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Processing of collected data

Editing- refers to inspecting, correcting and


modifying the collected data
Coding refers to assigning numbers or other
symbols to each answer or placing them in
categories to prepare data for tabulation.
Coding may be (a) Pre-coding and (b) Post
coding
Tabulation refers to bringing together similar
data and totalling them in an accurate and
meaningful manner. It may be (a) Manual
tabulation or (b) mechanical
Tabulation

It is a process of combining and


totalling of the collected data.
Tabulation can be (1) manual
tabulation or (2) mechanical
tabulation
Analysis of Data

 Relevance
 Validity
 Practicality
INTERPRETATION

 It is a process of drawing meaning and


conclusions
 It is not a mechanical process
 Correct interpretation is a product of
- adequate information
- grasp of the problem
- application of logic
-constructive imagination, knowledge,
experience gained, judgment, objectivity
and qualification of the researcher
Steps of Interpretation

 To see pertinent data are collected


 Examine whether data are sufficient or
not
 Data should be logical to infer the
meaning
 Review the tentative conclusions for
arriving practicability and reliability
Steps of Interpretation

 Review flaws/bias
a) Are any relevant factors or
conditions been overlooked ?
b) Has the actual situation been fully
understood ?
c) Do tentative conclusions really go
to the heart of the matter in
providing solutions ?
Dangers of Interpretation

 Attempting to produce startling


results
 Overweighting the favourable
evidence
 Dazzled by complexity
 Failing to reach the root of the
problem
 Overlooking adverse factor
 Exaggerating the exceptions
Dangers of Interpretation- continued

 Ignoring rare significant answers


 Projecting small sample size
 Mistaking opinion for a fact
 Too much faith in averages
 Confusing cause and effect
relationship