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1 ,
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1.1. .............
1.2. ,
1.3. ..
1.4. ..
1.5. . ...
2 ........................................
2.1. ..
2.2. ...
2.3.
2.4. ............
2.5. ...
2.6. ..
2.7.
3 - .
3.1. .............
3.2. .............
3.3. ......
3.4.
4 - ..........
4.1. ..............
4.2. ..
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4.4. ...
4.5. ..
4.6.
4.7. ...
4.8.
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4.10 ..
4.11 ............
4.12 ...
4.13 ( MIDREX) ............
4.14 ...
4.15 .
4.16 ..
4.17 ..
4.18 ................
4.19 ..
4.20
..............................................................................................................
.......
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13

(4)

FM 2 = BM + f k +2 = { f1 , f 2 ,..., f k , f k +2 } ,

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14

SM 1q1 = FM 1 + f n = { f1 , f 2 ,..., f k , f k +1 , f n } ,

,
FM 2
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SM 2,q 2 = FM 2 + f n = { f1 , f 2 ,..., f k , f k + 2 , f n } .

, , FM 2 , , FM 1 .
SM 3 j
(j=1,2,,q-3); SM 4 j (j=1,2,,q-4), , SM q1, j (j=1).
FM q .

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22

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xi ximin
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(V)

f ( x , t ) (V ) ,
F.
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) () (V ) .
F
r
d
d
F=
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dt
dt (V)
( S)
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f J V (V ) , , t , , (V ) ,
f
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t

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t

(10)

v , J - f .
(1)
f
+ ( f v) = J + .
t

, JV J
JV = J f v .

25

(11)

2.1.1.
N- , i -
(V ) (S ) (V )
i -
[27,41,43]
d
i dV = i v i dS + i dV ,
dt (V )
(S )
(V )

i - i - ( ), v i - i - .
i

i
= ( i v i ) + i
t

(12)

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N

= 0.

i =1

(12)
r

= ( v) ,
t
N

= i - ,
i =1

v=

1 N
i vi
i=1

- . v v i -

i - .


i
+ ( i v) = J i + i ,
t

(13)

J i = i (v i v) - i - .
Ci i -
C i
1
+ (C i v) =
( J i + i ) ,
t
MiNA

C i = i / (M i N A ) , Mi -
6.00220451023 -1 - .

26

i -

(14)
, N =

2.1.2.
(
) p n F ( )
d
vdV = p n dS + FdV .
dt

r
pn

r
p n = n .

,
dv

dt dV = ( +F)dV .

(15)

(1)

dv
= + F .
dt

(16)

(16) .
,
N

F =

F ,
i

i =1

Fi

- , i - .
2.1.3.


r r
r
, [24]
d
(x v + k )dV = (x p n + q n )dS + (x F + h)dV ,
dt

qn - , h -
.

r
qn = n m ,

, ,

27

(x (n ) + n m)dS = ( m+ x ( ) I)dV .
r

r
r = I

- . ,
x (

dv
F ) = 0
dt


dk

( dt m + I h)dV = 0 ,

dk
m + I h = 0 .
dt

(17)

, k = 0, m = 0, h = 0 .

I = 0 1,

ij = ji ,
.
2.1.4.
,

d | v |2
( v ) + tr ( v ) F v = 0 ,
2 dt

(18)

tr(A) .
(18)
(V)
dK d
=
dt
dt

| v |2
dV =
2

vdV + F vdV tr ( v)dV .

tr ( v) = tr ( E) ,

- -

.
2.1.5.
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1

E = g
ij

km

r r r r
ei ek e j em

28

,
d dA dQ e dQ i
=
+
+
dt
dt
dt
dt

= K + U ,
dE dA dQ e dQ i dK
=
+
+

.
dt dt
dt
dt
dt

,
r
dQ e
= n qdS = qdV ,
dt

q - . ,
dA
= p n vdV + F vdV ,
dt

dK
= p n vdV + F vdV tr ( )dV ,
dt


dU d
=
dt
dt

udV = ( q + tr( ) + q& )dV ,


i

q& i - , .

du
= q + tr ( ) + q& i .
dt


u = cV T ,

(19)

T - , cV - . (1),

cV

dT
= q + tr ( ) + q& i .
dt

(20)

.
2.4.

,
29

1
F = e E+ j H ,
c
e - , E - -

, j - , H - , c - , . .
,

i
q&
= (j e v ) E

,

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, .

