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DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL

HALAMAN PENGESAHAN

ii

KATA PENGANTAR

iii

DAFTAR ISI

iv

DAFTAR TABEL

ix

DAFTAR GAMBAR

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

xi

BAB I

PENDAHULUAN
1.1

Latar Belakang ................................................................................

1.2

Identifikasi Masalah ........................................................................

1.3

Tujuan ............................................................................................

1.4

Ruang Lingkup ...............................................................................

1.4.1 Ruang Lingkup Tempat ........................................................

1.4.2 Ruang Lingkup Sasaran ........................................................

1.4.3 Ruang Lingkup Materi ..........................................................

1.4.4 Ruang Lingkup Waktu ..........................................................

Manfaat ..........................................................................................

1.5.1 Manfaat Bagi Penulis ............................................................

1.5.2 Manfaat Bagi PDAM ............................................................

1.5.3 Manfaat Bagi Masyarakat .....................................................

1.5

BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA


2.1

Umum ............................................................................................

2.2

Kualitas dan Kuantitas Air .............................................................

2.3

Air dan Pengertian Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum .......................

2.3.1 Air ........................................................................................

2.3.2 Pengertian Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum ..........................

Perundang-Undangan .....................................................................

2.4.1 UndangUndang Sumber Daya Air ........................................

2.4.2 Undang-Undang Tata Ruang ................................................

10

2.4

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2.5

2.6

2.7

2.4.3 Undang-Undang Pengembangan SPAM ...............................

11

Dasar Perancangan SPAM .............................................................

13

2.5.1 Sumber Air Baku ....................................................... ...........

13

2.5.1.1 Air Hujan .................................................................

15

2.5.1.2 Air Permukaan ..........................................................

15

2.5.1.3 Air Tanah ..................................................................

16

2.5.1.4 Mata Air ....................................................................

16

Persyaratan Penyediaan Air Minum ..............................................

17

2.6.1 Segi Kualitas .........................................................................

17

2.6.2 Segi Kuantitas .......................................................................

18

2.6.3 Segi Kontinuitatif ..................................................................

19

Kebutuhan Air ................................................................................

19

2.7.1 Kebutuhan Air Domestik ......................................................

21

2.7.2 Kebutuhan Air Non Domestik ..............................................

22

2.7.3 Fluktuasi Kebutuhan Air .......................................................

23

2.7.4 Kebocoran Air .......................................................................

24

2.7.5 Penentuan Kebutuhan Air Bersih Berdasarkan Jumlah


Konsumen ..............................................................................

24

2.7.6 Metode Proyeksi Pertumbuhan Penduduk ............................

25

2.8

Sistem Transmisi ............................................................................

27

2.9

Reservoir ........................................................................................

28

2.9.1 Pengertian Reservoir .............................................................

28

2.9.2 Perhitungan Volume Reservoir .............................................

31

2.10 Sistem Distribusi ............................................................................

31

2.10.1 Sistem Gravitasi ..................................................................

31

2.10.2 Sistem Pompa ......................................................................

32

2.10.3 Sistem Gabungan ................................................................

32

2.11 Perpipaan .........................................................................................

36

2.11.1 Pemasangan Pipa ................................................................

37

2.11.2 Jaringan Pipa .......................................................................

41

2.11.3 Kehilanagan Tekanan ..........................................................

41

2.12 Sistem Pemompaa ...........................................................................

45

2.12.1 Tujuan Pemompaan ............................................................

45

2.1.2.2 Faktor Design Pompa .........................................................

45
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2.12.3 Hubungan Antara Pompa dan Sistem Distribusi Air ..........

46

BAB III GAMBARAN WILAYAH PERENCANAAN


3.1

3.2

3.3

Gambaran Umum Kota Pekalongan ..............................................

47

3.1.1 Geografi dan Administrasi .....................................................

47

3.1.2 Kondisi Topografi .................................................................

48

3.1.3 Hidrologi dan Klimatologi ....................................................

49

3.1.4 Kondisi Sosial Kependudukan ...............................................

49

3.1.5 Kondisi Sarana dan Prasarana ................................................

50

Gambaran Umum Kecamatan Pekalongan Timur .........................

54

3.2.1 Letak Geografis dan Administrasi ........................................

54

3.2.2 Klimatologi ...........................................................................

54

3.2.3 Penggunaan Lahan ................................................................

54

3.2.4 Fasilitas Pendidikan ..............................................................

55

3.2.5 Fasilitas Pendidikan ..............................................................

56

3.2.6 Fasilitas Peribadatan .............................................................

56

3.2.7 Fasilitas Perekonomian .........................................................

57

3.2.8 Fasilitas Perkantoran dan Bangunan Umum .........................

58

3.2.9 Fasilitas Perusahaan/Usaha ...................................................

58

3.2.10 Kependudukan Kec. Pekalongan Timur .............................

58

Gambaran Umum Kelurahan Klego dan Poncol ............................

