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. . , - . , .

. . , - .-. , .
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. . , . .-.


12-01-98006 11
. .
208

/ .
. .. . -: - ,
2013. - 224 . ISBN 978-5-9793-0549-3


. .
.

.
,

, .
12-01-98006
11
.. , 2013
, 2013
ISBN 978-5-9793-0549-3

. (1924-2010)


,

.
( . , , )


..7
...8
1. ...11
1. ..11
2. . ...14
3. ..19
4. ...21
5. ..23
6. - ..28
7. .31
8. 35
9. 37
10. .....40
11. . .43
12. ...48
2.
..53
1. 53
2. ..56
3. ..58
4. ....62
5. 65
6. ..71
7.
.71
8. 75
9. 78
3. 82
1. ...82
2. ..86
3. 87
.4. ...91
.5. ....93
6. 95

4.
.98
1. .98
2. 100
3. ...102
4. .....105
5. 109
1. 109
2. ..112
3. ..114
4. h D ..118
5. ...120
6. 123
7. ..126
6. ..129
1. ...129
2. 132
3. 134
4. ..135
5. . 138
6. 141
7. ...143
7.
..................................145
1.

......146
2. ...150
3. .155
4. 159
5. 166
6.
171
7. ....173
8. .179
9. ..185
10. ...190
6

11. 193
12.
.195
13.
...203
14.

....206
.209
...210
.220


L
S
V

C
D
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E
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t

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r -

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H -
W -
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B

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11


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1.

1975 . . .
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12

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. 39
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.
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, 1920 ., . , , . 30- . . .
:
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. 13

, , , .

, . . , , , ,
.
, 1.
, , , 2. ,
, 1 2. , , ,
3. , ,
1, .
I . , ,
. ,
(. 1.1). 1.1,
. , ,
. , ,

. . , .
.
. .
. , .

14

. 1.1.

2. .

, , , . - . , , . , . 1 . , ... ,
, . ().
, 2 . ,
. 1.2
. ,
. ,
, (. 1.2).
, .
, ,
, 1.3. , . 15

N , . , N
. N
L:
(1.1)
L N .

. 1.2. : a) ,
) ,

1 / 10 (

). 1.3 , N 5 , L N 5 / 10 .
1

2 1
1 . 1.4 , 2
3 10 15
N 2 9 .
L

6 / 10 , , 5 / 10 .

,
, .

16

. 1.3. ;

. 1.4. ;

, . 1.1. 3 4 ,
. (. 1.5).
,
. , N, .
1.5, ( ln N , ln 1 / )
. , ,
1.3 :
ln N 1.12 1.23 ln 1 / ,

17

N 0.33

1.23

.
1.1

. 1.5. N

( , )

ln N ln 1 /
, .
N :
N C

(1.2)

, 1.3 C 0.33 D 1.23 .


C, , (1.2),

N

.
(1.2) ,
D.
18

C, D, (1.2),
:
ln N .
(1.3)
D lim
0 ln 1 /
,
,
. , , . N
, (1.1), :
1 D
.
(1.4)
L C
, . 1920 . ,
(1.4), ,
. , D (1.4) . (1.4) : - , .
D 1, 0 L . , , .
,
. .

. 1.5 .
.
N ,
1.6. , .
[44],
,

19

,
.

. 1.6. N

( )

(1.2) (1.4) C, .
. ,
. . , , (1.4) :
L

1 D

3.

, .
. ,
.
, , . 1.7
( ., .
. .: . 1968).
, .
,

L * L.

20

(1.5)

. 1.7. ,

. , ,
, , . .
(1.6)
* .
(1.5) (1.6) .
(1.4), ( !)
, :
1 D
(1.7)
L C .
, , , ,
. (1.7)
,
.
, , .
(1.4) (1.7),
, .

.
21

, . ,
, ,
, ,
,
. . , . . , . . ,
.

.
4.

. . , (1.6) * .

(1.8)

(1.6). , . .
, 3 , 2 .
1 / R , R
, .
, N . L * C * 1 D , * , -

22

: L * C

1 D

1 D

. C

1 D

L, N , . .
L *

1 D

N .

(1.9)

, L * N * * , * :

L * N .

(1.10)

(1.9) (1.10)
, :
D
(1.11)
N
N .
, N D
. , (1.11), . , F
,

T T
T

, :

F
F

F .

1
, F 1

F ,

F 1 . ( )
C

const ,
1

: 1, C ( ) 0 .
(1.11) (1.8)

. , (1.11) D

N
N

1 D

N . * /

N , L * C

,
23

1 D

LC

1 D

, (1.8) (1.11)
(1.4),
C .
1.
(1.7).
5.

, , .
.
.
a (. 1.8).
L 4 a . a , , 4 , . . N 4 . a / 2 , N 8 .
:
a

, N 4

a/2

N 8 42

a/4 a/2

N 16 4 2

a/2

N 42 .

L N 4 a , (1.3),

D lim

ln 2

1.
/ a

ln 4 2

24

. 1.8. ,

, 1, , ,
, . , , .
- . -, .
R R 2 / n , n
. N n , L N 2 R
ln n
1.
n ln n / 2 R

D lim

,
. .
. (Helge von
Koch, 1904). :
,
.
,
1/3.
. , , .
1 1 , :

25

1 .

. , . 2 1 / 3 , 4 , . . N

4 (. 1.9).

, .

. 1.9. .


, D 1. n-

1/ 3

D lim
n

ln N
ln 1 /

4 ,

n
n

ln 4

ln 3

ln 4
1.26 .
ln 3

, D 1,26 . L N 4 / 3

n.
. , ,
, . 26

, , ,
. 1 / 3
N 5 ,
. 5 1 / 3

: D ln 5 / ln 3 1.465 .
, , (. 1.10).
, .
. , 2

, -

D lim

ln 8

ln 4

3 / 2 1.5 .

. 1.10. ( );

, .
.
(Cantor, 1850).
(. 1.11).
. . . , . , :
27

1/ 3

1/ 3
N 2

N 1

N 2

1/ 3 n ,

N 2 .

. 1.11. ;


D lim

ln N
ln 2

0.63 .
ln 1 / ln 3

L N 2 / 3

0 n . n

L N 4 / 3 n .
. .
1,

1 1
1
1
,
... ,
...
2 3
N N 1

1
N

1 / N
(1.2) (N

N 1. N

1 / 2

1
1
,

N 1
N ( N 1)

),
28

: D 1 / 2 . D 1,
.

2.

1 1
1
1,
,
...
... .
4

6. -

, (1.3) D 1 . , ,
. D 2 . , , , D 2 , 3.
, .
,
0 D 2 3,
. . D 1 .
, 3. .
, D 3 3. ,
, . , ,
0 D E 3,
(1.12)
E
E 1, 2, 3 .

29

S ,

. N , S -

S N .
2

, (1.2), N C

, D

D2 ,

S C

2 D

(1.13)

, . .
2

S S . ,
:

S C

2 D

(1.14)

. , S

S *

S.

,

* .
, , . , . C

1 D

L, (1.13)

S L , 0
.

30

.
3

. N , V

V N

3 D

(1.15)

3 V C

3 D

(1.16)


. , D 1 , D

.

n

n = 0, 1 3. -

, . ,
n = 0? a
a

1 .

1 .

1 . .
3
.

31

7.

, , . , , , ,
. ,
. , . ,
. ,
. .
, , . ,
:

1, N

1, L

1.

1 / ,
2. 2
. . , ,
1 / . . , , 1 / ,
, , . .
:

1
, N

2, L 1

2
.

,
1.12.
, . . ,
n 1. ln C . n, D 1 ln 2 / ,
1
ln
:

32

D
2, D

ln 2
.
ln

(1.17)

1. ,

, . . , .

. 1.12.
-

. , . . S 1 . :

1, N

1, S

1.

,
1.13. :

1
(, S

1
, N

2
1

4, S

4
.
2

). n :

, N

33

, S

4
2

C, (1.2),
n

(N

D
n

) 4
2

2 D
2

. ,

ln 4 /

ln 4 ln 2
.

ln
ln

ln

(1.17) (1.18) : D

ln 2

(1.18)

ln 2 ,
ln

. E
ln
, :

ln 2

, E 1, 2 .

ln

. 1.13.
34

(1.19)

(1.19) :

ln 2
,
ln

. ,
, .
D

E 1

(1.19) E 3 , D

ln 2

ln

.
. V

, . .

V N

3 D

(1.20)

. , ,

1, V

1,

, N

1 . -

8, V 1

1
. n :

8 , V

8
3

(1.20)
n

ln 8 /

3 D
3

,
3

ln 2
ln 8
D
.
3

3
ln
ln
ln
(1.19) E = 3.
3. 1.14 . .
. n- :
35

4 , S

4

3

1
.
3

ln 4 / 3
ln 4
1
2.262 .
ln 3
ln 3

. 1.14. ,

8.


, (.
1.15).
, .
,
, ,
. n , m .

