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. . , . . , . .

2011

. . , . . , . .


2011

519.62(07)
22.193.227
138

. . , . . , . .
138 : . .
: - . 2011. 44 .

, - . ,
, .
517.9
22.161.6

c . . , . . , . . , 2011

c - , 2011

3 -

10

12

16

17

20

21

27

10

34

11

35

39


- ,
.
,
, ,
- .
.
. , , - . . .
.
.
11 . ,
.
.
. .
( ) .
, .
, .


K ( );
k e ;
Ni , ;
u ; ;
i , i ;
L ;
u
;
R ;
wi ;
e ;
V , ;
, S ;
ui = u(xi , yi , zi ) ; P
i u
= ni=1 i Ni ;
J ;
Li L-;
T ;
= (xx , yy , xy )T ;
= (xx , yy , xy )T ;
u = (ux , uy ) .
;
;
;
;
.

()
, . , . .
. .

F (u) = 0,

(1)

F : E H E, H
. E H

: {n }
n=1 , {n }n=1 ,
x E y H {n }, {n },

P
P
x =
n n , y =
n n ( n=1

n=1

E H ).
En Hn ,
n , Pn Qn (En = Pn E, Hn = Qn H).
(1)
Fn (
u) = 0,

(2)

u
En , Fn : En Hn , Fn = Qn F . n , n
.
- (1) n
n
n
P
P
En : u
=
i i , F ( i i )
i=1

i=1

1 ,. . . , n . F (
u) H, , u
(1).

n i i .
n
P
F ( i i ) j n i=1

1 , . . . , n .
i u
.
4

En Hn , i = i .
F (u) = f Lu = 0 Lu = f :
1. i , i = 1, n;
n
P
2. u =
i i ;
i=1

3. i , F (
u) = f L
u 1 , . . . , n
(f L
u, i ) = 0,

n
X

(L
u, i ) = (f, i ),

j (Lj , i ) = (f, i ),

i = 1, n
i = 1, n

(3)

j=1

, .
Lu = f M (u) = g.

Ni (x)
n
X
u =
i Ni (x),
i=1

i , Ni (x) -
( , ).
R = f L
u.
u
, R = f L
u 6= 0, R = 0. , ,
, wi
Z
Rwi dV = 0, i = 1, n,
V

, L2
(R, wi ) = 0,

i = 1, n.

, (3), i = wi = Ni . wi
.

. ,
. .
, . , .
.
, .
,
,
, .
1. L : H H (H )
, (Lu, v) = (u, Lv), u, v H.
2. L
, C > 0 , (Lu, u) >
Ckuk2 .
3. F : Y R (t) = F [y0 + th]
.
0 (t)|t=0 =

d
F [y0 + th]|t=0 ,
dt

h Y,


F y0 V (y0 , h).
1 ( ). y0 Y F (y) F (y0 ).
F (y0 ) = 0.
4. F (u) = (Lu, u) 2(u, f )
L .
2. u0 D(L)
L ,
Lu0 = f (
).
6

, Lu = f .
, ,
, , . , .
-
.
5. L : H H , H.
D(L) [u, v]L = (Lu, v).
, . HL
.
.
6. u0 HL ,
,
Lu = f .
. . (-) ,
Hn . v
Hn .
uh Hn , F Hn
F (uh ) 6 F (v),

v Hn .

:
1. Hn i , i = 1, n;
n
P
2. uh =
i i ;
i=1

3. i
F (uh ) i ,
F (uh )
= 0,
i
7

i = 1, n

i .
, , , .
, , ,
, .
, , , .
. , , .
().

,
.
, - . .
,
V .
, ,
. -
. .
1. : , () . , ,
() ,
(). , , - .
. ( ). .
. .
,
.

. . , ,
. , ,
u = (ux , uy ).
,
. ,
. ,
,
, .
2. () . . , , -
. : ,
, ..
3. , . , ( ) ,
. ,
.
Z

wl RdV =

M Z
X
e=1

wl RdV,

Ve

, .
4. .
5. .
(, , , , ).

