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Test 4 Macromolecules

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. Which of the following is not one of the four major groups of macromolecules found in living organisms?
a. glucose
b. carbohydrates
c. lipids
d. proteins
e. nucleic acids

____ 2. Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all joined together from monomers by which process?
a. connecting monosaccharides together (condensation reactions)
b. the addition of water to each monomer (hydrolysis)
c. the removal of water (dehydration reactions)
d. ionic bonding of the monomers
e. the formation of hydrogen bonds between monomers

____ 3. Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
a. Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis breaks down polymers.
b. Hydrolysis only occurs in the urinary system, and dehydration reactions only occur in the
digestive tract.
c. Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.
d. Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.
e. A and C are correct.

____ 4. If 128 molecules of the general type shown in the figure below were covalently joined together in sequence,
the single molecule that would result would be a

a. polysaccharide.
b. polypeptide.
c. polyunsaturated lipid.
d. monosaccharide.
e. disaccharide.

____ 5. Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?
a. They are both polymers of glucose.
b. They are proteins.
c. They can both be digested by humans.
d. They are both used for energy storage in plants.
e. They are both structural components of the plant cell wall.

____ 6. Which of the following is (are) true for the class of large biological molecules known as lipids?
a. They are insoluble in water.
b. They are an important constituent of cell membranes.
c. They contain twice as much energy as an equivalent weight of polysaccharide.
d. Only A and B are correct.
e. A, B, and C are correct.

____ 7. Saturated fatty acids
a. are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil.
b. have double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty acids.
c. have a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon than do unsaturated fatty acids.
d. are usually liquid at room temperature.
e. are usually produced by plants.

____ 8. What is the molecule illustrated in the figure below?

a. a saturated fatty acid
b. an unsaturated fatty acid
c. a polyunsaturated fat
d. a trans polyunsaturated fat
e. a steroid similar to cholesterol

____ 9. The molecule shown in the figure below is a

a. polysaccharide.
b. polypeptide.
c. saturated fatty acid.
d. triglycerol.
e. unsaturated fatty acid.

____ 10. What is the structure shown in the figure to the right?

a. starch molecule
b. protein molecule
c. steroid molecule
d. cellulose molecule
e. phospholipid molecule

____ 11. A polypeptide can best be described as a
a. monomer of a protein polymer.
b. polymer containing 20 amino acid molecules.
c. polymer containing 19 peptide bonds.
d. polymer containing 20 peptide bonds.
e. polymer of amino acids.

____ 12. The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires which of the following?
a. removal of a water molecule
b. addition of a water molecule
c. formation of an ionic bond
d. formation of a hydrogen bond
e. both A and C

____ 13. Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
a. a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
b. a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar
c. a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
d. a phosphate group and a base
e. a pentose sugar and a base

____ 14. All of the following nitrogenous bases are found in DNA except
a. thymine.
b. adenine.
c. uracil.
d. guanine.

____ 15. The two strands making up the DNA double helix molecule
a. cannot be separated.
b. contain ribose and deoxyribose in opposite strands.
c. are held together by hydrogen bonds.
d. are attached through a phosphate to hold the strands together.
e. contain uracil but not thymine.

____ 16. About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make
up approximately 96% of living matter?
a. carbon, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen
b. carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen
c. oxygen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
d. carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
e. carbon, oxygen, sulfur, calcium

____ 17. The mass number of an element can be easily approximated by adding together the number of ____ in an
atom of that element.
a. protons and neutrons
b. energy levels
c. protons and electrons
d. neutrons and electrons
e. isotopes

____ 18. Two isotopes of the same element will have different numbers of
a. protons.
b. neutrons.
c. electrons.
d. protons and neutrons.
e. neutrons and electrons.

____ 19. A covalent chemical bond is one in which
a. electrons are removed from one atom and transferred to another atom so that the two
atoms become oppositely charged.
b. protons and neutrons are shared by two atoms so as to satisfy the requirements of both
c. outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron
shells of both atoms.
d. outer-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to the inner electron shells of another
e. the inner-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to the outer shell of another atom.

____ 20. What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
a. a nonpolar covalent bond
b. a polar covalent bond
c. an ionic bond
d. a hydrogen bond
e. a hydrophobic interaction

____ 21. The ionic bond of sodium chloride is formed when
a. chlorine gains an electron from sodium.
b. sodium and chlorine share an electron pair.
c. sodium and chlorine both lose electrons from their outer valence shells.
d. sodium gains an electron from chlorine.
e. chlorine gains a proton from sodium.

____ 22. What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
a. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of protons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve the
sharing of electrons between atoms.
b. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of neutrons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve
the sharing of electrons between atoms.
c. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve
the electrical attraction between atoms.
d. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of protons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve the
sharing of neutrons between atoms.
e. Covalent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms, and ionic bonds involve
the sharing of neutrons between atoms.

____ 23. Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any
other type of atom?
a. Carbon has 6 to 8 neutrons.
b. Carbon has a valence of 4.
c. Carbon forms ionic bonds.
d. A and C only
e. A, B, and C

____ 24. Nonpolar molecules have
a. no negative or positive ends. c. only a negative end.
b. both negative and positive ends. d. only a positive end.

____ 25. When placed in the same container, oil and water do not mix because
a. they are both polar. c. they are both nonpolar.
b. water is polar and oil is nonpolar. d. water is nonpolar and oil is polar.

____ 26. Attractions between water molecules are called
a. covalent bonds. c. polar bonds.
b. ionic bonds. d. hydrogen bonds.

____ 27. Water is a polar molecule because
a. it contains two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom.
b. it has a charge.
c. different parts of the molecule have slightly different charges.
d. it does not have a charge.

____ 28. Which of the following is not a large biomolecule?
a. carbohydrate c. lipid
b. ice d. nucleic acid

____ 29. The building blocks of most biomolecules contain the element
a. carbon. c. calcium.
b. nitrogen. d. sodium.

____ 30. Polysaccharides are
a. carbohydrates. c. proteins.
b. lipids. d. nucleic acids.

____ 31. Plants store glucose in the form of
a. starch. c. cellulose.
b. glycogen. d. chitin.

____ 32. Lipids are
a. soluble in water.
b. made of chains of amino acids.
c. linked together with peptide bonds.
d. used by the body for storing energy.

____ 33. All of the following are examples of lipids except
a. oil. c. steroids.
b. starch. d. candle wax.

____ 34. The amino group of one amino acid is linked to the carboxyl group of another amino acid in a protein. This
link is a(n)
a. peptide bond. c. ionic bond.
b. hydrogen bond. d. polar bond.

____ 35. The two types of nucleic acids are
a. RNA and ATP. c. DNA and ATP.
b. DNA and RNA. d. nucleotides and ATP.

____ 36. DNA stores
a. fat. c. energy.
b. carbohydrates. d. hereditary information.

____ 37. Which of the following is not part of a nucleotide in a DNA molecule?
a. three phosphate groups c. a base
b. a sugar d. a phosphate group

____ 38. Which of the following is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons?
a. element
b. compound
c. molecule
d. ion