Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

uqzGl<!kqjvgt<.5!

kqjv!npgqbZl<<!kqvqhjmf<k!hizqbZl<
!hizqbZl<!!
. hqOvl<!
!

okie<jlbie!fqjeUgtqzqVf<K!ke<!njmbitk<jkk<!okimv<fK
< !dVuig<gqg<ogit<Tl<!uib<h<H!
dzgqe<! wz<zis<! s&gr<gTg<Gl<! njlf<KuqMukqz<jz/!sqz!s&gr<gt<! kl<Lme<! dxUogit<Tl<! OuX!
s&gr<gt<! lx<Xl<! h{<him<M! njlh<HgTg<G! Wx<h! nu<uh<OhiK! kl<! njmbitr<gjt!
dVuig<gqg<ogit<gqe<xe/! sqz! s&gr<gt<! kl<! Olzikqg<gk<jk! lx<x! s&gr<gtqe<! lQK! fqXUukx<Ogx<hk<!
kl<jlk<! okimv<f<K! lix<xq! njlk<Kg<ogit<uKme<! nkx<Ogx<hk<! kl<! njmbitr<gjtBl<!
liXkZg<Gvqbeuig! juk<Kg<ogit<gqe<xe/! sqz! s&gr<gt<! kl<jl! ncjl! ogit<Tl<!
njlh<HgTg<Ogx<hk<! kl<! njmbitr<gjt! dVuig<gqg<ogi{<M! nf<k! njmbitr<gTme<! Lx<xqZl<!
ohiVf<kqh<Ohig! Lcbik! yV! hqtUhm<m! fqjzjbk<! okimv<uKme<! nh<hqtUfqjzjb! ljxg<gUl<! nK!
kVl<! sqjkUgtqz<! -Vf<K!kh<hqg<gOu{<cBl<! nf<k!njmbitg<%Xgjt!lqjgh<hMk<kq!Hjef<Kogi{<M!
klK!fqjzh<jh!dXkqosb<b!Lbz<gqe<xe/!!
sqz! s&gr<gt<! kl<! lQK! Slk<kh<hMl<! ncjlfqjz! njmbitr<gjtk<! okimv<f<K! lXk<Kl<!
Lv{<hm<Ml<! nf<k! wkqv<h<jhOb! klK! njmbitlig<gqg<! ogit<gqe<xe/! sqz! s&gr<gt<! kl<jl! nmg<Gl<.
yMg<Gl<! nvsqbz<?! ohiVtikiv?! ohVLkzQm<Mg<! gm<mjlh<Hgjtk<! klK! ns<sk<kqe<! giv{lig! Heqk!
fqjzh<hMk<kq! nux<xqx<G! gQp<h<hcf<K! fmh<hjkk<! klK! ohVjllqG! njmbitlig<gqg<ogi{<M! kqjth<jh!
njmb!Lbx<sqg<gqe<xe/!!
-f<k! njmbit! dVuig<gl<?! njmbit! Lv{<?! njmbitk<! okimv<s<sq?! njmbith<! Ohivim<ml<!
we<hju! Nkqg<gl<! osZk<Kl<! njmbitl<?! ncjlogit<Tl<! njmbitl<! we<hux<xqx<Gl<! ncjlh<hm<m!
lx<Xl<! ncjlogit<th<hm<m! njmbitl<! we<hux<xqx<Gl<! -jmbqzie! ! wkqv<jlLv{<gtig! njluK!
we<hK!leqk!uvzix<xqe<! fQck<k!fqgp<Ugtqz<! ye<X/!-kje!liv<g<^qe<! (Karl Marx 1818-1883) sle<hiM!
uv<g<g! Lv{<! lx<Xl<! uv<g<gh<! Ohivim<ml<! we<hkig! uqtg<g! Lbz<gqxK/! fQm<Osbqe<! (Friedrich Nietzsche,
1844 1900) ujgh<hiM! N{<jm.ncjl! yPgziXgt<! (Master-Slave Moralities) we<hkig! uquvqg<g!
Lbz<gqxK/!!
yPgziXgt<! we<hju! njmbitr<gtqe<! nch<hjmbqz<! njluKl<! njmbitr<gt<! we<hju!
yPgziXgtqe<! %m<cj{uiz<! njlue! we<hKl<kie<! -r<G! fil<! Lke<jlbig! gVk<kqz<!
ogit<tOu{<cb! olb<jlgt</! -f<k! njmbit! dVuig<gl<! s&gl<?! -el<?! -eg<GP?! fiM?! slbl<?!
olipq! we<x! okiGh<Hgtig! dVuigqh<! hqe<! keqleqkv<gtqe<! dt<tk<jkBl<! dmjzBl<! ke<!
osbz<him<Mg<Gt<! ogi{<M! uVgqxK/! nkiuK! -kje! lx<oxiV! ujgbqz<! h{<him<M.upg<gix<Xs<!
osbz<hiM!we<X!Sm<MuK!-zGuig!njlbzil</!keqleqkv<gt<! we<x!yV!fqgp<fqjz!dt<tmg<gk<kqz<!
yV! s&g.%m<M! njluqe<! ! hGkqkie<! we<x! hqe<fuQe.he<jl! fuQe! Hvqkz<! -ke<! nch<hjmbqz<kie<!
dVuigqxK/! yV! s&gk<kqe<! njmbit! fqjzkie<! nke<! hGkqbie! yu<ouiV! ! keqleqk! dtuqbz<!
lx<Xl<! d{v<ujlh<hqbzqe<! osbz<him<jmBl<! ucujlh<jhBl<! gm<mjlg<gqxK! we<hK! yV! ujgbqz<!
lqgh<Hvikelie! Hvqkz</! nOk! slbl<! fuQe! gVk<KkjlUgtqe<! hqe<Hzk<kqz<! -KouiV! lix<Xh<Hvqkz</!
nh<hcobeqz<! njmbitl<! we<hK! yx<jxk<ke<jlBjmbki! we<x! uqei! wPuK! -bz<H;!
yx<jxk<ke<jlBjmbkz<z?! ! ! yx<jxjlbl<! djmbKl<! nz<z/! -K! he<jlk<ke<jlBl<! liXkZXl<!
ke<jlBl<! ogi{<mK?! wz<ziuqklie! nvsqbz<! lx<Xl<! ohiVtqbz<! njlh<Hgtqe<! nch<hjms<!
osbz<gtlig!dt<t!ye<X/!!
-ke<! nMk<k! hGkqbig! fil<! fqjeUogit<t! Ou{<cbK! nmg<Gkz<! .! ncjlh<hMkz<! we<x!
Lv{<-j{gtiz<! lm<MOl!njmbitk<! kqvHgTl<! liXkz<gTl<! njluK!-z<jz/!yV!s&gl<! ke<je!
wkqv<fqjzbqz<?! hjgfqjzbqz<! jug<Gl<! OuX! s&gr<gtqe<! giv{lig! lm<Mlqe<xq?! kie<! dxUogit<Tl<?!
-{g<gl<! ogit<Tl<?! Wx<Xg<ogit<Tl<?! ohVjlh<hMk<Kl<! OuXhz! h{<him<M.s&g! njmbitr<gjtBl<!
nke<%XgjtBl<! kekig<gqg<ogit<uKl<! nux<xqe<! %Xgjtk<! ke<ublig<gqogit<uKl<! fqgPl</! Wx<hqe<!
nch<hjmbqzie!njmbitk<! ke<ublig<gk<kqx<Gl<! nPk<kr<gtqe<! giv{lig!fqgPl<! njmbitk<kig<gl<!
lx<Xl<! njmbitk<kqvqHgTg<Gl<! dt<t! OuXhiM! u{qgh<! ohiVtikivk<kqx<Gl<! Ohiv<ubh<!
ohiVtikivk<kqx<Gl<! dt<t! OuXhiM! Ohie<xK/! u{qgh<! ohiVtikivl<! olz<z! npqg<Gl<! ke<jl!
ogi{<mK/!Ohiv<ubh<!ohiVtikivl<!dmepqh<Hk<ke<jl!ogi{<mK/!!

