Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

1.

GSM
1.1. GSM
1980 .,
862-960 , GSM
()
:
890-915 ( - MS), 935-960 (
- BTS) [1.1, 1.2].
GSM
(NB D). D
8 124 .

.


(SFH) 217 .
,
,
,

16 .

233 ,
() 35 .
GSM
(GMSK).
(DTX),

.
/

(RPE/LTR-LTP-). , - 13
/.
GSM
;
(RSA).
, GSM,
.

, ;
(PSTN),
(PDN) (ISDN).

GSM
,
,
,
, /
, /
,

,


,

D (/)


,
TDMA/FDMA

890-915
935-960
45
270, 833
13
200
124
16-20
GMSK
0,3
81,2
217
2
RPE/LTP
35

1.2.

. 1.1
, GSM,
, 1.1, MSC (Mobile Switching
Centre) - ; BSS (Base Station System) -

; (Operations and Maintenance Centre) -


; MS (Mobile Stations) - .

. GSM
SS N 7 (CCITT
SS. N 7).

, .
MSC ISDN
(PSTN, PDN, ISDN ..)
.
. ISDN ,
MSC .
" ",
,
.
MSC ,
(, ).
MSC .
(PSTN) MSC
SS N 7,
.
MSC ,
,
(-). MSC
, .
MSC ,
.
MSC ,
,
(BSS).


.
,
.
,
(BSC), BSC.
, BSC,
MSC. GSM
(), MSC.
,
(HLR) (VLR). HLR
- ,
. HLR
(IMSI).


(AUC) (. 1.2, 1.3).

HLR
.
, , ,
.
() ,
(TMSI)
VLR.
, HLR, MSC VLR
, HLR,
, HLR
.
IMSI MSISDN (
ISDN). MSC VLR,
, .
,
, - VLR.
,
HLR.
BSC,
, BSC,
BSC, VLR
, , HLR VLR

HLR
.
, , ,
.
() ,

(TMSI)
VLR.
, HLR, MSC VLR
, HLR,
, HLR
.
IMSI MSISDN (
ISDN). MSC VLR,
, .
,
, - VLR.
,
HLR.
BSC,
, BSC,
BSC, VLR
, . , HLR VLR,
.
VLR , HLR, VLR
, , VLR.
GSM (LA),
(LAC). VLR
LA.
LA ,
VLR. LA
VLR, VLR
VLR. VLR , HLR,
.
VLR ""
(MSRN). , VLR
MSRN MSC,
, .
VLR
MSC . , VLR TMSI
HLR.
. TMSI
.
VLR IMSI, TMSI MSRN. VLR
,
, HLR
.

- .


.
. AUC

,
(EIR - Equipment Identification Register).

(SIM), :
(IMSI),
(Ki), (A3).
SIM

.

. (RAND) .
Ki A3
(SRES), ..
SRES = Ki * [ RAND]
SRES ,
SRES SRES, .
, .
, ,
. SRES
SIM. (, Ki)
SIM.
EIR - ,

(11).
. EIR
11, :
- 11, ,
.
- 11 ,
.
- 11 ,
, ,
" ".
EIR MSC ,
MSC .
HLR, EIR, EIR
11. MSC ,

11 EIR,
.
IWF - ,
MSC.
,
(DIE) GSM
.
""
. IWF
,
, , PAD .25.
- , MSC PSTN
( ) -
, , GSM.
68
.
GSM ,
, / ,
.., 180 .
,

, MSC,
PSTN .
- .
GSM
, .
- ,
GSM,
.
GSM .25.
,
,
.

.
.
.
GSM,
.

.
.
NMC - ,
GSM.
, ,
. NMC

, ,

. ,
, ,
NMC.
, ,
, . ,
NMC
.
NMC
, .

GSM PSTN
. NMC
NMC. NMC

(BSS). NMC
, " ",
( )
.
NMC - ,
,
NMC . NMC
, .
NMC , NMC
, , ,
, .
BSS - ,
(BSC) - (BTS).
- . BSS
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.
BSS MSC, HLR, VLR , :
, , MSC, MSC
,
- . BSS MSC
.
- ,
MSC (64 / ) ,
GSM (. GSM 04.08).
, ,
13 /.
"".
( 6,5 /).


- ,
(LPC), (LTP),
(RPE - RELP).
MSC,
- BSC
13 /,
() 16 /.
4 64 /.
GSM - ,
120 . (64 /), "
",
SS N7 LAPD. (64 /)
, X.25 .
,
3064 / + 64 / + 64 / = 2048 /.
MS - , ,
GSM
. GSM
1- 20 ,
, 5- ,
0,8 (. 1.1).
,
.
. ,
(IMSI),
.
, , ,
.
(11).
GSM [1.2].
1.1

20

1,5

1,5

1,5

1,5

0,8

1,5

1.3.

GSM
: ;
GSM; GSM
. GSM
. 1.1.
ETSI/GSM 03.02.

PSTN
MSC
2 / SS N 7.
2 /
G.732.
ISDN
ISDN
2 /, SS N 7
Q.701-Q.710, Q.711-Q.714, Q.716, Q.781,
0.782, 0.791, 0.795, 0.761-0.764, 0.766.
NMT-450
NMT-450
2 / SS N7.

