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API 510 Page 1 of 310

INTRODUCTION
API 510 STUDY MATERIAL

HOW TO USE THESE BOOKS

These books can be used in a self-study or instructor led format. There are two volumes, the
Text and the Questions and Answers.

TEXT BOOK

The Text book's table of contents follows the API 510 Body of Knowledge that was in effect
at the time of its writing. Each area can be studied as a stand alone module for those who do
not intend to sit for the API 510 exam, but want to obtain a better understanding on a given
Code subject.

The process found to most effective for general use is to study each subject of interest and
complete the quizzes at the end of that module. As regards to calculations, after mastering
the given material, refer to the Advanced Material section to increase the depth of
understanding. The Advanced Material covers the calculations required for some actual
circumstances that might be encountered in the field.

For those intending to sit for the API 510 examination, some helpful suggestions are
contained in the back of the Text book. These include such things as what paragraphs to tab
within the ASME Code books, and cross over subjects from the API to the ASME Codes. At
this writing the exam candidate is allowed to use the ASME Code books and the API books
on the first portion of the test only. No reference material is allowed for the second half of
the test!

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS BOOK

The Questions and Answers are divided into two types.

The first portion covers the ASME Codes, Sections VIII Div. 1 Unfired Pressure Vessels,
Section IX Welding, and Section V Nondestructive Testing. These questions are typical of
previous National Board Authorized Inspector exams. These should be used to obtain a feel
for the nature of the ASME Code questions. They are not for memorization.

The second portion contains questions from the API 510 Code and the Recommended
Practices, titled RPI 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels, RPI 576 Pressure Relieving Devices
and Chapter II -Conditions Causing Deterioration of Failures. These questions are for
memorization if the examination will be taken!












API 510 Page 2 of 310
API 510 Module



Table of Contents

API CODES

API 510 Corrosion Rates and Inspection Intervals

Scope 6
Inspection Interval 10
Records and Test 11
Metal loss including corrosion averaging 15
Corrosion rates 15
Remaining Corrosion Allowance 16
Remaining Service Life 16

API 576 Pressure Relieving Devices

Scope 19
Types of pressure relieving devices 19
Reasons for Inspection 22
Causes of Improper Performance 23
Frequency and Time of Inspection 23

API 572 Inspection of Pressure Vessels

Scope 26
Reasons for Inspection 27
Causes of Deterioration 28
Methods of Inspection 29
Records and Reports 36

IRE Chapter 11

Coverage from the API 510 Body of Knowledge 43


API 510 Page 3 of 310
ASME Section VIII Div. 1

Joint Efficiencies

UW-3 Weld Categories 48
UW-51 RT Examination of Welded J oints 58
UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded J oints 59
UW- 11 RT and UT Examinations 61
UW-12 Maximum Allowable J oint Efficiencies 69

Postweld Heat Treatment

UW-40 Procedures for Postweld Heat Treatment 93
UCS-56 Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment 94

Vessels Under Internal Pressure

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure 96
UG-32 Formulas and Rules for Using Formed Heads 107
UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers (Circular) 113

Cylinder Under External Pressure

UG-28 Thickness of Shells and Tubes (External Pressure) 120

Pressure Testing

UG-20 Design Temperature 127
UG-22 Loadings 129
UG-25 Corrosion 130
UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure 131
UG-99 Hydrostatic Test Pressure and Procedure 132
UG-100 Pneumatic Test Pressure and Procedure 135
UG-102 Test Gages 138

Minimum Requirements for Attachment Welds at Openings

UW-16 Weld Size Determination 140







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Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads

UG-36 Openings in Vessels 146
UG-37 Reinforcement of Openings 147
UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement 147
UG-41 Requirements for Strength of Reinforcement 147
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings 148

Minimum Design Metal Temperature and Exemptions from Impact Testing

UG-84 Charpy Impact Test Requirements 161
UCS-66 Materials 164
UCS-67 Impact Testing of Welding Procedures 164
UCS-68 Design 164

Practical Knowledge

UG-77 Material Identification 170
UG-93 Inspection of Materials 171
UG- 116 Name Plate Markings 172
UG-119 Name Plates 174
UG- 120 Data Reports 175

Section IX

Welding on Pressure Vessels (Section IX Overview)

Article I General Requirements 176
Article II Welding Procedure Qualifications 177
Article III Welding Performance Qualifications 179
Article IV Welding Data 181

Welding Documentation Review

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) 182
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) 186
Practice WPS/PQR reviews 189






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Section V (NDE Subsection A)

Article 2 Radiography 195
Article 5 Ultrasonics 198
Article 6 Liquid Penetrant 199
Article 7 Magnetic Particle 201
Article 9 Visual Inspection 202

Advanced Material Example Problems

Static Head of Water 204
Corrosion 217
Cylinders Under Internal Pressure 220
Heads Under Internal Pressure 222
Charpy Impact Test Evaluation WPS/PQR 226

Advanced Exercise Problems

Internal Pressure Shell Calculations 228
Internal Pressure Head Calculations 229
Solutions for Advanced Exercises 230

Appendix
Helpful information for the API Exam

Listing of where to find answers to API questions in Section VIII ASME 236
Instructions for the proper tabbing of ASME Code books 237
Practice WPS and PQR forms 240
Solutions to Text Module Exercises 248
















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API 510 Module
PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTION CODE


Overview

Section 1
General

Scope:

The API 510 applies to pressure vessels in the petrochemical and refining industries after
they have entered service. The ASME Code applies to the new construction of vessels.
While it applies only to new construction it is often the Code to which a vessel is repaired.
There are other construction Codes to which a vessel can be constructed, for instance the
Department of Transportation (DOT) provides rules for the construction of and shipping of
compressed gas cylinders. The Code for the construction of storage tanks is API 653 and so
forth.

The API 510 exempts certain vessels such as:

a. Vessels on moveable structures tank cars. etc..
b. All vessels exempted by Section VIII DIV. 1 of the ASME Code.
c. Vessels that do not exceed given volumes and pressures.
Section 6 Alternative Rules for Natural Resource Vessels.

Glossary of Terms:

In this section the terms used in the API 510 Code are defined such as Alteration, ASME
Code, API Authorized Inspector, Construction Code, Maximum Allowable Working
Pressure, Maximum Allowable Shell Thickness and On-Stream Inspections just to mention a
few. Study this section carefully as many questions on the Exam often come from here.


Section 2
Owner-User Inspection Organization

The main thing of interest in this section is the qualifications required for an API 510
inspector. Here the experience and educational requirements are listed in detail. Questions
over this section have been on several Exams.













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Section 3
Inspection Practices
Preparatory Work:

Often questions are asked about what must be done before entry into a vessel. draining,
cleaning, purging and gas testing also the warning of personnel in the area, both inside and
outside the vessel, etc.. Checking of safety equipment is necessary as well as inspection
tools.

Modes of Deterioration and Failure:

Some of the listed modes of deterioration are fatigue, creep, brittle fracture, general corrosion
stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen attack, carburization, graphitization, and erosion. A
general question may be asked such as; list six modes of deterioration or a more specific
question such as; what is creep dependent upon.

Corrosion-Rate Determination:

One important aspect of vessel maintenance and operation is the determination of how
frequently a vessel needs to be inspected. This can be largely driven, by the rate at which a
vessel is corroding. There are three methods recognized by API 510 for this determination.

a. A corrosion rate may be calculated from data collected by the owner or user on vessel
providing the same or similar service.
b. Corrosion rate may be estimated from published data or from the owner user's experience.
c. After 1,000 hours of service using corrosion tabs or on-stream NDE measurements.

If the estimated rates are in error they must be adjusted to determine the next inspection date.

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Determination:

The continued use of a pressure vessel must be based on calculations using the current
edition of the ASME Code or the edition the vessel was constructed to. A vessels MAWP
may not be raised unless a full rerating has been performed in accordance with section 5.3.
In corrosive service the wall thickness used in the calculations must be the actual thickness as
determined by the inspection. but must not be thicker than original thickness on the vessel's
original material test report or Manufacturer's Data Report minus twice the estimated
corrosion loss before the next inspection.

Defect Inspection:

Careful visual examination is the most important and most universally accepted method of
inspection. Other methods that may be used to supplement visual inspection are magnetic
particle, ultrasonics, eddy current, radiographic, penetrant and hammer testing ( when the
vessel is not under pressure). Vessels shall be checked visually for distortion. Internal
surfaces should be prepared by an acceptable method of cleaning, there is no hard and fast
rule for cleaning. External surfaces may require the removal of parts of the insulation in an
area of suspected problems or to check the effectiveness of the insulating system. Sometimes
deposits inside a vessel act to protect its metal from attack. It can be necessary to clean
selected areas down to bare metal to inspect those areas if problems are suspected from past
experience or if some indication of a problem is present.

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Inspection of Parts:

a. The surfaces of shells and heads should be checked for cracks, blistering, bulges, or other
signs of deterioration. With particular attention paid to knuckle regions of heads and support
attachments.

b. Inspect welded joints and their heat affected zones for cracks or other defects. Rivets in
vessels shall be inspected for general corrosion, shank corrosion. If shank corrosion is
suspected hammer testing or angle radiography can be used.

c. Examine sealing surfaces of manways, nozzles and other openings for distortion, cracks
and other defects. Pay close attention to the welding used to make these attachments.

Corrosion and Minimum Thickness Evaluation:

Corrosion occurs in two ways, general (a fairly uniform wasting away of a surface area) or
pitting(the surface may have isolated or numerous pits, or may have a washboard like
appearance in severe cases). Uniform wasting may be difficult to detect visually and
ultrasonic thickness measurements are normally done for that reason. A pit may be deeper
than it appears and should be investigated thoroughly to determine its depth. The minimum
actual thickness and maximum corrosion rate may be adjusted at any inspection for any part
of a vessel. When there is a doubt about the extent of corrosion the following should be
considered for adjusting the corrosion rates.

a. Nondestructive examination such as ultrasonics or radiography. If after these
examinations considerable uncertainty still exists the drilling of test holes may be
required.

b. If suitable openings exist readings may be taken through them.

c. The depth of corrosion can be gauged from uncorroded surfaces adjacent to the area
of interest.

d. For an area of considerable size where circumferential stress governs the least
thickness may along the most critical element of the area may be averaged over a
length not exceeding the following:

1. For vessels with an inside diameter of 60 inches or less one half the vessel
diameter or 20 inches whichever is less.

2. For vessels with an inside diameter greater than 60 inches one third the vessel
diameter or 40 inches whichever is less.

e. Widely scattered pits may be ignored if the following are true:

1. No pit is greater than half the vessel wall thickness without adding corrosion
allowance into the wall thickness.

2. The total area of the pits does not exceed 7 square inches in any 8 inch diameter
circle.

3. The sum of their dimensions along any straight line within the circle does not
exceed 2 inches.
API 510 Page 9 of 310

f. As an alternative to the above the thinning components may be evaluated using the
rules of Section VIII Division 2 Appendix 4 of the ASME Code. If this approach is
used consulting with an engineer experienced in pressure vessel design is required.

g. When corrosion is located at a weld with a joint efficiency less than 1.0 and also in the
area adjacent to the weld special consideration must be given to the calculations for
minimum thickness. Two sets of calculations must be performed to determine the
maximum allowable working pressure; one for the weld using its joint efficiency and
one for the remote area using E equals 1.0. For purposes of these calculations the
surface at the weld includes one (1) inch on either side of the weld or twice the
minimum thickness whichever is greater.

h. When measuring a ellipsoidal or torispherical head the governing thickness may be as
follows:

1. The thickness of the knuckle region with the head rating calculated using the
appropriate head formula.

2. The thickness of the central portion of the dished region, in which case the dished
region may be considered a spherical segment whose allowable pressure is
calculated using the Code formula for spherical shells.

The spherical segment of both ellipsoidal and torispherical heads shall be considered to
be in an area located entirely in with a circle whose center coincides with the center of
the head and whose diameter is equal to 80 percent of the shell diameter. The radius of
the dish of torispherical heads is to be used as the radius of the spherical segment. The
radius of the spherical segment of ellipsoidal heads shall be considered to be the
equivalent spherical radius K1D, where D is the shell diameter (equal to the major axis)
and KI is as given in Table 1.

Section 4
Inspection and Testing or Pressure Vessels
and Pressure-Relieving Devices

General:

Section 4 requires that pressure vessels be inspected at the time of installation unless a
Manufacturer's Data Report is available. Further all pressure vessels must be inspected at
frequencies provided in Section 4. These inspections way be internal or external and may
require any number of nondestructive techniques.

The inspection may be made while the vessel is in operation as long as all the necessary
information can be provided using that method.

External Inspection:

The frequency for the external inspection of above the ground vessels shall be every 5 years
or at the quarter corrosion rate life whichever is less. This inspection should be performed
when the vessel is in service if possible.
Things to be checked shall include the following:

a. Exterior insulation
API 510 Page 10 of 310
b. Supports
c. Allowance for expansion
d. General alignment
e. Signs of leakage

Buried vessels shall be monitored to determine their surrounding environmental condition.
The frequency of inspection must be based on corrosion rate information obtained on
surrounding piping or vessels in similar service.

Vessels known to have a remaining life in excess of 10 years or have a very tight insulation
systems against external corrosion do not need to have the insulation removed for inspection
however, the insulation should be inspected for its condition at least every 5 years.

Inspection Intervals:

The period between internal or on-stream inspections shall not exceed 10 years or one-half
the estimated remaining corrosion-rate life whichever is less. In cases where the remaining
safe operating life is estimated at less than 4 years the inspection may be the full remaining
safe operating life up to a maximum of 2 years. Internal inspection is the preferred method
On Stream may be substituted if all of the following are true.

When the corrosion rate is known to be less than 0.005 inch per year and the estimated
remaining life is greater than 10 years internal inspection of the vessel is unnecessary as long
as the vessel remains in the same service, complete external inspections are formed and all of
the following are true:

The non-corrosive character of the contents have been proven over a five year period.
Nothing serious is found during the externals. The operating temperature of the vessel does
not exceed the lower temperature limits for the creep-rupture range of the vessel metal. The
vessel cannot be subject to accidental exposure to corrosives. Size and configuration make
internal inspection impossible. The vessel is not subject to cracking or hydrogen damage.
The vessel is not plate-lined or strip-lined.

The remaining life calculation formula is given in Section 4 and will be demonstrated in a
latter example problem along with the other formulas required for pressure vessels in
accordance with API 510.

Pressure Test:

Whenever a pressure test becomes necessary they are to be conducted in a manner in
accordance with the vessel's construction Code. The following concerns should be addressed
when pressure testing a vessel.

a. If the test will be hydrostatic the test temperature should he above 70F, but not
greater than 120F.

b. Pneumatic tests are permitted when hydrostatic testing is not possible. The safety
precautions of the ASME Code shall be used.

c. When the test pressure will exceed the set pressure of the lowest relief device, these
devices shall be protected by blinding, removal or clamps (gags).


API 510 Page 11 of 310
Pressure-Relieving Devices:

One of the major concerns for pressure relief devices is their repair. Pressure relief devices
must be repaired by qualified organizations having a fully documented written quality control
system and repair training program for repair personnel. No hard and fast rule is given for
the testing of relief devices the interval between tests is dependent on the service conditions
of the device. There are minimum of 15 items that should be addressed in the written quality
control documentation. Such as a Title page, Revision log, Contents Page, Statement of
Authority, Organizational Chart, etc. . Previous Exams have required naming 6 of these 1 5
items.

Records:

Pressure vessel owners and users must maintain permanent and progressive records on their
pressure vessels. Items that should be included are Manufacturer's Data Reports, vessel
identification numbers, RV information, results of inspection and any repairs or alterations
performed.

Section 5
Repairs, Alterations and Rerating of Pressure Vessels

General:

Section 5 covers repairs and alterations to pressure vessels by welding and the requirements
that must be met when performing such work. These repairs and alterations must be
performed to the edition of the ASME Code that the vessel was built to.

Authorization:

Prior to starting any repairs or alterations the approval of the API 510 Inspector and in some
cases an engineer experienced in pressure vessels must be obtained. The API 510 Inspector
may give approval to any routine repairs if the Inspector has satisfied himself that the repairs
will not require pressure tests.

Approval:

The API Inspector must approve all repairs after inspection and after witnessing any required
pressure tests.

Defect Repairs:

No crack may be repaired without prior approval of the API Inspector. If such repairs are
required in a weld or plate they may be performed using a U- or V-shaped grove to the full
depth and length of the crack. The U or V is then filled with weld metal. If the repair will be
to an area that is subject to serious stress concentrations an engineer experienced in pressure
vessels must be consulted. Corroded areas may be built up after proper removal of surface
irregularities. All welding for repairs must comply with Section 5.2 of this Code. The
amount of NDE and inspection shall be included in the repair procedure.

Welding:

All repair and alteration welding must be in accordance with the applicable requirements of
the ASME Code.
API 510 Page 12 of 310

Procedure and Qualifications:

The repair organizations must use qualified welders and welding procedures in accordance
with applicable- requirements of Section IX of the ASME Code.

Qualification Records..

Qualifications Records must be maintained for all welding operations and must be available
for review by the API Inspector prior to all welding operations.

Heat Treatment-Preheating:

Alterations and repairs can be performed on vessels that were originally postweld heat
treated by using only preheating within specific limitations. Postweld heat treatment in these
cases would not then be required. This alternative applies to only P-Nos. 1 and P-Nos. 3
materials of the ASME Code and should be used only after considering the original intent of
the postweld heat treatment. In some services the heat treatment was required due to the
corrosive nature of the contents of the vessel. In such cases this type of procedure may not
restore the metallurgical condition needed to combat corrosion. For this reason consulting
with an engineer experienced with pressure vessels is required. Two techniques for these
types of repairs or alterations are described in Section 5.2.3 and are very similar to those
found in paragraph UCS-56 of Section VIII Division 1 of the ASME Code. The major
differences are the minimum preheat temperature and the holding time and temperature after
the completion of the welded repair or alteration. Details and applicability of these
procedures will be discussed in detail during the coverage of paragraph UCS-56 of the
ASME Code.

Local Postweld Heat Treatment:

The API 510 Code permits postweld heat treatment to be applied locally, this means that the
entire vessel circumference may not be required to be included in the heat treatment. J ust as
in the alternative to postweld heat treatment above consideration to applying this local
treatment must be made with regards to service. It does not apply to all situations the
following four steps must be applied prior to using this type of heat treatment.

a. The application must be reviewed by a qualified engineer.

b. Suitability of this type of procedure is reviewed and consideration is given to such
things as base metal thickness, hardness, and thermal gradients.

c. A preheat of 300F or higher is maintained during welding.

d. The distance included in postweld heat treatment temperature on each side of the
welded area shall be not less than two times the base metal thickness as measured
from the weld. At least two thermocouples must be used. The shape and size of the
area will determine the size of the thermocouples required.

e. Heat must be applied to any nozzle or any attachment within the local postweld heat
treatment area.



API 510 Page 13 of 310
Repairs to Stainless Steel Weld Overlay and Cladding:

Prior to the repair or replacement of corroded or missing clad material a repair procedure
must written. Some of the concerns that must be addressed are as follows; out gassing of the
base metals, hardening of the base metal during repairs, preheating and interpass
temperatures and postweld heat treatment.

Design:

The design of welded joints included in the API 510 are in compliance with those of the
ASME Code. All butt joints shall be full penetration and must have complete fusion. Fillet
weld patches may be allowed as temporary repairs and can be applied to the inside or outside
of vessels but require special considerations. The jurisdiction where the vessel is operating
may for instance prohibit their use. Patches to the overlay in vessels must have rounded
corners; this is also true of flush (insert) patches.

Material:

All materials for repairs must conform to the ASME Code. Carbon or alloy steels with a
carbon content which exceeds 0.35 percent may not be used in welded construction.

Inspection:

The acceptance of welded repairs or alterations should include NDE that is in agreement with
the ASME Codes that apply. If the ASME Code methods are not possible or practical,
alternative NDE may be used.

Testing:

After repairs a pressure test must be applied if the API Inspector believes one is needed.
Normally pressure tests are required after an alteration. If jurisdictional approval is required
and it has been obtained NDE may be substituted for a pressure test. If an alteration has been
performed a pressure vessel engineer must be consulted prior to using NDE in place of
pressure test.

Rerating:

Rerating a pressure vessel by changing its temperature ratings or its maximum allowable
working pressure may be done only after meeting the requirements of API 510 given in
Section 5.3. Calculations, compliance to the current construction code, current inspection
records indicating fitness, pressure testing at some time for the proposed rerating and
approval by the API Inspector are required. The rerating is only complete when the Inspector
has overseen the attachment of an additional nameplate with the required information given
in Section 5.3.









API 510 Page 14 of 310
API 510 Module
CORROSION RATES AND INSPECTION INTERVAL


Examples

Metal loss equals the previous thickness minus the present thickness.

Problem #1

Determine the metal loss for a tower shell course which measured .600" in during its last
internal inspection in March of 1989. The present reading is .570" March 1993.

Metal loss =Previous thickness minus the present thickness.

.600" Previous
-.570" Present
.030"

Answer: Metal Loss =.030 inch


Corrosion rate equals the metal loss per given unit of time, i.e., per year.

Problem #2

Using the data of Problem #1 calculate the corrosion rate of the tower.
Corrosion Rate =Metal Loss
Time
Therefore:
March 1993-March 1989 =4 years

Corrosion Rate = .030 =0.0075 in./per year
4 Yrs.

Corrosion allowance equals the actual thickness minus the required thickness.

Problem #3

The tower shell course in Problem #1 has a minimum thickness required by Code of.500.
Calculate the corrosion allowance. The actual thickness is .570 as of March 1993.

.570" in actual thickness
-.500" required thickness
.070 corrosion allowance


Remaining service life equals the corrosion allowance divided by the corrosion rate.

API 510 Page 15 of 310
Problem #4

Calculate the remaining service life of the tower of problem #1.

.070" corrosion allowance from Problem #3
.0075" corrosion rate from Problem #2

.070 " = 9.33 Yrs.
.0075



Internal inspection equals half of the remaining service life, but not greater than ten (10)
years.

9.33 Yrs. = 4.6 Yrs.
2




































API 510 Page 16 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTIONS 1, 2, and 3
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 510 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #1

1. What code covers maintenance inspection of petrochemical industry vessels? (1. 1. 1)


2. Define MAWP according to the API 510 Code.(1.2.8) [1997 3.8]


3. Define rerating. (1.2.14) [1997 3.11]


4. What is a pressure vessel?(1.2.11) Sect VIII U-1(a) [1996 3.11]


5. Under what circumstances must an API 510 inspector be re-certified?
(App. B Paragraph B. 6) [1996 B4.1 App. B]


6. In terms of creep, what must be considered? (3.2) [1996 5.2]


7. What is the most valuable method of vessel inspection? (3.5) [1997 5.5]


8. Describe the correct way to clean a vessel for inspection. (3.5) [1997 5.2]


9. What metals might be subject to brittle fracture even at room temperature? (3.2)[1997 5 2]


10. Name five methods other than visual that might be used to inspect a vessel.(3.5)

11. When a new Code vessel is installed, must a first internal inspection be performed?(4.1)


12. A vessel was last inspected internally in J uly of 1983. During that inspection it was
determined to have a remaining life of 16 years. What is the latest date of the next
internal inspection? (4.3) [1997 6.3]


Answers on next page.







API 510 Page 17 of 310
ANSWERS TO QUIZ #1

1. answer: API-510

2. answer: is the maximum gauge pressure permitted at the top of a pressure vessel in
its operating position for a designated temperature.


3. answer: A change in either temperature rating or maximum allowable pressure of a
vessel or both.

4. answer: A container designed to withstand internal or external pressure by an
exterior source by the application of heat direct or indirect or both.

5. answer: Inspector who has not been actively engaged in an API inspection within the
previous 3 years. Re-certify by written examination.

6. answer: Time, Temperature & Stress.

7. answer: Careful visual examination

8. answer: wire brushing, blasting, chipping, grinding(or combination)

9. answer: At ambient temperature, carbon, low alloy, and other Ferritic Steels.

10. answer: 1. Magnetic Particle 2. Dye Penetrant 3. Radiography 4. Ultrasonic
Thickness measurement. 5. Metallographic Examination 6. Acoustic Emission
Testing 7. Hammer Test.

11. answer: No as long as manufacture report(Data) assures that the vessel is satisfactory
for the intended use is available.

12. answer: 1991




















API 510 Page 18 of 310
API 510 Module
RP 576 INSPECTION OF PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES

Overview

Scope:

This recommended practice covers automatic pressure relieving devices commonly used in
the petrochemical and oil refining industries. The recommendations found in RP-576 are not
intended to replace and regulations that may exist in a jurisdiction.

Types of Pressure Relief Valves:

The three major types of pressure relief valves are the safety valve, relief valve and the safety
relief valve. Pressure relief valves are classed based on their construction, operation and
applications.

Safety Valves

A safety valve is a spring-loaded device containing a seat and disk arrangement. It also has a
part just above the disk referred to as a huddling chamber. When the static pressure beneath
the disk has risen to a point where the force exerted on the disk begins to overcome the
springs downward force the disk slowly opens. When this has occurred the pressure beneath
the disk is exposed to the huddling chamber. The huddling chamber adds a much greater
area exposed to pressure than the disk alone. This results in a sudden rapid opening to the
venting systems releasing the pressure to safe point at which time the valve will close.
Safety valves have an open spring and usually have a lifting lever.

Safety valves are used for steam boiler drums and superheaters. They may also be used for
general air and steam services. The discharge piping may contain vented drip pan elbow or a
short piping stack vented to the atmosphere.

Safety valves are not fit for service in corrosive service, where vent piping runs are long, in
any back pressure service or any service where loss of the fluid cannot be tolerated. They
should not be used as a pressure control or bypass valve and are not suited for liquid service.

Relief Valve
A relief valve is a spring-loaded device that is intended for liquid service. This type of valve
begins opening when the pressure beneath its seat and disk reaches the set pressure of the
valve. The valve continues to open as the liquid pressure increases unto it is fully open. The
relief valve closes at a pressure lower than its set pressure for opening. Relief valves
capacities are rated for an overpressure from 10% to 25% depending on their use.

For instance a relief valve set at 100 psi might allow the system it is protecting to rise to an
ultimate pressure of between 110 psi to 125 psi. This should be considered when choosing
the relief valve set pressure. These types of valves have closed bonnets and may or may not
have lifting levers.

Relief valves are normally used for incompressible fluids. Relief valves are not intended for
use with steam, air, gas or vapor service. They should not be used for variable back pressure
service unless equipped with a balancing bellows or piston. They also not fit for use as a
pressure control or bypass valve. As of 1986 the ASME Code requires that they be stamped
with a certified capacity.
API 510 Page 19 of 310
Safety Relief Valves

A safety relief valve is a spring-loaded valve that is capable as functioning as a relief valve in
liquid service or as safety valve in gas or vapor service. Safety relief valves may be of the
conventional, balanced or pilot operated types.

Conventional SRV

A conventional SRV has its spring housing vented to the discharge side. Its opening
pressure, closing pressure and relieving capacity are directly affected by changes in back
pressure.

Conventional SRVs are used in flammable, hot and toxic services. Usually they are piped to
safe remote points of discharge such as a flare stack. Conventional SRVs are found in
service for gas, vapor, steam, air or liquids. Conventional SRVs are also used in corrosive
service. Conventional SRVs may not be used in services where any backpressure is constant
or where any built-up backpressure exceeds 10% of its set pressure. They are not to be used
on steam boilers, superheaters or as pressure control or bypass valves.

Balanced Safety Relief Valves

A balanced SRV has a pressure-balancing bellows, piston or both. This arrangement is
provided to minimize the effect of any backpressure on the operation of the balanced SRV.
Whether it is pressure tight downstream depends on its design. It may have a lifting lever as
an option.

Balanced SRVs are used in flammable, hot and toxic services. Usually they are piped to safe
remote points of discharge such as a flare stack. Balanced SRVs are found in service for gas,
vapor, steam, air or liquids. Balanced SRVs are also utilized in corrosive service. They are
not to be used on steam boilers, superheaters or as pressure control or bypass valves.
Because balanced-type valves have vented bonnets and the vent may need to piped to a safe
point. In the event that a bellows fails in such a valve the fluid will be discharged to the
bonnet and out its vent.

Pilot-Operated Safety Relief Valves

A pilot operated safety relief valve (POSRV) is a pressure relief valve whose main relieving
valve is controlled by a small spring loaded (self-actuated) pressure relief valve. It is a
control for the larger valve and may be mounted with the main valve or remote from the
main valve. The ASME Code requires that the main valve be capable of operating at the set
pressure and capacity even if the smaller fails.

Pilot operated relief valves are used under conditions where any of the following are true: a
large relief valve is required, low differential exists between the normal operating pressure
and the set pressure of the valve, very short blown down (time between opening and closing)
is required, back pressures on the outlet of the valve are very high, process service where
their use is economical, process conditions require sensing at a remote location.

POSRVs are not suited for service with dirty, viscous (thick) fluids or fluids that might
polymerize (harden) in the valve. Any of these conditions might plug the small openings of
the pilot system. If the operating temperatures might exceed the safe limit of the diaphragms
or seals or if the operating fluids might chemically attack these soft parts of the valve.

API 510 Page 20 of 310
Pressure and/or Vacuum Vent Valves

Pressure and/or vacuum vent valves are used for the protection of storage tanks and are
categorized into three kinds; weight loaded, pilot operated or spring and weight loaded.
These valves protect against an excessive differential in the outside pressure (atmospheric)
and the inside pressure or vacuum. If while drawing down (draining) a storage tank where to
develop a vacuum the tank might be crushed by atmospheric pressure. In the case where
internal pressure where to exceed design pressure the tank might bulge or rupture. In cases
where the tank might operate alternating between pressure and vacuum a breather type valve
is used, this valve will both vent gas pressure and break any vacuum, which might develop
during operations of the storage tank.

Rupture Disks

A rupture disk (RD) is a thin plate (usually in the shape of a bulge) that may be made of
various metals or of combinations or metals in thin layers. RDs may also be made of plastic-
metal combinations or coated metals. Non-metallic RDs are manufactured from impervious
graphite (usually flat) and other non-metallic materials. The rupture disks are held between
specially made flanges and designed to rupture at predetermined pressure and are of course
not capable of reclosing. Most rupture disks are designed to have the inside of the bulge
facing pressure although some are made to have the outside of the bulge facing pressure,
these are called reverse buckling RDs They may be used to protect against excessive internal
pressure. If the service involves a vacuum, the rupture disk normally will use a vacuum
support. A rupture disk in this service is designed to protect against an excessive internal
pressure should it occur due to a failure of the system. Each type of RD has special
considerations based on its design. A RD can be used alone or in combination with a
pressure relief valve.

Normal uses of RDs include all of the following; protections for the upstream side of PRVs
against corrosion, protect RVs against plugging or clogging, in place of PRVs if nonreclosing
is permitted, as additional backup over pressure protection, in outlets of vent piping to protect
the PRV from corrosion and to minimize leakage of a PRV.

Special handling for, storage, applications and the installation of RDs is required and the
manufacturer's recommendations directions should be followed. A special consideration in
the ASME Code is the relieving capacity rating of the safety relief valve if the RD is installed
between the SRV and the vessel.

For bulged metal rupture disks with the pressure exposed to the inside of the bulge and for
flat RDs the operating pressure is usually limited to a range of from 65% to 85% or the
design rupture pressure. The percentage used depends on the type of pressure service the
rupture disk is in. The lower 65% is normally used when the service involves pulsating
pressure or wide swings in pressure. The reasons for these limits include creep of the rupture
disk material that can result in sudden rupture at normal operating pressures. This can occur
rapidly if operating temperatures are high. For these and other reasons the service life of a
RD is about one year. They are easily damaged by the handling involved in their removal
and are best replaced during any maintenance activities.






API 510 Page 21 of 310
Variations with Resilient Valve Seats

When tighter sealing of PRVs is desired the valves are manufactured with 0 rings in the
seating parts. The valves are similar to PRVs with metal to metal seating only but with soft
parts to increase the seal tightness against leaking. The applications for these types of valves
are numerous but fall into the following categories; corrosive service,
toxic/flammable/expensive products, operating pressure very close to the set pressure, in
vibrating minor pressure surges, hard foreign particles in fluid and in pulsating pressure or
vibrating service.

Care should taken when choosing the material that the soft parts, such as O-Rings, are made
from. They must resist the chemicals and pressures they are exposed to in the intended
service. Comparable service should serve as a guide when choosing materials, failing this
information the valve manufacturers can be consulted.

Reasons for Inspections

If a pressure relief valve fails to open overpressure could occur and cause serious damage
and even loss of life. Protection of personnel and equipment may finally depend on the
proper functioning of the safety relief device. For these reasons the general condition of the
devices and the frequency of inspection must be established.

Causes of Improper Performance

The primary causes of failure or improper performance fall into categories as listed in RP
576. They can be classified as follows; corrosion, damaged seating surfaces, failed springs,
improper setting/adjustment, plugging/sticking, wrong materials for the service, installation
in the wrong service or location. Rough handling during service and shipping or installation.
Improper hydrostatic tests of discharge piping can cause damage to springs or to bellows of
balanced relief valves.

Frequency and Time of Inspection

Definite time intervals are required for the inspection, testing and repair of relief devices.
Some services require more frequent inspection than others but the basic frequency must be
based on safety not economics. API 510 establishes the maximum frequency to be 10 years
but actual service may require a shorter interval between inspections. The ideal time for
inspection is during a scheduled shut down of operations.















API 510 Page 22 of 310
API 510 Module
RP 576 SECTIONS 1 AND 2
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 576 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #2

1. How often should a safety relief valve be tested"? (4.5)


2. A vessel made of P-1 material one inch thick is being repaired by welding. The vessel
was originally postweld heat-treated. Is there any method to avoid PWMT of the repair?
(5.2.3)


3. Why are relief devices installed on pressure vessels? (RP 576 21.)


4. How many types of pressure relief valves are there? (RP 576 2.2.1.1 Section VIII UG-
126)

5. You notice that a pressure relief device has a closed bonnet. What type of valve is it?
(2.2.1.3.1)

6. While reviewing maintenance records you notice that bulged rupture disks in a unit are
three years old. Is this okay? (2.2.3.3)

7. A pilot operated safety valve has been installed in heavy crude service. Is this
okay? (2.2.1.5.3)




1. During s/ds or 10 years. (5.1.1)
2. yes
3. to protect personnel and plant equipment.
4. safety valve, relief valve, safety relief valve, pilot operated safety relief valve.
5. relief valve.
6. no 1 year
7. no













API 510 Page 23 of 310
API 510 Module
RP 576 SECTIONS 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 576 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #3
1. Describe a shop inspection of a relief device. (3.2)

2. Name three causes of improper performance of a pressure relieving device. (Titles of
Section 4 paragraphs)

3. The spring of a relief valve broke. What probably caused it to break? (4.3)

4. The valve shop is setting safety relief valves using water is this acceptable? (4.4)

5. You are ask to set a schedule for the inspection of relief devices; what will determine
the time between the setting of valves? (5.1.1 the max. is 10 years per API 510)

6. You notice workers opening RV. discharge lines to the atmosphere. What precautions
should be taken? (6.1.1)

7. What should the operating history of a pressure valve include? (6.1.3)

8. You are asked to visually inspect an RV before it is taken to the shop. What is the
purpose of this and why is it important? (7.1.1)

9. What is the purpose of a pressure/vacuum vent valve on an atmospheric tank? (7.3.2)

10. Why are records kept for pressure relieving devices? (8.1)









Answers Quiz#3
1. Check pop pressures, extend check for external conditions, and conform to specifications.
2. Corrosion, damage seat surfaces, and improper length of piping? (4.2)
3. Surface corrosion, stress corrosion.
4. No.
5. Performance of the devices in the particular service.
6. Precautions should be taken to prevent the release of hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide
7.(H2S), or other hazardous materials in the systems and to prevent the ignition of iron
sulfides in the piping.
8. Average operation conditions, the number and severity of upsets and their effect on the
valve, the extent of any leakage while in service and other evidence of malfunctioning.
9. To hole the deposits of corrosion the corrosion products and its importance because they
may be loose and drop out during transportation & shop fabrication.
10. To vent air and vapor in tanks when filling and to admit air when air drawn down.

API 510 Page 24 of 310
API 510 Module
API RP 572 INSPECTION OF PRE SSURE VESSELS

OVERVIEW

Section 1
General

Scope:

This recommended practice addresses the following items; description of types of vessels,
construction, maintenance, reason for and method of inspection, causes of deterioration,
repair methods and records/reports.

Section 2
Types of Pressure Vessels

The definition of a pressure vessel per API 572 is a container that falls within the scope of
the ASME Code Section VIII Division 1 and is subjected to an external or internal design
pressure greater than 15 psi. Section VIII Division 1 should be consulted for the exact
definition and exemptions. The definition of a pressure vessel is found in the ASME Code
Section VIII Division 1, page 1 in the first paragraph.

Pressure vessels can have many different shapes, they may be: spheres (balls), cylinders with
various heads attached such as flat or hemispherical and may consist of inner and outer shells
(jacketed). Many methods of construction are used. The most common is the cylindrical
shell made of rolled plate and welded with heads that are attached by welding. Riveting was
used prior to the development of welding. Vessels are no longer made by riveting, but some
riveted vessels are still in service today. Vessels are also made of the hot forging and multi-
layer (cylinders inside of cylinders) techniques. Multi-layer vessels are found primarily in
high pressure service.

The vast majority of vessels are made of carbon steels. For special services the carbon steel
may be lined, clad or weld metal surfaced with corrosion resistant materials such as stainless
steels. Some vessels are constructed entirely of various metals such as monel, nickel
titanium, or stainless steel. The material chosen will be determined by the required service
conditions. Temperature, pressure and the fluids to be contained are the primary concerns in
material selection. For reasons of economy different parts of a vessel may be made of
different materials using only the most expensive where needed. Many pressure vessels are
simply containers and do not have internal equipment; others have internals such as catalyst
bed supports, trays, baffles, or pipe coils.












API 510 Page 25 of 310
Section 3
Construction Standards

The first unfired pressure vessels were constructed to the design of the user or manufacturer.
This was true until about 1930 after that time the API/ASME Code or the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers Code (ASME) was used. In 1956 the API/ASME Code was
discontinued and the ASME Code was adopted as the standard for the construction pressure
vessels within its scope. Section VII Divisions 1 and 2 of the ASME Code are the unfired
pressure vessel Codes. Section VII Division 1 is the Code the vast majority of vessels are
built to; Section VII Division 2 used for vessels in high pressure service or where lower
factors of safety are desired. Division 2 has more restrictions on construction, materials,
inspection and nondestructive examination than Division 1. These restrictions usually result
in a vessel that would be thinner than that required by Division 1 and the resulting cost
savings could be significant is some instances.

Heat exchangers are built using both the ASME Code and the Standards of Tubular
Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA).

Section 4
Maintenance Inspection

The basic rule for the maintenance of a vessel in service is to maintain it to the original
design and the edition of the Code it was constructed under. If the vessel is re-rated this is
may done using the original or latest edition of the Code. This implies that persons
responsible should be familiar with the original construction edition of the Code and the
latest edition of the Code if a vessel has been re-rated. In addition personnel responsible for
these vessels must be familiar with any nations state, county or city regulations. The ASME
has minimum requirements for construction, inspection and testing of pressure vessels that
will be stamped with the Code Symbol however jurisdictions may have more restrictive
requirements. Compliance with ASME Code may not be enough to satisfy a jurisdiction's
requirement.

Section 5
Reasons for Inspection

The main reason for inspection is to determine the physical condition of a vessel. With this
information the causes and rate of deterioration can be established and safe operations
between shutdowns can be determined. Correcting conditions causing deterioration and
planning for repairs and replacement of equipment can also be done using the inspection
information. Scheduled shutdowns and internal inspections can prevent emergency
shutdowns and vessel failures. Periodic inspection allows the for the forming of a well
planned maintenance program by using data such as corrosion rates to determine replacement
and repair needs. External visual inspections along with the thorough use of various
nondestructive examination techniques can reveal leaks, cracks, local thinning and unusual
conditions.








API 510 Page 26 of 310
Section 6
Causes of Deterioration

The causes of deterioration are many but fall into several general categories as follows:
inorganic and organic compounds. steam or contaminated water, atmospheric corrosion.
These types of corrosive agents fall into the class of chemical and electrochemical attack.
Attack is also possible from erosion and, or impingement. The attack could come from any
combination of the above examples.

Corrosion is the prime cause of wear in pressure vessels. The most common internal
corrodents are sulfur and chloride compounds. Caustic, inorganic acids, organic acids and
low pH water can also cause corrosive attack in vessels.

Erosion is the wearing away of a surface that is being hit by solid particles or drops of liquid.
It is similar to sandblasting and is usually found where changes in direction or high-speed
flow is present. It occurs in such places as inlet nozzles and the vessel wall opposite the
nozzle. Outlet nozzles are likely spots when fast flowing products are in use. In some
instances corrosion and erosion are found together.

Metallurgical and physical changes can occur when a vessel material is exposed to fluids the
vessel contains. Elevated operating temperatures also contribute to these problems. The
changes that take place may be severe enough to result in cracking, graphitization, hydrogen
attack, carbide precipitation, intergrannular corrosion, embrittlement and other changes.

Mechanical forces such as thermal shock, cyclic temperature changes (high to low temps on
a frequent basis), vibrations, pressure surges, and external loads can cause sudden failures.
Cracks, bulges and torn internal components are often a result of mechanical forces.

Faulty materials can build in failure into a pressure vessel or one of its components. Bad
materials can result in leakage, blockage, cracks and even speed up corrosion in some. The
selection of an improper material for new construction of or for a repair to a vessel will often
result in the same type of failures as will proper materials that have manufacturing or
fabrication defects.

Faulty fabrication includes poor welding, improper or lack of heat treatment, tolerances
outside those permitted by Codes and improper installation of internal equipment such as
trays and the like. Any of these types of faulty fabrications may result in failures due to
cracks or high stress concentrations, etc., in vessels.


Section 7
Frequency and Time of Inspection

Many things determine the frequency of inspection for pressure vessels. Chief among the
reasons is corrosion rates that are determined by the service environment. Unless there are
insurance or legal reasons, the Frequency of inspection should be based n information from
the first inspection performed, using either on stream or internal methods.
Normally inspection planning will allow for the next inspection to occur when at least half
the original corrosion allowance remains. Other factors such as a need for frequent cleaning
may provide an opportunity to shorten the inspection frequency. If the process fluids or
operating conditions change, shorter inspection frequencies may be needed to determine what
effects the new conditions may have had.

API 510 Page 27 of 310
Opportunities for inspections will require the input of all groups involved; process,
mechanical and inspection personnel. The opportunity may have to be made if any laws
require a frequency or the insurance company has a requirement for it in the policy written on
the equipment. A convenient time for inspections, of course, is any time equipment is
removed from service for cleaning. Also if a vessel or exchanger was removed for
operational reasons, an inspection might then become needed to insure the integrity of the
equipment before returning it to service.

Another consideration for the inspection of vessels is the review of the in service operational
records to look for pressure drops and out of the ordinary conditions that might indicate a
problem.
Section 8
Methods of Inspection and Limits

To perform a proper inspection it is important to know the history of the vessels to be
inspected. Knowing what repairs have been required in the past and inspecting the repair
after it has been in service may help to develop better repair methods. It may also help to
locate similar problems. In every case, careful visual inspection is a requirement. Knowing
the service conditions of a vessel allows the concentration of efforts in areas known to have
problems in a particular service.

Safety precautions before entering a vessel are of the utmost importance. Vessels have small
openings and often many internal obstructions that make getting out of one quickly nearly
impossible. The bottom line is: make sure it is safe to enter a vessel. Such things as isolation
of lines by blinding, purging and cleaning along with gas testing prior to entry cannot be
overlooked. In some cases protective clothing and air supply systems are called for if entry
is desired before cleaning to look at the vessel's existing conditions for indications of
problems. Always inform personnel inside and outside a vessel that inspection personnel are
entering the vessel. Loud noises made by inspection or maintenance might scare others,
causing injury.

Preparatory work needed for vessel inspection should include checking in advance to make
sure all equipment is present and is in usable condition.

External inspections should start with ladders, stairways, platforms and walkways connected
to the vessel. Loose nuts, broken parts and corroded materials must be searched for by visual
inspection and hammer testing for tightness. Since corrosion is most likely to occur where
water can collect, these areas should be inspected carefully, using a pick or similar object.
Slipping hazards such as slick treads should be looked for and noted on the inspection report.
Foundations and supports must be inspected for the condition of the fireproofing. The
settling of foundations, spalling (flaking) and cracking of the fireproofing are always a
concern.

In cases where equipment is supported by cradles, moisture between the cradle support and
the vessel may cause corrosion. If the area where a vessel and a cradle join has been scaled
with a mastic compound, the mastic seal should be checked gently with a pick to check its
water tightness. Some settling of any foundation is to be expected. However, if the settling
is noticeable, the extent must be determined for future reference.

Anchor bolts can be examined by scraping away and looking for corrosion. The soundness
can be determined with blow of a hammer to the side of the bolt or its nut. Checking the nuts
for tightness and the bolts with ultrasonics for breaks is sometimes appropriate. Any
distortion of the bolts may indicate serious foundation settlement.
API 510 Page 28 of 310
Concrete supports are inspected with same concerns as concrete foundations. Close attention
to any seals and the possibility of trapping moisture because of faulty seals should be
investigated.

Steel supports should be examined for corrosion, distortior4 and cracking. If corrosion is
severe, actual measurements of the remaining thickness should be performed and a corrosion
rate established just as in a vessel. Wire brushing, picking and tapping with a hammer is
frequently used inspection techniques. Most of the time corrosion can be slowed or
prevented by proper. painting alone. Sometimes protective barriers such as galvanizing are
required. As part of steel support inspection, vessel lugs should be examined using the same
methods of wire brushing, etc., described above. Welds used to attach lugs can develop
cracks and some cracks can then run into the vessel's walls. If a vessel's steel supports are
'insulated and an indication of leakage is present, the insulation must be removed to
determine if corrosion under insulation has occurred.

Guy wires are cables that stretch from different points of a vessel to the ground where they
are anchored to underground concrete piers (deadmen). Inspection of these guy wires must
include checking the connections for tightness and the cables for the correct tensions. The
connections consist of turnbuckles used for tightening and U bolt clips for securing. An
connectors must be checked for proper installation and the presence of corrosion- The cable
must be checked for corrosion and for broken strands.

Nozzles and adjacent areas are subject to distortion if the vessel foundation has moved due to
settling. Excessive thermal expansion, internal explosions, earthquakes, and fires can cause
damage to piping connections. Flange faces should be checked for squareness to reveal any
distortion, If evidence of distortion is found cracks should be inspected for, using non-
destructive examination. All inspections should be external and internal whenever possible.
Visible gasket seating surfaces must be inspected for distortion and cuts in the metal seating
surfaces. Wall thickness readings must also be taken on nozzles and internal or external
corrosion monitored.

Grounding connections must be inspected for proper electrical contact. The cable
connections should be tight and properly connected to the equipment and the grounding
system. All grounding systems should be checked for continuity (no breaks) and resistance
to electrical flow, Continuity checks are usually made using electrical test
equipment such as an Ohm meter. lie resistance readings are recommended to be between 5
and 25 Ohms.

Auxiliary equipment such as gauge corrections, sight glasses, and safety valves may be
visually inspected while the vessel is still in service. Inspection while a vessel is 'm service
allows the presence of excessive vibrations to be detected and noted. If excessive vibrations
exist, engineering (;an determine if any additional measures are required to prevent fatigue
failures.

Protective coatings and insulation should be inspected for their condition- Rust spots or
blistering are common problems associated with paint and are easily found by visual
inspection. Scraping away a loose coating film will often reveal corrosion pits. These pits
should be measured for depth and appropriate action taken. Insulation can usually be
effectively visually inspected. If an area of insulation is suspected, samples may be cut out
and examined for its condition. Insulation supporting clips, angles, bands, and wires should
be examined.


API 510 Page 29 of 310
External surface corrosion appears in forms other than rust. Caustic embrittlement, hydrogen
blistering and soil corrosion are also found on the external surfaces of equipment. Area of a
vessel that need special attention often depends on its contents. When caustic is stored or
used in a vessel, the areas around connections for internal heaters should be checked for
caustic embrittlement. In caustic service, deposits of white salts often are indications of leaks
though cracks. Hydrogen blistering is normally found on the inside of vessels, but can
appear on the outside if a void in the vessels material is close to the outer surface. Unless
readily visible, leaks in a vessel are best detected by pressure testing. Cracks in vessels are
normally associated with welding and can he found using close visual inspection. In some
services nondestructive tests to check for cracks is justified and should be performed. Other
concerns when performing external inspection are bulges, gouges, and blistering. Hot spots
when found in service should be monitored and thoroughly evaluated by an engineer
experienced in pressure vessels.

Internal inspections should be prepared for by assembling all necessary inspection equipment
such as tools, ladders, and lights.
Surface preparation will depend on the type of problems that a vessel may have in a
given service. Ordinarily the cleanliness required by operations is all that is needed for many
inspections. If better cleaning is required, the inspector can scrape or wire brush a small
area. If serious conditions are suspected, water washing and solvent cleaning may not be
enough to reveal problems. In these instances, power wire brushing, abrasive grit blasting,
etc., may be required.

Preliminary visual inspection should be preceded by a review of reports of previous
inspections. Preliminary inspection usually involves seeking out known problem areas based
on inspection experience and service. Many vessels are subject to a specific type of attack
such as cracking in areas such as upper shell and heads. Preliminary inspection may reveal a
need for additional cleaning for a proper detailed inspection.

Detailed internal inspections should start at one end of a vessel and progress to the other end.
A systematic approach such as an item check list will help to prevent overlooking hidden but
important areas. All parts of vessel should be inspected for corrosion. hydrogen blistering,
deformation, and cracking. In areas where metal loss is serious, detailed thickness readings
should be taken and recorded. If only general metal loss is present, one thickness reading on
each head and shell may be enough. Larger vessels require more measurements.

Pitting corrosion will require local examination by first scraping the surface and then and
measuring the pit depth. Pit gauges allow for measuring pit depth if an uncorroded area
adjacent to the pit is available to gauge from In the case of large pits or grooves, a straight
edge and steel rule often will allow measurement by spanning the large area and lowering the
steel rule into the pit and measuring the depth.

Hammer testing is often a good method of finding thin areas. Experience is needed to
interpret the sounds made by hammering. Usually a dull thud will indicate a loss of metal or
thick deposits. Hammer testing must never be used for inspecting vessels or components
under pressure. If cracks are suspected or found their extent may be determined by cleaning
and nondestructive testing.

Welded seams deserve close attention when in services where amine, wet hydrogen sulfide,
caustic, ammonia, cyclic, high temperature and other services. Welds in high strength steel
(above 70,000 psi tensile) and coarse grain steels, and low chrome alloys should always be
checked carefully for cracking. All of the above conditions promote cracking in welds and
adjacent base metals.
API 510 Page 30 of 310
Nozzles should be checked for corrosion and their welds for cracking at the time of the
vessels internal inspection. Normally ultrasonic thickness readings will reveal any loss of
metal in nozzles and other openings in a vessel. Internal equipment such as trays and their
supports are visually inspected accompanied by light tapping with a hammer to expose thin
areas or loose attachments. Conditions of trays must be determined to check for excessive
leakage caused by poor gasket surfaces or holes from corrosion. Excessive leakage can
cause operational problems and may lead to poor performance of a vessel or unscheduled
shut downs.

Inspection of metallic linings must determine if the lining has been subjected to service
corrosive attack, that linings are properly installed, and that no cracks or holes are present in
the lining. Most problems with linings are found by careful visual inspections. Tapping the
lining lightly with a hammer can reveal loose lining or corrosion. Welds around nozzles
deserve special attention due to cracks or holes that are often found in these areas. If the
surfaces of the lining are smooth, thickness measurements using ultrasonic techniques may
be performed. If required, small sections of lining can be cut out and measured for thickness.
A very useful method of tracking the corrosion rate of linings, is by the welding of small tabs
at right angles to the lining when the lining is first installed. These tabs are made of the same
material and thickness as the lining and can be easily measured at the time of installation and
at the next inspection to determine the rate of corrosion taking place in the vessel.
Remember that both sides of the tab are exposed to the corrosion and the lining's loss must be
determined by dividing the tab's loss by two. A bulge in a liner can be caused by a leak in
the liner permitting a pressure or a product build tip between the liner and the protected base
metal.
Nonmetallic liners are made of many different materials such as glass, plastic, rubber.
ceramic, concrete, refractory, and carbon block or brick liners. The primary purpose when
inspecting these types of linings is to insure that no breaks in the lining are present. These
breaks are referred to as holidays. Bulging, breaking, and chipping are all signs that a break
is present in the lining. The spark tester method if very effective in finding breaks in such
nonmetallic linings as plastic, rubber, glass, and paint. The device uses a high voltage with a
low current to find openings in linings. The electrical circuit is grounded to the shell and the
positive lead is attached to a brush. As the brush is swept over the lining, if a break is
present, electricity is conducted and an alarm is sounded. A little warning: this is obviously
not a device to be used in a flammable or explosive atmosphere nor should the device have
such a high voltage value that it can penetrate through a sound lining. The spark tester is not
useful for brick concrete, tile, or refractory linings. Remember linings can be damaged
during a careless inspection; often just by dropping a tool.

