Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 224

..

2002

004.3 8(07)
32.973.2673
-73
-73

..
/
.. . .: , 2002.
224.

ISBN 5-94692-035-9
,

. .. , .

,
, ,
, ,
.


Excel, Matlab Simulink

.
,
.

004.38.(07)
32.973.2673

ISBN 5-94692-035-9

.., 2002
, , 2002

1.

...9

14

2. ,

19

2.1.

20

2.2. 1.

23

2.3. 2.

25

3. -,
,

29

3.1. 1. .... 35
3.2. (SOLVER) .. 36
3.2.1.
36
3.2.2. -
36
3.2.2.1.
37
3.2.2.2.
39
3.2.3. ... 40

3.2.4.
3.2.4.1.
3.2.4.2.

43
44
44

3.2.5.

45

3.2.5.1.

47
3.2.6.

48

3.2.6.1.
48
3.2.6.2. . 49
3.3. 2.

51
3.4. 3.
. 5 3
4. , ,

56

4.1. 1. . ... 61
4.2. 2.

62

4.3. 3.
. 6 4
5. ,

67

5.1. -

69

5.2.

80

5.3. 1. .... 86
5.4. 2.

86

6.

90

6.1. -

91

6.2.

93

6.3. 1.
........... 96
6.4. 2.

........................... 96

7.

......... ^^^

101

7.1. - ......................... 102


7.2. ............................... 104
7.3. 1.
....................................... 107
7.4. 2.

,.................................................... 108
8. ,
, .................................... 112
8.1. ,
.................................................................... 114
8.2. ,
.....

119

8.3.
,
. .................................... 121

9. ,
MATLAB/SIMULE4K
........................

126

9.1. MATLAB, .................. 128


9.2. M A T L A B , : , , .. 131

9.3. EDITOR/DEBUGGER-\ ,... 136


9.4. .............. 137

9.5. MATLAB,
SIMULINK

138

10. SIMULINK

140

10.1. SIMULINK.

141

10.2. SIMULINK............

142

10.3.

...143

10.4. SIMULINK

144

10.5.

144

10.6. .......................
10.6.1.
10.6.2. ..........
10.6.3.
10.6.4. .
10.6.5. ..
10.6.6. ()
10.6.7.
10.6.8.
-..

146
146
147
149
149
150
752
154

10.7.

155

10.8. ....

156

10.9.

157

154

10.10.
157
10.11. .................... 157
11. SIMULINK..

159

11.1. SIMULINK....................... 159

11.2. SIMULINK........................................... 160


11.2.1. Continuous.............'............................... 160
11.2.2. Discrete.
160
11.2.3. Functions & Tables.....................
160

11.2.4. Math
11.2.5. Nonlinear
11.2.6. Signals & Systems
11.2.7. Sinks
11.2.8. Sources
11.3.

161
161
162
163
763
163

11.4.

191

12.

193

12.1.

193

12.2. SIMULINK

194

12.3.

197

12.4. 1.

199

12.5. 2.

200

13.

204

13.1.

204

13.1.

207

13.3. 1.

210

13.4. 2.

212

13.5. 3.

212

14.

215

14.1.

216

14.2.

217

14.3. 1.
.219
14.4. 2.

221
14.5. 3.

221


, , ...
.

. ,
, . .
. , .
. . . ...
, ,
. ,
, . ,
. , . ,
. .
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. , ,
,
. . ,
.
-
. , ,


.
,
, (
26.8.2000, 21.35). -

, . '
. ,
, .
( 2000 )

.

-
,

.
:
,
,
;

;


; .


.
,

, .
,
, ,
.
,
,
, 9
.

10

CD-ROMoB , ,
, ,

.

(
), ,
, ,
.
: , ,
. , -


, .
,
.
-,
, ,

.

,
. ,
.
,
.
. .

,
,

.

, , ,
, ,
.

11



.
- , ,

.

, ,
.
,
, - ,
,
,
.

, , ,
, ,
, -
, .
,
, ,

.

,
, ,
, ,
.


Excel, Matlab Simulink

.

,

12

.
,

.

,
.
,

.

13

1.


.

Windows (. 1)
MS_Word ,
Excel
,
Simulink Matlab
.

Excel

Matlab

. 1.1.
.
:
1.
.
;
, -

14

,
.
2. .
3. .
4. .

.
,
, .

Excel, Matlab, Simulink.

.


.

.
.
:
, , . .
, .
,
. .
,

. :
() - - .

.
.
.
,
.
. ,

15

,
.
.
.
.
. ,
,
, ,
. :
, - ,
.
, , ,
,
.

, ..
,
- .

.
.
(, , )
. ,
.
-,
,
.

, .

.

: , ,
.
.

16


.

,
.

,
, ,
.


.
.
.

,
.
,
,
.

,
- .

, ,
. ,
,
.
.

.

, ,
, ,
.

17


.


,
.
, , .

18

2.
,



.
.

.

(), .

.
,
-
.
,
.
,
,
.
:
.
: .
.

, .

19


, .

.

2.1. .
.


, .. .
( ).
.

.

.
(, ,
).

.
, ,
.

. ,
.
: ,
.

.
. 2.1 Excel
-
.
( ) () .

20

-
Excel.
.

, %

, /.

, /.

70%
1336,994
0
7491,521

1 ,

, /.
,
,

, %
, %
,
, /
, /.

572,9974
100
3310,652

70%120%
3310,652
1909,991
572,9974
m f i QUA

. 2.L -
(
, , ),


:
BDt=JTPRFtoTXRT,
t=tb

BDt ,
t, .;
PRFt (profit),
t, /.;
21

TXRT (tax rate);


t , . ,
;
tb (begin) ;
tf (final) .


CPt=PRFt(l-TXRT),
t=tb

t
PRFt=CPtRN,
RN .
, .
Excel
- . 2.1 ,
.

. 2.2.

.


.
Visual Basic for Application (VBA).
,
.
:
, ,
.

22

.

,
, , , .
.
,
.

31

! *

. 2.2. -,
.

2.2. 1.
.

(BD)
TXRT.
,
:

23

,
.
, .
:
1. . 2.1

. 2.3.
2. .
3. . 1-2.
.
2.1.

,
,

10

100 136 185 252 342 465 632 861 117015922165

, /

120 163 222 301 411 558 759103314041910

, /

36 49 66 90 123 167 228 310 421 573

, /

84 114 155 211 287 390 532 723 983 1337

, 0

84 198 354 564 85212431775249734814818

1400

10

11

. 2.3.
.
4. .
, .
, ..
. -

24

:
, ,
.

2.3. 2.
.
-
.

, .. .
1.
.
2. .

2.2.
3. . 1-2.
. 2.4.
2.2.

, ..
^
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%

10%
38
166
530
1453
3574
8086

20%
70
279
827
2121
4934
10647

, %
30
4 0 % 5 0 % 60
97
118
136 150
395
416 | 420
352
963
994 | 960 890
2302
2205 1966 1675
4515 3744 2949
5039
10318 8717 6772
4960

70
161
414
802
1384
2241
3481


,
.
,
, , , 23%. -

25

,
.
12000
vo
pa

>%

^
oj

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%



. 2.4.
.




: ,
.
.
,
, .
,
.
:
: , , .
.
:
1.
.
2. : , ,
, .
3. .

26

4. .
5.
.
6. . ,
.
.
, .
.
1.
?
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5.
.
6.
.
7.
.
8.
.
9.
.
10. .
11. ,
.
12.
.
13.
.
14.
.
15.
?

27


1. . . Microsoft Excel
2000.6.: , 2001.
2. .. . , .: ,
1997.
3. .., ..
// . 1996. 8.

28

3.
-,
,

-
(
) .
,
.
-

Excel
Solver ( ).
Microsoft
( ).
Microsoft Excel Examples\Solver
(Solvsamp.xls)
(Solver.xla).
, ,
, ,
,
.
, .


Excel .
,
.

29

Excel ,
. -,
, , -. , ,
. ,
rate of return ()
. , Solver
, .

.

.



. . .
.
. , ,
. , , , .

. ?
,


.
-. .
.

. .
.

..

(- Just in time). He
. 30

, , . .
, ,
.
:
, ..
.
.
1. ()

.
2.
Excel
(Solver).

.

,
(,
, ..).
:
, ,
.

: , ,
.

,
,
,
.
Excel.
: ,
,
. -

31

. .

, ..
.


.

.

.
.
3.1.
, ,
,
-. , ,
,
, ,
.
3.1.
F

D

. .
80
, .
160
200


, ,

.
.
450~ 360

1
1
0
{
250
160
1
0
0
[
800
800
2
2
1
[ .
450
360
1
1
0
1
1
2
. 600 , 600
1 _ ^ _

7
8
9
10

12
13
14

15
0$
16
17 : 7219,6697 5887,0402 1810,735
8
18 :
14917,446

32

8
Excel (, , ).
9 .
.

D18.
:
, .

.
.

, . ,
,
. ,
()
.

" .
D11:F15
-.

.


.

17.

.

.

.

.
3.2.
33


( )
> > > .
3.2.

7
8
9

,.->
, .

11 \
1450
12 \
J250
13 {
1800
14].
\450
IS \.
1600

10

, .
=$D$9*D1 1+ $$9*1 1+$F$9*F1 1 1
=$D$9*D12+$E$9*E12+$F$9*F12 {
=$D$9*D13+$E$9*E13+$F$9*F13 1
=$D$9*D14+$E$9*E14+$F$9*F14 1
=$D$9*D15+$E$9*E15+$F$9*F15 1

16
17

::
( :

18

3.2.
7
8
9
10

12
13
14
15
16
17
18

159,896909638319
200

..
80,206180723

__

1
1
2

"2

1
0
2
1
1

=75*(9;0)$15 =50*
(9;0)=$$15
=CYMM(D17:F17)

1
0

0,9

=35*
(9;0)$$15

( )

.
17 ( ) 75, 50 35
,
34


15.
18
17.

