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GII thiu chung v ng dng GIS

trong mi trng
Cc ng dng GIS c lin tc pht trin trong lnh vc qun l v bo v mi trng. T
chng trnh kim k ngun ti nguyn thin nhin ca Canada trong nhng nm 1960, n cc
chng trnh GIS cp bang ca M bt u vo cui nhng nm 1970, n m hnh ho qun l
cc s c mi trng hin ang c pht trin, cng ngh GIS cung cp cc phng tin
qun l v phn tch cc yu t nh hng n mi trng ngy cng hu hiu hn.
Xu hng hin nay trong qun l mi trng l s dng ti a kh nng cho php ca GIS. S
pht trin ca phn cng lm cho my tnh c nhiu kh nng hn, mnh hn v cc ng dng
GIS cng tr nn thn thin hn vi ngi s dng bi cc kh nng hin th d liu ba chiu,
cc cng c phn tch khng gian v giao din tu bin.
Nh kh nng x l cc tp hp d liu ln t cc c s d liu phc tp, nn GIS thch hp
vi cc nhim v qun l mi trng. Cc m hnh phc tp cng c th d dng cp nht thng
tin nh s dng GIS.
GIS c s dng cung cp thng tin nhanh hn v hiu qu hn cho cc nh hoch nh
chnh sch. Cc c quan chnh ph dng GIS trong qun l cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin,
trong cc hot ng quy hoch, m hnh ho v quan trc.
GIS cng c s dng nh gi cc s c mi trng. Cc c quan chnh ph v a
phng phi i ph nhanh chng vi thin tai, cc ri ro trong cng nghip v cc s c mi
trng. Thng tin a l l nhng thng tin quan trng a ra nhng quyt nh mt cch
nhanh chng. Cc phn tch GIS ph thuc vo cht lng, gi tr v tnh tng thch ca cc d
liu a l dng s.
Vic chia x d liu s kch thch s pht trin cc nhu cu v sn phm v dch v GIS. Cc
ngun d liu tng thm nh s kt hp ca GIS vi GPS (h thng nh v ton cu) v cng
ngh vin thm, cung cp cc cng c thu thp d liu hiu qu hn.
NG DNG GIS TRONG CNG TC MI TRNG
Chn t danh sch di y xem cc v d v ng dng cng ngh GIS trong cc lnh vc
mi trng:
Gii thiu chung v ng dng GIS trong mi trng
Qun l ti nguyn thin nhin
Qun l v quy hoch mi trng
Gim st v d bo cc s c mi trng
QUN l Ti nguyn Thin nhin
GIS l cng c c lc trong qun l ti nguyn thin nhin. GIS c th c dng to bn phn b
ti nguyn, kim k, nh gi tr lng ti nguyn, ... Nhng ng dng ca GIS trong lnh vc ny l
khng gii hn.

TI NGUYN SINH vt
Phn tch Qun th ng vt hoang d

Bn c th s dng GIS hin th v phn tch d
liu thuc tnh. Chng hn, Chambers Group s dng
GIS v cc d liu thu thp c t h thng nh v
ton cu (GPS) dn ra s phn b v mt ca
cc qun th ra cn sa mc.

Cng ty Duke Power dng GIS qun l cc d liu
a l v cc loi c nc m (open water). S kt
hp gia GIS v cng ngh nh v bng ting di
cho nhng thng tin v nhng nh gi loi chi tit
hn so vi cc phng php trc y.
Sau khi thu thp d liu, GIS c s dng m
phng v phn tch tnh a dng theo khng gian, s
phn b theo su v kch c ca cc loi c.
Phn tch phn b loi
Hin nay nhim mi trng ang e do s tn
ti ca nhiu loi sinh vt, trong c nhiu loi
c. GIS h tr tch cc trong cng vic bo tn
nhng loi c ang b e do. Cc d liu bao
gm thng tin v rng v su ca dng chy,

cht lng v nhit nc, s phn b ca cc
loi c. Phn mm ARC/INFO c s dng
nhp d liu vo mt c s d liu gm 250 lp
thng tin bao ph ton b vng chu th sng
Columbia. Nhng thng tin ny c xut bn
trn CD-ROM v cung cp cho cc nh qun l ti
nguyn.
Trng i hc Wisconsin s dng GIS
phn tch s xm thc tr li ca loi si lng xm
min ng cng cc yu t a n s ti thit
lp thnh cng vng phn b ny. Bn cho thy
hng di chuyn n nh ca loi si ny n min
ng.
Cc c tnh t nhin ca cc vng sinh l Maine
c th c nh gi ngay lp tc bng vic s
dng d liu GIS lp bn . Vn phng GIS
vng Maine dng GIS phn chia 15 vng t
nhin ca Maine cng vi cc loi trong mi vng.