Concrete and refractory linings often spall (flake away) or crack. This damage is readily
detected during a visual inspection. Minor cracks may take some gentle scraping to find. If
bulging is obvious cracks may also be present. If any break is present, fluid has probably
leaked in between the lining and the outer shell and may have caused corrosion. Light
tapping with a hammer can reveal looseness that is normally associated with leakage of
linings.

Thickness measuring techniques such as ultrasonics, limited radiographic techniques.
corrosion buttons. and the drilling of test holes; are used to determine if any wall loss has
occurred. The most common technique is ultrasonics. Ultrasonics can detect flaws and
determine thicknesses also. Its principle of operation involves the sending of sound waves
into the material and measuring the time it takes the sound to return to the sending unit.
referred to as a transducer. Sound travels through a given material at a known speed, and
when properly calibrated, the UT equipment uses the known speed and time of travel to
determine the thickness in the area being tested,
API 510 Page 31 of 310

In thickness measurements using radiographs, the placement of a device such as step gage (a
device of a known material and thickness) in the radiographic image is compared to the
image of the piping or vessel wall and the thickness determined by measurement.

Corrosion buttons are made of a material that are not expected to corrode in a given service
and then installed in pairs at specific locations in the vessel. Measurements are taken by
placing a straight edge across the two buttons and then gauging the depth with a steel rule or
some other measuring device. When corroded surfaces are very rough, test holes through the
vessel may be used to measure the wall thickness. A variation on test holes is depth drilling.
In this technique, small holes are drilled to a known depth (not all the way through) in the
new vessel wall, then plugged with corrosion resistant plugs to protect the bottom of the hole
from corrosion. During internal inspections the plugs are removed and depth readings are
taken. Any wall loss that has occurred is detected by the hole depth becoming more shallow
than the original reading.

Special methods of detecting mechanical changes include nondestructive techniques, acid
etching small areas to find cracks, and sample removal. Acid etching requires abrasive
cleaning and the application of an appropriate (for the metal) chemical usually acid. The
etching approach allows fine cracks to stand out in contrast to the base metal. Sample
involves the removal by mechanical cutting out a small portion of the area of interest and
then analyzing it under a microscope. Often the filings created during the removal can be
cleaned and then subjected to a chemical analysis. A weld repair to the site of sample
removal will be required and should be made as carefully as any welded repair.

Metallurgical change tests can be made using many of the same techniques described in
mechanical changes. Additional tests include hardness chemical spot, and magnetic tests.
Portable harness testers such as the Brinell will detect poor heat treatment, carburization and
other problems that involve a change in hardness. Chemical tests to a small portion of a
metal will reveal the type of metal to determine if the wrong metal has been installed
possibly during a pervious repair. Magnetic tests are used to determine if a material such as
austenetic stainless steel; normally not magnetic, have become carburized, which will allow
the austenetic stainless to become attracted to a magnet.

Testing

Hammer testing used during visual inspection will reveal conditions such as; thin sections.
tightness of bolts and rivets, cracks in linings, lack of bond in refractory and concrete linings.
The hammer is also used to remove scale for spot inspection. Hammer testing is an art
learned from experience and caution is warranted whenever using this method. It is not
smart to hammer on anything under pressure and hammering on some piping systems can
dislodge scale or debris and plug up a portion of the system such as a catalyst bed.

Pressure and/or vacuum tests are per-formed when a vessel is first built and then applied after
entering service if any serious problem has been disclosed, which brings into question the
integrity of the vessel. After major repair work, a pressure test is normally required. Some
jurisdictions and company's policies require tests on a time basis even if no repair work has
been done. These types of tests often involve raising the internal pressure above normal
operating pressure and the possibility of damage to the vessel from the test exists. Pressure
tests should applied carefully by qualified personnel using calibrated gages with positive
control of the test equipment. The object is to reveal any problems, not to create one. Most
of the time these tests use water or some other fluid (hydrostatic) permitted by the Codes.
During hydrostatic testing of a vessel pressure drop, leaks and deformation (bulging) in the
API 510 Page 32 of 310
vessel may be revealed. If the vessel's supports can not hold the weight of the fluid or the
vessel cannot tolerate contamination by the testing fluid, a gas test (pneumatic) may be used.
Pneumatic testing, by its nature, can be more dangerous than hydrostatic testing. Caution is
always advisable during a pneumatic test, and it is normally the last choice of types. The
reason for this is that gas that has been compressed has a great deal of stored energy, and if
failure occurs, it will likely be explosive. Have you ever blown out a car tire? During a
pneumatic test, a soap solution is often applied to weld seams and fittings and then, looking
for bubbles, leaks can be revealed. Another method, sound detection, uses special listening
devices to bear and locate the leaks. Another sound based device is Acoustic Emissions. As
a vessel is pressurized, it emits sounds from any flaws present in the metal. By using several
listening devices attached to different parts of the vessel, the location of a serious flaw is
found by using triangulation. Some vacuum vessels can be tested with internal pressure
rather than a vacuum. If a vacuum vessel can be pressure tested, it is the preferred method
because it is easier to detect leaks with internal pressure.

Vacuum tests are conducted by creating a vacuum inside the vessel and observing the
vacuum gage for any loss of vacuum that might occur. If the vacuum remains unchanged the
assumption is made that no leak exists.

Testing temperature can be very important with some pressure vessel materials due to the
brittle characteristics of these metals at low temperatures. The ASME recommends that the
test temperature be at least 30F above the minimum design metal temperature to prevent the
risk of brittle fracture. A brittle fracture can be compared to glass breaking and shattering.
For that reason every effort must be made to prevent it. In combination with a pneumatic test
and its stored energy; a brittle failure would be a devastating bomb. For all materials the
general recommendation for test temperature is 70F minimum and 120F maximum for
safety when conducting a pressure test, no unnecessary personnel should be allowed in the
area until the test is complete. Pneumatic tests must follow a procedure described in the
ASME Code that raises the pressure in small steps with short stops at each step.

Pressure testing of exchanges can be performed when they are first shut down and before
bundle removal in order detect any leaks that might have been present during recent service.
If leaks are detected during the initial test, partial disassembly can be performed and the test
pressure reapplied to locate the source of the leaks. Heat exchangers may also be
disassembled and cleaned, inspected, repaired if needed, then reassembled and tested. If a
leak is detected in the exchanger after re-assembly, disassembly will again be required to
repair the leak. The method of testing an exchanger will depend on its design. Some can be
tested with their channel covers removed if of the fixed tube sheet design with the pressure
applied to the shell side. If a tube in the bundle is discovered to be leaking at other than the
tube sheet roll, it may be plugged with a tapered plug which effectively removes that tube
from service. If the leak is located where the tube is rolled (expanded) into the tube sheet, an
attempt to re-roll the tube is usually made and the test pressure reapplied. Often tube bundles
are tested out of their shells if of the floating head design. Leaks are easily detected, but this
approach requires a separate shed test. During pressure tests leaks in shells, tubes, gasketed
areas, and distortion are looked for in the exchanger parts.

Limits of thickness must be determined prior to inspection and must be known in order to
perform an effective inspection. The retiring thickness and the rate of deterioration are
needed to determine the appropriate action should a problem be uncovered during an
inspection. The importance of inspection records becomes obvious when it is required to
make a decision whether to repair, replace, or just to continue the operation of a vessel. If
the retiring thickness is known prior to the inspection, a plan of action in the event of
excessive wall loss can be prearranged. Almost all vessels, when new, will contain excess
API 510 Page 33 of 310
thicknesses above what are required by the Codes they were built to. Extra thickness can be
required by the design as sacrificial metal (corrosion allowance) in the vessel parts.
Extra thickness can be due to the nominal plate thickness as opposed to the actual thickness
required by calculation, i.e., the shell has a required thickness of .435 " and .500 plate is
used because .435" is not manufactured. Owners, Users or Codes may require that the metal
cannot be less than a certain thickness in a particular service. Sometimes a reduction in
pressure or temperature for a vessel will allow its continued service with thinner metal.

Methods of repair to vessels should be reviewed to insure that they comply with any Codes
or standards that may apply. Several jurisdictions recognize the minimum repair techniques
of the API. Other jurisdictions require that the repairs be made to the National Board of
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBPVI), National Board Inspection Code-23
(NBIC) and that the repair concern holds a valid R (Repair) Stamp from the NBBPVI. In
addition to using a concern holding the R Stamp an NBBPVI Repair form R1 may also be
required. In some instances, Insurance Carriers will require that the NBIC be followed and
that an NBIC Authorized Inspector in their employ approves the repair. Repairs made to
vessels by welding will require visual inspection as a minimum and may also involve various
nondestructive examinations (NDE) methods based on the severity of the repair and the
original NDE used in the construction Code. Unless the Inspector can accept a sound
technical argument against requiring a pressure test after a major repair, one should be
applied. If the repair to a vessel involves cracks special preparation of repair area is required.
The major concern in crack repairs is the complete removal of the crack. Cracks may be
removed by chipping, flame, arc, or mechanical gouging. Any crack removal technique that
uses high heat input to the affected area can cause the crack to grow, so caution must be used
with those techniques. In cases where many cracks are present it is normally better to replace
the entire section of the material. Shallow cracks may be removed by grinding using a
blending method if the final thickness does not fall below the minimum required.
Inspection records and reports are important and are required by most Codes and
jurisdictions such as the State, API, and the NBBPVI NB-23. These reports are of three
types: Basic Data, Field Notes, and Continuous File. The basic data includes original
manufacturer's drawings and data reports as well as design information. Field notes are notes
about and measurements of the equipment and may be written or entered into a computer
data base. Usually field notes are in the form of rough records inspections and repairs
required. Continuous files include all information about a vessel's operating history,
previous inspection reports, corrosion rate tables (if any) and records of repairs and
replacements. Copies of reports containing the location, extent, and reasons for any repairs
should be sent to all management groups such as Engineering, Operations, and Maintenance
departments.

Heat Exchangers are used to transfer heat from one gas or liquid to another gas or liquid
without the two fluids mixing. Heat exchangers fall into classes: condensers and coolers. A
condenser has the effect of changing a gas fluid to a liquid or partial liquid fluid and
ordinarily use water as the coolant. Coolers lower the temperature of a fluid and may use
water or another process fluid of a lower temperature as the coolant. Sometimes air is used
to lower the temperature of a fluid. The equipment is then referred to as an air cooler.








API 510 Page 34 of 310
Into a tube sheet by rolling (expanding) them into the tube sheet holes. In heat exchangers,
after rolling tubes, the ends are sometimes welded to the tube sheet for sealing purposes. In
some cases the tubes are inserted into the tube sheet and packing rings are installed to seal
the area around the tube ends. The method of construction used is dependent on the service
intended for the exchanger. There are four basic design types of shell and tube heat
exchangers. They are: One Fixed Tube Sheet with a Floating Head (the most common), Two
Fixed Tube Sheets, One Fixed Tube Sheet with U-Tubes, and Double Tube Sheet (used when
even the slightest leak cannot be allowed).

Reboilers and Evaporators perform the opposite function of the condenser or cooler. They
do what their names imply: boil and evaporate. In general they use steam or a hotter fluid
from a process to boil or evaporate another fluid. The Reboiler is normally used to boost
heat back up to a desired level at some intermediate step of a process stream.

Some Other types of heat exchangers include: Exposed Bundle, Storage Tank Heaters, Pipe
Coils (either single or double pipe), Box-Type Heater Coils, and Plate-Type.

Inspection of Exchanger Bundles should start with the establishment of any general corrosion
patterns. Inspecting an exchanger bundle when it is first removed can reveal the type(s) and
locations of corrosion and deposits. Visual inspection techniques include light scraping and
hammering testing with a very light ball peen hammer (4 to 8 oz) to locate corrosion and
thinning. The inside of the tubes may be partially inspected using borescopes, fiber optics,
and specialized probes. Since only the outside of tubes in the outer portion of a bundle can
be seen, inner tubes must be inspected using NDE techniques such as Eddy Current or
Ultrasonics. In some instances a tube may selected for removal and splitting for inspection.
The results of this destructive examination can then be used to determine the probable
general condition of the remaining tubes. Other portions of the exchanger such as the tube
sheets, baffles, impingement plates, floating head, and channel covers will require visual
inspection and may require measuring to determine their conditions.
























API 510 Page 35 of 310
API 510 Module
API RP 572 SECTIONS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #4

1. Name three shapes of pressure vessels. (2.1)

2. Describe multilayer construction of a pressure vessel. (2.2)

3. When carbon steel will not resist corrosive fluids, what method of construction is
normally used for such a vessel? (2.3)

4. Name four types of internals found in pressure vessels. (2.4)

5. Prior to 1930, what specifications were unfired pressure vessels built to in refineries?
(3.0)

6. Why is it important to have access to previous editions of the ASME Codes? (4.0)

7. Name three types of information gained from the inspection of a pressure vessel.(5. 1)

8. List the basic forms of deterioration. Name the effects these basic forms have. (6.1,
6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6 and 6.7)

9. What is the most important factor in determining the inspection frequency of a pressure
vessel? (7. 1)

10. Why are occasional checks of operating pressures while equipment is in operation
important? (7.2)

Answers to Quiz #4
1. Cylindrical, Spherical & Spheroidal
2. The cylindrical sector section is made up of a number of thin concentric cylinders
fabricated together one over the other until the obtained
3. It may be lined with other metals or non-metals
4. Demisiter pads, traps, baffles, spray nozzles
5. User or manufacturer
6. A pressure vessel has to be mentioned under the ASME code it was built to & codes are
revised constantly
7. Physical conditions, type, rate and causes of deterioration
8. Electrochemical, chemical, mechanical or combination of all three. Corrosion, erosion,
metallurgical, physical change, mechanical forces
9. Rate or corrosion remaining corrosion allowance
10. To detect defects and to measure wall thickness







API 510 Page 36 of 310
API 5 1 0 Module
API PP 572 SECTIONS 8.1 to 8.4.4
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #5

1. What should an inspector be aware of before starting the inspection of a pressure
vessel? (8.1)

2. Careful visual is important to determine what other types of inspections might be
required. Name three other types of inspection. (8.1)

3. Before an inspection starts in a vessel, who else besides the safety man should be
informed? (8.2.1)

4. Name five tools an inspector should have to perform an inspection. (8.2.2)


5. List at least six items that should be inspected on the external of a pressure vessel.
(8.3.2,.3,.4,.5,.6,.7,.8,.9,.10,.11,.12,.13)

6. Abrasive grit blasting, power wire brushing etc., are usually required under what
conditions? (8.4.2)

7. If a vessel has had previous internal inspections, what should be done prior to your
inspection? (8.4.3)

8. Where will most of cracks found in a pressure vessel be found? (8.4.3)

9. Why is a systematic procedure important when inspecting a pressure vessel? (8.4.4)

10. Under what operating conditions should weld seams in a pressure vessel be given special
attention? (8.4.4)

Answers to Quiz #5
1. Pressure & temperature conditions under which the vessel has been operational since last
inspection contents & function of vessel serves in the process.
2. Magnetic particle-wet or dry, dye penetrant, ultrasonic shear wave
3. All persons working around the outside. The vessel that people will be working inside
the vessel.
4. Flashlight, scraper, plastic bags, & hammer
5. Ladders, walkways, platforms, external scratches, stairways(connected to vessel),
tightness of bolts, floor plates, nozzles & guy wires.
6. Type & location of deterioration
7. Review the previous records
8. Welded seams and adjacent areas, sharp change in shape, nozzles, & baffles.
9. To avoid overlooking but obscure important items
10. When the service of vessel is Amine, Wet Hydrogen Sulfide, Caustic Ammonia, Cyclic,
High Temperature or other services that may promote cracks.



API 510 Page 37 of 310
API 510 Module
API RP 572 SECTIONS 8.4.5 to 8.5.2
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #6

1. When examining linings, name the three most important conditions to check. (8.4.5)

2. Describe the spark tester method of inspecting nonmetallic linings. (8.4.6)

3. How may loose non-metallic fittings be found using a hammer? (8 4.6)

4. Where a corroded surface is very rough, what may be done to measure
thickness?(8.4.7)

5. How may cracks be made to stand out from the surrounding areas being inspected?
(8.4.8)

6. Who should make the decision to trepan metal from a vessel for metallurgical
evaluation? (8.4.8)

7. How may carburized austenetic stainless steel sometimes be detected? (8.4.9)

8. What functions may an inspector's hammer serve? (8.5.1),,


9. When testing a vessel pneumatically what should be on hand to aid in the visual
examination? (8.5.2)

10. If it is possible to use internal pressure to test a vacuum vessel, what advantage does
that method offer? (8.5.2)

Answers to Quiz #5
1. No corrosion, lining properly installed, no holes or cracks exist.
2. A high voltage low current electrode(brush type) is passed over the lining, the other
end is attached to the end of the vessel. Electric arc will pass between electrode and
the hole in the lining
3. A light tapping on lining will make lessor evident with sound & feel.
4. Drill test hole to determine thickness.
5. Etching method (acid)
6. By someone who knows how to analyze the problems related to the repair of sample
house.
7. Magnetic Test
8. Supplement visual inspection e.g. thin walls in vessel, loose bolts & nuts, rivets,
cracks in metallic linings, lack of bond in concrete to remove scale.
9. Soap solution, ultrasonic sound tester or both.
10. Leaks from an internal pressure are more easily located.





API 510 Page 38 of 310
API 510 Module
API RP 572 SECTIONS 8.5.3 to 10.2
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #7
1. Why is it desirable to leak test an exchanger before disassembly? (8.5.3)

2. If a given exchanger begins leaking for the first time in its service life, what should be
done? (8.5.3)

3. Before retiring a vessel, what should be consulted? (8.6)

4. Before taking credit for excess thickness found in a vessel when doing calculations for
retirement or rerating, what must also be considered? (8.6)

5. What documents should be consulted prior to any repair? (9)

6. When shall a pressure test be applied? (9)

7. Why should care be taken when arc gouging a crack before a welded repair? (9)

8. What must an inspector consider when recommending the filling of pits with an
epoxy? (9)

9. What does the continuous file contain? (10.2)

10. Who should receive copies of all inspection reports? (10.2)

ANSWERS TO QUIZ #7
1. A leak may be detected by observing & point such as a disconnected nozzle or an open
bleeder.
2. Inspection should be performed to determine the nature of deterioration
3. The code edition of that code it is rated under and whether any regularities of and
allowable repairs must be determined.
4. Safety, Temperature & Pressure
5. Applicable code & standards under which it is to be rated should be studied to assure
methods of repair will not violate appropriate requirements
6. For al major repairs
7. Because the heat will cause cracks to lengthen or
8. That the pits are not large enough or close enough together to represent a general
thinning of the component.
9. All information on the vessel operating history description and measurement from
previous inspections, corrosion rate tables(if any) and records of repair & replacement.
11. Operations, Maintenance & Engineering








API 510 Page 39 of 310
API 510 Module
API RP 572 APPENDIX A

Find the answers to these questions by using the stated API 572 paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #8

1. Explain the difference between condensers, coolers and air coolers. (A. 1)

2 Show by sketch what is meant by One Fixed Tube Sheet with Floating Head, Two
Fixed Tube Sheets, One Fixed Tube Sheet with U Tubes. (A.2.2, 2.3, 2.4)

3. When are Double Tube Sheet Exchangers used? (A.2.5)

4. Name two types of water heaters. (A.2.7)

5. What principle of cooling is used with exposed tube bundles? (A.3.2, 3.3)

6. Name two types of Air-Cooled Exchangers. (A.5)

7. Describe the construction of Double-Pipe coils. (A.6.2)

8. Where are Flat-Type Heater Coils found? (A.6.3.4)

9. Why is it important to inspect exchanger bundles when they are first pulled from a
shell? (A.9. 1)

10. Name the likely locations for corrosion in exchangers. (A.9.2)

ANSWERS TO QUIZ#8
1. Condensers transfer heat by vapors to another fluid
Coolers cools hot by a lower temperature
Air-coolers air is used to reduce temperature of fluid by air.
2.
3. Where minute leaks from one fluid to another cannot be tolerated
4. a.) fixed tube sheet type b.) u-tube type
5. Water flows or sprayed on bundles
6. Draft coolers-on top or below tube bank, forced draft coolers-below tube bank
7. They are in shape and of small diameter with minimum wall thickness
8. Bottom of storage tank
9. Because the color type location of scales and a. help to pinpoint corrosion problems
10. The outside surface of tubes opposite shell inlet nozzles, adjacent to the baffles are tube
sheets









API 510 Page 40 of 310
API 510 MODULE
API CHAPTER II
CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIOTATION OR FAILURES


Introduction

Chapter II is under revision at this time, it is to be replaced with API RP 571, Recognition of
Conditions Causing Deterioration or Failure at some future date. Accordingly our coverage
of the subject will be based on the present API 510 Authorized Pressure Vessel Inspector
Body of Knowledge dated August 1994. Of the information contained in Chapter II, only
knowledge that pertains to pressure vessels may be included in the examination questions.
This is per the published Body of Knowledge. The coverage of Chapter II will be limited to
the required information on the test.

Corrosion is a major source of expense in refinery and chemical plants. Many times a piece
of equipment will corrode its way into retirement as opposed to simply wearing out. The
three major groups of corrosion are corrosive products in crude oils, corrosion from
chemicals used or processed, and environmental corrosion.

Corrosive components found in crude oil that cause the most metal loss in pressure vessels
are thought to be one or more of the following: Hydrogen chlorides and inorganic and
organic chlorides, Hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, and organic sulfur compounds, Carbon
Dioxide, Organic acids, and Nitrogen compounds. Most of the above mentioned components
attack the front end of a process system.

Crude oils contain salt, which can never be totally removed. The salt will generate various
chemical compounds when broken down in a processing system. Some of the compounds
are: Hydrogen chloride and Organic and Inorganic chlorides. Such things as Magnesium and
Calcium chloride, when dissolved in water and heated, attack the metal in the form of
Hydrochloric acid, which is very corrosive. This process is called hydrolysis.

Hydrogen sulfide is believed to be the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing
corrosion. Some hydrogen sulfide is present in the crude oil, and more may be generated
during the refining process. Outside of corrosion, the most serious problems caused by
Hydrogen Sulfide are blistering and embrittlement.

Carbon Dioxide, when combined with water, is corrosive. The water and carbon dioxide
combine to form carbonic acid. The water will usually be introduced from two sources: the
decomposition of bicarbonates in or added to crude oil or from steam used to aid in
distillation of crude oil.

Organic Acids, while not very corrosive at low temperatures, can be very corrosive at their
boiling temperatures. When organic acids have corroded carbon steel, a very smooth surface
is left and metal loss is not readily apparent during visual inspection.

And Cyanide. These two chemicals, while not causing corrosion directly, contribute to it by
breaking down a protective layer of scale which has formed on the metal leaving the metal
subject to Hydrogen Blistering and other problems discussed in the above paragraphs. The
Ammonia and Cyanide will directly cause pitting and worm-holing type attack in copper and
brasses.


API 510 Page 41 of 310
Corrosive Materials added to the process add significantly to metal loss caused by corrodents
already present in the crude oil that is being refined. Chemicals commonly added in refining
processes are Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride, Phenol Phosphoric Acid, Caustic
(sodium hydroxide), Mercury, Ammonia, Chlorine, and Aluminum.

Alkylation Units utilize either Sulfuric Acid or Hydrofluoric Acid as a catalyst. Sulfuric
Acid is the least corrosive of the two chemicals and corrosion occurring in equipment using
Sulfuric Acid may be very erratic attacking particular points in the process stream Sulfuric
acid is generally less corrosive at high concentrations of 85% or more. Hydrofluoric Acid is
very corrosive to steel unless it is kept at concentrations above 65% Hydrogen Fluoride.

Phenol (carbolic acid) is used in the manufacture of lubricating oils and aromatic
hydrocarbons. At temperatures below 400F and without water present, carbon steel is
usually not severely corroded by Phenol. Above 400F, carbon steel may corrode rapidly m
Phenol service.

Phosphoric Acid is used as a catalyst in polymerization units either in liquid or deposited as
pentoxide on clay pellets. Unless water concentrations are above a certain level, corrosion is
rare from Phosphoric Acid. When water is present in the required concentrations,
Phosphoric Acid will attack carbon steel very aggressively. Penetration of carbon steel in
8 hours can occur.

Caustic is used primarily for neutralization of acids and grease manufacture. Caustic can be
used and stored in carbon steel vessels and is generally not corrosive as long as the vessel has
been stress relieved and temperatures are kept at a safe level. At temperatures above 200F,
it will cause general corrosion in carbon steel.

Mercury is found in instrumentation and can enter vessel by mishap. If the mercury enters it
will cause stress corrosion attack in copper and monel.

Ammonia is used for refrigeration and neutralizing acids in plants. If Ammonia is allowed to
contact copper-based alloys in pH ranges of 8.0 and above, severe corrosion as general metal
loss occurs, and stress corrosion cracking then occurs. Blue salt deposits on equipment are a
clear indication of general corrosion by Ammonia.

Chlorine is used to treat water for cooling towers and to manufacture Sodium Hypochlorite
for treating oils. If water is not present, Chlorine corrosion of carbon steel is minor.

Present. It will hydrolyze in water and form hydrochloric acid and cause severe pitting
corrosion in carbon steel. Austenitic stainless steel under the above conditions will be
subject to inter-granular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.

Environmental Corrosion in refineries most commonly affects carbon steel. The water and
oxygen present in the atmosphere will cause severe corrosion on unprotected carbon steel.
This type of corrosion is usually galvanic and can be severe if water is allowed to penetrate
insulation.

Important Corrosion types include Intergranular, Graphitic corrosion of cast iron, Stress
Corrosion Cracking, Polythionic Acid, Dezincification, Galvanic, Contact Corrosion and
Biological Corrosion. The following paragraphs give a general definition to the various
types of corrosion.


API 510 Page 42 of 310
Intergranular Corrosion can occur in austenetic stainless steels when they are heated up to a
range from 750F to 1650F and cooled down. In the temperature range mentioned above,
complex carbides are formed of chrome and other elements which then migrate to grain
boundaries leaving those areas lacking the chrome which is intended to help resist. This loss
of chrome is followed by corrosive attack around grain boundaries and Intergranular
Corrosion occurs.

Graphitic Corrosion is the low-temperature corrosion of gray cast iron in which metallic iron
is converted into corrosion products, leaving the graphite intact.

Stress Corrosion Cracking is the spontaneous cracking of metals under the combined action
of stress and corrosion.

Polythionic Corrosion is a result of iron sulfide scale reacting with oxygen and water. This
normally occurs at the time of shutdowns of vessels.

Dezincification is a corrosion that occurs when copper-zinc alloys containing less than 85%
copper are used in water service. It occurs in three forms: plug, layer, and intercrystalline.

Galvanic Corrosion occurs between metals in contact with each other having different
electrical potentials. It is the same type chemical exchange found in a common wet or dry
cell battery. An electrolyte must be present for this type of corrosion to occur, and normally
the electrolyte is water or acids.

Contact Corrosion (crevice corrosion) happens at the contact surfaces between a piece of
metal and another piece of metal or a piece of metal and a nonmetal. A corrodent such as
water must present.

Biological Corrosion is related to the presence of organisms (bugs) in a contact with a metal.
They can be fairly large (macro) or very small (micro) organisms. An example of a macro-
organism is a barnacle. Examples of microorganisms are bacteria, slime, and fungi. One of
the primary places that microorganism biological corrosion is found is on

electrolyte solution which speeds up contact or crevice corrosion.

Erosion of metals is found frequently in vessels and piping of refineries and chemical plants.
It amounts to a wearing away by the abrasive action of a moving stream of a liquid or gas. If
solids are contained in the gas or liquid, the erosion will be accelerated and could be
compared to blasting with a water and sand mixture.

The Effects of High Temperature on Strength of a metal can result in the failure of the metal
suddenly (stress rupture) or slowly (creep).

Creep happens to metal held at high temperatures for long periods of time and is defined as
the flow or plastic deformation at stresses that would not cause metal flow at a lower
temperature. It is based on time at an elevated temperature and stress level.

Stress Rupture is a brittle failure that gives very little warning, with little if any deformation,
and is related to stress at high temperature. It can be considered the end result of creep in
some metals.



API 510 Page 43 of 310
API 510 Module
API CHAPTER II
Find the answers to these questions by using the stated Chapter II paragraph at the end of the
question.

Quiz #9

1. Name the three major groups of corrosion. (202)

2. Name six corrosive components of crude oil. (202.021)

3. What component do all crude oils contain? (202.022)

4. Where does Hydrogen Chloride evolve from in a process stream? (202.022)

5. What is the definition of pH? (202.022)

6. May Hydrogen Sulfide cause corrosion even at low temperature? If so, where can it be
found? (202.023)

7. Where can Carbon Dioxide come from in process streams? (202.024)

8. Name the corrosive materials added to processes. (202.023)

9. Above what concentration is Sulfuric Acid not very corrosive? (202.032)

10. Describe the following types of corrosion: Intergranular, Polythionic Acid,
Dezincification, Galvanic, Crevice Corrosion and Biological. (202.06)

ANSWERS TO QUIZ #9
1. Corrosion from components in crude oil, chemicals used in refinery processes,
environmental corrosion.
2. Hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, ---- oxygen and water, organic
acids, nitrogen ----
3. Salt
4. Hydrochloric acid
5. Dfl
6. Yes storage tanks
7. Crude oil-decomposition of bicarbonates, steam distillation
8. Sulfuric acid, hydrogen fluoride, phenol, caustic, phorous acid, mercury ammonia,
chlorine, al
9. 85% or more.
10.










API 510 Page 44 of 310
ASME SECTION VIII DIV. 1
PART UW - WELDING


Objectives

Student should understand and be capable of applying the following concepts:

A. J oint restrictions based on Service.

B. J oint Categories.

C. J oint Types.

D. Butt J oint Radiography Requirements.

E. Butt J oint Efficiencies.

F. Requirements for Post Weld Heat Treatment.

G. Application of Welded Repairs.
































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Introduction

Section VIII Division 1 has a system of identification for welds in vessels and vessel parts.
This system assigns types to welds; the form of weld (double welded, etc.) determine its type.
The locations of welds in a vessel or vessel part determine their category. In some instances
the type will be mandatory based on Category and Service. In other cases it will be optional;
the designer makes a choice from the acceptable Types. Radiography requirements also
depend on Type, Service and Category.

The Code also assigns a way of measuring the quality of a butt joint which is based on the
Type and extent of radiography used.






































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PART UW - WELDING

Definitions

The following are definitions for use in Part UW. Doing calculations on shells, heads,
nozzles and the like will depend on knowing these definitions.

Welded Joints

1. Corner Welded J oint (called a fillet weld in Section IX)







2. Butt Welded J oint




Weld Types

3. Type is the description of a welded joint. For example, a single-welded butt joint with
backing that remains in place.





Weld Categories

4. Determination of Category for a joint depends on the location of the joint in a vessel or
vessel part. As an example the circumferential seam joining two shell courses is a
Category of weld.






Category









Shell Course Shell Course
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UW-2 Service Restrictions

Service restrictions apply to four classes of vessels.


* Lethal Service

* Service below Certain Temperatures Given in UCS-68

* Unfired Steam Boilers exceeding 50 psi

* Vessels or Parts Subject to Direct Firing

For determination of a Butt joint's service restrictions by Types (how made) and Categories
(locations) permitted in a vessel read UW-2.

Vessels used to contain lethal substances require that all major butt welded J oints be fully
radiographed (with some exceptions for heat exchangers).

If they are Category A joints they must be of type No. (l) of Table UW-12. If they are
Category B joints they must be of either Type No. (1) or Type No. (2). Similar restrictions
apply to the other classes listed above.



























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UW-3 Welded Joint Category

A quick reference system for specifying joint requirements is the assigning of
categories by location, to welds in a vessel. For instance for a vessel in lethal
service the Code requires that butt joints be of a specific type based on their
physical location in the vessel and that the butt welds be fully radiographed.

A statement like "All category A joints shall be Type No. (1)." is a short hand
way of saying the following:

"All longitudinal welds within main shells, communicating chambers,
transitions in diameter, or nozzles; any welded joint within a sphere, within a
formed head, or within the side plates of a flat sided vessel, circumferential
welded joints connecting hemispherical heads to main shells, to transitions in
diameter, to nozzles, or to communicating chambers shall be Type No. (1).

As you read through the Code paragraphs think of how difficult it would be to
restate a complete description every time you find a specified requirement
based on J oint Category.

The best way to understand and thereby learn joint category is by the use of
graphics. Fig. UW-3 of Paragraph UW-3 provides a brief graphical
representation. An expanded use of graphics for each Category follows.


























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UW -3 Welded J oint Category
Case Study 1

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel,
but not the type of joint.

UW-3(a)(1) Category A. Longitudinal welded joints within the main shell,
Communicating chambers, transitions in diameter, or nozzles; any welded
joint within a sphere, within a formed or flat head, or within the side plates of
a flat-sided vessel; circumferential welded joints connecting hemispherical
heads to main shells, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles, or to
communicating chambers.




CATEGORY A JOINTS
































SEAMS IN A
SPHERE
SEAMS IN FLAT HEAD
SEAMS IN FORMED HEADS
SUCH AS TORISPHERICAL
FLAT SIDES OF VESSELS
HEMI HEAD TO
TRANSISTION
TRANSISTIONS
HEMI HEAD TO
NOZZLE
NOZZLE
LONGITUDINAL
SEAM
HEMI
HEAD
COMMUNICATIONS
CHAMBER
MAIN SHELL LONGITUDINAL SEAM
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UW -3 Welded J oint Category
Case Study 2

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the
type of joint.


UW-3(a)(2) Category B. Circumferential welded joints within the main shell, communicating
chambers, nozzles, or transitions in diameter including joints between the transition and a
cylinder at either the large or small end; circumferential welded joints connecting formed
heads other than hemispherical to main shell, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles or to
communicating chambers.





































FORM HEAD TO SHELL
MAIN SHELL
SMALL END OF TRANSISITION
FORM HEAD TO COMMUNICATING CHAMBER
NOZZLE
LARGE END OF TRANSISTION
COMMUNICATIONG CHAMBER
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UW -3 Welded J oint Category
Case Study 3

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel, but not the
type of joint.


UW-3 (a)(3) Category C. Welded joints connecting flanges. Van Stone laps, tubesheets, or
flat heads to main shell, to formed heads, to transitions in diameter, to nozzles, or
communicating chambers; any welded joint connecting one side plate to another side plate of
a flat sided vessel.



NOZZLE NOZZLE VAN STONE LAP NOZZLW







CATEGORY C CATEGORY C BUTT WELD
CATEGORY C







FLAT HEAD TO SHELL TUBE SHEET TO SHELL FORGED FLAT HEAD TO SHELL OR NOZZLE




C
C
CATEGORY C

C C















SIDE PLATES


CAT. C
BUTT WELD

CAT. C
FILLET WELD

CAT. C
BUTT WELD

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UW -3 Welded J oint Category Case Study 4

The term "Category" as used here in defines the location of a joint in a vessel but not the type
of joint.

UW-3 (a)(3)Category D. Welded joints connecting communicating chambers or nozzles, to
main shell, to spheres, to transitions in diameter, to heads, or to flat sided vessels, and those
joints connecting nozzles to communicating chambers (for nozzles at the small end of a
transition in diameter, see Category B).


COMMUNICATING CHAMBER COMMUNICATING CHAMBER
CAT. D CAT. D
FILLET BUTT WELD




CAT. D CAT. D
FILLET NOZZLE BUTT WELD NOZZLE






NOZZLE TO SPHERE CATEGORY D CATEGORY D HEAD CATEGORY D









NOZZEL TO FLAT SIDE















MAIN SHELL MAIN SHELL
TRANSISTION
API 510 Page 53 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


UW -3 Welded J oint Category
Exercises

1. The category of a joint depends on:

a. What kind of weld was made: fillet or butt.
b. The process used to make the weld.
c. Whether it is vertical or horizontal in the vessel
d. None of the above.

2. A circumferential weld to attach a flange is what Category'?

a. D
b. C
c. E
d. A


3. In the drawing below identify all of the of joints by Category.






























D
B
B
B
A
A
A
B
C A
A
A
B
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UW-51 Radiographic and Radioscopic Examination of Welded Joints
Overview

In UW-51 the requirements for radiographic examination are detailed. When performing
radiography to Section VIII Div. 1 of the Code your are directed to Article 2 of Section V for
the techniques to be used. The following are highlights of the requirements:

1. A complete set of radiographs shall be kept on file until the final acceptance of the
inspector.

2. Personnel performing and evaluating radiographs shall be qualified using SNT-TC- 1A
as a guideline for written practices used in their qualification.

3. That paragraph T-285 of Article 2 is a guide only and that final acceptance of
radiographs is based on the ability to see the correct penetrameters image and the
specified hole or wire size as applies.

4. How repairs of defects shall be made in accordance with UW-35 and the techniques for
re-inspecting the weld after repair. The repair need not be radiographed if prior to the
repair it has been demonstrated to the inspector's satisfaction that Ultrasonic Testing
can disclose the defect. In which case ultrasonics can be used to examine the repair for
acceptance.

5. That any indication on a radiographed characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete
fusion or penetration is unacceptable.

6. That the limits of elongated indications are based on the materials thickness.

7. That unacceptable aligned indications are based on total length of a group and the
material's thickness.

UW-51 contains the unacceptable indications for Full Radiography. Also definitions of
nominal thicknesses for welded joints and weld repairs. Details of Spot Radiography are
covered in UW-52.















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UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded Joints
Overview

Spot radiographs use the same techniques as those in UW-51, but of course are not for the
full length of the weld. The basis for selecting Spot radiography is the desire to use a joint
efficiency that will come from Column B of table UW-12. The small print note above the
subparagraphs explains the Code's intent for the use of spot radiography. The following are
highlights of the requirements for Spot Radiography.

1. One spot radiograph for every 50 ft of weld or fraction thereof for a joint efficiency
from column b of Table UW- 12.

2. A sufficient number of spots shall be radiographed to examine each welder or welding
operator in the 50 foot increment. In the case where welders weld on opposite sides of
the same weld one shot will serve to examine both.

3. The inspector chooses the location of the spot radiography. If the inspector approves
and cannot be present the fabricator can then choose the location of the spot
radiography. Notice that there is no specific location; the welders should never be able
to predict the inspector's choice of location.

4. The spot radiography used to pick a joint efficiency from column b of TableUW-12
will not satisfy the requirements of other paragraphs such as UW-11 (a)(5)(b); a spot
radiograph required for the choosing of a joint efficiency from column A of Table 12.

5. Spot radiographs must follow the same rules as full radiographs for techniques. The
minimum length of the spot examined must be 6 inches.

6. Indications described as cracks or zones of incomplete fusion or lack of penetration are
unacceptable.

7. Slag inclusion or cavity evaluation is based on the thickness of the weld excluding any
weld reinforcement (cap). The thickness is based on thinner member if two different
thickness that have been joined by a butt weld. If a fillet is welded over a full
penetration weld its throat must be included in the thickness (t). Indications in a line
are described with acceptance standards.

8. Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds not required to be
fully radiographed.










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UW-52 Spot Examination of Welded Joints
Overview

9. When a spot radiograph is acceptable the entire weld increment represented is accepted.
For example if a longitudinal weld has 65 feet of weld metal only the first 50 feet could
be accepted by a single 6 inch spot radiograph. The remaining 15 feet is represented in
the next declared 50 feet increment.

10. If the first spot radiograph reveals welding that does not comply then two additional
spots in the same weld increment away from the first spot shall be radiographed
(tracers). The choosing of the two spots follow the same rule as the first spot
radiograph.

11. If the tracers pass then repair and radiography is allowed for the area that was rejected
in the first spot radiograph.

12. If either of the tracers fail there are two options. Cut out the entire increment, re-weld
then applies spot radiography again or apply full radiography and repair all defects
found.

The spot radiography described above is not applied to any specific Category of weld. In a
given 50 feet of weld increment there may be Category A, B, C, and D butt welds. The
inspector will choose the exact location of the spot radiograph. In cases where spot
radiography is a specific requirement of another paragraph of the Code the location for the
spot radiograph is stated within that paragraph. The spot radiography of UW-52 cannot serve
double duty; it will not satisfy the spot radiography requirements of any other paragraph. It
allows the use of a joint efficiency from column B of Table UW-12 for all categories of butt
joints in that 50 feet increment. If the 50 feet increment were to stop in the middle of a joint
the efficiency of that joint could not come from column B until the next 50 feet increment
was spot radiographed.



















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UW- 11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

The Code demands 100 % Quality Assurance for some butt welds (Category A butt welds in
Lethal Service is one example). In other services, choices for level of Quality Assurance for
butt welded joints can range from 100 % down to 60 %.

The Quality of a butt welded joint determines its J oint Efficiency in the Code. J oint
Efficiency depends on the Type of butt joint and the amount of radiography applied. There
are other Types of joints besides butt welded allowed in the Code. However they cannot
produce Code acceptable radiographs. The term "J oint Efficiency" is a hold over from the
days of riveted vessels. More will be said about this in the coverage of UW-12.

There are three levels of radiography per Code. Full, Spot and None. The Code demands
Full RT in some cases and allows Full RT, Spot RT or None at all in others.

UW-11(a) Full Radiography specifies when Full Radiography must be performed. There are
five instances sited.

1. Butt welds in the shell and heads of vessels used to contain a lethal substance.

2. When the least nominal thickness at a butt weld exceeds a limiting thickness, which is
based on the type of material used in the vessels welded construction.

3. Butt welds in the shells and heads of unfired steam boilers having an operating pressure
greater than 50 psi.

4. Butt welds in nozzles, communicating chambers, etc. in (1) or (3) above attached to
vessels sections or heads that exceed certain limits on thickness or diameter.

5. Categories A & D butt joints. Where full radiography is not mandatory; but desired to
obtain a joint efficiency from column A of Table UW- 12. Spot radiography must also
be applied to Category B and C butt joints.

















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UW- 11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

UW-11(b) Spot Radiography. The next option, if full radiography is not mandatory under 1
through 5 above, is spot radiography. This spot radiography can be applied to Category A,
B, C, or D butt joints and will allow a joint efficiency from Column B of Table UW- 12.

UW-11(c) No Radiography. If radiography is not mandatory under any Code requirements it
may be omitted for butt welded joints. If this is the case the joint efficiency must come from
Column C of Table UW- 12.

UW-11 contains the when and where for radiography and ultrasonic examinations. The
effect of the degree of radiography is reflected in paragraph UW- 12 with a resulting J oint
Efficiency "E". The "E" will be used in the thickness required or pressure allowed
calculations for shells, heads etc.. The following pages contain graphical representations of
the UW-11.


































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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length
in a manner prescribed in UW- 51:


UW-11 (a)(1) All butt welds in the shells and heads of vessels used to contain lethal
substances [see UW-2(a)];

[UW-2(a) limits Category A butt welds to Type 1 and Category B to Type 1 or 2 of Table
UW- 12].





HEMI HEAD ELLIPTICAL



LETHAL SERVICE
MUST HAVE FULL RT





CATEGORY A CATEGORY B
TYPE 1 ONLY TYPE 1 OR 2























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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in
a manner prescribed in UW-51:

UW - 11 (a)(2) All butt welds in which the least nominal thickness at the welded joint
exceeds 1 1/2 in. or exceeds the lesser thickness prescribed in UCS-57. Category B and C
butt welds in nozzles and communicating chambers that neither exceed NPS 10 nor 1 1/8 in.
wall thickness do not require any radiographic examination;


P-1 Material Per UCS-57 >1-1/4" Full RT













10" Category 1-1/4" [Least Nominal
thickness)
C butt weld 1 NO RT required
1-1/8" thick 1-1/2" thick full RT
No RT required required





24 NPS 20 Category B
Category A 1-1/2" thick
and C butt Full RT
weld Full
RT 2 thick Full RT



RT will change based on the P No. of the material used in construction.
See UCS-57, UNF-57 etc., for mandatory Full RT based on thickness.




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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length in
a manner prescribed in UW-51:

UW- 11 (a)(3) All butt welds in the shells and heads of unfired steam boilers having a design
pressure exceeding 50 psi, [see UW-2(c)];

[UW-2(c) limits Category A butt welds to Type 1 and Category B to Type 1 or 2 of Table
UW- 12 ].

UNFIRED STEAM BOILER PRESSURE EXCEEDS 50 PSI


MUST HAVE FULL RT
HEMI HEAD ELLIPTICAL HEAD



Category A Category B
Type 1 Only Type 1 or 2




























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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length
in a manner prescribed in UW-51.

UW- 11 (a)(4) All butt welds in nozzles and communicating chambers, etc., attached to
vessel sections or heads that are required to be fully radiographed under (1) or (3) above;
however, except as required by UHT-57(a), Categories B and C butt welds in nozzles and
communicating that neither exceed NPS 10 nor 1-1/8 in, wall thickness do not require any
radiographic examination;


>NPS 10
Category B Type 1 or 2
FULL RT REQUIRED

LETHAL SERVICE OR
UNFIRED STEAM BOILER >50 psi
HEMI HEAD ELLIPTICAL HEAD
MUST HAVE FULL RT




Category A Category B
Type 1 Only Type l or 2

NPS 10 1-1/8 thick
No RT required for Category C butt joint




















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UW-11 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Examination

(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be examined for their full length
in a manner prescribed in UW-51:

UW- 11 (a)(5) All Category A and D butt welds in vessel sections and heads where the
design of the joint or part is based on joint efficiency by UW- 12 (a), in which case:

(a) Category A and B butt welds connecting the vessel sections or heads shall be of Type
No. 1 or Type No. 2 of Table UW- 12;

(b) Category B or C butt welds [but not including those in nozzles or communicating
chambers except as required in (2) above] which intersect the Category A butt welds in
vessel sections or heads or connect seamless vessel sections or heads shall, as a
minimum, meet the requirements for spot radiography in accordance with UW-52, Spot
radiographs required by this paragraph shall not be used to satisfy the spot radiography
rules as applied to any other weld increment.


Cat. A Full RT
Type 1 or 2


E=1.0 or.90
For shell calcs.
Spot RT
Type l or 2
Cat. D Full RT


Seamless Elliptical
Type 1 E =1.0 head see UW-12 (d)
Type 2 E - .90
For hemi head and shell
calculations only


Spot RT
Type 1 or 2 per UW-11 (a) (5) (b)










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Exercises

1. For a vessel in lethal service what butt joints must be radiographed in addition to all
butt joints in the shell and heads? (\f by

2. A joint efficiency from Column A of Table UW-12 is desired for a Category A butt
joint in a shell, what extent of radiography must be applied to this Category A butt
joint? What additional requirement must be met?

3. If the least nominal thickness of a butt joint in a vessel exceeds a certain thickness
based on the material used in its construction what amount of radiography must be
applied?

4. Full radiography is required by UW-11 (a)(2) may it be assumed that all butt joints
have been fully radiographed? Why or why not?

5. A vessel shell contains a Category A butt welded longitudinal joint and a Category D
butt welded joint. Must both of these be fully radiographed to use a joint efficiency
from Column A of Table UW-12?



ANSWERS TO UW-11 Exercises:

1. Category A, B & C that exceed diameter 10 NPS or 1-1/8 thickness in nozzles and
chamber

2. Full RT and Spot RT

3. Full RT for all Butt joints that exceed the specified thickness except B category joints
that do not exceed 10" NPS or 1-1/8 thickness.

4. No-Some thickness requirements may exceed the limit for the material used. Its the
thickness of the welded joint that determines the RT requirement.

5. Yes by the requirement that both A & D butt welds shall be shot.












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Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies
Overview


There is a relationship between efficiencies and stresses the Code; that when understood, will
allow making calculations with more confidence. What is joint efficiency? What is stress?

STRESS

Stress as it relates to internal pressure on a vessel is a load in the vessel's material. Stress is
measured in pounds per square inch. Our examples use a material that will fail at 60,000
pounds per square inch.




ONE SQUARE INCH
OF MATERIAL




15,000 LBS


STRESS EQUALS 15,000 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH

Ultimate Stress is the stress value at which a material breaks (fails)

ULTIMATE STRESS

ONE SQUARE INCH
OF MATERIAL







60,000 LBS



ULTIMATE STRESS EQUALS 60,000 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH





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Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies

The Code allows the working stress in a material to be only a fraction of its Ultimate Stress.
The term used is Maximum Allowable Stress. The Maximum Allowable Stress is about 25%
of the Ultimate Stress for a given material. In the first example above the material is loaded
to only 25% of the second example which failed at 60,000 pounds per square inch. The
limiting of stress in the Code gives a safety factor of about 4 to 1. This is under ideal
conditions with no known flaws in the vessel's material. This of course would be seamless
materials properly inspected or a welded material joined by a Code approved method and
fully radiographed as required in the Code. Most vessels are constructed using welding and
welding will introduce flaws into the vessel material. How many and how bad are the flaws?
This is answered by the use of nondestructive examination, primarily visual and
radiographic.

If a large enough flaw is present in the base material or the weld, failure can occur at a much
lower value of stress.

ONE SQUARE INCH

CRACK OF MATERIAL
IN WELD



28,000 LBS.


FAILURE STRESS DUE TO FLAW 28,000 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH

In the Code formulas the Stress Allowed must be multiplied by the joint efficiency 'E'. So
SE always appear in the formulas. The reason for using E is to make an adjustment for how
certain it is that the welded joint is equal to a seamless piece of material. In the case of full
radiography the conclusion that the material is as strong as seamless is made and an
Efficiency for a Type No. 1 joint can be 1.0. For a Type No. 2 .90 can be used. Spot
Radiography allows lower joint efficiencies and No Radiography still lower.














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Allowable Stresses and Efficiencies

The previous examples showed heavy weights causing a stress in tension in one square inch
of bar material. In a pressure vessel the stress in tension is caused by the internal pressure
over an area. There will be a given amount of pounds per square inch over an area that has
the same total effect as the heavy weights and a resulting stress is set up in the vessel's
material. This force wants to tear the vessel apart and must be resisted by the cross sectional
area of the vessel's wall.

The Code limits the amount of stress that can be applied to a vessel's material and this will
limit the pressure allowed or increase the thickness required. The stress in the material
caused by the internal pressure is given special concern when there is a welded joint present
in the vessel's wall. The expected strength of the material is known but how sure can we be
if there is a potential flaw contained in a weld or its heat affected zone. Often the weld joint
itself causes a change in the shape of what would otherwise be a uniform cylinder; this will
cause what is referred to as a stress raiser. It is safe to say any weld will cause a stress riser
to some extent.

The Code deals with these stress raisers in two ways; by limiting the stress allowed in the
material and by assigning joint efficiencies to welded joints and seamless components. The
basis for the efficiency of a welded joint is its type and the amount of radiography it has
received. The basis for a seamless component is the amount of radiography any intersecting
welds have received.

The assigning of joint efficiencies has a definite effect on the thickness of a vessel or
component. The higher the efficiency allowed the thinner the material is required to be.























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ALLOWABLE STRESSES AND EFFICIENCIES.
How Efficiency Affects the Construction of a Vessel

If a vessel material has an allowable stress of 15,000 pounds per square inch and has a joint
that allows an E of .85 (Type No. 1 Spot RT) the resulting thickness required will be more
than that of seamless material; so the E of .85 is a stress multiplier and causes the allowable
stress on the material to be lowered which will then drive up the required thickness. More of
the material is required because we are only 85% sure that the welded material is as strong as
seamless material or a Fully Radiographed Type No. 1 butt welded joint.

SEAMLESS

t =1 INCH

DOUBLE WELDED FULL RT

t =1 INCH

DOUBLE WELDED SPOT RT

t =1.15 INCHES

SE =15,000 psi x .85 =12,750 psi. The stress allowed in the calculation for thickness is now
12,750 psi and will result in the need for a thicker material in the vessel's construction.

Welding is costly and the thicker the material the more costly both become. Radiography has
a cost and a benefit. The direct cost is the cost of performing radiography. The indirect cost
is the cost of repairing the rejectable conditions revealed by radiography. The benefit is the
use of thinner material resulting in lower material and welding cost. Under certain
conditions Full Radiography is required and the costs will be unavoidable.