.
, u u(xi ) = u(xi ) = ui .
9

-
V = [a, b]. x1 , . . . , xn ek = (xk , xk+1 ), k = 1, . . . , n
1, hk = xk+1 xk ek ( ). xi
- Ni (x)

0,
x 6 xi1

xxi1 , x
i1 6 x 6 xi
hi1
Ni (x) =
xi+1 x

,
x
i 6 x 6 xi+1

hi

0,
x > xi+1

i = 2, n 1.

x1 , xn
 x2 x
 xxn1
, x1 6 x 6 x2
h
hn1 , xn1 6 x 6 xn
1
, Nn (x) =
N1 (x) =
0,
x > x2
0,
x 6 xn1 .
. , . 1 [0, 1] P
. u = i Ni (x), i
i

(3).
:

1. Ni xi .
2. Ni ,
xi .
i . e = [xi , xj ]. e
x x
i
Ni = jhi Nj = xx
(. . 2,
hi
, ),
ue = i Ni + j Nj = i

xj x
x xi
i xj j xi
j i
+ j
=
+
x.
hi
hi
hi
hi

, ue (xi ) = ui ,
ue (xj ) = uj . xi xj ue ue (xi ) =
10

N1

1
3

N2

2
3

1
3

2
3

N3

1
3

N4

2
3

1
3

2
3

. 1: Ni

y
1

Ni

Nj

x
xi

xj

. 2: Ni , Nj [xi , xj ]

11

i = ui , ue (xj ) = j = uj . ,
,
i
P
i = ui , u = ui Ni (x).
i


y 00 + y = 1, y(0) = 1, y(1) = 0.
, .
n 1 c n.
n.
R = f L
y =1

d2 y
y.
dx2

wl Rdx =

wl (1

d2 y
y)dx = 0
dx2

, ,

 1 Z 1
Z 1
Z 1
d
y
dwl d
y
wl

dx
+
w
y

dx

wl dx = 0.
l
dx 0
0 dx dx
0
0


.
.
wl =
n
P
Nl , y =
m Nm . y (
m=1

)
 n

P
!
Z 1
d
m Nm
Z 1
n
X
dNl
m=1
dx
Nl
m Nm dx =
dx
dx
0
0
m=1
12

 1 Z 1
d
y
Nl

Nl dx.
dx 0
0

- , . m
.
Z 1
 
 1 Z 1
Z 1
n
X
dNl dNm
d
y
m
dx
Nl Nm dx = Nl

Nl dx,
dx dx
dx 0
0
0
0
m=1
l = 1, 2, . . . , n.

klm

u = (1 , . . . , n )T = (y1 , . . . , yn )T ,

Z 1
dNl dNm
=
Nl Nm dx, 1 6 l, m 6 n,
dx dx
0

 1 Z 1
d
y

Nl dx, 1 6 l 6 n,
fl = Nl
dx 0
0
Ku = f,

K = [klm ],

f = [fl ].

,

Z

wl RdV =

M Z
X
e=1

wl RdV.

Ve

e i j
. .
V e = (xi , xj )
Ni , Nj (. 2), , l 6= i, j, Nl = 0 (xi , xj ).
M
P
e
klm =
klm
.
e=1

e
klm

= 0, l, m 6= i, j,

Z xj 
dNi dNj
e
e
kij = kji =
Ni Nj dx,
dx dx
xi
!
2
Z xj 
dNi
e
e
2
kii = kjj =
(Ni ) dx,
dx
xi
13

xj x
,
hi

x xi
dNi
dNj
,
= 1/hi ,
= 1/hi .
hi
dx
dx
2
Z
Z
Z 
dNi dNj
1
1
dNi
1
dx =
dx = ,
dx = .
2
(hi ) V e
hi
dx
hi
Ve
V e dx dx
Z
Z
Z
xj x x xi
hi
hi
Ni Nj dx =
dx = ,
Ni Ni dx = ,
h
h
6
3
e
e
i
i
V
V
Ni =

