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2-

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2006

53 (075.8)
22.3 73
25
:

. . . ( ,
- .-. , . . ),
,
- .-. , . .

-, . .
25
: . 2 . . 1 : .
. / . . . : , 2006. 232 . : .
ISBN 978-985-488-105-8 (. 1)
, .

. , .
. 1 () ,
, , .
.
,
.
53 (075.8)
22.3 73

ISBN 978-985-488-105-8 (. 1)
ISBN 978-985-488-104-1

- . ., 2006

, 2006


................................................................................................. 8
............................................................................ 9
..................... 10
........................................................................................................... 11
1. .......................................... 13
1. ....................................................... 13
1.1. . ................... 13
2. ............... 14
2.1. . ............................... 14
2.2. .
. . . .................... 14
2.3. . ................. 17
2.4. ....................................... 19
2.5. ................................................................ 20
2.6. ................................................ 20
2.7. ........................................................ 21
2.8. ................ 23
3. ................................................................................ 24
3.1. .
. .
. ........................................24
3.2. ........................... 25
3.3. ...................................................................... 26
3.4. . ..................... 27
3.5. . .........................28
3.6. ............................................................................ 29
3.7. . . ....................... 30
4. .................................................................................. 32
4.1. . .
....................... 32
4.2. ................................................................................... 32
4.3. ............................................................. 33
4.4. . .
........................................................................................ 34
4.5. ................................................................................................ 35
4.6. . ................. 36
4.7. .
.
......................................................................................... 37
4.8. .
. ............. 39
4.9. .................................... 42

4.10.
................................................................... 43
4.11. ...................................................................... 45
4.12.
. . ......................................................... 47
4.13. . .....................50
5. .......................................................................... 52
5.1. .
. ............................................. 52
5.2. ,
.................................................................. 54
5.3.
( ) ............................................................. 55
5.4. .
.
............................................. 56
6. ......................................................... 58
6.1. ,
............................................................. 58
6.2. .
( )........ 60
6.3. ............................................................... 62
6.4. .......................... 62
6.5. . . ..........................63
7. ........................................................................ 66
7.1. ................................................................ 66
7.2. .
...................................................................................... 68
7.3. : ,
( )............................... 69
7.4. ................................................. 72
7.5. .
................................................................... 73
7.6. ......................................... 75
7.7. .
....................................................................... 76
7.8. . . ........... 77
8. ................................................................................. 80
8.1. .
.
. . ....................... 80
8.2. .
. .............................................. 82

.
. ...................................................................85
9. .................................................87
9.1. ............................................................87
9.2. ...............................................................89
9.3. ................................91
9.4. ...........................93
9.5. . .......................95
9.6. ...................................................................................97
9.7. .................................98
9.8. ................................................................100
9.9. . ..............................102
....................................................................................................104
2. ..................105
10. .........105
10.1. .
................................105
10.2. ...................................................106
10.3. ...........................................107
10.4. . ........................................110
10.5. .............................................112
10.6. ...............................................113
10.7. .......................................................114
11. .......................................................................115
11.1. ......................................................115
11.2. .
: ...........................119
11.3. . ,
......................................121
11.4. .
. -.......................123
11.5. .
...............................................................125
11.6. . . -
. .
.............................................................................126
11.7. .....................................................................................130
....................................................................................................134
3. ..............................................135
12. ...................................................135
12.1. . .
.
. ..................135
8.3.

r
12.2. E .
....................................................................................139
r
12.3. E . .
.................................................144
12.4. .
..............................................................................146
12.5. . ,
. .........................148
12.6. ................................................150
12.7. .
..............................................152
12.8. ....................................153
12.9. . ..................154
13. ...........................................156
13.1. ......................................................156
13.2. . .

...................................................158
r
13.3. Dr ( ).
D ........................................................................................160
13.4. . .............................161
13.5. .
. .
. ...................................165
14. .........................................................169
14.1. . ......................169
14.2. .
...........................................................171
14.3. ..............................................................................172
14.4. .
...........................................175
14.5. ...............................................................................................177
15. ..................................................................179
r
15.1. B .
. ...................179
15.2.

...............182
r
15.3. B .......................................................184
r
15.4. B ,
. ...................................................185
15.5. ...................................................................................187
15.6. . ,
. ....189

16. ................................................................192
16.1. . r .....................................192
16.2. . H (
) ...........................................................................193
r
16.3. H ................................................194
17. ...............................................197
17.1. . ...................................................197
17.2. .
(). ........................198
17.3. . .
. ...........................201
17.4. ........................................202
17.5. . .
.............................................204
18. ............................................................206
18.1. .
........................................206
18.2. ......................208
18.3. ......................................210
19. .........................................................................213
19.1. . .
..................................................................................213
19.2. .
.........................................................................215
20. ...................................................................218
20.1. .
r:
r
, , E H ...............................218
20.2. . .
. ...............................................220
....................................................................................................222
..................................................................................................223
1. ..............................................................................223
2. .....................................................223
..........................................................................224


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rr

r r

a b a b , a b

r r
(a, b ) .

r r

a b a b [a , b ] .
:
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E p = E p1 E p2 ;
r
d ( ), dr ;
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= ;
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~ .
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r r r
i , j , k ;
r
nr ;
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f df dt f t ,

f , , , f& .
n

- f (x ) d f dx .
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lim ;
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r
r
const , E = const E , A = const ;
r r
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r
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r
E p E p ( grad E p ),
r r
r
r
E E ( div E ),
r r
r
r
E E ( rot E ).

r
2
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(): = 2 = 2 + 2 + 2 .
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y
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1.
1.
1.1. .
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2.
2.1. .
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() ,
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1. , , , ;
2. , , .
:
a. () ,
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b. , .

.
c. ,
.
d. , .
2.2. . .
. .
, . - , .. . , .

, .
r
a .
r
r
a a a .
, Z
z
r r r
i , j , k ,
M(x, y, z)
r
, . 2.1.
r r
r
- r ,
k
r
y

:
i O rj
Y
r r
r
v
r
x
r = x i + y j + z k , r = r = x2 + y2 + z2 ,
X
M
x = r cos , y = r cos , z = r cos . . 2.1.
x, y, z
r
r .
, .

(, .).
:
r r r
r r r
1. : a + b = c , a + b c .

Y
r
iy

r
i

r
ix

. 2.2.
r
i


r
, i (i = 1, 2), . 2.2.
, , ,
().



r r
r
i = ix + iy ,

r r
r
r
ix = ix i ; iy = iy j ; Y
r
ix = i cos , iy = i sin ; , i
iy
r
. i = i = ix2 + iy2 , tg =
.
ix

r
r
r r
r
r
r
r
1 + 2 = (1 x + 2 x ) + (1 y + 2 y ) = (1x + 2 x )i + (1 y + 2 y ) j .
.
2. ,
r r
r r
r r
( a , b ) = a b cos(a , b ) = ab cos = a x bx + a y by + a z bz ,

r
r
a b .
r r rr
a b , a b .
r
r
r
3. a b c ,
, r
r
c = ab sin , a b ,
. 2.3, :
r
a , , ,
r
b . r
c .
r
r
c
r r
r r
: c = [a , b ] = a b .
r
b

r
a
. 2.3.
r
cr = [ar , b ]

r
i
r r
[a , b ] = a x

v
j
ay

bx

by

r
k
az =

bz
r
r
r
= ( a y b z a z b y ) i ( a x b z a z b x ) j + ( a x b y a y bx ) k .

, :
r r
r = r (t ) .
(2.1)
(2.1) .
,
:
x = x (t ), y = y (t ), z = z (t ) .
(2.2)
(2.2)
. (2.1).
r
, - r (t ) ( ) , . 2.4.
s
Z A
s
r
r
B
, r0 r
, 2.4.
r
r
.

r r r
Y
r = r r0 ,


. 2.4.
(.
-

), . . 2.4:
,
r r r r
r
r = r r0 = r (t ) r (t0 ) .

t 0
r
r
r0
: dr = ds .
.

, (SI), ,
.
. :
(), (), () ..
2.3. .
. , , .
t r
r - t :
r
r
r
=
.
t

(2.3)

r
r .
, , r
- r :
r
r
r
r dr r&
= lim
=
=r.
t 0 t
dt

(2.4)


. ( )

r
r
r
s ds
r
r
r s
r
s
= lim

= lim
lim
= lim
=
= s& ,
= = lim
t 0 t
t 0 s t
t 0 s t 0 t
t 0 t
dt

(2.5)

s , .
(/).
, y z
:
x = x& , y = y& , z = z& ,
r r r
i , j , k .

= x2 + 2y + z2 .

. .
( ) s, ,
:
s
= = .
t

(2.5)

s, t1 t2, , (2.5):
ds = dt

t2

s = (t )dt .

(2.6)

t1

. , ..
, .
,
.
: = . ,
, :
t2

s = dt = (t2 t1 ) .

(2.7)

t1

,
, ,
.
, r
.
,
:
r
r
r
d r&
a = lim
=
= .
t 0 t
dt

(2.8)

r
r d 2r r
a = 2 = &r& .
dt

(2.9)

, , -:
(/2).
(2.8) (2.9), ,
r d dx r dy r dz r d 2 x r d 2 y r d 2 z r
a = i + j + k =
i +
j+
k =
dt dt
dt
dt dt 2
dt 2
dt 2
r
r
r
= a xi + a y j + azk ,

(2.10)
, ay az X, Y Z .
(2.11)
a = a x2 + a y2 + a z2 .
r
r r
r
d
a (t ) = , , d = a (t ) dt . dt


r
r
= a (t )dt .
(2.12)
, , y z
x = a x (t )dt , y = a y (t )dt , z = a z (t )dt .

2.4.
, . , .
(. 2.5), R
( R = AO , . . 2.5). , R . R = .
.
r
r r
a
a
r
r
a (

r
r

) a n (
r
r
n
), . . 2.5:
a
r
an
r r r
a = a + an , a = a2 + a n2 ,
(2.13)

r
r r
r
a = a ; a n = a n n ; a . 2.5.
r
; a n () a
. a = a cos , a n = a sin , tg = a n a ,
r

. . 2.5.

r
, n
r
r
. n .
r
r
a an ( ) :

d
a =
,
dt

2
.
an =
R

(2.13)

,
a .
a = const > 0 . a = const < 0 .
:
1) a = 0 : a = 0, a n = 0 ;
2) , : a = 0, an = a = const = 2 R ;
3)
, R = .
r
r
r r
a = a = const, an = 0 .

2.5.
: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4)
5) . .
,
.
i , .
, . 2.6. , ,
- ,
. (
) .
r r
B
, rA = rA (t ) .
Z
B

r
r r r
rB r
rB = rA + rAB ,
rAB
r
A
r

r
A
r
AB , ,
A
O
X
( )
Y
( ).
. 2.6.




.
r

r
r
r

r
dr
dr
r
r
d
d
r
A = A = B = B , a A = A = B = aB .
dt
dt
dt
dt

,
r
- r (t )
.
2.6.
, ,
.
() : 1)
, , ,
; 2) . 2.7. ,
, -

, . ,
, . ,
, , . 2.7.

R , R , r
( ).
r
d ( ).
r
d
r
d
,
O
,

, d
drr
, . 2.8.
r
, , rA
OO , dt d ,

r
. 2.8. dr
. 2.8. ,

dr = rA sin d
(2.14)


r r
r
(2.14)
dr = [d , rA ] ,
r
rA (t ) .

2.7.
.
r


r
r d
=
,
dt

(2.15)

v dr r d 2r
=
= & = 2 .
dt
dt

(2.16)

r
dt , d ; = & .
,
r
. ,
r
r
. d
.
r

r
:

r
r
d

r
r
r
. , , . r
, , , r
, .
(/),
(/2). .
Z
r
Z,

, . 2.9. . 2.9. Z
z
z

d
z = d , z = z .
(2.17)

dt
dt
Z
z z .
r
r
. ,
r
z > 0 ,
r
Z; z < 0 , .
, (t )
r
(2.17), (t )
. d z = z (t )dt d = z (t )dt , , ,
z (t ) = z (t )dt (t ) = z (t )dt .
(2.18)
t0 = 0 ( z (t 0 = 0) = 0
(t 0 = 0) = 0 ), (2.18) ,
t

z (t ) = 0 + z (t )dt ,
0

(t ) = 0 + z (t )dt .

(2.19)

, ( = const )
(2.18), ,
= 0 + t ,

= 0 + 0t +

t2
.
2

,
, :
2
T=
.

, :
n=

1
=
.
T 2

().

2.8.

r
, r
OO .
r
- r , . 2.10. (2.14),
r
r dr
r
d
r
=
= ,
dt .
dt
dt
r
r d r
r r
= [ , r ] = [ , r ] ,
dt

r
' d

(2.20)

r
.. , ,
r

dt
R
r drr
r
r
r
r , . . 2.10. (2.20)

= r sin

=R,

. 2.10.
R = r sin , r

, . . 2.10.



( )

r r
r .
(2.20) :
r

r
r r
r r
r d r
r dr
r r
r r r
a =[
, r ] + [ , ] = [ , r ] + [, ] = [ , r ] + [ , [ , r ]] .
dt
dt

(2.21)

r
( = const ) ,

a = a 2 + a n2 ,
r r
r
a , a an , .

2 2R2
an =
=
= 2R ,
R
R
t2

t2

t2

s = dt = Rdt = R
t1

t1

t1

a =

d
dt = R ,
dt

d d (R )
d
=
=R
= R ,
dt
dt
dt

(2.22)

s , R;
(t 2 t1 ) .

3.
3.1. .
. . .

, XVIIXIX .,
, . 1687 .
. . . , , .
( ):
, , () ,
, , , ( ).
.
,
, .

.
() , () .
, ,
.
.
r
F ,
,
.
. ,
.r , ( F ),
,
( ) .
r
F , , . , , .

(), .
, , . ,
, .
.
.

r , F , .
(): 1 = 1 /2.
, .
,
. ,
, :
m1 m2 = a 2 a1 .
().
:
(. 4.1)
, .

dm , , dV
:
=

dm
.
dV

(/3).
r
p , m r
,
( ) :
r
r
p = m .
(3.1)
- (/).
. , n r
, pi :
n
r
r n r
p = pi = mii .
(3.2)
i =1

i =1

3.2.
:
, (),
, ():

r
r F
a= .
m

(3.3)


:

( , )
r
dp r
=F.
dt

(3.4)

, (3.1) r (3.3) ,

r
r
r
d d (m ) dp r&
ma = m
=
=
= p.
dt
dt
dt

r r
(3.5)
ma = F
.
(3.5), , 1 , 1 1 /2 .

r r . F1 , F2 . . . , ()
r r
r :
(3.6)
F = F1 + F2 + ... ,
r
Fi , i-
. (3.6) .
3.3.
:

,
r :
r
Fik = Fki ,
(3.7)
r
r
Fik , i- k- ; Fki , k- i- .
(), .

, :

.
, .

, , . ,
.
(3.7), ,
r
r
dp1
dp
= 2
dt
dt

d r r
( p1 + p2 ) = 0 ,
dt

.
. ,
( ), .
3.4. .
,
(

), ( ).
:

.
,
,
.

K
K r
Y
Y
0
. M
. K (
r y r
y

r
r
X, Y, Z) ,
O
O
K ( X,
X X
x z
z
Y, Z)
r
r
x
Z
Z
0 ( 0 = const ),
. 3.1. K . 3.1.
K ,
r
0 . - r
r
r , r .
K K t t .
, .. ,
K K , : t = t .

,
( t 0 = t 0 ). OO = 0t
:
r r r
r = r + 0t ,
(3.8)
t = t .
(3.8)
(3.8) (3.8) .

x = x + 0 t , y = y , z = z , t = t .
(3.9)
(3.8) :
r r r
= + 0 ,
(3.10)
r
, .. r
; , .. r
; 0 .
, .
(3.10)
r
r
r r
d 2r d 2r r
= 2 +0,
a = a ,
(3.11)
2
dt

dt

.. .
r
r
( a = 0 ), a = 0 , ..
K .
m ,
(3.11) , :
r r
r
r
ma = ma F = F ,
r
r
F , K ; F ,
K . , .
, ,
() .
3.5. .
, . .

, , m1 m2, r
, :

F =G

m1m2
,
r2

(3.12)

G . : G=6,67 10-11 2/2.


(3.12) m1 m2 , .. ,
, . XVIII . ( . ) ,
.
, .
(3.3), m , ,
F = m g = G

M m
R

m GM
= 2 ,
m
R g

M ; R . , g. . ,
m
= 1,
m

M
2
= g = 9,81 / .
2
R

, , ,
.
3.6.
, ,
, .. , r :
r
(3.13)
P = mg .

g = 9,81 /2, . , ( ),
g
. g 9,81 /2 .
, ,
, , ,
, . , () , .
()
r
a

r
N ,

r r
r
.
N
+
P
=
m
a
r
r r
r
r r
P = N = P ma = m( g a ) . r
r r
() P , a = g .
.
3.7. . .

( ) .
,
.
,
, ().
,
()
:
r
r
F = r ,
r
r -,
; . , .
, ,
= F

(3.14)

F , (), ; S , . ,
.
( )
()
(3.15)
= l l = d d ,
l d . ,
l , d .
. , :
= E ,
(3.16)
. (3.16) .
M , , , , . ,
M = 22 50 , () M = 32 80 .
(3.14) (3.15), (3.16)

=
F=

l
F
= =
,
l
E ES

ES
l = l
l

r
r
F = l ,

(3.17)

r
, ; l
r
; l .

, .
, .

, ,
.


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)
;
) ,
F = kN ,
(3.18)
k ,
( ) ; N , . k: k 0,4 ; k 1 4 ; k < 0,01 .
,
, .
r
F ,
.
max
max
.
. F > F
F
0
0
max
. , F
0

, .

4.
4.1. . .

(),
( ).
.
, : , . : , , , .
, . (. 4.8)
.
(. 4.3) :

(
).
(. 4.13)

.

. ,
, .
, .
4.2.

r
dp r
=F,
dt

(4.1)

r
r
r
p = m ; m .
(4.1)

r r
r
. , F = 0 , p = const .
(4.1)
r
, F , t
r
r t r
p2 p1 = Fdt .
(4.2)
0

(4.2) :

, , , , .

:
r
r
(4.3)
p = pi ,

r
pi i- .
:

i

r
dp r
= F ,
dt

(4.4)

..
, .
, (4.4) ,
:
r
r t r
p2 p1 = F dt .
(4.5)
0

4.3.
(4.4) , . . (4.4)
r
dp r
= 0.
dt

:
, ..
:
r
r
p = pi (t ) = const .
(4.6)
i


.
,
, (4.4).

