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Vibration Fundamentals

Topics to be covered

• Fundamentals of Vibration
• Transducer operation and Selection
• Machinery Protection and
Management systems
• Right Practices for Rotating
Machineries
Vibration

What is vibration?
Why care about vibration?
What causes vibration?
How do we measure vibration?
Measuring vibration
Vibration

What is vibration?
 When an object moves back and forth
repeatedly
Vibration can be fast or slow
Vibration movement can be large or
small
Why care about vibration???
Machinery Vibration
What Causes Vibration?

Centrifugal Force = A force on an


object when it swings in a circle
Bucket of water
Weight on a string
Centrifugal Force

Other objects that demonstrate


rotating unbalance
Car tires
Ceiling fans
Measuring Vibration

We can measure vibration


movement
Amplitude = How far a vibrating
object moves back and forth.
Machinery That Rotates
Vibrating Machinery
Vibrating Machinery
MACHINE DATA
 Direct Measurements
 Vibration and Position
 Rotor Speed
 Bearing Temperature
 Indirect Data
 Process Data
 Performance Data
Operating Modes

Constant Machine Speed


A. Steady State : Process or Load Change
Start Up
B. Transient : Shut Down

C. Slow Roll

D. Stopped
TRANSDUCER SYSTEMS
Transducer Operation
Three Parameter
normally measured are :
Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
Transducer Operation
Types of Transducers
Eddy Current Proximity
Type
Traditional Velocity Tx .
Velomitor Velocity Tx.
Acceleration Acceleromitor
Transducer
Transducer Operation
Proximity Transducer
Transducer Operation Proximity
Transducer
Measures distance between the target
and the probe tip using eddy current
principle.
Generates a high frequency localized
magnetic field around transducer tip
The field causes Eddy current to flow
out of the transducer
Shaft movement is detected by the
power loss occurs which converted
in to DC voltage.
Transducer Operation
Velocity Transducer
Measures time rate change of
Displacement
The construction is made of fixed
magnet and coil assembly.
Relative motion between coil an
magnet creates current to flow
proportional to the relative
velocity between them.
Transducer Operation
Velocity Transducer
Disadvantages of Traditional Velocity
Transducer
Checking requires Shaker Table
Poor Reliability : More moving parts
Sensitive to Mounting Arrangement
No slow roll information
Cross Axis Sensitivity
Transducer Operation Velomitor
Transducer
Basically measures acceleration and
integrates to velocity.
Velomitor has no moving parts so
more reliable than traditional
velocity transducer
A signal is generated by ceramic peizo
electric crystal clamped between two
masses.
Transducer Operation
Velomitor Transducer
This signal passes through the integral
circuitry which conditions and
integrates the signal that is
proportional to the vibration
velocity.
Simple Bearing Housing Installations
Good mid frequency response
High Temperature ranges available.
Very good reliability.
Transducer Operation
Accelerometer Transducer

Works on the same principle of peizo


electric charge.
Force on peizo electric crystal directly
gets converted into proportional
acceleration signal.
Reliable design
Easy bearing housing installation
Broad frequency response
High temperature models available
Transducer Selection
You know the application but
what about the proper
Transducer Selection ??
Transducer Selection Criteria

Malfunction Based
Machine Construction Based
Transducer Selection Criteria
Machine Construction Based
API 670 Guidelines
For Radial Shaft Vibration Probes : (Clause
4.1.1)
As per API 670 clause 4.1.1.1: Two
radially oriented probes shall be provided
for each bearing. The two probes
located at each bearing shall be
coplanar, 90 degrees (+ or – 5 degrees )
apart and perpendicular to the shaft
axis ( + or – 5 degrees ). The probes
shall be located 45 degrees from each
side from the vertical center.
Condition Monitoring
Condition Monitoring
Why Shaft Relative Measurement?

