. SONET

87 .
87 9 8 8000 = 50,112 /. , T1 , . SONET
. ,
, SPE (Synchronous Payload Envelope),
. SPE
.
. SPE (
).
SPE SONET , . 2.35, .
, ,
SONET , ,
.
SONET/SDH . 2.5.
STS-1 STS-768,
T3 40 /. ,
, , OC-3072 160 /
, . (OC,
Optical Carrier), n- (STS-n),
OC-n STS-n , ,
. SDH OC-3, ITU

180 2.
51,84 /. , ,
C-3, 4. . SPE
.
87 .
- , OC-3, , ,
c, concatenated (). , OC-3
155,52- , OC-1, OC-3c
155,52 /.
-1 -3 . 1 1, 1 2, 1 3, 2 1 270 9 .
2.5. SONET SDH
SONET

SDH

, /

SPE

51,84

50,112

49,536

STS-1

OC-1

STS-3

OC-3

STM-1

155,52

150,336

148,608

STS-9

OC-9

STM-3

466,56

451,008

445,824

STS-12

OC-12

STM-4

622,08

601,344

594,432

STS-48

OC-48

STM-16

2488,32

2405,376

2377,728

STS-192

-192

STM-64

9953,28

9621,504

9510,912

STS-768

-768

STM-256

39813,12

38486,06

38043,648


.
(WDM, Wavelength-Division Multiplexing).

.2.36. ,
. .
.
, ,
.

.
. . , WDM

2.6.

181

, .
,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, , .

. 2.36.

, , ,

- . , ,
,
. 25000 (..2.6),
, 1/ 2500
10/ ( ).
WDM ,
.
1990. 8
2,5/ . 1998 40- . 2006 192 10/ 64 40/. ,
80 DVD- . , 200, 100 50 . ,
,
, .
, , WDM, DWDM (Dense WDM).

182 2.
.
100 ,
,
.
1000,
.
.2.36 .
1 3, 2 1 ..
WDM-.

.
.
,
.
, Ramaswami . (2009).

2.6.5.
,
: ( ,
) (),
. .
.
:
.
, IP-.
. ,
.


( ) ,
, , . , ,
.2.37,.
( ).
.
, ( ).
,
.
.
XIX .

2.6.

183

(AlmonB.Strowger) . - ,
: , , . ,
,
. ,
,
. . 100
. (
, ,
,
.)

. 2.37. : ;

, .2.37,a, , , ,
,
, , , ,
.
: , , , .

, .

184 2.

10 .
, .2.38,. ,
. (, ) .

. 2.38. () ()

,
,
, 5
1000. ,
,
(, ).
, ,
. , , - .

2.6.

185


, .2.37, 1.
.
,
.
, , .
,
.
.
.
,
, , ,
.
. ,
(, ), . ,
,
.
, , .
.
.
, , , , .
, . ,

. ,
( ) ( ).
, .
. .
.
.
. , . , ,
, , , .

.
, .

186 2.
.
( ),
(, , 2000 , 1000
, ).
, .
, ,

.
.2.6.
2.6.

,
, .
.
(, X.25), IP-.
, ,
.
, , ,
, .

2.7.
(
)
, .

2.7.

187

,
- : , , ,
. ,
. ,
.
.
()
. 1G, 2G 3G.
1. .
2. .
3. (, ..).
( , .
.
,
.)
, ,
. AT&T,
, FCC,
. ()
, , , , ,
-. :
, ,
.
- ,
,
(
GSM
), . ,
, . ,
,
.
, . ,
, , .
.
.
, , , (212) 234-5678,
( )
( ). , , ,

188 2.
. .
( 800900),
. , , : ( ,
).
, ,
( 75% ). , ,
. , , 20 50,

PIN-. ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.

2.7.1. :

. . .
XX. 1946 -
. , , . ,
, .
, ,
50-. CB-, , ,
.
1960-
(IMTS, Improved Mobile Telephone System).
(200) , ,
: , .
.
(
, ).
IMTS 23 150 450. -
.
-
. , -
.

2.7.

189

(AMPS)

(AMPS, Advanced Mobile Phone System), Bell Labs
1982. ,
TACS, MCS-L1.
2008 , ,
2G 3G, .

( ). AMPS
10 20 ; .
, .

AMPS
( )

. IMTS 100
, AMTS
5 10
. ,
, , ,
.
B
B
C

G
A

A
D

F
D

E
B
C

G
A

F
E

. 2.39. ();
, ()

.2.39,.
, ,
. 2.39, .
. . ,
, ,

190 2.

.
,
.
- ,
. , .
- ,
, ,
(), .2.39,.
,
, , .
(), , .
/, .
, MTSO
(Mobile Telephone Switching Office ) MSC
(Mobile Switching Center ).
,
..
.
,
, .
. , , .
,
, , . , ,
(
). (handoff) 300. , .
.

AMPS (FDM).
832 ,
. FDD (Frequency Division Duplex

2.7.

191

). 832
824 849, 832 869
894. 30.
832 .
1. ( ) .
2. ( )
.
3. ()
.
4. () , .
21.
, ,
, 832 45.


AMPS 32- 10- ,
. 3- ,
10, 7- , 24.
21 ,
. 32-
34- .
AMPS, ,
, ,
.
,
, , .
15 .
, ,
SEND. .
, .
, .
, (
), .
, .

, , , .
. , . (

192 2.
), ,
. , : 14, ? ,
, : . :
14, 3.
3 ( ,
).

2.7.2. :
(G2)
.
. ,
.
. , ,
, , - . ,
, .
, .
, .
D-AMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System ) AMPS,
AMPS , . IS-54 IS-136. GSM (Global System for Mobile
communications ,)
, , . D-AMPS, GSM
. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access
), IS-95,
, . CDMA
,
.
PCS (Personal Communications Services
)
(, ). ,
1900, , .
GSM, 2G. CDMA, 3G.

2.7.

193

GSM
GSM 1980-
.
, Groupe Special Mobile.
GSM 1991 .
, GSM ,
, , .
GSM , ,
, ,
. . GSM.
GSM 5000 (sic!) .
, , , . , .
2.40 , GSM AMPS,
.
, (SIM card, Subscriber Identity Module ). -
, . -
, ,
, .

. 2.40. GSM

, . BSC
(Base Station Controller ), . , ,
( AMPS),
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network
).

194 2.
, ,
.
, ,
. VLR (Visitor Location Register ). ,
. HLR (Home Location Register ).
, . ,
.
. GSM
, 900, 1800 1900 . AMPS
, . GSM,
AMPS, . ,
,
( 55 GSM, 80 AMPS).
AMPS GSM
. .
,
GSM
AMPS (200 30).
200, .2.41. GSM 900 124
.
200. 8 .
. 992 ,

. .2.41 , .
, GSM
.
890,4/935,4 2
,
( ),
. , .
TDM

, .2.41, . ,
. .2.42. ,
TDM 148- ,
577 ( 30).
, .
57- (Information) ,
(/).
26- (Sync), .

2.7.

195

. 2.41. GSM 124 , 8-


. 2.42. GSM

547,
4,615, . 270883/.
8. , AMPS,

196 2.
, 24,7/ ( ).
13/, . , 64 / -
,
.
.2.42, 8 TDM, 26
TDM 120- ().
, ,
24 .
26- ,
.2.42, 51- ( ). .
,
, .
,
.
,
, . ,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
. ,
. , .
,
. (),
. ,
.
.
, GSM AMPS , . AMPS
MSC .
GSM , .
.
BSC. BSC , ,
, .
MAHO (Mobile Assisted HandOff).

2.7.

197

2.7.3. :

,
. , 3G, .
. -,
, , . :
. -,

.
, , -,
DVD-, , -,
, , .
iPhone Apple 3G-. ,
AT&T iPhone. , iPhone
2,5G 2G , 3G, , .
3G , .
1992 , ITU,
IMT2000, IMT (International Mobile
Telecommunications).
, IMT-2000.
1. .
2. ( e-mail, , SMS, ..).
3. ( , , , ..).
4. ( - ).
, ,
, (
). ,
( , ),
.
ITU IMT-2000 ,
,
( -
).
. ( Betamax
VHS ) .

198 2.
, . 2000 :
(1) , , , , (2) , ,
, ( ), (3) , ( /). .
2000 .
ITU 2
. . ,
- , 2/, (
). 2/
, (
ADSL), 384/ , , 144/ , .
, .
, . WCDMA
CDMA (Wideband CDMA), Ericsson
, UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System ).
CDMA2000, Qualcomm.
, .
CDMA. WCDMA 5, CDMA2000 1,25.
Ericsson Qualcomm
, , , . , , ,
, . , GSM; ,
(IS-95). (Ericsson
, Qualcomm ). ,
, CDMA.
1015 % 3G.
,
3G. ,
3G. UMTS, CDMA2000, 3G
, . , UMTS 3G
, CDMA2000. , .
UMTS, WCDMA, CDMA2000.
CDMA , . CDMA
`, , ,

. ,

2.7.

199

, , .
Qualcomm CDMA 2G (IS-95) ,
3G.
CDMA ,
CDMA, . ,
CDMA,
. ,
,
. , , . .
, .
, , .
,
,
.
. , ,
; , . (,
. .)
. , ,
. , ,
, ,
, . (, ,
.)
.

CDMA .
CDMA ,
.
. ,
,
.
CDMA.
, , ,
, .
. , ,

200 2.
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
(1500 ), , .
CDMA, ,
. CDMA, ,

. , WCDMA 3,84 /, 4 256 . 256
12/,
. 4
1/.
; ,
5.
CDMA, ,
. CDMA .
-, CDMA ,
, .
, .
40% . .
, . CDMA
, ,
.
CDMA , .
-, CDMA .
GSM AMPS,
.
.
, , .
, , . ,
, .
. ,
. CDMA , .
-, CDMA (soft handoff),
, . , . -

2.7.

201

.2.43. CDMA,
. (hard handoff), , .
(, ),
. , . , .

. 2.43. : ;

3
G
, . ,
.
3G, ,
, 2,5G, 2,1G.
EDGE (Enhaced Data rates for GSM Evolution
GSM) GSM
. , , . EDGE
. , ,
.
EDGE ,
GSM WCDMA. , , IS-95 CDMA2000.
, 3G ,
3G .
LTE (Long Term Evolution).
4G: ; ( );
IP-,
802.11; ;
. . Astely
etal. (2009) Larmo et al. (2009).
4G
. 802.16, WiMAX.
WiMAX (2009). , . ,
.

202 2.

2.8.

. , , .
, .
.
, .
Donaldson Jones (2001), Dutta-Roy (2001) Fellows
Jones (2001).

2.8.1.
1940-
. , , , ,
, .2.44.

. 2.44.

,
. -
. , ,
, .
.
: . 1970
.
1974 Time
, . : , , ..

2.8.

203

. -,
. -, , ,
.
, .
.
,
.

2.8.2.
, .
. ,

, HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax
). , ,
. ,
,
. HFC .2.45,.
,
. , ,
.
, . ,
. ,

.
, ,
.
, HFC (. .2.45,)
(.2.45,), .
, . ,
. , ,
10 10000 .
, ,
, . ,
. :
ADSL .
, , ,
, .

204 2.

. 2.45. (); c ()

: ,
.
, , .
5002000 , , ,
.

2.8.

205

2.8.3.

,
, . ,
, ,
- . , -

.
. 54 550 (
88 108, FM-).
6, , .
65, 68,
, PAL


SECAM
, . . 550, 750 .
542 ( ),
.
.2.46.

. 2.46. ,

: (), ,
542, 54 , . ,
,
-. , ,
, . -

206 2.
, DSL-,
, .
,
. . :
CMTS (Cable Modem Termination System
). - .

2.8.4.
, : , .
,
. ,
, . ,
( )
.
CableLabs

. DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service
Interface Specification ) . DOCSIS1.0
1997 , , 2001 , DOCSIS2.0.
, , IP-.
DOCSIS3.0 2006 . , . EuroDOCSIS.

. , -
, , .
.
Ethernet , , USB. ,
FDM, TDM CDMA
.

, ,
,
. . ,
. -

2.8.

207

, ,
.
8 6 .
DOCSIS3.0.
, 6 ( 8)
QAM-64 , , QAM-256.
6 QAM-64 36/.
, 27/. QAM-256
39/. 1/3 .
, ,
, .
QPSK QAM-128,
(-).
,
, .2.46.

, .
. - (minislots),
-.
, . , .
(ranging).
, .
-.
-,
, .
, , -. - .
8.
-
.
, ,
- . , . ,
-. , .
, -
, .
. (CDMA),
-. , CDMA , .
CDMA,

208 2.
, - .
.
, . ( ,
: ALOHA . Ethernet
, .
4.)
, . -, ,
-, , , . -,
, ,
204.
, .
184.
,
MPEG
-2, .
.2.47.

. 2.47. ,

2.8.5. ADSL ?
, ADSL ? ,
. . .
, . ADSL
.
, .
, ADSL .
, .
,
.

2.8.

209

. ADSL (,
1/ , 256/ )
80% .
, , ,
,
. , ADSL, .
. , , , ,
,
, .

ADSL
, ,
. .

. ,
.
, , . ,
, -
. ,
,
. ,
, . . ,
, .
, ADSL
. ,
ADSL-, . ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ADSL ,
. ,
.
. , , , .
, , . ,
,
. -

210 2.
, , , .
, ADSL

. .
. - .
: ADSL
. ,
, -, .

.
,
.
. ,
, .
.
, . , , .

. ,
, .
, .
. , .
ADSL 40/,
, .
.
, ADSL.
.
. (WDM)
. (TDM)
.
, .
.
, .
, 1G, , AMPS.
, GSM
. , CDMA, WCDMA CDMA2000.

211

.
, . ,
,
.

1. f(t) = t (0t1).
2. 4 1 . ?
, / 30 ?
3. 6.
?
, .
4. 3 / 20?
5. /
50 T1?
6. ?
- ?
7. 0,1 1?
8. . 2560 1600 , 24 .
60 . , ( ) ,
1,30 ?
9.
?
10. ,
. 1 5 . ?
11. 1 1 ,
100 . ,
?
12. 66 Iridium .
90 . , (handoff)?
13. GEO (: 35 800 ), MEO
(: 18 000 ) LEO (: 750 ).
14. ,
, Iridium? , 10 6371 .
15. ,
/, NRZ, MLT-3 ? .

212 2.
16. , 4B/5B , ,
.
17. 1984 ,

? 29,
1 0, .
29; .
18. ,
1 . 4 . 6 .
10 (
). ,
? ( 4 .) ,
,
.
19. 10 . . 10 .
? ,
, 1 . 9,0 /3, 6
.
20. , ,
?
walkie-talkie?
21. ,
. ?
2?
22. - , . 2.19,
: (1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1) (1, 1).
1200 ?
23. , V.32 ,
( ) 1200 ?
24. QAM-64?
25. , 4000 ,
(FDM). ? 400 .
26. - 125?
27. T1,
1,544 / ?
OC-1 OC-768?
28. 4 , : ) ; )T1 - .
29. T1
.
0,001?

213

30. , ,
? ( .)
31. SONET 109. ,
1 ? ? ?
32. , 1 VSAT
, , . 2.14? ,
1 /, 7 /
1,2 .
33. , .
, 64 ,
10 32 .
34. . 2.5 OC-3 148,608 /. ,
OC-3 SONET. , SPE,
OC3072?
35. STS-1 SONET (VT). , STS-1
, . , VT1.5 , VT2 4 , VT3 6 ,
VT6 12 STS-1. VT
:
1) DS-1 (1,544 /).
2) CEPT-1 (2,048 /).
3) DS-2 (6,312 /).
36. OC-12c?
37. n . , ,
, . ,
?
38. x k
( ) . s , d
, p , b /.
?
, ,
.
39. , x k , p h
, x >> p + h. b /, . p,
?
40. . 840 ,
?
41. , . 2.39.
. -

214 2.
.
, ?
42. PCS 100 , (120 2)?
43. , ,
. ?
44. A, B C , CDMA , . 2.24, . ?
45. CDMA.
.
.
46. CDMA : (1 + 1 3 + 1 1 3 +
+1 + 1). , , . 2.24,,
?
47. . 2.24 OC-3 148608M/.
, SONET OC-3.
48. , ,
, . , ,
, . ,
10 /.
? ,
?
49. , 5000. ,
100 /.
, ,
2/ . , ,
.
50. , . 2.46, , ,
.
51. ,
? :
1) 10 /, Ethernet;
2) 100 /, Ethernet;
3) , 54 /.
52. STS-1 SONET.
3:1 STS-1 STS-3.
,
1, 2 3 .
1, 2 3 . . ,

215

3:1. .
( ).
STS-1 810 . .
STS-3 ( ),
. (pipes).
53. CDMA. ,
8 4.
: (t0, t1, t2 t3),
(r0, r1, r2 r3). ,
, ( ) 4 ( 1
, )
. / (t0, r0; t1, r1; t2,
r2; t3, r3) , 1 ( t0, t1 . .).
, ( 8 ),
.
.
. (pipes).



( ). , ,
, ( ,
), . , ,
(, ,
). , , , , .
, , ,
A , B . ,
. , ,
. .
. .
, . ,
.
. ,
.

3.1.

. . :
;
;
,
.

3.1.

217

, ,
( frames)
. , . .3.1.
.
.

.3.1.

, , ,
, .
, . ,
,
. , ,
.
,
.

3.1.1. ,

.
.
,
.
, , .3.2,.
, .3.2,,
,
. ,
.3.2,.

218 3.
.
. ,
.
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .

.3.2. (a); ()

,
, .
, ,
Ethernet
. .
- - , .
. ,
, .
, ,
, .
, .
, . ,
, .
,
.

3.1.

219

, , .
, , 802.11 (WiFi).
,
, . .
, . ,
.
, ,
. . , , 10. ,
.
. ,
. , , , ,
,
( )
.
, ,
. , , . ,
,
. , , . ,

. ,
.
,
, , .
.

. ,
,
, , .
. , ,
, , .

3.1.2.
, .
.
, , ,

220 3.
. ,
, .
, ,
. , ,
.
, . , . (
.) , .
, , , (,
).

, .
, . .
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .

.
, , , ,
. .3.3, 5, 5, 8 8 .
, . , 5 - 7, .3.3,,
.
( ) , , , . ,
, .
.

. , . .
.3.4, FLAG. ,
. , , ,
.

3.1.

221

. 3.3. : ;

. ,
, , , .
, , .
escape- (
, ESC)
. ,
ESC.
escape-, .
(byte stuffing).
: ESC
? : escape-
. ESC ,
, ESC . .3.4,. ,
.
ESC.
, .3.4,
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol, ), . PPP
.

, 8-
. ,
. HDLC (High-level Data Link Control
).
, 01111110 ( 0x7E

222 3.
). .
, . (bit
stuffing) ,
escape-.
, .
USB (Universal Serial
Bus ).

. 3.4. , ();
()

,
, . , ,
. (01111110) ,
011111010,
: 01111110. .3.5 .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, 100 100.
, ,

3.1.

223

200.
12,5%, 1.

.3.5. : ; ; ,

. 2 ,
.
, . ,
4B/5B ,
. , 16 32
.
. .
,
,
.
. Ethernet 802.11
,
(preamble). ( 802.11 72),
. ( ). .

3.1.3.
, :
. ,
,
( ,
, ). ,
, , ,

224 3.
.
.
, .
,
. , , . , , , -
.
, - (, ) .
, , . ,
, , . , , ,
( ),
, -, ,
.
,
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,
, .
, ,
,
.
, ,
, .
.
.
,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
( ). .

3.1.4.
( ) , ,
, . ,
, . , , ,
- .

3.2.

225

,
, .
.
, - . . ,
(feedback-based flow control),
,
, , , .
, (rate-based flow control),
, ,
. .
, ,
(
5). , .
, . , NIC (Network Interface
Card ) ,
, , .
,
.
,
.
, , .
, , , . ,
: n ,
, .
, .

3.2.
2, . , , ,
. , ,
.
. ,
. : .
.
. -

226 3.
. ,
, .
, , ( ),
. ,
(error-correcting codes). (error-detecting codes).
(Forward Error Correction FEC).
, , .
, ,
. , ,
, , , , , .
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
. , ,
,
.
,
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, . , ,

.
,
. ?
. , 1000, 0,001 .
, .
,
. ,
, .
. .
, , , , .
(erasure channel). , ,

3.2.

227

: , , ,
.
.
. . -,
, , . ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
.
, , .
, , , . ,
;
. ,
.
, .

3.2.1.
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
.
m ( ) r . r
m , m r
. m
. r
m . (XOR)
2. ,
, . , , .
n ( n=m+r).
(n,m). n , ,
n- .
(code rate) ,
, m/n. . -

228 3.
, 1/2, . ,
.
, , . ,
10001001 10110001,
. 3.
2 ( )
, :
10001001
+
10110001
00111000
, ,

(Hamming, 1950). , d,
d .
,

, .
,
.
2m , 2n . , r,
2m/2n 1/2r , 2m.

.

. d
, d + 1, d
,
.
, , . ,
d ,
2d+1, d
, , ,
. , , ,
.
, :
0000000000, 0000011111, 1111100000 1111111111

3.2.

229

, 5, , .
0000000111, , ,
0000011111.
0000000000 0000000111, .
, .
. , . ,
,
.
,
, , . , ,
, .
,
.
, m r ,
. 2m
n ,
1. n n-
. , 2m n+1 .
2n, , (n+1)2m2n. n=m+r,
:

(m+r+1)2r.

(3.1)

m
.

(1950). , 1. , 2 (1, 2, 4,
8, 16 ..), . (3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 ..) m . (11,7) 7
4 .3.6.
2 , .
. ,
k- ,
k 2. , 11=8+2+1, 29=16+8+4+1. ,
(, 11- 1, 2 8).
, A ASCII.
3,
( ). , .

230 3.
, , . .
,
. .
01 01

A
1000001

p1 p2 m3 p4 m5 m6 m7 p8 m9 m10 m11

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

A
1000001

.3.6. (11,7),

, , . (error syndrome), . .3.6


. 0, 1, 0 1 k=8, 4, 2 1 . , 0101 4+1=5. ,
. (
) , :
A ASCII.
,
. . , ,
.
.
. , ,
.
.
, ,
.
.
. ,
GSM, 802.11.
, .3.7.
NASA r=1/2 k=7 ( Voyager, 1977 ).
, 802.11.
.3.7 .

.
, . -

3.2.

231

, r 1/2.
,
, .

.3.7. NASA 802.11

.
. ,
111,
, , 100000,
110000 111000 . 11, 10
01. (
), . k, , 7.
, ( ).
k , (Forney, 1973). ,
,
. ,
, .
,
(0 1).
, , 1 0, +1 1. 0,9 0,1.
1 0 , 0,9 , 0,1
.

. (soft-decision decoding). ,
, , ,
,
(hard-decision decoding).

232 3.
, , . ,
; .
, ,
m- . ,
, .
- , n- n+1 . ,
ax+b, . ,
, , . , .
, , .
,
, .
, , , .
, .
,
. m- 2m1
. m=8, . 255 .
(255,233), 32 233 . , ,
(Massey, 1969).
, .
DSL, ,
-, DVD Blu-ray. m- , m-
. 2t
t . , , (255,233) 32 16 . , 8,
128. ,
(, -, ).
2t .
,
. . , , ,
, .
, . ,
, .

3.2.

233

, LDPC (Low-Density Parity Check, ). LDPC , (Gallagher,


1962). , .
1995, , .
LDPC
. . , ,
, .
.
LDPC .
,
( , ). LDPC .
, Ethernet 10/, , ,
802.11. , , .

3.2.2.
, , ,
.
-, , . , , ,
.
.
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
, , .
(parity bit),
, ( ).
2
( ). ,
1011010 ,
, 10110100.
, : 10110101. -

234 3.
,
. ,
.
,
106 . , , , .
1010. 1000. , 1000- ,
(3.1), 10 . 1
10000 . 1- ,
. 1000
, (1001), . ,
2001 1 10000,
.
,
,
. 0,5, .
,
n k ( ).
,
k , ,
.
- , , ,
. (interleaving).
n ,
k , :
. n . .3.8
n=7 k=7.
N
e
t
w
o
r
k

1001110
1100101
1110100
1110111
1101111
1110010
1101011
1011110

N
c
l
w
o
r
k

1001110
1100011
1101100
1110111
1101111
1110010
1101011
1011110

.3.8.

3.2.

235

,
( ) , ,
( ) . .3.8, ,
n=7, ,
( , ; , , , . .3.8
). n ,
.
n kn
n .
n+1 , , .
, , n
( ), 0,5,
2n.
,
, , . ,
, .
. , , .
,
. , : .
, , .
16- , IP
(Braden ., 1988). ,
16- . , (
), , ,
, , . ,
0 1,
. 16-
, .
, , , 216.

. ,
.
216,
. -

236 3.
.
. .
: . , (, ) ,
.
, , , .
. , 1995 , , . ,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
, , , .
, ,
.
(Fletcher,
1982). , :
.
.

,
, ,
, CRC (Cyclic Redundancy heck ).

, 0 1. k
k1, k xk1
x0. ( ) xk1, xk2 .. , 110001 6 ,
,
1, 1, 0, 0, 0 1: x5+x4+x0.
2
.
. , (XOR).
+

10011011
11001010
01010001

00110011

11001101

11111110

1110000

10100110
01010110

01010101
10101111
11111010

, , , 2. ,
, , .

3.2.

237


, G(x). 1. CRC
m, M(x), ,
. CRC
,
G(x) . , , ,
G(x). .
CRC :
1. r G(x). r ,
m + r xrM(x).
2. 2 , xrM(x),
, G(x).
3. 2 ( r ) , xrM(x).
, T(x).
.3.9 1101011111
G(x)=x4+x+1.
, T(x) ( 2) G(x)
. , ,
. , ,
210278 10941, 2399. 2399
210278, (207879) 10941 .
. ? , ,
T(x) T(x)+E(x).
E(x) . E(x) k
1, , k . , ,
0.

G(x), [T(x)+E(x)]/G(x). T(x)/G(x) 0,
E(x)/G(x). ,
G(x), ,
.
, E(x)=xi, i
. G(x) , E(x) ,
.
E(x)=xi+xj, i>j,
: E(x)=xj(xij+1). ,
G(x) x,
G(x) xk+1 k 1
ij, .

238 3.
, .
, x15+x14+1 xk+1 k
1 32768.

.3.9. CRC

, E(x) (, x5+x2+1, x2+1). ,


2 x+1. ,
x+1, ,
.
, , r
r. k
xi(xk1++1), i ,
.
G(x) x0, xi , G(x), .
r+1,
, G(x).
, 1, , r1 . ,
(1/2)r1.

3.3.

239

, r+1
(1/2)r
, .
. ,
, , IEEE802 ( ,
Ethernet):
x32 + x26 + x23 + x22 + x16 + x12 + x11 + x10 + x8 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x1 + 1.
:
32 , . 1980- .
.
, (
Castagnoli
., 1993) (
Koopman
, 2002) CRC. ,
, 6, CRC-32 IEEE
4.
CRC , (Peterson)
(
Brown
) 1961 , CRC .
.
CRC, ( Ethernet, 802.11)
(, SONET).

3.3.


. , , .
, ,
, . .3.10.
, (Network Interface Card NIC).

. , . (, ,
, ,
, ). , . ,
,
.

240 3.

. 3.10. ,

, A B
, , .
, B
A. , A
, ,
. A ,
. ( .)
, .
, , .
, , ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
(..3.1). , , ( ) ( ).
.
, to_physical_layer
from_physical_layer . ( ),
, ,
. , , ,
.
. , ,
- . wait_for_
event(&event). , - (, ). event ,
.
. , ,

3.3.

241

, , .
.
,
.
3.1. .
protocol.h
#define MAX_PKT 1024
typedef
typedef
typedef
typedef

/* */

enum {false, true} boolean;


/* boolean */
unsigned int seq_nr;
/* */
struct {unsigned char data[MAX_PKT];} packet; /* */
enum {data, ack, nak} frame_kind; /* */

typedef struct {
frame_kind kind;
seq_nr seq;
seq_nr ack;
packet info;
} frame;

/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

, */
*/
*/
*/
*/

/* event */
void wait_for_event(event_type *event);
/* */
void from_network_layer(packet *p);
/* */
void to_network_layer(packet *p);
/* r */
void from_physical_layer(frame *r);
/* */
void to_physical_layer(frame *s);
/* timeout */
void start_timer(seq_nr k);
/* timeout */
void stop_timer(seq_nr k);
/* ack_timeout */
void start_ack_timer(void);
/* ack_timeout */
void stop_ack_timer(void);
/* network_layer_ready */
void enable_network_layer(void);

242 3.
3.1 ()
/* network_layer_ready */
void disable_network_layer(void);
/* inc : k */
#define inc(k) if (k < MAX_SEQ) k = k + 1; else k = 0

, . ( ),
(event=cksum_err).
,
(event=frame_arrival),
from_physical_layer. ,
, ,
, .
.

: .

, .
.
,
.
3.1 ( C),
, . : boolean, seq_nr, packet,
frame_kind frame. boolean , true false. seq_nr ,
.
0 MAX_SEQ , , . packet ,

.
MAX_PKT , .
frame : kind, seq, ack info, , ,
. (frame header).
kind ,
, , , . seq ack
.
. , info, .
info . info , .
.
, -

3.3.

243

. , info . ,
.
, ,
.
3.1 . ,
,
. , wait_for_event
- .
to_network_layer from_network_layer
.
: from_physical_layer to_physical_layer
, to_
network_layer from_network_layer
. , to_network_layer from_network_layer
2 3, from_physical_layer
to_physical_layer 1 2.
,
.
, , . , -,
.
event=timeout,
wait_for_event. start_timer stop_timer . timeout , , stop_timer .
start_timer .
, ( , ).
start_ack_timer stop_ack_timer .
enable_network_layer disable_network_layer , ,
. , ,
. event=network_layer_ready.
, .
, , ,
.
0 MAX_SEQ
(). MAX_SEQ . 1 (
MAX_SEQ) inc. ,
,
. ,

244 3.
.

, .
3.1 .
, , ,
.
C
#include
protocol.h, .

3.3.1.
. , , -
.
. .
. , . ,
, 3.2.
, .
, sender1 () receiver1 (). sender1 ,
receiver1 . , , MAX_SEQ .
frame_arrival ( ).
sender1 , while, .
: ( )
, s
. info,
,
.
. ,
- , . ,
wait_for_event , event
frame_arrival ( ).
from_physical_layer r. , ,
.
3.2.
/* 1 ("")
. ,
. ,
. */

3.3.

245

typedef enum {frame_arrival} event_type;


#include "protocol.h"
void sender1(void)
{
frame s;
/* */
packet buffer;
/* */
while (true) {
from_network_layer(&buffer);
s.info = buffer;
to_physical_layer(&s);
}

/*
/*
/*
/*

*/
s */
s */
", ".

.
, V, v */

}
void receiver1(void)
{
frame r;
event_type event; /* ,
*/
while (true) {
wait_for_event(&event); /* ,
frame_arrival */
from_physical_layer(&r);
/* */
to_network_layer(&r.info);
/* */
}0
}

,
, .
, ,
. .

3.3.2.

, 1, . ,
, . ,
. ,
. .
, (
,
, ).

246 3.
, .
, .
. , , . ,
:
.
. ,
, . ,
, .
.
, , , (stop-and-wait). 3.3
.
3.3.
/* 2 ( ) ,
. , .
, , ,
.
, . */
typedef enum {frame_arrival} event_type;
#include "protocol.h"
void sender2(void)
{
frame s;
packet buffer;
event_type event;

/* */
/* */
/*
( frame_arrival)*/

while (true) {
from_network_layer(&buffer);
s.info = buffer;
to_physical_layer(&s);
wait_for_event(&event);

/*
*/
/* s */
/* , , */
/* ,
*/

}
}
void receiver2(void)
{
frame r, s;
event_type event;

/* */
/* frame_arrival
*/

while (true) {
wait_for_event(&event); /*
( frame_arrival)*/

3.3.
from_physical_layer(&r);
to_network_layer(&r.info);
to_physical_layer(&s);

247

/* */
/* */
/* ,
*/

}
}

, ,
. , .
:
, ,
, . . .
1,
, . ,
1, ,
.
:
, : .
receiver2 receiver1 ,
receiver2 , .
, , .

3.3.3.

: , .
, . ,
, . ,
, , ( )
.
, 2.
. .
, . , , , .
.
, , .
, , ,

248 3.
. A ,
B . ,
B ,
, .
.
1. A 1 .
B . B
A.
2. .
A. , , , ,
.
3. A .
, ,
, .
4. B . A B ,
, , B
. , .
, ,
.

. ,
.
,
. :
, ? 1, , 1 . ,
,
.

m m+1. m ,
, .
, . . ,
, m m+1.
, m+1,
m. , m1
.
. ,
.
, ( 0 1).

3.3.

249

. , , .
2 ( 0 1,
1 0). .
, ,
.
3.4. ,
, , PAR (Positive Acknowledgement with
Retransmission ) ARQ
(Automatic Repeat reQuest ).
2, .
3.4.
/* 3 (PAR) . */
#define MAX_SEQ 1
/* 3 1 */
typedef enum {frame_arrival, cksum_err, timeout} event_type;
#include "protocol.h"
void sender3(void)
{
seq_nr next_frame_to_send;
frame s;
packet buffer;
event_type event;
next_frame_to_send = 0;
from_network_layer(&buffer);
while (true) {
s.info = buffer;
s.seq = next_frame_to_send;
to_physical_layer(&s);
start_timer(s.seq);
wait_for_event(&event);

/*
*/
/* */
/* */
/*
*/
/* */
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

*/
*/
*/
*/
frame_arrival, cksum_err
timeout */

if (event == frame_arrival) {
from_physical_layer(&s); /* */
if (s.ack == next_frame_to_send) {
from_network_layer(&buffer); /* */
/* */
inc(next_frame_to_send);
/* */
/* next_frame_to_send */
}
}
}
}
void receiver3(void)

250 3.
3.4 ()
{
seq_nr frame_expected;
frame r, s;
event_type event;
frame_expected = 0;
while (true) {
wait_for_event(&event); /* : frame_arrival, cksum_err */
if (event == frame_arrival) {
/* */
from_physical_layer(&r);
/* */
if (r.seq == frame_expected) {
/* */
to_network_layer(&r.info); /* */
inc(frame_expected);
/* */
/* */
}
s.ack = 1 - frame_expected; /* , */
/* */
to_physical_layer(&s);
/* */
}
}
}

3 , , .
next_frame_to_send, frame_expected.
.
, . , .
, ,
.
, , , . , -, ,
, .
, .
- .
: , , .
, . , .
, ,
, . ( , ).
, .
, ,

3.4.

251

.
,
, ,
.

3.4.

.
.
,
( ). .
.
. , 2 3
, , . A B A B.
kind .
, . ,
, ,
.
ack . . piggybacking
( ).
. ack
,
. ,
, .

1 . .
. ,
?
, , , .
, ,
. , , ,
(,
), .
, .

252 3.

(sliding window). , , .

( 0 ). n , 2n1.

, 0 1,
n.
, ,
, . ,
. , , .

. ,
.

, , ,
, .
,
. , , .
, , .
,
. ,
. , .
, , , . , n,
n .
,
, .
,
. , , .
, ,
, . ,
, . ,
, . ,
,
,
. , , ,
.

3.4.

253

.3.11 1.
, ,
. , ,
.

. 3.11. 1 3- :
; ; ;

3.4.1.
, , 1. ,
, , , ,
.
3.5. ,
. next_frame_to_send
, . frame_expected
, . , 0 1.
3.5. 1-
/* 4 ( ) . */
#define MAX_SEQ 1
/* 4 1 */
typedef enum {frame_arrival, cksum_err, timeout} event_type;
#include "protocol.h"
void protocol4 (void)

254 3.
3.5 ()
{
seq_nr next_frame_to_send;
seq_nr frame_expected;
frame r, s;
packet buffer;
event_type event;

/*
/*
/*
/*

0 1 */
0 1 */
*/
*/

next_frame_to_send = 0;
frame_expected = 0;
from_network_layer(&buffer);
s.info = buffer;
s.seq = next_frame_to_send;
s.ack = 1 - frame_expected;

/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

*/
*/
*/
*/
*/
, ""

*/
to_physical_layer(&s);
start_timer(s.seq);
while (true) {
wait_for_event(&event);

/* */
/* */

/*
/*
if (event == frame_arrival) { /*
from_physical_layer(&r); /*

: frame_arrival, */
cksum_err timeout */
*/
*/

if (r.seq == frame_expected) {
/* */
to_network_layer(&r.info); /* */
inc(frame_expected); /* , */
/* */
}
if (r.ack == next_frame_to_send) { /* */
from_network_layer(&buffer);
/* */
/* */
inc(next_frame_to_send);
/* */
/* */
}
}
s.info = buffer;
s.seq = next_frame_to_send;
s.ack = 1 - frame_expected;
to_physical_layer(&s);
start_timer(s.seq);

/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

*/
*/
*/
*/
*/

}
}

. ,
to_physical_layer start_timer .
, .

3.4.

255

( ) , ,
, 3. ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
,
.
.
4 , . , A 0 B,
B 0 A. , A
. ,
A seq=0 ack=1.
B, ,
frame_expected 1.
, B
1, 0. ,
ack=1, B 0, B
.
, A, B , seq=0 ack=0. ,
A, A
.
, , .
.

.3.12. 4: ; .
: (seq, ack, ). ,

256 3.
.
, , .3.12.
. . B A,
, ,
. .
A B , , .
, .
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.

3.4.2. n
, , , ,
, .
.

. 50/ , ,
500. 4
1000 . t=0
. t=20 .
t=270 .
520 . ,
,
. ,
500/520, 96% . ,
4% . , ,
.
, , .
, . , , w,
. w,
, ,
, .

3.4.

257

w, ,
, .

. ,
. BD (bandwidth-delay
product, , ). , w 2BD+1. 2BD ,
( ),
( , , ). ,
.
50/,
250. BD 12,5/
12,5, 1000. 2BD+1 26. , , 0 20. , 26 (
t=520), 0.
20. ,
.
25 26 , ,
26.
, 100%, . ,
:
w
!
.
1 + 2BD
,
. ,
. ,
BD w. ,
,
. ,
,
(, 1/
1 1). w=1,
,
50%.
, , (pipelining). . -, ,
?
, ,
. , , ,
,

258 3.
? ,
, .
. . 3.13.

k3

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

Ac

k7

k6

k5

k4

k2

Ac

k1

k0

Time

Ac

k1

Ac

k1

Ac

k1

15

Ac

k1

14

13

12

k9

k8

k6

11

Ac

10

Ac

Ac

Ac

k7

k2

Ac

Na

Ac

k5

Ac

3
k1

k0

10

11

12

13

14

. 3.13. : 1;
1

n (go-back-n) , . . 1.
, - ,
, . , ,
. , ,
, ,
.
.
.3.13, n . 0
1 , . 2
. , 2. , 2 ( 2, 3, 4 ..).
,
(selective repeat), , -

3.4.

259

, . .
,
, . ,
. , 1.
,
.
(NAK Negative Acknowledgement) ,
,
. NAK ,
. ,
.
.3.13, 0 1 , 2 .
3 , . 2
NAK
, 3 . 4 5,
.
NAK
2 , 2. ,
2, 3, 4 5,
. , , . NAK
, 2 2
( !), , NAK.
3.6. n
/* 5 () .
MAX_SEQ , . ,
, ,
. network_
layer_ready */
#define MAX_SEQ 7
/* 2^n-1 */
typedef enum {frame_arrival, cksum_err, timeout, network_layer_ready} event_type;
#include protocol.h"
static boolean between(seq_nr a, seq_nr b, seq_nr c)
{
/* true, (a <=b < c ; false */
if (((a <= b) && (b < c)) || ((c < a) && (a <= b)) || ((b < c) && (c < a)))
return(true);
else
return(false);
}
static void send_data(seq_nr frame_nr, seq_nr frame_expected, packet buffer[])

260 3.
3.6 ()
{
/* */
frame s;
/* */
s.info = buffer[frame_nr];
/* */
s.seq = frame_nr;
/* */
s.ack = (frame_expected + MAX_SEQ) % (MAX_SEQ + 1); /* ,
"" */
to_physical_layer(&s);
/* */
start_timer(frame_nr);
/*
*/
}
void protocol5(void)
{
seq_nr next_frame_to_send;
/*
seq_nr ack_expected;
/*
seq_nr frame_expected;
/*
frame r;
/*
packet buffer[MAX_SEQ+1];
/*
seq_nr nbuffered;
/*
seq_nr i;
/*
event_type event;

MAX_SEQ > 1; */
*/
, */
*/
*/
*/
*/

enable_network_layer();
ack_expected = 0;
next_frame_to_send = 0;
frame_expected = 0;
nbuffered = 0;

/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

network_layer_ready */
*/
*/
*/
*/

while (true) {
wait_for_event(&event);

/* : . event_type */

switch(event) {
case network_layer_ready:

/*
*/
/* , */
from_network_layer(&buffer[next_frame_to_send]); /*
*/
nbuffered = nbuffered + 1; /* */
send_data(next_frame_to_send, frame_expected, buffer); /*
*/
inc(next_frame_to_send); /*
*/
break;

case frame_arrival:
/* */
from_physical_layer(&r); /*
*/
if (r.seq == frame_expected) {
/* */

3.4.
to_network_layer(&r.info);
inc(frame_expected);
*/

261

/* */
/*

}
/* n
n - 1, n - 2 .. */
while (between(ack_expected, r.ack, next_frame_to_send)) {
/* */
nbuffered = nbuffered - 1; /* */
stop_timer(ack_expected);
/* ;
*/
inc(ack_expected);
/* */
}
break;
case cksum_err: break;
/* */
case timeout: /* ;
*/
next_frame_to_send = ack_expected; /*
*/
for (i = 1; i <= nbuffered; i++) {
send_data(next_frame_to_send, frame_expected, buffer);
/* 1 */
inc(next_frame_to_send); /*
*/
}
}
if (nbuffered < MAX_SEQ)
enable_network_layer();
else
disable_network_layer();
}
}


. ,
, . 3.6 ,
. , , .
,
.
, , network_layer_ready.
,
. enable_network_layer disable_network_layer.
.

262 3.
n MAX_SEQ, MAX_SEQ + 1 : 0 MAX_SEQ. ,
, . ,
, MAX_SEQ=7.
1. 0 7.
2. 7 .
3. , 0 7.
4. 7 .
: , ,
, ( )? 7 . . MAX_SEQ.
5 , , ,
, .
n, n1, n2 ( )
. (cumulative
acknowledgement).
- . ,
, - . ,

network_layer_ready.
, ,
. 4 ,
, - .
.
5 ,
, . . ,
, .
, ,
, .
.3.14,
. ,
1. 10:00:00.000 -, 10:00:00.005, 10:00:00.013
10:00:00.019. , ,
. , -,
, .3.14,.
,

3.4.

263

start_timer stop_timer .
, ,
.

. 3.14.