4.4. . .
( ) - :
r

r
rC =

mi ri
i =1

(4.7)

r
mi ri - i- ;
m

n ; m = mi . i =1

.

xC =

1 n
mi xi ,
m i =1

yC =

1 n
1 n
,
=
m
y
z
i i C m mi zi ,
m i =1
i =1

(4.8)

xi, yi zi i- mi.
,
. ,
, n , n . (4.8)
xC =

1
xdm,
m V

yC =

1
1
ydm, zC = zdm ,

mV
mV

, .

(4.7) :
r
1 r
1
r
rC = r dm = r dV .
mV
mV

(4.9)

, .
,
(4.7) :
r
r
r
r
r 1 n r
p
dri 1 n
drC 1 n
C =
= mi
= mii = pi = .
m
m i =1
dt m i =1 dt m i =1

, .
,

r
r
p = m C .
(4.10)
(4.10) (4.4),

r
m

dC r
= F ,
dt

(4.11)

.. ,

, , . .
(4.11) ,
, .
,
,
, , , -.
- . , -.
- , .
4.5.

. . .
. .
.
.
.
,

2
r

r 12, F , . 4.1.
Fs
r
F dr r
, .
r
F
d
r
,

r
1
F
r .r
. 4.1.
F dr -
r r

,

F
dr ,
r
r

F dr :
r r
(4.12)
A = Fdr = ( F cos )ds = Fs ds ,
r
r
r
F dr ; ds = dr ; Fs r
r
F dr , .r 4.1. A : r
F dr ,
r
r
, , ( F dr , .. Fs = 0 ).
() (4.12)
r 1 2, F :

.
.

2 r r 2
A = Fdr = Fs ds .
1

(4.13)

(4.13) ,
r
( r). dr ( ds ) F . r F , ,
A = Fs s = Fs cos .
,
. , .
P ,
:
P=

r r
A
= ( F , ) .
dt

, .
(): 1 = 1 .
1 , 1 1 .
(): 1 = 1 /.
1 ,
1 1 .
r
F , ,
t. ,
r r rr
(4.13) Fdr = Fdt = Pdt ,
t

A = Pdt .
0

4.6. .
, .
r
r m F (
F r ). r
, F dr .
r
r
r
r
r
d

, F = m
dr = (dr dt )dt = dt , (4.12):
dt
r r
r r
A = Fdr = md .
r r
, d = d ,
A = m d = d ( m 2 / 2) .
r
, F , :
Ek =

m 2
.
2

(4.14)

.
.
.
, ,
, :
(4.15)
dEk = A .
:
,
:
Ek 2 Ek1 = A12 .
(4.16)
(): 1 = 1 .
,

( ).
( ) . ,
r r :
A = Fdr = 0 .
a
,
, ,
2
: 12 2b1, . 4.2.
1

b
A = A1a 2 + A2b1 ,
. 4.2.
A1a 2 = A1b 2 ,


. A2b1 = A1b2 ,
,
: A = 0 .
,
. .
. .
.

4.7. . .

. ()
r
E (r ) , (), -

:
r r
A = F dr = dE p .
1 2
r
E (r )
:
2 r
r
A12 = Fdr = E p1 E p2 .
(4.17)
1

(4.17) , . , , .
( E = 0 ) .
(): 1 = 1 .
. (3.17). () ,
, .. F = F :
l

E p = A = Fdx .
0

,
0 l . (3.17)
, :
l

Ep =

ES
1 ES
xdx =
( l ) 2 .
l
2 l


: . ,
, . .
.
(4.17):
Fs =

E p
s

(4.18)

r
E p (r ) . r
, Fs F r
dr E p .

r
dr ,
X, Y, Z. :
r
r
E p r E p r E p
F = E p =
i+
j+
y
z
x

r
k ,

(4.19)

, ,

,
r
grad E p E p .
r r r r
=i
+ j
+k
.
x
x
x r

,
F
r
E p . (4.19) ,
r r
r
E p (r ) , F (r ) . , ,
. E p .
E p , .
4.8. . .

( ),
. . , ,
. ,
. .
, :
E = Ek + E p .
(4.20)
, , . (4.20) ,

, :
E2 E1 = A .
(4.21)
A > 0 , ,
A < 0 , .

(. (4.21)). :

,
, :
(4.22)
E = Ek + E p = const .
, ()
. () . , .
, , , r .
N, . , ()

, :

A
= E
1 E 2 ,

E
1 E 2
. () , ( )
:

E
=

1 N
E

ik ,
2 i,k =1
(i k )

E
p ik i- k- .
,
.
:
N m2
Ek = i i ,
i =1 2

mi i i.
(. (4.16)).
,
E = Ek + E
(4.23)
p .
, . -

E2 E1 = A
.
,
( E ), , , .
:
(. (4.23)), ,
.
N .
,
. , i- E p i , (4.17). ,

E = Ek + E
,
(4.23)
p + Ep
N


= Ep i .
p
i =1


( ):
E2 E1 = A .
(4.24)
, , .
, :

(. (4.23)), , .
(4.16),
(3.3). .

:
,
.
(, , , , .)
.

4.9.

( ), . , .
r r
, F ,

m:
r ,
r
= F m,
(4.25)
r
, 1 .
,

,
r

r
r r r
= grad = ( i +
j+
k).
z
x
y

, , , ,
r
M r
= G 3 r ,
r

(4.26)

r
r
r - , ; G .
, , , . r1 r2
A = GMm (

1 1
),
r1 r2

(4.27)

r r
; m . - r1 r2 m.
,
, :
=

Ep
m

= G

M
.
r

(4.28)

, , m
, :
(4.29)
E p = C + mgh ,
.
= gh .
(4.29)

4.10.


, , - , .
, - () :
. (
10 ), .
, ,
. -
,
,
,
. RUMP
0,001 . %.
() ,
.
, ,
.
,
, .
, .
,
, , .
.
r
r
m1 m2 1 2 ,
r
r
u1 u2 . .

:
r
r
r
r
m11 + m22 = m1u1 + m2u2 ,
(4.30)
m112 m222 m1u12 m2u2 2
+
=
+
.
2
2
2
2

(4.30)

. (4.30)
(
). ,
.

. ,
( ), :
2
2
m1 (12x u1 x ) = m2 (u2 x 22 x ) .
m1 (1 x u1 x ) = m2 (u2 x 2 x ) ,
,
u1 x + 1 x = u2 x + 2 x .
m2, m1
, :
u1 x =

(m1 m2 )1 x + 2m2 2 x
m1 + m2

u2 x =

(m2 m1 ) 2 x + 2m11 x
m1 + m2

(4.31)

.
r r
. : 2 = 0 .
u1 x =

(m1 m2 )1 x
m1 + m2

u2 x =

2m11 x
m1 + m2

, , . u1 x .
. m1 > m2 , , , .
u2 , 1 x , . 4.3, .
. m1 < m2 , . ,
, , . 4.3, .
. : m1 = m2 .
u1 x = 2 x ; u2 x = 1 x ,
..

. ,
r r
r r
u1 = 0 , 2 = 0 .


r
,
r
1
1
, m1
m2 .
m2
m1


m1 + m2 (
r
r
r
r
u1
u2
u1
u2
).
m
m
m
2
1
1

m2
, . 4.3.

:
.
m1 > m2 ;
.
m1 < m2
r
m1 m2, 1
r
r
2 , ,

r
r
r
m11 + m22 = (m1 + m2 ) .
, : r
r
r m + m2 2
= 1 1
.
m1 + m2

(4.32)

, .
, , . ,
, ( ).
, - , . , ,
, . .

Ek =

(m1 + m2 ) 2 m112 m222


.

+
2
2
2

(4.32) ,
Ek =

r r
m1m2
(1 2 )2 .
2(m1 + m2 )

(4.33)

4.11.
, . , ,
M .

, , , . .

.
- ,
, , ,
,
.
- ( ) , .

.
, R = 6350 . ,
R 6700 . (3.3):

F =G

M m
R2

= ma1 =

m 21
,
R

F ; M ; m
. , , . :
1 = G M R .
(4.34)
, , ..
R . mg
,
G

M m
= mg
R2

GM
= gR .
R

(4.34):
1 = gR 8 / .
2 , ,
. .
.
2 , .

E=

m 22
M m
G ,
2
R

,
(4.27) .
, , .
, 2 11 /,
2 = 2GM R = 2 1 .
(4.35)
3 ,
, ,
,
.
(4.35) M (1,971030 )
(1,501011 ), ,
3 = 42 /.

30 /,
,

42 /
3 17 /.
4.12. .
.
. : .
r
. r -,
r
, p .
r
( ) L
, . 4.4, , r
r
r p :
r r r
L = [r , p] .
(4.36)
r
, L r
L
.
,
r
r
p L
r
.

p
r
L = rp sin = lp ,
(4.36)
r
l
r
r
r p ; l = r sin r
r
. 4.4. L
p , . . 4.4.


- (2/).
,
r
L ,
(4.36) :
r

r
r
dL dr r r dp
=
p+r
.
dt dt
dt

r
r
, dr dt , ..
r
p ,
r
dr r
p = 0.
dt

r
r
r
(3.4), dp dt = F , F
, .
,
r
r r
dL
= [r , F ] .
dt

r
F r
r
,
, -
r
, F .

r
M ,

r
r r
(4.37)
M = [r , F ] .
r

r M , r
r F , . 4.5.
M = lF ,
(4.37)
r
r
M
l = r sin F
.
l r

, , r
F
r
l
.

r
. 4.5. M ,
().
,


, .
, ,
.
r
, L r

M
r
F
:
r

r
dL
=M.
dt

(4.38)

(4.38)
. , , ,

r , , ( M = 0 )
, .
r
(4.38) M
r t, L (t ) .
(4.38)
t,
r
M (t ) ,
:
r
r t r
L2 L1 = M (t )dt .
(4.39)
0

, (4.39), .
, ,
.

Lz r , L , , .
M z
r
M , , .
, Lz
M z . :
(4.38) , .
, X Y ( , X Y ), , ()
, ,
.
(4.38) Z
dLz dt = M z .
(4.40)
, M z
Z , Lz
r
. L .

k ,
r
M i

k r
k r r
r
M = M i = [ri , Fi ] .
(4.41)
i =1

i =1

, , .
. , .
l , .
r r 1 2
r
r21 1 r
( F1 = F2 ), . 4.6.
F1
r
r
r r
r21 = r1 r2 -,
M
r
r1
2
2 1.
r
F2

r
r2
:

r
r r
r r
r r
r r
=
+
=

M
[
r
,
F
]
[
r
,
F
]
[
r
,
F
]
[
r
1 1
2
2
1 1
2 , F1 ] =
. 4.6. ,
r
r
r

= [( r1 r2 ), F1 ].
l

, , r
r r
M = [ r21 , F1 ] .
(4.42)
,
(4.42)
M = r21F1 sin = lF1.
r
, . M
,
. ,
r
. 4.6 M .
4.13. .
.
r
r :
L = Li ,
(4.43)
i


. :

, .
, .
(4.43) .
r
(4.38) dL dt ,
i- . :
r
r
r
dL
= M i + M i .
dt
i
i

(4.43)


,
.

. (3.7)
, , ,
. ,
:
r
M i = 0 .
i

Z:
= 0.
M i
z
i

,
.

(4.43)

r
r
dL
= M ,
dt

(4.44)
r
; L

r
r
M = M i
i
r
M
.

, .

, .
(4.44) ,

, ,
:
dLz
= M z .
dt

(4.44a)

, (4.44),
t
r r t r
(4.45)
L2 L1 = M
dt ,
0

.. .
(4.44) :
, ..
: r
r
(4.46)
L = Li (t ) = const .
i
r
Li

, (4.46). ,
.
, (4.44) (4.46) , (
).

5.
5.1. .
.
(4.44) .
,
. Z.
( ) Z () mi , r
r
- ri , Ri r
r
i , Ri , . 5.1. Li = mii ri , r

. 5.1). ,
r
Ri r
r
: Ri Li .
, Z
Z
n

i =1

i =1

Lz = Li sin = mi i Ri .

r
Li
r
Li

Oi

r
Liz

r
Ri

.m ri

r
ri

,
i = z Ri , z
r
.
n

i =1

i =1

i =1

Lz = mi z Ri2 = z mi Ri2 = z I iz ,

(5.1)

i- I iz

. 5.1.
.

()
Z , ,
, n
() :
n

I z = mi Ri2 .

(5.2)

i =1

(5.1) (5.2) Z
(5.3)
Lz = I z z .

m ,

m

I = R 2 dm = R 2 dV ,
0

(5.4)

R dm ; dm = dV dV ; .
(2).
,
, .

, .
,
,
:
I
Ic ,
, m :
I = I C + ma 2 .
(5.5)
.
2, . 5.2.
r
1, 2, a .
r
r

R
(I
)
i ,
i
1
2 (I)
rm r
1 2 .
Ri i ri
i- mi.
r
ra

2, (5.2):
i
r r 2
I = mi ri2 = mi ( Ri a ) =

r
r
r
r
= mi Ri2 + mi a 2 2 a mi Ri ,
i

r
mi Ri2 = I C i
r
r2
2
1; mi a = ma ; mi Ri = 0 , 1 .
i

. 5.2.

.
:
r
i - i- .
- r

rc = mi i (4.7).
m i
r r
rC = 0 , , -

r
r r
r
mi i = 0 . Ri i ,
1 2. , ,
, 1 2, .
.
. m l
dx

,
( ), . 5.3.

.
l 2
.
. 5.3.
, dx .

,

dI C = x 2dm = x 2 S dx ,
S ; ; S dx = dV .
, 0 l/2, :

l/2

2 l
ml 2
IC = 2 S x dx = S =
.
3
2
12

0
2

, , ,
( ), . 5.3,
2

ml 2 ml 2 1 2
l
I = I C + m =
+
= ml .
12
4
3
2

,
Y
, O
r

dm
X
. . 5.4 ,
dI z = r 2 dm = ( x 2 + y 2 )dm = dI x + dI y .
. 5.4.

Z
(5.6)
Iz = Ix + I y .
Z

5.2. ,

Z
, (4.44),
dLz dt = M z ,
Lz M z . (5.3) -

, (4.44),
Z:
d
( I zz ) = M z .
dt

(5.7)

,
(5.4) - :
Iz

dz
= M z
dt

I z z = M z ,

(5.8)

I z Z; M z
Z; z = dz dt Z. , (5.8)
.
(5.8) ,
. , I z
: M z
.
(5.8)
r r
I z = M z ,
(5.9)
r
r
, M z
.
(5.8)
0 0
, ..
(t ) (t ) .
5.3.
( )
, , .
= const . , i-
i = Ri , Ri i- ,

2 1 2
2
= I ,
Ek = mi i = mi Ri2
2

2
2
i
i

(5.10)

I . ,
(5.10) (4.14),
, I ,
.
-

.
A = dEk , (5.10):
I 2
.
A = d
2

Z . 2 = z2 , z Z,
A = Iz dz = M zz dt = M z d .
M z d , A > 0 . A < 0 . = 2 1
2

A = M z d .

(5.11)

,
M z . , M z = 0 , . ,
, (4.13).
5.4. .
.
, , . ,
. () ,
.
,
, , .
, ,
, .
,
.
,
, , .
. -


.
,
, :
1. ,

r
r
d C
= Fi ,
dt
i
r
r
C ; Fi .

(5.12)

2. , ,
r
C
r
r
dC
= M C ,
IC
dt

(5.13)

r
I C M C
.
, .
, mi
i = ri , ri .

Eki =

1
1
mii2 = mi ri2 2 ,
2
2


Ek = Eki =

2
2

mi ri2 =

I1 2
,
2

(5.14)

I1 .
(5.5) I1 = I C + mr02 , r0
I C ,
. (5.14)
IC 2 1 2 2
Ek =
+ mr0 .
2
2

C = r0 :
Ek =

I C 2 mC2
+
.
2
2

(5.15)

:


( , ).

,
(. (5.14)).

6.
6.1. ,


, . , , .
,
, , ,
.
.
:
1. , ;
2.
, , . .
;
3. , ,
. , ,
.
,
( ) .
, (3.5). ,
. , ,r , F :
r
r
r
ma = F + F ,
(6.1)
r
r
a ; F
, ;
r
F , . (6.1)
,
:
, ,
, , .

, . ,
, .
, . , K ( X, Y, Z) ( r
) a0 K ( X, Y, Z).
K
-
Y
r
M
K r = OM , r
r
r
r = O M . r0 = OO

K
K
r
Y
r
- O ( O r
X
),
O
r
K, . 6.1.
r0 Z

K O
r r r
X
, i , j , k .
Z

. 6.1.

.


-

, .
() , . ,
, .
r
r
- r r
r r r
r = r0 + r ,
r
r
r
r
r = x i + y j + z k .
r
r
r
r r
r = r0 + x i + y j + z k . :

r
r
dr dr0 dx r
y r dz r
=
+
i+d
j +
k.
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt

r
dr0 r
= 0 , .. ,
dt

K K, -


:
r r r
(6.2)
= 0 + ,
r
, .. r
K ; , ..
K. (6.2) ,

(3.10).
r
r :
r
r
d 2 r d 2r0 d 2 x r d 2 y r d 2 z r
= 2 + 2 i + 2 j+ 2 k.
dt 2
dt
dt
dt
dt

:
r r r
a = a0 + a ,

r
d 2 r0
2

(6.3)

r
= a0 , .. -

r
; a
r
; a .
(6.2) (6.3) .
r
a0 ,
( F ):
r
r
r
(6.4)
F = F = ma0 ,
m , .
dt

6.2. .
( )
, .
, OO ,
, . 6.2. , ,
, , , m, ( )
, r.
(3.3):
r
r r
T + mg = F ,
r
r
r
T ; F = m 2 r . -

r
, F , r
r , .. , . 6.2.

O
r
( a = 0 ):
r
r r
r
T
T + mg .
m
a

r
mg
.
r
r
, , ,

. . 6.2.
,
(6.1):
r r
r r

ma = T + mg + F ,

r
r
F = F .
, ,
r
F , r
r
- r
:
r
r
r
F = F = m 2 r .
(6.5)
r
r
ac = 2 r .
r

, r
a0 , r
r
r
ac = a0 2 r . , :
r
r
1) F = ma0 (. (6.4)).
;
r
r
2) F = m 2 r (. (6.5)).
, , r;
3)
r
r r
FK = 2m[ , ]
(6.6)
r
r
.
, . .
, (6.1)
, r
, r
a0 , :

r r
r
r
r
ma = F + F + F + FK ,

(6.7)
r
F , .

- .
r r
F = 0
.
6.3.
-
, , , ,
, ,
. , , , , .
,
. ,
, : , ,
. ,
, ,
,
, , .

.

:
, .

.
6.4.

. .
(3.3) ,
, , :
r
dp r r
= F + F .
dt

(6.8)

( )
A (4.21) A ,
:
(6.9)
A + A = E 2 E1 ,

E 2 E1 .

