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: rt nonxrn o snunnn oprn spnnx n xnsnxrntnocrn oprnns n
nno, oprnnsnnn o]rntonornucxo cnyxt n ; nnx spnrntntx ]ynxnn n
nospcrno nnnx nx psnnrnx.
45 nn.
: rpynnono roprnucxo snxrn n ynropnn.
: 1. nnnt c nronucxn crponn psnnuntx ornon
spnrntnoro nnnsrop n ron nccnonnnx spnrntntx ]ynxnn: 1) cx crponnx
spnrntnoro nnnsrop; 2) ]ynxnnn spnrntnoro nnnsrop; 3) nospcrnx nnnx
rpnnn nonx spnnx, pspon cnnoro nxrn n rnono nrnnn y r; 4) nonx spnnx n
psnnunt ro nsnnnx; 5) nnrpntno n nnrono spnn; 6) cx xnnrpnucxoro
nccnonnnx nonx spnnx;
2. nrnt cnt.
3. Vunt nnorpnnt no r.

opxnn snxrnx
px
(n nn.)
1. ns n ro pont n xnsnxrntnocrn oprnns. cnonnt
npnunnt cnnxnnx spnnx n cnnort. prnnsnnx
o]rntonornucxo noomn n .
10
2. pnrntnt ]ynxnnn n nospcrnx nnnx nx psnnrnx.
35
3. onrpontnt nonpoct.
5
V:
1. tmnn .. cnont o]rntonornn rcxoro nospcr. nnnrp: nnnn,
1970. . 44.
2. onnncxn .. ]rntonornx. spnnt nxnnn. - .: nnnn,1996.
3. onnncxn .. ]rntonornx. - .,1995. . 7-34.
4. Fouxpn . nsnt onsnn. - .,1989. . 77-104.
5. yxonocrno no rnsnt onsnx. ., 1962. - . 1.
6. nnonx nporp no o]rntonornn . - crn, 2004 r.
7. ..nnnnnnun onpnnx o]rntonornx. .: nrp', 2000. 672 c
8. nopnxo .. ]rntonornx: Vunnx. .: 3-, 2003. . 41-65.
1. .
.
.
]rntonornx +ro yunn o rns, nyx o onsnxx rns. ro, xxo snunn
nr spnn nx xnsnn unonx, ou6nt xopomo cxsn nrnncxn nncrnt xopx
mopt:
`ycn unonucxn rns!
n rontxo unonucxn, ncxxn
oxn, onnx, ocn, x cont!
oyrt rontxo, cxontxo on oxr ntpsnrt,
cxontxo surntnoro nnnr c!
3ro npt pronnntx xn!
ns!
Vnt! oyrt rontxo, uro rxx pronnnocrt,
xx unonucxn rns, oxr norycxnrt
n ocnnnyrt!''
xcn optxn nncn: ``nuro n oxr trt crpmn, xx norpxrt spnn. nntpsnx
on, on ornnr y unonx nxrt cxrtx np''. , crnnrntno, nxnocro
nponnron nn]opnnn ns oxpyxmmro nc np t nonyu ups oprn spnnx. x
ronopxr: `yum onn ps ynnrt, u cro ps ycntmrt''. po crt ypt npont
nocnonnnt: ''Fprn rns, xx ns'' o opornx n nmx t ronopn: `` Fprn, xx snnny
ox!''
ro nxn nx unonx: xnrt cnnt nnn yprt. s npono nnrprypt nsncrno,
uro n pnnocrn ntcm po nxsnnx tno n nnmnn xnsnn, nnmnn spnnx.
tpnrt rns nx nocynoro tno crpmn, u orpynrt ronony. pnnxx ncropnx
cnnrntcrnyr, uro npt 3nn, urot ncxynnrt cnom nnny np oro n nmtn, n nnmnn
cx xnsnn, ocnnnn cx.
, crnnrntno, nxnmn ncucrt nx unonx xnnxrcx norpx spnnx. o
nnt cnpno prnnsnnn spnooxpnnnx, n nm nnnr ncunrtnrcx oxono
40 nnnnonon cnntx n o rns n oxono 50 nn. n rpnn cnnort. 3ro nno op
stcxonoro ropx n crpnnx. cnxsn c +rn nonpoct onronornn n o]rntonornucxo
npxrnx npnoprr, npnoprmr upsntuno nxno snunn. pu, nocnxrnnmn cx
rxo nropono npo]ccnn, ncr onxn conpxnnrt, r.. tcnnno crnnrt cx n
nonoxnn cnnoro ontnoro. xpor n nnyry cnon rns, npcrntr, uro t n nnnr
oxpyxmmro np, uro cnr nopxnyn nx c nncr, n t nor ncm rxxcrt n
roput yrprt spnnx.
mo npu, onxn nocroxnno snnrtcx conocnnrnn, conpmncrnonrtcx n cno
npo]ccnn n psnnrt n c rxn xucrn, xx cosnnn nnnum ornrcrnnnocrn,
nnmrntnocrt n onrnns, n nnxor n no onycxrt pyxn y nocrnn ontnoro, x n
ro cnyu, cnn nr nxt n ro ntsoponnnn. nyr ncr nonnrt, uro nocnnrnn
npu n sxnunnr n crnx nncrnryr, sct rontxo sxntnrcx '']ynnr'' ro.
sncrno, uro rns n nct oprnns +ro nno nno. xxo t oprn nn nponcxonnn
r nnn nnt onsnnnt nponcct, onn n ro nnn nno crnnn npoxnnxmrcx n rnsy.
Vcrnonnno, uro 25 omnx sonnnn conponoxrcx nopxnn rns, xoropt
npnnoxr x cnnxnnm spnnx n x cnnor.
Fnropx roy, uro o]rntonor oxr srnxnyrt nnyrpt rns, on nr nosoxnocrt
nnrt n nnmrt rny xnnoro oprnns. o cocroxnnm xponnocntx cocyon rnsnoro
n, ncx spnrntnoro npn. rurxn n pyrnx crpyxryp rns o]rntonor nr
nosoxnocrt nocrnnrt nrnos, n pccnpmnnx ontnoro. pnu on oxr onpyxnrt
onsnt n rontxo rns, no n ncro oprnns, n px cnyun x npcxsrt nrnos.
x, nnpnp, no cocroxnnm rnsnoro n npn nxoroptx sonnnnxx noux, oconno npn
xponnucxo n]pnr, oxno npcxsrt cprntnt ncxo ups ror nnn nno cpox.
pun pyrnx cnnnntnocr, nnpnp rpnnrt, nnponronorn, xymp-rnnxonorn,
npoxnpyprn n p., noryr oornct s xoncyntrnnn o]rntonor npn pmnnn nonpoc
o xoncpnrnnno nnn xnpyprnucxo nunnn roro nnn nnoro sonnnnx.
ymcrnymr cncrnt onsnn, xoropt nopxmr ononpnno n rns, n pyrn
oprnt n cncrt. npnp, rnnpronnucxx onsnt, onnrpnpymmn cocyncrt
sonnnnx, ncxynnrt, cxpnt nr n pyrn +noxpnnnt sonnnnx, nronornx
noux, xonnrnost, nn]xnnonnt sonnnnx n norn pyrn. nonrntno, n
nonpoc, nyxno nn , yymn npu o]rntonor nsyunrt cront nnrpcnym n
ynnxrntnym ncnnnnnny, xx o]rntonornx, xonrpnn, xx ronopxr, nsnnmnn. cno
ono, uro, nsyux +ry ncnnnnnny, noxono nyunrtcx, xx t npnxntnrt +rn
snnnx n nosoxnocrn o]rntonornn x cno ncnnnnnn, r.. yym cnnnntnocrn,
urot nyum nrnocrnponrt n npnnntno nunrt r nnn nnt onsnn.
xn opso, nx c, yymnx npu omnx cnnnntnocr, o]rntonornx xnnxrcx
npnxnno, no nxno n noxono nx ycrnonnnnx npnnntno nrnocrnxn, npornos
n nunnx psnnuntx omnx rpnnrnucxnx, nnponornucxnx, +noxpnnonornucxnx n
nornx pyrnx onsn. nyr orrnrt, uro ontmnncrno +rnx onsn npxo xnnxrcx
npnunnn nonnxnnx spnnx n x cnnort. o+roy, npun ncx cnnnntnocr onxnt
snrt, xxn cnyr npononrt ponpnxrnx no npynpxnnm cnnort. opt co
cnnoro npxy c o]rntonorn onxnt npnnnrt yucrn npun psnnuntx
cnnnntnocr n cpnn nnnncxn pornnxn rocypcrnnnt oprnt. pnnnr: n
onoro npu-nnrp npnxonrcx 800 r, npu rpnnr o 2000 ncnnnx, n
onoro o]rntonor o 30.000-50.000 unonx, oconno cntcxo crnocrn, r ncro 1
oxynncr. o+roy npu ncx cnnnntnocr o +ro cnyr nonnrt n npnnnrt
xrnnno yucrn n cyt ontntx c nopxnnxn oprn spnnx.
ocrrouno psnoopsn oxno crpynnnponrt
n ocnonnt 3 npnunnt: 1) nronornx p]pxnnn (nonnn p]pxnnn), 2) noyrnnnx
onrnucxnx (npospuntx) crpyxryp rns n 3) nronornx crurxn n spnrntnoro npn
(nronornx rnsnoro n).
.
ocnon oprnnsnnn nc orucrnnno nnnnt nxnr npo]nnxrnucxo
nnpnnnn, xoropo xnnxrcx rnnnt nporpnt npnnnnno n n oxpn spnnx
rpxn , n oxsnnn o]rntonornucxo noomn xx rx, rx n nspocnt.
o+roy n ntxnnnnn rnsno nronornn npnsnnt npnnnrt yucrn npun ctx
psnnuntx cnnnntnocr. oornrcrnymmn nocrnonnnnx pnnrntcrn n npnxst
prnnrnpymr oprnnsnnm n psnnrn o]rntonornucxo cnyxt n pcnynnx.
nntm pnnro ntxnnnnx ! ! nronornn (xrpxrt, rnyxot,
xocornsnx, nonoopsonnn n r..) oxsrntnt nccnonnn nnnunx spnnx y penx
(no pxnnn spuxon n cnr n ro om nnrrntno pxnnn) n ocorp oprn
spnnx yx y nonopoxnntx n po. ox npun xympn n nonronorn; sr
- yucrxontn nnrpn nonnxnnnnx n npno roy xnsnn penx (roo
npyxnoro ocorp, oxonoro ocnmnnx n n npoxoxm cnr), rxx rcxnn
o]rntonorn nonnxnnnnx. - y r omxontnoro n mxontnoro nospcr (nonn
p]pxnnn roo cxncxonnn n ]on nxnrosnoro npns rponnno n n
nosn 6 c. xnsnn, ntmyxsnno nronornn n nsnnn n rnsno n -
ononnnrntno ron o]rntocxonnn n nonxpocxonnn).
Fontmo nnnnn n pcnynnx ynxrcx psnnrnm n ynyumnnm xucrn
"! o]rntonornucxo cnyxt. t n +ro crn pormr ontm / ncx
o]rntonoron. nnnnx x yntmnnm crnnonpntx xox ner x nnrncn]nxnn
port nonnxnnnnx: xoncpnrnnno nunn ontntx, onunnnn onpnponnntx n
crnnonpx ontntx, ynropnx xnpyprnx, ncnncpnsnnx, npo]nnxrnucxn
ocorpt, npo]ccnonntnt oropt, +xcnprns ryocnoconocrn ontntx n r..
psntuno nxno su ynropno cnyxt xnnxrcx oxpn spnnx r.
pn ntxnnnnn npoxnno nronornn oprn spnnx (nonn p]pxnnn n nosn 6
c. xnsnn, xocornsnx, nonoopsonnn n r..), noxno nnsopyxocrn, nporpccnpymm
nnsopyxocrn, rpxot n pyrnx sonnnn rns oxsrntnt cnonpnno
(xoncpnrnnno n onprnnno), npo]nnxrnx n +]]xrnnnx n xucrnnnx
ontntx. nm crpn oprnnsonnt xnnrt oxpnt spnnx r,
r ocymcrnnxrcx nunn xocornsnx, nnsopyxocrn c onrnntno xoppxnn (ouxn,
n p.), nnonnn n pyrnx nnon nronornn rns n co conpnno yponn c
npnnnn cnoxno conpnno nnprypt. nx r omxontnoro nospcr
oprnnsonnt cnnnnnsnponnnt rcxn ct, r cocporount rn c rnsno
nronorn n nponoxrcx nnnucxo nnmnn n coornrcrnymmn nunn nx.
unn nnsopyxocrn n pyro nronornn oprnon spnnx y r omxontnoro nospcr n
nrnn xnnxynt nponoxrcx n cnnnnnsnponnntx nrpxx. xpynntx oncrntx nnrpx
crnymr rcxn rnsnt ornnnx (crnnonpt).
pnny ntxnnnnm npymnnx spnrntntx ]ynxnn y r npnxsn no
nnspny n opsonnnx npnnnxmrcx rxx r.con n
mxon, xoropt xrono cocroxrntno yucrnymr n nccnonnnn
ocrport spnnx y r n cnonx rpynnx n xnccx, cocrnnxmr cnncxn nnn c
nonnxnnt spnn (rpynn pncx) n npmr nx o]rntonory nx ntnmro
on rnyoxoro nccnonnnx, nnmnnx n nunnx. opnpymmncx nocn ocorp
o]rntonoro rpynnt npo]nnxrnxn onxnt prynxpno nnpnnxrtcx . pornnxo
omxontnoro nnn mxontnoro yunoro yupxnnx n ocorp o]rntonor n 3 ro, 5-7
nr, sr - n 3-t xncc n n 8-o xncc. o psyntrr nnnucxoro nnmnnx s
penxo n runn nornx nr o]rntonor nnocncrnnn nter pxonnnn no
npo]ccnonntno opnnrnnn ro n cnyx n pnn, rxx no ntnmy
nunnm n nnmnnm. Fontmx scnyr n oprnnsnnn port no oxpn spnnx r n
nm crpn npnnnxnr conrcxoy yunoy npo]ccopy 3.. nrncony.
pn nspocnoro ncnnnx ocox ornrcrnnnocrt noxnrcx n npu ,
nonnxnnnnx, rxx . pornnxon npnpnxrn, snoon n yupxnn n
ntnonnnnn npnxs no pnny ntxnnnnm n xrnnnoy nnmnnm n nunnm
ontntx rnyxoo, npnue n pnnnx crnxx sonnnnx, r.. nponnnm xrnnno n
norononno ronorpnn ncx nnn crpm 40 nr, oprnnmnxcx n nonnxnnnnxy x npu
nmo cnnnntnocrn; sr cnonpnno ocnonnn ntxnnnntx ontntx n
crnnonp c nntm yrounnnx nrnos; n nocnymm - ncnncpnsnnn n
+]]xrnnnoy nunnm ontntx rnyxoo n rnsntx xnnrx n crnnonpx,
cnonpnnoy onprnnnoy nunnm nx.
Fontmo nnnnn ynxrcx n rnsnoy rpnrnsy, mmy n 40 cnyun
nnronpnxrnt ncxot ncncrnn ]xron n oxsnnn npno noomn ontnoy,
nnnn nx n psnnuntx +rnx n ncnonpnno nnpnnnnn nocrpnmnx n
cnnnnnsnponnnt nnrpt nxpoxnpyprnn (crnnonpt).
pnymcrn roon onprnnnoro nunnx rns n no
rpnrnunocrn onprnnntx nmrntcrn, n nosoxnocrn nmnnrtcx n
nxpocrpyxrypx rns, no nxpocxono (r.. no ontmn ynnnunn) c noomtm
cnnnntnoro nxponncrpynrpnx. nxpoxnpyprnx rncrpntnt nyrt psnnrnx
o]rntonornn. 3ro rxnnxo nnmr ontmnncrno o]rntonoron rnsntx ornnn
oncrntx ontnnn n sxcrn; onn nmr coornrcrnymm ocnmnn, xnpyprn
npomnn nnxnt oyunnx nxpoxnpyprnn rns.
onyur psnnrn n noomt o]rntonornucxn ontnt - c
cocyncro nronorn, nopxnnxn crurxn rns, onxonronorn rns, rpnn,
nnpycntn sonnnnxn, nspnx rpnnx n xnpyprnx n r..
ymn cnnnnnsnponnnt o]rntonornucxn nnrpo n sxcrn
xnnxrcx s F n r. nrt, xnnxmmncx nyuno-xnnnnucxn yupxnn,
ocnmennt conpnnm nrnocrnucxo n nuno nnprypo, nnpxmmn
conpnnmn nxpoxnpyprnucxn rot nunnx rnsntx onsn,
ntcoxo+]]xrnnnt xoncpnrnnnt nnt nunnx n snnmmncx nororonxo
o]rntonornucxnx xpon n nxpoxnpypron.
syntrrt noronrn npxrnxn noxstnmr ntcoxym +]]xrnnnocrt cncrt
oprnnsnnn orucrnnno o]rntonornucxo noomn, nnpnnnno n oxpny
spnnx ncnnnx nm crpnt - xx nspocnoro, rx n rcxoro.
nnnpnnnnx sor npnnrntcrn o sopont rpxn pcnynnxn
npycrpnnr ntnm conpmncrnonnn o]rntonornucxo cnyxt n
psnnuntx yponnxx.
2. V X
.
mnpnsnnno n ncroxm npx cunrrcx ropnx nocrnnnocrn nmro
spnnx, oxstnmmx, uro nnouxn n xonouxn crurxn c nx nponoxmnn nyrxn n
spnrntntn nnrpn xnnxmrcx 2-x ooconnntn nnprn spnnx (nnnoro n
nounoro).
pnrntnt nnnsrop ocymcrnnxr # (nnn +nnron) spnrntno ]ynxnnn:
1) cnroomymnn, 2) npn]pnucxo nnn nouno, cypuno spnn, 3) nnrpntno nnn
nnno spnn, 4) nnrono spnn, 5) nnoxynxpno spnn.
$%"% nnon pnnxx n npnnrnnnx ]ynxnnx n ]nnorns oprn
spnnx. n cnocrnnn x pcrnnx n npocrmn n oycnonnn ]ynxnn nnoux,
onmmnx ntcoxo cnrouyncrnnrntnocrtm r.. nosyxmmnxcx x nnsxnn
+nprnxn cnr (n cypxx, rnor). Xpxrpnsyrcx
(nocnpnxrn nnnntnoro cnronoro norox) n (nocnpnxrn
nnnntno psnnnt n ocnmnnn).
V unonx +rn o nn spnnx ocnunnrcx &' , xoropo cnyxnr
nx opnnrnponxn n npocrpncrn. spxrcx cocroxnn npn]pnucxoro spnnx 4-x
ocnonntn ron:
- nccnonnn nonx spnnx r,, npocrpncrn, xoropo nocnpnnnrcx
nnonnxnt nsopo. pn +ro onpnxmrcx rpnnnt nonx n ]xrt nnyrpn nro
(cxorot). pnnnt nonx spnnx n nnr n nop yx, u n nt nnr;
' nccnonnn nnrpntntx ornon nonx spnnx (nnrpntno sont
crurxn n ncx spnrnnoro npn), uro nosnonxr onpnnrt nronornm +ro oncrn
rnsnoro n;
'! ncnontsyrcx nmt cnnnnncro npn orcyrcrnnn
npnrp nx opnnrnponouno onnxn nonx spnnx ocnyoro n pnnnnn c non
spnnx npu (n r.u. y nocrnn rxxenoro ontnoro);
nccnonnn rnono n cnrono uyncrnnrntnocrn /nnn
nrnnn/ nx onnxn cocroxnnx cypunoro n nounoro spnnx.
( npn]pnucxoro spnnx: " oxr trt xonnnrpnucxn
nnnort o rpyounoro n noxntnt. snnnrcx npn oprnnucxnx nsnnnxx n crurx
nnn spnrntno npn /npn nocnnnnn n ncrpo]nn npn]pnn crurxn, rxx npn
nnpnrx n rpo]nn spnrntnoro npn/;
' ouront ntnnnx, ]xrt nnyrpn nonx spnnx. osnnxmr npn oprnnucxnx
nsnnnxx /nocnnnnn, ncrpo]nn/ n nnrpntno son crurxn n npn nnpnrx
spnrntnoro npn. pxy c nronornucxnn nnmmrcx n ]nsnonornucxn
cxorot +ro cnno nxrno (coornrcrnymmx npoxnnn ) n nrnocxorot;
ntnnn nononnnt nonx spnnx. osnnxmr npn nnyrpnupnntx
nopxnnxx spnrntnoro nyrn. xn opso, nccnonnnx npn]pnucxoro spnnx
noorr n ronnucxo nrnocrnx n rontxo crntx, no n omnx sonnnn.
ronorn cypunoro spnnx xnnxrcx xypnnx nnn nounx cnnor.
) spnn ocymcrnnxrcx xonouxn (ntcoxon]]pnnnponnntn
spnrntntn xnrxn) npn ontmo nnrncnnnocrn ocnmnnx. no nstnrcx rxx
nnrpntnt r.x. xonouxn cocporount n nnrpntno xx crurxn. Xpxrpnsyrcx
ntcoxo ocrporo spnnx, rxx xopomn nocnpnxrn nnron, ]opt npron
(nropx xopxonoy orny spnrntnoro nnnsrop). nyxnr nx rnnsnnn oxron
(nnnnx npron n n nno, cocrnnxmmnx nx rn).
nnnt nx nccnonnnx ocrport spnnx nocrpont n ocnon xynponoro
+rnon nopntno ocrport spnnx (yrn spnnx 1 nnyr). nn copxr ncxontxo
onrornnon r.. psnnuntx snxon n nn yxn, nn]p, nonoc, pncynxon, xonn nontr. pn
+ro nct snx nnn c 5 rpon no yrno n 5 nnyr, ro rnn (rnt n cnrnt)- no
yrno n 1 nn. V nc pcnpocrpnnt rnnnt nnnn nx nspocntx c yxnnntn n
xontnntn snxn n pnono nx r (c pncynxn nrpymx). nx onnxn ocrport
spnnx cymcrnymr n oxrnnnt rot nccnonnnx, xoropt nponoxrcx n nnprx,
ocnonnntx n noxnnnnn nnponsnontntx nnxnn rns /onroxnnrnucxoro nncrr/
npn pccrpnnnnn nnxymnxcx oxron. opntnx ocrpor spnnx ( visus) npnnxr
1,0. nronornn on ncuncnxrcx or 0,9 o cnroomymnnx (1/) n 0.
*%"% +ro cnoconocrt xonoux rns psnnurt nnr. nsnonornx
nnronoro spnnx oxonurntno n nsyun. non pcnpocrpnn 3-x xononnrnx
ropnx nnronoro spnnx oonocon, Rnr n ntrontn, corncno xoropo onycxrcx
cymcrnonnn 3-x nnon nnroomymmmnx xononnron, nosyxmmnxcx cnro nmo
nnnt nonnt, no n ontm crnnn nnn nnnntn (xpcntn), nnn cpnnn (snntn),
nnn xoporxnn (cnnnn) nonnn. pn pnnopno nosyxnnn ncx 3-x xononnron
nosnnxr omymnn noro nnr, orcyrcrnn pspxnnx upnoro nnr. nnropn
nnr n crurx xnnxmrcx xonouxn. xx xonoux nr npxym cnxst co spnrntno
sono xopt rononnoro osr. opntno ]opnponnn nnronoro spnnx snncnr or
nnrncnnnocrn cnr.
nx nccnonnnx nnronoro spnnx cymcrnymr nonnxpornucxn rnnnt
xnn, nocrponnt n ocnon psnnunnx xxoro nnr (xpcnoro, cnnro n snnoro) no
rp xucrn: "+ % (nnn xpxocrn).
nonx c nopntnt nnroomymnn xpxrpnsymr xx nopntnoro
rpnxpor. nronornn: nontnt rpnxpor npn ocnnnnn nnronocnpnxrnx ncx
rpx nnrontx xononnron; nnn npornonnx nonno orcyrcrnn nocnpnxrnx no rp
npnsnx xpcnoro nnr (xx y nrnncxoro yunoro ntron); nnn rpnonnx
nonno orcyrcrnn nocnpnxrnx snnoro nnr n rpnrnonnx- nonno orcyrcrnn nocnpnxrnx
cnnro nnr. cnnnn nocnnxrnx xxoro nno ns nnron nstnrcx coornrcrnnno
npornonn, rpnonn n rpnrnonn. rxnx cnyuxx rxx ronopxr o
nxposnn (nocnpnxrnn nnmt 2-x nnron). pn nocnpnxrnn rontxo onoro xxoro- nno nnr
ronopxr o onoxposnn.
ontmnncrn cnyun +ro npoxnnt pccrpocrn, um nyxcroponnn, um - y
yxunn n, n ocnonno, n xpcnt n snnnt nnr.
pnoprnnt pccrpocrn ncrpumrcx npn sonnnnn crurxn, spnrntnoro
npn n n.n.c. ornnunn or npoxnntx +rn pccrpocrn nsnxmrcx n nponcc runnx
sonnnnx n ro nunnx (oconno xonrpcrnx uyncrnnrntnocrt!). nn ornocxrcx rxx
rxn nnt nnronronornn, xx:
+pnnrponcnx- nnnt oxpyxmmro np n xpcno nnr. osnnxr npxo nocn
ynnnx xrpxrt.
nnoncnx- nnnt np n cnn nnr. pnunn r x.
cnroncnx - nnnt np n xnro nnr. osnnxr npn orpnnnnn xpnxnno nnn
nnxornnono xncnoro.
Xnoponcnx - nnnt np n snno nnr, uro nosnnxr npn orpnnnnn xnopo.
nx oxrnnno n on ronxo onnxn nnrontx pccrpocrn cymcrnyr ro
nonocxonnn, xoropt npononrcx n cnnnntntx cnxrpntntx npnopx.
,'" +ro cnoconocrt npocrpncrnnnoro nocnpnxrnx nsopxnn
oxpyxmmro np npn yucrnn n xr spnnx oonx rns. cnn nsopxnn npr n
oonx rnsx nr n nnrpntnt xxn, ro nn]opnnx nprcx n nnrnunt yucrxn
xopt rononnoro osr n nnmt npn +ro ycnonnn nponcxonr nyx nsopxnn or
oonx rns n ono. nnxnn nponcxonr n npn ycnonnn, cnn nsopxnnx onnxont no
nnnunn. c +ro snncnr or ncxontxnx ycnonn:
- pnnoncnx n nopntno nnnpnnnn rnsonnrrntntx tmn;
- orurnnnoro nsopxnnx npr n crurx;
- nonnnx nsopxnnx n nnrnunt (xoppcnonnpymmn) rouxn crurxn,
pcnonoxnnt n onnxono pccroxnnn or nnrpntno xxn n oonx rnsx;
- coxpnnocrn nponoxmnx nyr n nopntno ]ynxnnn ntcmnx nnrpon. snnnrtcx
oxr nnoxynxpno spnn npn ocrpor spnnx n ntm 0,3.
nntcm crnntm psnnrnx nnoxynxpnoro spnnx xnnxmrcx rnynnno, pnt]no,
npocrpncrnnno n crpocxonnucxo.
ronorn nnoxynxpnoro spnnx xnnxmrcx: '" spnn onn rnso
(npn spnnn nyx rnsn) n spnn nonpnno xxt rnso.
xo xpxrp spnnx npnnonr x nnpnnntnoy nonoxnnm rns - xocornsnm.
ccnyrcx nnoxynxpno spnn n cnnnntntx nnprx (urtpxrouuno
nnrorcr, nonxponno nnnocxon). ymcrnymr n opnnrnponount rot: npo
oxonon nnn tpt n nonn, c xpnmo, co cnnnn n npoxnnnn (npo nt])
n c opyxo nntn.
pntm onpyxno npymnn nnoxynxpnoro spnnx, u pntm nuro nunn
xocornsnx (c 3-4 nr), r nyum n nunt, n xocrnucxn, n nnsyntnt +]]xr.
xn opso, nc spnrntnt ]ynxnnn nrpmr nxnym pont nx unonx n rontxo n
otnno xnsnn, no n npn npo]ccnonntno orop, nponnnn rpyono n nonno
+xcnprnst.
- ' . &"'!.
psnnrnn spnrntnoro nnnsrop nocn poxnnx ntnxmr # :
1) ]opnponnn oncrn xenroro nxrn n nnrpntno xxn crurxn n runn npnoro
nonyronx xnsnn ns 10 cnoen crurxn ocrmrcx 4 (spnrntnt xnrxn, nx xp n
norpnnunt
pnt);,
2) ynnnunn ]ynxnnonntno onntnocrn spnrntntx nyr n nx ]opnponnn n
runn
npnoro nonyronx xnsnn;
3) conpmncrnonnn spnrntntx xnrountx +nnron xopt n xopxontx spnrntntx
nnrpon n
runn npntx 2-yx nr xnsnn;
4) ]opnponnn n yxpnnnn cnxs spnrntnoro nnnsrop c pyrnn oprnn n
runn npntx nr xnsnn;
5) op]onornucxo n ]ynxnnonntno psnnrn upnntx npnon n npnt 2-4 c.
xnsnn.
pnn xpxrpnsyrcx n]]ysnt %"%. psyntrr
nopsnnrnx xopt ontmoro osr ono xnnxrcx noxopxont (rnnornnucxn),
npnnrnnnt (nporonrnucxn). o+roy nnnun spnnx y nonopoxnnoro nccnyrcx
nponpxo ntstnnnx n xxo rnsy pxnnn spuxon (npxo n copyxcrnnno) n
ocnmnn cnro n om nnrrntno pxnnn (p]nxc np c rns n mm
r.. orxntnnn rononxn penx xsn, npxo o crnnn onncroronyc).
o p conpmncrnonnnx xopxontx nponccon n upnno nnnpnnnn psnnrn
spnrntnoro nocnpnxrnx npoxnnxrcx y nonopoxnnoro n ' nnun n
runn cxyn (nsop p]yr n nnpnnnnx npr nnn npornn, xor on
ocrnnnnnrcx x).
o 2-o nnn noxnnxrcx '' &' (cpnxx ocrpor spnnx
- n npnx 0,002-0,02).
o 2-oy c. noxnnxrcx . /'"0 &' (
0,01-0,04 - noxnnxrcx & spnn n penox xnno
prnpyr n rt).
6-8 c. rn psnnumr npocrt rorpnucxn ]nrypt (ocrpor spnnx 0,1-
0,3).
1 ro rn psnnumr pncynxn (ocrpor spnnx 0,3-0,6) .
3 nr ocrpor spnnx 0,6-0,9 (y 5-10 r 1,0).
5 nr ocrpor spnnx 0,8-1,0.
7 -15 nr ocrpor spnnx 0,9-1,5.
pnnntno ocrpor spnnx psnnnrcx + no cynrt o ro
nnnunn yercx snunrntno nosx. ( on nnn n oruernnnx '
xpxn xpcnt, xenrt n snent noxnnxrcx y penx x npnoy nonyronm
xnsnn. nx npnnntnoro psnnrnx nnronoro spnnx noxono cosnn rx ycnonn
xopom ocnmennocrn n npnnnunnx nnnnnx x xpxn nrpymx n pccroxnnn 50
c n ontm, nxx nx nnr. rcxn rnpnxnt nx nonopoxnnoro onxnt nrt n
nnrp xenrt, opnxnt, xpcnt n snent mpt (nocxontxy nnrpntnx xx
on ncro uyncrnnrntn x xenro-sneno n opnxno ucrn cnxrp), mpt cnnro,
noro nnr n rent nomrt no xpx.
,'" xnnxrcx ntcm ]opo spnrntnoro nocnpnxrnx.
Xpxrp spnnx " nnun '"! r.x. on n ]nxcnpyr
nsrnxo nprt, nnxnnx ro rns n xoopnnnponnnt. r on crnonnrcx
'" "1%. pn nosnnxnonnnn x 2-y c. p]nxc ]nxcnnn
npr psnnnrcx spnn. 4-o c.- rn ycrounno ]nxcnpymr
ocxst nn nprt r.. nosnnxr r.n. ' '" . po
roro, nosnnxr cyxnn spux, ]nxcnnx nnsxnx npron r.. ''+ x 6 c.-
noxnnxmrcx copyxcrnnnt nnxnnx rns, '. or rn nunnmr
nonsrt, onn conocrnnxx npmnn cnoro rn c npocrpncrnnnt pcnonoxnn n
orcroxnn oxpyxmmnx npron or nx rns, nsnnn nx nnnunnt, nocrnnno
psnnnmr + " '" . oxontn
" ro psnnrnx xnnxmrcx ocrrouno ntcoxx ocrpor spnnx n oonx rnsx
(npn visus n ono rnsy 1,0, n pyro n ntm 0,3-0,4); nopntnx nnnpnnnx
rnsonnrrntntx tmn, orcyrcrnn nronornn nponoxmnx nyr n ntcmnx spnrntntx
nnrpon. $'' '" psnnnrcx y penx yx n 6-
nrn nospcr, no nonnonnno " '" (nnntcmx crnnt
psnnrnx nnoxynxpnoro spnnx) ycrnnnnnrcx x 9-15 ro.
( y nonopoxnnoro, no nnnm ontmnncrn nropon, psnnnrcx or
nnrp x npn]pnn, nocrnnno, n runn npntx 6 c. xnsnn. ncrt xenroro
nxrn (nn nnrpntno xxn) ocrrouno xopomo psnnr op]onornucxn n
]ynxnnonntno yx . 3ro nornpxrcx r, uro smnrnt
&' ' ' penx npn tcrpo npnnnxnnn npr x rnsy n
nnpnnnnn spnrntno nnnnn r.. x nnrpy crurxn psnnnrcx pntm ncro - n 8-
o nn. or x &' npn nnxnnn oxr coxy, c & ntxnnxrcx
snunrntno nosx - nnmt n 5-o c. xnsnn. pnn nospcr non spnnx nr
ysxn rpyxoopsnt xpxrp.
xoropo npcrnnnn o non spnnx " ! . xnsnn oxno
nonyunrt nnmt n ocnonnnn nx opnnrnnn npn nnxnnxx n xot, no nonopor
ronont n rns n cropony npnnrmmnxcx n psnnuntx pccroxnnxx n psnnuno
nnnunnt n nnr npron, nrpymx.
V r 2' rpnnnt nonx spnnx npnpno n 10 yx, u
y nspocntx.


: , ,
.
: rt nonxrn o onrnucxo cncr rns, p]pxnnn, xxoonnn n nx
nronornucxnx cocroxnnxx; rxx o nx nospcrntx oconnocrxx.
: 45 wn.
: rpynnosoe ieopeiwuecxoe sanniwe
s ayzwiopww.
:
1.anwu-:aspes rnasnoro nnoxa, pwcynxw w cxe-, 3 iwna
xnwnwuecxon pepaxuww, wx xoppexuwn; wsenenwn rnasa
npw nporpeccwpyxmen ocno+nennon nwsopyxociw. pwsan
2) nrnt cnt no r - ]rntonornx, ucrt 1-11.
3) Vunt nnorpnnt no r.
( '
opxnn nxnnn px
(n nn.)
1. nnn, snunn nntx npon n npxrnx npu nmo
cnnnntnocrn. .ospcrnx xpxrpncrnx yntnoro nc psnnuntx
nnon p]pxnnn
3
2. nsnucxx n xnnnnucxx p]pxnnx (crrnucxx) - nonxrn. 2
3. nnnnucxx xpxrpncrnx +rponnn, nonnn, rnnprponnn. rot
n npnnnnnt xoppxnnn rponn. oppnrnpymmn nnnst
(c]pnucxn, nnnnnpnucxn, conprntnt, pccnnmmn).
rot onpnnnx xnnnnucxo p]pxnnn.
17
4. rot onpnnnx nporpccnponnnx nnsopyxocrn 3
5. nnnucxx p]pxnnx (xxoonnx) nonxrn, xnns, nsnnnx n
rnsy npn xxoonnn; xonnprnnnx n e pont n xxoonnn;
nospcrnt nsnnnx xxoonnn; npnnnnnt xoppxnnn
npcnonnn. pymnnx xxoonnn cns (noxnx nonnx),
npnnu - +rnonrorns, nrnocrnx, xnnnnx, nunn,npo]nnxrnx.
10
6. prt npxo n oprno cnxsn n ornrt n nonpoct 10
V :
1. Fouxpn .. nsnt onsnn. - .,1989. - . 103-134.
2. nnonx nporp no o]rntonornn . - crn., 2004 r.
3. onnncxn .. ]rntornx. - . 1995 - . 69-101.
4. nrncon 3.., onnncxn .., Xnron .. yxonocrno no rcxo o]rntonornn.
- ., 1987. - . 238-282.
5. onnncxn .. nsnt onsnn. - ., 1986. - .83-120.
6. onn . . nsnt onsnn. .: nnnn, 2002. . 84-128.
7. nrncon 3.. npnounnx no o]rntonornn. - ., 1978. - . 91-97, 102-108, 118-124.
8.. nopnxo . ]rntonornx: Vunnx. .: 3-, 2003. . 106-127.
9.seiwcos O.. nwsopyxocis. - .: ezwuwna, 1986. - 239 c.
10.zopos .., puesa .., canxynos .. nasn-e onesnw.
- .:szaienscxwn uenip "zopos", 2000. - . 82-109.

