Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 127

-

""

373.161.1/075.3
71
38

-:
. . (), . . (),
. . (), . . (),
. . ().

38

: ,
, , , - .: , 2007. - 624 .

.
, , , .
,
.
, . .
, ,
.
ISBN 978-5-94684-935-7
373.161.1/075.3
71

:
./: 8-901-312-1951
e-mail: trigonprint@mail.ru
.
ISBN 978-5-94684-935-7

" "", 2007

()

, ,
, .

-, ,
, .



- ,

J?

<"

--""
107

>


108

c =a+b

c-a + b

yS

-^

_^
^v c
^ ^ ^ '

\^

?
,''


-
,
(-S)

<

/4
= -= + {-)

=-

/ ^

-?

~\


z =z-a
, \\ = \z\
, z>0,
z, , z<0
,
z > 0, = -2
, z < 0.
-z-a

2~[

X^



,
.

^
=\ -cosa
*1

109

~ ^
^
\
) ,


110

,
.
,
.
,
.

-
,
.

4
_

rz
-

0 )

,''

rz

X
-
:
rx=x, ry=y, rz=z.
2

r-Jrx

+ry

+rz

=-/ + +z

, (3, , -
, z
-

|/ iyca

cosR-
-

1 -

^x +y +z2

'

Jx +y2+z2
Z

/2 +y2 +z2

111


112

7^

-
:
1) ;
2) 2) .
.
Z, *

43-2
1

\\ = /50 ,

coscc=

3
50

1 2 3 /4

cosp=

Y,
cosy=

50
5
50

=3 , =4 , z=5

,
t=tx t=t2


(
-
t=t\


.
,

.
,
.

t=tx
t=t2.
,
t=tx
t=t2.

t=t2)

t=tx t=t2
(1)
(2).

1 /
/

^ s

' ~ 2

>

113


114


AF At,
,
At :
,
/

v=hm-rr^

^**^

^ ^


.

At,

,
At :

a = \im-r-
/^ At

(

)

vcp

(
) vcp,
AS At,
: = .
-: vcp=,

S- , 0 t.

,

: =^ +v2

S'

v', S' U
S,

S ' U: v=v'+U .

.

, .

^
^/
/ \ ^
/
\
/\

-^ i
N
\
\
i
'

,
J

"~-"'


^?\ """^

^ ^ \ \
: s^Y
\ \
: /
~\ \

= + .

115

1 0


116

^ ^ l i m - r . |t> ,

aT\-lv;

\v\ ,

a^iv.

,
,
.

=^, v- ;
RKp - .

v(t)

v-v0+at, v0 -
/=0.
-



t=u t=t2
(
-

t=tx

at2

r=r0+v0t+,
f(t)

0 - - /=0;
v0 - t=0.
Af=v0-At+^,

v0 -

t=u, At=t2-t}.

t=t2)

117


118


vx=v0x+ax-t,
- t=0
, - .
, /

v = - 2/
=1/2
vx(t)

(-2+1-0 /.

Vtf)

vo, a
,
vx= Voat.
:
+, v0 TT ;

+, ;

-, v0 >1- ;

-, 4- .

at
= 0 +v0x-t + , 0 -
t=0; vox -
/=0.
:

I , M |

:
=5
= - 2 /
=\12

x(t)

(0-?
-2-t +

1 2 3 4

|:

5 ,

VQ,
,
a-t

= v0mt-

:
+, v0 ;

+, ;

- , v0 TNL- ;

- , 5 4- .

119


120

a -At2

Arx=v0x-At+^, x


t=tx
t=h.
(

-

t=tx
t=h)

vox- t=tx
;
- .
:

:
t2=Ac
VQX = - 2 /
2

=\/
-?