36

m
1.
(1.21)
2
George Pick 1899 . ,
1.15 n = 18, m = 16, = 18 + 16/2 1 = 25 ( ). , 1.15,
, . . , .
, n = 3.
, m = 5. , .
, , , m = 9. ,
min: n = 3, m = 5, A = 4.5,
max: n = 3, m = 9,
A = 6.5 .
A=n+

. 1.15.

.
, :

37

1
A
2

min

max

1
(4,5 + 6,5) = 5.5.
2
.
(1.21) , .
k , ,
(1.21) :
=

An

m
1 k .
2

(1.22)

4. (1.21) (1.22) .
5. (1.21) (1.22).
9.

() , . N
,

S N

. 0 N

L0 , S L , 0 .
.
,
, . ,
,
. , () .
,
, (. 1.16).
1 ,

.
38

S.

, ,

1 ,

S1.

(1.23)

. 1.16.

N
N

. -

; 1.16
12.

L1

L2

L 1/L

1/

1 D

, L
2

1/

1 D

L 2 . -

2 , , (1.23),

L1N

39

1 D
1

D/2
1

, -

1. , :

LC
C

1 D

D/2

(1.24)

.
a. , 1.10.
2

, , . . S a ,
a

S . S / 4 , , -

ln / S
.
ln 1 / 4

n
4 8 4 exp( ln
).
2
S

D = 3/2, :

L 4 exp( D ln

)4
S

1 D

D/2

, . .
(1.24).
(1.24) . . -
.

ln L const D ln S ,
D ( D = 1,35). , (. 1.17).
40

, ,
.

. 1.17. ;

10.

R , .
. ,
:

1
.
R

(1.25)

(1.25) (1.7):
1
1
L C
R
R

1 D

,
. , ,
L R:
L R

(1.26)

, L R, . (1.26)
, :
S R

41

V R

(1.27)

R
, . ,
D 1 ,

D 3 . (1.27)

(1.14) (1.15).
(1.26) .
, . .
R , L
R

, D . -

: L 1 R

D
2

, R

D
1

, L 2

L L 1 L 2 ,

D
1

D
2

R .

(1.28)

,
N 1 (1.28) . ,
D 1.261 D 1.465 ,

D

1
1
D
4 5 2
3
3


D 1.226 . ,
: D ln 9 / ln 6 . ,

. ,
D 1 . 1.18 ,
.
, , (. 1.19a, ) 42

.

:
n :

1/ 3 , N

1/ 8 .

. 1.18. ,

. 1.19. :
a , ,

:
ln N n
ln 8
D 2 () lim

1.893 .
n ln 1 /
ln
3
n
:
n :

43

1/ 2 , N

1/ 3 .

() lim

ln N

ln 1 /

ln 3
1 . 585 .
ln 2

, . 1.19..
(1.14), 1 / R , S R
S
(1.27) S R

, R

D
1

D
2

. -

S .

R . ,
D

1
1
D
8 3 2 .
3
2

: D 1.4483... , D

D D 2 , .

(1.25) .
. , D.
11.
.


, , . .
. . (. 1.20),
.
. . . .

44

. 1.20. ; . , .
. . . .

45

.
, (1.2).
20 . . . 10 . . ( 6)
1.2.
(. 1.21, 1). ,
.

D. D, .
N 1 ( 1 ) N 2 ( 2 )
:
D

ln N 1 ln N
ln

ln

(1.29)

1.2

, D. , 6
N n ( n ) , n 1 6 , ( 6 2)

6 !
2 ! 4 !

15 D k , k 1 15 !-. 15

46

. 1.21. 1 ( D 1.30 0.02 )


2 ( D 1.37 0.02 ).
k 15

k 1

15

, D

D D

15 (15 1)

D D D .
. . : D 1.30 0.02 .
.
.
. 10
12 . 1.2 1.21, 2. D D ,
D 1.37 0.02 .
, 1.20, . . ,

47

1.3

6
5
4
3
2
1

. 1.22. 1 2 . 1.21
: ln N ( 7.03 0.03 ) (1.33 0 .03) ln

48

1.3.
1.22. 1.22 , D 1.33 .
9 ( 49,
-, 2004 .).
6. ,
1 2 1.21 1.22.
12.

, , ,
.. . -
.

. 1.23. . http://orname.ru/

49


.
, . .
. ,
. ,
. , a. , . N a :

N C a

(1.30)

a
() 3 .
N,
,
7.

a
() 1.5 .
,
,
19.

. 1.24. , .

50

D , C . .

. 1.25. 1-5, .

51

ln N

5
4

2
3
4

ln a

1
1,5

2,5

3,5

. 1.26. .

. 1.25 ,
.
1.
, ,
. . . 1.26 1 ,
. , y x :
y cD x.
(1.31)
, (1.30), D .
1.4

52

y x:

y n cD

x.

(1.32)

n , n = 4. , (2) x
:
2

x y c x D x . (1.33)
, (3) x , (4) n. ,
D. , :

x
n x

x
x

yn
2

(1.34)

. 1.4,

x 3 3.4 3.7 3.9 14 ,


y 4.3 3.6 3.1 2.7 13.7 ,

9 11.56 13.69 15.21 49.46 ,

x y 12.9 12.24 11.47 10.53 47.14 .

(1.34), , 1

14 13.7 4 47.14
4 49.46 14

1.76 .

:
D (1) 1.76 , D (2) 1.67 , D (3) 1.72 , D (4) 1.65 , D (5) 2 .
, 5 2.
, . . 1.25.

5 . 1.25 .

53




, .
. , , . , ,
.
.
1.

, . ,
, , .
, .

. (. 2.1). . . , .
,
, , . . ,
, . ,
.

54

. 2.1.


. ,
.
.
, , .
.
, .
(1.4). ,
. (1.7).
R. -

55

1 / R . (1.7) 1 / R , , :
D

L R .

(2.1)

,
(2.1) D
D 1 .
, (1.4) (1.7) S :

S C

2 D

(2.2)

L C

2 D

(2.3)

1 / R , :

S R

(2.4)


V :

V C

3 D

(2.5)

L C

3 D

(2.6)

1 / R , :

V R

(2.7)

, ,
M . ,
(11.7):
D

M R .

(2.8)

,
D.
(2.7) . , (2.8), .
(2.1)
56

(1.4) . (1.4) . (2.1) . , .


2.


. , .
, . , 2.2
R 1

14 . R

23 . , -

. N R .

h

N R .

. 2.2.

57

(2.9)

h .
:
h 2 D 1 .
(2.10)
, h 0.8 , D 1.4 .
(2.10) .
, N R, .. (.
2.3)
D = 1, N = const h = 0.
, N
, .. (. 2.4)
D = 1, N = R 2 h = 2.
,
, .. h = a + b D,
h 2 D 1 , .. (2.10).

. 2.3. , , .

58

. 2.4. . .
3.

. , . .
. 2.3
(http://thunder.nsstc.nasa.gov.) .
, , .
2.3 :

LC

1 D

(2.11)

, 2.3 2 , 200 10 . ,
.
2.3. ln L

59

ln L i

, -

. , 2.5 D 1 .
2.5 . ,
, 10 . 10 . ,
,
.
D = 1.

. 2.5.

. 2.6. [56]

{{[

60

. 2.7.

,
2.6. (2.1) . 2 2 .
(. . 2.6) , ,
2.7. :

A B C D 2
S A B C D 2.5
S A B C D 3
S A B C D 3.5,
S A B C D 4 .
S

AD 1 . (. . 2.5) .
,
N 1 A B 1 C 1 D 11 ,

61

N
N
N
N

2
3
4
5

A B
A B
A B
A B

2
3
4
5

D 15 ,
D 17 ,
D 19 .

C 2 D 13 ,
C
C
C

3
4
5

ln N ln R , R S , . , h 1,48 ,

D = 1.74.

,
,
1 3. , .
7. ln N i ln R i .
, 2.8.

. 2.8. ln N ln R.

62

4.


. , ,
, .
, , ,
.
. , 2- 9- . 2,53 ,
, , 1,5
.
, .
, ,
178 .
0,15
0,20 /2, 0,26 /2. 6500 , 1000
2930 - .
,
253712 . , , . , , .
2.9 . .
,
D.
D , , 2.10a.
2.10 ,
18 . . (2.9) (2.10), 63

N 1.
S 1 1 . , N 1 11 . , 1 2,
S 1 2 2 ,

N 1 2 18 . , , S 1 2 3 4 4 N 1 2 3 4 28 .
2.11 .

lg N 1.04 1.12 0.02 lg R .

. 2.9. . ,

64

. 2.10. :
;
18

(2.9) (2.10),

h 1.12 0.02 ,
:

D 1.56 0.03 .
. ,
,
, . . -
. 2.9
. 18
65


. D D : D ln N i ln N k / ln R i ln R k , i k ,

1 18. , 17 18 / 2 153 D, 3 % .