njmbtr<gt<! we<hju! lix<xl<! njmuKl<! ljxf<K! OuXhMuKl<! liEms<! s&gk<kqe<!


-br<gqbz<! nch<hjmkie</! Neiz<! dzglblikz<?! yx<jxk<ke<jlbjmkz<?! Yvjluikz<?!
yx<jxjlbg<GuqU! we<hju! Ngg<ogicb! npqUs<osbz<hiMgt</! -kjeg<! ogi{<mick<kqvqBl<! yV!
h{<him<Mnvsqbz<! OuXhiMgjtlXg<Gl<! Okv<f<okMh<H! ue<Ljxjbk<! ke<! nch<hjmbigg<! ogi{<mK/!
Oksqbjlbl<?! dzgubk<ke<jl! we<hju! lm<Mlz<z! njmbith<ohiKjl?! osu<uqbz<! njmbitr<gt<!
we<hjuBl<!!-f<k!npqh<H!nvsqbzqe<!ue<Ljxg<!gm<mjlh<HgOt/!!
-f<k! njmbit! nvsqbzqe<! sqg<gz<! klqp<s<! s&gk<kqx<G! Ofvilz<! -Vg<g! uib<h<Hgt<! -z<jz/!!
sqXlvHgtqe<! %m<cj{uiz<! njlf<k! klqpv<! uip<uqbz<! lx<Xl<! upg<gix<X! njmbitr<gt<! we<hju!
ohVfqzl<.OhvvS! we<x! ohiK! njmbitk<kqx<Gt<! nmr<gqs<osz<z! Ofv<f<kOhiK! dVuie! hzujgbie!
njmbits<sqg<gz<gt<! klqpVg<Gk<! okie<jlbieju/! umolipq! lx<Xl<! jukqg! upg<giXgt<?!
gVk<kqbz<gt<! klqp<! fqzr<gtqz<! hib<f<K! hcf<kOhiK! fqgp<f<k! njmbitg<! gzh<H! lqgUl<! sqg<gzieK/!
Woeeqz<! -K! yOv! sbk<kqz<! Wx<H! lx<Xl<! wkqv<U! we<x! fqjzbqz<! njlf<kK/! umlvHgtqe<! ! Dmim<ml<!
sqXlvHgtqe<! %XgtqZl<! hcf<kqVh<hjk! fil<! wkqv<U! we<hjkg<! gmf<k! -j{U! fqjzbigUl<! Hvqf<K!
ogit<tOu{<cBt<tK/! klqp<! we<x! olipqbqe<! %XgjtBl<! klqp<fqzr<gtqe<! nxqUg<%XgjtBl<!
umolipq! ke<ublig<gqg<ogi{<mjk! fil<! -r<G! g{g<gqz<! ogit<tOu{<Ml</! -f<kk<! ke<ublig<gzqe<!
nvsqbz<?! utr<gjtg<! jgh<hx<Xkz<! we<x! ! Olzikqg<gk<! ke<jl! njmf<kqVh<hkiz<! umolipq! we<hK!
klqpxqU! lx<Xl<! klqpjmbitr<gtqe<! ntUOgizig?! lkqh<hQm<M! jlblig! nkqgiv! fqjzjb! njmf<kK/!
klqp<! we<hK! ke<! fqzk<kqx<Gt<tigOu! gQp<jlh<hm<m! yV! olipqbjmbitlig! Oux<X! nxquib<uqbjz!
olipqohbv<k<Ks<!osiz<Zl<!Kj{olipqbig!lixOu{<cb!fqjz!Wx<hm<mK/!!
-kx<Gl<! Le<! klqpqe<! njmbitk<kqx<Gt<! sqXfqz!njmbitr<gTl<! GcolipqgTl<! ncjlh<hm!
Ofv<f<k! fqjzjb! fil<! wu<uiX! Hvqf<K! ogit<uK/! klqPg<Gt<! Ofv<f<k! he<jl! njmbit! npqh<H! we<X!
-kje! uqtg<gqeiZl<! -f<k! gQp<jlh<hMk<kz<! umolipq.jukQg! Olz<fqjzbig<gl<! we<hjk!
dXkqh<hMk<kqb! ohVf<okb<u.ohVfqz! nkqgivk<kqeiz<! gm<mjlg<gh<hm<m! ye<X/! klqp<! we<hK!
jlbh<hMk<kh<hm<m! fqzl<! lx<Xl<! olipq! we<x! fqjzjb! njmukiz<! dVuiGl<! nvsqbz<! biVg<gie!
nkqgivk<jkBl<! Nkqg<gk<jkBl<! dXkqh<hMk<kqbOki! nuv<gOt! -f<k! njmbit! Olzi{<jlfqjzjb!