= - 2 - 4 + ^ = 0.
2

, S, :

1. t=u t=t2
Ath ,
.
( /,-
: vx>0; vx<0.)
,

t=u
t=h

2. 5,-,
Att. :
)
() () Ar,-: Sj=\xK-Xn\;
) ,
vx(t), t t=tH
t=tK. (tH 4 -
/,).
3. ,
t=tx t=t2: S = X^i i

121


122
:

tr --4
Vo= - 2/
2

1.
vx=(-2+l-t)M/c.

vx t.

=5

2-

1/

0
-1-2-

1
1

i
i

:
tr =0

=1/

>, / ""

1"

i
i

4 si
i

i
i

1
1
1

|>

A\t,c

1
S .?
vx(t) ,
^=0 t2=4c vx
t=2c.
:

Ah (/=0, tK=2c) At2 (tH=2c, tK=4c).

2. ,

?'1'2-

)
aJL
: x = x0+v0x-t +
5'1=|(/=2)-(/=0)|=|3-5|=2 ,
5*2=|(?=4)-(?=2)|=|5-3|=2 .

) vx(t) (. ):
SI=2M;

S2=2M.

3. ,
t=0 t=4c :
S=Si+S2=4 .

tfcii/ct

XOY
\ OY ,
v0 XOY ( ).


OY

Vx(t)

Dx= VQx+axt,

Vy(t)

Dy= Doy+dyt.

v(t)

v = ^]vx + vy

x(t)

x-x0+v0x-t+

y{t)

y-yo+v0y-t+

rx-r0x+v0x-t+

OY

/ = t = t2.
( OY


t = tippt = t2.)

rx(t)

ryit)

ayY-t2
2
2
a-t
A
2

av-t2
ry=r0y+v0y-t+^,

.
,

r0x r0y - -
t=0 \ OY.
-At2
Arx=v0x-At+ x2
,

Arx
Ary=V0y-At + - ^
Ary

VQX -
t=tx \ OY.

123


124

t = t = t2.
( -
t = / = t2.)

Ar - ^Arx2 + Ary2 .



, OY -
.
,

/=0 , .


v=v0+gt'

'

J ^
<

~t

DR

>'

-)*--

'

>-

- t=0.

vx(t)

Vx(t)= Vo' cosa=const,


Vy{t)

Vy(t)= Vo-cosa-g-t,

OY .
, vy = ,
v vMmK=v0x=vocosa

Vy =Vosina-gt= 0,
'

x(f)
y(t)

t>0sina
g
= 0 +v0cosa-t,
2

j = j 0 + u s m a ' fgt- y .
t x{t):
X ' 0

f 0 cosa
y(t):

y = y0+(x-x0)tga-:^-2

--

2v0 cosz a
.
.

125


126


At , R,
(1) (2).
.
AS ( /).
^
^ \ i v"2

V^\
X

Vn

/A/ = AS


/
At, ,
, At :
v

\/k

cpiNA /

-lira


.

(
) .


<
At

co = l i m -

( - .
||= )

, .

co=const, .


:
cp = oW
vn = a>-r

127


128


, ,
,
( 2):
2
= , - ,

,7=

2KR

, > - .

v = = 2
,
.

,
, .
.

| = s ^
\

a... =co2R = .

\4

90 )

R^'~^


\.-'"
\

^
, .

~**^
/
'

Til

,
.
,
.
,

.
, ,
,
.
.

- ,

. , ,
.
1. - . ,
, .
2. .
,
F],F2,Fi,...,Fn,
F ,

^----""^
//

3 3^-^-^

F = Fl+F2+Fi+... + Fn.
F

V F3

129


130


,
. ,
.
,

.

. . , .
, ,
-

-- const

, .
,
, { ).
-> <
,

: = .

777777777777777777777?

1. - , ,
.
2. .
3. ,
( ,
).
4. - ,
.

5. :
, .

:
- 1 (F +F +...+F )
]
2
N
=

.
, , ,
: Fn ~F21,

, ,
.

,
, ,
, : =.

Fs

, .
FT = 2 R

-,

- ;
- ;
R - ,
.

131


132

I.

, .
,

.
.