THE RT AFFECTS THE E WHICH IN TUEN AFFECTS THE t.

















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UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

The term joint efficiency as used in the Code is really a way of stating how close too in
strength; after joining; the joint is to an equivalent seamless piece. The best available weld
joint obtained by the arc or gas welding process is a Type No. 1 that has been fully
radiographed. A Type No. 1 fully radiographed butt welded joint results in a part with a joint
efficiency of 1.0. It may be considered as being as strong as a solid piece of the same
material. Welded tension tests coupons normally fail in the base metal.

UW- 12 states that the joint efficiency depends only on the type of joint and the degree of
examination of the joint. The resulting joint efficiency shall be as given in Table UW- 12.

The term J oint Efficiency as used today is really a measure of the quality of a joint. The term
dates back to the days of riveted vessels and was a measure of how closely a particular
riveted joint approached the strength of a seamless piece. Some believe that the term J oint
Efficiency should be replaced with the term Quality Factor because it would be more
reflective of what is really being determined by the modern Codes. After debate the Code
Committee decided to leave things as they are in order to not create confusion in industry.
The following graphics will help in understanding the concept.


SOLID MATERIAL



WELDED



RIVETED



In the case of a riveted shell a true circle could never be accomplished due to the natural
offset in alignment. Still the term joint efficiency has hung on. Riveted construction was
eliminated from the Code after 1971. As before we will utilize graphics to help in
understanding joint efficiencies. Modified Table UW- 12 which follows with its graphics
will explain joint types and the limits of radiography.










API 510 Page 70 of 310
MODIFIED TABLE UW-12
Type 1-Category
A, B, C & D
Butt J oints as attained by
double-welding or by other
means which will obtain
the same quality on the
inside and outside.
Backing strip if used must
be removed after welding is
completed.
Column A

Full RT

E =1.0
Column B

Spot RT

E =.85
Column C

No RT

E =.70
Type 2-Category
A, B, C & D



CIRC. J OINTS ONLY
Single-welded butt joint
with backing strip which
remains in place after
welding is completed.
Limitations apply see Table
UW-12.


E =.90


E =.80


E =.65
Type 3-Category
A, B & C





Single-welded butt joint
without the use of a
backing strip. Limitations
apply se Table UW-12.

RT Not
Applicabl
e

RT Not
Applicabl
e


E =.60
Type 4-Category A






Double-full fillet lap joint.
Limitations apply se Table
UW-12.

RT Not
Applicabl
e

RT Not
Applicabl
e

E =.55
Type 5-Category B & C





Single-full fillet lap joint
with plug welds.
Limitations apply se Table
UW-12.

RT Not
Applicabl
e

RT Not
Applicabl
e

E =.50
Type 6-Category A & B





Single-full fillet lap joint
without plug welds.
Limitations apply se Table
UW-12.

RT Not
Applicabl
e

RT Not
Applicabl
e

E =.45












API 510 Page 71 of 310
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UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW-12 (b): A value of E not greater than that given in column (b) of Table UW-12 shall be
used in the design calculations for spot radiographed butt welded joints [see UW-11 (b)].

Translation: If a joint efficiency from column b can be lived with and the Code does not
require Full radiography, Spot RT can be used. Spot RT can be specified for the entire vessel
per UW-11 (b), if it is, the miles of UW-52 must be followed. This means one 6 inch
radiograph every 50 feet of weld metal; which must show the work of every welder or
welding operator who has welded in the 50 foot increment. If two welders weld for instance;
on opposite sides of a 50 foot weld one shot will do to prove both welders.

Notice this Spot RT differs from that of UW-11 (a)(5)(b), UW-11 (a)(5)(b) is applied to
circumferential joints only (B, C or an A that joins a Hemi Head). This RT may be applied
to either longitudinal or circumferential joints or their intersections if so chosen by the
inspector per UW-52 (b)(3).




Shell and Heads E =.85

50 Foot of Weld
HEMI HEAD ELLIPTICAL HEAD




SPOT RT SPOT RT
TYPE 1 - CATEGORY A TYPE 1 - CATEGORY B




The above example has 100 feet of weld total. All the welders are in the radiographs.
Everybody got their picture taken. This vessel would be marked RT 3. Individual joints can
be chosen for Spot RT and a joint efficiency from column b used for that component or joint.
If that is done the marking becomes RT 4. All of this assumes Full RT is not mandatory.











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PART UW - WELDING


UW-12 Joint Efficiencies

UW- 12 (c): A value of E not greater than that given in column (c) of Table UW-12 shall be
used in design calculations for welded joints that are neither fully radiographed nor spot
radiographed [see UW-11 (c) ].

Translation: If no radiography is performed all joint efficiencies come straight from table
UW-12 column (c) based on the type of joint used. Of course this is not an option if Full RT
is required by Code.


Shell and Head J oints E =.70

HEMI HEAD ELLIPTICAL HEAD




TYPE 1-CATEGORY A TYPE 1-CATEGORY B


The seamless elliptical head calculations in the above example would require an E of .85.
This is per UW-12 (d). As you will see in UW-12 (d) seamless components are special
cases.



UW-12 (d): Seamless vessel sections and heads shall be considered equivalent to welded
parts of the same geometry in which all Category A welds are Type No. 1. For calculations
involving circumferential stress in seamless vessel sections or for thickness of seamless
heads E =1.0 when the spot radiography requirements of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) are met. E =.85
when the spot radiography requirements are not met, or when the Category A or B welds
connecting seamless vessel sections or heads are Type No. 3, 4, 5, or 6 of Table UW-12.

Type No. 3, 4, 5 and 6 joints will not produce interpretable radiographs per the ASME Code.
Therefore the E used to calculate a seamless component using one of these Types must be
taken as .85 by default.












API 510 Page 73 of 310
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UW- 12 Joint Efficiencies

Translation: UW-12 (d) requires the same action as UW-12 (a) except that the shell or head
does not have Category A joints. The exception is a seamless hemispherical head without a
flange. When welded on a shell it will have a Category A joint and therefore can never be
seamless. In the part of UW-12 (d) that says "shall be considered equivalent to welded parts
of the same geometry in which all Category A welds are Type No. 1" what it is implied but
not directly stated, is that full radiography of the Category A Type 1 welds is required to
make the two equals.

Seamed Elliptical Hd Seamless Elliptical Hd
Type No. 1 Full RT

=



Seamed Shell Type No. 1 Seamless Shell
Full RT

=



When any of the above examples is joined to another component by a Type 1 or 2 joint then
the Spot RT of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) must be performed to allow an E of 1.0 in their calculations.
Examples: Categories, A (Hemi head) or B (head with skirt) or when any of the above
examples is joined to another component by a type C (weld neck).


Category A Full RT
E =1.0 Category A Full RT
Type 1 E =1.0 For Head Type 1 or 2
Type 2 E =.90
For Shell Calculations
E =1.0 or .90
Spot RT For Shell Calculations
Type 1 or 2 Spot RT
Type 1 or 2


E =1.0
For Elliptical Head

E =1.0
For Shell E =1.0
For Shell Calculations
Spot RT Spot RT
Type 1 or 2 Type 1 or 2

API 510 Page 74 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING


Determination Of Joint Efficiencies

The most confusing part of doing Code calculation is the picking of a joint efficiency. The
temptation to go straight to Table UW-12 and use one of the efficiencies listed there is
automatic. That is a hit and miss proposition and will only on occasion yield the proper J oint
E. First of all, the E has a double meaning that is not readily apparent. E in one sense applies
to the welded joints and in the second it applies to a seamless component such as a seamless
head or shell. There are three main types of stresses acting on a pressure vessel that are of
concern.

1. Circumferential Stress on shells (also called Hoop Stress).

2. Longitudinal Stress on shells.

3. Stress In heads.







Circumferential stress applies stress in a shell along its length. This stress acts to split a shell
along its length and is often referred to as Hoop Stress. The shell may be seamless or may
contain longitudinal seams. In either case failure in the circumference will usually occur
similar to that shown in the drawing above. A Code calculation is required to determine the
thickness required or pressure allowed on the shell for circumferential stress.

There are two possible cases for a vessel's circumferential stress calculation with a single
shell course. The shell is seamless or it has a longitudinal seam. The UG-27 circumferential
formulas are used for calculation of thickness required or pressure allowed in both cases.
The difference between the two conditions is in how the E is picked for use in the
calculation. We will examine the two separately.
















API 510 Page 75 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Circumferential Stress / Seamless Shell

E = 1.0 when the spot radiography of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) has been applied to the
circumferential joint. This is per UW-12 (d).

E = .85 when the spot radiography of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) has not been applied to the
circumferential joint. This is per UW-12 (d).

For a seamless shell course there are only two possibilities for the E when doing Hoop Stress
Calculations.

E =1.0
or
E =.85

TYPE No. 1 OR 2
CATEGORY B SPOT RT
ELLIPTICAL HEAD
SEAMLESS SHELL E =1.0








TYPE No. 1 OR 2
CATEGORY 9 NO SPOT RT
ELLIPTICAL HEAD
SEAMLESS SHELL E =.85


















API 510 Page 76 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Circumferential Stress / Longitudinal Shell

The E used for the calculation of a vessel with a butt welded longitudinal joint (seam)
depends on several factors.

1. What type of butt joint has been used to make the long joint? (Per Table UW-12
limitations only two are allowed)
a. Type No. 1
or
b. Type No. 2

2. What is the extent of radiography on the long joint?
a. Full
b. Spot
c. None

3. Has the spot radiography of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) been applied to any intersecting Category
A, B or C welds?

There are many combinations which can be made from the factors above, all resulting in
different joint efficiencies. Examples of a few problems should help in the understanding of
the other situations. In the following examples all vessels have less than 50 linear feet of
welds total and were made by the same welder.


























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Shells


Example A: Shell course with a Type No. 1 longitudinal seam that has been fully
radiographed. The vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11
(a)(5)(b) has been applied.




TYPE NO- 1 OR 2 - CATEGORY 9
SPOT RT
E =1.0 ELLIPTICAL HEAD
TYPE NO.1 - CATEGORY A
FULL RT




Fully radiographing the Type No. 1 Category A longitudinal seam and performing the Spot
RT of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) allows the use of an E from column A of Table UW-12. The E from
Column A, for a Type No. 1 is 1.0. This is in agreement with Paragraph UW-12 (a).


Example B: Shell course with a Type No. 2 longitudinal seam that has been fully
radiographed. The vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11
(a)(5)(b) has been applied.



TYPE NO. 1 OR 2 - CATEGORY R
SPOT RT
E =.90
TYPE 2 - CATEGORY A
FULL RT



Fully radiographing the Type No. 2 Category A longitudinal seam and performing the Spot
RT of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) allows the rise of an E from column A of Table UW-12. The E from
Column A , for a Type No. 2 is .90. This is also in agreement with Paragraph UW- 12(a).








API 510 Page 78 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Shells

Example C: Shell course with a Type No, 1 longitudinal seam that has been fully
radiographed. The vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11
(a)(5)(b) has not been applied.


CATEGORY B
NO SPOT RT
E =.85
TYPE NO. 1 - CATEGORY A
FULL RT




Fully radiographing the Type No. 1 Category A longitudinal seam but not performing the
Spot RT of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) requires the use of an E from column B of Table UW-12. The E
from Column B, for a Type No. 1 is .85. This is in agreement with Paragraph UW-12 (a).

Example D: Shell course with a Type No. 2 longitudinal seam that has been fully
radiographed. The vessel has ellipsoidal heads on both ends and the Spot RT of UW-11
(a)(5)(b) has not been applied

CATEGORY B
NO SPOT RT
E =.80
TYPE NO.2 - CATEGORY A
FULL RT






Fully radiographing the Type No. 2 Category A longitudinal seam but not performing the
Spot RT of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) requires the use of an E from column B of Table UW-12. The E
from Column B , for a Type No. 2 is .80. This is also in agreement with Paragraph UW- 12
(a).










API 510 Page 79 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Shells

The conclusion drawn from examples C and D above is that applying full radiography to the
longitudinal joint offers no benefit unless accompanied by the Spot RT of UW-11 (a)(5)(b).
The Type No. 1 joint E of example C is the same as if it was only Spot Radiographed since
it's E must come from Column B of Table UW-12. This is also the case for the Type No. 2
of example D. These joints would have the same joint E if they had been spot radiographed.
Full Radiography was a waste. The Code does this to discourage more than one level of
radiography between butt welded joints. It is unlikely you will ever see actual cases like
examples C and D.

LONGITUDINAL STRESS / CIRCUMFERENTIAL J OINTS

At this point we will begin discussing the Longitudinal Stress that causes stress around vessel
walls and in Circumferential J oints. Commonly referred to as the girth.








Longitudinal stresses tend to tear the vessel into two pieces, separate shell courses or pop off
the head. This is the second calculation required for a shell.

For our examples we will use a vessel with two shell courses and ellipsoidal heads on both
ends. Keep in mind that we are calculating the stresses on Circumferential J oints (Girth
J oints); those which are affected by longitudinal stress. Longitudinal stress rarely determines
the required thickness or allowed pressure on a shell. The reason is; the stress created by
internal pressure in the longitudinal direction is only half that of in the circumferential
direction. Normally circumferential stress governs and determines the required thickness or
pressure allowed for a shell. The J oint Efficiency for these Categories of butt welds may be
taken directly from Table UW-12 based on their Type. Radiography applies when they are
of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2. RT does not apply to Types 3, 4, 5 and 6.














API 510 Page 80 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING

Shells

Example A. Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads without radiography
applied to circumferential Type No. 1 butt joints. The E used for longitudinal stress
calculations of both shell courses is .70.

E =.70 ALL J OINTS
E =.70 CATEGORY B
NO RT
TYPE No- 1
E =.70


Example B: Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads with spot radiography
applied to circumferential Type No. 1 butt joints. The E used for the calculations of both the
shell courses is .85.

ALL J OINTS
E =. 85 CATEGORY B
E =. 85
SPOT RT
TYPE No. 1
E =.85
49 FEET OF WELD TOTAL



Example C: Two seamless shell courses closed with ellipsoidal heads with full radiography
applied to circumferential Type No. 1 butt joints. The E used for the calculations of both the
shell courses is 1.0.

ALL J OINTS
E =1.0 CATEGORY B
E=1.0 RT
TYPE No. 1
E=1.0



If the above vessels had been made using Type No. 2 joints the joint efficiencies would be
.65, .80 and .90 respectively based on the same radiography,









API 510 Page 81 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Stress In Heads

The last E to consider is the one used to calculate thickness required or pressure allowed
for formed and forged heads. Internal pressure creates stress that acts to rupture the walls of
heads.








Each kind of head has a Code formula for its calculations. Two classes of heads are joined to
vessels by circumferential joints. One class is joined to the shell with a Category B or C
circumferential butt joint; these are heads that have a flange. Some examples are
Torispherical, Ellipsoidal and forged Flat heads. Forged Flat heads are joined by Category C
circumferential joints and are treated the same for determining their E as the other two. The
other class is joined to the shell with a Category A butt joint; it is a Hemispherical head with
out a flange.

The first examples have ellipsoidal heads that may be joined to the shell using a Type No. 1
or Type No. 2 joint. It is also representative of a torispherical head since both have a flange
(skirt). The ellipsoidal head forms a Category B joint with the shell and is seamless.

The second examples have formed hemispherical heads without a flange. The joint formed
by the attachment of the hemispherical head to the shell is a circumferential Category A.
Hemispherical heads may be joined using either a Type No. 1 or a Type No. 2 joint provided
no service restriction from UW-2 applies. If a service restriction applies the Category A butt
joint must be of Type No. 1. The shell used in all examples is over 24 inches in O.D. and
over 5/8 inch thick. Per Table UW-12 only Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 joints are allowed for
these conditions.
When seamless heads, that have a flange (skirt), are attached to shells a Category B joint is
created. This Category B joint will have a joint efficiency based on its Type and the amount
of radiography that was applied.














API 510 Page 82 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Stress In Heads


This joint efficiency will not be used in the calculation of the head's required thickness or its
pressure allowed. This E is used in the longitudinal stress calculations for the shell. The
Category B joint may be thought of as belonging to the shell. For a seamless head which is
joined by a Category B butt joint there are only two possibilities for the E used in the head
calculations. The E used will either be 1.0 or .85. The E is determined based on the
requirements of UW-12 (d). The question then becomes has Spot RT been applied to the
Category B butt joint. If it has the E is 1.0. If it has it not the E is .85.

Example A: Category B butt joint of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 has not received Spot RT. E
= .85 for the head's thickness or pressure calculation. The shell's longitudinal stress
calculation E will be .70 or .65 depending on which Type of joint was used.

Shell E =.70 or .85
Category B
No RT
HEAD E =.85


Example B: Category B butt joint of Type No. 1 or Type No. 2 has received Spot RT. E =
1.0 for the head's thickness or pressure calculation. The shell's longitudinal stress calculation
E will be .85 or. 80 depending on which Type of joint was used.



Shell E =.85 or .80
Category B
Spot RT
Head E =1.0


















API 510 Page 83 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Heads

The last case to consider for seamless heads that form a Category B or C joint with a shell is
when the joint is of Type No. 3, 4, 5 or 6 of Table UW-12. Since these types are not
considered radiographicable by the Code the Spot RT cannot be applied. UW-12 (d) states
that the head under this condition shall always be calculated using E =.85. The shell's
longitudinal calculations would use an E based on the Type No. of the joint and this E would
then come directly from Table UW-12.

The most common mistake in the calculation of seamless heads attached by Category B
joints is the use of the E found in table UW-12 based on the type of joint.

That E belongs in Longitudinal shell calculations. The E used for the seamless head is based
only on the application of Spot RT. If Spot RT has not or cannot be performed (as is the case
for Types 3, 4, 5, or 6) an E of .85 shall be used. If it can and has E =1.0. END OF
STORY. Until they change the Code again!

The last formed head of concern is the Hemispherical. A hemispherical head formed from a
solid piece of plate without a flange is only seamless as long as it is lying on the shop floor;
when welded to another component such as a shell it now has a Category A joint. Read UW-
3 (a)(1) again to confirm this statement. The Category A joint formed after welding to a shell
belongs to the hemispherical head. The rules regarding seamless shells and heads in UW- 12
(d) specify that the spot radiography of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) must be applied to use an E of 1.0
for a seamless head's thickness or a shell's circumferential stress calculation. Since our
hemispherical head will always have a Category A joint (seam) the conditions of UW-12 (d)
do not apply. The bottom line is that a formed hemispherical head without a flange can never
be seamless. Spot radiography on the Category A joint does have a use if the hemispherical
head is welded to a seamless shell or to a shell in which all Category A & D butt joints have
been fully radiographed. The shell's circumferential stress could then be calculated using an
E of 1.0.


ATTENTION - ATTENTION
HEMISPHERICAL HEADS ONLY CONTAIN CATEGORY A JOINTS.















API 510 Page 84 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING

Heads

The following examples will use a formed hemispherical head and a seamless shell.

Example A: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Spot RT has not been
applied. The Category A joint may be a Type No. 1 or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12.
E =.65 or .70.



SEAMLESS SHELL
HEMI E =.85
E =.70
Or CATEGORY A
E =.65 NO RT






Example B: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Spot RT has been applied.

The Category A joint may be a Type No. 1 or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12.
E =.80 or .85.


SEAMLESS SHELL
HEMI E =1.0
E =.85 CATEGORY A
OR TYPE No. 1 OR 2
E =.80 SPOT RT





Example C: Seamless shell course with a hemispherical head. Full RT has been applied.
The Category A joint may be a Type No. 1 or a Type No. 2 of Table UW-12.
E =.90 or 1.0.


SEAMLESS SHELL
HEMI E =1.0
E =1.0 CATEGORY A
OR TYPE 1 OR 2
E =.90 FULL RT



API 510 Page 85 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING


Summary Of Part UW

The main points of Part UW for the API Exam are the following:

1. Service Restrictions apply only to certain vessels.

2. J oint category is based on where in a vessel a joint is located.

3. Type of joint is based on how the joint was fabricated.

4. There are three different applications for Efficiency

A. Longitudinal J oint E, the only J oint E used for calculations in the Exam.

B. Circumferential J oint E, not used for calculations in the Exam but often mistakenly
used with seamless components.

C. Seamless Component E (Heads, Shells and Nozzles) or their equivalent components
which have had full RT applied to all of their Category A and D Type No. 1 butt
joints.


The Spot RT described in UW-11 (a)(5)(b) is used for Seamless or equivalent components.
This spot radiography is different than applying spot radiography to the entire vessel.
Typically Exam problems will be stated in this manner 'A seamless torispherical head is
being replaced due to corrosion. The head has an O.D. of 60 inches and is joined by a Type
No. 1 joint . UW-11 (a)(5)(b) has been applied'. The statement that UW-11 (a)(5)(b) has
been applied will be the only thing you need to determine the E to use in the head's
calculation. This can also be stated as the vessel's Data plate is stamped RT 2. RT markings
and their meanings will be explained in the coverage of Paragraph UG-116 REQUIRED
MARKING. This will also serve as a review of paragraphs UW-11 and UW-12.


















API 510 Page 86 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UW - WELDING

Exercises UW-12

Determine the efficiencies for calculation of the following vessel parts.


SEAMLESS SHELL
HEMI ELLIPTICAL
CATEGORY D FILLET



SEAMLESS
SPOT RT
NO RT
TYPE 2 - CATEGORY B
TYPE 1 CATEGORY A
SPOT RT
Torispherical


1. Seamless Shell Circ. Stress Calculations E=1.0
2. Seamless Shell Long. Stress Calculations E=.80
3. Hemispherical Head Calculations E=.85
4. Seamless Ellipsoidal Head Calculations E=1.0
5. Seamless Torispherical Head Calculations E=.85
6. Seamless Communicating Chamber Circ. Stress Calculations E=.85
7. Seamless Communicating Chamber Long. Stress Calculations E=.65























API 510 Page 87 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


Exercises UW-12




HEMI ELLIPTICAL
CATEGORY D
BUTT WELD
FULL RT

SPOT RT
TYPE 2-CATEGORY B
SPOT RT
TYPE 1-CATEGORY A
FULL RT


Torispherical


1. Seamed Shell Circ. Stress Calculations E =1.0
2. Seamed Shell Long. Stress Calculations E =.80
3. Hemispherical Head Calculations E =1.0
4. Seamless Ellipsoidal Head Calculations E =1.0
5. Seamless Torispherical Head Calculations E =1.0
6. Seamless Communicating Chamber Circ. Stress Calculations E =1.0
7. Seamless Communicating Chamber Long. Stress Calculations E =.80






















API 510 Page 88 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


UW-40 Procedures for Postweld Heat Treatment

Paragraph UW-40 gives the particulars of postweld heat treatment required in the applicable
part in Sub-section C. This paragraphs list the methods that are acceptable to the Code. For
instance, UW-40 (a)(1) says that heating the vessel as a whole in an enclosed furnace is
preferable and should be used if practical.

Heating the vessel in more than one heat in a furnace can be done, but an overlap of the
heated sections shall be at least five (5) feet. Also, the portion outside the furnace shall be
shielded. Vessels can be heat treated as sections, joined then locally heat treated at the
circumferential joints.

Heat can be applied internally and the vessel externally insulated as long as the given
considerations are met. The minimum temperatures for post-weld heat treatments are given
in Table UCS-56.

It must be remembered that this paragraph applies to the vessel 'm a shop new construction
setting, Ale banding described here must be applied all the way around the vessel and include
any nozzle's welds and the like.

The API 5 1 0 allows the use of Local Post Weld Heat Treatment that does not require the
entire circumference of the vessel be included in the heat treatment. This of course is aimed
at field repairs. In the API 5 1 0 Code the procedure is required to be reviewed by a qualified
engineer. There should be preheat applied in accordance with the material of construction.
A distance of not less than two times the base metal thickness on each side of a welded repair
is required to be locally post weld heat treated; it must include any nozzles or attachment
welds in the local postweld heat treatment area. A suitable number of thermocouples (at least
two) shall be used to monitor the temperature during treatment.





















API 510 Page 89 of 310
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PART UW - WELDING


UCS-56 Requirements for Postweld Heat Treatment

In the beginning of this paragraph it is stipulated that before applying the content of the
paragraph satisfactory weld procedure qualifications of the procedures to be used shall be
performed in accordance with Section IX. Included are the requirements for the condition of
postweld heat treatment or lack there of, in the weld procedure.

The exemption given in tables UCS-56 and UCS-56.1 are not permitted under some
circumstances. If post weld heat treatment is a service requirement as set forth in UCS-68 or
welding is being done on ferritic materials greater than 1/8" thick by the electron beam
process are two examples.

Maximum furnace temperature at the time vessel or part is placed in it shall not exceed
800F. The rate at which the heating shall be increased is specified. Variation in the part
temperature shall be held at or above the specified temperature for the period of time given in
Table UCS-56 or UCS-56.1. The furnace design cannot allow the flames to touch the part or
vessel. The furnace must be cooled at a given rate.

The next important aspect is welded repairs. Here repairs performed on P-No. 1 Groups
Nos., 1, 2, and 3 materials and P-No 3 Groups Nos., 1, 2, and 3 materials and weld metals
used to join these materials may be made after final PWHT, but prior to final hydrostatic test,
without additional PWHT, provided PWHT is not a service requirement.

The depth of the repair based on the material P-number is restricted, non-destructive testing
after removal of the defect is required. An approved welding procedure is required and the
repair must be made using the shielded metal arc process with low hydrogen electrodes. The
electrodes must be properly handled and the weave bead used is restricted to four electrode
core diameters. There are two repair techniques described. One method for P-1 materials.
The second method can be used for P-No 1 or P-No 3 materials restricted to the stated group
Nos. P-No 3 materials can only be repaired using the Half Bead weld repair and Weld
Temper Bead reinforcement technique. The description of this procedure is almost identical
to the one in the API 510 Code. Preheats temperatures and preheat maintenance times are
some what different.
















API 510 Page 90 of 310
PART UG
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


Objectives

Student should understand and be capable of applying the following concepts.

A. Calculate the required thickness or pressure allowed on cylindrical shells using
formulas based on inside or outside radius (Part MAWP).

B. Calculate the thickness required or pressure allowed for 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal, Standard
Torispherical and Hemispherical heads (Part MAWP).

C. Calculate the thickness required for Circular Unstayed Flat heads (Part MAWP).

D. Calculate the Thickness of Shells and Tubes Under External Pressure.

E. Determine Maximum Allowable Working Pressure for a Vessel.

F. Calculate Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Test pressures. Describe Procedures for Tests.

G. Size Fillet Welds at Openings.

H. Determine if Reinforcement of an Openings is required.

1. Requirements for Name Plates and their markings.

J . Requirements for Material identification and Inspection.

K. Types of Data Reports. information contained in Data Reports.



















API 510 Page 91 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

MATHEMATICAL PROOF OF THE FORMULAS BEING EQUIVALENT

Example 1. Given a cylindrical vessel shell with the following variables, solve for pressure
allowed in the cylinder using both formulas.

P= ?
T= 0.500"
S= 15,000 psi
E= 1.0
R= 18.0"
Ro = 18.5"

SEt 15,000 x 1.0 x 0.500 7500
UG-27(c)(1) P= = = = 409. 8
psi
R +0.6t 18.0 +(0.6 x 0.500) 18.3


SEt 15,000 x 1.0 x 0.500 7500
App 1 (1 - 1) P= = = = 409.8
psi
R. - 0.4t 18.5 - (0.4 x 0.500) 18.3

If calculations for a thickness required are being made the same approach may be taken. The
next step in this instruction will be to apply cases where this is an appropriate option. Our
next example will deal with corrosion.

Example 2. A cylindrical vessel shell has been found to have a minimum thickness of .353".
Its original thickness was .375". May this vessel remain in service given the following
variables?

P= 300 psi
T= 0.353"
S= 13,800 psi
E= .85
R= 12.0 +(.375-.353) =12.022 This adjusts is for the corroded inside
radius
R= 12.0 +0.375 (orig. t)=12.375" This finds the original outside radius









API 510 Page 92 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Case 1. Inside Radius for pressure allowed using UG-27(c)(1).

SEt 13,800 x .85 x .353 4140.69
UG-27(c)(1) P = = = = 338.46
psi
R+0.6t 12.022 +(0.6 x .353) 12.2338

Case 2. Outside Radius for pressure allowed using App. 1 (1-1)

SEt 13,800 x .85 x .353 4140.69
App 1 (1 - 1) P = = = = 338.46
psi
R
0

- 0.4t 12.375 - (0.4 x .353) 12.2338

ANSWER: YES

338.46 psi >300 psi




Important adjustments must be made for both approaches. The case of inside radius requires
an increase of the inside radius due to corrosion. If the outside radius is not given, the
original thickness must be added to the original inside radius to determine the outside radius;
but the thickness used in the pressure allowed calculation of App: 1 (1 - 1) must be the
existing thickness given in the stated problem. As can be seen from the above examples
either method yields the same results as long as the rules are followed properly. The method
you use is a matter of personal preference. These adjustments, along with others such as
static head, add to the difficulty of otherwise simple arithmetic. In every case, careful work
is a requirement for successful calculations.

As a check on the calculations for pressure allowed, calculations for thickness required can
be performed. Our next examples are used to determine if the vessel may operate at the 300
psi desired and be in compliance with the Code.













API 510 Page 93 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Example Using the same variables as Example 2 above, calculate the thickness required for
the shell using 300 psi.

Case 1. Inside Radius for thickness required using UG-27(c)(1).

PR 300 x 12.022 3606.6
UG-27(c)(1) t = = = =.3122"
SE - 0.6P 13,800 x .85 - (0.6 x 300) 11550

Case 2. Outside Radius for thickness required using App: 1 (1-1)

PR
0
App 1: (1 - 1) t = = = = .3132
300 x 12.375 3712.5
SE+0.4P 13,800 x .85 +(0.4 x 300) 11,850

ANSWER:

.3122" <.353"
or
.3132" <.353"

The slight difference in the thicknesses required has to do with the inside radius increasing to
12.022 inches from the original 12.0 inches due to corrosion. Both of the above answers are
correct using 300 psi. By increasing the pressure used in the thickness calculations to
338.46, the thicknesses required are identical for both formulas.

For the next part of our instruction we will begin doing some simple shell calculations using
UG-27 Thickness of Shells under Internal Pressure.

In this paragraph, formulas are given for the calculation of minimum thickness and maximum
pressure for cylindrical and spherical shells. Special attention must be paid to
circumferential stress within the cylindrical shell. This stress category normally will
determine the minimum thickness or maximum working pressure of the vessel.














API 510 Page 94 of 310
Let's do a simple shell calculation now. We will use a shell which is seamless. You may
find the following approach helpful in keeping track of the data. As the problems become
more difficult, it becomes harder to track the variables if you are not organized.

1. Make a simple drawing of the vessel or head you are calculating values for. This
helps identify the variables the next step.

2. List what is required to know. We will call these givens. These will come from the
stated problem.

3. State all the code paragraphs that apply, i.e., UG-27, UG-22, etc,


Drawing:













Givens:
t=
P=
R=
S=
E=
etc.

Code Paragraph UG-27 (c) (1)

SEt
P = Etc.
R +0.6 t













API 510 Page 95 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Problem #1

Find the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) of a 12 inch inside diameter shell.
This vessel will be subjected to an internal pressure and will operate at a temperature of 700
degrees F. This shell is seamless carbon steel and has an allowable stress value of 16,600 psi.
Its wall thickness is .406. No corrosion is expected. Circumferential welds are not
considered in this problem. This is a demonstration of formula UG-27(c)(1) and does not
reflect the choosing of a joint efficiency.

Drawing:







Givens:
P= ?
t= .406*
R= 6.0 Remember this formula uses Radius not Diameter.
S= 16,600 psi
E= 1.0

From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress

SEt
P =
R +0.6 t

16,600 x 1.0 x.406 6739.6
P = = = 1079.44 psi
(6.0) +( 0.6 x .406) 6.2436


*Mill Under tolerance must be considered when designing a vessel shell using pipe. For
most pipe, it is 12.5 % of the nominal thickness. This will usually require ordering the next
schedule up to meet a required thickness. The example above could arrive with a thickness
of as little as .355








I.D.=12.0
t=.406
API 510 Page 96 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

Problem #2

Find the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for a working pressure
of 100 psi at 350 degrees F. The shell's inside radius is 2'-0". The longitudinal joint is
category A (UW-3), type 1 (table UW-12) - no radiography was performed. The shell is
made of SA-515 grade 60 carbon steel rolled plate with an allowable stress of 15,000 psi.
The vessel is in water service. Again, circumferential welds are not considered for the sake
of simplicity.

Drawing:







Givens:

t= ?
P= 100 psi
R= 24"
S= 15000
E= .70 (Table UW-12)

From UG-27 (c) (1) Circumferential Stress

PR
t =
SE - 0.6 P

100 x 24 2400
t = = =.2298
(15,000 x .70)-(0.6 x 100) 10440

Use .250" per UG-25 (d), UCS-25?











48.0
t=?
Cat. A Type 1
API 510 Page 97 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells

We have now calculated the pressure allowed on a seamless shell in Problem #1. We have
also found the thickness required of a seamed, rolled plate shell in Problem #2. To this point
we have not considered a circumferential weld joint. The next problem will consider joining
together two courses of seamed and rolled plate to make one shell.

Problem #3

Determine the minimum required thickness of a cylindrical shell designed for an internal
pressure of 50 psi at a design temperature of 100 degrees F. No corrosion is expected. The
shell is made of two courses butt welded circumferentially using Type 1 welds which have
been spot radiographed per UW-11(a)(5)(b). The shell long joints are butt welded also and
are Type 1, Category A fully radiographed. The material is SA-515 grade 70, stress
allowable is 17,500 psi. The inside diameter is 10'-0". Both heads will later be joined to the
shell and will have Spot RT in accordance with UW-12(a) and UW-11(a)(5).

This problem will require us to consider two different cases in order to come to the solution.
First we will work the problem to solve for the thickness required to resist longitudinal
stresses. Second to resist circumferential stresses. Are you clear on the difference between
the two? It's easy to be confused. The Longitudinal Stress is the stress that acts to pull apart
two shell courses or pop a head off of the end of a vessel. It creates stress in the shell and
welds around a vessel. Circumferential Stress can be thought of as trying to split a shell along
its length. It creates stress in the shell and welds along the length of the vessel.
Circumferential Stress is normally the controlling stress for thickness or pressure
calculations.























API 510 Page 98 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Case Study 1

Circ. J oint (Longitudinal Stress)
Drawing:













Givens:
t= ?
P= 50 psi
D= 10'-0"
R= 5'-0" =60
S= 17500
E = .85 from table UW-12

UG-27(C)(2)

PR
t =
2 SE +0.4 P

50 x 60 3000
t = = = .1007
(2 x 17,500 x .85) +(0.4 x 50) 29770














10 0 I.D.
t=?
Cat. B Type 1
Spot RT
API 510 Page 99 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Case Study 2

Long J oint (Circumferential Stress)
Drawing:





Givens:
t= ?
P= 50
R= 60"
S= 17500
E= 1.0 (UW-12(a) and UW-11(a)(5))

From UG-27 (c) (1)

PR
t =
SE - 0.6 P

50 x 60 3000
t = = =.1717
(17,500 x 1.0) - (0.6 x 50) 17470

Q. The thickness required above is not double the thickness required for the
Circumferential joint. Why?




















10 0 I.D.
t=?
Cat. A Type 1
Full R.T.
API 510 Page 100 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-27 Internal Pressure Cylindrical Shells
Exercises

Use the Over-view portion of UG-27 starting on page 7 to determine formulas and use the
Part UW section to determine joint efficiencies.

1. Calculate the thickness required for a seamless shell made of SA-106 gr. B pipe. The
0.D. is 12.75 inches. UW-11(a)(5)(b) has been applied.
The shell will operate at 500 psi. The stress allowed on the shell material is 15,000 psi.

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
R or R
0

=
State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):





2. What is the maximum allowed working pressure on a shell made of SA-515 gr. 60?
The shells inside radius is 52 inches, and the shell's thickness is .850 inches. The allowable
stress for the shells material is 15,000 psi at 500 F. The joint efficiency of the shells
Category A joints is 1.0 .

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
R or R
0

=
State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):













API 510 Page 101 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIRENIENTS

UG-32 Internal Pressure On Formed Heads Overview

There are three types of calculations for formed heads listed in the API 510 Body of
Knowledge: Ellipsoidal, Torispherical and Hemispherical. The candidate is responsible for
performing calculations for thickness required and pressure allowed in all cases. The
formulas that will used will all come from paragraph UG-32. The variables change
somewhat from type to type.

A sketch and the formulas for thickness of each kind are below.

ELLIPSOIDAL

PD
t=
2SE 0.2P




TORISPHERICAL


0.885PL
t=
SE - 0.1P







HEMISPHERICAL




PL
t=
2SE - 0. 2P










I.D. of Skirt
Inside Crown Radius
Outside Radius
Knuckle Radius
L
Sperical Radius
Inside Diameter
L
API 510 Page 102 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

There are five geometry's listed in UG-32. You will be responsible for the calculations of
three: Hemispherical, Ellipsoidal and Torispherical.

Givens: The same pressure and stress values will be used for all heads.

P= 100 psi
S= 17500 SA-515 Gr70 plate 650 degrees F.
E= .85 for spot RT of Hemispherical head joint to shell
E= 1.0 for seamless heads ( Ellipsoidal and Torispherical)
L= 48" for the inside spherical radius for the hemispherical head
L= 96" for the inside crown radius of the torispherical head
O.D.= 96" for the torispherical head
D= 96" inside diameter of the ellipsoidal and hemispherical heads
t= Required wall thickness, inches

Problem #1

Given the above data find the required thickness of a seamless ellipsoidal head.

Drawing:

ELLIPTICAL



From UG-32 (d)

PD
t =
2SE - 0.2 P

100 x 96 9600
t= = = .2744
(2 x 17,500 x 1.0) - (0.2 x 100) 34980














96.0
API 510 Page 103 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

Problem #2

Using the same data, calculate the required thickness of a hemispherical head that does not
have a straight flange.


Drawing:

HEMISPHERICAL










From UG-32(f)

PL
t=
2SE - 0.2P




Solving for t:


100 x 48 4800
t= = =0.1614
(2 x 17,500 x 0.85) - (0.2 x 100) 29730













48
L
96 I.D.
t=?
API 510 Page 104 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-32 Formed Heads Pressure On The Concave Side

Problem #3

Determine the required "t "of this torispherical head. (These are also called ASME flanged
and dished heads, by the way). This head has an O. D. equal to its inside crown radius AND
the knuckle radius is equal to 6% of its inside crown radius.

Drawing:

F&D (TORISPHERICAL)







From UG-32 (e)

0.885PL
t =
SE - 0.1P

Solving for t:

0.885 x 100 x 96 8496
t = = = .4857
(17,500 x 1.0) - (0.1 x 100) 17490




















O.D. 96.0
L=96.0
t=?
API 510 Page 105 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-32
Exercises

Use the overview portions of UG-32 to determine the formulas and use Part UW to determine
the joint efficiencies.

1. Calculate the required thickness of a 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal head with an inside, diameter
of 48 inches. The vessels will have a MAWP of 350 psi and will be in lethal service. The
joint used to join the head to shell will be a Type No. 2 from Table UW-12. The stress
allowed on the head's material will be 15,000 psi.

Givens: Drawing:
t= ?
P=
S=
E=
D=

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):





2. A Torispherical head has corroded to a thickness of'.353; its inside crown radius is 56
inches. The head's material has a stress allowable of 13,800 psi at 500F. The shell is
seamless and the spot radiography of UW-11 (a)(5)(b) has been applied to the vessel. Can
this head remain in service at 100 psi per Code?

Givens: Drawing:
t= ?
P=
S=
E=
L=

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):













API 510 Page 106 of 310
3. A Hemispherical head is being considered as a replacement on a vessel with a MAWP of
200 psi. The head's inside diameter will be 64 inches. What would be its required thickness
if the head's material has a maximum allowable stress of 17,500 psi? The Category A type 1
joint that attaches the head will be spot radiographed.

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
L=

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):








4. What would the required thickness for an Ellipsoidal head he given the same variables
as used in Problem #3 above? The Category B weld that will attach this head would not
have UW-11 (a)(5)(b) applied.

Givens: Drawing:
t=
P=
S=
E=
D=

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):




















API 510 Page 107 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)
Overview

Circular flat heads are the only kind of flat heads that are included in tile API 510 Exam.
These types of heads are shown in Fig. UG-34. Only those attached by welding will be on
the test. Only thickness calculations are presently required per the API 510 Body of
Knowledge. Some flat heads are attached by fillet welds and some have a flange and are
attached by butt welds. All attachment welds are of Category C per UW-3.

The figures below represent only two of several allowed configurations.

Forged Flat Head to Shell or Nozzle

Cat. C Fillet
Welds Cat. C Butt Weld




Those attached by Fillet welds and those attached by other than Types Nos. 1 or 2 are not
radiographical by the Code rules. Seamless circular flat heads which are butt welded must
follow the rules for circumferential butt welds contained in UW-11 and UW-12(d) when
choosing the Efficiency for their thickness calculations. These heads are treated in the same
way as formed heads for their E used in calculations. If a flat head is attached using fillet
welds. it cannot be radiographed, and if the flat head is seamless the E used to calculate its
thickness will always be 1.0 .























API 510 Page 108 of 310
If the Circular Unstayed Flat Head were constructed of two half moon pieces using a butt
weld, the head would then contain a Category A joint per UW-3. The Type of butt weld and
the amount of radiography would determine the E; the resulting E would be the joint
efficiency used in the head's thickness calculation.



Category A
Butt Weld




The only formula that will be used for the calculations on the test is the one of UG-34(c)(2)
#1. Thickness required will be the only type of problem asked according to the API 510
Body of Knowledge.


t =d CP/SE



The definitions of the variables in the formula are shown in the figures of Figure UG-34.
UG-34. The d is the inside diameter of a head or shell as given in each figure; the C is a
factor that depends on the method of attachment, shell dimensions and other factors listed in
UG-34 (d). The E was discussed above; t and P are thickness and pressure. The C can get a
little tricky in figures (e), (f), (g) and (b-2) of Fig. UG-34. In these four figures there is a
note that states: C =0.33 x m; where in the other figures it is stated that C will equal a
specific value, 0.17 etc. also all figures list a minimum C value. Figures (e), (f), (g) and (b-2)
require an extra calculation to determine the C before the head's thickness can be calculated
using the formula above. Again that calculation is C =0.33 x m.

The term m is defined in the nomenclature of UG-34 as being the thickness required of the
shell divided by the actual thickness of the shell.

tr
m =
ts

IF this type of problem is given, stating only the actual thickness of the shell, a thickness
required calculation using the formula of UG-27 (c)(1) must be performed. The E used will
be 1.0 for the shells required thickness calculation. The inside diameter of the shell will be
equal to the d of the flat head, and the shell's material allowable stress must be given. The
pressure will be the same as required for the flat head. The following examples will
demonstrate the operations required.







API 510 Page 109 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)

Problem #1

A Seamless Flat Unstayed Circular Head having t diameter of 10 inches is attached to a
cylindrical shell similar to Figure UG-34 (e). The vessel will have a MAWP of 100 psi at
400 degrees F; the head and shell are made of SA-515 Gr. 70 carbon steel with an allowable
stress of 17500 psi. The shell's thickness is .375". Corrosion is not expected. Find the
minimum thickness of this head.

Shell t=.375

t=?

Drawing:

Givens:
Shell t= .375
Head t= ?
P= 100 psi
d = 10.0 in
S = 17500 @ 450F
E = 1.0 For any seamless head attached by fillet welding.
C = 0.33 x m

From: UG-34(c)(2) t =d CP/SE


Step 1. Calculate the thickness required of the shell using the UG-27(c)(1) circumferential
stress formula.


PR
t =
SE - 0.6 P

100 X 5 500
t = = =.02866
(17,500 x 1.0) -(0.6 x 100) 17,440











API 510 Page 110 of 310
Step 2. Calculate the value of m.
tr .02866
m = = =.076
ts .375


Step 3. Calculate the value of C.
C =0.33 x in

C =0.33 x .076 =.025


Now since the minimum C can be per figs. (e) (f) and (g) is 0.20 use this in the calculation of
the head.

Step 4. Calculate the required thickness of the flat head using the formula of UG-34(c) (2).


t =d CP/SE

t =10 0.20x10 / l7500 X 1.0

t =10 20 / 17500

t =10 .0011428

t =10 x .0338053 =.3380"

ANSWER: t =.338" minimum

Wasn't that fun





















API 510 Page 111 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)

Problem #2

A Forged Flat Circular Unstayed Head has been attached to a shell similar to fig. (b- 1) of
Fig.UG-34. The circumferential weld attaching the head to the shell is a single welded butt
joint with a backing strip which remains in place, The Data Report for the vessel indicates
that no radiography has been performed. The heads inside diameter is 26 inches. The
vessel's name plate indicates a MAWP of 150 psi. The allowable stress of the forged heads
material is 15,000 psi per the Data Report. Uniform corrosion has occurred to this head
leaving the flat part with a minimum thickness of 1.252". Can this vessel remain in service
without repair or replacement of the heads?





Drawing:

Givens:
t = ?
P= 150 psi
d = 26 "
S= 15,000 psi
E= .85 per UW-12(d).
C= 0.17 per fig. (b-1)

From UG-34(c)(2): t =d CP/SE

t =26 0.17 x l50 / 15,000 x .85


t =26 25.5 / 12,750

t =26 .002

t =26 x .0447213 =1.16275

1.252 >1.16275" ANSWER: YES











API 510 Page 112 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads And Covers (Circular)

Exercises

Use UG-27, UG-34 and part UW to determine the formulas and efficiencies.

1. A flat head similar to the one in fig. (b-2) of Fig. UG-34 is attached to a shell using a
double welded butt joint. The entire vessel meets the requirements of UW-11(a)(5)(b). The
center portion of the flat head has corroded down to an unacceptable thickness. What will be
the head's thickness required after build up by welding? The shell has a thickness of 1/2".
The shell and head skirt have an inside diameter of 42 inches. The head's material has a
maximum allowable stress of 13,800 psi and the shell's material has an allowed maximum
stress of 15,000 psi. The vessel's Name Plate is marked with a MAWP of 75 psi @ 350F.

Givens: Drawing:

ts=
t=
P=
Ss=
Sh =
Es =
Eh =
D=

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):























API 510 Page 113 of 310
2. The unit engineer has questioned the wisdom of repairing the head in Problem #1 and
thinks that a flat head attached similar to UG-34 (f) would offer some advantages for the
future plans in the unit. His calculations specify that the new flat head would require a
thickness of 1.375. Do you agree?





Givens. Drawing:

ts=
t=
P=
Ss=
Sh=
Es=
Eh =
d=

State Code Paragraph(s) and Formula(s):
































API 510 Page 114 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-28 Thickness Of Shells And Tubes Under External Pressure Overview

External calculations depart significantly from internal calculations simply because under
external pressure the vessel is being crushed . Internal pressure wants to tear the vessel apart.

Because of the crushing or buckling load, the Length the Outside Diameter and the Thickness
of the vessel are important. External pressure problems are based on the thickness of the
shell to the outside diameter ratios. There are two types of external pressure calculations
required on the test; one type is when the O. D. (D
o

) to thickness ratio (t) is greater than 10
and the other type when it is less than 10.
This type of problem is best approached from the in-service standpoint with an existing
vessel. In order to solve these types of problems two charts will be required. The first chart
is used to find a value called Factor A and then Factor A is used to find a Factor B in the
second chart. The value of Factor B found is the number needed to solve the problem using
the formula given in paragraph UG-28 (c)(1) step 6. The charts will be supplied with the test
question as they are not found in Section VIII Division 1.

The following is the step by step solution to the Pressure Allowed on an existing vessel of a
known thickness with a D
o

to t ratio greater than 10.
Problem: A vessel is operating under an external pressure of 250 psi. The operating
temperature is 500F. The outside diameter of the vessel is 40 inches. Its length is 70 inches.
The vessel's wall is 1.25 inches thick and is of SA-515 gr.70 plate. Its specified minimum
yield is 38,000 psi. Does this thickness meet Code requirements?

Givens:

P= 250 psi
Temp. = 500F
t= 1.25
L= 70 inches
D
o

= 40 inches
















API 510 Page 115 of 310
t =1.25
40 D

o

70
LENGTH

From UG-28 (c) Cylindrical Shells and Tubes. The required minimum thickness of a shell or
a tube under external pressure, either seamless or with longitudinal butt joints, shall be
determined by the following procedure.

(1) Cylinders aving D
o
t
values >10
Testing to see if this paragraph applies:

D
o
=40

t =1.25
D
o
40
= = 32
t 1.25


Step 1. Our value of D
o
is 40 inches and L is 70 inches. We will use these to determine the
ratio of:

L 70
= =1. 75
D
o
40

Step 2. Enter the Factor A chart at the value of 1.75 determined above.

Step 3. Then move across horizontally to the curve D
o
/ t =32. Then down from this point to
find the value of Factor A which is .0045.

Step 4. Using our value of Factor A calculated in Step 3, enter the Factor B (CS-2) chart on
the bottom. Then vertically to the material temperature line given in the stated problem (in
our case 500F).

Step 5. Then across to find the value of Factor B. We find that Factor B is approximately
13000.

Step 6. Using this value of Factor B, calculate the value of the maximum allowable external
pressure P
a
using the following formula:
4B
P
a
=
3(D
o
t)

4x13,000 52,000
P
a
= = = 541.66 psi
3(32) 96


541.66 psi >250 psi ANSWER: YES
API 510 Page 116 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-28 Thickness Of Shells And Tubes Under External Pressure
Overview

UG-28(c)(2) For vessels having an D
o
/t <10:

Problem: A 78" long pipe of SA-106 Gr. B is going into service under external pressure.
The pipe has a minimum yield of 35,000 psi and an allowable stress of 14,400 psi at design
temperature. This pipe has an O. D. of 4.5" and a wall thickness of 0.531". The operating
temperature will be 700F with an external pressure of 1600 psi. Do these combinations of
length, thickness, temperature and pressure meet Code requirements?

Givens:
P= 1600 psi L =78
emp. =700F
t= .531
L= 78
D
o
= 4.5



D
o
=4.5"

t =.531

Check ratio of D
o
/ t = 4.5 / 0.531 = 8.47

8.47<10

D
o
/ t <10

Therefore, use UG-28(c)(2)

Step 1. Using the same procedure as given in UG-28(c)(1) obtain the value of B.
Determine the ratio for and L / D
o
and D
o
/ t

L / D
o
=78/ 4.5 =17.33 D
o
/ t =4.5 / 0.531 =8.47
[From UG-28(c)(1)]

Step l. Enter Fig. G at the value of L / D
o
17.33


Step 2. Move horizontally to the line D
o
/ t 8.47 from this point move vertically down to
find Factor A 0.017.

Step 3. Using Factor A enter Factor B chart CS-2 at the value of Factor A. Move up to the
material / temperature curve for 700F and across to the Factor B values. The factor B equals
approximately 13,200.



API 510 Page 117 of 310
[From UG-28(c)(2)]

Step 2. Using the value of B obtained above calculate the value P
a1
using the following
formula:

P
a1
=[[
2.167

/ D
o
t] 0.0833] B
P
a1
=[[
2.167

/
8.47
] 0.0833] 13,200 =2277.5 psi
Step 3. Calculate the value of P
a
2 where S is the lesser of 2 times the maximum allowable
stress in tension at the design metal temperature from the stress tables or 0.9 times the yield
strength of the material at design temperature. Values of the yield strength are obtained from
the applicable material chart as follows:

(a). For a given temperature curve determine the B value that corresponds to the right hand
side termination point of the curve.

(b). The yield strength is twice the B value obtained in (a) above.

Use the Lesser of:

2 times the maximum stress allowed in tension
or
0.9 times yield strength at temperature.


(Case 1.): 2 x 14,400 psi =28,800 psi

or

(Case 2.): 2 x 13,900 psi =27,800 psi x 0.9 =25,020 psi

So use 25,020 psi in the calculation of P
a
2

P
a
2 =
2S

/ D
o
t[1 1 / D
o
t]
P
a
2 =[[2 x


25,020] / 8.47] [1 [1 / 8.47]]
P
a
2 =5907.9 [1 0.1180]=5210 psi
Step 4. P
a
will equal the smaller of P
a
l or P
a
2:

P
a
=2275.5 psi

2277.5 psi >1600 psi ANSWER: Yes meets Code.


API 510 Page 118 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-28 Thickness Of Shells And Tubes Under External Pressure Exercises

Use the previous instructions as a model to work these problems.