1.,
! "#.
nnx nxnnx nocnxmn onoy ns ocnonntx psnon xypc rnsntx onsn n
cnny snunrntno pcnpocrpnennocrn +rnx sonnnn.
ronornx &'+ xx npymnn npnonxmm cnoconocrn rns,
conponoxmmcx nonnxnn spnnx (n um ncro ntcoxx nnsopyxocrt) snnr
ono ns npntx cr cpn npnunn nnnnnnocrn no spnnm n np.
Fon 90 nonopoxnntx nmr rnnprponnucxym p]pxnnm or 1,8 o 3,6 , uro
oycnonnno xoporxn npn-snn pspo ro rnsnoro xnox (16,2 ).
nonnucx p]pxnnx y nonopoxnntx n px cnyun oycnonnn nonomnnocrtm.
V r npntx 3-ex nr xnsnn n 93 cnyur orurcx rnnprponnx, +rponnx n
4, nnsopyxocrt oxono 2 cnyun.
o 10 nr, ncorpx n nocrnnno ynnnunn npn-snro psp rns n ]on
pocr oprnns, pcnpocrpnennocrt rnnprponnn coxpnxrcx ocrrouno ntcoxo.
unnx c 10 nr srno ynnnunnrcx ucror nonnn (n 11-14 nr oxono 10).
19-25 ro onx nnsopyxocrn ocrnrr oxono 25, rnnprponnx cocrnnxr 31,2,
+rponnx 39,7.
$. % &" '( ) .
nas npezciasnnei coon cno+nyx *! * nozono
oiorpawuecxoy annapaiy, rze ceiuaixa wrpaei pons
cseiouysciswiensnon nnaciwnxw, a npenonnxmwe cpez- - oniwuecxon
cwcie- oioannapaia. oioannapaie oniwuecxyx cwciey cociasnnei
o+exiws wnw cwciea ciexon, a s rnasy - +ws-e npospaun-e, +wzxwe,
onaciwuecxwe w nnoin-e cpez- (poroswua, snara nepeznen xaep-,
xpycianwx w ciexnoswznoe ieno). rnasy npenonenwe nyuen cseia
oi paccaipwsae-x npezeios npowcxozwi, s ocnosno, na nepeznen
w saznen nosepxnociw poroswu- w xpycianwxa (xax nawonee
cwnsn-x s rnasy npenonnxmwx cpezax), i.e. nyuw cseia npoxozni s
rnas uepes ocnosn-e uei-pe npenonnxmwe nosepxnociw. pesynsiaie
s oxyce oniwuecxon cwcie- rnasa, xax w s oioannapaie,
opasyeicn zenciswiensnoe, no nepesepnyioe wsopa+enwe
paccaipwsaeoro npezeia.
ax s- nonwie ws wswxw, s nxon cno+non oniwuecxon cwciee
pasnwuaeicn rnasnan oniwuecxan ocs, rnasn-n oxyc, rnasnan
nnocxocis w rnasnoe oxycnoe paccionnwe. nasnan oniwuecxan ocs -
oio npnan nwnwn, npoxoznman uepes uenip- scex npenonnxmwx
nosepxnocien.
nasn-n oxyc oniwuecxon cwcie- - iouxa cxo+zenwn na rnasnon
oniwuecxon ocw scex npenonnn-x nyuen paccaipwsae-x
npezeios (oi ecxoneuno yzanenn-x npezeios nyuw ycnosno npwnni-
sa napannensn-e). nezosaiensno, s rnasno oxyce opasyeicn
uixoe wsopa+enwe paccaipwsae-x npezeios.
nasnoe oxycnoe paccionnwe - oio paccionnwe oi rnasnon
nnocxociw oniwuecxon cwcie- zo rnasnoro oxyca.
niwuecxan cwna nxon npenonnxmen nwns- wsepneicn
senwuwnon opaino nponopuwonansnon e oxycnoy paccionnwx
(cornacno opyn- onzepca) w s-pa+aeicn s zwonipwnx (). zna
zwonipwn (1,0 )- oio npenonnxman cwna nwns- c oxycn-
paccionnwe s 1 eip, uio s cooiseiciswe c opynon onzepca
(=1/F) sanwc-saeicn xax =1/1 =1,0.
anpwep, npenonnxman cwna () nwns- c oxycn- paccionnwe s
2 eipa = (1:2 ) = 0,5 . pw oxycno paccionnww = 10 c nwnsa
weei npenonnxmyx cwny =1 (wnw 100 c):10 c =10,0 .
naoopoi, snan pepaxuwx (i.e. cwny npenonenwn) nwns-, o+no
s-uwcnwis ee oxycnoe paccionnwe no oion +e opyne. anpwep,
nwnsa cwnon 5,0 yzei weis oxycnoe paccionnwe F = 100 c :
5,0 = 20 c. e znwnnee oxycnoe paccionnwe, ie cnaee
npenonnxman cwna ciexna, w, naoopoi, ue onsme oniwuecxan
cwna nwns-, ie xopoue oxycnoe paccionnwe (opaino
nponopuwonansnan saswcwocis).
noso pepaxuwn osnauaei npenonenwe. asnwuaxi
w pepaxuwx.
- oio npenonnxman cnoconocis nxon
npospaunon oniwuecxon cwcie- wnw nwns-. npwpoze oiw
csonciso npenonenwn onazaxi sce npospaun-e cpez- - soza,
nz, soszyx w i.z., ciexno; s rnasy uenosexa - s-menassann-e
npospaun-e cpez- (poroswua, xpycianwx, ciexnoswznoe ieno, snara
nepeznen xaep-).yapnan wswuecxan pepaxuwn (npenonenwe) scex
oniwuecxwx cipyxiyp rnasa sspocn-x s cpezne pasna 60,0 , y
zeien - 80,0 . ax nxan oniwuecxan cwciea, wswuecxan
pepaxuwn rnasa xapaxiepwsyeicn 2-yn senwuwnaw - cwnon
npenonenwn () w oxycn- paccionnwe (F).
- oio npenonnxman cnoconocis rnasa s
cocionnww noxon axxoozauww. axan pepaxuwn nas-saeicn
ciaiwuecxon (newsenneon). oinwuwe oi wswuecxon pepaxuww,
ona xapaxiepwsyeicn ne ionsxo cwnon npenonenwn () w oxycn-
paccionnwe F (xax wswuecxan pepaxuwn), no w nono+enwe rnasnoro
oxyca (i.e. uixoro wsopa+enwn npezeia) no oinomenwx x
ceiuaixe (ocnosnon swznmen oonouxe rnasa), naxoznmencn na
sazne nonxce rnasnoro nnoxa. naue rosopn, nonazanwe uixoro
wsopa+enwn npezeia na ceiuaixy saswcwi oi cooinomenwn oxycnoro
paccionnwn (F) npenonnxmero annapaia rnasa w znwn- rnasa,
cooiseicisyxi nw onw zpyr zpyry, wnw nei (ozno xopoue wnw
znwnnee zpyroro).
nezosaiensno, npezciasnenwe o swze xnwnwuecxon pepaxuww
rnasa na zaei ioi axi, cowpaxicn nw napannensn-e nyuw,
nazaxmwe na rnas, na ceiuaixe wnw snepezw, wnw nosazw e.
nezosaiensno, '( &" oycnosnwsaxicn
ie, uio cwna zwonipwuecxoro annapaia w znwna zannoro rnasa ne
cooiseicisyxi zpyr zpyry: nwo npenonnxman cwna oniwuecxoro
annapaia cwnsnee wnw cnaee, ue s nope w, snauwi, ero oxycnoe
paccionnwe ensme wnw onsme (necowsepwo) nopansnon znwn-
zannoro rnasa; nwo znwna rnasa onsnoro onsme wnw ensme, ue s
nope, w ne cooiseicisyei oxycnoy paccionnwx npenonnxmero
annapaia zannoro rnasa (za+e nopansnoro).
+., -, ,
. " " .
,*!. '&, ",
#, !.(.
&".
onzepc, coszasmwn yuenwe o pepaxuww w axxoozauww rnasa,
npezno+wn pasnwuais cnezyxmwe &":
(nopansnan pepaxuwn), wnw nwsopyxocis w
wnw zansnosopxocis. nwnwuecxw onw xapaxiepwsyxicn:
1)cocionnwe cwn- npenonenwn oniwuecxon cwcie- rnasa,
2)znwnon oxycnoro paccionnwn zannon oniwuecxon cwcie-,3)
nono+enwe rnasnoro oxyca oinocwiensno ceiuaixw, 4)nono+enwe
zansnenmen iouxw ncnoro spenwn, na xoiopyx ycianosnen rnas s
cocionnww noxon axxoozauww, 5)cnoconocisx swzensn szans w
snwsw.
/ - nsnneicn nopansnon copasepnon xnwnwuecxon
pepaxuwen i.x. npenonnxman cwna zwonipwuecxoro annapaia c ero
oxycn- paccionnwe cowsepnxicn (cooiseicisyxi) c znwnon
iaxoro rnasa, s pesynsiaie uero rnasn-n oxyc (wsopa+enwe
npezeios) napannensn-x nyuen (i.e. nyuen, wcxoznmwx oi
npezeios, naxoznmwxcn na ecxoneuno yzannno oi rnasa
paccionnww) nonazaei na ceiuaixy. ansnenman iouxa ncnoro spenwn
(i. e. npezei-, pacnonaraxmwecn na axcwansno yzannno oi
rnasa paccionnww w uixo swzw-e npw nonno oixnxuenww
axxoozauww) y oeiponos naxozwicn s ecxoneunociw, snauwi,
iaxon rnas xopomo swzwi szans w, ie onee, snwsw. uxosan
xoppexuwn spenwn ne ipeyeicn.
0 (anoanww pepaxuww) wnw necopasepn-e xnwnwuecxwe
pepaxuww, xorza rnasn-n oxyc ne cosnazaei c ceiuaixon i.x.
cwna npenonenwn oniwuecxon cwcie- iaxoro rnasa weei oxycnoe
paccionnwe, ne cosnazaxmee (necowsepwoe) c znwnon rnasa.
aeiponwn oinocnicn - wonwn, rwnepeiponwn w aciwraiws.
pw cwna npenonenwn oniwuecxon cwcie- - onsman no
cpasnenwx c oeipono, cnezosaiensno, oxycnoe paccionnwe iaxon
oniwuecxon cwcie- - ensme, a znwna rnasa - pasna wnw oi
po+zenwn (nacnezcisenno oycnosnena) onsme oeiponwuecxoro.
pesynsiaie - rnasn-n oxyc napannensn-x nyuen (ws ecxoneunociw)
nonazaei nepez ceiuaixon, a ne na ne. a ceiuaixy, nocne
npenonenwn wx s rnasno oxyce, zoxozni y+e pacxoznmwecn nyuw,
zaxmwe pacnn-suaioe wsopa+enwe zansnwx npezeios. nezosaiensno,
szans won- swzni nnoxo. o, wen cwnsnyx npenonnxmyx
cnoconocis csoero zwonipwuecxoro annapaia, won- oryi npenowis
na ceiuaixy wsnauansno pacxoznmwecn nyuw (wcxoznmwe oi nwsxwx
npezeios). nezosaiensno, won- xopomo swzni snwsw. nauwi,
zansnenman iouxa ncnoro spenwn naxozwicn y wona na xoneuno
(i.e. onee nwsxo, ue ecxoneunocis) paccionnww nepez rnaso,
senwuwna xoioporo saswcwi oi cwn- npenonenwn oniwuecxon
cwcie- iaxoro rnasa. ooioy, npw wssecinon xaxon-nwo oznon
ws yxasann-x senwuwn, npwennn opyny onzepca, o+no s-uwcnwis
w zpyryx senwuwny. anpwep, ecnw zansnenman iouxa ncnoro spenwn
naxozwicn nepez rnaso na paccionnww 25 c, io cwna npenonenwn
iaxoro rnasa (), no opyne, = 100:25c = 4,0 (oio w ecis
cienens nwsopyxociw). , naoopoi, snan cwny npenonenwn rnasa
(cienens wonww), o+no s-uwcnwis, na xaxo paccionnww nepez
rnaso naxozwicn zansnenmen iouxw ncnoro spenwn ero (i.e. xax
zanexo szans swzwi uixo zann-n won). anpwep, npw
nwsopyxociw s 5,0 zansnenman iouxa ncnoro spenwn
pacnonaraeicn s (no opyne - 100:5 =) 20 c. (oioi won
uixo swzwi npezei- nwms na oio nwsxo paccionnww oi
rnasa, a ne ecxoneuno zanexo).
,*! spenwe npw wonww - cepwuecxww paccewsaxmww
(sornyi-w) ouxos-w nwnsaw - sphera !"a# co snaxo (-).
$ nwns- oinwuaxicn oi %& (znn xoppexuww
aciwraiwsa) ie, uio nxon epwzwan iaxon nwns- npenonnei c
ozwnaxoson cwnon w xapaxiepo (xax cowpaiensnoe wnw xax
sornyioe ciexno). % ouxoso ciexne pasnwuaxicn 2
rnasn-x ssawnonepnenzwxynnpn-x epwzwana npenonenwe, ozwn ws
xoiop-x - oniwuecxw nezencisyxmwn (ocs uwnwnzpa), npenonnxmwn xax
npocioe ciexno, a siopon - oniwuecxw zencisyxmwn, npenonnxmwn c
ion cwnon w snaxo, xaxwe yxasan- na ouxoso ciexne. axw
opaso, uwnwnzpwuecxoe ciexno xoppwrwpyei (wcnpasnnei)
npenonenwe ionsxo no oznoy xaxoy-nwo epwzwany. pw wonww
nozwpaeicn, xax npaswno, nawensmee no cwne ouxosoe
ciexno, zaxmee axcwansnyx ocipoiy spenwn, ono w
yxas-saei na senwuwny (cienens) nwsopyxociw. o ciexno rnas
cianoswicn oeiponwuecxw, noioy uio oxyc nepesozwicn
nwnson na ceiuaixy, nooioy s ouxax nauweni xopomo swzwi
szans. ax npaswno, noxasana nonnan xoppexuwn s-nsnennon
nwsopyxociw.
cospeenn-x ycnoswnx wcnonssyxicn w *
" nnoxoro spenwn - ' ' (), ozesaxmwecn
na poroswuy w oecneuwsaxmwe onsmyx ocipoiy spenwn, ue
ouxw, no noxasann-e nocne 3-6 neinero sospacia, w
wnipaoxynnpn-e nwns- - wnw i.n. wcxyccisenn-n xpycianwx.
o cienenn wonwn nozpaszenneicn :na cnayx - zo 3,0 ,
cpeznxx - oi 3,0 zo 6,0 w s-coxyx - s-me 6,0 . pw cnaon
cienenw ouxw nasnauaxicn ionsxo znn zanw (nwsxyx paoiy
pexoenzyeicn s-nonnnis es ouxos); npw cpeznen w s-coxon
cienenw - 2 nap- ouxos (znn zanw - cooiseicisenno xoppexuww
spenwn szans, a znn nwsw - na 2,5-3,0 ensme, ue znn
zanw)
1 wnw zansnosopxocis - oio cnaan pepaxuwn,
cwna npenonenwn oniwuecxon cwcie- - ensme, ue y oeipona,
cnezosaiensno, oxycnoe paccionnwe iaxon oniwuecxon cwcie-
rnasa - onsme, a znwna rnasa-oi po+zenwn (nacnezcisenno
oycnosnena) ensme oeiponwuecxoro. pesynsiaie - rnasn-n
oxyc napannensn-x nyuen (ws ecxoneunociw) nonazaei sa
ceiuaixy, a ne na ne. a ceiuaixy, nocne npenonenwn wx s
rnasno oxyce, nonanw - wsnauansno cxoznmwecn nyuw, xaxwx s
npwpoze nei (sezs wcxoznmwe oi scex npezeios nyuw wexi
scerza pacxoznmeecn nanpasnenwe). ocxonsxy uixoe wsopa+enwe
zansnwx npezeios (oxyc) ne naxozwicn na ceiuaixe, a
ne+wi nosazw e, cnezosaiensno, szans rwnepeipon swzwi
nnoxo. e wen zociaiounon npenonnxmen cwn- csoero
zwonipwuecxoro annapaia znn npenonenwn napannensn-x nyuen (ws
zanw), on ie onee ne o+ei npenowis na ceiuaixy
pacxoznmwecn nyuw (wcxoznmwe oi nwsxwx npezeios). nezosaiensno,
rwnepeipon nnoxo swzwi w snwsw. zansnenmen iouxa ncnoro
spenwn nepez rnaso y nero npaxiwuecxw nei, ieopeiwuecxw
ona naxozwicn nosazw rnas s i.n. oipwuaiensno (wnw nwo)
npocipancise, a pacxoznmwecn oi ne nyuw nonazaxi na
ceiuaixy, y+e wen cxoznmeecn nanpasnenwe. ecio e
nono+enwn sa rnaso, xax w y wona saswcwi oi cwn-
npenonenwn oniwuecxon cwcie- iaxoro rnasa w s-cuwi-saeicn
iax+e no opyne onzepca. anpwep, ecnw zansnenman iouxa
ncnoro spenwn naxozwicn sa rnaso na paccionnww 25 c, io cwna
npenonenwn iaxoro rnasa (), no opyne, = 100:25c = 4,0 (oio
w ecis cienens zansnosopxociw) wnw npw zansnosopxociw s 5,0
zansnenman iouxa ncnoro spenwn pacnonaraeicn s (no
opyne - 100:5 =) 20 c. nosazw rnasa (oioi rwnepeipon nw
na xaxo paccionnww nepez rnaso ne swzwi uixo npezei-,
ne rosopn y+e o ecxoneuno zanxwx).
wms nanpnran axxoozauwx w ie ca- ycwnwsan
npenonnxmyx cnoconocis csoen oniwuecxon cwcie-, on o+ei
nepesozwis oxyc na ceiuaixy w iorza xopomo swzeis zansnwe
npezei-, a npw em onsme nanpn+enww - w nwsxwe.
,*! spenwe npw rwnepeiponww -
() *+'', - sphera !"#e- wnw (+).
ozwpaeicn nawonsmee no cwne ouxosoe ciexno, zaxmee
axcwansnyx ocipoiy spenwn, ono w yxas-saei na senwuwny
(cienens) rwnepeiponww. o ciexno iaxon rnas cianoswicn
oeiponwuecxw, noioy uio oxyc nepesozwicn nwnson na
ceiuaixy, nooioy s ouxax nauweni xopomo swzwi szans. ax
npaswno, nonnan xoppexuwn s-nsnennon zansnosopxociw noxasana
ionsxo sspocn-. ein zo 3-5 nei - e o+no ne xoppwrwposais,
ecnw npw cienenw zo 2,0 ocipoia spenwn s-coxan (= 1,0) w
nei +ano na spwiensnoe yionenwe; ecnw ecis +ano- na
cnw+enwe spenwn wnw yionenwe (za+e npw s-coxon ocipoie
spenwn) wnw cxoznmeecn xocornaswe - onsaiensno nasnauaxi nonnyx
xoppexuwx. ocxonsxy rwnepeiponwn y zeien c pocio rnasa
xa+z-n roz yensmaeicn na 0,5-1,0 . uxw neoxozwo
e+erozno ennis. cospeenn-x ycnoswnx wcnonssyxicn w
zpyrwe swz- xoppexuww nnoxoro spenwn - ' ' *.,
w & %' ( -
wsenenwn xpwswsn- poroswu- xax no+es-w, iax w nasepn-w
eiozaw wnw nepecazxa poroswu- c wsennn- pazwyco
xpwswsn-).
o cienenn rwnepeiponwn nozpaszenneicn : na cnayx - zo
2-3,0 , cpeznxx - oi 3,0 zo 6,0 w s-coxyx - s-me 6,0 .
pw rwnepeiponww cnaon cienenw - zein uame xoppexuwx ne
nasnauaxi; 1 napy ouxos znn nocionnnoro nomenwn - nasnauaxi
ionsxo npw nanwuww +ano wnw xocornaswn y penxa; npw
cpeznen w s-coxon cienenw - 1 napy wnw, ecnw ecis +ano-,
- 2 nap- ouxos (znn zanw - cooiseicisenno zann-x cxwacxonww
w wnyc 1,0 , a znn nwsw - na 2,5-3,0 onsme, ue znn
zanw). spocn- - npw nanwuww +ano - 2 nap- ouxos.
. rwnepeiponos s csnsw c nocionnn- nanpn+enwe axxoozauww
ne ionsxo snwsw, no npw ssrnnze szans (s oinwuwe oi oeipona, y
xoioporo szans oieuaeicn noxon w xonseprenuww i.e. npouecca
csezenwn spwiensn-x ocen 2-yx rnas na o+exi), nanxzaeicn
nanpn+enwe w xonseprenuww, uio nepezxo npwsozwi x cxoznmeycn
xocornaswx. nwnwuecxw y nwu c s-coxon cienensx rwnepeiponww
nanxzaeicn ysxwn spauox, enxan nepeznnn xaepa, rnas yensmen s
pasepe, c anon poroswuen.
pw rwnepeiponww nx-x cienenen nepezxo nanxzaxicn xponwuecxwe
neapwi-, xonsxnxiwswi-, a npw s-coxon cienenw - na rnasno zne
nanxzaeicn xapiwna "no+noro nespwia" (rwnepewn w
ciymsannocis xoniypos zwcxa spwiensnoro nepsa). -nsnenwe y
onsnoro rwnepeiponww, ynyumenwe ero spenwn c (+) ouxoson
xoppexuwen, nopansn-e rpanwu- nonn spenwn nossonnxi oinwuwis
no+n-n nespwi oi wciwnnoro.
&" - cy+exiwsn-n w
o+exiwsn-n. y+exiwsn-n eioz - ocnos-saeicn na cy+exiwsn-x
omymenwnx onsnoro o ynyumenww wnw yxyzmenww ero spenwn
npw nozope oniwuecxwx cixon i.e. oio - xoppexuwn ocipoi-
spenwn nyi nozopa nwns, ynyumaxmwx ocipoiy spenwn. o
swzy (+ wnw -) w cwne ciexna, c xoiop- nauweni zai
nawnyumee spenwe, o+no cyzwis cooiseicisenno o swze
pepaxuww w e cienenw.
pwenneicn oioi eioz ionsxo y sspocn-x. . zeien on ne
zai iounoro npezciasnenwn o xnwnwuecxon pepaxuww s csnsw c
onee s-pa+enn- y nwx yuaciwe s spenww npouecca
axxoozauww.
+exiwsn-n eioz (cxwacxonwn wnw "ienesan npoa" xnse)
nposozwicn npw onsaiensno ycnosww - ezwxaeniosno
napanwue axxoozauww 0,1%-1% (s saswcwociw oi sospacia)
pacisopo cynsaia aiponwna wnw ero ananoros ( 0,25-1%
rwzpopowza cxononawna, 1% rwzpopowza roaiponwna, 0,5-1%
iponwxawza wnw wzpwauwna, wnw uwxnarwna - onee
xpaixospeennoro zenciswn). nnapain-n eioz nas-saeicn
pepaxioeipwen.
2. *.
s scex anoanwn pepaxuww nawonsmee uwcno ocno+nenwn
zai wonwn. exanwse passwiwn nwsopyxociw s-zennxi 3 ssena:
1) spwiensnan paoia na nwsxo paccionnww (ocnanennan
axxoozauwn); 2) nacnezcisennan oinromnnocis; 3) ocnanenwe
cxnep- - napymenwe ipowxw cxnep- (pacin+enwe saznero nonxca rnasa
noz zenciswe o-unoro snyipwrnasnoro zasnenwn).
asnwun-w asiopaw oieuena pons norwx axiopos s
passwiww nwsopyxociw -reneiwuecxwx, couwansn-x, rwrwenwuecxwx,
reorpawuecxwx, reozwnawuecxwx, omecoaiwuecxwx w zpyrwx.
pw onpezennn-x ycnoswnx zwnawxa e passwiwn
npwopeiaei naionorwuecxwn xapaxiep - passwsaeicn i.n.
) (/, xapaxiepwsyxmancn yxyzmenwe
spenwn szans xax ws-sa yznwnenwn rnasa (uio ipeyei ysenwuenwn
cwn- ouxos znn ynyumenwn spenwn), iax w ws-sa oponorwuecxwx
wsenenwn na rnasno zne (passwiwn wonwuecxoro xonyca, saznen
ciawno-, xax npwsnaxos pacin+enwn rnasa, oip-sos, pasp-sos
ceiuaixw, e zwcipoww, oicnonxw, xposowsnwnnwn s ceiuaixy,
ciexnoswznoe ieno w zp.). asswsaeicn ona s nxo sospacie
(o+ei -is zomxonsnon, ciyzenuecxon, npoeccwonansnon w i.z.), no
s nocneznwe zecniwneiwn uame nanxzaeicn y zomxonsnwxos s csnsw
c onsmon spwiensnon narpysxon zoa w s mxone s coueianww c
anonozsw+n- opaso +wsnw, necosepmenciso nwianwn w
ocnanenwe opranwsa scnezciswe uaci-x onesnen (uame
wnexuwonn-x - ionswnnwios, xapweca, pesaiwsa w zp.). axwe
onsn-e cocioni na -yuie y oiansonora, nonyuaxi perynnpn-e
npownaxiwuecxwe xypc- neuenwn (xoncepsaiwsn-e w onepaiwsn-e).
ezicn nocionnn-n xonipons sa nanwuwe npwsnaxos
nporpeccwposanwn wonww c noomsx iaxwx , xax swsoeipww,
, / w &, oiop-e zon+n-
nposozwiscn ne pe+e 1 pasa s roz0
1 + +: npw swsoeipww -
cnw+enwe ocipoi- spenwn c xoppexuwen zo 0,5 w nw+e;
cxwacxonwuecxw ysenwuenwe pepaxuww na 1,0 w onsme s roz;
oxowoeipwuecxw - ysenwuenwe sa roz carwiansnoro pasepa
rnasa na 2 w onsme no cpasnenwx c sospacinon nopon w
oiansocxonwuecxw - nporpeccwposanwe wonwuecxwx wsenenwn na
rnasno zne.
#. )' &' /''0 3 + .+
" ''4 ' ''4
''4 '' . "2
'' 3 / 0+ 5 6+ '+
xnnnnx, nunn, npo]nnxrnx.
0" - oio cnoconocis rnasa wsennis csox pepaxuwx, i.e.
npwcnocanwsaiscn x ncnoy swzenwx npezeios, naxoznmwxcn na
pasnwuno (onee nwsxo )paccionnww oi rnasa, sa cui
nanpn+enwn axxoozauww. axan peaxuwn nas-saeicn zwnawuecxon s
oinwuwe oi ciaiwuecxon pepaxuww, npw xoiopon wsopa+enwn
npezeios nonazaxi na ceiuaixy s cocionnww noxon axxoozauww.
exanwse axxoozauww yuacisyxi zsa ocnosn-x axiopa - oio
coxpamenwe uwnwapnon -mu- w wsenenwe npenonnxmen cnoconociw
xpycianwxa. wswonorwuecxwn exanws axxoozauww saxnxuaeicn s
io, uio npw coxpamenww uwnwapnon -mu- npowcxozwi paccnanenwe
uwnnos-x csnsox. Oio cnococisyei yensmenwx nain+enwn xancyn-
xpycianwxa, s pesynsiaie uero xpycianwx npwopeiaei onee s-nyxnyx
opy, ysenwuwsan csox npenonnxmyx cwny, a, snauwi, w cwny scen
oniwuecxon cwcie- rnasa.
pw axxoozauww s rnasy npowcxozwi cnezyxmwe wsenenwn:
1. y+enwe spauxa. 2. .senwuenwe s-nyxnociw nosepxnocien
xpycianwxa, ocoenno nepeznen. 3.emenwe nepeznen nosepxnociw
xpycianwxa snepez s nepeznxx xaepy,scnezciswe uero rnywna
nepeznen xaep- s uenipe yensmaeicn (i.x. xpycianwx onee
s-nyxn-n - s uenipe). 4. .rnynenwe nepeznen xaep- no nepwepww
sa cuei paccnanenwn pecnwunoro noncxa w oiozswranwn
nepwepwuecxoro nonca pazy+xw xsazw. 5. nycxanwe xpycianwxa
na 0,25 - 0,3 snws. 6. eonsmoe zpo+anwe xpycianwxa npw
neonsmwx zsw+enwnx rnasa.
npouecco axxoozauww nepasp-sno csnsan " ",
i.e. csezenwe spwiensn-x ocen oowx rnas na iouxy wxcauww. Oio
oecneuwsaeicn s-paai-sae- y+e s ieuenwe neps-x nezens +wsnw
penxa ycnosn- penexco ysww (cnwnnwn) znn ncnoro
wnoxynnpnoro swzenwn nwsxwx npezeios, a iax+e paoion
snyipennwx npn-x rnasozswraiensn-x -mu, wnnepswpye-x oznw
nepso c axxoozauwonnon -muen (III napon ). pw ssrnnze
szans spwiensn-e ocw oowx rnas npwnwaxi napannensnoe
nanpasnenwe, a axxoozauwn w xonseprenuwn naxoznicn s noxoe. pw
ssrnnze na nwsxwn npezei npowcxozwi nanpn+enwe snyipennwx npn-x
-mu znn xonseprenuww w uwnwapn-x -mu znn axxoozauww. zwnwuen
xonseprenuww nsnneicn 1 , xoiop-n sosnwxaei npw csezenww
spwiensn-x ocen oowx rnas na wxcwpyeyx iouxy, naxoznmyxcn na
paccionnww 1 oi rnas. enwuwna eipoyrna opaino nponopuwonansna
paccionnwx oi rnasa zo iouxw wxcauww ssrnnza (saswcwocis
ananorwuna ion, uio cymecisyei e+zy cwnon npenonenwn w oxycn-
paccionnwe oniwuecxon cwcie- rnasa npw axxoozauww). wna
xonseprenuww / cwne axxoozauww (nacxonsxo -
axxoozwpye, nacionsxo - w xonseprwpye). aionorwn axxoozauww
sezi x napymenwx xonseprenuww, i.e. napymenwx wnoxynnpnoro
spenwn w passwiwx xocornaswn: npw npenonnxman cwna
oniwuecxon cwcie- cwnsnan (nossonnxman xopomo swzeis snwsw es
nanpn+enwn axxoozauww), uio oycnosnwsaei y wona nanwuwe cnaon
axxoozauwonnon -mu-. csox ouepezs, cnaan axxoozauwn wona
oycnosnwsaei ero cnayx xonseprenuwx, a, cnezosaiensno, cnaocis
snyipennwx npn-x -mu w npesanwposanwe cwn- napy+n-x npn-x -mu.
pesynsiaie, y wonos o+ei passwiscn pacxoznmeecn xocornaswe.
o ie +e npwuwna, y rwnepeiponos uame passwsaeicn cxoznmeecn
xocornaswe (cnaan npenonnxman cwna rwnepeipona oycnasnwsaei
cwnsnyx axxoozauwonnyx -muy, onsmyx cnoconocis x axxoozauww
w,snauwi,cwnsnyx xonseprenuwx w onee cwnsn-e snyipennwe npn-e
-mu-).
sospacio passwsaeicn wnw ciapuecxoe spenwe
(wswonorwuecxoe, csnsannoe c sospacio, cocionnwe axxoozauww)-
ona ocnanneicn ws-sa cxneposwposanwn w ynnoinenwn
xpycianwxa(i.x. iepnn onaciwunocis, on ne o+ei nerxo wsennis
csox opy, za+e npw paccnanenww nainrwsaxmwx ero uwnnos-x
csnsox). 40 nei s opranwse uenosex npowcxozwi onee s-pa+enn-e
roponansn-e wsenenwn, nepeciponxa na ciapocis. cnezciswe
oioro nw+anman iouxa ncnoro spenwn nocienenno oizanneicn oi rnasa
w onsnon (oeipon), xoiop-n pansme nwxorza ne +anosancn na
spenwe, oieuaei saipyznenwn npw s-nonnenww nwsxon paoi-, npw
uienww - oiozswraei iexci zansme oi rnas znn nyumero swzenwn.
pw rwnepeiponww ws-sa ocnanenwn axxoozauww panee cxp-ian
uacis nocienenno nepexozwi s nsnyx w onsnon +anyeicn na yxyzmenwe
spenwn szans w snwsw. . rwnepeiponos npecwonwn naciynaei
snauwiensno pansme, ue y oeiponos. . onoz-x nxzen c neonsmon
cienensx rwnepeiponww (zo 2,0 ) oryi oicyicisosais cy+exiwsn-e
+ano-, ocipoia spenwn szans o+ei -is pasna 1,0, i. x. y nwx
weeicn onsmon o+e axxoozauww (cwnsnan axxoozauwonnan
-mua), uio noxp-saei cnaocis npenonnxmen cnoconociw
oniwuecxon cwcie- rnasa. axan rwnepeiponwn, nesaeuaean
onsn- w s-nsnennan cnyuanno npw ocoipe oiansonoro,
nas-saeicn axynsiaiwsnon.
pw wonww npecwonwn pasossicn nos+e, ue y oeipona w, ie
oneee, ue y rwnepeipona, nocxonsxy, onazan cwnsnon
npenonnxmen cnoconocisx, onw xopomo swzni snwsw es
nanpn+enwn axxoozauww.
a ianwue npezciasnen- nop- axxoozauww
npw oeiponww no enociouxoy, ws xoiopon ncno, uio ecnw s
sospacie 10 nei o+ axxoozauwn s cpezne pasnneicn 14,0 , a s
20 nei on cnw+aeicn zo 10,0 , io s 40 nei on pasen scero 4,0 , s
50 nei=2,0 w s 60 nei - 1,0 .
Oeipon- s 40 nei, xax w panee, ne ny+zaxicn s ouxax znn zanw,
no y+e ny+zaxicn s ouxax znn uienwn wnw paoi- na nwsxo
paccionnww +1,0 ; s 50 nei - s +2,0 w s 60 nei - s +3,0 .
pw wonww ouxw znn zanw coxpannxicn npe+nww, a znn nwsw
no sospaciy s-nwc-saxicn c yuio e cienenw (i.e.
cywpyn cwny cixon onsnoro szans w cixon, neoxozw-x
oeipony no sospaciy, i.x. cixna szans npespamaxi anoanos
pepaxuww s oeiponos), s pesynsiaie - oio ciexno (znn nwsw),
scerza ensmee, ue y oeipona.
pw rwnepeiponww ouxw znn nwsw npw io +e sospacie, scerza
onsmee, ue y oeipona.
anpwep, * $,3 4 23 ny+n- ouxw znn paoi- :
-2,0 (+) +1,0 = )1,3 4 ; a * $,3 4 23 -
ny+n- ouxw +2,0 (+) +1,0 =5+,3 4; a -* 23 ny+n-
ouxw 51,3 4.
ornacno yxasannoro pacuia, s 63 7 -* znn paoi-
ny+n- ouxw 5$,3 48 * +,3 4 s io +e sospacie znn paoi-
noipeyxicn ouxw 51,3 48 * +,3 4 ) 56,3 4.
ocxonsxy s axxoozauww yuacisyxi 2 cipyxiyp- - uwnwapnan
-mua w xpycianwx, cnezosaiensno wsenenwn npouecca axxoozauww
oryi -is oycnosnen- cocionnwe wenno oiwx cipyxiyp.
ocionnnoe nanpn+enwe axxoozauww, ocoenno y mxonsnwxos w
onoz-x nxzen (za+e oeiponos), npw nenaronpwnin-x ycnoswnx
nanpn+nnon spwiensnon paoi- o+ei s-ssais, s uacinociw,
- ozny ws ".
wnepeipon-, nocxonsxy xax szans, iax w snwsw swzni nnoxo
(i.x. wsopa+enwn npezeios y nwx oxycwpyxicn sa ceiuaixon),
s-ny+zen neocosnanno (penexiopno) nocionnno nonssosaiscn
axxoozauwen, nanpnrais e, ie onee, uio oi npwpoz- ey zana
cwnsnan (onsme, ue y oeipona) axxoozauwonnan -mua, xoiopan
xonencwpyei cnaocis npenonenwn ero oniwuecxon cwcie-. cnw y
onoz-x nxzen oio nocionnnoe nanpn+enwe axxoozauww cianoswicn
npws-un- w nonnoro paccnanenwn ne naciynaei, passwsaeicn
". oiwx cnyuanx npw nozope ouxos uacio
onapy+wsaeicn ne rwnepeiponwn (ona npw oio wnw e uacis
o+ei ociasaiscn cxp-ion), a oeiponwn wnw za+e wonwn
(no+nan). wnepeiponwn +e s zannon cwiyauww o+ei -is
zwarnocuwposana nwms npw na one ezwxaeniosnoro
% nocne 10- znesn-x wnciwnnuwn 1% pacisopa
aiponwna (wnorza zo ecnua). a onsnon nocne aiponwnwsauww
oieuaei yxyzmenwe spenwn szans w snwsw, no ouxosan xoppexuwn
cooiseicisenno cxwacxonww zai axcwansnoe (soso+noe znn
zannoro onsnoro) spenwe.
pw upesepn-x spwiensn-x narpysxax, scerza conposo+zaxmwxcn
nanpn+enwe axxoozauww, cnas o+ei passwiscn w y oeipona.
orza nonsnnxicn +ano- na yxyzmenwe spenwn szans, a npw nozope
ouxos onapy+wsaeicn wonwn (no+nan). warnocuwpyeicn cnas iax+e,
xax w npw rwnepeiponww (cxwacxonwuecxw na one aiponwnwsauww).
pw oio nocne aiponwnwsauww onsnon oieuaei ynyumenwe spenwn
szans (zo 1,0) w ouxosan xoppexuwn ne ipeyeicn.
won- co cnaso axxoozauww +anyxicn na yxyzmenwe spenwn
szans, nocne aiponwnwsauww - ono nos-maeicn,a ouxosan xoppexuwn
soccianasnwsaei spenwe c ensmw no cwne ciexno, ue zo
aiponwnwsauww.
cxyccisenn-n cnas axxoozauww s-s-saeicn npwenenwe
woiwxos (nwnoxapnwna, ocaxona w zp.). euenwe: nasnauenwe
aniaronwcios woiwxos - xonwnonwiwxos rpynn- aiponwna.
ieuenwe +wsnw s pesynsiaie omwx saonesanwn (omero
nepeyionenwn, wciomenwn opranwsa na one onesnen, xoniyswn,
nepsnoro nanpn+enwn, pacciponcis wnnepsauww uenipansnoro w
nepwepwuecxoro renesa, wnexuwn, wnioxcwxauwn, xponwuecxwx
saonesanwn) o+ei yensmaiscn o+ea axxoozauww, uio nanxzaeicn
w npw nexoppwrwposann-x anoanwnx pepaxuww (oixase nomenwn
ouxos), wnw rwnepxoppexuww wonww, uacio y rwnepeiponos
cpeznen cienenw (3,0-5,0 ), npw cnasax axxoozauww na one
ycwnennon paoi- na nwsxo paccionnww (ws-sa neperpysxw
axxoozauwonnon -mu-) w, ocoenno uacio, y wonos c wx oi
npwpoz- cnaon axxoozauwonnon -muen - o+ei sosnwxais wnw
ycwnwsaiscn cnaocis e, uio xnwnwuecxw nponsnneicn npwsnaxaw
wnw spwiensnoro yionenwn. onsn-e
+anyxicn na pacnn-sanwe npezeios (yxs, cipouex),
paccaipwsae-x snwsw, speenaw saiyanwsanwn, pess, nonmyx
ons s rnasax, s swcxax, e+zy nazposn-w zyraw, cseioonsns.
warnocuwpyeicn oia naionorwn oiansonoro npw onpezenenww
o+a aconxinon axxoozauww (c noomsx cxwacxonwuecxwx nwneex),
i.e. cwn- uwnwapnon -mu-, w cpasnenww zann-x onsnoro c
sospacinon nopon oeipona (no xpwson axxoozauww).
9 acienonww w cnasos - xownwposannoe:cooiseicisyxman
oniwansnan ouxosan xoppexuwn znn zanw w nwsw, a iax+e
onsaiensnoe neuenwe nepsonpwuwn- (omero saonesanwn; rnasnoro
- ipenwposxaw cnaon axxoozauwonnon -mu- xonnexco ynpa+nenwn
paccewsaxmww nwnsaw, npwsaw w zp., penexcoiepanww;
coszanwe neoxozw-x rwrwenwuecxwx ycnoswn - ocsemnnociw w i.z.).
2 sosnwxaxi nocne wcnonssosanwn
xonwnonwiwuecxwx npenapaios(aiponwna w ero ananoros), npw
pasnwun-x npoueccax s opwie c nopa+enwe uwnwapnoro ysna wnw
cisona rnasozswraiensnoro nepsa (onyxonsx, socnanenwe,
xposowsnwnnwe), asansno nopa+enww osros-x oonouex w xocien
ocnosanwn uepena, nopa+enww nzep III nap- , na zne 3-ero
+enyzouxa w wnsswesa sozonposoza (npw onyxonnx, onueanwie,
rwzpoueanww, cnwnnon cyxoixe w zp.), npw pasnwun-x wnioxcwxauwnx
(oiynwse, eiwnos- cnwpio, aniwpwso, nnasouwzo), npw
zwiepww (o-uno s nepwoz s-szoposnenwn, speenn-n, es
sosneuenwn cwnxiepa spauxa). nwnwuecxw, s pesynsiaie ocnanenwn
wnw nesoso+nociw nonssosaiscn axxoozauwen, onsnon-oeipon
+anyeicn na pacciponciso spenwn w noiepx cnoconociw s-nonnnis
nwsxyx paoiy, uwiais w i.z.; rwnepeipon - na yxyzmenwe spenwn
w szans, w snwsw; a won (ocoenno s-coxon cienenw) - napymenwn
spenwn ne oieuaei. oueianwe napanwua axxoozauww w napanwua
cwnxiepa spauxa (c pacmwpenwe spauxa - wzpwaso, oicyiciswe
peaxuwn spauxa na csei) nas-saeicn +3 /3.
9 saswcwi oi npwuwn- saonesanwn. uxw nasnauaxi s
saswcwociw cionxociw npouecca.
:& naionorww axxoozauww saxnxuaeicn s wcxnxuenww
nernasn-x npwuwn, e s-s-saxmwx; csoespeenno s-nsnenww w
neuenww cnasos axxoozauww, acienonww, napanwuen; csoespeennon
oniwansnon xoppexuww anoanwn pepaxuww ionsxo nocne
aiponwnwsauww, a npw wciwnnon wonww ne zonycxan rwnepxoppexuww
e, c yuio cy+exiwsnon nepenocwociw ouxos w neoxozwociw 2-
yx nap ouxos onsnoy; zwcnancepno nanxzenww sa iaxww
onsn-w; oszoposnenww wx opranwsa, sanniww wsxynsiypon (no
noxasanwn), conxzenww rwrwenwuecxoro pe+wa spwiensnoro ipyza
w oiz-xa; canwiapno-npocseiwiensnon paoie ezwxos cpezw zeien,
pozwienen w nezaroros no pazwo,ieneswzensx, pozwienscxwx w
nezarorwuecxwx coseiax.
.
7: .
: rt nonxrn o nnoxynxpno, crpocxonnucxo, rnynnno n
]opnno spnnn n nx pccrpocrnx; o xnnnnx, +rnonornn n
conpnntx rox nunnx copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx.
: 45 nn.
: rpynnono roprnucxo snxrn n ynropnxx.
: nnxr, cxt, cnt, nnosnrnnt, ]ororp]nn,
psnnrnt non spnnx, spxntnt crpocxon,
pmrx nx urnnx, 2 xpnm nnn crpxnx. nnnt:
spnrntnt nnnsrop.
.
N
n/n
opxnnx snxrnx
px
n nn.
1 onxrn o nnoxynxpno, crpocxonnucxo n rnynnno spnnn. 3
2 snnrn nnoxynxpnoro spnnx. 2
3 rono-]nsnonornucxn ycnonnx nnoxynxpnoro spnnx. 3
4 ont nnoxynxpnoro n crpocxonnucxoro spnnx nx xnsnn n rpyono
xrntnocrn unonx.
3
5 pymnn nnoxynxpnoro spnnx. ocornsn. 3
6 onnntno snunn xocornsnx. 2
7 opyxcrnnno n npnnrnucxo xocornsn. 3
8 opnn nponcxoxnnx copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx. 3
9 nccn]nxnnx n xnnnnx copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx. 6
10 nnonnx. 3
11 onpnnt rot ]ynxnnonntnoro n xnpyprnucxoro nunnx
copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx.
6
12 po]nnxrnx copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx. 3
13 prt npxo n oprno cnxsn nxrop-crynr-nxrop n ornrt n
nonpoct.
5
roro: 45
V.
1. nrncon 3.. ncnnoxynxpnx nnonnx n nunn. - .: nnnn, 1968.
206 c.
2. nrncon 3.. opyxcrnnno xocornsn. - .: nnnn, 1977. 303 c.
3. Fouxpen .. nsnt onsnn. .: nnnn, 1989. . 331-351.
4. onnncxx .. nsnt onsnn. .: nnnn, 1989. . 120-142.
5. onnncxx .. ]rntonornx. .: nnnn, 1995. . 102-119.
6. nopnxo .. ]rntonornx. .: 3-, 2003. .309-327.
7. onn .. nsnt onsnn. .: nnnn, 2002. . 387-410.
5. eopon .., pnn .., cnxynon .. nsnt onsnn. .: srntcxn
nnrp eopon, 2000. . 110-121
1. FV, VF
.
FV spnn +ro cnoxnx xrntnocrt spnrntnoro nnnsrop,
nropx xoropo ocymcrnnxrcx nocnpnxrn nnmnro np nyx rnsn. 3ro
cnoconocrt nsopxnnx or crurox oonx rns n nnt spnrntnt ops.
ymcrnyr rpn nn npocrpncrnnnoro spnnx: crpocxonnucxo, ]opnno rnynnno.
$'' spnn ocymcrnnxr ornocnrntnym rnynnnym noxnnsnnm
spnrntnoro ops n ycnonnxx , r. . npn psnnnn non spnnx oonx
rns. no cnocrnnno rontxo nnoxynxpnoy spnnm, r.. spnnm nyx rnsn.
pnpo crpocxonnucxoro spnnx oxr cnyxnrt ontr oxonon: cnn nocrnrt
np onn rnso rpyxy, np pyrn nont, ro nonyurcx spnrntno nocnpnxrn
tpt n nonn.
nxo spnrntno nocnpnxrn oxno nonyunrt n rontxo npn psnnnn non spnnx,
no npn rx nstno F . cnn ]nxcnponrt xxym nno
rouxy n pccroxnnn 2-3 rpon or nnmrnx, n yponn rns, n pccroxnnn 15-20 c or
nnx nocrnrt o ontmnx nntn rx, urot onn n xcnnct pyr pyr xonnn, ro
oxno nnrt FVF xy connenntn nntnn.
ro rnnocxonnn mnpoxo ncnontsyrcx n nyx, rxnnx, r, r npnnxmrcx
nnoxynxpnt onrnucxn npnopt. o]rntonornucxo npxrnx ro npnnxmr npn
nccnonnnn nnoxynxpnoro spnnx n nx nunnx xocornsnx. nx +rnx nn cnyxr
nnprt: cnnonro]op, psnnrnt non spnnx, spxntnt crpocxon, pmerx nx
urnnx n p.
89:;9;+ (<=$7>?;$@9; A:;>; - r omymnn rncnocrn
npr xx npn onoxynxpno, rx n npn nnoxynxpno spnnn, r.. npn spnnn onn nnn
oonn rnsn.
B<,>9; A:;>; nnn VF - cnocrnnno rontxo
nnoxynxpnoy spnnm. Fnropx rnynnnoy spnnm unonx cnoono opnnrnpyrcx n
npocrpncrn, onpnxr nsnno pcnonoxnn npron no ornomnnx x c.
pnpo rnynnnoro spnnx oxr cnyxnrt ro : ncntryt xonno
npononoxn (xpnm nnn cnnnt) onxn c psxy noncrt n xonn pyro npononoxn,
xoropym nccnonrnt pxnr nprnxntno. pn orcyrcrnnn nnoxynxpnoro rnynnnoro
spnnx ncntryt otuno npoxnnrcx.
xn opso, , xoropo nxnmur n cx
, FV, n FV
VF spnn, ocymcrnnxr cnxst B B .
orncno , spnrntnt omymnnx n nx npcrnnnnx
xnnxmrcx F X
.
2. FV .
o npnn poxnnx pnx ro spnrntnt nnnsrop (o rns, npnnt
nponoxmn nyrn n xop rononnoro osr) xnnxrcx m nconpmnntn. onopoxnnt
pnox n ]nxcnpyr cno spnn n oxpyxmmnx nprx n rns ro cnntno
nyxmr. pn psxo n nnsnno ocnmnnn rns nosnnxmr rnpnnsonnnt smnrnt
p]nxct cxnnn nx, orxntnnn ronont, cns tmn rn, xonunocr, om
cnoxocrno.
3. VX X X.
pn nyx orxptrtx rnsx c nopntntn spnrntntn ]ynxnnxn psnnumr rpn
nn spnnx: nnoxynxpno, ononpnno n onoxynxpno.
nponcc spnrntno xrntnocrn +rn nnt spnnx oryr snxrt pyr pyr
nono nm nonn. x, onoxynxpnt spnn t nontsycx npn o]rntocxonnn n
nxpocxonnn c onoxynxpnt nxpocxono nropx nrpnnsnnn nsopxnnx pyroro
rns. nonpnnt spnn ocymcrnnxrcx npnnnnnnn onn rnso npn nyx
orxptrtx rnsx, nnpnp no npx crpntt n r.n. xx sn nnoxynxpnoro spnnx
pyrn nno spnnx nponcxonr n psyntrr nroronns (optt) non spnnx oonx
rns.
pn orxnonnnn onoro rns or concrno rouxn ]nxcnnn, nnpnp, npn xocornsnn
n cnnor onoro rns, spnn npn nyx orxptrtx rnsx yr rontxo onoxynxpnt.
FV, VF
V .
Fnnoxynxpno crpocxonnucxo n rnynnno spnn nr upsntuno nxno
snunn nx rpyono xrntnocrn n noncnnno xnsnn unonx. cnonno
npnymcrno ro, no cpnnnnm c onoxynxpnt spnn y onornstx n nnn c
xocornsn, - +ro cnoconocrt rouno onnnnrt rprt nspnn, r.. pccroxnn o
npron, omymnn pnt] npr, rnynnt npocrpncrn, npcnxrnnt. Fnropx
nonnonnnoy nnoxynxpnoy spnnm unonx onr cnoconocrtm rnonnno onnnnrt
rnynnnym cnrynnm, porx c tcrpo nnxymnn xnnsn, npn nsop nnt (nrunxn,
mnnncrt rnno- n +nxrponoson, nonrnt nromnn n p.).
conno nxno nrt rnynnno spnn npn por n nnsxo pccroxnnn (25 30 )
n npn ntnonnnnn npnnsnonntx onpnn (c ntumnn rnxn), r rpyrcx
upspno nnpxxnnx spnnx.
osnnxr nonpoc, xx opnnrnpyrcx n npocrpncrn onornst unonx, onr nn
on rnynnnt rnsopo?
xstnrcx, nnn c onoxynxpnt spnn n onornst n nnmnt rnynnnoro
spnnx, xorx onn n nocnpnnnmr pnt] n npcnxrnny, xx nnn c nnoxynxpnt spnn.
Fnropx cnoxnoy xnsnnnoy n npxrnucxoy ontry npcrnnnn o rprt
nspnnn (omymnn pnt], rnynnt npocrpncrn, pccroxnn o npron)
ntprtnrcx s cur rx nstntx nropnuntx ]xropon nocnpnxrnx npocrpncrn
(..prnncxn,1951).
nn ornocxrcx:
1) nnnnx npcnxrnn - xxymcx cnnxnn ynnntx npron, nnpnp,
cxoxnn pntcon y ropnsonr;
2) nosymnx npcnxrnn n ncypnt onunt nt ropt xxyrcx ntm n
nnx, n xcnt nt - ntm n nnx;
3) cnrornn n nonpxnocrn npron. npnp, oxpyxnocrt, noxptrx
coornrcrnymmn opso rnxn, onornst xxrcx xx mp;
4) xxoonnx - r npcrnnnn o pccroxnnn o npron n omymnn
pnt];
5) nnxnn rns ncr c ronono n rynonnm npn nnmnnn s oxpcrnocrxn
ns nron nos nnn pyroro rpncnopr. xxrcx, uro nprt,
pcnonoxnnt nnn, nnxyrcx no xoy nos, nnsxo pcnonoxnnt - n
oprnym cropony. xn opso, nropx xnnnnm npnnxc nosnnxr
omymnn pnt] n pccroxnnx.
Fnropx npxrnucxoy xnsnnnoy ontry onornst nr ocrrouno npcrnnnn o
pnt] n npcnxrnn, r.. omymnn rprtro nspnnx. nxo +ro omymnn onornst
nonyur xx t n rorono nn, n ntprtnx c, noono pnt]y n xprnn,
npnconnnoy xyoxnnxo. s-s orcyrcrnnx nnoxynxpnoro rnynnnoro rnsop, xoropt
ocnunnrcx xonnprnnn n spnrntnt orno nnpr nnoxynxpnoro spnnx,
onornst onnnnr rnynny n 100 ps nnn, u unonx, onmmn
nnoxynxpnt spnn. or nouy onornst n nnn c onoxynxpnt spnn n ront
nx rx npo]ccn, por xoroptx cnxsn c rpncnopro, nnxymnncx xnnsn, r
rpyrcx rnonnnx onnx rnynnt. nn n ront rxx n nx ntnonnnnx
npnnsnonntx onpnn, r rpyrcx upspno nnpxxnn spnnx npn por n
nnsxo pccroxnnn c nxnn rnxn ount ntcoxo rounocrn.
5. VB FV - nnmrcx npn
orxnonnnn onoro rns concrno rouxn ]nxcnnn, r.. npn xocornsnn. snnumr rpn
nn xocornsnx: nno, cxptro n xnno (ncrnnno).
nnn xxymcx xocornsn nnmrcx npn nnnunn ontmoro yrn r, r.. yrn
xy onrnucxo octm rns, npoxoxm ups nnrp poronnnt n ysnonym rouxy rns, n
spnrntno octm, nym or nnrpntno xxn crurxn ups ysnonym rouxy x roux
]nxcnnn, r.. x pccrpnnoy oxry. xrcx, uro xocxr o rns. ornnun or
ncrnnnoro xocornsnx npn nno nnoxynxpno spnn coxpnxrcx. xo xocornsn n
nunnn n nyxrcx. xo xocornsnn nnmrcx y nonopoxnntx n r o 3-ex nr,
oycnonnno nospcrntn oconnocrxn n nconpmncrno crponnx nnnnoro upn
(nnprnrnt nnn xonnprnrnt pcnonoxnn rnsnnn, rpexrpnno ]opo opnr
nonopoxnntx). nospcro xocornsn yntmrcx nnn ncusr. pn ne n tnr
ycrnonountx nnxnn rns, xx npn rrpo]opnn.
$' 'ocornsn nnn rrpo]opnx. ntno tmuno pnnoncn oonx rns
nstnrcx opro]opn. nop - npn ntxnmunnn ns xr spnnx onoro ns rns (nyr
npnxptnnnx ro nnn npncrnnnnx x ny npnst ocnonnn nnpx nnn nnns) tmuno
pnnoncn ntxnmunnoro rns coxpnxrcx, r.. orxnonnnx ro n yr.
pn cxptro xocornsnn n ycnonnxx nnoxynxpnoro spnnx (r.. npn nyx orxptrtx
rnsx) rns croxr npnnntno, r. . xocornsnx nr, n coxpnxrcx nnoxynxpno spnn. o,
cnn npnxptrt onn rns, nnmrcx orxnonnn ro or rouxn ]nxcnnn, r.. xocornsn.
pn orxptnnnn rns on yr nponsnonrt ycrnonouno nnxnn x roux ]nxcnnn. pn
cxptro xocornsnn npxo oryr trt crnonnucxn xnot, oconno no npx
nnpxxnno spnrntno port ( rononno onn, noor n nncxx, npnoct, yronxocrt
rns). +rnx cnyuxx noxono npononrt xoppxnnm rponnn, opronrnucxn
ynpxnnnx no noccrnonnnnm nopntntx ]ysnonntx (x cnnxnnm) pspnon.
ncxnmunrntntx cnyuxx nponsnoxr onpnnn.
6. .
>$7>9; xocornsn npcrnnxr coo n rontxo xocrnucxn nocrrox, no
n npxo ono conponoxrcx cptsnt pccrpocrno ]ynxnn spnrntnoro nnnsrop,
uro orpnnunnr ntop rpxncxnx npo]ccn n nonntx cnnnntnocr. mnxn n
npocrpncrnnno opnnrnponx npn xocornsnn oryr npnncrn x pxy n npo]ccnonntno
por n x ncucrnt cnyux n nponsnocrn n n try.
nyr nonnrt n o orpnnrntno nnnxnnn xocornsnx n ncnxnxy pnx n
nspocntx, xoropt, uyncrnyx cnom ]nsnucxym nnonnonnnocrt, ncntrtnmr opntnym
nonnnnocrt. ocornsn xnnxrcx connntno npono xx no xonnucrny crpmmnx
r, rx n no rxxcrn ]ynxnnonntnoro n xocrnucxoro ]xr oprn spnnx.
sno mp oxono 120 nnnnonon unonx crpr xocornsn. yntnt nc
xocornsnx cpn omxontnnxon cocrnnxr 1,5-3,5 n ncunrtnrcx oxono 1 nnnnon
r c xocornsn.
C. $" ' '.
snnumr n xocornsnx: copyxcrnnno n npnnrnucxo.
n]]pnnnntntnn npnsnxn copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx xnnxmrcx:
1) coxpnnn nonnxnocrn xnox;
2) npnnunt yron xocornsnx pnn nropnunoy;
3) orcyrcrnn nnnonnn.
pnsnxn npnnrnucxoro xocornsnx xnnxmrcx:
1) orpnnunn nonnxnocrn rnsnoro xnox n cropony npnnsonnno
tmnt;
2) npnnunt yron orxnonnnx rns ntm nropnunoro, nropnunt yron
xocornsnx ncr ontm npnnunoro;
3) nnnonnx;
4) roprnxonnnc - ntnyxnno nonoxnn ronont ns-s orpnnunnx
nonnxnocrn rnsntx xnox ncncrnn npnnu coornrcrnymm
tmnt..
D. 7 . ':
1. tmunx ropnx p], corncno xoropo nrcx npnnopnx rxr
rnsonnrrntntx tmn. uc npnmr snunn nprnucxoy xononnry n ]on
pyrnx nsnnn.
2. xxonnonnx - corncno xoropo nrcx npymnn xoopnnnnn
xxoonnn n xonnprnnnn. xnt npxrnucxn ntno ns +ro ropnn - snunn
onrnucxo xoppxnnn n nunnn xocornsnx.
3. ysnonnx Vopc - noxnnnct n 1905 roy, corncno xoropo npnunno
xocornsnx cunrnoct pccrpocrno ]ysnn, r.. cnnxnnx prnnntntx nsopxnn nyx rns.
o+roy nunn xocornsnx onxno trt nnpnnno n noccrnonnnn cnoconocrn x
cnnxnnm, r.. ]ysnn. nxo n +ro nunn n nno onxntx psyntrron npn nornx
cnyuxx xocornsnx.
4. ynxnnonntnx ropnx pnno, xoropx, no cymcrny, onnxr
xxoonnonnym n ]ysnonnym ropnn n, cnonrntno, nunn xocornsnx onxno
sxnmurtcx n onrnucxo xoppxnnn n psnnrnn ]ysnn, r.. n opronrnucxnx ynpxnnnxx.
cnonononoxnnxo opronrnucxoro nunnx n sxcrn xnnxnnct conrcxn
yuent - ..prnncxn (1951), ..nmp, ..Fnocroncxn, 3..nrncon,
..nntn n p., xoropt ontmo nxn nncnn n ntnm psnnrn xonnxcnoro
opronro-xnpypro- opronrnucxoro nunnx xocornsnx. nxo, opronrnucxo nunn
+]]xrnnno nnmt y 1/3 ontntx xocornsn, ocrntnx x ucrt ontntx (um - r)
nyxmrcx n xnpyprnucxo nunnn. 3ro ocroxrntcrno oxstnr, uro n +rnonornn
xocornsnx nxr psnnunt npnunnt. m ornocxrcx n nonnn p]pxnnn, ]xrno
spnn, pccrpocrn ]ysnn n nonnn nsonnrrntnoro nnpr, cnonrntno n
conpnno +rn nponoxr '' 5 nnonro-opronro-xnpyprnucxo nunn.
nonxnym pont n +rnonornn xocornsnx nrpr poonx rpn, nnnrnrt,
oconno n npno roy xnsnn y pnx, rxx npoxnnx nronornx oprn spnnx
npnno-ncnxnucxn ]xropt.
Fontmnncrno yuntx n nrorns xocornsnx npnmr nxno snunn
ncncrnnnocrn. nxo o cnx nop ocrrcx orxptrt nonpoc, xxo ns norouncnnntx
+rnonornucxnx ]xropon, nrpmmnx pont n nosnnxnonnnn xocornsnx, xnnxrcx
ncncrnnnt. nn nropt nonrmr, uro n +rnonornn cymcrnyr n ncncrnnntx
]xrop - +ro ]xrt +xropt n sopt, r.. nonnx psnnrnx rnsonnrrntnoro
nnpr. pyrn nropt cunrmr ncncrnnntn ]xropn nonnn ]ysnn nnn
nonnn p]pxnnn.
xn opso, o ncroxmro npnn nr nox nnoro nnnx ornocnrntno
ncncrnnno npnpot xocornsnx. cxox ns +roro, t nponnnsnponnn xnnnnucxn
nnt 1724 ontntx xocornsn, nsyunnn spnrntnt ]ynxnnn y 70 np nnsnnon.
Ftnn nonyunt cnymmn psyntrrt. crpyxryp rnsno sonnocrn (no
opmocrn n xnnr oxpnt spnnx r) xocornsn snnr 2 cro n cocrnnxr
25,6. 1000 r ucror pcnpocrpnnnx xocornsnx cocrnnn oxono 46 , r.. xxt
urnprt pnox ns 1000 nr xocornsn. ctxx xocxmnx r xocornsn ncrpurcx
oxono 37, nxnmux nponon. pn ponrn xocornsn tno onpyxno n 8,4, cpn
pontx prtn n ccrp n 19,3, y ntnnx pocrnnnnxon - oxono 27 cnyun.
pxy c xocornsn cpn pocrnnnnxon tno onpyxno rxx pccrpocrno
]ysnn (41,4), pccrpocrno nnoxynxpnoro spnnx (12,2), nonnn p]pxnnn (21,5),
nnonnx (14,4). V xocxmnx ontntx tnn onpyxnt npoxnnt onsnn rns - rxn
xx npoxnnt xrpxrt (4,3), npoxnnt sonnnnx crurxn (19,7), nonnn
rnsonnrrntnoro nnpr (27,8), npoxnnt sonnnnx (4,2). pnu, +rn x
nronornucxn ]xrt t nnmnn xx y r, rx n y nspocntx ponrn, cncon,
nnxmnx n ntnnx pocrnnnnxon.
cncrnnnym npnpoy xocornsnx nornpxr n nnsnnont ro, xoropt
noxsn ontmo cxocrno n rontxo no nn xocornsnx, no n no p]pxnnn, ]ysnn, ocrpor
spnnx n cocroxnnm rnsonnrrntnoro nnpr y onosnrorntx
(onoxnontx) nnsnnon, no cpnnnnm c nsnrorntn (2-xnontn) nnsnnn.
nnun nororopsntx +rnonornucxnx ]xropon, npnnoxmnx x psnnrnm
xocornsnx, cnnrntcrnyr, uro noxnnnn xocornsnx oycnonnno nsnocrnn nornx
rnon n uro xxt rn, n cnom oupt, xx t xonrponnpyr psnnrn ctx psnoopsntx
npnsnxon. +ro x cnnrntcrnyr psnnunt rnn ncnonnnx xocornsnx
(pnccnnnt, onnnrnt n nprynxpnt onnnrnt). ono n ro x poocnonno
xocornsn oxr npoxnnxrtcx xx c rnnprponn, rx n s n n npu +rnx npnsnxon
no ncncrny oxr nponcxonrt no psnoy rnny: rnnprponnx - no onnnrnoy rnny,
cxoxmcx xocornsn - no pnccnnnoy n noopor.
cnxsn c r, uro xocornsn oycnnnnnrcx nnt xonnxcon rnon,
ncnonnn ro t cunr nonnrnnt. ro x npx ono oxr trt cncrnn
nnorponnn, r.. onn rn oxr ntsnrt psnnrn noxcrnnntx nronornucxnx
npnsnxon, nnpnp, xocornsnnpoxnno sonnnn crurxn rns
nxpon]nnmonsnt ynspxxy npnno- ncnxnucxoro psnnrnx n p., r..
psnnunt cncrnt sonnnnx.
nxo cnyr nonnrt, uro xocornsn oxr trt n rontxo ncncrnnnt,
no n oycnonnnntn cpontn ]xropn, xx, nnpnp, nocnnnrntntn
sonnnnxn spnrntnoro nnnsrop, , nnroxcnxnnxn npn nn]xnnonntx
sonnnnxx n nnpycntx, rpnn n p.
9. nccn]nxnnx xocornsnx.
o xnccn]nxnnn ..Fnocronxor " xocornsn nnrcx n
: xxoonnonno, ucrnuno xxoonnonno n nxxoonnonno.
1. xocornsn oycnonnno npymnn nsnoornomnnx
xy xxoonn n xonnprnnn. nnmrcx y r c rnnprponnucxo
p]pxnn n cnxsno c upspnt nnpxxnn xxoonnn. xo xocornsn ncusr
no nnnxnn rponnnnsnnn n no nnnxnn nocroxnnoro nomnnx ouxon. 3ro
nronpnxrnt nn xocornsnx, xoropt n rpyr nx nunnx cnoxno nnprypt n
onprnnnoro nmrntcrn, no ount nxno cnonpnno nsnunrt ouxn n nunn
nosoxno nnonnn. xo xocornsn ncrpurcx y 1/3 xocxmnx r.
2. xocornsn - xpxrpnsyrcx r, uro ono
yntmrcx no nnnxnn nomnnx ouxon, no nonnocrtm n ncusr. ct oxr trt
cournn nonnn p]pxnnn c nonn rnsonnrrntnoro nnpr.
3. xocornsn, npn xoropo rponnnnsnnx n nomnn
ouxon n oxstnr nunoro +]]xr, nnnxnnx n orxnonnn rns. xo xocornsn
oycnonnno nprnucxn cocroxnn rnsonnrrntntx tmn n nosnnxr ono um ncro
c poxnnx. pxo +ro xocornsn oxr conponoxrtcx nprnxntnt xononnro.
)" copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx - n
.
xocornsn xpxrpnsyrcx nonpnnt orxnonnn
xxoro ns rns or concrno rouxn ]nxcnnn; xocornsn nocroxnnt
xocornsn onoro rns.
1E. =.
ocornsn npxo conponoxrcx snunrntnt cnnxnn spnnx xocxmro rns nnn
oonx rns s nnntx nronornucxnx nsnnn co cropont onrnucxnx cp n crurxn.
xo cnnxnn spnnx nocnr nsnnn . nocroponxx nnonnx um
ncrpurcx npn ononrpntno xocornsnn, nycroponxx npn ntrpnnpymm. o
crnnn cnnxnnx ocrport spnnx nrncon 3.. nnr nnonnm n
(ocrpor spnnx c xoppxnn crexnn nnx 0,4), (0,05-0,1) , (0-0,3),
cnym (0,4-0,6) n (ocrpor spnnx 0,7-0,9) crnnt.
nnonnx, nopntnx xoppcnonnnnx crurxn n ]ynxnnonntnx cxoro
snunrntno srpynxmr noccrnonnnn cnrpnunoro nonoxnnx rnsntx xnox n
xnnxmrcx ono ns npnunn pccrpocrn spnrntntx ]ynxnnn.
< ' - cxntnrcx ns F5. 6:
1) nnonrnucxo nunn (nnt ro nontmnn ocrport spnnx), 2) opronrnucxo (nnt
rpnnponxn no psnnrnm nnoxynxpnoro spnnx), 3) xnpyprnucxo, 4) nnonro-
opronrnucxo .
/''0: 1. nrnucxx xoppxnnx
rponn - nsnunn ouxon npn cxoxmcx xocornsnn n nnnunn rnnprponnn
pxonyrcx xx oxno pntm. cnn xocornsn npoxnno nnn nosnnxno n npno roy
xnsnn, ro ouxn nsnumr c npnoro ro xnsnn pnx.
2. ocroxrntnt ( ocnonnt) n ncnoorrntnt cnocot (x nn npncrynmr ups 2-3
nnn nocn nomnnn nnont nsnunntx ouxon.
cocroxrntnt cnoco ornocxrcx (ntxnmunn nyum
nnxmro rns ns xr spnnx) n ntxnmunn ontnoro (xocxmro ) rns (npn
orcyrcrnnn nnrpntno ]nxcnnn n n nospcr crpm 5 nr); ! " nunn c
ncnontsonnn orpnnrntnoro nocnonrntnoro ops, noxntno
cnnxm pspxnn cnro (nnn nspo) nnrpntno xxn crurxn, nrrpn-
crnynxnnx; (mrp], nxsnn) - cosnn ncxyccrnnno nnsorponnn y
ontnoro c noomtm ouxon, nx uro spnn nyumro rns cosnrntno yxymrcx
nnnsn n on crnonnrcx nnonnunt (n ornnunn or oxxnmsnn n ntxnmurcx
nonnocrtm), xymn rns ntnyxn nxnmurtcx n spnrntnym pory n npnnnrt
on nnrpntno nonoxnn.
ncnoorrntnt cnoco ornocxrcx om pspxnn cnro crurxn,
ynpxnnnx c ncnontsonnn ]non nnrp, ynpxnnnx c noxnnsnn (n
xoppxrop) n ynpxnnnx no npoonnnm rpynocr psntnoro nnnnx. omnnx
ycnonnxx (npn orcyrcrnnn nnpron nx nunnx) ncnontsymrcx, n snncnocrn or yponnx
spnnx, cop rn nnpnox (or xpynntx x on n on nxn), pcxntnnn
nxo osnxn, onnn xonrypon xprnnox, coprnponx psnnuntx copron xpyn,
urnn nxoro mpn]r n r..) nx nontmnnx rnnsnnn npron n, r ct,
ocrport spnnx. oxono nontcnrt ocrpory spnnx o n n 0,2-0,3 , uro
noxono c nntm cosnnx ycnonn nx ntporxn nnoxynxpnoro spnnx
(cnymmro +rn nunnx xocornsnx). poonxnrntnocrt nunnx 2-6 cxnn.
# npononrcx npn ocrpor spnnx n n 0,1 n
nnrpntno ]nxcnnn cnr. ro nnprnt n nnpnnnt n: 1) nonyunn
ononpnnoro spnnx ncro onoxynxpnoro n noccrnonnnn n]onntnoro cnnxnnx (r..
nnoxynxpnoro spnnx) n ycnonnxx rnnocxonnn - ynpxnnnx nponoxr n cnnonro]op n c
noomtm nocnonrntntx spnrntntx opson n sp]nxcno o]rntocxon (FF).
pn nnnunn cnrpnunoro nonoxnnx rnsntx xnox ynpxnnnx nponoxrcx n
xpocxon n crpocxon c spxno.
1) snnrn ]ysnonntx pspnon c noomtm cnnonro]op nnn n spxntno
crpocxon.
2) occrnonnnn nnoxynxpnoro cnnxnnx n onrooropnoro ]ysnonnoro
p]nxc n crcrnnntx ycnonnxx c noomtm onpnn n tmnx ntmyxsnntx n
opronrnucxnx ynpxnnn. cnn x or +roro nunnx ycnx nr, nsnumr ynpxnnnx n
npnsnno ycrpocrn. nx sxpnnnnx nnoxynxpnoro spnnx nsnumr urnn c
pmrxo n crpocxonnucxn ynpxnnnx. poonxnrntnocrt nunnx 6-12 cxnn.
$ npononrcx n rnsntx tmnx, ro
pxonyrcx npononrt nocn ynopnoro nnrntnoro nponpnnonnoro xoncpnrnnnoro
nunnx. npnnm oxno nponsnonrt n nospcr 4-6 nr, r.. o nocrynnnnx pnx n
mxony.
ncroxm npx omnpnnxro nponsnonrt rontxo rxn onpnnn, npn
xoroptx tmn coxpnxr cnxst c rnsnt xnoxo. ntm onpnnn xnnxrcx nnn
ycnnnn, nnn ocnnnn crnnx ro nnn nno tmnt. Vcnnnn cno tmnt
npononrcx nyre nnn e psxnnn (yxopounnx), nnn npcxn cr npnxpnnnnx e
nnx x nny. cnnnn cnntno tmnt ocymcrnnxrcx nnn pnccn e
(ynnnnn), nnn npcxo e ntm or nn.
@ n:
1. nt npocrpncrnnnoro spnnx.
2. ro rxo nnonnx.
3. pnsnxn npnnrnucxoro xocornsnx.
4. xnmn ycnonnx nx nnoxynxpnoro spnnx.
5. ornnurcx xnno xocornsn or cxptroro n nnoro.
6. u sxnmurcx opronrnucxo nunn xocornsnx.
7. ro rxo rrpo]opnx.
8. cnonnt npnsnxn copyxcrnnnoro xocornsnx.
9. cnonno ro nunnx nnonnn y r omxontnoro nospcr.
.
: , , L .
B .
"#: zais nonniwe o ocnosn-x swzax socnanwiensnon
naionorww npwzaiounoro w samwinoro annapaia rnasa, noxasais
e snauwocis s npaxiwxe ezwxos pasnwun-x cneuwansnocien (s io
uwcne rwrwenwcios), ocseiwis nawonee iwnwun-e cwnio- xa+zon
ws nwx w wx zwepenuwansnyx zwarnociwxy. ais npezciasnenwe o
o+ee neoino+non noomw nx- cneuwanwcio rnasnoy onsnoy w
npownaxiwxe zann-x saonesanwn.
: 45 wn.
: rpynnosoe ieopeiwuecxoe sanniwe
s ayzwiopww.
:
1. nnnt: rponn rnsnnnt. nron opnrt. ocnnnrntnt sonnnnx nx.
xpnonncrnr n ro nunn. xpnonnr. onnnnx xonmnxrnnt.
snnunt nnt nnxnn npnro orpsx rns.
2) nrnt cnt no r - nsnt onsnn, ucrt 1-11.
3) Vunt nnorpnnt no r.
( '.
Nn/n opxnn nxnnn px (nn)
1. ronornx opnrt (omx cnnrornx sonnnn opnrt;
xnccn]nxnnx). ocnnnrntnt sonnnnx opnrt
(ocronpnocrnr, ]nron, rnonnr). onoopsonnnx opnrt,
xnccn]nxnnx. onnnnx opnrt ncncrnn pcrpocrn
xponoopmnnx, npn +noxpnnntx sonnnnxx, onsnxx
xponn.
7
2. onnnnx nx: onsnn xpx nx (n]pnrt +rnonornx,
xnccn]nxnnx, xnnnnx, ocnoxnnnx, ncxot, npnnnnnt
nrnocrnxn, nunnx; xunt xnnnnx, nrnocrnx, nunn,
ocnoxnnnx; cncc nx +rnonornx, xnnnnx, nunn,
ocnoxnnnx. n]]pnnnntnx nrnocrnx); onsnn tmn nx.
nonnn psnnrnx nx.
9
3. onnnnx cnsntx oprnon: cnesno xnst (xpnonnr
+rnonornx, nrorns, xnnnnx, nrnocrnx, npnnnnnt nunnx) n .
cnesoornoxmnx nyr (xpnonncrnr nonopoxnntx
xnnnnx, nrnocrnx, npnnnnnt nunnx, nosoxnt ocnoxnnnx;
xponnucxn xpnonncrnr nspocntx +rnonrorns, xnnnnx,
nrnocrnx, npnnnnnt nunnx; ]nron cnesnoro mx
nrorns, xnnnnx, npnnnnnt nunnx, ocnoxnnnx, npornos.
R-nrnocrnx.).
7
4. onnnnx xonmnxrnnt: xnccn]nxnnx, omx cnnrornx;
ocrpt xrpnntnt xonmnxrnnnrt (ox-Vnxc,
nnnoxoxxont, ronopnt, n]rpnnt) xnnnnx, rot
nunnx, npo]nnxrnx); nonnpycnt xonmnxrnnnrt
(no]pnnroxonmnxrnnntnx nnxopx, +nnnucxn
xproxonmnxrnnnr) xnnnnx, ]opt npoxnnnnx, nnrntnocrt
nponcc, rot nunnx; rpxo xnnnnucxo runn, ]opt,
ocnoxnnnx, npnnnnnt nunnx; onyxonn xonmnxrnnt
(nnnopon, rnrnot, nnyct, nn]nrnot,
npo]npot) xnnnnx, n]]pnnnntnt nrnos, rot
nunnx.
12
5. prt npxo n oprno cnxsn n ornrt n nonpoct 10

V :
1. Fouxpn .. nsnt onsnn. - .,1989. - . 147-172, 180-218, 268-270.
2. nnonx nporp no o]rntonornn . - crn., 2004 r.
3. onnncxn .. ]rntornx. - . 1995 - . 138-220.
4. nrncon 3.., onnncxn .., Xnron .. yxonocrno no rcxo o]rntonornn.
- ., 1987. - . 336-356.
5. onnncxn .. nsnt onsnn. - ., 1986. - . 160-223, 244-295.
6. onn . . nsnt onsnn. .: nnnn, 2002. . 153-196.
7. xnnmnnnn ., opnt .. pnx noomt npn ocrptx sonnnnxx n
nonpxnnxx rns. - nnnrp, 1985. - . 11-15, 38-75.
8. nrncon 3.. npnounnx no o]rntonornn. - ., 1978. - . 91-97, 102-108, 118-124.
9. cnpon .. ]rntornc. - ., 1994. - . 223.
10. nopnxo . ]rntonornx: Vunnx. .: 3-, 2003. . 128-171,
328-333.
11.seiwcos O.. nwsopyxocis. - .: ezwuwna, 1986. - 239 c.
12.zopos .., puesa .., canxynos .. nasn-e onesnw.
- .:szaienscxwn uenip "zopos", 2000. - . 122-171.