()

"

'

s<

, ,
.
=kAl,
: F
vm
F - , ;
- ;
/ - (
).
Fynp|
,
, F /

.
,
.



F{ F2,

,

.
?
Fynp=Fl =F2 =kAl.

?
^^

.
, :
F = ,/1, \ - .


?

, - .
F
/,
F = k
,

, k2=nk].
2
\ F.

/=/,+/2=+.
/, 2
,
F ,

,-

= = t^k-7

^^^^

133


134
2
.

HVVWWi

^!
F
,
A/: F = kiAl + k2Al.
= = 1+2.

11.

, ,

. FTpcK =\i-N,
- ,
(,
, ,
).
N-
FTpcK , .

-
, ,

Fx.

Fx =\i-N ( Fx
). , FBHeui <FX,
,
, .
, ,
F
F
--F
, F. <u-N

*
j '
.
. )


FBmm>\x-N,
ulM ^

> F
=u-N
?
I \J * .

|J.N

>-


,
-2
.
, .
F = G 2
G- .
= 6,67-10 - 2 / 2 .

135

F2]

,
2


136


,
. ,


, (
)
,
.
,
-
.
( ).
,

,
, .
.
,
.
1. : ,
2 ,
-
.
2. ,
: ,

, , ,
.
3. (
) =.

4.
, ( ,
) .
5. :
) , - ,
;
) , , , .

, .
, ,
F-G

/77 7772

' , :
1
) (
, );

)
^

2.

2
,


?

). ,
{) ,
(2);
)
,
, .
137


138

,
2
h, , ,
,
(r>R3-h) , ,
, h,
, ^-h.
. s^~ / ^ \

\) -

g
, .
g ,
g
. h ga6c

.; 3 - , R3 -
ga6c =G
(R3+hf

. , hR3, g

h.
:
, , ga6c
, (,&. =9,81 /2,
ga6c.no,.

=9,83

//2)


( ),
, ,
.
, g
:
=

' "
-,,

g
(
?
)

.
g=9,83 /2,
g=9,78 /2,
g=9,81 /

139


140

,
,
,
, .

1
(

S~^c''
_>

yjv

4
/ ->
/

'

V_^
:
maHC-F

= mGf-,

vx = AG- , 3 - .
i\=l,9 /.

III.

. ""

- , , .
,
:
N
.

,
<'


.
F,
rng
ma = mg + N (1)


N: FmBJl =-N (2)
,
(1) (2), Fmm=m(g-a)
? ,
, a g.
.
1. a = g .
.
2.
, a c=g-

(R+h)
(R
+ hf

R - ; h - .

=-

FPn

141


142

.

( ,
) :

-.

, :

FAt (*->0).


.

.
I.
, :
,

F

(->0
?
II
At ,
:
= FAt.

1. , ,
,
Ap = FAt.

2. F ,
At ,
At?
F
:2 -\ = = Z ^ / M
i

, ,
.
,

.


.
,

.
,


: = 1+2+...+.

143


144


TV . ,
/

% = ^ +^ -

(1)

=1

_ , /;
^ _ / (
).
(1) .
,
. ,
, '.

^ = .

(2)



At

.

At, = ^FeuiAt
At?



: p(t) = Pj (t)+p2 {t)+ + Pn (t) = const.
,
- = ^ ^ 5 .
1\1


?
I

= , ^ = 0 5(0
= const.
v

II

= const.
= , ^ = 0 5(0
w

At

'

At


. , ,
III


=
0 > ~^ = 0 =const. ,
IZ^j
\ i
1
At
- ,
,
,
,
.

145


146

F
F
^ ^


,
IV

,
.
.

.

,

, .
?

.

1v
\
- - i- ;
w, - i- ;
- .
~~*

Vc = l i m - , lim'- = Ym,u
'^ At

rrii

'^ At

rrii

= p , ,
m


:
= .
(3)

(3) (2), :

__ -1 __ Z7B

_ ,
.
,
.

, .
,
,
t=0.
-

:
=+ \,
-
At;
- , At;
AvomH - (
).

