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.. , ..



I: ,

2004

621.382.8(075.8)
.., ..
. . : - , 2004. 54 .


().
. , , . , .
, .. .
-
.

. 2. . 36. .: 16 .

:
- , .. , . . , . ;
.. , . . , . 22 .


, 2004
.., .., 2004


(),
, , .

, . , , ,
, . 201900
, 220500 -
202100 , ,
.

.

, . , (, .),
.
, (
act actuator ), . . , . ,

, . . .

4
1.
1.1. .
(, , ) , .
. , . () ,
.
,
, ,
1785 . , F q1 q2

r , ..
q q
F =k 1 2 ,
(1.1)
r2
k , , .
, . E,
F, q0,
, ..
F
E= 0 .
(1.2)
q0
. ( ).
,
E. ,
. .
, .. , ,
, .
,
, .. -

5
.
:
F = qE.
(1.3)
(1.1), ,
q R ,
q
E=
;
2
R
(1.4)
qR
E=
,
3
R
R -, q .
. , ,
( ) N E
S 4 , , ..:
N = En dS = 4 q .
(1.5)
1


. , . ,
:
q dq
(1.6)
= lim
=
,

S
dS
S 0

q S. ,
, ,
E n1 E n 2 E , , 4, . .:
(1.7)
E n1 E n 2 = 4 .
, , E n1 E n 2 ,
. (1.7) :
(1.8)
E n1 E n 2 = 2 E = 4 ,
E
E = 2 .
(1.9)
, 1

, , ( , ).

6
. () , ,
, ,
. ,

.
, . E = 0, (1.7)
, :
(1.10)
En = 4 ,
n .
. , .. E .
(1.10):
En = 4 ,
(1.11)
.
1.2.

dl q0 , :
A = E dl ,
(1.12)
a L
A = Ed l .

(1.13)

,
, : . , , . ,

(1.14)
El dl = 0 .
L

, , , ,
. , t ,
S,
Et1 = Et 2 ,
Et1 , Et 2 E t
S.
, , , . ,

7
, .. (1.10) :
(1.15)
En = 4 n .
:

, . ,
d , dl
(1.16)
d = A = E dl = El dl .
P P0 ,
:
P

0 = Edl ,

(1.17)

.
P0
. ,
, . .

, .
(1.16) :

= El ,
(1.18)
l

l dl. l
, (1.18)
l, ..:

= grad l ,
l
,
El = grad .
E grad, .
E = grad ,
(1.19)
.. E , .
E [1]:
divE = 4 ,
(1.20)
, .
, (1.20)

8
:

E x E y E z
(1.21)
+
+
= 4 .
x
y
z
( )
.
, ,
,
(1.19). , (1.21) :
divgrad = divE = 4 .
(1.22)
(1.22)

2
2 x y 2 z
(1.23)
divgrad =
+
+
= 4 .
x 2
y 2
z 2
( ), (1.23)
= 4 .
(1.24)

.
, , .. =0,

= 0
(1.25)
.

(grad ), . , , .
, , . , q, (1.4),
q
= ,
(1.26)
R
R .
, (1.26). , , q a, , (1.26) R=a.
R>a , , , , .
a, -

9
, ,
q .
1.3.

. , , , , (1.17), .
, , ,
C.
.
q
, a q = .
a
q a, ,
, C=a, . . . , , , , .
C=a , ,
1 1 . () 3 109
, () 300 , , () 9 1011 , ; :
1 = 9 105 , 1=0,9 .

. , , ,
.
, (1.15).
, , [2].
,
, , .
q
( 2 1 ) :
q
,
=
(1.27)
2 1
q
,
.

10
,
(),
d. d, ( ) .
q = S ,
S .
(1.11)
E = 4 .
, (1.16) (1.17):
d

2 1 = Edl = 4 d =
0

4 q d
,
S

q
S
,
(1.28)
=
2 1 4 d
, , , , .
, , , l
r1 r2 , :
l
=
.
(1.29)
r2
2 ln
r1
,
R1 R2,
R R
(1.30)
C= 1 2 .
R2 R1
=

1.4. ,

, 1.3, E , q0. F = q E , E , , . .
, q. , ,
.
, . -

11
. . [1],
f ,
, :
1
1
f = 2 2 = E =
E2 ,
(1.31)
2
8
E (1.10) (1.15).