.
5.3
0 (5.11)
,
A=

Mz

Mz

d ,

M z .
6.5. . .
( ) ,

. , , , .
,
,
.
,
r
, .
0 << ,
r
( )

:
r
r
(6.10)
L = I .
O

,

, . 6.3.
,

AA', BB' ' .



. AA' (

.
. 6.3.
,

,
. (4.44),

r
r
L = J = const , .. (6.10). ,
, (
). .
, ,
, , .
, , (4.44), .

, .
( ),
,

r
r

L M ,
r
r
r r
0 , 0 , L M :r
r r
M = 0 L .

Zr
L
. .
r

. 6.4. r
,
r
r
Fi K
r
r

i
. M , r
r
r
i

ri
Y
M r
Y, mi
Fi K r
r
Y,
0
r
. 6.4.
MK
X
, - , . 6.4.
.
r
r
,
( 0
,
,
r r r

i, i = ri ,
)
r

r
r r
Fi K = 2mi [ i, ] (. (6.6)). M K
r
, 0 .
, -
, , .
, , .
, -

.

(. 6.5), .. , . ,
,
r r
r
: M = l mg ,
l = OC .
,
, .
,
r

, :

r
N r
l mgr

1
.
L

,
. . 6.5.
, ,

, ..
.
, . , , - ( ).
, .
. (XIX .)
.
. (
2004 ., ).
,
.. ,
, ( , .), , , .

7.
7.1.
,
. , ,
.
, .
(), , , .
, , F = F0 cos t .
,
.
(, ) () .

x (t ) = A cos(0 t + 0 ) ,
(7.1)
x (t )
;
; 0 () ; 0
t = 0 ( ); (t ) = (0 t + 0 ) t,
, . m . , . cos
+1 1 , + . cos( + 2 ) = cos ,
, 2.
,
, , , , .
2:
0 (t + T ) + 0 = (0 t + 0 ) + 2 .
,
T=

2
.
0

(7.2)

, , , :
=

1 0
=
.
T 2

(7.3)

(): 1 = 1 -1.
1 , 1 .
, , . 7.1. .
: x = A cos(0t + 0 ) , . 7.1, . (7.4)

T
+
,
0
, .
t
-
: x = x& = A0 sin(0 t + 0 ) =
x
A0

= A0 cos(0t + 0 + ), . 7.1, .
(7.5)

0
2
t
A0
: a x = &x = &x& = A02 cos(0 t + 0 ) =
ax
= A02 cos(0t + 0 + ), . 7.1, .
(7.6)
2
A0
(7.5), 0

t /2, , A02
(7.6), . .
. 7.1.

(0 = 0):

0 A02 . t;
, (7.5) (7.6), x t;
x , .
t

0
(
r
), . 7.2.
A
0
, ,

0, r , . 7.2.
A , .

, 0,
x = A cos(0 t + 0 ) .
.
e i = cos + i sin ,
i = 1 ; = cos

Re(e i ) ; = sin
, Im( e i ) . (7.1)
x = Re ~
x,
~
x = A e i(0 t + 0 ) .
. x
~
:
x = A cos(0 t + 0 ) = x .
Re ~
7.2. .
(7.1) (7.6) ,
:
2
&x& + 02 x = 0 d 2x + 02 x = 0 .

(7.7)

dt

x = A cos(0 t + 0 ) .
(7.8)
, (7.7) &x& + b x = 0 , , (7.8), b = 0 .
x (t ) , ,
.

( ) :
( ) ,
.

(3.3). , m, (7.6),
Fx = m a x = m A 02 cos(0 t + 0 + ) = m 02 A cos(0 t + 0 ) =
(7.9)
= m 02 x = k x,
, , , , ..; k ( ):
k = m 02 .
(7.10)

k .
(7.9) .
.
7.3. . ,
( )

, . .
, , , (7.7):
&x& + 02 x = 0 .
, .
,
.

l0
l
m, r
r
l 0 + l 0
0
F = k l0
,
r
0.
F x + l 0 ,
r
mg

r

mg
Fx = k x , k
. 7.3.
.
l 0 , . 7.3.
l 0 x = 0 .
mg kl 0 :
mg = kl 0 .
(7.11)
, .
, l 0 + x .
, , , ,
Fx = mg k ( l 0 + x ) = kx .
(7.11) , Fx = kx . . (3.3) (7.7):

k
mx&& = kx &x& + x = 0 .

(7.12)

,
x = A cos(0t + 0 ) ,

0 =

k
m

, T = 2

m
.
k

(7.13)


m x& 2
k x2
Ek =
, E p =
.
2
2

, m,
.
, ,
, .

x l ,

r
()
T
, . 7.4. r
F
, .
r
mg
. 7.4. ,

Fx = mg sin mg = mg


mx&& = Fx = mg

x
l

g
&x& + x = 0 ,
l

x
.
l

(7.14)

.. (7.1).
0 =

g
,
l

T = 2

l
.
g

(7.15)
1

, l 2 ,
. (7.15) . (7.15) 1 2 .
r
,
M
Z
l l
O.
, r
. ' r
.
. Fn
F
r
mg
. .

. 7.5.

, Z,
, , . 7.5.
.
Z (. (5.8))

Mz = I

dz
= I && ,
dt

M z ; I Z;

d z d 2
= 2 .
dt
dt

, , sin ( ). Z
M z = F l = mgl sin mgl ,
F = mg sin ; l
; l sin .

I&& + mgl = 0 && +

mgl
= 0.
I

= m cos(0t + )
0 =

l =

l
I
mgl
g
= 2
,
=
, T = 2
I
l
mgl
g

(7.16)

(7.17)

I
. ,
ml

, .
l ,
.
O , l, .
. , ,
O ,
O .
()
,
. , I = ml 2 , ,

(7.17), T = 2

l
, (7.15).
g

7.4.
,
. ,
.
, ,
E =

m 2 mA202
mA202
=
sin 2 (0 t + 0 ) =
[1 cos 2(0 t + 0 )] .
2
2
4

(7.18)

E p = Fdx =

k x 2 m02 x 2 mA202
=
=
cos2 (0 t + 0 ) =
2
2
2

0
2 2
mA 0
=
[1 + cos 2(0 t + 0 )] .

(7.19)

(t) (t) . 7.6, , .


20.
2 .

mA202
2
0

mA202
2
t

. 7.6. :
0 = 0 ( E ~ sin 2 (0t + 0 ) );
0 = 0 ( E p ~ cos2 (0t + 0 ) )

.
2
m A202 k A2 m max
E = E + E p =
=
=
,
2
2
2

(7.20)

max = A0 (. (7.5)). ,
.
, E p ~ x 2 , .. .
.
. ,

,
.
, , 0:
x1 = A1 cos(0 t + 1 0 ) ,
x 2 = A2 cos(0 t + 2 0 ) .

, . 7.7.
1 2
r
r
r
r
A1 A2 . A1 A2
0, ( 2 0 10 ) . r
( A

)
r
r
A2
2 0-1 0 A . r
A
1


20
0
x = x1 + x2 = A cos(0 t + 0 ) ,
1 0
0 2
1
2
:

A2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos( 2 0 10 ) ,


. 7.7.

tg 0 =

A1 sin 1 0 + A2 sin 2 0

A1 cos 1 0 + A2 cos 2 0


, .
:
1) 2 0 1 0 = 2m , m = 0, 1, 2, A = A1 + A2 ;
2) 2 0 10 = (2m + 1) , m = 0, 1, 2, A = A1 A2 .
7.5. .


( , ), . .
, , .
, .
F x = rx& ,

r , .
, . (3.3):
m&x& = kx rx& .

r
k
= 2 .
= 02 ,
m
m

&x& + 2 x& + 02 x = 0 ,
(7.21)
; ,
; 0 ( )
( = 0).
(7.21) .
( << 0 ), ,

x = A0 e t cos(t + 0 ) ,
(7.22)
0 ; = 02 2
; A = A0e t ,
. () .

t
x
=
A
e
cos(

t
+

)
0
0
x, A
, ,
A = A0e t
. 7.8.
A0
, A2
A1
, , 0
t
.

t
T

A = A0e

. 7.8.
0 = 0

1
,


.


:
T=

2
2
=
.

02 2

(7.23)


(. (7.2)).
<< 0 , T =
.

2
. 0

7.6.
A(t) A(t+T) , , ,

A(t )
A0e t
=
= e T

(
+
)

t
T
A(t + T ) A0e

(7.24)

,
= ln

A(t )
T
1
=T = =
A(t + T )
Ne

(7.25)

, .
Ne , :
Ne =

1
1
= =
.
T T

(7.26)



A = A0

t
T
e
.

(7.27)
= 0 , ,
(7.23) , T , .. .
> 0 ( , , ), (7.21)
x = C1 e +b + C2 e b ,
b = 2 02 , 1 2 , . :
.
Q, 2 (t)
t t t+T ( ):
Q = 2

E (t )
.
E (t ) E ( t + T )

(t) A(t),
A2 (t )
2
2
Q = 2 2
.
=
=
A (t ) A2 (t + T ) 1 e 2 T 1 e 2

( << 1)
1 e 2 2 , ( T = 2 0 )
Q=

= Ne =
= 0.
T 2

(7.28)

Ne,

.
7.7. .

,
, :
(7.29)
Fx = F0 cos t .
(3.3),
F = rx& (7.29),
(7.30)
m&x& = kx rx& + F0 cos t .

k
r
=
= 02 ,
m
2m


F
x&& + 2 x& + 02 x = 0 cos t ,
m

(7.31)

; 0 .
. 7.9
x
.
(7.31) . 0

t
,
( . 7.9.
) ( (7.21))
.
(7.21) :
x1 = A0 e t cos( ' t + 0 ) ,
(7.32)
' = 02 2 .
,
x 2 = A cos(t ) ,
(7.33)
; .
,
(7.32) (7.33) (7.31) :
x = x1 + x2 .
(7.32) (. . 7.9). : - -t 1

. (7.31) (7.33),
.. , , .
.
(7.33) :
x& = A sin( t ) = A cos( t + 2) ,

x&& = A 2 cos(t ) = A 2 cos( t + )


, x& &x& (7.31).
(7.31)
F0
cos t . , x& &x& ,
m

. 7.10 ( < 0 ).
( ) , . ,
2A

()

()
A 2

()

0 A( 2 2 )
0

F
) + 4 A = 0 .
m
2 2

2 2 2

F0
m

(02

A02

. 7.10.
< 0

A=

F0
m
,
2
2 2
2 2
(0 ) + 4

= arctg

2
02 2

(7.34)

(7.34) ,
( 0 , ) ( F0 m , ), . , > 0 < 0
.
7.8. . .
,
, . 7.11,
. . 7.12 .

= 02 2 2

(7.35)


F0
m
A =
.
2 02 2

=0
A0 =

F0
m02

1 < 2 < 3

1
2

3 > 0
2

. 7.11.

(7.36)

1 < 2

. 7.12.


, A . = 0: = 0 A ,
. . << 0 : 0
2 .
, 0 2 , (7.35) . , ,
.
0
A0 =

F0

m = F0 k

02

F0 (
F0, << 0 ).
.
.
( << 0 )
,
F0
F0

A = m = 0 m2 = Q A0 ,
20 2 0

(7.37)

Q ; 0 .
, Q, A . ,
.
. 7.13 ( )
< P ( ) > . -

= 0 < P > . < P ( ) > , , 0 , :


<P>
1
1
2

0
=Q .

,
, pp
0
0

(,
. 7.13.

( )
, ,
< P( ) > ;
).
,


,
.
. ( ). , . .
8.
8.1. .
. .
.
- (, ) ,
, . . , .
, , . ,
, , . ,
, , .

. ,
.

, .
.

.
, . , .
,
.
, . ,
( , ).
,
, . , , . , ( ).
,
. , ( ).
,
2 .
.
, , :
= T = ,
(8.1)
; .
, ( ).
,
. . , , , ,
.

.
t = (x, t). . 8.1 ,
. :

1)
.
0
:

= ( x, t ) x = const ;

2) . 8.1.

:

= ( x, t ) t = const .
t
,
t. , .
, .
,
. .
,
, .
, .
,
. .

( ), .

8.2. . .

, = 0,
(0, t ) = A cos t .
. (. . 8.1)
. ,
= x . , ,
x

(t ) .
x
= f (t ) .

(8.2)

, ,
x

( x, t ) = A cos (t ) ,

(8.3)

( x, t ) = A cos (t ) + 0 ,

(8.4)

(x, t) .
,
, ,

; = 2 T () ; =

dx
x
; (t ) + 0
dt

; 0 .
, . .

k=

2 2
=
= .
T

(8.5)

, :
t kx + 0 = const ,
, , ,

dx
= = .
dt k


( x, t ) = A cos( t kx + 0 )

( x, t ) = A ei ( t k x + 0 ) ,
.

(8.6)

, ,
=

E
,

; , .. .

=

G
,

G ; . , ,
:
=

F
,
S

F ; S
.

( r, t ) =

A
cos( t kr + 0 ) ,
r

(8.7)

r . 1 r .


2
x 2

2
y 2

; =

2
z 2
2
x 2

=
+

2 t 2
2

y 2

2
z 2

1 2
= 2 2 ,
t

(8.8)

(8.8) .
,
,
2

1 2
.
=

x 2 2 t 2

(8.9)

(8.9) t = u x
, , x = .
(), ().
, ,
,
() :
, ,


, .
, ,
.

.
, .
,
,
.
.
, ,
.
(. (8.6)) ,
, :
= 1 + 2 = 2 A cos kx cos t = 2 A cos

2x
cos t .

, , .
2 A cos(2x ) .
,
2.
2 xm
= m ( m = 0, 1, 2, ... ).

,
( ).

2 xm
1
= (m + ) ( m = 0,1, 2, ... ).
2

()
2 . :
1. , .
2. . , ( 2 ), .
3. . .

, , , , . ,
, .
8.3. . .

, , , , .
(8.2),
, , u = t ,
.
.
k =

dWk 1
= u2 ,
dV
2

(8.10)

u ; ; dWk dV , , u .
,
p =

dW p
dV

1 2 2
,
2

(8.11)

dW p dV ; ;
.
,
. ,

=k + p =

1
(u 2 + 2 2 ) .
2

(8.12)

(8.4) t,
u , , k 2 2 = 2 , , :
= A2 2 sin 2 ( t kx + 0 ) .
(8.13)
.
r
dS , n
( ) (. 8.2), d dW , , :

dS

dS

r
n
r

r r
r r
r r
dW ( dt dS cos ) ( , dS )dt
d =
=
=
= ( , dS ) = ( j , dS ) , (8.14)
dt
dt
dt

dW , r
dS dt ; dt
,
. 8.2.

dS
r r ;r r
dt ; dS = ndS ; j =

( ). r
dW
r
= ( k )n .
(. . , 1874) ,

.
r
r
r
j , .. j ,
, , :

j=

d
d
=
.
dS cos dS

(8.15)


- (/(2)).
,
S :

r r
(8.16)
= ( j , dS ) .
S

. (, ) , . .

.
()
: ( ); 0 ;
r
r
. , .
, ,
=


0 .
m

(8.17)

(8.17) , , , , > 0 . (8.17)


, . < 0 .

9.
9.1.
,
1905 ., .
.
,
,
,
. , ,
, (
, ). , .
XIX XX . , -.
,
, .
.
r
(3.10)
r r r
c c = c .
1881 .
( 1887 .),
. 30 /. ,
. ,
, (), .
, . 9.1. S, ,
.
, S.
, , .
. ,

, .
,


, .. , SA. (3.10) SA
r

r
()

r
c , r
c
c

c
l
, AS
S
*
c +
( c + ). SAS

. 9.1.
.

t|| =

l
l
2l
1
+
=
.
c c + c 1 ( c ) 2

SS
c = c 2 2 , . 9.1,
.

t =

2l
c
2

2l
1

.
c
1 ( c )2

, SS
, SS: t > t|| . t|| t ,
() .
.
,
. , ,
. ,
(3.10) .
,
, , . , ( t|| = t ) ,
.
,
.
,
:
1. .
.
: , , , ..
.
2. .

,
3,0108 /.
,
.
,
c = 3,0 108 /, .
, .
,
,
.
.
. () , .. ,
.
9.2.
(3.9),
0 K K (, X X
r
K K 0 ):
x = x + 0t , y = y , z = z, t = t ,
x = x 0t , y = y , z = z, t = t.
, .
K
K
Y
Y
K K X, Y, Z X, Y, Z, . 9.2.
K r
K ,
O
O
X X
. K
K r
Z
Z
= const . . 9.2. t = t = 0 ,
K
, r

. K
,
. t K (. . 9.2),

(9.1)
x = ct ,

K
x = ct ,
(9.1)
t
K . ,
x x = c( t t ) .
K K , x x , ,
t t , .. K K
.
,
x = ( x + t ), y = y , z = z ,
(9.2)
. , x (9.1) (9.1),

ct = (ct + t ) = ( c + )t .
(9.2)
(9.2) (9.2)
, . ,
K K ,
K K . ,

(9.3)
x = ( x t ) ,
ct = (ct t ) = (c )t .
(9.3)
t (9.3) (9.2):
ct = (c + )

( c )t
,
c

c 2 = 2 (c 2 2 ) = [ = c ] = 2 c 2 (1 2 ) .
,
1

1 2

(9.4)

t t . (9.3), (9.2):
x = ( x t ) = ( ( x + t ) t ) .
t:
x = 2 x + 2t t ,
t = ( 2 1) x + 2t = 2t (1 2 ) x ,
t = t

1 2
1
x
x = t + (1 ) .

(9.4) :
t=


x .
t +
2
2
c

1
1

, ,
. 1904 . :
x=

( x + t ),

y = y , z = z ,

t=


x .
t +
2
2
c

(9.5)

, ,
. , ,
, . . (9.5),
, , , ,
.
, 1905 ., ,
.

x =

1
1 2

( x t ),

y = y, z = z,


t =
t 2 x .
1 2 c
1

(9.6)

(9.5) (9.6) , .
:
<< c , .. << 1 ,
.
.
> c (9.5) (9.6) x , t , x, t ,
. , , , .
9.3.
, , . , . , , , .
K x1 x2
t1 t2 1 2. K -

x1 x2 t1 t2 . K ( x1 = x2 ) ( t1 = t2 ), ,
(9.6):
x1 = x2 , t1 = t2 ,
..
.
K ( x1 x2 ), ( t1 = t2 = t ), K ,
(9.6):
x1 =
t1 =

( x1 t )
1 2

t x1 c 2
1 2

x 2 =

, t2 =

( x2 t )
1 2

t x2 c 2
1 2

x1 x2 , , t1 t2 :
t2 t1 =

( x2 x1 ) c 2
1 2

.. K , K ,
. , . , .
, . , , ,
, , . , , , ( )
. ,
, .

, .
, , ..
K , , , X ,
K , ( ).
, t2 t1 ( x2 x1 ) , K
1 2 ( ), .. , .
. , (. 9.6).

