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developerWorks 02.09.

2005

LPI 201:
(LPIC-2) 214



Linux ,
,
.
( 1) ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, /etc/passwd, /etc/fstab, /etc/inittab, /sbin/init, /dev/console ,

. , ,
( , ,
, repair disk).
-
, live-CD ( DVD),
Knoppix, ,
, , -.
, , ( )
, Linux LiveCD, , Knoppix,
ISO-
. 203
ISO-.

, CD-ROM,
,
. emacs vim ,
,
ed
.
, "Linux-Bootdisk HOWTO"
Linux Documentation Project. , , Linux

,
. ,
, !



202
Linux. .
, IBM PC . BIOS
. 512- Master Boot Record (MBR),
fdisk, " " ( GRUB, LILO)
"" .

, BIOS x86 (
) MBR, ,
Linux. , ,
, , .

Boot Loader (LILO/Grub).


Boot loader .
: , .
:

(VM, , ).


, ,
(, , , ),
:

/sbin/init 1

/sbin/init /etc/inittab

/etc/init.d/rc /etc/rc<n>.d/S*

fsck

getty(s)

LILO GRUB

GRUB "GRUB loading, please wait...",
GRUB . LILO
LILO: ( ). LILO GRUB
, , , . ,
- BIOS ,
.
, , ,
LILO GRUB .
( " "
Windows) ,
. LILO GRUB.
, chroot ,
LILO GRUB.
hard-disk-not-found, , (
, );
no-boot-sector. 202
LILO GRUB.
LILO GRUB
LILO /etc/lilo.conf
, . LILO,
, lilo.conf
( ;
/ ).
, , /sbin/lilo root (
).
GRUB, , ,
LILO. GRUB' /boot/grub/menu.lst,
. , GRUB
/boot/grub/, groot= /boot/grub/menu.lst
, GRUB MBR.
GRUB MBR, grub-install /dev/hda,
/boot/ .


Linux

Linux , .
Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
. , , ,
:

/proc/ --
. ,
. 201.

/var/log/ -- , . - ,
,
.

/ -- , Linux,
, .
, vmlinuz initrd.img ,
/boot/.

/boot/ ,
.

/lib/modules/ -- , ,
.
( ,
). :
% ls /lib/modules/2.6.10-5-386/kernel/
arch crypto drivers fs lib net security sound


,

. , ,
syslog,
dmesg.
, Hardware/system
203 ( )
. ,
:

lspci: PCI
lsmod: .
lsusb: USB.
lspnp: Plug-and-Play.
lshw: .

, - :

lsof: .
insmod: .
rmmod: .
modprobe: insmod/rmmod/lsmod .

uname: ( .).
strace: .

, , ,
, strings ( ,
). , hard-coded
, (
), .

The initialization
202 , Linux
init. init /etc/inittab.
/etc/inittab ,
. , , ,
.
, .
- :
# The default runlevel. (in /etc/inittab)
id:2:initdefault:


("rc-") , ,
, ,
. (
) Linux, /etc/init.d/
/etc/rc<N>.d/ ( N= ), "S*"
"K*" .
/etc/init.d, /etc/rc<N>.d/[SK]*.

, ,
/etc/profile.
( /bin/tcsh /bin/sh- ).
, ,
.
/home/$USER/.bash_profile
/home/$USER/.bashrc.

sysctl (. man- sysctl) BSD UNIX

. sysctl -a,
, sysctl,
. sysctl ,
. /etc/sysctl.conf ,
sysctl .

, ,
, .
, ,
,
ldconfig.
/lib/ /usr/lib/.
,
( /usr/X11R6/lib) /etc/ld.so.conf ldconfig root.

211 syslog. ,
, ( ,
) -- /etc/syslog.conf.
, ,
, ,
. , , , ,
, , ,
.

Linux cron. cron
crontab 213. , ,
,
. , , ,
, , cron
.
cron.
ps ax | grep cron, kill
. /etc/crontab,
; , /etc/cron.allow
/etc/cron.deny, , .
,
, -,
crontab ,
.