Nj =

kii = kjj =

1
hi
,
hi
3

kij = kji =

1
hi
.
hi
6

(4)

(xi , xj )

0
e
K =
0

kii
kji

kij
kjj
0


0
0

0
= 0

0
0

0
0

hi
1
hi 3
h1i h6i

h1i h6i
hi
1
hi 3
0


, K.
K
( ).
.
, , . , (he = h),

1 h


h1 h6
0
0
y1
h 3

y2
1 h 2( 1 h ) 1 h
0
h
6
h
3
h
6
, u = .
K=
0
y3
h1 h6 2( h1 h3 ) h1 h6
1
h
1
h
y4
0
0
h 6
h 3
(xi , xj ) fl =

M
P

e=1

( (xi , xj ) l = i, l = j)
x
Z xj
Z xj
xj x
1 (x xj )2 j
hi
Ni dx =
dx =
= ,

hi
hi
2
2
xi
xi
xi
14

fle

xj

xi

Nj dx =

xj

xi

x
x xi
1 (x xi )2 j
hi
dx =
= 2.
hi
hi
2
xi

, 0 1
N1 (0) = 1 Nn (1) = 1.
, (xi , xj ) (xi , xj 6= a, b),
( i, j)

0
dy

..
0
dx (0) h21
.
h
..

h21
i

1
e
.
2
f =
f n1 =
, f =
.
.
hi ,

hn1
..

2
2
.
h
d
y
n1
..
0
(1)
dx

dy
dx (0) h21
h1 h2
2
2
f =
h2 h3 .
2
2
d
y
h3
dx (1) 2


, y(0) = y1 = 1, y(1) = y4 = 0.
. ,
.
.
Ku = f K
us = t0 .
. , ,
u5 = t0 ; :
1. , , K5j = 0 j = 1, n j 6= 5. K55 = 1. f5
f u5 = t0 .
2. , , t, 15

( ) : fj =
fj Kj5 t, Kj5 = 0, j = 1, n, j 6= 5.

: n ; m = n 1 ; x = (xi ), i = 1, n;
k = (kij ) 2 2; b = (bi ), i = 1, n;
A = (aij ) n n; f = (fi ), i = 1, n; u = (ui ), i = 1, n; c, d
, ; us = t
.

1. :
h = (d c)/m;
i = 1, 2, . . . , n x[i] = c + (i 1)h;
2. : i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1
2.1 k. (
(4)).
2.2 aii = aii + k11 , aii+1 = aii+1 + k12 , ai+1i = ai+1i + k21 , ai+1i+1 =
ai+1i+1 + k22 .
2.3 b.
2.4
fi = fi + b1 , fi+1 = fi+1 + b2 .
3. us = t

3.1 ass = 1; fs = t;
3.2 k = 1, . . . , n, k 6= s
{ ask = 0;
fk = fk aks t;
aks = 0. }
4. Au = f .
5. .

16

i, j, k, (. . 3). .
.
. (ui , uj ,
uk ). (xi , yi ), (xj , yj ), (xk , yk ). A. u(x, y) ,
ue (x, y) = 1 + 2 x + 3 y.

(5)

, ,

ui = 1 + 2 xi + 3 yi ,
uj = 1 + 2 xj + 3 yj ,

uk = 1 + 2 xk + 3 yk .

, ,
. i i (5),
ue =

1
(ui (xj yk xk yj + (yj yk )x + (xk xj )y) + uj (xk yi xi yk +
2A

(yk yi )x + (xi xk )y) + uk (xi yj xj yi + (yi yj )x + (xj xi )y).


ui , uj , uk
. , ,
1
(al + bl x + cl y)
2A

aj = xk yi yk xi
ak = xi yj xj yi
bj = yk yi
bk = yi yj

cj = xi xk
ck = xj xi

ue = Ni ui + Nj uj + Nk uk , Nl =

ai = xj yk xk yj
bi = yj yk

ci = xk xj

Nl (xl , yl ) .