9.4.
(9.5) (9.6) ,
, ,
. ( )
.
l0 ,
K
K
r
Y
Y
K .

, , . x1
x2
X , . 9.3,
O
O
x1(t ) x2 (t ) X X l0 = x2 x1 , x1 x2
. L . 9.3.
K ,
K ,
r


,
K
r

, K ( t1 = t 2 ):

. .

l0 = x2 x1 = ( x2 x1 ) 1 2 = L 1 2 .
, ( ) ,
,
, , :
L = l0 1 2 .
(9.7)
.
. , , , .
,
:
y2 y1 = y2 y1 , z2 z1 = z2 z1 .
(9.8)
, , Y Y
, K K ,
. 9.4. ,
,
K K . . 9.4.
.

-

.
- , , . ,
. (9.7) , c , = c , > c . ,
<< c
( L l0 ).
- , , - , .
K 1 2
K ( x1 = x2 ) t1 t2 ,
= 0 = t2 t1 . r
K , K . K 1 2 x1 x2 . x 2 x1 = , = t2 t1 1 2 K , .. 1
2 , .
(9.5) ,
=

t 2 + x 2 c 2

t1 + x1 c 2

1 2
1 2
0
=
.
2
1

t2 t1
1 2

,
(9.9)

, -. ,
, ,
: > 0 .
, , ,
, .
(9.9) .
, , . , , , 1 1 2 . ( ).

, , ,
. , -

K ,
K , , , K .
K K , K . ,
.
1971 . . .
t = 0 K . =103 /, .. .
, 10-9 . , (9.9). , K . t
K t0 . (9.9)
t0 = t 1 2 . ,
t t0 = t (1 1 2 ) .
<< c ,
1
1 ( c )2 1 ( c )2 .
2
2

1
t t0 = t , .. , , t = 60 ( 2c

K ) 1,5 10 9 .
, .
, , .
, . , , K K .
9.5. .
, , . , , . (9.5) (9.6)
.
. 1908 . . , :
,
, , , z ct ( ), .. -

(ct, , , z).
3-
, 4- - .
4-
3- .
r
r ,
(. (1.1)).
(
).
3- .
, , , z ct, (9.5) (9.6), .. , .
1 2,
K , ,
= c 2 (t12
) 2 (l12
)2 ,
s12
(9.10)
= t 2 t1 t12

1 2, K ; l12
K , :
= ( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + ( z2 z1 )2 = x 2 + y 2 + z2 .
l12
K K
2
2
= s12 = c 2t12
s12
l12
.

(9.10)

2
2
) 2 = c 2 (t2 t1 ) ( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2 ( z2 z1 ) 2 = c 2t12
( s12
l12
= inv ,
x =

x t
1

, y = y , z = z , t =

t x c 2
1

,
. l12 t12 = . ,
s12 = ct12 1 (l12 ct12 )2 = ct12 1 2 .
s , .
0 = t12 1 2 . s12 = c 0 . c = const , s12 = inv
0 = inv .


( , . 9.5. s12
) 4- -
. ct, x, z ,
.
ct
. , .
Y, Z O
, .. . 9.5. .
2

> 0 , .. s12 , s12


s12 .
= 0 ),
K , ( l12
2
2
2 .
l12
= c 2t12
.. : c 2t12
.
, s12 = 0 ,
. , , - .
2
< 0 , .. s12 , s12
. K , = 0 ):
( t12
2
2
2
2
2 . l12
c 2t12
, .. c 2t12
l12
= l12
. .
, , ,
.

9.6.
K t1 1 . ( 2)
t2 . , . . , , ?
t2 t1
.
K t 2 > t1 . x 2 > x1 .

, x 2 x1 = (t 2 t1 ) .
(9.5) (9.6)
t2 t1 =

t2 t1 ( x2 x1 ) c 2
1 2

(t2 t1 )(1 c 2 )
1 2

(9.11)

.
1


(9.11) , < c ,
c2

c ( - , = c , ..
).
, t2 > t1 , t2 > t1 . ,
, -
. , ,
, .
9.7.
4 ,
: A ( Act , Ax , Ay , Az ) ,
. 4-. , - r ( rct , rx , ry , rz ) : rct = ct , rx = x, ry = y , rz = z . K K ,
r
X , 4- A :

Act
c
Ax =
,
1 2

Ax Act
c
Ax =
,
1 2
Ax +

Ay = Ay , Az = Az ,

Ay = Ay , Az = Az ,

Ax
c
Act =
,
1 2

Act Ax
c
=
Act
.
1 2
Act +

(9.12)

(9.12)

(9.12) (9.12) .
(9.5) (9.6).
( ) 4- .
2
(9.10)
, s12

.
4- ,

A2 = Act2 Ax2 A2y Az2 = Act 2 Ax2 Ay2 Az 2 = inv .
(9.13)
4- , 4- ,
, ds = cd = c 1 2 dt , (
, ).
4-
u =

dr
ds

(9.14)

uct =

1 2

, ux =

x
c 1 2

, uy =

y
c 1 2

, uz =

z
c 1 2

(9.15)

K X, Y
r
0 , 0 x , 0 y 0 z , . 9.6.
0 x , 0 y 0 z K . K K K r
K ,
K K ( t = t = 0 ) O
, (9.6):
K

x =

r
0

1
1 2
t =

X
X

. 9.6.

( x t ),

y = y , z = z ,

t 2 x .
1 c
1

r
0 :
0 x =

dx dx dt
dy dy dt
dz dz dt
=
=
=
, 0 y =
, 0 z =
.
dt dt dt
dt dt dt
dt dt dt

(9.6) x , y , z, t
t:

1

dx
dx
=
( ) = 0x
,
dt
1 2 dt
1 2
1
dt
=
dt
1 2

dy dy
=
= 0 y ,
dt
dt

dz dz
=
= 0 z ,
dt dt

dx 1 0 x c 2

1
.

2
c 2 dt
1

0 x , 0 y 0 z :

0 x =
0 y =

0 x
,
1 0 x c 2

0 y 1 2
1 0 x c 2

, 0 z =

0 z 1 2
1 0 x c 2

(9.16)

K
0 = 02x + 02y + 02z =

(0 x )2 + 02y (1 2 ) + 02z (1 2 )
1 0 x c2

(9.16)

(9.16) (9.16) . , , . (9.16) :


0 x =

0 y 1 2
0 z 1 2
0 x +
=
.
=

,
,
0y
0z
1 + 0 x c 2
1 + 0 x c 2
1 + 0 x c 2

(9.17)

( << c 0 << c ) :
r
r r
0 x = 0 x , 0 y = 0 y , 0 z = 0 z , 0 = 0 .
9.8.
, , . , (9.14),
(4.6) . , r
r
p = m (. (3.1)) -
4- .
4- , 4- u :

p = mcu .
(9.18)
(9.18) ,
. m , .
4- (9.13)
r
r
r
r
r
p = p x i + p y j + pz k =

(9.19)

0 , .
(3.4) :
F =

dp
ds

F = mc

du
ds

= mcw ,

(9.20)

w = du ds 4- ; 4- F . (9.20) ( 4- ) (3.3).
. (3.4), :
r
F x

r
Fy
( F , )
dp x
Fx
Fz
. (9.21)
, F y =
=
=
, F z =
, Fct =
c 1 2 dt
c 1 2
c 1 2
c 1 2
c2 1 2
1

4- F
K K (9.12)
(9.12). Fct 9.9.
Fx , Fy , Fz () ( 3- ):
r
r
dp r d m
=F=
dt
dt 1 2

(9.22)

r
F . , (9.22) (3.4).
,
(9.18). (9.22) ,
.
r
F ,
.
. , .
. , . ,
.
- :
, .. .
, , (9.22)
(3.4). ,
-

<< c .
9.9. .
Ek , , . dEk
r
r r
F dr = dt :
r
r r
r r
dp r
dEk = ( F , ) dt = , dt = ( dp, ) .
dt

(9.22), ,
r r
2( , d ) = 2d = d ( 2 ) (. 4.6), ,
mc 2
,
dEk = d
1 2

m ; = c .
,

mc 2

Ek = d

2 2
0 1 c

Ek =

mc 2
1

mc 2 .

(9.23)

(9.23)
. , , ,
, .
(). , . , << c , (9.23)
.

. ()
, ,
E=

mc 2
1 2 c2

(9.24)

, Fct (9.20)
Fct =

r r
( F , )

c2 1 2

r r
, ( F , ) :

d
mc 2
= ( Fr ,r ) .
dt 1 2 c 2

(9.24)
E = mc 2 + Ek ,

(9.25)


, . mc 2 ( ).
, (, .), ( = 0 )
:
E0 = mc 2 .
(9.26)
, (9.26),
E0 , .
, 4- (9.17), (9.15), :
pct = mc uct =

mc
1 2

E
.
c

(9.27)

, 4- p :

E
p = , p x , p y , p z .

4- -.

: , ..
.
(9.26)
() E0 .
. , , , ,
, . ,
, .
, (9.24) (9.21) , .
,
, .. .
4- (9.12)
,
px =

E
c c,
1 2

px

py = p y ,

pz = p z , E =

E px
.
1 2

. 4-,
(9.13),
E2
E 2
2
2
2
p x p y p z = 2 p x2 p y2 p z 2 = inv .
2
c
c
, -

(9.19) (9.24),
2
r


mc 2
m
1

= m2c 2 ,

2
2
2
2
2

c
1 c 1 c

E 2 p 2 c 2 = m 2 c 4 = inv ,
(9.28)
r 2
r
(9.29)
p = E c .
(9.28), , . ()
(), . () , .

1. , . . . / . . . . : , 2001.
2. , . . . / . . . . : , 2001.
3. , . . . 5 . . 1. / . . .
. : , , 2004.
4. , . . . 5 . . 4. . / . . . . : , , 2003.
5. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 2003.
6. , . : 2 . . 1 / . . . : , 1989.
7. : 5 . . 1 5 / . . . . . . : . , 19881998.
8. , . . . . 1. / . . . . : , , 2002.
9. , . . / . . . . : . ., 1999.
10. , . . / . . . . : , 1962.
11. , . . . [. ] /
. . , . . , . . . . : . . , 1997. : http://nature.ru .
12. , . . . [. ] / . . , . . , . . . . : . . , 2001. :
http://nature.ru .
13. , . / . , . , . . . : , 1971.
14. , . . - / . . ,
. . , . . . . : , 1990.
15. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 1963.
16. -, . . // 3- .-. .
: . . / . . -. ., 2004. . 2327.
17. -, . .
: -.
/ . . -. : , 2003.

2.
10.

10.1. .

, , ,
() .

, .. , ,
, .
, , ,
, . , .
,
(, , ..) , ( ).
, . , .
.
,
, . , - , ,
.
.

, ,
, .
. ,
. ,
.
, -

, , .
10.2.
, .
, . ,
,
.

, ,
. ,
.
.
( ) , ()
~1,01105 ,
0 100 .
( ) ,
(K), , ,
609 . 273,15 K. T = 0 K ( ).
() (t)

T = 273,15 + t .
: T0 = 273,15 K =0 , 0 1,01105 .
.
32 F, 212 F.
, 98,6 F.
(. 10.4) , < >
. ,
, .
.
, , ,

p = F S.

(): 1 = 1 /2.
:
, 1 .1,01105 15 0 10,33 ;
( ), 1 .=
=760 . .;
, 1 = 105 ; 1 . 1,01 .
V , (3), (), (). v . , .. = const ,
v =V m =1 .
10.3.
- , , :
1.
.
2. .
3. .
,
-,
.
, .
- ( XVII .):
m V :
pV = const T = const m = const ,
(10.1)
..
V ~1 p.

, V,
T1 < T2 < T3

3
, . , , 2
1
, . 10.1.
0
V
. 10.1.
, , ,

.
, , 0.012

12.
,
N A , : N A = 6,022 1023 -1. N
N = N A =

m
NA,
M

= m M ; m ; ,
.
(/).
( XVIII .):
.
( T = T0 , p = p0 ) VM (
) : VM = 22,41

3
= 22,41 10 3
.

m n
V = VM =
n=

m
VM ,
M

N NA
=
.
V VM

(10.2)
(10.2)

, , , ,
.
( XIX .):

p1 , p2 ,..., pn :
p = pn = p1 + p2 + ... + pn .
(10.3)
n

(XVIII .):
m
t, . 10.2, :
p = p0 (1 + t ) V = const , m = const ,
(10.4)
= 1 273 -1; p0 t = 0 . , , . (, t)
, , . 10.2, .
- ( XI .):
V m
t, . 10.2, :
(10.5)
V = V0 (1 + t ) p = const , m = const ,
= 1 273 -1; V0 t = 0 . , -

, . (V, t),
. 10.2, , , .
,

V, 3

V2

p2
p1

V1
1

.0

V1 > V2
1

t,

.
0

.
0

p1 > p 2

t,
,

. 10.2.
;

t = 1 = 273 .
, ( ): T = t + 1 (. . 10.2, ).

V = V0 (1 + t ) = V0 T , p = p0 (1 + t ) = p0 T .

V1 T1
V
= const p = const , m = const ,
=

T
V2 T2
p1 T1
p
=

= const V = const , m = const ,


T
p2 T2

(10.6)
(10.7)

1 2 ,
.
(10.6) - (V ~ T ).
(10.7) ( p ~ T ).
,
, V :
f ( p,V , T ) = 0 .
. , (10.1)
(10.6), :

pV
= C = const ,
T

(10.8)

, m.
(10.8), (10.2),
pVM = CT pVM = RT ,
(10.9)
R = C .
(10.9) , . -

. , R = 8,31 /(). ,
R=

PV
T

1,01 105 22,41 103 3 /

.
=
= 8,31
273

m (10.9)
pV =

m
RT .
M

(10.10)

m (10.10) .
k=

R
= 1,38 10 23 /,
NA

(10.10) , (10.2),
p=

RT kN AT
=
= nkT .
VM
VM

(10.11)

(10.9) (10.11)
(10.10), , ( , 105 ).
, :
1. .
2.
.
10.4. .
-
(, ..) . , .
, 1025 1 3, .
.
V , N m. n = N V . ni ,
i ,
ni = n . ,
, , .
.
, ,

, .
r
r
r
r
p1 = m p2 = m .

r
r
r
r r
r
p = p2 p1 = m ( m ) = 2m .
(10.11)
, i-
,
r
pi = 2mi i ,
(10.11)
i , ,
.
i
i 1
S = 1 2
i 1
S = 1 2, . 10.3, .., ,
. 10.3.
1

i = nii .
(10.11)
6
,
= i =

1
ni i .
6

n.

:
=

< >=

1
n < >,
6

(10.12)

1
nii . ,
n

, ,
, , (10.12) 1 4 , 1 6 .
(10.11) (10.11) ,
r
1
pi = mi2 ni .
3

, (10.16)
ni .
p = F S = [ S = 1] = dp dt = p t ,
r
1
p = pi = m i2 ni .
3


1
p = nm < 2 > .
3

(10.13) :

(10.13)

p=

2
n < > ,
3

(10.14)

< > = < m 2 2 >


. (10.14) ,
.
(10.14)
. :

.
(10.14)
(10.11) ,
3
< > = kT ,
2

(10.15)

< > , .
10.5.
U
(, , ..),
. , , , :
1) ()
,
;
2) ,
;
3) ;
4) .
,
. ,
U0,
, . U0
,
. , ,

, . 3 4
, .
. .
:
.

10.6.
,
. , , ,
2
.
1
,
. ,
: 1
2
,
. 10.4.
, ,

. 10.4. ,
( ) .
: N ,
, 3N . , ,
.
. ,
i = 3N 1 = 5 .
, i = 3N 3 = 6 .
( ):
, (1 2) kT .
, ,
,

i
< >= kT ,
2

(10.16)

i ( ),
( ) ( ) :

i = n + + 2 . i
.
N A :
i
i
U M = N A kT = RT .
2
2

(10.17)

m
U=

m i
i
RT = RT ,
M 2
2

(10.18)

; . ,
.

10.7.
, ,
, .
Q ( ) .
,
, , 1 1 K:
c=

1 Q
,
m dT

(10.19)

; Q .
Q, ()
, :
T2

Q = cmdT .

(10.20)

T1

,
Q = cm (T2 T1 ) .
(10.20)
().
, : 4,19 1 , 4,19103 1 .
-
(/()).
T = 15 1 .
c = 1,00 /(), .. 1 1 1 .
,
, 1 1 :
C=

1 Q
= cM ,
dT

(10.21)

= m M , .. ; .
-
(/()).
, : ()
(CV).
Q = C p T , p = const ,
(10.21)
(10.21)
Q = CV T , V = const .
() :
= C p CV .
(10.22)
,
1,30 1,67.

11.
11.1.
,
1 2 . :
Q, () ,
U = U 2 U1
:
Q = U + A ,
(11.1)
U , Q .
(11.2) , . , Q < 0 , , Q > 0 . A < 0 , .
:
( ) , ..
, , .
, .

Q = dU + A ,
(11.2)
dU ,
Q , A . , - , ( Q )
( A ). U Q .
, , dV ,

A = pdV ,
. ()
, ,
V1 V2 ,

A=

V2

pdV .

(11.3)

V1

dV : ( dV > 0 ) A > 0 ,
( dV < 0 ) A < 0 .
(11.3)
Q = dU + pdV .
(11.4)
(11.4) , dV = 0 ,
U
CV = M ,
T V

(11.5)

U V . , V 1 1 .
i
2

(10.17) , dU M = R dT .
CV =

i
R.
2

(11.6)

(11.5)

dU M = CV dT .
U .
U M = CV T .
(11.7)
(11.2), (11.4) (11.5)
(10.20) ( 1 )
Q dU M AM
=
+
,
dT
dT
dT
dV
C = CV + p M .
dT

C=

(11.8)

, , p = const ,
(10.9)
p

dVM
d RT
dT
=p
(
)=R
= R,
dT
dT p
dT

, ,
(11.9)
C p = CV + R .
(11.9) ,
V. , ,
. (11.7) (10.10) , :
Cp =

i+2
R.
2

(11.10)

(11.9) (11.10) (10.21)


=

CV + R
R i+2
=1+
=
,
CV
CV
i

(11.11)


CV = R ( 1) .
(11.12)
(11.6) (11.10) ,
i
.
.
V V
, ,
7
III
R
. 11.1, .
2
5
II
R
2
, ..
I
3
R
, 2
. , ,
0 50 300
6000 ,
. 11.1. .
CV


.
,
( i = 5 ) (5 2) R , (7 2) R . ,
, I, II III . 11.1 , 3 ,
2 ,
. , .
,
,
.
(11.12) (11.7)
:

U=

RT
pV
=
.
1 1

(11.13)

, .. ,
.
1. (V = const , . . 10.2, ). (11.2), A = p dV = 0 :
Q = dU + A = dU .