3.4.3.
n , ,
,
. , ,
.
, .
. , , .
, .
, , . ,
between , . , . ,
, .
, . 3.7.
3.7.
/* 6 ( ) ,
, . .
, ,
5. */
#define MAX_SEQ 7
/* 2^n-1 */
#define NR_BUFS ((MAX_SEQ + 1)/2)
typedef enum {frame_arrival, cksum_err, timeout, network_layer_ready, ack_timeout} event_
type;

264 3.
3.7 ()
#include "protocol.h"
boolean no_nak = true;
/* (nak) */
seq_nr oldest_frame = MAX_SEQ+1;
/* */
static boolean between(seq_nr a, seq_nr b, seq_nr c)
{
/* , 5, */
return ((a <= b) && (b < c)) || ((c < a) && (a <= b)) || ((b < c) && (c < a));
}
static void send_frame(frame_kind fk, seq_nr frame_nr, seq_nr frame_expected, packet
buffer[])
{
/* , */
frame s;
/* */
s.kind = fk;
/* kind == data, ack, nak */
if (fk == data) s.info = buffer[frame_nr % NR_BUFS];
s.seq = frame_nr;
/* */
s.ack = (frame_expected + MAX_SEQ) % (MAX_SEQ + 1);
if (fk == nak) no_nak = false;
/* nak , */
to_physical_layer(&s);
/* */
if (fk == data) start_timer(frame_nr % NR_BUFS);
stop_ack_timer();
/* */
}
void protocol6(void)
{
seq_nr ack_expected;
/* */
seq_nr next_frame_to_send;
/* + 1 */
seq_nr frame_expected;
/* */
seq_nr too_far;
/* + 1 */
int i;
/* */
frame r;
/* */
packet out_buf[NR_BUFS];
/* */
packet in_buf[NR_BUFS];
/* */
boolean arrived[NR_BUFS];
/* */
seq_nr nbuffered;
/* */
event_type event;
enable_network_layer();
ack_expected = 0;
next_frame_to_send = 0;
frame_expected = 0;
too_far = NR_BUFS;
nbuffered = 0;

/*
/*
/*
/*
/*
/*

*/
*/
*/
*/
+ 1 */
*/

for (i = 0; i < NR_BUFS; i++) arrived[i] = false;


while (true) {
wait_for_event(&event);
/* :
. event_type */

3.4.

265

switch(event) {
case network_layer_ready:

/* ,
*/
nbuffered = nbuffered + 1; /* */
from_network_layer(&out_buf[next_frame_to_send % NR_BUFS]);
/* */
send_frame(data, next_frame_to_send, frame_expected, out_buf);
/* */
inc(next_frame_to_send); /*
*/
break;

case frame_arrival: /* */
from_physical_layer(&r); /*
*/
if (r.kind == data) {
/* */
if ((r.seq != frame_expected) && no_nak)
send_frame(nak, 0, frame_expected, out_buf);
else start_ack_timer();
if (between(frame_expected, r.seq, too_far) &&
(arrived[r.seq%NR_BUFS] == false)) {
/* */
arrived[r.seq % NR_BUFS] = true;
/*
*/
in_buf[r.seq % NR_BUFS] = r.info; /*
*/
while (arrived[frame_expected % NR_BUFS]) {
/* */
to_network_layer(&in_buf[frame_expected % NR_BUFS]);
no_nak = true;
arrived[frame_expected % NR_BUFS] = false;
inc(frame_expected); /*
*/
inc(too_far);
/*
*/
start_ack_timer(); /*
,

*/
}
}
}
if((r.kind==nak) &&
between(ack_expected,(r.ack+1)%(MAX_SEQ+1),next_frame_to_send))
send_frame(data, (r.ack+1) % (MAX_SEQ + 1),
frame_expected, out_buf);
while (between(ack_expected, r.ack, next_frame_to_send)) {
nbuffered = nbuffered - 1; /*
*/
stop_timer(ack_expected % NR_BUFS); /* */

266 3.
3.7 ()
inc(ack_expected);

/*
*/

}
break;
case cksum_err: if (no_nak) send_frame(nak, 0, frame_expected, out_buf);
break; /* */
case timeout: send_frame(data, oldest_frame, frame_expected, out_buf);
break; /* */
case ack_timeout: send_frame(ack,0,frame_expected, out_buf);
/* "" ; */
}
if (nbuffered < NR_BUFS) enable_network_layer(); else disable_network_layer();
}
}


, .
. ,
3, ,
.
.3.15,. 0 6.
0 6 . ,
7, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 5,
.3.15,. .

.3.15. : 7; 7
, ; 4;
, 4 ,

- , .
, . , , 0. , 0
(. 3.15,).
6, 0 6.

3.4.

267

,
, 7, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 5. 7
, .
0,
.
, ; ,
.
, . ,
( ),
( ). .
, .
( .3.15,
3.15,.) , 3, 0 7. ,
. ,
0 3 4 7,
( 0 3) (47).
6 (MAX_SEQ+1)/2.
: ?
, .
,
. 3-
0 3. i,
imod4. , i (i+4), 4,
,
, ,
, 5.
, . ,
. , .
6 ,
. 5, .
,
, . , , ,
, .
6 . start_ack_timer . , ,
. -

268 3.
ack_timeout. ,
,
, .
. start_ack_timer, ,
. , .
,
. ,
, .
6 ,
5. , ,
(NAK).
:
, ( ).
, , NAK . 6
no_nak, true, NAK
( frame_expected) . NAK , , ,
, , ,
, . , NAK
, , no_nak true
. , (ACK)
.
, ,
, .
. NAK
.
. , ,
.
.
, .
. - .
,
,
,
.
-
, -. 5
ack_expected, . 6
, . ,

3.5.

269

0 4, : 01234 (
). , 0
, 5 (),
1 2 6 ( ). : 3405126,
. ,
.
,
. ,
oldest_frame - ,
.

3.5.

, .
4.
,
. SONET. , ,
.
ADSL

.
.

, , , ..

PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol, ).
PPP RFC1661
RFC1662 . (Simpson, 1994a, 1994b). PPP SONET ADSL,
-.

3.5.1. SONET
SONET, 2, ,
, , .
, (,
2,4/ OC-48).
, 125, ,
.
,
, . IP PPP, .3.16.

270 3.

. 3.16. SONET: ;

PPP SLIP
(Serial Line Internet Protocol, - ),
, , .
PPP .
1. , . .
2. , , ,
, . LCP (Link Control Protocol).
3. , .
(NCP, Network
Control Protocol).
, PPP,
HDLC (High-level Data Link Control,
) .
- HDLC, PPP . , PPP ,
. PPP

, 30,25, HDLC.
.
HDLC
,
. PPP
, ;
RFC1663. .

.
PPP .3.17. PPP- HDLC 0x7E (01111110).
(Payload), 0x7D,
, 2
0x20 ( ). , 0x7D 0x5E
0x7E. , -

3.5.

271

,
0x7E. .
0x7D, ,
2 0x20. , . ,
.
(Address),
11111111, ,
.
.

. 3.17. PPP

(Control),
00000011. .

, LCP
, , 2 .
PPP (Protocol). ,
. , 0, IP 4 6 , IPX AppleTalk.
1 , PPP,
LCP NCP
. 2,
LCP .
, , , - 256 .
, .
LCP, 1500.
.
(Checksum),
2, 4. 4- 32- CRC,
. 2-
CRC.
, PPP

, , . PPP SONET RFC2615


(Malis, Simpson, 1999). 4- , -

272 3.
,
. ,
, SONET
.
.
SONET, PPP ( ).
2
. .
, SONET
.
, ,
, , , . , ,
, .
PPP SONET,
PPP. ,
, , .3.18.

. 3.18. PPP

: (DEAD), .
, ESTABLISH ().
LCP

. PPP LCP, PPP.


PPP , . , ,

3.5.

273

.
.
AUTHENTICATE
(). ,
. NETWORK ()
NCP

. NCP , ,
, , . ,
IP IP-
.
OPEN (), .
IP- PPP SONET.
, TERMINATE (), DEAD (), .

3.5.2. ADSL
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop,
) ,
. , .
,
DSL-. ,
DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer, DSL),
.
ADSL.
.3.19.
, . IP- DSL-.
, Ethernet. DSL

- IP- DSLAM, , . DSLAM (, ) IP-


, .
.3.19 , ADSL,
, . (
), .
, IP, PPP. PPP, ,
SONET. IP-.
ADSL PPP ATM AAL5. ,
. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ) 1990-

274 3.
. ,
, , ,
, , , , , . .
, ATM ,
OSI: , ,
. ATM , OSI.
, , , DSL, WAN .

. 3.19. ADSL

ATM , (cells)
. , , , ,
( SONET). , - , . ATM

, .
(virtual circuit),
.
53: 48 5
. , ATM .
, , , . .
( 53 ,
) ,
. 48
32- , ,
64-, . (Siu, Jain, 1995).
ATM . ATM -

3.5.

275

, (segmentation and
reassembly). , , ,
, . , AAL5 (ATM
Adaptation Layer 5, ATM 5).
AAL5 .

3.20. , , 4- CRC .
, CRC, PPP
IEEE 802, Ethernet. (Wang, Crowcroft, 1992)
, ,
, . , AAL5 (Pad).
, 48. ,
. ,
, ,
.

.3.20. AAL5, PPP

, ATM. ,
PPP ADSL. , PPPoA (PPP over ATM,
PPP ATM).
( .3.19 ). , , ,
PPP AAL5. RFC2364 (Gross ., 1998).
AAL5 (Protocol)
(Payload) PPP, .3.20. DSLAM, IP- ,
LCP. , PPP,
ATM .
AAL5 PPP , ATM AAL5. . CRC PPP , AAL5
CRC.
, ADSL (
1- CRC ,
). , ,
SONET. ADSL
.

276 3.

3.6.
,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
.

.
.

. .
, .
, .
.
, .
,
, , ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest).
, , , ,
,
, , .
, ,
. , ,
. ,
,

. n,
.

PPP. .
,
CRC.
, SONET ADSL
.

277

1. 10,
80%.
, ?
2. :
A: 01000111; B: 11100011; FLAG: 01111110; ESC: 11100000
,
ABESCFLAG, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
3. , ,
: ABESCCESCFLAGFLAGD.
?
4. ?
5. , , ,

, . , . ?
6.
: 0111101111101111110?
7. (, )
, ?
8. , ,
,
, .
?
9. 16- .
, ? :
1101001100110101? , .
10. 12- ,
0
xE
4
F
. ( ) ? , 1 .
11.
n k .
, .
? ? ?
, .
12. , 1000.
, (1 ) , ? ,
,
.

278 3.
13. n k
. , 4
?
14. , .3.7, 10101010 ( )
.
15. , 1001 1100 1010 0011 (4- ). ?
16. x7+x5+1 x3+1?
17. 10011101 (CRC), . x3+1.
? ,
. , . ,
.
18. 1024- , 992 32 CRC.
CRC IEEE 802 32. ,
:
1) 1- ;
2) 2 1- ;
3) 18 1- ;
4) 47 1- ;
5) 24 ;
6) 35 .
19. ARQ ,
- .
, , (
) ?
20. 4/, 20. ,
, 50%?
21. , 3 , ?
, ? , ?
22. T1 3000 64-
5. 6/,
?
23. ,
, . (
)?
24. , between 5 ab<c
abc. ? .
25. , 6 ,
no_nak true.

279

NAK. . ,
else.
?
26. , 6 while.
?
.
27. 9 1010 .
- 64 /
, ? , 32 , 3 108 /.
28.
.
100%?
.
29. 6 , frame_arrival,
, (NAK). , NAK,
. ,
.
30. 6 1/.
1000. .
- 10. , -.
?
31. 6 MAX_SEQ=2n 1. , ,
, .
, , MAX_SEQ=4?
32. 1000
1/ 270.
. . 3- . :
;
5;
6.
33. , 6
50/. 40-
3960 .
270. ACK . NAK 40.
1%, NAK . 8.
34. ,
64/c 512- ,
, .
, 1, 7, 15 127?
270.

280 3.
35. 100 T1.
2/3 . ?
36. , PPP
( ).
37. IP- PPP?
PPP, IP.
?
38. IP- 100
ADSL. ATM ? .
39. (CRC), .
: (generator) (verifier). - n- ,
ASCII-. k-
( ASCII). n+k ,
, .
, . -
, , .
, (alter), ,
, (, ,
, 1).
. generator <file | verifier,
, . generator <file | alter arg
| verifier, .



: .
2;
.
,
, , . , , .
, . , ,
, .
,
. , ,
, . , .
(multiaccess channels) (random
access channels).
, , , , MAC (Medium
Access Control ). MAC
, , . , ,
. . , , ,
MAC.
.

, , -, 3.

282 4.
, , ,
.
.

4.1.
, ,
, .
, . .
, ,
, ,
.
. , .
.

4.1.1.
, ,
,
FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing ).
N N ,
.
, . ,
,
. FM-.
FM- , .
,
,
. -
, ,
. , ,
,
, , ,
.
, -
,
. ,

4.1.

283

- , . , ,
.
, ,
(
1000:1). ,
.
, , . T
C/. ,
.
, 1/.
C .
,

T=

1
.
C ! "

( : M/M/1. ,
, ,
.)
C 100/, 1/=10000, =5000 . T=200. : ,
10000
100/, : 100.
.
N , C/N/.
/N .
T, :

TN =

1
N
=
= NT .
(C/N) ! ("/N) C ! "

(4.1)

, N , ,
- .
, , , ,
, .
, FDM,
. (TDM, Time Division

284 4.
Multiplexing )
N- , , . .
100- 10-,
, 200 2.
,
, .

4.1.2. ,


, . .
1. . N (,
, ..),
. t t, (
). , ,
.
2. . .
. ,
(, ).
3. . , , . , . .
.
, , , .
4. . , . (, ).
.
0, 1 , ,
.
5. . , , , .
, ,
. , , , .
. , .
. , ,

4.1.

285

, , , , . ,
, ,
(Paxson, Floyd,
1995; Leland ., 1994). , ,
, .
, .
, , . . ,
.
.
,
,
.
. , ,
. ,
. ,
. ;
,
. ,
, .
, , ,
, . , , ,
.
, , , .

. . .
.
, . , ,
,
- . , ,
(, , ), . .
, .
, ,
.
-
. .

286 4.

4.2.
.

.

4.2.1. ALOHA
MAC
1970-.
.
(Norman Abramson) ,

. ,
.

.
. .
(Schwartz, Abramson, 2009). ,
ALOHA, , ,

.
ALOHA: . , ( )
, .

ALOHA
ALOHA : ,
. , , .
. ALOHA,
, .
, , . ,
,
.
,
. . ,
. , ,
, .

4.2.

287

.4.1 ALOHA.
,
, .

. 4.1. ALOHA

, , ( .4.1). .
,
( ). .
( ) .
.

ALOHA. ,
?
, (). : .
. ,
, .
, ,
, . , .
, , .
, ( ,
). , , , N
. (
, , N .) N>1, ,
, ,
. , 0<N<1.

288 4.
, , . , G . ,
GN. ( N0) ,
, GN. , , G>N. ,
S G,
, S=GP0, P0 ,
.
,
, .4.2.
? t
, . -
t0 t0+t,
. ,
, , ALOHA
, ,
. , , t0+t t0+2t, .

. 4.2.

, , G ,
k , :

Pr[k] =

G ke !G

k!

(4.2)

,
eG. ,

4.2.

289

, 2G. , , P0=e2G. , S=GP0, :


S=Ge2G.

.4.3. S=1/(2e), 0,184, G=0,5. , , , 18%. ,
, , ,
.

. 4.3. ALOHA

ALOHA
ALOHA (Roberts, 1972) , ALOHA.
, ( ), .
.
, .
, ALOHA,
ALOHA , .
. , ALOHA . .
, .4.3 , .
,
, eG. :

S=GeG.

(4.3)

290 4.
.4.3, ALOHA G=1.
S=1/e, 0,368,
, ALOHA.
G=1, 0,368 ( 4.2). ALOHA 37%
, 37% 26%
. G ,
. , , . ,
, eG. ,
. ,
1eG. k (
k1 , ) :
Pk=eG(1eG)k1.
, ,
:
E=

"

# kPk =
k !1

"

#k e
k

!G

(1 ! e !G )k !1 = eG .

k!1

E
G, .
ALOHA ,
. 1970- ,
, .
,
. ALOHA.
, RFID
RFID, . ALOHA, ,
. ,
(,
- , ) - .
- , .
,
, , , ,
. , ,
.

4.2.

291

4.2.2.

ALOHA ,
, 1/e. ,
, , , . .
,
. , 1/e.
,
.
,
, . - . , . (Kleinrock, Tobagi, 1975).
.

CSMA
, , 1 CSMA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access ). CSMA.
, ,
, . ,
. , , , .
. ,
, , ,
. CSMA 1, 1, , .
,
, , .
, -
, , , , .
, .
,
. ,
,
. ,
, , ,
. , ,
, .
,
, , .

292 4.
, .
ALOHA,
, .
ALOHA.
CSMA.

, . , ,
. , . ,
, , , .
, . ,
, CSMA 1.
, , , CSMA p. .
, . ,
p . q=1p
. ,
- .
, . , . , ,
. IEEE802.11
CSMA p, .
.4.4 ,
ALOHA.

. 4.4.

4.2.

293

CSMA
CSMA, , ALOHA, ,
, , . , , , ,
. ( ),
. , .
, CSMA/CD (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Col
lision Detection
), Ethernet,
CSMA/CD. , .
.
, , . ,
(
1000000 )
,
(, 0-
).
CSMA/CD,
, , .4.5. t0 . ,
, .
, . ,
, ,
, , .
, CSMA/CD
, ( ).

. 4.5. CSMA/CD : ,

. , t0.

294 4.
, , ? , ,
.

. , , , ,
, , . ,
, , .
.
. ,
, . t0 . ,
, , . , , , ,
2 .
, , ,
2 .
, CSMA/CD ALOHA 2. 1
5. CSMA/CD ALOHA ,
,
( ), .
,
.

4.2.3.
CSMA/CD , , .
, , ( )
. ,
, , , IP.
CSMA/CD .
,
, .
,
,
.
N ,
0 N1.
, .

4.2.

295

, .
:
? - ,
.4.5, .


, , (basic bit-map method),
N . 0 ,
0- . . 1 1 ,
, 1 0.
N N , .
(.4.6 N=8).

. 4.6.

, , .
, ,
, N . ( ) ,
, ,
.
, , (reservation protocols),
, .
.
,
d .
, .
, 0 1. ,
, -
. N/2
N () , , ,
.
. (N/2 ).

296 4.
. 1,5N ,
N/2,
N .
.
N, d
d/(N+d).
, - , N N .
, d/(d+1).

(N1)d+N ,
. ,
.


,
. ,
, , (token),
.
.
, , ,
, .
, .
(token ring) ,
, .
, . ,
,
.4.7. , .
, , .
( ), -
. (
), -.

. 4.7.

4.2.

297

,
. , , .
.
,
. (token bus).

,
. , N
( ) , , , N1
( ).
, , . ,
,
. ,
.
MAC . ( Token Ring,
IEEE

802.5) 1980- Ethernet. 1990-


FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface,
- )
Ethernet. 2000- RPR (Resilient Packet Ring,
), IEEE 802.17, ,
. , 2010 .


, , - . ,
. , ,
, . ,
. ,
( )
. (binary countdown). Datakit (Fraser, 1987).
, ,
.
:
0 , 0
, . , 0010, 0100,
1001 1010 ,
0, 0, 1 1 . 1.
, 0010 0100 ,
1001 1010 .

298 4.
0 , . 1, 1001 .
1010, . ,
, . .4.8.
, .
, .

. 4.8. .

d/(d+log2N). ,
, log2N 100%.
, , .
, - .

4.2.4.
, : , CSMA, .
:
. ( ALOHA)
, ( ).
, ,
. .
,
, , , ( ).

4.2.

299

, , .

(limited-contention protocols). ,
.

, p. ,
,
.
,
. ,
k .
p. , -
,
, p, k1 , 1p.
kp(1p)k1. p, p,
p. , p
1/k. p 1/k,
p:
k !1

" k ! 1%
P [ p] = $
. 
# k '&

(4.4)

.4.9.
, ,
, 1/e.

. 4.9.

300 4.
, -
, .
.
( ). 0
0. - ,
. ,
1 1 ..
,
(. ).
, .
, . .
,
. (,
).
, . ,
, p2, p
. ,
, , , , .
, (
ALOHA). ,
( , ),
.


,

(Dorfman, 1943). N .
.
. ,
. ,
. , .
(Capetanakis, 1979) , .4.10.
. -
, . , ,
, 2 .
, ( 3 ). ,
, 4.

4.2.

301

. 4.10.

, 0,
. . ,
. ,
, , , .
1, ,
, . 2 3.
? ,
,
. ,
q ( ), ,
.
.4.10 1 0, 2 3 1 .. , i 2i
. q ,
i 2iq. ,
,
1, , 2iq=1. i=log2q.

, (Bertsekas)
(Gallager) 1992 . , ,
G H. 1 ,
2. . 3 ,
. ( , 1 2 ,
2 , 3.)
3 6.
6 , 7
G.

302 4.

4.2.5.
, , , .
. ,
(MAC).
.
802.11 (WiFi).

.
;
.
, , ,
,
, 2. ,
, ,
, .
600/.
,
, .
, , .
, . .

.
- .
, , .
.
, , , . .
, ,
. ,
, ,
. .

CSMA (Carrier-Sense Multiple Access ) ,
. ,
, ,
. , .4.11, .

4.2.

303

, , . ,
, A B, C B D, A.

. 4.11. : A C
B; B C A D

, , A C B, .4.11,. A , C
, A, , , B. C ,
B , A. (
, CDMA
, - .) MAC-, , . , ,
,
,
(hidden terminal problem).
: B A
, D, .4.11,.

, D (
).
B C, . MAC, ,
.
(exposed terminal problem).
, , , - .
CSMA
.
, . .
, , , , .

304 4.
,
, , .
,
.
, , MACA (Multiple
Access with Collision Avoidance
) (Karn, 1990). , , ,
,
, .
.
MACA .4.12. ,
A B. A , B
RTS (Request To Send ), .4.12,.
(30) , .
B CTS (Clear To Send ),
.4.12,. CTS
( RTS). CTS, A .
, ,
. , RTS, A
, CTS A.
, CTS, B, ,
, B ,
CTS.

. 4.12. MACA: A RTS B;


B CTS A

.4.12 C A, B.
RTS, A, CTS,
B. CTS,

4.3. Ethernet

305

,
. D, , B, A.
RTS, CTS, ,
, .
, . E , D, ,
.
, .
, B C RTS A.
. ,
CTS , .

4.3. Ethernet
, ,
. . (PAN), (LAN)
(MAN) IEEE 802.
, (..1.4). , , ,
IEEE
, . -,
. 802.3 (Ethernet) 802.11 (
). Bluetooth ( ) , , 802.15. 802.16 ( ) . ,
6- .
Ethernet, , . Ethernet:
Ethernet (classic Ethernet), , ;
Ethernet (switched Ethernet),
. , Ethernet, .
Ethernet ;
3 10 /. Ethernet ;
100, 1000 10000 / Fast Ethernet
( Ethernet), Gigabit Ethernet ( Ethernet) 10-Gigabit Ethernet
(10- Ethernet). Ethernet.
Ethernet , . Ethernet IEEE802.3 (
, ), . Ethernet, IEEE 802.3. , Ethernet, (Spurgeon, 2000).

306 4.

4.3.1.
Ethernet
Ethernet ALOHA,
, , .
. ,
, ,
Xerox.
, , . .
, , , (Metcalfe, Boggs, 1976).
, 3 /.
Ethernet , ,
- , . ( XIX
, , , ,
. ,
1887 , ,
.)
Xerox Ethernet , 1978 DEC Intel
Xerox 10- Ethernet, DIX (DIX standard). 1983 DIX IEEE 802.3. Xerox,
(
), (
Fumbling the Future, Smith, Alexander, 1988). ,
Xerox Ethernet
, , 3Com,
Ethernet .
.
Ethernet , , . .4.13.
, Ethernet (thick Ethernet), 2,5
. ( 802.3 , ,
.) Ethernet (thin Ethernet);
, BNC.
Ethernet ,
185 ( 500 Ethernet),
30 ( 100).
Ethernet ,
. -

4.3. Ethernet

307

(repeaters).
. , () . ,
, , (
, ).

. 4.13. Ethernet

.
Ethernet ,
2,5 .
MAC, .

4.3.2.
Ethernet
, , .4.14.
Preamble (, ) 8, 10101010 ( ,
11). 802.3 Start
of Frame ( ).
10 6,4,
. ,
, , .
: . 6.
0 1
. . , ,
, . (multicasting). ,
.
(broadcasting). ,
.
, .

308 4.

. 4.14. : DIX Ethernet; IEEE 802.3

. IEEE, ,
. ,
48- . 3 OUI
(Organizationally Unique Identifier, ).
IEEE .
224 . 3 ,
.
Type Length, , Ethernet IEEE 802.3. Ethernet Type ,
. , , , Ethernet,
, . Type
, . , 0x0800
, IPv4.
IEEE802.3 ,
.
,
. , , ,
.
LLC (Logical Link Control,
). 8 2 .
, 802.3
DIX Ethernet, -

4.3. Ethernet

309


Type Length. 1997 IEEE .
, Type, 1997,
1500 (
). , , 0x600 (1536),
Length, 0x600 Type.
IEEE , , ,
, LLC
.
, Type , 1500.
, -, , Ethernet. , ,
. 1978 . ,
, , .
,
. , 0 , .
, ,
, , . , Ethernet
64 (
). 46 ,
Pad (),
.
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,
, ,
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), B . B ,
, , ,
. 48- ,
. 2
.
.
,
, . ,
- , , , , .
, 2.
10/
2500 ( 802.3) 50.

310 4.
, , . 10/
100, , 500.
512 64.

. 4.15. 2

Ethernet Checksum, . , 32- CRC ,


. , PPP, ADSL . CRC : , .
, , .


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. ,
, , ,
. , ,
. , , ,
.
,
, . , .4.5.
, (
), 2. Ethernet ,
512 51,2.
0 1,
.
, .
0, 1, 2 3 .

4.3. Ethernet

311

(
1/4) 0 231.
, i
0 2i1, . 10
1023.
16 . .
, (binary exponential backoff),
, .
1023, , ,
. , , 0 1,
, 99
1, 0. .
,
,
.
, , , ,
. , CSMA/CD, Ethernet
.
.
CRC . ,
.

4.3.3. Ethernet
Ethernet , k .
.
(Metcalfe) (Boggs) (1976) , .
p,
, - ,
A=kp(1p)k1.

(4.5)

A , p=1/k. k, , A 1/e. ,
j , A(1 A)j1, ,

"

# jA(1 ! A)
j =0

j !1

1
.
A

312 4.
2, w=2/A.
p
e, ,
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:

P
=
(4.6)
.
P + 2/A

, . , .
, Ethernet
.
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: e . P=F/B
(4.6) :

1
=

(4.7)
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, . , (BL)
. ,
. (
, , ), ,
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Ethernet .
.4.16 2=51,2 , 10/.
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, . ,
1024, e
, 64- , 174, 85%. , 37% ALOHA
.
, Ethernet
( ) . (, , ) . -,
,
.
, ,
, (Paxson and Floyd, 1994; Leland .,
1994). , .

4.3. Ethernet

313

,
, , .
. (1988 ) , Ethernet
, .

. 4.16. 802.3 10/


512-

4.3.4. Ethernet
Ethernet , .
,
(hub) .
,
. .4.17,.

. 4.17. Ethernet: ;

314 4.
, ,
,
. ,

100 ( 200 5). ,
.
Ethernet.
, Ethernet.
. ,
.
, 10 100/, 1/
. , Ethernet
.
, , Ethernet. (switch),
, (. .4.17,). . ,
( 4 48) RJ-45
. , .4.18. .
, .

.
, ,
, , .

. 4.18. Ethernet

.
, .
Ethernet , Ethernet ,
. , ; ,
.

4.3. Ethernet

315

, .
.
; , .
.
.
,
? .

(collision domain).
CSMA/CD.
. , , , ,
. , CSMA/CD
. , , CSMA/CD .
, . -, ,
. -, ,
.
.
,
, . ,
, .
, .
, , , .
( ) (promiscuous mode),
, .
, ,
.
. . :
.
, .
Ethernet,
. .4.18
, 12- . , ,
.
,
. , . ,

316 4.
. ,
, ; , ,
. ,
- . Ethernet.
.

4.3.5. Fast Ethernet


, , Ethernet
10/ - . - ,
10/ . .
. (
) :
.
,
10- , ,
. ,
- .
Ethernet , .
IEEE 1992 802.3 .
, 802.3
. , , ,
, .
( ). - 802.3,
.
, ,
. Ethernet.
, , : , (, 802.12), , ,
.
( ),
1995 802.3u.
, .
, 802.3 ( ). . Fast Ethernet ( Ethernet)
, .

4.3. Ethernet

317

Fast Ethernet :
, ,
100 10. ? ,
10- Ethernet, 10 . ,
Fast Ethernet . , Fast Ethernet
() ;
BNC- .
. , .
3.
,
3 ( ): ( )
100 . . ,
Fast Ethernet,
. .
: 100- 100 (
, 10- ). 5
,
. - . , 802.3
, .4.2, ,
.
4.2. Fast Ethernet

100Base-T4

100

100Base-TX

100

100/ (
5)

100Base-FX

2000

100/;

100Base-4T, 3,
25, 25% , 20 Ethernet (,
, ,
). , 100Base-4T
.
, ,
.

318 4.
100/
. ,
.
,
. ,
,
.
100Base-T4 ,
100Base-TX, . , 125.
: , .
( NRZ), .
, 4B/5B ( ).
125
, 100 /. , ,
. 100Base-TX ,
100/ .
, 100Base-FX, , ,
100/ .
2.
Fast Ethernet ,
. CSMA/CD ,
,
10 100/. ,
( 64), ( 2500).
:
10 ,
. 100Base-FX 2
100- Ethernet. ,
.
Fast Ethernet,
10- Ethernet . 10-, 100- .

(autonegotiation),
(10 100) ( ). ,
.

4.3. Ethernet

319

, ,
(Shalunov, Carlson, 2005). Ethernet .

4.3.6. Gigabit Ethernet


, ,
Fast Ethernet, 802 .
Gigabit Ethernet ( Ethernet). IEEE 1999 802.3ab.
Gigabit Ethernet.
(Spurgeon, 2000).
Gigabit Ethernet ,
Fast Ethernet: 10 ,
Ethernet. , Gigabit Ethernet
, ,
. 48- ,
. .
Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
-. , . 4.19,,
, . , , ,
, (.4.19,). , Gigabit Ethernet
, , .

. 4.19. Ethernet, : ;

, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet :


. ,
. , ,

320 4.
. , , . , .

; ,
( ).
, CSMA/CD ,
, .
; ,
. , Fast Ethernet,
10, 100 1000 /.
,
, .
. ,
Ethernet. , CSMA/
CD. ( 64)
100 , Ethernet,
, , 100 . 25

. 2500 , 64 1/ ,
,
, .
, ,
200, , , . (carrier extension).
- , , 512.
, .
, 512 64
.
9%.
, , (frame bursting). ,
, , .
512, , ,
. , ,
, ,
. , , .
,
Ethernet, ,
Ethernet .

4.3. Ethernet

321

Gigabit Ethernet - ,
, . , , ,
.
Ethernet, 10, 100 1000 /
.
Gigabit Ethernet , - ,
.4.3. 1/
.
( 1000Base-CX) . , , ,
: 0,85 ( , 1000Base-SX) 1,3 (,
1000Base-LX).
4.3. Gigabit Ethernet

1000Base-SX

550

(50, 62,5)

1000Base-LX

5000

(10)
(50, 62,5)

1000Base-CX

25

1000Base-T

4 100

5-

.
, 50- 500

. . ,
(10) 5.
, ,
, -. .
Gigabit Ethernet
Fibre Channel ( ) 8B/10B, . 8
10,
8B/10B.
, (,
)
. NRZ 25%
, ,
.
, .

322 4.
, Fast
Ethernet. 1000Base-T,
Gigabit Ethernet. ,
.
Ethernet 1000

/, . -, ;
, .
125 /
, 2 .
. ( )
, .
1/ . , -
1 , ,
1953 . :
, Ethernet.
, . ,
. , Gigabit
Ethernet .
, ,
. PAUSE , ,
Ethernet, Type 08808. . Gigabit Ethernet
512, 33,6.
Gigabit Ethernet . - (Jumbo frames) 1500, 9.
. ,
Ethernet .
. , 1500
. ,
- (,
, ,
, Ethernet).

4.3.7. 10- Ethernet


Gigbit Ethernet , 802 . IEEE
10-Gigbit Ethernet (10- Ethernet).
, , Ethernet.

2002 2004 , 2006 .
10/ . 1000
Ethernet! ? - ,

4.3. Ethernet

323

, ,
.
Ethernet. , .
10-Gigbit Ethernet
. CSMA/CD , , .
, 10-Gigabit
Ethernet
.
10-
Gigbit
Ethernet . 4.4.

0,85 ,
1,3 1,5 . 10GBase-ER
40, .
,
64B/66B.
, 8B/10B.
4.4. 10-Gigbit Ethernet

10GBase-SR

300


(0,85)

10GBase-LR

10

(1,3)

10GBase-ER

40

(1,5 )

15

10GBase-CX4 4

10GBase-T

4 100

, , 10GBase-CX4,
.
8B/10B, 3,125 /, 10/. ,
, 10-Gigbit Ethernet
.
10GBase-T , .
6,
( ),
. ,
10

/ . .

2500/. 800/
16 . , -

324 4.
LDPC (Low Density Parity Check)
.
10-Gigbit Ethernet , 802.3
. 2007 IEEE
Ethernet, 40 100/. Ethernet
, ,
.
, .

4.3.8. Ethernet
Ethernet 30 ,
. , . ,
. , Ethernet -
. ?
, . , , , .
, . , -,
, - . ,
-
.
, . ,
, .
Ethernet . , . , .
Gigabit

Ethernet , ( ),
.
Ethernet .
( ),
( ). .
Ethernet TCP/
IP . IP
, Ethernet,
. IP ATM, .
ATM.
, Ethernet
. ,
,

4.4.

325

. , .
: !
!
, .
, , , ,
Ethernet. ATM,
FDDI - (FC Fibre Channel)
. Ethernet.
. ,
. : , (KISS Keep It
Simple, Stupid). , Ethernet , (,
4B/5B FDDI 8B/10B FC). ,
, .
, Ethernet .
10-
Gigabit
Ethernet , CSMA/CD. Ethernet
(
carrier
-
grade
Ethernet

), Ethernet (Fouli,
Maler, 2009). Ethernet
,
.
, .

.

4.4.
,
, , , , ,
, .
.
802.11.
1.5.3. 802.11.
, ( ), MAC, .
802.11 (Gast, 2005).
, IEEE
802.11-2007.

326 4.

4.4.1. 802.11:

802.11 .
, , ,
. .4.20,. (infrastructure mode)
(Access Point, AP), , , .
.
, (distribution system). 802.11.
.
, .4.20,, (ad hoc
network). , ,
. .
, .

. 4.20. 802.11: ;

. , 802., 802.11 Ethernet, .


.4.21. .
OSI, 802. .
802.11, MAC ( )
, , .
MAC LLC ( ),
, 802.
. ,
LLC; (, IP), 802.11.
1997
. , (

4.4.

327

) 2,4, .
, 1
2 / 2,4,
11 /. 802.11b.

. 4.21. 802.11

, 1999 2003
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), 2.5.3.
802.11a , 5.
2,4 . 802.11g.
54/.
, 2009, 802.11n
,
, . 802.11
600/.
. , 802.11. , , , , 2.
- , 802.11
, .

4.4.2. 802.11:

MAC . .
, , ,
,
- (. 2.5).

328 4.
802.11 ISM 2,4 5 ( . 2.3.3).
, ,
,
( 1 ,
50 ). , , ,
,
. 2,4 , 5, ,
(- ).
. ,
.
, . ,
.
(rate adaptation). ,
. ,
, , .
, , 802.11b.
, 1, 2, 5,5 11/, .
CDMA, , ,
, .
FCC ,
ISM. 201.11b
(Barker sequence). , , , . .
1/,
BPSK, 11 1.
11/. 2/,
QPSK, 11
2. -.

CCK (Complementary Code Keying, ).
5,5/ 8- 4,
11 / 8.
802.11a, 54/ 5- ISM. , 802.11a 802.11b,
. 802.11a , 802.11b
.
802.11a - 5.
802.11a OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing),

4.4.

329

, , - . 52 , 48 4
. 4 1, 2, 4 6.
, . 1/2, 2/3 3/4 .
802.11a , 6 54/.
, 802.11b, 5
. 802.11b , 802.11a,
.
, 802.11b
. , 2002 FCC , ,
,
ISM, ,
802.11g IEEE 2003 .
OFDM 802.11a, 802.11b ISM 2,4. , 802.11a ( 6
54/) , , 802.11b,
.
, 802.11a/b/g .
, IEEE
802.11n, . 2009 . 802.11n
100/,
. .
20 40 , . ,
802.11n
.
,
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output, ).

. MIMO, OFDM,
, .
802.11 (Halperin ., 2010).

4.4.3. 802.11:

.
MAC (, MAC Medium Access Control
) 802.11
Ethernet , .

330 4.
-, .
,
.
. Ethernet
, , .
, 64,
, .
.
802.11 CSMA/CA
(CSMA with Collision Avoidance, CSMA ).
CSMA/CD Ethernet, ,
. ,
( ,
, ). . , , 0 , , 15
OFDM. ( DIFS; )
, .
, . , .
, , .
, ( Ethernet),
.
.4.22. A . A , B C . , ,
. A
. (
), B C . C
, . B
, , C, C .
B , .
Ethernet, . -,
. ,
, ,
. -,
, , .
DCF (Distributed Coordination Function, ). ,
. PCF
(Point Coordination Function, ), .

4.4.

331

PCF ,
.

. 4.22. CSMA/CA

, . ,
.
. ,
,
, .4.23,.
, , ,
, .
. , ,
. .
, , .4.23,.
. , - , - ,
. , ,
, , ,
D ( ). ,
.
,
, 802.11 .
. ,
, NAV
(Network Allocation Vector, ).
NAV, , ,
, . , , ,

332 4.
, NAV,
. , NAV ,
. , , ,
, .

. 4.23. : ;

RTS/CTS NAV
. .4.24.

A B. C ( ) , , , ,
. D B, .
, ,
. RTS, .
, ,
CTS. CTS ACK.
ACK, .
A , ACK, ,
,
.
C D. C
, RTS ,
- . ,
RTS, , , ACK. , , , .
NAV, , , .4.24. D
RTS, CTS NAV. :
NAV , ,
.

4.4.

333

. 4.24. CSMA/CA

, RTS/CTS,
, .
, .
( RTS) (,
, ).
. RTS/CTS 802.11 MACA, 4.2, , RTS CTS,
- ,
ACK .
, MACA,
. , CSMA/
CA . , -
,
.
CSMA/CA 802.11. ,
. ,
.
. , , - -
, -, ISM.
,
.
, , , .
,
/. , .
, , ,
.
,
.

334 4.
p, , n- ,

(1p)n. , p=104 Ethernet 12144 30%. .


(4048),
. ,
.

, . , 802.11 , (fragments), .
, ,
.
(
k+1, k).
( ) ,
, . NAV
. (
), ,
.
, , .
.
802.11 ,
, .

(beacon frames).
(, 100).
, , , .
,
, ,
(power-save mode). ,
.
, , .
. ,
, .
.
2005 802.11 , APSD (Automatic Power Save Delivery
). ,
. ,
( ). ,

4.4.

335

IP, . , IP- ,
20, , (100),
.
, , . IP-
, IP-.

, , IP-
. , , .
, IP- , .
IEEE 802.11 , , 2005 802.11e.
, CSMA/CA
. , ,
, ,
.
.
.4.25 . DIFS (DCF InterFrame Spacing DCF). ,
, DIFS.
,
.
SIFS (Short InterFrame Interval ). ,
.
ACK, , RTS CTS, .
SIFS ,
.

. 4.25. 802.11

336 4.
AIFS (Arbitration InterFrame Space ) .
, AIFS1, DIFS, , SIFS.
,
. ,
, , , . , AIFS4, DIFS. ,
. , ,
.
,
, .
EIFS (Extended InterFrame Spacing
). ,
. , , ,
- , .
, , (transmission opportunity) TXOP.
CSMA/CA .
, . 802.11a/g
6 /, 54 /.
, 9
( ), .
,
,
. , ,
6/
54/, 5,4/.
. (rate anomaly) (Heusse ., 2003).
TXOP , . ,
,
. ,
6 54/, 3 27/, .

4.4.4. 802.11:
802.11 , : , . ,
MAC. , ,
, ,
.

4.4.

337

.
.4.26. (Frame Control).
11 . , 00 (2 ).
802.11 . (, )
(, RTS CTS). (
) 10 0000. DS
DS : ,
, (distribution system).
, .
. -
. ,
.
. ,
,
.

. 4.26. 802.11

.
, . ,
, NAV.
. , IEEE802. , ,
?
, ,
,
-. .
,
. 16 4 , 12 , .
,
2312 . , LLC ( ).

338 4.
, (, IP), .
, , ,
32- CRC, 3.2.2
.
, ,
, (, ).
. ,
, .
. , (RTS, CTS ACK).

4.4.5.
802.11 , ,
.
.
(association).
.
.
-, .
, , ,
..
, .
(reassociation) .
802.11 , . , . (,
Ethernet, 802.11
, .)
(disassociate), .
. , , ,
.
,
(authenticate). -. 802.11 ,
.
. , WPA2 (WiFi Protected Access2
WiFi 2),
802.11i. ( WPA , 802.11i.
.) WPA2

4.4.

339

,
, ,
. (pre-shared
key), .
,
, .
.
, WPA, WEP (Wired Equivalent
Privacy ).
.
- , WEP .
WEP , AT&T (Stubblefield ., 2002).
, WiFi, . WEP
.
, (distribution service)
. , . ,
.
(integration service) , ,
802.11
.
.
(data delivery). ,
. 802.11 .
,
. 802.11 Ethernet,
100%, .
.
. , ,
. (privacy service),
.
WPA2 AES (Advanced Encryption Standard
), , 2002 .
, ,
.

QOS (QOS trffic scheduling). ,
, .
. -

340 4.
, .
, , . (transmit power control)
, ,
,
. (dynamic frequency selection)
, , 5, .
802.11 , . , ,
. , ,
(Hiertz ., 2010).

4.5.
- . , , , .
- , , -.
. , -
. ?
, .
. -

, . ,
, ,
, ..
, IEEE ,
. 802
802.16, , .
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access). 802.16 WiMAX .
802.16 2001.

. ,
WiMAX DSL . 2003 802.16 ,
OFDM
2 10. ,
.

4.5.

341

3G, .
2005 802.16 ,
.
, IEEE 802.16-2009.
802, 802.16
OSI. , , , .. ,
OSI, 802.16 . , WiMAX (WiMAX
Forum) , .
802.16, , .
WiMAX
(Andrews ., 2007).

4.5.1. 802.16 802.11 3G


, ? 802.11
3G? , WiMAX 802.11 3G,
4G.
802.11, WiMAX , DSL. ,
, , . WiMAX
; 802.16 ,
IP IP
. ,
, IP-
-. 802.11, WiMAX OFDM,
, ,
, MIMO,
.
WiMAX 3G (, , 802.11)
. ,
,

. , , 10
802.11. , WiMAX ,
802.11. ,
, . ,
; CSMA/CA,
.

342 4.
WiMAX, , , 2,5. ,
802.11. , ,
. 802.11 .
802.16 4-
(4G), LTE (Long Term
Evolution). 3G CDMA
, 4G OFDM MIMO
, . ,
WiMAX 4G . , , , , OFDM MIMO ,
.

4.5.2. 802.16:

802.16 .4.27.
, , ,
. . . (subscriber stations)
, , . ,
, , WiMAX.

. 4.27. 802.16

802.16, , .4.28. 802,


. , 802.16, WiMAX.
.
11 OFDM, -.

4.5.

343

. 4.28. 802.16


. (security sublayer),
, .
, , .
MAC. , .
, .

(
). 802. MAC- 802.16 , . ,

.
(service specific convergence sublayer)

802.. .
,
. IP,
, Ethernet ATM. IP , 802.16 MAC ,
.