17

(6)

(xk , yk )

h
L1

L2

j
i

j
(xj , yj )

L1

L3

(xi , yi )

. 3: L-

,
x y, x y .
,
Ni
Nj
Nk
u
=
ui +
uj +
uk ,
x
x
x
x

Nl
bl
=
,
x
2A

l = i, j, k,

X bl
u
=
ul = const .
x
2A
l=i,j,k

().
. , , ,
(). ,
0, 1.
, ,
Z
Z
f (x, y)dxdy =
f (x(r, s), y(r, s)) det |J| dr ds,
V

V V ,
det |J| . f (x, y) , ,

18

f (x(r, s), y(r, s)) , (x, y () , r, s


() ).
 x y 
r
r
J = x
y .
s

L-. s h,
(. 3). Li
.
L-
L1 + L2 + L3 = 1.
,
.
.
L- . L1 , L2 L3
: Ni = L1 , Nj = L2 , Nk = L3 (Li = 1 i 0
j k).
C
L-
x = L1 xi + L2 xj + L3 xk ,
y = L 1 yi + L 2 yj + L 3 yk .
L-
,
:
Z
a!b!
(L1 )a (L2 )b d` =
`,
(a + b + 1)!
`
Z
a!b!c!
(L1 )a (L2 )b (L3 )c dS =
2S,
(a
+
b
+ c + 2)!
S

19

u2k

uj

ui

u2k1

j
x

u2i

j
i

u2j
u2j1

u2i1
. 4:
S .

Z
Z
2S
1!1!0!
2S =
= S/12.
Ni Nj dS =
(L1 )1 (L2 )1 (L3 )0 dS =
(1 + 1 + 0 + 2)!
4!
S
S

,
, , .
X
ue =
u i Ni .

(, ) . , (. 4).

 
ui
.
ue = Ni ui + Nj uj = (Ni Nj )
uj


.
x, y ux , uy .

20

ux = Ni u2i1 + Nj u2j1 + Nk u2k1 ,

uy = Ni u2i + Nj u2j + Nk u2k .


:

  
ux
Ni
=
uy
0

0
Ni

Nj
0

0
Nj

Nk
0

u2i1

 u2i

0 u2j1
.

Nk
u2j
u2k1
u2k

T
(Dxx
)
(Dyy
)
(Dzz
) + Q = 0,
x
x
y
y
z
z

(7)

T , Dxx , Dyy , Dzz


(/( )), Q (/3 ),
, .
:
1. ( ) ,

1 : T = T(x).

(8)

2. . ,
( ) ( ).
h(T T ), h
/(2 ), T .
3. q ( ). q ,
.

21

. 2 3
2 : Dxx

T
T
T
cos + Dyy
cos + Dzz
cos + h(T T ) + q = 0,
x
y
z

(9)

(cos , cos , cos ) . , ,


T /n = 0 .
(7) (8)(9)

Z
Z
Z
Z
F (T ) =
(T )T DT dV + 2
T qd +
h(T T )2 d + 2
QT dV.
2

V Ve , e = 1, m, n
P
T T =
Ni Ti , n , Ni
i=1

.
:
X
X
keu =
fe
e

K=

ke ,

F =

f e.


Z
Z
ke =
(B e )T De B e dV +
h(N e )T N e d = k1 + k2 ,
Ve

fe =

= 0, -

Ku = F,

F
Ti

(10)

q(N e )T d +

Q(N e )T dV +

h(N e )T T d.

(11)

i, j, k. 1
(as + bs x + cs y), s = i, j, k,
Ns = 2A
( as , bs , cs (6)).


