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Chapter 6 Section 1 Outline


Atoms, Elements, and Compound
Main Idea: Matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms.
Essential Questions:
What are atoms?
How are the particles that make up atoms diagrammed?
What are the similarities between covalent and ionic bonds?
How are van der Waals forces described?

I. Atoms
The structure of an atom
___atoms__ are the building blocks of matter.
Atoms are made up of smaller particles called neutrons, protons, and
electrons.
____protons___ are positively charged particles (p
+
)
____neutrons____ are particles that have no charge (n
0
)
_______electrons__ are negatively charged particles (e
-
)
Protons and neutrons are located in the __center ___ of the atom, called
the ____nucleus___.
Electrons are located ___outside____ the nucleus.
Take a Look: Identify the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of the
oxygen atom. ___6______

II. Elements
An ____element___ is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other
substances by physical or chemical means.
There are over 100___ known elements, 92 of which occur naturally.
Each element has a unique name and symbol.
The periodic table of elements
Horizontal rows are called _periods______
Vertical columns are called __groups____
Arranged by __atomic #_____ ______
The Atomic Number = the number of ___protons____
The Atomic Mass = the number of protons __+__ the number of neutrons













Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have the __same__ number of protons
and electrons but have a __different_______ number of neutrons are
called isotopes_______.





Radioactive isotopes
Changing the number of _____neutrons___ in an atom does not affect
the charge, but does affect the _____stability____.
When a nucleus breaks apart, it gives off ___radiation______ that can be
detected and used for many applications.
Isotopes that give off radiation are called ___radioactive_______
_____isotopes___.

Get it? State the difference between an isotope and a radioactive isotope.
___________radioactive isotopes break down
________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________


III. Compounds
A _____compound___ is pure substance formed when two or more different
_____elements___ combine.
Compounds are always formed from specific combination of elements in a
__periodic table___ _____.
Compounds cannot be broken down into simpler compounds or elements by
____physical____ means, but can be broken down by _chemical_______ means.

Draw conclusions Table salt is a compound made of sodium and chlorine. Could you
separate the sodium from the chlorine by crushing the salt crystals? Explain.
___________________no because it cannot be physically broken down but can be
broken down chemically
________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________





IV. Chemical Bonds
The force that holds substances together is called a ________ ____.
The _________ on an atom are responsible for forming chemical bonds.
Electrons travel around the nucleus of an atom in areas called ______ ______.
The first energy level, which is the closest to the nucleus, can hold up to ___
electrons.
The second level can hold up to _____ elections.
A partially-filled energy level is not as ______ as a full or an empty energy level.
Atoms become more stable by ______ electrons or __________ electrons from
other atoms.

Electrons are moving constantly within the
energy levels surrounding the nucleus.

Apply Study the oxygen atom to the left. Is the
second energy level of the oxygen atom full?
Explain. ________________________________
_______________________________________




Covalent Bonds
The chemical bond that forms when electrons are ______ is called a
________ ____.
A ________ is a compound in which the atoms are held together by
covalent bonds.











Ionic Bonds
An atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons is an ___.
Ions carry an ________ charge.
An _____ ____ is an electrical attraction between two __________
charged atoms.
Some atoms tend to donate or accept electrons more easily than other
atoms.
The elements identified as ______ tend to ______ electrons.
The elements identified as _________ tend to ______ electrons.
Most ionic compounds dissolve in water, are crystalline at room
temperature, and have higher melting points than compounds formed by
covalent bonds.


V. van der Waals Forces
Attractions between molecules are called ___ ___ _____ ______.
When molecules come close together, the attractive forces between slightly
positive and negative regions pull on the molecules and hold them together.
The strength of the attraction depends on the ____ __ ___ ________, its shape,
and its _______ __ _______ _________.

van der Waals forces in water
The slightly ________ and slightly ________ charges around the water
molecule are attracted to the ________ charge of other nearby water
molecules.
van der Waals forces are responsible for _____ _______ formation and
_______ _______











Think It Over The substances that are held together by van der Waals
forces are (atoms or molecules). _________________________