.

(, , , .).
. A ( 1.3).
dW,
, ..
dA = dW .
dA
dA = q d = dW ,
, ,
W = q .
(1.32)
, q1 q2, R , . , q2 , q1,

q
1 = 2 .
R
q1
q q
W = q1 1 = 1 2 .
(1.33)
R
, q2, ..
(1.33) .
:
(q + q2 2 )
W= 1 1
,
2
.
, .
( 2 1 ) . dq, -

12
(1.33) :
dA = dq ( 2 1 ) .
(1.27),
q dq
.
(1.34)
dA =
C
W (1.34), W=A:
q

q dq q 2
A=
=
=W ,
C

C
2
0

(1.35)

(1.27):

q ( 2 1 )
q2
1
= C ( 2 1 ) =
.
(1.36)
2
2C 2

(1.36) (1.28)
W=

q2
2 q2 d
W=
=
.
S
2C

dA, dW:
2 q2 d
.
dA = dW =
S
, F,
.,
dA = F d = f S d ,
f , .
,
2 q2
= 2 2 S,
(1.37)
S
.
(1.27) (1.28) :
F = f S =

C U 2
F=
,
2d
U .

(1.38)

13
2.
2.1.

1676 : , ,
(. 2.1).

. 2.1.
,
[3]:
l
F
=E ,
(2.1)
S
l
F ; S ;
(); l ; l .

F
=;
S
(2.2)
l
= ,
l
(2.1)
= E ,
(2.3)
; .
,
.
(2.3) ,
[3]:
E=

(2.4)

, ,
[3,4]:

1
= .
(2.5)
E
, .

14


,
[3]:

(2.6)

(.
.2.1),
[3]:

.
(2.7)
E
[3]:

.
(2.8)
E
X, Y, Z (. 2.2),

.

. 2.2.
(. . 2.2). x , ,

(2.9)
x = x .
E
y , Y,

y
.
(2.10)
x =
E

15
z , Z,

(2.11)
x = z .
E
(2.9)(2.11), [3]
1
x = x y +z .
(2.12)
E
Y, Z:
1
(2.13)
y = y x + z ;

E
1
z = z x + y .
(2.14)
E
(2.12)(2.14)
.
(. 2.3) [3, 4]:
F
= = G ,
(2.15)
S
; F , S; S ; G (); .

)]

)]

. 2.3.
, , ,
.
[4]:
E
G=
.
(2.16)
2 (1 + )
, ,
[4]:
1 2 (1 + )
= =
.
(2.17)
G
E
, -

16
, .2.1.
2.1

/

(Si)
<001>
<011>
<010>

(poly Si)

(SiC)
<001>
<011>
<010>

(),

(G),

()

130
150
130

50
70
50

0,28
0,06
0,28

169

69

0,22

2100

270
350
270

103
162
103

0,31
0,08
0,31

3200

(), /3
2320

2.2.


d
(, ), . , (. 2.4) [3]:

J x = y 2 dA ;

(2.18)

J y = x 2 dA .

(2.19)

( ) d , . ,

J = 2 dA .

(2.20)

4 4.
: J J x J y , .

17

. 2.4.
, . 2.4, 2 = x 2 + y 2 ,

J = 2 dA =
A

(x

+ y 2 dA = x 2 dA + y 2 dA = J y + J x .
A

(2.21)


(. .2.4), 2 = x12 + y 12 , , J = J x1 + J y1 , . .
( ) :
(2.22)
J x + J y = J x1 + J y1 = J = const .