Ti

T e = Ni Nj Nk T j .
Tk
22




1 bi bj bk
Be =
,
2A ci cj ck

D=


Dxx
0


0
.
Dyy

(10) ( ). k1



Z
Z
b i ci 
1
Dxx
0
bi bj bk
e T e e

b j cj
dV.
(B ) D B dV =
0
Dyy
ci cj ck
4A2 V e
Ve
b k ck

, dV dA.
e .
:
Z
Z
T
T
B DBdV = B DB
dA = AB T DB.
Ve

b b bi bj bi bk
ci ci ci cj ci ck
Dxx i i
D
yy
bj bi bj bj bj bk +
cj ci cj cj cj ck .
k1 =
(12)
4A
4A
bk bi bk bj bk bk
ck ci ck cj ck ck
R
S hN T N dS

Z
Z
Ni Ni Ni Nj Ni Nk
k2 =
hN T N dS = h Nj Ni Nj Nj Nj Nk dS.
(13)
S
S
Nk Ni Nk Nj Nk Nk

x y, Ni Nj
. ,
, . , , i j,
Nk

Z
Z
Ni Ni Ni Nj 0
(14)
hN T N dS = h Nj Ni Nj Nj 0 dS.
S
S
0
0
0
23

5
1

6
3
4

. 5: .

1
2
3
4

i
1
1
2
2

j
5
2
6
3

k
4
5
5
6

1: ( elements)
, (13) , (14).
,
L- . ,
L-.
. : n ,
m ; ( ) mesh[n][2]: mesh[i][1] xi , mesh[i][2] yi , i, j = 1, n; elements[m][3] =
(node1, node2, node3) (
), 5 elements : elements[1, 1] =
1, elements[1, 2] = 5, elements[1, 3] = 4 (. . 8);
kij 3 3; b = (bi ), i = 1, 3;
f = (fi ), i = 1, n; u = (ui ), i = 1, n , us = t ,
material[m, 2] ( , Dxx , Dyy ), material[1, 2] Dyy
, material[20, 1] Dxx .
.

24


1. , , mesh, material, elements.
2. : i = 1 m
2.1 :
j = 1 3 {sj = elements(i, j)}.
s1 , s2 , s3 .
2.2 k = (kij ): k11 , . . . , k33 ( . ).
2.3 : .
j = 1 3
r = 1 3 {asj ,sr = asj ,sr + kj,r }.
2.4 b = bi .
2.5
j = 1 3 {fsj = fsj + bj }.
3. us = t
3.1 ass = 1; fs = t;
3.2 k = 1 n, k 6= s
{ ask = 0;
fk = fk aks t;
aks = 0. }
4. Ku = f .
5. u.
6. .

(.2.2 , (10), (11), (12), (14)).
1.
i = 1 3 {xi = mesh[si , 1]; yi = mesh[si , 2]}.

25

2. bi , ci :
b1 = y2 y3 ; b2 = y3 y1 ; b3 = y1 y2 ;
c1 = x3 x2 ; c2 = x1 x3 ; c3 = x2 x1 .

1 xi
3. A = 21 det 1 xj
1 xk
x3 y2 + x1 y2 x1 y3 + x3 y1 x2 y1 )/2.

yi
yj = (x2 y3
yk

4. k1 (12).
5. ,
12, L12

Z
2 1 0
hL
12
1 2 0 .
k2 =
hN T N dS =
6
S12
0 0 0

6. k = k1 + k2 .

7. ,
.
23. p
L23 = (x3 x2 )2 + (y3 y2 )2 .



Z
0
N1
N2 dS = qL23 1 .
q
2
S
1
N3

8. ,
. , ,
13. L13 .



Z
N1
1
N2 dS = hT L13 0 .
hT
2
S
N3
1

( 6).