4.5.3. 802.16:
WiMAX 3,5
2,5. , 3G, .
802.16 . 2
11. , 3,5 WiMAX 1,25 20 WiMAX.

344 4.
OFDM,
2.5.3. 802.11, OFDM 802.16 ,
. , ;
WiMAX 20 ,
802.11. , WiMAX 512 5,
, 100.
QPSK, QAM16 QAM-64, 2.5.3.

/, QAM-64 . /
QPSK .
( ), 3.2.1.
,
, . ,
,
, , , 802.11,
DSL. ,
12,6 / 6,2 /
5 .
802.16 GSM
DAMPS: , . , ,
, . , (, , -)
. 2:1,
3:1 .
,
OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access ). OFDMA
,
.
802.11,
. ,
- ,
. ,
.
, .
TDD (Time Division Duplex ).
, ( ), FDD (Frequency Division

4.5.

345

Duplex ). WiMAX , TDD, .


.4.29 ,
. ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
.

. 4.29. OFDMA

, . ,
.
, , .
(ranging)
, , .
, , .

4.5.4. 802.16: MAC


, , .2.28.
8 ,
.
, , , . ,

346 4.
, , .
, , , . , .
8.
, RSA ( X.509).
: AES (Rijndael), DES
(cipher block chaining). SHA-1. ,
?
MAC. MAC
-, , .
,
.
.
, ,
. MAC
.
. , MAC
.
, , . . .
1. .
2. .
3. , ,
.
4.
.
802.16 ,
,
. 802.11,
Ethernet, -
MAC.

, T1. ,
.
, .

4.5.

347



. . ,

.
, , , . ,
.

, .
,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
. ,
. - .
Ethernet .

4.5.5. 802.16:
(MAC)
. ( ) ,
(CRC).
.4.30. , ,
, . ( )
, , , , .
,
? , IEEE 802,
.
(.4.30, ). EC ,
. ( ,
, ). CI
. EK ,
( ).
, .
, .
,
x8+x2+x+1.

348 4.

. 4.30. : ;

802.16 . .4.33,
. ,
, ,
16- ,
. ,
.
802.16, - . , ,
IEEE802.16-2009.

4.6. Bluetooth
1994 .. (L.M.Ericsson)
(, ).
(IBM, Intel, Nokia Toshiba) 1998
(SIG Special Interest Group, ),
,
,
. Bluetooth ( )

II
(940981), (, ) . ,
.
Bluetooth1.0 1999, SIG
.
Bluetooth , , , , , , ,
. . Bluetooth

4.6. Bluetooth

349

, (pairing), .
.
, 2004 Bluetooth2.0
. Bluetooth3.0 2009 802.11 . 4.0 2009
. ,
. Bluetooth.

4.6.1. Bluetooth
Bluetooth ,
. Bluetooth (piconet),
( ) ,
10. , ,
. ,
( ), .4.31.
(scatternet).

. 4.31. , ,

, 255 . ,

. .
,
.
(
Bluetooth
$5). -

350 4.
, . ,

, . .

. .
.

4.6.2. Bluetooth

. , 802.11 ,
, .. , Bluetooth

. 25 ,
(profiles). , . ,
, , Bluetooth .
.
, intercom
. hands-free
. , , .
,
,
.
HID .

. , , ( Bluetooth).
.
Bluetooth
, 802.11, .
(dail-up networking) , , ,
. ,
, .
. , , , .
, , , , .

4.6. Bluetooth

351

, ,
()
. .
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.

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. ( 1968
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, n , n- . :
.) ,
25, .

4.6.3. Bluetooth:
Bluetooth

, , .4.32.
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() ,
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. ,
.
( ) -
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,
.
,
.
, , , . . : ,
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Protocol
). .
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.

.
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-

352 4.
, , ,
.

. 4.32. Bluetooth: 802.15

. ,
. ,
, ,
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, L2CAP ,
.

Bluetooth, , -
MAC ,
.

4.6.4. Bluetooth:
.
10 . ISM 2,4, 802.11.
79 1 . ,
ISM ,
. 1600 ,
( ) 625. ,
, .
, , Bluetooth 802.11 ,
.
Bluetooth , , , .

4.6. Bluetooth

353

,
, . ,
(adaptive frequency hopping), .
.
, 1-
, 1/.
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2 3/.
, .

4.6.5. Bluetooth:

( )
MAC- Bluetooth.
.

625,
, . , , ,
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1, 3 5.
126 , ,
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.
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.
, (links),
, .
,
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Number ). PIN , .
,
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(secure simple pairing)
, ,
. ,

354 4.
PIN.
, . ,
/
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Oriented ).
, , .
.
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,
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.
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, ACL-, L2CAP.
. -,
64
.
.
-, L2CAP
. , (, RFcomm ).
-, L2CAP .
, . ,
L2CAP , .

4.6.6. Bluetooth:
Bluetooth, .4.33. ,
. ,
, , ,
. 54,
, MAC.
, . 2744 ( ). ,
, , ,
240.

4.6. Bluetooth

355

. 4.33. Bluetooth: ;

,
, 2 3 . ,
,
. , ,
.
.
, . , . (ACL, SCO, ),
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) , .
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SCO :
240. : 80, 160 240 .

356 4.
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.
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.
PCM- (
1600 ).
, 64000/
, ,
1/.
13% 41% ,
20% , 26% . .
Bluetooth , ,
. Bluetooth4.0.

4.7. RFID
MAC .
, , ,
: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification
) , 1.5.4.
RFID , ,
, , . , , EPC (Electronic Product
Code ), Auto-ID 1999. EPC ,

10, . , , RFID- , .
EPC .
EPCglobal 2003, Auto-ID RFID. 2005,
Walmart 100 RFID. ,
, . , EPC Gen2 (EPCglobal, 2008).

4.7. RFID

357

4.7.1. EPC Gen2


EPC Gen2 RFID .4.34.
: () . RFID , , 96- EPC
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, ,
.
, , ,
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RFID , .

RFID-.
Class1, ,
.

. 4.34. RFID

, WiFi. ,
. ,
, . ,
.
, .
, . ,
.

4.7.2. EPC Gen2


, RFID. , . ISM

358 4.
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(), UHF

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(backscatter).
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. 4.35.

4.7. RFID

359

4.7.3. EPC Gen2


, , .
, .
,
. , , Ethernet.
,
. , ,
ALOHA, .
Gen2 RFID.
, , , .4.36. ( 0) Query,
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,
. , , ; Ethernet,
.

..
.

. 4.36.

, . .4.36
2. , .
16- RN16.
,
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EPC.

360 4.
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, , , .
, Query,
.
,
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Ethernet.
, QAdjust,
, .
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.
,
.

4.7.4.
. 4.40
. , , 27 128 /. 1000,
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, DR, M TR,
. , 5 640/. .
, Sel, , .
,

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, Q.
, , 0 2Q1. , CRC, . 5, , CRC,
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4.8.

361

.
, , .
, EPC.
. .
, , (Sample ., 2008).
,
(Welbourne ., 2009; Gershenfeld ., 2004).

4.8.
,
. ,
? ,
(bridges). Ethernet, 4.3.4,
; ,
Ethernet Ethernet,
.
.
. ,
, . , ,
IP, , AppleTalk. (routers)
, ,
, .
. ,

,
( VLAN, Virtual LAN).
. ,
(Seifert Edwards, 2008) (Perlman, 2000).

4.8.1.
,
, . ,
.
-,
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362 4.
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200 Gigabit Ethernet).
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4.8.

363

4.8.2.
, , .4.38 .
, , E

thernet, , .
, . ,
. Ethernet,
.

. 4.38. : , ; ( ),

, Ethernet, , .4.38,.
, ,
. . , ,
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, .
, ,
.4.38,a. ,
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. , , B1 B2 .4.38,,
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, .
, , ,
.
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364 4.
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B, B1 1.
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1, 1 4. 2
4 1.
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, , (flooding):
, , .
. , ,
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4.8.

365

3. , , , .
, . ,
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, ,
, . B2
4, ,
. B2 .
,
.
.
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.
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, , . ,
D .4.38,, Ethernet.
. .4.39.
MAC Ethernet.
Ethernet ( , ).
, .

. 4.39. ,

MAC Ethernet.
MAC Ethernet .
, MAC.
MAC Ethernet, ,

366 4.
. MAC Ethernet,
D, .
,
. .
, IP-; . ,
, k , k MAC-
. k=2.

4.8.3.
. .4.40 .
, , ,
, .

. 4.40.

, , ,
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, ,
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. , 1 2 (
). 1 2 , 2
. .4.40 F1 F2 .
1 . , (
), , ,
. 2 F1 . F3 F4, 1. 1
.
.

(spanning tree), -

4.8.

367

.
,
.
, .4.41 , . .
,
, .

.
, , , .4.41 .
.
, .
, .

. 4.41. , .
,

, . ,
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,
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, . MAC-
,
.
. , , , . .4.41
B1 .
. .4.41
B2 B3 B1 , , -

368 4.
. B4 ,
B2 B3. , , , B4 B2. B5
B3.
, . ,
. ,
.
, ( ) . ,
, .
,
.

(RadiaPerlman).
. , ,
(Perlman, 1985).
I think that I shall never see
A graph more lovely than a tree.
A tree whose crucial property
Is loop-free connectivity.
A tree which must be sure to span.
So packets can reach every LAN.
First the Root must be selected
By ID it is elected.
Least cost paths from Root are traced
In the tree these paths are placed.
A mesh is made by folks like me
Then bridges find a spanning tree.
IEEE802.1D
. 2001
.
. Perlman (2000).

4.8.4. , , ,
,
. , , , . ,
- , - .
, , .

4.8.

369

, , ,
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, .
: - ,
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,
(CRC). , ,
, , .

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,
. ,
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Ethernet, , , ,
500 2500.
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.
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370 4.
. ,
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, . Ethernet 48- (.4.14).
.
, ,
,
, .
, 10-, 100- 1000-/ Ethernet.
,
. , , .
, Gigabit Ethernet 10-/ Ethernet
, , . , ,
.
,
, Ethernet Token Ring. -
. , ,

- . .
. .
, ,
. , 802.11, , Ethernet, . , ,
802.11, , Ethernet, . ,
, ,
, , . ,
, .
. , ,

4.8.

371

. , Ethernet,

,
, , .
. , , , ,
,
. ,
. . ,
Ethernet , , .
, ,
, , .
, . ,
( .4.42),
. .
IP-, 32- (IPv4) 128-
(IPv6), 48- IEEE802 .
, (
, ).
5.
, .
, , . ,
, , TCP, , SCTP.
, .
, ,
. , e-mail
SMS-
. , .
, .

4.8.5.

. ,
. , .
, , .
.
1990- . , ,

372 4.
, ,
( ) ,
.4.43. , , , 5;
, () 3,
Fast Ethernet.

. 4.43.

, ,
. ,
. k , k . ( ),
,

.
, , ?
. ,
.
,
. . -
. ,
.

4.8.

373

- .
, .
. , . , - ,
,
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.
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,
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, MAC- ?
5, : : , MAC IP- x? .
, .
,
, .
,
.
: ,
, . , ,
. (broadcast storm),
, , -,
, , -,
.
,

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.
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,
, , , .
, ,
.

374 4.
, , , ,
; , ,
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.
,

.
- , (
) .
,
( VLAN, Virtual LAN),
. - IEEE802.
. . (Seifert Edwards, 2008).
- .
, , , ,
. ()
, , . ,
, .. ,
.
, .4.44.
(), (). , , .

Hub

. 4.44. , ,

, . ,

4.8.

375

. , , , , .
( ) ,
, . ,
.
, ,
1, , . B1
, .
( , ), . ,
B1, B1 c B2. B2
, .
( ).
( ), .
, , ,
.
1 2, 2. , 2,
1, . ,
2 1. , 1 .

IEEE 802.1Q
, - ,
. , , 2
1 (. .4.44), ,
. ,
. Ethernet
, ,
?
IEEE802 1995.
Ethernet! 802.1Q 1998.
, . , , Ethernet, -
. , , :
1. , Ethernet?
2. , ?
3. , ?
, 802 , ,
, .

376 4.
,
, . , , , .4.44, - ,
, . ,
, -. .

Ethernet
, . 802.3 .
, ,
Ethernet ? 802.1Q-
.
( )
, - , .
.4.45. -
( 802.1Q) , . -, .
802.1Q, , .
, . , .4.44 , ,
, B2.
, ,
. , , ,
, IP- PPP.

. 4.45. , .
- .

, 802.1Q. ,
MAC-.
802.11 , , . MAC-
, , .

4.8.

377

, 1518,
802.1Q 1522. , .
802.1Q. .4.46. , , 2- .
(VLAN protocol ID).
08100. 1500,
Ethernet , . ,
, 802.1Q, , ,
.

. 4.46. Ethernet- 802.3 802.1Q

.
(VLAN identifier), 12 . , - , ,
: , .
.
Ethernet

- , - .
,
?
, , .
Ethernet. Ethernet (
IP ).
, CFI (Canonical Format Indicator
), (CEI Corporate
ego indicator). ,
MAC- ( ), - . , 802.5, 802.5 Ethernet
. , , Ethernet
. , ,
.

378 4.
:
, .
,
- ,
, , .
? ,
: . ,
. .
, . ,
. , 4, 3, , ,
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802.1D.
, . Ethernet
,
.
- . ,
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, .
, , .
5.

4.9.
.

.
.
. , ,
.
, .
.
ALOHA ( ) , RFID. -

4.9.

379

, , , .
CSMA ,
.
Ethernet 802.11.
,
, , . , , ,
.
, , ; ,
, , .

. , IEEE 802.11, , ,
CSMA/CA, , .
RTS/CTS, , - . IEEE 802.11
, ,
. , FDM
, .
802.11, RFID
, .
. Bluetooth
. IEEE 802.16
.
, Bluetooth
WiMAX , . 802.16
, ,
, -. Bluetooth
.
Ethernet . Ethernet
CSMA/CD ,
. , 10/
1/ . -, , .
,
.
, - .
plug-and-play .
.

380 4.
.

, . IEEE 802.1Q,
Ethernet .

1. , ,
. 100-/ . , . , 10000/
.
( ) .
1) 90/.
2) 900/.
3) 9000/.
2. N ALOHA,
56/. 1000- 100,
(,
). N?
3. ALOHA .
? .
4. ALOHA 50 ,
. 40.
1) ?
2) , k ?
3) ?
5. ALOHA 4 . .
6. CSMA/CD :
1) 2- (
82% )?
2) 40- (
65% )?
7. s, ?
8. ,
9. , 1 16,
, .
, , , ?

381

10. , A, B, C, D E.
. B A, C E. C A, B D. D
A, C E. E A, D B.
1) A B, ?
2) B A, ?
3) B C, ?
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MACA. ? .
12. 15 .
,
4 , , . ,
, , , ,
:
1) ;
2) 802.3.
13. Ethernet 10/?
14. Ethernet : 0001110101?
15. CSMA/CD ( 802.3) 1
10/ 200/.
. 256, 32 ,
. 32- .

, ?
16. CSMA/CD (
) .
. ,
k- , ?
17. IP- Ethernet. 60, . LLC, Ethernet-?
, ?
18. Ethernet 64 ,
. Fast
Ethernet 64,
, Ethernet.
?
19. , Ethernet
1522 ( 1500). ? .
20. Gigabit Ethernet?
, . : , Gigabit Ethernet.
21. , . ?
22. .4.24 : A, B, C D. ,
A ?

382 4.
23. , , 802.11 RTS/CTS
RTS/CTS MACA.
24. 10 . 6/, 18/
54 /. ,

1) TXOP ?
2) TXOP ?
25. 11/c 802.11b
64- 107 .
?
26. 802.16 20.
?
27. ,
.
28. WiMAX 802.11.
29. .4.31 , Bluetooth
.
?
30. Bluetooth
? .
31. .4.21 .
Bluetooth? ?
32. 4.6.6,
13% .
, 5- ?
33. - 802.11 . , - Bluetooth
? .
34. , RFID- 10 . Q?
, ?
35. RFID.
36. , Fast Ethernet, ,
10/.
?
37. (
store
-
and
-
forward
) (cut-through) .
38. , B1 B2, .4.38,. ,
- . ,
:
1) C.
2) E F.
3) F E.
4) E.

383

5) D A.
6) B F.
39.
. , .
40. 4.8.3,
. , .
41. ,
. , .4.44, ? ?
.
42. .4.45 () -
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43. , CSMA/CD Ethernet
N , .
, . (51,2),
, ,
. .



. ,
. ,
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IP.

5.1.

,
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5.1.1.
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5.1.

385

(, , , DSL-).
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2, , (, Ethernet) F,
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-,
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386 5.
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) RECEIVE PACKET ( ). ,

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(Saltzer ., 1984). , , .
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, 100
. , ,
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IP: ATM
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, .

MPLS
(
MultiProtocol
Label

Switching

, ), , VLAN,
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5.1.

387

5.1.3.

,
, . .
, ,
. . (datagrams),
, (datagram network).
, , - -
- .
(VC, Virtual Circuit), , .
(virtual-circuit network). ; .
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.
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. 1 ,
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388 5.

.5.2.

4 .
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. -
4 . , -
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, , (routing algorithm). . ,
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IP (Internet Protocol, ),
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. IPv4 32, IPv6 128. IP
.

5.1.

389

5.1.4.

.
.
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, .
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2.
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1.

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, , 3 2.
1 ( ,
)
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390 5.
1, 1, 1,
3, .

. ,
. (label
switching). , ,
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). -; IP-
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. -
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,
, ,
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5.1.5.

, .
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.
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,

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5.1.

391

. ,
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392 5.

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.
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393

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394 5.
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I K,
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J K,
r2, r1, I K, ,
r1r2 .


, . (sink tree). .5.5,. .
.

.5.5. (); B ()

5.2.

395

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. , ABC ABE (,
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396 5.

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397

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B B ( A B)
, (
A), , ,
.

, . .
.5.6 .
, , .5.6,.
E . ,
, ABE, AXYZE ( X Y).
Z , . ,
, E , Z , ,
. AXYZE .
, Z .
Z E, AXYZE ,
ABE. Z E, Z
E, E Z.
5.1. n dist
, shortest_path. ,
- s, t.
t s ,
s t, , . , ,
. path, . , .
5.1.
#define MAX_NODES 1024
/* */
#define INFINITY 1000000000
/* , */
int n, dist[MAX_NODES][MAX_NODES]; /* dist[i][j] i j */
void shortest_path(int s, int t, int path[])
{ struct state {
/* */
int predecessor;
/* */
int length;
/* */
enum {permanent, tentative} label; /* */
} state[MAX_NODES];
int i, k, min;

398 5.
3.7 ()
struct state *p;
for (p = &state[0]; p < &state[n]; p++) { /* */
p->predecessor = -1;
p->length = INFINITY;
p->label = tentative;
}
state[t].length = 0; state[t].label = permanent;
k = t;
/* k */
do {
/* k? */
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
/* n */
if (dist[k][i] != 0 && state[i].label == tentative) {
if (state[k].length + dist[k][i] < state[i].length) {
state[i].predecessor = k;
state[i].length = state[k].length + dist[k][i];
}
}
/* , */
k = 0; min = INFINITY;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
if (state[i].label == tentative && state[i].length < min) {
min = state[i].length;
k =i;
}
state[k].label = permanent;
} while (k != s);
/* */
i = 0; k = s;
do {path[i++] = k; k = state[k].predecessor; } while (k >= 0);
}

5.2.3.

, .
(flooding), , , .
,
, , .
,
. , . .
,
() .
,
, .

5.2.

399

. . ,
. -,
, .
,
.
,
k, , k
. , ,
, k;
. , k,
.

, . , .
, .
.
, , , ,
. .
-, .
(,
), . ,
. . ,
, ,
.
,
, , . ,
, .

5.2.4.
,
, , , .
:
.
, .
(distance vector routing)
, ( ),
, .

400 5.

.
.

(BellmanFord) (Bellman,
1957; Ford Filkerson, 1962). ARPANET
RIP.
, , .
:

.
(
).
, .
, .
, ECHO (),
.
,
.
T . , ,
. , X
, X i Xi. , X
m, i X
Xi+m. , .
, .
.5.7. .5.7,
. .5.7, ,
J . A ,
B 12, 25 C, 40 D ..
, J
A, I, H K 8, 10, 12 6 .
, J G. , A 8 A ,
G 18. , J ,
G A, 26. , G,
(I, H K), 41 (31+10), 18 (6+12) 37 (31+6).
18, G. 18 ,

5.2.

401

G, H.
, ,
.

. 5.7. (); A, I, H K J ()


, ,
(convergence).
,
. :
, .
,
. , X
. A ,
X , X , .
, .
, , , .5.8, . , A
, . ,
A .

402 5.

.5.8.

A,
. , - , ,
. B , A, B , A
.
, A . A
.5.8,.
C , B A 1, ,
A, 2, D E . ,
. N ,
N
.
.5.8,,
. B, C, D E 1, 2, 3 4 A .
A , A B ( B
).
B A. , C :
. A 2. B , C A
B. B , C 10
A, 2.
B , A C 3.
D E A.
C , A 3.
A 4, .5.8,.
.
, ,

5.2.

403

,
. ,
.
,
1.
, (count-toinfinity). , ,
,
RFC 1058. .
, Y , - , Y
, .

5.2.5.
ARPANET
1979,
. ,
( ).
,
(link state routing).
IS-IS OSPF.
,
. :
1) ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ,
;
5) .
.

. .


, . , HELLO
-.
, .
, ,

404 5.
F, , F
.

(, , Ethernet

), . .5.9, ,
: A, C F. ,
,
.

.5.9. :
;


.
. , , .
.5.9,. N,
A, C F. N
, (designated router).
A C ANC.


,
, .
. . , Ethernet 1/
1,
Ethernet
100/ 10.
.

5.2.

405

, .
.
ECHO, .
, .


, , , , , ,
. ,
( ), . .
.5.10,, .
.5.10,.

. 5.10. (); ()

.
.
. ,
- , , , , ,
.

406 5.



. .
, , , ,
.
. .
.
, , .
(, ), .
,
. ,
, , . , .
,
, ,
, .
, . , ,
, , . 32-
. , 4- 137.
-, ,
. ,
.
-, ,
4 65540 ( );
5- 65540- .

.
, . , , 10; ,
,
( , ).

, , .
. ,
.
.
, . -

5.2.

407

. , .
.
, B , .5.10,, .5.11.
, .
, , . ,

B ( A, C F, ). ,
. ,
.

. 5.11. B c 5.10

.5.11, A , C F,
A,
. , F A C, F
.
, E, . , EAB EFB. ,
C, A F, .
, , , . , C F, ,
100011, ,
F, F.


,
, . ,
, . .
A B B A .

408 5.

. , ,
. , .
, . ,
n , k , , , kn, , .
, ,
, , kn.
.
,
.

, .
- IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System
) (Oran, 1990).
DECnet ISO OSI.
, , IP.
OSPF
(Open Shortest Path First ). -
(IETF) IS-IS ,
IS-IS.
, ,
. , IS-IS OSPF
. ,
IS-IS
(, IP, IPX AppleTalk). OSPF ,
.
OSPF 5.6.6.
.
,
,
.
. ,
, , ,
, .
,
. ,
, , -

5.2.

409

.
. , , ,
.
(Perlman, 1988).

5.2.6.
, , .
,
. , ,
, .
,
.
, .

(regions).
, .
, .
.
, ,
.., .
,
(Berkeley),
(Malindi) . , , ,
-. -
, , ,
-. -
, - . , , . ,
, .
.5.12
. 1A,
.5.12,, 17 . ,
.5.12,, , , ,
, -
1B2A, 1C3B. 17 7 .
, .

410 5.

.5.12.

, .
. , 1A 5C
2, 5 3,
5.
, :
? 720 . , 720 . 24 30
, 30
23 , 53 .
, 8 9 10 ,
10 ,
8 , 7
, 25 . (Kamoun) (Kleinrock)
1979 , , N , lnN. elnN
. ,
, ,
.

5.2.

411

5.2.7.

. , , ,
.
, .
, (broadcasting)
. .

,
.
, ,
. ,
.
(multidestination routing),
, , . , ,
, ,
. ( ,
- .)
. , . ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, . .
, , , , , ,
.
: . ,
,
.
, . , ,
.
(reverse path forwarding)
(Dadal, Metcalfe, 1978). ,
, , , . -

412 5.
,
, , , .
, ,
.
, .

.5.13. : ; ;
,

.5.13.
, I .
I F, H, J N, .
I ( , ),
.5.13,.
,
. , , .
, ,
( C, E K). .
, 23,
4 14 .
.
,
, ,
,
( , )
.
.
, . (spanning tree) ,
, .

5.2.

413

, ,
, ,
.
, , . , .5.13 (.5.13,), ,
, 14. ,
.
(,
), (
).

5.2.8.
(
, ) . ,
. ,
, , , 1000
, (, , , ,
). ,
, , .

(multicasting), (multicast routing).
,
. , ,
. ,
, .
,
5.6.
, : ,
, ,
.
,
( ) ( ). .
,
, .
, , . ,
(Deering, Cheriton, 1990), , ,

414 5.
.
.
, 1 2, , .5.14,.
, , .
.5.14,.
, ( ,
) .
.5.14, , , 1.
,
1. ,
: 7 10. .5.14,
2. 5,
. ,
.

.5.14. : ;
; 1;
2

.
,
,
.
, ,

5.2.

415

, ()
. ,
, MOSPF (Multicast OSPPF OSPF) (Moy, 1994).

. .
, , ,
, ,
PRUNE (), , , ,
.
, , , PRUNE , .
. , ,
DVRMP (Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
) (Waitzman ., 1988).
,
, .
,
, . ,
n , m . m ,
mn . , .5.14,
, 1. , 1
( ), -,
, .
, ,
1, , .
.

(core-based trees)(Ballardie ., 1993). , ( core rendezvouz point),
.
, . .5.15,
, 1.
, .
.5.15, ,
.
: , ,
, , .
, , . , .5.15, .

416 5.

.5.15. 1 (); 1 ()

.
.5.15, , , , , ,
.
, . (, ,
),
.
,
, .
m , . , , ,
. ( , )
, ,
PIM (Protocol Independent Multicast , ) (Fenner ., 2006).

5.2.9.
,
( unicast),
() ( ). (anycast).
(Partridge .,
1993). (anycast routing).
? (, ),
: ; ,
. DNS, 7.

5.2.

417

,
:

. ,
1.
1.
, 1.
1.
.5.16. ,
1, ,
, .5.16,.

.5.16. : ;

.
, , ,
, 1.
, 1
.
.
, .

5.2.10.

.
,
,
. (mobile hosts)
, ,
, .
,
, , . -

418 5.
: ,
.
, (home location), . ,
, ,
1-212-5551212 ( 1) (212).

.
, . , , .
. :

.
, . , , , :
.
.
, ,
, . ;
,
.
,
(, )
(, Skype
). , , :
.
.

: , , ,
. ,
, (home agent).
, ,
.
5.17 . - ,
, -. ,
. . -
. ; , ,
. (care
of address). , .
(1), . .5.17

5.2.

419

, , , .
(2). ,
. -
, .
( encapsulates, ,
,
wraps
) (3). (tunneling). , .
,
, . (4).
(triangle routing); ,
. 4 .
,
(5), . -
, .

.5.17.

: . ,
,
, , , , ,
. , ( 8),
.
. , , IPv6 ,

420 5.
( ., 2004),
IP
- , UMTS.
,
. , .

(Devarapalli ., 2005).
( )
, , ; VLR (Visitor Location Register,
).
; .
, (, , ),
.
Perkins (1998, 2002) Snoeren Balakrishnan (2000).

5.2.11.
, , ,
, . , . , ,
, ,
, ,
802.11.
. , ,
,
(ad hoc networks) (MANET Mobile Ad hoc
NETworks). .
(Perkins, 2001).

, .
, -
. -
, - (,
, ). ,
( ) . , . ,
, .
.
, , . AODV (Ad
hoc On-demand Distance Vector

5.2.

421

). (Perkins Royer,
1999). AODV ,
,
. ,
.



AODV
, , - .
: , , .

. ( ),
. , ,
, .
: , ..;
, , , , .
, .

, .5.18. , , ,
I. AODV
, . , ,
, .
I. , ,
. , , . .

. 5.18. : ;
D; C, F G;
E, H I. .
.

422 5.
I ROUTE REQUEST (.5.2.3). .5.18, ,
B D. ,
F, G C (.5.18,) H, E I (. 5.18,).
, .
, , D B (.5.18,), . I, ROUTE REPLY.
, .
, , . , , .5.18,
.
. ,
. ,
, : ,
. G D . A,
ADGI.

, . ,
(Timeto live) IP-.
. 0, ,
. .
, 1. ,
, 2. . ,, - ,
.


, . , .5.18 G ,
, I (ADGI) .
- .
Hello. , , , .
, ,
. ,
, , , .
.
N ,
DT .
- N , N
,
. ,

5.2.

423

.
D G I A, I.
. ., ,
, .
, , , .
. ,

,
.
,
, .
.
ROUTE REPLY. ,
ROUTE REQUEST :
, 0, .
, . ,

.
, ,
, .
,
.
(
, ).
: A I.
. , B I, . D,
, I. D B ,
, .
.
DSR (Dynamic Source
Routing ) (Johnson ., 2001). , , GPSR (Greedy Perimeter
Stateless Routing
). , :
, ,
.
.

424 5.

5.3.
, ( ), , .
(congestion).
. ,
,
, .
. .
, .
, 6.
. 5.19 , . , , ,
. ,
. ,
,
, . ,
. , .

. 5.19. ,

, (congestion collapse),
(
). ,
, . , , ,
( 56 /),
, . .
,

5.3.

425

, , , .
,
. , y (. .5.19)
(goodput), , .
,
. ,
.

, .
, , .
- , (Nagle) 1987 ,
,
, , , . , ,
, ,
. , :
.
, ,
. ,
. , . ,
.
, . , . ,
. , ,
.
, .
, ,
100 /, ,
1 /.
,
,
.
. , 1000 , 1 /.
100 /c.
, , ,
.

426 5.
, ,
, ,
. ,
:
. 6.
,
.
, .

5.3.1.
, () () . , :
. . 5.20,
, :
, .

. 5.20.

,
. , ,
, .
,
( ),
. ,
.
(provisioning) ,
.
,
, ,
. , , , . , , .
(traffic-aware routing).
, .

5.3.

427

.
.
,
. (admission control).
: , , .
.
( traffic throttling)
: , . ,
,
. .
,
. ,
. , , - !,
20 , !, . ,
30 , -
, ,
- .
. , ,
, .
, , ,
. (load shedding). ,
.

5.3.2.
, , . , 5.2,
. , . ,
, ,
, .

() ,
() .
.

(Khanna Zinky, 1989).

428 5.
. , . 5.21. , CF EI. ,
CF,
, .
EI
. EI, .
CF.
,
.

. 5.21. ,


, . ,
, .
. , . ,
.
: , (, , Gallagher, 1977).
-
. .
(traffic engineering).

5.3.3.
. :
,
.

5.3.

429

. , ,
, , . :
, .
,
.

(64/ ). .
, .
.
, , : ,
. , ,
, .
(leaky bucket) (token buket).
,
.
, 5.4.
,
. , , ,

.
, . ,
; .
,
.
, , . , , 10 /, 100 /.
? , 10
, ,
10 .
. , .

, . , . 5.22, .
, , A, , B.
.
, , . 5.22, .
.

430 5.
.
, , (Shaikh ., 1999).

. 5.22. : ; .
A B

5.3.4.

, .
, . , . ,
, .
(congestion avoidance) , () .
,
.
. -,
, .
, . : , , .
.
. , 50%
.
:
.
,
. , ,
. (d)
, s d :
d = d + (1 ) s,

5.3.

431

, . ( Exponentialy Weighted Moving Average, EWMA).


. d
, .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
, .
. .


.
(choke packet).
. (
),
, .
,
.
- ,
, , 50%.
, , ,
,
. ,
, .
,
. .
,
.
,
, SOURCE QUENCH (Postel, 1981).
, .
, .


,
(, 1 0 ) ,
. , ,

432 5.
, .
, , .
(ECN Explicit
Congestion Notification) (Ramakrishnan, 1988).
, Ramakrishnan Jain (1988),
DECNET.
. (. 5.23).
.
, .
, , IP- (,
TCP). , ,
.

. 5.23.



,
. , ,
- ( A . 5.24),
, - ( D . 5.24),
OC-3 155 /. - ,
40 , , . ,
. ,
. 5.24, . 40 ,
, - 6,2 ,
- . (.5.24,)
.
, . ,
, .
. 5.24, . F,
F D . , F
:
. D ,

5.3.

433

,
. , , E F. -
E ,
F. ,
A,
.

. 5.24. ();
()

434 5.



. , .
Mishra . (1996).

5.3.5.
,
.
,
. ,
.
, .
, ,
, . , . ,
6 , , 7
10 : ,
. , , , . ,
, .
( ) ,
( ) ,
, .
. , .
, ; , .
(, MPEG),
,
. ,
, , ,
.

, .
,
. .
,
.
. , , ,
. ,

5.3.

435

, , , .


, ,
, .
, ,
.
, , , - .
.
, .
TCP
.
, TCP ,
,
, . TCP ,
(,
).
. , , , - .
, ,
(RED Random Early Detection) (Floyd Jacobson, 1993). , , .
- ,
.
, ; , ,
. ,
. ,
, , , .
, ,
,
, . ,
, , ,
.
. ,
, ; , .

436 5.

5.4.
, , .
( ), ,
, . ,
.
, , .
, .
,
.
(overprovisioning). ,
.
. ,
. ,
. ,
, .
: . ,
. . ,
.
, .
.
,
.
1. .
2. , .
3. ,
.
4. .
.
( ) .
. , :
.

5.4.

437

5.4.1.
, ,
(Clark, 1988) (flow). , ,
,
, .
, : , , .
, (QoS Quality
of Service), .

.5.2. , ,
, , . ,
; ,
.
,
. .
5.2.

(bandwidth)

(delay)

(jitter)

(loss)

:
,
,
.
. , ,
, .
, . , -
. ,
, .

438 5.
, . , - , , .
( ) (jitter). (..5.2)
,
,
. -
.
, ,
2,000, .
,
.
.
,
, , .
.
; , , ,
, . -
:
.
,
. , ATM, - ,
. ATM :
1. (, ).
2. (,
).
3. (, ).
4. (, ).
,
.

. , ,
, , . , , ,
, , , , , .
: ,
, , .
, ,
, .

5.4.

439

5.4.2.
,
. :
( ) 64/ 8-
125.
(bursty). :
(, ),
(, -) .
, ,
, , .
(traffic shaping)
.
, ( );
.
, ( ) ( ) .
-:
. ?
(SLA,
Service Level Agreement),
(, ).

, -
.
, , . , :
- , ,
, . ,
, . (traffic policing).

, . ,
(, - ),
.


. ,
, ,
. .
, .

440 5.
, .5.25,.
, ,
R, , ,
. , B,
.

.5.25. : ;
;

,
(.5.25,). :
, .
, .
, ,
, .
, .
, , , -.
(Turner, 1986)
(leaky bucket algorithm).
-: ,
(.5.25,). R,
, , B. , ,
, (
), .
( B); , ,
.
(token bucket algorithm).
,
(
) . ,
() . ,
1000/ (125
) .
, .5.26,. . -

5.4.

441

200/,
16000 1000/ ( 1/8).

.5.26. : , ; ,
200/ 9600 0;
200/
16000, 9600 0

, ,
. 9600, ,
.
, 200/ ( ). ,
, ,
.
,
. R 200/, B
9600, .
.5.26,. 1000/ ,
. 200/
. ,
( ),
. .5.26,. ,
.
, ,
; ,

442 5.
. , ;
, .
, . .5.26,
200/ 0.
. ;
. , , (.5.26,). ,
- .
, . 5.26,
R=200/ B=16000. ,
.
, . ; , , .
,
, , .
,
.
.
.
. ,
.
, , . ,
. R/DT.
200 1 .
; , .
, (, 200 20 1250 ). . .
,
, ( , ).
( ,
) , ,
. S , B , R / M / ,
B + RS .
, , ,
MS. ,
B + RS = MS.
, : S = B/(M R). B =
=9600, M = 125 / R = 25 / 94 .

5.4.

443

, R.
, (
, ).
.
. ,
, .
,
. , 500 /, 0,
500 /. ,
1000 /.
. ,
, . , ,
, .
,
.

5.4.3.
.
,
. ,
.
- . ,
, , ,
.
(packet
scheduling algorithm). :
1. .
2. .
3. .
. 1/, 2/,
.

, .
. , ,

444 5.
. ,
, .
, ,
.
,
.
, .
, .
? . , . , ( , ICMP,
5.6)
. , ,
.

, ,
.
, . ( ),
. ,
. FIFO (First-In First-Out,
), FCFS (First-Come First-Serve, ).
, FIFO,
.
, (tail drop). ,
- .
(RED), 5.3.5,
, . , ,
.

FIFO
, : ,
.
,
. , ,
.
, , , , , ,
.
,
(Bhatti

5.4.

445

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447

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449

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450 5.
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5.4.

451

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19951997 (IETF) .
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22052212. (integrated services).
, . ,
, .
,
IP-.
, .
,
.

. , ,
.
,
.
, , .

RSVP
,
, (RSVP
Resource reSerVation Protocol). RFC 22052210.
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,
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, . 5.30, . 1 2
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452 5.
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453

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455

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. 5.33.

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457

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458 5.
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459

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460 5.
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TCP

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Ethernet.
, (MPLS),
.

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, ,

5.5.

461

. 802.11 MPLS. 802.11


, MPLS, , . ,
. ,
Ethernet.
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462 5.
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( IPv6).
, , (multiprotocol router). ,
. .
, TCP, , TCP
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. , IP
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.

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. ,
. , - - , . ,
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(tunneling). IP- , ,
IPv6- ,
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.

5.5.

463

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IPv4 ,
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. .

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-. ,
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464 5.
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Autonomous System). ISP.
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.
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5.5.

465

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466 5.

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467

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468 5.
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Path MTU discovery ,


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Path

MTU

discovery
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5.6.

469

5.6.
.
, ,
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.
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470 5.
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5.6.

471

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.

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little-endian , Intelx86,
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472 5.
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5.6.

473

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, www.iana.org.

474 5.
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5.6.

475

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IPv4 32- .
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, ,
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Ethernet- IP- .
32- ,
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476 5.
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dotted
decimal

notation

). , 80D00297 128.208.2.151.
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; .
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IP- .
28 24.
: 128.208.2.0/24.
IP-,
.
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. (.5.42) : 255.255.255.0.

.5.42. IP-

.
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5.6.

477

) , ,
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6 , , ,
.

,
, ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers). , ICANN
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.

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. ,
, .

10000000

11010000

1|xxxxxxx

xxxxxxxx

10000000

11010000

00|xxxxxx

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10000000

11010000

011|xxxxx

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478 5.
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.

.5.43. IP-

, ? .
65536 ,
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18 128.208.0.0. ,
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,
ICANN - .

CIDR
IP

- .
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.

5.6.

479

: , . , , .
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,
. (route aggregation).
, , (supernet),
.
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IP- /22 ( 210 ), /20 (
212 ). , .
CIDR (Classless InterDomain
Routing ).
RFC4632 (Fuller Li, 2006).

480 5.
, ,
.
, . ,
8192 , 194.24.0.0. , 2048 194.24.0.0
194.24.7.255, 255.255.248.0. /21.
4096 . 4096 , 4096, ,
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255.255.240.0. ,
1024 194.24.8.0 194.24.11.255 255.255.252.0.
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5.6. IP-

194.24.0.0

194.24.7.255

2048

194.24.0.0/21

194.24.8.0

194.24.11.255

1024

194.24.8.0/22

()

194.24.12.0

194.24.15.255

1024

194.24.12.0/22

194.24.16.0

194.24.16.255

4096

194.24.16.0/20

, ,

IP
- . , (, .5.44), ,
.
.

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-. IP-, , - ( ) .

5.6.

481


194.24.0.0/19 -. 8
1024 .
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.
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.
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.
(Ruiz-Sanchez
., 2001). , , VLSI, .

.5.45.
-

482 5.


CIDR, ,
. 1993 IP- 5
(.5.46). (classful
addressing).

.5.46. IP-

A, B, C D 128 16
, 16384 64536 2 (, ) 256
( ).
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. ,
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,
.
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. 2 ,
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16 ,
256 . 65536 , . - .
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5.6.

483

1022 ). , , ,
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- 0.0.0.0 .
. IP- .
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484 5.
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.
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,
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zz
(loopback).
, .
, ( )
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NAT
IP- . /16-
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, .

IP
-. , IP- , ;
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/16- 65534 .
, , ,
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5.6.

485

( ). (,
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,
Inc
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.
.
IPv6 128-
. ,
, . , ,
- .
: ,
NAT (Network Address Translation), RFC3022.
, (Dutcher, 2001).

IP- (, , ) -.
IP-, . ,
,
, IP-
IP-.
IP-. . ,
. :
10.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
192.168.0.0

10.255.255.255/8
172.31.255.255/12
192.168.255.255/16

(16777216 )
(1048576 )
(65536 )

, 16777216 ( 0
1, ), ,
.
.5.48.
10.x.y.z. , ,
NAT- (NAT box),
IP
- (10.0.0.1 ) IP-,
(198.60.42.12 ). NAT-
,

486 5.
. 8. NAT-
ADSL.

.5.48. NAT-

:
(, -), 198.60.42.12. NAT- ,
?
. IP ,
, . .
, ,
IP- .
, IP-.
, . NAT ,
IP- TCP, UDP.
6 TCP UDP, , ,
. ,
TCP, , UDP .
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TCP- . (source port), TCP-
, .
(destination port). ,
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.
, .
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, . ,

5.6.

487

, , , .
IP- ,
. 16-
, , .

. NAT-, 10.x.y.z
IP-. , TCP
NAT-, 65536 .
IP- . ,
TCP IP.
, 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2
(5000-, ).

.
NAT- ,
TCP.
NAT-. IP- TCP.
. TCP IP.
10.x.y.z.
IP-,
IP- NAT , . .-,
IP, ,
IP- .
.
, (
) 10.0.0.1.
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. NAT- , , .
, NAT TCP/IP-
, . ,
NAT Traversal.
-, NAT , . , NAT-
,
. , , . NAT-
, TCP-,
, .
TCP-.

488 5.

. NAT
, .
-, NAT : k , k+1 .
. -
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), . ,
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-, TCP
UDP.
( , ,
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, NAT- TCP.
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. NAT ,
- . , FTP , - H.323 (
7), ,
.
NAT , , .
, 16-,
IP- 65536 . , : 4096
. , IP-,
61440 .
, ,
RFC2993. , NAT IP-. , . NAT
,
.
, IPv6.

5.6.3. IP 6
IP .
,
. , IP :
. -

5.6.

489

CIDR NAT, 2012


IPv4- ICANN.
20 , , , -
.
, . . IPv6 (IP version
6 IP 6) , . IPv6
128- ;
, , . , IPv6
. ,
IPv4, . , , IPv6.
( 1%)
1998. , ,
IPv4-. ,
eBay? ? .
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.
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,
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,
IETF 1990 IP,
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1.
.
2. .
3. .
4. ( ).
5. , , .
6. .

490 5.
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8. .
9.
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. ,
. 1992 .
IP
.
IP CLNP, 160-
, ( 25 ). ,
. ,
, - OSI
, -.
CLNP, , IP.
, IP ,
CLNP. CLNP ,
.
IEEE Network Magazine
(Deering, 1993; Francis, 1993; Katz Ford, 1993). ,
(Deering) (Francis), SIPP (Simple Internet Protocol Plus - ).
IPv6.
IPv6 .
IP (
), .
, IPv6 IPv4,
, TCP, UDP, ICMP, IGMP, OSPF, BGP
DNS,
. IPv6 .
RFC 2460 2466.
, IPv6 , IPv4.
128, , , -.
.
IPv6 IPv4
. 7 ( 13 IPv4).
, ,
. .

