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Marie Antoinette

Maria Antoinette was born on November 2, 1755 at the Hofburg Palace in


Vienna. She was the fifteen children of Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. She
was a small but healthy child, she was known as Madame Antoine. The life in the
palace was a private life, which was developed by the Habsburgs. A family
dressed in bourgeois attire, played games with non-royal children, and was
treated to gardens. She was never lonely, and was very closed to her sister Maria
Carolina.
Antonias education was poor; she was emphasis in her manner, dance,
music, and appearance. She learned Italian, from Metastasio. Around 10 years
old, she sill had trouble reading, as well as writing in German, she spoke little
French and a very little Italian. Most of the time her tutors would do the work for
her, they fear that they will lose their job. Antonia herself learned to play the
harpsichord, spinet, clavichord, and harp. During the familys musical event, she
would sing French songs and Italian arias.
She loved dolls just like the other girls, numerous dolls arrived at the
Hofburg as soon as Antoinette turned 13. On the other hand, her parents had
instituted several innovations in court life wich made Austria one of the most
progressive courts in Europe. Marie Antoinettes life was more relaxed than
other European princesses and her initial role in the political arena was small.
Her mother sometime neglected Antoinette, so that make the relationship with
her mother as one of awe-inspired fear. She also mistrust in the older women.
When her father, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor died of a stroke in
August. Maria Theresa rule with her eldest son and heir. By that time, marriage
arrangements for several of her sister begun. The Archduchess Maria Josepha
was betrothed to King Ferdinand of Naples. The purpose of these marriages was
to make friend with many other country. In the 1750s, there was a seven years
war, which included Parma, Naples, Russia, and France. Because of this problem
the two countries briefly the marriage of Marie Antonia and the Dauphin Louise
Auguste might not have occurred. In 1767, a smallpox hit the country including
the royal family. Marie Antonia had already survived the disease as a young child
and already have immune. Her sister in law Maria Josepha, died from smallpox
and also passed that to Maria Theresa, she survived but suffered from its effects
in the rest of her life. Archduchess Maria Josepha visited Maria Theresa and soon
developed a symptom and soon she died. Her sister, Maria Elisabeth fell ill as
well but survived. Charled Joseph and Maria Johanna also died in 1761 and 1762.
This left 12 year old Maria Antonia as the only potential bride in the
family for the 14 year old Louis Auguste. During the marriage negotiation, it
pointed out her teeth were crooked, the French doctor perform corrective oral
surgeries on her. As the result the family was satisfied at the end that the
princesss smile was very beautiful and straight. Finally Marie Antonia was
married on 19 April at the age of 14 in the Church of the Augustine Friars,
Vienna, her brother stood in as the bridegroom. She was officially restyled as
marie Antoinette, Dauphine of France. Marie Antoinette became the second
French queen ever to descend from Henry II of France and Catherine de medici.
Marie Antoinette was officially handed over to her French on 7 May 1770, on an
island on the Rhine River near Kehl. She met the king, the Dauphin Louis
Auguste, and the royal aunts one week later. The ceremonial wedding of the
Dauphin and Dauphine took place on 16 may 1770, in the Pal ace of Versailles.
Her first appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 at Tuileries make some happy and
some sad. It take seven year for Louise and Antonette to have the first child
Marie Charlotte, the first one of her four children. Marie Antoinette began to
spend more on gambling and clothing, with cards and horse betting as well as
trip to the new city. Marie Antoinette also began to form deep friendships with
various ladies in her retinue. In the middle of her pregnancy there was a Battle of
Ouessant against the British. Marie Antoinette pleaded with her husband for the
French to help the Austria but was rebuffed by the king and his administration.
The birth of a daughter caused a lot of pressure to have a male heir continued.
The queen began to institute changes in the customs practiced at the
court with the approval of the king. Lather, Maria Theresa began to fall ill and
died on 29 November 1780. On 22 October 1781, the queen gave birth to Louis
joseph Xavier Francois. On 27 March 1785, Marie gave birth to another son,
Louis Charles. At the same year there was a rumor that discredit Marie
Antoinette that she buy a diamond necklace which have lots of values. Even
though that is not the truth but still there are some group of people that hate her.
After that Antoinette start to heard about this so she decided to change her self.
She decided not to renovate the court.
And a second daughter Sophie helene Beatrice in 9 June 1786, but died on
19 June 1787. In 1787 the political situation get worse when the parliament was
exiled and culminated on 11 November. The king and queen was exile by the
people so they ran away to the nearby land of Austria, but then was caught. Louis
was executed on 21 January 1793, at the age of 38. The result was that the
window capet as the former queen was called after the death of husband. Marie
Antoinette was executed on 16 October 1793.






http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Antoinette
http://www.biography.com/people/marie-antoinette-9398996
http://www.history.com/topics/marie-antoinette














Louis XVI

Louis Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth
was born at the Palace of Versailles on 23 August 1754. He was the third son out
of seven child of Louis the Dauphin of France and Marie Josephe of Saxony. Louis
Auguste had not such a nice childhood because his parents neglected him.
Auguste was a strong and healthy boy he is also a kind of shy. He had a strong
taste for Latin, history, geography, and astronomy. He also very fluent in Italian
and English. He likes to go hunting with his grandfather and play with his
younger brother Louis Stanislas. He also had hobbies, which is locksmithing.
Louis Auguste father was died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765,
when Auguste was age of 11. So that makes him become the new Dauphin. His
mother never recovered from the loss of her husband, and died on 13 March
1767 also from tuberculosis. Throughout his education Louis Auguste received a
mixture of studies particular to religion, morality, and humanities. Abbe Berthier,
his instructor taught him that timidity was a value in strong monarchs. And
instruct him not to let anyone read his mind.
On 16 May 1770 at the age of 15 Louis Auguste married the 14-year-old
Habsburg Archduchess Maria Antonia. This marriage was met with some
hostility by the French public. So that the Austria and French will be alliance
after the seven year war. Over time the couple became closer, though while their
marriage was reportedly consummated in July 1773. The couple failed to
produce any children for several years after the wedding. And that gave a lot of
pressure to both of them. People start debating about the reason why they
doesnt have a child. One suggestion is that Louis Auguste suffered from a
physiological dysfunction. In the spite of all their earlier difficulty the royal
couple became the parent of four children.
When Louis XVI succeeded to the throne in 1774, he was 19 years old. He
had a lot of responsibility. As the king he focused on the religious uniformity and
foreign policy. He lacked the firmness and decisiveness, His desire was to be
loved by his people by doing thing that are benefit to his people.
On October 1789, an angry mod of Parisian workingwomen was incited
by revolutionaries and marched on the Palace of Versailles, where the royal
family lived. Their attempt was to kill the queen, which her lifestyle that
symbolized much that despised about the ancient regime. After this situation the
family moved to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
On 21 June 1791, Louis XVI attempted to secretly flee with his family from
Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montmedy on the northeastern border of
France and would be protected by the Austria. Their failure of the escape plan
was due to a series of misadventures delay and poor judgments.
In August 13, 1792 he was put in the prison for high treason and crimes
against the states. On September 21, 1792 France was made a republic and
abolished the Monarchy. And on January 21, 1793 Louis XVI was death.


http://www.biography.com/people/louis-xvi-9386943
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XVI_of_France
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/louis_xvi.shtml