 T 

 T1
1 bi bj bk
x
T2 .
=
T
ci cj ck
2A
y
T3
26


1.
i = 1 3 {xi = mesh[si , 1]; yi = mesh[si , 2]; Ti = u[si ]}.
2. bi , ci :
b1 = y2 y3 ; b2 = y3 y1 ; b3 = y1 y2 ;
c1 = x3 x2 ; c2 = x1 x3 ; c3 = x2 x1 .

1 xi
3. A = 21 det 1 xj
1 xk
x3 y2 + x1 y2 x1 y3 + x3 y1 x2 y1 )/2.

yi
yj = (x2 y3
yk

4. ( )

T


 T1
x
1
b1 b2 b3

T2 .

=
T 2A c1 c2 c3
T3
y
- , . , ,
.

.
u = (ux , uy )T , = (xx , yy , xy )T
= (xx , yy , xy )T : ,
.

27

 
xx
/x
0
u
yy = 0
/y x ,
uy
2xy
/y /x


xx
d11
yy = d21
xy
d31

/x
0
0
/y

d13
xx
d23 yy ,
d33
2xy

 

/y xx
f
yy = x .
/x
fy
xy
d12
d22
d32

fx , fy , ,
dij , , ,
.

= Bu,

= De,

B T = f,

(15)

D = (dij ) , B ,
, f .
- .

1
0
E
,
1
0
D=
1 2
0 0 (1 )/2

1
/(1 )
0
E(1 )
/(1 )
,
1
0
D=
(1 + )(1 2)
0
0
(1 2)/(2(1 ))

E , .
:

1. ( ) u|1 = u
. , .

28

(1, 1) s

(1, 1)
r
(1, 1)

(1, 1)

. 6:
2. ( ), .
f = (fx , fy ), p = (px , py ) () G = (gx , gy ).
(15)
.


 
 
Z
Z
Z
fx
px
e
T
e
e T
e T
k =
BN DBN dS, f =
(N )
dS +
(N )
d`, (16)
f
py
y
Se
Se
`e
BN = BN , S e
, ` , .
(. 6) BN ,
.
X
X
Ku = f, K =
ke, f =
f e + G,
e

G .
(16) .
(16)
Z

f (x)dx '

s
X

Wi f (ti ).

i=1

t1 , t2 , . . . , ts W1 , W2 , . . . , Ws ,
2s1.
29

(16)

Z
T
ke =
BN
DBN dS =
Se

2 X
2
X

T
Wi Wj BN
(ri , sj )DBN (ri , sj ) det |J(ri , sj )|,

i=1 j=1

BN = B N T = 0

N1
x

= 0

N1
y

N1
y
N1
x


N1
0

N2
x

0
N2
y

0
N1
0

N2
y
N2
x

N2
0
N3
x

0
N3
y

0
N2

N3
0

N4
x

N3
y
N3
x

0
N4
y

0
N3
0

N4
0

0
N4

N4
y .
N4
x

Ns
Ns

1 r

Ns = J N ,
s

P
P
x =
k Nk xk ,
y = k Nk yk

P Nk
P Nk
x y
xk
(ri , sj )
yk
(ri , sj )
r
r
r r
k
k

J(ri , sj ) =
=
. (17)

P
P
x y
Ni
Nk
xk
(ri , sj )
yi
(ri , sj ).
s s
s
s
i
k
R
` N T p d`, (16). 2-3 .
r = 1. ,

N1 = (1 r)(1 s)/4 = 0,
N2 = (1 + r)(1 s)/4 = (1 s)/2,
N3 = (1 + r)(1 + s)/4 = (1 + s)/2,
30

N4 = (1 r)(1 + s)/4 = 0,
Z 1
Z
` 1 T
N p ds =
N T p d` =
N T | det(J)|ds =
2 1
`
1


0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0

px
0
 

Z 1 s
Z 1 px (1 s)

py
` 1
`
`
0
1 s p x
py (1 s)

