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2010

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- .-. , . .. ;
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, 2010. 176 .
ISBN
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,

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ISBN

c
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.. , 2010
c
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. -
, 2010

1.
1.1. .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. n
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. n . . .
2.3. . . . .
2.4. . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . .
2.6.
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2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8. . . . .

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12
12
12
13
14
14

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. . . . . . . . . . 20

3.
3.1. . . . .
3.2.
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3.3. .
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3.4. .
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3.5. . . . . .
3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7. . . . . . .
3.8. -
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3.9.
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21
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25
30
30
31

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4.
39
4.1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.2. -
( ) . . . . . 40

4.3. m = n, D = det A 6= 0 . . . . 41
4.4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.5. . . . . . . . 45

5.
5.1. .
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5.2. . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . .
5.5. . .
5.6. . . . . . . . . . . .
6.
6.1. , . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3. . . . . . . . .
6.4. . .
6.5.
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6.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7. . . .

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55
57

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60
60
60
61
64

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. . . . . . . 70
. . . . . . . 70

7.

7.1. .
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7.2. . . . . . . . . .
7.3. . . . . . . .
7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5. . . . . . .
7.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.
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7.9. . . . . . . . . .

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75
80
81
85
86
88
90

. . . . . . 91
. . . . . . 94

8. ( 1)
8.1. ( 1) . . . . . . . . . .
8.2. ( 2) . . . . . . . . .
8.3. . ( 3)
8.4. ( 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5. ( 5) . . . .

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98
98
100
102
107
110

8.6. ( 6, 7 8) 112
8.7. ( 9 10) . . . 116
8.8. .
( 11) . . . . . . 120
9. ( 2)
9.1. ( 1 2) . . . . .
9.2. ( 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3. ( 4, 5, 6) . . . . . . .
9.4. . ( 7) . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5. . . ( 8, 9, 10) . . .

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123
123
128
132
142
144

10.
10.1.
10.2. . . . .
10.3. 1 . . . . . . . . .
10.4. 2 . . . . . . . . .

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148
148
148
149
163

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174

175



,
.

, . , . n, .

( 3).

, 4. . ,
, , ( , ,
).
.

: , ,
.


.
, .

.

1.
,

, .
, , .

1.1. .

. , , 1, 2, 3, 4 ,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5. aik (k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, i = 1, 2, 3, 4) k,
i.

1
a1 a12 a13 a14 a15
a2 a2 a2 a2 a2
5
4
3
2
1
(1.1)
.
3
a1 a32 a33 a34 a35
a41 a42 a43 a44 a45

, a43 3,
4. , a35 , a24 , a13 . a11 + a21 + a31 + a41 ?
, (1.1), .
.

1
a1 a12 . . . a1n
a21 a22 . . . a2n

A=
... ... ... ... .
am
am
. . . am
n
1
2
A : A = [aik ] (i = 1, m; k = 1, n).
aik .
. (i) , (k) ,
. , a43
.
A m n . ,
A (m n). (1.1) 4
5 , (4 5).

1.

, ,
, ( )
.
n

1
a1 a12 . . . a1n
a2 a2 . . . a2
n
2
1
A=
... ... ... ... .
an1 an2 . . . ann

, a11 , a22 , . . . , ann ,


an1 , a2n1 , . . . , a1n . , , ,
, . , , , .

1
a1 0 . . . 0
0 a22 . . . 0
B=
... ... ... ...
0
0 . . . ann
,

1
0 ... 0
1 ... 0
0
E=
... ... ... ...
0
0 ... 1
.
.
.

1.2.
A = [aik ] B = [bik ]
, ,
.
, A B ( A = B),
a11 = b11 , a21 = b21 , . . ., aik = bik .
, A 6= B.

1.3.
A = [aik ] B = [bik ] .
A B C = [cik ] (
C = A + B) , cik = aik + bik .

1.4.

, ,
.

 
 

1 4 2
2 1 3
3 3 1
1.
+
=
.
3 2 1
4 3 2
7 1 1

,
. .

1.4.
A = [aik ]
B = [bik ] ( B = A) , i k
bik = aik .
, A ,
.
"
# "
#
1
2
3
3
6
9
6
1 = 12
18
3 .
2. 3 4
5 7 2
15 21 6

1.5.
A B,
: ( )
( )
. A (m n),
B (n k). m k
. ,
A B B A.
A B, B A A
(m n), B (n m).
A B
(m n) (n l) . A = [aki ]
B = [bsj ] C = [cqp ] ( C = A B) (ml), cqp
q A p B, ..
n
X
aqi bip = aq1 b1p + aq2 b2p + + aqn bnp , q = 1, m, p = 1, k.
cqp =
(1.2)
i=1

, q p i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) aqi .
bpi . (1.2)

10

1.

, q
p. C
.
3.

"
#
1
2
1 2
3
4
1 2
3
A = 1 3 2
B=
.
2
3
4 5
6 3
4 3
. A B , A B. (1.2)

"
#
1
2
1 2
3
4
1 2
3
C = 1 3 2
=
2
3
4 5
6 3
4 3
"
#
1121+32+44
1222+3334
= 1 1 3 1 2 2 + 3 4 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 =
4151+6234
4252+63+33
"
#
21
5
4 23 . (3 2).
=
1
25
B A , B A .
,
A, B B, A , A B 6= B A.
A , E ,
A, , , A E = E A = A.
,
:

(1 2 )A = 1 (2 A),

(1 + 2 )A = 1 A + 2 A,

A + B = B + A,

1 (A + B) = 1 A + 1 B,
A(BC) = (AB)C,
(1.3)

A(B + C) = AB + AC,

(A + B)C = AC + BC,

A(1 B + 2 C) = 1 AB + 2 AC,

(1 B + 2 C)A = 1 BA + 2 CA.
(1.3) 1
2 A, B C, .

11

1.5.
4. (2A + 3B) C,
"




1
2
2 1 1
2 1 0
A=
, B=
, C = 4 1
0 1 4
3 2 2
5
1

0
3
2

. ,

 
 

4 2 2
6 3 0
2 5 2
2A + 3B =
+
=
.
0 2 8
9 6 6
9 8 2

#
" 1

2
0
2 5 2
4 1
3 =
(2A + 3B)C =
9 8 2
5
1 2


2 + 20 10 4 5 2 0 + 15 + 4
=
=
9 + 32 10 18 8 2 0 + 24 + 4


8 11 19
.
=
13 28 28
(2 3).

a11 a12 a13


5. A = a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33
"
#
1 0 0
B = 0 0 1 . C = A B D = B A.
0 1 0
, C A , D
. B,
?

2. n
2.1.
1, 2, . . . , n
n .
(1 , 2 , . . . , n ).
k (k = 1, 2, . . . , n) 1, 2, . . . , n k
. n
n! = 1 2 . . . n.
(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) i , j .
i j , ,
i j , .
, ,
, .
, (4,3,1,5,2) ,
6 : ( ),
( , ),
( ).
4 5 . 2+3+1=6
. (3,4,1,5,2) . 5 ( ).
, , .
. ,
. , k k+1 ,
, ..
. k
k+m+1 , m , , (2m + 1) .
, ,
.

2.2. n
n:

1
a1 a12 . . . a1n
a2 a2 . . . a2
n
2
1
A=
... ... ... ... .
an1 an2 . . . ann
n A, -

13

2.3.
:
n
1 2
a
1 a2 an .

(2.1)

(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) s,
(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) t. ,
s + t ,

(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) .
(2.1) ,
, ,
. , (2.1) n!, ..
1, 2, . . . , n.
. , ,
n n! ,
,
(1)s+t , s , ,
t .
:

1
1
1
a
1 a2 . . . an
X
2
2
2
n
1 2
(1)s+t a
D = det A = a1 a2 . . . an =
1 a2 . . . an .
. .n. . .n. . . . . .n.
a1 a2 . . . an
,
aji .
. , .
,
, .

2.3.


a11 a12
A=
a21 a22

a11 a22 a12 a21 . (1, 2) , (2, 1) ,


1

a1 a12

= a11 a22 a12 a21 .
D= 2
a1 a22

14

2. n


2 4
.

1. D =
3
5
. D = 2 5 3 (4) = 10 + 12 = 22.

2.4.
1, 2, 3 6 = 3! ,
, .
1
a1

D = a21
a3
1

a12
a22
a32

a13
a23
a33




= a11 a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21 a32


a13 a22 a31 a12 a21 a33 a11 a23 a32 ,

(1, 2, 3); (2, 3, 1) (3, 1, 2) , (3, 2, 1);


(2, 1, 3) (1, 3, 2) .
D : ,
,
, ,
, , ,
, .
.


1 17 7


1 .
2. D = 1 13
1
7
1
. D = 13 + 17 + 49 + 91 + 17 7 = 180.

2.5.
. A
. AT
A.
1.
, .. det A = det AT .
.
A AT

n
t+s 1 2
1 2
(1)s+t a
nn ,
2 a
a
1 a
1 a2 an (1)

15

2.5.

a
ij AT . aij = a
ij
. det A det AT , det A = det AT .
1 , , ,
( ).
2. ( ).
.
. D1 . i k.
D2 .
k
i
n
1 2
(1)s+t a
1 a2 ai ak an
D1
k
i
n
1 2
(1)s1 +t a
1 a2 ai ak an

D2 . , , .
k
i
i
k
a
i = ak , ai = ak , s s1
,
, , D1 = D2 .
3. ,
, .
, , , , .. D1 = D2 . ,
2 D1 = D2 , , D1 = D1 , D1 = 0.
4. ( .) i-
A aij = bj + cj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n; i
, det A = det B + det C, B
A i- bj , C cj .
. D
(bj +cj ).
, bj , cj .

.
5. A A i- : a
ji = aji , j = 1, n, i
, det A = det A.
, det(A) = n det A.
4 = 0.
6. , , .

16

2. n

6 3 5.
7. A ,
, .
.
4 ,
, ,
.
8.
, .
.
9. :
det(A B) = det A det B.
.

2.6.

- aji ,
,
, . ,
, aji Aji .
n.
(n 1) ,
j i, (n1)
Mij .

D = a11 (a22 a33 a23 a32 ) + a12 (a23 a31 a21 a33 ) + a13 (a21 a32 a22 a31 ).

A11 = (a22 a33 a23 a32 ) = M11 , A12 = (a23 a31 a21 a33 ) = M21 ,
A13 = (a21 a32 a22 a31 ) = M31 .
,
D = a11 M11 a12 M21 + a13 M31 .
1. Aji Mij

Aji = (1)i+j Mij .


(2.2)
.
i = j = 1. A11

2.6.

17

(n 1) ,
, , 3
n
2
(1)N (1,2 ,3 ,...,n ) ,
a
2 a3 . . . an
N (1, 2 , . . . , n ) 1, 2 , . . . , n .
, , M11 ( (n 1))
(1)N (1,2 1,3 1,...,n 1) , M11
D, ,
N (1, 2 , . . . , n ) = N (2 , 3 , . . . , n ) = N (2 1, 3 1, . . . , n 1).
3
1
1
n
2
a
2 a3 . . . an A1 M1 c .
. aji .
(i 1) (j 1) ,
.
D
= (1)i+j D.
D,

i+j j
1
A1 = (1) Ai . (
, M j = M 1 .
D.)
1
i
( i = j = 1) M11 = A11 . Mij = (1)i+j Aij ,
, Aji = (1)i+j Mij . .
2. -
( )
, ..
D = aj1 Aj1 + aj2 Aj2 + . . . + ajn Ajn ,
(2.3)
j .
.
(2.3) , j- -
, .. (2.3) ,
.
(2.3) , D
j- .
3. ()

() .
. s = aj1 Ai1 + aj2 Ai2 + . . . + ajn Ain
j-
i- . s j- , i j.

18

2. n

7 (2.2) (2.3), n
(n 1), - ( ) (n 1) ,
. .


8 7
2
0


7 10
8 2
.
3. D =
4
5
4 4
0 4 3 2


0 1 6 10


20
0 10 15
. D =
4
4
5
4
0
4 3
2

( , 2,
, 2). :




1 6 10
1 6 10




20 = 20 2
3
4 =
D = 4(1)3+1 10 15
4 3


2
4 3
2




1
6 10
9 16


=
9 16 = 20(1)(1)1+1
= 20 0
27 42
0 27 42


1
8
= 20 18
= 360 (21 24) = 1080.
3 21

2.7.

A1 A,
A1 A = AA1 = E.
(2.4)
A , det A 6= 0.
(2.4) :
det A1 det A = 1. , det A 6= 0. ,
.
. A = [aji ] B = [bji ],
Aij
,
(2.5)
bji =
D
i
i
Aj aj
D = det A.

2.7.

19

A = [Aji ], Aji = Aij ,


A.
A1 ,
(2.5). cqp
A B. (.
(1.2))
n
n
n
X
X
1 X q p
aqi Api
=
a A .
(2.6)
aqi bip =
cqp =
D
D i=1 i i
i=1
i=1

(2.6) q det A
p. p 6= q,
3 . 2.6 , .. cqp = 0 p 6= q.
p = q, (2.3) (2.6)
D = det A, , cpp = 1. :

0, p 6= q,
q
cp =
1, p = q,
.. C = AB . B = [bji ] A. , BA = E.
"
#
3 2 1
4 .
4. , A = 2 2
2 2
5
. det A =





3 2 1 3 2 1
1 5



1+2


5 = 2(1)
4 = 1 0
= 2 2
1 6 = 2 6= 0.
2 2
6
5 1 0
A , .
A :
A11 = 2,
A21 = 12, A31 = 10,
1
A32 = 14,
A2 = 2, A22 = 17,
A33 = 2.
A23 = 2,
A13 = 0,
(2.5),

1 6
5

17

A1 =
1 2 7 .
0 1
1

A1 A A1 .
, .

20

2. n

2.8.
A . X Y

AX = B;
(2.7)
Y A = B.
(2.8)
A , A1 . (2.7)
A1 .

A1 (AX) = A1 B, (A1 A)X = A1 B,


EX = A1 B,
X = A1 B.
(2.8)
Y = BA1 .
,
(2.7) (2.8) . A ,
.
5. AX = B,
"
#
"
#
3 4 3
4 4 10
A = 2 3 5 ;
B = 0 6 10 .
0 0
1
1 1 1

X.
. det A = 1 6= 0. A , X = A1 B.
A1 :
A21 = 4, A31 = 11,
A11 = 3,
A32 = 9,
A12 = 2, A22 = 3,
1
2
A3 = 0,
A3 = 0,
A33 = 1.
"
#
3 4 11
1
3
9 ;
A = 2
0
0
1
"
# "
# "
#
3 4 11
4 4 10
1
1
1
3
9 0 6 10 = 1 1
1 .
X = 2
0
0
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
,
A X.
B.

3.
, ,
. . ,
: .

3.1.
. R ,
x, y, z, . . ., , :
1) ( ),
x y R z R,
x y x + y;
2) ( ),
x R y R, x
x.
() 1 2 ():
1) x + y = y + x x y R ( );
2) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) x, y, z R ( );
3) R 0 (-) , x + 0 = x
x R;
4) x R R y , x+y =
= 0 ( y x);
5) 1 x = x x R;
6) (x) = ()x x R
;
7) ( + )x = x + x x R;
8) (x + y) = x + y x y R .
, ,
:
1) ;
2) x y, y = (1)x;
3) x R 0 x = 0.

22

3.

, , 1). , R
- 01 02 . x = 01 , 0 = 02 ,
01 + 02 = 01 . x = 02 , 0 = 01 , 02 + 01 = 02 .
01 + 02 = 02 + 01 , .. 01 = 02 .
.
, . 1 8 .
(, 7 8 ).
, . 1.3 1.4.
1 8 , .
, (n 1), (1 n).

Rn , Rn . Rn
(n 1)
1

2
. = (1 , 2 , . . . , n )T ,
.
.
n
Rn (1 n) (1 , 2 , . . . , n ). -
- , , ..
a = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ), b = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ),

a + b = (1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , . . . , n + n ),
a = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ).
(0, 0, . . . , 0) 0 .
- -, , ,
. ,
,
,
, Rn Rn .
1. R3 a = (1, 2, 2), b = (0, 1, 3), c = (2, 3, 4).
d = 2a + 4b 3c.

3.2.

23

.
: 2a = (2, 4, 4), 4b = (0, 4, 12), 3c = (6, 9, 12),
2a + 4b 3c = (8, 9, 20).

3.2.


, .
. b = 1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + n an
a1 , a2 , . . . , an
1 , 2 , . . . , n .
. a1 , a2 , . . . , an
, 1 , 2 , . . . , n ,
, ,
1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + n an = 0.

(3.1)

(3.1) , 1 = 2 = . . . = n = 0,
a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
1. a1 , a2 , . . . , an
, ,
.
. a1 , a2 , . . . , an
. (3.1),
1 , 2 , . . . , n . , , 1 6= 0. (3.1)






3
n
2
a2 +
a3 +. . .+
an , .. a1
a1 =
1
1
1
a2 , a3 , . . . , an .
a1 a2 , a3 , . . . , an ,
.. a1 = 2 a2 + 3 a3 + . . . + n an (1)a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + n an = 0.
1, 2 , . . . , n (1),
a1 , a2 , . . . , an .
a, b, c, d 1 . 3.1
, d
a, b, c.
.
2. , -,
.

24

3.

3. , , .

3.3. .

. n-,
n ,
, (n + 1) , .

, . n Rn
( Rn ).
. ,
n n- Rn , ,
.
4. Rn
, , .
. f1 , f2 , . . . , fn - Rn
x .
x, f1 , f2 , . . . , fn , , (n + 1) n-
, ,
0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , n , ,
0 x + 1 f1 + 2 f2 + . . . + n fn = 0.

(3.2)

0 6= 0, f1 , f2 , . . . , fn
, , . (3.2)






2
n
1
f1 +
f2 + . . . +
fn ,
(3.3)
x=
0
0
0
.. x f1 , f2 , . . . , fn .
(3.3). ,
x
x = 1 f1 + 2 f2 + . . . + n fn ,
x = 1 f1 + 2 f2 + . . . + n fn .
,
(1 1 )f1 + (2 2 )f2 + . . . + (n n )fn = 0.

(3.4)

3.4.

25

f1 , f2 , . . . , fn , (3.4) , 1 = 1 , 2 = 2 , . . ., n = n . .
. ,
x ,
x .
, f1 , f2 , . . . , fn x = x1 f1 + x2 f2 +
+ . . . + xn fn , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn x . x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).
4 , x .
5.
,
.
.
, Rn

, .

3.4. .

,
, ,
.
A (m n)

1
a1 a12 . . . a1n
a2 a2 . . . a2
n
2
1
A=
.
. . . am
am
am
n
2
1

Rn , Rm .
- k k . , ,
, k- .
. r A, :
1) A r, ;
2) (r+1) , ,
.
rang A = r, rA = r.

26

3.

, , . .
r, , r , , , .
. .
6 ( ). ()
().
. A (m n) ,
r, .
, ,
, , . p q , 1 p m, 1 q n.

1
a1 a12 . . . a1r a1q


a2 a2 . . . a2 a2
1
q
r
2


D = .

r
a1 ar2 . . . arr arq

p
a1 ap2 . . . apr apq

: p r , ; q r
, p > r q > r
r + 1 r.
.
ap1 Ap1 + ap2 Ap2 + . . . + apr Apr + apq Apq = 0.
(3.5)
p
p
Aq 6= 0, Aq .
Api p, Apq p
Ap
q. iq = ip . (3.5) apq = 1q ap1 + 2q ap2 +
Aq
+ . . . + rq apr p = 1, 2, . . . , m. ,
q .
, D
, , p
. p q ,
.
1
.

27

3.4.

1. r (), () . r
, .
2. det A , () A ,
, ()
.
. det A = 0. A
n, 1 () .
, ,
.. , k- j1 , j2 , . . . , js
1 , 2 , . . . , s . k- j1 ,
1 , j2 , 2 , . . . , js ,
s , , , k-
, .
3. ,
, .
4. ,
,
.
5. xi = (i1 , i2 , . . . , in ), i = 1, 2, . . . , m, Rn ,
rang [ij ] < m, j = 1, 2, . . . , n; i = 1, 2, . . . , m. rang [ij ] = m,
xi , i = 1, 2, . . . , m, .
1.
6. Rn n-.
.
xi = (i1 , i2 , . . . , in ), i = 1, n + 1,
5 , ,
rang [ij ] < n + 1.

e1 = (1, 0, 0, . . . , 0)
e2 = (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0)

en = (0, 0, 0, . . . , 1)

(3.6)

28

3.



5,
1
0 ... 0
1 ... 0
0
rang
= n.

0
0 ... 1
, Rn , n , (n + 1) , ..
Rn n-.
(3.6) Rn . .
5 n-
.
7. x1 , x2 , . . . , xm Rn
, r ,

, m.
r = m.

.
2. :


4 5| 6
|1 2
2 |1 4 5 7|
|0 2 3
3 |4 3 1 0|
5| 4

A=
; B = 4 |5 2 0 0| .
|0
0
1
4|
5

|0 0
0
2| 7
5 |7 0 0 0|


.
, ,
,
. rA = rB = 4.
3 4, ,
,
.
3.

1 1
2
3
4
2
1 1
2
0

2
1
1
3 .
A = 1
1
5 8 5 12
3 7
8
9
13
. A ,
, ,

3.4.

29

1 1
2
3
4
0
3
5 4
8

1
3
4
7 .
: A2 = 0
0
6 10 8 16
0 4
2
0
1
A2 , . .
, ,
.

|1 1
2|
3
4

3 5| 4 8 .
A3 = |0
|0
1
3|
4
7

,
rang A3 = rang A = 3.
4. ,
"
#
1
2
4
5
6
7
A=
17 22 29
. .
A ,
.

1 2


5 6 6= 0.





1
1
2
4
2
4
2
4 1





4 13 = 3 0 4 13 = 0.
6
7 = 0
det A = 5
0 4 13
17 22 29 0 12 39


1 2

, A
5 6
. . 1 2 . (17, 22, 29) = 1 (1, 2, 4)+
+2 (5, 6, 7), :
(
1 + 52 = 17,
21 + 62 = 22,
41 + 72 = 29.
, 1 = 2, 2 = 3.

30

3.

3.5.
, n-
n , .. n-
. , .
.
. R
R0 , x1 R y1 R0 , x2 R y2 R0
, x1 + x2 y1 + y2 , , R
R0 , .
, R R0 .
x1 , x2 , . . . , xk R ,
y1 , y2 , . . . , yk R0 .
.
, n- R R0 , , R R0 ( R R0 ).
, Rn n -
, .. , , .

3.6.
L R : L L.
( ) ,
R, L. , L R. L,
, , , R, ,
R.
x, y, z . . . R.
(
L(x, y, z, . . .). , R.

3.7.

31

7 ( ). L(x1 , x2 , . . . , xm ) r, x1 , x2 , . . . , xm , r , (r + 1)
.
.
7
, Rn
, .

3.7.

. .
. , , x y R
, (x, y). x y,
:
) (x, y) = (y, x) x y R;
) (x, y + z) = (x, y) + (x, z) x, y, z R;
) (x, y) = (x, y) x y
R;
) (x, x) > 0, x 6= 0, (x, x) = 0, x = 0.
R , .
E n n- .
,
.
x = (1 , 2 , . . . , n )T y = (1 , 2 , . . . , n )T Rn .
(x, y) = 1 1 + 2 2 + . . . + n n .
(3.7)
) ), , . .
. x (, )

p
|x| = ||x|| = (x, x).

(3.7),
|x| = 1 2 + 2 2 + . . . + n 2 .

32

3.