1. A vessel under external pressure has been found to a thickness of 1.123 ". The
vessels is 8'-2" long and operates at a temperature of 300F. The vessel's outside diameter is
54 inches. It is made of a material with a minimum yield of 30,000 psi. Presently the
external working pressure is 350 psi. May this vessel continue to operate in accordance with
the Code? Show all work and quote code paragraphs used.

Givens: Drawing:

P=
Temp. =
t =
L =
D
o
=


2. A high pressure heat exchanger has experienced corrosion on the external surfaces of
its tubes. A tube thickness was found to be .730" thick. This tube has a corroded minimum
outside diameter of 5.98". The total external pressure is 900 psi at 800F. The tubes are
made of a material with a minimum yield of 38,000 psi, a maximum allowable stress at
design temperature of 10,200 psi, and are 105 inches long. Will this tube's thickness allow
continued operation at the present temperature and external pressure? Show all work and
quote code paragraphs used,


Givens: Drawing:

P=
Temp.=
t =
L =
D
o
=














API 510 Page 119 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-20 Design Temperature

(a) Maximum

The maximum temperature used in design shall be not less than the mean metal temperature
(through the thickness) expected under operating conditions for the part considered [see 3-
1(g)]. If necessary, the metal temperature shall be determined by computation or by
measurement from equipment in service under equivalent operating conditions.

(b) Minimum

The minimum metal temperature used in design shall be the lowest expected in service except
when lower temperatures are permitted by the rules of this Division (see UCS-66). The
minimum mean metal temperature shall be determined by the principles described in (a)
above. Consideration shall include the lowest operating temperature, operational upsets, auto
refrigeration, atmospheric temperature, and any other sources of cooling [except as permitted
in (f)(3) below].

(c) Design temperatures listed in excess of the maximum temperatures listed in the tables
of Subsection C are not permitted. In addition, design temperatures for vessels under external
pressure shall not exceed the maximum temperatures given on the external pressure charts.

(d) The design of zones with different metal temperatures may be based on their
determined temperatures.

(e) Suggested methods for obtaining the operating temperature of vessel walls in service
are given in Appendix C.

(f) Impact testing per UG-84 is not mandatory for pressure vessel materials which
satisfy all of the following.

(1) The material shall be limited to P-No. 1, Gr. No. 1 or 2 and nominal thickness
of:
(a) 1/2 inch for materials listed in Curve A of Figure UCS-66
(b) 1 inch for materials listed in Curve B, C, or D of Figure UCS-66

(2) The completed vessel shall be hydrostatically tested per UG-99(b), (c), or (k).

(3) Design temperature is no warmer than 650 degrees F and no colder than -20
degrees F' Occasional operating temperatures colder than -20 degrees F are
acceptable when due to lower seasonal. atmospheric temperature.

(4) The thermal or mechanical shock loadings are not a controlling design
requirement. (See UG-22)

(5) Cyclical loading is not a controlling design requirement. (See UG-22)



API 510 Page 120 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG- 22 Loadings

The loadings to be considered in designing a vessel shall include those from:

(a) internal or external design pressure (as defined in UG-21);

(b) weight of the vessel and normal contents under operating or test conditions
(this includes additional pressure due to static head of liquids);

(c) superimposed static reactions from weight of attached equipment, such as
motors, machinery, other vessels, piping, linings, and insulation;

(d) the attachment of:

(1) internals (see Appendix D);
(2) vessel supports, such as lugs, rings, skirts, saddles, and legs (see
Appendix G);

(e) cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations, or from
equipment mounted on a vessel, and mechanical loadings;

(f) wind, snow, and seismic reactions, where required;

(g) impact reactions such as those due to fluid shock;

(h) temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion.









API 510 Page 121 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-25 Corrosion

The user or his designated agent (design engineering firm) shall specify allowances other
than those allowed by the rules of this division. Any vessel subject to corrosion must have a
suitable drain opening at the lowest practical point in the vessel.












































API 510 Page 122 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Overview

In the Code there are two types of Maximum Allowable Working Pressures (MAWP).
One is for the vessel itself, the one most think of and refer to all the time. The other is the
one for each part of a vessel referred to in UG-98 as the part MAWP. Think of it in this way:
a vessel has a shell, heads, chambers, nozzles, etc., and pressure allowed or thickness
required calculations must be performed for each one to determine the MAWP of the vessel.
When doing these calculations, you cannot take credit for any extra thickness designed into
the vessel as a corrosion allowance. The weakest of the vessels parts, considering loadings
such as the static head of the contents, weight of insulation, wind, earthquakes, etc., will
determine the MAWP of the entire vessel. It is the weakest link in the chain. The pressure
referred to here can be internal or external.

The MAWP of a vessel is the pressure allowed in a vessel at its top in its normal operating
position and at its Maximum operating temperature. The MAWP can be determined for more
than one designated operating temperature, using for each temperature the applicable
allowable stress value.

VESSEL MAWP

P
A
R
T

M
A
W
P

Much More will be said about how to determine the vessel MAWP in the coverage of
calculations for Static Head in a vessel.




API 510 Page 123 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-99 Standard Hydrostatic / UG- 100 Pneumatic Test Overview

The procedures for hydrostatic and pneumatic tests are contained in paragraphs UG-99 and
UG-100. These procedures have many similarities and some important differences. Both of
these tests can be applied to most vessels. The following are the highlights of each type of
pressure test from the approach of a welded repair to a vessel that been in service. These
highlights are not meant to replace reading the paragraphs.

Hydrostatic
1. If the test is required it shall be conducted after welded repairs.
2. The test pressure must at least be 1 1/2 times the MAWP
3. The test pressure shall be adjusted for lowest ratio of stresses.
4. Any non-hazardous fluid may be used if below its boiling point.
5. It is recommended that the metal temperature during hydro test be maintained at
least 30F above MDMT to minimize the risk of brittle fracture. Testing fluid
must not exceed 120F
6. Following the application of hydro pressure a visual inspection shall be
performed at 2/3 of the test pressure.

Pneumatic
1. If the test is required it shall be conducted after welded repairs.
2. The welded repairs shall be subjected to the tests required by UW-50.
3. The test pressure must at least be 1. 25 times the MAWP
4. The test pressure shall be adjusted for lowest ratio of stresses.
5. The metal must be maintained at least 30F above MDMT to minimize the
risk of brittle fracture.
6. The test pressure shall be raised at a gradual rate to not more than 1/2 the test
pressure and then raised by 1/10th of the test pressure until the test pressure is
reached.
7. A visual inspection must be made at 4/5ths the test pressure. The visual may
be waived if the requirements listed in UG-100 are met.

The following written procedures will help to clarify the process. The ratio of stresses
adjusts for the different strengths of materials at different temperatures. This will be
explained during classroom instruction.





API 510 Page 124 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


API 510 4.4 / UG-98 / UG-99 / UG-102

HYDROSTATIC TEST PROCEDURE

1. Calculate the test pressure using the rules of UG-98 and UG-99.

2. Any fluid in compliance with UG-99 may be used. The temperature of the
testing fluid and the vessel shell shall be as described in UG-99 and API 510.

3. Isolate openings as required by blinding.

4. Install a calibrated gage of the proper pressure range as described in UG-102
directly to the vessel. If the gage is not readily visible to the operator
controlling the applied pressure, an additional gage shall be provided where it
will be visible to the operator throughout the duration of the test.

5. If the test pressure will exceed the setting of lowest relief device, relief devices
shall be removed , blinded or have test clamps installed.

6. Vents shall be provided at all high points to purge air while the vessel is being
filled.

7. Before applying pressure, inspect all test equipment to insure it is tight and
that low pressure filling fines and other appurtenances that should not be
subjected to the test pressure have been disconnected.

8. Warn all personnel in the area.

9. Slowly raise the vessel to the test pressure. Hold for an appropriate time based
on vessel size.

10. Lower the vessel to 2/3 the test pressure and make a visual inspection of all
joints and connections.







API 510 Page 125 of 310
UG-99 Calculating Hydrostatic Test Pressure

Problem: Calculate the required hydro test pressure for a vessel using the
following conditions.

Material SA-516 Gr. 65
Design Temp. 700F
Test Temp. 85F
MAWP 350 psi

Step 1: Determine the ratio of stresses for SA-516 gr. 65 for the test and design temperatures.

(a). From Table 1A Section II Part D.

Stress allowed at 700F =15,500 psi
Stress allowed at 85F =16,300 psi

(b) Per UG-99 the ratio equals

Stress at Test Temp.
Stress at Design Temp.

16,300
=1.05
15,500

Step 2: Per UG-99(b) Test pressure equals

1.5 x MAWP x Stress at Test Temp.
Stress at Design Temp.


1.5 x 350 psi x 1.05 =551.25 psi

Answer 551.25 psi at the top of the vessel.










API 510 Page 126 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

API 510 4.4 / UG-98 / UG-99 / UG-102

PNEUMATIC TEST PROCEDURE

1. Prior to administering a pneumatic test, insure that the NDE of UW-50 for
welded repairs has been applied.

2. Calculate the test pressure using the rules of UG-98 and UG-100.

3. The metal temperature during pneumatic test shall be maintained at least 30F
above the minimum design metal temperature to minimize the risk of brittle
fracture.

4. Isolate openings as required by blinding.

5. Install a calibrated gage of the proper pressure range as described in UG-102
directly to the vessel. If the gage is not readily visible to the operator
controlling the applied pressure, an additional gage shall be provided where it
will be visible to the operator throughout the duration of the test.

6. If the test pressure will exceed the setting of lowest relief device, relief devices
shall be removed, blinded or have test clamps installed.

7. Before applying pressure inspect all test equipment to insure it is tight and that
low pressure filling lines and other appurtenances that should not be subjected
to the test pressure have been disconnected.

8. Warn all personnel in the area.

9. The pressure in the vessel shall be gradually raised to not more than one-half
the test pressure. Thereafter, the test pressure shall be increased in steps of
approximately one-tenth of the test pressure until the test pressure has been
reached.

10. Lower the vessel to four-fifths the test pressure and hold for a sufficient time
to make a visual inspection of all joints and connections.














API 510 Page 127 of 310
UG-100 Calculating Pneumatic Test Pressure

Problem: Calculate the required pneumatic test pressure for a vessel using the following
conditions.

Material SA-516 Gr. 65
Design Temp. 700F
Test Temp. 85F
MAWP 350 psi



Step 1: Determine the ratio of stresses for SA-516 gr. 65 for the test and design
temperatures.

(a). From Table 1A Section II Part D.

Stress allowed at 700F =15,500 psi Stress allowed at 85F =16,300 psi

(b) Per UG-99 the ratio equals
(c)
Stress at Test Temp.
Stress at Design Temp.

16,300
=1.05
15,500

Step 2: Per UG-100(b) Test pressure equals



1.25 x MAWP x Stress at Test Temp.
Stress at Design Temp.


1.25 x 350 psi x 1.05 =459.375 psi

Answer 459.375 psi










API 510 Page 128 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-100 Calculating Pneumatic Test Pressure

PROCEDURE FOR PNEUMATIC TEST

a. Slowly raise the pressure to approximately one-half 459.375 psi which equals
229.6 psi.

b. Raise the pressure in steps of one-tenth of the test pressure.

1. 229.6 +45.9 =275.5 psi

2. 275.5 +45.9 =321.4 psi

3. 321.4 +45.9 =367.3 psi

4. 367.3 +45.9 =413.2 psi

5. 413.2 +45.9 =459.1 psi

c. Lower the pressure to four-fifths =367.2 psi

The adjustment for test and design temperatures is the reason why inspection is not
taking place at the MAWP of 350 psi, i.e. 1.05 x 350 =367.5 psi.










API 510 Page 129 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-102 Test Gages
Overview

The Code has some definite requirements for the selection and uses of gages for the tests
described in UG-99 and UG-100. Directions for location, number of, range of and the
calibration of the indicating gage(s) is located in UG-102. The high points of UG-102 are
below.

1. An indicating gage shall be connected directly to the vessel. If it is not readily visible
to the operator of the test equipment an additional gage shall be used which is visible
to operator for the duration of the test.

2. When doing large vessel pressure tests it is recommended to have a recording gage in
addition to the indicating gage.

3. Dial type indicating gages shall have a range of about double the maximum test
pressure, but in no case shall the range of the gage be less than 1 1/2 times nor more
than 4 times the maximum test pressure.

4. Digital gages having a wider range may be used as long as they provide the same or
greater accuracy of the dial type.

5. All gages shall be calibrated against a standard dead-weight tester or a calibrated
master gage.

6. Gages must be calibrated any time their accuracy is in doubt.









API 510 Page 130 of 310
API 510 Module

PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-99 / 100 / 102
Exercises

1. A vessel made of SA-240 304L plate is being hydrostatically tested after an alteration.
The vessel's MAWP is 225 psi at 400F. The allowable stress at operating is 14,700 psi and
16,700 psi at the test temperature.

Answer the following.

A. What is the required test pressure?
B. What is the least pressure the vessel can be inspected at?
C. In psi what is the minimum and maximum range of the test gage?








2. A pneumatic test of a vessel will be conducted to a pressure of 310 psi. Describe the
steps for raising the vessel to the test pressure. At what pressure shall the visual
examination take place?










API 510 Page 131 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UW-16 Fillet Weld Sizing For Attachments At Openings

The fillet weld sizing of UW-16 can be solved in either of two ways. That is, you may
determine if a fillet weld leg size provides an adequate fillet weld throat size per Code or
based on the thicknesses of the shell and nozzle determine the minimum throat size required
and convert that to leg size.

In the latter case, usually the leg size decimal value is rounded to the next fractional 1/16th
inch.

In these examples we will work it in both ways using the same shell and nozzle thicknesses.
The examples will be restricted to only Fig UW-16.1 (i).

Problem: A nozzle is being attached to a shell as shown in Fig. UW-16.1 (i) using two
equal size fillet welds. The shell's thickness is 7/8 in. and the nozzle's
thickness is 1/2 inch. The fillet welds are 3/8 inch in leg size. Does this meet
Code?


t
1


7/8


t
2




Leg Size 3/8 or .375

Throat
Size














API 510 Page 132 of 310
Case l.: Determine the minimum throat size.


From Fig. UW-16.1 (i) we are given that:

t
1
+t
2
> 1 1/4 t
min


And
t
1
or t
2
not less than the smaller of 1/4 in. or .707 t
min


From the nomenclature of UW- 16 we are given the following definitions:

t
min
=the smaller of 3/4 in. or the thickness of the thinner of the two parts joined by a fillet
weld.

t
1
and t
2
are the throat sizes of the welds as depicted in Fig. UW-16.1(i).


t
1



7/8

t
2



Step 1: Determine the throat size of a 3/8 in. leg size fillet weld.


Leg Size 3/8 or .375


Throat
Size

Throat size equals .707 times leg size.
0.707 x 0.375 =.265 =t
1
or t
2



API 510 Page 133 of 310
Step 2: Determine t
min
.

t
min
=the smaller of or . So t
min
. =.

Step 3: Determine if t
1
+ t
2
1 1/4 t
min



.265" +.265 1.25 x .500"
.530" .625"

.530" is neither greater than or equal to .625". Therefore the first test fails and the throat size
of the 3/8" leg fillet weld is too small,




We could stop here and answer the question with a No! But let's finish up with the second
test of size required for an illustration of the technique required.


Step 4: Test to see if:

t
1
or t
2
not less than
the smaller of or .707 t
min

Not less than the smaller of .250 or .707 x
.707 x .500" =.3535"

So not less than .250". Both t
1
and t
2
are .265".

.265 >.250 Fillet welds are adequate in the second test. However a fillet weld size must
pass both tests!









API 510 Page 134 of 310
Case 2.: Based on material thicknesses determine the minimum leg size of equal sized fillet
welds to the next 1/16th inch. In our problem thicknesses are 7/8 inch (shell) and
1/2 inch (nozzle) . We have already determined that 3/8 inch leg fillet welds are too
small. So let's determine what size of equal leg fillet welds are required rounded up
to the next 1/16th inch.

This is a case where you are really coming in through the back door; that is to say, you are
not checking to see if an existing or proposed Fillet weld leg size is large enough. You are
in fact. determining the minimum size for a thickness combination. The approach is to set
up the formulas given in Fig. UW-16.1 (i) and determine the minimum values so as to
make the shoe fit.

Step 1: Determine t
min
.
t
min
. =the smaller of or
So t
min
=
Step 2.: Determine .707 t
min

.707 x .500" =.353"
Step 3.: Determine 1 1/4 t
min
.
1.25 x .500" =.625"
From Fig. UW- 16.1 (i) we are given that:
t
1
+ t
2
1 1/4 t
min

And
t
1
+ t
2
not less than
the smaller of
or .707 t
min


Let's stop and examine the formulas given above to make sure we understand what is being
said. First, this business of throat 1 plus throat 2 being greater than or at least equal to 1.25
times t
min
. .If that's the case, then to figure out the minimum throat size of one equal sized
fillet weld, we need only calculate 1.25 x t
min
and divide it by two. Next, what is really is
being said in " t
1
or t
2
not less than the smaller of or. 707 t
min
." is that the Code does
not allow a fillet welds with a throat smaller than 1/4". This is to prevent a very large fillet
weld on one side and what amounts to a small seal weld on the other side. This keeps the
heat input balanced across the parts joined. A 1/4" throat requires a leg size of .353" about
3/8.
A: .625 / 2 =.3125 So .3125 +.3125 =1 1/4 t
min
.
B: .3125 >.250 ( t
1
or t
2
minimum size is satisfied)
C: To convert throat to leg, divide the throat by .707
.3125 / .707 =.4420 (Round up to the next 1/1 6th inch).
6 / 16th =.375 or 7/16th =.4375 or 8/16 =.500
.4375 <.4420 <.500
Answer: minimum leg size is 1/2 inch.
API 510 Page 135 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UW-16 Weld Size Determination
Exercises

1. A fillet weld has a leg size of 1 1/8". What is its throat size?








2. A fillet weld has a throat size of .600". What is its leg size rounded up to the next
fractional 1/16"?




































API 510 Page 136 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads
Overview

UG-36 Openings in Pressure Vessels

The main things of interests in this paragraph to the API 510 inspector are the following:

All references to dimensions apply to the finished construction after deduction for
material added as corrosion allowance.

Openings not subject to rapid fluctuations in pressure do not require reinforcement
other than that inherent in the construction under the following conditions:

The finished opening is not larger than.

3 diameter in vessel shells or heads 3/8 or less in thickness.

2 3/8 diameter in vessel shells or heads over 3/8 in thickness.

No two isolated unreinforced openings, in accordance with the above shall have
their centers closer to each other than the sum of their diameters.

Centers No Closer Than The Sum of their Diameters


5 4


3/8 5/8


3 + 1 =5 2 + 1 =4
API 510 Page 137 of 310
UG-37 Reinforcement Required for Openings in Shells and Formed Heads

For a good start on this paragraph you must become familiar with UG-37 (a) nomenclature.
Read each of the given symbols. Then compare the symbols with the drawing of Fig. 37.1,
Nomenclature and Formulas for Reinforced Openings. Classroom instructions if used, and
example problems will address this lengthy subject.

UG-40 Limits of Reinforcement

This paragraph tells you how much distance in any direction you can count as reinforcement
in your calculations. This means that if a vessel wall has excess metal above that required by
calculation, how far on each side of the opening can you take credit for this extra metal as
reinforcement. If a nozzle with excess thickness is inserted into the hole, how much of the
excess thickness in the inside projection can be counted as helping add strength back to the
vessel wall at the opening? Also considered is how much of the nozzle excess thickness
above the hole in the vessel can be counted as reinforcement for the opening.

UG-41 Strength of Reinforcement

Where the Code specifies that if you add reinforcement, such as a pad, that the pad must have
a strength that is equal to or greater than the material of the head or shell. If such metal is not
available and a lower strength material is used, a stress reduction must be taken during the
calculations for reinforcement.

Repad Stress =Stress Reduction Example: Repad 15,000 psi =.857
Vessel Stress Vessel 17,500 psi

After the above calculation, the stress reduction factor is multiplied times the actual area of
the repad, and the lesser area that is determined must be used in the calculations for
reinforcement.

Example: Given: Repad cross-sectional area equals 2 square inches and the stress
reduction factor equals .857. Find the area that may be used in
reinforcement calculations.
.857 x 2 =1.714 square inches


However, if the material used is stronger than the material being reinforced, no credit may be
taken for the higher strength material used as reinforcement. For the calculations you must
use the strength of reinforcement as being the same as the vessel or head being reinforced.













API 510 Page 138 of 310
UG-42 Reinforcement of Multiple Openings

This paragraph addresses cases where the limits of reinforcement for more than one opening
overlap each other. Extra metal in a vessel above what is required to resist internal pressure
can he counted toward reinforcing an opening. The distance counted as reinforcement on
each side of an opening (parallel to it) is defined in UG-40. If two openings are close enough
to each other that their limits overlap then special consideration must be given to the
reinforcement of both openings. If two openings are spaced closer than two times their
average diameters, it is not allowed to take double credit for extra wall thickness in the
overlapped area.

Nozzle




2 2 2 2


4 3

The extra wall thickness in the shaded area in the drawing above cannot be counted as
helping reinforce both the openings. It can be counted for one or the other but not both. The
minimum spacing for the openings above to avoid this situation is 4. It must be divided
between the two in proportion to the ratio of the two opening's diameters. In this case, 50/50.
If the openings where different diameters the ratio of their openings would he calculated and
the shade area split up accordingly.

The next situation involves more than two openings spaced closely together. In that
configuration, the minimum distance between any two of these openings shall be 1 1/3 times
their average diameters and the area of reinforcement between any two openings must he at
least equal to 50% of the total area required for the two openings. This means you are not
allowed to set the openings too closely to each other and take any credit for the shaded areas.



3.333 5.999
3

2
6

5.333




API 510 Page 139 of 310
If the openings are closer together than permitted by UG-42(b), no credit is allowed for any
of the metal between the openings, and the reinforcement calculations must be performed as
given in UG-42 (c) as shown below. The nozzle wall thicknesses of the individual openings
cannot be figured in as available reinforcement. The calculation becomes one for a single
larger hole. Again no credit is allowed for metal between the individual openings or any of
the nozzle thicknesses. Its just one big hole containing all the other openings and its
reinforcement will be the one calculated.


2.5
5
3

2
6

4.75



UG-45 Nozzle Neck Thickness

Here we are given minimum thicknesses for nozzle walls. The basic premise for this
paragraph is that a nozzle's wall thickness cannot be less than the smaller of the thickness
required plus corrosion allowance of the shell or the head it is in or the minimum thickness
(considering the mill under tolerance of 12 1/2 %) of standard wall pipe plus any corrosion
allowance. The thickness calculations for the shell or head under internal pressure only will
use an E=1.0 for this purpose assuming the nozzle does not pass through any Category A
joint with an efficiency of less than 1.0. However the nozzle may not be thinner than the
minimum thicknesses given in UG-16(b). Read this paragraph with the intent of applying
these rules case by case. Situations of internal and external pressure are also given. A
notable rule is given in UG-45 (d) about thicknesses of standard wall pipe used as a nozzle
pertains to the minimum thickness based on nominal (average) pipe size. Read the footnote
given in this subparagraph.










D
I
A
M
E
T
E
R
API 510 Page 140 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-40 / 41 / 42 / 45
Exercises

1. A vessel opening is being reinforced with a pad. The pad has an allowable stress of
15,000 psi. The vessel's wall has an allowable stress of 14,800 psi. What is the
resulting ratio of stress to be used in the pads area calculation?








2. A 6 in. nozzle is being added in a vessel wall next to an existing 4 in. nozzle. What is
the closest they may be placed together with out overlapping their areas of
reinforcement?








3. Three nozzles are to be installed such that they clustered so closely together that they
are less than 1 1/3 their average diameters apart. How will the area of reinforcement
be calculated?





















API 510 Page 141 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads

Openings that do not require reinforcement calculations are outlined in UG-36(c)(3). All
other openings must have the rules of reinforcement applied. The rules of reinforcement are
taken from paragraphs UG-36 through UG-43. The limits where these rules apply are taken
from UG-36(b)(1).

The following is an outline for an approach to the understanding of reinforcement
calculations. First, the basic requirement is that around any opening in a vessel the vessel
wall must be reinforced with an equal amount of metal as was removed from the vessel wall
required for pressure (thickness required).

This reinforcement may already exist in the form of excess wall thickness above that required
to resist the pressure. It may be found in the nozzle wall excess thickness or in the
attachment welds. If it does not meet the requirements considering the above mentioned
excess thicknesses after corrosion allowance has been removed then a reinforcement pad will
be required.

At this point we are ready to begin applying all the rules which were given in the preceding
paragraphs. The following graphics depict the various areas that must be considered when
performing reinforcement calculations. Through this type of breakdown the concept can be
better understood, this is of course an oversimplification.

A. You may not need to replace all of the metal removed.

GIVEN AS A: The dark cross hatched area is the diameter of the finished opening multiplied
times the minimum thickness that is the required by the calculations of UG-27 for a shell or
UG-32 if the opening is in a head, etc,





A















API 510 Page 142 of 310
B. The vessel and the nozzle walls usually have excess thickness above that required to
resist pressure. This excess thickness is counted toward reinforcement. Corrosion allowance
cannot be included in areas A1 or A2 below.

GIVEN AS A1 and A2. The shaded areas are the extra metal.

A1

A2


T required




C. If the nozzle extends inside the shell, within certain limits this nozzle metal can be
counted, less any corrosion allowance.

GIVEN AS A3






A3


D. The welds used to attach the nozzle to the shell count as area available for reinforcement.
Interior weld area would be less corrosion allowance.

GIVEN AS A4




A4















API 510 Page 143 of 310
E. All of this reinforcement must fall within certain limits. The extra metal in the shell and
nozzle cannot be counted outside the calculated limits.

X



Y





F. If any of the above mentioned reinforcement has a lower stress value than the vessel's wall
its area counted toward reinforcement must be decreased proportionally.

Example: The vessel wall stress allowed
is greater than that of the nozzle.

Vessel material stress allowed =17,500
Nozzle material stress allowed =15,000

Nozzle 15,000
---------- =.857 Stress Reduction Factor
Vessel 17,500

If we had, for instance, 2.5 sq. in. of excess wall in the nozzle, we would multiply it by the
stress reduction factor to find the area allowed to be used in the calculations .857 x 2.5 =2.14
sq. in..

2.14 sq. in. would be all that could be considered as counting, toward reinforcement.

However, the reverse is not true if the nozzle has a greater stress value than the shell; no
credit may be taken for it. All stress values would then he the same as the shell's.



















API 510 Page 144 of 310
corrosion allowance deducted prior to the calculation of reinforcement available.







Corrosion Allowance

H. The area of reinforcement must be satisfied for all planes through the center of the
opening and normal to the vessel wall.


NORMAL








ALL PLANES

I. The required cross-sectional area shall be the area of the shell or head required to resist
pressure which is given as A. If the sum of A1+A2+A3+A4 is equal to or greater than A
the opening, is adequately reinforced. If not, more reinforcement must be added. Usually
this be in the form of a reinforcement pad. Its area is found as follows.

A - (A1+A2+A3 +A4)=Area required for the repad.

REPAD
A5








This type of problem can get complicated very quickly, mostly by the number of steps
involved. However, the API 510 Exam Body of Knowledge has simplified the problems.
This was done by limiting this type of problem as follows:








API 510 Page 145 of 310
a. There will he no inward projection for the nozzle.

b. The nozzle will enter at 90 degrees to the shell or head.

c. The opening will not pass through a Category A weld.

d. Nozzles and shell will be of the same strength.

e. The required thicknesses of shells and nozzles will be given.

In the following example, the problem will be worked using those guidelines. Remember,
this type of problem is worth no more than simplest Code calculation possible on the exam.
Plan your study time with this in mind. Since the problem may not even be on the if you
spend all your time studying these and nothing else, the outcome is obvious. Also, unless
you are really comfortable with these problems, it is best to do them last. They eat up a lot of
time and you could find yourself rushing through the remaining problems--not a desirable
situation!




































API 510 Page 146 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Reinforcement for Openings in Shells and Heads

The API 510 Body of Knowledge has placed the following limits on reinforcement problems.

The inspector should:

a. Understand the key concepts of reinforcement.
-Replacement of strength removed
-Limits of reinforcement
-Credit can he taken for extra metal in the shell and nozzle

b. Be able to calculate the required size of a reinforcement pad or to assure a designed
pad is large enough. To simplify the problem:

1. All f
r
=1.0
2. All F =1.0
3. All E =1.0
4. All required thicknesses are given
5. There will be no nozzle projecting inside the shell

The inspector should be able to compensate for corrosion allowance. Weld strength
calculations are excluded.

Although it has not been listed under reinforcement, sizing of the fillet welds will probably be
required since it is elsewhere in the material.

The best approach is to work a problem typical of what can be expected and explain each
aspect above as it is required to solve the problem.

Problem:

A vessel made of SA-515-gr. 70 rolled and welded plate is having a 6 inch
NPS schedule 80 seamless nozzle added similar to Fig. UW-16.1 (a) with a
fillet weld of 1/2" in leg dimension. The shell's actual thickness is 7/8 inch.
The nozzle's actual thickness is 0.432", and it has an O. D. of 6.625". A
corrosion allowance of .125" is required.














API 510 Page 147 of 310
The following information has been provided by planning.
Does this design require a repad? If so what is its required size?

Givens:

1. The required thickness of the shell is .690"
2. The required thickness of the nozzle Is .033"
3. The nozzle will not pass through a vessel Category A weld : E =1.0
4. The nozzle will enter the vessel normal to the vessel wall : F =1.0
5. The nozzle and shell are of the same strength or the nozzle has a
greater strength : f
r
=1.0
6. A corrosion allowance of .125 is required.

Drawing:

t =.432"


leg =.500"

t=.875"



Step 1. Check the fillet weld throat size. The fillet weld throat in this Figure
of UW-16 is indicated as t
c
. In the nomenclature of paragraph UW-16, t
c
is
required to be not less than the smaller of 1/4" or 0.707 t
min
. Our t
min
is the
nozzle which is .432".

.707 x .432" =.305" So t
c
can be no smaller than 1/4"(.250").

Since the throat size of a fillet weld is determined by multiplying .707 times
the leg size and our leg size is given as . We calculate as follows.

.707 x .500" =.353". This is larger than and the throat of the fillet weld is
adequate.

Step 2. Check to see if a corrosion allowance is specified. If so it must be
deducted from the actual thickness of the shell and nozzle prior to
calculations. Also the I. D. of the nozzle must be increased by two times the
corrosion allowance. In our problem the corrosion allowance is .125".

Shell actual t =.875"
Corrosion .125'
Shell t to be used .750" adjusted for corrosion







API 510 Page 148 of 310
Nozzle actual t .432"
Corrosion -.125
Nozzle t to be used .307" Adjusted for corrosion

Nozzle I.D. O. D. -2(wall t - c.a.)
Nozzle I.D. 6.625-2(.432-.125)
Nozzle I.D. 6.625-2(.307)
Nozzle I.D. 6.625-.614 =6.01 " Adjusted for corrosion

Step 3. Set up the formulas of UG-37 using Figure UG-37.1
A =d t
r
F +2t
n
t
r
F(1 -f
r
1) Area required

=d(E
1
t-Ft
r
)-2t
n
(E
1
t- Ft
r
)(1-f
r
1)
A
1
OR Area available in shell;
use larger
=2(t+t
n
)( E
1
t-Ft
r
)- 2t
n
(E
1
t-Ft
r
)( 1-f
r
1)

=5(t
n
t
rn
) f
r
2t
A
2
OR Area available in the nozzle outward; use smaller
=5(t
n
t
rn
) f
r
2t
n


A
41
=Outward nozzle weld =(leg)
2

f
r
2 Area of outward fillet
If A
1
+A
2
+A
41
A Opening is adequately reinforced

If the sum of all the areas are not equal to or greater than A; the area
required for the repad is found by subtracting the sum from A.

A - (A
1
+A
2
+A
41
) = Area of Repad


















API 510 Page 149 of 310
Step 4. Make A Drawing
t noz. =.307 c.a. =.125


t shell =.750


I.D. =6.01 c.a. =
.125

All dimensions after corrosion allowance

Step 5. List Givens Adjusted for corrosion:

d= 6.01 " diameter of the finished opening less corrosion
t= .750" actual thickness of the shell less corrosion
tr= .690" thickness required in the shell per UG-27(c)(1
t
n
= .307" actual thickness of the nozzle less corrosion
t
rn=
.033" thickness required in the nozzle per UG-27(c)(1)
E= 1.0 nozzle does not pass through any weld seam
F= 1.0 nozzle enters shell at 90 degrees to the shell
f
r=
1.0 nozzle and shell stress allowables the same
Leg size = . 500

Step 6. Plug values into formulas and solve:

A=6.01" x .690" x 1.0 +2 x .307" x .690" x 1.0 x (1-1) Area required
A=6.01" x .690" x 1.0 +2 x .307" x .690" x 1.0 x (0) Area required
A=6.01" x .690" x 1.0 +0
A=6.01" x .690" x 1.0 =4.1469 square inches Area required

A
1
=6.01" x ((1.0 x .750")-(1.0 x .690"))-2 t
n
(E
1
t- Ft
r
)(1-1)
A
1
=6.01" x ((1.0 x .750")- (1.0 x .690"))- 0
A
1
=6.01" x (.750"- .690") =.3606 square inches
OR
A
1
=2(.750"+.307")((1.0 x .750")-(1.0 x .690"))- 2t
n
(E
1
t- Ft
r
)(1-1)
A
1
=2(.750"+.307")((1.0 x .750)"-(1.0 x .690"))-0
A
1
=2(1.057")(.06) =.12684"
A
1
=Area available in shell; use larger =.3606 square inches
=5(.307"- .033") 1.0 x .750"
=5(.274") x .750" =1.0275 square inches
A
2=
OR
=5(.307"- .033") 1.0 x .307"
=5(.274") x .307" =.42059 square inches


API 510 Page 150 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


Reinforcement For Openings In Shells And Heads
Exercises

1. When calculating reinforcement, from what parts must a corrosion
allowance be deducted (where)"







2. As regards reinforcement how is the area A found? State the formula.








How many points is a reinforcement calculation worth on the exam? How
many points
is a hydrostatic test calculation worth on the exam?

























API 510 Page 151 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-84 Charpy Impact Tests
Overview

A major concern in vessel operations at low temperature is brittle failure of the
material. This type of failure is considered more serious than a ductile failure
simply because it is sudden, giving little warning (almost no bulging), and the
material might shatter similar to broken glass. Impact testing is required to
determine if a material thickness at a given temperature is likely to fail in that
manner. Put more directly, the goal of impact tests is to prove it is unlikely to
occur in the thickness/material combination being used at a design pressure
and minimum design metal temperature (MDMT). The term Low
Temperature can be misleading. When welded, 4 in. material thicknesses are
considered in low temperature operation at 120F. Again the first conclusion
drawn from UG-84 must be that the tests are required.

For the API-510 candidate, impact testing applies to Part UCS Carbon and
Low Alloy Steels of Sub-Section C. These steels are susceptible to brittle
fracture even at fairly high temperatures. It should be concluded that impact
tests are required on these materials and their weldments. The only
exemptions are given in part UG-84 of the General Requirements and UCS-
66, 67, 68 and in UG-20(f). The search for exemptions for a given problem
start in UG-20(f) and then continue through paragraphs UCS-66, 67, and 68.
This process will be covered in Part UCS of this course.

UG-84 states that impact test shall conform to the paragraphs of SA-370. This
is a reference to a standard listed at present on Table U-3 of Page 5 in Section
VIII of Division 1, 1992 edition. Look up this table and read it; a question
could come from here. It outlines the test apparatus and procedures.

The only kind of impact test recognized by the Code is the Charpy V Notch
type. The impact test specimens for a full size test are to be as shown in Fig.
UG-84.

The next consideration is that of the minimum absorbed energy for the impact
test specimen. Figure UG-84.1 is used to determine the value of absorbed
energy required for a test specimen made of carbon and low alloy steels.
Notice it refers to those materials listed in Table UCS-23 and that the
minimum specified yield strength and thickness of material or weld in inches
are crucial for determining impact absorbed energy.

The impact testing of the parts of a vessel falls into two general categories:
materials and welds. A general statement can be made about these impact
tests. If the base material being welded is required to be impact tested, the
weld metal and its weld heat affected zone probably will he required to be
tested also. The weld metal and heat affected zones performed using a
production impact plate (an extension of a welded joint on part of the vessel
which can later be cut off to make the impact specimens.).



API 510 Page 152 of 310
The impact test specimen test plates must be subjected to same heat treatments
as the vessel. The location for removal of specimens from test plates are
described in UG-84 (g). The thickness of a test plate determines the number
of test specimens required and also the location of their removal from the test
plate.

For test plates 1 1/2 inch or less two sets of three (3) specimens must be taken.
One set from the weld with the notch located in the weld as shown in Fig.
UG-84 and one set from the heat affected zone (HAZ) with the notch located
so that as much HAZ material as is possible is included in the resulting
fracture.

For test plates over 1 1/2 inch three sets of three (3) are required. One set
from the weld metal and one from the HAZ. A third set is required to be taken
from the weld metal as near as is possible to the center of the weld.

The acceptance details for these impact tests is found in UG 84 (c)(5)(c)(6)
and in the notes of Fig. UG-84.1. Figure UG-84.1 is used to determine the
minimum acceptable absorbed energy for a set of test specimens. To use
Figure UG-84.1, the material thickness is found along the bottom of the chart.
From that point, move straight up to the line that represents the minimum yield
of the material wider consideration, then left to the value of absorbed energy
required to pass the test. Notice that this value is called an average.
GENERAL NOTES at the bottom of the chart require that no one specimen
shall have an absorbed energy value less than 2/3 of the average required for
all three.



























API 510 Page 153 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UG-84 Charpy Impact Tests
Exercises

1. What specification must impact testing procedures conform to?

2. What type of Impact test does the Code recognize?

3. What are the dimensions of a standard Charpy Impact specimen?

4. How many specimens comprise a single set?

5. How many sets of specimens are required for a weld procedure test
coupon 1 3/4
inches thick?

6. When welding a procedure test plate for impact testing what must the P
No. and
Group No. be? What type of heat treatment must be applied to the test
plate?

7. Name the two types of test specimens required for all welding
procedures. Hint,.
Where do they come from?



























API 510 Page 154 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

UCS-66 Materials

Low temperature should always be a consideration when designing a vessel of
carbon and low alloy steels simply because low temperature is defined to be
different temperatures for different metals and their respective thicknesses.
Example UCS-66 (3) states that if the governing thickness of a non-welded
part exceeds 6", and the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) is
colder than 120F, impact tested materials shall be used. This example has
been used to point out how relative the term low temperature is. Turn your
attention to figure UCS-66 Impact Test Exemption Curves, In this figure you
will find a graph and listing of carbon and low alloy steels. It is limited to 4
inches for welded construction. This is because above 4 inches, welded
construction must be impact tested. A good essay or multiple choice question
could be taken from this material.
Understanding figure UCS-66 is essential.

Figure UCS-66.1, titled Reduction of Minimum Design Metal 'Temperature
(MDMT), without impact testing allows for the reduction of the MDMT when
a material in tension is being used below the maximum allowable design stress
of that material.

UCS-67 Impact Testing Of Welding Procedures

UCS-67 details three cases where impact tests shall be made on carbon and
low alloy steel welds when qualifying a low temperature welding procedure.
This is done if impact tests are required for the base metal.

UCS-68 Design

Design rules for carbon and low alloy steels stipulate requirements as to how
construction will be performed. The main points are mandatory joint types,
required post weld heat treatments below -50F and their exemptions. Also
notice a reduction of 30F below that of Figure UCS-66 for P-1 materials if
post welded heat treatment is performed when it is not otherwise required.
















API 510 Page 155 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


Impact Testing Exemptions
Overview

The first paragraph of UG-84 states that impact testing is required of all
weldments, materials, etc., that required to be tested in Subsection C. From
this point, the search begins to see if a material or weld is required to be
impact tested. The goal is to find an exemption. The search will begin in UG-
20(f) and progress through UCS 66, 67 and 68. If no exemption is found
impact tests are required. The best approach is to list these by steps.

UG-20
Step 1. UG-20(f)

UG-20(f) lists an exemption from impact testing for materials that meet all of
the following requirements.

1. Material is limited to P No. 1 Gr. No. 1 or 2 and the thicknesses don't
exceed the following:
(a) 1/2 in. for materials listed in Curve A of Figure UCS-66.
(b) 1 in. for materials from Curve B. C or D of Figure UCS-66.

2. The completed vessel shall be hydrostatically tested (Pneumatic test is
not permitted for this exemption)

3. Design temperature is no warmer than 650F nor colder than -20F.

4. The thermal or mechanical shock loadings are not controlling design.

5. Cyclical loading is not a controlling design requirement.





















API 510 Page 156 of 310
UCS-66 Materials
Step 2. UCS-66 (a)

Turn your attention to Figure UCS-66 impact Test Exemption Curves and
Table UCS-66. The Graph and Table are used to determine the minimum
temperature a material thickness can be operated at without mandatory impact
testing. The graph has four curves: A, B, C and D. In Figure UCS-66 along
with the graph is a listing of carbon and low alloy steels. This listing of
materials is used to determine the curve on the Graph or in the Table for a
given material. After finding the curve for the material, there are two choices.
Use the graph of Figure UCS 66 or the Table UCS 66 to determine the
minimum temperature for a given thickness. It is recommended to use the
Table. The Table and the Graph are the same. The Table is a lot easier to use
with accuracy. USE THE TABLE. If the material thickness is operated at or
above the temperature listed in Table UCS-66, impact tests are not required.
If the material thickness is to operate below the given minimum temperature,
impact testing is required. The temperature found in the table is the MDMT of
that material thickness without Impact Testing being required.

Step 3. UCS-66(b)

When a material in tension is being used at some stress value below its
allowable design stress at the MDMT, a reduction in temperature is permitted
This reduction is subtracted from the given temperature for the material in
Table UCS 66. If after taking the reduction. the resulting temperature is
colder than the minimum design metal temperature desired for the vessel,
impact testing is not required. This is called the coincident Ratio. When a
material is operating at a relatively high temperature it has lower stress
allowed than at room temperature. Many vessels operate alternating between
elevated and low temperatures. The lower stress allowed at the elevated
temperature will require thicker material than needed at the lowest
temperature.

The thicknesses required for the two temperatures can be different, and
normally the thickness required for the vessel is determined using the higher
temperature stress allowed. So if at the lower temperature and often lower
pressure we have extra wall thickness we can take credit for. How much is
determined by calculating the coincident Ratio, then entering Figure UCS-66.1
at the calculated Ratio? Normally on the API 510 Exam, the Ratio is stated,
and then all that is required is to apply the graph of Figure UCS-66.1.

If the vessel is in a fixed stationary position and its coincident Ratio is below
1.0, the reduction allowed by UCS-66(b) and Figure UCS-66.1 may be taken
only when the following is true.

(b)(1): The MDMT is - 50F or warmer.
If the MDMT is colder than - 50F.
(b)(2): Impact testing is required of all materials unless (b)(3) applies.
If the MDMT is colder than - 50F but no colder than -150F and the
coincident Ratio of stress is equal to or less than 0.4.
(b)(3): Impact testing is not required.


API 510 Page 157 of 310
UCS-68 Design

Step 4.

UCS-69(a) Design rules for carbon and low alloy steels stipulate requirements
about construction of the vessel or part. The main points are: mandatory joint
types, required post weld heat treatments below -50F unless the vessel is
installed in a fixed (stationary) location, and the coincident Ratio of stress is
less than 0.4.

UCS-68(b) Welded J oints must be postweld heat treated when required by
other rules of this Division or when the MDMT is colder than - 50F and for
vessel installed in a fixed (stationary) location the coincident Ratio is 0.4 or
greater.

UCS-68(c) Notice a reduction of 30F below that of Figure UCS-66 for P-1
materials if post welded heat treatment is performed when it is not otherwise
required in the Code. This means that 30F can be subtracted from the
temperature found in Table UCS-66. If the adjusted temperature is below that
desire, Impact Tests are not required. It is exempt. If a statement about heat
treatment is made in a particular problem the task becomes finding out if heat
treatment was required or not. If it is not mentioned, it must be concluded that
it was not performed and therefore the exemption cannot be taken.

Givens:

Material = SA-516 Gr.70 normalized PLATE
Thickness = 2
Min. Yield = 38 KSI
MDMT= -25F
Coincident Ratio = .85


Step 1 Check for the exemptions of UG-20(f).

Our material applies to Curve D of Figure UCS-66 and exceeds the 1 " limit
for exemption. It also exceeds the upper and lower temperature limits of
650F and -20F.

Step 2 Checking Table UCS-66 and entering at our thickness on the left and
moving across to Curve D column, we find the MDMT of this thickness to be
- 4F. This exemption does not apply.











API 510 Page 158 of 310
Step 3 Check reduction or MDMT for coincident Ratio

Enter the Figure UCS-66.1 at 0.85 and across to the curve, then done to read a
temperature reduction permitted of 15F.
The reduction of MDMT is 15F.
-4F
-15F
-19F

New MDMT allowed without impact tests is -19F. Our MDMT will need to
be -25F so we are not exempted.

Step 4 Checking UCS-68, we find that we cannot take a reduction because
PWHT is a requirement of UCS-56 for this material's thickness.

Answer: Impact tests are required for the values of the MDMT of - 25F.





































API 510 Page 159 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-20 / UCS-66 / 68
Exercises

1. Name four steps (paragraphs) when looking for exemptions from impact testing.





2. When are impact tests always mandatory for welded joints?




3. When are impact tests always mandatory for non-welded joints?




4. What is the minimum design temperature allowed for a 1 thick plate of SA-515
Gr. 70"


5. If the coincident Ratio is 0.6 for the plate of question number 4 what is its new
minimum temperature with out impact tests?
























API 510 Page 160 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-77 Material Identification
Overview

The material for pressure parts must be handled in a particular way per the Code. For
instance, the Code specifies that materials for parts of a vessel should be laid out and marked
in such a way as to easily maintain traceability after the vessel is completed.

Several techniques for identification markings are allowed and are described in this
paragraph. Stamping is the preferred method of marking vessel parts; however, as built
drawings and tabulation sheets are also acceptable. The manufacturer must maintain
traceability to the original markings. For instance, when cutting parts for the vessel from
plate the heat number stamped on the piece of plate should be transferred prior to cutting the
plate. They may be transferred immediately after cutting if a provision for control of such
transfers has been made in the Manufacturer's Quality Control System. If a particular
material should not be die stamped, plates must be made and attached with the required
markings. A record of these markings must be maintained which will allow positive
identification of the vessel parts after construction.

If a Code vessel manufacturer buys parts that are formed, such as heads, from another
manufacturer of the head shall transfer the markings as applies to the material specification
that the part is made from. Only materials allowed by the Code can be used by the part
manufacturer. In addition. the part Manufacturer must supply a Partial Data Report. A
Manufacturer's Partial Data Report is not required if the part was formed or forged, etc.,
without the use of welding. The markings of the Part Manufacturer must be present on the
part.
























API 510 Page 161 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL RFEQUIREMENTS




UG-93 Inspection of Materials
Overview

The highlights of this paragraph are as follows:

1. Plate is the only pressure vessel material that must always have a Mill Test Report
(MTR)or Certificate of Compliance (C of C) provided. The inspector shall examine
these documents for compliance to the material specification.

2. All other product forms must be marked in accordance with their material
specification. For examp1e, pipe marked SA- 106 gr. B.

3. All materials to be used in a vessel must be inspected before fabrication to find as best
as is possible defects which would affect the safety of the vessel. The following
describes the inspections required.

a. Cut edges of and parts made from rolled plate for serious laminations,
shearing cracks, etc.

b. Materials which will be impact tested must be examined for surface cracks.

c. When forming a Category C corner joint as shown in figure UW-13.2 with flat
plate thicker than , the flat plate must be examined before welding by
magnetic particle or dye penetrant nondestructive examination. Exceptions
from this NDE are given for certain joints of figure UW-13.2 .

d. The inspector must assure himself that thickness and other dimensions of the
material comply with the requirements of this Division.


e. The inspector must verify welded repairs to defects.

f. The inspector must verify that all required tests have been performed and are
acceptable (Impact tests, NDE, etc.).

g. The inspector must confirm material I.D.'s have been properly transferred.

h. The inspector must confirm that there are no dimensional or material defects,
perform internal and external inspections and witness pressure tests.








API 510 Page 162 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-116 Required Marking
Overview

The marking applied to a vessel's nameplate or directly to its shell are described in this
paragraph. It is important information. Often a vessel's Data Report is lost and the only
information that is available is that found on the Name Plate or the shell itself In some cases
the Name Plate is missing or sand blasted and not readable. The following is a listing of what
is required by the Code to be present on the Name Plate.

1. The official Code U or UM symbol. If Inspected by the Owner/User of the vessel the
word USER shall be marked on the vessel.

2. Name of the manufacturer preceded by the words "Certified by.

3. Maximum allowable working pressure __________ psi at _______ F.

4. Minimum design metal temperature _______ F at ___________ psi.

5. Manufacturer's serial number.

6. Year built.

7. The type of construction used for the vessel must be marked directly under the Code
symbol by the use of the appropriate letter as listed in the Code.

Type of Construction Letter(s)

Arc or gas welded W
Pressure welded (except resistance) P
Brazed B
Resistance welded RES

8. If a vessel is built using more than one type of construction all shall be indicated.

9. If a vessel is in a special service the lettering as shown below must be applied.
Lethal Service L
Unfired Steam Boiler UB
Direct Firing DF
Non-stationary Pressure Vessel NPV










API 510 Page 163 of 310
10. The MAWP must be based on the most restrictive part of the vessel.

11. When a complete vessel or parts of a vessel of welded construction have been
radiographed in accordance with UW-11, the marking must be as follows:

RT 1 When all pressure retaining butt welds, other than B and C associated with nozzles
and communicating chambers that neither exceed NPS 10 nor 1 1/8 thickness have been
radiographically examined for their full length in a manner prescribed in UW-51, full
radiography of the above exempted Category B and C butt welds if performed, may be
recorded on the Manufacturer' Data Report.

RT 2" Complete vessel satisfies UW-11 (a)(5) and UW-11 (a)(5)(b) applied.

RT 3 Complete vessel satisfies spot radiography of UW-11 (b).

RT 4 When only part of the vessel satisfies any of the above.

*A separate section follows which is devoted to the meanings of RT markings:

12. The letters HT must be used when the entire vessel has been postweld heat treated.

13. The letter PHT when only part of the vessel has been postweld heat treated.

14. Code symbol must be applied after hydro or pneumatic test.

15. Parts of vessels for which Partial Data Report are required shall be marked by the
parts manufacturer with the following:

"PART"
Name of the Manufacturer
The manufacturer's serial number.

These requirements do not apply to items like manhole covers, etc.

16. All required markings must be located in a conspicuous place on the vessel,
preferably near a manhole or handhole.

















API 510 Page 164 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-119 Nameplates
Overview

In this paragraph are the details of nameplates, including such things as the size and methods
of markings allowed. The nameplate must be located within 30 of the vessel and must be
thick enough to resist distortion when stamping is applied. The types of acceptable
attachment types include welding, brazing, and tamper resistant mechanical fasteners of
metal construction. Adhesive attachments may be used if the provisions of Appendix 18 are
met. An additional nameplate may be used if it is marked with the words " DUPLICATE ".
On previous tests some essay or multiple choice questions have come from this paragraph.
As with all paragraphs UG-119 should be read entirely.

CODE SYMBOL Certified by
J ohns Trailer and Vessel Welding

U 350 psi at 300F
W MAWP

RT 1 -20F at 200 psi
HT
L MDMT

0000001
S / N

1994
Year


You could be asked for the definition of any of these stampings.


















API 510 Page 165 of 310
API 510 Module
PART UG - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


UG-120 Data Reports
Overview

Data Reports must prepared on form U-1 or U-1A for all vessels that the Code Symbol will
be applied to. They must be signed by the Manufacturer and the Inspector. A single Data
Report may represent all vessel made in the same day production run if they meet all of the
requirements listed in UG-120.

A copy of the Manufacturer's Data Report must be furnished to the User and upon request the
Inspector. The Manufacturer must either keep a copy of the Data Report on file for 5 years or
register the vessel and file the Data Report with the National Board of Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Inspectors.

A Manufacturer's Certificate of Compliance must be completed on form U-3 for all UM
(unfired miniature) stamped vessels.

A Partial Data Report form U-2 or U-2A must be completed for parts of a vessel that require
one (parts bought from other manufacturers such as formed heads made with welding).
These forms must be attached to forms U-1 or U-1A as applies for the vessel to be marked
with the Code Symbol..