umolipq!upg<giXgTg<Gl<!jukqg.hqvil{!yPgziXgTg<Gl<!dVuig<gqk<kf<kuv<gt</!-f<k!&e<xMg<G!
njmbits<sqg<gz<! klqp<! dtuqbzqe<! keqk<k! sqg<gz<! we<Xkie<! %xOu{<Ml</! sqXlvHgt<.klqp<h<! ohiK!
lx<Xl<! -j{lvHgt<.! -jxjlk<! ke<jl! ogi{<m! umolipq! jukqg! lvHgt<! -ux<xqx<gqjmbqzie!
Spx<sqBl<! kqvqHgTl<! klqpv<! s&g.keqleqk! dtuqbzqz<! Wx<hMk<kqb! ohVr<Gph<hr<gt<! oktquiGl<!
Le<Oh!Ofv<f<k!%m<Mk<kig<Gkz<kie<!gizeqb.ohVLkzQm<cb.dzglb!njmbits<sqg<gz<gt</!
olipqjlbuikl<! .! fqzk<K~b<jluikl<! we<x! Okix<xl<! kf<kiZl<! fil<! -f<k! uvzix<Xk<!
okiMHt<tqgjt! -j{k<Kk<kie<! hiv<g<gOu{<cBt<tK/! sl^<gqVk.hqvigqVk! npgqbz<! Olz<fqjz!
njmf<k! hz<zu! Nm<sqBl<! jukqg.sl^<gqVk! Hvi{qg! npgqbz<! lx<Xl<! okie<lr<gjt! jlbligUl<!
OlzigUl<! ogi{<m!jsu.ju{u!hg<kqh<! ohV!lvHgTl<! hqvil{!jlbl<! ogi{<m!Osipl{<mz!nxqU.
npgqbz<! lvHl<! hqe<eim<gtqe<! okZr<G?! lvik<kqb?! dVK! olipqupq! ypgziXgt<! upg<giXgt<!
hqj{f<k! he<jl! lvHgTl<! klqp<! fqz! njmbitk<kqz<! Oux<Xfqjz! lx<Xl<! gzh<Hfqjz! we<hjk!
dVuig<gqk<! kf<Kt<te/! -ju! njek<jkBl<! gmf<K! Nr<gqzl<! upqbie! yV! dzg! njluig<gl<!
ohVfqzl<! gmf<k! ngqzh<Ohvikqg<g! njlU! we<hjk! dXkqh<hMk<kqbKme<! fqzl<.olipq! we<x!
hcujlh<jhBl<! dVuig<gqk<kf<kK/! -f<k! fqz.olipq! siv<fk
< ! ohiK! njmbitl<! klqpv<gTg<Gt<!
dVuig<gqk<! kf<k! njmbits<! sqg<gjz! jgg<ogit<tUl<! jgbitUl<! ke<ubh<hMk<kUl<! gqjmk<k! yV!
F~x<xi{<M!gizk<jkk<kie<! fil<! kqjv!npgqbz<!we<x!les<sqjkUg<! gVuqbiz<! fR<sig<gqg<ogi{<mKme<!
gMjlbie!njmbit.dtuqbz<!kqvqHgjtBl<!dVuig<gqg<ogi{<Omil</!!
hz<OuX!nvsqbz<.ohiVtikiv!nch<hjms<sqg<gz<gt<! klqp<! fqzk<kqz<! fqzUl<! ohiPK!kqjvolipq?!
kqjvnpgqbz<?! kqjvdtuqbz<! we<hjukie<! klqpv<gjt! njmbitk<! kqvqH! djmbuv<gtig?! njmbit!
dtuqbz<!Ofib<ke<jl!ogi{<muiv<gtig!lix<xquqm<mki!we<x!Fm<hlie!Ogt<uq!flg<G!wPuK!-bz<H/!
ohiVtikiv.h{<him<M! nvsqbz<! F{<gm<mjlh<hqz<! hizqbz<! upg<giX! lx<Xl<! hizqbz<Hh<!
ohiKdtuqbzqe<! hr<gqjeh<! Hvqf<K! ogi{<miz<! sx<Ox! lqjgh<hMk<kh<hm<mkigk<! Okix<xl<! kf<kiZl<!
klqpqe<! kqjvnpgqbz<! flK!njmbit!dtuqbjzBl<! dtuqbz<! njmbitk<jkBl<! ncjlk<kqjth<Hk<!
ke<jl! ogi{<mkigUl<! uqMkjz! lXh<Hk<ke<jl! ogi{<mkigUl<! gm<mjlk<Kk<! kf<kqVg<gqxK! we<hKl<!