8. x y E n
|(x, y)| |x||y|.
(3.8)
. x y, .
(x y, x y) 0.

2 (x, x) 2(x, y) + (y, y) 0.


(3.9)
(3.9) ,
. , .. (x, y)2 (x, x)(y, y) 0 (x, y)2 (x, x)(y, y).
, (3.8).
(3.8) -.
(x, y)
, 1
1.
|x||y|

(x, y)
.
cos =
|x||y|
. x y E n
, (x, y) = 0.
9.
x1 , x2 , . . . , xm (
).
. ,
c1 x1 + c2 x2 + . . . + cm xm = 0.
(3.10)
xj . cj (xj , xj ) = 0. (xj , xj ) > 0, cj = 0.
j = 1, 2, . . . , m, , (3.10)
c1 = c2 = . . . = cm = 0, , x1 , x2 , . . . , xm .
. E n , . , ,
, .
E n (3.7),

e = (1, 0, 0, . . . , 0);
1

e2 = (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0);
;
en = (0, 0, 0, . . . , 1)
.

3.8.

33

a1 , a2 , . . . , an
E n b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ,
, . b1 = a1 .
b2 b2 = 1 b1 + a2 . b1 = a1 , a1 a2 , b2 6= 0 1 . 1 , b2 b1 , ..
(b2 , b1 ) = 0. 1 (b1 , b1 ) + (a2 , b1 ) = 0.
(a2 , b1 )
.
1 =
(b1 , b1 )
, b3 = 1 b1 + 2 b2 + a3 . b3 a1 , a2 , a3 , b3 6= 0 1 2 .
1 2 , b3 (a3 , b1 )
(a3 , b2 )
b1 b2 . , 1 =
, 2 =
.
(b1 , b1 )
(b2 , b2 )
, n
b1 , b2 , . . . , bn .

3.8. -

,
.
A , , R. A ,
M , N A x R.
(M, N ) , MN, , MN x MN x. M ,
N MN. MN PQ, x, ,
, MN = PQ.
MN x, MK x, MK = MN.
MN x, PQ y, TB (x + y), TB = MN + PQ.
,
R.
A R :
1) M A x R
N A , MN x;

34

3.

2) M , N P A
MN + NP = MP.
(3.11)
,
,
, .
A n-
An , R n-.
.
1. M A MM 0 R.
, NM x, MM y R. NM =
= NM + MM x + y, y = 0 R.
2. M N A MN =
= (1)NM.
, MN x, NM y, MN+NM = MM
x+y = 0. , x = y, .. MN (1)y MN =
= (1)NM. MN = NM.
- O An
OKi = ei , i = 1, n,
Rn . . O .
M An . OM M . M -, .. OM = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + . . . + xn en ,
M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
. OM,
, Rn . M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).
. M N ,
MN.
. (3.11) OM + MN = ON.
MN = ON OM, .. MN
.
A n- E n , An ,
n- -
Vn .
M N Vn MN x,
p
M N MN
(M, N ) = |x| = (x, x).

35

3.9.

O n- Vn e1 , e2 , . . . , en , . (O, e1 , e2 , . . . , en )
( ).
. M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) N (y1 , y2 , . . . , yn )
, , ,
p
(3.12)
(M1 , M2 ) = (x1 y1 )2 + (x2 y2 )2 + . . . + (xn yn )2 .
n = 2
(O, i, j), n = 3 (O, i, j, k). Oi, Oj, Ok : , , ,
OX, OY , OZ.
i j , (O, i, j) , . (O, i, j, k) , k
i j
, ,
.

3.9.
.
Rn :
(e1 , e2 , . . . , en ), , (f1 , f2 , . . . , fn ),
.
:
n
X
cij ei , j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
(3.13)
fj =
i=1

cij
1
c1 c12 . . .
c2 c2 . . .
2
1
C=

cn1 cn2 . . .

c1n
c2n
.

cnn

C
. , C
.
(3.13)

(f1 , f2 , . . . , fn ) = (e1 , e2 , . . . , en )C.
(3.14)

36

3.

f1 , f2 , . . . , fn , C
, C 1 . (3.14) C 1 ,
(e1 , e2 , . . . , en ) = (f1 , f2 , . . . , fn )C 1 .
x,
n
n
X
X
j fj .
i ei ;
x=
x=
j=1

i=1

, j .
.

n
n
n
n
n
n
X
X
X
X
X
X

j
j cij ei =
i ei
j fj =
cij ei =
i

j=1

j=1

i=1

i=1

j=1

i=1

(
). ,
n
X
cij j , i = 1, 2, . . . , n.
(3.15)
i =
j=1

(3.15)
1
1

2
2

. = C . .
(3.16)
.
.
.
.
n
n

(3.16) ,


. = C 1

.
.
n

1
2

..
.
.
n

(3.17)

E n {ei } {fj }. Q
.
fj ,
fi fj , i 6= j.

3.9.

37

: Q1 = QT .
(3.16) (3.17)
1
1

1
1
2
2
2
2




. = Q . , . = QT . .
(3.18)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
n
n
n
n
3
6. R
f1 = {1, 2, 3}, f2 = {2, 3, 7}, f3 = {1, 3, 1} x = (2, 3, 4).
, f1 , f2 , f3 .
1 , 2 , 3 x .
"
#
1 2 1
. C = 2 3 3 3 7 1
|C| = 1 6= 0.
, C . 7 f1 , f2 , f3 ,
R3 . (2.5), C 1 ( ,
"
#
18
5
3
1
7 2 1 .
C ): C =
5 1 1
(3.17)
x
"
# "
# "
#
1
18
5
3
2
9
2
7 2 1
3 =
4 .
: =
5 1 1
4
3
3

. ,
(n 1).
. ,
(1 n), . 6.6.
- . , n = 2.
O, i, j
0 0
O, i0 , j0 (. 3.1).

 (i, j) (i , j )
1
1
q1 q2
Q =
, .. i0 = q11 i + q12 j, j0 = q21 i + q22 j.
q12 q22
, . (x, y),
(x0 , y 0 ).

38

3.

. 3.1.


x = x0 cos y 0 sin ,
y = x0 sin + y 0 cos ,

, O O0 . ,
i0 = i cos + j sin , j0 = i sin +
+j cos , 

cos sin
.
Q=
sin
cos
(x, y)
(x0 , y 0 )
(3.18):




 0   0 
x
x
x
x
T
,
=
Q
,
=Q
y
y0
y0
y


x0 = x cos + y sin ,
y 0 = x sin + y cos .

(3.19)

.

, .. , i0 =
= i, j0 = j, O O0
(. 3.2).
O0 XOY a b, .. OO0 = ai + bj.
, OM = xi + yj, O0 M =
= x0 i + y 0 j, OM = OO0 + O0 M,
. 3.2.
.. xi + yj = (x0 + a)i + (y 0 + b)j.


 0
x = x0 + a,
x = x a,
(3.20)
y = y 0 + b,
y 0 = y b.

.
,
(3.20), (3.19),
 0

x = (x a) cos + (y b) sin ,
x = x0 cos y 0 sin + a,
y 0 = (x a) sin + (y b) cos .
y = x0 sin + y 0 cos + b,

4.
4.1.
.
m n

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = b2 ,


(4.1)

m 1 m 2 m n m
= b ,
a1 x + a2 x + . . . + an x

aji , i = 1, n; j = 1, m, xi ; bj
.
aji . (j) ,
, (i) ,
.
, (4.1)
:
n
X
(4.2)
aji xi = bj , j = 1, m.
i=1

. , (4.2),
, ,
aji xi = bj , i = 1, n, j = 1, m,
, i

1
a1 a12
a2 a2
1
2
A=

am
am
1
2

1 n.
1

x
. . . a1n
x2
2

. . . an
.
,
X
=
.

.
m
. . . an
xn

b1
2
b

, B = . .
.

.
bm

(4.1)
AX = B.
T
(a1j , a2j , . . . , am
j ) ,

(4.3)

aj =
j = 1, n , A, (4.1)
: a1 x1 +a2 x2 +. . .+an xn = b aj xj = b (j = 1, n),
b , .

40

4.

A
,
1
a1 a12 . . . a1n | b1
a2 a2 . . . a2 | b2
n
1
2

C=
|
| bm
am
am
. . . am
n
1
2
. (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) , : aji i bj , i = 1, n, j = 1, m.
, ,
, ,
.
,
, , .
:
1) , ;
2) , ,
;
3) , ,
, .
,
.
-
. , , .

4.2. -
( )
1. , .
. rA = rC , ,
A C, .
, ..
(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) , aji i = bj , , (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) .
, (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) ,
(bj = aji i ), .

4.3. m = n, D = det A 6= 0

41

A, ,
rang C = rang A.

4.3.
m = n, D = det A 6= 0
.
1. .
(4.3):
AX = B.
A , A1 .
(4.3) (. . 2.8)
(4.4)

X = A1 B.
1.
(
3x1
x1
3x1

+ 2x2
2x2
5x2

.
.
"
3
2 0
1 2 1
A=
3 5 1
:

3
2 0

3 0
D = det A = 4
3 5 1

+ x3
+ x3

=
=
=

1,
1,
0

()

A
#
.





3 2

= (1)3+3 4 3 = 1.

det A 6= 0, (4.4).
A1 , . 2.7:

A11 = 3,
A12 = 4,
A13 = 11,
A1 =

"

3 2
4
3
11
9

A21 = 2,
A22 = 3,
A23 = 9,
2
3
8

A31 = 2,
A32 = 3,
A33 = 8.

42

4.

(4.4)
"
# "
# "
# "
# "
#
x1
3 2
2
1
32
1
x2 =
4
3 3 1 =
4 + 3 = 1 .
x3
11
9 8
0
11 + 9
2

x1 = 1, x2 = 1, x3 = 2.
A1 ,
, .. .
2. .
(4.4)
1
b1
1
x
2
n
A
A
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
1
1
1
b2
x2
A1 A2 . . . . . . An
.
.

2
2
2
.
..
1

.

i ,
i =

x D A1i A2i . . . . . . Ani

.

..
.
.
.
A1n A2n . . . . . . Ann
bn
xn

Aki aik
det A = D. (. . 1.5),
,
A1i b1 + A2i b2 + . . . + Ani bn
.
D
Di i; Di D i- Di
.
. , xi =
D
i = 1, 2, . . . , n,
D1
D2
Dn
x1 =
, x2 =
, . . . , xn =
.
(4.5)
D
D
D
(4.5) .
xi =

2. (), .
.



1
2 0
2 0 1



D1 = 1 2 1 = 0 4 1 = 1;
0 5 1 0 5 1



3 1 0 3 1 0



D2 = 1 1 1 = 2 0 1 = 1;
3 0 1 3 0 1

4.4.

3
2

D3 = 1 2
3 5

1
1
0


3
2

= 2 4
3 5

1
0
0

43




= 2.

1
2
1
= 1, x2 =
= 1, x3 =
= 2.
1
1
1
3. ( ).
.
3. ().
.
"
#
3
2 0 | 1
1 2 1 | 1 .
C=
3 5 1 | 0
, , (
) .
"
#
"
#
"
#
3
2 0 | 1
3
2 0 | 1
3
2
0 | 1
1 2 1 | 1 0 8 3 | 2 0 8
3 | 2 .
3 5 1 | 0
0 3 1 | 1
0
0 1 | 2

(
3x1 + 2x2
= 1,
8x2 + 3x3 = 2,
x3 = 2,
. x3 = 2.
x3 , 8x2 = 2 + 6 = 8, x2 = 1.
3x1 = 1 + 2 = 3, x1 = 1.
(1, 1, 2).
D = 1, x1 =

4.4.

.
1. .
, ,
.
2. rA = rC = r. .
A . ,
, ,
, .
3. : ,

44

4.

, , . , , , ,
. .
, ,
r r ,
.
4. , . 4.3. , .
. ,
, .
, rA = rC = r < n (n ),
, rA = rC = n, .
, m 6= n, , .
.
4. -

x
7x2 3x3 + 4x4 + 2x5 = 3,

1
2x1 13x2 4x3 + 5x4 + 5x5 = 5,

x1 6x2 x3 + x4 + 3x5 = 2,
3x1 20x2 7x3 + 9x4 + 7x5 = 8.
,
,


1 7 3 4 2 | 3
4 2 | 3
|1 7| 3
2 13 4 5 5 | 5 |0
1|
2 3 1 | 1
. ()
1 6 1 1 3 | 2 0
1
2 3 1 | 1
3 20 7 9 7 | 8
0
1
2 3 1 | 1
, 2, , , , 3.
. , , .
, . ,
. .
() .
. , , . .. ,

4.5.

45

,
(). ,
x1 x2 , x3 , x4 , x5
.
(), ,


x1 7x2 3x3 + 4x4 + 2x5 = 3,
x2 + 2x3 3x4 + x5 = 1.

 , , :
x1 7x2 = 3 + 3x3 4x4 2x5 ,
x2 =
1 2x3 + 3x4 x5 .


.

x1 = 4 11x3 + 17x4 9x5 ,
x2 = 1 2x3 + 3x4 x5 .

()

() . ()
, - . , x3 = 1, x4 = 0,
x5 = 1, (2, 0, 1, 0, 1).

4.5.

aki xi = 0, i = 1, n, k = 1, m,

(4.6)

.
(4.6) ,
(0, 0, . . . , 0). . ,
.
2. (4.6)
, .
,
, , , .
3. (4.6) n = m
,
.
3 2
.
4. .

46

4.

. (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) ( 1 , 2 , . . . , n ) (4.6)
(1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , . . . , n + n ),
, .
aki (i + i ) = aki i + aki i . aki i = 0 aki i = 0, (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) ( 1 , 2 , . . . , n ) (4.6),
aki (i + i ) = 0, .. (1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , . . . , n + n ) .
5. (4.6) L (nr)
Rn , n , r , n > r.
. , (4.6)
L Rn ,
4 . L.
xr+1 , xr+2 , . . . , xn , x1 , x2 , . . . , xr . (n r)

:
(11 , 12 , . . . , 1r , 1, 0, 0, . . . , 0),

(21 , 22 , . . . , 2r , 0, 1, 0, . . . , 0),
(4.7)

..............................

1
2
r
, 0, 0, 0, . . . , 1).
(nr
, nr
, . . . , nr
(4.7) , A, , (n r) ( (n r) ,
,
(nr)

4.5.

47

(4.7) r+1 , r+2 , . . . , n . , L (n r)


, (n r + 1) . , (n r).
.
L, (n r) ,
.
, .
(4.7) .
.
.
, (n r)
, (n r), ,

.
.
5.
,
x1
+ 3x2 x3 + 5x4 = 0,

2x1 + x2 x3 + 3x4 = 0,

17x1 4x2 6x3 + 8x4 = 0,


3x1 + 4x2 2x3 + 8x4 = 0
. .
. , ,
:

1
3 1 5
1
3 1
5
1 1 3
5
1
7
2
0
A=

17 4 6 8
0 55 11 77
3
4 2
0
5
1
7
 8
1
3 1
5
.

0 5
1 7
, A
.
x1 x2 , x3 x4 .
, :

x1 + 3x2 = x3 5x4 ,
5x2 = x3 7x4 .

48

4.
:

x1 =

2
4
x3
x4 ,
5
5

x = 1x 7x .
3
4
2
5
5
, x3 = 5,
x4 = 0, x3 = 0, x4 = 5:

( 2,
1, 5, 0),
(4, 7, 0, 5).
aki xi = bk (k = 1, m, i = 1, n)
aki xi = 0, AX = B
AX = 0. , .
6. AX = B AX = 0.
. X1 = (x11 , x21 , . . . , xn1 )T
X2 = (x12 , x22 , . . . , xn2 )T AX = B, ..
AX1 = B AX2 = B. A(X1 X2 ) = 0,
.. X1 X2 AX = 0.
7. X1 AX = 0
X2 AX = B AX = B.
. AX1 = 0,
AX2 = B, A(X1 + X2 ) = B, .. X1 + X2 AX = B.

5.

. ,
, .

5.1. .

. ( ) (A, B).
AB.
A AB, B .
, ,
0.
(A, B) AB, A.
AB B
*
, 


A  a
(. 5.1). A B

AB, |AB|. , ,
. 5.1.
.
, , .
, , , .. , , , , , , ..
AB MN, , ( ABkMN).
AB MN ( AB MN) ( AB MN).
.
. AB MN , :
1) AB MN 2) |AB| = |MN|.
, . .
: a,
b, c ..

50

5.

a A AB,
a. :
, .
a1 , a2 , . . . , an (. 5.2).
O OA1 ,
* A2

A1 

a1 , A1 

a2
A1 A2 ,


a
3
a1 + a2 ?

a1 
a2 .., An1 :A

    3

An1 An ,
 

an . OAn

a
+
a
+
a

1
2
3


a1 , a2 , . . . , an
O
a + a + . . . + a .
1

a
b,
a : ) a a, > 0;
) a a, < 0; ) |a| = |||a|; ) 0 a = 0.
,
a = b, a k b. , ..
a k b, , a = b. ,
a b , 0 = 0 .
|a|
, a b,
b 6= 0, a = b =
|b|
|a|
= , a b.
|b|
, :
1) x + y = y + x; 2) (x + y) + z = x + (y + z);
3) x + 0 = x;
4) x y ,
x + y = 0 (, x = AB, y = BA);
5) 1 x = x;
6) (x) = ()x;
7) ( + )x = x + x; 8) (x + y) = x + y.
, , .. . V3 . ,
, n- . , V3 , , (
),
.
. 5.2.

5.1.

51

V3 V1
V2 . V1
,
, V2 ,
. , , ,
, .
V1 , V2 .
, V3 (V1 , V2 ) ,
n- . , ,
.

,
. V3
, 1 2.
1. a1 a2
, a1 a2 .
. a1 , a2 , ..
1 a1 + 2 a2 = 0, 1 , 2 2
, , 1 6= 0, a1 = a2 .
1
, a1 ka2 .
a1 ka2 . a1 a2 , ,
, . a1 6= 0, a2 = a1 , .
2. a1 , a2 , a3
, .
. a1 , a2 , a3 ,
a1 , a2 , a3 .
(
1 .1.3.2), , ,
.. a1 , a2 , a3 . a1 , a2 ,
a3 , , , .
, a1 , a2 , a3 , ,
(3 > 2).
, -

52

5.

V3 , , - .
e
 3

e3
A(x1 , x2 , x3 )
6

3 M

>



:


  B(y1 , y2 , y3 )





O P
OA
 PPP
e2
PP e2

A
P
q
P
/e

AA
U e1
1
. 5.4.
. 5.3.

, O
,
(. 5.3). OM - M . M -.
A(x1 , x2 , x3 ) B(y1 , y2 , y3 ) (. 5.4).
AB. , OA + AB = OB, ..
AB = OB OA = (y1 x1 , y2 x2 , y3 x3 ). AB, .
,

6
. k 6
i, j, k. ,
O

O
j
, i


(. 5.5).


1. AB = (2, 5, 4). . 5.5.
B(4, 4, 3). A(x, y, z).
. AB = (4x, 4y, 3z) = (2, 5, 4). 4x = 2,
x = 6, 4 y = 5, y = 9, 3 z = 4, z = 1. ,
(6, 9, 1).
2. A(4, 3, 5),
B(2, 7, 9), C(6, 1, 1). CM, 

.
4+2 3+7 5+9
,
,
,
. M
2
2
2
.. M (3, 5, 7). CM ,
M C:
CM = (3 6, 5 1, 7 1), CM = (3, 4, 6).

5.2.

53

5.2.
AB M , AB.
, M AB ( 6= 1),
AM = MB.
> 0, M AB, < 0,
M AB.
A B: A(x1 , y1 , z1 ),
B(x2 , y2 , z2 ). (x0 , y0 , z0 ) M , AB ( 6= 1). AM = MB
AM = {x0 x1 , y0 y1 , z0 z1 }, MB = {x2 x0 , y2 y0 , z2 z0 },
x0 x1 = (x2 x0 ), y0 y1 = (y2 y0 ), z0 z1 = (z2 z0 ).
:
x0 =

y1 + y2
z1 + z2
x1 + x2
, y0 =
, z0 =
.
1+
1+
1+

(5.1)

, , , :
(
= 1).
3. ABC
A(1, 3, 2), B(3, 5, 7), C(1, 5, 3). (x0 , y0 , z0 )
D .
. , D AM
= 2. M (1, 5, 2),
(5.1)
x0 =

1+21
3 + 2 5
7
2 + 2 2
2
= 1, y0 =
= , z0 =
= .
1+2
1+2
3
1+2
3

5.3.
e .
A ,
A.
AB l
A0 B0 e , A0 B 0
A B l, .. A0 B0 = e,
AB l. = e AB.

54

5.

,
, , e (a + b) = e a + e b,
.
, e a = |a| cos , e a, : e
a.

5.4.
. a
b , (a, b),
, .. (a, b) = |a||b| cos .
a b ,
.
,
,
.
:
1. (a, b) = (b, a);
2. (a, b + c) = (a, b) + (a, c);
3. (a, b) = (a, b);
4. (a, a) = |a|2 > 0 a 6= 0 (0, 0) = 0.
, , , ,
. 3.7.
,
,
. :
(x1 i + y1 j + z1 k, x2 i + y2 j + z2 k) = x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 ,
(i, j) = (i, k) = (j, k) = 0, (i, i) = (j, j) = (k, k) = 1.
:
1) a = xi + yj + zk:
p
p
(a, a) = |a| = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ;
2) d A(x1 , y1 , z1 ) B(x2 , y2 , z2 ):
p
d = |AB| = (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2
( (3.12));
3) :
(a, b)
a b =
;
|a|
(a, b)
4) : cos(a,b) =
;
|a||b|

5.5.

55

5) , , ,
:
x
y
cos = p
, cos = p
,
2
2
2
2
x +y +z
x + y2 + z2
z
;
cos = p
2
x + y2 + z2
6) a, .. a0 , , a, .
.

4. |a|, a = 4p + r, |p| = 1, |r| = 2,


(p,r) = 45 .
2
:
|a| = (a,
a) = (4p + r, 4p + r) = 16(p, p) + 8(p, r)+

2
+(r, r) = 16 1 + 8 1 2
+ 2 = 16 + 8 + 2 = 26; |a| = 26.
2
5. : a = 3i 6j k, b = i + 4j 5k,
c = 3i 4j + 12k. c (a + b).
(a + b, c)
. c (a + b) =
,
|c|
a + b = {4, 2, 6}, (a + b, c) = 12 + 8 72 = 52;

52
= 4.
|c| = 9 + 16 + 144 = 169 = 13; c (a + b) =
13

5.5.

a,b,c, . ,
, a b ,
c. .
.
a b
c, [a,b], :
1) a b, .. ca cb;
2) , a b
, .. |c| = |a||b| sin(a,b), (0 < a,b) < ;
3) a,b,c ,
, , .
, .

56

5.

( ), c = [a,b] . c = [a,b]
.
, a,b,c .
, , [a,b] = 0.
.
1. , ,
( ).
2. , . , a 6= 0, b 6= 0, |a||b| sin(a,b) = 0
sin(a,b) = 0.
3. , .. [a,b] = [b,a].
, , [a,b] [b,a] .
4. , .. [a,b] = [a,b].
, = 0 akb .
> 0, a a, [a,b] [a,b] [a,b] [a,b],

|[a,b]| = |a||b| sin(a,b) = |a||b| sin(a,b) = |[ab]|,


.
< 0, a a, [a,b] [a,b].

[a,b] [a,b], |[a,b]| = |a||b| sin(a,b) =


= |||a||b| sin{ (a,b)} = |||a||b| sin(a,b) = || |[a,b]| = |[a,b]|.