.


,
, , , .
,
,

.

3.1. 1.

9
D18.
.
( ).
,
, .
. , .
, .

,
.
,
.
,
, ,
, -

35

. ,
, .

3.2.
(Solver)

.
,
.

3.2.1.
.

.
,
,
Solver.xla ( , Library\Solver folder)
Setup, .
, ,
, .

3.2.2. -

Excel
(. 3.1)
- .
-

,

, ,
. Excel

36

, '-
.
.

3.2.2.1,
(. 3.1)
> .

,
,
. .
D18 ().

-

( 'MaiawaibHOKy ;

<""
- >".--|

Dapar
|$$:$$15 <=
$D$9;$F$9>=0

?
_J

. 3.L .

.
, .

.
,

,
, 37

.
,
. D9:F9,
.

. 200
.

, ,
.
.

.
11:15.
11 : 15.

.

.

.

.

.
,
, ,
.

,

.

,
.
38

3.2.2.2.

, . 3.2.

,
.
,

. : , , ..

JBOTEI

*$11:$$15

<Si

1=$$11:$$15

3d

>

. 3.2. .
,

.
,
.
,
.


.


.

, .
,
100 ,

39

,
,
.

3.2.3.


,
. 3.3.

, , ,

.
, ,
.

:

J100

: J100

: j0,000001
: :
:

. )5

,.
%

,.

J0,001

"".

"

~
" _
--; ,
. f*' _

i ( *

f~

"

j ! ^
i :'.

. 3.3. .

, .

( ), 32767;
100, , , -
.

,
. ( )
32767; 100,
, .

,
.

( ),

.
0 () 1.
,
, ,
, , 0,0001. ,
,
. ,


,
.

.

.

, ,
.
0 () 1.
, , 0,0001
, 0,01.

41

, .

.


.

,

.


, ,
,
, .


.

( ),

.

.

,
.
()
(
),
.
.
,
. ,
,

42

,
.

( ).

, ,
,
.
.

,
, ,
. ,
,

.

.
.

,
,
.
.
.

,
,
.

3.2.4.

. -

43

: , .

.

3.2.4.L
1. , .
2. .
3. .
, . 3.4.
4.
,
.

:
JJBJZO
OK

:
j

. 3,4. .


.
, ().

, .
,
.

.
,
.

3.2.4.2.
,
.
1. .

44

2. .
3. . ,
.
4. .

( )
.
.

3.2.5.


.
, (
) ...


. Excel.


. .
, ESC.
Microsoft Excel
.

, . 3.5.

,
.

1,..

. 3.5. .

45



.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,

.
,
.

.
, ,
.
,
,
, .
,
.
,
,
.

.
, .

. .

,
,

46

Microsoft Excel.
.
,
,
,
.

3.2.5.1.


.
,
.

.

,
, ,
.

, . 3.6,
.

,
.

, .

.

.
...

, 3.6.
.

47

3.2.6.


, . ,
,
. .
, .

3.2.6.1. .

.
.

.

, ,
,
.

,
.
,
,
.

.
,
,

, .


, ,
.

, 48


.
.

,

. ,

,
.

3.2.6.2.

1. ,

.
.
.

.
.
.



. ,
,
.
2. ,

.
.
.

,
. , '
,

49

.
.
3. ( ).
, , ,
.

,
.
4. (
).
,
.
,
, .

,

.
5. .

( ), .
,
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.
6. .
,

. , .

.
7. .


.

50

8. .
,
,
. ,
.
,
.
,
.
9.
.

.
, ,
,
.


.
,

. ,
.
10. .
,
. ,
.

3.3. 2.

1
,
,
.
> .
, . 3.1.

51

, D18.
D9:F9.

:15<=11:15 ,

.

: D9:F9 >= 0.
.
.
,
, , ,
.
D17.F17
HI5,
.
HI5 1, .
.
HI5 1,0 (
) ,
.
.
.


3.1 ,
.
.
800
.
600 .

.
,
.

52

)&
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
.
,

.

3.4. 3.



.

. ,

-
.
3.1
.

.
:
i , ;
j , ;
X, j-ro ;
PJ (profit) j-ro ;
! (boundary = ) 1-
;

53

Rq 1- j - ;
Q = i-ro
;

J=l
-
:

<
' ~ "

]=1

X >0.
J
.
:
1. .
2. ..
3.
.
4. .
5.
.
6. ,
.
.
1.
?
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ,
.
6.
.

54


1.

..

. .: , 1995.
2. . . Microsoft Excel
2000. .: , 2001.
3. .., .., ..
. .: , 2001.
4. .., .. ..:
-, 1998.

55

4. ,
,



,
.
.
-
.
,
, .

. , , , .

: , ,
, .
. ,
,
, ,
.
- ,
,

. -
.

56


.
, , . ,
, .
,
. ,

( ),
.
.
- ,

.
, ..

( ).

( ).
. ,

, (
) .
,
, ,

.
. .
.


.

, 57


.
.
.
.
1. ()


.
2.
Excel
(Solver).

.

:
,
,
,

.
Excel.
:

- .


.
.
, ,
,
.

,

58

,
.


.

. 4.1.
Excel
, , ... .
-. 7
.
4.1.

ID IE

|G


6
:


7 :
220
0
0
0
80
8 300
9
260
0
0
180
80
0
280
80
0
10
180
20
0
11

12 :
180
80
200
|160
220
13

14
1180 780 J200
Jl60 J220
1
15 :

\ \
| :
16 J3 10
[10

"5
8
4
17~]
J260
J6
4
5
3
6
1
4
5
9
18 '280
3
5
19 :

20
540. |320 |820.
|40. |880.
|3 200.

Excel
, , ... .
-. 7
.
.
20 -

59

.

C8:G10.
8:10
.
,
-. 12

. ,

.
13:18
. .
16:18 -,
C16:G18

. 14
.
20
.



.
4.2.

8:10, ,
16:18.
12,
,
14.
20

20.

60

4.2.

IG

:

0
220,00000000050


R =(8:8)
=(9:9)
0
0
9
10 =(10.10) 180,000000000413 0

:
=8:10) |={<38:10)
12

13

|180~
2~0
14

'\
15 :
16 11310
llO
|4
17 [
J260
[
6
18 ( 1280
|3
\9
19 :


=(20:20) =8*16+9*17+ =G8*G16+G9*G17+G1
20
10*18
0*G18

7 :

J1
I
j
1

.

-
,
.

, , ,
.

4.1. 1.
.

. ,
C8:G10,
20, ,

61

8:10 16:18.

.
,
, .
. , .
,
.
,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
, , .

4.2. 2.
.
1
,
,
.
> .
, . 4.1.
(
).
,
20.
C8:G10.

:
,
,
.


^'
:

j.j-JSJH l i l

*~ : JO

(*
. ; :

S
, ! ^:
;-.!
..
; $$3;$$10<= $$16 $|18
0

J
<* *

IJ .

. 4.1. .
4.3.
4.3.

20

C8:G10

B8:Bl(k=B16:B18

C12:G12>=C14.G14

C8:G10>=0


.
.
.

4.1 ,
.
.
.
63


, .
,

.
.

4.3. 3.


:
;
m ;
i , , 1..;
j , , l..m;
1-
j- ;
Si i-ro ,
;

Cj j-
, ;

(price) - 1-
j- ;
B! (boundary = ) i-ro
;
DJ (demand) j-ro ;
-
:

64

>0.
J

, ,
.
.
:
1. .
2.
.
3. .
4.
.
5. ,
.
.
1.
?
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ,
.
6.
Excel .

65


1.

..

. .: , 1995.
2. . . Microsoft Excel
2000. .: , 2001.
3. .., .., ..
. .: , 2001.
4. .., .. ..:
-, 1998.

66

5. ,

,
,
.


.
. ,
, ..
.
,
,
,
,
.



.

.
,
.
, .

, .
(
)
, ,
.


, ,

.

.

,
.
.
-
.

.
1. ()
,
,

.
2.
Excel
(Solver).



:

, ,
, .
.


.

-

68


. ,
Excel, QuatroPro, Lotus
.
()

, ,
.
,
.
,
,
, .
,
.


,

.
.
,
. (
) .

5.1. -
-
,
- ,
.
,

, .

69

,

,
. ,
.



= ( 2,...)

L = (Li, L2,
,
:

Prf (A,L) =

D.
a=l

Prf (profit) ,
().
,
,
, , de facto

.

():
(assets)
;
;
D a ;
() ;
n .

():
LI
(liabilities) ;

70

L ;
EI (expenditures)
;
1 ;
m .

1 .
(Hi)
()
,
.
() ,

, ,
,
,
,
30 .


HI :
01.07.96 5%
01 .02.97 6%
01 .02.98 7%
01.02.99 8%.


QwCp

.=

.100% > .,

OwCp (own capital) ;


Ra
1 ;
B I H I . ,
1996., -

71

Bi=5%, ..
5% ,
Ra. 1997 . Bi=6% ..

.


.

(, ).

:

,
;

(
, ,
, )
.
(2)

.

.


.
2
:
01.07.96 10%
01.02.97 20%.

