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Processing of collected data

Editing- refers to inspecting, correcting and

modifying the collected data
Coding refers to assigning numbers or other
symbols to each answer or placing them in
categories to prepare data for tabulation.
Coding may be (a) Pre-coding and (b) Post
Tabulation refers to bringing together similar
data and totalling them in an accurate and
meaningful manner. It may be (a) Manual
tabulation or (b) mechanical

It is a process of combining and

totalling of the collected data.
Tabulation can be (1) manual
tabulation or (2) mechanical
Analysis of Data

 Relevance
 Validity
 Practicality

 It is a process of drawing meaning and

 It is not a mechanical process
 Correct interpretation is a product of
- adequate information
- grasp of the problem
- application of logic
-constructive imagination, knowledge,
experience gained, judgment, objectivity
and qualification of the researcher
Steps of Interpretation

 To see pertinent data are collected

 Examine whether data are sufficient or
 Data should be logical to infer the
 Review the tentative conclusions for
arriving practicability and reliability
Steps of Interpretation

 Review flaws/bias
a) Are any relevant factors or
conditions been overlooked ?
b) Has the actual situation been fully
understood ?
c) Do tentative conclusions really go
to the heart of the matter in
providing solutions ?
Dangers of Interpretation

 Attempting to produce startling

 Overweighting the favourable
 Dazzled by complexity
 Failing to reach the root of the
 Overlooking adverse factor
 Exaggerating the exceptions
Dangers of Interpretation- continued

 Ignoring rare significant answers

 Projecting small sample size
 Mistaking opinion for a fact
 Too much faith in averages
 Confusing cause and effect