. 2.11. R N
;

5.

. (53% ),
( 1120 2),

.
, .

.
.

. ,
66

[ .., ..] .
[ ..] . . [ ..] ()
.
. [ ..]
(1975)
, ,
. .
. , . , .
, .
2.12 2.13 [ , ].
, 2.12.
. , 2.14 ,
5 .
ABCD 4 .
1 2.14 ,
34 .
, 1 / .
, 1 2 . . :
L / = 34567389;
R=

1,

2,

3,

4.

2 , 1 2 2,

2.
67

. 2.12. ,
1:200000, N48-XXXV

Ln L Ln R , D. 1.39. :

ln( L 2 / L 1 )
ln( R 2 / R 1 )

68

(2.12)

. 2.13. .
(CD- Arc View 2.3)

. 2.14. .
69

D, , D = 1.38 0.02.
2.14,
0,5 .
L / = 62102133164;
R= 2, 4, 6, 8.
, D = 1,40 , (2.12) D =
1.40 0,02. , ,
D = 1.38 0.01.
, 2.12.
, 1140,
. D = 1.38 0.01 .
2.15 , 7 . (. . 2.15) ABCD
, 2.15.
0.5 , :
N = 6, 12, 14, 17;
R = 1, 2, 3, 4 ,
h 0.74 ,
D 1 h / 2 1.37 .
, 1 , h 0.84 D = 1.42, . (. . 2.13) 1140 8
.
. .
, h = 0.75 D = 1.38.
,

70

. , 1 11
, D 1.33 .

. 2.15.
; a 7

(. 2.16). .
, h = 1.44 0.01. :
D = 1 + h / 2 = 1.72 0.01.

. 2.16. ; D 1.72
71

6.

. S 0 ,

V 0 S 0 , , V

. -

h S

2
0

, h

, . V 0 S
hS

2
0

h S 0/.

(2.13)

S, V h S / . S
S

, . , S

(2.9) (2.10), N R

2 D 1

N S , , -

, R

. (2.13),
VV

2 D 1

, , .
. , R

, . . ,
, V R.
7.

, 72

(, , ) [
.., .. ., .. .].

. , , , .
,

. , . , ,
. , ,
.
, : , . . . . , D 1.45 1.55. . . D = 2.16 0.05. 2 2 ,
, D = 1.
, . (. 2.17) [ ..].
,
(2.9). .
( . 2.17
R) ,
.
L

R 1 . (

), L
73

R 2 , 2.2. ,
L R, ln L ln R . D. ,

D = 1.52 0.03.

. 2.17. ,

, .
. N , . . . 2.17
R. , N = 53. R, , N R ()
h
N R
( ) h 1.01 0.05 . (2.10),
74

D 1.506 0.005 .
D. 2.18 [30], .
, . . N t (2.9) ,
R t

1/ h

(2.14)

1 6 (. . 2.18) , R

0, 943

, h = 1.06 D 1.53 .

. 2.18. ;
,


, 2.18. 1.50, 1.52 1.53
[ .. .].
. [

..], : N R

1,18

, D 1.59 , . . .

75

[ .., .. .,
.. .] D 1.52
.
8.

. ,
. : 0,2
1015 , , . , , . : .
, , .

. D, 1 2. D = 1 , . D = 2
,
, . .
.
. R (, )
: R

1 D

. , S -

, R S . , K ,
. K :
76

2 D 1

(2.15)

K .
, ( M 0 ). ,
( ). K
( George Pick, 1899):

K M

M
1.
2

(2.16)

2.19 . ( () .
5
. , 5 . 2.1 K
( ). (2.15), ,
D 1.84 0.01 .
2.20
, , (2.15).

. 2.19. , D 1.68 0.01


77

15,

2.1

. 2.20.

. 6 14 h 2( D 1) ,

ln N 2 ln N 1
:
ln 1 ln 2

1.68, 1.73, 1.68, 1.68, 1.69, 1.77,1.69, 1.68, 1.69, 1.62,


1.66, 1.34, 1.68, 1.70.
1.34 .
h 168 0.01 . ,

D 1.84 0.01 .
, ,
, -

78

, ,
.
9.

, , . , [2, 29, 34, 49].


[3] ,
300 .
[3] 1701 . (. 2.21), 1950 . (. 2.22)
(. . 2.4) [45]. , , 1950 . (. . 2.21)
, , (. . 2.21)
.

. ()

. 2.21. . 1701 .

79

. 2.22. . 1950 .

,
, , . 2.21, , D.
, 1 8.
. .
1950 . (. . 2.22) , D 1950 1.38.
D

2000

2 5. ,

50-
.
D2000 , 6070- . XX .,
80

, ,
10- 1862
.
D 1701
1701 . (. . 2.21)
, 1 8. (1.21)
(1.22) , , . . . , 1 8
. ,
, D 1701 = 1.22.

D 1701

D1950 ( 1.22 1.38),


D2000 50-
( 1950 . )
1.38 ( ).
,
D , 250 (17011950 .)
:
, D1950 .
,
.
D1950 , ,
, ,
. ,
.

,
K14,
81

, ,
.
,
1701 . . , , ( ) .
(19502000 .)
D2000 , ( ). 50 . , ,
, .


.
. .
. .
1.
.
.
.
.
82

, , ,
. .
[ .]. , .
, .
, C , .
, .
.

. .
, L

, .. L , 1 N . -

, N 1, , , . , ,

dD .

(3.1)

,
d D . , D,
, d.
, , . (3.1)
:

n n dn , -

, .
C

1 D

(1.4)), :

dD = C
83

1 D

(3.2)

(3.2)

, :

= C .
(3.3)
, ,

1 D

(3.3)

1 D

dD

1 D

1 D

, , (3.2),

d D .

(3.3), :

dD

dD .

(3.4)

. (3.4)
, (1.11). (3.4)
. , (3.4) , [
.] d

d , , -

.
.
. ,

N ,

2 .

2 . N -

2 D

d D . , (1.13),

dD = C

2 D

(3.5)

, , :

84

dD = C

nD

(3.6)

n . , (3.6)
n , .
,
. D 0 , , , , ..

(3.7)

d D 0 .
dD C

(3.7)
1 D

D 0 , -

, :
lim C 1 .

(3.8)

D0


. , , .

.
,
.

D .
.
(3.6) D 1 ,

d1 C .

, , , ..

d
1.
d
, D 1
:

lim

D 1

dD

d
.
d

u ( ) , :
85

(3.9)

lim

u( ) d D

D 1

d
u( ) .
d

(3.10)

(3.10) .
n

dD C

nD

d1 C

n 1

D 1 :
n

n ,

1 d
n
.
n d
d
n
d1
,
d
n 1

.. (3.10) u ( )

n.

2.

.
,
, (3.6).
C

aD

bD

, -

dD +

dD .

, :

u v.
:

u v d

u dD +

v dD .

(3.11)

, .
86

,
, D 1 . :
a b

dD = C

a b D

a D

b D

a D

b D

aD

b D

aD

b D

dD C

aD

C2

b D

dD .

a b

dD =

1
1
C C1 a
2

1
1
C C2 b
2

b dD +

a dD .

u( )

v( ) . , ,

1
1
C C1 C
2

1
1
C C 2
2

C u , :

u v d D Cv u

v d D Cu v

u dD .

(3.12)


. , ,

d
.
d

D 1 (3.11) (3.12) :

87

u v ' u

u v ' u '

a)

' v ',

v u v '.

sin d D ;

b)*

tg d D ;

c)*

ln d D .

3.

. , d / d D . , ,

d D

(3.13)

(3.6) :

d D

d
d D
C
d D

n D

(3.14)

, C
. ,
. , (3.14) :

d
n D
n
C

.
d D
n n D , , :


d D

n D

(3.15)

b,
88


. , (1.4)
LL

1 D

, C L0 b. (3.1)

.
b

dD

b
, C.

b 1 ,
:

0
1 .

(3.16)

(3.16) ,
.
(3.15) n = 0, :

1 C
d D

(3.17)

(3.17) .
, V const ,

V V
d D

1 V C
d D

(3.18)

. 1, N D ( )
:

N D( ) C
89

(3.19)

1 , C N D (1) . ,
:

C N D (1) 1 .

(3.20)

, ,

1 1 dD ,

N D ( ) 1 .
d D

(3.21)

,
(3.19):

N D (1)
d D
, N

(3.22)

1 D.

D 1 (3.19)
N N 1 1 / .

(3.23)

, , . ,

1 N 1 .
(3.23) ,
N 1 1 1 .
(3.24)
D 2 (3.19)
: N N

/ . ,

1 N 1 ,
N 2 1 1 .

, D

90

D n

1 1 .

(3.25)

,
.
. ,
,

2 D

1 D

. (1.4), :

d
L N D 1 2 D

d
D 2

N
d

1 D

1
.