5.6.

491


. ,
( ). ,
,
.
-, IPv6 . IETF
, 12-
.
, - . IP-.
IPv4 .
, .
,
.

IPv6
IPv6 .5.49. 6 IPv6 ( 4
IPv4). IPv4 IPv6, , , ,

. , , ,
. , Ethernet
, IPv4- IPv6-.
,
, , .
( ) ,
. ( ,
IPv4). , IPv4, 2
.
, ;
. ,

, . .
, ,
, . , :
.

492 5.

.5.49. IPv6 ( )


, . , IP- 220 . ,
, . ,
,
1, .
, 40- , .5.49. IPv4
. 40
. ,
65535 65515.
. , 40-
() . ,
( ) . IP- ,
( TCP UDP) .

. ,
IPv4. .
, IPv4
, ,
.
. ( SIPP) 8- , -

5.6.

493

, 8-
, 16- .
, 16 ,
20- OSI.
. , , , 16- .
16- . IPv6
, , :
8000:0000:0000:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF
, . -,
, 0123 123. -,
, , . , :
8000::123:4567:89AB:CDEF
, IPv

4 , , :
::192.31.20.46
, ,
16- 2128,
3 1023 IP- . , ,
.
IP- ,
.
, , , . ,
( 212) ,
( 307) . RFC 3194 (Durand) (Huitema) . ,
, 1000 IP-
( , ). . , ,
.
IPv4 (. . 5.41) IPv6 (. 5.49),
, . IHL ,
IPv6 . ,
, IP- ( UDP
TCP-).

494 5.
, , IPv6
. -, ,
IPv6, .
Path MTU discovery, 5.5.5.
, IPv6-,
, , ,
. ,
. , .
, 576 1280,
1024 , .
, ,
.
,
,
, .
,
.


,
IPv6 () . ,
. 5.7. ,
, .
5.7. IPv6

, .
(, , ). ,
. , , , .

5.6.

495

: , ,
ICMP-, , ,

ICMP
- ( ICMP-).
1. ,
( 0 255).
255.
,
.
: ,
64. .5.50.
0.

.5.50.

, ,
.
, 8 , .
.
, ( 194) 4- . 65536 ,
,
ICMP- . ,
, (jumbograms, jumbo, ).
, .
, -. IPv6
8 , . , , - .
, . IPv4 ,
,
. .5.51.

.
.
. 0, , 32- , IPv

6. -

496 5.
, , - .
, ,
. .
,
.
, .

.5.51.

, IPv4. , ,
, . IPv4
IPv

6 -. .
IP,
IPv4. .
, , ICMP-, -
, .

. , ,
: ,
.
, 8.

, IPv6,
,
.
. RFC.
. : 16- .
- . , 255 (
8- ) . , 32 , 10 -

5.6.

497

. ,
,
. , , ,
, -
.
, , . ,
,
, 65535
. ,
,
. 125
, , , - .
8- .
.
, 64. , ,
64.
, 1 1 1,5/, 5,
, .
: 64, .
IPv4. .
, - , .
, , ,
, ( ,
). , ,
IPv4.
, IPv6, ,
.
. , IPv6, ?
IPv6
. ,
.
, .
, . , . -, .

498 5.
, ,
.
, -
,
, .
, ,
, .
, IP .
, , ,
,
, .
,
( ) , . , ,
,
. IP,
, ( ). ,
,
.
, , ,
, IPv4- ,
IPv6-. IPv6,
(. 5.5.3). ,
IPv6 . , ,
.
, , . IPv6
. , . , IPv6
, - ,
IP-. ,
.
,
IPv
6-
IPv
4, , .
IPv4, IPv6
. IPv6,
. (Davies,
2008).

5.6.4.
IP, , , ,
ICMP, ARP DHCP.

5.6.

499

, , IPv4 (
). ICMP DHCP
IPv6; APR NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol
).

ICMP
. - ,
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol
), . ICMP
. ICMP-
IP-. .5.8.
5.8. ICMP-

, ,

(DESTINATION UNREACHABLE) , , DF (
) , .
(TIME EXCEEDED) , ,
.
,
.
, 1987 , traceroute. ,
.
. 1, 2, 3 .. ,
, , .
.
IP- . , , . ,
.

500 5.
(PARAMETER PROBLEM) , .
, ,
.
(SOURCE QUENCH)
, . , , .
,
, . , ,
.
; .
6.
(REDIRECT) , ,
, .
.
(ECHO) (ECHO REPLY) , ,
.
, . ping, ,
.
(TIMESTAMP REQUEST)
(TIMESTAMP REPLY) ,
.
.
(ROUTER ADVERTISEMENT)
(ROUTER SOLICITATION) .
IP- ,
.
. www.iana.org/assignments/icmp-parameters.

ARP
IP-,
. , Ethernet-,
-. , -
Ethernet 48- Ethernet-. Ethernet
IEEE , Ethernet-
(
). , 48-
Ethernet-. 32- IP- .
, : IP-
, Ethernet-? ,
, .5.52 , /24.
Ethernet: (CS) , 192.31.65.0/24,

5.6.

501

(EE) 192.31.63.0/24 .
IP-. Ethernet
Ethernet- ( E1
E6), IP- CS EE.
, 1 2
CS. , , eagle.cs.uni.
edu. IP- 2.
DNS (Domain Name System), 7.
, DNS IP-
2 (192.31.65.5).
1 192.31.65.5 IP- .
IP ,
CS ( ), -
Ethernet- . ,
,
IP- Ethernet-. , , ,

.

.5.52. Ethernet,

1
Ethernet
: IP

- 192.31.65.5? CS Ethernet IP-.


2 Ethernet- E2. , 1
, IP- 192.31.65.5 Ethernet- E2. ,
, ARP (Address
Resolution Protocol ) RFC826. .

502 5.
ARP
.
IP- . ARP.
IP 1 Ethernet-
E2, IP-, 192.31.65.5, Ethernet. IP- Ethernet- .5.52.
Ethernet 2 , , ,
. Ethernet- IP-
IP-, , ,
, .
ARP. , , ARP, , .
, , ,
. , 2 , ARP
. ,
ARP IP- Ethernet-. ARP-
2, (192.31.65.7, E1) 2 ARP-
. ,
Ethernet.
, ,
IP- ( Ethernet- ), ARP-
. , . ,
.
ARP-,
IP-. ,
. ARP-
(gratuitous ARP). () , ,
IP-.
, .
.5.52. 1 4
(192.31.63.8) EE. 1 , IP- CS.
, ,
(default gateway). , (198.31.65.1).
, 1 Ethernet-
CS.
ARP- 198.31.65.1 E3. .

.
Ethernet ,
IP. ,
4 EE. Ethernet-

5.6.

503

4, ARP. .5.52
Ethernet- IP- CS EE. ,
Ethernet- , IP- (
).
1 4 ,
, . ,
ARP- CS 4, Ethernet-
E3. 4 , ( Ethernet-).
192.32.63.8 EE.
ARP- (ARP-proxy). ,
- . ,
,
, .

DHCP
ARP ( -) ,
, , IP-.
? , ,
. : DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ).
DHCP-, .
Ethernet-
, IP-. IP-
DHCP DISCOVER.
DHCP-. ,
DHCP- , .
, IP- DHCP OFFER ( ).
, IP-,
Ethernet- ( DHCP DISCOVER).
: IP ? ,
. .
IP- , . (leasing).
DHCP-
IP-.
, .
DHCP RFC2131 2132.
IP-. , DHCP -.
-,
.

504 5.
DHCP , IP- , IP- DNS
. DHCP (RARP
BOOTP), .

5.6.5. MPLS
, ,
, IP

-. ( ) ,
- . MPLS (MultiProtocol Label
Switching ) . -
, , , . , . ,
, ,
. , .
MPLS ,
, . , .
. MPLS,
, ,
(tag switching). , IETF . RFC3031 . , ,
, .
: ? IP-
,
. ,
MPLS

IP
-. , , PPP, MPLS, IP TCP, .5.53.

.5.53. TCP- IP, MPLS PPP

MPLS ,
, . . S (

5.6.

505

). ,
. ; 0,
.
.
MPLS IP

PPP. ,
IP- . ,
, MPLS
, . 2.5. ,
.
MPLS
,
MPLS
, . , ,
MPLS, IP-,
-IP-, , .
, .
MPLS IP- -IP-.
, MPLS,
(LSR, Label Switched Router) ,
.
. ,
,
. ,
, . .5.3. MPLS
.
-, (forwarding) (switching).
, , , , . IP .
,
. . , - .
MPLS,
, .
, MPLS-.
(LER, Label Edge Router) IP- , ,
MPLS- ,
. MPLS. MPLS-
, , IP- .
.5.54.
. , ,
MPLS-, . ,

506 5.
,
. , , ,
(FEC Forwarding
Equivalence Class). ,
, ( ). .

.5.54. IP- MPLS-

, . MPLS
, ,
,
.
MPLS .
, . (, - ),
.
. , , , .
. .
, ( ) . S (.
.5.53) , , ,
. , ,
.
, , .
MPLS
. , ,
.

MPLS
, (
).
, , , .
, .

5.6.

507

. . , (, ).
FEC

, , . , ,
. ,
. , . (,
, )
, .
MPLS ,
, ,
. (Davie Farrel,
2008; Davie Rekhter, 2000).

5.6.6. OSPF
, .
. ,

(), , , . ,
, (intradomain routing).
- .

OSPF.
(interior gateway protocol). ,
(interdomain routing).
(exterior gateway protocol).
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol
).

, (BellmanFord) ARPANET.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol ),
. ,
,
, 1979 . 1988
(IETF, Internet Engineering Task Force) ,
, .
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First ) 1990.

508 5.
IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System
), ISO. , . .RFC2328.

. OSPF
, IS-IS -.
OSPF.
,
,
. -,
, (Open ) OSPF. ,
, , . -,
,
, .. -,
,
.
- ( OSPF),
, .
-
. IP- ,
.
OSPF, . .
, , , .
-, .
.
, . . ,
.
-, . 1988
,
. , .
-, , -,
. , ,
.
.
OSPF (, SONET) ( ). ,
( multi-access networks),
.
.
.5.55, . ,
OSPF; (

5.6.

509

) .
, , . R3, R4 R5
, Ethernet.

.5.55. : ; ()

OSPF
, ,
( , , ..).
, .
. , .
, , .
, .
, , , ,
. , .
.5.55, , .5.55, , .
, OSPF. , , . ,
. OSPF .
ECMP (Equal Cost MultiPath ).
. OSPF
, . -

510 5.
, ,
. - , (internal router).
. ,
. .
(backbone area), 0. , ,
(backbone routers).
, , ,
.
. ,
.
, , (area border router).
.
. ,
. , ,
.
,
.
, . , , : .
(stub area).

(AS boundary router).
. ,
;
.
. ,
.5.56.
,
, .

.5.56. , OSPF

5.6.

511

, ,
. . ,
, .
.

( ). ,
, .
,
, .
,
. .
, , ,
. , ( )
( ).
(HELLO)
,
, . .
.
OSPF
, , . ,
.
(designated router DR). (adjacent)
.
, ,
.
(backup
designated router BDR).

(LINK STATE UPDATE)
.
, .
, . , ,
: , .
,
.
(DATABASE DESCRIPTION)
, . -

512 5.
, ,
. .

(LINK STATE REQUEST). ,
, , , .
IP-.
.5.9.
5.9. OSPF

.
.

. . ,
,
.
, .
, ,
, .

5.6.7. BGP

OSPF IS-IS.
, BGP (Border Gateway Protocol
).
,
. .
.
, , (Metz, 2001).
,

5.6.

513

.
, , ,
( , ). ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
BGP
.
,
, .
.
1. .
2. , .
3. TeliaSonera Verizon, .
4. AT&T , .
5. , Apple,
Google.
, , ,
. . ,
. .
, ,
, .
: -
. , -
. ,
. ,
, . ,
. ,
.
, - .
.5.57.
, . - (IXP, Internet eXchange Point),
, -, -. AS2, AS3 AS4 AS1. AS1 . , , A
C, AS2 AS1. AS4.
. C AS1,

514 5.
AS4 C (AS1).
AS1 C , AS2,
C AS1.

.5.57.

.5.57 AS1. .
. AS2 AS3 .
,
. , AS1
, . (peering).
. AS2 AS3 A B, . , . .5.57
AS3 AS4 , C B
AS4. C A? AS3 AS4 B, A.
AS4 AS3, AS2, .
AS3. AS4, , AS4
. AS4
AS1, , , C A.
, ,
A, B C. , A AS2. A
, .
A BGP,
(stub network), . .
. A, B C
.
, . ,
.
(multihoming). ,

5.6.

515

, (,
BGP), , .
, ,
. ,
BGP-
.
BGP , ,
RIP (Routing Information Protocol ).
, . ,

, BGP-
. (Path Vector Protocol). (
: ) , (AS path), ( ). BGP- ,
TCP-.
, .
.5.58 , . ,
-.
C AS3. R2c (),
AS3 R3a. ,
, . AS1. R1a
() AS2 AS3, R2a.

.5.58. BGP-

516 5.
.
: ,
, . (
.) , ,
. ,
; .
, 1990- , BGP (Labovitz ., 2001).
, -
.
- .
, .
. BGP ,
,
. , :
.
.
, -. BGP
, . . BGP
, .
BGP (iBGP internal BGP), ,
BGP (eBGP external BGP).
: , , ,
( ).
- IP
128.208.0.0/16, . , ,
.
.5.58. : R2b ,
C R2c (), R2d (). , .
,
.
, ,
, .
: BGP-
? BGP-

, (

5.6.

517

). , .
, -.
,
.
, , , , .
, . :
.
, .
: ,
. ,
, .
, .
, ,
.
.5.58. A C AS1 R1a.
B R1b. , A B
AS1.
, .
, AS2. AS3
B .

(hot-potato routing). ,
. , C B.
AS3 . AS2 AS1 , AS1.
B C.
, BGP-
. , , BGP , OSPF . BGP .
, , BGP
, . , BGP-

. ,
, .
, BGP.
. BGP 4 RFC4271
RFC. , , BGP.

518 5.

5.6.8.
IP- .

.
, , ,
(
).
IP
D. D . 28,
250 . D, ,
. .
IP- 224.0.0.0/24
. .
.
, .
. :
224.0.0.1 ;
224.0.0.2 ;
224.0.0.5 OSPF- ;
224.0.0.251 DNS- .
. . , , , .
- .
,
. ,
.
( )
( 224.0.0.1) ,
. , .
D. IGMP (Internet Group Management
Protocol ). RFC3376.
,
, . 5.2.8.
- (PIM, Protocol Independent Multicast).
PIM. PIM (Dense Mode PIM)
, . -

5.6.

519

, ,
. PIM
(
Sparse

Mode

PIM
) , . , ,
- IP-.

Source
-
Specific

Multicast

PIM
. , ,
BGP
.

5.6.9. IP
,
. , IP ,
, ( ). ,
(IETF, Internet Engineering Task Force)
. ,
, .
.
1.
IP- .
2. .
3. .
4. , ,
.
5. , .
, 5.2.10. , , , , , (home agent). , IP- (
).
.
, ,
, , .
,
. .
, DHCP

. , IP

- , , IP- .
, ICMP-,

520 5.
. IP- ,
.
,
, . ARP. IP- Ethernet, Ethernet- . ARP-,
- Ethernet- 160.80.40.20?
, ,
IP-, Ethernet-. ,
, Ethernet-.
160.80.40.20 . , , , ARP-.

, , ARP
(gratuitous ARP). ,
ARP- IP-,
.

IP- .
, IP- .
-, ,
, . . -, NAT- TCPUDP, IP-. IP
NAT-. , UDP-.
, , IP- , ,
, .
(ingress filtering) ,
, , .
, IP- , , .
, . , , . , .
.
, , IP-,
, , , - . , 8.
IPv6 IPv4.
, , . IPv6

5.7.

521

, IP- , .
IPv6 RFC3775.
.
,
. ,
. ( ,
?) ,
. , , , , . , .
IP,
, .
IPv6 RFC3963.

5.7.
.
, .
.
. .
. .

.
. .
, ,
, .
,
.
, ,
, ,
.

. , .
, , ,
, . , , IETF ( RSVP) .
, . , -

522 5.
. ,
.
,
,
.
, . IP

ICMP, ARP DHCP. IP-


MPLS.
, , OSPF

.
BGP
.
IP
-, IP, IPv6,
, .

1. , , ,
. ,
.
2.
.
. , .
.
3. ,
.
4. ,
, , ,
?
5. , (
). ,
.
6. .5.10,. -
. C : B: (5,
0, 8, 12, 6, 2); D: (16, 12, 6, 0, 9, 10); E: (7, 6, 3, 9, 0, 4). B, D E
6, 3 5 . C?
.
7. , 50 , 8-
, .
()
? ,
.
8. .5.11 ACF- 111 . ?

523

9. , 4800? , k
k k . , k
4800 (16).
, 16.
10. , , , , .
IP- 802.3?
11. B .5.5 :
1) ?
2) ?
12. .5.13,. , F G,
, .5.13,, .
.5.13,?
13. C ,
, , A, B, C, D, E, F, I K.

14. , .5.18
.
H. TTL 1, 2, 3 ..
?
15. , , ,
, -, , , , -, . ,

, .
( ) . n . ? ,
, .
16. . , , p. ,

524 5.
.
, -, , , . (- ) ,
1) , ?
2) ?
3) , ?
17. ECN RED?
18. . 5.
48. ( )?
19. , , 6/, . 1/.
8.
6/?
20. .5.30 RSVP 1 2. , 3 2/
1 1/ 2.
4 2/
1, 5 1/
2.
A, B, C, E, H, J, K L?
21. 2 . 1,5 . , 10?
22. , .
, ,
? .
23. , R1. , ,
, R2, R2 B. TCP, 900
20 TCP-, IP-, ,
. , , DF, MF
IP- , . ,
R1 1024, 14-
, R1R2 512 , 8- , R2B
512, 12- .
24. IP-, ( ) 1024. , 10, ,
IP-.
25. IP-, ,
. ,
? .

525

26. , 16 B
20. B?
27. IP-, C22F1582,
, .
28. 255.255.240.0.
?
29. IP- , Ethernet- . ,
?
30. , IP- 198.16.0.0. , A, B, C D 4000, 2000, 4000 8000 .
, w.x.y.z/s.
31. IP-: 57.6.96.0/21,
57.6.112.0/21 57.6.120.0/21. ,
? , ? , ?
32. IP- 29.18.0.0 19.18.128.255 29.18.0.0/17. 1024 29.18.60.0 29.18.63.255,
, .
, ,
, - ? , ?
33. (CIDR) :
/

135.46.56.0/22

135.46.60.0/22

192.53.40.0/23

IP-?
1) 135.46.63.10
2) 135.46.57.14
3) 135.46.52.2
4) 192.53.40.7
5) 192.53.56.7
34. ,
,
, .
NAT? .
35. ARP. , :
. ARP , ,
. ?
36. .
37. IP- ,
- , ,
. ,

526 5.

38.
39.

40.
41.
42.
43.

44.

45.

46.

. , . , ,
, .
. ?
IP , . , , ?
, , . ,
IP, . ,
, ,
?
IPv6 16- . ,
1 ?
, IPv4,
IPv6. ?
ARP IP?
, ?
, .
, .
, . ,
. :
; , ; k
( ).
(k=1) .
, .

. . ,
, .
- , , , -.

.
, IP-.
IP-. , .
: IP-c, . IP- ,
CIDR, .
traceroute (UNIX) tracert (Windows),
.
. :
www.berkeley.edu ()
www.mit.edu ()
www.vu.nl ()
www.ucl.ac.uk ()
www.usyd.edu.au ()
www.u-tokyo.ac.jp ()
www.uct.ac.za ()


. .
-
-,
. , .
.
,
API, , ,
( TCP UDP) .

6.1.
.
, .
, . ( ) , , .

6.1.1. ,
,
() ,
.
, .
/ , , (transport entity).
, , ,
.
. , .6.1.

528 6.

.6.1. ,

, ,
.
.
: ,
.
. , . ,
,
.
: , ?
? , . ,
,
( , ). ,
,
? ? , ?
. , ,
( , ).

, .

6.1.

529

, .
,
, - ,
,
.
,
, , , , ,
.
,
, . , ,
,
(, Ethernet

WiMAX ).
,

, , c
.

.
.
,
, , , .
, .
. (transport service provider),
(transport service user).

,

. .

6.1.2.
,
, .
. (
) ,
.
.

530 6.
, . ,
, .
, .
, , .
, ,
.
, , UNIX ( ,
). ,
. , , .. .
A , B .
,
, , .
, () , ( ),
. , -
,
, .
,
. . ,
.
, , ,
, .
.
, , .6.1. ,
. ,
, .
, , , . LISTEN ,
. ,
. , CONNECT.
,
. , .

6.1.

531

. ,
,
, (segment).
TCP, UDP -.
TPDU (Transport Protocol Data Unit
). ,
.
6.1.

LISTEN ()

()

, -

CONNECT
()

CONNECTION REQUEST
( )

SEND ()

RECEIVE
()

()

DISCONNECT
()

DISCONNECTION REQUEST
( )

, ,
( ). , ,
, . , ,
,
. .
.6.2.

.6.2. ,

, . CONNECT , CONNECTION REQUEST (

532 6.
). , ,
LISTEN ( ).
CONNECTION ACCEPTED
( ). , , .
SEND RECEIVE. RECEIVE ,
SEND. ,
.
. , , ,
.
,
, .
, , . ,
, , .

. .
, . ,
.
,
.
, , .
: .
DISCONNECT,
DISCONNECTION REQUEST ( ).
.
, . DISCONNECT, ,
,
. ,
DISCONNECT.
.6.3.
- , , .
, . , ,
. . ,
TCP, .

6.1.

533

.6.3. . ,
, .
.

6.1.3.

( ), TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol ).
1983 Berkeley UNIX 4.2BSD.
- , UNIX

; , API,
Windows winsock.
.6.2.
, . , ,
.
. SOCKET . ,
(, ) .

534 6.
SOCKET ,
, , OPEN .
6.2. TCP

SOCKET ()

( )

BIND ()

LISTEN ()

ACCEPT ()

CONNECT
()

SEND ()

RECEIVE
()

CLOSE ()

. BIND. ,
. SOCKET , (,
, ),
.
LISTEN, , .
LISTEN , LISTEN .
,
ACCEPT. ,
, ,
. ,
.
. SOCKET , BIND
, . CONNECT .
( , , ),
, .
SEND RECIEVE
. UNIX-
READ WRITE, SEND RECIEVE.
.
, CLOSE.

6.1.

535

, -
. -API
TCP- ,
( ,
). API ,

.
-API ,
. , .
CONNECT , SEND RECEIVE . ( ,
SENDTO RECEIVEFROM,
.) ,

. , DCCP (Datagram
Congestion Control Protocol ) UDP, (Rohler .,
2006).
.
, ,
. , ,
. ,
,
( ),
, , ,
. ,
. SCTP
(Stream Control Transmission Protocol ), RFC4960, SST (Structured Stream Transport
) (Ford, 2007).
-
API
, , ( )
. , ,
.

6.1.4. :
-
, , ,
, 6.1.
-, .

536 6.
( ),
, ,
UNIX-, . , ,
. ,
. , , , - .
6.1.
/* ,
, . */
/* .*/
#include
#include
#include
#include

<sys/types.h>
<sys/socket.h>
<netinet/in.h>
<netdb.h>

#define SERVER_PORT 12345 /* */


#define BUF_SIZE 4096 /* */
int main(int argc, char *argv)
{
int c,s,bytes;
char buf[BUF_SIZE];
/* */
struct hostent *h;
/* */
struct sockaddr_in channel; /* IP= */
if (argc!=3) fatal(" : client _ _");
h = gethostbyname(argv[1]);
/* IP- */
if(!h) fatal(" gethostbyname")
s = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP);
if (s<0) fatal("");
memset(&channel, 0, sizeof(channel));
channel.sin_family=AF_INET;
memcpy(&channel.sin_addr.s_addr,h>h_addr,h>h_length);
channel.sin_port=htons(SERVER_PORT);
c = connect(s,(struct sockaddr *) &channel, sizeof(channel));
if (c<0) fatal(" ");
/* . */
write*s, argv[2], strlen(argv[2])+1);
/* ,
while (1) {
bytes = read(s, buf, BUF_SIZE); /*
if (bytes <= 0) exit(0);
/*
write(1, buf, bytes);
/*
}
}
fatal(char *string)
{
printf(%s\n, string);

*/
*/
*/
*/

6.1.
exit(1);
}
/* */
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/fcntl.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#define SERVER_PORT 12345 /* */
#define BUF_SIZE 4096
/* */
#define QUEUE_SIZE 10
int main(int argc, char *argv[]);
{
int s, b, l, fd, sa, bytes, on = 1;
char buf[BUF_SIZE];
/* */
struct sockaddr_in channel;
/* IP- */
/* */
memset(&channel, 0, sizeof(channel));
/* channel */
channel.sin_family = AF_INET;
channel.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_ANY);
channel.sin_port = htons(SERVER_PORT);
/* . */
s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP); /* */
if (s<0) fatal(" ");
setsockopt(s, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, (char *) &on, sizeof(on));
b = bind(s, (struct sockaddr *) &channel, sizeof(channel));
if (b<0) fatal(" ");
l = listen(s, QUEUE_SIZE);
/* */
if (l<0) fatal(" ");
/* . */
while (1) {
sa = accept(s, 0, 0);
/* */
if (sa<0) fatal(" ");
read(sa, buf, BUF_SIZE);

/* */

/* */
fd = open(buf, O_RDONLY);
/* */
if (fd < 0) fatal(" ");
while (1) {
bytes = read(fd, buf, BUF_SIZE);
if (bytes <= 0) break;
write(sa, buf, bytes);
}
close(fd);
close(sa);
}
}

/* */
/* */
/* */
/* */
/* */

537

538 6.
, .
, , . SERVER_PORT
12345. . 1024
65535 , -
; 1023 .
.
( ).
,
.
.
, IP-
. . memset
.
. . htonl htons ,
littleendian (, Intelx86), big-endian (, SPARC).
.
( s<0)
.
. setsockopt , , , . IP
bind.
listen, ,
QUEUE_SIZE , .
.
, . . accept ,
. , accept
() ,
, , () . , ,
, ( )
sa ( ). , .
. , , . ,
, .
, .
, .
.

6.1.

539

, . ,
, , .
client, :
client flits.csvu.nl /usr/tom/filename >f

, flits.
cs.vu.nl, /usr/tom/filename
. , f, .
, .
.
(argc = 3 , ). ,
argv[1] (, flits.cs.vu.nl) IP-
gethostbyname. DNS.
DNS 7.
,
TCP- connect. ,
, SERVER_PORT ,
listen ( ),
. ,
.
, -, , .
, .
.
fatal . ,
.
, fatal .
( , )
- http://www.prenhall.com/tanenbaum.
, .
, . ,
(
). , , UNIX
.
. , ,
. , -

540 6.
-
. (Donahoo Calvert,
2008, 2009).

6.2.
,
. , 3.
, , , .
, , , .6.4.
(
),
. .

.6.4. : ;

-,
,
, .
.
-, (.6.4,) : ( ).
, . . ,
. ( ), .
, , .

, . ,
, - - ,
, ,
, . , -

6.2.

541

,
, -
, , ; ,
.

, .

, . ,
, , ,
. ,
3, , ,
, .
.
.

6.2.1.

, , . (
: ?)
, .
.
TSAP (Transport Service Access Point
)
. ( ) NSAP (Network Service Access Point
). NSAP IP-.
6.5 NSAP, TSAP
. , , ,
TSAP TSAP.
NSAP , . TSAP
, , NSAP, ,
NSAP.
:
1. TSAP1522 2
. , TSAP

,
. , , LISTEN.

542 6.
2. 1 ,
TSAP1208 CONNECT,
TSAP1208 1 TSAP1522 2 . .
3. .
4. , .
5. .

.6.5.

, 2 ,

TSAP
, NSAP.
, : 1 , TSAP1522? , TSAP1522
, .
TSAP-, ,
. , , /etc/services UNIX

- , , ,
, TCP 25.
TSAP- (, -),
-

6.2.

543

, TSAP-
.
, .
,
(portmapper). TSAP-, ,
BitTorrent,
(TSAP- ).
, TSAP .
.
, ,
, ( ASCII) TSAP. ,
.
. , ,
TSAP- ( ) . , . ,
, , .

.6.6. 1
2

, ,
,

544 6.
TSAP-. .6.6.
(initial connection protocol).
TSAP-, ,
,
(process server), () . UNIX- inetd.
, .
, CONNECT, TSAP-
. , , .6.6,.
, , .
, , .6.6,.
, .

6.2.2.
, , . , CONNECTION REQUEST
CONNECTION ACCEPTED ( ). ,
, , .
,
,
- . ,
.
, , .
.
. ,
,
. .
,
.
: ,
() . , . , , .
,
: .

, ,
, .

6.2.

545

,
.

, , . , .
. ,
.
,
, , . , , . ,
, . , .
, , .
.
, ( , ),
, , . , (
, ).
,
( ).
, : ,

,
, . ,
, , , .
,
. ,
. .

:
1. .
2. .
3. .
, ,
,
. , , , .

546 6.

. , .
, ,
. ,
.
.
, ,
. T,
.
, ;
120. , , T.
T ,
,
.
. (Tomlinson, 1975);
(Sunshine) (Dalal).
, TCP.
,
, T . , T,
. , . , . ,

.
(
), ,
T .
, ,
. ,
T .
.
. ,
, .
,
( ).
, , .
k k-
. , ,
3, .

6.2.

547

, ,
, . .6.7. ,
.

, . , 70,
;
.

.6.7. (); ()


,
. ,
. (
) , ,
. , .
, .
. ,
,
. ,
.
, , ,
, , ,
. , (1 ).
( ).

548 6.
C, S, S/C>T
,
.
,
. .6.7,, , ,
, .
, . ,
( ).
.
.
,
, CONNECTION REQUEST, -
, .
,
.
(1975)
(three-way handshake). , , . .6.8,.
1 , x,
CONNECTION REQUEST, , 2. 2 ACK, x y.
, 1 2
.
. .6.8,
CONNECTION REQUEST .
2 1. 2
1 ACK, , 1 ,
. 1
, 2 , ,
. , .
CONNECTION REQUEST ACK
. .6.8,. , 2 CONNECTION REQUEST .
, 2 y
2 1, , , y, .
2 , , ,
y, z. ,
,
, .

6.2.

549

.6.8. (CR
CONNECTION REQUEST): ; CR;
CR ACK

TCP . 32- ,
,
.
TCP , .
RFC1323 PAWS (Protection Against Wrapped Sequence
numbers ).
, ,
PAWS TCP ,
(. ). .

550 6.
, ,
. . ,
, - , .
.

6.2.3.
, . . , : .
: , .

, .

. , .6.9. 1 , 2. 1
. , 2 DISCONNECTION REQUEST (
DR) , .
, .

.6.9.

, ,
. ,
. ,
.
,
,

6.2.

551

, . , , .
, 1 : . ? 2
: . ,
.
, . ,
. ,
, .6.10.
. , ,
. , , ,
.

.6.10.

. ,
, (
). : , ?
, :
29, . . , 2- , 1- .
? , , 2- , .
, 1- , .
. .
, . .
, , , ,
. , . -

552 6.
, .
, ( ), , . ,
? , , , .
,
. .
, , .
, ,
, .
, , ,
,
. . .6.11
, . , .
.6.11, ,
DR (DISCONNECTION REQUEST), . ,
DR , .
, ACK . , ACK, . ,

( ).
DISCONNECT.
(.6.11,), . , .
DR

. , , ,
. .6.11, ,
, .
(.6.11,) : ,
DR , .
N , , .
, .
,
, DR N
. ,
.
.

6.2.

553

.6.11. :
; ; ;

,
N , , . , ,
,
. , , .6.11,.
, , ,

554 6.
, . ,
, .
, ,
.
, .
, ,
. , ,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
.
, TCP (
, FIN ), -
RST,
. , -
. (, ), . ,
: ,
. ,
. , .
, - , , .
.

6.2.4.

, ,
.
.
, , , .
.
, . , 3.
.
1. (,
CRC
- ), ,
.

6.2.

555

2. , . ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest ).


3. , , : ,
. , (stop-and-wait).
, .
4. (sliding window) ,
.
,
: ?
,
. ,
.
, . ,
.
, . , .
(
Saltzer
., 1984): , , ,
. ,
.
(Slatzer .) (end-to-end argument). , ,
,
; , , ,
( ,
).
,
. ,
, .
,
.
. , 802.11 ,
, ,
. ,
, . , () Ethernet -

556 6.
, ,
,
.
, TCP

- , .
, 1/,
, , 100.
200 ,
.
.
.
200 ( 5 ) .
, .
, ,
.
, .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
, . ,
. ,
, .
, , , .
, .
. ,
, , , ,
, , ( , ).
, ,
, .
TCP.
.
, ,
, .6.12,.
, -
,
.
, -

6.2.

557

. ,
.

. 6.12. : ;
;


, .6.12,. ,
.
, .6.12,.
, , .
. , .
.
, , , , , ,
.
. .
, 3,
. , ,
. , ,

558 6.
. ,
.
, , .

. TCP;
Window size.
.6.13
4- .
A B,
( ). A 8
, 4. , . 6 A
0 1,
( 2, 3 4). A , 2
, , 3 4, .
,
. 9 - ,
2. . 10 B
, 4-,
A.
, 3. , B, A . , B
, ,
.

. 6.13. . .
()

6.2.

559


. 16. B A ,
. !
, ,
-, A .
, . , ,
.
, , ,
. .
( ) ,
, ,
. , ,
; TCP (Zhang ., 2002).
,
: . x
k , ,
, , kx . ,
.
,
,
. 1975 (Belsnes)
,
.
,
, . c ,
( , , ,
) r,
cr. ,
. .
,
,
. , TCP .

6.2.5.
, .

560 6.
. , ,
. - , , .
, , .6.14,.
(, IP-) .

.6.14. : ;

. , ,
.
, , ,
, , .6.14,.
. k
k .
SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol ),
. TCP, ,
.
,
.

6.2.6.

(, ),
.
, -

6.2.

561

.
, :
.
. ,
. , , ,
.

. ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
. :
( S1) ( S0).
, ,
.
, : ,
.
, S1.
, ,
. , , ,
,
.
, . , , , S0. ,
, , ,
.
, , : , ,
, ? ,
, .
S1 ,
.
, , , , .
: ,
, , . :
, ,
S0 S1.

562 6.
, , ,
, .
: (A),
(W) (C). : AC(W), AWC, C(AW), C(WA), WAC WC(A),
, C A B ( , ). .6.15
, . ,
,
. , , AWC ,
.

. 6.15.

. , ,
, ,
, : .
:
, , .
: N N+1
, , .
, ,
.

6.3.

563

. , , ,
. . , ,
.
, . , , , , ,
, , .
(Saltzer ., 1984).

6.3.

, , , . ,
,
. ,
. , .
.
5 .

.
,
.
; TCP
.

6.3.1.

,
, . , .
:
, .
(
),
. .

564 6.


. ,
100/
20/.
. , . 5.3 (goodput,
, )
. ( )
.6.16.

.6.16. (); ()

(.6.16,), ,
. , .
, ,
- . , .
.6.16,. .
, ,
, . -
, .
,
. .

.
,
, .
. , (
Klein-

6.3.

565

rock) 1979 (power),


:
=/.
, ; . , ,
, .


,
. , : .
.
-, :
? ,
, , .

. ,
( ), , ,
;
, . , IETF
,
. IP- .

.
-, , . N
, : 1/N
( ). ,
? , ,
? , , ,
.
, ( ). ,
. ,
.
,
. , , ,

566 6.
, . ,
- ,
, . , , ,
.
,
. , - .
,
.
. .6.17
A, B, C D. , , , 1 ( ). ,
( R4 R5), . 1/3. , A, B
R2 R3. B 1/3
, A , 2/3. ,
.
- , ,
. , R2 R3 B , A . ,
A .
B,
C D ( ), ( )
B. ,
.

R1

1/3

R2

R3

1/3

1/3

1/3

R4

1/3

1/3

C
D

2/3

2/3

R5

1/3

R6

.6.17.

. , , , 0.
, . (
), .

6.3.

567

-, , .
,
. ,
(. 5.4): ,
. ,
,
, ;
, .
, ,
. ,
. , TCP
, .
, . ,
BitTorrent .

,
.
,
. , ,
, ,
, , -,
.
, .

. ,
. ,
.
.6.18 ,
. 1 . 2. . ,
1/2. .
20% , ,
(1/3). 1 2 ,
40%. 9 ,
. 1 80% .
100%, ;
(
, ).

568 6.

. 6.18.

6.3.2.
:
, ? . ,
, .
,
. .6.19 . .6.19, ,
. ,
. ,
, . .6.29,
, .
, , , , .
,
. , .
. , .
, .
, ,
, . : , .
, . , ,
XCP (eXplicit Congestion Protocol) (Katabi ., 2002). ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification, )
TCP. ,
, ,

6.3.

569

, ,
.

.6.19. ();
()

. FAST TCP (Wei ., 2006).


, ,
, TCP
.
.
TCP , CUBIC TCP,
Linux (Ha ., 2008). . ,
Windows Compound TCP ( TCP), , (Tan ., 2006).
.6.3.
,
. ,
XCP , .
. , .
(control law).
.

570 6.
6.3.

XCP

TCP ECN

FAST TCP

Compound TCP

CUBIC TCP

TCP

, Chiu Jain (1989) ,


AIMD (Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease )
. ,
,
. .6.20 , 1, X, , 2, Y.
.
, .
, , 100% (
), . .
,
.
,
.

.6.20.

1 2 . , ,
. ,

6.3.

571

1/ . ,
.
. (. .6.20).
, .
,
, . ,
10%.
,
(. .6.20). . (
, 45.)
. ,
.
. ,
, .
AIMD (.6.21). ,
,
, . AIMD .

.

.6.21. AIMD

TCP AIMD ,
(
, , ,
).
. , , .

572 6.
,
( ).
6.5 ,
AIMD TCP
. , .
- , ,
, , . . TCP.
W, RTT,
W/RTT. ,
. , :
, RTT .
, .
,
? :
.
TCP,
,

TCP
. ,
TCP.
TCP

, TCP -TCP , (Floyd ., 2000).

6.3.3.
, ( TCP),
.
,
. , ( ,
TCP) . -
.
AIMD

, .
Padhye
. (1998) ,
. ,
TCP- ; 1%,
10% . ,
802.11, 10% . , ,
,
, .
, , -

6.3.

573

, - . . ,
802.11 : ,
.
,
( ).
.6.22 ,
. . , , ,
, , , .
,
, , .
,
.

.6.22. ,

. , :
. ,
.
, ,
. (
, ), :
.
, .
, . , 802.11,
. , , .

, .

574 6.

. ,
. ,
.
, , , FEC (Forward Error
Correction );
.
, ,
. , , , /;
.
. , .
. .
,

. ,
802.11, TCP
.
, ,
, . , .

, , . .
(Li ., 2009).

6.4. : UDP
,
, . . UDP.
, , . TCP, ,
. .
, ,

, .

6.4. : UDP

575

UDP TCP. UDP , . UDP.


UDP ,
, UDP, ,
. , ,
. .

6.4.1. UDP

, UDP (User Datagram Protocol ). UDP IP
. UDP RFC 768.
UDP , 8- , . .6.23.
. UDP,
, .
BIND. 6.1 TCP ( UDP ).
, , .
TCP, .
, UDP IP
.
,
.
.

.6.23. UDP

, , , . , , ,
, .
UDP .
, 8. 65515 ,
, 16, -
IP-.

576 6.
.
, .
,
, .
16-
, . , ,
, 0. ,
0 ( ). ,
(,
).
IPv4 , .6.24.
32- IP- ,
UDP
(17)
UDP
- ( ). UDP
, , IP-
IP-, UDP-. TCP
.

. 6.24. , UDP

, , UDP . , UDP
, , . .
? UDP IP
. , .
, ,
, UDP , . , , - .
. ,
.
, ,
(, TCP).

6.4. : UDP

577

DNS (Domain Name System ) ,


UDP , .

7. , IP- , www.cs.berkeley.
edu, UDP- DNS.
UDP- IP- .
, .
.

6.4.2.
.
, . ,
- ,
.
. ,
get_IP_address(_), UDP-
DNS, ( ). , ,
, .
1984 (Birrell) (Nelson). , , . 1
, 2, 1 ,
2.
. .
RPC (Remote Procedure Call
) .
, .
.
RPC ,
.
,
(client stub), . , (server stub).
, .
, ,
.6.25. 1 .
, .
2 .
(marshaling). 3

578 6.
. 4 , .
.
, .
, , ,
( ) ,
, .
, . ,
, .
. , /
.
RPC,
. , , .
. , ,
.
, .

.6.25. .

. , k.
k .
k .
. , k , ( ). ,
,
, . ,
, ,

6.4. : UDP

579

. ,

.
,
(,
C
) , (), .
- ,
.
:
.
, .
printf, ( ),
(int, short, long),
, , . printf
- .
, , ,
(++), RPC
.
.
( ).
, , , ,
.
, .
, ,
.
UDP
RPC

.
UDP
-, . .
, .
, , .
UDP-,
.
( ),
.
,
( ).
, DNS- .
,
. , : ,

580 6.
. , ,
(, , DNS).
, , . RPC
: .
TCP- TCP,
UDP.

6.4.3.

- , UDP
.
. , , -, ,
,
, . ,
.
RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol ). RFC3550
. . RTP

, . ,
( ).
, .6.26.
RTP UDP ( ). .
-, -, . RTP, ,
, .
RTP, , ,
. ( ) UDP-,
RTP-. IP
(, Ethernet). - .
RTP-.
. .6.26,. .6.26,.
, RTP.

, , , , . ,
, , , .
. , : RTP ,
, .

6.4. : UDP

581

.6.26. RTR: RTP ;

RTP

RTP
UDP. UDP
, . RTP UDP,
- ,
IP

. , , ,
, ..

RTP
, . , RTP,
, .
.
- ,
. ,
. .
, ,
. RTP
.

582 6.
RTP ,
, .
RTP
(, ),
. ,
PCM (8- 8), , , GSM-, MP3-
.. RTP ,
, .
, ,
. , .
, . , , . ,

, , , , , .
, . ,
. ,
.
, , ,
,
/ .

RTP
.6.27. 32- . , 2. ,
, (, 3
, ).

.6.27. RTP

6.4. : UDP

583

P , 4
.
. , .
. , .
.
, .
0 15 (.). ,
.
, -,
.
(, 8- , MP3 ..).
,
. ,
RTP. .

. , , ,
. , .
, UDP-. ,
, , ,
. ,
.

RTCP

RTP RTCP (RealTime Transport Control Protocol
).
RFC
3550
RTP
. , , , - .
,
, ,
, .

( ),
, - . . ,
, -

584 6.
, ,
MP3 8- PCM -.
,
, .
, RTCP
. , , ,
RTCP, . , RTCP
, ,
, 5% , .
( ) (
RTCP).
RTCP . ,

. RTCP .
, RTCP (,
ASCII-). , .
RTP (Perkins, 2002).


, .
RTP-,
.
, .
(jitter). ,
:
, .