(TUP - Telephone User Part)
( - Message Transfer Part) .
2 / G.732.
GSM
GSM
GSM.
(SCCP)
(GMSC).
GSM -
MSC BSS (-)
BSS, , . -
.
SS N7 . --
08 ETSI/GSM.
MSC HLR VLR (-). MSC
,
VLR. MSC,
VLR,
. , MS

. ,
, MSC
VLR,
HLR.
MSC HLR (-)
MSC HLR. MSC ()
HLR , .

, MSC HLR
, MS.
HLR VLR (D-)
, .
, ,

. HLR . VLR
HLR MS,
,
.
MSC (-)
MSC HANDOVER - ""
.
BSC BTS(A-bis ) BSC BTS
ETSI/GSM
,
2,048 /. 64
/.
BSC (-) BSC
, .25.
BSC-
BSC ();
-- 2,048 /
16 / 64 /.
MS BTS (Um-) 04 05
ETSI/GSM.
,
, ETSI/GSM
12.01 Q.3,
ISO OSI.
SS
N7 .25. .25
PSDN .

GSM -
Q.3 , ETSI/GSM
12.01.
GSM
MSC - (SC)
. ETSI/GSM 03.40.
.
,
. -
..
.-.

1.4. GSM
GSM : .
: ()
300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 9600 /
; ()
1200, 2400, 4800 9600 /
, (CSPDN)
ISDN;
300-9600 /
(PSPDN), , Datex-P;

2400-9600 / [1.1, 1.2].
9,6 /
. 9,6 /
.

,
V.24 .21 .
.
:
1) ( : ,
.);
2) ;
3) "", "";
4) "" ( 3).
( ,
, ).

, GSM
,
.
GSM PLMN . 1.4 (GSM PLMN GSM Public Land Mobile Network - ;
(Terminal Equipment) - , (Mobile Terminal) , IWF (Interworking Function) -
). , GSM, ( -
).


.
.

. 160- ,
.
, , ,
, ,
(),
.
: (Mobile
Termination 0) - ,
: 1 (Mobile
Termination 1) - ISDN;
2 (Mobile Termination 2) -
V .

, ,
(DTE), ..
: 1 (Terminal Equipment 1) , ISDN; 2 (Terminal
Equipment 2) - ,
V ( ISDN
). 2 1
( ISDN) .
GSM,

,
,
.

1.6. D GSM

() GSM
(TDMA).
. 1.6 [1.4]. ,
, = 3 28 53 760 (12533,76 ).
2048 ,
= 12533,76/2048 = 6,12 .

.
GSM :
1) 26- TDMA ;
2) 51- TDMA .
51 26
. :
1) = 6120/51 = 120 ;
2) = 6120/26 = 235,385 (3060/13 ). TDMA
= 120/26 = 235,385/51 = 4,615 (60/13 ).
TDMA
(NF) NFmax, NFmax = (26512048) -1 = 2715647.
, 2715647 TDMA .

, NF
. TDMA
= 60/13:8 = 576,9 (15/26 )
TN 0 7.
, , - ,

, .

, ().
, , 0,546
,
.
270,833
/.
, TDMA 156,25 .
576,9 /156,25 = 3,69 .
, ,
BN 0 155; 1/4
156.
,
,
TDMA ():
NB ,
RACH. 114
(GP) 8,25 30,46
. 114 57
, 26 ,

.
NB (Steeling Flag),
,
. (Traffic
Channel) "" .
NB
26 , .
:
-
.
RXQUAL, . ,
, ,

. RXQUAL
, " " (Handover)
;
- NB

;
-
. ,

.
,
. FB
. 142
. - ,
1625/24 .

(200
), 0,022% 900
. FB 8,25 ,
.
(FB) (FCCH).
SB .
64 ,
.
.
(SCH).
DB .
DB NB (. 1.6)
26 . DB
. DB , .

. .
, ,
.
. 8 , (41 ),
36
. (68,25 ,
252 ), ( )
,


. GSM

35 .
233,3 .
GSM
, TDMA ,
.
, TDMA , . 1.7,
NB, FB, DB SB TDMA - .
1.8.
(88 )
TDMA (148 ).
. 1.9.

GSM -
.
(SFH - Slow Frequency Hopping) -
,
. SFH ,

.
, ,
TDMA (577 ),

() .
1 .
45
. ,
,
,
.
(- )
.

( )
.
.
TDMA/FDMA GSM

. 1.10,1.11.

,
, GSM,
3-4 .
D
GSM
/ 9 ,
17-18 .
1
1.1 M.Mouly, M.B.Pautet. The GSM System for Mobile Communications. 1992. p.p. 702.

1.2 .. . .
. 48. "-". . 1994.
1.3 A. Mehrotra. Cellular Radio: Analog and Digital Systems. Artech House, BostonLondon. 1994. p.p. 460.
1.4 .. . TDMA
GSM. "". N 10. 1993. . 9-12.
1.5 W. Heger. GSM vs. CDMA. GSM Global System for Mobile Communications.
Proceedings of the GSM Promotion Seminar 1994 GSM MoU Group in Cooperation
with ETSI GSM Members. 15 December 1994. p.p. 3.1-1 - 3.1-18.

Оценить