2 = -ssL
.0% > 2 ,
, . vet

72

hliq (high liqudity) ;


vet ;
$2 2 .
, 2001 .
20% .
()

30
.

,
30 .
30

,
30- , 50% ,
,
30- .

:
01 .07.96 20%
01 .02.97 30%
01.02.98 50%
01.02.99 70%.

100% > 3 ,

1 ;
dso
30 ;
3 .
, 2001 .

73

70%
30 .
(4)


,
,
.
FU
120%.

4 = -

**___ -- % < 4 ,
1=1

, ,
, 50%
,
;

, ,
,
;
4 , 120%.

(5).

:
01.07.96 10%
01 .02 97 20%.

5 = - ^-

74

.100% > 5 ,

BS HS
.

(6).


() .

,
,
,
( ).
, .. ,
, HI.

:
01.07.96 60%
01.02.97 40%
01.02.98 25%.

,
,
.

(7)


(
) .
,
, ( )
50%
(, ),
(
), 5%
, .

75



.

.

( )
.
,
, ,
, 50%
(, )
, :
1996. 12
1997. 10
1998 . 8 .

,
,
.

() (Hg)

, ,
(50%) ,

()
.
HS
:
01.07.96 60%
01.02.97 40%
01.02.98 25%.

, -

76

,
.
,
, (
) () .
9
:
01.07.96 60%
01.10.96 40%
01.01.97 20%.
,
() ,
1 1998 50% (
) .

,
,
.
,
,
().

,
,
.

() ()
(
) ()
.

=*
100% < !
11
OwCp
"
ppl (population) .

77

()
100%.

.

()
(Hia)

.

:
0 1 .07.96 45%
01.10.96 35%
01.01.97 25%.
,
()
(Hi2) 10% .

shr (share) ;
Hi2,
, 1997 .
25% .

() .

13
- =
OwCp

100% < 13 ,

owb
(own bills) . -

78

+ 50%

,
.
( ) ^
:
01.10.96 200%
01.03.97 100%

.

.
.


.

>0,
Li>0,
..
.


A<OwCp + L,
,
, .. .


()
.
,
,
.

79


. ,

,
.


:
Aa,min < < ,,
Li,min < Li< Li,max.

.

5.2.



: Excel, Quatropro,
Lotus , Solver
( ).
-
.
,
Excel.
(. 5.1):
( ),
()
.
,
,
.
80

5.1.
, . .
, , /

:

, 0 /.

177,62

10%

1.

0,00
. 0,00
2. ,
1.

10.
. . ()
0,00
, 2
3. ,
77,62


,
. 53,62
1,
.
1,00
. 31-90
1.0
. 90

1,

4.
.
0,00


,
3 1-90
,
90
.

,
20.

84,70

0%
0%
56%
56%
0%
44%

6%
%
1%
1%
1%
5%
1%
0%
0%
0%
0%

0%
10%

ISO
7,

.
,
,
,
.
.
7,
1,
1,00
1,
1,
1.
1,00
1.

.
.
.
,
.
,

,
%


34,20 20,00

100

,
.
.
2.

10
2

12%

10
1
700

1%
70%

100
10
100
1
1
1
100
500
100
1
10
1
1

40%
40%
50%
60%
70%
70%
70%

20%
2%
2%
14%
1%
1%

50%
5%
60%
7%
70%

2%
20%
14%
10%
1%

2%

2.
.
14,20
2.7
1.72
,2
0, 14

,97
0,
.
.
.
.
.
0,00

20,00
10,33

9,67
,

0,00

5.1.

152,20
:
1. . ,
2. .
11,00

1,00
()
10,00
, 1
3. /, ,
69,00


20,00

20,00
10,00
,
10,00
,

20,00

9,00
1,00

8,00

4. ,
71,00


20,00
10,00
,
, | 10,00

11,00
10,00
,
1,00
, 5

20,00
10,00
, 2
10,00
, 1

,
%

129,6
0,05

1,20
2,00

30,00
20,00

1,00
1,00
8,00

10,00
10,
69,00

2,00
2,00
1,00
1.
2,00
2,00
1,
1,00
8,00

20,00
20,00
10,00
10,00
20,00
9,00
10,00
10,00
80,00

2,00
1,00
1,00
2,00
1,00
1,00
2,00
1,00
1,00

20,00
10,00
10,00
20,00

90%
80%

70%
60%

10,00
20,00
10,00
10,00

86,00
0,00
7,70

8
10%
80%

80%
90%

100%
110%

80%
70%

0,10
8,00
63,80

70%
70%

0,70
7,00
24,30

18,00
17,00
8,00
9,00
19,00
9,80
1,00
8,80
57,60

0%
20%
20%
20%
70%
70%
70%
70%

0,00
4,00
2,00
2,00
14,00
6,30
0,70
5,60
54,00

17,00
9,00
8,00
7,60
7,00
0,60
15,00
8,00
7,00

100%

11,00
1,00
10,00
11,00
10,00
1,00
20,00
10,00
10,00

10%

100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%
100%

5.1.
,
%

45%

, . ( /) 45,0%
Hi, (/ )

23,3% 5%

, (. /)

100%

100%



, (. . /. 43%
.)
, (. /. )
56%

10%
20%

, (, 120%
/. . )

120%

Hs, (. /)

61%

10%


. .

,
.

,
,
.
, 1989 .

. .

,
. ,

, -. -



,

. .

( ), ..

.
, %

. , %

.


: , , , .
, ,
.



.
,
, ,
, ,
.

,

.


.
.
,
,

84

.
.
.

.
.
1 , ..
,
.
,
,

.
, ,
(,
) .
,
,,
1 .

- .

, %
.



,
.
.

-
,
.

85

Excel
.

5.3. 1.

, ..
.

,
,
.
.
,
,
,
.
, , ,
,
, .

,
.

5.4. 2.

Excel
.
.
.
(
)

86

,
, .
.
> .
, . 5.1
.

Prft_Crt (
).
.

.

.
Excel ,
,
,
.
, , As_Liq ,
, , $$143.
1

:

) !!1 V I

<?

no: lO

3*,

<~
t 1 :
1 ;

* ^ *

^:

$G$7:$G$39<=Ast Max
$G$7:$G$39 >= Ast Min
As GrYr<=$N$H4
1 As HLiq >= $M$142
As Liq >= $M$143
As Liq >= $M$146

J
J .

. 5.1. .

.

87

.

. , , , . .

(
, ) ( )
.

.


5.1 ,
.
.
.
,
, ..
: ^
, ,
.
, , ,
.

.
:
1.
.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ,
.
.
1.
?
2. .

88

3. .
4. .
5. ,
.
6.
Excel .

1. ./ . .. ..: ,
2001.
2. . . Microsoft Excel
2000. .: , 2001.
3. 1
. .: , 1996.
4.
,
. .: , 1996.
5. ..
. .: Catallaxy, 1994.
6. .. .
, , . .: ,
1998.

89

6.

.


.

-
.


.

.



,
, .
(),
0.510
0.490
.
, .
.

1. ()
, .. 90

, .
2.
Excel
(Solver).



:

, ,
,
. .


.

.

6.1. -


= (2,...),

Prfrf () = Y,^ - A D a -> max,
Prf (profit) ,
();
,%
;

;

;
Da ;
() ;
.


:

, ,

:

100%,

Ra (reliability) (

).
,

.

>0,51,

> 0,49.

80% :

=1


,%>3%.

92


Aa,sc,%>20%,
=1

sc (security).

In (loan).
()

Aa,shr,%<10%,
=1

shr (share).

6.2.
6.1

,
.
,
, ,
.
.


,
.
.


, .
()
-.

.

,
.

, ,
, .
.


,
.
.

, .
()
-.

.

,
.


-
,
.
Excel
.

94

6.1.
, ,

100 ..
, -

, -
,
,

%/

:
80
95.00
PC (9) / ;
0.675 40%
3.00
, 206
0.875
20.00
(1):

120%
0.00

140%
20.00
5% 10% 0.500
5.00
(2):
,
120%
0.00
,
5.00
140%
(): 5% 50% 0.550
5.00

2%
200%
2.00
- 2%
150%
3.00

(4):
5% 40% 0.600
10.00
- 2%
300%
8.00


2%
2.00
150%
- 2%
0.125
2.00
(5):

150%
2.00

0.00
150%

(6):
40% 0.588
36.00
250%
36.00


20%
200%
0.00
(7):
10% 0.663
10.00

250%
10.00

0.00
200%
(8):
10% 0.525
0.00

250%
0.00

200%
0.00
\ 40% |
350%

4.00
:
5%

5.00
200%
5.00
Olivetti
0.00
US Trust Master
170%
100.00

.
! 0.5 10
()
|

10

1.20

2.03
17.50

0.00
28.00
2.50
0.00
7.00
2.75
4.00
4.50

2.00

.
24.00

8.00

3.00
0.25
3.00
0.00

0.00
21.17

90.00
0.00

0.00
6.63

25.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
14,00
10.00
0.00
213.70

58.82

10.00

10% |

0.588

95

6.3. 1.


, ..
.
,
,
,
.
-. ,

^
,
.
,
, .

,
.

6.4. 2.


.
Excel

.
. .
> .
, . 6.1
.

96

|$Q$52

: {?
f

f : \

:
$$12 >= *$$12
$$1 > = *$$13
$$13:$$50>=0
$$ > = *$$14
* * 1 8 < - **4 1 3

. 6.1.
.
Q52
.
.

. L
,.

.

.
.

,
,
.

(
, )
.

97


1 ,
,
.
.

. ,
,
,
().