5. , ..
[a + b,c] = [a,c] + [b,c]. .

.
(i, j, k) , .. |i| = |j| = |k| = 1, (i,j) = 0,
(i,k) = 0, (j,k) = 0. , [i,j] = k, [i,k] = j, [j,k] = i,
[k,i] = j, [k,j] = i, [j,i] = k.
[i,i] = 0, [j,j] = 0, [k,k] = 0.
a = x1 i + y1 j + z1 k, b = x2 i + y2 j + z2 k.

5.6.

57

4 5,
[a,b] = [x1 i + y1 j + z1 k,x2 i + y2 j + z2 k] = x1 x2 [i,i] + x1 y2 [i,j]+
+x1 z2 [i,k] + y1 x2 [j,i] + y1 y2 [j,j] + y1 z2 [j,k] + z1 x2 [k,i] + z1 y2 [k,j]+
+z1 z2 [k,k] = x1 y2 k x1 z2 j x2 y1 k + y1 z2 i + z1 x2 j z1 y2 i =

= (y1 z2 y2 z1 )i (x1 z2 x2 z1 )j + (x1 y2 x2 y1 )k.

:


i
j k


[a, b] = x1 y1 z1 ,
x y z
2
2
2

, i, j, k .

- , ,
, - ,
.

5.6.
. a, b, c
.
(a, b, c). , (a, b, c) = ([a, b], c).
a, b, c .
, .
H, [a, b] d.
(a, b, c) = ([a, b], c) = |[a, b]||c| cos(d,c).

|c| cos(d,c) = H, a, b, c , |c| cos(d,c) =


= H, , |[a, b]| ,
: , , . a, b, c
, (a, b, c) > 0, , (a, b, c) < 0.
a, b, c ,
. .
a = x1 i + y1 j + z1 k, b = x2 i + y2 j + z2 k, c = x3 i + y3 j + z3 k.

58

5.

[a, b] = (y1 z2 y2 z1 )i + (x2 z1 x1 z2 )j + (x1 y2 x2 y1 )k;


([a, b], c) = (y1 z2 y2 z1 )x3 (x1 z2 x2 z1 )y3 + (x1 y2 x2 y1 )z3 =


x1 y1 z1


= x2 y2 z2 .
x y z
3
3
3
,
,
, , .
, , ..
(a, b, c) = (c, a, b) = (b, c, a).
.
, , . ,
1
ABCD: V = |(AB, AC, AD)|.
6
. a, b, c, (a, b) c
c (a, b), [[a, b], c].
6. ,

a = 2p + r b = p + 3r, |p| = 2, |r| = 2 = (p,r) =
= 45 .
.
S = |[a, b]| = |[2p + r, p + 3r]| = |2[p, p] + [r, p] + 6[p, r] + 3[r, r]| =

= 5|[p, r]| = 5|p||r| sin ,

[p, p] = [r, r] = 0, [r, p] = [p, r].

2
, S = 5 2 2
= 10.
2
7. : A(0; 3; 2); B(0; 2; 3); C(2; 5; 1);
D(2; 1; 2). :
) S ,
1
1
DA, DC;
3
2
) V , AB + DB,
DA DC.
) AH ABCD.

59

5.6.

:


1


) S = [DA, DC] ; DA = (2, 4, 4); DC = (0, 6, 3).
6


i
j
k


[DA, DC] = 2 4 4 = 12i + 6j 12k = 6(2i j + 2k).
0 6 3

1
S = |6(2i j + 2k)| = |(2i j + 2k)| = 4 + 1 + 4 = 3;
6
1
) V = |(AB + DB, DA, DC)|. AB = (0, 1, 1);
6
DB = (2, 3, 5); AB + DB = (2, 2, 6).





2 2 6
1 1 3
1




V = mod 2 4 4 = 2 mod 1 2 2 =
0 6 3
0 2 1
6


1 1 3


1 = 6;
= 2 0 1
0 2 1

3V
, V
S
ABCD, S BCD. ABCD
1
V = |(AB, AC, AD)|.
6
AB = (0, 1, 1); AC = (2, 2, 1); AD = (2, 4, 4),



0
1 1
1 1 0



1 = 0 6 3 = 18.
(AB, AC, AD) = 2 2


2
2
4
4
4
4
) AH h =

V = 3. S =

1
|[BC, BD]|, BC = (2, 3, 2),
2

BD = (2, 3, 5).


i
j k


[BC, BD] = 2 3 2 = 21i + 6j 12k,
2
3 5

|[BC, BD]| = 3 72 + 22 + 42 = 3 69,

3 69
.
S=
2
332
6
, h =
= .
3 69
69

6.

, .

6.1. ,
R R0 E R F R0 .
, x E
y F , E F .
E R, F R0 , R R0 .
, , f y = f (x) f : E F ,
f

E F . , f x
F . f (x) = y x
f , x y.
R = Rn , R0 = Rm . Rn Rm , f : Rn Rm
y 1 , y 2 , . . . , y m y x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
x:
y 1 = f1 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ),
y 2 = f2 (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ),
(6.1)

y m = fm (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).
, Rn Rm
m n .
. , ,
(6.1) , .. y i = ai1 x1 + ai2 x2 + . . . + ain xn ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , m, aik (k = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

6.2.
. ( ) R R0 .
R R0 , R R0 , A R R0 ,
:
A(x + y) = Ax + Ay

6.3.

61

x y R
.
: A(x + y) = Ax + Ay,
A(x) = Ax, = = 1 = 0.
A(x) Ax.
.
1. , R R0 , . , , .
2.
R3 R2 ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) = ( 1 , 2 ).
. ,
. x = ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) y = ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) R3 , x+y = ( 1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , 3 + 3 ),
. x = ( 1 , 2 ), y = ( 1 , 2 ),
(x + y) = ( 1 + 1 , 2 + 2 ) = x + y, ..
.
1. Rn n-
e1 , e2 , . . . , en . f1 , f2 , . . . , fn R0 ,
A : Rn R0 , Aei = fi (i = 1, n).
. , A . x = i ei Rn
Ax = A( i ei ) = i Aei = i fi , A. , x = i ei Ax = i fi , Aei = fi . , A . , x = i ei
y = i ei Rn , , Ax = i fi , Ay = i fi , A(x + y) = A[( i + i )ei ] =
= ( i + i )fi = i fi + i fi = Ax + Ay.
.

6.3.
A , Rn
R , {ei } = (e1 , e2 , . . . , en ) Rn ,
{fj } = (f1 , f2 , . . . , fm ) Rm .
A e1 , e2 , . . . , en .
n Ae1 , Ae2 , . . . , Aen Rm ,
fj
m

Aei = aji fj (i = 1, n, j = 1, m)

(6.2)

62

6.


Ae1 = a11 f1 + a21 f2 + . . . + am
1 fm ,
Ae2 = a12 f1 + a22 f2 + . . . + am
2 fm ,

Aen = a1n f1 + a2n f2 + . . . + am


n fm .
aji
1
a1
a2
1
A(ei ,fj ) =

am
1

a12
a22

am
2

...
...

...

a1n
a2n


am
n

(m n), A {ei }
{fj }. , s- A
Aes {fj }.
1 , ,
. , ,
A,
. , .
x = i ei , y = Ax = j fj .
j Ax i aji . ,
(6.2), j fj = Ax = A( i ei ) = i Aei = i aji fj . ,
(6.3)
j = aji i (i = 1, n, j = 1, m),

1
1

2
2
. = A . .
(6.4)
.
.
.
.
n
m
, s- Ax x. s- A .
, {ei } {fj } Rn Rm
[aji ]. [aji ] (m n),
A : Rn Rm , Aei . , (m n)
, Rn Rm , - .

6.3.

63

,
.
: R3 R2 , R3
R2 .
e1 = (1, 0, 0), e2 = (0, 1, 0), e3 = (0, 0, 1) R3 f1 = (1, 0), f2 = (0, 1)
R2 . e1 = (1, 0), e2 = (0, 1), e3= (0, 0).
1 0 0
.

0 1 0
, Rn R1 ,
, R1 Rn
.
A : Rn Rn .
{ei }, {fj }
{ei }. (6.2)
Aei = aji ej ,
j
[ai ] n. (6.3),
(6.4) m = n.
.
Ax = (2x2 , x1 + x3 , x3 )? , .
.
. x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ),
y = (y1 , y2 , y3 ). x + y = (x1 + y1 , x2 + y2 , x3 + y3 ).
A(x + y) = (2x2 + 2y2 , x1 + y1 + x3 + y3 , x3 y3 ) =
= (2x2 , x1 + x3 , x3 ) + (2y2 , y1 + y3 , y3 ) = Ax + Ay
A(x) = (2x1 , x1 + x3 , x3 ) = (2x1 , x1 + x3 , x3 ) =
= Ax.
.
e1 , e2 , e3 . Ae1 = (0, 1, 0), Ae2 = (2, 0, 0), Ae3 = (0, 1, 1).
"
#
0 2 0
A = 1 0 1
.
0 0 1

, .
A : Rn Rn .
A {ei } A = [aki ],
{fj } B = [bkj ]. fj = cm
j em (. 1.24)
m i
ei fj . Afj = bm
j fm = bj cm ei =

m i
m i
m i
= A(cm
j em ) = cj am ei . , bj cm = cj am .

C = [cji ],
CB = AC.

64

6.

i
, bm
j cm CB, i-
i
, j- , cm
j am AC,
i- , j- . CB AC .
B = C 1 AC. A : Rn Rn
.
2.
A : Rn Rn .
. 9 (. . 2.5)
|B| = |C 1 ||A||C|, |C 1 ||C| = 1, |B| = |A|.
3. A : Rn Rn
.
.

6.4.
A B, Rn {ei } = (e1 , e2 , . . . , en ) Rm {fj } = (f1 , f2 , . . . , fm ).
A = [aji ], B = [bji ].
1. . A
B, Rn Rm , ( A = B),
x Rn Ax = Bx. ,
.
2. . A B C, A + B, Cx = (A + B)x = Ax + Bx. ,
C : Rn Rm . x1 x2
Rn , .
C(x1 + x2 ) = A(x1 + x2 ) + B(x1 + x2 ) =
= Ax1 + Ax2 + Bx1 + Bx2 =
= (Ax1 + Bx1 ) + (Ax2 + Bx2 ) = Cx1 + Cx2 ,
.. C .
C = [cji ] C {ei }, {fj }. Cei = cji fj = (A + B)ei = Aei + Bei = aji fj + bji fj = (aji + bji )fj .
cji = aji + bji , i = 1, n, j = 1, m, .. C = A + B.
, .
3. .
A B ( B =
= A), Bx = (A)x = Ax.

6.4.

65

B B A .
4. . A , Rn Rm , B
, Rm Rs . C, C = B A, Rn Rs ,
Cx = (B A)x = B(Ax). C , , A
B. , C .
C(x1 + x2 ) = B[A(x1 + x2 )] = B[Ax1 + Ax2 ] =
= B(Ax1 ) + B(Ax2 ) = Cx1 + Cx2 ,
.. C .
{ei } = (e1 , e2 , . . . , en ) Rn , {fk } = (f1 , f2 , . . . , fm )
Rm , {gr } = (g1 , g2 , . . . , gs ) Rs .
C = [cri ] C : Rn Rs {ei } {gr }.
(.
(6.2)), Cei = cri gr = B(Aei ) = B(aki fk ) = aki Bfk =
= aki brk gr . ,
cri = aki brk , i = 1, n, k = 1, m, r = 1, s.

(6.5)

(6.5) (. . 1.5)
, C = B A, .. C A B .

,
(. (1.3)).
, , A (B + C) = A B + A C,
A, B, C , B C : Rn Rm , A : Rm Rs .

[A (B + C)]x = A[(B + C)x] = A[Bx + Cx] =


= A(Bx) + A(Cx) = A Bx + A Cx = (A B + A C)x,
.. A (B + C) = A B + A C. A, B, C A, B, C, A(B + C) = AB + AC, ,
, .
(1.3).
5. . A Rn Rn , B B A = E, Ex = x
x. ,
.

66

6.

A : Rn Rm
,
,
. , n m.

6.5.

A : Rn Rn A
ei .
A ( A) x ,
Ax = x.

(6.6)

, x.
E x , , 1, Ex = x,
(6.3).

. (6.6)
Ax = Ex Ax Ex = 0, ..
(A E)x = 0.

(6.7)

det(A E) = 0.

(6.8)

(6.7) n n ,
det(A E).
(6.7) ,
,
(6.8) .
.
(6.8)

1
a
...
a1n
a12
1

2
a22 . . .
a2n = 0.
P () = a1


n
a1
an2
. . . ann
, = i .
(6.7) ,
, .

6.5.

67

P () = 0
. ,
.
i P () = 0
m-, P () = ( i )m Q(), Q()
(n m) , Q(i ) 6= 0.
x = (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )T , (6.7)

1
(a )x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = 0,

21 1
a1 x + (a22 )x2 + . . . + a2n xn = 0,

n 1
a1 x + an2 x2 + . . . + (ann )xn = 0.
.

4. ,
,
.
. Ax1 = x1 , Ax2 = x2 , . . . , Axm = xm ,
i
A(1 x1 + 2 x2 + + m xm ) = 1 Ax1 + 2 Ax2 + + m Axm =
= 1 x1 + 2 x2 + + m xm = (1 x1 + 2 x2 + + m xm ).
. ,
, .

x1 , x2 , . . . , xm , .
5. x1 , x2 , . . . , xk 1 , 2 , . . . , k ,
x1 , x2 , . . . , xk .
.
6. A : Rn Rn
.
. A B C . , . 6.3, B = C 1 AC.

|B E| = |C 1 AC E| = |C 1 AC C 1 EC| =
= |C 1 (A E)C| = |C 1 ||A E||C| = |A E|.
, A B
, .

68

6.

. , x = (1, 2, 1)T "


#
1 3 4
4 7 8 ,
A =
6 7 7
. .
.
"
#"
# "
# "
#
"
#
1 3 4
1
16+4
1
1
Ax = 4 7 8 2 = 4 14 + 8 = 2 = (1) 2 .
6 7 7
1
6 14 + 7
1
1

, x = (1, 2, 1)T
= 1.



1
3
4


7
8 = 0.
4
6
7
7

, ( + 1)2 ( 3) = 0, 1 = 1,
2 = 3.
, = 3:
(
2x1 3x2 + 4x3 = 0,
4x1 10x2 + 8x3 = 0,
6x1 7x2 + 4x3 = 0.
,
.

2x1 3x2 + 4x3 = 0,
2x1 5x2 + 4x3 = 0.

x3
x1 x2 .
1
x1 = x3 , x2 = x3 .
2
x3 = 2, (1, 2, 2). :
"
#"
# "
# "
#
"
#
1 3 4
1
16+8
3
1
4 7 8
2 = 4 14 + 16 = 6 = 3 2 ,
6 7 7
2
6 14 + 14
6
2

, x = (1, 2, 2)T = 3. ,
= 3, (1, 2, 2)T t, t 6= 0. x , tx t 6= 0 .

6.5.

69

, = 1 2
, .. rang (A E) = 2 = 1.
, A
.
{ei },
A : Rn Rn , , Aei = i ei . A.
, n (. ).
, .
A : E n E n ,
E n , , , x y E n
(Ax, y) = (x, Ay).
.
1. A , A , .. AT .
.
2.
A, 1 2
(1 6= 2 ), .
, x y A 1 2 , Ax = 1 x, Ay = 2 y
(Ax, y) = 1 (x, y), (x, Ay) = 2 (x, y).
A , (Ax, y) (x, Ay) = 0, .. (1 2 )(x, y) = 0.
1 2 6= 0, (x, y) = 0, , x y
.
3. m

m .
4.
( ) , .
3 4 .

70

6.

6.6.
L R , , x y R
L(x + y) = L(x) + L(y).
, (a, b) .
Z b
(t)dt.
L[(t)] =
a

Rn {e1 , e2 , . . . , en } x = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + + xn en
Rn . L(x) , Rn ,
L(x) = L(x1 e1 +x2 e2 + +xn en ) = x1 L(e1 )+x2 L(e2 )+ +xn L(en ).
L(e1 ) = a1 , L(e2 ) = a2 , . . . , L(en ) = an . ai x, .
{ei }.
L(x) = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + + an xn
.
fj fj = ckj ek L bj ,
bj = L(fj ) = L(ckj ek ) = ckj L(ek ) = ckj ak , .. bj = ckj ak . ,
,
, .. (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) = (a1 , a2 , . . . , an )C,
C (. (3.14), 3.9).
Rn . : L1 (x) = ai xi
L2 (x) = bi xi . L3 (x),
L3 (x) = (ai + bi )xi , L1 (x)
L(x) = (ai )xi . , . , , Rn ,
, Rn . , ,
(1 n), .. -.

6.7.
, Rn
B, ,

6.7.

71

x y Rn B(x, y), :
B(x1 + x2 , y) = B(x1 , y) + B(x2 , y),
(6.9)
B(x, y1 + y2 ) = B(x, y1 ) + B(x, y2 ),
, , , , x, y, x1 , x2 , y1 , y2
Rn .
(6.9) ,

.
{ei } = (e1 , e2 , . . . , en ) Rn x = i ei ,
y = j ej , Rn , B(x, y) =
= B( i ei , j ej ) = i j B(ei , ej ). B(ei , ej ) = bij ,
B(x, y) = i j bij

(6.10)

. (6.10)
n = 3:
B(x, y) = 1 1 b11 + 1 2 b12 + 2 1 b21 + 1 3 b13 + 3 1 b31 +
+ 2 3 b23 + 3 2 b32 + 2 2 b22 + 3 3 b33 .
bij .

b11 b12 . . . . . . b1n


b22 . . . . . . b2n
b
,
B = 21

bn1 bn2 . . . . . . bnn

ei .
, . fj = cij ei , C = [cij ] {ei } {fj }. B(x, y)

bij , B.
bij = B(fi , fj ) = B(ck ek , cm em ) = ck cm B(ek , em ) = ck cm bkm , ..
i j
i j
j
i
bij = ck cm bkm , i, j, k, m = 1, n.
i j
(6.11)
= C T BC.
B

(6.11)
(6.12)

7. r
.
7 (6.12).

72

6.

8. , .
, (6.12)
= |C T | |B| |C| = |B| |C|2 .
|B|
(6.13)
7.
9.
.
(6.13).
B(x, y) ,
B(x, y) = B(y, x) x y Rn .
B(x, y) ,
{ei } B(ei , ek ) = B(ek , ei ), .. bik = bki , , B = B T .
B(x, x) x, Rn , B(x, y) x = y, .
(6.10) x = y, j = j ,

B(x, x) = i j bij .
(6.14)
(6.14) . n = 3

B(x, x) = b11 ( 1 )2 + b22 ( 2 )2 + b33 ( 3 )2 + 2b12 1 2 +
+2b13 1 3 + 2b23 2 3 .
, bik = bki , .

B(x, x) = b11 ( 1 )2 + b22 ( 2 )2 + . . . + bnn ( n )2
.
10. , Rn ,

.
.
,
E n .

B(x, x) = (x, Bx), B
B : E n E n .
,

. 11.

6.7.

73

11. E n (f1 , f2 , . . . , fn ),
.
. , ,
C T = C 1 , C . , ,
.
A, {ei } B . 4
(. . 6.5) {fj },
. {fj } A

1 0 . . . . . . 0
0 2 . . . . . . 0
A =
,

0
0 . . . . . . n
1 , 2 , . . . , n .
B(x, x)
,
A,
1 , 2 , . . . , n .
.
,
, . ,
,
.
1. B(x, x)
B = [bik ].
2. 1 , 2 , . . . , n B
B(x, x) = 1 ( 1 )2 + 2 ( 2 )2 + . . . + n ( n )2 .
3. B.
- i m, m
. m , . 3.7. , .
, .

74

6.

4. 1 , 2 , . . . , n
1 , 2 , . . . , n (. 1.29).
.
Q(x) = 2(x1 )2 + (x2 )2 4x1 x2 4x2 x3 .
"
#
2 2
0
1 2
. A = 2

0 2
0
,



2
2
0


1 2 = 3 + 32 + 6 8 =
2
0
2

= ( + 2)(2 5 + 4) = 0.

1 = 4, 2 = 1, 3 = 2. Q(x) = 4(y 1 )2 + (y 2 )2 2(y 3 )2 .


A:






2 1 2
1 2 2
2 2 1
, f2 =
,
, ,
, , , f3 =
, ,
f1 =
3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
. (3.18)

2 2
1
x1
y1
1
y2 = 2
1 2 x2 .
3
3
x3
y
1
2
2

7.

7.1. .


.
L (0, x, y).
F (x, y) = 0 L , (x, y)
L , (x, y) F (x, y) = 0 M (x, y), L.

F (x, y, z) = 0 S
: S F (x, y, z) = 0,
,
, ,
.
L
, .. :

F1 (x, y, z) = 0,
F2 (x, y, z) = 0,
F1 (x, y, z) = 0 F2 (x, y, z) = 0
, L.

.
(
x = (t),
y = (t), t1 t t2 ,
z = (t),
t ( t,
, ).

r = r(t) = (t)i + (t)j + (t)k

76

7.

"

# "
#
x
(t)
y = (t) .
z
(t)

(
x = (u, v),
y = (u, v),
z = (u, v)

, ,
r = r(u, v) = (u, v)i + (u, v)j + (u, v)k,
"
# "
#
x
(u, v)
y = (u, v) .
z
(u, v)

: u v.
:
1) L S ;
2) , .

.
.
C(a, b) R.
,
,
.
M (x, y) ,
|CM| = R, ..
(x a)2 + (y b)2 = R2
(7.1)
C(a, b) R. (7.1)

x2 + y 2 2ax 2ay + a2 + b2 R2 = 0.
(7.2)
(7.1)

x = a + R cos t,
0 t < 2.
y = b + R sin t,
1):
.

7.1.

77

,
a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a01 x + 2a02 y + a00 = 0,
(7.3)
aik = const, , .
(7.2) (7.3), , (7.3) , a12 = 0, a11 = a22 6= 0. (7.3)
2a02
a00
2a01
x+
y+
=0
x2 + y 2 +
a11
a11
a11
, ,

2 
2
a01
a02
a2 + a202 a00 a11
x+
.
(7.4)
+ y+
= 01
a11
a11
a211
(7.4) a201 + a202 a00 a11 > 0,
p
a201 + a202 a00 a11
,
,
|a11 |


a02
a01
. a201 + a202 a00 a11 =0,
,

a11
a11

(7.4)



a01
a02

,
. a201 + a202 a00 a11 < 0, (7.4)
a11
a11
. ,
(7.4) .
, (7.3)
, a12 = 0, a11 = a22 6= 0, a201 + a202 a00 a11 > 0.
2): (7.3), ,
.
, .. , a12 6= 0, a11 6= a22 ,
, , .
1.
x2 + y 2 + 2x 4y 4 = 0.
()
. , (a)
(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 9.
()
(7.1) (), , (1; 2),
R = 3.
. , F
.

78

7.

F ,
. : OX F (. 7.1).
, . p. p
.

p
x = , F
2 
p 

, 0 .
2
M (x, y) .

p 
|AM| = |MF|, A , y
2
. ,
r
r
2
. 7.1.
p
p 2
x+
=
x + y2 .
2
2
,

2
p 2  p
p2
p2
.. x +
=
x + y 2 x2 + px +
=
px + x2 + y 2 ,
2
2
4
4
.. y 2 = 2px. |AM| = |MF|,
,
. ,
y 2 = 2px, .
, (7.3) ,
a11 a22 a212 = 0. , ,
B(x, y) = y 2 . a11 a22 a212 = 0 ,
(7.3), .
2. , y 2 6y +6+x = 0
. p .
. , (y 3)2 + x 3 = 0.
y1 = y 3, x1 = x + 3,
y12 = x1 . , , 2p = 1 p = 1/2.
(3, 3).