Kim sot cc khu bo tn

T chc Bo tn quc t v Chnh ph Malagasy
s dng GIS kim sot s phn b ca cc loi
thc vt Madagascar. Bn ny biu din cc loi
thc vt ca min nam Madagascar bng cc mu
khc nhau v biu din cc khu bo tn bng nn
cho. Vi nhng thng tin ny, c th d dng xc
nh cc vng cn c bo v hoc cc vng hin
c bo v c kh nng b xm hi.
Kim sot a dng sinh hc
Mt s t chc s dng GIS phn tch s
phn b v mc bo tn i vi mt s thnh
phn ca a dng sinh hc. GIS gip cc nh
nghin cu xc nh cc loi c kh nng hin din
trong vng qun l hay khng (vng gin on).
Nhng loi ny c dng lm ch th cho a dng
sinh hc hoc cho s vng mt, i vi mt vng
c th.

Bo tn nhng loi ang b e do
Hin nay nhim mi trng ang e do s tn
ti ca nhiu loi sinh vt, trong c nhiu loi
c. GIS h tr tch cc trong cng vic bo tn
nhng loi c ang b e do. Cc d liu bao
gm thng tin v rng v su ca dng chy,
cht lng v nhit nc, s phn b ca cc
loi c. Phn mm ARC/INFO c s dng
nhp d liu vo mt c s d liu gm 250 lp
thng tin bao ph ton b vng chu th sng
Columbia. Nhng thng tin ny c xut bn
trn CD-ROM v cung cp cho cc nh qun l ti
nguyn.

Cc chuyn gia Corvallis, Oregon s dng d liu GIS pht trin chin lc bo tn loi c hi
Coho, mt loi c hi mu hng bc c tm thy ch yu vng ca sng ca Oregon v Washington.
Trong nghin cu ny, vng chu th sng Umpqua c la chn, y l vng trc y rt nhiu
c hi Coho, nhng nay do khai thc g, xy dng, nn thng dng chy sng sui, ph hu ni sng
ca loi c ny, lm s lng ca chng gim st nghim trng, ch khong 3% so vi trc kia. Cng
vic bo tng c bt u vi vic xc nh ni c tr ca cc qun th v gip cho chng m rng
qun th. GIS c s dng hin th v phn tch thng tin v iu kin sng ca loi.
Tm kim ni sng ph hp: Cc nh phn tch to ra cc bng biu v bn chi tit v h thng
dng chy, t tm kim nhng ni thch hp cho c hi Coho. Cc yu t c trng ca dng chy
nh hng trc tip n c hi Coho u c a ng thi vo bn .
Cng c phi hp hot ng: thc hin nhim
v bo tn c hi Coho, cc nh nghin cu cn
phi hp vi cc t chc bo tn khc. GIS tr
thnh cng c hu ch trao i phi hp, to
cc n phm ho pht hnh cng nh
tho lun v l cng c chia x cc thng tin mi,
a cc d liu ln Internet. Cc c quan qun l
cc cp, cc nh khoa hc, nhng ngi hot
ng mi trng v nhng i tng khc u c
th s dng v ng gp thng tin trc tip vo c
s d liu ca h thng.


C nhiu cch s dng GIS gii quyt cc vn mi trng. Vo trang Qun l mi trng ca
NEA bn c th tham kho mt s phng php p dng GIS gii quyt cc vn mi trng m
bn quan tm



DU M - KH T
Du m v kh t l ngun ti nguyn ang c khai thc rng khp trn ton th gii v lun phi m bo
hn ch nhng s c mi trng. Bi l qun l cht ch ngun ti nguyn ny lun l vn c quan
tm. Vi cng ngh GIS, cng vic ny c h tr rt nhiu, nng cao hiu qu qun l cng nh khai thc.
Thm d trong nhng khu vc nhy cm
S dng GIS v cc cng ngh khoan thm d hin i, ngi ta c th nh v v
tin hnh x l cc d liu b mt mt cch d dng, cch xa vng nhy cm m
vn m bo t c nhng yu cu chuyn mn c gi tr ca vng di mt t.

Chevron, mt tp on du la quc t, s dng phn mm ArcView GIS
nh v du m trong vng chu th Niger. Cng ty trch nghim hu hn Chevron
Nigeria thuc tp on Chevron ng dng GIS trong phn ln cc hot ng ca
cng ty. GIS cho php thm d v qun l ngun du m m hn ch ti thiu nh
hng c hi i vi h ng, thc vt.
Cc s liu thu c t quan trc a chn c thu thp to nn cc bn 3
chiu di mt t. Cc chuyn gia c th s dng nhng nh 3 chiu ny a
ra cc quyt nh v v tr c th ca cc ti du m khng cn tin hnh khoan
nhiu ln.


Nhng vn lin quan trong qun l ti nguyn du m


C rt nhiu vn v mi trng c lin quan trong qu trnh khai thc du m, h
thng thot nc, sng sui b nhim, s bin mt ca c v ng vt hoang d.
Do cc cng ty du m khai thc trong vng phi lm vic vi chnh quyn a
phng v vn d tr du m, xy dng ng giao thng, no vt knh
mng, m bo iu kin sng ca dn c cng nh cc sinh vt hoang d.
Cc nh khoa hc ca Charvon nhp cc nh v tinh v d liu quan trc khng
gian vo h thng ArcView GIS to bn c s ca vng. H kim tra v hiu
nh cc v tr ca cc i tng c nh nh cc ging du v ng giao thng so
vi s liu nhn c t h thng nh v ton cu (GPS). Nhng d liu khc,
chng hn nh v tr vng t ngp nc, nhng loi b e do, dn c, u c
thm vo cc bn s. Tt c nhng d liu GIS ny cng vi cc s liu thm d
gip xc nh v tr thch hp nht to mt ging khoan, ng thi h tr tch
cc cho cc nh qun l ti nguyn.
Quan trc cht lng nc: Khi du m c khai thc t lng t, n lun cha mt lng kh t nhin, mt s
cht gy nhim (nh lu hunh) v nc. Nhng cht lng ny c x l v sau mt thi gian s quay tr li
lng t. Kim sot lng nc thi t cc ging khoan l cn thit xc nh cc x l phng php x l an
ton thch hp. Cc phn tch ho hc v cht lng nc cng c lu trong GIS, gip cho cc nh qun l
xc nh nhanh chng bt k s tng ln no ca cc cht gy nhim v a ra nhng bin php kp thi.
Qun l an ton khai thc
GIS c s dng to bn v cc vng nc ngm nhy cm, vi s chng
lp d liu v v tr dn khoan, su ca nc. Nhng bn ny s gip thit k
tuyn ng ng dn du.
GIS cng c s dng nu c s c trn du. Nhng d liu trn du c chnh
ph v cc cng ty du m lu gi v nhp vo h GIS v c m ho vi nhng
thng s nh s lng du trn, thi gian, nhng ngi c lin quan. Nhng d liu
ny s h tr cc nh qun l rt nhiu. Khi s c xy ra, GIS c th xc nh nhanh
chng nhng v tr ng ng c u tin v nhng ni c tr cn c bo v.

yt cc vn mi trng. Vo trang Qun l mi trng ca NEA bn c th tham kho mt s phng php p
trng m bn quan tm.
TI NGUYN NC
nh gi mc nc ngm, m phng h thng sng h v nhiu ng dng lin quan n qun l ti
Nhng v d di y l mt vi ng dng ca GIS trong lnh vc ny.
Kim sot mc nc ngm

Duy tr mc nc ngm thch hp trong cc vng khai khong l mt
vn ln. Trng i hc K thut Aachen, c s dng GIS
kim sot mc nc ngm cho cc vng khai thc than, to cc bn
mc nc ngm, kt hp vi cc d liu khc nh th nhng, a
hnh, quy m khai thc m, cng ngh k thut c s dng, cung
cp cng c c lc cho cc nh phn tch.


Kim sot s phc hi mc nc ngm
mc nc ngm l rt kh khn, nhng vi
ic ny tr nn d dng hn.
furt, c, dng GIS xy dng cc lp
n v s phc hi mc nc ngm. Nhng
kt hp li to nn mt bn cui cng
ca mi vng.
nghin cu d dng tnh ton v m phng
hi mc nc ngm ca cc vng khc


Phn tch h thng sng ngi
Zagreb, Croatia, s dng GIS phn tch h
ng nh ton b vng lu vc sng Drava. Vi cng
h xy dng m phng mng li sng ngi ca khu
thng s c trng cho mi dng chy v phn tch
ng m chng c th chu tc ng.


Qun l cc lu vc sng
l mt h thng nhy cm v phc tp. Qun l lu vc sng i hi lu
y , duy tr s n nh ca cc h sinh thi, kim sot l.
l Cht thi v Nng lng Ht nhn Thu in v Nespak, Pakistan phi hp
h tr qun l vng lu vc sng Torrent Pakistan. GIS c s dng
s cn bng nc, qu trnh xi mn, v kim sot l cho khu vc.




nsen, Wallen & Associates dng GIS
g lu vc sng Santa Lucia Preserve. M
an ba chiu c xy dng nh cng
gip cc nh nghin cu tip cn chnh
h v th nhng ca khu vc, t xy
quy lut din bin quan trng cho ton b
sng.


Kim sot cc ngun nc

Ti M, GIS c dng qun l s phn b ca cc ngun nc,
nh cc nh khoa hc c th d d xc nh v tr cc ngun nc
ny trong ton b h thng.
yt cc vn mi trng. Vo trang Qun l mi trng ca NEA bn c th tham kho mt s phng php p
trng m bn quan tm.
Ti nguyn t
hoch s dng ti nguyn t ca mt thnh ph, mt quc gia hay mt vng. Cc v d di y s cho thy cc
ng ti nguyn t.
Qun l phn vng cc dng t
phn loi t ca mt vng. Mi loi t c biu din bi
nh. Km theo cc polygon biu din phn b ca cc loi
a im, din tch,... Nhng thng tin di dng bn gip
g nhng xu hng bin i do cc tc ng ca thin nhin

Qui hoch s dng ti nguyn t
cng vic quy hoch s dng t. Nhng d liu v hin
hng quan trc khng gian c x l trong h GIS, lp
liu phn tch. Da vo cc nh qui hoch c th d
ch s dng t hp l.
dng cng ngh GIS pht trin qui hoch tng th ca
s d liu GIS a chnh ca thnh ph.


Mlada, Cng ho Czech cng s dng GIS h tr k
hoch quy hoch li mt khu sn bi qun s, nh gi
v m phng cc loi ti nguyn t: t nng nghip,
t nng nghip, t t nhin.
ca Colombia dng cng ngh GIS hin th v kim
v trong tng lai ca thnh ph Ibague.

Phn tch xu hng xy dng
Australia s dng GIS phn tch xu hng xy dng
ng ca thnh ph v nh hng ca n i vi c s h

Kim sot ti nguyn t
c theo bin gii Mexico v M c h tr bi cc thng
p bn cc ngun ti nguyn, ch thu vn, tc ng
eo bin gii.



yt cc vn mi trng. Vo trang Qun l mi trng ca NEA bn c th tham kho mt s phng php p
trng m bn quan tm.
TI NGUYN RNG
ic qun l ti nguyn rng ang l mt thch thc ln. Vi GIS cc nh qun l c th thc
y d dng hn. Nhng v d di y s minh ho cho nhn nh ny
Kim k trng thi rng hin ti
h kim k trng thi g,
ao thng, ng tu ho
i v s dng nhng
nh gi v ma v, chi
oc iu kin sng ca
ng d ang b e do.