Vibration measurement
Proximity Probes
Radial Proximity Probes
Shaft Displacement & Bearing Absolute Transducer Installation
API 670 Guidelines
For Axial Position Probes:( Clause 4.1.2)
As per API 670 clause 4.1.2.1 : Two
axially oriented probes shall be supplied
for the thrust bearing end of each
casing. Both probes shall sense the shaft
itself or an integral axial surface
installed within an axial distance of 300
mm from the thrust bearing or bearings.
When specified, the standard optional
arrangement shall be one probe sensing
the shaft end and one probe sensing an
integral thrust collar.
Dual Thrust Proximity
Probes
Axial Position Measurements
AXIAL (THRUST) POSITION
Thrust Collar 12” Max

12” Max

DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION
API 670 Guidelines

For Phase Reference Transducers :


(Clause 4.1.3)
As per API 670 Clause 4.1.3.1 :
A one – event – per revolution
mark and a corresponding phase
reference transducer shall be
provided on the driver for each
machinery train.
HOW TO MAKE PHASE MEASUREMENTS
Deflection Shape

“A”

“B”
Once Per Turn Reference Pulse

-V
ONE
REVOLUTION


ONE
REVOLUTION

-V
Video Clip
Process Parameters
THRUST V H V H
D V
SP/A
V H V H V H V H DE V H V H
CE
V V V V V V
KØ™
(Dual)
HP/IP LP GEN. EXC.
ECC H V H
V D V V H V H
H D D
V H V H D V H V H V H V H
D
SP/B D D D D
D D
THRUST

BRG 1 BRG 2 BRG 3 BRG 4 BRG 5 BRG 6 BRG 7

KØ™ ECC
0° VERT HOR VERT HOR

90° 270° D D V

180° VERT HOR


BRG 1-7 COUPLINGS BRG 1-7
SHAFT Displ. Mode Ident. BEARING Vel.

CE - CASE EXPANSION ECC - ECCENTRICITY


D - DISPLACEMENT KØ™ - KEYPHASOR®
DE - DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION SP - SPEED

BRDRC

Fig. 3 - Advanced TSI transducers installation on Turbine-Generator


7
WithMode IdentificationProbes 6
XX
45
23 XX
An example of the application

1 XX of Mode Identification Probes


7
X
XX
4
2 XX

1 XX

90° 270° X Without Mode IdentificationProbes

180°
VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS

 Overall Vibration
 Position
 Frequency
 nX Amplitude and Phase
 Shape or Form

You must have access to this information


to properly manage your machine
Phase Angle Measurement Application

 Shaft Balancing
 Shaft Crack Detection
 Shaft / Structural Resonance Detection
 Shaft Mode Shape
 Direction of Precession
 Location of Fluid-Induced Instability
Source
Condition Monitoring

Correct VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS


 Bearing Pedestal Vibrations alone do not provide sufficient
information on large machines with sleeve / journal bearings.
 It is very important to appreciate that application may demand
use of both Proximity and Siesmic transducers. This must not
be assumed to be ‘duplication’ of measurements.
Condition Monitoring of TGs

Few more IMPORTANT & Correct MEASUREMENTS


 Thrust Position Measurements must be Dual Redundant,

 Case Expansion measurements must be made on both


sides of the casing,

 Redundant Phase measurement (Keyphasor R probes)

 Redundant Overspeed Detection Monitors.


HOW TO INTERPRET
STARTUP AND
SHUTDOWN PLOTS
INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM TRANSIENT
RESPONSE PLOTS

 Slow Roll Speed


 Slow Roll Runout Vector
 Amplitude, Phase, and Frequency of Resonance
 Synchronous Amplification Factor (API Method)
 High / Heavy Spot Relationship
 Structural and Split Resonance
 Rotor Mode Shape / Deflection Shape
 Preload Identification
 Frequency Relationships
Orbit Plot Can Show Preloads
(Misalignment)
(No Resonance Near Twice Rotative Speed)

Rare Common Rare


Shaft Centerline Plot Can
Show Misalignment

Turbine
Generator
Machine pp Amplitude
Smax ?
Characteristics
Overall
Overall Amplitude Vibration Amplitude
Transmitter
Spectrum
1X, 2X, nX Amplitude
How can you
1X, 2X, nX Phase MANAGE
Not 1X your machine
Gap Voltage without complete
information?
Vibration Shape
Temperature
Pressure Machinery Management
Load
Uses All Of The Tools
Correlated
Machine
Information
Such as Bently Nevada’s
Other (Gram Mole Weight, Density, Flow, etc.) DM2000 system
n = 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, . . .
MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEMS

Systems that shutdown a machine or return


it to a safe or nondestructive mode of
operation without human intervention.
INTRODUCTION TO MACHINERY
MANAGEMENT

Bently Nevada’s mission is to help you


protect and manage your machinery.
This Course Focuses on Machinery
Management.
Supported by the effective use of “Diagnostic
Principals and Practices.”
MACHINERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Use of systems that provide data and


information that is interpreted and
applied by people to correctly operate,
maintain, and assess the condition of
their machinery.
MACHINERY MANAGEMENT