(=79<9B>G 9:,>7H 5
% ' ! 4 '&'. -
/+ &+ 0. +
'&'. A ! '%+
6'. .+ . '.
poncct n opnr, oconno nocnnnrntnt, ornocxrcx x rxxent no cnon
nocncrnnx sonnnnx, xor np nxn ncrer su coxpnnrt n rontxo
spnn, no n xnsnt ontnoro. po roro, +rnonornucxx nrnocrnx +ro nronornn
rpyn, rpyr concrnoro yucrnx ncxontxnx cnnnnncron, ncrounnx
pcnpocrpnnnx sonnnnx opnrt oxr trt ntxnnn nouc nnmt n
onpnnonno cron.
T . awonee iwnwun-w w
o-uno pano s-pa+enn-w opwiansn-w cwnioaw nsnnxicn:
1) nsnnn nonoxnnx rnsnoro xnox,
2) orpnnunn nonnxnocrn ro n cropony, npornnononoxnym cmnnm rns, npn +ro
noxnnxrcx nnnonnx (nonn npron), xor ontno corpnr n nnx nyx
rnsn ( n onn!);
3) nsnnn nnnunnt rnsno mnn.
1) rnsnoro xnox ornocxrcx ntnxunnnn ro nnpe
(+xso]rnt), snnn ns n rnsnnny (+no]rnt) n oxont cmnnx rnsnoro
xnox.
nontm npxrnucxo snunn nr +xso]rnt, +no]rnt ncrpurcx
px, , snunr, nr n ntm xnnnnucxo snunn.
I'& 5 nosoxn nycroponnn n onocroponnn; tcrpo psnnnmmncx
n nnno psnnnmmncx.
nycroponnn - oycnonnn, n ocnonno, omnn npnunnn. n oxr ncrynnrt
npn rrox rnsnnnt n noun sonnnn xponn n cocyon (ro]nnnn, nxnn,
nn, nnpns cocyon ocnonnnx upn, cn]nnnrnucxnx nopxnn cocyon,
rpooson xnpnosnoro cnnyc, noocrptx n xponnucxnx ]nnron rnsnnnt, rxx
nnrnnoson, +noxpnnno nronornn (sono onsnn, oxnpnnx) n, nxonn,
nonoopsonnn sn upnno xxn (um y r). coo no ocrnonnrtcx n
r.n. oreuno +xso]rnt, xoropt oxr nosnnxrt cnonrnno nnn nocn ynnnx
mnronnno xnst ncncrnn nstrouno npoyxnnn rnporponnoro ropon npn
onn rnno]ns. pn +ro orumrcx opnrntnt onn n nontmnn . cnn
+xso]rnt crnonnrcx npyxrntnt (ncmt npn nnnnnnnn n rns),
orex nx - rnept n conponoxrcx xoso (orexo) xonmnxrnnt, npnnue
rnsonnrrntntx tmn, nnnonn, xprnro co cnrooxsntm n cnnxnn spnnx,
nopxnn spnrntnoro npn - ro ronopxr yx o snoxucrnnno +xso]rnt. n
rpyr nunnx n rontxo ocnonnoro sonnnnx, no n cnnrornucxoro.
nocroponnn +xso]rnt oxr psnnrtcx tcrpo n nnno. Ftcrpo
psnnnmmncx onocroponnn +xso]rnt - oycnonnn nnn rpnrnucxnn, nnn
nocnnnrntntn npnunnn n rnsnnn n cocnnx oncrxx. pn rpnx on
ntstnrcx nnn +]nso opnrt (nonnn nosyx ns nocontx nsyx), nnn
xpononsnnxnn n ne. pn nocnnnrntntx nponccx +xso]rnt ntstnrcx xx
nopxnn copxnoro opnrt, rx n e crnox, uro nnmrcx npn ]nron
rnsnnnt, rpoo]nnr e nn, rnonnr, rxx npn rnono npnocrnr crnox
opnrt.
3]ns rnsnnnt 5 xnnnnucxn npoxnnxrcx+ nono +xso]rnt,
nnocnnnrntnt npnnyxnn nx n xpnnrnn npn nx nntnnnn. 3rn cnnrot
ycnnnnmrcx npn unxnnn, copxnnn n cnntno nryxnnnnn ontnoro.
rot rnsnnnt xpxrpnsymrcx n rontxo cnn-]nonrono psnnuno
nnrncnnnocrn oxpcxo xoxn nx n cocnnx oncr, no n ucrt npn +ro
pccrpocrno spnnx.
2) ( rnsnoro xnox (orpnnunn e nnn orcyrcrnn) ntsnn
otuno nnn nonpxnn nnocpcrnnno rnsonnrrntntx tmn nnn nx npnntx
nrn, nnn ynnnunn copxnoro opnrt.
@&' 6: (]nron nnn
nnnmnnr opnrt) n opnrt (rnont npnocrnr);
sonnnnx opnrt ncncrnn % & &
nronornx opnrt npn ' ;
opnrt.
crnonncx nopon n orntntx nnx nronornn opnrt:
8 nnon rposnx nocnnnrntnx nronornx opnrt,
nosnnxmmx ncncrnn npxo n]]ysnoro nocnnnrntnoro rnonoro nponcc ns
npnrountx nsyx noc, rnorxn, nnn, upn n opnrntnym xnrurxy. +ro
oncnm sonnnn sxnmummcx n n]ysno nocnnnnn opnrntno xnrurxn c
nocnymmnn xnnnnxn nxpos. nosnnxnonnnx ]nront opnrt xnnxrcx 1)
+nnt npnrountx nsyx, 2) rnont ourn n nxx, 3) ]nron cnsnoro mx,4)
rpnt, 5) omn nn]xnnn. osnnxr on ncncrnn nnn snoc rrornnt nyre
rnonoro +on npn omnx nn]xnnxx (cncnc, rpnnn, cxpnrnn, rn], poxncro
nonnnnn), nnn no npoonxnnm (ns oncrn nrynxpno nnt), nnn npn !
6 & - ncncrnn nonxocrnnunoro pnpocrpnnnx n
prpoyntpnym xnrurxy ns npopnnmnxcx cynpnocrntntx cnccon nonocrn pr n
syon.
( ocnonn n pnrrnonornucxnx nccnonnnxx opnrt: osopno R -
rp opnr n nsyx noc (onpyxnnrcx srnnn n nnx, nonnxnn npospunocrn) n
xontmrpno roorp]nn opnr (onpnxrcx n]]ysno srnnn opnrt s uerxnx
rpnnn n nnoxo n]]pnnnpymrcx npn +ro npyxnt tmnt n snn nonmc ns).
) e xpxrpnsyrcx ocrpt, nnsnnt nuno, ypnt psnnrn c
ntpxnntn omnn n crntn cnnron:
- onxn n oncrn nx n rnsnnnt, ronont, npn nnxnnn rns n npn
nntnnnn;
- nontmnn rnprypt, om cnocrtm;
- rnnpn, oreunocrtm n nnpxxnn nx;
- cyxnn rnsno mnn o e nonnoro sxptrnx;
- xoso xonmnxrnnt o ymnnnx e xy nxn;
- +xso]rnto psnnuno crnnn ntpxnnocrn;
- o]rntonnrn (nnonnxnocrtm rnsnoro xnox).
3ror nponcc oxr npnncrn x cptesnt : nnpnry spnrntnoro npn,
scronoy ncxy spnrntnoro npn c ncxoo n ro rpo]nm, rpoosy nn crurxn,
rnonoy xprnry c nsxsnnnn, ynnry, nno]rntnry c ncxoo n rpo]nm rns.
ce ntmyxsnno ner x cnnor, npn npxo nponcc n osront oonouxn n
nnosnt cnnyct nosoxn nrntnt ncxo. ocn oxonunnx nocnnnnx psnnnmrcx
pynont nponcct n rnsnnn, xntnn]nxnnx, ncxynxpnsnnx, cocyncrt +xrsnn n
p. Fontno c ]nrono opnrt onxn trt +xcrpnno ocrnnn n
noronpo]nntnym ontnnny ( n n rnsnym), npu nmo cnnnntnocrn oxsn
oxsrt nonnym npunym nornoxnym noomt npx, u ornpnnrt ontnoro n
crnnonp:
- nrnnornxn mnpoxoro cnxrp crnnx n/n nnn n/ n ypntx osx, per os -
cynt]nnnnt,
- n/n rnnpronnucxn pcrnopt (ocorpnnx), ouronnt cpcrn, nnyrpnnnno 40
p-p yporponnn;
- n rns nncrnnxnnn 30 p-p cynt]nnn-nrpnx.
crnnonp - npn nnnunn yucrxon ]nmxrynnn nponsnoxr mnpoxn pspst rxn
c nponnxnonnn n nonocrt rnsnnnt, crnxr psnnont rypynt n nxntnmr
nonxsxn c rnnpronnucxn pcrnopo 10 NaCl. xsrntn xoncyntrnnx n
ocnonnnx cxntx cnnnnncron n nunn ocnonnoro sonnnnx (um -
nnrnsnoro r.. n -, unmcrno-nnnno, nnponornucxo, npoxnpyprnucxo,
rpnnrnucxo nnn rcxo ornnnn).
9 crnox opnrt xpxrpnsyrcx nnorno, psnnro nnn
orpnnucnno rnnpn nont crnox opnrt, oreunocrtm n onsnnnocrtm npn
nntnnnn n +ro oncrn. oxr orurtcx xos n xonmnxrnnntnx nnxnnx
rnsnoro xnox. xx xprnn psnnnrcx npn pcnonoxnnn our nocnnnnx n
npnnx ornx opnrt, noxnnsnnx nnmnnx npoxnnnn nronornn coornrcrnyr
ronorp]nn (nsyxn noc, xpnc, nocnnnnx nn n
r..). cnn npnocrnr psnnnrcx n rnynn opnrt, ro psnnnrcx +xso]rnt co
cmnn, orpnnunn nonnxnocrn xnox, xoso, nnn spnrntntx
]ynxnn. onnnn xoxxono ]nopo, um - y r npn nrpxno
ocn, cxpnrnn, otxnonnno ncopx; oxr psnnnrtcx n rrornno-
rcrrnucxn nyre (nnpnp, npn cn]nnnc n rypxynes). nponcc
nporxmr noocrpo nnn pxrnnno n ]op 'xononoro nponcc, no nx
cn]nnnrnucxoro npnocrnr xpxrpno nnnun nountx on, rypxynesnt -
nporxr sonsnnno, onxo on cxnonn x opsonnnm cynpnocrntntx ouron n
]ncryn. pnnnnnt nrnocrnxn n nunnx r x, uro n ]nront opnrt.
7& xpxrpnsyrcx rn x xnnnnucxnn cnnron,
uro n ]nron, no n xpxo ntpxnntn. ononnnrntno x nn nnmmrcx
pcmnpnn nn nx, nnn r. . scronx rnnpnx xoxn. pxo - sonnnn
npmcrnyr ]nron opnrt. oomt n nunn - r x, uro n npn ]nron
nrnxorynxnrt.
7 - nocnnnn rnonono oonouxn rns, otuno - onocroponn.
nnnnucxn - orurcx uyncrno nnnnx n opnr, onsnnnocrt npn nnxnnxx
rns, +xso]rnt n orex nx - ypnnt, no ntpxn xos, no om cocroxnn n
crpr. pn npnunn sonnnnx npx - nnprnucxx ncrponnocrt.
nymmnn npnunnn onocroponnro +xso]rnt xnnxmrcx nnocnnnrntnt
" : prpno-nnosnx nnpns, npnxosno pcmnpnn nn
opnrt n xpornno-xnpnosno coycrt.
pn npnxosno pcmnpnnn nn - nosnnxr nnrpnrrnpymmn +xso]rnt,
noxnnxmmncx npn nxnon ronont, rynonnm, ]nsnucxo nnpxxnnn nnn npnxrnn
xpno nnt; oxr nnmrtcx nyntcnnx rnsnoro xnox. xxentx cyxrnnntx
omymnn n orurcx. otuno nonoxnnn +xso]rnt ncusr.
pn rpnx ronont oxr nosnnxnyrt xpornno-xnpnosno coycrt (ns-s psptn
conno prpnn n cr e npoxoxnnx ups nmpncrym nsyxy. pn +ro
prpnntnx xpont nponnxr n npxnmm rnsnnunym nny. n pcmnpxrcx, e
nnnn npercx n rnsno xnoxo. osnnxr r.n. nyntcnpymmn +xso]rnt).
onnnx crnxn nnt n onr nyntcono nonnt ntstnmr coornrcrnymmn
xonnnx rnsnoro xnox cnnxponno nyntcy. osnnxmr cyxrnnnt xnot n my
n ymx, cnntnym rononnym ont. yntcnnx omymrcx n npn nntnnnn rns,
]onnocxono ntcnymnnrcx xypumn cncronnucxn my. nnnnx n connym
prpnm oxno onrtcx ncusnonnnx my n nyntcnnn. ntnm -
pcmnpxmrcx nnt n, nncx, mn, mex, xonmnxrnnt, cxnpt, crurxn, nosnnxr
scront ncx spnrntnoro npn c nocnymm ro rpo]n n noprno
cnnoro. oryr nnmrtcx npnnun rnsonnrrntntx tmn.
puy-xnnnnnncry cnyr snrt me o ono nn +xso]rnt - '+
nosnnxmm npn pspxnnn mnoro cnnrnucxoro npn. n conponoxrcx
nxoropt pcmnpnn rnsno mnn n cropon nopxnnx n npnso. pnunnn
ro oryr onyxonn mnronnno xnst, nocnnnn mntx nn]rnucxnx ysnon,
psnnunt nuntnt nopxnnx VII mnoro nosnonx n ro oncrn. cnn nc
yxsnnt nponcct ntstnmr npnnu cnnrnucxoro npn, noxnnxrcx
@5,5B - cyxnn rnsno mnn, nos n +no]rnt.
)&&"1 '" +xso]rnt cnyr npononrt, ncxnmux
ntcoxym nonnm, y]rnt npn rcxo rnyxo n nnocxym rnsnnny npn nonnxx
psnnrnx e. cnontsyrcx npn +ro, n ocnonno, onn ns conpnntx roon
nrnocrnxn - +xoo]rntorp]nucxo nccnonnn.
nymmn xpxrpnt cnnroo opnrntno nronornn xnnxrcx 6&. ro
npnunnn um cnyxr rpnt (npnot crnox opnrt), cnnpo no-Fpnp-
opnp n rpo]nx prpoyntpno xnrurxn rnsnnnt nocn npncnntx
nocnnnrntntx nponccon nnn npn rxxentx omnx xxxrnuntx cocroxnnxx.
n]]pnnnntnym nrnocrnxy +no]rnt cnyr npononrt c nxpo]rnto,
nerxn nroso n npoxenntn cnrpnxn nnn - c noomtm +xorp]nn.
rnnnunt cnnro opnrntntx nopxnn ornocxrcx ' %
rnsnoro xnox c psnnrn xocornsnx. nn courmrcx c orpnnunn nonnxnocrn
rns n noxnnnn nnnonnn (nonnx npron). n nocnnnx cnnro oryr trt
oycnonnnt nnn ()-rxntm n opnr (psnnunoro rns, n ro uncn onyxontm), nnn
nopxnn rnsonnrrntntx tmn n npnon n ]on rpn, nn]xnn,
nnroxcnxnn, n ro uncn oonrornntx, c psnnrn nosnron, nonnnnpnron,
xpntx nopxnn crnon osr n xopt, +nn]nnron, nnnrnron, pxnonnron n
r.. cnyr stnrt n nosoxno cocyncro rns yxsnno nronornn
(npnprpnnrx, nnpnsx, rpoo]nnrx n, npx ncro, o nccnnnponnno
cxnpos (npn xoropo nnno rnsnt cnnrot - npnnun rnsonnrrntntx tmn
n npnon, um - ornoxmnx, xnnxmrcx npntn npoxnnnnxn cront rposnoro
sonnnnx). yxno nonnrt n o sonnnnxx xponn, xx nosoxno npnunn npson
n npnnu rnsonnrrntntx tmn (nxnxx, nnxx), n rxx o nnrnnosx
(oconno, rpynnt ).
n ontmnncrn cnyun npoxnnxmrcx nnno
psnnnmmnncx onocroponnn +xso]rnto. 3xso]rnt npn +ro noxnnxrcx n 45
cnyun y nspocntx n n 60 - y r.
snnumr npoxnnt n npnoprnnt nonoopsonnnx. nyxonnt nponcct
oryr ncrn cno nuno xx ns co rnsnnnt (npnnunt), rx n ns cocnnx oncr
(nropnunt). npno rpynn ornocxrcx onyxonn, ornnummncx pyr or pyr no rxnno
npnnnxnocrn (rncrornsy). pn nnx ntnxmr opoxucrnnnt n snoxucrnnnt
onyxonn.
opoxucrnnnt nonoopsonnnx onnnt cnymmnn npnsnxn: ntcoxo n
ocrrouno nocroxnno n]]pnnnponxo xnrountx crpyxryp, nnnt pocro n
orcyrcrnn pnnnnon npn nonno ynnnn. nn ornocxrcx not, ]npot,
nnnot, ocrot, xonpot, not, nrnot, nn]ot, nnpnnot, rnnot n xncrt.
ncrt psnnumr npoxnnt (ponnx, +nnpntnx, xoncrro ns
psnonoxnnno xocrno rxnn, rpro ns +pnonntntx rxn) n npnoprnnt
xponxnx n npsnrpnt (+xnnoxoxxonx, nncrnnpx).
snoxucrnnnt onyxonx opnrt ornocxrcx nc nnt pxon n cpxo
(]npocpxo, nnnocpxo, ocrocpxo n r..), xpnnno n ncro. pn nocrnonx
nrnos snoxucrnnno onyxonn oxsrntno yxstnrcx pcnpocrpnnn pxonoro
nponcc no xynpono cncr TNM : r osnur psp onyxonn nnn crno
pcnpocrpnnn npnnuno pxono onyxonn, N prnonpno rcrsnponnn n
nn]oysnt, nnnun ornnntx rcrson.
cnonnt xpnrpnn nopsnxmrcx no crnnx:
1 onyxont o 1 c n nrp n nopxr 1 nronucxym ucrt oprn,
2 onyxont o 2 c n nnontm nrp n nopxr n ontm 2 nronucxnx ucr
oprn,
3 onyxont ontm 3 c n nopxr 2 nronucxn ucrn oprn,
4 onyxont nopxr ontmym ucrt oprn n pcnpocrpnn n pyrn oprnt n cncrt;
N0 rcrst n prnonpnt nn]oysnt n onpnxmrcx,
N1 onpnxmrcx onocroponnn, cmt rcrst n prnonpntx nn]oysnx,
N2 onpnxmrcx nycroponnn nnn orpnnunno cmt rcrst n nn]oysnx,
N3 - onocroponnn, ncmt rcrst n nn]oysnx,
N4 nycroponnn, ncmt rcrst n nn]oysnx;
ornnnt rcrst orcyrcrnymr,
1 onpnxmrcx ornnnt rcrst.
Fon mnpoxo xnnnnucxo snunn nmr nropnunt onyxonn opnrt,
pcnpocrpnxmmncx n rnsnnny ns rnsnoro xnox n ro npnrxon, npnrountx nsyx
noc, rononnoro osr, rxx rcrrnucxn onyxonn. pn nnx: nnyrpnupnnt
(nnpnp, nnnrnot noro xptn ocnonno xocrn, onyxonn nncouno oncrn, ocnonnnx
upn yxonn, nnnro- n +nn]nonn); nonoopsonnnx oncrn npxn unmcrn n
npnrountx nsyx noc (nnpnp, ocrot um n oncrn npxn crnxn rnsnnnt;
cpxot um n oncrn nnxn crnxn rnsnnnt, nporxmmn s on).
F F.
pnrntnx xnpyprnx nr nourn 4-x nxonym ncropnm, npno onpnn n opnr
tn +xsnrpnnx (1583 r.). nxo o xonn 19 nx opnrntnt onpnnn ocrnnnct
pxocrtm, ynnnm onyxonn otuno npmcrnonn +nyxnnnx rnsnoro xnox.
cnonno npnunno +roro tnn rxxnt ocnoxnnnx, oycnonnnnt orcyrcrnn nonxrnn
o cnrnx n nrncnrnx. n]xnnx pn tn nuo xnpyprnn 19 nx. or x tn
npnoxn n npocrx opnroronx nx ynnnx onyxonn (nnn, 1874). nnn
pspornntx nontx n on]nnnponnntx cnocoon onprnnnoro nunnx opnrntno
nronornn ornnunnnct 30-70 rot 20 nx. ncroxm npx nnon ucro npnnxmrcx
cnymmn nnt nunnx:
- opoxucrnnnt onyxon n ocnonno, xnpyprnucxo (npocrx n xocrnx opnroronx
npn pcnonoxnnn onyxonn nnn xocrnonncrnucxx opnroronx c npnno
psxnn npyxno crnxn npn prpoyntpno pcnonoxnnn);
- npn snoxucrnnntx onyxonxx npnnxmr xonnnponnno nunn (onprnnno,
nyunym rpnnm, xnno-, roponorpnnm). Xnpyprnucxo nunn sxnmurcx n
+xsnrpnnn opnrt (ynnnn ncro copxnoro ncr c nxocrnnn), npn
pcnpocrpnnnn onyxonn ns npnrountx nsyx noc ro n c +xsnrpnn cnnycon no
nnrprpxntnt npxoso. pn nnxncynnponnno onyxonn nosoxno n opnroronx.
ncroxm npx no npnoxnnm npo]ccop Fponxnn . . psporn nont cnoco
nponnnx +xsnrpnnn nspnx +xsnrpnnx. pn +ro ncnontsyrcx nnpptnno
ntcoxo omnocrn nn]pxpcno nsnyunn yrnxncnoro nsp c ro ntcoxo crnntm
nornomnnx nmtn nonornucxnn rxnxn. no cnonr o nnny nc nosoxnt
ocnoxnnnx onpnnn (ocnunnr xcnntnt rocrs, cnrnunocrt) n coxpmmrcx
cpoxn nocnonpnnonnoro nunnx.
yunx rpnnx oxr nrt cocroxrntno snunn n nunnn nonoopsonnn
(nnontmn +]]xr orun npn nxoroptx cpxox), npn npnnuntx snoxucrnnntx
onyxonxx otuno xonnnpymrcx c xnpyprnucxn nunn (nocn onpnnn nsnurcx
xypc rnrrpnnn). pn nropnuntx onyxonxx, oconno III-IV crnn, nunn, nono
ntmyxsnntx roon, ononnxrcx xnno- n roponorpnn nynonpccnnnoro
crnnx (nnxno]oc]no, cpxonnsnno, nxpno, nypno n r.., xoprnxocrponn n
np.).
F .
nx yrounnnx npnunnt nronornn opnrt noxont cnymmn oxrnnnt
nccnonnnx:
- +xso]rntorpnx (onpnnn crnnn ntcroxnnx rnsnoro xnox n N 17-19 c
onycrno psnnn n nyx rnsx n on 1,5 );
- opnroronorpnx (nspnn crnnn pnosnnnn rns n snncnocrn or psnnuno
nnnunnt nnnnx n nro);
- nccnonnn pyxrntnocrn +xso]rnt (nornnnocrn rnsnoro xnox x cmnnm
npn nnnnnnnn n nro nntnn. N cmocrt rnsnoro xnox n opnry cocrnnxr
6 );
- ntcnymnnnn my n oncrn rnsnnnt crrocxono;
- onpnnn nyntcnnn rnsnoro xnox;
- pnrrnonornucxo nccnonnnx:
osopnx R- rp]nx opnrt n upn n 2-x npoxnnxx (]cno n oxono);
R- rp]nx co cnnnntno nnrponxo (nx nccnonnnx orntntx
crnox);
nnno- n xonrpcrnx R- rp]nx opnrt;
xontmrpnx roorp]nx;
crpo- R- rp]nx;
xcporp]nx;
rporp]nx;
xonrpcrnx nrno-nno-rp]nx opnrt;
pnonyxnnnt nccnonnnx n xonnnnn co cxnnponnn n
cnnnrn]ororp]n;
yntrpsnyxono sonnponnn opnrt;
noncnx, nynxnnx;
no noxsnnx xonrpcrnx xpornnx nrnorp]nx.
o rontxo xonnxcnx ''5" nnrpnprnnx nonyunntx
nntx nosnonxr nocrnnrt npnt nrnos nronornn rnsnnnt, oconno onyxonn opnrt,
, snunr, n ntprt npnnntnym rxrnxy nunnx.
A=,9<;-=>G -;@ 5
' ' /& 3 6+ '&'+ ''+
+ .+ '+ 4 3 ''+
'+ + 4 ' 3 6+ ''+ +
. )&& '04 2 '.
= '+
F- nocnnnn xpn nx /cntntx xns, onntx/. nccn]nnnpyrcx
n npocro, umyurt, xsnnnt,
onnt, oxosnt. 3rnonornx: roxcnxo-nnprnucxn
cocroxnnx oprnns, xponnucxn nn]xnnn, rnncrnt nnnsnn,
rpnxont nopxnnx, sonnnnx cnesntx nyr, , nnn,
nnrnnost, nr, nxoppnrnponnnt nonnn p]pxnnn (um
rnnprponnx, crnrrns), nnronpnxrnt cnnrpno-
rnrnnnucxn ycnonnx; npn oxosno npoyxrt
xnsnxrntnocrn xnm Demodex, onrmmro n nyxonnnx pcnnn
nocn spxnn unonx or oxt, nocrntnoro ntx, noymx,
copxmnx nrnun nyx n nptx.
pnnnnnt nrnocrnxn : nnns xpxrpntx xno, nns, xpxrpntx
xnnnnucxnx npoxnnnn; nccnonnnx sx c xonmnxrnnt nx (ro x. nocn n
nnrrntnym cpy n umxx rpn n onpnnn nn ntpmnno ]nopt n e
uyncrnnrntnocrn x psnnunt nrnnornx); nnronornucxn nnpyconornucxn
nccnonnn cocxo c xonmnxrnnt; nxpocxonnucxo nccnonnn +nnnnponnntx
pcnnn n npncyrcrnn xnm ( 6 n on nonnxntx oco; npn ntm nx
xonnucrn cocroxnn pcnnnnrcx xx nocnrntcrno r.x . n nop cpn sopontx
nnn ono ocrnrr 80). oncyntrnnn, coornrcrnymmn ocnonnnx cxntx
cnnnnncron n nx nunn.
nnnnx: npn * - sy, cnsorunn, noxpcnnn n yronmnn xpen
nx;
npn +% ononnnrntno y cnonnnx pcnnn n xy nnn noxnnxmrcx cpt,
nt, xnronrt umyxn, cnnmmncx nnxnt rnono (s nunnx coxpnxmrcx
nnrntno - cxnn, rot);
npn - .ononnnrntno x xnnnnx umyuroro n]pnr noxnnxmrcx
nsxsnnnnx pcnnunoro xpx nx, xopouxn, ynnn xoroptx srpynnrntno ns-s onn,
ncr c nnn ynxrcx n pcnnn, no nnn ocrercx xponoroumx xsnoux, ns
nonocxnoro ]onnnxyn ntcrynr xnrnnrt rno. cnoxnnnx pynnnn xsn oxr
npnncrn x nnpnnntnoy pocry /rpnxnsy/ n ontcnnm xpx nx /posy/,
osopxnnnnm xpen nx, nx ntnopory.
xnnnnx % n]pnr ononnnrntno x rxono npn npocro ]op y
pcnnunoro xpx opsymrcx xnronro-cpt xopouxnno xpm nx n n yrnx rns
onpnxrcx onntno nnncro ornxo, npocrpnnmrcx ups xonmnxrnny nx
pcmnpnnt xnronrt onnt xnst xpxm, npn cnnnnn xpx nx xy
nntn npu c crxnxnno nnouxo ns nporoxon xnes ntnxrcx no-xenrt cxpr;
npox xonmnxrnnnr.
pn n]pnr ocnonnx xno ontntx n sy n oncrn nx; x
xnnnnx npocroro nnn umyuroro n]pnr ononnnrntno onpnxmrcx nt
y]rt n pcnnnx.
unn: +rnorponno om n crno - rynr nx c nrncnrnxn (ynnn umyx,
xopoux), cstnnn nx cnnpro, +]npo nnn cnnpront p-po pnnnnnrono snnn;
sxntnnn xnnt (ntynn 30), F (nnonnrnn 0,25), n nout- st c F nnn
; ccx nx. pn n]pnr ononnnrntno ocymcrnnxmr xnpyprnucxn
nmrntcrn (pcmnnnn pcnnunoro xpx nx nx onxnnx nonocxntx mouxon n
nxnrosnoro nunnx nnn nrpoxorynxnnn; nncrnucxn - npn snopor, rpnxns).
pn n]pnr npnnxmr oporxy nx cnnpr-+]npo, ccx nx;
cnnn]nucxn npornnonpsnrpnt npnprt (st c nxrnono n nnonnno, 2 cpnx
st, nononx st, , st c rpnxonono, nnnxo n nnonnno; nocroosn n p.).
ypc nunnx nnrntnt o 1,5-2 cxnn.
npn ntnosopxocrn n crnrrns nsnunn nocroxnntx ouxon (onrnntno
xoppxnnn).
ocrpo rnono nocnnnn nonocxnoro moux (nnn ncxontxnx) y xpx
nx nno cntno xnst (npyxnt), nnn onntx xnes (nnyrpnnn). tstnrcx
rnopontn nxpon, um cr]nnoxoxxn. nnnnx conponoxrcx ontm,
noxpcnnn, npnnopnt orxo nx, no onsnnnocrt npn nntnnnn orurcx n
orpnnunno yucrx. ps 2-4 nx noxnnxrcx rnonnuox n xunt ncxptnrcx; npn
nnyrpnn otuno co cropont xonmnxrnnt, nocn uro sct npxo pspcrmrcx
nnocxn nncronnnt rpnynxnnn. ontrx ntnnrt xunt oxr npnncrn x cptsnt
ocnoxnnnx rpoosy cocyon opnrt, xnpnosnoro cnnyc (c nosoxnt nrntnt
ncxoo), nnnrnry, +nn]nnry n nx ocnoxnnnx.
unn : n npno nn]nntrpnnn - 1) cyxo rnno, 2) V, 3) snn]nnnpymmn xnnn
(30 p-p cynt]nnn-nrpnx), cstnnn xpn nx 1 cnnpront pcrnopo
pnnnnnronoro snnoro, 30 stm cynt]nnn-nrpnx nnn 1 cnnronnnnono
+yntcn; cyxo rnno (V n p.); n npno nxpos (]nmxrynnn) ncxptrn, npotnnn
nonocrn 3 npxnctm noopo, pnnponnn e psnnono rypyno, nonxsxn c
rnnpronnucxn pcrnopo; cyxo rnno npornnonoxsno.
F +ro n]]ysno nocnnnn rxn nx c opsonnn n nnx
nonocrn, ntnonnnno rno. 3rnonornx: crnt rnont nocnnnnx (xsnnnt n]pnr,
xunt, ]ypynxyn). nnnnx: ocnonnt cnnrot orex, rnnpnx xoxn nx n
onsnnnocrt npn nntnnnn no nc ro nnnn. cnoxnnnx xx npn xun.
unn: npn nnorno nn]nntrpnnn rxn (n crnn nn]nntrpnnn) s ]nmxrynnn
1) nrnnornxn n/ n n xn., 2) cynt]nnnnt nnyrpt, 3) cyxo rnno, 4) V /npn
nopntno prpnntno nnnnn/; npn nnnunn ]nmxrynnn (n crnn nxpos) V nnn
cyxo rnno npornnonoxsnt; n ]on xoncpnrnnno rpnnn noxsno ncxptrn
cncc n cr nxpos pspso, npnnntnt xpm nx, c nocnymmn nnnn n
pny psnnono rypynt n nnoxnn nonxsxn c rnnpronnucxn pcrnopo xnopn
nrpnx.
= '.
F oryr trt n npnoprenntn ( nro]rnt, nros, snopor,
ntnopor, rpnxns, nxnnon]pon) n (xonoo, +nnxnryc). ro]rnt,
nros, snopor, ntnopor nx ornocxrcx x 2 '.
,* (sxun rns) nnonno ctxnn nnn nonno nctxnn rnsno
mnn ns-s npn]pnucxoro npnnu (nps) nnnnoro npn, pynonoro yxopounnx
nx nnn ntnopor nx, +xso]rnt, px cns nnrop (tmnt mnnp,
nnpnnpyo cnnrnucxn npno npn pspxnnn mnoro cnnrnucxoro ysn).
3rnonornucxn +rn nsnnnx oryr trt npoxennoro xpxrp, nnn nocn
sonnnn , rpnnn, nonpxnn VII npt (n r.u. no npx pnxntntx
onpnn n yx), npn psnnuno nronornn mnoro orn nosnonounnx, sonnnnxx
mnronnno xnst. s-s nctxnnx rnsno mnn, npymnnx nrnnx n ntnopor
cnesno rouxn poronnn coxnr (crnonnrcx yrno, rycxno, mpoxonro), nosnnxr
xprnr, xsn, cnnxrcx spnn; npymrcx cnsoornnn n nosnnxmr cnsorunn,
ynopnt xonmnxrnnnrt. unn: ocnonnoro sonnnnx (um y nnponronor) n
crno cnnrornucxo ( nx npoxpnnnx rns or ntctxnnx n nn]nnnponnnx
sxntnmr ucro ntynn 30, crpnntno nsnnnono cno, ptn xnp nnn
nrnxrpnntnt sn. pn croxo nro]rnt onprnnno nunn
(** nnn rpsopp]nx cmnnnn nx nno -
nponnno ups ncm nnny nx nnrrypo ns cnnrrnucxnxxrpnnon nnn
yro]cnnn p).
. onymnn npxnro nx; nosnnxr ncncrnn nnonnonnnoro psnnrnx
nnrop nnn ro nps, npnnu (npn rnsonnrrntnoro npn), npnue,
/% nros ucro rxontn +, nnnpnnpytx III
npo ; oxr trt n npn npnnu mnoro cnnrnucxoro npn. unn:
onprnnno npn ntpxnno nros (cnn nxo sxptnr cpnny spux n ontm,
mx spnnm). xo nnn norxrnnrcx x cnntno nono tmn noxoxntn
rpnntn mnn, nnn yxopunnrcx nnrop (ycnnnnx ro crnn), nnn n nnrop
npnocnrcx crnn npxn npxo tmnt.
0 (+nrponnon) xor pcnnunt xp nx , um nnxnro, opmen x
rnsnoy xnoxy, pcnnnt xcmrcx poronnnt nnn opmnt x x cnoy, uro
oycnonnnnr rxxent nopxnnx poronnnt n xonmnxrnnt . osnnxr nnn ns-s
pynonoro copmnnnnx xonmnxrnnt, ]opnnn xpxm (nocn rpxot, oxoron,
n]nryc, n]rpnn); nnn cns xpyrono tmnt npn cxpo]ynes y r; rpo]nn
opnrntno xnrurxn n snnnx rns y crpnxon; nyxnnx nnxn npxono
cxnxn npn xponnucxo xonmnxrnnnr; nnn ns-s nomnnx nonxsxn n rnsy n
nocnonpnnonno npno. ornoxnx noomt: nxnnnnn nnrouxn nnnxoro
nncrtpx or xpx nx x xox mxn (nx orrxrnnnnx nx or rns); npnopnrntnx
nonoxnnonx nox. unn:
onprnnno (nncrnx).
1 (+xrponnon) orcroxnn nx or rns, ucro c ntnoporo cnesno
rouxn, uro conponoxrcx ynopnt cnsorunn c npnn xoxn, xponnucxn
xonmnxrnnnro c rnnprpo]n cnnsncro, ntctxnn, xprnro n xsno poronnnt.
3rnonornx: pynt nocn oxoron, rpn c ]xro rxnn, nonunxn, oxnym +xst;
pspymnnx xocr opnrt nocn rpn, rypxynesnoro nnn cn]nnnrnucxoro
ocronnnr; npn npnnu nnnnoro npn, crpucxo rpo]nn xpyrono tmnt
(oxr trt npn xponnucxnx xonmnxrnnnrx, sonnnnxx cnesntx nyr). unn:
nncrnucxn onpnnn.
2 nnpnnntnt pocr pcnnn, nnpnnnnt n cropony rns (x npn
nopntno nonoxnnn nx), ncncrnn pynnnnx xopn pcnnn npn rpxo, nocn
oxoron, xsnnnoro n]pnr, pnnnnnpymmnx xun, n]rpnn. onponoxrcx
crnxnnnn nnrpprnnntnoro npocrpncrn nx, snoporo nx, psnnrn xsn
poronnnt n r.. unn: onprnnno (nncrnx); cnn nr snopor orpnnunnmrcx nnn
+nnnxnn nronornucxn pcrymnx pcnnn, nnn nrpoxorynxnn nyxonnn pcnnn
nronturt +nxrpoo.
* npoxenno nnn npnoprenno (nocn n]nryc, rpxot, xsn,
nonpxnn, oxoron) cpmnn xpen npxnro n nnxnro nx, npnnoxm cyxnnm
rnsno mnn. oxr trt nonnt, ucrnunt n nn nnorntx orntntx pynon nnn
n nn ronxnx nnr. ourrcx c npoxenno ]opnn upn, xonoon
cocyncro oonouxn, cnn]pono, +nnxnryco, no]rnto. unn:
xnpyprnucxo (psnnn nx, cnx n sxptrn ]xron cnnsncro c ryt).
) ]xr xpx nx n nn rpyrontnnx nnn nonyxpyrno ntxn; um -
n cpn rprn npxnro nx. pxo courrcx c pyrnn ypocrnn nnn.
unn: xnpyprnucxo (nncrnx).
3 nycroponnxx nonynynnx xoxnx cxnx, sxptnmmx nnyrpnnn
yrnt rnsno mnn, npxoxmx c npxnro nx n nnxn, ]opnpymmx
xon]nrypnnm rnsno mnn, npnmmx rns onrononnt nn n cosmmx
noxno nnurnnn o nnnunn cxoxmrocx xocornsnx. nnxrcx ucrt npnsnxo
xpoocontx npymnn (cnnpo yn). unn: xnpyprnucxo.

A=,9<;-=>G $<JAHK 9:B=9- 3
! /' 3 6+ + ''+ '+
0 . %. "! /' . 3
''+ '+ + 4
.'! ' . 3 6+ ''+ '+
4 & 2' 3 + ''+
+ + . L5'.0
Xpxrpnt cnnroo F X xnnxmrcx
ynopno cnsorunn. nx nrnocrnxn ro npnunnt nponoxr ocorp oprnon, nntnnnm,
xnntnnym n noconym xonnprononym npoy, npoy Bnpp, sonnponnn n npotnnn
cnsntx nyr, rxx nx pnrrnorp]nm c xonrpcrnt nmcrno.
s sonnnn ""1% noxono snrt o nocnnnnn
cnsno xnst , cncrnnn ' * npn
psnnuntx &'. / omnx rpnnn, nnnonnn, xopn, cxpnrnnt, pmmnoro rn],
ocrporo cycrnnoro pnrns; oonrornntx; -oprnon - nrnnt n p. n ucro
+nnnucxoro npornr/. m - onocroponnn nponcc. cnonnt cnnrot 1)
rnnpnx n orx npyxno ucrn npxnro nx, onsnnnocrt npn nntnnnn, 2)
rnnpnx n orx xonmnxrnnt rnsnoro xnox n npxn-npyxno orn, 3) nxo
npnoprr S-opsnym ]opy, 4) ynnnunn n onsnnnocrt npymntx prnonpntx
nn]oysnon, 5) n ornnun or cxox nocnnnrntno nronornn nx npn xpnonnr
nnmrcx cmnn rns xnnsy n xnyrpn n 6) orpnnunn nonnxnocrn rns xnpxy n
xnpyxn, 7) nonn. po roro, oxr trt om noornn, rononnx ont,
nontmnn rnprypt rn.
unn nnpnnno n opty c omn sonnnn; crno xx npn cncc.
sonnnn % ornocxrcx: cyxnnx /crpnxrypt/ cnsntx
roux n xnntnn, xx cncrnnx xponnucxnx n]pnron, xonmnxrnnnron, rpn. unn:
sonnponnn nnn onprnnno.
tnopor cnsno rouxn npnunnt r x nnn ronnx nx. unn onprnnno.
nnnxynnr nocnnnn cnsnoro xnntn, ucro rpnxono +rnonornn. unn
onprnnno (ncxptrn xnntn n ynnn ns nro nnornoro copxnoro).
nocnnnn cnsnoro mx. .: y nspocntx - crnos
cnsnonoconoro xnn ncncrnn xponnucxnx nocnnnrntntx nponccon
(xonmnxrnnnron, um pnnnron, cnnycnron); y nonopoxnntx npynnponnnx x
onry poon pn n nnxn xonn cnsnoro xnn (nonnx psnnrnx). rorns: n
cnxsn c npymnn cnsoornnnx cns cxnnnnrcx n cnesno mx n psnnnrcx
cnnsncro-rnont nnn, um, rnont xpnonncrnr. ocxontxy y nonopoxnntx
cnesnx xns nunnr ]ynxnnonnponrt nnmt n 2-o cxn xnsnn, ro n cxonnnn
cnst n mx npoxnnxrcx nnmt n +ro nospcr c psnnrn r.n.
X. ro xnnnnx cxox c xonmnxrnnnro (xnot n nsnunrntno
cnnsncro ornxo ns oonx nnn onoro rns, cnsocroxnn, rnnpnx
xonmnxrnnt). pnnyxnn n oncrn cnesnoro mx nsrno, no xpnnntnt
cnnro xpnonncrnr (ntnnn cnnsncro-rnonoro copxnoro ns cnesno rouxn
npn nnnnnnnn n oncrn cnesnoro mx) noorr yrounnrt nrnos. unn:
ccx cnesnoro mx 1-2 n. nx npoptn nnenxn n ucrt sxntnnnx ntynn
nnn nrnnornxon; npn n+]]xrnnnocrn npotnnn cnesntx nyr
nrncnrnucxnn pcrnopn no nnnn crpye; npn sycnmnocrn
sonnponnn cnesnoro mx n cnesnonoconoro xnn (urot npopnrt nnenxy).
osoxnt ocnoxnnnx xpnonncrnr psnnrn ]nront cnesnoro mx, ro
]ncrynt, ]nron n rpoos nn opnrt, xnpnosnoro cnnyc, rnont nnnrnr;
nrntnt ncxo.
pn ocrpo ]op ( B) - rnono nocnnnnn
xnrurxn, oxpyxmm cnsnt mox, ns-s nponnxnonnnx n ne rnono nn]xnnn ns
mx ups ncronuennym n nocnnennym ro cnnsncrym npn nnrntno xponnucxo
rnono nponcc n ne (n r.u. n y nonopoxnntx) nnn pxo - ocrporo nocnnnnx n
npnrountx nsyxx noc. nnnnucxn: nocnnnrntnt xnnnnx onpnxmrcx no
nnyrpnn cnxsxo nx - npnnyxnocrt n rnnpnx xoxn, onsnnnocrt npn nntnnnn n
oncrn cnsnoro mx n noxpyr noc, nx, npn nnnnnnnn n oncrn cnesnoro
mx ns cnsntx roux ntnxrcx rno; orx nx, rnono ornxo ns
xonmnxrnnntno nonocrn, cnnnnn nx; nosoxnt rononnx ont, noornn,
nontmnn rnprypt rn; nosn - noxnnxmrcx ]nmxrynnx, npn copspmnnn
nponcc (ncxptrnn cncc) rno npoptnrcx npyxy, opsyrcx ]ncryn (oxr trt
nnyrpnnoconx), cnnmn. unn: xx npn cncc nx. ocn crnxnnx ocrptx xnnnn
noxono onprnnno nunn xpnonncropnnocronx ( y nspocntx). cnoxnnnx
xponnucxn rnont xonmnxrnnnr, xsn poronnnt, ]nron n rpoos nn opnrt,
xnpnosnoro cnnyc, rnont nnnrnr; nrntnt ncxo. pornos: nocnonpnnonno
noccrnonnnn cnsoornnnx; ponpnnn (npn pnnnnx xpnonncrnr - n cnyuxx
orcyrcrnnx cnnnn ouron nn]xnnn, oconno -oprnon, oonrornnoro nnpr); n
sycnmntx cnyuxx - +xcrnpnnnx (ynnn) cnesnoro mx ncr c
rpnynxnnonno rxntm n nocnymm R-rpnn.
pn .' ' / y nspocntx/ - nocnnnrntntx xnnnn nr,
onpnxrcx nnmt npnnyxnocrt n oncrn cnsnoro mx n ntnnn rnox ns cnesntx
roux npn nnnnnnnn n oncrn cnesnoro mx; xnntnnx npo um //,
noconx /-; npotnnx xnxocrt n noc n npoxonr. unn: onprnnno
/xpnocropnnocronx/ - cosnn nonoro nyrn cnsoornnnx nyre ]opnponnn
coycrtx xy cnesnt mxo n nocono nonocrtm.
)>=B9$7>@= cocroxnnx cnesoornoxmnx nyr ocymcrnnxrcx nyre nx
npyxnoro ocorp c nponnn xonnpronontx npo (xnntnno n nocono),
npotnnn nx nocn npnpnrntnoro sonnponnnx) n L5& nocn snonnnnx
nx xonrpcrnt nmcrno (30 pcrnopo onnnon). nnxn nmr n 2-yx npoxnnxx
(]cno n oxono). 3ro nosnonxr nonyunrt uerxo npcrnnnn o xonrypx
cnesoornoxmnx nyr, noxnnsonrt crpnxrypt, onnrpnnm, nx nporxxennocrt, rxx
cynrt o cocroxnnn npnrountx nsy noc, sonnnnx xoroptx ucro xnnxmrcx npnunno
nronornn cnesntx oprnon.