A Partial Data Report form U-2 or U-2A must be completed for parts of a vessel that are
ordered to repair a User's vessel.

If a vessel has any special service requirements (Lethal, Unfired Steam Boiler, etc.)
compliance must be indicated on the appropriate "U" Form.























API 510 Page 166 of 310
SECTION IX PART QW

Article I Welding General Requirements
Overview

Since this article covers the requirements in general terms it is often given just cursory
attention or skipped altogether. This is a mistake for anyone wishing to be competent in
applying this section of the ASME Code.

It is mandatory to read every article of Section IX in order to apply the code rules and since
many questions on an exam could come from this article alone, it should not be overlooked.
As an example, the purpose of a welding procedure is given in paragraph QW-100.1. In the
very given next paragraph, welders' performance qualification tests are addressed. In QW-
100.3 it is stated that a Welding Procedure Specification written and qualified in accordance
with the rules of Section IX may be used in any construction built to the requirements of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or the ASME B-31 Code for Pressure Piping. In the
next paragraph you are cautioned that other Sections of the Code state the conditions under
which Section IX requirements are mandatory, in whole or in part.

Also in QW-120, QW-130 and QW-132 of this article, test positions are listed with written
definitions and references to Article IV where illustrations of these positions are to be found.

Types and purposes of tests are addressed in the paragraphs of QW-141.1 through QW-141.5,
and all the subsequent paragraphs contain explanations of the tests and examinations
required. Acceptance criteria is listed for each type of test described.

Beginning with QW-190, other types of tests and examinations are listed, most notable being
radiographic and liquid penetrant examinations. Here you are referred to Section V, and then
told the acceptance standards of QW-191.2 and QW-195.2 respectively shall be met.
























API 510 Page 167 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW

Article II. Welding Procedure Qualifications
Overview

In the QW-200.1 paragraphs you are given the definition of a Welding Procedure
Specification (WPS); what its contents must consist of, as well as what changes may be made
with out requalifying the WPS. Also, here you are directed that the format may be of any
form desired as long as every essential, nonessential and supplementary essential variable
(when required) is included or referenced as outlined in QW-250 through QW-265.

In the paragraphs of QW-200.2 the same type of information for the Procedure Qualification
Record (PQR) is listed as was given for a WPS in the previous paragraph, starting with the
definition. As in the WPS, you are given the required contents for a PQR. We are told that
changes in a PQR are not permitted except for editorial changes such as the recording of a P-
Number incorrectly when filling out the original PQR. Addendum is permitted if it meets the
definitions as given in this paragraph. Examples of permitted addendum are given to clarify
its meaning. Finally, we are instructed that it is possible to have multiple WPS's with one
PQR and also to have multiple PQR's with one WPS.

QW-200.3 gives the purpose and an explanation of the use of P-Numbers. It is stated here
that P-Numbers are assigned to base metals dependent on characteristics such as composition,
weldabilty, and mechanical properties where it can logically be done. Group Numbers are
introduced here, stating that Group Numbers are assigned among P-Numbers to classify the
metals for procedure qualification where notch toughness requirements are specified. You
are also cautioned here that these assignments do not imply that base metals within a P-
Number may be indiscriminately substituted.

The combination of welding procedures is permitted as given in paragraph QW-200.4. That is
to say, more than one WPS can be used in a production joint, and they may include one or a
combination of processes. QW-451 is referenced to make sure the reader is aware that
limitations are placed on the base metal thickness and the deposited filler metal thickness of
each procedure.

The type of tests required to qualify a procedure are given in paragraphs QW-202.1 through
QW-202.5. Referenced therein are mechanical tests, groove and fillet welds, weld repair,
dissimilar base metal thickness and stud welding. In each of the paragraphs, other QW
paragraphs are referenced for details and exceptions that might exist.

QW-203 states that unless required otherwise by welding variables of QW-250, a
qualification in any position qualifies the procedure for all positions. So, most PQRs can be
performed on plate since the goal is to prove that the metal or metals can be successfully
joined as opposed to proving the skills of a welder or welding operator.

The paragraphs QW-210 through QW-218 address requirements for preparation of test
coupons, base and filler metals, special cases of P-No. 11 base materials, corrosion resistant
weld metal overlays, hard facings, electron beam welding and joining of composites (clad
metals).

Beginning with QW-250, welding variables are specified with an explanation of each type.
Please notice the definitions of essential and nonessential variables given in QW-251.2 and
QW-251.3 Welding Variables Procedure Specifications (WPS) start at QW-252 and end at
API 510 Page 168 of 310
QW-265. These paragraphs are in tabular form and cover some fourteen (14) different
welding processes. Within these tables for each process are lists of variables, and whether or
not they are essential, nonessential or supplementary essential. These paragraphs in tabular
form also reference where in the other code paragraphs specific requirements and definitions
can be found.
API 510 Page 169 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW


Article III. Welding Performance Qualifications
Overview

This article lists the welding processes separately, with the essential variables which apply to
welder and welding operator performance qualifications.

In QW-300.2, the responsibility for the qualification of welders and welding operators is
placed on the manufacturer and/or contractor. One important fact given is that if two
companies of different names are actually part of one organization, then one company may
control the welder and welding operator qualifications. That is so long as this condition is
included in the quality control system of the companies and all other requirements of Section
IX are met.

Starting with QW-301, tests required for welders and operators are addressed. This includes
the intent of such tests, the extent of testing, identification of individual welders along with
the records required for such tests.

QW-302 calls out the type of tests. They are mechanical or radiographic, and in QW-302.3,
the location and removal of pipe test coupons for mechanical tests are described.

Next in this series is QW-303 where limits of qualified positions and diameters are located.
You are immediately directed to QW-461 which has the graphics defining positions.

QW-303.1 through QW-303.4 give details of groove and fillet weld positions and the limits
of qualifications for each.

Welder qualifications to weld to various WPS's and limitations on qualification by
radiography are to be found in QW-304. Specifics of examination for welders begins in QW-
304.1. It says that welds made in test coupons may be radiographed or have bend tests
performed. Alternatively, a six inch length of the first production weld made by the welder
being examined may be qualified by radiography.

In QW-304.2, failure to meet radiographic standards is discussed. If a production welder's
test is flunked, the entire production weld made by the welder being tested must be
radiographed and repaired by a welder who is qualified.

QW-305 through QW-305.2 is a description of how welding operators are examined and
qualified. It's essentially the same as QW-304, with the length of the production radiograph
being 3 feet instead of 6 inches.

In QW-305 the combining of welding processes requires that the welder be qualified either
for each individual process or by the actual combining of the processes in one test coupon.
Two or more welders can be qualified by a single test coupon each using the same or
different processes. Each welder will be limited for thickness of deposited weld metal as
given in QW-452. Failure of any portion of a combination test constituents failure of the
entire combination. All this is to be found in QW-306.

QW-310 to QW-310.3 are concerned with test coupons and welding groove welds with or
with out backing.
API 510 Page 170 of 310

In QW-320 retests and renewal of qualifications are divided into two categories. Immediate
retest by mechanical or radiography means, and retest after further practice.

QW-321.1 outlines the mechanical tests and basically says the welder will make two
consecutive test coupons for every position he failed, all of which must pass the test
requirements. Retest by radiography is laid out in QW-321.2. How to handle situations
dealing with further training is found in QW-321.3.

Renewal of a welder's qualification for a process is mandatory when he has not used the
process for the time limits as given in QW-322.1 (a) and (b).

The QW-350 paragraphs have all of the variables for welders and here you will find what
changes to his essential variables will require a welder to requalify.

QW-352 to QW-357 are in tabular form in order to easily determine the essential welders
variables for each process.

QW-360 to QW-364 have the essential variables for welding operators.


































API 510 Page 171 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW


Article IV. Welding Data
Overview

This article contains within it all of data for the variables that pertain to Welding Procedure
Specifications and Welder Performance. These include joints, base metals, filler metals,
preheat, postweld heat treatment and electrical characteristics.

By using the tabular paragraphs and reading the written paragraphs they reference,
requirements for a welding procedure or a welder's performance test can be interpreted.
Since metals are given P-Numbers and their P-Numbers greatly affect their applications, they
are listed by P-Number; for qualification in the tabular forms of paragraph QW-422 which is
52 pages long.

In QW-423.1, it is given that base material for welder's qualification to a WPS may be
substituted with a different base material, and lists the permissible substitutions.

QW-430 starts the F-numbers for electrodes and welding rods, these paragraphs are also in
tabular form.

QW-440 addresses weld metal chemical composition. As can be seen there are 12 A-
Numbers. As the A-Number must be listed on the WPS, one should become acquainted with
these A-Numbers.

The remaining paragraphs of Article IV deal with thickness 1imits for tension and bend tests,
diameter limits, fillet welds, test specimens and their order of removal. Also given are the
configurations of test jigs. In short, Article IV is where you will be constantly sent for the
"how to's of welding in accordance with the ASME Code.

Remember that it is possible to write a perfectly good welding procedure using Section IX
that will not meet one of the construction codes. An important paragraph for understanding
Section IX is QW-492 "Definitions". If in doubt go here first for clarification. Lastly, non-
mandatory appendix A has sample forms that list the necessary information for the WPS,
PQR and WPQ.
















API 510 Page 172 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION IX PART QW


Welding Procedure Specification
Overview

In all welding procedures there are three (3) types of variables. The first is being the essential
variable, which is a variable that if changed will cause a change in the mechanical properties
of the weldment. Any time an essential variable is changed outside of the range given in the
WPS, the procedure must be requalified by mechanical testing on the weld using the new
values.

The second type is the nonessential variable. Changes in these can be made without
requalification of the WPS. HOWEVER, THE WPS MUST BE REVISED TO REFLECT
THESE CHANGES.

Lastly, the supplementary essential variables need only be given if the weld must have
specific impact properties for low temperature service. If supplement essential variables are
required they automatically become essential variables and must be handled the same as any
other essential variable. That is to say all required testing (including impact testing) must be
done to qualify the WPS.

The purpose of this portion of instruction is not to teach every welding process recognized by
the ASME Code. It is to concentrate on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding process, which will
serve as an example for all of the procedures that could be on the API 510 exam.

The way to understand how WPSs are created is to turn to Article 11. In our case
specifically to paragraph QW-253 (SMAW). Here the essential, supplementary essential and
nonessential variables are given. As can be seen, there are several variables to be dealt with.
When a WPS is written every variable listed must be included whether or not it is essential,
supplementary essential (when required) or nonessential.

Joints

There are no essential or supplementary essential variables given for the joint category.
However, we do have four (4) nonessential variables. As stated above, all variables (when
required) must be included in the WPS. Our first variable, which pertains to joints, is groove
design.

API 510 Page 173 of 310
Groove Design

Looking in the box labeled joints, we see that information on grooves may be found in
paragraph QW-402.1. A change in groove from double vee to single vee can be made with
only a revision in the WPS.

Here, why not enter All J oints in the WPS? Then you can legally use any you need now or
later. If you specify "U" groove on the WPS, you must use only U grooves in production or
revise the WPS to reflect the new groove. Also, you must use a U groove when performing
the PQR. Although the PQR need not list any of the nonessential variables, the signature of
the manufacturer's representative is testament to using one of the grooves listed on the WPS.

Backing: The deletion of backing is a nonessential variable specified in QW-402.4. If
we do not want to place unnecessary restrictions on ourselves we can state this variable as
being "With Or Without Backing"; or simply place X's in both blocks..

Root Spacing: Here again this is a nonessential variable. Give the widest range
possible. Do not leave this blank e.g. 1/32nd to 1/16th inches.

Retainers: "With or Without" is appropriate. Don't leave it blank. If you are not going to
use retainers you should so indicate. "No retainers used".

Base Metals

In this category there are no nonessential variables. There are only essential and
supplementary essential variables. Supplementary essential variables apply only when
impact properties are required. They put restrictions on the base metal material that can be
qualified with any one PQR. It also puts restrictions on the base metal thickness range that
can be qualified when running a PQR.

Group Number: A change in a group number becomes an essential variable when impact
properties are required of the base material.

T Limits Impact: In QW-403.6 the minimum thickness ranges qualified by impact testing is
called out.

T/t Limits > 8 in.: This is the first essential variable in the base metal category. It becomes
effective when trying to qualify welds greater than 8 inches in thickness.

Change in T Qualified: Essentially it stipulates that the welding procedure depending on the
thickness of the coupon used in the PQR is qualified for a range of base metal thickness. If
base metal thickness goes beyond that qualified, a new PQR will be required.

t Pass > 1/2 in.: This variable speaks to weld passes that deposit a weld metal layer greater
than 1/2 inch in thickness. When weld metal is deposited in a thickness greater than 1/2 in., it
has a different range than lesser thicknesses. A t pass greater than 1/2" limits the base metal
qualified to 1.1 x T, where T is the thickness of the PQR test coupon.

Change in P-No.: Any change in P-Numbers requires requalification of the procedure.

Change in P-No 9 / 10: Here we find changing from P-No. 9A to P-No. 9B is considered a
change but not the reverse.

API 510 Page 174 of 310
Filler Metals

In the filler metal category, all three types of variables apply. The first two have to do with
chemistry and the types of electrodes used in the welding process. The F number is a
grouping of electrodes that have similar characteristics in the way that they produce
mechanical properties. Deposition is also similar among F Numbers. A-Numbers are
chemical limitations and all electrodes that fall under the same A-Number have similar
chemical properties. A-Numbers apply only to ferrous materials.

Change in F-number: Requires requalification of the procedure.

Change in A-Number: Requires requalification of the procedure, except as given in QW-
404.5, which says that A-No. 1 and A-No. 2 can be exchanged.

Change in Diameter: Since this is a nonessential variable changing it does not demand
requalification of the procedure. However, you should revise the WPS to reflect the change.

Change in Diameter > 1/4 in.: This is used as a supplementary essential variable. It says
that if impact properties are necessary and an electrode of greater than 1/4 inch is used, that
size electrode must be qualified for impact properties in the weld.

Change in AWS Class: Requires requalification as a supplementary variable if impact
properties are required. This is an SFA number given in Section II of the ASME Code.

Change in t: A change in the thickness of deposited weld metal beyond the range qualified.

Change in AWS Class: This is a nonessential variable where impact properties are not
required. It must be addressed on the WPS however.

Position

There are three (3) variables listed for position. Notice that unless impact properties are
required position is a nonessential variable. Again when specifying position as a nonessential
variable, don't box yourself in, J ust say "all".

Addition of a Position: Nonessential but the WPS must be revised if one position is given
then another is used in production.

Change in Position: A supplementary essential variable, which becomes essential when
impact properties are required. Specifically when you change from any position to vertical
uphill progression. Also if changing from a stringer bead in the vertical uphill to a weave
bead. Either will require requalification of the procedure.


Preheat

There is one essential variable, one supplementary essential, and one nonessential variable
listed in this category.

Decrease > 100 degrees: If a procedure is qualified at a given preheat, a reduction of that
preheat by greater than 100 degrees in production requires requalification of the WPS.


API 510 Page 175 of 310
Preheat Maintenance: This is the continuance of preheat temperature after the completion
of welding. Will preheat be maintained for a given time or will the weld be allowed to cool
in air and not monitored?

Increase > 100 degrees:(interpass temp.): If the weld requires impact values using the
Shielded Metal Arc process, the interpass temperature must be maintained below some
maximum temperature. If the interpass temperature is increased by more than 100 degrees
over what was qualified, the procedure must be requalified.


Post Weld Heat Treatment

The first variable given is a change in postweld heat treatment. This is an essential variable.
While it is not always necessary to postweld heat treat a material, a change in postweld heat
treatment or the lack of is an essential variable and must be reflected on the WPS and the
PQR.

Change in PWHT: If PWHT will not be performed, this should be indicated on the WPS by
entering the words: No Postweld Heat Treatment" or simply None". If PWHT is required
and then changed from that specified on the WPS, the WPS must be requalified since it is an
essential variable.

PWHT (Time and Temperature Range): Again when impact properties are required of a
weldment, a change in the time span of PWHT or the temperature range will require
requalification of the procedure.

Thickness Limits: As indicated, this is an essential variable. It deals with exceeding the
upper transformation temperature of alloys. It says that if the test coupon being heat treated
exceeds the upper transformation temperature of the alloy the maximum thickness qualified is
1.1 times the thickness of the test coupon as opposed to two times the coupon thickness
allowed if the upper transformation has not been exceeded. See QW-451 for T limits.


Electrical Characteristics

Change in Current or >Heat input: This is a supplementary essential variable that deals with
impact properties. Here if the heat input due to welding is changed or the type of current is
changed resulting in an increased deposition of weld metal the procedure must be requalified
for impact values.

Change in the Type of Current or a Change in the Current or Voltage Range: These are
both nonessential, but if changed in the Shielded Metal Arc Process, the WPS must be
revised to reflect the change.


Technique

Change in String or Weave Bead: Nonessential, but if other than that qualified on the WPS,
the WPS must be revised to reflect the change for production.

Change in Method of Cleaning: Same as above.

Change in Method of Back Gouge: Same as above.
API 510 Page 176 of 310

Change in Manual or Automatic: Same as above.

Addition or Deletion of Peening: Same as above.


Procedure Qualification Record

The next document required by the ASME Code is the Procedure Qualification Record. Its
purpose is to record the values of essential variables actually used during the qualification test
and to report the mechanical properties obtained using the essential variables of the WPS.
One should know that only a listing of the essential variables values used while welding the
test specimen are required on the PQR. The suggested ASME forms provide spaces to list
supplementary essential when required and nonessential variables if so desired. If these
nonessential variables are listed they should be the values actually used to weld the test
coupon.

A range of thickness qualifications for base metal and deposited weld metal is allowed in the
ASME Code. Let's say a test plate had a thickness of 1/4 inch. If the test coupons taken from
it pass mechanical tests, the procedure would he good for base metals 1/6
th

inch minimum to
a maximum of 1/2 inch. When qualifying welding procedures, make sure that the thickness
used for the test coupon will cover the thickness used in production. Deposited weld metal
should he given the same consideration as should the combination of weld processes.
Always be sure the thickness used will cover your maximum production needs or you may be
requalifying a procedure. The thickness qualified by the PQR may only support part of the
range of thickness desired on the WPS. If that were the case, another PQR would be needed
to finish out the range of T on the WPS and to weld all of WPS range in production
Welder Performance Qualification Record

This document lists all of the values used by the welder when performing his test weld
coupon. It also gives the thickness ranges he is qualified for. To best understand the
welders essential variables, turn to table QW-353 and review it. You will notice that the
welder has four (4) categories of essential variables. J oints involve the addition or removal of
backing. Base metals are concerned with P-Numbers. Filler metals address F number ranges
and the thickness of deposited weld metal. Lastly, the addition of a more difficult position
than the one originally tested for or a change in vertical progression from up to down or down
to up. The change of one of these essential variables will require the welder to requalify.
The ASME Codes place the responsibility on the manufacturer or contractor to insure all
welders are qualified for production welds.

Review of WPS's and PQR's

On the examination, the API candidate will be given a WPS and a PQR and asked to identify
the errors or unsupported requirements contained in these documents. This means that you
should examine BOTH the WPS and the PQR. You will be told not to correct the
deficiencies, only to identify them.

When reviewing the WPS, look for information which has been omitted. Every Essential,
Nonessential and when needed supplementary variable should be addressed. Also, common
errors are made in such things as base metal classifications, base metal thicknesses.
Remember the PQR test coupon T can and may only support part of the range desired by the
WPS.
API 510 Page 177 of 310

Backing is often over looked. Since the addition or deletion of backing is a nonessential
variable the best course would be to state with or without in the WPS. Retainers and Root
Gap must also be listed on the WPS. These should not be left blank.

Sizes of electrodes are again nonessential and listing all sizes that are manufactured of a
certain classification that will be used for production is wise. If a 1/32nd rod is given for
WPS and 1/8th is used for production the WPS will need to be revised.

Finally, check each category of variable required on the SMAW table QW-253 to see if it has
been addressed on the WPS. If it is given as not applicable, make sure that it is a true
statement. If it is left blank, by very definition, that is an error. Also, check the
specifications to see that they are given correctly and match on the WPS and PQR.
If we are given a E-7018 filler metal and it is listed as having a F-number of 3, is that correct?
It is given in table QW-432 as having a F-No. of 4. To recap, if a variable; essential,
nonessential and if needed supplementary essential variable is listed in the paragraph for a
process, it must be addressed on the WPS.

API 510 Body of Knowledge has a step by step procedure for the review or WPS's and
PQR'S. The approach starts with the review of last page of the PQR. The following is a
reproduction of that fist with added comments to help with clarification

a. It must be determined if impact tests are present. The reason of course is because if
impact tests are present, supplements essential variables do apply to the review. If
they are present, it then becomes a bit more difficult to review the documents.

b. At the bottom of the PQR is a signature line for the manufacturer. This line must
contain a signature, not a typed name.

c. Turn to the front of the WPS and verify that the WPS references the PQRs number.
The reverse is not true the PQR may or may not reference the WPS. A WPS can be
written from a very old PQR and often is.

d. Place the WPS and PQR side by side and verify that:

1. All essential (and supplementary essentials if present) variables are present have
been addressed on the WPS and PQR. By using the paragraph in Section IX
Article II, that applies to the process used, check each box in the WPS and PQR
against the Code paragraph line by line.

2. The essential variables on the WPS must be supported by the PQR. Is the post
weld heat treatment required on the WPS and is it present on the PQR, etc.?

e. Review the WPS for the presence of all nonessential variables that are required of the
welding process used. If peening is present in the Code paragraph that applies to the
process, it should be mentioned directly in the WPS 'No Peening' for example. That
line should not be blank or contain N/A . Peening is applicable or it would not be
present in the Code paragraph.

f. Look at the PQR. Are all the mechanical tests present? Are they of the correct types
and of the correct number.
g. Check for mistakes such as the wrong P number for a material, Wrong F number for a
welding rod, etc.
API 510 Page 178 of 310
Practice reviews of WPS's and PQR's

Instructions

Remove the practice WPS and PQR's and the Weld Procedure Check list from the Appendix
of this book and place them along side this text. Follow along step by step as we review them
together. Also remove the paragraph QW-253 from Section IX. This paragraph is a tabular
listing of the variables that must be addressed for the SMAW process. It will be used as a
check list to make sure that every thing that should be addressed has been. KEEP IN MIND
THAT THERE CAN BE NO MORE THAN 5 MISTAKES.

Begin with the WPS and PQR titled Confusion Welding.

1. Turn to the last page (the back of the PQR) and look at the block titled Toughness Tests
QW-170. We observe that there are no Charpy notch toughness test results so we can
ignore the supplementary variables of QW-253 for SMAW.
2. This PQR has a signature-no mistake here.
3. Turn to the front of the WPS and see if the Supporting PQR numbers match those on the
PQR. The numbers match, so no mistake here.
4. Now using QW-253 we will do a block by block review beginning at the top of the WPS
front page.


Front of the WPS

J oints (QW-402)

1. J oint (groove) design is addressed, i.e. not blank. No mistake here.
2. Backing is addressed. The two x's are to indicate with or without backing.
3. Backing addressed as metal in the box below, however retainers are not addressed.
This is the first mistake - RETAINERS NOT ADDRESSED
4. Root spacing has been addressed by the sketch.

Base Metals (QW-403)

1. P-No. is addressed, no mistake here (by the way since no impact tests are present
Group Numbers are not required. Also if this were to have P No. 1 addressed once,
that is to say nothing appeared on the "to" line, then only P No. 1 materials could be
joined with this WPS. It would not be called a mistake. You could only weld P No. 1
materials however.
2. Groove - the proposed production thickness range has been stated - no mistake. If it
were blank it would be an omission and therefore and error.

Filler Metals (QW-404)

1. SFA No. Listed as 5-1 instead of correctly given as 5.1, not a mistake an obvious
typographical error.

2. AWS classification listed as E-7018, no mistake by omission.
3. F-No. Listed as #3 all E-XX18 electrodes are F-No. 4 WRONG F NO. see
OW-432.

API 510 Page 179 of 310
4. A-No. addressed as #1. This is correct for mild carbon steel electrodes, the A-No.
will not change until an alpha numeric is added to the end of an electrode designation.
For example if the electrode listed been listed as E-7018 B2, this would indicate that
the deposited weld metal had a different chemistry and that its A-No. would be other
than #1. There is no way to determine directly the A-No for these modified electrodes
in Section IX. If the chemistry of such an electrode's deposited weld metal is known it
may be compared that given for the various A-Nos. and identified in that way. The
only thing known for sure is that it cannot be an A-No. 1 when it contains something
like Al or C2 behind the AWS numbers.

Weld Metal (QW-404)

1. Thickness Range - Since we are using only one electrode for production the weld
metal thickness range will be same as the base metal thickness range. This means this
could be left blank and would be answered by default. To better understand this, look
at the WPS, notice we have spaces to list up to three electrodes. For example, say we
used E-6010 and E-7018, then each would require a weld metal thickness range.
2. The remaining spaces are for information only and can be left blank if so desired in
the case of the SMAW process. This would not be true if another process were used
which required this information.


Reminder-All variables that apply to a given welding process must be addressed on the
WPS (notice this is not trueof the PQR). This includes Essential, Supplementary Essential
(only when notch toughness applies), and Non-essential.

Back of the WPS

Positions (QW-405)

1. Positions are instructions to the user, that is what positions are permitted in the
production of a weld using this WPS. It is a nonessential variable as listed in QW-
253. It has been addressed and therefore no mistake exists. Think about, it would
rather be difficult to use a WPS that only allowed the 6G position. In most cases such
a WPS would be revised or re-written to include more than a single position. This is
not however a mistake, since the non-essential variable has been addressed.


API 510 Page 180 of 310
Preheat (QW-406)

1. The minimum preheat has been given as 60F. Preheat becomes essential when
welding is performed with a preheat greater than 100F less than that stated on the
WPS. In this WPS it would require that welding preheat be lowered to -39F.
Preheat must be stated on the WPS, it is needed to confirm that the PQR was not
performed with a preheat more than 100F below that stated for production welds on
the WPS. There is not a mistake unless preheat is riot given. Some WPS's simply
state Warm to the touch.
2. The interpass temp is listed, and thats fine however it is not required on this WPS
because there are no toughness test results present on the PQR.
3. Preheat maintenance is not addressed, this is an error by omission. All essential and
nonessential variables listed for a given process must be listed. The important thing
to remember is that preheat maintenance is listed in QW-253 for the SMAW process,
and it must be addressed. The statement None would have been good enough.

Postweld Heat Treatment (QW-407)

1. This one is easy. There will be NONE and that is all that is needed to address the
item. Of course the PQR should not show Post Weld Heat Treatment in order to
support this WPS.

Gas (QW-408)

1. Shielding gas is not used with this process-ignore this block for SMAW

Electrical Characteristics (QW-409)

1. Current AC or DC, Straight or Reverse, Amps and Volts must be addressed and can
be totally wrong for a given electrode. If it is addressed it is not a mistake. Welders
find many mistakes here because they know that it won't work. As far as the review
for the test goes, if it is addressed right or wrong its good to go and there is no mistake
here to list on the answer sheet. This is true of all non-essential variables.
2. The rest of the variables do not belong to the SMAW process and any thing placed on
these lines can be and should be ignored for the test.

Technique (QW-410)

1. String or weave is addressed
2. Orifice or gas cup / (N/A) Not applicable to SMAW
3. Cleaning addressed
4. Back gouging addressed
5. Oscillation N/A
6. Contact Tube N/A
7. Multiple or single pass, multiple or single electrodes, travel speed (all N/A)
8. Peening called N/A THIS IS A MISTAKE Peening is applicable to SMAW!

Tabular form at the bottom of the back.

1. This form listing details of different process passes and filler metals. With only one filler
metal and process such as we have in this WPS/PQR it is normally left blank. If it is not
and any differences are found with it and the body of the WPS they are meaningless and
should be ignored. DO NOT list any of these as mistakes on the answer sheet.
API 510 Page 181 of 310
Recap of mistakes found on the WPS

1. Retainers not addressed
2. Wrong F-No. for E-7018 electrode
3. Preheat maintenance not addressed
4. Peening addressed as Not Applicable (N/A), IT DOES APPLY TO SMAW! CHECK
QW-253. What was probably meant when this statement was made? Peening will not be
used. The correct approach would be to enter the word NONE. That is true of any
nonessential on any process, for example, if you intend to use a closed joint and no root
spacing, some correct ways to address this would be, Root Spacing None or 0. Some
indication must be given for each non-essential variable.

Review of PQR

The first statement to be made about review of a PQR is that PQRs do not require non-
essential variables be listed on them. Confirmation of this statement is found in paragraph
QW-200.2. Since non-essential variables need not be recorded on the PQR they can be and
should be totally ignored during the PQR review. There cannot be a mistake on a non-
essential variable listed on a PQR. It is not required to be there and if it is, it cannot be
wrong. WPSs can be written from PQRs that are very old, the interest in the PQR is in the
essential variables that it supports. These include the P No., F No., base metal thickness,
postweld heat treatment, and the rest of the essential variables for a given process.

Front of the POR

J oints (QW-402)
1. Blank not a mistake, doesn't need to be addressed (non-essential)

Base Metal (QW-403)
1. Material specification is SA-53 grade B. The WPS states that P No. 1 materials are to
be welded in production. SA-53 is a P No. 1 material so this PQR supports the WPS.
Go to the material specs of QW-422 and look it up if you are not sure.
2. Thickness welded .500" this supports the upper range of thickness to be welded in
production listed on the WPS as 1/16 to 1. Looking at QW-451.1 we see that this
coupon will support the range from 3/16 to 1. If lower thickness are to be welded
then a second PQR will be required. This is not a mistake on the PQR. This is hard
to accept, but it is not. It would be tidier to have them match, but as long as no
welding is done outside the range qualified by the PQR test specimen, no complaint
can be made.
Filler Metals (QW-404)

1. A No. 1 correct for EXX18
2. Size of electrode could have been left blank (nonessential).
3. F No. 4 correct for E-XX18
4. Other / deposited weld metal 1/2 in. Look at QW-253 paragraph QW-403 base
metals, here it states that an increase in deposited weld metal to greater than 1/2 in. is
an essential variable. This must be addressed. If a single pass greater than 1/2 in. is
deposited the maximum range of the base metal thickness to be welded in production
is reduced to 1.1 time the coupon thickness. This would change the range from the 2T
found in QW-451.1. In this case the test coupon was 1/2 in. so this rule does not
apply.

Positions (QW-405) non-essential anything or nothing (it can be blank).
API 510 Page 182 of 310

Preheat (QW-406) must be addressed and cannot be greater than 100F below that
stated to be used in production on the WPS, 50F is not, so there is no mistake here.

Postweld Heat Treatment (QW-407) addressed correctly as None.

Gas (QW-408) not essential to the SMAW process
Electrical (QW-409) nonessential anything or nothing here is ok

Technique (QW-410) nonessential anything or nothing here is ok

Back of PQR

Tensile Test (QW-150)

Since there are two tensile specimens present and the test results indicate pass, there are
no mistakes here. You can do the arithmetic to check and see if there is a mistake there.
Multiply the width times the thickness and determine the area. Divide the area in to the
ultimate load and this should yield the ultimate unit stress. Since this PQR does list the actual
material used for the test coupon you can go to the P Nos. listed in Section IX and check for
the ultimate strength of SA-53 gr. B. If QW-403 states only the P No. of the material used to
make the coupon then there is no way to determine if the material failed at or below its
specified minimum ultimate strength. Basically all that can be done is check to see if the
math is correct and that two samples are present.

Guided Bend Tests (QW-160)

In this block we show four side bends, this is ok since coupons from 3/8 in. up to but
not including 3/4 in. can be tested four side bends as an alternative to two face and two
root bends. See QW-451.1 footnotes.

Toughness tests have not been performed, fillet weld tests don't apply to groove weld
procedures, and we have already checked for a signature.

Second WPS/PQR review

Remove Wee Welders WPS and PQR from the appendix and review those for mistakes
just as was done with Confusion Weldings WPS and PQR.


The mistakes are as follows see if YOU agree.












API 510 Page 183 of 310
Back of PQR


Toughness test results are not present so Supplementary Essential Variables do
not apply during the review.
The PQR has a typed name and not a signature. This is a mistake!


WPS

WPS references the PQR by number, no mistake here.
J oints (QW-402)
1. Root gap not addressed
2. Retainers not addressed

Filler Metals (QW-404)

1. E-7018 given F-No. of 3


PQR

Filler Metals (QW-404)
1. E-7018 is not F-No. 3 (this mistake is present on the WPS and really does not
need to be listed again).

The total mistakes between the WPS and PQR are 4.


























API 510 Page 184 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION V (NDE Subsection A)


Article 2 Radiography General
Overview

The scope of this article states that when this Article is referenced by another code, the
radiographic method described within, along with Article 1, shall be used. Compliance to the
procedures in the Article can be met with or without a written procedure as outlined in T-
221.1 and T-221.2.

Surface preparation is addressed in T-222. The three areas of concern are: materials T-222.
1, welds T-222.2, and surface finish T-222.3. Backscatter radiation indication is detailed in T-
223. A system of identification to maintain traceability of a radiograph as to its location,
vessel and manufacturer are detailed on T-224.

T-225 Monitoring Density Limitations of Radiographs allows for two methods of monitoring
the density of film, a densitometer or a step wedge comparison film shall be used. T-231
requires that radiographs be made using industrial film. The processing for film is referenced
to the appropriate standards in T-231.2 .

T-232 says that intensifying screens may be used except if restricted by a referencing code.
Imaging Quality Indicator design is designated to be the hole type penetrameters or the wire
type in T-233. Facilities for the viewing of radiographs are described in T-234.

Paragraph T-260 Calibration and its subparagraphs address verification of Source Size,
Determination of Source Size and Step Wedge Film and Densitometers. T-270 covers
examination starting with T-271 Radiographic Technique then T-271.1 Single Wall
Technique. Lastly, T-271.2 details the Double Wall Technique.

Selection of Radiation Energy begins with T-272. T-272.1 provides for maximum voltages
when using X-Radiation. These are based on material and their thicknesses as in Figures T-
272.1 (a)(b)(c). In T-272.2 Gamma Radiation Recommended given minimum thickness
limits are based on the subject material and the type of source being used. These limits on
the minimum thickness are not mandatory if a procedure on thinner material can be proven
by actual demonstration of penetrameter resolution as given in T-272.3.



API 510 Page 185 of 310
T-273 says that direction of the central beam should be centered on the area of interest. T-274
lists a formula for the determination of Geometric Unsharpness; each variable in the formula
is explained. T-275 requires the use of location markers and that they be placed on the part
and not the exposure holder/cassette. The graphics in Figure T-275 detail the different
locations of the markers.

T-275.1 Single Wall Viewing contains information on placement of location markers. There
are three situations: Source Side markers, Film Side Markers and either Side Markers in this
sub paragraph.

Image Quality indicators are to be selected in accordance with T-276. You are referred to
Table T-276 for both penetrameters hole type designation the essential hole and the wire size
of Wire type indicators are listed. Table B-220 of Article 2, Non-mandatory Appendix B may
be used to determine approximate equivalence between hole penetrameters and wire
penetrameters.

T-276.2 (a) Welds with Reinforcements states that the thickness of the penetrameters is based
on the nominal single wall thickness plus the estimated weld reinforcement not to exceed the
maximum allowed in the referencing Code Section. Backing rings or strips are not
considered during penetrameter selection.

T-277 begins the particulars of use for penetrameters. T-277.1 states where they are located.
T-277.2 deals with how many penetrameters are required.

T-277.3 limits shims placed between the hole type penetrameters and the part to a material
radiographically similar to the weld metal, Shims shall exceed the penetrameter dimensions
such that the outline of at least three sides of the penetrameters image shall be visible in the
radiograph.

T-280 Evaluations starts with T-281 Quality of radiographs. Contained in T-281 are such
things as the condition of the radiograph. The film shall be free of mechanical, chemical or
other blemishes so as not to mask or confuse the image in the area of interest. T-282.1
renders density limitations with the actual values listed.

T-282.2 allows for variation of density through the area of interest. It is limited to minus
15% to plus 30% from the body of the hole penetrameter or adjacent to the designated wire of
a wire type penetrameter. Also the exceptions for shim use are detailed.

IQI Sensitivity requirements of T-283 are stated as being sufficient to display the hole
penetrameter and its designated hole. Wire types shall display the designate wire size.
Restrictions are in this sub-paragraph.

T-284 Excessive Backscatter says that the letter "B" should not appear as described in T-223.


API 510 Page 186 of 310
T-285 Geometric Unsharpness Limitations as calculated using the formula of T-274 shall
conform and not exceed those listed in this subparagraph based on material thickness. T-291
deals with documentation minimum requirements. T-292 states that the manufacturer shall
examine and interpret the radiograph prior to submittal to the inspector.

Nonmandatory Appendix A of Article 2 contains technique sketches for pipe or tube welds.
Other techniques may be used. Appendix B compares hole wire sizes. Appendix C gives
sketches for hole types penetrameter placement, again nonmandatory.



API 510 Page 187 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION V (NDE, Subsection A)

Article 5 Ultrasonic Examination
Overview

T-510 the scope of Article 5 contains all of the basic technical and methodological for
ultrasonic examination. It applies to welds, parts components. materials and thickness
determinations. You are cautioned that when Article is referenced by another Code Section
that the Code Section shall determine extent of examination, etc.

T-522 requires that Ultrasonic Examination be performed to a written procedure. The
minimum information to be contained in the procedure are listed. T-523 begins General
Examination Requirements for other than thickness measurements. T-523.1 lists the amount
and how the inspection will be performed. T-523.2 specifics a rate of movement for the
search unit

T-530 Equipment and Supplies deals with the frequency, screen height linearity, amplitude
control linearity, checking and calibration of equipment, also search units.

T-540 Applications and its subparagraph details the requirements for procedures with various
product forms. Equipment, calibration and examination information are rendered in the text.

T-542.7 Examination of Welds starts with surface preparation of base metal as well as weld
metal. Scanning techniques for both straight beam and angle beams methods. Angle Beam is
separated without reflectors oriented parallel to the weld.

T-524.7.2.5. Evaluation sets limits on imperfections and the indications that are acceptable
without further investigation.

T-542.8 Ferritic Welds in Ferritic Pipe sets up basic calibration. T-542-8-1.1 describes a
required calibration block made from a section of pipe of the same nominal size, schedule,
heat treatment, and material specification or equivalent P-number grouping as one of the
materials being examined. Figure T-542.1.1 illustrates such a calibration block.

T-590 Reports and Records requires reports written and that they include the weld(s) or
volume examined, the location of each recorded reflector, and the identification of the
operator or operators who carried out the examination or part thereof.

Article 5 mandatory appendixes gives specifics on screen height linearity and amplitude
control linearity, You are referred to Figure I-1 for angle beam search unit placement. In
each instance a procedure for verification of accuracy of the equipment is described.


API 510 Page 188 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION V (NDE Subsection A)


Article 6 Liquid Penetrant Examination
Overview

T-600 in the introduction of this article, Liquid Penetrant Examination, is described as an
effective means of detecting discontinuities which are open to the surface.

Discontinuities that can be detected and principles of operation are contained here. T-610
scope covers when this Article applies and where standards for Liquid Penetrant can be
found.

T-621.2 allows for revision to the procedure under the circumstances found in this
subparagraph.

Techniques of T-622 are given as either color contrast (visible) penetrant or a fluorescent
penetrant. Three processes are included. They are: Water Washable, Post-Emulsifying and
Solvent Removable. Combinations are allowed and can result in up to six liquid penetrant
techniques.

T-623 Penetrant materials is a definition of penetrant as it applies to this article.

T-624 Prohibits a technique allowing the following of color contrast penetrant with a
fluorescent penetrant exam. Intermixing of different families or manufacturers is
prohibited.

Control of contaminants T-625 states the user of this Article shall obtain certification of
contamination content of all penetrants used on austenectic stainless steels, nickel based
alloys and titanium. T-625 outlines the handling and requirements of the certification based
on materials.

T-626 permits surface preparation by grinding, machining or other methods. Prior to each
exam the area to be examined and at least one inch adjacent shall be clean as described.

T-627 puts forth three methods of drying after preparation (cleaning) which are acceptable
prior to the penetrant exam.

T-641 temperature ranges during a penetrant exam are listed as being not lower that 60F nor
above 120F throughout the examination.



API 510 Page 189 of 310
Penetrant can be applied by any suitable means, such as dipping, brushing or spraying other
techniques of application are also contained here in subparagraph T-642.


T-643 specifies Penetration Time (dwell) as critical and references the SE Standards given in
T-610.

T-644 Excess penetrant removal is required by this paragraph only after the specified
penetration time. Methods of penetrant removal begins in T-644.1 with water washable.
T-644.2 talks to Post Emulsifying and T-644.3 addressees Solvent Removable penetrant.
Development of the penetrant shall be applied as soon as possible after penetrant removal
according to T-646. The thickness of coating must be controlled so as to draw out any
indications or conversely mask an indication.

Information on the application of Dry and Wet Developers is contained in T-646.1 and T-
646.2 respectively.

Interpretation of penetrant test directions begin in T-647.1. Final interpretation shall be made
within seven (7) to thirty (30) minutes. The developing time is specified in T-646.3.
Paragraphs T-647.2, T-647.3 and T-647.4 pertain to the particulars of interpretation.









API 510 Page 190 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION V (NDE Subsection A)


Article 7 Magnetic Particle Examination
Overview

In the introduction of T-700, the applications of Magnetic Particle Examination and a general
description of the principles are given. The scope of Article 7 is contained in T-710. Article
7 is, in general, an agreement with SE-790 Standard Recommended Practice for Magnetic
Particle Examination.

T-721 describes what examination procedure shall be based on. Included are shapes and
sizes of materials to be examined, magnetization techniques and other variables. The method
of examination is provided in T-722. The examination shall be done using the continuous
method of magnetization of the part or weld. That is, the magnetizing current will remain on
during particle application or the removal of excess particles.

T-723 has a description of techniques and materials acceptable to this article. Ferromagnetic
Particles may be either wet or dry. Five (5) different magnetization techniques are listed.

In T-724, acceptable methods of surface preparation are given as grinding or machining if
surface irregularities could mask indications. Type and extent of cleaning is also found in
this paragraph.

T-725 contains references to T-722 and T-240 for a suitable means to produce the necessary
magnetic flux. A description of acceptable ferromagnetic particles is in T-726. All
supporting standards are quoted. Also contained are the requirements for black light usage
with fluorescent particles. If magnetizing techniques are such that adequacy and direction of
magnetic field are in question, a magnetic field indicator, as described and illustrated in T-
727, shall be used. In the remaining paragraphs this Article, direction of examination extent
of coverage and five (5) acceptable techniques are detailed.










API 510 Page 191 of 310
API 510 Module
SECTION V (NDE Subsection A)


Article 9 Visual Examination
Overview

T-910 the scope of this article states that the visual examination involved in interpretation of
the various nondestructive examination methods is not intended to be included in this
Article.

Written procedures for visual examination are required by T-922. Its paragraphs explain the
details of the content and the application of such a procedure.
T-940 gives that such things as surface condition of the part, alignment of mating surfaces,
shape or evidence of leaking are generally determined by visual examination.

T-950 provides that all examinations shall be evaluated in terms of the referencing Code
Section. A checklist shall be maintained to verify visual observations checklist shall establish
minimum examination and inspection requirements and does not indicate the maximum
exams a Manufacturer may perform.









API 510 Page 192 of 310




















ADVANCED MATERIAL










API 510 Page 193 of 310
API 510 Module


Static Head of Water

The static head of water is equal to 0.433 psi per vertical foot above the point where
the pressure will measured. For example the static head of water at a point in a vessel with
10 feet of water above it is calculated by multiplying 10 x 0.433 psi..

10 x 0.433 =4.33psi

The 4.33 psi is being exerted totally by the weight of the water. No other external
pressure having been applied. If an external source of pressure is applied it would be added
to the static head pressure of the water at any given point in the vessel.

Suppose an external pressure from a pump of 100 psi is applied to the above vessel.
This pressure would be added to the 4.33 psi that already exists from the static head for a
total pressure at that point of 104.33 psi.

From this simple principle the following concepts must be understood.

Case 1. How do you determine static head based on a given elevation?

Case 2. When do you add the static head pressure in vessel calculations?

Case 3. When do you subtract the static head in vessel calculations?

Case 4. How do you calculate static head on ellipsoidal and hemi heads?









API 510 Page 194 of 310


Case 1. To determine static head based on an elevation from a stated problem it must be
understood that elevations are normally taken from the ground level for an existing
vessel including any base the vessel is on. You must subtract the GIVEN elevation
form the TOTAL elevation to determine vertical feet of static head above the given
elevation.

Example: A vessel has an elevation of 18 feet and is mounted on a 3 foot base. What is
the static head pressure of water at the 11 foot elevation which is located at the
bottom of the top shell course?


7

11

18






You must realize it is the number of vertical feet above the GIVEN elevation in question
which causes the static head at that point. To find the static head you must subtract the
elevation of the GIVEN point from the TOTAL elevation given for the vessel.

18' feet total
-11' desired point
7' total static head

Static head pressure at 11' elevation is: 7 x 0.433psi =3.03 psi












API 510 Page 195 of 310
Case 2. Static head at a point in a vessel must be added to the pressure used (normally vessel
MAWP) when calculating the required thickness of the vessel component at that elevation.

Example: Determine the required thickness of the shell course in Case 1. The vessel's
MAWP (Always measured at the top in the normal operating position) is 100 psi. The
following variables apply:
Givens:
t=? Circumferential stress From UG-27(c)(1)
PR
P=100 psi +Static Head t =
SE - 0.6P
S= 15,000 psi
E= 1.0
R= 20



Since the bottom of this shell course is at the 11 foot elevation the pressure it will see is 100
psi +the static head.
or
100 +3.03 =103.03 psi

103.03x20 20606
t = = =.1379"
(15,000 x l.0) - (0.6 x l03.03) 14938.18










API 510 Page 196 of 310
Case 3. You must subtract static head pressure when determining the MAWP of a vessel. If
given a vessel of multiple parts and the MAWP for each of the parts, the MAWP of the entire
vessel is determined by subtracting the static head pressure at the bottom of each part to find
the part which limits the MAWP of the vessel.

Example: A vessel has an elevation of 40 feet including a 4 foot base. The engineer has
calculated the following part MAWPs to the bottom of each part based on each part's
minimum thickness and corroded diameter. Determine the MAWP of the vessel.

Design pressure at the bottom of:

Top Shell Course 28' Elev. 406.5 psi
Middle Shell Course 16.5' Elev. 410.3 psi
Bottom Shell Course 4' Elev. 422.8 psi



12
406.5 psi
28

40





Bottom of top shell course:
40.0' elev.
-28.0' elev.
12.0' head

12' x 0.433 psi =5.196 psi of Static Head










API 510 Page 197 of 310
406.5 psi
28
23.5 40
410.3 psi
16.5




Bottom of the middle shell course: 40.0' elev.
-16.5' elev.
23.5' head

23.5' x 0.433 psi =10.175 psi of Static Head



406.5 psi
28
36 410.3 psi
16.5
422.8 psi
4
Bottom of bottom shell course: 40.0' elev.
-4.0' elev.
36.0' head
36' x 0.433 psi =15.588 psi of Static Head






API 510 Page 198 of 310
The final step in determining the MAWP of the vessel at its top is to subtract the static head
of water from the calculated MAWP'S at each given point. The lowest calculated pressure
will be the maximum gage pressure permitted at the top of the vessel.

Bottom of top shell course 406.5 5.196 =401.3 psi
Bottom of mid shell course 410.3 - 10.175 =400.125 psi
Bottom of btm shell course 422.8 - 15.588 =407.212 psi

Therefore the bottom of the middle shell course MAWP determines the MAWP of the entire
vessel.

400.125 psi


Static Head
10.175 psi

410.3 psi 40
16.5




The MAWP of the vessel is 400.125 psi










API 510 Page 199 of 310
Case 4. As part of calculating hydrostatic head on a vessel you will be required to determine
the depth of two types of heads, 2 to 1 ellipsoidal and hemispherical. You will be given only
the diameter of the vessel and using this you must calculate the head's depth which in turn is
used to find the hydrostatic head at the bottom of the head.

Example: A vessel has an inside diameter of 48 inches. Determine the depth of a
hemispherical and a 2 to 1 ellipsoidal head with a 2 inch straight flange. The approach here
is based on the fact that the heads diameters will match the vessel's diameter and therefore
will be the same. In this case 48 inches.

Hemispherical Head

Our hemispherical head has an inside diameter of 48 inches which means it has a radius of 24
inches. The radius is the depth of the Hemispherical head






Shell I.D. 48

Radius 24"
Depth 24"





























API 510 Page 200 of 310
2 to 1 Ellipsoidal Head

An ellipsoidal head's I. D. will be the same as the shells. The inside diameter of an
ellipsoidal head is also its major axis. This fact is the basis of finding the depth of a 2 to 1
ellipsoidal head. Notice that we are strictly talking about 2 to 1 ellipsoidal heads.

The 2 to 1 refers to the ratio of the Major Axis to the Minor Axis of a ellipse which is used to
form the head.





Major Axis 48"

Minor Axis 24"



Of course only half of the Minor Axis is used for the head.



2 to 1

Major Axis
48"

1/2 Minor AXIS

12









API 510 Page 201 of 310
Now add the 2 inch flange to the dish.

2 to 1

2 14 depth
12








Therefore our 2 to 1 Ellipsoidal head has a depth of 14 inches.

Example: Calculate the hydrostatic head of water for the following heads on a vessel with a
Total Elevation of 70'. The vessel's I. D. is 64 inches. The top head is a 2 to 1 ellipsoidal and
has a 2 inch flange. The bottom head is a hemispherical and is welded to the shell at the 8
foot elevation.




?




70





? 8
API 510 Page 202 of 310
Step 1. Calculate the depth of the 2 to 1 ellipsoidal head on top.

The I.D. of the head equals the Major Axis therefore:

64" is the Major Axis and the Minor axis equals 1/2 the Major Axis.

64" divided by 2 equals 32" which equals the entire Minor Axis

However an ellipsoidal head uses only half the Minor axis for its dished portion. 32" divided
by 2 equals 16". To this you must add the length of the straight flange 2". So the depth of our
ellipsoidal head is 18 inches.


Step 2. Calculate the depth of the hemispherical head.

The I.D. of the hemi head equals the I.D. of the vessel therefore:

64" equals the diameter and the radius is one-half of the diameter.

64" divided by 2 equals 32" which equals the radius of this head.

The Radius is equal to the Depth of the hemi head or 32 inches.


Step 3. Calculate the static head pressure on each head.

Depth of head x 0.433 psi =Static head pressure.

Ellipsoidal

Converting to feet: 18" divided by 12 =1.5' x 0.433 psi - 0.6495 psi

Hemispherical

Converting to feet. 32" divided by 12 =2.666' x 0.433 psi =1.1543 psi





API 510 Page 203 of 310
To find the total hydrostatic head on the hemispherical head at its bottom you must add all of
the head that exists above it including the shell and the ellipsoidal head. We calculate as
follows.

70' total elevation
-8 to the top of hemi head
62' hydrostatic head
+2.666 depth of hemi head
64.666 total feet head

64.666' x 0.433psi 28.0 psi to the bottom of the hemi head.



0.6495 psi




70




8
28.0 psi




ANS: Static head for the:
Ellipsoidal head equals 0.649 psi
Hemispherical head equals 28.0 psi













API 510 Page 204 of 310







Quiz Static Head / UG-99


A. A 100 foot tall column is being hydrostatically tested. The vessel's MAWP is 100 PSI
at 750F. The vessel's material has an allowable stress of 13,500 PSI at MAWP, its
material allowable stress at 70F, the test temperature is 15,000 PSI. What is the
required hydrostatic test pressure?

B. The vessel above is under full hydrostatic test pressure in an operating unit during the
summer. A plant wide evacuation alarm sounds and all test personnel leave. Four
hours later, upon the all clear, the test crew finds that the gauge pressure on vessel has
risen to an unacceptable pressure. How could this have been avoided?

C. The test gauge for the test above is located at the 30' elevation of the vessel what will
be its gauge pressure during the test and at what pressure shall the visual inspection
take place as read from the gage at the 30' elevation?






























API 510 Page 205 of 310
ANS/UG-99

Solution A: Hydrostatic Test Pressure Per UG-99(b)

15,000 PSI
x 1.5 x 100 =166.66 PSI
13,500 PSI



Solution B: Per UG-99(h), a relief valve set at 1 1/3 the pressure could have been installed.