-ke<! lQkie! Ogt<uqjb! wPh<huqbzik! yV! nxqUlXh<H! dtuqbjz! dXkqh<hMk<kqk<! kf<kqVg<gqxK!


we<hKl<!HvqbuVl</!
klqp<s<! s&gk<kqe<! hizqbz<?!nkiuK!kqvqhjmbik!hizqbz<! wK!we<hjk!ujvbjx!osb<bilz<!
fil<! kqvqhjmf<k! hizqbz<! hx<xqh<! OhsuqbziK! we<hjk! yh<Hg<ogi{<Om! fie<! klqpqe<! kqjvh<hizqbz<!
lx<Xl<! hizpgqbz<! hx<xqb!Ogt<uqgjtg<! jgbit<gqOxe</!klqp<k<kqjv!Nhisl<! fqvl<hqbK!we<Xl<! hizqbz<!
yPg<gg<OgMgjtk<! K~{<mg<%cbK! we<Xl<! yPg<guqbz<! NBkh<hjmbqev<! kqjvh<hml<! we<x! Dmgk<kqe<!
lQK!jug<gg<%cb!Gx<xs<sim<cjeBl<! -mh<hMk<kqOb!-kje!uqtg<g!Lbx<sqg<gOu{<Ml</!!hizqbz<hqje!
yPg<guqbzqe<! nch<hjmbigg<! ogi{<M! hiz<fqjz! njmbitl<! hx<xqh<! OhSujkOb! Gx<xl<! we<X!
ujgh<hMk<Kl<! dmz<! lx<Xl<! d{v<U! lXh<H! ue<Ljxg<! gVk<kqbzitv<gt<! kqjvbqz<! lm<Mlqe<xq! wf<k!
yV!gjkbimz<! gtk<kqZl<! hizqbz<H!Gxqk<k!Gxqh<hQMgjtk<! kjmosb<bg<%cbuv<gt</!-uv<gtqe<! kjm!
hizqbz<! nxl<! lx<Xl<! hpGLjx! hx<xqb! ohiXh<H{v<uqe<! nch<hjmbqz<! njlf<kkz<z/! lixig!
hioziPg<gl<! we<hK! oh{<! dmjz! jlbligg<ogi{<mK?! hioziPr<G! we<hK! oh{<dmz<! lx<Xl<!
oh{<fqjzbqe<! lQK! lm<Ml<! Slk<kh<hmOu{<cbK! we<x! N{<jlb.N{<Olzikqg<g! kqlqv<uikk<jk!
nch<jmbigg<! ogi{<mK/! oh{<j{g<! gim<sqh<Hzk<kqz<! ogi{<MuVl<OhiK! N{<jlbk<! ke<jljb?!
N{<Olzikqg<gk<jkg<! Ogt<uqg<Gm<hMk<Kl<! gim<sqk<ktl<! fqgp! uib<h<Ht<tK! we<hKl<! hizqbz<! fqgp<U!
siv<f<K! oh{<! dmjzg<! gim<sqh<hMk<kz<! we<hK! oh{<fqjz! Oum<jgbqe<! fqgp<U! olb<jljb!
yh<Hg<ogit<ukig! njlBl<! we<hKl<! -f<kg<! g{<gi{qh<H! nvsqbzqe<! nch<hjmbig! njlgqxK/!
nk<Kme<! kqjv! we<hK! yV! ohiK! outqobe<hkiz<! gQp<jlBx<x! dmz<gt<! lx<Xl<! uqtql<Hfqjz!
dmz<gtqe<! uqjpUgjt! yh<Hg<ogit<Tl<! fqjzBl<! kqjvupq! hizqbz<! olipqbiz<! Ofvf<KuqMl<! we<hKl<!
-f<k!k{qg<jgs<!osiz<zimzqe<!g{<gi{qh<Hg<Gg<!giv{lig!njlgqxK/!nh<hcobeqz<!gm<mx<x!hizqbz<!
gim<sqh<hMk<kz<! dmz<lXh<H! nvsqbZg<G! wkqv<s<osiz<zimzig! njlBli! we<hK! flK! nMk<k!
Ogt<uqbig! njlbg<%Ml</! -f<kk<! ktk<kqz<kie<! fil<! njmbit! dVuig<gl<! hx<xqb! s&gdtuqbz<!
hx<xqb!hGh<hib<juk<!okimr<gOu{<Ml</!!
gm<mx<x! dmz<! lx<Xl<! uqMhm<m! dmz<! we<hK! klqp<s<! s&gk<kqz<! wKuig! dt<tK?! -e<hl<!
lx<Xl<! Ke<hl<! hx<xqb! dmz<siv<! dtuqbz<! klqp<k<kqjvbqz<! wKuigg<! gm<mjlg<gh<! hm<Mt<tK!
we<hkqz<kie<! hizqbz<! gim<sqh<hMk<kz<! hx<xqb! nch<hjmg<! Ogt<uq! nmr<gqbqVg<gqxK/! Oum<jg! lx<Xl<!