= -Am , = Am vomil,

lim m = lim vomH = FnmKm .


p
^ At A^O At

(4)

147


148


.
, - -
(4) :
lim = F
JLAAAJL ft 1

->

+F

1 -

At

.
^,
__
,. Am
lim

^ At

<0,

>0;
-

.
,

/77

~*

/77

, FpeaKm =vorm .

, F.

,
F
:
= \ | \ cos = \F AS cos = \F \\ cos a-At = FSAS,

- F , j<
F \ v ; A>S = |Ar| - ; -
; Fs - F .
, ,
F .
,

Na
At, 7Vcp=.


(
)

-V


,
At, ,
, At :

7V = l i m = lim : COS(F,V) = F-VCOS(F,V),


^ At

^ At

'

V ' /'

v -
"

, F.
149


150

,
v, ( , vc):

mV2

,

,
v, ( , ):

=? .

2

:


= 1 + ^ 2 "'""'"^ = 2-1 \i=l


,
:

=2-]=.


: = +.




:
= +.

,
, .
.



:
2 -\ = .
:
= Eni - 1, 1 + 2 = 2 + 2.
,
.

^-*

' ^-\.

- ,_/7
1

i
2

(1).

- F , -F , (2)^*

-^2

-^1

'

(1) (2), : 2 -1=, <0 , ,


.

151


152


,
.
, ,
, .


,
.

:

mxV\+m2v2 = (mx + m2)v', vt v2 ;
' - ,
.
-^-

>
0)
>2

nii

:
2
] v\ m2 v\ ( +m2)v'
+Q,
2
2
2
Q - ,
.

.
.

:

m, Vf +2 2= mlvl+m2v'2.

Vl

>



:
w, V2i m2 V22 _ vl

0,
X


< ^'

0 0 ,
X

153

m2 v'2


154

,

,
.

/
F.
/ I *^~~~-^~-*.

/
J
/
[

.
\
\



: M = F-d( - .
.)
F
,
,
,
: M = F-d-

,
, :
Fl+F2+F,=0.

( )

,
,
,
.


, .
, :
, ,
:
Ml+M2+Mi=0.

,
.


, - 0
- fbf2,...,fn
, , :
7 =m]fl+m2f2+...

+ mr
+2 +... +

155


156
,

,
.
,

( ), .

m4gr4+m3gr3

,
, F_
: - S '
( )
p = p-gh, - ; h -
, g.

"7777777777
77
, h
. .
.
, , ,
: \=2==.
IV

157


158


,

^,
h
p = pA+pgh

"-

, ,
,
, : FA = pxmgVnorp.


"
S,
\h
{

h
2


'

,
V ~
2 =pglh +pA

_
\ = pyKgh] +,

F=SpMg(h2-hl) = pgMV=FA.

|/>1

2_

,
, ,

,
.

, ,
, ,
.

FA

mg

,
.

.

?\gk=?2gh2

159


160

Ffi

s6
V///\/////

- - --=-=-

1.

%
1

-
;
SM S6 - ;
FM v\F6- ,
.
:
2.

3.

R
=

'
6 J


:
S 5 5 = S M .

- , ,
.
^=6,02-1023 "1.
- .
H = m0-NA, 0- .

, -
( ), -
/.

NA
N - ;
- ,
.

= 77

n = ^ = v-NA.

161


162

-
1) < >=


, 0- ;

vKB -
.
2) <>=^

(1)

-23

=1,38-10 - .
:

.
2
= ^<>
(2)
- ,
<
En0cm> -
.
:

(
! ).
(1) (2), :
=.
(
).


( -)

(
-)

: p-v=RT,

R - ,
R = k-NA, R=S,3l /-

/7-F=const
= const.

V= const -T
/>= const.

163


164

S -

= const -T
F=const.

p-V"1 = const
-~]= const
-

*
V

() ,
.

.
.

,
.
^^^^^=^^^^^

Pi - ;
:
p^PtY^
mit jUj- .