(11.5) dU M = CV dT .

m
Q = dU =
(11.14)
CV dT .
M
2. ( p = const , . . 10.2, ).
(11.3) V1 V2
A=

V2

pdV

= p (V2 V1 ) .

(11.15)

V1

(10.10):
pV1 =

m
m
RT1 , pV2 =
RT2 .
M
M

V2 V1 =

m R
(T2 T1 ) .
M p

(11.15)
A=

m
R(T2 T1 ) .
M

(11.16)

R:
R 1
1.

Q =

m
C p dT
M

(11.5):
dU =

m
CV dT .
M

3. ( T = const , . . 10.1). (11.3) (10.10)


A=

V2

V1

pdV =

V2

M RT

V1

dV m
V
m
p
=
RT ln 2 =
RT ln 1 .
V
M
V1 M
p2

,
dU =

m
CV dT = 0 .
M

. (11.2)
Q = dU + A = A .
, ,
Q = A=

m
V
m
p
RT ln 2 =
RT ln 1 .
M
V1 M
p2

(11.17)

, ,
, ,
.
4.
. ,
( Q = 0 )
. , . (10.24).
..
(11.2) ,
A = dU ,
(11.18)
.
,
:
(11.19)
pV = const .
(11.19) .

(11.19)
TV 1 = const ,
(11.19)
T p1 = const .
, .
(, V)
, , . 11.2. . 11.2,
,

Q = 0

.1
0.

T = const
2

V
. 11.2.

Cp
CV

=1+

R
> 1.
CV

( 1 2)
T2

2
m
m

m
A = CV dT = CV dT = CV (T1 T2 ) .
M
M

M
T1
T1

(11.20)

5. . ,
.
(11.2)

pV n = const ,
(11.21)
n = (C C p ) (C CV ) . , C = 0 ,
n = (11.21) .
11.2. .
:
,
-

( 1022 1023)
.
. . N i- Ni , Pi

Ni
.
N N

Pi = lim

N ,
, N Ni .
Pi

Ni
.
N

(11.22)

:
(11.23)
Pi = 1 .
i

, ,
xi Pi . (
) < x > :
< x >=

1
N i xi = Pi xi .
N i
i

(11.24)

, , x = x < x > . . ,
, .
, .
. , N
1 N . ,
, .
dV , dN , .
. ,
, , .
( x, x + x ) , . Pi
.
f (x ) , :

Px dPx
.
=
dx
x 0 x

f ( x ) = lim

(11.25)

, (, b),
b

P = f ( x )dx .

(11.26)

: ,
- , 1, ..
B

f ( x )dx = 1 ,

(11.27)

(, )
. , f (x )
(. 11.3). (11.27) (11.23).
, :
B

< x >= xf ( x )dx ,

(11.28)

< x >= x 2 f ( x )dx .


2

(11.29)

11.3. . ,

, . .
N . , .
f ( ) , . f ( ) dN N , + d . ,
dN N d :
dN ( )
= f ( )d .
N

(11.30)

N f ( )d = F ( )d , + d . 1859 . . .
f ( ) :
3

1 m 2
m 2 2
,
f ( ) = 4
exp

2
kT
kT

(11.31)

; k ; -

. f ( ) , . 11.3, (11.27):

f ( )d = 1 .
0

, (11.31)
, .. + d , .
f ( )

T1

T1<T2<3
T2
3
dS = dN ( ) N

<>

. 11.3. f ( )


:
3
1 m( x2 + 2y + z2 )
m 2
.
f ( x , y , z ) =
exp

kT
kT
2
2

(11.31)

r
r
1 2
2 x 2 y 2 z

N = N

f ( x , y , z ) d x d y d z .

1 x 1 y 1 z

(10.15)
3
m <2 >
< >= kT =
,
2
2

(11.29) < 2 > =


. ,
= 3

kT
RT
= 3
.
m
M

(11.32)

,
f ( ) ,
. df d = 0
= 2

kT
RT
= 2
.
m
M

(11.33)

, (. . 11.3).
( )
(11.28)

= f ( )d =
0

8 kT
8 RT
.
=
m
M

(11.34)

,
, > > .
: , .
, , f ( ) , . 11.3,
. f ( ) .
. 11.3 :
m1 > m2 > m3 .

(1920) .
11.4. .
.
. - h . ,
dh
T .
h
2
S=1 p
h dh S,
. 11.4. , . 11.4. p p + dp
:

p ( p + dp ) = gdh , dp = gdh ,
= m V h ; dh 1 = dm .
, .
(10.10) ,
V = (m ( Mp ) )RT = Mp (RT ) .

p+dp

dp =

pM
gdh
RT

dp
Mg
dh ,
=
p
RT

h.
0 h p0 ,
p = p0 e M g h ( RT ) ,
(11.35)

p0 h = 0 . , p0 ,
h=

p
RT
ln 0 .
gM
p

(11.36)

(11.35)

. , , ( ) , . 11.5, .

2>1
2<1

2>1

1 , 1
2
,
.
0
2

. 11.5. ,
:
h;
h
h


.
(10.11): p = nkT , .
T = const p p0 = n n0 , 0
p0 . (11.35)

n = n0e mgh ( kT ) ,
(11.37)
k m = R M . (11.37) , , .. T ,
: n n0 . T 0 : n 0 , . 11.5, .
, mgh = E p
. , h = 0 . (11.37)
E

( kT )

n = n0e p
,
(11.38)
n0 , , E p = 0 . (11.38)

, .
, ,
, .. .

( ) (11.31), (
). ,
kT , . ( ).
dV = dx dy dz , x, y z. ,
dV . dN , x , y ,
z x + d x , y + d y , z + d z , x, y, z x+dx, y+dy, z+dz,
dV :
E ( kT )
dN = n f ( x , y , z ) d x d y d z dV = n0 e p
f ( x , y , z )d x d y d z dxdydz .

m
dN = n0

2kT

32

m 2

+ Ep
d d d dxdydz ,
exp 2
x y z

kT

(11.39)

n0 , ( ), E p 0; E p = E p ( x, y , z ) ; ( 2 = x2 + y2 + z2 ); m 2 2 + E p = E .
11.5. .
. , , , ,
.
, . .

. .
: ,
.

: ,
.
, ,
.
, .
:
= A Q1 ,
Q1 ; .
(,
), Q1 , . , Q1
, :
Q1 = A + Q2 .

=

Q1 Q2
Q
=1 2 .
Q1
Q1

(11.40)

(11.40) ,
Q2. , Q2 .
:
= 1 .
,
() , - . ,
.
,
.
, , .
.
11.6. . . - .
.
. (1865) ,
,

, .
() ,
( ) .

Q
0,
T

(11.41)

Q , ( )
; . , ,
, (
). , , ( < (11.41)).
Q , , T ( ).

dS =

Q
T

(11.42)

S, . 1 2
S1 2

Q 2 dU + A
= S2 S1 =
=
,
T
T
1
1
2

(11.43)

S12 .
(11.43)
, 1 2. , (11.42) .
, .
, , S,
( Q = 0 ) .
(11.41)
Q
.
T
1
2

S12 >

(11.43)

(11.43) (11.43) ,
( ) :
S1 2 0 ,
(11.44)
.. () , .
, .. ,
.

, (11.43). dU =

m
m
dV
CV dT A = pdV =
RT
(.
M
M
V

(11.15) (11.4)), ,
S12 =

m
M

T
V
CV ln 2 + R ln 2 .
T1
V1

(11.44)

1 2 , 1 2
- .
, (11.42) Q = TdS .
2

Q = Q = TdS ,
S. ,
TdS = dU + pdV .
(11.45)
(11.45) (11.2) .
:
, .
,
V1 = V2 . ,
.
. (11.44)
S1 2 = R ln 2 .
S = 2R ln 2 .
S > 0 , , .
:


:
(11.46)
lim S = 0 .
T 0

, . ,
, S = 0 T = 0 .

C p (T )dT
.
T
0

S ( p, T ) =

(11.47)

, T 0 C p . , CV 0 K .
, ,

, , .
, , .

( ).
W ( ) , , , . W 1 , ..
,
1 .
(1872),
S = k ln W ,
(11.48)
k . , ,
. ,
.
(11.48) :
.
, ,
, . ,
.
,
( ):
, ,

, , .
,
,
, ,
. , -


. (11.43) (11.48) , , .
, , , ..

, , .
.
,

, .
11.7.
.
, , .

1
pV, pT . ,

2
, . 11.6. A1 ( 121 . 11.6) V
. 11.6.
, A2 (

212) . A
pV , : A = A1 + A2 . ,
,
.
, A = pdV > 0 ( ). ( ), A = pdV < 0 .
,
. .
,
.
:
1, ,
Q1, 2, , Q2,

A = Q1 Q2 , . 11.7, .
(11.40)

, T1

, T1

A
Q
=1 2 ,
Q1
Q1

Q2 0 .

A
A
,

, Q2
Q2
:

2
, T2
, T2
Q2 T1 Q1.

. 11.7. :
A = Q1 Q2 , . 11.7, .
;

Q2 A, :
Q1

Q1

Q2
Q2
=
.
A Q1 Q2

(11.49)

,
, ,
. 11.8. , ( ).
, ( ).
. . .
(1824) .
1 p T1
1
T2 < T1 . T2
2
.
4
1 ,
3
. 11.8.
V
12 1. ,
. 11.8.

(1), pV
Q1 .
23;
2. -

. .

34; (2),
Q2 . , 41,
. , , , , V- ( . 11.8).
. ,
.
TS . 11.9.

12

34,
T
1
2
23 41.
1
(2
):
3
4
, S1
S2 S
,
; ,
. 11.9.
TS
,
.
, , (11.40). (11.49) Q1 = T1 ( S2 S1 ) 12.
Q2 = T2 ( S2 S1 ) 43.
, .. Q1 Q2 , .
Q1 Q2 (11.40), , 1 2:

.
.

.
.

= 1

T2
,
T1

(11.50)

1 2 , .
.
. --. ( , , )
.
10-9
.
, . , .
(
--), , , .
r0 , -

.
U
r r = r0 . U min , , , ( r = r0 ).
U min kT U
.
U min << kT , .. 0

r0
r
() . U min >> kT , , . 11.10.

,

. U min kT , - U
, , r r0 , .

. (10.9) pVM = RT
,
: b , , p = a VM2 ( b --,
). --
. ,
p . , . , , VM b .
. . -- (1873) ,

p + a (VM b ) = RT

VM

p + a (V b ) = RT ,

V 2

(11.51)
(11.51)

= m M ; V = VM ; R . - (11.51)
. (11.51). ,
--, -. -- b ,
, 0,0245 3/2 26,610-6 3/,
0,138 3/2 31,810-6 3/,
1,22 3/2 8410-6 3/.


18. , . . . / . . . . : , 2001.
19. , . . . 5 . . 3. / . . . . : , , 2003.
20. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 2003.
21. , . : 2 . . 1 / . . . : , 1989.
22. : 5 . . 1 5 / . . . . . . : . , 19881998.
23. , . . . . 2.
/ . . . . : , , 2003.
24. , . . / . . . . : . ., 1999.
25. , . / . . . : , 1977.
26. , . . - / . . ,
. . , . . . . : , 1990.
27. , . . / . . , . . . . :
, 1963.

3.
12.
12.1. . .
.
.
, .
, . q
().
()
e = 1,60 1019 .
.
me = 9,111031 . .

m p = 1,67 10 27 .
:
1. : . , .

2. , , .
3.
.
4. ()
(), .
1747 . , . 1843 .
:
,
.
, .
.

. , . -
.

, , ,
.
, .
( ) , .
1785 .
( ):
q1
q2 , , ,
r
:
r
q q r
F12 = k 1 3 2 r ,
r

F12 = k

q1 q2
r2

(12.1)

r
r -,r , q1 q2 ; F12 q2 r
1
r ; k . k =
= 9,0 109 2/2=
12

4 0

/ ( ()
r
r
(. 12.7)). F12 F21
. -

= 9,010 /, 0 = 8.85 10
9

, .
. , (3.12). .
,
, - .
r
Q qi ( i = 1, n ), . 12.1. F , qi Q , :
r
r
F
F
=
(12.2)
q3 +
i,
q2
r3
i
r2
r
+
r
Fi , qi
Q F2
r
q1 r
Q ( n 1 ) .
r1 F
r
F
1
23
r F3
F
,
. 12.1.
,


qi ( i = 1,3 ) Q>0
. ,
, , .
( ),
( ) ( ), , :
=

dq
dq
dq
,= ,=
,
dl
dS
dV

(12.3)

dq dl , dS , dV .
r
, F ,
q ,
r
r
F =qE,
(12.4)
r
E q .

r r
E=F .
(12.4)
q
r
E .
r
E = const ,
.
r
(12.4) E :

,
, .
(/): 1 /=1 /,
() (. 12.3).
(12.1) , Q r

r
E=

r
1 Q r
,
4 0 r 2 r

E=

1 Q
,
4 0 r 2

(12.5)

r
r -, Q .
r
E ,

. ,
r
r
E - r
(
). r
, E ( ).

( ) ,
r r
E (. 12.2, ), .. E .
r
E1

r
E2

.2 .3

r
E3

.1

. 12.2. :
r
E
; ;

:
1. ,
;
2. (. 12.2, );
3. , , , , ,
(. 12.2, , );
4. , ;
5. ,
.

(12.2)
:
:
r
r
E = Ei =

qi r
1
ri ,

4 0 i ri3

(12.6)

i
r
ri -, qi , . ,
() .
, , V,
(12.5) . Q
dq = dV , :

r
E=

1
4 0

r 3 r dV .

(12.7)

,
l S, , (12.3), :
r
r
1
1
r
r
,
(12.7)
E=
r
dl
E
=
r dS .

3
4 0 l r
4 0 S r 3
, (, . 13.1), ,

r
r
(. 12.4), F (12.1) E (12.5)

r
F=

1 q1 q2 r
r,
4 0 r 3
r
1 Qr
E=
r,
4 0 r 3

q1 q2
1
,
4 0 r 2
Q
1
,
E=
4 0 r 2

F=

(12.8)
(12.8)

(. 13.2) , ,
.
= 1 .
,
(12.6), , (12.7), (12.7), r . E . , :
E x = dE x , E y = dE y , E z = dE z ,

E = E x2 + E y2 + E z2 ,

r
E E x , E y , E z (12.7) (12.7).
, , ,
, .
r
12.2. E .

dS ,
r
, . 12.3. n ,

r
S E . ,

S ,
r
r
E S cos = En S , En E n dS .
r r
E = En S = E S cos = E S

S .
r
r
S = S n , S ,
r
r
n . , n , . 12.4.
S (. . 12.4), ,
Si ( i = 1, n ) , Si
,
n r
r
r

E
S

n
i i,
E
r
i =1
r
E

Ei ,
S
r
S
Si . Si 0
, r
:
r
(12.9)
E = E dS .
. 12.3.
r
r
E E
S, .. ,


r r
,
(12.10)
E = E dS = E n dS ,

S .


S ,

, .
, ,
N, .
,
, , .. ,

. 12.5. E .
(. 12.5, < 2 ), . (. . 12.5, > 2 , ..
cos < 0 ), .

r
E ( ):

S N qi, , 0 :
r r 1
E
dS = 0
S

qi .

(12.11)

i =1

:
, q
r
E=

r
1 q r
,
4 0 r 2 r

(12.11)

E =
r
E
q

1 q
.
4 0 r 2


r, q. q , . 12.6. (12.10)

r
E

r
dS

. 12.6.

En =

1 q
.
4 0 r 2

r
, E
E = En dS = E n S =
S

1 q
q
.
4r 2 =
2
4 0 r
0

(12.11)

(12.11) r. , , q.
,
N = q 0 .
, :
N = q 0 .
N > 0 , .. , q < 0 . , .
(12.6)
, (12.11).
S N1 N2 ,
:
N

1 1
= qi ,
0 i =1

1 2
= qk .
0 k =1

r
E -

, .. , :
E = N N =

qi ,k

1 1
1 2
1
+
q
qk = qi ,k ,

i
0 i =1
0 k =1
0 i ,k

S,

i ,k

.
qi
r
, E
E . , , , S, , .
r
E . , , .
, V
V .
r
E S V ,
:
1
V

E dS = 0


r . E :
r
div E = lim

V 0

E dS .
V

r r r E
E y E z
+
div E E = x +
.
y
z
x


r r
r
E dS = divE dV .
S

(12.12)

(12.11) (12.12), (12.11)


:
r
E
, 0 :
r
div E = .
0

(12.13)

r
, divE , ( ), , , ( ). ,
r S
, E -

, .
r
r
E
. E : )
r
) r0 S1
dS
, Q
S2 r2
(. 12.7).
Q r0
r
. . S1 r > r0 , .
. 12.7.
- r
r

E . E , ,

r
r
r
r
E = Er , r
r

. , E = Er .
r

E
S1,
r
r
r
E n , n S1.
r r
cos( E , n ) = 1 . (12.11)
r r
2
E
dS = En dS = E dS = E (4r ) = Q 0 .
S1

S1

S1

,
E=

1
Q
2,
4 0 r

.. , .
. S2
E
r2 < r0 .
2
~1 r
.


r
r (12.11)
2
E dS = E dS = E ( 4r2 ) = 0 ,
r0
r
. 12.8.

r


r0

S2

S2

.
E = 0 , . 12.8.
,
, , .
, (12.11)
, (
, ).

r
12.3. E . .

r
F

r
dr

+
q

Q,
-

r
r2

r
r

E =

Q
r
1
r1
. 12.9.


( Q, q > 0 )

1 Q r
r .
4 0 r 3

q
1 2 12 (. 12.9). ,
, , ,
():

r r
2
r r
qQ 2 r dr
A12 = q( E dr ) =
.
4 0 r 3
1
1

(12.14)

r r
r
r dr = rdr , , r 2 = r 2 . (12.14)
qQ
A12 =
4 0

r2

dr

qQ 1

r 2 = 40 r1 r2 .

(12.14)

r1

A12 , 1 2. , , (. 4.5, 4.6).


.
,
3
1 2 132,
2
1
142, . 12.10. r
: A132 = A142 .
E
4
13241, 241 . 12.10.
: A241 = A142 . ,

A132 + A241 = A13241 = 0 .


,
.
( q = 1 ),
r r
r^ r
(12.15)
E

d
l
=
Edl
cos(
E
,dl ) = El dl ,

L
L
rL
El E
r
r
r r
dl L ; dl = dl ( ). -

r
E
r L.
E :

:
r r
E
(12.16)
dl = 0 .
L

(12.16)
. , .
.
r
(r ) ,
r
W (r )
:
r
r W (r )
(r ) =
.
q

(12.17)

. .
.
().
1 , 1 1 (1 = 1 / 1 ).