gtqh<H!we<hK!Gxqk<k!klqp<k<kqjv!npgqbz<! wu<uiX!gm<mjlg<gh<hm<Mt<tK!we<hke<! fQm<sqbiOu!klqp<k<!
kqjvbqe<! hizpgqbz<! hx<xqb! Ogt<uqBl<! njlf<kqVg<gqxK/! klqp<k<kqjvbqe<! hizpgqbz<! N{<jlbl<!
ogi{<mK! we<hkiz<! nke<! hiZ{v<U! hx<xqb! npgqbz<! N{<Nkqg<gk<! ke<jlogi{<m! leqk!
dvqjlgTg<ogkqviekig!
-Vg<gqxK!
we<hjks<!
osiz<zq!
-f<k!
djvbimjzOb!
fil<!
LcUg<Gg<ogi{<Muf<Kuqmzil</!Neiz<!-f<k!N{<jlb.ogiMr<Ogie<jlk<!ke<jl!klqp<k<kqjvg<G!lm<Ml<!
ohiVf<Kl<! keqs<sqxh<hz<z! we<hkiz<! OuoxiV! ktk<kqz<! -kje! uqtg<g! Ou{<cBt<tK/! nkiuK!
klqp<k<kqjv!jlbh<hMk<Kl<! N{<!Lkz<gm<mk<kqz<! klqp<! N{<fqjz -z<jz/!nK!klqp<! N{<fqjzjb!
nulieh<hMk<Kl<! yV! Oux<X! N{<fqjz/! nOk! slbl<! klqpqe<! ohiK! N{<dtuqbz<! kie<! njmb!
fqjeg<Gl<! N{<! dVugfqjz/!-f<k!N{<! Oksqb.dzglb!sf<jkFgv<U! dtuqbziz<! dVuig<gh<hm<m?!
klqp<! -euqbjz! -pqouek<! okimv<f<K! njmbith<hMk<kq! ogi{<cVg<Gl<! N{<fqjz/! -K! klqp<!
N{<fqjzg<G!Lv{<Hzlig!dt<t!N{<jm!yPgzixqjeBl<! outqObx<Xl<! dth<hir<gqjeBl<! )Master
Morality and Excluding Psyche) ogi{<mK/! -K! nolvqg<g! N{<jlbl<! lx<Xl<! Wgikqhk<kqb! N{<jlbl<!
we<hKme<! dxUjmbK/! 2:86.ujv! -f<kk<! klqp<yKg<Gl<! klqp<! N{<jlbk<jk! ! dVuig<gqg<!
gim<Mukx<G! klqp<k<kqjv! kbr<gquf<kqVg<gqxK/! v\qeqgif<k<?! glz<aise<! we<x! -V! klqp<k<kqjv!
dVur<gt<! kqm<mlqm<M! dVuig<gh<hm<mkqz<! -f<k! -eyKg<Gkz<! hizqbz<H! ke<! LP! dVuk<Kme<!
outqh<hmk<! okimr<gqbK/! 2:91.gtqz<! -mKsivq! lx<Xl<! lg<gt<siv<! nvsqbz<! osiz<zimz<gt<! uzquqpf<K!
LkzQm<M! Nkqg<gs<! osiz<zimz<gt<! uzqjlohxk<! okimr<gqbOhiK! kbg<glx<x! klqpqe! njmbitl<!
lXk<k! N{<jlb! njmbitr<gt<! ohVg<gljmf<ke/! 2::1.gtqz<! -ke<! LP! ue<LjxBl<! OgMl<!
ouGlg<gt<! ktk<jks<! ose<xjmgqxK?!nkiuK!-Kujv!dVuie!klqpqe<! kqjvnpgqbz<! Lx<x!Lpg<g!
hizqbz<! jlbl<! ogi{<mkig!ke<je!dXkqh<hMk<kqg<ogit<gqxK/!2:71.gt<! ujv!klqp<k<! kqjv!fibgv<gt<!
kl<! Okv<f<okMg<gh<hm<m! N{<! dVuk<ke<jljb! GMl<hl<.Dv<! siv<f<k! ole<hizqbz<! fqgp<k<Kkzigg<!
gim<sqh<hMk<kq! oh{<! dmz<! hx<xqb! lqjgh<HjeUgjth<! ohVg<gqg<ogi{<cVf<kiv<gt</! nr<G!
gim<sqh<hMk<kh<hm<m!oh{<! dmz<gt<! klqp<! njmbitk<jk!yx<jx!jlbh<hMk<kq!fqzl<! siv<f<k!klqp<h<oh{<!
ke<jljb! outqObx<xqe/! nuv<gtqe<! Gvz<gt<! nPjgbiZl<! nuv<gtqe<! dmz<! njsUgt<!
N{<hiv<jug<Gk<! kl<jl! yh<hjmk<K! klK! -Vh<Hg<gie! -mk<jk! -jvR<sqg<Ogm<Mh<! ohVl<!