59

3.3.1 Umum ....................................................................................

60

3.3.2 Aspek Fisik ............................................................................

60

3.3.2.1 Geografi .....................................................................

60

3.3.2.2 Administrasi ...............................................................

60

3.3.2.3 Klimatologi ................................................................

61

3.3.2.4 Topografi ....................................................................

61

3.3.2.5 Hidrologi ....................................................................

63

3.3.3 Aspek Sosial ..........................................................................

63

3.3.3.1 Kependudukan ............................................................

63

3.3.4 Sarana dan Prasarana ............................................................

65

3.3.4.1 Fasilitas Pendidikan ....................................................

65

3.3.4.2 Fasilitas Peribadahan ..................................................

66

3.3.4.3 Fasilitas Kesehatan ......................................................

67
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3.3.4.5 Fasilitas Perdagangan ..................................................

68

3.3.4.5 Fasilitas Perindustrian .................................................

68

BAB IV METODOLOGI PERANCANGAN


4.1

Umum ............................................................................................

69

4.2

Diagram Alur Perencanaan ............................................................

70

4.2.1 Studi Literatur .......................................................................

71

4.2.2 Penentuan Daerah Rencana ...................................................

71

4.2.3 Pengumpulan Data ................................................................

71

4.2.4 Pengolahan Data ...................................................................

72

Analisis Data ...................................................................................

73

4.3.1 Rencana Umum SPAM......................................................... .

73

4.3.2 Proyeksi Jumlah Penduduk ....................................................

75

4.3.3 Proyeksi Kebutuhan Air ........................................................

75

4.3.3.1 Kebutuhan Air untuk Keperluan Domestik ..............

76

4.3.3.2 Kebutuhan Air untuk Kebutuhan Non Domestik.......

77

4.3.4 Alternatif Sistem Pengaliran Air ...........................................

79

Desain SPAM..................................................................................

79

4.4.1 Mendesain Sitem Transmisi dan Pelengkapnya ....................

79

4.4.2 Menghitung Dimensi Pipa Transmisi ....................................

80

4.4.3 Menghitung Dimensi Sistem Distribusi .................................

81

4.3

4.4

4.5

Perencanaan Daerah yang Terlayani dan Pembagian Blok


Penyaluran ......................................................................................

81

BAB V ANALISIS DAN HASIL DESAIN ........................................................

82

5.1

Rencana Umum SPAM ...................................................................

82

5.1.1 Daerah Pelayanan...................................................................

82

5.1.2 Sistem Pelayanan ...................................................................

83

5.1.3 Kebutuhan Air .......................................................................

83

5.1.3.1 Proyeksi Penduduk..............................................................

84

5.1.3.2 Proyeksi Fasilitas ................................................................

84

5.1.3.3 Proyeksi Kebutuhan Air ......................................................

85

5.1.4 Sumber Air Baku ...................................................................

93

5.1.5 Alternatif Sistem Pengaliran Air ............................................

93
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5.1.6 Pilihan Alternatif Sistem Pengaliran ......................................

94

Desain SPAM .................................................................................

96

5.2.1 Sistem Penyadap atau Intake .................................................

96

5.2.1.1 Desain Sistem Penyadap ...........................................

96

5.2.2 Sistem Transmisi....................................................................

96

5.2.2.1 Penanaman Pipa Transmisi ........................................

96

5.2.2.2 Dasar Perencanaan Sistem Transmisi .......................

96

5.2.2.3 Pemilihan Sistem Transmisi .....................................

97

5.2.2.4 Perhitungan Sistem Transmisi ..................................

98

5.2.2.5 Perlengkapan Pipa .....................................................

99

5.2.2.6 Rumus-Rumus yang Digunakan ...............................

99

5.2.2.7 Diameter Pipa Transmisi ...........................................

100

5.2.2.8 Kehilangan Tekanan Pada Pipa ................................

101

5.2.3 Menentukan Dimensi Reservoiri ...........................................

101

5.2.4 Sistem Distribusi ....................................................................

102

5.2.5 Debit Kebutuhan Air Bersih ..................................................

103

5.2.6 Simulasi Perencanaan Dengan Epanet Versi 2.0 ...................

105

BAB VI PENUTUP.............................................................................................

106

5.2

6.1

Kesimpulan.....................................................................................

106

6.2

Saran...............................................................................................

107

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
LAMPIRAN
LEMBAR ASISTENSI

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DAFTAR TABEL
Tabel 2.1

Sumber-Sumber Air Baku...............................................................