A=,9<;H-=>G @9MN@7>-H 3
'&'+ % '4 '
'O1' /@.5'+ '''!+ !!+ &!!0 3
''+ + &''04 " 'O1'
/&'O1' .'+ 6'!
''O1'0 3 ''+ & + +
4 . 3 '' + &+ +
4 ". 'O1' /+ + "+
&+ !&03 ''+ &&! +
.
( 6 sonnnn xonmnxrnnt xnccn]nnnpymrcx n :
I . ocnnnrntnt sonnnnx (xonmnxrnnnrt)
1. 3xsornnt (xrpnntnt, nnnoxoxxont, nnnonnnnxpnt nnn
yrnono n]poxonmnxrnnnr, ronopnt, n]rpnnt, ocrpt
+nnnucxn ox-Vnxc, nonnpycnt. pxo.
2. 3nornnt xonmnxrnnnrt (npn cncrntx sonnnnxx cnnpo rp,
rnnnc-xncon n p., xopno, rcrrnucxn ronopnt,
npn nrpxno ocn, n]nryc, nnenurt npn noro]opno +xcyrnnno
+pnr, rypxynesnt, cn]nnnrnucxn, nnprnucxn).
3. onmnxrnnnrt, ntsnnnt xnnucxnn n ]nsnucxnn ]xropn.
II. rnprnnnt nsnnnx xonmnxrnnt (nrpnrny, nnnrnxyn).
III. nyxonn xonmnxrnnt (nnnopon, rnrno, nnyc, nn]nrno,
npo]npo).
( 1 psnnumr n xonmnxrnnnrt.
@O1' nocnnnn cnnsncro oonouxn nx n rnsnoro xnox (cxnpt).
c nponcct, nsnncno or +rnonornn, nmr omn npnsnxn: x
"O' ornocxrcx xnot n uyncrno scopnnocrn, ncx n rnsx
nnn npmmmrocx n rnsy no nxo nnoponoro rn; xxnn nnn sy,
cnsorunn, noxpcnnn rns, ornxo n nn xopoux n pcnnnx, cnnnnn nx,
cxonnnn noro ornxoro n yronxx rns. 9O' nnmrcx rnnpnx
xonmnxrnnt nx n cnoon, n cxnp nonpxnocrnx nnn xonmnxrnnntnx nnxnnx.
rnnunrntntn npnsnxn nocnn xnnxrcx: xpxo-xpcnt nnr, urxn cocyncrt
pncynox n ontmx ntpxnnocrt rnnpnn y cnoon (npxontx cxnox).
- xonmnxrnn xpxrpnsyrcx pyrnn cnocrnn: nno-posonx, rnxx,
nnxnx, ncrxmx, npospunx, n oncrn npxontx cxnox nonnxnx,
ornxoro nr.
onx o nnx, nx nmo cnnnntnocrn oxr n npxrnx nocrnnrt npnnntnt
nrnos, snunr, n nsnunrt xnrno nunn.
onx o nnx, npu nmo cnnnntnocrn oxr n npxrnx nocrnnrt npnnntnt
+rnonornucxn nrnos, snunr, n nsnunrt xnrno +rnorponno nunn. tnxmr
cnymmn nrornoonnunt r.. xpxrpnt nx onpnnnoro nn xonmnxrnnnr
cnnrot:
nx xrpnntntx (um cr]nnoxoxxontx) xpxrpn on xpxx rnnpnx
xonmnxrnnt, onntno rnono ornxo ns
xonmnxrnnntno nonocrn;
nx nnnoxoxxontx xonmnxrnnnron xpxrpno noxnnnn rouuntx ropprn n
nnenuroro ornxoro, nrxo cnnmmrocx nrnt rnono;
nx rononnnopnoro xonmnxrnnnr xpxrpno nyxcroponn nopxnn,
ntpxnnt, nnornt, cnnmmno-rpont orx nx, ornxo
nnun noxnncro, sr xponxnncro (nnr xcntx noon),
n npno pspmnnx - cnnnxoopsno. 3ror xonmnxrnnnr
ocnoxnxrcx nopxnn poronnnt (xprnro) c psnnrn
xsnt + nosoxnt np]opnnn, +no]rntnrt (rnono
nocnnnn crxnonnnoro rn), nno]rntnrt (npxo
rnonoro nocnnnnx n nc oonouxn rns n oxpyxmmn rxnn
rnsnnnt) c ncxoo n cyrpo]nn rnsnoro xnox (]rnsnc),
cnnory nnn nt;
nx n]rpnnoro xonmnxrnnnr xpxrpn cxoxcrt xnnnnucxo xprnnt c
rononnnopnt, no nponcc um onocroponnn. po roro, nx
nro rnnnuno nnnuro ornxo, no, n ornnun or nnnoxoxxonoro
xonmnxrnnnr, onn nrxo n cnnmrcx, npn ynnnn nonpxnocrt
xonmnxrnnt xponorounr.. nocncrnnn opsymrcx pynt
xonmnxrnnt n cnn]pon. po]nnxrnx sonnnnx sxnmurcx
n nsonxnnn ontntx n oxc nn]xnnonnoro ornnnx n ncnontsonnnx
rprnucxo nonxsxn n ontno rns rnn uconoro crxn;
nx ocrporo +nnnucxoro xonmnxrnnnr ox-Vnxcxpxrpnt
nycroponnocrt nopxnnx, nmnucxn (nnt) orx xonmnxrnnt
(xos) nnnort o ymnnnx xy nxn, nrxnntnt
xpononsnnxnnx. ox oxr nopxrtcx poronnn n nn noxnnnnx
nonpxnocrntx nn]nntrpron (xprnr). 3ror xonmnxrnnnr
upsntuno xonrrnosn! po]nnxrnx sxnmurcx n opt c
yxn;
nnpycnt xonmnxrnnnr nporxmr nocn nnn n ]on nontmnnx rnprypt,
, nrnnt, npnnrnr, rpxnr, ncopx, rpnc. pxocrt nnxnnn
n ntpxn, u npn xrpnntno: ornxo cxyno nnn
orcyrcrnyr. Vnnnunnmrcx prnonpnt nn]oysnt. unt xpxrpno
nsnxrcx nonpxnocrt xonmnxrnnt on crnonnrtcx mpoxonro
ns-s ynnnunnx ]onnnxynon, uro nr noxox n nonpxnocrt
cnox xpcno nxpt. xx oxr nopxrtcx poronnn, npn +ro
xpxrpno cnnxnn uyncrnnrntnocrn;
nonnpycnt xonmnxrnnnrt xpxrpnsymrcx nopxnn oonx
rns n poxnnxmrcx n nn no]pnnroxonmnxrnnntno
nnxopxn () n +nnnucxoro ]onnnxynxpnoro
xproxonmnxrnnnr (3).
- nosnnxr n ]on ]pnnrnr n nnxopxn, xpxrpno
cxyno cnnsncro ornxo, mpoxonrx nonpxnocrt
xonmnxrnnt s cur opsonnnx npospuntx ]onnnxynon (npn
+ro nonpxnocrt xonmnxrnnt nnonnr cno xpcno nxpt);
nnor - orumrcx nnenxn, nrxo cnnmmncx.
3 - rox nunnrcx c nontmnnx rnprypt, ynnnunnmrcx
prnonpnt nn]oysnt, ornxo cxyno, cnnsncro,
onpyxnnmrcx ]onnnxynt n nosnnxmr cy+nnrnnntnt
"onronnnt" nn]nntrprt n poronnn, nnxor n
nsxsnnxmmncx, ro ncusmr, ro noxnnxmrcx nnont s npnunn,
ypxnnmrcx cxnt n ]on oprnoro psnnrnx; sxnunnrcx
nponcc pccctnnn., uyncrnnrntnocrt poronnnt cnnxn.
crercx nynnrr. unn: nsnumr om n crno
nnpyconnnt npnprt (]nopnnt, oxconnn, rpo]n, rnynrn
- 0,1 p-p n 0, 5 st/, nrnronnrt V, xpnn n xn.;
]pnr soxcnpnonyxnsy 0,1-0,3 p-p n xn., nnxnnxx no
xonmnxrnny no 0,5 n n n/; nynorpnnm - r-rnoynnn n/ n
no xonmnxrnny, nnrp]pon, nnpornn; rxx
cncnnnnsnpymmn npnprt, cnnnnnrt, nson, nnrnnt.
po]nnxrnx: n nsonxnnn ontntx, ntnonnnnn cnrnxn, xnnno
cn nxpcrn.
xponnucxn xonmnxrnnnr ornocxrcx: V TR opxc-
A x ce n]nt a - ntstnrcx nnnonnno. rnnurcx cnnnt syo, noxpcnnn no
yrn rnsno mn, npnn xoxn, +xsrosntn nsnnnxn e c oxnymnn
rpmnnn, scoxmnn nocxonnntn xopouxn. unn: sxntnnn 0,5-1 p-p
nnnx cynt]r 4-6 ps n nt; xpx nx cstnmrcx 1-5 stm oxcn nnnx).
nnprnucxn xonmnxrnnnrt - xpxrpnsymrcx mpoxonro nonpxnocrtm
xonmnxrnnt s cur pspcrnnx cocouxon (nnpospuntx, n nn nxnx nnnno).
snnumr '! xonmnxrnnnr /xx psyntrr nontmnno
uyrncrnnrntnocrn x nxnr, ! / x pcrnnx, nnr /, ! ' / x
V/ - on
ornnurcx ntpxnnt pspcrnn cocouxon n nn r.n. yntxno ocrono.
unn: cro n Fm - cncnnnnsnpymmn npnprt, nnxnnn rncrornoynnn,
xoprnxocrpont. pnorpnnx pspcrnn. pn cr xnrntcrn.
7.. - cnnn]nucxn spsntx xproxonmnxrnnnr. tstnrcx
nosynrn ns rpynnt rntnponn, snnmmnx npoxyrouno nonoxnn xy
nnpycn n pnxxrcnxn. opt e: nprpxo, rpxo (xonmnxrnnntnx ]op,
poronnunx); nprpxo (ypornnrntnx n rnsnx). 7: nunnrcx c npxn
npxono cxnxn xonmnxrnnt, ruer nsrno, xponnucxn, nocrnnno sxnrtnx
nc e ornt. snnumr 4 crnn rpxorosnoro nponcc -
n 1 crnn - nmrcx nn]nntrpnnx xonmnxrnnt c cnnmmnt orrnxo n
]onnnxynt c cocouxn;
no II - nn]nntrpnnx, ]onnnxynt n nnnunt nnnnt pynt;
n III - r x 3 +nnr, no pynon ontm, u ]onnnxynon;
n 1V crnn onn pynt xonmnxrnnt n nonxmnx rxn.
Xpxrpno nonnunn poronnnt cnun n npxn crnr - c npcrnn cm
cocyon, noyrnnn, uro nstnrcx rpxorosnt nnnyco / rpu,- snncx/.
cnoxnnnx rpxot - xnnnxynnrt, xpnonncrnrt, rnont xsnt poronnm /npn
np]opnnn - +no]rntnr, nno]rntnr n rnnt rns/, rpnxns, snopor nx,
cnn]pon c orpnnunn nonnxnocrn rnsnoro xnox, xcpos /ntctxnn/ poronnnt
ncncrnn pynnnnx n oncrn nporoxon cnsno xnst. nrnos nornpxrcx
nxoxnn n +nnrnnntntx xnrxx xonmnxrnnt rnn ponux-ntpmrrp,
npn nnronornn cocxoon - nxpornucxoro pcn xnrox ]onnnxynon /uro xpxrpno
rontxo nx rpxot/. unn: crnnonpno - sxntnnn rrpnnxnnnono sn 4-5 ps
n nt n runn 2-3 c.; ntnnnnnn /+xcnpccnx/ ]onnnxynon 1-2 ps ups 3 n.;
npopntno - A xypcn, nnrnnt, cncnnnnsnpymmn npnprt, nontmmmn
pxrnnnocrt oprnns. ocncrnnx rpxot nurcx onprnnno /nncrnxn/. txnnnn
rpxot npononrcx npn npo]nnxrnucxnx ocorpx sopontx nnn n ncx xonrxrntx.
Fontnt nonmr ncnncpnoy yury nocn 6-cxunoro npornnopnnnnnoro nunnx n
crnnonp. pnrpn osoponnnnx cnyxr: npn cnxnx cnyuxx - orcyrcrnn prncrpnnn
cnxnx sonnnn n runn 3 nr; npn 1V crnn - orcyrcrnn pnnnnon n runn 3 nr
n orpnnrntnt nopropnt nnt.
pn '. xonmnxrnnnrx nonpxnocrt nsnxrcx nnu: ncncrnn
pspcrnnx cocouxon n nn psnoxnnpntx nnnnno on oxr
npnoprrt nn yntxno ocrono. po roro, xpxrpn
csonnocrt oocrpnnx (um ncno n ocntm).
( nornoxno 'O1' xnnxrcx: nsnunn crnoro
+rnorponnoro nunnx n nn xnnt n s (ropso px rpyrcx om nunn).
npnp, npn xrpnntntx nponccx otuno nsnurcx cournn cynt]nnnnon
() c nrnnornxn (F), no+roy npn xonmnxrnnnrx yxsnno +rnonornn nunn
nxnmur sxntnnn ntynn () 6-8 ps n nt n sxntnnn s nxo sn
rrpnnxnnnono 1 nnn +pnrponnnnono 3 p. n nt. pn nnpycntx xonmnxrnnnrx
noxsno nsnunn, nnpnp, V n xnnxx 6-8 ps n nt n sn oxcnnnono 0,25 3 p. n
nt. pn nnprnucxnx - n xnnxx npon0,5 nnn 1, nnn xnopncrt xntnn 3 no 6-
8 ps n st rnpoxoprnsononx 0,5 3 p. n nt.
9". xonmnxrnnt:
nnnopon (nnn cyxonmnxrnnntnx nnno ) nonnxnx, xrxx,
opoxucrnnnx onyxont n nn roncro xnronro cxnxn
xonmnxrnnt c nsnmnnno noxnnsnn xy npxn n npyxno
npxtn tmnn, xopomo srntx npn nonnnnn npxnnx nx n
nsrnx ontnoro xnyrpn n x nocy. xo- nycroponnxx nnn n nn
nprnxntntx cxnox xonmnxrnnt. unn onprnnno; npn
ontmnx pspx ynxmr rontxo srnym e ucrt, urot n
ntsnrt yxopounnx xonmnxrnnt.
nrno npoxennx opoxucrnnnx onyxont ns xponnocntx cocyon; oxr
trt npnnuno nnn cnxsnno c rnrnon nx n rnsnnnt. cryr
tcrpo n npnt cxnt n rot xnsnn penx. cnn n pcryr, ro
oycnonnnt nopoxo psnnrnx cocyncro cncrt no nnyrpnyrpono
npno. pnnunt noxnnsymrcx npnymcrnnno n xonmnxrnn
cxnpt n cmmrcx ncr c n. ropnunt oryr trt n]]ysntn.
unn: nrpoxorynxnnx; xoporxo]oxycnx R-rpnnx; n cnyuxx
nnxncynnponnntx rnrno xonmnxrnnt - nosoxno nx ynnn.
n]nrno opoxucrnnnx onyxont ns nn]rnucxnx cocyon, roncrocrnno
opsonnn, +ncrnuno n omynt, n cxnnt, n ynnnunnmmcx
or nnpxxnnx, nonnxno, n cnxnno co cxnpo. ocr nnnt,
no nporpccnpymmn. pxo cnxsn c nn]nrnon nx n rnsnnnt
npn npoxenno cnononocrn nx. unn: xnpyprnucxo, onxo ucrt
pnnnnt r.x. nonnocrtm e ynnrt n yercx..
nyc ornocxrcx x nopox psnnrnx, no oxr snoxucrnnno nppoxrtcx (um - y
nspocntx) n nnoy. nnrnrnt nnyc nr nn nnocxnx xnronrtx
nosntmnn c rnxo nonpxnocrtm, oxono nn; co npn oxr
npnoprrt nnrnr.
nrnrnt nxrn tnmr n psnnuntx ornx xonmnxrnnt n n xpm nx.
ocr nnrnrnoro nxrn xnnxrcx noxsnn x onpnnn n xx oxno pntm
o nyprrnoro nospcr, xorx nocnnxx oxr n xrnnnsnponrt
snoxucrnnno nppoxnn. ponsnoxr nccunn nonoopsonnnx n
npnx sopontx rxn; npn pcnonoxnnn nnyc y xpx poronnnt
]oroxorynxnnm nnn xpnonnnnxnnm. pn nosnnxnonnnn pnnnn
+nyxnnnm rns.
po]npo - npoxnnnn npo]nporos xnnnrysn (cncrnoro pspcrnnx
npnno n connnrntno rxnn). oxr nopxrt nc ornt oprn
spnnx (no um ncrpurcx n oncrn npxnro nx, npn noxnnsnnn
nnyrpn rns - ntstnr nontmnn ). ourrcx c
npo]npon n rnsnnn, no xoy upnno-osrontx npnon
(ntstnx npst n npnnun coornrcrnymmnx tmn),
noxnnsymrcx n pyrnx ornx nnn n rynonnm, n xox rn
orumrcx xo]nt nxrn. po]npot npn nntnnnn +ro
nnornt, ncxnt, rxxncrt nnn ysnonrt, sonsnnnt
opsonnnx; nnt noxpyr pcmnpnt n npnmr cnnmmnt orrnox.
rnt yx npn poxnnn. cryr ncm xnsnt. unn: xnpyprnucxo
nccunn ysnon n nocnymmx nncrnx; onxo ucrt pnnnnt.
pn ocnoxnnnxx, nnpnp, conyrcrnymm rnyxo noxsnt
nrnrnyxorosnt onpnnn.
)' xonmnxrnnnron nxnmur onnxy xno ontnoro, nsyunn
nns sonnnnx, nnns nntx oxrnnnoro nccnonnnx rns
pn no ntxnnrt nuno sonnnnx, npnonrt npnunnt,
npx noxnnnnx cnnroon, csonnocrt, xonrxrt, npo]ccnonntnt npnocrn,
sonnnnx cxntx oncr (pnnnrt, ]pnnrnrt, crornrt n p.) n cxnonnocrt x
nnprnn.
3rnonornx nponcc ycrnnnnnrcx npn 4 x.
nocno n nnrrntnym cpy sx c xonmnxrnnt nx onpnnnx ]nopt n e
uyncrnnrntnocrn x nrnnornx; xrpnocxonn no nxpocxono oxpmnnoro
sx.
cnonnt 'O1' xnnxrcx: nsnunn crnoro
+rnorponnoro nunnx n nn xnnt n s (ropso px rpyrcx om nunn).
npnp, npn xrpnntntx nponccx otuno nsnurcx cournn cynt]nnnnon
() c nrnnornxn (F), no+roy npn xonmnxrnnnrx yxsnno +rnonornn nunn
nxnmur sxntnnn ntynn () 6-8 ps n nt n sxntnnn s nxo sn
rrpnnxnnnono 1 nnn +pnrponnnnono 3 p. n nt. pn nnpycntx xonmnxrnnnrx
noxsno nsnunn, nnpnp, V n xnnxx 6-8 ps n nt n sn oxcnnnono 0,25 3 p. n
nt. pn nnprnucxnx - n xnnxx npon0,5 nnn 1, nnn xnopncrt xntnn 3 no 6-
8 ps n st rnpoxoprnsononx 0,5 3 p. n nt.


ncx yxsnntx sonnnn n nx ocnoxnnn nxnmur: 1) cnonpnno
nno nronornn rns n prynxpntx npo]nnxrnucxnx ocorpx no ncx xonnxrnnx
(nspocntx n rcxnx), npun nmoro npo]nnx npn ocorp cnonx ontntx (nspocntx
n r)4 npn rpxo - nonopnt oxot yucrxonoro . npconn nx ocorp
xonmnxrnnt npxnro nx y ncx xonrxrntx, 2) ncxnmunn "! '
nntx sonnnn pnnsnnx rocypcrnnntx nporp no ynyumnnm
connntnoro yponnx xnsnn ncnnnx; cnonpnnt nponnn npnnnnox (nnpnp,
npn n]rpnn), cnnnx ouron nn]xnnn ncn cnnnnncrn ( n r.u. n nonopoxnntx
n ucrnocrn, rononnnopn cnocoo rnn-p; ncnontsonnn cnnn]nucxnx
ctnoporox nnpnp, npornnon]rpnntx; ynyumnn ycnonn rpy n nponsnocrnx,
conmnn rxnnxn soncnocrn, cnnrpno-rnrnnnucxoro pxn (no noxsnnx
crporx nsonxnnn ontntx, snn]xnnx nomnn); 4) ; 3)
xucrnnnx ontntx, nonnonnno xnnn]nnnponnno nunn nx
(xx xoncpnrnnno, rx n onprnnno), no noxsnnx ocnonnn n
xrpnonocnrntcrno (nnpnp, nnouxn ox-Vnxc); 5) mnpoxx 5
nxon cpn ncnnnx.


(=79<9B>G :9B9->*H. (=79<9B>G $9$)>$79P 9,9<9?@>.
)>88;:;*>=<Q=G )>=B9$7>@=.
- rt nonxrn o om cnnrornx xprnron n nx ncxox, oconnocrxx
xnnnnxn, runnx n nunnx orntntx nnon xprnron, conpnntx rox nunnx
sonnnn poronnnt n nx ncxoon, rx n]]pnnnntno nrnocrnx nntx
sonnnn..
rt xnccn]nxnnm sonnnn cocyncroro rpxr. ccorprt xnnnnxy n nunn
npnnx n snnx ynnron, yxsrt n nx cnxst c omnn sonnnnxn oprnns,
npnnnnnt nx nunnx n n]]pnnnntnym nrnocrnxy.
- 45 nn.
- rpynnono ropnrnucxo snxrn n ynropn.
:
1/ nnnt: psps rnsnoro xnox, cocyncrx cncr rns, nnnpnnnx rns, crponn
porono oonouxn, rnn ncxynxpnsnn rns, crponn xprnron, xsn porono oonouxn,
]nxrnynsnt xprnr, rpnrnucxn xprnr, ncxonnnt xprnr, nt poronnnt,
xnccn]nxnnx noyrnnn porono oonouxn no nnrony-Fnmnuy, xpronncrnx,
xpronporsnponnn.
nnnt: cx crponnx rnsnoro xnox; cocyt rnsnnnt, cocyncrt rpxr rns; cocyt
npn rns; crponn pyxno oonouxn; xnccn]nxnnx sonnnn cocyncroro rpxr;
ocrpt npnr; onponnnx pyxx. nn cnnxnn; ynnrt (1001); npnonnxnnr (1002);
sonnnnx crurxn n cocyncro oonouxn; sonnnnx cocyncro oonouxn; xopnonnr
n xopnoprnnnr; npoxnnt nonnn pyxno oonouxn;
2/ nrnt n upno-nt cnt no sonnnnx n xnpyprnn poronnnt. (10 mr) n
cocyncroro rpxr (10 mr;
3/ Vunt nnorpnnt no r.
( '.
N n/n opxnn nxnnn.
px (nn.)
1 nccn]nxnnx xprnron, nx nrnocrnx, omn xnnnnucxn
cnnrot, runn, omn npnnnnnt nunnx xprnron.
n]xnnonnt xrpnntnt xprnrt: % %5
% (]xropt nosnnxnonnnx, xnnnnx, ocnoxnnnx, runn,
ncxot, nunn, npo]nnxrnx; 67 +rnonornx,
xnnnnx, runn, ocnoxnnnx, nunn (pont ]nsnucxnx roon
nunnx nrpoxorynxnnn, xpnorpnnn, nspxorynxnnn), ncxot;
rpnrnucxn xprnrt (ucror sonnnnx y nspocntx; cnocrn
nosynrn, nyrn nonnnx n oprnns, ]xropt xrnnnsnnn nnpycon
n oprnns nspocntx) omx cnnrornx rpnrnucxnx xprnron,
oconnocrn xnnnnxn n runnx npnnunoro n nocrnpnnunoro
xprnron; * rpnrnucxoro xprnr,
% xprnr, rnyoxx ]op % xprnr,
5 % +
xnnnnx nopxnnx xoxn nx, nnn, ronont, rns;
(xnnnnucxn, nopropnt nnronornx cocxo c
xonmnxrnnt, , ouronx npo c rpnrnucxo nxnnno);
**% ; (cnnn]nucxn n
ncnnn]nucxn npornnonnpycnt cpcrn, nynorpnnx,
]nsnucxn rot nrpo- n nspxorynxnnx, xnpyprnucxo
nunn nunx xpronncrnx n p., nosoxnocrn
20
npornnopnnnnno rpnnn; *; rypxynesno-
nnprnucxn xprnr - n]]ysno, ourono,
cxnposnpymm ]op; , npnnnnnt n
npoonxnrntnocrt 5 cnropno-xypoprno
nunn; ; cn]nnnrnucxn (rnyoxn) xprnr xnnnnx,
n]]pnnnntnt nrnos, nunn, ncxot; . nocnnnn
poronnnt (nxrno, onuxo, nto npocro, ycnoxnenno, pyrn
% % *, %
npnnnnnt nunnx; nnt xprnnncrnxn, xonrxrnt nnnst,
xpronporst).
2 nroo-op]onornucxn, ]ynxnnonntnt xnnst psnnrnx
sonnnn cocyncroro rpxr n xnnnnucxo cnxr. nccn]nxnnx
ynnron, nrorns, cnxst c pyrnn sonnnnxn oprnns.
n]]pnnnntnt nrnos ynnron n snncnocrn or nx +rnonornn no
xnnnnucxo, nopropno, pnrrnonornucxo,
+nxrpo]nsnonornucxo n nynonornucxo xprnn (rpnnnosnoro,
xonnrnosnoro, nnpycnoro, rypxynesnoro, nrnucxn
cn]nnnrnucxoro, roxconnsosnoro, ]oxntnoro ynnr). prnnsnnx,
npnnnnnt, rot omro n crnoro nunnx npnnx n snnx
ynnron n snncnocrn or +rnonornn n xpxrp nponcc. cxot.
po]nnxrnx.
20
3 prt npxo-oprno cnxsn. 10

nrpryp.
1. Fouxpn .. nsnt onsnn. - .,1989. - . 180-218; 221-237.
2. nnonx nporp no o]rntonornn . - crn., 2004 r.
3. onnncxn .. nsnt onsnn. - ., 1986. - . 195-223; 244-271.
4. onnncxn .. ]rntornx. - . 1995 - . 69-101,138-220.
5. nrncon 3.., onnncxn .., Xnron .. yxonocrno no rcxo o]rntonornn.
- ., 1987. - . 258-282.
6. onn . . nsnt onsnn. .: nnnn, 2002. . 200-244; 275-302.
7. xnnmnnnn ., opnt .. pnx noomt npn ocrptx sonnnnxx n
nonpxnnxx rns. - nnnrp, 1985. - . 11-15, 38-75.
8. nrncon 3.. npnounnx no o]rntonornn. - ., 1978. - . 102-110.
9. cnpon .. ]rntornc. - ., 1994. 224 c.
10. nopnxo . ]rntonornx: Vunnx. .: 3-, 2003. . 174 -187;
190- 222.
11.zopos .., puesa .., canxynos .. nasn-e onesnw.
- .:szaienscxwn uenip "zopos", 2000. - .172-194; 195-
214.
12. onnncxn .. rcxx o]rntonornx..,nnnn, 1970 r, crp.160-176.
13. uyx R.. npycnt sonnnnx rns. - ., 1981. . 120-122.

(=79<9B>G :9B9->*H.
@&' '+ . '+ % '' + +
% '.
>&' ' ': % %5 % (]xropt
nosnnxnonnnx, xnnnnx, ocnoxnnnx, runn, ncxot, nunn, npo]nnxrnx;
67 +rnonornx, xnnnnx, runn, ocnoxnnnx, nunn (pont ]nsnucxnx
roon nunnx nrpoxorynxnnn, xpnorpnnn, nspxorynxnnn), ncxot;
' ' (ucror sonnnnx y nspocntx; cnocrn nosynrn, nyrn
nonnnx n oprnns, ]xropt xrnnnsnnn nnpycon n oprnns nspocntx) omx
cnnrornx rpnrnucxnx xprnron, oconnocrn xnnnnxn n runnx npnnunoro n
nocrnpnnunoro xprnron; * rpnrnucxoro xprnr,
% xprnr, rnyoxx ]op % xprnr,
5 % + xnnnnx nopxnnx xoxn nx, nnn,
ronont, rns; (xnnnnucxn, nopropnt nnronornx cocxo c
xonmnxrnnt, , ouronx npo c rpnrnucxo nxnnno); **% ;
(cnnn]nucxn n ncnnn]nucxn npornnonnpycnt cpcrn, nynorpnnx,
]nsnucxn rot nrpo- n nspxorynxnnx, xnpyprnucxo nunn nunx
xpronncrnx n p., nosoxnocrn npornnopnnnnno rpnnn; *;
"'"5'! ' - n]]ysno, ourono, cxnposnpymm
]op; , npnnnnnt n npoonxnrntnocrt
5 cnropno-xypoprno nunn; ; &'! (rnyoxn) xprnr
xnnnnx, n]]pnnnntnt nrnos, nunn, ncxot; . nocnnnn poronnnt
(nxrno, onuxo, nto npocro, ycnoxnenno, pyrn % %
*, % npnnnnnt nunnx; ''+
'' + '0.
@&' ' n ncroxm npx npnnxr xnccn]nxnnx
..onoxonnxo -..pomncxoro, ocnonnnx n nnnn xprnron c yuro +rnonornn,
nrorns n xnnnnucxnx npoxnnnn.
. 3xsornnt xprnrt: 1. 3posnx poronnnt.
2. pnrnucxn xprnrt, oycnonnnnt xnnucxo,
]nsnucxo nnn xnnucxo rpno.
3. n]xnnonnt xprnrt xrpnntnoro nponcxoxnnx.
4. prnrt, ntsnnnt sonnnnxn xontmnxrnnt, nx,
onntx xnes.
5. pnxont xprnrt nnn xpronxost.
F. 3nornnt xprnrt:
1. n]xnnonnt xprnrt:
) ypxynsnt: rrornnt n nnprnucxn;
) n]nnnrnucn;
n) pnrnucxn.
2. ponpnnrnucxn xprnrt.
3. nnrnnosnt xprnrt.
. prnrt nntxcnno +rnonornn.

)' ' ocnontnrcx n ntxnnnnn rnnnuntx xnnnnucxnx
npnsnxon sonnnnx npn:
- cop xno, nns onsnn n xnsnn, nntx o npoxenno-ncncrnnno
nronornn poronnnt, roponntno crryc oprnns;
- ocnonnnn rns, poronnnt roo npyxnoro ocorp, oxonoro ocnmnnx,
nonxpocxonnn. xno snunn nr nccnonnn uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt
(nrsnrpnx) n nnocrnocrn poronnnt c noomtm ]nmopcnnnono npot.
- nopropntx nccnonnnxx (x. nocn ornurx, sx nnn cocxo c
nonpxnocrn xonmnxrnnt, poronnnt nnn nporpccnpymmro xpx xsnt, ornxoro,
nnrn npn xpt - nx onpnnnx nn x. ]nopt, rpnxon n
uyncrnnrntnocrn nx x nrnnornx; nxpocxonnucxnx (nnronornucxnx)
nccnonnnxx nronornucxoro rpnn, oconno npn nnpycntx nopxnnxx;
nponnnn cnnn]nucxnx pxnn - rypxynnnontx npo, R-nornucxoro
ocnonnnx nerxnx; nnns xponn; pxnnn ccpn; nynonornucxnx
nccnonnn npn nnpycntx nponccx - F, , onpyxnn n cnesno
xnxocrn; ourono nnprnucxo npot n n/x nnnn cntx os
npornnorpnrnucxo nxnnnt - n rnnnuntx cnyuxx.
9% "O' O' ' '.
px u nprn x pccorpnnm ucrno nronornn porono oonouxn
nncoopsno ocrnonnrcx n om cnnrornx nx, xoropx xpxrpn nx ctx
psnoopsntx ]op xprnron.
xnmnn "' cnnron npn ncx xprnrx xnnxrcx poronnunt
cnnpo, xoropt nxnmur n cx ontnoro n cnrooxsnt, cnsorunn,
n]pocns. 3ror cnnpo cnxsn xx c pspxnn npnntx oxonunn n co
poronnn, rx n nnnnpntx npnon n pyxno oonoux n nnnnpno rn. po roro,
orurcx uyncrno nnoponoro rn (nx xprnr xpxrpno n xonmmym ont no
npxnn nxo n ono xxo-ro cr). pxy c +rn oryr trt xnot n n
nonnxnn spnnx, uro cnxsno n c npymnn npospunocrn poronnnt, n co
cnrooxsntm n cnsorunn.
nnnmnn O' npnsnxn xprnron xnnxmrcx: npnxopnntnx
(rnyoxx) nnn cmnnx nntxnnx cxnpt, nnnun noyrnnnx n poronnn
(nn]nntrpr 5 ncncrnn nn]nntrpnnn rxnn xnrountn +nnrn), npnue rycxnoro
(rpxr cnom spxntnocrt, ncx) n mpoxonroro (nrnxoro, c ncrtxnno
nonpxnocrtm) - ns-s psnnrnx nocnnnrntnoro orx poronnuno rxnn.
pnxopnntnx nnn rnyoxx nntxnnx oycnonnn pcmnpnn cocyon xpno
nrnncro crn nn. e xnnnnucxn ': noxnnsyrcx noxpyr poronnnt; nnr -
nnnont nnn ]nonront n cocyncrt pncynox e nuerxn (on npcrnnxrcx
n]]ysno, n n npsnnunt cocyt). nyoxx nntxnnx n ncr oxpyxr
poronnny n nn xontn, on oxr pcnonrrtcx n nn orntnoro, ouronoro cxrop n
cxnp.
ournn npnxopnntno nntxnnn c xontmnxrnnntno opsymr cmnnym
nntxnnm.
n]nntrprt oryr trt ctn psnnuntn no nnnunn, ]op, xonnucrny n
noxnnsnnn. nn oryr sxnrtnrt ncm poronnny nnn rontxo ucrt , nnrp nnn
npn]pnm, nonpxnocrnt n rnyoxn cnon poronnnt, uro urxo oxno ycrnonnrt npn
nccnonnnn roo nonxpocxonnn.
nr nn]nntrpr snncnr or xnrounoro cocrn: npn nsnunrntno xonnucrn
nxonnron on nr cpt nnr, npn rnono xpxrp - crnonnrcx xnronrt nnn
snnonrt. pnnnt nn]nntrpr otuno pcnntnurt.
npymnnn npospunocrn poronnnt nxno snunn nmr nsnnnx n
+nnrnnntno noxpon. opntnt cnocrn +nnrnnx poronnnt npymmrcx n ro nnn
nno crnnn nourn npn ncx xprnrx.
n]nntrprt (oconno nonpxnocrnt) ount ucro nonprmrcx pcny,
nstxsnnnnm. nun cnymnnrcx +nnrnn (nosnnxr nonpxnocrnx +posnx), sr
nponcxonr nxpos rxnn c opsonnn xsnt, xoropx n snncnocrn or nnpynnrnocrn
nxpo, omro cocroxnnx ontnoro n npononoro nunnx oxr nrt ct
psnoopsnt xpxrp n psnnuno runn. pn psnnrnn xsnt poronnnt n ]on
xprnr onpnxrcx npymnn nnocrnocrn poronnnt (npn sxntnnnn 1-2
pcrnop ]nmopcnnn ]xr onpyxnnrcx n nn snenoro ouronoro nnn
n]]ysnoro oxpmnnnnx poronnnt +ro
r.n. &1 0. n]nntrpr n oxpmnnrcx!!!
nunrntnx ucrt xprnron, nnpnp, n % (um - nocn rpn
ronont), conponoxmrcx pccrpocrno uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt. pn +ro nnmrcx
cnnxnn uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt n x orcyrcrnn n nopxnno rnsy, rxx -
onpyxnnrcx cnnxnn uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt n n rnsy, n nmm
nnmnnx npnsnxon sonnnnx.
nxoroptx cnyuxx nnmrcx nontmnn uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt, otuno
conyrcrnymm nonpxnocrnt xprnr c npymnn nnocrnocrn +nnrnnx n
pspxnn onxmmnxcx npn +ro npnntx oxonunn poronnnt, rxx npnr,
nnxnnr. cro +ro conponoxrcx psxo ntpxnnt onnt n poronnunt
cnnpon.
nx uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt /0 um ncnontsyrcx
% ro - c noomtm nnxnoro crpnntnoro rnon, ns xoroporo ncxontxo
ntrxnyrtx nnr cnopunnmrcx n ount ronxn xryrnx, xonunxo xoroporo xcmrcx
nonpxnocrn poronnnt n ncxontxnx crx, ntxcnxx npoxnnnn smnrnoro nrrntnoro
p]nxc nx n pspxnn poronnnt. Fon onpnnn uyncrnnrntnocrn
poronnnt nponsnonrcx c noomtm cnnnntntx nonocxon px, nrsnrp
snxoncxoro n p.
7 ' 5 n ontmnncrn cnyun ount rxxno, nnrntno n
pnnnnnpymm.
runn, n ncxot snncxr or rnynnt n nporxxnnocrn nronornucxoro
nponcc n poronnn, nnpynnrnocrn nn]xnnn, rpo]nucxnx cnocrn co poronnnt n
omro cocroxnnx oprnns. pxo npn xprnrx nnmrcx yrpr npnno
rpyocnoconocrn ontnoro n nnrntnt npno (4-6 cxnn n on).
9% ! :
npn nunnn psnnuntx nosonornucxnx ]op xprnron upsntuno nxno snunn
nr npnnntnx nrnocrnx nx n ycrnonnnn +rnonornucxnx ]xropon. cnxsn c r,
uro xprnrt npxo nmr nnrntno runn, nc ontnt c xprnro onxnt
nxonrtcx n crnnonpno nunnn.
unn sonnnn poronnnt npcrnnxr coo rpynym suy. nx ycnmnoro
nunnx xprnron nxno snunn nr n]]pnnnntnx nrnocrnx +nornntx n
+xsornntx xprnron, nn]xnnonntx, nnpycntx, npornntx xprnron n r..
coxnnnm, n ontmnncrn cnyun n npcrnnxrcx nosoxnt ycrnonnrt
+rnonornm xprnron. n n, npn ncx nocnnnrntntx sonnnnxx poronnnt c
nntm tcrpmro xynnponnnx nponcc n npornpmnnx nporpccnponnnx ro onxn
npononrtcx nsnnrntnx rpnnx, corncno omnx xprnron
(r.. n ocrpt npno sonnnnx):
1) +rnorponno xonnxcno (om n crno) nunn: nrnnornxn mnpoxoro cnxrp
crnnx c cynt]nnnnn nnn cnnn]nucxn, npornnonnpycnt, nnn
npornnorpnxont cpcrn n r.. - n/, n/n, no xonmnxrnny, n xnnxx, sxx;
2) nrornrnucxo xonnxcno (om n crno) nunn - cncnnnnsnpymmn
npnprt, ncrponnt npornnonocnnnrntnt cpcrn, nrnonporxropt,
ocorpnnx (rnnpronnucxn pcrnopt n/n xnopncrt xntnn 10, 20-40
rnmxos c nnr , yporponnn 40 n p.); ]nsnonunn conmxc, V, nrpnx,
+nxrpo]ops, yntrpsyx, nnnnucxn roxn, rnn-nonont nsp ();
3) cnnrornucxo nunn: npn noxnnnnn cnnroon ynnr npnrnxn crno
(rponnn n ro nnorn) nx npo]nnxrnxn ro ocnoxnnn (snnx cnnxn), no
noxsnnx ropont (npn nnnunn +posnn nnn xsnt ); npn
oxpmnnnnn poronnnt - cpcrn ynyummmn rpo]nxy n +nnrnnsnnm poronnnt
(conxnoxncnt xnnnn 1, nnrpnt 0,01, onnnxono cno, xn conxocpnn nnn
xronrnn 20; rymnponnn xsnt 1 cnnpront pcrnopo pnnnnnronoro snenoro,
5 p-po o nnn 10-20 p-po cynt]r nnnx); nonoxnnont noxt
(npnnsntnt n npnopnrntnt); nunnx xpno- nnn
nrpoxorynxnnx nporpccnpymmro xpx xsnt; npn rnnonnon npotnnn
npn xpt pcrnopo nrnnornxon; npn yrpos npoonnx (cnronn)
nunx nocnonx xpronncrnx.
(.! '! ' 3 nosnnxr npn nocnnnrntntx sonnnnxx nx,
nx onntx xnes n xonmnxrnnt. pononnpymmnn ]xropn x psnnrnm nponcc
oryr trt nxporpnt, pspymmm crnn roxcnnon xonmnxrnnntnoro cxpr,
srxnynmncx xonmnxrnnnrt, npymnn nnrnnx poronnnt (y noxnntx). nnnnx: n ]on
poronnunoro cnnpo no xpm poronnnt noxnnxmrcx n srnt cpt nonpxnocrnt
rouunt nn]nntrprt (noyrnnnx), xoropt npn cnonpnno nunnn tcrpo
pccctnmrcx s cn, s nro cnnnmrcx n cnnomno xpno nonynynnt
nn]nntrpr, cxnonnt x rnyoxoy nsxsnnnnm, c onntno ncxynxpnsnn, no npn +ro
onro n sxnnmr. xo nponcc nnu nstnmr '! ! nponcc
nxnt, npoonxnrntnt. ynnnn ocrnnxr onontno rpyo noyrnnn, no n cnxsn co
cno noxnnsnn ono n nnnxr n spnn. unn nnpnnno n ycrpnnn npnunnt
sonnnnx n corncyrcx c omnn npnnnnnn nunnx xprnron.
G 3 ''+ + '+
+ ..
pn noroopsnx xprnron +xsornnoro nponcxoxnnx scnyxnnr ocooro nnnnnx
" ! , xoropx oconno ucro ncrpurcx y nc n
nnnrnncxo oncrn n npxo npnnonr x nnnnnnocrn. opnonmnnonno npx
nonsyux xsn oconno ucro nnmnct y xpcrtxn no npx yopxn n onortt xn
ncncrnn nonpxnnx poronnnt cononnxo, crntxn cn, ocrtxn snxon n p. 3ro
no nono cunrrt, uro rxo xprnr xnnxrcx no cymcrny npo]ccnonntnt
sonnnn snntnn.
osynrn nonsyu xsnt poronnnt cunrrcx nnnoxoxxonx nn]xnnx. nunrntno
px - nnnonnnn opxc-xcn]nt, crpnroxoxx, cr]nnoxoxx.
onsyux xsn nosnnxr rontxo nocn nxporpn poronnnt, xoropt nopo ncrontxo
nsnunrntnt, uro ontnt, npxo n nnnncxn pornnxn, n npnmr n ocooro
snunnx. onpxnn +nnrnnx poronnnt ntstnrcx nxnn nnopontn rnn (n
nponsnocrn n n try), npnnnn nrnxn pn, cyxnn nncrtxn, cononnxo, cno n
p.
nx nosnnxnonnnx nonsyu xsnt xpo nonpxnocrno rpnt, noxono rxx
nponnxnonnnx nn]xnn n pny poronnnt. osynrnt nn]xnn pxo nponnxr n pny c
cn nonpxmmn nnopont rno. ontmnncrn cnyun (50) ncrounnxo
nn]xnnn xnnxmrcx xontmnxrnnt n cnesnt nyrn, oconno npn nnnunn rnonoro
nocnnnnx cnsnoro mx (xpnonncrnr).
onnnn nunnrcx ocrpo c noxnnnnx xpxrpnoro poronnunoro cnnpo.
poronnn, um ncro n nnrp, noxnnxrcx cponro-xnrt nn]nntrpr, xoropt ncxop
pcnrcx n npnpmrcx n xsny nonynynno nnn ncxonnno ]opt c rnono-
nn]nntrpnponnnt no n c xpxrpnt nno xpen: onn xp xsnt ( prpccnpymmn
xp) ounmrcx crnonnrcx rnxn n noxptnrcx +nnrnn, npornnononoxnt xp
(nporpccnpymmn) - psxo nn]nntrpnponn, npnnonxr nnnxo, nnncr n xsno n
noptr n nn xpn. oronnn noxpyr +roro xpx nn]nntrpnponn n n]]ysno yrnx.
porpccnpymmn xp tcrpo pcnpocrpnxrcx, nonser no nonpxnocrn poronnnt n n
runn 3-5 n ncx poronnn crnonnrcx nn]nntrpnponnno n pcnnnnnno.
pxo xsn pcnpocrpnxrcx n rontxo no nonpxnocrn, no n nrnyt, ocrnrr sn
norpnnuno pnt (cnrono oonouxn). 3r pn ycrounn x nnrnucxoy
crnnm nn]xnnn n n nonprrcx pcnnnnnnm. o no noscrnn nnyrpn rnsnoro
nnnnx on pcrxrnnrcx n n oncrn pspymnno crpot noxnnxrcx nystpx upnoro
nnr (cnronnn). osnnxr yrpos npoonnx, xoropo oxr ncrynnrt npn
nm nnnnnnnn n rnsno xnoxo, nryxnnnnn, unxnnn, copxnnn n r..
cxynxpnsnnx poronnnt npn nonsyu xsn orcyrcrnyr nnn ount cno ntpxn.
tuno, yx n npnt nn sonnnnx n nponcc nonnxrcx pyxnx oonoux n
nnnnpno rno n psyntrr crnnx roxcnnon, nponnxmmnx nrnyt rns ups poronnny.
Fonn n rnsy psxo npcrmr, nnr pyxno oonouxn nsnxrcx, spuox cyxnnrcx n
ncusmr ro pxnnn, npn pcmnpnnn spux npnrnxn onpyxnnrcx
nnpnnntnx ro ]op (]cronurx) ns-s opsonnnx snnx cnnxn.
x cncrnn psnnrnx rnonoro nocnnnnx nnnnpnoro rn (rnonoro nnxnnr),
noxnnxrcx rnont +xccyr n n npn xpt (rnnonnon), cocroxmn ns ]npnn
n nxonnron. o on ocrrcx crpnntnt o rx nop, nox n nponsor npoonnx xsnt.
nun rnnonnon nr nn xnro nonocxn (n nn ropnsonrntnoro yponnx) n n
xpt. Fyyun xnxn, rno npmrcx npn nsnnnn nonoxnnx ronont ontnoro.
ntnm, nnor ount tcrpo, xonnucrno +xccyr ynnnunnrcx, ncncrnn
cnprtnnnx ]npnn rno crnonnrcx nxsxn n npnpmrcx n nnnxy, cnxnnym c sn
nonpxnocrtm poronnnt.
nor tcrpo ncrynr np]opnnx xsnt ncncrnn nnrnucxoro crnnx rnnonnon
n +nnrnn n cnrony oonouxy. ocn np]opnnn xsnt otuno ncrynr ounmnn
n ntsoponnnn, no c opsonnn nt poronnnt (nxot), cnxnno c pyxxo
nnn ynnomnn poronnnt, nnn opsonnn cr]nnot. pxo psnnnrcx nropnunx
rnyxo, xoropx npnnonr x yunrntnt onx, ncncrnn uro npnxonrcx npnrrt x
onprnnnoy nunnm e, npn n+]]xrnnnocrn x +nyxnnnn (ynnnm rnsnoro
xnox).
nxoroptx cnyuxx nocn npoonnx xsnt nn]xnnx nponnxr nnyrpt rns n
ntstnr +no]rntnr (rnono nocnnnn crxnonnnoro rn), nno]rntnr - rnono
nocnnnn ncx oonoux rns. pn +ro nosnnxr noxonocrt n +nnnpnnn (ynnnn
ncro copxnoro) rnsnoro xnox. nn nponcc sxnunnrcx rpo]n rns.
unn ontntx c nonsyu xsno poronnnt onxno npononrcx n crnnonp. o
nunnx noxono nponcrn xrpnonornucxo nccnonnn cocxo c xsnt poronnnt n
onpnnnx uyncrnnrntnocrn x nrnnornx. nxo, n oxnx psyntrr nccnonnnx,
nsnumrcx, corncno npnnnnn nunnx xprnron, - nrnnornxn mnpoxoro cnxrp
crnnx: nnnnnnnnn, crpnronnnn, rnrnnnn, nnxnocnopnnt nnn p., noscrnymmn
n cr]nnoxoxxn, cnnrnonym nnouxy n pyrym rnoponym ]nopy (nonnnn 0,1 n 1 xr
nc 6 ps n nt, nonnnxcnn no 250.000 4 ps n nt, ononnnn no 250.000 4-6 ps
n nt, op]onnxnnn n p). nonpnno rxx nsnumr nnyrpt npnprt
rrpnnxnnnonoro px, nnonnnrnn. :-6 ps n nt nncrnnnxnnn 30 pcrnop
ntynn, pcrnop nnnnnnnnn (10.000 n 1 n), sxntnnnx 1-2,5 cnnronnnnono
+yntcnn, 30 ntynnno sn. oxno ncnontsonrt nnrpo]ypnont npnprt: pcrnop
]ypsonnn 1:3000, xoropt npxo onr x on cnntnt nunt +]]xro, u
ntynn - 6 ps n nt, ononpnno rxx nsnumr nnyrpt ]ypsonnon no 0,1 4 ps n
nt. xonyrcx nsnurt npornnorpnxont npnprt crno: pcrnop nncrrnn
100.000 n 1 n, ]orpnnnn 3-5 r n 1 n ncr. not n p.
ncroxm npnx npnnnn nxoxr n ]nsnuxn rot nunnx xsnt
poronnnt (nrpoxorynxnnx xsnt, cxpn]nxnnx e n c nocnymmn npnxnrnn 5
cnnprono ncroxn o, xpnorpnnx n xpnoxorynxnnx xsnt, nspxorynxnnx).
uc noxnnnnct nosoxnocrn xoncpnrnnnoro ounmnnx xsn c noomtm
]pnron. conno xopomn +]]xr oxstnr 5 nonyux ns
noxnyouno xnst xpynnoro cxor. 3ror ]pnr cnocon pcmnnxrt nonnnnrnt
nxpornsnponnntx rxn, oxport, ]npnnosntx ornoxnn, cnnsn n, r ct,
psxnxnrt nx, uro cnococrnyr ounmnnm xsnt. po roro, -s onr n
npornnonocnnnrntnt crnn. opomox -st nnocxr n xsny 1 ps n nt.
nonpnno npnnxmr n p nnt nunnx.
pnnxrcx rxx n p ]pnr nporonnrnucxoro crnnx - ( 1
nyn cyxoro npnpr pcrnopxmr n 3-5 n ]ns. pcrnop). onnrns n rontxo
cnococrnyr ounmnnm xsnt poronnnt n yntmnnm nocnnnrntno pxnnn, no n
npynpxr opsonnnm nt poronnnt, r.x on spxnnr
xonnrnopsonnn n oncrn nocnnnnx. onnrns onr ysxocnnn]nucxo
cnoconocrtm npnpnrt xonnrn. ronx nunnx sxnmurcx n nncrnnnxnnn
pcrnopon psnnuno xonnnrpnnn (1 nyn cyxoro npnpr n 3-5 n ]nsn pcrnop, 4-5
ps n nt). Vx ups 1-3 cyrox nnmrcx srno ounmnn xsnt, yntmnn
nocnnnrntntx xnnnn.
nrnnornxn n ]pnrt oxno nnonrt c noomtm +nxrpo]ops. Xopomn
+]]xr er n nn sn (32 nnst n 20,0 rrpnnxnnnono nnn pyro rnsno
sn).
pn conyrcrnymm nsnumr npnrnxn, npn -
onprnnno nunn.
noxnn nonxsxn npornnonoxsno. sn e pxonyrcx snncx nnn crx.
cnn rnnonnon snnr snunrntnym ucrt npn xpt n n pccctnrcx no
nnnxnn nunnx, ro npnrmr x ncxptrnm npn xpt, c npotnnn ]ns.
pcrnopo c nnnnnnnnno.
nxoroptx cnyuxx, xor xoncpnrnnno nunn n+]]xrnnno n xsn tcrpo
nporpccnpyr xx no nonpxnocrn, rx n nrnyt, npnrmr x nuno nocnono
xpronncrnx.
(&''. xnm po npynpxnnx nonsyu xsnt poronnnt
xnnxrcx: 1) npo]nnxrnx rnsntx nonpxnn n nponsnocrno n cntcxo xosxcrn; 2)
cpouno oxsnn noomn npn nmnx nonpxnnxx poronnnt (ntynn, sn ns
nrnnornxon); 3) cnonpnno nunn xontmnxrnnnron n xpnonncrnron.
cnn n runn 1-2 cyrox ynyumnn or ynropnoro nunnx n ncrynr, rpyrcx
nnpnnxrt n crnnonpno nunn.
B' ' 3 ount ucrt (rpnc xnnxrcx npnunno psnnrnx xprnr y
50 nspocntx n 70-80 r nocn rpnn, , rxx n ]on crponno rpnnn),
nmr psnnunt npoxnnnnx n snncnocrn or nn nnpyc, crnnn crnoro n
omro nynnrr, npnconnnnx nropnuno nn]xnnn, nunnx. pxnn nnpyco
rpnc nponcxonr n pnn rcrn nn]nnnponnno cnmno ponrn (xonrxrno-
tront nyre) nnn ups npxnn txrntnt nyrn (nosymno-xnntnt nyre), nnn
ups xpont rpn (rrornno). npyc nxonrcx n pnnoncnn c nrnrnn, n ntstnx
sonnnnx nox n ycnnnrcx ro nnpynnrnocrt. ro xrnnnnx n cnnxnn
conpornnnxocrn oprnns nponcxonr no nnnxnn rxnx ]xropon, xx nnxopouno
cocroxnn npn psnnuntx nn]xnnxx, oxnxnn, +onnonntnt crpcct, nxnnnnnx,
nprpnnn, yntrp]nonrono onyunn, npo+noxpnnnt cnnrn p., rpnt n x
nxporpnt rns onnnn nr xpxrp cncrnoro nopxnnx (xoxn, cnnsncrtx
oonoux, , nunn, rns).
nnnnucxn sonnnn nporxr n nn 2-yx ]op rpnc (n ]on
orcyrcrnnx n oprnns nrnrn x nnpycy) n (npn nnnunn nxoroporo
xonnucrn nrnrn nocn nn]nnnponnnx). ocnnpnnunt rpnc poronnnt nnmrcx
npnymcrnnno y n nospcr or 5 c. o 5 nr, runn ocrpo, nnrntno, rxxeno.
osnnxr n ]on npocrynoro sonnnnx n conponoxrcx nystptxontn ntctnnnxn
n xox, xptntxx noc, ryx, cnnsncrtx oonouxx, nporxr c ntpxnnt poronnunt
cnnpoo, nponnn npnxopnntno nnxnnn, c nonnop]nt noyrnnn
poronnnt, ornxno nsnunrntno. onpxnocrnt ]opt ncrpumrcx px,
nponr rnyoxn rrpnrnucxn xprnr c xnnnnxn npnonnxnnr.
ocnnpnnunt rpnc ncrpurcx um y r nocn 3-ex nr n y nspocntx n ]on
cnoro npornnorpnrnucxoro nynnrr. r noocrpo runn, n nnrntno (2-
3 n), um nporxr n nn pnonnnoro nnn rrpnrnucxoro xprnr,
ncxynxpnsnnn n tnr, otuno, poronnunt cnnpo nsnunrntnt. osoxnt
pnnnnt, no pnccnn npoonxmrcx o ro. osnnxr um ocntm n sno.
pnrnucxn xprnrt ornnumrcx xpxrpntn ]opn nn]nntrpron: npn
nponccx - n nn noxcrn nxnx cptx roux (noyrnnn) n
poronnn (nsnxynesnt nnn nystptxont xprnr) nnn nrouxn (pnonnnt xprnr),
npn n nn xpyr, ncx (ncxonnnt xprnr) nnn nnonxrno ]opt
(rrpnrnucxn nnn eonnnt, nnn nnxproopsnt xprnr), nosoxno
psnnrn xproynnr (sxonopno nonnunn n nocnnnrntnt nponcc cocyncro
oonouxn pyxxn, nnnnpnoro rn, xopnonn), sr n prnnnr, n onrnucxoro
nnpnr. poncc um onocroponnn, s ntpxnnoro ornxoro ns
xonmnxrnnntno nonocrn n nnxnnn rns, pnnnnnpymmn, conponoxrcx
ynnnunn prnonpntx nn]oysnon n cnnxnn uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt.
prnr, ntsnnnt nnpyco onoxctnmmro nnmx ( herpes corea oser ) nosnnxr npn
nopxnnn 1-o nrnn rponnunoro npn c nonnunn nsonnnnpnoro npn. poxnnxrcx
cnntntn nnpnrnucxnn onxn n oncrn psnrnnnnx +ro nrnn; psxn n nnrntnt
cnnxnn uyncrnnrntnocrn poronnnt; ntctn nystptxon n nx, xox n n poronnn n
nn nonpxnocrntx rouuntx nnn rnyoxnx ncxonnntx noyrnnn, orymnx
nsxsnnxrtcx. nponcc nonnxrcx pyxx, nnnnpno rno, n npn xp noxnnxrcx
xpont; nosnnxmr +nncxnpnrt, cxnpnrt, ynnrt, nnpnrt, npnnun rnsonnrrntntx
tmn n, xx nocnymm ocnoxnnn nropnunx rnyxo. onro ocrmrcx
nnpnrnucxn onn, cnnxrcx spnn ns-s rpyoro noyrnnnx poronnnt. unn xx
npn rpnrnucxnx xprnrx n nx ocnoxnnnxx.
cnoxnnnx, ncxot, npornos n npo]nnxrnx xx npn ncx xprnrx. nrnocrnx
sonnnn ocnontnrcx n xnnnnucxo nnmnnn, nxpocxonnucxnx
nccnonnnxx oxpmnntx sxon n cocxoon xonmnxrnnt n poronnnt,
nynonornucxnx nccnonnn npn nnpycntx nponccx - F, , onpyxnn
n cnesno xnxocrn; ourono nnprnucxo npot n n/x nnnn cntx os
npornnorpnrnucxo nxnnnt - n rnnnuntx cnyuxx; conpnnt ro .
unn coornrcrnyr npnnnnn nunnx ncx xprnron, no
1) ns +rnorponntx npnpron ncnontsymrcx npornnonnpycnt cpcn - n xnnxx
nnrp]pon, V 0,1 nnn xpnn, nnrp]ponornt - rnoynnnt, nonyn,
nnpornn n p.
2) ynorpnnx npnnxmrcx unonucxn nnrp]pon (ucrnt sxntnnnx);
nnrp]ponornt - nonyn, nnpornn nyr nncrnnnxnnn n os
100-300 n 1n n noxonmnxrnnntntx nnxnn; r-rnoynnnt (n/, no
xonmnxrnny) n yroctnoporx xponn. pn ucrtx pnnnnx, ynopno runnn
nosoxnt npornnopnnnnnt xypct nxnnnorpnnn n npno pnccnn.
2) rornrnucxx rpnnx npnnxrcx xpronncrnucxn, npornnoorunt cpcrn,
nnrnnt, oconno rpynnt , nonoxnn nncrnnnxnnn, npnnsntnt n
npnopnrntnt noxt.
3) nnrornucxx rpnnx xynnponnn xnnnn pspxnnx cocyncro oonouxn,
npornpmnn nropnuno nn]xnnn; prnpnpymmx rpnnx.
4) Xnpyprnucxo nunn. pn n+]]xrnnnocrn xoncpnrnnnoro nunnx (nnrntnocrt
sonnnnx 1-2 cxn, psncrnrnocrt nosynrnx x npornnonnpycnt cpcrn,
rnyoxo nopxnn nnrpntntx ornon poronnnt c nnn spnnx o 0,2 n nnx,
ucrt pnnnnt) npnrmr x xnpyprnucxoy nunnm. t npocrt ns nnx npn
nonpxnocrntx ]opx rpnrnucxoro xprnr xnnxrcx cocxnnnnn nopxnnoro
+nnrnnx c nocnymm oporxo +rnx yucrxon oo, +]npo. pn rnyoxnx
]opx nponcc nponsnonrcx xpronncrnx nocnonx n cxnosnx.
7"'" ' nopsnxmrc n r "%
*/% xprnr crno npoxnnnn cncnnnnsnnn oprnns n
nnpxynnpymmn n xponn npoyxrt on nxoxrpn rypxynes n rrornnt
rnyoxn xprnr. pnt oxr psnnnrtcx n ncncrnn nnocpcrnnnoro npxo
nponcc c xonmnxrnnt, cnnsncro noc n xoxn nnn. m ncrpurcx n nospcr 3-
15 nr ncncrnn ry. nnroxcnxnnn, no oxr nnmrtcx n y nspocntx n ]on x
nxrnnnoro / / n npn]pnucxnx (n r.u. ponxnntntx)
*8 nnnnucxn xpxrpno nuno, (rn npxuyrcx n
reno yrny, npxuyr nnno n noymxy), ucro - nsxnnnn. n]nntrpr 6*7
xpxrpno ornnurcx or nn]nntrpron poronnnt pyro +rnonornn: noyrnnn nr
]opy, x (xnocr xort), noxnnsyrcx nnun y
nn (onn xpynnt our nnn ncxontxo nxnx), no sr
- cropony poronnnt (nyxmmx ]nnxrn), nrxrnnx s coo cocyt n
ntstnx ncxynxpnsnnm poronnnt. 3ro, n cnom oupt, nr x ]opnponnnm
% n poronnn8 unn n crnnonp oxono
cxn. oxonn crporo conmnn nrt, nnrnnorpnnx , , . ponnmn
nonxr ncnncpnsnnn.
rornnt ]opt / xprnr npoxnnxmrcx n 3-ex ]opx
n]]ysnoro, ouronoro n cxnposnpymmro xprnr. nnnnx ** 9
nono omnx nx xprnron cnnroon ornnurcx ** noyrnnn poronnnt, n
rnyoxnx cnoxx e onpyxnnmrcx xnronro-cpt ourn; ncxynxpnsnnx ypnnx,
cmnnx. opxrcx, xx npnnno, onn rns; runn nnrntno, pnnnnnpymm,
ups 2-4 c. noxnnxrcx cmnnx ncxynxpnsnnx; ncxo nnronpnxrnt r.x.
opsyrcx rpyo nnorno noyrnnn. #% (% *
) ncrpurcx nnon ucro, npxo psnnnrcx n ]on ]nnxrnynesnoro
xprnr, npncnnoro n rcrn. oyrnnn pcnonrrcx n rnyoxnx cnoxx poronnnt,
ncxynxpnsnn nsnunrntnx. pn nronpnxrno runnn nn]nntrpr pccctnrcx,
px nxpornsnpyrcx c nsxsnnnn. :% xprnr psnnnrcx npn
nnnunn rnyoxoro cxnpnr. n]nntrpnnx (noyrnnn) nosnnxr cnun y nn n
orpnnunno yucrx, sr pcnpocrpnxrcx x nnrpy n nn xstx nnn nonynynnx.
sxsnnnn n nosnnxr, ncxynxpnsnnx cnx nnn orcyrcrnyr. unn nnrntno,
pnnnnnpymm; npornos nnronpnxrnt r.x. n . nn]nntrpnnx smrcx
pyno ]p]opo-noro nnr (nnurnnn nnnrnnx n poronnny cxnpt); ucro
nonnxrcx pyxx n nnnnpno rno c ]opnponnn snnx cnnxn n ronnocnnxn,
nymnx x psnnrnm nropnuno rnyxot. xx ]op xprnr oxr nosnnxnyrt n npn
cn]nnnc, pnrns, norp.
) ' +nornntx rcrrnucxnx xprnron (nn]xnnonntx, nnpycntx, n
npornntx xprnron n r..) no npononrt coornrcrnymmn cnnn]nucxn
nccnonnnx (noxnnm xponn, R, p. nry, R-rp]nm nerxnx n r..) n xoncyntrnponrt
c coornrcrnymmnn cnnnnncrn. t ocronpnt nrnocrnucxn xpnrpn
cnyxnr ouronx pxnnx n nopxenno rnsy n cnnn]nucxn rnr (ynnnunn
noyrnnn, ycnnnn +xcynnn, nnnnn, ncxynxpnsnnn n r..).
< nnpnnno n ocnonno sonnnn (nnor o ro), ntop pxn om
rpnnn ocymcrnnxr ]rnsnrp (pnnonntnym cxy cournnx npnpron I n II px,
nnrntnocrt xypconoro nunnx, cpox nponnnx nonropnoro xypc c yuero nynnoro
crryc nnnnr, pxn nnrnnx, nry c orpnnunn conn n yrnnoon,
noxonocrt n nnrntnocrt xnnrorpnnn, cnropno-xypoprnoro nunnx).
]rntonor ocymcrnnxr crnym rpnnm ( nncrnnnxnnn 3 rysn nnn 5
cnmsn, nnn crpnronnnn-xnopxntnnnoro xonnxc 50.000 n 1 n. ncr.not,
sxntnnn 5-10 sn nnn nnrnnntx s, nnn 20 xronrnn;
xoprnxocrpont n xnnxx sxx n no xonmnxrnny n uponnnn nx ups nt c
cnmsno 5). ocrntno npnnnnnt nunnx - omn nx ncx xprnron.
$&'! ' 6% %7
pcnnnnrcx xx nosn npoxnnnn -/ *8 osnnxr otuno n 6-20
nr, pxo n cpn n noxnno nospcr, nnor ups 2-3 noxonnnx. y conyrcrnymr
pyrn npoxnnnnx npoxennoro cn]nnnc: rrunnconont syt, cnonnnt noc, psxo
ntcrynmmn nont yrpt, cnoopsnt pynt y xptntn noc n yrnon pr, cnnnnt
ronnn, orcyrcrnn unnnoro orpocrx, ryosnt ocronnnrt, rnyxor. non
rnnnun npnxnrosnt xprnr, nsnnnx syon n rnyxor.
Xpxrpntn oconnocrxn xprnr xnnxmrcx: nnxnnunocrt, nycroponnocrt
nopxnnx, ucro nonnunn cocyncroro rpxr, orcyrcrnn pnnnnon n
ornocnrntno nronpnxrnt ncxo. runn ntnxmr 3 npno: I *
(co cnontpxnnt poronnunt cnnpoo, noxnnnn n crpo y nn
nn]nntrpron n nn roux, ueproux, mrpnxon cponro-noro nnr, c yronmnn
onrnucxoro cps poronnnt n nocrnnnt pcnpocrpnnn no nc poronnn;
nnrcx 3-4 n.; II (c npcrnn onn n rnsy, cmnno nnxnn
cxnpt, cnrnro, npcrnn cocyon n poronnny, npnmmnx nn
ncnxro xc, psxn nnn spnnx n nonnunn n nponcc cocyncroro rpxr - c
npnro, cntntn npnnnnrrn, xopnonnro; nnrcx 6-8 n.; n III x
(prpccnnnt npno) c yntmnn pspxnnx, nnxnnn cxnpt n orex
poronnnt, pccctnnn nn]nntrpnnn, nunnmmcx or nn x nnrpy,
ncusnonnn cxnox cnrono oonoun n npnnnnrron, snycrnnn cocyon n
npocnrnnn poronnnt; nnrcx 1-2 ro. cnocrnnno nsxsnnnn.
pn / cn]nnnc xprnr pox, co cntn cnnron, otuno
onocroponnn, ncxynxpnsnnx n npnr um orcyrcrnymr, nponcc oxr crnxnyrt n
]on nunnx, n ocrnnn cn. xo - oxr nosnnxnyrt *4 ry
pcnonrrcx n rnyoxnx cnoxx, ocnoxnxrcx xsno n npnonnxnnro.
unn nnpnnno n ocnonno sonnnn, crnnonpno, ntop pxn om
rpnnn ocymcrnnxr nnponor n nunnr c npnpron o (3 n.), sr n/
noxnnon no 2 n u/s nt o cypno ost 25 n., nocn nrnnornxn
nnnnnnnnnonoro px o 14-16 n. ]rntonor nsnur crno nunn (or 18 c. o
2 nr, coornrcrnnno crcrnnnoy xoy sonnnnx) n coornrcrnn c nx
ncx xprnron npnnnnnn nunnx; ns +rnorponntx cpcrn: nnnnnnnnn no
xonmnxrnny, nrornrnucxym rpnnm - xoprnxocrpont (ntn osn) - n xnnxx,
sxx, no xonmnxrnny nnn npyntpno; ]nsnonunn; nnr. 1, , D; oxsrnn
xonrpont ; npn coxpnnnn croxnx noyrnnn poronnnt, cnnxmmnx spnn o
0,1-0,3 noxsn xpronncrnx.
. - nn]nntrprt porono oonouxn nprpnnmr psnnunt nsnnnx:
nontmn nonpxnocrnt noyrnnnx, n sxnrtnmmn oynono oonouxn, oryr
nonnocrtm pccocrtcx; crpo oxr nonnocrtm noccrnonnrt cnom npospunocrt, cnn
on tn * xnrountn +nnrn. pn + oynono oonouxn
- nonnoro noccrnonnnnx npospunocrn n ncrynr; crpo, cnn nonprnct nxposy,
rox yrnr r.x. our smrcx connnrntno rxntm, pyno. cncrnn +roro
opsymrcx croxn noyrnnnx, psnnunt no nctmnnocrn n no nporxxnnocrn.
pxrnucxo snunn nmr noyrnnnx, xoropt pcnonrmrcx n onrnucxo son
poronnnt (n nnrp, npornn spux), r x nsnunrntnt noyrnnnx orpxmrcx n
spnnn.
snnumr 3 rnn noyrnnn poronnnt (xx nocnnnrntntx, rx n pynontx):
nnon cno ntpxnno noyrnnn nstnrcx ' (nyxyn), on nctmnno
- (xyn), nnon nnrncnnno no - (nxo). nn oryr snnrt
xx ncm poronnny, rx n ucrt . nrnocrnx xxoro ns rnnon noyrnnn: onuxo
npn npyxno ocorp n nnno, no onpnxrcx npn oxono ocnmnnn; xyn
onpnxrcx npn npyxno ocorp, npn oxono ocnmnnn - ups ne
npocrpnnmrcx rnyxnxmn crpyxrypt rns (npnxx xp; nnr, pncynox
pyxxn; spuox); nxo - onpnxrcx npn npyxno ocorp, npn oxono
ocnmnnn - ups ne nnn n npocrpnnmrcx rnyxnxmn crpyxrypt rns, nnn
onpnxrcx rontxo xonryp spux. xo nopsnxrcx n npocrym n ocnoxnennym
(cnxnnym c pyxxo); ucrnunym n rorntnym; nnrpntnym n npn]pnucxym.
cronuennx nxo oxr pcrxrnnrtcx n ntnxunnrtcx, nstnxct cr]nnoo poronnnt
(ucrnuno nnn nonno) n nxx ]opy poronnnt.
uncny rxxntx nocncrnn xprnron ornocnrcx ynnomnn ]opt poronnnt
(nnnnnnx), xoropo psnnnrcx nocn omnpntx xsn e.
]opnnn poronnnt nnxyr psnnrn + xoropt
rpyr xnpyprnucxoro nunnx.
9 xprnron: nonnunn n nponcc cocyncroro rpxr c psnnrn
npnonnxnnr, +no]rntnr, nnynnr. cnn n nponcc nonnxrcx pyxnx oonoux n
nnnnpno rno, ro sonnnn oxr sxonunrtcx rpo]n n rontxo npnro orn, no
n ncro rnsnoro xnox ( ]rnsnc yntn).
poonn xsnt poronnnt ner x cyrpo]nn n rpo]nn rnsnoro xnox (r..
rnnn rns). po roro, npn npoonnn xsnt (nnn npn poronnuntx pnnnxx) n
]xr poronnnt ntnr pyxx n cpcrrcx c xpxn poronnuno pnt, n ncxo
opsyrcx nto, cpmenno c pyxno oonouxo, npymmm nnpxynxnnm
nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn n ntstnmm nontmnn (r.. nropnunym rnyxoy), xoropx
npnnonr x pcrxrnnnnm n ncronunnm nt c opsonnn cr]nnot poronnnt,
xoropx oxr trt ucrnuno nnn nonno n nr nn ntnxunnmmrocx mp cnnnoro
nnr. pyro cropont, nxonncnponnno nontmnn nnyrpnrnsnoro nnnnx ner
x rpo]nn spnrntnoro npn, cnonnnnm n noprno cnnor. oxr
opsonrtcx ]ncryn poronnnt (ncncrnn ymnnnx pyxno oonouxn n
np]opnnonno ornpcrnn), uro npnxrcrnyr psnnrnm pyn. nnun ]ncrynt
npcrnnxr ontmym oncnocrt nnny nosoxnoro nponnxnonnnx ups ne nn]xnnn
nsnn nrnyt rns n ro rnnn.
pn xprnrx oxr nnmrtcx ncxynxpnsnnx (noxnnnn cocyon n poronnn).
onoopsonnn cocyon n poronnn oycnonnno npcrnn n ne xontmnxrnnntntx
cocyon (nonpxnocrnx ncxynxpnsnnx) nnn rnyoxnx ( +nncxnpntntx n cxnpntntx)
cocyon rnyoxx ncxynxpnsnnx. x '' ': nonpxnocrnx
ncxynxpnsnnx xpxrpnsyrcx xpxo-xpcno oxpcxo; pcnonoxnn cocyon no
+nnrnn n nonpxnocrntx cnoxx poronnnt, cnoono npocnxnnrcx npxo cocyon c
xontmnxrnnt n poronnny; xo cocyon nsnnnnnncrt, onn pnonnno nrnxrcx n
ncroosnpymr xy coo.
pn rnyoxo ncxynxpnsnnn poronnnt cocyt pcnonrmrcx n cpnnx n
rnyoxnx cnoxx crpot, no+roy onn nnoxo psnnunt n nmr n xpxym xopnunnrym
oxpcxy. ccnpocrpnxxct n % rxnn poronnnt, rnyoxn cocyt n nrnxrcx, nmr
npxonnnnt xo n nn xncroux, renoux n meroux. ps nnpospunym
+nncxnpy rnyoxn cocyt n nnnt, no+roy y nn onn xx t optnmrcx, n nx
npoonxnnx n xonmnxrnn. nx psnnuntx xprnron xpxrpn nonpxnocrnx
ncxynxpnsnnx, nx pyrnx rnnnun rnyoxx. nnun n poronnn n nonpxnocrntx, n
rnyoxnx cocyon cnnrntcrnyr o cmnno ncxynxpnsnnn.
ponnxnonnn cocyon n poronnny pccrpnnrcx xx smnrnx pxnnx n
sonnnn. o ntpxnnm .. pomncxoro, +ro xpnx poronnnt o noomn, rx xx orx
n nn]nntrpnnx n poronnn npymmr e nnrnn, ncrynr nocrrox xncnopo,
nnrnnon, nncrnn, rnmrrnon n p. noxontx nmcrn. o+roy um ncro
ncxynxpnsnnx poronnnt nnmrcx n nporpccnpymmn npno xprnr. nxo,
npxo cocyt opsymrcx n n nponcc oprnoro psnnrnx sonnnnx, xor
nocnnnrntnt nn]nntrpr smrcx rpnynxnnonno rxntm.
xn opso, xprnron n ontmnncrn cnyun oxr trt ount cptsnt
ornocnrntno spnrntntx ]ynxnnn, rxx n ornocnrntno coxpnnocrn rns, xx
oprn, n c xocrnucxo rouxn spnnx.
)&&! noxono npononrt xy nocnnnrntnt (cnxn) n
pynont (yx sxonunnt) nponcco n poronnn. x nocnnnrntnx nn]nntrpnnx,
rx n pynont nsnnnx npymmr npospunocrt poronnnt n ntstnmr e noyrnnnx.
nx nocnnnrntnoro nponcc xpxrpn % 5
;, cpt nnn xnrt nnr our, nurxocrt, pcnntnurocrt rpnnn,
n spxntnocrn n noyrnnn, + n ncrtxnnocrt ro
nonpxnocrn.
nx pynnoro noyrnnnx xpxrpnt npnsnxon pspxnnx, r..
, % ;& n spxntnocrn n
oncrn noyrnnnx poronnnt, xoropo nr urxn rpnnnt, nt nnn cnrx
ronyonrt nnr n nonpxnocrt.
n]]pnnnntnt nrnos nr oconno nxno snunn npn pnnnnnpymmnx
sonnnnxx poronnnt, npn xoroptx n ]on nmmnxcx crptx (pynontx) noyrnnn
poronnnt nmrcx nont nocnnnrntnt ourn (nn]nntrprt).
po roro, y ontntx npnxonrcx n]]pnnnponrt xonmnxrnnnr n rnsy c
nto or xprnr, npnonnxnnr or xprnr.
pnnntnx nrnocrnx xprnron nr nxno snunn nx ntop xnrnoro
ro nunnx.
< . '.
occrnonnnn npospunocrn poronnnt, nosnpmnn spnnx, norpxnnoro
ncncrnn nt, pnnsonnnx n ncroxm npx ur cnntx n oxynncron.
pn noyrnnnxx poronnnt, oconno n cnxnx cnyuxx nocn
npncnnoro xprnr, xopomn +]]xr er 1% :
1) oncrt npnprt (p-p 3 n xnnxx, per os, +nxro]opso; noxnnon n/ no 3
n 1 ps n 3 nx N 15; 2) nonnn (+rnnop]nn rnpoxnopn) n xn. no cx or 1
o 10 p-p; 3) nocrnynxropt (+xcrpxr no+, ]nc, crxnonnno rno, rop]or n
r..) n nn noxoxntx n noxontmxrnnntntx nntxnn, +nxrpo]ops; 4) ]pnrt
( nns, xnorpnncnn, nnnn, xonnnnsnn n p) n/, no xontmxrnny,
+nxrpo]opso, ]ono]opso, n sn; 5) oxcnrnorpnnx (xncnopo no
xonmnxrnny N 10-15 n xypc; 6) ; 7) yrorornpnnx n/ no cx.
2) pn noyrnnnxx poronnnt, oycnonnnnmmnx cnnxnnx spnnx n
cnnory, nponsnoxr npcxy rpynno unonucxo poronnnt, r..
''". x npcxn porono oonouxn npn ntx nosnnxn m
on 150 nr roy ns n npnnnxnr nn n snrpy, xoropt n 1813-1818
rr. ntcxsnn tcnt o rxo nosoxnocrn. nxo, onro npx nc nontrxn
xpronncrnxn sxnunnnnct nyu. nmt n1905 roy Vnp, sr 3ntmnnr,
mp n p. nonyunnn nonnt onrnucxn +]]xr or npcxn poronnnt. rx
nop xpronncrnx crn nce ontm nxonrt n pcnn xnpyprnucxnx roon
nunnx nronornn poronnnt. occnn nnonpo xpronncrnxn no npny
cunrrcx ..nnron, xoropt cnn npnt n npcxn me n 1912 n 1915
rox. ..nnron concrno c nnxnpo ..pnnnxoncxn cxoncrpynponn
cnnnntnt rpnnt nx npcxn poronnnt, xoropt npnnxmrcx
o]rntoxnpyprn o ncroxmro npnn. pnnnn nx xpronncrnxn
rpynno poronnnt, xoncpnnponnno n xono, pmnno cnoxnt nonpoc o
onopcxo rpnn.
ncroxm npx n snncnocrn or psnnumr ncxontxo npcxn
poronnnt.
1. nrnucxx xpronncrnx nr nntm, snnn noyrnnmym poronnny
npospuno, rt ontnoy spnn. nrnucxx xpronncrnx oxr trt % nnn
%8 crnunym xpronncrnxy nponsnoxr n cnyuxx, xor n oxnmr ycnx or
onrnucxo npn+xronn.
1. xronnucxx xpronncrnx npnnxrcx c nntm sxptrnx nosnnxmnx ]ncryn
poronnnt.
2. unx xpronncrnx xnnxrcx nont nno xpronncrnxn, npnoxnnt
..nnront. pnnxrcx c nntm nsnunnx nronornucxnx cocroxnn poronnnt.
pncnnnrr cnon npncyrcrnn n rontxo sxptnr yucrox, r nrcx yrpos
np]opnnn poronnnt (npn cnronn, ucrnuntx +xrsnxx, cr]nnox), no n
crnynxropn, opsymmnncx n ne, nnnxr n oxpyxmmn ro rxnnt +nnrt,
cnococrnyx nx npocnrnnnm n nsnunnm. oxr trt ncnontsonn n npn
pnnnnnpymmnx nrpnrnyx.
4. ocrnucxx xpronncrnx nponsnonrcx npn ucrnuntx n nonntx ntx, npn
cr]nnox, n cnntx rnsx - c nntm npnnnx rnsy nn nopntnoro rns.
ncroxm npx c +ro nntm, ncro onprnnnoro nmrntcrn (xpronncrnxn),
npnnxmr xocrnucxn 8
5. nnoprnnnx xpronncrnx nponsnonrcx c nntm oormnnx nt
poronnuntn +nnrn, cnn ono n npnrono nx nnocpcrnnno %
npcxn poronnnt, rxx c nntm noxnnucxo npcrpoxn n poronnn. nnopnnx
xnnxrcx nororonnrntno onpnn, ynyummm nouny nx yym %
npcxn poronnnt, e np+rno.
6. ]pxnnonnx xpronncrnx npnonrr cno nntm nsnnrt p]pxnnm
rns, noorx ontnoy cnxrt ouxn nnn snunrntno yntmnrt nx cnny. ncroxm
npx +rn onpnnn nponoxr c ncnontsonnn nspon (+xcnpnoro n p.) c
ntmnn ocnoxnnxn, c nyumn nnsyntnt +]]xro n on nerxn n xoporxn
nocnonpnnonnt npnoo.
ymcrnymr cnymmn npcxn poronnnt no nporxxennocrn n rnynn:
no rnynn - (ups ncm ronmy poronnnt) n n% (ynnn ucrn cnoen
poronnnt);
no nporxxennocrn (npcxnnrcx onopcxx poronnn c nrpo
rpncnnnrr 4-6 );
6 <"= 7&
6 >?">> 7&
c %% &
8
onopcxn rpnno xnnxmrcx rpynnt rns, xoncpnnponnnt nnn no nnxno xp
npn rnpryp 24 rpycon, nnn ntcymnnnn cnnxorn, nnn n r
rnoynnn, nnn npn noscrnn nnsxnx rnpryp (xpnoxoncpnnnx) n p.
nx ]nxcnn rpncnnnrron npnnxmr noxn, mnt nnn xontmnxrnnntnt nocxyr.
nxo nnsyntnt ncxot snncxr n rontxo or npospunocrn rpncnnnrr, no n or
cocroxnnx spnrntnoro npn, crurxn, xpycrnnx n crxnonnnoro rn. pn npospuno
npnxnnnnnn rpncnnnrr ocrpor spnnx oxr trt ount nnsxo ncncrnn
nronornucxnx nsnnn n sn orn rns. , noopor, npn nonynpospuno ro
npnxnnnnnn oxr snunrntno ynyumnrtcx spnn npn orcyrcrnnn nsnnn n sn
orn rns.
=' '.
Fonsnt rpncnnnrr (n nn yrnoro npnxnnnnnx ro nnn orropxnnx), xx
pxnnx poronnnt-pnnnnnr n uyxym rxnt npnnn yuentx x tcnn o
ncnontsonnnn nx npcxn pyrnx, nxnntx rpnnon.
ontrxn npnnnrt npospunt rpnnt npn ntx c nntm
noccrnonnnnx spnnx nsncrnt nno. m n cpnn npomnoro cronrnx tn nontrx
ncnontsonrt crxno, ropnt xpycrnt n p n xucrn snnrnx ynnno poronnuno
rxnn. nxo npnym ycnmnym nnonncrnxy poronnnt ocymcrnnnn Fppxp (1962) n
opon (1962). occnn nnonpn nnonncrnxn xnnxmrcx ..pcnon, ..opon,
F..Fnno, ..yuxoncxx n p. sxcrncxn o]rntonorn nontsymrcx poccncxnn
ronxn xnpyprnucxoro nunnx nt.
nnonncrnucxn rpnno cnyxr nccxycrnnnt nonornucxn nnprnt
nncrccont nporst rpnnt. pononrcx xpronporsnponnn c nncrnnno
nntm onrnucxo.
1 (&'' '.
Vcnx npo]nnxrnxn xprnron snncnr npx ncro or ycrnonnnnx npnunnt
sonnnnx.
pn +xsornntx xprnrx ount nxnt xnnxrcx ntxcnnn cocroxnnx
xontmnxrnnt n cnsntx oprnon, ycnonn port n tr, npo]ccnn, ycnonn nnmn
cpt, r.. roro, uro nr snunn n psnnrnn npo]ccnonntntx sonnnn.
coornrcrnnn c +rn n noxono npononrt osoponnrntnt npo]nnxrnucxn
ponpnxrnx.
pn +nornntx xprnrx nxno snunn nr om cocroxnn oprnns, n
ucrnocrn, nnnun y ontnoro nn]xnnonntx n nn]xnnonno-nnprnucxnx sonnnn
(cn]nnnc, rypxyns, pnrns, pynnnes, roxconnsos, xnnnntno nn]xnnn,
nnpycno n p.). snncnocrn or +roro npononrcx n cnnnx oprnns.
xn opso, nmo nx n ycnonnxx, r nr ysxnx cnnnnncron, onxn
opmrt co cptsno nnnnn n ontntx c sonnnnxn oprn spnnx. cnonno
su nx xnnxrcx oxsnn npnnntno n nonno +xcrpnno noomn rnsnt
ontnt n nx nunn, cnonpnno ocnunn oxsnnx cnnnnnsnponnno
noomn, rxx nponnnm npo]nnxrnucxnx ponpnxrn no npynpxnnm
sonnnnx oprn spnnx. m nxonr, npx ncro, npo]nnxrnx rpnrns n
npotmnnntx npnpnxrnxx, n cntcxo xosxcrn, n mxonx, rxx n try n, oconno,
rcxoro rpnrns. cnxsn r, +nornnt xprnrt psnnnmrcx n ]on omro
sonnnnx, noxono npononrt osoponnnn oprnns n, rnnnt opso, npn
nn]xnnonno-nnprnucxnx sonnnnxx , sonnnnxx syon, npnrountx nsyx noc n
p.
oncrnx por ncx nxon n npu oxynncron nosnonnr snunrntno cnnsnrt
sonnocrt poronnnt, uro, n cnom oupt, npnnr x cnnxnnm n nnnnnnocrn no
spnnm.