, , N 2 1 0 .
(3.25). ,
.
4.
. :

d
y A.
dx D

(3.26)

y A dD x A C x

(3.27)

, , :

91

d
n
yx ;
dx D

n D

yC x

(3.28)

,
( ).
30 . ,
[37]. -, ,
. , .
:

dD = C

E D

1 E

1 E D

E D

,
:

1 E D
dD C
1 E

D
E

(3.29)

D E.
(3.29) D , . (3.29) ,

. :
1

2
d

dD .

(3.30)

3 d D
d

(3.31)

. ,
.
92

, (3.30)
(2.8) ( , ( 2) 1 ). , (2.8) . ,
. (2.8) :

d
u u d D .
d

(3.32)

, , (3.30). ,
D (3.30) (3.31)
.

5.
. (3.30) (3.31). , , .
, , E (3.29) .
:

V const . :

d x
d t

d x
d t

V . (3.30),

x d D t ,

x dD t V .

d t

d
V.
x dD t
d t

x, , (3.18), C

Vt

, ..

93

xC

Vt

(3.33)

, . , 4. D 1
: x V t .

dV
d t

a const .

V C
a

dt

at

(3.34)

x
2

. (3.31):

d
x 2 d D t
dt

x d D t , .. 2 d D t

x dD t a .

1
C
2

at

2D

D 1 : x a t

(2.35)
2

/2.

.
. ,
. .
1 / 2

- H
, - .
[ .. 2006]
, -
, -1/2 D:
D

H
.
(3.36)


, h.
, D h :
(3.37)
D 1/ h .
94

D h ,
(3.30) (3.31), D . ,
(3.30)
1

d
z z d
dz

h/2

z,

(3.38)

, ,
h .
,
, :

i B

E
z

- ,

B
z

(3.39)

- , E (

) B ( ) , z . , , (3.38), :

d
E E d
dz

h/2

d
B B d
dz

z,

h/2

z.

, B :

B
d
0.
B
i 0
dz h

(3.40)

d

dz

2
h/2

d d
d
= .
dz h / 2 dz h / 2 dz h

, (3.40) , , - , , :
1

h
1

,
H C
i 0

95

(3.41)

C . , (3.37) (3.36).
6.

. , . ,
. , ,
. , , , . , , ,
, , . .
R. , (. 3.1 ). ,
, .
,
(. 3.1 b).

. 3.1. )
b) .
2 2 ,
R R

, , 96

.
, . (3.15),

D

1 d
N 2 R
R dR

CR

2 D 2

(3.42)

(2.9), (2.10),
:

2 D 2 1 .

(3.43)

, , 3

R , .. :

1 d
N 3
R dR

C R

2 D 3

(3.44)

h 3 2 D 3 3.

(3.45)

D2 D3 , . (3.43) (3.45) h D
. D2

D3 .

97



1.

. .
.
, , ,
, .
, .
1 2...n n :
n! 1 2...n ,
. n = 0 0! = 1. , ,

n x

e dx . ,

n x

x e

dx nn 1n 2...1 n! .

n,
. -:

1 x e x dx .

(4.1)

n 1 n n! .
, -:

98

! 1 ,
(4.1). (4.1) , 0
1/2. ,
-:
1 , 1

.
sin

(4.2)

-:

a b x

a 1

e dx

b 1

e y dy .

x
R, .
R

a b x a 1

b 1

( x y )

dx dy .

(4.3)

x y u , y u v , , u v
.
u x y , v y / x y . , x R
y , u v / R 1 . v / R 1 , du dv ,

dx dy

( x, y )
du dv u du dv .
(u , v)

- (4.3)

a
a b u
0

b 1

e du

v 1 v
a 1

b1

dv .

, R .
a b , , -:

99

x 1 x

b 1

a 1

dx

(a) (b)
( a b)

(4.4)


:
1

F (a, b; c; z )

(c )
t b1 (1 t ) c b1 (1 z t ) a dt.

(b) (1 b) 0

(4.5)

, ,
:

1
1 x
P ( x)

(1 ) 1 x

/2

F ( ,1 ;1 ;

1 x
),
2

1 x 2.
2.
x

n-

dx dx ... ( x )dx
a

( x )d
a

a
x

x , J ... ...dx , na

J x =
n

x . ,

dx

dx ... ( x )dx = ( x )d n x .

(4.6)

, n-

x

1
( x t )n1 ( t )dt .

( n 1)! a

(4.7)

, (4.1) ,
, , (4.6) (4.7), c
, n . n
100

n 1! n , :
x

x = ( x )d x =
a

x
(t )
1
dt .

( ) a ( x t )1

(4.8)


. :

x = ( x )d x =

(t )
1
dt

( ) ( x t )1

(4.9)

, ,

.
x t t,
:

x =

1
1
t x t dt .
( )

(4.10)

(4.6) , n-
:

km

(4.11)

dx... x dx

dx... dx dx... x dx

k m

k .
k

x x d

m
m

x.

, (4.11) k
m. , 0 1. , , ( 2), ,
1 + ,

101

x = ( x )d 1 x = dx ( x )d x ,

(4.12)

. , (4.12)

( x )dx .

10.

x d 1, 5 x ,

0
x

d x

x d 0 ,5 x

5/2

d 0 ,5 x

x d x

8 x
.
15 0,5

. .
2

x / 2 .
2

x
x
y d y
1
1 x 2 d 0,5 x
.

20
2 0,5 0
xy

x y z

0,5

x z
2

d z . -

, .
3.
n

x (4.10)

J xn

1
t 1 ( x t ) n dt .
( )

t x t ,
n

J xn

x
t 1 (1 t ) n dt .
( )

- (4.4),
102

(1 n)
x
(1 n )

dx =

(4.13)

, .
x

e ,

1
t
( )

x t

ex
t
( )

dt =

e t d t ,

- (26.1),

e e d

xe .

(4.14)

a x

a x

= a

a x

(4.15)

, , (4.14).
, . . x a x . (4.14)

a x

a xe

a x

. (4.6) -

a x

a xa
xe

a x

x.

(4.16)

, (4.15).

, , sin x .

sin x

1
(J
2i

i x

i x

(4.15),

1
i x
i x

(i e
- ( i ) e ) =
2i

103

).

1
i ( x / 2 )
i ( x / 2 )
.
(e
e
) = sin x
2i
2

sin x sin x d

.
x = sin x
2

(4.17)

(4.17) , :

sin xdx cos x sin x / 2 ,

dx sin xdx sin x sin x 2 / 2 ,


dx dx sin xdx cos x sin x 3 / 2 ,

sin xd

x sin x n / 2 .

n , (4.17).
:

a x

sin bx

a x

(a 2 b 2 )

/2

sin x ,

= arg(a + ib) 0, /2 .
- ( z ) =

d
ln ( z ) ,
dz

J ln x

x
ln x (1) (1 ) ,
(1 )

(4.18)

(1+) - (1) = -

1 t

ln t dt .

,
(4.14). , :

104

e
x

x
1 x
... d

x=

2
1

2
3 x

x
... .

3 2
1 2

e . , , , 0 x,

x

e d

xe

1 x
1 x


.
4.


. , ,
:

d
( x) d x ( x) .
dx
n- , , n :
n

d
( x) d
dx

x ( x) .

n ,
. . ,

d

dx

( x) d
105

x ( x) .

(4.19)

D J

d
D, (4.19)
dx

1 .

D J

(4.20)

-,
. ,

xn

(1 n)
x
(1 n )

D e e ,

(4.21)

sin x sin( x / 2),

ln x =

ln x 1 1
.

x 1

(4.9) -:

J ( x)

(t )
1
d t.
( ) ( x t ) 1

n n 1 n 1 , , n 1 -,

1 / .
,

1
(x t)

1 d
1
( ) dx ( x t )

D ( x )

(t )
1
d
dt ,

(1 ) dx ( x t )

(4.22)

.
,
(4.27),
106

. ,
0 x, (4.22) :

D ( x)

(t ) ( x t )
1
dt .
( )
( x t )1

(4.10),
, -.
(4.9) (4.22)
:

1 x (t ) d t
f ( x ),
( ) a ( x t ) 1

xa.

(4.23)

, (x) .
. (4.23)
t

( s)ds

(t s )

( ) f (t ).

1
(x t)

dt
a ( x t )

t a x:

( s) d s

(t s)

( )
a

f (t ) d t
(x t)

d t ...d s d s ...d t,
a

( s) d s
a

dt

( x t ) (t s)
s

( )
a

f (t ) d t
(x t)

107

t s x s ,

(1 ) d B( ,1 ) ( ) (1 ),

x
f (t ) d t
1
.

(1 ) a ( x t )

( s) d s
a

x , :

1
d x f (t ) d t
x
.
(1 ) d x a ( x t )

(4.24)


:
x
d x f (t ) d t
f a

d x a ( x t ) x a a

f ' t d t

x t

, (4.23) (4.9), (4.24) (4.22).


11. , d

a xa

108

x , -


, .
, , . ,

, . ,
.
1.