E =
H =

1 B
,
c t

4
1 D
j
,
c
c t

B = 0,
D = 4 e ,

D B

D = E + 4 P ,
B = H + 4 M

P M - .
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2.5.
f J i . , -
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i - -
N i .. .
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X f . , f , , , f . ,
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30

, , , (,
)
J i = i Xi ,

(21)

i , . i , (1) . :

= ( p + v )I + 2 ,

N i = D i C i ,

q = T ,

= tr (e)I + 2e .

q ( t ) = (0) T ()T( t )d .
0

2.6.
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2.7.
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1 A + 2 B 3 C

A = 0
i =1

38

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= k1C1C 2

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= k1C1C 2 k 2C3

3.2.

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= k1C1 C 2
1

k1 - ,
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3.3.
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39

E
k1 = k10 exp

RT

E - , , ; R = 8.31441 /() .
3.4.

.
11. , ( ) , .
i = 0i + RT ln Ci

0i - i- . ,

i = 0i + RT ln Ci + zi F

- , F =
96484.56 / - .
: 1. .
. - .: , 1978. - 214 .; 2. .., .. . - .: , 1984. - 464 .
4. -
, .
4.1.
. , .
T
2T
=a 2
t
x

t = 0:

T(0, x ) = T0 ;

t >0,

x = 0:

x :

(1)
(2)
T
= qw ;
x

T( t, x ) T0 .

40

(3)
(4)

a, , T0, qw .
: 1. .. : / ..
. . : , 1978. 460 .; 2. .. / .. , .. . . : , 2003. 784 .
4.2.
, , . [41].
C
2C
= D 2 + (C ) , (C ) = k 0 C ,
t
x
t =0:

C(0, x ) = C 0 ;

t >0,

x = 0:

x=h:

C( t,0) = C 0 ;

(1)
(2)
(3)

C( t , h ) = C * .

(4)
, D , k0
.
: Murray J.D. Lectures on Nonlinear Differential Equation Models in Biology / J.D. Murray. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1977. (
: . . / . . . : , 1983. 400 .)
4.3.
h d
>> h. - ,
.

-. ,
, .
,
.
. : , .

-. T,
, T0 , ,
(T 4 T04 ) , - -, - .
(T )C (T )

T
T
= (T ) , 0 < x < , t > 0
t x
x
41

(1)

t = 0 : T (0, x ) = T0 , 0 x ;

T
x

(T )

T
x

(2)

= q w ,t > 0 ,

(3)

= * (T 4 T04 ), t > 0, T > T0 .

(4)

x =0

(T )

x =

T0, qw (T), C(T), (T) .


: .. / ..
, .. , .. . .: , 1991. 287 .;
4.4.
. .
C ik
= div N ik , (k=1,2,3; i=1,2,n)
t

(1)

zi e k k
Di Ci grad ,
kT

(2)

N ik = Dik gradC ik

z C

sign ( z1 ) 1k = 0 .

(3)

t =0:

C ki (0, r ) = C ik 0 ;

(4)

t >0,

r =0:

r = r0 :

N 1i = N i2 ,

i1 = i2 ;

C C

k
i

Ci1
= 0 , 1 (t ,0) = 0 ;
r

(5)
(6)

, 0.
(7)
ik = ik 0 + RTln C ik + z i F k - i- k-
; = 1.6021892 10-19 ; k =
1.38066210-23 /. .
: 1. . . /
. . . : , 1962. 490 .; 2. Zagorodni A.A. Ion Exchange Materials. Properties and Applications / A.A. Zagorodni. Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2007. 499
p.
r:

2
i

20
i

4.5.
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- , ,
.
,
.
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. , .

v

+ (v ) v = p + 2 v ( * )g .
t

(1)


v =0.

(2)

+ v = 2 .
t

c p

(3)

v - ; ; t ; , , , , - ,
, , ; 2 .
: 1. ..
/ .. . - . 1990. 228 .; 2. . - , - : 2- / . [ .]. . : , 1991. 1206 .
4.6.
, , .


43

.6.