7.1.

79

. C(a, b, c)
R.
, , .
M (x, y, z) , |MC| = R, :
(x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2 = R2
(7.5)
.
, , ,
a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + a33 z 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a13 xz + 2a23 yz +
(7.6)
+ 2a01 x + 2a02 y + 2a03 z + a00 = 0
, a11 = a22 = a33 6= 0, a12 = a13 = a23 = 0,

a02
a02
a01
2
2
2
,
,
a01 + a02 + a03 a00 a11 > 0,
a11
a11
a11
p
2
2
2
a01 + a02 + a03 a00 a11
R =
.
|a11 |
a201 + a202 + a203 a00 a11 = 0, (7.6) C. a201 + a202 + a203 a00 a11 < 0
(7.6) . .
. L
l. , , l
L. L , . , F (x, y) = 0 ,
OZ, OXY , F (x, y) = 0. , M0 (x0 , y0 ) F (x, y) = 0,
M (x0 , y0 , z) z, .. ,
M0 (x0 , y0 , 0) OZ. ,
F (x, y) = 0 , OZ. , x2 + y 2 = 1
, y 2 = 2px .
F (y,
 z) = 0
F (y, z) = 0,

, x=0
OX.

80

7.

.
L M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ). , , M0
L, . M0 .
F (x, y, z) = 0. F (x, y, z) m (m > 0), t F (tx, ty, tz) = tm F (x, y, z).
F (x, y, z) = 0 . ,
F (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 z 2 = 0 2. ,
F (x, y, z) = 0 .
. 7.5.
. XOY F (x, y) = 0. OX , .
M0 (x, y, 0) F (x, y) = 0,
OX C(x, 0, 0),
|y|. M (X, Y, Z) .
x = X, y = Y 2 + Z 2 .
F (X, Y 2 + Z 2 ) = 0. ,
y 2 = 2px OX, y 2 + z 2 = 2px, .

7.2.
,
. .
, , , .
(r, ) y

M ,
M
6
r = |OM|,
*

r 
OM,




(. 7.2). 
, 0 r < , 0 < 2.
x
O

O, OX . 7.2.
.
:
p
x = r cos , y = r sin . r = x2 + y 2 ,

81

7.3.

y

x
.
,
F (r, ) = 0.
:
r = a a ;
r = 2a cos a (a, 0);
r = 2a sin a (0, a);
r = a ;
r2 = a2 cos 2 ;
r = a(1 + cos ) .
(. 7.3).
= 0, /6, /3, /2, 2/3,
5/6, r,
.
,
, . ,
. .

.
. 7.3.
tg =

7.3.
1. ,
M0 (x0 , y0 ) N(A, B) 6= 0, A2 +B 2 6= 0.

M
y
M0
6
(. 7.4)
N



, M0 MN, ..
r0
M
(M0 M, N) = 0. r r0

:

 
- M M0 ,
r

M0 M = r r0
x
O
(r r0 , N) = 0
. 7.4.
.
A(x x0 ) + B(y y0 ) = 0
(7.7)

82

7.

,
M0 (x0 , y0 ) N. Ax0 By0 = C.
(7.7)
Ax + By + C = 0

(7.8)

. , A, B N,
. .
A
C
B 6= 0. k = , b = , (7.8) B
B
y = kx + b . k OX,
b ,
OY .
2. ,
M0 (x0 , y0 ) - r0
l(m, n). l .
M (x, y) ( - r(x, y))
, r r0 k l, ..
r r0 = tl
r = r0 + tl

(7.9)

. (7.9)

x = x0 + tm,

(7.10)
y = y0 + tn

. (7.10)
y y0
x x0
=

(7.11)
m
n
. ,
M0 (x0 , y0 ) M1 (x1 , y1 ), l
(x1 x0 , y1 y0 ) (7.11)
y y0
x x0
=

x1 x0
y1 y0

, (x0 , y0 ) (x1 , y1 ).

3. L Ax + By + C = 0.
M1 (x1 , y1 ) (. 7.5).
M0 (x0 , y0 ) L.

83

7.3.

, d = |N M0 M1 | =
|(N1 , M0 M1 )|
=
=
|N|
|A(x1 x0 ) + B(y1 y0 )|
=
=
|N|
|Ax1 + By1 + C|

=
. :
A2 + B 2
|Ax1 + By1 + C|

d=
.
(7.12)
A2 + B 2

. 7.5.

1. (2, 3)
3x + 4y + 10 = 0.
|6 + 12 + 10|
28
. (7.12): d =
.
=
5
9 + 16
4. , A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x+
+B2 y + C2 = 0.


A1 B1
6= 0, N1 (A1 , B1 ) 6k N2 (A2 , B2 ),

A2 B2
,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0,
A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0.


A B1
= 0, .. A1 = B1 , .
1
A2 B2
A2
B2
A1
B1
C1
A1
B1
C1
,
=
6=
, ,
=
=
.
A2
B2
C2
A2
B2
C2
5. . , .. A1 B2 A2 B1 6= 0.
.
(N1 , N2 )
A1 A2 + B1 B2
p
.
cos =
=p 2
|N1 ||N2 |
A1 + B12 A22 + B22

y = k1 x + b1 y = k2 x + b2 ,
k2 k1
.
tg =
1 + k1 k2

84

7.

2. [1, 4] , 7.6. .
.
y 6
B
C
AB, BC CD.
4
y = k1 x + b1 .
AB A(1, 0) B(2, 4).
3


0 = k1 + b1 ,
D
2
4 = 2k1 + b1 .
k1 = 4, b1 = 4. 1
AB y = 4x 4.
A
BC
y = 4. CD 0
1
2
3
4 x
y = k2 x + b2 .
. 7.6.

C(3, 4) D(4, 2)

4 = 3k2 + b2 ,
2 = 4k2 + b2 ,

. .

. .

k2 = 2, b2 = 10. , CD
y = 2x + 10. f (x)

(
4x 4,
1 x 2;
4,
2 < x 3;
f (x) =
2x + 10, 3 < x 4.

3.
(. 7.7) H

N
M
A(1, 1), B(4, 5), C(5, 9).
,
:
A
C
) AH;
. 7.7.
) AM ;
) AN .
. ) AH BC, AH BC . BC = (9, 4) k (9, 4). AH
9x + 4y + C = 0. A
AH, 9 4 + C = 0, C = 5.
AH 9x + 4y 5 = 0.
B.

...

85

7.4.



1
) M BC , 7 ,
2


3
AM , 6 . , (1, 4)
2
AM. AM x1
y+1

=
4x y 5 = 0.
1
4
) AN
AB AC. AB= (3, 4),
= (6, 8),
 AC 

3 4
3 4
a2 = , ;
,
a1 =
5 5
5 5


8
a1 +a2 = 0, . , AN OY ,
5
A(1, 1), x = 1.

7.4.
1. , M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) - r0 (x0 , y0 , z0 )
N(A, B, C). ( N .)
1 7.3,
(r r0 , N) = 0

(7.13)

, r = (x, y, z) . (7.13)
A(x x0 ) + B(y y0 ) + C(z z0 ) = 0 ,
Ax0 By0 Cz0 = D,
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

.
2. , M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) l1 = (m1 , n1 , p1 )
l2 = (m2 , n2 , p2 ), l1 6k l2 .
N = [l1 , l2 ], (7.13)

(7.14)

(r r0 , l1 , l2 ) = 0



x x0 y y0

n1
m1
m
n
2

z z0
p1
p2




= 0.

(7.15)

86

7.

, M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ),
M1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) M2 (x2 , y2 , z2 ), (7.14) (7.15)
l1 = M0 M1 , l2 = M0 M2 , .. m1 = x1 x0 , n1 = y1 y0 , p1 = z1 z0 ;
m2 = x2 x0 , n2 = y2 y0 , p2 = z2 z0 .
3. Ai x + Bi y + Ci z = Di , i = 1, 2, 3.
, Ni (Ai , Bi , Ci ), i = 1, 2, 3, , ..
(N1 , N2 , N3 ) 6= 0. (N1 , N2 , N3 ) = 0 Ni
, , .
,
Ni .
4. M1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) Ax + By + Cz + D = 0.
, (7.12),
|Ax1 + By1 + Cz1 + D|

.
d =
A2 + B 2 + C 2

7.5.
1. ,
M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) - r0 l(m, n, p).
( l .) r
- . rr0 k l,
r = r0 + tl
.
,
(
x = x0 + tm,
y = y0 + tn,
z = z0 + tp

. ( ),
y y0
z z0
x x0
=
=

m
n
p
.
M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) M1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ), l
M0 M1 (x1 x0 , y1 y0 , z1 z0 ), .. m = x1 x0 , n = y1 y0 ,
p = z1 z0 .

7.5.

87

,


A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,
(7.16)
A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0,
N1 = (A1 , B1 , C1 ) N2 = (A2 , B2 , C2 ) .
(7.16) .
(7.16) , M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ), . l
[N1 , N2 ], M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) (7.16), .
2. d M1 r1 r = r0 + tl
(. 7.8).
, , M1 H , r1 r0 l,
|[r1 r0 , l]|
. 7.8.
.
d=
|l|
3. d
r = r1 + tl1 , r = r2 + tl2 , l1 6k l2 (. 7.9).

. 7.9.

88

7.

, , M3 H , r2 r1 , l1 , l2 ,
|(r2 r1 , l1 , l2 )|
.
(7.17)
d=
|[l1 , l2 ]|
4.
r = r1 + tl1 ,
(7.18)
r = r2 + tl2 .
l1 l2 , (7.18) ,
. , r2 r1 . l1 6k l2 ,
, .
, d .
(7.17)
(r2 r1 , l1 , l2 ) = 0, l1 6k l2
.
, d 6= 0, ..
(r2 r1 , l1 , l2 ) 6= 0,

, (7.18) .
, . , :
a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a01 x + 2a01 y + a00 = 0,

(7.19)

aik . . : , , . . ,
(7.19) ,
.
aik
(7.19)
,
, (7.19)
,
.

7.6.
, ,

89

7.6.

, , , .
. .
F1 F2 (. 7.10). |F1 F2 | = 2c. : OX
F1 F2 ,
F1 F2 . F1 (c, 0), F2 (c, 0). M (x, y)
. |F1 M|
p a > c).
p+ |F2 M| = 2a ( a ,
|F1 M| = r1 = (x + c)2 + y 2 , |F2 M| = r2 = (x c)2 + y 2 . ,
,
p
p
r1 + r2 = (x + c)2 + y 2 + (x c)2 + y 2 = 2a.
r1 r2 y
.
6
M (x, y)
.
2
2
r1 r2 = 4cx, r1 + r2 = 2a,
c
c
r1 = a + x, r2 = a x, ..
a
a
p
c
F1
F2 x
0
a x = (x c)2 + y 2 .
a
. 7.10.
a2 c2 2
2
x +y =
.
a2
2
2
= a c . a > c, a2 c2 = b2
b2
2 x2 + y 2 = b2
a

x2
y2
+
=1
a2
b2
.
, , .
OX OY , O(0, 0) . A1 (a, 0),
A2 (a, 0), B1 (0, b) B2 (0, b) .
|x| a, |y| b,
,
. 7.11.
, x = a, y = b (. 7.11).

.
.

(7.20)

90

7.

a (7.20) , b . , ,
.

c
a2 b2
= =
a
a
. c < a, < 1.
a
x = .
r1
= , d M
,
d
r2
a
= ,
F1 x = ,

d
a
d M x = ,

r1 = a + x, r2 = a x, M . c = 0,
a2 = b2 , = 0.
. , x2 + 4x + 4y 2 16y 4 = 0
.
.
. , : (x + 2)2 + 4(y 2)2 = 4 + 4 + 16 = 24.
x2 y 2
x1 = x + 2, y1 = y 2. x21 + 4y12 = 24 1 + 1 = 1. 24
6
2
2
,
a = 24, b = 6.
a2 b2 ,
(2, 2).
c =

18
3
.
c = 24 6 = 18, = =
2
24

7.7.
,
F1 F2 , ,
, , .
F1 F2 .
. .
|F1 F2 | = 2c. ,
. F1 (c, 0), F2 (c, 0). M (x, y) ,
p
p
| (x + c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 | = 2a,
a = const, c > a. . , ,

7.8.

91

b2 = c2 a2 ,
x2
y2
2 = 1.
2
a
b
, (. 7.12).
A1 (a, 0), A2 (a, 0) .
|x| a, ,
x = a. OY ,
OX . b
. 7.12.
y = x a
. a
, b .
c
= , > 1,
a
a
x = .
, .
. , 4x2 24x 9y 2 + 36y = 36
. .
. , (x 3)2

4(x 3)2 9(y 2)2 = 36


9
(y 2)2
x2
y2

= 1. x1 = x 3, y1 = y 2. 1 1 = 1.
4
9
4
x1 = x 3 = 0,
y1 = y 2 = 0, .. (3, 2). 2
y 2 = (x 3) 2x 3y = 0, 2x + 3y 12 = 0.
3
, : , , , . ,
, ( . 7.1).

7.8.


a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + 2a12 xy + a01 x + a02 y + a00 = 0,

(7.21)

92

7.

.
.
1.
B = a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + 2a12 xy.
1 2
. , 1 2 > 0,
, 1 2 < 0, . 1 2 = 0 . , (7.21)
1 x21 + 2 y12 + ax1 + by1 + c = 0,
(a, b) = (a01 , a02 )Q, Q
.
2. O1 , O O1 .
, . , .
1.
x2 + y 2 + xy 3x 3y = 2.
2

()


B = x + y + xy

1 0,5
.
( . 6.7). B =
0,5 1



1
0,5
= 0, (1 )2 0,25 = 0.
0,5
1
1 = 0,5, 2 = 1,5 .
1 2 > 0, () . , 1 = 0,5, 
1 + 2 = 0.



1
1
1
1
i1 = , . j1 = , . 2
2
2
2
Q 0, i, j 0, i1 , j1 :

1
1
1
1

2
2
2
,
.
Q1 = QT =
Q=
1

1
1
1

2
2
2
2

7.8.

93

(3.18) x1 y1
x+y
xy
x1 = , y1 = .
()
2
2
()
3 1 3 1
3 1 + (3)(1)

y1 = 2,
x1 +
0,5x21 + 1,5y12 +
2
2
6
0,5x21 + 1,5y12 y1 = 2.
2


2
2
0,5x21 + 1,5 y1
= 2 + 3 = 1.
()
2
01 , i1 , j1
2
x2 = x1 , y2 = y1 .
2
()
0,5x22 + 1,5y22 = 1,

x22
y2
+ 2 = 1,
2
2/3

, (),
xy
x2 = ,
2

y2 =

x2 = 0, y2 = 0,
(1,1)
O1 (. 7.13). (). .
x y = 0
( O1 Y2 ) x + y 2 = 0 (
O1 X2 ). (O1 , X2 , Y2 ) ().
(), (). , r
2
.
2,
3

x+y2

.
2

. 7.13.

()

94

7.

4 3
2
. 2 2 =
3
3

2 3
6
= =
.
3
3 2
r

7.9.
,
:
a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + a33 z 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a13 xz +
+2a23 yz + a01 x + a02 y + a03 z + a00 = 0,
(7.22)
aik . , (7.22)
, . :
1. (a, b, c) R:
(x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2 = R2

( .7.1).

2. .
, -

y2
z2
x2
+
+
= 1,
a2
b2
c2

(. 7.14), a, b, c
.
. 7.14.
.
z = h ( |h| < c)

z = h,

x2
y2

z = h,
+
"
"
#
#2 = 1.
2
2
2
r
r
2
y
h
x
2
2

h
h
+
=
1

b 1 2
a2
b2
c2
a 1 c2
c
r
r
2
h
h2
a1 = a 1 2 b1 = b 1 2
c
c
h = 0. , , .
, .
a = b = c .

95

7.9.

3. .
y2
z2
2 2 = 1 ZOY
b
c
x2
y2
z2
OZ, 2 + 2 2 = 1,
b
b
c
.
,
y2
z2
x2
+

= 1,
a2
b2
c2

(. 7.15).

z = h
(
z = h,
y2
h2
x2
+ 2 =1+ 2
2
a
b
c

r
r
. 7.15.
h2
h2
a1 = a 1 + 2 b1 = b 1 + 2 .
c
c
x = h y = h .
4. .
z2
y2
2 2 = 1
c
b
Y OZ OZ,
x2
y2
z2

= 1.
c2
b2
b2
,
x2
y2
z2
+ 2 2 = 1,
2
a
b
c

(. 7.16).

z = h
(
z = h (|h| > c),
y2
h2
x2
+ 2 = 2 1.
2
a
b
c
x = 0
(
z = 0,
x2
y2
2 = 1.
2
c
b

. 7.16.

96

7.

5. .
y 2 = 2pz Y OZ OZ x2 + y 2 = 2pz. ,
y2
x2
+ 2 = 2pz (p > 0),
2
a
b

(. 7.17).
z = h > 0
,
,
. 7.17.
XOZ Y OZ, .
6. .
,

x2
y2

= 2pz (p > 0),


a2
b2
(. 7.18).
(
z = h 6= 0,
. 7.18.
;
x2
y2
2 = 2ph
2
a
b
(
(
x = h,
y = h,
2
2
;
x2
y
y 2 .
x
=
+
2pz
=
2pz
+
a2
b2
b2
a2
7. .
,
x2
y2
z2
+

= 0,
a2
b2
c2

(. 7.19). . (

y2
h2
x2
+ 2 = 2,
z = h
2
a
b
c
z = h.
(x = 0 z = h,
. 7.19.
z
y
:
= .
b
c

97

7.9.
8. .

x2
y2
+ 2 =1
2
a
b

y 2 = 2px

x2
y2
2 =1
2
a
b

. 7.20.

y2
y2
y2
x2
+ 2 = 1, y 2 = 2px, 2 2 = 1
2
a
b
a
b
XOY , ,
,
, 7.20, , , . ,
.

, , , .
(7.22)
, :
,
.

8.
( 1)
8.1. ( 1)
1 1.1 1.5
. .
8.1.1.
D = 2CA 4BA,


 

1
2 1
2 5
2 4
A=
,B=
,C=
.
2 3
0
4
3
3
1
D.
.
,


4 8
D = (2C 4B)A. 2C =
, 4B =
6
2


8
20
,
=
16 12

 

4 + 8 8 + 20
4
12
2C + (4B) =
=
.
6 + 16
2 12
10 10

D = (2C 4B)A =

4
10

12
10

 

1
2

2 1
3
0

4 1 + 12 (2)
4 2 + 12 (3)
4 (1) + 12 0
10 1 + (10) (2) 10 2 + (10) (3) 10 (1) + (10) 0

 

20 28
4
4 24
8 36
4 + 0
.
=
=
30
50 10
10 + 20 20 + 30 10 + 0

D 80 62 = 18.
. 18

8.1.2.


 D = AC+ 3CB,

4 1
1
2
2 3
.
,C=
,B=
A=
2
1
3 4
4
5
D.
. CB 6= BC,
AC + 3CB C .
.
AC =

2
4

3
5

 
 
 

4 1
8 6 2 3
2 5

=
=
,
2
1
16 + 10 4 + 5
26
1

99

8.1. ( 1)


 
 
 
7 12
4+3 8+4
1
2
4 1
,
=
=

CB =
1
0
23 44
3 4
2
1

 

7 12
21 36
3CB = 3
=
,
1
0
3
0

 
 

2 5
21 36
23 31
D = AC + 3CB =
+
=
.
26
1
3
0
23
1


D 23 + 31 + 23 + 1 = 78.
. 78






2 1 0
3
2 4
8.1.3. A =
, B=
.
4
3 1
5 6 3
C = 2A 3B.
C.
. 3.
"
#


3
5
2 1
1
2 6 .
B =
8.1.4. A =
4
3 2
4
3
C = A B D = B A.
"
#


14
18 13
4 19
14 .
; D = 20 20
. C =
14 4
20
5
2
8.1.5.

 
 
1 2
2
4 5
x1

=
y1
4
3
3 1 6

x2
y2

x3
y3

x2 , x3 , y1 .
. 6; 7; 17.

8.1.6.


5 2 3 3
2
6 4 3 5 1
C=

9 2 3 4 16
7 6 4 7
8

2
5
24
16

2
3
.
8
0

C: c42 , c13 , c31 ( ).


. c42 = 0, c13 = 8, c31 = 0.

100

8. ( 1)

8.2. ( 2)
2.1 2.6.
,
n- , .


1 3
.

8.2.1. D =
2
5


a b
= ad bc.
. 2.3 ,
c d
,


1 3
= 1 5 (3) 2 = 11.

D=
2
5
. 11.


1 3
2


5 8.2.2. D = 2 4
3 1 4
.
. .
. , 2.4, :
D = 1 4 (4) + 3 5 3 + 2 1 2 3 4 2 2 3 (4) 1 5 1 =
= 16 + 45 + 4 24 + 24 5 = 28.
. (. 1 2, 2.6), D .






5
5
1+2 2
1+1 4
+
+ 3 (1)

D = 1 (1)

3 4
1 4


2 4
= 21 + 3 23 2 10 = 21 + 69 20 = 28.
+2 (1)1+3
3 1

. : , - ,
, .
, 2, ;
, 3, .

1

D= 0
0

2
3
2
1
8 10





1

1+1 2

= 1 (1)
8 10



= 20 + 8 = 28.

8.2. ( 2)

101

.


2 1 3 2


5 2
1 3
.
8.2.3. D =
2
4
5 5

3 4
4
5
2 (. 17),
. , ,
, - . .
, 2, , ,
5, , ,
. ,


0
5 13
2


3
5 2
1
D=
.
0 10 23 14
0
5 11 11


,

5 13
2


D = 1 (1)2+1 10 23 14 .
5 11 11
, , :

5

D = 0
0

13
3
2

2
10
9








1+1 3 10
= (5)(1) 2
= 5(2720) = 35
9

( 2 ,
). :
, -
, . , , - ,
, . D.
.

102

8. ( 1)

8.2.4.
:





3 2
1
1 4
13542




1
3 , D3 =
D1 =
, D2 = 2
28423
5 2
2
0 2
. D1 = 18, D2 = 12, D3 = 1488100.
8.2.5.



7
246
5
3



10
27 , D2 = 1014
D1 = 14
21 25 18
342
. D1 = 5880, D2 = 29400000.

427
543
721

8.2.6.



2/3 3/8 3
8/3
4



2
2/3 1/8 1
8/3
D1 =
, D2 =

2
1/4
1
0


4/3
2/3 3/8

0 5
0

327
443
621

7/5
2/5
4/5
4/5


13642
.
28523



.

2/5
7/5
4/5
3/5

0
10
5
2

. D1 = 2; D2 = 24.

8.3. .
( 3)
2.7 2.8,
.
"
#
3 4
5
4 6
2 . ,
8.3.1. A =
3 5 1
, .



3 4
0
5 18 29



0 =
2 = 10 16
. det A = 4 6
3 5 1 3
5 1


18 29
= (16 18 + 10 29) =
= (1) (1)3+3
10 16

= (290 288) = 2.
A , .
Aij
( bji =
det A
j
, bi , j- i-
, Aij aij ,

8.3. . ( 3)

103

i- j- A,
).
A, .. .