.



.
(
) ,
, , ,

.
,
, ,
.
, .

.
.

.

, , -

98

().
, , .
(5),
.
0.5.
( 6)
. ,
, ,
( -)
,
.

20%
,
:
.

1998 .

.
:
1.
.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ,
.
.
1.
?
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ,
.

99

6.
Excel .

1. . . Microsoft Excel
2000.6.: , 2001.
2. ..
. ., , 1995.
3. .. .
, , . .: ,
1998.
4. .., ..

. , 12,1995.

100

7.


,

,
.


,
.

()

.

().


.




.
-.

101



:
,
, ,
.
.


.



,

.

7.1. -


= (,Aj, t\2i..., A n ),

p

.,

rf () = Y - J L L A ' D a -> max,


~

Prf (profit) ,
();
,%
;

102


;
;
Da ;
() ;
.
:
AI > 30%
30%;
'
< 10%
10% ;
NI < 0,5
;
N2 > 0,04 "
;
N3 > 1
.
:
a=1


100%;
> 0 , .. .

:

N.=-sa

.100%,
A
Ra ,
.
,
:
_ OwCp
1N

2 ~

'

103

OwCp (own capital) .


:

L (PV present value)


.

7.2.
7.1
,

.

,
.
.
, Min ,
Ni...N3
.
.

,
.



, .
,
.
,
,
.
-

104

-. :
30%
10%
. ,
, 10 .
, ,
.

. .

( , %)
,
. .
,
,
.
.
.

.
( )
.
. ,%

.
, .. . .

, :
(Ni),
(N2) (N3).

.

,
.

105

7.1.

, ,
,
,

. /

04

( 5000
)
(> )



,%
PC
0%
(7)
> 30%
30%
(,)

10%
10%

10%
10%

10%
10%

10%
3%
()

%
(2)
,
10%
10%

10%
10%
(3)
20%
10%
10%


10%
10%

10%
'Ai)

10%
10%
Olivetti,
10%
0%
()
10%

10%
10%

10%
0%
,
10%
10%
()
3%

10%
0%

10%
0%

100%
*

,1
050
( /)
004
, N J (
/
)
100
, N3

106

80000
1000
0500

9000
10000
-
,

0 0 325 0 000
3000 0125


,
%/
25% 0000

0375
85%
70%
95%
35%

085
070
095
000

1000
1000
2000 0425 0850
1000

90%
80%

090
080

70%

370

1000
1000 0650 0650

65%

365

1000
0000
1000
1000
3000
1 000
3000

90%
55%

090
000

60%
35%
50%

360
300
360

30%
30%
76%

300
000
765

1000
1000
1000
3 000
2000 0250 0500


0450 0450

0465 0000

0000
100000283 2825

0283
3354

1 111

.
1. ()

.
2.
Excel
(Solver).



-
,
.
Excel
.

7.3. 1.

, ..
.

,
, .

. ,


, .
, ,
, .

,
.

107

7.4. 2.

.
Excel

.
.
> .
, . 7.1
.


:

|?JXj

JO*

< >


*:

< *1
: - j$M$16;$M$r8:$M$21;$M$23:$M$24;$M$26:$r'iJ

$1$16:$1$38 > = $$16:$$38


$$42:$:>$44 < = $F$42:$F$44

. 7.1.
.
Crit ( ).

.

.

.

108


.
.

, , %
,

.

(
, )
.

.


7.1 ,
.
.
.

. ,
,
,
( ).
.



.
70% .
20% ,
.

.09

,
.

3% .
,
.

30%
,
:
.

1998 .

.
:
1.
.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ,
.
.
1.
?
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. ,
.
6.
Excel .

110


1. . . Microsoft Excel
2000. .: , 2001.
2. .., .., ..
. .: , 1998.
3. .., ..

. , 7,1996.
4. .. .
, , . .: ,
1998.

8.
, ,



.
,
() (
)
.

.

, ()
(,
). ,
()
Y=a1X+a0,
Y , (),
X - , (
),
ai .

.
.

112


, .

, .
,
, evaluation.

. ,
.
-
.

,
.
, ,
; ,
, ,
,
.

, - .
,
.

.
,
.
,
,
,
,
.


.


,
.
,
Windows, Excel.
[3].

Solo ,
.,

,
.
,
, .

. ,
,
,
.


.



.
:
Excel.
- Lin_rgrs.XLSo
. 8.1.

114

.
,


.
3 Un_rg(s.XLS

Wsl!3

Advertising
budget
Unit Sales

;3500
j10073
1825
J33550
[37200
155400
9~5565
!66501
71000
12 82107
13_;83100
14 '90496
15 ; 100000
102100
132222
18 1136297
W'(139114
20"!165575

16323
6303
1769

y=0,S43x+5j21,l
R'0,7031

100000

30570
7698
9554
54154

80000

54450
47800
74598
25257 _
80608

60000

40800

20000

63200
69675
98715

40000

0000
$0

$50000

$100000 $150000 $200000

75886

83360

< > U\Figl5.4/F,g:56/Ftgl5.7/

LIT

. 8.1. ,

.
,
.
, -
.

.
.

>...

115

, . 8.2.
[ 1 4):

[Tfxl

|
.

*
|
!

;__ , j
J

> j

. 8.2, .

.
>.
. > ,
.
.

.

.

.

116

,
...
. 8.3.

_

!|

( )

. 8.3. .

.
(. 8.4)
:

(R A 2).
(. 8.1)
.
, .
, ,

117

. ,
,
.
.

()
& : (Unit Sales)

*"" :

:
:
~ Y :

JO


(-~-2)

, 8.4.
.





.
.
.
.

118

:

.

8.2. ,




.
,

,
.

.
.

Matlab_Simulink.



.




.
Lin_rgrs.XLS.

. 8.5.

119

Advertising
budget
$3500
$10073
$11825
$33550
$37200
$55400
$55 565
$66 501
$71 000
$82107
$83 100
$90496
$100000
$102100
$132 222
$136297
$139114
$165575

; ]-.;
Sales1
Price Unit Sales
$88
16523
6305
$110
1769
$85
30570
$28
7698
$101
$71
9554
$7
54154
$82
54450
$62
47800
74598
$24
25257
$91
80608
$40
40800
$45
63200
$21
69675
$40
98715
$8
75886
$63
83360
$5

130000
100000 3 80000
60000
' 40000
3
20000
0000
(0

(50000

(100000

(150000

(200 OOC

Advertising Budget

(0

(60

(80

(100 (

Sale; Price

. 8.5. ,

.


.
,
.




.
.
,
. -

120

,
.

8.3.
,

.



.



Excel LINEST (linear
estimation = )
.

:
Excel.
- Lin_rgrs.XLS, .

. 8.6.

. ,
Xi , 2
Y .
E:G
.
, , &
.
.

121


.

. ,
, Ctrl + Shift +
Enter. .
(. 8.6) .

.

.
,
.
" 2

10 - s e e

i New Roman
G9

'jj

Q - <& ~ , -

i "(-" 20. 20,))

_._c_4 . ,, e ... ,

.F,

-
|H
1 Advertising Sales
2
budget
Pnce Unit Sales
3 '
$3500
16523
$88
4
$10073 $110
6305
5
$11 825
1769 UNESTi;C3 C20.A3 B20,TRUE,TROE)
$85
6
$33550
30570
$28
7 '
$37200 $101
7698 ( 2020^,)
d2
si

8
$55400
9554
$71
9J
$55565
54154
-358,4634
0,38181 36842.9715
$7
10 |
$66501
54450
$82
47800
$62
y--358.46*X2 +038-50+36842^7 _
74598
$24
12.1
$82107
25257
$91
. .
i
1 $83 100
80608
$40
14;
$90496
_
40800
$45
MOOOOO
$21
.16 i $102100
63200
$40
$132222
69675
$8
18 ' $136297
98715
$63
$139114
19
75886
-I
i
$165575
$5
20
83360
i
111
X2
21 '
XI
Yl

"Ti ' $7i ooo

'"3
ill

Il. >.H/&U5

./

ll

. 8.6.

.
122

:
(__; __;
; )
:20,

:20.
, ,
,
0.
,
.
,
0.
,
,
.
,
.
,
at
.
:
,
, , F .
,

(),
.



,
-

123

.
.
,
,
.

,
.

.
:
1. .
2.
.
3.
.
4.
.
5. .
6. : ,
;
;
,
.
.
1.
?
2. .
3.
.
4. Excel.
5.
.

124


1. . . Microsoft Excel
2000. .: , 2001.
2. .. . . .:
, 2001.
3. . - Excel 2000. .:
, 2001.

125

9. ,
MATLAB/SIMULINK
Excel , , .
.
, ,
. ,
.

, .
Excel

Visual Basic for Application.
,
,
, , ,
.


Matlab. (Toolboxes)

.
FinancialToolbox, Excel - ExcelLink,
Word Notebook.

Simulink,
.
.

126


.
,
. ,

.

Matlab,
.
Simulink,
. Help!

.
.
.
MATLAB/Simulink
.
. MATLAB
Math Works, Inc.
.
, ,
.
MATLAB/Simulink

.
MATLAB 6.* Simulink 4.*
2000 . 32
. 64.
128 .
.
. .

. ,
.

127

MATLAB ,
, .
.
, .. .
.
MATLAB
.
, ,
.
MATLAB
. Simulink
, ,
,
,
(Add Ins).
30 Toolboxes
.
MS Word -
Notebook. MS Excel
ExcelLink.

9.1. MATLAB,
MATLAB 6.
CDROM 1,5
.
400 .
,
.

, .
MATLAB
.