,
. , , ,
. ( ),
, , , . (Robert
Brown, 1826), .
,
t , . . (1905) , .
, ,
,
.
10

14

, , , , 109

, . , . R , -

R 0 , , ,

0.

l
, (. 5.1):

N 1

l .
R

. 5.1. .
N l

: R

. , ,

N 1

2
N

2
N 1

2 R

N 1

l l

2
N

l .

N 1

R1

l ; R

R3

l 0 -

R2

R 1 l 2 l ;

l 3 l

110

Nl .

(5.1)

,
t N t / (5.1)

t.

(5.2)

l / - v. v 0 , v

. -

1
v
2

1l
,
2

3kT / m , ,

6 k

(5.3)

, T , m

. .
v l / , t L v t (. 5.2). , 3 /,
1 3 . , ,
, . ,
t L / l , (5.2) R:

Ll.

(5.4)

l
, , 30 . , (5.3), 1 -

111

3 30 300 , 3 ,

RN

. 5.2.
2.

, . , , , .
,
, - . , n

, .
. , , . ,
n n n . (5.1),
R, N l.
n nc , , . n nc , -

112

, . n nc ,
, ,
l n

N n

(5.5)
(5.6)

n .

(5.7)

, l
: l n 0, (5.5) . (5.6)
(5.7) , , n 0
N 0 R

0, .

(5.5) (5.7)
.
(5.1):
2

R Nl .

(5.8)

, , :

N
.
2
R

(5.9)

, .
(5.5)(5.7) (5.8)(5.9),
:
2 , 1 .
1 / 2 , . .
l

1
1

.
n
nn c

(5.10)

, .
N n , R

113

n 1 .

(5.11)

R N,

n N

1/

,
R N

1
2


t , ,
R t

1
2

(5.12)

.

. -, , -, . , .
3.

,
, .
, , , . , .
, . .
, L :

LC

1 D

(5.13)

, D .
,
1 D 2. 0 D 1.
,
, . -

114

.

t.
, . . . ,
. :
h

L ' L , t ' t .

(5.14)

(L , t ) (L, t), . h ,
. h .
2 ( 2.9).
:
1

L'

t ' h

.
L t
, L t

1/ h

:
L t

1/ h

(5.15)


.
.
(5.15) , . , (5.15)
.
( , ),
. .

h D , . 3
,
115

h 2 2 D 2 2.
, ,
h 3 2 D 3 3.
(5.12),
,

1
h 0 0, ,
1. , (5.11).
R t
, R t

1/ h

1/ 2

, -

, -

, .
- , , y x, ,
:
y x

1/ 2

(5.16)

, , , (32.4) :
y x

1/ h

(5.17)

. , , - H C , f
:

1 / 2

(5.18)

, , , - :

116

1 / h

(5.19)

, . .
, h (5.19).
.
v, r
r
r

v d t .

: r
r

, -

. -

r t . , 3 .
:

d
v.
v d t
d t

1/ 2

r, . , ,

r vdt

r
v

d t

1/ 2

const ,

rC v t

1/ 2

(5.20)

1 1.
l
, (5.20) C:

rl

117

t
.

d
v.
v d t
d t

1/ h

(5.21)

,
,

d
v C v t 1/ h ,
r
d t

1/ h
. . (5.20),
1 / 2 1 / h .
4. h D

f - H C f . - , .
(. 5.3).
D ln 2 / ln 3 .
,
3 f . 2,

H C f 2 H C 3 f .
(5.22)
, :

f A

f ,

(5.23)

x, A .
(5.22) (5.23),

2 3 f .
x

118

2 3

x ln 2 / ln 3 .
D ln 2 / ln 3 , , x D
D
H Cf A f .
(5.24)
(5.24) (5.19),
,

1
.
D

(5.25)

. 5.3. ,
, .

,

.

119

5.

- , . . , .

. , . , .
.
, N
, l. ,
,
(P. Flory, 1949).
, P , , , R,

P const exp 3R / 2 N l

(5.26)

U eff T S ,
T , S ln P , . .

U eff const T

3 R

2 Nl

(5.27)

U V n T , V
, n .
n:

U V T n n B n C ... ,
B, C . , ,

120

U BVTn ,

(5.28)
3

n (n N / R ). F, :

F U T S c T B

3T R
2l

(5.29)

c 1. F ( R) min ,

dF / dR 0 ,

R c Bl

3 1/ 5

3/5

(5.30)


R N

1/ D

(5.31)

(5.30) ,

5
.
3

(5.32)

, D (5.32)
D 3 .

. , , (5.26)

P const exp E R / 2 N l

E ; E 1 , E 2
, E 3 . n
E

R . ,

121

N/R

, N R, . F ( R) min ,
R N

3
2 h

2E
.
3

(5.33)

(L. Pietronero, 1982) ,


h
D , ,
:

h 3 1

D
2

(5.34)

(5.33)

h3

11
.
6

(5.35)

, (5.33).
D 2 4 / 3 D 3 5 / 3 ,

1
D2 .
3

(5.36)

122

6.

(. . 2.15). 2 3
,

1.04 0.02

1.52 0.03 ,

:
h 2 2 D 2 1 .

(5.37)

, (. 2 3)
,
D 2 () 1.45 1.55 , D 3 () 2.16 0.05 .
, D

. . , , , ,
l. , , .
,
R,

exp 3 R / 2 N l

(5.38)

, . (5.38) , S :

123

3 k R2

SS 0
k , S

2 N l2

(5.39)

, -

.
, . U ,
.

rD

N,

(5.40)

q .

rD

kT V
,
2
N
q

(5.41)

T , V . , :
2
k T q
F U T S F 0
2 0 k T

F
R

3/ 2

R
N 3
N
kT
. (5.42)
2
V 2
Nl

3
3
R . F R min
4

0 . :
N R A R 7 / 5 ,

124

(5.43)

1
A
18

1/ 5

kT

q 2 / 4

3/ 5

l 7 / 5 .

(5.44)

, , . . ,
(5.42) (5.44)
l.
(5.43) (5.31) ,

h3

7
.
5


3 5 (3.38) ,

h 3 2 D 3 3.
:

D
D

11
2. 2 .
5

D 2 .

, :

D3 = D2 +

2
,
3

(5.45)

7 6.
,

D2 = D3
125

2 23

1.53
3 15

2 D 2 2

16
1.07 .
15

, .
(5.45), , .
7.


. .
, , , .
,
, , , . P ,
R N , :

2 R2
.
P exp
2 Nl2

(5.46)

2 ,
. l . , S :

S ln P

2 R

2 N l

(5.47)

U, . , U .
, .
126

U .
, U n,
n

N
.
2
R

(5.48)

R , N . - U n k. , , :
2

U const N

n .

(5.49)

F, , . .

F U S

2 k

2 k

F min ,
N R

k 1
k 3

(5.50)

dF
0 . :
dR

(5.51)

.
, (5.51).
,
N R

2 ( D 1)

(5.52)

(5.51) (5.52),
(5.49) :

3 D4
2D

(5.53)

, , k
0. -, 2 D 0, D 2, . -, 3D 4 0,
127

4
1.33 .
3

(5.54)

, , 1,33, . ,
, , .
,
. (. 1 11).
, - U N

. , -

U n

). (5.49)
k

U const n N .

(5.55)

F :

2 k

F min
N R

6
k 2

(5.52),

k 3

2D
.
D 1

k 0, 1 D 2,
. , . .

128

,
,
. .
. .
, .
1.

L, R
R

d R
d t

L LR, R .

(6.1)

m
L=

2
m R

(6.2)

R R ,

t.

(6.3)

:
L

2 2 h

m R
2

129

2 2 h

L.

(6.4)

(6.3) ,

2 2h 0 .

h 1.

(6.5)

, h
1.
R '/ R t '/t ,
.
,
, ,
U R .
, (6.2) :
2
m R

U R .

(6.6)

. , N , l. U R , :

U R

U R .

(6.7)

(6.6) (6.3) :
L=

2 2 h

m R
2

130

U R

L=

m R

2 2h D

U R .

2 2h D 0 ,
:

h 1

D
.
2

(6.8)


,
.
, (6.5)
,

h 3 1

D3
2

3 , .

( 1 3) R .
(6.7)

U R R

U .

1 ,

U R R

U 1 .


L=

m R
2

U 1 R

131

, :

1 1 1 1
sin
2 m
D 2 D 2 1 D / 2
t
R
.
U (1)
1

sin 1
D D

(6.9)

(6.8).
2.

, - .
, , ,
1 . , , , 1 .
, ,
.
L t

1/ h

t L
.

/ const L C

tK

1 hD

1 D

(6.10)

K .

tK

(6.11)

, (6.10)

h D.
,
132

(6.12)

D
D 1 ,
2

D 2 D 3 ,

1.
,
, 1 .
;
. ,
, (
) .
. ,
E 0 , E 1 , E 2 ... ,

nm

E n E

. -
x exp i
t .

nm

x nm x.

i
nm

x x

nm

nm

( -

).
, , .
1

d
x : x

dx

133

x.