. (18)
=
ds =
ds =

0 py
2 1 1 + s
2 1 px (1 + s)
2
px
0

1 + s

py (1 + s)
py
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Z

. : n ; m ; mesh[n][2] = (xi , yj ) ( ) i, j = 1, n; elements[m][4] = (node1, node2, node3, node4)


( );
kij 8 8; b = (bi ),
i = 1, 8; f = (fi ), i = 1, 2n; orderGauss ; quadrGauss orderGauss,
; weights orderGauss, ; u = (ui ), i = 1, 2n ; us = t ;
material[m, 2] ( , : E ; , material[1, 1]
E , material[20, 2] ).

1. , , mesh, material, elements.


2. : i = 1 m
2.1 : s1 , s2 , s3 , s4 .
.
numbers[8]
j = 1 4 {
sj = elements(i, j);
numbers[2j 1] = 2sj 1;
numbers[2j] = 2sj . }
31

2.2 k
b ( . ).
2.3 :
j = 1 8
l = 1 8
a[numbers[j], numbers[l]] = a[numbers[j], numbers[l]] + kj,l .
2.4
j = 1 8 fnumbers[j] = fnumbers[j] + bj .
3. us = t
3.1 ass = 1; fs = t;
3.2 k = 1 . . . n, k 6= s
{ ask = 0;
fk = fk aks t;
aks = 0. }
4. Au = f .
5. .
6. ..


R
T
T
DBN
dV .
(. 2.2) k = V BN
1.
i = 1 4 {xi = mesh[si , 1]; yi = mesh[si , 2].}

2. D ,
.
3.
i = 1 orderGauss
j = 1 orderGauss
3.1 r0 = quadrGauss[i]; s0 = quadrGauss[j];
3.2 J (r0, s0) (17)
3.3 det J.
32

3.4 invJ.
3.5
Ni
i
dN r[4] = N
r , dN s[4] = s
r0, s0
dN r[1] = (s 1)/4; dN s[1] = (r 1)/4;
dN r[2] = (1 s)/4; dN s[2] = (r 1)/4;
dN r[3] = (s + 1)/4; dN s[3] = (r + 1)/4;
dN r[4] = (s 1)/4; dN s[4] = (1 r)/4.
3.6 Ni
i
dN x[4] = N
x , dN y[4] = y
r0, s0
k=1 4 {
dN x[k] = InvJ(1, 1)(dN r)[k] + InvJ(1, 2)(dN s)[k];
dN y[k] = InvJ(2, 1)(dN r)[k] + InvJ(2, 2)(dN s)[k].}
3.7
r0, s0 BN = B N =

N1
N2
N3
N4
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
N1
N2
N3
N4
0
0
0
= 0
y
y
y
y =
N1

N1

N2

N2

N3

N3

N4

x
y
x
y
x
y
y

dN x[1]
0
. . . dN x[4]
0
dN y[1]
0
dN y[4] .
= 0
dN y[1] dN x[1] . . . dN y[4] dN x[4]
3.8

N4
x

T
k = k + det(J)weights[j]BN
DBN .

3.9 ,
(18).
(. 6) .


ux1
u


uy1
xx
xx
xx

x
..
yy = u

=
B
u
=
B
,

=
D
yy .

N
N
yy
y
.
u
u
xy

+
ux4
xy
xy
x
y
uy4

33

1.
i = 1 4 {xi = mesh[si , 1]; yi = mesh[si , 2]. }
2.
i = 1 8 { ti = u[numbers[i]]}.
3.
3.1 BN (. 3.2-3.7). BN ,
,
.
3.2 BN
1
BN t, ne ,
t: loc = ne
. loc = Dloc .
3.3
= + loc , = + loc .