(, )
d ,
. ,
J xy = x y dA .
(2.23)
A

J xy 4 4
, .
,
. 2.5, , J xy > 0 , .
90 (. 2.5, ). J xy < 0 , >0, <0. , <900 : J xy = 0 .
,
J xy = 0 . , (. 2.6). ,

18
, , . , J xy = 0 .
(. 2.7) [3]:
:
w + w
1
2 3

(2.24)
Jx =
h ;
24
(w1 + w2 ) w12 + w22
Jy =
h,
(2.25)
48
w1 ; w2 ; h .

. 2.5.

. 2.6.
:
w1 = w2 2 h tg ,
(2.26)
.
:

19

w .

w h3
Jx =
;
12
h w3
Jy =
,
12

(2.27)
(2.28)

. 2.7.
J xy = 0 , x y
.
:
w h3
Jx =
;
(2.29)
36
h w3
.
(2.30)
48
J xy = 0 , x y
Jy =

.
:

J x = J y 0.05 D 4 ;

(2.31)

J 0 .1 D 4 ,

(2.32)

D .
2.3.

. 2.8 .
F
. , F ,
, F ,
:

20
F = F = ky ,
(2.33)
k ; y ,
F .

. 2.8.
y :
y = l sin ,
(2.34)
l
; .
( 100):
sin = ; cos = 1 .
, (2.34) :
(2.35)
y = l .
.
F , -

0, (. 2.9).

l
= ,
(2.36)

, [5]:
M
1
=
,
(2.37)
EJ
M , ; E ,
[/2]; J .
, ,
:
(2.38)
M = k l2.
(2.37) (2.38) (2.36),
, . 2.8:

21
k=

EJ
.
3
l

(2.39)


(. 2.10.).
F . , F , , F ,
:
(2.40)
F = F = k s y ,
k s ; y ,
F .
1-8 (. .2.10) (2.39).
. 2.10, : 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, .

. 2.9.

22

A- A

. 2.10.
, [5]:
k1 k 2

k 1 = k + k ;
1
2

k k
k 2 = 3 4 ;
k3 + k 4

(2.41)

k
k

k
= 5 6 ;
3 k + k
5
6

k7 k8

k
=
4 k + k .
7
8

k1 k8 .
[5]:

23
k 1 = k 1 + k 2 ;
(2.42)

=
+
k
k
k
.
2
3
4
:
k s = k 1 + k 2 .
(2.43)
2.4. ()

, , :

M = F l ,

(2.44)
l .
M
. :
M = k ,
(2.45)

k ;

M .
:
G J
k = 2
,
(2.46)
l
b
lb .
2.5.

( ) . . 2.11 .

. 2.11.

24
, , [6]:
r 2
(2.47)
V = V0 1 ,
r0

V0 ; r0 .
F F
[6]:

(2.48)
F = F = k V y ,
V y ; k

, :
F
k =
.
(2.49)
Vy
:
2 r0
F =
,

(2.50)

,
[6]:
dV
,
=

dr r = r0
.
(2.47),
V
dV

r = r = 2 0 ,
r0
dr
0
,
F = 4 V0 l ,

(2.51)

(2.52)
(2.53)

l .
V0
:
(2.54)
V0 S 2 = V y S1 ,
S 2 , S1 , .
(2.54) [6]:
4 l S1
,
(2.55)
k =
n0 S 2

25
n0 .
3.
, , . .

: , , ,
..
3.1.


.
, , , .. ,
, . ,
,
[7, 8].
,
, , , ,
.
, ,
. , , . ,
, . , , , .
. 3.1 .

.

26

. 3.1. :
1 ; 2 ; 3 ;
4 ; 5 ; 6
. 3.2 .
, . , -
.
. , , .
.
.
, . ,
, , . . .
, .
.

27

. 3.2.
:
;

3.2.

3.2.1.

(
) ( / ) [9, 10].
. 3.3 , .
,
, . ,

28
.

. 3.3.

Fai , , :
1 0 Lai Wai 2
(3.1)
U ai ,
Fai =
2
d
2

(
= 1 );

( 0 = 8.85 10 12 / ); Lai , Wai , ; d ; U ai .