. , .6.28, ,
. 1
t= 0
t=1. 2 2.
.
t=10 .
1 6,
. , RTP
, .
, 8 ,
, . -

6.4. : UDP

585

.
. ,
,
. (,
), , , .
. , , .
,
.
10, ( , )
. , (,
) ,
.

.6.28.

(playback point), , ,
. .
.6.29.
, , 99% ,
.
, , RTP
. ( )
. ,
, . .
. ,
(talkspurts), .
.
, RTP
M.

586 6.

.6.29. : ;

, ,
, . ,
.
, . ,
: , , .
, .

6.5.
: TCP
UDP .
, - .
- , .
UDP , .
TCP, .
.

6.5.1. TCP
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol )

. ,
,
, , . TCP
.

6.5. : TCP

587

TCP RFC793 1981.


, .
RFC

, RFC793 ( ):
RFC

1122, RFC1323, RFC2018, RFC2581,


RFC2873, RFC2988,
RFC3168. ,
RFC ( ,
RFC-) RFC4614.
, TCP, TCP, ,
, ( ) . ,
TCP- IP-. TCP-
, , 64 (
1460 , Ethernet
IP TCP), IP-. IP-
TCP- , TCP-,
.
TCP TCP (
) TCP ( ). ,
. , TCP , , TCP.
IP
. TCP (
),
,
. , . TCP.
, TCP
,
IP.

6.5.2. TCP
TCP ( ),
, . 6.1.3.
(),
IP
- 16- , , . TCP
TSAP-. TCP
.
.6.2.

588 6.
. , .
(socket1, socket2).
.
1024 (, root UNIX). (well-known ports). ,
, ,
143 - , , IMAP-. www.iana.org. 700.
.6.4.
1024 49151 IANA
, ( , , ). , BittTorrent
()
68816887, .
, , FTP- 21 ,
SSH 22 .. , ,
, , ,
. ,
UNIX inetd (Internet daemon),
. , inetd
, , . , inetd,
, . Inetd ,
. , ,
(, 80) , inetd.
6.4.

20, 21

FTP

22

SSH

, Telnet

25

SMTP

80

HTTP

(World Wide Web)

110

POP-3

143

IMAP

443

HTTPS

(HTPP SSL/TLS)

543

RTSP

631

IPP

TCP- .
,

6.5. : TCP

589

. ,
. TCP
.
TCP- , . . ,
TCP- 512- ,
512- ,
1024- , 2048- (.6.30) - .
, ,
.

.6.30. 512- , IP-();


2048 , READ ()

UNIX . ,
, , : ,
. UNIX, TCP

- . .
, TCP , , .
, . , ,
. , ,
.
, TCP PUSH (). ,
TCP , .
. , (,
TCP_NONDELAY Windows Linux).
, ,
TCP, ,
. (urgent data).
, , , , ,
Ctrl-C, ,

TCP- URGENT (). TCP ,
.

590 6.
, ( UNIX ),
.
, , .
. .
,
.
,
. - ,
. ,
.

6.5.3. TCP
TCP . , .
TCP, , ,
TCP- 32- .

56/. ,
,
, .
, .
32-
,
.
TCP-
. TCP 20- (
), .
TCP.
, , , , .
. -, , TCP-,
65515- IP-. -,
(MTU, Maximum
Transfer Unit).
MTU, ,
.
1500 ( Ethernet),
.
, IP-, TCP-,
MTU, .
, (Kent Mogul, 1987).
TCP MTU .

6.5. : TCP

591

, RFC1191, 5.5.5.
MTU , ICMP. TCP ,
.
, TCP-,
.
. , TCP ( , , ,
) ,
, .
, .
, ,
. .
, , , 3072 4095 ,
, 2048 3071
. , , .
,
,
. ,
, .
TCP . TCP- .
,
TCP.

6.5.4. TCP-
.6.31 TCP-.
20- . ().
655352020=65495 , 20
IP
-, TCP-. .
.
TCP- . .
TCP- IP- 48-
. , , .
(5tuple),
: (TCP), IP- , , IP- .

. :
, .

592 6.
(cumulative acknowledgement),
.
. 32-, TCP-
.

.6.31. TCP

TCP- TCP-, 32- . , ,


. ,
, 32- . ,
.
4- . ,
30 ( 2 6- ), , TCP.
, TCP.
1- . CWR ECE
, (.RFC3168).
TCP- , , ECE TCP ECN-, .
TCP- , TCP CWR ,
ECN-.
TCP 6.5.10.
URG 1
,
. , TCP

6.5. : TCP

593

. ,
, TCP; .
ACK 1, ,
. . , .
PSH , , PUSH-,
,
, . (
.)
RST , . ,
.
RST, .
SYN . SYN=1,
ACK=0, , .
, :
SYN=1, ACK=1. , SYN
CONNECTION REQUEST, CONNECTION ACCEPTED, ACK .
FIN . , . , ,
.
FIN SYN ,
.
TCP
. , , .
, , 1 , ,
.

.
3 ,
.
.
. , :
k-, .
( )
. .
. UDP,
, .
UDP TCP (6), . . 6.4.1.
,
.

594 6.
. , 32 (
), 40 TCP. ,
. ,
.
--.

(MSS, Maximum Segment Size), .
, ,
20- ,
.
. 536. TCP-
536+20=556.
.
/ 64, 16- , .
, OC-12 ( 600/) 1.
50 ( ),
98% .
.
. 14 ,
230 (1).
TCP .
, , .
, .
, , ,
. 32-
.
,
. (PAWS,
Protection Against Wrapped Sequence numbers) , . ,
(SACK, Selective ACKnowledgement)
.
,
(, ).
,
. , , ,
, . -

6.5. : TCP

595

RFC2108 RFC2883.
.
6.5.10.

6.5.5. TCP-
TCP .
, (, )
, LISTEN ACCEPT,
, .
(, ) CONNECT, IP , ,
TCP- , , (, ).
CONNECT TCP- SYN
ACK .
, TCP- ,
- LISTEN,
, . ,
RST .

.6.32. TCP- ();


()

- , TCP-
.
. , .
TCP-, ,
.6.32,. , SYN
1 , .

596 6.
,

.6.32,. , ,
.
(x,y), (x, y).
, ,
, , (,
). 6.2.2,
.
, 4.
,
,
SYN-. ,
, SYN- . SYN- (SYN flood).
1990- - - .
, , SYN
cookies. , , .
, ( 1)
. ,
, ,
( IP- , - ).

. , () TCP. SYN cookies
SYN-. .
. RFC4987 (Lemon, 2002).

6.5.6. TCP
TCP- , ,
, . .
, TCP

- FIN, , .
TCP- , .
. , .
TCP-:
FIN ACK . ACK
FIN
TCP
-, .

6.5. : TCP

597

, , TCP- FIN-
. , . ,
.
(.6.2.3), .
FIN-
, FIN- .
, , , ,
. , , ,
, .
.

6.5.7. TCP-
, ,
, 11 .6.5.
.
- .
.
6.5. , TCP-

CLOSED

LISTEN

SYN RCVD

SYN SENT

ESTABLISHED

FIN WAIT1

FIN WAIT2

TIME WAIT

CLOSING

CLOSE WAIT

LAST ACK

CLOSED ().
, ( CONNECT),
(LISTEN) .
,
ESTABLISHED. .
CLOSED.

598 6.
.6.33. , ,
. . .6.33 /.
(CONNECT, LISTEN, SEND CLOSE), (SYN, FIN, ACK
RST), , , ,
. (SYN, FIN
RST). , ,
. .

ESTABLISHED

.6.33. TCP-.
. .

6.5. : TCP

599

, ( ), ( ).
CONNECT, TCP-
, SYN SENT SYN-.
,
, , , . SYN+ACK, TCP-
ACK- ESTABLISHED. .
, CLOSE, TCP- FIN-
ACK- ( ). , FIN WAIT 2,
. FIN-,
,
. , TCP-
,
, ,
, .
, TCP- .
. LISTEN .
SYN-, ,
SYN RCVD ( ).
SYN- ACK-,
, ESTABLISHED.
.
CLOSE,
FIN- ( ,
). CLOSE, FIN-
. ,
.

6.5.8. TCP
,
TCP
. ,
, 4096- , .6.34.
2048- , , .
2048 (
- ), , (2048) .
1 1, 2 2,
4 4, 3 2 ( ).

600 6.

.6.34. TCP

2048, , 0.
,
.
, . -, , ,
, .
-, 1- , . (window probe). TCP

.

.
. , .6.34 TCP-, 2 , 4, ,
,

6.5. : TCP

601

2 , 4 .
.
( , telnet SSH) ,
. ,
TCP-, 21- TCP-
IP-, , , 41- IP-. TCP- 40- (20 TCP- 20 IP-). ,
, TCP-
, 1 . 40. , ,
, 41- . 162.
.
TCP (delayed acknowledgements). ,
500
, . 500, 41- , ,
.
, ,
( , 41- 1 ),
. , ,
(Nagles algorithm) (Nagle, 1984).
: , , ,
. TCP-
.
, .

, , ,
, . , ,
.

TCP, , . ,

. ,
, .
,
:
, ,

602 6.
, . - , , -.
( TCP_NODELAY).
. Mogul Minshall (2001).
,
TCP, (silly window syndrome) (Clark,
1982). , TCP-
,
. , .6.35. : TCP- ( 0),
.
TCP-. TCP- ,
1. 1. , ,
1- .
.

.6.35.

(
David

Clark
) .
, .
,
, ,
, .
, ,
.

6.5. : TCP

603

, ,
, ,
.

. , TCP- .
, TCP.
. , .
TCP- , .
TCP-,
READ, , ,
. ,
TCP- ( ). ,
, ,
, , , ,
.
,
. ,
.
, , ,
. , , .
, . .
0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 7,
2.
, 3 . 3 4 7,
, 7.

6.5.9. TCP
TCP ( ,
). (RTO,
Retransmission TimeOut). ,
. ,
, . , , , , (
). :
?
,
, 802.11. , (

604 6.
),
(.6.36,).
( , ),

.

.6.36. :
; TCP

TCP

.
(.6.36,),
. ,
, .
(, T1 .6.36,), , .
(T2), -
. ,

.
, , . , TCP, (Jacobson)
1988 . TCP
SRTT (Smoothed Round-Trip Time ),
. ,
, ,
, .
, , TCP-

6.5. : TCP

605

, (R). SRTT
:
SRTT=SRTT+(1)R,
, ,
. 7/8.
(EWMA, Exponentially Weighed Moving Average) , .
SRTT . TCP
2xRTT, , ,
. , ( ) ,
,
. ,
, .
,
, .
,

. RTTVAR (RoundTrip Time Variation, ), :
RTTVAR=RTTVAR + (1 )|SRTT R|.
, . ,
=3/4. , RTO, :
RTO=SRTT + 4 RTTVAR.
4 , 4
,
. , RTTVAR ,
, .
, .
,
TCP: , . RFID-
, ? , .
, ,
, RFC 2988. 1 , . ,
, (Allman Paxson, 1999).

606 6.
, R, ,
.
, , .
. (Phil
Karn). TCP/IP-
, . .
: .
, ,
.
(Karns algorithm) (Karn Partridge, 1987). TCP.
TCP .

(persistence timer).
. ,
, .
, .
. , ,
. .
, , .
, .
,
(keepalive timer).
, ,
, . , .
, -
.
, TCP-, , TIME WAIT .
, ,
.

6.5.10. TCP
TCP: .
- , ,
. .
, ,
, . ,
.

6.5. : TCP

607

TCP ,
.
, , 6.3. : , AIMD (Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease,
)
, . TCP
, .

. . ,
, .
AIMD.
, , , . : ,
, . ,
, , , . . TCP ,
. :
64 , , 32 , , 32 . ,
, 128 , ,
( 64 ). , .
TCP (Van Jacobson, 1988).
. 1986
, - (congestion
collapse), , ( 100 ) - . (
) .
,
AIMD . , TCP
, .
.
, ,
, ( ). , ,
. .
, , ,
.
. ,
,

608 6.
. (, 802.11) ,
. -
, , . ,
, , , .
TCP ,
- . - ,
. , . ,
TCP
.
.
, TCP- ,
.
.
. , ,
( ) , AIMD. , ,
. ,
( )
. .
64, Ethernet 1 /.
,
ADSL- (1 /). ,
, ,
, VoIP. ,
, .
.
.6.37 , , -,
(1 /), (4) , (1 /),
. 4 ,
. ,
,
. , , , . , , , ,
, .
, , .
.
, , .
.

6.5. : TCP

...

...

...

...

...

609

...

. 6.37. , ,

: ,
. .
, ,
, . (ack
clock) TCP. TCP
.
,
AIMD ,
. ,
10 / 100 .
, , 1 100 1250 .
, , 100 , 10 .
. , 50. . 50 .
, , .
. (
,
.) RFC 3390.
.
, . , ,
( ). ,
, .
. , ,
.
(slow start),
, -

610 6.
,
. . 6.38.
(RTT) ( ).
, .

. 6.38.


. , . ,
(. 6.38). ,
. ( ,
,
. .) , . , ,
Ethernet 100 /.
1250- 100 .
, 100. ,
ADSL 1 /. 10 . , ,
, 100 . , .
. 6.38 , .
, , . ,
( , ).
, ( ,
). , .
,
- ( , )

6.5. : TCP

611

. .
, . ,
-, . . 6.38 ,
.
. , ,
. , . ,
,
. , ,
. , .
, , , .
.
,
.
(slow start threshold).
, , . , TCP , -
( ).
(, -) , . , ,
, .
, , :
,
. . 6.38
, .
,
.
TCP
.
, .
, , . cwnd ,
MSS . (MSS MSS)/cwnd cwnd/MSS ,
. .
, TCP- ,
, ,
, , .
. 6.39. , . ,

612 6.
.
.
, , , ,
100 .

. 6.39.

- , .
, -.
, .
, ,
.
, .
, . .
, . , ,
, , . (duplicate acknowledgements). ,
, , ,
.
, .
. . , . TCP ,
. ,
. . , , .

6.5. : TCP

613

(fast retransmisson).
, , -.
, .
, ,
, .
,
. 6.40. TCP Tahoe 4.2BSD
Tahoe, 1988 , .
1 .
64 , -,
32 , 1 ( 0).
, (32 ). , , ,
.
.

. 6.40. TCP Tahoe

13 ( ),
.
. , (40
, 20 ), .
,
, ,
.
, 20 .
.
,
- ( ).

614 6.
TCP Tahoe ( , ,
) , - . , .

, . ,
, ,
.
.
, , (fast recovery). ,
,
(
). ( ,
) ,
.
. .
. ,
.
.
,
. , , .
,
( ) (
), . AIMD,
.
. 6.41.
TCP Reno, 1990 4.3BSD Reno. ,
TCP Reno TCP Tahoe . ,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, 1. .

.
, TCP Reno,
TCP.
,

6.5. : TCP

615

, . .
, TCP RenoNew , ,
(Hoe, 1996) (. RFC 3782). 1990- ,
. , Linux CUBIC TCP (Ha ., 2008),
Windows Compound TCP (Tan ., 2006).

. 6.41. TCP Reno

TCP. -, , , , .
. (SACK, Selective ACKnowledgement),
. ,
, .

SACK permitted, ,
. , , . 6.42.
. 3 ( 2 ), SACK option
() 1. SACK option
, . , . , , .
. 6

616 6.
:
3 4, 6 ( ,
1). SACK option, ,
. 2 5.

. 6.42.

.
,
, . ,
, ,
.
. RFC 2883, TCP RFC 3517.
(ECN, Explicit Congestion Notification)
. IP-,
(. 5.3.4). TCP IP.
TCP-, ,
, ECE CWR.
TCP- ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
- ,
TCP- ECE (ECN-) .
CWR ( ).
, . : , .
RFC 3168.
, , .
TCP
RFC 5681.

6.5. : TCP

617

6.5.11. TCP
TCP ; ,
.
, -
, ; . , TCP
. .
-, TCP ,
. , ,
.
, , -, .
. TCP .
,
TCP.
. SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol,
), RFC 4960, SST (Structured Stream
Transport, ) (Ford, 2007). ,
, , - ,
: , .
.
. . ,
, .
Padhye
(1998) ,
. 1 /
100 1500 ,
10 . 2108,
. ,
; ,
(, 10 7),
, .
,
, .
,
. 6.2.
, , ,
, FAST TCP (Wei ., 2006). ;
.

618 6.

6.6.
.
,
. ,
. , ,
.
, ,
. , - ,
. , , , ,
.
, TCP,
TCP.

.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. (long fat
networks).
,
, .

6.6.1.


. ,
, , .
.
, . ,
,
, .
,
,
.

6.6.

619

. , (, ),
. ,
,
10000. . (broadcast storm)
. UDP
, ICMP ,
UDP.
, .
. ,
.
- DHCP- ( ), , ,
. ,
.
- .
, , .
.
TCP-, ,
(64).

. , ,
. .
,
.
.
, ,
(, ), . . .
,
.

6.6.2.
, , .
, ,

620 6.
. ,
.
. (Mogul, 1993).
(
, ).
- . ,
, .
, (,
). , ,
, .

. .
.

,
- , , . ,
, . ,
, 802.16 NIC

,
, .
, .
.

,
,
,
. ,
, , .
, , ,
10, 11, 13 14 , (
).
- . , ,
, ,
, - .
. ,
(Mahajan .,
2006).

6.6.

621


, . , -
DNS ( IP-)
, , , ,
.
( ).
. TCP/IP- , ,
UDP ,
. ?
UDP ,
.
1000 UDP ,
.
.
, , .

,

, , -
, , . ,
. .
, 3 , ,

. ,
,
, ,
-.
,
, .
,
, - , 802.11 .
, .

,
,
. ,
1. -

622 6.
, 1, , . , ,
, , .
,
.
, , ,
(, )
. ,
, 300, 0,
1, . ,
,
1.


, - (, ),
0 () 0,4 (40% ). VoIP- 802.11 ,
.6.43.
().
1/(1), , , , .
, , .

.6.43.

6.6.

623

6.6.3.

, . .
.
,
. , ,
, ,
. . , (NIC) ,
. , . -, ,
. ,
, .
- .
,
, .
. (Mogul, 1993). .
(Metcalfe, 1993).


,

. ,
(RPC, Remote Procedure Call) Ethernet 1/ 1,
(512), (512-) .
- ,
. .
, , ,
, .

.
, .

,

(,
) (, ).

624 6.
. (,
). 1
.
128-
32 , 4. .
.
,
.
, , ,
. , n
n .
, , , .
MTU
- , .

.



. , (, , ). ,
,
. ,
, , .
, .
,
, . , 20%
( ),
,
2,8 (0,8 1 + 0,2 10). . , .
, . , TCP IP
(TCP/IP), ,
, .
, .
,
( ), .

6.6.

625


(, )
, .
.
,
, . ,

, .
,
,

. ,
. ,
, , ,
, , .
. 6.44.
.

. 6.44. ,

,

, , ,
. , , , . .
.
. , , .

626 6.

-
, -. ,
- . , ,
.
, . , ,
() . , , , .

6.6.4.
, , , .
. (Clark ., 1989; Chase ., 2001).
:
.
.
( )
. ,
(, ). ,
,
. .
ESTABLISHED , , ,
, . ,
ESTABLISHED, . ,
,
, , , . .6.45
, SEND,
. , , , ,
ESTABLISHED, , ( URGENT) .
, ,
.
.
.
, . , ,

6.6.

627

. .
,
.
.
( . 6.45 ). ,
.

. 6.45. .

, , TCP/
IP. . 6.46, TCP-. , , . ,
, - , (
), ,
.
IP-, , . IP- -
(. 6.46, ) ,
. .

.6.45. . TCP -,
- IP- .
,
, .
,
.
, 1989 , ,
90%.

628 6.

. 6.46. TCP- (); IP- ().


: ESTABLISHED,
, ,
, . ,
, . ,
TCP-.
. ,
. ,
. , , ,
, , , (header prediction).
TCP. , , TCP 90% , , .
, , . ,
.
, .
, ,
.
,
.
, ( ticks), .
, ,
. ,
3, 10 12 , 3, 7 2
.

. ,

6.6.

629

, .
, , .
,
. , (. 6.47) (timing wheel).
. , , T = 4.
3, 10 12 .
7 , , , 11
. , , T + 10,
, 14.
, . 6.47 T + 15.

. 6.47.

. , , ,
, .
(Varghese Lauck, 1989).

6.6.5.
. .
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
.

630 6.
, JPEG, ,
, PDF.
( -),
.
?
,
. , 802.16
.
( IP, TCP UDP) , . ,
,
(, IPv6
, IPv4).
.
, , VoIP- IP, UDP RTP.
40 (20 IPv4, 8 UDP, 12
RTP). IPv6 : 60 , 40-
IPv6. , .
,
, (header compression). , . ,
( ),
, . - .
, . (1990)
TCP/IP- . 40- TCP/IP-
3 . . 6.46, , .
, . ,

TCP- .
.
. ,
, TCP
. , .
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
.

6.6.

631

(ROHC, Robust Header Compression)


, RFC 5795 .
, . , IP/UDP/RTP
. ,
; , .
ROHC IP/UDP/RTP 40
13 .
, .
,
, ,
. , 1 /
1 1 . ,
,
,
.
, ,
. ,
. , ,
. ,
.
, .
, .
.

6.6.6.

, ,
90- . (long fat networks).
, .
,
.
, 32- . ,
56 /, ,
,
, .
TCP232 ,
. Ethernet

632 6.
10 / 57 . ,
, , .
Ethernet 1 /,
34 . ,
120 . , 232
, ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
- , .
. ,
, ,
TCP-
.
(PAWS, Protection Against Wrapped Sequence numbers).
RFC 1323.
. , , 64 64 .
1 /, ,
, 20 . (t = 0),
. 6.48, , . 500
(. 6.48, ). - ,
. ,
.
20 , . 6.48, , , . , 40
,
. 0,5 40 , 1,25%.
.
(bandwidth-delay product). ( )
( ). .
. 6.48
40 . ,
40 , .
, . ,
1,25% ,
1,25% .

6.6.

633

. 6.48. - : t = 0;
500 ; 20 ; 40

, , ,
, ,
. , , 5 .
, , , , N ,
.
, 1 /. 40 .
5 . , 40 ,
. N ,
5 , . ,
. , .
,
, . . 6.49
, 1
4000 , . 1 /

634 6.
. 1 /
40 1 (,
).
.

. 6.49. 1 4000

. 6.49
. , ,
(RPC, Remote Procedure Call),
. .
(
). , ,
,
, .
,
, . (
: ! .)
70- ARPANET 56 /
1 MIPS (1 ).
, 1000 MIPS .
, .
, :
,
.
.
,
, :

6.6.

635

, ,
.

, ,
.
: . ,
. IPv6,
, .
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
, .
,
. ,
. ,
, . ,
,
.
.
.
, () . , ,
.
,
,
- . .
,
, , . 1500
, Ethernet
9 , IPv6 64 .
. :
.
.
,
, , . ,
, .

636 6.
,
. ,
. -

. ,
. ,
(). ,
(
) .
.
.

6.7. ,
, , , . TCP
,
; ,
. . , LEO (Low-Earth Orbit,
)
.
,
,
.
, , ,
, -
.
:
, . . ,
, , (DTN, DelayTolerant Network), (Disruption-Tolerant Network,
DTN).
DTN 2002 , IETF . , , : .

. , , , ,
(Fall, 2003). , .

6.7. ,

637


, 1.
2002 DTN , DTN
. , , ,
, -, , .
, , , ,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
, , ,
( , ).
DTN .
(
6). ,
, . (Laoutaris ., 2009) ,
,
.
DTN, IETF.

6.7.1. DTN
DTN , . :
. , - . , , ,
(. 6.50). ,
. RFC 4838.
DTN . DTN , (, -
. .). , ;
. . .6.50
1

, ,
(, , DTN), .

FidoNet ( 1980- )
FTN (Fidonet technology network). , .
( ) (,
, , ) . . .

638 6.
, ,
. . . 6.50
, DTN, .
.

. 6.50. DTN

, .
.
, . DTN , ,
, ,
, . .
: ( ) ,
; .
,
(storecarryforward).
, . 6.51.
DTN (Wood ., 2008).
LEO , . .
.
, . , ,
DTN. (
) .
. .
DTN ,
,
, .
DTN . -,
, . :
. -,
,
. ,

6.7. ,

639


. . ,
.

. 6.51. DTN

DTN :
DTN. ,
, (). . ,
.
DTN , ,
5 14
8,134 /. .
. , (
), ; ,
, . ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
.

6.7.2. Bundle
, DTN, IETF. DTN
. DTN

640 6.
.
IETF. .
DTN . 6.52.
Bundle; RFC 5050.

DTN. . 6.52,
TCP/IP. , TCP/IP
. , ,
Bundle . RTP,
, , ,
Bundle ,
DTN .

. 6.52. DTN

. 6.52 , Bundle
, UDP . , .
20 ( ). ,
, ! .
, .
, , TCP
.
Bundle , ,
. (convergence layer), . 6.52.
, .
. ,
, .
Bundle . 6.53.
, .

6.7. ,

641

. 6.53. Bundle

, , ( ) (,
). ( 6), . ,
(
)
(, ).
. - . , . , ,
. ,
,
. DTN - , ,
, . DTN
- (custody transfer), ,
,
. ,
, .
, IP-. Bundle , .
, URL -,
(IP). DTN
, .
, ,
, .
.
,
.
, ,

642 6.
. ,
, .
, ,
; ,
, . ,
DTN , , .
.
. .
, , ,
, .
, . ,
, .
, , . ,
.
. DTN
, .
.
, ,
.
DTN, !

6.8.
.
, ,
, . ,
, .
.

. , .

.
- .
, . ,
, ,
.

.

643

AIMD .
TCP UDP. UDP
, IP-
IP-. UDP - , (RPC).
, , RTP.
TCP. .
20- . TCP .
(Nagle), (Clark), (Jacobson), (Karn) .
,
. ,

. .
, ,
. , , ,
.

1. , .6.1, LISTEN . ? , ,
. ,
?
2. ,
: ()
LISTEN, () CONNECT. (, , BitTorrent)
. .
, ?
3. , .6.3, ,
. , 100%
. - , .6.3,
, ?
4. 6.1 SERVER_PORT . ?
5. , 6.1. connect() ,
? , .

644 6.
6. , ,
,
: .
?
7. ,
15- . 100, 60. :
1) ?
2) 240 ?
8. T ,
, , ?
9. , ( ).
? , .
10. n ,
. , ?
11. (.6.15).
( )
, , ?
12. , , .6.17, E, R1, R2 R6.
?
13. ( , )
.
14. , :
(AIAD),
(MIAD),
(MIMD). ?
15.
UDP
? IP-?
16. , UDP,
, . , ,
.
.
, ?
.
17. 128- , 100, 1/.
?
18. , .
1/
1/. , ?

645

19. UDP, TCP


. , ( )
,
?
20. RPC
UDP TCP. ,
?
21. , N1 N2,
A D. N1
10, N2 99% , . ,
RTP, /
.
22. MTU TCP,
TCP IP, ?
23. IP
TCP. , TCP ,
?
24. RTP , -.
16- , 44100 .
RTP?
25. RTP UDP?
.
26. 1 p, 2 q. ?
27. .6.31 , 32-
ACK. - ? .
28. TCP- 65495.
?
29. , SYNRCVD .6.33.
30.
, 10, .
24, 2.
?
31. , TCP 18,
-. , ?
1.
32. TCP RTT
30, 26, 32 24.
RTT? =0,9.
33. TCP- 65535 , 10.
? ?
34. , TCP-,
1500 ,

646 6.
120? , . TCP, IP Ethernet. , Ethernet
.
35. IPv4, IETF IPv6, .
TCP . , .
36. , 128, 30
8- ?
37. , , . , .
.
0 270000 1 730000 .
?
38. 1000 (1000MIPS).
64- .
10. , ? , , , , 1000MIPS.
39. ,
, 64- .
75/. ,

75/ 64- ? , , TCP.
40. , 80000, 6250 . , 1500. ARPANET (128).
, .
41. 4000
, .
20.
1?
42. :
1) T1 (1,5/);
2) Ethernet (10/);
3) 3 (45/);
4) STS-3 (155/).
, RTT=100. , TCP
16- . ?
43. 50/?
1500 ( ), ?

647

44. , 6.1, .
. :
1) , .
2) w , .
45. . ,
/ .
,
. ,
, / ,
,
. ,
. , ,
, .
46. (),
.
, UDP, -
-.
. TCP. ,
.
, .


, ,
. , , ,
.
.
, ,
. , ,
. , DNS,
. :
, , , .
, (
peer-to-peer p2p) .

7.1. DNS
-,
(,
IP
), , .
, - 128.111.24.41 ,
IP
.
.
- www.cs.washington.edu. ,
,
. , .
- ARPANET hosts.txt,
IP-.
, . ,
, ,
.

7.1. DNS

649

, ,
, . -,
. , ,
, .
.
1983 (DNS, Domain
Name System). .
DNS , , , .
IP-,
. DNS RFC1034, 1035,
2181 .
DNS . IP- ,
(resolver), .
gethostbyname 6.1.
, , DNS-,
IP- , , ,
. UDP-. IP-, TCP-
UDP-.

7.1.1. DNS

. (
) , , , , ,
. , - -,
-, - , .
DNS .
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers - ). ICANN
1998 , .
250 (toplevel domains). ,
.
(subdomains), , , ..
, .7.1.
, ( ,
). .

650 7.

.7.1.

:
. , 7.1, , 1980- , , ICANN.
.
7.1.

com

1985

edu

1985

gov

1985

int

1985

mil

1985

net

1985

org

1985

aero

2001

biz

2001

coop

2001

info

2002

museum

2002

name

2002

pro

2002

cat

2005

jobs

2005

mobi

2005

tel

2005

travel

2005

xxx

2010

7.1. DNS

651

ISO3166 . ,
, , 2010.
, , , .
, _.com, . (registrars), ICANN.
, ( com) ,
- . ,
.

, .
ICANN. , ,
. -
? (
,
, .) ,
( .7.1).
? pro. . , ? ,
, .
, , , , , , , ?

pro? ?
, . tv $50 ,
.
com, . - , ,
, , ..
(cybersquatting). ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
.
, ,
() . . , Cisco
eng.cisco.com, , UNIX (/com/cisco/eng). C
, - eng.cisco.com -

652 7.
eng eng.washington.edu,
.
. (, eng.cisco.com.),
.
, .
.
. , ,
edu, Edu EDU .
63, 255 .
, , , . , cs.wasington.edu
us cs.wasington.wa.us. , ,
,
.
- , . (, sony.com, sony.net sony.nl).
, .
, ac.jp co.jp edu
com. ,
nl.
( computer science)
.
1. cs.wasington.edu ( , )
2. cs.vu.nl ( , )
3. cs.keio.ac.jp ( , )
,
. , VLSI,
vlsi.cs.wasington.edu,
, cs.wasington.edu. , , , ,
edu unsd.edu ( ).
, ,
. ,
, cs.unsd.edu,
.
,
. ,
, .
, , ,
,
.

7.1. DNS

653

7.1.2.
, , ,
(resource records). DNS.
IP-,
.
DNS
-, , , , . , DNS
.
. , ASCII-, .
:
Domain_name

Time_to_live

Class

Type

Value

Domain_name ( ) ,
. ,
. , .
.
.
Time_to_live ( ) , . , ,
86400 ( ).
, , 60 (1). ,
.
Class (). IN.
, .
Type () DNS-. .
.7.2.
SOA (Start Of Authority )
( ),
, ,
-.
A (Address ). 32-
IPv4- . AAAA (quad A
A) 128- IPv6-.
IP-, .
. A AAAA. , DNS .
MX . , . , . - , bill@

654 7.
microsoft.com,
microsoft.com. MX .
7.2. DNS

SOA

IPv4-

, 32

AAAA

IPv6-

, 128

MX

NS

CNAME

PTR

IP-

SPF

SRV

TXT

ASCII-

NS. NS . ,
. ,
.
CNAME . , ,
, paul
(M.I.T.). ,
paul@cs.mit.edu. ,

csail.mit.edu. , ,
, M.I.T. CNAME, . :
cs.mit.edu

86400

IN

CNAME

csail.mit.edu

CNAME, PTR .
CNAME, , , (
), PTR DNS,
. PTR
IP-, IP- . (reverse lookups).
SRV , . , - cs.wasington.edu
cockatoo.cs.wasington.edu. MX,
.

7.1. DNS

655

SPF .
, .
, .
, dodgy, ,
smtp,
, .
, TXT- ,
. , ,
SPF-.
, Value ()
, ASCII-.
. Value
.7.2.
, DN
S
, 7.1. () cs.vu.nl, .7.1.
.
7.1. cs.vu.nl
;
cs.vu.nl.
cs.vu.nl.
cs.vu.nl.
cs.vu.nl.

86400 IN
86400 IN
86400 IN
86400 IN

SOA
MX
MX
NS

cs.vu.nl
star boss (9527,7200,7200,241920,86400)
1 zephyr
2 top
star

star
zephyr
top
www
ftp

86400
86400
86400
86400
86400

IN
IN
IN
IN
IN

A 130.37.56.205
A 130.37.20.10
A 130.37.20.11
CNAME star.cs.vu.nl
CNAME zephyr.cs.vu.nl

flits
flits
flits
flits
flits

86400
86400
86400
86400
86400

IN
IN
IN
IN
IN

A 130.37.16.112
A 192.31.231.165
MX 1 flits
MX 2 zephyr
MX 3 top

rowboat

IN
IN
IN

A 130.37.56.201
MX 1 rowboat
MX 2 zephyr

little-sister

IN

130.37.62.23

laserjet

IN

192.31.231.216

7.1
, .

656 7.
,
, person@cs.vu.nl.
zephyr ( ) .
top.
star.
, , , IP- star, zephyr top. www.cs.vu.nl, - .
cs.vu.nl WWW-, ,
.
ftp.cs.vu.nl FTP-.
, flits, IP- , flits.cs.vu.nl.
, , flits.
, , zephyr top.
, rowboat.cs.vu.nl. IP-,
.
, . , ,
, .

7.1.3.
DNS
. ,
. , - - , .
, ,
DNS (zones). , .7.1,
.7.2. .
.
, . , .7.2 washington.edu, eng.washington.edu, cs.washington.edu,
. ,
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
.

7.1. DNS

657

.7.2. DNS,

(name resolution).
.
, , , top.cs.vu.nl cs.vu.nl,
DNS- ,
(authoritative record) . ,
,
. ,
(cached records), .
, , , , ,
flits.cs.vu.nl IP- robot.cs.washington.edu
? , ,
, . , .7.3. ( 1)
. ,
(A) (IN).

.7.3.

658 7.
(root
name servers), .
. 2
.7.3. ,
.
, DNS,
DNS. NS .
13 DNS,
a-root-servers.net m.root-servers.net.
. ,
, , ,
. ,
,
(
).
.
, . ,
, edu,
cs.washington.edu. IP- .
. edu (a.edu-servers.net),
. 4 5.
. (6).
, , .
. IP-
(7).
, (8). cs.washington.edu, .
(9), flits.cs.vu.nl (10).
.
, dig,
UNIX-. ,
dig @a.edu-servers.net robot.cs.washington.edu

robot.cs.washington.edu a.edu-servers.net
. , , IP-
.
, .
-, .7.3 . flits.
cs.vu.nl ,

7.1. DNS

659

flits, , .
. , .
(recursive query).
, ( )
.
.
, . (iterative query).
,
. , ( ) .
.
, .
, .
,
, .
, , . ,
, . ,
cs.vu.nl robot.cs.washington.edu, .
, , galah.
cs.washington.edu, , . washington.edu
washington.edu. ,
, . , , ,
, .
, , , cs.washington.edu ,
.
. Time_to_live.
, .
- , , .
, ,
1.
, ,
, , UDP. DNS1

, , , ,
, - DNS . . .
, ,
,
(
, IP- ). . .

660 7.
UDP-, , ,
. .
() , DNS- .
, ,
.
16- ; , , , ,
.
DNS , ,
, . DNS
IP- .
, , , .
, , ,
,
. DNS , , DNSSEC. .
,
, IP- ,
. , , . , ,
, IP- ,
. ,
(CDN). DNS, ,
7.5.

7.2.
, e-mail,
.
. 1990
. ,
. , ,
, (snail mail),
.
, IP-,
- .

, . ,

7.2.

661

, 9 10
(spam) (McAfee, 2010).
, ,
. ,
. , ,
-
(VIP),
. e-mail ,
, , . ,
- ,
, - .
, BTW (By The Way ), ROTFL (Rolling On The Floor
Laughing ), IMHO (In My Humble Opinion
) .. , (smileys), :-). ,
90 .
. ,
.
.


( ).
, . ,
.
,

, ,
. ,
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
, .

7.2.1.
. .7.4.
( e-mail) : (user agents),
, -

662 7.
(message transfer agents),
. (mail servers).

.7.4. e-mail

, , ,
.
,
,
.
(mail submission).

. , ,
, . ,
( , ). ,
. ,
.
, , .
.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
). , .
SMTP RFC821.
RFC5321. .
,
( ,
, , - ).
(mailing lists),
,
. -

7.2.

663

:
(Carbon copy), (Blind carbon
copy), , ( ) ,
,
, .
. (mailboxes)
, .
. . ,

, , ..
(3 .7.4).
,
.

.7.5. : ;

.
, RFC822, .
RFC5322; -

664 7.
. MIME, .
RFC822.
(envelope) .
. , ,
, , ..
. , , .
: (header)
(body). . -.
.7.5.
, ,
, .
.

7.2.2.
( email editor email reader),
, . ,
gmail Google, Microsoft Outlook, Mozilla Thunderbird Apple Mail.
.
,
, .
, Elm, mh Pine, ,
, . , , .
.7.6.
, , , ,
, , .
, .
, - , . ,

.7.6 .
, , ,
, . ; , . , ,
, , .
. (..7.6) , , (),

7.2.

665

(), , ,
( ).

.7.6. .

. , , ,
.
.
, . (. .7.6), ,
.
, .

, , , (, ).
, , .
(message disposition). , ,
.

.
, - .

, . ,
, , .
- ,

666 7.
,
. -
, .
, , , .
,
.
?
, (botnet, ),
, .
, .
. , , .
,
. . ,
, , ,
,
, .
.7.6 . Inbox (),
, , Spam
(), .

.
.7.6. . , , where
to buy Vegemite, .
,
.
,
. ,
. , , .
.
, ,
, , , .
(autoresponders) ,
, . -

. .

7.2.

667

(vacation agent).
, , : , . 24- .
. ,
, ,
.. ,
, .
. ,
.

. ,
, .
,
. , .
. ,

.
(signature block) ,
, , .
, ,
,
. ,
. ,
.
user@dns-address.
DNS ,
. , . , X.400
DNS-.
X.400 ISO ,
SMTP. SMTP , X.400
( , ). X

.400 DNS- =,
, :
/C=US/ST=MASSACHUSETTS/L=CAMBRIDGE/PA=360 MEMORIAL DR./CN=KEN SMITH/

, , ,
(Ken Smith). , ,
, (,
). X.400
, DNS, ,
(aliases,

668 7.
nicknames),
.
, , .
, ,
,
. ,
. .

.
. , .
, , birders
(), meadowlark.arizona.edu.
, birders@meadowlark.arizona.edu,
,
, .
. , birders ,
,
Gabriel O.Birders.

7.2.3.

. ,
, , .
ASCII
-
RFC
5322, -, RFC822.

.

RFC5322 -
( SMTP
RFC5321), , , , .
() ASCII-, , ( ) .
RFC822
. RFC

5322, , RFC822
.
,
,
.

7.2.

669

, ,
.7.3. To: DNS- .
. Cc: . ,
. , ,
, . Cc: (carbon
copy , ) ,
- ,
. Bcc: (Blind carbon copy ) , ,
, ,
.
, ,
- .
7.3. RFC5322,

To:

() ()

Cc:

() ()

Bcc:

()

From:

()

Sender:

Received:

Return-Path:

, From: Sender:, , . . ,
, .
From:, Sender:. From:
, Sender: ,
From:. ,
. ,
, , .
, Received:, . ,
, ,
.
Return-Path: . , , . ,
Received: (
),
.

670 7.
, .7.3, RFC5322
,
.
.7.4. , , .
7.4. ,
RFC5322

Date:

Reply-to:

Message-Id:

In-Reply-To:

Message-Id ,

References:

( Message-Id)

Keywords:

Subject:

Reply-to: , ,
. ,
, . , Reply-to: ,
.
, ,
, .
Message-Id: , , (, )
.
RFC5322 , . RFC822,
X-. , ,
. -
X-Fruit-of-the-Day: ( ) X-Disease-of-the-Week: (), , .
.
, .
, ,
(, . ,
).

7.2.

671

MIME

ARPANET
, ASCII. RFC822
: ,
. 1990-
, ,
. (, ),
, , (,
), (, ).
, (,
, ).
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions ).
, , , -. MIME RFC20452047,
4288, 4289 2049.
MIME RFC822
( RFC5322, , MIME),
-ASCII-.
RFC822, MIME-
( RFC821, RFC5321). ,
, ,
.
MIME , .7.5. (MIME-Version:) , , MIME,
MIME, .
,
(, , , ASCII) .
7.5. , MIME

MIME-Version:

MIME

Content-Description:

. ,

Content-Id:

Content-Transfer-Encoding:

Content-Type:

672 7.
Content-Description: ASCII-,
, .
, . :
, , , , ,
.
Content-Id: .
, Message-Id:.
Content-Transfer-Encoding:
. MIME
(SMTP), , ASCII, 1000 .
ASCII 7 . ,
, 8 , . ,
.
, ASCII.
SMTP, MIME,
,
.
MIME , ( , ; ).
ASCII.
ASCII 7
, , 1000.
, 8-
, 0 255 . , 8- ,
.
.
, 8 , 1000 .
.
, ( ) , ,
ASCII.
ASCII base64 (64-
). 24 6,
ASCII-. 6- 0 ASCII-
A, 1 ASCII- B .. 26 , 10
, , + / 62 63 . == =
, 8 16 .
,
,

7.2.

673

.
, . ,
,
.
, ASCII,
-ASCII-, .
quoted-printable ( ). 7- ASCII, ,
ASCII- 127, , ASCII- .
,
.
, , Content-Transfer-Encoding: .
.7.5 .
.
, , , MIME,
. , , ,
IP (VoIP).
RFC1521 , .
, Content-Type: video/mpeg.
. .
IANA, www.iana.org/assignments/media-types.
.7.6.
, text. text/plain ,
.
.
MIME
. - , text/html
( RFC2854), - RFC822.
RFC3023 (eXtensible Markup
Language XML), text/xml. XML
. , 7.3, HTML XML.
MIME image. .
, ,
. , GIF, JPEG TIFF,
,
.
audio video , , . , video

674 7.
, .
, , ,
. .
, MIME,
MPEG (Motion Pictures Experts Group
).
. ,
MP3, RFC3003 audio/basic
audio/mpeg. video/mp4 audio/mp4 - MPEG4.
7.6. MIME

text

plain, html, xml, css

image

gif, jpeg, tiff

audio

basic, mpeg, mp4

video

mpeg, mp4, quicktime

model

vrml

3D-

application

onoctet-stream, pdf, javascript, zip

message

http, rfc822

multipart

mixed, alternative, parallel, digest

model , .
3D-. .
application () , .
pdf, javascript zip PDF-,
Java-Script Zip . , ,
.
, .
MIME, . .
, , . ,
,
, .
, ,
.
, .
, PDF -

7.2.

