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tab*ratory Exereise
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Textbook
Dissectible human iorso model (manikin)
Variety of specimens or mode[s sectionecj aiong various p[anes
F or Learni ng Extensio n:
Co[ored pencils
Yt-r.
major features of tire human body inclucle certain
E cavities, a set of metnbranes associatecl with these
cavities, and a group of organ systems composed of re-
lated organs. To comntttnicate effectively w-ith each other
about the body, 56i.rr,tsts have devised names to describe
these body features. They also have developed terms to
1-epresent the relative positions of body parts, imaginary
planes passir-rg through these parts, and body regions.
Furpose of the Exereise
'1-o
re1,i65v Lhe org;rnizational pattern of the human body;
1gr rs-,'isri,; its
,cigai:
s-Ysielrrs zincl the 'ili:gals incli-rded in
eacir system; and to become acquainted v'.ith the terms
i-rsed to describe the reiative position of body parts,
boci1, sectior-rs, anci body regious-
tee;"nEr-lg Ouieom:es
,,\fter ccrnpletirrg tl-ris e;<ercise, yori should be abie to
1" Loc:lte and nai-tte tl-re boclr'cavities and ident!f,r'the oi--
gans zind i-ttetrlbr:rit.:s :rssociate d ri,itl-i e ach caf it-r-.
2. Dilierentiate tl-re gei:eral frtnctions of the crgar
sl'steills of the ltilmai-r bodl'.
3, ,1s5ociiiie ii-ie ci-g;li-is ii;chicied
.iliilllir
eicll sj'steill
airci lccaie tire irrgaes ir-r a rlissectible hur:ran tcrso
i M/LiL 1.
+" 5eiect the te rnrs riscd io <le scribe tire reiative posi-
tici-rs of bccll' parts.
5" l,Iaici-r the te r1'ns ris.:<1 io iclei-rtilr' irocil- se ctici-is rnc.
ider-rtifl tire piane aiong rr.irich a pai-ticr,rlar speci-
lltelt i5 cLli.
i:. Label bcdv rcgioirs alcl asscciate the te ii.ns r-tsed io
irientj ii' irorlr' rrgioirS.
Froeedure A-Eody eavities
and Membranes
1. Ileview- the sections entitled
"Botl-v
Cavities" and
"'l'horacic
anci Abdominopeivic lvieinbrai:es" in
chapter 1 of the textbook.
2. As a review activity, label figures 2.1 and 2.2.
3. Locate the following tbatures ou the reference plates
near the end of chapter 1 of the textbook and on
the dissectible hurnan torso modei (fig. 2.3):
body cavities
cranial cavity
vertebral canal (spinal cavitl)
thoracic cavity
mediastinum (region between the lungs;
includes pericardial cavit-v)
pleural ca'sities
abdominoPelvic cavity
abdominal caviti,
pelvic cavity
diaphragrn
smaltrer cavities within the hread
^.al ---rit=-
,r"rri .^rrity $/ith connectecl sinuses
.--r^:t^ I
^a=.;+-.
miclcile ear canitr.
rciefiibraaes and ca.vities
pleuiai catii-r.
parietal pler-tra
i .- i
^..
--_,
\ :JLiti ;ii
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,lat I ! .r
i:i
;'icarcjirt i c;ti'ii i
;Lra
f iei iil perica rd i tr i:r (cc,-c ied b-r' fibrous
,rrrii- ;i.li;i:it )
,'iscera1 pericai<iii.rnl
(ei.-ic;irdiuar)
1:ct':Loi:elt
i c;r r itr
itarietal
Periioneuill
;'iscei. al pe riionelii-t-i
+" Corrylete Pxrt -{ oi La'ot-lllioir ll.e1;ort 2
rtaro*tc
(hv
(cavity)
Diaphragm
Figure 2.1 Label these body cavities. q;l
rcedure B-Organ Systems
1.. Review the section entitled 'Organ Systems" in
chapter 1 of the textbook.
2. Use the reference plates near the end sfchapter I
of the textbook and the dissectible hurnan torso
model
{fi1.2.3)
to locate the foilowing organs:
iategumentary s-vstern
skin
accessoly organs such as hair and nails
skeletal system
bones
ligaments
cartilages
muscular system
skeletal muscles
tendons
Ilerlrous S-\,Stem
L ---.:
- ,)tattt
spiital cori
ilI1.es
er:.docriqe s:vsiern
pituitarr glaud
thyroid glaird
acirenal glands
pancreas
10
a'/
ovanes
testes
thymus
cardiovascular system
heart
arteries
-veits
lymphatic system
lyrnphatic vessels
lymph nodes
thysi.rt
snleerr _l_--__
digestive systecr
mouth
tongLie
teeii-r
salivar,r glands
^i-^-----. yrlar,i rlA
esophagus
ston:zrch
iirer
gallbladde r-
pancreas
small intestine
iarge intestine
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FEgilre 2"2 Label the thoracic membranes
ihese superiolviews
of transverse sections' 1
VlEeral
Wtiru'd;Arn
4
5
6
(a)
OJ
and cavities in (a) and ihe abdominopelvic
membranes and caviiy in (b) as shown in
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t.
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Posterior
Small intestine
\-_,.'_
each iS cut. C=i.liildrical Structr-l-ies. si-:c1.t as a lOng
bone or a biooc r-essi. n:al be c-Llt in cross se ctioil'
cbliqrie sectiolf . or iongituciitlal se ction. The s;ine
three sectiotts Can be clemoi-tstrated bf' lhree Cuts
o't aba*ana (fig 2.8)
5. Colnplete Paris C. D. E, an<i F of the iaborator-{
repoft.
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diagrams with terms used to ciescribe body regions: (a) anterior regions; (b) posterior regions' '-'6
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FigUfe Z"S Three possib[e cuis of a banana: (a) cross section; (b) obtique seciion; (c) tongitudinal seciion. Seciions through an
organ, as a body tube, freguenily produce views simitai- to the cut banana.
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