( )
.

U = ^vRT,

(1)

v- ; - .

,
(1) -

.

,
,

,
( ) AV,
AA = p-AV.

165

,
?
= 0, =0.
p=const. , ,
.
A = p(V2-Vl),
2.
V\ - ;
V2 - .
:
3.
r = const -> MJ = 0, , A=Q.

:
4.
0=0, , A = -AU = U]-U2.
,
>

,

V\ V2
p(V),
,
, Vv\
v,
v2 v
5. V=V
X



V=V2 ().

( ),

',
1.

,
' = -.

V2

Vx

.
Q,


Q, ,

()
Q, ,

Q = , -
.
Q = Xm, X -
.
Q = xm, -
.


, ,


, :
AU = A' + Q, AU = -A + Q, - , ;
'- , .


,
,
.
:
1. (1850): .
2. (1851): ,
.
167


168


(AU = 0),
.
,
:
(/,=.
:
M/ = 0 = a+Q2+...+Qn.
.
:
; ;!

Q0TO - , ;
Qncm - , .


.
(, V),
, ,
.
,
,
,
.

169

>0


170

rp

.-

- , ;
QH - ,
;
Qx - ,
.
: = -100%;

-100%.

3^4

2^3

,

,
.

-
-
- . < - .

'>0


: qx +q2 +... + qN = const.


,
.



: F = \' , =-

4 0

; fc = 9-109

-12

s0 - , s0=8,85-10 /.
, .

: , , .
,
.
q\
q2

Ft,

, q2

171


172


. F,

,
- F
, q\ E=.

,
, .
,

1 -


(
)

480

,
. , :
)
;
) ,

;
) ,
,
.

.
,
(
).

,
. ,
"" ,
"".
) .

)

q b
"" ""

)

|q2|=qi.
q2;

173


174




: = { +2 +...+EN.
:
Q 1 2
,
.
An = Am

/*

\ _ / " \ _ /

^- 2 (1) (2)

(1) (2)
, - 2 = -2-.


.
- 0,

.
= - + ,

= 0 R^> , =0.


:
<= 1 + 2 + . . . + / .

, ,
0, .
Wn ,
, Wa=q-$.
, -
.

, Wn
.

q 1 2 A = q(^-<p2) = W^-Wn2.
, -
,

,
.
1N
i=l

TV- ;
, - , , qt
, q,. -
,
.

175


176

1 ,
. ,
.

.
, -2 =\-, /J, - 1
2 .



R q, ,
, -

>() = -,
. , : 1)> \\() = -^-,


q, .
2)< () = 0, >() =
R'

.
.
- Y - puc. e
(. ). , ( ) R (. ).



^
,
, .
. .

,
,
.

= +

= +

|
|
i

-
.

3^G

! ,G

1
1>

: ti

. |

-*- J T(Hi i TIIHPP

177


178

,

, :

Z7

,
,
q,
-
'

-^

4 0 2 '

,
, ,

:

^ .

.
,
:

= ^,

q - ;
- .
,
.
,
.
.
q
, U- ,
q = C-U .

.
= -^-,

S - ;
d - ;
- ,
.

179


180


,

, .

= qi+42+ = +2+
1-2

_2L

)
*

++++

++++

++++

<\


.
,
,

, ,
q.
:
1-2=(1-')+('-2).

, ,

,-

2 = -

-
+ -

\ +

,
2

+
+

-<'+

-(fh

+
+

2
w_qU_CU

_q2
2
2
2
1. (S, d, s )
,
.

: =AW.
2. ,
.

,
, :
^ = .+.,
AcT.=&q-U;

Aq - ;
U- .

181


182





, Aq,

At, , At :

^ At



.
,
(, ).
' :
j = -e = \q\nv,
\q\ - ;
- ;
v -
.
/ = |,

/ - , ;
U- ;
R - .

= --,
/ - ;
S- ;
- .

.
:
I
/ =/,=/2.