- .
v = 0

(1)

( v )v = P + F

(2)

c p v = 2 + D

(3)

(Cv ) =

(4)

D 2 C ,

, , ,
. . ,
,

P( x, y ) = x + p ( x, y ) ,

.
: 1. .. - / .. [ .]. . :
, 2003. 232 .; 2. Alexiadis A. Laminar Flow Transitions
in a 2D Channel with Circular Spacers / A. Alexiadis, D.E. Wiley, D.F. Fletcher // Ind.
Eng. Chem. Res., 2007. V. 46, 16. P. 5387 5396; 3. Fimbres-Weihs G.A. Numerical study of two-dimensional multi-layer spacer designs for minimum drag and
maximum mass transfer / G.A. Fimbres-Weihs, D.E. Wiley. // J. Membr. Sci., 2008.
V. 325. P.809 822; 4. Koutsou C.P. Shear stresses and mass transfer at the base of a
stirred filtration cell and corresponding conditions in narrow channels with spacers /
C.P. Koutsou, A.J. Karabelas. // J. Membr. Sci., 2012. V. 399 400. P. 60 72.
4.7.
, , . , .
, .
vr

vr
v
1 p
v

+ vz r =
+ 2 vr r2
r
r
z
r

44

(1)

vr

vz
v
1 p
+ vz z =
+ 2 vz
r
z
z

(2)

vr vr v z
+ +
=0
r
r
z
vr

C
C
+ vz
= D 2 C
r
z

z =0:

v r ( r ,0) =

r = r0 :
k
v w = p

0;

v r (0, z ) = 0 ;

r =0:

(3)
(4)

v z (r ,0) = v 0z (r ) ;

C(r ,0) = C0

v z C
=
=0
r
r
;

v r ( r0 , z ) = v w ;

vz = 0 ;

C
=0
r

(5)
(6)

C
+ a 2C = 0
r
;

(7)

- .

: 1. .
/ M. . . : , 1999. 513 .; 2. ..
/ .. . .: , 1986. 272 .; 3. Baker R.W. Membrane Technology and Applications / R.W. Baker. 2nd Ed. Chichester : Wiley, 2004.
538 p.; 4. Wang L.K. Membrane and Desalination Technologies / L.K. Wang, J.P.
Chen. New York : Human Press, 2011. 716 p.
4.8.

, . , . .
d 2 C ik z i e d k d k
Ci
+
kT dx
dx
dx 2
2

z C
i =1

k
i

= 0 , (i = 1,2; k = 1,2,3)

sign( z1 ) 2k = 0 , (k = 1,2,3)

x = -:

C ki ( ) = C ik 0 ,

( ) = 0

(1)
(2)
(3)

x = 0:

N1i = N i2 ,

i1 = i2

(4)

x = h:

N i2 = N 3i ,

i2 = i3

(5)

x = h+:

C 3i ( h + ) = C3i* ,

45

( h + ) = *

(6)

N ik - , -. ( 4.3).
: 1. .. /
.. , .. . .: , 1996. 392 .; 2. Probstein R.F.
Physicochemical Hydrodynamics: An Introduction / R.F. Probstein. New York e.a. :
Wiley, 1994. 406 p.; 3. Rubinstein I. Electro-Diffusion of ions / I. Rubinstein. Philadelphia : SIAM, 1990. 265 p.; 4. .. ( ) / .. . : -
, 2002. 143 .
4.9.

.
.
,
.

.
- ,
.
, . , ,

, , , , (.
.).
-

-
-
-, .
..
.. , . ,
.. .
. 7.
, -
. ,
46

dJ i
= 0,
dx

(i = 1,2) ,

dci
z e d J i
= i ci
,
dx
kT dx Di

(i = 1,2)

(1)

d 2
= F ( z1c1 + z 2 c2 )
dx 2

x [0, ], zi , Di , J i , ci - , ,
i- ; -
; - ; F =
9.65104 / .
. , , ,
, ,
x = 0 : ci (0) = ci0 (i = 1,2) ,
(0) = 0 .
0
, ci (i=1,2) 0
, ci -

,
z1c10 + z 2 c 20 = 0 .
,
- ,

.
, , ,
, . , , i- . , -,
,
x = :

Ji =

n i j0
(i = 1,2) ,
zi F

( ) = 0 .