[
x
nm
dx

x]

nm

d

e
dx

a x

a x

i
x
nm

nm

nm

nm


.
3.



x
nm

2
nm

nm

nm

,
2

nm

1 i ,

1 .


x
nm

2
nm

nm

nm

nm

2
nm

nm

,
nm



x
nm

2
nm


nm

nm

x nm.

nm

nm

. -

, .

134


. , .
,
:

(6.13)

E
. : E . -
,
1 / .
:
E 2 . , 2 / .
(6.13),

2
1

,

(6.14)

1/ 2

0.05 .

(6.15)

. , (6.15)
. ,
, , .
4.


, i .
exp i t exp t ,

135

. . . , , .
.
A2 :

d
A
dt

2 A .

,
, .

d
A
dt


dt

,
. ,
. , . , , .
:
1

d
d
2

A
dt
dt
nm

nm

nm

A
2

2
nm

nm .

i exp 3 i / 2 , , , .

d 2
i
dt A
nm
,

2
nm

nm

2
nm

3

2

nm

2
nm

1 .

,
nm

136

nm

3

4

nm

(6.16)

, . . . , 1, .
,
(6.16) :

3
.
4

(6.17)

, , (6.14).
(6.11) ,

2
1 3

,
4

2
3

1.
(6.13) (6.17) 1. , , . , 0 ,

1 ln

... ,

, .
3 4 ,
. (
),
(6.13) (6.17).

137

5. .

,
. U
R , ,
U R k.
(6.18)
, (6.6),
2
R ,

k
L L R , R

, , .
.
:

L L
,

L L

L L R , R
k

2 2h

2 2 h k

R ,

(6.19)

2 2 h k 0,
,

h 1

k
.
2

(6.20)

, .. k 2 . (6.20) h 0 .
R ' R ,
t ' t ,
.. .
U 1 / R , .. k 1 .
(6.20) h 3 / 2 .

t '

R ' R ,

2/3

t.

138

R '

t '


R t

2/3

:
3

R t .
.

. V .
, V . , , ..

V F V , V .

(6.21)

-.
.
,
. , . (6.3). (6.21) :

V ' F V ' , ' V ' ,


,

1 2 h

1 h

V F

V,

V .

2 h 1

V , V .
h

(6.22)

, ,
. ,
:

139

inv .

(6.23)

- , R

/ t.

(6.3) (6.23):
2

' 'V ' V ,


2

,
2

h
h

V .

, :

2
.
3

(6.24)

(6.3) :

R '

t '


R t

1/ h

R t

1/ h

(6.25)

, R
R, ..

(6.25) (6.24), :
3/ 2

R t

(6.25)

(6.3) (6.24), :

V '

1/ 3

V.

t,

V R

140

1/ 3

P: P '

P ,

: ' , - , a b :
(6.26)
a b 2 2h 2 / 3 .
6.

,
, .
:
2

x a xb 0.
x 1, x

(6.27)

, a x b 0 , -

x 1

b
.
a

(6.28)

x 1 a b.
,
2

(6.27) a x . x b 0 ,

x b.

x 1

(6.29)

x c , (6.28) (6.29) , . .

xc

b
b.
a

a b,

xc b.

141

(6.30)

(6.30), , .
x 1

x
, . .

b
,
a

(6.31)

b
b . (6.31) (6.30)
a

2 a 0 .
a
a

a b ,

1
3 b

1
, (6.30) 3 b

,
b

1
.
3

(6.32)

, (6.32) x 1.
:
3

x a x b 0.

(6.33)

x 1 :

142

b
.
a

(6.34)

x 1, a x

xb

1/ 3

(6.35)

(6.34) (6.35) :

ab

1/ 3

, x

1/ 3

(6.36)

:
a

1
.
4

(6.37)

,
.
7.

( 5, 5; 5.36):

1
D2 .
3

(7.36)

.
, (5.45) . , , .
,

.
:
D 3 - D 2 ( ) h 3 - h 2 ( ).
(7.37)
(7.36), , :

143

1
h3 h2 .
3

(7.38)

2 D

2, h 3 2 D 3 3.

2 D 3 3 = 2 D 2 2 +

1
.
3

, :

D2

2
.
3

(7.39)

, (5.45) (7.37). , .

144

7.

, ,
. , , . . . ,
. :
1 ;
2 .


.
,


.
. ,
. . . ,

, ,
.

145

1.


.
, , -, - H .
[ .. 2005; .. 1993]

2
,
0

(7.1)

- , 0 ( ). , - H
:

1 / 2

(7.2)

, , .
.
1950 . .. 1953 . .
.
, ,
E x B y :

1 E
x
B y

z 0

(7.3)

x
. z . 1 / , c
, , .
, , , [ .. 2005]:

1
i
1
0
146

(7.4)

,
,

- , - .

, , -300.
, .
, , - 450,
, - 450. ,

1 ,

(7.5)

.
(7.4)

.
4

(7.6)


1 / . , :

1/ 2 .

(7.7)


(3.7) .
[ . .], :

i b .

(7.8)
, , , .
[ ]. .
. , b
.
. 147

, , . -
:

0
.

1 i

,
1,

(7.9)

(7.10)

(3.9) ,
, :

(7.11)


.

, , . - , .

, . .
[ .. 2005].
[ ..].
.
, r t [ .., .. ]:
r r.
t t,
(7.12)
, , . , . , , .. , , [ ..]. 148

1926 . [Richardson L.F.], . , (7.12).


,
, - . , :

E
c2

B
t

(7.13)

E
1
B
E.

t
0

:
E e E ' , B b B' , s

(7.14)

' , g ' , q ' . (7.15)

(7.13) (7.14) :

b B'

' E '
,
e t'

e q g ' E' e s q '


1

E ' .
c 2 ' B'

b t'
'
b

(7.16)

(7.17)

(7.16) (7.17) (7.13) (7.14), (7.16) (7.17)


. ,

e
,
b


q g ,

s q

.
2

:
2

E H '

;
;
2 .
' ' ' '
E ' H

149

(7.18)

,
[ ..]. .

.
2. -


. .
.
,

(, , , ..),
[ ..]. .
-
, . , , , , ,
[ .., .., ..].
.
,
, , -. -
H

2
, , ,
0

(7.2).

,
, ,
. ,
. 7.1. . 7.1

150

. 7.1. . , .. ,
; - .
(.. ) .
, , . ,

D, .
, . 7.1
.
:

B
,
t

c2 B

E.
0

, B :

B
t

2 B
.
0 z 2
1

(7.19)

(7.19) :

151

(7.20)

B (t )

1
t1/ 2

z2
.
exp
2K t

(7.21)

, , , z 0 .
(7.21) ,
t [ ..;
..]

r 2 K t.

(7.22)

,
,
B B0 exp i t i k z .
(7.23)

(7.23) (7.19),

i 0 .

B B0 e z / H C ,

2
.
0

(7.24)

(7.1).
r (7.22) H (7.24)
, , :

1
.

(7.25)

(7.25) .
, .
t (7.22) 1 / , ,
:
1 / 2

r
.
(7.26)
. 152

. . ,
. (7.24) . 1 / 2

, H
,
:

H 1 / h .

(7.27)

, , , .
, , :
1

H C

0 1 h

.
0 0

(7.28)

. , .
, .
, h = 2 C 2 , (7.28)
(7.1).
.

.
, ( ). .
- . -
,
. .
.

.
. ( 4
5).
153

f H f .
, .
(. 7.2).

. 7.2. ,
, .
.
,
D ln 2 / ln 3 . , 3 f .

H f 2 H 3 f .
(7.29)

, :

f A

f ,

(7.30)

x, A . (7.30) (7.29),

f
1 2 3

3 f

x ln 2 / ln 3 .
154

D ln 2 / ln 3 , , x D

f A

(7.31)

(3.31) (3.27),
,

1
.
D

(7.32)

, , ,

.
3.

. , . ,
, , ,
. , .
. ,
R t [ .., .. ]:
R R .
t t,
(7.33)
, , .
,
, - . (7.18).
, , . 1, . , . ,
, . , , . , 155

[ ]:

r' r , t' h t .

(7.34)

- , h .
(7.34) (7.33).
(7.33), (7.34)
.
,
() .
, (7.34)
, - (7.31) :
1/ h

H
.
, (7.34)
:

(7.35)

, -

1/ h

r t .
(7.36)
(7.36) , t r. (7.35) ,

- H. , r H
.
(7.35) (7.36),

t1/ h

1/ h

.
, :
t

1
.

(7.37)

(7.25).
(7.37)
(7.34) :

r' r ,

' h .

(7.38)

(7.38)
. , :
e

E' E ,

B' B .

(7.39)

' ,

' .
156

(7.40)

(7.38)-(7.40)
.