(1)

1 - " ,

Ri


-* ,
: U = UX+U2. (2)
, (1) (2) :
R = RI+R2.

I
I
*>


:
/ = /i+/2.

(1)



/:
U = U{=U2. (2)
,
(1) (2) :
_j_

/, h

/, 2

R2

, : IT = I T + 1 7

183


184
()
q
.


()

<^> _ ^

I = s,
R+r
I f - ;
- ;
R - .


.
, -
) R.
, , ,
1/11
/, R, ,
L/

rl+IR;

1-

R+

,

g7 _ | f ,

1/11

. , R

10, : /0 =

R + r,

I nin

)
R.

\
n-W,
/ =
R +

-^-

,

l? s = %; h =
R
10, :

/=

lo

10.

~R + n'



, , 1, ,
, 1(1>1),
7?, .
hrA ={1-1) . - .
-!>- ^

I - 1 I
I R

-\2 Zb

Uv, , ,
R'

Uy _u -Uy t rv - .
r

^. = = ^ 6 11

~>

U ,

185

-^


186

,

.

, ,
q, : m-kqkit.
.

II

III

=,
F Z
\i - ; Z - ;
F - , = 9,65-104 /.

-- = - .
1
1 f ,,,
m = - -q = - -IAt.
F z F z

. -
,

,

-

/ , R,
U,
;

p = FU = = I2RR

,
, &: = 1-<.
/
At Q = I2RAt..

. .

.

.
/

().


(
)

,
. , :
)
, ;
) ,
,
;
) ,
, .
, q v
, .

( )

(
\Fn\ = \\--\ -sin V,B (1)
V

( )

187

9"


188
,
, , ,
, :
F = qE + FMasH. (2)

, ,
.
'

(2): FMasH -q--\ -sinv,B


j

.
/, 7,
. /
\FA-IlB-sin 1

v j

D
.


,
. .
1.

qvB-m R
R
qB

:
Vj_
vu. v=v- sin

, , Vj_
R, .

mVl

- = \q\vLB- R =

mV

- mvsma

2.

t>|=t>cosa -
.
h, ,
2nR 2nm

\q\B
1
h -V T =t>cos a
qB
189


190


(
)



S
0 =

BScos ,

(
).

,
,
.
.
, ,

,





.

,.
- - hm

) lim

, .
^ ,

) , lim

,
.

. (
) , ,
.

=
=

. ,
. (,

> )
At


.
. ,


.

( ).
191


192

^ At

%S=-L\im

^ At

L =
. -
, 7,
. I

L
2


,
, .
X = A'0COs(</ + (p0)


.
,
,
.

: v = .

2
= =2nv
. 2 .
.
= + 0,
, .
q>0, ,
t=0,
.

193


194

,
,
, ,
x(t) = x0cos((>t + q>0),
0 - ;
= + 0 - ;
0 - (
/=0);
- ;
= -^. - .


{t) = x't = -xcosin((M + 0) = -0 sin(W + 0 ),
0 =0> - .
px(t) = m-ux(t)
(t) = () = "=-02 cos ( + 0) = -0 cos ( t + 0)

!
, ax(t) = -a2 -x{t).
.

2
= 1 = \
-2(4,
\ mvl (1
8(/
t +, Y\

2 81 ( + 0)=
0)) =


= - (l + cos (2co t + 20 + )).


2<,
.

=^cos2(ffl/



,

, v

mvl

+ cp0) = ^ ( l + cos(2cor + 2cp0))

)21

= += = - = const,
.
*-* ^

-L^n

- ,
/

.

195


196

,
FT=maT=-mg sin a (1), -
.
since . (2)
S,

a ,
S = a7- (3)
(3) (2) (1):

S"


gS
(4)
I

(4) : S = S0cos((ot + (p0),


0 - . ,

t=0.

=2%
(1) g

, g* = -, FH -

m
, .

s:=ax

g*S
I


S = S0cos{a)'t+(f>0).

*_

/5

=2-

, .

,

:
F y n p =0
-,

=
-.