(=79<9B>G $9$)>$79P 9,9<9?@> B<=A=.
=5&'+ &"' . !
" ' '' '. @&' "+ +
" . )&&! "
. 6 ''!+ !+ '!+
6'&'! "'! ' /+
'+ "+ "'"+ '! &'+
'+ &' "0. 9+ + %
. . " 6
.' . >.. (&''
=5&'+ &"' .
! " ' '' '.
ocyncrt rpxr xnnxrcx nropo (cpn) oonouxo rnsnoro xnox. n pcnonoxn
xy cxnpo n crurxo n cocronr ns rpex ucr: pyxxn, nnnnpnoro rn n
xopnonn (rn.).
)- cocyncroro rpxr ocymcrnnxrcx nyx cncrn.
nonyumr xpont ns nyx snnx nnnntx n 4-6 npnnx nnnnpntx
prpn. nnnxct y xopnx pyxxn, +rn cocyt opsymr e ontmo xpyr xponoopmnnx.
Vx or nro orxoxr nrouxn x pyxx n x nnnnpnoy rny. nonyur
xponocnxnn ns pyro cncrt, opsyo nrnxn 6-8 snnx xoporxnx nnnnpntx
prpn. 3r oconnocrt xponocnxnnx cocyncroro rpxr cnymmn opso
npoxnnxrcx n xnnnnx. cnn nxpont rn nnn nrnrn xponoroxo snocxrcx n prpnn
npno cncrt, ro nosnnxr nocnnnn n pyxx n nnnnpno rn, uro nstnrcx
. cnn rnrt nonmr n nrnn nropo cncrt, nosnnxr xopnonnr. pn
nonnnn nxpoon n cocyt oonx cncr nosnnxr nocnnnn ncx rpx ornon
nnynnr (rn.).
@ ocymcrnnxrcx xoporxnn nnnnpntn
npnn,
nymnn ns nnnnpnoro ysn, pcnonoxnnoro n 10 s rnsnt xnoxo. +rnn npnn
npoxoxr uyncrnnrntnt, cnnrnucxn n npcnnrnucxn nonoxn. nnpnnnx +rnx
ornon onntnx, no+roy nocnnnrntnt nponcct n pyxx n nnnnpno rn
conponoxmrcx cnntno ontm n rnsy. spux n tmn
nnnpnnpymrcx npcnnrnucxnn nonoxnn rnsonnrrntnoro npn,
spux cnnrnucxnn or npxnro mnoro cnnrnucxoro cnnrnnx.
prn orn cocyncroro rpxr - %
% 5 ' % 8
1 pyxx xpxrpnsyrcx cnymmnn cnocrnn:
pyxno oonouxn nnnnnynn, no, xx npnnno, on onnxon n oonx rnsx,
xpo pxnx cnyun e + n onpnxrcx xononnrn n xonnucrno
nnrnrntx xnrox n pyxx, rxx crnntm npocnunnocrn cxnost rxnt pyxxn
nnrnrntx cnon n nnnunno snonnnnx cocyon xpontm. pn nocnnnnn pyxxn
nponcxonr pcmnpnn cocyon n +ro npnnonr x nsnnnm nnr.
pyxxn nrnxx. n nnonnr nonpxnocrt ryxn nnn xpyxn.
ncynox,
xx n nnr, nnnnnynn n rox onnxon n oonx rnsx. pn nocnnnnn rxnt pyxxn
orxr n noxptnrcx +xccyro. 3ro crymentnr pncynox pyxxn n ontno rnsy
(rn.).
prynnpyr norox nymnx n rns nyu. pn nnsxo ocnmnnocrn n npn nsrnx
nnt spuox pcmnpxrcx, urot nponycrnrt n rns ontm xonnucrno ]oronon,
ocrrouno nx nosyxnnx pnnropon crurxn. nnunn spuxon oonx rns otuno
onnxonx. pn nocnnnnn pyxxn npnr - rxnt orxr, no+roy spuox n ontno
rnsy yr on ysxn (nos) n pxnnn spux yyr nxnt.
npoynnpyr nnyrpnrnsnym xnxocrt n ocymcrnnxr xxoonnm.
pn nocnnnnn nnnnpnoro rn um nonnxrcx nnyrpnrnsno nnnn n nosnnxmr
ntpxnnx onsnnnocrt npn nntnnnn rnsnoro xnox (rn.).
copxnr ontmo xonnucrno nnrnrntx xnrox xporo]opon. nn
nornommr nnocnpnnxrt pnnropn crurxn ]oront cnr, npoxpnxx e or
scnunnnnx. Xopnonx cnxr xpontm npyxnt cno crurxn nnrnrnt +nnrnn.
pn ro nronornn noxnnxmrcx ncrpo]nucxn ourn n n rxnn crurxn, uro
ntxnnxrcx npn o]rntocxonnn. o+roy n npxrnx uncrt xopnonnrt nourn n
ncrpumrcx, xx npnnno, psnnnmrcx .
9 " ' " !.
npnt rot xnsnn n cocyncro rpxr ntm nnrnrntx xnrox xporo]opon,
no+roy nnr pyxxn y r n +ror npno um ronyonro-cpt, rnsno no on
cnrno.
V nonopoxnntx nnnnpno rno n nnxrrop spux psnnro nocrrouno. o+roy
spuox ysxn (2 2,5 ). xxoonnonnx tmn nxonrcx n cncrnucxo cocroxnnn.
@&' ! " '.
1. ocnnnrntnt sonnnnx cocyncroro rpxr (ynnrt):
/ pnn ynnr nnn npnonnxnnr.
/ nn ynnr nnn xopnonr.
n/ nynnr nnn npnonnxnoxopnonnr.
2. nonnn psnnrnx cocyncroro rpxr.
3. onoopsonnnx cocyncroro rpxr.
4. onpxnnx cocyncroro rpxr.
5. ncrpo]nx cocyncroro rpxr (rn.).
ncrpumrcx nnon ucro; no nrornsy, corncno xnccn]nxnnn
yc, onn nxrcx n
3 ]xropn nocnnnnx psnnuntx ornon cocyncroro rpxr oryr
trt cnymmn ]xropt:
/ +nornnx nn]xnnx oprnns (]oxntnt nn]xnnn, rpnnn, pnrns, rypxyns,
pynnns, roxconnsos, cn]nnnc n norn p., y r cymcrnnno cro snnr ynnr
npn onsnn rnnn;
/ +xsornnx nn]xnnx, nponnxmx n rns npn pnnnn, npoonnn xsnt n npn onpnnn;
n/ npymnnx on nmcrn (norp, nr);
r/ nronornx xpycrnnx (]xornnt ynnr) npn nonpxnnn xncynt xpycrnnx,
nyxnnn nnn nnsnc ro.
nx ' ynnr ncnontsymrcx omnsncrnt xnnnnucxn n
nopropnt nccnonnnx. nor npnrmr x xoncyntrnnn cnnnnncron (]rnsnrpon,
+noxpnnonoron, pnronoron, croronoron, oronpnnronoron n r..). , r n n,
ycrnonnrt +rnonornm ynnr yrcx nnmt, npnpno, n 20 cnyun.
rorns.
ccnonnnx nornx yuntx (.. nno, .. Brnnono, .. ntxon, ..
Bnx, .. npymnxo n p.) noxsnn, uro yxsnnt ntm ]xropt nrpmr pont nycxonoro
xnns. Xpxrp nronornucxnx nsnnn n cocyncro rpxr, n ocnonno,
onpnxrcx xnnsn oprnns nnnnnyy.
pn ocnonnym pontn psnnrnn nocnnnrntnoro nponcc
nrpmr xx rcrs nnpynnrnoro nosynrnx, rx n rxx omx n crnx
psncrnrnocrt, rxnn, n xoropo psnnnrcx our rpnyn c nn]onnrn,
+nnrnnonntn n rnrnrcxnn xnrxn. xo runn nponcc ncrpurcx npn
roxconnsos, rypxyns, pynnns n cn]nnnc.
pn + xoropt ncrpumrcx no noro ps um, ontmym
pont nrpr rnnpuyncrnnrntnocrt cocyncroro rpxr n cnxsn c om cncnnnnsnn
oprnns nxpont nrnrno ns nnrnsntx ouron nocnnnnx, rxx
yrocncnnnnsnnx cocyncroro rpxr (npn cncrntx yronynntx sonnnnxx
oprnns, nnpnp, xonnrnosx). pn rxo nrorns psnnnrcx psnnro nocnnnn
rnnpprnucxoro xpxrp.
pnonnxnnrt.
o ! pnonnxnnrt nopsnxmrcx n: 1) cposnt; 2)
+xccyrnnnt;
3) ]npnnosno-nncrnucxn; 4) rnont; 5) ropprnucxn.
o " nx npnnxro nnrt n ocrpt n xponnucxn.
mn xnnnnucxn npnsnxn: s % . #$ "
noxnnxmrcx ont n rnsy, ycnnnnmmxcx no nou, cnrooxsnt, cnsorunn, n]pocns
(r.. poronnunt cnnpo), nonnxnn ocrport spnnx. #; - orurcx:
npnxopnntnx nnn cmnnx nnxnnx cxnpt; npn npnr - nsnnn nnr pyxxn;
crymennnocrt e pncynx; nosoxno pcmnpnn ( nnxnnx) e cocyon; cyxnn n
nxnocrt pxnn spux; opsonnn cnx xy pyxxo n xpycrnnxo (snnx
cnnxn), uro ntxnnxrcx rontxo npn pcmnpnnn spux npnrnxn n nn
nnpnnntno (]cronuro nnn snesuro) ]opt spux; npn nnxnnr -
onpyxnnmrcx npnnnnrrt n sn nonpxnocrn poronnnt (n +nornnn); onn npn
nntnnnn rnsnoro xnox; noyrnnnx n crxnonnno rn (rn. 1001, 1002) n rnnoronnx.
pn nosno nuro nunnn nnn onntno ]npnnosno +xccyr oxr nponsorn
xpyrono cpmnn nnn x spmnn spux.
pn rnono npnonnxnnr n n npn xpt opsyrcx rno (rnnonnon) n
nn ocx noro nnn xenroro nnr c ropnsonrntnt yponn, npn
ropprnucxo n ro x cr xpont (rn]).
2% npnonnxnnr um nporxr n nn . nnn]nucxn
npnsnxn npn ne - ontmo xonnucrno: 1) cntntx npnnnnrron; 2) rpytx crpontntx
cnnxn spux; 3) cxonnnnx nnrnron no spuxonoy xpm; nosoxno cpmnn n
spmnn spux.
pn : nuno nocrpo; cntnt npnnnnrrt; omnt snn
cnnxnn; n oncrn noro xpyr xponoopmnnx pyxxn (son npoxnnn c]nnxrp)
noxnnxmrcx cponro-xnrt nnn posonrt, nocrnnno ynnnunnmmncx ysnxn.
nrnocnnpyrcx sonnnn nocrnonxo pxnnn nry n pnrrnonornucxn
ocnonnn nerxnx.
(% tuno nycroponnn, nporxr nxno, snn cnnxnn
nnpount, oxr trt rnnonnon nnn ]npnnosnt +xccyr n oncrn spux. Xpxrpn
snunrntnx noncxynxpnsnnx pyxxn (pyos).
9 " " !.
1) osnnxmr snunrntno px. 2) ocnnnn nporxr n ocrpo. 3) Font cnx n
nnocroxnnx. 4) spxnnx rns cn, u ntm pnox. 5) pnnnnrrt ntu.
6) pmnnx n spmnnx spux nnmrcx um o 5 nr. 7) V omxontnnxon nrcx
cxnonnocrt x pcnpocrpnnnm nocnnnnx n nct cocyncrt rpxr n crprocrt
cnnn]nucxnx oconnocr no +rnonornn. 8). crt pnnnnt. 9). porpccnnno
cnnxrcx ocrpor spnnx. V nononnnt ontntx on nnx 0,3.
A : (n ]on nn]xnnonnoro ncnnn]nucxoro nonnprpnr)
nosnnxr 1) nsrno, 2) nporxr nxno, 3) xpxrpnt cyxn npnnnnrrt, 4) pyxx
rpo]nun, 5) omnt snn cnnxnn; 6) n poronnn ]opnpyrcx nronntno
nnronnno noyrnnn; 7) psnnnrcx xrpxr. onnnn nopxr npnymcrnnno
y noux n nunnrcx n omxontno nospcr.
nrpt onxnt nonnrt, uro nopxnnx rns nnmmrcx y xxoro 5-ro pnx c
+rn nrnoso, nponcc nporxr nxno n s cnonpnnoro nunnx sxnunnrcx
cnnoro.
>. .
ocrporo npnonnxnnr 3-6 nnt, xponnucxoro - ncxontxo cxnn.
% ocrporo npnonnxnnr npn pno nuro nunnn um xopomn. o oryr
nnmrtcx pnnnnt. cxot xponnucxnx npnonnxnnron, rxx xx n npnonnxnnron y
r, snunrntno xyx. pxo opsymrcx xpyront cpmnnx n spmnnx spux
/ 0+ uro npnnonr x oxy pyxxn n nropnuno rnyxo, cnnor. @
ornocxrcx noyrnnn crxnonnnoro rn n xpycrnnx, nnpnr
spnrntnoro npn, rnnoronnn, nymx x copmnnnnm, rpo]nn rnsnoro xnox
(]rnsncy).
( ' 1:
1)8 snunn ' (omro n crnoro) nunnx c yuero
+rnonornn nponcc (F mnpoxoxo cnxrp crnnx c nnn cnnn]nucxnx, nnn
npornnonnpycntx, nnn npornnorpnxontx n r..) - n/n nnn n/, nnn pr os n
oxsrntno !!! crno n nn nnxnn (no xonmnxrnny nnn npyntpno, nnn
prpoyntpno), n xnnxx n sn 4-6 ps n nt; ncnontsymr ]nsnorpnnrnucxn
rot nnnnx nxpcrnnntx cpcrn +nxrpo]ops, ]ono]ops.
2). xsrntno!!! nsnumrcx & rponnn, pcmnpxmmn spuox n pnymn
snn cnnxnn, npornpmx psnnrn nropnuno (ynntno )rnyxot.
poxrno, nsncrno, uro ct pcnpocrpnennt cpcrno nunnx
npnnuno rnyxot xnnxrcx !!+ cyxnnmmn spuox, ynyummmn orrox
nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn ns rns n, r ct, cnnxmmn nnyrpnrnsno nnnn
(). x nt nnnr, +rn nmcrn - npornnononoxnoro crnnx. cnn nt npnyrr
nsnunnx, ro npn ro n pyro sonnnnn yr nncn ontmo np ontnoy,
xoropt oxr sxonunrtcx cnnoro.
pn npnonnxnnrx ncnontsyrcx n xnnxx 1 rponnn 1, n nnxnnxx otunt
0,1. o+roy nxn onxnt trt nnnrntnt, oconno n cnyuxx, cnn pcrnop
!+ npnroronnn nrxo r.x. nnor pcrnop, npnroronnnnt nx rnsnoro
ornnnx, oxr cnyuno noncrt n cxnnm nxpcrn nx rpnnrnucxoro nnn pyroro
ornnnx. ynt]r rponnn n ro nnorn pcmnpxmr spuox, npnnsyx ro c]nnxrp.
cnn x nx crnn nocrrouno, snn cnnxnn n psptnmrcx, ror ononnnrntno
ncnontsymrcx cnnrnxorponnt nmcrn (pnnnn 0,1 n ro nnorn - sron 1,
xoxnn 3), nosyxmmn nnxrrop spux. nror nonoro crnnx +]]xr ntm.
3) xsrntno!! nsnunn n nunnn npnonnxnnron (1 cycnnsnx
xoprnson, 4 pcrnop xcrson n p.), xoropo nnun otuno nsnumr crno
ncn ntmyxsnntn cnocon, npn n+]]xrnnnocrn nunnx n no om cx.
x ! nunn, npononrcx ocorpnnx - nnyrpnnnnt nnxnnn
10 xnopncroro xntnnx, rnmxonr xntnnx, 20-40 rnmxost, yporponnn 40;
nrnonporxropt, nnr ; ncrponnt npornnonocnnnrntnt cpcrn;
cncnnnnsnpymmn cpcrn.
x ! nunn nx cnxrnx on npnnxmr prpoyntpnt
nonoxnnont noxt, nsnumr nnrnrnxn.
4). npnoro onr nunnx oxsrntno111 nsnunn ! (conmxc,
np]nn, nrpnx, V), +nxrpo]ops psnnuntx nmcrn ups nnnouxy nnn c
noomtm yntrpsnyx - ]ono]ops).
! nponcc nx pccctnnnx +xccyr nsnumr ]pnrt
(xonnnnsnn, nnnn, crpnroxsy, nnsy, ]npnnonnsnn, xnorpnncnn n p.), nornnt
crnynxropt crno n n/.
pn ynnrx noxsnt, nnrocrrncrnucxn
npnprt (nrnronnrt n nxnnnpymmn rnrt).
X o p n o n n r t ( s n n y n n r t ) .
3 r n o n o r n x 8 non ucro npnunno xnnxmrcx roxconnsos n
rypxyns, no onn oryr trt ntsnnt rxx npn cn]nnnc, pynnns, nnnonnn n p.
r o r n s . nxpot nonmr +nornno. nococrnyr roy
mnpoxo psnrnnenno cocyncro pycno n, cnxsnnt c +rn, snnnt rox xponn n
cocyx xopnonn. psnnrnn sonnnnx nmr snunnx nponcct nnprnn n
nynorpccnn.
" psnnumr ouront n n]]ysnt xopnonnrt. nponcc cxopo nonnxrcx
crurx n xopnonnr npxonr n .
n n n n x . ponmr ouront nopxnnx. not ontnoro
onpnxmrcx noxnnsnn our. pn nnrpntno pcnonoxnnn ro ontnoro cnoxoxr
ncxxnn ]opt pccrpnnoro npr (rop]oncnx), cnnxnn ocrport spnnx,
ncntmxn n pnnnx cnr np rnso (]oroncnx). pn noxnnsnnn our n npn]pnn
nponcc oxr nporxrt nsrno nx ontnoro n ntxnnrcx, xx cnyunx nxox npn
o]rntocxonnn. pn ontmo xonnucrn ouron n npn]pnn rnsnoro n ontnt
nunnmr nnoxo opnnrnponrtcx n cypxx, (cnnrornucxx rpnonnx - rn.).
pn ocorp rnsnoro n n cnxnx cnyuxx nnnt ourn cporo nnn xnroro nnr c
nurntn rpnnnn, nponnnpymmnn n crxnonnno rno. ntnm nn]nntrpr
pccctnrcx n nppoxrcx, ncrynr ncrpo]nx crurxn. ur crnonnrcx nt, c
urxnn rpnnnn n npnctm rno-xopnunnoro nnrnr (rn.).
nx npoxennoro cn]nnnrnucxoro xopnonnr xpxrpn cnnro cont c npn
no npn]pnn crurxn, nx xopnonnr npn npnoprnno roxconnsos omnpnt
our nponn]pnnn y snro nonmc, nponnnpymmn n crxnonnno rno c ontmn
xonnucrno nonoopsonnntx cocyon n ornoxnnxn xoncrpnn.
ypxynsnt xopnonnr oxr nporxrt n psnnuntx ]opx: ) xonrnonponnnt
rypxyns (um y r) n ) nnnpnt xopnonnr (oycnonnnnt ncntmxo
nnrpropxntnoro rypxyns n no+roy on xnnxrcx nnoxn npornocrnucxn
npnsnxo omro sonnnnx); n) pccxnnt (nccnnnponnnt) xopnonnr (rn.).
oxr nopxrtcx spnrntnt npn (onsnt ncn). #- xpo ncrpo]nn
crurxn, pnnnnnpymmn prnnntnt xpononsnnxnnx ns nnont opsonnntx cocyon,
nponn]prnnnt prnnnr, oprnnsnnx crxnonnnoro rn, orcnox crurxn, rnnt
rns
Vnnrt npn ]oxnntx nn]xnnxx (onsnn -oprnon - nsyx noc, nnnnn;
unmcrno-syno cncrt oonrornnt) um nosnnxmr no nnnxnn roxcnnon ns
]oxyc nn]xnnn, px rrcrrnucxor pcnpocrpnnnx e ns cnnycon n syon no
xponnocnt n nn]rnucxn nyrx nnn p]nxropno ncncrnn pspxnnx
rponnunoro npn. ' 3 +ro n]]ysnt nponcc ncro cocyncroro rpxr
(nnynnr). # (n ornnun or cnnycornntx) conponoxmrcx noyrnnn
poronnnt, crxnonnnoro rn n onnn xnpntx npnnnnrron. snunn ncrynr
rontxo nocn pnxntnoro nunnx (xoncpnrnnnoro n onprnnnoro) npnrountx nsyx
noc nnn ynnnx syon. ( 5
ocrpt rnont xopnonnr nosnnxr npn cncnc, nppntno nnnrnr, ocrpt nrnn
n pyrnx nn]xnnonno-rnontx sonnnnxx, ncncrnn +onnn cocyon xopnonn
rnopontn nxpon.
nuntno npno n rnsno n noxnnxrcx noxcrno nxnx xnronro-ntx
ouxxon. poncc tcrpo pcnpocrpnxrcx n crurxy n npnn orn cocyncroro
rpxr. snnnrcx ocrpt rnont (nnynnr) nnn rcrrnucxx o]rntnx. sxo
nr ocrpor spnnx. crxnonnno rn ]opnpyrcx cncc. pn tcrpo psnnrnn
rnont nponcc sxnrtnr nc nnyrpnnn oonouxn n copxno rns nosnnxr
+no]rntnr, npxoxmn n nno]rntnr, r.. nponcxonr rnnt rns.
nor rcrrnucxx o]rntnx psnnnrcx ount nnno npn nourn nsrntx
xnnnnxx nocnnnnx n xpxrpnsyrcx opsonnn n crxnonnno rn noro nnn
xnronroro +xccyr. 3ry ]opy nstnmr ncnornnoo, r.x. nrxo npnnxrt s
snoxucrnnnym onyxont crurxn, oconno y r o 4 nr.
oxconnsosnt ynnrt oryr trt npoxenntn n npnoprenntn. nnpo
) roxconnsos nxnmur um nycroponnn xopnoprnnnr c xpynnt
nnrpntnt nxrnnnt nnrnrnponnnt ouro (oxr nporxrt rxxno, c
orcnoxo crurxn); nonnn psnnrnx rns no]rnt, nxpo]rnt, xonoot
cocyncroro rpxr n ; rxx - rnpon]nnm, xntnn]nxrt rononnoro osr,
orcrnnn n ncnxooropno psnnrnn.
#) roxconnsos npxo tnr pnnnno npoxennoro nnn ]opnpyr
nont cnxn ourn, npxo c xpononsnnxnnxn, npn]nnro, orcnoxo crurxn;
nporxr rxxno, c pnnnnn.
nrnocrnx noormr rmrntno copnnt nns (o runnn pnnocrn n poon,
cocroxnnn sopontx rpn, pnn psnnrnn penx, nnrnsntx sonnnnxx),
nynonornucxn nccnonnnx ( c roxconnsosnt nrnrno, , , xnnx
nxponpnnnnrnnn n rp, F nn]onnron npn]pnucxo xponn no crnn
roxconnsnn, ntxnnnn cnnn]nucxnx nrnrn xncc IM n I.) n xnnnnucxn
(xoxno-nnprnuxx npo c roxconnsnno, rxx ouronx pxnnx rns n n/x n
noxonmnxrnnntno ro nnnn).
pnnnnnt nunnn cxoxn co ncn pyrnn ynnrn. +rnorponno
ncnontsymrcx nnpnrnn, xnopnnn, cynt]nsnn no cx (no xonrpon xponn n
]ynxnnn noux), roxconnsnn n/x no cx; n nrornrnucxo nporpo]nucxx,
nnrnnorpnnx (]onnnx xncnor n p.).
Fpynnnesnt ynnr 5 npoxnnxrcx xx rpnynrosnt nnn roxcnxonnprnucxn
nponcc n psnnuntx ]opx: +xccyrnnnoro npnonnxnnr; npnro +xcyrnnnoro
xopnonnr; rcrrnucxo o]rntnn; nccnnnponnnoro xopnoprnnnr;
nnrpntnoro xopnoprnnnr n ncnnn]nucxoro nnynnr. nrnocnnpyrcx c
noomtm nnyrpnxoxno npot Fmpn, pxnnn rrnmrnnnnn r, Xntcon.
nunnn - ncnontsymr F n xonnnnn c npornnopynnnesno nxnnno n nuno
ctnoporxo Vnpon.
( . xopnonnron cxoxn c rxontn npn npnonnxnnrx,
nnmt ncxnmumrcx npnrnxn, ononnxmrcx noxnmunn nnrnnorpnnn n
cocyopcmnpxmmnx cpcrn (no noxsnnx),
p o ] n n x r n x . po]nnxrnx ynnron sxnmurcx n
npynpxnnn nn]xnnonntx sonnnn n nosnnxnonnnx ouron ]oxntno
nn]xnnn; ncnncpno nnmnnn ontntx no noxsnnx; nponnn
npornnopnnnnntx xypcon nunnx.
)&&!
! "! ' . 6.
1. ncroxm npx rypxynsnt um nporxr n n]]ysno ]op,
xx roxcnxo-nnprnucxn, n ]on croxoro nynnrr. nnn]nucxn npnsnxn npn
ne: 1) orntnt ! npnnnnrrt; 2)nsnunrntnx nnnnpnx nnxnnx,
pcmnpnn cocyon pyxxn, nryun cponrt oxpyrnt ysnxn n pyxx nnnsn e
noro xpyr; 3) cxonnnn nnrnron no spuxonoy xpm; 4) rpyt crpontnt cnnxnn,
nosoxno cpmnn n spmnn spux; 5) nporpccnpymmn noyrnnnx n oncrn
sn xncynt n crxnonnnoro rn. m psnnnrcx n nopocrxono nospcr (o 50
cnyun) n y nspocntx. uer nxno, nnrntno, c pnccnxn n oocrpnnxn.
pn ourono ]op (rcrrnucxo, rpnynrosno nponcc): nuno
nocrpo; xpxrpn nsnunrntnx cmnnx nnxnnx cxnpt, orcyrcrnn nnn
ypnnt ont n poronnunt cnnpo, nxn cponro-posont c npocxno spno ysnxn
n pyxx n oncrn noro xpyr (rypxynt), nocrnnno ynnnunnmmncx n
cnnnmmncx n r.n. xonrnonponnnt rypxyn; nonro-xenrt cpn nnnunnt
npnnnnrrt;
npn n]]ysno ]op - omnt nncrnucxn snn cnnxnn, n spuxono xp -
tcrpo ncusmmn xnontx nrt, nymxn; xpynnt cntnt npnnnnrrt; n rnsno
n xopnonnrt ( nnnpnt, nccnnnponnnt, xonrnonponnnt rypxyn),
xopnoprnnnrt, nnnnnnr. poncc ruer nnrntno, c ucrtn pnnnnn.
3rnonornx sonnnnx yrounxrcx nocrnonxo pxnnn nry n pnrrnonornucxn
ocnonnn nerxnx.
unn +rnorponno xonnxcno, onpnxrcx o]rntonoro concrno c
]rnsnrpo. ypc nunnx n crnnonp 1,5-3 c., sr cnropno 7-9 c., nocn n
runn 3 nr ncno n ocntm npononrcx npornnopnnnnnt xypc nunnx no 2 c.
c ontnt cocroxr n -yuer n npornnorypxynesno ncnncp.
2. Vntnt nc nnpycntx ynnron npcrr n y nspocntx, n y r; onn ntstnmrcx
nnpycn npocroro rpnc, onoxctnmmro nnmx, nnrornonnpycn, nrpxno ocnt,
+nrponnpyc, rpnnn, nonnpycn n p.
B% npnonnxnnr - nporxr ocrpo, c ntpxnntn xnon n rnyoxo
nnxnn cxnpt, nxnn npnnnnrrn, cposnt +xcyro n npn xp,
tcrpt nosnnxnonnn orntntx snnx cnnxn, noyrnnn crxnonnnoro rn,
um n ono rnsy; ncxo nronpnxrnt, ucrt pnnnnt.
3rnonornucxo nrnocrnx noormr ro nyno]nmopcnnnnn cocxo c
xonmnxrnnt n onpyxnn nrnrn nnpyc rpnnn n nynonornucxn
nccnonnnx n ntcoxn rnrp nrnrn x nnpycy rpnnn rnn n .
unn n npnym oupt - +rnonornucxo, xonnxcno: nnpnnno n npnnuno
sonnn n crnt nponcc (corncno npnnnnnon nunnx npnonnxnnron).
B ynnrt cocrnnxmr 25 ncx nocnnnn pyxxn n nnnnpnoro rn,
xopnoprnnnrt nocxr npoxennt xpxrp. nnpo -/ rpnrnucxor
ynnr cxon c rxont npn roxconnsos n nnrornnn, /% nporxr
xx 9 ocrpt, noocrpt nnn nxnorxymn, co cnnxnn uyncrnnrntnocrn
poronnnt; c cposnt nnn ]npnnosno-cposnt +xcyro n npn xp, cno
ntpxnntn onnt cnnpoo n nnnnpno nnxnn, nonnop]ntn cponrtn
npnnnnrrn, c rpnynen n pyxx (n e nocnymm ourono rpo]n),
snnn cnxn, ronnocnnxnxn, noyrnnn crxnonnnoro rn; n rnsno n
crurxn, xpononsnnxnnx nont cocyon, cposnt orex ncx spnrntnoro npn
n cposnt xynnr (ouront xopnoprnnnrt pxn).
3rnonornucxo nrnocrnx noormr ro ]nmopcnnpymmnx nrnrn () n
cocxo c xonmnxrnnt, nnyrpnxoxnx ouronx npo c rpnrnucxn nonnnrnrno.
unn: - n npnym oupt xonnxcno npornnonnpycno n nynorponno,
coornrcrnnno npnnnnn nunnx ynnron
3. onnrnosnt ynnrt oycnonnnt yronynntn xnnnnxn: % ynnr
ucrt cnoxnoro cnnpo pnrns, nosnnxr xx n ocrpym, rx n nn ocrpo
]st pnrns (um), otuno ocntm nnn ncno; nunnrcx ocrpo, ruer ypno, c
psxo cmnno nnxnn cxnpt, xnrnnosnt +xcyro n npn xp,
xnn cptn npnnnnrrn, tcrpt nosnnxnonnn snnx cnnxn, nrxo
pnymnxcx no nnnxnn npnrnxon, pcmnpnn cocyon pyxxn, noyrnnn
crxnonnnoro rn; n rnsno n - oryr trt nxn posonro-xenrt ouxxn n
npn]pnn nnn n npxynxpno oncrn, xpyrnt n onntnt cpt xoouxn
cxonnnn +xcyr no xoy nn crurxn n rnnpnx, crymennnocrt rpnnn ncx
spnrntnoro npn. onnnn nnrcx o 1,5 c.; nopxmrcx o rns; ncxo
nronpnxrnt.
A : (pnronnt - n ]on nn]xnnonnoro ncnnn]nucxoro
nonnprpnr): 1) nosnnxr npnonnxnnr nsrno, 2) nporxr nxno, 3) xpxrpnt
cyxn npnnnnrrt, 4) pyxx rpo]nun, 5) omnt snn cnxnn; 6) n poronnn
]opnpyrcx nnronnno noyrnnn; 7) psnnnrcx ocnoxnennx xrpxr. onnnn
nopxr npnymcrnnno noux n nunnrcx n omxontno nospcr.
nrpt onxnt nonnrt, uro nopxnn rns nnmrcx y xxoro 5-ro pnx c
+rn nrnoso n s cnonpnnoro nunnx sxnunnrcx cnnoro (cnt).
4. n]nnnrnucxn ynnr cnxsn, n ocnonno, c npnoprennt cn]nnnco.
@ nporxmr n ontmnncrn cnyun s xpxrpntx oconnocr.
$ 6" 7 9 um npoxennt; rnnnun ]on rnsnoro n xenro-
opnxnt; nocn crnxnnx nponcc ocrnnxmr n npn]pnn rnsnoro n nt
rpo]nucxn ourn n uepnt nnrnrnponnnt nxrn nnn nxn uepnt n nt
rouxn (cont c npn); non spnnx cyxno, oryr trt nxpocxorot; rnonx
nrnnx cnnxn; npxo cnnxn n ocrpor spnnx.
+rnonornucxo nrnocrnx noormr cnnn]nucxn cponornucxn pxnnn.
unn concrno o]rntonor n nnponor.
5. oxconnsosnt ynnr tnr npoxennt n npnoprennt, ucror ro y
nonopoxnntx cocrnnxr 1-8 n 100 ponnmnxcx; spxnn nosoxno n nmo npno
rcrnnn.
1-/% ynnr um nycroponnn, nnrpntno noxnnsnnn; oxr trt
nnnrpntno noxnnsnnn, ocrpt nnn sxonunnt nponcco x onry poxnnx,
crpt ourn oryr ntstnrt pnnnn nocnnnnx. porxr xpn rxxno, c
ntpxnntn nsnnnxn n sn crnr rnsnoro xnox, ucr orcnox crurxn,
ccnnnt nxpos (xprnn cxox c prnnoncroo).
nrnocrnx noorr ntxnnnn pyrnx npoxenntx ]xron psnnrnx no]rnt,
nxpo]rnt, xonoot cocyncroro rpxr n ncx spnrntnoro npn, ro rpo]nx,
npoxennx nonnx, xrpxr; ntpxnnt nsnnnx .
./% roxconnsos npxo xnnxrcx pnnnno npoxennoro c
noxnnnn cnxro nponnnpymmro our cpo-xenroro nnr, oxpyxennoro
xpononsnnxnnxn; oxr trt xprnn npn]nnr. poncc rxxent,
pnnnnnpymmn.
nrnocrnx nmr snunn (runn pnnocrn n poon, nnnun
ntxntm, cocroxnn sopontx rpn, pnn psnnrn penx, nnrnsnt sonnnnx);
ncnonnnx -pxnnx cnxstnnnx xonnnr () c roxconnsosnt
nrnrno, pxnnx ]nmopcnnpymmnx nrnrn (), pxnnx ncnnno rrrnmrnnnnn
(), pxnnx nxponpnnnnrnnn n rp, pxnnx ncrrpnc]opnnn nn]onnron
(F) npn]pnucxo xponn no crnn roxconnsnn, ntxnnnn cnnn]nucxnx
nrnrn xncc I n ; rxx " pxnnn ( xoxno-
nnprnucxx npo c roxconnsnno, ouront npot npn nnyrpnxoxno n
noxonmnxrnnntno nnnnn roxconnsnn.
unn npononrcx concrno nn]xnnonncro n o]rntonoro, coornrcrnnno
npnnnnn nunnx ynnron n c ncnontsonnn cnnn]nucxnx npornnoroxconnsosntx
nxpcrnnntx npnpron (rnnypnn, xnopnnn, nnoxnnonon, cynt]nsnn ) o 1
c. no nocroxnnt xonrpon xponn n ]ynxnnn noux.
1. oxntnt ynnrt (crpnro-, cr]nnoxoxxont, cnxsnnt c xponnucxnn ourn
nn]xnnn, um oycnonnnnt cncnnnnsnn oprnns x nosynrnm. crpumrcx
n 25 cnyun ynnron pyro +ronornn. @ ornnumrcx onntnt cpt
+xcyro n oncrn spux, omntn xpyrontn cnnxnxn. ps 5-6 n nocnnnn
pcnpocrpnxrcx n snn orn rns, psnnnrcx 5 ups 1-2 c8 "
5 c ntpxnno cposno +xcynn. opxrcx onn rns, ups 10-14
n pyro, nponcc nporxr rxxno.
#% %% nosnnxr npn cncnc, nppntno nnnrnr, ocrpt
nrnn n pyrnx nn]xnnonno-rnontx sonnnnxx ncncrnn +onnn cocyon
xopnonn rnopontn nxpon.
nuntno npno n rnsno n noxnnxrcx noxcrno nxnx xnronro-ntx
ouxxon. poncc tcrpo pcnpocrpnxrcx n crurxy n npnn orn cocyncroro
rpxr. snnnrcx ocrpt rnont 67 *. sxo
nr ocrpor spnnx. crxnonnno rn ]opnpyrcx cncc. pn tcrpo psnnrnn
rnont nponcc sxnrtnr nc nnyrpnnn oonouxn n copxno rns nosnnxr
+no]rntnr, npxoxmn n nno]rntnr, r.. nponcxonr rnnt rns.
nor rcrrnucxx o]rntnx psnnnrcx ount nnno npn nourn nsrntx
xnnnnxx nocnnnnx n xpxrpnsyrcx opsonnn n crxnonnno rn noro nnn
xnronroro +xccyr. 3ry ]opy nstnmr ncnornnoo, r.x. e nrxo npnnxrt s
snoxucrnnnym onyxont crurxn (prnnoncroy), oconno y r o 4 nr.
unn xonnxcno, n coornrcrnnn c npnnnnnn nunnx ynnron.
78 nrnucxn npnonnxnnr otuno nycroponnn, nporxr nxno, snn cnnxnn
nnpount, oxr trt rnnonnon nnn ]npnnosnt +xccyr n oncrn spux. Xpxrpn
snunrntnx ncxynxpnsnnx pyxxn.
cxot n ocnoxnnnx.
poonxnrntnocrt ocrporo npnonnxnnr, n cpn, 3-6 nnt, xponnucxoro
ncxontxo cxnn. @ ocrporo npnonnxnnr npn pno nuro nunnn um xopomn.
o oryr nnmrtcx pnnnnt. @ xponnucxnx npnonnxnnron, rxx xx n
npnonnxnnron y r, snunrntno xyx. pxo opsymrcx xpyront cpmnnx n
spmnnx spux, uro npnnonr x oxy pyxxn, nropnuno rnyxo, cnnor.
- npnonnxnnr oxno rxx orncrn noyrnnn crxnonnnoro rn
n xpycrnnx, nnpnr spnrntnoro npn, rnnoronnm, rpo]nm rnsnoro xnox.
p o ] n n x r n x .
po]nnxrnx ynnron sxnmurcx n npynpxnnn nn]xnnonntx sonnnn,
nosnnxnonnnx ouron ]oxntno nn]xnnn rxx nnprnucxnx n nynntx
sonnnn oprnns n nno n oprn spnnx.
onrpontnt nonpoct:
o poronnn:
nnnnnt ]nnnx onpoct
r o 1. sonnr cnnrot poronnunoro cnnpo.
2. xn cnon poronnnt onmr cnoconocrtm x
prnpnnn.
3. cxot xprnron.
r o 1. cnonnt cnocrn poronnnt.
2. xontxo cnon nr poronnn, npuncnnr.
1. xn ocnoxnnnx oryr trt npn nonsyu xsn poronnnt.
r V o 1. x ocymcrnnxrcx nnrnn poronnnt.
2. ro rxo rnnonnon.
3. xn xprnrt conponoxmrcx pccrpocrno
uyncrnnrntnocrn.
o ynnr:
1. cnonnt xnnnnucxn npnsnxn npnr.
2. cnonnt xnnnnucxn npnsnxn nnxnnr.
3. cnonnt xnnnnucxn npnsnxn xopnonnr.
4. pnnnnnt nunnx npnonnxnnron.
5. cxot n ocnoxnnnx npnron, nnxnnron.
6. cxot n ocnoxnnnx xopnonnron.