675

.
, .
, ,
. , , octet-stream ( )
.
( ,
). , , , .
, , , ,
.
, ,
. message .
.
RFC822, rfc822.
HTML.
partial (,
, ).
.
, multipart ,
. mixed
.
. multipart.
alternative, ,
, . ,
ASCII-, HTML PDF. , , , .
, PDF, . -
, HTML.
, ASCII-.
, ( MIME) , ASCII-.
alternative ,
. ,
,
multipart/alternative.
, parallel ,
. ,
- . , , . digest ,
. , - -

676 7.
,
multipart/digest.
, MIME
, 7.2.
: HTML
. ,
. message/external-body ,
birthday.snd FTP.
.
, ( )
, boundary ().
7.2. multipart, HTML
From: alice@cs.washington.edu
To: bob@ee.uwa.edu.au
MIME-Version: 1.0
Message-Id: <0704760941.AA00747@cs.washington.edu>
Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary=qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
Subject:
. . -.
--qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
Content-Type: text/html
<p>Happy birthday to you<br>
Happy birthday to you<br>
Happy birthday to you</p>
--qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
Content-Type: message/external-body;
access-type="anon-ftp";
site="bicycle.cs.washington.edu";
directory="pub";
name="birthday.snd"
content-type: audio/basic
content-transfer-encoding: base64
--qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm

: Content-Type . ,
. . ,
.
, ,
.
, 7- ASCII, contenttransfer-encoding.

7.2.

677

7.2.4.
, ,
,
. SMTP.
-
-, .
SMTP.
SMTP. (mail submission,
e-mail .7.4). .
(2
.7.4).
. . .
SMTP . ,
.

SMTP

- TCP 25 -.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol ).
, . ,
, .
SMTP ASCII-. ,
. ASCII , . , .
- (, HTTP).
,
. TCP- 25, , , ,
. , ,
( ) . , .
, ,
. ,
. , . ,

678 7.
TCP .
, . .
7.2 7.3. , ( ), C:, ( ) S:.
, , . ,
HELO,
HELLO .
, .
,
RCPT ( recipient
).
. .
(, - ),
,
.
, ,
. . ,
,
.
SMTP , . . , FROM
, .
. , SMTP ASCII, . base64
MIME. , ,
. , SMTP
. .
, , SMTP .
RFC5321. SMTP
ESMTP (Extended SMTP SMTP).
7.3. alice@cs.washington.edu bob@ee.uwa.edu.au
S:
C:
S:
C:
S:
C:
S:
C:
S:
C:
C:

220 ee.uwa.edu.au SMTP


HELO abcd.com
250 cs.washington.edu ee.uwa.edu.au
MAIL FROM: <alice@cs.washington.edu>
250
RCPT TO: <bob@ee.uwa.edu.au>
250
DATA
354 ; , "."
From: alice@cs.washington.edu
To: bob@ee.uwa.edu.au

7.2.

679

C: MIME-Version: 1.0
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
C:
S:
C:
S:

Message-Id: <0704760941.AA00747@ee.uwa.edu.au>
Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary=qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
Subject:
. . -.
--qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
Content-Type: text/richtext
Happy
Happy
Happy
Happy

birthday
birthday
birthday
birthday

to you
to you
dear <bold> Carolyn </bold>
to you

--qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
Content-Type: message/external-body;
access-type="anon-ftp";
site="bicycle.cs.washington.edu";
directory="pub";
name="birthday.snd"
content-type: audio/basic
content-transfer-encoding: base64
--qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm
.
250
QUIT
221 ee.uwa.edu.au

, , EHLO
HELO. , SMTP, . EHLO , ,
.
. .7.7.
, ,
, .
.
7.7. SMTP

AUTH

BINARYMIME

CHUNKING

SIZE

STARTTLS

(TLS; . 8)

UTF8SMTP

680 7.
, SMTP
, . ,
, . UNIX

( Linux) :
telnet mail.isp.com 25

mail.isp.com DNS- .
WindowsXP ,
. Vista Windows7 , ,
te

lnet ( ) . telnet- (
TCP) 25 . .6.4, 25
SMTP- (. .6.4 ).
- :
Trying 192.30.200.66
Connected to mail.isp.com
Escape character is ^].
220 mail.isp.com Smail #74 ready at Thu, 25 Sept 2002 13:26 +0200

telnet

. SMTP
. ,

HELP

, , 7.3, .


,
, . , ,
, .
.
,
, .
,
. ,

, , .
.
TCP/IP. ,
-
. . ,

7.2.

681

(open mail relay) . -


.
, SMTP AUTH.
( ) ,
.
, SMTP . , 587, 25, SMTP- , .
SMTP , RFC4409.


() , ,
SMTP. , . .7.2, bob@ee.uwa.edu.au.
?
, DNS.
, DNS ,
MX (mail exchanger ).
DNS MX ee.uwa.edu.au.
IP-
.
TCP- IP-
25,
. SMTP.
bob ,
.
, .
. .
. (
). .

.
:
, ,
bob@alum.mit.edu.
, , , , bob@ee.uwa.edu. , bob@alum.

682 7.
mit.edu, .
alum.mit.edu. ee.uwa.edu.au.
,
.
.
(
McAfee
, 2010). , ,
. ,
.
alice@cs.washington.edu.
, , DNS. , IP- TCP- DNS-.
, DNS ,
.
TXT- SPF-. , . , , cs.washington.edu,
june.cs.washington.edu.
june, .
, ,
. .
, , .
, , , ,
. ,
.
, .

7.2.5.
. .
,
. 3 .7.4.

, .
,
.
, , , ,
. , . ,
, -, .
,
.
,
, .
.

7.2.

683


.
, SMTP. SMTP ,
. . , : - ,
, - ,
, SMTP .

IMAP
, , IMAP
(Internet Mail Access Protocol ). RFC3501.
IMAP, IMAP-, 143. IMAP-.
.7.8.
, ( ),
. , ,
.
,
(folder), ,
. IMAP
mailbox ( ). , ,
IMAP, .
IMAP , , , , (, ).
, ,
, .
IMAP
POP3 (Post Office Protocol, version3 ,
3), RFC1939. POP3 ,
.
,
. , .
, ,
, . POP3 .
, ,
, .
Microsoft Exchange.

684 7.
7.8. IMAP (4)

CAPABILITY

STARTTLS

(TLS, . 8)

LOGIN

AUTHENTICATE

SELECT

EXAMINE

CREATE

DELETE

RENAME

SUBSCRIBE

UNSUBSCRIBE

LIST

LSUB

STATUS

APPEND

CHECK

(
, ).

FETCH

SEARCH

STORE

COPY

EXPUNGE

UID

NOOP

CLOSE

LOGOUT

-
IMAP SMTP ,
, - . - (Webmail)
Google Mail, Microsoft Hotmail Yahoo! Mail1. - 1

, , - . , .
Mail.Ru , , ,
. . .

7.3. (WWW)

685

( ),
, -.
,
SMTP 25.
. ,
, -.
, ,
.
- ,
: - , ,
. , .
, -,
. -
.
,
, , ..
, - JavaScript.
(, )
, .
- URL.
- ,
. -.
-, , .

7.3. (WWW)
(WWW, World Wide Web, )
, , . 10

,
, . ,
. ,
, .
1989 CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire) .
, .

686 7.
, , ,
,
.
CERN - (Tim BernersLee). 1991 Hypertext91 -
.
. (Marc Andreessen)
, Mosaic. 1993.
, , . Mosaic ,

Netscape Communications Corp., ( ).
Netscape Navigator Internet Explorer Microsoft
. ,
( , ),
.
1990- 2000- - -,
-, ,
, .
. , .
: (Amazon, 1994 ,
$50), (eBay, 1995, $30), (Google, 1998,
$150) (Facebook, 2004, ,
$15). 2000-, - , , ( ,
), . (dot com era).
. .
, ,
Facebook, ,
Google. , .
1994 CERN (M.I.T., Massa
chusetts Institute of Technologies) WWW-
(World Wide Web Consortium, W3C)
, ,
.
- .
, ,
, .
http://www.w3.org.
, .

7.3. (WWW)

687

7.3.1.

- (Web pages), (pages) . ()
. (, ), ,
, .
. , , (hypertext), 1945,
, (Vannevar Bush),
, . ,
, , , ,
.
,
(browser). Firefox, Internet
Explorer Chrome. ,
. ,

,
.
- .7.7.
.
(, ,
). . , , ..,
, (hyperlink).
, ,
, . , . , ,
. -
, , , .
.
,
, .
.
( .7.7) . . ,
, , , .
. .

688 7.
, ,
.

.7.7.

, , .7.7.
- . , ,
. -
, TCP,
SMTP. HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol
). , , ,
. (static page),
, . , , - ,
(dynamic page).
. ,
. ,
, ,
, , , . , -

7.3. (WWW)

689

, . ,
cookie ( , )1.
, ,
cs.washington.edu, youtube.com google-analytics.com. . ,
. , ,
,
. cs.washington.edu ,
youtube.com , google-analytics.com
, ; .
.


-,
.7.7. , , .
.
, , . ,
, :
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
,
. . .
, ,
. ,
- ,
, ,
, , .
.
,
. URL (Uniform Resource
Locator ),
. URL : ( scheme), DNS- ,
, , (
1

cookie . . .

690 7.
, ).
, .
.
.
URL , .7.7:
http://www.cs.washington.edu/index.html
URL : (http), DNS- (www.cs.wa
shington.edu) (index.html).
,
, , .
, .
1. URL ( ).
2. DNS IP- www.cs.washington.edu.
3. DNS 128.208.3.88.
4. TCP- 80- (
HTTP-) 128.208.3.88.
5. HTTP- /index.html.
6. www.cs.washington.edu , HTTP-, , /index.html.
7. URL, ,
URL, . URL
, www.cs.washington.edu,
youtube.com google-analitics.com.
8. /index.html ,
.7.7.
9. ,
TCP- .
. : , DNS
.
URL- ,
, .
, URL .
URL .7.9.
. http
, , -. HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol ( ).
.
ftp FTP,
. FTP . . -

7.3. (WWW)

691

, FTP- ,
, , ,
.
.
7.9. URL

http

(HTML)

http://www.ee.uwa.edu/~rob/

https

https://www.blank.com./accounts/

ftp

FTP

ftp://ftp.cs.vu.nl/pub/minix/README

file

file:///usr/suzanne/prog.c

mailto

mailto:JohnUser@acm.org

rtsp

rtsp://youtube.com/montypython.mpg

sip

sip:eve@adversary.com

about

about:plugins

-, file . .
, , .
mailto, , -,
. -.
mailto ,
.
rtsp sip , - .
, about . ,
about:plugins, ,
MIME,
( ).
, URL ,
, , FTP
, , , ,
.
,
, : -. ,
,
, , , , .
, , URL.

692 7.
URL , ,
, . , , ,
, ,
. : xyz
, .
, URL URI (Uniform Resource
Identifier ). URI ,
. URL. URI ,
. URI URN (Uniform Resource Name
). URI RFC3986,
URI IANA.
URI, .7.9; ,
.

MIME
( ) .
, HTML. .
.
HTML,
, .
(
, ),
.

,
.
, HTML-
, . ,
HTML. MPEG,
PDF, JPEG, MP3
. HTML-
, ,
.
,
( ),
.
- , . MIME- (..7.6).
text/html ,
. MIME

- , , , MIME-.
.

7.3. (WWW)

693

: ,
(plug-in), .
,
,
.7.8,. PDF, Flash Quick-time,
. , ,
. (
),
.

.7.8. (); ()

, . , .
, , .

.
,
.
,
.
. , -
. , MIME- .
.

(helper application).
, .
.7.8,. ,
.
, ,

694 7.
.
, , Microsoft
Word PowerPoint.
MIME- application (). , application/vnd.ms-powerpoint PowerPoint; vnd ,
. , URL
PowerPoint, ,
PowerPoint, . MIME- application. , , Adobe
Photoshop image/x-photoshop.
, , . -
.
.
, , video/mpg.
, ,
MIME .
, .
,
. -
MIME- . MIME.
foo.pdf
application/pdf, bar.doc
Word.
,
, , .mpg.
, MIME .
, , ,
. ,
, ,
MIME , ,
.
, .
Windows exe, , . ,
.
.
, , ,
. -
, , , .

7.3. (WWW)

695

Firefox , ,
.


. . , URL ,
URL ,
http:// ,
DNS
, . IP- , TCP- 80
. , URL,
. .
- ,
6.1. , -, ,
.
:
1. TCP- ().
2. , .
3. ( ).
4. .
5. TCP-.
- , ,
, . , , (
), .
- ,
. ,
, , . ,
- .
, . , , .
n .
, . , , .

,
.

(multithreaded) .
, ,

696 7.
, k , .7.9. k+1
,
. ,
. .

.7.9. -


. , ,
. ,
( , ,
, ).
.
,
( ),
. k
, k
. , , ,
.
- ,
. ,
.
.
, , , .
, TCP- -
( SSL/TLS, 8).
1. -.
2. -.
3. .

7.3. (WWW)

697

4. , .
5. (, MIME).
6. .
7. .
1 ,
. , . , URL :
http://www.cs.vu.nl/. . URL
. index.html.
~user/ - .
. , (AST)
:
http://www.sc.vu.nl/~ast/
index.html . ,
(,
), - , .
, , , ,
.
2 ,
. . ,
, (, )
DNS IP. ,
- . , , . , Apache ,
, .htaccess,
.
3 4 . ,
. , , , ,
. , , (
). ,
.
.
5 , .
, MIME-. , , , .
6 . ,
TCP

- .

698 7.

,
.
7 .
, ,
.

cookie
, ,
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. ,
- .
,
, ,
.
, .
-.
, (, )
; .
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,
? - Yahoo!. (,
,
). ,
, ?
, : IP-. . -,
(, ), IP- ,
. , NAT,
IP-. ,
NAT, . ISP
IP DHCP. IP-
, , .
IP-,
.

cookie-. . , - .
cookie. UNIX Windows

7.3. (WWW)

699

cookie.
Netscape 1994. RFC2109.
,
cookie-,
( 4),
. ,
, IP-.
cookie ,
cookie- ,
. , cookie , . , , , -
.
, ,
, cookie.
cookie , .7.10.
(Domain) , . ,
, . 20 , .
(Path) ,
, .
/, , .
(Content) = . , , .
, .
(Expires) . ,
cookie . (nonpersistent cookie). ,
, (persistent cookie). ,
. , , .
cookie , ,
.
7.10. cookie

toms-casino.com /

CustomerID=297793521

15-10-10 17:00

jills-store.com

Cart=1-00501;1-07031;2-13721

11-1-11 14:22

aportal.com

Prefs=Stk;CSCO+ORCL;Spt:Jets

31-12-20 23:59

sneaky.com

UserID=4627239101

31-12-19 23:59

, (Secure) ,
,
,
SSL
/
TLS
( 8). -

700 7.
, ,
.
, . ? -
- cookie. , (
) , .
. ,
, .
cookie

. .7.10 cookie

toms-casino.com .
, ,
cookie, .
, -. ,
.
cookie- jills-store.com.
, , . - , . ( ), cookie-,
, cookie .
, ,
cookie.
cookie. ,
, cookie,
, . ,
, .
cookie- -.
, cookie, ,
, Cisco Oracle,
New York Jets. cookie-
4, . ,
, ,
..
cookie-
. - ,
, ,
. ,
, , -, . -
(Web-tracking) . DoubleClick,
, Alexa, , 100 - . Google

Analitics

, ,
100000 .

7.3. (WWW)

701


cookie
. , , ,
. , ,
, . cookie
, 1.

cookie
. . , , , ,
..

. . , , , -
, .
GIF ,
, URL, .
URL , :
http://www.sneaky.com/382674902342.gif

, ,
, , HTML-. ,
www.sneaky.com. , . GIF cookie
, 4627239101 (. .7.10). , , , .
, (382674902342.gif)
, , . , , .

.
, ,
, , HTML- , , , http://www.sneaky.com/193654919923.gif,
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, .
,
, . , ( IP-,
).
, , - .
,
,
.

702 7.
, ( ),
:
gif- 1 1 cookie.
Cookie
- .
,
, - , ,
, .
cookie, ,
- (spyware). cookie,
.
. , . , ,
.
,
cookie. ,
- cookie. cookie (third-party cookies). ,
, , cookie sneaky.com,
P,
-. cookie
. , ( ) cookie, .
,
, ,
, . ,
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, .

7.3.2. -
-
. - , - , . , ,
, . , ,
, .
, HTML ,
.
HTML-.
, , . HTML-,

7.3. (WWW)

703

, . ,
HTML, ,
-.

HTML -
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) .
HTML - , , ,
. . , , . (markup)
,
( - ), . , . , HTML <b> , , </b> .
, , LaTeX TeX.
,
, , ,
. ,
: .
HTML- -. ,
-,
1600 1200 24 , , , 640 320 8 .

, ,
( ) HTML, (
).
-, HTML, , ,
. 7.10. . , HTML (tags),
<html> </html> . ,
. . 7.10, , - <head> </head>, <body> </body>.
(directives). , HTML- , <something> -,
</something> .
. , <head> <HEAD>
, .
HTML-, . ., .
HTML- ,
,

704 7.
. , HTML- , ,
. ,
HTML- ,
. .

. 7.10. HTML - (). ()

,
(attributes). , <img> . 7.10 ,
. src
alt . URL . HTML-
, . ,

7.3. (WWW)

705

GIF JPEG.
, . ,
, , TIFF, -,
,
.
,
, . HTML
.
, .
HTML-
Latin-1 ISO 8859-1, ,
ASCII-, ,
, , , .
. , &nbsp; , &egrave;
, &eacute . <, > & , : &lt; (less than ), &gt; (greater than )
&amp; (ampersand ).
,
<title> </title>. , . ,
, .
. 7.10.
<hn>, n 1 6. <h1> , <h6> . , .
.
.
<h1> ,
, . <h2> ,
.
<b> <i> (boldface)
(italics). <hr> ,
.
<p> . , , . , HTML-
</p>, .
HTML ,
. (unordered list), . 7.10,
<ul>. <li>. <ol>
(ordered list) . ,
. .

706 7.
, .
. 7.10. : <a> (anchor ) </a>. ,
href (, URL). ,
<a> </a>, . ,
, . <a> </a>
, ( <img>). ,
, .
HTML,
. , <a> name,
,
. , - , .
.
<br>.
.
, . , -,
HTML , .
- .
HTML-.
,
. HTML . . 7.11 , HTML. HTML 1.0
HTML,
. 2.0, 3.0 4.0 , . HTML
4.0 , , HTML 5.0,
. ,
, , HTML 5.0
, 2012 .
HTML 5.
, HTML, , , ,
(,
). , , ,
HTML 3.0. HTML- , ,
(, , ).
HTML3.0 , ,
, , .
HTML 4.0 .

, ( <img>, -

7.3. (WWW)

707

, ), (), . .
7.11. HTML

HTML1.0 HTML2.0 HTML3.0 HTML4.0 HTML5.0

XML

HTML5.0 , , .
,
.
( JPEG GIF),
.
,
. -,
,
. .

708 7.


, , .
HTML .
,
.
, ,
-, ,
, .
( )
. -, , HTML
. , , ; POST. -, , .
(forms) HTML2.0.
, ,
. , HTML,
7.4. ,
HTML-, .7.11. ,
. , . , ,
, .
, <form> </form>.
, ,
POST URL. , ,
. (, <b>), .
,
<input>.
, . , ,
, .
, .
46 . ,
, customer . ,
, , . <p>,
(
). ,
, .

.
, .
8.

7.3. (WWW)

709


. ,
.
, . .
.
.
.
name () <input>. , <radiobutton> </radiobutton>,
.
value , . ,
, , mastercard
visacard.
7.4. HTML-
<html>
<head> <title> AWI </title> </head>
<body>
<h1> </h1>
<form action="http://www.widget.com/cgi-bin/order.cgi" method=post>
<p> <input name="customer" size=60> </p>
<p> <input name="address" size=58> </p>
<p> <input name="city" size=21>
<input name="state" size=4>
<input name="country" size=10> </p>
<p> <input name="cardno" size=10>
<input name="expires" size=4>
M/C <input name="cc" type=radio value="mastercard">
VISA <input name="cc" type=radio value="visacard"> </p>
<p> : <input name="product" type=radio value="">
<input name="product" type=radio value="">
<input name="express" type=checkbox> </p>
<p> <input type=submit value=" "> </p>
, AWI. !
</form>
</body>
</html>

checkbox (). ,
(/), ,
.
, , submit ().
value .
submit,
, URL, <form>,

710 7.
. .
(&), +. ,
, , 7.5.

.7.11.

7.5. ,
.
customer=John+Doe&address=100+Main+St.&city=White+Plains&state=NY&country=USA&cardno=12345
67890&expires=6/14&cc=mastercard&product=cheap&express=on

(
, - ).
, ,
, . .
,
. , , password () textarea ( ). password text ( ,
),
. textarea ,
.
,
, <select> </select>.
. multiple (),
, .
, ( ), . , text
value, ,
.

7.3. (WWW)

711

CSS
HTML ,
. ,
<h1> </h1>

, ,
, . : , , (, ). -
-
. , , . ,
<font face="Helvetica" size="24" color="red"> </font>

.
, , , . HTML

-, .
, ,
.

. , ,
. . ,
14
18, ,
.
CSS (Cascading Sryle Sheets )
HTML4, 2000. CSS
,
. . , AWI , - , Arial
, 100%, ,
50%. CSS 7.6.
7.6. CSS
body{background-color:linen;color:navy;font-family:Arial;}
h1{font-size:200%;}
h2{font-size:150%;}

, . , , . , HTML.
, body .
(, red ).
, , .

712 7.
;
.
HTML (, <style>),
, . ,
<head> AWI ,
awistyle.css, 7.7.
MIME text/css.
7.7. CSS
<head>
<title>AMALGAMATED WIDGET, INC.</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="awistyle.css"/>
</head>

. -, -. ,
, , ,
CSS, HTML.
#include C. ,
, .
, HTML ,
CSS ,
.
-.

7.3.3. -
-
, , , . ,
.
. -, , ,
, .
(,
). ,
,
. -,
,
. ,
,
, . , ,

7.3. (WWW)

713

.
(cloud computing), .
- ,
. . ,
, , .
,
.
, ,
( , ).
. , , .7.12. , ,
, ,
. , -
, .
13. (1)
. (2)
(3).

.7.12.

. , .

. ,
(4).
, .
(5),
(6) (7).
(4). ;
, URL
. , ,
, , , .

714 7.

-

- . ,
, . , (. .7.11) .
, , URL, ,
( POST http://widget.com/cgi-bin/order.
cgi), , .
. , URL ,
.
AWI, . , , ,
. , . ,
. ,
, -
.
, ,
-. -. - . . ,
, .
- API, .
-. API, .
API . . CGI (Common
Gateway Interface ) RFC3875. CGI
, -
, (, )
HTML-.
,
. Python, Ruby, Perl ,
.
, ,
CGI, CGI-BIN, URL.
. , ,
. -, .
order.cgi , , 7.5. .

7.3. (WWW)

715

, HTML

, . , , .
API, , .
HTML-.
, . PHP (PHP:Hypertext
Preprocessor PHP: ). , PHP ( ,
CSS, , ).
-, PHP, php,
htm html.
PHP , CGI. PHP 7.8,. HTML-
. <form> , action.php
.
, , .
,
. , name
age. action.php, 7.8,.
. php-.
24, HTML-,
7.8,. , PHP
.
7.8. - (); PHP- ();
PHP-
24 ()
()

<html>
<body>
<form action="action.php" method="post">
<p> : <input type="text" name="name"> </p>
<p> : <input type="text" name="age"> </p>
<input type="submit" value="">
</form>
</body>
</html>
()

<html>
<body>
<h1> : </h1>
, <?php echo $name; ?>!
: <?php echo $age+1; ?>
</body>
</html>

716 7.
7.8 ()
()

<html>
<body>
<h1> : </h1>
, !
: 25
</html>
</body>

, PHP
. PHP
, , , , / , printf. PHP
, . PHP Apache,
- .
PHP (Valade, 2009).
, HTML: CGI- PHP.
. , JSP (JavaServer Pages Java) PHP
, Java. , JSP, : .jsp. ASP.
NET (Active Server Pages .NET .NET)
Microsoft PHP JSP.
, .NET,
Microsoft. , ,
, .aspx.
( Microsoft).
.

-
CGI PHP
, .
,
HTML-.
,
. , HTML , .
HTML4.0,
<script>. , , HTML (dynamic HTML).

JavaScript. . ,
JavaScript Java.
, . , JavaScript
,

7.3. (WWW)

717

.
-. , , JavaScript
, - ,
, .
, , ,
.
JavaScript 7.9. 7.8,, , ,
. , PHP.
.
, response .
- response.
HTML-, ,
.. name
person. age.
eval, 1,
years. ,
( writeln), . HTML-, HTML. .
7.9. JavaScript
<html>
<head>
<script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">
function response(test_form) {
var person = test_form.name.value;
var years = eval(test_form.age.value) + 1;
document.open()
document.writeln("<html> <body>");
document.writeln(", " + person + "!<br>");
document.writeln(": + years +".");
document.writeln("</body> </html>");
document.close();
}
</script>
</head>
<body>
<form>
: <input type="text" name="name">
<p>
: <input type="text" name="age">
<p>
<input type="button" value="" onclick="response(this.form)">
</form>
</body>
</html>

718 7.
, , PHP JavaScript ,
HTML, .
PHP 7.8, ,
, PHP-. PHP PHP-, ,
HTML-, . ,
. 14 .7.13,a.
JavaScript (. 7.9) JavaScript, .
, .
. 1 2 .7.13,. , , PHP
.

.7.13.PHP- (); JavaScript ()

, JavaScript , PHP.
. PHP ( JSP, ASP) ,
. JavaScript (
, , VBScript)
, .
, PHP JavaScript.
.
JavaScript - . Windows
VBScript, Visual Basic. , , (applets). Java,
, JVM (Java Virtual Machine Java).
HTML- ( <applet> </applet>)
JVM- . Java- ,
. ,
. / Java.
Microsoft Java- Sun
- ActiveX (ActiveX controls) ,

7.3. (WWW)

719

86 . , Java-, ,
. Internet Explorer
ActiveX, , .
,
8.
Java,
JavaScript, ,
, .
,
ActiveX. :
JavaScript .
Java- .
ActiveX
.

JVM
, JavaScript . Java-
, JavaScript.
( 1000 ) , JavaScript

. , (Flanagan, 2010).

AJAX JavaScript XML


- , -.
(, JavaScript) (,
PHP) ,
.
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML JavaScript XML). - Google,
Gmail, Maps Docs, AJAX.
AJAX , . ,
, -,
, .
:
1. HTML CSS, .
2. DOM (Document Object Model ),
.
3. XML (eXtensible Markup Language ), .
4. ,
XML-.
5. JavaScript , .

720 7.
,
, -.
HTML CSS. ,
. , HTML CSS, -, .
DOM HTML-, . , HTML-. ,
DOM- HTML-, 7.8,, .7.14.
html, HTML. body, , ,
form. form , , (POST)
, (URL-).
, ,
. ,
, , .
DOM ,
. , . , . ,
. , DOM , , ,
. , DOM,
JavaScript 7.9 document,
. DOM
, .

.7.14. DOM HTML 7.8,a

, XML, , . HTML ,
. , -
, . , ,

7.3. (WWW)

721

- . - HTML,
, .
WWW (W3C) XML (Bray . 2006),
- .
HTML XML .
. XML- 7.10. book_list,
. 3 : , .
. (,
), (,
URL
) (, URL , ,
URL , ).
7.10. XML
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<book_list>
<book>
<title> </title>
<author> </author>
<year> 1949 </year>
</book>
<book>
<title> </title>
<author> . </author>
<author> </author>
<year> 1949 </year>
</book>
<book>
<title> </title>
<author> </author>
<year> 1949 </year>
</book>
</book_list>

, . ,
, :
<author>
<first_name> </first_name>
<last_name> </last_name>
</author>

(
..) .
, 7.10,
. , , , -. , ,
, 1949 ,

722 7.
HTML, . ,
XSLT (eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations ) ,
, XML HTML. XSLT CSS,
. , , .
XML, HTML
, . HTML ( ), .
, </p>, . , <br>,
. ,
, , . , .
XML .
, ,
( ,
),
. ,
.
HTML XML. XHTML
(eXtended HyperText Markup Language
). - HTML .
XHTML XML,
. - . XML,
, (
-). XHTML 1998 ,
. , HTML, , XHTML,
. HTML5.0 ,
HTML, XHTML,
. XHTML HTML,
, .
XML , .
HTTP (
), - (Web service).
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol
), -,
, . XML- ,
http. .
.

AJAX
, , XML , .
,
,
/,

7.3. (WWW)

723

. , , . ,
, ,
. ,
, . . ,
. ,
, . .
, AJAX
, .
JavaScript, , VBScript.
JavaScript .
. JavaScript ,
C Java.
, , , ,
. ,
-. JavaScript
,
. DOM, ,
HTML XML HTTP-.
, , ,
. - ,
. , PHP

, JSP ASP.NET, CGI . . 7.15.

.7.15. , .

-, HTML, CSS MIME . ,


, , ,
, MIME,
.

724 7.
. , -, JavaScript,
VBScript
,
Java
. . AJAX -
XML- .
-, , . ,
, .

7.3.4. HTTP
, , - -,
,
- . HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol ), RFC2616.
HTTP , -,
TCP. , . ,
SMTP, ASCII. , MIME,
SMTP.
, .
HTTP ,
. ,
, , .
HTTP , TCP . .
HTTP , .
- -.
HTTP,
. HTTP ,
. - .
, , HTTP , .
HTTP. ,
SOAP (XML RPC HTTP)
, . ,
HTTP.

TCP 80 , . TCP , ,

7.3. (WWW)

725

, ,
. TCP.
, HTTP1.0 ,
. TCP- .
- HTML-,
. - . ,
TCP-
.
HTTP1.1,
(persistent connection). , TCP-, , ,
. (connection reuse). ,
, .
, 2
1.
. 7.16.
, ,
. , , . URL
,
. 40 ,
.
. .

.7.16.HTTP: ;
;

726 7.
.7.16, .
TCP- , 3, , .
, . : , .
TCP- , , . -, . , ?
- TCP. TCP
, ,
.
TCP-
,
TCP-. , .7.16, ,
.
,
, ,
. .
, ,
. . , , ? , .
? , ,
. ,
. ,
.
, -
(, 60),
, , .
, , . TCP, .
(parallel connection)
. , ,
. - ,
.
. TCP-
. , TCP
. , , , .
, ,
.

7.3. (WWW)

727

HTTP , , , -
. -
, . SOAP.
ASCII-,
. .7.12. ,
GET , get .
7.12. HTTP-

GET

HEAD

PUT

POST

(, -)

DELETE

TRACE

CONNECT

OPTIONS

GET ( , ),
MIME. GET.
GET:
GET filename HTTP/1.1

filename , 1.1
.
HEAD , .
URL.
POST , . ,
GET, - SOAP. URL,
, , ( RPC). URL -
, . , , - . ,
.
.
PUT GET: , .

728 7.
- .
. MIME.
, PUT, , ,
.
DELETE, , , , , - . PUT,
.
TRACE .
. ,
, .
CONNECT -, -.
OPTIONS , .
, , , , (, -
). ,
.
, .7.13. , 1 (1xx), .
, 2, , (
) . 3xx ,
URL,
( ).
7.13. ,

1xx

100 =

2xx

200 = ; 204 =

3xx

301 = ; 304 =

4xx

403 = ; 404 =

5xx

500 = ; 503 =

, 4, , - ,
, : ,
. , 5
xx
, , - .


(, GET)
. -

7.3. (WWW)

729

(request headers). , . ,
(response headers). , .
.7.14. ,
, ,
.
7.14. HTTP

User-Agent

Accept

Accept-Charset

Accept-Encoding

Accept-Language

If-Modified-Since

If-None-Match

Host

DNS-

Authorization

Referer

URL,

Cookie

cookie-

Set-Cookie

, cookie

Server

Content-Encoding

(, gzip)

Content-Language

Content-Length

Content-Type

MIME

Content-Range

Last-Modified

Expires

Location

Accept-Ranges

Date

Range

Cache-Control

ETag

Upgrade

730 7.
User-Agent
(, Mozilla/5.0 Chrome/5.0.375.125).
,
.
, Accept, , ( ).

MIME
, (, text/html). Accept-Charset ,
(, ISO-8859 Unicode-1-1).
Accept-Encoding (, gzip). ,
Accept-Language , (,
). ,

. , ,
.
If-Modified-Since If-None-Match .
, . .
Host . URL.
. ? IP-
DNS , - ,
.
Authorization ,
. .
Referer, URL,
. URL .
, , .
cookie RFC2109, RFC2616,
. Set-cookie
, cookie . ,
, , , cookie
Cookie. (
, cookie
, RFC2965, .)
. Server
. , Content-, ,
.
Last-modified
, Expires ,
. .

7.3. (WWW)

731

Location ,
URL.
, URL
(, ,
). ,
- com,
, IP-
.
,
. , , . ,
.
Accept-Ranges ,
.
, . Date , . , Range
.
ETag ,
. Cache-Control , (, , ) .
Upgrade ,
HTTP, .
, ,
, .

, ,
- . , , . , , .

(caching). , ,
, ,
. HTTP ,
, . , .
, ,
, . , , .

HTTP
, , ,

732 7.
. URL.
, URL

, . , URL .
,
. .
HTTP .
.7.17 (1) (5).
(2). ,
( ) URL,
.
.
, Expires.
,
.

.7.17. HTTP

Expires, , . ,
, .
. ,
( Last-Modified), ,
. ,
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
.
, .
, , ,
. , .
Expires , ,
, . , , ,
, .
.
.
conditionalGET (GET ). .7.17 3.
, , -

7.3. (WWW)

733

, (4).
(4).
, ,
, . ,

Last-Modified. , If-ModifiedSince, ,
.
ETag. , ,
, . (
, 8.) , , If-None-Match,
. ,
, ,
. , , ,
. ,
URL, , MIME
.
, . , ,
Cache-Control. , (,
) .
, . ,
, .
,
, . -,
. HTTP-
. , ,
- (proxy caching).
, .
-, ,
, . -, , 7.5 .
-, , ,
. , -,
, (, ).
- , , -, . -
(Breslau ., 1999).

HTTP

HTTP
, (
) .
TCP
- 80 . -

734 7.
.
UNIX Windows ( telnet). ,
:
telnet www.ietf.org 80 >log
GET /rfc.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.ietf.org

telnet- ( TCP) 80 - IETF, www.ietf.org.


GET. URL . URL.
Host. , , .
, .
URL, .

7.3.5.
, .
. ,
. , ,
(mobile Web).
, .
:
1) , ;
2) ,
URL ;
3) , ,
3G, , ;
4) , ;
5) - , .
, , , , ,
.
, .
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol )
. WAP
1997 , Nokia,
Ericsson Motorola. . 10

7.3. (WWW)

735

. 3G
,
802.11. -. ,
, , ,
, .
,
, ,

. - , -
, . User-Agent
, . , - ,
,
iPhone .
W3C . ,
-. 60
( , 2008).

, ,
, . , , , ,
. , , () .
HTML, XHTML Basic. XHTML,
, , , , , ,
. ,
, .
11. , .
XML. .7.15.
,
. , (content transformation) (transcoding).
, , ,
,
.
. , .
(., , Fox . 1996).
, . , -

736 7.
,
.
7.15. XHTML Basic.

Structure ()

body, head, html, title

Text ()

br, code, dfn, em, hn, kbd,


p, strong

Hypertext ()

List ()

dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, li

Forms ()

form, input, label,


option, textarea

Tables ()

caption, table, td, th, tr

Image ()

img

Object ()

, ..

object, param

Meta-information
()

meta

Link ()

<a>

link

Base ()

URL

base

, , .
. HTTP, TCP IP, ,
, ,
, , . , WAP . , ,
. , ROHC (RObust Header
Compression), 6,
. ,
(HTTP, TCP, IP) , .
.

7.3.6. -
, ,
- -.
1998 , ,
Google, .
, . ,
, ,

7.3. (WWW)

737

, , ,
. ,
Cisco, ,
Cisco , , , .
. , .
Google . 2004
$23. 2010
. .
, , , . -
. .
, ,
. , , , , , , ,
.
- ,
-. Google, Yahoo!
Bing1. . , ,
.., .
.
- , . -, , -
. - , , . HTML-
, (, , ) - . ,
, , ,
. - (Web crawling,
-) . .
- ,
. .
- ,
, .
-.
-, , , 1

(, , ) Google Yahoo!
(yandex.ru).
Google
. ,
Google . . .

738 7.
. ,
. - ?
: .
(deep Web).
, (., , . 2008).
,
( robots.txt), ,
.

. , -
. , , ,
,
. 320. ,
20 21016. ,
( . 2006). ,
20 , 2104 $400000,
, Google, Microsoft Yahoo!. ,
, ,
.
. , XML ,
.
. ,
, , . , ,
. , , , .
- ,
. URL, (
`) - . ,
, URL. .
, DNS

- IP

- , - URL. , ,
URL, .
, - ,
, . , .
, , ,
. (Edelman ., 2007).

7.4.

739

, ,
(click fraud), , ,
, .

7.4.
- , , , .
.
, . , , ,
IP , ,
.
,
XXI (real-time audio
real-time video) . , , .
,
- . ,
,
( ),
.
, . -, , ,
, - . -, .
, ,
, 802.11
. -
56/,
1001000 , .
- ,
.
(64/, ),
.
, . ,
Skype, ,
-. ,
, , . - ,
IP (Voice over IP, VoIP) - (Internet telephony).

740 7.

. -
1/, DVD- 2. . .
. . YouTube,
. .
-. , , ,
90% -
(Cisco, 2010).
, ,

.
, ,
. , ,
, . ,
.
. , ,
. ,
(jitter), . , ,
.
,
, - .
, , . , ,
, , , YouTube.

. - (IPTV), .
- , Skype,
(multimedia)
.
. ,
,
(). , , , ,
(continuous media),
. , ,
.
, , , , --

7.4.

741

-. , .
(streaming media),
, , ,
, .

7.4.1.
( ). , ,
,
.
. , ,
,
.
20 20000,
, , . , ,
, A B
(), 10log10(A/B). ( 2 105 ) 1
0 , 50,
120 , 1 .
,
. , , . , ()
,
.
, .
- ().
, .
. 7.18, .
, () T, . 7.18, .
,
f, ,
(. 2), 2f.
, .
. -
().
, . ()
. , . 7.18, 9

742 7.
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,
65 536 . ,
,
, , (quantization noise).
, ,
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.

. 7.18. : ; ;
4


( ) --. - , ,
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. , CD-
, , , 16 (
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7.4.

743

22 (,
, ). 44 100
16 CD-
705,6 / 1,411 /
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,
,
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744 7.
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. , -

7.4.

745

, . ,
, , . , ,
. , ,
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, ,
, .
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. ,
. ,
, 200 , 300 . .,
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. . 7.19, ,
. ,
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, 150 , .
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: ,
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. 7.19, , 125 ,
.

( ) .

746 7.
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. 7.19. (); ()

, , ,
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.
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. .
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(Brandenburg, 1999).

7.4.

747

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, , .
, .
: , , .
50 , ,
.
.
,
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,
. , .
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35 ), 30 ( NTSC) 25 ( PAL,
). ,
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,
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. PAL , NTSC; 25,000 . ,
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.
, , ,
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1

,
. , , SECAM . . .

748 7.
-, 25
, , (fileds) .
( ) , 60
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, 30
, 50 100
, . ,
. , ,
(combing).
, ,
, ,
. 320 240 , 640 480.
NTSC .
(aspect ratio) 4:3
. HDTV (High-Definition TeleVision
) 1280
720. 16:9,
(3:2).
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- ) 1080 720 .
,
.
, .
, ,
.
(, ) ,
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,
.
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, ,
. .
, , , . ,

7.4.

749

, ,
.
, , . MPEG .
mpg, mp4,
.
MPEG, , .
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( ).
. MPEG JPEG
,
.

JPEG
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group
)
(, ) ,
, ITU, ISO, IEC ,
. (
jpg) 10 .
JPEG 10918. , , ,
. , ,
JPEG 24- RGB-, , .
. 7.20. 1 . , , JPEG
RGB 640 480, 24 , . 7.21, . RGB
.
(luminance), (chrominance), . , , Y, , Cb Cr, R, G B.
8- ( 0 255):
Y = 16 + 0,26R + 0,50G + 0,09B;
Cb = 128 + 0,15R 0,29G 0,44B;
Cr = 128 + 0,44R 0,37G + 0,07B.

. 7.20. JPEG

750 7.
Y, Cb Cr . Cb Cr
4 , 320 240. , ,
.
2 . 128, . , 8 8.
Y 4800 , 1200, . 7.21, .

. 7.21. RGB (). ()

JPEG (DCT, Discrete Cosine Transfor


mation ) 7200.
- 8 8. (0,0)
. ,
. (0,0), . 7.22.

7.22. Y (). ()

, JPEG 3, (quantization).

7.4.

751

.
8 8 , .
1, . , .
. 7.23.
, , .
JPEG. , .

7.23.

(0,0) (
),
. , , .
.
64 . ,
, , . 7.24. 38
. , ,
38.
(run-length encoding).
, (
). , .

752 7.

. 7.24. , .

JPEG , .
.
JPEG . JPEG
: .
, .

MPEG
, : MPEG (Motion Picture Experts
Group ). ,
, .
1993 . , MPEG , . ,
.
MPEG-1 ( MP3-)
1993, . ,
40 , 1 /.
-. ,
, MPEG-1 CD. CD,
MPEG-2. 1996 .
. , DVD (
) (DVB). DVD
48 /.
MPEG-4 . ,
1999, - .
,

7.4.

753

, , , .
. ,
2003 , H.264 AVC (Advanced Video Coding ). 2
, , ,
.
.
. , .
. , , . .
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.
,
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(, ). JPEG.

, .
, ,
34 ( ,
). 75
, ,
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, , -
, .
JPEG
. , ,
. .
MPEG, MPEEG JPEG.
MPEG 3 :
1. I- (Intracoded ) : .
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.
3. B- (Bidirectional ) :
.

754 7.
, I-, .
JPEG - .
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, , ,
. -, - , . ,
, .
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(macroblocks), , , 1616
88 . . , P-, .7.25.
, . ,
, - .

.7.25.

MPEG ,
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7.4.

755

. MPEG
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,
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. , ,
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. - , B- , , . ,
B- , -
.
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50:1, 50.
AVC , (Sullivan and
Wiegand, 2005).

7.4.3.

.
, .
.
VoD (Video on Demand ).
,
(, ).
, IP (IPTV) -.
.
IP Skype.
, ,
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, . , -

756 7.
. ,
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, ( , ).
.7.26. ,
.

.7.26.

, .
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4 ( MP3), 1 ,
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, , .

2. , , (3).

7.4.

757

, URL

, . joes-video-server
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, ,
. . , , .

.7.27.

.7.27 , , ,
-, . ,
HTTP-, .
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),
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3. .
4. ().

.
, (skins), .
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. , . ,
TCP, HTTP, UDP,
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758 7.
, , ,
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,
. , .
. ,
.

.7.28.

- , , B .7.28. 3 , A, C D,
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7.4.

759

P. ,
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, , . FEC ,
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(erasure). 3, , , , . ,
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FEC. , FEC, ,

760 7.
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. , .
, .
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UDP . ,
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, , . , 6.4.3,
. 510
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.
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. , .
, - ,
,
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, , . . , , TCP UDP.
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7.4.

761

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762 7.
.
. . TCP
, .
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TCP UPD , ,
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(high-water mark) . ,
, .
. ,
X ,
. X
, (
).
.
, .
, , ,
.
,
. RTSP,
.

RFC
2326. , ,
, .
, RTP UDP
RTP HTTP TCP. RTSP .7.16.
, HTTP-, TCP. RTCP UDP,
( , ).
, TCP , . ,
, UDP,
HTTP-.