6 2
4 5
4 5
1
2
3





= 22;
A1 =
= 16; A1 =
= 29; A1 =
5 1
5 1
6 2






3 5
3
4
5
2
3
2
1
= 14;



= 18; A2 =
= 10; A2 =
A2 =
4 2
3 1
3 1






4 6
3 4
3 4
1
2
3





= 2.
A3 =
= 2; A3 =
= 3; A3 =
3 5
3 5
4 6
.
"
#
8 29/2 11
9
7 .
det A, A1 = 5
1 3/2
1
, A A1 .
E.
"
# "
#
3 4
5
8 29/2 11
4 6
2 5
9
7 =
.
3 5 1
1 3/2
1
"
#
24 + 20 + 5 87/2 36 15/2 33 + 28 + 5
58 54 3 44 + 42 + 2 =
= 32 + 30 + 2
24 + 25 1
87/2 45 + 3/2 33 + 35 1
"
#
1 0 0
= 0 1 0 . .
0 0 1

8.3.2.
"
#
"
#
2 3
1
1 2 0
3
2 1 X = 12 0 1 2 .
1 2
3
2 0 1
.
#
"
#
"
2 3
1
1 2 0
2 1 , B = 12 0 1 2 . A = 3
2 0 1
1 2
3
AX = B. :
"
# "
#
2 3
1
2 3 1
2 1 = 1 1 0 =
det A = 3
1 2
3
5
7 0


1 1
= 1 (1)1+3
= 12.
5 7

104

8. ( 1)

( , ,
(3)). A , A1 . X = A1 B (. 2.8).
A1 , 8.3.1.




2 1


1
1+1
2
1+2 3 1

A1 = (1)

= 4, A1 = (1)

= 7,
2
3
2 3




3


1
1
1+2 3 1
A31 = (1)3+1
=
1,
A
=
(1)

= 8,
2


2 1
1
3






2
1
2
2+2 2 1
3
3+2
A2 = (1)

= 5,
A2 = (1)

= 1,
1 3
3 1




3
2 3
2
= 1,
A13 = (1)1+3
= 4, A23 = (1)2+3
1 2
1 2


2 3
= 5.
A33 = (1)3+3
3
2
"
#
4/12 7/12 1/12
1/12 ,
, A1 = 8/12 5/12
4/12 1/12
5/12
"
#
"
#
4/12 7/12 1/12
1 2 0
1
1/12 12 0 1 2 =
X = A B = 8/12 5/12
4/12 1/12
5/12
2 0 1
"
# "
#
4 7 1
1 2 0
1 0 1 2 =
= 8 5
4 1
5
2 0 1
"
# "
#
4 2
8 7 14 1
6 15 15
8 + 2 16 5 10 + 1 = 6 21
9 .
=
4 + 10 8 1 2 + 5
6
9
3
"
# "
#
2 3
1
6 15 15
2 1 6 21
9 =
. A X = 3
1 2
3
6
9
3
"
#
12 + 18 + 6 30 + 63 9 30 + 27 + 3
18 12 6
45 42 + 9
45 18 3 =
=
6 + 12 + 18 15 + 42 27 15 + 18 + 9
"
#
"
#
12 24
0
1 2 0
0 12 24 = 12 0 1 2 = B.
=
24
0 12
2 0 1
X .

8.3. . ( 3)

105

8.3.3. X A = B, A
B , 8.3.2.
. 8.3.2 , A ,
X = B A1 . A1 ,
"
# "
#
1 2 0
4/12 7/12 1/12
1/12 =
X = 12 0 1 2 8/12 5/12
2 0 1
4/12 1/12
5/12
"
# "
#
1 2 0
4 7 1
1 =
= 0 1 2 8 5
2 0 1
4 1
5
"
# "
#
4 16 7 10 1 + 2
20 17
1
8 8
5 2 1 + 10 = 16
7 11 .
=
8 4 14 1 2 + 5
12 15
3
.
"
# "
#
20 17
1
2 3
1
7 11 3
2 1 =
X A = 16
12 15
3
1 2
3
"
#
40 + 51 + 1
60 34 2 20 + 17 + 3
= 32 + 21 + 11 48 14 22 16 + 7 + 33 =
24 + 45 + 3
36 30 6 12 + 15 + 9
"
#
"
#
12 24
0
1 2 0
0 12 24 = 12 0 1 2 = B.
=
24
0 12
2 0 1
X
.
"
#
20 17
1
7 11 .
. X = 16
12 15
3




8
1
1 2
.
X =
8.3.4. X,
18 1
3 4


1 2
,
. (. 2.8.) A =
3 4


8
1
B=
. 18 1


1 2
= 2, A A X = B. det A =
3 4

, A1 AX = A1 B, , X = A1 B.
A1 .
A11 = 4, A21 = 2, A12 = 3, A22 = 1.

106

8. ( 1)




2
1
2
1
, A =
; X=

3/2 1/2
3/2 1/2

 
 

8
1
16 + 18
2 1
2 3

=
=
.
18 1
12 9 3/2 + 1/2
3
2
1

. X .

 
 
 

8
1
2 + 6 3 + 4
2 3
1 2
.
=
=

18 1
6 + 12 9 + 8
3
2
3 4

X
 .
2 3
.
. X =
3
2

8.3.5. X, X

1 2
3 4

8
1
18 1

. X = BA1 . A1
8.3.4. X.

 
 

2
1
16 + 1,5
8 0,5
8
1
=
=

36 1,5 18 + 0,5
18 1
3/2 1/2


14,5
7,5
=
.
37,5 18,5


14,5 7,5
37,5 18,5

 
 
 

1 2
14,5 + 22,5 29 + 30
8 1

=
=
.
3 4
37,5 + 55,5 75 + 74
18 1

X , ,
. , XA = B AX = B .

8.3.6. , A =

"

3 1
2
2
1
1
1 2 3

A1 , .
"
#
7 3
1 1
1
5 11 7 .
. A =
8
3
5
1





,
8.3.7. A =




1

, A1 =
.

6= 0. -

8.4. ( 4)

107

8.3.8.

: AX1 = B X2 A = B,



4 1
1 3
.
,B=
A=
3
2
2 5




11 11
22 13
. X1 =
, X2 =
.
5 4
11
7
:
#
"
#
"
#

3
1 2
2 7 3
1 2
4 X = 3 1 1 ; ) X 3 9 4 = 3
3 1
3
3 4
1 5 3
"
#


4 12
3 3 0
3 ; )
. ) 1
.
40 27 8
6
3

8.3.9.
"
2 7
) 3 9
1 5

1
4

8.4. ( 4)
3.2 3.6
, , .
.
"
#
1 2 4
3 1 5
8.4.1. , A =
5 4 6
. .
A ,
.

1 2

= 1 + 6 = 7 6= 0. A , det A =
3
1
= 0. .

1 2
4

1
5
3
5 4 6




1
2
4
7 7


7 7 =
= 0.
= 0
0 14 14 14 14


1 2
=
, A ,
3 1
= 1 + 6 = 7 6= 0 , . ,
.
1 2 .
1 (1, 2, 4) + 2 (3, 1, 5) = (5, 4, 6). (
1 + 32 = 5,
21 + 2 = 4, , 1 = 1, 2 = 2.
41 + 52 = 6,

108

8. ( 1)

8.4.2.
p q,

|1 3| 4
1
|3 1| 2
5
,
.
p 3 14 17
5 5 10
q
.
, . ,
,
, .. ,
.
1 2 ,
, ..
1 (1, 3, 4, 1) + 2 (3, 1, 2, 5) = (p, 3, 14, 17).

1 + 32 = p,

31 + 2 = 3,
31 + 2 = 3,

1 =
41 + 22 = 14,
41 + 22 = 14,

1 + 52 = 17.
= 2, 2 = 3. 1 2 , 2+15 = 17.
p = 2 + 9 = 11.
1 2 , ,
p, . A
.
,
q = 7.
p 6= 11 q 6= 7 A .
( .)
8.4.3.

p,

1
2
2 3 4
7
3 5 2
3
A =
.
2 1
2 3 4
3 18 12 7 p
. ,
8.4.2, . , A, 1, 7, 2, 7. ,
, ;

1
2 2
3
4
1
3 4
10
0
. A1 =
.
0 5
6 3
4
0 12 6 2 p 12

109

8.4. ( 4)

|1
2
2|
3
4
|0
1
3|
4
10
A2 =
0
21| 23
54
|0
0
0 42
46 p + 108

A2 ,
. , , .. 23
54
21
=
=
. +108 = +p + 108, ,

42
46
p + 108
p = 0. , A p = 0. p A .
8.4.4. R5 . a1 = (1, 2, 3, 1, 2), a2 = (2, 3, 5, 1, 1), a3 = (5, 8, 13, 1, 4)
a4 = (3, 4, 7, 3, 0).
L(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 ) - .
. L(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 ) A, a1 ,
a2 , a3 , a4 . .

1 2
3 1 2
1
2
3 1
2
5
1 1
3 3
2 3
0 1 1
A=

5 8 13
1 4
0 2 2
6 6
3 4
7
3 0
0 2 2
6 6

( , 2, ,
5 3 ).
.
, .
, A ,
L(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 ) .
A (, ). L(a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 )
a1 a2 .

"

1 2
8.4.5. , A = 1 4
a b
a, b, c, d .
"
1
8.4.6. , A = 4
5
.

3 5
3
4
c
d
2
7
6

3 5
1
4
2
3

110

8. ( 1)
"

#
1 4 3
5 3 1
8.4.7. , A =
13 17 9
, .
. 2; 3.

1 1 1 2 2 2
2 3 2 5 4 5
8.4.8. A =
.
1 1 1 0 2 0
1 2 1 1 2 1
. 2.
8.4.9. -
a1 = (1, 0, 0, 1), a2 = (2, 1, 1, 0), a3 = (1, 1, 1, 1),
a4 = (1, 2, 3, 4), a5 = (0, 1, 2, 3) R4 .
. 3; , a1 , a2 , a4 .

8.5.
( 5)
3.9.
8.5.1. R3 : f1 = (3, 1, 2), f2 = (1, 2, 3), f3 = (2, 1, 1), x = (3, 2, 7).
, f1 , f2 , f3 ,
x .
.
C,
"
#
3
1 2
1 2
1 .
f1 , f2 , f3 : C =
2
3 1
.



3
1 2 0 5
1



1 = 1 2
1 =
det C = 1 2
2


3 1
0
7 3


5
1
= 1 (1)2+1
= 8.
7 3

det C 6= 0, f1 , f2 , f3 ,
R3 .
C , C 1 . (. 8.3.1).






1 2
1 2
2 1
3
2
1
= 3;





= 5; A1 =
= 1; A1 =
A1 =
2 1
3 1
3 1

8.5. ( 5)

111




3 2
2
3
= 1;

= 7; A2 =
1
1
1



3
1
1
3

= 11; A3 =
= 5.
3
1 2
"
#
1/8
5/8
3/8
1
7/8 1/8 .
det C = 8, C = 3/8
7/8 11/8 5/8
1 , 2 , 3 x (3.17).

3 10 + 21

"

# "
#

1
1/8
5/8
3/8
3
9
+
14

2 = 3/8
7/8 1/8 2 =
=

8
3
7/8 11/8 5/8
7

21 + 22 35
"
#
8
1
= 2 .
1



3
1
1
2

= 3; A2 =
=

2
2 1



1 2

= 7; A23 = 3
A13 =
2
2
3
A12

8.5.2. O, i, j
M (2, 3). O0 , i, j
O0 (1, 2). M .
. (3.20), a = 1, b = 2, x = 2,
y = 3, : x0 = 2 1 = 3, y 0 = 3 2 = 1. ,
M (3, 1).
. (3, 1).
8.5.3. O, i, j
M (2, 3). O0 , i0 , j0
O0 (1, 2)
60 . M O0 , i0 , j0 .
. 8.5.2 , M (3, 1). (3.19),
x = 3, y = 1, = 60 ,

3
3
33
0

x = 3 cos 60 + 1 sin 60 = +
=
,
2 2
2
3 3 1
3 3+1
y 0 = (3) sin 60 + 1 cos 60 =
+ =
.
2
2
2
!

33 3 3+1
.
,
.
2
2

112

8. ( 1)

8.5.4. R2
f1 = (1, 4), f2 = (3, 2), x = (10, 10). , f1 f2
, x
.
. 1; 3.
8.5.5. R3 : f1 = (1, 3, 2), f2 = (3, 4, 5), f3 = (2, 1, 3), x = (2, 4, 6).
, f1 , f2 , f3 ,
x .
. (48, 30, 20).

8.6.
( 6, 7 8)
6, 7 8
. 6 ,
,
.
4.3. 7 .
4.4. 8
. 4.5.
.
8.6.1. ,

x1 + 2x2 + 3x3

2x1 + 3x2 + x3

x1 + 4x2 + 4x3
2x1 + 5x2 + 3x3

+
+
+
+

2x4
x4
3x4
x4

= 4,
= 1,
= 3,
= 3

. x4
. .
. :



1 2 3 2 1
2
3
2



2 3 1 1 0 1 5 3
D=
=
=

2
1
1
1 4 4 3 0
2 5 3 1 0

2
2
0



1 5 3 1 5 3



1
1 = 0 9 5 = 14.
= 2
2


2
0
0
1 1
D 6= 0, .

8.6. ( 6, 7 8)

113

D4 ( D
).



1 2 3
4 1
2
3
4



2 3 1 1 0 1 5 9
D4 =
=
=

3 0
2
1 1
1 4 4
2 5 3 3 0

2
2 2



1 5 9 1 5
9



1 1 = 0 9 19 = 28.
= 2


2
0
1
1
2 2
x4 =

28
D4
=
= 2. D
14

.

, .

1 2 3 2
4
1
2
3
2
4
2 3 1 1 1
0 1 5 3 9

2 5 3 1 3 0
2
2
0 2
1 4 4 3
3
0
2
1
1 1

1
2
3
2
4
1
2
3
2
4
9
0 1 5 3 9
0 1 5 3

.
0
0 8 6 20
0
0 8 6 20
0
0 1
1
1
0
0
0 14 28
,

x + 2x2

1
x2


+ 3x3
5x3
8x3

+
2x4

3x4

6x4
14x4

=
4,
=
9,
= 20,
= 28,

x4 = 2; 8x3 = 20 12, x3 = 1; x2 = 9 5
6 = 2; x1 = 4 + 4 3 4 = 1. : (1, 2, 1, 2).
(
x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + 3x4 + 7x5 = 30,
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 =
7,
8.6.2.
5x1 + 3x2 + x3 + x4 7x5 = 11.
, ,
, x3 = x4 = 1, x5 = 3.
. . ,
, , .

114

8. ( 1)
"

1 2 3
1 1 1
5 3 1
"
1
2
0 1
0
0

3
1
1

7
30
1
7
7 11
3
2
0

"

3
7
30
2 6 23
0
0
0

1
2
3
0 1 2
0 2 4
#

3
7
30
2
6 23
4 12 46

,
2, ,

.
1

2
6= 0, .. x1 x2

0 1
, x3 , x4 , x5 .


x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + 3x4 + 7x5 =
30,
x2 2x3 2x4 6x5 = 23.


x1 = 16 + x3 + x4 + 5x5 ,
x2 = 23 2x3 2x4 6x5

x3 = x4 = 1, x5 = 3, x1 = 16 + 1 + 1 + 15 = 1, x2 = 23 2

2 18 = 1.
(1, 1, 1, 1, 3).

8.6.3.

x x2 + x3 + x4 + 2x5 = 0,

1
2x1 + x2 + 2x3 x4 + x5 = 0,

7x1 + 5x2 + 7x3 5x4 + 2x5 = 0,


x1 + 2x2 + x3 2x4 x5 = 0.

, .
- .
. . , , ,
.

1 1 1
1
2
1
2
|1 1| 1
1 2 1
1
2
|0
3| 0 3
3
.
A=

7
5 7 5
2
0
12 0 12 12
1
2 1 2 1
0
3 0 3
3
, . ,
, , . , ,

8.6. ( 6, 7 8)

115

. 2 4.5 . , : ,
, . .
x1 x2 ,
x3 , x4 , x5 .


x1 x2 + x3 + x4 + 2x5 = 0,
x1 x2 = x3 x4 2x5 ,

x2 x4 x5 = 0,
x2 = x4 + x5 .


, 
x1 = x3 x5 ,
:
x2 = x4 + x5 .
5 2 = 3 ( ).
, (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1):
(1, 0, 1, 0, 0),
(0, 1, 0, 1, 0),
(1, 1, 0, 0, 1).
. .

2x + x2 x3 + 2x4

1
2x1 + 3x2 3x3 + 4x4
8.6.4.

8x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 + 2x4


8x1 + 5x2 + x3 + 5x4

=
=
=
=

4,
14,
1,
7.

, . x2
. .
. (0, 3, 3, 1).
8.6.5.

1
2x1

3x1
2x1


+
+
+
+

x2
2x2
4x2
3x2

x3
5x3
2x3
3x3

2x4
3x4
3x4
x4

=
=
=
=

1,
2,
2,
1.

, ;
x4 = 1.
. (1, 1, 1, 1); x1 = 2 x4 , x2 = 1 + 2x 4, x3 = x4 .

116

8. ( 1)
8.6.6.

2x2 x3 x4 = 0,

x1 5x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 0,

3x1 7x2 + 2x3 x4 = 0,


2x1 4x2 + x3 x4 = 0.

, . -
.
. (1, 1, 2, 0), (3, 1, 0, 2).

8.7.
( 9 10)
5.1 5.6.
8.7.1. (a, b), a = 2p + 3r, b = 3p r, |p| = 4, r = 2,
(pb,r) = (2/3).
. (a, b) = (2p + 3r, 3p r) = 6(p, p) + 9(r, p) 2(p, r)
1
3(r, r) = 6|p|2 + 7|p||r| cos 120 3|r|2 = 6 16 7 4 2 3 4 =
2
= 96 28 12 = 56.
( , (r, p) = (p, r), (p, p) = |p|2 , (r, r) = |r|2 .)
. 56.
8.7.2.
|[a, b]|, a = 2p + 3r, b = 3p r, |p| = 4,
|r| = 2 2, (pb,r) = 135 .
.
|[a, b]| = |[2p + 3r, 3p r]| = |6[p, p] + 9[r, p] 2[p, r] 3[r, r]| =
= |0 + 9[r, p] + 2[r, p] + 0| = 11 |[r, p]| = 11|r||p| sin 135 =

2
= 11 4 2 2
= 88.
2
( [p, p] = [r, r] = 0, [p, r] = [r, p].)
. 88.

8.7.3. |a|, a = 4p + r, |p| = 2, |r| = 4, (pb,r) = 45 .


.
|a|2 = (a, a) = (4p+ r, 4p + r) = 16|p|2 + 8(r, p) + |r|2 =

2
= 32 + 8 2 4
+ 16 = 32 + 32 + 16 = 80.
2

|a| = 80 = 4 5.
. 4 5.

8.7. ( 9 10)

117

8.7.4. p = c + d r = 2c + 3d
, |c| = |d| = 4, (cb,d) = 120 ?
. p r , (p, r) = 0.
, (2c + 3d, c + d) = 0,2|c|2 + (3 + 2)(c, d) + 3|d|2 =
1
= 216(3+2)44 +443 = 328(3+2)16+48 = 8+32 = 0;
2
= 1/4.
. 1/4.

8.7.5. ABC: A(1, 2, 1),


B(0, 3, 2), C(2, 0, 1). ABC
AH.
. , |[a, b]| , a b.
1
ABC |[AB, AC]|. AB = (1, 1, 1),
2

i
j k


AC = (1, 2, 0), [AB, AC] = 1 1 1 = 2i + j k,
1
2 0

1
6
|[AB, AC]| = 22 + 12 + 12 = 6, S =
. S = |AH|
2
2
1
2S
|BC| = h |BC|,

h=
;
BC = (2, 3, 1),
|BC| =
2
|BC|
r

6
3
.
= 4 + 9 + 1 = 14, h = =
7
14

8.7.6. ABCD : A(5, 1, 1), B(1, 2, 2), C(1, 1, 3), D(1, 4, 1). V , CH,
AB AD, AB AD.
. , ,
a, b, c, |(a, b, c)|, ,
1
a, b, c, |(a, b, c)|. 6
1
V = |(CB, CA, CD)|. CB = (0, 1, 1), CA = (6, 2, 4),
6
CD = (2, 3, 2),



0 1 1 0 1
1



2 4 = 0 11 2 =
(CB, CA, CD) = 6
2 3 2 2 3
2
18
= 3.
6
, ,
= 2 (2 11) = 18 V =

118

8. ( 1)

1
3V
V = Sh, h =
. CH,
3
S
S ADB, 1
, 8.7.5: S = |[AB, AD]|, AB = (6, 3, 3),
2
AD = (4, 5, 2),


i
j
k


[AB, AD] = 6 3 3 = 9i + 0 j 18k = 9 (i + 2k);
4 5 2

2 5
9
332
2
1
= =
5; CH = h =
S = 9 1+4=
= 0,4 5.
2
2
5
9 5
5
AB AD
(AB, AD)
6 4 + (3) (5) + (3) (2)

cos =
=
=
|AB||AD|
36 + 9 + 9 16 + 25 + 4
45
30
24 + 15 + 6
5
=
=
= =
.
6
54 45
9 65
30
(. 5.4).
AD ,
AB,

15
5 6
24 + 15 + 6
45
(AB, AD)

=
=
=
.
=
AB AD =
|AB|
2
36 + 9 + 9
54
6

8.7.7. ABC AB = 2p + 5q, AC = 8p 7q,
p q .
p q BC.
. 6p 12q.

8.7.8. ABC BC M1 , M2 , M3 , BM1 = M1 M2 = M2 M3 =


= M3 C. , AM1 = a, AM2 = b. a b AB, BC, AC.
. AB = 2a b, BC = 4(b a), AC = 3b 2a.

8.7.9. , : AB = p + 4q, BC =
= 2p q, AC = p + q, p, q .
. 1; 3.

8.7.10. a = (2, 4, 3) A(3, 5, 2). B .


. B(5, 9, 5).

8.7. ( 11)

119

8.7.11. a = 2p + 3q,

b = 3p 4q, |p| = 3, |q| = 2, (pb,q) = .


4
. 33.
8.7.12. a = 2p 3q + 4r,
p, q, r , ,
2
.
3
. 37.
8.7.13. a = (3, 3, 1),
b = (3, 1, 3).
. 9/19.
8.7.14. a = 6i 3j 2k.
. (6/7, 3/7, 2/7).

8.7.15. a = 4i + 5j 6k , b = 6i 2j 2k.
. 2.
8.7.16. ,

a = 3p 2q, b = 4p + 5q, |p| = 4, |q| = 2, (pb,q) = .


6
. 92.
8.7.17. A(1, 2, 2),
B(3, 2, 2), C(1,
4, 1). CH.
. 9/ 5.
8.7.18. A(2, 3, 1), B(6, 2, 0), C(4, 2, 1),
D(4, 6, 0). DH ABCD.
. 2.

8.8. .
( 11)

6.1 6.5.
8.8.1. A B V3
Ax = [c, x]; Bx = (2x3 , x2 , x1 ), c = (1, 3, 2), x = (x1 , x2 , x3 )
.
1. , A .
2. Ac.
3. Bc.
4. BA (i, j, k).