128


. ,
.

MATLAB
.
Windows . 9.1
MATLAB.
fig - toolbox

! >:
1 ...

| | C:SmatlabR12Stoolbox
<

J_jJ

fcJU.'.ljt-.

FJ -CJ matlabR12
^

,.s _ ^

*]

CJ exlink
wJ finance
;__3 local
LD matlab

-CD demos

-CD ja
5 Java
3- C 3 notebook
3 rtw
El- CD simulink
B--CD stateflow
3 CD sys

~~1 optim
CD reqmgt
I.. 1 rptgen
i - 1 rptgenext
r~
i..,Tl simulink

3--C3 uninstall
8 CD work

.1 msoffice

toolbox

- extern
i 3 L 3 help

<i

'

L ! l stateflow
.1 symbolic

""!

>

>!!
' j y

. . MATLAB.

129

mat!abR12
.
. demos.

MATLAB. ,
, .
help
HTML pdf ,
MATLAB.
Notebook MATLAB
MS WORD. WORD
MATLAB. WORD
MATLAB WORD
. WORD
.
simulink.
Toolbox ( )
,
MATLAB .

Toolbox.
MATLAB.

.
Exlink MATLAB Excel.
Finance .
, Excel,
Excel .
Optim
. ,
, .
Excel ,
,
,

130

,
.
Rptgen .
Rtw(real time workshop) ,
ADA . MATLAB, Simulink .
Stateflow
. ,
.
Symbolic
.
.
SIMULINK
.
- ( .) ,
MATLAB. -
MATLAB.
/ MATLAB.
Mdl- ( .mdl)
SIMULINK.
SIMULINK ( -),
/ MATLAB.
- ( .mat) ,
(Workspace) MATLAB.
,
MATLAB
, MATLAB, , Excel
Word. .

9.2. MATLAB, :
, ,
MATLAB
.

131

MATLAB . 9.2.
About MATLAB

MATLAB
:

'

'-'

I984-2UOO The MorfiWoriu, Inc.

Show License

. 9.2. MATLAB.
MATLAB
, . 9.3.
MATLAB Windows, MATLAB
.
Launch Pad
MATLAB.
, . -

132

Help ( ),
Demos ( ), Product Page (Web
MathWorks,Inc
Internet).
Ed

D s?

Wejj &r,dow hdp


-V p .

"|

Currert tJreetarv [

^
J-^L Financial Toolbox
-<$HATLJ13 Report Generator
ff 1 -^ Optimisation Toolbox
^Requirements Management
i*' ^ S y m b o l i c Bach Toolbox
tf- f $ Simulink
tr-$ Real-Time Workshop
l+~1p$iSimulink Performance Toe
i+

TaxRate_Iny t. mdl
^ TaxRateDsc.mdl
TaxRateK.m

1 2 3
exp[u)

Colunns 1 through 3
2.7183

" ( ^ ^ 9 : 2 7 i/Ob/01 *
2'2
u-tl,2,3,4]
sxp (u)

7.3891

Column 4
54.5982
J

Read,

PMC. 9.3, .
Workspace.
MATLAB.
MATLAB,
Simulink .
.
Current Directory ,
().
MS DOS. MATLAB
(-) ,
, .
Command History ( )
.

133

Command Window
.
MATLAB
Windows-
:

( );

.
MATLAB :
File ()
;
Edit () ,
;
View () ;
Web
, , ,
MATLAB;
Window () ;
Help ()
.
File.
New ;
Open ;
Close Launch Pad
MATLAB;
Import Data ;
Save Workspace As ...;

Set Path ;

Preferences ,
,
.

134

Print ;
Print Selection .
, ~
MATLAB. .
Exit MATLAB MATLAB.
Edit.
.
Clear : ,
.
View ().
,
Undock,

Windows.
Help .
Help browser Web browser
MATLAB
HTML. MathWorks Inc.
.
PDF.
PDF
Acrobat
Reader Adobe Adobe
Systems Inc.
MATLAB
. PDF ,
,
.
MATLAB
Reference. ,
MATLAB,
.

, .

135


, .
,
, .
,
.
.
Windows .
( ?)
Simulink

9.3. Editor/debugger \


Simulink
MATLAB. (-)
/. ,
MATLAB .
,

. 9.4.
.
, :
Debug Breakpoints.

Run
Debug.
Simulink.
.
Breakpoints .

.

136

9> CACsi MlLb\TxRt\TaxRateH m


-'file

Edit View Text Debugj Breakpoints Web Window Help

& s i r*

%0pr,iii.al profit tax rate siiaulatxou


.
'sFile: C:\Csr_Mtlb\TxRt\TaxRateH.m and TaxP.ate.me"
%Set model Path

path(path,'C:\Csr_HtLb\TxRt')
v
..

'

7
8
9
10
11

.*

-'. 12

l.3
/ 14

17

^Load and Run TaxRate.mdl


open_system('TaxRate')
TaxRate=[0:0.05:0.4]
for Rntb 0.2:0.1:1
3im('TaxRate')
plot(TaxRate, ScopeData(end,2:end))
hold on
grid
end
hold off
%=== e nd TaxPatell.m program =
AJ

^eady

. 9.^.
.

9.4.

MATLAB :
,
.
,
MATLAB .
, ,
Excel.
(. 9.3.) 2*2.
(), Enter.
ans = 4. MATLAB
.

137

,
:
= [1,2,3,4].
Enter
= 1 2 3 4.
MATLAB
. ,

() ans.
.
(;),
Enter.

,
,
.
(
),
MATLAB ans (
answer ). , ans,
ans =
(, , ).

9.5. MATLAB,
Simulink
MATLAB \ .
(. 9.4.)
.
MATLAB,
.

138

Simulink
sim('TaxRate') 11.
Simulink MATLAB
ScopeData plot ( 12)
Simulink.
,
( 9)
for ( 10-15).

139

10. SIMULINK
Simulink
. Simulink
MATLAB
. , ,
, .
.
Simulink,
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
, ..
.
(
).
,

, Simulink,
MATLAB. Scope ()
Display ( ),
.

MATLAB
. (Workspace) -

140

MATLAB, .
,

.

10.1. Simulink
Simulink MATLAB.
. 10.1.
J About Simulink

SIMULINK
Dynamic System Simulation for MATLAB"

6
.

'

**,'-,

s *
^

"

Copyright 19SO-2000 The MathWorks, Inc.

OK

. 10.1. Simulink.

141

Simulink :
1 . MATLAB simulink.
2. MATLAB
Simulink (
, ?).

10.2. Simulink
Simulink,
. 10.2.
Simulink Library Browser
File Edit View Help

'*>-aA-V.,
". * "^ *

Q
Derivative: Numerical derivative:

H - f t Simulink
Discrete
] Functions 8t Tables
j Math
*j-j Nonlinear
j Signals & Systems
j Sinks
j Sources
W

Real-Time Workshop
ij Report Generator

Simulink Extras

. 10.2. Simulink

142

(
Simulink)
. :

(, Simulink);

(, Continuous);

(, Integrator).

'+' .

:

( );
(
);


( );

(find).

.
.



() , .

()
.

10.3.
Simulink (. 10.3)
Windows .
Edit
.
Simulation
.

143

10.4. Simulink
Windows
Simulink MATLAB.

10.5.

Windows filonew ,
file > open.
Simulink
.
.
.
.

(, ,
.).
file>new.
untitled.
Continuous (
) Inegrator ().
,
.
,
.
Inegrator , . 10.3.

,

Word Excel.
, ..
.
() .

144

rL? unlilled
Farriaf "Tools

Constant

1
Constantl

1
Constant2

Integ rated

1
_

Integrated

1
s
Integrators

I I
Scope

Puc. 10.3. .
(
). Sources
.

. .
.
. . .
.
.

Sinks Scope.
.
: Simulation > Start.

145

.
Scope. . 10.4.

SScoce ;
. 10,4. .
(10 ) .

. 10 .

10.6.
10.6,
(
, , ) ().
.
.
.
.

Shift .
, .

146


,
.
.
.
. , ,
.
.
Select Edit
Ctri-A.

10.6.2.
, .. ,
, .

. .
.

.
:
.
(
) .
, .

.
,
Paste Edit:
, .
Edit.
,
.
Paste Edit.
Simulink
. ,

147

.
.
,
.

.
Ctrl.
,

.
Ctrl.
,
.

.

.

. Simulink

.
,
, :
.

.

.
. .
.
. .

.
Del
Backspace. Clear.

148

.

( , ).
Format
:
Flip Block 180.
Rotate Block 90.

10.6.3.

. ^
, ,
, ,
.

,
, Del, Backspace, Enter.
.
,
Font Format.
.

:

.
Format > Flip Name.
.
Format > Hide Name.
Format > Show Name.

10.6.4.

.
.

149

. 10.5.
. .
.
,
.
Black Paiameters; Constant
!; Constant
[ Output the constant specified by the 'Constant value1 parameter. If
'Con-slant va!uc: is a vector and Interpret vector parameters as 1-D' is on,
1 4sdt the constant value as a 1-D iiioy Qtnetwise, output a matrix wrth
> irv - ^ Jineneians Ihe corner* value.
.
t

.-

H.3!afrte:s
.
Cotista^t vak:

_ , _

,. . _.....: vector pa:a r >^'s - 1


< --"2I2i .QK.

~ 1 ' , :=

Puc. 10.5. ,

10.6.5.
(,
) .
.

.

.

.


:

150


. .

.
.
. Simulink

.

