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Er Raju Sharma

Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering

Types of connection
A Structure is an assembly of various element or
components which are fastened together through some
type of connection.
Following are the common type of connections used for
structural steel work
1. Riveted connection 2. Bolted connection
3. Pinned connection 4. Welded connection
Rivet and Riveting
A rivet consists of
(1) a shank of given length and diameter
A head known as manufactured head.
The size of the rivet is defined by the diameter of the
shank. Strength of cold driven rivets is more than hot
driven rivets.

Common Definition
Nominal diameter of rivet- it is the diameter of unheated rivet.
Gross diameter of rivet- it is the dia of rivet in the hole, measured
after driving. it is taken diameter of the hole itself.
Pitch of rivets-it is the distance between center of two adjacent
rivets in a row
Gauge line- it is the line of rivets which is parallel to the direction of
Gauge distance- It is the perpendicular distance between two
adjacent gauge line. this is also known as back pitch.

Working stress in Rivets
Types of rivets Axial tension
,tf N/mm2
Shear, vf
N/mm2 (Mpa)
Bearing pf
N/mm2 (Mpa)
Power driven
100 100 300
Hand Driven
80 80 250
Combined shear and tension
Rivets and bolts subjected to both shear and axial tension
shell be so proportioned that the calculated shear and axial
tension do not exceed the allowable shearing stress and
allowable axial tension and the expression
(vf,cal/vf + tf,cal /tf) does not exceed 1.4.
Types of riveted joint
(1) Lap joint
(i) single riveted
(ii) double riveted
(2) Butt joint
Single riveted butt joint with single cover plate
Single riveted butt joint with double cover plate
Double riveted but joint with double cover plate

Modes of failure
Tension failure in the plate
Shearing failure across one or more planes of the rivets
Bearing failure between the plates and the rivets
Plate shear or shear out failure in the plate
Tension failure in the plate
The plate can fail by tearing off across the pitch length due to lack of
tensile strength of the plate on a section along the row of the rivets.
put =pull applied per pitch length , for tension failure
ft =ultimate tensile strength of the plate material
P= pitch of rivets measured perpendicular to the direction of force
t= thickness of the plate
D =gross diameter
Put= ft x(p-d) x t

Shearing failure of the rivets
In a riveted joint, the rivets themselves fail in shear, the tendency is to cut through the
rivet across the section lying in the plane between the plates it connects
pus = Pull required , per pitch length, for shear failure
fs= ultimate shear strength of the rivet material
d= gross dia of the rivets
Resisting area of rivet section=
(/4)x d
(in single shear)
2 x (/4) x d
(in double shear)
Pus= (/4x d
)x fs, (for single shear)
2 x (/4 x d
) x fs (in double shear)

Bearing failure between plates and rivets
A rivet joint may fail if a rivets itself is deformed by the plate acting
on it or if the rivet crushes the material of the plate which it bears.
Pub = pull required, per pitch length , for bearing failure of rivet.
f b= ultimate crushing strength of the rivet.
d= gross dia of the rivet
t= thickness of the plate
Pub = (intensity of radial pressure, at failure)x projected area
Pub= f b x d x t

Shear-out failure of the plate
This type of failure generally occur due to insufficient
edge distance beyond the rivet.
Strength of riveted joint
1. Strength of plate
at = permissible stress in plate in axial tension
Strength of the plate per pitch length is given by
pt = at x (p-d) x t
2. Strength of rivet or rivet value
It is the smaller of (i) shearing strength of rivet (ii)
bearing strength of rivet

Shearing strength of rivet,
Ps= vf x(/4x d
), (for single shear)
vf x2 x (/4 x d
) (in double shear)
Bearing strength of rivet
Pb= pf x d x t
Lesser of above values will be the rivet value or strength of
riveted joint

Efficiency of the joint
It is defined as the ratio of the strength of the joint to the
strength of the plate

= Least of pt,ps,pb

Codal provision for pitch of rivets IS
Minimum pitch: The distance between centers of rivets
should be not less than 2.5 times the nominal diameter of
the rivets.
Maximum pitch
(i) Distance between centers of any two adjacent rivets
shall not exceed 32t or 300 mm, whichever is less.
(ii) The distance between centers of two adjacent rivets, in
a line laying in the direction of stress, shall not exceed
16 t or 200 mm whichever is less (tension member)
12 t or 200 mm whichever is less (compression member)

(iii) Distance between centers of any two consecutive
rivets in a line adjacent and parallel to an edge of an
outside plate shall not exceed (100mm + 4t) or 200 mm,
whichever is less in compression or tension members.
(iv) When rivets are staggered at equal intervals and the
gauge does not exceed 75mm,the distances specified in
(ii) and (iii) between centers of rivets ,may be increased
by 50 percent.
Edge distance
The minimum distance from the centre of any hole to the
edge of a plate shall not less than that given in table in IS
Diameter of Rivet
The diameter of rivet for a given plate thickness is
generally chosen from the unwins formula
d : 6.04 t
T= thickness of the plate in mm and d = dia of rivet in
Tacking Rivets
Tacking rivets are generally used when a structural
member consist of two angles so as to act as one unit.
These rivets are also known as stitch rivets.
In this case the pitch in line not exceeding 32 times the
thickness of outside plate or 300 mm, whichever is less.
Other codal provision for
Rivet through packing's
Long grip rivets
Countersunk head of rivets
Member meeting at a point.