120

8. ( 1)

.
1. , A , ,
A(x + y) = Ax + Ay. ,
,
A(x + y) = [c, x + y] = [c, x] + [c, y] = Ax + Ay,
.. A .
2. Ac = [c, c] = 0, Ac = (0, 0, 0).
3. Bc. x1 = 1, x2 = 3, x3 = 2.
Bc = (4, 3, 1).
4. BA : ) B A, ;
) BAi, BAj, BAk . A B.
:




i j k
i j k




Ai = 1 3 2 = 2j 3k, Aj = 1 3 2 = 2i k,
0 1 0
1 0 0


"
#
i j k
0 2 3


2
0 1 .
Ak = 1 3 2 = 3i + j, A =
0 0 1
3 1 0
"
#
0
0 2
0 .
Bi = (0, 0, 1); Bj = (0, 1, 0); Bk = (2, 0, 0); B = 0 1
1
0
0
"
#"
# "
#
0
0 2
0 2 3
6
2
0
0
2
0 1 = 2
0 1 .
BA = 0 1
1
0
0
3 1 0
0 2
3
BA a. . (BA)i = B(Ai) = B(2j 3k) = (6, 2, 0); B(Aj) =
= B(2i k) = (2, 0, 2); B(Ak) = B(3i + j) = (0, 1, 3). "
#
6
2
0
0 1 .
BA = 2
0 2
3

8.8.2. A R3 R3 Aa =
= (5x1 +2x2 3x3 , 4x1 +5x2 4x3 , 6x1 +4x2 4x3 ), x = (x1 , x2 , x3 )
R3 .
1. A .
2. , x = (1, 2, 2)
A, 0 , . A .

121

8.8. ( 11)

.
1. A(1, 0, 0) = (5, 4, 6), A(0, 1, 0) = (2, 5, 4), A(0, 0, 1) =
= (3, 4, 4), , "
#
5 2 3
, A: A = 4 5 4 .
6 4 4
2. , x = (1, 2, 2) A.
Ax =

"

5
4
6

2 3
5 4
4 4

#"

1
2
2

"

5+46
4 + 10 8
6+88

"

3
6
6

=3

"

1
2
2

Ax = 3x, , x(1, 2, 2) 0 = 3.
3. ,


5
2
3


4 5
4 =
|A E| =

6
4 4






4 5
4
5
4
4
=



3
2
= (5 )
6
4
6 4
4
4

= (5 )(2 4) 2(4 + 8) 3(6 14) =


= 3 + 2 + 4 + 52 5 20 + 8 16 18 + 42=
= 3 + 62 11 + 6 = 0.
, 0 = 3 . 3 62 + 11 6 ( 3),
2 3 + 2.
,

8
31
2 3 + 2 = 0. 1,2 =
=
, 1 = 1, 2 = 2. , 2
2
1, 2, 3.
,
.
= 1. , ,

(
4x1 + 2x2 3x3 = 0,
4x1 + 4x2 4x3 = 0,
6x1 + 4x2 5x3 = 0.
|A E| = 0.
, , . . , x1 = x2 . ,

122

8. ( 1)

x1 = x2 ,
. , x3 = 2x2
, x2 = 1, x = (1, 1, 2).
"
#"
# "
# "
#
"
#
5 2 3
1
5+26
1
1
1 = 4+58 = 1 =1 1 ,
: 4 5 4
6 4 4
2
6+48
2
2
.. (1,1,2)
= 1.
, = 2
(1,0,1).

"
#
16 0 0
6 2 2 . ,
8.8.3. A =
3 1 3
x = (0, 2, 1) A.
.
. 1; 4; 16.
8.8.4.
) B(x, x) = 2x2 2xy + y 2 2yz + 2z 2 ,
) B(x, x) = 5x2 4xy + 6y 2 4yz + 7z 2
.

"
#
"
#
2/ 5 1/5
1/5
x
x1
y ;
. ) 2y12 + 3z12 ; y1 = 1/2
0 1/2
z
z1
1/ 3 1/ 3 1/ 3
) 3 182 99 + 162 = 0; 3x21 + 6y12 + 9z12 ;
"
# "
#"
#
x1
2/3
2/3
1/3
x
y1 = 2/3 1/3 2/3
y .
z1
1/3 2/3
2/3
z

9.
( 2)
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ;
4) , ; 5) , , .
.
, (. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6).

9.1. ( 1 2)
7.1. , Ax + By + C = 0 A B
N = (A, B), ,
. , N = (A, B) (x0 , y0 )
- M0 , . .
1. , Ax + By + C = 0,
M0 (x0 , y0 ), Ax0 + By0 + C = 0, , C = (Ax0 + By0 ).
2. M0 (x0 , y0 )
N = (A, B),
Ax + By (Ax0 + By0 ) = 0.
3. l = (p, q),
N1 = (q, p),
N2 = (q, p).
4. , ( ). , .
5.
A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0,

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0,
A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0.

(9.1.19.1.6) .
9.1.1. C, , 2x 3y + C = 0, M0 (2, 4).
. 1 x0 = 2, y0 = 4 2 2 3 4+
+C = 0 ( M0 ),
4 12 + C = 0, C = 8.

124

9. ( 2)

9.1.2. ,
M0 (2, 3) N = (4, 5).
. 2 4x + 5y
(4 2 + 5 5) = 0, 4x + 5y 23 = 0.
9.1.3. , M0 (2, 3) x 4y + 5 = 0.
.
N = (1, 4) x 4y (2 12) = 0,
x 4y + 14 = 0.
9.1.4. L,
M0 (3, 2) 4x 5y + 2 = 0.
. L , N1 (4, 5), N2 (5, 4), (N1 , N2 ) = 0. 9.1.4
9.1.2. 5x + 4y (5 3 4 2) = 0
5x + 4y 7 = 0.

9.1.5. L,
M0 (3, 4) M1 (5, 3).
. .
. L M0 M1 = (2, 7),
N = (7, 2), L.
: 7x + 2y (7 3 + 2 4) = 0, 7x + 2y 29 = 0.
. L
y = kx + b.
k b. 
4 = 3k + b,
M0 M1 ,
3 = 5k + b.
29
7
.
, k = , b =
2
2
7
29
L y = x + , 7x + 2y 29 = 0.
2
2
. M0 M1
y y0
x x0
=
. x0 = 3, y0 = 4, x1 = 5, y1 = 3.
x1 x0
y1 y0
x3
y4 x3
y4

=
,
=
, 7(x 3) = 2(y 4),
53
3 4
2
7
7x + 2y 29 = 0.
9.1.6. d M (2, 5)
8x + 6y 7 = 0.

9.1. ( 1 2)

125

. (7.12), x1 = 2,
y1 = 5, A = 8, B = 6,
|8 2 + 5 6 7|
39
|16 + 30 7|

d=
=
= 3,9.
=
10
10
64 + 36
9.1.7. ABC: A(1, 3);
B(5, 7); C(3, 1). , : ) AM ; ) BH .
: ) AM A(1, 3) M , BC.
71
5 3
= 4, y =
= 3, .. M (4, 3).
M : x =
2
2
AM AM = (5, 6). AM N = (6, 5).
AM (. 2): 6x + 5y (6 15) = 0,
6x + 5y + 9 = 0;
) BH AC = (4, 2)k(2, 1).
BH
N(2, 1). 2, BH:
2x y (10 7) = 0, 2x y + 17 = 0.
9.1.8. , M0 (1, 6) S = 0,5.
. y = kx + b.
b > 0, k > 0.

M0 (1, 6), 6 = k + b.


: B(0, b),

b
A , 0 . k
b2
OAB (. 9.1) S =
.
2k
2
1
1 b
. 9.1.
= ,
S = ,
2 2k
2

k = b2 ,
2
.. k = b .
b2 + b 6 = 0. 6 = k + b.

1 5
1 1 + 24
=
.
, b1,2 =
2
2
b > 0, b = 2, k = 4. ,
y = 4x + 2, 4x y + 2 = 0.

126

9. ( 2)

9.1.9. P (6, 0) L,
4x 3y + 1 = 0. S,
P (6, 0) .
. Q, P ,
L P Q (. 9.2), P .
P Q N1 (4, 3) L.
P Q N2 (3, 4),
P Q
3x + 4y (18 0) = 0, 3x + 4y 18 = 0.

. 9.2.
 Q 4x 3y + 1 = 0,

3x + 4y 18 = 0,
, x = 2, y = 3, .. Q(2, 3).
6+x
= 2,
S x y. Q P S,
2
0+y
= 3. x = 2, y = 6, .. S(2, 6).
2
. Q(2, 3), S(2, 6).
9.1.10. ,
P (6, 10) M1 (2, 8) M2 (4, 12).
.
Ax + By + C = 0, A2 + B 2 6= 0.
P , 6A + 10B + C = 0.
Ax + By + C = 0 M1 (2, 8)
M2 (4, 12) (. 9.3).
(7.12),
|4A 12B + C|
|2A + 8B + C|

=
,
2
2
A +B
A2 + B 2
. 9.3.

|2A + 8B + C| = |4A 12B + C|,


2A + 8B + C = (4A 12B + C).
A, B, C :


6A + 10B + C = 0,
6A + 10B + C = 0,
)
)
A2 + B 2 6= 0.
2A 20B = 0
6A 4B + 2C = 0,(
A = 10B,
C = 70B,
)
B 6= 0.

9.1. ( 1 2)

127

10Bx + By 70B = 0 ,
(
B 6= 0, 10x + y 70 = 0.
A = 4B,
C = 14B,
):
B 6= 0.
4Bx+
+By + 14B = 0, 4x y 14 = 0.
, , P M1 M2 ,
P M0 M1 M2 (. 9.3).
3.
4x y 14 = 0,
.
10x + y 70 = 0.
9.1.11. ABC A (. 9.4). : B(3, 7),
2x y + 1 = 0 3x 4y + 9 = 0. C.
. A

AH AM , 2x y + 1 = 0,

3x 4y + 9 = 0.
x = 1, y = 3, .. A(1, 3).
x0 , y0
C.
M . 9.4.

x0 + 3 y0 + 7

. C
,
2
2
BC, M . BC ,
, (2, 1), N(1, 2). BC 2
x + 2y (
(3 + 14) = 0, x + 2y 17 = 0. x0 y0

x0 + 2y0 17 = 0,
x0 + 2y0 17 = 0,
y0 + 7
x0 + 3

3x0 4y0 1 = 0.
4
+ 9 = 0,
3
2
2
, x0 = 7, y0 = 5.
. C(7, 5).

9.1.12. 3x 4y+
+12 = 0 .
. (4, 0), (0, 3).

128

9. ( 2)

9.1.13. 4x + 3y + 5 = 0.
, M0 (2, 1):
) ;
) .
. ) 4x + 3y 11 = 0; ) 3x 4y 2 = 0.

9.1.14. P (6, 4) 4x+5y3 = 0.


. (2, 1).

9.1.15. Q, P (5, 13) 2x 3y 3 = 0.


. (11, 11).
9.1.16.
A(5, 4), B(1, 3), C(3, 2), AC.
. x + 4y = 0.

9.1.17. A(2, 1), B(1, 1), C(3, 2).


CH .
. 3x + 2y 13 = 0, 2x 3y 1 = 0, 3x 4y 1 = 0,
x y 1 = 0.
9.1.18. A(1, 2), B(5, 4), C(2, 0).
A.
. 5x + y 3 = 0.

9.1.19. A(10, 13), B(2, 3),


C(2, 1). ,
B CM .
. 4.
9.1.20. , :
) 3x y +5 = 0 2x + y
7 = 0;
) x 3 + y 2 2 = 0 x 6 3y + 3 = 0.
. ) = 45 , ) = 90 .

9.2. ( 3)
7.4, , .

N = (A, B, C), , - M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ),
.
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0.
M0 , ,

9.2. ( 3)

129

.. Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D = 0, , D = (Ax0 + By0 +


+Cz0 ). , , N M0 , .
- l1 l2 , ,
, , N = [l1 , l2 ].
. , M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) . .
9.2.1. ,
M0 (1, 2, 3) N(4, 3, 2).
. N(4, 3, 2) , Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
A = 4; B = 3; C = 2, .. 4x 3y + 2z + D = 0. M0 (1, 2, 3) , 4 + 6 + 6 + D = 0,
D = 16. : 4x 3y + 2z 16 = 0.
9.2.2. , : M1 (1, 2, 1), M2 (3, 1, 2), M3 (4, 5, 3).
. l1 = M1 M2 =
= (2, 1, 1) l2 = M1 M3 = (3, 3, 2).


i
j
k


N = [l1 , l2 ] = 2 1 1 . 3
3 2
:










1 1
i 2 1 j + 2 1 k = 5i + j + 9k,
N =
3
3 2
3
3 2

.. N = (5, 1, 9). 5x + y + 9z + D =
= 0. D , M1 (1, 2, 1): 5 + 2 9 + D = 0, D = 2.
5x + y + 9z + 2 = 0 . , M2
M3 .
. 5x + y + 9z + 2 = 0.
9.2.3. , 4x 3y + 2z 3 = 0,
P (1, 5, 3), M0 (2, 7, 4).
. l1 = (4, 3, 2)
l2 = PM0 = (1, 12, 7), N


i
j
k


2 = (3i + 30j + 51k)k(1, 10, 17).
N = [l1 , l2 ] = 4 3
1 12 7
: x 10y 17z + D = 0.

130

9. ( 2)

P ( M0 ), 1 + 50 51 + D = 0,
D = 0. x 10y 17z = 0.
. x 10y 17z = 0.

9.2.4. ,
M1 (2, 3, 5) M2 (4, 1, 1) OY .
. l1 = M1 M2 =
= (2, 4, 6) l2 = (0, 1, 0) = j,

i j
k


N = [l1 , l2 ] = 2 4 6 = 6i + 0j + 2kk(3, 0, 1).
0 1
0
3x + z + D = 0. M1 (2, 3, 5) ( M2 ), 6 + 5 + D = 0,
D = 11. 3x + z 11 = 0.
. 3x + z 11 = 0.
-.
M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) -
r0 l1 = (m1 , n1 , p1 ) l2 = (m2 , n2 , p2 ),




x x0 y y0 z z0


n1
p1 = 0.
(r r0 , l1 , l2 ) = 0, m1
m

n
p
2

9.2.5. , M0 (1, 4, 3) 2x 3y + 4z 1 = 0
x + 4y z + 5 = 0.
. ,
l1 = N1 = (2, 3, 4) l2 = N2 = (1, 4, 1). ,

,


x1 y4 z3


3
4 = 0, 13(x 1) + 6(y 4) + 11(z 3) = 0,
2
1
4
1
13x 6y 11z 13 + 24 + 33 = 0, 13x 6y 11z + 44 = 0.
. 13x 6y 11z + 44 = 0.

9.2.6. , OZ
M1 (2, 5, 6).
. OZ, ..
k = (0, 0, 1) OM 1 = (2, 5, 6), O(0, 0, 0) .

M0 (0, 0, 0),
x
y z


2 5 6 = 0, 5x 2y = 0, 5x + 2y = 0.
0
0 1
. 5x + 2y = 0.

9.2. ( 3)

131

9.2.7. d P (1, 4, 5)
x 2y 2z + 3 = 0.
. 7.4 ( 4),
|1 8 10 + 3|
14
d=
.
=
3
1+4+4
9.2.8. ,
2x + 6y + 3z 6 = 0 d = 5.
. ,

N = (2, 6, 3) . ,
2x + 6y + 3z + D = 0.
D. ,
M0 (3, 0, 0). 2x + 6y + 3z + D = 0
|6 + D|
|6 + D|
= 5, 6 + D =
= 5,
d = 5.
7
4 + 36 + 9
= 35. D1 = 29, D2 = 41. 2x+6y+3z+
+29 = 0 2x + 6y + 3z 41 = 0, d = 5.
. 2x + 6y + 3z + 29 = 0, 2x + 6y + 3z 41 = 0.

9.2.9. ,
M0 (1, 2, 3) N = (3, 2, 5).
. 3x 2y + 5z + 22 = 0.

9.2.10. ,
M0 (3, 0, 4) x 4y + 2z + 6 = 0.
. x 4y + 2z + 5 = 0.

9.2.11. ,
: M1 (0, 1, 2), M2 (2, 0, 3), M3 (3, 4, 0).
. 7x y 13z + 25 = 0.

9.2.12. ,
M1 (2, 1, 4) M2 (0, 3, 1) 4x + 3y 5z+
+4 = 0.
. x + 2y + 2z 8 = 0.
9.2.13. ,
M0 (5, 2, 1) OXZ.
. y 2 = 0.

9.2.14. ,
5x 6y + 3z + 120 = 0 OXY .
. 240.

132

9. ( 2)

9.2.15. ,
2x 3y + 6z 12 = 0 .
. 8.
9.2.16. OY ,
x + 2y 2z 2 = 0 d = 4.
. (0, 7, 0), (0, 5, 0).

9.3. ( 4, 5, 6)
7.5.

:

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0,

(1)
A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0

, N1 = (A1 , B1 , C1 ) N2 = (A2 , B2 , C2 ).
l = (m, n, p) M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) ,

r = r0 + tl,
(2)
r0 - M0 , r -
, t( < t < +) .
(2) )
:
x = x0 + tm,
y = y0 + tn,
(3)
z = z0 + tp
y y0
z z0
x x0
=
=
.
(4)

m
n
p
(3) , (4) . , t .
(1)
(3) (4). , .
(1) x, y, z. N1 = (A1 , B1 , C1 )
N2 = (A2 , B2 , C2 ) ,




A1 B1
A1 C1


, D2 =
D3 = B1 C1
D1 =
A2 C2
B2 C2
A2 B2
. , , , . (1) , . , ,

9.3. ( 4, 5, 6)

133

D1 = (A1 B2 A2 B1 ) 6= 0,
z, x y. (1) x y,

x = z + ,
y = z + .
( z = t,
x = t + ,
y
z0
x
y = t + ,
=
=

1
z=t
. , l
[N1 , N2 ], lN1 lN2 .
, M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 )
, l
, .. l , l ( 6= 0) .
, ,
, ,
, .
r = r1 + tl1 r = r2 + tl2 , l1 kl2 ; , r1 r2 kl1 kl2 ; ,
(r1 r2 , l1 , l2 ) = 0; , (r1 r2 , l1 , l2 ) 6= 0.
, r1 r2 - -
, , l1
l2 .
(9.3.19.3.5)
.
9.3.1.
, :

2x + 3y + z 16 = 0,
()
x + 2y z + 6 = 0.


2 3
= 1 6= 0, z . D =
1 2

()

2x + 3y = 16 z,
, x + 2y = 6 + z.

x = 5z + 50,
x y z:
z = t, y = 3z 28.
(
x = 5t + 50,
x 50
y + 28
z
y = 3t 28,


=
=
5
3
1
z=t

134

9. ( 2)

. M0 (50, 28, 0) t = 0. M0 , (0, 2, 10), t = 10.


. l = (5, 3, 1); M0 (50, 28, 0).

9.3.2.
, M1 (1, 3, 4) M2 (2, 1, 2).
.
l = M1 M2 = (3, 4, 2), M0 M1
x1
y+3
z4
M2 .
=
=

3
4
2
M1 M2 .
(
x = 3t 2,
y = 2t + 3,
9.3.3. M0
z = 4t 1
x + 2y + 4z 30 = 0.
. t0 ,
.
M0 (3t0 2, 2t0 + 3, 4t0 1) , , , 3t0
2 + 2(2t0 + 3) + 4(4t 1) 30 = 0, 3t0 2 4t0 + 6 + 16t 4 30 =
= 15t0 30 = 0, t0 = 2.
t = 2,
M0 (4, 1, 7).
. (4, 1, 7).
(
(
x = 3t 4,
x = 2t 5,
y = 2t + 1,
y = 3t + 5,
9.3.4. ,
z =t+3
z = 4t 4
. , .
. , (r1 r2 , l1 , l2 ) = 0.
r1 = (4, 1, 3), r2 = (5, 5, 4), l1 = (3, 2, 1), l2 = (2, 3, 4).




1
4
7
4 7 1



1 = 0 10 20 = 0,
(r1 r2 , l1 , l2 ) = 3 2


2 3
0
5 10
4
.. .
, , l1 ,
l2 M
1 (4, 1, 3).

i
j k


N = [l1 , l2 ] = 3 2 1 = (5i 10j 5k)k(1, 2, 1).
2 3 4

135

9.3. ( 4, 5, 6)

x + 2y + z+
+D = 0. M1 (4, 1, 3),
4 + 2 + 3 + D = 0, D = 1. x + 2y + z 1 = 0
.
. x + 2y + z 1 = 0.
(
(
x = 2t + 1,
x = t + 4,
y = 3t + 4,
y = 2t + 8,
9.3.5. ,

z = 2t + 3
z = 3t 4
. M0 .
. , ,
9.3.4. .
, , M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ),
t = t1 t = t2
,
(
M0 . (
2t1 + 1 = t2 + 4,
2t1 t2 = 3,
3t1 + 4 = 2t2 + 8,
3t1 2t2 = 4,

2t1 + 3 = 3t2 4,
2t1 + 3t2 = 7.
t1 t2 . , , ,
.

#
"
#
"
2 1 | 3
|2 1| | 3
: 3 2 | 4 |0 1| | 1 ( 2
3 |7
0 4 | 4
, ,
).
, ,
.. ,
 . 2t1 t2 = 3,

, t2 = 1, t1 = 2.
t2 = 1.
t = 2 ( t = 1),
M0 (5, 10, 1).
9.3.6. Q,
P (46, 2, 12) L

x 2y + z + 12 = 0,
2x + 3y z 22 = 0.

()

S, P .
. Q L
c , P

L.
L.



2
1
6= 0, x

3 1

136

9. ( 2)

(). x = t ()
y z t.
)
x = t,
y = 3t + 10,

()
z = 7t + 8

.
l = (1, 3, 7) . : x 3y 7z + D = 0,
46 6 + 84 + D = 0 ( P ),
D = 32. : x 3y 7z 32 = 0.
() (. 9.3.3):
t 3(3t + 10) 7(7t + 8) 32 = 0, 59t 118 = 0, t = 2. ()
t = 2 Q(2, 4, 6).
S (x, y, z).
Q P S
46 + x
2+y
(. 9.5),
= 2, x = 50;
= 4,
2
2
12 + z
y = 6;
= 6, z = 0, S(50, 6, 0).
2
. Q(2, 4, 6); S(50, 6, 0).
. 9.5.
9.3.7. Q, P (2, 1, 4) x 4y + 5z + 28 = 0. S, P .
. Q L, P .
L N = (1, 4, 5) ,
N
( . x = t 2,
y = 4t + 1, L:
z = 5t + 4
: (t2)4(4t+1)+5(5t+4)+28 = 0,
42t + 42 = 0; t = 1. , Q(3, 5, 1). ( t = 1.) S , 9.3.6: S(4, 9, 6).
. Q(3, 5, 1); S(4, 9, 6).
(

9.3.8. d P (1, 2, 3) L
x = 2t + 4,
y = t + 3,
z = 2t 1.

9.3. ( 4, 5, 6)

137

. . 7.5 ( 2) |[r1 r0 , l]|


d : d =
, r1
l
- , r0 - - , l .
r1 = (1, 2, 3), r0 = (4, 3, 1), l = (2, 1, 2).


i
j k


[r1 r0 , l] = 3 5 4 = 6i + 14j + 13k,
2 1 2
p

|[r1 r0 , l]| = 62 + 142 + 132 = 401,

401
|l| = 4 + 1 + 4 = 3; d =
.
3

401
.
.
3
L ,
, 9.3.1.
9.3.9. d
L1 L2 , :
(
(
x = t + 2,
x = 2t + 1,
y = 2t + 1,
y = 2t + 4,
z = t + 3,
z = t + 2.
. . 7.5 ( 3) d:
|(r2 r1 , l1 , l2 )|
,
d=
|[l1 , l2 ]|

r1 , r2 - , ()
, l1 , l2 . r1 = (2, 1, 3), r2 = (1, 4, 2), l1 = (1, 2, 1), l2 = (2, 2, 1).