bisqh<HgtiZl<! fqvl<hqbqVf<ke/! nOk! fibgv<gt<! 81.gtqz<! GMl<hl<.Dv<! gmf<K! kf<kqvg<! gim<sqgtiz<!


njlf<k! uqOeik! dzgqz<! -f<kh<! oh{<! dmz<gjt! juk<K! uqk<jkgim<ck<! kl<! N{<!
okipqz<Fm<hr<gjt! dVh<ohVg<gqg<! ogi{<miv<gt</! kr<gk<kqz<! Lgl<?! sf<kek<kqz<! dmz<! ogi{<m!
OkuOzig! le<euv<gt<! kqjvjb! uqm<M! nvsqbZg<Gs<! osz<z! Ou{<cb! fqjzbqz<! -Vf<kOhiK! klqpqe<!
N{<jlb!njmbitl< lqgg<!gMjlbie!ofVg<gcg<G!dt<tieK/!!
fil<! Wx<geOu! g{<m! -Vfibgv<gt< we<x! okie<l! dVuig<gl<! klqp<k<kqjvbiz<! lQxOuLcbik!
yV! uqkqbig! kqm<mlqm<M! okimi<f<K! uqvqUhMk<kh<hm<mK/! -f<k! -mk<kqz<! fil<! OlZl<! ye<jx!
fqjeUhMk<kqg<ogit<t!Ou{<Ml<;!klqp<k<kqjvBl<! hmh<hqch<Hk<ktLl<! -eq!ouXl<! fcgv<gjt.fibgv<gjt!
lm<Mlz<z! klqpgk<kqe<! nMk<k! Lkz<uv<gjtBl<! dVuig<gq?! dbqv<ogiMk<K! lg<gtqml<!
yh<hjmg<gOu{<cb! Heqklie! ohiXh<hqje! Wx<Xg<ogit<tOu{<cb! fqjzBl<! -h<OhiK! dVuigquqm<mK/!
-f<kh<! hqe<Hzk<kqz<! kqjvupq! dVuie! N{<! hql<hr<gjtk<! klqp<! njmbitk<kqe<! GxqbQMgt<! nz<zK!
dVugr<gt<! we<X! ohiVt<hMk<kq! Nb<U! osb<uK! yV! upqLjxbig! -Vg<gzil</! Neiz<! fie<! nkx<G!
liXhm<m! yV! n[GLjxjbOb! -r<G! jgbit<gqOxe</! -f<k! gizgm<mk<kqe<! N{<! kqjv! dVur<gt<!
klqp<! njmbitk<jk!ouXk<k?!klqp<! N{<fqjzgtiz<! we<Xl<! njmbLcbik?!!klqp<! N{<njmbitl<!
ke<ouXh<hqz<! keg<G! lix<xig! dVuig<gqg<ogi{<m! ! hizqbz<! uQg<gl<! ohx<x! dVugr<gt<! we<hK!
ohiVk<klig! njlbzil</! -f<k! njmbit! fqjzjbOb! fie<! ncjl! yPgzix<xqe<! upq! njlf<k!
njmbit!dVuig<gl<!we<gqOxe</!-f<k!dVugk<jk!klqp<!N{<lel<!upqhMl</!klqp<h<!oh{<lel<!keK!
njmbitlx<x!fqjzg<G!sim<sqbig!juk<K!keK!wkqv<h<! hcllig<gq!nch{qBl</!ke<eqzqVf<K!Lx<xqZl<!
OuXhm<m?! ke<je! Lx<xqZl<! gQp<h<hMk<Kl<! yV! hcll<! keK! dtuqbz<! njmbitlig! liXuke<! upq!
fqgPl<!hizqbz<!fqjzjbOb!kqvqhjmf<k!hizqbz<!ohVg<gl<!we<X!uqtg<gzil</!
!hk<kqvqjggt<! lx<Xl<! okijzg<gim<sqgtqz<! kqjvhx<xqb! gjkbimz<! we<xUme<! fcgv<gt<!
fcjggtqe<!kqjvg<G!outqbqzie!Ohs<Sgt<?!sqvqh<Hgt<?!nj{h<Hgt<?!-tqh<Hgt<?!dxUgt<?!hjgjlgt<?!
dt<tju?! -z<zikju! wek<! kqjvhx<xqb! osiz<zimz<gt<<! hizqbz<! HjeUgtigh<! ohVGujkBl<!
hizqbz<! hclr<gOt! klqpgk<kqe<! nvsqbz<! dVur<gtig! uqvqujmujkBl<! fil<! kqvqhjmf<k! hizqbzqe<!
ucur<gtigOu! Hvqf<Kogit<tOu{<cBt<tK/! Woeeqz<! klqpv<gtqe<! s&g! hizqbz<! lx<Xl<! hiz<! dxU!