Solution C: 2/3 x test pressure plus static head at 30' elevation. Per UG-99(g)

Test pressure at the top 166.66
Hydrostatic head +30.31
Test pressure at 30' 196.97

2/3 x 166.66 =111.106 +30.31 =141.416 psi (insp. psi read at 30'elev.)

Drawing:

166.66 PSI
1.1 x 1.5 x MAWP
100


100'- 30' =70'


30' 196.97 70' x 0.433 psi / ft =30.31 psi










API 510 Page 206 of 310
Corrosion Example Problems


A 60 foot tower consisting of four (4) shell courses was found to have varying corrosion rates
in each course. Minimum wall thickness readings were taken after 4 years and 6 months of
service. All original wall thicknesses included a 1/8" corrosion allowance. The top course's
original thickness was .3125". Thepresent thickness is .3000". The second course downward
had an original thickness of .375". During the inspection it was found to have a minimum
wall thickness of .349". The third course was measured at .440" its original thickness was
.500". The bottom course had an original thickness of .625" and measured to be 595".

Determine the metal loss for the top course, the corrosion rate for the second course, the
corrosion allowance remaining in the third course, the retirement date for the bottom course.






.300

.349
60-0
.440

.595











API 510 Page 207 of 310
Solution A:

TOP COURSE.

Metal loss equals the previous thickness minus the present thickness.

Previous .3125"
Present -.3000"
.0125 Metal Loss
SECOND COURSE.
Corrosion rate equals metal loss per given unit of time.
Previous .3750"
Present -.3490"
.0260" Metal Loss

Total loss 0.260"
Corrosion Rate =--------- .006" / Per YR.
Total time 4.5 Years

THIRD COURSE.

Remaining Corrosion Allowance equals the actual thickness minus the required thickness.

Original Thickness .500"
Original Corrosion Allowance -.125"
Required Wall Thickness .375"

Actual Wall Thickness .440"
Required Wall -.375"
Remaining Corrosion Allowance .065"










API 510 Page 208 of 310
BOTTOM COURSE.

Remaining service life equals the remaining corrosion allowance decided by the corrosion
rate.

1. Required Thickness

Original Thickness .625
Original Corrosion Allowance -.125
Required Thickness .500

2. Remaining Corrosion Allowance

Actual Wall Thickness .595
Required Thickness -.500
Remaining Corrosion Allowance .095

3. Corrosion Rate

Original Thickness .625
Present Thickness -.595
Metal Loss .030

Metal Loss .030
=0067 / Year
Time 4.5 Years

Corrosion Rate =.0067 / Year

4. Remaining Service Life

Remaining Corrosion Allowance .095
=14.2 Years
Corrosion Rate .0067 / Year

Remaining Service Life =14.2 Years

















API 510 Page 209 of 310
Cylinder Under Internal Pressure

Problem #1

Calculate the required thickness of a 60 inch I.D. cylindrical shell. It is constructed of SA-
516 Gr. 70 rolled steel plate. The vessel's Category A&D Type 1 joints are fully
radiographed. All Category B joints are Type 1 also and have been spot radiographed per
UW-11(a)(5)(b). The vessel MAWP must be 350 PSI at 450F. The shell will see 11 psi of
static head at its bottom.

SOLUTION:

DRAWING: TYPE 1 CAT. A
FULL RT



t=?

60



TYPE 1 CAT. B
SPOT RT

Givens:

tr = ?
D =60.0" R =30"
P =350 +11 psi static head
S =17,500 fromstress table
E =1.0 per UW-12 (a)

UG-27(c)(1) CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS

PR
t =
SE - 0.6 P

361 x 30
t = =.6266
(17,500 x 1.0) (0.6 x 361)

ANSWER T =.6266
API 510 Page 210 of 310
Cylinder Under Internal Pressure

Problem #2

A vessel is constructed using two courses of rolled and welded SA-515 Gr. 60 plate. The
maximum design temperature is 750F. All joints used in shell courses are Type 1 those used
to join heads are Type 2. The vessels name plate is stamped with the following: HT, W, RT
3. The vessel is 48 inches O.D. and has a thickness of .500 inch. What would be the vessel's
MAWP based on the MAWP of the shell?

DRAWING:



Cat A Type 1

.500 t

40" O.D.





Givens:

t= .500"
P= ?
S= 13,000 from stress table
E=.85 RT 3 for Type 1
OD =48.0"
R
O
=24.0"

APPENDIX 1
SEt
P=
R
O
- 0.4t


SOLUTION:

13,000 x .85 x .500
P = =232.24 psi
(24.0) - (0.4 x .500)
API 510 Page 211 of 310
Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #1

A hemispherical head formed from solid plate is 48.0 inches in inside diameter and has a
thickness of .500 inch. This head will be attached to a seamless shell which has not had
radiography on the Category A Type 1 weld that attaches the head to the shell. The vessel is
horizontal and operates at 500 PSI water pressure with an allowable stress on the head's
material of 15,000 PSI. Does the head's thickness meet Code? Show calculations.

SOLUTION:

DRAWING:

HEMISPHERICAL

NO
RT

L t=?
24

48


Givens:

t = .500"
D =48.0" L =24.0"
P =500 PSI +(0.433 psi x 4') = 1.732 =501.732
S =15,000
E =.70


UG-32(f)
PL
t =
2SE - 0.2 P

501.732 x 24.0
t
R
= =.5761
(2 x 15,000 x 0.7) - (0.2 x 501.732)


Answer: NO.

API 510 Page 212 of 310
Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #2

An Ellipsoidal head of seamless construction is welded to a seamless shell. The weld joint
was spot radiographed per UW-11(a)(5)(b). The head's inside diameter was originally 36
inches. Uniform corrosion has occurred on the internal surfaces of the head leaving a wall
thickness of .240". The original thickness of the head was .375". The MAWP of the vessel is
175 PSIG at 450F and the static head at the bottom of the head is 5.3 psi. The stress
allowable on the head's material is 13,500 PSI. Does this meet Code?

SOLUTION.

DRAWING: original head dimensions






.375
36



Givens.

t =.240"
D =36.0" +[(.375 -.240) x 2] =36.0 +.270 +36.270" adjusted for corrosion!
P =175 PSI +5.3 psi static head =180.3 psi
S =13,500
E=1.0 from UW-12(d)

UG-32(d)

PD
t =
2SE - 0.2P

180.3 x 36.270
t
R
= =.242
(2 x 13,500 x 1.0) - (0.2 x 180.3)

.240" <.242"

Answer: NO
API 510 Page 213 of 310
Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #3

A seamless circular flat head is attached to a 36 inch I. D. shell similar to
Figure UG-34(e). The shell's required t is .375 inches. The shell's actual t is
.500 inch. The flat head is .750 inch in thickness. The vessel is to operate at
300 PSIG. The head's material has a stress allowance of 15,000 PSI. The
fillet welds are 0.7 t
s.
Is the head's thickness in compliance with the Code?

SOLUTION:
.750
DRAWING:
.500

36



Givens:

t =.750
t
s
=.500
t
R
=.375
P =300
S =15,000
D =36.0"
E =1.0 Because the flat head is seamless.
C=.33 x m =33 x .375 =.33 x .750 =.247
.500

UG-34(c)(2)

t =d CP/SE


.247 x 300
t =36.0
15,000 x 1.0

74. 1
t = 36.0 X =2.53 inch
15,000
Answer: NO.
API 510 Page 214 of 310
Heads Under Internal Pressure

Problem #4

While pulling exchanger bundles, a contractor backed against a torispherical
head on a vessel. As a result of the bump, a circular flat spot is left on the
formed head. This head is .375 inch thick and the flat spot is 6 inches in
diameter. The vessel has a MAWP of 150 PSI and the head's material has an
allowable stress of 15,000 PSI. Does this head require repair?

Per Formed Heads UG-32(o) and UG-34(c)(2)

Drawing:
6



.375
36

Givens:

t =.375 (formed head)
P =150
S =15,000
E =1.0 Seamless. Flat Head
C =0.25 per UG-32 (o)
d =6.0

t =d CP/SE

(0.25)(150)
t =6.0 =0. 300
(15,000) (1.0)

0.375" >0.300"

Answer: No repairs are required. The flat spot meets t required for an
equivalent flat head. See UG-32 (o), found near the end of UG-32.






API 510 Page 215 of 310
API 510 Module

UG-84 WPS

Problem #1

Please evaluate the following Charpy Impact test results for a SMAW procedure. The plate is
SA-516 grade 70 normalized, 1 3/4" thick. The WPS is being qualified for a range from
3/16" to 8" in thickness.


The max weld pass t =1/2". The plate's specified minimum yield normalized is 38 KSI.
Do the test results qualify this procedure for impact testing?


Specimen Notch Notch Test Value
Location Type Temp. ft/lb's
W-1 WELD v -25F 21
W-2 WELD v -25F 20
W-3 WELD v -25F 15
W-4 WELD v -25F 22
W-5 WELD v -25F 22
W-6 WELD v -25F 14
H-1 HAZ v -25F 19
H-2 HAZ v -25F 19
H-3 HAZ v -25F 20









API 510 Page 216 of 310
UG-84 WPS

SOLUTION:

Step (1) Determine the minimum impact energy for the test coupon.

Per UG-84(h)(2)(c) the test specimens must meet or exceed the values for the
thickness of the range qualified in the welding procedure. Per QW-451.1 Section IX. This
procedure will be qualified from 3/16 inch to 8 inches.

Therefore: T qualified =8.0 inches.

Going to Table UG-84.1 and entering on the bottom line at any value greater than 3
inches, then moving up to the 38 KSI curve, then across to the minimum impact values on
the left, we find a minimum impact value of 18 ft./lbs.

Step (2) Check test results.

(a) Average impact value required per Figure UG-84.1 is 18 ft./ lbs.

(b) Calculate averages

W-1 21 W-4 22 H-1 19
W-2 20 W-5 22 H-2 19
W-3 +15 W-6 +14 H-3 +20
56 3 =18.6 58 3=19.3 58 3=19.3

(c) Note (b) of Figure UG-84.1 states that one specimen shall not be less
than 2/3 the average energy required for three specimens. Only one (1)
specimen is allowed to fall below the min. avg. of three per UG-84(c)(6).

The minimum acceptable value of a single specimen is as follows:

Acceptance values =2/3 x 18 =12

Answer: All values meet minimums and the procedure's impact tests pass.









API 510 Page 217 of 310
INTERINAL PRESSURE (CYLINDERS)

1). A cylindrical shell has been discovered to have uniform external corrosion. The shells
original thickness was 7/8 inch. It is presently .745 inch in thickness. The original O.D.
of the shell was 30 inches. The vessel operates at 650F with a stress allowable on the
material of 15,000 psi. All joints were fully radiographed. All J oints are type 1. What is
the vessel's present MAWP?

2). A vessel is fabricated from SA-516 gr. 70 plate material to operate at 600F with an
allowable stress of 17,500 psi. The vessel has an inside diameter of 36 inches and
operates at 375 psi. The type 2 long seam has had full RT. The circumferential joints
have met UW-11(a)(5)(b) and UW-12(d) requirements. What is its required thickness?

3.) A shell course is being replaced with the new course being 60 inches in inside diameter
and 7/8 inches thick. The vessel course material is SA-515 gr. 60 plate at a design
temperature of 650F with an allowable stress of 13,000 psi. The vessel joints are all type
2 and the vessel is stamped RT-3. What is the MAWP of this shell course?

4.) What is the minimum required thickness of a vessel shell operating at 650 psi and 500F?
The vessel shell is fabricated of SA-516 gr. 60 plate, allowable stress of 15,000 psi. The
inside diameter of the vessel shell is 50 inches. The vessel has received FULL RT on
Category A joints. All of its category A J oints are type 1. The category B joints are type
2 and have met the requirements of UW-12(d) and UW-11(a)(5)(b).

5). A vessel shell is made from SA-515 Gr. 70. It has a design operating pressure of 200 psi
at 750F, allowable stress is 14,800 psi. The inside diameter is 14 feet. All joint
efficiencies are 1.0. The shell has corroded down to 1.28 inches. Its original t was
1.375". May this vessel shell remain in service in accordance with rules of Section VIII
Division 1?









API 510 Page 218 of 310
INTERNAL PRESSURE (HEADS)

1.) A seamless torispherical head made of SA-515 gr. 70 material with an allowable stress of
14,000 at 750F is to operate at 250 psi. The knuckle radius is 6% of the outside diameter
of the head skirt and the inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt.
The outside diameter of the skirt is 50 inches. The vessel it is attached to meets the
requirements of UW-12(d) and UW-11(a)(5)(b). What is the minimum required thickness
of the head?

2.) A seamless ellipsoidial head with a 2 to 1 ratio of the major to the minor axis is to operate
at 750F with an internal pressure of 250 psi. The material has an allowable stress of
14,800 and the skirt has an inside diameter of 50 inches. All category B butt welds do not
meet UW-11(a)(5)(b). What is the minimum required thickness for the head?

3.) A seamless hemispherical head is fabricated from a material with a calculated stress of
14,800 psi at operating temperature. All category B butt joints in the vessel meet
UW-11(a)(5)(b) and all category A joints are type 1 and have had spot radiography. The
vessel's design requires a maximum operating pressure of 250 psi. The corroded
thickness of this head is .295". It has a corroded I.D. of 72.230". May this head continue
in service?


4.) During the inspection of a horizontal 36 inch ID vessel in gas service a seamless circular
flat head attached similar to Fig UG-34(e) @vas found to have corroded to a thickness of
1.948 inch minimum. The shell's required thickness was calculated based on 100% joint
efficiency and an allowable stress of 17,500 psi. The shell's actual thickness is .505 inch
and the vessel operates at 250 psi. The flat head's allowable stress is 15,500 psi. The
fillet weld throat sizes are still in excess of .7 t
s
. May this flat head remain in service?













API 510 Page 219 of 310
Solutions for Internal Pressure Cylinders


1. From: Appendix 1-1 SEt
P =
R
0
- 0.4t


Givens:
t original =.875 "
t present =.745 "
P =?
S =15,000 psi
E =1.0


R
0
=14.87" R
0
=30/2 =15-(.875-.745) =15-0.13 =14.87" this adjusts the o.d. wall loss


P=
15,000 x l.0 x .745
=766.88 psi

14.87 - (0.4 x .745)


The trick here is knowing to adjust the outside radius for corrosion, remember it will decrease
when there is external corrosion. The opposite is true for internal corrosion.



2. From: UG-27 (c)(1)
t =
PR
SE - 0.6P
Givens:
t req. =?
P = 375 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = .90

R =36 / 2 =18

375 x 18
t = =.4347"
(17,500 x .90) - (0.6 x 375)

In order to take .90 for the E on the category A joint, it must have full RT and the
circumferential joint must meet the spot RT required by UW-12(a),
API 510 Page 220 of 310
3. From: UG-27 (c) (1)
P =
SEt
R +0.6t

Givens:
t = .875
P = ?
S = 13,000 psi
E = .80
R = 60 / 2 =30

13,000 x .80 x .875
P = =298.11psi
30 +(0.6 x .875)


4. From: UG-27 (c) (1)

t =
PR
SE - 0.6P


t =?
P =650 psi
S =15,000 psi
E =1.0
R = 50 / 2 =25

650 x 25
t = =1.112
(15,000 x l.0) - (0.6 x 650)


Here you must remember that UW-12(a) will not allow the use of a joint E from
column A unless the requirements of UW-11(a)(5) have been applied. If the spot RT had not
been performed the E would be taken from column B and have a value of .85.








API 510 Page 221 of 310
5. From: UG (c) (1)
t =
PR or
P =
SEt
SE - 0.6P R - 0.6t

Givens:
t =1.28
P =200 PSI
S =14,800 psi
E =1.0
R =14 / 2 =7' x 12 =84" Inside radius corroded =84 +(1.375 -1.28) =84.095


t =
200 x 84.095
=1.145" or P =
14,800 x l.0 x l.28
=223.23psi

(14,800 x 1.0) - (0.6 x 200) 84.095 +(0.6 x l.28)

The answer to the question is YES it may remain in service. Notice that since both pressure
and thickness are known that either calculation can be made. It does not matter which is
used.
API 510 Page 222 of 310

Solutions for Internal Pressure Heads

1. From: UG-32 (e)
t =
0.855PL (Torispherical Formula)
SE - 0.1P

Givens:
t =?
P = 250 psi
S =14,800 psi
E =1.0
L=50" crown radius

0.855 x 250 x 50
t = =.7487
(14,800 x l.0) - (0.1 x 250)


2. From: UG-32 (d)
t =
PD
2SE - 0.2P
Givens:
t =?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = .85
D = 50" inside diameter

250 x 50
t = =.4978
(2 x14,800 x .85) - (0.2 x 250)

3. From: UG-32 (f)
t =
PL
2SE - 0.2P

Givens:
t =?
P =250 psi
S =14,800 psi
E =.85
L =36.115" inside spherical radius
250 x 36.115
t = =.3595
(2 x14,800 x .85) - (0.2 x 250)
ANSWER: NO
API 510 Page 223 of 310
4. From: UG-34 (c) (2) CP
t =d
SE
GIVENS:
t =?
t =.505" actual thickness of the shell
P=250 psi
S =for head material 15.500 psi
S =for shell material 17,500 psi
d = for head 36"
D = for shell 36" inside
E =1.0 for a seamless head
C =?

Step 1. Calculate the Shell's required thickness

From: UG-27 (c) (1) we use the t =formula to find that the shell's required which is
.259" remember to use the shell's material stress in this calculation.

Step2. Using the actual thickness of shell and its calculated reg. thickness find "m"

tr .259
From: The definitions of variables in and fig. UG-34 (e) m = = =.51
ts .505

Step 3. Calculate the value of C

From: Fig. UG-34 (e) C =.33 x m = .33 x .51 = .1683

Since the minimum that C is allowed to be in this geometry is .20 use C=.20 to solve.

Step 4. Calculate the required t of the flat head
.20 x 250
t =36 15,500 x 1.0 = 36 .0032258 = 36 x .0567961 =2.044"



Answer No: 1.984" <2.044"








API 510 Page 224 of 310











APPENDIX




































API 510 Page 225 of 310
API answers found in Section VIII Div. 1

Many of the principles found in the API 510 Code were derived from the same engineering
rules used in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Most are slightly modified to
accommodate the in-service environment. The examples given below are meant to
eliminate a large portion of the memorization for some of the more lengthy answers.

Some of the references given are located in paragraphs of Section VIII which are not listed on
the Body of Knowledge for the exam. However, since at this writing the ASME Code
books are allowed to be used throughout the entire exam, these can be very valuable tips.
Take note that there may be some differences in the values such at temperature, etc..
Remember these differences only the rest is in Section VIII. Also listed are a few tips for
Sections IX and V.

Tip 1: For listing the limits that corrosion can be averaged over go to paragraph UG-36.
Here the maximum sizes of openings in vessels are listed. Notice these are the exact
same dimensions as given in API 510 for corrosion averaging over an area.

Tip 2: The footnotes of UG-126 list descriptions of RVs, PRVs etc.. A great deal more
information about over pressure protection is also listed, such as mediums permitted
for testing the various devices.

Tip 3: In UCS-56 (f) a description of the Half-Bead/Temper-Bead technique of repair is
given. Here we have only two basic differences, the temperatures and holding times
at temperature.

Tip 4: In UHA-102 a description of Intergranular Corrosion is given

Tip 5: In UHA-103 Stress Corrosion is explained.

Tip 6: URA-109 addresses 885F embrittlement.

Tip 7: Appendix 10 lists the required information for a Quality Control program for vessel
construction. Much of this verbiage can be converted for use in addressing Quality
Control programs for PRVS.

Tip 8: Section IX contains definitions of different welding terms and welding processes such
as GTAW, SMAW etc.. These are located in Article IV, QW-490.

Tip 9: Section V has extensive information listed for specifics of different processes listed in
the ASTM documents near the back of the book. One example is the construction of
penetrameters. Information about how they are to be made can be located in these
paragraphs.

Tip 10: This is most important tip of all. Don't forget that Appendix L of Section VIII has a
ton of sample calculations. If your are at loss as to how to perform a calculation,
there is a chance a similar one can be found here.
API 510 Page 226 of 310
Placing Tabs in the ASME Code Books

First off, let it be said that tabs are probably the most effective method for finding material
both for the test and in actual field application of the Code.

Suggestions for Tabbing

1. Use full page dividers as tabs, these allow the turning of a large numbers of pages
without difficulty. The stick on kind will tear out the page holes.

2. Use the API Body of Knowledge and this text book to tab the important pages of all
of the ASME Code books. Below is a listing of the minimum number of suggested
tabs for each of the ASME Code books. Also write on both sides of the tabs in order
to go back and forth easily.

Section VIII

PV definition U-1
Mill Under Tolerance UG-16
Corrosion UG-25
Thickness of Shells UG-27
Formed Heads UG-32
Opening UG-36
Material UG-77
Markings UG-116
Service Restrictions UW-2
J oint Categories UW-3
Radiographic Exam UW-11
J oint Efficiencies UW-12
Attachment Welds UW-16
Procedures for PWHT UW-40
Heat Treatment Carbon and Low Alloys UCS-56
Impact Tests UCS-66, 67, 68
Appendix 1 (1-1) Formulas for OD calculations on shells
Appendix L Example Calculations

API 510 Page 227 of 310
Section IX

Article I

1. QW-100.1 Purpose or WPS and PQR
2. QW-153 Acceptance Criteria for tension tests
3. QW-163 Acceptance Criteria for bend tests
4. QW-191 Radiographic Examination

Article II

5. QW-200 definition of a WPS
6. QW-202.2 definition of a PQR
7. QW-251.1 definition of Variables

Article III

8. QW-300 General
9. QW-301 Tests
10. QW-320 Re-tests and Renewal
11. QW-350 Welding Variables for Welders

Article IV
12. Weld data
13. P-Numbers
14. Alternate Base Metal
15. F- Numbers
16. Definitions

Section V

Article 2 Radiography

1. T-220 Procedure Requirements
2. T-233 IQI s
3. T-274 Geometric Unsharpness
4. T-277 Use of IQI s Placement
5. T-280 Evaluation
6. T-284 Excessive Backscatter

Article 5 Ultrasonics

1. T-522 Written Procedures
2. T-534 Checking and Calibration
3. T-542.7 Examination of Welds
4. T-590 Reports and Records
Article 6 Liquid Penetrant

1. T-621 Procedure
2. T-650 Procedure / Technique
3. T-670 Examination
4. T-676 Interpretation

API 510 Page 228 of 310
Article 7 Magnetic Particle

1 . T-720 General Requirements
2. T-726 Examination Medium
3. T-746 Yoke Technique
4. T-750 Evaluation

Article 9 Visual Examination

1. Article 9 is two pages in length, just tab the first page.










API 510 Page 229 of 310
QW-482 SUGGESTED FORMAT FOR WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS)
(See QW-200.1. Section IX. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code)


See section IX for samples

QW-482 SUGGESTED FORMAT FOR WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS (WPS)
(See QW-200.1. Section IX. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code)


See section IX for samples
API 510 Page 230 of 310
Solutions for ASME Module Exercises

UW- 3

1. ans. D (it depends on the location in the vessel)
2. ans. B (it is a category C weld)








































A
B
B
D
A
B
C
B
API 510 Page 231 of 310
UW-11

1. Category A joints in nozzles and communicating chambers and category B joints in
nozzles and chambers which exceed either 10 NPS or 1 - 1/8 wall thickness.

2. The category A joint must be fully radiographed and the spot radiography of UW-11
(a)(5)(b) must be applied per UW- 12 (a).

3. Full radiography for all butt joints which exceed the specified thickness, excluding the
category Bs that do not exceed the 10" NPS or 1- 1/8 inch thickness.

4. It may not be assumed that all joints have been radiographed. The thickness of some
joints may not exceed the limit for the material used. Remember it is the least nominal
thickness at the welded joint which determines the requirement.

5. Both joints must be radiographed by the requirement that all A and D butt welds shall be
shot.

UW-12 #1 page 91

1. E = 1.0 per UW-12 (d)
2. E = .80 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the head
3. E = .85 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the head
4. E = 1.0 per UW-12 (d)
5. E = .85 no spot RT. per UW-12 (d)
6. E = .85 no spot RT. per UW-12 (d)
7. E = .65 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the head
UW-12 #2 page 92

1. E =1.0 based on full RT of all category A and D joints and the spot RT applied to
the category B joint attaching the Ellipsoidal head (see UW-12 (a)).

2. E =.80 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for the
Ellipsoidal head

3. E =1.0 Full RT on the category A joint in the hemispherical head.

4. E =1.0 per UW-12 (d)

5. E =1.0 per UW-12 (d)

6. E =1.0 per UW-12 (d)

7. E =.80 based on the joint E from column B of the welded joint used for thehead and
spot RT.

API 510 Page 232 of 310
UG 27

1. From: Appendix 1-1
t =
PR
0

SE +0.4P

Givens:
t =?
P =500 psi
S =15,000 psi
E=1.0 per UW-12 (d)

R
0
=12.75 / 2 =6.375


500 x 6.375
t = =.2097
(15,000 x l.0) - (0.4 x 500)



ANSWER: the required t =.2097"


2. From: UG-27 (c)(1)
t =
SE
t

R +0.6t

Givens:

t = .850
P = ?
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R = 52

15,000 x 1.0 x .850
P = =242.81 psi
52 +(0.6 x .850)


ANSWER:
MA
WP is 242.81 psi





API 510 Page 233 of 310
UG 32

1. From: UG-32 (d)
t =
PD
2SE - 0.2P

Givens:
t = ?
P = 350 psi
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0 full RT per UW-11 (a) (1) in butt joints in shells and heads
D= 48" inside diameter
350 x 48
t = =.5613
(2 x 15,000 x l.0) - (0.2 x 350)

ANSWER: required t =.5613"








2. From: UG-32 (e)
t =
0.885PL
SE - 0.1P


Givens:
t = .353
P = 100 psi
S = 13,800 psi
E= 1.0
L= 56" crown radius

0.885 x 100 x 56
t = =.3593
(13,800 x l.0) - (0.1 x 100)

ANSWER: No the head may not remain in service.



API 510 Page 234 of 310
UG-32

3. From: UG-32 (f)
t =
PL
2SE - 0.2P

Givens:
t = ?
P = 200 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = Spot RT. 85
L = 32.0" inside spherical radius (D/2)

200 x 32.0
t = =.2154
(2 x 17,500 x .85) - (0.2 x 200)

ANSWER: the required thickness =.2154"


4. From: UG-32 (d)
t =
PD
2SE - 0.2P
Givens:
t = ?
P = 200 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = .85 No spot RT per UW-12(d)
D= 64.0"

200 x 64
t = =.4308
(2 x 17,500 x .85) - (0.2 x 200)


ANSWER: thickness required =.4308"


API 510 Page 235 of 310
UG-34
CP
1. 4. From: UG-34 (c)(2) t =d
SE
Givens:
t =?
t =.500" actual thickness of the shell
P =75 psi
S =for head material 13,800 psi
S =for shell material 15,000 psi
d =for head 42"
D =for shell 42" inside
E =1.0 for shell calculation (Shell E is always 1.0 for a flat head calculation)
E =1.0 per UW-12 (d), this is a forged head but is treated like a formed head. Read the
paragraph for the Fig UG-34 (b-2)
C=0.33 x m =?

Step 1. Calculate the Shell's required thickness

From: UG-27 (c) (1) we use the t =formula to find that the shell's required which is
.1053" remember to use the shell's material stress in this calculation.

Step 2. Using the actual thickness of shell and its calculated req. thickness find "m"

tr .1053
From; The definitions of variables and fig. UG-34 (e) in UG-34 m = = =.2106
ts .500
Step 3. Calculate the value of C

From: Fig. UG-34 (c) C =.33 x m =.33 x .2106 =.0694

Since the minimum that C is allowed to be in this geometry is .20 use C =.20 to
solve.

Step 4. Calculate the required t of the flat head

.20 x 75
t =42
13,800 x l.0 =42 .0010869 =42 x .0329681 =1.3846"


Answer: thickness required = 1.3846


2. See answer #1. It is the exact same problem. The important aspect of these problems
is how the C is arrived at. If the C is the same the answer will be the same if in fact it
is a replacement head made of the same materials!!!
API 510 Page 236 of 310
UG-28

D
0

(1) Cylinders having values 10
t
Testing to see if this paragraph applies.
D
0=54

D
0
54
= =48.08 t =1.123
t 1.123

Step 1. Our value of D
0
is 54 inches and L is 98 inches. We will use these to
determine the ratio of:
L 98
= = 1.81
D
0
54

Step 2. Enter the Factor A chart at the value of 1.8 determined above.

Step 3. Then move across horizontally to the curve D
0
/t =48. Then down from
this point to find the value of Factor A which is approximately .0022 .

Step 4. Using our value of Factor A calculated in Step 3, enter the Factor B
(CS-2) chart on the bottom. Then vertically to the material temperature line
given in the stated problem (in our case 300F).

Step 5. Then across to find the value of Factor B. We find that Factor B is
approximately 15000. Note due to the variance in the reading of the charts
answers and values may vary, but should be within a 5 % range of the solution.

Step. 6 Using this value of Factor B, calculate the value of the maximum
allowable external pressure Pa using the following formula:
4B
Pa = 3(D
0
/t)

4 x 15,000 60,000
Pa = = =416.66 psi
3(48) 144




416.66 psi >350 psi ANSWER: YES, your answer may be slightly different
+or-
5% due to the variation in reading the factor A and B charts. This is
acceptable.
API 510 Page 237 of 310
2.
L=105

P = 900 psi
emp. =800F
t = .730
L= 105
D
0
= 5.98" D
0
= 5.98"
S = 10,200 psi

t =.730

Check ratio of D
0
/
t
=5.98/
0.730
=8.19
8.19<10
D
0
/
t
<10

Therefore, use UG - 28(c)(2)

Step 1. Using the same procedure as given in UG-28(c)(1) obtain the value of
B.

Determine the ratio for L
/
D
0
and D
0/
t

L
/
D
0 =105 / 5.98 =17.55
D
0/
t =598 / 0.730 =8.19

[From UG-28(c)(1)]


Step 1. Enter Fig. G at the value of L / D
0
17.55

Step 2. Move horizontally to the line D
0 /
t 8.19 from this point move
vertically down to find Factor A 0.019.

Step 3. Using Factor A enter Factor B chart CS-2 at the value of Factor A.
Move up to the material / temperature curve for 800F and across to the Factor
B values. The factor B equals approximately 11,800.
[From UG-28(c)(2)]
API 510 Page 238 of 310
Step 2. Using the value of B obtained above calculate the value P
a
l using the following
formula:

2.167
P
a
l = - 0.0833 B
D
0/
t


2.167
P
a
l = 8.19 - 0.0833 11,800 =2139.2 psi

Step 3. Calculate the value of P
a
2 where S is the lesser of 2 times the maximum allowable
stress in tension at the design metal temperature from the stress tables or 0.9 times the yield
strength of the material at design temperature. Values of the yield strength are obtained from
the applicable material chart as follows:

(a). For a given temperature curve determine the B value that corresponds to the
right hand side termination point of the curve.

(b). The yield strength is twice the B value obtained in (a) above.

Use the Lesser of:

2 times the max. stress allowed in tension
or
0.9 times yield strength at temperature

(Case 1.): 2 x 10,200 psi =20,400 psi
or
(Case 2.): 2 x 12,500 psi =25,000 psi x 0.9 =22,500 psi

So use 20,400 psi in the calculation of P
a
2

P
a
2= 2S 1- 1
D
0
/t D
0
/t

P
a
2= 2 x 20,400 1- 1
8.19 8.19

P
a
2=4981.6[1-0.1221] =4373.34 psi

Step 4. P
a
will equal the smaller of P
a
1 or P
a
2:

P
a
=2139.2 psi

2139.2 psi >900 psi ANSWER.. Yes meets Code.

API 510 Page 239 of 310
UG-99 / 100

16,700
1. A. 1.5 x 225 x =383.41psi
14,700

B. 2 /3 x 383.41 =255.61psi

C. Minimum gage range 1-1/2 x 383.41 =575 psi (use 600 psi)

Maximum gage range 4 x 383.41 =1533.64 psi (use 1500 psi)
Of course the gage measure would be rounded up or down to closest standard range!

2. A. Raise the Pressure to 1/2 the test pressure x 310 psi =155 psi
B. Raise the pressure in steps of 1/10 of the ultimate test pressure 310 psi =31 psi
1. 155+31 =186 psi
2. 186+31 =217 psi
3. 217+31 =248 psi
4. 248+31 =279 psi
5. 279+31 =310 psi
6. 2/3 x 310 =248 psi inspection pressure. Notice that this is the same pressure
as found in step three on the way up to test pressure.


API 510 Page 240 of 310
UW-16

Throat =Leg Size x .707

Leg Size =Throat / .707

1. 1.125 x .707 =.7953" =throat size
2. Leg Size =.600 / .707 =.8486 therefore the next 1/16 would be a 7/8 inch leg.
13 / 16<.8486 <7/8 (14/16) or .8125<.8486<.875
UG-40 / 41 / 42 / 45

1. Ratio =15,000 / 14,800 =1.0135 therefore use 1.0 credit cannot be taken for the
higher
strength of the pad's material, only the reverse is true, that is you must reduce the area
that the pad provides if it is of a lower strength than the shell.

2. The centers can be no closer than the sum of their diameters and still be considered
isolated openings, in this case 6 +4 =10 inches. The answer is: their centers can be
no closer than 10 inches with out the areas of reinforcement overlapping.

3. The area of reinforcement must that of a hole which would contain all of the nozzles
with in it. It is treated as if it were on large hole for reinforcement calculation.

UG-37 Reinforcement

1. Corrosion allowance must be deducted from all surfaces in contact with the corrosive
substance.

2. A=d t
r
F +2t
n
t
r
F(1-frl) Area required

3. Answer: 4 points for the reinforcement and 4 points for the hydrostatic calculations.
Which one takes the most study time? Which one of these are you most likely to do
in actual practice? Which one of these is the most likely to be on the exam?
API 510 Page 241 of 310
UG-84

1. SA-370 (second paragraph of UG-84)
2. Charpy V-notch(only one mentioned in UG-84, first paragraph UG-84 Charpy impact
tests shall be performed)
3. 2.165" long x 0.394" thick see Fig. UG-84
4. 3 make a set
5. 3 sets, two from the weld metal and one set of heat affected zone specimens.
6. The P No. and the Group No. must be the same as will be welded in production.
7. Weld Metal and Heat Affected Zone.

UG-20 / UCS-66 / 68

1. Step 1. UG-20(f), Step 2. UCS-66(a) , Step 3. UCS-66(b) , Step 4. UCS-68(c)
2. When the Welded thickness exceeds 4 inches and the MDMT is below 120F.
3. When the governing thickness exceeds 6 inches and the MDMT is below 120F
4. 88F SA-515 gr. 70 is a curve A material
5. 48F a coincident Ratio of 0.6 will reduce any materials MDMT by 40F from that in
the curves / tables.

Solutions for Internal Pressure Cylinders

1. From: Appendix 1-1 P = Set / R
0
- 0.4t

Givens:
t
original
=.875 "
t
present
=.745
P = ?
S= 15,000 psi
E= 1.0
R
0=
14.87 R
0
=30 / 2 =15-(.875-.745) =15-0.13 =14.87 this adjusts the o.d.
wall loss

15,000 x l.0 x .745
P = =766.88 psi
14.87 - (0.4 x .745)

The trick here is knowing to adjust the outside radius for corrosion, remember it will
decrease when there is external corrosion. The opposite is true for internal corrosion.






API 510 Page 242 of 310

2. From: UG-27 (c)(1) t = PR
SE - 0.6P

Givens:
t
req
= ?
P = 375 psi
S = 17,500 psi
E = .90
R = 36 / 2 =18


375 x 18
t = =.4347
(17,500 x .90) - (0.6x 375)

In order to take .90 for the E on the category A joint, it must have full RT and the
circumferential joint must meet the spot RT required by UW-12(a).

3. From: UG-27(c)(1) P = SEt
R +0.6t

Givens:
t = .875
P = ?
S = 13,000 psi
E = .80
R = 60 / 2 =30

13,000 x .80 x .875
P = 30 +(0.6 x .875) =298.11 psi



4. From: UG-27(c)(1) t = PR
SE - 0.6P

Givens:
t = ?
P = 650 psi
S = 15,000 psi
E = 1.0
R = 50 / 2 =25

650 x 25
t =(15,000 x l.0) - (0.6 x 650) =1.112"


Here you must remember that UW-12(a) will not allow the use of a joint E from
column A unless the requirements of UW-11(a)(5) have been applied. If the spot RT had not
been performed the E would be taken from column B and have a value of .85.


API 510 Page 243 of 310
5. From: UG-27(c)(1) t = PR or P = SEt
SE - 0.6p R +0.6t

Givens:
t = 1.28
P = 200 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = 1.0
R = 14' / 2 =7' x 12 =84" Inside radius corroded =84+(1.375-1.28)
84.095

200 x 84.095 14,800 x l.0 x l.28
=1.145" or P = =223.23psi
(14,800 x l.0) - (0.6 x 200) 84.095 +(0.6 x l.28)


The answer to the question is YES it may remain in service.

Notice that since both pressure and thickness are known that either calculation can be
made. It does not matter which is used.

Solutions for Internal Pressure Heads


1. From: UG-32(e) t = 0.885PL (Torispherical Formula)
SE - 0.1P

Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = 1.0
L = 50" crown radius

0.885 x 250 x 50
t = =.7487"
(14,800 x l.0) - (0.1 x 250)

2. From: UG-32(d) t = PD
2SE - 0.2P
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = .85
D = 50" inside diameter

250 x 50
t = =.4978
(2 x 14,800 x .85) - (0.2 x 250)



API 510 Page 244 of 310

3. From: UG-32(f) t = PL
2SE - 0.2P
Givens:
t = ?
P = 250 psi
S = 14,800 psi
E = .85
L = 36.115" inside spherical radius

250 x 36.115
t = =.3595
(2 x 14,800 x .85) - (0.2 x 250)

ANSWER: NO

4. From: UG-34(c)(2) CP
t =d SE

Givens:
t = ?
t = .505" actual thickness of the shell
P = 250 psi
S = for head material 15,500 psi
S = for shell material 17,500 psi
d = for head 36"
D = for shell 36" inside
E = 1.0 for a seamless head
C = ?
Step 1. Calculate the Shell's required thickness

From: UG 27(c)(1) we use the t =formula to find that the shell's required
which is .259" remember to use the shell's material stress in this
calculation.

Step 2. Using the actual thickness of shell and its calculated required thickness find
"m"

From: The definitions of variables in and fig. UG-34(e) m =t
r
=.259 =.51
ts .505
Step 3. Calculate the value of C

From: Fig. UG-34(e) C =.33 x m =.33 x .51 =.1683

Since the minimum that C is allowed to be in this geometry is .20 use C =.20 to
solve.

Step 4. Calculate the required t of the flat head

t =36 .20 x 250 =36 .0032258 =36 x .0567961 =2.044
15,500 x l.0

Answer No: 1.984" <2.044
API 510 Page 245 of 310
API & ASME REVIEW QUESTIONS

HOW TO USE THESE QUESTIONS


The following questions and answers on the API are for memorization. The API Code
questions will be closed book. Practice remembering the key words as opposed to learning
the answers totally

The ASME Code questions are not for memorization. Use these questions to learn where to
find the answers in the ASME Code books. These will be open book questions and there is
no reason to commit them to memory. Study the API questions and answers first and see
how many answers to the API questions can be found in the ASME Code books. You may
be surprised at how many you can find, some will be slightly different. All API questions
found in the ASME Codes need not be remembered; all that is required is to know is where
they are located in the ASME Code.

API 510 Page 246 of 310
API 510
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Section 1 - General
1. What does the acronym API stand for? (Cover of API 510)

American Petroleum Institute

2. What does the acronym ASME stand for? (Forward API 510)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

3. The primary code for the inspection of pressure vessels after they enter service is?
(1.1.1)

API 510

4. What equipment can be inspected by the alternative rules in Section 6 of the API 510
code? (1.1.2.1)

All pressure vessels in NATURAL RESOURCE SERVICE such as drilling,
production, gathering, transportation, lease processing, and treatment of liquid
petroleum, natural gas, and associated salt water (brine).

5. Relative to pressure vessels, when does API 510 apply? (1. 1. 1)

Only applicable to vessels after they have been placed in service.

6. What does the API inspection code cover? (1. 1. 1)

Maintenance inspection, repair, alteration, and rerating procedures for pressure vessels
used by petrochemical industries.

7. Describe what is meant by an API "Section 6 vessel." (1.1.2.1)

A vessel which is exempted from Section 4 requirements.

8. What type of pressure vessels are exempt from periodic inspection requirements?
(1.1.2.2)

a. Pressure vessels on movable structures covered by other jurisdictional
requirements.
b. All classes listed for exemption from the inspection scope of the ASME Code
Section VIII, Division 1.
c. Pressure vessels that do not exceed specified volumes & pressures.

9. What is an alteration? (1.2.1)

A physical change in any component or a rerating which has design implications which
affect pressure-containing capability beyond the scope of existing data reports.




API 510 Page 247 of 310
10. What three situations should not be considered alterations? (1.2.1)

a. Comparable or duplicate replacement
b. Addition of reinforced nozzle less than or equal to
existing reinforced nozzles
c. Addition of nozzles not requiring reinforcement

11. ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code is often abbreviated as what? (1.2.2)

ASME Code

12. In what situation would the term "applicable requirements of ASME Code" be used?
(1.2.2)

When an item is covered by requirements of a new construction code, or if there is a
conflict between the two codes, the requirements of API 510 shall take precedent for
vessels that have been placed in service. EXAMPLE of INTENT -- The phrase
"applicable requirements of the ASME Code" has been used instead of the phrase "in
accordance with the ASME Code.

13. What is an Authorized Inspector or Inspector? (1.2.3)

An employee of an Authorized Inspection Agency who is qualified and certified to
perform inspection under the API 510 inspection code.

14. List 4 examples of an Authorized Inspection Agency. (1.2.4)

a. Inspection; organization of the jurisdiction in which the pressure vessel is used.
b. Inspection organization of an insurance company which is licensed or registered to
write and actually does write pressure vessel insurance.
c. An owner or user of pressure vessels who maintains an inspection organization for
activities relating only to his equipment and not for vessels intended for sale or
resale.
d. An independent organization or individual licensed or recognized by the
jurisdiction in which the pressure vessel is used and employed by or acting under
the direction of the owner or user.

15. Define "construction code". (1.2.5)

The code or standard to which a vessel was originally built

16. What does the term "inspection code" refer to in API 510? (1.2.6)

API 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code

17. Define J urisdiction. (1.2.7)

A legally constituted government administration, which may adopt rules relating to
pressure vessels.




API 510 Page 248 of 310
18. Define Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) as it relates to API 510.
(1.2.8)(Sect VIII UG-98)

The maximum gage pressure permitted at the top of a pressure vessel in its operating
position for a designated temperature that is based on calculations using the minimum
(or average pitted) thickness for all critical vessel elements, not including corrosion
allowance or loading other than pressure.

19. When determining Minimum Allowable Shell Thickness, what must be considered
when making calculations? (1.2.9)

Temperature, pressure, and all loadings.

20. What type of inspection.the suitability of pressure vessels for continued operation?

On-stream Inspection

21. What is the key element of an On-stream inspection? (1.2.10)

Because the vessel may be in operation while an on-stream inspection is being carried out,
the vessel is not entered for internal inspection.

22. What is a Pressure Vessel? (1. 2. 11) (Sect VIII U-1 (a))

A container designed to withstand internal or external pressure which can be imposed by an
external source, by the application of heat from a direct or indirect source, or by any
combination thereof.

23. What is a Repair? (1.2.12)

The work necessary to restore a vessel to a condition suitable for safe operations at the
design conditions. "IF" design temperature or pressure changes due to restoration, then
rerating requirements shall also be satisfied.

24. List the four examples of a Repair Organization. (1.2.13)
a. The holder of a valid ASME Certificate of
Authorization for the use of an appropriate ASME Code symbol stamp.
b. An owner or user of pressure vessels who repairs his own equipment in
accordance with the API 510 code.
c. A contractor whose qualifications are acceptable to the owner or user of pressure
vessels and makes repairs in accordance with API 510 code.
d. One who is authorized by the legal jurisdiction.

25. What is rerating? (1.2.14)

A change in either or both temperature or MAWP of the vessel. Note: rerating is not an
alteration unless a physical change to the vessel is made which requires additional
mechanical tests.

26. What is a permissible way to provide for corrosion? (1.2.14)

Derating below original design conditions.

API 510 Page 249 of 310
Section 2 - Owner-User Inspection Organization

27. What are the education and experience requirements for becoming an inspector? (2.2)

a. Degree in engineering & 1 year experience in the design, construction, repair,
operation, or inspection of boilers or pressure vessels.

b. 2-year certificate in engineering or technology from a technical college & 2 years
of experience.

c. Equivalent of a high school education plus 3 years of experience. (and).

d. Certification by an agency as provided in API 510.

28. What documents will be covered in the certification test for inspectors? (Appendix B)

The latest edition of API 510 and the applicable portions of Sections V, VIII, and IX of
the latest edition of the ASME Code

29. When will recertification be required? (Appendix B)

Recertfication by written test will be required for API authorized pressure vessel inspectors
who have not been inspectors within the previous three years.


Section 3 - Inspection Practices

30. Why are safety precautions important in pressure-vessel inspections? (3.1)

Because of the limited access to and the confined spaces of pressure vessels.

31. What must an inspector do before entering a vessel that has been in service? (3.1)

a. Obtain an entry PERMIT from operations or safety.
b. Assure that the vessel is properly secured - BLINDED.
c. Assure that someone outside the vessel is designated to assist in the case of
emergency. (STANDBY)

32. Explain the safety precautions and procedures that should be taken when performing an
internal inspection. (3.1)

a. Isolate vessel from all sources of liquids, gas or vapors.
b. Drain, purge, clean and ventilate.
c. Gas test.
d. Wear protective equipment as required.
e. Warn all persons working around the vessel that inspection personnel are inside.
f. Warn all inside the vessel of work that is done outside the vessel.
g. Cheek all tools and safety equipment needed before inspection.





API 510 Page 250 of 310
33. Name several types or causes of Deterioration and Failure in pressure vessels. (3.2)

a. Corrosion - contaminants in fluids react with metal
b. Stress fatigue - high stress, frequent reversals, cyclic temperature & pressure
changes
c. Thermal fatigue - locations where metals with different thermal coefficients of
expansion are welded together.
d. Deterioration or creep - equipment is subjected to temperatures above those for
which it is designed.

34. The actual or estimated levels of what threequantities must be used in any evaluation
of Creep? (3.2)

a. Time
b. Temperature
c. Stress

35. At ambient temperatures carbon, low alloy and other ferritic steels may be susceptible
to what? (3.2)

Brittle Failure

36. Define Temper Embrittlement. (3.2)

A loss of ductility and notch toughness due to PWMT or high temperature service
above 700 degrees F. (370 degrees C)

37. What kinds of steels are prone to Temper Embrittlement? (3.2)

Low alloy steels, especially 2 1/4-Cr- 1 Mo

38. What three methods may be used to determine the probable rate of corrosion? (3-3)

a. Calculate rate from data collected from same or similar service.
b. Estimate rate from owner-user experience or from published data on comparable
service.
c. On-stream determination after 1000 hours of service using corrosion monitoring
device or NDE thickness measurements (UT)

39. How (What should you use) should MAWP for the continued use of a pressure vessel
be established? (3.4)

By using the Code to which the vessel was fabricated or by using the appropriate
formulas and requirements of a later edition of the ASME Code to establish the design
temperature and pressure.

40. What is the most important and the most universally accepted method of inspection?
(3.5)

Careful visual examination



API 510 Page 251 of 310
41. What determines the parts of a vessel that should be inspected? (3.5)

The type of vessel and its operating conditions.

42. For proper visual examination what surface preparation is required? (3.5)

The surface must be clean, there is no hard and fast rule for cleaning equipment.

43. How would you check for distortion if observed on a vessel? (3.5)

The overall dimensions of the vessel shall be checked to determine the extent and
seriousness of distortion.

44. List other methods that may be used to supplement visual inspection. (3.5)
a. Magnetic-particle examination
b. Fluorescent or dye-penetrant examination
c. Radiographic examination
d. Ultrasonic thickness measurement & flaw detection
e. Eddy current examination
f. Metallographic examination
g. Acoustic emission testing
h. Hammer testing
i. Pressure testing

45. List the inspections, which include the features that are common to most vessels and
that are most important. (3.6)
a. Examine the surfaces of shells and heads carefully for possible cracks, blisters,
bulges, and other signs of deterioration.
b. Examine welded joints and the adjacent heat-affected zones for service-induced
cracks or other defects.
c. Examine the surfaces of all manways, nozzles, and other openings for distortion,
cracks, and other defects.

46. Name two reasons why it is necessary for the API 510 inspector to examine flange
faces. (3.6)
a. To look for distortion
b. To determine the condition of gasket-seating surfaces
47. Corrosion may cause what two forms of loss? (3.7)

a. Uniform loss - a general, relatively even wastage of a surface area
b. Pitted appearance - an obvious, irregular surface wastage

48. Name three ways the minimum thickness of a pressure vessel can be determined. (3.7)

a. Any suitable non-destructive examination
b. Measurements taken through drilled test holes
c. Gauging from uncorroded surfaces in the vicinity of the corroded are.





API 510 Page 252 of 310
49. For a corroded area of considerable size in which the circumferential stresses govern,
the least thickness along the most critical element of the area may be averaged over a
length not exceeding what? (3.7)

a. For vessels with inside diameters less than or equal to 60 inches (1 50 centimeters),
one half the vessel diameter or 20 inches (50 centimeters), whichever is less.
b. For vessels with inside diameters greater than 60 inches, one third the vessel
diameter or 40 inches (100 centimeters), whichever is less.

50. When can widely scattered pits be ignored? (3.7.e)
a. No pit depth is more than 1/2 the vessel wall thickness exclusive of corrosion
allowance.
b. Total area of pits does not exceed 7 sq. inches in any 8 inch diameter circle.
c. Sum of pit dimensions along any straight line within the circle does not exceed 2
inches.

51. When should the design by analysis methods of Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 4,
of the ASME Code be used? (3.7.)
a. To determine if components with thinning walls, which are below the minimum
required wall thickness, are adequate for continued service.
b. To evaluate blend ground areas where defects have been removed.

52. What do you use to determine if the thickness at the weld or remote from the weld
governs the allowable working pressure when the surface at the weld has a joint factor
other than 1.0? (3.7.g)

For this calculation, the surface at a weld includes 1 (2.5 centimeters) on either side of
the weld, or twice the minimum thickness on either side of the weld, whichever is
greater.

53. Describe the governing thickness when measuring the corroded thickness of ellipsoidal
and torispherical heads. (3.7.h)
a. The thickness of the knuckle region with the head rating calculated by the
appropriate head formula.
b. The thickness of the central portion of the dished region, in which case the dished
region may be considered a spherical segment whose allowable pressure is
calculated by the code formula for spherical shells.

54. What is the spherical segment of both ellipsoidal and torispherical heads? (3.7.h)

That area located entirely within a circle whose center coincides with the center of the
head and whose diameter is equal to 80% of the shell diameter.

55. On torispherical heads, what is used as the radius of the spherical segment? (3.7.h)

Radius of the dish

56. The radius of the spherical segment of ellipsoidal heads shall be considered to be what?
(3.7.h)

The equivalent spherical radius K1D, where D is the shell diameter (equal to the major
axis) and K1 is given in Table 1.

API 510 Page 253 of 310
Section 4 - Inspection and Testing of Pressure Vessels and Pressure-Relieving Devices

57. When is an internal field inspection of new vessels not required? (4.1)

When the manufactures' data report (U1) assuring that the vessels are satisfactory for
their intended service is available.

58. Name two factors to be considered when inspection intervals are being determined.
(4.1)

The risk associated with operational shutdown and start-up and the possibility of
increased corrosion due to exposure of vessel surfaces to air and moisture.

59. How often should each above ground vessel be given a visual external inspection? (4.2)

At least every 5 years or at the quarter corrosion-rate life, whichever is less.

60. When making an external inspection, what shall the inspection include? (4.2)

a. Condition of the exterior insulation
b. Condition of the supports
c. Allowance for expansion
d. General alignment of the vessel on its supports

61. Buried vessels shall be periodically monitored to determine their external
environmental condition. What shall the inspection intervals be based on? (4.2)

a. Corrosion rate information obtained during maintenance on adjacent connecting
piping of similar material.
b. Information from the interval examination of similarly buried corrosion test
coupons of similar material.
c. Information from representative portions of the actual vessel
d. Information from a sample vessel in similar circumstances

62. What is the minimum interval for checking the insulating system or outer jacketing of
vessels that are known to have a remaining life of over 10 years or that are protected
against external corrosion? (4.2)

5years

63. Question missing (4.3)

The maximum period shall not exceed one half the estimated remaining corrosion rate
life or 10 years, whichever is less.