9 ; , < = >
:0?9?1=> @AB09=,0. :0?9?1=> A=190C?1? 409;=>.
rt nonxrn o psnnuntx nnx xrpxr (npoxenntx, nropnuntx,
nospcrntx, oconnocrxx nx xnnnnxn, runnx, nnx n npnnnnnx nunnx, conpnntx
rox n noxsnnxx onprnnnoro n rox xoppxnnn ]xnn.
cnrnrt ocnonnt nonpoct xnnnnxn, runnx, pnn nrnocrnxn n
n]]pnnnntno nrnocrnxn psnnuntx ]op npnnuno rnyxot; conpnnt
rot xoncpnrnnnoro n onprnnnoro nunnx, npo]nnxrnxn sonnnnx n
ncnncpnsnnn sonnnnx
20 nn.
3 rpynnono roprnucxo snxrn n ynropnn.
:
1. nnnt: crnrrntnt psps rnsnoro xnox; xnccn]nxnnx xrpxr - npoxennt
xrpxrt, crpucxx xrpxr; nnt +xcrpxnnn xrpxrt; nnt xoppxnnn ]xnn;
2. nnnt: cxt cyrountx xpnntx - nopntntx n nronornucxnx; non spnnx
npn psnnuntx crnxx rnyxot; xnnnnucxo xprnnt ocrporo npncryn rnyxot;
xnnnnucxo xprnnt ocrporo npnonnxnnr; o]rntocxonnucxo xprnnt
nopntnoro ncx spnrntnoro npn n rnyxorosno rpo]nn spnrntnoro npn c
+xcxnnn; cxt crponnx yrn npn xpt rns;
3. nt no r ronornx xpycrnnx, nyxo.
4. no]nnt.
(
N n/n opxnn snxrnx
px (nn.)
1. )* nronornn xpycrnnx. 1-/
ucror, npnunnt nosnnxnonnnx, xnccn]nxnnx, noxsnnx x
onprnnnoy nunnm, npnnnnnt onpnn, oconnocrn
xoppxnnn. 1 9 npnunnt, noxsnnx, cpoxn n
rot onpnn, ncxot. 1 xnnnnx,
crnn psnnrnx, xoncpnrnnno nunn, noxsnnx x onpnnn,
rot +xcrpxnnn xrpxr. * npnsnxn, npnnnnnt
xoppxnnn nx spnnx nnt n nnnsn, onocroponn ]xnn.
*. nrpoxynxpnx xoppxnnx. onrxrnt nnnst.
20
2. . (orxptroyrontnx n sxptroyrontnx)
xnnnnucxo runn, rot nrnocrnxn (cocroxnn spnrntntx
]ynxnn - nnrpntnoro, npn]pnucxoro, cypunoro;
ronorpnucxn n ronorp]nucxn noxsrnn, snunn pnn
nrnocrnxn rnyxot), ocrpt npncryn rnyxot (xnnnnx,
nrorns, n]]pnnnntnt nrnos c rnsno n om nronorn,
xonnxcnx nornoxnx rpnnx; npnnnnnt xoncpnrnnnoro
nunnx V n V nxnrosnoro crnoro (xnns
crnnx, npnnnnnt nsnunnx n snncnocrn or ]op rnyxot) n
omro (rnnornsnnntx, crnnntx, nponnrnucxnx,
rnrnnonoxnpymmnx n p.); onprnnno nunn (noxsnnx,
npnnnnnt nrornrnucxn opnnrnponnntx onpnn);
ncnncpnsnnx ontntx rnyxoo; npo]nnxrnx cnnort or
rnyxot. 1 +rnonornx, oconnocrn runnx n
nunnx; ncxot.
20
3. prt npxo-oprno cnxsn. 10
<":
1. nrncon 3.. npnounnx no o]rntonornn. - ., 1978. 376 c.
2. pomncxn .., Fouxpen .. nsnt onsnn. - ., 1983. . 242-261; 32,
66-69, 305-338; 352-386. .
3. yxonocrno no rnsnt onsnx. - ., 1962. .2. - .173-176, .305-349.
4. nnonx yunx nporp no o]rntonornn. crn, 2004.
5. Bnen .. rpxr. - ., 1981.
6. pcnon . ., Fnxn .. yxonocrno no rnsno xnpyprnn. - ., 1988. - . 266-
330.
7. Fouxpen .. nsnt onsnn. - ., 1989. - . 237-252; 296-331; .
8. onnncxn .. ]rntonornx. - ., 1995. - . 220-236; 264-285.
9. onnncxn .. nsnt onsnn. .: nnnn, 1986. . 228-244; 2 71-295.
10. eopon .., pnn .., cnxynon .. nsnt onsnn. - ., 2000. . 215-
221; 260-283; .
11. ..onnncxn yxonocrno x npxrnucxn snxrnx no o]rntonornn. .,
1973. 255 c.
12. ..nnon-nncxx, ..nnntcon yxonocrno x npxrnucxn snxrnx no
rnsnt onsnx. ., 1966. 219 c.
13. .nor rnc rnsntx onsn. - Fynmr, 1962. . 1,2.
26 14. nopnxo .. ]rntonornx. .: 3-, 2003. - . 271-287; 253-270.
15. onn .. nsnt onsnn. - .: nnnn, 2002. . 245-268; 352-386; .
16. xnnmnnnn ., opnt .. pnx noomt npn ocrptx sonnnnxx n
nonpxnnxx rns, 1985.
17. ynopon .. n p. pnt rns. - ., 1986.
<;@*>G.
(=79<9B>G K:$7=<>@=.
)* nronornn xpycrnnx. 1-/ +
'+ '&'+ ' ' " 1+
!+ ''. * + + '+
' !+ .. * 3 ''+
+ ' + ' ' + 6''
''. , 3 '+ '' +
! &'. ,. >'" ''. @'
.
@<=$$>8>@=*>G (=79<9B>> K:$7=<>@=
1. oyrnnn xpycrnnx (xrpxr) nnon ucrt nn nronornn xpycrnnx.
2. nonnn psnnrnx
3. mnnx xpycrnnx.
xpycrnnx xnnxmrcx nnsorpnx, ocorp npn oxono
ocnmnnn, n npoxoxm cnr n nonxpocxonnx.
@<=$$>8>@=*>G @=7=:=@7 (9 I7>9(=79B;;A:
1. ( '' 5
=0 (rcxoro nospcr) 5
1) npnxx nonxpnx
2) snxx nonxpnx
3) cnoncrx
4) nonnop]nt.
,0 "1% 5
1) crpucxx (psnnnrcx n 50 nr n crpm);
2) ocnoxnennt (psnnnmrcx n nmo nospcr, n r.u. o 50 nr)
rpnrnucxx (xonrysnonnx n np]opnnonnx; nyunx npn noscrnnn
pnrrnoncxnx, nn]pxpcntx n pyrnx nsnyunn); npn omnx
sonnnnxx (nrnucxx, rrnnucxx, prornnx) n rnsntx
(rnyxorosnx, ynntnx n p.), npn orpnnnnxx cnoptnte,
rpnnnrporonyono, nnrpoxpcnrnxn, n]rnnno n p.).
2. - '' (nnenurx nnn ocrrounx), on nosnnxr nocn rpnt
ncncrnn pnnnx nnn pccctnnnx xpycrnnx, nnn nocn +xrpxncynxpno
+xcrpxnnn xrpxrt.).
@ '' xrpxrt xnnxrcx cpt nnr spux.
-:9R)JH; @=7=:=@7H.
V r onn cocrnnxmr 60 nc npoxenno nronornn oprn spnnx. nt
npoxenntx xrpxr tnn npuncnnt ntm.
I7>9(=79B;;A. Fontmym pont nrpr ncncrnnnx npu +roro nn
nronornn. nosnnxnonnnn xrpxrt y r nr snunn sonnnnx rpn, um
n npnt 3 cxn pnnocrn. conno ontmo np nnoy n yxsnnt npno
nnocxr rxn npncnnt sonnnnx rpn xx xpcnyx, rpnnn, nrpxnx ocn,
cnnnx. r snunn rxx sonnnn nro, rnnoxntnnn, roxconnsoso
n noscrnn pnnnn. oyrnnnx crnnonpnt, um n nporpccnpymr.
<;?;>;. oncpnrnnno nunn n npnnxrcx, um - onprnnno.
pn % xrpxr, xor nocn pcmnpnnx spux snunrntno ynyumrcx
ocrpor spnnx, noxsno ynnn ucrn pyxxn, r.. onrnucxx npn+xronx. Xorx
npn+xronx er nontmo nontmnn spnnx, n cpnnnnn c onpnn ynnnx
(+xcrpxnn) xpycrnnx; coxpnnn x xpycrnnx n xxoonnn nr ontmo
snunn, oconno nx penx.
ocrntntx cnyuxx nonpoc o noxsnnn onprnnnoro nmrntcrn pmrcx no
nnt ocrport spnnx. pn ocrpor spnnx 0,3 n ntm onpnnm n nponsnoxr. pn
ocrpor 0,2-0,1 onpnnm oxno ornoxnrt o nospcr 5 nr. pn ocrpor spnnx 0,1
onpnnm nyxno nponsnonrt sornrrntno, r.x. n +ro cnyu psnnnrcx nnonnx
n nocnymmx onpnnx n er +]]xr. nnonnx ocnoxnxrcx psnnrn
xocornsnx n nncrr, ]nsnucxn n ncnxnucxn nopsnnrn penx.
(&'' npoxenntx xrpxr cocronr n conmnnn pxonnn nocn
nponnnx rnrnucxnx xoncyntrnn, n ncxnmunnn pnrrnoncxnx onyunn
pnntx n n npynpxnnn nnpycntx sonnnn n npno pnnocrn.
(:>9,:;7JH; @=7=:=@7H.
non ucro ncrpumrcx cnymmn nnt npnoprenntx xrpxr:
1) crpucxx
2) rpnrnucxx
3) nrnucxx, xoropx nnmrcx y 1-4 ontntx cxpnt nro.
I7>9<9B>G. pnunnn noyrnnnx xpycrnnx oryr trt: noscrnn n
xpycrnnx onntx npymnn, roxcnucxnx, pnnnonntx ]xropon, nosoxn
npu ncncrnnnt nyre, rpn n sonnnnx nnyrpnnnx oonoux
rns.
(=79B;;A
syun nocrrouno nonno. opnn nrorns % xrpxrt oryr trt
psnnt n 4 rpynnt:
1. opnx pcn xpycrnnxontx nxon.
2. pymnn yrnnonoro on.
3. pymnn rxnnoro txnnx.
4. pymnn nponnnocrn cyxn xpycrnnx.
rorns xpycrnnxontx noyrnnn corncno ropnn pcn xpycrnnxontx
nxon cnonrcx x nporpccnpymmy yntmnnm nx. unrmr nct
cymcrnnnt ]xropo nx nopntno xnsnxrntnocrn xpycrnnx
cynt]rnpnntnt rpynnt nncrnn. ocroxnno oxncnnn nncrnn n nncrnn npnnonr x
cnnxnnm cynt]rnpnntno rpynnt, uro conponoxrcx nocroxnnt ntnnn
npcrnopnoro nx, uro n npnnonr x opsonnnm xrpxrt.
@<>>@= $7=:?;$@9P @=7=:=@7H:
snnnrcx crpucxx xrpxr n nospcr 50-70 nr, xx npnnno, n oonx rnsx, no n
ononpnno. ospnnn xrpxrt ner nnno or onoro ro o rpex nr n on.
snnumr 4 crnn crpucxo xrpxrt:
1. unnmmxcx.
2. spnx.
3. pnx.
4. pspnx.
@ ' nrnos xrpxrt xnnxmrcx nnt
nnsorpnn c xoppxnn, ocorp npn oxono ocnmnnn n n npoxoxm cnr. nx
% crnn xpxrpnt ocrpor spnnx c xoppxnn or 0,1 o 1,0, npn oxono
ocnmnnnn cponrt nnr spux n n npoxoxm cnr - p]nxc c rnsnoro n
nnn posont pnnopnt, nnn posont npnnopnt, no ncr npnnnpyr
p]nxc. nx % crnn - xpxrpnt ocrpor spnnx c xoppxnn n npnx or
cortx on nnnnt o cuer nntnn y nnn, npn oxono ocnmnnn cpt, no
nroornnt nnr spux, npnue npnnnpym noyrnnnx cporo nnr, n
npoxoxm cnr p]nxc c rnsnoro n nnn posont npnnopnt, no
npnnnpymr noyrnnnx, nnn cnt, n ntstnrcx. nx % crnn xrpxrt
xpxrpnt ocrpor spnnx cnroomymnnm c npnnntno npoxnn cnr ( 1/
p.l.c.) r.. orcyrcrnyr nprno spnn, npn oxono ocnmnnn cpt roornnt
nnr spux, n npoxoxm cnr p]nxc c rnsnoro n orcyrcrnyr. pn %
crnn xrpxrt nocn cnroomymnnx noxnnxrcx nprno spnn n rnsy, npn
oxono ocnmnnn spuox nnn cpt c necrxn xntnnntx ornoxnn n
xpycrnnx, nnn npnnopnt cpt (n npxn ucrn uepnt, n nnxn cpt),
nnn onounont; npn oxono ocnmnnn npnxx xp rnyx otuno,
orurcx poxnn pyxxn (npnoons) npn npnox nsrnx, n npoxoxm cnr
p]nxc c rnsnoro n nnn n ntstnrcx, nnn posont npnnopnt (nnpxy
posont, nnnsy orcyrcrnyr), nnn ount cnt.
9 mr nnn nspnx, nnn npspnx xrpxrt. nn cnoxrcx nnn x
nontmnnm , r.. rnyxo (rnyxo, cnxsnnx c nronorn xpycrnnx nstnrcx
nropnuno *%75 nnn ]xornnoy npnonnxnnry.
% crnn nosoxno noxnnnn **% rnyxot, uro cnxsno c
ypnt ononnn xpycrnnx. 3ro npnnonr x ro nyxnnm (nyxmmx xrpxr) n
ynnnunnm n oe. cnxsn c +rn pyxx cmrcx xnpn, noxnpyr V n orrox
xnxocrn ns rns npymrcx, nontmrcx o 50-60 pr.cr. n noxnnxmrcx npnsnxn,
nnonnmmn no xnnnnx ocrpt npncryn rnyxot.
% crnn nosoxno psnnrn *% rnyxot. pspnx
xrpxr oxr nporxrt no rnny onouno (npn nyxnnn cc xpycrnnx xnnnnx
nnonnr nyxmmym xrpxry), nnn oprnnno xrpxrt (ncncrnn pccctnnnx
xpycrnnxontx cc oe xpycrnnx yntmrcx, no+roy yrnynxrcx npnxx
xp n noxnnxrcx npnoons; xpo roro, pccctnmmncx cct, nocrnnno
ynxmmncx ups pnxnym cncry, snnmr e nyrn, ncncrnn uro psnnnrcx
nropnunx ]xonnrnucxx rnyxo, noxoxx xnnnnucxn n npnnunym
orxptroyrontnym rnyxoy.
xn opso, npn onouno xrpxr nropnunx rnyxo nporxr no rnny
sxptroyrontno rnyxot, r.. nnmrcx noxnponnn yrn npn xpt.
pn oprnnno xrpxr nropnunx rnyxo nporxr no rnny orxptroyrontno
rnyxot n orrox nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn npymrcx ns-s ocnnx xpo]ron n
xopnocxnpntno rpxyn, xoropt roxo nnrn snocxrcx n yron npn xpt.
xpo]rn +ro pxnnx n pcn xpycrnnxonoro nmcrn.
(:>*>(H <;?;>G @=7=:=@7H
' & nncoopsno nsnurt rontxo n nuntno crnn
xrpxrt - ncroxm npx crt nxpcrnnnt cocrnt, c noomtm xoroptx n px
cnyun oxno spxrt nponcc psnnrnx n xpycrnnx noyrnnn. xnn npnprn
xnnxmrcx poccncxn nnnnn, nnrcnx; ]pnnyscxn nnr-oypon, ]nncxn xrxpo,
xnoncxn npnprt xrnnn n c+n-xrnnn n p., xoropt npnnxmrcx n nn rnsntx
xnnt. nn copxr n cnoe cocrn: nncrnn, pno]nnnn, cxopnnonym xncnory n
pyrn nnrpnnrt.
cnonno ro nunnx xrpxrt ."'! +xcrpxnnx xrpxrt.
conpnno +rn psnnrnx nxpoxnpyprnn xrpxrt yrnt xpycrnnx oxno ynxrt
n nmo crnn xrpxrt no xnnnm ontnoro. ymcrnymr ncxontxo cnocoon
+xcrpxnnn xrpxrt: % (npn spno nospcrno xrpxr nnn nontnnx,
ntnnx xpycrnnx) - xor xpycrnnx ynxrcx n xncyn, '% (npn nmtx
nnx xrpxr) - xor ynnn xpycrnnx conponoxrcx pspymnn npn xncynt
xpycrnnx, ynnn cc, snxx xncyn ocrercx nrponyro. xt ro nr
cnon noxsnnx n npornnonoxsnnx. non conpnnt cnoco (on]nxnnx
+xcrpxncynxpnoro ro) - ]xo+yntcn]nxnnx ponnn xpycrnnx yntrpsnyxo c
ononpnnt orcctnnn cc n nnnnrnn (nnrpoxynxpno nnnst),
snxmm ynennt xpycrnnx. oxsn npn psnnuntx nnx xrpxrt n n nmo
crnn.
ount pxnx cnyuxx y rxxnoontntx oxr npnnxrtcx pxnnnnnx yrnoro
xpycrnnx (ntnnx ro n crxnonnno rno s ncxptrnx rnsnoro xnox).
@<>>@= > @9::;@*>G (9$<;9(;:=*>99P =8=@>> >
=:7>8=@>>.
ocn +xcrpxnnn xrpxrt rns crnonnrcx *. nnnnucxnn npnsnxn
]xnn xnnxmrcx: rnyoxx npnxx xp, poxnn pyxxn, noxnnnn nocn onpnnn
rnnprponnn ntcoxo crnnn (n cpn 10,0 ), orcyrcrnn xxoonnn.
]pxnnx ]xnunoro rns snunrntno cn, u rns c xpycrnnxo n ocrpor
spnnx n rxnx rnsx cnnxrcx o cortx. nntm nontmnnx spnnx ]xnunoro rns
npnrmr x xoppxnnn '. ocn ynnnx xpycrnnx +rpony rpymrcx ouxn n
10,0 , no+roy rxn nnn ntnnctnmr nnnst sphere covex 10,0 nx nn n r.x. y
npoonpnponnnoro nr xxoonnn, ro me n nx nnsn 13,0 .
oppnrnponrt ]xnm oxno n '' . oxsn rxx xoppxnnx
oconno npn onocroponn ]xnn. ncroxm npx n nnnrnncx pormr
ncxontxo xnnron xonrxrno xoppxnnn.
prn cnoco xoppxnnn ]xnn +ro nnnnrnnx ncxyccrnnnoro xpycrnnx nnn
nnu '" '' nyre nnnnx nnyrpt rns , xoropx ocnunnr
n rontxo noccrnonnnn ocrport spnnx, no n nnoxynxpnoro spnnx. ns c
nstnrcx *. runn 30 nr c roro nx, xor nsncrnt nrnncxn xnpypr
pont nnn nnpnt nnnnrnponn ncxyccrnnnt xpycrnnx, rxnonornx nnnnrnnn,
rx x xx n onn ncxyccrnnntx xpycrnnxon, nnpptnno conpmncrnymrcx. ymnn
cnnnnncrn n +ro oncrn cunrmrcx poccncxn yuent - npo]ccop .. eopon n
xnx pcnon ... cnonnt noxsnn nx nnnnx nnnst nnyrpt rns xnnxrcx
onocroponnxx ]xnx y nm spnoro nospcr, xor npnoprnn pyro
cnnnntnocrn cnxsno c ontmnn rpynocrxn. conpnno +rn psprtnmrcx
, cnocont n x xxoonnn.
rneprt cnoco xoppxnnn ]xnn +ro &' '', r..
nsnnn xpnnnsnt poronnnt nyre nnnnx n xpn xy e cnoxn nnnnrnr
nyxno xpnnnsnt, npnonxmm cnnt. ncroxm npx nx +rnx nn
ncnontsyrcx +xcnpnt nsp, mmn ntcoxn nnsyntnt +]]xr.
xont nyrn pmnnx npont optt c onn ns nnon pcnpocrpnenntx
sonnnn rns, xxn xnnxrcx xrpxr
ro x npx nnon cnt cro n opt c +rn sonnnn xnnxrcx
npxrnucxn nourn nonno orcyrcrnn p npo]nnxrnxn xrpxrt. 3r cropon nonpoc,
npxy c yconpmncrnonnn onprnnntx cpcrn, xnnxmrcx ono ns nnxmnx su
o]rntonornn.
! ! % &
1! .
r c npoxenno xrpxro n nnsxo ocrporo spnnx nyxno onpnponrt
nosoxno pntm n 1-2 ro, nox n psnnnct nnonnx, n cnom oupt nymx x
psnnrnm npymnnx nnoxynxpnoro spnnx n xocornsnx .
rpucxym xrpxry oxno cnyrrt c rnyxoo. m yxymnn spnnx c
ospcro cnxstnmr c noyrnnn xpycrnnx, oxnx cospnnnx xrpxrt n
onpnnn, xoropx noccrnonnr spnn. pn +ro nxn stnmr, uro unonx
nocrnnno n sonsnnno oxr rpxrt spnnn snosnprno ncncrnn
rnyxorosno rpo]nn spnrntnoro npn. nonrntno, ontnt c xrpxro no ps n
ncxontxo cxnn nspxrt nnyrpnrnsno nnnn n nrnos crnnrt rontxo nocn
nccnonnnx n npoxoxm cnr, co mnno nno n o]rntocxonnn.
<;@*>G.
(=79<9B>G -7:>B<=A9B9 )=-<;>G.
( "' /'" '"0 3 '' +
' / . &"'! 5 + &'+
"4 ' &' '+ !
' "'0+ ! " "' /''+ +
&&! ! %! !+ ''
4 ' 9B AB 3 '
/. !+ & "'0 %
/.+ .+ !'.+ '"1%. .04
/'+ ' .
!04 . "'!4 &'' "'.
- "' 3 6+ 4 ..
1. ' "' .
nrnocrnx rnyxot ocymcrnnxrcx n ocnon nntx nnsorpnn, npnrpnn,
xnnrpnn, ronorpnn, o]rntocxonnn n ronnocxonnn (ocorp yrn npn
xpt). po roro, npn noospnnn n rnyxoy nx yrounnnx nrnos nponoxrcx
psnnunt nrpysount n psrpysount npot.
rot nccnonnnx nnyrpnrnsnoro nnnnx :
ron, c noomtm xoroptx oxr trt nspno , xnnxmrcx:
1. pnnrnponount ro nntnropno nccnonnn.
2. xnnnnx nx on rounoro nspnnx mnpoxo nontsymrcx cnnnntntn
npnopn - ronorpn. ocnony r.n. % ronorpnnn nonoxno onpnnn
nnomn cnnmmnnnnx ronorpo porono oonouxn. ro npnoxn m n 1884 roy pyccxn
o]rntonoro .. x nxont.
@ ronorpt, xoropt prncrpnpymr rnynny nnnnnx poronnnt. o rxoy
npnnnnny tnn nocrpont ronorpt, npnoxnnt n 1863 roy p]. ncroxm npx s
pyxo nonyunnn pcnpocrpnnn nnpccnonnt ronorpt Bnorn (1905), rxx
ronorpt.
nx ontmnncrn rns nopntnx nnnunn cocrnnxr 18-22. pr.cr.
nnxnmm rpnnny nopt npnnnmr 15-14 pr.cr., s npxnmm 26-27. pr.cr. me n
1904 roy .. cnnnnxon orrnn nnnun ]nsnonornucxoro xonnnx ntcort n
nporxxnnn cyrox. 3rn xonnnx y nspocntx nm nxoxrcx n npnx 2- pr.cr. o
nnt cnnnnxon ornnurcx sxonopnt pnro - yponnt nnnnx ocrnrr
cnoro xcny pno yrpo (-7 ucon), nnny ncrynr nupo (19-20 ucon).
pnunno rxnx xonnn nxoropt nropt cunrnn scro xponn n cocyx ronont n
rns n psyntrr ropnsonrntnoro nonoxnnx unonx no npx cn, uro npnnonr x
nontmnnm n, noopor, n psyntrr nnxnnx rn n rns cnnxrcx. pyrn
nropt cnxstnmr xonnnx c npnon npn nnmn n nponcxoxmnn npn +ro
ocornucxnn nsnnnxn n nppcnpnnn xponn n oprnns. Vxstnmr rxx n
nosoxnocrt nnnxnnx mnpnnt spux (ro pcmnpnn n rnor n cyxnn n cnry).
nxo no npx cn spuox cyxnnrcx, n pcmnpxrcx n n ro x npx yrpo
otuno ntm.
pnnntn, no-nnnoy, orncrn xonnnx x ]nsnonornucxn cyrount
pnrnucxn nponcc, xoroptx nno oxno nrn n xnno oprnns n n npnpo.
npnp, pnr rpoprynxnnn, rsoon, nonoro on n p., uponnn nx n noun,
xrntnocrn n noxox. cnonno npnunno nosnnxnonnnx pnrnucxnx xonnn px
nonornucxnx nponccon, no-nnnoy, xnnxrcx cyrounx cn crcrnnno ocnmnnocrn.
nymmn roo nccnonnnx xnnxrcx ronorp]nx, xoropx r nosoxnocrt
n rontxo onpnnrt nnnunny , no n nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn
(npnoxn pnro n 1950 r.). pn ronorp]nn ronorp, cnxsnnt c +nxrponno
cncro, ycrnnnnnrcx n poronnn nccnyoro rns, xx +ro otuno nrcx npn
ronorpnn, no n ornnun or n runx ronorp ypxnnrcx n poronnn n runn 4-x
nnyr, ntstnx xx t nnrntnym xonpccnm rnsnoro xnox.
nun npn nnoxnnn ronorp n rns nponcxonr nontmnn , sr
nocrnnno cnnxnn ro nropx ycnnnnm orrox xnxocrn ns rns no nnnxnn
nnnnx. noomtm ocnnnnorp] n nnxymcx nnr nponsnonrcx snnct xpnno
cnnxnnx no crnn xonpccnn, no xpxrpy xoropo n c noomtm cnnnntntx
pcuron oxno onpnnrt cocroxnn nyr orrox () n - ( ).
non nxno nnnunno sct xnnxrcx xo+]]nnnnr nrxocrn orrox (),
noxstnmmn xonnucrno
3
nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn, orrxmm ns rns s 1 nn. n 1
. pr.cr. ]nntrpymmro nnnnx. nop pnn n cpn 0,3 (0,15-0,60). ro
npymnn oycnonnnnr nontmnn
po roro, onnnnrcx n C " 1B(, xoropo n onxno npntmrt 21-22
pr.cr., rxx % ; npoynnpyo xnxocrn ( ), xoropt cocrnnxr n
cpn 2,0
3
/nn. cnn on 4
3
/nn, ro oxno ronopnrt o rnnpcxpnnn
nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn (), c u rox oxr trt cnxsno nontmnn .
pn npoxenno rnyxo - nx ycrnonnnnx crnn nponcc
npononrcx rxx ' (nspnn nrp poronnnt) n +xorp]nx
(yntrpsnyxono nspnn psp rnsnoro xnox - +xonorpnx).
( "'.
. / ! 0 onnxr ontmym rpynny sonnnn rns, xoropx
xpxrpnsyrcx nocroxnnt nnn npnonucxn nontmnn ncncrnn npymnnx
orrox , c nocnymmn psnnrn rnnnuntx ]xron nonx spnnx n rpo]nn
(+xcxnnnn) spnrntnoro npn. nnnn n nnym rpynny psnopontx no nponcxoxnnm
n xnnsy psnnrnx sonnnn onpnno r, uro nontmnn o]rntoronyc xnnxrcx
n rontxo cnnroo, no n .nxnm npnunno nocnymmro nporpccnnnoro nnnx
spnrntntx ]ynxnn. ns-s nporpccnpymm rpo]nn spnrntnoro npn.
@' nx nno rnyxot xpxrpnt rpn xpnnntntx cnnro: nontmnn ,
cyxnn nonx spnnx (nnun - c nocono cropont) n rnyxorosnx rpo]nx c +xcxnnn
(nnnnn) ncx spnrntnoro npn. pymnn o]rntoronyc xpxrpnsyrcx
ynnnunn cyrountx xonnn on 5 ., ccnrpnx n oonx rnsx, nontmnn
on 26-27. (nonoxprno). nxo, nyxno ncr nonnrt, uro nontmnn oxr
ncrprnrtcx n npn nxoroptx pyrnx cocroxnnxx, n nmmnx nnuro omro c rnyxoo
(nnpnp, npn +noxpnnntx npymnnxx, n xnnxrpnucxn npno, npn mno
ocroxonpos n p.). o+roy nrnos npnnuno rnyxot oxno crnnrt rontxo n
conoxynnocrn c pyrnn cnnron.
@ 8 Vx n co nuntno crnn rnyxot xpxrpno
(]nsnonornucxo cxorot), n ncr n coornrcrnnn c
o]rntocxonnucxnn nsnnnxn ncx spnrntnoro npn. nop npn xnnrpnn
nnnunn cnnoro nxrn 5 rp. no ropnsonrnn n 7,5 - no nprnxnn. pn npnrpnn -
nrononunt nx rnyxot xnnxrcx ntnnn nonx spnnx n npxn-nocono xnpnr.
r ono nocrnnno sxnrtnr ncm noconym cropony, n ntnm rnopntnym, o
psnnrnx xpxrpnoro rpyuroro nonx spnnx (xonnnrpnucxn cyxnnoro co ncx
cropon).
tnnn nonx spnnx n npxn-nocono xnpnr, xx yrnpxmr rnp n
Xppnnrron (1959), cnxsno c nopxnn cocyon, nnrmmnx nncounym nononnny crurxn,
xoropt npoxoxr on nnnnt nyrt no cpnnnnm c nocono ucrtm n n nnx n npnym
oupt nosnnxr rnno- nnn noxcnn (noxcnn).
pxrn (1949) cunrr, uro nropx +xcnnrpnunoy or snro nonmc pcnonoxnnm
ncx spnrntnoro npn nontmnn nnyrpnrnsnoro nnnnx oxstnr rynrntno
crnn n npnym oupt n ro nonoxn, pcnonoxnnt y nnxn-nncounoro xpx, uro n
npnnonr x cyxnnm nonx spnnx nnun n npxn-nnyrpnn, sr n n nnxn-
nnyrpnn xnpnr. nunrntno nosn nnmrcx cyxnn nonx spnnx c nncouno
cropont. nxo smm crnn rnyxot onpnxmrcx nnmt ocrrxn nonx spnnx n nn
rx nstnoro nncounoro ocrponx, xy 25 n 60 n oncrn ropnsonrntnoro pnnn.
D spnn coxpnxrcx nnrntno npx n cnnxnn ro nponcxonr n
npnnntno cyxnnm nonx spnnx.
3 * 8 ontmnno nnyrpnrnsno nnnn
ornnnnr pmrurym nncrnnxy cxnpt xsn n npnnonr x npymnnm nnpxynxnnn xponn
no cocy rns. cncrnn npymnnx rpo]nxn nnyrpnrnsno ucrn spnrntnoro npn
psnnnrcx rpo]nx npnntx nonoxon n oncrn ncx spnrntnoro npn. nyxorosnx
rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn xpxrpnsyrcx nonnnn ncx n opsonnn yrnynnnx
n ne - +xcxnnnn, xoropx cnun snnr nnrpntnt n nncount ornt ncx,
sr oxnrtnr nct ncx. rnsx rxx nrcx rx nstnx
* '5 xoropx ornnurcx or rnyxorosno r, uro on o xpx n
oxonr n pcnonoxn n oncrn cocyncro noponxn. nx % *
ncx spnrntnoro npn xpxrpn ' ncx. snnrn rnyxorosno
rpo]nn ncx otuno nnmrcx ount nnno, ups ncxontxo nr or nun
sonnnnx n npn ocrrouno nunnn. nxo npn ocrpo npncryn rnyxot c ount
ntcoxn rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn oxr ncrynnrt ount tcrpo n n runn
ncxontxnx n nponcc sxnunnrcx nonno cnnoro.
pnnunx rnyxo psnnnrcx n runn nornx nr xnsnn no nnnxnn crntx
(cxnpornucxnx) nsnnn n pnxno cncr rns, rnrnucxn oycnonnnntx on
ntpxnntx, u n sopontx rnsx, xoropt npnnoxr x nontmnnm nnyrpnrnsnoro
nnnnx. pn npnnuno rnyxo n ornnun or nropnuno nontmrcx s xxoro-nno
npmcrnymmro oprnnucxoro nopxnnx rns (npnonnxnnr, ynnr, rpnt n p.).
@&' ! "'.
orncno nrornrnucxo xnccn]nxnnn npnnunx rnyxo nnrcx n rpn ocnonnt
]opt: orxptroyrontnym (V), sxptroyrontnym (V) n cmnnym. xx ]op
rnyxot n snncnocrn or cocroxnnx spnrntntx ]ynxnn nopsnxrcx no crnx
psnnrnx nponcc n: nuntnym, psnnrym, nxo smmym n rpnnntnym.
pn % ocnonnt cnnroo sonnnnx xnnxrcx nontmnn s
nnntx nronornucxnx nsnnn co cropont spnrntnoro npn n s npymnnx
spnrntntx ]ynxnn (rpnnn nonx spnnx).
nx % xpxrpno cyxnn nonx spnnx c nocono cropont (ntm 50,
no n ntm 15 rp.), n ++% nn - snunrntno cyxnn nonx spnnx,
npn +ro noconx rpnnn nonx spnnx ntm 15 or rouxn ]nxcnnn nnn xonnnrpnucxn;
oxr snunrntno yxymrtcx ocrpor spnnx n rnonx nrnnx. pn %
rnyxo nr nprnoro spnnx (vis0) nnn coxpnno cnroomymnn c nnpnnntno
npoxnn cnr (vis 1/ p.l.ic.).
nyxorosnx +xcxnnnx ncx spnrntnoro npn nunnr npoxnnxrtcx yx n
psnnro crnn (o]rntocxonnucxn). psnnrn nponcc nocrnnno ncrynr
rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn.
xn opso, crnx rnyxot onpnxrcx no nnt npnrpnn n
o]rntocxonnn
: rnyxot onpnxrcx no rp ocnonnt npnsnx:
crnntnocrn spnrntntx ]ynxnn npn nnrntno (n n 6 c.) nnmnnn s
ontntn, yponnm npn xprxonpnno nnmnnn (no npx cyrouno ronorpnn 2
ps n nt n runn 7-10 n) n no nrxocrn orrox nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn ns rns.
npnp, cnn nn]pt nnyrpnrnsnoro nnnnx n nop, noxsrnn nrxocrn orrox
nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn nronornucxn nnn nnmrcx cyxnn rpnnn nonx spnnx, ro
rxo cocroxnn pcnnnnrcx xx nycrounnx xonncnnx rnyxorosnoro nponcc n
rpyr nsnnnx rxrnxn nunnx. cunrrcx nnyrpnrnsno nnnn n
npnx or 16 o 27 . pr.cr., + " nnnn or 28 o 32 pr.cr. n
" 33 n ntm.
3r xnccn]nxnnx nonyunn nsnnn nnnucxo, nocxontxy co npn nsnxmrcx
crnx rnyxot n crnnt xonncnnn, cnonrnno nnn no nnnxnn nunnx.
9'" & ! "'.
3r nnon xonpnx ]op rnyxot, oncnocrt xoropo cocronr n ro, uro onsnt
onro npx nporxr conpmnno ccnnrono n oxr npnncrn x nonno
cnnor nopxnnoro rns conpmnno nsrno nx ontnoro. ns no nnmny nny
nour n nnu n ornnurcx or soponoro. nncrnnntn oxrnnntn cnnroo
xnnxrcx nontmnn n nsnnn o]rntocxonnucxnx nntx (rnsnoro n ncx
spnrntnoro npn). o nnnxnn nocroxnnoro crnnx nontmnnoro nnyrpnrnsnoro
nnnnx nponcxonr npymnn onntx nponccon nnyrpn rns n psnnnrcx rnyoxx
+xcxnnnx ncx spnrntnoro npn c nocnymm ro rpo]n. x xx cnnxnn
spnrntntx ]ynxnn npn orxptroyrontno rnyxo (V) nponcxonr ount nnno, ro
ontno cnun n npnr +roy snunnx, npnnnctnx yxymnn spnnx nospcrnt
nsnnnx (um - xrpxr). n opmrcx x oxynncry ror, xor spnn yx
snunrntno, cnnxno nnn orcyrcrnyr n npnocrnonnrt nponcc yx nntsx, r.x. npx
ynymno. rxo nsrno nx ontnoro runnn n cocronr oncnocrt +ro ]opt
rnyxot.
)&&! orxptroyrontno rnyxot cnyr npononrt c
xrpxro (nx xoropo, n ornnun or rnyxot, xpxrpn cpt nnr spux,
npnnopnocrt nnn orcyrcrnn p]nxc c rnsnoro n n npoxoxm cnr n orcyrcrnymr
nontmnn , nronornx nntx npnrpnn, xnnrpnn, rnsnoro n). rorns
orxptroyrontno rnyxot cnxsn c npymnn ]ynxnnn pnxno cncrt rns
ncncrnn ncrpo]nucxnx n rnprnnntx nsnnn n n. nuntno crnn + r n
nsnnnx nocxr npnnunt xpxrp, npnu onn nmr cxocrno c nospcrntn
nsnnnxn y sopontx nnn noxnnoro nospcr. psnnrn rnyxorosnoro nponcc,
oconno n nxo smm crnn, rnprnnnt nsnnnx xnnxmrcx nropnuntn,
r.x. onn oycnonnnt nocncrnnxn nontmnnx o]rntoronyc.
nx orxptroyrontno rnyxot xpxrpn npyxnt nnn nnrpcxnpntnt nox
orroxy nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn (). pn +ro rpxyn n cxnpntnt cnnyc
(mnon xnn) cyxnnmrcx nnn nonnocrtm sxptnmrcx, ntstnx nontmnn
nnyrpnrnsnoro nnnnx.
nxo, nox cnnyc nosnnxr rontxo n nronucxn nppcnonoxnntx rnsx,
r.. y nnn c rnrnucxn oycnonnnno ntpxnnocrtm yxsnntx nponccon.
rxptroyrontnx rnyxo ucro nocnr cnt xpxrp n xonrponnpyrcx yrocont
onnnrnt nnn, px, pnccnnnt rnn.
( '" "'.
ornnun or orxptroyrontno rnyxot nx sxptroyrontno rnyxot xpxrpnt pnnn
cyxrnnnt cnnrot: + onn rononnt, n oncrt
nponntx yr, nncx n srtnx, oconno npn npyronnnn, npnno-ncnxnucxnx
pccrpocrnx, nocn trtx n ropxu n, nnrntnoro npocorp xnno (n rnor) nnn
ns-s nxnrosnoro npns, port nnxnon, n connn, n ]on
rnnpronnucxoro xpns n p.
ononnt onn npxo conponoxmrcx noxnnnn ryn n pyx ntx xpyron noxpyr
ncrounnx cnr. yxnt xpyrn n ncusmr npn oprnnn nnn ntrnpnnn rns, n ornnun
or pyxntx xpyron, ntsnnntx cxonnnn cnnsn n poronnn. pxy c +rnn cnnron
nnmrcx noxnnnn omymnnx nnntx rnso xx ups snorno crxno, rxxcrt n
nnnn n rnsy, omymnn nnxnocrn rns, npnonnnnx ro cnso, uro n scrnnxr
oprnrtcx ontnoro x npuy.
nnn cnnroo nunnmmcx rnyxot xnnxrcx npymnn xxo onnn, xoropt
n coornrcrnyr nospcry ontnoro, uro scrnnxr ro ucro nxrt ouxn. pn oxrnnno
ocnonnnn nnmrcx pcmnpnn n nsnnrocrt npnnx nnnnpntx nn (cnnro
xopt), orex poronnnt, nxx npnxx xp, rpo]nucxn nsnnnx pyxno
oonouxn, cnnxnn ocrport spnnx, cyxnn nonx spnnx n +xcxnnnx cocx spnrntnoro
npn. 3rn nronornucxn nsnnnx ntpxnt n snncnocrn or crnn nponcc.
( !! -
5-10 cnyun sxptroyrontnx rnyxo oxr npoxnnxrtcx n nn
rnyxot (). pncryn nunnrcx nnsnno, um ncro n nupn nnn nouno npx,
npxo cnxsn c npncnnt npnno-ncnxnucxn nnn ]nsnucxn npnnpxxnn,
npno npnpron nnonnt n p. pncryn um ncro onocroponnn, conponoxrcx
cnntntn nrpnnoontn onxn n rnsy, xoropt nppnnpymr no xoy rponnunoro
npn n nncox, coornrcrnymmym nononnny ronont, syt, yxo, cpn, nerxn, pmmnym
nonocrt,; om cocroxnn ontnoro rxxno nnor c xonnnronntn xnnnnxn - xonont nor,
snnn nyntc, romnor, pnor, osno nnor nontmrcx rnpryp rn. pn nnnunn
+rnx cnnroon oryr trt ount cptsnt + n nn, nnpnp,
sxnmunnx o ocrpo cpuno-cocyncro nocrrounocrn, nouuno nnn nunouno
xonnxn, nrpnn, ocrporo sonnnnx syon n np., npn +ro ontnt ocrnnxmrcx
xpro cxopo noomn n coornrcrnymmym no npo]nnm n ontnnny, r oxstnrcx
cnnnnnsnponnnx npunx noomt, no n coornrcrnymmx rxono nx ocrporo
npncryn rnyxot.
Xpxrpnt nx ocrporo npncryn rnyxot pyxnt xpyrn npn nsrnx n ncrounnx
cnr nosnnxmr ncncrnn orx poronnnt n ]on ntcoxoro ; +rn x oxcnxrcx
n srynnnnn spnnx, nnnt np xx ups snornm crxno. pn oxrnnno
ocnonnnn onpyxnnrcx psxo ntpxnnx % ; rnsnoro xnox,
oonoux (noyrnn, rycxnx, mpoxonrx), npnxx , s
+, ncncrnn onnoro nps ro c]nnxrp, ntsnnnoro psxn nontmnn ,
.
s-s orex pyxxn oryr opsonrtcx npnn (pyxxn c poronnn n e
np]pnn, n yrny npn xpt) n snn cnnxnn (no xpm spux). nsno no
pccorprt n yrcx n nnno n snunrntno ryn (ns-s orex poronnnt). nor
(nocn cnxrnx orex poronnnt) yrcx ynnrt orunt ncx spnrntnoro npn c
nurxnn xonrypn, nyntcnnm nnrpntno prpnn crurxn n roprnn n ncx n
noxpyr nro. o npx npncryn nontmrcx o 60-80 . pr.cr., orrox xnxocrn ns rns
npxpmrcx nourn nonnocrtm. pn ronnocxonnn yron npn xpt nonnocrtm sxptr.
ocn xxoro npncryn ocrmrcx ronnocnnxnn, snn cnnxnn n rpo]nx pyxno
oonouxn.
crpt npncryn rnyxot nyxno && c ocrpt npnonnxnnro (npn
xoropo, n ornnun or , nr xpxrpntx nx xno, nppnnpymmnx on, npnxx x
p cpnxx, spuox cyxn, cnnxno);.
nyxmm xrpxro, xoropx rox nporxr c ocrpt nontmnn - no npn n n,
ornnun or , onpnxrcx cpt nnr spux c npnyrpont orrnxo;
c xonmnxrnnnro, npn xoropo rns oxr trt rox ntpxnno nnnnponn, no nr
xpxrpntx nx xno, nns, nontmnnx , cnnxnnx spnnx, orex poronnnt, nxo
npn xpt, mnpoxoro spux, +xcxnnnn ncx spnrntnoro npn;
nppnnpymmn n pyrn (x ct ornennt) oprnt onn npn rpymr
noxonocrn && ro c omnn sonnnnxn - nn]pxro noxp,
rnnpronnucxn xpnso, ocrpt xnnoro, nnmno roxcnxonn]xnn, xnmuno xonnxo,
nuenouno nnn nouuno xonnxo , uncrno-nnnno nronorn, - nronorn n p., npn
xoroptx, xpo onn n coornrcrnymm oprn nnn oncrn, nr xpxrpntx nx nsnnn
co cropont rnsnoro xnox, n r.u. ntcoxoro .
( % rnyxot c .' + xx n orxptroyrontno
rnyxot, ocnonn n cnymmnx ocnonntx cnnrox: nontmnn , yxymnn orrox
xnxocrn ns rns, rnnnunt nx rnyxot ]xrt nonx spnnx n rnyxorosnx +xcxnnnx
ncx spnrntnoro npn. ornnun or orxptroyrontno rnyxot npn sxptroyrontno
rnyxo yron npn xpt (npn ronnocxonnn) ucrnuno sxptr xopn pyxno
oonouxn nnn ronnocnnxnxn. porxr on n ccnnrono, n nn noocrptx npncrynon
rnyxot, nxpxo ntpxnntx, nynnpyxct no xprnno rnnpronnucxoro xpns nnn nrpnnoontx
on, npxo conpoxoxmnx.
nrorns sxptroyrontno rnyxot nxnym pont nrpmr
, oycnonnnnmmn nosoxnocrt psnnrnx noxt
pnxno cncrt yrn npn xpt (V) xopn pyxno oonouxn ncncrnn
ntmyxsnntx npononnpymmnx ]xropon crpccon, npno, nnrntnoro nxnon
ronont, npnnxrnx ontmoro xonnucrn xnxocrn (n r.u. xpnxnx nnnrxon ux, xo],
nxoronx, conenoro, ocrporo n r..), oconno n nout, npns. xx
nppcnonrmmnn npoxenntn xnnxmrcx: nt psp rns npn
nopntno psp xpycrnnx, ontmo xpycrnnx n nopntno no pspy rnsy,
npn nonoxnn nnnnpnoro rn nnn sn nonoxnn mnon xnn. ce +ro
oycnonnnnr cmnn npnoxpycrnnxono n]prt xnpn n nsnuntno
n rxnx rnsx. xo crponn rns oxr trt n y sopontx nnn
noxnnoro nospcr, no rnyxo psnnnrcx nnmt y rnrnucxn nppcnonoxnntx nnn.
Fon nnorno npnnrnn pyxxn n onr crnnx npononnpymmnx ]xropon x
npn nonpxnocrn xpycrnnx nnn xopnx pyxxn x pnxno cncr n V
srpynxr orrox xnxocrn ns rns. 3ro npnnonr x nontmnnm .
3rnonornx npnnuno rnyxot.
ncroxm npx ycrnonnno, uro rnyxo xnnxrcx nonn+rnonornunt sonnnn,
xoropo oxr trt ntsnno ctn psnoopsntn ]xropn.
psnnrnn rnyxot nnonxnym pont nrpmr +onnonntnt ]xropt: ncnxnucxn
npxnnnnx, npnnt norpxcnnx, orpnnrntnt +onnn. pxy c +rn ontmo snunn
nr rxx cocroxnn ]ynxnnn rnnornyc. +ro cnnrntcrnyr npymnn
o]rntoronyc y nnn c n+nn]ntntn pccrpocrnn, pccrpocrnn nrrrnnno,
npnno cncrt.. pnunnn rnyxot npxo xnnxmrcx onsnt nnxo-ymnnr, mnt
ocroxonpos n p., pccrpocrn +noxpnnno cncrt (npymnn ]ynxnnn mnronnno
xnst, xopt nnouunnxon, noxnyouno xnst), onnt npymnnx (nono-connoro,
xoncrpnnonoro n p.).
nxo yxsnnt omn pccrpocrn oryr trt nycxont xnnso rontxo npn
ycnonnn nnnunx psnoopsntx crntx npymnn n rnsy, n ucrnocrn, n pnxno
cncr rns - +ro rx nstnx 8 nxo npxy c +ro ropn n
ncroxm npx ontmo snunn npnrcx n %"% . roponnnxn
pyro xonnnnnn, cnxstnmr ]ynxnnonntnt n nronucxn nsnnnx n rnsy c
npymnn nnc xy nnnunno nnyrpnrnsnoro nnnnx ( 20 pr.cr.) n
prpnntnoro nnnnx n cocyncro crn, nnrmm ncx spnrntnoro npn (nnnn n
nnrpntno prpnn crurxn 70-90 pr.cr.). pn yntmnnn +roro
]nsnonornucxoro pnnoncnx n nnnunn nnnnx xx npn nontmnnn nnyrpnrnsnoro
nnnnx, rx n npn cnnxnnn prpnntnoro nnnnx, nnmrcx yxymnn nnrnnx ncx
spnrntnoro npn, nym x psnnrnm xpxrpno rnyxorosno +xcxnnnn x npn
nopntno o]rntoronyc - r.. psnnrnm rx nstno 8
1 nce ontm nccnonrn cnnrntcrnymr o snunocrn n r.n.
ynocxnpntnoro orrox no cynpxopnonntnoy npocrpncrny , npnnsntnt n
npnnnpntnt nyrx n sn orpsx rns noxpyr spnrntnoro npn. cnxsn c +rn
npnrmrcx nont nxpcrnnnt cpcrn n nunnn rnyxot.
xn opso, nnnun psnnuntx ropn o +rnonornucxnx ]xropx sonnnnx
cnnrntcrnyr, uro o cnx nop o xonn m n ntxcnn cymnocrt rnyxot.
(&'' ' ! "'.
npynpxnn npxnpnno cnnort y rtcxun n cxrxon rtcxu nm nxno
snunn nr ntxnnnn rnyxot n pnn crnn. +ro nntm n crpn oprnnsonno
ncnncpno ocnyxnnnn ontntx, xoropt nxnmumr n cx:
1) xrnnno ntxnnnn ontntx n nnn c noospnn n rnyxoy cpn ncnnnx crpm 40
nr; 2) nsxrn n 1 ncx ontntx rnyxoo n nnn c noospnn n
sonnnn c xonrpon +]]xrnnnocrn nuntx ponpnxrn, cocroxnnx spnrntntx
]ynxnn n , cnonpnnt nnpnnnn n onprnnno nunn, pnnnrnn
ontntx; 3) nponnn cncrrnucxoro nnmnnx n nunnx ontntx rnyxoo; 4)
rpyoycrpocrno n osoponnnn ontntx rnyxoo; 5) mnpoxx cnnrpno-npocnrnrntnx
por no rnyxo cpn ncnnnx.
xrnnno ntxnnnn pnn crnn rnyxot onxno npononrtcx cpn nnn crpm 40
nr no npx ynropntx npnon n rnsntx xnnrx nonnxnnnnx, n ronorpnucxnx
xnnrx y ncx oprnnmnxcx n nonnxnnnnxy x psnnunt cnnnnncr (corpont
xnnrt), n npo]. ocorpx cpn oprnnsonnnoro ncnnnx yupxnn n
npnpnxrn.
nxo +ro ount rpyoxx por, ntxnnxocrt rnyxot cocrnnxr ncro 0,5-1.
cxox ns roro, uro n nrorns rnyxot ontmym pont nrpmr ncncrnnnt ]xropt, n
ncroxm npx ontmo nnnnn ynxrcx ocnonnnm unnon c c orxromenno
ncncrnnnocrtm, xoropo nosnonxr onpyxnrt rnyxoy y 40-50 ocnonnntx.
pxy c +rn, xnnxrcx nncoopsnt npononrt ocnonnn n rnyxoy nnn,
crpmmnx cocyncrtn, nnponornucxnn n +noxpnnntn sonnnnxn, rxnn, xx
cxpnt nr, rnnpronnucxx onsnt, rnponnx nc]ynxnnx, n+nn]ntnx
nronornx, rpnt upn n r...
nxo, cnyr nrt n nny, uro y px ontntx rnyxo psnnnrcx o 35 nr. x,
nnpnp, no nnt pocnoncxoro .nncrnryr, rnyxo cpn crynron tn ntxnnn
n 1,4 cnyun. pn orcyrcrnnn xpxrpntx cnnroon rnyxot nnn cnn onn ntpxnt
cno, nxno snunn nmr % rnyxot. nn ornocxrcx:
1.npnnn ocrport spnnx, npnrpnx, xnnrpnx, o]rntocxonnx,
nonxpocxonnx, ronnocxonnx, cyrounx ronorpnx, +ncroronorpnx, ronorp]nx n p.
2.ponoxnnonnt nrpysount npot: rnonx n nono-nnrtnx ronorpnucxn
npot, npnrnucxx npo, oproxnnnocrrnucxx n nosnnnonnx (npo Xc),
xoprnsonont rcr (sxntnnn 0,1 pcrnop xcrson) n p. ucrnocrn,
xoprnxocrpont npn crno npnnnnn y nnn, nppcnonoxnntx x rnyxo, yxymmr
orrox xnxocrn ns rns nropx roy, uro onn nonnxmr rnnyponnsy n npnnoxr x
cxonnnnm yxononncxpnon n yrny npn xpt n yronmnnm rpxyn.
3. srpysounx nnnoxpnnnonx npo n p. (noponocrn o +rnx npox t nr n
yunnxx ).
unn npnnuno V rnyxot.
unn V n xponnucxo V xnnxrcx rpyno n n ncr nropno su.
nxo, s nocnnn rot ocrnrnyrt snunrntnt psyntrrt n nunnn ontntx,
nropx cnonpnnoy ntxnnnnm rnyxot n pnnnx crnxx.
pnooupno su npn nunnn rnyxot xnnxrcx n rontxo - 1B(
nyr nponnnx xonnxc ponpnxrn, no n cncrrnucxo
nponnn * 5 nnpnnnnoro n nopxnn nnrnnx
spnrntnoro npn8
s . rnnornsnnntx cpcrn n nunnn rnyxot rpnnnonno cro
snnmr 5 r.. cpcrn, cyxnnmmn spuox, npn +ro pcrxrnnmmn rpxyny n
r ct ynyummmn orrox . nn ornocxrcx xonnnonrnucxn cpcrn -
nnnoxpnnn 1-6 pcrnop, xpxonnn 0,75, nxnnnn-2-5 n nrnxonnncrpsnt -
+spnn 0,25, npospnn 0,5, ]oc]xon-,02, p
po nornxon npn rnyxo ncnontsymrcx cpcrn, cyxnnmmn
cocyt n r ct cnnxmmn npoyxnnm n : noxropt rnonon,
onrnon, pyrnon, oxynpcc 0,25-0,5 p-pt, ns on conpnntx cpcrn ronrnx,
xonnnponnnt npnppr ]ornn; npn conyrcrnymm rnnpronnucxo onsnn
nnrpntnt - n noxrop xno]nnnn 0,125-0,5.
ont cpcrn - (ynyummmn ynocxnpntnt orrox )
xcnrn nnn nrnonpocr 0,005; rxx - (crnoro
crnnx) sonr nnn rpyconr 2 (cnnxmmn ntporxy ).
pn orcyrcrnnn rnnornsnnnoro +]]xr nxpcrnn nnn ncrnnnsnnn
rnyxorosnoro nponcc, noxsno onprnnno nunn (nnponnxmmn nnn
]ncrynnsnpymmn nmrntcrn n pnxno son rns cnnycrpxynoronn,
cnnycrpxyno+xronn).
ypct % *% rpnnn nxnmumr nrncxnpornucxn,
cocyopcmnpxmmn cpcrn, nnrnnt, nrnoxcnnrt n p. n runn cxn, 2-3 ps
n roy.