0 > 0 - -; j0 - , 0 .
47

0 , j0 , ,
j0 . ,
j0 , ,
.
(1) ,
, (3.1)
Ji =

n i j0
(i = 1,2) .
zi F

, ,

dci
z e d
n i j0
= i ci

dx
kT dx zi FDi

(i = 1,2)

d 2
= F ( z1c1 + z 2 c2 )
dx 2

x = 0:

ci (0) = ci0 (i = 1,2) ; (0) = 0

x = :

( ) = 0

2007 .
: 1. .. /
.. , .. . .: , 1996. 392 .; 2. Probstein R.F.
Physicochemical Hydrodynamics: An Introduction / R.F. Probstein. New York e.a. :
Wiley, 1994. 406 p.; 3. Rubinstein I. Electro-Diffusion of ions / I. Rubinstein. Philadelphia: SIAM, 1990. 265 p.; 4. .. - / .. . : - , 1998. 126 .; 5. .. / .. , .. . //
, 2007. . 7, . 5. .815 824.
4.10.
.
1999 . ,
, 48

.
:
w( z )

d 2 c z e d d
d ci
Di 2i + i
ci
= 0 (i = 1,2) ,
dz
kT dz dz
dz

d 2
2 = F (z1c1 + z 2 c2 )
dz


z = 0:

d ci zi e d
n j
+
ci
= i ,
dz kT dz
zi FDi
z=d:
z :

(0) = 0 ;

( d ) = 0 ;
ci ( z ) ci0 .

: 1. . / U.
. .: , 1974. 712 .; 2. .. - / .. . .: , 1959. 699 .; 3. ..
/ .. , .. , .. . // , 1967. .41, 4. .849
852; 4. Bobreshova O.V. Non-equilibrium processes in the concentration polarization
layers at the membrane / solution interface / O.V. Bobreshova, P.I. Kulintsov, S.F. Timashov // J. Membr. Sci., 1990. V. 48, 2. P. 221 230.
4.11.

,
. , , .

49

.8.
,
, .
.
, .
, (, , , ..),
. ,
, . , ,
.
. , , .

+ ( v ) =
t
v
+ ( v v ) = P + F + vr
t

P = -pI + div v + 2effE;


eff

k
+ ( k v) =
k + Gk + k 0
t
k

eff


+ ( v ) =
+ (C1Gk C 2 ) + 0
t

k
Ci
+ (Ci v) = N i + i , (i=f,o,p)
t
eff
Ni =
C i , (i=f,o,p)

E
+ ( E v ) = q ( v P ) + E
t
=

Ai C j j

(1)

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

j =1

X pc

Aebu min X , ,B ebu

1+

d vL
= Fi e
dt
i

d 2
d L = f ( Nu )
dt
1
d D( t )
=
,
dt
def

(10)
(11)
(12)

t = 0 : D( 0 ) = 0 .

50

(13)

: 1. ..
/ .. ,
.. , .. . .: , 1989. 256 .; 2. ..
: 2- . / .. ,
.. , .. [ .] . : , 1993. 751 .; 3. .. / .. , .. , .. [ .]. . : , 2009. 512 .
4.12.
. : (), , , ,
, , , .

.9.
. 1. . , ,
- , .
51

.10. .11.


.
. . . , .
.
d ( g u g A)
dx

=0

(1)

dp
d

g u g2 A = A g f g p g u g u g D, S = f g p g u g u g D
dx
dx 8
8
dp
d
g
c pg ( g u g ATg ) = u g A
+ hg Awh (Twh Taw ) + Awh Twh4 Tg4
dx
dx

(2)

p g = g RT g

(3)
(4)

q = (q h + q r ) Awh = q w Awh = q c Awc

(5)

k
q w = w (Twh Twc )
e

(6)

k 3 (Twh3 Twc3 )
k2
k w = k1 + (Twc + Twh ) +
2
3 (Twh Twc )

(7)

k w = k1 + k 2Tw + k 3Tw2

(8)

.
d ( c uc A)
=0
ds

(9)
52

dp
d
c u c2 A = A c f c pc u c u c D
ds
ds 8

c pc

(10)

dp
d
( c u c ATc ) = u c A c + hc Awc (Twc Taw ) + Awc Twc4 Tc4
ds
ds

c = 1 + 2Tc + 3Tc2

(11)
(12)

.
: 1. .. / .. . . : . .. , 2006. 488 .; 2.
Huzel D.K. Modern engineering for Design of Liquid - Propellant Rocket Engines /
D.K. Huzel, D.H. Huang. Washington : AIAA, 1992. 431 .; 3. Marchi C.H. Numerical solutions of flows in rocket engines with regenerative cooling / C.H. Marchi, F.
Laroca, A.F.C. da Silva // Numerical Heat Transfer. Part A, 2004. V. 45, P. 699
717.
4.13. (
MIDREX)

,
MIDREX.
,
,
, .