, , , .
Simulink
.
Shift .

.
Shift
. . , ,
.
t

.

.
,
.
Ctrl,
.
,
Ctrl .

.

.
.
-

151

.
,
.
.
.
.
,
.

.
, .
,
.
Shift,
. .
.
.
Shift .

.
,
.
.
.
.

10.6.6. ()
(, )
,
. ,
.

152

.

.
, , .

.

.

. Windows
.
.

.
.
.

.
Ctrl
.

.
Shift,
, Del
Backspace.

.

,
From/Goto, Mux.

<.
Update Diagram Edit
.

153

10.6.7.

.
.

,
.

, .

, Font Format.
, .

10.6.8.
-
: ,
.

Shift+

CtrH-

|
Shift+

154

Shift+
Ctrl+
+
Shift+

Shift+


<


Ctrl+

,
Shift l- ,
Del


o^,leap


Ctrl+

,

Shift+ ,
Del

10.7.
,
, .
:

,
;

- ;

-.

:

Subsystem ,

;

-
.

155


Subsystem.
Subsystem Connections
.
Subsystem, .
.
In Out
:


.
,
,
.

, .
Create Subsystem Edit.
Simulink Subsystem.
Subsystem, Simulink
. Simulink In Out
.

10.8.


Save As File.
. Simulink
..
- MATLAB.
MATLAB
, ,
Open as Text.
.

156


Save.
.

10.9.
Print File
Print MATLAB.

10.10.
Simulink,
MATLAB, -,
.
Simulink
Simulation > Start.
, .

, .

parkprdct.mdl.
open_system('parkprdct')
sim('parkprdct').
-
MATLAB
Simulink.

10.11.

, .

Simulation>Simulation Parameters.

157

Solver
,
,
- .
.
Workspace I/O
,
Simulink

158

11.
SIMULINK

11.1. Simulink
Continuous ()
.
Discrete ()
.
Functions & Tables ( )
, ,
.
Math () ,
,
.
Nonlinear () ,
.
Signals & Systems ( )

, ,
.
Sinks ()
.
Sources () ,
( ) ,
.

159

11.2. Simulink
,
.
. , Coulomb & Viscous
Friction ( ),
, -
-,
- -.

11.2.1. Continuous
Integrator .
Transfer Fen .
State-Space .
Zero-Pole -.
Derivative .
Memory .
Transport Delay .
Variable Transport Delay
.

11.2.2. Discrete
Unit Delay .
Discrete Time Integrator .
Zero Order Hold .
First-Order Hold .
Discrete State-Space .
Discrete Filter .
Discrete Transfer Fen .
Discrete Zero-Pole
.

11.2.3. Functions & Tables


Look-Up Table (
).

160

Look-Up Table(2-D)
( ).
Fen .
MATLAB Fen MATLAB.
S-Function S-.

11.2.4. Math
Gain .
Sum .
Dot Product .
Matrix Gain .
Slider Gain .
Abs .
Trigonometric Function .
Math Function .
Rounding Function .
MinMax , .
Product .
Combinatorial Logic .
Logical Operator .
Relational Operator .
Sign .
Algebraic Constraint .
Complex to Magnitude-Angle
-.
Magnitude-Angle to Complex .
Complex to Real-Imag
.
Real-Imag to.Complex
.

11.2.5. Nonlinear
Rate Limiter (, ).
Saturation , .
161

Quantizer .
Coulomb & Viscous Friction
.
Backlash .
Dead Zone .
Switch .
Manual Switch .
Multiport Switch .
Relay .

11.2.6. Signals & Systems


Hit Crossing , .
In .
Out .
, .
Demux - , .
From
Goto Tag Visibility .
Goto .
Data Store Read .
Data Store Memory .
Data Store Write .
Enable .
Trigger , .
Ground .
Terminator .
1C .
Subsystem ,
Selector .
Width .
Merge .
Bus Selector .
Data Type Conversion .
Function-Call Generator .
Configurable Subsystem
162

Model M b .

11.2.7. Sinks
Scope , , .
XY Graph (
).
Display , .
File .
Workspace .
Stop Simulation .

1L2.8. Sources
Constant .
Signal Generator .
Step , , , .
Ramp .
Sine Wave .
Repeating Sequence .
Discrete Pulse Generator .
Pulse Generator .
Chirp Signal .
Clock .
Digital Clock .
From File .
From Workspace .
Random Number .
Uniform Random Number .
Band Limited White Noise
.

11.3.

Simulink.

163

. ,
,
.
Abs (Math ) .
: Abs
.
: .
Algebraic Constraint (Math)

: Algebraic Constraint
, ,
,
Algebraic Constraint.
,
.

.
:
Initial Guess (
0).
(
, ).
Backlash (Nonlinear)
( ).
:
.
,
.


.

.

164

, ,
*
,
10%.
:

Deadband width ;

Initial output .
Band Limited White Noise (Sources)
.
.
:

Noise power .

Sample time .

Seed .
Bus selector (Signals & Systems) .
: Bus selector
.

Signals in the bus. ,
Select.
, Selected signals
Up Down. Muxed output
, ,
, ,
.
Chirp Signal (Sources)
.
:
Initial frequency (Hz) .
Target time (sees) .
Frequency at target time (Hz) (
).
Clock (Sources) .
:
Display time ;

165

Decimation . ,

. ,
1000 1
.
Combinatorial Logic (Math) .
: Combinatorial Logic

.
:
Truth table .
Complex to Magnitude-Angle (Math)
.
:
Output (, ).
Complex to Real-Imag (Math)

:
Output ( ,
).
Configurable Subsystem (Signals & Systems)
.
: Configurable Subsystem
,
.
:
Library name
.
Constant (Sources) .
: Constant
.
:
Constant value .
Data Store Memory; Data Store Read; Data Store Write
(Signals & Systems) - , , .

166

:
.
, Data Store Read Data Store
Write, Data Store Memory.
:
Data store name .
Initial value .
Sample time .
Data Type Conversion (Signals & Systems)
.
:
.
.
:
Data type .
Saturate on integer overflow
.
Dead Zone (Nonlinear)
( ).
:
Start of dead zone .
'End of dead zone .
Demux (Signals & Systems) - .
:
.
:
Number of outputs .
Derivative (Continuous) - .
: .
Digital Clock (Sources) .
: ,
.
:
Sample time .
Discrete Filter (Discrete) .
167

: .
:
Numerator .
Denominator .
Sample time .
Discrete Pulse Generator (Sources)
.
: .
.
:
Amplitude .
Period (number of samples) (
).
Pulse width (number of samples) (
).
Phase delay (number of samples) (
).
Sample time .
Discrete State Space (Discrete)
.
:
:
= Ax(n)+Bu(n)
y(n) = Cx(n)+Du(n}
:
, , , D , , , D.
Initial condition .
Sample time .
Discrete Time Integrator (Discrete)
.

.
:
:

168

Forward Euler .
Backward Euler .
Trapezoidal .
:
- .
rising .
falling .
either .
: .
internal .
external .
.
:
.
.
.
.
:
.
( ,
)
.
rising, falling either External reset.

.
external Initial
condition state.
.
,
0. ,
. Show
saturation port.
,
.
Show state port.

169

Discrete Transfer Fee (Discrete)


.
:

Numerator .

Denominator .

Sample time .
Display (Sinks) .
:
.
:
Format .
Decimation . 1
, 2 ..
Pleating display .
.

.
Sample time .

1 .
Dot Product (Math) .
: Dot Product
:

Uj U2 ,
* .
Ui U2 , .
.
: .
Enable (Signals & Systems) .
: Enable
.
,
.

170

:
States when enabled
:
held
, ;
reset .
Show output port (
).
Fen (Functions & Tables) .
: Fen ,
. :

.
, u( i ) ;

(+, -, *, /);

(= =,!=<, >, <=, >=).


1, , 0
;

. 1,
, 0 ;

abs, acos, asin, atan, atan2, ceil,


cos, cosh, exp, fabs, floor, hypot. In, log, log 10, pow, power,
rem, sgn, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh;.

MATLAB.
:

)
2 + - ()
3 pow ( )
4!
5*/
7<=>=
8=!=
9&&

171

:
Expression .
First Order Hold (Discrete) .
: Sample time .
From (Signals & Systems) .
: From ,
Goto. .
:
Goto tag ( ).
From File (Sources) .
: mat-.
, .
,

.

,
.
,
,
,

() .
:
File name .
Sample time .
From Workspace (Sources) .
:
.
:
:

172

,
,
.
,
( -) , ,
:
var.time=[0:0.1:10]
var.signals=[sin(var.time)cos(var.time)]
:
Data .
, : [t,u].

, : [U].
,
, ,
, :
[var.time.var.signals].

Sample time .

Interpolate data ,
.

Hold final data value


,
, .
Function-Call Generator (Signals & Systems)
.
:
.
.
:

Sample Time
.
Gain (Math) .
: ,
y=k * u.

173

Gain .
Goto (Signals & Systems) .
: Goto .
From.
.
:

Tag ( );

Tag visibility :

local
.
.

scoped

,
Goto Tag Visibility.
.

global
.
Goto Tag Visibility (Signals & Systems)
.
: Goto Tag Visibility
. Tag Visibility,
scoped

, Goto Tag Visibility.
:

Goto Tag ( ).
Ground (Signals & Systems) .
: Ground
.
.
: .
Hit Crossing (Signals & Systems)

.

174

: .
:

Hit crossing offset .

Hit crossing detection


.

Show output port .


1C (Signals & Systems) .
: 1C ,
.

