Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) ,

.
, BGP, .
,
BGP .

(interior gateway protocol) ,


.
(exterior gateway protocol) ,
.
(autonomous system, AS) ,
,
IGP ( AS
IGP).
(transit AS) ,
.
(path)
.
(path attributes, PA) ,
.
BGP speaker , BGP.
(neighbor, peer) , TCP .
(Network Layer Reachability Information,
NLRI) IP- .

BGP
( , ..), .

BGP path-vector :
TCP ,
( 179)
( )
keepalive- TCP-
path vector (attributes)

(autonomous system number, ASN):


0 65535 ()
1-64495 ( )
65552-4294967295 ( )
64512-65534 ( )
23456 ( 32- , 16-
)

(neighbor table) BGP


BGP (BGP table, forwarding database, topology database):
,
destination
BGP

BGP (Internal BGP) BGP (External BGP)

BGP (Internal BGP, iBGP) BGP . iBGP .


BGP (External BGP, eBGP) BGP .
, eBGP- .
iBGP- AS,
full mesh. ,
AS, , ; ,

, , ,
AS .

Keepalive Interval , keepalive.


60 .
Hold Time ,
. 180 .

BGP

BGP-:
Marker , . 16 ,
1.
Length , .
19 4096.
Type :
1 OPEN .
TCP-.
2 UPDATE .
3 NOTIFICATION BGP.

4 KEEPALIVE ,
.

1.
2.

3.
4.

BGP (iBGP-) , ,
. iBGP-
.
BGP (eBGP-) ,
. , eBGP-
.
BGP , :
TCP- ,
( neighbor).

, neighbor remote-as (
).
(Router ID) .
, .

Idle
Connect
Open sent
Open confirm
active
Established

(path attributes)
4 :
1. Well-known mandatory , BGP,
. (update).
2. Well-known discretionary , BGP,
. (update),
.
3. Optional transitive BGP.
, (partial)
, .
4. Optional non-transitive BGP.
,
.
BGP:
Well-known mandatory:
Autonomous system path
Next-hop
Origin

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Well-known discretionary:
Local preference
Atomic aggregate
Optional transitive:
Aggregator
Communities
Optional non-transitive:
Multi-exit discriminator (MED)
Autonomous system path (AS Path):
, .
AS AS eBGP- AS.
:


Next-hop
IP- AS .
IP- eBGP-, .
AS
Origin , .
0 IGP: NLRI ;
1 EGP: NLRI Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). BGP,

2 Incomplete: NLRI -
Local preference:
.
.
Cisco 100.
.
eBGP- local preference,
.
community:



: AS
MED:
eBGP- ,
.
.
, ,
AS, MED .
, .
Weight:
"" .
,
( ).
, .
.
, .
BGP:
BGP , .
.
.
Cisco, ,
(
):
weight ( ).
local preference ( AS).
(next hop = 0.0.0.0).
. ( AS_PATH)
origin code (IGP < EGP < incomplete).

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

MED ( ).
eBGP iBGP.
IGP-.
eBGP-.
BGP router ID.
IP-.

BGP
:

Hard reset

Soft reset

(route refresh)

Hard reset
clear ip bgp *:

BGP-

BGP

BGP established idle

( )

clear ip bgp <neighbor>:

BGP-

BGP, , established
idle

Soft reset
Soft reset , BGP .

Outbound soft reset


Soft reset outbound ( soft , , clear ip bgp out,
):
clear ip bgp <neighbor-address> soft out:

(table version number) 0.


, BGP
,

BGP ,

, soft out

Inbound soft reset


inbound soft reset:
1. neighbor <neighbor-address> softreconfiguration inbound
2.

3. clear ip bgp
<neighbor-address> soft in
Dynamic inbound soft reset.

(route refresh) inbound soft reset.


Dynamic inbound soft reset.
. .
inbound soft reset, ,
.
route refresh, .
Open.
clear ip bgp <neighbor-address> in: