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,

..

2003

535(075.8)
22. 2 73
12

:
.. , .. , .. ,
.. , ..

. ,
12 . . / .. , .. ,
.. .; . .. . .: , 2003. 71 .: .
ISBN 985-444-491-0.

, , .
535(075.8)
22.2 73

.. .

ISBN 985-444-491-0

, 2003
, 2003


1................................................................................... 3
2................................................................................. 17
3................................................................................. 22
4................................................................................. 29
5................................................................................. 34
6................................................................................. 38
7................................................................................. 45
8................................................................................. 51
9................................................................................. 59
10 61

1

:
1. .
2. .

.
, .
. , .
,
. ,
,
.
; 1, 2, , n n .
1 = 1,
2 = 2,
(1.1)

n = n
1-, 2-, , n- . . , .
, ,
.
, ,
,
. , (, ). . ,

. , ,
.

,
. . , , ,
, , .., ,
.
, . ,

, .
, . , .
, , .
.
. , .. , .
, , - .. , , . ,
0,05; 0,1; 0,2; 4,0. , 0,5,
U 100
= 0,5% , .. U = 0,005U max .

U max

. ,
, ,
. , , , , 1, 2, 3, 4, , 2,
P 100
P 100
= 0,01% , 1
= 0,3% .
Pmax
Pmax
, .
.
, ,
..

? , . , , ,
.
, , , .. ,
.
,
. .
, . . ,
, . . , ,
. ,

, .

.
1. , .
2. ,
. (1.1),
= 1 + 1,
= 2 + 2,

= n + n,
, :

X=

k =1

k =1

xk + xk

.
n
, ,
1- .
n

xk

X = lim k =1 = x ,
(1.2)
n
n
, . ,

,
, (1.2) .

: 13,4; 13,2; 13,3; 13,4; 13,3; 13,2; 13,1; 13,3; 13,3; 13,2;
13,3; 13,1. ,
. . 0,1. , . , ,
. ,
, k, W(k).
2 1
W (13,1) = = ;
12 6
3 1
W (13,2) = = ;
12 4
5
5
W (13,3) = = ;
12 12
2 1
W (13,4) = = .
12 6
k
y k = AW ( xk ),
(1.3)
.
yk

5
12

3
12

1
12

xk
13,1 13,2 13,3 13,4
. 1.1

, ,
, , (. 1.1). ,
k .

(1.3), k. , , :

S1 + S 2 + S 3 + S 4 = 0,1

2A
5A
3A
2A
+ 0,1
+ 0,1
+ 0,1
= 0,1A = 1.
12
12
12
12

(1.4)

: = 10. (1.4)
(1.3).
n ,
n k,
, . W(xk)
, k (k).
, , , , ,
.
.

y = f(x).
, , , , (. 1.2).

f (x)

x k x

xk

x k + x

. 1.2


- , .. , .
k, x k x , x k + x .
k ,
,
( x k x , x k + x )
,
f(x).

x k + x

P ( x k x x x k + x ) = f ( x ) dx .
x k x

,
, ,
,

1
(x X )2
exp
.
(1.5)
f ( x) =
2
2 2

, f() , - , . , , . 2.

1 n
2 S n2 =
( xk xn ) 2 .
(1.6)

n 1 k =1

. , 100
2 15%,
10 40%.
. , ,
(1.6), . f() , . , f()
.
f(x)

=1
=2
=4

. 1.3

, , , n , , , n .


( X x, X + x )

P( X x x X + x) ,
f(x). x
, x = k . k k
, ..
P( X k x X + k ) = F (k ),
(1.7)
F(k) . ,
k=1
F ( k ) 0 , 68 ;
k=2
F ( k ) 0 , 95 ;
k=3
F (k ) 0,998.
, ( X 2 , X + 2 )
95% f(x).
, ,
. , 2 , , 5%. n (1.7)
k
k
xn X +
) = F (k ).
(1.8)
P( X
n
n
(1.7) (1.8)
(1.6)
1 n
Sn =
( xk xn ) 2 .

n 1 k =1
(1.8), F(k),
, , n (t n , n).
lim t n = k , lim (t n , n) = F (k ) ,
n

.. (1.6) . ,
t S
t S
P( X n n xn X + n n ) = (t n , n).
n
n
, ,
t S
t S
(1.9)
P( xn n n X xn + n n ) = (t n , n).
n
n
(1.9) ,

2t n S n
n

x n .

. (t n , n)
tn n (. ).
2 : tn n.
n , , tn, .

n\P
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

tn
0,5
1,00
0,82
0,77
0,74
0,73
0,72
0,71
0,71
0,70

tn
0,9
6,3
2,9
2,4
2,1
2,0
1,9
1,9
1,9
1,8

tn
0,95
12,7
4,3
3,2
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,4
2,3
2,3

tn
0,99
63,7
9,9
5,8
4,6
4,0
3,7
3,5
3,4
3,3

tn
0,999
636,6
31,6
12,9
8,6
6,9
6,0
5,4
5,0
4,8

, tn, .. . , , , . ,
, , .. Sn t
, n ,
n
. , . n ,
.
: , , .

12, : 13,4; 13,2; 13,3.
1
x3 = (13,4 + 13,2 + 13,3) = 13,3;
3
S3
0,01
1
=
= 0,058.
(0,12 + 0,12 ) =
3
3 2
3

, ,
= 95%. = 0,95 n = 3 tn = 4,3.

x = 4,3 0,058 = 0,24 0,2;


13,3 0,2 X 13,3 + 0,2, 13,1 X 13,5
95%. X = 13,3 0,2.
(
, 0,1),
, .
, , 6 12 (
): 13,1; 13,3; 13,3; 13,2; 13,3;
13,1, x6 = 13,22 , , ,

S6
0,0484
1
=
= 0,04.
(2 0,12 2 + 3 0,08 2 + 0,02 2 ) =
30
56
6
tn = 0,95 n = 6; tn = 2,6. x = 2,6 0,04 = 0,1.
X = 13,2 0,1. (. 1.4).

13,0

13,1

13,2

13,3

13,4

13,5

13,6

. 1.4

, 6 , , ,
, .
, 0,1.
1) X = 13,3 0,3 ;

2) X = 13,2 0,2.


, , , , ( ), N ,

N = ( A, B, C ,....).

: N , N N
, A, B, C ,... , ( N N , N + N ) ,
A = A A, B = B B, C = C C ,....
, ,
N = ( A, B, C ,...) ,
N = ( A , B , C ,...) ,
(1.10)
A , B , C ,... A, B, C ,... ,
.
N = ( A, B, C ,...) A , B , C ,...

N = ( A A , B B ,C C ,...) ( A , B ,C ,...) =
= (

( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
A +
B +
C + ...),
A
B
C

(1.11)

( A , B , C ,...) ( A , B , C ,...) ( A , B , C ,...)


,
,
,... A
B
C
( A, B, C ,...) , , , , A , B , C ,... . , -
(..
).
(1.11) ,

( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
A +
B +
C + ...
A
B
C
( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
C + ... .
B +
A +

N =

( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
( A , B , C ,...)
C + ..., (1.12)
B +
A +
C
B
A

N, . , N
N = ( A, B, C ,...) , 2N max , ..
N max =

N N max N N + N max ,

N = N N max .
(1.12) N , :
N max ( A , B , C ,...)
A
( A , B , C ,...)
B
N =
=

+ ... .
N
( A , B , C ,..)
( A , B , C ,..)
A
B
,

N =

ln ( A , B , C ,...)
ln ( A , B , C ,...)
ln ( A , B , C ,...)
A +
B +
C + ... (1.13)
A
B
C

, , max
, , (1.12) (1.13).
N = ( A, B, C ,...)
( A, B, C ,...) , , , , , A = A , B = B , C = C ,..., d, d, dC, A, B, C ,...
,
( A, B, C ,...) , ln ( A, B, C ,...).
( N N , N + N ) . , . .

.
, (1.12) (1.13) .
,
N .
N , , , N , ,
N
( ).
.


, .

m

m
,
abc

(1.14)

. 1.5

m , , b, , . m, , b, , (1.14), .. .
(1.14) ,
, . ,
(1.14),

ln = ln m ln a ln b ln c.

1
1 ln
1 ln
ln 1 ln
(1.15)
= .
= ,
= ,
= ,
m
m
c
c
a
a
b
b
(1.15) (1.13),
m a b c
=
+
+
+
,
(1.16)
m
a
b
c
m, a, b, c .
= ,
(1.17)

m
.
ab c


, ,
, . , , , . , . ,
, . -

. .
, .. , ,
, , .. ;
10 . ( ):
2, 75 0,08; (3, 218 0.012) 10 -3 ; (7,8 0,4) 1011.
. , , ,
,

, .. , , ,
.
, ,
( ) ,
. , ,
.
,
, .
.

, .


, , . , :
1) ,
2) , 45.
, ,
(. 1.6), x .

y
, y

. .
. 1.6

.
.

D
. 1.7

1.
d, D, h , .
2. = 0,95,
n = 3
d, D, h.
3.
h
V = (D 2 d 2 ) .
4
4.
V , .
5. V = V V
, .

1. .
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5.
?

1. .. . .

.: , 1973.
2. .., .. . .:
, 1970.
3. .. .
.: , 1971.



:
1. .
2. .

, , ,
(. 2.1).
, .
m . .
,
, C .

Y
0

lc
A

. 2.1



, ,
, .
n- 0

n
L = [ri , pi ] ,
(2.1)
i =1

ri pi - i- , 0, t. .

F j , 0 j N , L

dL N
(2.2)
= M j ,
dt j =1


M j = [r j , F j ] j- 0.
(2.2) , ,
, , , .. L = const.
, OZ, (c. . 3)
Lz = I z ,
(2.3)
I OZ, z .
n-
n m 2
(2.4)
K = i i ,
2
i =1
m i i- , i t.
,

,
1
K = I 2 ,
(2.5)
2
I .
n-

E = K + U + U ,
(2.6)
U (
), U
.

E = A
+
,
(2.7)


,
.
(2.7) , , , .. E = const.


. + . , , . , (.. ,
) , .
,
.
, . , << T,
,
0 (. .2.1) . 0 ,

, (2.2)

dL / dt = 0 , .. + t (t 0 = 0) .
(2.1) (2.3) L z (0) = ml , L z ( ) = I , l = OA
(. .2.1), , I OZ, ,
I = ml .

(2.8)
,
,

=
= 0 , (2.7)
t A
E = 0 ,

(2.9)
.. + .
(2.6), (2.9)
K + U + U = 0 .

(2.10)

(.. ), t U = nst ,
1
K = I 2 ,
(2.11)
2
U = 0 ,
(2.12)
U = ( M + m) gh = ( M + m) gl c (1 cos ) ,
(2.13)
h = lc (1 cos ) , lc
0 (. . 2.1), .
(2.11) (2.13) (2.10),

I 2 = 2( M + m) glc (1 cos ) = 4( M + m) glc sin 2 .


(2.14)
2


lc =

MR + ml
M +m

(2.15)

R 0 . (2.14) :

I 2 = 4( MR + ml ) g sin 2 .
(2.16)
2

(2.8) (2.16), :

2
=
sin
( MR + ml ) gI .
(2.17)
ml

I : T = 2

I
, (. . 6),
( M + m) gl c
T 2 ( M + m) gl c T 2 ( MR + ml ) g
=
I=
.
4 2
4 2

(2.18)

(2.18) (2.17) :

( MR + ml ) gT
=
(2.19)
sin .
ml
2
, = s / l , s , (. . 2.1), T = t / n , t n ,
s / 2l , sin( / 2) ,
=

( MR + ml ) gst
.
2nml 2

(2.20)

(2.20) , , ( ) , , .


1. , , , .
2. R .
3. M m, .
4. s, n = (1020) t,
l.
5. (2.20).
6. .
7. .

1. ? .
2.
?
3.
? , .
4.
?
5. .
6. , .

1. .. . . 1. .: , 1987. 1824, 2729.


2. .. . . 1. .: , 1989. 16, 1924, 26, 27.



:
1. .
2. .
3.
.

, , . .
. , , . , .

. :

d c
=F,
(3.1)
m
dt

dL
=M,
(3.2)
dt

m , c , F

,
L

, M . (3.1) . (3.2) . , .. .
,
, .. , .
(3.1) (3.2)
. , , .

. .
(3.2) Z:

dL z
= M z.
dt

(3.3)

, Z

( 3.1). Z. mi ,
i-

z
zi

m i

ri

Ri

x
. 3.1

i = [ , ri ],

ri - i- , L :


L = [ri , mi i ] = mi [ri [ , ri ]],
(3.4)
i

. , (3.4)


L = m i r i2 r i ( , r i ) .
(3.5)
i


Z, ( , r ) = z z i , i z i

r Z . (3.5)
Z ,
L z = mi z (ri2 z i2 ) = (mi Ri2 ) z ,

Ri2 = ri2 z i2 mi .
I = (mi Ri2 )
i

Z (. . 5.). ,

Lz = I z .

(3.6)

(3.6) (3.3) Z :
d ( I z )
= Mz,
dt
, I=const,
d z
(3.7)
I
= M z.
dt

Z. Lz M z Z. (3.7)


.
(3.7)
.
B

m
A

- 1

h - 2

. 3.2

(. 3.2)
d,
,
90 .
m ,
, .
, m .

m, , .

mg T ,

(. 3.3.). N
z

MT
Mg ( ),

r
A

N
o
,

x
T . Mg N T

Z , M TP Mg
m ( )
T

0, Z.
mg
y
( ) . 3.3
Z M TP rT ,
r .
'

+ + , . , T = T
:

d
= mg T ,
(3.8)
dt
d
I
= rT M TP ,
(3.9)
dt
, I
Z. , y = , z = ,

T y = T , M TpZ = M T , M T Z = rT .
, ,
:
= r ,
(3.10)
m

, , , (3.8) (3.9).
m (. . 3.2.), h , h .
, m . -1. , t1 .
, , , :
d 2 h
(3.11)
a=
= 2.
dt

t1

(3.10) (3.11),
d a 2h
= = 2.
dt
r rt1

(3.12)


( ).
d
.
I
= M T
(3.13)
dt
, = M T = const , (3.13) , .. M T
:

t1 +

(t1 )

t1

d = M T dt ,

(3.14)

(t1 ) t1 ,

. -2. (3.14)

I (t1 ) = M T .

(3.15)

, (t ) = at , (3.10) (3.11)
(t1 ) =

at1 2h
.
=
r
rt1

(3.16)

(3.15)

2h
.
(3.17)
rt1
(3.11), (3.12), (3.17)
d = 2 r , (3.8), (3.9)

M T = I

2h
= mg T ,
2
t1

4h

(3.18)

Td
4h
I
.
t 1d
2

(3.19)
t12 d
(3.18) (3.19) I . , g=9,8 /2,
.
(3.19) (3.18) ,
m ( gt12 2h)d 2
I=
.
(3.20)
8h(t1 + )
, ( , ). , (3.9), m
= d / dt , ..
rT M T
= I = const.
I

. , , m1, m2, m3, ,


(3.20)
I1, I2, I3, ,
(3.9). , .. I1 = I2 = I3 = , . ,
I1 , I 2 , I 3 ... ,
( I1 I , I1 + I1 ) , ( I 2 I , I 2 + I 2 ) , ( I 3 I , I 3 + I 3 ) .
(.. ,

) , m (. 3.2) I 0 , I . ,
,

I = I 0 + 4ml 2 ,
(3.21)
l ,
m . . 3.2,
d+x
l=
+S,
(3.22)
2
d , , S .

1.

1. .
2. d .
3. m1 , .
4. , , ,
.
5. .
6. , . t1
-1.
7. -2
.
. .
8. m
(3.20).
9. . 18 m2, m3 .
10. ( ) I1,
I2, I3, m1, m2, m3 .
2.

1. m l
. , ().
2. - m , , 1 (. 18),
l1, l2, l3.
3. (3.20)
m .
4. -
I0 m, I(l)
(3.21) ( I0).
5. I(l) , (3.20) , (3.21).

1.
? .
2.
? .
3. (3.20), .
4. ?
?
5. ?
.
6.
? ?

1. .. . .: , 1988. . 1. 2, 5, 3643.
2. .. . .: , 1989. . 1. 58, 1114,
2834.



:
1. .
2. .
3. .


, ()
. ,
(. 4.1).

M
,

M M , , M

d
l,
l
.
.
. 4.1

, ,
( ,
). ,
.
:
1
M,
f

(4.1)

f , N
(. ), d l :

f =

d 4 N

.
(4.2)
32l

M M , .. M = M , (4.1)

M = f .
(4.3)
(3.3)
.
N .
,

(. 4.2),

a
F
F F ,


-F
,
, ,
. 4.2

F
= ,
(4.4)
S
S .
, .

, .
. , , . , , :
=

1
,
N

(4.5)

N
. N ().

, .
,
Z
,
A
,

(. 4.3). B

,
M
Z . , ,
Z.
.4.3
.


, (. . 3):

d z
= M z ,
(4.6)
dt
I Z,
M z , ,
. (4.3) M z = f z .
, , z = dz / dt, (4.6)
I

d 2 Z
+ f Z = 0 .
(4.7)
I
dt 2
(. . 6).
z = m cos ( 0 t + 0 ),
(4.8)
m ( ),
0 , 0 ,
f
0 =
.
(4.9)
I

2

I
.
(4.10)
0
f
(4.10)
(
), ( (4.2)) .
T=

= 2


. , (), , Z
(. . 4.3)
mD 2
I =
,
(4.11)
8
m D .
I ,
I, t t , n n . (4.10)

T =

t
I
= 2 ,
n
f

(4.12)

t
I
= 2
.
(4.13)
n
f
(4.13) (4.12),
:
t 2 n 2
I = I 2 2 .
(4.14)
n t
n = n .
(4.11) :
t2
1
(4.15)
I = mD 2 2 .
8
t
T=

. (4.11) (4.12) (4.2)

N=

16 lmD 2 n 2
4

d t

(4.16)


1. .
2. .
3. t
n ( 30).
4.
( ) t . (4.15) .
5. . 4 (
).
6. t n
(4.16) .

1. ? .

2. ? , .
&z
3. z , &z , &
Z.
4. (, , ,
, ( )). .
5. (4.15) (4.16).
6. :
, ?

1. .. . .: , 1988. . 1. 13, 26,


2833.
2. .. . .: , 1989. . 1. 38, 39, 41,
43, 53.



:
1. .
2. .


OO (. 5.1)

Ri

(V)
O
. 5.1

I = lim mi Ri2 ,
n i =1

m i

(5.1)

mi i- , (1 i n) , Ri . mi Vi ,

i , mi = i Vi (5.1)
n

I = lim i Ri2 Vi
n i =1

dV .

(5.2)

(V )



K + U :

( K + U ) = A +
,

(5.3)

K , U
( ), A
, ,

.
, , ,
,

U = U (r1 , r2 ,...rn ) , -

. , n , ,

n m

U = U (r1 , r2 ,...rn ) = GM i + C ,
(5.4)
r
i =1 i

mi ri i- -,
, . (5.4) ,
m
U (h) = mgh,
(5.5)
g , h
( (5.4) ).
A

A = U +
,

(5.6)

U ,

, (5.3)

( K + U + U ) = A
+
,

(5.7)

= K + U + U
(5.8)
.


.
+
,
.
,
(5.7),
E = AT ,
(5.9)
AT .

. 5.2

t 0 = 0 m (. 5.2)
h , . ,

, ,
,

E0 = mghi + ,

(5.10)


. ,
,

m 2 I 2
E=
+
+ ,
(5.11)
2

f = mg

h1 h2
.
h1 + h2

, , I . (5.9) E = E E 0
m 2 I 2
+
mgh i = fh 1 ,
(5.12)
2
2
f (, f = const).
, (5.9).
, h2 < h1. (5.9)
m 2 I 2
mgh 2 (
+
) = fh 2 .
(5.13)
2
2
(5.12) (5.13),
mgh2 mgh1 = f (h1 + h2 ),
(5.14)

(5.15)

,
=

2h1
,
t

(5.16)

t . , t
2h
= = 1,
(5.17)
r

rt

r .
(5.15)(5.17) (5.12), , r =

d
, d
2

,
:
I=

md 2
4

gt 2 h2
1.

h1 (h1 + h2 )

(5.18)


1.
m.
2. d.
3. .
h1. h1
, .
4.
.
5. h2, .
6. (5.15) (5.18)
.
7. .
8. f I.

1. ? .
2.
.
3. ? ?
4. , ,
.
5. , (5.4), (5.5),
.
6. f I.
.

.. . . 1. .: , 1989. 1922, 38, 39,


41, 45, 46.



:
1. .
2.
.

, ,
. . ,
, .. , ,
.
.
, , - . , .
,
.
, -, , , , -,
.


()

m F = kr , k = const > 0 , r - .

m&
r&= kr ,


m&
r&+ kr = 0 .
(6.1)

r =0



M = r , F = k [r , r ] = 0 ,

L = [r , m ] = const .

[ ]

, L .
Y . ,
(6.1) ,

m&
x&+ kx = 0 ,
(6.2)
m&
y&+ ky = 0 .
(6.3)
(6.2)
x = A cos( 0 t + 0 ) ,
(6.4)
A , 0 , 0 . (6.3)
,
&
x&= 02 A cos( 0 t + 0 ) .
(6.5)
(6.5) (6.4) (6.2),
(m 02 + k ) A cos( 0 t + 0 ) = 0 .
cos( 0 t + 0 ) , (6.4)
(6.2) A 0 ,

k
.
(6.6)
m
, (6.4), .
(6.6) , .
T = 2 / 0 .
(t ) = 0 t + 0 . A = xmax . A 0

r0 0 ,
.
(6.3)

0 =

y = B cos( 0 t + 0 ) .

(6.7)

(6.4) (6.7)
.
, , A, B, 0 , 0 .
, 0 = 0 = 0 A 0 ,
B
x , 0 A

A 2 + B 2 2 2
y=

(. 6.1). 0 = 0 , 0 =

x2

y2

+
= 1,
A2 B 2
.. (. 6.2)

Y
B

B
X

. 6.1

. 6.2

,
.

.
, ,
, () . .

ez

0
rc

X
C
O

L0

mg
. 6.3

, (. 6.3), ( ). , > 0 x > 0 < 0 x < 0 . , , ..

d > 0 , e z . M
e z (. . 6.3).
0 ,

d z
= Mz,
dt

(6.8)

d
,
I Z. z = =
dt

M z = mgl sin , l = rc
. , (6.8)
d 2
I 2 = mgl sin ,
dt

&
&+ mgl sin = 0 .
I
(6.9)
, .. , sin ,
(6.9) :
&
&+ mgl = 0 .
I
(6.10)
(6.10) (6.2), ,

(6.11)
= m cos( 0 t + 0 ) ,

mgl
0 =
,
(6.12)
I
m .
(6.12) ,
2
I
= 2
.
(6.13)
T=
mgl
0
, .
, I / ml :
2
[I /(ml )] =
= . ,
:
I
.
(6.14)
L0 =
ml
(6.13) :
T = 2

L0
.
g

(6.15)

l. ,
(6.16)
I = I c + ml 2 ,
I c ,
Z (. . 6.3).

(6.16) ml,
I
I
= c +l.
ml ml
I /(ml ) = L0 . L0 = I c /( ml ) + l , ,
L0 > l . O , ,
, ,
. : O
, . ,
I
,
(6.17)
T = 2
mg ( L0 l )
I ,
O , ( L0 l ) O .
I = I c + m( L0 l ) 2 .
(6.18)
(6.18) (6.16),
I I = m( L0 l ) 2 ml 2 = mL0 ( L0 2l ) ,
(6.14)
I
(6.19)
I = I + mL0 ( L0 2l ) = ( L0 l ) .
l
(6.19) (6.17),
I ( L0 l )
I
T = 2
= 2
= T.
mgl ( L0 l )
mgl



. ,

, (. 6.4).
.
( ) ,



.


L0 .

T =

t
L0 ,
n

(6.15)
:

g=

. 6.4

4 2 n 2 L0
t2

(6.20)

t n . , , , .

1. L , A1 (. . 6.4). 20 t n = 20 .
2. A2 t .
3. A2
L , . 12. . 13 .
t
4.
t t L (. 6.5).
t
L0 n = 20
t 0 .
5.
t0
(6.20):
t

g=
L1

L2

L3

. 6.5

L0

L4

4 2 n 2 L0
t 02


1. ? .
2. ? . , .
3. 0
, . 6.1 6.2. .
4. , . 6.2, 0 =

0 =

?
2
2
5. ?
.
6.
.
7.
. ?

1. .. . . 1. .: , 1987. 4954, 57.


2. .. . . 2. .: , 1989. 6365, 69.



:
.

,
, , . , 3 : , .
. , ,
,
0. ,
N
(7.1)
fk = ,
R
N , R (, ),
.
(7.1) , . ,
. , , 0,5 0,8 ; 0,01 0,05 .

,
. , , .
, , b

R
, o
N
ab ,

(. 7.1). N


. 7.1
.
: ) ; ) .
(. 7.2) -


ab , : f
f
.


b


. f f

,

,

. 7.2
.
( ) .

,
b
,


ab (. 7.3).
f f

(. 7.4).

. 7.3
.
,
, .

N b
ab (. . 7.4),

N N

.
fk

. 7.4

f k = N sin ,

(7.2)

N = N cos . S (. . 7.4.)

N
R , ,
N , ..
. (7.2) :

f k N N

S
.
R

(7.3)

S ,
, (7.1) .


.
. 7.5. 2, ,
1. 2
. 3, 4, 5 11.

. 7.5

, .
7, 6.
8, 9 -.
5 12
10. -
.
.
. ,
.
, , . ,
, ,
E , f k .
0 n , n , h0 hn

(. 7.6).
E = E E 0 = mg (hn h0 ) ,
hn h0 = l (cos 0 cos h ) sin , 0 n ,
.
E = mgl sin (cos 0 cos h ) .
(7.4)
, n ,

A = f S ,
.. .
S

S = a0 + 2a1 + 2a 2 + ... + 2a n1 + a n = n(a0 + a n ),

(7.5)

,
, .. a = l ,
l

h0

n
0

hn
. 7.6

S = nl ( 0 + n ),

(7.6)

( 0 n ).
(7.6)

A = f nl ( 0 + n ) .
(7.7) (7.1),
N
A = nl ( 0 + n ),

R
N
T

N = mg cos (. 7.7),

mg
mg cos
nl ( 0 + n ).
A =
R

(7.7)

. 7.7

E ,
mg cos

nl ( 0 + n ) = mgl sin (cos 0 cos n ) .


R

cos n cos 0
.
(7.8)
n( 0 + n )
(7.8) .

= Rtg


1. R.
2. = 545.
3.
1015 ( 0 ), , . c (n > 20). . . .
4.
.
5. ( ), , .
6. .
7. ( ), .
8. .
9. , .
10.
.
11. .

1. , ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. (7.5).

8. c
?
9.
?
10.
> 75?

1. .. . . 1. .: , 1988. 15, 19,


21, 24.
2. .. . . , 1965. 38, 41, 42, 75.
3. .. . . 1. .: , 1974. 17, 24, 27.


:
1. ,
.
2.
- .
3.
- .

,
, . , ,
, . , .
, . ,
,
.
,
, .
, . ,
(, ). . ,
.
m,
F0 ,

F = F0 cos t ,
(8.1)
,
:

F = r ,
(8.2)

F = r&,
(8.3)

r - , r& , .

(8.1)(8.3)
:


m&
r&= F0 cos t r r&.
(8.4)

F0 (8.4)
,
(8.5)
m&
x&+ x&+ x = F0 cos t ,
, (8.5) m,
&
x&+ 2 x&+ 02 x = f 0 cos t ,
(8.6)
F

, 0 =
, f0 = 0 .
=
2m
m
m
0
.
(8.6) x(t ) , , .. , t x(t ) .
(8.6)
x = A cos(t ),
(8.7)
,
(8.6) . (8.7) :
x&= A sin(t ),
(8.8)

&
x&= A 2 cos(t ).
(8.9)
(8.7), (8.8) (8.9) (8.6),
( A3 A1 ) cos(t ) A2 sin(t ) = f 0 cos t ,
(8.10)

A1 = A 2 , A2 = 2 A , A3 = A 02 .
(8.11)
cos(t ) sin(t )
, (10)

(( A3 A1 ) cos + A2 sin ) cos t + (( A3 A1 ) sin A2 cos ) sin t = f 0 cos t.


, t,

( A3 A1 ) cos + A2 sin = f 0 ,
(8.12)
(8.13)
( A3 A1 ) sin A2 cos = 0 .
(8.12) (8.13) ,
( A3 A1 ) 2 + A22 = f 02 ,
(8.11)
A 2 (( 02 2 ) 2 + 4 2 2 ) = f 02 ,
,

A=

f0
( 02

2 2

) + 4

f0

( 02

2 )) + 4

( 02

(8.14)

(8.14) , 0 > 2 ,
= ,

= 02 2 2 ,

(8.15)
,
Amax =

f0
2 02 2

(8.16)

, ,
.
, (8.15) (8.16) .
(8.13) ,

ctg =

A3 A1
,
A2

(8.11)

02 2
= arcctg
,
2

0 .

(8.17)

(8.14) (8.17) ,
(8.7) (8.6).
, , , ,
. (8.7) , (8.14) (8.17), . .
. ,
, (8.6).

&
x&+ ax&+ bx = f (t ),

(8.18)

b , f (t ) t, . f (t ) ( f (t ) 0) , (8.18) . . ,
-

- .
, (8.6),
&
x&+ 2 x&+ 02 x = 0 .
(8.19)
< 0 , ,

x = A0 e t cos( t + 0 ),

(8.20)

A0 0 , = 02 2 .
> 0 , (8.20) , ..
lim x(t ) = 0 .
t

, (8.6)
(8.20) (8.7), ..
x = A0 e t cos( t + 0 ) + A cos(t ),
(8.21)
A0 0 x(0) = x0 , x&(0) = 0 , A
(8.14) (8.17).
(8.21)
, . t - e t
, , (8.7). , x(0) = x0
x&(0) = 0 (.. ), (8.21)
(. 8.1).
x

. 8.1

, (8.6)
(8.7) A , (8.14) (8.17) .
. (.. 0 ) .
, .

A = A( ) = ( ) , (8.14) (8.17), 1 < 2 < 3 (. 8.2. 8.3).

1
2
F0
k

3 21 0

. 8.2

1
0

2 3
0

. 8.3

,

- (. 8.2) -
(. 8.3) .

.

RLC-,
. 8.4

L
R

. 8.4

E = E0 cos t ,

(8.22)

E0 , .
q
, ,
,
:
&+ 2 q&+ 02 = f 0 cos t ,
(8.23)
q&

=

R
,
2L

(8.24)

0 =

1
,
LC

(8.25)

E0
.
(8.26)
L
(8.23)
q = q0 cos(t ),
(8.27)
q0 (8.14) (8.17), , 0 f 0
(8.24)(8.26).
(8.27) ,
q
U c =
,
C
(. 8.5):
f0 =

K1

K2

R1

R2

R3

. 8.5

U c = U 0 cos(t ),
U 0 =

(8.28)

q0
.
C


.
E = E0 cos t.
(8.29)
(8.28) (8.29)
(. . 6) ,
:

E2
E02

U c2
U 02

EU c
cos = sin 2 .
E0U 0

(8.30)

Uc

II

A I

2U 0

2U c
III

IV

. 8.6


,
(8.17) (. 8.6).
- (. . 8.3). ,
, E = 0 , (8.30) ,
U c2
= sin 2 ,
(8.31)
2
U0
U 0 , U c
, .
,
U 02
1
2
2
1

1
=
ctg

=
tg
( ),
2
2
2
Uc
sin


:
U

= arctg ( ( 0 ) 2 1),
(8.32)
2
Uc
+ A B I III ,
II IV (. 8.6).
U 0 U c ,
. 8.6.

1. .
2. .

.
. ,
.
, ,
.


U c .
3.
U 0 ( ) . .
1 , (
).
4.
( ) ,
.. U c . (8.32).
- (
10).

1. .
2.
?
3.
?
4.
?
5. ?
?
6. - -
, ?
7.
?

.. . . 1. . , 1988. 6061.



:
1.
.
2. .
3. .

.
, (, ), . ,
.
= ( x, y, z , t ) ,
( x, y, z ) , t. , , ,
.
, t, . ,
, , .
, .
, (0, t ) = a cos(t + ) , a
.


( x, t ) = a cos( (t ) + ),
(9.1)
, .
x

(), = , +

, ,
. , ,

2 x
2
=
x = kx,
T

, = T , k =

2
=
,

(9.1)

( x, t ) = a cos(t kx + ).
(9.2)
(9.2) , , , , + .
, , .
. , , ,
,
.
. .
, ,
, .
l, , .
y
O

l
2

. 9.1

=0 1 (0, t ) = a cos t ( ). ,
(. 9.1),
1 ( x, t ) = a cos(t kx),
(9.3)
=l,

. , O x ,
2 ( x, t ) = a cos(t + kx + ),

(9.4)

x = x l , , .
(9.3) (9.4) , x = x l ,

kl
kl
( x, t ) = 1 ( x, t ) + 2 ( x, t ) = 2a cos(kx
) cos(t
).
(9.5)
2

(9.5), (9.3) (9.4),


t.
, (9.3) (9.4), a , (9.5)
,
:
kl
).
(9.6)
A( x) = 2a cos(kx
2
.
(9.5) .
(9.6),

l
A( ) = 0,
2

(9.7)


x=

l
. (9.6) (9.7) ,
2
cos

= 0,

, ,
= .
(9.8)
,
=0, ,
, ..
x =0 = [(t kx) (t + kx + )] x =0 = 2 (n + 1),
(9.9)
n = 0, 1, 2, . (9.8) , x = x l , (9.9)
kl + = 2 (n + 1) .

(9.10)
, l (9.10)
n ,
2
, . , k = =
, (9.10) -

()
(2n + 1)
n = 0, 1, 2, 3
n =
,
2l
(9.11) ,

(9.11)

0 =

(9.12)
,
2l
. 0 , n , n 1 .
, (9.8) (9.10),
(9.11), (9.5) (9.6) :
2 n
( x, t ) = 2a cos
x cos 2 n t ,
(9.13)

A( x) = 2a cos

2 n

x.

(9.14)

, () , . , Amax = 2a , . (9.14)
l
2

(9.11) , ( A( ) = 0) ,
( A(0) = A(l ) = 2a ).
,
(9.11),
. .

(. 9.2) (),
, , , ( ), ( ),
().
, .

. 9.2

. , . ,

. , 0 . , , ..
,

.
,
0 (9.12) , l,

= 2l 0 .
(9.15)

( ) . ,
. , , , () l

() F, .. l = 1 F , F

F = l .

(9.16)

ES
,
l

(9.17)

, , S l
.

.
, , , .
.

(9.15) 0 .
(9.13) (9.12) ,

= 2a cos x cos 0 t ,

(9.18)

0 = 2 0 =

(9.19)
.
l
, V = Sx , x + x (. 9.3), , t
, ,
t

( , x ).
x x

t.

x
x + x

. 9.3


1
1

Wk = m( ) 2 = ( ) 2 Sx,
(9.20)
2
2 t
t
, ,

1
W p = ( ) 2 .
(9.21)
2
, (9.17) =

ES
, (9.21) :
x

1
1 2
E ( ) Sx = E ( ) 2 Sx.
(9.22)
2 x
2 x
,

1
(9.23)
W = ( ( ) 2 + E ( ) 2 ) Sx.
t
x
2
, (9.18),

Sl
(9.24)
W = ( ( ) 2 + E ( ) 2 )dx.
t
x
20
(9.24) (9.18) (9.19)
W p =

2a

=
cos x sin 0 t ,
t
l
l

2a
=
sin x cos 0 t
x
l
l

,
l

2
cos

xdx = sin 2
0

xdx =

l
,
2

W =

2a 2S

( 2 sin 2 0 t + E cos 2 0 t ) =

2a 2S

(( 2 E ) sin 2 0 t + E ). (9.25)

l
l
(9.25) , W=const

E = 2 ,

(9.26)

,
,
. (9.26)
( ). , (9.15) (9.26), :
E = 4 l 2 v02 .
(9.27)

1. .
2. 2025 .
3. 2000 4000 , .
4. , (9.15).
5. (9.27)
.

1. , ,
. ?
2. . ?
3. = ( x, t )
t t + t , .
4. ? ?
5. ? .
6. ,
?

.. . . 2. : , 1988. 93101.
10



:
1. .
2.
( ).
3.
.

, , 16 20000 , , . , , , .
, .
, .
(. . 9) , .
, (. 10.1), ..

l
, n = 0, 1, 2, .
2 n +1
n

n =


= (n + 1),
n 2l

n = 0, 1, 2, ,

(10.1)

,
(.. ).
, (10.1), . n

(10.2)
0 = ,
2l

n=0

n =1

. 0 , (.. n n 1 )
.
(10.1)
. . .
(. 10.2) 1,
2. , . . . l ,
. I (t ) = I m cos t , .
1
2

. 10.2

, ,
F (t ) = I (t ) Bl.

l , .
, , .

, (10.2),
,
, , .

, , , ,

= 2l 0 .

(10.3)


1. .
2. . 0 .
3. l.
4. .
5. , .
6.
.
. = (0,02 + 1) , .
7.
1 .
8. . 26
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. , 1, 2, 3 . ?
7. ?

.. . . 2. . , 1988. 93101.


1. .., .. . .:
, 1970.
2. .. .
.: , 1971.
3. .. . .
.: , 1973.
4. .. . .: , 1988. . 1.
5. .. . .: , 1989. . 1.
6. .. . .: , 1989. . 2.
7. .. . .: , 1973.
8. .. . .: , 1965.
9. .. . .: , 1974. . 1.
10. ., ., . . .: , 1971. . 1.
11. .. . .: , 1988. . 2.
12. .. . .: . ., 1985.

. 2003, . 49

:
,
,
.

..
..
..
_________________________________________________________________________________
30.06.2003.
60x84 1/16.
.
.
.
. . . 4,3.
-. . 3,8.
100 .
100.
_________________________________________________________________________________
:

.
156 30.12.2002.
509 03.08.2001.
220013, , . , 6.