~ E 0 ,

B 0

,
(7.38)-(7.40) h, , b,
.

E i B
:

e 1

b h

E
i B.
, :
e b 1 h .

(7.41)

c 2 B i E

E.
0

0 . .
, , :

b 1 2

c B

e h

i E

E.
0

, e b h 1 ,

(7.42)

e b 1 .

(7.43)

3 (7.41) (7.43) 5 h, , b,
h , :

h2

b e h 1 .
2 h 1

(7.44)

(7.44) (7.41) (7.43),


, :
157

' h .

r' r ,
e

E' E ,

'

2 ( h 1)

B'

e 1 h

'

h 2

B,

(7.45)
(7.46)
(7.47)

(7.45)-(7.47)

, . ,
(7.45)-(7.47) .
, , , .
r ' r

'

2 ( h 1)

, -

2 ( h 1)

(7.48)

[] ,
.

2 ( h 1)

, r -

, , []
h 1. r.
4.

,
, .
[ ..; ..; ..;
Laugier J.M.].
158


:
/

s /

,
L .
[ .] :

, s,

(7.49)
(7.50)

- , -

. , .
,
,
,
(7.45)-(7.47) ,
-
h.
(7.45)-(7.47) , , ,
. :
1

' h 2 L '

.
L

2 h
, L
.
, :

L
L

2 h
2 h 2

1 2/ h
2 2 /h

(7.51)

(7.52)
,
h. , h 1 / D ( (7.32)). (7.51)-(7.52)
:

L
L

2 1/ D
2 /D 2



159

1 2D

2 2 D

(7.53)
.

(7.54)

(7.49) ,
, :

s
.
2
.
..
.. [ .., 2002], .
( [ ..]),
.
. L .
R.
:

R L .
(7.55)
(7.55)
D, [ .., 2002].
, (3.31). . 3.3
L R (L) .
L/3, , , R (L / 3) . 4 ,
4 R ( L / 3) .

R ( L) 4 R ( L / 3) ,
:

R ( L) L

160

ln 4 / ln 3

. 7.3. .
A . , ,
D ln 4 / ln 3 . ,
D

R L .
(7.56)
, (7.55) , D .
.. .. [ .., 1998]
,

0.97

.
h 1.03 .
, [
.. 2006]

0.71

.
, h 1.29 . . , ,
.
,
40 .. .. ,
R C
(As2Se3) [ ..]. . 7.4
161

, 4 ,
.
R, , [ ..]. . 7.5 , , 0.8. , .
. 7.5 . . 7.5,
. , 1 %, :
0.8 0.01

R
,
(7.57)
. (7.57) [ ..]
[ .].
. 7.6 ,
, . 7.4. [ ..] , . 7.6 , :

162

0.12 0.006

(7.58)

. 7.4. As2Se3 . 1 50 ; 2 f = 10 2 ; 3 f = 10 3 ; 4 f = 510 4 ; 5 f


= 610 5 [ ..].
. 7.6, 2 4 C 0 162 . 1,
, , 2 - 4. , , ,
C 0 . , 1 . 3.6,
.. C 0 . . 3.7
. 3.4. 5 %.

163

. 7.5. ( ) ( ) .
, . ln R .

. 7.6. As2Se3 . 1
f = 10 2 ; 2 f = 10 3 ; 3 f = 510 4 ; 4 f = 610 5 [
..].

164

. 7.7. , . 4.6, ln R
ln .
(7.45) (7.47) :

2 h

, L

1 / h

(7.59)

L
,
S

S . S ,
R L / .
(7.59),
:
R

1 3 / h

(7.60)

(7.60) (7.57), , :
hR 1.67 0.02 .

165


. ,
(7.45) (7.47):

2 h 2

1 / h

, L

S
.

,
,

/ L , , -

2 3 / h

.
(7.61)
(7.61) (7.58), , :
hC 1.6 0.08 .
hR hC . (7.32),
D 1 / hR 0.6 .
D 1, .
5.
, ,
(
(7.3)). (7.46), , :

'

'

1 h

(3.62)

(7.62)

(3.45):

1
h

.
(7.63)
(7.63)
. -
:
166

i 0 .

, :

2 c
f .
2 f

(7.64)

f (= / 2 ). (7.64) ,
. - , (7.38),

1
h

: H f
. (7.63),
(7.63).
, , , . (7.63)
. , (7.63)
.
. 7.1

, 3 300 [ .. 1996]. ,

.

167


3-300 .
7.1.

. 7.8 ,
10 1000 ,
180 .
.. ,
[ ..; .. 2006]. . 7.8
. :

0.54

. (7.63),

h = 2.17. .
7.1 . 7.8 , 1
1 ,
.
[ ..]

.
,
(7.63)
0.18-10 . .
7.9,
h. , 0.01 10 .
168

. 7.8. a) b); h = 2.17, D =


0.46. .

169

. 7.9.
0.18-10 . .

170

. 7.9. .

6.

. .
. ,
. ,
,
, , .

. ,
,
. ,
, , .
.
171

- ,
. , N
. L
N ,

L N .

(7.65)

,
( ,
) :

L A

1 D

(7.66)

A , D . (7.65)
(7.66), N:

NA

(7.67)



- H , - .

H (7.64) [ ..,
.. 2005]:

2 c
,

(7.68)

c . (7.68)
, , . :

H .

(7.69)

,
, (7.65) (7.69). , .
. ,
. (7.65) (7.69), :

, H N , L .
172

(7.70)

(7.70) , .
(7.70) (7.66) (7.67),
:

H B

(7.71)

1 D

(7.72)

B U .
-
.
7 . -
, .
. -:

H f

(7.73)

D , f
.
- (7.73)
:
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H ( ) D H ( )

H f

.. (7.73).
- 2. , , ,

H f

1 / 2

H f

173

1 / h

h . , H f

, h = 1/D.
- 3. , , , , -

1

H C

0 1 h

.
0 0

- 4. ,

H f

D
.
.
D
. , , , D
0 1.


:

1 D

(7.74)

D , (7.73). ,
15
(7.73) (7.74) .

174

. 7.10. .
- [
..]. 15 (. 7.2, . 7.10); 15
, 1 [ ..; .. 1996].
-. .

, . exp k z -

/2 ,

- ,

2 f .
.
175


. 7.2.

,
e .
.. 10

10

. 7.11. . 7.11 , ln H ln f , ..

H 13800 f

0.48 0.01

(7.76)

- .
176

. 1 , (7.75),
- H C 500 . 7 8 . 8- 1 ,
0.007. , . 1 1 . 7.3 . 7.12,
(7.74) ,

1.6 10

0.53 0.01

(7.77)

(7.75) (7.76) ,
D (-, 11 ) = 0.480.01;
D (, 6 ) = 0.470.01.
. 1
1
. , D 1 / h ,
.
,
.
7.3.

177

. 7.11. -
10 - 2 10 9 ;
,
- .

. 7.12.
( ) N ( ) .

178

8.
. () , . , .
, R 1 R 2 , . . R R

+ R . 2

S.
z z . R S / z ,
1

1 2

1 2 z z / z z .
(7.78)

.

1 2 3 z z z / z z z . (7.79)

. ,
, . , 4
.
4 , 3 , 2 1 . (7.78),
(7.79) .. , .. 1 2 ,

1 2 3 1 2 3 4 , 1 . 7.13.
, . , 1 2, , 4 3. ,
, 4 3 , 4 3 2
4 3 2 1 . 2 .
7.13.
,
. , ,
179

.
7.13.
, , , .. .
, -
.

. 7.13. .

. ,
(. 7.14),
10 120 , . 12 10 .
, , 16 0 0.2/1 . , 120 , 1 10 . , ,
.
100 , 120 ,
. . 7.4
.

180

. 3.14. . *
- .

16 0.
. 7.4.

181

. z, 50
, , 5,
. ,
11 . ,
20 , .
30
.
20 30 . , . 7.15 120 .

. 7.15.
120 16 0 ,
10 10 .
. 7.4.
, 20 30 .

3 4 ,

3 4 5 , 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 . ,
9 8 ,
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 . ,
120 , (. 7.16). :

182

1 z

0.17

2 z

0.15

(7.80)

. 7.16. 120 Hz; - 1 z -


, ; -

z - -

, .

- , -

3,

z -

9.
. 7.5
. , 1 %
, .
(3) ,
.
, :

'

2 1 / D

(7.81)

:
1 / 2 1 / D

'


z
z '

183


1 / :

2 1/ D

(7.82)

D .
(3.82) . 7.5, ,

D 0.46 , D 0.54 .
(7.83)
1


16 0.
7.5.

,
. , . ,
.
(7.83)
.
, D 1 D 2 :

D1D

184

1 .

(7.84)

1 %. ,
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. 7.14 7.16, ,
. .
D 1 D 2 . , ,
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( ), , .
- ,
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9.