uqkqgt<?! lkqh<hQMgt<?! ujvbjxgt<! we<hju! -uv<gt<! ogi{<mick<! kqjtg<Gl<! kqjvh<! hizqbz<HgTg<G!
Lx<xqZl<! liXhm<mju?! wkqvieju/! l{uqzg<G! ohx<X! yV! oh{<! OuX! uip<g<jgk<! Kj{jb!
Okv<f<okMh<hjkObi?!yV!oh{<! keg<G!uqVh<hlie!N[me<! fm<Hme<! -Vh<jkObi?!lXl{l<! we<x!sqz!
klqp<! lvHgtqe<! upg<gk<jkObi?! nXk<Kg<! gm<Mkz<! we<x! sqz! sikqupg<gr<gjtObi! Wx<Xg<ogit<tik?!
uquikqg<gik! yV! gtl<kie<! klqp<k<! kqjvh<hml</! -r<G! klqp<k<kqjv! gx<hjebie! klqp<! yPg<gk<kqe<!
hiKgih<H! ujtblig! ke<jek<kiOe! Heqkh<hMk<kqg<ogit<gqxK/! Neiz<! yu<ouiV! kqjvh<hmk<kqe<!
upqbigUl<! Gpf<jkgt<?! utv<hVuk<kqev<! Hvqf<K! ogit<tUl<! hGk<K! nxqbUl<! -bzik! hizqbz<!
smr<Ggjt! GMl<hl<?! Dv<?! sijz?! okV?! Suv<?! yzq?! ytq?! GXf<kqjv?! ohVf<kqjvobe! wr<Gl<!
upqbuqMgqxK/! klqp<k<kqjv! hizqbz<! hx<xqb! lqjg! lv<lr<gtiz<?! kqvqhjmf<k! njmbitr<gtiz<?!!
fmh<hqbzx<x!hizqbz<!HjeUgtiz<!klqp<s<s&gl<!les<sqjkUl<!hqtUl<!dx<X!Ofib<fqjz!njmukx<gie!
wz<ziuqklie!-bf<kqvuqbz<gjtBl<!osbz<hMk<kqg<ogi{<cVg<gqxK/!!
2::3.g<Gh<!hqxgie!sf<jkh<!ohiVtikivLl<!dmz<!lXh<H!nvsqbZl<!-kjeh<!hzlmr<gig<gq!fl<!
GVkq! fitr<gtqz<! hib<s<sqg<! ogi{<cVg<gqe<xe/! -e<jxb! kqjvnpgqbz<! yVujgbqz<! klqpqe<!
okimg<ggiz! npgqbzqe<! okimv<s<sqOb! we<xiZl<! Lkz<! gm<mk<! kqjvnpgqbz<! gizeqb! dtuqbz<?!
njmhm<m!njmbitl<?!lX!njlh<hig<gl<!we<hju!hx<xqb!sqz!Ogt<uqgjtg<!ogi{<cVf<kK/!-v{<mil<!
gm<m! kqjvnpgqbz<! olipq?! dx<hk<kq! dxUgt<?! fqzl<! sii<f<k! nvsqbz<! hx<xqh<! Ohs! Lbx<sqk<kK/!
-e<jxb! dzglb.! yx<jx! Nkqg<g! jlbs<! $pzqz<! klqp<k<kqjvbqe<! hizqbz<! GxqbjlU! ncjl!
dtuqbz<hqe<!yh<hjmh<Hk<!ke<jl!ohx<X?!ohVupqhim<M!fqjzjb!njmf<kqVg<gqxK/!!
-f<fqjz! nvsqbzx<x! ue<ogiMjlgt<?! leqk! dvqjlgt<?! oh{<diqjlgjt! lXk<k! sikqb!
yMg<GLjx!ogi{<m?!fqzl<.olipq!ouXk<k!Nkqg<g!njmbit!upqhiM!fqjxf<k!)Okshg<kq!we<Xl<! -K!
Ouml<HjeBl<*! yV! s&gk<jk! dVuig<gg<! %cbK/! -f<fqjz! ohVl<! nkqgivr<gtqe<Le<! Ogt<uqbqe<xq!
nch{qBl<! Gl<hz<kek<jkh<! ohVg<gg<%cbK/! Okv<f<okMg<gh<hm<m! dmz<gt<! sii<f<k! HjeUgjt?!
Ohvkqgivl<! fqjxf<k! hql<hr<gt<! sii<f<k! geUgjth<! ohVg<gq! fqgp<! olb<jl! hx<xqb! ns<sk<jkBl<!
ouXh<jhBl<! dVuig<gg<%cbK/! nf<k! ns<sl<! kqjvgjtk<! ki{<c! fqzr<gjtg<! guqbg<%Ml</! yV!

okie<jlbie! s&gl<! we<x! njmbitk<Kme<! okimVl<! klqp<s<s&gl<! ke<! sqjkujmf<k! fqjzjbg<!