Initial Condition,
.
In (Signals & Systems) .
: In
.
:

Port number ;

Port width (-1


);

Sample time (-1


);

Data type ;

Signal type :

auto ;
real ;

complex .

Interpolate data ,
, ,
.
Integrator (Continuous) .
:


. rising, falling
either External reset.

175


.
external initial condition
state.

,
0. ,
.
Show saturation port.

,
.
Show state port.
:
:

rising ;

falling ;

either .
:

internal ;

external .
.
:
.
.
.
.
Logical Operator (Math) .
:

Operator .

Number of Input Ports .


Look-Up Table, Look-up Table (2D) (Functions & Tables)
( ).
: ,
. , , -

176

. ,
, .
Look-Up Table:

Vector of input values .

Vector of output values .


Look-Up Table (2D):

Row .

Column .

Table .
Magnitude-Angle to Complex (Math)
- .
:

Input .

Magnitude and angle .

Magnitude .

Angle .

Magnitude ,
.

Angle , .
Manual Switch (Nonlinear) .
:
.
: .
Math Function (Math) .
: .
:

Function (exp, log, loglO, magnitudeA2, square,


sqrt, pow, reciprocal, hypot, rem, mod).

Output signal type (autoreallcomplex)


( ,
, ).
MATLAB Fen (Functions & Tables) MATLAB.
: MATLAB.
:

MATLAB function .

177

Output width . (1
).

Output signal type {autolreallcomplex}


(, ,
).
Matrix Gain (Math)
.
:
=*,
, , .
:
Gain matrix .

Memory (Continuous) .
: Memory -
.
.
:

Initial condition .

Inherit sample time


.
Merge (Signals & systems) .
: Merge
.
:

Number of inputs .

Initial output .
MinMax (Math)
.
:

Function {minVmax} (
).

Number of Input Ports .


Model Info (Signals & Systems) .

178

: Model Info
, ,
Simulink.
:

Model properties ,
Simulink ( , , ..).

Editable text , .

Horizontal text alignment


.

Show block frame .


Multiport Switch (Nonlinear)
.
:
.
.
:
Number of inputs .
(Signals & Systems) - .
:
.
:

Number of inputs .

Display options .
Out (Signals & Systems) .
: .
:

Port number .

Output when disabled ,


, , .

Initial output .
,
.
Product (Math) - .
:
.

179

Number of inputs .
* /
, .

Saturate on integer overflow


.
,
.

Probe (Signals & Systems)


.
:
, ,
, .

.
:

Probe width .

Probe sample time .

Probe complex signal .


Pulse Generator (Sources) .
: Pulse Generator
.
:

Period (sec) .

Duty cycle (% of Period) (%


).

Amplitude .

Start time .
Quantizer (Nonlinear) .
: Quantizer
.
:

Quantisation interval .
Ramp (Sources) .

180

: Ramp
.
:
Slope .
Start time .
Initial output .
Random Number (Sources) .
: Random Number
.
:

Mean .

Variance - .

Initial seed .

Sample time .
Rate Limiter (Nonlinear) , ,
.
: Rate Limiter
.
:

Rising slew rate .

Falling slew rate- .


Real-Image to Complex (Math)
.
:

Input .

Real and imag .

Real .

Imag .

Real part , ,
.

Imag part , ,
.
Relational Operator (Math) .
: Relational Operator
:

181


==

~=

<

>=

>

:
9
Operator .
Relay (Nonlinear) .
: Relay .
:

Switch on point .

Switch off point .

Output when on
.

Output when off


.
Repeating Sequence (Sources)
.
: Repeating Sequence
(
).
:

Time values
.

Output values
.
Rounding Function (Math) .
: Rounding Function
.
:

Function :

182

floor ;

ceil ;

round ;
fix ,
.
Saturation (Nonlinear) .
: Saturation
.
:

Upper limit .

Lower limit .
Scope (Sinks) .
: Scope .
.
,
.
.
.
Scope
.
.
.

.

(General-Axes-Number of Axes).

... Scope.
:
General Axes:
Number of axes
().
Time range .
Tick labels :

183

All ;
None ;
Bottom axis only .
Floating scope .
General Sampling:
Decimation .
Decimation.

Sample time
.
Sample time.

Data history:

Limit rows to last...


,
.
(
), .

Save data to workspace


.

Variable name ,
.

Format ,
:

Structure with time ;

Structure ;

Matrix .
Selector (Signals & Systems) .
: Selector
.
:
Elements ,
.

Input port width .


S-Function (Functions & Tables) S-.
: S-Function S -. S- -

184

, ,
. ,
S- S-Function. S-
Simulink. Writing S-Functions. ( sfunctions.pdf help\pdf_doc\Simulink
MATLAB).
:

S-function name S-.

S-function parameters S-.


Sign (Math) .
: Sign
:
=1, >
= 0, =
=-1, <
: .
Signal Generator (Sources) .
: , ,
.
:

Waveform :

sine ,

square ,

sawtooth ,

random .

Amplitude .

Frequency .

Units :
Hertz ,
rad/sec /.
Sine Wave (Sources) .
:

Amplitude .

Frequency (rad/s) (/).

185

Phase (rad) ().


Sample time .
: - 1 ,
.
Slider Gain (Math)

.
: .
.
,
Low High.
State-Space (Continuous) .
:
:
' = +
= + Du.
:
, , , D , , , D.
Initial conditions
.
Step (Sources) .
:

Step time .

Initial value .
Final value ,

Sample time .
Stop Simulation (Sinks) .
: Stop Simulation
.
: .
Subsystem (Signals & Systems) .
: Subsystem
.
,

186

,
.
:


Create Subsystem Edit;

Subsystem,

.

In Out.
: .
Sum (Math) - .
:

Icon shape :
round ;
rectangular .

List of signs .
, I. '+'
,
' '
, .
: I+- ,
. ,
,
.

Saturate on integer overflow


.
,
.
Switch (Nonlinear) .
:
. 1 ,

Threshold, 2.
:

Threshold .

187

Terminator (Signals & Systems) .


: Terminator
.
, .
: .
File (Sinks) .
: File
- .
.
:

Filename .

Variable name .

Decimation (
n- ,
).

Sample time (-1


).
Workspace (Sinks) .
: Workspace
MATLAB.
,
.
:

Variable name .

Maximum number of rows:


(inf ).

Decimation (
n- ,
).

Sample time (-1


).

Save Format :
Structure with time ;
Structure ;
Matrix .

188

Transfer Fen (Continuous) .


: Transfer Fen
.
:

Numerator .

Denominator .

.
.
Transport Delay (Continuous) .
:
.
:

Time delay .

Initial input .

Initial buffer size .


Trigger (Signals & Systems) .
: Trigger () .
,
,
Trigger Type.
Trigger.
:

Trigger type ( ):
rising ,

;
falling ,

;
either
(rising falling);
function call , S;

189

Show output port .


Output data type :
auto ;
double ;
int8 8- .
Trigonometric function (Math)
.
: Trigonometric function
.
:

Function (sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan, atan2,


sinh, cosh, tanh).

Output signal type :


auto ;
real ;
complex .
Uniform Random Number (Sources)
.
: Uniform Random Number
.
:

Minimum .

Maximum .

Initial seed .

Sample time .
Unit Delay (Discrete) .
: Unit Delay
.
:

Initial condition .

Sample time .
Variable Transport Delay (Continuous)
.
:
.
.

190

Maximum delay .

Initial input .

Initial buffer size .


Width (Signals & Systems) .
:
.
: .
XY Graph (Sinks) (
).
: XY Graph .
.
:

min, x max, min,


.

Sample Time .
-1.
Zero Order Hold (Discrete) .
: Zero Order Hold
.
:

Sample time .
Zero-Pole (Continuous) -.
: ,
.
:

Zeros .

Poles .

Gain .

11.4.
1. .
MATLAB. .: , 2000.

191

2. .., .. MATLAB 5.0/5.3. .:


, 1999.
3. .., .., ..

MATLAB, Simulink, Control System. , , 1999.
4. .., .. MatLAB 5 .
.: -, 1999.
5. MATLAB. The Language of Technical Computing. Using
MATLAB. MathWorks Inc., 1999.

192

12.



Excel Simulink
.

12.1. .


:
BD(t) =

PRF(t).TXRTdt,
t=tb

BD(t) ,
t, .;
PRF(t) (profit),
t, /.;
TXRT (tax rate);
t , .
tb (begin) ;
tf (final) .

:
t=tf
CP(t)= I PRF(t>(l-TXRT>dt,
t=tb

193

t
PRF(t) = CP(t) ' RN,
RN .
, .

12.2.
Simulink
Simulink-
-,
.
,
.

.

.

, ,
, .
. 12.1.

,

. CapF.
, .
, .
CapS.
( )
PrfF
Rntb.

Rntb.

[0.2:0.2.0:8].
Matlab ,
20%
20% 80%.


Matlab.
;/ '

'>

- - ~ Toe's

D
fI


Discrete Valiant

TaxRate
.2.0_2:08]
*

.1-1.0]

Scopel

Display

Rea I002

. 12.1
,
Scope 1

CapS.
( )
TaxRate.
TxF.

TaxRate.
[0:0.1:1:0].
,

195

0% 10%
100%.

Matlab.
.
TxF
BdjS. Scope
. Display
BdjS.


, .

,
.
:
, ,
.

.



Matlab Simulink.

.

Scope
Display.

-: .

.
,
.

196



, ,
, , .
,
,
.
Matlab ..