Machinery Management
requires
information!
Overview of Machinery Protection
and Management
System 1
Single Platform for all your
Management Needs !!
Machinery Monitoring

Monitoring System

Sensors

Sensors
Machinery Monitoring
Machinery Protection

Distributed Control System

Control System Protection System

Sensors

Level 1

Sensors
Machinery Protection

Trigger relay if all four channels


indicate “Danger”
3500 SERIES MONITORING SYSTEM

Basic Features
* Dual Redundant Power Supply
Inputs
28 Vibration / Axial Inputs
* Flexible Cards - Reduced Spares 2 speed inputs
* Programmable Relays Two 7200 Racks included in
* Software Configurable - Less the same rack of 3500.
Installation & Maint. Cost.
* Redundant Gateway
* More data for better analysis.

LCD DISPLAY FOR


3500 SERIES SYSTEM
Enhanced Operator Interface
Improved Operator Information Set
♦ The Informative Data Set
 OverallAmplitude
 Probe Gap Voltage
 1X Amplitude and Phase
 2X Amplitude and Phase
 Not 1X Amplitude

♦ Alarm Event List


♦ System Event List
Windows™ Based Operator Display
Software
Enhanced Operator Interface
Data Where you need it
BENTLY NEVADA SCREENS X OPERATOR
Station

Plant DCS

Modbus
Gateway

RS 232 / RS 422
TCP / IP LINK
XProtocol MODBUS
OPERATOR LINK
DISPLAY
PLANTWIDE SOFTWARE
ETHERNET

Net DDE 3500


TCP / IP SYSTEM 10 10

0 0

0 0

PLANT MAINT. MACHINE REMOTE DISPLAY


MGR MGR SPEC.
Vibration Data at the Machine Skid
COMMUNICATION
GATEWAY

3500 MODBUS
SYSTEM LINK

10 10

0 0

MACHINE

REMOTE DISPLAY
3500 Ethernet Communication

OPERATOR
DISPLAY
RS 232 / RS 422
PLANTWIDE SOFTWARE LINK
ETHERNET

3500
TCP / IP
SYSTEM
Net DDE
OPERATOR DISPLAY
SOFTWARE

PLANT MAINT. MACHINE


MGR MGR SPEC.
Don’t Forget Data for The Maintenance
People
TDM2
RS232

MAINTENANCE TDIX DDIX


PERSONNEL
STATIC &
DYNAMIC
DATA

MACHINE 3500
SYSTEM
Reduced Installation &
Maintenance Costs
Lower Cabling Costs
Mount at the Machine
Downward Compatibility
Easy to Configure
Reduced Spare Parts
Machinery Data Analysis
Data Review

Level 2 Data Acquisition Remote


and Display Access

Protection
Control System
System
Sensors

Level 1

Sensors
System 1 MMS System
Machinery Management
Decision
Level 3 Support

Data Acquisition Remote


Level 2 and Display Access

Protection
Control System System
Sensors

Level 1

Sensors
Where
Where Data
DataAvailable?
Available? How
HowSerious?
Serious? What
Whatisisit?
it?
Audit Result Information - Fluid Induced Instability - Whip
Summary Supporting Evidence Details Notes About

Severity:

Malfunction: Fluid Induced Instability - Whip

Location: Steam Turbine Generator 2 - LP! - Bearing 6

Date/Time: 12-Aug-97 2:09:22 PM

When
When
Note: Audit performed with sufficient data

Bently Nevada Corporation Recommended Actions:


A) Increase or decrease oil supply temperature +/- 10F(5C)
B) Increase the oil supply pressure 10 psi
C) If there are no improvements from steps A and B, the Unit should be
removed from service

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Audit Results Display from Machinery


What
Whatdo
doIIdo?
do? Management System
Review

Machinery monitoring

Machinery protection

Machinery data analysis

Machinery management
Windows Displays on
Data Display and Automated
Win95 or NT
Notification
and advisories available both Local and
Process Variables Remote
Plant Information
Network (PIN)
Advisories/Data

Plant DCS

Remote
System 1 Expert
BNC
Display Serve
r
System Server

and
Notification

Ethernet (Dedicated or PIN)


TDXnet BNC Monitor
Proximitors
Comm Rack(s)
Processor (s)