1 3 1 1 3 1



1 = 0 5
0 = 5;
: (r2 r1 , l1 , l2 ) = 1 2
2 2


1
2 2
1

5
= 5.
[l1 , l2 ] = j 2k; d =
1
+4

. 5.

9.3.10. , L
(0, 4, 0), x + 2y + 3z + 2 = 0 OZ. Q Y = 0.

138

9. ( 2)

. l L.
l = (m, n, p). l
x + 2y + 3z + 2 = 0, ,
N = (1, 2, 3). (l, N) = 0, m + 2n + 3p = 0.
l OZ, .. k = (0, 0, 1), , p = 0. , m + 2n = 0. n = 1,
m = 2, .. l = (2, 1, 0).
y4
z
x
=
= . y = 0, x = 8,
L:
2
1
0
z = 0. Q (8, 0, 0).
. (8, 0, 0).
. L OZ
, L OZ, l OZ.
9.3.11. , P (2, 3, 1), x + 2y + 2z 4 = 0.
OZ, OY . .
. P (2, 3, 1)
M1 (0, 0, z0 ), P (2, 3, 1)
M2 (0, y0 , 0). l1 l2 PM1 PM2 , , l1 = (2, 3, z0 1), l2 =
= (2, y0 3, 1). l1 l2 x + 2y + 2z 4 = 0, ..
N = (1, 2, 2). (l1 , N) = 0, 2 6 + 2(z0 1) = 0, (l2 , N) =
= 4 + 2(y0 3) = 0. z0 = 5; y0 = 5. , l1 =
= (2, 3, 4), l2 = (2, 2, 1). l1 l2 :
cos =

464
2
(l1 , l2 )

=
= .
|l1 ||l2 |
4 + 9 + 16 4 + 4 + 1
3 29

2
. cos = .
3 29
9.3.12. L P (1, 2, 4),
(
x = t + 2,
y = 3t 1, OX Q(x0 , 0, 0)
z = 4t + 3.
x0 .
. , (r2 r1 , l1 , l2 ) = 0.
r2 = (1, 2, 4), r1 = (2, 1, 3), l1 = (1, 3, 4), l2 = PQ = (x0 1, 2, 4).

139

9.3. ( 4, 5, 6)



1
3 7


1
3
4 =
(r2 r1 , l1 , l2 ) =
x 1 2
4
0





3 7
1 7
1




= (x0 1)
+ 2
+ 4
3
4
1
4
1


3
=
3

= 33(x0 1) + 6 24 = 0, 33x0 33 + 6 24 = 0, 33x0 33 + 6 24 = 0,


17
.
33x0 = 51; x0 =
11
17
.
.
11
9.3.13.
, 
x + 2y + 3z 1 = 0,

AB = (3, 4, 5).
x 3y + 2z + 4 = 0
. l
AB, N = [l, AB] . l.

x z (y

x = 13y 14,
),
y = t, z = 5 5y.
(
x = 13t 14,
y = t,

, z = 5t + 5.
l = (13, 1, 5) M0 (14, 0, 5)
.


i
j
k


5 = (15i + 80j + 55k)k(3, 16, 11).
N = [l, AB] = 3 4
13
1 5
3x + 16y + 11z + D = 0. M0
, 42 + 55 + D = 0; D = 13.
3x + 16y + 11z 13 = 0 .
. 3x + 16y + 11z 13 = 0.

9.3.14.
, 5x 7y + 2z 3 = 0
z = 0.
x 0,6
y
z
.
= = .
7
5
0

140

9. ( 2)

9.3.15.
, M0 (2, 4, 3)
l = (5, 2, 3).
(
x = 5t + 2,
x2
y4
z+3
y = 2t + 4,
.
=
=
;
5
2
3
z = 3t 3.

9.3.16. ,
M1 (3, 2, 2) M2 (0, 1, 2), Z = 0.


x3
y+2
z2
3 1
.
=
=
;
, ,0 .
3
3
4
2 2

2x 3y + 5z 6 = 0,
9.3.17. ,
x + 5y 7z + 10 = 0
OY . .
. (0, 2, 0).
 9.3.18.
x 2y + 3z 4 = 0,
3x + 2y 5z 4 = 0.
(
x = 2t + 2,
y = 7t 1,
.
z = 4t.

 9.3.19.
5x 4y 2z 6 = 0,
2x y + z 3 = 0.
x + 2z 2 = 0
y1
z
x2
=
=
.
.
2
3
1

9.3.20.
 ,
3x y + 2z 7 = 0,
M0 (2, 3, 5)
x + 3y 2z + 3 = 0.
y3
z5
x2
=
=
.
.
2
4
5

9.3.21. ,
,
(
(
x = 2t 3,
x = t + 5,
y = 3t 2,
y = 4t 1, ,

z = 4t + 6
z =t4
.
. (3, 7, 6).

9.3. ( 4, 5, 6)

141

9.3.22. , M1 (4, 5, 3) :
x+1
y+3
z2 x2
y+1
z1
=
=
,
=
=
.
3
2
1
2
3
5
x+4
y+5
z3
.
=
=
.
3
2
1
x1
y+1
z
=
=
9.3.23.
1
2
6
2x + 3y + z 1 = 0.
. (2, 3, 6).

9.3.24. , M0 (2, 3, 5) 2x + 7y
6z + 2 = 0. (
x = 2t + 2,
y = 7t 3,
.
z = 6t 5.
9.3.25. ,

(
x = 2t 3,
y = 4t + 1,
M0 (2, 1, 3)
z = 5t 1.
. 2x + 4y + 5z 15 = 0.

9.3.26. Q, P (2, 5, 7)
, M1 (5, 4, 6)
M2 (2, 17, 8).
. (4, 1, 3).
9.3.27. Q, P (1, 3, 4) 3x + y 2z = 0.
. (5, 1, 0).

9.3.28. , y+3
z5 x
y
z
x4
=
=
;
= = .

2
4
5
2
4
5
. 35x + 10y + 22z = 0.
x+2
y
z1
9.3.29.
,
=
=

2
3
4
y1
z7
x3
=
=
, 3
4
2
, .
. 22x 8y 17z + 61 = 0.

9.3.30. P (2, 3, 1)
x5
y
z + 25
= =
.
3
2
2
. 21.

142

9. ( 2)

9.3.31.
y+4
z + 3 x 21
y+5
z2
x+7
=
=
;
=
=
.
3
4
2
6
4
1
. 13.
9.3.32.
, (

x = t + 1,
2x y + z 3 = 0,
y = 3t 2,

x + 2y z 5 = 0.
z = 4t
. x 3y + 2z 7 = 0.

9.3.33. , M0 (3, 2, 4)
y+4
z1
x2
=
=
.
3x 2y 3z 17 = 0
3
2
3
(
x = 5t + 3,
y = 6t 2,
.
z = 9t 4.

9.4. . ( 7)
(x0 , y0 ) R (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 = R2 . a11 x2 + a22 y 2 + 2a12 xy + a01 x + a02 y + a00 = 0
, a11 = a22 6= 0, a12 = 0. .
(x0 , y0 ) R (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 + (z z0 )2 = R2 . a11 x2 +a22 y 2 +
+a33 z 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a13 xz + 2a23 yz + a01 x + a02 y + a03 z + a00 = 0 , a11 = a22 = a33 6= 0, a12 = a13 = a23 = 0.
.
9.4.1. , x2 + y 2 + 6x 10y = 11 . .
M0 (0, 1).
. : (x + 3)2 9 + (y 5)2
25 = 11, (x + 3)2 + (y 5)2 = 45. ,

C(3, 5), R = 45.
, , .
CM0 = (3, 6)k(1, 2)
, ,
x 2y + C = 0. M0 (0, 1),
.. 2 + C = 0, C = 2.
x 2y 2 = 0 .

. C(3, 5), R = 45, x 2y 2 = 0.

9.4. . ( 7)

143

9.4.2. , x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2x + 4y 8z + 2 = 0
, ,
M0 (2, 1, 5).
. , : (x + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 + (z 4)2 1 4 16 + 2 = 0, (x + 1)2 +
+(y + 2)2 + (z 4)2 = 19. ,
C(1, 2, 4) R = 19. CM0 = (3, 3, 1) M0 . :
3x + 3y + z + D = 0. M0 (2, 1, 5) .
6 + 3 + 5 + D = 0, D = 14. 3x + 3y + z 14 = 0 .

. C(1, 2, 4), R = 19, 3x + 3y + z 14 = 0.



9.4.3.
C(4, 6), R = 5.
. (x 4)2 + (y + 6)2 = 25.

9.4.4. ,
M (3, 2), C(5, 4).
. (x + 5)2 + (y 4)2 = 100.

9.4.5. ,
: M1 (1, 5); M2 (2, 2) M3 (5, 5).
. , ,
.
. (x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 25.

9.4.6. , A(1, 0) 2x + y+
+2 = 0, 2x + y 18 = 0.
. (x 5)2 + (y + 2)2 = 20, (x 9/5)2 + (y 22/5)2 = 20.
9.4.7.
C(1, 1), 5x 12y + 9 = 0.
. (x 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = 4.

9.4.8. x2 + y 2 2x + 4y
20 = 0.
. C(1, 2), R = 5.

9.4.9. (x + 2)2 +
+(y 3)2 = 25 A(5, 7).
. 3x 4y + 43 = 0.

144

9. ( 2)

9.4.10. C(5, 4, 2)
R = 3.
. (x 5)2 + (y + 4)2 + (z 2)2 = 9.

9.4.11. x2 + y 2 + z 2 4x 2y+
+2z 19 = 0.
. C(2, 1, 1), R = 5.

9.4.12.
C(3, 5, 2), 2x y 3z + 11 = 0.
. (x 3)2 + (y + 5)2 + (z + 2)2 = 56.

9.4.13.
(x 3)2 + (y 1)2 + (z + 2)2 = 24 M (1, 3, 0).
. 2x y z + 5 = 0.

9.5. . .
( 8, 9, 10)
2
8, 9 10. 8 9
(. 2 . 7.1 . 7.6, 7.7).
10.
9.5.1. 3x2 + 10xy + 3y 2 2x 14y 13 = 0 . ,
. ,
. .
.
. B(x, y) = 3x2 + 10xy + 3y 2 .
  3 5
B =
5 3
. B:


3
5
= 2 6 16 = 0,
5
3

1,2 = 3 9 + 16 = 3 5, 1 = 8, 2 = 2.
, .
B. 1 = 8

51 + 52 = 0,

1 = 2 .
51 52 = 0,

9.5. . .

145

 1 = 1, i1 =
1
1
= , .
2
2


 j1 i1 . 1
1
j1 = ,
, (i1 , j1 )
2
2
. (0, i, j)
 
1/2 1/2
(0, i1 , j1 ). Q =
,
1/ 2
1/ 2



1/2 1/2
. (x, y) Q1 = QT =
1/ 2 1/ 2



 

x
x1
x1
(x1 , y1 )
=Q
,
=
y1
y
y





1
x
x = (x1 y1 )/ 2,
x1 = (x + y)/
2,
,
= Q1
(.
y
y = (x1 + y1 )/ 2,
y1 = (x + y)/ 2
(3.18)).
2
14
: 8x21 2y12 (x1 y1 ) (x1 + y1 ) 13 = 0,
2
2
16
12
2
2
8x1 x1 2y1 y1 13 = 0. , 2
2

2
2


1
3
8 x1
2 y1 +
13 4 + 9 = 0,
2
2
2


2
3
1

2 y1 +
8 x1
= 8,
2
2
2
2


1
3
x1
y1 +
2
2

= 1.
1
4
, a = 1, b = 2.



O1
1

x2 = x1 ,
2
. 9.6.

y2 = y1 + ,
2

146

9. ( 2)

x1 = x2 + ,
2
2,
x2 = (x + y 1)/

y
=
(x
+
y
+
3)/
2.
2

y1 = y2 .
2
(O1 , i1 , j1 )
y2
x22
2 = 1. O1 x2 , O1 y2 x + y 1 = 0,
1
4
x y 3 = 0. O1 ,

x + y = 1,
, ,

x + y = 3.
x = 2, y = 1, O1 (2, 1). y2 = 0,
x y 3 = 0.
, (. 9.6). , y2 = 2x2 .

9.5.2. 9x2 24xy + 16y 2 20x + 110y 50 = 0 . ,


. p,
.
. 9.5.1.



9
12
2
2
B = 9x 24xy + 16y , B =
,
12
16


9
12
= 2 25 = 0; 1 = 0, 2 = 25.
12 16
, .
 . 1 = 0
91 122 = 0,
B=
31 = 42 . 1 = 4, 2 = 3,
121 + 162 = 0,


4 3
.
,
i1 i1 =
5 5
,



3 4
. (i1 , j1 ) 2 = 25, j1 = ,
5 5
.
 (O, i, j) (O1 , i1 , j1 ). 4/5 3/5
Q =
Q1 = QT =
3/5
4/5


4/5 3/5
. (x1 , y1 )
=
3/5 4/5


x = (4x1 3y1 )/5,
x1 = (4x + 3y)/5,
(x, y)
y = (3x1 + 4y1 )/5,
y1 = (3x + 4y)/5.

9.5. . .

147


20
110
25y12 (4x1 3y1 ) +
(3x1 + 4y1 ) 50 = 0, 25y12 + 100y1 +
5
5
+50x1 50 = 0; 25(y1 + 2)2 = 50(3 x1 ); (y1 + 2)2 = 2(3 x1 ). , p .





x2 = (x1 3),
x1 = 3 + x2 ,
O1

y2 = y1 + 2.
y1 = 2 + y2 .

x2 = (4x + 3y 15)/5,
y2 = (3x + 4y + 10)/5.

(O1 , i1 , j1 )
y22 =
= 2x2 . y2 = 0, .. 3x
4y 10 = 0. O1 x2 = 0,
y2 = 0, ,


4x + 3y = 15,

3x 4y = 10.
. 9.7.
 ,


18 1
. ,
O1
5 5
.
, (. 9.7).

9.5.3.
) 14x2 + 24xy + 21y 2 4x + 18y 139 = 0,
) 11x2 20xy 4y 2 20x 8y + 1 = 0,
) 9x2 + 24xy + 16y 2 18x + 226y + 229 = 0
; ,
;
, ,
, ; , p
; ;
;
.
: ) ; ) ; ) .

10.
10.1.
, ,
. , , . :
1) , , ;
2) , , ;
3)
Ax + By + C = 0, Ax + By + Cz + D = 0,
( ,
);
4) ,
, ;
5) 8 9 2 , , y = a x = b, a
b .

10.2.
1. :
) ;
) ;
) , , ;
) .
2. , .
.
3. , , ,
.
4. , .
5. , , MS WORD
.
6. , . .
7. , , .

10.3. 1

149

10.3. 1
1.1
1(1.). D = (3A 4B)C,
"
#




1
2
1 2 3
2 1 3
A=
, B=
, C = 1 2 .
2 1 4
1
2 4
2
3


1 1 7
1


1 2 1
4
2(1). D =
.
0 4
1
3
1
1 0
3




2 4
6 10
3(491.).
X=
.
5 6
7 21
4(51.).
p q,

1
2 4
3
2 4
1 3
, A =
2 1
p 1
0 5
6
q
.
5. R3 :
f1 (1, 1, 1), f2 (1, 1, 1), f3 (1, 1, 1), x(4, 0, 2). , f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (95.7).
x fi .
6. ,

x1 + x2 7x3
x4 = 6,

4x1 + x2 + 2x3
x4 = 0,
3x

4x

1
3
4 = 6,

x1 + x2
+ 3x4 = 3
. (30). x4 . (7.7). .
7.

x4 + x5 = 3,
x1 + 5x2 x3 +

3x1 + x2 + 3x3 + 3x4 3x5 = 3,


+ x3
x4 + 3x5 =
2,

x1
x1 + 2x2 2x3
x4 + 2x5 =
0.
, . .
(729.). , x4 = 8, x5 = 4.
8.

x2 x3 + 3x4 = 0,
2x1 +

3x1
x2 x3 + x4 = 0,
x
+
3x
x3 + 5x4 = 0,

1
2

14x1 3x2 5x3 + 7x4 = 0.

150

10.

, . . - .
9(537).
|[a, b|], a = 3p + r, b = p 3r, |p| = 7,

|r| = 2, (p,r) = 45 .
10(). ,
: A(4, 2, 2); B(2, 1, 1); C(2, 0, 2); D(0, 3, 0).
11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (4x1 5x2 + 2x3 , 5x1 7x2 + 3x3 , 6x1 9x2 + 4x3 ).
(1.).
A . , x(1, 1, 1) A.
(323). 0 , x.
(081). , 0 .
A .
1.2
1(352.). D = C(3A 4B),
"
#




1
2
2 1 3
1 2 3
, C = 1 2 .
, B=
A=
1
2 4
2 1 4
2
3
( D.)


1 1 3 2


3 5 3 4
2(225). D =
.
0 4 1 3
1 1 2 1

 

6 10
1 3
=
.
3(82.). X
2 1
7 21
4(962.). ,
"
#
1
2 1
4
5 .
A = 2
8 16 13
.
5. R3 : f1 (9, 3, 5), f2 (2, 0, 3), f3 (0, 1, 1), x(14, 7, 3). ,
f1 , f2 , f3 R3 .
(9.). x .
6. ,

x1 + x2 3x3 + 2x4 = 3,

3x1 + 5x2 3x3 + 4x4 = 7,


4x2
x3 + 3x4 = 2,

x1 + x2 2x3 + x4 = 3

151

10.3. 1

. (245). x3 . (7.). .
7.
(
2x1 x2 + x3 2x4 + 3x5 =
1,
x1 2x2 + x3 x4 +
x5 =
2,
3x1 2x2 x3 x4 + 2x5 = 1.
, . .
(7.). , x4 = x5 = 1.
8.

2x1 3x2 +
x3 x4 + 2x5 = 0,

x1 2x2 +
x3 3x4 +
x5 = 0,
x2 3x3 + 5x4 + 4x5 = 0,
4x1 +

2x1 10x2 + 6x3 8x4 + 2x5 = 0.

, . . - .

9(89). |a|, a = 6p + r, |p| = 2 2, |r| = 3, (p,r) =

= 135 .
10(454). AH ABCD,
A(3, 3, 3); B(3, 0, 0); C(3, 1, 1); D(1, 2, 1).
11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (4x1 2x2 + 2x3 , 2x2 + 2x3 , x2 + x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 ) R3 . (492.). A
. , x(2, 2, 1) A. (278). 0 , x. (42.5). , 0 . A
.
1.3
1(53.). D = (2AB + 3AC),





0 2 2
1 1 0 0
1 0
, C=
, B=
A=
1 0 1
0 2 1 0
2 3

( D.)

2

1
2(08). D =
6
3

2
2
13
6

3
3
15
9

3
4
18
21

0
1




.

152

10.
3(79.).
"
#
"
#
1 1 2
1
1 1
2 1 1
3 1
2 .
X
=6
1
3
2
2
2
1

4(93).
p,

,
1
2 4
1
3
4
1
2
A =
1 1
2
4
5
3
p 10
.
5. R3 :
f1 (3, 2, 4), f2 (4, 1, 2), f3 (5, 2, 3), x(9, 5, 8). , f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (31.).
x fi .
6. ,

2x1 2x2 + 3x3 + 3x4 = 5,

x1 2x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 = 4,


6x
13x2 + 15x3 + 18x4 = 17,

3x1 6x2 + 9x3 + 21x4 = 21


. (28). x4 . (55.). .
7.

x x2 + 2x3 x4 = 1,

1
x1 x2 +
x3 x4 = 0,
x

x
+
5x
x4 = 4,

1
2
3

x1 x2 + 6x3 x4 = 5.
, . .
(919.7). , x2 = x3 = 1.
8.

2x1 x2 + 3x3 5x4 + x5 = 0,

4x1 + x2 6x3
x4 + 2x5 = 0,

2x1 4x2 + 3x3 14x4 + x5 = 0,


10x1 + 3x2 + 15x3 7x4
= 0.
, . . - .
9(350). |a|, a = 2p r, |p| = 1, |r| = 2, (p,r) = 60 .
10(858). A(2, 4, 4); B(4, 1, 1); C(4, 2, 0);
D(2, 1, 2). , AB,
2BC, CD.

10.3. 1

153

11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (4x1 + 5x2 7x3 , 2x2 + 4x3 , 3x2 + 2x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 ) . (13.). A
. , x(1, 0, 0) A. (88). 0 , x. (243). ,
0 . A .
1.4
1(3.). D = (2BA + 3CA),

1
2




1
1 1 0 0
0 2 2 0
0
B=
, C=
, A=
.
1
0
0 2 1 0
1 0 1 1
1 2


1 0 6 9


2 2 3 4
2(203). D =
.
5 6 4 8
4 7
7
3
3(082.).
"
#
"
#
1 2 3
4 0 1
0 1
2 X = 11 2 1
1 .
1 0
4
1 3
0

4(44).
p

1 2
1 3
4 5
1
2
A=
?
3 2
4
2
8
p 5
1
5. R3 :
f1 (4, 2, 1), f2 (5, 3, 2), f3 (3, 2, 1), x(4, 3, 2). , f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (01.7).
x .
6. ,

x1
6x3 9x4 = 3,

2x1 + 2x2 3x3 4x4 = 3,

5x1 + 6x2 4x3 8x4 = 10,


4x1 + 7x2 + 7x3 + 3x4 = 11
. (47). x4 . (218.). .

154

10.
7.
(
x1
2x1
x1


+
x2
x3 2x4
+ 3x2 2x3 5x4
5x2
x3 + 4x4

=
=
=

2,
4,
2.

, . .
(242.). , x3 = 1, x4 = 1.
8.
(
x1 2x2 +
3x3 4x4 = 0,
2x1 4x2 +
5x3 + 7x4 = 0,
6x1 12x2 + 17x3 9x4 = 0.
, . . - .
9(89). |r|2 , r = 3a b, |a| = 2, |b| = 5, (a,b) =
= 120 .
10(92). : A(0, 1, 2);
B(3, 5, 2); C(5, 1, 2). , AB.
11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (2x1 + 3x3 , 10x1 3x2 6x3 , x1 2x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 ) . (94.). A
. , x(1, 8, 1)
A. (863). 0 ,
x. (284.5).
, 0 .
A .
1.5
1(85.). D = (AC AB),






1
0
3
4 4
3
1 4
A=
, C=
, B=
.
2 2
1 3 5
2 3 4

( D.)

2

1
2(30). D =
1
0

2
1
2
3

1
1
2
2

0
0
1
2

155

10.3. 1
3(598.7).
"
#
"
1
2
1
1
4
3 2
X
= 16 1
5 4 1
0

1 1
2
3
1 2

4(45).
p,

,
1
2 2
1
3
2
2 3
A =
1 1
1
2
8 7
p 11
?
5. R3 : f1 (1, 1, 1), f2 (1, 2, 3), f3 (1, 3, 6), x(4, 7, 10). ,
f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (0.).
x fi .
6. ,

2x1 + 2x2 +
x3
= 8,

x1 + x2 +
x3
= 3,

x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 3,
3x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 = 3
. (362). x2 . (01.). .
7.

3x1 + x2 x3 x4 =
2,

9x1 + x2 2x3 x4 =
7,
x

x
=
1,

1
2
4

x1 + x2 x3 3x4 = 2.
, . .
(392.). , x4 = 1.
8.
(
2x1 + 3x2
x3 x4 + x5 = 0,
3x1 2x2 + 3x3
3x5 = 0,
x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 5x4 2x5 = 0.
, . . - .
9(3). ,

a = 2p + 3r, b = p 2r, |p| = 2, |r| = 3, (p,r) = 45 .