12.3

. ,
,
.
%Optimal profit tax rate simulation
%File: C:\CsrJVttLb\TxRt\TaxRate_DscM.m and TaxRate_Dsc.mdl

path(path,'C:\Csr_MtLb\TxRt') %Set model Path


open_system('TaxRate_Dsc') %Load TaxRate_Dsc.mdl
TaxRate=[0:0.05:0.7] %-
for Rntb = 0.2:0.2:1 % -
sim('TaxRate_Dsc') %Run model
plot(TaxRate, ScopeData(end,2:end)) %
hold on %
grid %
end
hold off %3
% = = = end TaxRate_DscM.m program = = = = = = = = = = = =

m-
.
.

. .-

Simulink Simulink
.mdl.

.

open_system
.
;
TaxRate
.
8 14 for

.
sim
,
.
plot
. 12.5, (work space)
Matlab, Scope.
hold on
,
.
.
. 12.2.
"HbJ

open_system
TaxRate-[0:0
foe Rntb 0
= 1*1 Taxru,
_
ploMTaxRM

bold on %?L.
grid
end
hold alt _
il

"

. /2.2. SH<)
.
198


-
. Simulink .
Scope
() .

,
plot Matlab.

12.4. 1.
.


.
Simulation,
Scope
: ) ,
.
,
.

. 12.3.

. 12.3. .

199

, 12.4.

, 12.4, ,

, .
3 .. .

: ,

.

12.5. 2.
.
-
.
, .. .
Matlab
TaxRate_DscM.m. .

200

.
Tools > Run.
Matlab

, . 12.5.
> Fiquie . 2

Fid EtUi

>D e=
9GOO
8000

, 12,5,
.


,
.
( ),
, ,
, 23%,

, ,
.
, .

201


. ,
,
. , ,

.



: ,
,
.

.
:
1. .
2. : , ,
.
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ,
.
7. ,
.
.
1.
?
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5.
.
6. .

202

7. ,
.
8.
.
9. .
10.
.
11.
.

1. .. . . .: ,
1997.
2. .., ..
// . 1996. 8.

203

13.
.
.
(18421924) ,
.

. , 80
OPEC,
,
.

.
, ,
. , ,
. , ,
Matlab_Simulink.

.

.
:
, , .

13.
.
: , , , .

204

.
, .
. ,
.
:
.


: , , ,
.

Dmd = Do-Kd*P r c ,
: Dmd cnpoc(demand) ;
DO ;
Kd ;
(price) .

S p l =S 0 + K s *P r c ,
: Spi (1) ;
SQ ;
Ks ;
(price) .

Simulink.
-
. 13.1.

, .

DmdFn. ,
.
:
u = Prc, Do =100,1^=10.

205

^^^^^. - ' 1
,ile

idil

; D

i'TjY

* V

Sn-nAi'.

"

'_ !-

-J*

>


Prc
Dmci

DmdSplEqu.md
|

"^>>
Oaln

*-

Pn;

pj|

- -4 1LI ^
Scope

DmdFn

Pro

niegrato

->. -10+ 7"u

HShp^4"

, * | ,
|
-

SplFn

Constant

Scopel

Pro

SplFnl

.., , 943-19-29

. 13.1 - .
.


SplFn.
, .
:
u = P r c ,S 0 =10,K s = 7.
.
Spl,
.
SplFnl
.
, .
,
Spl .

DmdFn.

206

13.1. .
.

.

Scope.
,
.
,

.

. ,

.
Matlab
.

.

, ..
.

Matlab.

Matlab . 13.2.
%Market equlibrim price simulation
%File: C:\Csr_MtLb\DmdSplEquM.m
%1.Simulate static functions, plot its
%2.Simulate price dynamic, plot price Web graphics
Cff

207

%Set model Path


path(path,'C:\Csr_MtLb\MrktEqlPrc')
% = = = = = =
=
= = = %
1.Simulate static functions, plot its
%Load and Run DmdSplEqu.mdl
open_system('DmdSplEqu')
sim('DmdSpffiqu')%Write Vars into WS from Scope
%Plot Static features
plot(ScopeData(:,2),ScopeData(:,3:4))
hold on
grid
(5)%
%
%==
===============
%2.Simulate price dynamic
sim('DmdSplEqu')
%=========^l

=~-=^,

%3. plot price Web graphics


for i = 2:11 %
line([ScopeData(i-l,2) ScopeData(i,2)],[ScopeData(i,4) ScopeData(i,4)])
line([ScopeData(i,2) ScopeData(i,2)],[ScopeData(i,4) ScopeData(i+l,4)])
end
hold off

Puc. 13.2. -
.


%
. path
. open
system - Simulink.
sim . Plot
. Hold on
. Grid
. .
pause 5

208


.

. Sim
. . Scopes

Matlab workspace.
for, ,

.
133,
: - - .

'

'

'

*Harlcet equlLbriB price s*.


l i e : C:\Csr_HtLb\DB!dSFl
41.Simulate static functi'
42.Simulate price .
bSe-, laodel Path
path(path, "^ .
*1.Simulate static functi j
%Load and Run DmclSplEqa.K~
if

Prc
> 100 - 10"u
^,4-7J0
" " ~ Oain
- mtegcato

DmdFn

Consbiti

117*
SplFn

PTC

Transport

i Figure No 1

. 13.3.
.

209

/
Matlab -
Sunulmk. Scope, Scope 1
,
.
,
Matlab.

13.3. 1.
.
Matlab -
DmdSplEquM m. .
Tools>Run.
. Simuhnk
.
Scope Figure.
Scope 1 . 134.

. 13,4 , -
.

210

Scope . 135.
L-lGl *l
' \

. 13.5 ,
Scope.

. 13.6.



s.

100

.80
/60

ST

40
20

"^

'
^"

^ "

"0

'4

10

. 13.6.
.
211

13.4. 2.

.

DQ DmdFn SplFnl
.

SQ SplFn
.

13.5. 3.

.

IQ DmdFn SplFnl
.

Ks SplFn
.
Ks
. Ks=Kd
. .
, ..
. Ks > Kd
, ,
.
, .

.
:
1, .

212

2. : ,
, .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. : ,
.
, .
.
1. ?
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5. .
6. .
7. .
8.
.
9. .
10. ,
.
11.
.
12.
.
13.
.
14.
.
15.
.

1. .., .. . .:
-, 1995.

213

2. ..
. : -,1996.
3. .. . .: ,
1997.
4. .
. ., .: , 1999.
5. ., . . .: ,
1992.

14.


.

. , ,
.
- ,
. ,

.


.
, 1962
, .
- .
, . ,
300 , 10
.
: ,
, , , , .
.
.


-
.

215

14.1.
, .
, ,
. , , ,
.

Simulink

, .
,

Control System Toolbox

.
- Simulink
. 14. L
[IpaikpidcLNoScp
Rle <

View

Simulation

Fotmat

D & &

Toils

, .

( , .
.


1
\/
1
-|
s
Constant Inttgiatct

CurDmd

FfciipikT

lnPrtt

vC

'

\J(

^v)
^k

(loo
flft/

Satutat on

1
,

OutPrtc

Ready

J1QC'

. 14.1, . .
216

70 , ,
5-10
. ,


.

() NeedPrk
( ),
, :
(
Prdct),
InPrk ( ),
OutPrk (
, ).

, RealPrk (
, ).


CurDtnd. Saturation ()
,
:
CurDmd ^ 0.

.
, ,
( ).

14.2.

Scope -

, .
,
, .
. 14.2.

.
.
[flparkptdct

. . .

^^

"^,

r 'I* ^ ev _
' nulabon Formaj sols

se

>

"

, .
.

^f "S

NeedPtK
1
Constant I ntegiator

"

Real PA

NeedPrk

I CurOmd

k m c j r O mLf 5

Saturation

1380 )

InPrk

Pndct

ReaiPnT^

InPtk ""
OutPrk

*!?

OutPrV
s

*(

Scope

RealNeedPrtt

-*Prdct

CurOmd

| |
w

'
Secpel

EM^J

1 :

.-^

. 14.2. Simulink
Scope.
. 14.3.

Simulink. .
Scopel. Matlab.
Scope.

218

i
t
S

jj

^
*

*h Continuous
Discrete
Functions 8, Tables
Math
4j Nonlnea
4 Signals J, Systems
i-J Smks
iJ Sixices

" ""5(.


teed*

get started, typo one


For product information,

PMC. 1^.5. '.


.

14.3. 1.

.

Matlab .
Simulink ParkPrdct mdl.
Simulation>start. Scope

, . 14.4 14.5.

219

Puc. 14.4.
, , Scopel.

. 14.5.
, , Scope.
220


.
,
, .
, . ,

, ,
, .

14.4. 2,

.

, ,
.
, . .
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
. .

14.5. 3.

.


.

, -

221

. ,
.

, . . ,
, .

,

, , ..
.

.
:
1. .
2. : , .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. ,
.
7. ,
.
.
1. ?
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5.
.
6. .
7. ,
.
8.
.

222

9. .
10.
.
11.
: ,
, .

1. .. . . ., , 1992.
2. ., . . .: ,
1992.
3. ..
. .: .., ..
- . .: ,
1981.

223




..
..
. .
14.03.2002.
84x108/32. .
. .-. . 6,49.
. . . 11,76. 3000 . 945

005-93 2; 953005 , ,


77.99.02.953..000494.01.01 31.01.2001 .
.
05518 01.08.01
107066, , . . 4, . 1.
E-mail: examen@cityline.ru
./ 263-96-60.


424000, . -, . , 112

.: 263-96-60.

Оценить