.
7777777777777777^777

! fyr

= x0cos(o)t + 0)

77777777777777777777777
/7777777777777777777777777777
0:

197


198


L.
,
, R=0.

, , 1
2, :
1
1) I = q't, q - 2
R
( ,
);
2)
/ = 2 -, = ^ (
, 0 0 ) .
,
2
1
+^.
W =

, , q',=I:

, , ,
.
, q = q0sin(? + 0),
U = ^ = U0sm(ait + )\

I = q't=I0cos(<ut + (p0).

= ,

4LC


T = 2nVZc - .
, / = / 0 sin </ + 0 + ^ ,

q I U -^

| .

~^
X

^ ^

\ ^

-
X

(1 - cos (2co t + 20)) =



JY3J[ i

= ^ ( l + cos(2(or + 9 0 + n ) ) . 2
AC
q0
1

AC
0

:ZY:":ZY::Z

z_

199

/
t


200

1
LI1
LP = LI
WM =
2
2 ' cos(co? + 90) = -^--(1 + 8(2(+20)).

wu ><

W3JI WLI*
M
, 2
2
/ \
/ \

\
/
\
/
V-
4
\
/
* >
, ,
0
.
-
W
:

= +.=

VJ


,
.

()

,
.

.


, .
.

201


202


Z

h t2>h.

,
Z
v:
= ^ , c o s alt

+ 0

, - .
,
v:

=sin| | tr

+ .

- .
,
(S = 4nR2) .
2,
=.


, ,
, .


- .
,
,
,
.

(3

^ ^ = , 1 2 -
sm p ,
1- 2- ( ).
,
,
, .

203

777


204


<2 ( ),
0, 90, sina0 =.

0
, . 0
.

90

d- ;
/ - ;
F - .
d / , ()
, - .
F , ,
- .
) ,
,

.
F

) , (
), .

) ,
,
.
F

205


206

D

F
, -
.

Z) = 1
\

+J-+JRx

R2

- ,
- ,
,
Ri R2 - .
, -
.

, - (0),
, (D<0).
, (=1,5) ,
Ri ,
R2 - , R\>R2,
:
D=

J_

<0

R2


>1,5, .


?

:
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
,
.

.

207


208




= 3-108/

v =-, - .
= Vs , .
X =vT , - .

v =, v .

,

.

( , ).

.
- . \
.
,
.
.
( ).


,

= , = 0, 1, 2... - , ,

= (2+1), = , 1, 2...
,

(

2;

209


210


1
S ^t^

S'

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

" ' " '


i

1.

- 4 = 4
1
1 2

= ,+ = ^/+

:
= ,*=0,1,2...; ^

=(2-1)|; = ^(2-1)|.

:
= (2 + 1 ) | , = 0 , 1 , 2 . . . ; ?j- = kX; = ^-.
2.

,
,
X. - .

.


1 2.
1
, 2 - .
,

1 2
.

1 2
21\-

(1]

^X
1,
. ,

A{=2dn-^

= kX

(2)

- (= 0,1,2)
, -
. , ,
:

A2=2(dl

a)n-j=(k

+ i)x

(3), rf,+a- .

(2) (3) = .
2

.
, , ,
211

_ X

2-


212

- ,
. .
1.
.
1 2.
.
1 2 =2+,

3.

-
.
2.
,
.
= , =2+ = , =1,2,...

. ,
,
.
(R + af=r2+R2;
2Ra + a2=r2.
2
<2, r = -JlRa.
(1) (2)
:

^-^

[^-||,=1,2,...

3. ,
:
= (2/+1), =0, 1,2,...,

= .

:
= y/2RkX , =\, 2,...
, = ( ) .
) .
,
.
) .

2

1
, .
2>
1 2,

,
,
= -2.
2
X
= (2+1)
- ,
. ,
.

213


214


X d
,
A=<isina.

>k
d

>'

<<
s\a
\

, ds'ma = kX,
=0,1,2,... - .