10(78). BD [BC, CD], B(6, 3, 3); C(6, 4, 2);
D(4, 1, 4).

156

10.

11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (x1 + 2x2 + x3 , 5x2 , 3x1 + 2x2 + x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 ) . (125.). A . , x(1, 0, 3)
A. (56). 0 , x. (25.). , 0 . A
.
1.6
1(906.). D = (CA BA),
"
#




1 1
3
1 4
3
4 4
, A = 1 1 .
, B=
C=
2 3 4
1 3 5
1 1


1 1 1
2


3
3 4
2
.
2(696). D =
1
2
5
1

4
2
3 16

3(567.).
"
#
"
1
1
1
1 1
2 3
1 X = 42 2
2
4
1 5
0 3

0
2
2

4(76). q, ,

? A
A

1
2
3 |1 2|
1 1 1 | 2 1|
A =
.
5
1
3
4 7
1
7
q 8 1
5. R3 :
f1 (4, 2, 1), f2 (5, 3, 2), f3 (3, 2, 1), x(12, 7, 3). , f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (10.).
x fi .
6. ,

x1
x2 x3 + 2x4 =
1,

2x1 + 3x2 + 3x3 4x4 =


5,
x
+
x
+
2x
+
5x
=
3,

1
2
3
4

4x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + 16x4 = 9


. (7). x2 . (48.). .

157

10.3. 1
7.

2x1

4x1

2x1
2x1


+ 2x2 + 3x3 + 2x4
+ 5x2 + 5x3 + 4x4
+ 3x2 + 2x3 + 2x4
+ 3x2 + 2x3 + 3x4

= 3,
= 6,
= 3,
= 2.

, . .
(50.7). , x2 = 1.
8.
(
x1 + x2 x3 2x4 x5 = 0,
x1 + x2 + 3x3 + 4x4 x5 = 0,
x1 + x2 5x3 8x4 x5 = 0.
, . . - .

9(8). |a|, a = 6p r, |p| = 2 2, |r| = 3, (p,r) =


= 45 .
10(09). ( ),
[AB, BD] OY , A(5, 1, 1); B(1, 2, 2); D(1, 4, 1).
11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (3x1 , x1 + x3 , 2x1 4x2 + 4x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 )
. (66.). A . , x(1, 3, 10)
A. (278). 0 , x. (56). ,
0 . A .
1.7
1(897.). D = A + 2AC,
"
#
"
#
1
2 3
0 1
1
1 , C=
2
0 2 .
A = 2 1
1 2
3
3
3
0

( D.)

2
2

2
3
2(17). D =
0
2
2 4

3
7
4
1

1
2
4
3

158

10.
3(8.).
"
#
"
#
1 1
2
4
0
1
0
2 4 X = 2
2 4 .
1
0 1
4 1
0

4(07). q, "
#
1 1 1 1
2
2 2 1 1 .
A = 1
5
1
q 5
4
5. R3 :
f1 (1, 3, 4), f2 (2, 1, 5), f3 (3, 5, 1), x(1, 9, 4). , f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (01.7).
x fi .
6. ,

10,
2x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 x4 =

3x1 + 2x2 + 7x3 + 2x4 =


12,
+ 4x3 + 4x4 = 2,

2x1
2x1 4x2 +
x3 + 3x4 = 12
. (25). x2 . (999.). .
7.
(
2x1 x2 + 2x3 + 2x4 + 2x5 = 1,
3x1 + x2 + 3x3 + x4 x5 = 2,
3x1 4x2 + 3x3 + 5x4 + 7x5 = 1.

, . .
(51.7). , x3 = 1, x4 = 2, x5 = 1.
8.

3x1 x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 0,

4x1 3x2 +
x3 x4 = 0,
5x

5x
3x4 = 0,

1
2

x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 + 5x4 = 0.


, . . - .
9(40). |a|2 , a = p + r, |p| = 1, |r| = 2, (p,r) = 60 .
10(3). ABD, D, A(2, 1, 1); B(0, 3, 3); D(2, 5, 2).
11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (4x1 2x2 + 2x3 , 5x1 + 7x2 5x3 , 3x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 ) . (367.). A

10.3. 1

159

. , x(1, 1, 0) A. (299). 0 , x. (887.5). , 0 . A


.
1.8
1(8.). D = A + 2CA,
"
#
"
#
1
2 3
0 1
1
1 , C=
2
0 2 .
A = 2 1
1 2
3
3
3
0

( D.)
2(23).


1 1
1 2


1 2
1
3
.
D=
5 3
4
3
5
5 3
4
3(7.).
"
1 0
1 4
3 7


#
"
#
3
3
1 3
3 X =2 3
0 1 .
1
0 3
2

4(858). p, ,
1 2 1 3 2
5 4
3
2 4
A =
?
1 2
2 1 1
4 8
p 8
0
5. R3 : f1 (5, 3, 5), f2 (2, 0, 3), f3 (0, 1, 1), x(14, 7, 13). ,
f1 , f2 , f3 R3 .
(30.). x fi .
6. ,

x1 x2 +
x3 2x4 =
4,

3x1 + x2 2x3 + x4 = 5,
2,

3x1 + 5x2 3x3 + 4x4 =


5x1 + 5x2 3x3 + 4x4 =
4
. (09). x4 . (520.). .

160

10.
7.
(
2x1
x1 +
3x1


x2 + x3 2x4
2x2 x3 +
x4
2x2 x3
x4

3x5
x5
2x5

=
1,
= 2,
= 1.

, . .
(612.7). , x4 = x5 = 1.
8.

2x
3x2 + x3 2x4 = 0,
1

x1 2x2 + x3 x4 = 0,

4x1 7x2 + 3x3 3x4 = 0,


6x1 10x2 + 4x3 4x4 = 0.
, . . - .

9(301). |[a, b]|, a = 3p 4r, b = p + 3r, |p| = 2,


|r| = 3, (p,r) = 45 .
10(30). , ABD,
AB + AC, AB, AD, A(1, 2, 1);
B(1, 2, 3); C(1, 1, 4); D(1, 4, 2).
11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (4x1 , 2x1 + 2x3 , x1 + x2 + x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 ) . (98.). A
. , x(0, 2, 1)
A. (08). 0 ,
x. (648.5).
, 0 .
A .
1.9
1(0.). C = AB BA,




1 1
1 2
.
, B=
A=
2 3
0 1




2(204). D =

1
1
2
3

3
2
5
7


0 4

2
3
.
1 6

2 4

10.3. 1

161

3(246.).
"
# "
#
1 1 1
4
5 3
X 2 3 1 = 3 2 7 .
2 2 3
6
9 2
4(299). p, ,
1 2 1 3 2
5 4
3
2 4
A =
.
1 2
2 1 1
1 p
6 1
5
5. R3 : f1 (1, 2, 3), f2 (2, 3, 1), f3 (1, 1, 3), x(2, 4, 1). ,
f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (35.).
x fi .
6. ,

x1 + 3x2
4x4 = 8,

x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 = 2,


x3 6x4 = 12,

2x1 + 5x2
3x1 + 7x2 2x3 4x4 = 12
. (2). x3 . (499.). .
7.

x1
x2 + x3 + 3x4 =
4,

2x1 +
x2 x3 + 2x4 =
2,
6,

x1 + 2x2 2x3 x4 =
x1 4x2 + 4x3 + 7x4 = 14.

, . .
(11.7). , x3 = x4 = 1.
8.
(
x1 + 2x2 2x3 x4 = 0,
2x1 +
x2 4x3 + x4 = 0,
x1
x2 2x3 + 2x4 = 0.
, . . - .

9(5). (a, b), a = 5p + 2r, b = p r, |p| = 2,


|r| = 1, (p,r) = 45 .
10(3). ABD,
D, A(1, 2, 2); B(3, 2, 2); D(1, 4, 1).

162

10.

11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (3x1 , 2x1 + x3 , x1 + 2x2 + x3 ), x(x1 , x2 , x3 ) . (20.). A
. , x(0, 1, 2)
A. (97). 0 ,
x. (280.5). ,
0 . A .
1.10
1(64).
"
#
"
#
1
2 3
1 0 2
C = AB BA, A = 1 2 3 , B = 2 1 4 .
1 2 0
3 2 5

1 2 2
3


1 3 0 1
2(08). D =
.
3 7 4 1
2 5 5 2
3(754.).
"
# "
#
3
2
1
5
2
0
2
3
1 = 1 16 4 .
X
1 3 1
2
3
1
4(650.). ,
"
#
1
2 4 1
2 1 3 2
5 4 2 3
. .
5. R3 :
f1 (3, 2, 1), f2 (2, 3, 1), f3 (1, 3, 1), x(2, 1, 1). ,
f1 , f2 , f3 R3 . (7.7).
x fi .
6. ,

x1 + 2x2 + 2x3 + 3x4 =


5,

x1 + 3x2

x4 = 2,
x4 =
2,

3x1 + 7x2 + 4x3


2x1 + 5x2 + 5x3 2x4 =
2
. (35). x3 . (386.7). .
7.

x1 + 2x2 x3 2x4 =
0,

2x1 + 5x2 + 2x3 4x4 =


5,
x
+
x

5x

2x
=
5,

1
2
3
4

x1 + 3x2 + 3x3 2x4 =


5.

10.4. 2

163

, . .
(18.). , x3 = x4 = 1.
8.
(
x1 2x2 + x3 4x4 + x5 = 0,
2x1 4x2 + x3 5x4 + 2x5 = 0,
3x1 2x2 x3 4x4 + 3x5 = 0.

, . . - .
9(8). p = a + b r = 5a 4b, |a| = |b| = 2, (a,b) = 60 .
10(30). CH ABCD,
A(2, 2, 2); B(0, 2, 2); C(0, 1, 3); D(2, 4, 1).
11. A R3 R3 Ax =
= (x1 , 3x1 + 2x2 2x3 , 2x1 + 3x2 3x3 ). (29.). A . , x(0, 2, 3) A. (245).
0 , x. (099).
, 0 . A .

10.4. 2
2.1
1. ,
M1 (1, 2) M2 (3, 2). (141.). k
b .
2. 5x 12y 65 = 0
5x 12y + 26 = 0. (71). .
3(811.). , , P (3, 2, 5)
4x + y 3z + 13 = 0 x 2y + z 11 = 0.
4(82). , l = (0, 3, 4),
2x + y z 6 = 0 2x + y z 4 = 0.
5(4.7). m n,
y2
z
x1
=
=

m
n
34


3x 2y + 3 = 0,
2x 3z 4 = 0,

y 3z + 3 = 0
y 2z + 1 = 0.

164

10.

6(). , ,
(0, 0, z0 ), z0 > 0, 2x + 3y + 6z + 7 = 0,
7 .

z = 0.
7(1.).
x2 + y 2 4x + 8y = 17 M (1, 2).
8. 9x2 + 25y 2 18x 150y + 9 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(021.7). .
8.3(631.7). .
8.4(91). .
8.5. .
9. x2 10x + 2y + 25 = 0.
9.1. , .
9.2(11.7). .
9.3(221). p.
9.4(1.7). .
9.5. .
10. 15x2 20xy 70x + 20y + 135 = 0.
10.1. , .
10.2(1.7). .
10.3(61.7). .
10.4(1.7). .
10.5. .
2.2
1(2.). , M0 (2, 3) AB, A(4, 5), B(3, 7).
2(82.7). ABC AB:
4x y 7 = 0; BC: x + 3y 31 = 0; AC: x + 5y 7 = 0.
AH.
3(432.). , M1 (3, 0, 4) M2 (1, 1, 0) 2x+
+y + 4z 7 = 0.
4(35). P (2, 4, 4)

2x y + z 2 = 0,
x + y z 1 = 0.

165

10.4. 2


x y + 1 = 0,
yz2=0
AB = (8, 4, 7). , .
6(5). , P (0, 0, z0 ), z0 > 0
2x + y + 2z + 6 = 0
4. ,
. .
7(942). M (2, 4),
, 3x + 4y + 8 = 0 .
8. 25x2 + 16y 2 150x 32y 159 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(922.). .
8.3(12.). .
8.4(932). .
8.5. .
9. y 2 2y + 4x + 9 = 0.
9.1. , .
9.2(72.). .
9.3(342). p.
9.4(312). .
9.5. .
10. x2 7y 2 6xy + 2x + 26y + 57 = 0.
10.1. , .
10.2(92.7). .
10.3(382.). .
10.4(2.). .
10.5. .
5(435).

2.3
1(23.). ,
M (2, 4) x + 2y + 5 = 0.
(23). , .
2(43.). , M (2, 2)
S = 4,5 . .
3(33.). A(2, 1, 0), B(3, 1, 1)
C(1, 2, 4). ,
AB ABC.

166

10.

4(839). P (1, 2, 0)
x8
y1
z
=
= .
3
4
0
5(925). , , A(1, 1, 6)
AB, B ,
12x + 6y + z 24 = 0.
6(512). 4x + 3y + 6z = 0.
P (1, 2, 3) , Q(3, 0, 0)
. .
7(93.7). C(x0 , y0 ) 5, 3x + 4y 6 = 0 M (2, 0),
, C .
8. 9x2 4y 2 18x + 56y 223 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(223.). .
8.3(93.7). .
8.4(893.). .
8.5. .
9. x2 + 2x 2y + 5 = 0.
9.1. , .
9.2(793.). .
9.3(323). p.
9.4(753.7). .
9.5. .
10. 8x2 + 17y 2 + 12xy 28x 46y = 43.
10.1. , .
10.2(803.). .
10.3(43.). .
10.4(433.). .
10.5. .
2.4
1(781.). , P (2, 5)
, .

10.4. 2

167

2(882.). ,
4x + 2y + 5 = 0
9 . .
3(53.). ,
M (4, 1, 3) OX
x 3y + 4z 5 = 0.
4(22). , y+1
z+8
x1
=
=

,
1
3
4
a = (1, 0, 2).
5(576). , P (1, 2, 3) (0, 0, z0 ),
2x + y + z + 6 = 0. z0 .
6(712.).
x = 1 , 4x + 2y + 4z + 5 = 0
x + 1 = y = z 2x = 2y = z + 4.
7(81). , , 3x + 4y 16 = 0 3x + 4y + 24 = 0.
8. x2 4x 9y 2 + 72y 149 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(94.7). .
8.3(385.). .
8.4(96.). .
8.5. .
9. x2 + 4y = 0.
9.1. , .
9.2(97.). .
9.3(258). p.
9.4(9.). .
9.5. .
10. 5x2 + 8y 2 + 4xy 24x 24y = 0.
10.1. , .
10.2(90.). .
10.3(1.). .
10.4(82.). .
10.5. .
2.5
1(01.). , M (1, 4) 2x + 3y + 5 = 0.

168

10.

2(32.). M (3, 6) x + 2y 10 = 0.
3(103.). , M1 (6, 1, 5), M2 (7, 2, 1), M3 (10, 7, 1).
4(203). , L l = (0, 6, 8).

x + y + z 3 = 0 x + y + z 24 = 0,
5(32). P (2, 2, 1), Q(0, y0 , 0)

x 3z + 2 = 0,
y 2z + 1 = 0.
y0 .
x
y
(z 6)
6(7).
= =
3
0
2
x3 = y 3 = 2(z 6).
.
7(C04.). , x2 + y 2 + 6x 10y 15 = 0
XOY . R. x0 , y0 , R.
8. 4x2 y 2 24x + 4y + 28 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(325.7). .
8.3(06.). .
8.4(267.). .
8.5. .
9. y 2 + 6x + 6y + 15 = 0.
9.1. , .
9.2(058.). .
9.3(29). p.
9.4(289.). .
9.5. .
10. 5x2 + 5y 2 + 6xy 16x 16y = 16.
10.1. , .
10.2(822.). .
10.3(470.7). .
10.4(941.). .
10.5. .

10.4. 2

169

2.6
1(1.). , M (2, 4) 3x + 4y + 5 = 0.
2(342.). , P (3, 5) A(7, 3) B(11, 15).
, , .
3(3.). , M1 (4, 2, 1) M2 (3, 3, 2)
AB = (4, 3, 2).
4(4.).

y1
z+3
x5
=
=
.
4
3
2
5(25). 
C
3x + y 2z + 5 = 0,
x+yz+1=0
x + 3y + Cz 2 = 0.
6(06). 3x 6y + 2z 5 =
= 0 3x 6y + 2z + 30 = 0. .
7(977.). , x2 + y 2 + z 2 4x + 6y 8z
35 = 0 . (x0 , y0 , z0 )
R. (x0 , y0 , z0 , R).
8. 25x2 + 16y 2 350x + 825 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(8.). .
8.3(9.). .
8.4(30.7). .
8.5. .
9. 14y = (x 8)2 .
9.1. , .
9.2(01.). .
9.3(962). p.
9.4(93.). .
9.5. .
10. x2 + y 2 + 3xy + x + 4y = 0,5.
10.1. , .
10.2(04.). .
10.3(35.). .
10.4(416.). .
10.5. .

170

10.
2.7

1(81.). A(1, 3),


B(2, 8), C(6, 6). , AM ABC.
2(62.). B,
A(3, 2) x + 2y 2 = 0.
3(983.). , M (2, 1, 1) : x 2y+
+3z 2 = 0 x + 4y 2z + 1 = 0.
4(84). p,
(
x = 2t 3,
x5
y+1
z+4
y = 3t 2,

=
=
.
1
p
1
z = 4t + 6

5(35). ,

x y + 3z + 1 = 0,
,

2x z + 2 = 0
M (1, 1, 0).
6(06). x 2y + 2z+
+11 = 0 x 2y + 2z 25 = 0.
7(597). x2 + y 2 + z 2 2x 2y 6z + = 0,
, 3x 2y + 6z + 23 = 0.
8. x2 + y 2 8x 2y = 47.
8.1. , .
8.2(671.7). .
8.3(2). .
9. 25x2 16y 2 + 32y 416 = 0.
9.1. , .
9.2(8.). .
9.3(59.). .
9.4(30.). .
9.5. .
10. 9x2 + 16y 2 + 24xy 40x + 30y = 0.
10.1. , .
10.2(13.). .
10.3(4). p.
10.4(95.). .
10.5. .

10.4. 2

171

2.8
1(376.). A(1, 3),
B(2, 8), C(6, 7). AH.
2(345.7). ABC A . : B(6, 5), x + y = 2
2x 3y + 1 = 0. x0 , y0 C.
3(07.). ,
M1 (1, 2, 4) M2 (2, 1, 2)
x + 4y 5z + 3 = 0.
4(058.). M (3, 1, 3)
2x + y 4z + 4 = 0.
5(878). A
Ax + y + Cz + D = 0, P (1, 1, 8), O(0, 0, 0)
y
z
x 1 =
= .
1
6
6(49.). a c
y1
z+1
x1
=
=
:
a
1 
c

y 3z 3 = 0,
2x y + 1 = 0,

3x 2y 3 = 0
3x z 2 = 0.
7(350). , ,
x 2y + 2z + 22 = 0 x 2y + 2z + 10 = 0.
8. 9x2 + 4y 2 36x 64y + 256 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(341.). .
8.3(982.). .
8.4(813.). .
8.5. .
9. x2 4x + 8y = 36.
9.1. , .
9.2(94.). .
9.3(415). p.
9.4(96.). .
9.5. .
10. x2 8xy + 7y 2 + 6x 6y + 9 = 0.
10.1. , .
10.2(87.). .
10.3(8.). .
10.4(299.). .
10.5. .

172

10.
2.9

1(940.). A(3, 4),


B(1, 2), C(2, 1). , BC.
2(11.). ABC : 3x 4y + 8 = 0, A(0, 2) , B(2, 1). (x0 , y0 )
C .
3(32.). ,
M1 (7, 2, 3) M2 (5, 6, 4) OY .
4(93). B
x + By + CZ + D = 0, P (1, 1, 1), O(0, 0, 0)
x = 0,

4y + 3z = 0.
 5(16.).
 A1 A2
A1 x + 3y 5z = 0,
x 19z + 19 = 0,

A2 x + 2y + 3z 6 = 0
y + 11z 11 = 0.
(A1 , A2 ).
6(3). , ,
z6
y+3
=

, x+3 =
5
4
.
7(83.).
x2 + y 2 + z 2 8x + 6y + 4z 12 = 0 M0 (1, 1, 2).
8. 4x2 32x y 2 + 6y + 51 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(C54.). .
8.3(225.). .
8.4(346.). .
8.5. .
9. 4x + 6y y 2 = 21.
9.1. , .
9.2(17.). .
9.3(258). p.
9.4(59.). .
9.5. .
10. 5x2 + 5y 2 + 8xy 18x 18y + 9 = 0.
10.1. , .
10.2(80.). .
10.3(01.). .
10.4(162.). .
10.5. .

10.4. 2

173

2.10
1(83.). : A(7, 2) 3x 5y + 15 = 0 . .
2(64.). , A(4, 4) ABC, BC D(1, 1). x + 2y + 1 = 0
, B. x0 , y0 C.
3(5.). , M0 (1, 2, 3) OY .
 4(32). m
x = 0,
, my + 18z = 0,
x + 4y + 3z + 5 = 0.
5(983). ,
, P1 (2, 1, 0), P2 (1, 0, 4) A1 (0, a, 0), A2 (a, 0, 0).
6(62.).
y
x
=
= z ,
3
12
x1
y
z+1 x1
y1
z1
= =
,
=
=
.
2
3
4
2
3
4
7(56). C(1, 2, 3),
2x 2y + z + 10 = 0.
8. 4x2 + 9y 2 32x 18y + 37 = 0.
8.1. , .
8.2(57.). .
8.3(08.). .
8.4(9.). .
8.5. .
9. y 2 4y + 10x + 14 = 0.
9.1. , .
9.2(430.). .
9.3(821). p.
9.4(32.). .
9.5. .
10. 7y 2 + 24xy + 24x + 62y + 199 = 0.
10.1. , .
10.2(23.). .
10.3(54.). .
10.4(65.). .
10.5. .


1. ..
. .: , 1971. 328 .
2. .., ..
. .: , 1980. 176 .
3. .. . .:
, 1996. 288 .
4. .. .
.: , 1979. 392 .
5. .., .., .. I. . . :
. - . , 2001. 164 c.
6. .., .., .. . .: , 1980. 320 .
7. .. . .: , 1963.
432 .
8. .., .. .
: ,
1993. 182 .


, 16
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,
24, 50, 51

, 24
, 26
, 26
, 26
, 70
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, 72

, 85
, 82

, 49
, 49
, 66
, 90

, 95
, 95
, 73
, 13

, 91
, 78
, 90
, 30
, 12
, 72

, 25, 51
, 34

, 23
, 30
, 70
, 21
n-, 24
, 24
, 31
, 21
, 7
, 71
, 8
, 8
, 8
, 61
, 18
, 18
, 40

, 35
, 40
, 14
, 8

, 25
, 16
, 49
,
82, 86

, 44
, 44

176

-, 32

, 21
, 21

, 96
, 96
, 12
, 12
, 12
, 37

, 50
, 55
, 9
, 9
, 31, 54
, 57

, 49
, 8
- , 34
, 25

, 87
, 54
, 83, 87

, 45
, 44
, 45
, 44

, 51
, 23, 51
, 23,
67

, 34, 52
, 35, 52
, 80

, 40
, 40
, 45
, 40
, 40
, 8
-

, 34
, 12

, 91
, 81
, 80
, 76
, 78
, 85
, 80
, 81, 82, 86, 87
, 79
, 79
, 89

, 78

, 90
, 88

, 42
, 35

, 91
, 90

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