jgbitUl<!!liXhm<m!njmbitk<jk!dVuig<gUl<!gx<g!Ou{<cbqVg<gqxK/!nkx<G!Le<!kqjvbqz<!hqe<!
uVl<!uisgr<gjt!yV!Ljx!fil<!Ytqh<hMk<kqg<!gi{zil<;!!
kQjl! we<hK! osb<bh<hMukqz<! -z<jz! nK! hx<xq! d{v<U! lx<Xl<! df<Kkz<! we<hkqOzOb!
dtuqbz<! Ofib<ogi{<m! yVuv<! Gx<x! d{v<ju! njmgqxiv<?! nuvK! les<sqjkUg<G! nf<k! Gx<x!
d{v<Ou! nch<hjmbig! njlf<K! uqMgqxK/! -bz<H! fqjz! ogi{<m! yVuv<! olb<bie! fqgp<Ug<Ogx<h!!
uqjeHvquK!Ohiz?!dts<sqjkUx<xuv<! ke<! lel<! kVl<! Okix<xfqjzjbOb!fqgp<uigg<! g{<M!nkx<Ogx<h!
wkqv<uqjeHvqbk<!okimr<Ggqxiv</!!!
Hvikek<!ke<jlogi{<m!hpr<Gcs<!s&gk<jks<!Osv<f<k!yVuv<!dts<sqjkU!Ofib<g<G!dm<hm<muv<!
Ohie<Ox! fmf<K! ogit<ukig! fil<! LcUg<G! uf<kuqmg<%miK/! nkqz<! OuXhiM! dt<tK/! sqf<kjeg<Gl<!
osbZg<Gl<! -jmbqz<! flg<G! dt<tK! Ohie<x! %v<jlbie! OuXhiM! okiz<Gc! leqkVg<Gl<!
les<sqjkUx<xuVg<Gl<! -Vh<hkqz<jz! we<hK! ! d{<jlkie</! Neiz<! les<sqjkUx<xuv<! ke<!
osbjzh<hx<xqb! ns<sU{v<Ume<! -Vg<gqxiv<?! nuVg<G! ouXl<! w{<{l<! we<hOk! ! osbjzh<! hkqzQM!
osb<ukig! njlf<KuqMgqxK/! okiz<Gcjbs<! Osv<f<k! yVuVg<G! lek<kjm! -z<jz?! w{<{l<! we<hK!
Ofvcbie! osbzig! fqgp<k<kh<hMgqxK?nuVg<G! osbOz! sqf<kjeg<gie! hkqzQmig! njlf<kqVg<gqxK!
wezil</! -keiz<! dXkqbig! -z<jzobe<xiZl<! fil<! yV! B,glis<! osiz<zzil<! NkqbqOz! osbz<kie<!
-Vf<kK/ (Sigmund Freud, 1919)
)-f<k!gm<Mjvg<gie!Ogt<uq;!
2::1.gtqz<! =pl{<{qz<! uqMkjzh<Ohiv<! fmf<Kogi{<cVf<k! gizgm<mk<kqz<! nkje! ue<Ljx!
we<X! %xq! Wx<g! lxk<K! njlkqgik<kK! klqpg! ouGlg<gt<! dtuqbz</! nf<k! gizgm<mk<kqb! klqp<k<!
kqjvh<hm! fibgv<gOti! -f<kqb! fim<jmg<! gig<gUl<! Oks! yx<Xjljbh<! Ohix<xqh<! hiKgig<gUl<!
ns<s&m<mg<%cb!ue<Ljxgjtk<!kqjvbqz<!fqgp<k<kq!njeujvBl<!uqbh<hqz<!Np<k<kqg<ogi{<cVf<kiv<gt</!
yV!sqX!kgviXg<gig!71!Ohjv!nck<K!wZl<Hgjt! djmg<Gl<! njlkqh<hjm!uQvv<gjt!fil<! ogiR<sq!
lgq<p<f<kkx<G!giv{l<!we<e@!
n*! d{<jlbie! Ohijvuqm! -f<kg<! gim<sqh<! Ohiv<gOt! klqpv<! hx<xqb! ns<s! d{v<ju! dzGg<G!
dVuig<Gl<!we<x!GxqbQm<M!nvsqbz</!
N*!

=pk<kqz<!

fmg<Gl<!

Ohiviz<!

-f<kqbk<!

klqpv<gTg<G!

wf<kh<!

hbEl<!

-z<jz!

we<x!

okijzOfig<Gh<hiv<ju/!
-*! =pk<kqz<! fmg<Gl<! uqMkjzh<Ohiv<! hzv<! Osv<f<K! osb<uK! klqp<! fibgv<gOti! keqk<K! fqe<X! kiOl!
uqMkjzh<!ohx<Xk<kf<K!uqMuiv<gt<!we<hjk!=pk<klqpv<gTg<G!d{v<k<kOu{<Ml<!we<hkeiz</!
=*! =pk<kqz<! fmh<hK! Ohie<x! uqMkjzh<Ohijv! yVfiTl<! fir<gt<! osb<blim<Omil<?! -f<kqb! wz<jzbqz<!
dbqjvg<ogiMk<K! kqbigl<! HvqOuil<?! nh<hcOb! out<tqh<heqljzbqz<! sqz! gikz<! himz<gjth<! hicuqm<M!
Di<kqVl<HOuil<!we<X!-f<kqb!nvSg<Gh<!HvqBl<hc!d{v<kk
< qg<gim<Mukx<gig/*!
!
Gxqh<H;!
Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo. New York: Moffat, Yard and Company, 1919 (II).
Nietzsche , Friedrich. The Genealogy of Morals. New York: Boni and Liveright Publishers, 1919.

)nMk<k!hGkqbqZl<!npgqbz<!hx<xq*!