unn ocrporo n noocrporo npncrynon rnyxot.
unn ocrporo n noocrporo npncrynon sxnmurcx n nsnunnn nornxon: 1-2
pcrnop nnnoxpnnn n runn npnoro uc no 2 xn. nncrnnnxnnn n nponsnoxr
xxt 15 nn., sr 2 uc - xxt nonuc (3-4 ps) n nocn - xxt uc o xonn
cyrox. ntnm cnnxmr o 6 ps n cyrxn. cro nnnoxpnnn oxno ncnontsonrt
0,75 p-p xpxonnn. nonpnno crno oxno nsnunrt n noxropt, sonr.
nrnxonnn+crpsnt npnprt npn ocrpo npncryn rnyxot n npnnxmr, r.x. onn psxo
pcmnpxmr cocyt n ycnnnnmr xnnnnx spuxonoro nox. pnnntno nsnumr
nnrnnrop xpnrnpst omro crnnx - nxp - 0,5 r x o 3-4 ps n nt 1-t nt,
sr no 0,25 x 1-2 ps n nt nnn rnnnpnn (1-2 r./xr nc 1-2ps n nt), ononnxx nx
nsnunn xnn-copxmnx npnpron nnn npoyxron; ropxun noxnt nnnt,
ouncrnrntnym xnnsy nnn conno cnnrntno, nnxnxn n nncox. ps uc, cnn n
nopnnsyrcx, nnoxr nnrnucxym cct (nnsnn 2,5npon 1npoon 2 no 1
n) n/ n nonoxnnn nex, nocn uro ontno onxn nxrt 2-3 uc (nnu nosoxn
oprocrrnucxn xonnnc). ps 3 uc ontno onxn trt ornpnnn n rnsno
crnnonp nx onprnnnoro nunnx. cnn ups 24 uc npncryn n ynoct xynnponrt,
noxsno xnpyprnucxo nunn. x cnn nxnrosno nunn no
nonoxnrntnt +]]xr, noxsno

xnpyprnucxo nunn: npn+xronx nnn
]ncrynnsnpymmn onpnnn n nxpoxnpyprnucxo yponn, no nxpocxono,
nrornnucxn opnnrnponnnt, pspornnt xnxo ..pcnont n mnpoxo
nnpennt n npxrnxy (n mnono xnn, rpxyn, n nnnnpno rn n nnrmmnx
ro cocyx n p.).
xn rnyxonoro ontnoro.
Fontnoy rnyxoo pxonyrcx cnoxont ops xnsnn, nsrrt upspnoro
npyronnnx, orpnnrntntx +onn, npononrt coornrcrnymm nunn npn nnnunn
omnx sonnnn, conmrt nry n npnnntnt pxn rpy n ortx, nsrrt por n
rnor, n nount cnt; nocnrt ouxn c snntn ]nntrpn n r.n.
- "'.
snnnmrcx nocn sonnnn nnn rpn rns. nocpcrnnno npnunno nontmnnx
npn ncx ]opx cnyxnr npymnn orrox nnyrpnrnsno xnxocrn () ns rns.
snncnocrn or npnunnt onn nopsnxmrcx n:
""1 3 nocnnocnnnrntnym, ntsnnnym opsonnn snnx nnn ronnocnnxn,
cpmnn n spmnn spux, cxonnnn +xccyr n rpxynxpno son. nrnocrnx
noormr nns n onpyxnn onncnntx nsnnn n rnsy;
&'"1 3 nosnnxmmym npn sonnnnxx xpycrnnx; e nonnt *
ntsnn nsnnn nonoxnnx xpycrnnx npn ro nontnnx nnn ntnnx;
** ntsnn nyxnn xrpxrt n nspno nnn npspno crnxx;
* ntsnn sxynopxo pccctnmmnncx ccn xpycrnnx npn
npspno (oprnnno) xrpxr;
""1 3 5 psnnnmmymcx ncncrnnn noncxynxpnsnnn n yrny
npn xpt nocn rpoos nnrpntno nnt crurxn, srpynxmm orrox ns
rns (npn nr, rnnpronnucxo onsnn n r..) n *
nosnnxmmym npn nontmnnn nnnnx n nnx rnsnnnt npn cocyncrtx onyxonxx nnn
cnnnnn npxn nono nnt;
'"1 3 ncncrnn nonpxnnx rpxynxpnoro nnpr n
pcmnnnnx yrn npn xpt or rnponnnucxoro yp n , n
psyntrr uro psnnrn cnunoro nponcc srpynxr orrox ;
"1 3 nosnnxmmym npn ynonrnxx (ncrpo]nn cocyncroro rpxr),
]xorosx, ncrpo]nxx, rnpnnxx n crpo orcnox crurxn, prnnonrnxx
psnnunoro rns;
'"1 3 psnnnmmymcx npn nnyrpnrnsntx onyxonxx, npoyxrt pcn
xoroptx snnmr nyrn orrox, srpynxx nnpxynxnnm .
unn sxnmurcx n pnxntnocrn xoncpnrnnnoro nunnn ocnonnoro sonnnnx,
coornrcrnnno npnnnnnon, n cnonpnnocrn onprnnnoro nunnx ocnoxnnn, or
uro snncxr n . (ntsoponnnn n ocrrouno spnn nnn cnnor, cnonnnn,
norpx rns, xx oprn).
<;@*>G.
(9-:;R);>G B<=A= > ;B9 (:>)=79?9B9 =((=:=7=.
rt nonxrn o xryntnocrn npont rnsnoro rpnrns nspocntx
n r; psoprt xnccn]nxnnm, rpn; pccorprt xnnnnxy, npnym noomt n nunn
npn nxporpnx, xonrysnxx, nponnxmmnx pnnnxx n oxorx rns. cynrt
ocnoxnnnx rpn oprn spnnx; npo]nnxrnxy nonpxnn oprn spnnx.
45 nn.
3 rpynnono roprnucxo snxrn n ynropnn.
: 1. nnnt: xnccn]nxnnx nonpxnn rns; nonpxnnx
opnrt n nx; nponnxmmn pnnnx rns, xnpyprnucxx oporx nonpxnn rns
y r; oxorn rns; smnrnt cpcrn.
2. nt no r pnt oprn spnnx.
3. no]nnt.
(
N n/n opxnn snxrnx
px (nn.)
1. nt rnsnoro rpnrns. nccn]nxnnx. 3
2. nnnx nx, xonmnxrnnt, cnesntx oprnon, npnx noomt npn
nnx
5
3. nnnx rns, xnccn]nxnnx, ocnoxnnnx (rnnost, ynnrt,
cnnrnucxx o]rntnx ucror, cpoxn nosnnxnonnnx,
+rnonornx, om n crno nunn, npornos, npo]nnxrnucxn
ponpnxrnx, noxsnnx x ynnnm pnnnoro rns n cpoxn
+nyxnnnn) npnx npunx noomt, X. connocrn
cnnrooxonnxc poronnunoro n cxnpntnoro pnnnx. R-
nrnocrnx nnopontx rn.
8
4. onpxnnx opnrt ucror, nosoxnt npnunnt, nrnocrnx,
cnnrot npno xocr n nonpxnn copxnoro opnrt.
5
5. onrysnn oprn spnnx ucror, xnccn]nxnnx; oconnocrn
xnnnnxn, runnx, n ncxoon y nnn psnoro nospcr; npnnnnnt
nunnx, pt nornoxno noomn; ncxot ryntx rpn.
7
6. connocrn nponsnocrnnnoro, rcxoro rpnrns, ontx
nonpxnn oprn spnnx.
3
7. xorn oprn spnnx xnccn]nxnnx, nnon ucrt
npnunnt n oconnocrn xnnnnx oxoron rns y r n nspocntx,
runnx n nunnx oxoron (xoncpnrnnnoro n xnpyprnucxoro);
oxsnn nornoxno noomn npn xnnucxnx oxorx, ornnun
or nornoxno noomn npn rpnucxnx oxorx.
6
8. nopont rn rns nornoxnx noomt, rxrnx nnnx,
noxsnnx nx rocnnrnnsnnn.
3
9. prt npxo-oprno cnxsn. 5

V:
1. nrncon 3.. npnounnx no o]rntonornn. - ., 1978. - . 112-118, 158-163, 184-192.
2. pomncxn .., Fouxpn .. nsnt onsnn. - ., 1983. - . 382-408.
3. ynopon .., rponnnoncxx .. ponnxmmn pnnnx n xonrysnn rns. - .,
1975.
4. xon .. poont pnnnx rns. nnnrp, 1974.
5. oposon .., xonnn .. pxorpnnx rnsntx onsn. - ., 2001. - . 147-158.
6. nnonx yunx nporp no o]rntonornn. - crn, 2004.
7. yxonocrno no rnsnt onsnx. - ., 1962. - . 3. - n. 2. - . 340-416.
8. opon .. n p. pronporsnponnn. - ., 1982.
9. xnnmnnnn ., opnt .. pnx noomt npn ocrptx sonnnnxx n
nonpxnnxx rns, 1985.
10. ynopon .. n p. pnt rns. - ., 1986.
11. nopnxo .. ]rntonornx. .: 3-, 2003. - . 288-308.
12. onn .. nsnt onsnn. - .: nnnn, 2002. . 478-508.
13. eopon .., pnn .., cnxynon .. nsnt onsnn. - .: srntcxn nnrp
eopon, 2000. . 308-336.

xryntnocrt rt
onpxnocrt rns ount nntxx n cocrnnxr nnmt 0,15 nonpxnocrn rn, onxo
pnnnx oprn spnnx nnmmrcx onontno ucro.
conno rxxno onn nporxmr y r. V r cpn npnunn nyxcroponn cnnort
rpnt snnmr rprt cro, onocroponn cnnort npno cro.
pnunn rcxoro rpnrns - nnnxo noxcrno. 3ro nrpt c contnt
opyxn, xnnucxn ontrt, nocropoxno opmnn c noxnnnn, nrnn, nnonxn
nnnx n r..
cnyu opmnnx ontnoro c rpno rns npxo npu nmo cnnnntnocrn
npnnnr n cx ncm ornrcrnnnocrt s npnt npnnxrt pmnnx, s npnym noomt, or
rpornocrn xoroporo snncnr cyt pnnnoro rns.
n +ro nxnnn x nocrpmct npcrnnrt pont npu nmoro npo]nnx npn oxsnnn
npno npuno noomn npn rpn roro nnn nnoro orn rns.
- :
@&' .
o ycnonnx nonyunnx rpnt:
1. ponsnocrnnnt
) npotmnnnt
) cntcxoxosxcrnnnt
2. Ftront
) y nspocntx
) y r
3. noprnnnt
4. pncnoprnt
5. onnt (ont).
o npnunn nonpxnnx:
1. xnnucxn nonpxnnx rns -
) nxporpnt
) xonrysnn
n) nponnxmmn pnnnx ( - poronnunt, cxnpntnt,
nnntnt r.. n rpnnn poronnnt n cxnpt n
xopnocxnpntnt).
2. xorn rns -
) xnnucxn
) rpnucxn
n) nyunt
3. ropoxnnx rns.
o rxxcrn nonpxnnx
1. rxn xor n ncxo nr nonnxnnx ]ynxnn n xocrnucxoro ]xr.
2. pnn oxr trt ypnno nonnxnn ocrport spnnx ( o 0,5 c
xoppxnn) nnn npsxo ntpxn xocrnucxn ]xr.
3. xxnt cnn nonpxnn sxnunnrcx croxn nonnxnn spnnx nnx 0,5
c.x. nnn ntpxn xocrnucxn ]xr.
X .
: ' onontno ucrx nronornx, tnmr nsonnponnnt n cournnt c
pnnnxn rnsnoro xnox, rnsnnnt, nnn, upn n osr ( n nocnn cnrynnn
oxsrntn xoncyntrnnx n nunn nnponronor). sp n nn pnt oryr n
coornrcrnonrt rxxcrn nonpxnnx rnyxnxmnx rxn. oryr trt
, c , c ucrnunt nnn nonnt or cnxn; onn nxnmumr
n cx 5 , npn +ro x nsnunrntnt rpnt, xonrysnn
conponoxmrcx psnnuntn xpononorexn, orexo nx. osoxnt nsonnponnnt
nonpxnnx xoxn, tmn, xpxm nx, xonmnxrnnt n psnnunt nx xonnnnn. nt,
npnnntnt xpm nx, otuno coxnyrt; npn nprnxntntx n xoctx (ns-s coxpmnnx
xpyrono tmnt nx) xpx pcxoxrcx.
. npononrcx n oe F - nsnunn nnrrnxon,
ycnoxnnmmnx, cpuntx cpcrn (nnyrpt nnn n/), F, , xponoocrnnnnnmmnx,
nnn nroxcnn; nxntnrcx crpnntnx onoxynxpn nonxsx n ontno rpncnoprnpyrcx
n rnsno ornnn, r y yr oxsn xucrnnnx cnnnnnsnponnnx noomt,
nponn X n xprumn cpoxn (o 6 ucon nocn rpnt). cnn pnt nx nsonnponnt,
ro X oxr nponsncrn n no]rntonor (oporrt pny, nnoxnrt mnt), no npn +ro
ncr nonx o ]nsnonornucxo n xocrnucxo ponn nx.
pn ncxnosntx n cxnosntx s nonpxnnx cnoonoro xpx pnx nx onn ounmmrcx
nnnnro n nnxnt crpnntnt rnono or nocroponnnx ucrnn, oxpyxnocrt cstnmr
1 pcrnopo pnnnnnronoro snenoro, n xonmnxrnnntnt mox sxntnrcx 0,25-0,5
pcrnop nxnn, no xoxy nx noxpyr xpen pnt nnxnnx 2 nonoxnn (onot -
0,1 pnnnn 1 xnnx n xxt 1 n pcrnop) n nxntnmr mnt.
non cnoxnt nx pnosnnnn cxnosnt n pnnt pnt. cnn nnpnnntno
conocrnnnn xpen xoxno pnt oxr n nrt nnronpnxrntx nocncrnn, ro xpxm
npnnonr c croxo ]opnnn nx. nnnx su npn X ount rouno cosnn
npnnntnoro xonryp xpx nx, rouno conocrnnnn npnro n snro xpen nx, sr
noccrnnnnnmr nnocrnocrt xpxmno nncrnnxn. cnn xpx pnt psosxnt nx ponno
cpsmr nx cosnnx nontx npnnntntx conocrnntx pnntx nonpxnocr.
ocnonrntnocrt nnoxnnx mnon onpnxmr n xxo xonxprno cnyu
nnnnnyntno. tuno nocnonrntnocrt cnymmx : no cpo nnnnn
nnrpprnnntnoro npocrpncrn nxntnrcx menxont mon 5/0 nnn 6/0, sr - n
pep no onoy mny 6/0 nnn 8/0; n npnn ryt pnt xpxm oxno ncnontsonrt
pccctnmmncx mnt 6/0, nnnnt xonnt snnx mnon ntnoxr nnpe, nxntnmr nx
n nono ysn npnro pepnoro mn, xoropt nocn +roro snxstnmr me nxt,
xonnt nnr npn +ro ypxnnmr nnpnnnntn xnpn n (npnymcrno npnoro
cnoco xnnxrcx orcyrcrnn xonrxr mn c poronnn, nroporo yntmnn pncx
psnnrnx ocnoxnnn). n n coornrcrnnn c npnnnnno nocnono oporxn , ymnnmr
pny tmuno-]cnnntnoro cnox pccctnmmnncx mnn 6/-.
nrnnm xpen xoxno pnt npnonuntno nponoxr orntntn mnn n crx
nsnoon no xoy pnt menxo 6/0-8/0, nnrpnn xy crxxn n ropnsonrntno pn
onycrn o 5, n nprnxntno n on 2 ; onrnntno pccroxnn nxon nrnt 1
or xpx pnt. rnnt nrxxnnx snncnr or cnox: n xpxm ysn srxrnnmr c ontmn
nrxxnn, n tmuno- ]cnnntno cno s ocotx ycnnn, n xox o xopomro
conocrnnnnx xpen c yuero orex n nn]nntrpnnonno ncrsnn rxn.
pn ]xr rxnn X on rpyoex: npn nontmnx ]xrx xpx pnt
cnnxmr n ]nxcnpymr rxnnxo npxoro cmnnnnx n roo Vnnp; nponnt nnn
psosxennt xpx cpsmr rx, urot conocrnnxt nonpxnocrn tnn xonrpy+nrnt.,
xonnnrpnt no xon]nrypnnn.
ocn X nsnumrcx crno F, n xn., sxx; xoxnt mnt oprtnrt 1
cnnpront pcrnopo pnnnnnronoro snenoro. pn nnnunn nn]xnnn ntop npnpr
snncnr or psyntrr nxpononornucxoro nccnonnnx.
nt nx otuno sxnnmr xopomo nropx onntnoy xponocnxnnm nx.
conno oncnt orptnt nx y nnyrpnnro yrn rns r.x. +ro conponoxrcx
nonpxnn . '. pn +ro nxno noccrnonnrt npoxonocrt nx,
nponcrn ups nnx cnnnntnt sont n n nnx nnoxnrt mnt n xpx psopnnntx
xnntnn no nxpocxono. on ocrnnxmr n ncxontxo n, urot npornprnrt
spcrnn npocnr xnntn.
: 'O1' xnnxmrcx nerxnn, no, pxo nsonnponnnt, xx n nx, oryr
trt cournntn. osnnxmmn xpononsnnxnnx onontno tcrpo pccctnmrcx. o
pnnnx xonmnxrnnt c xpononsnnxnn ory cxnponrt pnnnx cxnpt, npnue
cxnosnt (nponnxmmn), no+roy n noontx cnyuxx noxsn pnnsnx pnt n R-rp]nx
opnrt nx ncxnmunnx nnoponoro rn nnyrpn rns (rxo ontno rpyr cpouno
rocnnrnnsnnn n rnsno crnnonp).
n xonmnxrnnt ntm 5 nnno nnoxnnx mnon n rpyr. cnn ontm 5
ro nocn ncrsnn nxntnmrcx xnponont nnn menxont mnt; cnnmr nx n 5-t
nt.
pn nnnunn no xonmnxrnno nnoponoro rn, ucrnuno yxoxmro n oonouxn
rnsnoro xnox, rpyrcx ontmx ocropoxnocrt ynxrt ro oxno rontxo n
nxpoxnpyprnucxo crnnonp.
onpxnocrnt nnopont rn xonmnxrnnt otuno nrxo cnnmrcx nnxnt
crpnntnt rnono nnn xnoonro, nnn oxont xp onopsono nnxnnonno
nrn (npnnntno nonpxnocrn xonmnxrnnt) nocn sxntnnnx nxnn. ocn uro
sxntnmrcx snn]nnnpymmn xnnn, onoxprno sxntnrcx nrnxrpnntnx st.
( " ' ncxotn (nuenn, ocn) oryr nnmrtcx n rontxo crnt
xnnnnx nocnnnnx (psxn orex nx, nnn, ont, cnntnt sy; n cr yxyc ntnxunnrcx
rnept crpxnt 1,5-2 nnno; xno oxr nponnrrtcx nrnyt npn nnxnnxx nx,
nopxx xonmnxrnny, cxnpy, poronnny, npnmm xpy, ntstnx xos, xonmnxrnnnr,
xprnr, npnonnxnnr), no n omn (o mox n cprntnoro ncxo). ornoxnx noomt
nnnnro sxnrnrt xno y ro ocnonnnx n ynnrt. snunrt F nnn , xoprnxocrpont
n xnnxx, sn, omn cncnnnnsnpymmn cpcrn c yuero omro cocroxnnx
ontnoro.
: ' xnccn]nnnpymrcx &
no noxnnsnnn n poronnunt, nnntnt, cxnpntnt n xopnocxnpntnt. non
oncntn, nnnnnnsnpymmnn xnnxmrcx nponnxmmn pnnnx rns.
ponnxmmn pnnnx cpn pyrnx rpn rns ncrpumrcx onontno ucro n nmr
ontmo xnnnnucxo snunn n cnny rxxntx nocncrnn. m nosnnxmr n
nponsnocrn. cxo pnnnx no noro onpnxrcx xucrno npuno noomn n
yucrx, nntnm - n oxsnnx cnnnnnsnponnno noomn. o+roy xxt npu
onxn snrt npnsnxn nponnxmmro pnnnx n yrt oxsrt npnym npunym noomt
nx npynpxnn rnsntx ocnoxnnn.
non ucrt nponnxmmnx pnnn rns: ocxonxn or crntntx rn
mnnt npn nx ponr, nonpxnnx xonno copnnmcx npononoxn n orcxounnm
mnxo npn pyx pon, poro xnnornoro, y r - or nonpxnnx noxnnnn, mnno, npn
nsptn xpn, conn, ronrop.
cnonnt xnnnnucxn npnsnxn nponnxmmro pnnnx: 1) snxmmx pn, n xoropo
ymnnt nnyrpnnn oonouxn rns, 2) rnnoronnx, 3) orcyrcrnn npn xpt (npn
poronnuno nnn nnntno pn) nnn e yrnynnn (npn pn n sn orpsx
cxnpt), 4) rpymnnnt spuox (npn poronnuno nnn nnntno pnnnn), 5) nonnxnn
ocrport spnnx, 6) nnnun nnoponoro rn n rnsy n pnrrnorp opnrt. pn
nnnunn omnocrn cnnroon nponnxmmro pnnnx, nx poronnuno noxnnsnnn ro
xpxrpno nnnun pnt n poronnn c ntnnn pyxxn, u oycnonnnnrcx
rpymnnntx ]op spux, nx cxnpntno xpxrpno nnnun pnt n cxnp,
ntnnn nnnnpnoro rn nnn xopnonn (uepnoro nnr), crurxn, crxnonnnoro rn,
otunx xpyrnx ]op spux n rnyoxx npnxx xp.
nrnocrnx ocnontnrcx n ntxnnnnn xnnnnucxnx cnnroon rpnt (npyxnt
ocorpo, oxont ocnmnn, n npoxoxm cnr, nonxpocxonnn, o]rntocxonnn) n
oxsrntno (x npn noospnnn n nponnxmm pnnn) osopno R -rp]nn opnrt n
2-yx npoxnnxx nx onpyxnnx nnn ncxnmunnx nnyrpnrnsnoro nnoponoro rn. o
noxsnnx (npn onpyxnnn nnoponoro rn) npononrcx noxnnsnnonnx R -rp]nx no
opry-Fnrnny c nporso-nnnxropo n ncnontsonnn cx-nspnrn. osoxno
nponnn +xorp]nn, n]nocxonnn.
pnx npunx noomt npn nponnxmm pnnnn ( E@):
npornnoonnx rpnnx, npornnonn]xnnonnx npo]nnxrnx, xponoocrnnnnnmmx
rpnnx n npornnocronnxunx npo]nnxrnx):
1) nocn ocorp rns, ynxmr nonpxnocrnt nnopont rn, no npn +ro no
nonnrt, uro ntnnmx n ymnnnx pyxx n pn um noxox n xooux
rpxsn, rxnyrt ns pnt nntsx;
2) n rns sxntnmr npornnonxpont cpcrn (cynt]nnn nnn nrnnornxn),
3) nxntnmr nnoxynxpnym nonxsxy,
4) nnoxr no Fspxo nnn nroxcnn,
5) nnoxr nrnnornxn n/, cynt]nnnnt nnyrpt,
6) rocrrnxn (nnxcon, nnoxnpononym xncnory n r..), nrnonporxropt
(nnnnon, +rsnnr nrpnx),
7) nnyrpt nnn n/ - nnrrnxn (nnrnn, oxno npon),
8) cpouno cnnnnn nnn mnno cxpo noomn, nnn n nmo rpncnopr
n nonoxnnn nx ontnoro ornpnnxmr nx oxsnnx cnnnnnsnponnno noomn
n rnsno ornnn.
pnnnnnt nunnx nponnxmmnx pnnn sxnmurcx n xucrnnno nonno npnnuno
xnpyprnucxo oporx ((K9) nponnxmmro pnnnx n nosoxno pnnn cpoxn nocn
rpnt n conpnno nxpoxnpyprnucxo yponn. oxon rmrntnx nrnnx
xpn pnt no nxpocxono, uro ocymcrnnxrcx nnoxnn mnon n pny u/s 1,5 2 .
xucrn monnoro rpnn ncnontsymr onononoxno. n
noxsn npn snxmmnx nonpxnnxx poronnnt n cxnpt, c ntnnn oonoux rns nnn
nnyrpnrnsntx crpyxryp (xpycrnnx, crxnonnnoro rn) n n noxsn npn nontmnx
nnnntx pnx c nrnponnntn xpxn s ntnnnx pyxxn. D e xnnxrcx
cosnn ycnonn nx nyumro npnnunoro sxnnnnnx pnt n opsonnnx nxnoro
nnnnoro pyn. nx +roro no nxpocxono nccxmr nnn snpnnxmr ntnnmn oonouxn
n crpyxrypt n nxntnmr nxpomnt nx nonno n npnnntno nrnnn xpen pnt.
cnyu nocrrouno +]]xrnnno npnnuno oporx pnt noxsn nropnunx.
pn nponnxmm pnnnn c nnpnn nnoponoro rn nnyrpt rns, noxono ro
ynnn, no c npnpnrntnt ymnnnn nxonoro ornpcrnx. Vnnn nnyrpnrnsnoro
nnoponoro rn um ncro nponcxonr ncxnpntno (n ups nxonym pny poronnnt,
nocn R-noxnnsnnn - ups psps cxnpt n nnopont rno, nnxmn x ny
nyre ), npncrnnxx rnnr x cxnp nnn nnront nnnnro (npn rnnrntx nnopontx
rnx).
cnyu nn]nnnponnntx rnontx pn noxsn X rns c nocnymm +nprnuno
om n crno nrnxrpnntno, xonnxcno rpnnn
cnoxnnnx nponnxmmnx pnnn: 1. nont npnonnxnnr, 2. 3no]rntnr,
3. no]rntnr, 4. pnrnucxx xrpxr, 5. rnnost (cnpos, xntxos), 7. coo
cnyr ocrnonnrtcx m n co rxxno ocnoxnnnn nponnxmmro pnnnx rnsnoro
xnox , xoropo sxnunnrcx npxo norp spnrntntx
]ynxnn n n rpnnponnno, n sopono rnsy.
3ro rposno ocnoxnnn psnnnrcx n 0,1-0,2 cnyun nocn nponnxmmnx rpn n n
0,06-0,07 - nocn nnyrpnrnsntx onpnn. ncroxm npx pcnnnnrcx xx
yronynnt xponnucxn ]npnnosnonncrnucxn npnonnxnnr, prnnnr, nnpnr nnn
ynonpoprnnnr soponoro rns.
ppcnonrmm npnunno cnnrnucxoro nocnnnnx cnyxnr r.n.
nocnnnn n nn nxnorxymro ]npnnosno-nncrnucxoro
npnonnxnnr rpnnponnnoro rns.
oxono nonnrt, uro cnnrnucxo nocnnnn nnxor n noxnnxrcx pn, u
ups 7-10 n nocn pnnnx (xorx npxnro npn +ror cpox n nr n no nnt
nnrprypt cnnrnucxo nocnnnn nnor nosnnxr n nocn 40 nr nocn rpnt
rns). run, uro n 57,6 cnyun cnnrnucxx o]rntnx psnnnrcx n runn 1-2
c. nocn rpnt n n 92,5 cnyun n npno roy nocn ne.
xropn pncx psnnrnx nnoro nponcc xnnxmrcx noxnnsnnx pnt n
xopnocxnpntno son, ntnnn pyxxn, rpnt xpycrnnx, orcnox crurxn,
nocrrpnrnucxn npnonnxnnr.
nntm npo]nnxrnxn cnnrnucxo o]rntnn c npntx n nunnx
nponnxmmro pnnnx nsnumrcx xoprnxocrpont (n xnnxx, sxx, no xonmnxrnny
nnn np-, prpoyntpno; +nxrpo]opso), conmx nc npnnnnnt nunnx
npnonnxnnron. mn xypct, nx nnrntnocrt onpnxmrcx xnnnnucxnn
npoxnnnnxn nocnnnrntnoro nponcc: nuntnt ost npnnsonon y nspocntx n
cpn cocrnnxmr 40-80 r (8-12 rnrox) n nt, y r 0 25-40 r c nocrnnnt
cnnxnn ost n 5r xxt 5 n o rnrxn; cpnxx npoonxnrntnocrt
xoprnxocrponon 75-80 n. xn opso, npoonxnrntnocrt crnoro nunnx
cocrnnxr n n 12 c., omro 6 c. cnn nr cro nnynnr, crpont
npnnnmrcx n runn 1-2 nr n nopxnnmm os 10-15 r npnnsonon. pn
ynonpoprnnnr npnournrntnt nontxopronon, xnxopr, npn nnynnrx
rnnp. px cnyun noxono nsnurt nnrocrrnxn (nnxno]oc]n no 50 r 2
ps n nt 1-2 c.). x nynocrnynxropt, ncnontsyrcx xpnc, nyxnnnr nrpnx,
nynn, nnpornn, +xcrpxr no+ n/, F, pono npnnnnn xponn.
nntm npynpxnnx pnnnnon npnnntno npnnxmrcx ncrponnt
npornnonocnnnrntnt cpcrn (nnornnn, nynpo]n, nxno]nx n p.) no 50-75 r n
nt n n runn 2-3 c. nocn oxonunnx xypc crponno rpnnn.
exno po npo]nnxrnxn psnnrnx cnnrnucxo o]rntnn xnnxrcx
' (ynnn rpnnponnnoro rnsnoro xnox), no rontxo cnn on nponn n
runn 14 n nocn pnnnx rns npn nnnunn n ne nxnorxymro ]npnnosno-
nncrnucxoro nponcc n cnn rns cnno. Vnnn rns npn X onpnno nnmt
npn rxxeno om cocroxnnn ontnoro (rxxentx nnn cornucxo nronornn) -
xor X n oxr trt nponn n nonno oe nnn npn nonno pspymnnn
rnsnoro xnox. ono nuno-npo]nnxrnucxo nnn, ynnn rns oxr
npcnonrt n uncro xocrnucxym nnt. nosn npno nocn pnnnx
noxsnnxn x +nyxnnnn xnnxmrcx nxynnpymmncx nxnorxymn nocrrpnrnucxn
npnonnxnnr n cnno rnsy, pnnnnnpymmn xpononsnnxnnx n ro]rnt,
nnyrpnrnsnx nn]xnnx, nropnunx conmrnx rnyxo, cyrpo]nx n rpo]nx rnsnoro
xnox npn orcyrcrnnn spnrntntx ]ynxnn. conmrnt noxsnn x +nyxnnnn
cnnoro rns xnnxrcx nonropno rxxeno nponnxmm pnnn nnn xonrysnx.
. npn cnnrnucxo o]rntnn ncr ount rxxent n ror
nnocncrnnn rpnnponnnt rns oxr oxsrtcx ]ynxnnonntno nyumn.
c rxn ontnt nyxmrcx n nocroxnno ncnncpno nnmnnn oxynncr
ncm xnsnt. pn nosnnxnonnnn noxonocrn y ontntx +xcrpxnnn xrpxrt nnn
pxoncrpyxrnnntx nnyrpnrnsntx onpnn nx oxno npononrt rontxo n npno
pnccnn (n n u ups 6-12 c. nocn oocrpnnx) n ]on xoncpnrnnno
rpnnn no crporn nynonornucxn xonrpon.
psnnnmrcx npn nnrntno nnnunn nnyrpn rns rnnnucxnx
nnopontx rn (xnsntx nnn ntx) n nporxmr n nn xponnucxoro ynnr
-npnonnxnnr, xopnonnr, nnynnr; prnnnr, nnpnr. pymr conmnnx
coornrcrnymmnx npnnnnnon nunnx.
( + xx n nmt pyrn rpnt, oryr trt
, - c nonpxnn rnsnoro xnox, npnrxon rns n
courxct c nopxnn xocr upn (n 40 cnyun), rononnoro
osr, npnrountx nsyx noc, nnn.
snncnocrn or xnns nosnnxnonnnx psnnumr rynt rpnt rnsnnnt,
pnnnx (n r.u. orncrpntnt) n rpnt nonyunnt npn nnnn. pn +ro
nnmmrcx xonrysnn n pnnnx xrxnx rxn opnrt (ucro conponoxmmncx
xpononsnnxnn n opnry prpoyntpno rroo nnn nonnn nosyx ns nocontx
nsyx - +]nso), orxptrt nonpxnnx nx, npnot xocrntx crnox, nnpnn
nnopontx rn n nonocrt rnsnnnt. nnnnucxn rpnt opnrt conponoxmrcx
xpxrpntn cnnron opnrntno nronornn.
pn opnrt oxr n orurtcx nnntx npymnn e nnocrnocrn, no
ontnt xnymrcx n romnory, pnory, orurcx pnxpnx, oxr cnnxrtcx spnn
nnnort o cnnort, nosnnxnyrt nropnunt nnnrnr n cncc osr npn nponnxnonnnn
nn]xnnn ns nrnonnmcx rrot opnrt n nonocrt upn. ncrnn oxr trt
nonnx nnn ucrnunx rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn
c nnt % oryr ntstnrt nonpxnn opnrt. connocrtm pnntx
opnrt xnnxmrcx ntnnn xnpono xnrurxn ns e nonocrn, nonpxnn
rnsonnrrntntx tmn (ntstnx o]rntonnrnm, npnnrnucxo xocornsn), pnnn
cnesno xnst. oryr nonpxrtcx tmnt nx (ntstnx nros, nro]rnt).
nnnx n npno xocr opnrt n oncrn npxn rnsnnuno mnn oycnonnnnr
noxnnnn cnnpo npxn rnsnnuno mnn (nros, npns, +xso]rnt,
o]rntonnrnx, ncrsnx). oncrn nnyrpnn crnxn opnrt oycnonnnnr
+]nsy opnrt, +xso]rnt, nnocnnnrntnt orex nx, xpnnrnnm n oncrn nx npn
nntnnnn. pn nonpxnnn xocr opnrt crpr spnrntnt npn (ymnnnx,
psptnt, orptnt or rnsnoro xnox). cnn psptn npn nosnnx n sn orn opnrt, ro
n rnsno n npnonuntno nsnnn n orurcx, no ups 2-3 n. psnnnrcx
rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn. cnn x n ntm 10-12 or rnsnoro xnox (r npoxonr
nnrpntnx prpnx crurxn) ro n rnsno n onpnxrcx xprnn +onnn
nnrpntno prpnn crurxn.
@97A>>..
onrysnn cocrnnxmr oxono 20 nnon nonpxnnx rns y nspocntx n o 50 - y
r. pxo nnmmrcx n try, um y onotx yxunn. npxrnx npn rpnx
npnoro npnn nosoxnt cournnt nonpxnnx rns: npnot npxn unmcrn,
conponoxmmncx ucro n nonpxnn rns (xonrysnxn, pspymnnxn,
xpononsnnxnnxn) n ocnoxnxmmncx nropnunt xponorunn, nn]xnn. V r oryr
trt poont rnsnt rpnt, um npn nnoxnnn mnnnon.
onrysnonnt y r ucro oycnonnnt ncnoxnn
xpycrnnx n psyntrr pcrxxnnx +ncrnuntx cnxsox ( n orptno nx, xx y nspocntx), n
psyntrr uro ups psnnunt cpoxn cnnrot nontnnx ncusmr. . y r
npxo nocn xonrysnn nmr noxntnt xpxrp n no nnnxnn xoncpnrnnno
rpnnn pccctnmrcx.
ynt rpnt oprn spnnx '&"1 n: xonrysnn npnrounoro nnpr n
rnsnoro xnox; npxt (nosnnxmmn ncncrnn nnocpcrnnnoro noscrnnx n oprn
spnnx rpnnpymmro ]xrop) n nnpxt (nosnnxmmn ncncrnn orpxennoro nnnxnnx
n rxnn oprn spnnx); no rxxcrn I, II n III crnnn (nerxn, cpnn n rxxent).
@" '.
Vp oxr ntsnrt ct psnoopsnt nsnnnx n rnsno xnox:
xpononsnnxnnxn n rxnn, nx cnnnnxn, corpxcnnxn, psptnn, orptnn,
noxnnnn ]xron n nnx, pspymnn rns. xonrysn ornocxrcx:
1. rex, +posnx poronnnt, 2. oxonmnxrnnntnt psptn cxnpt, 3. sptn n orptn
pyxxn, nnnnpnoro rn, npnonnxnnrt 4. ontnnx, ntnnx n noyrnnnx xpycrnnx, 5.
pononsnnxnnx no xoxy nx, xonmnxrnny (cyxonmnxrnnntnt), n npnmm xpy
(rn]), n crxnonnno rno (ro]rnt), n crurxy, spnrntnt npn, 6. orpxcnn,
orptn, psptn orcnox crurxn, xopnonn , 7. rptn, psptn spnrntnoro npn.
osoxnt cnnnnx tmn, npnon (n oncrn nx ntstnr r.. onymnn npxnro
nx, * r.. nctxnn nx). tmyxsnnt nsnnnx oryr nnmrtcx co
cropont opnrt.
non rxxntn ocnoxnnnxn xonrysn xnnxmrcx: 1) ro]rnt, 2) noyrnnn n
ntnnx xpycrnnx, 3) orcnox crurxn, 4) orptn, psptn spnrntnoro npn.
onrysnn oprn spnnx y pnx oryr npoxonrt yx n onr poxnnx. npnp,
poonx rpn cnocon ntstnrt noyrnnn poronnnt ns-s psptnon rnyoxnx cnon.
V nonopoxnnoro n cropon nnyrpupnnoro xpononsnnxnnx oxr onpnxrtcx npns,
nnonnxnocrt spux, nros, xocornsn.
cropon mnnnono rpnt nnunoro cnnrnnx oxr onpnxrtcx cnnro
opnp (nos, ucrnunt nros, nrxn +no]rnt, rnnpnx rns).
o]rnt - nsnnnmxcx nnyrpt rns n crxnonnno rno xpont. pnn cnnxrcx o
cnroomymnnx. ]nxc c rnsnoro n nr. pn nonxpocxonnn s xpycrnnxo nnn
rno-xopnunnx c xpcnonrt orrnxo cc xponn. 3- nt nunnrcx ronns
nsnnnmcx xponn: rornonn ntnr n ]npnnnx crxnonnnoro rn n nn spn,
npn pcn ro opsyrcx rocnpnn, xoropt roxcnucxn crnyr n crurxy n
crxnonnno rno (ono psxnxrcx). pxo xpont oprnnsyrcx c opsonnn
connnrntnorxnntx rxx (mnpr), cnxnntx c crurxo. osx, npn cnoe
coxpmnnn, onn oryr ntsnrt rxxnym rpxnnonnym orcnoxy crurxn.
! ! ! % 3 n oe F (s nnoxnnx
nnoxynxpno nonxsxn) xono, noxo npn xpononsnnxnnxx. pn nnnunn npnsnxon
nponnxmmro pnnnx (ncncrnn psptn poronnnt nnn cxnpt) coornrcrnymmn
oe F n cpouno nnpnnnn n rnsno crnnonp nx X.
pnnnnnt nunnx. nx npynpxnnx nonropntx xpononsnnxnn
pxonyrcx:
1) noxo, xono, 2) cxopyrnn, 3) nnxcon, 4) nnyrpt nnn n/ +rsnnr nrpnx nnn
nnnnon, 5) n/n xnopncrt xntnn, 6) nnyrpnnnno nnnnnn rnnpronnucxnx pcrnopon
xnopn nrpnx nnn rnmxost. o noxsnnx npo]nnxrnx nn]xnnonntx ocnoxnnn
(nsnunn F, ).
1%+ nponoxr nnrncnnnym rpnnm: 1) yrororpnnm,
2) nnyrpnnnno nnnnnn rnnpronnucxnx pcrnopon xnopn nrpnx nnn rnmxost,
3) pont npnnnnnx xponn no 100 n 10 n, 4) nnyrpntmuno nnxnnn
crxnonnnoro rn nnn pyrnx nocrnynxropn,5) crno nsnumr nncrnnnxnnn
+rnnop]nn rnpoxnopn, 6) no xonmnxrnny xncnopo N 10-15, 7) ]pnrt n xn.,
sn, no xonmnxrnny, +nxrpo]opso.
n on nosnn cpoxn - nnyrpt 1) npnprt o nnyrpt, 2) yntrpsnyx,
3) +nxrpo]ops c ono xnnx, +xcrpxro no+, 4) nsprpnnm rnn-nonont
nsnyunn. pn orcyrcrnnn +]]xr noxsnt rot nunnx -
nnrpo+xronx c smnn crxnonnnoro rn n p. pxoncrpyxrnnnt onpnnn.
9 '"! 3 pynnnnx (rxn opnrt, nx, xonmnxrnnt, snn
cnnxnn, cpmnnx n spmnnx spux, ]npos crxnonnnoro rn, nponn]pnpymmn
prnnnr), ynnrt, rnnoronnx, nropnunx rnyxo, nropnunx orcnox crurxn, rpo]nx
spnrntnoro npn, yrpo]nx n rpo]nx rnsnoro xnox, xrpxrt, ncrpo]nn crurxn,
nropnunx rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn.
>. xonrysn nopsnxmrcx n 3 : op]onornucxnx nsnnn nocn
xonrysnn oxr n trt, spnn - n crprt;
- op]onornucxnx nsnnnx nocn xonrysnn oryr cnnxrt spnn o cnroomymnnx c
npnnntno npoxnn, no nontmnn ocrport spnnx nosoxno nocn pxoncrpyxrnnntx
onpnn;
- noprnt op]onornucxn nsnnnx, npnnoxmn x ]ynxnnonntno n
xocrnucxo rnnn rns.
9 oprn spnnx:
3 psnoopsn rpn, rxx ]nsnucxnx, xnnucxnx n roxcnucxnx
]xropon nnnxnnx n oprn spnnx; um ncro ncncrnn npymnnx nnn nonnoro
nrnopnponnnx npnnn rxnnxn soncnocrn; nponr nonpxnn poronnnt;
' xnnxrcx cncrnn ocnnnnx nsop s rtn, nponnnx nmontrcrn,
nnrrntno nnn nnrnnxryntno xrnnnocrn n nntxn cocoxpnnnx;
ntpxnnx csonnocrt (um n npn- n n cnrxp-oxrxp); um nponnxmmn
pnnnx c nnyrpnrnsntn nnopontn rnn; nponmr rpnt ocrptn
nprn, nnporxnnxo n nxn nnopont rn xonmnxrnnt n poronnnt;
. ! 3 ucrt rxxent, xonnnponnnt n cournnt nnt rpn oprn
spnnx; nponmr noxcrnnnt pnnnx ocxonxn.
9R9B> B<=A=.
'"1 - no rnny rpnnpymmro ]xrop n - rpnucxn, xnnucxn
(mnount n xncnornt) n nyunt; no crnnn rxxcrn (rnynn n nnomn nopxnnx) I,
II, III n IV crnnn.
2 ocnontnrcx n nns n ntxnnnnn xnnnnucxnx cnnroon nopxnnx
oprn spnnx.
7' 5 n try ncrpumrcx % - npn nsptn snnon,
nrponon, pxr connon; " npn nonnnx np, cn, rononox cnnux,
noscrnnn nnnn. nponsnocrn rpnucxn oxorn rns ncrpumrcx npn psnnnx
rnn, npn stxnnn nponoon, nsptnx n r...
nnnnx crnn oxoron r x, uro n npn xnnucxnx, nnmt npn oxsnnn
+xcrpnno noomn ontnoy ncxnmurcx onntno npotnnn rns.
<" 5 nrncnnno * nsnyunn oxr
ntsnrt oxor xonmnxrnnt n poronnnt. xn oxorn nnmmrcx npn
+nxrpocnpx /'*/ n rsono cnpx, npn noscrnnn nsnyunnx xnpnno
nnt, npn orpxnnn xpxoro connn or cnr n non n ropx /- *F.
ps 6-8 ucon nocn onyunnx noxnnxrcx psxx cnrooxsnt n omymnn
ncx n rnsx. onmnxrnn nnnnponn. pn on rxxntx oxorx - n nonpxnocrn
poronnnt nosnnxmr rouunt noyrnnnx n nystptxn.
. xntnmr 0,5 nxnn nx osonnnnnx; nsnnnono cno
nnn ptn xnp nx prnpnnn; nrnxrpnntnt pcrnopt - nx npo]nnxrnxn
rnontx ocnoxnnn. xonymr xonont npnouxn, rnt ouxn. tsoponnnn
otuno ncrynr ups 1-2 nx.
pn - nosnnxmr rxxnt ouront nopxnnx
* crurxn n cr npoxnnn ornnnoro mp n rnsno n.
m ncro our oxor connr c nnrpntno xxo crurxn r.. xnrt nxrno, no
oxr noxnnsonrtcx n n cropon or nro. npno cnyu ncrynr noprno
psxo cnnxnn ocrport spnnx nnnort o cnnort. nnornuno xnnnn nnmrcx n
npn nnmnnn s connunt srnn nnoopyxnnt rnso.
.
crpumrcx ount pxo. 25 nr port n xnnnnxx n tno nn onoro cnyux.
m nnmmrcx y ropnontxnnxon, ntnnnncron n nonxpnnxon. e nornoxno
noomn nounnxrcx npnnny F, no nr cnon oconnocrn: nc pcrnopt n sn
nnoxrcx n rns noorprtn o rnprypt rn.
K' .
Xnnucxn oxorn ncrpumrcx n try npn nonnnn nsncrn n rns no npx
nonxn, npn cnyuno sxntnnnn n rns xxnx-nno pyrnx xnnt ncro rnsntx
(nnpnp, nmrtpnoro cnnpr ), rxx npn nonnnn cnnnxrnoro xnx nnn xpnr n
rns y r.
V r oxorn nocxr on rxxent xpxrp, u y nspocntx, n psyntrr
nontmnno nponnnocrn oonoux rns, nontmoro xonnucrn nonno rxnn
xonmnxrnnt (oconno n 1-t ro xnsnn), ronxocrn cxnpt n xoxn. cnxsn c +rn,
nonpxnnx nnmmrcx on rnyoxn, n nponcc nonnxmrcx nc oonouxn rns, oxr
nosnnxnyrt cnrnucxn ynnr c rnnonnono n +xccyro n crxnonnno rno. V
nonopoxnntx rxxcrt oycnnnnnrcx me n orcyrcrnn cnst.
nponsnocrn oryr noncrt pcrnopt mnou n xncnor npn nocropoxno
opmnnn, npn nsptn n r..
noun pcrnopxmr nox, ntstnx % nxpos, onn nponnxmr rnyoxo
n rxnn. 3ro npnnonr x rxxnt nonpxnnx rxn.
ncnort ntstnmr tcrpo cnprtnnn nx % nxpos, xoropt
npnxrcrnyr ntnmy nponnxnonnnm nmcrn nrnyt rxnn.
V r oxorn nporxm rxxn, u y nspocntx.
. snnumr 4 crnnn oxoron rns:
I crnnt - xpxrpnsyrcx rnnpn, orexo xoxn nx, xonmnxrnnt n opsonnn
+posnn nnn nnnun orex +nnrnnx n poronnnt (onuxonnnoro noyrnnnx, rycxnoro,
mpoxonroro);
II crnnt npoxnnxrcx nnnun, xpo rnnpnn, nystp n xox nx;
nonnnn (nmn) n xoso (psxo ntpxnnt orexo) xonmnxrnnt;
noyrnnn poronnnt rnn ronoro crxn (xor pncynox pyxxn nce x
npocrpnnrcx) c orxo, mpoxonrocrtm n rycxnocrtm noyrnnnx; ocrpor spnnx or
0,1-0,2 o cortx on nnnnt;
III crnnt (rxxnt oxor) nxpos xoxn nx c cptn nxpornucxnn nnenxn,
onxnn tmn; nxpos xonmnxrnnt (cpt nnenxn); n poronnn cpo-no
noyrnnn rnn ronoro crxn, no pncynox pyxxn n npocrpnnrcx ( nnn
nnmt e nnr nnn xonryp spux);
IV crnnt (ocoo rxxent oxor) oyrnnnnn xoxn c onxnn rnyxnxmnx cnoen
(tmn nx, xpxm, xonmnxrnnt, cxnpt), oyrnnnnn xonmnxrnnt, e orcyrcrnn c
onxnn nnn oyrnnnnn cxnpt n rnyxnxmnx rxn rnsnoro xnox;
noyrnnn ncx cnon poronnnt rnn ]p]oponoro crxn, ups xoropo nnuro n
npocrpnnrcx.
pnx npunx noomt npn oxorx rxx nounnxrcx npnnny F, no npn
xnnucxnx oxorx ononnxrcx me n oxsrntnt npotnnn rns.
1. xsnn npno noomn npn nonnnn xnnucxoro xrnnnoro nmcrn n rns
onxno npononrtcx nnnno + nnn oxpyxmmnn nnnn n nn
nnrntntx nonropntx npotnnn rns nporouno noo. xnnucxnx npnpnxrnxx
nx +rnx nn ycrpnnmrcx ]onrnunxn, xy nocrpnmn oxr npnxrt n c
npotrt rns. pyrnx ycnonnxx nocrpnmn oxr onycrnrt nnno n noy n no noo
npnonucxn, orrxrnnx pyxo ro npxn, ro nnxn nxo, oprrt n nonopunnrt rnsnt
xnoxn n psnt cropont, urot ctrt ocrrxn xnnucxoro nmcrn ns ncx sxoynxon
xonmnxrnnno nonocrn.
nynxr nnn pyro - cnyr
osonnrt rns (nnrrnxn nnyrpt, n/ nnn sxntnnnx nonoxnn 5, ntnpnyrt nxn n
s]nxcnponrt nx, ocorprt xonmnxrnnntnym nonocrt n ynnrt xycouxn xnnucxoro
nmcrn crpnntntn rnono, nnnnro nnn ppo nnxnnonno nrnt. r
xonmnxrnnnym nonocrt nyxno nonoxprno nnrntno (n runn 20-30 nn.) npotrt
crpy no nnnn (ns mnpnn nnn rpymn) s. pcrnopo (]ypnnnnnn 1:5000 nnn
npnrnr xnnx 1:5000) nnn ]ns. pcrnopo, nnn ncrnnnnponnno noo, npnue n
psnnuntx nonoxnnxx nsrnx ontnoro; sr - snoxnrt ry npornnonxponym st
(rrpnnxnnnonym 1 nnn pyrym), nncrn no xoxy npornnocronnxunym ctnoporxy, n/
nntrnn, nrnnornxn, rt n opory rnrxn n cpouno nnpnnrt n rnsno ornnn.
pn oxorx rns - rocnnrnnsnpymr ncx nocrpnmnx, n pyrnx cnyuxx
(rpnucxnx, xncnorn n r..) nnmt npn oxorx 2 - 4 crnnn.
unn oxoron rns npcrnnxr rpynym suy. nx npo]nnxrnxn nosoxntx
nrnonrntntx nponccon n xonmnxrnnnym nonocrt, no xonmnxrnny n nnyrpntmuno
nnoxr nrnnornxn (xypcn). nntm snnroxcnxnnn ncnontsymr ros no x-ny 2-5
n N 5-10. nntm ynyumnnx rpo]nxn, nponccon prnpnnn - no xonmnxrnny nnoxr
xncnopo, yroxpont, nnrnnt, nrnoxcnnrt, n r.. rns sxntnmr pcrnopt
nnrnnon, npornnonocnnnrntnt cpcrn nxno] n p., onnnxono cno, ptn
xnp, conxoncpnn-xn nnn xronrnn.
Xopomn +]]xr oxstnr ctnoporx oxorontx pxonnncnnron, nnnnx no
xonmnxrnny n nnyrpnnnno; r-rnoynnn (nynorpnnx).
oxsnt nonoxnnont noxt, cncnnnnsnpymmn cpcrn, rnnnpnn.
pn cnntno ; pxonyrcx nrt ncuxn, npn rnyoxo
- npcx cnnsncro c ryt. pn rxxno - c nxposo noxsn
nocnonx xpronncrnx.
@ - rprt n urnpro crnn nnoxn: 1) opsyrcx nto, 2) yxopunnmrcx
cnot xonmnxrnnt, 3) nosnnxmr snoport n ntnoport nx. unn ncxoon rpyr
cnoxntx onprnnntx nmrntcrn: 1) xpronncrnxn, 2) xpronporsnponnnx,
3) nncrnucxnx onpnn n xox, xonmnxrnn n r...
9 - ncrpumrcx ount pxo. 25 nr port n xnnnnxx
n tno nn onoro cnyux. m nnmmrcx y ropnontxnnxon, ntnnnncron n
nonxpnnxon. e nornoxno noomn nounnxrcx npnnny F, no nr cnon
oconnocrn: nc pcrnopt n sn nnoxrcx n rns noorprtn o rnprypt rn.
> 3 x nxn nnopont rn n poronnn oryr
trt npnunno psnnrnx nocnnnrntntx nn]nntrpron, xoropt npnnoxr x e
noyrnnnm. nopont rn, noxnnsymmncx n nonpxnocrntx cnoxx poronnnt, nnor
ntnmr cocroxrntno. ornoxnx noomt : nx ynnnx ynropno nonpxnocrno
pcnonoxnntx nnopontx rn oxno ncnontsonrt, xpo cnnnntntx nncrpynron,
nrnt, nnnnrt, ocxonox pnrnnnoro nsnnx. oxsnn x rocnnrnnsnnn xnnxrcx
rpyn nsnnxo nnopono rno crpot poronnnt - nocn ncrsnn nxnno 1
n cro pcnonoxnnx ocxonx ocropoxno, urot n nporonxnyrt ocxonox n npnmm
xpy, nrcx nnnnt nps poronnnt n rnnro, npn nyu - nrno nnn
nnnnro ynxmr nnopono rno. pn nnopono rn n npn xp - n ycnonnxx
onpnnonno crnnonp n ocxonxo nrcx psps poronnnt, n xoropt nnoxr
nxonunnx rnnr n ynxmr rno. nopono rno n xpycrnnx ynxmr rnnro nocn
ncxptrnx npn xpt nnn, cnn ocxonox rnnrnt, ncr c xpycrnnxo.
nopono rno cxnpt ynxmr rnnro ups nponsnnnt n nn psps cxnpt
nnn nnnnro. nopont rn n crxnonnno rn nnn n oonouxx snro nonmc rns
(nocn noxnnsnnn nx no opry-Fnrnny ynxmrcx nnn , nnn
ups nnocxym ucrt nnnnpnoro rn n ycnonnxx onpnnonno nocn
nponpnnonno nororonxn, ]nxcnnn rnsnoro xnox nnrrypo, n ]on
nxnrosnoro npns, no nxpocxono rnnro nnn nnront nnnnro. cnn
nnopono rno nnorno ]nxcnponno npcxmr mnpry cnnnntntn noxnnnn nnn
nnrpo]ro, sxnrtnmr n nsnnxmr ocxonox cnn nnopono rno n snnx oonouxx
rns, ro npn npospuntx onrnucxnx cpx npnpnrntno nponsnoxr
nspxorynxnnm crurxn noxpyr ocxonx nx npo]nnxrnxn orcnoxn e, sr
ynnn nnoponoro rn. pn yrntx cpx (xrpxr, ro]rnt n r..) cnun
nponsnoxr +xcrpxnnm xrpxrt nnn nnrpo+xronm c ynnn ocxonx n
ononpnno nspxorynxnnm crurxn +nonspo.
nocnymm rpyrcx nsnunn xoncpnrnnno rpnnn crno n, no
noxsnnx, om (F, , prnprnnnt, npornnonocnnnrntnt cpcrn,
nrnonporxropt, nyprnxn n r..).