H tr pht trin chin lc qun l

Vi GIS bn c th nh gi cc c im ca mt khu rng da trn cc iu kin
qun l khc nhau. Trn c s cc d bo ny, bn c th quan st tng tai ca
khu rng di dng bn v s liu phn tch, t vch ra chin lc qun l v
pht trin cc ngun ti nguyn rng sao cho t c hiu qa cao.
M hnh ho h sinh thi rng
dng nh mt thnh
g h tr quyt nh (DSS)
nghip, chng hn, c
ho cc thnh phn




ng Alberta, Trung tm o to mi trng Alberta (Canada) dng GIS m hnh ho cc
thi, cc iu kin sng,... lm c s cho vic d bo. Dng m hnh GIS nh mt phn ca
ng cao cht lng qun l ti nguyn rng.

DORIS-Systemgruppe-AMT s dng GIS m phng cc khu rng ca c bng
m hnh 3 chiu. Hin th d liu theo khng gian gip cc nh qun l nm bt c
th hn v i tng.

yt cc vn mi trng. Vo trang Qun l mi trng ca NEA bn c th tham kho mt s phng php p
trng m bn quan tm.
Xy dng d liu mi trng
n c th phn tch v tinh lc d liu phc v cng vic
cc i tng mi trng v nghin cu tnh kh thi.
hn nh trc a, nh thu hc, nh khng gian, c th
nh gi nh GIS. Mt ngun d liu rt quan trng l s
i GPS (h thng nh v ton cu) v cng ngh vin

Qun l d liu mi trng
g Santa Ana California s dng GIS lm cng c qun l
c, cht lng nc, v cc ngun li t vng lu vc nh
s d liu v to bn ca GIS. Nh vic qun l mt
tr nn hiu qu hn nhiu so vi s dng mt h thng phi

Gim st, d bo nhng bin i mi trng ton cu
liu v phn mm GIS t nm 1994 bin dch cc thng tin v
ng c tnh ton cu ton cu, d bo tc ng ca nhng xu
guy him (mt rng, nhim i dng, xi mn ven b), t
n lc s dng bn vng cc ngun ti nguyn, nhm thit lp
nh ca mi trng trn ton cu.

Quy hoch cc nhn t mi trng

S dng kh nng phn tch ca GIS, bn c th qun l c mi quan h gia cc
nhn t mi trng t nhin cng nh x hi. T nhng phn tch ny, cc chin lc
quy hoch cho tng i tng v cho tng th chung c xy dng. Chng hn, GIS
c s dng xy dng m hnh kim sot ng vt hoang d California trong c cu
k hoch chung ca thnh ph.
Qun l Cht thi
qun l cht thi nh gi hin trng cht thi hin nay v d
Ngoi ra, cc nh qun l c th chia x thng tin gia cc t
cc c quan iu chnh ci thin vn kim sot, vn
c thi.


bang Georgia (GGS) dng GIS qun l c s d liu v 118 bi chn lp cht thi rn
tin trong c s d liu bao gm tn bi chn lp, v tr, kinh , v , ng vo bi chn
ng chu th sng chnh v m n v thu vn ca vng chu th ny.

H tr qun l cc s c mi trng
nh gi chin lc i ph v n lc chng chu trc cc s
khi xy ra nhim do r r kh c, bn c th xc nh cc
hng, cc vng chu nh hng do pht tn, v cc v tr b
ng.


Nghin cu v Qun l H sinh thi
h GIS, bn c th phn tch ton b h sinh thi. GIS c s dng m phng h sinh thi nh mt
on chnh; hin th hnh nh ca cc vng nhy cm.
n l t ai M s dng GIS qun l cc h sinh thi vng chu th sng Columbia: nh gi tc ng
ng, pht trin quy hoch chin lc, xy dng bn m t ton b h thng.
qun l nc/nc thi, GIS c dng cng vi cc nhim v quy hoch, iu khin, bo qun...
i nc/nc thi.
nh gi tnh trng v sinh ca h thng cng rnh


s dng GIS nh gi nhu cu hin ti v tng lai trong vn nc
t nc. Black & Veatch dng GIS qun l h thng cng rnh ca thnh
arland. GIS tnh ton dng chy kt hp d liu s dng t, tng dn s, s
ao ng ca mi khu vc thot nc. Sau GIS s chy cc m hnh khc
hin th cc kt qu nh gi tnh trng v sinh.