, , , , .
, .
,
, ..
.
,

, .. .


,
( ).
1. .
:
.
, , , , . . , .
, ,
, , ( - ).
.
- ().
215


216
2. .

. ,
.
,
: ,
, .


'. '
v. X X' v,
Y Y' .
'
.
.
1. , ' ,
. ='

2. .

X, X'

, X
'. , ' 10, (
). /, ,

l = U\

0)

'
V .

.

u
'
- v
, '
. , .
, ,
,
, .

3.

, '
. '
0. -

f!
, , ,
- , . (2) ,
.
, v (
, ).
,
, .
- '-, , ,
'- -, ..
.


.
0
. , .
217


218
( ) , . .
. .


F,
: l i m = F .


.


,

= 2

j-,

h ~

-)

~ TYI

1.

1)


,
, ,
. .
.
= +
- ( ), -
.


0: 0=2.

E=hv, h - ; v - .

hv h
= = =,

- .

v (1)
, hv,
(1) , ,
: =0.
mv = = ^.
1

219


220


I.
, ,
(..
). .. 1889 .
II.

.
III.

, . . X ( vK),
.

YYIXJ

hv = +-^,

v - , -

.
ffll)

- ^ - .
YHu

- ^ = 0, :
.,

_ ^

_ "

\
>




/.
,
, Eh 2.... ,
,
.

()
.
II.

, hv = - ( ).


, ,

mvr = nh,
:
- ;
v- ;
=1,2,3... - , .


222



meAZ2 1
=-- 2h2 ' 2 ~~

( = 1) .
=-13,53.

, ,
.
.
-> = 0.


(>)
hv = ha = Em- En
:

, 2 me'Z2 ( \
3

\\

me'Z1 ( 1

2SQ/J3 \n2

^ - ^11 = ^ | - ^ | ,

i?, =2,067 1016c"1


V

me4Z2 ( 1
3

2h sl \
\)

lS) = Rz2(2

)
S

1
\

, R2=3,29-1015c1.
>

Rx R2 R . (
, .)
_

,
.
Ze, - , Z- ,
.
.. .
- .
A=N+Z, N- .
Z, .
,
,
.

= f-; = Zm + Nm - ,

- , - .
, ,
:

Am = Z-mp+N-m -mA +Z-me.


= -Z-me;
.
,
| : +=.

.
Am = ZmH +(A-Z)m -mA
,
sCB =j-.

223


224

- - (

/ -

2 )'-

2^.

- ((3~-) ,
.
:
( (3-
: ((3+) - -).

- -
,
- (3-.
.


' ,
=-'
>0 . "<0 .
' ,
. \ '
.
: + = '+'

=-.


N = N0e~Xt - t = 0;
No - /;
X - .

, 7V
:

- , .

A=^

At

= XN.

- ,
. :
N = ^ = N0ekl.

,
: 12 = ,
, 12 0,693

N = N0e~lt ,
.

225


226



, ,

'" "
" 299792458 " " "
, .
, 9192631770 ,

-133.
, ,

, 1
,
, 2 - - 7 .
,

273,16

.
, ,
(, ,
, .), -12
0,012 .
,
, 540-12 ,

_ J _ /.
683

,
.
,
,
, .

227


228

S
V

L2
L3

2
3

LT~

LT2

/2

-i

- i

/3

LMT~

L2MT2

LAW1

LMT'

FM

U MT'

L3M-]T~2

MT~2

2
2
/





:
);

L2MT~2
L2MT~2
L2MT~3

L2MT2
L2MT~2

L2T-2

L2T-2

L2T~2Q-]

j
q


L~2I

TI

/
/

-
/2

]1

) ;

21

) .

U'TI

<

L2MT-3rl

L2MT~3r]

(
)

229

/
/
/


230

2 " 3 / - 1

~31

2-'412

3^2

L-'M-'T'I2

L2MT~3r2

L3MT~3r2

3~1312

L2MJ-2rx
~21
2~22

LMT~2r2