64. If the remaining safe operating life is less than 4 years, what is inspection interval? (4-
3)

Interval may be the full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 2 years.




API 510 Page 254 of 310
65. Under what conditions would a vessel with corrosion rate less than 0.001 inch
(0.025 millimeter) per year be exempt from an internal inspection? (4.3)

a. Remains in the same service
b. Complete external inspections are made
c. Non corrosive character of the contents has been established by at least 5
years of comparable service
d. No questionable condition is disclosed by the external inspection
e. Operating temperature does not exceed lower temperature limits for
creep-rupture range of the metal
f. Vessel is installed so that the contents are not subject to inadvertent
contamination by corrosives.

66. Write the corrosion rate formula to be used when determining the safe remaining life of
a vessel. (4.3)

t
actual -
t
Remaining Life (years) = --------------------
minimum
corrosion rate
Where:
t
actual = the thickness, in inches millimeters), measured at the time of
inspection for the limiting section used to determine the minimum allowable thickness.
t

minimum =the minimum allowable thickness, in inches (millimeters), for the limiting
section or zone.
67. The remaining life formula shall be reduced to recognize what? (4.3)

Problems associated with external loading, faulty material, or fabrication.

68. When conducting a pressure test as part of a periodic inspection, what shall the shell
temperature be during the test? (4,4)

Shell temperature shall not be less then recommended by the applicable section of
ASME Code or 70 degrees F(20 C) and not greater than 120 degrees F (50 C).

69. When should pneumatic testing be done and what are some of the considerations to be
taken into account? (4.4)

Pneumatic testing may be used when hydrostatic testing is impracticable because of
temperature, foundation or process reasons, however, the potential personnel and
property risks should be considered.

70. Should safety relief valves ever be removed from a vessel? (4.4)

Yes, if a pressure test is being conducted in which the test pressure will exceed the set
pressure of the safety relief valve with the lowest setting.

71. When a pressure relief valve requires repair, who shall make this repair? (4.5)

Testing and repairs shall be made by a repair organization experienced in valve
maintenance. The repair organization shall have a written quality control system with
the minimum requirements as listed in 4.5 of the API 510 code and maintain a training
program to insure the qualifications of the repair personnel.

API 510 Page 255 of 310

72. How often shall a safety relief valve be tested? (4.5)

At intervals necessary to verify their reliable performance, up to a maximum of 10
years.

73. Pressure vessel owners and users are required to maintain permanent and progressive
records of their pressure vessels. What things are included in these records? (4.6)

a. Copies of manufacturers' data reports and other pertinent data records.
b. Vessel identification numbers
c. Relief valve information.
d. Forms on which the results of inspections, repairs, alterations, or reratings
are recorded.
e. Information on maintenance activities and events that affect vessel integrity.

Section 5 - Repairs, Alterations, and Rerating of Pressure Vessels

74. What must be done before any repairs or alterations are performed? (5.1)

All proposed methods of execution, all materials, and all welding procedures that are to
be used must be approved by the API authorized pressure vessel inspector and, if
necessary, by an engineer experienced in pressure vessel design, fabrication, or
inspection.

75. Can an inspector authorize repairs to ASME Section VIII, Division 2 vessels? (5.1.1)

Yes, under the conditions that repairs are limited or routine repairs and he has assured
himself that a pressure test will not be required. Otherwise, prior consultation with, and
approval by, an engineer experienced in pressure vessel design is required.

76. Who shall approve all specified repair and alteration work? (5.1.2)

The API authorized pressure vessel inspector, after the work has been proven to be
satisfactory and any required pressure test has been witnessed.

77. What must be removed prior to welding materials? (5.1.3)

Surface irregularities and contamination.

78. All repair and alteration welding shall be in accordance with what code? (5.2)

ASME Code

79. What must be done before preheating is used in lieu of PWHT? (5.2.3)

A metallurgical review must be conducted to determine if the vessel was postweld heat
treated due to the characteristics of the fluid contained in it.




API 510 Page 256 of 310
80 When may preheating to not less than 300 degrees F be considered as an alternative to
postweld heat treatment? (5.2.3)

For alterations or repairs of vessels initially postweld heat treated as a code requirement
and constructed of P-1 and P-3 steels listed in the ASME Code.

81. List the essential facts of Temper Bead Welding. (5.2.4)

a. Preheat - 350 deg. F minimum & maintain during welding. Maximum interpass
temp of 450 deg. F.
b. Initial layer entire measuring 1/8" electrode. Remove 1/2 layer by grinding.
Subsequent layers with 5/32" electrodes. Final layer removed substantially flush
with surface of base material or previous weld layer.
c. Heat input - control with specific current & voltage.
d. After weld repair maintain temp of 500 deg F(50 deg.) for minimum 2 hours.
e. Inspector to witness repairs welding.
f. Weld metal deposited by the manual shielded metal arc process (SMAW)
using low hydrogen electrodes. Maximum bead width 4 times electrode core
diameter.
g. Maximum depth of repair not greater than max. thickness exempt from PWHT in
accordance with UCS 56, ASME SEC.VIII DIV 1.

82. Can local postweld heat treatment (PWHT) be substituted for 360-degree banding? On
what materials? (5.2.5)
YES provided the following conditions are met:
a. Application is reviewed and procedure developed by engineer experienced in
pressure vessel design & PWHT requirements.
b. In evaluating the suitability of a procedure, all applicable factors (base metal
thickness, material properties, etc.) are considered.
c. Preheat of 300 degree or higher per WPS is maintained.
d. PWHT temperature is maintained for distance not less than 2 times base metal
thickness measured from weld. Minimum of 2 thermocouples is used.
e. Heat is applied to any nozzle or other attachment in PWHT area.

83. Per API 510, state the design requirements for:
Butt Joints, Replacement Parts
New Connections, Fillet Weld Patches
Overlay Patches, Flush patches (5.2-6)
a. BUTT J OINTS - shall have complete penetration and fusion.
b. REPLACEMENT PARTS - shall be fabricated in accordance with
"Principles" of ASME Code.
c. NEW CONNECTIONS - design, location, and method of attachment shall be
according to "principles" of ASME code.
d. FILLET WELDED PATCHES - require special design considerations, especially
relating to efficiency. May be applied to internal or external surfaces of shells,
heads or headers provided that the inspector judges that patch:
1. Patch provides equipment safety of repad.
2. Is designed to absorb membrane strain that complies with
applicable section of ASME Code.
e. OVERLAY PATCHES - shall have rounded corners.
f. FLUSH (insert) PATCHES shall have rounded corners and be installed
with full penetration butt joints.

API 510 Page 257 of 310
84. Describe the material suitable for making repairs or alterations. (5.2.7)

Shall conform to the applicable section of the ASME Code, be of known weldable
quality and be compatible with the original material. Carbon or allow steel with a
carbon content over 0.35 percent shall not be welded.

85. When making a repair or alteration, what should the acceptance criteria include? (5.2.8)

NDE techniques that are in accordance with the applicable sections of the ASME Code
or another applicable vessel rating code.

86. After repairs or alterations, is a pressure test required? (5.2.9)

Repairs - pressure-test only applied if inspector believes one is necessary.
Alterations - pressure test required.

87. Can alternative procedures be substituted for a pressure test after completion of
alterations? (5.2.9)

Substituting nondestructive examination procedures for a pressure test may be done
only after an engineer experienced in pressure vessel design and the API inspector
have been consulted.

88. List the requirements associated with rerating a pressure vessel. (5.3)
a. Calculations from either the manufacturer or an owner-user engineer experienced
in pressure vessels shall justify rerating.
b. Appropriate code requirements as established in accordance with the construction
code.
c. Inspection records verify the pressure vessel is satisfactory for the proposed
service conditions and that the corrosion allowance provided is appropriate.
d. Pressure test and/or NDE has at some time been performed in accordance with the
new service conditions to verify vessel integrity.
e. The pressure vessel inspection and rerating is acceptable to the API authorized
pressure vessel inspector.

89. When is the rerating considered complete?

When the API authorized pressure vessel inspector oversees the attachment of an
additional nameplate or additional stamping that carries the following information:
Rerated by:
Maximum Allowable Working Pressure psi at degrees F. Date

Missing pages 20 through 30










API 510 Page 258 of 310
API RECONMENDED PRACTICE 572
FIRST EDITION, FEBRUARY 1992
REVIEW QUESTIONS

Section 1 - General

1. What are the main points covered in API RP 572? (1. 1)

a. Description of various types of pressure vessels
b. Standards for construction
c. Reasons for inspection
d. Causes of deterioration
e. Frequency & methods of inspection
f. Methods of repair
g. Preparation of records and reports

Section 5 - Reasons for Inspection

2. What are the basic reasons for inspection? (5.1)

a. To determine the physical condition of the vessel
b. Determine the type, rate and causes of deterioration

3. List at least four additional reasons for inspections. (5.1)

a. Safety maintained
b. Periods of operation without shutdown extended - well planned maintenance
program
c. Rate of deterioration often reduced
d. Future repair and replacement requirements estimated

Section 6 - Causes of Deterioration

4. List the 4 general forms of deterioration. (6.1)
a. Electrochemical
b. Chemical
c. Mechanical
d. Combination of all three

5. List the 4 general classifications of things that cause deterioration upon coming into
contact with a vessel surface. (6.1)
a. Organic & inorganic compounds
b. Contaminated or freshwater
c. Steam
d. Atmosphere

6. Name 6 factors, which accelerate the rate of deterioration. (6.1)
a. Temperature
b. Stress
c. Fatigue
d. Impingement
e. High velocity
f. Irregularity of flow
API 510 Page 259 of 310

7. What is the prime cause of deterioration in a pressure vessel? (6.2)

Corrosion

8. What are the most common internal corrodents in refineries? (6.2)

a. Sulfur
b. Chloride compounds

9. Define erosion. (6.3)

The attrition of a surface from the impingement of solid particles or liquid drops on the
surface.

10. Where is erosion typically found? (6.3)

a. Inlet and outlet nozzles
b. Internal piping
c. Grid or tray sections
d. Vessel walls opposite inlet nozzles
e. Internal support beams
f. Impingement baffles

11. pressure vessels? (6.4) missing part of question

Micro structural or metallurgical changes which may affect the mechanical properties
resulting in cracking.

12. Give examples of metallurgical and physical changes. (6.4)

a. Graphitization
b. High-temperature hydrogen attack
c. Carbide precipitation
d. Intergranular corrosion
e. Embrittlement

13. List examples of mechanical forces. (6.5)

a. Thermal shock
b. Cyclic temperature changes
c. Vibration
d. Excessive pressure surges
e. External loads

14. Cracks, bulges, distortion, and upset internal equipment are visual signs of what? (6.5)

Application of mechanical forces

15. Many of the problems that may develop in pressure vessels are traceable to what? (6.6)

Faulty material or fabrication

API 510 Page 260 of 310
16. Poor welding, improper heat treatment, fabrication with dimensions outside tolerances
allowed by ASME Code, improper installation of internal equipment, and assembly of
flanged or threaded joints are examples of what problem? (6.7.1)

Faulty fabrication

17. ? missing question on copy (6.7.2)

a. Incomplete penetration
b. Lack of fusion
c. Cracking
d. Undercutting
e. Slag inclusion
f. Porous welds

18. High residual stresses near welds affecting the physical properties and corrosion
resistance of the metal is caused by what? (6.7.3)

Improper heat treatment

19. Dimensional intolerance can lead to what? (6.7.3)

Stress concentrations and subsequent failures

20. What are the consequences of improper installation of internal equipment? (6.7.5)

a. Inefficient operation
b. Blockage of passages
c. Displacement of internal equipment with pressure surges

21. Improper fitting or tightening of flanges or threaded joints may lead to what?

Leaks and possible failure

Section 8 - Methods of Inspection and Limits

22. Before starting inspection of a pressure vessel, what are some basic things the inspector
should do? (8.1)

a. Determine pressure and temperature conditions under which the vessel has
operated since last inspection
b. Ascertain the character of the vessel contents and the function the vessel serves in
the
process

23. Name at least 6 types of tools required by an inspector to inspect a pressure vessel.
(8.2.2)

a. Portable fights
b. Thin bladed knife
c. Broad chisel or scraper
d. Mirrors
e. Calipers
API 510 Page 261 of 310
f. Steel tape measure
g. Hammer
h. Notebooks and pencils
i. Magnets
j. Plastic bags

24. Where should the external inspection start? (8.3.2)

External inspection should start with ladders, stairways, platforms, or walkways
connected to or bearing on the vessel. The condition of most parts can be determined
by hammering.

25. What are most foundations constructed of? (8.3.3)

Foundations for vessels are almost always constructed of steel-reinforced concrete
structural steel fireproofed with concrete.

26. Relative to concrete foundations, what causes spalling? (8.3.3)

a. Excessive heat
b. Mechanical shock
c. Corrosion of reinforcing steel
d. Freezing of entrapped moisture

27. How do you check for lack of bond between concrete fireproofing and the protected
vessel? (8.3.3)

Light tapping with a hammer and picking with a pointed scrapper.

28. What is the proper way to check an anchor bolt on a piece of equipment? (8.3.4)

A sideways blow with a hammer - to determine if the bolt is deteriorated below the
base plate.

29. Often corrosion of structural elements can be virtually eliminated by a simple
procedure which is? (8.3.6)

Proper painting

30. What is one of the best methods for protecting steel structures? (8.3.6)

Galvanizing

31. Describe how you would determine the extent of bulging or buckling on a vessel in
service. (8.3.6)

They can be inspected visually with the aid of a straightedge or plumb line.

32. What should you inspect guy wires for? (8.3.7)

Tightness and correct tension - a visual inspection should be sufficient.


API 510 Page 262 of 310
33. What type of corrosion are turnbuckles subject to? (8.3.7)

Crevice corrosion

34. Explain proper installation of wire clips on guy wires. (8.3.7)

The clips should be attached to the cable with the base against the live or long end of
the wire and U-bolt against the dead or short end of wire.

35. What is the recommended resistance for grounding connections? (8.3.9)
5 ohms or less, not to exceed 25 ohms

36. Unchecked vibrations on auxiliary equipment such as gauge connectors can cause what
type of failure? (8.3.10)

Fatigue failure

37. What type of inspection is usually sufficient for protective coatings and insulation?
(8.3.11)

Visual

38. When should insulation or protective coatings be removed? (8.3.11)

When there is evidence of moisture or other corrosive agents have gotten through to the
metal surface.

39. What are the measurement requirements on external metal surfaces? (8.3.13)

Under normal conditions, at least one measurement in each shell ring and one on each
head. If no history exists for a vessel, then get a reading in each quadrant of each shell
ring.

40. What types of corrosion are found on external surfaces of vessel? (8.3.13)

a. Atmospheric
b. Caustic Embrittlement
c. Hydrogen blistering
d. Soil corrosion

41. Vessels containing acidic corrodents are subject to hydrogen blistering. Where would
this be found in the vessel? (8.3.13)

Those areas below the liquid level in vessels containing acidic corrodents are more
likely than other areas to be subject to hydrogen blistering.

42. What should a vessel be checked for if a caustic is stored in it? (8.3.13)

If a caustic material is stored or used in a vessel, the vessel should be checked for
caustic embrittlement.



API 510 Page 263 of 310
43. Evidence of white salts seeping through cracks will indicate what type of material?
(8.3.13)

Caustic material

44. Unless readily visible, leaks are best found by what means? (8.3.13)

Pressure or Vacuum testing

45. Describe how you would determine the extent of bulging or buckling on a vessel in
service. (8.3.13)

By measuring the changes in circumferences or by making profiles of the vessel wall.
Profiles are made by taking measurements from a line parallel to the vessel wall. A
surveyor's transit or a 180 degree optical plummet may also be used.

46. The degree of surface preparation needed for internal inspection will vary with several
factors. Foremost among these are:

a. Type of deterioration expected
b. Location of any deterioration

47. Cracks in vessels are most likely to occur where? (8.4.3)

In places where there are sharp changes in shape or size or near welded seams,
especially if a high stress is applied.

48. What may preliminary inspections reveal? (8.4.3)

Unsafe conditions, such as those due to loose internals that may fall or due to badly
corroded or broken internal ladders or platforms.

49. A detailed inspection should start at one end of the vessel and work toward the other
end and include what? (8.4.4)

A systematic procedure to avoid overlooking obscure but important items.

50. What should all parts of a vessel be inspected for? (8.4.4)

a. Corrosion
b. Erosion
c. Hydrogen blistering
d. Cracking
e. Laminations

51. Ultrasonic instruments can be used to obtain what kind of measurements? (8.4.4)

Thickness measurements

52. What types of methods are used for determining the extent of cracks? (8.4.4)
a. Dye penetrant
b. Magnetic-particle (wet or dry)
c. Ultrasonic shear-wave
API 510 Page 264 of 310
53. Explain the difference in appearance between erosion and corrosion. (8.4.4)

Erosion is characterized by a smooth, bright appearance: marked by the absence of the
erosion product; and metal loss, is usually confined to a clearly marked local area.
Corroded areas are not often smooth or bright.

54. What do the initials UT mean? (8.4.4)

Ultrasonic Test

55. How do you check for (a) small distortions, (b) bulging or buckling (c) out-of
roundness or bulging? (8.4.4)

a. Small distortions - by placing a straight edge against a vessel.
b. Bulging/buckling - measuring the changes in circumference or by profile
(measuring from a line strung parallel to the vessel).
c. Out-of round/bulge - by measuring the minimum and maximum internal deviation
at the cross sectional area and comparing the two.

56. What is the best method of locating suspected deformations? (8.4.4)

Direct a flashlight beam parallel to the surface to check for shadows in depressions and
on the unlighted sides of internal bulges.

57. What is the most sensitive method of locating surface cracking? (8.4.4)

Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Method

58. What is the difference between cracks and laminations? (8.4.4)

Laminations run at a slant to the plate surface. Cracks run at right angles to the surface.

59. Name three important factors in the inspection of metallic linings. (8.4.5)

a. That there is no corrosion
b. That the linings are properly installed
c. That no holes or cracks exist

60. Explain how the Corrosive Tab Method is used to determine the metal loss on vessel
linings. (8.4.5)

Small 1 by 2 inch tabs of lining that form a right angle are welded onto the lining with
one leg extended into the vessel. During inspections the thickness of the protruding leg
is measured, and, since both sides of the leg are exposed to corrosive action, the loss in
thickness would be twice that of the lining.







API 510 Page 265 of 310
61. What are principle methods used to inspect nonmetallic linings (glass, plastic, rubber,
concrete, and carbon block or brick). (8.4.6)

For the most part all of the above will be visually inspected for discontinuities or
physical damage. Specific: For paint, glass, plastic, & rubber lining the spark tester
method is used to locate holidays. For concrete, brick, tile, or refractory lining the
hammer testing method is used to locate lack of bond.

62. Name at least three factors for the selection of tools for thickness measurements. (8.4.7)

a. Accessibility from both sides
b. Desire for NDE methods
c. Accuracy desired
d. Time available
e. Economy

63. What are the primary means of obtaining thickness measurements? (8.4.7)

Ultrasonics instruments.

64. To analyze defects in welded seams that are not visible on the surface of the metal,
what two methods are used? (8.4.8)

a. Radiography
b. Shear-wave Ultrasonics

65. How does the Hammer Test function in supplementing visual examination of a stayed
vessel for the inspector? (8.5.1)

Thin Locate thin sections in vessel walls, heads, and attachments.
"Tightness" Check for tightness of rivets, bolts, brackets, and the like.
"Cracks and Lack of Bond" Check for cracks in metallic linings and lack of bond in
concrete linings.
"Scale" Remove scale accumulations for spot inspections.

66. When is use of the Hammer Test not recommended? (8.5.1)

a. When objects are under pressure
b. On piping upstream from a catalyst bed

67. What is pressure testing? (8.5.2)

Filling a vessel with liquid or gas and building up an internal pressure to a desired level.

68. Which is the preferred method, pressure or vacuum testing, and why? (8.5.2)

Pressure testing. Leaks from an internal pressure source are more easily located. With
vacuum testing you will know if there are leaks, but the location is not evident.





API 510 Page 266 of 310
69. Name the two most limits of corrosion or other deterioration that must be known by
inspection. (8.6)

a. The retiring thickness of the part considered
b. The rate of deterioration

70. What is the prime factor affecting retiring thickness? (8.6)

Safety

71. Before determining the limiting or retiring thickness of parts of any pressure vessel,
what must be known? (8.6)

a. Which Code and edition of that Code it is to be rated under.
b. Are there specific regulations regarding limits and allowable repairs.

Section 10-Records and Reports

72. A complete record file should contain what three types of information? (10. 1)

a. Basic data - manufacturers drawings, data reports and specifications, design
information, results of any material tests.
b. Field notes - notes and measurements recorded on site including record of
condition of all parts inspected and repairs required.
c. Continuous file - all information on the vessel's operating history, previous
inspections, corrosion rate tables, records of repairs and replacements.

73. When making reports recommending repairs, who should receive these reports? (10.2)

All management groups. This would normally include engineering, operation, and
maintenance departments. Reports should include the location, extent, and reasons for
recommended repair.

Appendix A - Exchangers

74. Why should bundles be checked when they are first pulled from the shells? (A.9. 1)

The color, type, amount, and location of scales and deposits often help to pinpoint
corrosion problems.

75. A distinctive Prussian Blue on bundle tubes indicates the presence of what? (A.9.2)

Ferriferro cyanide

76. Coils in open condenser boxes and double-pipe exchanger shells should be inspected
according to what API Recommended Practice? (A.1 0)

RP574





API 510 Page 267 of 310
CHAPTER 11
CONDITIONS CAUSING DETERIORATION OR FAILURES
SECOND EDITION, 1973
201 General

1. What are the modes of failure that can be found in refinery equipment? (201.2)

a. Fatigue Failures - is caused by stress reversals. (In machinery these cracks start at
the surface and progress with each stress reversal.)
b. Distortion Failures - occur when equipment is subjected to temperatures above
design temperature. At high temperatures the metal becomes weaker and
distortion occurs which may result in failure.
c. Brittle Fracture - carbon steels are susceptible to brittle fracture at ambient
temperatures and below. A number of tank failures have been attributed to the
brittle condition of steel at low temperatures, combined with high loads that have
been imposed by thermal stress set up rapid temperature changes.
d. Excessive Metal Loss - may result in failure if remaining wall thickness gets below
safety valve settings. This is a rare occurrence.
e. Wrong Material or Wrong Gaskets - may lead to failure.

202 - Corrosion

2. Corrosion problems in refining operations can be, divided into three major groups.
What are these groups? (202.1)

a. Corrosion from components present in crude oil
b. Corrosion from chemical used in refinery processes
c. Environmental corrosion

3. Name the corrosion compounds found in crude oil. (202.01)

a. Hydrogen Chloride and organic/inorganic chloride
b. Hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, & organic sulfur compounds
c. Carbon dioxide
d. Dissolved oxygen and water
e. Organic acids
f. Nitrogen compounds

4. What is hydrogen chloride? When does it become corrosion problem in process
streams? (202.022)

A dry hydrochloric acid (normally not corrosive in process streams). When water is
available to form hydrochloric acid.

5. What do all crude oils contain? (202.022)

Salt
6. What is the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing corrosion in refinery
equipment? (202.023)

Hydrogen Sulfide


API 510 Page 268 of 310
7. At what temperature range does accelerated hydrogen sulfide corrosion occur in
refinery equipment? (202.023)

Between 450F and 900F

8. What makes carbon dioxide corrosive? (202.024)

When it combines with water, it then becomes carbonic acid.

9. Where is corrosion by carbon dioxide found to most severe? (202.024)

In hydrogen plants

10. Dissolved oxygen and water is a corrosion problem in what equipment? (202.025)

Storage tanks

11. When are organic acids very corrosive? (202.026)

At their boiling temperatures. The most severe form of corrosion occurs upon
condensation.

12. What two forms of corrodents are formed when nitrogen is cracked in a cracking or
catalytic cracking unit? (202.027)

Ammonia & Cyanide

13. What is phenol and what is it used for? (202.033)

Carbolic acid - Used in refinery operations in the manufacture of lubricating oils and
aromatics.

14. What is caustic and what is it used for in refinery operations? (202.035)

Sodium Hydroxide - Used for the neutralization of acid components and for grease
manufacture.

15. When ammonia is permitted of contact copper base alloys in pH ranges of 8.0 and
above, severe corrosion in three form of general metal loss and stress corrosion
cracking will occur. How may this attack be identified? (202.037)

By the appearance of blue salt

16. What is the primary use of ammonia in the refining industry? (202.037)

a. As a refrigerant
b. For neutralization of acidic components in overhead streams, from pipe stills, and
catalytic cracking units

17. What materials is ammonia harmful to? (202.037)

Copper base alloys

API 510 Page 269 of 310
18. What is chlorine used for in refinery operations and when does it become very
corrosive? (202.038)

Used for treating cooling water and for the manufacture of sodium hypochlorite for
treating oils. It becomes very corrosive in contact with small amounts of moisture

19. Aluminum Chloride - What is it used for? What does it form in the presence of water?
How does it affect carbon steel arid stainless steels? (202.039)

Used as a catalyst in isomerization units. Forms hydrochloric acid in the presence of
water. Hydrochloric acid causes severe pitting corrosion in carbon steel and
Intergranular and stress corrosion cracking in stainless.

20. What is the term applied to atmospheric corrosion? (202.041)

Galvanic

21. What is needed to prevent atmospheric corrosion? (202.041)

Eliminate water from the surface of the metal by means of a protective barrier or
coating.

22. At what temperature does hidden corrosion take place under insulation and fireproofing
if moisture penetrates through cracks in the insulation? (202.042)

In vessels and piping operating below approximately 250F.

23. When does oxygen become destructive? (202.052)

At high temperatures oxygen reacts with steel to cause scaling (iron oxide).

24. Why may steam at high temperatures cause scaling? (202.053)

Because the steam may be decomposed to hydrogen and oxygen, and the free oxygen may
cause severe scaling.

25. Vanadium oxide corrosion does not take place below what temperature? (202.054)

1,100F

26. The extent of corrosive attack by hot sulfur compounds (sulfur dioxide, hydrogen
sulfide) depends on what three things? (202.055)

Concentration, temperature, and oxidizing power of the environment.

27. At what temperature does all gray cast iron begin to deteriorate, resulting in extreme
brittleness, loss of strength, scaling, and growth? (202.056)

800F

28. Growth of cast iron results from what two things? (202.056)

Graphitization & infiltration of corrosive gases into the structure
API 510 Page 270 of 310
29. What is graphitic corrosion? (202.063)

Low temperature corrosion of gray cast irons in which metallic iron is converted into
corrosion products, leaving the graphite intact.

30. In what material do you find graphitic corrosion and at what temperature does it occur?
(202.063)

In cast iron at temperatures below the dew point of water.

31. How can you recognize graphitic corrosion? (202.063)

By the soft porous structure that remains in the areas where it occurs.

32. What materials is mercury harmful to? (202.064)

a. Monel and copper based alloys (stress corrosion cracking)
b. Aluminum a1loys

33. Define Stress Corrosion Cracking. (202.064)

The spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under the combined action of corrosion
and tensile stress

34. What is dezincification? (202.066)

A type of corrosion that can occur in copper - zinc alloys (brasses) containing less than
85% of copper used in water service.


35. What are three types of dezincification? (202.066)

a. Plug - occurs in localized areas.
b. Layer - covers large areas.
c. Intercrystalline - occurs along grain boundaries.

36. What are inhibited brasses? (202.066)

Brasses which have been alloyed with arsenic, antimony, or phosphorus to inhibit
dezincification

37. What is galvanic corrosion? (202.067)

An electrochemical type corrosion that occurs when two different metals are
electrically connected, either by direct contact or by an electrical conductor, and are in
contact with an electrical solution called an "electrolyte".

38. What is contact corrosion (crevice corrosion)? (202.068)

A type of corrosion that occurs at the point of contact or in a crevice between a metal
and non-metal or between two pieces of metal in the presence of a corrodent.


API 510 Page 271 of 310
39. What is biological corrosion? (202.069)

Corrosion influenced by primitive organisms.

40. What are the most important micro-organisms that directly influence the rate of
metallic corrosion? (202.069)

Sulfate reducing bacteria found in many soils.

203 Erosion

41. Erosion is frequently a problem in equipment utilizing the fluid and solids principle.
What is this principle? (203.02)

If a gas stream of sufficient velocity is passed through a mass of finely divided solids,
such as a powder, the mass of particles will behave very much like a true liquid.

42. What method of deterioration does cavitation induce? (203.022)

Erosion. Cavitation erosion is associated with the formation and collapse of cavities in
a liquid at the metal to liquid interface.

204 - Effects of High Temperatures

43. Define creep. (204.012)

The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stress lower
than the normal yield strength.

44. A stress - rupture is what type of failure? (204.013)

A brittle type failure - stress rupture relates the time to failure with temperature and
stress.

45. When austenitic stainless steels are heated or cooled in the temperature range of 750F
to 1,650F, what does this make the material susceptible to? (204.022)

Intergranular corrosion

46. When ferritic steels are heated above a certain temperature (above 1,100F for mild
steel), how does this affect the material? (204. 022)

Leads to general lowering of the tensile strength.

47. What is incipient melting (burning)? (204.022)

When ferritic steels are heated above approximately 2,600F, melting and oxidation
will begin at the grain boundaries. The steel is called "burned" and will be very weak
and brittle upon cooling.




API 510 Page 272 of 310
48. What is Graphitization? (204.022)

A structural change in certain ferritic steels that have operated for a long period of time
between 825F and 1,400F. Carbide is unstable in that temperature range and may
decompose into iron (ferrite) and graphite (carbon).

49. What are the two general types of Graphitization? (204.022)

Random Graphitization - graphite distributed uniformly throughout the steel. Localized
Graphitization - graphite highly concentrated in local regions.

50. What is Sensitization? What happens to sensitized steel when exposed to corrodents?
(204.022)

When austenitic stainless steels are exposed to temperatures of 750F to 1650F
precipitation of a complex chromium carbide at the grain boundaries takes place.
When the sensitized steel is exposed to corrodents, intergrannular corrosion takes place.

51. What is decarburization? (204.034)

The loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium
that reacts with carbon. This results in lower tensile strength, hardness, and fatigue
strength. It can only be found by metallurgical examination.

52. At what temperature does hydrogen have a very destructive effect on steels? (204.035)

Above 450F

53. What curve shows the different steel / temperature limits for hydrogen service?
(204.035)

Nelson Chart

205 - Subnormal and Ambient Temperature Effects

54. Define notch toughness (a properly of metals). (205.01)

The amount energy necessary to cause fractures in the presence of a sharp notch or
stress concentrator.

55. Brittle fracture can be recognized by several characteristics. What are these
characteristics? (205.01)
a. Cracks propagate at high speed.
b. There may be a loud report or sharp rending sound.
c. There is almost a complete lack of ductility.
d. The fractured surfaces have a brittle or faceted surface.

206 - Excessive Pressure


56. What is excessive pressure? (206.01)

Those in excess of the MAWP of the equipment under consideration
API 510 Page 273 of 310

57. Name four causes of excessive pressure.(206.021;206.022;206.023;206.024; 206.025)

a. Added heat in excess of normal operations
b. Blocking off against a pressure source
c. Thermal expansion of a trapped liquid
d. Hydraulic hammer or resonant vibration

207 - Overloading

58. What are some indications of overloading of equipment? (207.02)

a. Visible distortion
b. Change of shape
c. Change of position

Appendix 1

59. Steel (ferrous alloy)is an alloy of iron and carbon. What is the carbon content range?
(App 1.A)

0.01% to 1.7% (Max. carbon content of weldable steels for Code purposes is 0.35%)

60. Usually for refinery construction steels have less than what percent carbon? (App 1. A)

Less than 1%

61. Steels for welding have a maximum of what percent carbon content? (App 1.A)

0.35%

62. There are two general types of steels. What are these? (App 1. A)

a. Ferritic Steel - ordinary carbon steel low and intermediate alloy steels, and high
alloy steels (straight chromium).
b. Austenitic - chromium - nickel stainless steels.

63. Non-ferrous metals and alloys contain what percent iron? (App 1 B)

Less than 50%

64. What is the only common copper - nickel alloy and what is it used for? (App 1 B)

Monel it is used for relatively low temperature corrosion resistance.

65. What are the major uses of commercially pure copper in refineries? (App 1 B)

Electrical conductors, gaskets, and corrosion resistance


66. What are the major uses of aluminum and its alloys in refineries? (App 1 B)

Corrosion resistance and for structures where lightweight is a necessity.
API 510 Page 274 of 310

CORROSIVE MATERIALS ADDED TO CRUDE WHICH CAUSE CORROSION

Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride - used in Alkylation units as a catalyst
Concentrations 85% to 95% for sulfuric acid and above 65% for hydrogen fluoride

Phenol (Carbolic Acid) - used for the manufacture of lubricating oils and aromatic
hydrocarbons.

Phosphoric Acid - used for a catalyst in polymerization units.

Caustic (Sodium Hydroxide) - used for neutralization of acidic components

Mercury - used in instruments

Ammonia - used as a refrigerant and neutralization of acidic components.

Chlorine - used to treat cooling tower water and manufacture of sodium hypochlorite for
treating oils.

Aluminum Chloride - used as a catalyst for isomerization units.


PREVIOUS NBIC QUESTIONS ON MATERIAL
1. What is in a mill test report (certified material report) and what is the authorized
inspector's interest in this document? (Def. App 3 Sect VIII)

It is a certified report from the material manufacturer attesting to the chemistry and
physical properties of the material. In the case of plate steel, it shows the heat number,
which is also stamped on the plate, and the chemical and physical specifications of the
material. It is used to identify the material and to verify that its properties meet
minimum Code specifications. This report must be in existence for most materials used
in Code boiler and pressure vessel construction.

2. When may an Authorized Representative of the pressure vessel manufacturer transfer
the required markings on plate material? (Section VIII Division 1, UG-77)

It is permissible for an Authorized Representative of the vessel manufacturer to transfer
the markings on the plate provided a record is made of such markings. The procedure
for making such transfer shall be acceptable to the Authorized Inspector.

3. a. When must the identification markings be transferred, when cutting plate material
into two or more parts?

b. What documentation is required for the transfer of material identification markings
according to Section VIII of the ASME Code? (Section VIII Division 1, UG-77)

a. After layout but prior to cutting the plate.
b. Any record acceptable to the Authorized Inspector.




API 510 Page 275 of 310
4. Under what conditions may surface defects in material be repaired by the
manufacturer? (Section VIII Division 1, UG-78)

Surface defects in materials may be repaired by the vessel manufacturer provided
approval of the Authorized Inspector is first obtained for the method and extent of
repair.

5. What causes a plate when rolled and formed into a cylinder to retain its shape?

The outer fibers of the material are stretched beyond the elastic limit.

6. a. What is the permitted under tolerance for plate material in Section VIII provided the
material specification permits plate to be furnished to an under tolerance?
(Section VIII, UG-16)
b. In ordering SA-53 pipe, what is the permitted manufacturer's under tolerance,
which must be added to the calculated thickness if ordering to a nominal wall
thickness?

a. 0.01
b. The allowed manufacturing under tolerance as given in Section II of the ASME
Code

7. Name two chemical or structural factors, which affect the hardness of steel.

a. Carbon content
b. Heat treatment

8. a. What objectionable characteristics would excessive percentages of phosphorus and
sulfur be expected to impart to plate material used -in vessel shells or other pressure
parts?
b. As an authorized inspector checking incoming material for use in a boiler or
pressure vessel, where would you look to find the percentages of the above
elements in the material being checked?
c. Where would you find the allowable percentages of these elements in a given
material?

a. High sulfur content causes surface cracks during the rolling process, which is
attributed to the hot shortness of the metal. High phosphorus causes cold shortness.
Both impart brittleness and decrease ductility and strength of the metal.
b. This information would be located on the mill test report for the material in
question.
c. This information is contained in the ASME Code, Section II, and Material
Specifications.










API 510 Page 276 of 310
9. Define the following properties of steel and state in what units they are normally
measured:

a. Ultimate Tensile Strength: In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original
cross sectional area. Measured in PSI.
b. Yield point: Yield Point: The first stress in a material in which there is increased
deformation under constant load. Measured in PSI. Elastic Limit: The point on the
stress-strain curve beyond which if stress is removed, the material does not return
to its original length. Measured in PSI.
c. Elastic limit: The point on the stress-strain curve beyond which if stress is
removed, the material does not return to its original length. Measured in PSI.
d. Ductility: Ability to deform plastically without fracture.

10. a. What is the maximum carbon content of carbon and low alloy steels to be used in
welded construction or to be shaped by thermal cutting process?
b. What objectionable qualities would excessive amount of the following impart to
steel plate?
1. Manganese
2. Phosphorous
3. Sulfur (Section VIII, UCS-5, API-510 5.2.7)

a. 0.35%
b. High phosphorus content causes cold shortness. High sulfur content causes
surface cracks during the rolling process, which is attributed to the hot shortness of
the metal. All three increase brittleness and decrease ductility and strength of the
metal.

11. What is the purpose of aluminum being added to steel?

At elevated temperatures, aluminum combines vigorously with oxygen. Accordingly, it
is added to molten steel to remove impurities, resulting in a more ductile material.

12. List at least six items, which can be found on a material mill test report.

a. Mill or manufacturer of the material
b. Chemistry of the material
c. Physical properties of the material
d. In the case of plate steel, it shows heat slab number from which the plate was made
e. Specification
f. Thickness of material

13. List the material product form(s), (pipe, bar, etc.) for which a Material Test Report is
always required by Section VIII, Div. 1.

Plate

14. Is a material supplier's (not the original material manufacturer) material test report
acceptable for Code pressure boundary plate material in lieu of the original material
manufacturer's test report? (Section VIII, UG-93)

No


API 510 Page 277 of 310
PREVIOUS NBIC QUESTIONS ON WELDING

1. May a GMAW, short circuit transfer, welding procedure be qualified using
radiography? (Section IX, QW-202.1)

No, mechanical tests are required for WPSs.

2. A SAW welding operator is attempting to qualify by radiography on a 6-inch thick test
coupon. Elongated slag inclusions are measured to be 0.2 inch long. Is the operator
qualified? (Section IX, QW-191.2.2)

Yes. Slag is less than 3/4"

3. May a FCAW welder qualified using RT, be used to weld a Section VIII, Division 1
pressure vessel using FCAW, SFA 5.20? (Section IX, QW-191.2.2)

Yes, welders and welding operators may be qualified by radiography on most materials

4. May a welder, qualified on a 2G plate coupon with SMAW; without backing material,
make a 6 inch circumferential pipe weld in the horizontal position using the SMAW
process with a backing bar? (Assume no F or P number change.)
(Section IX, QW-461.9, QW-353)

Yes, flat and horizontal by note (2) QW-461.9. QW-363 considers addition of backing
not an essential variable for a welder.

5. A welder is qualified in the 2G position on plate with backing using the GTAW
process. Is the welder qualified to use the following positions? (Section IX, QW-461)

Pipe groove welds in the F and H position. Yes
Plate groove welds in the H and V positions. No

6. a. May a welder, qualified in the 2G position on inch -thick plate, weld a 1 inch
outside diameter pipe, 1/4 inch thick in the horizontal position without
requalification (Assume SMAW, F-1 electrode in both cases.)
b. Why or why not (Section IX, QW-461.9)

a. No
b. Not qualified for small diameter pipe, 2-7/8"and over by note (2)

7. a. What ASME Code Section has welding electrode storage requirements?
b. Are they mandatory or recommended?

a. Section II, Part C
b. Recommended

8. What is a welder continuity log? (Section IX, QW-322)

Document to maintain a welder's qualification for compliance to QW-322.




API 510 Page 278 of 310
9. May a welder deviate from the parameters specified in a WPS if they are a nonessential
variable? (Section IX, QW-200.1(c))

No, the WPS would need revision.

10. May a welder who is qualified using a double-groove weld, make a single V-groove
weld without backing on a Section VIII, Division 1 vessel without requalification?
(Section IX, QW-200.1, QW-310.2)

No, a double weld is the same as backing

11. An SMAW WPS specifies an amperage range of 50-300 amps for E7018 electrodes.
The welder wants to use 400 amps to weld a groove weld.
(Section IX, QW-200.1(c), QW-253)
a. Must the procedure be requalified?
b. If not, what must be done as a minimum? If yes, why must it be requalified?

a. No nonessential variable per QW-409.8
b. Revise WPS

12. a. A welder was qualified with a P-1 test coupon without backing (using SMAW E7018
electrodes). May the welder weld P-4 material using E8028 electrodes in
production? (Assume the P-4 procedure using E8028 electrodes has been qualified
with backing.)
b. Why or why not? (Section IX, QW-403.18, QW-423.1))

a. Yes, Qualifying with a higher P-no. allows welding to a lower P-no. with
backing.
b. P-no.1 qualifies P1~11 and P-no. 4X

13. a. May a GTAW welder be qualified by radiography on a production weld in lieu of
bend tests? The test coupon will be P-22 material and the production welds will be
P-22 also.
b. If your answer is yes, what is the minimum test coupon length? If your answer is
no, why not? (Section IX, QW-304, QW-304.1)

a. Yes
b. 6

14. a. A repair organization has a WPS which states it is qualified for P-8 to P-8 material
welds with either E308, E308L, E309, E316, electrodes (SMAW process). The
PQR, supporting this WPS, states that the weld test coupons were SA-240 Type
304L material, welded with E308 electrodes. Is the WPS properly qualified for the
base material listed?
b. Explain your answer. (Section IX, QW-422)

a. Yes
b. SA-240 is P8 material.





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15. A groove weld WPS is qualified using an 8 inch thick test coupon. The testing
equipment for tensile and bends only accommodates 1 1/2 inch wide by 1 1/2 inch thick
specimens (maximum size). Only one welding process, F-number and base material is
used.

How many and what type (i.e., side, face or root) of tests are required? (If none, put
"none". Assume the minimum number of tests will be done. Show any calculations.)
(Section IX, QW-451)

a. Number of side bends 6 x 4=24
b. Number of tensiles 6 x 2=12

8 / 6 =1.33

Minimum number approximately equal

16. May an individual using the automatic SAW process be qualified by radiography on a 6
inch production weld and meet Section IX requirements? (Section IX, QW-305.1)

No, 3 feet; remember SAW requires a welding operator.

17. One PQR qualified with GTAW and another PQR qualified with SMAW may be
combined to qualify a WPS for GTAW and SMAW in combination. Give at least 4
items that will restrict the WPS. (Section IX, QW-200.4 (a))

a. P-number
b. Base material number
c. Heat treatment
d. Weld deposit

18. A welder was qualified in 1972. The welder's qualifications have been maintained
since that time. The requirement for small diameter qualifications (QW-452.3) did not
appear until 1975. The welder was originally qualified on 6 inch diameter pipe. May
the welder weld 1 inch NPS pipe today without requalification? The welding will be
attaching a 1 inch sit-on fitting to the wall of a Section VIII, Division 1 pressure vessel.
(Section IX, QW-100.3)

Yes

19. What are starting tabs and runoff tabs, how are they used and what are the advantages?

Whenever it is necessary to weld to the very end of a joint, it is necessary to provide
some means of restraining the metal so that it does not spill off the end. Run-off tabs
are the most commonly used method. They are steel tabs tacked to the ends of the weld
seam, having a joint similar to, and in alignment with the one being welded. An arc is
started on a run-off tab that is tacked to the start end of the weld and is stopped on a
second tab on the finish end of the weld. In addition to restraining the weld metal,
these tabs also minimize the discontinuities in the weld seam associated with the
starting and stopping of the welding process.




API 510 Page 280 of 310
20. a. Who is responsible for the quality of welding produced in Code manufacturer's
shop?
b. Who is responsible for qualification of welding procedures, welders and welding
operators?
c. Who may ask for the requalification of a welder?
(Section IX, QW-322.1, Sect. VIII, UW-26)

a. The manufacturer
b. The manufacturer
c. The authorized inspector

21. a. What is a welding procedure specification?
b. What is a welding procedure qualification?
c. What is a performance qualification test?
d. Who is responsible for preparing the foregoing and what are the requirements for
documentation under the Code? (Section IX, QW-200, QW-300, QW-301)

a. A written procedure prepared in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code to
provide direction to the welder/welding operator while making production welds to
Code requirements.

It shall describe in detail all of the variables which are essential and non-essential to
the welding processes employed in the procedure.

b. Procedure qualification is the welding of test coupons in accordance with a written
document known as a "Welding Procedure Specification." The coupons are then
tested in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code, and the welding data and
test results are then recorded in a document known as a "Procedure Qualification
Record." This documentation certifies that the procedure is capable of producing
sound weldments in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code.

c. A performance qualification test is used to quality a welder, or welding operator, for
each welding process to be used in production welding, in accordance with a
qualified welding procedure specification. Performance qualification tests are
intended to determine the ability of welders, and welding operators, to make sound
welds.

d. The manufacturer or contractor shall maintain a record of welding procedures and
welders and welding operators employed by him showing the date and results of
tests and the identification mark assigned to each welder. These records shall be
certified to by the manufacturer or contractor and be accessible to the Authorized
Inspector.











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22. a. Who is responsible for conducting tests of welding procedures, welders and
welding operators? (QW-103, QW-301.2)
b. How long does a welder's qualification remain valid? (QW-322)
c. Who maintains the qualification records of procedures, welders, and welding
operators? (Section IX, QW-103.2)

a. The manufacturer
b. A welder's qualification remains in effect indefinitely except:
1. When he has not used the specific process for a period of six months or more.
2. When there is specific reason to question his ability to make welds that meet
the specification.
c. The manufacturer

23. For welder qualification tests:
a. Will passing test on pipe specimens quality welder on plate?
b. Under what conditions may a welder be retested after one or more of his test
specimens failed to meet requirements?
c. How often should welders be required to make qualification tests?
(Section IX, QW-303, QW-320, QW-322)

a. Qualification on pipe for any position shall qualify for plate for the same
position.
b. A welder who has failed the tests prescribed may be retested under the
following conditions:
1. When an immediate retest is made, the welder shall make two
consecutive tests welds for each position which he has failed, all of which
shall pass the test requirements.
2. When the welder has had further training or practice, a complete retest
shall be made for each position on which he failed to meet the
requirements.
c. Renewal of qualification of a performance specification is required:
1. When a welder has not used the specific, process for a period of six
months.
2. When there is a specific reason to question his ability to make welds
that meet the specification.

24. Describe briefly the necessary steps in qualifying a welding procedure.
(Section IX, QW-201)

A welding procedure is qualified by making a weldment using a procedure which has
been written in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. The weldment is
then tested and evaluated in accordance with Section IX, and if the results are
satisfactory, the procedure is "qualified".










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25. a Under what conditions has an Authorized Inspector the right to call for
requalification of a welding procedure, a welding operator or welder?

b. Under what conditions may be Authorized Inspector require requalification of
nondestructive examination procedures or personnel performing nondestructive
examinations? (Section IX, Section V, T140)

a. The inspector may request requalification when there is a specific reason to
question the ability of the welding procedure, welding operator, or welder to
produce sound welds.

c. If there is a specific reason to question the procedure or the ability of personnel to
perform the examination.

26. What is a "backing strip" as used in metallic arc welding?

It is a strip of metal usually of the same composition as the material being welded, and
approximately 1/4" by 1" size. It is placed on the underside of the joint to be welded to
enable the welder to obtain complete penetration throughout the entire thickness of the
plate being welded.

27. What is the purpose of a backing strip applied to a groove weld in plate or pipe?
(Section IX, QW-492)

It is used to enable the welder to obtain complete penetration through the entire
thickness of the plate being welded from one side only.

28. Describe "Heat Affected Zone" and how can its effects be reduced?
(Section VIII, UW-40; Section IX, QW-492)

That portion of the base metal which has not been melted, but whose mechanical
properties or microstructures have been altered by the heart of welding or cutting.
Proper postweld heat treatment and control of heat input during the welding process can
reduce the effects.
29. What is meant by postweld heat treatment and how is it accomplished?
(Section VIII, UW-40)

Postweld heat treatment is the uniform heating of a structure or a portion thereof to a
temperature sufficient to relieve the major portion of the residual stresses created by the
welding process. The vessel is heated slowly to the temperature specified in Section
VIII subsection C of the ASME Code and held for a specified time. The vessel is then
allowed to cool slowly in a still atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding 800 degrees
F. The vessel shall be postweld heat treated by any of the following methods:

1. Heating the complete vessel as a unit.
2. Heating sections of the vessel in which case, the heat treatment of the final girth
joints shall be performed by heating uniformly a circumferential band having a
specified width on each side of the welded joint in such a manner that the entire
bank is brought up to the minimum holding temperature and held for the time
specified.



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30. What is meant by the terms "lack of fusion", "lack of penetration" and "slag
inclusions"? How are they caused and how should such conditions be remedied?

Lack of Fusion: The failure to fuse together adjacent layers of weld metal or weld
metal and base metal.
Causes:
a. Improper current settings
b. Improper welding technique
c. Failure to prepare joint properly
Remedies:
a. Selection of proper welding current
b. Deposit weld metal in such a manner as to insure good fusion
between the plates; in weave welding be sure weave is wide
enough to thoroughly melt the side of the joint.
c. Ascertain that the surfaces to be welded are free of objectionable
foreign material.

Lack of Penetration: The failure of the filler metal and base metal to fuse integrally
at
the root of the weld.
Causes:
a. Inadequate joint preparation
b. Insufficient welding current
c. Too fast welding speed
d. Electrode too large
Remedies:
a. Insure root opening and include angle of V-groove of proper
dimensions; use of a backing strip.
b. Increase welding current for proper fusion temperature.
c. Selection of a slower welding speed.
d. Proper selection of a welding electrode for the welding groove.

Slag Inclusions: Non-metallic solids that are entrapped in the weld metal or between
the weld metal and base metal.
Causes:
a. Stirring action of the arc which causes slag to be forced below
the surface of the molten metal.
b. Slag flowing ahead of the arc causing metal to be deposited
over it.
c. Improper joint preparation
Remedies:
a. Proper preparation of the groove to insure full penetration of
the arc.
b. Proper selection of electrode size.
c. Preheat.
d. High heat input.






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31. When plate specification heat treatments are not performed by the mill, but by the
fabricator, what additional steps must the fabricator do in regards to the mill plate
markings? (Section VIII, UG-85)

The heat treatments shall be performed by or under the control of the fabricator who
shall then place the letter T following the letter "G" in the mill plate marking to
indicate that the material specification heat treatments have been performed.

The fabricator shall also show by a supplement to the appropriate mill test report that
the specified heat treatment has been performed.
32. a. How does a welder performing manual arc welding create an electric arc and
maintain a circuit capable of melting a coated electrode and base metals together to
form a welded joint?
b. Name three arc welding processes. (Section IX, QW-492)

a. The electric welding machine has a positive and negative cable. One is connected
to the electrode holder and the other is attached to the part to be welded. When a
welder touches the work, he completes an electrical circuit. When he pulls the
electrode away slightly from the work the current continues to flow causing an arc
to be made between the work and the rod. This arc is the source of heat which
melts the base metal and filler metal, causing themto flow together.
b. GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding a/k/a MIG
GTAW - Gas Tungsten - Arc Welding a/k/a TIG
SAW - Submerged Arc Welding
FCAW - Flux Cored Arc Welding
SMAW - Shielded Metal - Arc Welding a/k/a stick

33. a. What is the basic difference between gas metal and gas tungsten arc welding
processes?
b. In submerged arc welding, what conducts the current between the electrode and the
base metal?
c. What is Shielded Metal Arc Welding? (Section IX, QW-492)

a. The basic difference is that in gas metal arc welding a consumable electrode is
used, and in gas tungsten arc welding a nonconsumable (tungsten) electrode is
used.
b. The flux in its molten state
c. An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them
with an arc between a covered metal electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained
from decomposition of the electrode covering. Pressure is not used and filler metal
is obtained from the electrode.

34. What are two principal difficulties encountered in welding with heavily coated
electrodes?

Too much sidewall undercutting, slag inclusions, or excessive porosity.







API 510 Page 285 of 310
35. What is a covered electrode? (Section IX, QW-492)

A composite filler metal consisting of a core of bare electrode to which a covering
sufficient to provide a slag layer on the weld metal has been applied. The covering may
contain materials providing such functions as shielding from the atmosphere,
deoxidization, and arc stabilization and can serve as a source of metallic additions to
the weld.