Kim k v gim st H thng nc v nc thi

Board of Public Works (BPW) for Holland, Michigan, thay th h thng kim
sot nc/nc thi th cng c bng GIS. GIS cho php mi n v cp nht s
liu ca mnh v bo qun tnh ton vn mt cch t ng.

Tnh Louisville v Jefferson dng GIS h tr thit lp chng trnh nc thi
in hnh. GIS c s dng nh v cc trm chn, trm bm nc thi, ng
dn chnh v cc d n nc thi hin ti. nhn dng, cc c tnh, cc d n
u c bn ho trong ton b h thng.
nh gi cht lng nc
ng, Washington, s dng GIS nh gi cht lng nc trong ton
IS cung cp cho ngi s dng kh nng tp hp tt c cc mu cht
nc hoc ch mt s mu c la chn trong qu trnh phn tch. Sau
mu c phn tch v hin th nh GIS.

Xc nh nh hng s c trn ng nc v nc thi
th h tr nh v v xc nh nhng nh hng ca cc s c nh ng t. Thnh ph Los Angeles
GIS nh v nhng ng cng b h hi trong v ng t Northridge nm 1994 a vo d n
a.




NG DNG CA GIS trong
nh gi tc ng mi trng
tc ng khng gian ca cc tc nhn gy hi lin quan n cc thc th nh trng hc,
rung tm iu tr, ...
cc thc th theo loi, thng s dng m mu.
cc tc nhn gy hi theo kiu tc ng
c s h tng nh ng giao thng
m xung quanh mi tc nhn gy hi: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m.
p cc vng m vo cc thc th
cc bn kt qu: thc th no chu tc ng nhiu nht, thc th no chu tc ng t nht;
ng hp xy ra s c, khong cch n bnh vin hoc trung tm iu tr gn nht l bao nhiu;
n hoc trung tm iu tr no c trang thit b y nht.
thit lp mt nhn t hoc mt c s h tng no .
k thut nh gi a chun (MCE) hoc php logic m la chn liu v tr A c tt hn v tr B v
ng, bng php chng xp mt s bn . Mi bn biu din mt thng s xc nh v mi
c cc mc khc nhau v cng v ln. Mi bn cng xc nh mt tiu chun xc nh.
l c trng so vi cc bn khc
t qu c xp loi theo mc thch hp tng i vi cc tiu chun.
nhy cm c th c thc hin nh cc k thut MCE khc hoc so snh kt qu nh php

u u ra c th l cc d bo
ng i nhanh nht ca qu trnh thi cht thi lng dc theo cc knh dn nc.
th c nh v cc cao khc nhau
knh no c th l tuyn ng ngn nht ( ra bin) theo cao ca vng, s dng phng
ng i ti u. Xy dng mt vng m xung quanh ng c chn (dng m mu nu c cc
p bn ln bn thc th v nh gi cc tc ng, thc th no s chu tc ng.
uyt cc vn mi trng. Vo trang GIS v Mi trng ca NEA bn c th tham kho mt s phng php p
i trng m bn quan tm
GIM st v D bo cc s c Mi trng
n l v phn tch s c mi trng, bng cch ch ra cc vng c kh nng gp nhng s c thin nhin hoc do
Ph hu ca l
nhng vng s chu nh hng ca
i ra, GIS cn c dng tnh
c tnh thit hi ti chnh, ph hu
i vi vng khng c l do thit

Trt t

Dng cc kh nng ca GIS phn tch
dc, a cht v n nh t, bn c th
nh danh c nhng vng gp s c do
trt t.
Khi nhng vng ny c nh danh,
nhng thng tin ny s gip hiu chnh k
hoch pht trin v xy dng cng c cc
cng trnh cu trc bo v nhng vng c
nguy c cao.
S c a chn
v tr a l, k thut xy dng, GIS
im c th xy ra cc s c nh
c th c.
ca Portland, bang Oregon, M
ArcView GIS v MapObjects tr
cc s c.