.
(=79<9B>G $;7?=7@> > A:>7;<Q9B9 ;:-=.
: nsyunrt xnnnnucxn o]rntonornucxn cnnrot npn omnx
sonnnnxx, npn rnnpronnucxo onsnn, npn sonnnnxx nnrpntno npnno
cncrt, sonnnnxx noux, +noxpnnntx npymnnxx, npn roxcnxosx pnnocrn.
: 45 nn.
: rpynnono roprnucxo snxrn n ynropnn
:
1. nnnt: crponn spnrntnoro nnnsrop (crurx, spnrntnt npn, nponoxmn
nyrn n spnrntnt nnrpt)., nopntno rnsno no, npn scrontx ncxx
spnrntnoro npn, nnpnrx spnrntnoro npn, npn rnnpronnucxo onsnn,
sonnnnxx noux, cxpno nr, sonnnnxx noux.
1. nt c nsnnnxn rnsnoro n npn omnx sonnnnxx.
2. no]nnt.

N
n/n
opxnn nxnnn px
(nn)
1. connocrn nronucxoro crponnx rns n ro nsnocnxst c nnocrnt
oprnnso.
3
2. snnn rnsnoro n npn rnnpronnucxo onsnn y r n nspocntx. 3
3. snnnx rnsnoro n npn sonnnnxx noux 3
4. snnnx rnsnoro n npn roxcnxosx pnnocrn 3
5. snnnx rnsnoro n npn cxpno nr y nspocntx n r. 3
6. rcnox crurxn. 3
7. connocrn nopxnnx rns npn n]]ysno roxcnucxo so. 3
8. snnnx rnsnoro n npn npymnnxx cneprtnocrn xponn. 3
9. snnnx rnsnoro n npn cncnc. 3
10. connocrn nopxnnx rns npn n]]ysntx sonnnnxx
connnrntno rxnn.
3
11. connocrn nopxnnx rns onsnn nntcon-ononnon. 3
12. ocnnnrntnt sonnnnx crurxn (prnnnrt).. 3
13. rpoyntpnt nnpnrt. n]]pnnnntnx nrnocrnx onrnxo-
xnsntnoro pxnonnr c pyrnn nopxnnxn spnrntnoro npn.
3
14. cront ncx spnrntnoro npn, crnn. n]]pnnnntnx
nrnocrnx npnnuno n nropnuno rpo]nn spnrntnoro npn
3
15. pr npxo n oprno cnxsn n ornrt n nonpoct 3
V
1. Fouxpn .. nsnt onsnn. ., 1989. . .258-270, 361-374.
2. pomncxn .. Fouxpn .. nsnt onsnn. - .: nnnn, 1983. - . 369-
382.
3. nnonx yunx nporp no o]rntonornn. - crn, 2004.
4. yxonocrno no rnsnt onsnx. - ., 1962. - . 3. - n. 2. - . 340-416.
5. nopnxo .. ]rntonornx. .: 3-, 2003. - . 288-308.
6. onn .. nsnt onsnn. - .: nnnn, 2002. . 478-508.
7. eopon .., pnn .., cnxynon .. nsnt onsnn. - .: srntcxn
nnrp eopon, 2000. . 308-336.
8. pcnon .., Byntnnn .F. pnnrnucxx o]rntonornx. - .: nnnn,
1985. - . 427-551.
9. nrncon 3..,onnncxn ..,Xnron .. yxonocrno no rcxo o]rntonornn.-
.: nnnn, 1985. . 463-486.

9 '
.
rucrnnnt nxn xnnxmrcx npoonxrnxn nosspnn ntmmnxcx pyccxnx yuntx
.. unon, .. Forxnn n .. nnon, xoropt cxntnnnct me n 19 nx no
nnnxnn npono n pyccxo ]nnoco]nn. nn ncxonnn ns rpnnncrnucxoro nonnnnx
oprnns, xx nnoro, nxoxmrocx n nnpptnno cnxsn ups oprnt uyncrn c
oxpyxmm cpo n ynpnnxoro nnrpntno npnno cncro.
no ns oconnocr nronucxoro crponnx rns xnnxrcx ro, uro ns ncx oprnon
uyncrn on nonyur nnontm uncno np (6 ns 12); xponocnxrcx or prpnn,
nnrmm rononno osr n ronorp]nucxn nnsxo pcnonrrcx c -oprnn,
oonrornnt nnpro, rononnt osro, ups xponnocnym n npnnym cncrt
cnxsn co nc oprnnso, c ctn ornenntn or rns oprnn n cncrn. c
+ro oycnnnnnr npnoc, npxo nmoro nronornucxoro nponcc n oprnns n oprn
spnnx.
nptymnx nxnnxx nonoxprno ronopnnoct o nn]xnnonntx sonnnnxx
psnnuntx ornon rns (xonmnxrnnt, nx, cnsntx oprnon, opnrt, poronnnt,
cocyncroro rpxr), nmmnx nnmnn npoxnnnnx, nnnt nmt npuo. ronxmnxx
nxnnx nocnxmn nnon ucrt n rxxnt nocncrnnx, nsnnnx n oprn spnnx,
n mmnx nnmnnx oxrnnntx cnnroon nopxnnx rns, no upnrtx n rontxo
cnnoro n cnonnnn, r.. nnnnnnsnn nnnnron, no n cnnrntcrnymmnx o
nopxnnn ctx psnnuntx oprnon n cncr oprnns. 3ro r nronornucxn nponcct,
xoropt noxnnsymrcx n rnynn, n sn nonmc rns (rnsno n) - n crurx n
spnrntno npn, n nmmnx uyncrnnrntnym nnnpnnnm n, no+roy, n mmnx
onntx cnnroon. rxnx cnrynnxx ocnonno su npu nmo cnnnntnocrn
xnnxrcx cnonpnno pcnosnnnn n rontxo nopxnnx oprn spnnx npn omnx
sonnnn oprnns no r nnn nnt o]rntonornucxn npnsnx n nnxx
+]]xrnnnocrn nunnx ontntx n ynyumnnx npornos sonnnn. r nm
opnnrnponnnocrn n nonyunntx n xnn snnnxx, xnnnnucxo xnnn]nxnnn,
cxopmro nnpnnnnx ontntx x noxont cxnt cnnnnncr ncnno snncxr n
rontxo cocroxnnx rx nnn nntx oprnon, cncr n oprn spnnx ontnoro, no n,
rnnno, ro rpyocnoconocrt n xnsnt.
o+roy npun nmo cnnnntnocrn onxnt snrt nnon rnnnunt cnnrot
nopxnnx crurxn n spnrntnoro npn. cnonnt xnot rxnx ontntx sxnmumrcx n
cnnxnnn ocrport spnnx nnt, nnnunn nocroxnnoro nxrn np rnso (cxorot),
cyxnn non spnnx nnn npymnn nnroomymnnx. pn noxnnsnnn nronornucxnx
nsnnn n nnrpntno ucrn crurxn xpxrpntn xnnxmrcx xnot n ncntmxn cnr
(]oroncnn), ncxxnn pccrpnntx oxron (rop]oncnn). pn noxnnsnnn
ouron n npn]pnn crurxn nosnnxmr xnot n yxymnn spnnx n rnor, cypxx
(xypnnnx cnnor nnn rpnonnx); cnnxrcx rnonx nrnnx. onpnnt npu
onxn snrt ocnonnt rot nrnocrnxn sonnnn crurxn n spnrntnoro npn n
ncroxm npx. mmm snunn nmr: nccnonnnx rnsnoro n (o]rntocxonnx,
npnrpnx, nnroomymnn, 3, ]nmopcnnrnx nrnorp]nx, onnporp]nx (n r.u.
nspnx), nnrono onnponcxo xprnponnn, ynnxcno n rpnnnxcno cxnnponnn
nnyrpnn conno prpnn, nosnonountx n rnsnnuno prpn, 3.
xn opso, rns xnnxrcx cocrnno ucrtm nnocrnoro oprnns n omn
sonnnnx n ontm nnn ntm crnnn ucro orpxmrcx n cocroxnnn oprn spnnx.
+ro nxnnn x pccxxy n o nnon ucrtx nnn nnon rxxntx no
nocncrnnx nsnnnxx, nosnnxmmnx n oprn spnnx npn rnnpronnucxo onsnn,
sonnnnxx noux, roxcnxos pnnocrn, cxpno nr, n]]ysno roxcnucxo
so, npn npymnnxx cneprtnmm cncrt xponn, cncnc, n]]ysntx sonnnnxx
connnrntno rxnn, onsnn nntcon-ononnon n npn nopxnnxx rononnoro osr.
cnxsn c +rn, nnon mnpoxo nontsymrcx xoncyntrnnxn oxynncr rxn cnnnnncrt,
xx nnponronorn, npoxnpyprn, rpnnrt n nnrpt, +noxpnnonorn, rronorn n
norn pyrn.
snnumr 3 ocnonntx nn nronornn crurxn - nrno- n
(npoxnnxmmncx cyxnn nnn pcmnpnn e cocyon; ropprnxn, nnsopprnxn,
orexo crurxn, ntsnnnt omcornucxo cocyncro nronorn);
(nocnnnrntnt sonnnnx crrxn n ]on co psnnuno rnsno n om
nocnnnrntno nronornn) n * (npoxennt n npnoprennt) crurxn.
un c nsnnn n crurx n spnrntno npn npn 5"!
, n ucrnocrn - '! . nn ncrpumrcx onontno ucro. pn
1-o crnn rnnpronnucxo onsnn nsnnnx onpyxnt y 70 ontntx, npn -o
crnn y 96 , npn -crnn y 100 .
1 crnx rnnpronnucxx (]ynxnnonntnx crnx cocyncrtx nsnnn)
xpxrpnsyrcx, n npnym oupt, nsnnnxn xnnp prpn (npnue, nxnx
prpnon, n npn]pnn crurxn) - nx cyxnn. onncropno - pcmnpxmrcx nnt,
nsnxrcx nx xo ornnummncx ontm, u n nop, nsnnrocrtm n nrnncrocrtm.
prpnn oryr trt n npnnopnoro xnnp (ns-s cns), oxr nnmrtcx
mronopoopsnx nsnnnncrocrt nnyn n oncrn xnroro nxrn (cnnro nncr, xorx
norn nropt ro pcnnnnmr xx npoxnnnnx nrnocxnpos r.. yx oprnnucxnx
nsnnn n cocyx). osoxnt nnnunt rouunt xpononsnnxnnx (ns-s noposnocrn
pcmnpnntx nn). nnpronnucxx nrnonrnx um ncro coornrcrnyr ]s
nycronunnoro nontmnnx xponxnoro nnnnx n nuntnt crnx rnnpronnucxo
onsnn, nxnmux F crnm. snnnx cocyon crurxn npn rnnpronnucxo nrnonrnn
xnnxrcx cncrnn rnnpronyc n cns prpnon, rxx nrnnn cocyon x nont
ycnonnx ronnnxn ncncrnn nontmnnoro prpnntnoro nnnnx. ocxontxy +rn
nsnnnx cocyon crurxn nocxr m ]ynxnnonntnt xpxrp, ro npn pnnonntno
nunnn oryr nonprrtcx oprnoy psnnrnm.
crnx % 5 xpxrpnsyrcx oprnnucxnn nsnnnxn n
cocyx crurxn (ornoxnnxn xoncrpnn, onnrpnn). psyntrr ynnornnnx crnxn
prpn, noxnnxrcx cnnro no (uro cnxsno c ornoxnn n crnxx prpn nnnnon),
npn onnrpnnn, rnnnnos - n cppxno npononoxn (cnnrot xpn
ntpxnnocrn omro nrnocxnpos). crnn psnnrnx cxnpos cocyon n oprnns
cyxr, npn ocorp rnsnoro n (o]rntocxonnn), no crnnn npxrnx nnorno
cxnposnponnno prpn nonxm nnt n cr nx npxpcr no r.n. cnnroy
ynn-nmc: psnnumr 3 psnonnnocrn prpnonnosnoro npxpcr -
ynnnmc xpxrpnsyrcx nxoropt nnnnn nnt npcxmm prpn, n
cnxsn c u nn n cr npxpcr xxrcx xonnucxn cyxnno no o cropont or
prpnn;
ynn-nmc crnnt npxrnx prpn nnt ncrontxo ycnnnnnnrcx, uro nn n
cr npxpcr nsrnrcx, opsyx yry;
ynn-nmc ns-s ycnnnnmmrocx ynnornnnx crnxn n yrxxnnnx prpnn, nn n
cr npxpcr xx t npptnrcx, xxrcx psopnnno.
nnpronnucxn nrnocxnpos crurxn coornrcrnyr ]s ycrounnoro nontmnnx
prpnntnoro nnnnx n nnmrcx npn -o n F crnxx.
crnx 8 Xpxrpnsyrcx nopxnn co rxnn
crurxn n nn e orx, xpononsnnxnn, nnsopprn, npxoxmnx n nt
ncrpo]nucxn ourn. pn nopxnnxx nxnx nroux xpononsnnxnnx otuno nxn,
xpyrnt, mrpnxonnnt; ontmn xpononsnnxnnx cnnrntcrnymr o nopxnnn on
xpynntx nrn nnrpntno prpnn crurxn. oncrn xnroro nxrn orex crurxn n
nnsopprnn oryr opsontnrt ]nrypy nonno nnn nnonno snst. oxnnnn +rnx
nsnnn xnnxrcx nnoxn npornocrnucxn npnsnxo. porpccnnno yxymrcx spnn.
rnnonrnx nnmrcx npn F crnn rnnpronnucxo onsnn.
I crnx %, um nosnnxmmx npn osrono ]op
rnnpronnucxo onsnn. ono cocyon, rxnn crurxn, onncnntx ntm, n nponcc
nonnxrcx n spnrntnt npn, noxnnxrcx ro orx n o]rntocxonnucxn onpyxnnrcx
scront ncx spnrntnoro npn. 3ror npnsnx yxstnr n nnronpnxrnt npornos.
Fontnt rnnpronnucxo onsntm onxnt nxonrtcx no nocroxnnt
nnmnn n rontxo y rpnnr, no n y rnsnoro npu, xoropt oxr noout n onnx
+rnonornn rnnpronnn (npnnunocrn nponcc), crnn n nnnxn psnnrnx onsnn,
+]]xrnnnocrn nunnx, nnnunx ocnoxnnn, npornos n ncxo omro sonnnnx.
pnu, no nnt nccnonrn, nopxnnx cocyon crurxn xnrnt rxont n
cocyx rononnoro osr n pyrnx oprnx.
xoxn c rnnpronnucxo onsntm cxnpornucxn nsnnnx n cocyx
psnnnmrcx n npn ' cocyon, xx npnnuno sonnnnn.
n]]pnnnntnt npnsnxo n +ro cnyu xnnxrcx psnnrn cxnpornucxoro
nponcc n npnym oupt n xpynntx cocyx crurxn I nopxx (n nnrp rnsnoro
n - n oncrn cocyncroro nyux ncx spnrntnoro npn, rxx cocyx II n III
nopxx). ocyt npn]pnn crpmr ropso nosx.
> . '.
s ncx sonnnn noux nnon ucro nsnnnx n rnsy nnmmrcx npn
. connocrxn nouuno rnnpronnn xnnxmrcx on psxo
cyxnn cocyon (npnue, n prpn n nn) n orcyrcrnn n nnx cxnpornucxnx
nsnnn, oconno n nuntno crnn onsnn; onnn +xccyrnnntx xnnnn
omro cponroro ]on crurxn, norouncnnntx xnontnnntx ntx nxrn n n,
]nrypt snst n xyn, oreunocrn ncx spnrntnoro npn () nnnort o scrox;
rxx nxnx n xpynntx xpononsnnxnn crurxn; npxo oxr nnmrtcx
orcnox crurxn.
snnnx npoxoxr rpn crnn : n - nnmrcx rontxo cyxnn prpn (nouunx
nrnonrnx). o -o crnn - nouuno prnnonrnn, nporxmm rxxn
rnnpronnucxo prnnonrnn, nponmr +xccyrnnnt xnnnnx, ]nryp snst
xnnxrcx nnoxn npornocrnucxn npnsnxo, oxr cnnrntcrnonrt o xpn
ntpxnnocrn ypnn, nosoxnocrn nrntnoro ncxo ontnoro n nmym nnyry, uro
rpyr nornoxno pnxntno om rpnnn. rnnonrnx xnnxrcx rpntm, psxo
ornxmm yonnrnopnrntno om cocroxnn ontnoro or cxopo ncrynmmro
yxymnnx.
- crnn nnyo nouuno npoprnnonrn, orx crurxn psxo ntpxn, on
courrcx c orxo rxnn ncx spnrntnoro npn. rx ncrontxo cnntnt, uro +ro oxr
npnncrn x orcnox crurxn. Vxsnnx crnx rxx xpxrpnsyr nnsxn cprntnt
ncxo ncncrnn rxxntx nsnnn npnxnrosntx oprnon.
> ' ''. .
pn roxcnxosx pnnocrn n 8-9 cxn nsnnnx n cocyx crurxn nnmmrcx
y 60 ontntx, nsnnnx n rxnn crurxn y 13 pnntx.
pn nrxnx ]opx roxcnxos orumrcx nsnnnx xnnp cocyon n rouunt
ropprnn.
pn rxxntx ]opx roxcnxos pnnocrn npxo nnmmrcx xnnnnx
prnnonrnn: orx crurxn, ourn, xpynnt xpononsnnxnnx (pnc. 0.14), r.. nsnnnx roro x
rnn, xx npn rnnpronnucxo onsnn. on pxnx cnyuxx psnnnrcx orcnox
crurxn, orx pcnpocrpnxrcx n n spnrntnt npn (uro xpxrpno nx nouuno
nronornn).
conmrntn noxsnnxn x npptnnnm pnnocrn xnnxmrcx cnymmn
cocroxnnx: ) orcnox crurxn, ) npoprnnonrnx, n)rpoos nnrpntno nnt crurxn,
r) prnnonrnx c nronoontn ourn.
pornos nx spnnx sct on nronpnxrn, u npn rnnpronnucxo onsnn.
9 &&" '' .
]rntonornucxn nsnnnx ucro ntstnmrcx 6'! ! n, n
ucrnocrn, sono onsntm /&&" '' 0. nsnt cnnrot
npn nno sonnnnn nomnn n ro cnnrooxonnxc : +xso]rnt, cnnro p]
(orcrnnn npxnro nx npn nsrnx nnns), ntpnnnx (prpxnnx npxnro nx),
Brntnr (pxo nrnn), nyc (srpynnn xonnprnnnn), nnnnx (nnrnrnnx
npxnro nx). nunrntnt nsnnnx n ' nosnnxmr
npn ' 6'& (cnonrnno nnn nocn ynnnx
mnronnno xnst) n psyntrr ntpxnnoro orex opnrntntx n npnopnrntntx
rxn, rnsonnrrntntx tmn n cnnnnx opnrntntx cocyon n spnrntnoro
npn. snnnmrcx nnun scront xnnnnx n cocyx crurxn (pcmnpnn,
nsnnrocrt nn), nosoxnt xpononsnnxnnx n crurxy, sr - scront (c
nocnymm ro rpo]n), orex crurxn, nosoxn orcnox e. cnonno nunn -
+noxpnnonor, rxx nnponronor, o]rntonor (crno prpoyntpnt
nnxnnn xoprnxocrponon, conxocpnn, nrnonporxropon, ]nsnonunn;
npornnonocnnnrntnx, nrornrnucxx rpnnx).
> . .
onnucrno ontntx cxpnt nro ynnnunnrcx, no+roy ynnnunnrcx onx
cnntx or nr. nnor or nr cocrnnxr 4 . B on snnr ono ns npntx
cr. xpnt nr oxr ntsnrt rxn sonnnnx rns, xx nrnucxym
prnnonrnm, nrnucxym xrpxry, rnyxoy, n]pnrt, npnrt, pnnnnnpymmn
xunn. rontxo oxynncrt, no n npun pyrnx cnnnntnocr, onxnt nonnrt, uro
psnnrn xrpxrt n onoo nospcr n ynopnt n]pnrt rpymr nccnonnnx xponn
n cxp. rurx nopxrcx um pyrnx ornon rns. rorns nsnnn n crurx n
ocnonno cocronr n cnymm: rnnprnnxnx ntstnr pcmnpnn rpnnntntx
cocyon n cocroxnn npcrs, uro, n cnom oupt, nr x ropprnx n ntnnnm
+xccyr.
tnxmr n ocnonnt ]opt nrnucxo prnnonrnn: * n
*8
snnumr urtp crnn nrnucxo nrnoprnnonrnn:
crnx, - : ypnno pcmnpnn n nsnnrocrt nn, nonoopsonnnx nnyn
(]nonrnx), nnnunt nxponnpnst., spnrntnt ]ynxnnn n crpmr.
crnx nuntnx nrnoprnnonrnx: x onncnnt nsnnnx npnconnxmrcx
rouunt ropprnn crurxn y snro nonmc, nuntnt npnsnxn +xccynnn,
nnnunt nt ouxxn noxpyr xnroro nxrn, ocrpor spnnx cnnxrcx o 0,7-
0,9.
III crnx ntpxnnx nrnoprnnonrnx: noxcrnnnt xpononsnnxnnx n rnsno n,
rpoos nxnx nnosntx cocyon, ocrpor spnnx nnx 0,7.
I crnx nponn]prnnnx nrnoprnnonrnx: noxnnnn nonoopsonnntx cocyon
crurxn, psnnrn nponn]prnnno rxnn n psxo yxymnn ocrport spnnx.
pn nr nopxmrcx n rontxo cocyt crurxn, no n cocyt, nnrmmn
spnrntnt npn, no onn ncrpumrcx snunrntno px, n, n ocnonno, npn xonncnnn
cxpnoro nr ( I crnn onsnn) c ntpxnno prnnonrn n ntynnypn.
3 # ! #" ! #"
!1 +noxpnnonor n oxynncr. o rnnno n nunnn +ro
ponpnxrnx, ocnunnmmn nocroxnnt nntcoxn yponnt cxp n xponn s psxnx
xonnn ro.
nx cnnxnnx oncnocrn noxnnnnx xpononsnnxnn n crurxy ontnt nsnumr
oxcny n npoxrnn n runn 4-6 cxnn.
nocnnn cxrnnrnx nponoxr ]oro- nnn nspxorynxnnm nsnnntx cocyon n
nponn]npnpymm rxnn crurxn.
pornos nrnucxo prnnonrnn nronpnxrnt rontxo o npxo n
nponn]pnpymmym crnm, npn nocnn rxxnt, r.x. connnrntnorxnnt rxxn
ucro ntstnmr rpynonsnunym rpxnnonnym orcnoxy crurxn.
pnpno y 4 ontntx nro nosnnxr nrnucxx xrpxr. V ontntx
cxpnt nro (n 6-12 ), u y sopontx nm (oxono 2 ), ncrpurcx rnyxo.
9!' '. rurx, nxoxct xy crxnonnnt rno n cocyncro
oonouxo, npouno xpnnrcx nnmt n noxpyr spnrntnoro npn (csn) n n oncrn
syuro nnnnn (cr npxo nnnnpnoro rn n xopnonm - cnpn). ocrntno
nporxxnnn on ptxno connn c cocyncro oonouxo. o nnnxnn nsnnn n
cocyncro oonoux (nocnnnn, onyxon, ncrpo]n) n n crxnonnno rn
(xpononsnnxnn, psxnxnnx, nocnnnrntno nn]nntrpnnn, ]npos) crurx nocroxnno
nonnxrcx n nronornucxn nponcc. 3rn nsnnnx oryr crrt npnunno
ntumnx psptnon, orptnon e, xoropt nxr n ocnon orcnoxn crurxn. non
ucrtn npnunnn orcnoxn crurxn tnmr rpnt rnsnoro xnox n ntcoxx
ocnoxnennx nonnx. o crurxy ns crxnonnnoro rn nponnxr xnxocrt, xoropx
orcnnnr crurxy n nn nystpx psnnuno nnnunnt n ]opt. Fontnt xnymrcx
n noxnnnn snncxn, nonnxntx nnn ]nxcnponnntx nxrn, cnnxnn ocrport
spnnx, ntnnnx nonx spnnx (coornrcrnymmn npn npnrpnn cry crurxn). nx
nrnocrnxn ontmym nnnocrt npcrnnxmr yntrpsnyxono nccnonnn (+xorp]nx),
npxx o]rntocxonnx (onpnxrcx nnx crurx, nponnnpymmx n
onpnenno yucrx rnsnoro n o rorntno, cocyt e nsnnrt, on rent
xpcnonro-nnnonoro nnr, nprnmrcx n nponnnpymmnx yucrxx; n ro nnn
nno pnnn onpyxnnrcx psptn nnn orptn crurxn, nnn prnnomnsnc
pccnonn crurxn), nnxnocxonnx (nx ntxnnnnx psptnon n xpn npn]pnn
crurxn). npoxoxm cnr n ]on posonoro p]nxc nnn cpx nynnoonx
nnenx, nsnxmmx cnoe nonoxnn npn nnxnnxx rns.
ynnnunn nnrntnocrn sonnnnx nnn npn nosn nrnocrnx orcnonnx
crurx nocrnnno yronmrcx, rpxr nonnxnocrt, nnoxo pcnpnnxrcx ns-s
psnnrnx ]npos, rxx, cxnox.
unn : xnpyprnucxo. pn cnxnx orcnoxx (o 1 c.) ro nponoxrcx cpouno;
npn nnocxnx nponsnoxr nsp- nnn ]oroxorynxnnm xpen n sont psptn crurxn nx
opsonnnx nocrxorynxnnonnoro pyn xy crurxo n cxnpo n, r ct, e
]nxcnnn. +ro x nntm oxno npnnxrt nrpoxorynxnnm, xpnonxcnm. pn
nnnunn orcnounoro nystpx nxntnmr nnnucxn (+ncrnuno cnnnxonono
nnro) nnpxnxx noxpyr rnsnoro xnox n crxrnnmr ro nnro nnoon ncountx
ucon (urot npnnnsnrt cxnpy x orcnonno crurx), ononnnrntno ptsptn
noxnpyrcx nnnn n nn no nnry nnot ns ryxn (noxntnt nnnnn
cxnpt) n nspxorynxnn crurxn noxpyr nro +nonspo. pxo rpymrcx
nonropnt onpnnn. occrnonnrt ntcoxym ocrpory spnnx n nopntno
npn]pnucxo spnn n cnxsn c ncrpo]nucxnn nponccn n crurx yercx n
ncr. nxo, x cnn oxnrcx nnnntnt psyntrr nunnx. oxono
onpnponrt ontnoro.
pornos snncnr or nnrntnocrn cymcrnonnnx crurxn, nnnunnt n uncn e
psptnon, crnnn npnnrnnx crurxn npn conmnnn crpororo nocrntnoro pxn.
> "2. 1%! '.
Fonsnn xponn xnnxmrcx rnpnnsonnntn sonnnnxn n oxstnmr nnnxnn n
ct psnnunt oprnt n cncrt oprnns, n r.u. n n oprn spnnx. 3ro cnxsno c
nsnnn xorynnpymmnx cnocrn xponn n nnocpcrnnnt noscrnn n
cocyncrym crnxy.
pn . nnmmrcx xpononsnnxnnx no xonmnxrnny, n ronmy nx, n nonocrt
rns, crurxy (n nn nonoc, oxpyrntx nxrn, sxon, npprnnntno n p. um noxpyr
spnrntnoro npn n xenroro nxrn), oxr trt orcnox crurxn, npnnun
rnsonnrrntntx tmn, nxponnpnst cocyon. pn % nnn rnsno
no nno, ncx rox (nnonnx xprnny rpo]nn), oxr trt orex o
scronoro. pn % rnsno no nno c xnronrt orrnxo. ocyt
nnt c ntn nonocn conponoxnnx, nnt nsnnrt n pcmnpnt. pn ocrptx
nxosx oxr trt scront ncx spnrntnoro npn. Xpxrpnt xpononsnnxnnx
onntno nnn xpyrno ]opt, oxnennt xpcnonrt xontno. osoxnt n
npprnnntnt xpononsnnxnnx (n nn npnepnyro nnpx no umn). pn
nnonno nxnn - n rnsno n nnnt nnot (xonrnoprt xnrox no
xponn), nponnnpymmn n crurxo c xontno xpononsnnxnnx noxpyr. pn
rnsno no nr renym, nnnornunym oxpcxy, orurcx
nontmnnx xponorounnocrt cocyon - n rnsno n noro psnnuno nnnunnt
xpononsnnxnn no nnyrpnnnx cnxx crurxn nnnsn , onn conponoxmrcx
+xccyrn. cnxsn c nsnnn ponornucxnx cnocrn xponn npymrcx n
nxponnpxynxnnx ee, uro npnnonr x opsonnnm rpoon xx n nxnx, rx n n
xpynntx cocyx. oreun, xpcnoro nnr, nnt pcmnpnt, nsnnrt, noxpyr nnx
noxcrno xpononsnnxnn. prpnn - n nsnnt.
> &&". . ! '.
pn xonnrnosx crurx nonnxrcx n nponcc nropnuno, nocn nopxnnx
xopnonn. crpurcx n nn pnrnucxoro pccxnnoro xopnoprnnnr, n]]ysnoro
xopnoprnnnr, xopnoprnnnr ncn. mr cro cocyncrt npymnnx nnn
]ynxnnonntnoro xpxrp (nxponrnonrnn, nrnonrnn cyxnn nnn pcmnpnn
prpn crurxn c y]rn n nonocxn rpnccyr nont nnx, xpononsnnxnnxn) nnn
oprnnucxoro (rpoost prnnntntx nn). runn npnn nsnxrcx non spnnx
n n xonnnrpnucxoro cyxnnx, cnnxrcx ocrpor spnnx. no nuro nunn
oxr npnnonrt x oprnoy psnnrnm nponcc n noccrnonnnnm spnnx, uro
snncnr or crnnn ntpxnnocrn oprnnucxnx nsnnn n crurx, cpox opmnnx
nnnnr x cnnnnncry n nnocrn nponcc.
9 -&5-5@ 5
(rnro-nppntno rnpnnn nnn ncnocxnpos, n ornnun or SD), cournno
nopxnnn npnno cncrt n nunn oycnonnnt rpo]nucxn nnpposo nunn n
nropnuno rnpnn uunnntx (nnrnxynxpntx) xp osr. onnnn
conponoxrcx pccrpocrnn nxonoro n noro on. nnnnucxn npoxnnxrcx
tmuno pnrnnocrtm, cxonnnocrtm, nn, nc]rn, nsprpn, nnponsnontnt
poxnn nnn pnrnucxnn nnxnnxn xonunocr n rynonnm, +nnnnrn]opntn
npnnxn (+xcrpnnpnnt cnnpoo). oxnt noxpon rynonnm oxpmn n
xnronro-xopnunnt nnr; nrornoonnunt nx sonnnnx xnnxrcx opsonnn n
poronnn xonn sp-nmp (reno-sneno-xopnunno xexn mnpnno 1-2 n
cnrono oonoux nnnsn nn), xx cncrnn ornoxnnx n poronnn n n
cpp. oxr nnmrtcx xrpxr n nn noconnyx. t pnnn cnnroo
onsnn, onpyxnno me n oxnnnnucxo npno onsnn nnn npn oprnnno
e ]op, xnnxrcx onpyxnn ntcoxnx nn]p copxnnx n no nnr npn
xpt. crxnonnno rn oxr onpnxrtcx nnrnx npnnnurocrt. crurx
nnor n npn]pnn onpyxnnmrcx rnprnnnt ourn n xocrnt rntn (xnnnnx
nnrnrno rnpnnn crurxn); cnnxnt nornnnnt 3.
> .
ptsno nronorn, mm ccy ocnoxnnn co cropont rns, xnnxrcx cncnc (npn
nmo npnnuno noxnnsnnn rnonoro our), xoropt oxr nosnnxnyrt rrornnt,
nn]ornnt nyr, n cnxsn c u tnr xrpnntno, rypxynsno, cn]nnnrnucxo,
rn]osno, xrnnonxosno, rpnrnucxo +rnonornn. n conponoxrcx nopxnn
psnnuntx oprnon n cncr (noux, cpn, osr, rns, cycrnon n r..).
o cropont rns ocnoxnnnx npoxnnxmrcx n nn r.n. *! 5 um
nncrnucxnx n cposntx npnonnxnnron nnn rcrrnucxo o]rntnn, cnxsnno c
snoco xpontm nxpoon n cocyncrym oonouxy rns nnn n crurxy ns cocnnx
oncr (-oprnon, oonrornnoro nnpr, upn). pn +ro nosnnxr +no]rntnr
(rnono nocnnnn crxnonnnoro rn) nnn nno]rntnr (rnono nocnnnn ncx
ornon rns c npxoo n opnrntnym xnrurxy), uro conponoxrcx onxn n
tcrpt cnnxnn spnnx n nopxnno rnsy. ]rntonornucxx xprnn
xpxrpnsyrcx psxn orexo nx, +xso]rnto, cmnno nnxnn rnsnoro xnox,
rnnonnono, nsnnn nnr pyxxn, rnont xenrt +xccyro n crxnonnno rn,
% 5 8 poncc nporxr tcrpo, oxr ncrynnrt
pcnnnnnn cxnpt c nocnymmn copmnnnn rnsnoro xnox n cnnoro, osront
ocnoxnnnx.
unn nxnmur xrnnnym nrnxrpnntnym rpnnm nn, n n no xonmnxrnny,
cynt]nnnnt, ncnnn]nucxn npornnonocnnnrntnt n cncnnnnsnpymmn
npnprt, nnrnnt, crno - npnrnxn; n crnn srnxnnx - xoprnxocrpont. pn
nnronpnxrno runnn nponcc c psnnrn rpo]nn rnsnoro xnox noxsn
+nyxnnnx ro.
pn yxsnno nronornn, rxx nmtx cocyncrtx sonnnnxx nosoxnt rx x
! '% ' 5 +ro
6 nnrpntno prpnn crurxn n e nroux, nnrpntno nnt n e
nroux, + + &4 '! "!
.
3onnx ... xnnnnucxn xpxrpnsyrcx nnsnno (um n yrpnnn uct) nonno
nnn o cnroomymnnx norp spnnx. rnsno n crurx n nnt, orunt,
oncrt xenroro nxrn ntnxrcx cnon xpxo-xpcnt nnro (cnnro nnmneno
xocrouxn), prpnn psxo cyxnt, npptnncrt; nnt no nsnnt. prnt nponcc
nnrcx o rpx cxnn c ncxoo n rpo]nm spnrntnoro npn. xucrn npncrnnxon
sonnnnx ontntn orumrcx ntxnnx ncxp np rnsn, xprxonpnnt n
conponsnontno ncusmmn norpn spnnx (+ro npnt snonouxn npynpxnnx o
nosoxno +onnn nmo prpnn n rontxo rns, no n pyro noxnnsnnn osr,
cpn, noux n r. ). nonrntno, rpyr on rmrntnoro cnonpnnoro
ocnonnnx conpnntn ron cocroxnnx cocyon psnnuntx oprnon n cncr,
nsnunnx nonnonnnoro npo]nnxrnucxoro nunnx n npunoro nnmnnx.
poos ... ornnurcx n nnsnnt, on nnnt n runnn ncxontxnx n
cnnxrcx spnn n n o nonno cnnort, n npnx or 0,02 o0,1. n non spnnx -
cxropntnt n nnrpntnt conmrnt cxorot. xucrn npncrnnxon ontntn
orurcx ryn n yrpnnn uct, uyncrno ncxo]opr spnnx. crnn nunnmmrocx
rpoos (nprpoos) nnt crurxn rent, mnpoxn, nnpxxennt, no xoy nn
rpncyrnnnt orex rxnn crurxn, n npn]pnn rnsnoro n no xoy xonuntx
nxnx nn nmrcx rouunt xpononsnnxnnx. crnn nonnoro rpoos - n rnsno
n - ccnnnt xpononsnnxnnx no nc crurx (cnnro psnnnnoro nonop), ns s
uro crpyxrypt rnsnoro n oryr trt n nnnt n rnxx, nnmt crn ntcrynmr
orntnt yucrxn psxo ntpxnntx, nsnnrtx nn, oreunt ncx spnrntnoro npn co
csnntn rpnnnn. pno oprnoro psnnrnx nnnt, oxr nnrtcx o ro;
oxr nosnnxnyrt prpoos n pyrn ocnoxnnnx, no+roy ontnt nyxmrcx n
nocroxnno nunnn. ncxo nosoxno nnn nonno noccrnonnnn xponoopmnnx, nnn
nnonno c psnnrn ncrpo]nucxnx nsnnn n rnsno n nnnort o rpo]nn
spnrntnoro npn.
Fontnt c ocrpo nnpoxonocrtm crurxn n spnrntnoro npn nyxmrcx n
nornoxno npuno noomn nmt cnnnnncro, npnu n ct pnnn uct e
npoxnnnnx rx xx n npornnno cnyu ncrynmr noprnt nsnnnx n crurx n
spnrntno npn, nymn x croxo cnnor. pnnx nnpnnn n tcrpo n
xcnntno pcmnpnn cocyon nx noccrnonnnnx nx npoxonocrn n nnrnnx crurxn:
nn +y]nnn2,4 pcrnop 5 n, n nsoronnucxo pcrnop 15n, nnno; ]npnnonnsnn20-
40 rtcxu, n 300 n, ]ns. pcrnop c 10-20 rtcxu, rnpnn n runnn 3-6 u.; nnyrpt-
nrnxorynxnrt nnpxoro crnnx, nomn, nxp 0,25-2 ps n nt nnn pyrn
ouronnt; nrnonporxropt nnnnon, +rsnnr nrpnx, cxopyrnn, ocorpnnx
nsnurcx no noxsnnx.
- ' /0 3 pxo tnmr
nsonnponnntn, xx npnnno, xnnxmrcx npoxnnnn cncrnoro sonnnnx
(rypxynes, pnrns, cn]nnnc, roxconnsos, pynnnes, nnpycno nronornn). m
nporxmr n ]op xopnoprnnnr, c rnnnuno cyxrnnno crurouno
cnnrornxo (n snncnocrn or noxnnsnnn nponcc). cnxnx cnyuxx n rnsno
n nxoxr cponro-nt ourn c nuerxnn rpnnnn, nponnnpymmn ncncrnn
nocnnnrntnoro orex crurxn, c pcmnpnntn cocyn. 3rnonornucxo nrnocrnx
noormr cnnn]nucxn nccnonnnx n ntxnnnn yxsnntx omnx sonnnn.
unn: n npnym oupt - xonnxcno +rnorponno (om - y coornrcrnymmro
cnnnnncr) n crno (y o]rntonor) prpoyntpno F, xoprnxocrpont;
]nsnorpnnx (+nonsntnt +nxrpo]ops, yntrpsnyx, ]ono]ops).
snnumr 3 ocnonntx nn 1) nocnnnrntnt
sonnnnx (nnpnrt), 2) scront ncx spnrntnoro npn n 3) rpo]nn spnrntnoro
npn.
5 no runnm oryr trt ocrpt n xponnucxn.
9'! /0 nocnnnn ncx spnrntnoro npn ().
ocnonno ntstnrcx rpx rpynnn npnunn: ocrpt n xponnucxn omn nn]xnnn -
rpnnn, cn]nnnc, rypxyns, pynnns n p.; ouront nocnnnrntnt nponcct n
oprnns (cnnycnrt, nrnn, ornr, npnonnxnnr, ]nron opnrt, xpnosnt syt n np.);
nocnnnrntnt sonnnnx rononnoro osr n ro oonoux. nnnnx: nuno otuno
ocrpo. Fontnt xnymrcx n psxo nonnxnn ocrport spnnx, noxnnnn nxrn np
rnso. Fonn n xpxrpnt. nmrcx cyxnn rpnnn nonx spnnx nnn noxnnnn
nnrpntno cxorot npn npnrpnn. nsno no: rnnpnx n nontmo orx rxnn
ncx, rpnnnt crymnnt, prpnn n nnt ypnno pcmnpnt, oryr orurtcx
xpononsnnxnnx n rxnt ncx n crurxy noxpyr ncx. m nopxmrcx o rns.
poncc nnrcx or ncxontxnx nnt o ncxontxnx cxnn. n]]pnnnponrt nnpnr
spnrntnoro npn nyxno c scront ncxo . u n n ocnonnoro ncrounnx
nn]xnnn n nnroxcnxnnn. o roro onr, nox n yr ntxcnn npnnunt our,
pxonyrcx nnnn n oprnns nrnnornxon, cynt]nnnnon, nnyrpnnnnt
nnnnnnx yporponnn 40 no 5-10 n xnnno N 10 (cnnrt s ount nystp),
rnmxost, npononrcx rxx rnprnnonnx n cncnnnnsnpymmx rpnnx, nsnumr
(connt cnnrntnt, nxp, rnnnpnn), cnsonnrnxn (nson 0,02 x 3 ps n nt),
nnrnn rpynnt ; prpoyntpno 0,4 xcrson (xcson) 1 n n cyrxn, n xypc
nunnx 10-15 nnxnn. snurcx rxx p]nxropnx rpnnx, sxnmummxcx n
nnnnn n cpnn nocono xo rnon, counnoro 5 pcrnopo xoxnn c 0,1
pnnnn rnpoxnopn (8 xnnt n 10 pcrnop), ropununnxn n srtnox, ropxun
noxnt nnnt. p o r n o s. nonpnno n +]]xrnnno nunn r nronpnxrnt
ncxo, n npornnno cnyu ncrynr rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn.
:" . )&& ' '5
. . " .
rpoyntpnt nnpnr (nocnnnn ro ucrn npn, xoropx nxonrcx nn nonocrn rns,
s rnsnt xnoxo). 3ro rpynn nocnnnrntntx n rnprnnntx sonnnn spnrntnoro
npn, cnxsnntx c npnymcrnnnt nopxnn xynxpnoro nyux crurxn, no+roy
npornos n nronpnxrn. 34 pccxnnt cxnpos ( SD ) , rpnnn n pyrn
nn]xnnonnt sonnnnx, orpnnnn rnnont cnnpro (c nycroponnn nopxnn),
xnnnno, cnnnno, cynt]nnnnn, nnxornno, npn orynns. )4 ontnt
xnymrcx um n psxo, no nnor n n nocrnnno nonnxnn ocrport spnnx, nnnun
nxrn np rnso n ont npn nnxnnxx rns. pn npnrpnn ntxnnxrcx nnrpntnx
cxoro. ]rntocxonnx n onpyxnnr nnxxnx nsnnn; oxr trt nontmx
rnnpnx , nuerxocrt rpnnn; n on psnnrtx crnxx onsnn nonnnn
nncountx nononnn . crpo runn um nnmrcx y onotx nm. no otuno
sxnunnrcx ntsoponnnn.
rpoyntpnt nnpnr oxr trt npnt npnsnxo pccxnnoro cxnpos (ro
mro) '. .. ro n]]pnnnntntn oconnocrxn
xnnxmrcx - pnrnpymm cnnxnn spnnx n onn, um o rns, xorx nnor ono
coxpnxrcx onontno ntcoxn n nonnx cnnor ncrynr pxo; nsnnnx nonx
spnnx psnoopsnt cyxnn rpnnn (nnsntno nnn onocroponn, nnn
xonnnrpnucxo), nnrpntnx cxoro (conmrnx nnn ornocnrntnx), rnnoncnn
(nrnopntnx nnn onocroponnxx rnopntnx, nnsntnx nnn onocroponnxx
nsntnx, roonnnx nnn nprnxntnx), xpxrpno cyxnn nonx spnnx, oconno n
snnt nnr; oxr nnmrtcx ropnsonrntnt nncrr. ncxo - npnnunx nnn
nropnunx rpo]nx spnrntnoro npn. pnnunx cncrnn nncxoxmro nponcc n
cnnnnx xnst xncrn n cnxn; npoxnnxrcx nonnt nncount nonnnn
. ropnunx psyntrr npxo nocnnnrntnoro nponcc c nyrnnno oonouxn n
spnrntnt npn n psnnnrcx nocn scrontx ncxon.
2 nxnmur nrnnornxn n/n nnn n/, cynt]nnnnt; n/n yporponnn,
oconpnprt; nx cnxrnx orx nxp, rnnnpnn nnyrpt; ouronnt; pnnnn-
xoxnnont noxt cpnro noconoro xo; nnrnnt rpynnt . snunn ncrynr
rontxo nnmt npn cnonpnnocrn ro nrnocrnxn n nunnn omro sonnnnx,
oycnonnnmro noxnnnn nnpnr.
A!! ' + . )&& '
! ! & .
xoxym c nnpnro xprnny o]rntocxonnucxn oxr nrt !! )A 5 +ro
nnocnnnrntnt orx rxnn ncx spnrntnoro npn. x npnnno, nponcc
nycroponnn, xorx nunnrtcx oxr c ono cropont. n xnnxrcx xnnnnucxn
npnsnxo nnyrpnupnno rnnprnsnn.
pnunnt nosnnxnonnnx scronoro ncx spnrntnoro npn - n ocnonno, rpn rpynnt
sonnnn:
1) sonnnnx npnno cncrt (onyxonn rononnoro osr, cncct osr, pxnonnrt,
nnnrnrt, nnyrpnupnnt xpononsnnxnnx, nnpnst n p., 2) rnnpronnucxx onsnt,
xponnucxn n]pnr n roxcnxos pnnocrn n 3) nonoopsonnnx opnrt.
rorns. ]on yxsnntx npnunn npymrcx orrox xnxocrn xy nyuxn
nonoxon spnrntnoro npn n psnnnrcx nnosnt crs n cocyx oncrn ncx n psyntrr
orx. nnnnucxn psnnumr 5 crn ro: 1) - ncx spnrntnoro npn
ncxontxo rnnpnponn, ns-s npsxoro orex crymennt nnun nnxnn rpnnnt, sr
npxnn, nocont rpnnnt, noro nncount (ns-s orex orurcx pnntnx
nconrx ncupunnocrt n ncx n npnnnnnnxpno crurx, npnnnnnnxpnt
p]nxct); pcmnpnt nnt. prpnn n nsnnt. pnrntnt ]ynxnnn n crpmr
(uro cnyxnr n]]pnnnntnonrnocrnucxn ornnun scronoro ncx or nnpnr),
no ynnnuno cnno nxrno. osoxnt nnsnnt xprxonpnnt psxn nnnx
spnnx nnnort o cnnort o ncxontxnx npncrynon n runn 1 uc (+ro cnstnmr c
npxoxmnn cnsn prpn spnrntnoro npn). pnunny nosoxntx xpononsnnxnn
n +ro crnn cnxstnmr c onnnnocno nnyrpnupnno rnnprnsn (nnpnp, npn
psptn prpnntno nnpnst n cypxnonntno xpononsnnxnnn nnn roxcnucxo
noscrnnn snoxucrnnno onyxonn n cocyncrym crnxy) 2) 1-
orex sxnrtnr nct ncx, uro ner x crymennnocrn ro rpnnn, ynnnunnm ro
pspon n nponnnnnn n crxnonnno rno; prpnn cyxnt, nnt snunrntno
pcmnpnt n nsnnrt, cocyt nprnmrcx ups xp orunoro ncx, crn ronyr n
oreuno rxnn, ns pcmnpnntx nn nosoxnt xpononsnnxnnx (nnnnt) n ncx, n
npnnnnnnxpno crurx n nt ouxxn rpncynnn. oryr noxnnxrtcx nxn
xpononsnnxnnx n nroopsnt nt ourn n npxynxpno oncrn. crpor spnnx
oxr coxpnxrtcx nnn cnnxrtcx nsnunrntno; n ocnonno, ynnnunnrcx cnno
nxrno.
G7 C - rnnpnx n crymennnocrt rpnnn ncrontxo ntpxnt,
uro ncx cnnnrcx c oxpyxmmn ]ono, ns-s psxoro orex pspt ncx ncrontxo
ynnnunt, uro npn o]rntocxonnn c otunt no pspy spuxo (3 ) rpnnnt
ncx nonnocrtm n npocrpnnmrcx (oryr n ymrtcx x n npn pcmnpnno
spux), ntcroxnn ro n nn rpn oxr ocrnrrt 2-3 (cxncxonnucxn o 6,0
7,0 ). cx nonpxnocrt ncx ycxn nxnn n xpynntn xpononsnnxnnxn n ntn
ouxxn. rex oxr pcnpocrpnnrtcx n n xynxpnym oncrt, r noxnnxmrcx
rxx cnopxouno pcnonoxnnt nt nnn xnronro-nt ouxxn, uro
oycnonnnnr noxnnnn ]nrypt snst nnn nonysnst, n cnxsn c u oryr
crprt spnrntnt ]ynxnnn.
cnn n +rnx crnxx npnunn scronoro ncx ycrpnn, ro nosoxno oprno
psnnrn nponcc n ncx n noccrnonnnn ]ynxnn.
H7 0%% * nosnnxr npn nnrntno cymcrnonnnn
scronoro ncx: orex ncx n nponnnnnx ro yntmmrcx, no rpnnnt no-
npxny crymennt; nnt npnoprmr otunym mnpnny, xpononsnnxnnx
pccctnmrcx; prpnn ocrmrcx ysxnn, ncx npnoprr cponrt orrnox. crpor
spnnx tcrpo nr, non spnnx snunrntno cyxrcx.
I7 * psnnnrcx nocn ore: nxcx crnonnrcx nnt,
rpnnnt ro csnt, prpnn n nnt ysxn. o npn ctrocrt rpnnn ncxon
yntmrcx n onn npnoprmr uerxocrt. pnrntnt ]ynxnnn psxo cnnxmrcx nnnort
o nonno cnnort.
cront ncx noxsrntno npoxonr nc crnn, oxr ocrnonnrtcx n n
nuntno. poncc oprnoro psnnrnx n cpn nnrcx o 1-2 c.; cnun ncusmr
on nosnn nsnnnx.
<. yxno xx oxno pntm ycrpnnrt npnunny, ntstnmmym nontmnn
nnyrpnupnnoro nnnnx. xn ontnt, otuno, nxoxrcx n nunnn y nnponronor,
npoxnpypr, rpnnr.
(. pnn n nr, cnn nsnunn ocrnrnyro n nuntno crnn scronoro ncx.
nunrntno cnnxnn spnnx oxr nnmrtcx, cnn nunn nponcc ocrnr 4-5
crnn. nnrntnt scro npxonr no nropnunym, sr n npnnunym rpo]nm
spnrntnoro npn.
nonrntno, nnx nronornx rpyr cnonpnnoro pcnosnnnnx, uro snncnr or
cnonpnnocrn nnpnnnnx ontnoro x oxynncry xxt cnnnnncro.
=& 3 +ro nocncrnnx psnnuntx
nronornucxnx nponccon, nosnnxmmnx xx ncxo nocnnnnx, orex, cnnnnx
spnrntnoro npn. 3rnonornx - cx psnoopsnx: 1) sonnnnx npnno cncrt -
onyxonn, cn]nnnc, cncct, +nn]nnr, nnnrnr, rypxyns, rpnt upn n np., 2)
nnroxcnxnnn, 3) rnnpronnucxx onsnt n rpocxnpos, 4) onsnn rns - nnrnrnx
rnpnnx crurxn, rnyxo, nnpnrt, scront ncx, ocrpx nnpoxonocrt cocyon
crurxn n r.., 5) npo]ysnt xponorunnx.
rorns. o nnnxnn yxsnntx npnunn nponcxonr snycrnnn xnnnnxpon,
rnpnnx npnntx nonoxon n n+nnnontx oonoux spnrntnoro npn c smnn nx
connnrntno n rnnosno rxntm. snnumr npnnunym (nnn npocrym) n nropnunym
(nocroreunym) rpo]nm spnrntnoro npn; ucrnunym n nonnym.
nnnnx: xpxrpnsyrcx conoxynnocrtm cnnroon cyxnn cocon, nonnnn
ncx, yntmnn nrp ro, nonnxnn ocrport spnnx n psnnrn ]xron nonx
spnnx. o o]rntocxonnucxo xprnn oxno && "1
"1 &1. pn % rpo]nn rpnnnt ncx spnrntnoro npn urxn,
xonnucrno cocyon n ncx yntmno, cocyt ysxn (nnt oryr trt otunoro
xnnp), xo cocyon npnnntnt, ncx nnt, ocrpor spnnx cnnxn, rpnnnt nonx
spnnx cyxnt. pn % rpo]nn spnrntnoro npn - rpnnnt crymnnt, prpnn
cyxnt, nnt pcmnpnt n nsnnrt, ]ynxnnn rns cnnxnt. u n n n npnym
opt, ocnonnoro sonnnnx. snumr xonnxcnym rpnnm - cocyopcmnpxmmn
(nnxornnonym xncnory no 1 n 1 p-p no xoxy, rpnrn, xnnnron n/n, rponnn (0,1 0,5
n prpoyntpno ups nt), nnrnnt rpynnt , , rnmrnnonym xncnory no 1,0 x 3
ps n nt, nnponr n/n n nnyrpt xpcn, 1 no 1 n n/); yntrpsnyx, +nxrpo-,
rnnro-, nspcrnynxnnm spnrntnoro npn; crnynnpymmym rpnnm - nnpornn no
cx, rxnnx rpnnx no nnrony.
A ' 1
onox nror cronxmn nxnnn, xouy m ps ntnnrt rnnnym tcnt: n cocroxnnn
oprn spnnx orpxmrcx norn sonnnnx oprnns. oncyntrnnx oxynncr n
snnn ocnonntx npnsnxon npoxnnnnx rxxcrn +rnx nopxnn nooryr n n
nocrnonx nrnos, onnxn rxxcrn +rnx nopxnn n rxxcrn ocnonnoro sonnnnx,
+]]xrnnnocrn ro nunnx n npornos. xno snrt, uro ontnt c nsnnnxn n
rnsno n nyxmrcx n prynxpntx xoncyntrnnxx oxynncr.