36. How must a welder identify the welding which he has performed in production and
why is this necessary? (Section VIII, UW-37)

The welder may stamp his mark adjacent to all welds made by him, or he may stamp
adjacent to a continuous weld or series of similar joints made by him at intervals of not
greater than 3 ft. or, in lieu of stamping, the manufacturer or contractor may keep a
record of welded joints and the welders making the joints. Section VIII, ASME Code
requires this identification of the welder.

37. Define distortion of a welded part and give two ways to control this distortion.

During the welding operation stresses of high magnitude may result from thermal
expansion and contraction, and remain in the weldment after the structure has cooled.
Such stresses lend to cause distortion or warpage. Rigid fixtures and careful selection
of welding sequence will minimize distortion. Peening, under controlled conditions,
has also been used to reduce distortion.

38. a. What are "locked-in" stresses in a vessel and how are they caused?
b. How are these stresses relieved? (Section VIII, UW-40)

a. "Locked up stresses" are those internal stresses remaining in the weld metal and
adjoining base metal when a weld has been made. They are caused by the fact that
the weld metal and the base metal are of considerably different temperatures when
the metal is made, and therefore do not expand and contract uniformly, thereby
setting up internal stresses.
b. Proper Postweld Heat Treatment

39. How should welded butt joints in a vessel be prepared for radiography?
(Section V, T222.2 UW-35)

The weld ripples or surface irregularities on both the inside (if accessible) and outside
shall be removed by any suitable process to such a degree that the resulting
radiographic image due to any irregularities cannot mask or be confused with the image
of any discontinuity.

40. Is it permissible to locate an opening in a shell or head, (such as a manway, nozzle, etc.)
across a welded longitudinal or circumferential joint? (Section VIII, UG-37, UW-14)

Yes, provided the opening meets the requirements for compensation.





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41. a. What is the maximum allowable alignment tolerance or offset permitted at the
welded longitudinal joint, using plates up to 2" thick?
b. How should joints between plates of unequal thickness be prepared?
(Section VIII, UW-9, UW-33)

a. The maximum allowable alignment tolerance for welded longitudinal joints in
Section VIII vessels is as follows:

Section Thickness, in. Tolerance
Up to 1/2 in., incl. 1/4 t
Over 1/2 in. - 3/4 in., incl. 1/8 in.
Over 3/4 in.- 1 1/2 in., incl. 1/8 in.
Over 1 1/2 in.- 2 in., incl. 1/8 in.
Over 2 in. the lesser of Tolerance 1/16 t or 3/8 in.

t =nominal thickness of the thinner section at the joint.

b. Plates of different thickness by more than one fourth of the thickness of the
thinner plate, or by more than 1/8" required a tapered transition section having a
length not less than three times the offset between the adjoining surfaces.

42. Describe briefly the nature and extent of qualification tests of welders who are to be
employed in the fabrication of boilers and pressure vessels.(Section IX, QW-300, QW-
452)

Welders must qualify by welding a test specimen using a procedure which has been
written in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. The test specimen is tested
and evaluated in accordance with Section IX, and if the results are satisfactory, the
welder is "qualified" under that particular welding procedure specification.

43. a. What is the difference between a transverse face bend test and a transverse root
bend test, in procedure or performance qualification tests of welding?
b. Are tension tests required for qualification of
1. A welding procedure?
2. A manual welder? (Section IX, QW-161, QW-451, QW-452)

a. A face bend applies to a test specimen which is bent so that the face of the weld
becomes the convex surface of the bent specimen. A root bend applies to a
specimen which is bent so that the root of the weld becomes the convex surface of
the bent specimen.
b. 1. Yes
2. No

44. What steps are necessary to qualify a welder for all position pipe welding?
(Section IX, QW-303, QW-461.9)

He must qualify in the fixed horizontal (2G) and the fixed vertical (5G), or the multiple
position (6G).

45. What are the two methods of guided-bend tests permitted by the Code?
(Section IX, QW-162, QW-466)
a. Bottom ejection method.
b. Wrap around method.
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46. List the various positions in which a welder may qualify for groove welds and describe
each. (Section IX, QW-120)
Plate Positions
1. Flat position (1G): Plate in a horizontal plane with the weld metal deposited from
above.
2. Horizontal position (2G): Plate in a vertical plane with the axis of the weld
horizontal.
3. Vertical position (3G): Plate in a vertical plane with the axis of the weld vertical.
4. Overhead position (4G): Plate in a horizontal plane with weld metal deposited
from underneath.
Pipe Positions
1. Position - 1G: Pipe with its axis horizontal and rolled during welding so that the
weld metal is deposited from above.
2. Position - 2G: Pipe with its axis vertical and the axis of the weld in a horizontal
plane. The pipe shall not be rotated during welding.
3. Position - 5G: Pipe with its axis horizontal and with the welding groove in a
vertical plane. Welding shall be done without rotating the pipe.
4. Position - 6G: Pipe with its axis inclined at 45 degrees to the horizontal.
Welding shall be done without rotating the pipe.

47. In what position must the test plates be when a welder makes his test welds?
(Section IX, QW-303)

Generally, the test plates should be in whatever position the welder will encounter in
actual work. But, it is possible to qualify in one position and perform production work
in other positions. For instance, for groove welds:
a. Qualification in the 2G position shall also qualify for the 1G position.
b. Qualification in the 5G position shall qualify for the 1G and 2G positions.
c. Qualification in both the 2G and 5G positions or in the 6G position shall qualify
for all positions.
48. What tests are required for examination of welds made for qualification of a welding
procedure? (Section IX, QW-202, QW-451)

Tension and transverse bend tests are required as follows-
a. Test plate thickness less than 3/8", two reduced section tension tests, two face
bend tests and two root bend tests required. For thickness over 3/8" but less than
3/4", four side bend tests may be substituted for the face and root bend tests.
b. Plate thickness 3/4" and over, two reduced section tension tests and four side bend
tests are required.


49. What are the type and number of tests required for Performance Qualification?
(Section IX, QW-452 (note 7))

The following guided bend tests are required for performance qualification on plate.
a. For test plate thickness less than 3/8", one face bend and one root bend are
required. For thickness over 3/8" but less then 3/4", two side bend tests may be
substituted for the required face and root bend tests.
b. For test plate thickness 3/4" and over, two side bend tests are required.




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50. What is an essential variable on a welding procedure specification?(Section IX, QW-
251.2)

Essential variables are those in which a change, as described in the specific variables, is
considered to affect the mechanical properties of the weldment, and shall require
requalification of the welding procedure specification or the welder. The variables are
listed in Section IX of the ASME Code.

51. What is a nonessential variable on a welding procedure? (Section IX, QW-251.3)

Nonessential variables are those in which a change, as described in the specific
variables, may be made in the welding procedure specification without requalification.

52. Name a defect that would cause you to reject a welder's test plate.(Section IX, QW-
163)

Open defects exceeding 1/8" in the guided bend specimen.

53. Who is responsible for conducting tests of welding procedures and for qualifying
welding operators? (Section IX, QW-103)

Each manufacturer or contractor is responsible for the welding and qualification tests
done by his organization.

54. Is a welding procedure qualified under the 1965 ASME Code Section IX still
applicable? Why or why not? (QW-100.3)

Yes. Procedure and performance qualifications made in accordance with the
requirements of the 1962, or any later Edition of Section IX may be used in any
construction.

55. What is a fillet weld? (Section IX, QW-492)

A weld of approximately triangular cross-section joining two surfaces approximately at
right angles to each other in a lap joint, tee joint or corner joint.

56. What is the throat of a weld? (Section IX, QW-492)

The throat is the shortest distance from the root of a fillet weld to its face.

57. What is porosity as used in welding?

Porosity is the result of gases, produced during the welding process, being entrapped
within the molten metal.

58. What is the axis of a weld? (Section IX, QW-461)

A line through the center of the weld, parallel to the sides of the weld.




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59. a. What is the maximum length of slag inclusion allowed in a welded seam, as seen
on the radiograph for any thickness of plate? (App 12 Sect VIII)
b. What is the maximum length of crack for the same plate thickness?
(Section VIII, App 12)

a. The maximum length of slag allowed in a welded seam is:
for t up to
1/3t for t from 3/4" to 2 1/4"
3/4" for t over 2 1/4"
Where t is the thickness of the weld.
b. No crack, regardless of size, is allowed.

60. How long must a set of radiographs be kept on file for a pressure vessel?
(Section VIII, UW-51 (a)(1))

A complete set of radiographs and records for each vessel or part must be retained by
the manufacturer until the data report is signed by the inspector.

61. Should a qualified welder for one certificate holder be allowed to weld for another
certificate holder? (Section VIII, QW-29 (e))

No. The performance qualification test for welders and welding operators conducted by
one certificate holder shall not qualify a welder or welding operator to do work for any
other certificate holder.

62. Are welding operators who are to weld on ASME boiler and pressure vessels certified?

No. The welding operators are not certified by anyone under the requirements of the
ASME Code. The manufacturer certifies that the welding has been done by operators
who have passed the required test, and that the same material and techniques were used
in the tests as were employed in fabricating the boiler or vessel.

63. Explain the difference between a guided bend test and a free bend test.

A guided bend test is made by the use of a combination male and female jig in which
the test specimen is "guided" to its Final U shape. In a free bend test the pressure is
applied to the ends of the specimen, and the test specimen is allowed to bend freely at
the weld line. Both tests are used to check ductility of the weld material.

64. What is fusion welding?

A group of processes in which metals are welded together by bringing them to the
molten state at the surfaces to be joined, with or without the addition of filler metal,
without the application of mechanical pressure or blows.

65. In metallic welding, what is meant by the terms "weaving" and "beading"?

The electrode is directed from side to side in the welding groove when depositing weld
metal by "weaving, and in a straight line when deposited metal by "beading".



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66. In performance qualification of pipe groove welds to ASME Section IX, which position
requires more than two guided bend specimens for qualification?
(Section IX, QW-452 (note 4))

5G and 6G

67. What precautions are made before joining together by a butt weld a 7/8" head flange
with a shell plate? Why are these precautions necessary? (Section VIII, UW-9)

A tapered transition section having a 1ength not less than three times the offset between
the adjoining surfaces shall be provided. The transition section may be formed by any
process that will provide a uniform taper. The weld may be partly or entirely in the
tapered section or adjacent to it. The transition section is necessary to reduce the stress
concentrations at the joint.

68. What is the maximum reinforcement allowed on a welded seam? (Section VIII, UW-
35)
Maximum Reinforcement, in inches

Nominal Thickness, Circumferential Other
in Pipe and Tubing J oints Welds
Less than 3/32 3/32 1/32
Over 3/32 to 3/16, incl. 1/8 1/16
Over 3/16 to 1/2, incl. 5/32 3/32
Over 1/2 to 1, incl. 3/16 3/32
Over 1 to 2, incl. 3/16 1/8
Over 2 to 3, incl. 1/4 5/32
Over 3 to 4, incl. 1/4 7/32
Over 4 to 5, incl. 1/4 1/4
Over 5 5/16" 5/16

69. A welder may qualify for fillet welding of any diameter by taking a plate groove weld
test in what position as a minimum? (Section IX, QW-303)

Welders and welding operators who pass the required tests for groove welds in the test
positions of QW-461.9 shall be qualified for the positions of the groove welds and
fillet welds shown in QW-461.9. In addition, welders and welding operators who pass
the required tests for groove welds shall also be qualified to make fillet welds in all
thickness and pipe diameters of any size within the limits of the welding variables of
QW-350 or QW-360, as applicable.

70. Who certifies welding performed on vessels fabricated under Section VIII of the ASME
Pressure Vessel Code? (Section VIII, UW-26)

Each manufacturer (certificate of authorization holder) is responsible for the welding
done by his organization and, shall establish the procedures and conduct the tests
required in Section IX to qualify the welding procedures he uses in the construction of
the weldments built under Section VIII and the performance tests of welders who apply
these procedures.




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71. A welder has been tested in the 6G position, using an E-7018 F4 electrode, on 6"
schedule 160 (.718" nom.) SA-106B pipe. Is this welder qualified to weld a 2 300#
ANSI schedule 80 bore flange to a 2" schedule 60 SA-106B nozzle neck? Explain your
answer. (Section IX, QW-452.3)

No. Qualification in a pipe position in a diameter greater than 2 7/8" nominal only
qualifies for groove and fillet welds in pipe 2 7/8" diameter and over.

72. You are reviewing a WPQ (QW-484) for a welder testing in the 6G position on SA-53
grade B pipe (TS 60,000 psi). The test results indicate the following:

1. Tensile developed 61,000 psi, broke in the weld.
2. Tensile developed 66,000 psi, broke in base metal.

1. Transverse root bend satisfactory.
2. Transverse face bend satisfactory.

a. Would the test be acceptable?
b. Explain your answer. (Section IX, QW-452.1, QW-302.3)

a. No
b. The performance qualification on the 6G position required 4 transverse bend tests,
2 root and 2 face or 4 side bends. The tension tests, while satisfactory, are not
required.

73. For ASME welders' qualification tests:

a. Will qualification on pipe for all positions also qualify the welder to weld all
positions
on plate?
b. How may a welder who fails on one or more test specimens be retested
immediately? (Section IX, QW-303, QW-318)

a. Qualification on pipe for any position shall qualify for plate for the same position.

b. When an immediate retest is made, the welder shall make two consecutive test
welds for each position which he failed, and both of which shall pass the test
requirements.

74. A welding electrode has the marking F-6010. Explain what each letter and number
represents.
E Electrode
60 The minimum specified tensile strength / 1,000
1 The recommended position and coating
0 Type of coating and recommended current

75. A welder qualified by welding in the 5G position is also qualified for what other
positions?
(Section IX, QW-469.1)

Qualification in the 5G position shall also qualify the welder in the I1G and 2G
positions.

API 510 Page 292 of 310
PREVIOUS NBIC QUESTIONS ON NDE

1. Section VIII, Division 1 magnetic particle nondestructive examination personnel shall
be qualified in accordance with which of the following?

a. Section VIII, Division 1 (Appendix) standards
b. Section IX
c. SNT-TC-1A-1980
d. ASME Code Section V
e. SNT-TC-1A as a guide (Appendix 6, Paragraph 6)

2. When performing radiography in accordance with Section VIII, Division 1, must a
written procedure be used? (Section VIII, UW-51)

No

3. Must manufacturer's personnel who inspect to Section VIII, Division 1 be qualified to
Section V, Article 9 visual standards? (Sect V Art 9 & T-910)

No

4. Must a Section VIII, Division 1 Liquid Penetrant examination be performed using a
written procedure? (Sect VIII Appendix 8)

Yes

5. Must the AI physically witness a Section VIII NDE procedure being qualified?
Explain.

No, but the manufacturer must satisfy the Inspector that it will work as intended.

6. When subcontracting a nondestructive examination, which of the following lids the
responsibility for assuring the acceptance criteria are met? (Sect V, T-150)

a. Certificate Holder
b. Inspector
c. Level III Examiner
d. Both a and b

7. Is Type 1 film the only one that can be used for radiographs that are to be in
compliance with Section V?

No

8. In accordance with Section V, which is a true statement in regards to intensifying
screens? (Sect V, T-232)
a. Can always be used.
b. Can be used unless restricted by the referencing Code.
c. Can never be used.
d. Can be used only with Type 1 film.



API 510 Page 293 of 310
9. A single film technique was used to make a radiograph using a Cobalt-60 source.
Which of the following is the minimum permitted density in the area of
interest?(Section V, T-282.1)

a. 4.0
b. 1.8
c. 2.0
d. 1.3

10. A radiograph is made using an X-ray source, and two films in each film holder. If the
film is to be viewed, separately which of the following is the minimum permitted
density?

a. 11.0
b. 1.8(Section V, T-282.1)
c. 2.0
d. 1.3

11. When reviewing a radiograph, a dark image of the letter B can be seen on the film.
Does this indicate an unacceptable radiograph? (Section V, T-284)

No

12. Which of the following is a device used to determine the image quality of a
radiograph? (Sect V, T-233)

a. A step wedge comparison film.
b. A densitometer
c. A penetrameter
d. All of the above.

13. A weld with a nominal thickness of 1.5 inch is to be radiographed using a film side
penetrameter. The penetrameter designation should be which of the following?
(Sect V Table T-276)

a. 25
b. 30
c. 35

14. Describe nondestructive examination of a welded joint and give three examples.
(Section V, T110)

An examination of a welded joint that will disclose surface and sub-surface
discontinuities without physical harm to the welded joint. Such examinations can be
conducted by radiography, ultrasonics, liquid penetrant or magnetic particle testing.

15. What type of flaws can be detected by each of the following nondestructive methods?

a. Liquid Penetrant Testing Surface discontinuities
b. Magnetic Particle Testing Surface and slight sub-surface discontinuities
c. Radiographic Examination Surface and subsurface discontinuities
d. Ultrasonic examination Surface and sub-surface discontinuities

API 510 Page 294 of 310
16. Describe how a liquid penetrant examination should be performed in order to detect
discontinuities which are open to the surface, per Article 6 of ASME Code Section V.
(Section V-T600)

The part is first thoroughly cleaned of oil, dirt, etc., then a liquid penetrant is applied to
the surface to be examined and allowed to enter the discontinuities. All excess
penetrant is then removed, the part is dried, and a developer is applied. The developer
functions both as a blotter to absorb penetrant that has been trapped in discontinuities
and as a contrasting background to enhance the visibility of penetrant indications. The
dyes in penetrants are either color contrast (visible under white light) or fluorescent
(visible under ultraviolet light).

17. In magnetic particle examination of a welded joint, is alternating current or direct
current normally used? Why?

Direct current is normally used because it produces a field that penetrates deeper
throughout the part it is more sensitive than alternating current for the detection of sub-
surface discontinuities.

18. Which of the following is employed in magnetic particle examination?

a. High voltage, low amperage
b. High amperage, high voltage
c. High amperage, low voltage
d. Low voltage, low amperage

19. What is the advantage of dry type over wet type magnetic particle examination?

Dry type magnetic particle examination will give a better indication of sub-surface
discontinuities and the equipment is more portable.

20. What is the difference between X-ray and gamma-ray radiography?

X-rays are high energy rays produced by a machine. Gamma rays are energy emitted
from radioactive isotopes by the process of decay. Other than the method by which they
are produced and their wavelength, which is dependent on the energy level that
produces them, there is no basic difference between the two. The energy level of X-
rays may be varied or selected within the rating of the equipment, whereas the energy
level of gamma rays is fixed and cannot be varied.

21. Give a brief description of the X-ray technique used in the inspection of welded joints
in shells. (Section VIII, UW-51(a)(3), Section V T-283)

All welded joints to be radiographed shall be by the X-ray or gamma-ray method in
accordance with Article 2 of Section V of the Code. The radiographic examination
shall be performed with a technique of sufficient sensitivity to display the penetrameter
image and the specified hole.
22. Describe the general shape of gas cavities on a radiograph and tell if these areas would
be lighter or darker in contrast with areas of defect-free material?

a. Circular
b. Darker

API 510 Page 295 of 310
23. In a radiographic film of a vessel weld, how are the following characteristics measured
or judged? (Section V, T282, T283)

a. Film sensitivity or quality
b. Film density

a. Penetrameter
b. Densitometers or step-wedge comparison films

24. What are penetrameters and what are they used for? (Section V, T233, T262)

A penetrameter is a small strip of material, fabricated or radiographically similar
material to the object being inspected, and having a thickness of approximately 2% of
the object being radiographed. The penetrameter has three holes in it. The sizes of
these holes are 1T, 2T and 4T where T is the thickness of the penetrameter. The 2T
is designated as the essential hole, i.e., the hole whose image must appear on the
radiograph. Penetrameter thickness and essential hole size requirements are listed in
tables in Section V of the ASME Code.

The penetrameter is identified with a number made of lead, which is attached to the
penetrameter. This number indicates the thickness of the penetrameter in thousandths
of an inch.

A penetrameter is used for evaluating radiographic technique in that it serves as an
image quality indicator; proper technique should display the penetrameter image and
the specified hole.

25. From what type of material should shims be fabricated when they are to be used to
radiograph welds in pressure vessels? (Section V, T277.3)

A shim shall be fabricated of radiographically similar material to the object to be
inspected.

26. a. If penetrameters are not placed adjacent to the welds, what rules apply?
b. For materials being radiographed other than welds, where is the penetrameter
placed? (Section V, T-277)

a. The penetrameter should be placed on the source side of the material being
radiographed. However, where inaccessibility prevents this, the penetrameter may
be placed on the film side of the material being radiographed provided a lead
letter "F" at least as high as the identification number is placed adjacent to the
penetrameter.
b. For material other than weld, a source side penetrameter shall be placed in the area
of interest.

27. Under ASME Code Section VIII, what are the upper and lower densities acceptable for
viewing if the density through the body of the penetrameter is 2.7? Assume single film
viewing. (Section VIII, T-282.2)

-15% =2.295
+30% =3.510

API 510 Page 296 of 310
28. a. In radiography a butt welded joint of 1 thickness, on what side of the weld is
the penetrameter normally placed? (Section V, T-277.1 (a), (b))
b. If found to be impractical to use the penetrameter in its normal position, what
compensation must be made in penetrameter thickness for use on the opposite side
of the object to be radiographed?
c. What identification is required to indicate that a penetrameter is used in other than
its normal location or side?

a. The penetrameter should be placed on the source side of the material being
radiographed. However, where inaccessibility prevents this, the penetrameter may
be placed on the film side of the material being radiographed.
b. In accordance with Section V Table T-276, the next smaller penetrameter would be
used.
c. In lead letter F at least as high as the identification number shall be placed
adjacent to the penetrameter.

29. Give two ways radiography fails to give complete inspection information, even though
properly performed.

a. Very tight cracks and/or discontinuities which are less than 2% of the material
thickness may not be detected by radiographic methods.
b. Radiography may not detect discontinuities that are perpendicular to the lines of
radiation (laminar type discontinuities).

30. What is a radiograph?

A radiograph is a shadow picture produced by the passage of X-rays or gamma rays
through an object onto a film. When the rays pass through the object, part of the
radiation penetrates the material and part is absorbed. The amount of radiation
absorbed and the amount which penetrates are a function of the thickness of the
material. Where a void or discontinuity exists, there is essentially less material to
absorb the radiation. Therefore, more radiation will pass through this section and a
dark spot corresponding to the projected position of the void will appear on the film.

31. Name two radiation sources permitted for radiographic examination in the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (Section V, T-272)

The two common radiographic sources in industrial use today are X-ray machines and
artificially produced radioactive isotopes certain metallic elements.


32. For Section VIII vessels, to what guidelines are UT requirements for examination of
welds performed? (Section VIII, UW-53)

Appendix l2 and Section V, Article 5

33. Who has the responsibility of preparing an ultrasonic examination report?
(Section VIII, Appendix 12)

The manufacturer



API 510 Page 297 of 310
34. How shall procedure requirements for ultrasonic examination of welds be performed?
(Section V, T-150)

Procedure requirements for ultrasonic examinations shall be performed to a written
procedure which has been proven to the satisfaction of the Inspector.

35. on a radiograph? (Section V, T-223, T-284) missing part of question.

A check on back scattered radiation, a lead symbol B with minimum dimensions of
height and 1/16 thickness shall be attached to the back of each film holder. If a
light image of the "B" appears on a darker background of the radiograph, protection
from back scatter is insufficient and the radiograph shall be considered unacceptable.
A dark image on a lighter background is not cause for rejection.

36. What is a densitometer used to determine? (Section V, T-225, T-234, T-262)

A densitometer (or step wedge comparison film) shall be used for judging film density
requirements. Film density is a measure of overall readability.

37. As a radiographer is removing cassettes (film holders) from a weld seam that has just
been radiographed, you notice that there is nothing attached to the back of the cassettes.
Would these radiographs be acceptable Explain your answer. (Section V, T-223, T-284)

No, as a check on back-scattered radiation, a lead symbol "B" with minimum
dimensions of height and 1/16 thickness shall be attached to the back of each film
holder. If a light image of the "B" appears on a darker background of the radiograph,
protection from backscatter is insufficient and the radiograph shall be considered
unacceptable. A dark image on a lighter background is not cause for rejection.

38. Give two types of lighting for visual inspecting that can be safely used in a confined
space. (NBIC)

Low voltage lighting; either a battery powered flashlight or extension lights powered by
isolation transformers at no more than 12 volts.

39. How are ASME Code requirements for ultrasonic examination of welds properly
transmitted to individuals performing the examination? (Section V, T-150)

By the applicable procedure specification

40. What does the Piezo material in the search unit do in the Ultrasonic testing method?
Most transducers consist of a small piezoelectric element, which have the capability of
converting the electrical signal generated in the test instrument into mechanical
vibrations (or ultrasound). These elements act reversibly on echo signals.









API 510 Page 298 of 310
41. a. Does Article 2 of Section V normally require penetrameters to be placed on the
source side or the film side?
b. For welds, does Section V permit penetrameter placement on the weld, adjacent to
the weld, or both?
c. Under what conditions may penetrameter identification numbers be placed in the
area of interest? (Section V, T-277)

a. The penetrameter(s) shall be placed on the source side of the part being examined,
except where inaccessibility prevents hand placing the penetrameter(s) on the
source side, it shall be placed on the film side in contact with the part being
examined.
b. The penetrameter(s) may be placed adjacent to or on the weld.
c. For materials other than welds, the penetrameter(s) with penetrameter
identification may be placed in the area of interest.

42. List three items that may be requirements of the referencing Code Section or Section V,
Artic1e 5, when Ultrasonic Examination is a requirement of the code. (Section V, T-
.521)

Article 1, General Requirements, and Appendix A, Glossary of Terms used in
Nondestructive Examination, apply when the use of this Article is required by a
referencing Code section.

43. Name three different methods of conducting "Visual Examinations (VT).
(Section V, T-940, T-942, T-943)

a. Direct
b. Indirect (or remote visual examination)
c. Translucent

44. What purpose do lead intensifying screens serve in the X-ray examination process?
(Section V, Article 22-9.1, SE-94)

Lead foil intensifying screens used in the X-ray examination may be placed directly in
front of the film. The screen provides an intensifying action and, in addition, the back
one acts as a filter by preferentially absorbing back scattered radiation from the
specimen thus improving image quality.
45. What is the minimum allowable density through the image of the penetrameter for
radiographs made with:
a. A 2000 kv tube?
b. Cobalt 60? (Section V, T-282.1)

a. 1.8 - 4.0 (for any X-ray source)
b. 2.0 - 4.0 (for any gamma ray source anything besides a tube)
46. a. What is the purpose of shims when performing radiography?
b. Where are they placed?
c. What kind of material may they be made from? (Section V, T-277.3)

a. Shims may be used when necessary to produce a radiograph in which the
radiographic density throughout the area of interest in no more than minus 15%
from (lighter than) the radiographic density through the penetrameter.
b. They are placed under the penetrameter.
c. A radiographically similar material to that being examined.
API 510 Page 299 of 310

47. On a set of cassettes containing film for a seam just radiographed, you notice the lead
location markers (i.e., 1 to 2, 2 to 3, etc.) are taped to the cassettes. Would these
radiographs be acceptable? (Section V, T-275, Article 22-15.2)

No. Location markers that are to appear on the radiographic film should be placed on
the part being examined and not on the cassettes.

48. Name the four main factors governing the penetrating ability of an X-ray.

a. Energy level (kv)
b. Material type
c. Density of material
d. Distance from material

49. What is the minimum number of penetrameters required for the following?
a. A complete girth seam containing 30 radiographs shot with a single exposure?
b. Twelve radiographs on a longitudinal seam shot from the outside with a single
exposure? (T-277.2(a)(1))

a. Requires 3 spaced 120 degrees apart.
c. Requires 12

50. a. If the density through the penetrameter is 2.50, what would the maximum
allowable density and minimum allowable be through the weld represented by this
penny?
b. If the density through the weld (area of interest) is uniform and measures 2.5, what
is the maximum and minimum allowable density through the penetrameter?
(Section V, T-282)

a. Minus 15% to plus 30% allowed.
2.5 +30% = 2.5 +.75 =3.25
2.5 - 15% = 2.5 - .4 =2.125
b. 2.5 / 1.3 =1.92
2.5 / .85 =2.94

51. Describe how the following surfaces shall be prepared for Ultrasonic Examination.
a. Contact surfaces
b. Weld surfaces
c. Base material (Section V, T-534)

a. The finished contact surfaces shall be free from weld splatter and any roughness
that would interfere with free movement of the search unit or impair the
transmission of ultrasonic vibrations
b. The weld surfaces shall be finished so they cannot mask or be confused with
reflections from defects, and should merge smoothly into the surfaces of the
adjacent base materials.
c. The volume of base material through which the sound will travel in angle beam
examination shall be completely scanned with a straight beam search unit to detect
reflectors which might affect interpretation of' angle beam results.



API 510 Page 300 of 310
52. What method of Ultrasonic Examination of welds is permitted by the Code? (Section
V, T-531)

Pulse-echo type

PREVIOUS NBIC QUESTIONS ON FABRICATION

1. What is the maximum elongated slag inclusion acceptance criteria for 100%
radiography of Section VIII, Division 1 vessels? The vessel is 1 inch thick carbon
steel. (Section VIII, UW-51)

1/3(t); t =1 Therefore, 1/3"

2. When reviewing PWHT charts, name 4 items you would review to verify compliance
with Section VIII, Division 1 heat treating requirements. The material is carbon steel
material P-1. (Section VIII, UCS-56; Appendix 10-11)
a. Heat up rate
b. Time at temperature
c. Cool down rate
d. Calibration records
e. PWHT records and signoffs

3. Distinguish between witnessing and verifying a nondestructive examination.

"Witnessing" - to observe the operation.
"Verify" - review of records verify completion of an operation.

4. A vessel designed for 1000 psi is to be hydrostatically tested at l500 psi. Is the
inspector required to examine the vessel for defects at 1500 psi? (Section VIII, UG-
99g)

NO. Vessel should never be examined at test pressure.

5. May a 1250 psi pneumatic test be substituted for a 1500 psi hydrostatic test if it is
shown that the testing liquid weight, in the vessel, will be unsafe for the vessel design?
(Design pressure is 1000 psi). (Section VIII, UG-100b)

Yes
6. Where are the QC program requirements described in Section VIII, Divisions 1?

Appendix 10

7. When fu11y radiographing a longitudinal seam in a vessel, must the weld always be
ground flush (no weld reinforcement) for Section VIII, Division 1? An efficiency of
1.0 wi11 be used. (Section VIII, UW-35)

No

8. What is the acceptable maximum reinforcement Section VIII, Division 1 permits on
each side of a 1 inch thick circumferential weld? (Section VIII, Table UW-35)

3/16"

API 510 Page 301 of 310
9. Abutting edges of a circumferential head-to-shell seam in a vessel are misaligned by
3/8 inch. The shell is 2 1/4 inch thick. Corrosion allowance is 0.375 inches. Heads are
F and D type. Is this fit-up within the Code permitted limits? (Show any calculations)
(Section VIII, Table UW-33)

No. Lesser of 1/8(t) or 3/4": 2.25/8 =.280;
3/8" greater than .280, therefore, do not accept.

10. A vessel has a partial penetration, double "v" butt joint for a Category B joint. Shop
drawings indicate the vessel wall is 2 inches thick. The measured reinforcement of the
finished weld is found to be 1/8 on each face. Does this vessel comply with Section
VIII, Division 1 requirements? (Section VIII, UW-35)

No - must he full penetration.

11. Must a vessel fabricated by welding 1 3/8 inch thick SA-335, grade P7 (5CR - 1/2 Mo
alloy) material be fully radiographed? (Section VIII, UCS-57)

Yes - P-5 material.

12. A seamless shel1 (1 course) with two seamless elliptical heads are combined to form a
vessel. No radiography is performed. The attaching welds are all Type 2. The vessel
is constructed to the requirements of Section VIII, Division 1. What joint
efficiency/quality factor must be used in the head and shell calculations (assume
circumferential stress governs). (Section VIII, UW-12d)

Head =.85
Shell =.85

13. A steam separator is fabricated from SA-53 seamless pipe, 3/16 inch thick. What if
any, corrosion allowance is required as a minimum? (Section VIII, UG-25 & UCS-25)

1/16"
14. A vessel data report has a specified corrosion allowance of inch. Does the Code
require that, means to drain the vessel be provided"? (Section VIII, UG-25)

Yes

15. A vessel manufacturer wants to install a3 inch diameter nozzle through a vessel wall.
The nozzle will be welded from the outside only using a full penetration weld. Is this
permitted if no fillet weld is used on the outside? (Section VIII, Figure UW-16.2)

No

16. A carbon steel vessel is designated for lethal service. Is full radiography and postweld
heat treatment required? (Section VIII, UW-2(a))

Yes, for CS and LA steels.




API 510 Page 302 of 310
17. May non-pressure attachments be welded to the pressure boundary of a vessel after
hydrostatic testing? Assume a new hydrostatic test will not be performed prior to
stamping with the U. (UG-99)

No welding after hydro

18. Must an entire vessel satisfy UG-20 (f) in order to take the exemption for impact testing
per UG-84?

No, UG-20 (f) applies to vessel materials. Materials which cannot be exempted per
UG-20 (f), must be checked per UCS-66.

19. Can the design temperature go below -20 degrees F when applying the UG-20 (f)
exemption?

Yes, per UG-20 (f) (3) occasional temperature excursions below -20 degrees F due to
seasonal weather changes are allowed.

20. Can UG-20 (f) be used to exempt ERW pipe from impact?

Yes. All product from pipe is considered Curve B material. Thus, if the governing
thickness is less than 1" thick, the pipe is exempted from impacts.

21. What is the maximum permissible distortion in the diameter of a cylindrical shell?
(Section VIII, UG-81)

The cylinder of a shel1 shall be circular at any section within a limit of 1% of the mean
diameter.

22. In the designing of a pressure vessel, what is meant by the term "inherent
compensation" and where would this term be used in your calculations? (Section VIII,
UG-36(c)(3))

"Inherent compensation" is reinforcement built-into the shell, heads, or nozzles through
design. This built-in reinforcement is provided by additional thickness over and above
the thickness required to resist pressure.

















API 510 Page 303 of 310
PREVIOUS NBIC QUESTIONS ON
HYDROSTATIC TESTING

1. a. On a pressure vessel of welded steel construction, why is the hydrostatic test
limited to 1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure?
b. What is the purpose of this test?
c. List the steps in carrying out a hydrostatic test on a 150 psi vessel.
(Section VIII, UG-99)

a. To prevent damage to the vessel as a result of exceeding the yield point of the
material.
b. Discloses leaks and gross errors in design.
c. 1. Calculate hydrostatic test pressure (1.5 x 150 =225 psi)
2. Blank off or properly gag the safety valve(s) (if applicable)
3. Fill with water at ambient temperature. Metal temperature shall be at least 30
degrees above minimum design metal temperature. (Vessel is vented of air)
4. Prior to the hydrostatic test, the test gauge shall be checked to see that it is
calibrated correctly and functioning properly.
5. Warn all personnel in the area to stand clear.
6. Raise the pressure gradually to 1 1/2 times the maximum allowable working
pressure as shown on the data report to be stamped on the boiler. The pressure
shall be under control at all times.
7. Allow the hydrostatic test pressure to remain on the vessel for an appreciable
length of time. Close visual inspection for leakage is not required at this time.
8. If-no pressure drop, reduce the pressure to the maximum allowable working
pressure, and after a sufficient amount of time has lapsed, inspect the seams,
nozzles, etc., for leakage.
9. Drain the vessel and open for an internal inspection for possible damaged parts.

2. What is a hydrostatic or pressure test and why is it used?

The purpose of the hydrostatic test is to see that all welds, joints, and tube connections
are tight and if there are gross errors in design. It is not a proof test. The hydrostatic
test is also used on new construction, when repairs are made, or to determine the exact
source of leakage or defect suspected in some part of the vessel.

3. When the construction of a pressure vessel has been completed, should the hydrostatic
test be applied with no regard to water temperature? What are the rules concerning
temperature? (Section VIII, UG-99)

Any non-hazardous liquid at any temperature may be used if below its boiling point. It
is recommended that metal temperature be maintained at least 30 degrees F above the
minimum design metal temperature. Test pressure shall not be applied until the vessel
and contents are about the same temperature.

4. When conducting a pressure test as part of a periodic inspection, what shall the shell
temperature be during the test? (API-510 4.4)

Shell temperature shall not be less than that recommended by the applicable section of
the ASME Code or 70 degrees F and not more than 120 degrees F.

5. a. In applying a hydrostatic test to a steam vessel, what should the temperature of the
water be?
API 510 Page 304 of 310
b. What is the maximum that the hydrostatic test pressure may be exceeded?
(Section VIII, UG-99)

a. Minimum of 70 degrees F maximum during close examination 120 degrees F
(metal temperature)
b. The pressure shall be under control at all times so that required test pressure is
never exceeded by more than 6%, 29- for existing installations.















































API 510 Page 305 of 310
PART D - PROPERTIES
Table 1A
NOTES TO TABLE 1A (CONT'D)

(B) Section III Application (Cont'd)

B3: I-8.1 (Cont'd)

(3) These stress values include a 0.92 factor applied to structural plate quality and are based on 55.0 ksi maximumultimate tensile
strength.
(4) For external pressure chart references, see Tables I.14.0.
(5) Minimumthickness after forming any section subject to pressure shall be 3/16 in,
(6) Nonwelded
(7) Welded.
(8) Not permitted for service temperature below 275 F.
(9) Thickness over 0.580 in. through 0.750 in.
(10) Thickness over 0.375 in. through 0.580 in.
(11) Thickness 0.375 in. and less.
(12) Material that conforms to Class 10, 13, 20, 23, 30, 33, 40, 43, 50, or 53 is not permitted when a weld efficiency factor of 1 00 is
used in accordance with Note (3) above.
(13) Material that conforms to Class 11 or 12 is not permitted.


B4: I-12.1

NOTES:
(1) Until rules for welding this material can be added to Section III, this material is not for welded construction.
(2) The following are the abbreviations used for product forms: (a) Wld.-Welded; (b) Smls.- Seamless.
(3) For the maximumthickness permitted by the material specification or 2 1/2, in-, whichever is less.
(4) For thickness greater than 2 1/2, in., but not to exceed the maximumthickness permitted by the material specification.

(C) Section VIII, Division 1 Application

C1: UCS-23

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures.
(b) Stress values in restricted shear such as dowel bolts or similar construction in which the shearing member is so restricted that the
section under consideration would fail without reduction of area shall be 0.80 times the values in the above Table.
(c) Stress values in bearing shall be 1.60 times the values in the above Table.
(d) Stress values may be for 100 F and lower if considerations are given to toughness requirements.

NOTES:
(1) See UCS-6 (b).
(2) These stress values are one-fourth thespecified minimumtensile strength multiplied by a quality factor of 0.92, except for SA-283,
Grade D, and SA-36.
(3) See Part UCS, Nonmandatory Appendix CS.
(4) Only killed steel shall be used above 850 F.
(5) To these stress values a quality factor as specified in UG-24 shall be applied for castings.
(6) These stress values apply to normalized and drawn material only.
(7) These stress values are established froma consideration of strength only and will be satisfactory for average service. For bolted
joints, where freedomfromleakage over a long period of time without retightening is required, lower stress values may be
necessary as determined fromthe relative flexibility of the flange and bolts, and corresponding relaxation properties.
(8) Not permitted above 450 F; allowable stress value 7000 psi.
(9) Between temperatures of 750 F and 1000 F, inclusive, the stress values for SA-515, Grade 70 may be used until high temperature
test data become available.
(10)...
(11) For temperatures below 400 F, stress values equal to 20% of the specified minimumtensile strength will be permitted.
(12) Stress values apply to normalized, or normalized and tempered or oil quenched and tempered material only, as per applicable
specification.
(13) Stress values apply to quenched and tempered material only, as per applicable specification.
(14) Welding or brazing is not permitted when Carbon content exceeds 0.35% by ladle analysis except for limited types of welding as
allowed in Part UF.
169
















API 510 Page 306 of 310
Table 1A 1992 SECTION II
NOTES TO TABLE 1A (CONT'D)
(C) Section VIII, Division 1 Application (Cont'd)
C1: UCS-23 (Cont'd)
(15) Maximumallowable stress values in ksi shall be as follows:
Normalized or
Normalized
Type & & Tempered, F Liquid Quenched and Tempered, F
Grade 650 100 200 300 400 500 600 650
I 15.0 15.0 15.0
II 18.8 18.8 18.8
III 22.5 22.5 22.5
IV 26.3 26.3 25.1 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6
V 2 30.0 29.1 28.5 28.3 28.2 27.8 26.8
V 3&4 30.0 30.0
V 5 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 29.8
VIII 33.7 32.3 32.1 31.9 31.6 31.4 30.0
(16) This material shall not be used in thickness above 0.58 in.
(17) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800F, the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted to graphite.
(18) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 875F, the carbide phase of carbon-molybdenumsteel may be converted to graphite
(19) The material shall not be used in thickness above 0.375 in.
(20) Where the fabricator performs the heat treatment, the requirements of UHT-81 shall be met.
(21) Section IX, QW-250 Variables QW-404.12, QW-406.3, QW-407.2, and QW-409.1 of QW-422 shall also apply to this material.
These variables shall be applied in accordance with the rules for welding of Part UF of Division 1.
(22) The material shall not be used in thickness above 2 in.
(23) The material shall not be used in thickness above 2 1/2 in.
(24) The material shall not be used in thickness above 4 in.
(25) These stress values are permitted for open-hearth, basic oxygen or electric-furnace steels only.
(26) A factor of 0.85 has been applied in arriving at the maximumallowable stress values in tension for this material. Divide tabulated
values by 0.85 for maximumallowable longitudinal tensile stress.
(27) Use of external pressure charts for material in the formof barstock is permitted for stiffening rings only.
(28) For temperatures above the maximumtemperature shown on the external pressure chart for this material. Fig. CS-2 of Section II,
Part D, Subpart 3 may be used for the design using this material.
(29) The maximumnominal plate thickness shall not exceed 0.58 in.
(30) These stress values are based on expected minimumvalues of 45,000 psi tensile strength and yield strength of 20,000 psi resulting
fromloss of strength due to thermal treatment required for the glass coating operation. UG-85 does not apply.
(31) The minimumtempering temperature shall be 800F.
(32) This material may be welded by the resistance technique.
(33) Not permitted above 200F; allowable stress values are 35.0 ksi for diameters of 1/2 in. or less, 33.8 ksi for diameters greater than 1/2
in. up to and including 4 in.
(34) The user is cautioned that under certain conditions of temperature and environment, or fatigue conditions, stress corrosion of this
material may be a problem.
(35) Although External Pressure Chart title is listed for SA-537, use Class 1 curves for this specification.
(36) Although External Pressure Chart title is listed for SA-537, use Class 2 curves for this specification.
(37) ASTM A 234 fittings are considered equivalent to SA-234 fittings.
(38) Minimumpostweld heat treatment shall be 1300F.
(39) In welded construction for temperatures above 850F, the weld metal shall have a carbon content of greater than 0.05%.
(40) The following additional requirements apply to 3Cr-1Mo-1/4V-Ti-B material.
(a) In fulfilling the requirements of UCS-85 (b), sufficient tensile tests shall be made to represent postweld heat treatment at both the
minimumand maximumtimes at temperature, and impact tests shall be made to represent the minimumtime at temperature. The
results of the tensile tests shall meet the tensile requirements of the material specification. The impact tests shall meet a minimum
average of 40ft-lbf at 0F, with not more than one specimen below 40 ft-lbf and not lower than 35 ft-lbf.
(b) Welding procedure qualification tensile tests shall meet both the minimumand maximumtensile strength requirements of the
material specification.
(c) Each heat or lot of consumable welding electrodes and each heat or lot of filler wire and flux combination shall be tested to meet
the requirements of (a) above.
(d) Welding shall be limited to the submerged-arc (SAW) and the shielded metal-arc (SMAW) processes.
(41) For External Pressure Chart listing, use Class 1 curve.

170







API 510 Page 307 of 310
Table 1A 1992 SECTION II

A92 TABLE 1A (CONTD)
SECTION I, SECTION III, CLASS 2 AND 3;* AND SECTION VIII, DIVISION 1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES S FOR FERROUS MATERIALS
(*See MaximumTemperature Limits for Restrictions on Class)



Alloy Class/
Nominal Spec. Desig./ Cond./ Group
Composition Product Form No. Type/Grade UNS No. Temper Size/Thickness P-No. No.
C-Si Cast pipe SA-660 WCA 1 1
C-Si Cast Pipe SA 660 WCA 1 1
C Bar SA-675 60 1 1
C Bar SA-675 60 1 1
A92 C Bar, rod SA-675 60 1 1

C-Mn Forgings SA-765 1 1 1
A92 C-Mn-Si Plate SA-442 60 1 1
C-Mn-Si Plate SA-442 60 1 1
A92 C-Mn-Si Plate, sheet SA-442 60 1 1
C-Si Plate SA-515 60 1 1
C-Si Plate, sheet SA-515 60 1 1

C-Si Plate SA-515 60 1 1
C-Mn-Si Plate SA-516 60 1 1
C-Mn-Si Plate, sheet SA-516 60 1 1
C-Mn-Si Plate SA 516 60 1 1
C-Si Wld. pipe SA-671 CB60 1 1

C-Mn-Si Wld. pipe SA 671 CC60 1 1
C-Mn-Si Wld. pipe SA-671 CE60 1 1
C-Si Wld. pipe SA-672 B60 1 1
C-Mn-Si Wld. pipe SA-672 C60 1 1
C-Mn-Si Wld. pipe SA.672 E60 1 1

C Wld. pipe SA-134 A283D 1 1
C Plate, sheet SA-283 D 1 1
C Bar, shapes SA-283 D 1 1
C Plate SA-283 D 1 1
C-Mn Wld. pipe SA-53 B 1 1
C-Mn Smls. pipe SA-53 B 1 1

C-Mn Wld. pipe SA-53 B 1 1
C-Mn Pipe SA-53 B 1 1
A92 C-Mn Smls. pipe SA-53 B 1 1
C-Mn Wld. pipe SA-53 E/B 1 1
C-Mn Smls. pipe SA-53 S/B 1 1
C-Si Smls. pipe SA-106 B 1 1

C-Si Pipe SA-106 B 1 1
C-Si Smls. pipe SA-106 B 1 1
C-Mn Pipe SA-135 B 1 1
C-Si Fittings SA-234 WPB 1 1
C-Si Fittings SA-234 WPB 1 1

C-Si Fittings SA-234 WPB 1 1
C-Si Wld. fittings SA-234 WPBW 1 1
C-Mn-Si Pipe SA-333 6 1 1
C-Mn-Si Wld. & smls. pipe SA-333 6 1 1
C-Mn-Si Tube SA-334 6 1 1

C-Mn-Si Wld. & smls, tube SA-334 6 1 1
C-Mn-Si Forged pipe SA-369 FPB 1 1
C-Si Forgings SA-372 1 1 1
C-Mn Plate, sheet SA-414 D 1 1
C-Mn-Si Fittings SA-420 WPL6 1 1




10

















API 510 Page 308 of 310
PART D - PROPERTIES
Table 1A
A92 TABLE 1A (CONTD)
SECTION I, SECTION III, CLASS 2 AND 3;* AND SECTION VIII, DIVISION 1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES S FOR FERROUS MATERIALS
(*See MaximumTemperature Limits for Restrictions on Class)

Min. Min. Applic. and Max. Temp. Limits External
Tensile Yield (NP =Not Permitted) Pressure
Strength, Strength (SPT =Supports Only) Chart Notes Reference
ksi ksi I III VIII.1 No. I III VIII-1
60 30 1000 NP NP A1:(1)(5)(21)(27)
60 30 NP 700 NP B1:(4)
60 30 850 NP NP A1:(1)(16)(21)(27)
60 30 NP 650(Cl. 3 only) 900 CS-2 C1:(3)(17)(27)
A92 60 30 NP 700(SPT) NP

60 30 NP NP 650 CS-2 C1
A92 60 32 850 NP NP CS-2 A1:(1)(21)
60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(13)
A92 60 32 NP NP 850 CS-2 C1:(17)

60 32 1000 NP NP CS-2 A1:(1)(21)
60 32 NP NP 1000 CS-2 C1:(17)

60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(13)
60 32 850 NP NP CS-2 A1:(1)(21)
60 32 NP NP 1000 CS-2 C1:(17)
60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(13)
60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)(16)(17)

60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)(16)(17)
60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)(16)(17)
60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)(16)(17)
60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)(16)(17)
60 32 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)(16)(17)

60 33 NP 300(Cl. 3 only) NP B3:(1)(2)(3)(4)
60 33 NP NP 650 CS-2 C1:(1)(2)
60 33 NP NP 650 CS-2 C1:(1)
60 33 NP 300(Cl. 3 only) NP B3:(3)(4)
60 35 NP NP 900 CS-2 C1:(3)(25)(26)@32)
60 35 900 NP NP CS-2 A1:(1)(21)

60 35 900 NP NP CS-2 A1:(1)(7)(21)
60 35 NP NP 900 CS-2 C1:(3)(4)(17) A.92
A92 60 35 NP 700(SPT) NP B4:(2)
60 35 NP 300(Cl. 3 only) NP B3:(1)(2)(4)
60 35 NP 300(Cl. 3 only) NP B3:(1)(4)
60 35 1000 NP NP CS-2 A1:(1)(21)

60 35 NP NP 1000 CS-2 C1:(17)
60 35 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(13)
60 35 NP NP 900 CS.2 C1:(3)(4)(26)(32)
60 35 1000 NP NP A1:(1)(20)(21)(21)
60 35 NP NP 1000 CS-2 C1:(18)(37)

60 35 NP 700 NP B1:(13)
60 35 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)
60 35 NP NP 1000 CS-2 C1:(17)
60 35 NP 700 NP B1:(1)(3)(13)
60 35 NP NP 650 CS.2 C1:(26)(32)

60 35 NP 700 650 CS-2 B1:(3)(13) C1
60 35 1000 NP NP A1:(1)(21)(27)
60 35 NP NP 650 CS-2 C1:(12)(15)
60 35 NP NP 900 CS-2 C1:(3)(17)
60 35 NP NP 850 CS-3 C1;(18)(37)




11
API 510 Page 309 of 310
Table 1A 1992 SECTION II

A92 TABLE 1A (CONTD)
SECTION I, SECTION III, CLASS 2 AND 3;* AND SECTION VIII, DIVISION 1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES S FOR FERROUS MATERIALS
(*See MaximumTemperature Limits for Restrictions on Class)

MaximumAllowable Stress, ksi (Multiply by 1000 to Obtain psi) for Metal Temperature, F, Not Exceeding

-20 to 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8 5.0 3.0
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 12.9 10.8 7.8 5.0
A92 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4

15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
A92 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
A92 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8 5.0 3.0
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5 4.5

15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5 4.5
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3

15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3

12.6 12.6 12.6
12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7
12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7
12.6 12.6 12.6
12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.2 11.0 9.2 7.4 5.5
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8 5.0

12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.2 11.0 9.2 6.7 4.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5
A92 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8 5.0 3.0

15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5 4.5
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.2 11.0 9.2 7.4 5.5
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8 5.0 3.0
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.6 4.6

15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8 5.0 3.0
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8

15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 7.8 5.0 3.0
15.0
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.3 12.9 10.8 8.6 6.5
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7

12

API 510 Page 310 of 310
PART D - PROPERTIES
Table IA
A92 TABLE 1A (CONT'D)
SECTION I; SECTION III, CLASS 2 AND 3;* AND SECTION VIII, DIVISION 1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES S FOR FERROUS MATERIALS
(*See MaximumTemperature Limits for Restrictions on Class)

Maxirnurn Allowable Stress, ksi (Multiply by 1000 to Obtain psi),
for Metal Tem;>erature, IF, Not Exceeding
Type/ Spec.
1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 Grade No.
1.5 WCA SA-660
WCA SA.660
60 SA-675
60 SA-675
60 SA-675 A92

1 SA-765
60 SA-442 A92
60 SA-442
60 SA-442 A92
1.5 60 SA.515
2.5 60 SA-515

60 SA-515
60 SA-516
2.5 60 SA-516
60 SA-516
CB60 SA-671

CC60 SA-671
CE60 SA-671
B60 SA-672
C60 SA-672
E60 SA-672

A283D SA-134
D SA-283
D SA-283
D SA-283
B SA-53
B SA-53

B SA.53
B SA-53
B SA-53 A92
E/B SA-53
S/B SA-53
1.5 B SA-106

2.5 B SA-106
B SA-106
B SA-135
1.5 WPB SA-234
2.5 WPB SA-234

WPB SA-234
WPBW SA.234
1.5 6 SA-333
6 SA-333
6 SA.334

6 SA-334
1.5 FPB SA-369
I SA-372
D SA-414
WPL6 SA-420





13

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