.12. MIDREX.
. :
R0
-

53

Tg0 ,

Tp0 .

, , ,

Fe 2 O3 + {C ; CO; H 2 ; CH 4 } Fe + (CO; CO2 ; H 2O ) .


R& (t ) R (t ) .

,
.

()
()
()
.13.
,

(0 1 ) dR = J (t ) .
dt

R - , 0 1
.

t = 0 : R (0) = R0 .

0

0 (T ) 0 (T )

T
= (0 (T )T ) .
t

0 , 0 , 0 - , 0 .
54

T1
+ v 1 T1 = (1 (T1 )T1 ) ,
t

1 (T1 ) 1 (T1 )

c1
+ v1 c1 = (D1 (c1 , T1 )c1 ) ,
t
v1 =

p1 , v1 = 0 .



T2

+ v 2 T2 = (2 (T2 )T2 ) ,
t

2 (T2 ) 2 (T2 )

c2
+ v 2 c2 = (D2 (c2 , T2 )c2 ) ,
t
v2

+ ( v 2 )v 2 = p2 + ( 2 (T )v 2 ) + 2 (T )f ,
t

2 (T )

v2 = 0 .

t = 0:

ui (r ,0) = ci (r ,0) = 0, (i = 1,2) ,


pi (r ,0) = p

(i = 1,2) ,

T0 (r ,0) = Tp0 ,
0

t > 0, r = R(t ) :

Ti (r ,0) = Tg0 .

T0
T
R& (t ) = 1 1 ,
r
r

D1

c1
= ( A k1c1 )R& (t ) , u1 ( R (t ), t ) = R& (t ) ,
r

t > 0, r = R (t ) :

T0 ( R(t ), t ) = T1 ( R(t ), t ) ;

t > 0, r = R0 :

T1 ( R0 , t ) = T2 ( R0 , t ),
1

T1
T
= 2 2 , c1( R0 , t ) = c2 ( R0 , t ) ,
r
r

D1

c1
c
= D2 2 ,
r
r

u1 ( R0 , t ) = u2 ( R0 , t ) , p1 ( R0 , t ) = p2 ( R0 , t ) ,
55

t > 0, r : u2 (r , t ) 0, c2 (r , t ) 0,
T2 (r , t ) T ,

p2 (r , t ) p .


.
: 1. .. / .. . . : , 1989. 192 .; 2. ..
/ .. . . : , 2003. 528
.; 3. Szekely J. Gas - solid reactions / J. Szekely, J.W. Evans, H.Y. Sohn. New York
: Academic Press, 1976. 400 p.; 4. Valipour M.S. Numerical investigation of
nonisothermal reduction of hematite using Syngas : the shaft scale study / M.S.
Valipour, Y. Saboohi // Modeling and Simulation in Material Science and Engineering,
2007. V.15, P. 487 507.
4.14.
. , . , .
,
l0, r0, r0<< l0.
, , , T0
T*.
.
- ,

cv

2T 1 T
T

= 2 +

r
r
r

, 0 r r0 ;

(10) , ,
.


t = 0:
T (r ,0) = T0 , 0 r r0 ,

t > 0, r = r0 :
q = (T 4 T*4 ) ;
56

, ,
(12)
t > 0, r = r0 :

= T 4 T*4 ;
r


t > 0,

r = 0:

T
= 0.
r

: 1. .. / .. , .. , .. . . : , 1990. 239 .; 2. ..
/ .. . . : ,
1978. 224 .
4.15. -
- ,
,
, .

, .

.14. .

, [6].
v

+ (v )v = p + ( + ) 2 v + + f ,
t

57

(1)

+ (v ) = ( + + ) + v + l .
t

(2)


.
(1)-(2) ,
,
T

+ v T = 2T + ( + )D + Dw .
t

cv

(3)

D - , Dw -
.

, [5], (1) , (3)

eE , j E .