7.4.

763

7.16. RTSP,

DESCRIBE

SETUP

PLAY

RECORD

PAUSE

TEARDOWN

,
. TCP- 80 (HTTP
). .
, RSTP RTP, ,
, 554 5004. , -
HTTP
-, HTTP- ( , ).
TCP
. , .
, .
, TCP
. (,
), . , , .
,
.
TCP ( TCP), .
, , ,
.

7.4.4.
. .
, - . ,
. .
. , . .
IPTV (IP TeleVision IP-).
, BBC. -.
IPTV
, -

764 7.
- , ,
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. .
.
.
, , . (podcast) , . ,
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.
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7.4.

765

.
, IP
(
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). , , IGMP, RTSP- ,
( ,
). , .
,
RTP- UDP-. TCP
. UDP ,
. , FEC , .
FEC
, .7.31.
, . , 1 B, 2 P, 3
D, 4 .

.7.31.

, ,
. , .
. (1997) ,
.

RTP- UDP- .
N , N , .

766 7.
, .
TCP- ,
. , . , , ,
.
, IP . - ,
,
. TCP UDP,
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, ,
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D
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P, , .
,
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, .
, .
, .
, , ,
, .
.7.32.
.
(, MP4) , , , .
, ,
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TCP-. -
. -

7.4.

767

, ,
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.7.32.

TCP .
. , ,
. ,
.

7.4.5.
- . .
, 1999
(
,
PCM-). 2002
, (!) .
, .
.
- .
IP- (VoIP Voice over IP, IP),
-.
IP- , . ( : , .)
(?) ,
Ethernet . (Pehr Anderson)

768 7.
M.I.T.,
. B. , 1996
, NBX, IP-
3Com 90 . , .
IP
. , ,
,
. () ,
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: . ,

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, (
40 ).
. , , ,
. , .
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.
Skype 2003. Skype

, IP-.
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, ,
, .
,
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Skype, ,
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, , ,

7.4.

769

. , .
150
, `
. ( 400,
.)
. , 510 (, ). IP-

. UDP TCP,
TCP .
UDP. ,
8000 .
40 . , ! ,
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, .
64/ 1 125
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64/ 160 . ,
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181 (40 + 125 + 16) 62 (40 + 20 + 2).
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770 7.
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7.4.

771

,
.
,
. , ,

.
, -
. IP- . Goode (2002).
, , .
, . , H.323 SIP. Skype
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H.323
,
,
, .

(
ITU
) . 1996 ITU H.323
,
.
.
1998, H

.323 -, .
H.323 -, .
,
, , .., . .7.33. (gateway),
. H.323
. .
- (gatekeeper),
, ( ).
. -, .

64/ (8 8000 ), G.711.
H.323 G.711. (
) .

772 7.

.
MPEG, , H.264.

.7.33. H.323 -

,
, . H.245.
, . RTCP
RTP. , , ,
.
ITU Q.931. - ( ).
H.225. , ,
RAS (Registration/Admission/Status //
). , , ,
,
.. , .
RTP UDP. , RTCP.
.7.34.

.7.34. H.323

7.4.

773

, ,
(),
( ) .
,
UDP- 1718. IP-.
.

RAS

UDP
. (
RAS
) . .

, , ,
, .
, . , .
,
. .
, , , ,
. - ,
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, , .
TCP- ,
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TCP. , RAS,
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H.323 UDP, TCP
RAS, UDP.
,
TCP- SETUP (
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.931). ( IP- , ).
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.
, , , ,
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), Q.931- ALERT,
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CONNECT, ,
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, , , , .
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774 7.
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.7.35.


RAS

. ,
.
, H.323,

. , QoS H.323.
, , , ,
. , , . .

7.4.

775

SIP
H.323 ITU. -
: ,
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IP

. SIP (Session Initiation Protocol ), RFC3261 2002.


,

. H.323,
, SIP

, -. ,
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(
mailto
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, ).
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. SIP , .
, RTP/RTCP.
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.
SIP URL sip. ,
sip:ilse@cs.university.edu Ilse,
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IPv4, IPv6 .
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ASCII-, ,
, .
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-. ,
, .7.17.
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INVITE,
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776 7.
, , , .
, , HTTP ( .7.13, 200
).
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7.17. SIP

INVITE

ACK

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OPTIONS

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,
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, . ,
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.
SIP ,
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.

7.4.

777

. 7.36. - SIP

H.323 SIP
H
.323
SIP
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.
7.18. H.323 SIP

H.323

SIP

ITU

IETF

SIP

Q.931 TCP

SIP TCP UDP

ASCII

RTP/RTCP

RTP/RTCP

URL

URL

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778 7.
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H.323

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(instant
messaging)

1400

250

, . H.323
, . , , .
,
. , , , .
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. , ,
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,
. ,
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7.5.
, ,
. , , .
, , -, IP-. , .
, ,
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7.5.

779

,
, .
, , , , ,
. , ,
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.
. . , YouTube
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,
, .
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,
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, . ,
. ,

.
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, . . P2P (Peer-to-Peer ,
). , , - .
, , ,
.
, .
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7.5.1. -
, , ,
.

780 7.
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, , . 1994
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. - FTP
2000. 2000
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, , ,
YouTube, P2P. 2014, Cisco, 90% (Cisco, 2010).
. , IP-,
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,
, . IP-
, .
, - , , Fcebook,
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.
, :
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.
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(pocket trains),
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(Lelnd ., 1994).

7.5.

781

(elephants),
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(Zipfs law) (Zipf, 1949). , , ,
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.7.37,.
, . ,
, .7.64,.
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.7.37. : ;

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782 7.
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7.5.

783

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.7.38.

, , ,
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(front end), ,

784 7.
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7.5.

785

HTTP . ,
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786 7.
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.7.39. - -

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7.5.

787

- , ,

(, 100 ). ,
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(Wolmn ., 1999).
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. CDN ,

788 7.
. , - .

.7.40. CDN

. . , -,
, . . 7.40 ,
CDN ,

-, . .
, -. ,
,
. -, CDN
. CDN
? , , .
CDN, CDN
.

(mirroring). , , CDN. CDN
. -
, .

.
, , ,
, . -
, .
.

7.5.

789

, -,
.
, , DNS DNS (DNS redirection). ,
URL http://www.cdn.com/page.html.
, DNS, www.cdn.
com IP-. DNS . DNS, IP- cdn.com,
, IP

- www.cdn.com. . CDN.
IP- , IP-
, , . IP-
CDN, . ,
CDN IP- www.cdn.com, IP CDN , ,
IP- .
DNS. ,
IP-.
CDN .

DNS.
.7.41.

.7.41. CDN DNS

CDN .
. CDN
. .
CDN.
. IP-
, CDN .
, , . -

790 7.

. , CDN. CDN
, , ,
-, . CDN, ,
, . DNS Akmi 1998 ,
. Akmi CDN
. , DNS , .
Akmi ,
-, . CDN
,
-. -
CDN , CDN , (
), -. , CDN -,
, , CDN. ,
-, CDN .
, , -, ,
CDN . 1998 ,
.
, CDN.
CDN, Akmi. CDN, , .
-
CDN. CDN. ,
-, .
-, CDN.
, -
, 7.11,. 7.11, www.
fluffyvideo.com/index.html.
URL www.fluffyvideo.com, DNS
IP- , (HTML)
. , DNS www.cdn.com.
DNS- CDN, IP- CDN.
HTTP- CDN, /fluffyvideo/
koalas.mpg. URL ,
fluffyvideo , CDN

7.5.

791

, . , ,
.
CDN , , CDN
. , HTML-.
, . CDN, CDN .
, .
7.11. HTML- ();
CDN ()
()
<html>
<head> <title> </title> </head>
<body>
<h1> </h1>
<p> . </p>
<a href="koalas.mpg"> </a> <br>
<a href="kangaroos.mpg"> </a> <br>
<a href="wombats.mpg"> </a> <br>
</body>
</html>
()
<html>
<head> <title> </title> </head>
<body>
<h1> </h1>
<p> . </p>
<a href="http://www.cdn.com/fluffyvideo/koalas.mpg"> </a> <br>
<a href="http://www.cdn.com/fluffyvideo/kangaroos.mpg"> </a> <br>
<a href="http://www.cdn.com/fluffyvideo/wombats.mpg"> </a> <br>
</body>
</html>

CDN.
- . ,
flash crowds ( -). , , ,
, .
-, , ,
,
.
, .
. - Florida Secretary of State , , , .
, 7 2000 ( ,

792 7.
),
, .
- , , . CDN, , , .
CDN, . CDN ,
.
( ), CDN ,
. , CDN
.
Akmi.
. CDN . DNS :
,
. , .
, DNS TTL,
. ,
,
, CDN , . CDN Dilley . (2002).

7.5.4. ( )
CDN 1000 , ,
. ( 1000
, . CDN .) ,
,
. P2P ( ).
P2P- 1999.
: 50
Npster , Npster ,
.
.
, P2P- -.
BitTorrent P2P. ( ), ,
-. .
P2P (Peer-to-Peer ) ,
, .
.

7.5.

793

. P2P
(peers, - ),
, , , .
- , CDN.
, .
P2P, ,
. ,
CDN ,
P2P. P2P , -.
P2P , N , ,
1/. P2P, ,
, N/. , , , N/.
,
1/ .
, ,
, . ,
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.
.
,
( ,
), . , 1000 .
- . , ,
( ),
.
N/2,
N/2/.
, N/2 / ,
- . .
, P2P .
.
, - . : -
, .
100, 10/.
.

794 7.
N , N/,
, -.
1/ , -
, .
, BitTorrent (,
Pirate Bay) , 10 . 10/
!
(
) , .
P2P ,

. P2P.
, P2P . CDN

, - - .
, ,
.
, . P2P ,
. , P2P
, .
, ,
. P2P
(, , ) , ,
.
P2P .
, . BitTorrent.
DHT (Distributed
Hash

Table

-), P2P
, .
.

BitTorrent
BitTorrent 2001

, .
, ,
, HTTP -.
www.bittorrent.org.
(), BitTorrent, , ,
, .
, , , ..

7.5.

795

, ,
.
1. , , ?
2. , ?
3. , ?
, ,
, . , BitTorrent, , (torrent).
, , ,
, . , , , , -,
.
, . ,
. , (chunks), . , 64
512. ,
160- SHA-1 . ,
SHA-1 8.
. -
, ,
.
, , . (ttacker) ,
, .
(swarm). ,
, , , .
, ,
.
, .7.42.
, . ,
, . (seeders
). , , ;
, .
,
, .
.7.42. - , . ( ) .

796 7.
. -
.

.7.42. BitTorrent

, .
, .
. ,
. ,
. ,
, .
, .
. CDN , . P2P .
, , . ,
- , (freeriders) (leechers ). ,
. P2P, ,
(Sroiu ., 2003), BitTorrent .
, BitTorrent, ,
.
, .
, ,
, .
, . ,
, (unchoked).
- .

7.5.

797

, . .
, ,
, (choked).
, .
, - (tit-for-tat), .

(Pitek ., 2007). , ,
Bit-Torrent.
, BitTorrent
. , , , , , ,
, ..
BitTorrent (, 2003) , www.bittorrent.org.

DHT -
P2P 2000-
. P2P , CDN
. ,
.
(, P2P). P2P
, , ,
.
BitTorrent, ,
.
. ,
, . ,
, ,
, , .., , , . ? ,
, .
. , .
( )
, .
, , P2P ,
. . -,
. ,
. -,
. ,
. -, ,

798 7.
.
.
: . 2001.
Chord (Stoic ., 2001), CAN (Rtnsmy ., 2001), Pastry (Rowstron Drusel,
2001) Tapestry (Zho ., 2004).
, Kdemli, (Mymounkov
Mzieres, 2002). DHT (Distributed Hash Tables -), . -,
, , .
DHT
, . P2P-, . DHT
P2P-. P2P
P2P-.
DHT Chord. , , BitTorrent, . Chord.
, ,
. , ,
. , , - . ,
, ,
. , ,
. , , ,
. , DHT,
, (
BitTorrent) ?
Chord DHT n . ,
BitTorrent . IP-,
. . ,
.
Chord , ,
, IP- , . , m-
, .
, - hash m-
. Chord hash SHA-1. -,
, BitTorrent. , 8. , ,
160- . ,
IP- 160- , (node identifier).
.7.43, m=5. ( .) ,

7.5.

799

. 1, 4, 7, 12, 15, 20,


27 ; .
successor (k) , k , . ,
successor (6)=7, successor (8)=12, successor (22)=27.
160-
hash ( SHA-1). .
, torrent ( ) ,
key=_hash(torrent). hash.
, , (torrent, my-IP-address).

.7.43. 32 , ().
. 1, 4 12.
. ()

, successor (hash(torrent)) my-IP-address. , . -

800 7.
p -
p , .
, DHT ,
, . torrent,
, key, successor (key), IP- ,
. ;
IP- ,
BitTorrent.
, . IP- ,
,
. IP- . , .7.43 7
4, 12 7.
.
, IP- , . , .
, , ,
, , IP-
.
, , , n/2.
, , Chord
(finger table). m , 0 m1, .
: start IP- ,
.7.43,. i k :
start= k + 2i (mod 2m),
IP- =successor (start[i]).
, IP-
.
key k
. key k successor (k), , key, successor (k), .
, start key. IP-
. key, , ,
. ,
, log2n.
key=3 1. 1 ,
3 4, 4,
IP- 4.
key=16 1. 16
1 4, .

7.6.

801

16 9, IP- 9- ,
12. 12 ,
16, 14, IP- 15.
. 15 , 16 (20), 1, IP- 20.
, Chord . ,
, ,
, . . r
, -
IP- successor (r). successor(r)
. r
. , .7.43 24,
successor (24), 27. 27 (20). , 20
24 , 27 24 . , 27 2124,
24. 24 .
. , ,
, successor. , . ,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
s , s1
.
DHT, . , ,
: ? , Chord (Stoic et l., 2001).
, DHT . BitTorrent DHT , . , , ,
Dynamo Amzon, DHT (DeCndi ., 2007).

7.6.
ARPANET .
IP-.
. ARPANET

802 7.
,
.
, (DNS).
, , . DNS
, com, edu . DNS ,
. DNS-,
IP-,
.
.
, .
, RFC5321 5322.
ASCII- , MIME-.

, -. SMTP, TCP-
- -.
, .
, HTML
,
TCP- .
, (, PHP),
(, JavaScript). -,
. , ,
- .

.
,
. -
.
- . XML
, HTML ,
.
SOAP

RPC
-, XML- HTTP.
2000.
- . ( RTP/UDP RTP/HTTP/TCP).
. , .
. IP,
, .

803

- .
. DNS,
. .
P2P-
, .
,
.

1. . ?
2. 7.1 laserjet . ?
3. , DNS-
. ?
4. DNS
UDP

TCP

.
DNS
- , . , , ?
5.
.
com. 253 .
?
6. DNS IP-? ?
7. , -, . com ,
, . (
). , .
8. Content-Return:. , ,
. ?
9. e-mail, .
(, , ).
, ,
.
10. , , . e-mail
, @, com.
. , , . , .
@_.com, .
.
11. 4560.
base64? CR+LF 110,
.

804 7.
12. MIME, .
.
13. , MP3-, ,
, 1,
4. , RFC5322
MIME?
14. ,
, , ,
, .
.
,
. , ?
15. , RFC5322,
.
. , SMTP
. .
16. ? , ,
? .
17. Chord
. .
, . .
18. IMAP
. , , , IMAP,
? .
19. Chord .7.43. , 18 .
, , ?
20. Webmail: POP3, IMAP , ? -
, ? , ,
?
21. - MIME. ?
22. , MIME- Internet Explorer Firefox
? .
23. , URL,
DNS IP-. , , DNS- .
24. ,
, FTP,
. ftp/pub/forReview/newProof.pdf. URL ?
25. .7.10 www.aportal.com
cookie. : cookie 4, (, ,
, , ,
, , ..),

805

4. , .
26.
. cookie-,
. ,
. ? ?
?
27. HTML-:
<h1 title=this is the header> HEADER 1 </h1>

1) TITLE ?
2) TITLE ALT?
28. HTML ? .
29. HTML-, _@_.com. , ?
30. XML- ;
, .
31. : (1) (2) PHP- JavaScript :
1) , 1752.
2) -.
3) , .
32. JavaScript, ,
2, , . JavaScript if while C Java.
: %.
x, Math.sqrt(x).
33. HTML- :
<html><body>
<a href="www.info-source.com/welcome.html"></a>
</body></html>

, TCP-,
. .
34. If-Modified-Since ,
. ,
, , .., HTML. ,
JPEG HTML?

.
35. (,
)
- .
2000, ?
36. ? , ? , ?

806 7.
37. , CD .
, ?
38. .7.18, , - 4-
9 . ( ) ,
. ,
, 1/32, 2/32 3/32 ?
39.
-? , ,
( )? , ?
40. , 100
. 1/. 2,
?
41. IP ,
? .
42.
1200800 16 50 ?
43. MPEG ? .
44. , 50 000 .
. , 21:00. ?
4 /, -12
?
45. , , 10 000 . , 1000 ,
9000 . ?
, .
46. , , www.microsoft.com,
, .
.
47. , www..com,
.
- (, www.cosmos.
com , ). : , , , . ,
, .
48. 6.1, -,
GET HTTP 1.1. Host. , ,
, .


,
, .
. ,
, , -, ,
.
, , .
, . , , , ,
, .
,
. ,
,
. , ,
,
, .
- , - .
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,
, .
, . , , ,
. , ,
, (,
), - . , .

: , ,
. (-

808 8.
) .
. , ,

. . ,

89 , , 69? , , ,
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8.1.

(, ,
) ,
.
.
, .
,
. .
. . . ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
, , . .
, .
. ,
.

8.

809

, ,
. , - .
.
(, , ) ,
. ,
, .
.
, , .
,
, .
, ,
,
. , , (,
-), .
, (link encryption),
.
,
, .
IP-.
,
.
.
, .
, , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
- , ,
, , ,
. , - -, ,
. :
,
, PIN-, , , , (
). .

810 8.
(Anderson, 2008) ,
,
. , ,
. ,
,
, .
, , .
. 8.1
. (8.28.5)
, .
, .
,
.
, ,
. , , , (
). , , , , ,
, ,
, , ..
9 (Tanenbaum, 2007).

.
, .

8.1.
(cryptography) ,
. ,
.
.
(Kahn, 1995).
.(Kaufman .,
2002). ,
(Stinson, 2002). ( )
(Burnett Paine, 2001).

. (cipher) , . (code), , .

8.1.

811

, , , . ,
. -
, .
, --- (chay-dagahi-nail-tsaidi :
) . (
), ,
. ,
.
1945 San Diego Union :
, ,
, . .
,
. ,
, ,
.

8.1.1.

: , , , ,
. . .
.
, , . ,

, .
, ,
. 1, .8.1.
, , (plaintext),
,
(key). ,
(ciphertext), . ,
(intruder)
. ,
1

, ,
. , . . .

812 8.
, ,
, . (
),
, ,
( ).
(cryptanalysis).
() ()
(cryptology).

.8.1. ( )

,
.
C=EK(P), , P K C. P=DK(C)
C .
,
DK(EK(P))=P.
, E D . .
, , () , , .
,
( ) . ,
, E D
.8.1. - , ,
, ,
, .
, , , .

8.1.

813

.
,
. ,
, , . ,
,
. , ,
, (Kerckhoffs principle). 1883
(Auguste Kerckhoff, 1883).
, :
; .
.
, (security
by obscurity), . , ,
-,
.
, , -, .
,
. . ,
. , . 100 .
1000 ,
. , (work
factor) .
.
( )
.
, 64 .
128.
, ,
, 256.
. -,
. ,
(ciphertext-only), . -,

.
(known plaintext). ,
,
,
(chosen plaintext).

814 8.
: ABCDEFGHJKL?,
.
,
, (
). .
. , ,
, login:.

, .
, ,
,
.
: . .

8.1.2.
, (substitution cipher),
.
(Julius Caesar)
(Caesar cipher).
. a D, b E,
c F, , z C. , attack DWWDFN.
, .

, k . k
. , , ,
.

. ,
:
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
: Q W E R T Y U I O P A S D F G H J K L Z X C V B N M

(mono
alphabetic substitution cipher), 26- ,
. attack ,
QZZQEA.
, ,
, , 26!4 1026 .
. 1
, , , , 10 000 .

8.1.

815


. . , e .
t, o, a, n, i . .
( digrams) th, in, er, re an.
,
(trigrams), the, ing, and ion.
, , ,
.
e,
t.
- tXe, , X h.
, thYt , , ,
Y a. ,
aZW, , , and.
, , , , , .
. ,
,
( ):
CTBMN BYCTC BTJDS QXBNS GSTJC BTSWX CTQTZ CQVUJ
QJSGS TJQZZ MNQJS VLNSX VSZJU JDSTS JQUUS JUBXJ
DSKSU JSNTK BGAQJ ZBGYQ TLCTZ BNYBN QJSW

, , finan
cial (). , i ,
,
, .
12 6, 15, 27, 31, 42, 48, 56, 66, 70, 71, 76 82.
, 31 42, ( n ) .
a 31.
, , financial 30.
,
.

8.1.3.
, , , . , (transposition ciphers),
, . . 8.2 .
, .
MEGABUCK. . -

816 8.
,
. . . , .

. 8.2.

, ,
. E, T, A, O, I, N . ., ,
. , , , .
.
. , , , - milliondollars.
, , , MO, IL, LL, LA, IR OS. O
M ( 4),
, . ,
: MD, IO, LL, LL, IA, OR NS. ,
.
, .
. k ,
k(k 1) ,

. .
. ,
, . ,
. ,
(, million milloin,
, ).

. -

8.1.

817

, ,
. , . 8.2 64- . 4, 12, 20, 28, 36, 44,
52, 60, 5, 13, , 62. , , a,
, , f, . .

8.1.4.
, , . .
, .
, , ASCII. , 2 ( , XOR).
,
, .
, (one-time pad), , ,
- .
: ,
,
.
. 8.3.
I love you ( ) 7- ASCII-.
, 1,
2 . .
, , , .
,
2 (. . 8.3), Elvis lives ( ). , , ,
,
. , 11 ASCII . , ,
: .
, . -, , ,
. ,
, . , , ,
.
, , ,
. -

818 8.
.
, , ,
.

. 8.3.

. DVD,
. ,
-
. , ,
, - 30
. , DVD
, .


, .
, .
, , .
, . ,
BB84, ,
(Bennet Brassard, 1984).
, , .
(principals), . , ,
, .

, ,
(Rivest ., 1978).
.
,

8.1.

819

( , , , ). ,
, . .
, , .
: , DVD?
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.
, . , ,
. ,
, . ,
, .
,
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, .
, .

.
, .
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45, ,
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0, 1.
.
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( , ,
), . , -

820 8.
. ,
, ,
, . ,
: , , , , . . ,
1001110010100110, , ,
. 8.4, .
, . , ,
(qubits).

. 8.4.

, , , . 8.4, .
, . , , , 45 ,
, .
. , , ,
, .
. 8.4, .
, , ?
,
, ( ),

8.1.

821

. . 8.4, . , ,
. 8.4, .
, , , . ,
, , . .
, ! ,
, ,
. ( ), , . , ,
, . , , . 8.4, .
, , ,
, , , , , . ,
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 13. (. . 8.4, ) ,
1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 14.
(1, 3, 8 12) , . (7,
10, 11 14) , .
, ,
01011001 (. 8.4, ), , , 01?1??0? (. 8.4, ).
, , , ,
.
. ,
1024 , , , 2048 . 2048-
. ,
. ,
, , (privacy amplification).
,
.
. , , ,
. -, ,
, . , ,
, ,
. , .
, , , ,
. ,
, , . , -

822 8.
. ,
, , , ,
. (
), ,
, (,
, , . .).
,
, ,
.
,
.

60 , . ,
.
(Mullins, 2002).

8.1.5.


, , .
.

,
, ,
. . , 60 000 . ,
, ,
16 ,
3 (1 2
).
, .
, , , ,
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. .
,
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,
. , 3- ,

8.1.

823

. , 837 540
, ,
. , (
) ,
, .
. ,
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.

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, .
.
3- , , , .
-, .
12-
. :
1:
.
, , ,
. , , . ,
,
. ,
,
,
.
(CRC) , ,
,
. -,
. ,
CRC.
, ,
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. ,
, .

824 8.
.

, ,
, - . ,
.
. ,
, . , .


, , , ,
. ,
.
,
. ,
:
2:

, , , 10 .
10 , .
10 .
.

8.2.

, , ,
. . :
, , .
, , (symmetric-key algorithms). ,
. . 8.1
. , (block ciphers),
n-
n- .
( ), ( ).

8.2.

825

,
, .
. . 8.5,
, P- ( P permutation )
.
(01234567), P- 36071245. P-
( )
, ,
- .
: , .
, .

. 8.5. : P- (); S- ();


()

( ) S- (S substi
tution , ), . 8.5, .
3- , 3-
.
1. 0.
P-, S-.
3-
. 01234567 24506713
. 0 2, 1 4 . . , P- S-
.
,
( 1 ),
P- 1 .
,
, . 8.5, .
(product cipher).
(P1) 12 .
, -

826 8.
(S1 S4). S-
S-. ,
S- (
S- 256- ), S- (, S-
212 = 4096 ).
, . ,
.
, k-
k- , . k
64 256.

8.2.1. DES
1977
, IBM, . , DES (Data Encryption Standard
), . ,
. .
DES . 8.6, .
64 , 64-
. , 56- , 19 . 64
. .
32 . 16
, .
, , .
.
.
, , . 8.6,.
32
32 .
. 32 2
Ki.
.
.
32 Ri 1 48- E. E Ki 2. ,
S- 4- .
, 8 4 P-.
16 .
56- .

8.2.

827

28 ,
, . Ki
56 .
56 48 , .

. 8.6. DES: ;

DES , (whitening). ,
2 64- ,
DES, 2 64- .
( ,
). ,
.
:
( ).
DES
. (Lucifer), IBM, , IBM 128-
, 56-.
- ,

828 8.
IBM NSA (National Security Agency, ),
.
,
:
: NSA?
: No Such Agency .
IBM 128
56 DES.
, , , NSA
DES,
. , ,

DES. (IEEE) , .
.
1977 ,
, (Diffie) (Hellman),
DES $20 .

256 56- .
, $10 000
(Kumar et al., 2006).

DES (Triple DES)


1979 IBM , DES ,
, (Tuchman, 1979). ,
8732, . 8.7.
. ( Encryption
) DES K1. DES ( Decryption), K2. ,
K1.

. 8.7. DES (); ()

. -, ,
? -, EDE(Encrypt

8.2.

829

Decrypt Encrypt ), EEE (Encrypt


Encrypt Encrypt )? ,
, 112 ( ,
). 168 , .
, DES- .
64- .
. EDE EEE , , ,
, K1 = K2. ,
,
,
IBM .

8.2.2. AES
- , DES ( )
.
(NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology)
,
, ,
. NIST , DES, , , ,
- , , ,
.
- , ,
, .
, NIST : . 1997
, , AES
(Advanced Encryption Standard ). ,
, :
1. .
2. .
3. 128, 192 256.
4. , .
5. .

830 8.
15 .
,
.
1998 .
, ,
, , , (
). ,
.
2000 NIST , Rijndael
. Rijndael ( -)
: + .
2001 Rijndael ,
, FIPS197. , Rijndael ,

( NSA, - ),
Rijndael . AES
(, Intel).
Rhindael 128256
32. .
AES , 128,
128, 192 256. -
192- , AES :
128- 128- , 128-
256- .
, 128/128, , ,
. 128- ,
21283 1038.
,
,
1010. ,
.

Rijndael
, Rijndael ,
, .
, .
DES, Rijndael . , ,
10 128- 128- ;
14. , DES,

8.2.

831

, .
Rijndael 8.1. ,
. , ,
,
. , . Ferguson . (2010).
8.1. Rijndael
#define
#define
#define
#define
typedef

LENGTH 16
/*
NROWS 4
/*
NCOLS 4
/*
ROUNDS 10
/*
unsigned char byte

*/
state */
state */
*/
/8- */

rijndael(byte plaintext[LENGTH], byte ciphertext[LENGTH], byte key[LENGTH])


{
int r;
/* */
byte state[NROWS][NCOLS];
/* */
struct{byte k[NROWS][NCOLS];} rk[ROUNDS + 1];
/* */
expand_key(key,rk);
/* */
copy_plaintext_to_text(state, plaintext);
/* */
xor_roundkey_into_state(state, rk[0]);
/* 2
*/
for(r=1; r<=ROUNDS; r++) {
substitute(state);
/* S- */
rotate_rows(state);
/* i i */
if(r < ROUNDS) mix_columns(state);
/* */
xor_roundkey_into_state(state, rk[r]);
/* 2
*/
}
copy_state_to_ciphertext(ciphertext, state);
/* */
}

rijndael : plaintext 16 , , ciphertext 16 , , key 16 , .


state,
NROWS * NCOLS. 128-
4 4 . 16 .
state
. .
.
. state , .
11
, (state). rk
, . -

832 8.
, 10 10 (
).
, .
,
2 . (Daemen
Rijmen, 2002).
state ,
.
4 : 4 0, 1 . . , , .
12 4 4 . 8.8.

. 8.8. state rk

: rk[0]
2 state. ,
16 state 2 rk[0].
. 10 , state .
() . 1 state
. S-,
S-. . DES, S-, Rijndael S- .
2 . 0 0 ( ), 1 1 , 2 2 ,
3 3 . .
, . 8.5.
3 . ,
.
, GF(28).
, , -

8.2.

833


2 (Daemen Rijmen, 2002, Appendix E).
, 4 2
state .
, . ,
, ,
.
,
. 2
700 /.
MPEG-2 .
.

8.2.3.
, AES ( DES, )
, , ( AES 128- , DES 64-).
. ,
100 abcdefgh,
DES, 100 .
.


,
, () DES , 64-
, 128-. , AES
.
8 (64 )
.
64 . (Electronic Code Book mode ECB mode),
,
( ).
. 8.9 , .
32- , , : 16 ,
8 8 . 8-
( 0 15) DES.
.
, , , .

834 8.
, , , .
, ?

. 8.9. , 16 DES-

. , ,
12 ( ) 4 ( ). 12,
. ( 8
, , , ; , , , .)


, ,
, (
) .
(cipher block chaining). , . 8.10,
2
.
. ,
.
2 , IV (Initialization
Vector), .
. 8.10. C0 = E(P0 XOR IV). C1 = E(P1 XOR C0) . .
P0 = IV XOR D(C0) . . ,
i 0 i 1,

. ,
, , .
.
, , . .

8.2.

835

. 8.10. : ;


, ,
,
64- . , , .

(cipher feedback mode) () DES,
.8.11. AES , 128- .
, 0 9 . , . 8.11, , DES
64- , 64-
.
2 P10. .
8 . C2 , C10
C9. , ,

-. ,
.

. , , -

836 8.
, , 2 10 10,
, 2 10 10.
, . . 8.11, .

. 8.11. : ; .

, .
8 , , .
,
. , .


,
64 , .
, ()
(stream cipher mode). , . ,
. . .
( ) , (keystream),
2
. , .8.12, .
: .
. ,
, . . 8.12, .

8.2.

837


.
, . ,

.

. 8.12. : ;

(, )
, .

(keystream reuse attack). , 0 , 2 0 0. , Q0,
( Q0 XOR K0). ,
,
2 0 XOR Q0, .
2 .
( ), . ,
2 ,
. , ,
e . . ,
2 ,
.


, , : .
, , . ,
, . :
.

838 8.

. . , ,
. , .
(counter
mode). . 8.13. .
, 2 .
,
.
.

. 8.13.

,
, . ,
( , ), ,
. ,
( ,
, ). ,
, 2 .
,
2 .
, .
, ,
. ,
.

8.2.4.
AES (Rijndael) DES ,
. ( ,
AES , , ,
, ). ,

8.2.

839

. - .
. 8.2. , , AES Twofish,
.
8.2.

DES

IBM

56

RC4

(Ronald Rivest)

12048

RC5

(Ronald Rivest)

128256

AES (Rijndael) (Daemen)


(Rijmen)

128256

Serpent

(Anderson),
(Biham) (Knudsen)

128256

DES

IBM

168

Twofish

(Bruce Schneier)

128256

8.2.5.
, .
(Biha Shamir,
1997). .
,
. . ,
,
, .
, , (Matsui, 1994). DES 243
.
2
. ,
, .
. ,
, .
(Matsui).

. 3 -

840 8.
, 0 . ,
, .
, , , n-
(, 100)
, , .
.
, ,
.
.
(if), . then else , ,
,
. .
, .
,
, ,
.

8.3.
. , ,
, . 1976
,
( ).
. , ,
:
,
.
1976 , (Diffie)
(Hellman), ,
,
. E D ( )
.
1. D(E(P))=P.
2. D E.
3. E .
, D
E(P), P.

8.3.

841

. . , ,
, ,
. ,
.
. , , , ,
. , (public-key
cryptography). , , ,
. , , EA. ()
, ,
DA. , EB, DB.
,
, . , EA EB, . (,
, , .)
P, EB(P) .
DB,
DB(EB(P))=P. EB(P),
, ,
DB EB . , EA(R). , .
. , ,
, ,
.
(public) (private), (secret) , .

8.3.1. RSA
, ,
.
, , .
(Rivest ., 1978).
: RSA (Rivest, Shamir,
Adleman).
. .
Rivest

, Shamir


Adleman
2002
ACM
(Turing Award). RSA ,
,

842 8.
, 1024 ( 128 ). -
.
RSA .
, .
.
1. p q ( 1024).
2. n=p q z = (p1) (q1).
3. d, z.
4. e, e d z 1.
, .
( ) ,
, P, 0 P < n. ,
k , k ,
2k < n.
P, C = Pe (mod n). C, P = Cd (mod n). , P .
, e n. d n.
, (e, n), (d, n).

. () n,
p q, , z. e d
. , , , 300 ,
, .
(Rivest) ,
500 1025 , . ,
, 1 .
, 1016 . ,
500 ,
p q.
RSA . 8.14.
p =3, q = 11, n = 33, z = 20. d
7, 20 7 .
e , 7e = 1 (mod 20), ,
e = 3. C P
C=P3 (mod 33). P = C7 (mod
33). SUZANNE.
, P
33,
. ,
. p q 2512, n

8.3.

843

21024. 1024
128 8 DES 16 AES.

. 8.14. RSA

, RSA
ECB (Electronic
Code Book ),
. , - .
RSA
, -
AES DES. RSA ,
, .

8.3.2.
RSA ,
.
(Merkle Hellman, 1978).
, . , .
, . , ,
.

, , .
.
(Ralph Merkle) , $100 , .
(Adi Shamir), S RSA, .
. $1000.
(Ron Rivest), R RSA,

844 8.
. $10 000 ,
A, (Leonard Adleman), .
,
.
. , , (El Gamal, 1985) (Schnorr, 1991).
, ,
(Menezes Vanstone, 1993). , . ,
.

8.4.
(, .)
. .
, ,
.
. ,
,
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .
, , . ,
, , ,
, . ,
( ).
. ,
, . , ,
. , , . , (nonrepudiation).
, , .
,
, ,
, . , , .

8.4.

845

8.4.1.
, , , ,
(Big Brother, BB).
. , , , KA, .
P, , KA ( ),
KA(B,RA,t,P), B , RA ,
, t , . , .8.15. ,
, . ,
, KBB(A,
t, P). , .

8.15.

, ?
, ( ,
). , , ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
KA,
.
A: KBB(A, t, P).
, , ,
P . ( ) . ,
, . .
,
.8.15, ,
. .
, , ,
RA. . , ,
.

846 8.
RA, , , .
, , .

8.4.2.
,
, , . ,
.
, . . , ,

.
, . ,
,
D(E(P))=P, E(D(P))=P. , ,
RSA, .
P, EB(DA(P)). , () DA, EB, .
, ,
DB DA(P), .8.16. ,
EA, .

. 8.16. ,

, , ,
, P.
, P DA(P). ,
, DA,
EA. , ,
.
,
.

8.4.

847

, , , ,
, , . -,
, , DA
. ,
, , .
, , ,
. . . , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
,
. , , , .
, ,
DA(P) EA , P. .
. RSA .
, .
1991 NIST
DSS (Digital Signature Standard)
-, ,
.
, ,
. DSS , :
c (, -, );
c ( 10 40 RSA );
c ( - );
c ( 512).
,
1024.
.

8.4.3.
,
: .
. , ,

848 8.
, ,
. ,
.
-,
. -,
(message digest, MD), .
1. P - MD(P).
2. MD(P) P.
3. P P',
MD(P')=MD(P).
4. .
3, - ,
, 128, .
4, - .
, .
,
.
. , ,
, .8.15.
P KBB(A, t, P), MD(P), MD P.
KBB(A, t, MD(P)) ,
KB, KBB(A, t, P).

P, KBB(A, t, MD(P)).
KBB(A,t,MD(P)),
MD(P), ,
P, . , ,
, .
.
,
.8.17.
. .
P, , MD(P).

8.4.

849

.8.17.

SHA-1
, . SHA-1 (Secure Hash
Algorithm1 ) (NIST, 1993).
, ,
. SHA-1
NIST ( FIPS180-1). SHA-1
512 160.
,
.8.18. SHA-1,
160- SHA-1. (
RSA) .

.8.18. SHA-1 RSA

- SHA-1 ,
, H. , .
, , ,
H , ,
. , , , , .8.18. , ,
, .

850 8.
, SHA-1.
SHA-1 ,
( 64),
, 512. 64- , ( ), ( ) 64 . .8.19, ,
, (
, ).
( , ).
, , SPARC IBM360 . ,
, SHA-1
.

SHA
-1 32- (H0 H4), -.
.8.19,. ,
.

.8.19. , , 512 ();


(); ()

M0 Mn1. 16
W 80, .8.19,. 64
:
Wi=S1(Wi3 XOR Wi8 XOR Wi14 XOR Wi16) (16<i<79),
Sb(W) 32- W b.
H0 H4 A E.
- :
for(i=0;i<80;i++){
temp = S5(A) +fi(B, C, D) + E + Wi + Ki;
E=D; D=C; C=S30(B); B=A; A=temp;
}

Ki . fi
:

8.4.

fi(B,C,D)=(B AND C) OR (NOT B AND D)

851

(0<i<19)

fi(B,C,D)=B XOR C XOR D

(20<i<39)

fi(B,C,D)=(B AND C) OR (B AND D)OR (C AND D)

(40<i<59)

fi(B,C,D)=B XOR C XOR D

(60<i<79)

80 A E H0H4 .
512- .
W , H
. , ..,
512- . 32- H 160-
-. SHA-1 RFC3174.
SHA-1 224, 256-, 384512- -. SHA-2.
, SHA-1, ,
SHA-1. SHA-2
, .

MD5
. MD5
(Message Digest 5 5) , (Ronald Rivest).
448 512.
, 64- , 512.
128- ,
.
. 512-
128- .
. , , (
),
, ( ) . , . 128-
.
MD5 , (Sotirov et al., 2008).
, , . ,
MD5 ; ,
, .
, .

852 8.

8.4.4.
, .
, , , , m , 2m . , 2m/2 , ,
(birthday attack),
(Yuval, 1979).
,
. : , 1/2? , 100. ,
, 23. ,
: 23
(2322)/2 = 253 ,
1/365. .
, n (,
. .) k ( , . .), n(n1)/2 . n(n1)/2 > k,
, ,
. ,
n > k , 64- (
), 232 .
. , .
,
. , , .
, ,
,
. .
, ,
. ,
, 64- .
.
, , .
32 .
,
[ | ] [ | ] .
, [ | ] [ | ]. [ | ] .
[ | ] . [ | ] , [ | ]

8.4.

853

[ | ] [ | ]
[ | ] [ | ] .
[ | ] [ | ] [ |
]. [ | ] [ | ]
. [ | ] [ | ] [
| ].
[ | ] , [ | ] . [ | ] [ | ] . [ |
] [ | ] [ | ]
[ | ] [ | ] , [ | ], 2000 .
, [ | ] .
.
, ,
:
,
[ | ] [ | ] [ | ] . , [ | ] [ | ]. [ | ] .
[ | ] . [ |
] [ | ], ,
. [
| ] [ | ] .
[ | ] , - [ | ]
[ | ]. [ | ] [
| ] . [ | ]
, [ | ] [ | ]
[ | ] ,
[ | ].
[ | ] , [ | ] . [ | ]
[ | ] .
, [ | ] [ | ] [ | ] [ | ] , [ |
] 2000 . , [ |
] [ | ] .
232
, . ,
. ,

. , .
A, B.
A . ,
, , 64- , . B ( A, ).

854 8.
,
B, , ,
, . ,

, . ( -: . , .
. . , .) SHA-1
,
1 , 32 00,
280 , 100%-
. , 1 , 32 000
2 .

8.5.

, , , . ,

.
- :
, ? , , : -.
, : , -. ? URL
. DNS- GET,
. 8.20. , . , ,
,
. ET,
, , , . ,
. ,
.

. 8.20.

8.5.

855

8.5.1.
- .
,
, .
, - .
, ,
. -, ,
() .
,
, . ,
, (CA
Certification Authority).
:
, , . ,
.
, , . 8.21,
SHA-1 .
.

. 8.21.


( ).
. ,
:
. , , ( SHA-1 ).
, . 8.20.
, , ?
, , , , : .
, . ,

856 8.
SHA-1, -,
,
.
, ,
. , . ,
, , .
.
,
. , :
18 .
, , .
.
-, , .
, ( ). ,
,
.
.
:
- . .
, .
( )
, . ,

, , .
. , .

8.5.2. X.509
- ,
. ITU . X.509 . , 1988 , ,
.
X.509 OSI,
, , ,
. , , IETF,
, ,

8.5.

857

,
, IETF OSI
- . IETF- X.509 RFC 5280.
, X.509 .
. 8.3. , ,
, . RFC
2459.
, Money Bank, X.500-
:
/C=US/O=MoneyBank/OU=Loan/CN=Bob/

C , O , OU , CN . .
X.500 ,
bob@moneybank.com ,
, ,
. , , DNS
X.500, .
OSI ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax
Notation1 1).
, ,
. X.509 (Ford
Baum, 2000).
8.3. X.509

Version

X.509

Serial number

Signature algorithm
Issuer

X.500-

Validity period

Subject name

Public key

Issuer ID

,
()

Subject ID

Extensions

Signature

(
)

858 8.

8.5.3.

, .
- , , . ,
,
, . , , ,
. ,
, , - .
,
. , .
, ? - . , -
, - , ,
.
. PKI (Public Key Infrastructure ).
PKI;
.
PKI , ,
, , . , .
PKI ,
.8.22. ,
, . (root)
().
( Regional
Authorities, RA), , . .
. ,
, (),
X.509 .

, .
.
: ,
.

8.5.

859

. 8.22. PKI (); ()

, PKI . ,
, .
, 5. 5.
, , .
5 .
, 2
5. , 5, , 5, ,
.
2 .
,
2. ,
2. ,
, - .
? ? . , . ,
.
, . ,
5 2, . ,
, .
. , . ,
, (chain of trust)
(certification path).
.
, .
, ,
. ,
100

860 8.
, (trust anchors).
, ,
.
,
, . , , ,
, ,

.
( ,
) .

.
( , -
). . ( ), .
DNS. , , ,
(DNS) IP-.

DNS

IP
- ?
- , ,
X.509.
X.500 .
, ,
, .

, , , ,
. (, ). : ,
, -
. ,
, , , . , -
. .
(CRL Certificate Revocation
List). .
, CRL
, .

8.6.