(3.1) i 1, 2 .
Fai -

. Fai , ,
F , :
Fai = F = 2 k y .

(3.2)

:
EJ
,
(3.3)
k=
3
l
l .
Fai ,
0, R (. 3.4) [11].
:

29
1 0 Lai Wai 2
(3.4)
U ai ,
2
4
k l d xai

x , .
,
, :
k l d
* = 4
U ai

.
(3.5)
3 max 3 0 Wai
. 3.5 x U ai .
x U ai (. . 3.5) .
-
.
. 3.6 3.7
, [9, 10].

. 3.4.

30

. 3.5. x
U ai :
1 d =2 ; 2 d =4 ; 3 d =6 ;
4 d =8 ; 5 d =10

. 3.6. ,

31

. 3.7. ,

3.2.2.

. 3.8 [12].

. 3.8.
, , ,
1
dC
M = U 2
,
(3.6)
2
d

32
dC
d
.
(. 3.9).
U ;

. 3.9.

,
.
(. 3.10):
N 0
(3.7)
C=2
S ( ) ,
g
N ; g ; .
,
(. 3.10).
( = 0 )
:

33
M max =

2 N ( L2 d 2 )
U max
0

,
(3.8)
2 g
L ; d
.
:
t + g0
,
(3.9)
0 = sin 1
L

t ; g 0
.
dC
. 3.11

d
.

. 3.10.

34

. 3.11.

dC

d


:
M ( ,U ) U 2 dC ( )
(U ) =
=

,
(3.10)
2 k
k
d
k ,
:
(t g ) 2

2
2
0
d
U max N 0
2

sin 0
M max

.
=
k =
(3.11)
2 g 0
0
:

(t g ) 2
2
2
0

3 U max N 0
d
2

sin
0
,

(3.12)
r =
3
2 g t m wm ( N p )
; t m ; wm ;

35
; N p ,

8 0 Lm
Np =
,
(3.13)
a
Lm ; a , ( a = 1 ).
.
. 3.12 , .

. 3.12.
:
;

36
3.3.
,
[13].
. 3.13
( n1 = 12 ) ( n2 = 8 ) [13].

. 3.13. :
;

.
, , .
(. . 3.13):
2
;
1 =
n1
,
(3.14)
2
2 =
,
n2
1, 2 , ; n1, n2 , .
.

37
, 1 (. . 3.13,),
.. .
2 , ,
, .. , , (.
. 3.13,). .
. 3.14 .

. 3.14.
s
:
1
i 2
min n2 i n1 ,
s = min 1 i 2 = 2 min
=
(3.15)
n1 n2 n1 n2
i [0, n2 1].

j [0, q 1] , q , (56) :

j
i 2
min j n2 i n1 ,

=
(3.16)
n1 n2 n1 n2

s = min{ j 1 i 2 }= 2 min

i [0, n2 1], j [0, q 1].



:
1
2
f,
(3.17)
n=
1
s

f .
.3.1 -

38
2 s
n2 , n1 = 12 (1 = 30 0 ) q = 3 .

n2

2
s

2 s n2
6
8
11
13
16

3.1
18

20

900

600

450

32.70

27.70

22.50

200

180

300

300

150

2.70

2.30

7.50

100

60

, , :
W 1 C 2
M=
=
U ,
(3.18)
2 s

C ; U .
3.4.

[14]:
1. ().
, 1-2 ( 1-2 ).
""
, , .
-
. ,
. (
100 ): 100 ; 50000 /;
10-6 . . , . : 0,1 ;
..
2. ().

( SiO2, Al2O3) , . ( -

39
) .

. (), .
. .

, ( ) ,
. ( ) ( 1-3 )
, ""
(0,3-3 /2 ) .
( ) :
- , 2-3 , ""
;
- ,
(1- 3) 104 /;
- (
).

: , , ,
.
, , , .
()
,
, 30-100 .

40
(-) . , ,
, ( ) s. , ( 100 )
10-15
300-500 /2.


.

( ,
..),
. .