14

Tabel 2.2

Kebutuhan Air Menurut Kebutuhan Klasifikasi Kota ...................

21

Tabel 2.3

Kriteria Kebutuhan Air Domestik Berdasarkan Jenis Kota dan


Jumlah Penduduk ...........................................................................

22

Tabel 2.4

Pemakaian Air Untuk Industri ........................................................

23

Tabel 2.5

Karakteristik Pipa Distribusi Berdasarkan Materialnya ................

34

Tabel 2.6

Usulan Bahan Pipa Sesuai Dengan Diameter ................................

37

Tabel 2.7

Kedalaman Penanaman Pipa ..........................................................

37

Tabel 2.8

Tebal Penutup Pipa ........................................................................

39

Tabel 2.9

Harga Koefisien k Berdasarkan Weisbach ....................................

44

Tabel 2.10 Menentukan Nilai k pada Diaframa ...............................................

45

Tabel 3.1

Pertumbuhan Penduduk Kota Pekalongan tahun 2000-2009 .........

50

Tabel 3.3

Banyaknya Pelanggan dan Distribusi Air Minum .........................

52

Tabel 3.4

Lokasi Sumber Air Baku ...............................................................

53

Tabel 3.5

Luas Tanah dan Penggunaan Tanah ..............................................

54

Tabel 3.6

Jumlah Fasilitas Pendidikan di Kec. Pekalongan Timur ...............

55

Tabel 3.7

Jumlah Fasilitas Kesehatan di Kec. Pekalongan Timur .................

56

Tabel 3.8

Jumlah Fasilitas Peribadahan di Kec. Pekalongan Timur ..............

57

Tabel 3.9

Jumlah Fasilitas Perdagangan di Kec. Pekalongan Timur .............

57

Tabel 3.10 Jumlah Penduduk Kec. Pekalongan Timur ....................................

58

Tabel 3.11 Jumlah Perangkat Kelurahan ........................................................

61

Tabel 3.12 Ketinggian Wilayah Kelurahan Klego ...........................................

62

Tabel 3.13 Ketinggian Wilayah Kelurahan Poncol .........................................

62

Tabel 3.14 Jumlah Penduduk Kelurahan Klego Tahun 2006-2010 .................

64

Tabel 3.15 Jumlah Penduduk Kelurahan Poncol Tahun 2006-2010 ................

64

Tabel 3.16 Jumlah Fasilitas Pendidikan Kelurahan Klego ..............................

65

Tabel 3.17 Jumlah Fasilitas Pendidikan Kleurahan Poncol .............................

65

Tabel 3.18 Jumlah Fasilitas Peribadahan Kleurahan Klego ............................

66

Tabel 3.19 Jumlah Fasilitas Peribadahan Kleurahan Poncol ...........................

66

Tabel 3.20 Jumlah Fasilitas Kesehatan Kleurahan Klego ................................

67

Tabel 3.21 Jumlah Fasilitas Kesehatan Kleurahan Poncol ..............................

67
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Tabel 4.1

Pengumpulan Data .........................................................................

72

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar 2.1 .........................................................................................................

32

Gambar 2.2 Sistem Grid ...................................................................................

32

Gambar 2.3 Sketsa EGL dan HGL Pada saluran Tertutup ...............................

41

Gambar 5.1 Skema Pengaliran Air Di Kelurahan Klego dan Poncol .............................

84

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

1. Proyeksi Penduduk Tahun 2011 - 2026


2. Proyeksi Kebutuhan Air Kelurahan Klego dan Poncol
3. Blok Kebutuhan Air Kelurahan Klego dan Poncol
4. Peta Kelurahan Klego dan Poncol
5. Peta Jaringan Jalan Kelurahan Klego dan Poncol
6. Peta Kontur dan Peletakan Pipa Jaringan Distribusi, Reservoir
7. Peta Pembagian Blok Kelurahan Klego dan Poncol
8. BOQ (Bill Of Quantity), dan RAB (Rencana Anggaran Biaya)
9. Gambar Tipikal:
a. Penanaman Pipa
b. Sambungan Rumah
c. Hidran Umum
d. Jembatan Pipa
e. Wash Out
f. Air Valve
g. Thrust Block
h. Sambungan Pipa (tee, Elbow, Giboult Joint)
i. Manhole
10. Gambar Khusus:
a. Skema Perencanaan SPAM
b. Intake
c. Rumah Pompa
d. Ground Tank
e. EGL-HGL
f. Profil Memanjang Jaringan Distribusi dan Transmisi
g. Detail Junction
11. Denah Reservoir Dan Potongan
12. Running Epanet

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