10

1. y 00 x = 1, y(0) = y(1) = 0
1 (x) = x(x 1) 2 (x) = x2 (x 1).
, .
2. p pi =
40/2 , pj = 34/2 , pk = 46/2 . i(0, 0), j(4, 0.5),
k(2, 5). B(2, 1.5).
3. : u2i1 = 2 , u2i = 4 , u2j1 = 4 , u2j = 5 , u2k1 = 1 ,
u2k = 1 . (10, 10). ( ) i(0, 0), j(20, 5),
k(8, 20).
4.

Z
Ni

Nj Ni Nj Nk dl,
lij
Nk

lij i j, a Ni ,
Nj Nk .

34

5. A(0, 0), B(6, 0), C(3, 3).


A, B, C, D(3, 0) L-.
6.


3 2
1
u1
1
2 1 0.5 u2 = 2 .
1 0.5 2
u3
3

, u3 = 4.
( ).

11

, , , .
1. .
( ), n 2n
( ); n = 5 + N ; N .
: : y 00 2N y = 1 y(0) = 0, y 0 (1) = N ;
: y 00 + 2N y = 0 y(0) = 0, y 0 (1) = N .
, , . n . . n : ,
, , ( n ),
( 2n ), . .
2. .

( , . . 7).
1. : x [0, 1], y [0, 1].
. : Dxx = Dyy = 10.
1 3 . 2 T = 20 . 4 T = 10 .
35

. 7:
2. : x [0, 1], y [0, 2]. . : Dxx = Dyy = 15. 1 3 . 2
h = 10,
T = 20 . 4 T = 5 .
()
solution.res :
N
1
t1
2
t2 . . .
3. .
(- ) : x [0, 1], y [0, 1]. . u = (ux , uy ) ,

.
1. : E = 106 ,
= 0.3. x = 0 (ux = uy = 0).
x = 1
px = 22000 /2 .
2. . : E = 5 106 , = 0.25.
: E = 2 107 ,
= 0.25. x = 0 y: uy = 0.
y = 0 x: ux = 0.
36

ux=uy=0

ux=0

uy=0

. 8: 1

. 9: 2

p1
B

. 10:
x = 1 px = 8 104
/2 .
4. ( .)
, ,
, . p1
p0 ,
b, a, ,
a  b.
z . , ,
(- ). -

37

. 11:
( )
.
ur = Ar +

B
,
r

A=

p 1 a2 p 0 b 2
,
2( + )(b2 a2 )

B=

(p1 p0 )a2 b2
,
2(b2 a2 )

,
=

E
,
(1 + )(1 2)

E
.
2(1 + )

p0 = 0
B1
a2
a2 b 2
B1
, = A1 2 , A1 = p1 2
, B1 = p1 2
,
2
2
r
r
b a
b a2
rr , .
rr = A1 +

xx = rr cos2 + sin2 ,
yy = rr sin2 + cos2 .
. E = 1, = 0.3, p = 102 E, a = 0.2, b = 1. .
(. 11): ) N = 100, )
N = 400, )
N = 400.
( ) 2- .
y = 0 (
).
38


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Wiley and sons, 1984. 427 pp.
[2] Szabo B., Babushka I. Finite Element Analysis. New York: John Wiley
andSons, 1991. 368 pp.
[3] Zienkiewicz O. C., Taylor R. The finite element method. Fifth edition.
Butterwoth-Heinemann, 2000.
[4] . . .: , 1975.
542 .
[5] ., . . .:
, 1986. 318 .
[6] ., . . .: , 1979. 264 .
[7] . ., . . - . .: , 1981. 416 .
[8] ., .
. .: , 1981. 504 .
[9] . . . .:
, 1970. 512 .
[10] ., . . .:
, 1981. 304 .
[11] . . .: ,
1979. 392 .
[12] ., . . .: ,
1977. 349 .
[13] . . .:
, 1991. 504 .
[14] . .
. .: , 1983. 212 .

39

, ,


18.03.11. 60 84 1/16.
. ... 2,75. .-.. 2,76.

. 30 .

426034, , . , 1, . 4.