.
,
.
, ( ) . , .
( ), .

.
, .
. , , .
200250 ( ), , 3 . , ; ,
100 .
, -

41
, , , , . ,
.
,
,
, . .

, .
().
, , ().
,
.

.
.

(-) . , ,
( ) , d .

. 3.15 [14].
() 1 7, 6,
5. () 2,
d, 3 l (
) 4. 3,
(), 6 (
). , 2,
. lr (t ) -

42
t p ,
h(t ) .

. 3.15.
:
1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ;
5 ; 6 ; 7
, , ( ) , (
); h . (
)
, .. f
, .

.
D (
, ).

43
:
2.

"" , "
" .
, , ,
,
, ,
.

.
, , .
,
. , , 30 200
.
3.5.

, . ,
, , , .
, ,
, .
, , .
, , , , , .
[15]. ,
, , , . 3.16.
, ,
, .
,
,

44

l, . . -,
, . -, , . ,
, E . ,
, , ,
l, .
,
. , , .
, . 3.16,
. . , , (,),

+
= 0,
x y
, , .
:
E ( x, y ) = grad .

. 3.16.

45
, ,
(,) ,
.
l q
F, , ..:
F ( x, y ) = q l grad E .

, , , , .
, , , .
,
, ,
. 3.17.
[100] () , . : , V- , , .

. 3.17. :
1 ; 2 ; 3
, .
:
() -

46
,
.
. , V-
( )
. . .
, , . , , , , .
, , ,
, .
,
dE/dx ,
. 3.18. ,
, .

. 3.18.
4.
, : , ( ), (, ) .
. .

47
,
, [16]:
1.
,
,
.
2.
, ,
.
3.
, ..
100%, ,
,
, 0,1%.
4.
1-10 , 90,9 /2 ,
.

,
. ,

0 S
C=
,
h
, S, h
. .
.
,
(. 4.1,) (. 4.1,). .
,
, . .
, , . 4.2.

48

. 4.1. :
;

. 4.2. :
, ;
,
(. 4.3).
:
e0 S
;
C1 =
h0 + h
e0 S
,
C2 =
h0 h
h0 ; h .

:

. ,

. , -

49
,
, .

. 4.3. :
1 ; 2

,
() C0 , C x (. 4.4).

. 4.4.
U 0 , , :
C0
.
U x = U0
C0 + C x
, , , (),
,
. , . . 4.5 ,
. : , , ,

50
C x .

. 4.5. :
1 n-; 2 n+-; 3 ;
4 ; 5 ; 6

. ,
(. . 4.3). [6]. . 4.6.
C1 C2 , , ,
U . , . 4.6
, -,

. , , , .
( h=0; =0) ,

1
h
U = U 2
= U
.
1 + 2
h
.
, , . -

51
. ( )
.
(, )
. , , ,
.
() .
,
, , . , ,
. . . 4.7 , [16].

. 4.6.

. 4.7.

52

, , .

1. .. . .: , 1966. 624 .
2. .. . . : , 1981.
288 .
3. .., .., .. : . .: , 1995. 560 .
4. . / . . .: , 1982. 520 .
5. M.A.Michalicek. Introduction to micromechanical systems. URL:
http://mems.colorado.edu.
6. .. . . . .
. . 2002.392 .
7. Technical paper Microengineering Space Systems for The First Canadian
Workshop on MEMS Technology for Aerospace Applications. 2001. P.49.
8. Majumder S., McGruer N.E., Adms G.G., Zavracky P.M., Morrison R.H.,
Krim J. Study of contacts in an electrostatically actuated microswitch // Sensors and Actuators. 2001. A93. P.19-26.
9. Fujita H., Toshiyoshi H. Optical MEMS // IEICE Trans. Electron. 2000. vol.
E83-C, 9. P.1427-1434.
10. Jung K., Lee J., Choi B. Numerical analyses of the micromirror for projection
TV using FEM // Microsystem Technologies. 2001. 7. P.75-79.
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2. ... 13
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3.2. .... 27
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