,
.
, , . , , ,
, . ,
.
. ,
.
, -

185

, D, D 1.
, ,
.
, , ,
, R, f ,
L .
L, R f,
. , D.
11.7 . . 7.18.

. 7.18.
.
. ()

[ ..] [ .., ..] .
186


, L ,
I. , M N = 2.5
10 , U . I,
U , r,
( [ ..,
2

r U
..]):
. , MN I
L . . 7.19 . 1 2 . 7.19

. 7.19.
, 11.7 , :

0.85

. 1 M N = 2.5 , 2 -

M N = 10 .

. ,
,
:

0.85 0.03

187

(7.85)


, .
.
, , ,
100, 120, 1000 10000 . -3003. .
. 7.20.
,
. 1 - 4, 5 . 7.20. 4 , 5
44 3 = 13 ,
:
R f

0.053 0.002

(7.86)

. 7.20. R ,
11.7 , : R f

0.053

.
: 1 2.5 , 2 8 , 3 15 , 4 22 .
5 .

188

(7.85) (7.86)
2 %.
(7.85) (7.86) , .
,
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, f , -
, :

f '

L ' L ,

1/ D

f,

(7.87)

'

1/ D 2

(7.88)

- , D . (7.87)
(7.88) :

1/ D 2

(7.89)

(7.89) (7.97), :
(7.90)
D 0.35 0.01 .
R . , R :

S
, S . L

S, , (3.89), :

1/ D 2

R
.
L

(7.91)

(7.87) ,
L f

(7.91), :
R f

3D 1

(7.92)

(7.92) (7.98), 2 %, D , (7.90).

189

, 11.7
,
D 0.35 . , .
10.

.
, -. ,
.
,
RLC- -3003. RLC-,
, ,
100, 120, 1000
10000 (. 7.21).
AB b .

. 7.21. ; b . 11.7 .

190

. 7.5.

. 7.5. 4
4 . . , . ,
, .
?
[ ..].
.
, .
, , , : b
, - ,

b . - , -
, [ ..,
.. ]:

191

(7.93)

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; , 2 2
(7.93) .
. 3.21 .
, ,
.

(7.94)

b . -

, D

. ,

(7.94), :

b
D

1/ 4

(7.95)

0.25

(7.96)

, . , ,
, 0.25 (7.96), . ,
7.5,
0.06 0.13.

192

11.



. [
..; ..; .]. ,
.
. 7.22
7.23 [http://thunder.nsstc.nasa.gov/primer/primer2.html]. . 7.22 L , (1.1). , . 7.22 2
, 200
10 .
. ln L ln Li i
,
. , . 7.22 D = 1.
. 7.22
. , , 10 . 10
[]. ,
,
D = 1. . , , . 7.23. [ .] 2.
, .
, . 7.2, ,
N .
, . 7.24. , .. AD = 1.
, AB1 = 2, AB2 = 2.5, AB3 = 3, AB4 = 3.5, AB5 = 4.
ABiCiD S i = 2;
2.5; 3; 3.5; 4.
193

. 7.22. .

.
7.23.

;
[http://thunder.nsstc.nasa.gov/primer/primer2.html].

. 7.24
. ,
194

= 11; 13; 15; 17; 19.

ln N ln R, R

S ,

. , S1=ADAB1=2, N 1 11 .
, N

h = 1.48 0.02.

D 1 h / 2 , . 3.23
D = 1.74 0.02.

. 7.24. ().
12.


,
[, ], . 7.25.

195

. 7.25. .
()
.
( ), , , .

. . 7.26 .
t - - 1000 .
. 7.27 ,
. h ,
, R
:

196

. 7.26. ( - ). t - - 1000 .

4 h

2 c t

(7.97)

c .
. .
1 14-34 00 LT 15-34 00 LT
34 .
90

30 300 .

- . (. 7.28).

197

. 7.6.
,
- ,
.

. 7.27. .

198

. 7.28. ( ) . - . ,
.
7.6.
H,.

R,

, .

E,.

45.7

63.7

1741

2144

160.7

4.9

345

255

229.4

59.6

159

185

79.2

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1145

866

199

30.4

4.3

3432

2517

137.8

10.2

454

349

115

20.1

521

403

190.8

-19.6

334

193

248.3

59.7

144.8

168.6

10

168.9

9.7

379

290

11

124

10.7

518

400

12

35.3

-6.4

3564

2659

13

79

11.8

942

731.8

14

182.8

4.1

392

287

15

148.7

11.6

439

341

16

136.1

2.8

444

321

17

121.8

14.3

572

453

18

62.7

4.6

1137

835.5

19

125.3

12.8

436

341.5

20

78.3

11.2

748.8

579.6

21

53.2

30.8

1308

1168

22

289

59.8

153

178.5

23

124.8

13.2

423.6

332.8

24

143.2

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349

289

25

140.3

3.6

588

429

26

88

1018.8

745.4

27

112

-16.7

531.4

428.6

28

311

58.6

174

200

29

179.5

-4

391.7

286.4

200

30

311

58.4

138.3

158.6

31

108.4

41.7

625.2

613.2

32

101.1

2.6

672.4

486.2

33

209

15.6

236.8

189.4

34

200

13.7

255.7

170


, . 7.29.
,
.
,
:
1.5 0.07

1.27 0.06

E 1/ R
, H 1/ R
.
(7.98)
E , H , R
. , E H :

E '

E , H '

1 1 / D

H.

(7.99)

, (7.46), . R ' R , :

R '

E '


R E

1 /

:
E 1/ R

(7.100)

:
H 1/ R

201

1 1 / D

(7.101)

. 7.29. .
(7.100) (7.101) (7.98). D , . .
202

E 1 / R .
E 1 / R . , , ,
1 2.
(7.100) (7.101) (7.98), :
1.5 D 0.82 .
, 1 2, D 1.
13.
7.12 . . , . 34 (. 7.30).

. 7.30. ( );
, , , . ( ) 500 .
. 7.30 ,
(. 7.31)
203

E (t ) exp t / sin

(7.102)

. -

. 7.31 7.102 ,
200 ,
:

f
:

4.8 .

E (t ) exp t / 200 sin 0.03 t .

(7.103)

,
L

c
= 60 .
f 0

c .

. 7.31. . 3.30, 60 ; E (t ) exp t / 200 sin 0.03 t .

, H
. ,
H 2 .
204

c
= 150 .
H

,
, h,
E (t ) exp t / 200 sin 0.94 t .
(7.104)

. 7.32. , . 7.31 .
7.32 . , , , .

. 7.32. 2 ;
E (t ) exp t / 200 sin 0.94 t .

, , 2
60 , .
, , 2 60 km. ,
[] L

205

4
L h .
3

(7.105)

n , D ln 4 / ln 3 , h . L 60 h 2 ,
(7.106)
n 12 .
, .
. 1 500 mks, ,
500/12 40
mks. [],
(3.16)
n

5
L h .
3
n 7 . ,
.
, , 3.12,
.
, ,
. . , , , .
14.
- ,
(, , , ) [ ..; ..]. , .


[ ..]. , ,
, .
,
206

.

,
. , ,
. , ,
. [ .; .],
: , . .. .
[ ..] , D 1.45 1.55. .. [ ..] D = 2.16 0.05.
, ,
D = 1. , .

(. 7.31) [ ..].
D

L R . ( . 7.31 R),
, . L1 R1.
( ), L2 R2. , Li Ri ,
ln L ln R . D. , ,
D = 1.52 0.03.
- .
N
. . 7.31
R. ,
N = 53. R, , N R () N R
h = 1.01 0.05
207

D = 1 + h / 2 = 1.51 0.01.

. 7.31. ,
[ ..].
D. . 7.32 [ ..], . R t
6 . 7.32 , R t

1/ h

0.94

. 1

, h = 1.06 D 1.53 .

, .
3.31 1.50, 1.52 1.53
[]. ,

D 1.52 0.02 .

(7.107)

. 7.32 [ ..],
1.18

: N R . ,
D = 1.59, .. .

208

. 7.32. .
, .

, , .
. ,
. . , . ,
, ,
. .
, , , . :
ballar@yande.ru.

209

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- .: , 2005. 656 .
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7.
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222

Balkhanov V.K. Bases of fractal geometry and fractal calculation / sci. ed.
Yu.B. Bashkuev. Buryat State University Publishing Department,
2013. 224 p. ISBN 978-5-9793-0549-3
The monograph is devoted to the mathematical formulation of bases of fractal
geometry and mathematical apparatus of fractal calculation. The Cantors
method of measurement of fractal dimension of branched structures is stated.
Together with a traditional material some objects widely presented in the nature
are considered. The essential attention is paid to electromagnetic processes in
fractal environments.
It is intended to experts in the field of mathematics and physics, and also to students of natural-science specialties of higher educational institutions, graduate
students and scientists.
Researches are partially supported by the Russian Federal Property Fund a grant
No. 12-01-98006 and the integration project of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 11

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E-mail: riobsu@gmail.com
223

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