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Problems And Solutions

Stages In Urbanisation
Urbanisation is almost at an end in MEDCs.

The proportion of urban dwellers is beginning
to fall.

For many MEDCs there seems to be a cycle of
urbanisation, suburbanisation, counter-
urbanisation, and re-urbanisation.
Inequality. Inequalities exist in all cities in the
developed world. The most deprived groups can
often be found in old inner city areas.
High levels of unemployment and a lack of
employment opportunities.
Poor household amenities.
Large areas of derelict land.
Air, water and land pollution.
High social problems such as alcoholism, drug
abuse and crime.
Greater frequency of health problems.
The previous points paint a very depressing
picture of the inner cities.
This is not always the case.
The inner cities of many British cities are
improving rapidly and people are once again
choosing to live in them.
This is, in part as a consequence of
gentrification and urban regeneration.
Traffic Congestion
The cities of the UK are often choked with the
pollution from cars.
There is a well-known statistic about the
average speed of a car in London being slower
than the old horse and cart.
A lot of cities were built before the invention
of the car.
Death Of The CBD
The CBD of many major cities is in trouble.
Increasingly more of the functions associated with the CBD
can be found on the outskirts of town.
In Bristol, for example, there are now four cinema
multiplexes outside the city.
Whilst these are thriving, those cinemas left in the city are
either closing or face a great struggle for survival.
Many UK towns no longer have a cinema.
The opening of 'The Mall' (a large shopping and
entertainment complex outside Bristol) meant that John
Lewis closed its city department store and relocated.
This has meant that a lot of shoppers no longer come into
the city centre.
Since 'The Mall' opened, shops and entertainment in the
CBD have had a constant struggle for survival.
There have been a number of policies and
initiatives that have had the overall objective
of regenerating urban areas.
In the past twenty years, these have changed
frequently, but have included Urban
Development Corporations and more
recently, schemes where councils have to bid
for various sources of money.
One of those sources is lottery money.
Using p. 42 and 43, answer the following
1. Why is deprivation a feature of wealthy
2. Describe the quality of life in Sheffield using
the map.
3. Create a fact file on the improvements to
East London.
4. Suggest contrasting reasons for ways these
estates could be impoved.