A12 = W = ( W2 W1 ) = W1 W2 .
(12.18)
(12.14)

1 q
+C ,
4 0 r

(12.19)

,
. ,
. , W ( ) = 0 , C = 0
(12.19) .
1 2 1 2 ,
1 2:
1 2 =

A12
,
q

(12.20)

(1 2 ) . (12.13), (12.15) (12.19):


2 r r
2
1 2 = Edl = El dl ,
(12.21)
1

r
dl , .
, , , ,
A = q ,
=

A
.
q

(12.22)

:
,
.
12.4. .

r
E . r
q dl .
r r
(12.23)
dA = q( Edl ) = qEl dl ,
r
El E
r
dl . ( d ) :

dA = qd = q
dl .
l

(12.23)

(12.23) (12.23),


qEl dl = q
dl ,
l

El =
.
l

(12.24)
r
r
, E dl
.
r l X, Y Z,
E :
Ex =

, Ey =
Ez = .
y
x
z

r
E
r
r r
E =
i+
j+
y
z
x

r
r
k = grad ,

(12.25)

.. , r
. , (r ) , r
E
. (12.25) ,

r
E .


, .
,
, .
r
, E
.
r
E
,

+
.

. ,
. 12.11.
( ) , . . 12.11
( )

,
.
. qi ( i = 1,n ). r
r
r
(12.6). E = Ei , Ei ri
r
r
r
qi . E = , Ei = i ,
r
. :
n
r
r
( r ) = i ( ri ) ,
i =1
r
ri - i- ,
.

=

1
qi
,

4 0 i ri

(12.26)

ri qi .
(12.26) .
,
.
, , ,
=

1
dV
,

4 0 V r

(12.27)

dV , , , .
S
( l),

=

dS
dl
1
1
=
,

4 0 S r
4 0 l r

(12.27)

; dS
S; dl ().
12.5. . , .


( + q , q ) l .
r
l , .
r
p , , r
q l :
r
r
(12.28)
p = ql .
(12.19)
(. 12.12) :
=

1 q q
1 q(r r+ )
=
.
4 0 r+ r 4 0 r+ r

r , r >> l ,
r r+ = l cos r+ r = r 2 .
=

1 p cos
.
4 0 r 2

r
(12.24) E :
Er =

1 2 p cos

1 p sin
=
=
, E =
=
,
=
3
l1
r 4 0
r 4 0 r 3
l2
r

(12.29)

(12.30)

r
l1 - r , l2
r
r , . 12.13. dl1 = dr , dl2 = rd .
r
, E
E = Er2 + E2 =

1 p
1 + 3 cos2 .
3
4 0 r

, , , :

(12.31)

r
r
E
F=p
,
l

(12.32)

r
r
r
E
E , l

r
p .

r
r+

r
r
+q
r
r
r
l
-q
l cos

.
.

r l1
Er

r
E

r
r

r
p

r
E

l2

. 12.12.

. 12.13.

r
E
=0
(12.32) , ,

l
r
F = 0 . , .

, .
, r,
E .
, . 12.14, , M
(. (4.42))
r r r
M = qEl sin M = p E .
(12.33)
, .

r

r . M r
p E .
(. 12.14, ) ,
r
r
, ( F2 > F1 ). . r^ r
, = p, E 2 (. . 12.14, ). > 2
.

r
M
q
r
F

r
p

+q

r
F

r
F2

r
E

r
p

. 12.14. :
;

+q

r
F1
r
E

.
(12.17) W = q , q.
W = q + + + q = q( + ) ,
+ q+
q . , (12.26),
+ =

l = El l ,
l

l .
l
r r

W = pE.
(12.34)
, (W = pE ) r
r
, p E .
, .
12.6.
,
, . . ,

.
r
E , . ,
, , :
r r
r
(12.35)
E = E = E .

( ),
.
.

, , .
r r : E = 0 .

.
, ,
() , ,
.
r
E = grad = 0 ,
r :
r r
1. E : E = En ,
r
r
E = 0 . E
.
2. .
, l
r r

= E = E = E cos( E , dl ) = 0 ,
l

, = const .
3. ,

= E = 0 .
l

4.
. (12.11), q, S, ,
:
r r
q = 0 EdS = 0 ,
S
r
S E = 0 .
: , , . 12.15, . , . ,
, . 12.15, .
-

+
+

+
+
-

E =0
= const

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

r
r
E
E

. 12.15. :
;
(
)

12.7. .

r
E . , (12.11).
,
S
, , . 12.16, r
n
S ,
S
S

q = S ,
r
. n S
.
. 12.16.

S ,
: S = S = S .
r
r
n . E
(12.11) :

r r
E
dS =

r r
E
dS +

r r
0 , E dS = 0
S

r r
E
dS +

r r q S
E
dS = 0 = 0 ,

r r
E
dS = 0 ,

r
E S
.

En S = S 0 ,
r
En n . ,

En =

.
0

(12.36)

r
> 0 , En > 0 , .. E r
n ; < 0 , En < 0
(. . 12.15, ).
(12.26) En = n , :
= 0

.
n

(12.37)

. 12.17
.
, .
, -

+++++

++

++

. ,
, . , , ,
r
2 r 0E 2 r
F =
n=
n,
2 0
2

(12.38)

, = 0 E n En2 = E 2 .
. 12.17.
r
F
:
.

r
r
,
, E , F

.
. , , .
, .. , .
. ,
, .
,
, .
, , .
- .
12.8.
,
,
.
, ,
(. 13.1), . :
= kq ,
(12.39)
k = k ( x , y , z ) ,
. k ,
. , q
(,

= 0 ): q ~ q = C .
( ) :
C=

q
.

(12.40)

(): 1 = 1 /.
,
1 1 .
, R,
(12.11), (12.20) (12.40), , = 0 :
r r r r
= Edr = Edr =
R

q
dr =
2
4 0 r
4 0 r
R

C =

=
R

q
.
4 0 R

q
= 4 0 R ,

(12.40)

, .
1
1 . , 0,71 .
(. 13). .
12.9. .
,
, . q , ( ) ( )
(. 13.1). , q. , .
( ) () , .
, ,
.
,
q, ,
1 2 :
C=

q
q
= ,
1 2 U

(12.41)

U = 1 2 , . , .
. ,

S, d. , . q, . 12.8.
. ,
+

r
E

q
=
= const .
0 0 S

E=

(12.42)

,
,
d

U = 1 2 = Edx = E dx = Ed =

. 12.18.

qd
.
0 S

U (12.41)

C =

0 S
.
d

(12.43)

, . (12.43)
, d .
.
Ci ( i = 1,n ),
.
i ,
. 12.19, .
Cn

+ +

C2 .

+ -

C1

+ -

C1

C2
+ -

Cn
+ -

+ -

. 12.19. :
;

qi

q
= i =1 =
C=

Ci i
i =1

= Ci .

(12.44)

i =1

q
(. 12.19, ),
n

n q

i =1

C
i =1 i

= i =

q
,
C

, :
1
=
C

C
i =1

(12.45)

13.
13.1.
, , .
.
, (). :
, , . .


r
r
p = ql ,
r
q ; l
, .
:
1. ,
r
( l = 0 ) , , .
, , 2, O2, N2 .
2.
, () , ,
. , 2, , NH3 ..
, . , , , .
3. , . , KCl.
,
(, , .) .
:
1. , , .
: ,
. -

() r , E , . 13.1, . , .
2. , ,
, . 13.1, . . .
, , .
3. , .
r
E

r
E

+
r + + +
E0
+ + - -+
+
+
+
+

+
+
-

+
+
+

- r + +E+ + + -

r
E0

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+

r
E

+
+
+
+

. 13.1. :
;

,
. , .
. , (). .
, ( q, , ).

,
. r
,
E
r
r
E0 E :
r r
r
(13.1)
E = E0 + E ,
r
r
E0 E , .. , . 13.1. ,
, ,
, .

13.2. . .

r P , .
( )
, V:
r
1
P=
V

pi ,

(13.2)

i =1
r
r
pi = qli i- ;
V. , .
V , : n >> 1 .
(/2).
(
), ,
(13.1) :
r
r
(13.3)
P = 0 E ,
, . > 0 .
r
E .
,

r
r P E .
r :
P
S V,
r r S, ..:
(13.4)
P dS = q = dV ,
S

.

r r (13.4) :
(13.5)
P = ,
r
.. P
r
. P
.


r

E r
=
0 .
(13.6)
1+
1+

,

r :
1) ( = 0 );
2) ( = 0 ).
+ r -'
+' -
E0
,
+
+

+
-r
+
+

, . 13.2.
E r
r
+
E +
E

+
r
+
+
E0 ,
+
.
+
+
+
+
(13.1)
+
E = E0 E .
+
+
S
(12.11) d

. 13.2.
(. (12.42)):
r
E

E0 =

,
0


r
. E :
E =

.
0

(13.7)

.
,
E = E0 E =

(13.7)

,
( ) .
,

:
= Pn = 0 E n ,
(13.8)
r
Pn P r
; En E ( ) . , Pn .
(13.7) (13.7)
E = E0

E
P
= E0 = E0 0 = E0 E .
0
0
0


E=

E0
E
= 0,
1+

(13.9)

= 1 + =

E0
.
E

,
(. 12.1). ,
> 1 . = 1, 1,
= 81 , .
, , = 2,6 3 ,
() = 6,3 7,5 , = 4 10 .
r
E (12.11) (12.13) :
r r
1
E dS = 0
S

qi ,
i =1

div E =
,
0

(13.10)

qi , S;
, r

r E . E (12.16) , .
r
13.3. D ( ).
r
D
r
( ). , E .
,
.
, . , (12.11) ,
r r +
E =
.
0


(13.5):
r
r
P = .
,
r 1
r
div E =
( div P ) ,
0
r r
div ( 0 E + P) = ,

(13.11)
( )
r
r r
(13.12)
D = 0E + P .


r r
r (13.3)
(13.12)
D = 0 (1 + ) E = 0 E .
(/2). r
D ,
, , .

.
r
E .

(13.11) r
D r r
(13.13)
D = ,
r
.. D .
r
D
,
,

r
D ( > 0 ), , ,
r
r
D ( < 0 ). D
r
. , E
, (. . 13.2).

(12.12)
r
D (
):
r r
D
(13.14)
dS = q ,
S

S

.
r
r
D E . .

= dq dV
r r
D
(13.14)
dS = dV .
S

,
(13.11) :
r
r
D = 0E .

(13.15)

13.4. .
r
E

r
D -

r r
r r
1 ( E1 , D1 ) 2 ( E2 , D2 ).
, . 1
2 . r
r
E (12.16) D
(13.14).
, r
r
( ) ( n ) , .
L, l ,
h , . 13.3, .
r h
E (12.16):
r r
E
dl = 0 .
L

h 0 :
r r
lim E dl = 0 .

2
1

h
2
h
2

h 0

r
n

L
r

(13.16)

r
n

2
1

h
2 2
h
1
2

2
1

. 13.3. :
r
r
E D ;
r
r
E D

r r
E dl ( h ) L . . L (13.16) ,
( E2 + E1 )l = 0 ,
r
E ,
r
. 13.3, . ,
E1 = E1 . ,

(13.17)
E2 = E1 ,
r
.. E .
(13.12) (13.17)

r
r
D = 0 E

1
1
D2 =
D1
2 0
1 0

D2 = 2 D1 ,
1

(13.18)

r
.. D .
.
S .
S, 1
r
2. h n
r
, r n , . 13.3, .
(13.14)rr D :
D dS = q ,
S

q , S, .. .
r r h 0 :
lim D dS = lim q .
h 0

h 0

lim q = S ,
h 0

.

r r
lim D dS = ( D2 n D1n )S = S .
h 0
S
r
D
D2n D1n = .
(13.19)
,
lim q = 0 .
h 0
r
, D
D2 n = D1n ,
(13.20)
.. , ,
.


2 0 E2n = 1 0 E1n

E2 n =

1
E1n .
2

(13.21)

, , 1 = 1 E2 n = E1n 2 .
.

r
r

D
.
r
r
E D , , . 13.4.
1 2 ,
. , (13.17) (13.21)

2
1

r
E2 n 2

r
E1

r
E1

1 r
E1n

E2 = E1 E2 n =
r
E2
r
E2

1
E1n .
2

. 13.4 , 1 2

E1
,
E1n
tg 2 E2
=
tg1 E2 n

tg1 =

. 13.4.

( 2 > 1 )

E2

E2 n
E
= 1n .
E2 n

tg 2 =

E1n
E1



(13.21) :
tg 2 2
=
.
tg1 1

(13.22)

. . 13.3,
1 , 2 , D2 n = Dn , D1n = 0 ,
r
E = 0 . (13.19) ,
Dn = ,
(13.23)
r
n .
. , ( = 0 ),
=

1
,

(13.24)

.
.
.
,
, . . : NaKC4 H 4O6 4 H 2O , BaTiO3 .

. . ,

, TC .
~ 10 000 . , TC = 258 296 K,
p s = 2,6 /2, 200 ; TC = 391 K,
p s = 158 /2, 3000 .


r
r
E P
P (. 13.5).
, E = E c .

P
Ec .
0
,
Ec E
Ec

.
. 13.5.
.

13.5. .
. .
.
(12.17)
qi ( i = 1, n )
W=

1 n
qi i ,
2 i =1

(13.25)

1
dV ,
2 V

(13.26)

i , , qi , , i-. r
= (r ) , dV
dq = dV .
W=

V , .
, , q, C, .
. ,

1
1
W = dV = q ,
2 V
2

(13.26)

, , C = q (12.40),
W=

C 2 q 2
=
.
2
2C

(13.26)

,

W=

1 n
qi i ,
2 i =1

(13.26)

qi = i dS ,
Si

; i
i- dS .
Si. , (13.26)
W=

1 n
i i dS ,
2 i =1 S

(13.27)

Si .


W=

1
1
dS + dV ,

2S
2V

(13.28)

; dS dV .
S
V .
(13.28), , dS
dV , , .
(13.28) , ,
.

.
W , . , .
, , , ,
, , .
(13.28)

( = 0 ):
q +q
1
1
1
1

W = dS = 1 dS + 2 dS = 1 1 2 2 = q(1 2 ) = qU ,
2S
2 S
2
2
2

S2
1

(13.28)

S1 S2 ; q = CU .
( 20) ,
,
. , :
. ,
we .
we

we =

W
.
V

(13.29)


we =

dW
,
dV

(13.30)

dW dV , we
.
(/3).
( )
r r 1
1 r r 1 D2
,
we = E dD = 0 E 2 = E D =
2
2
2 0

(13.31)

r
r
D . (13.12) D = 0 E .
, (13.25) (13.28)
, .. .
.
, ,
, , :
r r
0 E 2
ED
W = wedV =
dV =
dV ,
2
2
V

(13.32)

V , .
.
, (13.30) (13.31),

1
we = 0 E 2 .
2
r

E , :
1
we = 0 E 2 .
2

w
w =

1
1
1
( 1) 0 E 2 = 0 E 2 = PE ,
2
2
2

(13.33)

r
r
P = 0 E ; .
.
, ,
.
. . , ,
.
, ,
( ), . . 12.18.
,
( ). , , .
dx ,

dA = Fx dx ,
r
Fx F .
dW =

0 E 2
Sdx ,
2

S .
. , ,

f =

Fx
dW 1
=
= 0 E 2 S ,
S
dx 2

.. .

(13.34)

14.
14.1. .
, ,
.

.
r
dS = 0 .
r r
r
r
r
+u = + u = u .
. ( ) :
1) ,
;
2) .
( ), ( ) . .
I , dq , :
I=

dq
.
dt

(14.1)

, 15.5.
(),
. , .

I=

q
,
t

(14.2)

q , t .
(A).
, 1
1 .
,
dS , :
j=

dI
.
dS

(/2).

(14.3)

r
j

. S r
r
I = j dS ,
(14.4)
S
r r
r
dS = n dS ( n dS ). I, S ,

j = I S.
(14.5)
dt dS
r
u dq = ne u dSdt ( n, e, u
, ), I = dq dt = ne u dS ,
r
r
j = ne u .
(14.6)
,
,
:
r
r
r
r
r
(14.6)
j = + u + + u = n + e+ u + + n e u ,
+ r
r
; u + u ; n+ n , e+
e .
, ( < 0
r
u + = 0 ),
r
r
j = n e u .
(14.6)
. ,
, S.
r
n
dS, .

r r
j dS , S

S.
V, S:
r

dq

j dS = dt .

(14.7)

.
, ..
dq dt = 0 . , (14.7)

r r
j dS = 0 .

(14.8)

r
, j , ,
r
r
.. E , . j
.
(14.7), q q = dV S

(12.12),

r r

j =
.
t

(14.9)

( t = 0 )
r r
j = 0.
(14.10)
14.2. .

(
) ( ):
c I, , U :
I=

U
,
R

(14.11)

R .
().
1 , 1 1 .
,
, .
R=

l
,
S

(14.12)

l ; S ;
, .
- ().

~T .
(14.13)
, , :
=

1
.

(14.14)

(/).

r
r
j E .
r , r
j E .
r

j
r
dS
E
,

r
r
d
j , , E . dS . 14.1.
, dl .
E = U dl .
(14.11) (14.12)
I = U R = jdS R =

Edl
dl
, , jdS =
.
dS
dl dS

r
r 1 r
j = E = E .

(14.15)

(14.15)
( ) .
, ,
.
,
.
, . ,
r
, , E .
14.3.
,
. ,
.
, ,
.

r
E , , :

r
r
F
E =
.
q

(14.16)

:
;
; ..


,
.
, , ,
(), :
=

A
.
q

(14.17)

, ,
, .
().
, ,
. ,
, .
q

r
r
r
r
A = F dl = q E dl .
, , :
r
r
= E dl .
(14.17)
,
. , 12
(. 14.2),
I
2 r
r
- +
1
2
12 = E dl .
(14.17)

12

F
. 14.2.

r

Fe ,
r r
r
r
r
F = F + Fe = q( E + E ) .
q 12
(14.17) (12.21)
2 r
2 r r
r
(14.18)
A12 = q E dl + q E dl = q12 + q(1 2 ) .
1

, -

( 1 = 2 ),

A = q 12 .
(14.18)
U12 12 U12
, ,
1
2

I
. 14.3. , . 14.3:
A

U12 = 12 = 1 2 + 12 .
(14.19)

. .

, , (.. , , . 14.3):
U12 = 1 2 .
(14.19)
.
, . 14.4, ,
: I1 = I 2 = ... = I n = I .
R1, I1, U
R1
I, U1

R2

R3

R2, I2, U

I, U2

I, U3

R3, I3, U

. 14.4. ( n = 3 ):
;

, U
, ,
n

i =1

i =1

IR = U = U i = I i Ri = I Ri .
i =1

R = Ri .