(4)

E = 0 , ( E ) = e

(5)

: 1. .. / .. , .. .
: , 1984. 264 .; 2. Eringen A.C. Theory of micropolar fluids / A.C. Eringen // Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics, 1966. V.16, 1. P.1
16. ( : .. / ..
// : . . . . . : , 1969. 4, C.79
93); 3. Eringen A.C. Electrodynamics of microstretch and micropolar fluids / ..
// ARI, 1998. V.50. P. 169 179; 4. Hetsroni G. Fluid flow in microchannels / G. Hetsroni, A. Mosyak, E. Pogrebnyak, L.P. Yarin // Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,
2005. V.48. P. 1982 1998; 5. Maynes D. The effect of viscous dissipation in
thermally fully-developed electro-osmotic heat transfer in microchannels / D. Maynes,
B.W. Webb // Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2004. V.47. P. 987 999; 6. Papautsky I.
Laminar fluid behavior in microchannels using micropolar fluid theory / I. Papautsky,
J. Brazzle, T. Ameel, B. Frazier // Sensors Actuators, 1999. V.73. P. 101 108.
4.16.
, , .
.
1859
.
58

. , , .
,
. .
, .
, . , . .

v
+ ( v )v = p + f ,
t

(1)

v = 0.

(2)

- (3)-(4)
vr (r , t ) p (r , t )
. ,
,
t = 0:
vr (r ,0) = 0, p (r ,0) = p0 0 r < R(t ) ,
(3)
p(r ,0) = p R(t ) r < .

R(t ) - ,

t = 0 : R (0) = R0 .

(4)

, ,

t > 0, r = R(t ) :

pb (t ) = p( R(t ), t ) +

2
,
R(t )

(5)

vr ( R (t ), t ) = R& (t ) .

pb - , p( R(t ), t ) - , ; -
. (9) ,

59

,
.
, , .
,
t > 0, r :
vr (r , t ) 0,
p(r , t ) p .
(6)
: 1. Besant W.H. Hydrostatics and Hydrodynamics /
W.H. Besant. London : Cambridge University Press, 1859; 2. ..
/ .. . . : , 1973. 280 .; 3. . / .
, . , . . . : , 1974. 688 .; 4. Clift R. Bubbles, drops
and particles / R. Clift, J.R. Grace, M.E. Weber. London : Academic Press, 1978.
380 p.; 5. ..
/ .. , .. . : , 1990.
175 .; 6. Chhabra R.P. Bubbles, drops, and particles in Non-Newtonian fluids / R.P.
Chhabra. 2nd Edition. Boca Raton : CR Press, 2007. 800 p.
4.17.
. ,
.



.15. .
FD =
FL =

MD =

C D0 V2 R 2 2 cos 3 0 3 cos 2 1 3 sin 2 cos 0 ,

[(

(1)

C L0 V2 R 2 sin 2 1 cos 4 0 cos 2 3 cos 2 1 sin 4 0 ,

[(

(2)

(3)

(4)

C D0 V2 R 3 sin 2 1 cos 4 0 cos 2 3 cos 2 1 sin 4 0 ,

12 + 3 sin 4 0 4 cos 2 0 sin 2

0 2 3
ML =
C L V R sin 2 cos 0 8 cos 2 + 4 sin 2 cos 2
40

5 3 cos 0 cos 0

60

- (
); 0 - ; R - ; FD, FL - ; MD, ML - .
: 1. ..
/ .. . . : , 1972. 112 .; 2. .. / .. . . : , 1984. 296 .; 3.
. / . , . .
. : , 1984. 360
4.18.

, . ,
.
[ .. .(1987)].
u (r )

C
= D 2C + (C ) ,
z

(1)

(C ) = k 0 k 1 C ;

(2)

z = 0:

C(0,r) = C0;

(3)

r = r1,

r = r2:

C
= 0.
r

(4)

. .
: 1. .. / .. , .. , .. . . : , 1987. 237 .; 2. .
/ . , . , . . . : , 1974. 688 .


u dC/dx = K(C)

(1)

K(C)=k0 - k1C(x)

(2)

x=0:

(3)

C(0)=C0

61

u := 0.001

- , /

k0 := 10

k1 := 0.001

C0 := 10

- , /3

L := 1

- ,

n := 100

:
x := 0 ,

L
n

.. L

1 (1 k1 C0) e k0k1 u

C( x) :=

k1

999.955

1000
750
500

C ( x)

250
0

0.25

0.5
x

0.75

1
1

16. .
4.19.

.18. .

.17.

.
,
, .
,
.
: 1. ..
/ .. . . : , 1979. 174 .; 2.
.. / .. ,
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, ,
- (
-).
, ( ),
,
(), .

1 ( ) 2 () .19. -
(1)
A+ B C.


(. .2). 2 ,
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65

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