thng tin u vo cn thit l th nhng v kt cu t. S dng
g, cng trnh xy dng, dn c, cc nh quy hoch Portland to
ng ca tng vng. Ngoi ra, GIS cn tr gip xc nh nhng cng
qun l ri ro vng ven bin
g gim st cc s c v bn
a vng ven bin, to c s
t, phn phi ti nguyn khi ti thit
chng trc bo. M hnh da vo

u v cc cn bo xy ra trong
tng tc ca bo vi cc iu
yn hi v cc o.
t cc vng c kh nng xy ra
m nh tn tht

bn ho mt cch c h thng nhng ri ro ca vng duyn hi v
ng ln s liu v a hnh, cc o, vng ngp lt, rng che ph v
c s ho t cc bn giy, nh khng gian v cc kho st thc

n s c b sung vo c s d liu ca GIS, nh cc yu t a l,
cc c im ca bo, c im ca thm thc vt che ph (rng ma,
i...). Tt c nhng yu t ny quyt nh kh nng chng chu ca
Jekyll: v l o chn bo nn o Jekyll lun phi chu cc cn bo
ng x, thm thc vt c s ho bng phn mm ARC/INFO. Thit
nh xc cc thm thc vt. Cc bn bo v vng ngp lt cng c
qu kh v thm c iu kin chnh tr ca a phng. Kt hp cc
nh gi cc cp bo, cng nh cc tn tht v cc d on trc
nhim khng kh
n rt xa t ngun thi, gy tc hi i
phm vi ton cu. Cng ngh GIS h
t nhim khng kh. C quan bo v
phn mm ARC/INFO nghin cu
ng kh i vi s pht trin ca cy
i vi rng.
khi: u tin, min ng nc M c
v ARC/INFO c dng to thnh
ny, mi c din tch 20 km
2
. Cc d
thu thp t cc trm quan trc vng v
o cc c s d liu ny, vi cng c
o ra cc bn v pht tn NOx, my,
cao v khong cch khi t ngun pht
d liu ny cn c phn tch kt hp
ca tng vng.

ng kh i vi s pht trin ca thc vt: vi GIS, cc nh khoa
ng (cc d liu v s tng trng, phn b loi thc vt,...) theo
nh gi s bin i sinh trng ca tng loi cy. Nhng phn tch
h hng lu di ca nhim khng kh khng ch i vi thc vt,
on ngi.
nhim t

nhim nc
t s phn b v nh lng nhng cht gy nhim nc khc
thut Nng nghip ca Trng i hc Natal dng cc ch s
s s dng t v lng vi khun E.coli, lm cc thng s thnh
c cho vng chu th Mgeni.
Nghin cu Vng chu th Nng nghip pht trin phc v cng
cht lng nc tng th cho mt s thnh ph Nam Phi.





GIS trong gim st cht lng nc
rimack. V tr ca mi trm thu mu,
u c lu trong GIS. GIS c th biu
m kim mi quan h khng gian gia
y nhim tim tng.

Vi GIS bn c th m phng v phn tch cc v tr ly mu.
Chng hn ch ra cc v tr ly mu khc nhau v so snh cc cht
nhim tng v tr vi nhau. Ngoi ra c th hin th cc nh
qut ca cc v tr ny.
Ph rng

g th gii c s thay i ln.
l tnh trng ph rng ang ngy
Th gii (WRI) s dng GIS
g vi cc quc gia v ngi dn trn
n cu: WRI s dng phn
rng trn ton cu. Ngoi ra GIS
n tch rng hin nay vi din tch
hng thu hp ngy cng nhanh
hu hp cc vng khc nhau, t
nhng ni m bin gii rng vn
cc d bo c th c phn tch d-

Trn du
ng tc ng bt li ca nhim, chng hn trn du, c th -
c nh bng GIS. Vi nhng thng tin ny, GIS c th m
ng tim nng nhim ca nhng a im khc nhau v pht
n chin lc c nh ri ro.
ng ngh GIS c Hi ng S c trn du Exxon Valdez s
g xc nh vng u tin cn bo v v khi phc nhng loi
u thit hi.
oi ra, da vo cc d liu GIS c th nh gi nh hng ca
du i vi du lch, phn tch tim nng du lch ca cc vng
c nhau.