(14.20)

i =1

(. 14.4, )
U: U1 = U 2 = ... = U n = U . ,
.
n 1
n U
n
U
= I = Ii = i = U .
R
i =1 Ri
i =1 Ri
i =1

:
n 1
1
= .
R i =1 Ri

(14.21)

14.4. .


(14.15)
r
r
E E :
r r
r
(14.22)
j = ( E + E ) .

.
r
(14.22) dl ,
dl r
, .. j :
r
r r r
r r
j dl = ( E dl + E dl ) .
r r
j dl = j dl ,
j dl ==

r
r r r
I
dl = E dl + E dl .
S

12 ( 1 2) , :
2

.1

.2

2 r r 2 r
r

dl = E dl + E dl .
S
1

(14.12) (14.18)
. 14.5. :

I12 R12 = (1 2 ) + 12 ,
(14.23)

R12
12; (1 2 ) 12, . 14.5.
(14.23) :


, .
(14.23), , 12:
( ),
, . ,
12 = > 0 . 14.6, ; 12 = < 0 . 14.6, .
(14.23) ,
1826 .:
I12 R12 = U 12 ,
(14.23)
U12 (14.19).
:
12

12 =
,r
1 - + 2
I
Ir = 1 2 +

12 =
,r
1 + 2
I
Ir = 1 2

1.
( = 0 ):
I=

=
,
R r + R


; R . 14.6.
; R
:
; r > 0 ; < 0
(r
.
).
2. , I = 0 .

,
, :
12 = 2 1 .
3.

R = 0 . I = .
I1

I6

I5

I2
I3

1
I1 R1 - +

I2
+ 2

I4

I4

R4
D


(1847 .). , . , , , , , , . 14.7.

Ik, , :
n

3 R
+ - 3

Ik

R2

k =1

= 0,

(14.24)

n , .
I3
, . 14.7,
:
. 14.7.
I1 I 2 I 3 + I 4 + I 5 I 6 = 0 .
:

;
,

, U i = I i Ri

k , :
(14.25)
U i = I i Ri = k ,
i

I i Ri i- . ,
D (. 14.7, )
I1 R1 I 2 R2 + I 3 R3 + I 4 R4 = 1 2 + 3 ,
( ).

:
1. .
, , ,
.
2. ;
I i Ri , . , ,
, .
3. .
( m 1) (14.24).
4. (14.25),
. , .
14.5.
I , -
()
() . , ,
dq = I dt (. (12.20) (14.19)),
dA = dq(1 2 ) = I dt U
. dt
dV dl ,
(14.11) :
U2
dQ = IUdt = I Rdt =
dt .
R
2

0 t I , R, Q:
t

Q = I 2 Rdt .

(14.26)

(14.26) . ,
( ), (14.11) :
Q = I 2 Rt = UIt = U 2 t R ,
(14.26)
, ,
.
1841 .
. 1842 . . . .
dV = dS dl (

). dt
:
dQ = I 2 R dt =

dl
( j dS )2 dt = j 2 dVdt .
dS

, :
w=

dQ
= j2 .
dVdt

(14.27)

(14.15) j = E (14.14) = 1 .
:
w = E 2 = jE .
(14.28)
P = IU ,
, .
, , ..
.

, .
K
(1853):
K
= LT ,

(14.29)

L , ; K , , , ..
, , :
1. , , , .
2. .
3. , .
4. ,
u , , .
, , : , , .

15.
r
15.1. B .
.
XIX . :
1. , ,
, .
2. .
3. .
, , . .
, :
1) , ;
2) ;
3) .
, ,
( ), , .
r
r
n
n .
,
I
:
. 15.1.

,

, .
,

r
r
q F .

r
B .
r F 0 ( F ) ,
r
q , B .
r
, B
B=

( F )
.
q

(15.1)

, F ( q ) q ,
.
r
, B -

, , ,
, .
().
, ( , ,
. 16.2),
(, .
r
16.1) B :
=

B
,
B0

(. 16.3)
, B
B0 . = 1 .
r
r

r
q>0
r q.
r
B

r B
F , . 15.2. r
,
F

. 15.2.
r
r
F
r , B . , .
, , .
.
(
) I
, . 15.3 , .
( ) ,
, I

r B . ,
.

:
. 15.3.
,
,
:
;
, . 15.3, .

, ( ).
, , , r
,
r r
(15.2)
F = q[ , B ] .
r
F
( ), .
F = qB sin ,
(15.2)
r
r
B .
, q
, r
F , , :
r
r
r r
F = qE + q[ , B ] ,
(15.3)
r
E
r . r F .
(15.3) .
r
F . , .
, , . , , .

. r
, B q,
:
r 0 q[r, rr ]
B=
,
4 r 3

(15.4)

r
0 = 4 107 / ; r -, . -
r
, . (15.4) r
.
:
, , , r
:
r
B = Bi .
(15.5)
i

15.2.

1820 . . .
, , ,
.. . ,
, , , , .

,
r
dl I (. 15.4), , :
I

r
r
r 0 [ j , rr ]dV 0 I [dl , rr ]
=
,
dB =
4
4
r3
r3 r

r
dB

(15.6)

r
r

;
j dV Idl
r

r
r
r
;
r
r
dl
, dl r
r

r
.

d
l
r
. 15.4.
.
dB

r r
dl r
,
.
r
dB
dB =

0 I dl sin
.
4
r2

(15.6)

,
,
..
r
r :
B = dB ,
(15.7)
l
r
dB dl
, .
, ,
I, ,
r
r 0 I [dl , rr ]
B=
,
4 r 3
l
r
r 0 I [ j , rr ]
B=
dV .
4 r 3
V

(15.7)
(15.7)

.
1. . I
.
r , . 15.5, . (15.6)
dB

dB =

0 I dl sin
,
4
r2

dS
R
dS = rd , r =
, R . sin
sin
rd
Rd
= 2 .
dl =
sin sin

dl =

I R d sin 2
0 I sin
dB = 0
sin

d .

=
4 R
4 sin 2 R 2

0 . (15.5) , I,
I
I
I

B = 0 sin d = 0 cos 0 = 0 2 ,
4R
4R
4R
0

I
B= 0 .
2R

(15.8)
dl 2
I

R
r
dl

r
dB2

r
r dB
r

R
r

dS

r
dB1

r
r
dB1 + dB2
O

dl1

. 15.5. :
;

2. .
I OO , . . 15.5, R,
, OO . OO
r I r r
dB = 0 3 [dl , r ]
4 r
r

dl r
r
. dB1 dB2 r
r
dl1 dl2 , dl1 = dl2 = dl , r r
r
r
: dB1 = dB2 = dB = 0 Idl 4r 2 , sin (dl , r ) = 90 0 .
r
r
dB1 + dB2 ,
r
r
I 2R
IR
dB1 + dB2 = 2dB sin = 0 2
dl = 0 3 dl .
4 r r
2 r

r
, dB
r
. B OO , :
B = dB|| = dB sin =

2R

0 I R
0 I R 2R
I R
=
dl
dl = 0 3 2R .
4 r 3

3
4 r
4 r
0
0

, r = R 2 + h 2 ,
IR 2
IR 2
B= 0 3 = 0 2
.
2 r
2 ( R + h 2 )3 2

(15.9)

r
15.3. B
r
( B ) dS
r r
r r
dB = B dS = Bn dS = BdS cos( B, n ) ,
(15.10)
r r
r
dS = n dS ; n dS ; Bn
r
B . dS ,

r , .
r
B B .
dS ,
, ,
r
. B
,
r r
cos( B, n ) .

S
r r
(15.11)
B = B dS = Bn dS .

r
n dS
S.
, S ,
r r
B = BS cos( B, n ) .
(15.12)
2
(): 1 = 1 .
1 , 1 2, , 1 .
:

:
r r
(15.13)
B dS = 0 .
S

r

B
:
r
(15.14)
divB = 0 ,
r
.. B .
, .
(15.13)
r
, B . (15.14) (15.13) ,
,
.
, , .
, , N ,
, :
= NB .
, , . , , , .
r
15.4. B ,
.
r
B
, L:
r r
B
dl .

r
B (
):
r
B L 0
, :
n
r r
B
d
l
B
dl

Ik ,

=
(15.15)

l
L

k =1

L
L
r
r
dl = dl , ;
r r
r
; Bl = B cos( B, dl ) r
B
; ,
L .
, . -

, . 15.6.r
r B , B . ().
r
B , , S
,
L
l
I2<0
I1>0
I3>0
r
. B . 15.6.

, --
r
((15.8) (15.8)).
B
r
B
:

r r
r
B = 0 j ,
(15.16)
r r
r r
r
r
j , B = 0 j . B = rotB .
r
B
r
i

rotB =
x
Bx

r
k

r
j

B B y r Bx Bz r B y Bx r

k .
i +

= z
j +
y
x
z
z y
z
x
Bz

y
By

r
B
. (15.8)
r 0 , .. B . ,
R (15.15).
I . L
r. r
,
B
r

. B
r
r . B :
r r
B
dl = Bl dl = Bl dl = B 2r = 0 I ,
L

I , L.
, , r < R I = jr 2 ,
jr 2 0 jr 0 Ir
B= 0
=
=
.
2r
2
2R 2

(15.17)

( r > R ) , (15.8), I = I
I
B= 0 .
2 r

, B = 0 .
.
. , A
D
, . 15.7.
C
B
l, N
. I
I
n = N l .
. 15.7.
,
. , ,
.
r

,

r
, B
.

r
DA, . 15.7. B
Bl dl = Bl dl + Bl dl + Bl dl + Bl dl = 0 NI .
ABCDA

AB

BC

CD

DA

CD :
Bl = 0 . ,
B = 0 , , ,
~ r 3 .
DA ,
( Bl = B ).

Bl dl = Bl = 0 NI .

DA

, (
, ):
(15.18)
B = 0 nI ,
nI .
15.5.
.
, .
r
. . ,

, d
F
r

Idl ,
r
B ,
r r
r
(15.19)
dF = I [dl , B ] .

(15.19) :
, ,
.
(15.19) ( ), I:
r r
r
(15.19)
F = I [ dl , B ] .
l

, , ,
r r
(15.19)
F = IlB sin( dl , B ) .
r : , B , ,
.

. I1 I 2
r
r
r
r
R . dF1 dF2 , B1 B2 I1 I 2 , ,
. 15.8. R
, .
(15.8)
I2
I1
,
r
r
B1
Ii ( i = 1, 2 ):
dF
r
B2

r
dF1

. 15.8.

I
Bi = 0 i .
2R

(15.19)
, dl2
I2 1:
r r
r
r
II
dF2 = I 2 dl2 B1 sin( dl2 , B1 ) = [dl2 B ] = 0 1 2 dl2 .
2 R

dl1 I1
II
dF1 = 0 1 2 dl1 .
2 R

r
r
r
, dF2 dF1 dF2 = dF1 .
,
I I
dF = 0 1 2 dl .
2 R


(. 16), (15.20)
I I
dF = 0 1 2 dl .
2 R

(15.20)

(15.20)

(15.20) :
, , , , 1
, , 2 10 7 :
F
=
l

) (1) (1)

= 2 10 7 .
(2 ) (1)

(4 10 7

,
.
15.6. . ,
.
I
r
r
r
=
,
(15.21)
p
IS
n
m
pm
S , ,
r
n
(
r
S
, ); n
, . 15.9.
I
r
r
. 15.9.
n p m (. . 15.1).

r
r , . 15.10, F1 F2 , r
( ) . b B ,
,
,
r
B . ,
,
, ,

r
r
r
r
M = [ pm , B ] ,
(15.22)
B
r
r
p m
I
r
F1
r
;
B
.
M b
r
n
I

a
r
M = pm B sin ,
(15.22)
r
F2
r
p m B .
. 15.10.
, (15.22)

,

, .
d ,
r
r
, dA = M d = pm B sin d = dE p .

.
E p = pm B sin d = pm B cos + const
r r
(15.23)
E p = pm B + const .
, . ,
( ), .
r
B , , (15.22) ,
. , , , ,

(4.19) :
r
r
r
r r
F = E p = ( pm B ) ,
(15.24)
r
B r .
F
. , ,
, . , . r
r
, pm B
( < 2 , . 15.11, ). ( > 2 , . 15.11, ),

r . ,
r
, pm B . r
r
, pm B .
r r
dF B

r
pm Fr
r
B
r r
dF B

r r
dF B

=0

r
B

r
F

I
r
pm

r
B
r r
dF B

r
B

. 15.11. :
;

r
r
( B = const pm = const ), (15.24)
(15.22).
.
,
.
r
B
l I,
r
r
B
dr

r
l
. B r
I
F
, r
dr
, . 15.12. dA
r r
r
F
I
[
l
, B ] =
. 15.12.
r

dr
r r

(15.25)
dA = F dr = IBl dr = IB dS ,
dS , .
(15.10) (15.25)
dA = Id ,
(15.25)
dA ,
; d dS .
, (15.25) . ,
, , , , (15.25).

A = I d = I (2 1 ) ,
(15.26)
1 2 . ,

. (15.26) , .

16.
16.1. .

r
B0 ,
, . ,
, ..
r .
r
. B
B

r r r
B = B + B0 ,
r
r
B B0 , .
r
r
B0 , B ( ). ,
r
r :
B

d
S
= 0,
(16.1)

S
r
.. B .
. ,
-
().
, .
r
.
r B , . B0
, r
B . .

r ,
B0 , . ,
,
r
B .
,
.
,
I.
r
B .
, . , .

r
J :

r
1
J=
V

pm ,

(16.2)

V ;
r
pm .
Vr.
r
J = n pm ,
(16.3)
r
; pm .
r
, J .
r
16.2. . H ( )
r

:
J
r
J L ,
L:
r r
(16.4)
J dl = I ,
L
r
r
I = j dS , r
L. J , , .

(16.4) :
r r
r
(16.5)
J = j,
..
.
,
r , , B
,
r :
(16.6)
B dl = 0 ( I + I ),
L

I I , L. (16.6) - I .

. (16.6) (16.4)
r
r
B J L. (16.6):
r r
r r
B

d
l
=
I
+
J

(
0

dl ),

r
B r r
0 J dl = I .
L

H
:
r
L

r B r
H=
J .
0

(16.7)

(1 /).

r
16.3. H
r
B (15.15), .
r (16.7)
H ( ):
r r
H
(16.8)
dl = I ,
rL
.. H , .
r

H
:
r
H

r r r
H = j.
(16.9)
r

r H , . H .
,
r
r
J Hr .
r
J H , .

:
r
r
(16.10)
J = H ,
, .
, , ,
. , << 1 ,

r
r r ( > r0) ( < 0). J H , r J rH .
B H . (16.10). (16.7)
r
r
r B
r
H=
H
0

r B
.
(1 + ) H =
0

r
r
r
(16.11)
B = 0 (1 + ) H = 0 H ,
= 1 + ,
(. 15.1).
( < 1 ) ( > 1 ) . , , -0,06310-6, -9,010-6 -28410-6. , ,
, 0,3810-6,

36010-6 340010-6.
r
B (16.6) , , :
r r
B
(16.12)
dl = 0 I .

r
r
B H .
() 1 2 1 2 .
r
r
. B H

. r
r
B H Bin H in
( i = 1, 2 ). Bi H i . r
r
B (16.1)

H
(16.8) r
r
B H :
L

B2n = B1n ,
H 2 = H1 ,

B2 2
=
,
1
B1
H 2n 1
=
.
H1n 2

(16.13)
(16.13)

,
,
, r

B
r
H ,
.. . r
r
B H
.
r
r B ,
H :
tg 1 1
=
,
tg 2 2

(16.14)

r
r
1 2 B ( H ) .
r
, B r , H (- ).
. ,
() ,
, , .
- :

. ,
, ( Fe, , Ni),
.
. . ( XIX .).
J = J(H), . 16.1. . 16.1 ,
r
r .
B r
H , J , . , . 16.2.

J
J
1

.
0

H
3
. 16.1. :
1 (>>1);
2 (>1); 3 (<1)

0
1
0
H
. 16.2.

, J
( ) J
, . 16.3. 1
J
( 01),
J
2
( 12), = 0 -

J oc .

- 3 0 6
.
5 -J
,
-J
4
. 16.3.
( 3), ,
.
( 34), ( 4).
( 456) ( 61).
1234561.
1 4 ( J c ), .
, , . 16.3.
, , .
, . 16.1. ,
.

.
. . .
.

17.
17.1. .
. (1831),
. , ,
, ,
.
1.
I1
S
.
+
1
( ) ,
( )
N
, ..
2
G
G
(), . 17.1, .

I2

.
. 17.1. . :
, ,


; 2 . 1

,

.
, ,
.
2. (1) . (2) , . 17.1, . ,
1
. , .. .
.
( ) i .
:
1. , , .
2. , .

:
;

.

. .
( , i )
: ,
, ,
, .

(
).
17.2. .
().
( ):
,
:
i =

d
.
dt

(17.1)

, ,
( ).

i =

d
.
dt

(17.1)

().
1 / , 1 .
(17.1)
:
S, ;
i . n S ,
. 17.2.
, ,

, .
r

S
r
.
n
l, . 17.3. S
+
, . 17.2.

,
.
r
r
n
.


.

r
r
r
r
F = e[ , B ] ,

l
I, . r
r
I
. (
B
)
,

. 17.3.
r
i ,
. F

r (.
14.3).
r
r
B
E = F ( e ) .
r
E
, ,
r
r
i = E dl = Bl .
(17.2)

r r (
r r
E ( r , t ) B ( r , t ) ). ,
, . , ,
, , , .
.
r
, B
, r
E
. . 17.4
. 17.4. ,
.
, ,
,
.. .
r
E .


.
r
E
L

r
r r

r r
B r
i = E dl =
= B dS =
dS .
t
t
t

L
S
S

(17.3)

(17.3) , L S
. ,
( t ) .
, , (17.1)
( )

i =

r
r r r
d
= ( E + [ , B ]) dl .
dt L

(17.4)

(17.1) (17.4) . r (17.4) , B , () .


. , ,
, .
.
: , , .
.
, , , , . , .


. .
, , . -.

17.3. . . .

,
. ,
.

.
S ( ) , . .
, , , -- .

= LI ,
(17.5)
L .
(17.5) .
, r
r I.
B S , , > 0 . L .
( ) L, .
, .
, , I.
().
(17.5) 1 , 1 1 , 1 = 1 /.
, N , ,
L=

N1 nl BS
=
=
= 0 n 2V ,
I
I
I

(17.6)

1 ; V ;
;
.
(17.1) S :
S =

d
d
= (LI ) .
dt
dt

(17.7)

L ( ),
S = L

dI
dt .

(17.8)
(17.8) , S ,
. ,
, , .
17.4.

, ,
.
, ,
, . 17.5.
R L (
)
I 0 = R , . 17.5. t = 0 .
. .

. 17.5. ,



(17.8) S = L

dI
.
dt

IR = S , ..