861

, .
, .
, ,
, , ,
. .
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. , , , .
,
.
?
, . , (
).
, .
,
.
,
. ,
5 .
.
,
.

8.6.
.
.
.
,
.
, ,

, , .
,
.

862 8.

8.6.1. IPsec
IETF
. ,
, , ,
. ,
(
). , - / -, , , .
( ).
,
. ,

. ,
.
,
.
- ,
/
. :
, .
, , ,
, , .
IPsec (IP security
IP-), RFC2401, 2402, 2406 .
(
). ,
, . RFC2410
, , .
IPsec , . ,
, .
: , , ( ).
,
.
? ,
. IPsec
, .

8.6.

863

?
TCP-, , ..
, IPsec ,
IP. , , .
- . , , .
. IPsec (Security
Aconnection SA).
, .
,
. ,
,
.
IPsec .
, , . , ISAKMP
(Internet Security and Key Management Protocol - ), . ISAKMP
. IKE (Internet Key
Exchange ). 2 IKE,
, Perlman Kaufmn,
(2000).
IPsec . IPsec
IP. Protocol IP , , IPsec ( TCP).
IPsec , , ,
, , ,
.
IP-
IP- . ,
- .
, , ,
. VPN (Virtual Private Network
).
, .
IPsec. : .
, TCP- , , ,
. , ,
. ,

864 8.
- ,
.
. ,
. ,
IP-,
. .
(AH
Authentication Header). .
( ). AH
.8.23. IPv4 IP
( ) TCP. IPv6
. .
IPv6.
, ,
, . 8.23.

. 8.23. IPsec IPv4

. ,
IP 51, ,
. TCP (6). 32- 2.
.
. . ITU, IETF, , ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
, (
TCP ).

8.6.

865

. .
232 , .
, , . .
,
,
. IPsec
, ,
. . , , .
HMAC (Hashed Message Authentication Code
).
, SHA-1 RSA.
AH . ,
, . ,
AH IP,
, , . , , , .
IP- ,
.
IPsec ESP (Encapsulating Security
Payload ).
.8.24, , .

. 8.24. ESP: ; ESP

ESP 32- : . AH. ,


, ,
(
).

866 8.
ESP, , HMAC,
, ,
. .8.24.
. , HMAC . Ethernet
, .
,
. ,
.
, ESP , , ,
, ?
.
, ESP . ESP
, ,
, . , IP,
ESP. .
, , , ESP

, , ,
. ,
- .

8.6.2.

, , , .
.
. ,
, , ,
, , ..
.
,
, , ,
, ,
. , .
, , , .
IPsec. . , .

, .

8.6.

867

(firewalls, )
.
, . ,

, / .
: ,
,
( ), . 8.25.
.

.8.25. ,

(packet filter).
. , ,
. .
,
, ,
.
TCP/IP IP- . .
, 25 , 80 HTTP.
. ,
IP-, TCP 79.
Finger ,
.
. , , . ,
. ,
DMZ (DeMilitarized Zone ),
. 8.25. DMZ , .
. - DMZ,
, . , TCP 80,

868 8.
, , ,
. -
,
-. .
, ,
,
. (statefull firewalls) TCP/IP, .
, , , -
,
.
,
.

(application-level gateway). TCP, ,
. HTTP-, ,
HTTP-,
. ,
, ,
.
, , , , .
,
.
, ,
. . ,
, ,
. ,
.
, ( ).
IPSEC . ,
, , .
. .
.
, , , .

, . ,
(,
), , ,
. ,

8.6.

869

,
. , 75%
, ,
(, ), (Verizon, 2009).
,
. .
. , ,
. , ,
- , , .
, . , ,
, ,
. , ,
, .
,
- . , SYN .
SYN + ACK. ,

-. , ,
. ,
, ,
DoS (Denial of Service ()). , .
DoS .
.
, ,
.
, , ,
. DDoS (Distributed Denial of
Service ). .
,
, , .

8.6.3.
,
, .

870 8.
.
. , ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, , . ,
T1 ( !), T3
. , ,
( , ). , ,
, .

(VPN Virtual Private Networks), , ,
. , ;
, ,
.
VPN .
, ,
, . 8.26, . ,
, , ,
, .
, , VPN , . 8.26, .

, , , . IPsec
,
,
,
. .
,
, ,
. ,
, IPsec ESP .
.
, , , VPN,
. , , IPsec IP.
, IPsec.

8.6.

871

.8.26. . . . ,

, , VPN
-. MPLS (
5), VPN
-. VPN
.
VPN ,
. . , , ,
, -,
MPLS.
. VPN
(Lewis, 2006).

8.6.4.
, ,
, VPN , , . ,
, , . 802.11
, , ,
,
802.11, , , . .
. ,
.
( ),
. ,
, ,
, .

872 8.
Ethernet, , , , .
, : ,
. , ,
. ,
- .
(Nichols Lekkas, 2002).

802.11
802.11, 802.11i, , , .
WPA2 (WiFi Protected Access 2 WiFi,
2). WPA , 802.11i. WPA2. 802.11i,
, WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy ,
), 802.11.
WEP , , , , NIST AES. .
? , .
, WEP XOR . , ,
. , . ,
32- CRC.
,
.
WEP . , WEP , ,
AT&T (Stubblefield .,
2002). , Fluhrer . (2001)
,
WiFi . ,
WEP , , WEP
. ,
. 802.11i , , WEP
. 2004 .
802.11i, ,
. ,
WPA2. ,
,
, , ,
. ,
. 802.1X,

8.6.

873

, EAP (Extendable Authentication Protocol ) (RFC 3748), ,


. EAP ,
. ,
.
, . ,
. , ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
. ,
, .
, .
. .
,
.
.
,
. 8.27. -, AP (Access Point )
. , , , nonces ( ), number used once ,
. .
, MAC AP, ,
, Ks. ,
, .
, AP . AP, AP
, . ,
, . , MIC (Message Integrity Check
), . AP
, MIC ,
. MIC
, HMAC. MIC
, MAC (Medium Access Contol
).

874 8.

. 8.27. 802.11i

AP KG,
.
, AP , .
802.11 LAN.
, ,
AP ; .
,
.
, .
, ,
. 802.11i
, . WPA, ,
TKIP (Temporary Key Integrity Protocol )
. ,
802.11, , , ,
WEP. ,
CCMP. CCMP?
Counter mode with Cipher block chaining message authentification code protocol
.
CCMP. .
CCMP . AES 128 . .
, AES
. 8.2.3.

. .
, , ,
, 128 MIC.

8.6.

875

( ) MIC . , AP
.
.

Bluetooth
Bluetooth , 802.11,
,
, . , ,
Bluetooth.
, , , ,
, , .
, , ( ). ,
Bluetooth ,
. .
Bluetooth ( 2.1 )
, . 802.11,
( ), -
. ,
. :
.
Bluetooth .
,
, ,
, , , . ,
. Bluetooth 2.1 ,
.
(, ,
). (, ) ,
(, )
.
(passkeys). ,
1234 , , 104 . Bluetooth 2.1
, ,
.
, .
, : ,

876 8.
, . 128 ,
.
,
, ,
.
E0, SAFER+.
. SAFER+ AES,
,
. Bluetooth , AES;
, , Rijndael.
()
. 8.12. , 2
. . , E0,
RC4, (Jacobsson Wetzel, 2001).
, A5/1, GSM-, (Biryukov .,
2000). ( ) ,

.
, Bluetooth, , , . ,
, Bluetooth,
. Bluetooth
,
,
PIN- - .

8.7.
( ) ,
, , .


, . , .
, .
.
. ,
: , cookbook.old. .
1. ()?
2. cookbook.old ()?

8.7.

877

, , .
. , ,

.
.
, ,
.
(KDC
Key Distribution Center).
. ,
,
.
, , ,
, . , (session
key), .
(AES DES), .
.
,
,
,
, , , , .

. .

8.7.1. ,

,
KAB.
, () .
,
: ,
. - (challenge-response).
:
A B ;
Ri , ;
Ki , ;
KS .

878 8.
. 8.28. , A, , . , , ,
,
RB ( 2). ,
, KAB(RB) 3.
, , ,
KAB, .
, RB
(, 128- ), ,
.

. 8.28. -

, , . 1 RB.
, . : , . ,
, . KS,
, KAB.
, , .8.29.
. ,
. , .

. 8.29.

8.7.

879

, ? , : . ,
, .
, (reflection attack). ,
,
. , , , , .
. 8.30. , ,
, RT. , , RB. , , . ?
KAB(RB).

. 8.30.

3
, . KAB(RB) 4.
, .
, ,
- .
:
,
.
, .
1. ,
.
, .
2. : , , KAB KAB.
3. . , ,
.

880 8.
4. ,
,
( ).
, .
, .
, .8.28. ,
? .
. ,
,
, . , , , ,
? , .
, , .8.31.
1. , 2 . , ,
. 2, 3 :
? . :
, .

.8.31. , .8.28

? ,
. RA,
3. 5,
, 6 2.
,

8.7.

881

. 1 , 2 -
.
, . -
2, , 7 ( 1). , , , , RA2 8.
RA2 9. 1
, , 10. ? ,
9, . ,
.
, , .8.30.
. . , , .
(Bird ., 1993).
,
. ,
( ) .
, .8.32 (Bird ., 1993).
HMAC, IPsec.
nonce RA 1. nonce, RB, HMAC. HMAC
, nonce , , KAB.
- (, SHA-1) HMAC. 2
RA ( ), RB,
, KAB,
. , HMAC .

HMAC
, , , , KAB , , HMAC,
. HMAC,
nonce.

.8.32. HMAC

882 8.
: - ? ,

-, .8.30. HMAC
, . - .

HMAC
, . , ,
.

8.7.2. :

, , . , (
PKI ).
? ,
, , : , , ?
, ,
, , ,
, , . , ,
.
, , (Diffie
Hellman key exchange) (Diffie Hellman, 1976) .
, n g, (n1)/2
, , g . ,
n g . (, 1024-) x . ,
y.
, ,
(n, g, gx mod n), . 8.33. ,
gy mod n. , ,
x, (gy mod n)x mod n. ,
(gx mod n)y mod n.
gxy mod n. , , gxy mod n.
, . n g
. x y,
. , , gxmodn n, x
. .
( ) n=47 g=3.
x=8, y
=

10. . -

8.7.

883

(47, 3, 28), 38mod47=28.


17. 178mod47 4. 2810mod47
4. , , ,
4. , 3xmod47=28,
, .
,
.

. 8.33.

, : (47, 3, 28), ,
, ()?
. , ,
, . 8.34. , x y,
z. 1.
2,
n g ( ), z
x. 3.
4, .

8.34.

. : gxz mod n. (
). gyz mod n, (
). , , , , , , (

884 8.
) . .
,
, .
(man-inthe-middle attack). (bucket
brigade attack), ,
.

8.7.3.

, .
, , . n ,
n . , ,
, .

(KDC, key distribution center).
, KDC.
KDC.
, KDC, . 8.35.

. 8.35. KDC-

, , : , KS, KDC, KS.


KA,
. .
,
, . KB , .
, ,
.
. KDC , 1 ,
. , , 2 KDC,
.

8.7.

885

, . ,
,
. .
, ,
. ,
.
.
. 2 (. . 8.35) , . . : ,
. , .
.
, ,
, .
(replay attack).
. . . ,
, -
. ,
.
,
(. nonce 8.6.4.). , . ,
. ,
, . ,
, , .

-.
(NeedhamSchroeder authentication
protocol) (Needham-Schroeder, 1978), . 8.36.

. 8.36.

886 8.
, KDC,
.
RA. 2,
, ,
. RA , ,
2 , .
2, , ()
1, KDC 2 KT ( ), KB. ,
KB, ,
- , 2
.
RA2, KS. 4 KS(RA21),
, .
KS(RA2) ,
3.
4, ,
. RA2 KS(RA2 1)
. 5 , , .
,
.
, , ,
. - KS, ,
3 ,
(Denning Sacco, 1981).
, .
,
(Needham Shroeder, 1987). (Otway)
(Rees) , .
. 8.37 .

. 8.37. ( )

8.7.

887

: R, , RA,
. ,
. , KA KB,
, .
, R
. , R
1 2. R
, KDC , , .
KS ,
. , , KDC, .

. ,
KS,
.

8.7.4.
Kerberos
( Windows 2000 )
Kerberos, .
1, . ,
. Kerberos
.
.
. V5
RFC 4120.
, V4, ,
(Yu ., 2004). V5 V4
, , DES.
. (Neumann Ts'o (1994).
Kerberos, () , :
1. (AS, Authentication Server): .
2. (TGS, Ticket Granting Server): , .
3. , , .
1

. . .

888 8.
AS KDC
, .
TGS ,
, , .
, TGS. ,
1 . 8.38. AS
KTGS(A, KS, t) TGS. ,
. 2
, . KA,
2 .
.
, , ,
2 .

.8.38. Kerberos V5

,
, .
3
. KTGS(A, KS,t),
TGS-
. KAB,
.
. KS, . ,
KB, .
3
, t, .

8.7.

889

,
KS,
. 3, ,
, , 4, .
KAB
. . 6, ( ), ,
, .
,
, KAB. ,
, (Carol, C), , , B C (
). TGS ,
, KC. ,
.
, , . ,
. ,
. ,
.
, .
Kerberos , - ,
(realms), (AS) (TGS).
, ,
TG , TG .
TG TG ( , ), TG , TG.
TG
. , , , , ,
TG .
.

8.7.5.

. . PKI ,
, ,
1 .8.39. , 2, X.509

890 8.
. ,
.

. 8.39.

, ,
(), , ( 4).
( 5). 6,
RA, RB KS. 6 .
RA : ,
, .
, RA . , 7.
RB, , , , 6 RA. .
- ? 3 ,
RA, , .
7,
RB KS, , . .

8.8.

.
. ,
.
, ,

8.8.

891

, : , . .

PGP, S/MIME.
. (Kaufman ., 2002; Schneier, 1995).

8.8.1. PGP
, PGP (Pretty Good Privacy
), , (Phil
Zimmermann, 1995a, 1995b).
: , , . 1991 PGP
, , , . .
, , ,
. , () , UNIX, Linux, Windows Mac OS,
PGP .
PGP IDEA (International Data
Encryption Algorithm ), 128 . , DES
, AES . IDEA
DES/AES: ,
DES AES.
RSA, MD5.
.
PGP (Levy, 1993). , , , .
, . -,
PGP , ,
( ,
, ). -,
, , -, , ,
, , ,
.
, , , .
, - , 5 .
, - PGP -

892 8.
( , ,
) ,
: .
, PGP,
. RSA RSA
Security , RSA PGP . 2.6. , PGP
, IDEA,
.
PGP ,
,
. -
, , PGP
. (
, AES,
), RSA 2000 ,

PGP, . PGP,
. , Open PGP,
RFC 2440. GNU Privacy Guard.
PGP
, . ,
- , . ,
.
PGP , ,
. ,
. ,
, base64. ,
.
,
.
, PGP, . 8.40.
P.
(DX) (EX) RSA-. ,
.
.
, PGP. PGP P MD5,
RSA- DA. ,
. - (, ) -

8.8.

893

,
MD5
(- ).

. 8.40. PGP

-
P1, ZIP,
(Ziv Lempel, 1977). P1.Z.
PGP .
128- KM IDEA , . ( PGP
, ,
.) P1.Z IDEA KM
. , KM
, EB. base64,
7, MIME. , +, *=,
RFC 822
, .
, base64 IDEA- RSA-. IDEA-
P1.Z. zip-, -
. MD5
-, , P .
, RSA :
128- MD5- 128- IDEA-.
RSA , 256 , .
, 256 ,
, . -

894 8.
IDEA, , RSA. ,
PGP ,
, , . 8.16.
PGP RSA. . .
1. (384 ):
.
2. (512 ): ,
.
3. (1024 ): .
4. (2048 ): .
RSA ,
, 2048 .
PGP- . 8.41.
. : ,
. , IDEA-,
,
.

.8.41. PGP-

, . , ,
-, .
( , , MD6 RSA2,
). -.

8.8.

895

, , ,
,
, , .
PGP , .
: (
). (private key ring)
, .
, , , .
-
. ,
,
.
64 . .
( ), .
(public key ring) . ,
.
, 64- ,
.
, , . , (BBS).

.
, .
,
, , . ,
. ,
, PGP PKI.
, . X.509 PGP PGP
. PGP X.509.

8.8.2. S/MIME
IETF S/MIME (Secure/MIME
MIME). RFC 2632 2643. ,
, .
, .

896 8.
, S/MIME MIME ,
. MIME, , .
S/MIME , , PEM (Privacy Enhanced
Mail ).
.
, . S/MIME
, ,
. RFC.

8.9.

, , . ,
. :
. WWW ,
. ,
.
.
. .
, , - .
.

8.9.1.

. . , . -, ,
. (
(hacker) ,
,
. , . (cracker).) , , Yahoo!,
, , , New York Times.
- (
) , .
.
( , DoS), .
,

8.9.

897

(
DoS, DDoS). , . .
1999 Hotmail ( Microsoft)
,
.
19- , , 300 000 . , 100 000 ,
. ,
,
.
-,
Emulex . Emulex 60%, $2 .
, .
, ,
, , .
,
. . , , . (Anderson,
2008a; Stuttard Pinto, 2007; Schneier, 2000).
.

8.9.2.
- . , - .
URL, .
? , , , . , . ,
. GET , , .
. ,
,
. ,
( - ),
.
,
.
, ( ). , , , , .
.

898 8.

DNS
, DNS (, , DNS - ) IP- (, 36.1.2.3) IP- (, 42.9.9.9). . ,
, . 8.42, : (1)
DNS IP- (2) . (3)
(4) . IP-
, , . 8.42, .
IP- , IP- ,
, , , , .
, .
DNS. , , .

. 8.42. (); DNS ,


()

DNS? .
, :
DNS- .
, DNS UDP, ,
. , IP- DNS. ,
- , bob.com. , , , (
).
, IP- bob.com. , ,

8.9.

899

, (.com).
, , IP- bob.com
42.9.9.9. , . , , ,
, . IP- DNS
(DNS spoofing). , IP-,
(poisoned cache).
, . -,
- .
. , ,
.
-, DNS- ,
, .
, . , trudy-the-intruder.com.
, IP- 42.9.9.9. DNS-
: dns.trudy-the-intruder.com. IP- (42.9.9.9),
. DNS- . . , , foobar.trudy-the-intruder.com,
, .com, ,
.
, dns.trudy-the-intruder.com , . www.
trudy-the-intruder.com, DNS-
. -
. : , :
bob.com: 42.9.9.9. ,
.
, , ,
. .
, .
; ,
, , .
IP- bob.com , 42.9.9.9. ,
, ,
. , , . 8.43. , DNS-
, .
, , . , ID
, ,
.

900 8.

. 8.43.

DNS
, DNS , , , , , .
;
. ,
, , 1994 IETF ,
DNS. ()
DNSsec (DNS Security DNS);
RFC 2535. , DNSsec
, DNS- .
DNSsec . . DNS ( . 7.2) ,
. , DNS-, ,
.
DNSsec .
1. .
2. .
3. .
, , . .
. :
, , DNS
. DNSsec , ,
, -

8.9.

901

, . ,
. .
DNS , RRSet (Resource Record
Set ). ,
. , A, DNS
IP-.
( ). RRSet

(, SHA-1).
(, RSA).
RRSet. , ,
.
, . RRSet

, , ,
.
DNSec .
KEY. , ,
, , . .
X

.509 - . , MD5/RSA, 1,
.
IPsec ( ).
SIG. ,
, KEY. RRSet, KEY, .
,
.
DNSsec

, .
(, -) ,
. , SIG
- . ,
-, ,
RR
Set. ,
- .
, .
, .
,

DNS
. - .
RRSet,
, .

902 8.
.
.
(, IPsec).
,
. ,
DNS RRSet bob.com, IP

- KEY . RRSet
(com), . RRSet .8.4.
8.4. RRSet bob.com. KEY
. SIG A KEY,
(com)

bob.com.

86400

IN

36.1.2.3

bob.com.

86400

IN

KEY

3682793A7B73F731029CE2737D

bob.com.

86400

IN

SIG

86947503A8B848F5272E53930C

, , DNS- IP- www.bob.com. RRSet


,
. -
RRSet , , SIG .
DNSsec
,
, .8.43. ()
, .
( com), . , ,
,
.
DNSsec
. , (, X.509) CERT.
? , DNS PKI.
, .
DNSsec. RFC2535.

8.9.3. SSL
, , , .
. , . ,
, , .

8.9.

903

- , . -
, , , . . 1995
, Netscape Communications,
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer
). ,
, (
Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer), SSL .
, SSL , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
, .
SSL .8.44.
, , TCP
. SSL
. SSL HTTP, HTTPS (Secure HTTP HTTP),
HTTP. , : ,
(443) (80). ,
SSL -,
.
.
SSL.
3, . SSL
, ,
, , . ,
, ,
. 40 , .
Netscape ,
.
SSL
, , .
. ,
, .8.44. 1,
. SSL,

904 8.
.
RA, .

8.44. ( ), SSL

. 2 ,
, RB. 3
. -
, ,
, . , , ,
, ,
. (,
).
4, ,
.
384- (premaster key)
, (5).
. .
5 , .
(6), ,
(7). (89).
, , ,
( ,
). ,
. ,
SSL. , -
.

8.9.

905

. 8.45. SSL

, SSL . DES
SHA-1 .
, ,
.
RC4 128- , MD5. RC4 128- ,
.
. 2 , , . 8.12.
RC4 128-
, 88 ,
.
,
. 8.46. , , 16 . ,
.
, , ( MD5).
MAC (Message Authetication Code ).
MAC
( 2 RC4). ,
, TCP-.

906 8.

. 8.46. SSL

: ,
RC4 , ,
SSL RC4 (Fluhrer ., 2001). ,
, DES 168- SHA-1,
, , RC4+MD5. , SSL, .
SSL : ,
,
.
1996 Netscape Communications SSL IETF. TLS (Transport Layer Security
). RFC5246.
TLS SSL, 3. SSL TLS
, ,
SSL 3 TLS . ,
.
- , TLS
SSL, . SSL/TLS.
TLS 1999 , 1.2 2008 . ( AES). SSL
, , , TLS .

8.9.4.
, , ,
. ,

8.9.

907

, . - HTML-
. - :
Java, ActiveX, JavaScript. (mobile code), ,
. ,
. ,
, - ,
.

Java-
Java
-
Java
, JVM (Java Virtual Machine
Java). -
. JVM , .8.47.

. 8.47. -

,
. . ,
. , . , (,
),
. (,
),
(sandbox),
.
,
, .

. ,

908 8.
( ) . ,
, .

ActiveX
ActiveX , x86, -.
, ,
.
, , , .
, ,
. ,
.
Microsoft , (code signing). , ActiveX
, , ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
. ,
, , -
. , ,
. , Microsoft ActiveX, Authenticode.
Java ActiveX.
.
,
. ,
, , .
, . .
,
- , (
ActiveX).
, . ,
,
. ActiveX, - . ,
. ,
, . , .

8.9.

909

, . -
,
Garfinkel Spafford, 2002.
, ,
.

JavaScript
JavaScript -
, .
- . , Netscape
Nvigator 2 Java-,
.
, -
. . ,
, . - , , .
, -
. - ,
, , .


- , (browser extension ; add-on
, ; plug-in , ), . ,
-.
- , PDF -.
,
, (, )
-.
, :
,
. , , .
.
, .
.
,
. ,
. ,

910 8.
.
. PDF Flash
. PDF Flash, PDF Flash. , .

.

. , .
,
. ( -, - ), , . -
, ,
,
. , .
- . -
. , , ,
, .

8.10.
,
, .
: ,
. , . (
Anderson, 208a; Garfinkel Spafford, 2002; Schneier, 2004).
. (privacy ),
(censorship) (copyright).
: www.pearsonhighered.com/tannenbaum.

8.10.1.
? . , .

8.10.

911

, . ,
200 , ,
.
?
, . XVIII
,
, ,
, , . - ,
, .
,
, .
.
PGP,
, , ,
,
. , , . ,
,
. , . , ,
1999 ,
.
. 1993 (clipper chip)
. ,
, .
, , (key
escrow), .

. , : , ,
, .
- .
,
, - Electronic Frontier Foundation (www.eff.org).


PGP, SSL
, ,
.
, , ,

912 8.
.
, .
. -, ,
, . -, , ,

, . -, ( , , ) ,
( ), .
-, , ,
,
, . , , .
. 1990-

USENET (anonymous remailer).
, . , .
, , , , . ,
. , ,
. ,
, (,
, :
(William Tyndale 1536 ).
-
. , ,
( ),
. ,
.
, (cypherpunk remailer), .
RFC 822 (,
From), .
RFC 822, , . ,
,
.
,
, ,
.8.48.

8.10.

913

- . .
. M , .
3, E3 ( ).
3 ( ).
, 2 3 .
.
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. 8.48.

1, .
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.

, .
, -
, , , , , ,
, , . ,
, (Mazires Kaashoek, 1998).

. , , ,
. (onion
routing), , , . Tor (Dingledine
., 2004).
. HTTP- ,
, -

914 8.
. , , ,
, .

8.10.2.
, . , , .
,
.
. ,
, - .
1. , .
2. , - , ,
.
3. .
4. , .
5. , , ..
, .
. , -,
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?
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, Yahoo!, , ,

,
. Yahoo! ,
, ,
, .
, , - , , ,

8.10.

915

, ?
, ,
.
? ,
? ,
.
(John Gilmore):
.
(eternity service) (Anderson, 1996).
,
, .
,
, . ,
,
.
? () ,
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, . 10
, ,
, . ,
,
, . , , , -
,
.
.
,
. , , , .
.
Freenet (Clarke ., 2002), PASIS (Wylie ., 2000) Publius (Waldman ., 2000).
(Serjantov, 2002).

, -, , , , .. ,
, , , ,
, (Andreson, 2002). ,
, .

916 8.

, , ,
. , ,
( ) ,
, , ,
, , . , ,
. ,
,
. ,
. .
, ,
. , , (steganography, !), ,
.
.
: ,
, ,
. ,
, .
.8.49,. ,
, .
. , .8.49,
: , ,
,
700.

. 8.49. (). ,
()

? . 1024 768 .
8- ,
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8.10.

917

:
, .
1024 768 3 294 912 .

734891. 274 . IDEA, . (,
),
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24- .
- , . 8.49, . . 8.49, , - .
-,
(, ,
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, , . ,
: , .
, . .
VoIP-
, (Lubacz ., 2010).
, HTML-
.
,
. ,
. -
, .
. (Piva
., 2002).
(Wayner, 2008).

8.10.3.
, .
. (copyright)

918 8.
(Intellectual Property IP) , , , , , , , ,
, , . . , , 50 (75 ).
, ,
. , , Gutenberg (www.promo.net/pg)
, ( , , ). 1998
20 , ,
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50 .
Napster ,
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? ,

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8.10.

919

, , ,
, ,
?
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, ,
. 1998 (DCMA Digital Millenium
Copyright Act), , , , ,
.
. , - , , ,
,
.
. 2000 , , , ,
( ,
).
(Edward Felten) , , .
, , .
USENIX,
. .
(RIAA Recording Industry Association of America)
,
DCMA.
,
, , ,
. ,
, , . , .
, , ,
, . , - (Craver
., 2001). , .
, . ,
DMCA . , ,
,
. DMCA takedown

920 8.
notices DMCA . ,
. (Piatek ., 2008).
(fair use
doctrine), .
, , ,
,
(, )
, - . ,
? : (1) , (2) , (3) . DMCA , ,
,
. , DMCA
, . .
, DMCA,
(trusted computing), , TGC
(Trusted Computing Group ).
Intel Microsoft. ,
(,
)
. TPM (Trusted Platform Module ),
. ,
, TPM. , ,
,
. ,
. , . , . , ,
, ,
,
, , ,
.
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.
: , ,
,
- . , ,
.

8.11.

921

8.11.
, , . , ,
, .
,
.
,
.
: .
, . DES AES
(Rijndael).
, , .
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.
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MD5 SHA-1 - ,
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-, ,
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, , . , ,

922 8.
, , , Kerberos
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, . PGP, ,
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. ,
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DNS-. , ,
,
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() .
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.
: , .

1. , . , ,
.
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ki ndq jur jkhjyri nyy nqlndpr
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mvyy bek, medj bek, mvyy bek, medj bek, mvyy bek wevd jur qndpr
mvyy bek, medj bek, mvyy bek, medj bek, medj bek wevd jur qndpr

2. , m 0
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=(ax+b)modm, m , a b , . ,
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R, K. ,
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4. ,
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923

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6. , ,
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128- AES. , .
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0 1. ?
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924 8.
16.
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.., y=25, z=26.
1) p=5 q=13, d.
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926 8.
38. , .8.39, 7
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44. 2048 512 .
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927

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9.1.
,
. , ,
: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking IEEE Journal
on Selected Areas in Communications.
ACM Special Interest Groups on Data Communications
(
SIGCOMM
)
Mobility
of

Systems

, Users

, Data

, and

Computing

(
SIGMOBILE
) , , .
Computer Communication Review Mobile Computing and Communications Review.
,
IEEE
: IEEE Internet Computing, IEEE Network Magazine IEEE
Communications Magazine ,
, . , ,
IEEE Communications Magazine (, ..).
, , .

SIGCOMM, NSDI (Symposium on Networked Systems Design and


Implementation), MobiSys (Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services), SOSP
(Symposium on Operating Systems Principles) OSDI (Symposium on Operating Systems
Design and Implementation).
,
.
. 9.2.

9.1.

929

9.1.1.

Comer, The Internet Book, 4- .


, .
, ,
, .

.
Computer Communication Review, 25th Anniversary Issue, Jan. 1995
Crovella and Krishnamurthy, Internet Measurement
, ? ,
. ,
, ,
.
IEEE Internet Computing, Jan.Feb. 2000
IEEE Internet Computing
, : , , ,
. ,
(
Paul

Baran
), (
Lawrence

Roberts
), (
Leonard

Kleinrock), (Stephen Crocker), (Danny Cohen),


(Bob Metcalfe), (Bill Gates), (Billy Joy) . ,
.
Kipnis, Beating the System: Abuses of the Standards Adoption Process
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
.
Hafner and Lyon, Where Wizards Stay Up Late
Naughton, A Brief History of the Future
- ? ,
. . (
Paul
Ba
ran), , ,
, ARPANET, BBN,
IMP, (Bob Kahn) (Vint
Cerf), TCP/IP .. ,
, 2000 .

930 9.

9.1.2.
Bellamy, Digital Telephony, 3- .
, - , . , , ,
, DSL.
Hu and Li, Sattelite-Based Internet: A Tutorial

. , ,
.
.
Joel, Telecommunications and the IEEE Communications Society
, , 802.11.
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , ARPANET , , .
Palais, Fiber Optic Communications, 5- .
,
. , , , , , .
Su, The UMTS Air Interface in RF Engineering
3G. ,
, .
Want, RFID Explained
, RFID.
RFID
, . RFID .

9.1.3.
Kasim, Delivering Carrier Ethernet
Ethernet .
Ethernet
Ethernet. ,
.
Lin and Costello, Error Control Coding, 2- .
, , . ,

9.1.

931

,
. , .
Stallings, Data and Computer Communications, 9- .
,
,
.

9.1.4.
Andrews ., Fundamentals of WiMAX
WiMAX,

OFDM , .
.
Gast, 802.11 Wireless Networks, 2- .
802.11.

MAC
, , . , ,
802.11n.
Perlman, Interconnections, 2- .

, .
,
IEEE802, , ,
.

9.1.5.
Comer, Internetworking with TCP/IP, 1, 5- .
TCP/IP.
IP
. , ,
.
Grayson ., IP Design for Mobile Networks
, IP.
, ,
, IP-.
Huitema, Routing in the Internet, 2- .
,
. (, RIP CIDR), (OSPF, IGRP BGP).

932 9.
, ,
, .
Koodli and Perkins, Mobile Inter-networking with IPv6
:
IPv
6
MobileIP. . MobileIP.
Nucci and Papagiannaki, Design, Measurement and Management of Large-Scale IP
Networks
, , ,
, , -.
,
, - , .
Perlman, Interconnections, 2- .
12 15 ,
.
18, . , ,
.
Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, 1
3 10 IP
(ARP, RARP ICMP), .
Varghese, Network Algorithmics
, ,
. : ,
.
. ,
.

9.1.6.
Comer, Internetworking with TCP/IP, 1, 5- .
, TCP/IP. UDP TCP.
Farrell and Cahill, Delay- and Disruption-Tolerant Networking
,
, ,
. DTN
IETF DTN Research Group.
Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, 1
17 24
TCP
, .

9.1.

933

9.1.7.
Berners-Lee ., The World Wide Web
, , CERN.
, (URL), HTTP,
HTML
, . .
Held, A Practical Guide to Content Delivery Networks, 2- .
, CDN,
CDN,
.
Hunter ., Beginning XML, 4- .
, HTML, XML -. 1000-
, , , .
, XML XHTML, , -,
XML, Ajax, SOAP
.
Krishnamurthy Redfox, Web Protocols and Practice
,
. , , , ,
. , , ,
web.
Simpson, Video Over IP, 2- .
, IP-,
,
. , , , .
Wittenburg, Understanding Voice Over IP Technology
IP-,

IP
- (
QoS
),
SIP
H.323. ,
.

9.1.8.
Anderson, Security Engineering, 2- .
,
, ( ). , Secrets and Lies, ,
Network Security (. ). , , ,

934 9.
, , ,
, , , ,
.
Ferguson ., Cryptography Engineering
, .
,
,
. ,
, , .
Fridrich, Steganography in Digital Media
,
, . ,
.
.
Kaufman ., Network Security, 2- .

,
.
, ,
, Kerberos

, PKI

, IPsec

, SSL

/
TLS
. . 26,
, . .
,
.
Schneier, Secrets and Lies
Cryptography Engineering , .
Secrets and Lies ( ), ,
.
, .
, .
Skoudis and Liston, Counter Hack Reloaded, 2- .
? , .
; ,
,
. ,
,
.

9.2.

935

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64- , 672
802.3u, 316

ACM, 22
ActiveX, , 908
ALOHA, 286
, 289
AMPS, , 189
ANSNET, 76
ARPA, 71
ARPANET, 70, 97, 400
ASP, 716
Authenticode, 908

D
DEC, 21
DNS, 64, 648
DOCSIS, 206
Domain Name Service, 64
Domain Name System, 75
DRR, 446

E
EDGE, 201
e-mail, 660
Ethernet
, 314

F
B
base64, 672
BBN, 72
Bell System, 160
Bluetooth, 348
, 349
, 349
, 349
, 353
ACL, 354
SCO, 354
broadcast network, 33

C
Carnivore,
, 30
CDMA 2000, 198
CGI, 714
Committee Draft, 96
cookie-, 698
, 699
, 699
CRC-, 236

Fast Ethernet
4B/5B, 318
100Base-4T, 317
100Base-FX, 318

G
Gigabit Ethernet
, 320
, 320
GPS, 140

H
H.323, 771
, 771
, 771
, 771
, 771
Honeywell DDP-316, 72
HTML
, 708
HTTP, 61
, 725
HTTPS, 903

948
I
IBM, 69, 76
IBMPC-RT, 76
IEEE, 22, 96
IETF, 98
IMAP, 683
IMP, ARPANET, 72
IMT-2000, 197
IMTS, , 188
inetd, -, 588
Institute of Electricaland Electronics
Engineers, 96
Interface Message Processor, 72
International Organizationfor
Standardization, 95
International Standard, 96
Internet Engineering Task Force
Internet, 98
Internet Research Task Force, 98
Internet Society, 98
IP, 470
IPsec
ISAKMP, 863
ESP, 865
, 864
, 863
, 863
, 863
IPv6
, 496
IP-, 475
, 475
IP-, 62
Iridium, 141
IRTF, 98
ISO, 57

MPLS, 390, 504


, 505
, 505
MSC, 190
MTSO, 190
MTU, 590

N
NAK, 259
NAP, , 76
NAT
NAT-, 485
, 487
Network Access Point, 76
NIST, 96
NPL,
, 72
NSAP, 541
NSFNET, 75
NSF,
, 75

O
OSI, , 57

P
PHP, 715
piggy backing, 251
ping, 500
plug-in, 693

Q
quoted-printable, 673

JSP, 716
JVM, 718
LSI-11, 75

RFC, 98
RFC 821, 668
RFC 822, 668, 670, 671, 675
RFC 826, 501
RFC 1034, 649
RFC 1323, 549
RFC 1700, 473
RFC 2045, 673
RFC 2328, 508
RFC 3376, 518

M
metropolitan area network, 38
MIME, 671
Mosaic, 686
Motorola, 141


RFC 3501, 683
RFC 3775, 521
RFC 3963, 521
RFC 4271, 517
RFC 4960, 535
router, 40
RTSP, , 757

S
SSL, , 903
SYN cookies, 596

T
TCP, 595
MSS, 594
PAWS, 549
, 591
, 594
, 587
, 592
, 486
, 486
, 596
, 595
TLS, , 906
TPDU-, 531
traceroute, 499
trailer, 48
Transmission Control Protocol, 63
TSAP,
, 541

U
UDP, 574
UDP-, 63
URL, 689
UserDataProtocol, 63

V
VSAT, 138

W
W3C, WWW, 686
WAN, 40
W-CDMA, CDMA, 198
wide area network, 40

WiFi, 802.11, 86
WWW, 685

, 464, 470
, DNS, 657
, 479
, 481
, 393

, 541

, 514

RSA, 841
, 392
, 364
, 840
, 43, 388
, 48
, 864
, 107
, 67
, 911
, 46

, 884
, 876
, 889

IPsec, 862
, 912
Bluetooth, 875
, 896
, 861
, 807

, 479
, 325

DIFS, 335
EIFS, 336
SIFS, 335
, 337
, 222
, 866
Ethernet, 316

949

950

-, 687
Java, 907
, 869
, 374
, 387
, 464, 512
, 519
, 464
, 464
n, 258
, 560
WWW, 685
, 687
, 693
, 687
, 394
, 39
, 395, 507
, 258
, RPC, 577
, 577
, 577

, 47
, 664
, 729
, 242
, 729
, 585
, 781
, 398
, 653
SYN-, 596
, DNS, 656

, , 107
Ethernet, 319
, 687
, 40
, 98
,
IETF, 98
, 307

, 297
, 387
, 387
, 52
, 52

, 390
IP-, 476
-, 714
ALOHA, 289
, 839
ARP-, 502, 520
, 649
, 650

, 45

, 96
-, 717
JavaScript, 716

, 718
-
, 515

, 518
IP, 519
, 541

OSPF, 507
-
H.245, 772
Q.931, 772
RAS, , 772
SIP, 775
-, 62
, 43
, 65
, 45
, 81
, 228


, 203
, 202
HFC, 203
, 202
, 202



CMTS, 206
, 206
, 205
, 217
, 59
, 59
, , 220

, 281
, 281

, 216
, 223
, 221
, 224
, 220, 222
, 51, 437
,
445
, 446
, 447
, 447

, 152
,
QAM-64, 152
, 506
, 19
- , 19
, 877
, 228
, 227
, 226
, 157
, 251
, 40
, 20

, 190

, 182
, 182, 185
, 504

, 159

, 17
, 257
, 401
, , 664

951

, 220, 237

, ICANN, 477
, 226, 228
, 839
TCP/IP, 69

IP-, 503
, 40
, 35
, 282

, OSPF, 510
, 577
, 40
, 510
, 510
, 510

CIDR, 479
ECMP, 509
QoS-, 447
-, 400
, 464

, 464
, 517
, 474
, 392
, 399
, 447
IS-IS, 508
OSPF, 507
, 403
, 476
, 464
, 161

ISO, 57, 95
,
93, 94
, 96
ISO 3166, 651

, 518
, 62
, 161

952
, 161
, 594
, HTTP, 727
, 228
, 93
, 17
, 33

PIM, 518
-, 518
, 695

, 291
, 304
, 26
, 190

, 531
, 361
, 367
, 559, 560
, 462
, 38

, 51
, 511

, 96
, 393

, Kerberos, 889
, OSPF, 509
DNS, 899
, 225
, 544
, 237
, 560
, 654
, 98

, 466
, 465
, 463

, 253
, 157
, 899

IP, 767
, 40
, 33
, 907
WDM, 181
, 307

, 510
, 464,
507, 512
, 908
, 40
, 477
, 387

MAC, 281
, 281
, 236
, 68
, 465
, 514
, 482
, 109
, 661
, 588
, TCP, 587
, 252
, 437

, 756
, 762
, 98
- , 161
, 61, 63
, , 53
, 252
, 394

, 551
, 303
, 303
, 401, 403
IP-, 484
, 482
, 99

Ethernet, 311
, 447
, 45, 56, 65


ARP, 500, 501
ARP-, 503
ARQ, 249
BGP, 464, 507, 512
eBGP, 516
iBGP, 516
BGP, 516
BGP, 516
CSMA 1-, 291
CSMA/CD, 293
CSMA , 292
CSMA p, 292
DHCP, 503
H.323, 488
HTTP, 724
ICMP, 499
IGMP, 518
IP, 470
IPv4, 471
IPv6, 489
LCP, 270
NCP, 270
PAR, 249
RTCP, 583
RTP, 580
SMTP, 677
TCP, 63, 586, 590, 677
, 300
, 876
, 294
, 295
, 286

, 291
,
SCTP, 560
, FTP, 488
n, 256
, 263
, 297
, 251, 252
, 291
, 298, 299
, 239
, 507
, 507
, 544
, 501
, 246
, 270
, 586

953

DCCP, 535
SCTP, 535
SST, 535

, 535

, 535

, 535
, 295
, 847, 848
, 226
, , 667

, 566
, 22
, 45
, 477
, DNS, 649

, 282
, 17
, 109
, 107

, 914

, 895
, 17
, 392
, OSI, 60
, 60
, TCP, 590
, 18
Apache, 716
, 656
, 65
, 51
, 51
, 270

, 541
, 384
, 392
, 384

954
, 470
Tier1, 470
, 385
, OSI, 59

ARPANET, 61, 648


, 508

, 247
, 246
ACMSIGOPS, 72
, 60
, 286

PKI, 858
, 860
, 859
, 860
, 858

, 569

AIMD, 570

, 570
, 56
, 52
, 52
, 52
DNS, 75, 501
, 661
, 511
, IAB, 98

, 18
, 18

, 550
, 533
, 543

2,5G, 201
CDMA
,
156
, 156
PCS, 192
UMTS, 198
, 190

, 196
, 196
, 196
, 190
, 196
, 196
(handoff), 190
, 191

, 196
, 189
, 31
, 180
, 448
, 662

LEO, , 140
MEO, , 140
, 139
Globalstar, 142
, 138
OSI
TCP, 65
, TCP, 589

, 99

, 97
, 92
, 93
DSS, 847

802.1Q, 375
defacto, 92
dejure, 93
, 393
, 26
, 46
, 479

, 188

, 182
, , 664
-, 513
, 161
, NAT, 485
, 527



, 529
, 529
, 527
, 540

, 541
, 63, 527
OSI, 59
, 527
, 531
, 548
, 462
, OSPF, 510
, 514

955


MTU, 465

, 40

, 914
, 877
, 236

, 846
, 845
, 192

, 60
, 554
, 60

, 225
, 225
-
, 93
, 45
, 60
, 60
, 216
OSI, 59
, 217
, 544
, 369

, 75
, 45
, 106
, 159
OSI, 58
, 520
, 109
, 438

Path MTU discovery, 468

, 109
, 180
ALOHA, 286

, 33, 307
, 33
, 373

, 841
, 912
, 502


, 310, 311
, 660
MIME, 671
, 662
, 661
RFC822, 668
, 668
, 57
TCP/IP, 61
OSI
, 66

. , .

. 5- .
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