IR = L

dI
dt .


dI
Rdt
=
I
L

I ( I0 I) t ( 0 t):
ln

= L

I
Rt
=
I0
L

I = I 0 et ,

(17.9)

, ,
R
.
,
. , .
. 17.6 I(t) ( 1).
R0 R:


Rt
Rt
)=
exp( ) ,
L
R0
L
dI
R
Rt
S = L =
exp( ) .
dt R0
L

I = I 0 exp(

I
I0
2
0

t
. 17.6.
I t
,
. 17.5. 1 2


( R >> R0 )
,
.

S = L

dI
dt

, , . 17.5.

IR = + S = L

dI
.
dt

,
I = I 0 (1 exp( t )) ,
(17.10)
I 0 = R ( t); = L R . , , . 17.6, 2.
r

B
2
I1
I2


.
r
1
2
1 2
B1
I1 I2, . 17.7.

, . 17.7.
(. 16.3).


i2 =

d21
dI
= L21 1
dt
dt

i1 =

d12
dI
= L12 2 ,
dt
dt

(17.11)

21 , I1 2; 12 , I2 1; L21 L12 . L12 = L21 = L ( ). L12 L21 ,


, ,
. , L.

17.5. . .

, ,
.
. , , . ,
.
L, I.
= LI. ,
.

dI
.
dt

. dq

dA = s dq = L

dI
dq
dq = L dI = LIdI = dW ,
dt
dt

dW , I I+dI. , I,
I

W = LIdI =
0

LI 2
.
2

(17.12)

(17.12) , . W ( ).
, I, L.

,
.
. (17.6) N 2S
.
L = 0
l
W=

1
N 2I 2
0
S.
2
l

(17.13)

, (. (15.18)), B =

0 NI
Bl
. , I =
.
l
0 N

(16.11)
B = 0 H .

W=

B2
BH
V=
V,
20
2

(17.14)

Sl = V . ,
V.
, W
r r
W =

BH
dV .
2

(17.15)

(17.15) ,
dV. ,
, .
, V,
W = wm dV ,
(17.16)
V
r r
wm = HdB , ..
r r r
( B = B(H ) ).
.

,

wm =

W
B2
H 2 BH
=
= 0
=
.
V 2 0
2
2

(17.17)

, (17.17), (17.16), ,
, .. .
, N ( ) :
W=

1 N
Lik Ii I k ,
2 i, k =1

(17.18)

Lik = Lki i- k- ; Lii = Li i- .

18.
18.1. .

,
, ,
(- , , ).
, .
.
, .

, . l , l = l/.

,
= l c << T ,
. , l = 3 =10-8
106 ( = 10-6 ).
,
, . , . , ,
.

, , L
R, ,
. 18.1.
R
.

,
R
I

. 18.1. .
, .

. 18.1:
(18.1)
IR + U C = s ,
U C = q C q -

d 2q
dI
= L 2 .
dt
dt
dq
I ( I = ) dq, dt

; S = L

() . . 18.1

d 2q
dt

1
R dq
+
q = 0.
L dt LC

(18.2)

( R = 0 ) . :
q&& + 02 q = 0 .
(18.2)
0 ( ) 0
0 = 1 LC , T0 = 2 LC .
(18.3)
(18.3) 0 .
q I
q = qm cos(0 t + 0 ) ,
(18.4)
I = I m sin(0t + 0 ) = I m cos(0t + 0 + 2) ,
(18.5)
qm ; I m = 0 qm = qm LC ;
0 q. qm 0 .
/2.
U C = 2 1 , ,
q:
U C = U m cos(0t + 0 ) ,
(18.6)
U m = qm C ,
.
Im =

qm
Um
=
.
LC
LC

(18.7)

(18.7) Im Um (14.11)
, L C .
()
We
Wm :

q2 qm2
cos2 (0t + 0) ,
=
2C 2C
LI 2 LI m2
sin 2 (0t + 0) .
Wm =
=
2
2
We =

(18.8)
(18.9)

, ,
.
W Wm
0 , qm2 /(2C) L I m2 /2. W Wm : , We = 0 ,

Wm = LI m2 2 , , Wm = 0 , We = qm2 ( 2C ) .
qm2 LI m2
=
= const .
W (t ) = We (t ) + Wm (t ) =
2C
2

(18.10)

18.2.

, L R,
. 18.1, (18.2)
(18.11)
q&& + 2q& + 02 q = 0 ,
2 = R L . . , R 0 , .


R. , , .
, < 0 (18.11)
t
(18.12)
q = qm e t cos(t + 0 ) ,
cos(t + 0 )
q q = qm e
qm e t

= 02 2 =

1 R

LC 2 L

; q 0 , .
(18.12) . 18.2.
. 18.2.
.

t
(18.12) qm e
, . . 18.2.
= 2/ :
t

T=

02

T0
1 ( 0 )

(18.13)

0 (. (18.3)).
q(t),
.
UC =

q qm t
=
e
cos( t + 0 ) .
C C

(18.14)


(18.15)
I = qm e t cos( t + 0 + ) ,
( 2 < < ) ,
0 = cos 0 = sin .
, R
(18.12) ( (18.14) ) /2. , R = 0 = /2.
Uc(t) I(t) q(t) . 18.2.
, :
1. ,
, :
=1 .
(18.16)
2. ,
:
= ln

A(t )
1
= T =
,
A(t + T )
Ne

(18.17)

(q, U, I); Ne
. ( << 0 ), 0 = 1 LC

2
=R C L .
0

(18.17)

3. (7.28) Q
Q=

= Ne .

, Q. ( << 0 ) (18.17) :
Q

1 L
.
R C

(18.18)

Q:
Q 2

W
,
W

(18.18)

W , ; W ; W W .
0
. , -

,
R = 2

L
.
C

(18.19)

18.3.
,
. 18.3, :
= m cos t .
(18.20)
R
I(t)
q(t)
, C
L
(t)
r,
( ).
. 18.3.
r

R,

.
, , R,
L , (18.1)
RI + U C = + s .
:
q&& + 2q& + 02 q = L = ( m L) cos t ,
(18.21)
; 0 ( R = 0 ).
, ,
( ),
, .
, ..
(18.21),
q = qm cos( t ) ,
(18.22)
q ; (18.20):
qm =

m L

(02 2 )2 + 4 2 2

(18.23) = 02 2 =

, tg =

02 2

(18.23)

1
R2
1
R
2 , 02 =
= . LC 4 L
LC
2L

qm =

m
2

2
L
+R
C

, tg =

R
1
L
C

(18.23)

q , > 0. q .

I = qm sin(t ) = qm cos(t + 2) = I m cos(t ) , (18.24)
I m = qm = m Z ; = 2
. Z () :
2

1
+ R 2 =
Z = L
C

X 2 + R2 ,

; X C = 1 ( C ) ; X L = L .
, . I m ( )
qm ( ) . 18.4, = 0 = 1 L . . 18.4, ,
R, Q,
. , .
R3 > R2 > R1 = 0

R1
R2
R3
C m

. 18.4. :
I m ;
q

,
.
C, L, R, :
U = U m cos t .
(18.25)
(18.24) , ,
. (18.21) :
(18.26)
U R + U C + U L = U m cos t ,

q
dI
, U L = L . ,
C
dt
,
.
, U I R (U R ), (U C ) L ( U L ):
U R = RI m cos( t ) = U Rm cos( t ) ,
(18.27)
U C = I m ( C ) cos( t 2) = U Cm cos( t 2) ,
(18.28)
U L = LI m sin( t ) = U Lm cos( t + 2) .
(18.29)
(18.27) (18.29), :
U C 2 ,
U L 2 , U R .
, , :
U R = RI , U C =

Q=

(U Cm )
1 L
1
.
=
=
Um
R C 0CR

(18.30)


L. ,
, . , ,
, Q ~ 10 102 ,
Q ~ 2 104 20 .

19.
19.1. . .
. . , , (
). r
E ,

r 17.2 (. (17.3)), , ..
E , ,
, :
r
r r
B r
d

E
d
l

t d S .
dt
L
S

(19.1)

, , . ,

r
r r
B r
=

E
d
l

t dS .
L
S

(19.2)

(19.2) (


) :
r
E L
S,

r (, ,
B t S).
,
r r
r r
E

d
l
=
rot
E
dS .
(19.3)

(19.2) (19.3)
,
r
r r
B
E =
.
t

(19.3)

(19.3) (19.2) .
. , (
).

r r
, I = j dS (14.4)
S

.
(1865), . ,
. , .



r
r
D
,
j =
t

(19.4)

r
r
r r
D ( D = 0 E + P (13.12)).
S ,
:
r
r
r
D r
I = j dS =
dS .
t
S

(19.5)

r , r D , r
D.
r
D
D
, ,r D
+
+
.
r
, D t , a ,
r
r
r
r
H
H
,
D
D
. 19.1, .

t
t

r
. 19.1. , D t :
,
;

, . 19.1, .
- , . , , .
, .

r
r
r D
j = j +
.
t

(19.6)

, .
() , ( ) -

, , .
:
,
r
, .. , H
.
r
H (16.8),
:
r
r r
r D r
H
d
l
=
(

j + t ) dS .
L

(19.7)

(19.7)
(
r

H ) :
r
H
L , .

(19.7)
r
r r r D
H = j +
,
t

(19.7)
r
r
.. H j
r
D t .
19.2. .

60- . XIX . . . ,
, , , .
1864 .
( ).

. , ,
.
: , .
(12.11).
, ,
, .

r
( D (13.14))

r r
D
dS = dV ,
S

(19.8)

,
S.
(19.8)
:
r
D S , .
(12.12)
(19.8)

r r
(19.8)
D = .
(
r
B (15.13)) ,
S
r
r :
B
d
S
= 0.
(19.9)

(19.9)
r r
(19.9)
B = 0.
, r
(19.2), (19.7), (19.8)
r r
r
(19.9), E , H , D B ,

r
j :
r
r r
B r
E dl = t dS ,
L
S
r r
D dS = dV ,
S

r
r r
r D r
H dl = ( j + t ) dS ,
L
S
r r
B dS = 0 .
S

, . ,
r
r
r ,
r
r
r :
r
D = 0 E , B = 0 H ,
j = ( E + E ) ,
(19.10)
0 0 ;
r
r ; ; E E
.
:

;
( ),
;

, , ..

.
r
r
( E = const B = const )

r r
r r
r r
r r
E
d
l
=
0
,
D
d
S
=
q
,
H
d
l
=
I
,
B
(19.11)

dS = 0 .
L

,
.
(19.3), (19.7), (19.8) (19.9),
:
r
r
r r
B
,
E =
t
r r
D = ,

r r r D
H = j +
,
t
r r
B = 0.


, ,
.
,
. ,
,
. , .

,
(13.17), (13.20), (16.13) (16.13),

E1 = E 2 , D1n = D2 n , B1n = B2 n , H 1 = H 2
( (13.20) (16.13) ,
, ).

. . ,
. ,
. , .

20.
20.1. .
:
r
r
, , E H
,
. () , , .
, .
,
r .
r
D t B t
.
,
. .


r
r r
r
(20.1)
D = 0 E , B = 0 H ,
0 0 ; .

, ,
r
r
E H
r
r
r2r
2 E r 2 r
2 H
E = 00 2 , H = 00 2 ,
t
t
2
2
2
r2

= = 2 + 2 + 2 .
x
y
z

(20.2)

, :
1) ( ).

=

1
0 0

1
c
=
,

(20.3)

c = 1 0 0 . > 1 , < c ;
r
r
2) E H
r

, . 20.1.
;
r
3)
E
r

r .
r . 20.1
E H
0
, r r
H (B )
( ) , :
. 20.1.

E = B 0 E = 0 H .
(20.4)

, ( )

,

..
(20.2) , ,
()
. r
r
E H
. ,
,
,
:
r r
(20.5)
E = E m cos(t kx + ) ,
r r
H = H m cos(t kx + ) ,
(20.5)
r
r
E m H m ; = 2 () ; k = ; t = 0 x = 0 .
(20.5) (20.5) , . ,
E m H m (20.4).
, ,
= T .
(20.6)

= cT ,
=c.
(20.6)
, ,
r
2 E
x 2

r
1 2 E

2 t 2

r
2 H
x 2

r
1 2 H

2 t 2

(20.7)

20.2. .
. .
. ,
.
. . 1888 . (
), ; 109 . ,

.


( 7,5
). ( ) . . ,
c. , . : - .
(
): (10-4 < < 103 ), (
(760 < <1 ), (400 < <760 ), (1 < <400 )),
(610-3 < <1 ) - ( < 610-3 ).
(20.6). ,
4,0 1014 7,51014 .
;
.
. .
. W :
W = wdV ,
w . w
we wm , :
0 E 2 0 H 2
+
,
w = we + wm =
2
2

(20.8)

0 E = 0 H (20.4),

w = 0 0 EH .
(20.9)
(20.8) (20.9)
r .
r(-)
r r
= [E , H ] .
(20.10)
r
,
, :
= EH = w =

0 2
Em cos2 (t kx + ) ,
0

(20.11)

,
( r
).
, .. .

(/2).
, ,
V S,
, ( ), ..
.
W ,
V, :

r r
r r
dW
= n dS + j EdV ,
dt

(20.12)

S
V
r
r
r
; j ; E r
; n
dS dV r S;
r
. n dS S

,
r r S,
V. j EdV V

, ,

.
I, , :
r
I= .
(20.13)
(20.11) , -

:
I=

0 Em2
.
0 2

(20.14)

. ,
, , ,
.
,
.
p = (1 + ) w ,
(20.15)
( = 1 , = 0 ); w
. , , w = ( I cos ) c .
. ,
10-6 , 1010
. , , . . . 1899 . , 1910 . . ,
1899 ., . . (20.15).
.
,
, .

28. , . . . / . . . . : , 2001.
29. , . . . 5 . . 2 / . . .
. . : , , 2004.
30. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 2003.
31. , . : 2 . . 2 / . . . : , 1989.
32. : 5 . . 1 5 / . . . . . . : . , 19881998.
33. , . . . . 3. / . . . . :
, , 2002.
34. , . . / . . . . : , 1964.
35. , . . / . . . . : . ., 1999.
36. , . . - / . . ,
. . , . . . . : , 1990.
37. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 1963.


1.

2.

c = 2,998 108 /

0 = 4 107 /2 = 12,566 10 7 /2

0 = ( 0c 2 )1 = 8,854 1012 /
1 ( 4 0 ) = 9 109 /

G = 6,672 1011 3/(2)

g = 9,807 /2

e = 1,602 1019

me = 0,911 1030

m p = 1,673 1027

N A = 6,022 1023 -1

F = 96,458 103 /

R = 8,314 /()

k = R N A = 1,381 10 23 /


0 0

c =1

0 0

14
14
14
119
169, 189
66
74


15

36
184
15
19
19
16
86
221
86
221

21
16
21
120
129
80
80
81
, 82
81
, 83
80
80
80
81
81
81
84
84
, 84
, 84
, 84
80

218
, 218
, 220
145

158
194
80
20
22
32
74

107
132
-- 133
201
67
63
63
165
196

39

106
133
222
222
125
126
59
75
14
59
20
56
20
18
18
17
18
18
19
18
19
19

18

75
30
30
30
30
36
194
142
14
148
157
149
157
40
156, 157
156
156
156
, 161
81
71
16
84
75
164

154
154
154
154

108
188
-- 182
113
103
28-29
30-31
34
- 177
178

26
,
55
51
24

136
(
) 121
- 125
24
25-26
26
171
175

194

164
113

28
100
135
33
51
(
) 41
41
40

() 198

94
136
135
135

159
157
157
73

109
117
107
32
108
25
100
33
33
, 33
201
203
201

179
151
24

221
96
97
97
97
84

14

16
84
66
66, 76
, 76
210
, 210
210
66
, 68
, 67
, 72
, 67
70
, 70
69
, 69
70
,
71
207
,
207
73
, 74
208
, 208
25
154
154
37
206
189-190
15
74, 208

221

178
31
126
131

180

138
138
24

192
195
192
25, 103-104
29
108
14
70
69
70
, 71
14
() 14
89
30
156
156
107
49
148

51
50
, 51

49
47

189
49
47-48
52
53
36
178

130

192
196
196
30
174
42
193
137

143
, 146
139
138
148
172

196
115
125, 126, 129
128
30
127
140
169
24
25
26

154
107
108
107
32
32
171
15
15
16
87
83
39
221
197
66
69
20
56
70

30
194
105
16
22
66
74
148
48

137
137
137
169
214

85

85
85
205
168
167
220
153
205
81
39
114
119
24
186
42
179
181
183-184
180
180

182
187
, 205
37
25
135
, 167
139
215-216
, 217
, 215

, 220
136
, 145
156
() 156
157
() 157
158
165
110
(
)109
42
181
136

145, 146, 166
, 146
147
148
42
184

139-140
85
185
185
185

176
21, 179
198
188
16, 180
28
91
64
88
27
88


147
181
138
62

171
153
150

136, 160
180, 194
32
32
135
119
118
118
117
126
127
119
105
126
126
165
165
165
80
84

35
190-191
115-116
130
56
36

126
19
- 15
, 15
93
145
124

121
- 125
77
79
186

201
164
24
187
76
61
60

61
37
165, 196
181
169
29
30
173
203
201
197
-- 132
25
25
37
136
132
168
172
40
136
() 17
( ) 32
135
66
24-25
15
24
24
58
56
105
105
105
35
216, 217
15-16
- 200
89
17
28, 60
82
46
46
46
23
17
122
123
122
28, 60

59
83
83
83
17
, 17
21
34
218


72-73
160
93
187
, 201
171
206
211
211
209
211
() 211
171
105
80
80
80
80

14
14
14
25
14
130
106

184-185, 192
158

161

141-142, 160
132
57

193

194


145

185-186, 195
33
213
53

178
215
88
, 88-89
- 107
114
114
114
105-106
197

202-203
206
214
169
206
, 169
169
169
() 200
165, 196
14
16
31
31
31
31

43
44
43
43
84
176
-- 133
83
82
84
83

58

26


55

112
109
116
- 110
48, 51

170-171
109

16
, 217
216
18
18
19
29
19
21
121

r
r
B H 195
r
r
E D 162-163

173
173

82
66
195
105
119-120
120
124
129
207
81
120-121

121

122

() 130


81
71
19
34
131

144-145
185

81
82
22
74
66-67
66
77
108
113
20

106
106

215
135
135
35
112
112

165
166-167
165
36
55
112, 113
102

57
204
41
39
40
103
,

205
,
220
,
167
,
167-168
37-38

() 38
166
166
, 85
127
128
, 129
86

197
151

2-
1
.
.

. .
. .
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6084 1/16. . .
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.-. . 14,0. 200 . 19.
:

02330/0056964 01.04.2004. 02330/0131666 30.04.2004.
220013, , . , 6